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Full text of "The rural economy of Yorkshire. Comprising the management of landed estates, and the present practice of husbandry in the agricultural districts of that county"

®tj* 1. 3B. BUI ©brarg 

Nnrtlj OJarolttta Stat? 




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Hr 



RURAL ECONOMY 



O F 



YORKSHIRE. 



vol. n. 






<—- T-ff^ — 

RURAL ECONOMY 

Henry C. T 
O F 

YORKSHIRE, 

COMPRIZING TH£ 

Management of Landed Eftates, 

AND THE 

PRESENT PRACTICE of HUSBANDRY 

IN THE 

AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTS 

OF THAT COUNTY. 



By Mr. MARSHALL, 



THE SECOND EDITION, 



V O L. II. 



LONDON: 

printed Tor G. Ni col, Bookfeller to His Majefty, Pall Mall ; 

G. G.and J. Robinson, Paiernofter Row; 

and J. Debrett, Piccadilly. 



M,DCC,XCVI. 



' (i? 



ANALYTIC TABLE 

O F 

CONTENTS 

OF THE 

SECOND VOLUME. 



Sict. XV\ Wheat and its Management, i. 

Introdu&ory Remarks, 
I. Species, 2. 

1. The Varieties of Winter Wheats, in 

Cultivation, here, 3. 

2. Spring Wheat has been tried, 4. 

The proper Time of fowing it. 
II. Raifing Varieties, 4. 

Conjectures on the Origin of the 

prefent Varieties. 
The Gardener's Method of Seleftion. 
Inftance of ? a new Variety being 

raifed, 6. 
The Method, in this Cafe, regiftered. 
General Remarks on Raiiingand 

Improving Varieties of Grain, 8. 
III. Preparing Seed Wheat, 10. 

Formerly Brine and Lime were ufed. 
Now a Preparation of Arsenic is 

in Ufe. 
The Mode of Preparation with Arfe- 

nic defcribed, 1 1 . 
The Expence of this Mode of Pre- 
paration, 13. 
JV, On the Mildew or Blight. 
Meflin not liable to it. 
Rye believed to be a Preventive. 

V«i. IL a Ssct, 



Co V TZ 11 

% 14. 
F : r: 

Lame* 
Srf: ; 15. 

■ 

Sect. XVIII. Oats and t ogement, [7. 

7 ::e. 

1 . : _ - 

: I r jracland Oz-.i ■. 1 vabubk Sort. 

19. 

". . _ - . . 

:o. 

rd. 

Defciption .■ rraclice, 21. 

: j 

fe 24. 

XX. 1 25. 

T : blilhed, in the Vale. 

id of drawing them, in 
Ufc, s& 

5 " XX] R Jeed, 27. 

. le. 

t. Ss 

-gement, 28. 
' are. 
■ 

~ent while Growing, 29. 

." . - - 
EDCuLTOti propofed,3C. 

. :. 
A 1 :_7--:Hing de- 

'.<tz, ■ : 
7.\e ..-.:: -v«r.:fr.:e: ::' the Practice 
:..-~f;_:t;. j : , 

A Van 1 



Contents. 



vii 



A Variation of Practice inftanced, 39. 
A new Practice introduced, 43. 
Inftance of the flow Progrefs of Im- 
provements, 44. 
TheUTe of Provincial Registers. 
VII. Markets, 45. 
VIII. Produce. 

GENERALOESERVATIONSOntheClll- 

ture of Rape Seed. 
Note on its Exhaufting Property,^. 

Sect. XXII. Potatoes, 48. 

I. Species and Varieties, 49. 

Varieties are temporary. 

Remarks on declining Varieties. 

Obfervations on the Difeafe of Curl 
Tops, 50. 

The Method of Railing Frelh Va- 
rieties from Seed, 51. 

Remarks on Selecting Varieties from 
Seedling Plants, 52. 

On Selecting Subvarie ties from Root- 
ling Plants, 53. 
II. SucceiTion, 54. 

III. Soil and Tillage. 

IV. Manure, 55. 

V. Plants and Planting. 

Formerly, whole Potatoes were 

planted. 
Now, large Cuttings, from large 

Potatoes, and why. 
Method of Planting with the P1qw,56. 
VI. Cleaning the Crop, 57. 
VII. Harvesting it, 58. 
VIII. Preferving the Roots, 59. 

Arched Vaults fuggefled as Re- 
ceptacles. 
IX. Markets and Application, 60. 

X. Produce. 
XI. Effects of Potatoes on Land. 

General Remarks on Potatoes, 
as a Fallow Crop, and as a Food 
of Farm Stock, — compared with 
Turneps and Cabbages, 62. 

a ^ Sect. 



viii Contents. 

Sect. XXIII. Flax, 64. 

I. The Species cultivated in the Vale,65» 
II. SuccefHon and Soil. 

III. Tillage and Manure, 66. 

IV. Semination. 

1. Time of Sowing. 

2. Preparing the Seed Bed. 

3. Quantity of Seed. 

4. Covering the Seed; with Remarks. 
V. The Growing Crop, 67. 

The Nature of its Growth. 
The Neceihry of an e ven full Crop, 63. 
The Enemies of Flax. 
A partial Crop fhould be plowed 
under. 

VI. Management of the Produce, 69. 

1. TimeofHarvelting. 

2. Criterion of Ripenefs. 

3. Method of " pulling." 

4. Method of Watering, 70. 

5. Method of " Rating." 

6. Operation and Price of "Swing- 

ling," 71. 

VII. Market for Flax, 72. 

GeneralObservations on Flax, 
as a Crop in this Ifland, 73. 

Sict.XXIV. Tobacco, 75. 

AConfiderableQuantitydatelvgrown 

in Yorkfhire. 
The Fate of its illegal Cultivators. 
A certain Quantity allowed to bs 

grown, 76. 
A Sketch of its Culture, as pradUied 

here. 

ct. XXV. Cultivated Herbage, 78. 

The Species of Herbage cultivated. 
The iVloies of Cultivation. 
I. Temporary Leys, 79. 

Remarks on Clover Leys, as a Matrix 
for Wheat. 
II. Mixed Perennial Leys, 80. 

The ancient Practice of Leving. 
The Erred of Nature's Practice, 81. 
ThatPradice now become improper. 
Remarks on Cultivating Perennial 
Leys, 82. 

Thfc 



Consents. i:: 

The Choice of Herbage, here, 83. 
Hay Seeds, until Lately, much 

(own, 84. 
Raygrafs varionfly efrimated. 
Its Merits let forth, 85. 
A Summer Blade Grafs wanted, 86, 
" RibgraiV in good Eftimation, 
here, 87. 
The prefent Mixture of Seeds. 
The Management of young Leys in- 
judicious, 83. 
- General Remarks on Leying and 
Breaking up oldLey Grounds, 89. 
Tenants have not a permanent In- 

tereft in Perennial Leys. 
They are, therefore, the Land- 
lord's Care. 
Grafs Lands and Hedges are fimi- 

lar in this Refpect, 9©. 
A Line of Conduct fuggeited, 91. 
III. Sainfoin Ley, §2. 

This DifiriS is {angularly favorable 
to the Study of Si:es, fit for its 
Culture. 
Its great Succefs about Malton. 
The Soil and Subfoil analyzed, 95. 
Remarks on the Paiture of Sain- 
foin, N. 93. 
Its Succefs near Bromptcn. 

The Soil and Subflrata analyzed, 

ItsMifcamagesabc at Pic leering, 95. 

The Paiture of Sainfoin examined. 
Remarks en the Field of Pailurage, 
moll acceptable to Sainfoin, 97. 
The Propriety of previouily exami- 
ning the Suburata, 98. 
The great Advantages of Sainfoin, 
On a Soil it arxech. 

5ict. XXVI. Natural Herbage, 99. 

General View of the Subject. 
I. Species of Grafs Lands, ico. 
I. Lowland Grafts ioi. 
Situation. 
Soil. 

Herbage, 
a 3 Cat a- 



x Contents. 

Catalogue ofLowLAND Plants, 

103. 
Produce of thefe Lands, 10;. 
Rent. 
Remarks on the Folly of Keeping 

them in their prefent State. 
TnltanceoftheUfe of a made Shore. 

2. Upper Grafs Grounds, 109. 

Situation. 

Soil. 

Catalogue of Plants, iio. 

Produce, 1x3. 

Rent. 

3. Upland Grafs. 

Situation. 
Soil, 114. 

Catalogue of Plants. 
Produce, 118. 
Rent. 

Thefe Lands are ill adapted to pe- 
rennial Ley. 
II. General Management of Grafs Lands,i 18. 
Objedls of the Grafs Land Husbandry, 1 19. 
Operations incident to it. 
1. Draining. 
2. Clearing. 

Methods of Removing Anthills. 
3.Dreffing, in the Spring, 120. 

Remarks on the Mole, 122. 
Remarks on Earthworms, 125. 
4. Weeding Grafs Lands, 124. 

Knobvveed and Ragwort deftroyed, by 

palturing with Sheep. 
Docks dertroyed by Swine, or by 

Mowing, or by old Age. 
Remarks on theAGE ofPlants,I2C. 
5-Manuring Grafs Lands. 
Dung feldom applied. 
Foddering on them, chiefly practifed. 
Remarks on Teathing Grafs Lands, 

126. 
Inltance of Sheepfold being ineffica- 

cious, in winter, 127. 
Lime is not in common Ufe for Grafs, 

128. 
A fuccefsful Experiment with it, 129. 
A remarkable Effect of Bleaching with 
Lin\e, on Grafs Land. 

III. Ma= 



Contests. xi 

III. Management of Mowing Groundsj 131. 
General Economy of Hay Grounds. 
l. Spring Management, 132. 

Remarks on the Time or" Shutting up. 
z. The Hay Harveft, 153. 

1. Mowing. 

2. Making, 134. 

Remarks on Pyking, 135. 
Operatic:-. 0: Making. 

3. Preserving, 1 36. 

Method of Stacking in the Field. 
Drawn together with Horie Drags. 
Horie Drags likewise ofed in 
Cocking. 
* Form of field Stacks. 

Capped, only, with Thatch. 
Fenced with large Hurdles. 

4. Expenditure of Kay, 140. 

confumed on the Farm. 
5. Aftergrals. 

Expenditure, here. 
Time uf Breaking. 
Remarks on the Economy of After-! 

graft, 1^.:. 
Eating it off, in Autumn. 
Prcferving it, until Spring, 143. 

IV. Paiiure Grounds, 143. 

I, Spring Management, 144. 

General Re;.: a ax 5 , en this Depart- 
ment of Management. 
;. Stocking Pafture Grounds, 148. 
On mixing Stock. 
Remarks on the Dung of Horses 

at Grass, 149. 
On Pro: Stock to Land, 130. 

3. Summer Management, 151. 

General Remarks on the Manage- 
ment of Summer Failures, 1 5 z. 

Sf,ct. XXVII. Horlcs, 154. 

Introductory Remarks. 

On the Influence of Soil and C Uma t Hj e. 
EfUmated Number, reared in Eail York-. 
fhire, 133. 

a 4 I. Breed 



xii Contents. 

I. Breed in the Vale, 156. 

Formerly, ftrong Saddle Horfes. 
Next, Capital Hunters. 
The Change effected by a mere 

Circumftance. 
The Horfe Jalap noticed. 
Now, Coach Horfes are chiefly bred, 

»57- 

Alfo fome Cart Horfes, 158. 
Remarks on the evil Tendency of 
the laft Breed. 
II. Breeding Horfes, 159. 

Much neglected, e?en in Yorkshire. 
Suggeflionsfor its Improvement, 160. 
Remarks on the King's Plate s, 162. 
A Tax on Cart Horfes fuggefted. 
The Spaying of Mares intimated. 

III. Making up Horfes, 164. 

The Age of Making up for Market. 
This M y ftery is practifed by different 

Men. 
On the Advantages of Making up 

Horfes. on a Farm, 165. 

IV. Markets for Horfes, 165. 

Malton Horfe Show defcribed. 

The Purchafers there, and the Prices 
given, 166. 
V. Treatment of Worked Horfes, 167. 

On Turning out Hunters to Grafs, 
in the Day-time, in Winter. 

Minute on this Practice, 168. 

On Turning out Horfes to Grafs, in 
the Spring ; — an excellent Regu- 
lation reflecting it, 171. 

Sect.XXVIII. Cattle, 172. 

Introductory Remarks. 

The ancient Economy of theDiftric"L 
A Change effected, by Inclofure, 173. 
Its prefent State, as to Cattle. 
I. Breed, 174. 

Its Succeffion of Breeds mentioned. 
The ancient Black Breed. 
A Black and White Breed. 
The Craven or longhomed Breed. 
The Dutch or fhorthorned Breed. 
The prefent improved Breed, 176. 

The 



Contents. xiii 

The EffecT: of Management on Breed, 176, 
Dimenuons of an Ox of the prefent Breed 

of the Vale, 177. 
A freih Variety now entering the Vale, 178, 
The Tees vater Breed defcribed. 
Thoughts concerning its Improvement, 1 79. 
Note concerning the Improvement of the 

Breed of die Vale, 180. 
Remarks on theCriteria of Breeds. 
The Horn a permanent Character. 
Its Pretentions as a Criterion, 182. 
The Eye the fafeft Criterion of Health 
and Conftitution, 183. 

II. Breeding Cattle. 
1. Bulls. 

A Bull Show, in Eaft Yorkshire; 
Inflance of a Gentleman keeping a BuH 
of a fuperior Breed, for the Ufe of. 
his Tenants. 
Z. Breeding Cows, 184. 

1. Rearing them. 

2. Purchasing them. 

Favorite Points. 
Dimeniions of a Vale Cow. 

3. Treatment of Cows, 1S5. 

Highly kept. 

Their Difficulty in Calving, 186. 
The Skilfulnefs of the Vaie Farmers, ixt, 
this Particular. 

4. Markets for Cows, 187. 

III. Rearing Cattle, 187. 

1. Calves. 

1 . Time of Rearing. 

2. Points of a Rearing Calf. 

Remarks on white Cattle, 188. 

3. Caftrating Calves, 189. 

A fatal Diforder thought to arife 

from doing it improperly. 
Method of Cure, N. irg. 
Proper Method of Caftration, 190, 

4. Treatment of Rearing Calves. 

Never fuck their Dams ! 

2. Yearling Cattle, 191. 

3. Twoyearold Cattle. 

Age of Breaking in Steers, 192. 
Age of Bringing in Heifers. 
General Remarks on this Subject. 

IV. Fatting 



XIV Co.H'TE N T I. 

IV. Fatting Cattle, 194. 

The Yale is not a grazing E 

ir.ce of great Pront by Fatting, 
Dimenfions of a Fatted Cow, 196. 
Note on Menfurating Cattle, 197. 
The Yorkshire Cicthiers buy by 
Meafure. 
A Weighing ?vlachine propofed as an 
Appendage to every Market 
Place and Fair Stead, X. 197. 
General Remarks on the prelum 
Scarcity or Cattle, in this 
Ifland, 198. 

Sect. XXIX. Dairy Management, 201. 
I. Calves. 

On fatting Calves without fuckling, 

II. Butter, 2C2. 

A Principal Ob;e£l of the Yale Haf- 

bandry 
A Wife Regulation of the Cheefe- 

raorgers Company, refpe&ing trns 

Article of Produce. 
A pernicious Effe.fi of fcouring M 

Leais, 204. 
Defcription of the Yorkshire Milk 

Bowlj N. 204. 
The Barrel Churn of the Yale de- 

fcribed, 105. 
The Firkins defcribed. 

od of putting the Butter down, 

into Firkins, 206. 
Times offending to Market. 
The Prices for the lait ten Years. 

III. Skim Cheefe. 

The Method of Manufacture not en- 
titled to Detail, 207. 
The Ufe of the Curd Mill. 
The Curd Mill defcribed, N. 20S. 
The Confumption of Skim Chesie. 
The Puces, for the lait ten years. 

, Hog Liquor, 209. 

The Produce of a Dairy Ccw, in the 
Yale, eiUmated. 

Sect. 



Contents. xv 

Sect. XXX. Swine, 209. 

The ancient Economy, with Refpect to 

Swine. 
The Practice has undergone a Change. 
The prefent Breed, 210. 

Inftanceofa valuable, weed-eating kind. 
Markets for Bacon. 

Sect. XXXI. Sheep, 211. 

Their general Economy, in the Vale. 
Alio in the Morelands. 

I. Breeds, 212. 

The eld common Stock of the Vale. 
The improved Breed of the Vale, 2 1 3. 

The Means of its Improvement. 
The Teeswater or Mud Breed, 214. 
The Moreland Breed defcribed, 215. 
Their Relemblance with the Nor- 
folk Breed, 216. 
Their clofer Affinity with the 
Scotch, and Remarks on this 
Connection, N. 215. 

II. Breeding, 216. 

Time of putting Ewes to the Ram. 
A Practice reflecting Twin Lambs. 
Remarks on the Food of Ewes, at 

Lambing Time. 
On Trimming the Udders, &c. of 

Breeding Ewes, 218. 
A General Remark on Breeding 

Flocks. 

III. Management of Store Sheep, 219. 
The Practice of Salving. 
Its Riie not aicertained. 
Its Intentions enumerated. 
Initance of Deviation, Z20. 
The Practice defcribed, 221. 
The Expence calculated, 223. 

|V, Markets, 224. 
For Wool. 

Weights and Values of Fleeces. 
For Carcafes, 225. 

The recent Rife in the Price of 
Sheep, ftrongly evidenced, in. 
the Moreland Breed. 

Sect- 



v : C C M t I H . . 

IT. XXXII. Rabbis, i:- 

iStaf * E Nkdoce of dw ' 

s • : • I _. - its, ii 
^ -.-.-..:.:: r I •: I : ' 

7. . the Ki.gr. : 

of R;_::: WaiTCBS. 

Sect. £XXIH. ? : oTtty, 22a. 

&ci XXXIV. Bees, ::;. 

B Produce of the Val: b ::' 11 Lr_":- 

The E^ect of the Flower; oftkc B 

I lance :f~ :•■.:.: Hives to Irafaiaga, 

A grner^ » :::_;-.' --. 1783-3, 
A ■ HtiuwJipa i Cfecumftai 

ing . _ 

Conje&ares refpe&uig ■ ^::cunu 

ftaace, 251. 
C 3 - ; ■ t v 4 t 1 o ■ £ on t :-: 1 N -. I 
•-T of Bzi.;. 



T K I 

WOLDS of YORKSHIRE. 

GENERAL VIEW of this DISTRICT, : ; 5 

The : i 

The Ex:er: 

The Sob;". :.:.-= pro! C ha&. 

TheSubfoili :>. 

The Soil a C 1 1 : _ - , : 3 f . 

Climature is cold, for want of Shekel 

tkt prefenf State :: !:..:? ::- 

U2RAI 



Contents. xvu 

RURAL ECONOMY of this DISTRICT, 

23S. 

I. The Eftates moftlj large, 239. 
II. Tenancy: Leai'es becoming commcn, 

III. Rent. 

Depends on Breaking up Sheep Walk, 
Remarks on this Subject. 

IV. Removals take place at Ladyday or Mayday, 
V. Buildings rnoitly fubftantial, 241. 

VI. Planting, 246. 

A Spirit lately evinced. 

The Beech recomrneaded, 242. 

VII. Farms, 243. 
VIII. Objeds of Hufbandry, 244. 
IX. Succeffion irregular. 
X. Manual Labor, 245. 

Few Day Laborers on the Woldi 
XL Team Labor, 245. 

Singular Practices of die Woidi. 
XII. Implements, 247. 

XIII. Manures. 

XIV. Harvesting. 

Every thing rno".n agaLr.ft the Standing Ccrr., 
and bound in Sheaves. 

XV. Farmyard Management, 24S. 
XVI. Markets. 
XVII, Turneps, 249. 

Rem a r k on Sodburning old Sward, for Tnr- 

neps. 
Application of Turneps, 250. 
Method of eating :hem of?, improper^ 
Net Hurdles de;cribed, 25 1. 

XVIII. Sheep, 251. 

Size of Flocks. 
Breed. 

Initance of a fatal Change of Breed, 2 5 1 

XIX. RAB, 



xviii Content*. 

XIX. Rabbits, 252. 

Great Size c{ Warrer.5. 
Good Land appropriated 10 Rabbits, 253. 
General Economy of a Rabbit farm. 
Management of the Wold Warrens, 254. 

1. The EfFeft of rich Soi's on Rabbits. 

2. Burrowing Grounds. 

Uy on the Sides of Hi!!?. 
•ice, on a Flat. 
An Auger ufed in Making Burrow:, 25 :. 

3. W?.rren Fences. 

Sod Wall the prevailing Fence. 

A Brook is not a Fence againil Rabbits. 

4. Sort of Rabbits, 256. 

The SilverhairedingoodEfteem. 

5. Method of Taking. 

With the Fold Net. 

With the Spring Net. 

With the " Tipe" or Trap, 2^7. 

The laft, a new and mafterly Method, de- 

fcribed. 
Sort the Trap Rabbits. 
The due Proportion of Males. 
Caution required in uiing Traps, 25?. 
The Numbers taken, at once, very great. 

6. Markets, 259. 

For Carcafes. 
For Skins. 
Average Price. 



HOLDERNESS. 

Not examined in i - C7, 260. 
A Tranfient View in 179 1, 261. 



CLEVE- 



Contents. xix 



CLEVELAND. 



A View of the District, 262. 

Outline nearly oval. 

Extent more than 100 fquare Miles. 

Surface, nearly flat. 

Soil uniformly tenacio-i. 

Its Objects of Husbandry, 263. 
The Roid Team of Cleveland. 

TL?Di\c:lp:i::. and Merits of this angular T. ; a"n 



T H E 

EASTERN MOREL ANDS. 

GENERAL VIEWofthhDlSTPJCT, 264. 

The Uncultivated Parts her--- e:;am-.r.ed. 

C'dmature extremely blc 

Extent, from 300 to 400 fquare M:!e;, 2:5. 

Foil: Production;, 2 _ _. 

SabfoJ moitlv ^ar.i. formed into a. Pan. 

Soil, or I eri g, ia a Black Moor, 267. 

Remarks on the\ -oetable Mold of Mcv.v- 
tains. 
Natural Produce,. Heath and " Bent," ; 

Catalogue of rs. 

RURAL ECONOMY of this DISTRICT, 
271. 

Liveftock. 

Proportion of Sheep to Ac: 
Prefer.t Value or" thefe Lands, z~z. 
The Improve rr tor. attempted, :;;. 

On the Novthero 

O;. ,2-5. 

HINT- 



xx Contents. 

HINTS for the IMPROVEMENT of the 
EASTERN MORELANDS of YORK- 
SHIRE, 277. 

The Principle of Improvement, 278. 
The Objects, Wood and Herbage. 

I. Plantations, 278. 

The Probability ofSuccefs, 279. 
The Sites proper to be planted. 
The Species of Trees. 
The Method of Planting. 
II. Cultivated Herbage, 280. 

The Obje£ls, Sheepwalk and Rabbit Warren, 2 S 1 . 

The Species of Herbage. 

Manures, 282. 

Underdraining. 

Watering. 

An Evidence of thefe Lands being improveable, 

The IMPROVEMENT of a Part of them offered 
to the Confideration of GO VERN MENT, 28 5. 



A LIST OF RATES 

I N 

THE VALE OF PICKERING, 2S7. 



PROVINCIALISMS 

OF 

EAST YORKSHIRE. 

Introductory Remarks on this Dialeft of the 

Englifh Language, 303. 
A Glofiary of more than a Thoufand Words, 305. 



THE 

RURAL ECONOMY 

O F 

i 

YORKSHIRE. 



*3- 

WHEAT. 

Introductory Remarks* 

IN NORFOLK, a corn country, whofe 
hufbandry may be taken as a ftandard 
for other light-land districts, I 
ftudied the various proceffes, of each arable 
crop, with attention ; and have endeavored 
to defcribe them with minutenefs. But to 
purfue a fimilar conduct, in a country where 
grass land prevails ; where corn is, of 
courfe, only a fecondary object ; and where* 
through the diveriity of foils, and the prefent 
Vol. II. B ftate 

D. H. HILL LIBRARY 
North Carolina State CoIUoa 



i WHEAT. 

ftate of inclofure, no regular management of* 
arable crops, fufficiently excellent to be held 
out as a pattern, is eftablifhed, — would be an 
impropriety. Neverthelefs, in a country 
where improvement ftands on tiptoe, eager 
to difcover and bring into practice every thing 
which wears the afpect of fuperior utility, it 
would be ftill more improper to pafs over 
the individuals of the arable crops, 
without notice. 

Their general management!^ been 
already defcribed, under the foregoing ge- 
neral heads. What remains to be done with 
refpevft to each crop is, to regiiter fuch 
particulars, as I judge may be of fer- 
vice, in the advancement of the plan under 
execution. 

The particulars which ftrike me as being^ 
noticeable, under the prefent head, are, 
I. The fpecies of wheat ; 
II. The railing of new varieties ; 

III. Preparing the feed; 

IV. An opinion refpecting mildew. 

I. The SPECIES of Wheat, cultivated 
at prefent in the Diflricl, are, 

I. Triticum Hybernum ; winter 
wheat : of which there are the following 
varieties : 

i . " Zealand 



Yorkshire. 3 

I. " Zealand Wheat :" chaff white, with- 
out awns * ; ears fomewhat large ; grain 
white and full-bodied ; ltraw long and reedy. 
This fort is well adapted to weak and to 
middling foiled land. In a rich foil, efpe- 
cially in a moiit feafon, it runs too much to 
ftraw. 

2. " Downy Kent :" chaff white, downy, 
and awnlefs ; ears of the middle fize ; grain 
white and fmall ; ltraw fhort. This kind is 
belt adapted to good land ; in which it ge- 
nerally yields abundantly, notwithstanding 
the fmallnefs of the grain?. 

3. Common White Wheat. The two pre- 
ceding forts feem to have almoit baniihed 
the " old white wheat" of the Diilrict— the 
white Lammas of other districts. 

4. Hertford/hire Brown. Chaff white,— 
grain red, — ltraw of a middle growth : re- 
fembling the Kentifi white CoJJj of Norfolk. 

5. " Tcllow Kent." Chaff fomewhat red; 
grain white ! ears large ; it raw ltout. 

6. Common Red Wheat. This, like the 
old white, appears to be now nearly ex- 
tinct. 

B 2 2. Triticum 



* 



All the varieties of Triticum Hyberr.um^ which I 
have yet obferved, have a few jfart awns, towards the- top 
of the ear. 



4. WHEAT. 

2. TR IT I CUM JEjlhum ; SUMMED 

wheat , — generally known by the name of 
UKfcitrd wheat. 

In the Whitby quarter of the Mor elands, 
this fpecies of wheat has been cultivated 
many vears. It was introduced into the 
Vale, a few years ago ; but it does not feem 
to gain an eftablimment here. It has, how- 
ever, been fumciently tried to afcertain the 
proper month of foxing : namely, April. 

IB RAISING VARIETIES. It is pro- 
bable, that time has tfee fame effect, upon the 
varieties cf wheat, and other grains, as it has 
on thofe of cultivated fruits, potatoes, and 
other vegetable productions. 

In every country, I find new varieties of 
corn gaining footing, and old ones giving 
place to them. Famion may influence a few 
individuals to introduce a new variety ; but it 
is not likely that faihion, alone, mould induce 
a body of profefiional huibandmen to difcard 
an old one. 

In gardening, varieties are endlefs ; 
and frefh ones * are annually making : not 
perhaps fo much by accident, as by induftry. 
Thus to produce an early pea, the gardener 
marks the plants which open nrfl into blof- 
fem, among the moil early kind he has in 

cuU 



YORKSHIRE. 5 

cultivation. Next year, he fows the produce 
of thefe plants, and goes over the coming 
crop, in the manner he had done the pre- 
ceding year, marking the earlieft of this 
earlier kind. In a fimilar manner, new 
varieties of apples are raifed, by chooling 
the broadefr-leaved plants,- among a bed of 
feedlings, niing promilcuoufly from pippins. 
Husbandmen, it is probable, have here- 
tofore been equally induftrious in producing 
fre£h varieties of corn j or whence the end- 
lefs variety of winter wheats? If they be 
naturally of one and the fame fpecies, as 
Linneus has deemed them, they muft have 
been produced by climature, foil, or in- 
durtry ; for although nature fometimes fports 
with individuals, -the induilry of man is re^ 
quifite to raife, eftablith, and continue, a 

PERMANENT VARIETY. 

Of late, the railing of varieties has perhaps 
been little attended to. Transferring thofe 
already eftablifhed, from one part of the 
kingdom, or from one part of the world, to 
another, has alone, perhaps, produced the 
recent changes in the feveral Diftncrs. The 
only inftance in which I have had an oppor- 
tunity of tracing the variety down to the 
B 3 parent 



6 WHEAT. 

parent individual \ has occurred to mc in this 
Diftrid. 

A man, whofe obfervation is ever on the 
wing in the field of hufbandry, having per- 
ceived, in a piece of wheat, a plant of un- 
common fixength and luxuriance, difFufing 
its branches on every fide, and fetting its 
clofely furrounding neighbours at defiance 5 
marked it, and at harvefl removed it fepa- 
rately. 

The produce was fifteen ears, yielding fix 
hundred and four grains, of a ftrong-bodied 
liver-colored wheat, different in general 
appearance from every other variety I have 
feen. The chaff fmooth, awnJefs, and the 
color of the grain. The ftraw flout and 
reedy. 

Thefe fix hundred grains were planted, 
fingly, nine inches afunder, filling about forty 
fquare yards of ground ; not in a garden, or 
In a feparate piece of ground, but upon a 
clover ffcubble ; the remainder of which was, 
at the fame time, fown with other wheat, 
in the common way : by which means extra- 
ordinary trouble and dejlru5lion by birds were 
equally avoided. 

The produce of thefe forty yards was two 
gallons and a half, weighing twenty pounds 

ancj 



YORKSHIRE. 7 

and a half, of prime grain, fit for feed ; be- 
fides fome pounds of feconds. One grain 
produced thirtyfive ears, yielding twelve 
hundred and thirtyfive grains. 

The fecond year's produce being fufHcient 
to plant an acre of ground, the variety was 
of courfe fufficiently eltablifhed. 

This, the fifth year, I have feen it grow in 
quantity -, but the feafon being moift, and 
the foil good, it was moil of it lodged, The 
crop upon the ground is abundant : feventy 
full mocks an acre. But the produce of 
Zealand wheat, in the fame piece, is equal 
to it j and, on examination, I think the grain 
of this is better, its fkin is fomewhat thinner, 
Neverthelefs, the variety under notice may 
rank with the firfl of the prefent day. For 
an inferior foil, it may perhaps be found 
highly eligible. 

It is obfervable, that the quality of this 
variety improves. Its color and fkin, this 
year, notwithstanding the unfavorablenefs of 
the feafon, are finer than they were the laft 
and the preceding years. 



B 4 General 



8 WHEAT, 



General Remarks on raising and 
improving Varieties of Grain 1 . 

Its intrinfic value, however, would not 
have been a fufficient inducement for de- 
fcribing the circumftances of its rife, had not 
thefe circumftances pointed out, at the fame 
time, the practicability, as well as an eafy and 
fpeedy method \ of raifing new varieties, and of 
improving thofe that are already known. 

What deters Farmers from improvements 
of this nature, is principally the mifchievouft 
nefs of eirds -, from which, at harveft, it is 
fcarcely poffible to preferve a fmall patch of 
corn, efpecially in a garden, or other ground, 
iituated near a habitation. But, by carrying 
on the improvement, in a field of corn, of the 
fa?ne nature, that inconveniency is got rid of. 

In this fituation, however, the botanifi will 
be apprehenfive of danger, from the floral 
farina of the furrounding crop. But, from 
what obfervation I have made, I am of 
opinion his fears will prove groundlefs. No 
evil effecl of this nature occurred, in the in- 
ftance above recited, although the cultivation 
has been carried on among white wheat. But 
this need not be brought as an evidence : it 

is 



YORKSHIRE. g 

is not uncommon, here, to fow a mixture of 
red and white wheats together, and this, it is 
confidently ailerted, without impairing even 
the color of either of them. 

The fame mode of culture is applicable to 

the IMPROVEMENT OF VARIETIES; which 

perhaps, would be more profitable to the 
hufbandman, than railing new ones, and much 
more expeditious. 

Formerly, it was the practice, in the im- 
provement of cattle, to crojs with other breeds ; 
but modern breeders, who have brought the 
art to a high degree of perfection, purlue a 
different method : they pick out the faireft, 
of the particular breed or variety they want 
to improve, and profecute the improvement 
with the fe fekcJed individuals. 

In every field of corn, let the variety be 
ever fo pure, and ever fo well adapted to the 
foil and fituation, the fame inequality, in the 
beauty and goodnefs of individuals, is obferv- 
able, as in a herd of cattle ; and it is the 
bufmefs of the corn farmer to avail himfelf of 
fo fuitable an opportunity of improvement, 
by felecling Juch individual plants as excel in 
vigor and produffivenefs, under a moral cer- 
tainty that fuch individuals are peculiarly 
adapted to this foil and fituation. 

III. PRE* 



iz H E A T. 

III. PREPARING : EED\V?TEAT. In 
:'.-:?.: ..-.::.;.:/ X : .- :: lk, I have 

rrt-v: r.r.ti i:> i:r.:r: vtir.tn: ir the u:t c: fait 
:::^:re, a.: rrtvtrri ci _rf r..~: i"ir._:. litre, 
i :-r.r--ir rcir.tiy i; :v.:it n't :.. :.: :.._: 
purnne ; linrulai I mean i-. :: :rr Diitric:, 
in which, alone, I hflvc found arsenic 
ufed, as a preventive of thai troublefome 

F irrr.t :".-.-, brine and lime were :he ufual 
preparation, hm. nil are in almoft 

ft- rict of the Ifiand. How long 

arfenic has been in u:e, oc b ufe of it 

;. I have not learnt with fuf- 
ficie r. : ux i : : : f . q e peribn ( whole accu- 
racy might be fafelv relied an, were not his 
evidence corroborated by my own occasional 
obfervation) has ufed it more than twenty 
a variably, and with uniform fuccefs, 
Vit timet fay that, during that tlrr.t, he has 
not had a (mutty ear of wheat upon his 
farm; but he afierts* with confidence, that 
£nce he prepared feed v ith arfeni$ 

water, he has not experienced . itnible in- 
jury from :";r :. The I - riilar 
ifrength . :" evidence mig b : ained, pro- 
bably, from an hundrec) individiiab in this 
:.-.._-'.".'::. :h ::i. 

Its 



YORKSHIRE. u 

Its efficacy, I believe, is net doubted, 
by any one who has given it a fair trial ; but 
there are fome who, through apprehenfions 
of danger from the careleffnefs of fervants, or 
from their own abientnefs, or under an idea, 
that an arfenical preparation is hurtful to the 
feedfman, are fcrupulous about uling it. 

Whether the laft has, or has not, any foun- 
dation in truth is, at prefent, a matter in dif- 
pute. The peribn abovementioned has not, 
during his twenty years practice, experienced 
any inconveniency, either to himfelf, his fer- 
vants, or his live ftock ; not even to his poul- 
try. Nor have I heard of a fmgle accident 
having arifen, from the ufe of it, in any part 
pf the Diftrict. 

I do not "mean to comment upon this prac- 
tice : fuffice it for me to regiiter fuch facts 
as have occurred to me refpecting it, and to 
give the procefs; leaving the reader to form 
his own judgment, in regard to the propriety 
of ufing it. 

This preparation is made by pounding the 
arfenic, extremely fine, boiling it in water, 
diluting the decoction, and drenching the 
feed effectually in the liquor. 

In ftrictnefs, the arfenic ihould be levi- 
gated, fufficiently fine to be taken up and 

%vajhf4 



12 



WHEAT. 



wafoed over with water, reducing the fedi- 
rnent, until it be fine enough to be carried 
over in the fame manner. 

The ufual method of preparing the liquor 
js to boil one ounce of white arfenic, finely 
powdered, in a gallon of water, from one to 
two hours, and to add to the decoction as 
much water, or ftale urine, as will increafe 
the quantity of liquor to two gallons. 

In this liquor, the feed is, or ought to be, 
immerged, ftirring it about, in fuch manner, 
as to fatnrate y completely, the downy end of 
each grain. 

This done, and the liquor drawn oft, the 
feed is conlicered as fit for the feed baiket, 
without being candied with lime, or any 
other preparation. 

If, however, any danger arife to the feedf- 
man, from fowing ktd thus prepared, (which 
I believe is merely ideal) it probably arifes 
from the fuperfluous moifhire of the feed, 
in this ftate, entering the pores of his hand. 
Candying the feed, with lime, would net 
only abforb the redundant liquor, but would 
render the feed more pleafant to the hand in 
.ng, and more diftinguifhable by the eye, 

lea caft upon the ground. 

A bufbcl 



YORKSHIRE. 13 

A bufhel of wheat has been obferved to 
take up about a gallon of liquor. The price 
of arfenic is about fixpence a pound ; which, 
on this calculation, will cure four quarters of 
feed. If no more than three quarters be 
prepared with it, the coft will be only a far- 
thing a bufhel; but to this muff be added 
the labor of pounding and boiling. Never- 
thelefs, it is by much the cheapeft prepara- 
tion we are at prefent acquainted with. 

IV. THE MILDEW OF WHEAT. It 
is a received idea, in this Diftrict, that 
meslin,— provincially, " masihellbn," — (a 
mixture of wheat and rye, formerly a very 
common crop in this neighbourhood, and frill 
remains to be fo in the Moreiands) is never 
affected by the blight, or " mildew :" — and 
that the nature of rye is fuch, that a very 
fmall quantity of it, fowh among wheat, pre- 
vents this frequently deftructive effect. 

This, if well founded, is a moff interefting 
fact; not only in Husbandry, but in the- 
Vegetable Economy. I "regifler it, 
merely, as a popular opinion, among pro- 
femonal men. 



RYE. 



RYE. 



1 6. 



RYE. 

THE OXLY SPECIES of rye, culti- 
vated in theie kingdoms, is the Se c al e cereal: 
of Linneus; of which two varieties are cul- 
tivated in this Dillxicc. 

i. Black Rye; formerly the only fort. 
2. White Rye, or Dantzic Rye; in- 
troduced into this country, about half a cen- 
tury ago, and is now the almoil only kind 
which is cultivated. 

Before the ufe of lime was prevalent, 
:h rye was grown on the lighter lands, 
n the margin of the Vale; and, in the 
More fcarcely any other crops, than 

rye and oats, were attempted. Now, rye is 
principally confined to the Moreland dales ; 
and, eve*i there, the cheraticn of foils by lime 
has been inch, th?.t wheat is become the 
more prevalent crop. 

Nevertheless, on light fmdy Moreland 
foils, rye is generally more profitable than 
wheat ; and the bread which is made from a 

mixture 



YORKSHIRE. 15 

mixture of the two grains, is here efteemed 
more wholefome, to perfons in general, than 
that which is made from wheat alone. 



*7* 

BARLEY. 

THERE ARE FOUR SPECIES of bar- 
ley, cultivated, more or lefs, in this Diflrict. 
Common barley, — hordeum difticbon, — 

long-eared barley. 
Battledoor barley, — hordeum zeocrithon, — 

fprat barley. 
Big, — hordeum 1'u/gare, — four-rowed bar- 
ley, or fpring barley. 
hordeum hexaftichon, — fix-rowed barley, 
or winter barley. 
The firft and the third are the forts which 
are, now, principally cultivated : the firft, 
in the Vale ; the third, in the Morelands ; 
or, in the Vale, when the feafon of fowing 
is driven very late. Formerly, " Battle - 
door barley" was a common crop - y but at 
prefent it is almoft out of cultivation. The 
winter barley is new to the Diftridtj 

and 



16 S A R L E V. 

and it does not feem to be yet generally 
underftood, — that it ought to be fnvn in 
t ; .v;v ■■■:-.. 

In the open field irate, barley was grown 
in the M wheat field," alternately with wheat. 

C nrch-:an;nance,re:be;h -. ancient 

husbandry of this crop, deferves to he re- 
gistered; as it ferves to ihew the dteranori 
which titr.e hi- :h;- :c.v;-: :: making, even in 
the bu::;:;h cr" huibanitr.en. 

Le.i :t/.:_--- . ' barley 

was not faleabie, until it wa: MALTED. Pub- 
lic malt-hcufes, and the bnfincfi cf a malt- 
lter, were equally unknown : every farmer 
malted ,h or fold it to a ne. 

borwfac had a malt kiln ; an out-omce 
neceuarv, in thole days, to every ccrjadera- 
:.e ram:. 

The fuel, ufed on this occafion, was chiefly 
brake : . car off the neighbouring commons : 
a certain day of cutting being firt, to prevent 
any man from monopolizing more than his 
in are. 

When malted, it was Saleable > and fche 
mrpl . s of the confumption of I ghbour- 

hood found a m rfcet at Vh ; ;arbo- 

r: "an. ana :the: t-'.vr.i c: ahs D-.t::fb. 



YORKSHIRE. 17 

Now, even public ?nalt houfes are unknown ; 
the entire bufinefs of malting being in the 
hands of profemonal maltsters; who buy 
the barley of the farmer, and fell him the 
malt which he may want for his own private 
ufe, as in moll other Diitricts. 



l8. 



OATS. 

LINNEUS includes the whole tribe of 
cultivated oats in the fpecies A.YEH A Jafiva. 

The VARIETIES formerly cultivated, in 
this Dift-rift, were the " slow oat" and 
the M hasty oat;" both of them con- 
fidered as of Scotch extraction. 

At prefent the forts principally in ufe are, 

I. " Poland oat :" a ihort, plump 
grain ; but the thicknefs of its fkin feems to 
have brought it into difrepute among atten- 
tive farmers. Moftly fingle 5 no awn; ltraw 
ihort. 

2. " Friezland oats." Thefe appear 
to be, at prefent, the favorite of the country \ 

Vol. II. C and 



18 OATS. 

and with good reafon : they afford more 
ftraw, and are thinner-fkinned, than the 
Poland oat. Moftly double ; the larger fome- 
times awned ; the awn placed high. 

3. " Siberian oats," — more generally 
known by the name of Tartarian oats. 
This is evidently a diiKnct. species, unnotic- 
ed by Linneus. Each flower frequently con- 
tains three perfect florets ; never lefs than 
two, and a pedeftalled rudiment. Sometimes 
three perfect grains and a rudiment. The pani- 
cle, too, varies effentially from all the varie- 
ties of A VENA fat ha. AvenA arundinacea 
would be a proper term for it. The grains 
of this fpecies are thin and fmall ; the largeft 
awned ; the fmall ones awnleis , the ftraw 
tall and reedy. 

The reed oat may be faid to be, here, 
fairly in the hands of huibandmen -, a circum- 
ftance which I have not obferved, elfewhere. 
But it does not feem to be in fufficient eftima- 
tion, to lecure an eftablifhed footing in the 
Diftrict. The grain is light, and the fir an; 
too much like reed 9 to be affected by cattle. 

The particulars which are noticeable in the 
cultivation of oats in the Vale are, 
The foil. 
The quantity of feed. 

The 



YORKSHIRE. 19 

The produce. 

A lingular mode of thrafhing. 

SOIL. The rich lands, in the weftern 
divifion of the Vale, are peculiarly affected 
bv oats. There have been inftances of fowing: 
them, fix or feven years fuccellively, on the 
fame land. This, however, has been where 
the land has previoufly lain long in grafs. 
The foil, principally, a rich fandy loam; a 
foil Angularly productive of oats ; but not 
of iv heat : which, in thefe foils, generally 
runs too much to ftraw. 

QUANTITY OF SEED. Five or fix 
bufhels,and even a quarter of oats, an acre, are 
here fometimes fown ! On fome foils, it is 
found, that the more feed, the greater in pro- 
portion is the produce. A prudent man, how- 
ever, ought, in my opinion, to afcertain, by 
comparative experiments, the extent of his foil, 
before he fow, on a large fcale, more than 
fix bufhels of oats, an acre. 

PRODUCE. Ten quarters of oats, an acre, 
have been grown, on a piece of many acres. 
Seven or eight quarters, an acre, through- 
out a large farm, has not unfrequently been 
produced. One Vale farmer, laft year, fold 
and fent to market a thoufand quarters of 
oats. 

C 2 THRASH- 



ao OATS. 

THRASHING. A novel practice has of 
late years taken place, with refpec~t to the 
thrashing of oats : not in barns, or under 
cover, as heretofore, and as the operation is 
frill carried on, in every other part of the 
Mand ; but, in the field, or the ftackyard, 

IN THE OPEN AIR ! 

This new method of thraming oats, took 
its rife, probably, from the ordinary one of 
thrashing rape, in this diirrict (a procefs 
which will be explained, in its place) ; the 
oats, at the outlet, being all thrafhed on cloths. 
But, now, it is common, I find, to thrafh 
them on apiece of plain fwprd, or other level 
ground, without a cloth! it having been found, 
from experience, that if pigs and poultry be 
employed, to pick up the few which the 
broom leaves, the waite is inconfiderable. 

What pnay feem equally itrange, this bu- 
finefs is frequently done, at harveft ; the 
oats being carried immediately from the field, 
in which they grew., to market ! 

This, however, is lefs extraordinary when 
we are acquainted with the market, which is 
always open, for new cats, in this countrv. 
The manufacturing parts of Weil Yorkshire 
ufe principally oaten bread ; and new oats 
are coveted for oatmeal. This accounts for 

their 



YORKSHIRE. 21 

their high price at harveft, here, compared 
with that which they bear, in other places ; 
and this was probably the inducement, which 
led to the fingular expedient under notice. 

The conveniency of thrafhing them, in the 
field, being by this means difcovered, the 
practice was eafily transferred from the field 
to the flacky ard. 

In one inftance, to which I more particu- 
larly attended, the operation was thus con- 
dueled. A cloth was fpread upon the ground 
(firft made fmooth) by the fide of the flack 
of oats (in a itackyard). A boy threw the 
fheaves, off the flack, upon the cloth. One 
man opened and fpread the fheaves, turned 
them when requifite, and threw off the ftraw 
when fufficiently thraihed. Four men being 
kept continually thrafhing. 

In another, the oats were carried from the 
field to a grafs inclofure, and flacked in a 
place convenient for the expenditure of the 
ffraw. In this cafe, the floor was a circle of 
clofe-paftured greenfward ; about ten yards 
diameter; the opened fheaves being fpread* 
in a ring, with their heads toward the center, 
eight or ten thrafhers trod this ring, with a 
flow pace. One fide fufficiently thrafhed, 
t}ie other was turned uppermoft, and the 
C 3 flraw 



22 OAT S. 

flraw, at length, (hook off the circle. Wo- 
men were employed at the floor, while two 
men flacked the itraw, as it was thrown off; 
and while others were employed, on the op- 
pofite fide of the ring, in winnowing the oats, 
with a machine fan. 

In a third, the oats were carried immedi- 
ately out of the harvefl field to the thrafhing- 
floor, without a previous flacking. In this 
cafe, alfo, the floor was a ring of greenfward; 
—beaten firm and fmooth, with flails, before 
any corn was laid upon it. The wafle 
is little, compared with the expence of a 
cloth. 

The flraw was, in every cafe, flacked 
loofe ; to be cut out, as hay : the common 
pra&ice, I understand, when oats are thraih- 
ed abroad. 

When the flraw is thus freed from the 
corn, at harvell, and is flacked in good order, 
it fakes a heat in flack, and is laid to make 
excellent fodder. Cattle will ibme times get 
forward in flefh, upon fuch ftraw, alone. 

But this happens, in the rich-land quarter, 
mentioned above. And, query, has not a 
rich foil a fimilar effect upon the jlra r s:, as it 
has upon the kay, which is grown upon it ? 
The hay of Lincolnshire or Gloceflerfhire 

will 



YORKSHIRE. 23 

will fatten large bullocks, which that of 
Norfolk would barely fupport. 

The advantages held out, in favor of 
this method of thraming oats, are thole of 
difpatch, and the laving of barn room ; or the 
laving of carriage. A perlbn who had a 
large quantity of oats upon an off- farm, fome 
miles from his place of relidence, without a 
barn upon it, gave a milling a quarter for 
thralhing, in barvefii a buiy time. Had 
not this expedient been practifed, a barn 
mull: have been built, or an inordinate 
quantity of carriage would have been re- 
quiiite. 

The chance of bad weather feems to be the 
only objection to this practice. But there 
is always plenty of Itraw to cover up the 
am with ; and it is found bv experience, 
that a little rain upon the jlra-iv does not 
make it lefs affected by cattle ; at leaft not 
perceptibly. 

In some cases, the practice is, beyond 
difpute, highly eligible in this country ; and 
might, I have not a doubt, be profitably 
extended, to many other Diilricts of the 
Ifland. 



C 4 PULSE. 



24 ? U L S E. 



I 9 . 

PULSE. 

NOTHING particularly noticeable has 
occurred to me, in this Dmrict, refoectin* 
any of the fpecies of cultivated pulfe ; except- 
ing that it is a pretty common practice to 
fow beans and peas (grey peas) together, 
under the name of " blendings." Some- 
times '* fitches" (probably a gigantic va- 
riety of the ervum lens) are fown among 
beans. Thefe mixtures are found to increafe 
the crop ; and the component fpecies are 
iy feparable, with the fieve. 

Formerly "lentils," the true erv 
lens, were a common crop in this neighbour- 
hood 5 but they are gone into difufe. 



TURNEPS. 



YORKSHIRE. 25 



20. 



T U R N E P S. 

TWENTY YEARS ago, the turnep crop 
was a rtranger, in this Diitrict.. Even yet, 
it 13 far from being an eftabiiihed crop. 

Neverthelefs, there are fome men whom 
the fpirit of improvement has ilimulated to 
the turnep culture ; and who may rank 
among the belt, turnep farmers, in the king- 
dom y thole of Norfolk excepted. 

It muil not, however, be expected that, 
after the ample detail I have given of the 
Norfolk practice, much new matter 
can be collected, from the practice of this 
Diitrict. I have met with only one particu- 
lar which merits notice ; and which, though 
a fimple and eligible piece of management, 
I do not recollecl to have met with in 
Norfolk. 

In the inftance of practice under notice, 
the large]} of the turneps are drawn 

tarried 



T U R N £ P S. 

carried off, for fatting cattle ; and the fmall 
ones eaten upon the ground y withflieep; efpeci- 
ally -/:.'. ewes and lambs, in the (bring. 

This - : eafes very much the labor 

of drawing, tailing, &c. — and gives the fmall 
tnrneps the early part of 

:;-r; and to (boot freely in the fpring. 
If the final] ones be eaten off in winter, 
the foil is rendered free for the plow, as if 

whole had been drawn and carried off. 
And in this particular only, reits the fuperi- 
: : :v of the Yorkshire practice : one inftance 
off: Norfolk having been noticed, 

hich the large ones were drawn, and the 
fmall ones differed to itand until fpring. See 

folk, Seel. Tup.neps, Art. Draw-. 

3- 



RAPE. 



YORKSHIRE. 27 



21, 



RAPE SEED. 

THIS is the only Diftrift In which I have 
met with rape (Brassica napus — Colefeed) 
cultivated for its seed. 

It has long been the practice of the Vale ; 
where large quantities have been annually 
cultivated; and where the cultivation of it is, 
I believe, equal at leair to that of any other 
DiftriO. 

It therefore merits a full and minute de- 
icription, in this place. 

The requisite divilicns of the fubiect are, 

I. SuccelTicr.. 

II. Soil and Management. 

III. Manure and Management. 

IV. Semination. 

V. Management while growing. 

VI. Harveft management. 

VII. Market. 

I. SUCCESSION. Rape is generally 
fewn on sward. In the richer pans of the 

Vale. 



*S RAPE SEED. 

< 

Vale, it is fomctimes fown en fallow, like 

turnep; ; and, feme times, it is ventured upon 
the stubble of an arable crop ; but, ufllefs the 
foil be clean and rich, feidom with fuccefs. 
On maided sward, as that of commons, or 
old grazing grounds, it generally turns out a 
very profitable crop. 

II. SOIL, Sec. Various as are the soils 
q£ this Diitrict, it is /own on every spe- 
cies ; and, generally, with a fucceis propor- 
tioned to its rtebnefs ; the Jpccipc quality of 
the foil being con&iered as immaterial ; pro- 
vided it has lain long in sward ; and pro- 
vided the fward be reduced, and the foil 
ameliorated, by "paring and burning." 
See the Article Sodeurning. 

II;. 1MAXURE, &c. The alhes of 
the fward, with generally a fprinkling of 
lime, are the univerfal and only manure, for 
rape on fward. The allies, I believe, are 
principally depended upon for the rape ; the 
lime being rather intended for iucceeding 

ps. 

IV. SEaIINATION. The time of 
sowing, July : early enough to get a Itrong 
and late enough to prevent its running 
up tq Jicm s the nrir autumn. Quantity 
o? seeDj one gallon an acre; ibwn gene- 
ra 11 v 



YORKSHIRE. 29 

rally on the rough plit of one plowing (fee 
Sodburning) ; the feed being brufhed in, 
with a thorn harrow. 

Sometimes, the tops of the plits are lightlv 
fcarified, with a pair of tined harrows, before 
the feed be fown ; and ibmetimes they are 
neither harrowed before, nor fwept after the 
lowing ! 

V. MANAGEMENT WHILE GROW- 
ING. I have heard of one or more inftances 
of rape being hoed, with five or fix inch hoes, 
but that is not the practice of the country. 
Neither hoing, nor weeding, of any kind, I 
believe, is ufually bedowed on the rape 
crop. 

One practice, however, in this ftage of the 
management of rape, deferves notice. The 
practice here meant is that of " trans- 
planting :" namely, filling the vacant 
patches (with which rape too frequently 
abounds) with plants drawn from the parts 
that are overftocked. 

This work is generally done, by women, 
who put in the plants with dibbles. 

Plants thus removed feldom fail to take 
root ; but they ripen fomewhat later than the 
unmoved plants. Nevertheless, the practice 
is highly eligible . 

The 



S> RAPE SEED. 

The time of tranfplanting is October. 

If the whole, or a principal part of a land, 
or a large patch, — happen to mil'?, — the 
plow is fome times ufed in trir.iV.ir.: ing. 

In this cafe, the plants are laid, or placed 
in a leaning pofture, by women, in every 
fecond furrow, about a foot apart m the fur- 
rows. The roots are of courfe cove: 
the next plit ; and a fecond plit being ac : 
another row of plants are laid igainJI ::. 
The diltance, therefore, is about eighteen or 
twenty inches, by twelve j and th good 

r.d, is found to be lumcier" near. 

The expence of tranfplantir.r :: :hi5 

ner, has been found, on accurate ; .:- 

vation, to be about four milling ;;= . 

namelv, eight women, at fiipenct a iay 

each. 

This expedient leads to an or 

which would, in my opinion, be 

PROVEMENTIN THE CULTURE 

OF RAPE SEEI>. 

The great objection to tl ad that 

which deters many judicious men from cul- 
tivating it, is the length of time it occ - 
the foil. Being fown in July : r A igi .:. the 
whole tribe of biennial weeds have tin. 
eitablim themi'elves, before winter] and not 

- - r 5 



YORKSHIRE. 31 

being reaped, until July or Aaguft follow- 
ing, thev have time to mature and ihed their 
feed. 

The grafTes, and flrong-rocted weeds of 
every kind, likewiie gain, in that time, a 
degree of poiTeiTion, which is difficult to be 
let aiide. The foil, too, gets out of tilth, 
by lving fo long a time without plowing. 

One plowing, in autumn, would re- 
move, or greatly alleviate, thole evils. The 
biennials would thereby be extirpated ; the 
sralTes and itrono;- rooted weeds be checked j 
and the foil be preferved in tillage. 

The operation which (bikes me, as being 
fingularly eligible to be adopted, is that ot 

TRANSPLANTING THE WHOLE CROP. 

The method I mould propoie if this : draw, 

from the jirft land, a iurnciency of plants to 
plant the lajl land with, and bury their roots 
in a vacant ground, until. wanted. 

Plow the firlt land (thus burying the weeds 
and the refufe rape) and, at the fame time, 
ilock it, in the manner above defcribed, with 
plants, drawn from the fecond land. 

The £rit land flniihed, fupply the fecond 
with plants from the third, and fo on, till the 
whole be finifhed ; planting the lafl land 

with the Dlants in referve, 

■ 

Be fides 



$t RAPE SEED. 

Beiides the advantages already fet 
forth, the entire piece would, by this means } 
be farnifhed with prime plants ; equal in 
firength - y and regular in diflance. Hence, 
the foil would not only be evenly occupied, 
but the crop would ripen equally; The large 
and uniform diflance of the plants, too, 
would give free admiflion to the hoe : — even 
a narrow kotje hoe might be ufed between 
the rows. 

'Thus, the foulejl crop which farmers have 
to deal with, might, J or a f mall expence, be ren- 
dered a fallow crop of the fir ft eftimation. 

If ibdburnt land were managed in this 
manner, the firft or feed plowing ought to 
be very fhallcw,- acrofs the ridges (if any) ; 
and the fecond, or tranfplanting plowing, 
longway of the lands, acrofs the firft plow- 
ing ; gathering up the ridges dry againil; 
winter. 

A manured fallow, a rich wheat ftubble, 
or other land iurliciently clean, and in fuf- 
ficient heart for rape, might be planted with 
it in a iimilar manner ; railing plants for this 
purpofe in a detached feed bed. 

VI. HARVESTING. Rape is generally 
ripe in July; fooner or later, according to 
the feaibn. It is coniidered as fit for cutting 

when 



YORKSHIRE. 33 

when the forwardeit of the feed has begun to 
turn black. 

It is univerfally cut with lickles, by 
women -, who, in the ordinary management 
of the country, lay it in broad thin "reaps," 
upon the tops of the Hubble ; which they 
generally cut about a foot high, or as high as 
the lower branches will allow. 

In thefe " reaps," — fhoves or open 
meaves, — it lies until the lap be pretty well 
dried out of the greeneft, and the ripeft is 
ready to open its pods. If it lie too long, 
much of the prime feed will be loll in the 
field ; if it be thrafhed too green, much will 
be left in the pods, and that which is thrafhed 
out will be difficult to cure. 

The METHOD OF THRASHING (which 

has been practifed in the Vale, perhaps, ever 
fince rape has been cultivated in it) will re- 
quire more defcription than I can well per- 
fuade myfelf to beftow upon it. But a pub- 
lic " rape-thrashing," conducted as it 
is in this country, is one of the moft ftriking 
fcenes which occur in the field of Rural 
Economy. Contending armies can fcarcely 
exhibit, to the diftant eye, greater tumult ; 
nor can the parade boaft. of better difcipline, 
Vol. II. D than 



ft RAPE SEED". 

than may fometimes be obferved, in a well 
conducted rane thrafhin^. 

If the quantity to be thramed be large, 
as twenty or thirty acres, the whole coun- 
try", for many miles round, are collected. 
The days of thrafhing are coniidered as pub- 
lic davs\ the lord of the harveit. keeping open 
fields for all who choofe to enter ; ample 
provmon of meat and drink being made, for 
this purpofe. A wake or a fair is not a 
fee rie of greater icllitv. 

It is not common, however, for unbidden 
guefts to go - to thefe rural meetings, without 
amirlng, or at leafl ofFering their fervices to 
ai'Iift, in forwarding the buiinefs of the day. 
But to make fure of hands, for the more la- 
borious departments, men and women are 
prcvioufry retained, with wages over and 
above the fpoils of the feaft. 

Alfo previous to the day of thrafhing, a 
" rape cloth," — " carrying-cloths," — and 
other ncceflaries, are to be provided. The 
cloths are in the hands of a few men, who . 
let them out, at fo much a day, or io much 
an acre. A rape cloth, of the largeir. fize, 
meafures twenty yards fquare : weighing 
more than half a ton weight. HeiTen is the 

ofual 



YORKSHIRE. 31 

ufual material of which it is made. The 
hire of fuch a cloth is 1 5s. a day. 

Alfo, before the thrashing, the rape and 
the (babble are to be cleared away from the 
place (or places, if the piece be large) where 
the thrashing floor is to be made ; the clods 
being taken off, and the hollows filled up, 
where the cloth is intended to be laid. 

The buiinefs of the day is thus conducted : 
The men are divided into carriers, thrafhers, 
and floor-men. Women fill the carrying- 
cloths ; and bcvs hold them while rilling. 
Thefe cloths are made of canvas, about fix 
feet fquare, with poles fixt on two oppoiite 
fides (in the manner of a rolling map) ; 
openings being left, in the middle, between 
the poles and the canvas, for two men to run 
their arms through, one on either fide ; the 
poles retting, by their middles, on the men's 
moulders ; the cloth rilled with rape hanging 
between them. In thefe cloths the whole 
of the crop is carried to the thrashing floor. 

The flocr-men are divided into layers-on, 
turners, takers-oit, rake-men, riddlers, &c. 
£cc. Sec. 

The rape to be thralhed is ipread thin upon 
the cloth, in a circle, as large as the cloth will 
contain, 

D 2 The 



36 RAPE SEED, 

The thrafhers move continually in this 
ring ; marching with a flow ftep, in pairs, 
and in two diviuons ; the individuals of each 
divilion following one another, as clefely as 
the nature of their employment will allow 
them. 

The firft diviilcn are preceded by the 
layers-on, and followed by the turners \ and 
: I fe upon the rear of the fee d r. iivifiod fol- 
the takers- ij who with, wcoden-tined 
forks make and i ftraw; which 

is piled in heaps, by others, with longer im- 
plements. 

Finally, the rake-men run c:t the feed, 
'.vith the heads of their rakes thruift before 
them ; forcing the feed into recefTes fonned 
within the ring, or upon the corners of the 
cloth •> where groups ci fillers, riddlers, 
fee. *xc. are emploved i rating the feed, 

from the principal part of the pods, and fhort 
.vs, which bear off in th ;; while 

enters are equally hu:V in. p : - 

towed feed into bag-, and carrying it :? 
the " pie" or the waggon. 

Toward i b of the day, when the 

llraw has r : tain piles j: ahnoft 

.: brightnefs ; when the field of em- 

.ment appears en its large. t icale ; when 

ev 



YORKSHIRE. 37 

every department is in full work ; and when 
every individual is animated, and not yet 
fatiated, with the entertainments of the day -, 
the rape thrashing affords the contemplative 
mind a pleafing fight ; and would afford the 
pencil a picliurefque fubjecl:. 

The two divifions of thrafhers, moving in 
clofe phalanx, with flails nimbly brandifh- 
ing, fometimes in open view, fometimes par- 
tially hid among the piles of ftraw ; the 
clothmen bury and attentive to their various 
employments ; the team drawing off the 
loaded feed ; the carriers, from every hand, 
preffing to the thrafliing floor, with their 
feemingly cumbrous loads ; and the diftant 
groups of fillers, fcattered on every fide of 
the foreground ; could not fail of affording 
matter interefting to the painter •, efpecially 
jn a country where a fuitable offscape is fel- 
dom wanting. 

It were almof]: pity that a fcene, at once 
fo picture fque and fo truly ruftic, fhould 
fink into oblivion, as in all probability it will, 
in a fhort courfe of years. A more frugal 
management is growing into efleem \ and it 
is highly probable that, in a few years, public 
rape thrafliing will be difcontinued, and, in a 
few years more, be forgotten. 

D 3 The 



3? RAPE SEED. 

The feed is cured (that is, takes the heat 
which is incident to all recent vegetables) in 
the chaff or pods — provincially, " pulls" — 
either on a barn floor, a granary, &c. or in 
W pies" built in the field, for this purpofe, 
with plaited ftraw. 

The form is that of a corn bufhel ; the 
diameter, (even, or eight feet; the height 
three or four feet. This large ftraw bafket-r 
like receptacle is filled with rough feed, to 
the brim, topped up, in a conical form, with 
ftraw, and the whole fecured with a coat of 
thatch. 

This is more generally done, when the 
markets happen to be low, at the time of 
thrashing ; as, in thefe pies, the feed may be 
kept any length of time.; provided a fufficient 
proportion of pulls be retained among it ; 
and provided the fize of thefe receptacles, and 
confequently the quantity of feed depofited 
In them, be not too large. 

When the feed has done heating, and a 
market offers, it is fold, carried to the barn, 
winnowed, and fent to market. 

The inconveniencies of public rape 
thrashing now require to be mentioned. The 
buftle and hurry, fo diflimilar to the placid 
routine of hufbandry, which are unavoidable 

on 



YORKSHIRE. 39 

en thefe occafions, are difagreeable to moil 
men ; the expence, too, is fometimes un- 
reafonable ; the hazard by weather con- 
fiderable ; and the wade which is generally 
made by the over-ailiduoufnefs of unikilful 
volunteers, are all of them objections to the 
practice. 

Befides, the firaw and the pulls are, in this 
cafe, little lefs than wafted, being ufually 
burnt in the field for their afhes, which are 
very few in quantity, and the neat profit 
arifing from them ineomiderable. 

The feafon too is inconvenient : whether 
in hay time or harveft, every other employ- 
ment, however neceflary, bows to the rape 
thrashing. 

It were no wonder that inconveniencies, 
fuch as thefe, mould induce fenfible men to 
devife a more eligible management of this 
profitable crop. Yet fuch is the infatuation 
of an eftablifhed cuftom, that there has not, 
I believe, been an inftance of more than one 
(deviation, originating in the Vale, during the 
centuries of time which rape may have been 
cultivated within it. 

In this inftance, the rape was harvested 
as wheat ; — reaped, bound, mucked, car- 
ried into the barn, cured in the fir aw, and 
D 4 thraihed 



4 o R A P E S E E D. 

thraiTied out when markets and conveniency 
required. 

Binding it, while yet in a flexible ftate, fe- 
cured it from the waite, by medding, which 
is more or lefs incurred, by handling loofe 
reaps, in a dry parched flate, with the pods 
ready to open on the flighted touch. 

By Jetting it up in Hooks, the waile com- 
mitted by birds was much leiiened, efpecially 
that by wood pigeons, which, fettling upon 
the reaps, beat out tenfold what they eat ; 
whereas, in mucks, that which is beaten out 
runs down into the /heaves and is laved. 

In carryings a tali pole was fixed at each 
corner of the waggon, and a large cloth 
thrown over them, hanging in a bag to re- 
ceive the load, and to catch the ihedded 
feed. 

To prevent wafie in r ' . , the floor of 
the mow was covered with soft hay, which 
ltops the running of the feed, an i oft* which 
it may be eaiily gathe r ed, or thrown upon 
the thraihing floor; whereas ftraw being 
more open, admits the feed to run down 
among it, and is the caufe of confiderable 
watte. 

The expeyicc, under this management, is 
comparatively much lefe, than it is in a public 

thrafhiog ; 



YORKSHIRE. 41 

thrashing ; more efi - . lly, if the piece to be 
harvefted be fmall -, a ur or five acres, for 
inftance, which create as great a buftle, and 
caufe almofl as great an e;v r - nee, as twice that 
quantity. 

By an accurate account of the expence of 
five acres of rape, harvefted in the ufual man- 
ner, fome years ago, the expence appears to 
be 23s. an acre. The fame quantity would 
now, under the prefent price of living, and 
the prefent fiyle of treating upon thefe oc- 
cailons, cofr. from thirty to forty millings an 
acre. 

By an account, equally accurate and parti- 
cular, it appears, that four acres and three 
quarters, harvefted as wheat, a very few years 
fince, coft only 1 6s. 6d. an acre, tho' thrafhed 
out in harvefr, 

vReaping — three women, at Sd. each 2 o 
Binding — a man 2S. a boy 6d. 2 6 

Carrying — three loads, at i8d. 46 

Thrashing — three days in harvejl, at 
2s. 6d, y 6 

16 6 

But the laving of expence is far from 

being the greatelt laving by this practice. 

The value of the straw, to cattle in 

winter, 



42 RAPE SEED. 

winter, is found to be very conflderable. 
The Jtover (that is, the pulls and points of the 
ftraw broken off in thrashing) is as acceptable 
to them as hay ; and the tops of the Jiraw are 
eaten with avidity, " nearly equal to oat 
" ftraw, better than wheat ftraw." — If it be 
well got, the Smaller butts will be eaten up 
clean. The offal makes excellent litter for 
the farm-yard j and is ufeful for bottoms of 
mows, flacks, &c. &c. 

If we confider the nature of rape, how 
nearly it is allied to the turnep, and how 
grateful to cattle while in a green ftate, it is 
TiD wonder that the pods, and finer parts of 
the fterns mould be acceptable to them, in a 
ilate of drynefs. Setting fire to the whole in 
the field is a barbarous practice which ought 
to be exploded. 

Objectionable, however, as the- common 
mode of harveflmg rape, in this country, un- 
doubtedly is, it has, during time immemo- 
rial, been implicitly adhered to (the inftance 
iaft-mentioned only excepted) until this year 
(1787), when an improvement has taken 
place, which bids fair to efFecl a revolution, 
in this department of the hufbandry of the 
Vale. 

In 



Y O R K S H I R 7.. <£ 

In this sd method, the rape : 

BOUND IN SHEAFLETS, 

heat fheaves, with gre e 
of rape, or with long _::.:: or other 
with which the ftut 
abou; 

Thefe (heanets are laid li '.: 

f the ble to dry, not fet up in 

ilooks, above noticed. 

d they are hai-i \ th are, or : 
to be, tamed ; fully d 

STACKED lit THE Fill?. 

The fliea - .: to the ftack in 

fledges; each lledge being fiirniihed wit 
cloth 1 large 

» about four fee: above the b 
e, which hi and drawn by one 

horle. Thefe fiei;-: . that is to 

fay, the bags are rilled, by women, and are 
:n to the flacks, bybc • riding udoh the 
. ; . A large cloth is fpread by the fide 
ftack, for emptying the fledges u 
which is done by overturning them; lb that 
no time is loft, either by the fledges, or 
ftackers. A large field of rape is icon got 
together, in this way. 

When it is thus ficured in ftack, and has 
taken its .--".:: in tbejlraw s it remains at the 

option 



44. RAPE SEED. 

option of the owner to thrafh it when, where, 
and in what manner he pleafes ; that is, as 
markets, leifure, and other circumflances may 
direct him. It is obfervable, that rape feed, 
cured in flacky generally turns out a fine 
fample. 

One thing relative to this practice is too 
remarkable to pafs unnoticed. It has been 
an ejiablijhed, and, I understand, the ordinary 
prdBice, during many years, of a Diftrict (the 
Egton quarter of the Morelands) iituated 
not more than ten miles from that part of the 
margin of the Vale (Lockton) at which it 
this year made its entry ! 

This is a {hiking inftance of the flow pro- 
grefs, which practices in hufbandry, howfor 
ever excellent, have hitherto made, in txa-? 
veiling from one Diftrict to another. 

HOW ESSENTIALLY NECESSARY, THEN, 
IT IS TO REGISTER THEM, ACCURATELY 
AND FULLY, IN THE DISTRICTS OF THEIR 
ORIGIN, OR IN PLACES WHERE THEYHAVE 
REACHED THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF PER- 
FLATION, AND TO DISTRIBUTE SUCH RE- 
GISTERS, RECIPROCALLY, AMONG THE 
i \RIOUS DISTRICTS OF THE ISLAND. 

TIL MAR- 



YORKSHIRE. 45 

VII. MARKETS. There are no oil mills 
in the Vale. The only market is Malton, 
from whence rape feed is fent, chiefly I be- 
lieve, into the manufacturing part of the 
county, where oil mills are numerous. 

The price, ten to thirty pounds a laft, 
of ten quarters. 

VIII. The PRODUCE of a middling 
crop is four quarters an acre : five quarters 
an acre have not unfrequently been produced. 

General Observations on the Cul- 
ture of Rape Seed. 

The fluctuation of price, which rape fe^d 
is fubject to, being in fome meafure, perhaps, 
influenced by the fuccefs of the Greenland 
fifhery, and the hazard to which the crop is 
expofed, render it in a degree uncertain. 

Frosts, in fpring, when rape is in blow, 
or in the critical ftate between the bloflbming 
and the formation of the pods, are its greateil 
enemies. In the fpring of 1783 much mif- 
chief was done by frofls, in May. One 
perfon had a piece of twenty acres almofl 
deftroyed by it. In the beginning of May, 
this crop promifed eight or ten pounds an 
acre : the foil rich, the crop on the ground 
good, and the price above par. In the wane 
of May, the twenty acres v/ere offered for 

twenty 



4 6 RAPE SEED. 

twenty pounds ! a lofs of one hundred and 
fifty to two hundred pounds, in one article,- 
and perhaps in one night ! 

But every crop is fubject to hazard, and to 
a fluctuation in price ; and although rape be 
liable to be cut off by froit, it rarely is de- 
ftroyed by that means. Upon the whole, it 
may be coniidered as one of the mod: pro- 
fitable crops in huibandry. There have been 
infbnces, en cold unproductive old paflure 
lands, in which the produce of the rape crop 
has been equal to the purchafe value of the 
land. 

This prcduetivenefs, or, in ether words, 
the profitableness of the rape crop, is, how- 
ever, held out by fome men as an objection 
to its culture, under an idea that it mull im- 
poverifh the foil. 

Does not every produBvue crop impoverijh 
the foil ? \ et who will argue that good crops 
are lefs eligible than bad ones ? A good crop 
enables the farmer to replenifh and meliorate 
his foil, with manure and tillage, which 
ought (generally fpeaking) always to be in 
proportion to the recent produdtivenefs of 
the foil, and to the ftate of foulnefs and tilths 
in which the nature of recent crops have 
placed it. 

if, 



YORKSHIRE. '4% 

If, in the culture of rape, the foil be per- 
mitted to lie undifturbed, either by the plow 
or the hoe, from feed time to harveft, fuf- 
fering weeds of every fpecies to mature and 
fcatter their feeds, and to gain an eftablifh- 
ment in the foil ; and if, at harveil:, the ftraw 
be burnt in the field, and the allies be fent 
to market, rape is in truth an impoverishing 
crop. 

But were the foil to be plowed, in autumn, 
and to be hoed during the enfuing fummer ; 
and were the flraw, <$cc. inftead of being 
burnt, to be confumed in the farmyard, as 
fodder and litter, I am of opinion that rape, 
in many cafes, would be the mofl eligible 
crop the farmer could make choice of*. 

POTA- 

* Whether oleaginous or farinaceous crops — wheth*r 
"five quarters of rape or live quarters ©f wheat an acre — 
incur the greater impoverishment of foil, is a fubjecr, which 
is yet in the hands of theory- While the food of vegetables,, 
and the vegetable economy at large, are fo little underftood, 
as they appear to be at prefent, all argument reflecting 
the comparative impoverifhment of the foil, by different 
fpecies of vegetable?, muft be futile. 



43 POTATOES. 



22. 
POTATOES. 

CONSIDERABLE quantities c: Potatoes 
are raifec, in the Di. trier, under furvey. 
Almofl cverr m^, let his farm be ever :o 
final!* cultivates : in the field : not 

in the ordinary method, praabiied in meft 
Diltridsoft riom: I rWc', 

but with the plow : a practice which 
been followed, invariably, for near a center.-: 
I do not mean to f :f it as a pracricc 

iliar to York::: ire ; but, I believe, there 
is do other c : lint r in which it evalent. 

It therefore merits partici '. 

It wOl b e ne :eir; ry :: : :r.ild -ately, 

I. The Sj r Variety. 

II. The Succeiuon. 

III. Tl I and Tillage. 

IV. The Manure ufe 

V. The Seed and Setting, 
VI. Cleaning the Crop. 
VII. Harveftinff. 

o 

VIII. Pre:":r- Roots. 

IX. Pro- 



YORKSHIRE. 49 

IX. Produce. 

X. Markets ; or Application of Pro- 
duce. 
XI. The ErTeft of the Potatoe Crop 
on Soils. 

I. There is only one SPECIES of Potatoe 
«— solanum tuberofitm : — but the varie- 
ties of that fpecies are endlefs. Every 
county has its favorite kinds ; though very 
different from one another. To enumerate 
the forts, of any particular Diftrict, would be 
filling the page with barbarous terms, with- 
out conveying any ufeful information to the 
reader. 

The varieties of potatoes are tempo- 
rary, in every District; having their entrances 
and their exits. The rough-fkinned " Rufia 
taty" of this District was long a favorite 5 
but is now, I believe, with many others that 
have flourished for a time, entirely loft. 

There is fome reafon to believe, that the 
difeafe, which has of late years been fatal to 
the potatoe crop, in this and other Diftricls, 
under .the name of the curl, or " curled 
tops," has arifen from too long a conti- 
nuance of declining 'varieties, Be this as it 
may, it appears to be an opinion, eftablimed 
here, by fome years experience, that frefi 

Vol. II. E varieties. 



50 POTATOES. 

varieties, raifed from feed, are not liable to 
that difeafe. 

This matter, however, may not yet be fuf- 
ficiently afcertained, to be regiftered here as 
a fact. This difeafe made its appearance, 
fome vears ago, with more or lefs effect, in, 
I believe, every part of the kingdom. In 
fome parts of it, its continuance was mort ; 
its effects have ceafed ; and are now almoft 
forgotten. In one inilance (which I may 
have occaiion to mention in another place), 
its removal was, in all probability, owing to 
the introduction of new varieties. 

The Diftrict under furvey furnifhes a re- 
markable inftance, refpecting this difeafe. 
The Morelands are, at prefent, in a manner 
free from it, while the Vale is ftill, in fome 
degree, infected with it. Plants procured, 
from the Morelands, remain free from it, in 
the Vale, the firfi year ; but, being con- 
tinued, become liable to the difeafe. 

The difeafe of curled tops is feldom ob- 
vious, at the firit coming up of the plants ; 
but attacks- them as they increafe in fize ; 
the entire top becoming dwarfifh and fhri- 
velled, as if affected by drought, or loaded 
with infects : they neverthelefs live, and in- 
creafe, though flowly, in fize ; but the roots 

are 



YORKSHIRE. $t 

are unproductive. Some crops have been 
almoft wholly deftxoyed by this difeafe. 

Where the attack has been partial, weeding 
cut the difeafed -plants, as they failed, is faid 
to have had a good effect. And, it is /aid, 
the Morelanders got rid of the difeafe> 
through this means. 

The method of raising potatoes from 
seed is known to fome intelligent hufband- 
men, here. The prevailing method is this : 
— In autumn, when the apples are beginning 
to fall fpontaneoufly, they are gathered, by 
hand, and preferved, in fand, until fpring, 
when they are mafhed, among the fand, or 
among frefh mold ; feparating the feeds, and 
mixing them evenly with the mold. As 
foon as fpring fro lis are judged to be over, 
they are fown, in fine garden mold ; and, as 
fail as the plants get into rough leaf, and are 
flrong enough to be handled without injury, 
they are tranfplanted, from the feed bed, into 
another bed of frefh rich mold — in rows * 
which are kept clean, during the fummer. 
In autumn, bunches of fmall potatoes are 
found, at the roots of thefe plants ; varyino- 
in fize, the firft year, from the hazel nut to 
the crab. Thefe being planted, next fpring, 
produce potatoes of the middle fize -, but 

E 2 they 



$2 POTATOES. 

they do not arrive at their fulleit bulk, un- 
til the third or the fourth year. 

Where the ufe of the itove, or the garden- 
frame, can be had, this procefs may be 
fhortened. The feeds being (own within 
either of thefe, early in fpring, the plants 
be fit to be planted out, as foon as frofts are 
gone ; by which means the fize of the roots 
will be much increafed, the firir year ; and 
will, in the fecond, rife nearly to perfection. 

Potatoes, railed from feed, are a mifceiiany 
of endlefs varieties. Sometimes, thefe va- 
rieties are planted promifcuou fly ; fometi: 
particular varieties are feiected. 

In selecting varieties, from feedling 
potatoes, two things are to be attended to; 
the intrinsic quality of the pctatoe, 
and its productiveness. If thefe two de- 
niable properties can be found, in one plant, 
the choice is determined. To this lbecies 
of attention, and induftiy, we are indebted 
;':: the many valuable kinds, which have 
been, and now are, diilributed throughout the 
IflancL 

It is obfervable, however, that varieties of 

potatoes like thofe of corn, are partial tp 

ir foils and fituations. Hence, the 

propriety of bujbandmen railing potatoes from 



YORKSHIRE. ss 

feed ; as by this means they obtain, with a 
degree of moral certainty, a fort adapted to 

ir owri particular foils and fituations . 

But it has been already obferved, that 

5 degenerate : the old favorite forts of 

this Diftricr, were driven, until fome of the 

individual plants barely produced their feed 

a&aih. 

Whoever has attended clofcly to the work 

of taking-up potatoes, mult have obferved, 

great ins p.. the produftrocnefs of 

:il plants. The difference in the 

•ce of adjoining roots, where no dif- 

paritv of foil can influence, will fcmetimes 

be three cr four fold. Hence, it is evident, 

that each variety has its sub-varieties : 

through whoie means, it can hardly be 

doubted, the parent variety may be improved) 

and its cohti : be prolonged. 

Thus, the farmer has another mean in his 
power, of improving the quality and produc- 
tive nefs of his potatoe crop, by improving 
varieties, cr, in other words, see ec tin c, 
sub-varieties, fuperiorly adapted to 
foil and fituation. 

Every attentive cultivator of this valuable 
root rauft be acquainted with the wic e dif- 
ference, in neat profit, between a full and 

E 3 even 



54 POTATOES. 

even a middling crop. The rent of land, the 
feed, and the labor are the fame, whether 
the produce prove great or fmall. How im-s 
prudent, then, to propagate an unproductive 
kind, when the means of obtaining a pro- 
ductive one are fo eafy and obvious. 

II. SUCCESSION. In the common prac- 
tice of the country, potatoes are cultivated as 
a fallow crop for wheat.- the cleaned 
part of a Hubble, or other ground, intended 
to be fummer fallowed for wheat, being fet 
apart for potatoes. They are feldom planted 
on sward ; the common predeceffor cf the 
potatoe crop, in molt other places. It is, 
however, underflood, here, that they do beft 
upon "fresh land;" that is, land which 
not been too long under the plow. 

III. SOIL and TILLAGE. Formerly, 
potatoes were confined to light friable loams: 
and the forts which were cultivated, in thofe 
days, might require this refraction : now, 
they are grown in all foils ; different varieties 
being found partial to different land. It is 
obferved, however, that let the fort be ever 
fo well adapted to the foil, beany cold land 
feldom gives light well flavored potatoes. 

The foil is broken-up, in winter or fpring, 
and worked-over, two or three times, with 

the 



YORKSHIRE. 55 

the plow and harrow, as for turneps ; getting 
it as fine, as the nature of an early fpring 
fallow will admit of. 

IV. MANURE. Dung: generally long 
ftrawy dung ; which is fet in heaps, upon or 
near the patch to be planted ; previouily to 
the feed plowing. The y is twenty 
to thirty cart loads, an acre. 

V. SETS and PLANTING. Formerly, 
it was the common practice of the Diitxict to 
plant ivbok potatoes. In taking up potatoes, 
they were forted, into large, fmall, and Jets? 
which were of the middle lize. 

At prefent, that practice is, I believe, en- 
tirely laid aiide : it being the cuflom, now, to 
cut potatoes, into more than one fet : name- 
ly, middle-lized ones into two, large ones 
into three or four ; leaving the cuttings much 
larger, than is done in mol other Diftri 
where eight or ten iingle-eyed lets are fome- 
times cut out of one pctatoe. 

The reafon given for the life of large 
cuttings is, that the young plants may 
acquire, at die outlet, a ltxong vigorous habit, 
and thereby be enabled to throw out and 
maintain a furricient number of roots and 
branches. And the reafon I have heard 
given for uilng large potatoes, in preference 

E 4 to 



56 POTATOES. 

to {mailer one?, is, that " large ones are more 
likely to produce large ones again." The 
reafbning, in both cafes, appears to be good. 

The. lets being ? re pared, the Jeed plowing 
is riven. In this plowing, the land-is laid up 
in rjdgets, fimilar to thofe in which gardeners 
leave the (oil, in the operation called trench- 
ing, when it is not intended to be imme- 
2 :ped. The mdih of thefe ridgets 
depends on the judgement of the planter; 
from two and a half to three feet is the ufual 
width. 

This operation is performed with a com- 
mon plow, in the way in which rice- balking, 
Faltering, or half plowing, is ufually done; 
end- ag to leave the bottoms of the 

drills/;-. . . .: . and .:v. One itrong 
fe, if the foil be light and fine, or two 
horfc ; . anc the other, if ctherwife, is 

the t m for this work. Horfes abreaft 

are apt to foul the drills. The ofual depth 
: : that af the : ted foil. 

In thefe drills, the lets are drcr:, by women 
, :: twelve to eighteen inches diitance, 
according to the judgement of the farmer. 
If the quantity of land be given, and the 
bomber of lets be indefinite, twelve inches 
may be a faffiricnt diitance j but if, as [s 

generally 



YORKSHIRE. 57 

generally the cafe Jiere, the quantity of land 
be greater in proportion, than the number 
of fets, the farther they are planted afiinder, 
the greater will be the produce in proportion 
to the plants. 

While one party are planting, another are 
carrying on the dung, in fcuttles ; either 
fcattering it regularly along the drills, or ap- 
plying it partially to the plants; covering 
each fet with its due portion of manure. This 
may appear to be a tedious bufmefs ; it cer- 
tainly is a dirty one : but not fo tedious as 
inexperience may fuggeit.. If the loads be 
broken into three or four heaps, and thefe 
be diit.ribut.ed conveniently, five or fix wcmen 
will plant and cover an acre, a day, in this 
manner. 

The plow clofes the bufmefs of planting: 
the ridges are either returned upon the plants 
and dung, with a common plow, or are iplit, 
with a double-mold-board plow ; i:i either 
ci'~e, railing the foil into ridge ts., over the 
drills of potatoes. 

VI. CLEANING THE CROP. As 
foon as the young plants make their appear- 
ance, the land is harrowed, lengthway of the 
ridges ; to tear up the feed weeds which grew 
upon their crowns, and to fmother thole id 

the 



5 8 POTATOES. 

the trenches, with the mold. In a fhort time 
afterward, the plow, with the mare broad 
and fharp, is run through each interval, and 
the rows cleaned with the hoe. In a few 
weeks more, the intervals are again ftirred, 
with the plow, throwing the earth towards 
the plants, and the hand hoing repeated. If 
leifure and the depth of the foil will permit, a 
fecond earthing may be given; and, when 
the plow and the hoe are no longer able to 
find admimon among the tops, hand weeding 
is, or ought to be, made life of. 

By thefe means, land may be as effectually 
cleaned from feed weeds, as by fallowing ; 
and no man, who has any regard for his own 
iRtereft, or for his character as a farmer, 
would ever think of planting potatoes, in a 
bed of couch and tbijiles. 

VII. HARVESTING. Formerly, pota- 
toes were taken up with the plow ; endea- 
vouring to get the mare below the potatoes, 
and to overturn the ridges. But, without 
great care, many potatoes were cut, in this 
operation, andmanymore unavoidably buried j 
fo that picking, again and again, was necef- 
fary; and, at laft, fome were left in the land. 

At prefent, the prevailing practice is to 
take them up with common dung forks : an 

operation 



YORKSHIRE. 59 

operation which is, at once, effectual ; and 
which is by no means Co tedious, when pota- 
toes are grown in ridges, as when in the ordi- 
nary way, the entire ground is to be dug over. 
In ridges, the roots are diftincl, and are eafily 
laid bare ; being open on three fides, with 
free vent for the mold. The fork being 
forced down behind them, the whole nidus 
are at once expofed. 

VIII. The way of PRESERVING PO- 
TATOES, here, has been either to bury 
them, in deep pits, within the ground ; or 
to houfe them, in a barn or ether out-build- 
ing, guarding them on every iide with draw. 
The dangers to be guarded againft zxtfrofls 
and wet. 

At prefent, (the evil effects of deep pits 
having been difcovered) the growing practice 
feems to be that of laying them in long 
ridge-like heaps, upon the Surface of arable 
ground, and covering them up, with the 
furrounding foil, ridged-up in a roof-like 

form. 

A long arched vault, running end- 
way into the lide of a hill (or the fide of a pit 
or other hollow) with a door at the end, 
level with the ground below; with a road 
pyer the top ; and with one or more mooting 

holes, 



- ? : : a : : : i 

holes, fimik: to thofe of coal vaults u 

the ."::"::. ::" :: ■ / ■■ : -.: be it. e.i; 

:. MARKETE sr.d APPLICATION. 
In *" :? :::: •:: zr.t D'.:zriC". 
-•:• "-.■ •-:.-.-. ix:t~' -:z: At? in :he :::.-;• 

:he - : ;..:: ;*: :■:" r::i::e; :•: 
^fcf£ extenfive. In //v> Diibid. z are 

almoft the only fpecies to which they are 
i r _ L - i . 5 .~.e :V.v i-e z'-j.-z- :: r?'.v:. 
But in the bottom of the Vale of York^ 
: Lite ";:::. beer. -:> - 
plied to be i atting of gattle. They 
are, I believe, invariably given to them : 
: ,eals of hay or ground ba 
the method of fatting, with potatoes, being 
liinilar to that of fatting, with tumeps. 

The quantity of pota- 
upon an acre, under the mar._ go- 
at above defcribed, I have not been 
.mate enough to afcertain, with fumcient 
[t is niuch leis than what arlfes 
oldgrals land, dug over with the ipade, 
sn.i f.Le- ■-■.:>_ rlir.:.., :: i: :h; ::>;:.: = :f 

tlk MIDLANI : : - . TIBS. 

;;;. tub effect c? potai : - 

LAN! ' irious are the r.s of 

-:": l ne -'.- 



YORKSHIRE. 6i 

ferts that they are great impouerijkers of the 
foil-, that they are hurtful to the corn, and 
ruinous to the graft, which fucceeds them. 
Another is clearly of opinion, that they are 
friendly to com, and not enemies to grafs. 

The difpute may, perhaps, be fettled, fatis- 
factorilv, in this manner. 

The potatoe contains, indifputably, a great 
quantity of nuurimment ; and is therefore, 
perhaps, as indifputably, a great exhaufter of 
the foil. 

But the quantity of vegetable ncuriihment 
carried off, in the potatoe crop, is not the 
only cauie of exhauftion : it is notorious to 
common obferv?.tion, that this crop leaves 
the foil in a angularly friable fertile fate ; 
caufing an abundant produce of the crop 
which fucceeds it. 

If, taking the advantage of this prodigality 
of the foil, the hufbandman keeps cropping it, 
year after year, with corn, — and, when it 
will no longer anfwer his unreasonable ex- 
pectations, lays it down to grafs, — it is no 
wonder that it mould be unproductive : for 
having lavimed aii its riches en an ;. igr iteful 
occupier, it is oi ccurfe reduced to the ex- 
treme or poverty. 

On 



62 POTATOES. 

On the contrary, — if, after a crop of pota-» 
toes well dunged for, only one cr two crops 
of corn be taken, and the land laid down to 
grafs, wb3e . rf . . .: ftaie of . , the pota- 

toe crop is, to vulgar apprehenfion at lealt, 
friendly to the crops which iucceed it. 

Hence it follows, that lard which has been 
cropped with potatoes mould, prefently after- 
ward?, be laid down to gra/s ; or ihould be 
t plenijb e d, with a quantity of manure, 
proportioned to the degree of exbaujhn it has 
undergone. 

General Observations'. 

The value of potatoes as a FALLOW 
CROP, and a; an article of FOOD FOR 
CATTLE, compared with turneps and 
for :'.:e lame ru-oofes, may be 
th • s : 
Potatoes are maft nutritious, and, in 
opinion of thole who have ufed them, fat cat- 
Mich ■•.'.: \ I titer turneps or cab- 

. ; . r : ?, bti ing fc -cured from the 
cities cr winter, are a more certain article 
:. tkantocneps 0f cabbages: both of 
which are liable to periih, under an alternacv 
of froftand tha and the tumep, more pc r- 

ticularlv, 



YORKSHIRE. 63 

ticularlv, is locked up, or rendered tfiffi 
to be come at, during a continuance of mow 
orfroil. Turneps and cabbages, if they oat- 
weather the Severities of winter, occupy the 

foil in the fpring, when it is wanted to be 
prepared for the fucceeding crop ; while po- 
tatoes, if properlv laid up, are a : 
may be continued without inconvc 
until the cattle be nniihed, or the grais has 
acquired the requiiite bite for hnifhing them 
in the field. 

On the other hand, potatoes are a difagree- 
able crop to cultivate : the planting is a tedi- 
cus dirty buiinefs -, and taking them \vp, may 
be called the hlthieil work of husbandry ; 
efpecially in a wet autumn ; and ftill more 
efpecially, on a tender teru : while, 

upon weak thin land, the extraordinary quan- 
tity of manure, which is requiiite, renders 
them impracticable to be cultivated, on a 
large fcale, in ordinary iituations. 

Upon the whole, i: appears to be evident, 
from the information I am at preie.it in 
feffion of, that the three crops under con- 
federation are each of them fuperiorlv eli- 
gible, when they are cultivated on the soils, 
to which they are peculiarly, and reipectivelv, 
adapted. 

A flrong 



64 POTATOES. 

A ftrong tenacious foil is equally unfit for 
potatoes and turneps, while it is fingularly 
adapted to cabbages. 

Light, (hallow, unproductive foils are equal- 
ly unfit for potatoes* and cabbages ; while, 
with gocd husbandry, turneps may be grown 
on them with advantage. 

Rich, found, deep, iandy loams are accept- 
able to the three. But the pot a toe appears 
to be porlerTed of fome fuperior properties, 
which render it, at leait, an object of experi- 
ment, in clean rich soils, as a fallow 
crop on a large icale, and as a food of farm 
{lock. 



*3 



FLAX. 

WITHIN the lafr. twenty years, a confi- 
derable quantify of rlax has been grown, in 
the Vale. The richer pax ts of it are not ill 
adapted to this crop ; but whether thefe 
are now gene over, or whether the re- 
:;:.:~tions of landlords have checked the fpirit 

of 



VbRKSHIRE. 65 

of cultivation, the culture 6f it is, now* 6'viv. 
dently on the decline. 

The flax crop, however* being confined to 
a few individual Diftri&s, it may be proper 
to give the outline of its management, in this; 
although it cannot here be called a ftaple 
crop. I will juft mention, 

1. The Species cultivated. 

2. Soil and Succemon. 

3. Soil Procefs and Manure; 

4. Semination. 

5. Vegetating Procefs. 

6. Management of the Produce. 

7. Markets. 

I. SPECIES. We have only one species 
of cultivated flax — linum ujitatijjimum. — The 
variety > cultivated here, is the blue* blow, or 
lead-coloured flax—- provincially, *' blea 
Line." 

II. SOIL and SUCCESSION. Flax re- 
quy-esamcH drysoil. Deep fatfandyloam 
is perhaps the only foil, on which it is here 
cultivated with advantage^ 

Old grass land, bearing this defcrip- 

tion, is confidered as the propereft matrix for 

line. It is not unfrequently, however, fowiioti 

arablelandj and, when the foil is in heart, 

Vol. II, F dry. 



66 FLAX. 

dry, friable, and free from weeds, with good 
fuccefs. 

III. TILLAGE and MANURE. The 
soil process generally confifts of a Jingle 
plowing , whether of fward or of wheat 
ftubble. 

In the latter cafe, however, it is moftly 

bad management. If line be fown on old 

corn-la?id, it ought, in general, to be cleaned 

from weeds, and rendered / friable, by 

a well worked fallow. 

Manure is, I believe, feldom, if ever, fet 
on, immediatelv for the line crop. 

IV. SEMINATION, i. The time of 
sowing, May. 2. The preparation of 
the soil. Much depends on the ftate of 
the foil at the time of fowing. It mould 
neither be very wet nor dry ; and the farface 
ought to be made as fine as that of a garden 
bed. Not a clcd the fize of an egg mould 
be left unbroken. 3. Quantity of seed, 
two bufhels an acre. 4. Covering the 
Seed. Sometimes, the furface is raked (after 
being firft harrowed) with garden or hay 
rakes. If, at the fame time, the clods and 
other obstructions, which could not eafily be 
reduced, were drawn into the interfurrows, 
the operation would be ilill more complete. 

A light 



YORKSHIRE. i; 

A light hand roller, ufed between the final 
harrowing and the raking, would afTiil much 
in this intention. 

V. The VEGETATING PROCESS 
depends, chiefly, on careful weeding ; an 
operation which ought to be performed, 
with great icrupulouiheis. Hence, land 
which' is Town with flax mould be made as 
free from weeds as pomble ; otherwife, the 
expence of weeding, or the injury to the 
crop, becomes confiderable. 

If, through a droughty Jeajor., the plants 
come up in two crops ; or if, by any other 
accident, or by mifmanagement, the plants 
be too thin upon the ground, the crop is irre- 
parably injured. 

The nature of flax is fuch, that where it 
has room at the root, or whenever it gets its 
head above the plants which furround it, it 
fends out fide branches, and lofes, in a great 
meailire, its upward tendency. But its good- 
nefs, as a crop, depends on its running up, 
with one jingle ft alk, from the root to the feed. 
'At ver height it ramifies , there the length 

of line terminates. The branches are necef- 
iarily worked oft in dremng ; and the llem 
itfelf, unlefs it bear a due proportion to the 

F 2 bulk 



63 FLA X. 

bulk of the crop, is likewise worked out 
among the refufe. 

Hence, the neceflity of having an even, 
fill crop. Clods, before the fowing, by- 
making the feeds glance in falling, prevent 
the furface from being evenly feeded; and 
thoie which remain, when the feeds are in 
the ground, prevent them from riling regu- 
larly. The infant plants, unable to pierce 
the clod, form themfelves in a circle round 
it, leaving a vacancy in the center, favorable 
to their early ramification. 

This being the nature of the plant, 2.fecond 
coming up feldom rifes to profit; for, being 
overgrown by the fpreading plants of the firft 
crop, it remains weak, mort, and underling, 
and, at pulling- time, is left Handing upon the 
land. Thus, by a droughty feedtime, the 
entire crop may be fpoiled. 

Nor is drought the only enemy of flax: it 
is liable to injur}- from fpringfrojis-, and is 
fometimes attacked, even when it is five or 
lix inches high, by fmall white /lugs ; fre- 
qaeii ippuig off the leaves to the top, 

which, bending down with their weight, they 
will fometimes draw into the ground; thus 
in part checking, and ill part deltroying the 
plants. 

if. 



YORKSHIRE. 69 

If, at the time of weeding, a piece of flax 
do not pro. mife fair for a crop, it is always bad 
management to beitow upon it further labor 
and expence. A crop of turneps, or of rape 
will generally pay much better, than fuch a 
crop of flax. 

VI. MANAGEMENT OF THE PRO- 
DUCE. I. The TIME OF HARVEST, 

in this climature, is generally the latter end 
of July, or the beginning of Auguft. 

2. Criteria of Ripeness. If the crop 
be intended for line of the firft quality, the 
time of pulling is when the feeds are fully 

formed, but not yet ripe. \i the feed be fuf- 
fered to mature, the quality of the flax is 
lowered ; the filaments are harm, and the 
cloth, made from them, will not take a good 
color in whitening. 

3. The " pulling" is dene by laying hold 
of the full-fized plants, near the top, and 
drawing them up, or rather breaking them 
off, by the roots. One hand is uled in pull- 
ing, while the other receives the handfuls ; 
until as much is collected, as both hands can 
grafp. Some trior t underling plants are then 
gathered for a band, with which a fheaflet is 
formed. 

F 3 4. Theft 



70 FLAX. 

4. Thefe fheaflets are collected into heaps, 
and immediately taken to the watering 
pit, in which they are completely immerg- 
ed ; firft- by treading, and afterwards by load- 
ing them with fods, or other heavy materials. 
The immerfion is, or ought. to be, care- 
fully attended to ; for that which happens to 
be expofed, above the furface of the water, 
is materially injured. 

The " iteeping" is continued a longer or 
fhorter time, according to the weather and 
other cireumftances. It ought to lie, until it 
be fufficiently tender, without being rot- 
ten ; but to catch this ftate requires a nicety 
of judgement, which can be learnt from prac- 
tice, only. It generally lies about ten days in 
fteep ; ibmetimes a fortnight. 

5. From the " line pit" it is carried to the 
(< rating ground j" — a piece of unbroken 
aftergrafs, where the fheaflets are untied, and 
the flax fpread thin upon the grafs. It is 
calculated, that a full crop ought to cover as 
much ground as it grew upon. Here it lies 
until it be fufnciently "rated;" namely, un- 
til the more woodlike fubftance of the items 
will feparate, freely, from the filaments or fj ax- 
en fibres, while thefe remain yet untainted ; 
therefore the length of time of rating, like 

that 



YORKSHIRE. 71 

that of ileeping, depends much on the wea- 
ther, and can be afcertained, only, by the 
daily cbfervation of a perfon, whofe judge- 
ment has been matured, by long experience. 

If, when it reaches this ftate, the weather 
be iuch, that it will not drv, as it lies upon 
the grafs, it is fet upon its butts, in parcels 
relembling fugar loaves, or large untied 
gaits. When dry, it is laid up, in a barn, or 
other convenient place, to be " fwingled," 
when leifure and conveniency will permit. 

6. The " swingling" — (and, generally, 
the " flee ping" and the "rating") — is done 
by men who make a buiinefs of it ; travel- 
ling from place to place, wherever flax is 
under cultivation. 

The operation of fwingling is that of fe- 
parating the woody fubitance from the fila- 
ments. To effect this, the rough llubborn 
ftems are mangled in a '* break ;" an inllru- 
ment which breaks the brittle fubftance of 
the iiem — provincially, the " bun" — into 
fragments, without feparating them from the 
filaments. The feparation is effected by 
beating, or rather hewing the mangled flems 
againll: a " fwingling frock" — (an upright 
flout board or ilab) with a " lwingle hand" 
— or wooden broad-axe ; the hvingler, from 

F 4 time 



r? FLA X. 

time to time, drawing out the tow, c: f: 
broken filamer.m by means of a " foot- 
heckle" — (refembling the moll of the flai-r 
drefTers); — and thus uiinr, alternately, the 
(wingle-hand and the heckle, proceeds, until 
the line be rendered fit fix the flax-dreflcr 5 
namely, until the principal part of the rrag- 
ments — prcvi;-.;:aliy, " ihivs" cr ihivers, — 
and the principal part c: the t: T c: :h ::; 
filaments, be extricated; when the flu p 
folded up into handles :":.- file. 

The fwingling is lane, by the Hone, a! i 
price pro portione d :: the length and ftub- 
bornnei's a-f the :::~. Flax, which is :>.::: 
or tough, requires much more labor, than that 
which is longer, or from which the fhifen 
part freely. From eighteenpence to two 
millings, a iter h board and lodging, b 

given for ; ng: a": : at twentypence is 

the cemmen price. The ww4 il way la- 
bor:. 

'"A. MARKETS. A marmfactory cf 
coarfe liner. op in the Vale, a 

market 1; a: hand. The arice c: 

rpogh £ ax varie . with foreign market:, and 

.a.: rinfic :_-.ality. Seven t: eight (hillings 
: ::.a; ::*:": artee.n rmar.ds may. I believe, 



YORKSHIRE. 73 

be confidered as a medium price. From 
thirty to forty flones, an acre, a middling 
crop. 

General Observations on Flax as a 
Crop, in England. 

From this fketch of the culture and ma- 
nagement of flax, it appears, that the good^. 
nefs of the crop depends in fome meafure 
upon its length ; and this upon its evennefs and 
clofenefs upon the ground. The ftems ihould 
be t all ,Jlr aight > zndfendir. Three feet high 
is a good length of item ; and the thickneis 
of a crow quill a good thick nefs. A fine 
ilalk affords more line, and fewer fhivers, 
than a thick one does. A tall, thickfet crop 
is therefore deferable. 

But, unlefs the land be good, a thick 
crop cannot attain a fufficient length of ftem. 
Hence, the folly of lowing flax, on land that 
is unfit for it. 

Neverthelefs, with a suitable soil, a 
fufjiciency of feed, evenly diftributed, and a fa-* 
vorable feafon, flax may turn out a very pro- 
fitable crop. 

The flax crop, however, has its disad- 
vantages : it interferes with harveft, and 
is generally believed to be a great exhauiter 

of 



74 FLAX. 

of the foil, efpecially when it? feed is fuffered 
to mature *. 

Hence, its cultivation, la m ge 

ought to be confined to rich grassland 
Districts, where harveft is a feco:: 
object, and where its exhauition may he 
rather favorable, than hurtful, to fucce:. 
arable crops -> by checking the too great rank- 
nefs of rich, freih-broken ground. 

It is alfo evident, from the foregoing out- 
line, that much judgement is requiiite to the 
right-ordering of flax. No man, therefore, 
ought to attempt its cultivation, on a large 
fcale, until he has himfelf iTudied the various 
proceffes, maturely, in a Diilrict where it is 
cultivated, cr has procured, from fuch a 
country, a perfon who is enured to them, by 
long practice. 

But no prudent man will put himfelf to 
either of thefe inconveniencies, before he has 
tried, by (mail experiments, whether his 
soil be fuiiiciently affected ey flax, to 
enfure, under r: magement, and a 

_d feafon, z moral certainty of a crop. 

* ;.-. , -.:v Qieafiets are ."-.: up in ftoafcs, in the 

field, ar.d, when dry, are c tied to :he barn, thrafhed ; . rafrdj 

• ne flax. 



YORKSHIRE. 75 

2,4. 

TOBACCO. 

SOME YEARS ago (moftly in the year 
1782) large patches of tobacco, together 
amounting to many acres, were grown, in 
this Vale : and, in the Vale of York, a mil 
greater quantity was cultivated. 

In this DiflricT:, it did not excite the notice 
of legal authority : in the richer parts of the 
Vale, where the greateft quantity was raifed, 
it was cured, and manufactured, by a man 
who had formerly been employed, upon the 
tobacco plantations of America ; and who not 
only cured it properly, but gave it the proper 
cut, and finally prepared it for the pipe and 
pouch f 

But, in the Vale of York, the cultivators 
of it met with lefs favorable circumftances. 
Their tobacco was publicly burnt, and them- 
felves feverely fined, and imprifoned. Penal- 
ties, it was faid, were laid to the amount of 

thirty thoufand pounds *. 

This 
* The penalty, I believe, is 10L a rod, or 1600I, an 
acre ! 



76 TOBACCO. 

This was enoujh to put a flop to the il- 
legal cultivation of tobacco. But, perhaps 
rather unfortunately, it has likewife put a 
flop to the cultivation of that limited quantity, 
which the law allows to be planted, for the 
purpofes of " phyfic and chirurgy." 

The quantity of land allowed to be culti- 
• vated for thefe purpofes is, I believe, half 
a rod, which is full fifteen square 
yards of ground; a patch of ground fuf- 
ficient, under proper management, to raife 
tobacco enough, for all the medical purpofes 
of a farm houie ; in which it is, on many 
occalions, ufeful. In cutaneous diforders of 
cattle and fheep, it is univerfally applied. 

I will, therefore, jult fet down fuch par- 
ticulars, reflecting its cultivation in this 
neighbourhood, as I collected in the autumn 
uf 1782. I had not an opportunity of feeing 
the plants on the ground. 

The species was probably Nicotiana 
rufticGy the English tobacco; fo called 
from the circumftance of its being the firfl 
fpecies cultivated in England. 

Tht feeds were procured at the feed mops, 
and handed about, from one cultivator to 
another.. 

The 



YORKSHIRE. 77 

The feed-bed, as rich and fine as poflible. 

The time of forcing, as foon as the weather 
became warm enough, to make it vegetate : 
moftly, in April. 

When the feedling plants were ftrong 
enough to bear removing:, thev were tranf- 
planted from the feed-bed, to the patch on 
which they were intended to fland. 

In the practice of one, they were planted 
out in the quincunx manner, a foot alunder : 
in that of another, in rows, two feet apart, 
and one foot alunder in the rows. 

In both cafes, they were carefully AW, and 
kept free from weeds, during the fummer. 

In autumn, when the flowers began to 
drop off, they were cut and dried in the fiade. 

When dry, the leaves were picked off', and 
prejfed down clofe, in cafks or other veflels. 

The fpring of 1782 being late, the plants 
did not, upon weak foils, reach maturity be- 
fore the frofts began to fet in. Hence, a rich 
forcing: foil feems to be necefTarv to the cul- 
ture of tobacco, in this climate. 

The vegetation, however, may be greatlv- 
forwarded, by forcing the feedling plants, in 
a itove or hotbed, and tranfplanting them out, 
as foon as the fro its of fpringare ever. 

A. w 

CUL - 



7 8 CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 






CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 

THE SPECIES of herbage, cultivated 
in this Diftrict, for the purpofes of hay and 
pafburage. are, 

QXover—trifoItuihpratenfe — red clover *. 

White clover — irifolium repens — white 
clover -f. 

Trefoil — medicago lupulina — yellow clo\ er, 
cr trefoil, or nonfuch. 

R y e g ra G — lolium perenne — ray grafs . 

Hay-feeds — bolcus lanatus— foft grafs. 

Rib- grafs — plant ago lanceolate — plantain. 

Cinquefoil— ■ I . r — fainfoin. 

Thefe fpecies are cultivated, feparatelv, or 
mixei, as foils and circuroilances point out. 
T4ie duration of the intended ley is the 

nrft 

* Red clover ; 2 cultivated variety of the meadow 
Trefoil. See Nat. Herbage. 

x White clovi lei variety of the creep- 

ing TItEFOIL. 



YORKSHIRE. 79 

firft thing confidered ; therefore, the prin- 
cipal divifion of the fubjecl: is into 
I. Temporary leys. 
II. Perennial leys. 
III. Sainfoin ley. 

I. TEMPORARY LEYS. The annual 
ley, which is now common in mod parts of 
the kingdom, and the biennial ley, which is 
prevalent in Norfolk, are almoft equally 
ftrangers in this DiftricT:. 

Fallowing for wheat is ftill a common 
practice, here. Clover ftubbles are feldom 
ufed as matrices for that crop. An ill- 
grounded notion prevails, that wheat after 
clover breeds quicks ! 

If land be flocked with couch, when the 
clover is fown, the fucceeding wheat crop, 
no doubt, by occupying the foil fo long with 
only a tingle plowing, increafes the quantity. 
There is no worfe management than fowing 
wheat on a foul clover ley ; but this is no 
argument againft annual leys. If the 
land be clean, when the clover feed is fown, • 
it will as foon- breed fugar canes as quicks. 

In a grafs land country, however, clover 
leys are lefs wanted than tillage ; and, in the 
cooler better-foiled parts of the Vale, they 
may, perhaps, without much impropriety, be 

difpenfed 



£y CULTIVATED HERBAGE; 

diirer.fed with. But, on the drier trL : n> 
lolled lands, which lie upon the marginal 
height?, temporary leys would be found faff 
preferable, to the unproductive, ''meadow?," 
which now occupy a conflderable part of their 
furrace. The Norfolk ryftem of hulbandry 
:o me, to be angularly well adapted 
to the lands of the " high town? ;" the more 
productive parts of which ought not, in my 
opinion, to be permitted to bear more than 
two crops of grain, nor two crops of gra:~ , 

^ceffively. 

II. MIXED PEREXXIAL LEYS. For- 
merly, i:: this as in other Districts, arable 
land was laid to ;:...-. by the mere ceifation 
of g. When land refitted to produce 

corn any longer, it wa? permitted to lie down 
to r,y: - y or, in oth ids, to lie walte. For 

vera] yean, it produced nothing but weeds; 
and thefe, of courfe, of the leaned kind.- 
The wild birds were it? only occupier?. At 
length, however, the graife?. by fome myi- 
tcrious procefs of nature, would begin to 
make their appearance. But their progrefs 
was ilow : it was twenty years* perhaps, be- 
; . re a full crop of th : : re in Bed. 

Before tlie cu. n of gralTes was 

' : rn,hl this Ilia::/ '':.:':. b/r::rcus manage- 
ment 



YORKSHIRE. Si 

mcnt was excufable ; but how this and other 
counties could continue it, more than half a 
century, after the cultivation of them was 
fully eftabliiried, in a county not far diftant 
from them (Norfolk), is a matter of fome 
aftonifhment. Thirty years ago, the culti- 
vated gralles were ftrangers in the Vale. 
The production of perennial leys was left 
wholly to nature ; and, even yet, there are 
fame few individuals, who remain bigots to 
Nature's practice. 

It is, no doubt, a fact, as notorious as it is 
interefting, that all the charming old grafs 
lands, with which this neighbourhood at 
prefent abounds, are of Nature's leying. 
For richnefs and variety of herbage (as will 
appear in the next lection) it is no where, 
perhaps, exceeded. It is alio notorious, that 
there has been very little, if any, well her- 
baged meadow produced, in this Diftrict, 
through the means of artificial grajjes. 

Striking, however, as thefe facts may be, 
they only afford matter of argument, do not 
bring proof, againft the cultivation of 

PERENNIAL LEYS. 

If a foil already exhaujled by corn crops, and 

foul through a want of tillage, be rendered 

ftill fouler, by having the feeds of weeds under 

Vol. II. G the 



Si CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 

the denomination of "hay-feeds," fawn over* 
it ; and if, added to this, the weedy crop, 
which fuch management mull: neceilarily 
afford, be mown, year after year, and the 
produce , carried off , it is no wonder that the 
fward, inftead of improving by age, mould 
annually go oft, and that the foil, at length, 
mould require to be given up again to the 
plow. 

On the contrary, if a foil, naturally fuited 
to grafs, in good heart, and thoroughly 
cleanfed, be fown with the feeds of herbage 
fuitable to its nature, and free from the feeds 
of weeds ; and if, for a few years, the young 
ley be paftured, during the fpring months, 
and the weeds and broken grafs be fwept 
down with the lithe, after Midfummer, a 
well herbaged durable ley may, en a cer- 
tainty, be produced, and this without one 
year's crop being loft. 

The duration of good herbage, how- 
ever, depends much on the nature of the 
soil, and much alio on the ft ate in which 
it has been kept. Land which has been 
kept in tillage, for centuries, is peculiarly 
affected by the gralles, which, under fuch 
circumftances, will flou.-ifh for a leneth of 
time 3 even on foils that are not peculiarly 

adapted 



YORKSHIRE. 83 

adapted to them. Some of the grafs lands 
of this neighbourhood are now growing 
toward a century old j yet, notwithstanding 
they are generally mown, year after year, 
without intermifiion, they are fUll in a 
nourishing flate : not, however, I apprehend, 
entirely owing to the method in which they 
were leyed, but to the land having previously 
been long in a state of aration. 

Neverthelefs, I am of opinion, that the 
variety and clofenefs of the herbage under 
notice arifes, in fome meafure, from the 
method of leying. But taking this for 
granted, and admitting that the produce is 
fomewhat improved, or increafed, by an end- 
lefs variety, and an extreme clofenefs, of 
herbage, no man, without the pale of dotage, 
can confider this advantage, as a full compen- 
fation, for the lofs of, at leafr, ten years* 
crops* 

Of 'late years ', the art of leying land to grafs 
has, in this Diftrict, made rapid ft-rides 
toward perfection. 

In the choice of herbage, judicious 

hufbandmen are guided by the nature of the 

foil to be fwarded. On the fouthern heights, 

where the foil and fubfoil are calcareous, 

sainfoin is cultivated, as a perennial ley. 

G % In 



:■ Cultivated herbage. 

In the Vale, where the foils are non- cal- 
careous, a mixture of grafTes are cultivated 
for that purpofe. 

Formerly, " hayseeds" were in high 
e::::nation, and they have ltill fome few ad- 
vocates left. They confift either of a col- 
lection of gralTes and weeds, as collected from 
the hay-loft, or a lefs foul fe lection of the 
meadow soft grass ; which is cultivated, 
feparately, and thrafhed, as corn, for its 
feeds. 

But this is far from being an eligible grafs 
for cultivation, and is now entirely exploded 
by judicious hufbandmen ; among whom 
raygrass has, at length, grown into due 
estimation ; and has very properly fupplanted, 
in their efteem, the whole tribe of havfeeds*. 

Raygrass, neverthelefs, has ftill its ene- 
mies. But they are either men who are 
unacquainted with it, or who have been un* 
fortunate in their experience. 

If the feeds be foul (as is too generally the 
cafe) the herbage will of courfe be of a bad 
quality. If it be fufFered to run up, in the 
ipring, before ltock be turned upon it, much 

of 

* The growers f t he feeds of the foft £rafs are the 
erfons who have profited by'lts cultivation. Eighty 
bu&els zn acre have been produced. 



YORKSHIRE. 85 

of it will, no doubt, be left uneaten. If fuf- 
fered to ftand too long, before it be mown, 
its hay will, of courfe, be ordinary. Under 
bad management, even the wheat crop is un- 
profitable. But will nny man bring this as 
an argument againft the intrinfic quality of 
wheat, or againft its being proper to be 
cultivated, in foils and fituations to which it 
fe adapted ? 

The feeds of ray grafs fhould be wmnvwed, 
and freed from the feeds cf weeds, with the 
fame fcrupuloufnefs, that is bellowed on 
the feed of wheat, or other grain. 

If ray grafs be intended for pasturage, 
it ought to be eaten, as early in Jpring, as 
the rand will bear flock -, which ought to be 
fo proportioned, that it never be fuffered to 
rife above a moderate bite. . 

If it be mut up for hay, it ought to be 
mown, as foon as the feed-items are fully 
formed ; before the flowers come cut. 

If it be intended for seed, it ought to 
ftand until the flowers be fully blown. But 
it mult not be expected, in this cafe, that the 
firaw will prove hay. Who ever expected 
hay from oats or barley, which flood to mature 
the feedi 

G 3 £• 



S6 CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 

As zfpring food, raycrass is indifputa- 
bly preferable to every other grafs ; and, in 
autumn, it renews its nutritious bite. This 
property, added to its productivenefs, and 
to the facility with which its feeds may be 
collected in quantity, give it a decided pre- 
eminence to every other bladegrafs, at pre^- 
fent known, in thefe kingdoms. 

But raygrafs, like other early graffes, re- 
mains in a great meafure unproductive, du- 
ring the fummer months. This renders it 
improper to be fown alone, for pasturage. 

Wh ite clover, or other fummer herbage ; 
is requifite to be cultivated with it. 

All perhaps that is wanted, in addition to 
thefe, in order to render the bu.finefs of cul- 
tivating perennial leys as nearly perfect as 
common practice may require, is one or more 
summer blade grasses, of a nutritious 
quality and productive growth, and whofe 
feeds may be ealily collected, feparately, from 
the feeds of weeds. 

The meadow or tall fescue (fes- 
tuca elatior) is moft likely to anfwer the 
purpofe. 

The meadow poe (poa pratenfis) has 
fome properties which recommend it iTrongly; 
Jjut its feeds are net eafily feparable. Never- 

thelefs, 



YORKSHIRE. 3; 

thelefs, it might be worth fome pains to cuU 
tivate this grafs. It is ilrictly a j 
grafs. It blows furriciently late, and bears 
drought with uncommon hardinefs. I have 
feen it flourim,cn a wall, throughout iummer. 
And during the drought of 1 7S6, Mr. Curtis's 
botanic garden arlcrded a linking initance 
of its nature, in this reipecr. : it remained 
green, and in growth, while its neighbours 
were moll: of them fcorched up with drougnt. 

This Dillxict has adopted the narrow- 
leaved plantain, as Iummer herbage. 
As an article oipafturagg, for cattle and (heCpj 
it is in high elteem : it is not, however, well 
affected by horles ; and, as an article of bay, 
it is detrimental to the crop ; retaining its 
lap an unufual length of time ; and, when 
fully dry, falls into a imall compals, or is 
broken into fragments, and left behind in the 
field. An advantage of this plant is, that its 
feeds may be ealily procured, in an unadul- 
terated flate. A imall proportion of it may 
be eligible: it has now flood the teft of 
twenty years eftabluhed practice, and feems 
to be frill in good eitimation ; even among 
obfervant huibandmen. 

The mixture of seeds for a perennial 
ley varies, in this Diitricl, with the (pint and 

G 4 judge- 



SS CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 

judgement of the occupier. Some make 
choice of the cheapeft, and imagine a imall 
quantity to be iuificient : while others choofe 
thofe which are mort fuitable to their refpec- 
tive foils, and think they cannot throw on too 
many. 

The roofl prpmifing young perennial ley 
which I have leen, in the Vale, and which is 
ID the occupation of one of the largeft and 
farmen in it, was feeded with the fol- 
I : wing feeds, and proportions, an acre : name- 
lv, fourteen pounds of white clover ; and 
fijarteen pounds of red clover, trefoil, 
id raygrass, mixed in equal 
proportion ; : wei ght 

Bat the more general mixture is fourteen 

pounds of RED clover, white clover, 

trefoil and ribgrass, mixed in equal 

itities; with a builiel or two of ray 

grass, (own feparate'v. 

This, however, is an unnecefiary quantity 

of raygrass; a gallon to a peck, an acre, 

.TMOwed feed, appears in the above 

lance, as well as in the Norfolk practice, 

to b e a fa a a i D 1 1 f fumcient. 

The after M a n a c- e M e n t of perennial 
is, in the ordinary practice of this Dis- 
trict, 



YORKSHIRE. S9 

trict, as it is in that of moft other places, ex- 
tremely injudicious. 

General Remarks on Leying, and 
Breaking up Old Ley Grounds. 

Letting the land lie, eight or ten years, in 
worfe than a ftate of waile is very little wider 
from the line of right management, than 
mowing a young perennial ley, every year, 
and carrying off the produce. They are two 
extremes which ought to be equally avoided. 
One of them is giving up prefent profit, en- 
tirely, for future advantage : the other, re- 
gardlefs of future advantage, is grafping at 
prefent profit. 

In tenants at will, without confidence in 
their landlords, there may be fome excufe for 
fuch management. But they are not, per- 
haps, aware that, by fuch conduct:, they are 
deftroying that confidence which landlords 
ought to have in their tenants : thereby mili- 
tating againft themfelves and their profefiion. 

Landed gentlemen, in general, are tenaci- 
ous of their old grafsland; and with good 
realbn, even though it might, fcr a time, be 
worth thrice the value in a Mate of aration. 

An 



9 o CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 

An inilance occurs in this neighbourhood, 

in which a piece of old grafsland, broken up 

to arable, has thrown out its purchafe value, 

rafsland at the time of breaking up, in the 

ree crops. 

All fward, unlefs the foil be Angularly 
good, the management extraordinary, and the 
manuring? frequent, will in time become un- 
productive. Even the fward of well foiled 
commons, oft which no produce has been 
taken, is, when inclofed, found weak and un- 
profitable. 

.verrhelefs, it may be more prudent, in 
men of landed eftates, to hand down their 
old grafsland, to their fuccelTors, in the irate 
in which it is, than to permit it to be broken 
up and reduced, by improper treatment, to a 
ftate flill lefs valuable. And were there no 

tos of avoiding the evils of improper ma- 
nagement, in tenants, landlords would be 
nted in a rigid refufal of their re- 
:s, to break up fuch grafs-lands, though 
they were unproductive and unprofitable. 

But in the management of aneitate, grass 
lands and hedges fland in nearly the fame 
predicament. It is the tenant's intereft to 
injure them ; and the landlord's bufinefs, of 
courfe, to look to their prejer r cat'mi % 

if, 



•YORKSHIRE. 91 

If, on a farm, already in due proportion, as to 
GRASSLANDand arable, the tenant re qu eft 
to break up a piece of unproductive fward, it 
might be faid to be a duty which the land- 
lord owes, to the community at large, to grant 
his requeft. But it is, at the fame time, a 
duty which he owes, to himfelf, and his fuc- 
ceffors, to oblige him to lay down to grafi 
an equivalent of arable land. Not, how- 
ever, a piece which has been exhaufted and 
rendered foul by a fucceilion of corn crops ; 
but one which is in heart, and has been duly 
cleaned by a whole year's fallow. Not, how- 
ever, by fowing it with foul feeds, or an im- 
proper affortment ; but (where due confi- 
dence cannot be placed in the tenant) with 
clean feeds, furnifhed by the landlord, at the 
tenant's expence. 

The after management calls equally aloud 
for the landlord's attention. If he volunta- 
rily fuffer it to be eaten with fheep, or to be 
poached with other flock, the firft winter; if 
he fuffer the tender bottom grafles to be 
fmothered, in their infant ftate, by the taller 
herbage running up for hay, or the foil to be 
exhaufted, by carrying off a crop during the 
fir ft three years ; or if he permit it, under 
ordinary circumftances, to be afterwards mown 

(except 



52 CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 

(except fweeping off the weeds and broken 
grafs after Midfummer) oftener than every 
fecond year ; — he is doing injuitice, to him* 
felf and the community. 

It mud be underftood, however, that the 
management here recommended is applicable 
only to perennial leys of twenty, fifty, or a 
greater number of years : not to temporary 
leys of one, two, or even five or fix years, 
In this cafe, herbage becomes an arable 
crop, and calls for no other attention than 
that which the ordinary management of an 
eilate requires. 

III. SAINFOIN LEY. This is a peren- 
nial ley ; in the making of which both land^ 
lord and tenant are generally interested. 

The Diilrict under furvey is Angularly fa- 
vorable to the ftudy of fites fit for the culture 
of fainfoin. In fome parts of it, it is cultivated 
with great profit. In ethers, its culture has 
been repeatedly attempted, without fuccefs. 

The fineft fainfoin, I have feen, grows in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Malton. 
Three tons of hay, an acre, are faid to have 
been cut. I have ictn crops, which, to ap- 
pearance, would not afford )e{s~ 

The foil 2. dry calcareous loam, from ten to 
lty inches deep. Thejub 'ml a calcareous 

rubble, 



YORKSHIRE. $3 

rubble, from two to three feet deep ; lying 
on an unfathomed rock of loft limeftone. 
(See Art. Manure.) 

One hundred grains of the cultivatedyar- 
f ace foil of ** Peafy Hill" affords twentyfive 
grains of calcareous matter. 

One hundred grains" of the earthy part of 
the fub foil, among which the plants of fain- 
foin, in all probability, principally feed, con- 
tain fiftynine grains of calcareous earth *. 

The analylis of the rock appears in Vol. I. 

P a g e 3*5- 

About Brompton, in the northeaft quar- 
ter of the Vale, good fainfoin is grown ; but, 
I believe, in no way comparable with that of 
Malton. 

* It has been conceived that fainfoin feeds on the {tones 
themfelves; not on the foil which is tnixt among them, or 
which covers them ; and this has ferved to account for the 
fuperiority of the fainfoin of Malton. But it feems much 
better adapted to the nature of plants to feed among foil, 
than in ftones; efpecially when the foil is of a nature 
fimilar to that of the ftones which mix among it. The 
lower part of the fubfoil, which forms the upper part of the 
rock, is compofcd of fmall ftones mixed with an efHorefcent 
mold, formed in the interfaces of the ftones, which mold is 
olmofi ivkcily calcareous ; fo that the plants, in this cafe, 
"have a fufficiency of calcareous matter to pafture among, 
Without feeding upon the ftones ; which, though fsft y carv 
not, in this cafe, be faid to be fcrou:. 

The 



94 CULTIVATED HIR3AGE. 

The Jml is a b loam ; good turnep 

and barley land ; ; in depth. 

The fubfoUy a calcareous loam ; mixt with 
limeftone, cr with reditone, gravel; and ly- 
ing on a limeilone, or on a redilone rock. 
In either cafe, t. productive of 

fhnrbinj in proportion, it is laid, to the depth 
cf the foil j that is, the depth between the 
furface of the foil and the rock; Jailing 
twenty years, :. 7, according to the 

depth or" th . land. 

One hundrc I of the ■ foil 

(taken from tl veen 

mpton a \ yields ch re e grains of 

calcart ::. 

O d t h u d i .7 of an ad- 

joining inclofure, taken from the top of a 
loofe mixt-fh i .. at about eighteen 
: ; dee , . teen grains of cal- 

. : i : earth. 

Th; i afa nature between that 

: I Lilt _. of Pickering (See Art. 

. L . i i . ' granite o£ a 

The nature, being 

7es, or round 

. 7 : , .: ibftefb 

...... .. One hundred grains. 



YORKSHIRE. 95 

of this red/tone, collected among thejlj 1 above 
analized, yields thirteen grains of calcareous 
matter. The ftone in this cafe porous ; fuf- 
ficiently open for the fibrils of plants to in- 
sinuate themfelves. 

In the neighbourhood of Picker i n g, fain- 
foin has been repeatedly tried ; but, I believe, 
without one inlTance of tolerable fuccefs. 
The plants, I underitand, rofe very well from 
the feed; but never got up to a crop; and 
in a fhort time difappeared. 

On examining a piece of limeflone land, 
which was fown with fainfcin, by my father, 
fome fifty or lixty years ago, I find, in one 
particular part of it, a few plants Hill fur- 
viving. 

To afcertain the nature of the pailurage, 
which could give fiich unufual longevity to 
thefe plants (fuppofing them to be remains 
of the originally cultivated roots), I dug 
down by the fide of two plants, which grew 
within a few inches of each other : one of 
them remarkably healthy, though not luxu- 
riant ; the other, a declining plant ; half of 
its top decayed. 

The roots fixuck downward, perpendicu- 
larly, and parallel to each other; throwing 
out a few fiender fide rootlets. 

Near 



CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 

X:.'.: the thrthre, thev "-fr: ::: rntpir.ird 
h the roots of the burnet, and of the bur- 
net rofe (fee the next fe&ion); neither of 

At the depth of three feet, the root of the 
it . 
bot the fibrils, above, left to fiipport it. 

At fix tt, the vigorous plant reached the 
top of the rock ; or rather, the loole flones 
which lie upon the rock. 

The fields of pafhire of this plant w : - 
evi.t .:. The root was (imply a thong, 
rc;.:::L~2 V::r. ::: :: ':::::::. ; :_re::"r :V::r» 
the fize of a reed to that of a crow-quill. The 
r.rrL: ::. the he v.- ere hr.e -• hiir: excert 
it : : :tt: itf-;. - eii- 

rootlets were thrown out, into a thin 
; r of fomewhat palilh-colored clay ; and 
except at about three feet and a half deep, a 
il:::..ir r:r.iif.::.tl:r. hii ::::. nt-iir. in i hhrh- 
lar b Jt paler-colored earth. At four feet, 
a general ramification had taken place ; the 
main root there feparating into large bran- 
ches ; ffaiking nearly horizontally ; not upon 
the top of a hard impenetrable rock (though 
upon a (lone of about fix inches over) t 
a flratum of frill paler clay ; fome three or 
four inches thick : a proof that it had here 

rr,et 



YORKSHIRE. 9? 

met with a foil fuitable to its nature ; only 
one of its rootlets (not thicker than a Hem of 
raygrafs) having attempted to go lower. 

In tefting the feveral ftrata, I find, that the 
three (earns of clay, alone, difcover fymptoms 
of calcareolity. Neither the topfoil, nor any 
of the intervening ftrata, appear to contain 
any thing of a calcareous nature ; excepting 
fome fragments of clean, hard limeftone, 
which mix, more or lefs-> with the whole. 

One hundred grains, of the uppermofl 
feam of clay, yield feven grains and a half of 
calcareous matter : one hundred of the mid- 
dlemofr, twentythree and a half grains : one 
hundred of the loweil ltratum, the main field 
of pafturage, twentynine grains. 

From the fum of this evidence, and from 
every part of it, it appears, demonftrably> 
that sainfoin delights in calcareous 
earth. And we may almoft infer, with 
equal certainty, that it will not fiourifi in a 
Situation, where both the foil and the fab- 
ftrata are deftitute of calcarecfity. 

In another part of the field, lad under 
notice, the rock rifes to within ten inches of 
the furface ; terminating in flat clean ftones, 
without any admixture of mold or efTloref- 
cent matter; and the foil periectly uncalca- 

Vol. II, H reous* 



98 CULTIVATED HERBAGE. 

rcous. Here, not a Tingle plant of fainfoin is 
to be detected. The plants, probably, did 
not furvive the firil year. 

Much of the limeitone land, above Pick- 
ering, is of a iimilar nature. This accounts 
for the mifcarriages which have taken place. 

Neverthelefs, the tops of ibme of the lime- 
itone quarries (as the Caille Bank) termi- 
nate in loofe ft ones, mixt with grey effloref- 
cent mold, and have flfiures containing ef- 
rlorefcent matter, which, I rind, is purely cal- 
careous. Among thefe, fainfoin no doubt 
would rlourim. There may be confiderable 
patches cf this land ; and they appear to me 
to be well worth fearching for. To throw 
away feed, and perhaps two or three ; 
crops, merely on : . .~:ion, is highly im- 
pmdent. But a few hours, or a few days, 
expended in the fearch of a proper foil, 
might be time well employed. 

The great advantage of sainfoin, 
and that which diitinguiih.es it, in a ftxiking 
manner, fix er crops, is that of its 

feeding, principally, below the field of ordinary 
i bringing up, to the furface, vege- 
table matter, which, without it, would for 
ever have lain ufelefs to agriculture ; and en- 
riching the cultivator, with treafures, which, 

with- 



YORKSHIRE. 99 

without its affittance, might as well have been 
fituated at the earth's center *. While he is 
annually reaping a crop of the moft nutriti- 
ous herbage, agriculture is at prefent ac- 
quainted with, his icil, fo far from being 
exhaufted, is, in all probability, gathering 
ftrength, to enable it to throw out, in future, 
a fucceriion of arable crops : belides the ad- 
ditional advantage, arifing from the quantity 
of manure, which he has been extracting 
from the bowels of the earth, by twenty or 
thirty crops of fainfoin. 



26. 

NATURAL HERBAGE. 

General View of the Subject. 

In a Diftridl where permanent grafs lands 

prevail, and where arable crops may be con- 

iidered as fecondarv or fubordinate to this 
j 

main object of its hufbandry, grass lAnds 

* On the Malton fide of the Vale, the roots of fainfoin 
have been traced to the depth of twelve or fourteen feet. 
I have feen roots, which, ne3r the furface, have been as 
thick as an ordinary walking-cane. 

H 2 AND 



toe N A TUR'AL HERBAGE. 

a:-- thiir IfAMAGEMENT in entitled to 
particular 2: i, in a regiftci of the 

Run. Ec:r. :r.. :: fuch a Diftric~t, they re- 
: -e : be detail, and a penpieuotM ur- 

::r. gement. 

Thii important brat :h of agriculture, as it 
: I :: „"t i in 1 under fur-- df 

:":: nates ml : the folic win 5 fubd e : 

I. Thr f permanent Gr^n Lands 

II. T:;e:r General Management; or the 
operation! common to the feveral fpecies, 

ral pur hkh they are 

appli 

III. The particuhr I [aoagement of Hay 
Grounds* 

IV. The Man : Grounds. 
I. The l^: oi •:- mds 

mull be in fome meafure indefinite, in a Dif- 

trieJ ..;t the :':.. varies, from the coldeft 

v to the moft fertile lcam, and from this 

D land in the bieakeft iitua- 

tion; and where natyral herbage abounds, 

and in every 
::. 
Xe efs, .:. :..' : uarter of the Vale 

fendes tun cy, :hey may be reduced Id three 

CLASSESj l.iUU:.. 7 , 

2. Low* 



YORKSHIRE. 10s 

1. Lowland Grafs. 

2. Upper Grafs-Grounds. 

3. Upland Grafs. 

t. Lowland Grass. The fitiiaiion of 
the grafs lands that fall under this denomi- 
nation, is in the low flat parts of the area of 
the Vale. In a ftate of nature, they were 
doubtlefs covered with water, the whole, or 
a principal part, of the year ; and fome of 
them are ftill (or were until very lately) 
liable to be overflowed, in times of floods. 

Thtfoil of thefe lands varies. Part of them 
are of a loofe loamy texture ; but, more gene- 
rally, they are of a clofe firm clayey nature ; 
fuch as we frequently find where large bodies 
of water have been accuftomed to lie. In 
fome places, efpecially on their upper mar- 
gins, the clay is covered with a ftratum of 
black vegetable mold; generated, probably, 
by the overflowings of fpring, while the 
land lay in a neglected ftate -, before mores 
and ditches were opened. 

The herbage varies with the ftate of occu- 
pancy, to which they have been fubjected, 
during, perhaps, a millennium of time ; name- 
ly, ever iince the firft laying out of the town- 
(hip. It is certain, at leaft, that, time im- 
memorial, and beyond all tradition or record, 
H 3 part 



102 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

part of them have teen kept in a irate of 

COMMON PASTURE, — t:: ' - ..'.v CAR,— 

a term analogous with marjb cr ft?:, or 
the f Norfolk, — :;.. 

pdjiure gr the :her have been as 

conftantly kept in a irate of c : 
mowing ground, — provincial!;/ ing,— a 
term fynonimous with ■ , as ufed in 

molt Diitr.-T:. — namely, : 
ground. 

Thefe fang lands, : I :..'_'/: 

called, differ from the common mc of 

Gloceiterihire, and other coo tics, in the 
manner of diftribadon ; I . . ac : 

in fquare plots, bal in aths, ..: c ..: Dine 
fee: u od of half a mfle, perhaps, in 

length; and moltly in pairs-, without .:ny 
od ries, than what hai 

by conitant uk r- each] £ hol- 

low in the middle, and :..:'; fcc a ridge, on 
either fide. 

Some of this i ..1 remains openj 

parts of i: time :: :-~:e, in- 

clofed. 

The herbage of the lc •■:./:; : ? 
Pickering confifts, chi e foBow- 

j . la i : fj' to place , 

ace k frequeii :--. : per 



YORKSHIRE. 103 

ings of this townfhip. Some of thofe, in 
the lower part of the lift, may not be pre- 
valent, in thefe open mowing grounds ; but 
are common on the fame foil, and in a fimilar 
iituation, where the land is inclofed, and may- 
have been paftured, and improved by drain- 
ing, &c. but has never been p hived. 

Provincial. Linnean. EngliJJ). 

Pig-leaves, — car dims pratenjis (of hudson), 

— meadow thiftle. 
Blue-caps, — fcabiofa fuccifa,< — meadow fca- 
bious. 

. fangulforba officinalis, — meadow burnet. 
juncus articulatus, — jointed rum. 
Clock-feaves, — fchanus nigricans, — black- 
headed bogrufh. 

cardamine pratenjis, - — common ladies- 

fmock. 
bet07iica officinalis *, — betony. 
Henpenny> — rbmantbus crijla-galli, — yellow 
rattle. 

Valeriana dioica, — marfh valerian. 

H 4 anemone 

* Betony. This is a common article of he bage, in 

the grafs lands of this Diitricr. j abounding, in almoil every 

rid in every fituation, from the marlli to the mountain. 

term Il'c:d Betony is ill applied to it; at leaft in tnis 

division of the Ifland. 



KA| N ATURAL HERB A G E. 

Pra ;K:iaL Lir. E 'zlijh, 

aic i - 1 '. . — wood anemone. 

junc us can , — gra G> rum* 

Orake&et, — an ..., — orchiles. 
Jer : - — : :•'....', — ledges. 

Hay-ieed- : , — -.•;.. .... ..:..:::.:, — meadow fcft- 

grafs. 

: ,— vernal. 

is, — common poe. 
c: :ina, — [ bentgrafis. 

frxsa ';:." ■. — trembling graift. 
hica durmfcula\ — hard fefcue. 
v.: ;.:r:..:.:. — purple melicgrafs. 
v, — bulbous catstail. 
-; nil ma& :ea. 
lotus cormkmlatus, — birdsfoot trefoil. 

longrooted 

hawk weed. 

.",— eye:' 5 iV.v-wort. 
'. — i-'.oie tongue. 
— idow fafTafras. 
— stuffed vetch. 
— milkw it. 

— marfl) louiewort. 
. — meadowfveet. 
. — I >iked willowherb 
.-, — common reed. 

MS pi 



YORKSHIRE. 105 

Provincial. Line™. Bng 

lychnis fcs-cuculi, — meadow campion* 
Seaves,— -juncus efufus, — common rufh. 
Kernes,— juncus inflexus, — wire rum. 

cineraria palufris, — mar ill fleabane. 
Jiorfeknobs, — centaurca nigra , — common 
knobweed. 
achillea millefolium, — milfoil. 
Parnajfia paiujlris, — grafs of Parnaiius. 
cerajlium r culgatum, — common moufe- 

ear. 
potent ilia anferina, — filverweed. 
avenafavefcens, — yellow oatgrafs . 
lolium perenne, — raygrafs . 
Windleftraws, — cynofurus crifatus,— crefted 
dogstail. 
fejiuca elaiior, — tall fefcue. 
agrofiis alba,— creeping bentgrafs. 
alopecurus geniculates, — marm foxtail. 
fejiuca fluitans, — rlote fefcue . 
i^ulls foreheads, — air a c<?fpitofa, — turfy air- 
grafs, or hailbck grafs. 
lathyrus pratenjis, — meadow vetchling. 
trifotium pratenfe, — meadow treioil. 
ranuncuhu acris, — common crowroot. 
ranunculus repens, — creeping crowfoot. 
Sourdocken , -rumex acetofa,— common lbrreL 
angelica fyfoejlris, — wild angelica. 

c;mqrw% 



1*6 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

Pr: Li". :■•.:. ' E" p 

com '-.', — marlh cinquefoil. 

mtb. — oxeye daifey. 
byperkum quadrangular., — fquaic- 

ftalked Saintjohnswort. 
pr:, iris, — felfheal. 

Woodwelh, — ~: ; .. ; fa tin&oria, — dyer's broom. 

,-, dwarf bitter willow. 

epilcblum paniflorum, — fmall-rlowered 

willowherb. 
er: :. r yftacJbion, — common cot- 

tonruih. 

"a, — marlh fpurrey. 
Bog violet, — pi a vulgaris, — common 

butterwort. 
/-■ T ga ris, — pennywort. 

lyjimacbia Jiummularia, — moneywort. 
-.thee, — mint*. 

'••. — fmartweed. 
farm Uu r, — great water parfhep. 

caltha palujlris> — marlh marigold. 
iris — yellow flag, 

Threefold, — m r, — bogbean, 

.;.':. ;*y, — maiih horfetail. 
: :, — white bedll:raw. 
' i tga, — brooklime. 

:rcrefs. 

The 



YORKSHIRE. 107 

The produce of this fbecies of old srafs 
land is much below par. The quality may 
be judged of, by the herbage it bears ; and 
the quantity, even on the inclofed parts, is 
not grqat. The parts, which yet remain as 
open common meadow, are frill lefs pro- 
ductive. The furface, in many places, is 
more than half of it occupied, by the fpread- 
ing leaves of the meadow thistle; 
and, in others, entire patches are covered 
with the bog rush. The medial produce 
about half a load of hay (if it merits the- 
name) an acre. 

The rent, five to eight (hillings. 

General Observations. Neverthe- 
lefs, it appears, demonstrably, from the 
patches of corn which are intermixed with 
this fpecies of grafs land, that its prefent un- 
produclivenefs is not fo much owing to the 
nature of the soil, or the situations, as 
to the age and the prefent quality of the 

HERBAGE. 

A ftronger inflance need not be produced, 
of the great impropriety, in feme cafes, of ob- 
ftinately withholding permiflion to break up 
old grafs land. 

Who, but a mere botanilt, can fee, with- 
out diiguft, his eitate occupied, by fuch a 

tribe 



jo8 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

tribe of -jKeds, as are here enumerated ? tU 
pecially when the means of extirpation are fo 
eafy, and fo profitable. Ail that is requi- 
site, to render the land of double its prefent 
value, is to annihilate the prefent fward, and 
raiie up a frelh one in its place : in doing 
which, if properly done, a courfe of corn cropa 
may be profitably taken. 

But neither the foil, nor the fi tuation, of 
lands of this nature, fits them for a continuance 
of arable crops. They ought to be ufed as 
a meansy only, of purging the foil from its 
impurities, and rendering it fit for the 
reception and nourifhment of herbage, 'ivhofe 
every blade and leaf is nutritive. 

In the inftance under notice, the reno- 
vation of the fward is, now, rendered eafily 
practicable. The Commimoners of Inclo- 
fure, for this townfhip, with a degree of 
judgement and fpirit which do them the 
greater!: credit, and for which the townihip 
will for ages be indebted to them, have funk 
a main drain, or more, through the center of 
thefe lowlands, every acre of which is now 
plowable j confeouentiy, every owner may 
now choofe, whether he will continue a 
fward of paluirrean weeds, equally unpro- 
ductive and innutriticus to ftock 5 or whether 

he 



YORKSHIRE. ^ 

he will convert this fward into nourishment 
for a courfe of corn crops, and then replace 
it with a turf of graffes and legumes, equally 
productive and nutritious. 

How many thoufand acres of land, in thefe 
kingdoms, now lie, or might eaiily be placed, 
in a fimilar predicament. 

II. UPPER GRASS GROUNDS. Thefe 
confifl: of the prime part of the common- 
field lands, which have been laid down to 
grafs, in the natural way that has been men- 
tioned. 

The situation is cool, but is, rn genera], 
dry enough to permit the foil to bear ftock in 
winter. 

The soil is a rich fandy loam : the cooler 
parts, deep, and mixed with a few pebbles ; 
the higher parts, Shallower, with a mixture 
of redftone's : equally productive of grafs and 
corn. 

The herbage confifts of the following 
plants. The laft twelve fpecies grow, prin- 
cipally, hear the hedges, or toward home- 
ftails ; but are fometimes found in the areas 
of fields, 

Windle- 



no NATURAL HERBAGE. 

Provincial. Linnean* Englijh. 

Windleftraws, — cynofurus crijiatus, — crefted 
dogs tail. 
daclylis glomerata, — orchardgrafs . 
agrofiis cajiina, — brown bentgrafs. 
aniboxanthum odoratum, — vernal. 
White grafs — bolcus /anatus, — meadow foft- 
grafs. 
Iriza media, — trembling grafs. 
avenajiavejcens, — yellow oatgrafs, 
Rye grafs — lolium peretme, — raygrafs . 
poa trivialis, — common poe. 
poa amiua, — dwarf poe. 
poa pratenfiS) — meadow poe. 
ahpecurus pratenfis, — meadow foxtail. 
a elatior, — tall fefcue. 
■ica duriufcula, — hard fefcue. 
br: !is, — foft bromegrafs. 

tfvena eiatior, — tall oatgrafs. 
n ' : i ' -. - r :?ns — rough oatgrafs. 
agrc its papillaris > — fine bentgrafs. 

• murmum, — common barley - 

g : - 
juncus campeftris, — grafs rum. 

Rit ; wtago lanceolata, narrow plantain. 

Red clo v er, — trifolium pratenfe, — meadow 

tre: 

-~/.ite clover, — irifolium repens> — creeping 

trefoil. 

Trefoil, 



YORKSHIRE. in 

Provincial. Linnean. Englijh. 

Trefoil , — trifolium procumbent, — procumbent 
trefoil. 

lotus corniculatus ,— -birds foot trefoil. 
lathyrus pratenfis, — meadow vetchlin g. 
Fitches, — viciafativa, — meadow vetch. 

ranunculus acris, — common crowfoot. 
ranunculus repens, — creeping crowfoot. 
ranunculus bulbofus^ — bulbous crowfoot. 
leontodon taraxacum, — common dande- 
lion. 
leontodon hifpidum, — rough dandelion. 
hypochceris radicata, — longrooted 
hawkweed. 
Henpenny, — rlmianthus crijia-galli, — yellow 
rattle. 

betonica officinalis, — be tony . 

cerafiium vulgatum, — common moufe- 

ear. 
valentia cruciata, — crofs wort . 
prunella vulgaris, — fe If heal . 
Birds-eye, — vero?iica cba?ncedrys, — germander 
fpeedwell. 

ranunculus ficaria, — pilewort. 
Cowftriplings, — primula veris, — cowflip. 
Bairn worts, — be I lis perennis, — daifey. 
Cuifhia, — heracleum fpbondyliu?n, — cowparf- 
nep. 

Horfe- 



ill NATURAL HERB, 



n »^r L. 



Pmr:::.:\ L 

K:r:e knobs, — — me:. 

minis, — [■:::■: r.z- jacoSita, — con rag- 

rt. 

— 
Sourdccken, — rime: a a — ^::.;:;on for- 

rrl. 
•bells, — ;::.::..'. r, — common 

r". 

\ — : mr. r~:-r.: 

— [h .-- vetch. 
f --.■:. i — twofeeded tare. 

- — yellow goats~t 

beard. 
egri . — agrimofiy. 

■ ■ . , — crowfoot crar. 

bffl. 
\l^j\i — .. — common mallow 

■"-.--■-- -. — f .i mal- 

. : w . 

— '. • . • V. - ;>v, — : Orchard-* 






;r. : .— :k. 

red dc 
vrticaA 2. — common nettle. 

The 



YORKSHIRE. 113 

The produce is fuch as may be expedted, 
from the herbage, the foil, and the Jituation. 
An acre o£ fome of the lands, lying imme- 
diately round the town of Pickering* will 
afford pajiurage for a cow, from Mayday to 
Michaelmas ; not by being forced with ma- 
nure, but in its intrinfic nature. In general, 
three acres are allowed to two cows -, but 
they are of uncommon fize ; being nearly 
equal to three middle-fized cows.- 

The produce of bay is from one to two 
tons, an acre, in a common year. The qua- 
lity of the hay, if well made, is fine ; well 
affected by every kind of flock ; equally fit 
for cows and horfes. 

The rent, thirty millings to three pounds, 
an acre. The fummer pafturage of a cow* 
forty to fifty millings. 

III. UPLAND GRASS. In the unin- 
clofed ftate, this land was partly in arable 
field, partly in upland paflure, for cattle and 
fheep* 

The situation is hilly, rifing fome what 
abruptly, above the middle grounds. The 
fubflructure, a limeftone rock j rifing, in 
fome places, up to the foil, in others, a feam 
of redftone intervenes. 

Vol. II. I The 



ii4 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

The soil is loam, of different depths, 
mixed with redftone, or with limeftone 
rubble. Some parts of this land, where the 
foil is deep and the redftone ftratum two or 
three feet thick, may rank with the firft corn 
land in thefe kingdoms. 

The herbage, which prevails on the old 
fward of thefe uplands, may be feen in the 
following lift : 

Provincial. Linnean. Engl'ijh 

leontodon hifpidum, — rough dandelion. 
plantago media^ — middle plantain. 
bypochceris radicata, — longrooted| 

hawkweed. , 
leontodon taraxacum, — common dande- 
lion. 
Henpenny, — rhlnanthus crijla-galli, — yellow 
rattle. 
chryfanthemum leucantbemum, — oxeye 
daifey. 
Mountain flax, — linum cathdrticum, — purging 
flax. 
alcbemilla vulgaris, — ladies mantle. 
poly gala vulgaris ,-^milkwort. 
feftuca duriufcula, — hard fefcue. 
anthoxanthum odoratum, — vernal . 
White grafs, — holcus lanatus t — meadow toft* 
grafs. 

avena 



YORKSHIRE. 11.5 

Provincial. Linnean. EngUJh, 

avena pubefcens, -—rough oatgrafs. 
avena favefcens,— yellow oatgrafs. 
briza media,*- -trembling grafs. 
agrofiis carina, —brown bentgrafs; 
daclylis glome rat a, — orchardgrafs . 
poa triviality— common poe. 
Rye-grafs/— Solium perenne; — raygrafs. 
'Windleftr&wSf—'-cynofurus crijlatus, -— crefted 
dogstaih 
poa pratenjis j-^-meadow poe* 
phleum nodofum, — bulbous catstaiL 
avena elatior,-— tall oatgrafs. 
fejlaca ovina, — fheep's fefcue. 
juncus campeftris, — grafs rum. 

carex , fedge, 

plantago lanceolatus, — narrow plantain,, 
Red clover, — trifolium pratenje, •** meadow 
trefoil. 
trifolium alpefire, — -alpine trefoil. 
White clover,-^— trifolium repens, -~- creeping 

trefoil. 
Txzfo\\.,-~*trifoHum agrarwm^hop trefoil. - 
lotus corm'culatus,- — birdsfoot trefoiL 
lathyrus prat en/is, — meadow vetchling* 
orcbus tuberofus, — bulbous pea. 
ant hy His vulneraria, — ladies finger. 
galium verum, — yellow beditraw. 

I 2 campanula 



rib NATURAL HERBAGE, 
P~:i.~.::6.'. Lima*:. Enrli/k. 

em 'a rctundifolia, — common bell- 

:: : wer. 

:acbanuedrys y — germander fpt t i- 
we!] 
e.p bra/id odontites, — red eyebright. 
e:-.c : : -.:■:.: :fr.c : .Kal::, — ccir.rr.cr: eye- 

brigbt 
i\: . — :r:;~ T - :::. 

araftmm vtdgatum y — ,.::r.;:.cr. n:;uib- 

eir. 
betonica offians.. :. — betony- 
t r :. :.'..: ;:, '/.; ■;'.•, — it.rhti:. 
CowftripUngS* — frit mia .. , — cowflip; 

rmmma mt "...:-:.:, — pflewort 
Dc ;-ii:::r5. — ; r/.;.- t^e-v:::. — cd:*ey. 
: *- . :. — :rt. 

^ •; -. '.'. •>/, — -.vile thyme. 
::: ::. — crcrnr.z c:r.cu:-:~;h 

heknobs, — cerrtaurea ni^rs y — comm n 
kr.:zv.-eed. 
-..- Mcnhuacrisj — comtnon crowfoot. 
raw — creep ing crowfoot. 

fcabiofa arvenjis, — corn icabious. 
thioja cdumbariu, — mountain fca- 
bious. 
::r — -:; Aow fca~ 

bious. 



YORKSHIRE. 117 

Provincial. Linnean. Englijh, 

Vernuts, — hunium bulbocajlanum, — earthnut. 

achilk a millefolium, — milfoil. 
Seggrum^, — fcnecio jacobaa^ — common rag- 
wort. 

heracleum fphondylium, — cowparfnep . 

orchis mafcula, — male orchis, 

orchis morioy — fool's orchis. 

orchis uftulata, — upland orchis, 

■poteriumfanguijorba, — upland burnet. 

origanum vulgare,— -wild marjoram. 

J pi ret a filipendula, — drop wort, 

agrimotiia eupatoria, — agrimony. 

Valeriana officinalis, — medical valerian. 

marrubrium 1 uhare, — horehou nd . 

fanicula europ&ay—fomcle. 

gentiana centaurium, ^-centaury gentian, 

refeda luteola,- — weld, 

ere pis tecloru?n> — fmooth erepis, 
Jlellaria graminea, — meadow ftarnower. 

licia cracca, — bluetufted vetch. 

ervum hirfutwn ,— ^twofeeded tare. 

geranium robertianwn, — fUnking cranes- ■ 

' bill. 

geranium diffeclum, — jagged cranesb .11. 

geranium cicutarium t — hemlocklea^ed 
cranesbill. 

fberardia ar r cenfis, — field merard. 

I 3 hieraccum 



ji8 NATURAL HERBAGE, 

provincial. Linnean. EngH/h. 

bieraceum pihcella, — - tnoufeear hawk* 

weed. 
aphanes arvenjis, — parfleypert. 
Breckens, — pteris aquilina, — brakes ; fern. 
£ur thiflle, < — carduus lanceolatus, < — fpear 
thiftle. 
carduus nutans, — nodding thiftle. 
carduus eriophorus, — woollyhcaded 

thiiHe, 
ferratula arvenjis, — common thiflle. 
Red thiftle^cariiuuspa/ujtrisj-^mzrih thiftle, 

car/ma vulgaris,- — carline thiftle, 
Ruftbunif-^-onom's arz-en/is, — reftharrow. 
Cat- whin, — -rofa fpinojijpma, — burnet rofe. 

The produce, in a dry year, little or 
nothing. On a par of years, half a ton of 
bay an acre. The ordinary allowance for a 
fummer pajlurage of a cow, two or three 
acres. 

The rent ten to thirty {hillings. 
Land bearing this defcription is entirely 
unfit for perennial ley. Arable crops, inter- 
mixed with temporary ley, are much 
more fuitable to its nature. 

II. The GENERAL MANAGEMENT 
OF GRASS LAND, in this country, now 
reauires to be regiftered. 

The 



YORKSHIRE. 119 

The objects are hay and pajtura^e ; each 
of which will require to be feparately con- 
sidered. But there are certain operations, 
which are common to them beta, and which 
demand a previous consideration. Theie are, 

1. Draining, 

2. Clearing,. 

3. DreiTing. 

4. Weeding, 

5. Manuring. 

1, 2. Draining, Clearing. Thefe 
two operations have been already fpoken of, 
fufficiently, under the general management 
cf arable land j excepting fo far as re- 
lates to clearing a*way anthills. 

Here, as in mod: places, this operation is 
too much neglected. When practiied, the 
hills are either taken orT with a paring ipade, 
or perhaps a plow, level with the furround- 
ing fward, and carted into hollows Sec, fowl- 
ing the hilliteads with hayfeeds ; or, in one 
inltance, I law the cap of the hill 6fft taksn 
oiF thin, and, when the body of the hill was 
removed, the cap was laid upon the hilhlead. 
But this is ineligible. No implement can 
come upon the lurface to dreis it ; and the 
caps are liable to be miiplaced, by cattle and 
other ilock. 

I 4 The 



ne NATURAL HERBAGE. 

The practice of g e l d i N g * has lately been 
introduced. The greater! nicety of the art, 
I find, lies in clearing away the Jkirts of the 
core effectually j fo that when the flaps are 
returned, a rim, rifing above the furrounding 
furface, be not left, for the molding fledge, 
or other implement, to lay hold of. 

If this operation be performed in autumn, 
the frofts and rains. of winter will temper the 
cores, and, in the firft dry weather of fpring, 
the molding fledge will readily reduce them, 
and lodge them at the roots of the grafs. 

If the operation be imperfectly done, or 
the lumps of core remain flubborn, a heavy 
roller mould be run over the furface, before 
the molding fledge be ufed. 

No man, who has attended to the quality 
of the herbage of a?:t bills, needs any argument 
to convince him of the propriety of beftow- 
ing a little attention, on the mojft eligible 
means of extirpation. 

3. Dressing meadow?. The Vale 
hufbandmen :;e peculiarly aiT:duous, in this 
department of the management of grafs lands, 
which, in the ipring of the year, engages 
much of their attention. The dung and 

molehilh 

f See Norfolk — Mar. 50, 



YORKSHIRE. j 2 i 

molehills are generally fpread, repeatedly, 
and the ftones and wood affiduoufly gathered 
off. The ground, intended for hay, is more 
particularly attended to ; but pafture grounds 
are paid their mare of attention. 

" Molding," that is fpreading dung and 
molehills, is either done wholly by hand, with 
a " molding rake ;" namely, a fhort flat- 
headed rake, with four flat teeth (a tool not 
uncommon in other Diilricls) ; cr by the 
means of a " molding fledge" (fee Imple- 
ments), an implement introduced into this 
country, fome twenty or thirty years ago. 

The flrft molding is given, the firft dry 
days of fpring j generally about Canciemas. 
Old molehills are found to get heavy, and 
iirm, by lying ; and if horle dung be not 
broken while moift, it is difficult to be re- 
duced *. 

The 

* I have met with one inftance of molding pajiure 
grounds* at Michaelmas^ (when ftcck is here ufaally tranf- 
ferred from pafture grounds to aftergrafs) a practice which 
ought to be univerfally adopted. The furface is, then, 
generally open enough to admit the dung which is fpread 
upon it ; whereas, in fpring, being lpread over a furface, 
faturated with water, it is probable that much of it is 
waihed aw ay, with heavy rains, or difftpated by frcfts. 
Molding, in eaily autumn, is fimilar, in its effects, to the 
practice of manuring grafs land, at that feafon. 



122 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

The foil mutt become firm, before the 
fledge can be ufed with propriety. After the 
furface has been polifhed by this, it is finally 
looked over, with the rake ; efpecially round 
the borders, where the fledge may have left 
it unfinished. 

Hand molding is done, entirely, by women. 
Their wages 6d. a day. 

This may be a proper place to mention an 
opinion, which I have met with in this Dif- 
trict, refpecting moles. 

A man, whofe examinations are feldom 
fuperficial, is clearly of opinion, that moles 
are ufeful to the farmer. And, under this 
idea, he has not had a mole killed, upon his 
farm, during the laft twenty years ! He be- 
lieves them to be ufeful, in draining the foil, 
in communicating air to the roots of plants, 
in raifing frelh mold upon grafs land, and in 
killing worms ; which, he conceives, feed 
upon the roots of grafs and corn. 

That moles are ufeful to cold ftrong-texiured 
land, and to grafs land in general, is probably 
a fact -, and this may account for tne opinion 
under notice ; which was formed on foil of 
that defcription ; or on grafs land of a more 
loamy nature. 

But 



YORKSHIRE. 123 

But admitting that moles are ufeful spaa 
cold ftrong grafs land, it does not follow that 
they likewife are ufeful, on lig'fct, tbm-fii!ed, 
arable land. Their mifchiefs, here, are too 
obvious to be overlooked 

With refpect to worms, too, moles are 
probably miichievous. No evidence, I ap- 
prehend, has ever been produced of their 
feeding on the roots of vegetables. I fpeak 
of to e common earthworm; not of the 
grubs of beetles, £cc. They are faid to draw 
es and other vegetable fubrtances into 
the ground ; but to what end is oalv con- 
.red. It mav be in purfuance of the 
wiieft dictates, and fof the 

I mention this fubj^dt, becaufe I believe it 
is new to the public ; and I mention it in 
this curfory way, becaufe I have not y:t had 
opportunity of lludving it maturely. It ap- 
pears to me, however, a fubjecl of the 
importance in Rural Ecc ..inly 

as we are habituated to think of this i. 
drudge, the profperity of the ve . and 

animal creation may hinge upon it. Its na- 
tural hiltcry appears, to me, a fubjtd: of fuf- 
ricient importance, to engage the attention of 
any man, let his abilities and pretenlicn: be 
:t they may : and it is a fubject which 

any 



i2 4 N A T D R A L HERBAG E. 

any man of leifure may apply himfelf to, 
without difficulty. 

4. Weeding grass land. This de- 
partment of the grails land management is too 
little attended to. Bed; of the com mm t 
are too dree ueatly I'-rrerec :■:■ feed inpaihircs, 
to the great aniiaoce ?: the neighbourhood; 
meadows ana pailures are, not 
unfrequenthr, difgraced with the dock -, a 
weed which requires much lefi indufby to 
extirpate it. 

I met with an iaftanee of a meadow, foul 
m the extreme with bm/ru .:.:, cured by pas- 
turing it repeatedly with. /keep, in the ipring. 
: I have known killed in the fame 
ner. 
I likewife met with an inftance, here, of 
a bed of being d< i by -., .. • or 

y. The fed was, a large patch of 
dock», as thick as they could grow upon the 
: - 5 -.able to the bite ofiwine dome 
rhicb wilJ feed W them with 
lity ; and bat they ..:: was repeatedly 
. _ rd, zz:..-?: twice or thrice in a ihm- 
I c a fucce^QO : years. A: length, 
lifhed as by 1 ; and were fuc- 

- . d : ] finer grailes. 
P. 



YORKSHIRE. 125 

Perhaps y neither the (wine nor the lithe 
could be faid, with itrictnefs, to have killed 
thefe docks; which, it appears to me evi- 
dently, died of age. No vegetable is ever- 
lafting. Some are annual, fome are biennial, 
others perennial. But the age, or natural 
lire of perennial herbs, has not perhaps been 
attended to. We may, however, take it for 
granted, without experience, that all .plants, 
which propagate their ipecies by feed alone, 
mav be fubdued by perfevering to prevent 
their feeding. All that we want to know, 
from experience, is their feverai degrees of 
:\'ity ; in order that we may calculate the 
dirrerence, between the expence of heading 
them, from time to time, and that of deitroy- 
ing them, at once, by the more expenlive 
procefs of eradication. 

5. Manuring grass lands. The 
dung cart is feldom drawn upon grafi land. 
The quantity of dung which is made in the 
Diirrict (fee Farmyard Man.) is final! \ 
and is chiefly applied to arable lands ; while 
the collecting of mud, roadftuff, and other 
materials, meliorating to grafs land, is Shame- 
fully neglected. 

Foddering on grafs, in winter, is c 
depended uocn, as an equivalent for its ex- 

hauition 



126 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

hauftion by bay ; and pajhcred ground is con* 
fidered as iranding in no need of extraneous 
aifritance. 

If a piece of mown ground were to have 
the whole of the crop returned to it, in fod- 
der, and in a proper manner, it is probable, 
that fuch ground might be repeatedly mown, 
without being materially exhaurted. But 
the foddering mould certainly be general to 
the whole piece; beginning on one fide, and 
teat ting it regularly, in the Norfolk manner, 
(fee Norfolk, Article Turneps), until 
the oppolite fide be reached : not. partially, 
under the hedge, as is molr.lv the cafe, here. 
The hedges are, no doubt, crept to for 
fhelter : in windy weather, efpecially, hay 
will not lie in an expofed place : but, cer- 
tainly, the hedge ought to be coniidered, as 
a refource to fly to, in ftormy weather ; re- 
turning to the area of the field, whenever the 
ftorm may abate. 

The cood effect of foddering, on any 
grafs land which will bear the treading of flock 
in winter, is evident to common obfervation. 

The great danger to land, which is mclined 
to tenacity, is that of its being- caught in t.fe 
drought of fprrig ; befcre the fward be re- 
lieved by rams cr by frofh ; wiuch, by tem- 
pering 



YORKSHIRE. 127 

paring the furface, is obferved to releafe the 
grailes from their confinement, in the foot- 
fteps of fiock. On fuch land, the foddering 
mould not be continued too late in the fpring. 
On light-land grafs, many advantages arife 
from this practice. The fodder is laid up, 
and the manure carried on, at a final] expence. 
The contexture of the foil is improved, and 
mofs (the greateit enemy of land of this de- 
icription) checked or deilroyed, by the tread- 
ing of flock. There can be no doubt that, 
in fome cafes, and under proper manage- 
ment, flacking hay in the field, and foddering 
with it on the land it grew on, may be per- 
fectly eligible. Much depends upon the 
nature of the land, and much upon whether 
the given piece of grafs, or the arable land in 
the fame occupation, is moft in want of me- 
lioration. 

But advantageous as this management may 
be, in fome cafes, to light-fan J gr\ii y a linking 
initance of the inutility of teathing /hjr' fa ■:.:', 
in 'winter, with meep, occurred in this neigh- 
bourhood. A piece of low cold retentive 
(but well fheltered) Ingland was foddered 
upon, during a fucceiiion of fevere weather, 
until its furface was black with dung. Great 

ex- 



123 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

expectations ct improvement were formed 5 
but no leniible benent whatever followed. 

Fiom this and other inilances of a fimilar 
nature, it is more than probable, that tcaihing 
clofelv textured land, in wiater, is equally 
ineligible as manuring it, in winter ; an im* 
propriety which I am fully convinced of, 
from my own practice ; and which all coun- 
tries are beginning to be aware of. I am 
afraid, however, that the principal part of the 
little manure which is fet upon grafs lands, in 
this Diftrict, is carried on during the frofts 
of winter ; the worir time invention can de- 

Fife. 

Lime is, in the general idea of the country, 
rather injurious, than beneficial, to grafs land, 
iences are produced againlt it ; but they 
1:1 not conclusive : the trials, which are faid 
have been made, were on cold retentive 
foils > the leaft likely, perhaps, to be im- 
proved by lime. To corn crops, lime is moll 
meficial, en cry warm foils ; and fome re- 
c ent experience here fhews, that on fuch foils 
.■ is beneficial ^o grzCs. 
A quantity of lime having been fcattered 
accidental!; 7 on fward, it was obferved to in- 
jure the herbage, confiderably, for the firil 
three or four years. This of courfe corro- 
borated 



YORKSHIRE. 129 

borated the opinion of its being injurious to 
grafs. But, in a few years more, this inci- 
dental patch became much fuperior to the 
reft of the piece, it lies in; and has, now, 
continued to be fo, for fome years. The foil, 
a middle loam, on a rocky lubitratum. 

This led to an experiment with a fmaller 
quantity ; namely, four chaldron, an acre, 
on a piece of declining moffy fward, on a 
burning fand, in an upland iituation. 

This experiment was made, laft autumn. 
The prefent ftate of it is ftriking (Sept. 1787). 
The entire countenance of the land is 
changed : the fward has acquired a dark- 
green healthy color; and, already, the mofs 
has moftly disappeared : wh.le tr;e remainder 
of the piece (the whole eaten with fheep) 
is covered with a fleece of mofs, intermixed 
with parched, flraw-colored herbage 

Thus far, and as far as one experiment 
reaches, this under notice is, deciiively, in favor 
of lime being beneficial to a fcorching up- 
land foiL For reviving the productivenefs 
of old fheep walks and rabbit warrens, lime 
may* perhaps, be found a mcft profitable 
manure. 

A remarkable incident occurs, this year, 
(1787) near Pickering* Part of the com- 

VoL.II, K mon 



NATURAL HERBAGE. 



j 



mon has been, I believe, time immemorial* 
in uie as 2 whitening ground — p:e r .::.- 
cially, '* bleaching greens*" — The (oil, drift 
fand left by k which frequently over- 

r thofe greens ; the fubfoil gravel; left, 
in ail probability, by the brook, in (hi:: 
-el, from time to time. Never the 
iuch was the fuperfidal appearance of this 
le it was died as a whitening 
ground, that the Commiffioners under the 
Inclofure valued the land (lair, rummer a dry 
feaibn) at forty :: fifty ihillings rent, an ai 

. the bleaching bci ,; diicon- 
zd, it his turned out not worth fifty 
;e, an acre rhftanding the uncom- 

mon ? : e : ' h . b egc :ation h - 
here elfe, manifcfl 
The parts .ere the w ive ufually 

. are evident to common obfervation : 
(carcelyabladeof graft has, mis v-.i.-. ;~ 
itfelf UDon them. E e :he iedees and 
_r palu:. ads, which a::e::;:>t to 

grow, all not able to hide the dead-loc/ 
fand, among which they are rooted. The 
foil, nal rntly 

ry. bow b 

J. * 

ban... -ted r By the ..v., v 

has been ufed in bleaching I Or by. the 



YORKSHIRE. 131 

watering, which it has heretofore conflantly 
had, through the fummer ? Or by the 
ivarmth of the ivebbs j which, acting as a 
gardener's frame, has induced the foil to 
exert itfelf beyond its natural ftrength ? The 
effect is well afcertained ; but, evident and 
interefting as it is, it appears to me difficult 
to be accounted for, fatisfactorily. 

III. MANAGEMENT OF MOWING 
GROUNDS. All old grafs land, which is 
ptvum, is here called " meadow j" whether 
its lituation be low or high, dry or moift. It 
is merely a term in contradiftinction to pas- 
ture, or " fummer-eatep" ground; which 
name it may take the enfuing year - y it being 
a pretty common practice to mow and fum- 
mer-eat, alternately. 

This, however, is far from being a gene- 
ral practice ; the fame lands will be mown, 
and others will be ufed as cow pafture, for 
feveral years fuccemvely. But on the lands 
which are defcribed above, as upper grafs 
grounds, an alternacy, though not perhaps 
annual and regular, generally takes place. 

In defcribing this department of Manage- 
ment, a fourfold divifion of the fubject will 
be requifite. 

K 2 I. Spring 



NATURAL HERBAGE, 

i. : tagement; 

2 . Having ; 
;. Aftergrafj ; 

4- Wi; 

i. Spring Maya t or Mz 

Dows. Thr general rraccice is to " eat" 
them, until the ftock is 

transferred to the palture grounds, and the 
; finally ■ ?. for Kay, 
In this climatufe, the practice is i: 
diciois. ft throws h. .time too backward, 

in a common vear. An; ■ r :..:: 

fet in earlv, the ground, having no covering, 
r :':. ::..'■ the crop of 

bof t pe :.;:. there:." Aliened. 

r/rrev. ;.::: the me:::?- 



-- ? 



fed to be :r.:--~r. ire teruru- 
iouily freed from :":::/.. early in the fpri 
not a Spring moot is cropped. This :s the 
:r extreme: and, if the land will bear 
ftock, is alio :er. 

:b:ing feed : ::ls del:: TpL -; :h:: 

which would be of iervice t: feck. 

Land may, in general, be eaten, until old 

LAD YD AY, Or the MIDDLE OF APRIL, with- 
out injuring the crop of bay. Earlv we 
and the ranker grafles, are checked; by 

'ich 



YORKSHIRE, 133 

which mean6 the better bottom grafTes are 
iuffered to rife and ripen with them. 

2. Hay Harvest. To give a minutial 
account of this department of the grafsland 
management, it will be requifite to confider, 
feparately, the following fubdivmons : 

1 . Mowing ; 

2. Making ; 

3. Preferving. 

4. Expenditure. 

1. Mowing. This is done chiefly by the 
" day mowing," which is an inaccurate 
acre ; fometimes more, but generally lefs 
than a ftatute acre ; old inclofed meadows 
having been reckoned, from time imme- 
morial, fo many " day mowings 5" and whe- 
ther they are, in reality, a greater or lefs 
number of acres, they are coniidered as fo 
many days' works. 

The wages for mowing, one milling to 
eighteen pence, a day, and board. Little or 
no mowing is done by the acre. A, man 
ieldom mows more than his day's mowing -, 
which, if he be a good hand, he perforins 
in a few hours, in the morning and eve- 
ning ; generally lying by, in the middle of 
the day. 

K 3 The 



134 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

The Yorkshire mowers labor hard, dur- 
ing the inort hours they work : their fithes 
are of uncommon length, and they take their 
fwath of unufual width ; feldom lefs than 
three yards ; fome of them ten or eleven 
feet wide. They invariably " keep ftroke;" 
that is, all ftrike together as one man ; a 
practice which is at kail pleating to the 
looker-on. 

2. Making. All countries, I find, abound 
in bad haymakers ; and fome are deftitute of 
good ones. The country under furvey may 
be faid to be above mediocrity ; and that is 
as much as can be faid of it. Quantities of 
hay are annually wailed, and ilill greater 
quantities unneceiiarily injured, through bad 
management. It is feldom tedded fufficient- 
ly ; is frequently expofed, all night, abroad, 
in catching weather ; and, in fuch weather, 
is too often carried before it be dry. 

A lingular expedient is here practifed to 
get it (as it i? intended) out of harm's way. 
This is to put it into " pikes," or ilacklets, 
of about a load each, before it be ft: to be 
put into flack ; and, too frequently, before 
it ht fit to be pat into large cocks. This is 
conndered as a middle ftage ; in which it is 

to 



YORKSHIRE. 135 

to take a partial heat, and becomepreparcd 
for the flack. 

If hay be free from external mciflure, yet 
too full of fap to be truitcd in ltack, "piking" 
it may be of great ufe. But it is more gene- 
rally made ufe of, as a flovenly expedient, for 
getting hay out cf hand, in a tedious feafon. 
In this cafe, however, it is rnoftly mifchie- 
vous. I have feen thefe pikes, when opened 
out to be carried to the fbck, white with 
mould, black with rottennefc, and of every 
intermediate color, excepting that which 
alone is defirable. 

In the belt, practice of the Diilrict, the grafs, 
in fine weather, is tedded after the i.icsvers; 
or, in fhowery weather, as foon as a fair op- 
portunity offers. In the evening, unlefs due 
confidence can be placed in the weather, it is 
put into cocklets — provincially, M hippies ;" 
made in different ways ; fome being fet up 
hollow, wiih the foot and the head of the 
rake ; others, in the common way, with forks. 
As the hay has advanced in drynefs, the hip- 
pies are increafed in lize. 

When a fair opportunity offers, and the 
grafs is perfectly dry, the hippies are M hin- 
dered 5" that is, broken out into beds, in the 
ufual manner ; turned j and again got up into 
K 4 cocklets, 



156 NATURAL HIF^AjI. 

cocklets, of faeli 6*f 

requires. When -, the hay i 

made into 1 .-_; . namely, abcu: 

eight z: ten to the load; hcr.es being fa 
times uied in thtl ::;::.:::;, See (be 
Article. 

When the crop is inter led :o be ftacked 
: the p iefce it grew on, the firil-made part 
rally lranch ; , until the 

whole, or the principal part of the remain- 
der, be ready far the itack ; wh .this 
means, is never expofed abroad in its firtt, 
rs : a rircomfrance, however, which is 
too commonly flittered, by lefs judicious bay* 
ih;:"erf. 

3. Preferr..:: H.: T'r.e mof: prevalent 
bice |i : ftack :: in the field; either for 
purpofe of foddering with it on the 
:r to be fetched home, m f::::\ 
ther, or when wanted. Much, h: - f rr. 
rned :c the be meilall, at hay : fame 

to be llacked ; others to be h: lat- 

ter a prz: hen room czr. c : urea :- 

entry be*had, feems :: ;:c d estimation, 

[tisat sqcc _■: I mil fthe • her 3 

and probably into the place, in which it will 
be wanted: the mui:.:.::- of houfed 

which 



YORKSHIRE. 157 

which is talked of in fome places, is not per- 
ceived in this. 

The practice of stacking hay in the 
field adds much to the eafe and difpatch of 
hay time. If the flack be placed in the cen- 
ter of the ground, a coniiderable part of the 
hay may be collected, without the trouble of 
loading it on a carriage. 

If it be in large cocks, it is fomctimes 
drawn to the (lack, with one horfe ; by means 
of a cart rope, put underneath the Hurts of the 
cock on the fides, and above the fkirts on the 
back part; giving the bend of the rope fuf- 
ficient hold of the hay, to prevent its being 
drawn from under the cock. The two ends 
of the rope-pafs to a pair of names ; to which 
one end is fixed, the other being kept in its 
place by a wooden pin. When the cock 
arrives at the rick, the peg is drawn, and 
the rope is difengaged. 

If the hay be abroad, it is rowed in the 
ufual way, and is fometimes drawn together 
with a long pole (fix or eight feet long), 
with a rope palling, from each end of it, to the 
names ; a man Handing or preffing upon the 
pole, to keep it down to its work, and make 
it clear the ground as it goes. This however, 
though iimple, is a difficult bulinels. More 

complex 



138 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

complex implements, of various conilruc* 
tions, have therefore been contrived, for this 
purpofe. 

Thefe implements are alio ufed in cocking \ 
and, when the quantity of dry hay is great, 
and hands fcarce, it eafes and expedites the 
bufinefs very confiderably. For, in this 
cafe, the main burden of the hay is drawn 
together by the team, the rakers having only 
the bared ground to rake over ; following the 
implement, and drawing the rakings to the 
part to be cleared, by the next fweep of the 
implement -, beginning on one fide of the 
piece, and proceeding, in this regular and 
expeditious manner, to the other; leaving the 
hay in large rows, eafily to be cocked; or to 
be dragged to the {lack ; or loaded ; as occa- 
iion may require. This expedient, however, 
is far from being in general practice. 

"When the ground near the flack is clear- 
«d, and the Hack has rifen too high to be con- 
veniently forked upon, from the ground, the 
putikirts of the field are drawn together in 
carriages. 

Jn the befi: practice of the Diitrict, the 
flack, if not very large (which field flacks 
feldom are), is never begun upon, until a 
f/.mciency of hay be dry, to get it above the 

eaves, 



YORKSHIRE. 139 

eaves, the firft day. If the whole be ready, 
the middle of the flack is rounded up, and 
the remainder fet in tall " pikes," by the 
fide of it, ready to be laid en, the firft fine 
day after the flem be ftirriciently fettled. 
This appears, to me, to be bringing the bufi- 
nefs of laying up hay, in the field, as near per- 
fection as the nature of it will admit. 

Field flacks are, I believe invariably, made 
round. The favorite form, at pre lent, feems 
to be that of an egg ; a form, perhaps, of all 
others the moft beautiful, but by no means 
the moft convenient*. 

When the hay has done heating, the flack 
is finally topt up, its roof adjufted and raked, 
and its top capt with thatch -, the principal 
part of the roof being left naked. 

In a country where thatching the entire 
roof is the eftablifhed cuftom, this would ap- 
pear negligent management. In this coun- 
try, to bellow thatch and thatching, upon the 
whole, would be deemed a wafteful extrava- 
gant practice. It would be dirHcult to fay, 

with 

* In Cleveland the oppofite extreme prevails. 
The turr.ep is there the archetype. If hay flacks be made 
round, a form between the egg and the turnep is preferable 
to either extreme; but, in my ©pinion, a barn is the befl 
model for a hay ftack. 



i±o NATUJUX HERBAGE. 

with certainty, which is the better practice j 
much depends on a plenty cr fcarcitv cf 
ftraw. Either of them is good, if properly 
exc c ..:,":. 

Field Sacks are firtnd with large hurdles, 
provmciaily **. nack-bars ;"' refembling the 
gate hurdles of fomc Diifoicts, and the cattla 
hurdles of c'r f. Being placed in a ring, 
and united together with pins palling through 
the heads, they form an arch, and become a 
fimple and fumcient fence aeainit every kind 
of rtock. 

4. Expen '"Rj.-:, There is no re gu-, 

kr 1 or hay, in the Diftricx.. It is fel- 

dom fild, but in times of fcarcitv. It is 
:>med, en the premiies : chiefly 
|n the home, but partly in the field; a prac- 
Eke which has already been fpoken of. 

1. Aftergrass. The ex p e nditur e of 

:::f-_r..is, in this country, is rrincioallv on 

Led . . " : ; ft me on dry fatting cows, and 

". ,:i: en, thrown ud from work, in the 

fpring, and :.:.'.::.td with aftergrafs. 

Time of Breaking. In fome places, cattle 

... .-.e4 into meadows, as foon as the crop 

if cut c: mem. This is fouling the ground 

iow any advantage to the cattle, which 

will 



YORKSHIRE. ft* 

will not, cannot, eat the jiubble of mown 
ground *. 

In this country* the oppofite extreme of 
management is too prevalent. Aftergrass, 
provincially, " fog," is fcarcely ever broken, 
till after Michaelmas ; is fometimes hoarded 
up, till near Martinmas, before it be turned 
into. In the latter cafe, half of it, perhaps, 
is walled. Whether the weather prove wet 
or froity, one of which may realbnably be 
expected, at that time of the year, cattle de- 
ftroy as much long overgrown afcergrafs, 
with their feet, as with their mouths. 
Wherever they tread, in wet weather, the 
grafs is fouled ; wherever they ftep, when 
froir. is on the ground, the grafs they tread 
on is deitroyed. 

General Remarks on the Manage* 
ment of Aftergrass. 

It is a matter of furprize that no country 
has yet adopted an economical expen- 
diture of aftergrass. I have met 
with fome faint attempts, in the practice of 
individuals, in different places; but nothing 
of a regular ccniirmed eftablifhed practice. 

There 

* But fee West of EkgLand, Ati. AFTiRGRAss. 



j 4 2 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

There is one leading principle of manage- 
ment, which is eafy to be obferved, and by 
which alone, perhaps, half the prefect wafle 
mi^ht be avoided. This is the felf-evident 
and fimple one of not fuffering cattle to re- 
main at rdgkts y on aftergrafs, nor of permit- 
ting them to return to it, in the morning > 
labile froji remains on the ground. 

In ftrictnefs, they ought never to be fuf- 
fered to lie down among it, but mould be re- 
moved, as foon as their appetites are palled. 
Even this, when the expenditure is on cows, 
is not dimcult. But fatting cattle may, per- 
haps, require mere indulgence. Thefe, 
however, might, without injury, be let out, 
in the evening, into an adjoining ftubble or 
pafture ground, and be fuffered to return in 
the morning, with very little extraordinary 
otion cr trouble. Cows might be folded 
in a yard, cr kept in the houfe, or in the 
field, as circurnfr.an.ces might require. 

Grafs which has been trampled under foot, 
in the manner defcribed above, neceffarily 
remains, in winter, an encumbrance to the 
iurface. If the ground be foddered upon, 
fome of it will of courfe be worked off by 
cattle - y and horfes will eat a ftill greater friare 
of it. Still, however, the fward will be 

ragged 



YORKSHIRE. 143 

ragged in the fpring ; a circumftance that 
ought to be avoided. In the early part of 
fpring, aftergrafs ought to be level -, that is, 
either entirely hare, or covered with a fuffi- 
cicnt even bite of unfoiled aftergrafs, or 
winter-freed pafturage. 

Two of the moil intelligent rural econo- 
mics of thefe kingdoms make a point of 
faving autumnal grafs, for fpring feed ; and 
they are probably right when they aflert, that 
it is the molt certain, and, on the whole, the 
belt, fpring feed, which is, at prefent, known. 

On thefe principles, the right manage- 
ment of aftergrafs is evident. The for- 
wardeft ought to be broken, fufricientiy early, 
to be eaten, without wafte, before winter fet 
in j and the lateft, that is to fay, the fhorteft, 
fhould be fhut up for fpring feed. If after- 
grafs be too long and groffy, it is apt to lodge, 
and rot upon the ground in winter. There- 
fore, on rich land, it ought to be more or lefs 
fed, before Michaelmas ; and then, while of 
a due length, to be fhut up during winter. 

IV. PASTURE GROUNDS. The ma- 
nagement of pafture grounds requires to be 
fubdivided into 

1. Spring Management. 

2. Stocking. 

3. Summer Management. 

1. Spring 



144 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

i. Spring Management. In the or- 
dinary practice of the Diilrict, pafrures arc 
fhut up, in winter, or earlv in the fpring, 
and kept free from ftock, until Old Mayday* 

General Remarks on the Spring 
Management of Grass Lands. 

This appears to me to be bad manage- 
ment. At Old Mayday, in a common year* 
and on an ordinary foil, there is a fufficient 
bite, over every part of the furface. Cattle 
of courfe cboofe the better herbage. They 
have no inducement to crop the --weeds and 
codrfer gra[fes y which they fuffer to run up 
to feed, thereby, in the initant, encumbering 
the furface, and, in the confluence, in- 
creafing their quantity ; thus tending to 
leifen, in a twofold w^ay, the proportion of 

NUTRITIOUS HERBAGE. 

Even fuppGiing the fward to be perfectly 
tret from weeds and coarfe graifes, it is bad 
management to fuiter flock (store stock) 
to be turned upon a full bite. They cannot, 
if duly flocked, keep the whole of it under. 
Much of it will inevitably run up to feed, 
forming tufts and uneaten patches, which (if 
not removed with the fithe) remain, during 

the 



YORKSHIRE. 14$' 

the fummer, as ufelefs to the grazier, as if 
they were not included within the limits of 
his paftures. They are fo much wafle ground. 
The quantity of grazing furface, or, in other 
Words, thefize of the paflure, is leiTened, in 
proportion to the quantity of J} ale herbage. 

On the contrary, if ftock be admitted into 
paftures, while the early weeds are yet in a 
tender fate, and before the furface be covered 
with Setter herbage, every weed will be 
cropped, and every part be equally eaten. 
Even rufes, when they nrft fhoot, are eaten 
freely by cattle and hcrfes ; efpecially the 
latter. The cowparfnep, ragwort, knobweed, 
and other grofs early plants are, on their firft 
emeriion, devoured greedily by cattle and 
fheep. 

But changing weeds into nutriment, and 
increafing the quantity of pa/luring furface, 
are not the only advantages arilmg from 
breaking paftures, early, with itore cattle. 
The cattle themfelves are benefited, by being 
removed, by degrees, from dry meat to fuc- 
culent herbage ; and thereby, in all human 
probability, preferred from many diforders, 
which cattle are liable to, on their bein£ iirfl 
turned out to grafs in the ipnng. 

Vol. II. L It 



r 4 5 NATURAL HERBAG E. 

It will be faid, that, under this manage- 
ment, paiture grounds require to be flocked 
.:T, than in the ufual practice. For a 
few day?, immediately after Mayday, the 
pafture will be comparatively jbart (a cir- 
cumftance, perhaps, favorable to cattle when 
firlr. turned out wholly to ; :, after- 

: ; , the advantage will be evidently in 
favor of early breaking ; inafmuch as the 
iffurface is thereby encreafed. It 
is therefore demonilrable, that, under this 
management, paftures maybe locked thicker, 
than in the common practice. 

Fatting cattle, which are forward 
in flelh, ar_:i ire intended to be fi with 

grafs, may require a at the firft turn- 

ing out. But for cows, working oxen, 

ring CATTLE, and lean cattle, inter 

to be on grafs, a I jU bite, at the firil 

;ing out, is net requiiite. 

Another obi eerier:, which maybe made to 

early grazing, i : that of laying the land open 

to the drou , too, is in 

td to pa , an 

ill g a. It is notorious 

to common a, that cows milk, 

. general thrive, beyond expectation, 
in droui r. It is not the length of 



YORKSHIRE. 14} 

grafs, but the quantity of nourifiment it con- 
tains, which makes cattle pay for their paf- 
turage. In dry feafons, medicinal waters 
are ftrongly impregnated, and fruit expofed 
to the fun in fuch feafons, is fweeter and more 
highly flavored, than it 'is in a moid: feafon, 
or a lliady fituation ; but the diftillers of ef- 
fential oils are the beft judges of the effects 
of feafons on herbage . 

The richnefs of vegetable productions appears 
to be in proportion to the quantity of heat , in -the 
im?nediate fphere of their vegetation. Thus 
the richnefs of fruit is increafed, by the re- 
flection of the wall ; and it ftrikes me that 
the richnefj of grafs is increafed, by the re- 
flection of the foil. Long grafs fhades the" 
foil and deftroys the reflection. The fhorter 
the grafs the ftronger the reflection, and, 
confcquently, the richer the herbage. 

But the longer the grafs, the fooner the 
cattle fatisfy their hunger, and lie down to 
reft. A MEDIUM, therefore, is obfervable. 
The due length depends upon the nature of 
the flock, the nature of the foil, and the 
nature of the feafon. Rich grafs goes farther 
than that which is watery and weak. A 
good grazier tooks to the condition of his 

L 2 cattle, 



t 4 8 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

cattle, rather than to the length of their 
pafture. 

Thefe obferyations are drawn from my 
own experience, as well as from the practice 
of one man in this Diftricl, who, by early 
flocking, keeps not only his rough paftures, 
but even his yards, in a great meafure level, 
and free from encumbrance. 

OldLadyday to theMiDDLEOF April, 
according to the progrefs of fpring, appears 
to me, at prefent, as the befl time for fiutting 
up mowing grounds and opening paftures. 

2. Stocking pastures. The /pedes 
and the quantity require to be feparately con- 
sidered. 

No fettled rules, with refpect to the mix- 
ture of fpecies, are here obferved. It is ge- 
nerally underftood, that horfes and cattle, in- 
termixed, will eat grafs, cleaner, than either 
fpecies will, alone ; not fo much from their 
feparately affecting different graffes, as from 
the circumilance of both fpecies diiliking to 
feed near their own dung. 

Horfes, it is true, appear partial to parti- 
cular patches of fward ; but, on clofe exa- 
mination, I have never been able to difcover 
any peculiarity, in the foil, or the herbage, of 
thefe barely eaten fpots ; which are, I ap- 
prehend, 



YORKSHIRE. 149 

prehend, fird eaten to the quick, fortuitoufly, 
and are afterwards kept down, through their 
peculiar fiveetnefs, owing to the peculiar fiort- 
nefs of the herbage. Hares and rabbits, in 
the neighbourhood of kept covers, keep 
down patches of barley or other corn, in a 
iimilar manner, and through fimilar motives. 

Befides this unfair manner of feeding, the 
horse is difliked in paftures, on account of 
the worthleffnefs of the dung of horses, 
at grafs. 

This, when the fuperior value of their 
dung, in the ftable, is confidered, appears 
fomewhat paradoxical. The idea, however, 
is not confined to this DiftricT:, nor to this 
Ifland ; it prevails, I am well informed, in 
America, and more or lefs, perhaps, in every 
place, where hufbandmen cbferve, inatten- 
tively. 

The idea has, no doubt, fome foundation.- 
The dung of horfes, dropped on grafs in 
fummer, fqon undergoes a change. Its fub- 
ftance is prefently fcooped out by infects ; 
nothing but a porous bundle of undigested 
vegetable matter being left. If infects not 
only eat horfe dung, but fly away with it out 
of the field, it is in reality loft, to that parti- 
cular field ; but if, what is mofl likely, they 

L 3 drop 



*50 NATURAL HERBAGE. 

drop it again, near the place where it was 
taken up, and, at length, find a grave, for their 
own bodies, among the grafs, the occupier of 
the land fuftains no 1c 

Sheep, I believg, are feldom mixed, ht: 
either with cows or f rattle. They eat 

lefs fairly than horfes, which itick to parti- 
cular patches ; while £heep run ever and 
nibble out the choiceft morftis of the entire 
piece. They are generally kept alone, ex- 
cept on commons, and are, on this fide of : 
Yale* properly confined to the uplands, the 
moll natural pafture of lheep. 

With regard to the aggregate quantity 
of stoci: :le to 2. given p 

hulbandmen, here, as in other places, differ 
in their opinions. Extremes are moftly in- 
judicious. The impropriety of locking too 
thin has already been flh but lay 

iiock too thick is a ft impropriety. 

Broken gi v be mown for hay ; but the 

eviis of overlooking are not eafily repaired: 
once checked do not readily regain a 
thri ing habit. I have . p ^not in this 
. : entire pre dace oi the land 

it is an error 
wh ittaj far :jo freque- tly tall 

Intu, Tne middle :o be atten- 

tv 



YORKSHIRE. i S i 

tively fought after. Nothing but experience, 
0:1 the given ground, can point it out. In 
obtaining this experience, it is always prudent 
to begin on the fafe lick ; or, in other words, 
to underftock, rather than overilock, the firit 
year. 

3. Summer management of pas- 
tures. In this department of the grafs 
land management, the Diltrict under furvey 
is deficient. No f:ifimg of flock -, no head 
(lock andjbl/owers « hot fa tares, 

with the ikhe. In the ordinary practice of 
the country, ftock are turned into pallure 
grounds, at Mayday, and there remain im- 
pounded, until Michaelmas ; or until h-arveil 
be in ; when the head itock are transferred 
to the mowing grounds, and the ordinary 
flock to the irubbles, to partake of the 
u average :" a provincial term for the eatage 
of arable land, after harvelt ; a term probably 
originating in the ancient commonfield ma- 
nagement* 

I have already intimated, that it is not my 
intention to make the prefent a didactic work. 
Neverthelefs, where I find what appears to 
me caufe of cenfure, it may be right to men- 
tion what I think would be a means of doing 
it away, 

L 4 General 



15* NATURAL HERBAGE. 

General Remarks dm :::: Man.-. 
mmt 01 summeb pastures. 

The grassland management is no longer 
a iub : e,: which is new :c me. 

bad a considerable (hare of experience, in my 
own practice, and have alio r.idopportur.: 
of obferving, on a large l'cale, the practice of 
others, in different and diftant D.::::::s. I 
will therefore give, here, in as few words as 
r::":ble, zjlctcb of my pre lent ideas, refpeft- 
ing the proper n::r._^e::.c::: of summes 

PASTURES. 

Much depends on situation, and much 
on water. There are cafes (many :: :hem 
in this Diftritt] :h the ilock are, 

through neceffity, confined daring the Sum- 
mer in one grafs pound. Cafes like rhefe 
can only be lamented, not remedied. There 
are ethers which wil] admit of only toco di- 
viner.- ; that is, ;:" v.- a predicament 
infinkelv preferable to the firft ; b'Jt not al- 
together defira: 

I all cafe:. where lotting cattle or dairy 
s make a part dJ the hick, and -.'•'r.t:t 
.tion, foil, and water will permit, e- 
iuite of grazing grounds ought, in my idea, 

to 



YORKSHIRE. ;Sj 

to COnfift of THREE COMPARTMENTS. One 

for head flock (as cows or fatfing cattle), 
one for followers (as rearing or other lean 
flock), and the third to be fhut up to frefheo. 
for the leading itock. 

If, at the time of fhifting the followers, 
there be much Jeedy herbage left upon the 
ground, it ought to remain until they be 
ihifted ; and to be mown as hay during 
the receis. 

But if, at that time, a few weeds, and a 
httle feedy herbage only be left, they ought to 
be swept down, with the lithe, a few days 
before the removal of the lean flock ; which 
will not fail, in this cafe, to lick up even the 
fharpeft thirties, while they are in the foft 
flaccid flate, to which mowing prefently re- 
duces them. 

Finally, I am clearly of opinion, that, let 
the paflure coniifl of one, two, or more com- 
partments, not a weed ought to feed, nor a 
tuft of ftale grafs be mitered to fland, in a 
paflure ground; which ought once, at leafl, 
during the fummer, to be levelled with 
the si the ; thus, at a fmall expence, con- 
verting weeds into nutriment, and 

WASTE GROUND INTO AFTERGRASS. 

HORSES. 



154 HORSE S, 



2 7 . 

HORSES. 

Introductory Remarks, 

YORKSHIRE has Ion* been celebrated 
for its horfes. Fitzherbert, who wrote two 
hundred and fifty years ago, mentions his 
going to Rippon fair, to buy colts. 

Tne influence of cMmature, on the confti- 
tution, or changeable part of the nature of 
animals, is a matter difficult to be demon- 
Pirated. There are men who deny it. — > 
Neverthelefs, ftrong evidences of its exiftence 
may be drawn, from the animal under con- 
sideration. 

No man has yet been able to breed Ara- 
bian horfes, in England; EngliJJj horfes, in 
France or Germany ; nor Tor kp ire horfes, 
in any other Diftrict. of England. Some good 
horfes, no doubt, are bred every year, in dif- 
ferent parts of the kingdom ; but they are 
few, in proportion to the number of bad ones 
bred, in thofe parts. 

In 



YORKSHIRE, 155 

In Norfolk, the breeding of faddle horfes 
has been repeatedly attempted, without fuc- 
cefs. Yorkshire ftallions have been, and ftill 
are fent, into Norfolk, in the covering feafon. 
The foals may be handfome, but they lofe 
their form as they grow up. 

On the contrary, in Yorkihire, let the fcal, 
when dropt, be ever fo unpromifm^, it will, 
if any true blood circulate in its veins, ac- 
quire fafhion, ftrengtk, and activity, with its 
growth. 

Thefe circumftances feem to account for 
the fuperiority of Yorkshire- bred horfes ; 
and furnifh an evidence, that air, water, foil, 
or herbage, has an influence on the conili- 
tution or changeable properties of animals. 

The Diftricl more immediately under fur- 
vey may, perhaps, be confidered as the firft, 
in the county, for the breeding of horfes. 
Neverthelefs, it cannot, even here, be called 
a univerfal practice. Men are led into it by 
accident or caprice. 

It would be difficult to afcertain the exact 
number annually bred. The Vaie, the 
Wolds, and Holdernefs, probably employ a 
hundred ilallions. One hundred mares are 
confidered as" the full complement for one. 

horfe. 



156 HORSE S. 

fe. Some of them, perhaps, do not get 
fifty. On this calculation, there are from 
five to te:: thouiand horles bred, between :..; 
Eaftern Mbrelands and the Humber *. 

It: will now be aeccnar? :: c :::nder fepa- 
pately, 

i . The breed. 

2. The me:' : : :: breeding. 

;. Th: :::.:':: i l: :r. -'.-.:?. r-v.r. 

^ O A. 

4.. T ':.. 

c . The m n ent of worked hon"c s , 

in this Dl:::i:~:. 
I. H7^LD. Thirty years ago, strong 
saddle horses, fit for the road only, were 
the ; r i r. : : _ a I b re - i of the Yale* 

During the laft twenty years, fome capital 

o nters bai e been bred in it. This change 

principally effected by one hone, 

Jalap j a fuil-bred horfe ; whole pedigree 

and performances are well known upon the 

turf. 

r : ; llill living ; and, what is remark - 

!e. ' : n, . : the . re cf thirty, covered 

several :;._:... His leap rV. z guineas each, 

for 

* This grounded oa Ktde 

; nH be difficult to aicertaiu 

: - District. 



YORKSHIRE. I57 

for blood mares ; two guineas for " Chap- 
men's" mares *. 

But notwithstanding the credit which the 
Vale has juflly acquired, of late, by its hunt- 
ers, the breed is, at prefent, changing to 
fafhionable coach horses; namely, tall, 
jftrcrig, overlized hunters* The breed, there- 
fore, may be laid to have increafed in fize, 
rather than to have undergone a change. In 
1783, the ftallion (hows exhibited beautiful 
groups of animals, active as the greyhound, 
and fpirited as the lion. This year (1787) 
the mows were comparatively fiat and fpirit* 
lefs : a mere parade of troopers. 

There may be feveral reafons, for the alte- 
ration which is taking place, in the breed of 
horfes in the Vale. — The Jalapian breed has 
degenerated ; very few of the fons of this 
celebrated horfe have been good flock-get- 
ters. Another reafon, and perhaps a better, 
is the unfitnefs of high-bred hunters, for 
beads of burden and draught. Not only 
brood mares, but growing horfes, are ufed 
in hufbandry. The operation of plowing 
with two horfes requires ftrength : {lender 
horfes are unfit for it ; but a three or four- 
year 

* He died in December 1787, fince this article iva9 
written. 



158 HORSE 5. 

year old coach horfe may be occasionally 
uled ; and, in cafes of deformity or lamenefs, 
may be continued as a farm horfe. If to 
this be added, the extravagant prices which 
defcription of coach horfes have recently 
borne, the Vale farmers may be right in 
propagating the breed*. 

Let this be as it mav, they are mod: af- 
faredly wrong, when they give encourage-* 
tnent :: the Fen Breed, the " Howdenmack" 
of black cart hor?es, which I am forry 
to fee worming their way, into the Vale. 
The breed of gr^v rats, with which this liland 
has of late vears been overrun, are not a 
greater pert in it, than the breed of black 
fen horfes: at leaft, while cattle remain 
fcarce, as they are at prefent ; and while the 
neih of horfes continues to be rejected as an 
article of hum m food. 

Let the Vale formers continue to plow 

h coach h >rfes, s cxen in carriage : 

a breed of horfes better ca._ alated for eating 

thanwe. hole tender. cv is to ren- 

their shivers :. Qaggifh as themfelves, 

ire id . to the prefent rents of the 

[folk has already experienced the 

evil 

* 1 EfOLDE&NEgs bW been longer in 

:.i bexfes. 



YORKSHIRE. 



'59 



jonfequences of encouraging :ed; 

::r.d I hone this country will not latter by 
the lame indifcretion . It is laughable enough 
to fee a {lender half-bred mare, who perhaps, 
a few years ago, received the embraces of 
ip or his offspring, bending under the 
weight of a cumbrous animal, whofe very 
legs, in ail their admired roughnsfs, are 
nearly equal in fize to the body of her for- 
mer gallant. Xo wonder that monllers, 
having not their likenefs in nature, ihould be 
the produce of fuch unnatural amours. 

II. BREEDING HORSES. From what 
has been faid respecting the fuperiority of 
Yorkihire horfes, it will, no doubt, be ex- 
pected that great attention is paid to breed- 
ing ; and that the myiteries of it will be dif- 
cloled; while, perhaps, others have con- 
ceived that their fuperiority is more owing to 
the art of breeding, than to the geniality of 
climature. I ihould be lorry if truth ob" 
me to difcover the misjudgment of toy 
readers ; and feel myielf aukwardly circum- 
ilanced in being under the neceliity of dif- 
clof -.g the miiconducl of my countrymen. 

In -it parts of the kingdom, the 

.ling of rai s is reduced almoin to 

fcience. In the Midland counties, the breed- 



• . 



f6d HORSES. 

ing of cart horfes is attended to with the 
fame afliduity, as that which has of late years 
been beftowed, on cattle and fheep ; while 
the breeding of faddle horfes, hunters , and 
coach iforfes; is aim oil entirely neglected ; is 
left almofl wholly to chance ; even in York- 
mire ! I mean as to females. A breeder, 
here, would not give five guineas for the bell 
brood mare in the kingdom; — unlefs me 
could araw, or carry him occasionally to 
market; nor a guinea extraordinary for one 
which would do both. He would fooner 
breed from a rip, which he happens to have 
upon his premifes ; though not worth a 
month's keep. 

But how abfurd. The price of the leap, 
the keep c£ the mare, and the care and keep 
of her progeny, from the time they drop to 
the time of fale, is the fame, whether they 
be fold from ten to fifteen, or from forty to 
fifty pounds each. 

Superior excellency may be laid to depend 
upon the mare. There is an inftance, in 
this neighbourhood, of the offspring of one 
mare being fold* to dealers, for four or five 
hundred pounds. What are a few guineas in 
the firit purchafe of a good mare ? and what 
are a few days plowing, or a few rides to 

market, 



YORKSHIRE. 161 

market, compared with the difference be- 
tween a race of good and of ordinary horfes ? 

It appears to me evidently, that much re- 
mains to be done, in this department of Rural 
Economy. Good stallions may be had 
for money ; and the different hunts, in the 
fouth of England, will, fo long as they re- 
main, be a fource of mares, moil fuitable to 
the purpofe of breeding capital hunters. 
Mares lamed, or ftiffencd by fevere exercife 
and improper treatment, are generally to be 
bought, in the neighbourhood of thefe hunts, 
at moderate prices. And mares, fit for the 
breeding of coach horses, are to be met 
with in every county- 

The prefent prices, given for hunters and 
coach horfes, and, more efpecially, the de- 
clenfion of the breeding of the former, are 
incitements fufficient, to induce men of fpirit 
to make an attempt. Nothing appears to 
me to be wanting, but a Bake well, to 
take the lead* 

While the nation remains in its pre fen* 
(late of refinement, horfes for the ; 
thejield are in a degree neceliarv ; . racers 
and cart Lwrfes might, with tefe inconve- 
niency, be difpenfed with. 

Vol. II. M lb* 



i62 .'HORSES. 

The King's Plates have probably had their 
life, in improving the Englifh horfe, in a<fti*- 
vity and fleetnefs. But the original intention 
of them has long ago beerianfvvered : race- 
horses are now fit for the purpofe of amufe- 
?nent, only. They are, in general, drawn 
much too fine for uje. Therefore, to con- 
tinue thefe prizes will be diftributing the 
public money* toward the wont of purpofes : 
the encouragement of gaming ; and the in- 
jury of the breed of English horfes. The 
broad-loined, deep-chefted, old Englilh 
hunter has given place to the lank feeble 
racer. If it mould be ftill thought proper 
to continue the King's Plates, it would cer- 
tainly be wife to increafe the limited weight. 

With refpect to cart horses, if ex- 
tending the faddle-horfe tax, to farm horfes 
in general, would lellen their number, and 
increafe that of working oxen, it would be 
political to extend it, without lofs of time* 

Under the prefent head, it may be proper 
to regifter an idea, which I have met with in 
this country, and which, evident as it may 
feem, never occurred to me before, either in 
theory or practice. 

It is a fact, well eftablifhed in the common 
practice of this Difrrict, that fpayed heifers 

work 



YORKSHIRE. 163 

nverk better, and have in general more wind, 
than oxen j and it is not doubted that spayed 
mares would have an equal preference to 
geld bigs. 

I do not, however* find that the experi- 
ment has ever been tried. The reafbn held 
out againit it, though formidable at firft 
' fight, proves a mere madow on examination. 
The fpaying of fillies would undoubtedly 
fpoil them for brood mares. But does not 
the gelding of a colt fpoil him for zjlallion t 
What breeder, when his mares foal, wifhes 
for fillies ? and what dealer would not wil- 
lingly give halfacrown, for each, to have his 
mares changed into geldings ? or perhaps 
into animals fuperior to geldings ? 

In the fpring of the year, open mares are 
faint and troublefome. The only requifites 
appear to be a izfe cutter, and a man of fpirit 
to fet him to work, to bring the fpaying of 
female foals into common practice, 

It does not follow, that becaufe a part of 
the female foals fhould be cut, there would 
not be open mares to breed from, more than 
it does, that becaufe fome heifers are fpayed 
for the yoke, or for fatting, there are not cows 
futficient, for the purpofes of breeding and 
the dairy. 

M 2 Ido 



i64 HORSES. 

I do not mean to reco?nmend a practice of 
which I have had no experience ; but if the 
experiment ha? not been tried, it ftrikes me, 
forcibly, that it is worth the trial ; and 
-that it is more than time it were fet about *• 

III. MAKING UP HORSES. TheAGF, 
at which young horfes are here made up 
for a market, is four or five years old. 

Some breeders their own horfes * 

others only hack them, and perhaps ufe them 
gently, in barnefi ; felling them, at full age, 

tO PROFESSIONAL DEALERS; who, With 

Ei to themfelves, make them 
fat and fine-ikinned — let ud their tails — ■ 
abridge occasionally the number of their teeth, 
— and teach them their liable exercife. 
Seme are bought up, at two or three ft 

old, by HORn-DEALING FARMERS; who 

9 them upon good land j break them into 
the faddle, . ; and finally make them 

up, accord; . - a :, for market. 

One farmer in the Vale is laid to make-up 
an hundred, annually. And one dealer, at 
Malton, is laid to have fometimes two or 
three hundred horfes in his ltables, at once. 

Maki: 

* Since the firft publication of this Volume, I met with 
an inftance of practice, in the ich will 

be mentioned, in the Southern Counties. 



YORKSHIRE. 165 

Making-up horfes, upon a farm, by a 
man who is a judge, is a moft profitable 
branch of husbandry. Oats, hay, and ilraw, 
find a market on the fpot ; and town manure 
is procured, in quantity, without the expence 
of fetching. 

IV. MARKETS FOR HORSES. MaU 
ton has the only horse show in this Diftricl, 
It is held in the fpring of the y?ar, and con- 
tinues for a week ; namely, the week he- 
fore Palm Sunday. 

At this fair, great numbers of made-up 
horfes are fold. They begin to go in, on 
Monday : Tuefday and Wednefday are the 
principal days, for good horfes : Thurfday 
and Friday generally exhibit an inferior fort : 
and Saturday, which is likewife a great cattle 
fair, is principally a ilallicn ihow, and a fair 
for refufe horfes ; which, on this day, are 
lhewn in the open market. 

During the week days, the horfes are 
(hewn in ftables ; fitted up, at the inns, and 
in private yards, for the purpofe ; being onry 
led out, occafionally, at the defire of the 
chaprnam 

The hours of fhow are the morning before 

brcakfaii, the forenoon, and again in the 

M 3 evening; 



j66 HORSES. 

evening ; the {tables being conftantly fhut 
during meal times. 

The {how confifts of well bred hunters, 
inferior faddle horfes, and light coach horfes; 
mofr. of them being bred in the Vale, on the 
Wolds, or in Holdernefs ; fome few come 
from Cleveland, and the upper part of the 
Vale of York. 

The purc 1 iafers are the London and Weft of 
Torkjhtre dealers, and foreigners -, efpecially 
of France and Prussia. 

In 1783, the French markets being then 
recently opened by the peace, feveral French 
dealers were at this fhow. The favorite 
colors were yellow bays, greys, and chefnuts. 
Brown, the Englishman's favorite color, is 
difliked by foreigners. 

But, of late years, the principal part of the 
firft-rate horfes have been bought by the 
dealers, foreign and domefHc, prcvioujly to the 
Jbowy at die haufes of the country dealers, or 
the breeders. 

The prices are various: from fifteen to 
fifty pounds includes the majority of the 
made-up horfes, fold at Malton mow. They 
are led, in firings, to London, or {hipped off, 
at Hull, for foreign markets. In 1.783, a 
yeflel laden with horfes, bought at this mow 

and 



YORKSHIRE. 167 

and in the neighbourhood, was loft off the 
coaft of Yorkshire. 

V. TREATMENT OF WORKED 
HORSES. In a Diftrict where the working 
of oxen has been, for many ages, the eita- 
blifhed practice, it cannot be expected that 
any very accurate management of draught 
horses can have taken place. But, in a 
country which has always been coniidered as 
the fource of good hunters, and the fchool 
of good horfemanmip, it may be reafonably 
fuppofed, that a fuperiority of management 
prevails. 

This, however, is not, from what I have 
feen, the cafe, The only {biking feature of 
management, which has caught my notice, 
is, that of turning hunters, and other hard- 
ridden horfes, out into the field in the day- 
time, in winter ; cold or warm, and fome- 
times wet or dry : a practice which has been 
cried up by many great horfemen, and is to 
be met with in every part of the kingdom j 
though nowhere fo prevalently, perhaps, as 
in this country. 

It has always ftruck me as a bad practice, 

Neverthelefs, in compliance with the cuftom 

of the place I w as in > I l et a mare, which I 

rode into the country in 1782, run out to 

M 4 grafs, 



168 HORSE S. 

grafs, on leifure days, and lie in the houfe, at 
nights. The confequenqe was unfavorable, 
and fufficientiy ftriking to induce me to 
minute the circumftances, at the clofe of the 
occurrence. 

As the fa bj eel appears to be of confi- 
dcrabie importance, I will here copy the 
Minute. 

"1783, March a. There are, perhaps, 
fewhorfes which will bear to be hunted, one 
day, and turned out to grafs the next. My 
brother's practice is to let his horfes run at 
grafs, in the middle of the day, throughout 
winter. In conformity with this plan, mine 
was turned out in the daytime, whenever I 
did not want to ufe her. On my arrival here, 
in November laft, "though I had rode her a 
journey of two hundred miles, me was as fkt 
as a mole, and her carcaie round as a barrel. 
In the early part of winter, I rode her a good 
deal, and {hewed her the hounds, generally 
once a week. With this exercife, I was not 
farprifed at her (hrinking. But having more 
lately given hereafe, — in order that me might 
recover her flefh and fpirits,— -without find- 
ing any alteration, I had good reafon to think 
that it was not altogether the work, but the 
treatment, which kept her down ; for, with 

all 



YORKSHIRE. 

all the indulgence I could give her, her G 
ten days ago, were clapped together, and her 
hide (luck as clofe to her ril , as it it had 
been glued to them. Her appetite for dry 
meat at I as gone. She would let her 

corn lie in die manger untouched ; the 
for tiie time I have had her — fix years — 
has ever been a remarkable good feeder. 
had fome blood taken from her, but me ilill 
remained the fame. Sirfpe&ing that hang- 
ing after the grafs was the only caufe of her, 
ill thriving, me has for the laft ten days been 
kept entirety in the hotrfe. Her ikin is 
alreadv locfe and fiiky, end me calls for corn 
every time the {table door i? opened. The 

r day flic wanted fpurs. Now me is all 

fpiri: turned out a mare, which 

he had hunted the day before, to grafs, on a 
cold da y. She got a violent cc 'zed 

er limbs ; and it has been with great i 

frculty he has faved her. began to turn 

out a valuable mare, which h i ccca- 

fionaily - y but finding le refufed her 
dry meat, he difecntinued it ; and now finds 
that ihe has taken to her hay and corn, again. 
My brother's horle, ufed to it as he has bttn 
from his infancy, and as he con- 

stantly 



H O R S E S. 

r.-:::'..- . e a common hack 

a hunter, 
•• There -.■ . I ' n ya horfe, 

LtQ vioic • ...:uld 

not be e: - (c - at grafs, in ievere weather. 
It takes them )ff their dry meat ; and he: 
w'-\:'.;i:vzi .:.-.. it i ly probable, 

morr . fuffei :..:::/. pinching cold, 

md may be more liable tc - by acute 

difo: than hcrfc> wh - more mo- 

derate ex ., - - whole frames are leis 
jced. A !.: ich has been enured to 

thole tr untie heat ; i cold will, no 

doubt, bear them better than one which has 
always been ufed to a warm liable ; and 
h,, certainly, :.._';: not to be expoled to 
;" J ::.;:-.:r:-.U:::c.-: ..-."". .. ."". . rrcate:;. 

on. 

,% ' . ■:;•. that letting 

a horfe ran .:.:, . winter, keeps his legs 

L.iLT.t: ir.l :7.::i 1 apple than landing al- 

the ftabie. My mare was not frefher 

on her legs, at :; ..: yean i, than ihe has 

bee:, this renter. Arj i be 

- : . - - days, when the 

. . . t.7a . . ....... place to hay 

l ::.., it gnus, 1 am of opinion it 

would 



YORKSHIRE. i 7 , 

would be of great fervice to them. Hoties 
.which are unavoidably expo fed to tranfitions 
from heat to cold — as hunters frequently are, 
in fauntering by the fide of a cover, after a 
hard run — ought, indisputably, to ftand in a 
cool ftable, and to be expofed to the open air 
on leifure days, fo far as the ftate of perfect 
health and vigour will permit : but no far - 
then" 

I make no comment on the foregoing facts 
and reflections. I infert them as a caution 
to the inexperienced : and as hints to thofe 
who wifh to hit the HAPPY MEDIUM of 
treatment. 

Turning out horses to grass in the 
spring, I met with an idea, in this Dinxict, 
respecting the ftrit turning out of a horfe 
entirely to grafs, which deferves to be ge- 
nerally known. 

When a horfe is thrown up, or turned out 
at nights to grafs, in the fpring of the ^ear, 
it is common to choofe the ftrrcnpuk of a fine 
day to do it ir\. The natural confequence is, 
the horfe fills his belly, during the Jkmjbme % 
and lays down to reft, in the cold of the- 
night - f thereby, probably expofing himfelf 
\d diforders. 

A much 



: C A i T t K 

A much Better practice pre-:-. : . here; 
The hone, i . af being tamed rat la tb* 

morning, is turv.ri om .~ The 

. and (kept 

in - - _"■.-. ' . of me . 



28. 
C A T T L E. 

I.N" 7 J jRY REMARKS. 

IX A SEQUESTERED V.. 

..- I ..::?. csd f dc ex: \::ed: 

;k. 
:iofed ftate if this Vale, I 

chiefly, to 
:::: ; ;:.:n. and a I 
In the Wefl and 

s of the Vale, which h 

been 

I L is " It BOKSE6 A? 

. i.-.. They kept, 

atf inyap -:r- e:. :. r- 



Y R. KT$ H I R S. 173 

been inclofed, time immemorial, and which, 
until of late years, have always lain in a irate 
of rough grafs, great numbers of young 
cattle were reared, fcr tale. 

Converting the lower lands to arable, in- 
clofing the Commons, and laying the arable 
fields ft> grafg, hive wrought a coniiderabie 
change, in what mav be called the economy 
of live stock; more :ally in the 

economy of cattle. Dairies have 
increafed ; grazing has been introduced; 
and rearing has declined. 

Thus far, however, the Vaie may be faid 
to have reared its own flock ; excepting feme 
few scotch cattle, which are annually 
brought into it, for the purpoie of clearing 
rough paftures in winter j and to be fatted 
on fecondary grazing grounds, the enfuing 
iiimmer. 

To crive an : :e idea of the nature 

and management of cattle, it? this Diftri£t, it 
will be proper to d i&. into tour 

principal divifiens : nam. 

1. The Species, or breec 

2. Breeding Cattle. 

3. Rearing 

$. Fatting ca. 

I. BREED. 



t;4 C A t T L t. 

I. BREED. Within the memory of a per- 
fon now living ,* namely, about feventy years 
zgo ; the ancient breed of black cattle, 
which probably once prevailed throughout 
England *, and whole name is itill very im- 
properly ufed in (peaking of cattle :;; reueral, 
were the only bree 
By 

fheprefent brec "."ales and the Weft of 

Scotland : moitiv " all black ;" but : : ;me ■ 
u white faces :" moftly "homed , fc at feme of 
them " humbled/' that is bomlefs. 

To thefe fucceededa black and whi r £ 
breed; probably a variety of the original 
ipeci?--. Butftill the <; r«/ cvw'i w /.'-:' was 
confidered as medicinal i and many inveterate 
diforders were doubtlefs cared with it : : 
is to fay, by a perfeverance in milk diet. 

The black mottle?, probably a tfanfient 
fort- were fucceeded by the longhor.nid or 
f< Craven breed :"" the probable ori g is f the 
pre- lent celebrated breed of the V D mi 
counties. 

But, in a country where the buunefs cf 
aration was carried on principally h 
this breed was found extra 
Horns a yard lone weie not only trouble- 

feme, 

* ftntfie West of- England, Art. Cattl: 



YORKSHIRE. 175 

fomfc, but dangerous, in yoke ; efpecially in 
the narrow roads and hollow ways, with 
which the Diflrict formerly abounded. Ac- 
cidents were frequently happening to them ; 
by getting their horns entangled in the hedge 
or the bank ; fometimes breaking off their 
horns ; but more frequently breaking their 
necks. 

This was a fufficient inducement for 
adopting the shorthorned cr "Holdernefs 
breed :" probably of Dutch extraction. This 
change took place fome forty cr fifty years 
ago : and the morthorned breed llill pre- 
vails ; though it has undergone feveral al- 
terations, fince its firft introduction. 

The firft variety of this fpecies of cattle, 
which I can recollect, was a thick, laree- 
boned, coarfe, clumfy animal : remarkably 
large behind, with thick gummy thighs. 
Always flefhy, but never fat ; the fejb being 
of a bad quality. This, however, was not 
the worft : the monftrous iize of the buttocks 
of the calf was, frequently, fatal to the cow. 
Numbers of cows were annually loir, in 
calving. Thefe monftefs were fiigmatized 
with the opprobrious epithet " Dutch a — a." 
This was probably the worfl breed the Vale 
ever knew. 

The 



CATTLE. 

Tik " :" :. " Dutch 

breed" 

: i In the 

courie of t. e has 

. the hind qv /.ccd* 

rwl the 
impi - . - 

ral crofiingSi but cl ig the 

. • . 

: :: c: their nei. 

:k. 

It i "■' : rj i ef- 

icCzi: - . 

. 
\i i | 

- 
-a::i . uddle 

ford 

but :. 

— 

...... 

Th . as 

vreila m . . . 

... . 

v [the .._.. 



Y 6 R It S H,I R E: i 7 f 

Even the Dutch buttocks were probably bred 
in England. 

The Holdernefs breed, on their firft intro- 
duction into the Vale, were faid to be thin- 
quartered, too light behind, and too cdarfe 
before \ large moulders, coarfe necks, and 
deep dewlaps. This form being found dis- 
advantageous to the butcher, encreafing the 
quantity of the coarfer parts, and reducing 
the weight of the prime pieces, the breeder 
endeavored to enlarge the hind quarters ; 
and had he flopped when he had got to the 
happy medium, he would have wrought a good 
work. But the fafhion was fet j — " cloddy" 
bullocks were in eftimation ; and their evil 
qualities were overlooked, until they were 
rendered too obvious ; and the confequences 
above mentioned had taken place. 

The form and Jize of the present breed 
of the Vale may be feen, in the follow- 
ing dimenfions of a working ox, rifing five 
years old ; above par as to form, but fome- 
what beneath it in point of fize. 
Height, at the withers, four feet eleven 
inches. 

* • of the briiket, from the ground, 

twenty inches. 
Smaller!: girt, feven feet four inches* 

♦ Vol. II. N Largeft 



i 7 8 C A T T L E, 

Largeft girt, eight feet five inches. 
Greatest width, at the moulder, twentytwo 

and a half inches. 
■ at the hips, twenty three and 

a half inches. 
• at the round-Bone, twentyone 



inches. 
Length from forehead to nache, eight feet 

five inches. 
— — the center of the ihoulder- 

knoh to the center of the hip bone, four 

feet one inch. 
■ • the center of the hip bone, to 



the extremity of the nache, twentytwo 

inches. 
Length of the horns, fourteen inches. 
Width of the horns at the points, twentytwo 

inches. 
The eye full and quick. 
The head and neck clean. 
The bone fomewhat large. 
The chine and buttocks full. 
The fleili foft and mellow to the hand. 
The color blocd-red, marked with white. 

But a variety, new to the Vale, is now 
creeping into it: the Tees-watik breed > 
— a variety of the morthorned breed. This 
variety is eitubiiihed on the banks of the 

Tees, 



YORKSHIRE. 179 

Tees, at the head of the Vale of York, and 
is held out as the " true Yorkshire ihort- 
horned breed." Be this as it may, much at- 
tention has been bellowed on ita eftablifh- 
ment -, and it appears to be, at prefent, a 
moil: valuable breedof cattle : Valuable, I mean, 
to the grazier and the Butcher : the bone, 
head, and neck fine ■> the chine full ; the loin 
broad ; the carcafe, throughout, large and 
well falhioned ; and the flefh and fatting 
quality equal, or perhaps luperior, to thofe 
of the prefent breed of the Vale ; which, 
however, appear to be more 
athletic , and fitter for the yoke or b&rnefs* 

In forming that variety, a horn, verv dif- 
ferent from that which is prevalent in the 
Vale, has been produced. The " buckle- 
hern" is, in this cafe, as in the other, fome- 
what lengthened ; but xhzfaftionable horn, on 
the banks of the Tees, is a clubbed down- 
hanging horn, as if, in forming it, a dalh cf 
Craven blood had been thrown in. And it 
might be made a moot point ; whether th$ 
horns of the two breeds, now particularly un- 
der notice, have been produced by fafhion 
alone ; or whether the Teeswater horn may 
not have been altered, from the original lhort 
horn, by a flight intermixture of the Cr. 

N 2 breed ; 



ltd C A T T L £. 

breed i and er the Holdernei^ tweed, 

:ich the Vale c :: ndiipntaWy 

originated, may net have had a fibular ad- 
mixture of the middiehorned blood*. 

I wifb :: trace the origin and progrefs of 
the dirrere::: bj : ^-ttle in the Hand; 

but I find it will fa Hcuit talk to d 

The hc ft criterion for diiti::- 

guiihing the diffi r e ies (if the term be 

icable) ofc tdi I: is a permanent 

T be color, though 

changeable; and 

neither the firm nc: the ~ \£are permanently 

characteristic 

:'. The : cumflance of a red cow's milk*' being 

..::: .1; ::-.::.:.-.. v. r ..- :r.t " = :A:;e ::' rei c..::.:. Ai- 
g that tfce. red . were of either of die breeds 
rnentionsd, (that is to Jay, of the native red breed of 

the fouthe: : this Ifland, fee West of E N : LAKo] 

zr.i ::...: :r. y - e: : ~ :-.ti .: : zr.t .:: ?-:.i rreei. :: :t-i.'.v 
:':'.'. .-••■ ; . :r..".: :".:: c'-i/_-= v ." '-.if :.;.;.:>.• :^;: rl.ic?, 

: ; : : 

ag examined, with fome attention, the U 
breed? its to me the ooft faris- 

:...::• r.rr.-.t: .:"_;:. .;-:..-_- :":.- :'-.: '.:..:. _ .:':'.<•:?, 

i ::.: '::. - - ■ . . . . 

i: .:'H::::.::.:.:::::A.: : 
-:-"." est Of :, for 



YORKSHIRE. 181 

chara&eriftic of any particular fpecies. G ood 
form and good flefh may be found, in every 
fpecies j though they are by no means equally 
prevalent, nor equally excellent, in all. But 
a horn fix inches long was never yet produced 
by the Craven breed ; nor one a yard long 
by the Holdernefs breed. And the middle- 
horned breed of Herefordmire, Sufiex, and 
other parts of the Ifland, appears to be as 
diitinct a fpecies as either of the former. 

Thefe are my only reafons for being fo 
minutely descriptive of the horns of cattle. 
I am not a bigot to horns of any mape or 
length. I would as foon judge of a man's 
heart by the length of his fingers, as of the 
value of a bullock by the length of his 
horns. 

IfhisfeJJj be good and well laid on, and his 
offal be proportionably fmall ; if he thrive well, 
fat kindly at an early age, or work to a late one 
if required ■> I would much rather have him 
entirely without horns, than with any which 
enthusiasm can point out, 

The doctrine of horns has long appeared 

to me as a fpecies of superstition, among 

Farmers, and as a craft, convenient to 

leading breeders ; in eftablifhing their refpective 

fyjlein:. 

N 3 But 



CATTLE. 

Bu: Left I (herald b fe to repent of 

raihneis, in If v -J of 

honi I 'v.ll here allow them all the merit 
which, in my opinion, truth them 

to. 

The horn ha been mentioned perma- 

nent .:::::: charade? ttle. HE* 

rrion. 

Thus, fuppofing - male and female of fupe- 

rioi :.:m and rlefh, and :t:em- 

-. other is the her:. 

::' the :.:..- v 

rallv i: , no matter v ..': or long, 

lg or falling and fup- 

) be ei; Lbli.r.ti ::: ::: r- 

.:.;.. it is high] that the 

horns of the ac :o be 

ch: he true . 

by :: : rioi 

. as a criterion. 
Bat it is radii rns remain 

the flefh and tattk ; quality 

dge- 
more upon the : 
the : ... .:. \e length 

. ■ . . . : . F:: it is a - 
. that the -iidividu 

may 



YORKSHIRE. 1&3 

may have exactly the fame horns, without 
having exactly, cither the lame famion, or 
the fame nefn. 

If there be any criterion or point of cattle, 
which may be iHy depended upon, as- 

a guide to the grazier, it is the eye, not the 
horn. The eye is a mirror, in which the 
nd habit, at leaft, may be feen, with 
a degree of certainty. 

II. BREEDING. From the foregoing 
view of the breeds of cattle, in the Vale, it 
appears, that confiderable attention has long 
been paid to the art of breeding ; and it has 
increaied much of late years. 

1. Bulls. A bull show has lately been 

:liihed, in Eail Yorkfhire : a prize medal 

varded to him who produces the belt 

voung bull : an admirable inftitution, which 

will doubtlefs be of laiting benefit to the 

. .try. 

In the Vale, there is an instance of a gentle- 

£Mr. Hill of Thornton) keeping one 

of the beft of theie mown bulls, for the ufe 

of his tenants : a liberal practice which might 

well be adopted, by other country gentlemen - 3 

andj more particularly, by men of large ef- 

| 

N 4 2. Breed- 



1 84 CATTLE. 

2. Breeding Cows. This fubjed re^ 
quires to be fubdivided into, 
i. Rearing. 

2. Purchafing. 

3. Treatment. 

4. Difpofal. 

1 . Rearing. It has already been faid, that 
the Vale ftill continues to rear its own flock. 
The rearing of co :c s will appear, in the next 
fection, under the general head Rearing 
Cattle. 

2. Pur chafing Corns. Though a dairyman 
may in general rear his own cows, he mult 
be fortunate indeed, if he never have occafion 
to purchafe a cow. 

The favorite points of a milking cow, here, 
are a thin thigh, a lank thin-fkinned bag 
hanging backward, teats long, and fufficiently 
free of milk without fpilling it, dug veins 
large, and horns yellow. I will not vouch 
for the infallibility of all thefe points ; but 
this I can fay, that I never noticed a cow, 
with a thick flelhy thigh, which was a good 
milker. 

The dimcnjhns of the handfomeft cow, I 
have feen, of the true Vale breed, riling five 
years old, and within a few months of calving, 
are as follow : 

Height 



YORKSHIRE. tig 

Height at the withers, four feet five inch. 
■ of the brilhet, eighteen and a I 

inches. 

Jleftgirt, (even feet one inch. 

Large ft girt, nine feet two inches. 

Width at the moulder, twe e and a half 

inch 

hip?, twe: inches. 

— — roundb:::e, nineteen inches. 

Length from forehead to nache, feven feet 

five inchc 
■ the center of the fhoulderknob 

to the center of the hackle, three feel 

eleven inches. 
the center of the hio bones to 



the out of the nache, twentyene inches. 
Length of the hen: . I 
Width at the points, eighteen and a half 

inches. 
Head, neck, and leg, as » or. 

Chine full, and back level. 
Color, a darkiih red. mottled with white. 

:. 'T . Here, as in all 

countries where gr .rives place to the 

dairy, milked cows are indulged with the 
befl the farm will afford. The beit land for 
ire, in iummer ; the head of the fog, in 
autumn j and, generally, hay moil of whiter. 

fits 



i85 C A T T L £. 

This practice has already been noticed. If 
the prefent breed of cows require hay, when 
thev give no milk, it is a depreciation of their 
value as milking cows. 

Be this as it may, there is certainly one 
difadvantage of the Vale breed of cows, 
which, I believe, is common to all the va- 
rieties of the fhorthorned breed. This is 
their difficulty in calving. For, notwith- 
standing the flefiinefs of the hind quarter has 
been Sufficiently done away, the bones frill 
remain. The loin is ilill broad, and the hips 
frill protuberate ; perhaps too much, either 
for feemlinefs or ufe. 

An improper treatment of the cow may 
encreafe the difficulty. A cow can fcarcely 
be too lew in fleih, a month before fhe 
calves. Good keep, three weeks or a month 
before calving, gives due ftrength and a fluili 
of milk. The caufe may be difficult to point 
out with precilion ; but the effect is well 
alcertained. 

It is a fact, that ihorthorned cows feldom 
calve without afjiftance. The hour of calving 
is watched, with obitetric fohcitude ; the 
perfon who has the care of them frequently 
fifing in the night, and fometimesTitting up 
with them, the night through. From con- 

ftant 



YORKSHIRE. 187 

flant obfervation, however, a ikilful dairyman 
will judge, at bedtime, the hour of calving, 
fufficiently near, to knqw whether it will be 
neceilary for him to rife, before his ufual 
hour. 

4. Markets for Cows. Milking cows arc 
moftly fold, at the neighbouring fairs, r ,vi:b 
calves by their jides. Sometimes, but not 
frequently, they are fold as incahcrs. The 
medial price of a cow and calf, on a par of 
the laft ten years, has been feven to nine 
pounds. 

Dry cows — provincially, " drapes" — are 
either fold, at the fairs, to jobbers, who buy 
them up for the Midland orSouth-of-England 
graziers, or are fatted, on the dairy farm, 
with aftergrafs, turneps, &c.' — The medial 
price of a lean " drape," of the Vale breed, 
on a par of the laft ten years, has been five to 
iix pounds. 

III. REARING. This deoartment of 
the fubjecl: is naturally broken into three 
ftages ; rearing cattle requiring different 
kinds of treatment, at different ages. 

1. Calves, i. Time of rearing. Can- 
dlemas to Old Ladyday. 

2. Points of a rearing Calf. The form I 
pafs over, in this place, as not having met 

with 



> 



itii CATTLE. 

te definition of it, in this coun- 
try: where md the color feem to 

be :: in general, 

than the form. 

A •• that is, a :uzzk, 

:, is considered 

. larkj poi ig a tender animal: 

on th •, a black or brown muzzle, 

Areemed a iigii 

A c 11 A a .' te is generally rejected, 
white cattle are of a ten- 
der nature ; A are peculiarly iubject 
to I that they are ciiiiked by 
- iflbciates ! The finert ox, I ever knew, 
"the Hcldernefs breed, was white. The 
A A: ox, I ever Aw, of the Tees water breed, 
One of the fineft cows, now in 
Neverthelefs, valuable 
ent to the butcher, merely 
becauie they are The imalleft 
f color : the tip cf an ear, red or 
. from profcription : under 
a notion, nc :, that it hardens their na- 
:nds them Aomlice; and renders 
m acceptable to their companions : a 
y :::r, which is not confined to this 

Diftridt j 



YORKSHIRE. 189 

Diitricr. j but which ought, in my opinion, 
to be univerfally exploded . 

3. Cafi rating Calves. Oxen, id this 
country at leait, are lubjecl: to a lloppage in 
the inteitines ; owing, it is believed, to the 
" blood firings" of the ; left in 

the body, at the time of caitxation. The 
fadl feems to be, that the difcrder is generally 
caufed, by a link of the inteftines being 
thrown (in playing, it is iuppofed) acrofs a 
cord or membrane, in the hind part of the 
abdomen ; and the cure is radically effected, 
by breaking it : an operation which is not 
unfrequentlv performed -p. 

If 
* 1796. The wild Cattle of ChilUngbam Park, in 

Northumberland, are uniformlv white ; except the infides 
of their ears, which are of a brown color. 

f I remember to have once feen this operation ; and 
have lately heard it minutely delcribed, by a perfon who 
has repeatedly performed it. It is fimple and fafe. An 
orifice, large enough to admit the hand, being made in the 
coats of the abdomen — 01 the near or left fide — (between 
the ribs, the buckle, . 2 inteftines are d 

forward into their natural filiation, and the ftring broken : 
otherwife, the animal is liable to a repetition of the fame 
diforder. The fvmptoms are reillelThcfs, with attempts 
(but not violent, I believe) to beat the belly with the hind 
legs ; and with a ftoppage of the foeces ; nothing palling 
through the body but a white flimy matter. In many 
places, I apprehend, this diforder is not well under flood j 
being miftaken for fome other internal dJbrder, Death is 
the certain confequence* 



193 C A T T L E. 

I: dr. bz really t^z^zzl, by a 

firing of the tcfticle, indexteroufly left in the 

. much caution 
is re<] lifite peration. 

: .- .- . t : . : ed cutter perf : : 1 1 b 

Ki":.".: ad :u: i* - 

(emina] cord— the " nature ftring," — he 
forced hi? finger and thumb upwar^ 
v ere into the body of the calf, (which 
on its legs during the operation) A 
•• bL::d ftrir.g'' r : fc art ~efi in 

long : the point of it appearing, not abrupt, 
is if roken .7; but fine as a thread _: ii 

4. ~ - . ■ - y - .._._ "This 

.:. :h- ■;;_:.. if i irerent individuals. 
En an inibmce which, perhaps, may be doh- 
i-drrri ai i fair breciuten, the treatment i> 
. : — The call never fucks its dam; but 
n from the teat, given to it, 
twice : in a pail, — from the time :: 

ir buy, until :: be ;. :.:.:.;':.: :: bare-:- v/eek? 
old. At that age, the calves begin to h 
half ilk and half (kirn milk, i 

: :._\a: :: : ; . ■ : 

. raw milk) for about thre e ger : 

.a :::: :.b daina auib. :::: nii'k 
. 1 water, itb perhaps a little catmeai : 



YORKSHIRE. 191 

. it Hour ftrowed over it * ; and with hay, 
in the early part of the feafon ; or grais, as 
loon as faring puts in. In the latter end of 
May, or the beginning of June, according to 
the time of their being dropped, they are 
turned away to grafs and water, only, for the 
fummer ; with fometimes rape herbage, in 
autumn. 

2. Yearlings. Young cattle are, I be- 
lieve, invariably homed, the rirlt winter : — 
generally loofe ; and are indulged with the 
belt hay the farm will afford. Their fum- 
mer paiture is fuch as conveniency will al- 
low them : moilly of a fecondary nature. 
In the open-field llate, the common was their 
fummer pafture. 

3. Twoyearold cattle. The fecond 
winter, cat ltraw is the common fodder of 
young cattle. They are generally tied by 
the neck, in hovels, or under meds. Their 
fummer pailure, commons, woody wartes, 
rough grounds, or whatever bell fuits then- 
owner's conveniency. 

At 

* Sometimes, a fmall quantity cf lin'szzd jzlly i- 
mixt with thin milk and \v?.ter, and is found of great fer- 
vice ; their fkins remarkably fleek and filkv. I 

too much be ufed, it is liable to make them fcour, 



192 CATTLE. 

At two years old, the steers — proviri- 
daily, M ilots," — are generally familiarized to 
the yoke, but are not, by good hufbandmen, 
worked much, at that age. 

At two years old, alio, the heifers — pro- 
vincially, " whies," are generally put to the 
bull. This, however, is not an invariable 
practice. In the (bate of commonage, they 
were frequently kept from the bull, until 
they were three years old: now, in the ftate 
of inclofure and improvement, and at the 
prefent high rents, they are frequently fuf- 
fered to take the bull, when yearlings ; 
bring-in^ calves at two vears old. 

General Remarks ok bringing 
Heifers into Milk. 

This is an intereftlng fubje<ft, in the ma- 
.ment cf cattle. Fanners, in every Dif- 
tri<ft, differ in their opinions refpecling it. 

The arguments, for bringing heifers in, at 
two vears old, I .ev come fooner 

to profit ; and that farmers cannot afford, at 
the prefent rate of rent, to ] ;t them run,, un- 
z : : fi : :. b~ v, v ntil be three years old. 

On the other hand, the argument, in favor 
pf bringii I tkrez years old, 

is 



YORKSHIRE. 193 

is that, not being ftinted in their growth, 
they make larger finer cows, than thofe 
which are furFered to bear calves, at a more 
early age. 

But I have not yet met with any man, who 
even attempts to prove, which of the two 
is, upon the 'whole, the more profitable prac- 
tice. 

The gardener feems to be well aware, that 
fufFering a tree to bear fruit, too early, checki 
its growth *, and there may be fome analogy, 
in this refpecl:, between vegetables and ani- 
mals. But even admitting this, if the cow 
receive no injury, as to thriving, cafoing, 
milking, nor any other than that of being 
checked, in point of fize, the objection ap- 
pears to me to fall. If, however, early 
production check, not only the cow, but her 
progeny like wife, an objection no doubt will 
lie againft it. 

I have long been of opinion, that it is, in 
general, the farmer's intereft to let his heifers 
take the bull, whenever nature prompts 
them. There is, undoubtedly, fome prefent 
profit arifing from their coming in, at an early 
age -, and whether a middle-fized ccw may 
not, afterwards, afford as much neat profit, as 
One of larger flature, is certainly a modi T> nt. 

Vol. II. O Much, 



fo 4 CATTLE. 

Much, however, depends upon keep. A 
flarveling heifer will not take the bull, at a 
year old. Nor ought any yearling heifer, 
which has taken the bull, ever afterwards, to 
be ftinted in keep. If me be ill kept, wh: 
with calf, there will be danger at, cr after, 
the time of her calving. If afterw:- 
pinched, there will be danger of her not 
taking the bull the next year. 

Hence, we may infer, with a degree of 
fafety, that the propriety, or impropriety, of 
bringing heifers into milk, at two v. .. .".d, 
depends, pri:. . upcn soil ar._ situ- 

ation. 

On a good foil, and in a genial climature, 
in which heifers do not experience a check, 
from the time they are dropt, they ought, I 
am clearly of opinion, to be permitted to t_. 
the bull whenever nature prompts them. 

But, in iefs genial iituations, where lean 
ill herbaged lands are to be paitured with 
voung cattle, it appears to me equally evi- 
dent, that heifers ought not, in ftri&nefs of 
management* to be fuffered to come into 
milk, before they be three years old. 

IV. FATTING CATTLE. Although 
grazing ha , of late years, gamed fome foot- 
ing in u.e Vale, it does not vet fall under the 

deno* 



YORKSHIRE. 195 

denominatioo of a grazing country. A detail 
of management mull: not, therefore, be ex- 
pected : and the only incident of practice, 
which has occurred to my notice, and which 
appears to be entitled to a place in this re- 
gifter, is the following ; at once, evidencing 
the propriety difinifoing highly, and giving a 
favorable fpecimen of iho. Yorkshire 

BREEDS OF CATTLE. 

The fubjecl of this incident is a COW, 
which was bred and fatted in this neigh- 
bourhood. Her dam was of the improved 
breed of the Vale, with an admixture of the 
Craven or longhorned breed. Her lire a 
Teeswater bull of the fjrft blood ; being 
leaped athalf-a-guinea a cow ; which, twelve 
years ago, was a very high price. 

From the time of her being dropped, me 
Was remarked as a good thriver; me came 
in, at three years old j had one cow calf, 
which was reared, and three bulls, all of 
which died before they were three weeks 
eld ! they being feized, about that age, with 
a numbnefs in their limbs ; foon dying- with 
jellied joints, and fymptoms of a general 
mortification. Like moil high bred cows, 
me milked well for a few weeks after calving; 

O 2 but, 



i 9 6 CATTLE. 

but, afterwards, fell oft her milk, and gene- 
rally got to be good beef, about Michaelmas. 
After her lart calf, (in 1782) ihe was 
milked until Auguit ; when (he was tolerable 
beef; worth, at the then low price of beef, 
about ten pounds. In autumn, ilie had 
aftererafs ; in winter, turnep?, hay, and cat- 
Lheaves (in the houfe), but no ground c 
In March :; c :- me was fold for twenty 
pounds, to return one guinea : coj 
ilie paid more than fix millings, a w cek, for 



fatting. 



Her dimenficns, a few cays before me was 
Slaughtered, were theie : 

Height about four feet fix inches (net ac- 
curately taken). 

Smalleit. girt feven feet fix inches. 

Largeft , irt nine iett. 

Length frcm moulder-point to hu-. 

four feet. 

Le: th frcm huckle to the extremity _: 
the two feet two inches. 

Wis th at the huckles frcm out to out, two 
feet two inches. 

Her boms fine ; of a whitifh-grey color ; 
fharp ; fomewhat refembling the Craven 
horn ; but fhorter ; and turned upward at 
the points, in the middle-horn manner : her 

head 



YORKSHIRE. 1$) 

: fmall and clean 5 her leg* fliort, 
and her bone throughout fine. 

Her points as to fatnefs were not all of 
them full. Her kernel was fmall, and her 

ler bare ; her fore-dug and flc 
ex lary ; her chine and kin were v. 

laid upj one dimple, but not regularly 
cloven ; me was not what is called fit Upon : 
but her rib, her buckle, and her UOrbe, were 
very good; and hcrtwtft remarkable"; bulging 
out in an extraordinary manner •. 

She proved as follows : the quarters equal ; 
exactly eighteen ilones each ; together fe- 
ver, ty two ilones (fourteen pounds each) ; the 
tallow eight {lanes ; the hide feven ilones. 

O 3 The 

* Ta : 01 cXttlf, ibing 

their J»oiNT« with in . is not merely a matter of 

curiofity. Nothing matures the judge -il}'j 

gives a more adequate idea of the due proportion of ths 

.ock. I never-, however, unde;it.ood that the 

at of catt] where, to com- 

1 until UteJ lire, I am 

told, the / own beef, carry 

luring tapes to market with them. The butcher, by 

co..ftant practice, may be a match for the grazier, with h:s 

alone : but it is certainly prudent, in the clothier, to 

take his meafure with him alfo. 

A weighing machine would, however, in this cafe, 
be a much fafer guide. One, fixed in a tingle ft. 1 , opening 
with -roIding-dx>."$ to : . wou.d be a good append- 

age to any market-place. 



i 9 3 CATTLE. 

The weight is not remarkably great -, but, 
that a fmall cow mould lay it on, in /even 
months, is extraordinary, 

General Remarks on the present 
ScarcityofCattle, in tkisIsland. 

The prefent dearr.efs, arifmg beyond dif- 
pute from a realjcarcity, of cattle appears to 
be a matter of ferious import to the com- 
munity. Had it not been for the immenfe 
influx of Irifh cattle, which have, during the 
laft three or four years^ poured into this Ifland, 
the grazing grounds could not have been 
fully flocked ; nor the markets well fupplied. 
There is not, generally fpeaking, any aged 
cattle left, in this kingdom. 

There can be only two reafons of this 
fcarcity : either the consumption of beef 
mult have lately increafed, or the rearing 
of cattle muft have diminijhed > or the 
effect mult have been produced, by the joint 
operation of the two caufes. 

I wifh to bring the matter to a rational 
iffue \ and have endeavoured to collect evi- 
dences in the Diitricts I have vifited. This 
Dutric~t affords two, which appear to be ad- 
miflible. 

Twenty 



YORKSHIRE. 

- Twenty or thirty years ago, there was not, 
for the imaller markets of this Diilrict, a 
Hngle cattle killed (except upon ibme extra- 
ordinary occalion) during the winter, fpring, 
or fummer months. In autumn, paiticu'. 
in the month of November, considerable 
numbers were butchered, to be ialted and 
nun? for winter oroviiion ; " hunq-beet " 
being formerly, a (landing diih, not only in 
this, but in other Districts *. But the num- 
ber which were then killed, in autumn, was 
fmall, compared with the much greater num- 
bers that are, at preient, butchered in the 
Diilrict; every market of which is, now, 
plentifully fuppliedwkh. beef, the year round; 
and this, notwithstanding considerable quan- 
tities are ilill hung in autumn. The mar- 
ket of Maltcn might wellvieVith the London 
O 4 markets. 



* Hanging Beef. Formerly, before tbe cuMva 

of turner- od of cattle; and before tha 

ufe of oil-cake, & c 

countries, at a diftance from marines, fei : "• •• . - 

land Diftnds ; the 7 aere noticed 1 was a I 

necijlty. The only opportunity the hulbandrun hid of 
die fa If-ftarved cc m tore 

condition, was in the wane of fummer, with the aft igra& 
of the common rr. the ftubbles of th conmori 

fields: theie done, bis foorces o£ fatting we e*. a Bq& 
wkhout a pombiiity of renewal, until the w~.e of th. eo- 
fuing fummer. 



rr.irketr. I:" - ".- 

be confumed in the Diftric r 

wi-. ;:::y yzzri ; _ : ., the evidence h g---- 

Twenty ox thirty yean ago, great c:i-~ 
tides of young ftc i in the pommon 

paftures, and in the rough ::: nods of the 
marines, and other central parts of the Vale, 
were annually feet out of it. The nun 
of lean oxen, tc if o£ the 

country, was very confiderable. Now, the 
Vale, perhaps, barely res.- ::i own flock. 
A few young cattle may go out of it e 
year ; but a number of Scotch and fome Irifh 
beace, and generally more or fewer . oung 
cattle frcm the Teeswater quarter, are an- 
nually brought into it. A few lean oxen, 
(few in : mparifbn with what formerly went 
out) with fome barren cows, ir.d a furplus 
: it cattle, driven to the ports of Whitby 
and irbcrcugb, may be laid to be the 
only cattle which rj e, at present, . 

to market. 

Tne caufes ofth: decline are theincreafe 
c: horfes, the iccreafe of tillage in the lower 
parts of the Vale, and the increafe ©f the 
dairy upon its margin: ir. :r.::ti:e - : 
ir - _' ^rounds in the richer parts, and, tbrough- 
' u:, ::: ir.z:zz:\ . ::"ztt:. 

T: 



YORKSHIRE. 201 

This, too, may be fairly admitted, as a cir- 
cumftantial evidence at lead:, of a growing 
fcarcity of cattle, at prefent, in theie king- 
doms. I mean a fcarcity comparatively with 
the prefent confumption. 



29* 
THE DAIRY. 

BUTTER being a principal object of the 
Vale hufbandry, a feparate fection may with 
propriety be afligned, in this cafe, to the 
Management of the Dairy ; — whofe pro- 
ductions, in the Vale under furvey, are the 
following : 

I. Calves, for the butcher, and for 

rearing. 

II. Butter, for home confumption and 

the London market. 

III. Skim-cheefe, for home confumption. 

IV. Hog liquor. 

I. CALVES. The rearing of calves 
has been fpoken of in the lafr. fecticn. The 
fatting of calves belongs properly to this. 

Thvre 



i-2 DAIRY MANAGEMENT 

Th«fe i> i pra&iee, pretty common in this 
h b onrhood, thou |h not general , which 

merit? notice, from its Angularity, rather than 
from its excellency . I". mis practice, the 
calf never fucks its data ! which, from the 
time of b it calving, is milke i into a pail, and 
the warm milk immediately given to the 
calf; which, never having had the teat, (oz-\ 
learn: to drink 

The chief reafc n |iven for this oraclice b, 
that the cow. does not pine after her calf; fo 
much, at leafr, a; when it is permitted to 
: ber, 

Foe rearing calves, I cin fee r.c matei 
objection to tl that of ad- 

diti . which : ; ftill more encreafed 

a that way ; the time 
be. iger in this cafe : and it feems to 

3\ved, that calves do net fat fo kindly, with 
the pa2, as, when they fuck the cow ; nor is 
it, probably, fo good for the udder of the cow, 
II. GUTTER. Great quantities of butter 
. e annually fent out of the Vale. Many 
thousand firki . (ent, from Maltoa j and 
the produce :: the weft end of the Vale gce> 
principally, to York. 

The fraternity of eheefemon-gers, in Lon- 
2oHi have agents, placed in iifferent nrt? of 



YORKSHIRE. aQ3 

the country, ftiled " fearchers," who probe 
and examine the quality' of every firkin; 
and mark it firft, jecmd, third, or " greafej* 
according to its intrinfic quality. 

ThzJirJIs zn&fecmds go to the London 
market; the « greafe" to the woollen ma- 
nufactory in the weft of York/hire. 

There are << weighers" likewife employed, 
to check the weight of each firkin, each of 
which has its maker's name brande4 upon it. 
Thefe are wife regulations : the fearchers' 
mark is a guide for the Lcndon dealer, as the 
farmer's name is for the country «f factor." 
If it will not bear the fearch, the faclor has 
a clue to the farmer; if, on its arrival in 
London, it do not anfwer the mark, it is re- 
turned upon the fearcher. 

After what has been faid, in the Rural 
Economy of Norfolk, on the fubjeft of 
buttermaking, there is nothing, in the, 
practice of this Diftrid, entitled to mi- 
nute defcription. There are, neverthelefs, 
a few particulars which may merit notice. 

Cleanliness, the ba'fis of good manage- 
ment, is well attended to in moft dairies ; per- 
haps too clofely in fome. Formerly, the milk 
was fet wholly in deep wooden bowls, almoft 

femi- 



to* DAII Y MANAGEMENT 

:?~:-z\z'::\i: : 2 wcrfe :''.:rr. could not be 
well devifed. Now, it is .7- principally, in 
i — prorincially, " lead-t 

:: :: 1 fiat ffc How form j a 1 
rnuc'. better .-'.culated for ri:;":r.g the 
crzguaa *. 

Thefe leads m */<&/, as often as they 
ifed, and, in coi 1 tjcttttrwi 

about once a month. Bat this hi; been 
id, in the practice of one whole clean- 
is cannc is to 
.: ;: churned next : fcottriri 
The efiecl is not i 
b tt the buttei will r :: keep ; 
g rancid, 
her lead . _-..-.- once a year; about 
ilayday : an4 1 . -- nd ; not 

v.-ith 

. ie ec 

- ... hefc . it let off, ribrc iigb a h 

r ..- r- leavi g Qje crezrr. in the lead. The 

roodea 
. :•- . a DC fcawing die |j loofe •wide 

le_c; pipe, (even or c iches jut yret it, 

Fhe : ils :' t lis pipe is n cche :. :: 
is to : : nit tie cailk to fta 
■without endan : : - n j 

pipe being a . ':. ird •-- ■ - - - 

iperturc 



YORKSHIRE. - c 

with felt ; the common material ufed in 
(touring lead bowls *. 

The barrel churn is now chieflv in ufe* 

4 

An improvement has lately been made in its 
form. Formerly, the ftaves were nearly 
itxaight ; now they are bent ; the churn 
being made confiderably bulging. Bv this 
means a churn, large enough to churn a 
firkin (56 lb.) at once, may be uied to churn 
three or four pounds The entire quantity 
of the cream, though fmail, being collected 
in the bulge, receives its due agitation. The 
*' /landing churn," an aukward utenlil, feems 
to be going out of ufe. A barrel churn, 
two feet and a half long, two feet diameter* 
it the mouth, and twentyone inches at the 
ends, with darners fix inches wide, will churn 
either a firkin, or a few pounds, of butter. 
The price of fuch a churn is about fifty 
millings ; iron hoops, cranks, frame, Sec. 
inclufive. 

The firkins are made in the neighbour- 
hood, at very low prices (price of a u whole 

" firkin," 

* I mention this circumflance, a: many {< greafe firkin** 
fnay be made through the means here noticed ; and, if the 
evil effect be «aufcd by a foiution of the particles of itad, 
loofened by the fcouring, the butter, if eaten in a recent 
flate, may be of itiii worie coniequenca. 



kol da:?/: management. 

f.:l-;::t, weighing 1 5 lod. tois. — ofa* 

" half firkin," weighing "-• ■ Bd. to od.). 
The ftares and heads of ath ; the hoops 
• rncipally of hazle. 

Ed putting rev. :;::;?, the firkin i: 
fcalded i b z (b '. : c d on the Review fl • to 

id • Gdt is ftrcwed at the bottom ; 

the butter z: tr.eaded in; covered at 

the tc lod headed op for mar- 

ket. 

The "frit gathering u generally Sent to 
KAJtKCT, in the fpring, in a ftate; the 

'■ UBDmet batter" (namely, thai gathered 
e:t tlte litter end :: May and the be- 
naming :: November) is ient, front time to 
it's or the farmer's conve- 
aiency requires j x is tomefimes kept to t. 
elcte : \ :n, and e_::led at once to 

et. 
T fa e PR ice e f n - k J n - , for - th e bft ten 
e:t:. has been 2 zs. 

Ill E-K. Skim cheefe — provin- 

ce heefe' ' — is the natural ac- 

com : : Hitter dairy. In the l:\ver 

■arts . . : :. the banks 

Rye. fom are mac: , 

and oi .1 to thofe of 

Gloucei 



YORKSHIRE. 207 

Gloucefterfhire. But on the marginal parts 
<af it, this fpecies of chcefe is feldom at- 
tempted. 

I have met with nothing linking enough, 
in the manufacturing of fkim cheefe, to de- 
ferve notice ; excepting what relates to the 
curd mill j a utenlil of the dairy, which I 
never met with, elfewhere, and which is new 
to this Diilrict. 

In making skim cheese, the curd is 
broken up in the whey; the whev, when 
the curd has fublided, laded oft; the re- 
mainder, with the curd, thrown into a coarfe 
ftrainer ; and having lain abroad in this 
(fpread over a large tray, with a hole at the 
corner to let out the whey which drains 
through the cloth) until quite cool, the cor- 
ners and loofe part of the {trainer are gathered 
together, in the hand, and the curd fqueezed, 
as hard as the hands can prefs it. The curd 
in the ftrainer is then put into a vat, and fet 
in the prefs, for a few minutes, to difeharge 
the remaining whey more effectually. The 
whey having ddne running, the curd is taken 
out of the prefs* and rebroken, as finely as 
poiTible ; falted ; and returned to the prefs. 

It is in the final breaking the curd mill 
is ufed. The labor of doing it, by hand, 

when 



to* DAIRY MANAGEMENT. 

when a large quantity of curd :s to be broken, 
is almoft intolerable. In a large dairy } a curd 
mill is found very valuable 

The consumption of :kim cheefe is, 
principally, in the neighbourhood of its ma- 
nufacture. It is eaten by almoil all ranks of 
people. If well made, it is net only palatable, 
but, I apprehend, a ver v ne food. 

To have it in perfection, i: fhould be u k 
one year under another : ; ' that is, ihould not 
be eaten Under a year old. 

The price, on a par of the laft ten years, 
been zs. to is. 6d. a iicne (of 141b.). 

IV. HOG 

* Curb Mill. This utenfil confifts of two rol 

the other j : 
princ.r . 

I s. ritb iron (pikes, an inch 

afunder. The lower one is cloiY 

. a fiiarp angle, or point, 

Curtate of the rollei 

ken, is put into a hopper, the bot- 

- the upper roller : this, working ajainft the 

a the curd for the bottom roller ( 

which nd working clofer, grinds it down to 

bout fix inches diameter, 
I them turned by 
one crank ; put on one 

fcv:-r> 
toothc . . 1 giving 

rftoti 



YORKSHIRE. 209 

IV. HOG LIQUOR. The whey of ikim 
milk is only a lean beverage for fwine ; but 
mixt with buttermilk, a tolerable food is 
formed. Pigs, however, are only grown, 
feldom fatted, with the " fwillings" of the 
dairy. 

The PRODUCE of a good Cow, in a 
common year, is thus calculated : 
A rearing calf - 0150 

3 firkins of butter*, at 30s. 4 10 o 
I cwt. of ikim cheefe, at 1 3s. o 90 
Milk and whey for hogs o 10 o 

£- 6 4 o 



3°- 
SWINE. 

THE HUSBANDRY of fwine has un- 
dergone a total change, in this part of the 
Diftridt, within the lait thirty or forty years. 

Formerly, there was fcarcely a breeding 
•sow in the Vale. The entire fupply of frore 

Vol. II. P pigs 

* A large dairy of cows, in which heifers are intermixt. 
feldom turn out three firkins each. Two and a half is, I 
believe, efteerned a good produce ; taking the dairy round. 



il6 S W I N E 



Z.. 



asj from the Wolds, through the me- 
dium : tvfalton market. Now, they axe 
bred wholly in the Vale. 

T bf bee d : a tally changed. 

The \Vvi prs were of the white, gaunt, 
lang-ieg^ec ::::. . i: to have been, 

:h::r-r.-!y, the prevailing kind throughout 
the kingdom. Now, the r.aek-fandvBerk- 
Qflre breed is prevalent j with a mixture, 
. as |o :h:: places, a: the oriental 

There i: a variety of die la::, the indivi- 
daali cf which have : ■• : -.err valuable pro- 
perties. They are remarkably cad ! and 
quiet; of a dilpoiiti::. lirecUy erpoiite to 
tha: wiLinef: '-~i :e::ci:y, which I have ex- 
perienced in other varieties :f this race of 
animals, in different part! :: the [flancL Their 
other good quality is that of their/. 
freely; not only upon the better rralles, but 
upon lbme of the more nc eeds ■; par- 

:iv the dock. This is a pro p ett j 
iwine, which is \ _::h attending to, by the 
breeders of this fpecies o: c k . 

The G I H I ? A 1 M A M &GEMEMT of fwine, 

in the Vale, h . en :: a a change . 

Formerly, the Wold pigs which were not 
fatted, for home cc: ._. were l elumc d 

to 



YORKSHIRE. 211 

to Malton, fully grown and flemy, but not 
fat ; and were there fold, to drovers, who 
bought them up, probably, for the diftillers, 
ftarch- makers, &c. of the metropolis. Now, 
the furplus, which is much greater than for- 
merly, are fatted, butchered, and fold whole, 
to bacon makers ; who fait and dry them, for 
the London and Weft Yorkihire markets. 



3*- 

SHEEP. 

Their general Economy* 

THERE ARE FEW large flocks kept 
in the Vale. The farms are chiefly fmall, 
and the commons are, now, moftly inclofed, 
Almoft every farmer, however, keeps a few ; 
fo that, on the whole, the number kept is 
confiderable. 

The general economy of fheep is here 
very fimple. Every man, let his number be 
great or fmall, rears his own ftock : his ftore 

P 2 flock 



212 SHEEP. 

flock (In the inclofed parts of the Vale) con- 
fining of ewes, — hoggards,- and fhearling 
wedders ; his returns being in fat lambs,—* 
two-fhear wedders, (lean or fatted on turneps, 
hay, &c.) and aged ewes. In the richer 
parts of the Vale, fhearling wedders are 
fatted. 

But, in the More lands, and upon the 
heights of the northern margin, where con- 
liderable flocks are kept, efpecially in the 
more central parts of the Morelands, a dif- 
ferent economy prevails. The lambs are all 
reared, and the wedders generally kept, until 
they be three or four years old ; moftly 
felling them and the aged ewes, lean, in 
autumn, to the Vale farmers : or, if the walk 
— provincially, the " heaf" — be good, they 
will ibmetimes get fat enough, upon the 
heaths, for the butcher. 

The particulars to be noticed, in this 
place, are 

I. Breed. 
II. Rearing. 

III. Treatment. 

IV. Markets. 

I. BREEDS. The old common flock of the 
v ale was a thin-carcafed, ill formed, white- 
faced, hornleis breed. This (perhaps a weak 

dege- 



YORKSHIRE. 213 

degenerate variety) has of late years been io 
much improved, as no longer to bear marks 
of its former degeneracy. 1 fpeak of the 
more highly improved flocks of the Vale. 
The old bale blood may frill be detected, in 
the flocks of lefs attentive breeders. 

The improvement has been effected, by 
the introduction of rams of the Leicefterfhire, 
and the Teeswater breeds ; the former pur- 
chafed, or hired, of Mr. Cully of Nor- 
thumberland (afpirited and fuccefsful difciple 
of Mr. Bakewell of Leiceftermire) ; and 
the latter of Mr. Collins, and other attentive 
breeders, in the neighbourhood of Darling- 
ton, on the banks of the Tees. 

Fortunately, perhaps, for the Vale, two of 
» its moil confiderable farmers, to whom it is 
principally indebted, for its prefent improved 
breeds of flock, dilfer in their opinions 
refpecting the fuperior excellency of thefe 
two breeds of fheep ; each of them pro- 
pagating, and encouraging, his own favorite 
breed. 

Both of them are excellent, though pei% 
haps widely different in their origin. Of the 
Leiceftermire breed I fay nothing, in this 
place, as I may, hereafter, have occafion to 

P 3 fpeak 



H4 SHEER 

fpeak of it fully *. The Tecs water breed 
falls within the intention of the prefent 
work. 

The " mud" fheep have been inhabitants 
of the banks of the Tees, time immemorial. 
I remember them, twenty years ago, of enor- 
mous fize, refembling, when their wool was 
in full growth, the fmaller breeds of cattle, 
rather than fheep. Their fefi, neverthelefs, 
was of an excellent quality ; their w -od (as 
long wool) fine, and of an uncommon length, 
fmgularly adapted to tha^worfled manu- 
factory, I 

The prefent fafhionable breed is confi- 
derably fmaller, than the original kind j 
but they are flill much larger and fuller of 
bone, than the Leicefterirrire breed. They 
bear an analogy to the morthorned breed of 
cattle, as thofe of the Midland counties do to 
the longhorned. They are not fo compact, 
nor fo neat in their form, as the Leicefter- 
fhire fheep ; neverthelefs, the excellency of 
their rlefh and fatting quality is not doubted j 
and their wool ftill remains of a fuperior 
ftaple. For the banks of the Tees, or any 

pther 

* See the Rural Economy of the Midland 
Counties, firft published in 1790. 



YORKSHIRE. 2/5 

other rich-land country, they may be Angu- 
larly excellent *. 

The Morel and breed of fheep has always 
been very different from that of the Vale, 
and has not varied, perhaps, during a fuc- 
ceffion of centuries. It is peculiarly adapted 
to the extreme bleaknefs of the climature, 
and the extreme coarfenefs of the herbage. 
They live upon the open heaths, the year 
round. Their food heath, ruih.es, and a few 
of the coarfeft gralTes ; a pafture on which, 
perhaps, even' other breed of fheep of this 
kingdom would ftarve. 

The Moreland fheep refemble, much, the 
Scotch fheep, which are fometimes brought 
into the Vale -f : their horns wide ; the face 

P 4 black 

* In this Difrrict, the Leiceflerfhire fheep appear to 
gain a preference. One leading breeder lets out a confi- 
derable number of rams every year ; and has already got 
the prices to ten or fifteen guineas, for the feafon. 

f 1796. I had conceived this variety of black faced 
sheep to be of Scotch extraction, before I had had an op- 
portunity of examining the breeds of Scotland. But there 
are circumftances which render it more than probable, that 
they travelled northward, from the mountains of Yorlcfh-re 
and Weftmoreland, to thofe of the South of Scotland : from 
whence they are now travelling in the fame direction ; — 
and have, within tfcefe few years, made th.ir firft entry 
into the Highlands j where they are fupplanting the fhort- 

tailed 



ai6 SHEEP. 

black or mottled ; in countenance and general 
appearance, very much refembling the Nor- 
folk breed ; except that their wool is fome- 
what longer, and much coarfer, than that of 
the Norfolk fheep. The covering of their 
buttocks is mere hair, refembling the fhag 
of the goat, rather than the wool of meep. 
But this is considered as a mark of hardirtei , 
and the Moordale ihepherds prefer a coarfe- 
wooled fhaggv tup *. The carcafes of thefe 
theep are fmall ; not much larger than the 
heath meep of Norfolk : the ewes, mode- 
rately fatted, weighing from ieven to ten 
pounds, the wedders ten to fourteen pounds, 
a quarter. 

U. BREEDING. The common time of 
putting ewes to the ram, in the Vale, 
is from old Michaelmas to the latter end of 

October i 

tailed or Shetland breed; which havelong . ~xA 

inhabitants of the Northern mountains ; as the long-la 
or Cheviot Dreed have been, in much probability, of the 
Southern and ftill remain in fail pofeffion of part of 
borders: where, it is pojEble, the introduction oi" the 
« black face^ might ilill be traced. The fubjeS, 
though no, irnf aterefti g to what 1 

AGRICULTURAL HifTlRY. 

* ijqb. A nrrutnftaoce, which alone, perhaps, has d?- 

bafvd their wool, . aft from die Norfolk 



YORKSHIRE. 217 

October ; bringing them in, the latter end of 
March, or the beginning of April. In the 
Morelands, the latter end of November, or 
beginning of December, is chofen for the 
time of putting to, in order that the mows 
may be pretty weli over, before the time of 
lambing. 

If twin lambs be preferred, the ewes 
are put to fuperior keep, a few weeks before 
the ram be admitted. This, likewile, brings 
them in nearer together, than when they are 
put to the ram, in low condition. 

It is alfo underilood, by attentive fhepherds, 
that ewes ought to have an increafe of keen, 
a few weeks previous to their lambing ; but 
lefs judicious iheep matters think it fumcient 
to put them to good keep, as they drop their 
Jambs.. 

This, however, is a faulty practice. If 
there be any mvftery in the rearing of £heep, 
it lies in giving the ewes a FLOSH of milk, 
at the time of lambing. This cannot be 
done without putting them to good keep, a 
fortnight or three weeks, before that time. 
An additional fupply of milk cannot be com- 
jnanded in a few hours. The carcafe of the 
ewe, as well as her udder, may require to be 

faturated, 



2i8 SHEEP. 

faturated, at the time of lambing, leit, in the 
interim of preparation, the lamb be flinted or 
ed. 

Another practice, to which attentive 
breeders pay due regard, is that of trim- 
ming — provinciallv, " docking" — breeding 
ewes, 2? early in the fpring as the ftate of 
the weather will permit. I have feen the 
bas;s of ewes (of the modern breed) fo heated 
with the dung and urine, which hung about 
them, as to become chafed to running fores. 
The bag ought to be trimmed, a few weeks 
before lambing (when the ewes are put to 
frefh keep), and- the tail and buttocks, as 
ibcn as warm weather fet in. 

Gen. Obs. on breeding Flocks. To 
render the breeding of lheep profitable, much 
attendance and attention is requiilte. A 
'ftw ewes, therefore, cannot be worth the 
notice of any man, except a fmall pains- 
taking farmer, who has little elie to attend 
to. I have feen more labor and attention 
thrown away, upon a fcore of ewes, than 
tbeir whole produce was worth. A ewe 
flock, large enough to employ a fhepherd, 
is, in many fituations, the molt profitable 
frock. 

Ill, MANAGE- 



YORKSHIRE. 219 

III. MANAGEMENT OF STORE 
SHEEP. The only particular of manage- 
ment, which is here entitled to notice, is 
that of drefling them in autumn, with tar 
and greafe — provincially, ft salving;"— 
the tar and greafe, with which they are 
anointed, heing aptly enough termed fahe. 

How the practice was firft introduced, 
into the Difrrict under furvey, dees net ap* 
pear to be at prefent known, though not of 
more than fifty years ftanding*. 

The intention of this practice is to kill 
lice, prevent the fcab, and make the wool 
grow ; and another idea, I believe, is, that it 
fortifies the fkin againfl the feverity of the 
winter's cold. 

Whether it anfwer all or any of thefe in- 
tentions I will not affert. Whatever may be 
its effects, it has now been the invariable 
practice of the Diftrift, for near half a cen- 
tury. I have not at leaft met with more than 
one man who has deviated from it, through 
principle. 

This 

* 1796. This pra&ice travels with the mountain breed 
of black aced (heep ! But what I have fcen done, in 
Scotland, was executed in a manner much inferior to that 
pf the Eaftern Morelands of Yorkfhii c. 



wm SHEEP. 

This deviation, however, is made by one 
who feldom acts from caorice. He does not 
wholly deny its ufe, but thinks its effect is 
vtry tranfient. He has found tobacco water 
more effectual againft vermin ;— oil of tar, 
if cautioully ufea, a fafe and certain remedy 
of the fcab j — and is of opinion, that falving 
is of little if any ufe to the growth of the 
wool : he allows that it may encreafe the 
hi of the wool, in proportion to the quan- 
tity of dirt it contracts, but thinks it does 
not add to the quantity. 

Whether it does or does not may, never- 
theless, be a moot point : — ointment rubbed, 
on a recent fear of a horfe, is believed to affift 
the hair in growing. Pcniatum is allowed to 
encourage the growth of the human hair j 
and it is probabl? that falve may have 
effect on the growth of wool : the only doubt 
with me is, whether the advantages, upon 
the whole, are adequate to the expence. 

This is a matter difficult to be afcertained : 
I can fay, that the fcab does not appear to be 
lefs prevalent, in this, than in other Dntricts : 
and it appears probable, to me, that, notwith- 
ftanding the prefent pre valency of the prac- 
tice, it will in time wear away. I wil], ne- 

verthelefs, 



YORKSHIRE. 221 

verthelefs, here give a detail of the procefs ; 
not to prolong its continuance, but to me- 
morize a practice, which, at prefent, gives 
cold and dirty employment to thousands, 
fome weeks, in every year. 

The mixture is eight pounds of butter (of 
the fecond, third, or fourth quality — fee ar- 
ticle Dairy) to one gallon of tar. The 
butter being diflblved, the two ingredients 
are poured into a tub or other veflel, and 
ftirred, for fome time, with a long wooden 
fpatulaj agitating them violently, and uniting 
them intimately together. The general 
guide is to keep flaring, until the butter has 
regained its flifThefs, furficiently, to hoid the 
flirring flick erect in the ointment ; which, 
when quite cool, is of the confiflence of but- 
ter in warm weather. Some put the tar pre- 
vioufly into the " falve-tub," and flir that, 
alone, until it lofes its blacknefs, acquiring a 
mellow yellowifh hue ; then add the diffolved 
butter, and continue ilirring until the flick 
fland on-end. If the butter be heated too 
much, it is thought to injure the tar : it 
mould be barely oiled. 

The time of falving is from Michaelmas 
to Martinmas. 

The 



522 SHEEP. 

The method is this : the feet of the fheep 
being bound, it is laid upon a bier — provin- 
cial! v, a M creel" — (about fix feet long — two 
feet wide in the middle — twentyone inches 
toward the ends — with four le^s about two 
feet Ion?). The " falver" fits aitride of one 
end of the creel, the moulder of the fheep 
reding againfl his thigh ; its head under his 
arm. He begins the operation by parting, 
provincially, " ihedding," the wool, from 
the withers to the tail, leaving a itraight 
open " £hed" or cleft in the wool, the whole 
length of the iheep. This cleft ought to be 
perfectly ftraight, and clear at the bottom ; a 
form which practice only can give it. It is 
made by taking the wool in the hands, and 
pulling it aiunder ; giving llraightnefs to the 
cleft, with the thumbs. The fifiure made, 
and the wool prelTed down flat on either fide 
with the hands and wriits, the workman 
takes a piece of ointment, the fize of a large 
hassle-nut (from a kind of dim formed out 
of a block of wood in the ihape of a cheefe), 
upon xhejulc of the end of his fore finger, and 
applies it to the (kin cf the fheep ; driving 
it along the bottom of the fried, (feme fix or 
eight inches, till the whole be expended,) 

with 



YORKSHIRE. 223 

with a degree of fleight which experience 
alone can teach : the perfection of the art 
lies in diftributing the ointment, evenly, and 
in applying it entirely to thtfiin of the ani- 
mal, without fouling the zjooI, except imme- 
diately at the root. One " finger-full" 
being expended, another and another is ap- 
plied, until the whole length of the firlt. fried 
be finifhed : when a fecond cleft is made, 
about an inch or an inch and a half from the 
firft. In making the fecond, and every fuc- 
ceeding fhed, the fingers of urne hand are kept 
in the laft-made cleft, by which means an 
experienced workman is enabled to make 
the partings, parallel with each other. To- 
wards the back of the fheep, the fheds are 
made clofer to each other, than they are 
beneath -its barrel ; where the wool being 
thinner, the fcab is lefs liable to make its 
attack. 

Ten or twelve lheep, of the middle fize, 
are efteemed the dav's work of one man. 
His wages, and board, fifteen to eighteen- 
pence, a day. 

The expence is thus calculated : thirty 
fhe^p take eight pounds of butter (feconds, 

thirds, 



224 SHEEP. 

thirds, or greafe), worth on a par 
fburpence halfpenny a pound 3 o 

One gallon of tar - 10 

Labor - - 7 <6 



7 6 

Five {hillings, a fcore, or threepence, a fheep. 

IV. MARKETS. Well Yorkshire is the 
principal market for Wool. Formerly, a 
manufactory of coarfe woollen cloth was 
carried on, in the Eafrern Morelands 5 but, 
at prefent, it is almort wholly laid afide. 

The following are the weights and values 
of the fleeces, of different breeds of fheep, in 
the Diftrid : 
Moreland ftore ewes, one and a half pound, 

at 4d — 6 d each ! 
aged wedders, fatted in fthe Vale, 

two and a half pounds, 4d — 1 od. 
Ewes of the old Vale breed, fummered on a 

common, four pounds, at 6d — 2s. 
Two iheer wedders of the fame breed, four 

and a half pounds, 2s. 6d. 
Ewes of the improved breed, fummered in 

inclofed grounds, feven pounds, at 5d — 3s*. 

Wool 

* None of the fheep, froai which the above fleeces were 
taken, werefklved. 



YORKSHIRE. 225 

Wool is here fold by xhtjlone offeventcen 
pounds. 

The markets, fo; c ar'cases, are the mar- 
ket towns in the neighbourhood, and the 
ports of Scarborough and Whitby. 

The price of mutton, in the markets of 
the Vale, ten years ago, was twopence 
halfpenny to threepence a pound. This year 
(1787), fourpence to fourpence halfpenny a 
pound. 

But the moft fubftantial evidence, I have 
anv where met with, of the recent rife in the 
price of live flock, may be taken from the 
Moreland ftore fheep ; a fpecies of flock 
which has undergone no change whatever, 
either by breeding, or by cultivation. 
• The price of Moreland ftore ewes, ten or 
fifteen years ago, was two millings and fix- 
pence to five ihillings, a head. This autumn, 
they were fold for eight millings and fixpence. 
The price of Moreland ftore wedders, the 
fame diilance of time ago, was fix to eight 
ihillings, a head. This autumn, i^iey have 
been fold for fourteen (hillings ! 



Vol. II. Q^ RABBITS. 



12 6 RABBITS. 



3*- 

RABBITS. 



THE VALE affords few rabbit warrens. 
The northern margin is the only part of it 
adapted to this fpecies of liveflock. At 
Dalby, there are two pretty large warrens. 
At Lockton there is one now " planting/' 
And there are pther parts of thefe heights 
which might be profitably flocked with rab- 
bits. In general, however, property is too 
much intermixed to admit of an improve- 
ment, which is Angularly adapted to the na- 
ture of thefe high grounds. 

In fituations where the ground*, as well as 
the fed, is luitable to rabbit warren, and 
where an extent of it, fufhciently large, can be 
collected together in one property, there is a 
very ftrong ^eafon why it may be profitably 
flocked with rabbits, 

The 

* See Norfolk ; Art. Rabbits, 



YORKSHIRE. 227 

The hide of a bullock (of lbme breeds) is 
not worth more than one twentieth of his 
carcaie. The fkin of a meep mav, in full 
wool, be worth from a fixth to a tenth of its ^ 
carcafe. But the fur of a rabbit is worth 
twice the whole value of the carcaie. There- 
fore, fuppoling the rabbit to confume a 
quantity of food, in proportion to its carc:fe, 
it is, on the principle offered, a fpecies of 
flock nearly three times as valuable as either 
cattle or fheep. 

This theory is ftrongly corroborated, by an 
incident of practice. One of the warrens of 
this Dift.ric"r. contains eighteen hundred acres 
of furface ; moil of it covered with a black 
Moreland foil ; part of it a barren dead gravel ; 
fome little of it a thin limellone loam ; not 
worth perhaps, on a par, for the common pur- 
pojes of ' hnjbandry , a milling an acre - 3 never- 
thelefs, thefe eighteen hundred acres are let, 
as a rabbit warren, for three hundred pounds, 
a year ! 

I will not pretend to fay, that the warren, 
here alluded to, is worth three hundred 
pounds a year, nor arTert that it is not worth 
a milling, an acre, to a huibandman. If it 
be worth two hundred and fifty pounds, as a 
warres, and fuppoling it to be worth even 

Q^Z two 



12 % POULTRY. 

two {hillings an acre, as a farm, it fall is a 
fufficient evidence of the profitablenefs of 
rabbit warrens, in proper fituations. 

As I fhall, in giving a fketch of the hus- 
bandry of the Wolds, have occalion to fpeak; 
fully of this fpecies of frock, it is needlefs to 
dwell on the fubject, here. 



33- 

POULTRY. 

NOTHING fufficiently ftriking has oc- 
curred to me, in this Diftrift, reflecting the 
management or the breeds of poultry, to ex- 
cite particular notice. The different fpecies, 
and the management' of them, are on a par 
with thofe of the Ifland in general. 



BEES. 



YORKSHIRE; 129 



34- 
SEES, 

THIS may be called a Bee country;— 
efpecially the Morelands, and the northern 
margin olH^e Vale ; where great numbers 
of bees'-JiaTe been ufually kept, and great 
quantities of honey colle&ed ; chiefly from 
the flowers of the heath, which afford an 
abundant fupply ; but the produce is of art 
inferior quality - t brown and fbongly fla- 
vored. 

In hives, fituated between the heaths and 
the cultivated country, a finking contrail: is 
obfervable, between the fpring and the au- 
tumnal combs. The former are gathered 
wholly from the meadows, pafture lands, 
trees, and cultivated crops -, the latter, en- 
tirely from the flowers of the heath -, none 
of the fpecies of which begin to blow, until 
late in the fummer. The combs of the 

Q^ 3 former 



ggfl BEE S. 

former will be nearly white as fnow : and 
the honey limpid almoft as the pnreft oil. 
Thofe of the latter, brown, and the honey, 
they yield, of the color and confiftency of 
melted rofm. This difference is molt {biking, 
when the hive is carried, in autumn, from 
the lower parts cf the marginal heights, 
into the Moreland dales, to be filled up with 
honev ; a praclice which, lingular as it may 
appear, has been followed with luccefs. 

In the winter of 1782-3, a general mor- 
tality took place, among the bees of this 
country. Many bee keepers loft their whole 
ilock. I remember to have feen, in the 
fpring of 1783, twelve or fifteen empty 
ftones, in one garden, without a fingle fur- 
viving hive. 

But the muverfilify of the destruction, 
uncommon as it was, being iuch as no one 
can remember, was not fo remarkable as the 
manner in which it was ejected. The bees 
were obferved to dwindle away, by degrees ; 
though they had plenty of in their 

hives > at length vanishing ; v. ... . >er- 

haps, a confiderable quantity of honey re- 
mained unexhaurt; 

A man who has paid fome attention to 
bees, and whofe ideas are frequently -.veil- 

::. .ir.ccw, 



YORKSHIRE. 231 

grounded, was of opinion that the effect 
entirely owing to the want of a luccelTion of 
young bees ; under a luppofition that the 
year preceding had not been a breeding year ; 
and that the bees which dwindled away, in 
the fpring, were the old bees dying of age. 

There may be fome truth in this opinion ; 
the unufually backward, and extremely wet, 
fpring and fummer of 1782, might check the 
breeding of young bees j but it is unlikely 
that it mould wholly put a flop to it ; and 
that not one hive in ten mould have bred a 
fingle bee. For, under this argument, the 
young ones, though few, would, with an 
ample ftore of honey, have furvived. 

In the courfe of the fpring of 1783, an 
incident led me to a theory, which feems to 
explain the phenomenon, more fully. 

Being attentive to a female fallow which 
was in blow, I obferved that bees were 
equally bufy among its flowers, as they were 
among the male catkins of a neighbouring 
tree. 

This induced me to confider the nature of 
the materials they collect, and to reflect 
on whether the different parts of generation, 
even in hermaphrodite flowers, may not 

Q_4 afford 



BEES. 

afford them diitinct materials. Honey, it 
is well understood, is collected from the 
htSaftiOn, Wax may well be confidered 
as a colle&ion of the viicid mucus of the 
piJM&imi as bee -bread appears to be 
merely a collection of the farina of the 
fLvncn. 

It is well understood, : keepers in 

general, and is allerted by Wildman hir - 
ielf, that bees cannot live without bread. 
That they cannot be kept al: :.rc 

honey done, is, I believe, well afcei rained. 
But honey which has bee*] prefled hard from 
a comb, containing /.:-.:.;.; us u bunej^ 

is confidered as a fafe and certain relief to 
them, when their own it ores are exhaulied. 

Admitting that bt ..ire bread, i 

as honev, to luppor: them in winter; and 
admitting that bee* a collection of 

the itaminec .a of flowers ; the phe- 

nomenon under notice is eaiilv exr'ainable. 

It is well known, that flowers are tenacious 
of their parts of generation, in a rainy fea- 

:i ; expdfing them with caution. NtM 
it mere expofure tha: fits :he itamina for the 
purpcfe of the bee. The anthers muit be 
burit by the fun, before the bee can load 

i: c 



YORKSHIRE. 235 

its thighs with the contained farina : which 
being expofed, is liable to be warned away, 
or fhook down, by the firft heavy mower. 
Hence, the collection of bee-bread, in a 
moilt fhowery feafon, muft be very precarious 
and inconfiderable. 

But the collecting of wax and honey de- 
pends lefs on the weather. For the flower 
once open, the bee has free accefs to the nec- 
tary and piftil, whofe productions are lefs 
liable to a mower than is the farina. Be- 
fides, it is, I believe, a fact which is not 
doubted, that bees collect honey from what 
are, perhaps, improperly called honey dews, 
as well as from flowers. 

From thefe premirTes, we may fairly, I 
think, draw the following conclufion. 

The fpring and lummer of 1782 being 
extremely wet, (fee Norfolk) a dearth 
of bread took place. But, through in- 
tervals of dry weather, or through a plenti- 
fulnefs of leaf honey, the collection of hone y 
was fufficiently ample. While the bread 
lafted the bees lived. Nor did they, when 
it was confumed, die at once, as when their 
entire flore is exhaufled. The honey pro- 
longed their lives for a time ; proportioned, 

perhaps, 



O 1 4 



BEES. 



perhaps to their reipective ages or confu- 
tations j the individuals following each other, 
as difeafe and famine overcame them ; un- 
til the whole periihed : not through a want 
of honey ; but for the want of a more lub- 
ftantialf staff of life. 



THE 



THE 



WOLDS of YORKSHIRE. 



GENERAL VIEW 

O F 

THIS DISTRICT. 

THE SITUATION and general ap- 
pearance of the Yorkshire Wolds 
have been given. Their Outline is nearly 
a circle, whole diameter is about twenty five 
miles. Their Extent, including their 
ikirts, 500 fquare miles, or more than 300,000 
acres. 

The SUBSTRUCTURE of thefe hills, is 
probably a uniform rock of hard chalk 5 
riling, in moil places, to near the fiuface. 

The immediate SUBSOIL is generally a 
chalkyrubble, of varied depth and contex- 
ture, intervening between the rock and the foil . 

The 



2 3 6 WOLDS. 

The prevailing SOIL is a calcareous 
loam ; varying in depth and produclivenefs. 

The Northeaft quarter of the Wolds is 
covered with a thin infertile foil ; applied to 
fheepwalks ; much of it being overrun with 
furze and heath - } refembling the inferior 
downs of Surrey. 

On the contrary-, a mallow valley, which 
extends fome conilderable diftance, between 
Malton and Burlington, including the town- 
fhips of Duggleby, Kirby* Lutton, Helper- 
thorp, Weaverthorp, Foxholes, Woldnew- 
ton, &c. with a fmall rivulet running through 
it (delightful fummer fituation !) enjoys a 
rich deep loamy foil j ftrong enough for" 
wheat, and chiefly under the plow. 

On the higher Wolds, the foil is a lighter 
loam, from fix or eight inches to a foot deep $ 
mod of it well adapted to the crops of tur- 
neps, barley, and fainfoin ; but has formerly 
lain, and ftill lies in great quantity, in fheep- 
walk and rabbit warren. 

The CLIMATURE of thefe hills is cold : 
owing in fome meaiure to their prefent na- 
kednefo. The north and eafl winds, pouring, 
in upon them, from the lea, and, acrofs the- 
Vale, from the Moreiand Mountains, fweepi 
over their furface without a break. 

The 



YORKSHIRE. 537 

The seasons, here, are fomewhat earlier, 
than in the Morelands j but later, than in 
the Vale, or on the Howardian hills. The 
perfect drynefs of the fubftratum of the 
Wolds is the only advantage they have, at 
prefent, in refpect to climature. 

INCLOSURE. Formerly, the Wolds, 
whether parcelled out in common field, or 
dilpofed in more entire properties, lay en- 
tirely open j excepting a few fmall yards, 
about the villages. The Eaft-Wold Valley 
ftill lies in a (late of common field. But, on 
the higher Wolds, fome fpirited attempts 
have lately been made at inclofure, 



THE 



THE 

RURAL ECONOMY 

F 

THIS DISTRICT. 



IN giving A SKETCH OF THE RURAL 
economy of the wolds, the following 
particulars will be entitled to notice : 



I. 


Eftates. 


XI. 


Team Labor. 


II. 


Tenancy. 


XII. 


Implements. 


III. 


Rent. 


XIII. 


Manure. 


IV. 


Removal. 


XIV. 


Harvefting. 


V. 


Building. 


XV. 


Farmyard 

J 


VI. 


Planting. 




Management. 


VII. 


Farms. 


XVI. 


Markets, 


ion. 


Objects of 


XVII. 


Turneps. 




Hufbandry. 


XVIII. 


Sheep. 


IX. 


Succeffion. 


XIX. 


Rabbits. 


X. 


Manual Labor. 


] 


[. ESTATES, 



YORKSHIRE 239 

I. ESTATES. The laid* ot the Wolds be, 
longchiefly to large own rs; being moftly 

occupied by tenants -, few ol them, I believe, 
being in the hands of yeomanry ; as they are 
in the Vale, and a great part of the More- 
Jands. 

II. TENANCY. Upon the larger farms 
leases are become common. Some of/.'- 
years ; which is confidered as too fhort a 
term : fome fourteen^ which good tenants 
feem to be fully fatisfied with. 

III. RENT. Upon the larger farms, fix 
to twelve millings an acre. The rent de- 
pends, chiefly, on whether the tenant has, or 
has not, liberty to break up old jl:eep walk, 
with which the larger farms moftly abound. 
Thefe lands, in a flats ofJwarJ, may not be 
worth more than five (hillings an acre. But 
having lain, a fucceiilon of ages, in a ilate of 
grafs, they are many of them, for a courfe of 
years, worth five times that rent as arable 
land. 

No wonder landed gentlemen are tenacious 
of thefe old grafs lands. They are treafuries, 
whofe keys they would be blameable in de- 
livering up, without a fuitable confideration. 

But 



24» WOLD S. 

But they are frill more blameablein obttinately 
depriving themfeives and the community of 
the ufe of them. The fineft farm upon the 
Wolds is intolerably cramped, through an 
ill judged prohibition from breaking up the 
fheepwalks, of which it principally coniifrs. 
The tenant cannot winter his fheep upon the 
farm. He has not a furnciency of arable 
land, to grow turneps in proportion to his 
fummer feed. It is not paying twenty pounds 
a week for fheep feed, which conftitutes the 
evil in this cafe ; but the circumftance of 
having his flocks fcattered about the country, 
perhaps ten or fifteen miles from his farm, 
during the winter months. 

A genera! permiffion for breaking up can 
only be dictated by folly or neceflity. A due 
proportion is all that is at prefent requifite. 

IV. REMOVALS. The time of chang- 
ing tenants is Ladyday or Mayday. On 
large farms, moftly Ladyday ; the wheat on 
the ground being valued by referees. On 
;mall farms, Mayday ; the fpring crops being 
likewife fown by the outgoing tenant, and 
valued with the wheat, by referees. 

V. BUILDINGS, 



YORKSHIRE. 241 

V. BUILDINGS. A number of new 
farmeries have, of late years, been erected 
upon the Wolds. The plan offosie of them 
fimple and eligible. The dwelling houfe, to 
the weft j barns and ftable, on the north ; 
ftack hovels, for cattle and implements, on 
the eaft ; forming a fquare ftraw yard, open 
to the fouth ; faving a high brick wall, with 
tall boarded gates ; altogether well adapted 
to the bleaknefs of the fituation. At the 
top of Garton hill, the dwelling houfe is 
fimple and fnug ; becoming its ufe and 
fituation ; with low leantos -, enlarging the 
roof, for the purpofe of collecting rain water : 
a plan which ought to be univerfally adopted 
on thefe bleak and waterlefs hills *. 

VI. PLANTING, Sir Chriftopher Sykes 
may, I believe, claim the honor of being the 
firft fuccefsful planter upon the Wold Hills. 
Attempts had formerly been made; but with- 
out fuccefs : owing, perhaps, more to the 
Jmallnefs and the thinnejs of the plantations, 
than to any other mifmanagement. 

Sir Chriftopher, I am well informed, is 
now contracting, or has contracted, with a 

Vol. II. R nurfery- 

* For obfervations on the Wold Ponds, fee the Art. 
Drinking Pools. 






i 4 2 W O L D S. 

nurferyman, for upwards of five hundred acres 
of planting ; to be finilhed in ten years : an 
undertaking which muft do him infinite 
credit. 

It is, perhaps, to be regretted, that Sir 
Chriftopher's plantations confill chiefly of 
the pinus tribe ; moftly of Scotch Fir ; the 
moft worthlefs of timber trees. As a fkreen 
to better plants, it may, in bleak fituations, 
have its ufe. 

But the beeck, to which the foil of the 
Wolds is peculiarly adapted, would be more 
acceptable to pofterity ; and would afford 
much greater ornament to the Wold Hills. 
If raifed from the mall, with due care, there 
can be no doubt of its fucceeding, on thefe 
Heights. The Welch mountains abound with 
it in their bleaker! afpecls. 

Other gentlemen are railing skreen 
plantations, and live hedges, in a 
jnoft fpirited manner. 

In one inilance, I obferved three rows of 
hedgewood, planted about two feet apart, 
and defended by a row of polls and rails, on 
either fide : the bank, in which the polls 
ftand, appearing to have been formed of the 
fubllratum of chalk rubble ; a flip of foil on 
either fide being thrown in between the 

1 rails, 



YORKSHIRE. 243 

rails, to give encouragement to the hedge 
plants. In other inftances, the foil has been 
cleanfed by a turnep fallow *. The plants, 
when I faw them, were vigorous, and in high 
keeping. 

The inclofures, a$ yet, are moftly large : 
forty or fifty acres. But mould the fpirit 
of planting continue to diffufe its influence^ 
over thefe hills, the fize of inclofures will in 
time be lefiened. Should a time arrive when 
the higher fwells mall be crowned with 
wood, and the intervening vallies be inter- 
fered with living fences ; forming inclofures 
of eight or ten acres ; the climature of the 
Wolds will be rendered fome degrees of 
latitude more genial, than it is at prefent ; 
and the productivenefs of the foil be doubly 
that which it has hitherto been. 

VII. FARMS. Many of them very large. 
Mowthorp and Coldham are near two thoufand 
acres each ; Crome thirteen or fourteen hun- 
dred acres - y all of them charming arable 
farms ; fuch as would [if properly Jheltered) 
let in Norfolk, for fourteen or fifteen (hil- 
lings an acre. 

R 1 VIII. OB- 

* Gathering the cultivated foil into an evenly round* 
wide ridge, would, I apprehend, be found eligible. 



244 WOLD S. 

VIIL OBJECTS OF HUSBANDRY* 

t. Stock; — principally, fieep and rabbits. 
Few cattkf except what are purchafed, in 
autumn, for the purpofe of railing manure j 
being fold off in the fpring, chiefly to the 
graziers of Lincolnshire* Some horfes are 
bred ; but the more general practice is to 
buy in colts, at a year old, and to keep them 
until they be three or four; felling them, at 
that age, to country dealers : or otherwife to 
keep them till five years old, and make them 
up for the horfe mows* 2. Crops. Prin- 
cipally oats ; but much barky and fome peas 
are grown ; and, in the vallies, wheat. But, 
upon the high wolds, the largeft farmers, 
until of late years, bought their bread corn. 
The old turf, when newly broken up, throws 
out immenfe crops of oats ; and is, I be- 
lieve, in general, equally productive of rape. 
Instances are mentioned, in which the firft 
crop of rape has been equal to the purchafe 
value of the land. Turneps, clover, an&Jain- 
foin, are alfo Wold crops. 

IX. SUCCESSION. No regular fyliem 
of management, with refpect to the fuccef- 
fion of crops and fallow, is, in any part of 
the Wolds, to be found in general practice. 
Upon the thinner- foiled fwells, the prevailing 

practice 



YORKSHIRE. 245 

practice is to break up, by fodburning, for 
turneps ; oats two years ; barley and grafs 
feeds, letting the land lie down again to grafs. 
In the vallies, where wheat is grown, tur- 
neps, barley, clover, wheat, has of late years 
gained fome footing. 

X. MANUAL LABOR. The Wolds 
are thinly inhabited. The refident laborers 
are few, compared with the work to be 
done ; efpecially in harveft j when numbers 
flock to it, from the furrounding country. 
In lefs bufy feafons, the work is done, moftly, 
by yearly fervants ; the few laborers being, 
in winter at leaft, chiefly employed in thrafh- 
ing : for which employment, the cottagers 
are fometimes hired, by the winter half year. 
The wages for thrashing, iixpence to eight- 
pence, a day, and board ; or fourpence to 
fivepence, a quarter of oats, and board. The 
Wold farmers, generally fpeaking, board all 
their workpeople. 

XI. TEAM LABOR, The hearts of 
labor are principally horses, of the laddie or 
the coach horfe breed. A few oxen are 
fometimes ufed about home. 

The method of ufmg draught horfes, upon 
the Wolds, is lingular ; whether they be ap- 
plied to the waggon or the plow. 

R 3 The 



246 W OLDS. 

The Wold waggon is fumithed with a 
pole, fimilar to that of a coach ; and the 
horfes are applied in a manner fnnilar to 
coach hcrfes. Four horfes are the u-fual 
team ; the driver, on ordinary occafions, 
ridingon the near- fide wheel-horfe - y generally 
trotting with the empty carriage. 

At plow, the fame four horfes, in the fame 
harnefs, are, in ilrong work, invariably ufed 
without a driver ! the plowman guiding the 
four with reins : a practice which is, per- 
haps, peculiar to the Yorkshire Wolds. In 
lighter work, as in ftirring a fallow, two 
horfes only are ufed. 

But, in this cafe, a practice equally fingular 
is prevalent. A third horfe, drawing a light 
harrow, is fattened on the oft fide of the plow 
horfes -, the plowman driving the three. 

This, in breaking up. turnep grounds, or 
in other fpring fallowing, is a good practice 
on dry land ; which, by this means, is got 
perfectly fine, at a fmall expence (the harrow 
in this cafe being ufually drawn by an old 
worn-out horfe, or by a two or three-year- 
old colt), and immediately as it is plowed, 
by which means the feed weeds have full 
time to fpend themfelves. But, in winter, 

and 



YORKSHIRE. 247 

and in fummer, the practice is pernicious. A 
fallow cannot lie too rough, in thofe feafons, 
The hours of work are long. In fpring 
feed time, the plow teams will fometimes 
flay out from fix to fix ; the plowmen having 
their dinners carried to them, in the field ; 
the horfes remaining all day without a bait, 
and with only a fmall allowance of corn 
when they reach the ftable ! neverthelefs, in 
light work, and in a bufy feafon, each horfe 
plows near an acre a day. What breed of 
black horfes can ftand hardfhips like thefe ? 

XII. IMPLEMENTS. The waggons 
are high and aukward. The plow is of the 
old ftraight-moldboard conftrudtion. Both 
of them call loudly for improvement. The 
turnwrest plow is much wanted upon 
the Wolds. 

XIII. MANURE. Yard dung and 
sheep teathe are the principal manures. 
Soot and fome lime are alio in ufe. Rape 
cake would, perhaps, be found a valuable 
manure upon the Wolds. 

XIV. HARVESTING. All oats and 
barley, and much wheat, are mown, againfl 
the (landing corn ; bound in fheaf ; and fet 
up in flooks, at the time of mowing. The 
Wold farmers follow this practice, as being 

R 4 lefs 



j 4 8 WOLD ;. 

lefs tedious than that of gaiting, as in the Vale 
(fee Sect. Harvesting), and lefs walteful 
than that of hajveiting loofe, in the Souths 
of-England manner. 

XV. FARMYARD MANAGEMENT. 
Straw is all confumed in open 
chiefly in double racks, fupported by four 
legs. No cattle are fattened by the head j 
nor any ltraw (except wheat draw J bound. 

The st raw yard stock are, chic, 
aged oxen, of the ihorthcrned breed, bought 
at Glanfbrd-bridge and other fairs, in au- 
tumn; and fold, in fpring, to iobbers or 
ziers, who fometimes buy them up in wi: 
on fpec , to be delivered in fpring. 

Thev leave about twenty millings, a head, 
for wintering. Bu; much depends upon 
judgement in buying them in. 

XVI MARKETS. M ABriffield, 

both of them navigation towm$, and 
Burlimgton, a sea port, are the principal 
markets for csrn. The Derwent bein^ made 
navigable, manv years, before the navigation 
oi the Hull was extended to Dnifkld, Malton 
was once the principal market. But, a; 
prefent, Driffield, an improving place, takes 
the lead. At Malton, the corn tiade is in 
;he hands of a few ::. who can 

gcoenrifr 



YORKSHIRE. 



*49 



generally make their own price. At Dri£, 
field, the buyers are numerous, and moftly 
fatfors, who purchafe by commiflion. By 
the low commiflion of iixpence a quarter, 
fome of the factors are faid to make three or 
four hundred pounds a year ; a ftriking evi- 
dence this of the great quantity of corn which 
is grown upon thele Wolds, 

XVII. TURNEPS. The turnep'crop 
may be faid to be flill a new thing {o tlie 
Wolds ', i}Ot more than of twenty years 
ilanding, though Angularly adapted to the 
foil ; and notwithstanding it has, in Norfolk, 
whpfe coaft may almoft be feen from thefe 
hills, been an efbblifhed object of culture, 
more than a century ! 

At prefent, this crop is in full eflimation, 
being considered as the moft folid bafis of 
the Wold hulbandry, 

Turneps generally succeed fivard f fod- 
burnt, and once plowed, very fleet ; or perhaps 
pnly rice-balked. No manure, and only 
once hoed. 

Remark, This, at firft fight, may appear 
to be a loofe mode of culture ; but not fo if 
we duly conflder its bafis. If the turf be of 
a good age, and the foil of a tolerable quality, 
»o other manure than its afhes is required s 

and 



25© WOLD S. 

and fward which has been fodburnt, and 
only once plowed, is much lefs liable to foul 
the crop with weeds, than land which has 
been under tillage. Upon the whole, it ap- 
pears, to me, to be a practice well adapted to 
the Wolds, where old fward is abundant, and 
where extraneous manures are difficult to be 
procured. 

The application of the turnep crop is 
almoft wholly to iheep, which are folded 
upon the ftandtng turneps ; a practice that 
cannot be defended, and with only om fiock ; 
a practice which is ftill more cenfurable. It 
b no wonder that the Wold fheep, at turneps, 
mould be fubject as they are to diforders : 
today, fatiated with the tops and the belt of 
the pulp y tomorrow, pining over the fhells, 
with only half their fill; and part cf what 
they pick up, weeds and dirt. The next 
dav, glutted with a fiulh of frem turneps. 

If turneps be eaten up clean, a head feck 
and filloweri are indifpenfably neceifarv, to 
common good management. If it be requi- 
site to eat off turneps, with one flock c: 
fheep, one third of the crop at leait ought, in 
like management, to be It-it on the ground 

as manure *; 

The 



* s, 



See the Practice of Norfolk, Vol.1. Sc3:.Turneps. 



YORKSHIRE. 251 

The fence of the sheep fold is generally 
of network, made of finall cord ; the fize 
of the mefhes four to fix inches ; the width 
or height of the fence about three feet ; fup- 
ported bv (takes, eight or ten feet afunder. 
The coil, fburpence to fourpence halfpenny, 
a yard. But " net-hurdles" are more com- 
monly hired (of rope makers) than purchafed. 
The price is a milling to eighteenpence, a 
week, for a hundred yards. About home, 
" bar-hurdles" are fometimes ufed ; but- 
nets, being lighter carriage, are generally 
ufed at a diitan.ee. For iheep which are 
hornlefs, as the Wold fheep invariably are, 
netted folds are very eligible. 

XVIII. SHEEP. The flocks of the 
Wolds are fome of them very large. Onz, 
at lealt, fo high as two thoufand ; eight or 
nine hundred of them ewes ; the reft wed- 
clers and yearlings. 

The breed is a variety of the longwooled 
kind. Some of them very handibme, re- 
fembling the prefent breed of Leiceitermire, 
but more active. The wedders will fat a^ 
two-ihear (that is, two to three years old) to 
thirty pounds, a quarter. Produce about fix 
pounds of wool : the length, ten to thirteen 
inches. 

Some 



551 WOLD S, 

Some years ago,' a crofs of this breed, with 
the large breed of Lincolnshire, was intro- 
duced upon the Wolds, to the great lofs of 
ibme of the Wold farmers. One of them 
calculates to have loir, ieven hundred pounds, 
by a diforder in the head, called the " me- 
grims," which this ill judged crofs were 
lubjecr. to. Ke returned again to the Wold 
breed, and the diibrder left his flock. 

Remark. Every country appears to 
Jiave a naturalized flock — of iheep at kali:. 
By neglect, this Hock will degenerate. By 
care, it may be improved ; either by the 
faireft of its own individuals, or by thofe of a 

idred variety ; not by an alien bweed. 

XIX. RABBITS. The Wold warrens are 
numerous, and fome of them verv exteniive. 
Coldham warren is at prefent, I beli« 
the largeii upon thefe Welds ; and, proba- 
bly, the moif. valuable warren, in the Iiland. 
The Coldham farm contains about nineteen 
hundred acres; and, fpeaking generally, it is 
all warren : not, however, wholly appro- 
priated to rabbits, a flock of fix to eight hun- 
dred Jhcep being kept within the warren 
walls ; principally, however, on one lide of 
the warren, awav from the burrowing 
jr rounds. 

Tl 



YORKSH-IRE, *$$ 

This appears to be a practice peculiar to 
the Wolds *, where better foil is appro- 
priated to rabbit warrens, than is perhaps in 
any other part of the Ifland. The Coldham 
warren, in point of foil, is moft of it worth 
ten to twelve (hillings an acre ; fome of it 
fifteen or fifteen millings -f-. As thefe better 
parts become molly, they are inclofed by a 
fod wall, the furface pared and burnt, and 
the foil broken up for arable crops* Having 
afforded a fuccefiion of crops of corn, tur- 
neps, &c. they are fown with grafs feeds, 
and again thrown open to the rabbits and 
fheep. 

In 1 70;, there were about two hundred 
acres of this farm under the plow, befides 
fome little iheepwalk, which lay without 
the warren walls. The warfen therefore, at 
that time, contained fifteen to iixteen hun- 
dred acres : and, adjoining to Coldham, are 
two more coniiderable Warrens j fo that there 
are, perhaps, three or four thoufand acres of 
tolerably good land, lying together, and ap- 
propriated principally to rabbits. 

To 

* Of Yorkfhire and Lincolnshire, whole hills likewik 
abound much with rabbit warren. 

f But the prefent bleaknefs of \hz fituaticn renders it of 
little more dun, half the value. 



J54 WOLDS. 

To give a general idea of the manage- 
ment of the Wold warrens, the follow- 
ing divifion of the fubjedt will be requifite : 
i. Soil. 4. Species. 

2. Burrows. $. Taking. 

3. Fences. 6. Markets. 

1 . Soil. There is a difad vantage in flock - 
ng a rich foil with rabbits : a flufh of grafs, 
after a dry feafon, is found to produce a 
fcouring ; which fometimes carries off great 
numbers. 

2. Burrowing ground. Upon the high 
Wold?, the burrows are moitly on the fide; 
cf hills : at Cold ham, principally in one 
deep valley ; whofe fides are fteep ; giving 
the rabbits great freedom in working. The 
foil, in this cafe, about eight cr ten inches 
deep ; under this a chalky rubble, of fome 
inches thick, lying on a chalkftone rock; 
The burrows are in the fiibfoil, between the 
fell and the rock, and chierly toward the tops 
cfthe hills*. 

But at Driffieldgreets, near Driffield,- 
v.here there are two large warrens, the fur- 
:^ce is a dead fiat ; neverthelefs, the warrens 
are well flocked and productive ; a proof 

that 

* Tboufands of daws build their ncfts in thefe burrow^ 
to the great annoyance of the nhi 



YORKSHIRE. 255 

that a fiat fiirface may, in fome cafes, be pro- 
fitably flocked with rabbits. The foil, in 
this cafe, is a light fand or gravelly loam. 

In flocking a warren, whether the furface 
be flat or hilly, artificial burrows are 
made, to reconcile the rabbits to the ground, 
and to preferve them from vermin, until they 
have time to make their own burrows. In 
making thefe burrows, an improvement has 
lately, I believe, been hit upon. They are 
bored with an auger of a diameter large 
enough to make a burrow of a fufncient 
width. In a level warren, thefe augers 
mav, from time to time, be found ufeful. 

3. Warren fences. The common 
fence upon the Wolds is fed wall, capped 
with furze, or of late with ftiff frraw, form- 
ing a kind of thatch *. The warrens near 
Driffield are fenced with paling ; an expen- 
live fence in the outfet, and always under 
repairs. A brook, though ever fo deep, is 
found to be infufficient as a fence againft 
rabbits : one fide of Driffieldgreets warren is 
bounded by a brook ; but it is neverthelefs 
fenced with paling. When the rabbits can 
evade this, they readily fwim the brook. 

4. Sort 

* Reed would be found admirable in this intention. 



25& WOLDS. 

4. Sort ofRABBiTS. Untilof late year?, 
the common grey rabbit — probably the na- 
tive wild rabbit of the Ifland — was the only 
fpecies. At prefent, the fiher-bairerl rabbit 
is fought after, and has, within the few lafl 
years, been introduced into moft warrens *. 
The fkin of the grey rabbit is cut ,♦ that is, 
the " wool" is pared off the pelt, as a mate- 

• whereas that of the filver-haired 
rabbit is drejjed zsfur; which, I underfland, 
goes principally to the Earl; Indies. The 
color is a black ground, thickly interfperfed 
with fiflffle white hairs. The fkins of this 
variety fell for about four /hillings* a dozen, 
t€ than thole of the common fort ; a fuffi- 
cient inducement, this, for propagating it. 

5. Mithodof taking Rabbits. The 
I warrenen have three ways of catching 

their rabbit; : —with fold nets — with fpring 
' : — and with * { tipes j" a fpecies of trap. 
The fold nets are fet about midnight, be- 
tween the burrows and the feeding grounds j 
the rabbits being driven in, with dogs, and 
ed in the fold, until morning. 
Thsjprmg tut % when ufed, is, I believe, 
generally laid round a hay ftack, or other 

place, where rabbits collect in numbers. 

The 

* Some of the Lincolnshire warrens 3 it is God, are 

_dy wholly decked with this variety. 



YORKSHIRE. 257 

The trap is a more modern invention. It 
confifts of a large pit or ciftern, formed 
within the ground, and covered with a floor; 
or with one large falling door, having a fmall 
trapdoor toward its center, into which the 
rabbits are led by a narrow muce. 

This trap, on its firft introduction, was fet 
moilly by a hay flack ; hay being, at that 
time, the chief winter food of rabbits ; or on 
the outride of the warren wall, where rabbits 
were obferved to fcratch much, in order to 
make their efcape. Since the cultivation of 
turneps, as a winter food for. this fpecies of 
ftock, has become a practice, the fituation of 
the trap has been changed. 

Turneps being cultivated in an inclofure* 
within the warren, a trap is placed within 
the wall of this inclofure. For a night or 
two, the muce is left open., and the trap kept 
covered (with a board or triangular rail), in 
order to give the rabbits the requifite haunt 
of the turneps ; which having got, the trap 
is bared, and the required number taken. 

In emptying the ciftern, the rabbits are 

forted : thofe which are fat, and in feaibn, 

are flaughtered ; thofe which are lean, or 

out of condition, are turned upon the turneps 

to improve. 

Vol, II. S At 



3 5 8 OLD & 

At the ckfe of the feafon, the buc 
the docs are . in a fimilar way: the 

bucks are flaughterc J ; the does turned loole 
to breed. O n e i : A i e , I underftanc. . 
fidered as Sufficient for six or seven fe- 
les i and the nearer :' ey can be brought 
to this proportion, the greater itock o: yc 
may be ex le&ed . ; the na 

of the males [unnatural as it may feem) to 
deftroy their young ; more y. per- 

: their proportional number is too 



great. 



Great precau: ite in the ufe of 

thefe bra r ; . If t : q many rabbits be adm:: . 
at once. ftern be kept clofe c 

for a few hours, : V. rrbcation and inor- 
. heat i ace, and the carcafes, at 

fcj arc ipoiled. Many thoufand car. 

through this means — The 
trap :re watched; and. when the 

required number are caught, the mucfi i 
ued, or the trap covered. 
Seme idea of the produce of the VV 
r: ; may be gathered, from the great 
num iiich are frequently {Laughters, 

a: once. Five or i .-a ccuole h 

not unfrequeni "v. been Qaughtered in one 
night: and, it is laid, that, when the two 

Driffield 



YORKSHIRE. 259 

Driffield warrens lay together, there was once 
an inftance of fifteen hundred couple being 
killed at one {laughter. 

6. Markets for Rabbits. York, 
Hull, and the neighbouring towns, for car- 
cafes : Glanford-bridge and Malton, for 
fkins ; which are cut by furriers, who reiide 
at thofe places, and who find a market, for 
their wool, in the hat manufactories of Lon- 
don and Manchefter. 

Sometimes, the ikins and carcafes are fold 
together, to huckfters, or other wholefale 
dealers. The average price, for the feafon, 
about two millings a couple. The price of 
carcafes, in the neighbourhood of the war- 
rens, eightpence to tenpence a couple4 



S 2 HOLDER- 



2 6o HOLDERJfESS. 



HOLDERNESS, 



THIS is the only Diftricl: of the county 
I have not been in. I have repeatedly looked 
over its furface, and been upon its borders ; 
but never entered its area. I purpofed to 
have gone ever it, this year (1787), but the 
Vale employed my whole attention, during 
fumrner ; and the extreme wetnefs of the 
autumn would have prevented me from vi- 
fiting a low country, at that feafon, had lei- 
fure permitted it. 

The objecls of hufbano'ry, and the means 
of obtaining them, are, I have always under- 
stood, iimilar to thofe of the Vale of Picker- 
ing : neverthelefs, Holdernefs may have its 
partial excellencies ; as almoft every Diilrict 
has, in a greater or lefs degree. 

The north-weft quarter is appendant to a 
line of marginal villages ; fituated molt de- 
firably on the fkirts of the Wold hills ; but 
no way excellent, I believe, in their plan cf 

manage- 



YORKSHIRE. 261 

management, Neverthelefs, the coajl of 
Holdernefs may merit furvey. 

1796. In March 1 791 (in my way to 
London), I had the honor of paying a tran- 
sient vifit to the late Mr. Constable ofBurton 
Conftahle, an ancient family refidence, fitu- 
ated near the center of this Diftrict. 

The elevation and surface of HoU 
dernefs are extremely different, from what 
they appear to be, when feen from the more 
elevated fummits of the Wold hills. Hoi - 
dernefs is a true Vale or upper-ground Dif- 
trict, rnnilar to the Vales of Glocefler, and 
to the richer Diftricts of the Midland Coun- 
ties. *Xhz furface is broken into fwells and 
hollows, but never defcends to low land ; the 
area of the Diftrict being free from marfhes 
and fens. Towards the mouth of the Hum- 
ber, fame considerable extent of marfh lands 
occur, and in entering Holdernefs, from Hull, 
a flat of rich marfhes, fome two or three 
miles wide, are crofted ; and between Hull 
and Beverly, a coafiderable extent of ftn 
lands lie a difgrace to the county ; but not 
particularly to Holdernefs ; whofe lands rife 
out of the way of waters, and whofe climate 
is healthy, as that of other Diftricts of a fimi- 
lar nature. 

S 3 The 



if2 CLETELA N D. 

The soils are various and much intermix!, 
as frequently happens in V*k Diftricts ; in 
general, they are very productive. 

And the : : a a A sement, from whit I few 
of it, is above mediocrity. 



CLEVELAND. 



CLEVELAND is (mail, comparatively. 

with the other Diftrifh :: EaiT Ycrkfhire. 
To the eaft, :: terminates in a broken coun- 
try; mi Mi the northern margin of the 

The outline, if the broken count: 

nearly oval. The 
extent of the greater diameter being at 

the ihorter about ten miles; 
containing, within its area, 

I one huii :. about 

(event - tl 

The lfaci .: per- 

fectly free from -..-; - true 

'. '". the Ltvcn j 



YORKSHIRE. g6j 

running in a valley, fame feet bel, 
general furface. 

The soil, almo:t invariably, a tenacious 
clay. Good wheat an i land* 



The OBJECTS OF HUSBANDRY 
cor:;, butter, bacon, r fg cat- 

tle, and horses ; varying but httle, in its 
objects, from the Yale of Pickering ; 
exce that Cleveland partakes more 

corn country. 
Some peculiarities of the CI i prac- 

tice have been already mentioned. One 
which mar/. trongly, and which dirtm- 

guiihes it, from every other Dii.riit I ! 
obferved in, re to be noticed. 

The roa: m of Clevc is, uni- 

", the : ■:. Notwith- 

iding the 3f ids of the roads, in a wet 
n, there i 

•, in the country. The three hones are, 
invariably, . two-and-one ; nam 

boric in I , the other twe 

pair before it : the whole beinc; i bv 

leathern reins, and driven with a Ions:- 
thonged \vh ':e coach manner, 

Th nrobab :he 

indlirnej retched* 

into 



CLEVELAND. 

intc : parti of the coun- 

ty of Durham. The latter, which has long 
fceen the chief de r :t of the Cleveland 

farm interior parts of the 

:icr, more than thirty miles ; the teams 
going and re lg without a relt, except- 

ing traniient baits upon the road. 

The rule, when ecing empty, is to tret 

two mile* and feed one -, the driver riding in 

the carriage the two miles, and walking by 

the fide of his horfes the one ; baiting them 

with hay, out of his hand, as they go along 

the road. When loaded, he keeps feeding, 

whenever he finds the horfes will eat a 

thful of hay. Corn is alfo carried in 

thefe journies ; and given in bags, hung upon 

the horfes' heads, in the manner in which 

hackney coach horfes are fed, upon the ftands 

in London. Horfes, thus ufed, will ftand 

thirty miles every day. The 

. ve, colored coach horfes. 

The C] be tre road even- 

■ .;.: ft handy; and, 
for a / V . and long hzirnies, per- 

= team, that invention 
-rting. 

THE 



THE 



EAST ERN MORELANDS 

O F 

ro R KS H 1 RE. 



T 



HE SITUATION of this Diftrift was 

given, in describing the county at 
large. And, in giving a more minute de- 
scription of the Vale of Pickering, the More- 
lands are mentioned as bleak mountains, 
covered with heath, and interfered by cul- 
tivated dales. Thefe dales have been 
already noticed, as appendages of the Vale ; 
(b far as they are noticeable. What I pro- 
pofe, under the prefent head, is, to give fome 
account of the mountains, and their un- 
cultivated VALLIES. 

The CLIMATURE of the Morelands is 
extremely bleak j feveral degrees of latitude 
colder, than the Vale of Pickering ; where 
rain, or perhaps open weather, will fre- 
quently prevail, while the Morelands are 

covered with mow. 

The 






The extent ofti - ::-.-. 

including the hills of Ha MB ledc 
to foil >f length, bv te:: oi 

breadth. Excluding the doxtitateb 
Pales, : tain from three to 

four hu ired :': ran; mile : G n 1 d to 
thre. : . . _ _ .:::- 

_ :: HEATH . 

The F - >It PI : '5 - :he:c 

r FREE-STONE, (of 

- _ \ng ■.. too free] .;...:/• 

rifes the ...;:::; ^ying, ; ces, 

: iveground, blocks : c me of them of 
: fize. - ::*;:a: h:: 

. ■ . t: :: 
found . Sen: it pan \ ._::.: 

g real ie on the :".:.:_: : Iron isfc 

and copper has been] 
2 i: allum 5 :-:.-. ii is 
■:._'.::' ::.: pattern More-; 
:h _!:.:c, I : . !. . • . . : : .V. 
Iflan i great part ciEuriic, v.i:h ill:~. 

The imm - lia; : :US£C IL 

i pan or cam* \ refembling : ifty balf-c 

. - :. -.-:: ...:.' .-.:-.- 
! : : bv ' T w.-:: :: ir. : ::. 



YORKSHIRE. 2 b? 

The SOIL is invariably a black moor • — : 
apparently, a mixture of vegetable mold and 
land j reiembling the moory foil of tens. 

Linneus, I think, calls this fpecies of foil 
the depauperated foil of heaths ; but en what 
grounds I know not. The moor of fens ap- 
pears, obvioufly enough, to be compefed of 
the decayed roots and other parts of vegetables 3 
with a greater or lefs proportion of find and 
mud, walhed in among them, while in a Hate 
of growth. But how a fimilar matter could 
be formed, on the tops of mountains, is lefs 
obvious. Never thelefs, mountain moor 
Las eveiy appearance ofavEGETAEii mold. 

This mold, which covers a principal part 
oi the mountains of the Iiland, appears to me 
a molt interesting fubject of inveftigation. 

It varies, greatly, in regard to depth. On 
the " lew moors," where it has probably 
been repeatedly pared off for fuel, it barely 
covers the find or gravel of the fubfoil : but, 
upon the higher more diitant fwells, the co- 
vering ot foil is thicker ; frequently, fix en c ne 
to two feet deep, of what is called " fat 
moor." In the vallies, particularly towards 
their heads, are peat bogs of feveral feet deep; 
buried in which, trees of great iize have 
fometimes been found. 

The 



_ a ELANDS 

The NAT jjh\1 ?;.c:v: - the 

mere k : of theie mountains — 

ter.ned, provincial!}*, the " high moors" — is 
principal] be a t b , interfperfed with patches 
of :i bent ;" together with the common 

. and other aquatics, in the valiies, and on 
the bogs with which even feme of the fwells 

ind. 
But it the fee: efthefe iwells, andonthe 
fi ces of the cliffs which terminate them to the 
fouth, a up ;...: the top of the marginal 

heights, v hich, when they fhoot far to the 
northward, as between Newton and Caw- 
thorn, are covered with black ioil and heath, 
— a . • of the better grades, with a va~ 

be found grc 

iitu- 
. . 
infei . ' I 

'_ ... UtJ :;:• .. - . j its 

life 

. -.-: Lin 

^ommc - - — ccmi 

hea 

— ■ ■ ■ : .-'-; ----- — Bneleaved heath 
iBx> — trofsleaved heath. 

- — - '..-,— he ii.i : ,-ih. 

• es, — . -. — ibft nifh. 

Moor 



YORKSHIRE. 269 

Provincial. Linnean. Engtijh. 

Moor palms, — eriophorum, — cotton rum. 
Gale, — my rim gale, — fweet gale. 
J\impt$,—ifumpertN communis, — common ju- 
niper. 
Cranberrv, — vatcinium r, — cranberry: 

Bleaberry, — vaccinium myrtillus, — common 

whortleberry. 
White clover, — trifolium repens^ — creeping- 
trefoil. 
Cheefe-cake grafs, —lot us a Uus t — birds- 

foot trefoil. 
"Bent grafs, — nardusjir'.S:.:, — mat grafs. 
aira f.exuofa, — heath airgrafs. 
meltca car idea, — purple melicgrafs. 
9X f — early airgrafs * ? 
.:.:: ::tum, — vernal, 
zu 'media, — trembling grafs. 
eynojurus crijiatus, — Grafted dogstail, 
feftuca duriufcula, — hard fefcue. 
fejiuca bromoides ? — barren fefcue 5 

um perenne, — raygrafs . 
daolylis glomermta, — orchardgrafs. 
ha/cus mollis,— *couchy foftgrafs. 

. . . c clematis, — common eye- 
bright. 

orobui 

* It was late in fummerj before I rr 
Some of the early plants had feeded, and their lpecific cha- 
racters were of courfe become doubtful. 



27* MORELANDS. 

Llnnean. Englifi. 

Orobus tubercfus, — bulbous pea. 
gaiium I'eritm, — yellow beditraw. 
galium montanum, — mountain bedilxavr.; 
fcabiofa fucclfa, — meadow fcabious . 
rumix acetofella, — fheep's forrel. 
■prunella vulgaris, — felf he al . 
tormtntilla erecla, — common tormentil. 
potent iihi reptarts, — common cinquefoil. 
clftus helianthemum, — dwarf ciftus. 
thymus ferpyllnm, — wild thyme. 
poteriwm fanguiforba, — upland burnet. 
fpiraa fJipendula, — dtopwort. 
achilka millefolium, — milfoil . 
Hypericum perforatum, — common Saint* 

johnswort. 
carlina Vulgaris, — carline thiftle. 
carduus palujiris *, — marfh thiflle. 
p ten's ajuilind, — brakes. 

THE 

* This thiflle has no other fpecific difference, which I 
have been able to difcover, from carduus palujiris, than 
the thicknefs of its ftem ; which, upon thefe dry barren 
bkak hills, will fometimes be equal in fize to the largeft 
walking cane. There is a variety of it with white flowers* 



THE 

RURAL ECONOMY 

O F 

. THIS DISTRICT. 

iHE STOCK of the Mofekiids is orin- 
QipdMyfoccp. Upon the "high-moors" 
they are the only flock. On the lower bor- 
ders, and on the margins of the cultivated 
dales, young cattle are kept upon them, a 
confiderable part of fummer. But, in a ge- 
neral light, sheep may be taken as the flock 
of the Morelands ; and though they be thinly 
flocked, the number on the whole is con^ 
fiderable. 

In flocking thefe mountains with fheep, 
the general calculation is, I believe, one fheep 
to ten acres. The number therefore kept, 
on the foregoing calculation, is twenty to 
thirty thoufand. 

Thefe fheep live entirely upon the "moor," 
from their being a year old, until the time of 
their being fold off; which, formerly, was 
not until they were four or five veers old 

The 



£72 M OREL A N D S. 

The yearly profit of a Moreiand fheei5 
(very fmall, fee Art. Sheep), allowing for 
attendance, hazard *, :" • and a little hay 

in winter, when the heath is buried in ihow, 
mav be laid at two killings and iixpence, 
a head +. 

Confequently, the yearly produce : - 
the herbage, at prefent, is threepence 
an acre; at which rate much of it was 
i r alued, by the CommitTioners, under the 



Pickering Bill of Inclofure J. 



The 



* A Moreiand farmer reckons that, if half the mi 
he breeds reach a market, he has tolerable luck. 

t This Calculation is made on the advanced price a 
{been have borne, on a par of the lail ten rears. 
are who afiert, that, if attendance were rigidly 
no osaS >, from keeping fheep on 

thefe heaths. But the number of Utile for titms which have 
been made in the M . principally, it is believed, 

by keeping deep, contradict this aiTertion. 

X Befides the hcrbcze, th-; :h is pared c:~. 

furface and cut out of the bogs, may be confide:; :. : : : :- 
fent, as a fpe: ce. 

The Pic--:, -j g moor a) talents, cor.::, r.'.r g r^enty 
acres or upward, are now felling, for ten pounds each. 
The fee fimple of three of thefe altatments, containing near 
one hu . the other day, for thirty 

pou: 



YORKSHIRE. 273 

The IMPROVEMENTS whichhave been 
attempted, among thele hills, require now to 
be mentioned. 

The late Sir Charles Turner ranks 
higher! as an improver of the Morelands. 
But Sir Charles's lite of improvement is not 
a fair fpecimen, of the two hundred thoufand 
acres of uncultivated heath, which are the 
immediate fubjecl: of difcuffion. 

Keldale *, the principal fite, is a valley 
iiTuing out of Cleveland. The bottom, 
which has formerly been inclofed, is a rich 
loam, of great depth ; but had been rendered 
unproductive, for want of draining. The 
fides of the valley are varioufly foiled ; moftly 
bog, or a fat moory foil, formed probably by 
fprings, with which the whole valley abounds, 
and which, having trickled down its iides 
from age to age, have clad them in vegetable 
mold. Keldale, at the time Sir Charles un- 
dertook its improvement, was a neglefted 
valley, whole fills were full of bit rh 'fie riches, 
and required nothing, but an improvement 
of their fiuifiil, to render them highly pro- 
ductive. 

Had the improvements of this valley been 
let about, with deliberation,- and carried on 

Vol. II. T with 

* The Valley of Spring?, 



a; 4 -• (ELANDS. 

with judgement and nrmnefs, the profits in- 

fing from it would have been e.ieedingly 
great. Eve;: :.-_ :'::- '.::-. : :.'...: 
they were conducted, the improvement muft 
have greatly exceeded the cxpence. In the 
ipring of 1783, w h e n I G 1 w I h e m , Sir C b ides 
had let off one farm of one hundred and fifty 
pounds a year (contaiiung about one hundred 
and fifty acres !) and had then built, o: 
building. three or four more Qibnantia] :irm- 
houfes. 

:;:::". ar fire of Sir 

Chai r ".early allied 

of mountain, which e fide :: the 

The foil is partly black 
moor; in part, of a brown loamy nature; 

itural quality 
to the *' high moors ; and equal* if not fu- 
perior, :: . Ic : ;: oncultivaled 

heath, ; nds. 

In l _ : : . the .his hill '. 

been inclcfed with and part of 

it had, in the outfet, been iinibrtJUiiatcly 
broken up :.: :. But the rich loan. 

lie being found to be better adapted to 
arable crops, this was prudently laid down 
to graft ; a ipecia 01 crop much bettei 

f-i:c-d, 



YORKSHIRE. 275 

fuited, than corn, to fiuch a foil, in fuch a 
fituation. 

The inclofing of Kempfwidden was evi- 
dently premature. Had Sir Charles begun 
at the bottom of Keldale ; climbing by de- 
grees up its fides •, reaching, in due procefs 
of time, the tops of the hills; what amufe- 
ment and profit might have been reaped from 
the undertaking ! 

The attempts which have been made, 
on this fide of thefe mountains, remain to be 
noticed. 

About twenty years ago, the inclofure of 
Middle ton, whole pariih extends into the 
Morelands, gave freedom tD the fpirit of 
improvement. 

The fit e which was principally chofen, for 
the eflays that have been made, were the 
lower Hurts of the Moreland hills, under the 
northern fteep of the limeftone heights. This 
fituation was in a degree of ilielter, was near 
the cultivated country, and the foil, in that 
valley, is better than it is higher up the fides 
of the hills. 

The principle of improvement was to extend 
the cultivated country into the Morelands. 
Corn was of courfe the main object. The 
heathy ivajfes were confidered as grafs com- 

T 2 mons) 



276 More lands. 

tnons -j which ufually are, and generally ought 
to be, converted into arable land, and kept in 
that ftate, for a courfe of years, after their 
inclofure. 

The method of brcakhig-up was either by 
paring and burning, or by fallowing ; which 
latter was performed in a lingular manner. 
The heath being previoufly linged off, the 
land was plowed, and fuffered to lie unftirred 
in rough furrow, for two years, in order to 
give the roots of the heath time to rot. The 
third year, it was ftirred as a fallow ; and the 
fourth year, cropped. 

The manure, ufed, was invariably lime ; 
which is burnt, in quantity, near the fite of 
improvement. The quantity fet on, three to 
fix or feven chaldrons, an acre. 

The crops wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, tur- 
neps. Red clover does not nourifh : it will 
rife very well from the feed, but generally 
goes off, the firft winter. And raygrafs has 
been cautioufly ufed, left it mould foul or im- 
poverifh the land ! 

The refult of thefe experiments, fome of 
them on a pretty large fcale, is, fome fmall 
fortunes have been funk, and fome larger 
ones have been injured. I have not come at 

any 



YORKSHIRE. 



*77 



any thing like proof, of even one inftance, in 
which the improvement has been adequate to 
the expence. 

Hints for the Improvement of the 
Eastern Morel ands of Yorkshire. 

From thefe premifes, we may fafely infer, 
that the two hundred thoufand acres of land, 
under notice, are unimproveable ; or that the 
attempts at improvement, which have hitherto 
been made, have been ill conducted ; or that 
the principle of improvement has hitherto 
been erroneous. 

Unprepared as I am with felf-practice, in 
the cultivation of thefe waftes, it would be 
rafhnefs in me to dictate a general plan of 
improvement ; but having fome general 
knowledge of improvements of this nature, 
and having beflowed fome confiderable fhare 
of obfervation and attention, on the Diftrict 
under confideration, it might be wrong to 
fupprefs the reflections which have occurred 
to me, refpecting its improvement, In a 
kingdom whofe limits are not extenlive, two 
hundred thoufand acres of furface becomes 
an object, of national importance -, and on 
whether they lie in a ftate of wafte, or in a 

T 3 ftate 



278 M ORELANDS. 

ftate of productivenefs, the welfare and hap^ 
pinefs of many individuals may depend. 

The PRINCIPLE OF IMPROVE- 
MENT is what I mall more particularly 
fpeak to ; and in doing this, I mall keep the 
high moors — not the heathy upper margin 
cf the limeitone heights — principally in view. 

It appears, to me, that to attempt, at pre- 
fenty to crop thefe heaths with corn, is inju- 
dicious in the extreme. To begin with car- 
rying off the means of productivenefs, in the 
fhape digram, (which the cultivation of corn 
implies) from a foil which, it is to be feared, 
naturally contains them in very inconfiderable 
quantity, is irreconcileable with common 
prudence. 

The productions which ftrike me, as 
eligible to be propagated, at preient, on 
thefe heaths, are woiand herbage. 

I. PLANTATIONS. There are evi- 
dences, but no proof, of thefe hills having 
been iormerly covered with i .cod. The 
trees which are itill found in the peat bogs 
are a pretty itrong evidence. And part of 
thefe hiiis being included within the ancient 
.: Pickering, is a corroborating cir- 
cumftance. 

That 



YORKSHIRE. a; 9 

That trees, if properly chofen and properly 
managed, would grow on thefe hills, is, I 
believe, beyond difpute. And I am clearly 
of opinion that, if they be imprtnxabk % planting 
is the firlt ftep, which ought to be taken, 
toward their improvement. Woodlands, if 
once extended, would not only afford imme- 
diate ihelter to flock ; but would, in all hu- 
man probability, change the climature of 
thefe bleak fweils, fo far as to give due en- 
couragement to the herbage that might be 
cultivated upon them. 

Where the furface is ftrowed with large 
(tones, planting feems to be the only pro- 
bable mean of improvement. Where the 
furface is free, ikreens of wood are principally 
wanted. 

The Scotch fir and the birch might 
be employed to break off the North and the 
Eaiterly winds. The Norway spruce 

d the larch, and, in all probability, the 

lk, might, with due care, be reared in the 
more genial afpecls *. 

Much would depend upon M A nage m ent. 

— In Keldale, and onKempfwidden,the pine- 

T 4 tribe 

* 1790. The LAB.CQ ought to prevail, in the bleJccr 
niore expofed fituations. The Highlands or Sco:'.zr.tL 
afford ample teftimony of its excellency, in fuch fituations, 



j8o M O R E L A N D S. 

tribe and oaklings were dibbled in, among 
the ftanding heath. No wonder they mif- 
carried. To enfure fuccefs, the ground 
mould be trenched with the fpade ; or be 
prepared with the plow ; and the plants be 
put in with the nurieryman's beft care. Not 
finglv, or widel . fcattered j but in numbers, 
and in clofe order *. 

There is a natural warmth in vegetable as 
in animal life. One tree is raifed with diffi- 
culty, in any titration which is inclined to 
bleaknefs ; but plant a number, in cloie or- 
der, and the difficulty is overcome. They 
net only create among themfelves, by their 
natural warmth and perforation, a frefh at- 
mofphere ; but affiir. each other, in with- 
flanding the attacks of the winds, and other 
enemies. 

II. CULTIVATED HERBAGE. If 

! . : :!s be in -lie by hu/bandry, the 

principle cf improvement appears, to me, to 

be that of removing the heath (wholly or in 

t part), and replacing it with berbage t 

::ed to fuch y?5.v:. a; is bell iuited to the 

and fituation. 

SI 

* For the method of Pkntir.z, on the Highlands of 
Scotland, fee Planting and Rural Ornament, 
Section Grove?. 



YORKSHIRE. 2S1 

:he floe I 
to thele hilh ; and t ! :: (hot 
penlive way of brin into a ftate of 

sheep walk and ra: 
this principle of imprc 
require 

The He:t:i, it is more than p \n- 

not be overcome without a A 

fimilar degree c 

:e for h 1 *. 

The species 

graj/es, the legumes, and 

The hardieft of the two former may be I 

in the foregoing lift, The ft ra : the 

/*#/<? might be chofen from the laft. 

off, or mown for hay, 

while in a ftate ci . " , : ighf be found 

digit 

The 

* In Derbvfiiire, it has been feu 

lone, is equal to the cieftruciicr. 

i to the producl 
:" rich herbage. I ted, by 

-.vho are acquainted wit Jther in 

that cafe the imprc . .: .- :.: 

die qua te to .produce X1 ^g 

=r, on the fkirts of the i. . 

moderate expence, the 
experiment wc 
1796. Re 



i8a M O R E L A N D . 

The manures which prefent themleives 
arc Ihnc, which might be had in any quan-r 
tity, and within a inert dillance, compared 
with that which it is carried, in other Dif- 
tricfs. :f the peat bogs, and the fat 

moor, where this is of fufficient depth, might 
like wife be b the*' fat moor" 

unburnt, it is more than probable, would 
;d a fair :e, if properly applied. 

I have obferved milance:, in which having 
been thrown upon the furfaee* (as in cutting 
through it for a road) it has, in a (hort time, 

th a turf of line herbage. 
Earths, ir proper' bt for, might, it is 

high _-, be found, with natural qua- 

lities adapted to the improvement of the 
moorv : 

Another fpecies of improvement, which i% 
is probable might be profecuted with fuccefs, 
is that of cutting oft the fprings which over- 
few the fides or the bottom of hills, and 
underd raining, if requisite, the bogs 
they have formed ; by which means many 
;ht, it is probable, be pro- 
ved. 
nother fpecies of melioration, applicable 
he reclaiming oi thefe waites, is water- 
3— ilooding. [ erved where the 

v iteVj 



YORKSHIRE. 2S3 

waters of hollow ways, &c. break out, over 
the black earth, a covering of grafs takes 
place. Almoft all the bottoms of the vallies, 
and fkirts of the hills, might be flooded, 
with the fprings and rivulets, which lie abovQ 
them. 

Thofe who are unacquainted with the 
practice of flooding, will doubt the efficacy 
of the waters of fprings and clear rivulets; 
while thofe who are verfed in it, would fmile 
at their want of information. I have feen 
Waters perfectly limpid produce the happiefl 
effect. It is not the color, but the intrinfic 
quality, of water which fits it for the purpofe 
of melioration. Any water, which is not in 
its nature poifqnous to plants, has, if pro- 
perly thrown over grafs land, a beneficial 
effect. Whether the fprings and rivulets, in 
queftion, would, or would not, have a bene- 
ficial effect, on the lands which lie below 
them, might eafily be put to the teft. 

By application and due attention, upon the 
fpot, other probable means of improvement 
might prefent themfelves. 

That the principal part of thefe hills 
might be brought into a ftate of grafs, of 
no mean productivenefs, appears to me, 

highty 



2 « + MORELAND S. 

highly probable *. But whether any means 
of improving can be hit upon, which would 
render the improvement greater than the ex- 
pence of obtaining it, experience alone can 
{hew ; and mdhiduals ought to enter cau- 
tiouily into the project. 

But, viewed in a national light, an im- 
provement of this kind, whether individuals 
gain or lofe by the profecution of it, is de- 
iirable. If, through the means of a foil which 
lies wade, of foflile fubftances which lie ufe- 
lefs, of fire which may be had at will, and of 

water 

* An inftance ftrongly corroborative of this opinion 
m iy be produced. A laborer who lived in " Blakay- 
Houfe," — fituated near the higheft iwell of thefe moun- 
tains, — incloled a patch of moor adjoining to his houfe : 
a fair fpecimen of " turf moor ;" — namely, a dry black 
itoney foil, lying on a fandy fubfoil. Nevejthelefs, in 1783, 
when this improvement accidentally caught my eye, he had 
converted the principal part of it, namely about two acres, 
into a piece of very productive grafs land. He told me 
that he had tried corn of all forts upon it without fuccef?. 
It came up very well, but generally died away in weaning 
from the kernel. Nor did potatoes ever do well. He had 
pne year a very fine profpecl: ; but a cold high wind cut 
them off entirely. He was fo fullv tired of every thing but 
grafs, that upon a ftripe he was about to lay down, he only 
meant to throw a few cats, by way of encreafing the fwath 
of hay, intending to mow them oft" with the reft of his clofe. 
His manure — lime, afhes, and cow dung 5 doing a patch 
well over every year, 



YORKSHIRE. 2^5 

water which nature has provided upon the 
fpot, lands that are infertile can be ren- 
dered productive, without robbing thofe 
which are already in a Hate of productive- 
nefs, — the reality of the acquifition, to 
public, cannot be doubted. 

In the center of thefe hill?, among their 
higheft eminences, lies a plot of land which 
belongs, excluiively, to the Duchy of Lan- 
cafter. Might it not be laudable, in 
GOVERNMENT, 
to direct fome attention toward v its im- 
provement? The two hundred thoufand acre* 
of wafte, which lie immediately round it, 
would not be the only object in view : 
Twenty times the quantity of fimilar furfe.ee 
lies wafte within the kingdom. 



LIST 



LIST 



o p 



RATES, &c. 



O 



BUILDING MATERIALS. 

AK TIMBER, for buildings, 14*/. to 

1 Si. a foot. 
Am timber, is. to is. 6d. afoot. 
" Stock" bricks, 21s. a thouiand, and 
" Water" bricks, 151. 
Pantiles, 45/. 
Ridge-ftones, $d. a foot. 
Copings of gables, $d. 
Gable brackets, 2s. 6d. each. 
Lime, js. to qs. a chaldron. 
Dimenlicns of bricks, 91 — 41 — 21 inches. 

' -^ 1 pantiles, 14 by 10 inches. 



CAR- 



sS3 LIST G . aATES. 



CARPENTER'S WORK. 

Journeyman's wages, 14.*/. and board, or 
2 J", a day. 

MASON's WORK. 

Journeyman's wages, i6d. and board, cr 
2s. a day. 

Laborers — lod. ■ or 

is. 6d. a d. 



BLACKSMITH'S WORK. 

mmon heavy work, &d. a lb. 

Traces, draught-irons, &c. 6d. a lb. 
Horfe-:hoes, 4./. each — removes, id. each< 

ing a mare or coulter, 8d. to 1/. 
Sharping ia, 

ANDS. 

at the ports, 5/. to 3 guineas, 
a ton. 

Carriage of timber* about gd. a ton, a 
- 1 e. 

" Crambles" 



YORKSHIRE. 289 

" Crambles" — firewood boughs, ioj. to 
1 is. a load. 

Bark, ready chopt for the tanner, 1 oj. 6d, 
a quarter. 

Peeling bark, about 2od. a day. 

• — — and chopping 3^. to y. 6d. a quar- 
ter. 

Spray faggots, 6x. to 8j. a hundred of fix 
fcores. 

finding fuch faggots, 2s. 
J Felling and binding furze faggots, \d. a 
fcore. 

Grubbing ■ ■ " 6d, 

a fcore. 

Grubbing without binding, 20s. to 30X. an 
acre, 

PLANTATIONS. 

Price of oziers, is. a bundle of a foot dia- 
meter, or 1 I yard in circumference, 

FENCES. 

Price of feedling white thorn, $s. a thou- 
fand. 

tranfplanted ■■ js. to 8s. 

Setting pofls and two rails, and winding 
them with thorns, 4^/. to $d. a rod of 7 yards. 

Vol. II. U Stake- 



a 9 o L I S T O F R A T E S. 

Stake-and-edder hedge, 3^/. to \d. a rod of 
7 yards. 

Fence walls ; raifing (tones, carriage, and 
walling, I J. a rod of 7 yards. 

TEAM LABOR. 

Hire of four horfes and a man, 8/. to 10/. 
a day. 

Carriage of coals, about %d. a chaldron, a 
mile. 

YEARLY SERVANT'S WAGES. 

Head man, 1 3 to 1 5/. 

Second 8 to 1 o/. 

Dairymaid, 5 to 6/. 

DAY-LABORER's WAGES. 

Man in winter, 8*/. a day and board. 
in fummer ? is. to 1 %d. 



Woman, in autumn and fpring, 6d. a day, 
no board. 

in hay- time, gd. — - 



1 ■ — in harveft, io</.«— — 



MA- 



YORKSHIRE. 291 

MANURE. 

Price of lime, ys. to gs. a chaldron. 

burning lime — railing ftones, breaking, 
filling, and helping to draw, iSd. to 2od. a 
chaldron. 

Draw, on the north-fide of the Vale (mate- 
rials hard), from 2 I to 3 chaldrons of lime, 
from one of coals. 

on the fouth -fide (flone fofter), 3 to 

3 I from one. 

Set on 3 to 4 chaldrons, an acre. 

SOIL PROCESS. 

• 
Underdraining with wood, 2 to 4 feet deep, 

6d. for a rod of 7 yards. 

Paring with the breafl plow, iqs. to 14^ 
an acre. 

Drying and burning fods, $s. to 6s. an acre. 

Spreading afhes, 2/. an acre. 

Whole expence, i8j. to 21s, an acre. 

HARVE ST PROCESS. 

Mowing grafs, 16 d. a day, and board; or 
2\d. to 2 s. id. an acre. 

Mowing corn, is. to 14^/. a day, and board. 

U 2 BARN 



a$t LIST OF RATES. 



BARN LABOR. 

Thrafliing wheat, 3^. a flook ; or 2s. 6d* 
to 3^. a quarter. 

GRASS LAND. 

Gait of a cow, from Mayday to Michael- 
mas, 40/. to 451. 



PRO- 



YORKSHIRE. 293 



PRO VINCI A LIS M S. 



THE DIALECTS OF YORKSHIRE 
are flrikin^lv various. 
The provincial language of Cleveland dif- 
fers more widely, in ibme refpects, from that 
of the Vale of Pickering, though lituated only 
twelve or fifteen miles from each other, than 
the Dialect of the Vale does from that of 
Devcmhire, which is lituated at an oppofite 
extreme of the kingdom. The Eartern 
Morelands are a barrier which, formerly, cut 
off all communication between the two Dis- 
tricts. But this cannot be the only caufe of 
difference : the language and the manners, of 
their refpective inhabitants, appear to have 
no natural affinity : they are, to prefent ap- 
pearance, as dillincl races of people, as if 
they were defcended from different roots. 
The pronunciation of the Vale bears a itrong 
analogy to the Scotch -, while that of Cleve- 
U 3 land, 



294 PROVINCIALISMS. . 

land, which lies immediately between the 
Vale and Scotland, has little affinity to the 
Scotch pronunciation. 

About Leeds, the language ftill varies : it 
is there ftrongly marked by a twang in the 
pronunciation. In the Vale of Pickering 
the word cow, for inilance, takes the cbfe 
found " coo;" about Leeds it becomes 
te caw :" the a u hort, as in cari -, the w being 
articulated as in the eftablifhed pronunciation 
cf the word. 

In the more extreme parts of Weft York'- 
-, the dialed is characterized, by an open- 
Hejs of bfbgdnefs of pronunciation, very dif- 
ferent from the reft of the county. The 
lancruao-e even of Wakefield and that of 

o o 

Leeds, though thefe two places are fituated 
within twenty miles cf each other, are, in 
manv particulars, lefs analogous, than thole of 
Scotland and the Vale of Pickering. 

The dimmilitudes here mentioned, how- 
ever, relate more to pronunciation, or 
what is lefs properly termed accent, than 
to words. Neverthelefs, in words, the 
different DiftricTt: ^ of this extenlive province, 
vary connderably both in identity and num- 
ber. 

Pro- 



YORKSHIRE. 295 

Provincial words are either corruptions 
cf the eftablifhed language, or native words 
defeended from the ancient language 
of the province they are fpoken in. Hence, 
in recluse Districts, we muft expect to 
find the greateft number of genuine proiin- 
cia/if/ns -j— of ancient vocal sounds. 

The Vale of Pickering is fingularly 
circumfranced in this refpect. The peculiar 
reclufenefs of its Jituation has been defcribed; 
and being in a manner wholly agricultural, 
its connexions are inconfiderable. Had it 
not been for the influx of words and famion, 
which Scarborough has annually drawn into 
it, this fecluded Vale muft. inevitably have 
been, in language and manners, a century at 
leaft behind every other Diflrict of this king- 
dom, fituated equally near its center. 

The More land dales, which are, in 
reality, appendages of the Vale, have been 
ftill more effectually cut off from all converfe 
witbjiratigers. Their fituation is fo reclufe, 
their foil in general fo infertile, and their 
afpect fo uninviting* that it is probable nei- 
ther Roman, Dane, nor SaxOn ever fet foot 
in them. No wonder, then, the language 
©f thefe Dales, which differs little from that 

U 4 of 



296 PROVINCIALISMS. 

of the Vale, — except in its greater purity,— 
fhould abound in nathe words ; or that it 
fhould vary fo widely, in pronunciation, from 
the eftabliihed language of this day, as to be 
in a manner wholly unintelligible to ftrangers j 
not, however, fo much through genuine 
words, as through a regular systematic 
deviation, from the eftablifhed pronun- 
ciation of the Englijh language * . 

This difference in pronunciation ge- 
nerally arifes, from a change of the vowels -, 
which is, in effect, productive of a change of 
words. Hence, it will be neceffary, in giving 
an adequate idea of the language, to point 
out the leading principles of pronunciation : 
and, previous to this, it may be proper to 
mention a deviation in grammar ; which, 

I be- 

* It might be a difficult talk, now, to afcertain with 
precision, whether thefe deviations are in reality 
irruptions or purities of the English language. 
They are probably a mixture of the two ; I mean, they 
may contain fome flight admixture of depravity. But 
it would be equally reafonable to fuppofe that a difturbed 
fir earn fhould be lefs adulterate than its fountain, as 
that the language at prefent eflablifhed fhould be lefs 
corrupt^ or (to change the word without altering the ar- 
gumc.;c; lefs refined than mat of a Diflrict feduded in a 
fmgular manner from ail intercourfe with other languages. 



YORKSHIRE. 297 

I believe, is peculiar to the dialect under 
notice. 

The provincial language of Eaft Yorkshire 
has no genitive, except that of its porlef- 
iive pronouns ; and except when the nomi- 
native is understood. When this is ex- 
prefled, the preceding fubflantive becomes, 
in effect, an adjective ; as, "John Hat, — George 
Houfe -, analogous with . London porter ; — 
To rk (hire butter. 

This excifion of the genitive termination 
gives much additional beauty and Simplicity 
to the language, doing envay 9 almofi entirely \ 
the declenfion of nouns, and filencing, in fome 
degree, the hijjing, which is fo dilagreeable 
to the ears of foreigners, and which is one 
of the greateil blemifties of the Englifli 
language. 

A perfon, unacquainted with this mode of 
fpeech, will conceive it to be the caufe of 
much ambiguity. But, among thofe who 
ufe it, no inconveniency whatever arifes. 
When the nominative cafe is not exprelTed. 
then a genitive termination becomes requi- 
fite, and is always ufed ; as, W T hofe hat is 
this ? It is John's. Whof b houfe is this ? 
It is George's. The fame in the pergonal 

pronouns : 



zg3 PROVINCIALISMS. 

pronouns : as, Whofe land is this ? It is 
yours ; it is mine ; it is his. Even when the 
fubflantive is joined, the perfonal pronouns 
- a genitive form j as, his country, your 
country, my country. 

The pronunciation now remains to be 
noticed. 

The deviations lie> principally, in the 
' ■-. Is j but there is one peculiarity of ar- 
ticulation which is noticeable ; as being 
a ftranger in the eltablimed pronunciation; 
though common, I believe, to the northern 
counties. This is in the articulation of the 
letter /, in butter, viatter, and all words of a 
ilar termination ; alio in tree, trace, tread, 
and ail words a::d iyllabies beginning with 

The articulation, in thefe cafes, is between 
irticulation of the /, and that 
be th j the tongue being prefTed hard 
again it. the teeth and the gums, jointly ; not 
(tightly touching the gums alone, as in the 
ordinary articul :f the t. I notice this 

as a provincialifm ; and know no better tejft of 
a jiort hem prxruinciatijt than this peculiarity. 

In 

* The letter d takes the fame angulation in frmilar 
whenever it is fubjoi r.ed with r or tr. 



YORKSHIRE. z- i9 

In the pronunciation of vowel?, that of 
o long, as in , bole, more, is nril no- 

ticeable. A mere provincialiil of Eaft York- 
fhire knows no inch found ; nor can he, 
without much practice, pronounce it. In 
the provincial dialed! it takes four diftLnir. 
vocal founds ; namely, eea, an, ooa, a, — ac- 
cording to the confonants it is joined with 
in compofition. Thus Hone is pronounced 
Jleean j yoke, yauk \ bole, booal; more, 
mere. 

The diphthong ea, which formerly, it is 
probable, had a diitinct vocal found aLfigned 
it, in the Engliih language, but which feems 
to be, at prefent, entirely unknown to the 
Engliih tongue, is Itill in common uie, in the 
dialect under notice. In the eitabliihed pro- 
nunciation, break is become brake j great, 
grate ; tea, tee ; fea, fee ; but, here, they 
are uniformly pronounced by a vocal found, 
between the e and the a long. 

The a long is generally, but not invariably, 
changed into eea ; as, (take, 
Ueam\ late, leeat \ or into a Jb or t, as, b 
tack ; make, mack. 

The ejbort, before / and n, is lengthened 
by the^' con articulated as in yet, yes, 

V- 



PROVINCIALISMS. 

you : thus, well (a fountain) becomes iveyl *, 
to (ell, to fiyi% men, meyn ; ten, teyn : in 
one cafe it changes into e long ; as, well (the 
adverb ), weef* 

Th n has the eflablifhed pro- 

ttion. Before gbt it generally changes 
into e long ; as, night, neet ; bright, breet ; 
right, rcct : before /, into a broad (as in father, 
half, and before the letter;-) ; as, mile, maal; 
ftile, . ::d does not, in any cafe, take, 

in ftridnefs, the modern found; which is a 
diphthong competed of a broad 'and e : where- 
as i" :.:.': found, here, is the accepted 
ibund of t Jbort lengthened by the y co?ifo- 
natit * ; as, white. - : to write, to 

: a mode of pronunciation which per- 
han_- icm'.tr'v was in general uie, but which 
nc is to be confined to provincial cia- 

ie&s, m is not at leait heard in fafr.ionabk 
bug us ge. 

Tn . k cha :-r : into u long ; as 

be:/.. . \t ; to icok, to luke: before t.J>m,t,b, 

generally 

* I: - T ■: ■:■'.:. (bund . though it is by no 

beans . found of that vowel. I have neverthe- 

: tr to give it the eftabjiihed power in the 

GJaffiuy* The . . ."■; I nettle, tat the fame reafou, though 



YORKSHIRE. 301 

generally into ea long ; as boots, beats ; 
fool, feal ; broom, bream ; tooth, teath ; be-, 
fore r, moftly into ee -, as floor, fleer 5 door, 
deer. 

01 before d generally becomes au ; as, old, 
aud ; cold, caud ; wolds, wauds: in one in* 
ftance the / is mute ; as, hold, bod. 

In words ending in ault or alt, the / is like- 
wife mute, the termination becoming in 
both cafes aut $ as fault, faut ; fait, Jaut ; 
malt, maut *, 

The 

* This brings to my mind a circumftance which de- 
ferves notice ; as it ferves to (hew the procefs of corruption, 
or as others perhaps will have it, refinement, of languages. 
There are, in many cafes, two diftincl provincial languages 
jn this Diftricl: : one of them fpoken by the lower clafs, — 
more efpecially of old people, — the other by the fuperior 
clafs of provincialifts. The.firft I fhall call the vulgar 
tongue (though in all probability the purer language) ; 
the other the middle dialed. Thus the Englifli word matt 
is, in the vulgar tongue maut, in the middle dialect, melt : 
Malton^ in like manner, becomes Maut on and Melton. All 
fyjlables formed with long have three diftinft pronuncia- 
tions: thus booal in the vulgar tongue, ball in the middle 
dialed!:, and bole in the Englifli language, convey the fame 
idea. Creeac, crake, crow; father (the a fart), faithcr, 
father, are other inftances. In a few generations, it is 
probable, the prefent vulgar tongue will be loft, and the 
prefent middle dialect will then, of courfe, become the vulgar 
tongue, 



333 PRO VINCI ALIS MS. 

The ou changes, almofl invariably, into £2 ; 
as, fa*ar>jbor ; cur, oor ; houfe, hoofe, moufe, 
moofe. ' 

The wo is fubjecl: to a limilar deviation ; 
as, bowls, booh ; power, poor 3 flower,/;;/- ; 
bow, boo ; cow, c 5?. 

Thefe are the principal part of the more 
regular deviation? in the pronunciation 
of the Eait-Yorklhire dialect.. To go thro' 
its anomalies would be an endlefs tallc : 
fbme of them will appear in the following 
glossary > in the forming of which, I have 
been induced, to break through my original 
plan, with refpect to provincialisms; 
which was, and indeed frill is, to confine my- 
felf, merely, to fuch words as relate more es- 
pecially to Rural affairs. But finding, 
in this particular injtance, a declining 
language, which is unknown to the pub- 
lic *, — but which, it is highly probable, con- 
tains more ample remains of the ancient 

LANGUAGE 

* Except feme fragments of it, which were collected 
on the banks of the H umber (at the moft extreme dif- 
tance from what may be confidered a? the fource of the 
■.) by Mr. Brokefby, and communicated to Mr. 
Rat ; who has preferred them in his Collection of 
Lei ^.l Words. 



YORKSHIRE. 3:3 

LANGUAGE of the CENTRAL PARTS OF 

this Island, than any other which is now 
fpoken, — I was willing to do my beft en- 
deavour towards arretting it, in its pre lent 
form ; before the general blaze of fa;h:cn 
and refinement, which has already 
its dawn, even over this fecluded Diitricl, 
fhall have buried it, irretrievably, in ob- 
fcurity. 



PRO- 



N C I A L I S M S 



: F 



EAST YORKSHIRE. * 



' 


In this Glofisrr, a y before a 


:: ■.■■ ■-;:-.- 


..: :hr : ~. ;.;.'; r_i :r.e i::r-.ei, 




in man. *, with the eJKal, or 


_ 7 . ~ ~ : I .". 1 -1 f 


» «, v>* ajizmuKiy as iu laic: , «m«, 


: 7 -■ Z7 ZT.i 


r- - - • _ . ; _ _.'.". 


-'■-"•■ • 


~ ~ ' -~ ' ~ ~ M ~z. . i ; "*. 1'V . .r '-1' 2 



.- " ;':•-..:.-''.. ■■■_-'. v.;-.::"- z '.■■': Z.zi zzr-var. Lv.ic 
.:' j _,*,- •-■._■; •• ir.i c .'. :r. .•:. :.-.; / .'.■■■: !£ -, 15 :.-. ret:. 
:: ;. :, .:■':.:. :, :: :; ::;,.:.: :::.:,'//:, •-;.;'. zzzr.z'7td 
c: :' . ; a.".:. . _ : . v /. r : i J .'.'.;..".- :~::~ti z: .' : ::-t : 
and j ccMfaumt. 

: .: :.-.-. :::::.• : . ;, is i". >.:: . ; i-.Yiiiii.y ,'. ,-- 3 
as in food, cea, a ampfimJ of ce and a Jbort. 

Z ..- .-.".: :.'.r ....:.. t :>:!:i : :!-:■: : r :-"r"i;:.g-- 
i ' : '..err. ; f::::j:.-; : .r ..._ .: _:.:::.;- •- Lie : Z.'-.z, 
which has been mentioned. Where there is room 
: ambiguity, the quantity is lpecified. 

72 : :_\\ 

. . : : :-: I -- _' '.::Z.. -.:-:-; :~.e V Li 

■:: . .:■:-.:— "t '■'■'...-. Ki'.ir.v.t.'f, ir.i ±t y.y~i:i.2r* 
:....;. . .'• -it ._-t : .^:;: : ;_: _i _ ..is ztriiZ. ::_:;, 



YORKSHIRE. 30$ 



A. 

IBOOX; above, in the general fenfe. 
J_V_ To ADDLE ■, to earn by working : fc he 

cannot addle his bread." 
ADDIW1SSEN ; to be fent about addiwiffen, is 
to be fent on a fool's errand :—an expreflion 

which is nearly obfolcte. 
AIGER ; an impetuous tide. See West of 

England, Prov. Boar. 
AIRTH; quarter j as, " in what airth is the 

wind ?" 
AISK ; lacerta vulgaris ; the evet, or land newt. 
AITHER; a plowing; as, the firft or fecond 

aither; the fame 2s cirtb of fome places, and 

earth of others. 
ALLFARE; for good- and- all: ff he is gone for 

all-fare." 
AME LL ■, between ; as, " amell fix and feven 

o'clock." 
AXAXTERS, or ANTFRS ; left-, or for fear 5 

— cc ananters it mould rain." 
ANCHOR i the chape of a buckle. 
ANENST, or OYER-AXEXST ; oppofite. 
ANGLES ; the holes or runs of moles, field 

mice, &c. 
AR ; a cicatrice, or fear left by a wound. 
ARF, or ARF1SH ; feme what afraid. 
ARK ; a kind of large chert or bin, with divifions 

within, formerly uicd for laying up drefled corn; 

a fort of moveable granary. 
ASS; afhes. 

ASS CARD; fire-fhovel. 
ASSLE; query, a corruption of axis, or a natilit 

word ? ajsie-tcotb, a. grinder; a/sie-free, the axis 

of a carriage-wheel, but of no ether wheel; nor 

is it ever applied without the termination tree. 
Vol. n. X Perhaps 



3 cS PROVINCIALIS l| S. 

Pe: applied to the wheel of a car- 

riage, : .5 a pedant : corruption of this word. 

AT ; who, whom, or which, in the rclatrvt fenft : 
i: is, perhaps, a contraction . ' % the man 

at we met" — " the man at fat next ysa — " the 
houle at we • S ee W H : a :-; . 

AVERAGE ; the pafturage of common r.el-: 
o:her ftnbbles, a:':cr 

AUM ; elm. 

AUMAS ■, ao alms. 

B. 

BACKBEERAWAY ■/;.;; ; the bat, 

BACKSTOX; (that is, VSbigftatt) aftate, b 

in an iron frame over the fire, to bake cake? 

upon. 
BADGER; a hick.":::. 
BAIRX ; a child. 

BA1RXWORTS; /:/.;. ;■ f:es. 

BALKS (pror. :. :-.;;„ :..•:.•'. a rough :hambe: 

in an cur-bu^aing. 
BAM ; a joke ; fun. 
To BAM j :c play the ; ake , : 
BAXD i a rope: hence Iand-m ac£e* ; rope- 

maker. 
BAR FAX: a boric-collar, 
BARGUE5 i ; a hob f the Kigheft ntdei . 

terrible :.: a/re;":. :.:._ iaaded with chains : tw 
ndous : itne. 
BASS j a matt of any I 
BAT j a blow : her.ee 
BATS; a bearing: u aa h ;. : ... : .. baa 

give thee a beating. 
BAL F ; weii gi . a« a boy or •. :u:h. 

ioBAUTER; to trample] in a clowmfli man- 
ner; or as horfes tread down grals, or groa 

corn. 
BEACE; cattle j the plural of beaft 

BEACE; 



YORKSHIRE. 307 

BEACE ; a cattle ftall. 

To BEAL; to bellow, as an ox. 

BECK ; brook (the common term). 

BEDDING j litter, of horfes or cattle. 

BEELD; fhelter; alfo the caufe of ihelter; a 
clump or fkreen of trees, planted for the pro- 
tection of (lock, is called a beeld. 

BEELD ING; building; perhaps the diminutive 

Of BlELD. 

BEE-SUCKEN; applied to the afh, when its 

bark is cancerous, black, and turgid* 
BELI'VE ; (the i long) in the evening. 
BENT i a fpecies of rufh which grows on the 

Moreland hills : Juncus Jquarrcfus. 
BESHAUP ; make hafte. 
BINK j a bench, common at the doors of cottages j 

generally made of flones ; fometimes or of earthj 

and planted on the top with camomile. 
BIRDS EYE ; veronica chamadrys \ germander 

fpeedwell. 
BISSLINGS, or BIS SUNG -MILK; the firft 

milk of a newly calven cow. 
BITER, or Billybiterj motacilla atricapilla, the 

blackcap. 
BLACK-NEBB'D-CROW; conms corone, the 

carrion crow. 
BLAKE i yellowifh: the color of bees- wax. 
To BLASH j to fplafh. 
BLASHYi wet, dirty, fplafhy; as, « blafhy 

weather." 
BLEA i dufky blue, or lead color. 
BLEABERRY j vaccinium myrtillus, common 

whortleberry. 
BLfcB ; a blifter ; or airbubble. 
BLENDINGS j peas and beans grown together 

as a crop. 
BLUEMILK ■, fkim-milk. 

X 2 BUNDERS, 



pt PROVINCIALISMS. 

BLINDERS, or BLINDING-BRIDLE (the/ 

fhert) ; blinkers for draught horfes. 
BLIND MOUSE ; forex araneus, the fhrew moufe. 
BLUE -CAPS; Jcabicjajuccija\ meadow fcabious; 

devil's-bit. 
BLUFF ; chubby ; having a red, full, firm face j 

fpoken of a boy or girl. 
To BLUNDER ; to jumble, or difturb, fo as to 

foul ; as the water of a pool, or liquor which 

has depofited a fediment. 
BOGGLE j an inferior hobgoblin, or anything 

frightful ; hence to boggle, as a horfe. 
BOG VIOLET ; pnguiada vulgaris ; butterwort. 
BONNY ; pretty, handfome, beautiful. 
To BOOAC ; to reach, to keck. 
BOOK ; fize or bulk ; a word in common ufe. 
BOO v ; going p re fently ; as, " he is boon to market." 
BOORLY; lufty; grofs and large made, withibme 
. desreeofcomelinefs; as, aboorlymanorwoman. 
BOTCHET j fmafl-beer mead. 
$OTTRY; elder: a " bottry tree." 
BOWKERS ; an interjection, expreffive of a low 

degree of furprize. 
BR A KENS; pteris aquilina-, brakes; fern. 
BRAND NEW ; or Brandspander newj fire- 

new, — never ufed. 
BRANT; fteep; as a hill, or a road (the com- 
mon epithet). 
BRASS; halfpence. 

JBRASHY; fmall, rubbimly; as refute fuel. 
To BRAY ; to pound, or to break fmall ; as lime- 

ftones for the kiln, &c. 
BRECKENS. See Brakens. 
BREEA ; the brink or bank of a brook or river. 
BREEKIN ; the fork, or divifion of a tree ; 

and, figuratively, of the thighs. 
BR EERS ; brambles and briars. 
BRIDE-DOOR.; « to run for the bride-door," is 

to ftait for a favor, given by a bride, to be rua 

for. 



YORKSHIRE. 309 

for, by the youth of the neighbourhood j who 
wait at the church door until the marriage cere- 
mony be over, and from thence run to the 
bride's door. The prize a ribbon, which is 
worn, for the day, in the hat of the winner. If 
the diftance be great, as two or three miles, it is 
cuftomary to " ride for the bricle door." 

BRIDE-WAIN i a carriage loaded with houfhold 
furniture and utenfils, travelling from the bride's 
father's to the bridegroom's houfe. Formerly, 
great parade and ceremony were obferved on 
this occafion. The wains were drawn encirely 
by oxen, whofe horns and heads were ornament- 
ed with ribbons. Ten or perhaps twenty pair 
of oxen have, on great occafions, aflifte.i in 
drawing a bride-wain. A young woman at her 
fpinning-wheel is feated on the center of the load. 
In palling through towns and villages, the bride's 
friends and acquaintance throw up articles of fur- 
niture, until the "draught," be it ever fo'power- 
ful, is at lead feigned to be over-loaded i and at 
length is "fetfaftj" generally, however, by fome 
artifice, rather than the weight of the loading ; 
which, neverthelefs, has on fome occafions been 
fo confiderable, as to require feveral wains to 
carry it. 

BRIMMING i a fow, when fhe will take the boar, 
is faid to be a brimming ; and the boar is laid 
to brim her. 

BROCK ; cicada Jpumaria , the cuckowJp.it infect. 
il He fweats like a brock.'* 

To BROG ; to browze upon ; — >to crop j as cat- 
tle are wont to top underwood, 

BROO ; the forehead ; and hence the upper part 
of a hill, refembling the forehead. 

BROACH ; the fpire of a church. 

BUCK HEADING; cutting off live hedge-thorns, 
fence-height. 

X 3 BUCKLE- 



3 :o ?K VINCI ALIS M S 

BUCKLE-HORNS ; Cr.cr. z:zz\\ti '-.::-;, rurr.- 

BUFE 

BUFFET-TOOL 

BULLHEAD i the fiftj, asttus gtku, the miller s 

BULLS-FOREHEADS; .:;-- :r A /.: ; turfy 

BULLSPINA, ::.z z::~ ,/ : -.r-.'.'.z ex.::;, the chaf- 

To"bUM; t-Ej.r.i sii '• bumming nouV— Ae 

" burr.rAe ztt :" mi: :i, :.-. : bj.m T.ir.g :::. 
BUMMLE-3EE ; .:: :: ';" V "-'j '"• - "--"_.: 2 :C ; 

E-"M'MlE-:::iE£, :;.: :'.--: ::' '- - zznble i 

BUN, 1','tCK-':, ^: AAA"- C:t~. 

7: BUNCH ,':: A A:, v-AA. the toe : hcr.cf 

BUNCHCLOT; - :-;-::, :r. c=:...:r. .. i A:-A 

BURA)ENBAND , i he.-Dtn bsy-bir.::. 
BURKi bctwUM*-. the birch. 

B _ A- "I H.STLr. ; :iri„u: .i-.-.r.'.i:^: , fpei: 
: : . e 
. H ; me box ::" me r.ive cAa. carriisc: wheel. 
B-5X: : bum. 

BUTTER-LA/?; , .fd&rii, the bittern. 
E - »ER >.e_. ,;•::. ; :uli* ;:zi<r.: 9 ::t mm m:2 

C. 
T c C A D G E j : " 
T j CAKE j :: m:- A i: %tt't : g?e;e ire fAm *o 

cA:t ; ;.t-: :. : 
C ALL j : : : ::A n cr r^ceffiry ; as tt he had a : : iD 

CAN; 2 frr.A ~A:-n:. •.=.;:.-. i r.i.-.i.t ;.-. At AA 
7: CANKER; :: A : y 

CANKER; 
5*. <* 



YORKSHIRE. 311 

CANKER; ruft (in common ufe). 
CANKERED ; cruity ; as a cur, or an ill natured 

h'llband. 
CANTY ; brifk, lively, active j generally fpoken 

of an old perfon. 
CAPE? ; ears of corn, broken off, wholly or par- 
tially, in thrafhing; as well as, the grains to which 

the chaff adheres ; (the Norf. Colder) 
CAR} low marfhy ground; fen; contradiftinff. 

from " Ins:," as being pajlurcd. 
CARBERR'ES ; goofebcrries ; ribes grcjjularia\ 

properly frofsberries. 
CARLINGS ; fried peas, eaten the Sunday next 

but one before Eafter ; which is called M Carl- 

Sundav." 
CATSWE'RRIL; fciurus vulgaris, the fquirril. 
CAT-WHIN; rcfajpiirfiflima ; burnet rofe. 
To CAVE (vulgarly to keeav) ; to rake off or out 

of; as fhort draws and ears, from the corn-in- 

chaff, on a barn floor. Hence 
CAVING RAKE ; a barn-floor rake, with a fhort 

head and long teeth. 
CAUF ; calf. . 
CAUMERIL ; a butcher's gambrel, for fheep and 

pigs; (that ufed for cattle is called a " ftang") : 

" as cruked as a caumeril." 
CAZZONS ; the dung of cattle dried for fuel ; a 

common article of fuel in Holdernefs. 
CEILING; the wainfeotting of a room is called 

the " fealin ;" die ceiling, the " underdraw- 
ing." 
CHAFTS; the jaws. 

To CHAR ; to chide j as a child, or a dog. 
CHATS ; keys of the am, and maple; alfo the 

catkins of the hazle. 
To CHAWLEj to chew, imperfectly. Sec 

Chafts. 
CHEESE-CAKE-GRASS; Ictus cornlculatus ; 

bjrdsfoot trefoil. 

X 4 CHESLIP- 



3ia PROVINCIALISMS. 

CHESLIP-SKIN; the calf's bag, ufed in mak- 
ing " yearning." 
CHE VON j cyprinus cephalus j the chub. 
CHIMPINGS ; grits , rough-ground oatmeal. 
To CHIP j to trip ; as, " to chip up the heels j" or 

to " chip a fall ;" as in wreftling. 
To CHIP i to break the flicll, as chickens do 

previous to their exclufion j alfo to chop, as the 

lips. 
CHIZZIL j bran (the common term). 
CHOOPS ; heps ; the fruit of the rofe. 
CHUB ; a thick, clubbed piece of firewood. 
CHUBBY j fat, large-headed, full-faced ; as a, 

child or young perfon. 
.CHUB-HEADED i large or thick-headed ; fpo- 

ken of cattle or fheep : hence, probably, a name 

of the " Chevon." 
To C HUNTER j to talk about and repine at 

jfmall misfoi tunes i to exprefs difconterit about 

trifles. 
CICELY y chxrcphyllum Jylvefire 3 orchard weed i 

cowparfley. 
To CLAG i to cleave or cling. 
CLAGGY ; fticky ; as wet clay. 
To CLAME (v. ».) to daub, as wet foil with the 

harrows. 
To CLAME ; (v. a.) to fpread unctuous matter; 

as falve on a plaifter, butter on bread. 
To CLAPPERCLAW i to beat, or paw, with 
^ the open hand, 
CLARTYj clammy, as honey, &c. fpoken of a 

clayey foil when wet. 
CLA'VVER i trifolium repcns j clover. 
To CLAVVER s to clamber, as children. 
CLEANING j the fecundine of the cow, ewe, &c, 
CLEG ; tabannspluviatis ; the grey horfcfly. 
To CLICK ■, to lhatch haftily, or rudely. 
To CLIP r to fhear as fheep. 
CLIPPING y a fheep-ihearing* 

To 



YORKSHIRE. 313 

ToCLOAM, or CLAUM; to pull together 
■with the hap. is and with jthe fingers fpre.d. 

CLOCKS; Jcarabc-ci ; beetles of all kinds, 

CLOCK-SEAVE5 ; . : ■, black- 

headed bog- ifh. 

CLODDY j t.-,';:k, fliort, and full oflBefEj as a 
bullock of this defcription. 

CLOG ; a log ; a^> " a cl >g of wood." 

CLOG-SHOES ; wooden (hoes j or rather fnoes 
with wooden foils. 

CLOSE-TEAP; a mnlefheep, with both tefUcles 
within the barrel. See Hung tea?. 

To CLOW j to pull together, rpi ith the 

arms ; or to labor iri a vulgar, furious manner. 

CLUBS TER ; mufteia erminea ; the ftoat. 

To CLUNTER ; to make a rude noife, with ths 
feet, in walking. 

To COBBLE ; to {lone ; to throw ftones, dirt, cr 
fno'.v balls. 

COBBLES; pebbles; round flones found in the 
foil. Alfo the fmall boats of nfhermen. 

COBBLET.REES ; double fwingie-trees, whip- 
pin?, or fplinter-bars. 

COBBY i merry; cheerful. 

COD ; pod j peafe or bean b are well hung 

with pods, are faid to be well fi codded." 

COLLIER; bi "us, the black 1 wallow, or 

iwifc. 

COMMOTKER (perhaps c^moiber) y a god- 
• mother. 

CONNY; clever; neat; tidy ; agreeable. 

COOL ,or COWL ; a iwelling railed en the head, 
by a blow from a cudgel, or other hard weapon. 

COOP ; an ox carr, witl . body, and without 

" lhelvings," for carrying manure, ^cc. itill inufe. 

To COOR ; to crouch or iit upon t.:e haunches. 

COO^COT; ccii-.mi.i : , z:.- v.ood-pigeon. 

COPING (pronounce- r)j the covering of 

a ftone quarrv. 

«* COPPIN; 



3*4 ??- 3 V IN* CI A LIS MS. 

~ 3PP"W; one ridglet of a fwhi of yarn. 
CORNBIND; polygonum convolvulus ■ climbing 
jjock weed : alfo ccnvchulus arum/is ; corn con^ 

v - ]- J. JS. 

CIO c E [proooanced 4&oace)i an inebfure; ii 
c": '■ • "• -- ■•' ~.-.. .ch implies an opes 

commie □ " c 1 1 . 

To COTTER i to pntaagfei a^ thicad, or the 

COT fRFL i the Eg of an iron boh. 

COUSIV BETTY; a feaak : .angeling, rral or 

^untcrfc : who goes about the country, to ex- 

; is ihe dots to Dev3.-,fhire, under 
r ., • Bc _. lfBCi 

COVv'CLAGS ; bundles of dirt, hanging to the 
buttc cks of betde or fneep; or to the coats of 
gems. 

(SOWDYi pert; fafickfeme. 

T COWLj bo gather, rakej or fcrape together. 

gOWLPRESS; a lever. 

QO W Lr-R A KE ; a mud fcraper. 

COW-MIG; Lie drainage of a cowhoufe, or 
dunghiH. 

T^ COW ' ; to change ■, to fviao. 

CO".VS-AN~D-CALYE5 \ mrwfk m iVwh. cue-. 

COWSTRIPLJNGS; primula wis ■, c-owflips. 
COWTHERED fthe th foft as \n tkfje) ■, re- 

.-:: r m iifeaft or coldnefs. 

C C - T IE ; a fhort thick hair rope, v. ith a wooden 

and4fe eye formed in the other ; 

h:: fling the ■ i»d legs of a cow, while 

rail ahg. 

CRAB-HULUNQS] the reftduum in making 

vt ■ ioe. 
To CRACK; to brig; to fpeak highly of, or 
recommciK] ftroagrf: u the crack of the 
country.** 

pftAKE ' --5 '•'-- ;v i 2 crow of rook. 

CRAKE- 



YORKSHIRE* 315 

CRAKE-FEET; writes; orchifes. 
CSULKE-WEEDEEifcandexpeffa-venerisi fhep- 

herds needle. 
CRAMBLES ; large boughs of trees, off which 

the faggot wood has been cut. 
CRANKY; checked linen : " cranky apron ;" 

a checked linen apron. 
To C REE ; to feethe j to pre-boil, as rice, &c. 
CREEL ; a kind of bier, ultd for flaughtering and 

falving fheep upon. 
CROFT ; a iinall inclofure ; larger than a yard , 

but fmaller than a " close." 
CROOK (pronounced cruke) ; a hook ; as, a 

" yat-cruke ;*' a gate-hook. 
CROUCE; pleafed,fatisfied, happy, in good fpirits. 
To CROWDLE (diminutive of to crowd) ; to 

creep clofe together, as children round the fire, 

or chickens under the hen. 
To CRUNKLE ; to tumble or rumple, as linen 

or other cloaths. 
CUFF OF THE NECK; the loofe kin, on the 

neck of a dog, &c. by which he is ufually held. 
CUP-ROSE ; pap aver ; poppy : (an apt name). 
CUSHIA (the u long); heradeum Jphondylium j 

cowparfnep. 

D. 

To DAFFLE ; to confufe, or render ftupid : it is 
alfo ufed in the neuter fenfe ; " he daffies," he 
wanders, or falters in his fpeech or converfacion. 
Hence, 

DAFT ; ftupid, inapt j oppofed to quick and 
fenfible. 

To DAG ; to fprinkle with water ; as linen, &c. 

DAITLE (thzt'is day-tale); by the day; as " daitle- 
man," a day labourer; " daitle-work, work done 
by the day. 

To DANDER ; to caper; perhaps the diminu- 
tive of to dance. 

DAP; 



316 PROVINCIALISMS. 

DAP j fledge, fully feathered ; as young birds in 

the neft. 
To DARK; toliften. 

DARKENING; dwik; the cionngin of the day, 
DAU; doughy, underbaked. 
To DAUL; tt 

worn out with fatigue or rcpe- 
tition. 
fuD-hA; to dp; as, " vrtnnot ye dea*c r" will 

you no; do i: : 
DEAF ; Rafted, or barren ; as a deaf ear of corn; 

or a deaf nut; namelv, a nut without a kernej. 
DEA-NETTLE; golcc.fi s u<r chit \ wild hemp. 
DEEAZ'D ; killed or much injured, by col J, or a 
want of due warmth ; as vegetables which are 
froft-nipped .; or chickens that die in the fhelL, 
hen's abfence. 
jN ' PIN D ; d 3ii as : " v.*htnt deed ;" great to-do. 
DEFT i n c a l ; p re 1 1 y ; h a i id fo me . 
To DELVE : to dint or bruife.j as a pewter or a 
tin vefiel. 

fof hay) ; a cut of hay. 
DESSABLY; orderly. 
To'DESS UP ; to pile up neariw 
To DIG ; to break up the ground, with a hack, 
mattock, or other tool, which reauires a ftroke 
in ufmg it. See To Grave. 
DIKE ; a ditch ; alio a puddle, or fmall pool of 

water is a dike, or " water-dike." 
To DILL : to foothe, blunt, or filenoe pain or 
found. 

DINPLE ; to experience a fort of tremiilous 

fenfation, after a blow, or after the circulation has 

been checked, by cold, or by what is termed 

-p y in the extremities. Perhaps it is diminu- 

of 

To DITHER (the i ficrt, as in wither) s tc 

-r with cold 

To 



YORKSHIRE. 317 

To DOCK ; to trim the buttocks, Sec. of fheep. 
DOC KEN j rm ick. 

DOGFIXKIL ; ri. 

DONNOT (that is, . racking j 

bad : an epithet to the de 

To DOOK; to duck or . water; alio 

to bow down 1 :'.y. 

DOORY, orDEERY; very lit hinufivej 

" a g«" 

DORDUM ; a loud, confufed, riotous noife. 

DOR MAX t floor. 

To DOW ; to thrive or be oferul; as, "he 
for nought," he is good for nothing : (C he nei- 
ther dees nor dows," he ne : .. . nor men 

DOWLED 1 
has I ead. 

DOW LEY; fickly, pale; 

DOWNDINXER j arterno icon. 

DOW? ; corvus cori t\ the .rioacr. \ 

To DOVE ■, to doze: " 

DOZZAND ; fhri veiled ; not plump and fair. 

DRAF1 -e:s graL 

DRAPE (vulga ; a barren cow. 

DR AUGHT ; a team, either of oxen or hories. 

DREE; tedious j unexpecl 

To DRESS (pron. drifs) -, to clean, as : 

r or or the t^bie ; alia . rom refufe, as 

com or flour. 
To DRITE j to drawl in fpeaking. 
DROKE (pronounced drcsac ) ; loll 

darnel. 
DR YSHOD j oppofed to wetshod. 
DUBBLER ; a dilh or platter for the table. 
DUDS; cloathsj apparel. 
DUMP ; a deep hole of water ; feigned generally 

to be bottomlefs. 
DUXDER-KXOLLj a blockhead. 

To 



p9 PROVINCIALISMS. 

To DUZ , to beat out, as over-ripe corn at 

harveft. 
DWINED ; ihrivelled, as corn. 

E. 
EASED ; dirtied ; as by walking in a dirty road* 
EASINS ; eaves of a houfe. 
EE i the eye. 
£EN j eyes. 
EENi evej (probably a contraction of even), as 

" Kefmas een," " Cannlemas een," " Faftnefs 

een," « Eafter een," " Whiffen een.' ; 
EERANj errand. 
ELLER ; beiula alnus , alder. 
ELSIN ; an awl. 

ENTRY i an entrance, or fmall hall. 
ESH ; fraxinus , the am : probably the Saxon 

pronunciation. 
EWER. See Yewer. 
EY (the e ihort and the y articulate) ; yes, aye ; 

the affirmative anfwer, to that which is aicer- 

tained. See Wvah and Weyey. 

F. 

FAANTICKLES ; freckles on the face. 

To FAFF ; to blow in puffs. 

To FAFFLE ; to play as a loofe garment in the 

wind. 
FALLOW j ground laid down to reft, without 

fowing grafs feeds (as formerly practifed). See 

Fauf. 
FALLOW HAY ; hay grown upon a fallow, or 

natural new ley. 
To FALTER ; to thrafh barley, in the chaff, in 

order to break off the awns. 
To FASH; to teaze, and vex by importunity. 
FASTNESSEEN (perhaps a corruption of Fafl- 

majs even) ; Shrove Tuefday j the eve of Lent. 
FAT-HEN j chenopodium ; goofefoot. 

FAUD; 



YORKSHIRE. 



;*9 



FAUD ; a trafs of fhort ftraw, containing as much 

as the arms can well " faudi" that is, fold. 
FAUFj a fallow, or ground repeatedly tilled, 

without an intervening crop. See To Felly. 
To FEAL ; to hide, in the general feflfe. 
To FEED (tr. a.) -, to fat cattle or (beep. " I 

mean to feed her/' I intend to fat her. 
To FELLY , to break up a fallow. 
FEND (vulg. Fzynd) i activity, management, 

afiiduity, prowefs. 
To FEND ; to ftrive, as for a livelihood. 
To FEY j to winnow with the natural wind. 
To FEZZON ON ; to feize fiercely; as the bull- 

dog faftens on the baited bull. 
To FICK ; to ftruggle or fight with the legs j as 

a cow in the " tie j 1 or a child in the cradle. 
FIRE-EYLDING ; fuel. 
FITCHES j vicia ; vetches. 
To FITTLE ; to prepare, adjuft, or make ready. 
FIXFAX ; the finews of the neck of cattle and 

fheep. 
To FLACK ; to flicker as a bird ; to throb as a 

wound. 
FLAGS ; flakes of fnow are called " fnaw flags." 
To FLAN ; to fpread wide ; as the fides of a bowl 

or fcuttle j oppofite to upright. 
To FLAY ; to frighten, in the general fenfe. 
FLA YCRAKE ; a fcare crow. 
FLEAKS ; wattles ; hurdles woven with twigs. 
FLECKED ; pied, as catde. 
FLIG i fledge ; able to fiy. 
FLIPE (of a hat) ; the brim. 
1 o FLIT ; to move, or remove, as tenants at 

quarter-day. 
To FLOWTER-, to flurry ; to confufe, with a 

degree of fear. 
FOALFOOT; tuffilagofarfar*! col-foot. 

FOG; 



320 PROVINCIALISMS. 

i 

FOG ; aftergrafs (hence perhaps foggy, as applied 
to a horfe). 

FOIST; muftv. 

FOLD GARTH (vulg. faudgartb) ; farm yard. 

FOND ; weak, filly, faolifh, idiotic. 

FOND-PLUFE : It was formerly a cuftom, which 
is not I believe yet laid afide, for the youth of 
each pariifc or townfhip to drag a plow from 
village to village, on Epiphany, or " Twelfth- 
day •" collecting money, to make merry with 
in the evening. Each party is headed by 
" Mab and his wife ;" two young men in dil- 
guife, with their faces blacked, and a kind of 
Harlequinean drefs. I have met with no fatis- 
factory account of the origin, of thk cuftom. 

FORE-ELDERS: progenitor,. 

FOSS ; (perhaps a contraction of Force) ; a 
waterfall. 

FOUL-MART (prdiLfomert) ; mjidu puUrims, 
the polecat. . 

FOWT ; a fool. 

To FOOAZ ; to level, with a pair of fnears, the 
top of a fleece of wool. 

FOX-FIXG-iRS ; digitalis purpurea, the fox- 
glove. 

To FRAG ; to cram, to fill inordinately ; as the 
pockets, or as a cow's ucider is iometimes 
tilled. 

FREBBY •, in proportion to, or comparifen with. 
" 1 his ii good, frebby the..'*' 

FREM ; nical, not intimate or friei 

To FRIDGE ; to chafe ; to frici i to wear or in- 
jure by friction. 

FUDGEN : low, fquat and inactive ; oppofed to 
P.ENKY : fpoken chiefly of young people. 

FRUGGAN ; an oven poker : alio a dirty Hovenly 
v.cnian. 



GAALFAT, 



Yorkshire. 32* 

G. 

GAALFATj or Guilefat; the vat In which 
new ale is fet to ferment -, alfo the liquor fer- 
menting. 

GAD •, — a fupple, tapering rod, fix or feven feet 
long, with a leathern thong, about three feet 
long, fattened to the weaker end, — is called a 
gad ; with which the team of oxen and horfes 
united are, or rather were, univcrfally driven : 
a fifhing rod is, in like manner, called a " fifhing 
gad." t . 

GAIN ; fhort, near ; as, the Cf gaineft way." 

GAINERHAND ; nearer, more convenient. 

GAINHAND ; near. 

GAIRN ; yarn. 

GAIT (vulg. geeai) ; ftreet •, as weft gait, caftle 
gait *, the town gait, the gait door. 

GAIT (vulg. geeat) ; a way ; as " fkilling gait," 
" goflip gait i" the names of by-ways, acrofs 
common fields ; alfo " git a gait"— go thy way. 

GAIT (pron. geeat) ; a going place ; as a " cow 
gait ;" the going of a cow in a fummer pafture. 

GAIT (pronounced gate) ; a fingle fheaf of 
corn, bound near the top, and fet upon its 
buts +. 

GALL AC-HANDED (Q^gaelic, or gaulic, or 
gallic: handed ?) left handed. 

GALLOWAY ; the common name of a poney, 
or under-fized faddle-horfe. 

GAMA'SHERS j fhort fpatterdalhes, worn by 
plowmen. 

To GAMMER ; to idle. 

* In towns which never were inclofed by a wall ; confe* 
quently never had any gates. The interior itreets of York, 
and perhaps of all old towns in the county, are called gaits ; 
improperly gates. 

f See Vol. I. page 355. Note. 

- Vol. II. Y GAMMER- 



3=2 PROVINCIALISM S. 

[ERSTAGS; an idle loofe girl. See 

5 TAG. 

To GANG •, to go. 

CANT- : a let ; as u a gang of calves-feet." 

GANTRY; abecrftand; a frame for placin^ 

; 
To GAR j to make, or oblige by force ; as, " I'll 

i do it." ^. 

GARFIT5 i _f. 
GARSIL; r thorns, or other brufhwood, 

GARTH : a yard, or fmali iocl ar a houfe. 

ToGAUV; to ftare ab :. . \nly. 
GAUVISON; an'oafifh. filly fellow. 

GAY : -able •, middling; ordinary : {t a gay 

J' — a tolerable Gze or bulk. 
GEEAVLAC (perhaps gas ; a large iron 

crov [les. fee. 

QEEAVLE | JJe dialect ^f/t?) ; the 

i. of a roof. 
GL I - . ght horfes (the common 

To GL s in get) ; to fnarl as a 

rd h'jfband. 
GEWQAW ficulate) ; a Jew's harp. 

GIL ; . - .- ..-.:; i gild) ; a hook : a Gibby 
stih .- :-GiB,anurtinghook. 

GILDER- : . . fts for catching 

in .. - 
GIL] valley ; generally a 

a v. jntainous couat 
and containing more or 

GEL 

_ : LIS vi; . 
GI3 .a female young fheep ; 

—a e lamb — " g 
hog'' — a ... . .: : : ::":he firft jr< 

GLEAD, 



Yorkshire. 323 

GLEAD j falco mihus, the kite. 

A GLIFT ; a glimpfe. 

To GLOOAR •, to (tare with a fixt countenance, 

rudely or frightfully. 
GLOR-FAT Tvery fit : Q^from Glor, loofe fat ? 
GLUT ; a large wooden wedge. 
GOB ; a vulgar name for the mouth : hence gob- 
stick, a wooden fpoon. f . 
GODSPENNY3 earned money, given on hiring 

a fervant. 
GODSI^ARLD ; God forbid ! 
GOLDSPINK ; emberiza ciirinsila ; the bird, 

yellowhammer. 
GOO AC (mid. dial, gauk) s the core of a hay- 

(lack, Or of an apple. 
GOODS ., liveftock. 
GOSSIP ; a godfather. 
GOTHERLY; affable, fociable, pleafed with 

each other. 
GO WLANS ; the yellow flowers of the ranunculus 

tribe. 
GOWPIN i as much as the two hands can hold. 
GRAIN ; a branch ; as, a bough of a tree, or a 

branch of a dale ; alfo the tine of a fork. 
GRAITH; riches. 
To GRAITHE ; to make fit; to prepare; to 

furnifh with things fuitable. 
To GRAVE (vulg. greeav) ; to dig or break up 

the ground, with ajpade. See To Dig. 
GREASE ; rancid butter, of the loweft degree. 

See Vol. II. p. 203. 
GREEN LINNET (in contradiftindion to the grey 

linnet, or linnet) ; kxia Moris ; the greenfinch. 
To GREET ; to weep ; to cry as a child, or a 

perfon in grief. 
GRIFF ; a narrow valley, with a rocky fiifure- 

like chafm at the bottom : a dingle. 
To GRIME ; to fully with foot or coals } in com- 
mon ule. 

Y 2 GRIP i 



324 PROVINCIALISMS, 

GRIP •, a trench, or fmall dirch. 
GRIPE; a dung-fork. 

GKIZELY (vulg. graazhf) \ ugly in the extreme. 
To GR.OZE-, to lave or lay up •, hence 
GROZER; one who keeps money or other 
valuables long by him. Oppofed to a fpendthrift. 

H. 

HACK •, half a mattock ; a mattock without the 
axe end : a tool much in uie. 

HAG; a coppice ; originally, perhaps,- thewood- 
land fet apart, by the lord of the foil, for fuel 
for his tenants ; many woods yet retain the 
name of Hags, and one wood, in Sinnington, that 
of " pocr folks bags." In the highlands of 
Scotland, the word is ftill ufed in a fimilar fenfe. 

HAGSNA'RE ; a ftool or flub, ofr which coppice 
wood has been cut. 

HA'GWORM ; the only name in ufe for 
coluber berus, the adder ; which delights in a 
coppicewood, when recently cut: it grows, 
here, to a large fize, and is extremely venomous. 

HAIROUGH ; galhtm aperitie ; cleavers. 

HANDCLOUT (that is, hand cloth) ; a towel. 

HANK ; a with, or rope, for fattening a ga:= ; 
alfo a fkein of y 

To HAP ; to cover ; as the ktd wkh foil, or the 
body with cloaths. 

A HAR •, a £rong frg, or fmall drizzling rain. 

HARLED ; mottled •, as catde. 

HASK; deficient in moifture ; lpoken more par- 
ticularly of food, as bread. 

HAUF; half. 

HAVVER ; oats. 

HAY-SPADE ; a (harp, heart-fhaped fpade, uni- 
verialiy ufed for cutting hay with. 

HEAF ; the haunt, walk, or habitual pafture of 
lheeD, on a common, or wide heath. 

HEAP; 






YORKSHIRE. 325 

HEAP ; a pottle, a quartern, a quarter of a peck. 
To HEAZ ; to cough or hawk ; as cattle when 

they clear the windpipe, or force up phlegm, 
HEBBLE j the rail of a wooden budge. 
HECK ; a rack ; as a " hay-heck •" a horfe- 

rack ; alfo the innner or entry-door of a cottage j 

formerly, in all probability, made in the form 

of a heck. 
HECKLE •, the fkx-dreffer's tool. 
HECKLER •, a flax-drefier. 
HEDGING MITTENS ; hedging gloves. 
HEEAH; here — take it. 

HEEAL; whole (probably the old Britifh word). 
HELM ; a hovel •, or an open {hed for cattle ; 

fometimes covered with faggots, and frequently 

with a ftack of beans, or other corn. 
HERRINSEW ; ardea cineree, the heron. 
HEV j have. 
HE'YGOMAD; wild riotous tumult ; — "they 

played heygomad." 
HEYNBAUKS j hen roofr. 
HEYNCAUL ; a chicken coop. 
HEYNPENNY ; rhinanthus crifta-galli ; yellow 

rattle. 
HEZ; has f 

H1NE (pron. haan) \ a farm bailiff, or head-man. 
To HIPE ; to ftrike with the horn (Doss — Norf.) 
To HIP j to fkip, or mifs, in reading. 
HIPPLES j cocklets, or lmall bundles of hay, fet 

up to dry. Vol. II. p. 135. 
To HITCH; to hop, on one leg. 
HOB ; the fhoe, or foal, of a fledge, 
HOFF; the hough, hock, gambrel, or hind 

knee of cattle : hence 
To HOFFLE j to walk badly ; net firmly j to 

knock the hofFs together. 
HOG ; a fheep of a year old j a hoggard. 
HOG PIGS •, caftrates ■, barrow pigs, 

Y 3 HOLL 



326 PROVINCIALISM S. 

HOLL (pronounced howl) -, hollow ; as, a " hoik 
v/ay," a hollow-way : cattle when empty of 
meat are laid to be li holl." 

HOLL j a deep narrow vailev is frequently termed 
a«holl." 

HOLLIN j liex, the holly. 

HOLM (pron. bazi-m) -, a frelli-water ifland j a 
piece or" land furrounded by a divaricating river 
or brook : hence the names of places, as Keld- 
helm, Norib-hdrn. 

HONEY ; a common word of endearment. 

The HOOD ; the back of the fire. 

To HQPPLE ■, to letter, by tying the forelegs 
loofelv together. 

HORSAfvllmd HUNGIL-MONEY ; a fmalj 
tax whi( ill paid (though the intention of it 

has long fir.ee ceafed) by the townfhips on the 
north fide of the Vale, and within the lathe or 
weapontake of Pickering, for horfemen and 
hounds, kept for the purpofe of driving oft the 
deer of the re reft of Pickering, from the corn- 
fields which bordered upon it. When that field 
cf a given tovvnfhip which lay next the fore ft 
was fallow, no tax was due from it, that year : 
and though this foreft has long been thrown 
open, or difafforefted, and the common fields 
now incloied, the " fauf-year " (calculating 
every third year) is ftiil exempt from this />;;= 
pfiticn: ' j 

HORiEKNOBS ; centaur e& nigra \ knobweed ; 
knapweed. 

HOST-HOUSE (pron. wcjtrkcufc) ; a farmer's 
\nn at market. 

HOTCH , job, or bufmefs : " thou's meead a bafe 
hotch on't." 

To HOTTER ? to make, as a carriage on a 
rous;h uonev road. 

HOTTER Y i rough, as a road, 

To 



YORKSHIRE. 327 

To HOVER 5 to ib.v ; to wait for : cc Wfll you 
hover nil I come :" 

The HOUSE ; the fitting room, or fore kitchen. 

HOW ; a round hillock ; perhaps fom 
natural knoll ; but j 
The Moreland (Wells abound 

HOWSA'YE i an : n, conveying a de- 

gree of ex ing has been in 

doubt; as " I have dorrc it, 

To HOWZE ; to lade, as y.ater. 

HOYT ; a a fool. 

HUBBLESHEW; a hubbub, a tumultuous af- 

HUFFIL; a ringer-bag. 
HUFIL (the o long 

wc _r. 

To HUG ; to c. roos load. 

The HUKE ; the hUtkle, or hip. 
HULLT (: .g) ; ftrix : the owl. 

HUMBLED ; horrdefs -, fpoken of cattle and 

fheep. 
HUXG-TEAP; a male fheep, or ram. See 

Closz-tzap. 
EIURX ; the vacancy between the fides cf a 

wide cottage : >.-, and the roof of the 

houfe. 
To HURPLE i to ftkk up the back, as c 

^er a hedge, in cold weather, 
HYVIX ; r: 

j- 

To JAUP (:•. n ) -, to make a noife like liquor 

a clofe veflel, 
To JAUP {v.a.) ; to jumble; as the fediment 

t .t clear of bottled 
TEWDICOW; atfcineUa l-pm :he lady- 

bud. 

Y ± ^YEL i 



328 PROVINCIALISMS. 

JEWEL j the ftarling or treftle of a wooden bridge, 
ILK ; each ; every j as, " ilk other houfe." - 
ILL-TURN ; mifchief, harm, or misfortune : a 

word in much ufe. 
IMP ; an eke placed under a bee hive. 
The IN-EAR, or NEAR ; the kidney. 
ING j meadow s low mowing ground. See Car. 
INMEATS ; the pluck, or edible parts, of the 

vifcera of animals. 
INOO i prefently (perhaps a contraction of even 

now). 
JUST NOO (that h,ji'.Jl new) ; immediately, inr 

ftantly. 

K. 

To KEAK ; to lift behind, as a vicious horfe. 

To KEDGE ; to gluttonize, 

KEEAL, or kale ; broth ; pottage. 

KEEAL POT ; porridge pot. 

KEEANS ; fcum, or mother^ of ale, &c. 

KELD (vulg. keyld) ; a fpring; or perhaps a ge- 
neral name for a river or brook which rifes 
abruptly : hence the names of places ; as, keld-* 
bead, the head of the river Cofta ; keldbolm, 
near the efflux of the Dove ; bdl-keU-t>ead s 
the head of an emergent brook, near Kirby- 
moorfide. 

KELK ; a thump ; a home blow ; or a dead 
fall ; whetiher by accident, or by wreilling. See 

SOiS. 

KELTER ; Hate, condition ; fpoken of cattle, 

and ludicroufiy of men. 
KELTER ; condition. " He is in good kclter," 

he is in good cafe. 
To KEN (vulg. to keyn) ; to know : a word in 

common ufe. " Do you ken him ?" Do you 

know him. 

KENSB ACK i 



YORKSHIRE. 329 

KENSBACK ; a thing known by fome linking 

mark is laid to be a keafback. 
To KEP ; to catch ; as a ball, or as ra 

from the eaves cf a hoi. 
KERN ; cl\v.:n (probab th). 

KET ; carrion ; and hence a word of reproach*. 
KIDS ; faegots. 
KIE ; cows; the plural of cc c; 
KIM LIN ; a large dough tub. 
KIN ; a chop in the hand, ccc. 
KIND ; friendly, intimate. " They are as kaand 

as brothers. 
KINK ; a fit, or paroxifm ; as, a "kink of la-. 

ter," a violent fit of laughter : hence 
KINK-COUGH ; the hooping cough. 
KIPPER-, nimble. 
KIRK ; church ; ftill pretty common in the vul~ 

gar dialect. 
KIST; chefl. 

KITE ; a vulgar name for the belly. 
KITLING ; kitten, or young cat ; Catling. 
KITTLE ; tickliih ; fenf.ble to the fiighteil touch; 

actuated by the moft frivolous motive ; unliable; 

tottering. 
To KNACK ; to attempt to fpeak the eflablifhed 

language ; or to fpeak it arrectcdly. 
To KNARL ; to knaw. 
KNOLL ; the top, or uppermoil fwell, cf a hill 

is called the knoll of t^t hiii. 

L. 

LAATLE ; little. 

To LABBER j to dabble in water. 

LAFTER ; the whole of the eggs, laid between 

two fcparate broodings, of the hen or goofe. 
To LA IK ; to play, as children ; or at cards, cr 
. other game. 

LAIROCK i 



;: PROVINCIALISM 

[ROCK irk, 

X LAI - to feck >neral i 

LA] -KLE boha, 

: of a maid fervant. 
LAI 

expreffi : Tie little fur- 

pri; 

THREE ] [ I-AVAR' : 

LI.-. 
LEA 

E AD j :o cany on a wag- 

g :;:.. ay. See West of Eng- 

.-. : milk leads, 

£S. 

: bafket ; a chaff bafket. 
To 1 :E ; to relax ; as a cow when near 

ir » 

le, limber, 
Die ; as a fan r an 

;_3LD; 

. 1 1 . out, or feparate, by 

i ; as <f .." from 

: :. preview.// to Its :: 

more water, as in brew- 

"J >I - \des; 

th coun- 
' - zr. 
U 

.... : of the fpinning- 

to fret nuts from their 

; ; a word of indifference. 

«< A 'ad 



YORKSHIRE. 



33* 



vf Aa'd as leeve gang as flay ;" I would as foo* 

go as ftay. A word in common ufe. 
LEER ; a barn (growing into difufe). 
LEYLANDS ; lands in a common field, laid 

down to grafs ; oppofed to plowiands, or fuch 

as are kept under tillage. 
To LIB ; to geld male lambs and calves (horfcs 

and pigs are " gelded"). 
To LIE LEY ; to lie in grafs ; as lands in a com- 
mon field. See Leylands. 
To LIG ; to lie v along. "They lig together," 

they fleep together. 
To LIGHT ; to reft, depend, or rely. " It is not 

to light on ;" it is not to be depended upon ; it 

is not fafe to fettle or reft on. 
LIN ; tilia europaa^ the lime or linden tree. 
LING ; erica ; the common name for heath. 
LINTON ; the main beam of a wide cottage 

chimney. 
LISK ; the flank of a borfe. 
To LITE : to wait ; as, " Will you lite o* ma' V 

Will you wait for me ? 
LOADSADDLE ; a wooden packfaddle. 
LOBSTROUS LOUSE; cnijcus afellus, the 

wood loufe. 
LOGGIN ; a trufs of long ftraw. 
LOOAN, or LOOANiN ; a lane. 
To LOOK ; to weed ; or rather to difweed ; as 

corn, or young woods. 
LOOP; the thimble of a gate or door. "Loops 

and crukes ;" hooks and thimbles : alfo a ditch 

in knitting. 
LCP ; -pulex irritansy the flea. 
A LOW ; a flame, or blaze ; as the low of a 

candle. 
LOWCE (that is, Icofe) ; freed from fervitude. 
LOW ND ; loo, ftillj calm, under fhelter ; oppofed 

to windy. 

To 



2p PRO VIN CI ALI SMS. 

To LOWP • to leap. 

LUG ; a handle or ear of a jug, &c. alfo, ludi- 
crc\.fly, the ear itfeif. 

LUND ; a name of ilinted common paftures, in 
the Vaie of York ; and of one or more in the 
Yale of Pickering. J^. Analogous with Ham ? 
See Gloczstershirej alio. West of Eng- 
land. 

M. 

MACK •, fort ; fpecies ; as, what mack of corn, 
or flock. 

MAINSWEAR* to fv.ear falfely ; to com- 
mit perjury. 
MAIZ ; a kind cf large light hay bafket. 
MANG ; a mafh of bran, malt, £cc. 
MAR; a mere, or imall lake. 
MARK-EEN ; the eve of St. Mark, when the 
apparitions of thofe, who fhall die in the enfuing 
year, are feen to walk to the church where they 
mail be buried : certain perfons " watching the 
kirk" to know the fate of their fellow parifhion- 
ers. If the watcher go to fieep, at the critical 
ment (the ftroke of twelve), he himielf is 
:med to die, within the year. Thefe things 
are, or lately were, ftedfaicly believed. 
RROWS ; fellows i fpoken of oxen, Sec. &zc. 
MASHELSONi a mixture of wheat and ryej 
Qih. 
lUF ; a brother-in-law. 
MAUKSj maggots. 
MAUL; a beetle; as, a "clodding maul;" a 

■ 
MAULS ; ma'rj*, mallows. 

LJM; mciivjw, attended with a degree of dry- 
nel 

D : - ... 

• , To 



YORKSHIRE. 

To MAUNDER, Co tali grumbli 

5t manner - t as a changeling, or as a ;'.. 

fervant : to mu::er. 
\DOW ; any ground fhut irp to be mown ; 

in contradiftinction to pafture. 
MEALS ; mold : earth ; foil. 
MEANS ; propc 
MEEA; the plural of more; analog: 

enow ; as, " m 
MEEAL1N (mid. dial. 'in) ; an oven broom. 
MRU, (vulg. msyl) ■, a malle:. 
MELL-SUPPER, or MEYL-SUPPER ; a 

lupper given to farm work-people, at the : 

of harveft ; a harveft-home. 
MENNOT ; ciprinus pboxinus, the n 
MENSE ; manners ; creditablenefs. 
MENSEFULj mannerly, decent, neat. 
MERCURY; arfenic. 
MET; twobufhels. 
MET POKE ; a narrow corn bag, to co: 

buihels. 
MEW ; a mow of corn or hay. 
MICKLE (vulg. tong.) ; much : {c Is there mic- 

kle ti' dea r" Is there much to do r 
MIDDEN; adunghilL 
MIDGE ; cu - final! e 

MILNER ; miller. 

To MINT ; to make a feint ; to aim without in- 
tending to hit; alfo to hintj difta itly, at i'omc- 

thing defiren 1 . 
MISTEACHED (pron. ) ; fpoile; 

proper treatment ; vicious, as a hoj 
MITCH (mid. dial); much. 
MITTENS j gloves with only one hi? f 

fingers. 
MOQR-PAWMS ; (that is, M 
.Mowers of er'iTpboruMi the cotton rufli ; 

whicii the heath-ftieep, in die fc^ng, ftray a 

from 



3 ? 4 PROVINCIALISMS. 

from their accuftomed " heafs :" — returning to 

them, when thek Sowers go off". 
MOOTER j toil taken at" a mill for 

corn. 
To MOOT-OUT •, to break out into hole: 

old clothes. 
MORTAR ; loamy foil, beaten up wit 

merly uied in building ordinary wafc ; ^coiftra- 

diilinction to u lime," — " lime-and-fand," or 

cement. 
! lOLD (pron. to mowd) ; to :': mole- 

hii- 
MOWDHILL •, molehill. 
I : : WD1WARP i talpa ear noie* 

DY; mi Ifo demure (perhaps 

MOZE ; lake c . . mof: 

and other a : 
MUCK; dung, mat 
To MUCK, or to MUCK-OU 

ftalls oi £v > 

MUCK1 I 5 togL 

MUD SHEEP; fceej : >e Teef 

breed. 
MUFFS ; mitt?. 
MUN •, muft : « A 
MUNNOT, c 

g ;** Th l 

To MURL (v. a.) • to cru . .. 

FF ; nave of a wheel. 
NAF*HIiaD •, blc : a 

:c a « naj 
To NAFFLE5 to trifle; tc -.: in a • 

ner. 
NANTPTEj a -. the r 

NAPPERY VVARE'i crockery wa 

china, &c. 

NkT 5 



YORKSHIRE. 235 

NAT ; a ftrav 6. 

NATTLES ; glands, or kernels, in the fat of 
beef, cr ether butchers ir.e::, 

XE\F: the fill. 

NEAFFUL; handful. 

NEB ; the beak of a bird. 

NEEAH ; no, to a negative queftlon allied : u is 
he not come ?" "neeah." Anal 
affirmation h. 

NEESTj next: neare::. 

ToXTEZEn to fheeze (the ancient pronuncia- 
tion). 

To NESSLE, or Nestle ; to fidget i | 
as unfledged neftlings! 

NIFFY NAFFY ; trifling. See To SafA 

NITHERED ; (the ijheri as in ) . pcrilh- 

ing with cold. 

NOW T FOOT OIL; an torn the 

feet of cattle. 

NOWT-HERD ; 3 er of cat- 

tle ; newt-herd. (T A 
here 

•> */ O. 

OLD-FARRAXD (v frond); old-fa- 

fhicned 

bac ' :h. 

OLD MILK : r l::m milk. ^ ■ 

OX3 uied for as, <: nowthef on 'em ul tevl 

. ;" neiti ' me. 

ON -STAND .. .- :..: : - -q 

die incoming tenant. rner 

has rightfully 

farm. 
ORLING ; a ftinted 

yoi .;. 

OSKINj an px-gang ; a qui r (hare of 

com :ld laafi, proj haps, to 

the 



PROVINCIALISE 



5J 



die f:ze of the fields, and the number of me 

the given townfhip, at the time the fields 
• ere fet out, or apportioned among the houfes. 
To O VERGE'! (pronounced ewer git} ■, to over- 
ad. 
ERGA1T ; ftile place, or imperfect gap, in 
edge j alfo a < place, acrofs a 

bn 

: OX. 

O x .VCI tn. 

• :- 

L*B :: difl ::lt to define); a 

fhe ckj in a hollow, 

P. 

PAC DAI .mafj 

- anging ferv.- 
j 

is) ; the male catkins 

ic fallov. rn in 

.:) on Palm Sunday. 

.ade, on : t ay 3 o: the 

s 

To Pi - N . : a learner : c: He 

pan 
PANE u*. 

i 3 le. 

-BUI seating; den- 

- 

PARZ - - I ration; curfe 

ontr.ee. (Q^- .on thee?) 

" ; arch j 

.s fheep.' 
j i a kind of merrymak- 
. :tar, green field 
".: ..... ... 

* To 



YORKSH IRE. 337 

To PET ; to indulge ; to fpoil by over-indul- 
gence. 
PET ; a child fpoilr by improper indulgence. 
PET LAMB ; a Iamb reared by hand ; a cade lamb. 
To PICK ■, to pufh, or fhove, with the arms or 

body : " He picked me down." 
To PICK UP , to vomit. 
PICKS; the fliit of diamonds, in cards. 
PIE ; a receptacle for rape feed. See Vol. II. p. 38. 
To PIE ; to pry ; to peep^ flyly and watchfully ; 

perhaps as the mr.gpie. 
PIG GIN j a fmall wooden drinking veffel ; now 

diluted. 
PIGLEAVES; carduus pratenfis \ meadow thiflle. 
PIKE; a ftacklet, or loadcock, of hay. See 

Vol. II. p. 134. 
A PILE of GRASS; a blade of grafs. 
PISSIBEDS j the only name for leontodon tarax~ 

acum ; dandelion. 
PLANE-TREE; acer pfeudo platanus 3 fycamore, 
PLOOK; a pimple. 
To PLUE ; to plow. 
PLUFE ; a plow. 
PODDISH; broth; pottage. 
POO AC ; a narrow corn bag. 
POPPLE ; agrcfiemma githago ; cockle. 
POST-AND-PAN. Old half-timber buildings 

are faid to be poft-and-pan. 
POT-KELPS ; the loofe bow or handle of a por- 
ridge pot. 
PREACE ; eftimation : fuch a perfon or thing is 

in " great prcace," or highly valued. 
PRICKER ; a brad awl. 
PRICK Y URCHIN i erinaceus europaus*, the 

hedge hog. 
PROD ; a fhort fpike : hence 
PROD ; a goad for driving oxen. See Gad. 
To PROD ; to poke, or prick, with a prod. 
Vol. II. Z To 



338 P R O V I N C 1 A L I 5 M 3. 

To PROP DEE i to poke out, or feel for, or fetch 
out, with a long V :k or other inftrument. 

PROOD T MLIER (provincial of Proud Tay- 
lor) ; the ordinary name of firingUia carduahs; 
the goldfinch. 

PL BBLE ; plump, full-bodied, as corn. 

PULL rnaffof rape, and other pulfc. 

PULSEYj a poultice. 

PURE :le, agreeable -, as "pure warm," 

" : EC. 

PURELY -I:'-.; — cc How 

do you do r" — u Purely, thank you 

PURL ; the pit of a fpinning wheel, on which 

To PUZZOMj topoifon. 

QUEER; the choii of a church. 
QUICKS; mrepaui couch-grafs. See 

Whicks, 

R. 

To RAIT ; :•: - :: v-re::: 

tv.zzr.r.Z ir.tr:. :z:.i: : tr. Hay is 

I to be raited, when it has iieen r ::po- 

cirher. See 

■he A-:. " : - . ■_.-.. 

RAITCH ; a line or lift of i hone's 

face. 
RAM i fmelling or tailing ftrong; qucre, as the 
RAM ; c'.'::c:r. :■. ■/:;:: 'r. 

RANK ; Banding in clofe order j thick upon the 

gi d nd, as corn in the field, or trees in a Wood. 
RAXXLEBAUK ; a wooden bar, or balk, laid 

acrois the chimney of a cottage, to hang the 
^looks on. 
RAT TEN" j vtus rattus, &c. the rat. 

REAPS; 



YORKSHIRE. fcg 

REAPS; parcels of corn laid along upon the 
ftubble, by the reapers^ to be gathered into 
. fheaves, by the binder *. 

RECKLING ; the laft of the farrow j an underling. 

RECKON i pot hooks, of a particular make. 

RED T AIL ; motac'illa fhcenicurus -, the redilart. 

REEANG'D ; dilcoloured in ftripes ; lifted. 

REEK ; fmoke ; a word in common ufe. 

RENKY ; tall and athletic j fpoken of youth ; 
alio of voun^ cattle. 

RESHES 'y.juMcus infiexus \ wire rufh. See Seaves. 

REZZLE ; wtufida vulgaris ; the weezle. 

To RIE ; to turn corn in a fieve ; bring-ins: the 
" capes" into an eddy. 

To RIFT ; to eructate. 

RIGG j ridge, as of land ; alfo a long narrow hill. 

RlGGEN ; ridge of a roof. 

RIGGEN TREE ; a piece of timber laid along 
the ridge of a roof, to fupport the heads of the 
fpars: an unneceiiary piece of timber with which 
all old roofs are loaded. 

RIGGIL, or Rig; ridgil. 

To RIGHT (pron. rett) ; to comb, as the hair 
of the head is combed, or righted ; and a comb, 
merely for this purpofe, is called a " reetin 
keeam." 

RIMS ; the fteps or ftaves of a ladder. 

To RINGE ; to whine, as a dog. 

RINGTAIL ; falco fygargus ; the hen-harrier. 

To RIPPLE -, to fcratch, or tear, lighdy ; as with 
a pin, or a thorn : or rather, perhaps, to raile up 
and roughen the furface, by fuch accident. 

To ROIL; to play the male romp ; fpoken of a 
, rude playful boy. 

ROLL ; a wreath, placed on the head, under the 

* Hence, doubtlefs, the terms reapxvg and reuf^s of the 
fouthern provinces; yet, there, the reaps are no»v temed 
ihoves ; while in the nenhern provinces, the act ot reaping 
is termed shearing. 

Z 2 milking 



340 



PROVINCIALISMS. 



milking pail, &c. to keep it Heady, and prevent 
its bearing partially. 

ROOAC, or ROKE ; a kind of fmoke ; a Ipecics 
of mift, fog, or fmall rain. 

ROOP ; a hoarfenefs. 

ROOTER ; a kind of rufhing noile ; or a rough 
attack ; as a violent guft of wind ; or arx 
rufhing into company, abruptly, or 

To ROW j to rake or ftir about, as afhes in an 
oven. 

RO'WENTREE; Jorbus aucu: mountain 

forb ; improperly mountain am. 

To ROWT ; to low as cattle. 

ROWTY; rank j overgrown, as beans or other 
coin. 

RUD -, red ochre j ufed in giving a temporary 
mark to iheep. 

RUDSTAKES ; ftakes te which cattle are fatten- 
ed in the houfe. 

To RUMMLE (that is, tc ; to make a 

low rumbling noife, as the bull when he is agi- 
tated or difpleafed. 

RUNNEL j anil. 

RUNSH ; jln apt s anxnfis; wild muftard; char- 
lock. 

RUSH (of grafs or corn) ; a tuft, knot, clufter, 
or croud of plants : perhaps ana with 

RUSH ; a meeting ; a merrymaking ; a re 

RUSSELL'D : apple. 

RUSTBURN ; row. 






I : Hoo 

" bng faan r" "A year fa. .an. 

SACKLESS ■, idiot:: 
kfs, inofTcniive per. 



YORKSHIRE. 341 

SAD; heavy, applied to bread; deep or dark, 

applied to color. 
SAIM ; hog's lard. 
SAL; (bafl. 
To SALVE SHEEP ; to drefi them v. ind 

greafe. 
To SAM j to curdle milk for cheefe, &c. « When 
do you lam :" When do you let your milk ? or, 
When do you make cheek ? 
SARKj Aii 

SA.UF ,fali:. i fallow. 

SAUFY ; v. id a rainy feal 

SAUL ; a kind of moth. 

5CALDERED; chafed, bliftered, or partially 
excoriated, whethrr by ., heat, or corro- 

fion: perhaps, it is di rzoffcal us) 

as applied to the leproiy of the hcadj in chil- 
dren. 
SCALDERIXGS } the under-burnt cores of done 
lime : the furfaces of which peeling off, in icales 
or fnells, as thofe of a leperous fore. 
To SCALE; to fpread or leaner; as manure, 

gravel, or c [ fe materials. 

SGOW ; the fhcatn of a horfe. 
SCAR, a precipice faced with rock. 
To SCRAUT ; to fcratch, with a nail, or ::' 

fharp- pointed tool. 
SCROGS ; itunted Ihrubs ; as the hazle browzed 

bv cat:.;. 
To SCUD ; to clean or fcrape with a" spitti 
To SCUG : to hide. 
In SCUGGERY ; in fecrecy ; hid, as from crc 

tors. 
SCUTTLE; a Ihallow baiket or wicker-btfwli 
much in uie, here, in the b *her de- 

partments of huibandn : the Wrger lizes with, 
the fmaller without, handles. 
SEASONSIDE5 ; a dry, iiow-paced, fly fcBow. 
SEA YES 3 haw effufus ; the foil rum. 

Z 3 SEED- 



342 PROVINCIALISMS. 

SEEE GRASS; cultivated herbage; grafs raifed 
from feed, in cor.tradiftinction from natural 
srafTes. 

SEER ; fure, or affure; as, << Aa wean't, aa feer 
tha' ;" I won't, I allure thee. 

SFG, or BULLSEG ; a caftrate bull. 

SEGGKUMS ; faiecio Jacob aa ; ragwort. 

SEGS ; czrices ; fedges. 

SEN; fclf: "Aa'll dea't mi' fen;" I'll do ic 
myfelf. 

To SET; toy>£?, or accompany part of the way. 

To SET AG.ilT ; to let loofe a horfe, &c. un- 
intentionally. See Gait. 

SETTER ; a feton, or iffue in cattle. 

SETTERGASS ; helleborus fietidus j a fpecies of 
bear's foot ; ufed in making " fetters/' or iffues 
in cattle. 

SEW j a few (sowing, in like manner, is pro- 
nounced, as it is Hill written, sewing). 

SEWER ; a large ditch, or water fence \ an arti- 
ficial shore. See Vol. I. p. 181. 

To SHACK (that is, to fhc.ke) ; to fried, as corn 
at harveft. 

SHACK-FORK (that is, Jhake fcrk) j a wooden 
fork, for making flraw off the barn floor ; 
generally made of a forked ozier; the tines or 
branches about two feet long, and one foot wide 
at the points. 

SHACKLE OF THE ARM ; the wrift : hence, 
probably jkc.ck.les \ tha: is, irons for the fhackles ; 
ihackle irons. 

SHADE ; a fhed for fuel, &c. 

SHAFT ; handle ; as " fork-maf:"— " fpade- 

fhafc." 
SHANDY i a little crack-brained; fomewhat 

crazy. 
To SHEAR ; to reap, or cut corn, with a fickle, 

or a reaping hook. 
To SHED i to part ; as wool, or the hair. 

SHEEP- 



YORKSHIRE. 343 

SHEEFCA'DE, or CADE (pron. tanQs tea- 
ms reduvUs -, the large fheep loufe. 

SHEEPSALVE; taivand-greafe, for dreffing 
fheep with. See Vol. II. p. 219. 

SH F EPSTA'RNEL ; fturmts vulgaris \ die ftar- 

linq;. 
SHtXVINGS; moveable fide-rails of a waggon 

or cart ; put on for a top load, and taken off 

for a bodv load. 
SHIBBAXJDSj fhoe-ftrings. 
To SHILL; to fhelh and more generally to 

feparate : taking off the floughs or fkins of oats, 

in order to make oatmeal, is called pilling them ; 

turning a fmall quantity of milk into curds and 

whey is ctikdfli&ng it ; to fever fheep is to fiill 

them. 
SHOT-ON ; rid-of : cc He can't git mot on't :'* 

he cannot difpofe or get rid of it. 
To SHURL s to Aide, as upon ice. See To 

Slither. 
SIDE ; long, deep \ fpoken of a roof, cloaths, &c. 
To SIDELONG j to tetter, as a preventive from 

ftraving, or breaking palrure j by chaining a fore 

and' a hind foot of the fame fide together. See 

To Hopple. 
SIDEWAVER ; the purlin of a roof. 
To SIE ; to ftretch ; as a rope, gloves, &C. 
SIKE ; fuch, in its general fenie. 
SILE (vulg. Saal); a milk-ftrainer. 
To SILE ; to ftrain, as frefh milk from the cow. 
SILE-BRIGS ; milk-ftrainer holder j the cheefc 

ladder of Glocefterihire, ice. 
SILLS ; the Ibafts of a waggon or cart. 
SIN j fince, when it precedes the rime expreffed j 

as, " I have not leen him Cm Tuefday." 
To SIND ; to rinfe, or waih out j as linen, or a 

milking pail. 
To SIPE ; to ooze, or drain out (lowly. 
SINSA A'N j fince, when fpoken indefinitely, or 
when the time is ur.derftoodj as, " I have not 
Z 4 fecn 



34.4 P R O V I X C I A L I 5 M 5. 

feen him finfaan ; M I have nor feen I . c, or 

fince :' t tunc 
SITTINGS : v. Dts. 

To SIZ ; t: 
SKELL ; a I 

formed of two opp : 

the reft. 
To SKI 
Tc SKELP ; to • . e bottorr hand, 

IP , a deep, round, coarfe bafket. 
To SKERL ; to fcream. :, or a 

woman in d 
To SKEYL ; to lean or ::""_-? ; to 

r fore -part of a can to moot 

I t 

SKEYLD; pa: 
(helled. 

To SKIME (vula. 

ToSKB \ ::r. 

. LEj :•: a i 
SKRELDj a border; or n: hr.z, c: 

of clod 

::ipice. 

i meat. 
.CKj a r frriali 

reil l of a rope. 

: (hake 

irom its coicr b 

e, or f; 
It is not cc I 
onenfiye. 

SLED; a fledge. 

EAlS at : the fmut of c 

e^r which is 
To SLIrE OFF; to draw off fup, ; as 

fi;in from the body. 



YORKSHIRE. 343 

To SLITHER (ijbcrf, as in hither) ; to Aide, a$ 
down a rope, a ladder, or the fide of a hill. See 
To Shurl. 

SLOT : any broad,/.:.' wooden bar j diftin<3 from 
ajfavir, which i? always rm 

SLL'DDER, or Sluther; loofe, broken, flip- 
pen', pappy matter ; as curds and whey, loofe. 
fat, mud, ccc. 

SLUSH: m 

To ^MIT ; to infect (perhaps to finite) » in com- 
mon ufe. 

SMITTIXG ; infectious j catching, as a difeafe. 

SMOOT ; a hair muce -, or any fmall gap or hole 
in the bottom of a i.r. : _;- : hence, 

To SMOOT ; to creep under or through, as a hare 
or llicep through a hedge. 

To SMOOTH (vuls:. to_ talk) ; to iron wafhed 
linen. 

To SMURK i to fmile; to look plea and \ 

To SXAPE ; to filer.ee, check, or at 1 eaficnj 

as a barking dog, .or a miichievous child. 

SNECK ; the latch of a door, or a gaze. 

SXEYYER . Q nd neat. 

To SNI£KLE, or Sniggle; to fnare, as hares. 

gNOCKSNARLSj 1 

runs into kinks, is laid to run up j :kiharls, 

SX'OD ; fmoofh, e- ._:. 

To SNOOAC ; to fmell * manner, as 

a hound. 

SOCK; the fhare of a p] rm). 

SOKE (vSiz.fccac); 

ed by a mill, for grinding all . ie Eorn which is 
ulcd within the manor or to in *, 

* Sere trials at law, re 

a place ; I have ger. . . n cair. 

has no 

ging to i:, 
founded, or a bsli be roc 

To 



PROVINCIAL!; M S. 

To SO t a pain the hand, Li ftriking with a : 

mer o bcfiie : to jar, 
SORT : tt.it.: . :: ~ _ :-.: :'" 

• to fell with a fo(s . — 
to fali plump ; whether the weight be live or 
dead : kelk is applied more pa 
and anim: 

S i to lap, as a dog. 
S : : r.T : J TIN ; r :imat acetca j forrel. 

L to pull about in water j as Iheep in 
the walh-pool, Sec. 

. : .": /..: ::' • :e .. 
- . to injure by forcing the legs too 

afunder; as ca::.r i flippery roads ap- 
ed equallv to men and zr 

heelpiece of a flioe. 
lN (mid. dial, to Jpar. :■:) \ to Ftai 

id. dial, tojpaz pay ; as a 

ft S. 

L (vulg. Speyl) ; a ba: /'*"— 

. ulg. tofpejLUr) ; to fpell, : 
; a iplinter, or thin piece of wood. 
SPEN I 'D ; pied, as :izxlc. 

dried fruit ; as raifins, curra 

: i zr'.i. 
-, timber (lands (not common). 
SPJ , a fpaddle, or little fpade. 

: s quill. * 
:o break hay out of :" Bo ted. 

roSl ".aihcrfrr.rir. ::h irnall fpots. 

rad. 

- young wood raifed from the lie 
fallen timber-tr; 

S ^U - B ; a couch, common in moil " farm- 

large hurdles, with which hay 
ftacks in tnc field are generally fenced. 

STAGS: 



YORKSHIRE. 347 

STAGS; young horfes. 

STALL ; a doorlels pew of a church. 

STALLED; fatiat/rd with eating. 

To STANG ; to Ihoot with pain. 

STANG ; a long pole *. 

STARK ; ftifT; tight ; not lax : as a ftark rope i 

ftark with fevers exercife. 
To STAUP ; to lift the feet high, and tread hoh 

vily, in walking. 
STEA THING ; a lath and plaifier partition. 
ToSTECK; to Ihut, as a door or a gate. 
STEG j a gander. 

STEPPED ; fomewhat beaten, as a path. 
STEPPIXGS, or Stepping Stones-, large (tones, 

placed in the fhallow of a brook ; for foot pai- 

fengers to ftep over, " d^yshod." 
STEVVON ; a loud voice. 
ST1DDY (that is,Jteady)i the common name of 

an anvil. 
STIFE i ftrong rafted ; as maiz pudding, or bean 

cake j the latter a food formerly in ufe, here. 
STOCK j liveftock. 
STOCK i the cuter rail of a bedftead ; or the front 

fide of a bed, which is placed ag. alL 

STOOKi fnuck 3 twelve (heaves of com, letup 

together, in the field. 

* To ride the staxg. A cuftcm, whichy&w men, I 
hope, will cenfure, has prevailed, in this country, time imme- 
morial, and is ilill, I fir.d; prevalent. T. 

" riding che ftang ;" and is ufed as a reproof tc who 

beats his wife ; or (when it happens) to ;. bo bea;s 

her huiba.'.i. 

The ceremony is that of placing a man, or a boy, nj 
long pole, borne en men's ih-ulders, e the 

hou'ie of the delinquent ; the rider repeatir.r EHcverfes, 

applicable to the occafion. If fch and ineffecl al, the 

ceremony is repeated, with llronger marks c: c. 
In flagrant and obftinate c-iles, tr.e door has been anaded, the 
offender leized, and the ptinithment of the d ided 

to the difgrace of the ftang. Some inveterate cafes, it Teems, 
have recently yielded to this remedv. 

STOOP; 



3^3 PROVINCIALISMS. 

STOOP j apoftj as, "ayatftoop," agatepc 

• and rails,'"' pods anc 
STOI • corn 

R ; to rife up in clouds, as fmoke-, dufl, 

a fall of (how, 

STOX i a ft eer > or young ox. 

ST O VEX ; a .' the flool of a 

. 
STOWER ; a ftaff, or round (lick ; as, « a heck- 

ftc rack ftaff. 

To ST RAM ASH: to en.":, or break irrepara- 

STRAND ; a kennel, or cccanonal rill, caufed 
falling rain ; which, when heavy, " makes the 
un:" a Ipecies cf shore (fee Vol. I. 
p?.gc i:i.) with which it is not analogous ir. 
fenfe, only, but in that of being applied :o the 
irgin of the lea, which are wafh- 
the tide. 
STREEAj ft;-. 

STRICKLE ; an appendage of the fithe ; the tool 
wh letted; made, here, in a pe- 

: a fquare piece ot wood, work- 
ed off at one end t r a point ; the other end forms 
a handle : the . d with the point 

cf a fickle ; greafed \ lard ; and i 

derc rrofa grit-firone, 

in one .ir part of the Eaftern 

. from whence it is carried, as far as 
le Humber, for this ufe ; u 

f " LEA AND." 

To STRIP; to ira the a] 

; ftrokings. 
SI LUM; the hole ;:. log 6:c. to keep 

STRTJNT j 



YORKSHIRE. 349 

STRUNT ; the dock of a horfe, independent of 
the hair ; alfo the tail of Oaughtered cattle or 
fheep, when the flrin is taken off. 
To STUB ; to 2;rub up flumps of trees and mrubs. 
STUNT ; ftubborn ; not ealy to be bent j as, a 
" ftunt child," a ftubbom child; a " ftunt 
flick," a thick fnoit ii-ck. 
STUPID ; obftinate (the common epithet). 
To STURKEN ; to ftiffen, as melted greafe. 
STURKS ; yearling cattle. 
STY j a ladder (the common term) *. 
SUD i mould. 

SUMMER COLT ; when the air is {^en m a 
calm hot day to undulate, near the furface of 
the oround, and appear to rife, as from hoc 
embers, the phaenomenon is exprefTed by laying, 
<c tne fummer colt rides." 
To SUMMER-EAT ; to afe as pafture. 
To SUNDER ; to air j to expofe to the fan and 
wind ; as hay which has been cocked, but which, 
being dill under dry, is refpread abroad. 
S\VAD •, a pod ; efpecially of peas which have 

been boiled in the ihell. 
SWAIMISH ; bafhful, in the general fenfe. 
SWANG ; any low-lying, long, gnuTy place, 

covered, or liable to be covered, with water. 
SWAPE i a long pole, turning on a fulcrum j 

ufed in raifmg water out of a i> :11. 

To SWARM ; to climb the naked ftem of a tree, 

with the arms and knees c. 
SWARTH ; fward ; whether of grafs land, or of 

bacon. Hence, probably, / 
To SWASH, or Swash-over-, to fpill by 
waves ; as milk or water, agitated to a pail. - 

* Stile is probacy the diminutive of this term : the fti!e 
of this diftricl is u i medoftwoflio 

at the top ofethe fence; where they iw, in the 

Saltier maimer ; the upper ends (without Reps) ferting as 
handles. ,„ m __,„ 

SWATCH ; 



v 5 o P R O V IN C I A LI S 14 §. 

\ 7 C H : a partem, or finail fpecimen of c 
cut ofifthe end ece ; a!fo a dyer's tally. 

T SWATTE R \ to fpill or throw about water, 

as geefe and ducks do, in drinking, and fecc 
T; SWAT pronounced foxy) ; to ride up 
plank or pole, moving on a fulcrum (as children 
are •••-:.:_ Perhaps the belt exemplification of 
the eftabli(hed verb. 

. ; to wa. ;wn upon 

b 
EEATH 

ihort g 

widths, in m . ig 
SWEET-MART 5 mujtela martes ; the marten.. 

Src FOUL-MAJLT. 

SWIDDEN i ::• :;r~°. Of bum off, as heath, &c. 
To S WEDGE •, to (mart violendy j as a burn, or 
recent wound. 

I LL ; a : : tt of mallow tub. 
LUNGS i hogwafh. 

"ILL TLB ; :_-7z :-. 
INE THISTLE ; .:::,.:, :':..• 

To SWINGLE : '.':-- - .-:.". : : _::. 
SW NGLETREEj fpiinterbar ; whippin. 
^ YKE , rook ; more particularly, 

I believe] in a low boggy Gtuation. 

T. 

T TALL ; do fettle, cr ..idled to a fttna- 

: . r . 82 - ::. an: :j a p] ;j a ;> near'/' 

&C. 

TAISTttELs a tafcal 

TAWS : rr.: : . name. 

TEA . :: : a.= , '• p.d Am ziar- ::a':," pv: Arr.t 
more :. ::. 

TEA : 



YORKSHIRE. ZS i 

TEA ; too ; as, « Aa'll gang, tea ;" I'll go, like- 
wife. 

TEAM ; an ox chain, pafling from yoke to yoke. 

To TEAM ; to pour, as water : alio to unload, 
as hay or corn. 

TEAM ; empty ; as, " a team waggon," an 
empty waggon. 

TEAP ; tup ; a ram. 

TEATHY ; peeviih ; as children when cutting 
the teem. 

To TED. See To Spread. 

TEEAT ; the head in difhabiile ; the hair in mats, 

or COTTERS. 

To TEEAV : to paw, and iprawl, with the arms 
and legs. 

TEMCE ; a coarfe hair fieve, for feparating the 
inferior flour from the bran. 

To TENG ; to fling ; as the bee, or the adder. 

TENG'D ; a difeaie in cattle ; conceived to be 
occafioned by a fmall red fpider Hinging the 
fauces, or root of the tongue. The animal 
voids faliva, (wells, and prefently dies. An egg y 
broken upon the part, is ccnfidered as a remedy i 
if applied in time. 

To 1 ENT ; to tend, as fheep or ether flock. 

To TENT ; to icare or frighten -, as, to " tent 
the birds" from corn. 

To TEW •, to work as mortar, <Scc. alfo to agitate 
and fatigue, by violent exercife. 

TEYLPEYAT, or Telpiej a telltale; (per- 
haps as the pic, or magpie) one who divulges 
fecrets; fpoken chiefly of children. 

THAAVLE ; a pot-flick ; a ladie without die 
bowl. 

THACK; thatch. 

THARFLY ; ilowly ; deliberately ; cs, « the 
rain comes tharfly." 

To THEAK ; to thatch. 

THEAKERj 



g$2 PROVINCIALISM S. 

THEAKER ; matcher. 

THEET ; elofc ; tight . oppofed to leal 

THOU •, this prone A Far-* 

rners in general ■* thou" their lervants : the in- 
ferior clais (and the lower clafs of men in general) 
frequently their wives, 2nd a] ren ; 

and the children as invariably K thou" each c:. er. 
Superiors in general " thou" their tni 

iors C{ yen" their betters. E ~ 
and intimates of the lower clafi generafly cc :nou" 
one another. Theie 65! t fome:i::.-i 

the cauie of :.::.•;.:. . : • 
be : too familiar with him j v.v.ile to 

" t : n might offe; 

To THREAP ; to aflert, po£ to force 

down an argun 

THREAVEl twelve" 

THREEFOLD ; m 

THRONG (v\.. . ::g) ; buiily employed] 
" defperate 1 

THROW, cr 1 a tume 

ToTHRL'M: to pur, as a :::. 

TIFFANY ; a fine gauze fieve, for feparating 
fine Pour. 

To TIFT ; to adjuit, or drcfi ftp. 
E ; a trap or 
VoL II. p. 257. Alio I is, or 

other vermin. 

a balance, with one e: . than 

t ie other. The yon 

ba : ; ie weight of 

the animal ove. eight o: 

balance, an. pit, or a vefld - 

T1PEY ; the b: h rr.r.et. 

TIT, or Tomtit i m 

TITTER> 



YORKSHIRE. w 

TITTER ^foonerj rather: "I would titter go 
than ttay. — « I was there titter than you." 

K " &»SJ"l'<™ r go to them. 

lUKbhR ; old furnitures, orhoiifchold eoods. 

*° Li a m »£ huff, or flight refentment. 

1 UJ l r ; unftcady in temper, flighty. See Hoit J 
hence, perhar ^eity m 

T T^V„ E ; l \ VHAL£D ; VeVerd < V fcoIded ' Sec 

TlIxitJj° h a d » t0T0 ^— ^ to topple. 
TRAMPERS ; (boilers , whether beggarsfor 
pedlers. 3 - ' 

TROD , a track, or foot path - the preterite of 
the verb to tread, as road (rode) is that of the 
verb to ride. 

To TROLL; to roll; as a Hone, &c. down a 
Hope. Hence, 

£?£^? 1 WERANCE ; ^e teetotum. 
1UWT (the u long); tringa ^melius - t the peewit, 
or lapwing. r 

ToTUM ; to card wool, roughlv • to prepare it 
tor the finer cards. ' 

To T WATTLE ; to pat s to make much of: as 

horles, cows, doo- s . 
T W EEA • two, in its general feme. 
TWILL; a quill. 
T ' V L T » a quilti or bed cover. 
TWITCHBELL; forfiatla auricular is ; the ear- 

Wl or. 

o 

TWITTER ; thread which is unevenly lpun, is 
faid to be in twitters. 



V. 



VARRA ,- very : « varra faan ;" very fine. 
VOIDER; a kind of open-work, (hallow bafket. 

Vol. II. A a To 



354 PROVINCIALISMS. 



U. 

To UNBETHIXK ; to recollect : I unbethought 

myfelf on't,'' I recollected it. 
The UNDERDRAWING; the ceiling of a room. 

See Ceiling. 
UNKARD; ftrangej as an unkard place. A 

fervant is unkard on his firft going to a frefh 

fervitude. 
UVVER ; upper ; as the uvver lip. 
UZZLE, or Black Uzzle j turdus meruit ; the 

blackbird. 



W. 

WAD \ would. 

Xo WAFF ; to bark as a cur. 

WAIN i a large ox cart, with an of en body, and 
furniihcd with " fhelvings " formerly ufed in 
carrying corn and hay. A hundred years ago, 
perhaps, there was not a farmer's waggon in 
the country : fifty years ago, wains were, I be- 
lieve, pretty common : now, there is not, per- 
haps, one left. 

WAINHOUSEj waggon houfes Hill retain the 
ancient name. 

WAKEj a company of neighbours, fitting up all 
night, with the dead : a cuftom which is (till 
prevalent. 

WALKER; a fuller. 

WALK MILL; a fulling mill. 

WAIXANEERING •, an exprefiion of pFT 

WALSH j infipid ; wanting fait, or fome other 
fealoning : oppofed to relifhing. 

W ANKLE j unliable ; not to be depended upon ; 
as wankle weather, a wankle feat, &c. 

WAKj or W arse ; worfe. 

WARBLES; 



YORKSHIRE. 355 

WARBLES ; maggots in the backs of cattle. 
To WARE ; to lay out ; as money a: a market. 
To WARK ; to ache: hence, fC head-v.urk' — 

fc teath-wark ;'' head-ache — tooth-ache. 
WARK ; work, in its general fenfe. But what is 

noticeable, the verb te work, and die iubfrantive 

worker, take the eftablifhed pre ::on. 

WARK-DAY (pron. -wardtiy) ; week-day, in 

contradiftinction to j. ;.; • : " Sundav and war- 

c-v." 
WARRIDGE ; the withers of a horfe. 
WATH ; the common name of a ford. 
WATTLES i rods laid on a roof to thatch upon. 
WAVERS •, young timberings ic:": (binding in a 

fallen wood. 
To WAW (the in articulate) ; to mew as a car. 
To W AWL ; to cry audibly, but not loudly. 
WAZISTHEART; an exprcflion of condolence 
WE AD ; very angry j mad, in the figurative fenfe. 
WEAKY i juicy ; oppofed to M hask." 
WEANT (vulg. dial.) ; won't, will net. 
WEDGED ; fpoken of a cow's udder; — hard; 

furcharged to a degree of difeafe. 
WEERIXG (that is, a bearing) ; a pulmonary 

conlumption. 
To be WEE A ; to be forrv : u I am weea for him." 
WEE-BIT j fmall piece.' 
WELL (vulg. weyl) ; furface fprings, ufed as a 

fource of water, for domeftic or other fpecial 

purpofes, are generally termed wells. 
WETSHOD ; with water in the fnoes : " arc 

you not wetfhod ?" have not your ihoes taken 
• in water ? is a common exprefnon. 
WEYEY (the y articulate) ; yes, yes ; reiterated 

afient. Perhaps a contraction of WyaH and 

Ey. 
To WHALE ; to beat feverely, with a whip or 

pliant fttcfc, 

A a 2 WHEAN ; 



3 s6 PROVINCIALISMS. 

WHEAN ; a trumpet. 
WHEEANG i a thong ofleather. 
WHEEANGS, or a pair of Pepper Wheeangs ; 

an old-fafhicned pepper-mill, of a moft fimple 

confi: ruction. 
WHENT ; great ; extraordinary : " whent deed," 

great doings. 
WHERRY i a liquor made from the pulp of crabs, 

after the verjuice is expreffed ; generally called 

CRAB-WHERRY. 

To WHEWT j to whiffle faintly, or unfkilfully. 

WHICK ; alive j quick. 

WHICKS ; quicks > tritiam repots; couchgrafs. 

WHIE ; a heifer, or young cow. 

WHIG ; acidulated whey ; fometimes mixed with 
butter milk ; and v. : herbs, to give it 

fiavor : formerly, perhaps, the ordinary fummer 
beverage. 

WHILK : ; as, " whilk will you have ?"— 

not ufed in the relative fenfe. See At. 

WHIMLY ; fufdy •,. filendy, or with little noife. 

WHINS ; ... f 5 furz. 

WHISHT ! hum ! Glencc ! 

WHISHT : Qlent j applied either to a company 
or to a machine, 6cc. 

WHITE-XLBB'D CROW i corvus frugikgus j 
the roc . . 

To WHITE ; to cut or fhape wood, with a knife. 

WHITE WITCHES •, fupericr beings in human 
fhape, who formerly inhabited this quarter of the 
ifland ; with power (and will, when properly 
applied to) of counteracting the wicked inten- 
tions of the magic art. They are frill faid to in- 
habit the more extreme parts of the West of 
England ; which fee. 

WHITTLE ; a pocket knife. 

WHOOR (mid. dial. Wheer); where: the latter 
is probably the pronunciation ; the for- 

mer, perhaps, is of Britijh origin. 

WIDDYi 



YORKSHIRE. 357 

WIDDY ; a with, or withy. 

WIKE •, the corner of the mouth or eye. 

WIKES ; temporary marks ; as boughs fet up, to 

divide fwaths to be mown, in the common ings ; 

alfo boughs, fet on haycocks, for tithes, &c. &c. 
WILF ; Jalix alba ; the willow. 
WINDER; window. 
To WINDER ; to clean corn with a fan. 
WINDLESTRAWS; cynofurus criftatui -\ crefted 

dogftail. 
WIND YBAGS ; a talking, rattling, noify fellow. 
WINNOT (mid. dial.) ; will not. 
WIZZENED ; withered ; fhrivelled. 
WOOD WES H ; genifta tinttoria •, dyer's broom. 
WOONKERS ; an interjection of furprize. 
WOTCHAT •, orchard. 
WOTS j oats. 
To WRAX ; to ftretch the body in yawning ; or 

as cattle do when they rife. 
WUMMLE ; an auger. 
To WUN ; to live, or abide ; as, <c he wuns at 

fuch a place" (nearly obfolete). 
WYAH ; a word of willing aiTent, to fome- 

thing required to be done : " Go and tell John I 

want him," " Wyah ;" equivalent to very well; 

or to yes I will ; or yes, fimply, fpoken with a 

degree of indifference. See Weyiy. 



YAA; one, with the fubftantive expreffed; as^ 

" yaa man " " yaa horfe." 
YACK ; oak : yackram, acorns. 
YAN ; one, with the fubftantive underftood 5 as, 

iC gi' me yan :" give me one, 
YANCE; once, 
YAT ; a gate. 

A a 3 YAT- 



353 PROVINCIALISMS. 

Y AT HOUSE ; a high carriage-gateway, through 

a building. 
YAWD ; a riding horfe. 
YERNIN j cheefe rennet. 
YERNUTS ; bunium bulb cc aft anum; earthnuts. 
YETHERS; edders. 
YETLING ; an iron pan. 
YEWER ; the udder of a cow, &c. 
YESTERNIGHT (pronounced ytjhrneet) ; laft 

night ; analogous with yefterdav. 
YOON; oven. 

To YOWL, or Yool •, to howl as a dog. 
YUL- CLOG ; a large log, laid behind the fire, 

on Chriftmas-eve; about which, formerly, much 

ceremony was obferved. 



INDEX. 



INDEX 

TO THE 

TWO VOLUMES, 



A. 

A FTER GRASS, General 
Remarks on its Manage- 
ment, ii. 141. 

Management of 



Arfenic ufed as a Preventive 
of Smut, ii. 10. 

Ames of Turf, as a Manure, 
i. 307. 

Au&ions of Timber, Re- 
marks on, i. 226. 



Hedges, i. 207. 
Age of FellingTimber,i. 22 5 . 
Agriculture, Divifion of, 

i-239- 
. — , its Hiftory xn 

the Vale, i. 272. 

Alien Claim of Common 

Land, aninftance of, i.88. 

Allum, a Production of the 

Morelands, ii.266. 

Analyfis of Cements, i. to-. 

w of Lime Stones of 

the Vale, t. 3^3. 

•— — T of Sanfoin Soils and 

Subfoils, ii. 93. 

Anthills, Method of Deftroy- 

ing, ii. 119. 

Appeal from Commiffioners 

of Inclofure, i. 89. 

Approbation, Quantity of, 

requifite for an Incloi'ure, 

I 96.. 



B, 

BARK, Method of Peeling 

and Drying, i. 227. 
-, .... t Remarks on, i. 229, 
Barley and Oats, Remarks 
onHarvefting, i. 357. 

, Sedtionuf, ii. 15. 

, formerly Malted, by 

Farmers, ii. 16. 
Barn Doors, Remarks on, 

i. 124. 
.... Floor Granary, Re- 
marks on, i. 124. 
— m of Yorkfhire, compared 
with that of Norfolk,!. 125. 
.... . Management, i- 361. 
Barometer, its real Preten- 

fions, i. 267. 
A a 4 Barrel 



INDEX. 



Barrel Churn defcribed, 

ii. 205. 
Beads of Labor, Section of, 

i.245. 
-■ ontheWolds, 

ii. 245. 
Beech recommended to the 

Wold Planters, ii. 242. 
Beef, its paft and prefent 

Confumption, in the Vale, 

ii. 198. 
Bees, Seftion of, ii. 229. 
, their Mortality in 

1782, ii. 230. 
Biftiop'a Leafe, i. 21. 
Bleaching Greens of Picker- 
ing, an Incident refped- 

ing, ii. 129. 
Bottoming Dung Yards, 

i. 368. 
Brackets of Gables, i. 129. 
Bricks, as a Materialof Build- 
ing, i. ici. 
Brotherton Lime Kilns, N« 

i. 324. 
Building Material?, i. 98. 

. of the Vale, i. 98. 

— — ontheWoids,ii.24.i. 

Bull Show of Eafr. Yorklhire, 

ii. 183. 
Burning Lime, i. 317. 
Burying Hedge Plants, In- 

ftances of, i. 202. 
Butter and its Management, 

ii. 202. 



c. 

CABBAGES compared with 

Potatoes and Turneps, 

ii. 62. 
Calves, Rearing, ii. 187. 

, on Caftrating.ii. 1 89. 

'— , Fatting, ii. 201. 
Canine Madnefs, Initances 

of, i. 344. 
Carriage of Timber, i. 230. 
Caftrating Calves, Method 

cf, ii. 189. 
Catalogue of Corn Weeds> 

i- 333- 
■ of Lowland Plants, 

ii. 103. 
. — ; — ! of Upper Grafs, 

land Plants, ii. no. 
■■ of Upland Plants, 



n. 114. 



of Moreland 

Plants, ii. 268. 
Cattle, Section of, ii. 172. 
of the Vale, their 

Hiftory, ii. 174. 

, Wild, N. ii. 189. 

— — -, Remarks on their 

Scarcity, ii. 198. 
Cements in Ufe, in the Vale, 

i. 101. 
of Pickering Cattle 

analyfed, i. 103. 
-■ , General Remarks 

on, i. 109. 

Millfuggefted,i.xi5. 



Chamber Barn, an Inftance 
cf, i. 119. 

Chamber 



INDEX. 



Chamber Barn Floors, Re- 
marks on, i. 119. 

Characteristics of Farms, 
i. J4I. 

Cheefe and its Management, 
ii. 2c6. 

Churn of the Yale, ii. 205. 

Citterns for Rain Water de- 
fcribed, i. 132. 

Cleveland, its Situation, i.4. 

— — — • , Dirtricl of, ii. 262. 

Climature of the Vale, i. 12. 

• of the Wolds, 

ii. 236. 

— — r— of the Wolds Im- 
provable, ii. 243. 

■ . -. of the Eaftern 

Morelands, ii. 265. 

Clover, Remarks on, as a 
Matrice of Wheat, ii. 79. 

Comroifiloners of Ir.clolure, 
Rerr.a r ks on, i. --. 

Common Fields, the Ar- 
rangement of, in the Yale, 
i.4.3. 

Common Right, its Limits, 
i.63. 

— Lands, their 

IntereftinCommons, i.72. 

-Houl~es,their 

Intereft in Commons, i.74. 

■ ■ Sites, their 



Intereft in Commons, i.75. 
Commons, Origin of, i. 5^. 
Confidence or Leafes necef- 

fary, i. 24. 
Copings of Ridges, i. 128. 

of Gables, i. 1 29. 

- — s — , Method 

of Laying, i. 130.. 



Copyhold Tenure, i. 20. 
Corn Weeds, Catalogue of, 

Country Banks, Remarks on, 
i. 370. 

County divided into Dif- 
tri&s, i. 1. 

conude red as a Sub- 
ject of Survey, i. 7. 

Courfe of Practice, in the 
Vale, i. 277. 

, Remarks 

en, i. 27F 



— , on the 

Wolds, ii. 244. 
Covenants in the Vale, i. 34. 
Cows, Article of, ii. i8x. 

, Dimenfionsof, ii. 196. 

Crabtree, as a Hedgewood, 

i. 198. 
Cultivated Herbage, Se&ion 

of, ii. 78. 
— propofed 

for the Morelands, ii. 280. 
Curd Mill defcribed, N, 

ii 208. 
Curltops, Difeafe of, noticed, 

ii.49. 
Cutting Potatoe Setts, ii. 55. 



D. 

DAIRY, Se&ion of, ii. 201. 

Deal, as a Material of Build- 
ing, i. 101. 

Defending young Hedges, 
i. 204. 

Denizen Rights of Common, 
an Inftance of, i. 86. 

Dimensions 



[ H D I X". 



ItimB&m if • Yak Cc, 

ii. 177. 



- of a Vale Cow, 




EARTH WOBJ ; Re- 
mark:: on, ii. I : | 
"*■ l *~ m , ^ , . Eafl Yorkshire and its Di, 



- of Cattle, Re- 



maris on, >. u- 197. » « ... 

Dafpcfal of Timbw, 1. 234 c , . ,» rc# . j„ 

.-.. . ^ tagesasaSabieaotStudy, 

Diftncts of the County, i.x. ; ~ J 

Pocks dsfiroyed by Swn4 Eai ^ mM 

or by Mowing, ii. 124.. • 

Dogs, as a Species of Ye> _ I p tv 

«"»' L r -- of, ii. j6$- 

_- defcrufiivc t: ... ; v. m -... .. Ifettud f 

i- 345- Making, i. 131. 

• , a Tax on, p.- : ; :.".:. Eeonoaiy'of Bees, Rer 

i. :-' on, ii. : 

Dormant Lands, their Right Elder, as a Hedgewood, 

of Commnnigr , L61. i. 199. 

Prs;_ res, Remarks E * ban&ments, Remarks en, 

on, L i8| i. 183. 

Drinking Places, Sedion of, Eftates and Tenures, Section 

i. 136- of, i. 18. 

■ - -- Pooh, Method of on the Wolds, £ - 

Making, L 133 Extent of the Vale, i. 10. 

, GeneralRe- *-• ■■ of tkel lime- 
marks on, i. 157. lands, ii. 266. 
Drying Bark, i. :z3. Extirpation of Weeds, i. j ;f 
Dung, Article of, i. 350. 
-, Remark* on Rai: 

i. 366. p 

— - of Horfes, Remarks * ' 

on, ii. 14^. 
Yards, Rerr.2-.ks cr., FALLEN TIMBER, Ar- 

i. -.■ - tide of, i. i:g. 

.owing, Remarks on, 

i- y 

acy farm Koufes, Re- 
tics o% i. : 16. 



I N D E X. 



F.-.n I ■ i- -5+. 

Farm Building, i. 

— — - Lands, their Hhtory in 

the Vale, i. *7*. 
. Yard Management in 

the Vale, i. }6i. 

the Wolds, ii. --- • 
Farms, Seftion of, i. 2:9. 

. , Size; of, i. 239. 

— — of the Wolds, ii. = 43- 
Farmeries cf the Vale.i.i 16. 
Farmers, Section of, i. 242. 
-, General Remarks 

on, i. 242. 
Farmery, a Plan of, foggeft- 

ed, i. 121. 
Fatting Cattle, ii. 194. 
Feliincr Timber, Method x)f, 

i. 22-. 
Fences of New Inclofures, a 

Remark on, i. 79. 
— — , Section of, i. 190. 
Fence Walls, and the Me- 
thod of Con(lruction,i. 194. 
Fencing, a Regulation re- 

(peeling, in an Ir.clofure 

H'], i. 89. 
Fefcue, Meadow, as a Ley 

Herbage, iL 86. 
Field Wells, L 168. 
Fitzherbert, Judge, Noteon, 

i. 45. 
Flax, Seaionof, ii. 64- 
, General Remarks on, 

as a Crop in England, 

Floors of Cement, Method 
of Making, i. 1 35* 



Foddering on Graii, Re- 
marks on, ii. 125. 

Foreft Lands, on Reel 
ing, i. 296. 

. Trees proper for a 

Drained Moor, i. 236. 

Forms of Leafes, i. 39. 

Foflil PiodnAions 0: :/.e 
EafternMorelanda,u.26& 

Frafts, Effects of, in low Si- 
tuations, N. i. -'■' ■ 

Fuel of ancient Townfhips, 
i. JBD, 

Fur of Rabbits, Remarks on, 
ii. 256. 

Furze Grounds,on Clearing, 
i. 29-j. 



G. 



GABLES, Coping* ofii*^ 
Gaits, Method ofSetSng up, 

i- 353- 
Gaitirr, RemaAs on its 

Origin, N. i. 355- 
Ga:e ; , on Hanging, with 

Pivots, i. 191. 
——-, on the Height of, 

i. 1 , : . 

of Inclofure 

recommended, i. 94* 
Ge: gementofEi- 

tates, i. 22. 
. of 

Grafs Lands, ii. 1 iS. 
General Principle of Inclo- 

fur 1 ; sd, i- i4- 

General 



INDEX- 



eralPriaciph of lr - 
fore inferred, i. g 
- rral Remarks on Lay- 
it 1 

«- — • - 



G:: - 

1 — ^— — C ..... : > 



at La* 






■ 






I 
- 
(xt Form- 



ing and. Repaying of 
— .- en the 



Treatment of H. 

: : : : 



'-'-'■ 
. ii 



men, 1. 24.2. 
on tbe 

V. ":^:_.:'.""..c:.w-:.-.- .:--> 
L ;: 3 . 

. 



Contractions of Ploars, 
L z~- . 

en Scd- 



fcu.-irg : : i 



on Re- 
claiming Forefi Lands, 

i. :.-. 
.. ,- 



- 






tare of Rape S . 

■ ■ on . 



on I 








and Urea! 

. on Break- 



. _ ; >ld ^ . land, 

' . on S;ack- 



■ on the 



■:t~tzi : : -'-■■'-- 
I _ : • 
■ on 



.: of 
Grafs land, ii. 144. 

>— — on the 



Management of Sun 
Paftores, iL 1-2. 
on the 



Breeding of H 

$9- 

or. 



ii. i-- 

- ■ or. 



C .v.'.; ::' ::.t Vale, ii.J-4. 






- 






I N D E X. 



General Remarks on the 

prefent Scarcity of Cattle, 

ii. 19?. " 
Geological Remark on the 

Vale of Pickering, i. 5. 
" ' ■ en the 

Rivers of the Vale, i. 13. 
on the 



Northern Margin, i. 281. 

Granary over a Barn Floor, 
an Instance of, i. 123. 

Grafles, Cultivated, ii. 78. 

Grafs lands, Remarks on 
breaking up, i. zjS. 

"" ■ " -> General Re- 

marks, on Leying and 
Breaking up, ii. 89. 

— , Section of,ii. 99. 

-» Observations on 



Breaking up, ii. 107. 

— , General Ma- 



nagement of, ii. 118. 

— improved by 

Lime, ii. 129. 

..their Spring Ma- 
nagement remarked on, 
ii. 144. 

-, Remarks on 



Breaking up, ii. 239. 



H. 

HANGING BEEF, the an- 
cient Practice of, N.ii. 199. 

' — Gates, on Pi- 

vots, i. 191. 

Harvefting, Section 0^1.348. 

— — with the Sickle, 

i-349- 



Harvefting with the Sithe> 

i. 351. 
■ Barley and Oats, 

General Remarks on, 

»• 357- 
' on the Wolds, 

ii. 247. 
Hay, on Stacking in the 

Field, ii. 137. 
— — , Expenditure of,i'. 140. 
Harveft of the Vale, 

ii. 133. 
Seeds much cultivated, 

ii. 84. 
Stacks, Remarks on 

their Form, ii. 139. 
Hay wards recommended, 

i. 21s. 
Hazard of Farming, Inftance 

of, 11. 45. 
Hedgekeepers recommend- 
ed, i. 214. 
Hedgerow Timber, Section 

of, i. 2 1 j. 

"~ — ^General 

Remarks on, i. 2 17. 
Hedgewoods, i. 198. 
Hedges of Lanes, Remarks 

on their proper Height, 

i. 179. 
, Stake and Edder, 

i. 196. • 

■ , Living, i. 197. 

, Planting, L 200. 
-, eld, various Treat- 



ments of. i. 20S. 
— -, General Obferva- 

tions on their Treatment, 

i. 210. 
, Method of Planting, 

on the Wolds, ii. 2.12. 

I ;fers, 



INDEX. 



Heifers, General Remarks 

on bringing them into 

Milk, ii. 192. 
Herbage, Cultivated, ii. 78. 
. of Low Lands, 

ii. loz. 
. of Upper Grafs 



Grounds, ii. 109- 
of Upland Graf;, 



n. 1 14. 
Hog Liquor, ii. 209. 
Holdernefs noticed, i. 6. 
, Diftrift of, 

ii. 260. 
Holly, on the Time of 

Tranfphnting, i. 399. 
Horns of Cattle, Remarks 

on, ii. 1 So. 
Horie Dung-, Remarks on, 

ii. 149. 
Horfes, as Pearls cf Draught, 

compared with Oxen, 

i. 249. 
— — — ,Seaion of, ii. 154. 
Hunters, General Remarks 

on their Treatment, ii. 167. 
Hurdles of the Wolds, ii. 25 1 . 
Hufbandry, itsHiftory in the 

Vale, i. 272. 



I. 

JALAP, his Services to the 

Vale, ii. 156. 
Implements, Seftion of,i. 25 2. 
— — — — of the Wolds, 

ii. 247. 



Improved Method of Har- 

vefting Rape, ii. 39. 
Improvement, in the Mode 

of Slaking Lime, pro- 

pofed, i. 336. 
«■ of the Royal 

Wades, Praftical Remarks 

on, i. 297. 
of the Culture 

of Rape, ii. 30. 
of the More- 



lands attempted, ii. 273. 
of the Eaflern 



Morelands propofed, 

ii. 277. 

Improving Varieties of Po- 
tatoes, ii. 53. 

Inclofures, Seclion of, i. 45. 

— — — 1 — in the Vale, Hif- 
tory of, i. 46. 

, State of, in the 



Vale, i. 16. 

■■' ' -, General Princi- 



ple of, i. 54. 
■ ', by Exchanges, 



1. 91. 



>, by private Corn- 
mifiion, i. 92. 

-,by Act. of Parlia- 



ment, Remarks on, i. 92. 
- ' ■ , a General Law 
of, recommended, i. 94. 
-, State of, on the 



Wolds, ii. 237. 
Incruftation, an In fiance of, 

i. 310. 
Indulgences to Tenants, their 

Effed, i- 23. 
Ingland, its Nature, ii. ioz. 
Inland 



INDEX. 

Inland Navigation of the Length of Leafes, i. 31. 

Vale, i. 1+. Lentils formerly cultivated, 

«. .. , a re- ii. 24. 

markable Site for, i. 15. Leys, Temporary, ii. 79. 

——.-Ports, i. 7. — — , Perennial, ii. jo. 

Interefts in Commonable , Sanfoin, ii. 92. 

Lands enumerated, i. 95. Lime, as a Manure, i. 312. 
— — , Method of Burning, 

i.317- 

-- , Coil and Price of, 

K * I 3*4- 

. _.~. *n e « • r , Application of, 1.326. 

KELDALE, Defcnption of, • ^ f^ on ^ TX 

KemplViddon, Defection J^'jjJ^ rfG nfi 

»*."£*** I An Land, ii. 12S. 

ting's Rates Remarked on, ^ £ ^^ ^ ^.^ 

"' ' *" -j o-n c- ,<< ing Grounds, ii. 129. 
kubymoorhde Rillof,;. 56. ^^ f the Vale, 

Knarefborough Iccloiare . 

■* L gi * LimeKiinoftheValci.31-. 

. , Further Re- 

t marks, i. 32 1. 

L * . .. of Brotherton, 

LABORERS of the Wolds, .^-Jj* 4 * -, , v _. 

Limeftones oi We v aie, 
11. 2^5. 
I.amb,.on F rocaringTwi«, ^'/^^of, ;. ^g. 

ilu'wtmtmi Aeir Limi. of Common Rigta. 

Manazement, *■ *8. T . ' , t? j cs> 1 .«.<• 

t ■ , u r ■ « Lir.ieed, asaFoodofCalve?, 

Lands, Purchanng, 1. 29. "^ *» 

Laying Land to Grafs, An- ■■ ! 9J- .. 

• at ,^ «f ;; B. Lilt or Rate*, 11. 2S7. 
cient Method or, u. bo. .- . ' _. . 

T , f ci - Lord ot tne Soil, his Right 

. Lands acrois slopes, X ' V1 , - 

ofcommonage, j. 05. 

1 '3°+* - ., ■ ■-, his Intereft 

Levies or Confidence necei- 

farv i 24.. m Commons, 1. 70. 

,' ■ t .1. • .v~ . ,hisaifrVned 

— — , their Length in the - ' . a 

y ale> i# 3I> Share in the Sinnington 

, Forms of, i. 39- Inclofure Bill, L 86. 

oftheVate digefted. Lowland Grafe, u. 101. 

1. 40. 



I N D E X. 



M. 
MAKING Kay, ii. 1-4. 

- -r L164- 

Malrir.g formerly done by 
Farmers, ii. 16. 

ManagementofFn;::- . i .;;. 
— — , a Ge- 
neral Principle of, i. loo. 

~ Dd :-;. 

■ — of 

Ground;, ii. 
M-Cc arts, L 27. 

*~ ■ ■ ; 1 ival 

foggefled, i. ; . 

L 3. 

^ge- 
Kent, i. - 

"■ of the :_-. 

Markets for Fallen Tir. 
i. 228. 

of the Valt, i. 369. 

■ ofthV 

Marl of Newton Da 
i. 307. 

■ of Li 

N. i. ;::. 

-. 
Ml C 

Glens, i. 132. 

■ 
Floors, i. 1 ; - 

■ L*-. ire par.t- 

i. 136. 
Dri.-.k- 

i-.g Poofs, i. 

Cond — 



bod of For- \- g ; - £ R e . 
pairing Roads, :. 1-0. 

— — — — Draining Marih 

— •— — — Builcino- J. 

• 

m Rechimk vp.ough 

Grounds, i. 2 ■ 
— Burning Li-.:", 



:. : : ~. 



■■ *- : - 



She?r._-. i -52. 



Saeaves, i. 

— Winnowing wi;h 



c 

362. 

■ R - - : _ ". I — - 



jrain, 
ii. 6. 

~ 

i 
ii. 11. 

1 Oats, 

r, ii. 21. 

i 

- - : 
— Tl Rape, 

— Raiii-g Potatoes 
51. 

' I" Va- 

::. 53. 

-•-- ::: 2 

ii. I : :. 



Hay in 



the Field, ii. 137. 



16: 






- 



I N D E X-. 



Method of Making Skim 

Cheefe, ii. 207. 
•— Salving Sheep, 

ii. 221. 
* Taking and Sort- 

ing Kabbits, ii. 2.57. 
Mice, on the Method of De- 

fttoyi^g, i. 340. 
Middleton Inclofure Bi'l, 

i. co. 
MiJdew of Wheat, Remarks 

on, ii. 13. 
Mi k Leads, Deicription of, 

N. ii. 204.. 



-, on Scouring, 

ii. 204. 
Minerals of the County, i. 8. 
Molding Grafsland, ii. 121. 
— Sledge and its Con- 

ftruftion, i. 262. 
Moles, Remarks on, ii. 122. 
Moory Soil, as a Site of 

Planting, i. 234. 

ofHeaths,ii.267. 

Morelands,Improvementsof, 

attempted, ii. 273. 



propofed, ii. 2-7. 
Morelar.d Sheep defcribed, 

ii. 215. 
Mortar Floors, Method of 

Vaking, i. 135. 
Moffy Land improved by 

Lime, ii. 129. 
Mowing Corn> for Sheafing, 



Grafs, ii. 133. 
Grounds, Method 



o: Drefling, ii. 120. 

., Manage- 



ment of, ii. 131. 
Mudd Sheep, ii. 214. 
Vol. II. 



N. 



NATURAL Advantages of 
Eaft Yorkshire, i. 9. 

— Diftrias of the 

County, i. 1. 

Herbage, Sec- 



tion of, ii. 99. 

Woods, Section 



of, i. 219. 
Nett Hurdles defcribed, 

ii. 251. 
Newtondale Well, Waters 

of, i. 3c 8. 



o. 

OAK, as a Material of Build- 
ing, i. 115. 

Oats and Barley, Remarks 
on Harvefting, i. 357. 

— — , Section of, ii. 17. 

— — , a New Method of 
Thrafhing, ii. 20. 

Obje&s of the Ya!e Huf- 
bandry, i. 275. 

of the Wold Hus- 
bandry, ii. 244. 

Operations in Rural Archi- 
tecture, i. 123. 

Origin of Commons, i. 54. 

Ornamental Appearance of 
the Vale, i. 17. 

Ox of the Vale, Bimenfion& 
of, ii. 177. 

Oxen, 

B b 



INDEX. 



0*en, as Beafts of Draught, 

their Hiftory in the Vale, 

i. 2 4 $. 
*— --compared with Horfes, 

as Beafts of Draught, 

i. 249. 
r— — , their Treatment in 

the Vale, i. 250, 



P. 

PANNAGE of ancient 
TownfMp, i. 70. 

Pantiles and their Manufac- 
ture, i. 99. 



Planting Hedges in the Vale, 

i. 200. 
m, — ,- on the 

Wolds, ii. 242. 
■ 1 a Moory Soil, an 

Inllance of, j. 233. 

■ - Trees on the Wolds» 



— — — , Method of Laying, 
i. 1 26. 

Paper Money, Remarks on, 
i.370. 

Paring and Burning, i. 284. 

Pafture Grounds, General 
Management of, ii. 143. 

*■ ■ — , General 

Remarks on their Summer 
Management, ii. 152. 

Peeling Bark, i. 227. 

Perennial Leys, ii. 80, 

PetrefadUve Waters, Re- 
marks on, i. 308. 

Plan of Management of 
parms, i. 272. 

Plantain, as a Ley Herbage, 
ii. 87. 

Plantations, Seclian of,i. 23 r # 

« of Eaft York- 

mire, i. 2/2. 

propofed, on the 



ii. 241. 
Plow of the Vale, i. 257. 
Plows, Remarks on their 

Conftruftion, i. 257. 
plowing with Rein6, i. 502, 
Plow Team of the Vale, its 

Hiftory, i. 32. 
Pickering Caftle noticed, 

i. I02. 
Pickering, Townfhip of, de- 

fcribed, i, 48. 
— — r Inclofure Bill, 

Hiftory of, i. 49. 



Farther Remarks on,i % 7j. 

Piking Hay, ii. 134. 

Poe, Meadow, as a Ley Her- 
bage, ii. 86. 

Pools, Artificial, Method of 
Making, i. 137. 

Pod and Rails, as a Tempo- 
rary Fence, i. 195. 

Potatoes, Section of, ii. 48, 

■ -, Varietiesof, Tem- 

porary, ii. 49. 

-, Method of Raifing 



from Seed, ii. £1. 

— Plants, Remarks 



on Cutting, ii. 55. 

their Eifecls on 



Morelands, ii. 278. 



Land, ii. 60. 

■ compared withTur- 



rjepsand Cabbages, ii. 62. 
Poultry, 



INDEX. 



Poultry, ii. 228. 
Preparing Seed Wheat with 

Arfenic, ii. to. 
Private Bills of Inclofure, 

their attendant Evils, i . 5 1 . 
Production of the Vale, i. 1 7. 
■ of the More- 

lands, ii. 268. 
Prognoltication, a Part of a 

Farmer's Bufinefs, i. 269. 
Progrefs of Spring in 1787, 

i. 27c. 
Propagation of Timber, a 

Remark on, i. 23 J. 
Proprietors, in the Vale, i. 1 9. 
Provincial Surveys, their 

Utility, ii. 44.. 
Pulfe, Section of, ii. 24. 
Purchafe of Lands, i. 29. 



QUANTITY of Approba- 
tion requifite for an In- 
clofure, i. 96. 



R. 

RAPBITS,Sec"tionof,ii.226, 
« of the Wolds, 



11. 252, 



Rabbit Warren propofed, as 
an improvement of the 
Morelands, ii. 281. 

Railing Woods from Acorns, 
i. 220. 

• Y rdManure,i.366. 

Rape, Section of, ii. 27. 
— — , Method of Tranf- 

planting, ii. 29. 
— — Culture, Improvement 

of, fuggeited, ii- 30. 
— , General Re- 

marks on, ii. 45. 
■i . . Thralling defcribed, 

ii. 33. 
Rates, Lift of, ii. 287. 
Rati, Remarks on their De- 

flructivenefs, i. 343. 
Ray Grafs, Remarks on, 

ii. 84. 
Rearing Cattle, ii. 187. 
Receiving Rents, i. 38. 
Reclaiming Foreft Lands, 

Remarks on, i. 296. 

-Rough Grounds, 

i. 284. 
Red Cow's Milk, its Efficacy, 

ii. 174. 
Reed Oat, Remarks on,ii. 18. 
Registers of Rural Practices, 

their Utility, ii. 4^. 
Remarks on Estimating the 

Rental Value of Farms, 

i. 25. 
— on Manor Courts, 



11. 2s7. 



- Trap defcribed, 1*7* 
.- Warrens, their i. 2 9 c 



Prchtablenefs, ii. 227. 



Ma- 



nagement of, ii. 254. 



- onPurchafingLand* 

. on the Rental Va- 
lue of Lands, i. 32. 
B b 2 Remarks 



I N D E X. 



Remarks on the Time of Re- 

• move... 
» on Denizen Rights 

of Commonaje, i. 06. 
• on Chamber Sa. ns, 



1. 1 19. 



Re mar!-:; cr. Liming Li~i : 

i. 528. 
■ on Fallowing., 

i. 33S. 
— — — -- cr.V.>eiir.g,i.339. 
■ cnrheDearaciive- 



Barn I 
i. 124. 

— —--on Birr. . !;•;: Gra- 
naries, i. 124. 

— on the proper 



-, L I-S. 

-- or River Embank- 
ment, i. i E :, 

cr. - ;::":: 



oefi »f Rats, i. 345. 
■ on Reaping, by 

V.'cr.er. i. 5; :. 

onShucki-g,i. ; ;;■. 

■*• on the Conf-mp- 



tion cf S:r£\r, i. \z 5. 

-- MB Ra::":r.2; Varie- 



f Grain, ii. 4.. 

on Arfenic, as a 



firoio ftcorns, i, 2 c. 

en I ~e of 



Timber, i. : : 
on the E.7 



r.a;. ii. 1 : . 
on Rye, as a Pre- 



Frc.:, N. i :;-. 
c- the Sizes of 



ventm of Mildew, ii. 15. 

■-- or. F>.:i:V.:r.gOa^ 



Farms, i. 2;j. 

— on R-.icng Ysad 
D-r.e, i. ; 

— on a Wei 



— on Public Rap* 



Thrashing, ii 36. 

on Declining Va- 



— — — on Coar.tr y i. 
i. 3-c. 
— — cr. an extra 



:;e::: .1. 49. 

— cr. £otatOe Set*, 

ii 55. 



c- tre Efted 
Potatoes on Lard, ii. to. 
on the Growth of 



nary I 

, :. -' 1. 





i : - - 
on Breaking op 



■ - or. 



r!i-<, ii. 6~. 

:ver as a 

vit, ii. 79. 

cr. Laying G:a: ; 

Lands, ii 

ttz's as a 



Reins, 

or. . 



Ley tlerbir?, ii. :^. 

on :..- Food cf 



... ■ :_ 
on Pefre:'. 



:. 50S. 



Sanfoin, ii- 95 . 

-- :r the ~'c'.e,:i. 1 zz. 
on Earths rn 



11. i% 



Re marks 



INDEX. 



Remarks on Foddering on 

Grafs, ii 125. 
on the Longevity 

of Plants, ii. 125. 

on Whitening 



Grounds, as deftru&ive to 
Grafs, ii. 129. 

-- on tne Time of 



Remarks on the Fur of Rab- 
bits, ii. 2p. 

— — — on the unnatural 
Difpofition cf Kabbics, 
ii. 258. 

on improving 



Shutting up Grassland Lr 
Hay, ii. 132. 

on the Spaying of 



Mares, ii. 162. 

-- ontheDutch Breed 



of Cattle, ii. 175. 

— on the Natural 



Difpofitions of Swine, 
ii. 210. 

on Blackfaced 



Sheep, ii. 215. 
on Breedin; 



Flocks, ii. 218. 
on Salving Sheep, 



ii. 219. 
on Rabbi:s, as an 

Article of Farm Stock, 

ii. 227. 
. on the Food of 



Bees, ii. 231. 

on Breaking old 



Sheep Walks, U- 259 

— on the Climature 



of the Wolds, ii. 243 

on the Tumep 

Culture of the Wolds, 

ii. 2+9. 
on Eating ofr Tur- 

neps, ii. 250. 
on Changing the 

Breed of Sheep, ii 252. 
. — on the Dang of 

Horfes, ii. 149. 



Heaths, ii. 27$. 
Removals in t.;e Vale, i. 35. 

, on the Wolds, 

ii 240. 
Rent, a .Medium of, the moil 
eligible, i. 25. 

, in the Vale, i. $2. 

■ , on Rec ivi g, i. 38. 

, on the Wolus, ii. 239. 

Rental Value of the More- 
lands, ii. 2" 2. 
Repairs, Covenants refpecV 

ing, i. 34. 
Refpringing Timber Trees, 

Method of, i. 22*. 
Ribgrals, as a Ley Herbage, 

ii. 87. 
Ridge Stores, i. 129. 
Rignt of S-il coniidered, 

i. 72. 
Rill, -Ardncial, Method of 

Making, i. 162. 
Rill of Kirbyrr.oorfide, i. 1 66. 
River Embankments, Re- 
marks on, i. 183. 

, In- 

fiances of, i. 187. 
Rivrs of the Count", i. 7. 

of the Vale, i. 13. 

Ronds, Se&ion of, i. 168. 

of the Vale, their Hif- 

tory, i. 168. 

, -., General Remarks on 

Forming and Repairing, 
i 170. 
B b 3 Roads. 



INDEX 



Roads, the proper Width of, 
i. 178. 

Road Hedges, Remarks or., 
i. 179. 

— - Men recommended to 
Parifhet, i. 177. 

— — Team of Cleveland, 
ii. 263. 

RoughGrounds,on Reclaim- 
ing, i. 284. 

Royal Walks, Practical Re- 
marks on Improving, 
i. 297. 

Rural Arehite&ore, a Ge- 
neral Principle in, i. 1 »6. 

. , Ope- 
rations in, i. 125. 

r Surveys, their Utility, 
ii. 44. 

Rye, Seftion of, ii. 14. 



s, 

SALE by Auelion, Remarks 

on, i. 226. 
Salving Sheep defcribed, 

ii. 219. 
Sanfoin, Article of, ii, 92,' 
■ , its Advantages as 

a Crop, ii. 95. 

■ , its favorite Field of 



Pafturage alcertaintd, 

ii. 95. 
Scarcity of Cattle, Remarks 

on, ii. 198. 
Seaports, i. 3. 
Seed Frccds, Sedtion of, 

Semination, Sedion 0^.33 1. 



Servants," their Wages and 

Treatment, i. 244. 
— , the Time of Chan« 

gir.g, i. 245. 
Setting Sun, its Ufe in Prog- 

noftics, i. 268; 
» up Single Sheaves> 

i- 353- 
Sheep worried by Dogs, 

i- 345- 

— deftrucYive to certain 

Weeds, ii. 124. 

— - — , Section of, ii. 211. 

— — -, their Hiftory in the 
Vale, ii. 2 1 2. 

— —- of the Morelands, 
ii. 21;. 

■*■— - ofScotland,N.ii.2i^ 

• of the Wolds, ii. 251. 

•— — -,Remarkon theDanger 
of changing the Breed, 
ii. 252. 

— — -, as the Stoek of the 
Morelands, ii. 271. 

■ r Walk propofed, as an 

Improvement of the More- 
lands, ii. 281. 

Shores and Embankments, 
Seftion of, i. 181. 

- " ■ ,Definition of,N.i. 1 8 1 , 

Shucks, Remarks on, i. 350. 

Sinr.ingtcn Inclofure Bill, 
i. 14. 

Skim Cheeie, Method of 
Making, ii. 207. 

Skreen Plantations recom- 
mended for the Wold«, 
ii. 242. 

Slaking Lime, an Improve- 
ment propofed, i, 330. 

Sledges of the Vale, i. 261. 
Slope'. 



I N D B K. 



Slopes, on the Method of 

Plowing, i. 304. 
Slugs Enemies to Flax, ii,68. 
Smut prevented by Arfenic, 

ii. 10. 
Single Sheaves, Method of 

Setting up, i. £j$. 
Sites of Houfes, their Rights 

of Commonage, i. 61. 
Situation of the Vale, i. 10. 
* " •> of the Wolds, 

ii. 235. 
•* of the Eaftern 

Morelands, ii. 265. 
Sizes of Farms, Remarks on, 

. J- »39- 

Sodburning and the Method 

of Practice, i. 284. 
- ■ ' — , an Innovation 

in, i. 288* 



General Ob- 
fervations on, i. 29 1, 

-- Tough Sward, 



its Utility, i. 2c 
Soils of the Vale, i. 10, 
*— — , and their Manage- 
ment, i. 279. 
* , Variety of, a Stimulus 

to Ingenuity, i. 281. 
.« ■ 1 of the Wolds> ii. 236. 
*—— of the Eaftern More- 
lands, ii. 267. , 
Sorting Hedge Plants, i.202* 



Rabbits, ii. 



Spaying Fillies intimated, 
Ii. 163. 

Spirit of Improvement, a 
Stimulus of, i. 281. 

Spring, 1787, Progrefs of, 
I 270. 



Stacking Hay in the Field, 

Remarks on, ii. 137. 
State of Inclofure, in the 

Vale, i> 16. 
Straw, Method of Binding* 

i. 361* 

-, Expenditure 0^1.364. 
■ • ri -1 Remarks on its Con- 

fumption, i. 365. 
Steers, Age of Breaking in, 

ii. 192. 
Stocking Pafture Grounds, 

ii. 148. 
Stones, as a Material of 

Building, i. 98. 
Subfoils of the Vale, i. 281. 

■ - of the Wolds, ii.235. 
■■ ' ■ of the Eaftern More- 
lands, ii. 266. 
Subftrudure of the Wolds, 

ii.235. 
Sub- Varieties of Potatoes, on 

felecVing, ii 53, 
Succsftion, in the Vale, i.277. 
, Remarks on, 

i. 278. 
, on the Wolds, 

ii. 244. 
Summer, a remarkably wet 

one, i. 270. 
Surface of the Vale, i. 10. 
■ Angu- 
larly Flat, i. 13. 
Sward, on Breaking up, 

L 299. 
Swine deftruclive to the 

Dock, ii. 124. 
■ ' ■ ■ , Section of, ii. 209. 



TAX 



1 N D E X. 



T. 

TAX on C 

Team of the V '-iter 

-od of. Karr 
i j 5. 
Teaching Gr:. ' - 

:-.'. Rem* ii. 128. 

Tee;vra:er freed of O 
ii. : 

. ::. 214. 

Temporary L-; 
Tena • "• 

■ - • 
, of the WoM>, 

-59- 

Tit -:~e 
Term of L ] : . 

Thralhing Oat.-, a new Me- 
3 ] of, ii. : :. 

_ Rape; M:-. 

of, ii ] ;. 

-. :.-::• 
Tim . 

. .' 

. -, Carri tge 

. 

i. ;;:. 
■b~ '■ - 

Tipeoft 

Tidies, en Getting oat Land 

:r L 

Towolhips of 

■ 



Towr.ftiips, farther en Lay. 

ing out, i. "T. 
— — ■ - . C com- 

mon Farm, i. 

ang r'.zl 
i. 205. 

"■ ' .r t . ::.;-. 
p for taking R3I t 

i. 80. 
Tarnej ! 25 

, in bant ; 



: ii.6;. 

-- 
Twin Lambff, cr 

ii. : : -. 

Li. 1 9: . 



CNDE KING, la, 

1L109, 



V. 

VALE of York ddb 

1. 3. 

. leering, a fingular 

Paffxge of Country, i. 5. 
. — , G 



., ia 



Valuing 



-• D E 



Valuing Timber, Method of, 

i. 2:6. 
Varieties of Wheat, on Rai- 

fing, ii. - 
■ ' , an In- 

ftance of Railing, ii. ;. 
m. cf Grain, Improv- 



ing of, ::. 9. 

■ 0: are 



Temporary, ii. ^9. 






-, S< 



Vegetable Economy, Con- 

u. 46. 

■- — M^li of Heaths, 

ii. 267. 
Vegetation, Extraordinary 

Strength of, i. : _ i . 
Vermin of the Yale, 



YV. 



WAGGONS c: 
i. 2,-2. 



— ■ -, Remarks or, 
their Width of Running, 

i. 253. 

of the '■" 



Method of Dia 
ii. 24.6. 
Walls of Fields, on :. 

thodofCo 
Water Ci.terns, i. 152. 
W-;er= ;:\\ 

:. 308. 
Way Reaves rccoumc 

Weather, 5c L 167. 



Weeds ai 



.ilr.~G.-r.: 
■ ! , Remarks on,i. 339. 

^tle Marke: 

X. ::. ; -. 

i. 16$. 
. S 
ation of, 

Di- 

'•'etaod of 
Harrefting, i. 349. 

of, ii. 1. 

1 - ietiea 

cf, ii. 4. 



I x 
———, Remarks on the 

". :;. 1 :. 

... 

It of, N. ':. : : :. 

ting 

?rl- 
: 

and 
. the Vale, 



. 









. 

. . Reap- 
ing, 

: 19. 

. 









I S" D £ v 

''?-:. y :■-:-'. . : : : 

—» Rem* .-.•.: : ?.zj- _, 

: : " • 

■ *•-« ::~:'- : :.'::.- :-- 

br YARD Management^ 364, 

Woo of Fleeces, YeajiLnj Cattlt . 

ij_ 224* ^ eomanry Bmaeroos in the 
Woros, Remarks 00, ii. ::• • - C i. 19. 

Workpeople, Sedioa c:', , their C^araa**- 

bi|4 i*ja m the Vale, i, 545. 

■ of the Wold*, 






TABLE OF REFERENCE 

FROM THE 

FIRST to the SECOND EDITION. 



*$» The References, between the feveral Provincial Reg:fteir, 
being, in the firft Editions, to their refpedtive Pagis ; and the 
Pages of the'e Volumes being now considerably altered, I have 
thought it right to form the following Table, to affift the 
Reader who may have the firft Edinon of any of the oth=r Re- 
giftcrs, to refer to the Pages of this Edition. 









VOL. 


I. 










«J *J 


*< 


*j 


if 


«J 


w" 


•i 


J 


^ 


J 




'•i ^5 


■0 


^ 


'~3 


'■£ 


^ 


'•6 


-3 


'S 


•3 


H3 


(rl W 


M 


w 


w 


W 


f9 


Id 


w 


H 


W 


H 


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rt 




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rt 




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61 


57 


135 > 


2 5 


208 


204 


263 


248 


334 


3J4 


2 a 


62 


58 


158 , 


28 


209 


20? 


264 


24? 


335 


3'5 


1 3 


64 


60 


141 1 


31 


210 


205 


265 


250 


337 


316 


5 4 


65 


(1 


I46 1 


35 


212 


207 


266 


250 


337 


3i7 


1 i 


67 


63 


I46 1 


36 


-13 


20S 


26S 


25' 


339 


3>* 


68 


64 


149 ■ 


39 


215 


2IO 


269 


253 


34i 


323 


9 8 


69 


65 


151 1 


4i 


216 


til 


272 


25' 


342 


321 


lo 9 


72 


68 


154. ] 


44 


219 


*J3 


274 


25- 


346 


324 


12 IO 


75 


7° 


156 i 


46 


219 


214 


278 


26: 


347 


326 


33 IO 


75 


7i 


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4-9 


220 


215 


279 


2 5: 


343 


327 


14 12 


76 


71 


163 | 


52 


222 


217 


281 


264 


349 


32S 


14 13 


77 


22 


164 1 


53 


2 24 


181 


284 


267 


3 52 


330 


j6 14 


78 


73 


167 1 


56 


225 


182 


286 


26^ 


353 


331 


18 17 


79 


74 


168 I 


57 


225 


183 


287 


2" 


IS* 


332 


19 18 


8o 


75 


I70 1 


59 


226 


183 


288 


-7i 


355 


333 


23 22 


81 


7 a 


174 1 


62 


2 30 


1S7 


290 


272 


361 


3 38 


24 2 3 


S2 


77 


*75 1 


6 4 


232 


189 


292 


274 


362 


339 


25 24 


85 


80 


176 1 


6 5 


233 


1 9c 


294 


275 


377 


340 


26 25 


i 9 


83 


178 ! 


67 


*34 


219 


196 


277 


381 


343 


27 26 


9° 


s 4 


J 79 


68 


235 


220 


297 


278 


3 32 


344 


28 27 


96 


90 


180 1 


6g 


236 


221 


298 


278 


383 


345 


»9 2S 


97 


00 


181 ] 


6 9 


238 


223 


298 


279 


384 


347 


30 29 


98 


9 1 


181 


70 


*39 


224 


300 


2?I 


3?7 


34* 


31 29 


99 


9 2 


182 i 


171 


240 


225 


301 


2«3 


390 


35i 


32 31 


101 


94- 


183 


:i 


241 


226 


303 


a 84 


39i 


352 


33 3i 


102 


95 


185 


7<5 


242 


127 


304 


284 


392 


353 


34 I* 


103 


96 


189 


'77 


243 


227 


3?5 


28 c 


393 


3 5* 


35 33 


105 


98 


190 


178 


243 


228 


307 


28S 


39+ 


3 55 


37 35 


107 


99 


191 


[ 79 


244 


229 


308 


28? 


396 


35T 


38 36 


io3 


IOI 


152 


[81 


245 


230 


310 


200 


399 


359 


40 38 


Hi 


103 


194 


t90 


246 


231 


3i4 


294 


400 


361 


4i 39 


H7 


109 


195 


r 9 i 


247 


232 


316 


296 


401 


362 


42 39 


123 


115 


198 


'94 


248 


233 


318 


298 


4">3 


364 


43 40 


124 


116 


199 


r ?5 


250 


*35 


323 


302 


405 


366 


48 45 


125 


116 


200 


t 9 6 


253 


236 


3-4 


304 


407 


367 


5° 4' 


126 


118 


201 


197 


2 54 


239 


325 


305 


409 


369 


51 4* 


127 


119 


202 


r 9 8 


256 


241 


327 


30- 


410 


370 


53 53 


130 


122 


204 


soo 


257 


242 


328 


30- 


411 


371 


57 54 


*1* 


123 


205 " 


:oi 


2*9 


244 


330 


309 






58 56 


J 33 


124 


206 - 


S02 


260 


245 


33» 


311 






e"o 5 6 


I 154 


125 


207 


102 


262 


H7 


333 


31- 







TABLE OF REFERENCE 



FROM THE 



FIRST to the SECOND EDITION 











VOL. 


II. 










^3 '■£ 
M P* 


s3 

(4 


w 




mi 
- 


M 




-5 
(4 


- 


-3 








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13 
IS 


« 


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M 


- 


-a 


I 3 


54 




107 


103 


i6*" 3 


i5' 


202 


2O9 


24~8 


238 


2 1 


55 




in 


107 


165 


iJi 


203 


j8- 


249 


239 


4- 4 


57 


54 


"3 


108 


167 


16 


204 


188 


249 


243' 


6 6 


58 


55 


"3 


IC 9 


168 


16: 


205 


189 


251 




8 I 


59 


56 


1:7 


1 * 3 


169 


162 


206 




252 


■44 


10 11 


61 


57 


118 


"3 


171 


164 


' 


191 


= 53 


245 


ii i) 


62 


59 


I 22 


11S 


172 




208 


19- 


:SS 


--- 


13 13 


&* 


60 


123 


12? 


173 




- - 


194 


1 ' 


249 


14 14 


65 


61 


J-5 


120 






«S 


196 


259 




16 15 


68 


64 


125 


122 


1-5 




22 6 


197 


260 


25» 


17 16 


6 9 


6 5 


" 


123 


178 


27 


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222 


261 


252 


ll 17 






228 


- 


180 




220 


214 


264 




20 i<. 


-: 


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130 




181 


H 


221 


22 5 


265 


255 


22 2: 




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132 


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183 


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226 


269 


260 


24 23 




-- 


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128 


184 


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223 


22- 




262 


26 24 


79 




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185 - 


- 


224 


21S 


----- 


261 


27 25 


82 


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137 


1 5 : 


186 


27? 


225 


219 


^-75 


264 


29 2 r 


83 


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138 


J ?3 


187 


: ' 


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; : 


'77 


267 




U 


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14a 


! 35 


188 


jS- 


229 


2-3 




268 


:' : 


S5 


81 


14: 


136 




181 


230 


224 


282 


272 


S : r 


86 


82 


M-5 


140 


190 


1*1 


231 


225 


285 


--: 


3 5 33 


88 


c j 


148 


( 


191 


«*3 


: ; 1 


226 


287 


1 I ■ 


41 3? 


9 1 


86 


-" 




151 


184 


'33 


-■' 


288 




«•* 39 


92 


87 


1+8 


J 43 


194 


1S6 


-35 


209 


289 


-' 


4 5 43 


' 


88 


149 


143 


J 95 


i03 




22S 


2 9 1 


2S1 


47 44 


95 


9 c 


154 


14S 


156 - 


10Z 




229 




282 


47 45 


97 


S 2 


156 


150 


197 - 


104 


= 39 


230 


295 




5° 47 


99 


9+ 


157 


*S*\ 


29S : 


ic ■ 


240 


233 


207 


287 


51 4? 


KM 


95 


-60 


154 


200 : 


to€ 


244 


235 




29J 


52 5c 


I3 3 


9 P 


161 


J 55 


201 '. 


toS 


246 








si 51 


105 


99 


162 


i 5 6\ 


202 ; 


,oS 1 


2 + 7 


:-: