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SgrirultiirB, lurttriilto^ autr \\t %i\$. 

D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 

Frogrem loith Prudence, Practice tvith S^i^ce. 

"V^OXi. -V. 

Charleston, S. C. 





Address to the Patrons of the South 368 

Agriculture, Ancient 459 

Agricultural Colleges 12 

" Writers, Hints for 65 

" Vs. Commercial Values 523 

" Progress 355 

Alabama, Progress in 345 

Alfalfa, or Lucerne 462 

All Cotton Polic7, The 98 

Alphabet Game 667 

American Mowers in England 632 

An Autumn Sunset 163 

Anderson Fair 152 

Animal Weaklings 276 

Annunciation 657 

Apiary Work for February 244 

Apple, Thomasson's Seedling 240 

" Carolina Red June 578 

" Early Joe 578 

Apple Cream 280 

Apples, Peaches, and Pears 128 

" Best for our Climate 635 

Artichokes, Canning 365 

Ashley Grange at the Eose Farm 591 

Asphalt Paper 141 

Autobiography of a Cotton Bale 621 

Australian Gum Tree 222, 478, 611 

Banner County, A 431 

Barring off Cotton 347 

Basket Willow, Cultivation of 184 

Beautiful Allegory 276 

Bed-bug Preventive 444 

Bee Hive, What Fairy saw in it 219 

" Langstroth's 245, 280, 413 

Bee-Keeping, How to Begin 361 

Bee-Killers 27 

Bee Stings, Iodine for.- 143 

*' Remedies for 498 

Bee Swarming, An Incident 32 

Bees and Honev 146 

" Talk About 634, 640 

" and Flowers 535 

" Breeds of 30 

Begonias, Tuberous Rooted 638 

Be Mindful of Your Obligations 647 

Berkley Reviewed 486 

" Approved 487 

Bermuda Grass 14 

Bermuda Grass and Lucerne 17 

Birds in Germany 72 

" Art Among 218 

Biscayne Bay 78, 133 

" Company 276 

Black Silk, to Renovate 165 

Blooded Horse 525 

Blue and White in the Garden 131 

Blue and the Gray, The 556 

Boils, A Remedy for 614 

Bone Meal as Manure 463 

Borax for Colds 498 

Boston Grange 371 

Box-Making Machine 416 

Boy's Poetry 219 

Boys, The Right Kind 210 

" and Birds 210 

Bread, Butter, and Poetry 671 

Breast the Gale 109 

Breeding, Principles of 230 

Bridging Over the Bloody Chasm 370 

Broom Corn as a Crop 119 

Brooms, How They are Made 137 

Budding 526 

Bulbs, Compost for 638 

Burns, Paint for 670 

Butter, How to Make Good 519 

Butterflies, Swallow Tail 247 

Buttermilk for Indigestion 280 

Buying for Cash 204 

Cabbage, to Pickle 280 

Cabbage Worm, Parasite on 142 

Cabbages and Their Enemies 529 

Cakes of Figs 443 

Calcined Marias a Fertilizer 402 

Calico, to Wash 279 

Camelia Culture 240 

Canals and Transportation 471 

Cane Culture on Pine Lands 404 

Cane Felt 533 

Carbolic Acid for Insects 304, 364 

" Soap for Lice 404 

Carolina Military Institute. 213 

Cash vs. Credit 481 

Cat and Dog Story 389 

Catsup, Tomato 669 

Cattle, Blood in 123 

Cauliflower, to Cook 669 


Celery, New Method With 356 

Charcoal as a Remedy 112 

" for Wounds 014 

Charity, (a Poem) 267 

Charleston and Chicago 197 

Charleston Phosphates 208 

Charleston I'ertilizers Vindicated 651 

Cheese in North Carolina 166 

Chemicals, Prices of. 524 

Chicken Coops, Improved 85 

Chicken Salad 280 

Chilblains. Treatment of. 280 

Children in School 553 

Choked Cattle, to Ptelieve 574 

Chow-Chow, Recipe for 444 

Chufa, The, Is it Profitable? 123 

Clean Water for Cows 71 

Clover, Ex-Governor Brown on 66 

" on Pine Lands 568 

" and Milk 301 

" in Central Mississippi 630 

" and tlie Grasses 631 

Clover Hay, How to (/'ure 404 

Club Foot in Cabbages 527 

Coal Ashes, Value of. 302 

Cockscomb, Hutton's 75 

Colds, Hot Lemonade for 112 

'■ Borax, for 498 

College of Charleston 330 

Combined Action 315 

Commercial Fertilizers in Massachusetts..561 
Commissioner of Agriculture, Report of... 117 

Composting, Art of 174 

'' Cotton Seed 175 

Consumption, Pine Lands for 670 

Convention of Sea Island Planters 205 

Corn, Early Planting of 300 

" Mam'moth Yellow Dent 600 

Com Culture, Experiment in 354 

Corn Insects 537 

Corns, Salt Water for 112 

'• Cure for 444 

Cornelia, Letter to 663 

Cotiuii, Siiortage of 68 

Holding Back 70,98 

" Where it fioes to 117 

" Wool 208 

Barring off 347,601 

" Rust ill 401 

" American 415 

How to Raise Cheaply... 187, 227, 389 

" Five Bales to the Acre 239 

" (Cultivation of 256 

" Too Much of. 320 

" Injury to by Insects 417 

" Preparation of Land for 454 

" Planting of. 454 

" Cultivalirn of 454 

*' in (Jalifornia 524 

" on Pajur 525 

Cotton Caterpillar, the 511, 565 

Cotton Cho[)por, Dianiond 256 

Cotton Crop in Alabama 98 

Cotton Ginning and Cotton Packing 96 

Cotton Manufacturing 364 

Cotton Market, Retrospective View of 185 

Cotton Picking 631 

Cotton Planting in Darlington 427 

Cotton Seed and Cotton 42 

" as Manure 119 

" Comparative Value of 209 

" and Cotton Planting 300 

Cotton Worms, the War Against... 16, 511,565 
" Spirits of Turpentine for.2, 209 

" Mr Steen's Method with. ..294 

Cough. Onion for 280 

Country Boys, a Game for ...110 

Crab Grass, Timothy and 207 

Cranberries 261 

to Dry 365 

Cripple Ill 

Crows, Protection Against 547 

Crystalizing Grasses 516 

Cucumbers and Squashes for Hogs 652 

Curculio, Chickens, for 29 

" Burning Tar for 529 

Cuttings, New Method with 75 

" Compost for 408 

" Inserting Both Ends of 636' 

Dahlias, Treatment of 359 

Damp Houses 276 

Dandelion, the, as Salad 408 

Darlington Agricultural Association 201 

Darlington Fair 152 

Diamond Cotton Chopper 256 

Diarrhoea, Milk for 112 

Dinners, Poetry of 389 

Diphtheria, Lemon Juice for 670 

Direct Trade, the Patrons and 483 

Diversified Industry 354, 624 

Dog's Stratagem, the 501 

Dogs, Lnprofitableness of 631 

Drainage and Health 53 

Drought, Look Out for 403 

" Precautions Against 460 

Drummer Boy, the 557 

Drying Pimipkins 165 

Duck, Ay lesl)ury 411 

" Rouen - 469 

Ducks 311 

Editor and Correspondents Criticised 544 

" Free and I^asv to 588 

Egg Toast .' Ill 

Egg Plant, How to Cook 303 

Eggs, How to Cook Ill 

" all in One Basket 353 

English ("apital for the Low Country 524 

English Sparrows 523 

English Sparrow Pest, the 632 

Engrais ('hiMiii(jue 56 

E.ssay on Grasses, Prize for 188 

Estrapajo Seeds 377 

Entomology, Cabinet of 87 

Etiolation 54 

Eucalyptus Globulus 222 


Eucalyptus and Phvloxera 223 

Seeds of 321 

Tree 478, 611 

Experiments, and How to Make them 187 

Fable of Mv School Books 501 

Faces, Study of 328, 385, 437 

Fair at Columbia 147. 149 

" Orangeburg 15 

" Macon 151 

" Greenville ••.....151 

" Anderson 152 

'« CKeraw 152 

" Darlington 152 

" Charlotte 199 

" Barnwell 206 

Fairs, Autumn 647 

Fall Ploughing 16 

Farm Books, New.... 614 

Farmers' Opportunities for Improvement..71 

Farmers, Hints to 237 

Farming, Successful 173 

" Ruts in 188 

Model 226 

" the Best Pays 239 

" in Florida 263 

" Rational 295 

" Associative 96 

" and Gardening 403 

" Farmland Farmers 377 

" in Germany '. 341 

" Two Facts in 626 

Feminine Influence 216 

« Character 217 

Fertilizer, Wilson's Formula 343 

" Liebig's 355 

for Corn 406 

" for Wheat 571 

Fertilizers, How to Apply 61, 233 

'• Home-made 263 

" Experiments with 321 

" Valuation of 522, 602 

" Before the Massachusetts Board 

of Agriculture 561 

" Mr. Bowker on 561 

" Mr. Lawrence on 562 

" Wonderful 451 

" Commercial, Investigated..456, 520 
Fertilizers, Charleston 651 

fifth Degree, the 648 
igs for Hogs 406 

" Cakes of 443 

Filter, the Poor Man'a 614 

Fish Hawks, Young 389 

" and their Nests 442 

Fish Pond, Col. Alston's 473 

Fish Scraps and Fish Guano 563 

Five Bales to the Acre 239 

Florida, a Summer Trip to — — 1 

" as a Tobacco Country 72 

" Fruits of 82 

" Thrift in 125 

" State Grange of 204 

Florida, Farming in 263 

Winter in 263 

" Steamers, the 197 

Flower Gardening for Ladies 465 

Flowers, Promoting the Bloom of 638 

Forage, Nutritive Value and Kinds of. ....432 

Fowls, Breeds of Classified 310 

" Pepper, etc., for 310 

" Meat for 311 

" Condiments for 311 

" Management of 580, 640 

" Breed.s of 470 

Freedman, What He Did 125 

Free and Easv, to the Editor 588 

French Rolls", True 668 

Fried Chicken 413 

Fruit Culture, the Hoolbreuk System of...466 

Fruit Drying 497 

Fruits, Origin of 464 

" Versus Doctors 467 

Furman, Dr., his Address 250 

Galls, Remedy for 302 

Game of Question and Answer 278 

Gapes in Fowls, Sulphur for 88 

Garden, Money and Health in 357 

" Grass" in 465 

Garden Seeds— What to Plant 126 

to Save 599 

Garlic Flavor in Milk 444 

Gathering of the Granges 554 

George Augustus Defends Himself 52 

" Again.... 272 

" the Last of 493 

" Responds 587 

Georgia State Fair 151 

" Grange ....152 

Geraniums for Bedding 530 

German Society, the ~.» 254 

Girls and Books 109 

" of New Orleans 496 

Glance at the March Number 374 

" at the April Number 429 

Glory of San Antonio 69 

Glycerine Lotion 390 

Good Advice from Worthy Master Adams.424 

Good Beginning, a 187 

Good Breeding 164 

Good Habits • ••277 

Good Hoe, a 547 

Good Grapes for the South 18 

Grafting the Grape 189 

Grange Gathering in North Carolina 314 

Grange, the, as a Social Institution... 426, 314 

Grange Bank, Plan for 203 

Grange Law and Usage. . 647 

Grange, Memoranda-. ..155, 206, 255. 318, 373 
427,484, 543, 592, 648 

Grange Notes and Queries 40, 94, 154, 317 

647, 371, 425, 482, 59 

Grange Register 317 

Granges in South Carolina.. ..39, 93, 1-53, 155 
205, 315, 374, 485, 646 



Granges in Florida 316 

" and the Credit System 91 

" and Railroads 424 

" Pecuniary Benefits of 482 

" Gathering of 554 

" How they are Educating the 

Farmer 589 

Grape, Scuppernong 21, 97, 304 

" Planting and Training of. - 73 

" Louisiana 409 

Grape Discovery, Campbell's 358 

Grape Juice, to Preserve 559 

Grape Leaf Pickles 444 

Grape Trellis, Spiral Spring for 638 

Grapes. Good for the South 18, 241 

" in the Low Country 578 

" Choice for the South 636 

" Uses of 638 

" from Clark and Burkhardt 653 

" " Wm. K. Nelson 655 

Grass, Bermuda 14 

" Nut, How to Kill 15 

" Let none Grow 403 

Grasshopper, Lubber 363 

Gras3hoi)pers 26 

Grecian Wives 439 

Green Manuring and Fall Ploughing 16 

Greenville Fair 151 

Greenville Fair Association 254 

Grease Spots, to Remove 499 

Guano Deposits, New 632 

Guinea Grass 355, 458, 490, 578 

GuUa Peas 488 

Hair, to Curl '. 499 

Hanging Baskets 129, 130 

Happv Lowland Planter, the 505 

Hare "Hunt, a 110 

Harry's Chickens 667 

Harvest Feast of the Granges 590 

Hay, Substitutes for i430, 567 

Hayseed 496 

Headache, Cure for 221 

Heartsease 214 

Hen, the, as an Agricultural Laboreri 72 

HeSliail Rule 322 

Hetty Marvin 612 

High Farming 462 

"' " in Germany 310 

Hint to Fruit Growers 468 

Hogs and other Farm Stock 122 

" What a Boy Wrote About 668 

Homes of the Lowlands of S. C 617 

Honey in fiiass Cans 642 

Hoolljreuk System, the 46(5 

Horses, a Tonic for 97 

" an<l Mules to Feed 652 

Horseradish 192 

Horticultural Hints for October 23 

" November 76 

December 131 

" Januarv 190 

" February 242 

Horticultural Hints for March 305 

" April 359 

Mav 410 

" June 466 

July 530 

" August 579 

" September 637 

Horticultural Profanity 409 

How to Get Trees Planted 409 

Hot Lemonade for Colds 112 

HousetFurnishiiig 279 

Housekeeping, Waste in 222 

How to Raise Cotton Cheaply :...227, 349 

How the (rranges are Educating .589 

Hummint^ Bird, the 667 

Hunting Costume 221 

Hybridity in Plants 155 

I Can't 440 

Ignoring the Facts' and Figures 627 

Immigration, Land, Labor, and 208 

" Suggestions on 306 

Immigrants for South Carolina 490 

Improved implements 518 

Independent Grangers 372 

Indigestion, Buttermilk for 280 

Indiantown Grange and D. W.Aiken 153 

Indian River Country 80, 135 

Industries Make Great Cities 533 

Inflammation of the Eyes, Lotions for 444 

Ink on Linen 391 

Ink Stains, to Remove 223 

Insect, Stinging 

Insects, Remedies for 312 

Carbolic Acid for 364 

" Injury to Cotton by 417 

" Cdrn^ '. 537 

How to Send 538 

Alum for 669 

Inquiries and Answers. ...44. 98, 158. 209, 264 
321, 379, 432, 489, 547, 602 

Irish Potatoes, Manure for 124 

" vs. Cotton 461 

Irrigation at San Antonio 69 

in tlie West 72 

" Underdraining, etc 113 

" ■ Methods of 284 

Japan Clover, History of 145 

Japan Pea, the 1-^)8, 344 

.rumi)ing Cattle, Poke for .302 

Jute, the Description of 234 

" What 1 Know About 2.36 

'' Increasing Culture of 355 

" as a Protector for Cotton 4(52 

Juvenile Philosopliy 671 

Kainite, Composition of 125 

Kentucky Belle 101 

Kentucky (Jirls 671 

Kind Words vs. the Whip 405 

King's Mountain School 273 



Labor, Dignity of, kc 291 

Labor Saving Machinery on the Farm 281 

Laces and Muslins, to Do Up 278 

Lady Bugs vs. Plant Lice 536 

Lady Stock Breeders 356 

Laud and Water, Comparative Fertility of..ll9 

Land of Flowers, Summer Trip to 1 

Languages, Teaching of 217 

Lanman Scandal, the 434, 491, 549 

Lauderdale, County, Ala 599 

Lavender Culture 74 

Lead Poisoning, Milk for 444 

Lemon for Grafting the Orange 131 

Lesson of Order 55 

Lettuce Dressing 280 

Lice on Fowls 379 

" in a Poultrv House 656 

" on Cattle..." 525 

Liebig's Fertilizer 355 

Lilacs, White 468 

Lime, Value of 629 

Linen, Ink on 381 

" to Iron 391 

Liquid Manure 410 

Literary Notes. 167, 224, 335, 336,446, 5-59, 615 

Little Grrunibler, the 220 

Little Rid Hin, Story of the 334 

Louisiana Grape 409 

Love-Tide 380 

Machine for Assorting Potatoes 533 

Make Hay while the Sun Shines 571 

Make the Colts Walk 628 

Malaria, Protection Against 499 

Malone, P. J., Death of 112 

Malva Tree, the 189 

Mange oq Dogs, Cure for 43 

Manihot, Carthagenesis 635 

Manners and Customs in China 562 

Manufacturing in Georgia 533 

Manure, Saving and Manuring Corn 11 

" Domestic Concentrated 72 

" Wilson's Formula 343 

Marblehead Squash 304 

Marl, Calcined 402 

Mats from Sheepskins 279 

Maximus 604 

Meat Ri.«oles 669 

Mechanical and Manufacturing Resources, 

33, 89, 140 

Melon, New Scarlet Fleshed 407 

Mind your P's and Q's 389 

Money in the Garden 357 

" to Loan at One Per Cent 645 

Montecito Grape Vine 211 

Morn — A Poem 51 

Mortgaged Farms 123 

Moth Preventive 444 

Moths, Protection Against 558 

" Prevention of 669 

Mothers, Talk to 386 

Mustard Plaster 165 

Mutton vs. Bacon 443 

My Lady 552 

My Neighbor 267 

Mysterious Influences 221 

Names 555 

National Grange 316 

Native Flora, Notes on 27, 144, 195, 249 

419, 538, 584, 642 

Navy Beans, Cultivation of 281 

Nemophilla 463 

Neuralgia, Cure for 279 

Never Give Up 441 

Night at Castle Kevin, a 380 

North Georgia Agricultural College 388 

Notes on Planting 6 

Nut Grass, How to Kill 15 

Nuts, How to Plant 99 

Oat Meal Porridge Ill 

Cake >. Ill 

'' as Food for Children 165 

Oats with Cotton 523 

" Red vs. White 653 

" Red, How they Pay 628 

Old Cans, New Use for 192 

Old Plantation System, the 353 

One Acre, Produce of 302 

One of Dave Booden's Stories 164 

Onion, the Nutritive Value of 166 

" Strength in 218 

'\ Culture of. 264 

" Portugal 461 

Orange, Grafting on Lemon 131 

" Climate and Soil for ..357 

Oranges from Seed 76 

Orangeburg Fair 150 

Orchard Grass and Clover 653 

Origin of Cultivated Fruits 464 

Ornamental Tree, New 635 

Our Currency 3.34 

Osier Willow Culture 119, 184 

Ostrich Farming 573 

Ozone in the Sick Room 614 Growing from Cuttings 633 

Parasite on the Cabbage W^orm 142 

Parents' Paradise 443 

Paris Green 25, 582 

for the Cotton Worm 156, 193 

" and Land Plaster 573 

Pasturing Children 220 

Patrons of Husbandrv.421, 480, 541, 585, 643 

in Florida 38, 92 

" and the Rural. ..35, -37 

" National Grange 38 

" What they Propose.. 92 

" Principles of 366 

" and Immigration.. .423 

*' and Direct Trade. ..542 

" Women as 543 

Selling Hogs 206 

" of the South 368 

Sociables of 440 



Patrons' Opening Ode 3S4 

Peach, Stump tlie World 77 

" New French 131 

Peacli Jiorer, to Destroy 22 

Peaclies, List of " 129 

" Picking and Packing 358 

Pear, Sheldon 129 

" Beurr6 Dubuisson 192 

" Hericart de Thury 577 

•' Bartlett G34 

Pears for the Coast Region 20 

'■ List of 129 

" Packing and Shipping 409 

*' American in London G38 

Peas, Gulla, for Hogs 488 

" with Corn 523 

Pecan Xuts 209 

Pee Dee Agricultural Association 371 

Pee Dee Fair 152 

Pelargoniums, New 4CG 

Pendleton, Dr., Experiments of 340 

Perpetual Hotbed, a 359 

Persimmon, the 406 

Pertinent Quentions 300 

Peruvian Bark, Substitute for 264 

Peruvian Nitrates 167 

Photographing a Ghost CG5 

Pliyloxera, Remedy for 143 

Pickle, Variety.....". 670 

Pickles, Sweet Apple Ill 

" Grape Leaf , 444 

'* and Peppers .*.013 

Picnicing 441 

Pigeon, Flying Tumbler 362 

Owl 639 

Pigs and Pork 574 

Pincushion 279 

Pine Forests of Georgia, the 581 

Pine Lands, the, and Civilization 393 

Pine Straw, Value of 405 

Pine Weevils, a Pair of 476 

I'lain Talk from an Old Planter 375 

Plant your own Corn 264 

Plaster for Fixing Ammonia 44 

Plougli Standard 238 

Ploughing without Dead Furrow.-i 4 

" at the Orangeburg Fair 177 

" Ploughs, and 280 

Plum Trees, Lice; on 477 

Plums, Curcuiio Proof 75 

I'oetry of Dinner, the 389 

Poison Soils 118 

Polly and 1 491 

i'(;or Man. A and Poor Farmer 629 

Potatoes Does Pay 431, 569 

I'oitcd Plants, Compo«t for 23 

i'oultry, Breeds of 470 

" Care of ,S3 

" for Farmers 412 

Preserving Smoked Meats 1G5 

i'rimitive Medical Practice 276 

Principles and Purposes of the Patrons. ..366 
Prize Song 211 

Producing New Varieties 192 

Progress with Prudence 459 

" in Alabama 545 

Progressive Farmers, Order of 425 

Prospects, Checkered 600 

Prospective Cotton Crop, the 378 

Proud Flesh 444 

Pruning, Summer 468 

Pumpkins on Trees 468 

Pyracantha, the 67, 157 

Quinine, Substitute for 264 

Rabbit Breeding and Pens 470 

Raisins, to Di'v. 166 

" in California ... 365 

Ramie Culture 533 

Raspberries, to transplant 303 

Rats, to Exterminate 499 

Reasons for Raising Silk 449 

Retrenchment, etc 481 

Retrospects and Prospects 378 

Rice, Carolina, in India 124 

Rice Straw, Value of 356 

Rich and Poor Soils 517 

Ricliest Boy in America 55 

Ripening of Fruits 166 

Robert E. Lee .611 

Rose, James Sprunt 304 

Roses. New 130 

Rural Residence, Handsome 528 

Rural Review 288 

Rust in Cotton 401 

Rye for Pasturage and Hav 17,655 

" in June ". 489 

Sauce, Spreading 670 

Saving Manure 11 

Scarlet Fever Preventive r)70 

Science vs. Ignorance 536 

Scuppernong Grape, New Plan with 304 

Sea Island Cotton Convention 205 

Sea- Weed and Fish-Scraps 118 

Secrecy of the Patrons 202 

Seed and Plant Exchange 157 

Seed Corn 124 

Seeds and Seedsmen 432 

Settlers, Good Advice to 572 

Seymour, Joseph & Son .'.371 

Sheep, Fabulous Prices for 356 

" New Method of Hurdling 400 

" Reasons for Keeping 625 

•' Why Farmers Should Keep 625 

Sheep an<l D(/g Story 574 

Sheep Husbandry in .South Carolina 301 

" " Dr. Pendleton on 399 

" juid Renovation of Soil, 

453, 693 

Sheep-Rack, Improved 363 

Shipping Cotton to Liverpool 198 

Sh((pping in Ja])an 163 

Short Horns in the Soutii 467 

Silk in Mississippi 416 

Silk TH. Cotton 509 


Silk Kaising, Keasons for 449 

Silent Lies 443 

Silicious Slag 440 

Skirret as a Garden Crop > ' 

Small Farmers, or Bankrupts 337 

Small Grains, the 564 

Small Pox Eemedy 165 

Smoked Meats, to Preserve 165 

Soil for Flowers 527 

" and the Color of Fruits 530 

Soils, Poison of Texas 118 

" Eich and Poor 601 

Some Pertinent Inquiries 429 

Song of the Duckis 277 

'• of Thankfulness oOO 

Sore Eves, Eemedy for 165 

South, the Future 416 

South Carolina for Immigrants 307 

" and the Southwest 428 

" Agricultural Society ..254, 590 

Southern Fruits and Vegetables 358 

Southern Home, a 5j_p 

Southern People, Good Advice to 572 

Southern Scenes 495 

Sovereigns of Industry 371 

Squash, Marblehead 304 

Squash Bugs 602 

State Agricultural Society 590,646 

State Auxiliary Society 425 

State Grange of Florida 204 

of South Carolina 320 

State Fair, South Carolina 95, 147, 149 

Stinging Insect 27 

Stock, Wintering 57 

Stoppage of Urine in Horses 405 

Story o'f Myself, a 146 

Strawberry Bed, to Prepare 23 

Strawberries, What Varieties to Plant 22 

Straw Matting, to Clean 279 

Study of Faces 328, 385, 437 

Subsoiling, Underdraining and 225 

Substitutes for Northern Hay 430, 567, 649 

Summerfield's Secret 604 

Summer Pruning 468 

Summer Trip to the Land of Flowers 1 

Sunlight in the House 221 

Sweeping Cap 333 

Sweet Potato, the, and its Cultivation 183 

Sweet Potato Slips, Planting 461 

Sweet Potato Vines, to Keep 71 

Sweet Potatoes, How to Plant 546 

Swords, How they are Made 366 

Tallahassee, Vicinity of 582 

Taming the Humming Bird 667 

Taters Don't Pay. 348 

Taxation, Equity in Bearing 121 

Taylor, John, of Caroline 664 

Tea as a Demoralizer 166 

" Southern 574 

Tea Leaves for Poultices 163 

Teachings of Experience in Agriculture..346 
Texan Eanch, a 525 

The Upsettin' Sin 671 

Theodora's Eeception Eoom 275 

Thistles for Neuralgia 391 

Three Crops in One Year • 574 

Thunbergia, New White 130 

Time for All Things, a 277 

Tobacco, Preparing for Market 13 

'' Fine, Culture of 351 

" AVorm 87 

Tomatu, Hathaway's Excelsior 409 

" Manuring 578 

" Carolina Cluster 124 

" Feejee 662 

Tomatoes, Orangeburg 653 

To Mate in Three Moves 46 

Toothache, Cure for 498 

Transplanting, Art of 408 

Transportation, Expensiveness of. 170 

Trap- Door Spider, the 418, 537 

" " in North Carolina 

Travelling on the Farm 632 

Tree, New Ornamental 635 

Tritoma L'varia ...128 

True Policy of the Southern Planter 398 

Tuberoses, American 638 

Turnip, the and Sheep Husbandry 593 

Turnips and Sheep 651 

Twentv Thousand Dollars 103, 160 

Twig Girdler 144 

Unauthorized Title 543 

Underdraining, Irrigation and 179 

Unknown Lands 275 

Urine as Manure 406 

Valentine, the Sculptor 664 

Vetch for Forage, etc 17 

Volcano of Colima, the 215 

Wakefulness, Remedy for 280 

Walking-stick Insect 88 

Walks, Curved "6 

Wall Pockets "^^^ 

Wall Protectors 279 

Wanted— A House-Keeper 657 

Wardian Cases and Ferneries 21 

Warrantees, Worthless 205 

Warts on Fowls, Cure for •_;43 

Watering Horses 522 

Watering Plants in Summer 465 

Watermelon, the Best 489 

Watermelon Seed, to Save ..653 

Waterproof Cloth 416 

Webster's Dictionary 331 

West, the and Charleston 472 

Western Farmer's Talk 169 

AVhat a Sister Thinks About It 540 

What a Brother Thinks About It 644 

What Can be Done in North Carolina 297 

What is the Good of It? j36 

Wheat, Fertilizer for 571 

" Cuhure of 598 

" Eust-proof 603 


Wheat, Oats, Barley, and 546 

" What Variety to Plant 630 

" Crop, California G31 

Wheat Midge 195 

White Grub Fungus 584 

Why Planters Lose Money 262 

Why so Much Cotton is Planted 397 

Why Soils are Rich or Poor 517 

Why Veil Themselves in Secrecy? 202 

Why Farmers Should Keep Sheep 625 

Wilson's Formula for Manure 343 

Wine-making, Art of 532 

Wintering Stock 57 

Woman's Love 322 

Wonderful Fertilizers 451 

Wonderful Plants 188 

Wool Cotton 208 

Worm, Threadlike 27 

" Tobacco 87 

Wrong Way to Plant Potatoes 546 

Young Lady in the Poultry Yard 412 


Hartford Pmlijir (i'nij)r. 


Progress with Prudence, Practice with Science. 
D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 

Vol. v.] CHARLESTON, S. C, OCTOBER, 1873. [No. I. 

A Summer Trip to the Land of Flowers. 

At a time when the fortunate few who can afford to do it, were seeking coolness 
and recreation at the North, or at the beautiful mountain resorts in our jDicturesque 
Upper Country, business called us southward ; and during the last and hottest 
week of the hot month of August, we set out for Florida. Perhaps we suffered 
as little from heat as those w^ho were luxuriating at Saratoga or in Buncombe. 
Recreation was not our object, but we gained something in that way even, in the 
intervals of work, and found a journey southward in summer by no means un- 


Thanks to the kind attentions of President Isaacs, of the Charleston and Savan- 
nah Railway, we were honored with the " freedom of the road " to the Forest 
City, and are glad to bear witness to the politeness and obliging disposition of all 
the officers and employees of that road, so far as we have come in contact with 
them ; and this is a matter of more interest and importance to the travelling pub- 
lic than railway companies generally seem to suppose. 

We were glad to see, on all sides, evidences of the growth and prosperity of our 
sister city, between whom and Charleston there may well be a friendly emulation, 
but no enmity. We found considerable building operations in progress there as 
well as in our own city, and an evident determination, on the part of the people, 
to win success in the various branches of trade and manufacture. 


On the line of the railway which runs nearly parallel to the Georgia line, 
across the Northern part of Florida, several flourishing little towns have sprung 
up, or at" least made most of their growth since the war. Along this road, too, 
and especially in the vicinity of these towns, the farmers seem more prosperous 
and less disposed to take a despondent view of their prospects than elsewhere in 
the State. Cotton, corn and sugar cane are the principal crops, and the last 
named is undoubtedly the most profitable crop grown in the State, excepting, per- 
No. 1, Vol. 5. 1 

2 A Summer Trip to the Land of. Flowers. 

haps, oranges, aud the tropical fruits, cultivated further South. The coru crop is 
generally good. Cotton seemed, so far as we observed it, to promise au average 
crop, but is late, and has been injured by excess of rain. Cane, though backward, 
struck us as promising, up to the time when we saw it, an average crop. 


The flourishing little town of Welborn, on the Jacksonville, Pensacola and Mo- 
bile Railway, aud in Suwannee County, should be distinguished in the history of 
the Order of Patrons of Husbandry as the place where the first preliminary or- 
ganization of a Grange was affected in Florida, on the 12th of July, 1873. Here 
on the 2oth of August, we had the pleasure, as General Deputy of the National 
Grange for the State of Florida, of perfecting its organization. It is appropriate- 
ly called Floral Grunge, aud hi^ for its W. M., Wm. H. Wilson, and for its Secre- 
tary, A. D. Hemming, with a full list of worthy aud zealous charter members. 
Here also resides the Worthy Special Deputy whom we have had the good fortune 
to select and appoint to carry on the work of organizing Subordinate Gi'anges in 
our absence — E,ev. Bro. Thomas A. Carruth, in whom we have the fullest confi- 
dence aud whom we know to be well instructed in the work. Those desiring to 
organize Granges in any part of the State are requested to address him at Welborn. 


Lake City is a lovely place, of which we are sorry that our brief stay there ena- 
bled us to see so little. Handsomely laid out and adorned with shade trees, shrub- 
bery and flower gardens, and surrounded by beautiful lakes, (whence its name) it 
makes a most agreeable impression on every one who has an eye for beauty in na- 
ture or in art. Here we organized Lake City Grange ; Dr. W. T. Bacon, W. INI-; 
John Thompkins, Secretary. Having a list of excellent and zealous charter 
members and efiicient officers, we confidently expect to hear good reports of this 
Grange when it gets fairly at work. 


In the vicinity of Lake City several gentlemen (some of them Patrons) have 
flourishing Scupi)eruong vineyards, and the opportunities we had there aud elsewhere 
in Florida, to taste the fruit, leads us to the conclusion that no where else does 
it attain the sweetness and high flavor which it reaches in that State. This high 
quality of' the fruit, together with uncommon skill and carefulness in its manu- 
facture, doubtless, accounts for the excellence of some Scuppernoug wine made 
l)y Dr. T. C. Griffin, (a member of Lake City Grange,) which we had the plea- 
sure of tasting, and a bottle of which the Doctor (as a medicine of course) begged 
us to carry home with us. We shall be sure to resort to it, without making wry 
faces, when required as a remedy. 


At Lake City we had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Turner, a jjlanter of Colum- 
bia County, who is the fortunate discoverer of a new and apparently successful 
remedy for the caterpillar. It is simply spirits of turpentine — two table-spoon- 
fuls to a bucket of water — say tliree gallons — sprinkled upon the plants. So 
distasteful is this mixture to tlie worms, it is said, that they will never pass a line 

A Summer Trip to the Land of Flowers. 3 

thus sprinkled. We hope further experiments will fully justify the hopes now 
entertained in regard to this new, convenient and harmless remedy. If so, there 
will be a decline in Paris green and arsenic. 


From Lake City we passed up the road to Madison, the county seat of Madison 
County, and formerly one of the most flourishing and beautiful towns in the State, 
but now somewhat in decay. It is still, however, an exceedingly attractive place, 
and being surrounded by a fertile and beautiful rolling country, must soon regain 
its former prosperity, especially as the " Grange movement " will inspire the 
farmers with new hope and courage. 

Here we organized two Granges of Patrons of Husbandry, the members of one 
of them coming here from Cherry Lake for the purpose of being organized. The 
Grange at Madison is named Village Grange, and has for its W. M., B. F. Ward- 
law, a South Carolinian, who, like all good natives of the Palmetto State, is very 
proud of his birth-place. His family name is familiar to many of our readers. 
Rufus Dickenson, is Secretary. This Grange, though commencing with a small 
number of members, has the elements of success in it, and with energetic and 
faithful officers, will be sure to fill up its ranks, and do a good work for its neigh- 

Cherry Lake Grange needs no endorsement. The men and women who came 
from ten to^fteen miles under a burning August sun, with the ranks of their 
charter meraoers full, to meet the Deputy for organization, are men and women 
who know no such word as " fail," in this or any other enterprise. We are proud 
to have had the privilege of organizing them. Jos. Tillman is W. M., and T. J. 
Blalock, Secretary. Their postoffice is Madison. 


Passing again down the road, we stopped at Live Oak to organize a Grange 
there. Here we found the farmers fully alive to the great importance and value 
of the Order, and full of zeal and energy in the work. The list of charter mem- 
bers was full, and many were waiting outside the gates, ready to seek admittance 
in the regular way after the Grange should be prepared to receive them by formal 
initiation. Our meeting for organization was the fullest and most sati^actory we 
had during our trip, and Live Oak Grange is probably now the strongest in the 
State. We congratulate the officers and members on the favorable auspices under 
which they commence their work. W. A. Brinson is W. M., and Dr. Wm. Forsyth 
Bynum, Secretary. 

Live Oak, which we remember as having but three or four houses, five pr six 
years ago, is now a flourishing little town surrounded by a thrifty agricultural 


The progress of Jacksonville, within the last few years, has been wonderful, and 
it bids fair to soon become one of the most important cities of the South. Its 
magnificent hotels, its solid and stately business houses, its pleasant oak-shaded 
streets, its handsome gardens, its luxuriant and fruitful orange trees, and, above 

4 Ploughing Without Dead Furroios. 

all, the magnificent river which flows so grandly past its wharves, give it an aspect 
at once commercial and home-like. From the bustle of Bay street to the suburban 
\juiet of Adams, IMouroe, or Duval streets, is but a step. Beyond the city proper, 
on. every side except that barred by the St. Johns, new towns have been laid out, 
and are fast taking shape on the ground as well as on paper. Among these are 
East Jacksonville and Wyoming, on the East ; Springfield, on the Korth ; and 
La Villa, Brooklyn and Riverside, on the West. At the present rate of increase 
not many years will be required to make all these suburban towns places of con- 
. siderable importance. 

At Jacksonville we organized St. John's Grange, P. of H., with E. H. Mason as 
W. M., and J. H. Norton, as Secretary. Though rather weak in numbers at the 
beginning, St. John's Grange is likely to become one of the strongest and best in 
the State. With good efficient officers, and surrounded b.y a thriving energetic 
agricultural population, it will soon fill up its ranks with the best men and women 
of the country, many of whom, who would have been Avith us, being then absent. 

Our trip to Florida was, on the whole, a very pleasant one, and has given the 
Order of Patrons of Husbandry a sure foothold in the State. We are confident 
that there are now from fifteen to twenty more Granges ready to organize, and we 
regret that we could not remain longer and visit them all ; but we leave the work 
in good hands-T-those of Worthy Special Deputy Carruth — and shall confidently 
expect to organize a State Grange before Christmas, with from thirty to forty 
Subordinate Gransres. W 

Ploughing Without Dead Furrows.^ 

In breaking up a field, as for oats or wheat, the common practice of laying it 
off in " lands " is objectionable on account of the " dead furrows." To avoid the 
dead furrows, some farmers do much of their ploughing by going round the whole 
field and finishing in the middle. This practice still has some disadvantages. A 

dead furrrow is made at the .middle, and to- 
wards each corner, as shown in Fig. 1 , which 
represents a field in the form of a parallelo- 
gram, ploughed by beginning at the outside 
and going to the centre. Another disadvan- 
tage is the banking up of the earth against 
the boundary walls or fences by successive 
repetitious. The dead furrows are avoided, 
Fu,. I-riomjhed FitM Finished at the Mid- ^"(1 the fence-banking prevented, if the field 
die, leaving Dead Furrows. jg ploughed by beginning at the centre, and 

ploughing towards the outside, giving the result shown in Fig, 2. 

•This article, with its illustrations, is mainly copied from the Country Gentleman of May 
29th, 1873. 

Ploughing Without Dead Furrows. 

There is but oue difficulty in beginning thus at tlie centre, and that is to know 
exactly where to strike the first furrow. If the field is a true parallelogram, as 
shown" in the preceding figures, the process is comparatively simple. Measure 
across the ends, take half, and drive a few 
stakes in a straight line through the middle 
of the field. Then measure in from the two 
ends of this line a distance equal to half the 
breadth of the field, and drive stakes. The 
ploughman is now ready to begin, by 
ploughing a perfectly straight furrow be- 
tween these two stakes, and then going back- 
wards and forwards around them, throwing 
the furrows inward, until the field is finish- 
ed. If the work is accurately laid out, and Fig. 2— Ploughed Field begun in the Centre. 
the ploughing well done, the last furrow will come out even and parallel with the 
boundary fence on ever side. 

But it frequently happens that the field is more or less irregular in form. A 
little more care is required in such cases, but beside this additional care there is 
no difficulty whatever. Suppose, for example, that the field is in the form 
of a triangle, as shown in Fig. 3. The first thing is to determine the centre, 

or a point equidistant from the three 
sides. It may be done by the "cut 
and try" process, but this will be labo- 
rious and tiresome, and many will give 
it up before they have done, and then 
pronounce this mode of ploughing a 
vexation, because they did not begin 
right. In order to determine the centre, 
bisect two angles of the field in the fol- 
lowing way : Measure with a tape line 
from the angle or corner, an equal dis- 
tance along the two sides, say 30 feet. 

Fig. 3 — Laying oiU Triangular Field. 

and put in a stake at each point thus measured. Then stretch the line from stake 
to stake (as shown by the dotted lines), and take one-half or the middle. This 
will divide the angles into equal parts. Then put in a few small stakes, until the 
lines thus staked shall meet at the intersection of the dotted lines. This will be 
the centre of the field. It is thus found in a very few minutes, but it will require 
a long time to do it by guess work. Around this centre you must begin to plough. 
But it is important in beginning to go in the right direction, that is, exactly par- 
allel with the three sides. To do this accurately, measure a few feet outwards, at 
equal distances from the centre, and set stakes parallel with the boundaries. This 
will form the triangle a b c, which is exactly similar in shape to the field, only 
smaller. Mark this triangle with the plough, and the work is begun ; or to plough 
the whole, begin at the centre and go out towards the triangle, taking care to coin- 
cide with it when your reach it. 

As the ploughing advances, measure the distance between the furrows and 
boundaries, to see if you are going right, if it is new work to you. 

There is a mode of drawing a central triangle, just described with mathemati- 
cal accuracy, but it is hardly necessary to resort to it in common cases, and we 
therefore omit it. 

If the field is irregular and four-sided, as represented in Fig. 4, a similar pro- 
cess may be employed for determining ihe centre. First find the two centres a 
and b by bisecting the angles, as shown by the dotted lines at the corners. Then 
measuring perpendicularly from b to the nearest side by the assistance of the 

Notes on Planting. — VIL 

square place on that side, (which is mov- 
ed along backward or forward till in the 
right place), measure the same distance 
from the other side at c, d and e, making 
these measurements perpendicular to the 
sides by means of the square. Stakes 
driven in at the ends will form a trian- 
gle, around which the plough is run till 
the field is finished. Or, if this triangle 
is too large, as will be apt to be the case, 
begin at a and run the furrows parallel 
to the three sides of this triangle, and 
the work will come out right. 

Fi(j. 4 — Laying out Trapezoidal Field. 

Fig. 5 represents an irregular five-sided field. The same course is to be adopted 
as before, the places for the two central stakes, a and b, being first found, and the 
sides of the central figure, parallel respectively to the other sides, found as described 
under fig. 4. 

It will make the ploughing easier, plainer, and more accurate to plough light 

furrows from the corners in towards the centres ; 
and also to plough light furrows to form the centre 
triangle. The corner furrows will show exactly 
where the team turns, and the work will be kept in 
more accurate shape. 

To some all this work at measuring may seem 
troublesome and needless, but it will be found a 
„. . , , r^. , , ^ . , ^ great saving of labor in the end. Any one can 
Fu-e-8ided Field Laid Out. ^^derstand the rules given by a few minutes' atten- 
tion ; and after some practice a large field may be laid out for ploughing in an 
hour's time. Without such measuring tlie ploughman may finish on one side of a 
fifty-acre field, when he has left an unploughed strip on the other two or three rods 
wide, which will cost him an additional day's labor to plough, unless he finishes 
up in the irregular manner, with a dead furrow. 

Notes on Planting.— VII. 

Second Book. — (Kept by Proprietor.) 

The principal contents of this book are: 

1. A description and valuation of real estate, followed by a copy of the inven- 
tory of stock, implements, etc. 'This last should bo verified by the manager's sig- 
nature, and thus be his receipt for the same. These two items, together with 
amount invested in supplies and current cash make up the capital embarked in the 

2. A copy for reference of the contract with laborers, the original is in posses- 
sion of the manager. 

3. A space Is set apart for a cash account, with tlie plantation in wliich every 
item of cash received or expended is set down in the usual form. 

4. Till' manager's account, with liis wages, posted from the cash account, and 
from the account of supplies consumed by liiiii kept iii his ])ook, to be closed by 
his receipt at end of the year. 

Notes on Planting. — VIL ' 

5 Consolidated accounts of supplies received and expended. 

6 A statement under the several heads of the amount and cost of Fencing and 
Ditching done on the plantation during the year, of the Pork killed, and of the 
Increase, sales and d»ath of stock. , , • • ^^ 

7. A record of the mode of cultivating tlie different crops, and their yield. 

8. A consolidated account sales of cotton. 

9. The balance sheet. 

The following examples are, perhaps, sufficient for illustration : 

Consolidated Bacon Account. 

lbs. lbs. 

187 — 3 377 

On hand and received during year " 'l 820 ' 

Issued rations per contract-.* ' ■"• 'g^Q 

Sold laborers ......*.......*..." 555 

Sold manager * 426 

Sold my family 035 3377 

Waste— (7 percent) " 

, , ,. $375 87 

3.377 lbs. bacon cost on plantation..^. ^ ..$160 44 

Sales as above... " 215 43 375 87 

g^" Cost of rations 


Consolidated Com Account. 

bush. bush. bush. 

187 . I OQQ 

On hand 1st January • '259 1,4-50 

New crop used ' 

Fed to mules, &c g2 

Fed to oxen, &c g^ 

Fed to stock hogs ,^^ g22 

Fed to fattening hogs • 

.... 150 

Meal rations to laborers ^^ 

Sold manager 2i2 

Sold my family ' ^^ 035 

Sold laborers ' 

Seed •• 135 1 450 

Waste and shrinkage— (10 per cent.) _j 

B^'Consumed by stock, and rations to laborers 822 ^^^^ ^^ 

Forage Account. 


18' — • 10 000 

Blades on hand 1st January -■ •"••••^ ^'^qq 

Blades sold •* ' 

B^Consumed ; - ^,000 S70_00 

(Shucks, straw and pastured and soiling crops not estimated.) 

J 37 Manures. 

Eeceived and Expended: ^^^^ ^^ 

1,600 bushels cottonseed "^g^Q qq 

22,000 lbs. fertilizer . 

___^ ^980 00 

ggg^'Cost manures _^ 

(Compost not estimated.) 

8 Notes on Planting. — VII. 

Seed Account. 

180 bushels cotton seed S36 00 

8 bushels corn S 00 

7 bushels rye .*. 14 00 

40 bushels oats 32 00 $90 00 

Miscellaneous Supplies. 

Received and expended : 

Salt, $10 50; nails, $2 ; leather, $4; axle grease, $1 75 IS 25 

~ ing and ties 130 00 S148 25 

The following memoranda exhibit the mode of keeping the record of the corn 
and other principal crops. « 


Crop in Hodge field, 70 acres — in cotton last year. 


7th January to 29th January. Threshing cotton stalks and cleaning up trash; 
•work equal one man 11 days and one woman 63 days ; worked well ; very trashy. 

5th to 19th February. Breaking up into sis foot beds; work one plough 65 days, 
about 1 1-13 acres per day. 

13th to 29th February. One hand in 10 days with ox cart hauled 1,600 bushels 
rotted cotton seed from gin house and deposited in piles in the field 16 to the acre, 
average haul one and a half miles, and 5 loads per day. This is 15 miles per day 
to team, half loaded and half empty. 


14th to 26th March. One plough (8 days work) opened water furrow afresh. 
The cotton seed was then strown in this furrow about 23 bushels per acre — work 
tasked at 2 acres to hand. Whitner machine followed dropping from one to four 
grains of corn every three foot three inches, and covering the whole at one pas- 
sage. Machine employed 9 days. 

Commenced coming up 1st April. 

11th to 18th April. Tramsplanted with Ellerbee's machines — very dry — some 
plants died. Work of transplanting about 7 acres per day to machine. Stand 
obtained, 4 hills to 100 missing. 

First Working. ^ 
14th to 21st April. Thinned corn with a paddle, and followed with hoes, draw- 
ing about one-and-a-half inches of dirt down into hollow i)lanting furrow, also 
hoed around trees and stumps ; task one-and-a-half acres. (This use of hoes at 
this time practicable liom using macliines in the cotton planting then going on.) 
Com grew off* rapidly after this working. 

Second Working. 
26th April to 2d May. Sided with straight shovels and split with sweeps, five 
furrows tu the row. Thirty-five days of one plough, average two acres \Hir day. 

Notes on Planting. — VIL ' 9 

Third Working. 
19tli to 24th May. Ran shovel furrow in centre of alley. West's distributor, 
pushed by a boy, dropped in this peas at the rate of seven quarts to the acre, and 
four furrows of sweep sided corn and covered peas, thus ploughing out the row. 
Work thirty-six days of one plough, and nine days of one machine. 

Fourth Working. 
8th to 17th June. Two sweeps sided corn, and two sweeps sided peas, thus lay- 
ing by. Four furrows to the row, two and three quarter acres to the plough. 


5th to 15th August. Pulled and housed 4,530 bundles blades, equal to 11,300 lbs. 

21st October to 7th November. Gathered 1,260 bushels corn, an average of 

eighteen bushels per acre. Cut short by drought in July. Work equal, one man 

seventy days ; one woman fourteen days ; and one four mule team fourteen days. 

The average haul one and a half miles and back. 

Picked thirty bushels seed peas, at a cost of forty cents per bushel. Pastured 
the rest of this crop. 

Expense Account. 

(This is easily constructed from foregoing memoranda, and is here omitted for 

want of space.) 

The Balance Sheet. 

187—. Dr. 

Seed, 90; manures, 980 $1,070 00 

Miscellaneous supplies 148 25 

Stock feed— corn, 822; forage, 70 892 00 

Labor : 
Paid in rations — bacon, 215.13; meal, 150 $ 365 13 

Paid in cash and by sales : 

Field labor 1,148 33 

Ginning 180 00 

Ditcher 50 00 

Blacksmith and wheelwright 85 00 

Manager 360 00 

1,823 33 

Land rent and work on laborers' private crops 180 00 

2,368 46 

State and County taxes. 125 00 

Wear and tear implements, (about 6 per cent.) 75 00 

Cr. 54,678 71 

Income from Stock: 

8,050 lbs. pork slaughtered $ 183 00 

Mule "Eaider"sold 130 00 

1 cow sold 40 00 

3 three year old sold 75 00 

Butter sold 80 00 195 00 

■ — $508 00 

Miscellaneous Income : 

Labor (balance of) furnished proprietor* 2 50 

Land rent, etc., laborers 180 00 

Wood sold 200 00 382 50 

Amount carried forward $890 50 $4,678 71 

* Other supplies furnished are under heada "wood sold," "butter sold," etc. 

10 Notes on Plcmting. — VII. 

Amount brought forward SS90 50 S4,678 71 

Crops : 

300 bushels oats at SOc 240 00 

10 bushels seed rve and 5 bushels seed barley 30 00 

30 bushels seed pexs, at 1 30 00 

11,300 lbs. blades, at 1 113 00 

1,2(50 bushels corn, at 90c 1,134 00 

1,780 bushels cotton seed at 20c 356 00 

28,575 lbs. cotton at Ilk net 4,997 37 6,900 37 

$7,790 87 

Balance $3,112 16 

A balance to the credit of the plantation of 63,112.16, is thus shown on the 
year's operations. 

On inspecting the debit side of this account, it will be seen that 8-4,678 71 was 
expended to make the crop. About three-quarters of this sum is necessary for 
supplies and current expenditures, until the crops begin to go to market. The in- 
vestment for our six mule plantation may therefore be stated at 

600 acres of land at 815 89,000.00 

Stock, &c., as per inventory 3,107.30 

4,678.71-^1= 3,676.53 815,683.83 

Upon which the balance above 83,112.16 is an interest of 19 8-10 per cent. 

The planter must look further, however, before declaring his profits. Sometimes 
there may be an insiduous loss of capital in hb transactions ; and sometimes, as 
was well understood under the slave system, a chief part of the profit was in the 
improvement of capital. By the scheme recommended in these notes of raising 
one's own stock, and selling off the older ones, the investment of mules, cattle and 
hogs, is kept at the same value, and the sales when made it is submitted may be 
entered in the balance sheet as profits. If a mule dies on hand, there is no sale 
that year, and the profits are thus curtailed. 

Implements do not reproduce themselves, and the wear on some of them is 100 
per cent, per annum. The blacksmith and wheelwright's bills are incurred in re- 
pairing this waste ; but there is a depreciation beyond this which it is thougiit 6 
per cent, per annum will cover. The current annual income is charged accord- 
ingly. Under the system of cultivation recommended the land will assuredly in- 
crease in productiveness from year to year. The value of lands in the South are, 
however, not solely controlled by their intrinsic worth. So many outside influences 
affect their sale that each planter can only decide for himself how his account 
stands in this particular. With, however, the live stock reproducing itself, imple- 
ments kept at their cost value, and the land increasing in productiveness it would 
seem that the credit shown by the balance sheet may be taken as a safe exponent 
of profit. 

Having thiLs carefully and systematically recorded the transactions of the year, 
and exhibited their result not only in the aggregate, but in the details leading to 
it, the planter, if he is to be benefited beyond the mere gratification of curiosity, 
has yet the most imp(jrtant work to perform. Tlie balance sheet should be 
thoroughly studied ; the leaks arc to be closely observed, as well as the true 
sources of profit ; errors in planning, defects in execution must be noted. Can 

Saving Manure and Manuring Corn. 11 

the credit side of the account be increased ? Can the debit side be decreased ? 
How? Let him ask himself these questions; ponder them well ; and close his 
book by recording a candid criticism, for his next year's guidance, upon the 
operations of the year just ended. Next year, let these criticisms be verified or 
refuted ; and thus let him progre5S with assured steps in the knowledge and prac- 
tice of his calling. 

With this number is completed our Notes on Planting. We have endeavored 
to discuss certain branches of rural economy as applicable to cotton planting, some 
of which ordinarily obtain little reflection from the planter; and possibly our 
effort is like the suit of clothes made for Gulliver, by the scientific tailor of Lapu- 
ta — not a success. The tailor did his best, however, and his error was of the head, 
not of the heart. His intentions were good. 


Saving Manure and Manuring Corn. 

The experience of " Planter," in the 'June number of Rural Carolinian, 
was practical, and presents an important matter to the consideration of the South- 
ern farmer. It is to be feared that one of the principal causes of the impoverished 
condition of the soil in the sunny South, is found in the remark of " Planter,' 
that the "article is to direct the nrfnds of young farmers to one very important 
item in farming, and that is making manure in your own stock lots, which has 
been, and still is much neglected" 

It has always been found that one of the most expensive wastes that can be 
made by the farmer, is that of his fertilizing material. Although nature is very 
liberal in her efibrts to assist in the production of all crops, yielding up those 
elements which the plant requires, she at the same time demands that something 
be done to secure a restoration, and if the southern planter has neglected the mak- 
ing and savmg of manures, the failure to produce crops in abundance, is his notice 
of the fact, properly served upon him by nature. With the same forethought and 
care expressed by " Planter," the same number of animals will produce an almost 
incredible amount of fertilizing material in the course of the year. In the first 
place the stock should be properly yarded every night through the summer, with a 
proper covering over a part of the inclosure under which the manure is to be piled, 
and warmly stabled during winter ; then throw on the manure pile all the trash, such 
as sweepings of the yard, ashes, coal dust, and any refuse material that can be accu- 
mulated, and the pile will rapidly increase in size. Where much larger accumu- 
lations are desired, the object can be accomplished by green soiling, keeping the 
stock yarded, all of the time feeding with growing crops planted or sown for the 
purpose, so that all the droppings of manure, and by use of absorbents the urine 
may be saved to be applied to growing crops. 

It will be, a diflScult matter to sustain an argument against the growth of corn, 
on the ground that it is an exhaustive crop, for the reason that it is not borne out 
by practice. It will not admit of succession any more than many other crops ; 

12 Agricultural Colleger. 

every crop requires particular elemeuts for it5 growtli, aud contiuuous cropping 
produces au exhauatiou of these elemeuts aud cousequeutly a deterioratiou of that 
crop, but another requiring different elements would succeed in the same soil, so 
that a rotation is necessary, in order to maintain a proper balance of the elemeuts 
of the soil. 

As tp the proper application of manure in the cultivation of corn, it is a fact 
that it extends its roots widely in search of food, and therefore if the manure is all 
applied in the hill, its early growth is somewhere forced, its roots are sent rapidly 
forth, and unless the soil is well enriched by previous manuring and cultivation, 
long ere the time for earing arrives the plant has exhausted its energies in a fruit- 
less search for food, and fails to mature a crop of ears ; therefore if the manure to 
be applied is spread over the surface and harrowed in before planting, saving but 
a small quantity to be applied in the hill, or what is better using a little phosphate, 
to give the corn a start, a good crop will be obtained. Is not this a matter of 
sufficient consequence, aud one affecting the interests and prosperity of the south- 
ern planter or farmer, to that degree to receive more than a passing notice? Would 
it not be well to make a thorough trial, on a small scale perhaps at first, to test the 
practicability of the plan which may b(3 followed more extensively if found suc- 

Columbia, Conn., July, 1873. WILLIAM H. YEOMANS. 

Agricultural Colleges. 

Col. D. li. Jacques : In last paragraph, p. 566, August number, Agricultural 
Colleges are condemned, because a farmers' club had supported a young man at 
an Agricultural College, and when he had his diploma, he sought in a city an 
opportunity " to turn his accomplishments to account," Of coui-se no Agricultural 
College should be patronized, if a youth finds his talent aud education fit him for 
any other calling than to follow a plough! But, Colonel, is this fair? h it right 
for us to condemn an institution because pupils are so taught as to fit them to rise 
above the ordinary walks, or as some of us think to fall below ? 

The writer was boi'u in your State long before yourself, and the vast many. 
His mother was a devotee to garden and field and stock, and alway had plenty and 
a clean house, and put on him clean clothes. A mixing up about school, ended in a 
sheepskin from tlie University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, dubbing him au 
M. D. He went into the backwoods, and preferred the '* open, open (not) sea" but 
woods and field. Of course the University of Pennsylvania is not worth au " Eilge- 
field blessing" — many of your fellow citizens remember this saying fifty years ago. 

If the jjcople (aud the Granges will soon be the people's friend,) will only have 
Agricultural Colleges, with a proper outfit, farm, architectural farm buildings, gar- 
dens, orchards, lawns, stock of the best for the climate, aud of each variety, a pro- 
per working professor and manager of the farm, professors of agricultural chemis- 
try, botany, mineralogy, zoohjgy, &c., if course be long enough, of the living 
aud dead languages also ; then our youth might learn all they can, but not neglecting 

Preparing Tobacco for Market. 13 

a practical use of tools and knowledge of the preparation, culture, gathering of 
all croj")? ; making, preserving and best mode of applying all manures, all farm de- 
tail, then let our youth chose for themselves. 

Suppose some of our young men should take a special liking to engineering and 
evince a remarkable talent ; suppose for chemical research ; suppose the higher 
branches of mathematics, shall we force all to the plough and hoe ? Is it proper 
not to admit our country boys to taste of knowledge higher than " reading, riting 
and rithmatic" for fear they may go to town! The comforts and pleasures of 
home were made so inviting to me by a devoted mother, that, in 1829, when 23 
years of age, I took a wife, and bade adieu to town and city life. I believe a pro- 
per farm for a college, and all the appliances right, our youth will as surely fall in 
love with farm life, as with pretty girls. The fault is not in agricultural colleges, 
but mostly in parents having no comforts, no enjoyments ; it is an everlasting rou- 
tine of sleep, work, eat and sleep. Not a joy about the house, yard, lot, garden or 
any where. Cotton is made and sold, and money spent in what can be cheaper 
made, with nothing on earth to draw out the affection for home. A boy may love 
his mother, his sister, his home, but he cannot make the same sacrifices for a 
dreary home as if it were surrounded with some of the beauties and comforts and 
joys of life, that cannot cost many dozens of eggs to purchase. As one who has 
spent near two score and ten years in the country, I call on all agricultural papers, 
at least, to rail at trustees of a sacred fund, and legislatures that do not provide a 
proper faculty and means, to draw our youth from wandering, to the delights and 
real necessities of country life. An educated, reading, improving, intellectual 
country population, is just the best'thing this side of the home of our rest. 


Preparing Tobacco for Market. 

The Tobacco Leaf has the following sensible hints to tobacco growers, which such 
of our readers as are engaged in the cultivation of the " weed " may perhaps turn 
to profit : 

We are glad to see that our farmers are paying more attention to curing and as- 
sorting tobacco, something much needed heretofore, as tobacco when taken to 
market will not bear assorting without entailing extra expense and great loss in 
weight in the way of scraps and trash. As it will break in handling, too much 
care cannot be taken in the assorting and ordering of tobacco. Different qualities 
need be in different orders. Wrappers of every description should be in a pliant, 
silky order, while fillers and all other descriptions should be in moderately soft 
order, so that it will not break in handling, and at the same time be soft enough to 
allow the leaf to be opened for inspection, without breaking, and also to be in safe 
order for packing, bulking or working. It is also greatly to the farmers' interest to 
have their tobacco uniform, and tied up as neat and well as they can. A bright 
bundle should be tied up Avith a bright leaf, while a dark bundle should be tied 
with a dark leaf We have noticed a great many lots of tobacco very badly mixed 
up, and wish to call the attention of the planters to the importance of having their 
tobacco properly assorted, and try, as best we can, to show them where they lose by 

14 Preparing Tobacco for Market. 

this negligeuce. Tobacco properly assorted should be of the same color, length 
aud quality. The best mode of accomplishiug this most important part is, wheu 
the tobacco comes in orders or case, what the farmer can strip aud manage iu a 
reasonable time, should be taken down, packed straight, covered and moderately 
weighted. After being in bulk a few days it will be ready for stripping, if the 
weather is not too cold or harsh. As fa^t as stripped it should be nicely straight- 
ened aud put in bulk. The bulk should be covered at all times to keep out damp 
or dry air, either being injurious to tobacco. The barn door should not be opened, 
unless on a warm day, with wind south or south-east. 

Concerning the bulking of tobacco — bright tobacco of all grades should be 
packed straight aud loose, so as not to bruise, mat, or break the leaves ; dark, red, 
green tobacco, should be run through the hand, squeezed and straightened well, 
then bulked close aud weighted heavily. The virtue of squeezing and .straighten- 
ing is that it makes it show rich, waxy and glossy, and the warmth from handling 
causes a slight disposition to sweat, and a moderate fermentation takes place in a 
few days, which forces the .oil of the leaf to its surface, makiug the tobacco look 
its best. 

If intended for wiuter sale allow it to remain iu bulk from one to three weeks, 
according to your necessities, or the state of the weather, and conditions of the 
tobacco when bulked. 

Tobacco before it heats, say a week or ten days, has a sweet, sickening smell, 
caused from soft or high order, and sometimes from neglect of not keeping bulks 
covered, as the damp air penetrates the bulk between the bundle heads, and damp 
air being heavy remains in the bulk, causing tobacco to heat aud mould, (farmers 
are fomiliar with bulk mould.) Before loading or packing tobacco, it is greatly to 
the tarmer's interest to have his parcels as large as possible, for this rejison — the 
more pounds of a kind and quality the more money it will bring. For instance, 
shipping tobacco that is low grades, of dark, red and green, it takes from 1,400 to 
1,800 pounds to make a hogshead, is it not reasonable that the large pile or parcel 
should bring the most money. Same way with fillers ; it takes from 1,000 to 1,250 
pounds to make a hogshead, and it costs the dealer more to sell a hogshead weigh- 
ing 700 pounds than it does one weighiug 1,250 pounds. For instance, the hogs- 
head costs 83, if you put only 700 pounds in it the cost per hundred pounds is 42 
cents; whereas, if you make it to weigh 1,250 pounds it "only costs 24 cents per 
hundred pounds, which is a considerable item to the dealer. Now, iu shipping 
tobacco to foreign markets they charge by the space a hogshead occupies, and not 
by weight ; so you see that the freight would be as much ou a light hogshead jis it 
would be on a heavy one, hence the importance of getting as much of a uniform 
kind together as you can. When the bulk is broken it is then that the tobacco 
should l)e assorted by the bundle. 

Should your tobacco be red, dark and green, make three piles ; first of the colors, 
and then of the length, as each lot hiis long and short, which is easy to separate, 
throwing out lug bundles. Too much care cannot be taken in this, a,s a pile gener- 
ally sells by the worst sample, hence the planter loses by having his tobacco mixed. 

Bermuda Grass. — A body of Bernuida laud is a paradise of the stock 
farmer. During Spring, Summer and Autumn, it ailbrds the best of grazing. For 
this purpose I have seen nothing in Old England, New-England, or the West, equal 
to it. If shut up in August, it gives very good Winter grazing. Horses, cattle, 
sheep and hogs, are all fond of it. I would rather have a ton of good Bermuda 
grass hay tlian a ton of timothy — in the former there is no waste. — C. W. Howard. 

How to Kill Kid Grass. ' 15 

How to Kill Nut Grass. 

"We have had scores of plans " on pcq^er" to kill Nut grass, — very easy indeed ; 
but those ^Yho have toiled ^vith plough and hoe and spade over the same subject, 
will smile at the positive and self-complacent assertion of the New York Weekly 
Sun, as to " how to do it," the editor probably never having seen a spear of nut 
grass in his life. 

AVhen we reflect that the small tubers form under ground, and that the connect- 
ing fibres, by which they are attached to the old tubers, soon decay and leave each 
one alone and independent, ready to propagate and become the parent of another 
numerous progeny ; that in good soil they penetrate to a foot or eighteen inches, 
and sometimes deeper, it may be understood how hopeless is the task of eradicat- 
ing thi= pest. In a small garden patch, by the use of the spade in careful hands to 
turn over every inch of soil to the depth of two feet, and pick carefully all the 
tubers, nut grass may be (and has been) destroyed, by repeated workings for two 
or three consecutive years. I knew an old negro who won his freedom by eradi- 
cating a patch of nut grass in this way according to promise from his master ; but 
the land must be very valuable to warrant such an expense as it would involve 
now for such labor. 

The Sun says : " There is no species of plant known to live in the United States 
that cannot be readily killed by uprooting it, or even cutting off the foliage three 
or four times during the growing season." Strong language this, but not true. 

Many years ago, I had the management of a cotton plantation in the sea-board 
region of this State, some forty miles from the coast, where there were patches 
of nut grass in the cotton field. As it was very important to the value of the 
property to prevent its spreading, I determined to give surface cutting a fair trial, 
and for that purpose detailed one of the elderly negroes to work over these 
patches with the hoe every day during the season, except Sunday, from April to 
frost. It was done effectually, and after a few workings no spear of grass was 
ever seen, as it was cut before reaching the surface. The following season the 
grass came out again, but more feebly. This process was repeated, working only 
two or three times a week. This did not entirely destroy it, and it came out feebly 
again the third season. No one would think of going to such expense now, for 
such uncertain benefit. 

A skillful rotation of crops would doubtless go far towards weakening it, if not 
destroying the pest. The best rotation I ever tried was that of oats, followed by 
cow peas. The oats were sown early in the winter, so as to cover the ground 
before Spring, and kept down the grass. As soon as it was harvested, cow peas 
were planted, which soon shaded the land until the end of the season. In this 
way the grass was prevented from spreading, and became puny and sickly, so as 
to do no injury to either crop. But this only weakens — it does not destroy. A 
few tubers left to grow off freely during one season, would re-establish the grass 
again in progression. 

Our light on the subject is derived from eighteen years experience on a nut 
grass plantation, and ought to be full enough, but light of " The Sun" is Fuller ! 


16 Timely Farm and Plantation Topics. 

Timely Farm and Plantation Topics. 

Thoughts and Sufigestions for the Month. 

Runuiug tlirough the last volume may be found a series of articles under this 
title, which we trust have been useful to the novice, at least. To continue these 
articles in the same form would necessarily involve considerable repetition, and 
as we presume most of our readers have carefully preserved every number (which 
they should get bound,) we prefer to leave them to turn back to the proper place 
whenever they mijy desire any special hints for a given time in regard to agricul- 
tural operations ; bearing in mind that differences in latitude, elevation above the 
sea, nature of the soil and difference in seasons must always be taken into account 
in applying any calendar instructions. New subscribers, who have not the last 
volume, shouhl procure it, if practicable, for reference. The " topics " discussed 
here will, however, occupy in part the same ground and embody any fresh sugges- 
tions that may occur to us. 

The War against the Cotton Worms. 

Has the Paris green remedy proved an effectual and practicable one? "We want 
the facts in the case, so that our readers may be prepared to act understaudingly 
in the premises, next season. 1. Does Paris green, when properly applied, kill the 
worms? We believe it is conceded on all hands that it does. 2. Does it pay to 
kill them in that way ? or, on account of the numerous applications sometimes (if 
not always) required, does it cost more than the quantity of cotton saved is worth ? 
3. Does the Paris green, injure the cotton plant, when properly diluted and applied 
merely in sufficient quantity to destroy the worms ? 4. Is its use necessarily dan- 
gerous ? "We want definite answers to these questions, founded on actual trial. 
Theories and opinions will not settle them. In the mean time, we have the new 
Floridian remedy — spirits of turpentine and water — as described in another arti- 
cle. Do not take anything, however, on anybody's word. "We are all liable to be 
self-deceived and thus to mislead others. "We must put everji^hing to the test of 
experiment, if possible. 

Green Manuring and Fall Ploughing. 

We are ready to admit that it is not so easy in practice as it may seem in theory, 
to break up the lands intended for the next season's crops in the ftill. It inter- 
feres more or less with the regular routine of plantation work. AVhile there is 
cotton to pick what else can be done ? It is, doubtless, much easier to talk of the 
benefits of turning under the heavy growth of grass and weeds whicli covers our 
fields, while yet green, so that the whole mass may become assiniilated with the 
soil by the time the crop needs the nutriment it contains, than to accomplish it. 
Still the facts remain the same. Good farming involves green manuring and fall 
ploughing ; and if your land is capable of producing a heavy crop of peas, or of 
weeds, you need not be afraid to use a two-horse turning plough to break it up 
with, and nothing less than that will do it properly. 

Timely Faiin and Plantation Topics. 17 

Vetch ( Vicia sativa) for Forage and Manure. 

Tliere are two varieties of this plant, both perfectly naturalized and growing 
wild here, but seldom, if ever, cultivated. In Europe this is considered one of the 
most useful of forage plants, and is extensively cultivated there. Of its perfect 
adaptation to our climate, there can be no doubt in the mind of any person who 
has seen its luxuriant growth, where it comes up as a volunteer crop in our fields 
in the vicinity of Charleston and elsewhere. Can not the plant be turned to good 
account here, both for pasturage and as a crop to turn under for the improvement 
of the soil and the benefit of a succeeding crop ? Dr. St. Juiien Ravenel called 
our attention last summer to a magnificent corn crop on Charleston Neck thus fer- 
tilized. Morton, in his Cyclopedia, says, that " Vetches may be made one of the 
principal means of enabling the arable farmer to support as much live stock as the 
grazier ; for during the time they occupy the ground, they produce as much green 
food (of the best quality) per acre as the richest grazing land, and the ground may 
be cleared of them in such good time as to admit of raising a clean crop." 

Bermuda Grass and Lucerne for Pasturage. 
The only drawback connected with Bermuda grass for pasturage is its failure 
in winter. While it withstands the heat and drought of summer to perfection, it suc- 
cumbs at once to frost — the foliage, not the roots. Can we not make our Bermuda 
pastures perennial in 'verdure and in stock food as well as in root, by mixing some 
other grass or forage plant with the Bermuda ? White clover has been tried with 
a moderate degree of success in some cases ; so has red clover ; but the agricultural 
editor of the Nashville Union and American, who claims to have^ had over twenty 
years experience in the growing of Bermuda grass, says that lucerne is the best 
thing to mix with it. He advises that unless the land be naturally calcareous, it 
should be limed for lucerne or any plant of that class, including the clovers pro- 
per. Bermuda grass is propagated by cutting up its numerous runners, scattering 
them and covering lightly with a board as one may cotton seed or corn. The rows 
should not be more than some thirty inches apart. Lucerne, clover or any grass 
seed is sown broadcast to occupy the whole ground till the Bermuda has time to 
grow, spread, and cover the earth with a firm turf. 

Rye for Pasturage and for Say. 
Mr. A. B, Allen, in the American Agriculturist, has a good word for rye as a 
forage crop, and we can endorse all that he says on that point. His plan for rais- 
ing it is this : 

Enrich the soil and prepare it as carefully as if for wheat. Sow early in Sep- 
tember, and put in the seed twice as thick as is usually done. By such a preparation 
a quick rank growth is insured, and the stalks being so much closer together on the 
groimd, they grow up smaller, more tender, and more palatable to the animals 
consuming it. 

When the rye begins to head, it is fit for soiling. Later, when full-headed, but 
before the grain begins to form, it can be cut for hay. After doing this, we dry it 
in the sun from seven to ten hours, according to the lieat, then bind it in sheaves of 
about six inches in diameter, shock them in the field for a few days until there is 
no danger of heat, then stack or store in the barn. 
No. 1, Vol. 5. 2 

18 Good Grapes for the Sorith^ 


Good Grapes for the South. 

The Walter Grape. 
Nothing is more difficult than to make out a trustworthy list of varieties of 
' any species of fruit, for general cultivation throughout an extensive area of coun- 
try. A kind which succeeds adniiral>ly here, in the Coast Region of South Caro- 
lina, may be worthless in Middle Country, or at the foot of the mountains, and 
vice versa. Still, we are continually asked, " What varieties shall I plant?" This 
question comes to us just now in regard to grapes. We do not purpose to answer 
it in direct form, but shall try to give the querist and others some facts and sugges- 
tions which may help them to answer it with some degree of confidence for 

Good Grapes for the South. 19 

Leaving out -of the question for the present the special adaptation of varieties 
to climates and soils, we must first consider fojr what purpose the grapes are to be 
grown. If for market, we might recommend one list of varieties ; if for wine- 
making, another ; and if merely for home use, as table grapes, a different selection 
from either of the others. 

We will now mention a few good grapes for the South — grapes that we have 
grown, and which have been grown by others in different parts of the country, with 
more or less success — indicating their special fitness for market, for table use at 
home, or for Avine-makiug ; but we beg our readers to distinctly understand that 
we do not affirm that all or any of them will succeed everywhere, and under all 
possible conditions of soil, climate and management. 

1. Concord. — Perhaps there is no other variety which can present so strong claims 
to stand at the head of the list as the old, trustworthy Concord. It is a standard 
market grape everywhere and seldom fails, either North or South. It is large, 
handsome, sufficiently good to suit the average palate, and always sells Avell. 
It also makes an excellent wine. For the table, where the highest flavors are 
fully appreciated, other varieties should be chosen. 

2. Hartford Prolific. — This is another variety which succeeds almost universally, 
the vine being perfectly healthy, and the fruit seldom, if ever, rotting. It is the 
earliest grape we have, and therefore very profitable as a market variety. It has 
one fault, however. It drops too easily from the bunch when fully ripe. Quality, 
second-rate, but better here than at the North. 

3. Ives' Seedling. — Though by no means a new variety, Ives' Seedling has not 
been so generally tested here as the Concord and the Hartford, but it is not unlike- 
ly that it may prove more valuable in the South than either of them. Where it 
has been tried, it has generally proved perfectly free from disease, and a good 
bearer. It* is a large, handsome grape, of a shining black color, and large com- 
pact bunches. Its flavor is excellent, and its shipping qualities unsurpassed. As 
a wine grape it has also a high reputation. 

4. Delaware. — Here we come to a grape of first-rate quality for the table, as well 
as one which always sells well in any market where excellence in flavor is appre- 
ciated. The vine is rather a slow grower, but generally healthy and productive. It 
is a red grape, of medium size, and rich, sweet and delicious. 

5. Clinton. — This can be recommended only as a wine grape, but for that pur- 
pose is one of the best for our climate. The vine is a remarkably strong grower, 
and perfectly free from disease, and the fruit seldom, if ever, rots. 

• 6. Norton's Virginia. — Norton's Virginia is another wine grape of acknowledged 
excellence, but like the Clinton, is unsuitable for market, or for a table grape. The 
vine and fruit are almost or quite universally free from disease. 

We cannot, at present, add to the foregoing list any variety of which we can 
speak with equal confidence ; but we have several on trial which, so far, hold out 
the highest possible promise. Among these we may name Walter, a light red 
grape of the highest excellence — decidedly superior, we think, to the Delaware, — 
a strong grower and a great bearer, which has never failed with us ; Maxatawny, a 
sweet white grape of delicious flavor ; Perkins, another white, or rather, amber 

20 Pears for the Coast Region. 

grape, of large size, very early, (not much behind the Hartford Prolific,) sweet, and 
fine flavored, but, in some cases, dropping too easily from the bunch when fully 
ripe; Peter Wylie, No. 1, the king of all grapes — in our estimation far above all 
the others Ave have named — and so far, with us, without disease of vine or fruit, and 
with no drawback of any kind ; but it has not been generally tested, and is not 
for sale anywhere, at present. 

Of several other promising varieties, which Ave have groAving, but Avhich have 
not yet fruited, we will not speak, at present. Of the Scuppernoug, Ave have often 
spoken, and it does not come AAathin the scope of this article to discuss its merits. 

Pears for the Coast Region. 

The most successful pear grower Ave know in the Low Country, Avhose fruit ahvays 
commands a ready sale, and the highest prices in our market, thus briefly sums up 
his experience : 

On a pine ridge nearly parallel to the sea-coast, 22 miles from Charleston, I 
have tried about 50 varieties, of Avhich only six have yielded profit. These are 
Kirtland's Seckel, Bartlett, Dutchesse d'Angouleme, LaAvrence, Beurre Superfine, 
and Beurre d'Anjou, AA'hich have proA^ed, except the Bartlett, well adapted to the 
quince stock ; the last three proving Avith me as much improved by that stock as 
the Duchesse, and the trees are just as vigorous. A large orchard, for market, 
should be one half Kirtlaud, one-fourth Bartlett, and the remaining fourth equally 
divided amongst the other four varieties. Ivirtland deserves this large share, because 
it is entirely free from blight, very productive, Avith round, firm fruit, bearing car- 
riage Avithout injury, ripens to a beautiful, ruddy, bronze russet, and then is 
luscious and melting to the core. Its season is from the 10th to last of June. 
Thus preceding our early peaches, it may be .sold at large profit in limitless quan- 

Tlie Bartlett is placed next, because large and fine ; it is quite producti\'e, docs 
not blight very badly in our sea-coast soil and climate, and maturing there early 
in July, may yet be profital)]y shipped to all the Northern markets. 

The other four varieties though much superior in many respects to the first tAvo, 
Avill yield no profit if produced in quantity larger than is necessary for our home 
market, and that is soon glutted in August, September and October, Avhen so many 
persons are absent. 

To an orchard for home use, in the family, Doyenne d'Eto, as an earlier, and 
Glout, Morceau, as a later variety, should be added to above list. 

Though not intended for publication in this form, Ave trust the Avriter will excuse 
us for making this use of his communication, in view of the good it may do those 
Avho may be aljout to plant pear trees. 

Tlie salt air of the Coast Region of the South is iound to be particularly bene- 
ficial to the pear — a fact Avhich litis l)ut recently become generally knoAvn and 
which is exciting great interest among horticulturist-s. Probably pear growing on 
our sea Islands, Avith a proper choice of varieties and Avith judicious management in 
gathering, packing and shipping, could bo made highly renunierative. In any 
event, every family should be well supplied AvitJi home-grown Jruit. 

Wardian Cases and Ferneries— How to Plant the Scuppernomj Grape. 21 

Wardian Cases and. Ferneries. 

Ferneries are popular liouseliold or- 
naments, very satisfactory, and flourish 
where house phints could not live. 
These can be sent by Express only in 
October and November, already stock- 
ed with plants, when the time required 
for transportation does not exceed two 
days. They must be kept free from 
frost. The basis and shades can he 
sent, and parties can fill them with 
ISIosses and Ferns from the woods. 

The Wardian Case is a superior 


Fernery! and 5ie e^^aviJig^shows 'on'e 4 feet high by 21 feet long. They are made 
in the best manner of black walnut, and are becommg a very popular article m 
^vhich to grow plants adapted to this treatment, and 
beiuo- under glass are always free from dust and require 
but fittle care. For a plant or bulb table, we have an 
article as represented by the Wardian Case without the 
o-lass cover. A movable tray, lined with zinc, contains 
the pots, or the earth, and the whole surf-ice may be 
covered with moss, thus adding much to its beauty, and 
also tending to keep the earth moist and requiring 
water but seldom. This is also perfect security against 
soiling carpets with dirty water, and being upon castors,' 
may be moved about as desired. The legs may be dis- 
connected, and the whole makes but_ a small package 
for transportation.— Fic/>;'s Floral Guide. 

Wardian Case. 

How to Plant the Scuppernong Grape. 

The following is the nlan recommended by the Southern Homestead, and is a 
cood one for an°y extensive operation, as in vineyard culture for wine-makmg. A 
more thorough preparation of the soil is desirable and practicable where only two 
or three vines are planted for family use : 

The land should be well prepared by frequent ploughing. Our plan of prepa- 
ration is to lay off the rows mth a long scooter, thirty feet apart each way, then run 
on each side of the rows thus made with the same plough four or five times which 
will give a square, well broken, the necessary size for the hole. From this the 
earth should be thrown out to the depth of one foot. In the centi-e of each ho e 
firmly set a post of heart-pine, cedar, chestnut or any other durable wood, abou 
four inches in diameter and eight feet high. Fill in each hole to within about five or 
sis inches of the top, with rich surface earth or any gaod garden soil and upon this 
place the rooted layer, spreading out the roots carefully, placing the vme two oi 
hree inches from the post, then fill up the hole w.t^i ^"^' f f. w Th^n tie 
convenient, pressing the earth gently, though firmly about the roots. Then tie 
the vine to the post, so as to give it an upright position m the outset. 

22 Seasonable Orchard and Garden Notes. 

The rooted layers should be severed from tlie parent vine as early in the fall as 
practicable, taken up pruned and " heeled in," in some convenient place until 
wanted. In this connection it mitrht be well to remark that the vines should never 
be pruned, or the roots cut or broken, under any circumstances, except during the 
time the vine is in full leaf — say from first of June to last of September, and imme- 
diately after the fruit matures, which in this latitude, is during the latter month. 

The Scuppernong may be planted any time from November to March, but the 
sooner the better after the middle of November, in this climate. 

Seasonable Orchard and Garden Notes. 

Strawberries — ^vhat Varieties to Plant. 
Wc have at various times given the results of our own experience and that of 
others in regard to varieties, manner of planting, and general treatment of the 
strawberry ; but new subscribers, or old ones who have given too little heed to our 
instructions, are constantly repeating the often answered questions, and we reiterate : 
There is no variety that will succeed equally well everywhere, and on all kinds of 
soils, but Wilson's Albany comes nearest to this universal adaptation of any one 
that has yet been generally tried, and, for the South, Lougworth's Prolific comes 
next, and, with us, is superior to the Wilson in most of the qualities which make a 
variety valuable, either for market or for home use. Triomph de Gand is better 
than either, but is more-difiicult to suit in regard to soil and cultivation, requiring 
clayey or loamy land, well enriched, and careful, thorough tillage to produce the 
best results. With these, it yields most generous returns of very fine fruit. These 
are the best varieties for general cultivation here, so far as we can speak from actual 
experience. As a market berry, and for this immediate vicinity, Nunan's Prolific 
takes the lead. It shoyld be tried elsewhere to test its adaptation to dift'erent soils 
and localities. Seth Boyden is a variety of the highest excellence, and may, ulti- 
mately, take its place at the head of the list, but it has not yet been sufiiciently 
tested. For home use we may add Lennig's White, Charles Downing, President 
Wilder, and others. 

How to Circuvivent the Peach Borer. 
A correspondent of the Planttr and Fanner, thinks it an easy matter to flank 
the borer by means of the following strategy : 

The moth lays its egg just at the toj) of the ground, in the spring and sunnner. 
The egg hatches in the late fall and early winter, and the worm, going down about 
an inch below the surface, works all the winter, often girdling the tree and killing 
it, and always damaging it very much. 

Now for the remedy: •' Early in the spring, take a long-handled shovel, ajid 
pile the dirt up around the tree, say eight inches to one foot high, and pack it down 
tight and smooth, and the fly <lcj)()sit.s its e\:^ jvd that much above the level of the 
(/round. Then, after frost, throw this pile aside, and dig the dirt away from the 
roots of each tree, and the borer finds himself ten to fifteen inches above the ground 
instead of an inch or two below it, as he expected it to be, jind ho stops work to wait 
for better times; but times only get worse and worse, till he perishes with cold and 

horticultural Hints for October. 23 

exposure. I have tried this plan for two years, and with entire success. There is 
not the slightest sign of a borer in my orchard, while some seedling trees that hap- 
pened to come up about the plantation are pretty much destroyed. 

This is not a new remedy, nor is it always so successful as this correspondent 
seems to have found it. Perhaps in the lower South, the cold is not always suffi- 
ciently severe in winter to destroy the insect. 

The Preparation and Planting of a Strawberry Bed. 
The soil for strawberries should be well enriched, but rather with surface soil 
from the woods, or other well rotted vegetable matter, than with stable manure. 
If the latter be required, to make the soil sufficiently rich, it should be well rotted 
and pulverized before being applied. In any case a heavy dressing of wood ashes, 
and a little lime should be applied to the bed. The second essential is depth of 
soil. Without this the plants will not withstand our hot dry summers. Plant in 
rows two feet apart, if for garden culture, or three feet if to be cultivated with the 
plough or cultivator, and set th6 plants from twelve to fifteen inches apart in the 
rows. Grout the roots before planting in a thick batter composed of equal parts 
of fresh cow dung, ashes and woods, earth or black mold. Plant as soon as good 
well rooted plants can be procured. 

Compost for Potted Plants. 

A good compost for geraniums, camellias, roses and most of the more common 
house-plants may be made of the following ingredients, in the proportions here 
given : 

1 part clean sharp sand, free from salt. 

1 part mold from perfectly decayed leaves. 

1 part cow manure, well rotted and pulverized. 

2 parts rich garden soil, or, better, well decayed turf mold. 

About one-fifth of the pot may be filled with the drainage materials, viz : broken 
bits of pots, charcoal or oyster shells. If a little moss is placed over these, it will 
prevent the earth washing through. 

Horticultural Hints for October. 

A wet August and a plenty of rain in September, while favoring the germina- 
tion and growth of some of the crops, of which it is generally difficult to get a 
stand during the hot season, have given us also a most luxuriant growth of grass 
and weeds, which it has been utterly impossible to keep wholly under subjection. 
Now the work of clearing up must be commenced in earnest. Gather the weeds into 
heaps to be carried into some convenient corner, set apart for the purpose, and 
reduced to manure through the process of decomposition, or used as mulch, when 
required. Sprinkling with lime, or, better still, with a mixture of salt and lime, 
will hasten the decomposition and add to the value of the compost. Having clear- 
ed the ground, spread on and spade in as deeply as possible a very heavy dressing 

24 Hwtieuliural Hints for October. 

of manure. If you have beeu aceustoraed to manure heavily, just double the 
quantity this fall and you will not have cause to regret it. The coarser and fresher 
the manure for this dressing the better, especially if the soil be clayey. It >vill 
have time to ferment and decay in the soil, which will become a chemical labora- 
tory for the production of all the elements of fertility. A top dressing of fine, well 
rotted compost, to be applied at the time of planting and lightly dug in, will jiut 
the soil in a condition to give your plants a quick, vigorous growth. 

Those who did their whole duty in the vegetable garden during the past 

month will have cabbage, cauliflower, kohl-rabi, turnip, beet, carrot, parsnip, 
radish, onion, (from seed,) and other plants now growing thriftily and requiring 
cultivation and thinning. Snap-beans and Peas, planted early in September, may 
still require some attention to keep thera free from weeds. In the latitude of 
Charleston and Southward, White Flat Dutch or Ame;-ican Red-top Twnip may 
still be planted. Thinnings from the Ruta Baga rows may be transplanted as 
readily as cabbages, if it be desired to increase the#plantation. Sowings of Spinach 
for winter use (Largo Flanders or Round Leaved Savoy) may still be made. Sow, 
also, Radish, (French breakfast is best,) and sow and transplant Lettuce. Cabbage 
may be transplanted during the month, if plants can be had, and seed sown for 
the spring crop. Leek and Onion sets may be i)Ut out, and onion plants (the thin- 
nings of the seed rows) transplanted. 

In the flower garden the work recommended for September, if not finish- 
ed, may be continued through the month. Among the seeds of flowering plants 
to be sown now, the following are particularly desirable : Pinks, of all kinds. Car- 
nation, Picotee and Sweet "William; Sweet Alyssum ; Candytuft; Stock; Can- 
terbury Bell ; Larkspur ; Pansy and Violet ; Clarkia ; Phlox ; Petunia ; Verbena ; 
Collinsia ; Daisy; Viscaria ; Perennial Pea ; Lychnis; Kemophila; Mignonette; 
Forget-me-not ; Rocket ; and Perennial Poppy. 

Planting Bulbs for winter and early spring blooming is in order. Hya- 

cintli. Tulip, Narcissus, Crocus, Jonquil, Iris, Crown Imperial, SnoAv Drop and 
Lilies of various kinds are all desirable. Gladiolus bulbs, if not already taken u]\ 
should be lifted and put away in paper bags to be planted in the spring ; also, 
Dahlia tubers. Be on the lookout for indications of frost and house all lender 
plants, some of which, in fact, suffer greatly from a temperature considerably above 
the freezing point. 

Petunias, Ageratums and other plants are easily raised fiom cuttings, for 

winter and spring blooming. Lantana.^, Geraniums and Heliotropes should also 
be propagated. The old ]>lants which have bloomed during the summer may be 
taken up, cut back, potted and preserved during the winter in a cold frame. In 
the latitude of Charleston, the Lantana may be cut back and left in the oju-n 
ground, if covered with a little straw or other mulch, as may also the beautiful 
Plumbago Capmsis. Without this slight protection, both are liable to be killed by 
the severe freezes which sometimes occur. 

Paris Green. _ 25 

NatuPn^l f!iSTOi\Y Applied to Agp^^cultup^. 

Speciinens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in The ErRAL 
Carolinian, for October, 1S70,") with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc, should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mv. Charles E. Dodge, Washington, D. C 

Paris Green. 

We have read with considerable interest the results of various experiments 
during the last summer with arsenical preparations for the destruction of the cotton 
caterpillar, and are pleased to note that these remedies have been in some degree 

Mr. Reese, of Selma, Ala., who has very kindly communicated with me on the 
subject, in his last letter states that arsenical poisons have been used quite exten- 
sively in his vicinity, and though not the remedy, nevertheless good has been 
accomplished. We have also read extracts from other letters, and have seen pub- 
lished statements to the same effect ; and this seems to be the general verdict. It 
also strengthens our belief that the cotton caterpillar is not to be conquered by 
any one weapon, but with many, and the more remedies we can employ the greater 
will be the success. The most common mixture, and one which has been used in 
the Northwest for years, on the potato beetle, is Paris green and flour, one part of 
the former to ten or twenty of the latter, and it has sometimes been used in the 
ration of one to eight. 

And now we come to a point that is a tender subject with a certain class of per- 
sons, and a point on which we hold decided views. We refer to patenting insect 
remedies. We have heard there are parties in the South who actually hold 
patents on Paris green and flour, combined with other things, for the destruction 
of the cotton caterpillar, and have seen, their complaints of " injustice," " injury 
to business," etc., by the general recommendation of the use of Paris green and 

Now we are clearly opposed to patent remedies for the following reasons : 

First, a desire for gain rather than a desire for the welfare of the public, gener- 
ally inspires the inventor to experiment, consequently " my " interest rather than 
"yours" is first consulted. Secondly, admitting that the remedy has done some 
good, the mere fact of having to pay for " a right," would- deter many poorer 
farmers from using it, preferring to take their chances : so the remedy is not in the 
reach of all ; and, thirdly, and by far the strongest reason, there always is a ten- 
dency to claim too much for the patent. In fact, we can name numbers of worth- 
less patents now that are advertised to kill — well almost anything you want them 
to, when any one that knows anything at all of our destructive insects, is well 
aware that we must have a knowledge of the natural history of this or that par- 
ticular foe, and work accordingly. 

To come back to Paris green, there are patents on a certain combination of the 

26 Answers to Correspondents. 

green, flour, arsenic, lime, and other ingredient:? ; but this need not deter our 
farmers and planters, all over the country, from using the Paris green in any other 
combination they choose than that laid down in the patent, 

A simple combination of Paris green and flour is not patented, and cannot be, 
having been used for years as an insect remedy all over the Northwest. We have 
in our possession letters from the Patent Office, with their decisions on the subject, 
and our readers need have no hesitancy in using as much Paris green and flour as 
they are willing to pay for. 

We make these statements, that no one either now, or in the future, may be 
deterred from doing all in his power to protect his crops, because he has not " a 
right" in a particular patent owned by somebody who is trying to make money out 
of his misfortunes. As a closing remark, we admire the spirit shown by the dis- 
coverer of the " Ransom Remedy" for the curculio, who immediately communicated 
with his weekly paper, and an extra was published without delay. In his case, 
was it for gain or public good ? 

Answers to Correspondents. 

We "Rise to Explain." — Mr. * * *, in the August number of the Rural 
Carolinian, page 602, thinks we have overlooked the most serious enemy to corn 
in the South, the bud-worm. We think " overlooked " is hardly the proper word 
to use, especially as we have been imploring our readers for the last year to help 
us clear up this bud-worm mystery by sending us some specimens. From the 
descriptions received we can safely make three or four speclea out of it, and then 
have nothing new. As yet we have only received one dead and decayed specimen. 

In all probability we are well acquainted witli the insect but do not recognize it 
under its local name. We are in the habit of dealing with facts rather than theo- 
ries, and therefore until we have received some more reliable data than has yet 
been offered we must he compelled to overlook the insect's natural liistory. 

If our friend of the three stars will lay down the critic's pen just long enough 
to hunt us up a few substantial facts in the shape of live bud-worms, he will not 
only place us under obligation, but will enable us to ffnish up the corn Insects in a 
satistactory manner. 

We should have " explained " last month but the magazine was not received till 
too late. 

Insects for Name. — F. L. P., Austin, Texas. The insccta forwarded by }ou 
for name were received, tiiough I am sorry to say not in the best condition. The 
large grassiiopper is Caloptenwt differeidlalii, ix species quite abundant in many parts 
of the country. The eggs of grasshoppers are generally dej)osited in the ground. 

The large two-winged fly is unknown to me, but from its habit of feeding 
upon bees it is (piite interesting. Can you not send me a few specimens with any 
ob.servations on tlieir natural history that may have come under your notice. 
The smaller fly, also found destroying bees, is one of the " Bee-killers," be- 

Notes on our Native Flora. — IL 27 

longing to the Asilidse, and I think, Fitches Trupanea apivora, which is comnaon 
all over the United States, though absence of head and some of its appendages 
make it difficult to determine accurately. 

There is another bee-killer known in the West as the " Missouri bee-killer," 
(Asibis Missourieiisis of Riley) which is somewhat larger. As you say the large 
fly preys on the small species, enclosed, as well as on bees, it will be well to look 
into its natural history a little. 

In regard to sending insects, we are always glad to receive insects for our collec- 
tion, from interesting localities, (and the whole South comes under that head,) and 
at the same time we are willing to name insects as far as we are able. 

Stinging Insect.— J. P., Butler, Ala. The peculiar specimen found on an 
apple tree, and which stung one of your children quite severely, came safiely to 
hand, but had gone into the chrysalis before it was received. Although identify- 
ing insects from the pupa is rather a doubtful procedure, we think, from the sting- 
ing propensity of the larva, and from the shape of the cocoon, it must have been 
the larva of Empretia stimulla, a very pretty caterpillar, which feeds upon the rose, 
and a variety of plants and trees, and which stings quite severely by means of the 
sHort hairs with which its body is clothed. The moth will probably come out 
before long, and then we can tell if our surmise is correct. 

Thread-like Worm. — The thread-like worm forwarded to us last month, and 
found on a cabbage leaf, is doubtless a hair-worm, or gorclius, often called " horse 
hair snakes," from the wide-spread popular belief that they are produced from a 
horse hair. They are often found in the mature state in the bodies of many differ- 
ent insects, as beetle, crickets and grasshoppers, and, doubtless, find their way to 
the road-side puddles of water, where they are frequently met with, from the 
bodies of these insects. See answer to Dr. B , August number, page 583. Gor- 
dius aquaticm is a common species. 

Notes on our Native Flora. — IL 

The large and important family of leguminaceous plants are fully represented 
in our native vegetation, containing a variety both of useful and ornamental species. 

Clover — ( TrifoUwn.) 

Of the six species of clover found at the South,- but two are indigenous, the 
others having been introduced from Europe, but now so well naturalized as to 
spring up and propagate themselves extensively, where the soil and situation are 
favorable, some of them being now more hardy and found in greater abundance than 
the natives. The clovers and their allies are so important a class of plants to the 
farmer, and the different species so often confounded under wrong local names, I 
will give an enumeration and short description of each, that they may more readily 
be distinguished. 

28 Note^ on our A^dive Flora. — II. 

18. Rkd Clover — (Trijolium pratense.) 

This is the clover commouly cultivated all over the United States, introduced 
from Europe, but thriving well and repaying cultivation as far south iuj the middle 
region of the Southern Atlantic States, in suitable soils. It is often seen growing 
luxuriantly in gardens and other favored spots, even on the sandy soils of the sea 
board region, but as a field crop, it requires a more clayey soil and less summer heat. 

It may be distinguished by the erect stems one to two feet high, with oval leaflets 
marked by a pale spot on the upper side — heads large, with purple flowers. After 
the decay of the flower, the fruiting calyx remains erect whilst in some others it is 

10. Rabbit Foot Clover — (T- arveme.) 

This species also has erect fruiting heads, but iu'Other respects differs widely 
from Xo. 18. The stems are six to ten inches high, with linear leaflets. Calyx 
teeth, bristly and feathery, which gives to the compact oval heads a brownish, soft 
and downy appearance. Flowers white, with a purple spot on the wings. Found 
occasionally in old pastures and along road sides. Introduced from Europe. 

20. BuffaloClover— (T. re/?e.rim.) 

This is a native species, and is found sparingly disseminated from Florida to the 
Middle States — of rather stout habit, spreading and procumbent. It resembles, in 
general aspect, the Red Clover, but diflfcrs from that in not having the leaflets 
marked by a pale spot, and in having the fruiting calyx of the heads reflexed after 
flowering. Flowers red or purplish in large' globose heads. Grows in old fields 
and sandy pastures, but is not very abundant anywhere. 

This and the following species all have their heads reflexed whilst maturing the 
fruit. , 

21. White Clover — {T. repens.) 

A smaller species, with creeping stems, roundish leaflets, and globose heads of 
Avhite flowers, on long foot stalks. It is often se?n along roadsides, always pre- 
ferring rich clay soils. I saw it in Louisiana, in great abundance and luxuriance, 
on the rich, damp alluvial soils, along the New Orleans and Gulf Railroad, between 
New Orleans and Brashear. Introduced from Europe, and naturalized all over 
the United States. 

22. Yellow Clover — (T. j^rocumbcn.'i.) 

This is the only yellow flowered clover that grows South ; generally found in 
waste places, but not abundant, Avith slender stems six to twelve inches long, either 
erect or procumbent, small leafli^ts and ovate heads with yelh)w flowers. This is 
a true clover, and must not J)e confounded with the Mcdicks and ^Melilot-s, which 
have yellow flowers. 

23. Carolina Clover — (T. Caroliniannm.) 
This and No. 20 are the only two native species; found in fiehls and pastures 
from Florida to North Carolina and westward, with stems rather tutted and ])ros- 
trate, six to ten inches long, small obcordate leaflets, and roundish heads on long 
foot stalks, and flowers white tingt'd with purple. 

Notes on our Native Flora. — II. 29 

2-4. Lucerne — Medick — {Medkago sativa.) 
An erect growiug plant, Avith numerous upright stems, one to two feet high ; 
leaves wedge-shaped, with small terminal heads of purple flowers, and little dark 
colored pods spirally twisted. Introduced from Europe, and known there as 
Lucerne or French Lucerne. In this country it has been called Alfalfa, Chilian 
Clover, California Clover, etc. 

25. Black Medick — (if. lupidina.) 
More procumbent than the last, with smaller leaves and yellow flowers, ^nd 
small black kidney-shaped pods. Introduced from Europe and naturalized. I 
have seen it in the streets of Charleston. 

26. Spotted Medick — {Medicago maculata.) 
Spreading and procumbent, nearly smooth, with small obcordate leaves, small 
yellow flowers, and pods spirally twisted and fringed with a double row of curved 
prickles. Introduced from Europe. I have also seen this species in the streets of 
Charleston, and specimens have been sent to me from California, as "Bur Clover." 
There is still another species, M. deniiculata, very much like the last, except that 
the pods are deeply reticulated, with a thin keeled edge and without prickles. 
Also introduced from Europe. 

27. Yellow Melilot — Sweet Clover — (Melilotus officinalis.) 
Stem erect and branching, from one to three feet high, with oblong trifoliolate, 
leaves and spikes of yellow flowers on long foot stalks from the axils of the leaves. 
Pods small, wrinkled and drooping, two-seeded. The plant has the odor of Van- 
illa in drying. 

Introduced from Europe. Grows in waste or cultivated grounds all over the 
United States. Sent to me lately from Fort George, Duval County, Florida, 
where it is said to grow luxuriantly. 

28. White Melilot— (J/, alba.) 

Erect and branching, Avith oblong leaves and axillary spikes of white flowers on 
long foot stalks. Pods wrinkled, drooping, one-seeded. Introduced from Europe, 
and now common in the United States. 

Ai/cen, S. C W. H. RAVENEL. 

Corn-meal and Chickens for the Curculio. — A correspondent of the Ohio 
Farmer states that he kept a plum-tree free from curculios by sprinkling the ground 
under the tree with corn-meal. This induced the chickens to scratch and search. 
The meal was strewn every morning from the time the trees blossomed until the 
fruit^was large enough Ui be out of danger. The consequence was that the fowls 
picked up the curculios with the meal, and the tree being saved from the presence 
of the insects was wonderfully fruitful. 

30 Breeds of Bees — Italianizing. 

Bees and Practical JBee-Keeping. 

Breeds of Bees. — Italianizing. 

It may not be generally known that there are different breeds of the honey-bee; 
nevertheless it is a fiict In our own Southern country there are two varieties of 
the bee — the gray and the black. The gray bee is the larger, works better, and is 
more gentle than the little black. I have had both in my apiary at the same 
time, and the contrast in looks was so great that strangers could point thera out. 

The Italian bee is a variety which is found it Italy. This bee was described 
by Virgil more than two thousand years ago. It is characterized by yellow bands 
around its abdomen. The number of these bands is generally claimed to be three. 
The first one is small, and lies where the abdomen joins the thorax. The second 
one is broad and very distinct ; while the third one is less prominent. Some con- 
tend that they have only two distinct bands. The shade of these bands differs 
somewhat in the worker progeny of different imported queens, depending, it is said, 
upon the locality from which they come. Tlie province of Lombardy and the Italian 
peninsula produce the yellowest bees ; while in Italian Switzerland the bees are 
darker. While the golden banded ones are the most beautiful, the chestnut-colored 
bees are claimed to be the hardiest and best workers. Be this as it may, they 
both possess the virtue of industry in a most remarkable degree. 

That they are better honey gatherers, and will work on flowers that the blacks 
will not, is an admitted fact. This season my Italians stored, on an average, at 
least one-fifth more honey than the blacks. Tliis storing propensity often amounts 
to a positive disadvantage. They fill the body of the hive with honey so that the 
brood space becomes so contracted that the queen has not room to deposit her eggs, 
whereby the strength of the colony will soon become impaired unless empty comb 
is given. In opening a hive of Italians they are not prone to leave their position 
on the comb and scamper like the blacks, particularly if the frame has been gently 
removed without any sudden jar. While they are more peaceable than the blacks, 
they are not so good, but that they can resent any ill treatment with a well directed 

What is understood by Italianizing, is the process by which a stock of blacks can 
be changed to Italians. The operation is very simple, and can be performed any 
time from April until November in our climate. In the first place the black bees 
should be in a moveable comb hive. If they are in a box hive they must be 
transferred into one. This operation has already been described in the June num- 
ber of the KuuAL 

Before the Italian queen can be given to the colony, the black one must be 
killed or removed. Right here the novice will probably have some difficulty in 
finding the queen. When the bees are gathering plenty of honey, the liive can 
be safely opened any time during the day, but when honey is scarce the hive had 
better be opened very early in the morning or late in the evening, in order to 
guard against robbers. Have a picture of what you are goiug to look for. A black 

Breeds of Bees — Italianizing. 3 1 

queen resembles very closely a black wasp. Her abdomen is longer and more taper- 
ing than tbat of the woi'ker ; while its upper part is blacker, slicker, and devoid of 
hairs. Her wings are shorter in proportion, and her legs are longer. She eioves 
with a matronly and majestic air, but when frightened travels rapidly over the 
comb. Use very little smoke. Gently and very quietly remove the second frame. 
While you carefully and deliberately look on one side have an assistant to look on 
the other. If she is not on the frame removed, place it in an empty hive or sus- 
pend it in a box, and proceed to remove the next frame in same manner. She 
often runs under the bees which form a cluster over her. Blow your breath gently 
on the cluster, and they will scamper. If she cannot be found on the frames she 
will most likely be found in some corner of the hive. If not here, she has been 
overlooked. Now spread a sheet before the entrance of hive, and take the frames 
in order, and after sprinkling the bees with a little sweetened water, to prevent 
their flying, shake them off on the sheet about two feet from the entrance, and 
return the frames to the hive. Have several assistants to look out for the queen. 
She will most certainly be found marching at a rapid rate toward the entrance. 

Now place your Italian queen in the cage that was sent with her, and close the 
open end with a piece of sponge or wood, which the bees can not remove, and sus- 
pend it by a wire where the bees are thickest between two combs of sealed honey. 
In two or three days (not longer than this) remove the stopper from the cage and 
tie a piece of paper, saturated on both sides with honey, over the mouth of the 
cage, replace it in the hive, and the bees will liberate her by eating through the 
paper. When honey is scarce some had better be put on a sponge at the bottom 
of the cage, or the queen might starve from the neglect of the bees to feed her. 
The above is the usual plan for introducing a queen, but it is not as certain as the 
following, which can always be relied on : 

Remove or kill the black queen. Then take two frames from the centre of the 
hive, with all the adhering bees, and put them into an empty hive with all 
entrances closed with wire cloth. Keep them confined from two to six hours. Now 
prepare about a tumbler full of sweetened water, scented with eight or ten drops of 
essence of peppermint. Open the shipping box, and put your queen in the small 
wire cage which accompanies the box, and take it to the hive containing the two 
frames of confined bees. Open it and sprinkle the bees, comb and frames with 
the scented water. Use a small whisk of straw, or a small broom in sprinkling. 
Put some of the scented water on the cage to scent the queen. Hold the mouth of 
the cage down over the frames and let the queen crawl out between the combs. 
Close hive. After six hours more go to the full hive and take two more frames 
with the adhering bees, adjacent to the ones already taken, and after sprinkling 
them with the scented water, add them to the confined bees having the queen. At 
the end of six or ten hours more, go to the first hive and sprinkle the remaining 
frames and bees with the scented water, and replace all the frames and bea? taken 
out. The confined bees not to be sprinkled again. Close hive and the job is com- 
plete. When the hive has been queenless for some days, it is very important to 
carefully look the combs over and cull out all queen cells before introducing the 
queen, otherwise the bees will kill her. 

32 -4/1 Incident m jBccStcarming. 

Open the box in which the queen is sent in a close room, so that if the queen takes 
wing i;he Avill fly to the window and be easily caught. In handling a queen always 
take hold of her by the wings or upper part of the body, and never by the abdomen. 

The next spring, as soon as drones make their appearance, you can commence 
to raise queen cells with which to Italianize your whole apiary. For this purpose 
remove your Italian queen from the hive you put her in, and introduce her into 
another hive of blacks. Her colony will proceed to form from four to twelve 
queen cells. In nine days from the time the queen was removed, open the hive 
and ascertain how many queen cells have been formed. Late in the evening of 
the same day remove as many black queens as you have queen cells, save one to 
be left in the hive. Next morning give each of your queenless hives a cell. The 
cells must be carefully removed with the small blade of a pen-knife. Leave a 
little comb around them, and do not press nor shake them iu'the least. Hold 
them in the same position they occupied in the comb, and keep them from the cold 
air and hot sun. Select a comb containing brood, and cut a hole toward the bot- 
tom large enough to admit of the cell. Fasten it in as near its original position as 
possible. Its lower end must not touch the comb. It can be held in position by 
sticking several pins or thorns ai'ouud it. The bees will soon wax it fast. In case 
you have not cells enough, in ten days remove your queen into another black 
colony, and proceed as before. 

Sometimes the bees will destroy the cell given them. If so, destroy all the cells 
they have formed, and give them another from a hive of Italians. This one will 
more likely be accepted. The queen will hatch in from two to six days after 
inserting the cell, and will be laying in about eight days more. Her worker 
progeny will be hybrids, as in all probability she has mated with a black drone, 
but her drones will be pure Italians. This will be as far as you can go the first 
year. The second year you will have all Italian drones. Proceed to raise queen 
cells from your pure Italian queen, and as the young queens will mate with pure 
drones, the worker progeny will be pure. 

Give a queen to each of your hybrid stock, and your apiary will be Italianized. 
There are other methods of Italianizing, but the above is a most excellent plan. 

Augusta, Ga. J. P. H. BROWN. 

An Incident in Bee-Swarming. 

A rather unusual circumstance happened under my observation last Spring, 
which may interest some of your readers. 

On the l(Jth JNIay, while my nephew and myself were clearing up some shrub- 
bery in the rear of our house, we heard a swarm of bees passing over our heads, 
above the branches of a large cedar, in the shade (jf which we were standing. j\[y 
nephew immediately commenced beating on a spade with which he had been work- 
ing, and I laughingly told him, " all the good that would do, would be to prevent 
his hearing which way the bees went." He followetl them, however, beating its he 
walked for perhaps lifty yards, when they arrested their flight over an empty hive, 

Our Mechanical and Manufacturing Resources. 38 

which I liad luad cleaned out a few days before, and in a few seconds they began 
entering the hive of their own accord. The entire swarm was thus secured* with- 
out having clustered as usual on the limb of a tree, and there they have continued 
working up to the present time. 

A few years ago, I witnessed a similar occurrence, but then the hive belonged to 
a negro, who, I suppose, had not cleaned out the dead bees and rubbish, the hive 
having been occupied the previous year, and the bees soon left it. ' E. 

Georgetoxvn, S. G. 

Mining and the Mechanic Arts. 
Our Mechanical and Manufacturing Resources. 

Among the various mechanical and manufacturing interests conducted in 
Charleston, none has advanced more rapidly since the war than the manufacture 
of doors, sashes and blinds. There are at present in Charleston three large estab- 
lishments, mainly devoted to the manufacture of this class of building material. 
Each establishment is furnished with a complete outfit of the most approved 
machinery used in this branch of industry in Eastern and Northern cities. 

When we look back but a few years, and contemplate the rapid strides made in the 
mechanic arts, we are filled with wonder and amazement. Most of us can remem- 
ber the slow and tedious process which attended the manufacture of doors, sashes 
and blinds but a few years ago, when all the work was done by hand. Year after 
year new machinery of the most intricate kind has been brought into use, until 
now a large mansion can be furnished with these articles, manufactured from the 
rough lumber, and in the most complete manner, in so short a time as to seem 
almost incredible. 

As we pass along one of our thoroughfares, we will to-day observe preparations 
making for the erection of a building. In a few days, a week or two at farthest, 
we are astonished at beholding a neat dwelling or cottage, which appears to have 
sprung up like magic on the spot where but a few days before we saw the first signs 
of preparation. This dwelling or cottage is tastefully finished with artistically 
panelled doors, large and airy windows, which are protected from outward gaze 
by substantial blinds — all furnished from one of Charleston's manufactories. 

It is, indeed, pleasing to be able to note the fact, that these establishments, which 
have so materially added to the growing prosperity of Charleston, by giving employ- 
ment to a large number of workmen, as well as aiding in the building up of her 
waste places, are receiving encouragement from all parts of our State, and from 
the adjoining States. In fact, orders are frequently received from Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, and other Southwestern States. 

It is our purpose to give the readers of the Rural Carolinian a brief descrip- 
tion of the several door, sash and blind factories at present in operation in 
Charleston. In doing so, we will begin with that of Mr. P. P. Toale's, not because 
his establishment dates anterior to others, but because we wish to be a little odd in 
No. 1, Vol. 5. 3 

34 Our Mechanical and Mamifachiring liesovrces. 

this matter, by observing the scriptural text — " The fii-st shall be last, and the last 
shall be first." After taking the reader through Mr. Toale's establishment, we will 
introduce them in succeeding nund^ers of the Rurai., to the establishments of Mr. 
Geo. S. Hacker, and Messrs. W. P. Russell & Co., either of which are worthy of 
a visit from those whose curiosity may lead them to witness the extraordinary 
progress made in this particular branch of mechanism the past few years. 

P. P. Toale's Manufactory. 

The door, sash and blind manufactory of Mr. P. P. Toale is situated on Horl- 
beck's wharf, near the Northeastern Railroad Depot, in Charleston. At the close 
of the war, a little more than eight yeare ago, Mr. Toale was a poor mechanic He 
started business on a small scale. He worked hard and kept his eyes o])en, and 
never failed to take advantage of an opportunity to add to his establishment, 
until now it has about ten thousand dollars worth of machinery in it, and his busi- 
ness is worth between thiity and forty thousand dollars annually. He sends doors, 
sashes and blinds into every portion of this State, and into a great part of Georgia 
and Florida, and other Southern States. 

Mr. Toale has just finished a large contract for the Mercer University, in Macon, 
Ga., which was awarded to him in competition W'ith fiictories in Chicago, where the 
plan for the building was drawn. Some of the work for the immense doors and 
windows of the University, is very intricate and difiicult, and reflects great credit 
on the skill and mechanical ingenuity of Mr. Toale. 

Let us look jnto the factory, which is a two-story building, and witness the 
dozen machines of various kinds that are at Avork. On the first floor you see a 
large planing machine occupied in dressing boards, which are piled up ready for 
use in the other machines when needed. This planing machine also grooves and 
tongues boards for flooring or ceiling purposes. There are on the same floor, three 
moulding machines, capable of turning out mouldings of any desired size or pat- 
tern ; a number of morticing machines used in the manufacture of doors, saslies 
and blinds, also a number of t;ircular saws and two lathes for turning columns, 
balusters and other work. By a simple adjustment all the machinery can be stojv 
ped together, almost in an instant, or any one piece can be stopped by itself In 
the adjoining room, on the first floor, is the steam engine which runs all the ma- 
chinery, and a large planing and tongue and grooving machine, besides several 
saws and a machine for sharpening saws. 

On the second floor there are a nundjiT of ingenious machines adapted to the 
more intricate work required in the manufacture of sashes and blinds. One is for 
cutting the little round projection at each end which causes the movable slats in 
blinds to move. This machine requires very skilful handling, as the least awk- 
wardness causes the little projection to be entirely cut away. Another machine is 
for boring the holes in the side of the blinds, in which these projections move. 
The holes are bored almost as rapidly as one can count them, two at a time, one on 
each side, the distance between them being regulated with mathematical precision. 
Another machine makes the mortices for stationary slats in the same way while 
another fasten» the wires into the stick that connects the movable slats ; another 

The Rural Carolinian and the Patrons of Husbandry. 35 

forms the panels of doors ; another is used for putting the sash together, and still 

another for putting doors together.' These two last niachiues work on the same 
principle, and are marvels of mechanical skill and ingenuity. They are rectangu- 
lar iron frames, disjointed at the corners — the machine for doors being necessarily 
longer in proportion than that for sashes. They can be set to fit any particular 
size of door or sash. The machine being arranged, and a loosely put together door 
or sash placed in it, the workman, by the use of a single lever, brings all the sides 
of the frame exactly together at the corners, thus making the door or sash accu- 
rately to the required size, and fitting it very tightly together. 

' The finishing wonder of the establishment is a sand-papering machine, by which 
all the Avork is polished off in great regularity and in a very short time. 

In the upper part of the factory can be seen work nearly completed and some 
finished. But, generally speaking, as fast as the work is finished, it is sent to Mr. 
Toale's warerooms, which are at No. 20 Hayne street and No. 83 Pinckney street. 
Here you can at all times see a full stock of handsome doors, sashes, and blinds, 
in all varieties of sizes and style, from those suited to a cottage to such as have 
been made for a university or cathedral. You can also see specimens of beautiful 
terra cotta ware, magnificent American and French ground and stained glass, mar- 
ble and slate mantels, and, in short, everything used in finishing buildings of any 

Mr. Toale, to meet the requirements of his increasing business, has recently im- 
ported a cargo of northern pine lumber direct from the forests of Maine. This 
cargo, which comprises some 200,000 feet, was brought to him in a Charleston built 

Patrons of Husbandry and AcRicuLTur^AL Societies. 

The Rural Carolinian and the Patrons of Husbandry. 

Our readers will bear witness that our pages have never been made the medium 
of pathetic and annoying appeals for patronage. We have asked for no gratuitous 
exertions in our behalf We set out with the purpose of making a magazine 
which should speak for itself, and be abundantly able to stand on its own merits. 
The intelligent planters and farmers of the South were not slow to appreciate 
our labors ; and, coming voluntarily to our support, they gave the Rural Caro- 
linian such substantial "aid and comfort," as placed it at once on the basis of 
assured success. 

We are not, therefore, about to depart from our established policy. The few 
words we have to say to our brothers and sisters of the "Noble Order of Patrons," 
have not for their object our own personal benefit, for we do not expect thereby to 
add a dollar to our income ; nor do we write them merely for the benefit of our 
enterprising publishers, though they deserve a still more liberal support than they 
are now receiving ; but for the good of the cause, and of all who love it and are 
receiving its benefits. 

36 WJiat is the Good of it? 

The Rural Carolinian -was the first journal in the South to advocate the 
cause of the Patrons of Husbandry. Being a Patron — the first, so far as we know, 
in the South — we knew that the Order was a good thing, and especially calculated 
to benefit the Southern agriculturist. So believing, we did Avhat we could for it, 
through our magazine, when not another journal in the South — not even the agri- 
cultural press — could be induced to give it the benefit of a paragraph ; and it was 
due to the influence of this magazine that the Order gained a foot-hold in South 
Carolina and Mississippi, whence it has spread into all the other Southern States. 
Others, who entered the field later, have done far more to diffuse the principles of 
the Order among the people, and give them organized form, than we could ever • 
have done. We give them full credit for their zeal, energy and success ; but we 
claim for ourself and the Rural CAiiOLiNiAN the honor of having given this 
grand work its initial impulse in the South. Does not this fact give our journal a 
claim, aside from its other merits, upon all good Patrons ? 

But that, is not the principal point we desire to make. The Rural Caro- 
linian, besides being a first-class agricultural and family magazine, edited and 
published by Patrons of Husbandry, is (so far as it will permit itself to be the 
organ of anything, except progressive agriculture) the organ of the Order in the 
South, and it is our intention to make it in the future, still more than in the past, 
a full repository of accurate and trustworthy information in regard to the Granges 
and their movements. Our facilities for doing this are complete. We have cor- 
respondents — most of them Patrons — in every Southern and many of the Northern 
States, and we are officially in constant communication with the National Grange, 
as well as with the various State Granges, and the Deputies of the State and 
National Granges. Almost any desired information (some of which, of coui*se, 
can not be made public) is, therefore, at our command. We shall make good use 
of our facilities for the good of our readers and of the Order generally. It is for 
these reasons that we desire to call the attention of Patrons to our magazine, and 
to express the hope that it may yet be seen and read in every Grange, and in every 
Patron's family in the South. 

\Vhat is the Good of It? 

"That is all very fine, but cui bono!" So, with a complacent and argumenta- 
tive air, queries the practical minded objector, and the 6o?io generally means green- 
backs. " Will the Grange put any money in the pocket? Will it enable me to 
save anything?" Suppose it can not do this? Is there, then, no good in it? Is 
it nothing that it is ennobling agriculture, and educating, elevating and refining 
its members, giving them inestimable social privileges, and inciting them to higher 
aims, and a truer, better and happier lil'e? But it docs help, also, to make and 
save money. Here are some official figures which prove this : 
Savi)ig on Seiving Machines to Patrons. 

No. 5, regular price $50, is ofllred Griiiiges for S30 

No. G, regular price $55, is oHered Granges for 3.3 

No. 7, regular price $00, in oflcred Granges for 36 

No. 8, regular price $65, is ofTered Granges for 39 

To Patrons of Htisbandi'y. 37 

These are the rates ofl'eretl by the manufacturers of one macliine. -The names of the 
machine, and of the makers are, of course, Grange secrets. The manufacturers of another 
sewing machine ofler the following rates : 

Price $65 is offered Granges for $39 00 

Price $70 is offered Granges for 42 00 

Price $73 is offered Granges for 43 80 

Price $83 is offered Granges for 49 80 

Price $95 is offered Granges for • 57 00 

Corresponding reductions are made in higher priced machines. 

J^htsic Cheapened for the Granffe,^. 
A certain organ manufactory offers to furnish instruments to Granges at the following 
rates : 

No. 20, Grange price $13-5, retail price $175 

Ko. 9, Grange price $155, retail price 210 

No. 40, Grange price $168, retail price 225 

No. 25, Grange price $190, retail price • 250 

Grand church organ, Grange price $300, retail.. 400 

The Saving on Agricidtural Imjjlements. 
Agricultural implements and machines, such, e. c/., as ploughs, cultivators, hay-forks, 
mowers, reapers, threshing machines, fan-mills, etc, are discounted to Granges or their 
agents, from twenty-five to thirty per cent. 

To Patrons of Husbandry. 

A wrong impression exists among Patrons of Husbandry, in reference to the 
terms on which the " Rural Carolinian " will be furnished to individual mem- 
bers of Granges. From the tone of letters frequently received by the publishers, 
it appears that a number of members of Granges, in South Carolina pai'ticularly, 
are laboring under the belief that they will be entitled to receive the " Rural 
Carolinian" for one year on the payment of S1.50, which impi-ession is incorrect 
as regards individual members. 

In order to set this matter right, that all members of Granges in this State and 
elsewhere may fully and distinctly understand our purpose in reference to subscrip- 
tions by them to the "Rural," we will state anew the proposition made by us some- 
time since. 

To encoui-age the formation of clubs in Granges, and, at the same time, to ex- 
tend the field of usefulness of the "Rural Carolinian " among Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, the propriety of a reduction in the price of subscription to members of 
Granges, was suggested, to which the publishers assented on the following condi- 
tions : If a club of twenty or more was formed in a Grange, and their names 
were forwarded at one time by the Secretary of the Grange, the Secretary remit- 
ting us $30, the "Rural " would be sent one year to each member of the club. 
"We also assented that renewal subscriptions should be received in the club the 
same as new subscribers. 

Such was the proposition made by us, through our friends, and to which we still 
adhere. 1/ should be apparent to members of Granges, that individuals could not 
on any grounds of equity, expect to realize the same benefits in a matter of this kind, 
in their individual capacity, as their association in a club would entitle them to. 

38 To Patro)is oj Hmbandry in Fla. — National and State Grange Officers. 

Patrons comiflg together frequeutly, cau ea.sily makeup the necessary clubs, reap- 
ing the advantage of their association, and benefiting themselves pecuniarily. 

With this explanation the publishers of the " Rural " hope this matter will 
be satisfactorily set at rest, and that their efforts will continue to meet with the 
hearty cooperation of all Patrons of Husbandry. They feel that the part taken 
by the "Rural Carolii^ian" in the successful and permanent establishment of 
the Order at the South, entitles it to their cordial support. 


To Patrons of Husbandry in Florida. 

Finding it impossible to organize and instruct, in person, all the Granges now 
ready, to say nothing of the clubs of charter members rapidly filling up in all 
parts of the State, we have duly appointed Rev. Bro. Thomas A. Carruth, of Wel- 
born, Suwanee County, Fla., a Special Deputy, with authority to organize Subor- 
dinate Granges in any part of the State ; and all Granges and Patrons are hereby 
enjoined to respect him accordingly. Those desiring the services of a Deputy will 
address him as above. D. H. JACQUES, 

General Deputy of the National Grange. 

National and State Grange Officers. 

National Gran'je. — Dudley W. Adams, Master, Wauken, Iowa; 0. H- Kelly, Secretary, 
Washington, D. C. 

Arkansas. — John T. Jones, Master, Helena; John S. Williams, Secretary, De Villi's BiuflT. 

California.— J . W. A. Wright, Master, Turlock ; W. II. Baxter, Secretary, Napa City. 

Georgia. — Col. J. J. Smith, Master, Oconee; E. Taylor, Secretary, Colparchee. 

Illinoi.t. — Alonzo Golder, Master, Kock Falls ; O. E. Fanning, Secretary, Gait. 

Indiana. — John Wier. Master, Terre Haute ; T. Keene, Secretary, Valparaiso. 

Iowa. — A. B. vSmcdley, Master, Cresco ; Gen. Wm. Diiane Wilson, Secretary, Dca Moines. 

Kannax. — T. G. V. Boling, Master, Leavenworth ; Geo. W. Spurgcon, Secretary, Jack- 

Michifjan. — S. T. Brown, Master, Schoolcraft ; S. T. Cobb, Secretary, Schoolcraft. 

Minnesota. — Geo. J. Parsons, Master, Winona ; Wm. Paist, Secretary, St. Paul. 

Miasisitippi. — Gen. A. J. Vauglm, Master, Early Grove ; W. L. Williams, Secretary, 

MiMouri. — T. K. AIKn, Master, .Vllenton ; A- M. Coffey, Secretary, Knob Noster. 

Nehraxka. — Wm. B. Porter, Master, Plattsmouth ; Wm. McCaig, Secretary, Elmwood 

North Carolina. — W. S. Battle, Master, Tarboro' ; G. W. Lawrence, Secretary, Fayette- 

Oliia. — S. H. Ellis, Master, Springboro'; D. AL Stewart, Secretary, Xenia- 

South Carolina. — Tlioma.s Taylor, Master, Cohiml)ia ; Col. I). Wyatt .\iken. Secretary, 

TenncHHee. — Wm. Maxwell, Master, Maxviile; J. P. MoMurray, Secretary, Treiilon. 

Vermont. — E. P. Colton, Master, Irasbnrg; E. L. llovey. Secretary, St. Johnsbury. 

Wisconsin. — Col. John Cochrane, Master, VVanpuu; J. Brainard, Secretary, Oshkosh. 

Additional Granges in S. C— Fairs in the Southern States. 


Additional Granges in South Carolina. 

Name of Grange. 







Bachelor's Ketreat. 



Cannon Creek 




Pleasant Hill 

Beaver Dam 

Dean Swamp 

St. Matthew's 

Jonesville ... 

Pea Kidge 


Post Office. 

Johnson's T. O- •■ 

Pickens C H. 

Arnold's Mills 



Bachelor's Retreat 

Fair Play 


Newberry C. H.... 
Lexington C. H.... 


McConnelsville.. . . 

Pleasant Hill 

Rocky Well 


Newberry C. H.... 


Mt. Joy 



Pickens ... 




Oconee ...- 
Lexington .. 






Laurens. ... 



5^. E. Bowen 

R. Lenhardt 

W. C. Keith 

J. W. Livingston. 

J. W. Sheler 

D. H- Glenn 


iDavid Halfacre... 

S. P. Wingard 

Ij. G. Steel 

,T. S. Gowley 

J. B. Mobley 

D. T. Barr 

W. L. Ehney 

E. S. Keith 

Benj. Kennedy. .. 

J. R. Smith 

T. B. Anderson... 

J. M. McFall.... 

J. B. King 

J. W. Stribling.. 
R. S. Porcher... 

J. S. Verner 

L. L. Garrard... 

J. M. Glenn 

Henry Halfacre. 
W. J. Asman. ... 

W. R. Sims 

J, A. Sanders, Jr. 

S. Beckham 

J. B. Kyzer 

J. C. Fanning... 

S. J. Wood 

C. R. Smith 

J.H. McKissick. 
T. J. Pyles 

Laurens, G. IL, Sept. 9th, 1873. 


Lecturer State Grange of S. C 

Fairs in the Southern States. 

South Carolina State Fair, Columbia, November 4-7. 

North Carolina State Fair, Raleigh, October 13-18. 

Georgia State Fair, Macon, October 27-31. 

Mississippi State Fair, Jackson, October 13-18. 

Virginia State Fair, Richmond, October 28-31. 

Maryland State Fair, Baltimore, October 28-31. 

Arkansas State Fair, Little Rock, October 13-17. 

Alabama, West, Eutaw, October 28-31. 

Cotton States, Augusta, Ga., October 21-24. 

Agricultural and Mechanical Association of Georgia, Savannah, November 17. 

Carolinas, Charlotte, N. C, November 25-28. 

Mississippi, East, Meridian, October 21-24. 

North Carolina, Central, Henderson, October 7-9. 

North Carolina, Western, Salisbury, October 7-10. 

Tennessee, West, Jackson, October 28. 

Anderson, Anderson, S. C, October 29-31. 

Darlington, Darlington, S. C, October 8-10. 

Pee Dee Agricultural and Mechanical, Cheraw, S. C, October 15-17. 

Cape Fear, Wilmington, N. C, November 11-15. 

Roanoke, Wei don, N. C, October 28. 

*Lowrey8vme, 31, and Pomona, 113,-Supply the vacancies in your list published in the August 
number. — J. A. B. 

40 Deputies of the National and State Granges. — Grancje Notes and Queries. 
Deputies of the National and State Granges. 

Alabama. — Gen. E. M. Law, General Deputy ; Hon. J. J. Roach, Special Deputy- 
Florida. — D. H. Jacques, General Deputy, Charleston, S. C. ; Kev. Thomas A. Carruth, 

Special Deputy, Wclborn, Fla. 

Louisiana. — Gen. A. J. Vaughn, general Deputy, Early Grove, Miss.; H. W. L. Lewis, 

Special Deputy. 

Georgia State Deputies. A^ 

G. P. Steven.s, of Leesburg, Lee County, for the 1st, 2d and 3d Congressional Districts. 
G. W. Adam.s, of Forsyth, Monroe County, for the 4lh, 5th and 6th Congressional District.*!. 
Rev. C W. Howard, of Kingston, Bartow County, for the 7th, 8th and 9lh Congressional 

North Carolina State Deputies, 
J. S. Long, Newbern, N. C 
E. W. Pou, Raleigh, N. C. 
E. C. Davidson, Huntensville, X. C. ^ 

South Carolina Organizing Officer. 
Dr. John A. Barksdale, Lecturer of State Grange, Laurens C. H. 

Grange Notes and Queries. 

Women in the Oranges. 

A worthy Master of au Iowa Grange, lately made the following sensible remarks : 
" In no one direction, and in no relation to society is the Order doing a more 
important and fruitful work than in the education of woman. Much as I love its 
beautiful and symbolical ritual, as amply as I respect its power to lift up a class 
long needing its aid, yet in no one direction is it more important than in \X& rela- 
tion to women. It does not ask, is she the stronger or weaker vessel ? It does not 
ask whether her brain or intellect is greater or less than man's ? It simply asks, 
is she a human soul ? Answejing that question in the affirmative, it says to her, 
whether as a wife, mother, sister or friend, you have equal responsibilities, rightis 
and duties with man in the social s})heres of life, and we need and expect your 
sympathy and aid. 

Social and Educational Benefits of the Order. 

A correspocdeut of the Springfield Reyuhlican, who has been out among the 
farmers of Iowa, one-fourth of whom are women and young men, says that one of 
the greatest direct benefit-^ (jf the Order is in the greater and growing sociability 
of the members. Iowa farmers were just the same isolated, unpolished, unsocial 
beings that you find in any of the other States. The Grange has dragged them 
forth from their seclusion and rubbed them together, just what they wanted to 
shake them out of their ruts, and they are beginning to under-^tand ciich other 
better, and take a broader and more intelligent view of men and things. 

Grange Notes and Queries. 41 

Beware of Polities and Politicians. 
Those who are striving so persistently to drag the Order of Patrons of Hus- 
band?-y into the filthy mire of politics are not the farmers' friends, whatever their 
professions may be. They would lead us to our ruin. But it should be enough^ 
with every good Patron, that our Constitution strictly forbids not merely political 
action by the Granges, but even the discussion of political questions. We must 
not tolerate any departure from the spirit of this wise provision. As Granges, we 
have other means of making our power felt. Shall we be made tools of by the 
demagogue? God forbid! When it comes to that, we may well close our gates 
and tie black crape around the knobs. 

Members of Defunct Granges. 
In answer to S. P. S., we would say that the members of dead Granges do not 
cease to be Patrons, but simply become unaffiliated. If they are indebted, in the 
matter of dues, they must pay the amount to the State Grange, which will give 
them a certificate of good standing, with which they can apply for membership 
in another Grange, the same as with a withdrawal card. 

'New Papers for Patrons. 

The Patrons of Husbandry is a new monthly publication issued at Columbus, 
Miss., by W. H. Worthington, at $1 a year. It looks well and is edited with 
ability and taste. 

The Arkansas Grange (Little Rock, Ark., monthly, $2 a year,) is the official 
organ of the Patrons of Husbandry, of Arkansas. Address Grange Publishing 
Company, Little Rock, Ark. 

The Scythe (to mow down monopoly and extortion ;) Scythe Publishing Com- 
pany, Bennett Buildings, New York; $3 a year. Of this we have seen only the 


The Illinois Granges Shipphig Corn. 

The farmers of Champaign County, 111., have their theories and cooperative 
plans into practice. Having obtained a license from the State to act in a corpo- 
rate capacity, they have clubbed together and have just sent nineteen car-loads of 
corn to market on their own account, and by this operation they expect to save 
$500. They intend to forward their whole crop in this way. 

Many of the Granges have employed purchasing agents, who are now buying 
farming and domestic machinery at wholesale prices. 

The Patrons and their Pic-nics. 

One novel feature of the farmers movement which bids fair to become very 
popular and to work great good in cementing the farmers together more closely, is 
the harvest home pic-nic. These gatherings are largely social in their character, 
but cannot fail to advance the political prospects of the farmers. Lately, at a 
farmers' meeting in Iowa, sixty Granges were in attendance, all in the regalia of 
the Order. On the ground were 500 teams, and from 8,000 to 10,000 fai'mers 
were present. They were addressed by Mr. Dudley W. Adams, Master of the 
National Grange. 

No. 1, Vol. 5. 4 

42 A Convermtion on Cotton Seed mid Cotton. 

Miscellaneous Correspondence and Notices. 

A Conversation on Cotton Seed and Cotton. 

Editor of the Rukal Carolinian : A very intelligent and successful Ameri- 
can agriculturist^ from near Charleston recently visited this farm and said, " 1 am 
requested to ask and report upon my return your opinion about phosphate of lime, 
ammonia, lime, &c. AVe find that we can grow the cotton plant as a shrub, but it 
does not seed and produce cotton as abundantly as it used to do." I replied, 
" That does not at all surprise me, for you formerly wasted your cotton seed, and al- 
lowed it to rot in great heaps unu?ed and not returned to the land ; and now 
that cotton seed is found to be useful as oil and cattle cake, you export it to this 
country. How, then, can you expect to grow cotton seed (which means cotton too) 
after having exhausted the land of the elements which form it? 

It is much the same on many farms in this country. Farmers are not allowed to 
sell straw, so they can always grow straw ; but as they are free to sell corn, and too 
often omit to return or replace its elements, their crops of grain are woefully defi- 
cient. Tell your countrymen, with my good wishes, that if they will fatten plenty 
of animals on cotton-seed cake, Indian corn, &c., they will soon find that they can 
grow cotton as well as cotton shrubs, and they need not trouble their heads about 
ammonia, potash, phosphate of lime, &c. ; for the manures produced by such feed- 
ing contains all these elements in proper proportions, and in the best form ; but 
then let them take care that their animals are placed on a paved floor, or some 
place where none of the urine is wasted or washed away, for that contains most of 
the grain or seed-producing elements. On my farm none of this is ever wasted, 
but it all goes into the land, and therefore I grow ])lenty of grain as well as straw. 
It is because none of the urine is wasted that the shee])-fold is found by every far- 
mer the most certain grain j)n)ducer, especially if these sheep are fed with linseed, 
cotton or rape cake, which are rich in grain or seed-producing elements. 

Nothing robs the laud so nnich as selling off the seed of flax, hemp, cotton and 
rape. I do not niean selling the extracted oil, which is j)ermissible and not injuri- 
ous, but the cake after the oil has boon expressed contains the important elements." 
I often ask " How mucli cake do you consume, and how numy (juarters of beans ? " 
and, according to the reply, lean form a tolerably correct estimate of the produc- 
tion of the farm, always assuming that the land is drained and deeply and cleanly 
cultivated. Said an American farmer to me the other day, " Our land in INIassa- 
chiisetts, once so fertile, won't gnjw wheat at all now, for we have exhausted all its 
elements by constantly cropping and selling ofi', so that we are thinking about re- 
storing to it the necessary element." by proper manuring." It is the same with land 
as with a purse of money, always taking out and omitting to put in soon makes it 
empty and unprofitable. 

Tiptrce, Entjlaiid, Anfjvd, 1873. J. J. MECHI. 

As Mr. Mcchi has a world-wide rej)utation, as one of the most intelligent and 
euccessful farmers in Euiope, his suggestions should have great weight with our 
readers. The lesson taught will not be new to our readers, but it is one that can 
not be too often repeated. To rob our land is to cheat ourselves. We cannot 
farm here in exactly the same way that Mr. Mechi does, but the principle insisted 
upon is universal in its application. We tender Mr. Mechi our sinct le (hanUs tor 
bis communication. — En. 

Mange and WarU on Fowh.— The Weather and ihe Crops. 43 

Cure for Mange and for \Varts on Fowls. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : About the last of June or early in July, 
I noticed a spot of mange on each ear of my setter, and not deeming it of much 
importance, I applied a little kerosene oil. On my next visit to_my farm, I was 
much perplexed by the rapid increase of the disease. Having nothing else at hand, 
I determined to use whiskey and salt, as I had before done for the troublesome 
affection known as ground itch, with great success. I put in a gill of whiskey, as 
much fine salt as it would take up. With this I rubbed the affected surface with 
my hand until it was well irritated ; then, after waiting a few moments, I rubbed 
in dry sulphur, which I also rubbed round his neck and down the spine. This 
treatment I repeated three times, with perfect success. The disease disappeared, the 
dog lost the mange smell, and recovered his beautiful coat. I used the same 
remedy for my Brahma fowls, troubled yviih warts and sore head, with a similar result. 

Early Branch Farm, September 2d, 1873. H. P. 

The Weather and the Crops — Extracts from Letters. 

The cotton crop has failed very much, from several causes. AVe have had a 
wet season from the time cotton was planted till now. The spring rains were quite 
too much for it, filling the plant wdth sap, and at the same time exhausting the 
manure, so that the plant stopped growing early. The late rains have caused the 
forms to fixU off". In my opinion the crop will be light in this county. 

The corn crop will be light. Not enough will be made for the home supply. 
Peas and potatoes are also injured by too much rain and bv grass. 

Maye^ville, S. C, September 1st, 1873. * W. E. M. 

We have had very wet weather for four weeks, which has damaged the cotton 
crop about half in this county. R. G. A. 

Lumbtrton, N. C, Sep)tember, 1873. 

Cotton is not an average in this county this year ; too wet in spring, and too dry 
in July and August. Corn that was plaiited early is very fine ; late corn, of which 
there is a great deal, is not so good. The wheat crop was short; froze outlast 
winter. Oats, an average. Clover, Timothy, Herds, and all kinds of grasses, very fine. 

Albion County, Tenn., September 6th, 1873. L. E. H. 

Cotton is late, but otherwise promising; with a favorable fall there may be an 
average crop. The corn crop is generally good. Peas and potatoes look well. 
Montgomery, Ala., Septeynber 10th, 1873. A. M. C. 

The constant rains of August, and so far of September, have been unfavorable 
to the cotton crop, causing considerable shedding of forms and bolls. The cater- 
pillar has also done us much damage. The yield will be less than last year, I think. 
. Colleton County, September ISth, 1873. J. 

Our crops are eaten up by worms ; this portion of Alabama will not make more 
than one-half crop. Weather unfavorable, very wet. M. J. 

Greensboro', Ala., Sejitember 2d, 1873. 

The corn crop is good, the cotton crop is poor , the rust is almost a general 
thing ; I do not think that we shall make more than two-thirds of a crop. 
Louisville, Ga., September 4^, 1873. J. G. J. 

44 ItKjiiirie-s and Answers. 

Inquiries and Answers. 

" Novice," Williamsburg Co., S. C. Your questiou in regard to the action of 
plaster, ( gyps^ini,) on the ammoniacal gasses of the manure heap would have been 
referred to Dr. Shepard, had he been in town. In his absence, we quote from 
Prof S. W. Johnson as follows : " Gypsum will perfectly fix the ammonia of the 
decomposing mamire, which escapes as carbonate from fermenting urine, by con- 
verting this volatile carbonate of ammonia into non-volatile sulphate, provided 
the mass is wet or visibly moist ; but if the mass dries the volatile carbonate is 
gradually reproduced, and the ammonia is unfixed again." 

E. E. E., Society Hill. Your queries in regard to rye did not reach us 

in season for answer in the September number. "We believe that the general 
impression (that Northern seed is not so good as home grown for planting in this 
climate) is correct ; but our opinion is based entirely on the recorded experience 
of others, we never having sown any but Southern seed. 

"Provender." Rescue grass can be grown in your latitude, and is highly 

recommended by some. We have no experience with it. Plant in September or 
October, and the hay, it is said, will be ready to cut in April. Mark W. Johnson, 
Atlanta, sells the seed. We do not know any one in this State who has it. 

J. W. C, Madison, Ga. The swindling operations of N. P. Boyer, (the 

Company is a myth,) have been repeatedly exposed in the Rural Carolinian. 
We understand that he has lately left his home for an indefinite sojourn " in parts 
unknown," where he may be addressed by his many anxious, inquiring friends. 

W. T. T., desires some one who has tried Murfee's Subsoil Plough, to 

report correctly on its good or bad qualities. He wishes an implement suitable to 
subsoil sandy land with a clay bottom. 

G. M. We have no work on the measurement of land. The "Farmers' 

and Mechanics' Manual," has a chapter on the subject. We do not keep books 
for sale. Probably Orange, Judd & Co., New York, could supply you with just 
what you want. 

M. J. wishes to know which is the best cultivator for cotton and com. 

Will some one, who has had the necessarj experience with the various im'[ilcments 
of this class, please answer? 

" Subscriber," Winusboro', S. C Wc have no personal knowledge of 

the nurserymen to whom you refer. 

— '■ " Chester." Seed of the Malva Tree, about which so much has been said 

in the California papers, can be procured of E. E. Moore A Co., of San Francisco, 
at 25 cents per ounce. 

"Inquirer." The Golden Clinton is a greenish white grape, with a 

tinge of yellow on the sunny side. It has proved worthless here, and, we believe, 
elsewhere in the South. 

General Notices and Acknowledgments. 45 

General Notices and Acknowledgnrients. 

With this number we commence a new volume. "We have not found it desirable 
to make any important changes in our plan of arrangement or in the general man- 
agement of the magazine; but we have some improvements in contemplation, which 
we shall carry out in due time. Meanwhile we can assure our readers that we 
shall spare no pains to make every number worth all and more than it costs, and 
each, if possible, better than its predecessor. With a constantly increasing list of 
contributors, embracing some of the leading minds of the South, with increased 
experience and with all the fiicilities afforded by an extensive list of valuable ex- 
changes, we can at least safely promise to truly represent and illustrate the pro- 
gressive agriculture of the day. 

Among the first to come to hand of the many seedsmen and florist's catalogues 
was that of your friend and correspondent, Mr. Henry A. Dreer, of 714 Chestnut 
Street, Philadelphia, and none of them contain more tempting lists either of old 
and tried favorites, or of new and promising novelties. . Those who want bulbs or 
seeds for Ml planting will do well to consult it. Mr. Dreer's Dutch bulbs were 
selected by himself in Holland, and are of the best quality, and his seeds as we 
know by experience are always good and true to name. 

Mr. James Vick, of Rochester, New York, well known all over America and 
Europe, as a gentleman of culture and ability, as well as a trustworthy seedman 
and tlorist, sends us for trial some of his seeds for fall planting. They shall have 
the best attention we know how to give them, and will, we doubt not, reward our 
care in due time with a rich harvest of bloom. See " Vick's Floral Guide, No. 4," 
for lists of bulbs and seeds for the season. 

We have a communication from Mr. Wm. H. Sharpe, of Sand Point, Indian 
River, Fla., in which he gives, in reply to many correspondents, an interesting de^ 
scription of that part of the State. A continuation of Mr, Whitner's series of 
articles on " Biscayne Bay and its surroundings " is also on file for our next num- 
ber. Several other articles are also necessarily laid over. 

Our contributors have laid us under heavy obligations during the past four years 
by their generous contributions of valuable and interesting matter for our pages. 
We heartily thank them all, for our readers as well as in our own behalf, and ask 
a continuation of their favors. 

The "Hofiinan seedling" apple sent us by our correspondent "L," was too badly 
decayed when received to give us any idea of the fruit. Better luck next time, 
we hope. 


The JRicral CaroUnian. 

Literature, Science and ffoME Interests. 


Crimson the heart of the sea-coal fire, 

Bessie and 1 in the ruddy glow ; 
Her mother reads, and the old grandsire 

Dreams of his youth in the "long ago." 

Quiet and warmth and love in the room, 

Now or never my suit to press ; 
"Where the hyacinths shed their sweet per- 

We play two games — one love ; one chess. 

Queen of the red, and queen of my heart, 
Wlrsn will you wear my golden ring? 

Flushing her cheeks the roses start. 

Slyly she murmers, " Check to your king." 

My pawns advance, ])ress on and die. 
The bishops battle in lines oblique; 

My brave knights fall ; but I can't tell why 
My heart grows strong as piy game grows 

Darling, answer me, lift your eyes ; 

Your mother sleeps and the time approves. 
Speak, sweet mouth, with a glad surprise ; 

"'You'll be mated, sir, in three more 

Then let this be one — and her dimpled hand 
Looks all the fairer for a plain gold ring; 

In vain I rally my scattered band 

As again she checks my poor lost king. 

Nearer her gold brown curls to mine. 
The chess-men seem in a dark eclipse, 

Check I — Sliall I die and make no sign? 
And I steal a kiss from her ripe red lips. 

Mate !--and her joyous e3'es proclaim 
Who wins by love and who in ciiess ; 

And the pride of my life is the golden game 
That was lost when I won my darling Bess. 
IScribner's Mont hi y. 



After the three friends had gone, they sent 
us gifts of remembrance. Redmond's keep- 
sake wa.s a white fan with forget-me-nots 
painted on it. To Laura lie sent tlic pen- 
holder, which was now mine. 

We missed them, and should li.ive ffit their 
loss, had ufi <leep tVeling been involved ; fcTr 
they gave an impetus to our dull country life, 
and tiie wlioK; suinnier had been one of ex- 
citement aM<l pleasure. We settled by degrees 
into our old habits. At Christmas, Frank 

came. He looked worried and older. He 
had lieard something of Laura's intimacy 
with Harry Lothrop, and was troubled about 
it, I know ; but I believe Laura was .-ilent on 
the matter. She was quiet and attectionaie 
towards him during his visit, and he went 
back consoled. 

The winter pa.«sed. Spring came and went, 
and we Averedeep into the summer when Lau- 
ra was taken ill. She had a little cough, 
which no one except her mother noticAl. Her 
spirits fell, and she failed fast. When I saw 
her last, slie had been ill some weeks, and had 
never felt strong enough to talk as much as 
she did in that interview. She nerved her- 
self to make the eflfbrt, and as she bade me 
farewell, bade farewell to life also. And now 
it was all over with her I 

I fell asleep at length, and woke late. It 
seemed as if a year had dropped out of the 
procession of Time. My heart was still beat- 
ing with the emotion that stirred it when 
Redmond and I were together last. Recol- 
lection had stung me to the quick. A terrible 
longing urged me to go and find him. The 
feeling I had when we were in the boat, face 
to face, thrilled my fibres again. I saw his 
gleaming eyes ; I could have rushed through 
the air to meet him. But, alas ! exaltation 
of feeling lasts only a moment ; it drops us 
where it finds us. If it were not so, how easy 
to be a hero ! The dull reaction of the present, 
like a slow avalanche, crushed and ground 
me into nothingness. 

"Something must happen at last," I 
thought, " to amuse me, and make time en- 

What can a woman do, when she knows 
that an epoch of feeling is rountled ofl", tiuisli- 
ed. dead? Go back to her story-books, her 
dress-making. Iter wor.sted-work ? Shall she 
attempt to rise to mediocrity on the piano or 
in drawing, distribute tracts, become secretary 
of a Dorcas society? or sliall she turn lier 
mind to the matter of captivating another 
lover at once? Few of tis women liave cour- 
age enough to shoulder out the corpses of 
what men leave in our hearts. AVe keep them 
there, and conceal the rtiins in which they lie. 
We grow, cunning artd artful in our tricks, 
the longer we i)ractice them. But how we 
palpitate and shrink and shudder, when we 
are alone in the d.nrk ? 

After Redmond departed, I had locked up 
my feelings and thrown the key aw.-iy. The 
death of Laura, and the awakening of ray 
recollections, caused by the appe,ir,'ince of 
Harry Lothrop, wreiuhed the door open. 
Hitherto I hail acted with the bnivery of a 
girl; I must now behave with the resolution 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


of woman. I looked into my heart closely. 
No skeleton was there, but the image of a 
living man, — Rechnond. 

"I love him," I confessed. "To be his 
wife is tlie only lot I ever care to choose. He 
is noble, handsome and loyal. But I cannot 
belong to him, nor can he ever be mine. 

'Of love that never found his earthly close, 
What sequel?' " 

What did he do with the remembrance of 
me ? — He scattered it, perhaps, witli the ashes 
of the tirst cigar he smoked after he went 
away from me, — made a mound of it maybe 
in honor of dut_y. I am as ignorant of him 
as if he no longer existed ; so this image 
must be torn away. I will not burn the lamp 
of life before it, but will build up the niche 
where it stands into a solid wall. 

The ideal happiness of love is so sweet and 
powerful, that for a while, adverse influences 
only exalt the imagination. When Laura 
told me of Redmond's engagement, it did but 
change my dream of what might be into 
what might have been. It was a mirage 
which continued while he was present and 
faded with his departure. Then my heart 
was locked in the depths of will, till circum- 
stance brought it a power of revenge. I 
think now, if we had spoken freely and truly 
to each other, I sliould have suffered less 
when I saw his friend. We feel better when 
the funeral of our dearest friend is over and 
we have returned to the house. There is to 
be no more preparation, no waiting ; the 
windows may be opened, and the doors set 
wide ; the very dreariness and desolation 
force our attention towards the living. 

" Something will come," I thought; and I 
determined not to have any more reveries. 
" Mr. Harry Lotlirop is a pleasant riddle ; I 
shall see him soon, or he will write." 

It occurred to me then that I had some 
letters of his already in my possession, — 
those he had written to Laura. I found the 
ebony box, and taking from it the sealed 
package, unfolded the letters one by one, 
reading them according to their dates. There 
was a note among them for me, from Laura. 

" When you read these letter.s, Margaret," 
it said, "you will see that I must have studied 
the writer of them in vain. You know now 
that he made me unhappy ; not that I was in 
love with him much, but he stirred depths of 
feeling which I had no knowledge of, and 
which between Frank, my betrothed, and 
myself had no existence. But '/e rai s' amuse.' 
Perhaps a strong passion will master this 
man ; but I shall never know. Will you?" 

I laid the letters back in their place, and 
felt no very strong desire to learn anything 
more about the writer. I did not know tlien 
how little trouble, it would be, — my share of 
making the acquaintance. 

It was not many weeks before Mr. Lothrop 

came again, .and rather ostentatiously, so that 
everybody knew of his visit to me. Buthe 
saw "none of the friends he had made durinij 
his stay the year before. I happened to see 
him coming,' and went to the door to meet 
him. Almost liis first words were, — 

" Maurice is dead. He went to Florida — 
took the fever, — which killed him, of course. 
He died only a week after — after Laura. 
Poor fellow ! did he interest you much ? I 
believe he was in love with you, too ; but 
musical people are never desperate, except 
when they play a false note." 

"Yes," I answered; " I was fond of him. 
His conceit did not trouble me, and he never 
fatigued me ; he had nothing to conceal. He 
was a commonplace man ; one liked him 
when with him, — and when away, one had no 
thought about him." 

"I alone am left you," said my visitor, 
putting his hat on a chair, and slowly pulling 
off his gloves, finger by finger. 

He had slender, white hands like a 
woman's, and they were always in motion. 
After he had thrown his gloves into his hat, 
he put his finger against his cheek, leaned his 
elbow on the arm of his chair, crossed his 
legs, and looked at me with a cunning self- 
possession. I glanced at his feet ; they were 
small and well-booted. I looked into his 
face ; it was not a handsome one ; but he had 
magnetic eyes, of a lightish blue, and a clever, 
loose mouth. It is impossible to describe 
him, — just as impossible as it is for a man 
who has been born a boor to attain the bear- 
ing of a ; any attempt at it would 
prove a bungling matter, when compared 
with the original. He felt my scrutijiy, and 
knew, too, that I had never looked at him 
till then. 

" Do you sing now-a-days ?" he asked, tap- 
ping with his fingers the keys of the piano 
behind him. 

" Psalms." 

"They suit you admirably ; but I perceive 
you attend to your dress still. How eflfective 
"those velvet bands are ! You look older than 
you did two years ago." 

" Two years are enough to age a woman." 

" Yes, if she is miserable. Can you be un- 
happy ?" he asked, rising and taken a seat 
beside me. 

There wrfs a tone of sympathy in his voice 
which made me shudder, I know not why. It 
"was neither aversion nor liking; but I dread- 
ed to be thrown into any tumult of feeling. I 
realized afterward more fully that it is next 
to impossible for a passionate woman to re- 
ceive the sincere addresses of a manly marf 
without feeling some fluctuation of soul. Ig- 
norant spectators call her a coquette for this. 
Happily, there are teachers among our own 
sex, women of cold temperaments, able to 
vindicate themselves from the imputation. 
They spare themselves great waste of heart 


The Rural Carolinian. 

and some generous emotion, — also remorse 
and self-accusation? regarding the want of 
propriety, and the other ingredients which go 
to make up a white-muslin heroine. 

Harry Lolhrop saw that my cheek was 
burning, and made a movement towards me. 
I tossed my head back and moved down the 
sofa; he did not follow me, but .smiled and 
mused in his bold way. 

And so it went on, — not once but many 
times. He wrote me quiet, persuasive, elo- 
quent letters. By degiees I learned his own 
history and that of his family, his prospects 
and his intentions. He was rich. I knew 
well what position I should have if I were 
his wife. I was well enough off, but not rich 
enough to harmonize all things according to 
my taste. 1 was proud and he Mas refined ; 
if we were married what better promise of 
delicacy could be given than that of pride in 
woman, refinement in a man ? He brought 
me flowers or books when he came. The 
fiowcrs were not delicate and inodorous, but 
magnificent and deep-scented ; and the mate- 
rial of the books was stalwart and vigorous. 
I read his favorite authors with him. He 
was the first person who ever made any ap- 
peal to my intellect. In short, he was educa- 
ting me for a purpose. 

Once he offered me a diamond cross. I re- 
fused it, and he never asked me to accept any 
gift again. His visits were not .so frequent 
and they were short. However great the dis- 
tance he accomplished to reach me, he stayed 
only an evening, and then returned. Pie 
came and went at night. In time I grew to 
look upon our connection as an established 
thing. He made me understand that he loved 
me, and that he only waited for me to return 
it ; but be did not say so. 

I lived an idle life, inhaling the perfume of 
the flowers he gave me devouring old litera- 
ture, the ta.ste for which he had created, and 
reading and answering his letters. To be 
sure, other duties were fulfilled. I was an af- 
fectionate child to my parents, and a jirtjper 
acquaintance for my friends. I never lost 
any sleep no\v, nor was I troubled with 
dreams. I lived in the outward ; all my rest- 
less activity, that constant questioning of the 
lieavens and tlie earth, liad ceased entirely. 
Five years had jjassed since I first saw Red- 
mond. I was now twenty-four. The fates 
grew tired of the monotony of my life, I sup- 
pose, for about this time it changed. 

ily oldest brother, a bachelor, lived in 
New York. lie asked me to spend tlie win- 
ter with him ; he lived in a (piiet hotel, had 
a suite of r(jomH, and could make me com- 
fortable, he said. He had just asked some- 
body to marry. bim, :uid lliat somebody wished 
to make my acquaintance. I was glad to go. 
My heart gave a bound at the ])rosi)ect of 
change; I was still y(nnig enongli to dream of 
the impo.s.iilde, when any chance offered itself 

to my imagination ; so I accepted my brother's 
invitation with some elation. 

I had been in New York a month. One 
day I was out with my future sister on a 
shopping raid ; with our hands full of little 
paper parcels, we stopped to look into Gou- 
pil's window. There was always a rim of 
crowd there, so I paid no attention to the 
jostles we received. We were looking at an 
engraving of Ary Schefter's Francoise de 
Rimini. "Not the worst hell," muttered a 
voice behind me, which I knew. I startetl, 
and pulled Leonora's arm ; she turned round, 
and the fringe of lier cloak-sleeve caught 
a button on the overcoat of one of the gen- 
tlemen standing together. It was Redmond ; 
the other was his " ancient," Harry Lo- 
throp. Leonora was arrested ; I stood still, 
of course. Redmond had not seen my face, 
for I turned it from him ; and his head was 
bent down to the task of disengaging his 

" Each only a.** God wills 
Can work ; God's puppets, be.«t and worst, 
Are we ; there is no last or first," 

I thought, and turned my head. He instinct- 
ively took off bis hat, and then planted it 
back on his head firmly, and looked over to 
Harry Lothrop, to whom I gave my hand. 
He knew me before I saw him, I am con- 
vinced ; but his dramatic sense kept him si- 
lent — perhaps a deeper feeling. There was 
an expression of pain in liis face, which im- 
pelled me to take his arm. 

" Let us move on, Leonora," I said ; "these 
are some summer friends of mine," and I 
introduced them to her. 

My chief feeling was embarra.ssment, which 
was shared by all the party ; for I^eonora felt 
that there was something unusual in the meet- 
ing. The door of the hotel seemed to come 
roimd at last, and as we were going in, Harry 
Lothrop asked me if he might see me the next 

" Do come," I answered aloud. 

We all bowed, and they disappeared. 

" What an elegaut Indian your tall friend 
is I" said Leonora. 

" Y'^es — of the Comanche tribe." 

" Iiut he would look better hanging from 
his horse's mane than he does in a long coat." 

" He is sjioiled by civilization and white 
parents. J!ut, Leonora, stay and dine with 
me, in my own room. John will not come 
home till it is time for the opera. You know 
we are going. You make me splendid; 
you can torture me into style, I know." 

She consented, provided 1 would send a 
note to her mother, explaining that it was my 
invitation, and not lier old John's, as she ir- 
reverently called him. 1 did so, as she was 
delighted to stay. 

"This is fast," she said ; "can't we have 
champagne and black coflee." 

Literature, Science and Home Inieresta. 


She fell to rummaging John's closets, and 
brought out a dusty, Chinese-looking afiair, 
which she put on for a dressing gown. She 
found some Chinese straw shoes, and tucked 
her little feet into them, and then braided her 
hair in a long tail, and declared she was 
ready for dinner. Her gayety was refresh- 
ing, and I did not wonder at John's admira- 
tion. My spirits rose, too, and I astonished 
Leonora at the table with my chat ; she had 
never seen me except when quiet. I fell into 
one of those unselfish, unasking moods which 
are the glory of youth ; I felt that the pure 
heaven of love was in the depths of my being; 
my soul shone like a star in its atmosphere; 
my heart throbbed, and I cried softly to it — 
" Live ! live ! he is here !" I still cliatted with 
Leonora and made her laugh, and the child 
for the first time thoroughly liked me. We 
were finishing our desert when we heard 
John's knock. We allowed him to come in 
for a moment, and gave him some almonds, 
which he leisurely cracked and ate. 

" Somehow, Margaret," he said, " you re- 
mind me of those women who enjoy the Indian 
festival of the funeral pile. I have seen the 
thing done ; you have something of the sort 
in your mind; be sure to immolate yourself 
handsomely. Women are the deuce." 

"Finish your almonds, John," Isaid, "and 
go away ; we must dress." 

He put his hand on my arm, and whis- 
pered — 

"Smother that light in your eyes, my girl ; 
it is dangerous. And you have lived under 
your mother's eye all your life ! You see 
what I have done," — indicating Leonora with 
his eye-brows, — "taken a baby on my hands." 

" John, John !" I inwardly ejaculated, 
"you are an idiot." 

" She shall never suffer what you suffer ; 
she shall have the benefit of the experience 
which other women have given me." 

"Very likely," I answered ; " I know we 
often serve you as pioneers merely." 

He gave a sad nod, and I closed the door 
upon him. 

" Put these pins into my hair, Leonora, 
and tell me, how do you like my new dress ?" 

"Paris !" she cried. 

It was a dove-colored silk with a black vel- 
vet stripe through it. I showed her a shawl 
which John had given me, — a pale yellow 
gauzy fabric, with a gold-thread border, — and 
told her to make me up. She produced quite 
a marvellous effect ; for this baby understood 
the art of dress to perfection. She made my 
hair into a loose mass, rolling it away from 
my face ; yet it was firmly fastened. Then 
she shook out the shawl, and wrapped me in 
it, so that my head seemed to be emerging 
from a pale tinted cloud. John said I looked 
outlandish, but Leonora thought otherwise. 
She begged him for some Indian perfume, 
and he found an aromatic powder, which she 

sprinkled inside my gloves and over my 

"We found the opera house crowded. Our 
seats were near the stage. John sat behind 
us, so that he might slip out into the lobby 
occasionally ; for the opera was a bore to 
him. The second act was over ; John had 
left his seat ; I was opening and shutting my 
fan mechanically, half lost in thought, when 
Leonora, who had been looking at the house 
with her lorgnette, turned and said, — 

" Is not that your friend of this morning, 
on the other side, in the second row, leaning 
against the third pillar ? There is a queenish-^ 
looking old lady with him. He't spoken 
to her for a long time, and she continually 
looks up at him." 

I took her glass, and discovered Kedmond. 
He looked back at me through another ; I 
made a slight motion with my handkerchief; 
he dropped his glass into the lap of the lady 
next him and darted out, and in a moment he 
was behind me in John's seat. 

"Who is with you?" he asked. 

"Brother," I answered. 

" You intoxicate me with some strange per- 
fume ; don't fan it thi.s way." 

I quietly passed the fan to Leonora, who 
now looked back and spoke to him. He talk- 
ed with her a moment, and then she discreet- 
ly resumed her lorgnette. 

"What happened for two years after I left 
B. ? The last year I know something of." 

"Breakfast, dinner and tea ; the ebb and 
flow of the tide ; and the days of the week." 

" Nothing more ?" And his voice came 

"A few trifles." 

"They are under lock and key, I suppose?" 

''We do not carry relics about with us." 

"She is the conductor ; I must go. Turn 
your face toward me more." 

I obeyed him and our eyes met. His search- 
ing gaze made me shiver. 

"I have been married," he said, and his 
eyes were unflinching, " and my wife is 

All the lights went down, I thought ; I 
struck out my arms to find Leonora, who 
caught it and pressed it down. 

"I must get out," 1 said ; and I walked up 
the alley to the door without stumbling. 

I knew that I was fainting or dying ; as I 
had never fainted, I did not know which. 
Eedmond carried me through the cloak-room 
and put me on a sofa. 

"I never can speakto him again," I thought, 
and then I lost sight of them all. 

A terribly sharp pain through my heart 
roused me, and I was in a violent chill. They 
had thrown water over my face ; my hair WJis 
matted, and the water was dripping from it 
on my naked shoulders. The gloves had 
been ripped from my hands, and Leonora 
was wringing my handkerchief. 


Tht Rural Carolinian. 

"The heat made you faint, dear," she 

John was walking up and down the room, 
with a phlegmatic countenance, but he was 

''My new dress is ruined, John," I said. 

''Hans: the dress ! How do you feel now?" 

" It is drowned ; and I feel better ; shall 
we go home ?" 

" He went out to order the carriage, and 
Leonora whispered to me that she had for- 
gotten Redmond's name. 

"No matter," I answered. I could not 
# have spoken it then. 

When John came, Leonora beckoned to 
Redmond to introduce himself. John shook 
hands with him, gave him an intent look, and 
told us the carriage was ready. Redmond 
followed us, and took leave of us at the car- 
riage door. 

Leonora begged leave of me to stay at her 
house ; I refused, for I wished to be alone, 
John deposited her with her mother, and we 
drove home. He gave one of his infallible 
medicines, and told me not to get up in the 
morning. But when morning came, I remem- 
bered Harry Lothrop was coming, and made 
myself ready for him. As human nature is 
not quite perfect, I felt unhappy about him, 
and rather fond of him, and thought he pos- 
sessed some admiral)le qualities. I never 
could read the old poets any more without a 
pang, unless he were with me, directing my 
eye along their pages with his long white 
finger! 1 never should smell tuberoses again 
without feeling faint, unless they were his 

By the time he came I was in a state of ro- 
mantic regret, and in that state many a woman 
has answered, "Yes !" . He asked me abrupt- 
ly if I thought it would be folly in him to ask 
me to marry him. The question turned the 

"No," T answered, — " not folly ; for I have 
thought many times in the last two years, 
that I should marry you, if you said 1 must. 
But now I believe that it is not best. You 
have pursued me jiatiently; your self-love 
made the conquest of me a necessary pleas- 
ure. That was well enough for me; for you 
made me feel all the while, tliat, if I loved 
you, you were worth possessing. And you 
are. I like you. lint my feeling for you did 
not prevent my fainting away at the (jpera- 
house last night, when Redmond told me that 
his wife was dead." 

"So," he said, "the long-smothered lire 
has i)roken out again ! Chance does not be- 
friend me. Ife saw you last night, and yielded. 
He said yesterday he shonld not tell you. He 
asked me about you after we left you, and 
wished to know if I had seen you much for 
the last year. 1 oflired him your hist kttcr 
to read, — am I not generous? — but he refused 

" ' When I see her,' he asked, ' am I at lib- 
erty to say ^*Jlat I choose ?'" 

"On that 1 could have said 'No.' Redmond 
and I have not seen each other since the pe- 
riod of my iirst visit to you. He has been 
nursing his wife in the meantime, taking 
journeys with her, and trying all sorts of 
cures ; and now he seems tied to his aunt and 
mother-in-law. He was merely passing 
through the city with her, and this morning 
they have gone again. Well," after a pause, 
" there is no need of words between us. I 
have in my possession a part of you. Beau- 
tiful women are like llowers which 0{)en their 
leaves wide enough for their perfume to attract 
wandering bees ; the perfinue is wasted 
though the honey may be hid." 

"Alas, what a lesson this man is giving 
me !" I thought. 

" Farewell, then," he said. He bit his lij^, 
and his cleuclied hands trembled ; but he mas- 
tered his emotion. " You must think of me." 

"And see you, too," I answered. " Every- 
thing comes round again, if we live long 
enough. Dramatic unities are never preserv- 
ed in life ; if they were, how poetical would 
all these things be! But time whirs us round, 
showing our many-sided feelings as carelessly 
as a child rattles the bits of glass in his 

" So be it !" he replied. " Adieu !" 

That afternoon I stayed at home and put 
John's room in order, and cleaned the dust 
from his Indian idols, and wa.s extremely 
busy till he came in. Then I kissed his 
whiskers, and told him all my sins, and cried 
once or twice during my confession. He 
petted me a good deal, and made me eat twice 
as much dinner as I wanted ; he said it was 
good for me, and I obeyed him, for I felt un- 
commonly meek that day. 

Soon alter, Redmond sent me a long letter. 
He said he had been, from a boy, under an 
obligation to his aunt, the mother of his wife. 
It was a common story, and he would not 
trouble me with it. lie was married soon 
after Harry Lothrop's first visit to me, at 
the time they had received the news of 
Laura's death. How nuich he had thought 
of Laura afterward, while he was watching 
the fading away of his pale blossom. His 
aunt liad been ill since the death of her 
daughter, restless and discontente<l with every 
change, lie hoped .she was now settled among 
sotne old friends with whom she might lind 
consolation. In conclusion, he wrote — " My 
aunt noticed our hasty e.xit from the opera 
house that night, when I was brute enouL;h to 
nearly kill yon. I told lier that I loved you. 
She now feels, after a struggle, tiiat she must 
let me go. ' Old women liave no rights,' she 
said to me yesterday. Margaret, may I come, 
and never leave you again ?" 

My answer may be guessed, for one day he 
arrived. It was the dusk of a qheery wintry 

Literature, Science and Home ratei'ests. 


day, the time when home we.ars so hriglit a 
look to fliose who seek it. It was an liour 
before dinner, and I was waiting for Jolin to 
come in. Tlie amber evening sky gleamed 
before the windows, and the lire made a red 
core of light in the room. John's sandal- 
wood boxes gave out strange odors in the 
heat, and the pattern of the Persian rug was 
just visible. A servant came to the door 
with a card. I held it to the grate and the 
lire lit up his name. 

" Show him upstairs," I said. 

I stood in the doorway, and heard his step 
on every stair. When he came I took him 
by the hand, and drew him into the room. 
He was speechless. 

" Oh, Redmond, I love you ! How long you 
were away !" 

He kneeled by me, and put my arms round 
his neck, and we kissed each other with the 
first best kiss of passion. 

John came in, and I reached out my hand 
to him, and said, ''This is my husband." 

"That's comfortable," he answered. "Won't 
you stay to dinner?" 

"Oh, yes," replied Redmond, "this is mv 

" I see," said John. 

But after dinner they had a long talk to- 
gether. John sent me to my room, and I was 
glad to go. T walked up and down, crying, I 
must say, most of the time asking forgive- 
ness of myself for my results, and remem- 
bering Laura and Maurice — and then think- 
ing Redmond was mine, with a contraction 
of the heart which threatened to stifle rae. 

John took us up to Leonora's that eve- 
ning ; he said he wanted to see if Puss would 
be tantalized with the sight cf such a beauti- 
ful romantic couple just from fairy-land, who 
were now prepared " to live in peace." 

We were married the next day in a church 
in a by street. John was the only witness, 
and flourished a large silk handkerchief, so 
that it had the effect of a triumphant banner. 
Redmond put the ring on the wrong finger — 
a mistake which the minister kindly rectified. 
All I had new for the occasion was a pair of 

One morning after my marriage, when Red- 
mond and John were smoking together, I was 
turning over some boxes, for I was packing 
to go home on a visit to our mother. I called 
Redmond to leave his pipe and come to me. 

"You have not seen any of my projierty. 
Look, here it is : 

" One bitten handkerchief. 

" A fan never used. 

" A gold pen-holder. 

" A draggled shawl." 

"Margaret," he said, taking my chin in 
his hand and bringing his eyes close to mine, 
" I am wild with happiness." 

" Your pipe has gone out," we heard John 


The East is aflame — the far hill-tops are 
Aurora her portals has flung open wide ; 
The morn is advancing, while zephyi-s are 
She comes with the beauty and grace of a 

The night has but vanished, the stars are just 
Away through the air float the pearl- 
wreaths of mist ; 
But blushing and sparkling she gives us her 
Our cheeks by her sunbeams are lovingly 

The streamlet rejoices with music and danc- 
The birds have jirepared a most sweet 
matin song. 
Bright dew drops are trembling, while sunlight 
is glancing 
From one to another the hill-side along. 

The rose in her royalty's brilliant and 


The lily, so nun-like, bends low on her stem. 

Far off in the distance blue mountains are 


And down in the vale is the lake like a 

The farmer has risen, goes merrily singing. 
Around to the arbor where hangs his tin 
He blows such a blast that the woods are soon 
And echoes are answering back from the 

The little ones awake from slumber refreshing, 
And hail with great pleasure the beautiful 
morn ; 
Such bathing and dressing, such combing and 
Most surely could never before have been 

The ploughmen assemble with laughter and 
Quite promptly obeying the plantation 
rules ; 
As lively at labor as when they are resting. 
Quickly they are seated astride of their 

The cotton's in blossom — the tall corn is silk- 
The wheat has been gathered within the 
The maid with her pail, is prepared for the 
And cunningly coaxes the lacteal flow. 


Tlie Rural Carolinian. 

Far down in the meadow the lambkins are 
The ducks in the pond, and the geese in the 
pool ; 
Away in the woodland the fox-hounds are 
And merrily troop the young children to 

Oh I ye of the town, who surpass us in dress- 

In wit and in fashion, perhap.s, and in grace, 
Know nothing indeed of the God-given 

Of morn in the countiy at the old home- 

Where earth is an Eden, fresh, rosy and 
And man is the "monarch of all he sur- 
Where hours are golden, and pleasures be- 
And- Nature's enchanting in all of her 



People say, Mr. Editor, that there are two 
sides to every question. I intend to demon- 
strate that in the following letter, and then 
you may judge for yourself, whether George 
Augustu.? is (juite such a humbug as " Corne- 
lia " represents him : 

First, as to the oysters : Well, it does look 
a little like being a gourmand, perhaps, but I 
confess that oysters are my weak point. I can 
no more resist a plate of oyster soup than 
Cornelia can, a new dress. That being her 
weakness, I consider it but that I should 
have mine also. One balances the other. I did 
not think it necessary to tell her, but the 
truth is I never paid a dime for those oys- 
ters. They were the result of a bet, won at 
the cock pit. Cornelia lias a foolish preju- 
dice against cock fighting, considers it rather 
" low," in fact, thinks tliat none but rowdies 
go there. Poor thing, let her continue in 
her blissful ignorance ! Wouldn't she open 
her eyes if she saw who goes there ! 

As to being afraid of my motlier-in law, 
well, I always have had a tender, 
and truth comi)elrt me to confess, that to be 
the sad fact, Sliakesi)eare says: '"Tis true, 
'tis pity, and pity 'tis, 'tis true." I am not 
ashamed of it though, for I know many a fel- 
low who is in the same box. Yes, I am 
deathly afraid of her. 1 have been far and 
wide ; I have faced the enemy on many a 
tented ])lain ; I have climlx-d up Greenland's 
icy mountains ; 1 have rolled down Afric's 
golden sands. I have — but enough ! If 

Cornelia's mother were to say to me "George 
Augustus," (she is a big woman, and I a little 
man, and when she glowers down at me, and 
rolls her eyes, it is all I can do to keep my- 
self from bolting out the room,) "here is a 
rope, go and hang yourself in the back piaz- 
za !" I would do it, yes I would ! 

I read such a splendid piece of poetry some 
time ago ; it ran thus : " lie stood on his head 
on the wild sea-shore," and how he saw his 
mother-in-law go away in the ship, " and 
thought she might never come back any 
more." It ha.s been a wonderful comfort to 
me. I say it over to myself, every night, be- 
fore I go to .sleep, and it is so soothing to my 
feelings, and makes me feel like hurrahing 

As to my being a lawyer, and never having 
a case, I should like to know how on earth I 
can help that. Am I to rush out as Eugene 
Wrayburn said in " Our Mutual Friend " and 
collar the first man who passes, and say " Give 
me a case you dog, or I'll blow your brains 
out " ? For unless I do that, I see no means 
whatever of getting a case. My friends are 
distressingly peaceable and certainly my ene- 
mies are not going to employ me- Therefore 
I consider it ungenerous in Cornelia to have 
spoken on that subject at all. 

Yes. I do belong to the "Grange," and 
" Lodge," and to everything else which has 
good dinners, and intend doing so, until we 
get a cook, or my wife stops experimenting. 
They say, everybody is crazy on some one 
point ; I am sure that is Cornelia's mono- 
mania. She is always going to make some 
delightful dish, and she always fails. The 
reason I don't say grace any louder, is because 
I don't have the spirit to do it, after 1 cast 
one glance at dinner. Why, we lived at one 
time, for a week on buckwheat bread, (not 
cakes,) because Cornelia was trying to invent 
some new delicacy in the way of buckwlicat. 
Of course she failed. Buckwheat is fit for 
nothing but cakes. I solemnly declared to 
her, that if it ever came on my table again, 
in the shape of bread, I would get a divorce. 
And I would, too. Human nature could not 
stand it. 

Cornelia belongs to secret societies, too. 
That is to say, she belongs to a Sewing Socie- 
ty. I don't think it is a secret one. I pa.ssed 
by one evening, and a big row wa.s going on 
inside, evidently, from the sounds that came 
out, all quarrelling at once. I was wild to go 
in and see it, but was afraid to venture. I 
could not resist, however, stepping up on the 
jtiazza, and looking through the window. It 
was rich! Cornelia was out on the floor, 
making a speech, and two others — a tall one 
and a short one — were jwuring hot shot into 
her, all going on at tlio same time. From what 
I gathered, it :ii)])e:ired that Cornelia was 
Treasurer, and there was a missing yirt cents 
which she was unable to accoimt for. I hap- 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


pened to have a live cents in my pocket. (I 
wish that liappened a little oftener). I took 
it out and looked at it affectionately, and 
tlioiight to myself, that here I might get a 
fifth of a saucer of ice-cream at McKenzie's, 
or a half-glass of soda-water, or — but my 
better feelings prevailed. Family honor was 
at stake, so I spun the five cents through the 
window, on the floor in the middle of the 
room, and then took to m^'^ heels and ran for 
dear life, and never stopped till I got into my 
office and bolted the door. 

It is so strange, but you know, I can never 
get one of the members of that Society to tell 
me anything about it. I have taken particu- 
lar pains to ask each one how it was getting 
on, but I never can elicit a word of reply 
about it. It is so strange. I wonder what 
is the reason ! 

Hoping that I have fully vindicated myself 
from all the aspersions cast on me, and regret- 
ing if I have not, that I have nothing more 
to say on the subject, 

I remain, etc-, 

Geoege Augustus. 




Mr. Oscar M. Lieber, in his Geological re- 
port to our State Legislature, in 1856, eloquent- 
ly urged land drainage as a matter of such 
public interest as to require the endorsement, 
if not the active legislation of that body. In 
his seventh reason he pertinently and forcibly 

E leads " the resulting improvement in the 
ealth of the country." 

Dr. "Wilson's case and Mr. Lieber's remarks 
refer to the thorough drainage of both up and 
low lands. But, were our own defective sys- 
tem confined, as it is, to drainage by open 
ditches of our low grounds perfected to the 
point of thoroughness, and in some localities, 
extended to include the removal of submerged 
logs and rafts of miscellaneous matter from 
the channels of our sluggish streams, what 
wonderful results would insue. 

Prof. Tuomey, in the report of his Geo- 
logical survey of South Carolina, in 1846, 
mentions an example illustrative of the latter 
suggestion. In which case, when the removal 
of obstructions was completed the water had 
fallen three feet, draining some very valuable 
rich swamps along its banks. The plan is 
simple, feasible and unattended Avith any ex- 
pense of importance, unless more is attempted 
than suggested. 

In the same article, Prof. Tuomey, goes 
on to say ; — " Many of the upper districts 

*Some Thoughts on the Means of Diminishing the 
Prevalence of malarial diseases : an essay read before 
Saluda Grange, No. 22, Patrons of Husbandry, 

present no other possible local cause of disease, 
than the obstruction of these streams and the 
effect of a warm climate upon the rank growth 
that generally line their banks." 

The Hon. Edmund Kuffin, of Virginia, 
who preceded Prof. Tuomey, in the Geologi- 
cal survey, was profoundly impressed with the 
same fact, and in his report, pointed out the 
beneficial effect of their removal. 

The testimony of Dr. S. Geddings, in a 
monograph, the Medical Topography of South 
Carolina, is in strict accord with that cited ; but 
authorities need not be multiplied to demon- 
strate to the people of this section a truism 
that is patent to every observing man. In 
the words of Prof. Tuomey " there is no 
other possible local cause of disease " among 
us. Then shall we not make an eflbrt for 
the removal of these obstructions and the 
sufficient drainage of our lands that must re- 
sult in well stored barns, smiling plenty, and 
wide spread health? We enumerate health 
last, but should it not be Tutored by 
the language of one renowned for his senti- 
ment and feeling can we not exclaim; "Oh 
blessed health ! Thou art above all gold and 
treasure, 'tis thou who enlargest the .soul, and 
openest all its powers to receive instruction 
and to relish virtue. He that has Thee, has 
little more to wish for ! And he that is so 
wretched as to want Thee, wants everything 
with Thee." 

Up to this point the attention of Patrons 
has been called to the prevalence of malaria 
as a source of autumnal fevers. Now, how- 
ever, your essayist would .strengthen his ap- 
peal by asserting without fear of refutation, 
that the dreaded meningitis is a malignant 
Avinter development of the monster, malaria. 
One of the most eminent of medical authori- 
ties, says of the cerebro-spinal-meningitis, " it 
has prevailed in the climates most infested 
with autumnal fevers, and all the localities in 
which it has occurred are subject to that dis- 
ease." In some localities, and under suitable 
conditions it has been treated as a malarious 
disease, and sometimes with obvious success. 
But to a greater extent than other diseases on 
becoming epidemic it frequently assumes an 
intractable form, and is only capriciously 
amenable to any regular system of treatment. 
The nature of its treatment, however, is ir- 
relevant. At a future time individual suscep- 
tibility to this and other malarial influences, 
with the prophylactic means deemed most 
efficient will be presented to your notice. 

With regard to the removal of obstructions 
from the channels of our streams, several of 
the most successful and jiractical farmers of 
this community concur in its feasibility. They 
express the conviction that the performance 
of this duty, in connection with proper ditch- 
ing of our low grounds, will materially in- 
crease the resources of our people, both in 
money and provisions. 


The Rural Carolinian. 

Scientists, geologists, chemist.*, medical men 
and farmers liave been summoned before you; 
and their united testimony plainly indicates 
the course to be pursued. It is not within 
the province of this paper to devise details 
for the successful working of the suggestions. 
It is recommended liowever that a " live " 
Committee be appointed to investigate the 
matter in a preliminary way, with tiie view 
of encouraging and co-operaiing with, any 
practicable measures for increasing our pros- 
perity, and for the abatement of the only sys- 
tem of diseases endemic with us. 

The unexpected length of this paper per- 
mits only a brief allusion to a few other gen- 
eral means of abatement. The drainage of 
the higher swamps, highways and fields is 
quite important, inasmuch as neglecting them 
would impair to some extent the sanitary 
benefits of tidying the low lands and streams. 
Such drainage is, for the most part, to be ac- 
complished through the resources of the in- 
dividual farms ; and the hygienic nature of 
the duty should in)press every farmer with 
the conviction of its necessity. Every plough 
furrow promotes in its less potent way, at 
least, local health by removing superfluous 
surface moi.^ture. The accumulation of fallen 
leaves in our pine and oak forests should be 
collected at certain points, or removed to the 
barn-yard for composting, and finally, tlie 
house-yard, garden and quarters need atten- 
tion to prevent noxious accumulations and 
suppress the growth of rank and baneful weeds. 
Respectfully submitted, 

May 10th, 1873. Medicus. 






The condition known as etiolation, accord- 
ing to Dr. Wm. A. Hammond, in the Sanita- 
rian, is mainly the result of insufficient light, 
and is similar in general features to the 
state induced by deprivation of light in vege- 
tal)les. The blood becomes thin, the fibrin, 
the albumen and the red corpuscles are di- 
minished in quantity, while the water is in- 
crea.sod. The face is discolored, and losing 
its red hue, acquires a tint analogous to that 
of yellow wax. The veins of the skin are no 
longer to be perceived even in those parts 
wliere they are naturally largest and most nu- 
merous. The pulse is very frequent, beating 
at the rate of from ninety to one hundred per 
minute without increasing the lieat of the 
skin, and always being small and weak. Pal- 
pitation of llie heart occurs in paroxysms, 

and the least muscular exertion renders the 
action of the heart .still more frequent. The 
prostration of the forces of life is extreme, 
and it is distressing to see the miserable beings 
thus affected, scarcely capable of sustaining 
their lean and prematurely decrepit bodies. 
They are extremely subject to dropsy, pete- 
chia, and J)assive hajmorrhages, and when 
attacked by any disease, however slight, show 
little recuperative power. 

The most frequent subjects of this condi- 
tion are miners, whose occui)ation shuts them 
off to a great extent from the full influence of 
the sun's ray.s, and the denizens of our crowded 
courts and cellars. There are many of these 
latter places in the city to which the direct 
light of the sun never reaches, and many of 
the inhabitants of which never see a ray of 
sunlight during their infancy and early child- 
hood. A very cursory inspectiot of these 
children reveals the fact that they are weak 
and puny, and the frequent subjects of de- 
formities. Indeed there is no doubt that the 
scrofulous diathesis is often induced by the 
mere deprivation of light. 

These are undeniable facts, and pages on 
pages of similar extracts might be quoted, 
and yet with a full knowledge of them, (or 
in wilful ignorance, which is equally blame- 
worthy,) ladies darken their rooms, exclu- 
ding, as far as possible, the sunshine, and 
when obliged to expose themselves to the full 
light of heaven, they cover their faces with 
heavy vails, for fear of spoiling tkeir complex- 
ions. They court the very evil they desire 
to avoid, for without exposure to sunlight 
there can not pos.sibly be a good complexion. 
It is light which brings out the fresh, rosy 
tints on the fair cheek, and nothing but light 
can do it. "lint it brings out also freckles 
and motii patciies," do you say ? Not where 
the Idood is pure and the system in a healthy 
condition. It will l)ring out or develop such 
hues as the fluids of the body furnish the ele- 
ments for, be they the bloom of the ripened 
peach, or the tawney sliadcs of the russet 
apj)le ; but better freckles and patches tlian 
the sallow, waxy palor of etiolation. 

A Wisconsin paper calls I. L. Donnelly, of 
Minnesota, "' the Great Mugwund of the 
Grangers," whatever they may be. 

Literature, Science and Home Into'ests. 


Our Young Folks. 


I remember wlieii I was a little ten year's 
old girl, putting things to rights for my grand- 
mother in her bed room. A few moments 
afterwards 1 was sitting with my hands folded, 
in a thoughtful way, when the good old lady 
said : " Don't you feel well to-day, dear ?" 

" Not very ; I feel down-hearted," I said 
looking up into her cli|;ery face. 

" AVell, I can tell you what's the matter," 
said tiie shrewd little diplomat, "I wasn't 
going to tell you, but I'd better do it than 
have you sick. I observed in my bed room 
tliat you folded a couple of quilts and some 
sheets and my plaid shawl, and piled tliem 
on the trunk at the foot of my bed, and none 
of them Avere folded evenly, and that's what 
ails you. My mother told me when I was a 
little girl if I did .such work in a careless, 
slovenly way, I would feel badly until they 
were folded right, and I always found her 
words to be true. It may be that this is 
hereditary in our family, I don't know, it 
seems like it." 

I sprang to my feet and went to work and 
folded every quilt and sheet just as evenly as 
the edges could lie, and piled them up until 
they fitted together as snugly as a pile of 
books. Sure ! I felt well enough after that ! 
my thoughts were as calm and snug as the bed 
clothes were. 

Oh, I was so glad grand-mother had told 
me ; I thought if she hadn't I might have 
gone on feeling " down-hearted," may be, for 
weeks and months. 

Well, the habit of folding quilts, sheets, 
blankets, table linen, shawls, wraps and su'^h 
things even and nicely, became fixed so firm- 
ly, and followed me up to woman-hood so 
persistently, that to-day, if I fold my shawl 
carelessly, I feel annoyed until I go and 
remedy the delinquency. I can see now the 
motive my shy little grand-mother had in 
holding up before my youthful imagination 
the enormity of this fault and I do most cor- 
dially thank her for it. — Ex. 

and tries to help him as the hairs of old age 
gather fast upon his brow. 

The richest boy is tlie one who has pluck 
to fight^his destiny and future. He is the one 
who has the manliood to do right and be 
honest, and is striving to be somebody ; who 
is al)0ve doing a mean action — who would not 
tell a lie to screen himself or betray a friend. 
He is the boy who has a heart for others ; 
whose young mind is full of noble thoughts 
for the future, and is determined to win a 
name by good deeds. This is the richest boy 
in America. Which one of our readers is it? 

This boy we like ; we would be glad .to see ; 
would like to take by tlie hand and tell him 
to go on earnestly, that success might crown 
his eflbrts. And if he is a poor boy, we shall 
meet at the threshhold, bid him enter, and 
give him good advice, well and kindly meant. 
That otlier rich boy, in New England, we 
don't care anything about, for there are fools 
and snobs enough to worship and spoil him. 


The papers are telling about a boy in New 
England, now sixteen years of age, who is 
supposed to be the richest boy in America, 
because he has a great amount of money. To 
our mind the richest boy in the United States 
is the one who is good-hearted, honest, intelli- 
gent, ambitious, and willing to do right. He 
is the one who loves his mother, and always 
had a kind word for her ; who loves his sis- 
ter or sisters, and tries to help them, and re- 
gards them with true affection. He is the boy 
that does not call his father the "old man," but 
who loves him, speaks kindly to and of him, 

Fable for the Juveniles. — In the 
depth of a forest there lived two foxes who 
never had a cross word with each other. One 
of them said, in the politest language, " Let's 

"Very well, but how shall we set about it ?" 
said the other. 

" Oh, it cannot be difhcult," said fox No.l, 
'' two-legged people fall out, why not weV" 

So they tried all sorts of ways, but it could 
not he done, because each would give way. 
At last No. 1 fetched two stones. 

" There," said he, " you say they're yours, 
and I'll say they're mine. Now I'll begin. 
Those stones are mine." 

" Very well," answered the other, " you 
are welcome to them." 

" But we shall never quarrel at this rate," 
cried the other, jumping up and licking his 
face. " You old simpleton, don't you know 
that it takes two to make a quarrel any day." 

So they gave it up as a bad job, and never 
tried to play at this silly game again. — Chil- 
dren's Hour. 

New Sheet Music for the Patron.s. 1. " The 
Farmers' Song." Words and music by Miss 
•Julia Leverett, of Columbia, S. C This is 
the first prize song mentioned lately by us, 
and we hope will be heard in all our Granges, 
and in every music-loving family. 2. " The 
Patrons of Husbandry,' ' a song. Words by 
Geo. Cooper ; music by Henry Tucker. 3, 
"Songof the Granges," (prize song.) Words 
by Mary F. Tucker ; music by H. P. Donks. 
4. " National Grange Quick Step," arranged 
for the Piano Forte, by A. Sickle. 


The Rural Carolinian. 

Notes and Memoranda. 

"Pratique des Engrais Cliemiqiies suivrint 
le systeme Georges Ville. Par Louis Mussa, 
Professeur d' Agronomic. Paris : Librarie 
Agricole de la Maison Rustique. 1873." We 
are indebted to the learned and talented au- 
thor, whom our readers well remember as 
the contributor of the article on " Some An- 
tiquated Blunders in Eural Science," which 
appeared in a late number of the Rural 
Carolinian, for a copy of this new addition 
to the literature of agricultural chemistry. 
Prof. Ville, in a brief introduction, speaks in 
the highest terms of the work and its accom- 
plished author. It certainly embodies a very 
excellent practical exposition of the subject 
of chemical fertilizers, from the point of view 
occupied by M. Ville and his disciples. Of 
the merits of the system adopted by them, 
and defended with so much ability, it is not 
our purpose to speak at this time. In future 
numbers, we intend to give our readers a 
taste of the quality of the work by means of 
some translated extracts. 

" Songs for the Grange ; set to music and 
dedicated to the Order of Patrons of Hus- 
bandry in the United States." By C A. Hall. 
This is a new edition of the Grange Song 
Book, with twenty-eight new songs added* 
making now a very creditable selection, well 
deserving the patronage of the Order. 

The Eclectic for October, is an excellent 
number. The frontispiece is a fine portrait 
of the French President, Marshal McMahon, 
which tlie editor accompanies with a sketch 
of his life ; and the opening chapters are 
given of a new novel by Ivan Turgenieff", enti- 
tled "Spring Floods." Turgenieff stands 
now at the head of European novelists, and 
the present story has been translated from 
the Russian cspeci.illy for the Eclectic. Pub- 
lished by E. R. Pelton, 108 Fulton street, 
New York. Terras, $5 a year; two copies, 
$9. Single number, 46 cents. 

Srribner's Monthly possesses uncommon in- 
terest at present, on account of the series of 
illustrated papers on "The Great South," 

now in course of publication in its pages. 
The subject of the October number is " The 
Paris of America" — New Orleans — and is in- 
teresting not less for its written descriptions 
than for its pictorial illustrations. New York ; 
Scribner & Co. ; S4 a year. 

The Popular Science Monthly, for October, 
came promptly to hand, as it always does, 
and it is always just \diat it claims to be — a 
popular exposition of the scientific progress 
of the age. This number closes the third 
volume, and now is a good time to send in 
subscriptions for the next. D. Appleton & 
Co., New York ; So a year. 

Oliver Optic's Magazine is the standard 
magazine for young folks. It is never light 
and trashy, and never heavy and dull. The 
editor knows just what boys and girls like — 
no doubt he was a boy once himself — and he 
gives them such reading as will interest, and 
at the same time instruct them. Lee «fe Shep- 
ard, Boston ; ."5 a year. 

The Science of Health, a monthly hygienic 
publication, advocates Nature's remedial 
agencies, air-light electricity, diet, bathing, 
exercise, etc., and ignores drug,s, tea, cofifee, 
and alcohol. It may be a little too " hobby- 
ish," but, nevertheless, abounds in useful in. 
struotion and good advice. New York, Sam'l 
R. Wells ; S2 a year. 


Descriptive catalogue of Fruit and Orna- 
mental Trees, Shrubs, Roses, Evergreens, 
Flowering Plants, etc. P. J. Berckmans, 
Fruitland Nurseries, Augusta, Geo. Sent 

Descriptive Catalogue of Fruit and Orna- 
mental Trees, Grape Vine.s, Roses, Ever- 
greens, etc. C C Langdon & Co., Langdon 
Nurseries, near Mobile, Ala. Sent free. 

Descriptive Catalogue of Fruit and Orna- 
mental Trees, Grape Vine.s, Evergreens, Flow- 
ering Shrubs, etc M.Cole & Co., Atl.mta 
Nurseries, Atl.anta, (Jeo. Sent free. 

Dreer's Descriptive Catalogue of Bulbs, 
Plants, etc. Henry A, Dreer, 714 Chestnut 
street, Phila<lelphia, Sent free. 

Stump t/ifj World Potcli. 

Progress with Prudence, Practice with Science. 

Vol. v.] CHARLESTON, S. C, NOVEMBER, 1873. 

[No. li. 

Practical Suggestions on \A/'intering Stock.'' 

In our highly favored land of genial sunshine during the spring, summer and 
fall months, when our native grasses spring forth and clothe the ground in living 
green — when we see the sleek fat herds and flocks revelling in rich pastures, we 
are apt to forget ourselves, and imagine that such scenes will last the year I'ound. 
But before we are aware there come= a frost — " a killing frost " — and then what a 
change ! Rich pastures no longer abound, but blackness covers the face of the 
earth ; these herds and flocks come home no longer with well filled frames and 
distended udders, but, like man's great adversary, wander to and fro, seeking what 
they may devour. They grow thinner day by day, and when food can no longer 
be found in the fields, stand around the poorly filled barn to receive their scanty 
supply of straw, or perchance are left to shiver and die in the cold winter winds 
and rains. Then we are brought face to face with a stern reality. The question 
arises, how shall we supply their wants, and do so most economically till another 
season of sun and grass rolls round ? ' 

The first matter that should receive our consideration is the subject of protection 
from the inclement Avinter weather and storage room for forage. Because of the 
shortness and mildness of our winters, as compared to those of the North, no expen- 
sive buildings are necessary, but some protection is absolutely demanded. The 
practice of a great many of our Southern farmers, of providing no shelter even for 
their domestic animals, is certainly very reprehensible. When properly protected 
and cared for they thrive so much better, so much less food is consumed and 
wasted, the feeding is made so much easier, and so much disease and death is pre- 
vented, that I cannot see how farmers and planters can do without suitable barns 
and stables. Rest and a warm bed are substitutes for food to a considerable extent, 
and to show the pecuniary advantage of attending to the comforts of our animals 

* Written by Col. Thomas J. Moore, of Spartanburg, and read before the State Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical Society, at its Spring Session, April, 1873. 

No. 2, Vol. 5. 6 

58 Practical Suggestions on Wintering Stock. 

and the expediency of providing for their proper slielter from the severe weather, 
I beg to refer to some experiments bearing upon this subject by some English gen- 
tlemen. First, by Lord Ducie : One hundred sheep were fed twenty pounds of 
turnips per day imder a shed, another hundred were fed twenty-five pounds in the 
open air, and at the expiration of a certain time the former weighed three pounds 
more than the latter. Secondly, by Mr. Childers, M. P., who details that he placed 
under shed twenty wethei*s, and fed twenty others of same weight, at first, as the 
first lot, in the open field, from January 1st to April 1st, giving to each lot exactly 
the same quantity of food, and found that the sheep in the shed, though consuming 
one-fifth less food, made more than one-third greater progress. 

I earnestly urge, therefore, having in view the limited amount of stock we must 
necessarily keep, and with an eye to strict economy, that substantial, though cheap 
buildings, be erected. I know of none more suited to our wants, and cheaper than 
plain hewn logs, of sufiicient size to hold a winter's supply of forage, with enclosed 
sheds on three sides, the lower part of the main building to be used as a feeding 
room and for grain bins. In the vicinity of saw mills the buildings could be made 
cheaper by framing. Should more room be required, two sides of the yard or lot 
might be enclosed with long low sheds, weather boarded on the outside, and form- 
ing, with the main buildings, three sides of a square, having the fourth side open to 
the south. 

There is economy in having a place for every animal, and every one in its place. 
All on the farm should be brought to the same yard. ^Ye should consult our 
ease and comfort as well as theirs. An old cow there, the sow and pigs over yonder, 
the small yearling cattle at one place, the larger ones at another, the horses and 
mules here, and the sheep a half mile off — all, through mud and rain, make the 
farmer's winter life a perfect drudge and misery, especially when his forage runs 
scarce. What wonder, then, that his poor animals are unlooked after and uncared 


Having comfortably housed these, we next inquire how they may be most eco- 
nomically supplied with good food during the winter months. This, it occurs to 
me, involves our whole system of husbandry, and the subject of grain and grass 
culture in our State. If the grasses can be grown here, there can be no com])ari- 
son between them, or more properly hay and grain, as we usually raise the hitter 
in an economic point of view. Grass is at the bottom of all successful stock- 
raising, and especially winter keeping. A French writer has well said that the 
term grass is but another name for beef, mutton, bread and clothing, or, as the Bel- 
gian proverb has it. " No gra.«s, no cattle; no cattle, no manure; no manure, no 
crop.s." But Flint, in his book on " Grasses and Forage Plants," says " experi- 
ment has very satisfactorily proved the impossibility of carrying the Englisli and 
Northern grasses under the exces.sive tenqjerature found in the Southern States." 
My experience leads me to conclude the same in the main, with the exception that 
a few of them under favorable circumstances can be grown, and that very profit- 
ably by us. Clover (red) upon highly manured lots of red lands, or clays of 
almost any color, or upon any lands hot too sandy, linu*! and plastered, to make 
assurance doubly sure, will yield an amount of valuable forage perfectly astonish- 

Practical Sugr/est'ions on Wintering Stock. 59 

iug to one who lias never tried it. So, too, with orchard grass, and herds grass 
upon low damp clay lands. The last two furnish excellent grazing as well as hay, 
and afford a luscious bite long before anything else, and even in mid winter, on 
warm days, grows rapidly. Ked clover pays best for mowing. 

Beyond these I do not think prudent to advance. I ventured several times on 
a somewhat extended scale, and failed just so many times. When now, therefore, 
I read agricultural writers on rotations of crops, urging a grass shift, I " laugh in 
my sleeve." But as we cannot, in our present state of agriculture, produce a suffi- 
ciency by these means, we must turn our attention more to our native grasses, and 
the production of our staple crops — Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats and barley. 
Experience and observation teach us that it is poor economy to buy what should 
be produced on our farms, and I am satisfied that he who pursues a diversi- 
fied sj'stem of crops, in which the small grains enter largely, will most econom- 
ically feed his stock, not only winter, but summer also, and will gradually 
grow rich, while his neighbor of cotton proclivities will grow poorer. My plan 
has been, and still is, not to plant more than-one third of the whole place in 
cotton; all bottom lands in corn, except when high enough for an occasional 
sowing down, by way of rest and accumulation of vegetable matter, supplement- 
ing the bottom with manured upland corn to as small an extent as possible, the 
balance in wheat and oats, mostly. Barley, rye and clover in manured lots, and 
rest. The same plan will be continued, with the exception of the substitution of 
oats for the upland corn, if Cuffee will agree. By this plan the place has been 
made self-sustaining, and the cotton was the profit. 

I find it cheaper to raise corn and pull fodder than buy them — the first, at one 
dollar per bushel ; the second at one to two dollars per hundred pounds, and haul 
a distance of ten miles. But I would not urge the raising of corn and pulling of 
foddei-, except on lands suited to it, as substitutes can be had so much cheaper and 
more abundantly in oats and other small grains, and hay from clover, native crab 
grass, swamp grasses, and the straw from the small grain. The latter, though 
generally wasted, is of great value. It should be housed or well stacked after 
threshing, and can be made to supply the place of fodder and hay. Aside from 
its nutritive value, there is great economy in feeding it, when other and better long 
forage gets scarce or runs out, in connection with the more centrated food of the 
grains, from the important function it performs in keeping the stomach distended 
and the digestive faculties in good working order. Without some bulky food indi- 
gestion takes place, and the animal languishes. Dr. Voelcker truly observes that 
the most nutritious food produces no effect when not digested, or if digested, is not 
absorbed by the lymphatic vessels, and not assimilated by the various j^arts of the 
body. Now this digestion, by means of which this absorption and assimilation 
takes place, depends not only on the composition of the food, but on its volume ; 
it must be bulky. Let those who buy their supplies of corn and hay stick a pin 

In order that we may thoroughly understand the comparative values of the 
different substances under discussion, I have compiled from Boussingault's Tables 


Practical Suggestions on Wintering Stock. 

of ^Nutritive Equivalents, the following, which will give the whole matter at a 
glance in a nutshell, viz : 

Articles of Food. Xutritive Equivalent. 

English Hav 1.00 

Red Clover Hav 75 

Red Clover (green) 3.11 

Rye Straw 4.79 

AVheat Straw 4 26 

Oat Straw 3.S3 

Barley Straw .....4.60 

Pea Straw 64 

Articles of Food. Nntritive Equivalent. 

Turnips, (Swedish) 6.76 

Peas 27 

Indian Corn 70 

Barley 65 

Oats..'. 60 

Rye 58 

Wheat 55 

Thus, it will be seen, taking hay as the standard of comparison, that 
one hundred pounds are equivalent to seventy-five pounds of clover hay or three 
hundred and eleven pounds green clover, or of the straws ranging from sixty-four 
pounds pea to four hundred and sixty pounds barley, or of the grains, from 
twenty-seven pounds peas to seventy pounds Indian corn. It will be further seen 
that clover hay is almost equal in nutritive value to corn, seventy-five pounds of 
the former being equal to seventy pounds of the latter ; also that one pound clover 
hay equals about five pounds oat straw, or five and five-seventh pounds of wheat 
straw ; also that corn is the least nutritious of the grains, seventy pounds being 
equivalent to twenty-seven of peas, fifty-five of wheat, sixty of oats, sixty-five of 
barley, and as compared with oat straw, stands as one to five and one-half Accord- 
ing to this table, an acre of clover, making two tons of hay, yields the equivalent 
of sixty-six and two-third bushels of corn. When, therefore, we take into con- 
sideration the difference in the cost of production we see the great importance and 
economy of pushing clover raising to the utmost. I have no means of ascertain- 
ing the comparative value of crab grass hay, but infer from the avidity with which 
it is eaten by stock, when properly cured, that it is as nutritious as herds grass or 
of any of the kindred varieties. It grows luxuriantly upon my stubble lands that are 
rich enough when the seasons are propitious. It is the cheapest of all hay since 
it costs nothing but saving. If it is desired, an abundance of it can be raised by 
ploughing stubble or rest lands in May and June, and manuring with some active 
nitrogeneous manure. If the mowing machine be used, the cost in the first case 
is almo.-^t nothing. 

I said that the small grains furnished cheaper food than corn. Of those oats 
stand at the head, and are eventually destined to take the place of the upland corn 
crop. They are more easily raised, and preserve the land by preventiiiLT witshing 
and furnishing vegetable matter to the soil. They are rai.sed most t-lu'aply, sown 
in the latter part of August and September, in the standing corn and cotton. They 
may be sown upon stubble lands or lands at rest, after they have been turned over. 
The variety should be liardy and ru.^t \)nn)i'. The "Egyptian Red" has been both, 
in my hands, till the present, when they were winter killed, though sown in August 
and .September, which resulted from too shallow covering. The seed should be 
put from one-and-a-half to two inches in the ground, iu the up-country, where I 

Fertilizers, Domestic and Commercial, and How to Apply Them. 61 

live, but further Soutli may be put in with the sweep. The " Georgia Grazing 
Oats" are more hardy, and, though sown at the same time and in the same manner 
as the other, has stood the winter finely. They are subject, however, to rust. 

Barley and rye, barley especially, on rich lot, yields immensely, and if sown in 
the early fall will furnish excellent grazing, and still make fine crops. The oats 
and wheat may be also grazed by animals of such soft tread and tender bite as 
sheep, almost the entire winter. I have kept a flock one of hundred for the last 
two winters upon them without a single feed, except when snow covered the ground. 
"With our native crab grass and clover hay for wet times, they may be thus kept 
at very little cost by anybody, and I sincerely hope the day is not far distant when 
proper fence laws will be enacted and protection from hogs guaranteed, in order 
that we may carry out fully what we teach, in reference to them. 

In conclusion, I desire to say further, that it is poor economy to undertake to 
winter too much stock. A few well kept pay a great deal better. I hope for the 
sake of humanity, that more attention will be given to the winter care of stock, 
and that when King Cotton has been dethroned, and the diversifying of crops be 
better understood, that peace and plenty will reign around our homes, and our 
beloved old State be made to " blossom as the rose" once more. 

Fertilizers, Domestic and Commercial, and How to Apply 


There are very few soils so fertile as to dispense with manure of some kind. 
When such soils do exist, by repeated cropping and removing the produce, they 
will be eventually worn out, unless replenished in some way. A soil to be produc- 
tive must contain soluble earths, and by repeated croppings some of these soluble 
parts will become just as certainly exhausted as a corn crib v.'hich is continually 
used out of, and to which no corn is returned, will get empty. All earths are not 
soluble, and consequently cannot be good for plants, and those which ai'e soluble 
enter into the composition of vegetables in different proportions. No soil contains 
them in equal abundance, and if a soil is exhausted of only one of these parts 
which enter into the composition of a vegetable, it must inevitably cease to pro- 
duce that plant. By the continued planting and removing of the growth of a 
soil, some one of these parts will sooner or later become exhausted, and when this 
deterioration commences, it goes on with accelerated speed. There is no portion of 
South Carolina with which I am acquainted that is not benefited by manuring. Of 
the whole State, I do not know any section which absolutely requires higher cvdture 
and more constant manuring than that portion in which I live, and I doubt if any 
have paid greater attention or made more constant efforts in that direction than 
the planters of Orangeburg, So highly are all fertilizers valued that cotton seed 
cannot be bought at anything like a reasonable figure. Every planter selling a 

* An essay read before the State Agricultural and Meclianical Society of South Carolina, 
at its spring session, April, 1873, by Paul S. Felder, Esq. 

62 Fertilizers, Domestic and Commercial, and How to Apply Them. 

bushel feels that he is robbing his soil and addiug to the purchaser's. (The first 
thing noticed by a planter in Orangeburg is the location of the lot and its advan- 
tages for making manure.) So certain are our seasons, and so few are the casual- 
ties, that we judge the crop we are going to make by the size of the manure pile 
and the fertilizers that we intend to buy. I have never planted a crop without 
manuring the land ; in fact, I would as soon think of working ray horse without 
feeding him, and I have never failed to receive compound interest on all fertilizers 
either bought or made at home. Yet, in the face of all this, and although I have 
been planting and manuring twenty-eight years, I never have had a question pro- 
pounded upon which I am so ignorant, and which I find so difficult to answer, as 
the one now under consideration. 

To me there seems to be no rivalry between the domestic and commercial 
manures. I have always used both in the same field. Never separated them. Now 
the question is, or at least the first to be answered is, " "Which is the cheapest fer- 
tilizer, whether domestic or commercial ?" That places on one hand the lot and 
stable, and on the other Peru and the phosphates. I am called upon to decide 
between them, when I use all my spare time to make the one, and all my spare 
money to buy the other, and have never had enough. It is easy enough to tell the 
cost of commercial fertilizers. I only have to look at my factor's bill ; but how 
cheap it is, that is another question. To estimate the result. The field is so large, 
and the expanse so groat that I cannot see to the end of it. It is not how much 
more cotton has it made the land produce this year, but how much has it improved 
the land also, and how much better and more efficient labor can be commanded in 
consequence, and how much more cotton seed it will add as domestic manure, and 
how much it will enhance the value of the lauds and the reputation and the credit 
of the planter follow. Mr. President, who can calculate it? It rises to my 
view like mountain behind mountain until I am lost in its contemplation. But, 
sir, I will endeavor to give my experience in figures and facts ivs nearly as possible. 
I can only approximate as I have never kept any detailed account of my opera- 
tions. I have never weighed or measured a load of manure or counted the loads 
to the acre. But what I do know is that with the use of domestic manure and 
commercial fertilizers in connection in three years I brought my land up from two 
hundred pounds seed cotton and five bushels corn per acre to one thousand pountls 
of seed cotton, and from fifteen to twenty bushels of corn to the acre. I will try 
to make an estimate of the cost of lot and stable manure, and to do this I will have 
to give my process of making it. So far as littering the stable is concerned that 
may be put down as nothing. It is necessary for the comfort and good kee})ing of 
the animals stabled. Also the feed and feeding cannot be charged to the nuiking 
of manure. Thaerin his " Principles of Agriculture" says an animal in tlio*J;tal)le 
will make double the w-eight of his feed in manure, and my experience is, a load of 
manure for every wagon load of litter hauled in. The i)lan pursued was on a damp 
day to take all hands, some with hoes to .scrape up leaves, top soil and decaying 
limbs, and the others hauling it in and scattering it over the lot in which I penned 
my cattle. I put clean straw in the stables. This was done mostly in the fall 
on wet days when no other work could be carried on advantageously. About the 

Fertilizers, Domestic and Commercial, and How to A}yply Them. 63 

first of December, in damp weather, I began to throw it up iuto one Large pile, mix- 
ing in the stable manure. When about half done I selected some two or three old 
cattle which I thought it would cost more to Avinter than they were worth, and in 
a large stock there are always such. I killed and skinned them and put them 
upon the pile. I then threw on the top enough stable manure to cover them well. 
After which I finished my pile, completing it with lot scrapings. After each rain, 
as the liquor settled in the low place, I had it dipped up and thrown over the pile, 
by pouring it into a broad trough, with holes bored about in the bottom. About the 
first of January I began to haul out, putting say eight four horse loads to the acre. 
Thaer says, that thirty-six cubic feet or two thousand pounds is a load. 

My fields are close to my lot, so two hands can haul easily eight loads per 
day. I will put that down at fifty cents per load, make in the hauling four dollars. 
One hand can scatter an acre say fifty cents for that. The piling and hauling in we 
will say costs one dollar. We tanned the skin of the animal buried, and that pays 
for that — so we have the cost per acre, five dollars and fifty cents. I will remark 
here that the animals buried will have entirely disappeared in three or four weeks, 
even the bones will all be gone, except the very large ones. If there is any smell 
a little plaster corrects it. That manuring will be equal to two hundred pounds of 
phosphate or guano, which will cost about seven dollars. It is my opinion that 
land dressed with the domestic manure will improve the faster. The great difficulty 
is in making domestic manure enough. One horse will only manure one acre. A 
cow in a year will manure the same. In my planting I preferred to use both 
together in the proportion of six loads of domestic and sixty pounds of commercial 

My average crop, with that, was one thousand pounds seed cotton to the acre. 
Last year I made as fine a crop as I ever made by the use of stable manure, plaster, 
cotton seed and acid phosphate, composted in equal quantities. 

One year, I took six hands, two with axes, to cut the oak saplings, and the 
others to gather and burn ashes ; worked one day. The cost, at fifty cents per 
hand, is three dollars. I put that on half an acre of land. On another half acre 
I put three dollars' worth of guano, and on another three dollars' worth of Rhodes' 
superphosphate. The ashes made twenty pounds the most cotton. Ploughing 
under cow peas, weeds, or any vegetation, when in bloom, is a cheap and good 
fertilizer. The cow pea is now used with marked success in the sugar-cane fields 
of Louisiana. Cotton, planted after a green crop ploughed in, continues green 
and bears longer than when manured with commercial fertilizers alone. No fer- 
tilizer is cheaper than trampling land by penning stock upon it, but it should be 
first broken up. Gathering the mud, grass and rotted vegetation in the eddies and 
streams, is equal to lot manure, and, where the location is convenient, makes e 
cheap fertilizer. Domestic manure is a more perfect fertilizer than the mineral 
manures can be. Thaer, in his " Principles of Agriculture," says, manures act upon 
the soil in two ways. First, by communicating to it those juices which are calcu- 
lated for the nutrition of plants and vegetables. Second, by the chemical action 
which they exercise on those substances contained in the soil decomposing them, and 
re-combining them under new forms, and thus facilitating their introduction into 

64 Fertilizers, Domestic and Commercial, and Hotv to Apply Them. 

the suckers of plante. Every organic body is formed by the combinatiou of these 
four or more elemeutary substances, united by vital power in certain proportiojis. 
All organic substances which have entered into a state of putrefaction of decom- 
position, contain tlie elements necessary for the reproduction and perfection of the 
vegetal)les which we cultivate. Now our domestic manure contains these organic 
substances in a state of decomposition, and "it not only contains all those sub- 
stances in itself necessary to the vegetation of plants, but it also favors the decom- 
position of the insoluble humus and communicates a greater degree of energy to 
the vegetation of plants." 

Mineral manures, which do not contain any organic bodies, act solely, or at 
least essentially, by improving the texture of the soil, rendering those parts of it 
soluble which were previously-insoluble, and favoring and accelerating decomposi- 
tion. Now we see from the above that mineral manures aru not and cannot be 
perfect fertilizers, as they are lacking in organic substances, and consequently must 
exhaust the land of some necessary ingredient for the growth of plants, and unless 
this is supplied, the lands will ultimately cease to be productive. So if one of the 
essentials for the growth of a vegetable is lacking in the soil it would be impossi- 
ble to grow it until supplied, and that essential may be wanting in a manufactured 
commercial fertilizer. It could not be so in the domestic fertilizer, because it con- 
tains all of the organic ingredients necessary, having been a vegetable before, 
and when it lost its vitality and decayed, none of these parts are destroyed, but 
remain to recombine in some living plant. Although these mineral manures may 
push forward vegetation more rapidly, yet does it not soon cease to bear and shed 
its leaves, and may that not be for the want of some part exhausted from the soil 
and not contained in the commercial fertilizer? This supposition is strengthened by the 
fact that new lands or lauds rich in vegetable matter are not apt to rust. As you see, 
Mr. President, I rather incline to domestic manures, but yet I do not condemn the 
commercial. I have always used them, and intend doing so as long as I have 
means to purchase. In short, I would not plant without them, but I would not 
have them to supersede the others. I think both are vahui])le, more viilualjle 
together than either one alone. Having now given what I know of this part of 
the subject, I will proceed to the latter part, viz : 

The best manner and time of application. 

The plan I have finally settled upon, after repeated trials, is this : I run a turning 
plough on each side of the old bod, throwing the dirt in the middle and bui-st out 
the ridg(!, where the stock grew, with tlie third furrow. I then .scatter my domestic 
manure in that furrow and cover it immediately by throwing two furrows on it. 
This I do as early as possible, for the sooner domestic manure is put out the better. 
IJ)egin in January to haul out, and I never let it stand exposed in the field, and 
I never clean out my stables until I form my compost heap. When planting time 
comes I trench that ridge over the manure and put in the commercial fertilizer and 
break out the balance of the land. I then trench or chop and put in the seed. I 
then work the crop, never taking dirt from the cotton or corn, but always jjutting 
a little to it. I think it doa-< best to put in all the fertilizers before planting. I 
have tried them after the crop wius under way, but could never see but that it was 

Hints far Agricultural Headers and Writers. 65 

time and manure lost. By adopting that plan the yield of my land is exactly in 
proportion to the amount of fertilizers used. The domestic manure absorbs and 
holds moisture enough to make the crop, having all of the wet months of spring 
for that purpose. 

Hints for Agricultural Readers and Writers. 

" Yes, I knew it all before you were born," says an old farmer, closing the paper 
and turning away from the charitable attempts of some enthusiastic tyro to inform 
others what he thinks may be a good thing in agriculture. " I knew it before he 
was born," and this shuts the door, so far as he is concerned, to anything that has 
been invented since the year one, of the bullet-head era. Of course you knew it all, 
and the wonder is that your not particularly intellectual looking head should con- 
tain so much. 

You knew it all, so did you learn a b c once upon a time, though the acquisi- 
tion never was of much service. But is that a reason why a b c should not be 
taught — no, never? Is that a reason why spelling books should be interdicted 
and suppressed ? You sit at a large table and complain, " the butter has been 
around once ; I knew what butter was before you all were ; I have it by me, and 
I won't sit at table where you are always passing the butter." 

Friend, butter your bread on both sides ; learn a b c once again with advan- 
tage ; don't quarrel with tyro because he thinks he has found a gold mine, and 
wants to tell every one how to dig it. He wants his lamp to illuminate far and 
near, while yours is but a bull's eye that throws its rays only on your own path. 
He wants to do all the good he can. His facts are like lumps of sugar in a punch ; 
he wants to stir them until all who taste can tell that the sugar is there. He is a 
Samaritan who would rescue his neighbor, and is excusable, if in his enthusiasm 
he sometimes overdoes the matter, while you are satisfied if yourself, and, perhaps, 
a few immediate friends, know enough of tillage to live. 

You, perhaps, of several score years, may learn something new m the last years 
of your life from him, for he is obliged to know some things by accident, if not 
otherwise. Not only this, but he writes for thousands no more skilful or expe- 
rienced than himself. Yes, perhaps, ten such, to one who will say — " I knew it all 

On the other hand, the tired farmer is not much to be blamed, if he, taking up 
a paper after dinner to find som% interesting paragraph, or some plain little talk 
that he may digest with the meal, finds page after page of the illimitable skylark- 
ing of some musty professor, who has evidently never been out of the city ; or leaf 
after leaf of a subject as boundless as the ocean, as muddy as a duck pond, and 
so weak that a tank-full evaporated wouldn't leave a spoonful of salt ; whereby 
trying to reach the top, or to touch bottom or sides, Avould be but a nightmare and 
a torture. 

Many young farmers in this enlightened age like to read in odd spells of time, 
but there are but few who have the time to find the matter, if a multitude of words 


Ec- Governor Brown of Georgia, on Clover. 

encompass it like an Egyptian fog. If formers are to be told in books how to 
make a hill of potatoes, tliey don't want to begin at the creation, and end with the 
millenninra. Writers who have the information, and have the faculty of being 
concise are invaluable, and those who are unable to be so should submit to pruning, 
until a wearied working mau may read. Information in agricultural papers should 
not be sputtered out so much like the contents of a squi»t, that no one can tell 
whether it be wind or water, but the focts should come out clear like pistol bullets, 
unencumbered by too much wadding. M. L. BALDWIN. 

Orangeburg, September 8th, 1873. 

Ex-Governor Brown, of Georgia, on Clover.* 

I am satisfied our people are neglecting their best interests, whenever they neg- 
lect to cultivate largely of grasses, as it is scarcely any labor to make the grass 
crop, and it is the most availal)le made on the land when produced. A word as 
to the mode of sowing and cultivating it : I have never, in a single instance, failed 
to get a good stauji when I have sowed in March, with oats. I prepare my laud 
thoroughly; then sow the oats and plough them in; and, after they are ploughed 
in — when I would be ready to leave the field, if I only intended to make an oat 
crop — I sow down the clover seed upon the fresh-ploughed land, at the rate of a 
bushel of clean seed to six acres, and brush them in with a brush cut in the woods 
near by, having a heavy top, which makes a light load for two horses — running 
over, covering the seed, and leveling the ground, as our fathers formerly did their 
turnip patches. A bushel to six or seven acres is more than is usually put upon 
land, but I have found it, in the end, much the cheapest to put on enough seed to 
be sure to get a good stand the first year. Some object to covering it with brusli, 
and say it does just as well to sow it on wheat, or even on land unprepared, and 
leave the seed on the top of the ground. If sowed in the snow on wheat, which 
Ave seldom have here, or if sowed in a very rainy time, this will do ; but take one 
year after another, and risk the sciison, and it is entirely too uncertain. 

Of an ordinary season, the clover will, the year it is sowed, grow up a consider- 
able height before frost, if the land is good ; and with it will be a good coat of crab 
grass, and a considerable crop of weeds. Just before frost, I put my two-horse 
mower in and cut all this down, and dry it and stack it, and it nxakes a line crop 
of hay. The stock will eat all the young clover and the cral) grass, and even the 
tops of the rag-weeds, when they are cut green and dried with the hay. Enl not 
the least benefit from this course is the fine order iu which your laud is left for 
mowing in the spring. If you do not cut down the gnuss.and weed crop in the fall, 
you will find, in the spring, that the large, dry weeds are very much in your way, 
and it will be necessary to employ hands to gather them and pile them out of the 
way, before you can reap your crop of clover. 

* Extracts from a speech before the Georgia State Agricultural Coii\'eiUion at Rome, (Ja., 
AuguHt 11th, 1871. 

The Pyracantha, or Evergreen Thorn, as a Hedge Plant 67 

In reference to the quality of land best adapted to its growth, I state that, in my 
opinion, it docs best upon stiif, black, rich river bottom, which needs no manure to 
make a good crop. If you put it on uplands, and expect a good crop, you must 
manure your land well before you sow ; and when it is once set with clover, if you 
cultivate it properly, you may keep it perpetually rich. If you have poor lands, 
and wish to enrich them with clover, you must turn over several successive crops 
in the green state, giving them to the laud ; and, if you have the patience in this 
way you can soon improve it until it will produce a good crop for use, and may 
then keep your land rich for the future. But you need not expect a heavy crop 
of clover on poor land, any more than you may expect a heavy crop of any other 

sort. , 

My judgment, however, is, that clover is the best of all fertilizers. It enriches 
the land, and continues to keep it rich, if you continue to alternate the clover with 
other crops, or to run it a considerable portion of time iu clover. 

The first two acres which I sowed in river bottom, in Cherokee County, as an ex- 
periment, were sowed in the middle of a corn field, that it might be sure not to be 
pastured the first year. With the clover, I sowed some herd's-grass seed. For 
three successive years I got heavy crops of clover from the land. The clover de- 
cidedly predominated over the herd's-grass. On the fourth year, the crop was 
pretty equally divided between the two ; and the fifth year it was about three- 
fourths herd's grass. 

• As already stated, you do not pasture it the first year, and your first crop is 
saved, the next spring after it is sowed. That year you may mow it twice, and the 
next year twice. The third year you should cut the first crop and save it for hay, 
and you should turn the second crop under with a two-horse turning plough, giv- 
ing it to the soil, and either sow it in wheat that fall, which is probably best, or 
cuUivate it in corn, the next spring. It should not stand more than three years, 
without being turned under, as the fourth year's crop will not be a very good one, 
and the wild growth and broom sedge will become troublesome by the fourth year. 
I may also remark, that the crop cut each year, which, in Cherokee-Georgia, is 
ready for the mower about the last of May, is much the best for hay. The second 
crop will make your horses slobber, though the hay is very good for cattle. The 
proper time to mow the crop, is when it is in full bloom, and a few blooms, here 
and there, of the earliest, are beginning to fade preparatory to ripening the seed. 

The Pyracantha, or Evergreen Thorn, as a Hedge Plant. 

Hedging, with few exceptions, has always been a failure in this country. ^ For 
this failure there have been two prominent causes— first, an injudicious choice of 
hedge plants ; and second, neglect of the hedge after planting. Either of these 
causes alone is sufiicient to prevent success, and generally both have been combined 
and the labor of planting worse than wasted. The Osage Orange, which has been 
more experimented with than anything else, is utterly unsuited to the purpose, in 
the South at least, being a rapid growing tree, instead of a shrub, and diflScult to 

68 The Pyracantha, or Evergreen Thorn, as a Hedge Plant. 

dwarf. The Cherokee Rose is equally unfitted for the purpose from another cause, 
its straggling habit of growth. The iMacartney Rose comes much nearer to the 
requirements of the case, but is not easily controlled and wants too much room. 
The Cassina (Ilex, cosine,) makes a good hedge in the Low Country, but is too slow 
in its growth. 

The best hedge plant for the South, so far as present experience goes, is undoubt- 
edly the Pyracantha, and some practical instructions in its planting and subsequent 
treatment, cut from an old number of the Southern Argus, (Sclma Ala.,) will be 
timely and useful. The writer says : 

The Pyracantha was, thousands of years ago, the favorite hedge plant with the 
Persians. From Persia it was carried home by Alexander's victorious soldiers into 
Greece. They called it Pur (fire) Acanthos (thorn) — the fiery thorn. When in 
bloom it is white as a bank of snow ; when in fruit, a wall of fire — Dalce et utile — 
beautiful and useful. It is unmistakably the hedge plant for America, and the 
South especially. It is an evergreen dwarf plant, and will make a good fence, 
inside or outside, in three or four years, properly cultivated. We advise every 
farmer to inclose one field with it this fall, at least his orchard and garden. We 
will guarantee it will give satisfaction. 

When to Plant — So soon as possible after the first killing frost, from 1st of 
November to 1st of January, and until the middle of April, if it cannot be put 
out before. 

How to Plant — First mark ofi" your line, and then commence four furrows from 
the base line, and with a two-horse plough, followed by a bull-tongue, plough on 
each side as deep as possible, and when finished the water furrow will be on the 
line of the fence. Set plants twelve, or if ground is rich, eighteen inches apart. 
With the hand spread out the roots and pull on dirt enough to support the plant, 
and when the line Is finished, with a one-horse plough turn the dirt back to the 
plant. Plough it thus twice, and if very weakly, thrice each year. If the ground 
is poor, after planting give it a good top-dressing for two or three years, and 3'ou 
■will bring the fence forward rapidly. 

When to Trim. — One year from planting, with a pair of hedge shears, cut the 
plant within eight inches of the ground, and give it a nice top-dressing of com- 
posted manure and rotten leaves. The July following cut back to sixteen inches, 
and the February following to two feet. When two years old it should be summer 
prflned to give you a close hedge. This is done the hist of May, when the ground is 
moist and the young growth is about six or eight inches, by clipping ofi' the entls, 
say one inch, and repeat in February following, cutting back to within six inches 
of the last cutting, and next year repeat the former operation in May, and the 
fourth year will give you a hedge that will protect your fruit yards, gardens, orch- 
ards, or vineyards, against stock, town boys and rabbits. After the third year trim 
it to any shaj)e you fancy. Its habit is to grow only eight or nine feet in height. 
Set out rooted plants one year old, and not cuttings, in fence row, or you will have 
gaps and defects you may never remedy. 

Cotton "Shortage." — It is charged that in various parts of Louisiana a bale of 
cotton almost always falls short in weight ])y !•') pounds, and one place is mentioned 
which received H.OOO bales, on which the shortage or stealage amounts to 90,000 
pounds, worth 818,000, and another place where the stealing is 810,000. As the 
cotton, passing through the hands of other mitldlemen, shortage still 
continues, and this, added to charges, make a total of grievous losses. 

The Glory of Scm Antonio. — Timely Farm and Plantation Topics. 69 

The Glory of San Antonio. 

" Beautiful streams of pure clear water run through every part of our city, and 
seem to reach every man's door. They are the glory of San Antonio." So writes 
]Mr. Tiiomos H. Stribliug in the concluding paragraph of an article on " Irrigation 
in the San Antonio Valley," in the " Report of the Department of Agriculture." 

"Would it be useless, at this time, to make this the text for some practical 
suggestions on the subject of Irrigation in the South ? Is it a thing so far from 
the present means of our people to accomplish, that its presentation will seem inter- 
esting only as a speculation oil the other possibilities of the future? We do not 
think so ; and we know that this is the one thing needful, in addition to the ordi- 
nary processes of improved agriculture, to make farming as sure a thing, almost, 
as the multiplication table. In the larger part of the Southern countiy, drouo-ht 
is our only serious drawback. The cases in which we suffer from excess of mois- 
ture are the rare exceptions. Ensured against drought, and at the same time pos- 
sessed of such a means of fertilization as the water furnishes, what might we not 
accomplish ? 

Let a beginning be made in the simplest form, and in situations where small 
streams may easily, and with little cost, be carried along the upper sides of the 
sloping fields. Such situations are numerous, wherever the face of the country is 
hilly or rolling. Small experiments, reported through the press, will lead to more 
extensive ones, and to improvement in the construction and management of the 

It is not our purpose, at present, to give plans for carrying out these suggestions. 
We have many able contributors who are better qualified to do this — some, per- 
haps, M'ho have had some experience. Shall we not hear from them ? Above all, 
let nobody say "It can't be done." It can be done; and the work must have a 
beginning — a small beginning, perhaps — and somebody must make this beginning 
and demonstrate the practicability of husbanding, and turning to account the water 
with which we are so abundantly supplied. We do not depend upon nature to 
manure and break up our fields, why should we rely alone upon the summer rains 
to water them ? 

Timely Farm and Plantation Topics. 

The Season and the Crops. 

We have had better seasons than the present, and we have had worse. Taking 
the whole cotton growing region into account, it has not been quite up to the aver- 
age. There has been less than the usual amount of drought, but more than an 
average damage from excess of rain. Cotton suffered much from the continu- 
oiis showers of August and September, the damage being clearly enough shown 
in the general shedding of forms and bolls. In many localities the caterpillars did 
great damage, but their ravages have not been so general as on many previous seasons. 


Timely Farm and Plantation Topics. 

All estimates of the crop made in advance of its actual giuuiug aud weigliiug 
must be takeu with considerable allowance. We think, however, that it must fall 
considerably below the average, even with the most favorable closing of the season • 
whatever those who write in the interests of the speculators may say to the con- 
trary. The comparative statement of the Department of Agriculture in its Sep- 
tember Report, is as follows, 100 being the standard, aud the figures denoting the 
percentage : 


Korth Carolina 
Sotitli Carolina 








Tennessee .. 






















92 ■ 



The corn crop is considerably below the average. ^Maryland, Virginia and 
Florida report a higher average than last year, but all the other Southern States 
a lower average. In the West the acreage was less than last year, aud the crop 
not so good. 

The oat crop was above the average in most of the Southern States, but 
light in the Middle and Northern States generally, on account of a drought which 
prevailed during the latter part of the growing season. 

The hay crop shows an increase over last year. Sweet potatoes promise an uncom- 
monl) heavy crop. Of fruit a short crop has been gathered. In regard to rice 
aud sugar cane, reports are too meagre to be made the basis of an estimate. 

Holding Back the Cotton for Paying Prices. 
At the time of writing this, cotton is not selling at such prices as it ought to com- 
mand. We hope that before these lines meet the reader's eye, there will be an im- 
provement. If not it will come later. Let those whom debt and liens do not compel 
to push it into market, not be in haste to sell at non-paying prices. Debts mu^^t be 
paid, even if produce be sacrificed, but every one is justified in any honest effort 
to g«;t remunerative prices for the products of his labor. In any evont, let all cottcm 
be giune'(l ami baled as soon as possible, so as to be able to take advantage of any 
favorable condition of the market. The cotton is safer too in bales than lying 
loose in the gin house. A liberal use of bagging will pay. It is poor economy to 
leave parts of the side^ and ends of the balas exposed. The whole sliould be neatly 
covered, for even in so strictly a non-fancy article as cotton, a tidy package helps 
the sale. Having your crop carefully ginned, well baled and fully insured, mu^h 
anxif'ty concerning it will be avoided. The insurance premium is a comparatively 
small matter, but it may .save you from pecuniary ruin. 

Gleanings from Many Fields. 71 

The Fanner's Opportunities for Improvement. 

The long eveuings and the leisure of autumn aud winter, give the farmer time 
for reading aud social intercourse. A few dollars spent for books and periodicals 
will now be well spent, even if some luxury or indulgence be sacrificed to obtain 
them. The meetings of the farmers' club or the Grange should never be neglected, 
when it may be possible to attend ; and, while striving to make them profitable in 
a business sense, they should also contribute to the culture of the mind and the 
heart— still higher and better ends. Agricultural Fairs also have their lessons for 
the fiirmer and the farmer's family. If they will give the ploughing matches, the 
trials of implements and farm machinery, the improved stock, and (in the case 
of ihe ladies) the pickles, preserves, etc., as close attention as they do the horse- 
racing and the tournament, they cannot fail to learn something that will be useful 
to them. South Carolina readers should bear in mind the State Fair, at Columbia, 
opening on the 11th of the present month.) 

Keejnng Siveet Potato Vines for Planting. 

According to Mr. P. A. Strother, in the Georgia Telegraph, the sweet potato 
vine may be saved through the winter for the purpose of planting on the following 
spring. Similar statements have frequently been made, as the results of actual 
experiment. Our own experience in the matter has not been favorable, but that 
may have been the fault of our way of doing the thing. Mr. Strother's plan is to 
take the vines in the fall— any time before frost— and cut them into convenient 
lengths, and place them in layers on the surface of the earth to the depth of twelve 
or eighteen inches. He then covers the vines while damp with partially rotted 
straw to the depth of six inches, and over the whole spreads light soil about four 
inches deep. In this way the vines, he says, will keep during the Avinter, and in 
the spring they will put out sprouts as abundantly as the potato itself when'bedded. 
The draws or sprouts can be planted first, and the vine itself can be subsequently 
cut and used as we generally plant slips. 

Gleanings from Many Fields. 

^.7-mP'^/ Water for Cows.— Professor Law, of Cornell Universitv, (Mr. X A 
Wil ard says,) gets his supply of milk from a "milkman." One day, dariuo^ 
the hot weather he observed a peculiar ropy appearance in the cream which had 
risen on the milk. He examined it under a powerful microscope, and found it 
filled with ivmg organisms of a character quite foreign to good milk. He immedi- 
ately called upon his milkman, to inquire concerning his management of stock 
and general treatment of milk, with a view of accounting for the trouble There 
was no fau t discoyered at the dairy-house, in the milking, or in the treatment of 
the milk; but on looking through the pastures, he found that the cows for lack 
of clean runnmg water, were compelled to slake their thirst, for the most part 
from a stagnant pool. This water he examined under the microscope, aud disc-ov- 
ered the same class of organisms as those in the cream. He then took some of 
the blood from the cows and examined it under the glass, when the same organisms 
made their appearance. He next obtained a specimen of good milk— milk which 
on exammation was free from impurities, and into this he put a drop of water from 
the stagnant pool. In a short space of time the milk developed an infinite number 
ot these living organisms, and became similar in character to the milk obtained 
irom his milkman. 

72 Gleanings from Many Fields. 

Irrigation ix the West. — The correspondent of the New York Tribune, in 
Colorado, says that during the last three months 500 miles of irrigating canals 
have been surveyed in Colorado, and some of them are of the most extensive 
character. The Rural Sun adds : 

The success that attends all judicious efforts to water arid plains is truly remark- 
able. Large districts are becoming thickly settled by immigrants character- 
ized by equal intelligence, industry and success in their new homes. This great 
improvement in American agriculture should not be confined to ■ the "West. 
Although a necessity on the plains, its adoption east of the Mississippi will be 
equally profitable. The principle of supplying plants with river water is limited 
to no district. Farming by the aid of irrigating water has, in all ages, been the 
wisest and most profitable tillage and husbandry practised by mankind. 

Florida as a Tobacco Country. — In Southern Florida, the New York Sun 
says, the best tobacco grown out of the tropics is cultivated ; and if the planter 
will take the pains to procure seed from Havana every year, excellent smoking 
tobacco and fair s^ars can be made there. One gets better segars at Key West 
than can be generally obtained in other parts of the country. The manufacturers 
import fine qualities of tobacco from Havana, and mix it with part of native 
growtii ; and in order to make a market for an inferior article they furnish samples 
made of pure Spanish. Then they mix the imported kind with that of native 
growth, and the product, although not satisfactory to an experienced man, is better 
than half the segars sold in New York for a hundred and fifty, and even two hun- 
dred dollare a thousand. 

Treatment of Birds in Germany. — Mr. Fulton, of the Buhimore American, 
writes that in Germany, the birds are the pets of the people. He adds : 

They are so tame that many of them build their nests inside of the houses, and 
are never disturbed by old or young. Throw down a few crumbs and they will 
come down from trees and almost eat out of your hand. The consequence is that 
fruit growers never suffer from the invasion of worms, and the plum which hits 
almost disappeared from our markets, grows here to the greatest perfection. The 
holidays are not distinguished, as with us, by a throng of boys with shot guns 
pouring into the country, anil slaying out of mere waTitonness the feathery tribe, 
which is regarded here as an effi.cient co-laborer to the agriculturist. 

A Dome.stic Concentrated Manure. — A correspondent of the Boston Culti- 
vator gives the following formula for making a domestic fertilizer for corn : 

Take two parts of decomposed sheep manure, (or fine cattle manure) one part 
hen manure, one part unleached ashes, one part of plaster, all incorporated 
together, and thoroughly worked over twice or more; keep under cover ten days. 
All ingredients are at the command of all farmers without much expense. I have 
experimented with it the past throe years; spreading on stable manure, and thor- 
oughly incorporating it into the soil witli an ox cultivator, working the land with 
a corn-worker, marking the rows regularly both way.s. Apply a handful to each 
hill. My crops of corn have l)ecn twenty-five per cent, better than before I went 
into the use of the composition. 

Tin; Hrn as an Agricultural Laborer. — Some man, too tired by nature 
to hoe, has utilized the S(!ratching power of the hen — lias bi-nt her ever prevailing 
propen.sitics to the aitl of agriculture. He makes long, narrow cages, just wide 
enough to fit between his garden rows of vegetables, etc.; has slat sides, board tops, 
and open bottoms. In these cages he puts his best dirt throwers and lets tluM^i hoe 
out the patch. When the ground is well torn 'up, he moves the cage along, an<l in 
this way keeps the earth mellow and the gartien free from insects. 

The Planting, Cultivation and Training of the Grape. 73 


The Planting, Cultivation and Training of the Grape. 

There is, perhaps, no crop grown in 
this country, in the planting and subse- 
quent treatment of which so much di- 
versity exists, as the grape. Careful 
experiment and close observation, how- 
ever, are beginning to give us something 
like a basis for a system of culture, as 
well as to establish a trustworthy list of 
varieties. Of the latter we had some- 
thing to say in our last number. Now, 
a few hints on the planting, cultivation 
and training of the vine would be time- 
ly and useful. As we were about to 
give the results of our own experience on 
these points, the Rural Alahamian, for 
October, came to hand, with an editorial 
article on the subject, in which the 
writer details his own mode of culture. 
This agrees so closely with our own, 

and is so well told, that we will copy it, 

The Delaware Grape. .^ ^^^^^ .^^^^^^^ ^f ^^^^-^^ ^^ pj^p^,.^ l^SS 

fitly, perhaps, our own ideas on the subject. After describing a previous and unsuc- 
cessful experiment on a different plan, the writer says : 

We selected for our future vineyard a piece of ground on the summit of a hill, 
with gentle slopes to the east, south and west. It had formerly been covered with 
a heavy growth of pine, which had been cleared about six years, the ground regu- 
larly cultivated since, in melons, sweet and Irish potatoes, turnips, etc., and liberally 
manured with suitable fertilizers for each crop. The ground, therefore, was in 
excellent tilth, without being too rich. The soil is a light sandy loam,_with a sub- 
soil, in some places of red clay, and in others of a coarse red sand, indicating a 
considerable admixture of iron. The preparation of the ground for planting consist- 
ed merely in giving it a good ploughing as for corn, breaking it up not more than six 
or eight inches, but leaving it mellow and thoroughly pulverized. We laid off the 
rows eight feet apart, and set stakes eight feet apart in the rows for the vines. (We 
are satisfied that ten feet would be better for all the strong-growing varieties.) The 
holes for the vines were opened around the stakes with a hoe, being particular to 
dig no deeper than had been broken by the plough. The holes were about eight 
inches deep and four feet in diameter. Healthy, well rooted vines were then placed 
on one side of the stake, and, while one hand was filling in the dirt around the 
roots, another was scattering in with the dirt a liberal supply of crushed bones. 
No. 2, Vol. 5. 6 

74 Lavender Culture. 

The planting completed, we ran a light turn-plough between the rows, turning the 
furrow to the rows, and leaving a shallow water furrow in the middle of each row 
for surface drainage. This completed the operation of planting. 

The tirst year, one vine only was permitted to grow, and this was kept tied to 
the stake, and all laterals rubbed off as fast as they appeared. The grounil between 
the rows was planted in sweet potatoes, manuring in the bed liberally with super- 
phosphate of lime. liad a line crop of potatoes, and the vines made a good, 
healthy growth. 

For the second year, we cut back the vines duriug the winter to three eyes, the 
two strongest of which only were permitted to grow. These were carefully tied 
to the stake, and treated precisely as the one vine of the previous year. These 
two canes were for the future arms. Again cultivated in sweet potatoes, again 
manuring heavily in the bed. 

The following spring we made the trellis, by setting a " lightwood " post in the 
centre between each vine, to which we nailed three wooden slats, horizontally — 
the first eighteen inches from the ground, the second one foot above, and the third 
two feet above that. The slats were made of pine, sawed 11 inch wide and 4 incii 
thick. The two vines left for the arms were now laid down, one to the right and 
the other to the left, and tied securely to the lower slat. Every bud left on the 
arms sent out a shoot, which as it grew, was tied perpendicularly to the slats above, 
and, when six inches or a foot above the topmost slat, its growth was arrested by 
i:)iuching off the end of the vine. The Concord this year produced considerable 

And now comes the season for a full crop of fruit. The upright vines were all 
cut back to two eyes, one only of which (the strongest) was permitted to grow. 
This was carefully tied to the slats as before, the laterals permitted to grow until 
two leaves were formed, and then pinched off beyond the second leaf, leaving the 
two broad leaves to shade the fruit. Our crop of all the leading varieties was all 
that could be desired. The subsequent pruning and management are but a repe- 
tition of the last year's operations. 

The culture of the ground is as follows : With a light turn-plough we turn over 
the ground in the spring, then apply some fertilizer broadcast over the entire sur- 
face, and harrow in. The entire after culture, until the fruit is gathered, is done 
with the cultivator, sweep and hoe, to kill weeds and grass, and keep the surface 
clean and loose without disturbing the roots of the vine. After the fruit is secured, 
we let the vineyard "go to grass," which, in the fall, is mowed and made into hay. 
Late in the fall, this stubble, with such young grass as may have started up, is 
turned under, and so remains until spring, when it becomes thoroughly decoin|)()sed, 
furnishing a fair supply of humus to the soil. In the spring, the ploughing and 
mainiring are perforn)ed, as before described. 

For fertilizers, we use bone dust, ashes, lime, plaster, and the most approved 
brands of superphosphate of lime, alternately, or at least one or the other each year, 
giving the preponderance, however, to bone dust, ashes and plaster, of which there 
is little danger of applying an excess. No barnyard manure is allowed on the 

Lavender Culture. — Comparatively few persons are aware to how large an 
extent the culture of lavender for commercial purposes is carried on within a 
radius of thirty miles from London. Li the County of Surrey alone there are 
nearly three hundred and fifty acres of land devoted to it.^ growth, and the total 
extent of the lavender fields in the London District, cannot fall far short of five 
hundred acres. 

Seasonable Orchard and Garden Notes. 75 

Seasonable Orchard and Garden Notes. 

A N&io Method of Striking Cuttings. 
]M. Loiseau, according to the Gardener's Chronicle, has introduced a new 
method of striking cuttings. The principle involved is this : "When a cutting is 
put in perpendicularly, the sap, the natural tendency of which is to rise, is ex- 
pended in pushing forward a new bud instead of forming a root. But if a cut- 
ting is laid horizontally, or even with its lower end higlier than the upper, that is 
not the case ; the sap prefers to move toward the higher end, or at all events is 
evenly distributed between the two extremities. This causes the callus to form so 
rapidly, that if cuttings of hard wooded plants are put into a warm place, eight or 
teu days are enough to secure its formation, or even that of the roots. Autumn 
cuttings taken off' a little before the sap ceases to move, and treated in this manner 
form callus so quickly that they are ready for planting out before winter. It has 
long been known that cuttings packed in damp moss, or buried in the ground, in 
a horizontal position, during the winter, take more readily than those planted at 
once in the usual way. 

A Beautifid New CocJcscomb. 

One of the most satisfactory of the present season's novelties is the Gelosia Hid- 
ionii (Hutton's Cockscomb.) This beautiful plant was introduced by INIessrs. 
James Veitch & Sons, through their collector of rare specimens of the vegetable 
kingdom, the late Mr. Hutton, after whom it was named. The plant is of compact 
form and bushy habit, profusely branched, each leading branch being tipped with a 
small spike of bright crimson flowers. In color the plant resembles the well 
known Iresine Lindenii, the upper surface of the leaf being of a deep claret color, 
while the under side is of a bright crimson-shade. Height one and one-half 
to two feet, by about one and one half feet in diameter. As a bedding or sub- 
tropical plant it will take a high rank, from its fine habit and rich and effective 
coloring. It makes itself at home here in the South and presents a maguifiQent 
appearance during the summer and fall. It takes readily from cuttings, and in that 
way should be kept over winter for indoor decoration. 

Three Curcxdio Proof Plums. 
We have now several varieties of improved plums which, if not quite curculio 
proof, are, at least, so little liable to damage from insects that they may always be 
counted upon for a good crop. The best known of these, perhaps, is the Wild 
Goose, a large, oval, red plum, of handsome appearance and good quality. It 
ships well, sells well and is profitable as a market fruit. It ripens here from the 
first to the middle of June. The DeCaradeuc, originated in South Carolina by 
the gentleman whose name it bears, is a dark red, mottled plum, sweet, melting 
and vinous, ripening here about the 25th of May. It is supposed to be a hybrid. 
The Newman is an offspring of the Chickasaw, medium-oblong, smaller than the 
"Wild Goose ; color bright vermillion ; flesh rather coarse and juicy, with a pleasant, 
vinous flavor, and adheres to the stone ; tree vigorous and productive. It is said 
to be never attacked by the curculio. 

76 Horiicidim al Hints for Kovemher. 

How to make a Curved Walk. 

A curved walk is nuicli more beautiful 
than a straight one, and in laying out the 
grounds about a house, should always be 
adopted. But to get a regular and grace- 
ful curve is not so easy a thing as may at 
first appear. One way to do it is by set- 
ting up little stakes on the line where you 
intend to make your road or walk, changing them till you obtain such a curve as 
pleases your eye. A more satisfactory plan however is that shown in the accom- 
panying little wood cut, in which a stout line is used and is readily laid in any 
desired form, when the little stakes can be placed along the curve thus indicated. 
Do not make too many paths. Cutting up the grounds into small compartments 
only disfigures it. 

Oranges hi Four Years from the Seed. 
According to the Florida Union, the seedling orange can be made to bear in less 
time than is generally supposed. We are told that in the month of January, 1869, 
Mrs. P. P. Crowley, of Jacksonville, planted the seeds of an orange, which she 
had eaten, in the yard attached to her premises. One of these seedlings can now, 
in 1873, the fourth year of its growth, be seen on the premises of ]\Ir. Crowley, on 
Monroe street, in that city, in bearing, and having some forty or fifty oranges 
upon it. 

Horticultural Hints for November. 

At this season it may be well to repeat (though the fact is, perhaps, obvious 
enough) that nothing like a fixed calendar of garden or farm work can be per- 
fectly adapted to so wide a range of latitude and longitude as that for which wc 
write. Our dates must be considered movable, and may be carried backward or 
fonvard, accordingly as the reader's latitude may be north or south of ours. From 
five days to a week for each degree of latitude may be taken as a general rule in 
measuring climatic differences, but to this there will be many exceptions, depending 
upon the distance from the ocean, altitude, the physical conformation of the coun- 
try, and the character of the soil. In tlie same latitude, too, the time for perforui- 
ing many horticultural operations will vary considerably with the varying seasons. 
Consulted with all these modifying circumstances in view, we may venture to hope 
that our l)rief hints may be of service to novices, at least, and that constant repe- 
tition will be deemed excusable and proper, as the same processes have to be gone 
through with this year as in the previous ones. All we can hope is to make 
improvements in them. 

Taking the risks of the season, we may from the tenth to the fifteenth of 

the present month, in the latitude of Charleston and southward, plant our first crop 
of peas. Dan O'Kourke, Eugenia, Laxton's Prolific, or some other medium grower 

Horticultural HlnU for November. 77 

will be most likely to give us a crop. Tlie smaller dwarfs, like Tom Thumb and 
McLean's Little Gem, will come into blossom too soon, and be more likely to be 
cut off. Toward the end of the month, or the first week in December, we may 
plant the quick growing dwarfs, of which the Little Gem is the best. We select, 
if possible, for our peas, ground that is rich from previous manuring, so as to 
require little, if any, additional application. 

Turnips may be planted during the present month, but with some risk, 

as in the case of peas. They are liable to be killed, while young and tender, by 
the hard freezes which often occur in December and January, but if they should 
live through, they will t;ome into use in good time in the spring, and be very tender 
and sweet. A slight covering of straw, leaves or dry grass, strewn over them, will 
often save the crop. Similar remarks apply with equal force to Carrots and Beets. 
Lettuce and Radishes are somewhat more hardy, but often need slight protection, 
even in this latitude. . 

The Cabbages and Turnips planted in September or October, will require 

frequent attention. There may be few weeds, but the soil will need stirring with 
the pronged hoe to keep it light and friable. If cabbage plants of a suitable size 
can be obtained, they may be set out during the month, for the earliest spring crop, 
and seeds may be sown for later planting. The young plants will need some pro- 
tection during the winter. A cold frame is a very useful garden fixture for this 
and other purposes. 

This is the best month in the year for planting fruit trees, though the 

work can be successfully done any time during the winter, in our mild climate. 
Let the ground be well prepared, and the work faithfully done, if you wish for 
the best results. Raspberries may now be planted as directed in previous numbers, 

For flower garden work, see last month. If the directions there given 

have been carried out, little will need be done now, except to prune and transplant 
hardy shrubs and vines ; but most of last month's work, if neglected, may still be 
done with success. 

Skirret as a Garden Crop. — Skirret is a garden vegetable, but it is not 
much grown in this country. A few years since it was a good deal talked about 
abroad as a substitute for the potato. It is a perennial plant, having a considera- 
ble number of spindling fleshy roots, which are from eight to fifteen inches long, 
in clusters ; each root being from one inch to one inch and a half in diameter. 
Skin yellowish, fle^h white and very nutritious, with a taste slightly resembling 
celery. It may be boiled and fried like parsnips, or fried without being first 
boiled ; it is also used in soup. It should be planted in the fall. 

Stump the AVorld Peach. — This fine fruit (represented in our Frontispiece) 
is an old favorite which should not yield its place to newer comers. It is a large, 
handsome freestone, of excellent flavor, and ripens here from the first to the 
twentieth of July. 

78 Biscayne Bay and its Suiroimdings — The Extreme Smith. 

[D Natural R 


Biscayne Bay and its Surroundings — The Extreme 

South.— III. 

The prairie lands are cousidercd by some the most valuable in the county, 
where they are sufficieutly elevated to admit of thorough drainage. They certainly 
do possess many advantages. Already cleared — free from rocks, stumps and 
roots — and the soil, which is largely mixed with clay, is very fertile and deep. 
After the first breaking up, the cultivation would be as light and easy for the 
plough as any of our old lands. .These lands are apparently well adapted to the 
Banana and Guava, but rather damp and low for the citrus family of fruits. 

The insect question is one that excites no little interest among distant inquirers, 
and it will doubtless surprise many to learn, that after locating directly on the 
Bay, we rarely found a musquito bar necessary during the musquito months — not 
more than once or twice a week — only when there was no wind blowing. And 
even at these exceptional times, they were not so numerous or troublesome as at 
our former places of residence in Middle and Southeast Florida. Back from the 
Bay, in the hammocks and thickets, they are found in great numbers. This is 
true of mangrove thickets at the water's edge, and on keys bordered by this 
growth. The mangrove swamp is peculiarly favorable for generating this greedy 
little pest, for I have always found them bad at such places, even Avith free, open 
exposure to the sea, and stiff wind blowing. Fleas, while camping out in the 
woods, are very annoying, particularly if you have a pet dog or two to go in and 
out at pleasure. But after getting up a little above-ground — a clean yard — the 
hogs fenced off, and the dogs shut out, their visitations cease. House flics have 
never troubled us — nor sand flics, nor roaches, nor bed-bugs, — but horse and deer 
flies, for about three weeks in Spring, are as thick as bees. Their buzzing noise is 
the principal objection to them, as they seldom bite or sting ; and this is more 
than offset by the rich harvest afforded young poultry during their brief sojourn. 
Yellow flies are scarce. But ants, large and small, red ami black, are abundant 
and troublesome. 

The climate is all that could be desired. The weather during the winter months 
is mild, dry, clear and balmy, 41° Fahr. as the lowe'^t record of the thcrinometer — 
about like April in Northern Florida. The summers arc truly delightful. There 
is a refreshing breeze blowing from the East nearly all the time, day and night ; 
and although the thermometer is reported to have reached as high as 94° in the 
shade, one is entirely unconscious of it, unless some obstacle interposes to shut off 
the breeze. The heat is then quickly and sensibly felt. Jn the breeze ymi may 
work comfortably with the sun beaming down on you. Out of it, even for a • 
moment, you begin to think you arc in New York city itself The night^s are usu- 
ally cool enough to make covering necessary to comfort — and in the second story — 
closed blinds also. In the morning you awake, refreshed and fully prepared to re- 
new your Avork, or hunt up a shady spot and spend another day in oxcjuisitc idleness. 

Blscayne Bay and iti Siwroundlng-i — The Edreme South. 79 

There are two postoffices — "Biscayne," situated at tlie Northern eud of the Bay 
and "Coeoauut Grove," twelve miles further South. Formerly, " Miami" was the 
only one; and its central position still points to it as the most suitable place on 
the Bay. The mails are carried to and from Key West, distant about 160 miles, 
twice a month, in a sail boat. At Key West, there is weekly steam communica- 
tion with New York, Baltimore, Galveston, New Orleans and Cedar Keys. 

It is believed that most if not all the tropical fruits of the world may be grown 
' here. Yet comparatively few have been planted. I have only seen the following, 
viz : banana and plantain, guava, pine-apple, mamee apple, sugar apple, alligator 
pear, sappadillo, mango, papaw, cocoanut, date, tamarind, orange, lemon, lime, 
citron and custard apple. Bananas are probably among the most profitable crops 
of this section. The soil selected for cultivating them should be level, damp (but, 
not wet) deeply and thoroughly broken up, and as rich as it is possible to make laud. 
The plants (the dwarf kind) should be set very shallow in rows five feet a i)art, 
and four to five feet in the row. This gives from 1,750 to 2,300 plants to the acre, 
xillowing a single bunch to the bulb, average weight of thirty pounds, and one 
cent per pound, we have the handsome return of $528 to $690 per acre. This is 
undoubtedly a safe calculation, for at a cent a pound it is the cheapest food known 
and with projjer facilities for shipping, it can be laid down in our cities for less 
than one cent additional. Experience will also show that the assumed yield is an 
under estimate — as the reserved shoots will be coming into bearing every few 
months unless interfered with by a tornado. Severe storms or tornados do not 
visit this region annually as some suppose. The last one was in 1871; the one pre- 
vious to that was in 1866, and even much longer intervals have intervened between 
them. But with proper management it is confidently believed that one bunch of 
bananas to the bulb may be secured even should there be an Equinoctial storm 
every year. Under favorable conditions the banana has ripened its fruit here in 
ninemontlis — generally, however, it requires from twelve to fifteen months. Now 
if the plants are put out iu May or June they will be too small to be affected by 
the gale the first year. And the fruit may be gathered before the second occurs. 
The dwarfs are in demand from the fact of their being much less injured by heavy 
winds. And the Musa Cavendishii is perhaps as good a variety as any. In properly 
prepared land the large leaves very soon shade the ground sufficient to prevent 
the growth of grass and weeds — meanwhile their culture requires great care as the 
roots run near the surface, and are easily injured. They should be worked chiefly 
with the hand and prong hoe. It is not advisable to remove the shoots or succors, 
after the bloom appears — as it is almost impossible to avoid cutting some of the 
feeders which are essential to the development of a full and perfect bunch. Plan- 
tain culture is similar to that of bananas.* J. N. WlilTNER. 

Note. — In my second ai'ticle, read "circumference" for "diameter" in the description 
given of some banana trees. 

* The crowded state of our pages compels us to defer the remainder of the article, in which 
the cultivation of the gnava, pine-apple and other fruits is described, till next month. —Ed. 

80 The Indian River Country. 

The Indian River Country. — I. 

I receive letters from different parts of tlie country asking for information con" 
cerning this region. The questions in all are mainly the same, and I ■will, with 
your permission, Mr. Editor, answer them briefly in your valuable Journal, and 
refer all to its pages for the information they seek. 


The land, in the wild state, belongs either to the State or United States, and can 
be purchased at $1.25 per acre, or entered under the Homestead Act. Land under 
private ownership can be had for $5 to 620 per acre for pine, and §10 to 8-0 for 
hammock. Improved lots are higher, but so varied are the improvements in 
character and quality, as well as the land, it is hard to give figures. Extremes 
may be set down at $30 to 3250. Twenty acres of hammock, six under fence and 
planted this year in corn, peas and })umpkins, with a few small orange trees, is 
held at $1,000, while another place of the same size, with ten acres cleared and 
in orange trees, two to four years old, with bananas between the rows, cannot be 
bought for 80,000. The ridge of land forming the banks of Indian River is from 
one to two miles wide, and has the greatest altitude between it and its j^arallel 
stream, St. John's River. The water from its summit Avestward, finds its way down 
a gradual slope through pine forests and saw palmetto flats, (interspersed with ham- 
mock, mostly small, but very rich,) prairie and swamp, a distance of six to ten 
miles into the St. John's River, This ridge is high and rolling, and comprises 
hammock, pine and scrub, divided into high and low, and these may be subdivided 
into several classes. The subsoil of the several classes of high land differs very 
little in appearance. The high laud (sandy loam) is prized mainly for the culti- 
vation of the orange, and other fruits and field crops. The black, tenacious marl 
land, underlaid with clay, rock and shell, produces sugar-cane, bananas, pump- 
kins, vegetables and corn, showing no signs of exhaustion after many successive 


This differs with the idea as to how it sliould l)o done. One cuts everything 
down ; another leaves the deadened live oaks, and other large trees standing ; 
another leaves only the live oaks, wliile those are succeeding best who leave most 
of the cabbage palmetto only. Tlie young trees taken suddenly iVom the densely 
shaded groves and nurseries, seem grateful for the shade and proteetion of the 
caVibage, which can l)e removed at will. A good hand will cut everything, and 
put an acre of heavy hammock in readiness for the plough in from twenty to 
twenty-five days. Getting rid of the cabbage palmettocs is the grc^itest part of 
the expense. They cut easily, l)ut are heavy and will not burn the first year, con- 
sequently juust ])e ])i]ed or snaked out ol' the fielil. 

The Indian River Country. 81 


Fences are made of cabbage palmetto logs, oak or lightwood rails and palings. 
A good hand will cut seventy-five fence logs per day, and six bands will put up 
three hundred yards of fence, which will last six years. This is the most economi- 
cal fence, when the logs are on the ground and in the way. Palings of lightwood, 
with posts and railings of the same, can be built for $12 to $15 per hundred yards. 
The cost of a rail fence depends upon the distance to be hauled. The rails can be 
split for 81.50 to $2 per hundred. In some localities, cedar, white ash, and other 
splitting woods are abundant and available for fencing. Hedging and ditching 
are thought of, but not yet practically tested. 


These range as follows : Lumber, at the mill, $8 to $18 per thousand ; shingles 
and twenty-four-iuch boards, $4 per thousand at the stump ; hauling from the mill 
and stump to the river, $1 to $2 extra. A strong and comfortable house can be 
easily and cheaply and quickly made of palmetto or pine logs, with pole rafters 
and clapboard ceiling, with a temporary roof of palm fans. Coquina rock forms 
the bank and underlies the surface in many places, and is easily worked into shape, 
and makes a cheap house, lasting for centuries. These rocks calcine easily, and 
the lime made is of a good quality. Common laborers ask $1 per day ; carpen- 
ters, " cobblers" and masons, $1.50 to $3. 


Trees can be had at some wild groves for the getting. At others, 10 to 25 cents 
each is the price. An ordinary sail-boat will carry 30 to 75 trees, averaging two 
inches in diameter, and a round trip of twenty to forty miles can be made with a load 
in three or four days. If j udiciously taken up, carefully handled, and properly planted, 
from January until March, and the sweet bud put in in May or June, they will 
grow three or four feet the same year, and sometimes will bear the next. Nearly 
all will bear the third year, with proper attention, and the fifth will reimburse all 
expenses. From the present stand-point, looking through the experience of others, 
and taking success as a guide, and error as a warning, a straighter and shorter 
path, (fast becoming a plam, well-beaten highway,) can be taken to success. Sweet 
seedlings, from three to five years old, cost 25 cents to $1 each, according to age 
and size. They are hardy, rapid growers, and usually bear the seventh year. The 
effects of budding or grafting is the same on them as the sour tree. Field crops 
are usually made three or four years, widening each year the space between the 
rows and trees. 

The past has presented no difficulty here in the way of orange culture, which 
energy and good judgment will not overcome. 


Taking bacon, corn and flour as a basis, will cost for a laborer, who uses coffee 
and sugar, about $75 per annum. A hunter will never be without venison, bear- 
' bacon and smaller game, and a man with a cast-net and grain ought never to be with- 
out fish, which greatly lessen the cost of living. A family of four adults, with one 

82 The Indian River Country. 

mule, has consumed since February 1st until now, 300 lbs. flour, 125 lbs. bacon, 30 
bushels corn, 25 lbs. sugar, 20 gallons syrup, and 15 lbs. coffee, with some fish and 
venison. Flour at Smyrna, and on board the steamer at Salt Lake, sells at 810 to 
SI 3 per barrel, and corn S2 25 per sack. Distance from Salt Lake to Sand Point, 
6 miles ; thence to Smyrna, 25 miles. 


Fish axe too numerous to enumerate. Mullet, bass and sheep-head are the most 
common, and are easily taken with a grain and cast net. In the many coves with 
hard sand bottom, many barrels could be taken at a single haul, with a seine and 
a gill-net would furnish more than many families could consume. None of these 
seines are in use. The leaf-fat of the mullet is one-fourth of an inch thick, and no 
other grease is necessary in cooking them. 

Oysters are very fine, inexhaustible, and could not be placed so as to be more 
easily obtained. A boat can be floated on thousands of tons of them in from one 
to four feet water. The fluctuations of the water never exposes them. Every man 
may have them at his door. 


So much has been said of the fruits of Florida in general, and the orange in 
particular, I need only add, that there is a difference between the Indian River or 
Smyrna oranges, and those of colder sections, owing to climatic influences and the 
peculiar adaptation of the soil to its perfection. The citron, lemon, lime, guava, 
banana, etc., are all now in season ; and in spite of the frost of last winter, the 
banana, guava, fig, pine-apple, and other tender fruits have borne abundantly all 
summer. Cracked oranges, of which some complain, are enjoyed by the family, 
and furnish the citric acid they so much need, and of which they would be deprived 
if all were marketable. These fruits find their way in various shapes to the 
table, adding not a little to health, comfort and happiness, and the area of their 
usefulness will be increased until they shall have reached the markets of the 

Of wild fruits, the grape, pa-paw, sea-grape, cocoa-plum, custard apple, 
black, goose and huckleberry, are worthy of mention. Grapes of various kinds 
are very numerous, and except a small bunch grape, all arc well flavored, sweet 
and thin skinned. Almost every tree of the forest has its fruited vine, and wine, 
jellies, preserves, and vinegar of a good quality, is made by almost every family. 
One peculiar kind of these grapes particuhirly attracts our attention. It grows in 
or near water, has a large leaf covered on the under side and stem, Avith a silvery 
white fur. The fruit is large, in full bunches, and is of a smoky, transparent, juir- 
ple, resembling wax grapes. The pulp is sweet, juice deep red. Seeds unusually 
few and small, and the skin is so delicate, that it cooks to pieces in a f(>w minutes. 

In the next article, the question in regard to field crops, climate, health, society, 
musrpiitocs and other insect'^, mail facilities, etc., will receive attention. 

Sliarjie's Bluff, Sand Point, Fla. AV. 1 1. SHARPE. 

Our Covvnon Poultry. o3 

Farm-yard Poultry and J=^et ^t< 


Our Common Poultry. 

Our common poultry belougs to tlie class Aves and to the order Basores or 
scratches. Wild poultry are found both in the Old world and the New, and our 
breeds are supposed by many writers to come from the jungle fowl of India. But 
we read tliat another kind is found in Peru and Mexico, and Parmentier tells us 
that he heard the crow of the cock in the wildest forests of Guiana, and that he 
had seen one of them. Of all birds the cock seems to be the oldest companion of 
man, and the first reclaimed from the forest to meet the necessities of the table. 
Some writers tell us that in his wild state his plumage is black and yellow, and 
his comb and wattles yellow and purple.* Who is not familiar with the crow of 
the cock? and who has not listened with delight to his " shrill clarion " as he 
marks the passing hours of night, and heralds the approach of day ? Milton has 
thought him not unworthy a place in his L' Allegro, or Mirthful Man, and while 
he has the lark to startle the dull night " from his watch-tower in the^skies," he 
introduces the cock with lively din, scattering the rear of darkness thin." Thom- 
son, too, in his Spring pays him a compliment for his gallantry, which by the way 

is not entirely deserved. 

" The careful hen 
Calls all her ckirping family around 
Fed, and defended by the fearless cock, 
Whose breast with ardor flames, as he walks 
Graceful, and crows defiance." 

I have here to add, to his shame, that he is a polygamist, that unlike the birds 
of prey generally, he takes no care of the mother and his .children, and is ever 
ready to form an alliance with any female of his species. I have no praise there- 
fore for the cock in his marital relations. His courtship is short, aud he is entirely 
without connubial fidelity. What a beautiful contrast is presented in the eagle 
and falcon for example. They select their partner with care, and after taking 
the matrimonial vow are gentle and true, and forsaking all others, remain faithful 
to life's end. The great variety under which he now presents himself is proof of 
his long captivity. There are few spectacles more interesting than a collection of 
this fowl in his variety. Some are crowned with a tuft of feathers, some have 
the feathers on their bodies inverted, some are without tails, some have the legs 
feathered, and some, as the silk hen, have a kind of silken hair instead of feathers. 
When I add to this the difference of size, of color, the varied and gorgeous plu- 
mage of the cock, I think I have gotten up a picture worth looking at. It is said 
that Sumatra produces the largest and the smallest kind of poultry ; but the fowl 
seems to thrive in every climate. The order includes also the birds so eagerly 
sought by the sportsman, and most of them, like man, are spread over the face of 
the earth. Under this head are ranked the common cock, the turkey, the Guinea 
hen, the pheasant, the pea-cock, the grouse, the quail, the partridge and others. 

84 Our Common Poultry. 

Though the bill of fare of the aucicuts and moderns differs in many particulai-s, 
and donkey flesh finds no one perhaps delighting in it as much as Macienas, and 
dogs and foxes and parts of animals which decency will not permit one to mention, 
once the choice dishes of the refined Roman, are now proscribed, the feathered 
creation from the earliest times contributed largely, as now, to the pleasures of the 
table. Indeed, so devoted were the Romans, that some Consular fiimilies assumed 
the names of the birds they most esteemed. Pheasants were brought from Colchis, 
Pea-cocks from Samos, to minister to their appetites ; and the Guinea-fowl, the 
Ostrich, and the Flamingo had to pay tribute. But perhaps the highest compli- 
ment was bestowed upon the fowl, as according to Cutius, they were drowned in 
Falernian wine to make them more luscious. It may be that the catalogue of 
articles of food was longer and more diversified with the ancients, than with us, 
but we look in vain for the Turkey. "Wretched people," writes a celebrated author, 
" the Romans knew not the Turkey !" I am aware that those persons who think 
that the ancients knew everything, find a description of the turkey in Aelian and 
the very name, they insist, proves that it was long known to the people of the East. 
The following is contributed by a member of my family : 

I found by experience that chickens hatched before March, or at least late in 
February, rarely profit you. They are killed off by the cold, and the few that 
survive seem stunted. They grow very slowly, become affected with the roxtjy, and 
are in truth no sooner ready for the favorite fry, than those hatched six weeks or 
two months later. 

The lice plague has been the great trouble this season with us of this locality, 
and if some remedy for the pest could be discovered, the increased yield from the 
poultry yard would be very great. I have tried smoking the foul-house with sul- 
phur, sprinkling the nests with flower of sulphur, and putting an ointment of lard 
and sulphur upon the fowl, ivhen the lice plague was at its height, without any per- 
ceptible abatement. In spite of all efforts to allay the pest two of the hens left 
their nests, though lacking but two days of hatching. This was sound judgment 
in this pair of hens, for two others who remained on their nests until every chicken 
was hatched, had the mortification to see each little one topple over, until at the 
close of the third day not one of the two beautiful broods remained. The young 
chickens were thoroughly infested with tiny lice, which are almost colorless, and 
scarcely visil)le, and seem specially imbedded in and about the ears. The poor 
little victim constantly utters a suffering cry, and from the very shell seems to be 
in an inflammatory, feverish condition. In a few hours they lose their sight, the 
eyes cloriing up tightly, and in this wretched state t]\cy stagger about for three 
days. One brood I left with the mother, sj)rinkling them with flower of .^^ulphur, 
and putting lard and sulphur upon the hen; with the other, I took the chicks 
away, putting fresh lard Ijtneath their wings, and kerosene oil upon the hen, but 
in Ijotli instances the result wius the same. 

Verily, in this connection, " an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." 
Since the luckless results given above, I have kept the setting hens well kerosened, 
and their nests free from broken eggs, or any other impurity said to favor the 
appearance of lice, and have been rewarded by having the same hens lately so 

Improved Chicken Coops. 85 

unfortunate, to come off with fine, healthy, clean broods. The kerosene does not 
prevent the hatching of the eggs, as many j^ersons believe. 

I find a good plan in the care of j^oultry is to give sulphur in their food — but 
this, too, I think, comes under the head of prevention ; if there is a cure for this 
lice plague, what is it ? 

I have found it the best plan in raising poultry to shut up the hen and her 
chicks, in an open coop for three or four days after hatching, then turn them into 
some enclosure, containing sufficient range — apart from the other poultry — in four 
weeks they can run with the other poultry without detriment. 

It is best always to throw food into an open coop when the general feeding is 
done, into which the junior members of the family may get and be sure of their 
meal. M. LA BORDE. 

Improved Chicken Coops. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

Fig. 1 is a suggestion of the Poultry World for a coop of most simple and con- 
venient arrangement. Its advantages are so apparent as to require but a few 
words of explanation. The outer frame or door is covered with wire netting, and 
is hung upon two pivots. The pivots being above the centre, allow the door to 
close of itself At the bottom of the opening, just back of the slats, is nailed a 
small strip, against which the inside bottom edge of the door strikes, and is pre- 
vented from going further. Its convenience will pay for making. 

Fig. 2 is a variation of coop— the two centre slats being made movable, to slide 
up (as shown,) to allow of the entrance of the hen. There is also a shelf in front 
to support the drinking dish. The floors to both coops are raised from the ground, 
in order that rats may not find a harbor underneath. This necessitates, however, 
a piece of plank or a few bricks to be placed in front for steps for the chickens 
during the first week or two. Both coops need to be furnished with a movable 
board front, to be placed against the slats in case of driving storms, extreme cold, 
and at night, if rats are troublesome. 

86 The Cabinet of Entomology in the Mnseum of Agriculture. 

Natup>^l fiISTOP^^ Applied to Agp^cultuf^e. 

Specimens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in Tue Rural 
Caromxiax, for October, 1S70,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc., should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mr. Charles K. Dodge, Washington, I). C. 

The Cabinet of Entomology in the Museum of Agriculture. 

When Prof. Glover was appoiuteJ Eutomologist of the Department of Agri- 
culture, his private collection of insects Avas transferred to the museum, forming 
the nucleus of a collection that has been steadily growing year by year, through 
explorations, or by donation and exchange, till at length it has been found neces- 
sary to have an entire room devoted to its keeping. It5 walls are hung with 
colored engravings of insects, from nature, (some 250 plates,) the work of the ento- 
mologist, and the centre of the room is occupied by three large cases of black 
walnut for the insects themselves. The lower part is furnished with glas.s-covered 
drawers for the reception of the collection proper, which is being scientifically 
arranged according to the latest authorities. The tops of the cases are covered 
with glass, and here is arranged, perhaps, the most interesting feature of the col- 
lection, that is, the most interesting to the agriculturist, for " dried bugs on pins," 
though of great scientific value, rarely excite any more than a passing comment 
from those not interested in their study. But come with me and I will explain 
the collection. 

In this shallow tray you will observe numbers of little white boxes, box covei*s 
they look more like, in which are placed various kinds of insect eggs, just as they 
were deposited upon the twig, bark or leaf They are of various shapes and forms, 
some of them in large clusters, some perched on little bristles, others looking like 
anything else than eggs, and many of them so curious that you would easily know 
them again. AVell, v.hat use, you will say, "for I always destroy a/^ the insect 
eggs I find on my phice." Of course you do, and, not knowing one form of egg 
cluster from another, you destroy friends and foes alike. Ten minutes spent over 
this tray will familiarize you with the most striking forms of some of your friends 
yet unborn — and when you meet them again you will know them. 

These trays on this side are filled with galls, or the excrescences formed by the 
stiugs of minute insects upon twigs and leaves. These galls have been tiie homes 
of myriads of little flies, (or other insects,) and a knowledge of the various growths 
will often l)e found useful, for if these galls are a])uu(Uuit upon our trees or phmt.s, 
by cutting off and burning them, (witli the young insects inside,) we can lessen their 
numbers next year, but we cannot do this until we know them, and for that pur- 
pose have ihey been collected together. In another part of the collection the insects 
that came from thoni are preserved for the naturalist, or the lover of nature, who 
jiiuy wish to see the little builders themselves. 

In the next tray are displayed specimens of wheat, corn, I)eans, nuts, etc., and 
even apiece of cracker, and all of them more or less eaten and injured by some 

Answers to CoTres2)ondents. gj 

insect pest. You observe peas with holes in them — have often seen them at home 

and bugs in the holes, too. What is the insect's history? How easy to ask ques- 
tions now, with the subjects all spread out before you, and what a pleasure for your 
guide to answer. 

A number of other trays are devoted to insect injuries, and here you may study 
the many ways in which our fruit trees and vines are gouged, bored into mined 
and eaten. Here is nearly a whole tray devoted to the grape vine; the roots laro-e 
and small, dug out by the borer, or knotted by the new pest, the Phylloxera, the 
leaves covered with galls or eaten to shreds by caterpillars, and the canes o-uawed 
inside and outside by beetles or their grubs, pierced by tree-crickets, or gouged by 
cicadas; and, in fact, all the modes of injury that can be preserved are spread out 
before you. 

Injury to forest trees is represented by specimens of twigs, of bark, and of the 
solid wood bored and eaten in various ways ; and in many cases there is such a 
method displayed in the manner of injury, that once seeing the little workman at 
home, he is ever after "known by his chips." 

One case is devoted to the architecture of insects ; and here are shown the various 
nests and structures of insects, from the most delicate cocoon of the silkworm to 
the coarse mud nest of wasps, the whole alike interesting and instructive, as showino- 
us insects at home. Then there is a tray devoted to implements for the destruction 
of insects, Insecticides, so-called ; another filled with specimens of grubs, cater- 
pillars, beetles, etc., killed by parasites, or by fungoid growths ; and, in'flu't, so 
many other things interesting or instructive, that it would take pages to describe 
them. The better way will be to come and see it, and you may rest assured that 
the time will not be lost. 

Ans^vers to Correspondents. 

Large Moin, J. A. D., Barnwell, S. C. The large insect sent for identifica- ' 
tion, taken in your hall in the evening, and which you state is unknown with y«u, 
proves to be the moth or perfect stage of tobacco worm, {Macrodla Carolina,) and is 
commonly designated by the planters as the " horn blower." 

The first brood of this insect is hatched in the spring, in May or June, and the 
worms after moulting several times, and becoming full fed enter the ground to 
transform to pupffi. In this stage the insect is a singular looking jug-handled 
object, of a chestnut brown color, and of the shape and size of Fig. I. It remains 

in the ground in this state for a number 
of days, when the perfect fly comes 
forth, which will be easily recognized as 
the same insect as that sent for name 
and history. 
^ '^' ■ The females of the spring brood im- 

mediately, deposit their eggs, and the caterpillars hatching from them change to 
pupa; in the fall and the moths do not appear till the spring following. The per- 


Ansivers to Correspondents. 

Fig. 2. 

feet insect expands, about five inches. The win2:s are greyish in color, marked with 
darker lines and bands, and on each side of the body there are a number of yel- 
lowish spots. This moth closely resembles the moth of the northern potato-worm, 
but is more indistinctly marked and always has a white mark at the base of the 
wings and partly on the thorax as indicated by the arrow in our figure. 

Walking-stick or Spectre — J. N. C, Abl)eville. The insect you send for 
identification with the query as to whether harmless or not, was received. The 
insect belongs to the FJuismidw, commonly called spectres or walking sticks and 
are found on twigs and leaves of plants, to which they bear a strong resemblance, 
as their bodies are very long and slender, and as they generally lack wings. 

Some of the species (though they are not native to this country) imitate leaves 
so closely by the shape and venation of the wings, that the resemblance is most 
striking. The wings are large and broad and the legs also have leaf-like expan- 

The PJiasniidce live upon leaves and young shoots of plants, but as they are not 
numerous they can hardly be regarded as injurious insects. 

Unknown Worm — J. C. D., Petersburg, Va. The worm sent for identifica- 
tion, much to our regret has not been received, and therefore we are in the dark as 
to " what's its name, or where's its harae." 

Sulphur for Gapes in Poultry. — IM. H. W. Lamar writes to the Tribune 
that when he was a boy, and big brick ovens were in use in the South, every morning 
when the biscuit for breakfast were taken out and the oven yet hot, Sally made up 
a pone of corn meal (unsifted) bread, with a heaping tablespoonful of pulverized 
sulphur to the quart of meal, mixed with water and nothing else, and tliis was 
fed to the chickens and turkeys morning and evening, and I never knew one dozen 
chickens lost with gapes, as it is known that sulpluir is death to parai'itical worms. 
The young turkeys had a j)ill of ground black j)epper given each morning when 
they appeared drooping, until again lively. These pills are easily made by adding 
enough flour to cause adhesion. 


Our Mechanical and Manufacturing Resources. 89 

Mining and the Mechanic Arts. 

Our Mechanical and Manufacturing Resources. 

We will uow, in pursuance of a promise made in the last number of the Rural, 
take our readers into and through the door, sash, blind, and general house car- 
pentering establishment of Messrs. Wni. P. Russell & Co., located at the east end 
of Hasel street, in Charleston. Before proceeding with a description of the estab- 
lishment, we will give a brief account of its origin, and its progress during the 
past twenty-two years. 

Mr. Russell, w'ho is a Virginian by birth, first commenced business in Charleston, 
in 1851, on Concord street, near his present location. In 185-4, to meet the require- 
ments of his increasing business, he erected a substantial factory on Hasel street, 
his present site, where he carried on an extensive business until December, 1861, 
when his entire establishment fell a prey to the disastrous conflagration which 
commeHced on the ever memorable night of the 11th day of that month. The 
fire commenced at Mr. Russell's factory, and swept through, the city in a south- 
westerly direction, laying waste at least one quarter of its area. The fiery demon 
consumed every thing in its track, including several Churches, the Theatre, vSouth 
Carolina Institute Hall, and a large number of the oldest and finest mansions in the 

At the time the fire occurred the establishment was engaged in the manufacture 
of supplies for the Ordnance Department of the State of South Carolina. Imme- 
diately after the fire, and within a week, Messrs. Wm. P. Russell & Co. were again 
re-established at the corner of Line street and the railroad track, where they con- 
tinued, until the close of the W'ar, manufacturing supplies for the Ordnance Depart- 
ment of the Confederate States Government. 

At the termination of the war Mr. Russell was left without a dollar in the world, 
but not without friends, as subsequent events will show. Being possessed of a 
goodly share of that energy and perseverance which never fails to make a shining 
mark in business enterprises, Mr. Russell, by the aid of warm-heai'ted friends, 
opened an establishment in Hayne street, where he engaged in the sale of building 
materials generally. He conducted this business successfully until 1868, when 
finding his field Avidening, he leased the third story of the Phoenix Iron Works, 
together with the use of such steam power as his business might require. 

Mr. Russell continued his business in the Phcenix Iron Works until the year 
1870, when, again finding his field too circumscribed, he concluded to erect his 
present establishment, which is three times the size of that conducted by him prior 
to the war, and which, we are pleased to state, is doing a large and prosperous 

The buildings comprising the present establishment of Messrs. Wm. P. Russell 
& Co., occupy an area of 204 feet front by 150 feet deep, bounded east and north 
by Cooper River and a canal, aSbrding ample water facilities for receiving and 
No. 2, Vol. 5. 7 

90 Our Mechanical and Manufacturing Resources. 

shipping lumber. The main l)uilding of the establishment, which is three stories 
higli, is 40 by 80 feet — the planing mill is 30 by 60 feet — the carpenter shop 30 
by 70 feet — the lumber house 30 by 60 feet — the whole forming a scene of busy 
life during work hours. / 

On the first floor of the main building can be seen at work a moulding machine, 
which turns rough boards into mouldings of any desired size or pattern, for fine 
iu-door finish, or for massive cornices for out-door finish. This machine works with 
such i)recisiou and nicety, as well as celerity, as to cause tlie uninitiated to view it 
with amazement, and wonder if there is any limit to human ingenuity. On the 
same floor is a machine which takes a board in its rough state, and turns it out 
planed, grooved and tongued and beaded in a remarkably short time, ready to be 
put up in some store or dwelling as ceiling. 

On the second floor there is machinery of all kinds, for manufacturing doors, 
sashes and blinds. These various machines do their work with the utmost preci- 
sion, and in a style that will bear favorable comparison with similar work turned 
out of the most celebrated manufacturing establishments in Northern and Eastern 
cities. To our mind, the work is far sujjcrior, both in material and workmanship, 
to anything that is now-a-days brought here from abroad. 

On the third floor can be seen work finished, ready for putting up or shipment, 
as may be required. Besides, there is a large quantity of doors, sashes, blinds, etc., 
manufiictured for sale, from which the customers of the establishment can select, 
suitable for either dwellings, stores, churches, or public edifices. 

AVliile visiting the establishment, we saw some mt\.ssive doors and sashes, which 
had been made for a store in an interior town. We were not only surprised at their 
massivcness, but were pleased at their fine workmanship, reflecting great credit on 
the artisans engaged in their manufacture. 

Messrs. Wm. P. Russell & Co., in addition to their manufacture of doors, sashes 
and blinds, furnish plans and specifications for buildings of any design required, 
as well as contract for the erection of the same, in any part of this or the adjoining 
States. For this branch of their business, they have secured the services of INIr. 
W. E. Speir, of New York, an accomplished architect, and a practical mechanic 
and builder. We were afforded, an opportunity of inspecting some of the plans 
executed l)y Mr. Speir, and must say, that they give unmistakable evidence of his 
superior ability as an architect and designer of buildings. 

They also devote a portion of their extensive establishment to the building of 
the celebrated Virginia Cotton Press, which has taken several premiums at Agri- 
cultural and -^lechanical Fairs, including the premium at the la^t exliil)ili()n of the 
South Carolina Institute. This Press is gaining great celebrity wherever it has 
been brought into use, 

Tiie entire machinery of the establishment is driven by a thirty horse-i)ower 
engine, located on the first floor of tiie main building. The boiler house is a brick 
structure, separated from the other buildings on the premises. Every precaution 
has been taken l)y the proprietors to guard against fire. Their arrangements are 
so comi)lete, as will render another occurrence like tiiat of 1861 almost an impos- 

A Move)nent in the Right Direction. 91 


A Movement in the Right Direction. 

As a preliminary to the attainment of the ultimate objects of the Order of 
Patrons of Husbandry, its members must achieve their pecuniary independence. 
Those Avhose crops are mortgaged before they are made and who eat the merchant's 
flour and bacon instead of their own, finally paying two prices for it — one for 
themselves and the other for- those who never pay at all — can never act freely or 
stand up squarely for their rights as men should. The merchant is not to blame 
for this state of things. Doubtless, he would prefer to buy for cash and sell for 
cash, at cash prices. If, however, he must give credit, he can not at the same 
time, sell for cash prices. He must get the interest on his money and enough 
more, in addition, to secure himself against loss from bad debts. He sells to A, 
B, C and D. Perhaps D will fail to pay. The profits to be made on the goods sold 
to A, B and C, must be sufficient to throw the balance, in the aggregate of these 
transactions, on the right side of the ledger. The trader, very naturally, sells 
goods for the purpose of making money. The farmer makes his crops for the 
same purpose. The latter should manage his affairs as wisely as the former, to 
secure himself against loss. To begin with, he must get out of debt as fast as he 
can, and once out, he must keep out. To do this he must not only be industrious 
and manage his operations skillfully, but he must practice economy and retrench- 
ment. The planters of the South, from time immemorial the slaves of the -credit 
system, are beginning to see this. Those who were blind before have had their 
eyes opened in the Grange, and now they propose to act in the matter, and in a 
sensible way. In /his work, the Mississippi State Grange leads off" in the following 
resolutions, passed at its late session : 

_ Eesolved, By the State Grange of Mississippi, That the Lecturer of each subor- 
dinate Grange in this jurisdiction is hereby required to submit to the Grange of 
which he is lecturer, the following pledge of economy, to-wit : Each member of 
this Grange is hereby pledged to the strictest economy in the management of his 
farming and other business, until he places them on a cash basis. 

Eesolved, That the lecturer of each subordinate Grange is hereby required to 

' keep constantly before the members of his Grange, by lectures and otherwise, the 

great difference between cash and credit prices, and the impossibility of carrying 

out the objects of the Order without the practice of the strictest economy, until 

the farming interests are put on a cash basis. 

There are now about 350 subordinate Granges in Mississippi and the Order is 
still increasing rapidly. The resolutions of such a body as the State Grange, 
therefore, have weight. 

The Adair- County, (Missouri) Patrons have organized a County Grange, a body 
not recognized by the Constitution and hitherto unknown. County organizations 
of some kind have been found almost indispensable, and have existed for some time 
m various parts of the country. Would it not be well for the National Grange to 
so amend its Constitution as to legalize them, as Granges, and regulate their rela- 
tions with the State and Subordinate Granges ? 


Some Tilings which the Patrons Propose to Do. 

Some Things which the Patrons Propose to Do. 

1. To secure for themselves, through the Granges, social aud educational advan- 
tages not otherwise attainable, and to thereby, while improving their condition as 
a class, enoble farm life, and render it attractive and desirable. 

2. To give full practical effect to the fraternal tie which unites them, in helping 
and protecting each other in case of sickness, bereavement, pecuniary misfortune, 
and want and danger of every kind. 

3. To make themselves better and more successful farmers and planters, by means 
of the knowledge gained, the habits of industry and method established, and the 
quickening of thought induced by intercourse and discussion. 

4. To secure economies in the buying of implements, fertilizers, and family sup- 
plies, and in transportation, as well as increased profits in the sale of the products 
of their labor, without enhancing their cost to the consumer. 

5. To entirely abolish the credit system, in their ordinary transactions, alwaj's 
bupng and selling on a cash basis, both among themselves and in their dealings 
with the outside world. 

6. To encourage co-operation in trade, in farming, and in other branches of indus- 
try, especially those most intimately connected with agriculture. 

7. To promote the true unity of the Republic, by drawing the best men and 
women of all parts of the country together in an organization which knows no sec- 
tional bounds or prejudices, or owes no party allegiance. 

Patrons of Husbandry in Florida. 

D. H. Jacques, General Deputy of the National Grange for the State of Florida, 
Charleston, S. C. ; Rev. Thomas A. Carruth, Special Deputy, Welborn, Suwannee 
County, Florida. 












Wm. 11. Wil.sun, 

A. D Hummiim. 


Lake (Jity, 

Lake City, 


Dr. W. T. Hacon, 

•John Tli')mi>kin.s. 





li. F. Wardlaw, 

Rufus Difkeusou. 

4 Cherry Lake, 



Jos. Tillman, 

T. J. Biahjik. 

r> Live Oak, 

Live oak, 


W. A. Brinson, 

Dr. W. F. Rvmim. 

6 St. .Jolin's, 



K. IL M.isou, 

J. IL Nortoti. 



Attapolgus, Ga., 


N. X. Lambert, 

IL L. Lambert. 




A.J. Polbill, 

F. II. r.aker. 


Rose Creek, 

Lake (^ity. 


Kol)t. Turner, 

A. H. lUown. 





J. K. Kicliard, 






F. N. Fov, 

A. E. Waterman. 



Morrison's Mills, 


F. M. McMeekin, 

J. J. Johnson. 


Santa Fee, 

McRae's Mills, 


S. E. Timmons, 

M. C. Suggs. 

Patrom of Husbandry in Georgia. 93 

Patrons of Husbandry in Georgia. 

T. J. Smith, Worthy Master of the State Grange, Sandersville, Washington Co. 
E. Taylor, Worthy Secretary of the State Grange, Colaparchee, Monroe Co. 






Laurens Co 







Greene County 

Central City 


Whitney , 

Taylor , 

Flat Shoals 













Covington.. .. 



Barnesville .. 


Woodville. ... 




Flat Shoals .. 
Thomaston. .. 




Longstreet.. ., 
Cave Spring,.. 



Spalding County... 
















Meriwether . 






Floyd , 



Fort Valley Fort Valley 





Little River 

Columbia County... 



Jack Smith 


•Jefferson County.. 



Cave Spring 


Sugar Valley 





Coweta County 



Carter.sville .... 









Lester District.. 




Cave Spring 


Sugai Valley.... 






Power sville 


















Wilkinson •.. 






Randolph. ... 





M. Jones 

C. S. Guvton 

•L T. Perdue 

L. S. Livingston... 

•J. Xewton 

G. H. Waring 

J. S- Lavender 

E^ C. Durant 

T. P. Janes 

•L P. Fort 

T. J. Smith 

C. M. Davis 

E. Tavlor 

T. B.King 

•J. F. Lewis 

H. L. Long 

W. D.H.Johnson 

S. McKibben 

G. W. Jordan 

M. H. Bunn 

T. H. Latimer 

•J. M. Harris 

A. J. Weems 

E. W^ Jordan 

A. J. Luts 

R. P. Johnson 

W. .1. Anderson... 

W. H. Felton 

A. Roff 

A. L. Woodward.. 

W. Phillips 

J. Reese 

M. S. Paden 

W. A. Martin 

.J. A. Hater 

G. F. Hudson 

•J. J. Wyman 

G. O. Warnock... 

T. Hardeman 

AV. Tavlor 

A. J.Peden. 

R. J. M. Perkins.. 

X. B.ass 

O. H. Davis 

T. M. Brantly...... 

T. H. .Jones.'^ 

T. H. Willingham' 

C^ T. Zachrv 

L. R. Rav..." 

T. H. Reddick 

W. F. Darden 


W. L. Thomas... 
-L T. Duncan. ... 

J. G. McCall 

T. S. Black 

B. H. Napier.... 

A. Y. Sheats 

n. N. Graddick.. 
W. C Tinsley... 
•J. Davidson 

B. D. Lumsden.. 

S. G. Jordan 

W. W. Dickey... 

J. E. Taylor 

.J. C 
•Joel Mathews... 
W. H. Baldy.... 
R. E. Bowman... 
•J. T. Goodman.. 

T. F. Walker 

•J. O. Waddell... 
L. Carrino'ton.... 

H. A. Clinch 

R. N. Best 

S. Prince 

T. M. Gordon... 
W. E. H. Searcy. 

H. C. Harris 

W. H. Gilbert... 

J. M. Reeve 

R W.Rutherford 
•J. G. Campbell... 

J. B. Steward 

P. Hardman 

C. H. Shockley.. 

J. D. Smith 

J. T. Tooka 

M. Fulgham 

E. A. Carter 

J. Clark 

A. .L Miller 

A. W. Blake 

W. O. Conner... 

•J. J Cohen 

T. Wright 

M. S. Jordan 

O. A. Barry 

A. W. Tucker... 
G. G. Weems.... 

•J. E. Jones 

W. D. Crown 

W. C. Barker. ... 


The South Carolina State Fair. 





Ramlolph County. 

Bro\s-n Station 




Union Point 


Warren County... 


Red Bhiff 

Screven County... 












Chatham County. 




Liljerty Hill 

Point Peter 



Laurens Hill 










Brown's Station.... 

Griffin .* 



Union Point , 





















Liberty Hill 

Point "Petfer 



Laurens Hill 










































Meriwether . 
Meriwether . 




O.P. Beall 

T. X. Killen 

M. Patrick 

W. T. Martin 

J. R. Wilson 

L. D. Castlen 

T. P. Saff'old 

.J. T. Baker 

W. Walker 

.J. G. Lawrence... 
E. n. W. Hunter. 

3. H. Zachry 

.J II. Fannin 

.LB. Reid 

W. E. Glanton. ... 

D. B. Searcv.. 

J. .J. Toon 

J. H. Echols 

J. F. Stevens 

.J. W. Cawthorn.., 

.L W. Palmer 

W. Schlev 

W. A. Hall 

W. L. Leconte. ... 

G. A. Turk 

T. B. Williams... 

J. H. Miller 

J. M. White 

.1. W. Means 

W. W. O'Neal.... 


D. Nichols 

.L H. Williams... 

W. T. P.eall 

R. D. Humber 

W. Little 


W. L. Reed 

.1. F. Sawtell 

•J. G. Ellison 

W. P. Phillips... 
.J. M. Anthony.. 
W. G. O'Neal... 


E- Heyser 

C. E. McGregor. 

T. L. Brown 

H. M. Stubbs 

G. W. Creach... 

L. F. Berry 

A. L. Davidson. 

.J. F. Awtrey 

W.P. Edmonson 
.1. W. Hardaway 
T. AV. Barrow..". 
.1. M. Harwell... 

T. J. Olive 

W. L. Reed 

A. S. Lundv 

y. S. Jovner 

.J. N. McAlpin.. 

.J. A. Mason 

O. D- .\nderson. 
R. P. Phillips... 
J. W. Williams 
.7 H Cunningham 
J. L. .Tackson... 
W. .T. Fincher... 
Q. L Harvard... 
H.W. Whitaker 

B. F. Ilammoth. 

W. C. Britt 

.\. .J. llinton 

.7. T. Dennis .... 
M. S. Weams.... 

The South CaroHna State Fair. 

Another of the annual reunions of the farmers and i)]anters of the State, for 
which the State Fair furni.shes the occasion is now at hand. Whether the Fair 
itself may be a success or a failure, (and we sincerely hope it will be the former,) 
the 1,'atherinp^ of our people at ("oluinbia will be plea.<ant, and may be made very 
profitable. In regard to the Fair, we learn that it proniises to be more complete 
in its arrangements, and fidler in all its department.s than ever. We know that 
its energetic and zealous officers are doing all that men in their position can do to 
make it so. The pco[)le must do the rest, and we believe they will do it. It will 
open on the 11th of November and not on the 4th, as ])rinted by mistake in our 
last number. 

Grange Notes and Queries. 95 

Grange Notes and .Queries. 

The Patro)is and the Politiciaris. 
Mr. Wm. M. Price, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the State Grange 
of Missouri, Avarns the Patrons of his State against the wiles of certain dema- 
gogues, as exhibited in urgent invitations to attend meetings called for political 
purposes, given with the hope of committing the Order in some Avay to their par- 
tisan schemes. He adds : " We should have meetings, but let them be farmers' 
meetings, and with thinking and intelligent Patrons of Husbandry to address 
them. There are plenty of farmers in Missouri who can and will (if they ever 
get the opportunity,) talk with more sense, give more good advice, and make more 
valuable suggestions to the farmers in an hour, than Ave usually hear at these gen- 
eral welfare meetings in a day. We hope to see the Patrons of Husbandry in 
IMissouri take the lead, and not be led. Read and think for themselves, and stand 

TF7io 3fay be Cliarter Members. 

J. R. P. asks : " Can any except actual farmers and members of their families 
be admitted as charter members of a Grange ?" The Constitution, as is well known, 
says : " Any person interested in agricultural pursuits," etc., may become a member 
of the Order, and this provision, as interpreted by the Granges generally, includes 
a considerable number of persons not actually engaged in farming, each Grange 
being its own judge, in each case, whether the applicant be or be not sufficiently, 
and in the proper sense, interested in agricultural pursuits ; but, to give the Grange 
a basis of practical agriculturists. Deputies are now instructed to admit no others 
as charter members. 

Patrons, not " Grangers^ 

We have no objection to new words, provided they are needed, are properly coined 
(" according to law ") and have the true ring. Such words enrich a language. 
But we must protest against such a nondecript, illegitimate term as " Grangers," 
now so frequently met with in the papers, applied to the Patrons of Husbandry, 
and sometimes unthinkingly adopted, we are sorry to say, by Patrons themselves. 
Its use should not be sanctioned. With as much propriety — and that is with no 
propriety at all — we might call the Masons " Lodgers," because they hold their 
meeting in a Lodge. Patron is a title of honor and a word which means some- 
thins;. " Gran<2;er "is no word at all and means nothing. 

The Granges and Immigration. 
The State Grange of Mississippi recommends that subordinate Granges to form 
immigration associations, the members of which to give in fee simple a definite 
portion, say ten per cent., of their lands to white families agreeing to settle thereon 
for five years — the said lands to be in tracts of ten, twenty, forty or eighty acres, 
and if left by the settlers before the five years expire to revert to the donors, and 
further, that a definite portion of land be sold at low prices and on long time to 
actual white settlers, and other portions leased for a term of years at moderate rent. 

96 Cotton Ginning and Cotton Pitching. — Associative Farming. 

Miscellaneous Correspondence and Notices. 

Cotton Ginning and Cotton Packing. 

Dr. C. itl. Vaideu, whose valuable article reached u.s too late for publication iu 
full and in its proper place, very strongly as well as justly condemns the plating, 
mixing, and water-packing of cotton, through which whole communities are made 
to suffer from the acts of dishonest persons. 

Every village or country merchant, he adds, should have an augur and thor- 
oughly .sample with that alone, when he suspects foul play. That process stops 
condemned cotton in the hands of the owner for the action of the Grand Jury, 
and visits the i)eualty for fraud on the perpetrator. The present fixtures of a gin 
should be entirely revolutionized. If the giuner does his duty, there is no excuse 
for dust in cotton to an extent to declare it objectionable. If he does this he 
enhances the value of every bale from So to 68. Let him have a good gin, a good 
roomy gin-house, with a suitable pick room, and other appendages I shall name, 
and 1 guarantee the enhanced value of all the cotton ginned. 

Pick rooms are generally mere sheds and too small for the purpose. Seal the 
inside of the room with planed boards, and extend the length to thirty feet, that 
the lint may be blown to the utmost capacity of the brush, disintegrating every 
fibre of the cotton as far as practicable. Erect a flue to the full capacity of the 
brush, if twenty feet long so much the better. This is to be made perfectly air 
tight, otherwise the propulsive power of the brush is lost. These are made by 
bradding slats transversely to two bars running the length of the box, usually a foot 
deep. The lint passes over the slats, and in its passage sand and leaf l)eing heavier 
than the lint, fall in the box. For the convenience of the ginner, two pockets 
should be on the side of the box, through which he removes accumulations every 
two or three days. These po(^kets should be closed outside with a screw. The top 
to the box as well as the slats must be i)olished as smoothly as glass, Avhere the 
lint conies in contact, otherwise it will choke up and prevent the passage of the lint. 

In ceiling the room omit a space two feet below the plates, and substitute wire 
netting in front and on the two sides to let the dust escape. A pick room air tigiit, 
or approximating it, would not do, as the lint would fall back on the flue and 
stop the operations of the gin. If wire can't be had conveniently wooden slats 
would do, provided the interstices were. small enough to let dust alone escape. 

Cotton when gathered from the field should be scaflblded one day at least, early 
or late in the season, that it may be thoroughly dried to prevent being napped in 
ginning, and to assist in ridding it of dust. 

Associative Farming. 

Editor OF tiir Ruual Carolinian : The suggestions of the IvruAi. Caro- 
linian, iu regard to the co-operation in farming, are worthy of tluuiglitful con- 
sideration, esi)ecially by the i)eoi)le of our Low Country. There is not a better 
or more attractive region in the South (or anywhere else) than this Soulliern coast 
and its Islands can show ; and it is fast going back to its primeval condition as a 
wilderness. The small farm system will not work here. The old large plantation 
.sy.stem is ])rokcn up — is no longer ])racti('al)le for the individual. Shall we not, 
tlien, try a.«sociation. Will not some energetic man with money and hrainsj, make 
a move, and ask other good men to join him? ASHLEY. 

A Tonic and Alterative for Horses. — The Sau,ppernong Grape. 97 

A Tonic and Alterative for Horses. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : If the horse is very low iu flesh and 
spirits, give him one button of nux-voraica every other day until he has taken 
three buttons. They should be well beaten or filed, and should be given (when the 
horse is hungry) iu meal or hominy. Be sure he eats it all. If, however, he 
should leave a portion, drench him with what I'emaius, after mixing it with water 
and i)utting in a bottle. Then give him a table-spoonful of the following mixture 
once a week : I lb. alum, i lb. saltpetre, \ lb. sulphur, } lb. ginger, well pounded 
and mixed. Have his sheath well washed out with warm soap suds, by means of 
a soft mop, grease it with a small quantity of oil or lard, and allow the horse to 
run on a pasture if convenient. He should be exercised moderately, or be put at 
light work ; he should have his usual food, but not be fed so highly as to have 
food left in his trough. In four weeks the horse will, probably, be in a thriving 
condition, if not, continue the mixture. 

The nux-vomica should be omitted unless the horse is in a very bad condition, 
as there is some danger in giving it to a horse in tolerable health. If convenient, 
have his corn ground to hominy, and mix with it one-third shelled oats. Twelve 
pounds per day of this mixture (eight lbs. hominy and four lbs. oats,) is a fair 
allowance for a work horse. I have known horses treated in this manner for 
twenty-five or thirty years, and do not remember of its ever having failed, except a 
few cases that were very old. 

This mixture is an excellent tonic and alterative, and may be safely and advan- 
tageously given to horses and mules at any time, and will improve their condition, 
particularly in the spring when they are shedding their coats, and often lose their 
appetites. The same applies to cattle. Both should have salt and ashes or weak 
lime (equal quantities) given them regularly every Aveek. If any owner of horses, 
mules and cattle, will try the above one year, and does not say it is worth the 
subscription to Rural Carolinian, I will agree to pay for it for him for one 

Darlington, S. C, August 

The Scuppernong Grape. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : About twenty years since I planted 
four Scuppernong roots upon the margin of a bed in my garden, and on the upper 
side, thus securing drainage. About five years subsequently I planted between the 
Scuppernong two roots of the Isabella grape. All the vines grew vigorously and in 
due time came into full bearing upon the same arbor. I cultivated various vege- 
tables on the bed to within a few feet of the roots of the grapes. For a number 
of years the Scuppernong yielded a good crop, but having only one, two, or three 
berries to the stalk. Two years ago I used cow-pen manure freely, cultivated the 
contiguous bed in onions, using the subsoil plough, but keeping my distance from 
the roots of the vines. The onions were of the finest and my Scuppernong 
increased to eight and ten berries to the stalk and made an enormous crop, which 
not only gave to my family grapes iu abundance, but out of Avhich I made sixteen 
gallons of wine (pure juice) and by a second fermentation six gallons besides, 
making in all twenty-two gallons of wine. 

In regard to the increased production of fruit my first impression was that it 
was due to higher cultivation and a fertilizer that furnished the vine with more 
nutritive food, the cow-pen manure containing a lai'ge percentage of nitrate of 
potash. A few days since it occurred to my mind that the Isabella grape, which 

98 The All- Cotton Policy.— The Cotton Crop in Alabama. 

ha« interwoven itself in the same arbor with the Scuppsrnoug, might liave had an 
influence in the tendency to cluster. Now, Mr. Editor, I ask tlie question : Is 
this tendency to cluster in the Scupperuong due to hybridity or a higlier cultiva- 
tion ? Let the savants answer. E. H. AXDERSON. 
Kirkwood, Miss., July 2d, 1873. 

Note. — Some vegetables hybridize in tlie first generation, as with the squash and pumpkin 

The All-Cotton Policy. 

G. L. W., thinks that the all-cotton policy, if generally adopted, would prove 
disastrous. He says : 

If the policy of the " all-cotton" advocates were generally adopted, and a crop 
of 6,000,000 or 7,000,000 bales or more were made, what could keep the price 
above 5 or 6 cents ? and if compelled to sell at such prices, how could the planter 
pay for the labor to make it ? and where would he get money to keep starvation 
from his door? I have known cotton to be almost a drug in the market at those 
figures, from an over production, less than thirty years since. Under the present 
condition of the country and labor, there is now too much cotton planted to make 
it remunerative, except in some particularly forward places and instances. 

Another correspondent, (J. T. G.,) is disgusted with the same policy, and declares : 

"We have " cottoned" until we are well nigh "broke." I for one am done carry- 
ing all of my eggs to market in one basket. Next year I shall turn over a new- leaf 
in farming. I will make my corn, potatoes, peas, bacon, syrup, sugar, hay, etc. 

The Cotton Crop in Alabama. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian: Your correspondent A. M. C, from 
Montgomery, writes " cotton is late, but otherwise promising, with a ftivorable fall 
there may be an average crop." This is good news to the most of us, who can't 
see that even half a cro]) will be made as yet, although we have about got all 
gathered that we can see ; may be the dried up leafless, dead, worm-eaten stalks, 
may yet with his "favorable fall," rejuvenate and make his average crop, but we 
think not. The truth is, that the crops are poor indeed. J. C. N. 

Montgomery, October 1th, 1873. 

An omission of the fractional figures in printing, our correspondent, A. M. C's. 
note, made his statement stronger than he intended. He wrote " two-thirds of an 
average crop," which, according to J. C N., was still too high. 

Inquiries and Answers. 

"A Planter" desires our opinion on " the probable future prices of cotton," and 
asks our advice in regard to the policy of " holding his crop for an advance in 
price." In the present condition of financial aflUirs, "opinions" on this subject 
are of little value. We rate our own too low to ])ut it in print. We give else- 
where (for what they may be worth) some facts and figures in regard to the crop. 
Wo hope the time is not far off when the planter will have at his command such 
complete and accurate data in regard to the crops and markets, that he will need 
to ask no one's opinion or advice in regard to probable prices and the best time to 
sell. Till that time shall come, he must move more or less bliiully in the matter. 

Inquiries and Answers. 99 

As to " holding back," if " A Planter " be one of the fortunate ones who are out 
of debt and in no immediate need of money, he can bide his time and hold his crop 
till spring, or till summer if he choose, and if he believes that he can get better 
prices by doing so, he would thus only do what any wise business man would do 
under similar circumstances. Those whose crops are pledged to their factors, for 
money advanced to make them, or who have other debts requiring immediate 
payment, do not, we trust, need to be advised to meet their obligations like honest and 
honorable men, at whatever sacrifice. We trust that even they will get paying prices. 

Z. H. S. English walnuts and other imported nuts can not always be de- 
pended upon to germinate under any kind of treatment. The best way with them 
(and with our native nuts, unless they can be planted as soon as they fall from the tree, 
which is best) is to pack them in a mixture of leaf mold or black soil and sand in 
boxes (with holes in the bottoms for drainage) and keep them moist till they sprout, 
when they may be planted out. Slightly cracking the shell of a nut, without 
opening it, if carefully done, will promote germination. Peach and plum pits 
may be treated in the same way as nuts, but it is better, in your climate, to plant 
them as soon as taken from the fruit. 

" Millie." If you will sow your larkspur seed in the fall (October is the 

best time, but the first week in November is not too late) you will succeed and the 
plants will bloom in the spring. Spring sown seed seldom germinates here, and if 
it does come up, the plants are generally killed by the heat and drought of summer, 

G. S. The grasses which you send for name are : 1. Sporoholus Florida- 
mis', 2. Erianthus Stridus. We know no common name for either of them. They 
have little or no value as forage. Please accept our thanks for the specimen of 
Gama grass, in which our collection has hitherto been deficient. 

In reply to M. J. in October number, E. M. J. says : " I am satisfied that 

the Bishop Buggy Plow is the best in use either for the cultivation of cotton and 
corn or the turning of land. It is a Southern invention and manufactured in the 
South. Address Dr. M. T. W. Christian, Talladega, Ala." 

R F. F. You can buy a Jujube tree from P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, 

Ga., or from almost any other Southern nurseryman. It is perfectly hardy any- 
where in the Cotton States. 

The plant sent by St. J. M., Georgetown, for name, is commonly known 

as Iron-wood, Its scientific name is Bumelia lycioides. It is said to have medical 
properties, and to be useful in bowel complaints. 

S. R. M. A considerable quantity of jute seed has been raised this season 

and no doubt some of it will be put on sale, but we do not know at what price. 
The price in France, last season was $25, (gold) per bushel. 

Mrs. P, The plant you refer to is, we presume, what is generally known as 

lemon verbena (^Idpsia (formerly aloysia) citriodora.) Cuttings of it do not strike 
readily. It may be propagated by layering. 

D. S. . J. The National Grange (P. of H.) has no " organ," but issues 

printed circulars to the Granges, as the good of the order may seem to require it. 

100 General Notices and Achiouiedgments. 

General Notices and Acknowledgments. 

Writers should bear in mind that this is a practical and a fast-going age and 
country, in which few people have cither the time or the disposition to study thor- 
oughly and carefully any subject whatever, or to wade through the details of tedious 
processes to reach useful results. The great majority of readers want, from those 
who have the necessary knowledge, gained by study and experience, condensed 
statements of facts, timely suggestions for immediate application, and sound prac- 
tical advice, to be turned to account at once in the field. Dispense theu with long 
introductions, come at once to the point, say what you have to say in the fewest 
possible words, and when you have said it, stop. 

The box of grapes received from Mr. H. W. Ravenel, of Aiken, S. C, was duly 
appreciated, and its contents critically tested, with mauy thanks to the kind donor. 
This was our first introduction to the Peedee Grape, (not long ago described in our 
pages,) and we are glad to bear testimony to ils excellence. It will prove an acqui- 
sition of much value. The Thomas were also very fine, and the Flowers the best 
we have ever seen of that variety. Those Avho d&sire lo plant these very desirable 
grapes can procure rooted layers of Mr. Raveuel. 

We have received from the Department of Agriculture, through the kind atten- 
tion of Hon. A. J. Ransier, M. C, a quantity, of Touzelle seed wheat imported 
from France by the Department, for distribution ; also some packages of blue grass 
seed, both of which we shall take pleasure in distributing to those who may desire 
to try them and will send to our oflice for the packages. 

The Texas Farmer and Stock Raisei\ is a new, handsome, and well conducted 
paper, published monthly at Austin, Texas, by D. N. Dodson, at $2 a year. It is 
edited with ability aud deserves success. Tlie farmers aud stock men of Texas 
should not let it fail for want of their subscription. 

The Alliance is a high-toned undenominational religious paper, pul)lished in 
Baltimore, and edited by H. L. Singleton aud E, B. Sanford. So far as we can 
judge by the uuml)er before us, it is Avell worthy of the patronage of Christian 
pcoj)le in the Soulli of all denoniinations. Address the Alliance, No. 3, Postofiice 
Av., Baltimore. 

The Subsoiler, S. G. Barr, editor aud proprietor, Corinth, Miss., ($1.25 a year,) 
is doing a good work in the agricultural field, stirring up the soil of (lie mind 
deeply and well, an a "subsoiler" should. With a sound agricuUural press, well 
supported, farming must nuike progress. 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 101 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 

Kentucky Belle, a Tale of the Late Civil War. 


Summer of 'sixty-three, sir, and Conrad was gone away — 
Gone to the county-town, sir, to sell our first load of hay — 
We lived in the log-house yonder, poor as ever you've seen ; 
Roschen there was a baby, and I was only nineteen. 

Conrad, he took the oxen, but he left Kentucky Belle, 
How much we thought of Kentuck, I couldn't begin to tell — 
Came from the Blue-Grass country ; my father gave her to me 
When I rode North with Conrad, away from the Tennessee. 

Conrad lived in Ohio — a German he is, you know — 
The house stood in broad corn-fields, stretching on, row after row. 
Tlie old folks made me welcome ; they were kind as kind could be ; 
But I kept longing, longing, for the hills of the Tennessee. 

Oh ! for a sight of water, the shadowed slope of a hill ! 
Clouds that hang on the summit, a wind that never is still ! 
But the level land went stretching away to meet the sky — 
Never a rise, from north to south, to rest the weary eye ! 

From east to west, no river to shine out under the moon, 
Nothing to make a shadow in the yellow afternoon : 
Only the breathless sunshine, as I looked out, all forlorn ; 
Only the " rustle, rustle," as I walked among the corn. 

When I fell sick with pining, we didn't wait any more, 
But moved away from the corn-lands, out to this river shore — 
The Tuscarawas it's called, sir — off there's a hill, you see — 
And now I've grown to like it next best to the Tennessee. 

I was at work that morning. Some one came riding like mad 
Over the bridge and up the road — Farmer Rouf's little lad. 
Bareback he rode ; he had no hat ; he hardly stopped to say, 
"Morgan's men are coming, Frau; they'ra galloping on this way. 

"Fm sent to warn the neighbors. He isn't a mile behind; 
He sweeps up all the horses — every horse that he can find. 
Morgan, Morgan, the raider, and Morgan's terrible men, 
With bowie-knives and pistols, are galloping up the glen." 

The lad rode down the valley, and I stood still at the door ; 
The baby laughed and prattled, playing with spools on the floor ; 
Kentuck was out in the pasture ; Conrad, ray man, was gone, 
Nearer, nearer, Morgan's men were galloping, galloping on ! 

Sudden I picked up baby and ran to the pasture-bar ; 

" Kentuck !" I called — " Kentucky !" She knew me ever so far ! 

I led her down the gully that turns off there to the right, 

And tied her to the bushes ; her head was just out of sight. 

As I ran back to the log-house, at once there came a sound — 
The ring of hoofs, galloping hoofs, trembling over the ground — 
Coming into the turnpike out from the White- Woman Glen — 
Morgan, Morgan the raider, and Morgan's terrible men. 

102 T1ie Rural Carolinian. 

As near they drew and nearer, my heart beat fast in alarm ; 

But still 1 stood in the door-way, with baby on my arm. 

Thcv came ; they passed ; with spur and whip in haste they sped along — 

Morgan, Morgan the raider, and his bund, six hundred strong. 

Weary they looked and jaded, riding through night and through day ; 

Pushing on east to the river, many long miles away. 

To the border-strip where Virginia runs up into the West, 

And ford the Upper Ohio before they could stop to rest. 

On like the wind they hurried, and Morgan rode in advance. 
Bright were his eyes like live coals, as he gave me a sideways glance ; 
And I was just breathing freely, after my choking pain, 
AVhen the last one of the troopers suddenly drew his rein. 

Frightened I was to death, sir ; I scarce dared look in his face, 

As he asked for a drink of water, and glanced around the place. 

I gave him a cup, and he smiled — 'twas only a boy, you see ; 

Faint and worn, with dim-blue eyes ; and he'd sailed on the Tennessee. . 

Only sixteen he was, sir — a fond mother's only son — 

Ofl'and away with Morgan before his life had begun ! 

The damp drops stood on his temples ; drawn was the boyish mouth ; 

And I thought me of the mother waiting down in the South. 

Oh ! pluck was he to the back bone, and clear grit through and through ; 
Boasted and bragged like a trooper ; but the big words wouldn't do. 
The boy was dying, sir, dying, as plain as plain could be, 
AVorn out by his ride with Morgan up from the Tennessee. 

But, when I told the laddie that I too was from the South, 
Water came in liis dim eyes, and quivers around his mouth. 
" Do you know the Blue-Grass country ?" he wistful began to say ; 
Then swayed like a willow-sappling, and fainted dead away. 

I had him into the log-house, and worked and brought him to ; 
I fed him, and coaxed him, as 1 thought his mother'd do; 
And, wlien the lad got belter, and the noise in his head was gone, 
Morgan's men were miles away, galloping, galloping on. 

"Oil, I must go," he muttered ; " I must be up and away ! 
Morgan— Morgan is waiting for me! Oh, what will ^Morgan say?" 
But 1 lieard a sound of tramping, and kept hiia hack tVom the door — 
The ringing sound of horses' hoofs that 1 had lieard before. 

And on, on, came the soldiers — the Michigan cavalry — 

And fast they rode, and black they looked, galloping rapidly. 

They had followed hard on Morgan's track ; they had followed day and night ; 

But of Morgan and Morgan's raiders they had never caught a sight. 

And rich Ohio sat startled through all tliose summer days ; 

For strange, wild men were galloping over her liroad liigiiways — 

Now here, now tliere, now .seen, now gone, now north, now east, now west, 

Through river-valleys and corn-land farms, sweeping away her best. 

A bold ride and a long ridel But they were taken at last. 
They almost reached the river by galloping hard and fast ; 
But the lioys in blue were upon tliem ere ever they gained tlie ford, 
And Morgan, Morgan the raider, laid down his terrible sword. 

Well, I kept the boy till evening — kept him against liis will — 
But he was too weak to follow, and sat there, pale and still. 
When it was cool and ilusky — you'll wonder to hear me tell — 
But I stole down to that gully, and brought up Kentucky Belle. 

Literature, Science and Home Interests, 


I kissed the star on her forehead — my pretty, gentle lass — 
But I knew that she'd be happy back in the old Blue-Grass. 
A suit of clothes of Conrad's, with all tlie money 1 had. 
And Kcntuck, pretty Kentuck, I gave to the worn-out lad. 

I guided him to the southward as well as 1 knew how ; 

The boy rode oti' with many tiianks, and many a backward bow ; 

And then the glow it faded, and my heart began to swell, 

As down the glen away she went, my lost Kentucky Belle ! 

When Conrad came in the evening, the moon was shining high ; 

Baby and I were both crying — 1 couldn't tell him why — 

But a battered suit of rebel gray was hanging on the wall, 

And a thin old horse, with drooping head, stood in Kentucky's stall. 

Well, he was kind, and never once said a hard word to me ; 
He knew I couldn't help it — 'twas all for the Tennessee. 
But, after the war was over, just think what came to pass — 
A letter, sir ; and the two were safe back in the old 

The lad had got across the border, riding Kentucky Belle ; 
And Kentuck she was thriving, and fat, and hearty, and well ; 
He cared for her, and kept her, nor touched her with whip or spur, 
Ah ! we've had many horses, but never a horse like her ! 

Constance Fenimoee Woolson, in Appk-tons' Journal. 


" Will Tou ever be done collecting, Prent ?" 

" Oh, 1 hope so, Xell. I think I'll get 
through the best of it to-day. I expect to 
bring you some twenty thousand to-night." 

"Hush I" she said. "You're foolish to 
talk so- I wish you were well out of the 
business, Prent" 

" Pshaw, Nell !" he answered, " there's no 
danger. I'd like to leave it in Bath and 
Westbury's safe in Caramore, but Bath told 
me, yesterday, they wouldn't have any more. 
There's been a safe robbery down west, and 
they're afraid- I don't blame 'em, though ?" 

" Where are yon going to-day ?" 

" I'm going south, through Dixon and Cam- 
thorp to Shore, and then west by the South 
Country to Seaville and Plumley, and then 
home by Caramore. It is a long pull, but I 
haven't much work to do, and I guess Driver 
'lido it by dark." 

He got up from the breakfast table and 
prepared to go out. 

" Well, don't be rash, Prent." 

"Oh, I'll look out. Don't you fear. Good- 
by, Nell." 

She saw him ride broAvn Driver through 
the gate and trot away down the south road. 

At twelve Prent rode out of vShore, and 
held on east along the wide South Pike ; at 
two he was in Seaville Centre. In Plumley 
he was delayed. To get home by dark, he 
should have been at Caramore by lialf-past 

four. The sun was low on Three Pine Hills 
when he rode up to Bath and Westbury's 
general country store. He hitched Driver to 
a post, went in and warmed his hands at the 

" — evinin', Broom," said Bath. 

He beckoned and passed through to the 
back-store. Prent followed and shut the door 
behind him. 

"Broom," says Bath, "you've got to take 
that money along with you, an' all I got to 
say is the sooner you get shet of it, the better 
for you." 

" Why, what's to pay now, Bath ?" asked 

" There was two regular sporters stopped at 
Jim Crickett's last night. "They come by dif- 
ferent trains, didn't know each other at all, 
at first, but got very thick afore the night was 
out. The first one give his name William 
Paddlebox, and when the other fellow saw it 
on the book, he put his'n down James M. 
Walkingbeam. Last week, too, there was a 
fellow in here pretended he was agent for a 
Bellamy tobacco company. I asked him some 
quizzing questions that showed he wasn't up 
to the tobacco trade at all, I'd be swore. I 
saw him examine the lock of the north door, 
and walk all round the building when he 
went out. I'm mighty mistaken if somebody 
ain't broke into before long. Leastways, you 
must take that package out of our safe to- 


The Rural Carolinian. 

night. I've changed ofl' the small money for 
you and got it into as small bulk as I could. 
And, look here, Broom," he added, "this 
money being in our safe's been talked of over 
to Wimble's, and it's no more'n right you to 
drop in there and happen to mention its been 
took out." 

"Well, said Broom, "if you say so. I 
don't want you to run any risk by me." 

There were one or two person's in the store 
as he passed through, took the package from 
Bath, and buttoned it under his coat. 

*' You ought to be armed, Broom," Bath 

Prent opened his coat a little way ; the butt 
of a i)istol .showed on his left breast. He 
stepped over to Wimble's Hotel, bought a 
segar at the bar. Wimble came up. 

"How do. Broom? Comin' over t' the 
raffle to-morrow ? Lem me git you a ticket, 
only a dollar?" 

"Xo, guess not," says Prent. "Got to go 
t' the city." 

"Going take them ten thousan' Ben Bath's 
got in his safe, of your'n ?" 

"Bath hasn't no ten thousand nor ten cents 
of mine," said Broom. 

He went out, and started on. The sun was 
set. He had nineteen miles to go yet. He 
kept Driver going smartly, though he began 
to lag a little with his lyiig day's tramp. The 
road lay north, through level, waste plain 
lands, covered with stunted pines, scrub oaks, 
and smaller matted undergrowth. The road 
is a single wagon track cut down through the 
thin surface soil into the wiiite, fetlock-deep 
sand underneath. It was a dreary ride enough. 
Broom kept his horse at a steady pace, urging 
him now and then a little faster. Nell would 
be looking for him now, and eighteen miles 
with a tired horse between them yet. Four 
miles of the same monotonous waste ; then, 
f:ir away across the level, he cauglit sight of 
the buildings of Camarack Station on the line 
of the railway. He heard the whistle of a 
train coming west, and presently saw it roll 
in and stop. It moved ollj hissing and clang- 
ing, just as he came up. Crossing the track, 
he was iiailcd l)y a man he knew. 

"Hello, Broom I hold on." 

He stopped and the man came out. 

" Look here. Broom," he said. " Half an 
hour ago I got this telegram. What the deuce 
does it mean?" It was dated, "Half-i)ast 
six, Brammerley," ten miles west on the 
line. It was addressed to Henry Tarlow, and 
read thus: 

"Prentiss Broom will pass through C. about 
seven. Tell him this : DonH fjo beyond Brume's 

It was signed — "A Friend." 

" I don't know what it means. Good-night, 
Tarlow, I've got fourteen miles before me." 

He rode on, keeping Driver well up to liis 
work. It was live miles to Stjuire Brame's 

tavern ; five miles of the same dreary waste 
around, and tiie same clogging sand under 
foot. The road bent more to the west now ; 
it was fast growing dark. 

Two miles short of Brame's he caught sight 
of a wagon also going north. He pushed the 
brown ahead to overtake it, and coming up, 
recognized the sturdy person and grey hair of 
the stout old Squire himself. The Scpiire was 
a fast friend of Prent's, and he was glad 
enough to see him jogging home. 

" Hold up, Square," he called. " Wliat's 
your hurry ?" 

" Whoa, Bill," answered the Squire, in his 
hearty voice. "Well, now, if it uin't Prent 

" Give 's a ride, Square. I been in the 
saddle all day." 

He dropped off Driver, and got in with 
the Squire. 

" I want some advice. Square," he said 
" Look here — or hold on ; you can't see it 
now, but I'll tell you what's in't. 

He read and explained the message. 

" ' Don't go beyond Brame's to-night,' " the 
Squire repeated. " Well, that's good advice 
anyway, Prent. How much have you got on 

" Nineteen thousand dollars and odd." 

"Whew!" the old man whistled. "You 
better take A Friend's advice. Don't go be- 
yond Brame's to-night. Your is tired, 
too. Look how he hangs back." 

" But I've got to §0 home. Nell's all alone." 

" Then you better leave the money with 

" No, no. Square, I ain't going to get you 
into any trouble like that. And, besides, I'm 
going to town witli it in the morning. I won't 
lose *ight of it anvway." 

" Well, Prent, if you wont do that, I'll tell 
you what. I*ut up Driver at my house. I'll 
put your saddle on to my roan mare, Sky- 
lark, and she'll take you that nine miles in 
torty-five minutes easy. Slip that jjackage 
under tl;e seat here. You get on to Driver, 
and ride in slow. I'll cut round by Big Pines, 
and come in on the otiier road. I'll stow the 
money under the saddle for you; it '11 be 
safer there. Come, tumble out. Whoa, Bill." 

"(jood, Square, I'll do it, and thankful. 
I'm blest if you ain't the cleverest old trump 
that's going." 

"Oh, sof soap's cheap, Prent. None o' 
that sort." 

He whipped up his horse, and skurricd 
awav through the sand. Prent came among 
theliills now; tlie land was nuieh better; the 
sand and scrub pines and oaks dnippeil be- 
hii d. There were cultivated fields on either 
Inind, here and there a house. He came to 
tiie Big Pines cross-road, and could dimly 
sec Bill's fresh tracks turning o(!" to the left. 
He held straight on a mile, over the Maildon 
Hills, and so down to where the road ends at 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


the broad mMilIe pike. Then west half a 
mile to the little hamlet of Filmore, with 
Branie'a tavern in the centre. As he rode up 
to tlie dooi-, old Braine came out of the court- 
yard at the left. He came up. 

" How do, Prent ?" he called in his loud, 
cheery voice. " Glad to see ye. Where y' 
bound now. Been rather givin' it to Driver, 
ain't ye? Have him rubbed down and eat 
some oats 'fore y' go on." 

There were several idlers lianging about. 
Broom took his cue. He said notliing about 
the roan mare. 

"Well, Square, guess I will come in a bit," 
he said. 

The hostler took away Driver to the table. 
They went in. 

" Come inside and have a bite," says the 

And Prent followed him through the bar 
into an inner room. 

" Prent," said the Squire, '' I don't like the 
looks of things at all. There's been a stranger 
here to-night in a buggy. He was dressed in 
the best; had a beaver on, and leg-o'-mutton 
whiskers and long hair. Looks amazin' like 
a swell parson, only parsons don't gin'ally 
sit in hotel parlors, and smoke segars with 
their legs on to the table, and drink no end 
of brandy hot and hot. He went ofTjust 
now. I say I don't like it, Prent." 

" Can't help it, Square," I said. " I must 
go on." , 

(There — it's out at last. So gentles, by 
your leave, we'll drop this round-about third 
person for the downright first. My name is 
Prentiss Broom.) 

" Well, if you must," he said, "look here." 

He showed me a pad of tow-cloth, made up 
to fit under the saddle. It was stuffed with 
wool ; he ripped one side with his knife and 
showed me. 

"Now, Pll put the money in place of this 
wool. Don't fear. No one can hear or see 
us here. Your saddle is worn thin ; this will 
fit under it prime. I'll fix it myself. Let 
me see your arms." 

I showed him my pistol, Colt's make, six 

"All charged?" he asked. 

I nodded. 

He examined it carefully, nipple and trigger. 

" You'll do, I guess," he said. " Prent 
Broom," he asked seriously, "there's one 
word I want to say to you. It's one thing to 
be brave, and another to be rash. When you 
turn ofi" the pike to night, put Skylark into a 
run, and give her her head. Don't stop her 
for man or devil, till you're safe home. If 
any one tries to stop you, drive her at him 
and fire. If anything serious happens, let 
the mafre go, and give in. She'll bring the 
money to me if she can." 

"Now, sit down and eat; I'll have the mare 
round in five minutes." 

No. 2, Vol. 5. 8 

I mounted her at the door. Old Brame 
whispered : 

"Take care, Prent; and remember Nell." 

" Good-night, Square," I called, and start- 
ed down the pike. It was a mile to the fork 
where our Hilbury road turns north. Sky- 
lark is a fiery beast ; powerful in breast and 
quarter, lithe of limb and flank, a long small 
head and ears, quick, bright eyes, and a very 
deer to run. I trotted her sharply down the 
pike she pulling hard. Coming to the fork, 
we turned it sharply. I chirruped to her, 
broke her up, and gave her her head. She 
shot away north like a flight. I just guided 
her, kept the bit in her mouth, and let her 
run. Soon she settled down to a long, low, 
regular lope that was very easy riding, and 
dropped the miles behind like a swift-gliding 
panorama of night in the lonely hills. Up 
hill, along the level, down the long decline, 
througli the level meadows and pasture lands, 
up again breezily, striding, striding — ever the 
same long, easy, bounding lox^e. 

There was Jason's place now, up on the 
slope of Kinnell Hill — seven miles more to 
Nell at Sicklefield. I thought of her watch- 
ing for me, anxious enough, I knew. I 
whistled to the mare. She leaped to it gayly 
and we whirled along, down the long mile 
that skirts round Kinnel Hill and the Elder 
swamps, on again north over Harmony Flats, 
till we struck hills again at Nine Mile Rock, 
on the Joram road. 

So we held on through the Brandon Hills, 
keeping the long, low, flying lope. 

Leaving the hills, the road dips down into 
Treacle Hollow, and runs a straight, smooth 
mile, through thick, dark woods of hickory 
and oak. I felt a little anxious about this mile 
of gloom ahead. It was not just the road 
one would choose to ride on a dark night, 
with twenty thousand dollars in notes and 
bonds. I tapped up the mare, and we dashed 
down the slope and into the wood's black 
shade. She was a brave horse as ever trod or 
trampled, that fiery roan mare. Skylark. I 
let the rein hang loose. She doubled her 
neck, sprang out, and galloped fierce as fire. 
I kept a keen lookout ; though I might have 
saved my pains. It was dark as the pit in 
that close-grown tunnel of shade. Once out 
of this gloomy hollow, I should not fear. 
There were only two miles of the open high 
road beyond, with houses scattered every lit- 
tle way. We tramped along through the 
hollow ; I kept the mare up to her best. The 
long level slipped behind. The woods began 
to thin and lighten a little. A little further 
on we struck a slight ascent — the foot of our 
Hilbury hills. A minute more and we should 
be clear of the woods, and safe. I felt the 
ground steepen under us. Skylark slackened 
her pace. The road was steep before us; I 
had ridden her hard, up-hill and down. I 
felt safe now. I didn't care to urge her. She 


The Rural Carolinian. 

labored up tlie ascent, breathing quick and 

A bright glare flashed in my eyes ! A crash 
in the buslies — the mare shied and plunged. 
A man's form, dimly seen, was hanging by 
her bits. I struck' my heels in her flanks, 
drew my pistol — fired. The mare was 
plunging wildly ; I was blind with the glare 
in my eye.>j — 1 missed. I felt myself grasped 
from behind, drawn heavily backward. I 
felt the mare going from under me. I kicked 
at her furiously — flung the pistol at her head 
as I fell. She snorted and plunged, made 
one great, frightened leap high in the air, 
flung the fellow that held her heavib' into the 
fence, and sJiot away uj) tlie hill. 

As I fell, the liglit glanced one side 
from my face, and showed me the mau wlio 
held me, full audi)lain. Tall and light-made, 
with small, white hands, pale face, black, 
silky side-beard and moustache, keen grey 
eyes, thin lips, and perfect teeth, long liair, 
glossy and jet black. He was dressed in flne 
black clotli, linen spotless and unruffled, and 
a higli silk liat. I saw the liglit glance from 
his polished boots, from a diamond ring on 
liis hand. He liad a segar in liis mouth. 
There was no passion or excitement in his 
face. He looked as cool, as fearless, as dev- 
ilish as ever I hope to see the face of man, as 
he dragged me back and tlirew me on the 
ground — held me down bv the throat. 

" Jiber !" he called. "Quick, will you !" 

I did not fight. The mare was ofl" with the 
money. I knew there were otlier two at hand. 
I was unarmed. I knew they could quiet me 
quickly enough. I knew that that cold, 
white, cruel face above me would kill me 
without remorse, if it came to need. I thouglit 
of Nell, and lay still. The man called Jiber 
came crashing out with his dark lantern in 
his hand. He wore a slouclied black hat; 
was roughly dressed — altogetlier a conmioner, 
rougher man than the other, with a cunning 
sneaking face, written all over in straggling 
cliaracters with his proper name of thief. 
He lighted an open lantern and set it on a 
stone. The third roltber crawled up out of 
the bushes and stones wliere tlie mare had 
thrown him. The others called him ('hisel. 
He wore a cap and a suit of dark grey coarse 
cloth. I difl not see iiis i'ace. He jilainly 
Bttidied to hide it — kept it in the ;^hadow, or 
turned aw:iy. He seenud younger than 
either of the others — not stout, but lithe and 
quick as a cat. 

It was only a minute's time from the first 
flash till I was lying i[uiet on my back in tlie 
road, with tlial wliite-faced, jewelled devil 
liolding me down, and the others kneeling by 
us. Tliey calKd liini the Parson. 'J'liey call- 
ed tlie rough one, with the brutal face and 
Hlouched hat, Jiber, and the other Chisel, as 
I said. 

" Chisel," he said — his voice was clear atul 

calm — " Chisel, hold the lantern. Jiber cock 
your pistol. Put it to his head. Are vou 
ready ?" 

" We're ready, Parson." 

It was Jiber who spoke. The otlier lield 
the lantern between my face and his. Jiber 
cocked his pi.stoI, examined the cap, and put 
the muz/.le close to my head. I felt the cold 
iron touch my skull. A strong, convulsive 
.shiver went through me, shook me from head 
to foot. I knew there was little danger — that 
it was not to tlieir interest to peril their pre- 
cious necks. But I saw the ruffian's villainous 
face, and 1 knew that a single twitch of the 
brutal fellow's hand was all that stood be- 
tween me and the awful mystery beyond. In 
broad day, when there is no present danger, 
when life swells strong in pulse and limb, 
when the pale horse gallops far oft" beyond 
the sunset hills of hope, I take as calm a 
view of that certain but shadowy consumma- 
tion as the rest, I supjmse. But when the 
grish' phantom comes quite close — when you 
feel his terrible numbing touch and his blast- 
ing breath on your cheek — well, "not all the 
preaching since Adam has made death aught 
but death." 

" If he makes any trouble, Jiber," the Par- 
son said, " blow out his brains." 

He loosened liis hold. The tramj) of the 
flying mare had died away over the bills. I 
had not five dollars about me. I lay quite 
still. The Parson .searched me thoroughly. 
He took my pocket-book, took out the money, 
and threw away the book. His face grew 
terrible to see when he began to be convinced 
that I had not the bonds about me. He pulled 
off my boots, examined the lining of my cap. 
He gave up the search. He turned to Jiber. 

" Could he have thrown away tlie pack- 

" Didn't throw away nothin' arter I blinked 
him, 'cept it was his shooter," answered Jiber, 

The Parson turned to me. 

" Get up," he said. 

He .spoke as he might to a dog he had 
kicked. That woke the devil in me. I lay 
and glared back at him. I saw his perfect 
teeth set hard between his thin white lips. 

He took out a pistol, cocked it. 

''Look here!" he said, "where is the 

I sat up and gave him stare for stare. 

" What's that to you ?" 

One second I thought he would kill me. 
Then he governed himself and turned away. 
He spoke to Cliisel apart ; llieii be turned back 
to me. 

" Look here, you what's-bis-iiami','' he said, 
"three miles from licre there's a little bouse, 
at (lie fork oi ("arrom lane and the south 
road. There's a little woman in lliat house 
tonight ; and she's a handsome little woman, 
and slie's .all alone," 

Liieraiure, Science and Honie Interests. 


He saw me slmdder. I liacl forgotten Nell 
for one moment. He went on : 

" I'm going to ask yon some questions. If 
you answer square, all rigiit. If not, we tie 
you up, carry you into the woods, and make 
her a visit. Do you understand ?" 

" I understand," I said. He went on : 

" Last Friday night you put ten tliousand 
dollars in Bath & Westbury's safe, in Cara- 
more. You put in more on Monday. You 
was to have taken it out to-night ? Wliere is 

" I haven't seen a dollar of it since Bath 
put it into the safe," I answered. 

I had not. I counted it over to Bath when I 
left it. He made a package of it for me. I 
saw only the wrapper. Was it, morally, a 
lie ? Well, as you will. Dr. Johnson held 
that one might be justified in denying the 
authorship of Junius, whether he wrote the 
letters or not. 

" You say you did not take it out of their 
safe to-night!" 

" Yes." 

I did not. I took it out of Bath's hand. 

He turned to the others — talked hurriedly 
apart. I made out that they did not know 
the roads across the plains. They had, with- 
out doubt, come out from the city on the mid- 
dle turnpike. The Parson turned to me, 

" I have a wagon close by. You must drive 
me to Caramore. Will you promise?" 

" I'll drive you," I said. 

I did not say where or how. 

"How far is it?" 

'•'Seventeen miles." 

He turned to the others. 

" Bring out the horses." 

He held the lantern — stood hy me careless- 
ly, turning his pistol in his hand. They led 
tlie horses out of the wood through a length 
of fence thrown down. Jiber brought out a 
buggy with a fine black mare before it. Chisel 
led out a stout bay cob and leaped lightly into 
the saddle. 

"Get in," said the Parson. 

I stepped in — took the reins. 

He whispered to Jiber, then he jumped in. 

"Drive on," he said. 

" Not if that man stops behind." 

" What do you mean? Look here, young 
man, I'll have no trifling. How can he go 
when you have his place? .liber, make straight 
for the castle. Tell the King. If we're not 
in by seven, come to the cave. The words 
' Mavourneen' Now, sir, drive on, or I'll 
drive you home." 

"Get up," I said. 

I knew what I had to do. I made my plan. 
I sent the black mare down the road at a 
swinging gait. She was a beautiful mare, coal 
black, graceful, spirited, yet nowise nervous 
or fliglity. I never saw a better to trot and 
endure. She took a long, spiooth, rolling 
stride, without jerk or break, never spurting 

or flurrying, except at any steep rising ground, 
wiiicli she always took with a. siiort, quick 
cliarge below, and passed witli a strong swing. 
After a mile or two he spoke : 

" How quick can she make it?" 

" Seventeen miles — two hours." 

I knew slie could do it in half an hour less. 

He looked round — a sneering, scornful 

"I've driven her nine miles in half an 
hour. Shake her out." 

I quickened her pace. We made a four-min- 
ute gait on the levels. He leaned back and 
smoked his segar. I watched him askance. 
You could read no more in his face than in 
this blank page before I scrawl it over. Chisel 
galloped the bay close behind. 

" Can you strike the Caramore road with- 
out passing Brame's tavern ?" 

" I can." 

" How much farther ?' ' 

" Half a mile longer to the Ocean road." 

"Do it, then?" 

I couldn't have asked for a better chance. 
The straight road to Caramore runs past 
Brame's door. You would strike the Ocean 
road at Bradley's, four miles north of Cara- 
more. By turning off to avoid the Squire's, 
you must take the Lindesley road, which is 
half a mile longer to the Ocean road, but 
strikes it ten miles northeast of Bradley's at 
Lookout Hill. 

We took the Lindesley road, swept away 
east, the black mare trotting smooth and 
square, tiie bay horse galloping close behind. 
We had the wagon cover up ; the Parson 
leaned back in his corner and smoked. When 
one segar burned short, he lighted another 
and smoked on. I did not turn my head or 
eyes, but watched him all the while. Though 
he appeared so careless, I felt that he watched 
my every motion. I saw that he knew nothing 
of the roads. I made up mind how I should 
drive, and drove on steadily. I knew that 
any hesitation would betray me. I took every 
turn and corner as certainly as if I had been 
driving my own brown Driver home, instead 
of this wild robber's race across country, 
with that lie-faced, fine-clothed villain for my 
companion, and the end of the journey less 
than an hour ofl", but God alone knew what 
or wliere 1 

We sat and whirled on in silence. I kept 
the mare at a steady, rolling pace, never 
slackened for rise or descent. As we skirted 
round the base of Lookout Hill, and turned 
south at Kerrimain Mill, he took out his 
watch, knocked the ashes off his cigar, and 
held tlie spark close to the crystal. It was 
half-past eleven. We curved round to the 
east and turned the corner sharply to the 

"Is this the Ocean road ?" 


We bowled away down it. I had my mind 


The Rural Carolinian. 

made up. At BroAvner's Fork the Shore road 
Bplits oil" and bends west. The angle at the junc- 
tion is so sliarp, tlie two roads so neai'ly alike, 
tliat no stranger could say which was the 
slraiglit road and which the branch. When 
we came to the fork 1 held the mare's head 
west and took the road to Shore. He seemed 
to doubt me here. He put his head out and 
looked down the other road. Turning again, 
he eyed me keenly. I cliirruped to the mare 
and we swept ahead. 

"Is this the right road?" he said, his eyes 
upon my face. 

"This is the right road." 

Right, yes — but hardly for Caraniore. 

"Where does the other lead?" 

I felt that defiance was my only course now. 
I pulled up the mare, faced him full and 

"I'll drive the other road, if you like." 

"Get up!" he called to the mare. "Let 
her go, do you hear V" 

He glared at me fiercely ; his hand leaped 
up to his breast, lifted the flap of his coat. 
Dimly I saw the hilt of a sheath-knife under 
the fold. 

"Yo\ing man," he said, " if you play me 
false I'll put my knife through your heart." 

I gave him no ansrwer. 1 gave him glance 
for glance, turned my face and drove on. I 
understood him. He had made sure of find- 
ing the money upon me. Failing that, he 
had thought that I might possibly drive him 
right. There was little danger to him at 
least, and it was his only chance. He knew 
that the money would be put beyond reach 
to-morrow, if he should not get his hands 
upon it that night. But he was a fool for his 
pains for all that. 

I knew 1 could not deceive him much 
longer. He was jdainly suspicious now. The 
mare was beginning to fag a little. She kept 
her long, rolling gait well up on tiie levels yet. 
But she had not the same grit at taking the 
liills, and she shambled a good deal going 
down. I saw that she was tired, that only 
her tireless mettle kept her legs up to the 
I)ace, and I hated to force her on. But I saw 
no way out of it yet; so I ke])t her up to her 
work. 1 struck in for Burrow Flat. If you 
liave ever driven through that region, you 
know what a labyrinth of roads and lanes 
centres and diverges at Burrow's. They cross 
and wind and interlace in every way, and at 
all sorts of curves and angles. I struck for 
this j)oiut, in through I'racken Hollow, aiul 
then southwest by Boulter's blacksmith shop. 
I knew every turn and lane, and I used them 
with all my skill. I curved this way :nid 
that, wound and crossed till I had twisted him 
out of all sense of direction, edging ro\n)(I all 
the while farther antl farther west and north. 
At half-jtast twelve we struck the (hramure 
road at last, and rolled along it, A ((('/i 717 /o/- 

The Parson was plainly uneasy ; I lieard 
the bay horse still galloping bcliind. The 
mare was getting nuich distressed ; her breath- 
ing sounded j)lainly, quick and hard. "Is this 
the C'aramore road?" His face had abafiled, 
murderous look. 

"This is the C'aramore road." 

"How far is it now?" / 

" Four miles and a half." 

"Four miles and a half behind .'" 

He leaned forward and looked in my face. 
I gave him back as good. Again liis hand 
stole back to his breast. 

"You said it was seventeen miles. AVe've 
come twenty and more. What do you mean ?" 

"I mean it's five miles to Caramore." 

I looked him straight in the eyes — straight 
and defiant. I never saw such a look in 
another face as he gave me then. His hand 
was in his breast. 

"If we're not in Caramore in half an hour" 
— his words came slow and wickedly calm — 
"I'll put you out of trouble." 

He leaned back and I drove on, I never 
wanted to kill but one man. I think I know 
how a nuirderer feels who beats and tramples a 
man's life out in a sudden fury of hate. I 
hated that white-faced villain with a nuirder- 
ous hate. I longed to have him alone in 
some wild place, with only my hands and 
his for armor, and none between us two. 

The end was near. But it was not yet. 


Lo ! how elastic France survives 

Mctz, Strasburg, Sedan and Paris ; 
Lo ! how her industry revives 

While yet (ierniania's chivalry 
Hold her in thrall. Her spirit lives 

And bravely struggles to be free. 
His hoarded francs tlie peasant gives — 

Her noble dames their jewelry ; 
No frown of fortune e'er deprives 

The French of their 2)roud buoyancy. 

And shall we weep, and moan, and wail, 

Fold our strong arms and lie supine ; 
Haul down the pennon, furl the sail, 

And idly drill along the brine? 
No, never, never ! Breast the gale ! 

With canvas taut and Haunting sign, 
All hands on decU, from poop to rail, 

To luff the rudder, heave the line. 
To man the yards, the masts to scale ; 

(iood will and work — with t'lod benign — 
Will nuich — will everything avail 

To tide us o'er these .seas malign. 

" () land wherein all powers are met 
That bind a people's heart" to thee, 

Altho' thy brilliant Past has set — 
Survives alone in uu-mory ; 

Cease wi; this day each vain regret 

For what thou wert. Still may'st thou be 

lAicrahire, Science and Home Interests. 


The favored child of fortune yet — 
Tlie sliield and sword of liberty ; 

Then from the Future strive to get 
High guerdons for thy constancy. 

W. Fletcher Holmes, M. D. 
Barnwell, S. C, July, 1S73. 

Physical, Culture. 


We never see a school girl on the streets 
with her load of heavy books, that we are not 
filled with mingled pity and indignation — 
pity for the poor girls, and indignation in 
view of the criminal stupidity manifested in 
the educational systems of the day. The 
weight of the heavj' volumes, daily carried to 
and fro, must make the young maiden's arms 
ache ; but if this were all, we might hold our 
peace, or merely suggest a dray or a hand- 
cart. The most serious mischief done by 
those books comes in another shape. The 
real pressure — the crushing weight — falls on 
the brain, and througli that, in too many cases, 
finally cripples the whole physical system. 

These girls are just in the midst of what 
should be a rapid, symmetrical growth of mind 
and body. There should be no forced and 
abnormal development of the one, at the ex- 
pense of the other. Study is good in its place ; 
so are food, exercise, recreation and rest. 
Mens Sana in corpore sano — " a sound mind in 
a sound body" — is what should be aimed at. 
Are our public schools, as at present conduct- 
ed, a proper means to such an end ? 

The load of books we have referred to — 
and you may see them any day in any city^ 
town or village in the land — contain the 
lessons which are to be studied at home, and 
in hours which should be devoted to physical 
exercise, recreation and rest. The result is 
an overworked brain, a depression of the ner- 
vous system, and a weakening of all the vital 
powers. And what is accomplished ? The 
lessons are "committed," and are ready for 
to-morrow's recitations — in other words, the 
brain is stuflTed with such and such words, rules 
and formulas, of the relations of which, to 
anything practical, the poor child has no defi- 
nite idea, and of the principles which under- 
lie them no clear comprehension. How can 
she have ? The girl's father, with his better 

training, and his strong, mature intellect, 
could not master, in the time allowed, all the 
lessons which he unthinkingly allows his 
daughter to be burdened witli. It will not be 
her fault that, when she shall graduate, having 
finished all those ^jooks, and being herself 
nearly finished, (as her pale face and puny 
body often clearly show,) she will have so little 
to show for it all, beyond her diploma. With 
the rules of grammar at her tongue's end, she 
will hardly be able to write a correct sentence ; 
with the text books of chemistry and philoso- 
phy exhausted, she will not know why the bis- 
cuits rise in the oven, what are the constituents 
of a cup of cofiee, or how to broil a beef-steak, 
or to boil a potato scientifically. 

The efiJects of our educational system, as at 
present carried out, are disastrous to both boys 
and girls, but especially to the girls. Here is 
what an M. D., (Dr. Nichols, editor of the 
Journal of Chemistry,) says on this point; and 
as we have no M. D. affixed to our name, his 
testimony may have more weight than ours: 

Our girls, for some reason, do not possess that 
robust health which is essential to their happi- 
ness and usefulness in life ; they in general are 
not strong enough and well enough to fill the 
high positions of wives and mothers, for which 
nature designed them. Their nervous organ- 
izations are so delicate and sensitive, and 
their nutrition so defective, that if they strug- 
gle into womanhood all the joys of life must 
be turned into sorrows. What is the reason 
for this deplorable physical condition of our 
girls ? It is unquestionably due in a great 
measure to our vicious, absurd system of 
school education. The schools are ruining 
the health of our girls. They are overwork- 
ed, they are burdened with too many studies. 
Our competitive system keeps them in a high 
state of excitement, they are struggling to 
keep up with their classes, they are looking 
forward to a time when they will graduate, — 
be put in white dresses and blue ribbons some 
hot day in July, and in the presence of an 
admiring crowd receive at the hands of a 
trustee or school-committee-man a diploma, 
certifying that they have mastered philoso- 
phy, history, the higher mathematics, Latin, 
Greek, the modern languages, etc. School- 
days in this age are days of excitement ; the 
mind is crammed, the body neglected. 

Let us remember constantly the important 
fact, that health is of far more consequence to 
a human being than any lesson which can be 
learned from a text-book. Let us look care- 
fully after our girls, for upon their physical 
stamina depends not only their happiness, 
but the welfare of the races Afhich are to 
follow us. 


The Rural Carolinian. 

-Fop^Pui\_ Young Folks. 


In Germany the birds are the pets of ^ 
the people, old and youug; and as nobody^! 
tries to kill or harm them, they become very ' 
tame and even make their nests in houses. 
The children feed them with crumbs and the 
little pets will almost eat out of the hand. 
Birds know a great deal and they soon learn 
who are their friends, and who are their ene- 
mies. In our country, we are sorry to say, 
they have learned that boys are their ene- 
mies, and tliey are cai'efiil to keep out of the 
way when they see a boy coming. "We wish 
our boys would take pattern after the German 
boys in this matter, and feed and pet the 
birds instead of making war upon them with 
cross-bows and guns. The .«mall birds are (J^^ 
not only useful to the farmer in destroying _-^/^ 
insects, but their songs are pleasant and their Q- 
presence adds a charm to garden, field, grove 
and forest. See the birds in the picture, get- 
ting grass and leaves to make a nest with. 
"Would it lie right to shoot the poor little in- 
nocent things as they are so busy with their 
work or chirping and singing on the trees ? 

Here is a game for farmers' boys and others 
living in the country, which cannot be played 
in the streets of a city or town. It is truly a 
country game. We find it in the American 
Agriculturist, the editor of Avhich probably 
has not forgotten that he was a boy once him- 

It is a hare hunt. Not one of those after a 
four-legged hare, witii dogs and guns, which 
always Jiiade us feel sorry for the jioor little 
helpless, harmless, creature, run to death by 
savage dogs, but one after a two-legged iiare 
by two-h.-gged hunteis. A (h)/,en or more of 
boys may join in the game, witii one of the 
smartest boys to act as t)>e hare. The hare 
h;ifl a satchel fastened around his shoulders 
filled witli small pieces of pa])er about an incli 
or two stjuare made of newspapir. lie starts 
of!" across the country over fences, across 
roads and creeks, through fields and woods, 
having a start of say five or ten minutes, 
dropping liere and there a piece of jiaper. 
Tills is the s<'entwhicli tlur rest who hi^nl him 
have to follow. When tiie hare has got a 
sufficient start, tiie chief hunter gives a signal 
halloo and the jiack start on the scent. The 
hare will keep out of sight as nuich as he can, 
doubling on his scent throwing the dogs off as 
much as possible in every way ; sometimes, 

when he has a chance, he turns back on his 
trail and springing to one side and hiding in 
the brush or behind a fence or a log, or in the 
edge of a cornfield, until the dogs have pass- 
ed him, he starts off in a new direction, 
which they have to come back and discover, 
when they find tlie scent is lost. "When the 
pieces of paper are ail used up a whole news- 
paper is laid on tlie ground and a stone placed 
upon it. Tins is to show that the run is up 
and the hare has turned home. Then the 
nearest way home is taken, and if the hare 
can be caught before reaching home, the one 
who catches him is the hare on the ne.xt run. 
In this game there is a splendid chance for 
fun of the exciting kind. The dogs 
spread out so that one or more is sure to keep 
sight of the "scent," and in calling to each 
otiier as they should do, that they are on the 
scent they make noise enough to enliven the 
neighborhood ail aroinul. When the scent is 
lost tiiere is a sudden silence for a time until 
it is struck again, wiien the hallooing begins 
once more and all the pack are as noisy as 
ever. In fact there is ;i3 much sport over 
such a hunt as there ever was over a real 
hunt with a pack of hounds, and a score or 
half a liiuidreil of mounted lunitsnun after a 
friglitened Juire ov fox anxious to savi' its 
skin, and up to all the dodges wiiieli these 
hunted animals know so well, and which often 
help them to escape the drcadcil dogs. 

If the hare is caught sight of during the 
hunt there is no longer any need to follow 
llie scent, but he may be run down as (juickly 
as jtossible unless he can get away, when the 
scent nnisl be taken up again. 

lAlerature, Science and Home Interests. 


Domestic Economy. 


Pr. Beaumont found that bits of hard boiled 
white of egg, no larger than a pea, sometimes 
remained in tiie stomach after every tiling 
else had yielded to the action of the gastric 
juice. It is the hard-cooked white part of 
the egg that is diflicult to digest, therefore, 
all our ordinary modes of cooking are at 
fault. A new and better method, now coming 
into use, is thus described : 

The eggs are put into boiling water, the 
temperature of which they at once reduce a 
little. It is not allowed to boil after they are 
put in. In this hot, but not boiling water, 
they remain from seven to ten minutes. The 
exact time required will vary with the rela- 
tive proportions of eggs and water, with the 
size of the eggs, with the heat and thickness 
of the utensil used, Avith the warmth of the 
place where it stands, and with the weather 
also ; a little more time being required in 
dull weather. Tiie cook will soon learn what 
allowance to make for her utensils ; and for 
the re*t, she must use her judgment every 
time. They are not so easily spoiled, how- 
ever, as in boiling. If left in a little too long, 
the}' can be plunged into cold water for a 
minute or two. If even kept hot until the 
yolks stiffen, the whites will not be hard. 
These are not properly boiled, bat curdled 

A correspondent residing in Florida sends 
us a recipe for making what he pronounces 
an excellent dish under the name of "Cripple," 
He says : 
■ In hog-killing time, take three " harslets " 
and one head, or in that proportion for a 
larger quantity ; boil them till they fall to 
pieces ; dip out into a colander, pick out all 
the bones and pound the meat fine ; then take 
a part of the grease from the pot in which the 
meat was boiled and season the remainder of 
the broth with sage and pepper, put the meat 
back, let it boil again and then stir in corn 
meal till it becomes a stiff mush ; take up into 
dishes, smooth over the top, let it stand till 
cold, and then slice and fry — serve hot. 

W. M. 

Oat Meal Poekidge. — Put a quart of 
boiling water and a pint of milk in a small 
kettle, and as soon as it comes to a boil stir in 
the oat meal, which must be fresh, leaving it 
rather thin ; three or four handfulls will suffice 
for the quantity of water and milk ; add a 
pinch of salt and let it boil until the meal 
will mash easily between the fingers. Then 
remove from the fire at once and serve hot on 
a deep plate. 


Oat Meal Cake. — According to a corres- 
pondent of the Rural New Yorker, the best 
oat meal cake is prepared by mixing a quart 
of oat meal with sufficient water to make it 
thick, and half a tea cup of butter. It is 
quite a trick to work oat cake — to roll it and 
bake it without its crumbling. Nevertheless 
it can be done with a little practice and pa- 
tience. Some add a teasponful of flour to it 
to make it adhesive. After working it thor- 
oughly it should be rolled about the thickness 
of a soda biscuit in sheets about a foot or six 
inches square. These sheets are put in the 
oven and left until partly baked, being care- 
ful not to let them brown. They are then 
taken out and stacked away on the shelf for 
use. When wanted for breakfast a sheet is 
taken and put in a toaster and browned nicely 
on both sides. It is then sent to the table 
hot, and each guest breaks off such a sized 
piece as they wish. It is buttered with sweet, 
fresh butter and eaten. A king could not ask 
for a better breakfast than a piece of oat 
cake, a fresh egg and a cup of good coffee. 
The oat meal must be fresh, otherwise it is 
entirely unfit for use. 

Egg Toast. — The Science of Health gives 
the following recipe for making a wholesome 
breakfast dish : 

Have the milk almost boiling in a flat dish, 
and break in the eggs one by one, cooking a 
few at a time, and being careful not to let 
them run together. Sprinkle in a little salt, 
and let them stand hot and covered, until 
firm enough to take up without breaking. 
Then have ready some split batter-biscuit 
(gems,) softened in hot milk and laid on a 
platter, and when the eggs are done, dish 
them one on each side of a biscuit, and serve 
warm. This is a handsome dish, and though 
not quite so digestible as hominy dressed with 
eggs curdled in the shell, it is still far better 
than the fried potatoes and griddle-cakes that 
form the staple of so many breakfasts. 

Sweet Apple Pickles. — To half a peck 
of apples make a syrup of two pounds of 
sugar, and one pint of vinegar. Boil the 
apples in this syrup until tender ; then remove 
them and make a new syrup of two and a 
half pounds of sugar, and one pint of vinegar. 
Add one teaspoonful of cloves, and the same 
of cinnamon tied in a bag. Boil for fifteen 
minutes ; pour hot over the fruit. The first 
syruj) may be used for other sauces. 


The Rural Carolinian. 

Salt Water for Corns. — A correspond- 
ent, wlio had been greatly troubled with corns 
and had tried every known remedy with little 
benefit, having had occasion to wade freijuent- 
ly in sea-water, has found that his corns no 
longer trouble him, being entirely cured. We 
can not all wade in the surf, but a quantity of 
sea-water, or even artificially .salted water, 
in a tub may serve the same purpose. It is 
at least worth trying. 

Milk fok Diakrhcea. — The Milk Journal 
states on the authority of Dr. Benjamin 
Clarke that in the East Indies, warm milk is 
used to a great extent as a specific for diar- 
rha-a. A pint every four hours will check 
the most violent diarrhoea, stomach-ache, in- 
cipient cholera, and dysentery. The milk 
should never be boiled, but only heated sufi[i- 
ciently to be agreeably warm, not too hot to 

Hot Lemonade for a Cold. — A hot 
lemonade is one of the best remedies for a 
cold. It acts promptly and efficiently, and 
has no unpleasant after effects. One lemon 
should be properly squeezed, cut in slices, put 
with sugar, and covered with half a pint of 
boiling water. Drink just before going to 
bed and do not expose yourself the following 
d.ay. This remedy will ward oil" an attack of 
chills and fever, if used promptly. 

Charcoal as a Remedy. — For flatulency 
take a teaspoonful of pulverized charcoal 
whenever the symptoms appear. The relief 
is generally immediate. The charcoal will 
also usually correct constipation as well as 
loo.<»eness of the bowels, besides relieving the 
disease itself. 

We record, with profound regret and sor- 
row, the death of our friend and former con- 
tributor, p. J. Malone, late of Walterboro', 
S C, who died in Austin, Texa.s, on the 18th 
of September. Mr. Malone was a young 
man of great promise as a writer, both of 
prose and verse, as his contributions to various 
Southern periodicals will testify. Jle had 
recently l)een called to the chair of English 
Literature and Language in the Univer.sity of 
Texas. He leaves a widow and a young 
daughter among strangers. 

The Industrial Age is a new weekly journal 
of sterling character, publi.shed at Chicago, 
111., by the Industrial Age Company, at S2 a 
year. J. A. Noonan, S. M. Smith and L. T. 
R. Prime are its editors. It is devoted to the 
interests of the producing classes and the 
people generally, and is outspoken in its views, 
and full of thoughtful, vigorous writing. 
Cheap transportation claims a large share of 
attention in its columns at present. AVe should 
be glad to see such a paper circulate in the 
South, helping to unite us more closely with 
the Great West, our natural ally. 

Articles from the Rural Carolinian are 
very frequently copied into other magazines 
and papers, and, in most cases, we are glad to 
be able to say, with due credit. We are, of 
course, very glad to see such evidences of the 
appreciation in which our journal is held ; 
but now and then we find one of our best arti- 
cles — one which cost us or some contributor 
considerable thought and labor to prepare — 
appropriated, word for word, and set in lead- 
ed type, without a syllable of acknowledg- 
ment. Against such downright piracy we 
emphatically protest. 

" What is the Good of It ?" We echo the 
question. What is the good (to us) of having 
our article under the foregoing head copied 
into Our Home Journal without credit ? Our 
Home Journal is too well endowed with bright 
" feathers in its cap" to need to " shine in 
borrowed plumage." 

Scribner's Monthly, always racy, fresh and 
good, now po.ssesses special interest to every 
Southern reader on account of the series of 
illustrated articles on the " Great South," 
commencing with •' the Paris of America" — 
New Orleans. [Address Scribner & Co., New 
York; $4 a year.] 

There are some new attractions in that fa- 
vorite of the young folks, Olivtr Optics Mag- 
azine. See October and November numbers, 
both full of enterlaining aud useful reading. 
[I^ee & Shepartl, Boston ; $3 a year.] 

Tile " Report of the Commisaioncr of Ag- 
riculture, for 1872," came to liand too late 
for notice this month. 

The Saundefs Raspberry. 


Progress with Prudence, Practice with Science. 
D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 

Yol. IV.] CHARLESTON, S. C, DECEMBER, 1872. [No. III. 

Thoughts and Suggestions for the Month. 

Making crops is not all of the farmer's life, or should not be all. The body 
must be fed and clothed, therefore we must make corn and cotton ; but the mind 
and the heart should be improved as well as the soil, or our existence will be 
barren, and no mental harvest be garnered with its autumn days. Now is a good 
time to think of this, and to ask ourselves if we are giving sufficient attention to 
the higher ends of our being. Because one cultivates the ground, he need not 
grovel. His position is a proud one, and his character and attainments should 
correspond. He should be educated, refined, polite, upright and honorable ; and 
every means of intellectual, social and moral culture within his reach should be 
laid hold of, and made subservient to his elevation in the scale of Christian civili- 
zation. No farmer's house should be without books, newspapers and magazines, 
and his reading, though it should embrace agriculture, should not be confined to 
that ; and he should provide for the mental as well as the physical sustenance of 
his family. Now, also, is the time to organize farmers' clubs and Granges, and to 
perfect the workings of those already in existence, so as to get all the good out of 
them of which they are capable. 

-We have no disposition to select either agricultural or miscellaneous 

books for our readers or to advise them, except in the most general terms, what to 
read. Tastes diflfer and so do the particular needs of individuals ; but there are a 
few excellent works of comparatively recent publication to which we wish here to 
call attention as worthy to find a place on every farmer's book shelves. Among 
these are—" How Crops Grow " and " How Crops Feed," both by Professor S. W. 
Johnson, of Yale Scientific School; "New American Farm Book," byR.L. Allen 
and L. F. Allen, a new and enlarged edition of an old and excellent work ; "Amer- 
ican Cattle," by Lewis F. Allen, to which should be added, if possible. Low's 
"Domesticated Animals of the British Islands," an old standard work; " Practical 
Dairy Husbandry," by X. A. Willard, (for those who need a work on that subject) 
"Every Horse Owner's Cyclopedia," edited by Robert McClure, M. D. ; "Ville's 
Chemical Manures," and, (not new but the best, perhaps, in its way) ; " Agricultu- 
No. 3, Vol. 4. 9 

114 Thoughts and Suggestions for the Month. 

ral Chemistry," by Professor James F. W. Johnston. If a work on gardening be 
Avanted, "White's "Gardening for the South," or Ravenel's little "Southern Garde- 
ner" should be procured. 

But while the agriculturist should give himself leisure, at this season of 

the year, for reading, study and social recreation, he must not for a moment enter- 
tain the idea that he has time for idleness or aimless lounging about the country 
store or tavern. In our delightful climate, the winter furnishes the proper time for 
doing much of the heaviest work of the plantation or farm. Fence building, 
stump-pulling, ditching, and the general clearing up, of which there is always 
enough to be done, should be pushed energetically, so as not to stand in the way of 
the early preparation for the next season's crops. Above all, the fences must not 
be neglected. Some of the worst annoyances and heaviest losses to which the 
farmer is subjected result from inadequate fences ; and, later in the season, when 
other work will press, it will be very difficult to give them the attention they 

In the fine climate of the Cotton States, cattle exist without shelter, and 

with little or no attention during the short mild winter, but it does not pay even 
here, to let them thus take care of themselves. All farm stock should be well fed 
and sheltered from inclement weather — they must be, if the best results are desired, 
or if we have any regard for the comfort of the animals entrusted to our care. 
" The merciful man is merciful to his beast," and he is either very unmerciful or 
very thoughtless, who allows his cattle to shiver with cold through the long and 
often stormy nights of winter, in the open field. 

The Avise planter A\all not delay making his labor contracts for the next 

season, till the liist moment. It is well, as far as possible, to keep the same hands 
from year to year, where they have conducted themselves properly and proved 
reasonably trustworthy. New hands will need some special training to adapt them 
to any peculiarities of management or working that you may have instituted. 
Straightforward dealing, firm guidance, fair wages, prompt payments, and close 
personal supervision, are among the means of ensuring success with our laborers. 

A few sheep on the farm is what almost every one can make pay, even 

where large flocks are out of the question. " What about the dogs and the froed- 
men ? Dcm't they love mutton ?" we shall be asked. Yes, and the latter are equally 
fond of bacon, but you, doubtless, contrive to keep a few hogs in spite of them ; so, 
with a little attention, which it will pay to give, you can keep a few shoop. "We 
do not deny that, in many parts of the countiy, there are obstacles in the way of 
keeping sheep, but they are, generally, much overrated. 

'The profits of farming should consist, in a large measure, in the improve- 
ment of the farm itself and its belongings, and there can be no better investment 
than this. That is very poor farming, if wortliy to be called farming, which, 
though it may nominally show a ca.-»h balance, leaver the homestciid in a worse 
instead of a better condition tlian it found it. 

Nofpn nn Planiiuf]. — I. 115 

Notes on Planting. 

No. 1. 

"The King, observing how ill I was clad, ordered a tailor to take my raeiusure for a suit of 
clothes. This operator did his office after a different manner from those of his trade in 
Europe. Pie first took my altitude by a quadrant, and then with rule and compass described 
the outline of my whole body, all of which he put on paper; and in six days brought my 
clothes very ill made, by happening to mistake a figure in the calculation." — Captain Oulliver^s 
Voyage to Laputa. 

It is propo.sed in a series of articles to furnish some notes on planting, which may- 
be of service to the beginner, and interest others by comparison Avith their OAvn 
experience. They will go into detail in order to be practical ; and if the style be 
somewhat ex cathedra it is to avoid circumlocution, and not from an assumption of 
superior knowledge or practice. The subject will be regarded purely as a money 
speculation, and to be regulated by mercantile considerations of profit and loss. 
The investment in land, live stock, machines, and current cash, will be considered. 
The employment and application of labor will then claim attention ; and, after a 
glance at crops and their culture, some consideration will be given to the plantation 
record and the decisive test of the balance sheet. No attempt will be made to point 
out new channels of profitable eflbrt to the Southern agriculturist. Whenever 
these are sufficiently indicated in the progress of events, they will, no doubt, be 
readily embraced. To the present practice is conceded the weight to which it is 
entitled by reason of its universality, for it is that of an intelligent and earnest 
class. The idea is retained that cotton should be our leading product for market ; 
but the maxim is insisted on, and underlies all that follows, that the plantation 
should be self-sustaining, and the cotton crop be nearly, if not quite, the exponent of 

The circumstances that surround the Southern planter vary so much in the 
different sections, and differing soils that characterize the extensive area in which 
his lot is cast, is moreover necessary to localize whatever is said or written 
upon the subject of his pursuits ; and the teachings of experience in one place have 
only value by approximation in another. Between the falls of the rivers and tide- 
water in South Carolina is the region of the long-leaved pine. The highlands are 
generally imdulating enough to carry off surface water without gullying ; and the 
wide swamps that border the streams are almost without exception too low for pro- 
fitable reclamation with our dearth of capital and comparatively sparse population. 
There are also isolated ponds, some wooded and some open, as well as flats on every 
tract of any size, which, according to locality and soil, may or may not be profit- 
ably drained and cultivated. The soil of the highlands Ls sandy, and its compara- 
tive value depends on the approach of the clay subsoil to the surface. When this 
is sufficiently near, and a freshly ploughed field has a yellow tinge, it is known as 
" Mulatto " land, and is a free and generous soil ; not very fertile originally, but 
admitting of the highest improvement, and giving better returns from commercial 
fertilizers than the stiff clays nearer the mountains. In health, facilities of trans- 
portation, and especially in freedom from ^^cissitudes of seasons this region com- 
pares favorably with other sections. 

116 Not&i on Planting. — /. 

On any one plantation may be grown every Southern staple that is planted, and 
all of the cereals, while the soil seems specially adapted to the root crops. Cotton, 
Rice, Tobacco, Sugar-cane and Indigo ; Corn, Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Peas and 
Millet ; Potatoes, Turnips, and the Ground-nut, all are or may be planted. The 
artificial grasses have not been tried, and it is probable that only spegial kinds 
would succeed ; but there are some valuable natural grasses, and the various soiling 
crops are cultivated with facility. Garden vegetables of almost every variety, 
together with the fruits of the temperate and many of those of the tropic zone, are 
successfully cultivated. Here the white man can, and does with impunity, engage 
in field labor the year round ; and the negro finds something congenial in its easily 
worked soil and mild climate, while it is not yet sufficiently tropical to permit him 
to lapse into savage indolence over spontaneous production and a wealth of fish and 

This region covers perhaps .a third of the area of South Carolina, and predomi- 
nates in many of the Southern States. In it we will locate our plantation ; and, 
without further preface, proceed to the consideration of the most important item in 
the Planter's investment. 


The soil is light and easily worked, and lands are cheap. Economy, therefore, 
does not generally dictate " high farming," the largest production upon the smallest 
area, which can only be accomplished by an increased expenditure of capital, thus 
enlarging our interest-bearing investment beyond the employment of more land to 
accomplish equal results. Where the lands are not already owned, and are to be 
purchased, or where there is some local scarcity of labor for regular farm-work, 
high farming may receive favorable consideration. But under the ordinary cir- 
cumstances in which the planter is here placed, a good practical arrangement is a 
three field rotation, cotton, cereals and fallow, for the main plantation and a 
suflficieucy of lots (or small fields) around the farmstead to be highly manured and 
kept in constant cultivation in the smaller crops. To this must be added land 
enough in permanent pasture and forrest for the purposes of the place. 

In these soils the ordinary mule can well cultivate with the plough thirty-two 
or three acres, beside ])utting in ten acres of small grain, when oxen relieve him 
in part of the teaming, and the ginning is done by steam or water power. Taking 
this datum there should be in the principal fields sixty acres per mule, of which 
one-third should be in cotton, one-third in corn, oat«, and seed patches of barley and rye, 
and one-third in fallow. Two or three acres per mule in the small fields ne^r the farm- 
stead are abundant for small grain for grazing, soiling crops, potatoes, &c. Fifteen 
acres in forests, ordinarily well timbered will be sufficient, and ten acres in perma- 
nent pa.sture will not be too much, in its natural conditions, for even the small num- 
ber of .stock proposed to Ik; kept, per mule. Tiiis-will give us for each mule to be 
worked eighty -eight acres (88) beside such waste laud — unreclaimed swamp and 
undrained ponds — as every tract is more or lass encumbered with. All beyond this 
is dead capital in which no investment should be made ; or if already possessed 
the proprietor should at once separate it on his Plantation Book, and opening an 
account witii himself as land speculator utilize this excess by sale or rent ; and 

Notes on Plqntinr/. — /. 117 

failing, determine how long his general circumstances will permit him to carry the 
burthen before abandoning it to the tax gatherer. 

Experience has shown that cotton does best after a weed fallow, and that the 
cereals succeeding cotton are greatly benefitted by the tilth in which the land is 
left from the thorough cultivation exacted by that crop. The weed fallow every 
third year also destroys the crop grasses produced by the two previous crops, and 
economizes labor, it is believed, in the subsequent cultivation at least one-fourth. If 
this estimate approximates correctness, it requires but little calculation to show that 
the land in weeds is paying its full share of interest upon the general investment. 
This rotation will prevent the land from becoming impoverished, maintaining it 
fully at the condition of fertility in which it commenced. If moderately manured 
in each of the two years of cultivation, while the crops will be much increased, the 
land will improve from year to year. It is impracticable to make upon a cotton 
plantation compost enough to manure every thing that is planted ; and, like every 
thing else that has value, compost may cost more than it is worth. The most care- 
ful attention should be given by the planter to its accumulation as a secondary 
product of stock. Beyond this it is thought he cannot go with profit. If he goes 
primarily into its manufacture, he will find it to cost more than its equivalent in 
commercial fertilizers ; and that his pursuit will rapidly change from planting to 
stock raising. This, in itsel:^ may or may not be a desirable thing ; but the problem 
we are considering is profitable cotton planting. Again, the bulk and expense of 
transportation attending compost makes it desirable that its application should be 
at the nearest point to the farm yard. For our principal fields and crops, therefore, 
we must rely on commercial fertilizers and cotton seed as manure, and the compost 
heap must be applied to the lots near the farmstead. When there is an excess for 
this purpose, it is best to apply the remaining compost broadcast on the poorer spots 
of the nearest principal field, so as at once to bring these spots up to the average. 
The planting and turning under of green crops should also annually be had recourse 
to upon thin spots and exceptional fields. Time cannot be had for more. 

The flais alluded to as requiring drainage will almost always repay the cost of 
reducing them to cultivation. The ponds are more uncertain. When there is three 
or four inches of black earth overlying the retentive clay substratum, or when the 
underlpng clay is red or streaked with red, thorough drainage will pay. Draining 
these places will also improve the adjacent highlands to a distance scarcely credible, 
by one who has not observed it, making them fit for the plough two weeks earlier 
in a wet spring. It is, therefore, recommended to drain them all when lying within 
the cultivated limits of the plantation, except when a pond will be more valuable 
as a stock-pool. Ditching, however, is expensive to begin with, and requires an 
annual outlay to keep it in order. The plantation should therefore be ditched upon 
a system carefully devised, and after the sui-veyor's level and rod has done its office. 
Generally these ponds and flats will be found to lie in a series, declining from one 
to the other toward some stream ; and indeed the intermediate land will show evi- 
dences of overflow at some former period of high water. This will indicate the 
direction, meandering though it may be, of the main open ditch. The secondary 
ditches, to complete the drainage of each pond or flat through or near which the 

118 Notes on Planting. — /. 

maiu ditch passes, are covered or open as circumstances require. A good covered 
ditch is made Avith three lightwood rails of six or seven inches diameter, placed in 
a flat bottom and so as to have a triangular cross section. Cover with a foot of pine 
straw and tramp back the earth. 

In covered ditches it is absolutely essential that the grade of the bottom should 
be the same from end to end ; and they should debouch into the open ditch six 
inches above the bottom of the latter, so that they will not be choked by the 
accumulation of sand in the open ditch in the intervals of its annual cleaning. In 
open ditches the same uniformity of grade is desirable ; for wherever the force of 
the current decreases obstructions will occur. Spring ditches to cut off the drainage 
from the highlands are frequently necessary ; and the open ditches should not only 
be bridged when crossed by roads, but, also, at every two hundred yards through the 
fields, not only to give easy passage to laborers and teams, but to give crossings 
which the stock, when pasturing the fields, will use. Animals leaping ditches break 
the banks, and cost more in repairs than the bridges. Poles laid on lightwood sills 
make cheap and convenient bridges for the purpose. 

In arranging the plantation the farmstead should, as nearly a.s possible, be in the 
centre, with the lots immediately surrounding it, and forest enough for fuel in the 
close vicinity. Next in propinquity should be the permanent pasture ; then in 
point of distance should come the principal fields, and on the exterior lines should 
be the remaining forests from whence are to come the rails for fencing. This 
arrangement is dictated by the obvious policy of having the shortest lines on which 
to do the heaviest hauling, and of having the live stock under the closest super- 
vision. The best possible shape for a plantation would be a circle, with the farm- 
stead and adjacent lots in the centre, and with a line of fencing upon the circum- 
ference, and one other within and concentric. This would make but two divisions 
of the plantation. In the outer, the principal fields and rail forests Avould be con- 
tained ; in the inner the permanent pasture and fuel forest. There would then be 
the Iciist fencing and shortest transit to all points. Of course, no such shaped plan- 
tation can be obtained ; but the suggestion illustrates the controlling idea in effect- 
ing the best arrangement practicable. The roads should be carefully laid out on the 
shortest distances, unless to avoid obstacles too expensive to be overcome. On the 
highland they should be made by ploughing on the sides and drawing to the centre ; 
through flats and marshy places they should be ditched juid causewayed. Fourteen 
feet is generally wide enough, and they should be regularly worked when needing 
it. Good plantation roads is an item of appreciable economy in saving the wear and 
tear of teams and expediting work. 

There is one other nialtcr to which, in this connection, attention should be called — 
the supply of water. At the farmstead and in the piusture it is indispensable ; 
and at convenient points in the principal fields it effects no inconsiderable saving of 
time, and adds much to the comfort of laborers and stock. In some of our sultry 
summer days, one can readily appreciate why the Arab calls the place where shade 
and water is found paradise. Water for stock can generally be had in the natural 
ponds or frequent streamlets which characterize the country ; and for tiie laborers 
can be had from springs dug out upon the hill-sides approaching the streams, or 

Practical Hints to Young Fanners. Ill) 

from wells. These last are to be made with such facility that there is no excuse 
for the absence of water, either for stock or laborers, in whatever locality it is 
needed. Abundant and pure water can be reached anywhere at a depth of from 
fifteen to thirty-five feet, digging through a clay easily worked and most generally 
sufficiently firm to require no curbing. 

In the next number will be concluded our notes upon the plantation itself by 
offering some suggestions as to fences, buildings, and the arrangement of the farm- 

Practical Hints to Young Farmers.* 

Agriculture in its literal sense is the cultivation of the field. In its widest 
application, it includes the collection of the productions of the earth both by land 
and sea. Hence the hunter and fisherman are agriculturists, though they neither 
plough nor sow, but simply collect the spontaneous productions of the earth and 
convert them to useful purposes. 

We shall, however, confine our attention to that kind of labor which has respect 
to the productions of the field, including the raising of animals and the production 
of fruit. These things seem to have a necessary connection, and must, to some 
extent, exist together. Indeed, industry, in our country, to produce prosperity must 
be deversified. 

The producer of a single commodity, though his skill may be sharpened in that 
particular line by undivided attention, is, nevertheless, liable to disaster from the 
entire failure of that particular crop or a decline in its price. Whereas, if he had 
other crops, he might have a support to fall back on till he could reap another crop 
as his principal reliance. If we look back in the history of this art, we shall find 
that agriculture is co-eval with the existence of man on the face of the earth . 
That it originated by Divine appointment and that it reached a high degree of 
perfection in the most ancient nations of whose customs we have knowledge — as 
for instance in Egypt 3,500 years ago, and in Babylonia at a period probably more 

The vallies of the Nile and the Euphrates were both subjected to the art of irri- 
gation as early as the days of Abraham, and yielded in great abundance such 
grains as were needful to sustain a dense population and cities of enormous size. 
Indeed cultivation is essential to sustain any considerable number of people. 
Wandering tribes of shepherds, herdsmen and hunters exhaust the natural produc- 
tions of the soil and are able to provide only for an inconsiderable population. 
Babylonia, once literally teeming with people and abounding in wealth, is now 
able to sustain only a few half starved shepherds and robbers. 

It was esteemed by the most intelligent Komans in the days of Augustus, a most 
desirable object to divert the minds of the people from the horrid practices of war 
to the peaceful avocations of rural life. 

* An essay read before Fishing Creek Grange, No. 34, Patrons of Husbandry, by Kev. Bro. 
J. H, Saye, and published by request of the Grange. 

120 Practical Hints to Young Fanners. 

With a view to this, the talents of Virgil were called into requisition and he 
composed a treatise on husbandry which has stood the test of time and still stands 
unrivalled in beauty and grandeur. It is true he used the lights then extant and 
wove into his poems any amount of fable and mythology'. His fables conveyed 
striking morals and his touches of mythology sparkled with resplendent beauties. 
This expedient wa.3 probably intended to attract the superstitious population, whose 
modes of thought he desired to influence and refine. But the old Romans had 
slaughtered the surrounding nations, and plundered their victims till they probably 
believed they had a right to oppress the defenceless and murder the innocent, 
whenever they stood in the way of their avaricious designs, and to rob whoever 
showed an unwillingness to surrender their treasures or services under the name of 
tribute. That which statesmen feared in the Augustan age presently came to 
pass. The iron sinews of the Roman were relaxed under the influence of the wealth 
which he acquired without honest toil and squandered in vicious indulgence. The 
body politic tore out its own vitals till it became an easy prey to the Northern 
hordes which poured down to enjoy the beautiful land adorned by the spoils of 
conquest and the arts of the highest culture. But whatever we may think of 
ancient art and glory, modern nations have eclipsed the ancients in those productions 
which build up society and make home desirable. These achievements have 
resulted from no single art or calling, but from a combination of all useful avoca- 

Agriculture cannot flourish without manufactures, commerce and just laws. 
There must be an interchange of commodities among diflorent nations. The raw 
material, as it comes from the hand of the producer, must be worked upon for use. 
The laborer must be protected in the enjoyment of the fruits of his toil, or he will 
have no heart to make effort. 

The prosecution of agriculture implies capital. The former must have land for 
tillage, implements and animals adapted to his work, as also provisions for laborers, 
seed and surplus cash to meet contingencies. Having the necessary outfit, he is to 
consider the adaptation of his soil and climate for particular product**, and how his 
surplus products can be exchanged or converted into cash to pay his laborers, and 
meet other expenses as well as to have a capital for the operations of the following 
year. The laws of nature are also to be carefully considered : 

1st. As to the probability of a fruitful season. He must make a venture, for he 
cannot know beforehand what his iiirm will produce under conditions unknown, or 
what the state of the markets may be. He must, therefore, strike an average as 
to what wages he can promise his laborers, and how far he can afford to bivest in 
other facilities for production, and yet be within the bounds of safety. 

2d. He must regard the laws of nature jis to the best time to plough and sow 
his seed, and what tillage a particular crop requires. The seasons, though uni- 
form in the main, are still very <liHerent in many respects. Crops, like other things, 
must vary as circumstances vary. 

.3(1. The farmer must regard the laws of nature in respect to the fertilizei-s he 
applies, and the manner and time of their application. Most of us pursue that 
course in this branch of our business which our observation and experience have 

Practical Hints to Yowig Farmers. 121 

taught us is the best in our condition, yet if we looked a little deeper into the 
philosophy of things, we might work to better advantage ; but, nevertheless, our 
main dependence is on the suggestions of common sense, observation and experi- 
ment. We might derive advantage from model farms, conducted on scientific 
principles, if they were within our reach ; but, in their absence, we must glean 
from every quarter. 

4th. The farmer must have respect to the laws of nature, in adopting that sys- 
tem of tillage which may result not only in immediate and profitable returns for 
labor performed, but which shall promote the permanent fertility of his farm. It 
is the woi*3t species of prodigality to wear out a good plantation for the sake of a 
few good crops. It is a kind of robbery of posterity, very near akin to scuttling 
one's own ship in mid ocean. Now I am persuaded that it is practicable so to con- 
duct farming operations that fields shall increase in fertility, and at the same time 
yield abundant harvests in proportion to the labor bestowed. 

5th. The farmer should have in view the laws of nature in the removal or modi- 
fication of what appears to be a diseased state of some portions of his soil. These 
portions show a want of fertility, either by absolute sterility, or the liability of 
crops growing on them to become diseased, or an exceeding proclivity to produce 
noxious weeds. Proper drainage often proves a rem3dy. Even hill-sides are 
benefitted by a proper system of ditching, not only for protection, but rendered 
more fertile. Much more may we expect benefit from the drainage of flat lands, 
on which water gathers from higher grounds, or rises from concealed fountains at 
the base of hills. 

But another source of sterility, in what are called exhausted fields, is a want of 
a sufficient variety of the original earths. Clay, sand, magnesia and lime, are not 
in due proportion. One earth is in excess, the others not present in sufficient quan- 
tity to perform their functions. Metals are mingled with all earths. Some of 
these may be abundant, so that the field needs something to neutralize their evil 
tendency and convert them into fertilizers. 

To illustrate this point, we may refer to fields on marl hills. These fields are, 
generally, very productive for a few crops, but then become almost sterile unless 
regularly supplied with an abundance of vegetable matter. In case they are boun- 
tifully fed with this matter they continue very productive. 

But again we may refer to nature's crucible for the production of the best soils. 
These are generally found in alluvial formations, or in other words in lands which 
have been subject to inundations, or which are still overflowed, so as to leave de- 
posits of earth and vegetable matter intermingled. This is the best species of soil 
which ordinarily falls under our observation. 

But the deposits of long and great rivers may bring other elements of fertility 
unknown to our streams. As for instance the overflows of the Nile have kept up 
one of the most fertile territories on the earth for at least thirty-five centuries of the 
most intense productiveness. I am unable to tell the different formations through 
which the Nile flows, and of course the particular salts or earth intermingled with 
its waters. But we will look a little at a river flowing through a valley of equal 

122 Practical Hints to Young Farmers. 

fertility in our own country and see what we may infer from the known conditions 
of that stream. 

The Arkansas river rises in the Rocky Mountains, flows through the great 
American Desert, the Indian Territory, and through the State to which it gives 
its name. It is three hundred miles from where it enters tlie State of Arkansas to its 
junction with the Mississippi. The average width of what is called the Arkansas 
bottom is ten miles. The soil of this whole valley when sufiiciently drained is 
unsurpassed in fertility. 

This condition of soil is owing, as I suppose, to several facts. It has the common 
advantage of alluvial formations. The course of this river through the American 
Desert is in a bed of gypsum rock or Plaster of Paris, which is easily disintegrated 
and falls into the bed of the river. This stream, in common with others of like 
magnitude, rising among snow-clad mountains, has its annual floods. Upon an 
average once in ten years the floods are sufficient to cover the whole valley, which 
brings not only destruction to many farms, but a general upheaving and down 
setting of earths and things in general ; but thereby a general distributioii of soil, 
mixed with plaster, takes place. I need not state that Plaster of Paris is one of the 
quickest and most efficient fertilizers known to agriculture. Hence Ave may perceive 
how nature Morks to supply human Avants by manipulating a soil superior to what 
art has yet reached, yet Plaster of Paris is completely sterile Avhen alone, or the 
principal ingredient in any particular field. 

As we never expect to see the Nile, or even plant in the valley of the Arkansas, 
but live and die liy Fishing Creek, it becomes us to inquire what may be done here 
for our OAvn good and the common weal. 

We are farmers. Our plantations are spread over hills and valleys of primitiA'e 
formation. Some of our fields have felt the scourgings of agricultural implements 
for a century. From the clieapness of lands but little ciare has been exercised for 
their preservation. The tendency of rolling lands to Avaste under careless manage- 
ment has reduced us to the necessity noAV of improving the soil or quitting the 
country. But this country is too good a place to bo abandoned ; the life of the 
farmer too joyous to be given up. Upon the Avhole we have a country exceedingly 
desirable ; not the most fertile by nature, but all susceptible of a high stnte of culti- 
vation. Really but little Avaste land, but a land abounding Avith living fountains 
and running streams of Avater. 

The Avork of the farmer is, after all, the most desirable of occupations ; though 
many in these days seem to dread the toil and sunshine incident to this calling. 
But it is the avocation in Avhich the greatest number of men may prosper; it is in- 
dispensable to hun»au society; it is the life of the greatest substantial enjoyment ; it 
is really life at home. 

And, perhaps, the most imjiortant consideration, comi»nratively, is, that it is the 
manner of life by Avhich the huniun race, is kept up. The dwellers in towns aud 
cities must be replenished from tirnc to lime by recruits from the rural population, 
or there Avould be'no groAvlh of towns and cities, l)ut ])erj)etual decline. It is ob- 
jected to life on plantations that the social principle is jiot cultivated and cannot be. 

Underdraining for Profit and for Health. — /. 123 

There is a mistake out ou this subject. The rural people really enjoy more of social 
life thau the dwellers in cities. The habits of city life are more artificial, generate 
more that is sensational, and tend to the enervation of true vigor and manhood. 
The quiet of country life is most favorable to reflection. The volume of nature 
invites to serious and profound meditation. The manly employments and bracing 
atmosphere develop the physical energies and the higher attributes of manhood. 

That these are not mere surmises is apparent from those who have loved the 
country and found delight in the pursuits of agriculture. Washington was a 
farmer and prosecuted the business with all the ardor of his nature ; Jefierson 
delighted in the retirement of Monticello ; Webster had the same partiality for 
Mai-shfield; Calhoun was never so much at home and himself as when super- 
vising matters at Fort Hill, and McDuffie experienced the same joy at the success 
of his eflbrts on his Cherry Hill plantation ; Henry Clay delighted in his farm at 
Ashland. Ye farmer lads never blush for your calling, but rather that you 
stumble in the path trod by the most illustrious orators and statesmen of our 

[To he concluded in the next number. 1 

Underdraining for Profit and for Healthf— I. 

Whether underdraining will pay or not, as an agricultural improvement, depends 
upon circumstances, and in each case must be decided by the conditions therein 
existing ; but where underdraining may be required to remove from the immediate 
vicinity of one's home, local causes of disease, and aid in securing healthful condi- 
tions for the family, the question of pecuniary profit need not be asked, and no 
expense within the limits of our means wall be considered too great to be incurred. 
In any vicAV of the case we are not called upon to make any apology for devoting 
considerable space in this and future numbers to this important subject. 


Colonel Waring, in the excellent little work which we make the text of our 
present remarks, very truly observes that "land which requires draining hangs out 
a sign of its condition, more or less clear, according to circumstances, but always 
unmistakable to the practical eye." The first thing to be done, then, is to deter- 
mine -^vhether or not, in a given case, draining is required. Colonel Waring gives 
this general rule : " All lands, of whatever texture or kind, in which the spaces 
between the particles of soil are filled with water, (whether from rain or springs,) 
within less than four feet of the surface of the ground, except during and imme- 

* We are sorry to be obliged to divide this excellent essay, but the pressure upon our 
columns this month compels us to do so. — Ed. 

fl. "Draining for Profit and Draining for Health." By Geo. E. Waring, Jr. New York. 

2. Munn's " Practical Land Drainer." 

3. "Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1870." 

4. Norton's "Elements of Agriculture." 

124 Uiidci'draining for Profit and for Health. — /. 

diately after heav-y raius, require draining." Going a little more into detail ; we 
may add as conditions requiring this o])eration : 

1. Where water has accumulated beneath the surface and originated springs ; 

2. Where, from the close nature of the substrata, it cannot pass freely do^vn- 
ward, but accumulates and forms its level, or water-line, at a short distance below 
the surface, or, on hill-sides, where dillerent strata crojD out, oozes in various places, 
and saturates the soil at certain seasons ; 

3. AVhere, from the clayey or close texture of the soil, it lies on the surface and 
becomes stagnant ; and 

4. Where, in all land about dwellings and out-buildings, water will stand in post 
holes or little excavations during the winter and spring ; as well as all stagnant 
pools and pond holes. 


The rain which falls upon a piece of land prepared with properly constructed 
covered drains never remains to stagnate or run over the surface, washing off the 
best of the soil, but pinks graduall}; down, yielding to the roots of plants any fer- 
tilizing matters which it may hold in solution. As it descends, air and consequently 
warmth follow it. Under these new influences the proper decompositions 
and preparation of compoimds fit for the sustenance of plants go on, the 
soil is warm and sufficiently dry, and plants flourish which formerly would never 
grow on it in perfection, if at all. It is a curious fact, too, that such soils resist 
drought better than ever before. The reason is, that the plants are able to send their 
roots much farther down in search of food without finding anything hurtful. Every 
part being penetrated by the air, and consequently dryer and lighter, these soils do 
not bake in summer, but remain mellow and porous. Such efifects cannot, in their 
full extent, be looked for in a stiff" clay in a single season ; the change must be 
gradual, but it is sure. 

The principal benefits of underdraining are succinctly stated by a writer in the 
"Anmial Register of Rural Affairs," in the following : 


1. It prevents water which falls from resting on or near the surface, and renders 
the soil dry enough to be worked or ploughed at all times. 

2. By rendering the soil porous or spongy, it takes in water without flooding in 
time of rain, and gives it off" again gradually in time of drought. 

3. By preventing adhesion and assisting pulverization, it allows the roots to pass 
freely through all parts of the soil. 

4. By facilitating the mixture of manure through the pulverized portions, it 
greatly increases its valuer and eff"ect. 

5. It allows water falling on the surface to juiss downward, carrying with it any 
fertilizing substau(;es (as carbonic acid and ammonia, ) until they are arrested by the 
absorption of the soil. ' 

G. It abstracts in a similar manner the heat contained in fitlling rains, thus 
warming the soil, the water discharged ]>y drain-mouths being many degrees colder 
than ordinary raius. 

7. The increased jjorosity «)f the soil renders it a more perfect non-conductor of 
heat, and the roots of plants are less injured by freezing in winter. 

Underdraining for Profit and for Health. — /. 


8. The same cause admits the entrance of air, facilitating the decomposition of 
enriching portions of the soil. 

9. By admitting early ploughing, crops may be sown early, and an increased 
amount reaped in consequence. 

10. It economises labor, by allowing the work to go on at all times, without 
interruption from surplus water in spring, or from a hard-baked soil in summer. 


The accompanying diagram (Fig. 1) which we copy from the " Report of the 
Agricultural Department for 1870," represents a large field which was actually 
drained in the manner shown : 

"The soil was a heavy clay 
loam, and the subsoil a retentive 
calcareous clay. The ditches 
were made about forty feet apart 
over the entire field. During a 
portion of the time a small stream 
of water that would all pass 
through a four-inch tile flowed 
over the surface in the valley 
from B to L, Avhere a main ditch 
Avas sunk to a minimum depth of 
three feet, in which a course of 
four-inch egg-sole tiles was laid. 
As there was a valley at B O, 
and at D D, submains of three- 
inch tiles were laid as represented 
to connect with the main drain. 
The parallel ditches were then 
made up and down the slopes as 
nearly as practicable. From A 
the water would run most readily 
to B B. At G H short branches 
were made up the slope, in which 
one and a half-inch tiles were 
laid. At P O the ditches all ran 
directly up the slope. From F 
the water ran either toward the 
main L or sub-main D. From 
C the descent was more uniform 
toward D D. Hence parallel 
ditches were made as represented. 
The object in laying out the 
Fig. 1. " ditches in so many directions was 

to have them extend, as nearly as practicable, directly up and down the slopes, 
which is the true system of thorough underdraining. Intelligent tillers of the soil 
and engineers of extensive experience agree in this one point, that in a system of 
thorough underdraining it is better to have the ditches made up and down a slope 
rather than diagonally across it. Hence mains and sub-mains must be formed in 
the valleys, and parallels and branches should run up and doAvn the slopes. Even 
when the strata crop out on the side of a slope, between which surplus water ren- 
ders the soil too wet, it will always be found more satisfactory to cut the ditches up 
and down the slope, rather than in a diagonal direction across it." 


Underdraining for Profit and for Health. — I. 


Our next diagram (Fig. 2) indicates the 
true manner of draining small ponds and 
low wet depressions on uplands. The 
irregular line W indicates high water mark. 
The dotted line L represents the extreme 
point occupied by the coarse, sour grasses 
which characterize permanently wet soil. 
O is the outlet of a tile drain, where it may 
be necessary to sink the main ditch four or 
five feet deep, in order to secure a proper 
descent from T to O on both sides of the 
wet ground. Generally such a place is 
thoroughly drained when the drain is com- 
pleted entirely around it as shown ; but the 
ditch must not be deeper in any other part 
than at the outlet. In occasional instances 
an additional ditch must be made directly 
through the pond to O. It is well to grade 
the entire ditch before laying any tiles, and 
then to let in the water at T, to test the descent. Ditches for draining ponds and 
swamps are often made too shallow. They should seldom if ever be less than two 
feet in depth. Generally one-inch tiles will be sufficient to carry off all the water 
which will collect around a small pond, but sometimes two inch tiles are required. 


<!/^TCff wAjtR an fiiu , ^jj irregular sloping field, previously 

kept wet most of the season by percola- 
tions from a swamp on a table land above, 
was thoroughly drained as shown iu 
Fig. 3. " Tiie first step toward draining 
that field was to sink a three-foot ditch, 
Avith a stoned throat, across the upper end 
from A to B, from B to C, and from A to 
E, letting the water discharge into a deep 
gutter at one side of the highway. As 
there was a low place at F, a ditch wjis 
sunk from F to G. The deep 'catch-water 
drain ' across the upper end, from A to B, 
cuts off a lai'go pr()})ortion of the water. 
Yet six or eight yards down the sloi)e the 
water W(juld soak out from the catch- 
water drain, rendering the soil on the lower side of the slope tus wet as ever. It is 
probable, also, that the veins which conducted the*\vater from the swamp to tho 
lower part of the field were not yet reached by the catch-water drain AB. Hence 
other drains were made about fortv feet apart, as shown by the dotted lines down 
the slope, ending four or five rods below the catch-water drain." 

Fatot Stock. — Every possible effort should be made to improve the farm stock 
of all kinds. We do not urge this lus a matter of fancy, but as a source of actual 
and immediate profit. A ninuds with thorough-bred cro.sses sell better everywhere 
and bring bctUtr prices. 

Curt'ent Agricultural Literature. 127 

Current Agricultural Literature.* 

We have heretofore spoken favorably of Miss Howard's translation of Prof 
Ville's Lectures, and commended the author's system to the attention o£our readers. 
We have, also, cautioned them against adopting his theory as applicable, in detail, 
to our soils and the conditions under which agriculture is here necessarily conduc- 
ted, so radically different from those of Europe. Studied thoughtfully and with 
due reference to all the modifying circumstances which must be taken account of 
in applying fertilizers to the different classes of soils found here, great advantage 
may be derived from the learned French farmer's experiments. 

Prof Ville's system is often spoken of as " High Farming without Manure," manure 
here meaning the dung of animals and other fertilizing materials usually gathered 
on the farm. The gist of his theory on this point is contained in the following 
extract : 

In the past this proposition has attained the dignity of an axiom : that for 
successful culture Ave must have meadow, cattle and manure. Now, I affirm that 
this proposition is at once an economical and agricultural heresy. 

The agriculturist who only uses manure wastes his lands. For from Avhence 
comes the manure? From its depths. The manure does not, then, in reality, 
repair the losses in phosphate of lime, potash, lime and azotic matter that the land 
is submitted to by the exportation of a part of its harvests. When we export meat, 
the loss is less than when we export grain, though there is always a loss. I repeat, 
then, this axiom, which, until now, has been made the basis, and, as it w^ere, the palla- 
dium, of agricultural art, is in reality but an expedient. It has no right to be so but 
in the exceptional case where the meadow is watered by a stream of limestone 
water, which gives the soil the equivalent of what it loses in agents of fertility ; 
but I repeat, this case is so rare it cannot be made a law. 

I have said that a culture founded solely on the use of manure is also an encono- 
my Avithout judgment. 

Suppose the case of mediocre land, yielding from 11 to 14 bushels of wheat 
the acre ; calculate hoAV much time it Avould take you to bring it AA'ith manure to 
produce 39 to 43 bushels ; you would recoil before the sacrifices this Avould draAV 
you into. 

With the chemical fertilizers the change is immediate, the progression sudden, 
and the benefit immediate also. Noav, if you remark tliat besides the profit, the 
resources in straAV are increased from the first year, is it not evident that, instead of 
first having meat to have grain, there is a manifest advantage in reversing the pre- 
conceived order and commencing by having grain — to gain a profit first, then straAV, 
and lastly manure ? I repeat, then, that Ave only cease to Avaste our land Avhen Ave 
really import manures, and the solution imposed upon us by the force of circum- 
stances is to raise the fertility of the soil by means of artificially-composed fertili- 

*1. Chemical Manures. Agricultural Lectures delivered at the Experimental Farm at Vin- 
cennes, in 1867. By George Ville. Translated by Miss E. L. Howard. Atlanta, Ga.: Planta- 
tion Publishing Company. 1871. 

2. The School of Chemical Manures, or Elementary Principles in the Use of Fertilizing 
Agents. From the French of George Ville. By A. A. Fasquette, Chemist and Engineer. 
Philadelphia : Henry Carey Baird. 1872. 

3. The Model Potato : an Exposition of the Cultivation of the Potato ; the Causes of its 
Diseases ; the Eemedy, etc. Bv John McLaurin, M. D. With notes by R- T. Trail, M. D. 
New York: Samuel E. Wells. ' 1872. 

128 Current Agricultural Literature. 

zers, with the products existing; in the form of mines in nature, and wliich seem to 
have been reserved to repair the depredations of the present as of the past, and to 
preserve us from the disasters of the future. 

The " complete fertilizers " recommended by Professor Ville are composed of 
Acid Phosphate of Lime, Nitrate of Potash, Nitrate of Soda, Sulphate of Lime 
and Sulphate of Ammonia. For a rotation of Irish Potatoes, Wheat and Clover, 
for instance, this is the formula : 

First Year — Irish Potatoes. 

Complete fertilizer No. 3 887 pounds. 

The acre. 

Composition: Quantity. Price. 

Acid Phosphate of Lime 355 lbs. 8 5.57 

Nitrate of Potash 266 " 15.70 

Sulphate of Lime 266 " .50 

Expense 821.77 

Second Year — Wheat. 
Sulphate of Ammonia 266 lbs. 811.40 

Third Year — Clover. 

Incomplete fertilizer No. 2 887 lbs. 

Composition : 

Acid Phosphate of Lime 355 lbs. 8 5.40 

Nitrate of Potash 177 " 10.47 

Sulphate of Lime 355 " .67 

Expense 816.54 

Fourth Year — Wheat. 
Sulphate of Ammonia 266 lbs. 811.40 

Total expense 861.11 

Annual expense 815.27 

For Beets, Nitrate of Soda is added to the ingredients mentioned in the foregoing 

" The School of Chemical Manures " contains a very lucid exposition of the 
subject in the form of questions and answers, followed, in an appendix, by much 
useful information on preparing the soil and asing fertilizers, with lists of formulas 
for manures for various crops. 

The third work on our list, though sufficiently uidike the others in both matter 
and manner, is yet related to them in its radical departure from old methods and 
time honored agricultural doctrines. 

Dr. McLaurin, introduces to us, for the first time, " Hygienic Agriculture," which, 
as it rejects animal manures, as nsusty and one of the causes of disease and degen- 
eracy in the potato and other plants, chimes in with the chemical theory of Prof 
Ville. But according to our author, cutting the need is the chief cause of the 
disease of the potato. This may or may nut be correct, ])ut the reasoning by 
analogy with true seeds, like peas or wheat, by which the doctor seeks to establish 

The Banana as a Fihroxis Plant. 129 

his theory is most preposterous. Our Irish potato " sets " are simply root cuttings 
and in no proper sense seeds, and the " slips " or sprouts from these cuttings, taken 
off — removed entirely from the parent tuber — produce equally good crops and 
(other conditions being equal) equally healthy potatoes as are obtained from 
whole tubers. 

In spite of some harmless vagaries and a good deal of amusing dogmatism, 
" The Model Potato " is a book worth reading, and contains many suggestive state- 
ments and useful hints. 

The Banana as a Fibrous Plant. 

Much has been written of the banana — the vmisa of the botanist — as a food pro- 
ducing plant, and it is certainly a most remarkable provision of nature, for the 
wants of the human family ; not only on account of the great quantity of food 
which it affords, (being, according to "Humboldt," much beyond that of any 
known plant,) but for the very agreeable quality of its fruit, which requires no 
preparation to render it acceptable to the most fastidious palate ; but little has been 
said as to its value as a fibrous plant. 

I notice in some works, an allusion to the fibre contained in the leaf, but nothing 
is said concerning the stalk or body of the plant, which contains large quantities of 
the fibre, and of a much better quality than that in the leaves ; extending the entire 
length of the stalk, which ranges from five to ten feet. 

"WHien properly cleaned, the fibre presents a beautiful- silky lustre, very similar 
to that of the ramie, and would, doubtless, be of equal value to that or the pine 
apple silk, for manufacturing purposes. The fibre will certainly rank above the 
Sisal hemp, and other fibres of a like kind, which are so much used at this time ; 
not only on account of its superior strength and beauty, but from its softness and 
elasticity. The stalks consist of a watery pulp, of a loose cellular structure, held 
together by the fibre, which permeates its entire substance in a longitudinal direc- 
tion, and it only requires to be crushed by passing through iron rollers, and then 
dried by passing through a set of rubber rollers on wringers, when the loose powder, 
or pulp, can be whipped off by threshing, or simply passed beneath a revolving 
brush of stiff bristles, and the fibre is ready for packing into bales for shipment to 
the manufacturer. 

A plantation of bananas, after once set out, will last for years, and requires less 
labor than almost any known crop, and at a distance of from four to five feet apart, 
will yield — certainly, in this climate, where we never have ice, or even frost suffi- 
ciently severe to seriously affect vegetation — from one to two thousand bunches of 
fruit per acre, and from one to two thousand pounds of clean fibre at the same 
time, which is worth certainly about twelve cents per pound, in gold, for manufac- 
turing into ropes, etc. 

I believe the subject to be well worth the serious consideration of our planters, 
who are disgusted with attempts to raise cotton under the present system. Enclosed 
find sample of fibre. J. O. HARRIS, M. D. 

Miami, Fla. 

No. 3, Vol. 4. 10 

130 Gleanings from Many Fieldi. 

Gleanings from Many Fields. 

Importaxce of the Jute Crop. — The incre;x.-^e in the demand for jute both in 
its raw and in it.s manufactured state in this country and in England has been won- 
derful. In 1862 we imported jute to the value of about 8120,000. In 1871, " the 
whole value of jute, both raw and manufactured, imported from India into the 
United States was 85,362,988." In 1870 it had been 83,155,271. The is 
thas seen to be 70 per cent, in a single year. The exports from India of jute, raw 
and manufactured, may be now valued at about 825,000,000 per annum. The 
New York World says : 

]Mueh of the land on which cotton grows is suitable for the cultivation of jute. 
It is -raised for about one-eighth of the cost of cotton, and in the present state of 
the market sells for one-quarter of its price — a clear profit of 100 per cent. It 
yields much more largely than cotton. In India, as we see, jute is fast driving out 
cotton and becoming a first-class industry. There is no possibility of its doing so 
in the South, but there are many reiusons why it should be cultivated in connection 
with it. A Avritcr in the "Agricultural Report" for 1871 very truly says that if 
the planters of the cotton States divert " from the cultivation of cotton a force suf- 
ficient to province half a million of bales of jute that crop will be nearly a clear 
acquisition, and will save a large outlay for freight, Ijale-cloth, and compression of 
cotton." He further adds that its cultivation " will save several millions (of dol- 
lars) sent out of the cotton States every year to purchase gunny cloth." There is 
no need of its le<aving the South except as a manufactured article. The writer from 
whom we have before quoted says that "the simple machinery used in Kentucky 
for spinning and weaving hemp might be api^licd to the jute." The planters should 
develop this industry at an early day, as in it they will doubtless fin<l a strong ally 
of king cotton, and an ally supplying in some respects what it lacks as a great 

A Steam Motor for the Farm. — Hon. M. Dunlap, in an article on Steam 
Ploughing in the Chicago Tribune, gives his ideas as to what is required to make 
steam practically available on the farm, and expresses the opinion that Parvin's 
Machine will meet the requirements of the case. He says : 

We must have a farm engine for farm work that can grind and steam food for 
our animals, that can do our threshing, the pumping of water for stock, the making 
of cider and of wine, the sawing of wood, the pressing and baling of hay, the cut- 
ting of forage for winter feed, the making of drains, the gratling of highways, and, 
lastly, for cultivating the soil and the preparing of hemp, fiax and cotton for 
market. All these things the coming motor must do, and do them well and 
cheaply — more clieaply than the same work can be done by the use of horses, 
mules or oxen. Notliing short of this will satisfy the American farmer, or induce 
him to invest in that poetic steed. 

Tall MKArx>w Oat Gkash. — This is the grass about which much has Ixn^n said 
in the Kukal Carolinian, by North Carolina and Virginia corre><{xinde.nts, under 
the name of Evergreen Grass. C. W. Howard, in the FlaiUatwn, thus spejiks of it : 

It should l)e said tliat meadow oat grass will not flourish on ground that is all 
wet. Goixl upland, heavily manured, is the soil suitable for it. Horses are exceed- 
ingly fond of the hay. It will yield a heavy crop in the spring, and if it be not 
jKustured, will bear grazing from December until wild grass springs. Two bushels 
of the meadow oat seed U) the acre is not more than enough. The best time to sow 
is during the latter part of August or early in September. 

Horticultural Hints for December. 131 

Horticulture and Rural Adornment. 

Horticultural Hints for December. 

This is a frosty month, even in our most favored region, and the good gardener 
will give due attention to the protection of such plants as require it. Some hints 
on the means of doing this, we give elsewhere. Hot-beds are exceedingly conve- 
nient in all cases Avhere sufficient attention can be given to them to keep them in 
an effective condition, but without constant watchfulness and care, the objects of 
the. structure are frustrated and the plants destroyed instead of being forwarded. A 
cold frame answers to some extent, in our climate, the same purposes as a hot bed, 
and requires comparatively little attention. No garden should be without one of 
such size as may be required. It is essentially a mere wooden frame or bottomless 
box, vnth a sloping top, like that used for a hot-bed, to be provided with sash or 
covered mth boards and matting, whenever the frosty weather may be indicated. 
The bottom of the frame should be pressed an inch or two into the soil. For 
larger and more substantial structures the following plan, described in the Neiv York 
Tribune, is a good one : 

Cold frames are usually made of common hemlock boards, nailed to posts driven 
into the ground, 18 inches to 2 feet deep. These posts are driven so that there will 
be one in the middle and on either end of the boards when placed in position. 
These boards are run in parallel lines just 6 feet between from the front to rear, and 
the lower edge of both boards pressed about one inch below the surface. When 
the boards are nailed fast to the posts, then cross-ties, three inches wide and three 
quarters thick, should be mortised in, from front to rear, every three feet, and when 
finished the top of the cross pieces should be on a level with the top of the frame. 

The cold frame should be built in a spot sheltered from the north winds, as on 
the south side of a fence or hedge. The soil within them should be made rich with 
well rotted stable manure. Cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, radish and other plants 
will thrive wonderfully in such a frame. The sashes should be raised, drawn back, 
or entirely removed during the day except in our coldest weather, or when heavy 
dri\dng storms are prevailing. Keeping the plants continually under glass renders 
them tender, so that any accidental exposure will be sure to kill them. 

It is not too early to make out a list of seed to be procured for spring 

planting. They should be ordered during the present month, from some trust- 
worthy seedsman, as much depends upon getting good seeds. If you can get them 
at home — the kinds you want — with any assurance that they are true to name and 
Jretih, do so, by all means ; but our experience is in fiivor of ordering directly from 
well known large dealers at the North. If our readers have followed our advice, 
they will have on hand seeds of many of our mast important garden vegetables 
of their o'^vii saving ; but some kinds are better procured at the North. 

We cannot make a selection that Avill suit all persons and places, but, we gave 
in our last volume (December number) a full list of such varieties as we have 
tried and found suited to our own purposes, and to that we refer such readers as 
may need a guide in making their own selection. 

132 Hbrtteiilhiral Hints for December. 

In this latitude and southward peas may be planted from the middle to 

the last of the month. To secure a succession, plant several varieties of diflercnt 
habits of gro^^•th, for instance : McLean's Little Gem for the earliest ; Extra Early, 
or Dan O'Rourk, and Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod next ; and for later supplies, 
Eugenie, Brown's Marrowfat, Champion of England, and Large White JNIarrow ; 
or we may depend for a continued supply upon successive plantings of any favorite 
variety — Eugenie, for instance, which we prefer to all others. 

Cabbage plants from September and October sowings, where one is for- 
tunate enough to have obtained good ones, may now be put out. If necessary give 
them protection by throwing your ground into ridges, running north and south, and 
planting them on the west side of each ridge. You can cover them slightly with 
straw in severe weather. They should produce fine heads in April. Cabbage 
seed, if heretofore neglected, may still be sown in a cold frame. Try Early Ulm 
Savoy, Little Pixie and Early Dwarf Flat Dutch. 

English or Broad Beans, Onions, Spinach, Radishes, Lettuce may be 

planted this month, but the last two are liable to be killed by hard freezes, unless 
protected, even in this coast region. Some plant Irish potatoes about Christmas, 
but we prefer to delay till the middle of January or the first of February, as those 
planted earlier are often cut down by frost and greatly injured. 

The transplanting of fruit trees and grape vines may be continued through 

the winter, but we consider the season less favorable than the last month for that 
purpose, especially if the weather be severe. Root grafting and planting the seeds 
of fruit and forest trees may now be done with advantage, as well as pruning and 
manuring. Get trees from known and trustworthy nursery-men, and avoid all tree 

If more roses are wanted, they may now be planted, preparing the ground 

thoroughly by manuring and deep digging. Tastes differ in regard to the best 
roses. Fifteen rose-growers in England were separately asked to name the best 
twelve roses. Only three were found on all the lists alike, as worthy to be named 
among the best : 1. Marechal Neil ; 2. Baroness Rothschild ; 3. Blarie Bauiuann. 

Circular, oval and cresent-shaped flower beds are much more beautiful 

than rectangular ones. In making new beds dig the ground very deeply, and 
manure with fine, well-digested compost, made up largely of leaf-mould or other 
decayed vegetable matter. Such a bed will withstand drought wonderfully. Avoid 
situations where the roots of trees are likely to penetrate. Where they are present 
nothing else can thrive. 

Rose bushes of the spring or summer blooming class — roses which bloom 

but once a year — may now be closely prun(;d, uidess they were trimmed, :is is per- 
haps better, just as the full growth begun. The true i)erpetuals — Tea, Bourbon and 
Noisette roses — should be pruned but little at any time. 

In the other departments of flower garden work, little can be done except 

to make good, so far as possible, any neglect of previous months in the way of 
manuring, digging, transplanting shrubs and vines and planting bulbs. 

Hexagonal Planimgfor Orchards. — The Saunders JRaspbeiTy. 133 

Hexagonal Planting for Orchards. 

The liexagonal or modern quincunx form of arranging trees in an orchard has 
two advantages over the square arrangement. First, it gives the plantation a more 
picturesque appearance, and, second, it economizes space, the trees being more 
evenly distributed over the ground. One reason why this mode is so little followed, 
is the supposed difficulty of laying off the ground ; but that is very simple as thus 
shown in the " Annual Register of Rural Affairs :" 

g f a To lay off a piece of ground for this 

0-- ...Or- -Q purpose, measure off one side of the field 

'*"-,^ ,^' \ '^^^ ,^''' I at equal distances, as at a, b, c, d, e. 

''";<r;^''' ^---•^-^ '^'''' ' "^^^ distances must be the distance apart 

^,--'' j "'~«. /' i \ .'^''^ ! '^-^ j at which the trees are to stand, because 

^''' _,.L, r "'""^4'^''' \ J^ " ""'A *^®y form the sides of the equilateral 

^''--. ,''' I "'^^-'^' 1 "^ '/'''' i X ,''' ^ triangles into which the whole ground 

;' '^'^fy-''' ^0_,-''?^^-..Av.•''''• becomes divided. The next thiug is to 

\,/'' j\,^i-''' ;"""'v, ,--' ; -^^ / find the distances, a,f, g, for the line of 

f^.-'' \,, j ^-'^\, 1.--'' V^, i ,'''''^\ " trees at right angels to the first mentioned 

^-\ /''T N\ ^'' ; ^^^ /''''"r ""'\ -^ row. Aja arithmetician will easily 

"/*^-^ i ^-''f\_ i ,'•'/ "-., ' ,-''^ determine this, for the triangle b a f. 

,^''^-.,^ l^'^i^'-N^ ,'''9--'- ] being a right one, the square of 6 a 

" p-^_ j ^^-'w i >^'\. ^ (which is 33 feet,) subtracted from the 

! ,.''^'-.' l ^'^T"^^ *-® square of 6 / (which is 66 feet,) will leave 

■K^ j ^;A^ j ^^^ the square of a f, the root of which 

^^"T ^—1-'^ T'-'^C extracted will give the distances of// g, 

.^ *\_^ I ^'' \^ &c., which is 57 feet and a half an inch. 

Q'' "'-Qi "^"-o "* Divide this and the opposite side of the 

field, therefore, into distances of 57 feet and half an inch, and the side opposite 

the first, at 33 feet distances, and proceed to stake off all intermediate intersections. 

If the distances are less than 33 feet, as they would be for any other kind of fruit 

trees, a corresponding proportion is of course to be taken, which is easily determined 

as above. 

or' ^^ 


The Saunders Raspberry. 

This is another of Mr. Herstine's new raspberries, named for Mr. William Saun- 
dei-s, Superintendent of the Experimental Gardens of the Department of Agricul- 
ture. It is, like the Herstine, a cross between the Philadelphia and the Allen, and 
is described as a thrifty grower and a prolific bearer. Fruit, very large, round ; color, 
crimson ; grains, large ; flavor, delicious. It has not yet been tested by us but we 
believe it to be worthy of a trial in this climate. Oui' Frontispiece fairly repre- 
sents its appearance. 

Gkape Crop of Greece. — The vintage is finished all over Greece, the total 
quantity of grapes gathered in being nearly 250,000,000 of pounds, of which 
10,000,000 have already been exported. The prices fetched have been from 20 to 
42 thalers, according to district and quality. 

134 Seasonable Orchard and Garden Notes. 

Seasonable Orchard and Garden Notes. 

Hxno to Plaid a Grape Vine. 
The first thing to do is to prepare the ground thoroughly by ploughing and sub- 
soiling, if you are planting a vineyard, or by deep digging if for a few vines in the 
garden. Garden soil Ls generally quite rich enough for the gi'ape, without further 
manuring at the time of planting, though a small quantity of bone dust and wood 
ashes will generally promote a healthy gro^vth, -without undue stimulation. The 
ground being ready, mark it off with a line and put down a stick or small stake 
where each plant is to stand. For Delaware, Catawba and other moderate gro^\'ing 
varieties, six feet apart each way is about the right distance in vineyard culture. In 
the garden, they may be given more room. Hartford Prolific, Clinton, Concord, 
Herbemont, Walter and other strong growers should have at least ten feet for each 
vine, in the row, the rows being six feet apart, as before. Dig the holes about ten 
inches deep, with one side sloping to the stick with which the place of the vine is 
marked ; replace the stick or peg vdih a good stake, five or six feet long, firmly set 
in the ground ; raise a slight mound in the bottom of the hole on which rest the 
lower end of your plant and spread the roots (somewhat shortened, if very long) 
evenly over it, the vine pruned to two buds, resting against the sloping side of the 
hole near the stake ; fill in the earth and press it about the plant, leaving it a little 
higher than the surrounding surface, to allow for settling. 

The best Peaches for Family Use. 
Tastes differ and so do soils and climate, and any list we may give of any species 
of fruit must be considered as subject to amendment, to adapt it to the notions of 
persons and the conditions of places. For a dozen varieties we would choose as 
follows: Hale's Early, Early Tillotson, Early York, Early Crawford, Amelia, 
Columbia, Grosse Mignonne, Chinese Cling, Indian Blood, Stump the World, Late 
Admirable, Austin's Late. 

A Beautiful Early Summer Flowering Plant. 

The Gloxinia, with its large bell-shaped flow- 
ers, of the most delicate and brilliant colors, is 
one of the most beautiful of our green-house and 
conservatory plants. There are two varieties, 
one with erect or upright flowers, and the other 
with drooping or pendulous ones. The tubers 
should be phintod in February or IMarcli, in a 
rich, light soil, and kept in a warm, moist atmos- 

Mr. Drec-r gives the following list of desirable 
varieties. Those marked with a * have erect 
flowers : 

Aj)ollo, beautiful vi<»Iet ; Baron de Vriere, 
pale blue; Bergerouette, white and rose; Can- 
dida, pure white ; Garden Lavende, white and 
lavender ; *Carl Enke, white and lavender ; 

Seasonable Orchard and Garden Notes. 


*Flammea, scarlet and rose ; *Lady C. Villars, white and pink ; *Leon de Fram- 
menville, violet and purple ; Mina, white, crimson throat ; *Marquis de St. Inno- 
cent, Avhite and violet ; Purpurea, dark purple ; Rubra, crimson ; Marie Van Houtt, 
white, carmine margin ; *Rose Castileone, dark rose ; *Victor Lemoine, rosy violet ; 
Vlaanderen, large violet purple. 

Winter Protection jor Garden Plants. 

There are many plants, which, after they are well established and have grown a 
few inches in height, are perfectly hardy in our climate, but Avhich, when young 
and tender, and especially Avhen sudden cold follows a term of unseasonably warm 
weather, are liable to be killed by frost. Beets, carrots, radishes, lettuce, cabbages, 
and turnips are of this character. All these plants should be sown in the fall for 
spring crops, and by taking a little trouble they can generally be carried through 
the winter in safety, at least in the latitude of Charleston and southward. In the 
first place, it is well to plant, when practicable, on the west side of a tight fence, 
where the morning sun cannot strike the jDlants. This precaution alone will, in a 
majority of cases, save a crop which in an exposed situation would certainly perish. 
They may be severely frozen, but if they thaw in the shade, they will seldom be 
injured. Throwing the ground into ridges and planting on the west side of them 
will often serve the same purpose, and when neither of these modes of protection are 
practicable, a light covering of straw, dried grass or leaves, to be removed when the 
danger is over, will, in nine cases out of ten, save a crop of young turnips, beets, or 
cabbages ; and they are well worth the trouble. Every garden should also have a 
large cold frame, (elsewhere described) in which a few plants, uf various kinds, 
can be made entirely safe in the coldest weather. 

The Oyclamem and How to Cultivate Them. 

There are few more showy plants than the 
Cyclamens, and few more easily grown, either 
in the 'sitting room window, or a cool green- 
house. Their flowei-s are the personification of 
chasteness, beauty and grace. Their culture is 
very simple. A mixture of turfy loam, leaf- 
mould and sandy peat, is a compost they delight 
in. Use five or six inch pots, according to the 
size of the bulbs ; and when newly potted, water 
moderately until the leaves are well developed 
and the flowers begin to appear. When in full 
growth, they should be watered freely. Taking 
care at all times, that the drainage is in good order, as these plants are impatient of 
nioiMure at the roots. See Dreer's catalogue for the finest varieties. 

Triomph de Gand Against Wilson's Albany. 

A Mr. Pillow, who cultivates strawberries, on a heavy loam, near Rochester, N. 
Y., has nearly equal acres of Wilson and Triomph de Gand. He raises the fruit 
for market, and the results are reported in the American Rural Some, as follows : 

136 Short Excerpts and Brief Comments. 

He raised ou about 300 square rods, 6,288 quarts of Triomph, which he sold for 
Sl,058.78. Ou about two acres of "Wilsou, lie raised 10,500 quarts, Avhich he sold 
for 81,039.76, in other words, the Triomph yielded 3,353 quarts to the acre; the 
receipts were S565.33 per acre ; aud they averaged sixteen cents eight mills per 
quart. The Wilson's yielded 5,250 quarts to the acre ; and the receipts were 8520 
per acre, averaging nine cents nine mills per quart. This Is favorable to the 
Triomph for his soil and for his market, but the results might be quite reversed in 
another locality. 

Short Excerpts and Brief Comments. 

SxRAWBERiaES AND RASPBERRIES. — Dr. Silas T. Gilbert, of Memphis, Tenn., 
in the Gardener's Monthly for November, expresses the opinion that the strawberry 
a^ well as the raspberry, in the South would do much better if partially shaded. 1 
attribute, he says, the late disastei-s to my crops partly to hill culture. Let others 
say what they please, he adds, but I am satisfied from careful observation that the 
alternate row system with hand cleaning amongst the vines, letting the runners root, 
is by far the best system for the South. It toill not do to put negroes in a straw- 
berry patch wHith hoes in their hands, for they loill cut up one-third of the hills before 
the season is over, besides the iujury done by thrustiug the hoe too deeply under 
and about the plants everywhere, and dragging away the dirt. A neighbor of mine 
clears his alleys with horse power, and finger picks the plants in the matted rows ; 
I shall hereafter certainly follow suit. 

Though these views are at variance with those we have heretofore entertxiiued 
and expressed, we had, before seeing Dr. Gilbert's remarks, determined to try the 
" matted rows" on one of our beds, by way of experiment. 

Domesticating Wild Plants. — In Europe, the Gardener's 3fonthIt/ says, mauy 
of the most popular hardy plants are from American woods and prairies, and as 
we must of necessity, it seems, copy after Europeans in what they first see tit to do, 
it will be quite in the fashion to go out into our fields and fence rows and collect 
the beautil'ul tilings we find growing there. Another matter uf interest in regard to 
collecting hardy herbaceous plants is, that there are a large number of rare native 
plants not yet in cultivation, which many an owner of a fii-st class collection would 
give a good deal to possess. A collection from one's own neighborhood would 
therefore often be really one of the most valuable one could possess, and be the 
foundation of a series of exchanges with others, which would soon swell a little col- 
lection to one of the best. 

A Curious Statement. — The exj)edition to the Rocky Mountains found ou 
the Ijorders of the Arkansius and near the eastern side of the Great Desert, 
hundreds of acres of the same kind of vine {vitui vincjera) which produces the wini^ 
of Europe. These vines were gi-owing in a wild state and were surrounded with 
hillocks of sand, rising to within from twelve to eighteen inchi^ of the ends of the 
branches. They were loaded with the most delicious gra]H's, and the clusters were 
so closely arranged as to conceal eviuy part of the stem. These hillocks of sand are 
produced by the agency of the vines, arrc^sting tlie san<l, as it is borne along hy the 

We find this singular statement in tiie IlorticuUural livgi'^icr for August, 1836. 
Does any one know of any confirmation or explanation of these alleged facts by later 
explorers ? 

A Neiv Steam and Hydraulic Cottmi Press. — Soils — ///. 137 

A New Steam and Hydraulic Cotton Press. 

We are glad to note the entire success of the new patent cotton press, the inven- 
tion of our fellow-townsman Mr. John F. Taylor, senior member of the enterpris- 
ing firm of J. F. Taylor & Co., of the Phoenix Iron Works. It seems to throw 
into the shade all previous inventions in the same line. Mr. Wm. H. Walker, fSuper- 
intendent of the Charleston Hydraulic Cotton Press Company — excellent author- 
ity — gives it as his opinion that " it is the most perfect machine for compressing cotton 
in tJie United States." He adds : 

The experience of more than twenty-five years in the cotton press business, justi- 
fies me in asserting that this press surpasses the Tyler, or any other press of which 
I have any knoAvledge, very much in power, and fully equals any in speed ; it is of 
immense streng-th, beautifully proportioned, very compact, entirely of iron, and 
capable of exerting a compressing power of fully 07ie thousand torn pressure. In 
testing the capacity of the press, with only sixty pounds of steam on the boiler, 
one hundred bales of cotton were compressed in one hour, the press movino- as fast 
as a full gang of hands could handle the cotton, pressing the bales to a density 
unequalled by any press of which I have any knowledge. It is now in successful 
operation, acknowledged by all who have seen it moving, to be unequalled in 
power in this country or elsewhere. 

We congratulate Mr. Taylor on his grand achievement, and trust he will be fully 
repaid for the labor and thought it must have cost him to bring it to such perfec- 
tion — not in reputation alone, but in the more solid rewards of pecuniary profit. 

Applied Chemistry and Mineralogy. 

All communications and notes of inquiry intended for this Department, as well as speci- 
mens of soils, fertilizers and minerals for analysis or description, should be addressed to 
Charles U. Shepard, Jr., M. D., No. 20 Broad street, Charleston, S. C. 

Soils.— III. 

_ In the preceding number of the Rural Carolinian, the writer has called atten- 
tion to the forces which enable the plant to abstract the soil-food, and it is with a 
view of presentmg the manner of their action in a more intelligible form, that he 
has prepared and off^ers the followmg table : 

The first column contains those basic ingredients of soil-food which are absolutely 
necessary for the healthy growth of the important crops. The mdispensable acids 
are given below. Other elements are often met with in the analysis of the ashes of 
plants ; but even if one or more of them are constantly present in certain plants, 
still they hardly gam thereby the character of being indispensable, at least, for 
thosecrops referred to above. The second and third columns represent the com- 
binations in which these indispensable ingredients occur in the soil. The fourth 
column shows the efiect which is produced by the action of water containing car- 
bonic acid gas in Solution, whether atmospheric in origin, (rain water,) or due to 



the decomposition of organic matter in the soil. The fifth column gives the action 
of the dirt'eront alkaline and earthy salts "which occur in rain and soil water. 


Indispensable in- 
gredients of plant- 
food derived from 
the soil. 

Chief mineral combinations 
in which these ingretli- 
ents occur. 

Action of water con- 
taining carbonic acid, 
I. c. either rain or soil- 

Action of alkaline 
and earthy salts upon 
the mineral comp'ds. 

United with In 

Silicic Acid. 


dissolved partly and 
decomjK)sc<l easily. 

posed b 
dium ai 




little action. 

Silicic Acid. 


^2 "= o 


p 2 5-» 



decomposcnl more 


Lte, sulpli 



decomposed less 





easily soluble. 

less soluble. 

Nitrate of ammonia 
hastens the solution of 
these carbonates. 


easily soluble. 


Silicic Acid. 


dissolved and decom- 

decomposition and so- 
lution eU'ectA-Kl. 



readily dissolved. 

dissolved slowly and 



solution much more 






reailily decomposed 
and dissolved. 

decomposition has- 




The ab(jve bases. 

Nitric Acid. 

organic mat- 

readily dissolved, oc- 
casionally with de- 

same as with carljonic 
acid water. 

The remaining indispeiisahlc ingredients are phosphoric, sulphuric, and carbonic 
acid.s, (which occur in the soil in the combinations given in the table;) nx also nitric 
acid, which is present in the soil combined with a base; or in its stead, the material 
fmm which it Is formed. The action of carbonic acid water and aqueous solutions 
of .salts, representing more or less the composition of soil-watfer, upon these coudiina- 

Soils.— III. 139 

tions, has been described above. The forms in wliich these ingredients of soil-food 
axe abstracted by the plant, may be considered as follows: 

Nitrate, carbonate and phosphate of potash. 

Nitrate, bicarbonate, sulphate and phosphate of magnesia. 

Nitrate, bicarbonate, sulphate and phosphate of lime. 

Nitrate, phosphate and bicarbonate of iron. 

The division of the agents, which, in the soil, decompose and dissolve the 
mineral compounds containing the plant-food, into rain-water, carbonic acid and 
alkaline salts, rather than into pure water, carbonic acid, &c., seems desiraiile for 
several reasons. In the natural operations of the soil and crop, pure water is unloiown. 
The soil-water has been shown to contain a considerable quantity of dissolved saline 
matter ; and rain-water is known to hold, in solution, solid matter to the extent of 
5-100,000 of its weight, consisting of carbonic and nitric acids, ammonia, &c. These 
dissolved substances give to rain-water and soil-water a much greater force for 
decomposing and dissolving mineral matter in the earth than is possessed by pure 
water. The water of the soil contains a comparatively large amount of carbonic 
acid, and, hence, is able to exert much greater power than rain-water.^ 

As was previously mentioned, this carbonic acid is due chiefly to the oxidation 
of organic matter. In the table no reference has been made to the part which 
organic acids — more especially the humic acids — play in the decomposition and 
assimilation of the plant-food derived from the soil. This omission is in conse- 
quence of the writer's intention to present, at another opportunity, a brief considera- 
tion of the origin and function of the organic matter of the soil ; which, if 
introduced at this point, would too greatly extend the present article. Finally, the 
reader's attention is again called to the fact that there are forces constantly at work 
in every soil which not only produce an increase in the soluble plant-food, but also 
thereby augment the available nutrition, (since it has been sho'WTi that plant-food 
can be absorbed by the rootlets from insoluble compounds,) inasmuch as mineral 
and coarse masses of matter are disintegrated and decomposed by them. 

The amount of plant-food in a soil is variable ; depending on the character of the 
rocks which produced it, as also on the degree of its exhaustion by vegetation. 
The amount of available plant-food is, in addition to the above conditions, depend- 
ent on the exertion of the forces previously considered. An ;ultimate chemical 
analysis, i. e., a determination of the amount of its indispensable and dispensable 
ingredients, affords a knowledge of the present and (indefinitely) future fertility of 
the soil, and can only be obtained by the complete analysis of all the components. 

A practical analysis is, strictly speaking, impossible with the knowledge and 
means of investigation at present at the disposal of the chemist ; and for the follow- 
ing reasons : The chemist is unable to exactly imitate the processes of nature in 
the abstraction of soil-food. His laboratory experiments can only approximate to 
them. The practical analysis is not only the determination of the plant-food avail- 
able at the time of the investigation, but that which will continue to be furnished 
diu-ing, say, the cultivation of one crop. One difficulty lies in the choice of a solvent. 
This re-agent must be one which shall extract the available plant-food, and leave 
behind all that which is so securely locked up as to be incapable of assimilation by 
the plant. 

Additional embari-assment is created by the great dissimilarity in point of dura- 
tion between the operations of the natural and the artificial laboratories. Natural 

140 Soik.—III. 

processes, without exception, never arrive at a termination, nor are they ever at a 
stand-still. In comparison to the processes of the chemist they may appear weak, 
whereas their action being inexhaustible and constant, becomes irresistible. The 
extraction of a soil by artificial means, in the hands of a chemist, is rapid, and, so 
far as he can judge approaches completion. Under natural forces the same process 
is infinitely gradual, but ever tending to the same result. 

Hence it is, perhaps, permissible for the chemist to compare the results of his 
powerfully and rapidly acting processes with those of nature, which though gradual 
and obscure, are, in effect, very similar. 

It is in view of this difficulty that agricultural chemists have acquiesced in the 
necessity of following uniform methods of analysis, that they may be able to com- 
pare their results, and hence to pass judgment on the comparative fertility of soils 
under investigation. Since fertility and sterility are, in general, merely terms of 
degree, this course does not appear inappropriate. By subjecting all soils to the 
same method of investigation, it is possible to obtain a clear idea of their capability 
to support and nourish crops. The solvents ordinarily employed in the examina- 
tion of soils may be divided in two classes, not only as to strength, but also in 
their similarity to natural processes. 

1. Strong and artificial solvents. — To this class belong the mineral acids, which 
when used in concentrated form and aided by heat, almost entirely decompose and 
dissolve the mineral and other matter of soils. It has been found expedient to 
make use of cold muriatic acid as a solvent, and most analyses are now conducted 
by this process. The results are intermediate between the ultimate and the practi- 
cal, since it is generally inferred that this re-agent exerts far greater power than 
those natural processes previously treated of Although, under high culture, it is 
possible that the crop can gradually abstract from the soil aa much as is thus arti- 
ficially o])tained. 

2. Weaker and more natural solvents. — To this class belong water charged with car- 
bonic acid, and solutions of alkaline salts, including caustic ammonia. These sol- 
vents exert comparatively feeble force in extracting plant-food from soils, and are, 
hence, to be used in large quantity. Their value consists, principally, in furnish- 
ing data for the comparison of different soils, as also for the comparison of the suc- 
cessive extracts. Thus it is possible not only to compare different soils, with regard 
to their fertility, i. e. the amount of plant-food which they yield to solvents of a 
strength approaching those of nature ; but by the comjjarison of successive extracts, 
it Is possible to judge of the capability of restoration which is inherent in the 

Having thus endeavored to show the relation which exists between the actual 
and the total fertility of soils, and the means by which the latter is converted into 
the former, as also the methods employed by the chemist for an estimaLion of eacdi, 
the writer J will present a few analyses of soils, executed in his Laboratory by him- 
self and hLs fellow-workers in chemistry. These almost belong to the cla^ss of ulti- 
mate analyses, but at another op])ortunity he lio[)os to ofler several, so-called, 
practical analyses, i. e. those which shall represent the actual fertility of the soil. 

Ansivers to Cliemical Inquiries. 
Answers to Chemical Inquiries. 


E. B. S. The following analyses, executed by Dr. W. D. Warner, in this labora- 
tory, give the amount of ammonia yielded by cotton seed : 

per cent. 

Ammonia yielded by a sample'of sea island cotton seed 3.65 

Ammonia yielded by a sample of fresh upland cotton seed 3.67 

According to the above per centage of ammonia produced by cotton seed, it 
would require 8,197 pounds of that article to afford as much ammonia as is yielded 
by 2,000 pounds of a guano containing 15 per cent. There are two ways to best 
utilize cotton seed, and the choice between them must depend on circumstances ; 
such as distance from mill, price of oil, difficulty of keeping stock, &c. The one is 
to compost the cotton seed with an acid phosphate, whereby the seed becomes 
thoroughly decomposed, and the result is a good nitrogenous fertilizer, whose phos- 
phate is readily available for the plant. The other is to express the oil, and to use 
the seed cake as feed for stock, whereby a valuable stable manure may be obtained 
at the same time that the stock is well fed. If each community of cotton planters 
could erect and support one such press it might be the means of saving, or, at least, 
best utilizing one of the chief products of the land. The two first of the following 
analyses of cotton seed cake were executed in this laboratory by Mr. D. C. Ander- 
son; they may prove interesting to the readers of the Rural Carolinian: 

I. Is a sample of very dry cake, at least two years old. 

II. Is a sample of freshly prepared cake ; as it came from the press, where it 
does not appear to have been subjected to any great pressure. 

III. Is a sample of fresh, but more thoroughly pressed cake. 



Ingredients : 




Moisture, expelled at 212° fahrenheit 

p. c. 





p. C. 









p. c. 





p. c. 


p- c. 



Other Organic Matter 


Phosphoric Acid 

Sulphuric Acid 



Soluble Silica and Sand ^ 

Fixed Ingredients, determined 


Fixed Ingredients, not determined, largely Magnesia. 






Ammonia, yielded by the Organic Matter 

142^^ Atiswers to Chemical Inquiries. 

Two thousand pounds of fresh cotton seed cake yield at 6.665 per c«nt (average 
of two analyses) 133.3 pounds of ammonia. Two thousand pounds of a guano 
yielding 15 per cent, ammonia, would be equivalent to 4,500 pounds of cotton seed 

The following determination of the valuable ingredients in cotton seed hiUh was 
made in this laboratory : 

p. c. 

Ammonia, yieldal by decomposition of organic matter 0.65 

Phosphoric Acid 1.95 

Pota.5h 0.925 

The following Ls the analysis o^ fresh farm yard vutnure as given by Alfred Sib- 
son in his work on Agricultural Chemistry : 

p. e. 

Water 66.17 

Soluble organic matter 2.48 

Soluble inorganic matter 1.54 

Insoluble organic matter 25.76 

Insoluble inorganic matter 4.05 


Whole organic matter yields on decomposition 0.780 p. c. of ammonia. The 
alx^ve analysis represents the composition of fresh farm yard manure (composed of 
horse, pig and cow dung, about fourteen days old.) Ina.smuch as the composition 
of stable and other manure will vary so much according to the quantity and quality 
of the food and the straw, it seems impossible to give any general statement as to 
its exact chemical composition. 

-^ R. C. The addition of hydrochloric (viuriatic) acid to urine, as recom- 

mended by the Mass. Ploughman, 'is d&signed to decompose the urate of soda ; thus, 
gradually, setting the uric acid free. Dilute sulphuric acid acx?omplishes the same 
effect The presence of the free muriatic acid prevents the alkaline decomposition 
of urine, and, consequently, any loss in its nitrogenous ingretlients. Muriatic acid 
answers the requirements best, but either sulphuric acid or copperas (the sulphate 
of the protoxide of iron) would likewise prevent the alkaline decomposition of the 
urine. The subsequent neutralization with carbonate of lime would ultimately 
convert the protoxide of iron into the sequioxide ; a matter of some importance, 
since we know that the protoxide salts of iron cxort a prejudicial influence u|xm 
young vegetation. Nearly all laud cont-ains suilicioiit iron for the wants of the 
plant, so that an addition is unnecessary. Thei-e are certiiin sour laiids which 
might bear with advantage the api)li«Uion of copi^ras, as this treatment would 
luust<in the decom])osition of the organic inalU-T. 

Muriatic acid costs in New York or Pliihuklphia by tlie carboy, 3i cents per 
I>oun(l ; .sulphuric acid, 21 cents per pound, and copjx'ras lij cents per pound. 

Laboratory for Analytical Cliemi-itry, 20 Broad street, Clutrlcston, 6'. C. S. 

Insects as Food. 143 

Natural flisTORY Applied to Agriculture. 

Specimens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in The Eural 
Carolinian, for April, 1872,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc., should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mr. Charles E. Dodgk, Washington, I). G. 

Insects as Food. 

In our previous talks about insecta we have only considered them as devourers of 
our personal property, or as devouring each other, but if their insatiable jaws have 
lirought them into discredit, they have compensated for the wrong in a slight degree 
l)y offering up as a sacrifice, certain of their own species as food for man. 

We are told that the large, fat, fleshy grub of the palm-weevil (Corydalia 
palmarum) or, as it is called in the West Indies, the G-rugru, is esteemed highly as 
an article of food in both the Indies. We have also read of an Indian king who 
for dessert instead of fruits set before his Grecian guests a roasted worm taken from 
a plant, which was probably the larva of this insect. 

In some parts of the world the grubs of some of the larger species of beetles 
are eaten, and considered great delicacies. Pliny, in speaking of the diseases of 
trees, tells us of a large grub which is taken from the oak, which the Roman epi- 
cures even fed with meal in order to fatten them. 

Locusts were used as food, as far back as Bible times, if we are to believe Holy 
Writ, for among the " clean " animals that might be eiiten by the Jews (Lev. 11-22,) 
are mentioned, " the locust, the bald-locust, the beetle and the grasshopper." We are 
also told of John the Baptist that " his meat was locusts and wild honey," and at this 
late day when locusts are used so largely as food, in so many different countries, there is 
no disputing that a kind of grasshopper was meant. In the cities of Arabia locusts 
are brought to market on strings, and are prepared for eating in different ways. 
An Arab will place a handful of them on the glowing coals until roasted, and then 
take them, one by one, by the legs and head and devour the remainder. They are 
also roasted in ovens and eaten with salt. The Arabs, of Morocco, boil them and 
then dry them on the roofs of their houses. We are told by Kirby and Spence 
that the Arabs at Mecca, when there was a scarcity of corn, would grind them into 
flour in their hand mills, and then make them into cakes with a little water, and 
bake them in the usual manner. They are also eaten by the natives of various 
parts of Africa, by whom they are sometimes cured or prepared by smoking. The 
same authority states that they are preferred by the Moors to pigeons, and a plateful 
of two or three hundred may be eaten without any ill effects. In our own country, 
they are eaten by various tribes of Indians and in some cases we are able to trace 
the species. The Snake Indians, of Oregon, as well as the Utes, and perhaps other 
tribes, collect large numbers of the anahnis simplex, or devastating locust or " cricket" 
of Utah, and grind them into a coarse meal, in Avhich heads and legs are frequently 
seen almost entire. This is mixed with the seeds of a kind of grass, or weed which 

144 Insects as Food. 

grows abundantly in the vicinity, and then made into bread. The Digger Indians 
eat their locusts and grasshoppers too, much in the same manner as the Arab 
mentioned above, roasting them to burn off' the spines, which they claim would 
otherwise scratch their throats, after which they bolt them whole. They sometimes 
eat them with pounded acorns, hawthorn and other berries. They are often gath- 
ered in sacks, saturated wdth salt, and placed for a short time in trenches heated 
with hot stones, and eaten whole, or are ground and put into mush or soup. Their 
manner of catching the insects, as related by Dr. Palmer, a personal friend, who 
has spent much time in the Indian country, is as follows : When the insect attains 
its best condition, the Indians select some favorable locality and dig several little 
pits, somewhat like inverted funnels in shape, in order that any insects that get in 
may be prevented from easily flying or hopping out. When the pits are ready an 
immense circle is formed, the surrounding grass is set on fire, and men, women and 
children station themselves around the fiery belt, keeping up a ring of flame until 
the insects are either captured in the pits or roasted by the fire. 

The Cicadas, or, as they are commonly known, " harvest flies," (also called locust) 
according to Aristotle, Avere eaten by the Greeks, and were esteemed most delicious 
just before the pupa bursts its shelly covering to become a perfect insect. We have 
also read that the seventeen year locust was eaten by some of the North American 
Indians, who remove the wings and then boil them. 

In Mexico, the eggs of the Corixa fetnorata, a water insect, belonging to the 
hetniptera, are eaten largely by the natives. The insects deposit large numbers of 
their eggs in the water, at the edges of lakes or similar bodies of water, and these 
are fished out, dried, and sold in the markets, " poimded and cooked, and in 
lumps forming a substance like the roe of fish." The eggs are about the size of a 
pinhead, and are whitish and round. The natives in the vicinity of Lake Pex- 
cuco, cultivate a sort of carex on which the insect deposits its eggs very freely. The 
carex is then made into bundles and floated in the water until covered with eggs, 
when they are taken out, dried, and beaten over a large cloth. 

The Chinese are said to use the chrysalis of the silkworm as an article of food 
after the silk is wound from the cocoon. They also eat a large caterpillar belonging 
to the same genus with the tobacco worm, and even tobacco worms themselves are 
eaten by the Pimos Indians, made into soup, or fried until crisp and brown. These 
insects are gathered by bushels. Some African tribes are said to have the same 
disgusting habit. 

Ants are used as food in various parts of the world, and j^articuhirly in Africa. 
White ants are eaten by the Hottentots, who get fat on them ; they are parched in 
iron pots over a gentle fire in the manner of roasting coffee, and in that state are 
eaten greedily, resembling in taste sugared cream. A species of yellow ant is some- 
times used as food in Brazil, and ants are even eaten in our own country by the 
Indians. They are caught by spreading a dampened skin, or fresh peeled bark over 
their hills, (which are sometimes quite large) and jus soon as covered with the 
insects, it is removed and shaken, and the ants placed in tight sacks, where they 
are confincul till dead, when they are carefully dried in the sun and packed away ; 
they are gathered in this way by the bushel. It ha*; been stated that to give flavor 

Ansnoers to Correspondents. 14$ 

to inferior brandy in some parts of Sweedeu, ants are distilled along with the rye. 
Bees are eaten in Ceylon, the natives not being content with their honey. 

The larvre and puptc of a dipterous insect called ke-chahrvie (veritable maggots,) 
are gathered in large numbers on the shores of Lake Mono, in California. When 
dried and pulverized, and mixed with acorn meal, they are either baked as bread, 
or boiled in water heated by hot stones, and made into soup. We have ourselves 
tasted some of the dried larvse and found them not quite so bad as might be imag- 
ined, reminding one of very rancid butter ; however, they might have spoiled on 
their long journey. 

Speuce tells us that lice " are eaten by the Hottentots, and natives of the West 
Coast of Africa, who, from their love of this game, which they not onlycollect 
themselves from their Avell stored ccqntal pasture, but employ their wives in the chase, 
have been sometimes called Phthirophagi." Spiders even are eaten in some locali- 
ties ; but why swell the list any larger ? Enough has already been said to show that 
insects furnish no inconsiderable amount of food for many difierent nations, and 

Reader, have you ever eaten insects ? Undoubtedly ! To put the question in a 
plainer form, have you ever eaten green peas ? There ! now, I do not intend to 
spoil your appetite for that most delicious of early vegetables, but there is no deny- 
ing the fact that the eggs of Bruckus pisi, are deposited on the outside of the tiny 
peas when the pod is first formed, and it is as certain that little brownish beetles do 
dig their way out of the mature peas early in spring. Young man, before you suck 
your julep, examine the leaves of mint, if they have not been previously examined, 
and see whether or no, any of those almost microscopic plant lice have colonized 
upon them, for such things do happen, but after all would you know it if your eyes 
didn't tell you of it ? 

Perhaps we are all, more or less, insect eaters, for insects abound in nearly every- 
thing ; and eating nearly everything, as we do, it is not at all unlikely that a stray 
chestnut or apple worm, cheese-mite, or other-such insect should be made food with 
the rest. Truly, 

"Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise." 

Answers to Correspondents. 

R. T. L., Charleston. Your box was received through the postoffice, the 

several pieces of pasteboard composing it hanging together, and that was all. We 
suppose it might have been started with insects, but it is to be presumed that they 
were "spilt out" long before reaching their destination. Pasteboard boxes make 
poor transportation cases, and, if used at all, should be firmly done up in strong 
paper, giunmed and tied, then if smashed by the postman, we at least can comfort 
ourselves with the poor remains. 

Oleander Insects. "Lady Reader." The insects clustered on the 

leaf of Oleander, sent by you, are known as scale insects (a species of coccus,) and 
destroy the life of your plant by sucking out its juices. If you will examine your 
No.3, Vol. 4. 11 ^ 

146 The Harlequin Cabbage Bug. — The Horse Epidemic and iisOiire. 

insecte closely with a magnifying gliiss, you will tiutl numbei-s of little eggs just 
licueath the edge of the scale-like coveriug ; when these hatch, the youug crawl 
around over the plant and tiually fix themselves, insert their probosces and go to 
work. A hard waxy secretion soon forms over them, and they are then fixed for 
life. The males are very minute, winged flics, which, in the first stage live in the 
same manner as the females. 

One remedy is to wash the leaves in kerosene and water, one part of each; though 
a better remedy, and one which is ased in the green-houses of the Department of 
Agriculture, is to mix carbolic acid and water, in the proportion of one and a half 
to two drachms of the former to a gallon of the latter. Where a plant is very 
badly attectcd we should recommend burning it. 

The Harlequin Cabbage Bug. 

I have just read the article in the last number of the Rural Carolinian con- 
cerning the " Harlequin Cabbage Bug," and for the lienefit of my fellow sufterers, 
I write to inform you that the Entomological Editor is mistaken in saying " the 
chickens will not eat them." A neighbor saved her garden by confining the chickens 
in it, while mine was totally destroyed because I kept the chickens out. My 
chickens have recently found the bugs in existence, and are industriously seeking 
them every day. I know the bug well, and am confident the one described, and 
the pest of my garden this summer are the same. I have found them on ray grape 
vines and strawberrias. ^Irs. P. T. HENRY. 

KiUrelU, Granville Co., N. C 

[We introduce the foregoing into Mr. Dodge's Department without having had 
an opportunity to consult him on the subject, presuming that he will be glad, in 
such a case, to find that he was laboring under a mistake, if it shall prove to be 
one; but persons not learned in " bugology" are very liable to fall into error in 
regard to the species. We trust, however, that our fair correspondent is right, and 
the chickens too. — Ed.] 

The Dairy, jpARM Stock and Poultf^y. 
The Horse Epidemic and its Cure. 

The horse disease (evidently a kind of catarrhal feverj whicli luus spread so rap- 
idly over the country within tlie paat month, is now the all-absorbing topic among 
the owners and drivers of horses. So far as we have oliserved it here, it is of a 
milder type than at the North, and in most cases yields readily to a very siujple 
treatment. In fact, the great danger, we think, lies in overdoing the medication. 
In the great majority of cases, careful nursing and strict attention to ch'an- 
lincss, ventilation and disinfection will be all that is reipiired. Use chloride of 
lime and carbolic disinfectantH. Siwugc out the nostrils frecpicntly with warm 

The State Fair and the State Society. 147 

vinegar and in severe cases steam with vinegar. " This is done by putting a hot 
brick into a feed bag, fastening it on the horse's head, and tlien pouring vinegar 
upon the brick, causing the steam to rise up into the nostrils. This causes sneez- 
ing, and rarely fails to give immediate relief" Bran ma.shes mixed with tepid 
water are good. The hay and oats should be moistened with tepid water — tar- 
water if it can be had. 

A physician Avrites to the Buffalo Courier that he feeds entirely on bran mash 
and clean oat or rye straw moistened Avith brine and gives from six to eight drachms 
of bromide of potassium, three times a day, dissolved in a bran mash, continued 
for two or three days, while the inflammation lasts. The following Ls also recom- 
mended on good authority, given as a drench, night and morning, during the first 
stages of the disease : 

Spirits of Nitric Ether 1 ounce. 

Laudanum ^ 4 drachms. 

Nitrate of Potasa 3 drachms. 

Water 1 pint. 


It is important to withdraw the animal from work, at once, on the appearance of 
the fii-st symjjtoms of the disease, which generally are a watery discharge from the 
nose, hot mouth and cold extremities. 

Patrons of Husbandry and Agricultui^l Societies. 

The State Fair and the State Society. 

The advantages of a State Fair are many and great, and we are not disposed to 
permit the fact that our Fairs are not just what they should be, to utterly discour- 
age us in regard to them. We think the true policy is rather to labor for their 
improvement — to try to purify and elevate them. To that end we shall, from time 
to time, express our opinions freely in regard to their management, and we invite 
others to do the same — not captiously, but in the sjiirit of friendly criticism. The 
object should be to help, and not to embarrass, those who have, with so much public 
spirit undertaken the unremunerative and thankless task of managing them. 

The late Fair at Columbia, though by no means a failure, was far from being 
what it should have been as an exposition of the agricultural and mechanical 
industries of the State. Of cattle, we were glad to note a very creditable show, 
but in the other sub-divisions of the Stock Department, the exhibition was meagre, 
as it was in farm produce and manufactures. Do not our people see the advanta- 
ges to themselves and the State of these annual exhibitions of the products of their 
industry and skill ? or what is the matter ? Every facility Avas offered them by the 
officers of the Society, who have labored zealously and energetically to ensure suc- 
cess. All praise to those who did their duty and brought their best to show what 
they had done, and to encourage others to try to do as well or better. They were 

148 Gravge Notes, Queries and Ii)jormatum. 

in earnest, and they prevented the Fair from heintr a faihire. If some hundreds of 
others, equally able to swell the list of exhibitors had done as well, we should have 
had a Fair to be proud of We hope they have nuide up their minds to do so next 

If the exhibitors of fat women, giants and disgusting monstrosities, and the 
nameless host of gamblers and swindlers, can not be prevented from attending fairs, 
may they not at least be excluded from the fair grounds, so that the good taste aiid 
moral sense of the respectable peo})le, who Avish to enjoy the legitimate exhibition, 
may not be offended by them at every turn ? This thing seems to us a growing and 
a crying evil, and we know, from many remarks we heard to that effect, that we 
are not alone in holding the opinion that it should be abated, if possible. 

It is not our purpose to speak of the exhibition in detail. The list of premiums 
awarded, together with the proceedings of the Society, will be published, a»s usual, 
and distributed throughout the State. 

From the eminently judicious and practical suggestions of the worthy retiring 
President of the Society, Gen. Hagood ; the admirable choice made in his successor, 
T. W. Woodward, Esq., the new feature of annual spring meetings for agricultural 
discussion, and the general healthy and progressive tone of the debates and 
resolutions of the Convention, we draw favorable auguries for the future of our 
State Society and State Fair. The next year will, we trust, atone for the short- 
comings of this. 

Grange Notes, Queries and Information. 

" A Master " asks several questions, which we are requested to answer through 
this department. We need not repeat the questions as the answers will indicate 
their nature : 

1. No, you are under no circumstances authorized to impart the * * * to the 
members of any Grange except your own, or to the IMaster of any Grange ; but 
you may, at the request of a Grange, instruct them in any other part of the work. 
If a Master has not proj)erly received, or has lost the * * * he must get it from 
the Master of the State Grange. 

2. A person who has been l)al]otted for and rejected by one Grange, cannot, if 
the fact be known, even become a candidate for admission into another. The 
exclusion from tlie Order is final, we think. 

3. A member leaving one Grange; to join anotlier, must obtain a withdrawal 
card, showiug his good standing and frecflom from indcbtcduR^s to the Grange he 
laivus, and no Grange can safely admit him without such a certific^ite. 

J. M. C, Georgia, asks how he shall proceed to cirt'ct the i)reliminary organiza- 
tion of a Subordinate Grange of Patrons of Husbandry. Write to some Deputy 
of the National Grange for a Charter Members' l>lank, and such information as 
he may think it necessary to give you, furnishing him references, so that he may 
satisfy himself of your fitness to und(!rtake the work. When the necessary nanus 
shall have been obtained, invite a Deputy to organize the Grange. 

An Experiin&it with Jute in Alabama. — Soniliern Forage Plant. 149 

It is believed that at the close of the present year there will be six hundred 
Granges of Patrons of Husbandry, with an aggregate of 80,000 members in Iowa 
one hundred Granges and 10,000 mcmbei-s in Minnesota; and one hundred 
Granges and 5,000 members in South Carolina, these States taking the lead in the 
Order, which, however, is strong also in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Mississippi. 

"We are constantly receiving inquiries in regard to the Order of Patrons of Hus-- 
bandry, from Georgia and Florida, showing the plantei-s and farmers of those 
States to be alive to the importance of organization and co-operation. 

" Deputy." It is the duty of the State Grange, through its worthy Secretary, to 
furnish its Deputies with the necessary blanks and instructions for organizing Sub- 
ordinate Granges. Formerly, this duty devolved upon the Deputies of the National 

Miscellaneous Correspondence and J^otices. 

An Experiment with Jute in Alabama. 

Editor OF The Rueal Carolinian: I received last Spring some jute seed, 
which I think has proved a complete success. The seed was sown broadcast on 
flat beds, about two feet wide, and three and a half feet apart, early in May. In 
ten days the plants came up, and continued to grow till they attained the height of 
twelve feet. Some proved seed plants, others did not. A sharp frost on the loth 
October, which killed the pea vines and slightly injured the cotton, did not effect 
the jute which somewhat resembles a plantation of young peach trees before 
being separated, and removed from the nursery. 

I had about one half of the plants then cut (the rest I allowed to remam to 
ripen their seed) and steeped in stagnant water for ten days, after which the bark 
was very readily stripped ofl' from the whole length of the stalk and hung up to 
dry. The fibre' is long and verv fine and strong. 

I cannot but feel that the cultivation of jute will prove a very valuable acquisi- 
tion to the South. I am not prepared to say how much can be made to the acre, 
as my experiment was on a small scale— but at five cents per pound, which I 
believe is its market value in its undressed state, I should think it could be 
grown very profitably. A moist soil, near water courses, I think, suits it best. Cat- 
tle are not fond of jute ; so it is quite independent of the " fence law." 

O^niohes, Ala. J. MOTTE ALSTON. 

More About the New Southern Forage Plant. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian: My communication, published in the 
October number of the Rural Carolinian, has called out some inquiries, which 
I will, with vour permission, answer in yo*ur columns : 

1st. I am' asked if the " Beggar-lice," or " Indian Clover " referred to, is the 
same that is found in the woods all over the South. In reply, I would say that 

150 Strawberries for Amateurs. — What a Floi'kla Ixubj w dohif/ iclth Gitava. 

there is no resemblance wliatever, except tliat the seeds are similar in appearance. 
Nothinjr, I believe, eats the Avild Eeirgar-lice, uhile all kinds of stock are ravenously 
fond of Indian Clover. The .seed will germinate earlier next spruig if scattered 
over the ground in the fall, though the ground need not be broken till spring, or 
it may be sown with small grain and ploughed in. It will make a tine pa.<ture 
when the grain comes off. I may have over-stated in saying that it fattens more 
rapidly than peas. It is equal, at least, and much more certain, with no trouble 
. or expense, after once being planted, except to break the ground every spring. I 
shall send a few quarts of seed to persons who desire to test it, and I hope they will 
report the result of experimeut.s to you, as I think it will prove to be invaluable to 
Southern farmers. J. Jil. STOKES. 

Model Fann, near Madmn, Florida. 

Strawberries for Aniateurs. 

Editou of the Rural Carolinian : I take pleasure in the reading of Rural 
Carolinian, and although just now I write but little, yet occasionally a thought, 
on reading, touches me so that I hasitate to let it go by. "Therefore, in your Novem- 
ber number, I find a word on Strawberries, and with it wish to advise planters to 
tnj the Ida, Lady Finger and Nicanor, in addition to your general advice of Wil- 
son. These all have strong roots, unlike the cla.«s of our foreign varietie.<5, a.s 
Triomph de Gand, Xapoleon III., Jucunda, etc. These latter, let me say how- 
ever, along with Princess Royal, (the superior of them all,) should only be "grown 
by the man who care.'' more for the beauty and perfection of his fruit than its cost 
per quart. The others, I advise, I think are equally hardy as Wilson, and will 
give satisfaction, especially to that general class of cultivators, who grow f^r them- 
selves, but not specially for market. F. R. ELLIOTT. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Nicanor is the earliest strawberry we have, and in tlie ninnbrr of berries it will 
produce, beats everything we ever planted, but with us, so far, the fruit ha.s prove<l 
very small, and lying very close to the ground has ripened imperfectly. — Ed. 

What a Florida Lady is Doing with the Guava. 

EniTOii OF Tin; Rural Cai{Olinian: As some of your readers are becoming 
interc'^ted in the culture of the " (Juava," I will give you an account of what a lady 
in an adjoining comity is doing in that line. I give it a.s I heard it from a mill- 
iliter, recently from her house, and am sorry that I cannot specify the exact proceeds 
of the croj) up to this time. 

She has twenty l)ushes; has shipped twelve bushels of fruit, for which she n^ 
ceive<l four dolhirs per bushel ; has made up alxmt one hundred tumblers of jelly, 
which l)rings her four dollars j)er dozen, wholesale, and a like (juantity of" marma- 
lade ;" and she thinks her (;rop is only about half gathered. The total amount of 
the fruit crop is estimated at forty bus'hels. 

The Guava ])lants can be set at .seven or eight feet apart, and taking the above 
yield as a criterion, who can doubt the inimense profit there is in them. \ know 
by })ersonal experience that they will Ixar in two years. J. M. AULD. 

Wckiivi, OrniKjc Co., Flu. 

Inquiries and Ansivcrs. 151 

Inquiries and Ansv/ers. 

" A New Beginner " desires to know which is the best fertilizer to use on gray- 
land, for cotton ; also, what will cure a mule of worms. 1. In regard to the best 
fertilizer, we suspect scarcely two persons in a hundred will give the same answer, 
some thinking one the best and some another. We have given, in various back 
numbers, the experience of planters in the use of commercial fertilizers and shall be 
glad to give further results of experiments carefully tried and briefly but clearly 
stated, the kind of soil being always mentioned. 2. Linseed oil, given in half pint 
doses, every morning, is a good and harmless remedy for worms in a mule or horse. 
If this quantity do not relax the bowels, it may be increased, but only enough to 
render the animal slightly more loose than usual. 

M. E. L. None of the Alpine Strawberries succeed in our climate. 

They require a degree of coolness and moisture combined, which are not attainable 
here. We have obtained a small crop from plants procured from the North and 
planted in the fall, but they alway, unless in a partially shaded spot and frequently 
watered, have all died during the summer. Lennig's White has failed to withstand 
the summer heat and drought with us, on a sandy loam, but succeeds well, we are 
told, on a clayey soil, near Augusta, Ga., and elsewhere. 

-Mr. Geo. L. Branscone, Davis Mills, Benton Co., Miss., writes that he has 

raised the red or Mexican cotton for the last three years, and finds it hardier, more 
prolific and capable of withstanding drought better than any other variety. We 
have no personal knowledge of this cotton, and, therefore, express no opinion in re- 
lation to it. Persons interested in it, or desiring seed for trial can correspond with 
Mr. Branscone. 

-S. F.' C, Bandera, Texas. Since your inquiry, made sometime last sum- 

mer, in regard to an analysis of the field pea was received, we have made diligent 
search for such an analysis, but can find none. During the coming season, we will 
endeavor to have an analysis made, as the chemical relations of that plant to the 
soil are very important. 

Mrs. C. The hybrid Perpetual, or, as the French call them, Remontante 

roses are like what are called June roses, except that they are supj^osed to flower 
contmuously. They do'not do this, but they remain longer in bloom than the others, 
and if the flowers are cut off" Jis soon as they fade, or before, they will bloom again 
in the fall and winter. 

-A. C. McK. asks : " Can you or any of your readers tell me the cause and 

remedy for what is commonly known as " salt sickness " among the cattle on the 
coast, and more particularly on the sea islands ? 

J. L. H., Milledgeville, Ga. We think Mr. W. G. Mood, Jr., corner of 

Meeting and Market streets, Charleston, could supply you with any pui-e bred 
poultry, of the most desirable breeds, that you may desire. 

152 General Notices aiul Acknowledgments. 

-We beg * * * * and others to accept our tliauks for crop report^ ; but we 

received so few that it did not seem worth while to publisli any of them, as no 
general estimate could be got at through them. In regard to ])uttiug ashes in the 
cow lot, we sliould not do it. Better keep them seperate, under cover, or compost 
with muck. 

General Notices and Acknowledgments. 

B. K. Bliss & Son, No. 23 Park Place, New York, have laid us under obliga- 
tions by a very acceptable and seasonable assortment of seeds and roots which will 
furnish us with pleasant reminders of their generous remembrance every time we 
visit our garden during the season. The standing of this old and well-known firm 
needs no endorsement from us. Its reputation is not of to-day merely, but hivs 
been built up by many long years of energetic asid enterprising business efibrt and 
uniform fair and liberal dealing. 

Briggs & Bro., Rochester, N. Y., are gentlemen who never allow themselves to be 
outdone by anybody in their line, and, luiving been to Europe and brought home 
an immense collection of Dutch Bulbs and other florists' stock, they don't forget the 
poor Editors, who, as they know, have no money to spend for such things, much as 
they desire to have them. The packages they have sent us are very thankfully 
received, but they make us wish we could send them a cash order for twice as many, 
aa we trust our luore fortunate readers are able to do. 

Our valued contributors have been unusually generous during the past month 
and many of their favors are necessarily reserved for future numbers. Among 
these are, " A Practical Essay on Plantation Economy," by Col. D. AVyatt Aiken ; 
" The Guava," by E. H. Hart, of Florida ; " Labor Contracts," by " Hill-Side ;" 
and " Guano and other Ammouiacal jNIauurcs on White Lands," by Prof E. W. 
Ililgard, of the University of Mississippi. 

We formerly received from the good city of New Orleans a handsome, well con- 
ducted and valuable weekly paper called the Rural Sonth-Land, but as we have not 
seen it for several mouths ; we conclude tluit it has either suspended, or become so 
prosperous, and so puffed up by its prosperity, that it no longer deigns to exchange 
with a poor monthly like the Rural Carolinian. Which is it, friend Russell ? 

About the 10th of November our friend, Robert Chisolm, of Chisolm's Island, 
S. C, sent us a box of fine tonuitoes just gathered from his garden. Do we pro- 
])erly appreciate a cliuuite in which such a tender vegetable can grow and perfect 
its fruit at this season, and sometimes even till near Christmas ? Thanks for the 
kind remembrance. We have saved seed from some of tiie best specimens. 

AVe are indebted to Prof S. 11. Buckley for seeds of native trees and plants of 
Texas, and among the rest of the Mexican persinunon, whicii we have been anx- 
ious to try here. 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


Literature, Science and Wome Interests. 


Branwell had left the ladies in the parlor, 
and had wandered out, not going near the 
falls, but hearing that tremendous monotone, 
which he almost thought to be the grand dia- 
pason of all the music of the world. His 
heart was tilled and soothed, and he felt some- 
thing like vexation at the intrusion when a 
hand was laid upon his arm. He turned 
quickly, and his lips parted in an exclamation 
of surprise wlieu he recognized his old 
secretary, Morton — somewhat embrowned by 
travel, but still the same, free, careless; debo- 
nair, with perhaps not too much of strong 
principle in him. 

He grasped his quondam employer's hand 
with the close pressure of astonishment and 

" I shall bless the fates that sent me here," 
he said, "though I came reluctantly enough." 

"What is it, a business trip?" asked Bran- 
well, forgiving the interruption for the sake 
of an hour's chat Avith the secretary. " And 
what are you doing now?" 

"Oh, I have subsided into a travelling agent 
for a manufacturing company in New York. 
I came back quite penniless from my Eastern 
travels, and was obliged to go to work in good 
earnest. It's a devilish bore to be a poor 

"Can I help you any ?" asked Branwell. 

"Thank you, no; I am tolerably well pro- 
vided for at present. I only hope the stars 
hold a fortune in store for me." 

Thus strolling about the hotel grounds, the 
two men talked of manj' things, cursorily, 
with a passing interest in each. 

Leaning against the pillar of the piazza, 
with a bright moon shining full upon the face 
of his companion, who stood opposite to him, 
Morton suddenly said with his flippant pleas- 
antness of manner : 

" Apparently the world has been good to 
you, Branwell. Your face bears the years 
very well : that mysterious marriage hasn't 
haunted you very severely, I fancy. Have 
you ever made the acquaintance of the bride ?" 

" Never," was the cold response. 

" What !" cried Morton with vivacity. 
"Then my prophecy is not yet fulfilled ; for I 
believe I predicted that some hapjjy day you 
would chance to see her and fall in love with 

" And I predicted that I should not," said 

" Well, it was one of the most absurd affairs 
I ever heard of." continued Morton, throwing 
away a cigar and preparing to light another 

No. 3, Vol. 4. 

" I am sorry you still continue so sensitive 
about it. What is the harm in your trying 
to see the girl, and become acquainted with 
her ?" And Morton divided his conversation 
between his companion and the wreaths of 
smoke he was puffing. 

" You forget," said Branwell, " that I re- 
ceived a letter from her in which sucii a thing 
is forbidden. It would not be easy to trans- 
gress the desire she then expressed, even if I 
wished to do so, which I do not." 

" Pshaw ! nothing in the world but woman's 
nonsense," said Morton with manly scorn. 
" I'd bet a fortune, if I had it, that she had 
repented writing that miserable letter. Its 
source could only have been a whim at the 

" Do you think so?" musingly asked Bran- 
well, thinking of Miss Lorillard. 

" Where is your wife?" asked Morton. 

Branwell started at that word — it had never 
been said to him before. 

" I don't know. You know the circumstan- 
ces too well to ask that, Morton." 

Morton laughed with a laugh that grated 
upon his companion's ears. " You are a gal- 
lant fellow," he said. " So, if you wanted to 
communicate with your wife, you'd be obliged 
to resort to the detective force for aid." 

Branwell did not reply; his speculations 
were very bitter. He did not like the con- 
versation, but he was not surprised at the way 
Morton viewed his course. 

" Morton," he said suddenly, " you saw 
her; how does she look — do you remember ?" 

" Yes, I remember very well indeed," was 
the emphatic reply. " A man is not apt to 
forget the handsomest woman he ever saw. I 
tell you, Branwell, I never pitied you for be- 
ing blind so much as I did when you stood 
there so stolidly with that woman's hand in 

In spite of himself, Sranwell could not help 
averting his eyes as a powerful and mingled 
emotion swept over him. In a moment he said : 

" But that isn't describing her to me." 

" I can't describe her, only in a general 
way ; she gave me an idea of extreme beauty, 
without my having the power at that time to 
tell just what her features were. But I remem- 
ber very distinctly that she was tall and grace- 
ful ; that she was light, and had an abundance 
of beautiful hair, and curious-colored eyes 
that almost seemed yellow — very much like 
her hair — an unusual color, I thought. She 
aflected me even in that short time as being 
cultured in the highest degree — every inch a 
lady — a Howard de Howard in ^hort ;" and 
Morton puffed away enthusiastically upon his 



The Rural Carolinian. 

Branwell'fi hand, thrust into the pocket of 
his sacque, clenched in a mute defiance of the 
fate thrust ui)on him. He stood with eyes 
fixed absently upon space, thinking that here 
was a witness even more powerful than the 
silent ones he had found in his uncle's desk. 

" Apparently the fact that you are the 
husband of this beautiful woman does not 
exhilarate you," remarked Morton, gazing 
upon Branwell with astonishment. 

Branwell smiled coldly, as he said : 

"** Her beauty is nothing to me. It appears, 
Morton, that you have a most superficial view 
of the To be frank with you, I must 
say I don't care to receive any of the congrat- 
ulations one offers to a bridegroom. Hereafter 
you will remember that I have n<j wife — save 
a legal claimant of my name and inheritor of 
my property." 

" A nice iittle situation for one who wished 
to play the devil generally," said Morton with 
a satirical laugh. 

Branwell scanned the face turned carelessly 
away. The moonlight does not reveal plainly 
the finer character-marks upon a countenance, 
but Branwell .saw what he thought were signs I 
of more reckless, dissipated living than when 
he had known him. 

" If you will forgive a friend's remark, 
Morton," Branwell said, " I should say your 
travels had not improved your morals. I 
always thought you had the elements of a 
kind of dare-devil in you, and I am sorry to 
say they appear to have developed." 

Morton blushed behind his cigar. 

"So you detect the hoof and horns, do you?" 
he asked; then deprecatorily : "But I'm not 
such a bad fellow after all. In proof of which, 
I am very glad to have found you here, and 
shall take advantage of that excuse to remain 
aa long a-s possible. Are you here alone?" 

" No, I am the escort in general of an aunt, 
two cousins, and a lady friend of theirs. Will 
you go in and finish your smoke in my 
room ?" 

"I believe not; I am tired and shall go 
directly to bed. I hiipe in the morning you 
will honor me with a j^-sentation to your fair 
charges. Good night." 

The two Hcparatetl in the hall, and Morton 
went up stairs ; but Branwell returned to tiie 
piazza and lingered latest uf all the loung- 

In the morning, at breakfast, Branwell 
watched the door for Morton's entrance, curi- 
ous beyond words as to his ai)pearance wiien 
he should see the lady whom he had described 
the night before. But, an is often tiie case 
wlien one watches, the looked-for (;ne did not 

" Mr. Branwell, are you looking for a 
friend?" asked >Iiss Lorillard after one of 
his glances «t the di)or. 

"1 met an old a<()uaintance niglit, and 
I've been betrayed into turning round to look 

for him every time one has entered," he an- 

He could not tell why, but he looked fully 
and sus]iiciously at his companion as he 
.spoke. She met his glance with limpid eyes, 
making some commonplace remark as she 
did so. 

After breakfast the ladies were in the par- 
lor laying plans for the day. Branwell 
lounged round, expecting the appearance of 

At last Morton emerged from the breakfast 
room, looked round, saw Branwell, and ap- 

" I was expecting you," said Branwell, "for 
I wanted to present you to the ladies before 
we went out, and invite you to accompany 

" Yes, I am impatient for that honor," said 
Morton, fingering his watch ciiain nervously, 
" but I am afraid I shall not be able to go out 
with you, as I have business this morning." 

"Never mind, then. But you were a gal- 
lant fellow of old," responded Branwell, "and 
I know you want to see the ladies." 

The two entered the parlor, where were 
half a dozen ladies reading and talking. 
Though Branwell was conscious of the 
presence of all, yet he saw only Morton and 
Miss Lorillard. The latter was standing by a 
window, and did not turn as the gentlemen 
came forward. Branwell saw Morton glance 
around the room, then his eyes fastened upon 
Miss Lorilhird, whose figure was clearly 
defined against the window, and his face lost 
its look of carelessness and became startled 
and earnest ; he even made that involuntary 
cessation of all movement which is .so natural 
to surprise. It was evident that he felt Bran- 
well's eyes upon him, and it was probably for 
that reason that he appeared slightly con- 
strained, as an actor will sometimes appear. 

Mrs. Richmond met them near the door, 
and after a few words with her, tiiey advanced 
to Miss Loriilard's side, who, knowing that 
there were people in the room, did not notice 
their approach. 

Branwell touched her arm, .saying: "Par- / 

don me for interrui)ting a revery, but liere is / 
a friend of mine who wishes to know you." 

Miss Lorillard turned with a rpiiokness of 
motion unusual to her. Was it the al)ruplness 
of BranwcH's address that gave that look of 
something reseml)rmg dread and fear to her 
face? But it had left it instantly, and Bran- 
well did not see it, for his eyes were fastened 
upon Morton while he presented him to the 

Morton's face crimsoned ns he met this 
lady face to face, and lie l)owed in such con- 
fusion that Branwell half pitied him; then he 
looked at Branwell as if hesoechiiig to know 
how she came here, and if Barnwell knew who 
she was. But iJranwell's face Wiis impene- 
trable, save that it was vigilantly watchful. 

Literature, Science and Himie Interests. 


That expression seemed to restore Morton to 
his self-possession, and in a moment he was 
gay and nonchalant again. 

As for Miss Lorillard, she greeted him 
cordially, as it became her to a friend of Bran- 
well's and suavely and graciously as it became 

Branwell lingered near, joining in the con- 
versation, betraying nothing of the conflict 
within liim. It was arranged that they should 
go down to the falls that morning. Morton 
could not go, and when Branwell saw him 
alone for a few moments after they left the 
parlor, neither said anything concerning the 
lady, and it was plain Morton had decided 
not to mention her, and Branwell tacitly 
acquiesced in that silence. 

It is not pleasant to visit some glorious 
shrine of nature with superficial souls like 
those embodied in the aunt and cousins Bran- 
well was obliged to escort, and he took refuge 
from their exclamations as they stood by that 
eternal wonder of water, by turning to Miss 
Lorillard, assured that her tact, if not her feel- 
ing, would never allow one ill-timed word to 
be uttered in such a place. 

He stood silently by her side while the 
garrulous ladies wandered along the banks, 
venting their admiration by interjections, 
which rasped upon his sensitive love for this 

" Miss Lorillard," he said at last, turning 
toward her where she stood leaning against a 
tree, a slight wind lifting the hair from her 
temples, her eyes fixed, with the languor that 
was now perceptible in them when she was 
quiet, upon the opposite shore, leaping by 
their glances beyond this scene into some 
imaginary world— a world inspired by the 
sound in her ears and the consciousness of 
where she stood; for whatever of principle 
she lacked, she had within her the fine appre- 
ciation of beauty which leads one to look 
for the sense of right which ought to under- 
lie it. 

Her eyes brightened as she turned to Bran- 
well, and listened to what he should say. He 
saw that awakening lustre and felt that it was 

" I am going to propose that we go down 
into the Cave of the Winds," he said. " Will 
you accompany me ?" 

"Yes," was the unhesitating reply. 
"But I warn you that the descent has an air 
of peril, if not its reality ; that as a general 
thing ladies consider it proper to decline." 

" I should like to go," she said ; "I am not 

Branwell went forward and invited the 
other ladies to accompany him, but received a 
horrified refusal. 

Half an hour after, clad in that grotesque 
costume of rubber, they were slowly descend- 
ing the path behind their guide. All the pal- 
lor had fled from Miss Lorillard's face; it 

glowed with bright color, and her eyes shown 
in prospect of this slight excitement. Bran- 
well could not but notice, as he took lier hand, 
how thin it had grown ; and the thought made 
him pause and say : 

" This is thoughtless in me. This journey 
is for your health, and I am taking you where 
your nerves will be strung to an unnatural 

There was almost tender concern in his 
voice, and the tone made her eyes melt as she 
heard it. 

It was true there was something in this man 
that affected her as she had never been 
moved before. " Do I love him ?" she asked 
herself with a smile of amazement and self- 

" You need not be anxious," she replied ; 
"my nerves are made of strong stuff. It is 
not quiet, it is excitement that I need. I am 
dying of quiet." She spoke the last hastily 
and with emphasis, as if she were speaking to 
herself ; then breaking into a smile as she saw 
his look of surprised anxiety, she said : " It 
is you who are to blame ; you have taken a 
freak to call me an invalid, and I am becom- 
ing irritable like one." 

Branwell felt the spontaneous naturalness 
of her words ; for the first time he fancied 
that he noticed almost a haggard look around 
her eyes. With a solicitous smile that made 
his face very attractive, he drew nearer her, 
yielding to an unusual feeling. He bent his 
head and kissed the fingers he held— kissed 
them with a long pressure that made her 
blush, and she was not an unsophisticated girl 
to blush at a gallant touch. 

Then he led her on, and they reached the 
rocks of the way, over which Miss Loril- 
lard sprang, eager to reach that cave of sub- 

The rush, the swift, deep, sound, as they 
neared the entrance, did not disconcert her. 
And when they reached the sheet of water, 
and plunged through a portion of it, she felt 
Branwell's arm about her, though she felt 
strong of nerve enough to have pushed 
through that perilous place unaided. 

Once past that strange portal, and they 
stood within the lofty cavern, mute, motion- 
less. The thunder of "the place, the intensity 
of the rush, for the first instant deprived them 
of all thought, leaving only the mere fact of 
existence. They stood with faces turned 
toward the sheet of water which poured over 
the entrance a curtain of everlasting glory, 
misty, with a faint translucence that gave to 
the cavern a soft light, revealing its dark 
walls, its mighty arch of roof. The deep, the 
unspeakable sound seemed not merely to hear 
but to be filled with, and to have changed 
their existence to one in which the never 
ceasing roar was a condition of being. The 
warm summer land above was far away — that 
was a dream of pre-existence ; and this cool 


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place of mist and sound, of grandeur and 
novelty unutterable — this was real, so real 
that whatever an after life might be, this 
could never be effaced, never grow dim. 

For a time thev stood without thinking of 
moving; then, with a deep breath, ^liss Loril- 
lard raised her hands to her face, held them 
there a moment, and turned back into the 
cavern with an awe that could hardly be called 

A few yards behind her she dimly discerned 
two more figures ; they had then been pre- 
ceded by others. She made a step backward, 
resolutely battling with the furious, rushing 
air that had been striving to take her breath. 
Branwell did not notice her movement ; the 
guide wa,s gesticulating concerning some- 

In that one step Miss Lorillard had gained 
a glimpse, though indistinct, of the figure of 
the woman who was standing with her guide 
but a pace or two away. 

With an exclamation which, though smoth- 
ered as it instantaneously was by the winds, 
.still reached Branwell, Miss Lorillard pressed 
her hands together and almost fell to the rocky 
floor. But she fell into the arms of Branwell, 
who supported her for a moment, believing 
that his fears were true — that she w:is too 
nearly ill to have come here. Her triumphant 
resolution restored her to strength, or the 
semblance of it, and their guide, with a ges- 
ture of authority, threw his arms about her 
and went toward the entrance, leaving Bran- 
well to follow as he best could. Pushing for- 
ward perhaps too carelessly that he might be 
near Miss Lorillard, just at the entrance, 
where that column of water falls, he slipped, 
and would have fallen into some abyss of 
seething horror had not a hand, firm as soft, 
seized and held him until ne could steady 
himself, lie tliought there was .something 
divine in the touch of that hand, for he had 
not known any one else was in the cave. 
Staggering, he yet turned his head partially, 
an<i, desjiite his wrappings, he dimly saw a 
filiglit figure close to him supported by a 
guide. Then all three pushed on and reached 
at last the outside. 

It seemed to Branwell that he had been 
there hours, but it was only a few moments. 

Follf)wing the unknown and her guide, 
"Branwell readied the jiath upon the land that 
led through the greenery. Fj) the path he 
saw Miss Lorillard sitting awaiting him, but 
he turned back, curioUH to see tiie woman who 
had aided him. Slic was very near to him, 
but he could see but little of her face, and that 
di-sguised by iier uncouth garments. 

"Though tlie aid you gave me was slight in 
itself," lie said, extending liis ham! and toueii- 
ing iier arm, "yet it saved my life, and my 
gratitude is sucii that I plead for the jirivilege 
of knowing you. I thank you with the emo- 
tion of a heart whose danger is yet near." 

" You are then in love with life," she said ; 
" in that I am glad my hand was ready." 

" If I cannot see her face, I can at least re- 
member her voice," he thought. 

He could not speak to her again, and he 
was vexed that he should have .said but the 
veriest common places. Miss Lorillard was 
awaiting his return, seated on Qne of the 
benches by the path. Her guide stood near 
her, and was pouring forth a voluble descrip- 
tion of some part of the scenery, but she did 
not hear a word. Her eyes were fixed with a 
strain upon the figures of the lady and her 
guide, who were preceding Branwell up the 
path. The ungainly dress in which all were 
enveloped was a disguise, and yet Miss Lo- 
rillard's nerves had become so unreliable, 
from illness and excitement, that in this place 
they were constantly on the alert. The un- 
known lady stopped, panting to recover breath. 
She bent and picked a spray from the vine of 
an everlasting pea that hung drooping over 
the path. When she rose again she unloosened 
the hood that confided her head and threw it 
back, and the flickering shade and sunlight 
fell upon her uncovered face. Thus she ad- 
vanced along the way and passed by Miss Lo- 
rillard, who sat utterly white upon her rest- 
ing-place : it seemed as if she almost shrank 
as the girl passed, her dress just touching 
hers. As for the latter, she glanced casually 
at the lady sitting there, then glanced again 
with a quicker look of admiration, for Miss 
Lorillard too had thrown back her head-cov- 
ering to give to her trembling lips all the air 
they could get. 

It seemed nothing ; it was all in a moment ; 
and yet Miss Lorillard, half invalid as she 
Vi'Oii, leaned back, hurriedly breathing, her 
very lips whitening. Branwell csime up in- 
stantly, in time to see the lady turning out 
of sight round the corner of the path. He 
had a rapid glimpse of dark hair, a dark face 
bent somewhat to the blossom she held in her 
hand, and she was out of sight. 

lie turned to Miss Lorillard and uttered an 
exclamation of alarm as he saw her snowy 
face, the strange look of her eyes, which were 
fixed on him with an expression he could not 

" I cannot forgive myself," he cried, sitting 
down by her, taking her cold hand in his. 
" It was I who urged you to this, and now you 
look as if all strength had left you." 

The unhnpiiy woman struggled for the com- 

[losure which she could not remember ever 
laving so lost until at this time of all others, 
when she was so cursed witli physical weak- 
ness. At last, looking up in his face with a 
smile, she said: 

" It is not vour fault, Mr. Branwell. It is 
my own that \ did not think of llii' reaction. 
But I do not regret it. It is worth shortening 
a lifetime to liave stood within that cave. 
Shall we go on now ?" 

lAtei'ature, Science and Home Interests. 


At supper Miss Lovillard did not appear 
until late, but Branwell escorted his aunt in 
and sat down beside her. Perhaps he prided 
himself a little upon his ancestry on the side 
of the Branwells ; any way, he was a trifle 
annoyed by the plebian volubility of this 
aunt, who had none of the Branwell grandeur 
about licr, being no Branwell, but a half sister 
of his mother's, and her long residence in a 
distant part of the country had assisted her in 
forgetting many of the customs of the best 
society — supposing she had ever moved in it. 

Branwell listened deferentially to her sub- 
dued rattle of conversation, not visibly vexed 
until in an inadvertently loud voice she said: 

" There is but one stranger at the table to- 
night. Do you see her, William — that dark 
girl near the fat gentleman ?" 

That the girl heard he could not but think, 
for she gave a furtive glance and a half smile 
up thatTvay, then looked down again. Bran- 
well did not know his look was so marked — 
his surprise and indignation j^revented that. 
He saw it was the same girl he had met in 
the Cave of the Winds, and that fact made 
him scan ner with a vivid interest. He did 
not know what he had expected, but he fan- 
cied he was a little disappointed. He saw a 
very dark face, yet not a Southern one ; dark- 
est hair without being black ; a forehead wider 
and fuller than is the received standard for 
woman ; horizontal brows ; eyes which he 
could not see, save that they were fringed 
with darkness ; a passable nose ; lips that 
lacked the full redness of Miss Lorillard's, 
but that were thinner and of that deeper 
crimson of a brunette, and that had a sweet- 
ness and a pride, the latter enhanced by the 
firm cutting of the chin. 

She sat quietly waiting to be served. In 
the hasty look she had sent towards Mrs. 
Richmond, she had not noticed Branwell, who 
had leaned far back in his chair; but now, 
probably feeling the gaze upon her, she looked 
up suddenly, seeing him for the first time. A 
painful crimson — and it did not seem that of 
confusion or resentment, but of superlative 
astonishment — covered her face, even to her 
brow ; then it subsided, leaving her white, but 
very quiet, with no other sign of emotion. 
Branwell' s gaze was withdrawn the moment 
slie had looked up, but he had seen that blush, 
and wondered at it. Just then Miss Lorillard 
swept into the room, her toilet irreproacha- 
ble, a forced animation in her face, a lustre in 
her eyes. Branwell thought as he watched 

" Who would not envy me the right of say- 
ing of this woman, she is my wife '/" 

She came to the empty chair at Branwell's 
right ; with one hand on the chair, she glanced 
casually down the table until her eyes rested 
upon the dark girl whose large brown eyes 
were now raised and looking full at her. The 
servant waiting respectfully until the lady 

should please to be seated, thought she was 
faint, and instinctively reached her a glass of 
water. She sat down and raised the water to 
her lips, her heart whispering : 

"The fates are against me ; I can no longer 
trust to my self-possession, and satan himself 
wills it that I love this man." 

Then she exchanged a few words with Mrs. 
Richmond, no frown ruffling her brow, her 
lips smiling, tliough a sharp physical pain, 
like a knife-blade, seemed stabbing her side 
through and through. 

" You do not eat anything," said Branwell 
at last ; I shall soon consider that travel was 
precisely the thing you did not need." 

Miss Lorillard, to Avliom the act of swallow- 
ing had been almost beyond accomplishment, 
was glad of the opportunity of laying down 
her knife and fork, and saying : 

" In truth I am not hungry. Will you fill 
me a glass of wine ?" 

Holding the glass in her hand, Miss Loril- 
lard smiled down into it, saying, as she saw 
the girl opposite rise : 

" I have noticed a new face to-night, and 
but one, for a wonder— the girl just leaving 
the room? Who is she? do you know?" 

Miss Lorillard sipped her wine slowly as 
she listened, but she saw him watching the 
girl as she left the room. She was almost as 
tall as Miss Lorillard, and her figure was as 
graceful, but with as diflerent a grace as were 
their faces. 

"That young lady must be remarkable," 
replied Branwell. " My aunt instantly spoke 
of her, and now you ask who she is. I am 
sorry that I don't know. I only know that 
by a touch of fate she saved my life in the 
Cave of the Winds. I was going blunderingly 
over the edge of the rocks." * 

"She saved your life!" exclaimed Miss 
Lorillard, more moved by that announcement 
than he had expected. " And what do you 
mean by a touch of fate ?" she resumed more 
indifi'erently. " Is she endowed with some 
magical jsower, and did she touch you with 
her wand ? She was in the cave when we 
were there?" 

" Yes. To translate, she grasped my hand 
just as I was ready to fall, in consequence of 
an ignorant step, and saved me." 

" She must be a very muscular young lady," 
said Miss Lorillard. 

" She was supported by her guide." 

" Well, Mr. Branwell, do you know you 
have given me a very fine nucleus for a ro- 
mance ?" 

" I am aware of that. Your jihrase reminds 
me of the time when you used almost the same 
words to me, a long time ago, when I thought 
a few days would part us forever." 

She looked inquiringly, and he said : 

" It was on the steamer when I had told you 
of that strange case of a man who married a 
woman he had never seen." 


The Rural Carolinian. 

It was said with such apparent unconscious- 
ness that Miss Lorillard I'elt tlie blow dumbly ; 
wondering blindly wliat this man could mean. 

She bent her head to taste the wine again, 

" You have a remarkable memory. You 
cannot flatter me by saying you treasure all 
my sentences like that." 

Miss Lorillard escaped to her room as soon 
as possible. She took from the trunk a case con- 
taining a row of small vials ; from one she 
turned a few tiny pills, which she swallowed 
with a smile upon her lips that had already 
forgotten their wine and grown pale. 

" These never fail me," she said, putting the 
vial back, and looking in the glass with a bitter 
contraction of her brows, as she saw the ])allor 
of her face, a pallor that assailed even the 

" Is Heaven sending me this strange illness?" 
she exclaimed, " or is it a pastime of hell 
itself? What demon laughs when I stammer 
and change color — I, whose coolness ha^ been 
a marvel even to myself?" 

The next day, at night, she was walking 
down to the falls with Branwell, who remark- 
ed that he had been mistaken in his idea that 
travel was not good for her. She seemed al- 
most to have recovered her health, for her 
face was brilliant with transparent carmine 
and white, her eyes were luminous and clear. 

From a turn in the path a figure emerged, 
and met them in the way, walking rapidly 
toward the hotel. It was the girl whom they 
had met at supper the night before. 

Branwell turned to look after her, and Miss 
Lorillard said : " You have doubtless discov- 
ered the name of your preserver?" 

"No; have you been more fortunate?" 

" Y'^es, thanks to the indomitableness of a 
woman's curiosity. She is a Miss Eytinge 
from Georgia. I fancied she was Southern, 
from her face." 

"But I did not," said he. "Is she here 
alone ?" 

" Apparently. But my researches did not 
go beyond my inquiries of a lady whom I 
know slightly. After my (juestion she volun- 
teered the information that Miss Eytinge is 
quite attached to the place, and spends a por- 
tion of her summers here nearly every year. 
A devotee of the Falls." 

When they returned to the hotel, tiiey saw 
this girl upon the piazza talking animatedly 
with a group of ladies and gentKinen, and 
Branwell, as he looked, hardly recognizccl it as 
the same face he bad seen in repose at the ho- 
tel table. Fla*<hing, radiant, her whole face 
was illuminated by her eyes, by the play 
of lips; and the two new-comers heard her 
voice, a V(»ice whi(;h it is imi)ossible to de- 
scribe, for there seemed both a woman's and 
a child's scjid in it — pure and soft, with a ca- 
dence like that in a gleeful child's tone, but 
with something running through it, a fibre of 

the intensest pride of womanhood — a sugges- 
tion of the possibility of the finest and proudest 
ring ; and withal a voice as utterly natural as 
if she was ])ut live years old. 
■ Miss Lorillard listened for a moment, her 
face masked in polite interest. When the girl 
had fuushed her recital of the incident she was 
relating, Branwell said: 

" Are you a judge of character, Miss Loril- 
lard ? Read me that lady's face." 

" I should find nothing there but truth and 
honor — perhaps an unusual richness of na- 
ture," was the reply — Miss Lorillard well 
knowing that truth was her best policy. 

With a pang of absolute pain she saw the 
glow upc^n her companion's face, and knew 
that she had but uttered his own thoughts. 

The group near them separated, and Miss 
Lorillard entered the house and went up to 
her chamber, feeling an impression that at this 
moment, notwithstanding all her wishes and 
all her power, the man whom she loved thought 
of this girl with an attraction stronger than 
she could ever make him feel. It was true, 
Branwell lingered in the room as only people 
in a hotel can linger — listlessly, with no appa- 
rent object. He was resolved upon knowing 
this girl whom ^liss Lorillard had called Miss 
Eytinge, whose touch he remembered so well. 
At last he saw that one by one the people who 
surrounded her had sauntered away ; she stood 
with one arm round a vine-wreathed pillar of 
the portico, her fingers hidden by the leaves, 
which drooped over her face also, as she look- 
ed outward upon the moonlit night, with an 
outlook which was faintly a remembrance of 
other scenes ; while penetrating everything of 
house or grounds, was the roar of the Falls. 

Branwell was l)Ut a few paces from her; as 
he looked, a strange, a powerful warinili pentv 
trated his heart, an absolute longing to know 
her. He would have given .some part of his 
life to have held her hand clasped in his; 
and this feeling was so strong, so vivid, that 
he never thought of it as being strange or un- 

] le advanced to her side ; she turned her 
eyes ujion him without changing her position, 
and their glances met with that unfaltering, 
proftjund look with which those of soul kin- 
ship recognize each other. Her eyes were the 
first to fall, and as they did so, a l)ale, beauti- 
ful blush colored her face, which that moon- 
light was bathing in loveliness. 

Without thought of embarrassment, Bran- 
well drew nearer and held out his hand, sjiying: 

"(rive me leave to present myself as one 
who owes such gratitude that he waives cere- 
mony ; for I cannot, unconventional as is the 
fact, feel a stranger to you." 

Every accent conveyed to the listening girl 
a conviction of his sincerity. She i)laced her 
hand in his, l)Ut she did not immediately speak. 
The touch of that hand to him, the sense of 
holding it for one fleeting instant in his own, 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


palm to palm, softly and warmly, thrilled 
tlirough Ills heart with a power that notliing 
had ever made him loel before. His gray 
eyes poured light upon her— the light of an 
indestructible interest, an endless good-will. 
Eranwell felt a relief which he did not at first 
acknowledge for what it was — the reaction 
from tlie society of Miss Lorillard, which had 
held him in fetters forged by art. Here he 
felt the untrammelled sense of nature, exqui- 
site, refined to the last degree, but as truly na- 
ture as the rose that blooms double and glow- 
ing in the garden is verily as much a rose as 
the paler sister that blooms by the dusty road. 
He did not think of suspecting the genuineness 
of the girl whose hand he had just touched, 
any more than he would have questioned the 
purity of a lily. For the time, as he stood with 
her, lie entirely forgot the existence of Miss 

" Our meeting was in so strange a place that 
we might easily be justified in becoming ac- 
quainted without the aid of conventional 
u.sages," she said, in assent to his words. 

" Then I may consider that we are legiti- 
mately acquainted, so that I shall have no 
fears of being passed by unrecognized in the 

" You shall have no fears," she replied. 
" It is then a compact ?" 
" It is a compact," was the answer. 
Just then two ladies rustled along the piazza 
and out on to the path that led across the lawn. 
They were Miss Lorillard and Mrs. Eichmond. 
The eyes of the former, though she was evi- 
dently giving all her attention to her com- 
panion, saw the two standing by the pillar, 
saw the something indescribable in Branwell's 
manner which told the attraction he felt. 

The glance of his companion followed the 
two ladies until they were out of sight, then 
she turned to the gentleman and said : 

" There seems something familiar to me 
about that beautiful lady — something, it seems 
to me, more in the peculiar grace of her man- 
ner than in her face. I must have dreamed 
of her, or beheld her in that life which we 
fancy we have lived before." 

Branwell's face showed that the current of 
his emotions had been turned to some gloomy 
channel ; the bright light had gone out, and 
the girl looked in surprise at him. 
" Who is she ?" she asked. 
" She is Miss Lorillard," he said, and notic- 
ed that she started perceptibly as he replied. 
"Miss Lorillard? Where is her home?" 
" In Massachusetts, I believe. Is it possible 
that you have met her?" he asked rapidly. 

" Xo, oh no ; it was a dream. But she is a 
countryAvoman of mine." 

He looked up in unmitigated astonishment. 
"A countrywoman? But I thought you 
were Southern — a Georgian." 

" That must be the fault of my complex- 
ion," she replied smiling. 

' Ere Miss Lorillard returned from her walk 
with Mrs. Kichmond, Bran well had left his 
new acquaintance, and Miss Lorillard saw her 
reading in the parlor as she passed by the 
door. Mrs. Richmond went on up stairs, but 
Miss Lorillard stopped involuntarily at the 
door and looked in at the room entirely de- 
serted, save for the girl, who leaned back in 
an easy-chair, her eyes upon the book she 
held. Lightning gleamed in Miss Lorillard's 
gaze— a scathing, lurid look that might have 
blasted her on whom it was directed. 

"One swift shot of a pistol held in my 
hand," she thought. " Now I could do it ; 
not a nerve would tremble; but I never, 
never shall. If hate could kill ! He has 
seen her, he will love her. What a rival I 
have !" 

Miss Lorillard stood as if fascinated. Sud- 
denly the girl raised her eyes and encountered 
that look. It sent a shudder through her ; but 
the look, before she had hardly seen it, glanced 
off, and wandered round the room as if in 
search of some one ; then Miss Lorillard gli- 
ded up stairs. 

The girl dropped her book, rose and walk- 
ed to the door, looking up to see again that 
face so evil in its beauty; but it had gone, 
and she commenced walking up and down the 
room with a slow pace, each step seeming a 
thoughtof Miss Lorillard — a wonder in what 
way their lives could clash — a fear, and then 
a proud self-reliance. The girl's thought's 
wandered back to all the days of her past 
life — days which her own superabundant vi- 
tality had filled with freshness and happiness, 
though the incidents were few. It was Miss 
Lorillard who had sent her thoughts back- 
ward, filling her mind with a wonder, an un- 
satisfied curiosity, for which she could find 
no reason. 

The next day, and the days that followed, 
revealed to this girl that Miss" Lorillard loved 
Branwell — revealed it with a clearness that 
was undoubted, in spite of the suave conceal- 
ment that was a part of Miss Lorillard's 
nature. And those days showed also to Miss 
Lorillard that Branwell, whose manner had 
almost promised a tenderness to her before he 
had seen this stranger, was under an influence 
before which her powers were powerless; that 
he was drawn unwittingly to the side of the 
girl ; that he listened to her voice as he had 
never even in his most infatuated moments 
listened to the woman who would have sold 
her soul to charm him ; and more than all, 
Miss Lorillard knew that he did not know his 
own heart, for his feelings had not recalled to 
him the tie that bound him. 

She had studied well the character of this 
girl who suddenly appeared ; she knew the 
pride that had hitherto controlled her life, 
and she knew also that no emotion of tender- 
ness had previously risen to be battled with — 
never yet at least. With death in her heart 


The Rural Carolinian. 

Miss Lorillard cursed the mischance that had 
brought about this meeting just as success 
seemed for tlie first time faintly dawning upon 
her. Now slie had a double force to fight — 
his indiflerence to her and his growing inter- 
est in the stranger. But with a perseverance, 
an energy that well might promise success, she 
was prepared to forge the last link in that 
cliain she hud been weaving ; and doubly 
strong should that chain be, for she loved 
Branwell with a strength that sometimes 
comes to those false and hollow in every other 

"How happily the days of Thalaba went 
by." Life for Eranwell had waited until now ; 
now its fruit had ripened. High in the pur- 
ple heavens hung the censer of love, and its 
perfume filled the air. The hour of dearest 
romance, of profoundest feeling had dawned 
for him, and blindly he knew it not. It was 
this ignorance that made his happiness — a 
vague feeling that filled him, and for the time 
gave no room for doubt or regret. 

He sought this stranger every day. His 
aunt had taken no fancy to her and did not 
cultivate her at all, for which Branwell wa.s 

It was surprising how Miss Lorillard's 
health had improved — apparently. There 
was a flush and a brilliancy about her, though 
she grew thinner and thinner. 

At first she had proposed that they leave 
Niagara and go on, but Mrs. Richmond was 
charmed with the place, and could not think 
of leaving; and was not Miss Lorillard's 
health improving; and Miss Lorillard would 
not go and leave Branwell there. 

A month, two months passed. Flitting 
travellers at the Falls might see the same 

party daily at the table of the C House. 

Mrs. liichmon<l, at last tired of the place, was 
proposing a change, to which her nephew lis- 
tened with so much indiflerence that the lady 
was almost despairing. Meanwhile, Bran- 
well, for the first time in his life felt it almost 
imi)0ssible to leave a place which still held a 
woman for whom his interest was becoming 
uncontrollable. At that first mention of de- 

{)arture, the cloud of soft oblivion which had 
lidden his past and concealed his jjresent 
feelings from him broke apart, and its rifts 
discovered to his soul a feeling which had 
possessed all his faculties so comj)letely that 
he had not recognized it. And for the first 
time since his m.irriage he really felt his 

That evening he had lieen walking liy the 
river with his lu-w friend. His newly awak- 
ened consciousness gave him soniutliing of a 
duitrail air, and a |)ainful and penetrating 
silence fell upon them, liranwcll felt that he 
could not be in this girl's jiresence without 
betraying what he felt, and he shrank from 
such a ('onfesHron. 

That night, as he stood with her hand in 

his to bid her good-night, he had resolved 
that he should leave the place on the morrow. 
Perhaps that resolution gave a strength to his 
eyes and voice, an inflection to his words that 
was as impossible to quell as to subdue the 
pulses that throbbed, the wild wishes that 
clamored to be expressed. But he said noth- 
ing; his words were the common farewell of 
a friend, and one overhearing them would not 
have said, " That man loves her," unless his 
burning glance had told the story. 

" My good-night is my farewell," he said at 
last, " for I go away to-morrow." 

Her pride rose to prevent the betrayal of 
anything beyond an ordinary warmth of feel- 
ing. He perceived it without knowing its 
cause, and liis soul seemed frozen within it- 

"Good-by," she said, her hand dropping 
from his, and her head turned, looking off 
beyond into some invisible land into which he 
could not enter. She showed no surprise that 
he was going, and asked no questions. Yet 
still he lingered, with a desperate feeling that 
he must say one word more, though what he 
hardly knew. 

" If I could tell you of the many things in 
my heart. Miss Ey tinge," he said hurriedly, 
wondering what there could be in his words 
to cause that surprised arch of eyebrows; 
then leaving everything, he said again, 
" Good-by," and left her. 

Hurrying up the stairs, in the upper hall 
he met Miss Lorillard, who said: 

"I was waiting for you. May I see you a 
few moments ?" 

Branwell, full of other thoughts, thinking 
with despairing happiness of the last touch of 
the hand he had just relinquished, the glance 
of eyes he had foregone forever, would have 
excused himself for the present ; but looking 
at his companion, lie saw that some deep reso- 
lution had induced the request, and with cold 
politeness he replied that he was at her ser- 
vice. She led the way to a private parlor, 
and sat down by a table instantly, as if fearing 
that she could not support herself. Her man- 
ner was very composed, however, and full of 
hauteur. Branwell stood by the emjUy fire- 
jilace, leaning upon the mantle, waiting her 

It was hard for her to break the silence, but 
at length she said : 

" I have a communication to make to you, 
which, however strange and unwomanly it 
appears, you will acknowledge that it is in- 
cumi)ent upon me to make — though I have 
hesitated long." 

Slie paused to think of the exact words she 

]5ranwell in a cold, hard tone, said : 

" I listen." He was determined not to lielp 
her in the least. 

" It is not likely that you have forgotten 
the circumstances of your marriage," .she 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


said, leaning her arm on the table and resting 
her head on her hand, though her eyes Avere 
fixed upon his face. 
He bowed and said : 
" I remember." 

" I need not recall that stormy night on the 
Massachusetts coast, that little farmhouse, 
that blind bridegroom, that marriage wherein 
the bride first learned something of the noble- 
ness of him she had married. William Bran- 
well, I am that wife — that wife whose pride 
prompted the letter she sent you, but whose 
heart was touched by your words, your face, 
even on that first night that she saw "you. But 
I had placed the barrier between us, and I 
could not bear that pity, that duty, should 
make you kind to me. ' Before I saw you, I 
thought that nothing could induce me to feel 
diflerently from the feelings I expressed in 
that letter ; but from that first meeting on the 
evening of our marriage, I felt that it might 
be possible that I should repent penning those 
words. Do not think me unwomanly, for in 
my heart of hearts I do not feel that I am. I 
could not bear to present myself as a stranger 
to you, declaring myself your wife. I retain- 
ed my maiden name and purposely embarked 
in the same steamer for America. I rarely 
lost sight of you for long at a time. I usually 
knew where you were, and at last 1 decided to 
become acquainted with you, to let you see 
Mrs. Branwell,for I knew you could not know 
her." Her voice wavered a little and she col- 
ored slightly as she went on. 

" I clid not know but some kind thoughts of 
me might come to you ; for it is true that some 
have seen that in me which attracted them — 
men for whom I could not care. It appears 
reserved for the man I married— of all men 
whom I have intimately known— to be indif- 
ferent to me." 

Branwell had left his position opposite to 
her and was walking back and forth, his head 
bent, listening to these words. There was no 
tenderness in him for her ; now that she had 
said this, she even repelled him. He would 
have given worlds had it been otherwise, but 
he could not help it. 

He looke at her without stopping his walk, 
and said hardly : 

" You are then my wife ? You were Fer- 
mor Lorillard, my uncle's ward ?" 
Her eyes, large and bright, met his. 
" I am your wife — I was Fermor Lorillard. 
Y'ou have said it." 

He ignored all the suggestions of tender- 
ness that had been in her words. Now finally 
he was to have the truth, the plain truth, and 
no more suppositious. 

He stopped and leaned his hand on the 
table opposite her. 

" This is a serious affair," he said. " You 
do not expect me to accept a story of such a 
transaction without proofs ?" 
•'Assuredly not." 

" The most full and satisfactory ?" 
" Certainly." 

Miss Lorillard rose and looked at him. 
Branwell could not help being stirred by ad- 
miration, and she saw it. 

"Mr. Branwell," she said, "does no in- 
stinct, no intuition tell you that what I have 
said is true ?" 

" You wish me to reply with simple truth ?" 
Her lijis trembled slightly as she said : 
" Yes, the truth." 

"Well, then, on the contrary, all the in- 
stincts of my nature tell me it is not true." 

She held tightly by the chair in which she 
had been sitting. 

" That is because you do not love me," she 

He was silent, and after a moment she said : 
"I would say nothing as if I reproached you. 
Question me, for I feel unable to talk unless 
you do." 

" We will send for Morton, who was one of the 
witnesses," he said. "I left with Mrs. Bran- 
well the certificate of our marriage. Has she 
it still ?" 

_" She would not have easily parted with it," 
said Miss Lorillard, walking toward the door 
and leaving the room. 

Branwell heard her go to her room. When 
there she poured some wine into a glass and 
drank it hastily, then took a paper from her 
desk and retraced her steps. Meanwhile 
Branwell had been standing almost motionless 
by the table, his soul struggling wit'i the cloud 
of _ darkness that enveloped it. Lis whole 
existence refused this destiny upon 
him. He fought with it as if he would awak- 
en from a dream, horri})le as it was real ; and 
from amid all he saw one face, heard one 
voice, for whose smiles, for whose words he 
would have perilled all he held dear. And 
when Miss Lorillard entered he started as if 
she had not been one of the most beautiful of 

She had a paper in her hand, which she 
held toward him in silence. He took it de- 
testing it with hatred. He read it— every 

This certifies that the rite of Holy Matri- 
mony has been celebrated between Mr. Wil- 
liam Branwell of Dorchester, B. P., and Miss 

Fermor Lorillard of C , Massachusetts, on 

the 15th of October, 18—, at C , Massa- 
chusetts. By Rev. B. W. Wrayburn. 

Witness : John Morton. Witnesses : Louise 
Clitheroe, Mrs. Hannah Trask. 
He gave it back to her saying : 
" What you have said appears in every way 
reasonable. I do not dispute it. We will 
await Morton's arrival. He was to have been 
back to-day." Then seeing the distressed 
look upon her face he continued : 
_ " You will pardon me my seeming incredu- 
lity. I could not but ask "for proofs concern- 
ing the most important incident in my life." 


Tlie Rural GaroUnuin. 

"Believe me," she said earnestly, " I would 
not have it otherwise. I would not wish you 
to take my mure word for what I tell you." 

As she uttered that phrase, he thought how 
ditlerent it would be did he love her, with 
what intensity of hajipiness he should have 
read that certificate which now seemed a paper 
of doom to him. He thought with despera- 
tion that he never would acknowledge this 
woman as his wife — never, though all the 
world united to declare the fact to him. 

She had seated herself again in the chair ; 
but now she shaded her eyes with her hand. 
The wine she had drunk hardly increased the 
the excitement she felt. Every drop of blood 
in her seemed bounding with such tiery throbs 
as almost suflbcated her ; her lips and cheeks 
burned hotly, her eyes glowed, but outwardly 
she was calm. It was he who stood with glit- 
tering eyes, the effort at calmness plainly visi- 
ble. This hour of all the hours in his life 
was hardest to bear. He was vainly strug- 
gling for some honorable retreat, some ray of 
light to illumine this blackness; but he saw 
no retreat, no light, nothing but to endure, to 
shut forever from his thoughts every remem- 
brance of the girl he had just met, for thoughts 
of her onlv made more unendurable his fu- 
ture. He (lid not think how hard, how icy he 
must appear to this woman, who in her own 
words told him that she loved him; he only 
thought of her unwelcome claim upon him ; 
he only rebelled fiercely against the fate he 
had yoked to himself when he had promised 
his uncle; but he never would have known 
the intensest bitterness of that fate had he not 

" You delayed telling me this," he said a 
last, as if asking a question — almost as if re- 
proving her. 

" I told you that I could not bear to thrust 
a wife upon you, until I had tried if you 
might not become in the least interested in 
her ; and as I have failed in that, I might 
never have spoken to you, did not circum- 
stances make me deem it necessary." 

There was some appearance of embarrass- 
ment as she said the last words, and Bran- 
well said hastily : 

" You mean to intimate to me that I have 
given you reason to fear I might forget the 
bonds that hold me — that 1 might become dis- 

"Never the last I" she cried impulsively: 
"I only knew that your marriage had been 
such a myth to you that an impression might 
be received tooejisily — cherished even without 
your knowledge. I will confess it was 
fear — a fear that your happiness migiit be 
comi)romised — that assisted me to make this 
avowal to you. You can readily believe that 
I knew how unwelcome it would be." 8iie 
said the l:wt with a diprecatory motion that 
Htill had Hometliing of stateliness in it. She 
IkuI risen and htood before him. 

" At least," he replied, "itwa.s not unex- 

She moved toward the door ; with her hand 
on the lateh she paused and said, with slow 
distinctness : 

" Having now done what I felt due to you 
and myself, I have nothing more to say on 
the subject. Y'ou will institute any investiga- 
tion for which you feel inclined. I have one 
thing to beg, however, that you will not imag- 
ine I have told you this to exact anything 
from you. It seemed right that you should 

" Stay one moment," he cried, "for me to 
say that any one who bears my name will not 
lack any attention I can consistently give. 
I have much to say to you at some future 

She bowed and left the room. She had 
been right in judging that pecuniarily at least 
the wife of Branwell would not want, and that 
the safest as well as the easiest way had been 
to leave such arangements to his own sense 
of appropriateness. 


The first thing to be considered in arrang- 
ing cut flowers is the vase. If it is scarlet, 
blue or many-colored, it must necessarily con- 
flict with some hue in your bouquet. Choose 
rather pure white, green or transparent gla.'^s, 
which allows the delicate stems to be seen. 
Brown Swiss-wood, silver, bronze, or yellow 
straw conflict with nothing. The va«e must 
be subordinate to what it holds. A bowl for 
roses. Tall-spreading vases for gladiolus, 
fern, white lilies, and the like. Cui)s for vio- 
lets and tiny wood flowers. Baskets for 
vines and gay garden blossoms. A Hower- 
lover will in time collect shapes and sizes to 
suit each group. Colors should be blende<l 
together with neutral tints, of which there 
are an abundance — whites, grays, purples, 
tender greens — and wliicii harmonize the pink, 
crimsons, and brilliant red into soft unison. 
The water should be warm for a winter vase — 
cool, but not iced, for a summer one. A little 
salt or a bit of charcoal should be added in 
hot weather, to obviate vegetable decay, and 
the vase filled anew each morning. With 
these precautions your flowers, if .s(.t beside 
an open window at night, will kcej> their 
freshness for many hours even in .July, and 
reward by their beautiful presence the kind 
hand which arranged and tended them. 

In answer to " How Did She Do It ?" I 
simply reply that somebody eitlur " slept 
double," or was left out in the cold. The 
second, either refused the request of the cham- 
bermaid, and remained in No. 1 with tiie first, 
or went to No. 11 to find it occupied by the 
twelfth. Cull. 

Literature, Sdenee and Home Interests. 



There once was a Count — so I've heard it 
said — 

Who felt that his end drew near ; 
And he called his sons before his bed, 

To part them his goods and gear. 

He called for his plough, he called for his 

That gallant, good and brave ; 
They brouglit him both at their father's word, 

And thus he his blessings gave : 

" My first-born son, my pride and might, 

Do thou my sword retain ; 
My castle on the lordly height. 

And all my broad domain. 

" On thee, my well-loved younger boy, 

My plough I here bestow ; 
A peaceful life shall thou enjoy. 

In the quiet vale below." 

Contented sank the sire to rest, 

Now all was given away ; 
The sons hold true his last behest, 

E'en on their dying day. 

Now tell us what came of the steel of flame, 

Of the castle and its knight ! 
And tell us what came of the vale so tame. 

And the humble peasant wight?" 

O ask not of me what the end may be ! 

Ask of the country round ; 
The castle is dust, the sword is rust. 

The height is but desert ground. 

But the vale spreads wide in the golden pride 

Of the autumn sunlight now ; 
It teems and it ripens far and wide, 

And the honor abides with the plough. 

Wolfgang Mullee. — From the German. 


A striking improvement in the young-lady- 
hood of America is observable in parts of 
our country, if not everywhere. People who 
, have been absent in Europe for some years 
are strongly impressed by this fact. A writer 
in the Christian Union in an article on " So- 
ciety at our Watering Places," says : 

And here we must stop and indulge in a lit- 
tle gush of admiration at these dear, pretty, 
charming, high-bred American girls. Their 
beauty is of a style so delicate ; it is so much 
the expression of character ; it has so many 
positive intimations of surpressed power and 
ability, that it is all the more interesting. 
We watched several of these little queens 

from day to day, without detecting an inhar- 
monious movement or an unbecoming ges- 
ture — everywhere and always they ajipeared 
coolly mistresses of the situation. This pi- 
quant little air of entire self-possession, and 
ability to look any position in the face, is one 
of the peculiarities of our young-lady-hood, 
and when veiled by perfect modesty is a won- 
derful charm. 

Add to this, as a companion jjicture, the 
following from the Galaxy, and if we admit 
the correctness of the sketches we need not 
despair of the sex, in spite of the too numer- 
ous specimens of sickly " delicacy " still seen 
around us : 

The Nebulous Person has pleased himself 
with watching the out-door life of two or 
three young girls, in whom Nature and cul- 
ture seem to have united to illustrate some of 
the highest possibilities of education. Free and 
agile as sea-nymphs, with the last " fresh tan- 
nage" of sun and spray on their cheeks, and 
the unconscious grace of a healthy physical 
life in every limb, blended with the dignity 
which comes of high social and intellectual 
training, these young naiads ofiered in every 
movement a picture of youthful bloom and 
vigor as delightful as rare. What a quaint 
sensation it gave me to see them drop Czerny's 
exercises or Otto's method to scramble with 
girlish haste and merriment for the bathing 
house, and then, ten minutes later, to watch 
them striking out from the pier with the long 
easy stroke of conscious power, and hanging 
with dripping garments and streaming locks 
on the rudder of the pleasure-boat moored in 
the chanel. 

Then of a breezy evening the Nebulous 
Person, whose age and infirmities forbid ath- 
letics, found an unusual pleasure in modestly 
holding the tiller-ropes, as the tall girl oppo- 
site, half fairy, half Amazon, sent her little 
row-boat dancing over the darkling water with 
the grand, full sweep of the practical oarsman. 
And when, on one of these expeditions, the 
crew found themselves ankle-deep in water, 
and the fair captainess coolly leaned forward 
and put in the drain plug, with the quiet re- 
mark that she had left it out, and the boat was 
gradually sinking! the Nebulous Person's 
heart warmed within him, though his toes 
were chilled, and he mentally gave in his hom- 
age to strength and pluck in woman, at least 
when united with youthful grace and fresh- 

Never go to bed with cold feet. 

Never allow the feet to remain damp. 

Adjust your clothing so as to give free 
and easy movement to every member of your 


Tlie Rural Carolinian. 

For our Young Folks. 


Some one has written beautifully to the boys 
in the following manner. Here is a whole 
sermon in a few sentences: 

" Ol all the love aflairs in the world, none 
can surpass the true love of the big boy for his 
mother. It is a love pure and noble, honora- 
ble in the highest degree to both. I do not 
mean riierely a dutiful affection. I mean a 
love which makes a boy gallant and courteous 
to his mother, saying to everybody plainly 
that he is fairly in love with her. Next to 
the love of her husband, nothing so crowns a 
woman's life with honor as this second love, 
this devotion of son to her. And I never yet 
knew a boy ' turn out' bad, who began by fall- 
ing in love with his mother. Any man may 
fall in love with the fresh-faced girl, and the 
man who is gallant with the girl may cruelly 
neglect the worn and weary wife. But the boy 
who is a lover to his mother in her middle 
age is a true knight who will love his wife as 
much in the sere-leaved autumn as he did in 
the daisied springtime." 


For breakfast take a cape of Massachusetts 
and let it soak all night ; then shred up fine 
and cook in a river in Montana. This and 
some harbors of New Jersey will be the prin- 
cipal warm dishes. Some may like with these 
a river of N'ennont, sliced very thin and well 
sea.soned. It will be necessary to go to a 
mountain in Washington Territory for an in- 
dispensable article of food, and five-eightlis of 
a little town in Wisconsin, well stewed, with- 
out scorching, will be sulBcient in the way of 
fruit. Such a Ijreakfast may be very cheerful 
if every one politely gets ujmn a cape of North 
Carolina to see that each is well helped and 
cared for. 


Birdie was only four years old, but she had 
already been taught that (iod loved her, and 
always took cure (jf her. One day there w.ia 
a very heavy tliunder-storm, and Birdie's sis- 
ters and mamma even laid by their sewing, 
and drew their chairs into the middle of the 
room, pale and trembling witli fear. But 
Birdie stood close by the window, watching 
the storm with bright eyes. 

"O mamma! ain't that bii' fill !" she cries. 
clai)ping her hands with iliiight, as a vivid 
flash of lightning burst from tiie black clouds 
and the thunder pealed and rattled over their 

" He talks vely loud, don't he, mamma ? 
S'pose it's so as deaf Betsy can hear, an the 
uver deaf folks." 

" O Birdie ! dear, come straight away from 
that window said one of her sisters, whose 
cheeks were blanched with fear. 

" What for?" asked Birdie. 

" Oh ! because the lightning is so sharp 
and it thunders so loud." 

But Birdie shook her head, and looking 
over her shoulder with a happy smile on her 
face, lisped out : 

"If it funders, let it funder ! 'Tis God 
makes it funder, and he'll take care of me. 
I ain't a bit afraid to hear God talk, Maizy." 

Was not Birdie's faith beautiful ? Mamma 
and sister did not soon forget the lesson. 


Tobacco grows something like cabbage, but 
I never seen none of it boiled, although I 
have eaten boiled cabbage and vinegar on it, 
and I have heard men say that cigars that 
was given them on election day for nothing 
was cabbage leaves. Tobacco stores are mostly 
kept by wooden Injuns, who stand at the door 
and try to fool little boys by offering them a 
bunch of cigars, which is glued iiUo the In- 
jun's hands, and is made of wood also. Hogs 
do not like tobacco ; neither do I. I tried to 
smoke a cigar once, and it made me feel like 
epsom salts. Tobacco was invented by a m:ui 
named Walter Raleigh. When the people 
first saw him smoking they thought he was a 
steamboat, and as they had never seen a steam- 
boat, they were frightened. My sister Nancy 
is a girl. I don't know whether she likes 
tobacco or not. There is a young man named 
Leroy who comes to see her. He was stand- 
ing on the steps one night with a cigar in his 
mouth, and he said he didn't know as she 
would like it, and she said, "Leroy, the per- 
fume is agreeable." But when my big brother 
Tom lighted his pipe, Nancy said, " Get out of 
the house, you horrid creature, the smell of 
tobacco makes me sick." 


It exactly suits the temperament of a real 
boy to be very l)usy about nothing. If the 

!)ower, for instance, that is expended in play 
)y a l)oy between the ages of 8 and 14, could 
be aiii)lied to some industry, we should see 
wonilerful results. But a boy is like a gal- 
vanic battery that is not in connection with 
anytliing ; he generatis electricity and plays 
it oil' into the air with reckless prodigality, 
and I, for one, wouldn't have itotherwise. It 
is ;ls m\i('h a boy's business to play ofl' his 
energies into space as it is for a tlower to 
blow, or a catbird to sing .snatches of all the 
other birds. 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


■pHYSiCAL Culture. 


The causes of the proverbial delicacy and 
ill health of American women are, in our 
opinion few, simple, and by no means una- 
voidable. They lie in false early training 
and unhealthful habits, the results of igno- 
rance of the laws of life, and mistaken notions 
of propriety, and not in any inherent weak- 
ness in the sex, or any climatic influences 
unfavorable to the full development and con- 
tinued vital integrity of womanhood. 

The foundations of ill healtli, in girls, are 
often laid in early childhood, in the enforced 
quiet and comparative confinement within 
doors, to which here — even in the country — 
they are subjected, under the impression that 
active out-door amusements are not suited to 
their sex. If they give way to their natural 
instincts, and run, jump, climb fences and roll 
and tumble on the ground, they are quickly re- 
buked, if not more severely punished, and get 
the names of " romp," "girl-boy," or "tom- 
boy," which are supposed to imply something 
otherwise inexpressibly disgraceful ! 

We are not among those who would ignore 
the distinction of sex, either in physical and 
mental education, or in the duties of active 
life ; but in childhood this distinction is but 
imperfectly developed, and no sound physio- 
logical reason can be urged against a similar — 
we will not say identical — training for both 
sexes. Certainly out-door exercise is just as 
essential to the health of girls as of boys, 
and active, blood-stirring, but not necessarily 
rude sports, are as healthful as they are en- 
joyable to them. Give them strong clothes 
and let them run, climb and jump, at their 
own free will. Depend upon it, they are 
obeying a higher law than that of fashionable 
propriety. God bless the pretty romps ! God 
does bless them with the rosy cheeks, lithe 
limbs, the full contours, the warm blood, the 
good appetite, and the perfect digestion of 
which the quiet, lady-like little dears, who 
play quietly in the sitting room with their 
dolls, know nothing. 

But a lack of the muscular exercise, re- 
quired for the physical development of girls 
as well as boys, is not the only evil engen- 

dered by too much confinement witliin doors. 
There can be no healthy development without 
sunlight, either in plants or animals ; and 
both need a great deal of it. Observe a po- 
tota, or any otlier vegetable growing under a 
house, or in any situation where it gets little 
light and no direct sunshine. See how pale 
its leaves and how delicate its stem, how defi- 
cient in health and vigor ! You place your 
petted house plants near the window, to give 
them all the light possible, because you know 
that they will not thrive in the shade, their 
leaves turning yellow and falling off, and 
their stems becoming slender and weak. Has 
it never occurred to you tliat your girls re- 
quire sunshine quite as much as your gera- 
niums? Persons confined in dungeons and 
mines, or in darkened rooms anywhere, grow 
sallow, the strength fails, aqueous humors 
break out, and many other disturbances of 
the functions of the body occur. 

Strange as it may seem, it is no less true 
than strange, that one of the most fruitful 
causes of the prevailing delicacy of the fe- 
male sex, from childhood to age, in this coun- 
try — even in the "sunny south" — is depriva- 
tion of sunlight ! The other sex gets enough 
of it, and the difference between the wild cel- 
ery of our marshes, and the earthed up and 
blanched stems from the garden, which we 
place upon our tables, is not greater than be- 
tween the men and the women of this coun- 
try. This is not the only cause of the differ- 
ence, but it is one of several causes, and a 
very potent one. 

Women who avoid the sunlight, and darken 
their parlors and sitting rooms through fear 
of sj^oiling their complexions, invite thereby 
the very evil which they wish to avoid. Here, 
as elsewhere, however, extremes are to be 
avoided. The direct rays of a noonday sun 
should be warded off by broad-brimmed hats 
and sun-shades ; but to sliun tlie solar ray 
altogether, and shut it out from our dwellings, 
is equalled in folly only by the exclusion of 
fresh air. 

Our ladies might well take a lesson from 
the English girls, modifying the instruction 
somewhat, to suit the exigencies of a different 
climate. An American observer thus writes 
of their habits in regard to exercise in the 
open air : 


The Rural Carolinian. 

The English girl spends more than one half 
of her waking hours in physical amusements ; 
that is, in amusements which tend to develop, 
and invigorate, and ripen the bodily powers. 
She rides, walks, drives, rows upon the water, 
runs, dances, plays, swings, jumps the rope, 
throws the ball, hurls the quoit, draws the 
bow, keeps up the shuttlecocks, and all this 
without having it forever impressed upon her 
mind that she is thereby wasting her time. 
She does this every day, until it becomes a 
habit, which she will follow up through life. 
Her frame, as a necessary consequence, is 
h-irger, her muscular system better developed, 
lier nervous system in subordination to the 
physical ; her strength more enduring, and 
the whole tone of her mind healthier. She 
may not know as much at the age of seven- 
teen as does the American girl ; as a general 
thing she does not, but the growth of her in- 
tellect has been stimulated by no hot-house 
culture, and though maturity comes later, it 
will last proportionately longer. 

Among the items particularized in the pub- 
lic accounts of the bridal outfit of the Prin- 
cess Royal of England, on the occasion of her 
marriage with the Crown Prince of Prussia. 
Ls the following : 

Twelve dozen pairs of boots of useful and 
solid make ; some of them intended for rough 
walking, Ijeing provided with treble soles, and 
small but projecting nails. 

Think of that, delicate paper-shod Ameri- 
can girl ! We think the Princess set a good 
example in the matter of understanding, 
though double soles, without the protruding 
nails, would serve the purpose with our girls 
in the South. 




Cooking is, to a certain extent, a chemical 
process and should be conducted on scientific 
principles. In another view it is an art, and 
should be studied as such. As generally per- 
formed, however, neither art nor science seem 
to be thought of. " In fact," as the Bonton 
Journal nf Chemistry truly observes, " the pro- 
cesses to wliich food is subjected are often pre- 
cisely such as a chemist might adopt, if his 
object were to get rid of its really valuable 
constituents, and retain only what is worthless 
for purposes of nutrition ; or such as some 
malicious demon might devise in order to tan- 
talize his victims with the empty semblance of 

nourishment, while he was destroying them 
by slow starvation." 

In view of the general ignorance on the sub- 
ject the journal just quoted gives the follow- 
ing hints on cooking meats, which commend 
to our Rural Housekeepers. As progressive 
farming is the order of tlie day, so should the 
spirit of improvement find its way into the 
household department : 

The most economical way of using meat is 
to cook it in hot water, and serve it up in its 
own gravy. If it is boiled for preparing 
soup, the water should not be too (piickly 
raised to the boiling point, since this tends to 
coagulate the albuminous portions and to pre- 
vent the juices from passing into the water. 
The meat should be chopped or cut as fine as 
possible, and steeped for some time in cold 
water, which should then be gradually heated 
up to a temperature not exceeding 150° Fah- 
renheit, or 62° below its boiling point. At the 
last moment the soup may be allowed to reach 
the boiling point. The bone^ should be crush- 
ed or broken uj) into small pieces, and boiled, 
or rather simmered, for eight or ten hours, in 
order thoroughly to extract their nutritive 

Soup contains the greater part of the saline 
matter, with the creatine, creatinine, and kin- 
dred compounds, some of the albumen and fat, 
and an amount of gelatine that depends upon 
the duration of the boiling process. Cold wa- 
ter extracts from one-sixth to one-fourth of the 
weight of the solid constituents of the meat ; 
and this watery extract contains nearly all the 
savory, saline, and crystalline ingredients. 
After long continued boiling, meat becomes a 
hard mass, comi)osed of tough muscular fibre,s, 
the areolar tissue connecting them, and parts 
of the nerves and blood-vessels. This is ditfi- 
cult to masticate, more difficult to digest, and 
so devoid of fiavor that it is impossible to tell 
from what animal it came. As Liebig remarks, 
even a dog will reject it. 

For invalids, beef soup is by far the best. 
That made from nuitton is less digestible, and 
is seldom free from fat. The reinarkahle re- 
storative j)roperlies of soup are ihie to the 
presence of a large quantity of highly nitroge- 
nous principles. \ cry strong beef tea may 
almost be eliisHod with such stimulants as 
brandy and tea. Creatine, creatinine, and 
other similar substances in meat bear a close 
resemblance to the theinc of tea and coHee, 
and the the()bromiue of cocoa. 

If we wish to cook meat in such a way as 
to i)rescrve the maximum of nutrimei\t in the 
most digestible form, we should place it, in 
large pieces, in boiling water, ami keep it there 
for five minutes. The high temperature coagu- 
lates the albumen at the surface of the meat, 
stops up its pores, and tiuis prevents the juices 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


from escaping. After this boiling for five 
minutes, add cold water to reduce the heat to 
about 150° F., and keep it at that temperature 
until the meat is sufficiently cooked. It will 
then be found to be tender, juicy, savory, and 
nutritious. Salted meat, intended to be" eaten 
cold, should be allowed to cool in the water in 
which it has been boiled. 

In roasting meat, as in boiling it, the first 
object should be to coagulate the albumen at 
the surface, in order to prevent the escape of 
the juices. The meat should be at first placed 
close to the fire, kept there for ten or fifteen 
minutes, and then withdrawn to a greater dis- 
tance from the heat. If cooked in the oven of 
a stove or range, the oven should be very hot 
when the meat is first put into it, kept at the 
same heat for a short time, then cooled down 
partially (by opening the door or checking the 
tire), and the roasting should then be allowed 
to go on very slowly, so that the inner parts 
may be thoroughly done. The loss of weight 
(mostly water and fat) is nearly one-third 
more in roasting than in boiling. Roast meat 
has the richer flavor, because certain aromatic 
principles are developed by this mode of cook- 
ing. The occasional " dredging" of flour over 
the surface of the meat helps to stop up the 
pores and check the escape of the fat. Roast- 
ed meatis not so well suited for invalids and 
dyspeptics as boiled meat, since it is apt to 
contain acrid substances. 


Winter Dessert.— One quart of milk, six 
eggs, reserving the whites of two, which beat 
to a stift' froth, and when the milk boils, drop 
in spoonfulls ; in a minute or two remove 
carefully to a plate ; after beating the eggs 
light, pour the boiling milk slowly into the 
&gg, stirring the egg quickly the while; 
sweeten it and place over the fii-e, stirring it 
all die time until it simmers — it must not boil. 
If it should curdle pour it immediately into 
another pan and stir until cool. Place sponge 
cake, moistened with Maderia wine (and on 
which preserved strawberries or other fruit 
has been spread,) in the bottom or sides of a 
glass, or China bowl, and when the custard 
is cool, flavor with vanilla, and pour into 
the bowl, placing the white balls carefully on 
top ; then surround the bowl with ice, or stand 
It in cold water until required. - 

A correspondent of the Oermantovm Tele- 
graph recommends this. 

Apple and Tapioca Pudding.— We give 
this recipe on the authority of Mrs Beecher, 
(in the Christian Union) with the endorsement 
of " Mrs. Rural " : 

Put a tea cup of tapioca into a pint and a 
half of cold water over night. Before break- 
fast the next morning set it where it will be- 

come quite warm, but not hot enough to cook. 
After breakfast pare six good sized sour ap- 
ples, or eight if not very large ; quarter them 
and steam them in a dish till tender. Lay 
them into the pudding dish, stir a cup and a 
half of sugar into the tapioca, add a teacup 
of water and a teaspoon even full of salt, stir 
together and pour over the apples, slice a 
lemon very thin and lay over the top, bake 
slowly three hours ; eat with butter, with wine 
sauce, or hard sauce, as you prefer. 

Orange Pudding.— Peel and cut five good, 
sweet, juicy oranges into thin slices, taking 
out all the seeds. Pour over them a coffee- 
cup of white sugar. Let a pint of milk get 
boiling hot by setting it into some boiling 
water; add the yolks of three eggs, well 
beaten, one tablespoonful of corn starch, made 
sDQooth with a little cold milk. Stir all the 
time, and as soon as thickened pour it over the 
fruit. Beat the whites to a still' froth, adding 
a tablespoonful of sugar, and spread over the 
top for frosting. Set it into the oven for a 
few minutes to harden. Eat cold or hot for 
dinner or tea. Substitute berries of any kind 
or peaches, if you like them better than 

Silvering Ivory. — Immerse a small slip 
of ivory in a weak solution of nitrate of sil- 
ver and let it remain till the solution has 
given it a deep yellow color ; then take it out 
and immerse it in a tumbler of clear water, 
and expose it in the water to the rays of the 
sun. In about three hours the ivory acquires 
a black color ; but the black surface on being 
rubbed soon becomes changed to a brilliant 

Velvet Cakes.— Two eggs, one quart good 
milk, a piece of butter or lard size of a hen 
egg, and flour enough to make a batter as stiff 
as pound cake. About two or three table- 
spoonsful of good yeast. If wanted for tea, 
set about twelve o'clock, bake in muffin rings, 
cut open and butter before sending to the 
table. This combination makes a very deli- 
cate tea cake. 

How TO Cook Beets.— Beets sliould be 
carefully washed, but not cut before boiling, 
as cutting them allows the juice to escape, 
leaving them white and hard. In summer 
boil them an hour in salted water, and in win- 
ter boil them four hours. After boiling, scrape 
ofT their skins, and cut ofl" the threads hang- 
ing from them. 

Transparent Cement. — Dissolve seventy- 
five parts of Indian rubber in sixty parts of 
chloroform or benzine, and add to the solu- 
tion fifteen parts of mastic. 

A Remedy for Vermin. — An experienced 
physician says that ah ointment made of sassa- 
fras chips and lard is death to all vermin, and 
Wiis much used in hospitals during the war. 


Tlie Rural Carolinian. 

Notes and Memoranda. 


Dr. Holland's new novel, "Arthur Bonni- 
castle," commenced in the November number 
of Scn'bner's Monthly, and continued with in- 
creasing interest in the December number, 
promises to be one of the most attractive 
stories of the day. In style and finish it is 
certainly unsurpassed, and contrasts most fa- 
vcrabl}' with the inelegant, slangy slip-shod 
mode of writing so often met with in the 
serial stories of eveu our leading magazines. 

The December Atlantic has a notable instal- 
ment of Parton's Jefferson, on the relations 
between him and Hamilton. It is likely to 
excite some animated discussion. So is tlie 
leaduig article on " The Fight of a Man with 
a Railroad," by John A. Coleman, who sub- 
scribas himself as of Providence, R. I., appa- 
rently for the sake of intimating that he can 
be found, if wanted, to substantiate any of his 
uncomplimentary statements. 

The Rami Sun, edited by J. B. Kille- 
brew, assisted by Dr. J. M. SaObrd, Professor 
Hunter Nicholson, and Mrs. L. Virginia 
French, adds another to jthe list of Southern 
agricultural and family papers. It makes a 
good beginning, and we wish it all the success 
it deserves, which is more than some of us 
are getting, ourselves being judges. [Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Rural Sun Publishing Ck). ; $2 50 
a year.] 

The Herald of llmlth, for November, has, 
among other noteworthy articles, some prac- 
tical " Hints to People Going South," which 
we trust will be heeded by those for whom 
they are intended. The Herald of Health is 
an excellent hygienic j)ublication, and should 
have a large circulation lierc, wliere its teach- 
ings are needed (juite as much ;i« elsewhere. 
[Wood & Holbrook, If) haight street, New 
York ; %\ 25 a year.] 

laughter be better than medicine, this "Pook" 
should have a prominent place among the 
hygienic as well as the a.stronomical publica- 
tions of the day. [R. M. DeWitt, 33 Rose 
sti-eet. New York.] 

The fourth and fifth parts of DeFontaine's 
" Cyclopedia of the Best Thoughts of Charles 
Dickens," have come promptly to hand. One 
more will complete the series, which will 
make a handsome volume, and one worthy of 
a place in every library. [E. J. Hale & Son, 
New York ; $1 50 for the six numbers.] 

The Illustrated Record and Depository, pub- 
lished by R. A. Harrison & Co., of New York, 
at $1 25 a year, is not one of the flashy and 
trashy papers, of which we have too many in 
this country, but seems to be, so far as we 
have observed, well filled, carefully edited, 
and morally pure. 

An entirely new edition of " Major Jones' 
Courtship," with revisions, and thirteen addi- 
tional papers, has just been issued from the 
press of D. Appleton & Co The work, for 
nearly thirty years, has been among the most 
popular of American books of humor. 

" The Hand-Book of Southern Travel," (D. 
Appleton & Co., New York,) has been en- 
tirely re-written for the present season. It 
afTords a vast fund of information for those 
intending to spend the winter in tlie Soutii. 

Julian Hawthorne's novel is now com- 
pleted, and will sliortly appear. Its title is 
" Bressant," the scene being laid in New Eng- 

Carl Pretzel's " Almineck and Vedder 
Brognostikador, for 1873," is a Hans Briet- 
mannish publication of the funniest kind, full 
of genial humor and verbal drolleries. If 

C. L. Allen & Co., 76 Fulton street, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., a note on whose "Flower Farm" 
we published in a late number, have been 
kind enough to send us some specimeus of 
their bulbs, and very fine ones they are. We 
have no douljt that any of our readers who 
may be in want of anything in tluir line, 
will be served with the very best that the 
market attords, a.s they raise the bulbs and 
seeds themselves, (excej)! such as are necessa- 
rily imi»orted,) and know just what they are. 
Send for a Catalogue. 



Progress vnth Pmdence, Practice loith Science. 
D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 

Vol. v.] CHARLESTON, S. C, JANUARY, 1874. 

[No. IV. 

A Western Farmer's Talk to the Farmers of the South.* 

Citizens of the Carolinas — My Countrymen : 

Your excellent President -has seen fit to send twelve hundred miles for a person 
to make a little talk to-day. The one who has received this high honor, was born 
in the old Bay State, of which it has been said, with some show of truth, that her 
chief productions are ice and granite. He was reared on a little hilly farm, fenced 
in small lots with stones, which was the only reliable and abundant crop yielded 
by the stubborn soil. At his majority he went West, and still tills a soil which is 
locked in impenetrable frosts for five months of the year — is swept by wintry blasts 
which cut down, like grass before the scythe, the peach and apricot, and often even 
the apple trees, and whose season for growing corn is less than one hundred and 
twenty days. He has already passed the half-way post in life's allotted span, and 
has never seen a cotton plant unfold its snowy balls, or a rice field wave its wealth 
of ripening grain. The palmetto, the palm, the orange, the sugar-cane, have never 
gladdened his eyes with their beauty and promise of semi-tropical luxury. From 
such a source you cannot expect — your President could not have expected — any 
attempt to histruct the men of the Carolinas in the practices of agriculture as 
adapted to this sunny climate. Yet while fully recognizing this vast difference in 
the details of our agricultural operations consequent upon widely varied climate, 
this invitation was received with uncommon gratification as an evidence that in 
spite of all this there is still a community of interest, embracing all the agricul- 
turists of the nation — an undefinable fraternal feeling, whose every tendenc)'^ is to 
draw together, and finally hold us in the silken bonds of a common brotherhood. 

Just now, more than ever before, is this fact being made manifest in the stirring 
of the whole nation. The very atmosphere is trembling with this new commotion. 
Its pulsations rustle alike the orange grove of Florida, and the apple orchard of 

* Address of Hon. Dudley W. Adams, of Iowa, at the Fair of the Carolinas, Charlotte, N. 
C, Nov. 27th, 1873. 

No. 4, Vol. 5. 13 

170 A Western Faiinei-'s Talk to the Farmers of the Soidh. 

Iowa. The rice sAvami^s of the Carolinas, and tlie wheat fields of Minnesota, seem 
in concert. The sugar-cane of Louisiana, and the sugar maple of Vermont, are 
touched by the same impulse. The cotton grower of Mis.?issippi, and the wool 
grower of the great plains, snuff the same electric breeze. Such a univei-sal 
stirring of the elements — such a spontaneous and powerful movement of the people, 
indicates some deep seated and wide spread cause. It tells in unmistakable man- 
ner of a popular restlessness under present conditions. The conviction is universal 
among those who create the wealth of the nation, that they are not receiving the 
full reward for their labors. 

A Maine flirraer sells chickens at six cents per pound — the cotton spinner in 
Lowell buys them at twei)ty-five cents per pound. A Kebra^ika farmer sells corn 
at fifteen cents per bushel — a Connecticut machinist buys it at ninety cents per 
bushel. Iowa farmers are selling fat hogs at two and a half cents per pound, and 
Carolina cotton plantei-s aYe buying bacon at a shilling per pound. And so it is 
through the whole catalogue of the products of labor. On an average less than 
one-half of what the consumer pays ever goes into the pocket of the jn-oducer. 
The great balance is consumed by carriers and middlemen. 

We keenly feel,this tremendous tax on our industry, and our opinions amount 
to conviction that it is unnecessarily hea\^. . Of this we have complete proof 
The researches of the recent past have shown us the reckless manner in which the 
great railroad corporations have swindled the people. Their watering of stock — 
their credit mobilier — their discriminations and extortions have all been so fairly 
laid bare that they are fully understood, and now an outraged and indignant 
people demand their reform. 

The great Xorthwest, with her granaries overflowing with wheat and corn — her 
pastures swarming with fat cattle, and her pens alive with countless swine, looks 
with longing eyes across the plains and mountiiins, to the great Southeast, tearfully 
anxious to exchange her surplus food for the cotton and rice which her Northern 
clime will not produce. The Southeast meets this gaze with eyes equally anxious, 
and longs to clasp the extended hand of a section which has so many interests in 
common. To accomplish this, we must have better and cheaper means of trans- 
portation. No doubt this reform will be had. But will that reach the root of the 
evil ? AVill that make all the rough places smooth, and bring near the industrial 
millcnium ? • 

If we will look candidly and carefully at this matter of transportation, we 
will discover that at best it is a fearfully expensive operation. After we have 
eliminated fraud, destroyed monopoly, and brought down the cost of transporta- 
tion to the very limit of fair remuneration, we shall slill find that carriage of 
bulky and heavy material in our country of magnificent distances, is fearfully 
costly. The money invested in railroads and canals must have a fair compensation. 
Ties will decay, rails will wear out, trains will collide and sniiush, rolling stock will 
wear out, and rci)airs jnust ))e kept up ; besides, an army of employees nmst be 
paid. This cost must always be paid by the goods transported. 

When we have gained a complete control of the common carriers of the country, 
and corrected their abuses, we will still find that, while our success has alleviated 

A Western Farmer's Talk to the Farmers of the South. 171 

our distress, it has not cured the disease. Your President is a physician. When 
he is called upon to prescribe for the sick, his first step is to make a diagnosis of the 
case. He must first know what ails his patient before he can understandingly 
prescribe the proper remedies. It is so with the disorder now affecting our produc- 
ing classes. We must know what ails us, or we cannot apply the proper correction. 
A careful diagnosis of our case reveals the startling fact that we are terribly 
extravagant in the use of our transportation facilities. We are taxing their capacity 
to the utmost, and in so doing we are oppressively taxing ourselves. We transport 
too much. Some farmers are shipping off cattle at two-and-a-quarter cents per 
pound, and bringing back dried beef at twenty cents per pound. Carolinians ship 
cotton at fourteen cents per pound, and import fine cotton thread at twenty cents 
per ounce. Nebraska ships corn to Oswego at fifteen cents per bushel, and imports 
corn starch at fifteen cents per pound, and canned sweet corn at fifteen cents per 
pint. Virginia sells red cedar timber to Massachusetts at twelve dollars per acre, 
and imports cedar pails at twelve dollars per dozen. Louisiana ships raw sugar 
at nine cents per pound, and imports confectionery at twice the price. Texas ships 
hides at eight cents per pound, and imports boots at eight dollars per pair. Caro- 
lina sends timber for wagons to Philadelphia at low prices, and imports wagons 
from Indiana at one hundred and twenty-five dollars each. New Hampshire makes 
pine fish packages of high priced material, and sends them to the cheap pine lands 
of Wisconsin, to put white fish in. And so it is through an 'endless list of our 

That is the disease which is eating out our vitals. Producer and consumer are 
too far apart. Long lines of transportation and armies of traffickers absorb our 
substance, as the sands of the desert diminish the volume of the waters of the 
rivers which flow across them. Manifestly the only remedy for this evil is to bring 
producer and consumer nearer together. 

Why is a piece of land amid the iron furnaces of Pennsylvania worth one hun- 
dred dollars per acre, while the same quality can be bought in Carolina for twenty- 
five dollars ? A piece of land near the Lowell .cotton factories is worth one or two 
hundred dollars per acre, while the same quality in Iowa would not bring five 
dollars. Near New York city, men make money by tilling lands worth five hundred 
dollars or more per acre. Texas cattle-raising will not pay the interest on one- 
twentieth of that sum. Why this tremendous difference? Simply and only 
' because, in Pennsylvania, Lowell and New York the producer and consumer are 
close together. In Carolina, Iowa and Texas they are apart, and their substance 
is consumed on the road to support an army of carriers and speculators. 

The history of the world and its present condition has established this fact — 
that all countries are poor which export crude, raw material, and import the manu- 
factured article ; and the tendency of the people is all the time towards a condition 
of dependence. To this there have been no exceptions, and we would do well to 
" heed the warning, and escape the doom." Where the great industries — ^Agricul- 
ture and Manufactures — are equally developed, there general prosperity is assured. 
The managers of the Fair of the Carolinas fully recognize this, a& is shown in this 

172 A Western Farmer's Talk to the Farmers of the South. 

exhibition, where the agriculturist and the manufacturer meet on a common ground 
to contend for the bloodless glories of industrial skill. 

AVe have lately seen some very pretty pictures in which the central figure is a 
ruddy-faoed farmer, holdhig his spade, and saying, " I pay for all," Permit me 
to protest against the unpardonable egotism and palpable untruthfulness of 
these words. The miner who raises the dead ore from the bowels of the earth ; 
the swarthy smelter who purifies it by tlie alcliemy of fervent heat, and the brawny 
vulcan who forms and burnishes the gleaming plough-share, behold the culmina- 
tion of their labors in the ripening coi'n, as truly as the dusty farmer who guides 
it through the fertile soil. 

The inventors' thoughts — the miners' delving — the machinists' cunning and toil 
changed to muscles of steel and heart of oak, appear on our harvest fields, and 
sweep down the golden grain with the precision of clock-work and the speed of 
the tornado. They appear and abide by our firesides, a thing of beauty and a 
joy forever, relieving our wives and our daughters of .days and nights of tedious 
stitching. He who captures the wild waterfall, and tames it to twirl the spindle 
and throw the shuttle, as honestly pays for the cloth he wears as he who gathers 
the snowy cottoii boll, or shears the bleating sheep. 

In a state of civilization, agriculture and manufactures are strangely dependent 
on each other. Firmly and closely interwoven, they are the warp and woof of the 
great industrial faW'ic ; weaken the warp, it breaks athwart — destroy the woof, it 
parts all along. The highest civilization — the fullest national prosperity, can only 
be achieved by their equal development. And towards that end will be directed 
the efforts of all sound economists. 

Carolinians are justly proud of their record. They point to the forests sul)due(l, 
and their sites occupied by great fields of cotton — dank swamps cleared and bear- 
ing a wealth of nutritious rice — cities and towns teeming with human beings — the 
noble array of soldiers and statesmen whoso names shed their brilliant lustre on 
American history, and to their wonderful natural resources. But however muth 
has been already accomplished, the j)resent citizens need not, like Alexander, weep 
that there are no more worlds to conquer. Splendid as is the past to wliich you 
look back, the future to which you are looking forward is full of opportunities far 
more brilliant. 

The natural resources of the Carolinas are comparatively uutouclud. The 
many mountain streams that now go bubbling, laughing and singing in itlleness 
towards the .sea, wiusting their strength in dancing and hiding their beauty in soli- 
tude, arc to be harnessed to the water-wheel and taught to tirelessly and patiently 
toil for the artisan. They will turn thousands of spindles and throw thousands of 
shuttles, changing the raw cottons from your plantations to innumerabk', useful, 
beautiful and costly fabrics. Every turn of tlie steridy going water-wheel adds 
.steadily to the value of the raw material, until Jiiially it comes forth from the mills 
a highly finished product ; and the world will stand ready to take your cloths, 
prints, threads and laces at prices which will bring dollars to the country where 
the raw cotton now only brings dimes. 

A Westei-n Farmers Talk to the Farmers of the South. 173 

Those boundless forests are a mine of undeveloped wealth. Ou mountain and 
plain they should resound with the music of swiftly turning saws, cunningly devised 
machinery, and the voices of busy men. Every crop of the farm — all the wood 
of the forest, all the products of the mines should receive here at home all the 
labor which can be profitably put into them, and go forth from your midst finished, 
and ready to supply the wants of the Avorld's markets. Only thus can a State 
obtain the full benefit of her natural resources. 

In the Carolina of the future — the Carolina of which Carolinians may be doubly 
proud — the planter from the soil, the lumberman from the forest and the miner 
from the mines will raise the raw material. The mechanic will receive, elaborate 
and perfect it. There will be villages on the streams musical with the hum of 
busy industry — the homes of intelligent, thrifty, contented artisans. They will 
be surrounded by highly cultured fields tilled by thoughtful and prosperous 
owners. There will be rich cities on the sea, from which will go out white Avino-ed 
ships, bearing the fine products of Carolinian industry, and bringing back in 
return the " wealth of Ormus or of lud." The great swamps shall Avave with 
crops of rice, the plains whiten with cotton, the intervals yield the golden maize, 
the mountain sides shall revel in the beauties of vineyards, orchards and shepherd's 
flocks. And everywhere amid this teeming population, the school-hou^ w^ill occupy 
a foremost place, affording to the youth of every degree that mental training which 
alone can fit the people of a commonwealth to intelligently pei*form their duties as 

For the accomplishment of all this, and more, nature, with a lavish hand, has 
placed the means above, around, beneath you. It remains for the citizens to de- 
velope them to the glory and prosperity of the State. The task is no pastime, but 
one of herculean proportions. Intelligence, industry, perseverance, rigid economy 
and time will be required to conquer. Whoever of Carolina's sons shall initiate 
and push to culmination this grand work, will write his name on the scroll of fame 
above that of Ben Hudson's. 

Carolinians, I thank you for the patience with whicli you have listened to this 
rambling talk, and wish to say in closing, that the remembrance of the hearty 
welcome I have received at your hands will go with me, and its warmth cling 
around my heart amid the snows which mantle my Northern home. 

Successful Farming.— Judge F. M. Wood, of Barbour County, Ala., is report- 
ed as having cultivated, the past season, one acre of " poor, sandy land,"- on which 
the only fertilizer used was 80 bushels of cotton seed, with the following results : 
He sowed it, in January, with oats, from which he gathered 4,G06 pounds in the 
slieaf, and, at 61.50 per hundred weight, realized 669.09. In June he planted corn, 
and among it, at the suitable time, sowed peas. He gathered 14^ bushels of corn, 
worth SI per bushel ; 8f bushels of peas, worth $1.50 per bushel ; and 486 pounds 
of fodder, worth SI per hundred pounds ; the total amounting to 6101.82. These 
crops having been all harvested, the land is now sowed in rye for winter pasturage. 

174 The Art of Composting. 

The Art of Composting. 

It is from the neglect of this highly useful and important art, that our plantere 
and farmers are responsible for so many sterile and uncultivated fields, and for so 
many high priced and complicated fertilizers. As long as the planter takes from 
his fields all that they ^vill bring and carries it away, so long will the land he 
plants become poorer and poorer, until cropping is uurenumerative. 

This is the present condition of most of the lands in the Southern Atlantic States; 
and in order to compete with the great cotton States in the Southwest, our planters 
have to furnish to their lauds nearly all the elements required for plant-food. 

Hence has sprung up a trade in so-called " Commercial Fertilizers," in which 
all these elements, or the most important of them, are, or are said to be. These 
diflferent elements occur in commerce in many and various forms, and are brought 
from difl^erent and widely separated places, so that to obtain them, import them, 
combine them, and sell them, requires considerable knowledge, judgment, capital, 
and skill. It is evident that if any of these ingredients can be furnished and com- 
bined by the planter, the resulting fertilizer will be cheaper, and the saving will 
be proportioftal to the cost of the ingredient. 

If the fvJwle crop were returned to the field as manure, all the ingredients would 
be furnished for the succeeding one; but in practice some (and that generally the 
richest in plant-food) is exported, and the residue is too often tossed aside and 
neglected. Thus all that the planter can do, is to save some of this j^lant-food, 
while a large part of that exported has still to be bought from a manufacturer of 
those particular elements. 

Now it so happens that those elements which the jilanters can save, are just the 
most expensive of those which he purchases, so that it becomes a most important 
point for him to consider the ways and means by which this saving of those ele- 
ments can be effected. This is the art of composting. 

Nothing in this world is easy; aid all things to be well done, must be done 
with accurate knowledge and careful judgment. The art of composting is no 
exception to this, and in order to compost intelligently, the planter nnist know 
something about the chemistry of organic and inorganic substances, and the laws 
by Avhidi he must work. As, owing to (he great difiircntiation of kuoAvlcdgc, we 
cannot expect all ])lanters to acquire this knowledge, it becomes the duty of the 
chemist to interrogate nature, study her laws, and then impart to him the results. 

All plants or portions of them when they die, and arc left exposed to air and 
moisture, undergo decom])Osition, that is the highly complex arrangement of their 
atoms is bnjken up, and more simple forms are assumed. 

This decomposition may take place in two ways : First, by eremacauj^is or slow 
decay, which is an oxidizing process; second, by putrefaction or fermentation, 
which is a reducing process ; the only difTorence between pufrrfactiou and fermen- 
tation being that in the former ofl^eusive odors are emitted, iiiid in the latter, none. 

Eremacausis requires an excess of free oxygen, and therefore, takes place in 
bodies freely exposed to the air, while putrefaction, though it seems to require 

The Art of Comjyosting . 175 

oxygen to commence, only proceeds in the absence of oxygen, or at least when 
that element is present only in small quantity. Thus if we take a substance under- 
going slow decay, and exclude the atmosphere, putrefaction sets in ; and vice versa, 
if we take a body in putrefactive decomposition, and expose it freely to the air, 
the rapid decomposition ceases, and slow oxidation ensues. 

The final results of these two methods of decomposition differ considerably, 
and are of especial importance, in this inquiiy. 

In eremacausis or slow decay the carbon and oxygen unite to form carbonic 
acid ; the hydrogen and oxygen to form water, while nearly all the nitrogen 
escapes as free gas, a small portion only forming nitric acid ; while in putrefaction 
a portion only of the carbon unites to form carbonic acid, some of it escaping in 
combination with hydrogen as marsh gas, some as carbonic oxide, while a large . 
portion remains as humus. The hydrogen also, though mostly combining as water, 
yet also forms marsh gas, and remains as one of the elements of humus ; while all 
the nitrogen unites with hydrogen to form ammonia. 

Thus it appears that the object of the planter should be to arrange his materials 
so as to produce putrefaction, and at the same time to retain those valuable pro- 
ducts which may escape as gas or in solution in drainage water. 

The materials to be used, are nearly all the refuse of the farm, stable, cattle-pen, 
kitchen and house ; the only things to be avoided, are wood ashes, and lime ; these 
must not be put in a heap, because they evolve ammonia from any combination in 
which it is, but if they are desired on the land, can be sprinkled after ploughing 
and previous to harrowing ; the lime, especially, doing most good when kept near 
the surface. Weeds also after seeding, should be excluded ; as they will give end- 
less trouble when they sprout. 

Straw, corn-stalks, cotton-stalks, muck, clearings of fence corners, leaves, all are 
useful ; but in the South, the cheapest, most abundant, and most valuable ingre- 
dient is cotton seed ; here we have an inexhaustible supply of that most costly 
ingredient, ammonia, and also a considerable amount of potash and phosphoi'ic 
acid ; and it is to this compost that we now direct your attention. 

If cotton seed were wetted, piled and left, in a short time it would " heat," and 
putrefaction setting in, nearly all the nitrogen would escape as ammonia, while the 
other inorganic matters in small quantity, Avould be left ready for the next crop. 
The object, therefore, to be attained, is to retain the ammonia in an available state, 
and to increase the amounts of the other valuable elements. The one in least 
quantity Is phosphoric acid, so that the object resolves itself, into retaining the am- 
monia of the seed and adding soluble phosphoric acid. This is done by compost- 
ing the cotton seed with the soluble phosphoric acid of the manufacturer ; and it 'is 
evident that the greater the percentage of soluble phosphoric acid in the purchased 
article, the greater the percentage of ammonia and soluble phosphoric acid in the 
compost. The ordinary way of retaining ammonia escaping from a compost heap, 
is to sprinkle with piaster, or to put a layer of earth. In the former case a mutual de- 
composition ensues, and sulphate of ammonia and carbonate of lime are formed ; 
while in the latter case; the gas is absorbed by the earth, with probably the same 
and also other chemical reactions. 

176 The Art of Compodlng. 

In the retention, by means of the dissolved bone or acid phosphates of com- 
merce, both phosphoric acid and plaster being present, the ammonia can be 
retained both as phosphate and sulphate, so that there is very little danger of any 
of it escaping into the atmosphere and being lost. 

For the construction and management of a compost heap, the following mode 
of procedure is recommended : 

In selecting the location, a slight incline should be chosen ; and from any point 
as a centre, lay ofi' on each side four feet ; now dig a small ditch on the centre 
line, say twelve inches deep and twelve inches wide, as long as may be necessary, 
and sink a barrel or keg at its mouth to catch the drainings ; slope down the space 
from each outside line of the four feet radius to the ditcli, and if the planter be 
thrifty, cover loosely with plank the whole bottom ; haul the materials to the spot, 
and commence building the pile from below upwards. 

Having thoroughly soaked the cotton seed with all the water it will absorb, mix 
it intimately with the dissolved bone, and build up the pile to any convenient 
height like the roof of the house, giving enough slope to shed rain ; finish each 
section to the top, sprinkle on the outside with dissolved bone, and cover with hay 
or stra^Y like a stack ; then proceed in like manner with the next section above ; 
the advantage of /m«Am<7 each section being that decomposition starts sooner, so 
that by the time the last section is done, the first will the sooner be ready ; neatly 
finish up the job and leave to nature. 

In about a week to ten days, active putrefaction has set in, and the interchange 
of elements above referred to goes on. The drainage water in the barrel should 
be poured back on the pile from time to time, and the interior of the pile exam- 
ined as to its temperature and dampness, by running a small grooved pole into it ; 
should it be dry, and not moist, all action will cease, and water should be poured 
on the top; after the interior of the seeds is disintegrated, the heat dimiuL^lu's, and 
the compost may be used ; but if the pile be composed of material other than cotton 
seed, and not so easily decomposable (such as straw, leaves, etc.,) when the heat 
nearly ceases, the pile should be turned. 

It is sometimes asked whether the mixture of seed and dissolved bone could not 
be as advantageously made in the soil ; but it would ajipear not, for the following 
reasons : 

If the mixture is made in the soil, the conditions are more favorable for erema- 
causis, or slow decay, than for putrefaction, owing to the more free adeess of oxygen ; 
so that the nitrogen of the seed would go ofi' as free gas, and any of it that would 
be inclined to form ammonia, from putrefaction occurring in some portion uf the 
mass, would be induced by the presence of the carbonated bases iu the soil to form 
nitric acid, wliicli is much more readily lixiviated tlian ammonia. As also iu the 
germination of seeds some nitrogen escapes as free gas, so in the soil, where the 
germination would proceed farther than in the pile, more nitrogen would be lost. 

In the pile, the seed, owing to moisture, sprouts, and the young plant, from 
contact with the acid of the dissolved bone, and from a want of oxygen, light, and 
from the heat, dies, and is then subject to the laws of jtutrefactive decomposition ; 
the valuable nitrogen uniting with hydrogen to form ammonia, which is imme- 

Ploughing at the Orangeburg County Agricultural Fair. 177 

diately seized by the pb6splioric acid and retained, the matter may be thus tabu- 
lated : 

Objections against mixing in the Soil. I Points in favor of the pile. 

Loss of Nitrogen. 1 Nitrogen saved as Ammonia. 

Less Hnmus. 

Formation of Nitric Acid ratlier than Am- 

Hmnus formed. 
Rapid decomposition. 

Ill conclusion, I would suggest that the planters make some comparative experi- 
ments on the two modes, and give information as to the results ; for though the 
chemical theory may be in favor of the pile, the difference in the yield of the crop 
may not compensate for the greater expense of composting. 


Ploughing at the Orangeburg County Agricultural Fair. 

Having attended all three of the Orangeburg Agricultural Fair ploughing 
matches, so far, I have noticed the evident lack of preparation by the^'ageuts of im- 
proved ploughs to show fully their merits to the public. It is not only a passive 
injustice to the inventors, owners and salesmen ; but it is actually giving the cham- 
pions of the country grasshopper ploughs (Floppers) the opportunity to crow. 

Many intelligent, well educated, successful planters, have never used an improved 
plough, and some of our blacksmiths aver, that they can make a plough that will 
turn under grass as well as the expensive improved kind. Now have Collins, Brin- 
ley, Avery and others been manufacturing and selling for thirty or forty years at 
prices ranging from five so twer^ty-five dollars, when our knowing neighbor can 
make articles that can do the work just as well for two? If it is so, it is time we 
were convinced. If it is not so, then will the Agricultural Societies stick a pin 
there, and for next year invite special competition from the piney woods shops for 
a good round premium in money, and appoint a committee that have ploughed, 
(not sat on the fence and looked on) with both, and all kinds, to decide — I think 
it will tell. Another matter — a lawn of sandy loam is no place to test any plough. 
The agricultural grounds here, afforded a tolerably difficult field for this year, 
though only in sandy soil, but with good coat of fallen crab-grass — unfortunately 
no clay, pea vines, or tall broom sedge. ' 

Present, the three gentlemanly agents, representing the Collins, Brinley, and 
Avery ploughs. Superintendent, committees, and several supernumeraries and 
lookers on ; the ploughing appeared to be a matter of not much importance. 

The two-horse ploughing Avent off very well, with the exception of a few mis- 
takes of the ploughman, a colored carpenter, who knows no more about ploughing 
than he does about the use of a pen, helped by the different suggestions of almost 
every one on the ground. 

The first furrow (of six) was turned very well, of course ; the second was turned 
back against the first, tumbling most of the first back where it came from ; the soil 
and clods of the second falling in behind the plough. The pair of third furrow 

178 Ploughing at the Orangeburg County Agricultural Fair. 

slices were left standing on edge, as they could not well be turned over the upheaved 
clods of the second. The difficulty would have been overcome if the first two 
slices had been taken thin so as not to fall back, leaving a clean furrow for the 

The one-hoi-sc ploughing by Mr. Carpenter, and coadjutor equally skilful. Mule 
walks in the furrow whore he has beeu used to go — -plough follows in the furroxo 
as a matter of course. Mule is hawed to the left on to the latid, where he is not 
accustomed to walk, by a dozen voices. Plough shoots to the left — shoots to the 
right — clogs — is jumped out by Carpeutez', the way he does with floppcrs, skipping 
a few feet every time. Plough dips down, shoots out, dips down again, and is well 
shaken up from side to side, as would be done to one of the refractory little Car- 
penters who might misbehave ; the plough, of course, making corresponding little 
potato hills for every shake. At the close every one was satisfied, for every one 
had a voice in it, and there were specimens of all kinds of ploughing. Supernu- 
merary No. 1, is ambitious to plough. He walks on the left of the plough ; super- 
numerary No. 2, suggests that he should turn over refractory soils with his foot ; 
supernumerary No. 3, insists that j>fo?(^/i»ian should walk in the furrow after the 
plough ; supernumerary No. -4, suggests that he straddle his legs, go on both sides, 
and so comply with the views of all. 

A Avord on the coulter. A sharp knife merely pressed against your fine cloth 
coat will not cut, but even a dull one, slightly drawn lengthwise, will. It is the 
same with the coulter. In solid sward, the revolving coulter will, undoubtedly, 
cut well ; but with a cotton-like bed of crab-gniss, on a sandy loam, it will cither 
roll over or press in the most of it, to be gathered by the plough. The height of 
the beam from the surface of the soil, of the large ploughs, oidy keeps them from 
clogging badly. The shape of the Watt plough is difiorent and it looks as though 
it might be superior in this respect. 

All the ploughs on exhibition were so skilfully got up and so excellently shaped, 
that 'twould be difficult even for an expert to choose, much more so for a novice. 
If poetry, and the plough might touch finger tips, I might write-r 

"Oh! I could be happy with either, 
Were to'ther dear eharmer away." 

Coming down a few notches, we may notice the Watt and Dixie, (both unscoured.) 
They should not have been brought into competition with the polished Brinley, 
Avery and Collins, and other ploughs 'Tis not doing all parties justice. Like 
the countrymen at the village frolic, the good qualities are there, but under a 
cloud. No doubt nine out of ten would think differently, but as a breaking up 
plough in trashy land, I should prefer the Dixie, the weight being a little objec- 
tionable — next the Watt. As to the small ones, they are all good and beautiful, 
and I believe when only one is u.scd, the i)urcluiser is always prejudiced in its 

Looking over the price list handed me by the courteous representative from C. 
Gravdey, of Charle^jton, the cuts of the " Universal Plough " make me think it the 
most promising investment to one who Ls short of money, liraius can certainly 

Irrigation, Underdraining and Stibsoiling. 179 

make almost any crop with industry and the different parts of this changeable 
Brinley plough. 

If f may be permitted, I would suggest a long and a short wing of saw blade 
steel two inches wide to attach to the right side of the piece marked No. !!,■ thus 
making a half sweep throwing only one way. 

One word of the inside Fair. It is evidently a double leap. The feminine de- 
partment, including sweetmeais, animate and inanimate, was, as with Adam, a temp- 
tation, an illusion, and a mystification. After passing a small table with some bolts 
of homespun, a home made homespun.shirt, and one or two pairs of socks, stockings, 
etc. ; full two-thirds of the remainder was occupied by the bijouterie of femininity 
" Hands Off the Articles." Your correspondent has hid his masculine fingers 
under his coat tails for very fear, and walked through the sea of crocheting gone 
mad and the froth and foam of sewing machines, cogitating what proportion the 
labor of all this would bear, to that of the contents, of the single table of simple 
but useful articles, contributed by open extra sensible women. 

But writing up the Fair is left to abler pens, though this will be added. The 
persistent eff(}rts of the Past blaster of Orange Grange, P. of TI., who is also the 
President of the Orangeburg Agricultural and Mechanical Association, aided by 
several of the directors has at last broken the shell which encumbered the Agri- 
cultural Society chicken. It is now downy but it is to be hoped that it will soon 
be able to feather its own nest with plumage of its own growing. 

Orangeburg, November 3d, 1873. M. L. BALDWIN. 

Irrigation, Underdraining and Subsoiling. — II. 


We have already found that irrigation is necessary to successful farming, and 
it is also equally true, that underdraining is not less so. 

This may be defined to be the process by which wet and unhealthy lands, may 
be rendered healthy, and the removal of excessive moisture in lands, which taken 
with irrigation is a reminder of the boy who blew the fire to roast his corn, and 
then blew the corn to cool it ; and so, while we benefit our soil by an application 
of water it is also necessary to remove the excess of Avater before we can derive 
the full benefit. The origin of drainage may be traced to remote antiquity. 

In most, if not all of the Eastern nations, both irrigation and underdraining as 
well as as other most valuable practices in agriculture were well known and suc- 
cessfully applied. 

The ancient Roman writers, Cato, Palladius, Columella and Pliny mention the 
the practice of underdraining and describe the methods by which it was performed. 
So, too, the Qreeks practiced the art by means of immense underground works. 

And so, passing through the French and English nations, the practice has 
descended to our own times. 

There is no question as to the great necessity of the practice of underdraining. The 
committee on that subject, in a report to the State Agricultural Society of New 

180 Irrigation, Underdraining and Subsoiling. 

York, iu 1848, assert that, "There is not oue farm out of every seventy-five in that 
State, but needs draining — yes, much draining — to bring it into high cultivation." 
We frequently hear farmers complain of some condition of the weather, or pecu- 
liarity of the season, as affecting their crops ; but we hear no man say he lacked 
skill in the cultivation. Seldom, too, does a farmer attribute his failure to a poverty 
of the soil ; but the season has been too wet. or too dry, when in fact, too much 
cold water is at the bottom of most of these complaints of unpropitious seasons, as 
well as lack of fertility of most of our soils ; and it is iu our power to remove the 
cause of these complaints, and of our want of success. 

" The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, 
But in ourselves." 

The necessity of draining, however, does not depend exclusively upon the quan- 
tity of water which falls or flows upon land, nor upon the power of the sun to 
carry it off by evaporation, but upon the character of the subsoil. Nature herself 
has kindly done the work of draining, in part at least, upon a large proportion of 
our lands, where the same, or the subsoil is sandy or porous. 

The advantages to be derived from drainage are many, being both mechanical 
and chemical, and classed by different writers, from ten to twelve or more in num- 
ber. One of the first is, that underdrainage removes all stagnant water from the 
surface. On an underdrained soil, the water becomes stagnant, because the pores 
of the surface soil are already filled with water which has no means of escape other 
than by evaporation. 

The hard impervious subsoil prevents its filtering through it, and it therefore 
remains where the roots will be injured by it. Chemists assert that four times the 
amount of heat is required to convert water into vapor, that is required to bring 
it from the freezing point to that of boiling ; hence there is in case of water left to 
be removed- by evaporation an excessively large amount of heat wjisted which 
should go to promote the growth of some farm crop. Therefore, if uuderdrains 
are formed, the water of necessity must pass through the pores of the soil, and in 
turn allows a free passage of surface water, and this again in turn the pjissage of 
the air, by which means the soil becomes chemically acted upon, disintegrated, and 
opened for the passage of the roots of plants. In evaporation, orgauic and mineral 
matters, iu the form of gases, pass ofi with the vajior, thus leaving the ground 
poorer; while in filtration, caused by underdraining, these substances become fixed 
in the earth, for the nourishment of the future plant. Wet lands also being filled 
with water, in winter becoming congealed cause the same to "heave up," and with 
any alternate thawing again settling together, to be again frozen, whereby grains 
that have been planted, are greatly exposed, their roots in many instances being 
severed, and the plants themselves thrown out, and as it is usually termed winter 

This is iu a great measure prevented by underdraining. Drainage also removes 
all surplus water under the surface. An excess of water, produces a corresponding 
diminution of air beneiith the surface, which is of the greatest possilile consequence 
iu tiie nutrition of plants; iu fact, if tlu' same wcr(; entirely excluded, germination 

In'igation, Underdraminff and &ii6soiling. 181 

would not take place, and seed sown would either lie dormant or decay. The excess 
of water also reduces the temperature of the soil. If water does not pass oft' from a 
soil by natural or artificial means, it must escape if at all by means of evaporation, 
and it is an established fact that heat disappears in the conversion of water into 
vapor. Morton in his Encyclopedia of Agriculture estimates that it would require 
the consumption of twenty-four hundred pounds of coal per day to evaporate arti- 
ficially the rain which falls on an acre during a single year. It is also stated on 
high authority, that drainage raises the temperature of the soil from 15° to 30° F. 
Heat does not pass downward in water, therefore a soil saturated with water must 
remain cold, because the heat of the sun cannot warm it below the wet surface ; 
heat must be conducted downward by som^other medium than water. 

Thorough draining deepens the soil. No roots except those of aquatic plants 
will grow in stagnant water ; then the lower the line of stagnant water the greater 
the depth to which the roots of plants can descend, and therefore the more exten- 
sive the feeding ground for the roots. The elements of nutrition are not all at the 
surface, much is washed down by the rains, and by a sort of instinct the plants 
search for and find these in the deep portions, as well as at the surface if no obstacle 
appears ; the feeding ground of plants is therefore largely increased. 

It also allows of pulverization of the soil. It was TuU's theory that by the com- 
minution or minute divisions of the soil, alone, without the application of manure, 
the fertility of laud might be permanently maintained. This fact he also actually 
demonstrated by the cropping of a field for about twelve successive years with no 
application of fertilizers. It is clear that a wet soil cannot be pulverized to any 
considerable extent, for the reason, as every person has observed, that ploughing 
wet loamy lands has a tendency rather to press them together, and being filled 
with water the introduction of air is prevented, which is an important agent in the 
comminution of the soil. 

Prof Johnston says : " When rain falls upon heavy undrained lands, or upon 
any land into which it does not readily sink, it runs over the surface, dissolves any 
soluble matter it may meet with, and carries it to the nearest ditch or brook. Rain 
thus robs and impoverishes such land." Therefore if the land be properly drained, 
the rain as it falls sinks into the soil, where it is absorbed, saturating the soil in its 
descent, carrying the soluble substances with it to the roots of plants, and the sur- 
plus water is conveyed away by means of the artificial channels produced by 

Thorough draining lengthens the season for labor and vegetation, for the reason 
that on drained fields, as before stated there is a perfect aeration of the soil, the 
same is much sooner warmed in spring, whereby earlier cultivation may be pursued, 
and again, such lauds admit of being much sooner worked after a storm of rain. 
It IS estimated that iil New England as much as two weeks may be gained in the 
spring in which to prepare for the introduction of the crop. 

^ T. G. Yeomans of New York, in a statement of his experience, says, " that on 
his drained lands the ground becomes almost as dry in two or three days after the 
frost comes out in spring, or after a heavy rain, as it would do in as many weeks 
before draining. 

182 Irrigation, Uaderdraining and Snhsoiling. 

Drainage prevents drought. Water or moisture is held in the soil by capillary 
attraction, and it is clear that if the particles of the soil are more minute, there is 
more space presented for holding water than where the same is closely compacted, 
and it has been shown that the tendency of draining is to pulverize the soil, hence 
its power and extent for holding moisture is increiiscd. Again, as has also been 
stated, drainage deepens the soil, removing the water line much further from the 
surfece, and consequently allowing the roots of plants to extend much deeper into 
the soil, which, of course, removes them much further from the effects of a 
drought. Mr. Joseph Harris, an eminent agriculturist, has said : " An under- 
drained soil will be found damper in dry weather than an undraiued one, and a 
thermometer shows a drained soil to be^varmer in cold weather, and cooler in hot 
weather than one^ which is undrained. 

Drainage supplies air to the roots. Plants, although they do not breathe air 
like animals, require a constant supply to sustain life. 

Says Liebig, " all plants die in soils and water destitute of oxygen ; absence of 
air acts exactly as an excess of carbonic acid. Stagnant water excludes air, but a 
renewal of water has the same efiects as a renewal of air, because water contains it 
in solution. When the water is withdrawn from a meadow free access is given to 
air, and the meadow is made more fruitful." 

Animal and vegetable matter do not decay unless freely supplied with oxygen, 
and, therefore, the more rapid the decay, the more availal>le the same becomes to 
the plant ; drainage, therefore, assists the action of manure. 

Thorough drainage promotes absorption of fertilizing substances from the atmos- 
phere. The atmosphere bears upon its bosom not only oxygen which has been 
shown to be essential to plant life, and Avater in the form of vapor, to quench the 
thirst of plants, l)ut also various substances which rise from the sea, from the 
decomposition of animal and vegetable matter, from the l)reathing of living ani- 
mals, from comljustion, and many other causes. Tliese wo\ild in time corrupt the 
air, and render the same unfit for respiration, did not nature by the intricate and 
wonderful laws of compensation provide for its purification. This is elfectcd by 
condensation and falling rain, in which, as hius been stated, these substances are 
carried into the soil, or by means of direct absorption by the soil. Johnston says 
that " a clayey soil often absorbs one-thirtieth of its own weight in one night;" 
then how great is this power of soils of abstracting from the atmosphere these fer- 
tilizing substances, and what remarkable additions to their fertility. It is also the 
unanimous opinion of all who have observed closely, that the plants and fruits 
grown upon an underdrained soil are more fully developed, and of much bettor 
quality tlian those grown (jn undrained soil. In fact, every farmer must iiave 
observed this iu the difl'ereuce in quantity and (puility of crops grown upon por- 
tions of his farm that were considered comparatively dry, and others inclined to 
an excess of moisture. 

Finally, in making a summary of the general effects of drainage that have been 
demonstrated, it is fount! that thorough underdrainiug 

Removes stagnant waters from the surface. 

Removes surplus water fVonj un«ler the surface. 

The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation. 183 

Leiigtbens the seasons. 

Deepens the soil. 

Warms the under soil. 

Equalizes the temperature of the soil during the season of growth. 

Carries down soluble substances to the roots of plants. 

Prevents " freezing out " " or heaving out." 

Increases the eSect of manure. 

Improves the quantity and quality of crops. 

A more enlarged and general, or what might justly be termed a philanthropic 
view of the subject, will readily detect considerations of great moment ; in the gen- 
eral healthfulness of climate, which would result from the drainage of large areas 
that are now saturated, and in many instances covered with stagnant waters, and 
which are sufficient to pollute the atmosphere by their pestilential exhalations. 

It is sufficient for the purposes of this essay, to consider only some of the benefits 
to farming operations. WM. H. YEOMAXS. 

Columbia, Conn. 

The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation. 

It is very important that farmers endeavor to raise as many of the necessaries 
of life as possible, and there is no crop that can be produced so easily and abun- 
dantly which adds more to the comfort of our families, than the Potato. The 
difficulty generally lies in preserving them. 

"We can easily raise from one to three hundred bushels per acre. I think 
one reason they do not keep well is that the ground is manured too highly, which 
makes the potatoes sappy and watery, consequently more liable to rot. I do not 
manure highly, mj/ object not being to make the largest yield, but to produce such 
as will keep best, I use only rough woods-rakings, I generally get about two hun- 
dred bushels per acre of medium sized potatoes. The land should be naturally 
tolerably fair, loose, sandy soil, capable of producing ten bushels corn per acre. 
The rows should be at lesst 4-^ or 5 feet apart, and the potatoes should be planted 
24 or 30 inches apart in the drill. Good room will increase the size of the 

I plant the golden yam, or, as it is generally called the " pumpkin yam." I 
find these not only the nicest table potato, but the best keeper. They are also 
'quite prolific, I only plant one half acre, and we have them in abundance from the 
time of digging until the Irish potatoes come in April. 

By planting the slip, we obtain a better quality of potato than from the " draws," 
but the latter will yield more. 

In the KuRAL Carolinian for October, 1872, will be found my method of 
banking potatoes, which I have never known to fail to keep them. I dug in Octo- 
ber after first frost and have not lost a peck out of one hundred bushels. I con- 
sider my potato crop (one half acre) is worth as much to my family as ten acres 
of same land in corn. The land should be thoroughly broken two or three times 


Basket Willow and its Cultivation. 

before planting. I plant just before I plant cotton, and cultivate almost entirely 
with the plough, avoiding drawing up beds high with hoe, but leaving them rather 
flat. The vines .should be raised up between the rows, witli a stiff stick, to prevent 
their taking root. This need not be done until they are laid by. The vines should 
be thinned out to one as soon as there is a stand — I cut vines and feed cattle and 
hogs if they seem inclined to go too much to vine. 

Darlington, S. C, January, 1873. SMALL FARMER. 

Basket ^A/illow and its Cultivation. 

Mr. A. V. Wallace, in the Jfcw York Tribune, describes his mode of cultivating 
the Osier Willow, as follows: 

While the willow is very hardy, and will gi'ow almost anywhere, where vegeta- 
tion can exist, I hud the land most specially ada])led to it is nuiek, or made 
soil that lias received the drainage and from higher surfaces. iSuch land 
should proiluce from four to live tons per acre. As the soil grows more wet the 
product will fill off until one or tw^o tons would be a gooil yield from a surfjice 
covered with water from ono to two months during tho growing sca'^on. On dry, 
hilly, and gravc^lly lauds, with little depth of soil, and good natural (Irainagc, the 
product is generally liglit without fertilizers — from one to two tons of greeu willows. 

The land shoidd be deep i)loughe(l and pulverized, and the sods and grass roots 
should !)e removed so far iis j)ossil)le. The cuttings should be eight inches in 
length, of well ripened wooil, and set six inches deep, at an angle of 45 degrees 
with the rows, the rows thirty inches apart, and the sets six inches in the rows. 
As th(^ cuttings are not expensive, it is better to thus insure a good stand than 
to be to the trouble of re-setting the next season. If the ground is dry enough 
I prefer to cultivate some small crop, like beans, between the rows the first season, 
as it will keep down grass and weeds until the willows can get a start. 

A Retrospective View of the Cotton Market. 


The first year the willows will amount to nothing for market, but must be cut 
just the same, as they will branch the second year if not so treated, and spoil them 
for peeling. The second year a light crop of from one to two tons may be expected, 
and so on to the tliird and fourth years, when the willows will become well rooted, 
and produce as large crops as ever. Particular care should be used in cutting 
them close to the ground, as they will stool out better, and facilitate the subsequent 
cutting. The cost of cutting is about $12 per acre. 

An English writer, quoted in the Monthly Report of the Department of Agri- 
culture, for September, 1873, describes a mode of planting by means of a frame, 
which marks the particular spot at which each cutting is to be inserted in the 
ground. This writer shows the importance of pushing the cuttings their whole 
1 length into the soil. Rods so planted, he says, sends out straight shoots, and when 
the crop is cut off close to the ground, manure can be applied to the land, ploughed 
between the rows and harroAved over, and kept as clean as an ordinary arable field. 
This, he adds, by many, will be looked upon very skeptically, but I have practised 
it for some years, and have every reason to be satisfied Avith the result. 

The accompanying illustration (for which we are indebted to Hon. J. R. Dodge, 
the accomplished editor of the " Reports," and statistician of the Department,) 
shows the difference between willows growing direct from the ground and those 
planted in the ordinary way. 

A Retrospective View of the Cotton Market. 


rears. Bales Cotton. Low Middling 

Price in Dee. 

1825-26 720,027 7^c. 

1826-27 9.57,281 7 c 

1827-28 727,593 9Jc. 

1828-29 870,415 8"c. 

1829-30 976,845 9 c. 

1830-31 1,038,848 8 c 

1831-32 987.487 10 c. 

1832-33 1,070,438 11 c. 

1833-34 1,205.324 16 c. 

1834-35 1,254,328 15.k. 

1835-36 1,360,752 16k. 

1836 37 1,422,930 le'c. 

1837-38 1,801,497 9ic. 

1838-39 1,300,532 8|c. 

1839-40 2,177,835 9ic. 

1840-41 1,634,945 ^c. 

1841-42 1,683,574 6 c. 

1842-43 2,378,875 8k. 

Fears. Bales Cotton. Low Middling 

Price in Dec 

1843-44 2,030,409 5 c. 

1844-45 2,394,503 7|c. 

1845-46 ....: 2,100,537 10 c 

1846-47 1,778,651 7fc. 

1847-48 2,347,634 5^0. 

1848-49 2,728,596 10k. 

1849-50 2,096,706 12"c. 

1850-51 2,355,2.57 8 c 

1851-52 3,015,029 9 c 

1852-53 3,262,882 9^c. 

1853-54 2,930,027 7k- 

1854-55 2,847,339 8^c. 

1855-56 3,527,845 12k. 

1856-57 2,939,519 9k. 

1857-58 3,113,962 ll^c. 

1858-59 3,8.51,481 11 c. 

1859-60 4,669,770 , 10 c. 

1860-61 3,656,086 No market. 


In December. Gold. Bales Cotton. Last of December. In July. 
1861 to 1865 No record. 

1865 to 1866 (133 ) 2,193,987 32 c 25 c. 

1866 to 1867 (134 ) 2,019,774 14 c 23 c. 

1867 to 1868 (183 ) 2,593,993 23 c .29 c. 

1868 to 1869 (120 ) ~... 2,439,039 22k 32 c. 

1869 to 1870 (llOf) 3,154,940 14k 18^c. 

1870 to 1871 (108f) 4,352,317 19 c 19k. 

1871 to 1872 (112 ) 2,974,351 19 c 21*0. 

1872 to 1873 (107^) 3,930,508 14 c. in November. 

No. 4, Vol. 5. 14 

186 A Retrospective View of the Cotton Market. 

Referring back for a period of 47 years, I find the prices of the nearest approxima- 
tion to uhat •sve now class Liverpool low middling cotton, as per statement in the 
foregoing list, taken from the quotations at Charleston, Savannah, Mobile and New 
Orleans. Up to Christmas, in 1860, the price of American cotton during the 
last week in December, for 33 years, at the Southern ports, averaged 9 7-10 cents, 
gold, or its equivalent per pound : In 43 years during Christmas week the average 
price (taking 14 cents this year as a basis of calculation) has been 10 58-100 cents 
in gold and paper currency. Since the war, during eight seasons, the Christmas 
prices have averaged 191 cents in currency, while the average price in July during 
the past eight years has averaged 22^ cents in currency. I have taken the two 
months of the year as far apart as possible, in which the price of the staple is 
usually lowest, to show my planting friends ahoxd what has been the range of 
prices, add the 191 cents and the 21i cents and we have 41 J cents, divide this 
equally, and 20 i cents per pound, may be considered as the minimum average, 
even selling under every disadvantage. The fluctuations have been excessive on 
account of the inflated paper currency, fearfully so, when carefully examined into, 
and I am satisfied from my examination into the matter, that the averaged price 
of middling cotton since ist January, 1866, to 1st January, 1874, at the Atlantic 
and Gulf ports will exceed 25 ^ cents, currency, per pound. Not including the 
present crop coming to market, there has been sold since the war, 23,658,915 bales 
cotton, which at 20^' cents per pound, realized $90 75 per bale, or two thousand 
three hundred and six millions, seyen hundred and forty- four thousand two hundred 
and ten dollars twenty-five cents. Yes ! $2,306,744,210 25-100, and yet there is 
a lamentable cry of hard times, no money, etc., in the South. 

"Where has a very great portion of this vast amount of money gone? Much of 
it is buried and hid, I know, the holders not daring, in the present condition of the 
South, to invest their hard earnings ; still there is a very large amount that has piissed 
from the rightful owner. Yes, it went to pay fearful rates of interest, 12, 15, 18, and 
24 per cent.; besides other extortionate charges have been levied upon the cotton 
grower, and notwithstanding their wonderful industry and the fruitfulness of the 
land, distress and hard labor, without relief, is their portion. You cannot borrow 
money at a rate over six or seven per cent, and iieed your little ones. AViiy strive 
at accomplishing what no other people have ever done yet, viz: borrow money to 
farm and pay the debt at any such absurd rate? Is it not time to reduce area? 
Curtail demand for labor? Cease to borrow money at ruinous rates, and be held 
up to the world at large as a poor, hard- working, but thriftless people? You buy 
your butter, weat, corn, hay, etc., inferior in quality, and at extravagant prices. 
You never have any comforts about y»u ; no recreation ; your country luis a for- 
lorn, bare and deserted look, and for what ? To make cotton, not knowing whether 
you will get half what it costs you to make it, or a hundred per cent, more ; you 
"go it blind " all the time. I have been a farm boy, cotton planter, and iyt?/ innny 
years a cotton Jador, and I tell you in all earnestness, you have to phmt kvss land 
and stop borrowing money, or abject poverty vixU be your lot. 

W. L. 

Timely Farm and Plantatwn Topics. 187 

Timely Farm and Plantation Topics. 

How Can We Raise Cotton Cheaply f 
As we suggested iu our last number, it is not wholly, or mainly, on account of 
small crops or low prices that our farming fails to pay a fair profit on the capital 
and labor employed in the business. We may make better crops, and that is one 
of the points to be kept constantly in view, but we shall hardly get higher prices 
than the average of the past few years. The principal difficulty with us, however, 
lies in the cost of making our crops. The outgoes are too heavy. The expense of 
making a bushel of corn or a pound of cotton is too great. To make farming more 
profitable, we must cheapen production. If it cost fourteen cents a pound to make 
cotton, it is evidently a losing business, when we get no more than that for it in 
market, less the factor's commission. But suppose we can make a pound of cotton 
for ten cents or for seven cent^, then the lowest prices likely to rule for a long time 
to come will give us a profit. How to make cotton cheaply is what we want to 
know. Planters, let us have your experience on this point. Let every one who 
has succeeded in reducing the cost of production in the cotton crop, either by 
improved methods of cultivation, or by labor saving appliances, tell us how it was 
done. What is the lowest cost at which upland cotton can be made per pound of 

MaJcing a Good Beginning. 

A bad beginning may make a good ending, as the adage has it, sometimes; but 
a good beginning is much better — in fact, in farming, at least, things generally go 
wrong through the whole year, if our operations are not promptly and judiciously 
commenced at the beginning of the season. It is easy to get off the track but hard to 
get on again. Above all, as we have repeatedly urged, make your arrangements 
for good provision crops of all kinds. After this do what you can in cotton. All 
the teachings of the last few years point to diversified industry as the policy and 
hope of the South. It is well that we grow cotton. We can grow it with profit, 
if we manage in a sensible way ; and the world wants and must have it ; but if we 
grow nothing else, we shall, as we have done in the past, enrich others while impov- 
erishing ourselves. Aim to make the plantation or the farm self-sustaining. There 
are crops which it would not pay to raise for market, which it does pay to raise 
for home supply. Cotton is a good thing, but not to eat ! 

Experiments, and How to Make Them. 

Experiments in agriculture are often exceedingly deceptive, and thousands of 
farmers are yearly led astray by them. But experiments properly made and care- 
fully recorded are nevertheless of the utmost value. Properly made experiments 
take account of many circumstances, such as the nature of the soil and its previous 
treatment and condition ; the character of the season, whether dry or wet, and the 
amount and quality of cultivation given the crop. It is for the want of this care- 
ful discrimination that they are deceptive, and often mislead instead of guiding 
aright the novice and the inquirer. 

188 Some Wonderful Plants and their Fate. 

A Prize for an Essay on the Grasses. 

R. G. Craig & Co., of Memphis, Tenn., offer a No. 4J Champion Mowing Ma- 
chine, which sells for $125. 00, for the best essay on the best mode of managing a 
meadow ; the kind of grasses, annual and perennial, best adapted to the different 
soils ; how to prepare the land ; when to sow ; and how to cure the hay. -All the 
essays to be their property, and the decision to be made by five disinterested judges, 
one to be chosen by the editor of each of the follo^ving papers : 

Rural Carolinian, Charleston, S. C. ; Southern Cultivator, Athens, Ga. ; Pfanta- 
tion, Atlanta, Ga. ; Our Home Journal, New Orleans, La. ; Philip's Southern Far- 
mer, Memphis, Tenn. 

Com Oidture and Puis in Farming. 

Col. Geo. E. Waring, of Ogden Farm, sets forth in the American Agricidiiirist, 
some rather startling notions on the corn crop, expressing the opinion that not one 
bushel of corn has been grown within five years anywhere in New England, New 
Jersey, or Eastern New York that has not cost more than it came to, that has not 
been grown at a positive loss. This is one of the ruts, he says, out of which it is so 
difficult to move the Yankee farmer ; so we of the South are not alone in our 
slavery to old routine, but the folly of keeping on the worn out track, wheu a new 
and better one has been pointed out, is none the less obvious. 


Some "Wonderful Plants and their Fate. 

The Gardener's Monthly has the following contribution to the history of the 
noted plants introduced, and much talked of within the last forty years. We feel 
tempted to add to the list, but refrain for the present : 

In January, 1835, "Hovey's Seedling Strawberry " was announced. Its virtues 
far 6urpa.ssed its praise. It was quickly distributed all over the nation, and reigned 
queen of good strawberries for twenty-five years, when Wilson's Albany Seedling 
took its place. 

In March, 1835, we learned of a new " Chinese corn." "A merchant, of New 
York, found a few grains in a tea box." Messrs. Thorburn, of New York, grew 
them in their gardens at Astoria; each .seed grew a stalk six feet tall, with many 
})ranches, like a tree, and produced numerous ears upon each branch, and the 
plant occupied no more space than a naked stalk of common garden corn; the 
ears were sweet for green corn. Its fame hunted three years. We have not heard 
of it since, but it was sold for twenty-five cents per ear the first two years. 

In 1836, the " Rohan potato" was introdiicj-d. It was a large, soil, deep-eyed 
and yellow flesh tuber, scarcely eatable. It first sold for twenty-five cents a tuber ; 
came down to five dollars per bushel, and lastly for five dollars per barrel. It got 
out of repute in four years. 

In 1837, a tall,, curled kale was introduced. The seeds sold for ten 
cents each, or ten seeds for one dollar. It was to grow five feet high, with a head 
as broud as a large umbrella, and the stalk covered with small cabbage heads. 

The Dove-Tail Mode of Grafting the Grape. 


Each plant was to serve a sheep all winter for food from its stalk, and the head 
would afford sufficient shelter ; it was to occupy only the space of a late cabbage 
it being a biennial, lasted four years. ^ ' 

In 1837, the " morus multicaulis " came forth. It was to make all cultivators 
millionaires, and all our people were to be clothed in silks and satins. Old and 
young, rich and poor grew it ; others got silk worms and fed them. The folly 
lasted four years. 

In 1,837, the " Lawton blackberry " sounded loud, and met a strong opposition, 
but Its superior virtues forced it into general culture, and is still a public favorite. 

The " ailanthus tree " made a tremendous noise about the same time. It was a 
very saint, and called the " tree of heaven." It is still in culture to the disgust of 
all its owners. 

About 1840, the "Paulownia imperialist tree" made a rustling sound, threat- 
ening to drive all other trees out of existence by its large, coarse, U'^'lv leaves. It 
is now out of favor. "^ ' 

In 1835, the love apple (tomato) was first put into general culture and use. It 
has proved to be a great blessing. 

About 1838, the general budding of pear scions upon quince roots began— that 
has greatly promoted our pear culture. 

_ About 1840, the general bedding out of tender exotic plants began— that has 
increased a taste for floriculture, and it is surprising now to see the vast number of 
choice species and improved varieties of ornamental plants now cultivated. The 
Golem, Achyranthus, and all the silver-leaved class, are charming to mix amontr 
the flowering classes. There have not been many additions to the sweet smelling 
class ; but the species and varieties are numerously grown to afford a pleasant per- 
tume all over the flower gardens. Ornamental climbers have greatlv increased 
and are very charming. ' ' 

The Dove-Tail Mode of Grafting the Grape. 

Mr. Johnston, a zealous British cultiva- 
tor of the vine, of long and extensive expe- 
rience, who has tried every method of grafting 
known, and has come to the conclusion that 
for vines there is no better method than that 
which he practiced for a number of years 
with every success, and which he has very 
properly termed "dove-tail grafting." It is 
simple, as well as sure, and fruit can be 
obtained from the graft the first year after 
its insertion. The grafting is performed in 
the following manner, and before the sap is 
in motion : The stock may be of one year's 
growth, or more ; but young wood from one 
to four years old is preferable. The places selected for inserting the graft should 
be opposite a bud, or spur, with one or more buds to draw the flow of sap to the 
scion, which also prevents bleeding. Having selected the stock, the wood should 
be cut out of it from 2 to 2J inches in length, to a depth corresponding to the 

190 The Malva Tree. — Horticultural Hints: for January. 

thickness of the scion, in the same manner as dove-tailing in carpentry is performed. 
The scion is then prepared by being cut into the pith, leaving the bud in the 
middle, and made to fit neatly into the stock, after ■which it is firmly tied with 
matting and clayed over, leaving a small hole opposite the bud, so as not to obstruct 
its growth. A little moss is then tied over all, and kept moist for some time till 
the bud begins to grow. After it has grown some length, the opposite shoots are 
shortened, and eventually taken off altogether. • 

The Malva Tree, (L,avatera Assurgentiflora.) 

The Sacramento Farmers' Club publishes the following report of this new and 
seemingly very valuable plant ; 

The Malva tree seems originally to have come from Japan ; its botanical name 
is Lavatera As-mrgcntiflora, and it is valuable for ornament, shade, and for feed for 
auifuals of all kiuds. It attains a maximum height of thirty feet in about eight 
years; is evergreen, and blooms nearly tlie whole year round. The trees grow 
from seeds which drop from the tree, and require no cultivation whatever. They 
grow rapidly, and in two years cattle could be allowed to brouse on them, as they 
do not eat the branches, only the large mucilaginous leaves. Cattle, sheep, horses, 
rabbits and goats all seem to prefer the leaves to auy other food. The trunk or body 
of the tree is the part which contains the fibre, for the brandies are nearly always 
tender and green, not wood. Its leav^es and seeds possess much medical virtue as 
a demulcent, having the properties of both field-melons and slippery elm. To get 
a good start, these trees should not be jnolested by cattle for at least two years; 
after that the leaves will grow as fast as they are eateu ofl", leaving the llowers to 
mature and the seeds to fall unmolested, and the fibrous trunk to grow. 

Unless the value of this tree as a forage plant has been greatly overrated, we 
have here a new resource, in the way of green food for stock during the heats and 
droughts of summer, of which we should not fail to avail ourselves. That it will 
succeed here there can be but little doubt, and as we have young plants now grow- 
ing, we hope soon to settle this point conclusively. 

Horticultural Hints for January. 

January is generally our coldest month, though sometimes the severest freezes 
occur towards the last of December. Throughout the month, we are liable to frosts 
of more or less severity ; but we have observed that in the latitude of Charleston 
and southward, the weather, in most seasons grows gradually milder after the twen- 
tieth. Further north, as in the central and ujjper parts of the South Atlantic 
States, this amelioration is less marked, or comes later. In ordinary seasons, many 
of the hardier vegetables grow finely and are seldom injured in the least by the 
slight freezes which occur. In jdanling (hiring this month, as well as the last, the 
gardeniT nuistbe conttjiit to take s(iii\(^ risks, even in i\w case of th(^ luinliost species. 
This, in the limited operations of the family garden, he can well aff!)r(l to do, for 
failure (!osts merely a little not unpleasant labor an<l a few seeds, and success re- 

Horticultural Hints for January. 191 

wards him with an early and excellent crop. Au excellent contrivance for secur- 
ing plants in rows against frost consists in two boards, a foot or more wide, nailed 
together at the edges in the form of a three cornered trough — made of light thin 
boards, these are easily handled and a few such protectors will be found very use- 
ful. It is better that the ends should be closed, though the mere shelter of the 
lateral pieces will be sufficient in case of light frosts. 

From the first to the twentieth of the month, in this latitude, we put in 

the seed for the principal crop of early peas, planting again, but not so largely, 
about the end of the month for a succession. If, however, several varieties — early, 
medium and late — are now planted, the table may be supplied with this excellent 
veo-etable for a long time without further planting. It is best to plant in double 
rows whether sticks are to be used or not, as each row helps to support the other. 
Where, as in cities and towns, sticks are difficult to procure, peas may be planted, 
with advantage, in circles of from one and a half to two feet in diameter, when a 
a single bushy stick, in the centre, will support a large number of plants. Where 
there is no ground sufficiently rich from previous manuring for the pea crop, well 
rotted compost should be used in the drills. 

Though Beets, Carrots, Radishes and Lettuce, prove perfectly hardy in 

ordinary seasons, after they have attained a growth of an inch or two in height, 
there is risk in planting them, even south of latitude 32° during the present month, 
as a hard freeze, just as they are coming up, is sure to kill them unless protected. 
Of Lettuce and Radishes, it is always well to have some in a cold frame for 
security. From the middle to the last of the month, a few Red-Top or White 
Dutch Turnips may be sown protecting the young plants with a slight covering of 
leaves or dried grass. 

In latitude 32° and southward, we recommend planting Irish Potatoes 

from the 10th of this mouth to the middle of February. If you want good, mealy 
fine flavored tubers, do not use much crude stable manure. If the whole garden 
has been manured in the fall as we advise, they will need none. Chip manure, half 
rotted straw, hay, leaves, and other vegetable refuse, with a good sprinkling of 
wood ashes, and a little well rotted cow-dung in the drill or furrow, will make a 
fine crop on suitable soil, and ensure their good quality. 

Cabbage, of some early, quick growing kind, like Little Pixie may be 

sown in the open ground, in a sheltered spot, or better still in a cold frame. They 
will make a late spring crop. Later kinds will not have time to grow before the 
worms will become too destructive. Kohl-Rabbi should be planted in the sam3 
way, and is less liable to be destroyed either by frost or by worms. 

In planting seeds of any kind at this season of the year, it is best that 

the raws should be slightly elevated above the general surface, and the covering be 
light. A good way is to sow on the surface, and then scatter or sift over them a 
little vegetable mold or light soil. 

Hot-beds should be made during this and the next month ; in January, 

here in the Low Country, in February, a little further north, where the plants from 
them will not be wanted for planting out quite so early in the spring. See a " New 
Plan for a Hot-Bed," in the Rural Carolinian for January, 1873. 

192 Valuable Cuttings and Clippings. 

Valuable Cuttings and Clippings. 

Producing New Varieties. — President "Wilder, iu his address before the 
American Pomological Society in Boston, urged his hearers to " plant the most 
mature and perfect seeds of the most hardy, vigorous and valuable varieties ; and 
as a shorter process insuring more certain and happy results, cross or hybridize 
your best fruits." Before many years shall have passed, he adds, my voice will 
be hushed in that stillness which knows no waking ; but while I live I would con- 
tinue to impress on your minds the importance of the beneficent work of providing 
these blessings for generations to come ; and when I am dead I would by these 
words still speak to you. Thus will you advance one of the most delightful and 
important indu.stries of the world ; thus will you build up a pomology for the 
most favored nation upon which the sun ever shone ; thus will you contribute to 
the welfare of home, kindred and country, and transmit your names to future 
generations as benefactors of your race — 

" Our lips sliall tell them to our sons, 

And they .ngain to theirs, 
That generations yet unborn 

May teach them to their heirs." 

A New Use for Old Cans. — Old tin cans — fruit, vegetable, or oyster cans are 
nuisances. Throw them iu the fire, and let them unsolder. They will spring 
open about one inch. Punch holes through each of the four corners, large enough. 
Take a piece of twiue, put through the holes and tie the can together. Set it on a 
piece of board or shingle, cut just large enough for it to rest upon. Fill up the 
can with prepared soil, and you have a superb pot, or can, to start flowers or other 
plants in. 

When your plant is large enough to put out, dig a hole large enough to set the 
can in, take away the bottom, set the can in, cut the strings, and the can springs 
open, slip it up over your plant, fill up with dirt, and your plant won't know it has 
been disturbed. The old way, we sometimes ruiu the plants by jarring the pots to 
loosen the dirt, so that it will come out. With the cans I have never lost any, nor 
even checked their growth in the least. I even start poppy, larkspurs, &c , in them. 

Beurre Dl'BUISson Pear. — This Pear, which attracted so much attention last 
season in Belgium, is thus remarked upon in the Bulletin d' Arboriculture : — " We 
consider the Beurre Dubuisson the most valuable acqui^^ition of the present genera- 
tion, as it equals the finest October pears in quality, and is in perfect condition in 
February and March — a time when thoroughly melting fruits are not to be had. 
It ha.s, moreover, another invaluable quality, viz : that of keeping ripe in a fruit- 
room, without .sufl'ering any change, for four months, commencing from the begin- 
ning of December." 

New Treatment of Hor.seradish. — A correspondent of The Garden, (Lon- 
don,) says: " It may not be generally known that il" leaves or litter be placed on 
the tops of horseradish crowns two feet or so thick, the jjlaiiLs grow through them 
in the course of the summer, nuiking small white roots the thickness of one's fijiger, 
which are as tender as spring radishes, and much to be })referred to the tough, 
stringy stuff usually supplied with our roast beef" 

Sand for House Plants. — Plants in window gardens may be kept more 
neatly in the pots by covering the surface of the soil in them with about an inch of 
dean coarse sand. This jirevents the sidea of the pot« from being delilcd by the 
earth when they are watered, forms into a smooth, even surface, and prevents the 
Ibrmation oi' any crust from watering. 

The Paris Green Remedy for the Cotton Caterpillar. 193 

Natui^al -Histoi^y Applied to Agi\i_cultui\e. 

Specimens of inBects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in The Etjkal 
Carolinian, for October, 1870,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc, should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mr. Charles R. Dodge, Washington, D. C 

The Paris Green Remedy for the Cotton Caterpillar. 

Although Paris Green has been in use for a number of years as a means of destroy- 
ing certain noxious insects, and more especially the Western Colorado potato-beetle, 
attention has not been called to its use in connection with cotton insects before the 
present season. When once proposed, however, it was taken up by prominent 
Southern journals, and the planters, having little faith in present means of de- 
struction, were willing to test its efficacy, and consequently the year has been one 
of experiment all over the cotton growing sections of the South, with results that 
may be said to be in every way satisfactory. 

During the fall a circular was sent out by the Entomologist of the U. S. Agri- 
cultural Department, to the corps of statistical correspondents, with a view of 
learning how generally Paris Green or arsenical compounds had' been used, and 
whether the remedy should be recommended, another year. The following are the 
points on which answers were requested : 

1. What is the result of your experience or observations as .to the efficacy of 
Paris Green, or other arsenical compounds, mixed with flour or plaster, for the 
destruction of the cotton caterpillar? 

• 2. In what proportions, and in what mode, time, and frequency of application 
have experiments been made ? 

3. Have any injurious effects of the poison been observed, either upon the plants 
or the soil, or in human poisoning in its application, or in the destruction of bene- 
ficial insects, as bees, etc. ? 

4. Have you used any other remedies, or means of extirpation, such as fires, or 
torches in the fields to destroy the perfect moths on their first appearance, and 
with what success ? 

Returns were received from 170 counties of North Carolina, South Carolina, 
' Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and Tennessee, though 
the greater number, and most complete reports, were received from Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. In three-fifths of the counties no experi- 
ments were reported. In some of these cotton was not planted at all ; in others 
the insects are never known to do any real injuiy, and in the remainder the corres- 
pondents either had not heard of the remedy, or the planters had failed to make 
any experiments worth reporting, or, indeed, any at all. 

From two-fifths of the counties making reply, full and complete returns were 
received, from which the following facts arfe gleaned : 

Experience. — The experience in four-fifths of the counties where actual ,experi- 
ments had been made, indicated either full or partial success. In many of the 
returns, the statement that " Paris Green and flour when properly and carefully 

194 Tlie Paris Green Remedy for the Cotton Caterpillar. 

applied is an efficacious remedy," was almost stereotyped. Some were content 
with the simple declaration, while others recommended tlie compound most strongly. 
Some admitted that it did some good, but on the whole was not the remedy, while 
a few pronounced it positively worthless and their experiments perfect failures. It 
is a signiticant fact, however, that where it has been most generally used, it is most 

One correspondent stated, that " rows treated with the compound were healthy 
and vigorous, while neglected rows beside them were destroyed." Another stated 
that, " a neighbor has picked already 10 bales of 500 pounds each, from 13 acres, 
while freedmen on the same farm lost their whole crop by refusing to use it." 

Mode of Application. — Although the proportions of the mixture varied some- 
what, the manner of applying it was generally the same. Some preferred to use 
solutions, and for this purpose mixed one pound of Paris Green, (arsenic was some- 
times substituted) with 40 gallons, or a barrel of water, and applied this quantity 
to an acre by means of a common garden watering pot. Placing the operator on 
horseback greatly facilitated matters. Those that used both the dry Paris Green 
and the solution, stated that much time was saved by the use of the latter. The 
greater number of experimentors, however, used the dry Paris Green, mixing it in 
varying proportions from 1 pound to 20, 25 and 30 pounds of the ilour. Some 
added a mixture of rosin and gum arable, asset forth in a patent compound in use, 
but a simple combination is just as effectual, one correspondent stating that he used 
flour, lime, plaster and even fine sand, and found that either answered the purpose. 

The compound is applied by means of a coarse sack of netting, or a tin vessel 
having a gauze bottom, and dusted over the plants in the morning when wet with 
dew, the operator either on foot or mounted on horseback. 

Pokoninrj. — Nearly all returns made some reference to the matter of poi-oning, 
and most of them stated positively that no injurious effects were observed. One 
thing is noticed, however, in many cases where the foliage of the plant has been 
destroyed, the proportion of green and flour has been less than 1 to 20, many^ 
eomplainiug of the Royall's mixture, which is 1 to 17, (with the addition of two 
pounds of other material,) or the compound has been used too freely. One corres- 
pondent used 25 lbs. of green on eight acres, and complains that the remedy is not 
successful. There were a few reports of " birds dying from eating the poisoned 
worm.s," " one or two cows killed from eating the cotton," and " persons nuide 
giddy from not having taken advantage of the wind in dusting. On the other .>;ide 
of the question, liowover, there are reports that " no inconvenience from poisoning 
is felt where the right proportions are used," and that " birds feed upon the worms 
in the same fields where the poison is strewn, and grow very fat. Sportsmen kill 
these birds and thousands eat them, yet we have not heard of any one being 
injured;" also it is "deemed a decided advantage, sis it kills the beggar's lice 
weed," which is much more tender than cotton. 

Other Bemedle-s. — No other remedies other than arsenical compounds have been 
generally resorted to. 

Fires,' lamps, torches, etc., are condemned generally as they cannot be used by 
a whole neighborhood, and in single fields only serve to attract the moth from other 

Turkeys have been u.sed in small fields (luite successfully. Lamps .«ct every 
hundred yards, over ])ans of ch(!ap mola.'jses, liavc done; some good. Carbolic soap 
is believed to be good. Kerosene oil has been tried in one or two cases. 

In conclusion, we can safely say from' the amount of experience before us, that 
Paris Green and flour, in the proportion of one pound to twenty-eight or thirty, 
carefully applied when the dew is on the leaves, and repeated after showers, will 
preserve the cotton plant from the depredations of the cotton caterpillar, and that 

Ans^vei'S to Correspondents. — Our Native Flora. 195 

failures have been due to an improper application of the poison, or to the use of 
an impure article, of which there has been much complaint. 

The Paris Green should be applied upon the first appearance of the worm, and 
should be repeated two or three times during the season, and always after a shower. 
Care should be taken to keep stock and domestic animals from fields where the 
poison is used, and operators should always be careful to keep to windward when 
applying it. 

As it is suggested by some planters not to make the application after the bolls 
open, lest it become dangerous to picker and ginner, we would also advise caution 
in this particular. 

Ans-wers to Correspondents. 

" Fly " IN Wheat — J. R. E. — By the name " fly " we suppose you refer to the 
wheat midge Cecidornyia tritid, though the Hessian-fly may as well be understood. 

The eggs of the whear midge are deposited, in June and July (earlier if far 
south) in the opening flowers of the grain, two to fifteen in each gj^in. In about 
eigly; days, these hatch producing minute orange colored grubs which feed upon 
the grain when in the milky state, inside the chafi! When fully grown, or 
during the last of July or first of August, they go into the ground and there remain 
as pupise until the following May or June. 

. Early sowing in the fall, or late spring sowing will enable the wheat to get hard, 
and too far advanced before the fly makes its appearance, in the first case, or by 
not coming into blossom, in the last, until the flies have disappeared. 

In Massachusetts, wiieat sown after the 15th or 20th of May generally escapes 
the ravages of the midge. Of course in the Southern States the time would be 
somewhat earlier. 

Our Native Flora. — IV. 

32. Petalostmon corymbosum. 

An erect clustered plant with delicate narrow leaves and compact heads of 
white flowers. Grows in sandy pine woods and flowers in autumn. 

33. Erythrina herbacea. 

A rather large plant with prickly succulent stems, two to four feet high, trifolio- 

late leaves and large scarlet flowers, two inches long. When matured, the seeds 

are also scarlet. 

34. Baptesia. 

This is a numerous family numbering fourteen species, with yellow, white or blue 
flowers. Some of the larger flowered species are very showy, bearing their pea- 
like flowers on a terminal spike. They are generally found in dry soils. 

196 Our Native Flora. 

35. Sensitive Plant — (Schrankia.) 
We have two species of this curious trailing plant, very similar in general habit 
— with numerous small compound sensitive leaves, and pink flowers in globose 
heads. The pods are long and narrow, armed with prickles. 

36. Cassia. 
The cassias are mostly showy plants with bright yellow flowers, opening about 
miiisummer. We have seven Southern species. C. occidentalis, once known as 
" Florida Coffee," and under that name disseminated all over the country, is now 
considered a noxious weed, and is found in waste places everywhere. The "senna" 
drug of commerce is the dried leaf of Cassia senna. 

37. Kidney Bean — (Phaseoltis.) 

This common vegetable of our gardens, is represented in our native flora by four 

Southern species, twining or prostrate plants, with purple flowers and long narrow 

pods. One species on the coivst, P. diversifolius, is said to be very prolific, and yields 

a favorite food to cattle and hogs. Our common " cow pea " is also an introduced 


38. Goats Rue — (Tephrosia Virginica.) 

Growing in tufted leafy stems, one to two feet high, from a perennial root, the 
whole plant clothed with soft hair, numerous oblong leaflets, and the flowers yel- 
lowish white tinged with purple, crowded in dense terminal racemes. A very 
showy and pretty plant when in full flower. 

39. Evening Primrose — {(Enoihera.) 
A family of showy and ornamental plants, with large yellow flowers, in many 
of the species opening at night. Several cultivated kinds are found in the gar- 
dens. There are eight native Southern species, some of them being common weeds 

in fallow fields. 

40. Nes^ea — ( Virticillata.) 

A somewhat shrubby herb, three to four feet high, growing in marshy grounds, 
>vith opposite and clustered leaves, and rose-colored flowers in the axils. Blooms 
about midsummer. 

41. Passion Flower — May Pop — {Passiflora incamata.) 
An herbaceous vine, trailing on the ground, or climbing by tendrils, ten to 
twelve feet long, with palmate leaves and showy, purple and white flowers, two to 
three inches wide. Fruit about the size of a hen's egg or larger ; when ripe 
somewhat soft, wrinkled and yellowish, with plea.santly flavored pulp. 

A smaller species, P. lutaa, with greenish yellow flowers, and small oval purple 
fruit Ls also a native, but less common. Three other native species are found in 
South Florida. 

42. Partridge Berry— (J/<7t7i<;//a repent.) 

A delicate little creeping plant, with small evergreen leaves, and fragrant white 
flowers, succeeded by twin red berries — always an object of interest in the woods. 
Aiken, a. a H. W. RAVEN EL. 

The Florida Steamers and Florida Trade. — The West and thd South. 197 

Transportation, Travel and Tr^de. 
The Florida Steamers and Florida Trade. 

Those staunch, sea-going steamers, Dictator and City Point, plying between 
Charleston and the Florida ports, ma Savannah, are well known to our citizens 
generally, but few, we believe, realize how important a part they are playing in 
the business of our city, or how much they are doing to promote its prosperity. 
Having occasion lately to make a trip to Florida, we availed ourself of the kind 
invitation of the owners, (through their Agents, Messrs. Ravenel & Co.,) to " tempt 
the briny deep" in their justly popular steamers, when we were forcibly struck with 
the facts just noted. Goiug out on the City Point, (Capt. J. W. Fitzgerald,) we 
found that good ship heavily freighted with merchandise, consigned to various points, 
from Fernandina to the semi-tropical regions of South Florida, and a full list of 
passengers, mostly Northern tourists and health-seekers. Returning on the Dictator, 
(Capt. L. "Vogel,) though the passengers were few, the vessel was loaded with 
cotton, oranges and other productions of the sunny " Land of Flowers," showing 
how closely the sister States of South Carolina and Florida are united in business 
relations, and how important a link these steamers are in the chain of common 
interests which bind them together. 

With no intention to " puff" anybody^puffing not being in our line — we feel 
truly gratified in being able to say, that on no line of travel, by water or by land, 
will the traveler be likely to find better accommodations, more wholesome and pala- 
table fare, or kinder or more courteous treatment, than on the Dictator and City 
Point, and we congratulate the owners on their most judicious sefection of officers, 
agents and employees, from the highest to the lowest, every one of whom seems 
inclined to do all in his power to make things pleasant to all on board ; and the 
gentlemanly pursers of the two steamers, Mr. Harlston, of the City Point, and Mr. 
J. S. Matheson, of the Dictator, to whose care we were " consigned," deserve 
.special mention, in this respect, at our hands, and have our best thanks for kind 
attentions rendered. 

Tlie West and the South— Chicago and Charleston. 

That the West and the South are natural allies has become a settled conviction 
in the minds of the people of both regions ; and this feeling has shown itself, par- 
ticularly, of late, in various schemes for promoting closer and more profitable 
business relations between them, by means of new lines of travel and transporta- 
tion. In all of these our farming population, as well as the dwellers in cities and 
towns, feel a deep interest. 

At present, the proposed direct route between Chicago and Charleston by way 
of Lexington, Ky., Cumberland Gap, Asheville, Spartanburg and Columbia, is 
attracting special attention, and a Convention was held in this city on the 11th ult. 
for the promotion of this enterprise, in which the cities, towns and counties, lying 

198 * Will it Pay to Ship Cotton Direct to Liverpool. 

along the proposed route were ably represented. Here the two facts, evident 
before to all who had carefully looked into the matter, were made clear to every 
comprehension — first, that both the West and the South want, and intend to have, 
a direct line of communication and transportation between Chicago and some good 
port on the South Atlantic coast ; second, that the most direct route is tliat by way 
of Asheville„ Spartanburg and Columbia, and that Charleston is the proper ter- 
minus. To secure this direct route it is necessary merely to supply two or three 
missing links in the chain. Setting out at Charleston, we have the South Carolina 
Railway to Columbia. From Columbia to Spartanburg also the route is already 
open. Here we are interrupted by one of the missing links, proposed to be sup- 
plied by the Spartanburg and Asheville Eailway. The road is graded for the 
greater part of the distance from Asheville to Wolf Creek, and from Morristown 
to Wolf Creek the railroad is already in operation. Practically, then, what is 
needed on this route is the building of the line from Spartanburg to Asheville, and 
from Asheville to Wolf Creek. This can be done if the proper effort is now put 
forth, and the results to this city and to the State would be beyond computation, 
ensuring a growth and prosperity of which we have never yet dared, to dream. 
With almost a monopoly of the trade of the West, with the control of the West 
Indian and Brazilian trade, and as the great South Atlantic coal station, the growth 
of Charleston would rival that of Chicago itself. Shall we allow the opportunity 
to slip? The thing to be done, so far as we of South Carolina are particularly con- 
cerned, is narrowed down to the building of the Spartanburg and Asheville Rail- 
way — or rather, contributing our part towards this work. The appeal is now made 
directly to the people of Charleston. We hope and trust that they will nobly 
respond. If the grand old historical " city by the sea " be not dead, but only sleep- 
ing, now is the ti«ie to awake ! 

"Will it Pay to Ship Cotton Direct to Liverpool? 

On this point, the Financial and Commercial Chronicle remarks, that before the 
war, there was usually — and in the average of the seiison — a small profit between 
Liverpool and New York, according to the current prices. Now, however, there 
appears to be such a change in the nature of the business done that the current 
quotations nearly always show a loss. Last year this was almost universally the 
condition of the trade, and where a profit appeared it was in case of shipmontrf 
matle when the market was tem[)orarily depressed at the shipping port, and so met 
an advancing mark(!t at Liverpool. At present, take Middling Uplands at 16}c., 
their price in New York, Wednesday of this week, (Nov. 20) — exchange, say 106 — 
gold, 109 — and freight, 9-16aSd. — this, witli one commission paid, woulil bring 
the cost price in Liverpool to over 9d., whereas, the quotation on that day by Cable 
was only 8iid. 

That our planters should secure, whether througli the Granger or otherwise, all 
honorable advantages in selling their crops am well as in buying their supplies is 
certainly riglit and proper, but they should " look before they leap " in such an 
undertaking as shipping cotton to Liverpool. 

Chicago to Charleston. — The Fair of the Carolinas. 199 

Chicago to Charleston— Table of Distances. 

Chicago to Cumberland Gap 534 

Cumberland Gap to Asheville 138 

Asheville to Columbia ...167 

Columbia to Charleston ......"....ISO 

Total 969 

The advantages to Charleston of the opening of this route were thus summed up- 
by Col. E. Hulburt in his speech before the Charleston Convention, December 
11th, 1873: 

First. A large new trade from North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky. 
Second. The competing routes between this city and the State and the West will 
give lower rates. Third. It will place Charleston from 100 to 170 miles nearer 
the West than any competing South Atlantic port. Fourth. It will give Charles- 
ton the monopoly of the trade from the West. Fifth. It will constitute the .short- 
est route from the West Indies and Brazil through Charleston to the West and 
Northwest, and the control of this traffic, he argued, will of itself aggregate an 
amount largely in excess of the total trade of Charleston at this time.'' Sixth. 
The construction of this road will make Charleston the great South Atlantic coal 
station. I 


The Fair of the Carolinas. 

The Annual Fair of the Carolinas was opened at the Fair Grounds of the Asso- 
ciation in Charlotte, N. C, on Tuesday, the 2oth of November, and closed on 
Friday, the 28th. The attendance was very large, not only from North Carolina, 
but from the neighboring counties in South Carolina. The articles on exhibition, 
although jiot as numerous as should have been, represented every department 
usually to be seen at such exhibitions, and reflected great credit on the skill and 
industry of the contributors. 

The " Fair of the Carolinas," although holden in North Carolina, is intended to 
represent both North and South Carolina, hence the appropriate name selected by 
the managers of the Association under whose auspices the exhibitions are con- 
ducted. The President of the Association is the venerable Dr. Columbus Mills,. 
of Harrisburg, N. C, who, with his associates in the Board of Management, were 
unceasing in their efforts to make the occasion one long to be remembered by the 
large number of participants. We take pleasure in being able to say their efforts 
were successful, and cheerfully add our testimony to that of those who were on 
the grounds, in saying that nothing was left undone on the part of the manage- 
ment to make the exhibition a grand success. 

We hope at the next meeeting of the Fair Association of the Carolinas to meet 
more exhibitors from South Carolina, especially from Charleston, whose merchants 
and artisans should cultivate more intimate relations with the people of their sister 

200 The Fair of the CaroUnaP. 

The grounds of the Association are located about a mile from the business portion 
of Charlotte, on the line of the Charlotte, Columbia and Augusta Railroad, and 
are etisy of access, either by Railroad or other modes of conveyance. They 
are very commodious, affording ample accommodation for exhibitors in every 
department, as well as for visitors. They have also a fine level half mile race 
track, with an excellent stand for visitors to wituCvSS the racing. The track and 
its enclosure is aUo admirably adapted for showing off animals on exhibition. 

On the third day of the Fair, there was a gathering of members of the Order 
of Patrons of Husbandry, to hear an address from the Hon. Dudley W. Adams, 
of Iowa, Master of the National Grange, who had been invited by the Fair Asso- 
ciation to be present, for the purpose of adding interest to the occasion by deliver- 
ing an address. At an early hour in the morning the Granges began to assemble 
in front of the Court House, on Trade street, and ten o'clock, the hour fixed for 
forming the procession, found a large number of Patrons present, in regalia. The 
procession was formed by Brother E. C Davidson, of Charlotte, who was appointed 
Marshal for the occasion, and marched to the Fair grounds in adniirable 
order under his guidance. Among the pleasing features of the procession, was 
a number of Sisters of the Order, who were presint, wearing their regalia. The 
procession, during its march to the Fair grounds, elicited much favorable comment, 
composed as it was of the sturdy sons of the Old North State, engaged in develop- 
ing the agricultural resources of her fertile soil. 

Shortly after the procession reached the grounds, it was announced that Mr. 
Adams would deliver his address within the Exhibition building, which was a 
signal for a general gathering of the multitude present, to hear the distinguished 
guest. The Patrons also joined in with the living mass, to listen to their chief 
officer — the Master of the National Grange, which numbers within its fold nearly 
a half million of the tiller.s of the soil of the nation, in all its varied climes. 

Mr. Adams spoke for a half hour or more, in a clear and audible tone, eliciting 
close attention from all. His remarks were admirably adapted to the occasion, touch- 
ing upon matters pertaining to agriculture and its kindred subjects, showing, in plain 
and unmistakable language, what is the duty of the agriculturist and the artisan, 
to make the country not only prosperous, but the garden spot of the world. We 
will make no further allusion to Mr. Adams' address here, inasmuch as we are able 
to present a full synopsis of it in another portion of the present number. It is 
worthy of attentive perusal from all classes of readers. 

Among the other speakers on the occasion, were Col. J. P. Thomas, superintend- 
ent of the Carolina Military Institute, and lion, Nicholas Woodtin, of Buncombe 
County, N. C. Col. Thoma.s, who was present w^j^h a number of Cadets from the 
Institute over which he so ably presides as superintendent, was called upon to 
deliver an address in place of Gen. Wade Hampton, who had been announced to 
deliver the annual address before the Association, but who was unable to be 
present on account of the illness of Mrs. Hampton. Col. Thomas delivered one 
of those chaste and appropriate addresses which fall from his lips on all occasions, 
replete with sound sentiments and good advice to all chu^ses of his auditors. ^Ir. 
Woodfin, who wa.s introduced to the assemblage after Col. Thomas had concluded 

The Darlington Agricultural and Mechanical Association. 201 

his remarks, also delivered an admirable address, maiuly confined to agricultural 
topics, which was listened to with marked attention. 

We feel it our bounden duty, before closing this brief notice of the Fair of the 
Carol inaa, to make allusion to one of the features of the exhibition, which we- 
consider highly objectionable, i. e. the several gambling games carried on within 
the grounds. While the admission of such games yield a large revenue to the 
Associations which permit them within their enclosures, they are the cause of great 
injury, both morally and pecuniarily, to every class of visitors. Many an unsus- 
pecting person is allured withia the meshes of these swindling games by the entic- 
ing devices of their operators, who never fail in victimizing all who are weak 
enough to be gulled by their deceptive and honeyed words. The South Carolina 
Agricultural and Mechanical Association have very wisely excluded all games of 
the kind from their grounds, and conducted their last exhibition on this principle. 
Their success in a pecuniary point of view showed that they were not the losers by 
the exclusion. We trust the Association of the Carolinas will follow the wise 
example of the South Carolina Association, at its next meeting, and give no room 
within their enclosure to such swindling games as was witnessed at their late exhi- 
bition, robbing many of their hard earned means. 

Among the exhibitors at the Fair was Mr. Richard Tozer, of Columbia, who 
had on exhibition one of his portable engines, which attracted general attention 
among the planters and farmers present. 

Our attention was directed to the " Diamond Cotton Chopper and Cultivator," 
which is pronounced to be a complete success by those who have tried it on a 
growing crop. The machine is light, simple, durable and strong, easily drawn by 
one horse, and can be guided by any one who can plough. It bars both sides of 
the cotton, chops it out, weeds it and dirts it, at one operation, thus saving an 
immense amount of labor. After which, with a few changes, it is used as a most 
excellent cultivator during the rest of the crop. 

Among the visitors from South Carolina we were pleased to note Major Thomas 
W. Woodward, of Fairfield, President of the South Carolina Agricultural and 
Mechanical Association, and Major T. G Bacon, of Edgefield, the veteran turfman 
of South Carolina, as well as other prominent citizens from other portions of the 

The Darlington Agricultural and Mechanical Association. 

At the annual meeting of this flourishing Society, held on the 9th December, 
the following oflScers were elected to serve for the ensuing year : Major J. J. Lucas, 
President; Hon. T. P. Lide, of Darlington, Hon. T. C Weatherly, of Marlboro', 
John Witherspoon, Esq., of Chesterfield, and Col. E. T. Stackhouse, of Marion, 
Vice-Presidents; Wm. E. James, Secretary and Treasurer. Directors — E. W. 
Cannon, J. F. Early, E. E. Evans, J W. Ferguson, S A. Gregg. J. G. McCall, L. 
Mcintosh, H. E P. Sanders and J. W. AVilliarason. Finance Committee — B. H. 
Early, W. A. Law. The President, Major Lucas, in his annual report, urged the 
No. 4, Vol. 5. 15 

202 Wliy Veil Tliemselves in Secrecy f 

land owners of Darlington and Eastern South Carolina to take advantage of the 
tide of immigration which is now turned Southward, and to aid the movement to 
the extent of their ability. The State needs thirty thousand male immigrants, 
and Darlington should have of these at least one thousand to build up her waste 
places and restore her ante-bellum prosperity. The Rev. Dr. Neumann was right 
when he said, it was a question of immigration or emigration for the white people 
of South Carolina, and the sooner the decision was made the better. 

The Charleston News and Courier, in alluding to Major Lucas, says it will be 
remembered that he is an old Charlestonian, and was well known here before the 
war as a prominent hardware merchant. From 1856 to 1861 he represented this 
county in the State Legislature, and he was also for many years Captain of the 
Palmetto Guard, of this city. During the late war he commanded the Stono 
batteries, and during the entire struggle guarded the back door to Charleston suc- 
cessfully. At the close of the war he moved to Society Hill, in Darlington County, 
where he now resides. Major Lucas is an energetic man, and his presence is an 
acquisition to any community. 

Why Veil Themselves in Secrecy? 

The objection made against the Granges on the ground of secrecy springs from 
a prejudice that will not bear serious examination. 

The United States Senate becomes a secret organization when it goes into secret 
session upon the reception of Executive communications. In all matters which 
relate to the ratification of treaties, confirmation of appointments or any other 
subject which the President deems necessary to withhold from the public ear, it 
preserves the utmost secrecy, and all the officers and membei's are sworn in regard 
thereto, to observe strict reticence. 

The Eleusinian mysteries, in which — according to the testimony of Plato and 
Cicero, the wisest arud best of men — the purest doctrines were communicated to the 
initiated, were involved in the profouudcst secrecy. 

When guests are invited to partake of the hospitality of a friend, it is well un- 
derstood that no record of free and unrestricted conversation leaves the front door, 
since there would be an end of all social intercourse if the unguarded remarks of 
the moment were committed to the public. 

There is scarcely any position in life in which secrecy does not hold a prominent 
position. Lovers have their secrets ; husbands and wives do not care to make pub- 
lic their demonstrations of affection or tempoi'ary disagreements ; the hapi)iness 
of a fan)ily may depend upon the possession of a secret ; merchants have their 
trade mark; the success of a military enterprise or diplomatic stroke rests upon the 
secrecy of its execution. 

We have always considered the prejudices of the Catholics against Masonry as 
unreasonable. The ciuircli claims to be the lineal descendant — and we do not dis- 
pute it — of that small but earnest sect that in the dark hours of the Komau empire, 
when persecution was rife, and the purpled Casar ruled instead of Peter, sought 

Plan for a Grange Bank. 203 

refuge in the catacombs and worshipped the Saviour in secrecy and silence. The 
candles which still illuminate the altar recall the days when martyrdom rewarded 
the confessors in public. 

A government that cannot stand a secret organization deserves to topple — a gov- 
ernment that is not proof against conspiracy shows that it has not taken root in the 
hearts of the people. Conspiracies are only possible in tyrannical governments. 
The human heart keeps in secrecy an everlasting hatred against all tyranny. 

There seems to be a notion that men in secret societies may become pledged to 
evil. A little reflection will dissipate that idea. No obligation that one can take 
can release him from that higher and paramount obligation to do that which is 
right ; in other words our allegiance is always to right and never to wrong, and 
the bull of the conscience is stronger than that of the Pope or of any human 

The aim of the Granges is to reduce the expenses of agriculture, and all classes 
of society are interested in the movement, because the farmer can sell his products 
at a fair price, when freed from extortions. There will be reciprocal advantages 
and he must be the judge whether he can best accomplish his purpose in secrecy 
or publicity. 

If it be once admitted that in human affairs secrecy is sometimes laudable and, 
necessary, is it altogether modest for an outsider to determine that point for the; 
Granges ? J. NICHOLS. 

Warrenton, Ga. 

Plan for a Grange Bank. 

Mr. S. W. Land, Worthy Master of Rocky Point Grange, 104, of the State ot 
Mississippi, publishes in the Farmers' Vindicator, the following outline of a plan 
for a Grange Bank : 

I would propose that a charter for a bank, with all the privileges, franchises 
and immunities, be obtained, to be called " The Grange Bank of Mississippi ;" to 
be officered, supervised and controlled by the State Grange. In order to accumu- 
late a fund, or bullion — if you please — upon which its operations shall be based, 
let a temporary contribution or sale of bales of cotton, to be paid for with the cur- 
rency' of the proposed bank, with interest at per cent., at such time as may be 

agreed \ipon by the State Grange. Let this cotton be sold for gold and placed in the 
vaults of the bank. We will say, for demonstration, that by the time this can be 
effected,-' that there will be four hundred Granges in the State. Allow that each 
Grange contributes or sells twenty-five bales of cotton — average weight 450 pounds. 
This would give ten thousand bales of cotton, which, at seventy-five dollars per 
bale, would produce a fund of seven hundred thousand dollars in gold. Upon this 
sum, as is the custom, one million four hundred thousand dollars in the currency 
of the Grange Bank, could be issued. One half of this sum — plus the interest — 
could be used in payment for the original supply of cotton, and the balance to 
constitute a medium for the benefit and relief of Patrons. When a mortgagee 
threatens to force a crop, or homestead, upon a depressed market, let the subordinate 
Grange to which the member belongs endorse his note, with seal of Grange, etc., 
for the requisite sum ; have it discounted in the bank, and lift the mortgage, and 
give the brother the benefit of the best market price. Or, where a member has not 

204 Organization of tJie State Grange of Florida. 

the means, (and is found worthy,) to purchase the necessary supplies, let the 
subordinate Grange come to his relief iu some similar manner. In all other 
respects let the ordinary rules and customs of banking obtain iu conducting the 
general business of " The Grange Bank of Mississippi." 

Organization of the State Grange, of Florida. 

On the 26th of November, 1873, we had the honor and gratification of organ- 
izing, at Lake City, the State Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry of 
the State of Florida. The representatives of nineteen Granges were present, and 
a more intelligent, earnest, and practical body of men, we have never seen assem- 
bled anywhere, so that though not sti'ong in numbers, the new State Grange has a 
working power which larger bodies often lack ; and the entire unity of feeling and 
harmony which prevails will enable it to act iu all matters which may call for its 
action with vigor and efficiency. The following is a list of the ofiicers — a most 
judicious selection: 

B. F. Wardlaw, Madison, W. M. ; Jesse Wood, Mt. Pleasant, O. ; W. PI. Wilson, 
Welborn, L ; Dr. F. M. McMeekin, Morrison's Mills, S. ; Wra. McDaniel, Madison, 
A. S. ; Rev. B. D. Harrel, Ellaville, Chap. ; Dr. Wm. T. Bacon, Lake City, Treas.; 
Wm. A. Brinson, Live Oak, Sec'y ; S. E. Timmons, Waldo, G. K. ; INIrs. W. H. 
Wilson, Welborn, C. ; Mrs. J. R. Richard, Providence, P. ; Mrs. F. M. McMeekin, 
Morrison's Mills, F.; Mre, A. J. Lea, Shiloh Church, L. A. S. 

Executive Committee. — Joseph Tillman, Madison ; E. H. ^lason, Jacksonville ; 
Kobert Turner, Lake City. 

Deputies of the State Grange. — First District, M. A. Clouts, Welborn ; Second 
District, Rev. T. A. Carruth, Welborn ; Third District, H. W. Long, Cotton Plant. 

In addition to these District Deputies, the Worthy Ma.'^tcr and the Lecturer of 
the State Grange, ai-e made organizing officers for the State at large. 

From what we know of the men and women engaged in the goo<f work of our 
Order in Florida, we shall look confidently for a good report from the Land of 

Buying for Cash and for Wholesale Prices. 

The purchasing agents of the Illinois Granges are buying every article necessary 
for the use of members at wholesale prices. In that section a good farm wagon, 
complete, retails at 8100. The agcnt.-^ of Grange pay but 870 for it. A Patron gets a 
plough for 81() which i'ormerly cost him 832. 'I'hesame reduction hohls good iu otlier 
articles. A Granger's wife can get a sewing machine tor $89, wliich formerly, 
outside of Grange inliuence, would have cost her SJjo, and through the same agency 
those who desire it, can get a parlor organ from 840 to 8(50 cheaper than she could a 
year ago. Thus, the .system of co-operation among farmers works like a charm, 
and facts like these establish its success. 

The Sea Island Cotton Planters Convention. —Additional Granges in S. C 205 
The Sea Island Cotton Planters Convention. 

The Convention called under the auspices of the South Carolina Agricultural 
Society, to consider the prospects of the Sea Island cotton planting interest, met 
on the 15th of December, at Holmes' Lyceum. Invitations had been extended to 
the planters in Georgia and Florida as well as those of our own State, but the 
shortness of the notice prevented a general attendance. There were present, how- 
ever, about thirty gentlemen from the Sea Island plantations of South Carolina. 
The meeting was called to order by Dr. A. B. Rose, upon whose motion the Hon. 
Charles Macbeth was elected President, and Dr. Hopson Piuckney, Secretary. 
Upon taking the chair, Mr. Macbeth stated that the Convention had been called 
by the Agricultural Society of South Carolina, in order to confer and ascertain 
whether any plan could be suggested, in the multitude of counsels to relieve the 
depressed condition of the planting interest. 

The meeting was addressed by Messrs. Wm. M. Lawton, J. J. Mikell, Robert 
Chisolm, Dr. Hopson Pinckney, and others. Though some hopeful views were ex- 
pressed in regard to the future of Sea Island cotton planting, the general impression 
seemed to be that it could no longer be made remunerative and must be abandoned. 
Jute and ramie culture, and stock raising were suggested as substitutes, but no defin- 
ite plan was developed for carrying out these suggestions. If the meeting shall have 
the result of awakening inquiry, and inciting to investigation and discussion of 
the questions involved, it will not have been held in vain. If any one can show 
how Sea Island cotton growing can be made to pay, let him bring on his facts and 
figures. If jute culture or stock raising can be profitably substituted, let that be 
shown. We solicit- articles on these questions for the Rural Carolinian. 

Additional Granges in South Carolina. 



Asbury , 

Enoree , 

Chick's Springs.... 
Kirksey's X Roadt 
Bullock's Creek... 






Chick's Springs 

Kirksey's X Eoads 
Bullock's Creek.... 

Rock Hill 

St. Matthew's 










Jno. Fuller Lyon, 

C. L. Fike 

W. H. Goodlett... 

J. P. Bodie 

J. B. Good 

Dr. E. L. Glenn... 
F. J. Buvck 


Laurens C H., Bee 15, 1873. 

J. L. White 

James E. Todd.. 
Alfred Taylor... 
J. W.Harris.... 
J. D. Hamilton. 

S. D. Barron 

J. D. Antley 

JNO. A. BARKSDALE, Lecturer, State Grange. 

Worthless Warrantees.— The National Live Stock Journal explains that the 
word ' warranted, used in the sale of a horse extends only to soundness, and " war- 
ranted sound goes no further. It is a common practice with dealers to use the 
terms warranted all sound and right." As it is uncertain what such an expres- 
sion would cover m law, it would, to avoid possible controversy and misunder- 
standing, be best to use forms more definite and comprehensive ; for instance the 
following : " Received of A. B. $200 for bay mare Kate, warranted only six years 
old, sound, free from vice, and quiet to ride and drive." The warranty, to be valid 
must ot course, be passed at the time of the sale, and constitute part of the transac- 
tion. A warranty after the sale is void, for it is given without a legal consideration 

206 How the Western Palroiis Sell their Hogs. — The Barnwell County Fair. 

How the "Western Patrons Sell their Hogs. 

Formerly the Iowa Homestead says, a semi middleman scoured the country, and 
bought until he collected a drove, when he took them to market and sold them at 
an advance. The farmers now decline to sell to these men. The Grange makes 
up a drove, and they are sold direct — the profit of the middleman being divided 
among the Granges in proportion to the number of pigs contributed. Sometimes 
contracts have been made in advance. A prominent packer told them that it 
■would not work ; that if the farmer was offered a few cents more per hundred, he 
would ignore the contract made on his behalf by the agent. The packer's predic- 
tion was not verified. In all cases, the Patrons abided by the contracts, to the 
astonishment of the packer, who finally announced his willingness to deal directly 
with the Granges. This experience gratified the heads of the Order, who were 
dubious about the experiment, but are now satisfied that farmers are rapidly 
acquiring the rudiment of a business education, and that commercial integrity and 
promptness will soon supersede the loose and thriftless manner in which they have 
been accustomed to transact their business. 

The Barnwell County Fair. 

The Annual Fair of the Barnwell Agricultural and Mechanical Society was 
held on Monday, Tuesday and "Wednesday, the 2-lth, 2.5th and 26th of November. 
There were at least two thousand persons on the grounds, and Mitchell's Cornet 
Band from Charleston furnished the music. The Sentinel pronounces the Fair a 
success. It says, the display of animals was fine, and candidly speaking, surpassed 
those exhibited at Columbia. At a meeting of the stockholders, held at the close 
of the Fair, Col. T. J. Counts was unanimously re-elected President, and Dr. J. A. 
Duncan, Secretary and Treasurer, 

Grange Memoranda. 

"We shall be greatly obliged to the Secretaries of subordinate Granges in this 
State, if they will notify us of any changes which may occur in the offices of Mas- 
ter and Secretary of their respective Granges, so that we can correct our list on 
those points. A full list of officers would occupy too much space in our crowded 
pages, and for general information the names of Master and Secretary are sufficient. 

State Granges have recently been organized in Alabama, Florida, We^t 

"Virginia, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Louisiana, The ranks are 
closing up. Fall in. Brothers ! 

Important arrangements have lately been made by the National Grange, 

in New York City, whereby goods of ail kinds can be purchased by Granges at 
greatly reduced {)rices. 

At a recent election in Mar's Bluff Grange, No. 12, Johu S. Scott was 

elected Master, and II. McClenaghan, Secretary. 

Sowing Timothy and blowing Crab Grass. 207 

Miscellaneous Correspondence and Notices. 

Sowing Timothy and Mowing Crab-Grass. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : I have been requested by several plan- 
tei-s to report my experiment in raising grass the past season. 

I selected a field of river bottom land that had been planted in corn the previous 
year, and on which the native grass had gone to seed, after the corn had been laid 
by. I broke the land with two-horse ploughs in January, rolled it, so as to break 
thoroughly the clods, and harrowed once. 

Just as I had finished this work and was ready to sow my grass seeds, the river 
came out, and freshet followed freshet, until the land had been under water two or 
three weeks. When the water left, I was forced to break the land again, as it had 
been packed by the water. I broke with single horse twisters, and where necessary 
rolled and harrowed again. I knew it was too late, but having purchased the seeds 
I determined to plant them, and about the middle of April I sowed my clover, 
Timothy, herds and orchard grass, the land being in fine order. 

From the time I planted there commenced a drought, which lasted three or four 
weeks. The seed remained in the ground until early in May, Avhen a heavy fall of 
rain brought it up thickly, but, unfortunately, the rain which brought the seed up, 
brought down another overflow of the river, which lasted until about the middle 
of May. The planted grasses and the clover were then about one inch above the 
ground, and did not appear to be killed by the overflow. / am sure the clover wm 
not injured. When the water receded and the lands dried ofl^, the native grasses 
put out, and in a short time overrun all I had planted. 

About the middle of July, I began to recover from my disappointment, and by 
the 1st of August had an immense crop of crab-grass. In damp spots a few smart- 
weeds started up, but I had them cui down with grass blades, and they were fol- 
lowed by crab-grass. It rained nearly all through August. About the 25th I 
started my mower, and cut about eight acres a day, with two mules of medium size. 
The grass was from four to five feet high, and so dense that it stood erect after 
being cut, and I was compelled to keep one prime hand behind the mower to open 
the track for the mules on their next round. I had fifty acres in grass. I cut and 
saved at leaM 250,000 lbs., or 5,000 lbs. to the acre, and I am sure I left one-third 
of the crop ^mgathered. 

If the season had been favorable, I should have finished cutting the crop by the 
10th of August, and would have had a second crop to cut by the last of Septem- 
ber. I am now baling the hay. I put about 400 lbs. in a bale, and use three 
bands of wire to bind it. The wire cost about ten cents to each bale, which is 
cheaper than hoops of wood, as they are put on very rapidly. I hire the baling 
and pay 25 cents for 400 lbs. Five hands and one mule pack twenty bales each 
day in my cotton screw. I have been ofiered one dollar per hundred for the hay- 
expect to get $1.50 in April or May. 

I have no doubt that our bottom lands will produce good crops of clover or 
grow any of the cultivated grasses. These crops are grown north of us and south 
of lis, as low down as middle Georgia. Planters desiring to plant grasses should 
procure the pamphlet you have for sale, entitled " Grasses of the South," by C. W. 
Howard, of Kingston, Ga. The work contains all the information any one could 

In making crab-grass it is only necessary to plough, and roll, and harrow the 
lands in April, May, or June. Get teams to haul it and houses to hold it. There 
is no limit to the quantity that can be made, and the hay is good if well saved 

Cash's Depot, S. C E. B. C. CASH. 

208 Land, Labor and Immigration. — Wool Cotton — What is it f 

Land, Labor and Immigration. 

To THE Citizens of S6uth Carolina : The Rev. Mr. Robert Neumaun, Mis- 
sionary of Castle Garden, New York, having come to the South, under the direc- 
tion of the Commissioners of Immigration of New York, for the purpose of seek- 
ing a new field for the immigrants arriving daily, is desirous of placing a few hun- 
dred families in South Carolina. 

Under the auspices of the German Society of Charleston, the undersigned, there- 
fore, calls upon the planters, farmers, and others, who desire to have some of these 
laborers, to write immediately and designate what kind of laborers they wish ; 
■whole families or single laborers, Germans or Italiaus, craftsmen or farm laborers.^ 

Planters who have" land for sale at low prices, or who desire to give a portion of 
their land free to immigrants, will also please state it, as a portion ol" the immi- 
grants have money enough to start a farm, if they get the land gratis, or on a long 

An opportunity presents itself here to draw the long desired immigrants to our 
State, and if all act promptly, several thousand good men may come here. 

The undersigned is ready to devote his time for this purpose and only desires the 
co-operation of the citizens of the State. FRANZ MELCHERS, 

Editor Deutsche Zeitung. 

All the papers in the State are respectfully requested to copy the above as often 
as their liberality will dictate. 

The German Society referred to in the foregoing communication is one in which 
our citizens in the country may place full confidence. It should have the prompt 
and efficient co-operation of the people of the State. There is at last a chance to 
turn the tide of immigration southward. The times favor us in this at least. The 
immigrants are now ready to come provided the proper inducements and assurances 
shall be held out. There is no better way to do this than through the German 
Society of Charleston, as indicated in Mr. Melchers' appeal. — Ed. 

Charleston Phosphates versus Cotton Seed and Stable 


Editor of the Rural Carolinian : I used a ton of Atlantic Phosjjhate this 
year, and can say, unhesitatingly, that it paid well. I used about one hundred and 
seventy-five pounds, under cotton, to the acre, on sandy soil, and apart of the land 
was very poor. I made nearly five hundred pounds seed cotton (long ;>taple) per 
acre. The same land, without manure, made only a few pounds over two hundred 
per acre. I ased stable manure on some land and cotton seed on some, and tlic 
Atlantic Phosphate proved better than either — that is, it made more per acre, and 
it is much easier applied. J. CARAWAY. 

Live Oak, Fla. 

Wool Cotton— What is It? 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : A i'rioml of mine is growing a crop of 
cott(m called here Wool Cotton. The lint feels very much like huubV wool, and 
is of a cr(;amy color. The bloom is unlike common cotton bloom, rcsi'inliling the 
hollyhock blossom. The lint is much stronger than other kinds of cotton, and 
being made into cloth is more durable. It makes more per acre than any other 
kind. I will send to you, shortly, a sample of the lint. 

Fort Stephem. R. L McNEEL 

Spirits of Turpentine for the Cotton Wonn. — Inquiries and Ansxvers. 209 
Spirits of Turpentine for the Cotton Worm. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : You may tell your readers that the 
" Florida Remedy " for the caterpillar — spirits of turpentine and water — will not 
do. I tried it and it failed. A decoction of tobacco in water will kill cotton 
worms, but I think the remedy avouM be too expensive. J. C 

Live Oak, Fla. 

Inquiries and Ans"wers. 

J. L. W., Thomasville, N. C. Your question in regard to the comparative value 
of cotton seed, at 16 cents per bushel of 30 pounds, and commercial fertilizers at 
$60 per ton, can hardly be definitely and satisfactorily answered. With the chemist's 
analyses of cotton seed and of the various manufactured manures before us, we 
might put the whole matter before you in figures ; but an experiment on the soil would 
be quite as likely as otherwise to give the lie direct to what might seem to be the 
scientific deduction. In general terms, however, we may say, that we consider the 
cotton seed, at the price named, the more valuable ; but a compost of the cotton 
seed and a good acid phosphate, would pay still better than the seed alone. 

L. H. T., Mandarin, Fla., asks in reference to the Pecan : "Does it come 

true from seed, or, like the common hickory, just as it happens ? Can it be grafted 
or budded, and must this be done to secure the variety desired ?" He adds : " I 
should like to see this subject discussed in the Rural Carolinian, and if the 
Pecan will come true to seed any one having a good variety would confer a favor 
by stating the fact in these pages, as I wish to procure a few pounds for planting." 
The Pecan varies considerably from seed, in size and thickness of the shell, as well 
as in flavor, but the nuts are almost always good. It is not easily grafted or budded 
with success, and is generally grown from seed. The Louisiana nuts have a softer 
shell than thqge of Texas. We know no named varieties. 

———"Colleton." As we have said to another correspondent, we consider the 
composting of cotton seed with acid phosphate one of the best improvements lately 
made in the manipulation of manures ; but as this subject is treated very ably and 
at length by Dr. Memminger in the present number, we need not dwell on it here. 
See article on " The Art of Composting," p. 174. 

General Notices and Acknowledgments. 

James Vick, of Rochester, N. Y., was the first, we believe, to introduce the plan, 
now adopted by many others, of making the seedsman's annual issue to his cus- 
tomers and the public at large, something more than a dry catalogue of seeds and 
plants for sale — something useful, interesting and beautiful — and so far, step by 
step, has he carried this new idea, that now his " Floral Guide " is worthy of notice 
under the heads of literature and art as well as of horticulture. The January 
issue for 1874, now before us, has 200 pages and 500 engravings, besides a colored 
plate, and is undoubtedly the handsomest thing of the kind in the world. It is 

210 General Notices and AcknowledgmenU. 

published quarterly at 25 cents a year. The trustworthy character of Mr. Vick's 
seeds, of which the Guide includes a catalogue, is too well known to require any 
endorsement from us. 

A correspondent waiting from Adrian, Mich., complains bitterly of the cold, 
and says that he and many others are turning their eyes longingly southward. 
They would come at once, he says, if they could sell their farms without too great 
a sacrifice. There are thousands of northern farmers who feel in the same way. 
Well, there is room for you, hear, good friends, and a warm welcome to all honest 
workers who desixe to make their homes with us. Jack frost touches us lightly 
now and then, with the tips of his icy fingers, but we are never driven into winter 
quarters, and can turn a furrow in the field every day in the year, if we have occa- 
sion to do so. 

The Publishers of the Country Gentleman, Albany, N. Y., have issued and 
made the frontispiece of the volume just closed, a fine steel-plate portrait of the 
late Luther Tucker, the lamented senior editor of that paper. It is an admirable 
picture, and is said to be a good likeness of the veteran editor who has gone to his 
rest, after having done faithfully the work allotted him. 

J. Hale, Powers & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, who advertise themselves as " Frater-^ 
nity and Fine Art Publishers," have issued a chromo called a " Gift for the 
Grangers," price, $2. The general idea of the composition is a good one — better 
than the execution. "Grangers," whoever they may be, will no doubt buy it. We 
do not answer to that name, being simply a Patron of Husbandry. 

We are indebted to our good friend, P. J. Berckmans, of Fruitland Nurseries, 
Augusta, Ga., for some choice floral novelties as well as standard varieties for 
which he has our warmest thanks. The plants will be to us constant reminders of 
his kindness, as well as of his enterprise and horticultural accomplishments. 

Thanks to H. K. McL. for the Egyptian or Cat Tail Millet seed. As we have 
said again and again, this millet is the best crop to raise for green cut forage that 
we have ever tried. Everybody who keeps a horse, a mule or a cow should plant 
a patch of Cat Tail Millet. 

The Right Kind of Boys, — The attention of the vState Agricultural Society 
is invited, by the News and Courier, of this city, to the following letter, received 
by the well known merchants to whom it is addressed. Such merit as it shows is 
worthy of commendation from our SUite Society, and exhibits a principle which 
should be encouraged : 

Messrs. Gpo. W. Williams d' Co. : 

Snw — Jiy advice of our father we this day shi]) you three bales cotton, J. H. W. 
Enclo.sed find railnnid receipt for same. Hold until ordc^red sold. We made these 
three bales mainly by ourselves. We are aged re-jpectively about eleven and thirteen 
years, and would be glad if you can call the attention of the Executive Committee of 
the Agricultural Society to this. We can substantiate the above by our neighbors. 
Respectfully, T. P. and J." H. WARD. 

Newberry, S. C. 

IMeralure, Science and Home Interests. 


Literature, Science and j^ome Jntcrests. 

Tlie prize of $25 offered by the National 
Grange of Patrons of Husbandry for a song 
adapted to the use of that Order, was awarded 
to Mrs. Tucker, for the following, which has 
been set to music : 

'Tis ours to guard a sacred trust, 

We shape a heaven-born plan ; 
The noble purpose wise and just, 

To aid our fellow man. 
From Maine to California's slope, 

Resounds the reaper's song: 
" We come, to build the nations hope, 

To slay the giant Wrong." 

Too long have Avarice and Greed 

With coffers running o'er, 
Brought sorrow, and distress, and need. 

To Labor's humble door ; 
1^ From Maine to California's slope, 

Resounds the reaper's song : 
" We come, to build tlie nation's hope. 

To slay the giant Wrong." 

A royal road to place and power, 

Have rank and title been ; 
We herald the auspicious hour. 

When honest Worth may win ; 
From Maine to California's sloj)e. 

Resounds the reaper's song : 
" We come, to build the nation's hope. 

To slay the giant Wrong." 

Let every heart and hand unite 

In the benignant plan. 
The noble purpose, just and right, 

To aid our fellow-man ; 
From Maine to California's slope. 

Resounds the reaper's song : 
" We come, to build the nation's hope, 

To slay the giant Wrong." 

Mrs. M. F. Tucker. 
Ornro, Winnebago Co., Wis. 


Nestled between the cloud-capped moun- 
tains and the sea in the regions of Southern 
California, lies the beautiful town of Santa 
Barbara. Here, through the long winter 
months, the air is mild and balmy, and the 
hills are rich with verdure. Pepper and 
acacia-trees mingle the grace of their peren- 
nial foliage with that of the sturdy live-oak 
and the dark-leaved olive, all the year round ; 
while flowers, both wild and cultivated, bloom 
in unbounded profusion. 

Santa Barbara claims to be one of the most 
favored spots on the globe for healthfulness, 
the geniality of its climate, and the beauty and 
productiveness of its semi-tropical vegetation. 
Differing from the Neapolitans, the Santa 
Barbarans say, " See Santa Barbara and 
live !" 

About four miles from the town, in the 
valley of Montecito grows the now famous 
grape-vine, one of the wonders for the tourist 
in Southern California. It is the largest on 
record. It measures four feet four inches in cir- 
cumference at the ground, forty-one inches 
two feet from the ground, and rises eight feet 
before branching out: then spreading with 
extreme luxuriance, its branches cover more 
than five thousand square feet, and are sup- 
ported by fifty-two trellises. The largest 
branch is thirty inches in circumference, and, 
were it net for rigid pruning, the branches 
would extend indefinitely in every direction. 
It is of the Mission variety and exceedingly 
prolific, producing annually from five to six 
tons of grapes, which hang in massive clus- 
ters beneath the trellises, the effect of which, 
in the mellow autumn-time, excites admira- 
tion and wonder. It is claimed that it has 
produced 7,000 bunches of grapes, varying 
from one to four pounds in weight each. A 
bean was put into a vase for each bunch 
plucked, until the beans numbered 7,000. It 
grows on a sunny-slope of the foot-hills, 
commanding a fine view of the rugged moun- 
tains in one direction, and in the other the lovely 
Montecito Valley, with glimpses of the bine 
Pacific. The vine is irrigated by waters from 
the hot springs a few miles distant, and the 
country about the vine is very beautiful and 
Mexican in its natural and artificial sur- 

There is a tradition connected with the 
origin of this vine we wish to record. Seventy 
years ago, during the occupancy of the Mis- 
sion Fathers, there lived in the vicinity of 
Los Angeles a beautiful young Spanish girl. 
Nearly all Spanish girls, while in the bloom 
and freshness of youih, possess more or less 
of their national cast of beauty ; but the 
Senorita Marcellina had, from childhood, 
been the acknowledged queen among the 
maidens of her native place. Her complexion, 
tinged with the warm, brunette hue of her race, 
was clear and bright with the rich tint of 
health. Her wealth of black hair fell in 
rippling waves far beneath her waist; and 
her large, dark eyes were fringed with silken 
lashes that matched the exquisite penciling 
of the arched brows above them. Her parents, 
though belonging to the better class of Span- 
ish, had become poor, through extravagance 


The Rural Carolinian. 

and mismanagement, and had formed the 
project of bettering their fortunes by wedding 
their lovely daughter to some wealthy Don. 

The lovely Marcellina did not lack for 
admirers nor ardent lovers, and among them 
all, Senor Carlos de Domingues was the favor- 
ite and the accepted suitor. He was hand- 
some, tall and manly, but alas ! without 
fortune, and socially not the equal of Marcel- 
lina. As may be supposed, his suit met with 
no encouragement from the Don and Dona 
Feliz; and they, finding the attachment 
between the young people was becoming 
stronger than accorded with their plans for 
their daughter, resolved to move to Santa 
Barbara — a mission some hundred miles 
North — where resided many wealthy families, 
among whom they doubted not an alliance 
would be formed suitable in fortune and 

The announcement of their contemplated 
removal struck dismay into the hearts of 
Marcellina and Carlos ; but the latter, receiv- 
ing courage from desperation, presented his 
suit to the parents. As was anticipated, it 
was scornfully rejected, and further inter- 
course sternly forbidden. The lovers were, 
however, too ardent to be separated tiius, and 
through the medium of an old Indian nurse, 
who. was devotedly attached to the girl, they 
obtained one interview before parting. 

In the early twilight Marcellina stole out 
to an olive orchard, surrounded by an adobe 
wall, which lay back of the paternal mansion. 
Here she stood, waiting with throbbing.heart 
the arrival of her lover, wliile her nurse kept 
watch on the other side of the wall, ready to 
give the alarm, by a signal agreed upon, should 
any one approach from the house. Suddenly 
a tall figure sprang over the wall and crept 
Btealthily along in its shadow till he came 
close where the waiting maid stood. ''Carlos," 
she cried, holding out her trembling hands. 
"Is it you, M.arcellina? Ah, poor little one, 
how she trembles! They are very cruel, dar- 
ling, but we will not be separated. They 
shall not take you from me, my precious one." 

And then lie spoke long, low and rapidly in 
the beautiful Spanish language — so ex(pii- 
sitely fitted for expressions of tenderness and 
endearment — telling her that, as her parents 
objected to their union on the groinul of his 
poverty, he iiad determined to win wealth ; 
that an old Indian, Ijound to him by ties of 
gratitude, possessed knowledge of a rich mine 
faraway among tiie mountains, and to which 
he had promised to guide him and his com- 
pany ; and, by courage and skill, he would 
soon I'cturn to claim her hand from her ambi- 
tious, avaricious parents. " Remain true to 
me, Lina, and resist their scheming'. Wait 
for me hut two years, my flarling, and if at 
the end of that time you do not hear from me, 
know that I have perished in tlie attempt to 
win you." 

He then gave her a cutting from a grape 
vine, telling her to carry it to her new home 
and plant it, keeping it as a reminder of 
iiim, and that while it lived and flourished, 
she might know he loved her and was true to 
her. The cutting was in the form of a riding- 
whip, and as such she was to carry it, for her 
journey was to be performed on horseback. 

Vowing eternal fidelity, the lovers parted, 
and, the next morning, Don and Dona Feliz, 
with their daughter and attendants, started on 
their journey, while Carlos & Co., with their 
Indian guide, wended their way, full of hope 
and confidence, over the mountain-trail. 

Marcellina, as may be supposed, made little 
use of her grape-vine switch to urge her mus- 
tang along the weary way between Los An- 
geles and Santa Barbara. Arriving at their 
destination — four miles from the Mission of 
Santa Barbara — her first act was to plant the 
cutting upon the hill-side, with many tears 
and prayers for the success and safety of her 

The vine grew and flourished with wonder- 
ful luxuriance, and gladdened the heart of 
the waiting maiden, who could hardly have 
borne the burden of anxiety and suspense 
without its silent encouragement ; for the Don* 
and Dona had found, as they thought, a suit- 
able companion for their daughter, in a S[>an- 
iard of reputed great wealth, who promised 
them liberal compensation for her hand. He 
was short, of good circumference, and grizzled 
with years, but to counterbalance these de- 
fects in a lover, his fingers and .shirt-front 
shone with gems. Marcellina's violent op- 
position, however, while it did not move them 
to renounce their purpose, induced them to 
postpone the marriage, in hope that she would 
forget her former lover, and become more re- 
conciled to their will. 

In the interval thus granted, tlie time for 
the return of Carlos would expire; and Mar- 
cellina prayed daily for the arrival of her 
betrothed, with the fortune that was to find 
him favor in the eyes of her parents. The 
two years were rapidly drawing to a close, 
and yet no sign or token had come, save what 
she found in the vigorous growth of her ciier- 
ished vine. At length her parents, pressed 
with ))overty and weary of prolonged indul- 
gence to what they considered an idle fancy, 
fixed the wedding with the suitor of their 
choice, only recommendation wa.s his 

Ti»e eve of Marcellina's wedding day was 
the second anniversary of the j>artlng in the 
olive-grove, when Carlos told her that if he 
did not return or send word within two years, 
«he might know he was dead. She had crept 
away from the scene of busy preparation 
within her home, and hiding herself beneath 
the shadow of hiT belovcii vint — which was 
now large enough to sheiler her from casual 
observation in tiie uncertain gloaming — she 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


sobbed and wept, calling upon the Virgin, in 
hopeless angui?l\ to take her away to the 
spirit world, where she believed Carlos to be. 

Approaching footsteps arrested her atten- 
tion. She started guiltily and attempted to 
hide her tears, for she dai;ed not let her pa- 
rents know she still mourned her absent lover. 

"Lina — Lina?" greeted her ears in a fami- 
liar voice, and stayed her flight. Trembling- 
ly she awaited the near approach of the 
intruder, when, with one wild joyous cry of 
'' Carlos " she dropped into his arms, her 
beautiful head pressed close to his throbbing 
heart. It was, indeed, Carlos, returned at 
last, faithful to his promise, bringing with 
him a fortune at least equal to tliat of her 
aged and detested suitor. 

Carlos, with faith in his love and confi- 
dence in his ultimate success, followed the 
Indian across the Coast Range into the heart 
of the Sierras, where he proved the honesty 
of his guide and the truth of his promises by 
the marvellous deposits of gold to which he 
led them. Two years sufficed to gain the for- 
tunes for which they so earnestly sought and 

All other things being equal, the Don and 
Dona consented that their daughter should 
choose between the suitor.s, and the next day, 
instead of being led to the altar a wretched 
sacrifice to their ambition and avarice, she 
went as the willing and happy bride of her 
adoring Carlos. 

Years passed away ; Don and Dona Feliz 
died, and reverses deprived Carlos of his 
wealth. But, strange to say, the faithful vine 
once a token of fidelity between the lovers, 
now became their means of support ; for so 
prolific had it become, and so little did the 
indolent Spanish about them turn their atten- 
tion to the culture of the grape, that its fruits 
brought them an income sufficient for their 

About twelve years ago a second vine 
sprang up near the original one and grew 
rapidly, until now it nearly equals it in size. 
A large dancing floor was erected beneath the 
shadow of the vine, and here the Spanish 
youths and maidens united in the merry dance 
• on Sabbath evenings, according to their na- 
tional custom. 

Carlos and Marcellina died at a good old 
age, leaving behind them three hundred lineal 
descendants, and the big grape-vine, which 
will keep green their memory and the story 
of their love and faithfulness, long after 
children and grandchildren cease to tell the 

Hundreds of tourists annually visit the 
place, and wonder while thev gaze upon its 
vast proportions, and listen to the accounts 
of its marvellous productiveness. 

Yet, to me, the heart-history of which it is 
a living memento is its greatest charm ; and 
I love to dream, while standing beneath its 

spreading branches and gazing far out on the 
broad, blue Pacific, whose waters sparkle in 
the distance, of the true-hearted Spanish 
maiden who planted it in the faith which 
springs from an immortal love, and who 
watered it with her tears. 



Devoted, as the Rural Carolinian is, to 
the industries of the South, that which relates 
to the mental and moral improvement of the 
people, finds an appropriate place in these col- 

We propose with the co-operation of those 
persons directly interested, to present to our 
readers a series of articles on the educational 
institutions of the cotton States. It is unneces- 
sary to undertake the work of seeking to 
magnify the subject of popular education ; it 
is a self-evident proposition that-educational 
interests stand second to no other interests in 
tlieir bearing upon the prosperity and dignity 
of communities. At all times and in all coun- 
tries, educational establishments are of para- 
mount importance, but particularly in this 
age and in our section is the importance of 
the subject apparent to every intelligent mind. 

This is the age of thought — of mind rather 
than muscle. The athletes of the hour are 
those who cultivate their brains and learn to 
wield with power their intellects. He who 
seeks to be a master spirit and to bind the 
faith of men must do it by the power of 
thought, by the magic of the mind. 

Especially in our Southern land, where we 
are comparatively few in numbers, and where 
our resources are but slightly developed, 
should we call to our aid the resources of 
science and all the power which thorough 
mental training can originate. 

We need education for the farm ; we need 
it for the foundry ; we need it for marts of 
trade ; we need it for the mines that are 
ready to yield us their golden treasures ; we 
need it for our banks, our railroads and our 
factories. The development of the resources 
of our Southern country, through the instru- 
mentality of the right methods of training, is 
the great business of the hour. Knowledge is 
Power. It is our safety, and our defense. 

With these preliminary remarks we add, 
with gratification, that in this State and the 
other cotton States are not a few educational 
institutions of a high order. We may take 
occasion to refer to these as time and oppor- 
tunity may allow. 

In the pre.sent number of the Rural Caro- 
linian will be observed a steel plate engrav- 
ing of tlie Carolina Military Institute, located 
at Charlotte, N. C, but designed to meet the 
wants of both the Carolinas, as well as the 
more extreme Southern States. 


The Rural Carolinian. 

This institution, though but recently estab- 
lished, promises to occupy a high rank as a 
military College. We propose, therefore, to 
give a brief account of the object and scope 
of this new enterprise. 

The founder of the Institute, Col. J. P. 
Thomas, late of the South Carolina ^lilitary 
Academy, and recently connected with public 
affairs in thi.s State, has laid the foundation 
of the Carolina Military Institute on a broad 
and .strong basis. 

From the circulars of the Institute and its 
printed regulations, one can form an accurate 
idea of the spirit of this new educational en- 

We observe that whilst the military ele- 
ment is used, it is not unduly magnified, nor 
is it allowed to infringe upon the scholastic 
and more essential exercises of the Institute. 
In tlie language of the circular, " The grand 
object being to impress upon cadets the idea 
of duty and responsibility. The military arm 
is employed not so much to compel an un- 
questioning obedience to a rigid code as to 
strengthen appeals to the moral sense and to 
enforce ethical propositions. Whilst the 
military jiower is employed, the usual appeals 
are made to the moral sense and the whole 
discipline though resolute is considerate and 
discreet in character. 

As to the curriculum of academic studies, 
a thorough examination satisfies us that it is 
full and comprehensive, presenting a logical 
order, and a harmonious whole that will ar- 
rest the attention of educators and of en- 
lightened persons in all departments of life. 
Forming a judicious combination of the 
scientific and the esthetic element, the course 
of studies adoj)ted at the Institute will be 
regarded by many persons as an improvement 
upon the course usually pursued at military 
institutions. We observe that the purely mil- 
itary studies relating to the art and science of 
war, are made to give way to the studies that 
relate to the civil and general pursuits of life. 
In fine, the course of instruction adopted at 
the Carolina Military Institute, is at once 
thorough, Dractical and liberal. 

A preparat(jry de|)artnient is established 
for the benefit of those not sufficiently ad- 
vanced to enter the regular classes of the 
Institute. This being regarded as the train- 
ing school and nursery of the Institute, is 
deemed an important feature in its economy, 
and, therefore, invested with special signifi- 
cance. Space, however, will not allow us 
to allude further to tlie details of the Carolina 
Military Institute. \\\' nuist refer our read- 
ers to the circulars of the Institute, and to 
its code of laws, as contained in the oflicial 
regul.itions issued from the office of Messr.'^. 
Walker, Kvans «& Cogswell. 

The buildings of the (Carolina Military In- 
Btitiite are located on an elevated site in the 
suburbs of the Town of Charlotte, and are I 

commodious in extent and imposing in ap- 
pearance, crowned as they are with turrets and 
parapets. The grounds are attractive, con- 
tain a beautiful grove of oak trees, and em- 
brace twenty-seven acres, thus giving ample 
space for recreation, and for military and 
gymna-stic exercises. The location is healthy 
and commanding, and the water especially 
pure and wholesome. 

A Summer Encampment for practical in- 
struction and military purposes is one of the 
features of the military session. We. need 
only add that the Superintendent, Colonel 
Thomas, is aided by an efficient, able and 
accomplished corps of officers, among whom 
are General D. H. Plill, Prof. W. S. Dudley, 
and Prof. J. Colton Lynes. 

Although the Institute has been in opera- 
tion only since 1st October last, it is now fully 
organized and in successful operation, with a 
full and increasing corps of Cadets, repre- 
senting the States of South Carolina, North 
Carolina, Georgia, and Virginia. 

The friends of education will look with 
interest upon this new educational enterprise. 
We bespeak for it the public confidence, and 
a due share of the public support. 


Of all the bonny buds that blow 

In bright or cloudy weather. 
Of all the flowers that come and go 

The whole twelve moons together, 
This little purple pansy brings 
Thoughts of the sweetest, saddest things. 

I had a little lover once, 

Who used to give me posies : 
His eyes were blue as hyacinths, 

His lips were red as roses. 
And everybody loved to praise 
His pretty looks and winsome ways. 

The girls that went to school with rae 

Made little jealous speeches, 
Because he brought me royally 

His biggest plums and peaclies, 
And always at the door would wait 
To carry home my books and slate. 

"They couldn't see" — with pout and fling- 

"The mighty fascination 
About that littled snub-no.sed thing 

To win such admiration ; 
As if there weren't a dozen girls 
With nicer eyes and longer curls !" 

And this I knew as well as they, 

And never i:ould see clearly 
Why more than Marion or May 

I should be loved so dearly. 
So once I asked hiiu, why was this? 
He only answered with a kiss. 

lAterature, Science and Home Interest*. 


Until I teased him — " Tell me why — 

I want to know the reason ;" 
When from tl^e garden-bed close hy 

(The punsies were in season) 
He plucked and gave a flower to me, 
With sweet and simple gravity. 

•'The garden is in bloom," he said, 
"With lilies pale and slender. 

With roses and verbenas red. 
And fuchsias' purple splendor ; 

But over and above the rest. 

This little heartsease suits me best." 

"Am I your little heartsease, then ?" 
I asked with blushing pleasure : 

He answered yes ! and yes again — 
Heartsease and dearest treasure ; 

That the round world and all the sea 

Held nothing half so sweet as me ! 

I listened with a proud delight 
Too rare for words to capture, 

Kor ever dreamed what sudden blight 
Would come to chill my rapture. 

Could I foresee the tender bloom 

Of pansies round a little tomb? 

Life holds some stern experience, 

As most of us discover," 
And I've had other losses since 

I lost my little lover; 
But still this purple pansy brings 
Thoughts of the saddest, sweetest things. 
Mks. Mary E. Bradley. 


A correspondent, writing from the Mexican 
town of Colima, gives an account of a recent 
visit to the volcanic mountain in that pro- 
vince, in company with Dr. Hussleman, Mr. 
Sedgwick, and Professor Solarin : " Mount 
Colima (he says) is midway between Ciudad 
Guzman and the city of Colima, and twenty 
leagues from each. Our view at night from 
Ciudad Guzman was grand, awe-inspiring, 
even fearful to contemplate. From this city 
the column of fire and cinders, mingled with 
steam and smoke, appears to rise only about 
2,000 feet trom the old crater in the centre of 
the cone-like peak. Here we are, 2,200 feet 
lower than at Ciudad Guzman, from which 
place the same glaring medley of the molten 
inside world appeared to ascend at least 3,500 
feet, and from the new or side crater which 
had recently burst on that side of the grand 
mountain, on the south-eastern slope, the i 
flame appeared to rise, at 3 A. M. of the 25th 
ult.. to a height of 4,000 feet. The mountain 
is 12,034 feet above sea level, according to 
Humboldt's measurement. It is insulated in 
this plain bearing the same name, and is on 
the western declivity of an extended plateau, 
which, from the volcano's base, slopes gradu- 
ally to the Pacific Ocean, which is 80 miles 

distant. The volcano is seventy miles from 
Jorulla, which rose suddenly from the plain 
on the night of September 29, 1759. Colima 
is a porphyritic mountain, and its crater is 
an exception to the generality of craters of 
volcanoes, inasmuch as it is at the exact 
centre of the peak ; and instead of an ellipti- 
cal shape is quite circular, with a diameter of 
1,100 feet, which had been determined by 
manywho had ascended it before the recent 
eruption. It is a perfect barren mountain, 
and looks the roughness of jagged and irreg- 
ular deposits of reddish pumice stone, or lava, 
cooled while flowing from above. At night 
the scene transcended all others that ever has 
been, or may be ever witnessed on the face of 
the earth. We were closer to the base of the 
mountain than deemed hardly judicious by 
very many of our party. Full two-thirds of 
the better class of citizens of Zapilon have 
removed to Colima since June 25, because 
they considered that that town is in hourly 
danger of being engulphed. Already from 
the main crater alone millions of square rods 
of volcanic matter has piled itself up in a 
great overhanging avalanche, which may at 
any moment break away and roll downwards 
towards Zapilon. This feature of existing 
circumstances it is that gives such just cause 
of alarm, not only to the inhabitants of that 
little town, but also to the people of Colima. 
This great deposit overhangs the opening of 
one of the smaller craters, that on the side 
nearest the city. Should it loosen, and any 
great portion of it in a solidified and cold 
state be precipitated into the smaller active 
volcano, there is no telling but what the effect 
would be such a shaking up of the earth as 
would destroy Colima and a"ll the villages of 
this beautiful valley. The sight we had there 
during the night well repaid all trouble of 
the journey to this city, and danger we risked 
by passing it near the base of the mountain. 
Eight before and above us were three craters ; 
the old one at the summit and two of the new 
•ruptions. From their gaping mouths vast 
volumes of seething, hissing, crimson matter 
shot upwards, and great stones or cinders 
dropped from the upward current, ever and 
anon bursting with the thundering noise of a 
park of artillery. Then from their several 
sides pour streams of liquid lava, which 
courses like molten iron from huge smelting 
furnaces down the mountain's sides. Imagine 
an accumulation of millions of Eoman can- 
dles, sky-rockets, and blue lights gathered in 
some subterranean vault, and all touched off 
at once ; the rumbling confusion, noise, hiss- 
ing, and cracking of all those millions could 
not compare with the terrific effect caused by 
the upheaving of these craters. It is truly 
magnificent and terrible, and, more than the 
vastness of ocean or gleam of lightning and 
rumble of thunder, tells of the omnipotence 
of the Creator and our own weakness." 


The Rural Carolinian. 


Lord Brougham, in his recently published 
autobiography, gives an account of a trip he 
made to Norway, and rehites how, on a cold 
day in Norway, he arrived at an hotel which 
had the unusual luxury of a bath-room. He 
says : " Tired with the cold of yesterday, I 
was glad to take advantage of a hot batli be- 
fore I turned in. And here a most remarkable 
thing happened to me — so remarkable that I 
must tell the story from the beginning. After 

I left the high school, I went with G , my 

most intimate friend, to attend the classes in 
the University. There was no divinity class, 
but we frequently in our walks discussed and 
speculated upon many grave subjects, among 
others, on the immortality of the soul, and on 
a future state. This question, and the possi- 
bility, I will not say of ghosts walking, but of 
the dead appearing to tlie living, were subjects 
of much speculation ; and we actually com- 
mitted the folly of drawing up an agreement, 
written with our blood, that whichever of us 
died the first should appear to the other, and 
thus solve any doubts we had entertained of 
the 'life after death.' After we had finished 

our classes at the College, G went to India, 

having got an appointment there in the civil 
service. He seldom wrote to me, and after 
the lapse of a few years I had almost forgotten 
him ; moreover, his family having little con- 
nection with Edinburgh, I seldom saw or 
heard anything of them, or of him through 
them, so tliat all the old school-boy intimacy 
had died out, and I had nearly forgotten his 
existence. I had taken, as I have said, a warm 
bath ; and while lying in it and enjoying the 
comfort of the heat, after the late freezing I 
had undergone, I turned my head around, 
looking toward the chair on which I had de- 
posited my clothes, as I was about to get up 
out of thebath. On the chair sat G , look- 
ing calmly at me ! How I got out of the bath I 
know not, buton recovering my senses I foun^ 
myself sprawling on the floor. The apparition, 
or whatever it was that had taken the likeness 
of G , had disa{)peared. This vision pro- 
duced such a shock, tiiat I had no inclination 
to talk about it, or to speak about it even to 
Stuart; but the impression it made upon me 
was too vivid to be easily forgotten, and so 
strongly was I all'ected by it that I have here 
written down the whole history, with tiie date, 
I'Jtii December, and all the particulars as they 
are now fresh before me. No doubt 1 had 
fallen asleej) ; and that the ai)pearance pre- 
Hented so distinctly to my eyes wius a dream, 
I cannot for a moment doubt : yet for years I 

liad had no communication with (i , nor 

had tliere been anything to recall him to my 
recollection ; nothing !iad taken place during 
our Swc<lish travels either connected with 
G , or with India, or with anything relat- 
ing to him, or to any member of his family. 

I recollected quickly enough our old discussion 
and the bargain we had made. I could not 
discharge from my mind the impression that 

G must have died, and that his appearance 

to me was to be received by me as proof of a 
future state; yet all the while I felt convinced 
that the whole was a dream; and so painfully 
vivid and so unfading was the impression, that 
I could not bring myself to talk of it or to 
make the slightest allusion to it. I finished 
dressing, and, as we had agreed to iijake an 
early start, I was ready by six o'clock, the 
hour of our early breakfast. 

"Brougham, October 16, 1862.— I have 
just been copying out from my journal the 
account of this strange dream : Certi^sima 
mortis imar/o I And now, to finish the story, 
begun above sixty years since : Soon after my 
return to Edinburgh there arrived a letter 

from India, announcing G 's death, and 

stating that he had died on the 19th of De- 


One further distinctive mental trait in 
women springs out of the relation of the 
sexes as aeljusted to the welfare of the race. .1 
refer to the etlect which the manifestation of 
power of every kind in men has in determin- 
ing the attachments of women. That tliis is 
a trait iuevilahly produced will be manifest, 
on asking what would have happened if 
women had by preference attached themselves 
to the weaker men. If the weaker men had 
habitually left posterity when the stronger did 
not, a progressive deterioration of the race 
would have resulted. Clearly, therefore, it 
has happened (at least since the cessation of 
marriage by capture or by purchase has 
allowed feminine choice to play an impor- 
tant part) that, among women unlike in their 
taste-s, those who were facinated by power, 
bodily or mental, and who married men ai)le 
to protect them and their children, were more 
likely to survive in posterity than women to 
whom weaker men were pleasing, and wliose 
cliildren Were both less efiiciently guarded 
and less capable of self-preservation if they 
reached maturity. To this admiration for 
power, caused thus inevitably, is ascribable 
the fact sometimes commented upon as strange 
that women will continue attached to men 
who use them ill, but whose brutality goes 
along with power, more,jthan they will con- 
tinue attached to weaker men who >ise them 
well. With this admiration of power, prima- 
rily having this function, there goes the ad- 
miration of power in general, which is more 
marked in women than in men, and shows 
itself i)oth theologically antl politically. That 
the emotion of awe aroused by contemplating 
whatever suggest transcendent force or capac- 
ity, which constitutes religious feeling, is 

lAteratwe, Sdmce and Home Interestt. 


strongest in women is proved in many ways. 
We read that among the Greeks the women 
were more religiously excitable than the men. 
Sir Kutherford Alcock tells us of the Japan- 
ese that '' in the temples it is very rare to see 
any congregation except women and children; 
the men at any time, are very few and those 
generally of the lower classes." Of the pil- 
grims to the temple of Juggernaut, it is stated 
that " at least five-sixths, and often nine- 
tenths of them are females." And we are 
also told of the Sikhs, that tlie women believe 
in more gods than the men do. Which facts, 
coming from different races and times, suffi- 
ciently show us that the like fact, familiar to 
us in Eoman Catholic countries, and to some 
extent at home, is not, as many think, due to 
the education of women, but has a deeper 
cause in natural character. And to this same 
cause is in like manner to be ascribed the 
greater respect felt by women for all embodi- 
ments and symbols of authority, governmental 
and social. — Herbert Spencer, in Popular 
Science Monthly. 


The teaching of modern languages in our 
colleges is too elaborate, simply because there 
is not time. The teachers are often like a 
man who walks backward half a mile in order 
to get a start for a leap over a ditch which is 
directly before liim. Students are kept dril- 
ling away on the grammar, and on elementary 
principles, until the time is up and the train 
is starting. It may be said that a contrary 
course is superficial. Of course it is ! But 
what would you have ! It io this or nothing. 
Besides, it is not superficial in an odious 
sense. It is simply devoting the little time 
students have to the language, instead of the 
' key to the language. This kind of teaching 
has been tried, and tried advantageously. 
Probably no teacher of modern languages has 
been more successful than the poet. Professor 
Longfellow, of Cambridge. Thoroughly ed- 
ucated himself, and having spent years with 
the best masters and in the best society abroad, 
he condescended to be useful as a professor, 
and we have heard from those who know, 
that his method was extremely simple and 
practical, and entirely different from that of 
teachers who think more of themselves than 
of their pupils. When he took up French, 
for instance, with the class, he made a few 
statements as to pronunciation, and then read 
a sentence which the students read after him. 
The progress, after several weeks of this prac- 
tice, would be considerable. Accent was ac- 
quired as the child acquires it, by the ear. 
As to translation, he did another shocking 
thing, and that was to advise his pupils to 
have a good translation, and to use the dic- 
tionary and grammar as they needed them ; 
that is, the language was to be studied, and 

No. 4, Vol. 5. J 6 

not the keys to it. These latter were to be 
used, as tiiey were needed, in unlocking the 
former. The memory was not to be cum- 
bered and loaded with rules, and exceptions, 
and definitions, but the latter were to be 
sought for as they were required, and when 
the .student could appreciate them. AH this 
was, perhaps, superficial, and even absurd, 
but it was eminently successful, as all aver 
who know his method of teaching. 

The fact is, educated men are so wedded to 
the old system of teaching the dead languages, 
that they regard with disgust any attempt at 
simplicity, if it has the least appearance of 
being superficial. As our fathers drudged 
through the Latin and Greek grammars, and 
committed to memory page after page of what 
they did not and never could understand, so 
must their children. How short a time it is 
since there was any Greek dictionary in En- 
glish ! And, when one was translated, some of 
the old masters threw up their eyes in horror. 
We have changed all this. If a man can read 
and speak a modern language, so as to under- 
stand and to be understood, we don't stop to 
inquire whether he lias committed to memory 
all the irregular verbs, or whether he ever 
saw a grammar. Of course, some speak, and 
write, and read, the modern languages better 
than others, because they have had the time 
to study them more ; hnt it is better that they 
should do this in a somewhat faulty manner, 
rather than not do if at all, just as it is better 
for a child to be taught the English in a su- 
perficial way, rather than to remain in utter 
ignorance. As for the mental discipline of 
drilling on grammar forever, or of commit- 
ting rules, and exceptions, and pages of ir- 
regular verbs, it would be just as useful and 
more profitable to set the pupil to counting 
twenty bushels of ten-penny nails, or repeat- 
ing the " New England Primer ", backwards, 
[Appleton's Journal. 


If we trace the genesis of human charac- 
ter, by considering the conditions of existence 
through which the human race passed in 
early barbaric times and during civilization, 
we shall see that the weaker sex has natu- 
rally acquired certain mental traits by its 
dealings with the stronger. In the course of 
the struggles for existence among wild tribes, 
those tribes survived in which the men were 
not only powerful and courageous, but ag- 
gressive, unscrupulous, intensely egotistic. 
Necessarily, then, the men of the conquering 
races which gave origin to the civilized races, 
were men in whom the brutal characteristics 
were dominant ; and, necessarily, the women 
of such races having to deal with brutal men, 
prospered in proportion as they possessed, or 
acquired, fit adjustments of nature. How 
were women, unable by strength to hold their 


The Rivral Carolinian. 

own, otherwise enabled to hold their own ? 
Several mental traits helped them to do this. 

We may set down, first, the ability to 
please, and the concomitant love of appro- 
bation. Clearly, other things equal, among 
women living at the mercy of men, those who 
Bucceeded most in pleasing would be the most 
likely to survive and leave posterity. And 
(recognizing the predominant descent of qual- 
ities on the same side) this, acting on succes- 
sive generations, tended to establish, as a 
feminine trait, a special solicitude to be ap- 
proved, and an aptitude of manner to this end. 

Similarly, the wives of merciless savages 
must, other things equal, have prospered in 
proportion to their powers of disguising their 
feelings. Women who betrayed the state of 
antagonism produced in them by ill-treat- 
ment would be less likely to survive and 
leave offspring than those who concealed their 
antagonism ; and 'hence, by inheritance and 
selection, a growth of this trait proportionate 
to the requirement. In some cases, again, the 
arts of persuasion enabled women to protect 
themselves, and by implication their offspring, 
where, in the absence of such arts, they 
would hnve di^sipcared early, or would have 
reared icwer chikhen. One further ability 
may be named as likely to be cultivated and 
established — the ability to distinguish quickly 
the passing feelings of those around. In 
barbarous times a woman who could, from a 
movement, tone of voice, or expression of 
face, instantly detect in her savage husband 
the passion that was rising, wotild be likely 
to t scape dangers run into by a woman less 
skilled in interpreting the natural language 
of feeling- Hence, from the perpetual exer- 
cise of this power, and the survival of those 
having most of it, we may infer its establish- 
ment as a feminine faculty. Ordinarily, this 
feminine faculty, showing itself in an apti- 
tude for guessing the state of mind through 
the external signs, ends simply in intuitions 
formed without assignable reasons ; but when, 
as happens in rare cases, there is joined with 
it skill in psychological analysis, there results 
an extremely remarkable ability to interpret 
the mental states of others. Of this ability 
we have a living example never hitherto 
paralleled among women, and in but fi-w, if 
any, cases exceeded among men. — IlEUiiiiKT 
SvENCEB, in Popular Science Monthly. 


I am quite ashamed to take people into my 
garden and have them notice the absence of 
onions. It is very iiiarke<l. In onion is 
strength ; and a garden without it lacks ffavor. 
The onion in its satin wrappings is among the 
most beautiful of vegetables, and it is the only 
one that represents the essence of things, ft 
can almost he said to have a soul. You take 
oir coat after coat, and the onion iuHtill there ; 

and, when the last one is removed, who dare 
say that the onion itself is destroyed, though 
you can weep over its departed spirit? I know 
that there is supposed to be a prejudice against 
the onion, but I think there is rather a coward- 
ice in regard to it. 

I doubt not that all men and women love 
the onion ; but few confess their love. Affec- 
tion for it is concealed. Good New Englanders 
are as shy of owning it as they are of talking 
about religion. Some people have days on 
which they eat onion — what you might call 
"retreats," or their "Thursdays." The act is 
in the nature of a religious ceremony, an 
Eleusinian mystery ; not a breath of it must 
get abroad. On that day they see no company ; 
they deny the kiss of greeting to the dearest 
friend ; they retire within themselves and 
hold commiuiion with one of the most pungent 
and penetrating manifestations of the moral 
vegetable world. Happy is said to be the 
family which can eat onions together. They 
are for the time being separate from the 
world and liave a harmony of aspiration. Let 
them become apostles of the onion ; let them 
preach it to their fellows, and circulate tracts 
of it in the form of .seeds. 

In the onion is the hope of universal 
brotherhood. If all men will eat onions at 
all times they will come into a univer.sal sym- 
pathy. Look at Italy. I hope I am not 
mistaken as to the cause of her unity. It was 
the Reds who preached the gospel which made 
it possible. All the Red.^ of Europe, all the 
sworn devotees of the mystic Mary Ann eat 
of the common vegetable. Their oaths are 
strong with it. It is the food aLso of the com- 
mon people of Italy. All the social atmos- 
phere of that delicious land is laden with it. 
Its odor is a practical democracy. In the 
churches all are alike ; there is one faith, one 
smell. The entrance of Victor Emanuel into 
Rome is only the pompous proclamation of a 
unity which garlic had already accomplished; 
and yet we, who boast of our democracy, eat 
onions in secret. — Charles Dudley Warner. 


"The best evidence," says Mr. Parwin, "of 
a taste for the beautiful, is afforded by the 
three genera of Australian bower-birds. . . . 
Their bowers where the sexes congregate and 
play strange antics" (at all stranger than our 
waltzes and (luadrillesV) " are differently con- 
structed ; but, what most concerns us is, that 
they are decorated in a different nuinner by 
the'different species. The satin bower-bird 
collects gayly-colored articles, such as the 
blue tail feathers of parocjuets, bleached bones 
and shells, which it slicks between the twig.s, 
or arranges at the entrance. Mr. (lould found 
in one bower a neatly-worked stone tomahawk 
and a slip of blue cotton, evidently iiroctired 
I from a native encampment. These objects are 

Literature, Seierws and Home Interests. 

continually re-arranged and carried about by 
the birds while at play. The bower of the 
spotted bower-bird is beautifully lined with 
tall grasses, so disposed that the heads nearly 
meet, and the decorations are very profuse. 
Round stones are used to keep the grass- 
stems in their proper places, and to mike 
divergent paths leading to the bower. The 
stones and shells are often brought from a 
great distance. The regent-bird, as described 
by Mr. R.vmsay, ornaments its short bower 
with bleached land-shells, belonging to five or 
six species, and ' with berries of various col- 
ors, blue, red, and black, which give it, when 
fresh, a very pretty appearance. Besides these, 
there were several newly-picked leaves and 
young shoots of a pinkish color, the whole 
showing a decided taste for the beautiful.' 
Well may Mr. Gould say, 'These highly 
decorated halls of assembly must be regarded 
as the most wonderful instances of bird-archi- 
tecture yet discovered ;' and the taste, we 
see, of the several species certainly differs." — 
Popular Science Monthly. 

Our Young Folks. 


In the store-rooms we saw rows upon rows 
of cells, fitted one upon another, and every one 
filled with clear honey, and securely sealed. 

"This is our winter store," said my guide ; 
" pure honey, made from the Avhite clover, 
and put up in the combs by the Workers." 

" How do they make the honey?" I asked. 

" They gather it," she replied. " We send 
out thousands of bees every morning, to all the 
gardens and fields around. Mignonette makes 
good honey, and so do apple-blossoms. We 
usually make from two to six pounds in a day. 
The bees often fly as far as two miles from the 
hive, and they come back loaded with honey 
and pollen. Each Worker has a tongue or pro- 
bocsis with which she licks or brushes up the 
honey, and puts it into her honey-bag. 

" Stop a moment," said she to a Worker 
who was hurrying by. " You will observe, 
my dear, that the hinder legs have something 
like baskets, on the side, in which the pollen 
or bee-bread is carried." 

" I see it,' ' said I. " I have often watched 
the bees coming out of flowers, covered with 
yellow dust.' ' 

I then took the opportunity to mention to 
her that I lived in a lily-bell, that I some- 
times danced the greater part of the night, 
and that the bees were very much in the habit 
of waking me at an unreasonable hour in the 
morning. She said she would attend to it. 

" And how do the bees make wax?" I asked. 

"By a process best known to themselves," re- 
plied Deborah. " It is not in my line just now, 
and I am quite sure that I could not describe it 

to you. The bees say they cannot tell how thsy 
do it, but they wish to keep the secret among 
them-selves. Tiie sides of these cells are the 
one handreil and eightieth part of an inch in 
thickness. Sa you see we must use an im- 
mense quantity of wax." 

" You must, indeed," I replied. "And are 
the cells always made in this same shape?" 

"Yes," said she. "They are " six-sided. 
The early bees fixed upon that as the best for 
strengch and economy of spaoe, and no change 
has been made since. H jw ver, the bumble- 
bees," she added, with a -light expression of 
scorn, as though she had said, " tlie Beggars," 
" have a way which they prefer. They put 
it up in bags, and store it under ground." 

This was no news to me. Such a thing ha^ 
been done in Fairy-land as to " borrow " a 
little honey from the Bumble-bee, in time of 
scarcity. But I said nothing. 

" And you tell me the Workers do the fight- 
ing. Is there much fighting to do?" I asked. 

"A great deal," replied Deborah. "We 
have many enemies, a bother on them I Mice, 
caterpillars, moths, snails, wasps, robber-bees, 
and other evil-minded creatures!" As she 
said this, she buzzed fiercely and unsheathed 
her sting. 

" Look here a moment," said she, " and you 
will see one of them." 

And there in a corner, guarded by a squad 
of bees, lay a wretched snail, prisoner in his 
own shell. The edge of the shell was cover- 
ed with strong cement, which held it firmly 
to the floor. 

" I think we have him now, the villian I" 
said my guide. " His shell is fastened with 

" What is propolis ?" I asked. 

"It is bee-glue," she replied; "resin from 
the buds of trees." — Si. Nicholas. 


We have printed some of the rhymes sent 
us by " Harry," of Wadmalaw, because we 
desired to encourage what may prove, when 
developed by time and cultivation, true poetic 
talent. He sends us more verses, as good, if 
not better, than those we have printed, but 
though we advise him to continue to write 
for his own improvement, we must suggest 
that it is better not to print what he will be 
heartily ashamed of when he is older, and 
can do a great deal better. Poeta are said to 
be " born not made," but they are certainly 
not born full grown. If " Harry," who we 
trust will look upon us as a friend, in this 
matter, will wait three years, improving all 
he can in the mean time, we shall be glad to 
see a specimen of what he can then do. 


The Rxiral Carolinian. 


Until seven years of age, Kosalie had been 
the joy of her parent's hearts. But after tliis 
period she bename subject to a fault, which 
rendered her very disagreeable. If any per- 
son happened to touch her playthings, she 
cast a sullen glance at them, and mumbled in 
a low tone, for a long time.. If she was re- 
proached because of this, she would rise, make 
a shuffling sound with her feet, and usually 
end by overturning the chairs and foot-stools. 
It is true, that sometimes she repented of 
these faults, and determined to avoid them in 
future. She wept in secret, and lamented that 
she had become an object of aversion to her 
friends ; but she, alas, soon forgot her good 
resolutions, returned to her old habits, and 
daily became more peevish. 

"One evening, (it was tlie last day of the 
year,) she saw lier mother enter her chamber, 
with a box concealed behind her shawl. Rosa- 
lie wished to follow her, but her mother de- 
sired her to remain where she was. This 
command oifended her exceedingly, and be- 
cause of it she became more pettish and 
morose than usual. After a half liour had 
elapsed her mother called for her. Great 
was the surprise of the cliild to see, on enter- 
ing the room, a table covered with beautiful 
toys of all descriptions. 

" Come to me, Rosalie," said the mother, 
"and by reading this paper you will discover 
for whom these gifts are intended." 

Kosalie approached, and perceived among 
the playthings an open note, upon which was 
traced, in large letters, these words : For an 
amiable little f/irl — as a reward for her gentleness 
awl good behaviour. After reading this, Rosalie 
cast down her eyes, and did not utter a word. 

" Well, Ro.salie, for whom are the articles 
destined ?" 

"They are not for me," replied the child, 
and tears ran down her cliecks. 

"There is still another note," said her 
mother, "see if it does not contain some mes- 
sage that will suit you." 

Kosalie took the paper, and read : For a 
little grumbling girl, who w aware of her faults, 
and who, in commencing a new year, will en- 
deavor to amend them. 

"Oh ! this is for me, this is for me," cried 
tlje cliild, and she threw herself into her 
mother's arms, and wept bitterly. 

" Then," replifii the good mother, " take 
tliat whidi belcMigs to you." 

"No, dear mainnia," said Rosalie, "the 
handsome toys can only belong to the amiable 
little girl. Keep them for me, until I become 
good and gentle." 

This answer afforded her motlu'r much 
pleasure. She collected the playthings, packed 
them in the box, and then i)laced it carefully 
in a closet. Tlien presenting Rosalie with 
tlic key, she said : 

"Take this, my child, and open the closet 
when you think the proper time for so doing 
has arrived." 

Six weeks elapsed, and during this period 
Kosalie had displayed no ill humor, nor 
had she gruml)led in the least. She placed lier 
arms around her mother's neck, and said to 
her with a quivering voice : 

" Shall I open the closet, mamma?" 

" Yes, my child," replied the fond mother, 
"you can now with propriety claim this plea- 
sure, for you have learned to conquer bad 
habits, and this is one of life's greatest victo- 

She then embraced Rosalie with much ten- 

Having thus overcome her disagreeable 
faults, she was soon beloved by all her friends, 
for her amiable character. In conclusion, let 
me say to you, my dear young readers, " go 
and do likewise." Thus acting, you will not 
only obtain the love of your relatives, and of 
all who know you, but you will enjoy that 
which is far more valuable — the love of God, 
and his blessed peace, which passeth all under- 


HYsicAL Culture. 


Nature is a better counsellor than Dr. 
Lewis. What he teaches us to do by study 
and painstaking and labor, from an intelli- 
gent motive, she impels us to do in the sim- 
ple search for amusement, in every playful 
manifestation of life. The boy left free to 
play in the fields and woods, will in a single 
day run more miles and. exercise healthfully 
more muscles than could be matched by the 
"light gymnastics " of a week. This he does 
in pure sport. Riuuiing, climbing, ritling, 
swimming, rowing, tossing, batting, jumping, 
wrestling, fishing, see-sawing, rolling and 
tumbling, day after day ; there is not a muscle 
in his little body that he does not bring into 
play, without a motive that urges him from 
behind, and solely for the gratitication of his 
greed for amusement. 

Added to the good result of universal mus- 
cular developiuent through universal muscu- 
lar exercise, is that of coming directly in 
contact with the elements of earth and water. 
That there is virtue in water all ari- ready to 
admit; Imt all are not so sure that tl»ere is 
virtue in dirt. Nevertheless, if there were 
less dabbling iu water, and a good deal more 
dabbling in dirt, the children would be heal- 
thier. Dirt is not filth. It soils linen and 
discolors the face and hands, but is essentially 
as clean as (lour, and would not injure the 
tenderest child if it were rnlibed ;ill over with 
it, wliich is more than can be said of any of 

lAteraiure, Science and Home Interests. 


the cosmetics so freely used by the child's 
mother and his grown up sisterg. 

How often it is said of a puny child, that 
if it could only have a chance to " play in 
dirt " it would become strong and well ? Why 
this truth is universally admitted when ap- 
plied to specific cases, and so almost univer- 
sally ignored in its application to all children, 
is not obvious ; for if dirt is good for a deli- 
cate sickly child, it is certainly good for all 
children. If dirt is not in itself medicinal, 
the exhalations from freshly stirred earth are. 
The lady who works away at her flowers gets 
more life from the point of her trowel than 
she does from her roses and her mignonette; 
and she would get more still if she would lay 
aside her gloves. What this influence essen- 
tially is cannot, perhaps, be defined — whether 
chemical or electrical ; but it is positive, and 
should take a prominent place among the 
recognized hygienic forces. 

Therefore, when the children are at pas- 
ture, they should be so clothed during their 
hours of play that they can handle dirt, sit in 
it, and even roll in it without fear of soiling 
their garments or wearing them out. Let 
strong, coarse stuffs be placed upon them ; 
and if they go out clean and come back soiled, 
let the little wearers be met with smiles rather 
than frowi»s. They have obeyed the voice of 
nature, though they have seemed to have dis- 
obeyed their mothers and nurses. They have 
followed the suggestions of their instincts ; 
and nothing is truer than that a child who 
never gets dirty when it has the liberty to do 
so, possesses some peculiarity of mental con- 
stitution, or is the subject of debility or dis- 
ease. The unsophisticated child loves dirt 
as it loves bread, and will never lose a favor- 
able opportunity to play in it. — Home, Farm 
and Orchard. 


Persons sometimes feel remarkably well — 
the appetite is vigorous, eating is a joy, diges- 
tion vigorous, sleep sound, with an alacrity of 
body and an exhilaration of spirits whicii alto- 
gether throw a charm over life that makes us 
pleased with everybody and everything. Next 
week, to-morrow, in an hour, a marvellous 
change comes over the spirit of the dream ; 
the sunshine has gone, clouds portend, dark- 
ness covers the face of the great deep, and the 
whole man, body and soul, wilts away like a 
flower without water in mid-summer. 

When the weather is cool and clear and 
bracing, the atmosphere is full of electricity ; 
when it is sultry and moist and without sun- 
shine, it holds but a small amount of elec- 
tricity, comparatively speaking, and we have 
to _ give up what little we have, moisture 
being a good conductor ; thus, in giving up, 
instead of receiving more, as we would from 
the cool, pure air, the change is too great, and 

the whole man languishes. Many become under these circumstances; "they 
can't account for it ;" they imagine that 
evil is impending, and resort at once to tonics 
and stimulants. The tonics only increase the 
appetite, without imparting any additional 
power to work up the additional food, thus 
giving the system more work to do, instead 
of less. Stimulants seem to give more 
strength; they wake up the circulation, but it 
is only temporarily, and unless a new supply 
is soon taken, the system runs further down 
than it would have done without the stimu- 
lant ; hence it is in a worse condition than if 
none had been taken. The better course 
would be to rest, taking nothing but cooling 
fruits and berries and melons, and some acid 
drink when thirsty, adding, if desired, some 
cold bread and butter ; the very next morning 
will bring a welcome change. — IlaWs Journal 
of Health. 


Pour two drams of bisulphate of carbon in 
solution, upon cotton, with which a small, 
wide mouthed, glass-stoppered bottle is half 
filled. When this remedy is to be used, the 
mouth of the bottle is to be applied closely, 
so that none of the volatile vapor may escape, 
to the temple or behind the ear, or as near as 
possible to the seat of pain, and to be held 
from three to five minutes. After it has been 
applied a minute or two, a sensation is felt as 
if several leeches were biting the part, and 
after the lapse of two or three minutes more, 
the smarting will become rather severe, but 
subside almost immediately after the removal 
of the bottle. It may be re-applied, if ne- 
cessary, three or four times a day. It is very 
seldom that any redness of the skin is pro- 

Sunlight in the House. — A house should 
be so placed, that the direct rays of the sun 
shall have free admission into the living apart- 
ments ; because the sun's rays impart a healthy 
and invigorating quality tothe air, and stimu- 
late the vitality of human beings as they do 
those of plants, and without sunliglit, human 
beings, as well as plants, would sicken and 
die. The aspect, therefore, should be south- 
east. — Popular Science Monthly. 

The Ladies in Hunting Costume — 
Gunning is becoming a fashionable sport with 
the ladies of the French nobility. The young 
Dianas go to the forest with their beaux 
dressed in jack-boots with zouave velvet pant- 
aloons buttoning at the knee, blouse in velvet, 
tightened to the waist by a leather belt ; falling 
shirt-collar and brigand hat. The game, like 
Captain Scott's famous coon, comes down of 
its own accord. 


The Rural Carolinian. 

)oMESTic Economy. 


Americans are industrious, money-making 
people, but they are not economical. Our 
housekeeping is proverbially wasteful, allow- 
ing leakage at every point, sufficient in the 
aggregate, in many households, to support a 
European family. Some writer (we know 
not to whom to give the credit,) lias made the 
following extensive, but by no means com- 
plete enumeration : 

Much waste is allowed in cooking meats. 
Unless watched, the cook will tiirow out water 
in which meat has been boiled, without letting 
it cool to take off the fat ; or she will empty 
the dripping-pan into the swill-pail. The 
grease is useful in many ways. 

Again, bits of meat are thrown out, which 
a French cook would convert into an excellent 

Flour is sifted in a wasteful manner, or the 
bread-pan is left witli the dough sticking to it. 

Pie-crust is left over, and laid by to sour, 
instead of making a few tarts for tea. 

Vegetables are thrown away which would 
be nice if warmed over for breakfast. 

Cream is allowed to mould and spoil, mus- 
tard to dry in the pot, and vinegar to corrode 
the castor. 

Good knives are used for cooking in the 
kitchen, silver spoons are used to scrape 
kettles, and forks for toasting bread. 

Tea, roasted coffee, pepper and spices are 
allowed to stand open and thus lose their 

Dried fruits not cared for in season become 
wormy, and sweet-meats are opened and for- 

Vinegar is drawn in a basin, and permitted 
to stand until both vinegar and basin are 

Soap is left in the water to di.ssolve, or 
mt>re used than is necessary, and the scrub- 
brush is left in the water. 

Barrels and tubs arc left in the sun to dry 
and fail apart; tins jmt away without being 
proj)erly drie<l are rusted. 

Molasses stands open and flies take pos- 

Apples decay for want of looking over. 

Pork spoils for want of salt, and beef 
because the brine wants scalding. 

Ashes are thrown out carelessly, endanger-' 
ing the premises, ami i)fing wasti-d. 

(Jlotlits are being wliijjped to })iece« by the 
wind on the lines; liiii; cambrics are rubbed 
on the wash-board; and laces are torn in 

TabU--linen is thrown carelessly down and 
nibbled by mice ; is put away damp and mil- 

dews ; or the fruit-.stains are forgotten and 
the stains washed in, or "set." 

Table napkins are used to wipe dishes, — 
and tea-pots are melted on the stove. 

Lard is not well tried out, and becomes 
tainted, and rats destroy the "soap-grease." 

Bones are burned that might be broken up 
and thrown into the compost heap- 
Old shoes, woollen rags, and such accumu- 
lations are permitted to lie round loose instead 
of being composted for your favorite grape 

Sugar is spilled around the barrel, coffee 
from the sack, and tea from the chest. 

Wooden boxes are used to take up ashes, 
then the box is pushed aside and forgotten. 
Many a family lias l)een made houseless and 
homeless in a night by such an inadvertence. 

Each of the above items is a trifle in itself — 
and yet in a house where all these trifles were 
" happening" — just imagine what a place it 
would be ! In these and many other ways a 
careless and inexperienced housekeeper will 
waste without heeding, — nay, even without 
knowing that she wastes. On the contrary, 
because she entertains but little company, 
buys no fine clothes, makes her own dresses, 
and cooks plainly, she may imagine that she 
is an exceedingly economical woman and a 
very superior housekeeper. • 



Tlie Australian Oian Tree. 
Bull River, S. C, Dec. 9th, 1873. 
Editor of the Rural Carolinian : I 
have much pleasure in sending particulars of 
a very interesting paper, lately read by M. 
Gimbert, before the French Academy of 
Science. Its subject was the alleged febrifu- 
gal properties of a tree indigenous to Austra- 
lia, {I''ucalijptii,s globulus,) which is said to 
have the cu rious and valuable power of destroy- 
ing the malarious element, in any atmosphere 
where it grows. The species in question is 
called by the colonists Gum-lrci; and it is 
found in New South Wales. It shoots up 
very quit-kly, and to an enormous height, 
some of the trees reaching one hundred and 
fifty feet with a girth of from twenty-five to 
forty. The sparse and strangely twisted 
foliage grows in a thin crown at the top of 
the pillar-like stem, but tlic characteristic of 
the whole genus Eurali/ptus is the habit of 
rapid increase, seen equally in the "iron 
bark," the " blue gum," and this particular 

lAierature, Science and Home Interests. 


species, E. glohului^. The tree in question 
absorbs an immense amount of water from 
the earth, and at the same time emits an aro- 
matic odor, which has, perhaps, something to 
do with the beneficial influence attributed to 
it. Where it is tliickly planted in marshy 
districts, the subsoil is said to be relieved of 
its superabundant moisture in a short time, 
as if by artificial drainage. 

Miasma ceases wherever the Eucalyptus 
flourishes. It has been tried for this purpose 
at the Cape of Good Hope, and within two 
or three years has completely changed the 
climatic condition of the unhealthy parts of 
that colony. It has also been planted on a 
large scale in diflerent parts of Algeria. At 
a farm twenty miles from Algiers, situated on 
the banks of a river, and noted for its ex- 
tremely pestilential air, about 13,000 Euca- 
lypti were planted. In the same year, at the 
time when the fever season used to set in, not 
a single case occurred ; yet the trees were 
not more than nine feet high. Since then, 
complete immunity from fever has been main- 
tained. In the neighborhood of Constantina, 
it is also stated, was another noted fever spot, 
covered with marsh-water, both in winter and 
summer. In five years the whole ground was 
completely drained by 14,000 of these trees, 
and all the inhabitants enjoy excellent health. 
Wherever this tree has been introduced in 
Cuba, marsh diseases are fast disappearing. 
A station house, again, at one end of a rail- 
way viaduct, in the department of the Var, 
was so pestilential that the oflicials could not 
be kept there longer than a year ; forty of the 
trees were planted, and it is now as healthy 
as any other place on the line. 

Such are some of the facts brought for- 
ward by M. Gimbert. If they are well estab- 
lished, it would be most desirable to try 
whether the Eucalyptus would thrive in the 
marshy districts of this and other Southern 

I have myself, many years ago, grown very 
fine shrubs in one year from seed sent from 
Australia; this was in Norfolk, England. 
The Eucalyptus is supposed, by some people, 
to be the mustard tree of the Scriptures, as 
the seed is extremely small, and the tree the 
largest that grows in the East. 

The sunflower, it is said, possesses a simi- 

lar capacity to dry up the subsoil, and neu- 
tralize miasma. Botanists should not neglect 
these suggestions. There are more wonders 
yet in the vegetable world than are dreamed 
of in their philosophy. How passing strange, 
for instance, is that property of the papaw- 
tree, to turn meat tender ! A joint of meat, 
steeped in a solution of its juice, becomes in- 
stantly succulent, and the flesh of animals fed 
upon its leaves " melts in the mouth," upon 

I am indebted to a friend in England for the 
particulars of M. Gimbert's paper. He has 
also promised to obtain some seed of the 

Trusting this may be of some interest to the 
readers of the Rural Carolinian, I remain, 
Yours, truly, Edmund F. Kittoe. 

The Eucalyptus and the Phyloxera. 
The Abba Roland has communicated to the 
Cultivateur de la Region Lyonnaise, what he 
declares to be an infallible remedy against the 
Phyloxera. It consists in inocculating the vine 
with the pure essence of Eucalyptus globulus, 
which has lately attracted so much attention 
in medical circles. A broad incision is made 
through the bark at the neck of the vine, in 
which a few drops of the essence are deposited 
by means of a small camel-hair brush. The 
result is, that in about three days the phy- 
loxera entirely disappears, while the vine is 
not the least injured by the operation. The 
incision may be made through any other part 
of the bark with equal success, but the result 
is more speedily attained the nearer it is 
made to the roots. Truly, if half the virtues 
ascribed to the Eucalyptus really belong to it, 
it is the most wonderful tree in existence. 

To Remove Ink Stains from Paper. 
Shake well together one pound of chloride 
of lime in four quarts of soft water. Then 
let it stand for twenty-four hours, after which 
strain through a clean cotton cloth, and add 
one tea-spoonful of acetic acid to every ounce 
of the chloride of lime water. Apply this 
fluid to the blot, and the ink will disappear. 
Absorb the fluid with a blotter. 

In boring an Artesian well at Rives, Mich., 
recently, a solid oak log was struck at a dis- 
tance below the surface of 146 feet. 


TJie Rural Carolinian. 

Scribncr's Monthly continues to commend 
itself by its general excellence and high tone 
as a family magazine, but has lately assumed 
additional attractions in the form of its series 
of illustrated articles on "The Great South," 
which continue with increasing interest and 
value, the author, Mr. King, seeming inclined 
to do full justice to the South, both in its 
social and its political aspects. Scribner & Co., 
New York ; S-4 a year. 

The Eclectic never fails in interest and 
value. The editor's taste and judgment are 
admirable, and nothing worthy of reproduc- 
tion in the standard periodicals of Europe 
seems to escape his attention. No where else, 
perhaps, can so much instruction and enter- 
taining reading be found between two paper 
covers. The January number commences a 
new volume. W. H. Bidwell, editor ; E. R. 
Pelton, publisher, New York ; $5 a year. 

Littell's Living Age comes regularly to our 
desk, and its weekly visits are always most 
welcome. Its merits, as a repository of the 
best thoughts, and most important facts em- 
bodied in the current literature of the day, 
are too well known to need any endorsement. 
Weekly, 694 pages, (aggregating over 3,000 
jiages a year) ; $8 a year. Littell & Gay 
Boston, publishers. 

We are glad to see that Mr. A. F. Moon, 
the distinguished bee culturist, has established 
himself in tlie South. Our first intimation 
on this point comes through Moon's Bee 
World, issued at Rome, Ga., A. F. Moon & 
Co. We trust that the bee-keepers of the 
South will give the new magazine a liberal 
support. We are sure it will deserve it. 
Term.s, $2 a year. 

St. Nicltolas, Scribner & Co.'s new maga- 
zine for Boys and Girls, comes regularly to 
hand, and more than fulfils the promise of 
its opening number. The January numljer 
is jiarticularly ricli, both in interesting read- 
ing matter and in illustration. The subscrip- 
tion price is $3 a year. 

The January number of Oliver Optic's 
azine is even brighter and more attractive 
than usual. The illustratioiiH are profuue and 

fine. Oliver Optic opens the new year with 
his story of "The Coming War." Terms 
$3 per year, with a beautiful picture. Lee & 
Shepard, publishers, Boston. 

Luther Tucker & Son, Albany, N. Y., have 
promptly issued their "Annual Register of 
Rural .\ flairs," for 1874, a valuable hand- 
book of the various affairs of the farm, the 
garden, and the household. It is, as usual, 
profusely illustrated, and well worth the 30 
cents asked for it. 

The Home, Fann and Orchard is a handsome 
and well conducted weekly, which comes to 
us from Newburgh, N. Y. It is published at 
$1 a year, and is well worth the price. A. A. 
Bensel, editor and proprietor. 


The Patrons of Husbandry have organized 
a Woollen Factory Association at Dakota, 
Iowa, with ?oO,000 capital. 

Many farmers complain that their oc- 
cupation does not pay. What is the use of 
saying so ? Nine merchants in ten fail, but 
they never brag about it. 

In Montevideo, South America, sheep 

are worth 10 cents each and cows 50 cents, 
but the great trouble is that whiskey is $1 a 

The Armijo family, New Mexico, as- 
sert that they own nearly 2,000,000 head of 
sheep, which are scattered over a range of 
country more than three hundred miles 

The name of the postoflice at Mellon- 

ville, Fla., has been changed to Sanford, and 
a new office has been established at Fort Reed, 
and James McDonald has been appointed 

Tiie postoflice at Titusville, Fla., has 

been discontinued, and Mr. Parkinson has 
been ai)poiMtt(l postmaster at Sand Point, to 
wiiich point the postoflice has been removed 
from the old site at Titusville. 

Weekly market Fairs have been estab- 
lished iu some parts of Kansas, and are a 
success. When a farmer has anything to sell 
or to exchange, lie comes to town on Satur- 
day, and he is generally sure to find a cus- 


It is with deep grief that we announce 
the death of our colleague, Col. Evans. 
A short week's illness swept from us one 
whose energies and enterprise have con- 
tributed so largely to the success of this 
magazine. We can find no words to 
express the sorrow which is upon us — it 
is idle for us to make the attempt. Nor 
can we do justice to the high-toned gen- 
tleman, the far seeing and thorough 
business man, the noble, practical Chris- 
tian. A friend, one of large mind and 
a larger heart, one who knew and loved 
our deceased brother, has, in the columns 
of the Charleston Daily News and Cou- 
rier, paid a tribute to his memory, and to 
this we give place. We but add that he 
has not said too much of Col. Evans' 
high character nor of the immensity of 
the loss to this community in his death. 

The announcement of the decease of 
Col. Benjamin F. Evans, of the firm of 
Walker, Evans & Cogswell, will be a 
shock to our whole community ; for the 
death of a man of such manly vigor, 
high tone of character and enterprising 
and pervading usefulness, is a great pub- 
lic calamity. The suddenness of the 
stroke, too, is appalling. But yesterday 
he moved among us an image of health 
and lusty, active manhood; to-day he 
lies low in the still and rigid composure 
of death. ] i^Truly in the midst of life we 

are in death. What shadows we are, 
and what shadows do we pursue. 

Col. Evans was born in Georgetown, 
S. C, in the ye^lr 1831, and came to this 
city about the year 1845 as an appren- 
tice to the late Mr. Joseph Walker. So 
steady was his industry, so manifest were 
his capabilities, and so unconquerable 
was his determination to succeed and to 
excel, that Mr. Walker, who appre- 
ciated fully his many noble qualities and 
useful habits, associated him as a part- 
ner with himself in the printing and 
stationery business. He was thereafter 
an indispensable part of that concern 
that became so widely and favorably 

At the opening of the civil war. Col. 
Evans was sent to New York to pur- 
chase arms for the State of South Caro- 
lina. This he accomplished at consid- 
erable personal risk. On his return he 
went to Richmond to seek service in the 
field. The then Secretary of the Con- 
federate Treasury, the Hon. C. G. Mem- 
minger, who knew Col. Evans' qualifi- 
cations, applied to him and prevailed 
upon him to take charge of the printing 
of the Confederate paper money. Col. 
Evans was reluctant to forego active 
service in the field, but finally yielded 
to the representation that lie could best 
serve the Confederacy in that way, and 
that he ought to postpone his private 
inclinations to the public interests. He 
went to Europe, procured the necessary 
machinery and skilled labor, and re- 
turned by way of Mexico and the West, 
after encountering many stirring adven- 
tures. The great establishment at Co- 
lumbia, which printed the Confederate 
money, until its destruction by Sher- 
man's soldiers, was conducted by the 
firm of which he was the head. 


The results of the war wrecked his 
fortunes, as they did the fortunes of 
almost all of us ; but with characteristic 
spirit and enterprise Col. Evans raised a 
company for the establishment of a 
large cotton factory at Kalraia, in this 
State. The want of sufficient resources 
compelled him to abandon this enter- 
prise, in which he sunk all that remained 
to him ; but the present great success of 
that enterprise is a monument to his 
foresight and sagacity. In 1868 he 
returned to this city, and resumed in the 
firm of Walker, Evans & Cogswell, the 
printing and stationery business, which, 
by the joint endeavors of his copartners 
and himself, has achieved the reputation 
of being one of the largest, most reliable 
and rao3t enterprising establishments in 
the South. 

Col. Evans was a Trustee of Wofford 
College, a Commissioner of Public 
Schools, Vice-President of the Appren- 
tices Library Society, a most active mem- 
ber of the Howard Association, and First 
Vice-President of the Washington Light 
Infantry Rifle Club. Indeed, it may be 
said that he identified himself with al- 
most all the useful public enterprises of 
the day, and carried into each and all 
of them an indomitable spirit of zeal 
and activity. 

We do not know a man that could 
have been more illy spared than Col. 
Evans. He wa.s full of youthful ardor, 
entirely abreast with the times, animated 
by a most hopeful spirit, and resolved 
to repair, in every practicable way, the 
breaches made by war, in the public's 
fortunes as well as his own private one. 
There was a wonderful effectiveness in 
the quiet, persevering and energetic way 
in which he pushed forward all objects 
to which he addressed himself. His em- 

ployees were devoted to him, for they 
appreciated not only the upright and 
straightforward character of his dealing, 
but his kindly disposition and generous 
conduct. His friends loved him, for they 
knew that he was utterly unselfish, and 
true as the needle to the pole. And the 
community of which he was a member 
and an ornament, will feel that a void 
has been made which cannot easily be 
filled, and that a column has been 
stricken down which will not soon be 

From the News and Courier, December 27th. 


There was a large assemblage at Trinity 
Church, Hasel street, on Christmas morn- 
ing, to pay the last tribute of respect to 
this deeply-lamented citizen. The biirial 
services were read by the pastor of the 
church, the Rev. Mr. Wells, assisted by 
the Rev. John T. Wightman. During 
the solemn exercises Bishop Wightman 
pronounced an eloquent and deserved 
eulogy on the life and character of the 
deceased, which brought tears to the eyes 
of many of his afflicted hearers. The 
congregation then passed up the side 
aisle, on their way out of the church, 
and took a last sad look at the remains 
as they lay upon a bier in the central 
aisle. The pall-bearers were the Hon. 
W. r>. Porter, Geo. W. Williams, Esq., 
Capt. Wm. A. Courtenay, F. J. Pelzer, 
Esq., Jas. M. Eason, Esq., Col. C. I. 
Walker, Leonard Chapin, Esq., and C. 
D. Bateman,]., who took charge of 
the remains after the services ended, and 
followed them to Magnolia Cemetery, 
where they were interred in the family 
burial ground. 




Progress with Prudence, Practice with Science. 
D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 

Vol. v.] CHARLESTON, S. C, FEBRUARY, 1874. [No. V. 

Irrigation, Underdraining and Subsoiling. — No. III. 


"What now remains to be considered is the subject of, subsoiling. It is unneces- 
sary to enlarge upon this. It has already been proven, that where underdrainage 
has not been practiced, in many cases, the subsoil is completely saturated with 
water into which the roots of plants never extend. 

One great object in farming should be to extend the feeding ground of plants, 
since the greater the extent thereof, the greater the quantity of roots, and conse- 
quently the larger the number of spongioles, and therefore the more food the plant 
derives. If, therefore, underdraining be practiced, the soil, and especially the subsoil, 
can be still further mechanically acted upon, and the same be rendered loose and 
friable, and adapted to the extension of roots in all directions. As has been stated, 
the tendency of underdrainage is to pulverize the soil, but when left to natural 
agencies alone, it becomes more a question of time, it being effected partially by 
the action of the air which is admitted into the interstices formed by the with- 
drawal of the water ; if the subsoil plough is used it is mechanically broken and 
as every one fully knows, is much more readily and rapidly operated upon by the 
air. In a soil that is watery, subsoiling is worse than useless, for until there is an 
escape for the water through the subsoil, any opening of it but provides a greater 
space for holding water, and will rather tend to injure than improve the soil. 

Then, the subsoil being loosened, and capable of admitting the air, it is more or 
less charged with the salts Avhich are held in the atmosphere in a soluble condition, 
and which it both extracts from the atmosphere itself by means of absorption, 
and the waters as they fall and percolate through it. The soil thus becomes 
charged to a much greater depth, and the Reding ground of deep-rooted plants is 
ample. But it is not all left to be appropriated simply by deep-rooted plants, 
because, as has been stated, in seasons of dry weather, the soil, by means of capil- 
lary attraction, is continually drawing moisture from below to supply the roots of 
plants, and therefore takes with it the salts which the soil contains, which are 

No. 5, Vol. 5. 17 

22G ' Irrigation, Underdraining and Subsoiling. 

Another benefit of subsoiling is an increase of crops. It requires no demonstra- 
tion to prove that the surface growth of a plant depends, in a great measure, upon 
the growth of roots; and if, as stated, the limit of growth is greatly extended, then 
the surface growth must be increased proportionately, and consequently there will 
be an increase of crop. 

Sir Robert Peel says " that he can confidently state that a crop of turnips 
grown upon a subsoiled field was four times the quantity in weight which 4,he same 
field ever produced at any previous time." 

Mr. Smith says " that when land has been thoroughly drained, deeply wrought 
and well manured, the most unpromising, sterile soil becomes a deep, rich loam, 
rivalling in fertility the best natural land in the country." 

It is hardly possible to estimate all the advantages of dry, deep land. Every 
operation in husbandry is thereby facilitated and cheapened ; less seed and less 
manure produce a full effect ; and the chances for a good and early preparation 
are greatly increased. Subsoiling is also a preventive of early frosts in autumn. 
It is related by Prof Gould, of New York, Avho was appointed to make observa- 
tions upon the Agriculture of the AVestern States, that in his travels, he noticed a 
large majority of the fields of corn to be damaged by the frost — in other cases 
fields which were surrounded by those above named, would appear to be as green 
and flourishing as could be wished for ; upon making inquiry as to the cause, in 
every instance the reply was that the land was ploughed with the double Michigan 
subsoil plough. In some sections of country this is a matter of no inconsiderable 

•Hoping that no apology will be required for having gone so much at large into 
this whole subject, it may be remarked in conclusion, tliat the thorough draining, 
subsoiling and irrigation of land constitute the great modern improvements of hus- 
bandry, and in their more extended application to lands, which are now compara- 
tively waste and profitless, or at best very restricted in their produce; and to lands 
that have long been cultivated, the productive capacities of which have been very 
imperfectly brought out, and to lands which have been productive and hitherto 
supposed to have reached their maximum yield, they seem destined to increase the 
products of the country beyond any calculations that have yet been made. 

Columbia, Co7in. WM. H. YEO.MANS. 

^MoDEL Fakminc; in the Ur-(.'ouNTRY. — The success which attends hard work 
and thorough cultivation in tlie up-country, jjarticularly in the raising of'cotton, 
is shown by instances of large returns from small means that came to our knowl- 
edge yesterday. 1. Turner Wiggins, a colored man, who lives in Pickens County, 
made this season ten bales of cotton on nine acres of land. 2. "Wm. IVrry, plant- 
ing very thin land in the same countii', made .'^.oOO jjouuds of lint cotton on 1? 
acres. .*]. Z. Powers, in the same county, made 1,000 pounds of lint cotton on one- 
fourth of an acre. 4. Mr. Moser, in the same county, made .SA bales of cotton and 
650 bushels of corn. This was made by the work of Mr. Moser, his wife and 
little boy, and one horse. Mr. Perry used one bag of Atlantic Phosphate as a 
fertilizer, and Z. Powers used stable manure. — Neivs and Courier. 

How to Bam Cotton Cheaply. 227 

How to Raise Cotton Cheaply. 

I desire to lay before your readers my views on the way to raise cheap cotton, 
and if in doing this I shall say some things that have often been repeated in your 
paper, I shall not be ashamed, for such is the importance of this subject, such the 
necessities of the people, that the facts concerning it should be everywhere known ; 
not published once only, but repeated again and again, until they are stamped 
upon the mind of every cotton grower in the South, and until the way to raise 
cotton cheaply is as well known as is the fact that cotton must be grown at all. 

This then is the question, how shall cotton be grown at the lowest possible cost ? 
And in writing on this subject, I shall not allude to plans pursued by different 
persons in various sections, in cultivating and harvesting this crop, nor to the 
implements used, or fertilizers applied. But I shall confine myself to those prin- 
ciples which are the same everywhere, leaving the means of carrying them out to 
be suggested to each cotton grower by the circumstances that surround him. 

My first remark is in regard to the land cultivated. In order that cotton may 
be grown at the lowest possible cost, the land must he made to give the greatest possi- 
ble yield. As the land cultivated yields more abundantly, so will the cost of pro- 
ducing this staple be lessened, and as the yield per acre progresses towards its- 
greatest amount, so will the cost progress towards its lowest limit. 

For in the first place, the cost of cultivating the crop is the same, whether the. 
yield be great or small, there is the same preparing the ground, the same planting, 
the same ploughing and hoeing, whether the result be one or four bales ; making 
thecost in this respect four times greater in one case than in the- other. Again, 
there is the same cost of seeding, the same fencing, the same expense of ditching, 
of subsoiling, and of underdraining, whatever the yield may be; so that the 
greater the production of the land, the less will be the cost from these sources. 
Again, the cost of gathering is greatly lessened when the yield is great. It is a 
fact well known to cotton groAvers, that a large crop is gathered almost as easily as 
a small one, the gatherers can gather more per day, and with less fatigue, hence 
will do it at a less cost per bale. Moreover, the staple is better when grown on 
rich land than when grown on poor land, and will command a better price in the 
market, as the cotton of the Mississippi valley brings a better price than that of 
the uplands. ^ 

Again, the greater the yield per acre the less the expense of going to and from 
the field, for the field can be located more conveniently, when the acres are few 
than when they are many. Again, the crop is more easily protected from insects 
or a late frost. A planter might hope to protect from frosts or insects two acres 
yielding six bales, but would despair at the prospect of having to guard fifteen 
acres yielding the same amount. So, also, with regard to the wear and tear of 
implements, and all other expenses connected with the growing of cotton. As the 
greatness of the yield per acre increases, so does the cost diminish, and when the 
yield per acre has reached the greatest possible amount, then will the cost of grow- 
ing cotton have reached in this direction the lowest possible limit. 

228 How to Raise Cotton Cheaply. 

My next remark is in regard to the labor employed in the production of cotton. 
That labor must be applied to good advantage, so as to have the greatest beneficial 
result. It does not matter in what connection that labor is employed, whether in 
preparing the ground, applying fertilizers, cultivating or harvesting the crop, or 
preparing for market ; wherever labor is employed it must be made to yield x good 
result, or cotton can never be grown at a small cost. And the greater the benefi- 
cial result of the labor used in growing cotton, the less will the cost be. For con- 
sider, the cost of the labor consumed in production is the same, whether the result 
of that labor be little or much. There is the same wages to the ploughman 
whether he plough one or many furrows, whether he plough the land deeply or 
skim the surface, the same wear of the implements, the same cost of the team, 
whether the land be well pulverized or left in clods, whether the growth of the 
crop be advanced or hindered, so, also, with the hoeing, so with the harvesting and 
handling the crop, the cost is the same, whether the laborers use poor tools and do 
poor work, or good tools and do good work. 

So we find that the less the beneficial result of the labor employed in growing 
cotton, the greater is the cost, and the greater the good result of that labor, the 
less will that cost be. And vrhen by the use of the best implements, and best skill, 
the labor expended in growing cotton shall be made to yield the greatest beneficial 
result, then will the cost of production have reached in this direction to lowest 
possible limit. 

Here then, Mr. Editor, let us direct our efforts if we would grow cotton cheaply. 
Let all the labor employed be made to yield the most beneficial effect, and the 
land to yield the largest possible amount. These are the principles, these the 
points to be aimed at. How or by what means they are to be accomplished I cannot 
myself with any certainty suggest, nor can I speak with any assurance whatever. 
And although our prosperity depends upon our raising cotton cheaply, yet our 
knowledge of the way to do it is very limited indeed. Not so with the wiioat and 
corn growers. Ask a western man how to raise wheat or corn cheaply, and he will 
tell you without hesitation, and speaks with an assurance that banishes doubt. He 
kjows the way and the prosperity of that country is established. But in the cot- 
ton region, who can enlighten us upon the growth of our great staple? Who can 
tell us by what manner of tillage and fertilizing a very large amount of cotton 
can be produced upon an acre of ground ? Who can tell us in what manner the 
necessary labor can be applied at the lowest cost ? How the ploughman can pre- 
pare a very large amount of ground with comparatively little labor ; how the cul- 
tivator shall keep in growing order the largest amount, or the harvester can gather 
to the greatest advantage. ? There are indeed some [)lanters among us, who have 
large experience and much skill, but their knowledge is for the most jiart kej)t to 
themselves and the masses of cotton growers are very ignorant in this matter. 
When this knowledge, now confined to a very few, shall be published to the great 
ma.«s of cotton growers, then the multitude of difHculties which now surround us 
will vanish away. Here is found the true solution of the labor question ; here is the 
accomplishment of all needed emigration. We have already population enough 
and labor enough, to iusure a great prosperity, if we only knew how to use that 

How to Raise Cotton Cheaply. 229 

population, and how to economize, tliat labor. Many parts of the Northwest have 
no more dense a population than we have, and yet are in a most comfortable state; 
they have learned the way and invented the means of getting great profit out of 
such labor as they have at hand, and so are prosperous. And this must we also 
do before we may hope for prosperity ; we must learn to make a day's work go a long 
way towards making and gathering the cotton crop, so that a few days or weeks 
labor will accomplish as much as is now done by the labor of months. As it now 
is, a planter requii-es the continual assistance of four hands to raise twenty bales 
of cotton — ten such planters require the presence of forty laborers. But suppose 
that by the most skilful management these twenty bales can be raised by the as- 
sistance of one laborer, this would set free thirty laborers, and the question of 
labor would be solved. For if one day's labor can by the skill of the employer 
be made to accomplish as much as is now done in a week, then indeed much higher 
wages can be paid for that labor, and high wages will bring immigration — immi- 
gration in abundance and of the best kind. •And this is the only way emigrants 
from other countries can ever be persuaded to locate in our own. All efforts 
whether of individuals or societies are utterly vain, unless good wages are offered 
the laborer. Laborei-s will never come here to make cotton at one hundred and 
fifty dollars per year, when they can get thirty dollars per month for assisting in the 
grain fields of the West. We must give as good wages as any people for agricul- 
tural labor, or we never can get that labor. Whatever laborers get in the North 
or West, we must give them here, or Ave can never get them here ; if by great 
efforts they are induced to come and try us, it will be only for the while, and they 
■will go away again to where labor is better paid. Thousands of laborers have 
already come into our midst, but they have gone away again to where labor was 
more profitable and wages higher. Could we afford to give wages sufficient, we 
could quickly draw to the cultivation of cotton not only laborers from the wheat 
and corn fields, but laborers from all trades and professions ; not only from the 
North and West, but from all nations and lands on the globe. And to be able to 
pay high wages for labor in raising cotton the employer must manage so as that 
labor shall have a great beneficial effect, whether by the judicious use of fertilizers 
Of of the most improved implements, or by skilful management, or by all of 
these combined, the result is the same, and to him who accomplishes this, labor is 
always abundant, though others are straightened, he has ease ; though the country 
be gloomy and oppressed, yet he i-ises at once above his difficultites and becomes a 
succes.-ful, independent and prosperous man. 

To this point, then, let every cotton planter in the South look, for upon this 
depends his success. No difficult combination or effort is required, no waiting for 
the building of railroads, or cotton factories, nor waiting for immigration societies 
or laborers from abroad, or for a better state of government. Success and opulence 
are now before every cotton planter in the South, and the attainment thereof 
dependent on himself alone. Let the labor used in the production of cotton be 
applied to the greatest advantage, the ground cultivated 'be made to give the greatest 
yield, and success is attained. 

And now, Mr. Editor, I ask in conclusion that you will join me in making this 

230 Pniiciples oj Breeding. 

request of every cotton planter who has ever raised a large amount of cotton per 
acre, or produced it at a small cost, that he make known the plan by which this 
has been done. It matters not on how small a scale the experiment has been made, 
if it has been successful, let the means used be known to the public. Nor does it 
matter as to what part of the work of cotton growing the experiment has refer- 
ence, whether to the preparation of the soil, the application of fertilizers, the planting, 
cultivating, or the harvesting the crop, or the preparing the same for mtirket, if it 
has been successful, let it and all the attending circumstances be published abroad. 
How can the soil be made to produce the largest amount of cotton, and how can 
the necessary labor be applied most advantageously ? These are the questions, 
and upon them we desire the declarations of experience, the teachings of success. 
Every page of such matter published in your paper is fraught with incalculable advan- 
tage to the people of the South, is a beam of light by means of which the uncertainty 
and doubt now hanging over our country will be driven away forever. Thus con- 
fidence will possess the hearts of our people, prosperity will spring up in our 
bordei-s, and the cotton region will assume at once its true value, one of the most 
desirable agricultural countries in the world. GEO. WHITFIELD, 

Clinton, Miss. In the " Farmer's Vindicator." 

Principles of Breeding. 

Scientific investigation and research have established the following propositions 
as true, in the transmission of animal life in all of its varieties: 

1st. Like produces like, or the likeness of some ancestor. 

2d. When there is great uniformity among the members of a species, the diver- 
gences of offspring from the average type are usually small. 

Zd. AVhen a considerable divergence has once been established, unlikenesses 
among the offspring are frequent and great. 

4th. Any accidental variation from the established type in the form, disposition 
or habits of a species, may be perpetuated, and to a limited extent intensified, by 
careful selection and use. 

5ih. An unnatural strain or demand on any particular part of tlic animal 
machinery, long continued, tends to weaken or dwarf all the other parts not allied 
to the one .so stimulated. 

6^/i, Hereditary qualities are liable to be weakened, if not entirely lost, by disuse. 

In the application of the foregoing principles to the breeding of hoi-ses, the first 
and second are universally recognized, and govern the practice of almost all 
breeders. The man who seeks to raise a fleet and game racer, confines himself 
strictly to such thoroughbred families as have the greatest proportion of distin- 
guished representatives on the turf — such as have sliown the inclination to run, 
and tlie ability to lajit in a race. Likewise the breeder of trotting horses will 
select such families as have siiown the greatest teiuU'ncy to adopt (liat gait, and the 
capacity to endure the severe training necessary to develop the highest rate of 

Principles of Breeding. 231 

But the breediug of the trotting hoi-se may be said to be yet in its infancy ; and 
the lapse of time since trotting became a fashionable gait, has not been sufficient to estab- 
lish a breed of horses that will transmit the trotting gait with any very great degree 
of uniformity. Divergences in the paternity being frequent and great, the same 
result is seen in the offspring. The period during wkich horses have been bred 
Avith especial reference to trotting is equal to only about six years in the breeding 
of hogs, or twenty years in the breediug of cattle, so far as establishing a perma- 
nent type or breed is concerned. This being true, we must still be guided to a 
very considerable degree by theories, elucidated from the experience of the past, 
and by analogy, from the lower order of animal^ ; which, from their earlier 
maturity, shorter periods of gestation, and greater fruitfulness, have afforded us 
opportunities of studying and applying these principles, and noting the results. 

In our efforts to form a breed of trotting horses, we have perhaps paid sufficient 
attention to the principles set forth as above, and numbered first, second, third and . 
fourth ; but we are of the opinion that the fifth and sixth have been almost 
entirely ignored, and the modifying efiect which they, as factors, combined with 
the former, produce upon the aggregate result, is very imperfectly understood. 

It is evident from the deductions of science, as well as from experiment with the 
lower orders of animals, tlj^t the longer any particular strain or family of horses 
have been bred and trained to trot, the greater will be the tendency of the pro- 
duce to adopt that way of going. We emphasize the word trahied, because this is 
a factor that is quite generally omitted in the calculation of the breeder. It is 
just as well established that the power to transmit the trotting gait may be lost in 
time by disuse, as that like begets like ; and it is equally well established that in 
proportion as the members of a particular family are required to adopt that way 
of going, and to practice it themselves, the tendency to transmit the same peculiarity 
is increased. 

But right at this point we are met by the modifying effect of the principle laid 
down as number five, from which there is no escape ; and which will lead us to 
the conclusion, that the stallion that has been extensively trained and campaigned 
on the trotting turf for years, will never excel in the stud ; and that mares that 
have been subjected to the same treatment cannot be expected to produce offspring 
that will equal the dam in point of speed, because all the powers of nutrition are 
directed to the building up and strengthening of the faculties that are constantly 
being called upon by the contests and strains of the turf In other words, where 
the animal has been long on the turf, and treated, from infancy, with a view to 
develop the highest possible rate of speed for years in succession, all the offices of 
nutrition and development will be directed toward strengthening and sustaining 
that part of the animal machinery which is subjected to such an unusual demand, 
to the neglect of the vital power of reproduction. There is a constant eSbri for 
an equilibration of forces in the animal economy ; and if an unusual and abnor- 
mal amount is expended in any one direction, it is inevitably at the expense of some 
other part not allied to that which receives the extraordinary stimulug. 

This, to our mind, is a philosophical solution of the fact, observed by all, that 
so few of our great campaigners, either male or female, have produced oflTspring 

232. Principles of Breeding. 

that have been famous ou the turf; a fact which has been a stumbling-block to 
all breeders, and which has well nigh destroyed all confidence in 'the theory that, 
to produce winners, we must couple winners with winners. We are aware that this 
view of the subject — the importance of a due attention to our fifth principle — has 
been acted upon to a considerable extent by some of our most careful breeders, Mr. 
Allen Goldsmith among others ; but we are inclined to the opinion that those who 
act upon this theory lose sight of that other proposition — that the power to perpetuate 
a faculty is lost by its disuse. 

How then shall we combine these factors, that are to some extent antagonistic, 
without impairing either of them? This, to our mind, is the mce point for the 
practical breeder to determine — the true philosopher's stone that will make the 
breeding of trotters something more than a lottery. If we can give the animal 
enough work, or rather exercise, in the trotting gait, to develop, call into perfect 
action, and keep alive the trotting instinct, and strengthen the parts called into 
action by the trotting motion, but never carry this to such an extent as to cause an 
undue effort of nature to repair the waste in this direction, the golden mean will 
have been reached. The precise point to which we may with safety go, cannot be 
laid down with certainty, for it will vary with the age and condition, as well as 
the constitutional structure of the animal. But acting upon this theory, we would 
not expect great things in the stud from a horse, that ^\^lile he was growing, while 
the physical system was being developed, was put through much severe training ; 
because the effort of nature to repair this unusual and unnatural drain would cer- 
tainly result in a neglect of other powers, and something must be dwarfed in pro- 
portion as this is augmented. Neither would we expect great things of a horse 
inheriting the trotting instinct ever so strongly, if he were kept entirely in the 
stud, and tied up by the head in his stall all his life. 

The most successful sire of trotters, counting only the first generation, is undoubt- 
edly Ethan Allen; and in his case, the " golden mean " seems to have been struck 
exactly. He has been trained and trotted in races year after year, from youth to 
old age, but never campaigned, and seems never to have suffered in the least from 
his training. Here we have the inbred, or inherited trotting instinct from the 
Morgan and the Abdallah families ; the instinct kept alive, active and j)re<loini- 
nant by continuous use, but never carried to such an extent as to impair or injure his 
reproductive powers, and we see the result in his produce. We have not the slightest 
doubt that had Ethan Allen never been trained to trot, he would not have been the 
successful sire of trotters he has proven ; and we feel equally confident that liad his 
training been severe and long continued, he would have been a failure in the stud. 

That there are exceptions to the rule here laid down is no doubt true ; but the 
exceptions prove nothing. The principle is strictly in accordance with the infer- 
ence drawn from the more extensive experiments in the lower orders of animal 
life ; and there can be no doubt that it will ai)ply in thejbrocdiug of horses. 
Hamhletonian is deeply inbred in tnjtliiig strains. He inluirit-s the trotting instinct, 
and transmits it to a remarkable degree ; but according to our theory, had he been 
exercised and trained to the trotting gait every year of his life, he might have 
shown thirty or forty winners below 2:30, instead of ten or twelve. 

How to Apply Fertilizers. 233 

We will admit that our views, as expressed iu the foregoing, are based more upon 
theory than upon observation ; but we are confident that they will stand the closest 
scrutiny, and that they will not be controverted by the experience of any intelligent 
breeder. Our object is to divert attention to these points, and to challenge criticism 
from those who can speak from observation and experience. — National Live Stock 

How to Apply Fertilizers. 

We have long beeu convinced that a great deal of money is annually worse 
than thrown away in the purchase of commercial fertilizers, and the fertilizers 
themselves — no matter how good they may be — brought into bad repute in conse- 
quence either of a faulty method in their application, or of an improper selection 
for the particular soil and crop for which they are used ; and we have several 
times spoken words of caution oh these points. It is far easier, however, to see 
these errors than to point out clearly and definitely the proper course to be pur- 
sued to avoid them. As yet, we are groping in comparative darkness in our pursuit 
of the truths of agricultural chemistry. We should be thankful for any light we 
can get, from whatever source, and make good use of it. We are inclined to 
think that some rays of this fog-dispelling element may be concentrated from the 
following extract from an " Address before the West Alabama Fair Association," 
by Hon. C. C. Langdon, and in this belief we commend it to our readers : 

Every one using a fertilizer should know why it is necessary, for what purpose 
applied, and how — by what process of nature — it is made to promote the growth 
of the plant. If he will but stop and think, and study, he will find that a plant 
requires food ; that each species of plant must have the specific food suited to its' 
peculiar nature ; that the food is made available to the use of the plant through 
the agency of the soil ; that every plant is furnished with roots, and these again 
with spongioles or minute rootlets, extending outward and downward from the 
main roots ; that these little rootlets perform the important function of food-gath- 
erers ; and that the food is drawn in by them from their extremities, and trans- 
mitted through the veins, or sap vessels of the larger roots, into every part of the 
plant. The plant is dependent on these rootlets for food, and it, therefore, follows 
that if, at any stage of their progress through the soil, they fail to find a supply to 
transmit to the plant, the latter must sufl[er for want of nourishment. Hence, the 
fertilizer must be so applied as to be within the reach of these rootlets at every 
step of their journeying during all the stages of the growth of the plant, until the 
perfect maturity of the crop. And here/!oraraon sense dictates that this can only 
be done by spreading the fertilizer evenly over the entire surface, and then with 
plough and harrow incorporating it thoroughly with and throughout the soil. The 
fertilizer is thus placed within reach of the rootlets during the whole period of the 
growth of the plant, and its full benefits realized. 

Assuming that these views are correct, it follows that it is comparatively labor 
lost, and money throwu away, to manure simply in the hill or drill. I am aware 
that, in taking this position, I am running counter to the practice of the times ; 
that probably nine-tenths of the farmers who use fertilizers are in the habit of 
applying alone in the drill. But I must insist that it is a great error, and that the 
practice is founded on, and had its origin in, an entire ignorance or misconception 
of the oflice which the fertilizer performs in the soil. Let us see its practical work- 

23-4 The Mite Plant. 

iugs : You apply the manure in the drill, bed upon it, and plant your seed directly 
over the manure. The seed germinates readily and comes up freely; and the 
plant, under the stimulating influence of the manure underneath, grows off vigor- 
ously, and a strong and healthy weed is provided, capable of producing an abun- 
dant crop. The manure in the drill has prepared the way for a good crop by 
providing a strong and healthy weed — and here its ofiice ends. The balance of 
the work is left to be performed by the little rootlets. It is their special business 
to provide food to sustain the plant during the all-important period of the forma- 
tion and perfection of the crop. Tlie rootlets are sent forth on their mission ; they 
reach out in every direction in search of food, but they search in vain. None has 
been provided ; the vigorous plant is left without food ; it sickens and dwindles, 
and the crop fails. By applying the manure in the drill, you gave the plant a 
vigorous start and then left it to starve. It is like full feeding a young calf with 
milk and provender during the first year of its life, then turning it out to 
graze on an old sedge pasture; or like bringing a fat and sleek Durham cow 
from the rich blue grass pastures of Kentucky and turning her loose in the pine 
woods " range" of the South ; or like bringing a fat corn-fed Berkshire pig from 
the, and turning him into our wild woods to "root hog or die." It has been 
aptly said: "Drill manuring giv&s the crop a rich breakfixst, but nothing to eat 
for dinner or supper." But Southern planters seem strangely wedded to the system, 
and hence the earnestness with which I protest against it. I ask for the subject 
the earnest thought of the intelligent planters of the South. 

Now, while we are not prepared to give our unconditional assent to all the fore- 
going statements, we join Mr. Langdon, in asking the attention of thoughtful, 
practical planters to the subject here discussed. The commercial manures are so 
highly soluble, the soil (if properly prepared) is so easily permeated by both fluids 
and gases, and so constant a circulation is kept up by the alternate rains and 
droughts of the growing season, that the plant-food deposited in the hill or drill 
doubtless becomes considerably diffused ; but it still remains a question to be settled 
by careful experiment whether it be not better either to apply it broadcast in the 
beginning, or to deposit a part of it in the drill and the remainder as a top-dressing 
later in the season — say at the second working. Careful experiments are wanting 
to settle this and otlier questions bearing on the application of manures. 

The Jute Plant. 

The jute plant (which is represented in the Frontispiece) belongs to the 
natural order T'diacea, an order which is represented in our country by the linden 
or tree. There are two species of jute plants, the Corchorui Capsidarls aud the 
Corchorus olitorius. The former is considered the most valuable. They are both 
annuals, growing from four to twelve feet high according to the quality of the soil 
and the location. The stems at the base are an inch or more in diameter, the 
leaves are alternate, lanceolate in outline, toothed on the margin with the lower 
pair of teeth prolonged into a slender thread ; the flowers are ♦small, half (o three- 
quarters of an inch in diameter, yellow in color, having five petals and a largo 
number of small stamens ; the fruit consists of a capsule, which, in C. Otp.vdarii is 
nearly rouud, and in ( '. olitoriiu cylindrical and narrow. The capsules contain 
many small seeds. The seed is sown at different periods, according to the kind 

The Jute Plant. 235 

aid the climate, usually however in April or May, The best mode of sowing for 
cropping purposes is a matter of some doubt. It should, undoubtedly, be sown so 
as to produce a thick growth and branchless stems. In India and Louisiana it 
is so\Mi broadcast, but on grassy lands it may be necessary to sow thickly in drills, far 
enough apart to admit of hoeing or ploughing between. For geeding it should be 
sown thinly in drills. The flowering stage occurs in July or August, and the plant 
should be cut at the beginning, as it is then tenderer and will furnish a better fibre 
than if left to mature. In Louisiana two crops have been raised in one season. The 
plant will flourish in the bottom lands of upper South Carolina, and in the rice 
and swamp lauds of the coast. 

The fibre is obtained from the inner bark. To separate the fibre from the stalks 
the latter are tied in bundles and steeped in water from a week to ten days. The 
bark will rot sooner in stagnant, muddy water than it will in clear water. As soon 
as the bark is rotted, the fibre is stripped from the stalks and placed in the sun to 
dry, being bleached at the same time. It is then ready for market. The Southern 
Eamie Planting Association, of Louisiana, has invented a machine for stripping 
the bark from the stalks, but apparently no time is gained by its use, as the bark 
has finally to be rotted in water before the fibre can be separated. The machine 
costs $500 and requires a twelve-horse engine to drive it. The same Association is 
endeavoring to devise a chemical process of separating the fibre after the bark has 
been stripped by the machine. 

The fibre, when prepared for market, resembles hemp, but is softer and more 
glossy, and under the microscope more transparent and apparently with thinner 
cell walls. The market value is from six to eight cents per pound, and the yield 
per acre 1,500 pounds and upwards on good soil. The uses of the fibre are various. 
The coarser kinds are used in India in the manufacture of gunny bags and bag- 
ging, while the finer kinds are exported for European manufacture into ropes, car- 
pets and other articles. The stalks, after the removal of the bark, are white, straight 
and beautiful, resembling willow twigs, and are regarded in India as of almost 
equal value with the fibre. They are used in the manufacture of gunpowder, fire- 
works, baskets and even fences. The coarse butts of the older plants are cut off 
and sold to the paper makers who convert them into coarse thick fabrics. 

The jute plant can be successfully raised throughout South Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama and the other extreme Southern States, The costs of cultiva- 
ting and preparing it for market is small, while the yield on good land being from 
1,000 to 2,000 pounds to the acre, will give from $60 to $120 per acre gross. Its 
cultivation will form a good substitute for that of sea island cotton, and will doubt- 
less occupy considerable labor and capital before long. The demand for jute fibre, ' 
is such that it will, for a long time to come, command a good price and ready sale. 

A large ear of corn measuring ten and one-fourth inches in circumference near 
the end, and but nine and one-half inches at the middle, and having twenty-two 
rows, with an average of fifty-six kernels in a row, over 1,200 kernels on the ear, 
or an increase of i ,200 per cent., Southern Dent corn variety, was grown in Cleve- 
land, East Tennessee. 

236 What I Know about Jute. 

^?Vhat I Know about Jute. 

In compliance Avith my promise, made when you gave me the jute seed, Mr. 
Editor, last June, iwill now tell you " Avhat I kuow about jute." 

I planted the seed on the 17th of June, in a part of a small rice field which 
had been thrown out for the season. The ground was ploughed and well har- 
rowed, and the seed sown in drills at various distances, three feet, two feet, and 
eighteen inches apart. It came up well, but grew slowly, owing, I think, to its 
having been submerged several times when quite young, by very high tide, which 
topped the banks. It was hoed once in July, and once in August. By the end of 
September, many of the stalks had reached the height of seven feet, growing up 
with few and short branches, where it was planted close together ; and having long 
branches where it happened to be distant from other stalks. The size of the stalk 
'at the ground was between half an inch and three quarters, with a gradual taper 
to the top. Before the occurrence of frost, seed pods had formed on many of the 
plants, but they were not more than half grown when killed by the cold. The 
bark, stripped in September from a few stalks, had a strong and fine fibre, which 
was soft and white. 

From seed given me by another friend, I made a planting in the latter part of 
May, in an inland swamp, which was dry until the heavy rains of August and 
September. It was ploughed once and hoed twice. This grew finely, attaining 
the height of ten feet before the close of the season. In September the swamp was 
covered with water by the rains, but the growth did not appear to be retarded by 
the overflow, the plant sending out great numbers of root« at the surface of the 
ground, and continuing to flower and seed until frost. A large portion of the seed 
matured. The stalks were an inch to an inch and a quarter thick at the bottom, 
and had few branches longer than a foot. In September, the bark on the lower 
portion of the plants was too thick and stiff* for any but very coarse articles, but 
was softer and more flexible on the middle and upper portions. I think it would 
have been fit for harvesting early in August. I believe that these plants, if sown 
in the early part of April, would have reached ten feet in height by the first of 
July, and would then have been in the projicr condition for gathering. The plant 
does not like a wet soil in the early stage of its growth, but does not seem to suffer 
from water during the later stages. 

The Cijmmissioner of Agriculture, to whom I sent a sample of the bark of both 
plantings, has promised me a supply of seed in the spring, and I propose to plant 
several acres in a rice field, sowing in drills a])0ut eighteen inches apart, so as to 
run a small plough between the rows, cultivating altogether with the j)l()ugh. I 
would sow early in Ajiril. Jute is as hardy as rice, but cannot be protected from 
the late fnjsts by water, aa rice can be, without injury. Mr. Commissioner Watta 
stated that the price was six to eight cents per pound. And, in an article on the 
culture, sent by him, it was stated that from six luimired to four thousand pounds 
to the acre were produced in India, the j)roduct varying according to the fertility 
of the soil. ALEX. M. FOKSTER. 

Hints to Farmers. 237 

Hints to Farmers. 

Another new year is about ushering in, and a very natural question presents 
itself : how does the balance sheet stand ; are we, as an agricultural class, able 
to make our assets cover our liabilities ? It is a very pertinent question, but one 
that every man should solve for his own satisfaction. The present financial panic, 
■which has already shaken the very foundations of our commercial affairs, paralyzed 
business in every department, thrown out of employment thousands who were 
dependent for their daily bread on their per diem, seems to be still stalking abroad 
throughout the land, being no respecter of person or avocation, but making itself 
felt in the most remote corner of the land. Among those who feel most sensibly 
the evil effects of this financial crisis, are the tillers of the soil. Especially those 
who have risked their all on a cotton crop, spending time, energy, money, and all 
in the vain hope of obtaining not less than fifteen cents for the raw material. What 
has been the result? Nine-tenths of those engaged in making a cotton crop alone 
are worse off (financially) to-day, than they were twelve months ago. I propose to 
throw out a few suggestions, which may be well for those who expect to farm next 
year, to ponder over, before " pitching" their next crop, in order that they may 
avoid, if possible, being again caught iu the meshes of J. Cooke & Co.'s financial 
net, when thrown broadcast over the land. First and foremost, I would advise 
every farmer who is not already a member, to join the Grange, thereby uniting 
themselves with those who will not only sympathize with them in their present 
troubles, but will, in future, co-operate with them in every effort calculated to benefit 
the farmer generally. If you have no Grange in your neighborhood, go to work 
ai once and organize one. Dr. J. A Barksdale, of Laurens C. H., if written to 
on the subject, will furnish you with all the necessary information, how to proceed 
to get organized. The Grange, properly managed, may be termed the farmer's 

In the second place, I would recommend a diversity of crops — not depend on 
King Cotton alone. Let every Patron or farmer adopt the plan lately adopted by 
Patrons of several Granges in the West, viz : to plant only one-third of their land 
in cotton ; the balance in corn, wheat and oats, believing, as they do, that if all 
the farmers will unite on this plan, the next cotton crop, though it may be a much 
smaller one than usual, would in the end realize as much money to the farmer, 
and in addition, fill up the former empty garners, and bring into requisition the 
old stone jars to be again filled with lard. 

Another item I will call the attention of farmers to, is the necessity of practic- 
ing the strictest economy in every department. Let economy be the farmer's 
watchword. Those of us who passed through our late unpleasantness of four long 
years, know from sad experience how to practice it, and as we paid dear for learn- 
ing, let us not forget, but profit by the lesson, and make a firm resolve to deny 
ourselves for the next twelve months of all unnecessaiy things, that we may be 
prepared to start the next year on a firm basis, and be able in future to pay the 
cash for what we buy. 


The Universal Plough Standard. 

In the last place, I would impress upon every farmer the importance of improv- 
ing his agricultural knowledge by subscribing for, and reading some good agricul- 
tural journal, of which there are many, and in my humble opinion none more 
worthy than our own Rural Carolinian, which can, by the assistance of the 
farmers throughout the State, be made one of the very best. Let every subscriber 
comply with the so often repeated request of the editor, to write an article for his 
journal. AVrite on any subject whatever, setting forth your ideas, based on obser- 
vation, or from actual experience. Almost every farmer has his peculiar plans for 
planting and cultivating cotton, corn, potatoes, turnips, etc., and for sowing wheat, 
oat«, barley, or the grasses ; his manner of preparing laud for same, how much 
guano used and how distributed, finally the results, etc., if given to the public 
through some of our agricultural books, might prove beneficial to more than one. 
Let every subscriber to the Rural from this time henceforth make it a point to 
write an occasional article for the only agricultural journal we have in the State, 
and mark my words, we will then have a periodical which will be truly appre- 
ciated bv everv Carolinian. SALUDA. 

The Universal Plough Standard. 
Tier . 1 . 


^ . — " 

The cut given above reprcscni a i^ w jilnuuh .-lundard, invented by Mr. F. M. 
McMeekin, of Alachua County, Fla. Its merits are claimed by the inventor to 
be lightness, strength, durability and adajitability to the \jse of all attachments 
from the scooter to the turn-pU)Ugh. Tlie variou.s pieces are attached by a single 
bolt. It will work either wrought or cast attachments, and its simplicity places its 
manufacture within the skill of the ordinary village blacksmith. The inventor 
offers to .sell County and State rights for ujanulucturing the standard on a royalty. 

How to Produce Five Bales of Cotton to one Acre of Land. 239 

How to Produce Five Bales of Cotton to One Acre of 


According to promise, and for tlie benefit of the farming public, I herewith 
append a brief and correct account of the preparing, manuring, and cultivation 
of my acre of cotton grown this season. 

The soil is sandy, with clay subsoil. Has been in cultivation for sixty or eighty 
years, I suppose. About half of the acre was as old dung-hill, the other half 
very poor before manuring. The guano I use was Kettlewells A. A., or Phospho- 
Peruviau, 1 ,400 lbs. ; raw pine strjaw, from the woods, sixty ox cart loads ; sixty 
bushels green cotton seed ; 400 bushels stable manure, well rotted. 

The pine straw, cotton seed, and stable manure, I hauled out in January, and 
strewed broadcast, over the land, then turned under with a two-horse plough, 
breaking eight inches deep. Then with a sixteen inch scooter run in the two-horse 
furrow, breaking from five to seven inches ; in the whole thirteen to fifteen inches 
deep. I then followed in the scooter furrow with the guano, or subsoil furrow,_ so 
on, till completed. In February, I repeated the breaking in same manner, leaving 
off manuring. In March, the same again, breaking each time crosswise, or in 
opposite direction. In April, I harrowed the laud twice to level the soil, and 
destroy the young vegetation. Then I checked off my rows three feet each way, 
with a small buil-tougue plough, and on* the 13th day of JMay, I planted my cot- 
ton seed in the hill, six or eight seed, dropped by hand, and covered with the foot^; 
the seed when covered being on a level. The seed were the " Cluster Cotton " 
variety. I purchased them from David Dickson, Esq., Oxford, Ga., to whom I 
must confess I am indebted for my success, to a certain extent. The seed, I am 
confident, were half the battle. The cotton was thinned to one stalk to the hill in 
June, with the exception of the outside rows, in which I left two stalks. Then I 
ploughed with twenty-four inch sweep, " Dickson's," very shallow, one furrow to 
the row, and about eight days afterwards I repeated the same, running one furrow 
to the row, just scraping the earth enough to destroy the young weeds and grass. 
Did not use a hoe in it, in order to avoid skinning the cotton ; in fact, had no use 
for any, as the cotton grew so fast the shade thereof prevented all vegetation from 
growing underneath. Very respectfully, T. C. WARTHEN. 

The Best Pays in Farming.— A graduate of Harvard College, the Tribune 
says, possessed of means, and what is better — of brains — has gone into the dairy 
business. He has ninety head of Jersey stock, and milks twenty cows regularly. 
He has a model milk house, furnished with ice and labor-saving machinery for 
making butter, and, by keeping the conditions always the same, makes the same 
quality and amount of butter the year round. He obtains ninety cents a pound 
for his butter in Boston. He also purchases pure Berkshire, Essex and Yorkshire 
pigs, which he feeds and makes into bacon. This, packed in quartet and half 
barrels, is sold to private families at twenty cents a pound, the hams are carefully 
cured and sold at twenty-five cents a pound, and the lard, being of the best quality 
and flavor, is sold readily at twenty cents a pound. Here is proof that a farmer, 
dairyman, or pig proprietor may be an educated man and a gentleman, and yet be 
successful when he goes to work himself, and applies his intellect to his business, 
just as may be a lawyer, a doctor, a preacher, or any other man. In fact, the 
more a farmer knows the better farmer he is, or at least may be if he will. 

240 The Thomasson Seedling Apple. 

■Horticulture and Rural Adornment. 

The Thomasson Seedling Apple. 

By your request, Mr. Editor, I send you a history and description of the above- 
named apple, now becoming famous in this section. You have in your December 
number given a fair description of the fruit as you saw it. I sent you only a medium- 
sized specimen, the apples being generally larger. Your opinion of the quality 
is highly complimentary, for you ate it before it was in perfection. It does not arrive 
at its best stage here before January or February. 

There is no doubt of its being a seedling of this town, Madison, Morgan Co., 
Ga. It came up and grew in the garden of Mr. P. E. Thomasson, back of his 
store house, which a few years since was burned, and the heat of the fire killed the 
the tree, root and branch. Some grafting has been done with cuttings from the 
original tree, and there are now 18 or 20 bearing trees in this place. The tree is a 
regular, good bearer, but does not overbear like the Shockley and some others, to 
the detriment of both fruit and tree. I have seen the fruit for five years in suc- 
cession. I am slow to pronounce upon the real value of a new apple, and will not 
do so until I have seen in bearing more than one year. After having seen this on 
the tree for five years, and corapai-ed it with the best standards, I have at last 
placed it at the head of the list of Southern apples. 

I have had the pleasure of bringing to public notice the Shockley, Mangura, 
Yates, and many othei-s of our best varieties, and I confidently believe this the 
best of them all — at least it is so in this locality. There are no bearing trees any- 
where else to judge of its general adaptability. It is a very strong grower, (the 
best in my nursery). The trees now in bearing here are upon very poor soil, unfit for 
the apple — upon good rich soils it must, of course, be much larger. I hope soon 
to see the fruit from trees upon proper locations. As a keeper it is fully ecpial to 
the Shockley and retains its crispness and juiciness to the last. 

If it succeeds elsewhere, as it does here, it will be a very great acquisition to the 
horticulture of the South. W. H. THURMOND. 

Thurmond Fruit Nursery, Madison, Ga. 

Camellia Ci'LTunn — Use of Lime "Water. — ^Mrs. Geo. W. Carpenter, in 
Gardeners' ^Monthly, says: In regard to the watering of camellias with lime water, 
the facte are as follows : The plants are grown in large pots, and have been in them 
un(li.sturbed for several years ; a large reservoir on tlie place, containing five hun- 
dred gallons of water, receives annually about three bushels of lime ; before 
watering the plants, the lime is usually well stirred up with the water, allowing it 
to settle before use. I^ime water was first used to kill worms in the soil, whicii it 
effectually did. It has since been continued regularly, the thriving, healthy 
appearance of both roots and branches seeming to warrant its use. 


Which are the best Wine and Market Grapes for the South. 241 

Which are the Best Wine and Market Grapes for the 


A question of this kind was brought under discussion a few days ago, by a par- 
ticular friend of ours, and one who ought to have known better, insisting that the 
inevitable Scuppernong is the best and most reliable as well as the most profitable 
of all grapes for the South. To this sweeping assertion, fashionable as it is getting 
to be, we could by no means yield an unqualified indorsement, and hence arose 
the discussion. 

Although I have been for many years a practical grape grower, have watched the 
progress of this branch of industry in the South with critical interest, aud have 
read about everything that has been published upon the subject, I have never yet 
seen any proofs whatever that the assumptions of my enthusiastic friend are founded 
upon fact in any particular. Admitting that the Scuppernong is hardy, reliable in 
its crops, aud when properly handled, a good wine grape, it does not follow that it is 
either the most profitable or the best for this purpose. There is at present but 
little demand for native vines in the South — our population is too foreign in its 
character, the German, French, Italian and Spanish element is too prominent in 
our lower and middle classes, while those who have been accustomed to " Heid- 
sick " will hardly tolerate the musky twang that gives to nearly all our native 
wiues their distiuctive character. We must, as a stepping stone from the use of 
foreign wines, have something a little less American — something that, while not 
exactly foreign in all its elements, shall yet so nearly stimulate the popular foreign 
brands as to deceive the masses, and not wholly repel the connoisseur wine drinker. 
Taking this view of the case we cannot rank the Scuppernong as either the best 
or second best American wine grapes. 

As for the fruit in a market point of view, I am disposed to give it even a lower 
grade than for wine. It is a poor eating grape until perfectly ripe, and then it is a 
poor shipping grape, as the skin bursts very easily at the stem and thus engenders 
fermentation aud shop worn appearance throughout the whole. Its quality is 
never first rate in the estimation of mosj grape eaters, and it enters the market in 
a shape that is by no means popularly prepossessing — singly like plums and cran- 
berries. It lacks the handsome bunch, the brilliant color and the delicate bloom 
that are so much admired in a grape, and which add so much to their commercial 
value. What have we that is better in all respects ? Let us see 

The old reliable Concord is as hardy, productive aud well flavored, besides being 
much handsomer and coming into bearing much earlier. Let us take that for both . 
wine and market. The wine from the Concord is less objectionably foxy to the 
cultivated taste, the yield is equally as great, and, under proper manipulation, is 
capable of assuming various grades and characters to suit the peculiar demands of 
the market. Except for its superabundance, it would be the best selling grape in 
our markets. Perhaps not inferior to the Concord, comes the Ives Seedling, one of 
the most reliable and productive in the whole list of grapes. The wine from it is 
most excellent and quite free from foxiness, and the fruit ships well and sells at 
the very highest prices. Last season, in spite of the enormous grape crop in this 
section, we sold Ives at the rate of three bunded dollars per acre, and Concords at 
two hundred and forty ! 

But to close this brief grape talk, I will merely add that there is nothing else 
yet found that equals, for a rich, delicious American wine, the old Delaware — for 
a wine that the most exacting of wine tastes could find no fault with. But it i.s in 
the sale of fruit after all that the fruit grower will find his greatest piofit — and 
for this nothing will excel the Concord and Ives. 

JAMES PARKER, in Rural Alahamian. 
No. 6, V0I. 6. 18 

242 Horticultural Hints for February. 

Horticultural Hints for February. 

Though classed as a winter mouth, February has here, aud especially in the 
coast region south of latitude 32^, many of the characteristics of spring. The 
verdure freshens in the fields, the leaf-buds swell on the trees, the peach bursts into 
bloom, the fragrance of the yellow jessamine fills the borders of the woodlands, 
and the red bird and the sparrow greet us with song in thicket aud hedge-row. But 
frosts are still to be expected, whenever the North winds bring us remiuders of the 
season from the enow-clad hills of less favored regions. In the lower South, the 
last part of the mouth is generally very mild, and severe freezes are rarely expe- 
rienced. Further North, and especially in the elevated parts of the upper country, 
the month is more chary of her vernal favors, aud frosts are more frequent aud 
severe. Throughout the coast region, north-east winds and cold rains are frequent. 
All these facts should be borne in mind in planniug our gardeuing operations. 
Where January planting.-- may have failed on account of cold, or from any other 
cause, February is likely to, present more favorable conditions. In any event, all 
unfinished or fruitless work of the last month will now be fii*st in order to be com- 
pleted or renewed, as the case may be. Earthiug up celery, tying endive; forking 
over asparagus beds, pruning grape-vines, getting hot-beds under way, stirring the 
ground around the raspberry plants, (being careful not to injure the roots,) and 
pruniug the canes closely, weeding strawberry beds, aud lightly loosening the earth 
with a pronged hoe, are among the operations which must not be delayed. 

Beets, Carrots and Parsuips may be \)\ii in for the main crop (in this lati- 
tude) from the middle to the last of this mouth, (next mouth in the middle and 
upper country ;) also Salsify, Swiss Chard, Cress, Mustard, Kohl-Rabi, etc., Let- 
tuce, Radishes and Turnips for a succession may be put in any time during the 
month. Sugar corn may be tried here toward the last of the mouth, l)ut the maiu 
crop should be deferred till March. Cabbage plants should be set out at various 
times during the mouth ; and, as they begiu to grow, the soil should be frequently 
stirred. Tomatoes and other tender plants may be started in a hot- bed or a cold 
frame. If one is disposed to take the trouble to protect them, a few hills of cucum- 
bers, squashes and melons may be planted. Bottomless boxes, fifteen inches 
square, and six or seven inches higli, covered with oiled cotton cloth, serve admira- 
bly for this purpose and cost little. After the plants come up, the boxes must be 
lifted off', or raised at one side in pleasant weather, to admit the air. 

In the latitude of Charleston, garden peas are planted with the best 

results from the twentieth of December to middle of January, but they may be 
put in any time during the present mouth to keep uj) a succession. A little further 
North, this is a good time to plant the maiu crop. Iloe frequently those that are 
advanced and set sticks for their support. Even the dwarfest kinds do better in 
that way. We have recommended to j)lant pretty thickly, but tiiere may be a 
question what is to l)e considered tliick ])lautiug. Well, fur the dwarf kinds one 
pint of seed, to fi;pm fifty to sixty feet of double row. Of the large growing kinds 

HortieuUural Hints for February. 243 

a pint of seed should plant from eighty to one hundred feet of double row. Let 
the distance apart of the rows be about equal to the height the peas are expected 
to grow, whether it be one, two, three or four feet. 

Irish Potatoes are, doubtless, already planted in most cases, but they are 

still in season, and if put in at once may make as good crops as those planted 
earlier. Choose, if possible, a good, black, moist, but not wet soil, and manure 
liberally, avoiding, however, too much crude stable manure if you desire tubers of 
the best quality. Wood ashes, chip manure* rotten saw-dust, and the scrapings of 
the house-yard, are excellent for this crop. The Early Rose is the best variety, 
so far as our experience goes ; in fact, it is so much better than any other, that we 
would not accept as a gift, for planting, any of the older kinds, good as some of 
them are. The Peerless is said to be an excellent and very productive variety, 
and to be suited to our climate, but we have not tried it. 

In the flower garden there is plenty of work to be done ; Lily and Gla- 
diolus bulbs should be planted, and, toward the last of the month, the seeds of 
hardy perennials and annuals. Half-hardy and tender annuals may be sown, 
under glass, to be transplanted when the weather becomes warm. Perennial plants 
of last season's growth may now be transplanted, dividing them in such cases as 
permit this mode of multiplying specimens. Many of the early flowering bulbous 
plants will now be in bloom, and they should be carefully attended to and tied ug. 
to neat stakes Avhen necessary. Always cut ofi' the flower stems as soon as the 
flowers have withered, and in many cases a second stalk will spring up and bloom. 

This is a good time to strike cuttings of herbaceous plants, such as gera* 

niuras, heliotropes, salvias and coleus. Of these, young or unripened wood should 
always be taken ; but it must not be two soft. When a shoot will break, on the 
upper part, on being bent, it will not be far from the proper stage of growth. The 
cuttings may be from two to three inches in length and the leaves must be removed 
(cutting them close to the stem) from the part to be inserted in the soil. Use a 
pointed stick for inserting them, and if set in pots, place them near the sides. 

An excellent contrivance for striking cuttings, where one has neither 

green-house or hot-bed, is a box with a few inches of soil in the bottom and cov- 
ered with a pane of glass. Plant the cuttings in small pots in a soil composed of 
at least half sand and " plunge " them partially in the earth within the box, 
which, being kept moist, helps to keep the air from getting too dry. Avoid too 
copious waterings, or the cuttings will " damp ofi"." Coleuses, Begonias, Helio- 
tropes, and Salvias, as well as Geraniums, Verbenas and Petunias, may be propa- 
gated in this way. 

If insects of any kind trouble you in the garden, orchard or elsewhere, 

send specimens to our Entomologist, Mr. Chas. R. Dodge, Washington, D. C, with 
notes of inquiry or information. A wooden match-box is one of the best things to 
send them in. Do not send them to us, in Charleston, as some have heretofore 
done, but directly to Mr. Dodge, as that will save trouble and expense. 

244 Apiary Worhfor February. 

Bees and jPractical jBee-Keeping. 

Apiary Work for February. 

All colonies should now be examined, and their actual condition ascertained. 
Those that have no brood by this time are most certainly queenless, or contain a 
barren queen. Such should be united to some weak stock containing a fertile 
queen. Before uniting, the barren queen, in case one is present, had better be 
destroyed, and the bees containing her allowed to remain 24 hours without her. 
If both sets of bees are sprinkled with a little water scented with essence of pep- 
permint, and then shook together on a cloth tacked to the entrance of the hive, 
they will peaceably unite. The bottom board should be cleaned of all droppings 
and litter, otherwise the filth will, by the approach of warm weather, become a 
nest for the larvse of the bee-moth. 

Bees at this season, when breeding, consume their stores very fast. Colonies 
that are deficient in stores now, unless fed, will most likely perish, or desert their 
hive, before they can gather any honey from the flowers. A very good syrup for 
feeding weak stocks may be made by adding one quart of water to three pounds 
of A, sugar and bringing to a boil. Feed a few ounces every evening within the 
hive. When fed outside it often leads to robbing. It is very important to feed 
regularly, and to keep it up till they can gather suflBicient natural supplies. This 
regular feeding promotes breeding. The laying capacity of the queen is regulated 
in a great measure by the supply or scarcity of the honey pasture. When the 
bees commence to gather honey the queen also commences to lay very rapidly, 
but when the honey resources fail, breeding also diminishes. The queen takes the 
feeding for a natural supply of honey, and breeds accordingly. We thus see the 
necessity of early feeding all our colonies to stimulate the queens to early laying. 
The bulk of our honey is gathered during April, May and June. Hence, if we 
expect much surplus, we must by early feeding have our hives crowded with 
workers when the harvest opens. 

If we want to keep bees successfully and with profit, we must not depend alto- 
gether upon luck and chance. An observance of bee charms and superstitions 
will not answer. We must know what to do, when to do, and how to do. It is 
just as absurd for a planter to expect to fine hogs, horses, or cattle, without 
looking after them, or without paying any attention to their wants or requirements, 
as to expect his bees to do well without proper attention. 

First and foremost, it is impossible to know anything about our bees, unless we 
can have complete control over thera. We must be able to get, without any hin- 
drance, into where they are, and to inspect all parts of the hive at will. To a 
novice, this may seem a formidable undertaking, but witii movable comb-hives, 
and a little smoke, (with Italians this is seldom necessary,) it can be very ea-sily 
done. Smoke alarms them ; and when alarmed they take to their stores and gorge 
.themselves with honey, and when in this condition they are not apt to sting unless 

Apiary Work for February. 245 

hit at or squeezed. In connq|tion with this, all our movements of the hive and its 
parts must be made, gently, coolly and deliberately — avoiding all sudden jars, and 
guarding against mashing any of the bees. 

After trying various sorts of smokers, I prefer one made out of either cotton 
rags or lint cotton. Make a roll of rags or cotton one inch in diameter and twelve 
inches long, and wrap it loosely with thin wire or a string. Light one and get it 
to smoking well. If you are very much afraid of a bee sting, put on a bee-veil, 
or what is better, a wire mask, and gloves. As gloves are very much in the way 
of expert manipulation, the writer never uses them — only has the sleeve confined 
at the wrist by an India rubber band. 

When thus armed and equipped, go to the hive and blow a few whiffs of smoke 
in at the entrance. Rest a few moments, then blow a little more, until the bees 
set up a loud humming noise, which is a sign of submission. Now proceed to open 
the hive, and take out the frames in as gentle and careful a manner as you can. 
The bees Avill keep very quiet after the first frame is removed. If they do not, 
give them more smoke. 

If your bees are in the old box gum, you have very little chance to examine 
them ; but with the aid of a little smoke you can turn the hive mouth up to the 
light, and by driving the bees back, see if they have any brood or need stores. 

The box hive, with the small contracted mouth degcribed in the last number of 
the Rural Carolinian, is not hs good for the bee-keeper as the common box, 
from the fact that the arrangement of the mouth precludes all chance to examine 
them. Such hives may do for those who follow the " luck," and let-a-lone system 
of keeping bees, but perfectly worthless where a profit is required. 

The Langstroth patent, which covered everything that was really valuable in 
connection ■ with movable comb hives, expired last October, and is now public 
property. The dimensions of the common Langstroth frame are : top bar, nine- 
teen inches long by one inch wide by one-quarter inch thick ; ends, eight and 
three quarters long by seven-eighths wide by three-eighths thick ; bottom pieces, seven- 
teen and a quarter long by seven-eighths wide by one-quarter thick. These frames 
hang suspended in the hive by the projecting ends of top bar which rest in a rab- 
bet in the ends of the hive. The common sized hive holds ten of these frames, 
allowing a space of about seven-sixteenths of an inch between each frame, and 
also the same distance between the outside frames and the sides of the hive. The 
writer uses the same sized frame as above, only the extreme ends, instead of being 
open, are made to close ; and the bearing of the rabbet, instead of being of wood, 
is of metal which prevents the frames from sticking. Persons who wish to intro- 
duce the Italian bees, must first get their black bees into movable comb hives 
before they can conveniently do so. Movable comb hives are very easily made 
by any ordinary workman if he has a pattern to go by. Two-thirds of the 
so-called patent bee-hives are impositions upon the public. The Langstroth patent 
covers the frames, the only real valuable parts; while the other patents (so-called) 
are for some moth clap-traps, or worthless contrivances perfectly useless to the 
practical bee-keeper. Hence, before you invest five or ten dollars for the right to 
use one of the so-called patent bee-hives, inquire what the patent calls for. 

246 Apiary Work for February. 

The last of February is the best time in this latit^le to make transfers. I pre- 
fer to perform this operation in a closed room with one window. Smoke your bees 
in the box-hive well, then carry it into your room, and after giving them more 
smoke, proceed with axe, hammer and chisel to knock off one of the sides that 
runs parallel with the comb. Now, with a long-bladed knife cut the comb loose 
from the sides and lay it gently on a cloth on a table. If the bees get in the way 
smoke them back, and shake or brush off what few are on the comb into the new 
hive. Lay your frame on the table and proceed to fit your comb in the frame as 
near as you can in the same*relative position it occupied in the hive. If your piece 
of comb is too large cut it to suit If too small, fit in other nice pieces by its 
side, until your frame is full. I use small sticks held by thin wire, to retain the 
comb in the frame until fastened by the bees, which will usually be done in four 
days, when the sticks are removed. Some dip the edges of the comb into a mix- 
ture of melted wax and rosin to hold them fast. Reject all the drone comb. Keep 
the brood comb in the centre. Dark comb, if worker, is as good as any. Be sure to 
put plenty of stores in, otherwise keep up abundant feeding until the bees can 
gather sufficient natural stores. When all the good comb is fitted into the frames 
and these replaced into the hive, shake all the bees on a cloth tacked to the 
entrance board, and let them enter as a swarm. To guard against robbers, after 
the hive is returned to its stand, contract the entrance so as to allow only one bee 
to enter at a time. Keep it this way until the bees have mended up their comb. 

To guard against the larvae of the bee-moth, keep all your colonies strong. They 
will not attack any comb that has sufficient bees to cover it. When the colony is 
w^eak and has comb unprotected, it is liable to be destroyed by the worms. If in 
a movable comb hive, some of the combs can be removed, and after fumigating 
them well with sulphur, they can be returned to the hive as the bees multi^)ly. 
Bottom boards should always be kept clean, 

I would advise all those bee-keepers who use the old box-hives, to make them 
fifteen inches high and twelve inches square, with several two-inch holes cut in the 
top, over which place honey boxes for surplus. If the season is favorable, the bees 
will soon fill them, when they can be easily removed by blowing a little smoke 
under. Carry them to a room where light is only admitted by a single aperture, 
and the bees will leave the box and make for the light. 

Augxuita, Ga. J- P- H. BROWN. 

In the genial climate of the South we need not go to all the trouble and expense 
to winter our bees like they do in the North. Jn niost of ])laces thcro boo-kccpers 
nuLst have cellars or special depositories for tlu-ni (hiring the cold winter mouths. 
Here our winters are sufficiently mild to allow the colonies to roniain on their 
summer stand*. But while our climate favors our bees, we shoidd, nevertheless, 
put them into the best po.ssible condition for our short winter. 

It is always advi.sable to have all our colonies go into winter (luarters with 
plenty of young bees. When breeding is suspended, very early in the fall, the 
colony must necessarily have a very small force of nursing bees to attend^ to the 
wants of the brood in the spring. It has been demonstrated time and again, that 
young bees act the part of nurses, while old ones can but poorly perform this office. 
Bee World. 

The Swallow-tail BuUerfiies. 247 

Natural Wistoi^y Applied to AoR^cuLTUf^B. 

Specimens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in The Rural 
Carolinian, for October, 1870,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc, should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mr. Charles R. Dodge, Washington, D. C 

The SMrallo-w-tail Butterflies. 

We liave received from a correspondent in Ocala, Fla., (Mr. J. F. C,) the pupa 
of a butterfly, of which he desires to know the natural history; and as it is one of 
our largest and most showy species, we think a description of the group to which it 
belongs, will prove interesting. 

The " swallow-tails," form the genus Papilio, which comprises some three hun- 
dred species, only about a fifth of which, however, are North American. The 
caterpillars are rather short, stout, and, oftentimes, the first segments are quite 
larger than the rest of the body, and marked with eye-like spots on either side, 
Avhich gives them a singular appearance. When the caterpillars are ready for 
change, they always spin a loose filament or loop of silk, against which the pupa 
rests, the tip of the tail also being secured. 

The butterflies have slender bodies, and large wings, measuring from three to 
five inches from tip to tip ; the edges of the second pair are notched, and provided, 
at the furthest point behind with a little tail-like appendage, measuring in the 
different species, from less than a quarter to a full inch in length. 

Papilio Asterias is the commonest species, and is found all over our country. It 
is known as the black and yellow swallow-tail, and its larva, doubtless, is familiar 
to all of our readers. The caterpillars live upon parsley and celery, carrot, anise, 
and similar plants : they are of a delicate apple green color, paler at the sides of the 
body and whitish beneath, and on each ring of body there is a band of yellow and 
black marking or spots, arranged transversely. When touched, an orange colored 
V shaped organ is thrust from the head, which gives out a strong, disagreeable odor, 
probably, designed by nature as a means of protection from its various enemies. 
The eggs producing these caterpillars are deposited by the parent butterfly in May, 
singly upon the leaves of the plant, and the larva attains its full size in from ten 
to twenty days ; the second brood attaining full size in September and October. 

The pupa is attached to the twigs of the plant, or to fences, in the manner 
described above, and remains in this state from ten to fifteen days. It then comes 
forth a butterfly, which is described as follows : " color, black with a double row of 
yellow dots • on the back ; a broad band, composed of yellow spots, across the 
wings, and a row of yellow spots near the hind margin ; the hind wings are tailed 
and have seven blue spots, between the yellow band and the outer row of yellow 
spots, and near their hinder angle, and eye-like spot of an orange color with a black 
centre." The second brood of worms remain in the pupa state all winter coming 
out as butterflies the following spring. 

248 The Swallow-tail Butterflies. 

Papilio trailus bears a strong resemblance to the above species, as it is similar in 
size and general markings ; the blue spots, however, are much larger, and cover 
nearly one third of the surface of the hind wing ; the yellow spots around the 
margin are larger and paler, and there is a large orange spot on the front margin 
of the same wing. The caterpillar is quite different, and feeds on sassafras, 
lilac, etc. 

Papilio tiiniiis is a bright, yellow species, often measuring five inches from tip to 
tip of wing. Though yellow is the prevailing color, the wings are barred with four 
broad bands of black, running backward from the front of the wing. The larva 
of this beautiful species lives upon the leaves of apple, wild cherry, sassafras, bass- 
wood' etc. When fully grown, it measures about two and a half inches in length. 

Papilio tJwas. This insect, though occurring in many parts of the United States, 
from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico, is most injurious in Florida, where the 
larva lives on the foliage of orange and lemon. (This is the species of which our 
correspondent complains.) When the caterpillar is fully grown it measures about 
two and a half inches in length, of a clouded ashen-grey, with numerous eye-like 
spots, and a rosy, cream-tinted blotch on its back, beginning at the fourth segment, 
and ending at the eighth ; a similar mark extends from the ninth segment to the 
end of the body. The head is provided with the yellowish-red organs which were 
described above. When fully grown, the caterpillar spins a light web, attached to 
a leaf, into which it inserts its tail when it becomes a pupa. It then spins a thread 
across its back, with the ends secured to the branch, and thus suspended, back 
downward, it sheds its skin, and changes to a chrysalis of a greenish color marked 
on the back and fore part with brownish. It remains thus from one to two weeks, 
after which the butterfly appears. The ground color of the perfect insect is black ; 
a broad stripe, composed of yellowish dots, extends from the upper corners of the 
fore wings to the body of the insect ; also extending across the basal margin of the 
hind wings. The thorax is black and yellow striped, the body black, spotted with 

Papilio ajax and marcellus, supposed to be varieties of the same insect are whitish, 
for the most part, with bands of black extending from the front of the wing some- 
what in the same manner as P. turnus. The under side of the wings are marked 
with red, the tails arc very much longer, and altogether it is a much more elegant 
insect, a dandy among swallow-tails, if we may be allowed the expression. The 
insect flies very swiftly and frequents damp situations. The larva is found in 
mud, in July, according to Mr. Glover's work, and foctls upon papaw. 

There are quite a number of common species which have not been mentioned, but 
those which have been noted are the most common, and the two spceios of which 
full descriptions were the most annoying to the farmer and planter. 

As regards remedies, these insects in the larval state, to begin with, are subject to 
the attacks of para-sites which no doubt destroy a great number; in fact, the speci- 
men sent by our correspondent was infested with a parasite which has jusi eaten 
out and gone into the earth to change. We should suggest hand picking the 
worms, and destroying the butterflies, before they can deposit their eggs, early in 
the season, as about the only mcai^ of prevention. 

Our Native Flora. 249 

Our Native Flora. — V. 

The very large- ftimily of the Compositce, so generally distributed everywhere, 
are fully represented in our Southern flora, and offer many things attractive for 
their showy appearance and brilliant colors, that would well repay cultivation. 
Some of the finest of our cultivated flowers belong to this family. They are mostly 
of bright colors, yellow and purple being the prevailing shades, and are in greatest 
profusion towards midsummer and autumn. I can only give a passing notice to 
those which are most conspicuous. 

43. Button Snakeroot — (Liatris.) 

There are fifteen Southern species of Liatris, all attractive for their showy purple 
flowers, in some of the species varying into white. Most of them have perennial 
tuberous roots, from which ascends a single leafy stem two to three feet high, ter- 
minated by a spike of purple flowers. 

L. odoratissima, growing in flat pine woods, with rather spreading heads and 
large spathulate leaves, is known as wild vanilla, from the strong vanilla-like odor 
of the bruised leaves. It is often dried and used for flavoring smoking tobacco. 

L. elegant and L. squarrosa are showy, ornamental plants, with purple flowers and 
colored leafy envelopes. The former has long cylindrical spikes, densely set with pale 
purple flowers, twelve to fifteen inches long, blooming in September-rworthy of 

44. Thoroughwort — (Eupatorium.) 

Another large and important family, numbering twenty-two Southern species, 
many of them large plants, with white or purple flowers. 

E. perfoliatum is the well known Thoroughwort or Boneset, so commonly used in 
domestic medicines, with leaves united at base, through which tbe stem seems to 
pass, with white flowers, growing from four to five feet high. 

The Dog Fennel, E. fmniculaceum is common in old fields and fallow grounds, 
and contains valuable tanning qualities. 

45. Aster. 

The Asters are the most numerous family of all the flowering plants, and are 
represented in the Southern States by forty-eight distinct species. In the natural 
and wild state, the heads consist of two different kinds of flowers, viz : the central 
tubular yellow florets of the disk, and the flat or strap-shaped florets of the ray, 
either white, purple or blue. The improved exotic varieties of our gardens, have 
all become "double flowers" by long cultivation and selection of seeds. They 
have lost their peculiar normal characters, and the flowers have become much 
enlarged, and of more brilliant tints. Of the vast number of native species, many 
are really pretty and attractive when seen in the woods and pastures, but as they 
are far inferior to the cultivated kinds, no attention has been paid to their improve- 
ment. They bloom mostly towards autumn. 

46. Golden Eod — (Solidago.) 
^ Another large and attractive family, consisting of forty-three Southern species. 
Like the Aster, they bear two kinds of florets, ray and disk, but rather smaller. 
They all bear yellow flowers and bloom towards autumn, enlivening the pastures 
and open savannas with their nodding plumes of golden drapery. 

250 Dr. Ftnnnan's Address before Concord Grange, No- 39, P. of H. 

47. Sunflower — (HeUanthus.) 
There are twenty-one native Southern species of Sunflower, mostly tall plants 
with rough leaves, and large yellow flowers, blooming late in autumn. 

The cultivated Sunflower, (J3". annmu,) and the Jerusalem Artichoke, {Htuhe- 
rosiis,) are exotics. 

48. Coreopsis. 

"We have eighteen Southern species of this showy plant, with purple or yellow 
disk floweret?, and yellow or rose-colored rays. The cultivated kinds of the garden 
are exotics. 

49. Cardinal Flower — (Lobelia cardinalis.) 

This handsome native species grows in damp places, two to three feet high, with 
long erect racemes of bright scarlet flowers, very showy. The eleven remaining 
species have blue or white flowers. 

Lobelia inflata is one of the principal vegetable drugs of the " Botanic or Steam 
Doctors," and an active emetic. 
50. Ground Laurel — Ground Ivy — Trailing Arbutus — {Epigf^a repens.) 

This pretty little prostrate evergreen, with its clusters of delicate white or flesh 
colored fragrant flowers, blooming as early as January in mild winters, is always 
an attractive object in the woods, as the first to annouuce the approach of spring. 
It grows as far North as New England, and is there called " May Flower " — mostly 
confined to dry sandy soils. H. W. RAVENEL. 

Aiken, S. C. 

Pati\ons of Husbandry and Agricultural Societies. 

Dr. Furman's Address before Concord Grange, No. 39, 
Patrons of Husbandry. 

Patrons : It is ever gratifying to us to see evidence of the success of any enterprise 
to which we have contributed, and which has become identified with us personally 
and socially, and found a place in our affections — and just in proportion to our 
conviction of the worth of the enterprise on the one hand, and the evidences we 
have on the other, of its succes.'«, must be that gratification. 

I cordially sympathize with, and congratulate you, because of the evidences I 
see here to-day that Concord Grange is alive and doing — and that she may ever 
live and prosper is my heartfelt wish. 

And if it be pleasant to us as grangers to witness evidences of the growth and 
prosperity of one Grange, how as Patrons of Husbandry, should our hearts kindle 
and glow with a just pride when we contcm])latc the unparalleled growth and 
advancement of our nol)le fraternity. 

You have all heard, read and thought too much on the subject for it to be 
neces.sary for me to enter into a detailed statement of the origin, objects and growth 
of our organization. That such au organization was needed by the down trodden 

Dr. FurmaTi's Address before Concord Grange, No. 39, P. of H. 251 

farmer is evidenced by tlie zeal and rapidity with which they have almost every 
where flocked to the Granges. That it is worthy is demonstrated -by the fact that 
wherever it has gone the best men have given it their hearty support. 

Patrons, I feel that in attempting to speak to you on this subject, the objects of 
our brotherhood, covering as they do, so vast an area, and embracing so many 
subjects of vital importance to us as a fraternity of farmers, the difficulty is not so 
much what to say as what to leave unsaid, and as I have no idea of making a 
speech to-day — indeed circumstances forbid it — I shall only allude briefly to what 
I conceive to be two of the many leading ideas embraced in our policy. One is 
concert of action, the other a strictly cash system of traffic. 

By combined action how much may be accomplished ; without it, how little. 
What one man cannot do two may, Avhat ten men cannot accomplish twenty may, 
what fifty cannot compass one hundred may, and so on almost without limit. 

Indeed this may be almost said to be the age of combined action, and that class 
or people who do not recognize its potency are behind the progress of the nine- 
teenth century. We, of the cotton States, have ever been as a people remarkable 
for our individuality, every man was lord of his domain, and so far as his authority 
extended it was supreme. 

What in anti-bellum times was within certain limits an admirable characteristic 
of our people, must now, if not very much restrained become an element of weak- 
ness, it leads to that tenacity and sensitiveness of personal opinion and prejudice 
which cannot brook restraint, opposition or control, militated against concert of 
action and left us a prey frequently, to outside cliques, factions and rings, and 
still I fear militates against our success. How often have we all heard it said, 
" oh, if the cotton planters would only act together, what could they not accora- 
plbh, but there is no use in talking about it, for they never have and never will 
do it." 

A change of circumstances involves a necessity for a change of modes and means. 
That change has come upon us, with the dire force of necessity, and we must meet 
it as men. Yea ! as a band of brothers, or we are derelict in duty to ourselves, 
as well as those who should be far dearer to us. We should endeavor to be gentle, 
conciliatory and forbearing towards each other, always ready to compromise where 
principle is not at stake, and especially so in mere matters of opinion, looking to 
the greatest good to the greatest number, but always yielding due respect and 
weight to the opinion of the minority. Be diligent, be cautious, be watchful, keep 
each other posted, bide your time, and when the opportunity comes, and come it 
will sooner or later, act promptly, and act all altogether. 

And by a seeming paradox, occasions occur when no action accomplishes most ; 
and if my feeble judgment is worth anything, the occasion is at hand for illus- 
trating that striking idea of Carolina's greatest mind, the idea of " a masterly 

The finances of the country have assumed an anomalous and alarming aspect, 
the wheels of commerce have almost ceased to revolve — and as one of the fruits of 
a pernicious system, gold has been leaving our shores by the million and tens of 
millions, till within less than eighteen months nearly forty millions have disap- 

252 Dr. Fiimmri's Address before Concord Grange, No. 39, P. of JB[. 

peared, and the moneyed kings of New England are quaking with fear. Specie has ' 
almost disappeafcd from the country, — who has seen a good, old time silver dollar 
since the immortal Lee yielded up his untarnished sword under the apple tree at 
Appomattox? The government itself, unless a counter current be established, 
may verge upon bankruptcy. 

We hold the means that can stay this impending avalanche of ruin. We, the 
poor, despised, down trodden, maligned planters of the South, can teach the once 
moneyed lords of Wall Street and the occupant of the White House, whose brains 
and labor it is that have brought wealth and prosperity to the country, the filch- 
ings from which has enabled them to fill their pockets with ill-gotten gain. And 
how is this to be done ? By the planters barely selling cotton enough to pay their 
just debts, and turning the key upon the balance in his gin house, and biding hLs 
time, instead of sacrificing it now for but little, if anything, more than the bear 
cost of production. 

The position assumed by many, that the power of cotton commercially has been 
altogether over-estimated at the South, based upon the fact that England did not 
attempt to raise the blockade in our late struggle for independence, is altogether 
false in its assumption. Why did not England interfere ? — not because she valued 
cotton less than we believed, but because she welcomed that very blockade as the 
means of breaking the power of Southern cotton growers, and emancipating her 
from the commercial bondage which had so long existed, and been so galling to 
her pride. She hailed this as her opportunity, though it involved temporary incon- 
venience and pecuniary loss, calculating that the production of cotton would be so 
stimulated elsewhere, and especially in her own dependencies, as ultimately to meet 
the requirements of her manufacturers. Vain anticipation ! as tiine proved. With 
her originated the first germ of antagonism to us and our institution, which culmi- 
nated in that mighty wave of abolition fanaticism which overwhelmed us. There 
was with her no more true philantliropy or regard for the good of the slave, than 
actuated our enemies beyond the Potomac. 

She was influenced by a cool, calculating and selfish policy, the aim of which 
was the destruction of our institution, the object being our dethronemont a.s the 
greatest cotton producing power. But the result proved what we contend for — 
withhold cotton and the ])rice advance — for when the blockade was at last raised, 
did not cotton command from 40 to 60 cents per pound ? By holding a little more 
than half the crop, now in our possession, we will realize more by its ultimate sale, 
than the whole crop would bring sold now, and filched from us as heretofore, and at 
no distant date. And thus can we command from 100 to 200 millions of European 
gold, or its equivalent in bills of the Bank of England, giving us a back-bone to 
our finances, and teaching our enemies the jmwer of the fruits of Southern agri- 
culture, controlled by Southern combination, directed by Southern Granges of the 
Patrons of Husbandry. Then tlujsc men who have ground us to |)ovorfy and put 
us under the authority of a non-tax-paying and vulgar majority, and hurled upon 
us that Hydra-headed spawn and master abortion of despotism, known as the scal- 
lawag, the carpet-bagger, an<l the tax-gatherer, will be conipell"ed to take ofl" their 
hats and acknowledge us at least their equals. It is a singular fact, that those who 

Dr. Furman's Address before Concord Orange, No. 39, P. of H. 253 

want our cotton, are not those who buy it from us ; for hundreds of men on this 
continent buy and sell hundreds of thousands of bales of cotton who never handle 
one. Our true policy is to sell to those who want it — to the manufacturers. And 
Patrons, I say, oh ! for the day, may it speedily come, when mighty ships shall 
plough the main, freighted with the fruits of the Granger's toil, with Patron of 
Husbandry inscribed upon each stern. 

But even the accomplishment of this devoutly to be wished for result, will 
not make us truly and individually independent at home. We must, observing a 
strict economy, so shape our transactions as to come as speedily as possible to a 
strictly cash system of trade. 

It is often said that the poor man cannot 'avail himself of the benefits of the 
Grange, because he has to buy on credit, a false and pernicious belief, and one 
that should be dismissed from the mind of every true Patron. It is this that has 
made many of us poor, and will, if persisted in, so continue us to the end of time. 
The honest farmer will, if possible, avoid increasing liabilities beyond what can 
be met by his incoming crop, so that he is, generally, only one year behind- 
Still he has to pay an enormous per cent., amounting frequently to an advance of 
25 or 50 per cent. Take the article of corn for instance, where he has to purchase 
a few months sujjply before his incoming crop is ready to gather, Ifc not unfre- 
quently pays 81.25 to 11.50, when he could for cash have purchased it a few 
months before at 90 cents to $1, which, for the time he has the benefit of the arti- 
cle, makes the advance enormous. Almost invariably the price of articles sold on 
credit is high, and the interest incurred on the debt is exorbitant. And, again, 
most men will purchase more largely on credit than when they pay cash, when 
necessity compels, it is better to borrow, paying a reasonable interest, than pur- 
chase at the best time, and to the best advantage, paying down the cash, using 
all possible economy, and incurring no other liabilities till the money is refunded, 
then adhere unswervingly to the cash system. It may involve the necessity for 
the exercise of much self-denial on our part and by our families, but rest as.sured 
that in the end it will prove infinitely better for us and for them. There is only 
one article which in favorable circumstances may be excepted, that is a good fer- 
tilizei*. And even here, great caution, discrimination and foresight should be 

There are three other subjects which should receive our earnest, untiring con- 
sideration ; I shall only name them. 

They are : First, a Patron's Phosphate Company; second, a Patron's Bank; 
and, third, the paramount question of manufacturing cotton. They are all of 
immense importance to us as Patrons and Southern men. They may all be sooner 
or later reached and accomplished. 

Then we shall have done somewhat, at least, towards raising our dear old State, 
I trust, purified and disenthralled from the ashes of her former greatness, and 
towards laying anew the foundation of that once peerless social system, which, 
alas ! in its perfection, has passed from the world forever. 


254 The Greenville Agricultural Fair As»ociaiion. 

The Greenville Agricultural Fair Association. 

The stockholders of this Associatiou met at Greeuville C. H., on the 13th 
December, 1873, aud elected the following officers for the ensuing year: President, 
Frank Coxe, Esq. ; First Vice-President, Captain C A. Parkins ; Second Vice- 
Presidents, M, L. Donaldson, Wm. Goldsmith, Col. R. E. Bowen, W. C Cleveland, 
Col. James McCuliough, J. Mims Sullivan, Dr. J. F. Dorroh, T. Henry Stokes, 
W. E. Holcomb, Esq., H. T. Farmer, Esq., J. H. Goodwin, T. C. Coxe, .Esq. ; 
Secretary, W. L. Mauldin ; Treasurer, W. T. Shumate ; Executive Committee, 
Alexander McBee, Esq., Chairman, t). P. Mills, W. A. Perry, J. G. Hawthorne, 
J. W. Gray, Wm. Beattie, and T. C Gower, Esq. 

From tlie report of the Treasurer of the Association we learn that $7,500, in 
shares, have been subscribed. In addition to this, §1,571.50 was taken in during 
the late Fair, making a total of §9,071.50. Cash has been paid out to the amount 
of §5,305.10, leaving a balance in the Treasury of §973.40. 

^Agricultural Society of South Carolina. 

At the regular annual meeting of this society, held last evening, the following 
officers were elected for the ensuing year : Dr. A. B. Rose, President, vice the Hon. 
Charles Macbeth, Avho declined re-election. Vice-Presidents — "W. L. Trenholm, 
Ephraim Clark, W. G. Vardell, Caspar A. Chisolm. Executive Committee — W. 
G. Hinson, Joseph T. Dill, R. Lebby, Jr., E. L. Roche, H. B. Horlbeck, A. Baron 
Holmes, James Price, H. W. Kinsman, S. T. Thomas, Jr., J. E. Adger, J. H. 
Atkinson, S. P. Ravenel, W. M. Bird, James G. Holmes, Jr. and B. Gaillard 
Pinckney. J. B. Hyde, Recording Secretary; S. P. Ravenel, Corresponding 
Secretary ; W. S. Lanneau, Treasurer. Some appropriate remarks were made by 
Col. W. L. Trenholm, Mr. W. G. Vardell and Mr. George H. Mofl'ett upon the 
death of Col. B. F. Evans. After the transaction of the ordinary business, the 
members betook themselves to Brookbanks, where a tempting collation was served. 

The German Society. 

We have received the report of Mr. F. Von Santon, President of the German 
Society of South Carolina, for the promotion of immigration. Among others it 
contains the valuable suggestion of settling immigrants in small colonies or com- 
munities throughout the State, and calls upon our citizens to extend their aid in 
whatever manner may be most convenient. This appeal should not be allowed to 
pa.«s unheeded. Small contributions in money or land coming together from all 
parts of the State would go a long way towards accomj)lishiug the Society's work. 
Why cannot the Granges take the matter in hand, and in co-operation with the 
German Society solicit subscriptions, in land or money, for the promotion of immi- 
gration ? 

Grange Meinoranda. 25'6 

Grange Memoranda. 

At an extra meeting of the Spriugtowu Grange, No. 60, P. of H., the following 
resolution was adopted, and ordered to be published : 

" Resolved, That this Grange appropriate ($50) fifty dollars of its funds to the 
promotion of immigration into this vicinity, and we suggest that similar action be 
taken by sister Granges throughout the State." 

On motion, the following Committee was appointed to carry out the objects of 
the above resolution : Brethren F. M. Wannamaker, W. Gilmore Simms, and E. 
H. Dowling, 

A true extract from the Minutes. W. B. RICE, Secretary. 

The Goshen Hill Grange, No. 120, re-organized December 30th, 1873, 

and the following officers were elected: D. P. Duncan, M., postoffice Union C. H., 
S. C; J. T. Douglass, 0. ; Dr. Geo. Douglass, L.; A. R. Aughtry, C; J. E. 
Aughtry, S.; B. T. Glenn, A. S.; Geo. Douglass, Jr., Secretary, postoffice Goshen 
Hill ; J. D. Epps, Tr.; L. D. Dodd, G. K.; Mrs. J. E. Aughtry, L. A. S.; Mrs. D. 
P. Duncan, Ceres ; Miss E. C. Sims, P.; Miss J. T. Douglass, F. 

1 send you the Masters and Secretaries of Sandy River and Lowrysville 

Granges: Sandy River — J. Harry Hardin, Master, postoffice Chester C. H.; G. 
W. Simpson, Secretary. Lowrysville — G. Williams, Master ; Randoph Sims, 
Secretary, postoffice Lowrysville, S. C 

White immigration, abolition of the credit system, farmers' banks, direct 

trade with Europe, greater diversity of crops, and retrenchment in expenses, will 
be the leading questions in Mississippi for 1874. 

The Iowa State Agent of Patrons of Husbandry reports that the business 

of his office since February was over $100,000, and over 65,000 have been saved 
to farmers on sewing machines alone. 

The Patrons of Husbandry, of Georgia, have resolved upon planting only 

one-third of the next crop in cotton, and the farmers in all parts of that State 
are putting in heavy crops of wheat. 

Graham's Grange, No. 75, L. W. Kennedy, W. M., postoffice Graham's, 

S. C; A. D. Dowling, Secretary, Graham's, S. C. 

The State Grange of South Carolina will hold its annual meeting at 

Columbia, S..C., on the third Wednesday in February, 1874. 

— High Point Grange, No. 190, Prosperity, S. C. Officers elected January 

10th. Rev. J. A. Sligh, Master ; W. H. Dickert, Secretary. 

At the last election in Darlington Grange, No. 13, E. R. Mclver was 

elected Master, and J. W. Williamson, Secretary. 

Farmers who join the Granges have broader sympathies, kinder feelings, 

and higher aspirations. 

256 Cultivation of Cotton. 

Miscellaneous Correspondence and Notices, 

Cultivation of Cotton. 

In the brief space to which we are necessarily oonfiued in this article, it cannot 
be expected that we should give an exhaustive treatise upon the cultivation of 
cotton. Our aim will be simply to present, in as condensed a form as possible, the 
general and most accepted method of its cultivation. 

We are aware that great diversities of opinion exist among individual planters, 
a« to the best methods of nearly every step in the process of cultivation. We do 
not propose to lay down inflexible rules. 


The first thing to be attended to, is the proper drainage of the ground, if it is so 
situated as to need draining. The extent and mode of doing this, will, of course, 
vary with the circumstances of each case, and demand the wise forethought and care 
of the planter. After draining, comes the necessity for enriching the .soil. This 
ha.s been too much neglected at the South, and hence the immense fields of worn out 
lauds These lands can all be brought back to a high state of productiveness, by 
a proper system of cultivation and manuring. The means of fertilizing the soil are 

The manure heap and compost pile, must receive attention and be increased to 
the utmost possible limit. Every bushel of ashes made on the plantation should be 
returned to the soil, and will be found to be worth more than many of the commer- 
cial fertilizers, although these are all more or less useful. All the dead stalks, left 
in the field, should be beaten down and ploughed in, immediately after th<^ crop is 
gathered in the fall, .so that they may thoroughly decay by spring. All stalks too 
large fir this should be collected and burnt. The land should be ploughed 
thoroughly and deep in th'e fall, in order that, during the winter, the frosts may 
pulverize the soil. 


Much stress is to be laid upon the importance of procuring the best seed. Ex- 
perience has established the fact, that the quality of any article of produce may be 
improved by care in the selection of seed. Among the finest seed now ofiercd for 
sale are the " Dickson Cluster Cotton," which arc said to be very superior cotton 
and should be phuitod as early in the spring as po.^^siblc, in order to give the most 
time for the crop to mature. Just before the planting, the ground shouM be care- 
fully bedded with the turn plough. From five to seven furrows aje sufficient, ivs a 
general rule, for each row They should be thoroughly harrowed, so iu< to reun)ve 
all lumps and other obstacles. This is sometimes accomplished by uieans of a 
pole, drawn by a horse. This pole stretches acro.s8 two rows aud thus levels off the 
tops of l)oth at the same time, removing or cru.'^hing the clods, and making a nicely 
pulverized bed, in which the cotton is j)lanted, at a uniform depth, free from clods, 

Cultivation of Cotton. 257 

stones aud trash. The rows should be laid off perfectly straight. There is great 
diversity of opinion aud practice among cotton planters with regard to the proper 
distance between the rows, and different individuals plant all the way from 3i to 6i 
feet apart. This, of course, will be regulated by the character of the land — rich 
bottom land requiring the rows to be further apart than soil which is thin aud light. 

There is, also, diversity of opinion among planters, on the merits of the various 
methods of planting. The most generally approved mode seems to be, in drills. 
In fact, cotton is seldom planted in any other way. This is chiefly, because of the 
difficulty of obtaining good stands in hill, and of the great labor of laying off 
each hill and depositing the seed in it. The rows having been carefully prepared, 
with a broad, even surface, should be opened in their middle, and as straight as 
possible, for the seed. In the absence of a " Cotton Planter," which is always pro- 
vided with an opener, this is done with a small narrow plough. The furrow should 
be of a uniform size and depth— say from one inch to one and one-half inches, and 
should be very narrow. In this furrow the seed should be strewed lavishly, so as 
to ensure a good stand. This is a most important point, under all circumstances. 
The great advantage of planting the seed in a straight, narrow drill is, that when 
the cotton is so planted, an expert ploughman can scrape so much nearer to the 
plant, than when the cotton is scattered carelessly. He is not obliged to look 
out for straggling plants, which are out of the line. 

The seed having been deposited in the furrow, must next be carefully covered. 
It is recommended to do this with a board made of some hard wood, say an inch 
or an inch and a half thick, about eight inches broad, and thirty inches long, 
beveled on the lower edge, so as to make it sharp, slightly notched in the middle, 
so as to straddle the row, with a hole bored in the centre, one inch from the upper 
edge, and screwed on the foot of a common shovel or scooter plough-stock. This 
wooden scraper and coverer, when drawn over the row, covers the seed nicely, 
leaving a slight elevation to prevent the settling of water, and it also dresses the 
whole surface of the bed, neatly, for the space of fifteen inches on each side of the 
drill. Thus, all clods or obstructions are removed, and a clean space is left wide 
enough for the passage of the scraper plough, (or the wheels and ploughs of the 
" Diamond Cotton Chopper,") in the first working. This is an advantage of much 
importance, with a crop so tender and small as cotton, at this stage. A good " cotton 
planter " performs all this work in a superior and satisfactory manner, and saves 
much time and labor. 

There are quite a number of excellent planters in the market, (We shall attach 
a planter to the Diamond Cotton Chopper and Cultivator, which we shall recom- 
mend to be used with it.) 

A crop when properly planted may be regarded as nearlj half made, so much 
stress is placed upon thorough tiHh and thorough preparation of the soil. 


The main object should be to keep' the grass and weeds down; these are its 
greatest enemies. Hence as soon as enough cotton is up to make a stand, the 
scraping or barring begins. 

No, 5, Vol. 5. 19 

258 Oultivation of Cotton. 

Next comes the " blocking out " or " chopping " to leave little buuches of cotton 
at regular distances. These little groups are left at intervals of from 12 to 24 
inches, according to the character of the soil. It is quite common, and, perhaps, 
the best practice, to leave these little groups twice as close to each other as the 
plants are desired to tinally stand, and, at the proper season, to chop out with the 
hoe every other group. It is essential to the success of the crop that this chopping 
or blocking out, should be done at the right time. It must be done promptly, or 
else the young plants will grow up too thick and become yellow, small and worth- 
less. It is at this season that the young grass presses on with an earnestness worthy 
of a better cause. And unless it is overcome then, it will hold the vantage ground 
throughout the crop. Time now presses sorely upon the planter ; the chopper 
hands, appreciating the urgent necessities of the season, demand and receive their 
own prices. In many localities of the South, labor is very scarce and difficult to 
command at any price. The need of some labor saving invention to relieve the 
planter, at this critical pei-iod of his crop, li^as long been felt. (The Diamond Cotton 
Chopper and Cultivator here comes to the planter's succor and supplies this need, 
as will be presently demonstrated.) ^ 

The barring or scraping necessarily removes more or less earth from the roots 
of the young plants, which must be replaced as soon as possible. This is generally 
done with a bull tongue, or other suitable plough, running on each side of the 
cotton immediately after the chopping. The cotton is thus "dirted," for it^ protec- 
tion and future nourishment. (The Diamond Cotton Chopper and Cultivator is 
constructed, with a view to its operation on the bed described above. It has a 
pair of wheels 3 inches broad on their face, set 10 inches apart and so adjusted 
that they pass one on each side of the cotton, followed by a pair of light steel 
ploughs, which may be set at any depth, and which do the barring or scraping 
more evenly and equally then can be done by the ordinary scraper plough. The 
chopper has a pair of knives which revolve horiztmtally, chopping or blocking out 
the cotton as may be desired, leaving larger or smaller hills according to the stand 
of the crop. The machine at the same time throws the pulverized soil loosely 
around the young plants, thus thoroughly dirting what are left.) 

The weeding, chopping and dirting liaving been accomplished, the reduction to 
a stand is done at the convenience of the planter, who now has his crop well in 
hand. After the reduction to a stand, it is some times advisable to scrape or side the 
cotton again, (the Diamond Cotton Choj)peraud Cultivator is easily converted into 
a double scraper, by simply taking out the chopping apparatus.) But the cultiva- 
tion is mainly carried on by means of sweeps, seldom as turning plough, the prime 
object being to kei-j) down the grass. The sweeps arc drawn over the surface, 
between the rows, about an inch deep, turning up and killing the griuss and weeds, 
and working the cotton. Their great and singular advantages over all instruments 
of the plough, harrow or hoe kind, are, that they will kill a greater quantity of 
grass and weeds in a given time, and do less injury to the surface roots of the 
plaTits, so cs.sential to its jjrogrcssive [jrospority, than any other imj)lement. (The 
Diamond Cotton Chopper and Cultivator may be converted into a "harrow sweep," 
which is superior to any sweep in the market.) 

Cultivation of Cotton. 



The picking of cotton should commence just as soon as the hands can be at all 
profitably employed at it — say as soon as forty or fifty pounds to the hand can be 
gathered iu a day. It is of great importance, not only to the success of the work, 
but to the complexion of the staple, to keep well up with this work, so that, as far 
as possible, the cotton may be sound. 

Something might have been said about the topping of cotton, but all that we 
could have done, would have been to put it down as a contingent operation, andi 
doubtful in its effects upon the crops. There are, no doubt, other modes of cultiva- 
tion, which suit particular localities better than the method we have described, but 
it is thought that this method is the one in most general use throughout the Cotton 
States, and it is certain that it is approved by our best cotton planters in all 


This figure is a perspective view : A is a U shaped bar, made of best wrought 
iron, hinged to the cast iron standards, just in rear of the wheels, by means of a 
long bolt which passes through both standards. The axle of the drive wheels has 
its bearings under this bar. These wheels are made of cast iron, twenty inches in 
diameter, with a rim three inches wide. If it is desired to take up the slack of the 
drive chain, the drive wheels may be moved forward on the U shaped bar, but this ■ 
will rarely occur, as the chain must be adjusted slack, so as not to bind the pulleys. 

A large bolt is fixed firmly in the front end of the wooden frame B B, and 
connects it with the U shaped bar and serves to adjust the frame at various eleva- 
tions, thus regulating the depth of the cultivator ploughs, and the sweeps. This 

260 Cultivation of Cotton. 

is the only cultivator, with which we are acquainted, that can be set and held true 
and uniform to any required depth. 

The cultivator ploughs or scraper wings are seen at C C. They are made of 
best plough steel, and are bolted to a projecting plate of the cast iron standard. 
They are made reversible, so that when one side wears out the other can be turned 
down. They may be set nearer together, if it is desired to bar or scrape the cotton 

The wings, as represented in figure one, are used at the first working. Ploughs 
of any other description, however, can be attached to the same standards. One 
extra set only of the pattern is furnished with the chopper. These are recommended 
to be used in place of the scrapers C C, in connection with the chopper, in rough, 
stony land. Ordinarily they are used in combination with the centre sweep, to 
form the right and left sides of the harrow sweep, for cultivation between the rows. 
Between the drive wheels, on their axle, is a pulley, firmly fixed. A chain belt 
connects this pulley with a smaller pulley on the shaft, between the bevel gearing 
G G, in rear. Thus is motion imparted to the vertical rods F F, and the horizontal 
steel chopping-knives are caused to rotate in and out together as the machine 

These knives are set so as to cut with their convex edges, and thus clear them- 
selves at every revolution, and prevent choking or clogging. They rest in a groove 
on the lower side of the cast iron cutter-head. They may be made longer or 
shorter by means of the slotted hole in their head, through which they are bolted 
to the cutter-head. 

When the stand is thin and poor, it is advisable to leave large diamond hills or 
spaces. The knives are then set short. But when the cotton is planted straight, 
and has come up thick and regular, the diamond hills or spaces may be made 
smaller by lengthening the blades. The knives may be raised or lowered by 
means of the sleeve of the cutter-head, which is held fast at any required elevation 
by a lug bolt on its side. The blades should he adjusted so as to pass through 
the ground about a quarter of an inch below the surface. In rear of the blades, 
and on the top side of the flange of the cutter-head, are bolted a pair of hilling 
blades, which throw out the grass and surplus cotton, which has been cut by the 
chopping-knives, and at the same time by their centrifugal force, deposit a sufficient 
quantity of pulverized soil around the hills left .standing, thus dirting them in a 
8up<^rior manner. 

There is a locking attachment on the horizontal bevel gear .shaft which is oper- 
ated by means of a handle at J. When the machine approaches a thin stand, by 
pressing this handle, the knives are stopped under cover of the scraper wings and 
the scraping goes on ; upon relea.?ing the handlo, the knives rotate again, as before. 
This attachment is very simple, strong and reliable. The clevis rod J, to which the 
horse is attached, is adjustable, so that he may walk on either side of the cotton 
row, while the machine runs directly over the young plants — the wheels on either 
side. The chopper weighs about one hundred and sixty pounds, which, being 
mainly supported by wheels, is operated by one horse, with as little effort as the 
lightest cotton plough in use. 

The Raising of Cranberries. 


The above cut shows the machine when used as a harrow sweep. 

The pulleys, drive chain, bevel gear and shaft, vertical rods and knives have 
'been taken off. The scraper wings replaced by the L shaped wings, and a small 
Dickson Sweep has been bolted in rear of, and between the L shaped wings. The 
chopper is thus converted into a harrow sweep, which may be set at any desired 
depth in same manner as when the machine is used as a chopper, and operated 
between the rows. 

The letters patent for this implement are owned by an incorporated company, 
known as " The Diamond Cotton Chopper and Cultivator Company," having its 
principal office at Fayetteville, N. C. The company have made . arrangements to 
have a large number of these machines manufactured for the coming season. — Com. 

The Raising of Cranberries. 

Editor of Rural Carolinian : In December number, p. 158, your correspond- 
ent " Up Country " is anxious to know if cranberries can be profitably cultivated 
in your State or in North Carolina. Cranberries grow as well on our swamp lands 
as in New Jersey. I have seen cranberries grown on the banks of Cashie River, 
a tributary of the Roauoke, which were as fine as any we ever imported from New 
York. In the low and marshy counties of Tyrrell and Washington these grow 
profusely, and may be indigenous. Mr, John G. Wilson of Murfreesboro', has 
attempted the extensive raising of cranberries on Alligator River, (Tyrrell County,) 
with what success I have not learned. A letter of enquiry addressed to him by 
your correspondent, will meet with a prompt response, and elicit all the information 
in the power of that gentleman to give. 

To say that we are pleased with the Rural Carolinian, were simply tame ; we 
are delighted with it. Several other agricultural journals are received at this office, 
but the Rural Carolinian is the universal favorite. Published in that gallant 

262 Why Planters Lose Money. 

State that has suffered so severely in the dread, unequal struggle, whose noble breast 
is still bleeding and battle-scarred, we hardly know how sufficiently to appreciate 
it. When I remember your Calhoun and McDuffie, noble men with whom I once 
associated, Legare, Pettigru, Pressley, Dr. Gregg and others, my old class-mates 
and college friends, I hail with delight your elegant monthly, as giving evidence 
that " there is life in the old land yet." Some of these friends who are yet this 
side the river, may read these lines and sigh as they remember their author. 
What a change has come over us ! Let us, however, look up and hope for the best. 

We are decidedly pleased with your remarks on " bees and practical bee-keeping," 
in your December number. Our people are turning their attention to the cultiva- 
tion of bees, and desire all the information to be had. We are poverty stricken, 
and are, therefore, unable to indulge in fanciful or high priced bee hives that are so 
freely advertised. H. A. King, of Murray street, New York, says his international 
hive is best known. Rev. Langstroth, of Oxford, Ohio, thinks that with the late 
improvements, his is the best. The Agricultural Department, Washington City, 
speaks highly of both ; but which is the best ? Will you tell us before we buv? 

Windsor, N. C. S. J. WHEELER, M. D. 

While there may be room for difference of opinion, as to which of the bee hives 
named is the best, we prefer Langstroth's. We understand that the patent on it 
ha.s expired by limitation so that bee-keepers may now manufacture it without 
royalty. — Ed. 

• Why Planters Lose Money. 

Editor Rural Carolinian : The labor question is a difficult one to solve, and 
many planters have been ruined because they could not overcome that difficulty. 
The practice has been to trust the negro with the cultivation of small tracts of land 
about the size of a one or two horse farm, and to furnisli him with the mule, imple- 
ments and supplies necessary to carry on the cultivation. After the first failure 
planters have been induced by hope and fair promises to give the negro a second 
and sometimes even a third or fourth trial. They have worked themselves poor 
trying to carry on business in this way. Experience and observation have taught 
me that negroes who have been accustomed in former times to work under the lash 
and a driver's eye will idle away their time to-day if left to themselves, while they 
would work very well under the planter's supervision, particularly if he would go 
into the field with them and remain there until they come out. 

The average amount of work bestowed on planting will make about four days to 
the week, at six hours to the day. Now this amount of work will not cultiva'te 
much land, and the weeds and grasses have a good chance of overrunning what- 
ever amount it does cultivate. 

Another mistake is in applying fertilizers to unprepared land. When in spring 
they are put upon land, in which the roots of weeds and grasses have been allowed 
to remain alive all the winter, their essence will be taken up by the weeds and 
grasses before the cotton or corn has had a chance to start. • 

Again, planters try to make two bales of cotton, where they should only try for 
one, thus neglecting every thing else for that purpose. Why not raise corn, wheat, 
oats and a few hogs to take up the wa^te of the fi(!lds, ami then be c()ntent with 
raising the one bale of cotton, wliich would in that ease belong only to them. 
Depend upon it the man who raises all of his family supplies is the thrifty man 
everywhere. ' WILSON. 

Broad River, S. C. 

Can the Fcmner Make his Fertilizers.— Farming in South Florida. 263 

Can the Farmer Make his Fertilizers. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : It being almost impossible to obtain a 
reliable article of fertilizer, particularly guano, I enclose the following formula 
which I find elsewhere, and ask what you think of it as a substitute for guano, 
and 7vhat the wholesale prices are. The difficulty is that we have to pay too much 
freight on the commercial fertilizers, whilst the principal parts of them can be 
purchased nearer home, and the worthless materials used as adulterations can be 
supplied on our premises, thereby making a considerable saving m the way ot 
freights, with the advantages of wholesale prices : Dissolved Bones, 200 lbs.; Land 
Planter 200 lbs. ; Salt, 1 peck ; Earth or Manure, 20 bushels ; hulphate Ammonia, 
60 lbs.; Nifrate Soda, 40 lbs.; Muriate Potash, 20 lbs. Mix the first four ingredi- 
ents well together dissolve the others in hot water, and then mix the whole. Apply 
from 200 to 250 lbs. per acre as other fertilizers are used. Please answer me m the 
next number of the Rural with any additional suggestions or substitutes, and oblige 

Havanna, Ala. W. J. JONEb. 

The combination of ingredients specified will, doubtless, make an excellent fer- 
tilizer. We are unaware of any substitutes or additional suggestions to be made. 
The price of dissolved bones and land plaster could be ascertained from any cotton 
factor, that of the other ingredients from any wholesale druggist. We could give 
Charleston prices, but as prices vary in diflTerent communities, these may not accord 
with the figures in your neighborhood. — Ed. ' 

Farming in South Florida. 

Editor Rural Carolinian : In answer to inquiries in your columns as to 
what can be accomplished in farming in this locality I will give you my experience. 
In the latter part of 1869, I bought for two hundred dollars a small tract of laud, 
containing about four acres of cleared ground, and a few shaky houses. My object 
was to plant a grove of oranges, and to raise other tropical fruits. My family and 
mvself cleared ten more acres, from which we gathered corn, cane, potatoes, peas, 
etc., sufficient to furnish us with bread and fatten our pigs. Since then we have 
done all of our work with our own hands, making a plenty to live on, besides some- 
thing to put upon the shelf We have now about thirty acres of land cleared ; 
halfis planted in orange trees, some of which bloomed last year. Our banana 
patch, about twenty yards square, alone produces enough to supply us with flour. 
We have also a good house, nearly completed. We would not take four thousand 
nine hundred and ninety-nine dollars for our place to-day. Our health, too, has 
been ?ood • we have colds now for the first time since our settlement here. 

Lake Harris, Fla. W. J. McEADDY. 

AVinter in Florida. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian: It is midwinter, and yet, should one 
who were indulging in a " Van Winkle " nap, awake here now, in this mild and 
balmy clime of ours, he would never suspect it ; for he would see more going 
about in their shirt sleeves, tomatoes and bananas blooming and ripening, peaches 
as large as nutmegs, and cotton fields clothed in summer green, having put forth a 
new foliage, even to the tops of the old stalks, which are covered with full grown 
leaves and blossoms. . ttt -nw 

Orlando, Orange Co., Fla., December 25th, 1873. J- M. AULD. 


Plant Your Orvn Com. — A Siibstitute for Peruvian Bark. 
Plant your Own Corn. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : The crops in this section, both corn and 
cotton, have been very good this year. Throughout Richmond and Montgomery 
Counties a vast quantity of corn has been raised, and an average crop of cotton. 
The crops of small grain were short. 

The planting of all cotton and no corn is entirely a mistake. On most of our 
farms there are lands which, not being adapted to cotton, should be planted in corn 
or small grain. The most of our f:irmei"s contend that they can make more money 
by raising cotton. Grant this. But while doing this, they pay four times as much 
for corn as it will cost them to raise it. For instance, take one acre ofJDottom land 
that will make twenty-five bushels per acre ; the cost of preparing and cultivating 
it will not exceed six dollars, which will be at the rate of twenty-four cents per 
bushel for the corn. To buy corn will cost 81.25 per bushel, besides the expense 
of hauling it ten or twelve miles. On good land two horses can make almost as 
much corn in a day as they can haul ten or twelve miles in the same time. Each 
farmer should make as near as possible everything that he consumes. 

Richmond Co., N. C. S. W. BOSTICK. 

A Substitute for Peruvian Bark. 

Editor of the Rural Carolinian : I notice in the September number of the 
Rural Carolinian that you are in want of a substitute for Peruvian bark. We 
have a weed here which grows in thick bunches about a foot high, bearing 
a pretty flower. It is an annual, growing from the seed, coming up early in the 
spring and dying in September. It turns yellow when dying, and at the same time 
a white substance, like quinine, appears in a frost arouud the seeds. We use this 
white substance as quinine, and it apj)ears to have tlie .same effect- The plant 
grows here at the foot of hills on white rocky marl land, where the ground is 
inclined to be wet. It requires no enclosure, as nothing will eat it. I think it will 
prove an ornamental plant for flower gardens. I send you a package of seed, 
thinking its culture may prove profitable. 

p-qyt Creek P. 0-, Bandoria Co., Texas. SILAS C. SHIRLEY. 

We have received the seed, and will have a portion of it subjected to chemical 
testa to ascertain its nature. The other portion we will plant so as to ascertain the 
adaptability of the plant to our soil and climate. — Ed. 

Inquiries and Answers. 

H. L. Benbow, Wright's Bluff, S. C 1. It will re(iuire from eight to ten bushels 
of onion sets to the acre, according to the size of the seta. 2. The price of sets 
varies from ten to twelve dollars per bushel ; the white onions being higher priced 
than the yellow. They may be procured in moderate (piantilies from any seedsman 
in Charleston. 3. Stable manure or bone phosphate would be best for the soil you 
specify. If the latter is used apply broad-cast from sixteen hundred to two thou- 
sand potmds to the acre, and plough in lightly from two to three inches. Of the 
former, fifty to sixty two-horse loads are required to the acre, laid out in the fall and 

General Notices and Acknowledgments. 265 

ploughed in five to six inches deep, followed in the spring with another ploughing 
of the same depth, and a light subsoiling, after which the ground should be 
thoroughly harrowed, and smoothed over with a roller. 4. The sets should be 
planted as early in spring as possible, but it is generally better to plant them in the 
fall, as they will grow throughout the winter. 5. The yellow Danvers and the 
large red are probably the best varieties for marketing purposes. A pamphlet on 
" Onion Culture," advertised in Walker, Evans & Cogswell's list of agricultural 
books, in the January number of the Rural Carolinian, will prove useful to 

S. J. W. says a neighbor of his has a pasture of common crab-grass, 

which, like red clover, salivates horses grazing on it, and he desires to know 
whether the grass has any property to create ptyalism, and if so, how can it be 
neutralized ; also, whether mercurials will affect the salivary glands of horses as 
those of man. Can any one answer him ? 

J. F. S. The wild pea sent by you, duly received. There are a great 

many species of Avild pea. We cannot tell whether these are the kind alluded to by 
our correspondent or not. We will plant them and may be able to judge whether 
they are of any value or not. A small quantity of Japan peas can be supplied at 
twenty-five cents per package. 

A. T. McI. Probably your unleached ashes would pay best under corn ; 

ten bushels per acre would be a suitable quantity to apply, though a larger quantity 
would do no harm. Any commercial fertilizer may be applied at the same time, from 
two to three hundred pounds per acre, the whole to be immediately covered with 
the soil. 

J. C. M., of Columbia, who plants cotton on a red clay soil, complains 

that the stalks turn yellow about the blossoming stage, while the blooms mould and 
drop off about the fifth day after their appearance. It may be that his land needs 
subsoil draining. Can any experienced farmer solve the problem for him ? 

General Notices and Ackno^vledgnlents. 

Moore's Rural New Yorker, for 1874, promises to be better than ever before 
This sterling journal has been published weekly for over twenty years, and has 
long been a standard authority on farm, garden, and household topics, besides 
being an admirable literary publication. It will be found useful to Southern as 
well as Northern farmers. 

If "Mrs. Cornelia Blimber"will send her address to the publishers of the 
Rural Carolinian, (not for publication,) she will hear something to her 
advantage. We take this occasion to add that the " George Augustus " articles 
are highly appreciated by us, as well as by our readers, and we hope we shall hear 
often from their fair author. 

^ m. 


Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


Judge not. Thy lines may fall in pleasant 

Haply thou hast a goodly heritage ; 
Who, safely sheltered, looks on loving faces, 

Knows little of the storms that fiercely rage, 
Sees not the trials of the lonely-hearted, 

Who struggles with the tempter, yields and 
Notes sin triumphant, purity departed, 

But does not hear the siren's sweet, low calls. 

Judge not the fault that binds thy fallen 
His sore temptation thou mayst never know ; 
This fault besets thee not, but many another 
Deep-rooted in thy heart doth live and 
The vilest life, sin, crime, and lust obeying. 
But for God's grace, perchance, had been 
thine own. 
Judge not, but listen to His clear voice saying : 
" Let him that hath not sinned first cast a 

Have charity for erring man or woman ; 

Oh, give thy hand to raise the fallen up ; 
We all are frail — we know to err is human ; 

These have but deeper drank sin's common 
Have charity for self. Thy burden olden . 

Of vain regrets castofl'; His grace implore. 
And be at peace, for hear his accents golden : 

"Neither do I condemn. Go, sin no more !" 
Sabah G. Dudley. 


Some wise man — I forget who — has called 
a boarding-house a little world, made up, 
like the great world, of odds and ends, where 
you may find a genius at your right hand and 
a fool at your left — My left-hand neighbor, 
in the case I am recalling, was not a fool, but 
a Frenchman ; and my right — well, my right- 
hand neighbor was something more perplex- 
ing, more interesting than a genius, for it was 
— a woman. 

I am an engineer by profession, and had 

been sent to L , to superintend the laying 

of a new line of rail. It was my first dinner 
in Mrs. Apthwaite's boarding-house, and I 
looked with a stranger's curiosity down the 
long table at the double row of faces, no one 
of which I had seen before that day. One 
seat only, just at my right, was vacant, but 
the knife and fork laid about the napkin in- 
dicated that its owner was expected to take 

"Miss Knowles is late again to-day," re- 
marked a young man opposite. " Those tire- 
some little animals keep her out of all con- 

My mental wonder as to whether the lady 
could be connected with a menagerie was an- 
swered by Mr. Deblay, the Frenchman at my 

" My faith !" he exclaimed, " I astonish 
myself that a lady such as cette belle Mad- 
emoiselle Noailles is not before this restricted 
to one scholar — life-long, bien entendu !" he 
added, diverting his soup spoon from its 
legitimate use to kiss it with a flourish. 

" Why don't you try her with the proposal, 
Deblay? She seems to smile more on you," 
said, with a just perceptible sneer, a man next 
to the first speaker. 

" Oh, mon Dieu !" cried Deblay, " she 
smiles, yes ; but a smile as bright and cold as 
sunshine on an iceberg. Ah, it is a bad coun- 
sel you make your friends, M. Vebstere !" 

"That's because he likes to see 'em in the 
same fix as himself, eh, Webster ?" slyly said 
the young man who had spoken about " little 

The remark evidently contained a meaning 
unwelcome to Mr. Webster. His black eye- 
brows came closer together, and his heavy 
mustache gave an impatient jerk, as he said, 
hastily, " Much obliged, I'm sure, but I'm 
not over anxious for smiles from nobody 
knows who — " 

"Gentlemen, gentlemen, I call you to or- 
der," said a stout man farther down who had 
pushed aside his soup plate and was busy mix- 
ing a dish of salad. "'Of the dead and ab- 
sent ' — you know the old proverb." 

Just then the door opened, and a woman 
entered. I own my curiosity was roused by 
the preceding conversation, and I followed her 
with my eyes as she walked nearly the length 
of the long table to the vacant seat; but, 
owing to the light, I could distinguish hardly 
anything more than that her movements and 
the outlines of her figure were unusually 
graceful As she reached my side I rose and 
drew back her chair, for which little attention 
she thanked me with that sarne cold smile 
— as I could now perceive — of which the 
young Frenchman had spoken, and his simile 
seemed to me one less fanciful than at first. 

It is my theory that a first-rate engineer 
must have something of the artist in him. 
Now, I may say, without undue vanity, that I 
was a first-rate engineer, and I suppose it was 
this artistic something which was so strongly 
impressed by the sort of harmony in the 
voice, gesture, and whole presence of the 
woman beside me. My curiosity had changed 



The Rural Carolinian. 

at once into interest: least about my mind 
how to make her more aware of my existence 
than she had as yet the air of being. 

"There does not appear to beany master 
of the ceremonies here," I began, "so we 
must introduce ourselves — since we are to be 
neighbors. Permit me to present myself as 
George Denvers, an engineer, and very much 
at your service professionally or otherwise," 
I blundered on, not very well knowing what 
I was saying, for she had turned her eyes full 
on me, and they made me lose my head a 
little.— "And you?" 

" Miss Knowles, a drawing-teacher," she 
answered, not exactly shortly, but briefly. 
But I would not take the hint. I wanted to 
make her look at me again. I took up the 
glass of water before me. 

'• This is rather a cold element for pledge- 
offering. Miss Knowles," I said, " but at least 
it is a pure one. Suppose we drink to neigh- 
borhood and friendship." 

I had succeeded. She did look at me again, 
her eyes resting on my face with an indescrib- 
able expression. 

" You are a bold man, Mr. Denver.s," she 
said finally, " to offer that pledge to an utter 
stranger. Why, I might be — anything ? a 
thief or murderer, for what you know!" 

" Oh, pray allow me more skill in phy- 
siognomy," said I, thinking the while how 
ofiilly her words chimed in with those of 
Webster a minute ago. 

" You believe in physiognomy? So do I," 
she said quickly ; then, as if repenting of even 
that slight impulsiveness, she resumed the old 
tone: "Still, suppose after all I were to turn 
out a desperate character — what would you 
say then?" 

" I should say, with one of our New York 
judges, that there must have been 'attenuating 
circumstances,'" I replied, laughing. 

She smiled, and reached out her hand to 
a glass : " Very well, ' to neighborhood and 
friendship ' then, since you choose to run the 

This little dialogue had been carried on 
thus far under cover of a rather noisy dis- 
cussion opposite, but here some one sjjoke to 
Miss Knowles, and I was obliged to content 
myself with observing her. I did not find it 
tiresome occupation. Slie was a very hand- 
some woman — for, though unmarried and 
evidently young, no one would have thought 
of calling Miss Knowles a girl,— and there 
was much more than beauty in her face ; there 
was a moaning in every line, a meaning 
which suggested that hers had been no ordi- 
nary or easy life. JJut though a set face, it 
was not a hard one, and attracted in spite of 

" Miss Knowles, I think it is too unkind !" 
said till' jjcrsfui who had interrupted us, one 
of the prettiist little school-girls I ever saw, 
leaning forward from our aide of the table. 

" You haven't spoken a word to me yet. I 
do believe vou've forgotton that we're enga- 
ged !" 

" By Jove ! Knowles is to be envied !" 
It was Webster who said this, and the marked 
way in which he said it made the speech a 
rude one. Deblay perhaps thought so, for he 
.said instantly : 

" Oh, mon Dieu ! yes, Mees Noailles and 
Mees Morrell are to be envied and blamed 
alike, both the two! It is cruel of your sex to 
monopolize itself against us miserables, you 
hear. Mademoiselle Morrell ?" 

If one had fancied Miss Knowles' face hard, 
he would have changed his mind in watching 
the smile with which she answered the laugh- 
ing young girl, a smile out of which the ice 
had melted and left pure sunlight. 

" No, I've not forgotten, Rosa," she said ; 
" but you know of old I never kiss and tell." 

It was a peculiarity *of this woman's — as I 
had occasion later repeatedly to observe — that, 
whatever .she said or did, she could not help 
being remarkable, so much her personality 
made itself felt in everything. She made 
that quotation from the common little song 
just as anybody might have done, carelessly 
and manifestly without a thought of effect, 
yet I do not believe there was a man at the 
table who heard it from her lips quite un- 
moved. Even Webster lifted his eyes to her 
with a kind of sullen admiration, a tribute 
which he was as unwilling to give as she was 
to receive, but which was forced from him 
against his will. 

My pledge of friendship, I am constrained 
to admit, did not advance me as I could have 
wished with Miss Knowles. A certain degree 
of progress she allowed me to make, but never 
one step beyond. Oddly enough, it was a 
kind of disagreement which servetl me most, 
and which came about in this way : One 
evening I had been reading to her, and liad 
just closed the book as twilight came on, wlien 
my attention was attracted by a newly mar- 
ried pair in the balcony opposite, who, re- 
gardless of the double row of houses, were 
indulging in some of those demonstrations 
])fculiar to the honeymoon. It would only 
have amused me, as usual, but for the effect 
it hail on Miss Knowles. I shall never forget 
her look nor her tone — the mixture of pity, 
contempt and something that was almost like 
envy, as she saiil under her breath — "She 
thinks it will last! — poor little fool!" In- 
voluntarily a (|uotation from the volume we 
ha<l been reading together came to my lips : 
"I too have been in Arcadia!" I should 
hardly have known th;it I had sj)oken aloud, 
but for the way in which she turned on me. 

"What suggested that to you?" she said 
imperiously. " Tell me, I insist !" 

"The expression of your face just now," 
I answered smiling. There was a whole 
romance in it." 

Literature, Science and Home Interests. 


" Indeed !" she rejoined, with a deliberate 
emphasi.s contrasting witli her former abrupt- 
ness, " tliat must be an agreeable pastime, tid- 
ing to surprise faces off' their guard ! Perhaps 
you are going to favor me with other revela- 
tions gained in the same way ?" 

Aside from the sudden, most unwelcome 
conviction that I had indeed chanced on some 
jarring cliord in the past, I was so taken aback 
by her cold and cutting manner of speaking 
as to be literally without words to reply. I 
could only look'at her, but she understood my 
look, I suppose, for the next moment she said, 
in a very different tone : " I beg your pardon, 
sincerely, Mr. Denvers, you have a right to 
your thoughts, and it was I who forced you to 
explain them. Only" — and she gave a forced 
smile, " take my advice, don't waste your time 
in studying my face ; the romances you might 
read there would not be good for much in any 
sense. And now, forgive me!" And she 
reached out her hand to me. I took it and 
held it a moment while our eyes met. What 
she read in mine I don't know, but whatever 
it was, it did not appear to please her, for she 
drew her hand away quickly with a slight 
frown. Still, as I said, after this, though she 
did not admit me to any more real intimacy, 
her manner was less formal and more friendly. 

Meantime, while I was, as I hoped, making 
progress in her good graces, events were 
Avorking to bring to tlie surface the latent feud 
between her and Mr. Webster. That amiable 
gentleman had taken to devoting himself 
somewhat demonstratively to Miss Rosa Mor- 
rell, to the discomfiture of M. Eugene Deb- 
lay, but not of Miss Rosa herself, who, like 
most school-girls, was an arrant little flirt, 
and had not the slightest objection to any 
number of strings to her bow. So she did not 
check Webster's rather pronounced felicita- 
tions on the occasion of her sixteenth birth- 
day, but replied with a look at once shy and 
saucy, and quite enough to turn any head not 
turned already, as she went off" laughing to 
school. Miss Knowles looked after with a kind 
of wistful tenderness. 

" Sixteen to-day!'' said she. "What must 
it seem like to be sixteen, I wonder!" 

" One would think, to hear you, there were a 
hundred years between you !" said I, laughing. 

"I am twenty-two," she said, gravely. 

" Only six years, then !" 

"Only six years!" she echoed — "only six 
ages ! That child is just beginning life, and 
I— !" 

"And you — ?" I repeated, as she paused, 
lost in thought, apparently. 

" I — must be going to my scholars," she 
rejoined, with a quick look, half-suspicious, 
half-mischievous, at me, as she started up. 

"Tiresome little animals, as Mr. Thome 
rightly called them," said I, rising too. An 
we entered the hall, the street door was just 
closing on Webster. 

"Will that be a match, do you think ?" I 
asked, the sight of him reminding me of the 

" Good heavens !" exclaimed Miss Knowles, 
stopping short and gazing anxiously in my 
face — "Rosa — Miss Morrell and Mr. Webster 
do you mean ? Do you see any real reason for 
asking such a question?" 

"Only human nature in general, and — if 
you will excuse my saying so of your little 
friend — Miss Morrell's nature in particular. 
I don't think if I were in Webster's place, I 
should despair." 

"Rosa is thoughtless, but I cannot be- 
lieve — " she did not finish her sentence, but 
with knit brows walked off, declining, as she 
invariably did, my company on the way. 

That same evening, as I was smoking at my 
window, I heard Miss Knowles' voice from 
the next room, Miss Morrell's. She had 
apparently just approached the window, 
which must have been open, for I heard every 
word distinctly. 

" No, Rosa, I certainly do not like him. I 
distrust his face ; it is cruel and cowardly. If 
the choice were really between the two, I 
should say a thousand times sooner Mr. De- 
blay than Mr. Webster, for at least — " 

But when it came to names, I thought it 
time to make some signs of existence. I 
gave a slight cough ; the window was instant- 
ly closed and I heard no more. 

It appeared, however, that I had not been 
the only uninvited listener to this fragment- 
ary scene. The next minute Webster came 
out the farthest corner of the balcony, where 
he had been sitting, too deep in shadow to be 
perceived until he moved. His face, as it 
came into the light, wore an expression that 
certainly justified Miss Knowles' opinion. 

'' So that's her little game !" he muttered. 
" But if I don't manage to get the odd trick of 

her, by " and with an oath he brought down 

his hand on the railing as he disappeared. 

I hesitated at first if I ought not to put 
Miss Knowles on her guard, by informing her 
of what had passed. But I felt ashamed to 
disquiet her, no doubt needlessly, by repeat- 
ing that vague sort of bluster, and as, for the 
next few days, Webster seemed quieter than 
usual, I ended by myself forgetting his words. 

But somewhat more than a week later, hia 
manner suddenly changed. It was one morn- 
ing that he had a friend with him, whom he 
had brought home the night before and kept 
to breakfast. This fellow, Mosely I think 
was his name, was one of Webster's own sort, 
and the two were in oppressively high spirits, 
Webster, in particular, making a great num- 
ber of small jokes, pointles.s, as it struck me, 
but which appeared to afford him much satis- 
faction, and which he accompanied, as I fan- 
cied, by sly glances at Miss Knowles for 
which I should have been delighted to fling 
the contents of my coflfee-cup in his face. 


The Rural Carolinian. 

Toward? the ejul of the meal, Mosely re- 
minded Webster of some letter wliich the lat- 
ter was to show him. Webster took out his 
pocket-book, and began turning over the pa- 
pers inside. 

" Thi.s it, Gus ?" said Mosely, taking hold 
of the nearest, a square white envelope direct- 
ed in wliut looked, so far as I could see across 
tlie table, a very peculiar hand. But Webster 
drew it back hastily. 

" iS'o that's a private letter," he answered, 
and this time I could not mi.«take that he 
gave one of those odd looks across at Miss 
Knowles, " a very peculiarly private letter, 
tliat I wouldn't let out of my hands for a 
double X." 

" Well, you needn't be afraid of any mak- 
ing a bid for it," replied Mosely; "I've use 
enough for my double X's without buying up 
old paper. Now, then ! have vou found the 
riglit thing tiiis time, or shall I call again 
next Christmas ?" 

Webster, it appeared, had found the right 
thing, and tiie two witty gentlemen presently 
deprived us of their company. 

"I don't remember ever to have seen Mr. 
Webster in sucii an agreeable flow of spirits," 
said 1 to Miss Knowles, who, with myself, 
happened to be the last left at table, " I won- 
der what it betokens?" 

"No good to somebody," answered Miss 
Knowles contemptuously, the first word she 
had ever said to me against Webster. I was 
about to reply, when my foot touched some- 
thing under the table, and stooping down I 
picked up a paper. 

"Mr. Webster has dropped one of his let- 
ters — the 'peculiarly private' one, perhaps," 
1 said, laughing, and, turning it over, recog- 
nized, in fact, the marked hand-writing. At 
the same moment Miss Knowles' eyes fell on 
the superscription, and lier face grew white to 
the very lips. 

"My God! can it be — !" she gasped. — 
" Give it to me — the letter — the letter — " im- 
I)atiently, asl looked at her in bewilderment. 
1 gave it to her, she tore it open, cast one 
glance at the signature, and then her hand as 
if palsied let the crushed paper fall, and she 
sat staring straight before her with a look of 
such blank despair as I hope never to see 
again in any human face 

" What is the writer of that letter to you ?" 
I cried, with a pang of keen, though undefined 

" He was— he is — my husliand," slie said 
slowly, !iH if every word was a weight dragged 
from iier. Tlien, with a sudden, feverish 
haste. " You <li<l not expect to tin<l me an 
impostor! But rememl)cr, 1 warned ynu ! -Ah, 
you are silent! You would not drink that 
pledge to friendship now?" 

"Not to friendship," 1 broke in, roused out 
of my stupor, "but to love! Why siiould a 
man you hate stand between you and — " 

" Stop, Mr. Denvers," she interposed 
gravely, " stop, before you speak any word to 
destroy the single pleasant memory of all my 
later years. Do 1 look like a woman," she 
continued, lifting her head, proudly, " to 
sacrifice honor to happiness ? Have I ever 
given you a glance or tone that could let you 
think that?" 

"No," said, I bitterly, "you have been 
prudence itself! It is so easy to be prudent, 
when one is cold ; so to say — Go, for I 
do not love you !" 

There was a moment's silence ; and then a 
voice, her voice, but as I had never heard it 
yet, spoke my name ; " George," it said, softly, 
•' I do not say — Go, for I do not love you ! 
but, Go, because I love you ! Hush ! You know 
me well enough to know that means good-by 
forever ; — not one word more, if you would 
have me believe you worthy of my confession." 

She had known how to use an appeal im- 
po.ssible to resist. I set my teeth to keep back 
the struggling words, while she continued, 
" I count on you to help instead of hindering 
me. I feel too stunned, too bewildered to 
think clearly." She took up the letter again, 
and looked at it as if some sort of conflict were 
going on in her mind. " Nonsense !" she 
said, finally, with a bitter smile ; "such deli- 
cate scruples are misplaced between husband 
and wife ! I will respect your confidence as 
you would respect mine, James Huntley." 
And with that she opened the letter again and 
read it through deliberately. 

" I have no time to loose," she cried, when 
it was finished. "That man, Webster, has 
somehow discovered my secret, and betrayed 
it to — to him " — striking the paper. " He 
will follow his letter, he writes, at once — why, 
good God ! he may be here, then, at any time — 
this very day ! No, I have not an instant to 
spare.'' She stood up, and holding out both 
her hands, looked long and earnestly in my 
face. "CjOod-by,\Jeorge," she said; "wherever 
and whatever my life may be, it will be tlie 
brighter for the memory of you. God bless 
you, and gcjod-by forever !" 

" Not quite yet," I pleaded. " You will 
let me have one look, one word, at the very 
last — I must, 1 will !" 

She hesitated ; my face, perhap.s, warned 
her not to tax submission too far. " You will 
promise me, then, to make no attempt to 
change my resolution, or to keep any hold on 
me? for Heaven, that knows all I have borne, 
and all I could not bear, in the old life, 
Heaven is my witness, that 1 would return to it 
so(jner than — I have your word, then ?" 

" You have my word," I answered, perceiv- 
ing by the determination in her features, that 
any hesitation would be worse than useless. 

"Come again in an hour, then, and you will 
find me ready. My preparations, like my 
friends, are few," she said with another of those 
bitter smiles ; and with that we separated. 

LitercUure, Science and Home Interests. 


I walked through the streets like one in a 
dream, seeing nothing before me, nothing but 
what I had left behind — the woman I loved 
passionately, and in one little hour's time was 
to lose forever. But, with all the passion 
and will that was in me, I vowed that I would 
not lose her thus. I would fulfil the letter 
of my promise to her. I would not seek, by 
word or act, to sway her from her conscience ; 
but I would keep myself informed of her 
movements, and contrive, somehow, sooner or 
later, to be near her ; I would wait for her 
till death, if need were ; but let her pass 
wholly and forever out of my life, I neither 
could nor would. 

On reaching the railway station, even my 
preoccupation became aware of some unusual 
excitement. I joined a knot of eager talkers, 
and learned that there had been an accident to 
a passenger on one of the eastern trains just 
in. The stranger, who, according to the 
general testimony, had appeared to be in a 
singular hurry and excitement, and jumped 
off the train Jbefore it was fairly stationary — 
had somehow slipped and fallen, and — had 
been taken up for dead. 

I made my way to where the body was 
lying. It was that of a man some thirty years 
of age, evidently belonging to the wealthier 
classes. The face, whicli was not disfigured, 
was handsome, in spite of the traces of passion 
and dissipation. He Avas quite dead; they 
had given up attempting to restore him, and 
were searching the body for identification. 
One of them, as I approached, had just opened 
a pocket-book filled with papers and marked 
inside with a name. I read the name over 
his shoulder. It was James Huntley ! 

Strange chapter in the strange romance 
interwoven with my life ! This man's death, 
so sudden, so little to be looked for, had come 
to cut the knot of all the doubts, the 
difficulties, tiie despair which else might have 
enveloped the whole future of two lives. It 
seemed to me, that if ever I saw the finger of 
Destiny in any human event, I saw it there. 

I waited only long enough to make sure 
that there was no mistake, and then I hurried 
back to Miss Kno^les — to Miss Knowles ? — 
that is, to Mrs. Huntley. Yes, for the first 
time, I realized that it was a husband's dread- 
ful death that I was hastening to communicate 
to his newly made widow, and I shrunk from 
my task. 

I knocked gently at her door. She opened 
it, and seeing me, looked at me for the first 
moment in silent surprise ; then, putting the 
natural interpretation of her own absorbing 
thought on my return, so much before the 
time set, she cried out " I am too late, then, 
after all ? He is here already ?" 

" You have nothing more to fear from him," 
I said gravely, trying to break the shock to 
her by degrees. But she did not understand. 

" Nothing to fear, do you mean, from — 

from my husband?" she said slowly, with a 
perplexed look in my face. 

" You have nothing more to fear from the 
man who was your husband," I repeated dis- 
tinctly. This time she caught n)y meaning. 
She grew white, and her lips trembled so that 
she could scarcely articulate the words, " Tell 
me — " 

I gave her the briefest and most softened 
outline possible of what had happened. She 
stood like a stone, only her face showed that 
she heard. I never saw in any human coun- 
tenance such an expression as that in hers 
while she listened — pity, relief, awe, all 
struggling together. Then she moved her 
lips, but I heard nothing; suddenly she 
dropped to the floor and buried her face in 
the sofa-cushions, while a voice I should not 
have known for hers, said : " Go — leave me 
alone !" 

I had no words for such emotions as hers 
in that moment; I could only obey her in 

As I walked away, my mind going over all 
that had occurred, I could not help recalling 
the old saying, that man proposes and God 
disposes. This scheme of Webster's, laid witli 
such malice and treachery — we had reason 
afterward to think that he had had access 
to her writing-desk, and so discovered her 
secret — this plot, I say, on which he had 
counted to crush her utterly, had been the 
instrument, in the hands of a mysterious 
Providence, of working her deliverance ; 
working it after a terible manner, it is true, 
but not the less freeing her future from its life- 
long shadow. 

I pass by all the history of those sad days, 
days of sadnes?! if not of mourning — the months 
of seclusion and waiting — to a time when I 
could claim her for my own before the eyes of 
the world, and call my neighbor, my friend, 
by the dearest name of wife. 

" Eleanor," I said to her on our wedding- 
day, asking the inevitable question whicli 
I suppose every lover since Adam's time has 
asked, " tell me, when did you begin to care 
for me." 

"George," she answered,, looking at me 
with the sunshiny smile in which there was 
never any ice now, " do you remember my 
saying, the day we met, that I was a believer 
in physiognomy ? 1 think the mischief was 
done when you looked at me with your gene- 
rous, honest eyes, and oflered me that rash 
pledge of friendship; but I did not know it 
then/' she added more gravely, " or I should 
hav*run away from you." 

''And you dare to tell me so?" I said, 
assuming a jesting tone, for I didn't want 
those old troubles to cloud her face. '" Don't 
you know that is high treason now? From 
this time forth you are to consider your.self as 
having no past, nothing but a present. The 
tyrant has spoken ? Do you mean to obey ?" 


The Rural Carolinian. 

" I obey, George," she said, her lovely 
dark eyes looking earnestly into mine ; " and 
I thank Heaven for giving me a present that 
makes obedience easy." 

I took the soft, white hand that was so near 
mine and — but go back to your own honey- 
moon for the rest; for to use my wife's quota- 
tion, "I never kiss and tell." — The Aldine. 


Somebody wants to know how George Au- 
gustus is behaving now ! Well, he is just 
going on in the same old track; certainly not 
any better, and he is getting distressingly 
stout. It is so aggravating! I really do not 
think the condition of our family affairs war- 
rants George Augustus' getting so stout ! But 
nothing stops him. If ever I get married 
again, (of which there is not the slightest 
chance, as I think George Augustus will live 
to be a hundred,) but if ever I do, I am not 
going to marry for "better or worse." It 
shall only be for "better." I'll be married 
by the Methodist minister, and I'll make him 
leave out the ''worser" part. Two"worser3" 
would be too much for me. 

George Augustus has been very much exer- 
cised lately about the panic, banks breaking, 
etc. He expounds to me twice a day his 
ideas on the subject, and just before dinner 
becomes so gloomy, and prophesies such ter- 
rible evils to the country, that it quite takes 
away my appetite. Erery time I go down 
town, I see George Augustus at the corners of 
the streets, talking with two or three others 
about "the bank." At least, he says it's 
about the bank. I doubt it myself! I think 
it is gossip. Men are just as fond of gossip as 
they say women are, only they are more quiet 
about it ; and you may be sure, wlien you see 
a knot of them talking at a street corner, 
somebody or something is being pulled to 
pieces. I really don't see why he should be 
exercised about llie l)ank. He's got no money 
in it, that I know of; in that, or in anything 
else, nKjre's the pity. It would be some com- 
fort to think that one did once have money, 
if you haven't it now. I believe in that old 
verse with a slight alteration : 

" It is better to have hnd and lo.'t, 
Than never to have had at all. 

It doesn't worry mc at all, the banks break- 
ing. / have got nuj winter hat! 

But I have one gre.-it piece of news. George 
Augustus has had a client at last. Such a 
thing has never happened before in the annals 
of our household. 1 tell you, we mailAnuch 
of that client. We invited him to dinner, we 
petted him, we did everything that man could 
do. I think (n-orge .\ugustus would even 
have sung on the guitar for him, but I dis- 
couraged the idea; 1 feared for the result. 
George .\ugustu8 gained the cause. He tried 
to explain it to me, what tiie really was. 

Something or other about some money. I 
gave him my ideas. I said : " George Augus- 
tus, if I were the Judge, I should commit both 
your client and yourself to the penitentiary! 
Him for doing wrong, and you for defending 
him !" George Augustus put on a very dig- 
nified air, and said : " My dear, women know 
nothing at all about business." With which 
magnificent reply, he stalked grandly away, 
having quashed me, as he probably thought. 
Right or wrong, however, that client was a 
great blessing to us, for we have been living 
off' his case ever since. I am beginning to 
look with anxious eyes for another one now. 
If he don't come soon, I don't know what 
we'll do. You needn't be surprised some day 
to see George Augustus and myself perambu- 
lating the streets with a grind organ and 
monkey, for I expect to come to it. 

I have a great mind to put George Augus- 
tus in the kitchen, and turn lawyer my.self ; I 
am sure it would be easier than cooking. 
Rebekah, in the Bible, said she was wean' of 
her life, because of the daughters of Ileth ! 
I'm weary of mine, because of the daughters 
of Hnm ! I can't get any to cook for me. 
My cook has stopped because she needed 
" change of air." I said to George Augustus 
that when I needed change of air, I w'alked 
down town ; but when my cook needed 
change of air, s^hc took a trip off somewhere. 
He smiled grimly, and said it was a '■ dog- 
gone" state of things. Please, Mr. Editor, 
what does that mean ? It is a favorite word 
of George Augustus. Please, if it's anything 
wrong, scratch it out; you know, I don't know ! 

Well, I joined the Grange the other day. 
It is very nice and jolly. Now I feel that I 
have begun to live at last. I believe that we 
shall yet save the country They taught me 
ever so many signs, and passwords, and hand- 
grips, but I give you my word, I don't remem- 
ber one of 'em to-day. I was elected Pomo — 
Oil! I forgot, I ought not to tell any tiling 
about it! I'm afraid I tell a good many 
tilings, for every now and then, when I am 
talking, (ieorge Augustus looks at me with 
an awful frown, and says, "Cornelia !" Then 
I know I've told some solemn secret that I'd 
sworn never to reveal. (Jeorge Augustus 
made a very interesting and able epeeoh the 
day I joined, on the Uses of Agriculture. I 
felt so proud to think that was my husband 
speaking ; but I thought it a curious coinci- 
dence that after 1 came home, I was looking 
over an agricultural journal, and I came 
across an article wliicli had all of George 
Augustus' ideas, almost to the very words. 
The question that has puzzled me since then 
is this : " Did that journal get I'^'t ideas from 
George Augustus' speech ? or did (n-orge Au- 
gustus get Am ideas from that journal '/" 

There was one thing that artl'(t<'d me al- 
most to tears, for it showed me how dauntless 
is the spirit of our Southern men, notwith- 

Literature, Science onid Home Intereds. 



standing all their cares and troubles. It was 
the way in whicli they — George Augustus 
leading the van — attacked the Grange dinner ! 
I may say there was hardly a bone left. It is 
beautiful to see such ardor in anything. 

We — not George Augustus and I — but the 
Grange, are going to buy the State Fair. 
When we get it, it will be better than this 
last one, for, between the refusal to let us 
ladies liave our innocent little bazaar and 
the predoniinence of the horse racing element, 
I think it all went wrong. And another 
thing, I'm not going to send anything more 
to the fair if I am to have hnitting needles 
given me as a premium. AVhat on earth do 
I want with them ! George Augustus is also 
much disgusted, for he sent chickens to ex- 
hibit, and they gave him a serviette ring ! 
Never mind, "we" are going to change all 

George Augustus has been going down so 
often to the "Lodge" lately on important 
business. I think those " Lodge " men must 
be such liberal, public-spirited people ; for 
during the epidemic at Memphis and Slireve- 
port they used to hold almost nightly meet- 
ings to " devise means of aiding the sufier- 
ers." I should think they must almost have 
impoverished themselves. George Augustus 
'always used to come home in such high 
" spirits," too, singing 

" We won't go home 'till morning," etc. 

Hereafter I don't intend to let him go any- 
where unless I go with him. 

Cornelia Blimber. 


II. — king's mountain military school, 


In furtherance of our purpose, as expressed 
in the preceding number, to present to our 
readers a series of articles on the educational 
institutions of the Cotton States, we will now 
give a brief sketch of the King's Mountain 
Military School, at Yorkville, S. C, showing 
its origin and objects, also its past record and 
future aims. 

For the facts concerning the origin and past 
record of the school, we are indebted to a 
historical sketch of the Institution, written by 
Major Hart, when editor of the Yorkville 
Enquirer, and published in that paper in the 
summer of 1868. 

In the year 18-54, two young men of high 
promise and energy, just before their gradua- 
tion at the South Carolina Military Academy, 
in Charleston, simultaneously conceived the 
idea of establishing a preparatory school for 
boys; the object of which should be to fit 
them, in some measure, in advance, for the 
rigid course of study and discipline required 
in the State Military School. These two 

No. 5, Vol. 5. 20 

young men were Micah Jenkins and Asbury 
Coward. Being members of the same class, 
by some means they became informed as to