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Edited by L. H. BAILEY 



Rural New York E. O. Fippin 

Rural Michigan L. A. Chase 

Rural California E. J. Wickson 

Plate 1. Norway pine near Marquette — the property of the city. 





Author of "The Government of Michigan" 


All rights reserved 



Copyright, 1922, 

Set up and printed. Published September, 1922. 

::..••• ••• V. .••; ..•••.'* •: :-= ? * ,*• .• .•• 

••• '•• ••»«., <.. „ ' •-• • • 

Press of 

J. J. Little & Ives Company 

New York, U. S. A. 




In the pages that follow will be found a general 
and free account of the past and present condition 
of Michigan agriculture and rural life. It is not 
^ the province of the book to contain a careful and 
detailed analysis of the economic and social prob- 
lems related to the subject ; such a study must await 
the labors of other students along many special lines 
in the years to come. So far as it goes, it is hoped 
that the book will prove of interest and value 

1, to the general reader and may serve as a basis for 
further investigation of particular problems. The 
book, then, may be regarded as an introduction to 
the study of the rural situation in ]\Iichigan. putting 

) the State before the reading public in quite a new 

^ light. 


It has not been possible fully to refer to the 
sources of information since many of these are in 
manuscript, and information has been gained 
through personal inquiry, contact, and observation. 
It will be obvious that the writer is indebted to 
many persons in the preparation of the work : state 
officials, members of the faculties of the University 
of Michigan and tbe iMichigan Agricultural Col- 
lege, secretaries of the development bureaus and of 

vi Preface 

farm organizations, and others who are personally 
in touch with some aspect of Michigan agriculture. 
The writer himself has lived all his life in the State, 
often in close contact with its rural life at widely 
separated points in both peninsulas. For this rea- 
son, he thinks he appreciates local diiferences rather 
more clearly than would be the case if his ex- 
perience had been confined to one part or peninsula 
only. To all those who have so readily responded 
to his request for material and information he ren- 
ders grateful acknowledgment. For photographs 
acknowledgment is due to Mr. Ezra Levin of the 
Michigan Department of Agriculture, to Senator Roy 
Clark of Benton Harbor, the Superintendent of 
Schools, Houghton, and the Western Michigan De- 
velopment Bureau. The frontispiece is by Werner of 

It should be added that, when omissions of essen- 
tial matter seem to occur, this, in some cases, is 
attributable to a failure to obtain such informa- 
tion from those who are alone able to provide it. 
Not many such lapses on the part of others, how- 
ever, have occurred. The writer does not doubt 
that he himself has failed to discover all available 
sources of information. Since much of the ma- 
terial used in writing this volume is not readily 
accessible, the writer has been more free with quo- 
tations and statistics than considerations of style 
alone would warrant. He thought his readers would 
appreciate having this material made thus accessi- 

Preface vii 

ble. It has been a pleasant task to try to present 
the State in its rural phase, rather than from the 
point of view of political history, government, urban 
or corporate interests. 

L. A. Chase 




The Physical and Climatic Setting of 

Michigan 1-31 

Geographical and physiological features . 4- 10 

The Great Lakes system 10- 15 

Climate of Michigan 16- 31 


The Influence of Soils on the Settlement of 

Michigan 32-68 

The Lower Peninsula 41- 48 

The Upper Peninsula 48-53 

Muck-lands 53-56 

Underground water 56- 58 

Vegetation an indicator of soils .... 59- 68 


Other Resources of Michigan 69-126 

The forests 69- 86 

Mines and quarries 86-114 

Game and lish 114-125 

Water supply 125-126 


The Occupation of the Land 127-180 

The human factor in agriculture .... 152-180 





Agricultural Industries, Plants and Crops 

OF Michigan 181-218 

Hay 182-183 

Grain crops 183-193 

Vegetables 193-200 

Fruits 200-207 

Nuts 207-209 

Special crops 209-211 

Crops for muck-lands 211-213 

Crop improvement progress 213-218 


Animal Industries of Michigan 219-234 

Sheep 222-227 

Horses and mules 227-229 

Swine 229-230 

Cattle 230-232 

Poultry 232 

Bees and honey 232-234 


Transportation and Marketing 235-289 

Marketing associations and regulations . . 262-289 


Rural Manufactures of Michigan .... 290-315 


Rural Living Conditions . 316-331 



Agricultural Societies 332-346 


Educational Enterprises of Michigan . . . 347-382 

Extension work 363-373 

Agricultural journals 373-375 

The rural church 375-382 


Governmental Work for Country Life . . . 383-416 

Conservation policies 394-402 

Roads 403-407 

Drainage 408-416 


Development of Michigan Waste Lands . . 417-439 


Status and Tendencies in Michigan Rural 

Life 440-460 

Statistical Appendices 461-476 



1. Michigan, the peninsular state. Between pages 

4 and 5 

2. Progress of soil-mapping in Michigan .... 35 

3. Percentage of increase or decrease of total popu- 

lation of Michigan by counties 132 

4. Percentage of increase or decrease of rural popu- 

lation of Michigan by counties 133 

5. Density of total population of Michigan by 

counties 170 

6. Density of rural population of Michigan by 

counties 171 

7. Plan of organization of the Michigan Department 

of Agriculture 385 



I. Norway pine near Marquette — the property of 

the city Frontispiece 


II. The rolling topography typical of many parts 

of Michigan 60 

III. Haying time in western Michigan .... 120 

IV. Harvesting an alfalfa field in southwestern 

Michigan 184 

V. Digging potatoes in the Upper Peninsula . . 242 

VI. Celery "marsh," Muskegon County .... 304 

VII. In the peach belt of southwestern Michigan . 366 

VIII. The Otter Lake Agricultural School, Houghton 

County 430 




Michigan is the land of the "great water," as the 
Algonquin origin of the name testifies. It is the 
State of the Great Lakes, lying in the grasp of the 
largest fresh-water hodies on the glohe. 

It is one of the five states formed out of the Old 
Northwest territory in accordance with the Or- 
dinance of 1787. It is the northeastern memher of 
this group. Ontario, Canada, it has to the eastward 
and northward, Ohio and Indiana to the southward 
of the Lower Peninsula, and Wisconsin to the south- 
ward of the Upper Peninsula. 

The most southerly point of the State is the in- 
tersection of the boundary lines of Michigan, Ohio 
and Indiana, and is officially determined to be north 
latitude 41 degrees, 41 minutes, 4G.20 seconds, where 
stands the boundary stone. The most Tiortherly reach 
of the mainland is some 400 miles, where Keweenaw 
Point touches latitude 47 degrees, 28 minutes, 75 



seconds, while the most northerly of the Gull Islands 
is nearly a degree still farther to the north. The east 
and west dimension of the State runs through ap- 
proximately eight degrees of longitude, Port Huron 
standing in longitude 82 degrees, 25 minutes, 30 
seconds, while the far-away mouth of the Montreal 
River at the most northwesterly extremity of the 
Upper Peninsula is in longitude 90 degrees, 25 min- 
utes, 25 seconds. 

For a state whose area is only 57,980 square miles 
(about that of Illinois), IMichigan is evidently 
sprawled over much space on the map, — a fact deeply 
impressed on the traveler from Ironwood to Lansing, 
or Houghton to Detroit. This alone helps to keep 
the State disorganized and separatist in tendency, 
all the more that a waterway broad and deep divides 
northwestern from southeastern Michigan. It in- 
volves, too, variations in temperature, rainfall and 
duration of sunshine and twiliglit of the utmost im- 
portance to natural vegetation and animal life and 
to agriculture. Most persons do not appreciate that 
it is as far from IMichigan's copper country to the 
metropolitan city of Detroit as from Detroit to the 
national capital in terms of miles in a direct line be- 
tween the points; and, although traveling facilities 
are reasonably excellent, the time and distance for the 
intra-state journey is even less favorable. It is hardly 
to be wondered at that one sometimes hears talk of 
Michigan's dissolving itself into two commonwealths, 
when nature has omitted nothing that works for 
mutual incompatibility and man has done little to 


force enduring bonds of unity. Mail and express, 
freight and passengers transported betAveen upper and 
lower ]\Iichigan, have the choice of making a long de- 
tour through three states or traversing the nine-mile 
ferry-way from St. Ignace to Mackinac City. In ad- 
dition, there are many leagues of sparsely settled and 
lightly productive land between the populous extremi- 
ties of this hyphenated state. The inhabitant of Cold- 
water or Adrian who may venture as far as Negaunee 
or Calumet finds himself in quite another world: a 
land of rock-ribbed rugged barrenness to his casual 
observation ; of sparkling tonic air, of Alpine streams 
rushing down over their rocky floors to the great lakes 
never far away; of vast swamps and forests, or the 
disreputable remains of vast forests ; of all languages 
except perhaps his own. The smiling summer land- 
scape of Clinton County let us say — the succession 
of diminutive fields, fenced and tilled with care, of 
orchards and wood-lots, or prosperous-looking farm 
buildings and neatly kept villages, the oppressive 
pollen-laden summer atmosphere, the gently undulat- 
ing surface of the land — convey an equal impression 
of unreality to the long-time dweller by the shores 
of Gitchie Garni. At the outset, the student of con- 
ditions in Michigan must keep in mind the complete 
disresemblance, or at least of the possibility of it, 
of the basis of existence in east and west, in north 
and south, in this or that nook and corner of the 



Michigan's most striking physical characteristic — as 
one ghmces at the map (Fig. 1) — is its peninsularity. 
This fact is suggested in the Great Seal of the State, 
— si quaris peninsulam aniAjenam circumspice, — "if 
you seek a beautiful peninsula, look around you." 

Residents of IMiehigan commonly speak of "the 
Two Peninsulas/' but in reality, the two major land 
masses that compose the State are themselves clusters 
of lesser peninsulas, the most obvious of which are 
"the Thumb" between Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron, 
"the Horn" between Grand Traverse Bay and Lake 
Michigan, and the Keweenaw Peninsula between 
Keweenaw Bay and Lake Superior. Lesser land 
bodies project themselves at intervals into the en- 
compassing fresh-water seas, greatly extending the 
shore-line of the State and, each in its own Avay, 
affecting navigation, climate and the economic and 
social interests of the people. Thus, the Keweenaw 
Peninsula deflects the Duluth Sault Ste. Marie ship- 
ping route to the northward, gains for the agriculture 
of the region a growing season of one hundred and 
fifty days, comparable to that of the southern part 
of the State, and makes available an enormous min- 
eral wealth that otherwise might be imprisoned be- 
neath the waters of the Lake. For thousands of 
miles this peninsular feature places Michigan in 
direct contact with the world's most extensive and 
widely used inland waterway, while it isolates her 










from her neighbors and interferes with communica- 
tion east and west in tlie Lower Peninsula and north 
and south in the Upper Peninsula, and divides the 
peoples of either section of the State from their 
fellow citizens of the other. It throws the southern 
peninsula into closest business and social contact 
with Ohio and Indiana, while the similar trend of 
the State "above the Straits" is in the direction 
of Wisconsin. It has created two states in the guise 
of one. It has produced enclaves like "Copperdom," 
with the economic and social body of the common- 

The two major land masses which, with their 
appendages, thrust themselves in among the western 
members of the Great Lakes group, present note- 
worthy variations in geological structure and climate 
and, consequently, in biological, economic and social 
conditions. Their topography is characteristically 
glacial, a land surface of glacial drift with occasional 
moraines, eskers and drumlins, and of lakes, swamps 
and marshes, some long since extinct and others still 
extant, while, especially in the north, plainly striated 
areas of bed rock testify to the movement of glacial 
ice again and again over the surface of the land. 
Areas of sand, gravel and clay, quite pure or much 
intermingled, are interspersed casually among the 
watered depressions and rocky excrescences of the 
State. And yet if one have regard to the chief 
physical tendencies, Michigan comprises three quite 
distinct sections : the Upper Peninsula and the north- 
ern and southern halves of the Lower Peninsula. 


It is in the southern section of the southern 
peninsula that the greatest agricultural development 
has taken place, while the Tapper Peninsula is tiie 
seat of an enormous mineral wealth, of past and 
prospective development. Between these two portions 
of the State lies a region that once sent to market 
prodigious quantities of forest products but now 
lies shorn and largely unproductive, except of brush 
fires and real estate wild-catting. 

The land surface of Michigan comprises for the 
most part glacial drift, varied in composition and 
depth and resting on a foundation of native rock 
of great geological antiquity. In the southern penin- 
sula, this foundation stone attains its greatest eleva- 
tion in the southeastern area in a zone extending from 
the "Thumb" to Hillsdale County, and its greatest 
depression near Ludington and Manistee. To the 
northeast the rock is again elevated, not to the same 
degree as in the southeastern counties, although the 
superimposed layer of drift is so deep that the highest 
elevation of the land surface of the Lower Peninsula 
is a point near Cadillac. From Saginaw Bay west- 
ward there is a deep valley in the bed rock and a 
low elevation of the surface of the land. Indeed, 
if the drift were removed, the northern section of 
the peninsula would appear as an island entirely 
surrounded by water. As it is, the area west of 
Saginaw Bay has a very low elevation (at St. Charles 
it is about thirteen feet) above lake level; and in 
periods of high water, the over-flow from the Maple 
River (a westward-moving affluent of the Grand 


River) proceeds eastward overland to a stream enter- 
ing Saginaw Bay, bisecting the peninsula. 

The glacial drift left by the retreating ice has 
been heaped up, windrowed and scoured, until the 
surface presents a succession of ridges, hills and 
depressions — the remains of ancient water-courses, the 
outlets of glacial waters seeking the sea by strange 
paths unknown to the geographies of today. Most 
considerable of these glacial rivers was the "Grand 
Eiver Outlet," whose ample valley extends from 
southern Gratiot County to a point below Grand 
Eapids; and its affluent, the "Imlay' Channel, whose 
course may still be traced on a line from Owosso 
and Ovid to Maple Rapids. Relatively tiny streams 
now trickle down the beds of these once mighty 

In flood time, there is a quick expansion and 
drowning of the old valley floor, and a quick reces- 
sion to the restricted channels of the present, after 
a deposit of fluvial silt has been left to enrich the 
fertility of the soil.' On the other hand, while Michi- 
gan has no true mountains, there are points in both 
peninsulas wdiich bear this designation because of 
their prominent position in the landscape. Thus 
Mount Judah, six miles north of Pontiac, has an 
elevation of 1,180 feet above sea-level, and Bald 
Mountain in the same locality is 1,195 feet high. 

There are numerous other hills and kames in the 
southern counties of the State from 1,000 to 1,200 
feet in elevation. The morainic country near Cadillac 
reaches an elevation of 1,500 feet. The eastern 


portion of the Upper Peninsula presents less rugged 
aspect than the western section. The underlying 
limestones and sandstones are well covered with 
drift, while the metamorphic rocks west of the longi- 
tude of Marquette frequently protrude above the 
covering soil, giving the landscape in some places 
a knobbed rugged outline and, facing Lake Superior, 
a semi-mountainous appearance. Here, to the east 
of Keweenaw Bay, are situated the Huron Moun- 
tains, the Mecca of sportsmen, whose dim contour 
seen from the heights of the Copper Range across 
the wide expanse of the Bay, touch with Neapolitan 
loveliness one of the most charming vistas in America. 
To the westward, also, abruptly rising from the Lake, 
are the Porcupine Mountains, 2,023 feet above the 
sea, the highest elevation in Michigan, and extending 
through very much tumbled country in Ontonagon 
County into the Copper Eange. The "Cliffs" of 
old Keweenaw still charm the traveler and once 
yielded a prodigious wealth in copper and silver. 

Evidently Michigan is not a mountainous state, 
but its ruffled surface, its sag and swell topography 
(as Leverett describes portions of it), have a definite 
relation to agriculture. It establishes great variety 
of soils. It protects areas from cold northerly winds. 
It definitely affects air drainage and cloud distribu- 
tion. It establishes wet, marsh and swamp lands, 
and other areas whose drainage is normally excellent 
but excessive in periods of scanty precipitation. It 
keeps some areas within the cold strata of the lower 
atmosphere, and elevates others to the warmer upper 


air layers. The relation of all this to agriculture 
is manifest. There are places remote from the in- 
fluence of the lakes where peaches do well. Such a 
point is the high morainic ridge near Eureka in 
Clinton County and, well to the north, a similar 
ridge near Higgins Lake in Crawford County; while 
even close to Lake Michigan, bad freezes, such as 
that which occurred along the southwest shore on 
October 11, 1906, have done much less damage on 
the elevated table-land some miles back from the 
Lake. The first snows of winter appear at Ishpemiiig 
sooner than at Marquette eight hundred feet lower 
down, if also a dozen miles nearer the Lake. Some 
low areas, such as that in southern Gratiot and 
Saginaw counties, have suffered much from unseason- 
able frosts, creating for the pioneers real famine con- 
ditions, until the phrase, "starving Gratiot," in the 
decade before the Civil War, acquired sinister signifi- 
cance. Undoubtedly the encompassing forest com- 
plicates the situation, particularly as affecting air 
drainage. J. M. Longyear of Marquette has observed 
that Finnish farmers, in clearing their farms, have 
frequently established their clearings at adjacent 
corners in order to increase the free space for the 
movement of the atmosphere and thus reduce the 
liability to frosts. It appears that the removal of 
the forest cover in the flat country in the region 
of the old "Grand ]?iver Outlet" (Saginaw and 
Gratiot counties) has similarly reduced the liability 
to unseasonable freezings. It is plain, however, that 
farms located on hills and ridges, in periods of fall- 


ing temperature, find the colder air flowing away 
into the valleys and bottom-lands, thus affording a 
fair margin of safety on the high lands. It has been 
noted, for example, that the high ground of the 
Paynesville "Quadrangle," in southern Ontonagon 
County, Upper Peninsula, with an elevation of some 
450 feet above Lake Superior, escaped killing frosts, 
when neighboring farms on low-lying lands suffered 
materially. When it is recalled that there is very 
little flat country in Michigan, that much of its 
land surface is undulating, billowy, of a knob and 
depression, sag and swell description, it is evident 
that, from this factor alone, agriculture is conducted 
in varying conditions. It gives the mint and celery 
country of the southwestern counties of the Lower 
Peninsula and, at present in its incipiency, of the 
eastern counties of the Upper Peninsula; and pro- 
ductive fruit orchards at many interior points. It 
affords numerous areas whose valuable crops must 
continue to be blueberries, cranberries and wild rice, 
and, if the vision of Sydney Smith Boyce of Saginaw 
comes true, the swamp milkweed, from which, it is 
hoped, a very useful textile fiber may be produced.^ 


The four enormous lakes, which, with their con- 
necting waters, give Michigan her unique position 

'On lopoo-raTiliical features, see Leverett: "The Surface 
Geology of Michigan"; Leverett and Taylor: "The Pleisto- 
cene of Indiana and Michigan"; Bull. 461 and 559, U. S. 
Geol. Survev; "Results of Spirit-Ijeveling in Michigan"; 
"Dictionary' of Altitudes." 


among the forty-eight states of the Union, have 
strikingly determined her development. They opened 
up the way of settlement, first for the French of 
Canada, then for the Americans of the New England 
and Middle Atlantic states. They made possible the 
exportation of agricultural products when transpor- 
tation by railroad was in its infancy, and to a still 
greater extent the shipment of forest products was 
in their keeping. Without them a relatively small 
proportion of the wealth of copper and iron of the 
Lake Superior region would have been accessible to 
the requirements of the world's iiulustries, nor would 
the coal and other accessories of the mining industry 
have been as readily available without this avenue of 
the import and export trade. 

So well is the commercial importance of the Great 
Lakes waterway appreciated that Michigan has most 
eagerly promoted such schemes as have from time to 
time been brought forward for making improvements 
where nature's work was defective for the purposes 
of man. In 1855 the St. Mary's Ship Canal was 
completed, thus affording a shipway between Lake 
Superior and Lake Huron, while in 1860 and 1873 
ship canals were opened from Lake Superior into 
Portage Lake at either extremity, thus bringing navi- 
gation more accessible to the central area of the cop- 
per district. Then came the improvements of the 
St. Clair and Detroit rivers, while today the State 
enthusiastically urges on the proposed deep-watenvay 
to the ocean by the improved St. Lawrence route. 
Lake Superior, westernmost of the series of great 


lakes, is G02 feet above sea-level. A descent of 
twenty-one feet brings its waters to Lake Huron. The 
course through St. Clair Eiver and Lake and the 
Detroit Eiver lowers the waterway 8.63 feet to the 
level of Lake Erie. Then comes the stupendous drop 
through the Niagara gorge to Lake Ontario at 246.19 
feet elevation. Some 221 feet of the descent from 
Lake Ontario must be overcome by canals or slack- 
water navigation, before the Great Lakes can in any 
proper sense be put in touch with the world's mari- 
time trade. 

These vast "sweet Water seas," whose presence on 
the borders of the State has so definitely influenced 
the economic history of the commonwealth, have 
themselves had an intricate, but interesting, geologic 
history. The advance and recession of the glacial 
ice, the elevation and subsidence of the surface of 
the land, from time to time formed and reformed 
lakes of varied shapes and sizes along the line of 
the depressions which now contain their dwindled 
remains. These prehistoric glacial lakes are known 
by such names as Lake Saginaw, Lake Chicago, Lake 
Algonquin, Lake Duluth, and Lake Ontonagon, while 
the jSTipissing Great Lakes conformed on a some- 
what larger scale to the Great Lakes of the present 
era. Of these ancient bodies of water in the Michigan 
area, the outlet was sometimes by way of the Georgian 
Bay-Lake Simcoe route through Ontario; sometimes 
via the Chicago-Illinois Eiver depression into the 
Mississippi, or to the far northward over the line 
of the low ground between the west end of Lake 


Superior and the headwaters of the same mighty 
stream. Lake Saginaw drained westwardly through 
a depression corresponding to that which still bisects 
the northern and southern portions of the Lower 
Peninsula, where the height of land remains at no 
more than seventy-two feet above the level of Lake 
Huron. These low flat and wet partially submerged 
lands made infinite trouble for the pioneers of this 
region, but suggested the feasibility of a trans-state 
canal in the first years of statehood. These lands 
have by infinite labor and much drainage and with 
the removal of the forest, become among the most 
fertile sections of the State, the home of the culture 
of the sugar-beet, of dairying, of coal and of salt. 
The shores of these lakes of ages past may still be 
traced over the countryside. Their beds of deep 
clay, sand or gravel determine for some sections the 
quality of its agriculture. Even thus is the hand 
of the past still heavy in the affairs of today. 

The Great Lakes of today are maintained at their 
variable levels by a large number of rivers and 
rivulets, none of any great length or volume. Lake 
Erie receives the Raisin and the Huron; Lake St. 
Clair the Clinton; Lake Huron the Saginaw and 
Au Sable; Lake Michigan, the St. Joseph, the Kal- 
amazoo, the Grand, the IMuskegon, the Escanaba, 
Manistique and the Menominee; Lake Superior, the 
Taquamenon (of the Hiawatha story), the Ontonagon 
and the Montreal, and many others not related to 
Michigan. Of these rivers, the Saginaw, which com- 
bines the waters of the Cass, the Flint, the Shia- 

14 RURAL Michigan 

wassee and the Tittabawassee, drains the largest land 
area in Michigan — 6,250 square miles. ^ It reverses 
the direction of stream-flow, formerly debouching 
from old Lake Saginaw at this point. Even in flood 
time, the Saginaw may steal away some of the over- 
flow from its rival, the Grand River system, which 
leaves the Maple Kiver in the vicinity of Bannister 
and Ashley, Gratiot County, and makes an overland 
current into the Bad Eiver of the Saginaw basin. 
The Grand River drainage basin is put by Leverett 
at some 5,600 square miles, while the Muskegon 
drains 2,700; the Huron, 1,050; the Kalamazoo, 
Manistee and Au Sable, 1,000 square miles each. In 
the Upper Peninsula, the Manistique, an affluent of 
Lake Michigan, has the largest drainage basin, 1,400 
square miles, chiefly in Schoolcraft County and in- 
cluding the great Seney Swamp. Of the Lake Su- 
perior streams, the Ontonagon, with a drainage area 
of 1,250, and the Taquamenon, v/ith 800 square miles, 
including another large swamp area, are the most 
considerable. Michigan is charged with being the 
fifth wettest state in the Union.^ 

Michigan possesses a very large number of inland 
lakes, and formerly the numerous marshes and 
swamps gave the State a sinister reputation — not 
without cause — although it was their mosquitoes, 
and not their "miasmatic exhalations," that were 
responsible for the bone-racking ague of the early 
settlers. Here rise the streams and streamlets of 

* Leverett. 

''Miller and Simons: "Drainage in Michigan," 


the State, if not in one or another of the thousands 
of limpid springs that are derived from the copious 
subterranean waters of certain sections. 

Together, these interior water-courses have been 
intimately associated with the economic and social 
development of Michigan. They were the first and 
natural means of penetrating the inner fastnesses of 
the region. The early territorial and State statutes 
referred to them as "navigable/' and required that 
dams should include locking facilities for the passage 
of commerce up and down stream. Most of them 
would hardly warrant the designation, "navigable," 
today, for the effect of deforestation on "run-off" 
and stream-flow has been to flood the river valleys 
for a short season and then to leave them scant of 
water for the balance of the year. Nevertheless, 
steamers did run up the St. Joseph River to Niles, 
up the Grand River to Grand Rapids, and still ply 
the Saginaw for a few miles inland and on at least 
one ill-fortuned occasion sought a more interior point 
up the Shiawassee and Bad rivers. In the pioneer 
period there was much canoeing on all these streams, 
connected at intervals by portage paths where the 
Indians had showed the way to the incoming whites. 
There was much rafting of supplies, of logs and of 
lumber — a process which moved progressively north- 
ward as the lumberman's frontier receded from decade 
to decade. 



The effects of the Great Lakes are not confined 
to the obvions rehitions with commerce. They liave 
a definite influence on the climate of Michigan. Lake 
Superior has an area of 31,810 square miles. The 
superficial area of Lake Michigan is 22,400 square 
miles; of Lake Huron, 23,010; of Lake Erie, 9,940; 
and of Lake St. Clair, 460. Thus these five lakes 
have a total area of 87,620 square miles. The depth 
of Lake Superior reaches 1,180 feet; of Lake Mich- 
igan, 870; of Lake Huron, 750; of Lake Erie, 210, 
and of Lake St. Clair, 24 feet. Obviously this mass 
of water absorbs an immense vohnne of solar heat 
in summer and rehictantly yields it up again to the 
contiguous atmosphere, thus raising winter and lower- 
ing summer temperatures in the region within the 
scope of their influence. 

The records of the United States Weather Bureau 
taken at points on Lake Erie show a midsummer 
temperature ranging as high as 78 degrees during a 
period of more than eight years at Toledo, while 
Lake Huron and Lake Michigan averages run a few 
degrees cooler. The much greater volume of water 
in Lake Superior and its more northerly latitude 
keep its summer temperature well below that of its 
southerly relatives; yet here, too, the warming up 
process of July and August carries its surface ther- 
mometric readings to a point above 60 degrees. That 
the midwinter temperatures of all these lakes run 


down to freezing or only a few degrees above it, 
merely means that the waters of the lakes have yielded 
np their heat chiefly to the covering atmosphere, thus 
delaying the time of killing frosts and winter's cold. 
If Michigan were inclosed by areas of land instead of 
water, this process of heat radiation from earth to 
atmosphere would take place more rapidly and, in 
the northern districts of the State, early September 
would find the season of growth for crops brought 
definitely to an end. 

A chart prepared by the United States Weather 
Bureau's Grand Eapids office, based on observations 
covering a period of twenty-five years, brings out 
very graphically the effect of the Lakes in retarding 
autumnal frosts. In the minds of most persons, 
the country adjacent to Lake Superior is sufficiently 
remote to suggest a subarctic flora and fauna with 
native Eskimos dining on whale-blubber as dwellers 
by its shores. Yet in areas projecting into the Lake, 
such as the Keweenaw Peninsula and White Fish 
point, as this chart reveals, the first killing frost 
normally appears about October 10. The most south- 
erly counties of the Lower Peninsula, near the cen- 
ter-line of the State and so removed from the Lakes' 
ameliorating influence, terminate their growing-sea- 
son on the average at as early a date as Grand Marais 
or the West Keweenaw shore some four hundred miles 
to the north. Indeed, the lines passing through 
points in the Lower Peninsula having the same nor- 
mal date for the occurrence of the first killing frost 
of autumn, very strikingly are north and south lines, 


not east and west, beginning on the upper reaches 
of the lakes and terminating at interior points near 
the south boundary of the State. Thus the line for 
October 10 joins White Pigeon in St. Joseph County 
close to the Indiana line, and Grand Traverse Bay 
far to the north a little below the Straits of Mack- 
inac. St. Johns and Ionia just north of Lansing 
the capital of the State, normally receive their llrst 
killing frosts on September 30, as soon as Mackinac 
Island. Along the soutli shore of Lake Superior, 
the autumnal frost period is fixed at a progressively 
earlier date, and is three weeks earlier on the Me- 
nominee iron range near the Wisconsin boundary 
than in the copper country many miles to the north. 
Elevation may have its influence, but undoubtedly 
the lakes are the decisive factor. 

In the spring conditions in a measure are re- 
versed. The wintry waters of the lakes retard the 
approach of warm weather and of the day of the 
last killing frost. One notes, for example, that the 
date of the last killing frost in spring is some ten 
days later on the western shore of the Keweenaw 
Peninsula than at points on the western shore of 
the Lower Peninsula; but the delayed frosts of 
autumn give the copper region a growing period 
for vegetation of one hundred and twenty to one 
hundred and forty days, depending on location, 
and this is as much as can be said of the country 
north of Saginaw Bay in the Lower Peninsula, and 
even of some interior points as far south as Ann 
Arbor. It is a period only ten days shorter than 


much of the west Michigan coast-line enjoys, the 
predominantly fruit-producing section of the State. 
Indeed, many varieties of fruit do very well along 
the "sleak"' Lake Superior shore, where defects of 
soil rather than of climate hmit the productivity. 
The manner in which this influence of the Great 
Lakes is applied is directly related to the normal 
westerly direction of the winds. Grand Haven 
on the western shore of the Lower Peninsula has a 
temperature in winter averaging higher than that 
of Milwaukee on the opposite shore of Lake Mich- 
igan, while its summer temperature runs several 
points lower. Its coldest days in winter and its 
warmest days in summer are never so extreme in 
their range.^ This explains the presence of a "fruit- 
belt" in western IMiehigan and its absence in the 
eastern or Lake Huron-Lake Erie coast-line, al- 
though these lakes are normally of about the same 
temperature. The trend of the northern peninsula 
is west to east, so this influence of winds and lakes 
works out differently. ]\Iarquette's hottest summer 
days occur when the wind is southwesterly, deriving 
its torridity thus from the superheated land sur- 
face over which it is moving. Yet a shift to the 
northwest will, in a few minutes, cause one to seek 
protection from the frigidity of the outer air.^ Such 
hot blasts as occasionally afflict dwellers by this great 

'Seeley: "The Climate of Michigan and its Relation to 

^ July 14, 1920, in ten minutes the U. S. Weather Bureau 
thermometer fell 27 degrees. 


cold northern sea never come from the southeast, 
for in that direction lies Lake Michigan, fifty miles 
away but yet sufficiently close to exercise, it is pre- 
sumed, a positively ameliorating effect. 

The Lake Superior country is favored with sea- 
sonal sunnner rains almost without fail, this being 
attributed to the prevailingly northwesterly course 
of the summer winds. The fact that the winter 
temperatures do not reach the low points one would 
expect so far to the north and does find at points 
due west in Minnesota and North Dakota, is plainly 
due to the proximity of the tempering, if chilling, 
influence of this master lake. To realize how much 
of Michigan is exposed to this influence of the Great 
Lakes on its climate, one needs to bear in mind that, 
without measuring closely every indentation and 
projection of the shores, the coast-line of the Lower 
Peninsula is some 905 miles in length; that of the 
Upper Peninsula, 810 miles (a more precise meas- 
urement of the line of contact between land and water 
would considerably extend this distance).^ 

Factors other than the Great Lakes affect the 
conditions of life and agriculture in the northern 
and southern peninsulas. The extension of the 
State through six degrees of latitude affords the 
northern portions more daylight and more twilight 
in the growing period than is enjoyed by the south- 
ern counties. L. M. Geismax, county agent of 
Houghton County and formerly in charge of the 

' The coast-line of the St. Mary's, St. Clair and Detroit 
rivers is included in tlie foregoing figures. 


State Experiment Station at Chatham, Alger 
County, has computed the number of hours during 
which the sun is above the horizon for the period 
of six months from April 15 to October 15, for 
latitude 42 degrees north (approximately of Cold- 
water, Hillsdale and Adrian in the most southerly 
tier of counties) ; for latitude 43 degrees north 
(approximately of Port Huron and Grand Eapids) ; 
and for latitude 47 degrees north (approximately 
of Houghton on the Keweenaw Peninsula, Lake 
Superior) ; and he has ascertained the excess of 
possible sunlight for the forty-seventh parallel to 
be 56.33 hours when compared with the forty-third 
parallel, and to be 69.13 hours, when compared 
with parallel 42.^ The particular conclusion which 
Geismar derives from the foregoing study is that 
the Upper Peninsula of Michigan is very favorable 
to the growth of the sugar-beet, because the con- 
version of starch to sugar goes on in the presence 
of sunlight, and, consequently, that one may expect 
a greater sugar-content in beets grown in the north- 
ern peninsula as compared with the southern coun- 
ties of the State. 

The northern latitudes not only have an advantage 
over the southern in regard to their quantity of 
sunlight, but also in respect to twilight. Com- 
putations of the end of twilight for various latitudes 
falling within the boundaries of Michigan, made 
by W. J. Hussey, professor of astronomy of the 

^Forty-second Ann. Kept. vState Bd. Agr., Mich., 1903, 
p. 279. 

22 nruAL }f inn a AN 

University of i\Iiehigan, dipclosc the fact tliat for 
latitude 40 degrees and for .Tniie 10. twilight ter- 
niiiiates at !) : 'M) P. M., while for parallel 4(5, it ter- 
minates at 10: 29 P. M. A month later the favorable 
balance is 55 minutes. Combining these surpluses 
of twilight for all the days of the growing season, 
the total advantage of parallel 4G over parallel 42 
is 100 hours, 44 minutes, and of parallel 47 over 
parallel 42 is 141 hours, IS minutes.^ The pro- 
censes of growth in plants continue, it is pointed 
out, during the period of twilight. 

This considerable north and south extension of 
the State introduces other factors less favorable 
to agriculture in the northern counties. While the 
mean annual temperature of Michigan is placed 
by Schneider at 44 degrees, that of the two southern 
tiers of counties is approximately 48 degrees, and 
that of Calumet and Sault Ste. Marie in the ex- 
treme north but somewhat removed from the in- 
fluence of the lakes is approximately 39 degrees. 
The average maximum temperature of the interior 
portions of the Lower Peninsula is put at 85 to 90 
degrees, while that of the Upper Peninsula at 
Marquette is 58.5 degrees (jMay-September, thirty- 
three years' average). N'evertheless, the record for 
the highest summer temperature is held by Mar- 
quette on the south shore of Lake Superior, where, 
July 15, 1901, the thermometer at the station of 
the Weather Bureau registered 108 degrees. Winter 
temperatures in the northern peninsula range about 

' Computations by C. C. Spooner and L. ]\I. 


0, and in the southern peninsula some 10 degrees 
higher. Extreme minimum temperatures range 
from 25 to 40 degrees in the State, while the record 
for the lowest winter temperature is also held by 
the northern peninsula : namely, -49 degrees at Hum- 
boldt, Februar}^ 1899. ]\Iichigan experiences its 
coldest weather on the highlands of the iron ranges 
in the Upper Peninsula and in the central elevated 
areas of the northern section of the Lower Penin- 
sula. With snow on the ground from November 
to April, sometimes for a longer period, agriculture 
is crowded into a period of fewer days, of more 
daylight and twilight than the southern counties 
enjoy; while the winters present a special problem in 
the maintenance of live-stock.^ 

The lower temperatures normally prevailing in 
the higher latitudes seem to be primarily responsible 
for a "tone'" or "tang"' in the atmosphere not found 
farther south. To travelers between the two penin- 
sulas this condition is very noticeable, and is ex- 
plained by Schneider and other students of the 
climate of the State as resulting from the lower 
"absolute" humidity of the northern atmosphere, 
lower temperature, and the more rapid evaporation 
from the body, with a consequent feeling of ex- 
hilaration. Concurrently, the northern air is free 
from organic matter, due to the prevailing north- 
westerly trend of the winds, which thus pass over 

*U. S. Dept. Agr. : "Climatologj' of the United States," 
vVasl'in<rton. 1906, 556 (Sclineider ) . "Surface Geology of 
JMicliigan," 17, 


undeveloped wilderness north of Lake Superior and 
then the wide crystal waters of the great lake itself 
before traversing the haunts of men; and also by 
the absence of those plants that to the southward 
pollinize the atmosphere or otherwise freight it with 
organic substances. 

While for some crops, like sugar-beets, the actual 
quantity of sunshine received during the growing 
season is of vital importance, it will be of interest 
to compare the amount of sunshine occurring in 
the northern and southern peninsulas. The data 
for such a comparison has been prepared by C. F. 
Schneider, meteorologist of the United States 
Weather Bureau at Gr?.nd Eapids, who points out 
that the eastern one-third of the Upper Peninsula, 
and a strip of territory extending from Alpena to 
Mackinac in the northeastern section of the Lower 
Peninsula, are the cloudiest in Michigan, Averag- 
ing the records of actual sunshine reported for sta- 
tions having an automatic recording device, it has 
been ascertained that in April, 1919, 49 per cent 
of the possible amount of sunshine was received in 
the Upper Peninsula, and 47 per cent in the Lower 
Peninsula. In May the percentages were 67 for the 
Upper Peninsula, and 63 for the Lower Peninsula. 
Similarly in June the percentages were 70 and 76; 
in July, 75 and 75 ; in August, 5G and 65 ; in Sep- 
tember, 43 and 60; and in October, 34 and 42. 
These percentages are smaller for both peninsulas 
during the winter months without much to choose 
between them. The percentages for the summer 


months emphasize the greater prevalence of rainy 
days in the northern as compared with the southern 
section of the State. With an agriculture adapted 
to the peculiarities of each division, these figures 
do not imply that on the whole one has a decisive 
advantage over the other. 

Schneider points out that "there is more sunshine 
in the Upper Peninsula in May and July than in 
the Lower Peninsula, and for the four month period 
April to July, inclusive, there is somewhat more 
sunshine in the Upper Peninsula than in the Lower. 
After the end of July the days grow shorter more 
rapidly in the Upper Peninsula than in the Lower, 
and the differences in the amount of sunshine in the 
Upper and Lower Peninsulas become greater be- 
cause the winter days are shorter in the Upper 
Peninsula than in the Lower." 

If the normal temperature of the State is favor- 
able to agriculture, so also is the quantity and 
distribution of moisture. The normal annual pre- 
cipitation is stated by the United States Weather 
Bureau to be 32.91 inches for the whole State, which, 
coming mainly in the growing season, affords an 
ample allowance for vegetation. The annual supply 
of moisture is somewhat greater in the northern 
peninsula, namely, 34.58 inches. The most south- 
erly counties are second in quantity of precipitation: 
33.58 inches. The central area fares worst, with 
28.95 inches, while the northern section of the Lower 
Peninsula receives 30 inches. Summer droughts 
are not unknown, although normally the rainfall 


for July is some 3.5 inches and well distributed.^ 
At Marquette, for example, the records of the local 
station of the Weather Bureau indicate that ten 
days in May, twelve days in June, twelve days in 
July, August and September and fourteen days in 
October, normally have precipitation of one one- 
hundredth of an inch or more. At Lansing, simi- 
larly, the number of days with this amount of 
precipitation is twelve in May, eleven in June, ten 
in July, August and September and eleven in Oc- 
tober. Excessively copious downpours are rare. The 
typical "rainy day,'" of moderate protracted pre- 
cipitation, is a familiar feature of the Michigan 
climate, whether northern or southern. Yet thun- 
der-storms, occasionally of some violence, occur fre 
quently in summer, taking their toll of barns and 
other possessions of the Michigan farmer. The 
State's well-distributed precipitation not only pro- 
motes the growth of vegetation, it also maintains 
stream-flow and lake levels at a fairly uniform 
stage — a fact of nnich importance in the creation 
of power and of navigation. 

Hail-storms are both local and irregular in their 
distribution, but, according to Seeley, are less severe 
and less frequent near the Great Lakes. Hail- 
storm charts prepared by the United States Weather 
Bureau indicate that in 1918, three light and four 
severe hail-storms occurred in the Upper Peninsula; 
and eight light and seven severe hail-storms in the 
Lower Peninsula. In 1919, heavy hail-storms oc- 

"^Climatology of the U. S.," 556. 


curred in Alpena, Montcalm, Kent and Eaton conn- 
ties; while light hail-storms were reported from 
Keweenaw, Houghton, Marquette, Ontonagon, Alger, 
Luce, and Chippewa in the Upper Peninsula ; 
Chehoygan, Benzie, Grand Traverse, Crawford, 
Tosco, Ogemaw, Roscommon, Wexford, Montcalm, 
Saginaw, Genesee, Ionia, Kent, Allegan, Ingham, 
Oakland, Wayne. Calhoun, and Branch counties of 
the Lower Peninsula ; and moderately heavy hail 
occurred in Monroe. Hillsdale, St. Joseph, Van 
Buren, Washtenaw, Kent, Arenac, Mason, Wexford, 
Crawford, Alpena, Cheboygan, and Chippewa coun- 
ties. Some of these counties reported two, three 
or four hail-storms in the year. This indicates a 
wide distribution of hail-storms in Michigan, but 
their localized character results in a relatively small 
amount of damage. 

In winter, the precipitation does not vary mark- 
edly in the different quarters of the State. Normally 
at Calumet it is 7 inches, while at Ivan, Kalkai-ka 
County, in the northwestern Lower Peninsula, it 
is somewhat greater. Marquette on the south shore 
of Lake Superior has less precipitation in winter 
than Adrian near the Ohio boundary. Alpena on the 
Lake Huron shore and Grayling in the same latitude 
but in the interior have the same winter precipita- 
tion. Detroit, Alma and Sault Ste. Marie have ap- 
proximately the same precipitation in the winter 
months. For all these points the range is from 6.1 
to 6.6 inches. The premier position of Cah;met, 
lA'an and Grand Haven is due to elevation, to prox 


imity to one of the Great Lakes, to the prevailing 
direction of the wind, or to all of these factors taken 
together. While Escanaba and Cheboygan arc lo- 
cated on the Lake shore, their winter precipitation 
is less (4.6 and 5 inches, respectively), but each is 
on the leeward side of the State, and benefits accord- 

If. however, depth of snow rather than amount 
of precipitation is considered, a marked difference 
is noted between the northern and southern lati- 
tudes of Michigan. The normally lower tempera- 
tures which obtain to the northward produce snow 
rather than rain in the early and late months of 
winter, and rarely rise to the level of a thaw. Hence 
snow that falls in November may remain on the 
ground until April, occasionally longer. The effect 
of each storm is cumulative. The result is that 
Calumet enjoys as much as 120 inches of snow in 
a year, and Ishpeming nearly that quantity. In 
1891 Marquette had 172 inches of snow, while 
Houghton in the winter of 1919-1920 had the un- 
precedented snow-fall of 208 inches. On the av- 
erage, it has been 113 inches during the past twenty 
years. The counties bordering on Lake Huron in 
the southern peninsula have a deeper snow covering 
in winter, although less precipitation than those 
adjacent to Lake Michigan (50 to 60 inches), be- 
cause of the cooling effect of the land in one case 
and the warming effect of the lake in the other.- 

' "Cliraatoloffv of the U. S.." 556. 

^Seeley: "The Climate of Michigan," etc., 16-17. 


In the southern portion of the Upper Peninsula 
less than 50 inches of snow falls; in the interior 
of the southern peninsula, 30 to 50 inches. Thus, 
dwellers in the north may expect six months of 
sleighing, of winter sports, of winter feeding for 
their live-stock, of certain moisture and a safe cov- 
ering for winter grains and such vegetables as may 
be left in the ground until spring, of fields ready 
for the plow as soon as the snow disappears in April, 
and of a quick run-off of surface waters through 
the unfrosted soil. Yet to some the seemingly eternal 
snows of the north country become irksome, even 
appalling. The annals of the pioneers are replete 
with declarations of the utter loneliness, the terribly 
complete isolation which the deep snows of winter 
enforced on those who ventured to raise their roof- 
trees by Grand Traverse Bay or on the Copper 
Eange. Today, the telephone and the rural mail ser- 
vice, the tractor-drawn snow roller used on northern 
highways, farmers' clubs and rural winter life of 
the deep snow region, have made life more endurable. 
Destructive wind-storms are rare in Michigan, 
though by no means unknown. Their effect is very 
local. They are rare near the lakes. While Michigan 
is not commonly thought of in connection with tor- 
nadoes, they are sufficiently frequent to be taken 
account of in the extreme north as well as the ex- 
treme south of the State. A genuine "twister" oc- 
curred on the Keweenaw Peninsula near the entrance 
to Portage Lake on June 10, 1920, doing some 
damage to buildings and throwing down consider- 


able timber. A similar performance was observed 
over Houghton a few miles to the northeast on July 
31, 1913, but at most places did not descend to the 
point of destructive contact with the earth. That 
these were not the first such visitations to the Upper 
Peninsula is evident from the large tracts of "down" 
timber observed by Pumpelly and other early ex- 
plorers of the interior of the region. In the Lower 
Peninsula, the record of tornadoes associates them 
with the south central counties, where a few very 
violent storms have occurred, such as that in Oak- 
land County, May 25, 189G; at Owosso, Nov. 11, 
1911; near Charlotte, 1915; in Jackson, Calhoun 
and Ingham counties, 1917; between Ann Arbor and 
Dexter, 1917; and a series of tornadoes at several 
points simultaneously, including Fenton and St. 
Johns, March 28, 1920.^ Normally, however, winds 
of high velocity are unusual in Michigan. The 
maximum average hourly velocity is twelve and 
one-half miles in March and April, and the minimum 
velocity nine miles an hour in August and Sep- 
tember.^ Pare, too, are those intensely hot dry 
winds that blight growing crops and parch the earth 
with their torrid breath. Yet these also do occur, 
even if seldom, entering the State from its unpro- 
tected southwestern angle in both peninsulas, or 
arising from areas of superheated air within the 
State itself. Then, if the wind is off shore, the 
presence of one of the Great Lakes is of no avail, 

' Seeley, 22-23. 

' Schneider in "Surface Geology of Michigan," 17, 38, 


and one may blister in a fiery blast registering 105 
degrees in the shadows, as happened at Marquette 
in the summers of 1917 and 1918/ although the icy 
waters of Lake Superior are immediately at hand 
but powerless to relieve. 

From January to March, and from June to De- 
cember, the prevailing direction of the wind in the 
Lower Peninsula is from the west and the south- 
west; and while it prevails from the southwest in 
April and May, there is a considerable amount of 
east and northeast wind over the surface of the land. 
Here the westerly winds are warm and moist; the 
easterly winds are dry and indicative of unsettled 
weather.^ In the LTpper Peninsula, the prevailing 
northwest winds of the summer season, in the area 
adjacent to Lake Superior, bring abundant rains 
that, as C. F. Schneider observed years ago, keep 
summer pastures green and luxuriant and warrant 
belief in the future of this region as a dairy and 
live-stock country. 

'July 29, 1917—2 P.M.— at Marquette the temperature 
was 105 degrees F. and the wind blowing at the rate of 
twenty-four miles an I'oiir from the Son* Invest. July 28-30, 
1916, the temperature ranged from 100 to 101 degrees F. 
(maximum) and the wind's maximum velocity was 16.24 
and 28 miles an hour. 

^ Schneider in "Surface Geology of Michigan," 38. 




In the discussion of the soils of Michigan, it 
should be understood at the outset that there is 
little definite knowledge concerning them. The so- 
called "soil survey" is as yet only in its incipieney. 
Certain areas, a decade or more ago, were investigated 
by the United States Bureau of Soils. These lie 
in the counties of Allegan, Cass, Genesee, and 
Wexford ; whilst others are adjacent to Owosso, 
Alma, Saginaw, Oxford and Munising. More re- 
cently, through a cooperative arrangement between 
the Bureau of Soils and the Michigan Agricultural 
College, detailed surveys have been carried on in the 
counties of Calhoun and Berrien; while reconnais- 
sance work has proceeded in the area adjacent to 
Saginaw Bay, the "Thumb" district east of it, and 
the southeastern portion of the State. At present 
(August, 1921), work is in progress in St. Joseph 
and Ottawa counties in the Lower Peninsula, and 
in Ontonagon County in the Upper Peninsula. The 
earlier surveys are not now regarded, either by the 
United States Bureau of Soils or the Department 



of Soils of the Michigan Agricultural College, as 
meeting present standards and it is proposed to re- 
work them. 

In addition to the soil surveys just adverted to, 
a reconnaissance survey of the soils of the State, 
intended primarily to determine their glacial origin 
and resulting characteristics, has been carried for- 
ward by the Michigan Geological Survey under the 
immediate direction of Frank Leverett. The manu- 
script soil maps of this survey relate to twenty-nine 
counties,^ and are on file in the office of the State 

^ The list of counties and areas surveyed are as follows : 
County Square miles survej'ed: 

Alcona 680 

Alpena 579 

Antrim 478 

Benzie 319 

Cliarlevoix 414.4 

Cheboygan 724 

Clare " 569 

Crawford 561 .66 

Emmet 467.5 

Grand Traverse 458 

Iosco 553 

Isabella 576 

Kalkaska 561 

Lake 571 

Leelanau 342.6 

Manistee 540 

Mason 493 

Mecosta 565.5 

Missaukee 567 

Montmorency 555.5 

Newaygo 847 

Oceana 539 

Ogemaw 572 

Osceola 574 


Geologist at Lansing. They cover a total of 15,- 
970.66 square miles, or 10,221,232.4 acres. In addi- 
tion to the foregoing surveys, thirty "quadrangles" 
in the Lower Peninsula have been surveyed by the 
same agency, the manuscript maps of which are 
on fde in the office of the State Geologist. These 
quadrangles aggregate approximately 6,600 square 
miles, or 4,224.000 acres. A similar survey of the 
Upper Peninsula covers 16,660 square miles, or 
10,662,400 acres, a manuscript map of which has 
also been prepared by Leverett. The total of these 
items is 38,630.66 square miles, or 25,107,622.4 
acres, which Leverett has mapped thus for the Geo- 
logical Survey of ]\'richigan. Earlier surveys con- 
ducted by the State Geological Survey cover Huron, 
Sanilac, Wayne and Monroe counties; while certain 
quadrangles have been mapped by the United States 
Geological Survey.^ (See Fig. 2.) These surveys, 
it is to be understood, do not primarily relate to the 
agricultural possibilities of the soil. As yet no sur- 
\ey seems to contemplate a complete inventory or 
land classification, made with regard to all factors 

County Square miles surveyed: 

Oscoda .570.5 

Otsego 522 

Presque Isle 66!) 

Eoscommon 530 

Wexford 572 

Total, 15,970.66 square miles. 10.221,222.4 acres. — From 
statement by State Geolooist, Aug. 16, 1921. 

^ This statement is based on data submitted by the United 
States Bureau of Soils, the Department of Soils of the 
Michigan Agricultural College, and the State G-eologist. 

Fig. 2. Progress of soil-mapping in Michigan. 

Diagonal lines: Mapped by United States Bureau of Soils. 
Vertical lines: Mapped by' United States Geological Survey. 
Horizontal lines: flapped by ]\Iicliigan Geological Survey. 
Dotted lines: Mapped by Frank Leverett. 


that may affect the desirability of a given tract of 
Jand for agricultural purposes or rural life. 

The land surface of Michigan was relatively very 
accessible to settlement, but outside opinion regard- 
ing its quality was not in al] cases flattering. The 
most notorious instance of this unfavorable opinion 
is contained in the report of the United States 
surveyors, in charge of General Tiffin, who were 
expected to locate some two million acres of land 
in Michigan as bounty for the soldiers of the War 
of 1813. The report of this survey represents the 
southern portion of the Lower Peninsula as a suc- 
cession of lakes, swamps and marshes, between which 
was "a poor, barren, sandy land, on which scarcely 
any vegetation grows, except very small scrubby oak. 
In many places that part which may be called dry 
land is composed of little short sand hills forming 
a kind of deep basin, the bottom of many of which 
are composed of a marsh similar to those above 
described." General Tiffin closes his observations 
with the pronouncement that not more than one acre 
in one hundred — if in one thousand — would admit 
of cultivation.^ This was an opinion of 1815. Mrs. 
jS[ancy B. White, recalling her departure from New 
York for IMichigan in 1857, says her parents thought 
"we could hardly have made a poorer selection; we 
would have fever, and ague, and mosquitoes to con- 
tend with besides other hardships too numerous to 
mention." - 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XVIII, 660. 
^Ihid., XXII, 240. 


Detroit was said to be "foimded in an ancient 
mudhole." ^ The road from Detroit to Dearborn, 
says William C. Hoyt, "was the worst probably over 
which man and beast ever traveled." A. L. Driggs 
describes Michigan in 1835 as "a howling wilderness." 
There were fact and fancy in these allusions to the 
Michigan of the pioneer; and it was only gradually 
that surveyors, travelers and settlers made the true 
character of the country known. Indeed, even today, 
in the absence of any comprehensive soil survey 
and classification, there is much ignorance of surface 
conditions in the less developed areas of the State; 
and this ignorance has been taken advantage of in 
full measure by dishonest land sharks both within 
and without the State, to the detriment of its good 

There is in reality extraordinary variation in 
soil, as well as climatic conditions throughout the 
two peninsulas. Clays, sands, gravels, loams al- 
ternate with muck and marsh lands, with lakes and 
swamps, in some localities within very narrow limits, 
so that a description applicable to one parcel of 
land would be wholly inapplicable to an adjacent 
tract. With this condition, the repeated glaciation 
of the region within the Great Lakes has had much 
to do. Glaciation has created morainic ridges and 
eskers, usually of sand and gravel, drumlins and 
kames and ancient lake beaches, once wave-swept 
but now many miles inland, producing at the same 
time deposits of lake clays occasionally of great 

^Ibid., y, 01. 



depth. It lias produced .sandy "outwash aprons'' 
overlying soil of great agricultural value. It 
lias created depressions, where surface water accu- 
mulates, giving soils of all grades of moisture, de- 
posits of muck and peat, marshes, swamps and 
lakes. These conditions are characteristic of Mich- 
igan in a very high degree, and, as relates to the 
distribution of surface waters, more so in the early 
period of settlement than at present. Drainage 
and the removal of the forest cover have changed 
wet and subaqueous soils into arable land of good 
agricultural possil)ilities. On the other hand, the 
removal of forest from the surface of the land, par- 
ticularly from the uplands, and the cultivation of 
the soil, have favored denudation and erosion. In 
consequence, hill-tops have become barren, hill-sides 
have worn away, their surface soils have been re- 
moved to the adjacent low grounds or carried away 
in the run-off into the water-courses and permanently 
removed, to the ultimate impoverishment of the land 
and its abandonment for the uses of tillage. 

Commonly tlie richer soils bore a dense forest of 
hardwoods ; maples, elms, ash, beach, oaks, and hick- 
ories. White and Norway pines, spruce and balsam 
grew on the sandy uplands. Sometimes the situa- 
tion was reversed, as where, in the Upper Peninsula, 
white pines flourished on the clays of southern On- 
tonagon County and hardwoods on the sands of the 
Seney swamp country. Sometimes tall pines towered 
above the oaks and maples in the same half-acre, as 
along t1ie Thornapple and the Maple rivers. Cedars 


and tamaracks stood in the swamps. Nut-bearing 
trees were at home in the southern peninsula and 
in the southern portion of the northern peninsula. 
Enormous tulip-trees, or whitewood, caused the first 
settlers great trouble in becoming rid of them. Com- 
pensation came with the wild fruits and berries that 
throve from Point Keweenaw to the southernmost 

The first settlers of these same southern counties 
found attractive oak openings, — attractive because 
of their natural beauty and because they relieved the 
pioneer of the burden of deforesting the land. 
"Scales' Prairie," says Charles A. Weissert, "was 
a beautiful stretch of country about sixty acres in 
extent, surrounded like the banks of a lake with a 
hiffh forest and dotted with occasional islands of 
burr oak trees which rose above grass six feet tall 
that undulated in long billows before the breeze. 
Into this stretch of open land deer and bear often 
wandered, and thousands of flowers attracted swarms 
of wild bees.'' ^ To Bela Hubbard the oak openings 
of Oakland County apjieared as "a majestic or- 
chard of oaks and hitkories varied by small prairies, 
grassy lawns and clear lakes." ^ About Manchester, 
L. D. Watkins found white, red and yellow pine, and 
burr oaks, with hickory and a few scrub oaks on 
the sand hills.^ 

The pioneers are constantly recurring to the charm 

'"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXVIII, 665. 
'Ihifl.. 44!). 
^Ibid., XXII, 264. 


of these miniature prairies set down in the Michigan 
wilderness. By preference they established their 
farmsteads on them rather than essay the prodigious 
labor of creating a new clearing for themselves. The 
origin of these treeless tracts is not beyond question. 
Peculiarities of the soil may have caused some of 
them. J. A. Jeffery, formerly professor of soils at 
the Michigan Agricultural College, has remarked 
concerning one such prairie not far from Mies that 
it would not grow clover or wheat beyond a very light 
yield until after being cropped with rye and cow- 
peas, the rye cut off and the cowpeas turned under, 
when a normal clover crop was reported to have been 
secured. In some instances the soil of these open- 
ings is said to have been light, in other cases very 
good. There is much testimony that annual burn- 
ings carried on by the Indians in connection with 
their hunting operations were the chief reason for the 
existence of the oak openings or prairies. So far 
as known, they do not exist in the Upper Peninsula 
nor in the northern area of the Lower Peninsula. 
Elsewhere the clearing of the land has made their 
extent and location a matter of tradition, but they 
were undoubtedly very numerous and in the aggre- 
gate quite extensive. One finds references to them 
in most southern counties. They supplied pasture for 
the wild deer and for the live-stock of the settlers. 
With marsh-grass, they afforded winter forage. 



In the Lower Peninsula, agriculture began in the 
southern area adjacent to Lake Erie and the water- 
way connecting Lake Erie with Lake Huron. Here 
the elevation was normally low with poor drainage. 
The soils, composed mainly of glacial and lake clays, 
retained moisture with extreme tenacity, but with 
proper drainage became highly productive. The 
finely divided lake clays about Detroit, if excellent 
for truck-gardening, were also poor road material; 
and the narratives of the pioneers are replete with 
accounts of harrowing and disastrous experiences in 
their progress from the metropolis westward. In 
hot dry weather, these clays became hard and ex- 
tremely difficult to manage; yet they produced a 
primeval forest of elm, soft maple, basswood and 
black ash with some beech, hard maple, oak and 
whitewood on the higher and better drained por- 
tions. Under drainage, they have yielded wheat, 
corn, oats and hay and sugar-beets. Along the rivers 
were silt soils, very fertile but suffering from over- 
flow, furnishing luxuriant meadow grasses and a 
timber growth of ash, basswood, elm, walnut and 
butternut, willow, cottonwood and other varieties of 
trees. In the depressions were muck soils, and back 
from the shore were sandy lake-beds with some loams, 
as, for example, in the Pontiac area and in Northville 
and Plymouth townships of Wayne County. 

In Monroe County to the southward, the south- 


easternmost county of the State, the surface was un- 
usually level save where broken by old lake beaches 
or other glacial formations, here an Jinconspicuous 
feature of the landscape, or where scoured by water- 
courses. The clays have yielded well of wheat, oats 
and corn, and their richness in calcium carbonate 
derived from decomposed limestone within the 
county and to the northward, has adapted the sec- 
tion to fruit-culture, particularly the grape. Grapes 
grew wild here in great abundance and of great 
size, vines being mentioned six and eight inches in 
diameter.^ Hence came the name of the most south- 
easterly river in Michigan, the "Raisin," the scene 
of a military tragedy in the War of 1812, along 
whose marshy shores dwelt many French inhabitants 
a century ago. The sands produced potatoes, beans 
and buckwheat, with record yields of squashes. The 
State Geologist has also dwelt on the possibilities 
of Monroe County for sweet potatoes and sugar-beets, 
but as yet there is little to chronicle under this head. 
The marshes contributed cranberries, celery and 
peppermint, while from Monroe plantings of wild 
rice have been sent as far as the lakes of the Kewee- 
naw Peninsula in the far north. The forest cover 
resembled that of Wayne County, with the addition 
of a notable belt of hickory in Milan Township. 

From this coastal area population moved west and 
northwest into the interior of the territory and, 
after 1837, the State. It passed beyond the ancient 

' See map of the surface formations pf the southern pen- 
insula of Michigan. 


sandy lal^e-bed west of this clay area adjacent to 
the shore, into the bowlder clay region of Wash- 
tenaw and Oakland counties, resulting in the found- 
ing of Pontiac in 1818 at an elevation of some 350 
feet above the level of Lake Erie, and at Ann Arbor 
in 1824, at an elevation of 300 feet above the same 
datum. Adrian in Lenawee County was established 
on soil described as that of a sandy lake-bed but 
with bowlder clay in the vicinity, in 1825, at an 
elevation of less than 250 feet above Lake Erie. 
Moving westward from this point, the settlers en- 
countered a variety of soil conditions : morainic soils 
predominating in Hillsdale County, bowlder clay in 
Branch County with some sandy lake-beds; outwash 
plains in St. Joseph County, found again in Cass 
County with morainic soils, again terminating in 
the variegated soils of Berrien County and the dunes 
of the Lake Michigan shore. In this southern tier 
of counties, settlement took place at Coldwater, plat- 
ted as a village in 1832, while Niles, well to the 
westward but favorably situated on the St. Joseph 
River, had already come into existence in 1829. In 
the second tier of counties, settlement reached 
Jackson in 1829, Battle Creek in 1831, and Kala- 
mazoo whose site was selected in 1829. In Jackson 
County there are considerable outwash plains, which 
soil also predominates in the counties to the west- 
ward as far as Lake Michigan. As settlement moved 
westward from Ann Arbor through this second tier 
of counties, the elevation of the land rose steadily, 
Jackson standing some 60 feet higher than Ann 


Arbor. There is a descent of 120 feet to Battle 
Creek, and an additional descent of 50 feet to 
Kalamazoo. Tliis may serve to illustrate some ele- 
mental facts in the settlement of the oldest agri- 
cultural counties of the Lower Peninsula. 

Settlement moved northwesterly from the head of 
Lake Erie and its connecting waters as early as due 
westerly. Settlement reached Genesee County some 
six years after the founding of Pontiac to the south- 
east. Clinton County was reached nearly as soon, 
while Louis Campau took up land on the site of 
Grand Eapids in 1831. With reference to the soil 
in this area, there is lake clay west of Lake St. 
Clair, bowlder clay, outwash plains and moraine for- 
mations in Livingston County, bowlder clay again in 
central Ingham County with other soil types al- 
ready noted surrounding it. ]\Ioraines and bowlder 
clay belts largely cover Eaton County, while moraines 
predominate in Barry County, with some outwash 
plains in the west and south. Finally, in Allegan 
County on the Lake Michigan shore, a mixture of 
soil types occurs. A similar condition obtains in 
Ottawa County to the northward, with a small por- 
tion of it represented as bowlder clay. Moraines are 
an important feature of the soil surface of Kent 
Coimty, with lake-bed sand adjoining Grand River, 
bowlder clay southeast and northeast of Grand 
Eapids, and outwash plains north and south of it. 
Zones of bowlder clay and of sand pass through 
Ionia, Clinton and Shiawassee counties, interspersed 
with morainic formations, which continue i]ito 


Genesee County with lake clay in the vicinity of 
Flint. Lapeer County has bowlder clay, lake clay, 
moraines and swamp lauds, returning again to lake 
clay in the river area of St. Clair County. The 
elevations in this second and third tier of counties 
do not run quite so high as those to the southward, 
Grand Eapids standing at approximately 50 feet 
above Lake Michigan, Flint 135 feet above Lake 
Huron, Lapeer more than 100 feet higher, St. Johns 
less than 200 feet, and Charlotte nearly 350 feet 
above the same datum. 

Along the shore of "The Thumb" east of Saginaw 
Bay is a belt of lake clay and, farther back, another 
belt of sand, with areas of bowlder clay and morainal 
soils. A wide and deep bed of lake clay surrounds 
Saginaw Br.y and projects itself southwestward 
through Saginaw and Gratiot counties. Moraines 
and dunes appear here and there in this region. This 
area has a very low elevation above Saginaw Bay, 
and this fact, together with the character of its soil 
and topography, rendered the whole district one of 
the wettest in the State before cultivation and ar- 
tificial drainage made it one of the most productive. 
The normal fertility of the clay areas is reinforced 
by the frequent inundation of parts of the region. 

North of this Saginaw Bay-Grand Eiver section 
lies a country in which to the Straits of Mackinac 
sandy soil predominates, although it is at points 
interspersed with clay. It is the area in which the 
glacial drift lies deepest and in which the morainal 
elevations are the highest. Cadillac stands at more 


than 700 feet above the level of Lake Michigan and 
Lake Huron, Grayling at 550 feet, and Roscommon 
nearly the same, all in the heart of this region. Al- 
though Saginaw and Bay City, at the southern edge 
of this northern half of the Lower Peninsula, had 
received settlers before Michigan became a state, 
much of the region remained unoccupied until the 
period subsequent to the Civil War, when the removal 
of much of the timber from the southern counties 
compelled recourse to the vast forests beyond 
Saginaw Bay and Grand Biver. This was the native 
habitat of the white pine, crowded off the richer 
soils to the southward by the more aggressive hard- 
woods. The demand for its forest resources brought 
an extension of railroad facilities into this section 
and of settlement ; but with the steady deforestation 
of the region, millions of its acres became and have 
remained non-productive through defects of soil for 
normal agriculture, and for many of its counties 
the census of 1920 shows a positive decline in popu- 
lation. Thus Kalkaska County, which had 8,097 
inhabitants in 1910, reduced its population to 5,577 
in 1920. Alpena County returned 19,965 persons 
in 1910, and 17,869 a decade later. Oscoda County 
fell from 2,027 to 1,783.^ A notable decline oc- 
curred in Manistee County whose census returns in- 
dicated a loss of 5,799 inhabitants. 

As illustrative of the natural vegetation of this 
region, the results of a study undertaken in 1902 
by B. E. Livingston may be summarized, covering 

'Preliminary Announcement of Population, Aug. 14, 1920, 


an area of some 600 square miles in Eoscommon 
and Crawford counties, now comprised largely in 
the State's forests adjacent to Houghton Lake and 
Higgins Lake.^ Moraines and outwash plains, sandy 
in composition, mainly characterize the district. 
There are small areas of swamp in the depressions 
and of clay soil. At some other points the clay 
underlies the sandy outwash of the surface, in some 
places at considerable depth. On the uplands were 
found the hardwood type; the white pine; the iSTor- 
way pine; the jack pine; and on the lowlands ap- 
peared the open meadow type; the tamarack-arbor- 
vitae and the mixed type. This region had been 
deforested and suffered much from fire, but where 
the soil and moisture conditions were favorable, Liv- 
ingston found evidence that the white and Norway 
pines were reproducing themselves, and orchards 
promised well on the ridges and sandy loams. He 
observed, as others have done, that the frequent burn- 
ing of the humus had impoverished the soil and by 
so much retarded its development for agricultural 
and sylvicultural purposes. His opinion regarding 
the future of the region was that, "on the uplands 
most of the rlifferent kinds of soil have been tested 
for agriculture, the clay hills and the clay plains, 
both of comparatively small extent, make excellent 
farming lands. The gravelly and loamy sand of most 
of the ridges is easily tilled, and, with enough care, 

^ Rept. of State Bd. Geol. Survey of Mich., for the year 
190.3: Lansing. l^Oo: Off. Cf. Leverett and Taylor: "The 
Pleistocene of Indiana and Michigan." 


yields good crops, but the soil is too light, and the 
amount of energy necessarily expended in cultivation 
is much greater than in heavier soils. On the worst 
sand plains, originally covered with very open stands 
of jack pine and scarlet oak, tillage is almost out of 
the question. With constant manuring and cultiva- 
tion this sand can be held in place and made to pro- 
duce fair crops, but the expense, in time and energy, 
if not actually in money, make such crops cost more 
than they will actually bring on the market. Some 
of this land is so situated that irrigation would be 
possible, and this may sometime become a practical 
line of investment. The grazing of cattle on the 
Norway and jack pine plains is practicable, and is 
being carried out successfully by several holders in 
Roscommon County. Several forms of bunch grass 
and the shade of the scrubby oaks and pines are 
the valuable features. But it requires many acres 
for a few cattle, and it is doubtful whether the small 
land-holder can ever accomplish much in this direc- 
tion. The swamps which are abundant in the region, 
would all make excellent garden land if properly 
cleared and drained." 


That part of the Upper Peninsula lying east of 
the latitude of Marquette is relatively flat and, be- 
cause of insufficient natural drainage, contains much 
land unfit for agriculture. Much of it is underlain 
with limestone, and where other conditions are favor- 


able, as southeast of Marquette and adjacent to Big 
Bay de Noc, contains some excellent agricultural 
land. The extreme eastern portion adjacent to Sault 
Ste. Marie is composed mainly of heavy clay soil, 
which has for years been one of the best hay-pro- 
ducing sections of the State. Near the shore of 
Lake Superior and south of Marquette are sandy 
districts less suited or quite unfit for agriculture, 
although, near the lake, excellent fur fruit. The 
western half of the Peninsula contains much rugged 
country, with outcrops of bed rock. In Ontonagon 
County and portions of Houghton and Gogebic 
counties are districts of deep clay soil, some of it 
undoubtedly potentially the most productive in the 
State, where clover grows wild in remarkable luxuri- 
ance, and where yields of potatoes exceeding five 
hundred bushels an acre have been secured. By a 
curious inversion, white pines grow on these "Ewen 
clays"' and hardwoods appear on tlie "Seney sands'' 
east of Marquette, and do extremely well in both 
cases. In the west is the area of the metamorphic 
rocks containing iron and copper, with lesser quan- 
tities of gold, silver, graphite and marble. The 
eastern section of the Peninsula is a region of strati- 
fied limestones, sandstones and shales, in places lying 
so close to the surface as to make tillage difficult 
or impossible, although, as in the Big Bay de N"oc 
section north of Point Detour, a vigorous hardwood 
forest, especially of hard maple, once clung to the 
surface and, where permitted so to do, is reprodiicing 
itself today. Here, alone in the Upper Peninsula, 


SO far as is known, the butternut grows wild in 
abundance, as does the wild cherry, indicative of 
conditions favorable to the domesticated types. 

It is quite impossible to generalize concerning 
soil conditions in the northern peninsula, since fre- 
quently within a very few miles one traverses vary- 
ing types of soil. On the copper range, for example, 
areas of rugged country, with naked outcrops of 
greenstone, pass quickly into fertile valleys of clay 
soil, of lake sand, or of swamp. The general im- 
pression of the whole region gained from a cursory 
journey by railroad from Sault Ste. Marie to Iron- 
wood, is that of a barren undeveloped land, whereas, 
some miles off the line areas of great natural fertility 
exist and in some instances (as in the "Green (Tar- 
den" district southeast of Marquette, in the Ford 
Eiver country, and on the "Garden" peninsula) pre- 
sents a well-established and productive agriculture. 

If the geology and topography of the eastern and 
western sections of the northern peninsula present 
contrasts to each other, so does their normal ele- 
vation. Thus Newberry and McMillan, in the heart 
of this eastern area, have an elevation above Lake 
Superior of 154 and 123 feet respectively. To the 
westward, Chatham, where an experiment station 
of the Michigan Agricultural College is located, is 
265 feet above the same datum. But when the Mar- 
quette iron range is reached, at the eastern edge of 
the high western table-land, Negaunee stands from 
763 to 817 feet above Lake Superior, and Ishpeming 
close by 868 feet at the maximum recorded point. 


Continuing westward, ]\Iichigammc and Sidnaw, 
with an elevation of 979 and 763 feet, illustrate the 
greatly increased altitude of the Avestern half of 
the Peninsula, which continues to Ironwood in the 
extreme west, whose elevation ahove Lake Superior 
is about 900 feet ; along the height of the Copper 
Range on the Keweenaw peninsula, where Calumet 
is more than 600 feet above the same lake; and 
far to the southward, where Iron Mountain has 
nearly as great an elevation above the level of Lake 

It is in this western area that the maximum ele- 
vation in the State is reached in the Porcupine 
Mountains (2,023 feet above sea-level). Lake ports, 
like Marquette, Munising, Houghton, Hancock, 
Escanaba, Gladstone, and ]\Ianistique, have, of 
course, a much lower altitude than interior points 
such as have been designated here. It is also strik- 
ing that the height of land in the Upper Peninsula 
is generally much closer to Lake Superior than to 
the lakes on its southern shore, so that the streams 
flowing into Lake Superior are usually very short 
and rapid, and carry a small volume of water. Even 
so, small streams, like the Carp, the Au Train and 
Dead River, have had their water-powers utilized 
quite to their full capacity. 

It was under these conditions of soil and eleva- 
tion that settlement in the Upper Peninsula took 

' These altitudes are derived from the "Dictionary of Al- 
titudes," puhlished by the U. S. Geol. Survey, where the 
datum is sea-level. 


place. With the exception of old to^\^ls, like St. 
Ignace and Sault Ste. Marie, dating from the French 
period, it set in much later in the northern penin- 
sula than in the southern. ISTational sovereignty was 
not asserted here until 1820, and the full extinction 
of the Indian title came a generation later. Mining, 
rather than agriculture, attracted the first settlers 
after the fur traders; and mining awaited the elimi- 
nation of the Indian title to the land and the geo- 
logical and linear survey of the region by the State 
and the United States. By 1845 mining was defi- 
nitely under way on the copper range in what is 
now Keweenaw County, and a year or so later on 
the Marquette iron range about Negaunee and 
Ishpeming. Then the immense forest resources of 
the Peninsula attracted still other settlers. From 
those who came to the district as miners and lum- 
bermen, numbers eventually turned to agriculture, 
notably so among the Finns. At last, steps are 
being definitely taken to attract and place on the 
undeveloped lands those who will be farmers from 
the outset. Leverett estimates the tillable lands 
of the Upper Peninsula at 65 per cent of the total. 
Some regard this as over-optimistic; but in any 
case, the great variation in the character of the soil 
renders it important that great care should be taken 
to select good agricultural lands, of which there are 
an abundance, since the heavy snows maintained 
for five or six months in the year represent a suffi- 
cient handicap without adverse soil conditions to 
contend with. Because of the ample amount of 


forage, wild and domesticated, produced on the vast 
iintilled areas of the Peninsula^ there has been a 
large increase in the acreage devoted to grazing. 
Western sheep have been brought hither in consid- 
erable numbers during seasons of drought on the 
western ranges. It is presumed that these grazing 
lands will eventually come under cultivation. 


It has been estimated that formerly one-seventh 
of the surface of Michigan was covered with swamps 
and marshes comprising much soil that is described 
as muck and peat.^ There was thus a certain meas- 
ure of truth in the early unfavorable opinions re- 
garding the unsuitability of large tracts for agri- 
culture. These muck-lands were distributed quite 
uniformly throughout the two peninsulas, more 
commonly in inter-morainal depressions and along 
the waterways, where natural drainage was insuffi- 
cient.' The largest such area in the State is in 
the northern peninsula, extending east and west 
between Marquette and Sault Ste. Marie (though well 
within these limits) and filling in much of the terri- 
tory between Lake Superior on the north and Lakes 
Huron and Michigan on the south. There are con- 
siderable areas of excellent tillable lands in this por- 
tion of the Peninsula, but there are larger areas 
which must await drainage and careful husbandry 

'Davis: "Peat"; Mich. Geol. Survey, 1907, p. 289. 
Ubid., Plates 16 and 17. 


to yield farm crops. The presence of this great 
tract of wet land is primarily due to the formation 
of ledges of rock near the lake shore which inter- 
fere with river drainage. Throughout the northern 
section of the State, lower temperatures and the 
normal absence of hot drying winds retard evapora- 
tion and decomposition of peat-forming material. 
p]ventually these peat deposits may become of great 
commercial importance as fuel. Already a begin- 
ning has been made in the manufacture of fer- 
tilizer. In the northern peninsula little attention 
has been given to the extensive muck-lands of the 
district, since there remain large areas of as yet 
undeveloped cut-over lands. Celery of excellent 
quality but not of a large quantity has for some 
years been marketed from the region of the Taqua- 
menon swamp east of Newberry. Here the soil is 
reported to be clay of considerable depth. To the 
westward, on the Seney swamp experiments have 
been undertaken to ascertain the practicability of 
here growing mint and cereals. The soil has a sub- 
stratum of sand. Along the Sturgeon River in 
southern Houghton County an extensive drainage 
operation was rendered abortive, it is said, because 
of the non-reduction of the vegetable deposits to a 
condition suitable for plant growth. More recently 
attempts have been made to convert these deposits 
into fertilizer. 

In the southern peninsula, large areas of muck- 
lands are now under cultivation. The celery and 
mint production on these lands in the southwestern 


counties has become very well known. ^ In other 
districts corn has done very well, and some muck- 

^ Davis gives tlie following analysis of muck soil used in 
the growing of celery: Kalamazoo soil: 

Sand and silicates 19.16 

Alumina 1.40 

Oxide of iron 3.it4 6.9 

Lime, Magnesia, Potash, Soda 7.62 

Sulfuric acid 1.31 

Phosphoric acid 88 

Carbonic acid 1.95 

Organic matter containing 2.53 nitrogen ..63.76 

Water 6.51 

Grand Haven celery soil (Lower Peninsula) 

Parts per 100: 

Sand and silicates 24.09 

Alumina 1.71 

Oxide of iron 3.52 

Lime 5.02 

Alagnesia 62 

Potash 20 

Soda 33 

Sulfuric acid L04 

Pliosphoric acid fi9 

Carbonic acid 1.05 

Organic matter containing 2.32 nitrogen ..61.73 

Water 10.85 

Newberry celery soil: Parts per 100: 

Sand and silicates 24.56 

Alumina 2.21 

Oxide of iron 1 -30 

Lime 4.18 

Magnesia 75 

Potasli 42 

Soda 40 

Sulfuric acid 67 

Phosphoric acid 46 

Carbonic acid 1.^0 

Organic matter, containing 1.75 nitrogen ..63.75 
Water 7.31 

—Davis: "Peat," 293. 


farm enthusiasts urge that these lands are avail- 
able for general farming without discrimination ; 
but experience seems to have demonstrated that 
sugar-beets, especially as regards sugar-content, are 
not adapted to such soils. 

The farmers on muck-lands are well organized 
with a view to the' improvement of methods through 
their collective experience. Eventually these muck- 
lands, once regarded as a liability, may become an 
economic asset of great value, because of the fuel, 
the fertilizer and the crops which they produce, 
when the depletion of the resources of the land at 
present suffering exploitation, brings the bogs, 
swamps and marshes within the margin of eco- 
nomical production. 


Unlike some districts of the United States and 
Canada, there are no important, if any, portions 
of the State that are not supplied with underground 
water, usually of a chemical composition and iem- 
perature rendering it at once serviceable to man 
and beast. There are, indeed, few counties from 
Keweenaw in the extreme north, to Monroe and 
•Berrien at the extreme southeast and southwest cor- 
ners of the Lower Peninsula, in which artesian wells 
and springs do not occur, and at some points in 
great abundance. Artesian wells are usually se- 
cured at depths of less than one hundred feet, fre- 
quently much less than this. The Marshall sand- 


stone is a famous reservoir of artesian waters. The 
glacial drift being deep over most of the southern 
peninsula, springs commonly emerge at the base of 
an ancient lake beach or from the drift along a 
water-course or lake shore. One sometimes finds 
them debouching from the bed rock, as in the case 
of those which flow in great profusion out of the 
limestone bordering the An Train near Lake Su- 
perior. In country adjacent to the Maple River 
in Gratiot County, there are few farms which do 
not have their ready flow of water from wells sunk 
in the covering clay. Along the eastern and west- 
ern shore-lines of the southern peninsula, artesian 
wells are abundant. At Alma in 1897 a calcula- 
tion made by a student in Alma College was to 
the effect that the seventy-two wells in the place 
were producing 222 times as much water as the 
people were using. Indeed, in seasons of drought 
a more conservative method of utilizing these sub- 
terranean waters might better serve the private and 
public welfare. The geology and topography of 
the State are favorable to their formation, but in 
some localities, at least, they are demonstrably not 
inexhaustible. In many sections they are an ex- 
tremely convenient source of a rural water supply, 
and are much i)rized even in urban communities. 
Fortunately, unlike some other natural resources, 
nature replenishes the depleted stocks of under- 
ground waters, except in the case of some springs 
whicli depend immediately on surface conditions, 
and whicli have become extinct with the removal 


of the forest cover or with artificial surface drain- 

In the Upper Peninsula, the dip of the paleozoic 
rocks in the eastern portion of the district is from 
north to south, the divide, as already stated, being 
rather close to Lake Superior. This affords condi- 
tions favorable to artesian wells along the southern 
zone approaching the shore of Lake Michigan; and, 
in fact, such wells have been found at or near 
Menominee, Escanaba, Gladstone, Manistique, and 
St. Ignace, at Newberry in the Taquamenon swamp 
area, and at Ewen, in Ontonagon County, but, so 
far as is known, not near the Lake Superior shore, 
although an attempt was made to secure such a 
well at Grand Marais. A. C. Lane, State Geologist 
in 1903, considered portions of the Lake Superior 
shore west of Marquette, and west of the copper 
range, favorable to such wells, but in the main this 
region is free from them. On the copper range 
itself and the iron ranges, the geologic structure is 
unfavorable to their existence. At some points, as 
along the bluffs facing Portage Lake on the Kewee- 
naw Peninsula, springs are abundant and of ample 

' For analvses of waters from wells throughout the State, 
see the Report of the State Bd. of Geol. Survey for 1903, 
which also contains much data in regard to the water sup- 
ply of the State. Other data may be found in other reports 
of the Geol. Survey and in special "Water Supply Papers," 



An idea of the natural productivity of the soil 
is commonly trained from the character of the vege- 
tation, especially forest growth, found naturally 
upon it. The early settlers of Michigan have in 
numerous instances left accounts of the primeval 
vegetation which they encountered as they pressed 
into the wilderness; and special studies have from 
time to time appeared in the publications of the 
State Geological and Biological Survey, the Uni- 
versity of Michigan and elsewhere. How the fertile 
clay soil about the site of Detroit brought forth 
abundantly the native fruits of the earth is de- 
scribed in glowing terms by the founder of the city. 
Of the Detroit Eiver, "the banks," writes Cadillac, 
"are so many vast meadows where the freshness 
of these beautiful streams keeps the grass always 
green. These same meadows are fringed with long 
and broad avenues of fruit-trees which have never 
felt the careful hand of the watchful gardener; and 
fruit-trees, young and old, droop under the weight 
and multitude of their fruit, and bend their 
branches toward the fertile soil which has produced 
them. In this soil so fertile, the ambitious vine 
which has not yet wept under the knife of the in- 
dustrious vine-dresser, forms a thick roof with its 
broad leaves and its heavy clusters over the head of 
whatever it twines round, whicli it often stifles by 
embracing it too closely. The woods are of six 


kinds: Walnut trees, white oaks, red, bastard ash, 
ivy, white wood trees and cotton wood trees. But 
these same trees are as straight as arrows without 
knots, and almost without branches except near the 
top, and of enormous size and height." 

Of the country about tlie headwaters of the 
Eaisin, Grand, Huron, Kalamazoo and St. Joseph 
rivers in the vicinity of Manchester, Jackson County, 
L. D. Watkins has left a description, which states 
that on the openings "the principal timber trees 
were white, red, yellow pine, and burr oak, hickory, 
and a few scrub oaks on the sand hills. On the 
border of streams, on the bluffs, and on the north 
side of lakes we found a great many trees that in 
regular order of distribution would be far to the 
north or south of us. These strangers form with 
our indigenous forests, a regular conglomerate of 
the forests of three sections, each with its peculiar 
forest grove. From the southward we have the Buck- 
eye, white wood, honey locust, Kentucky coffee-tree, 
mulberry, black haw and many others. From the 
north came hemlock, pine and spruce." 

Eaton County, says Edward W. Barber, "was a 
region of great trees, beech and maple, elm and 
ash, basswood and cherry, with scattered oak and 
•black walnut, a thick undergrowth of saplings; and 
where the land was low by some swamp or stream 
wild grape-vines climbed to tall tree tops." ^ Harriet 
Munro Longyear has described the forest growth of 
Clinton County as she saw it in 1836. "Much to 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXII, 264. 












their (her family's) surprise,"' she writes, ''they 
found the state satisfactory. They liked the beauti- 
ful forests with their beautiful trees. My father 
was captivated at first sight, arguing that land 
which supported such a growth of trees would 
raise anything planted. There were the black wal- 
nut, butternut, hickory, black cherry, bird's-eye 
maple, curled maple, sugar maple, silver-leaf maple, 
beech, basswood, sycamore, ironwood, white, black 
and burr oaks; many being three and four feet in 
diameter, and the tulip-tree with its beautiful 
foliage and lovely blossoms." ^ A heavy growth of 
hickory stood on the present site of East Saginaw.^ 
A letter "From a gentleman in the j\Iichigan Terri- 
tory," writing under date of October 1, 1823, re- 
marks "how incorrect are our ideas in New Eng- 
land respecting this territory. I find the land (near 
Detroit) rich and luxuriant, generally heavy tim- 
bered, and interspersed with numerous streams of 
good, pure water. It is a limestone country, and 
level, but in few instances too much so for cultiva- 
tion.^ The banks of the Thornapple were lined 
with immense trees that darkened the waters with 
their shade. Far over the current leaned the sil- 
very trunks of sycamores equaled in height only 
by elms that over-topped the surrounding forest. 
Beneath the taller trees cedars darkened the gloom 
of the woods. Scattered along the banks were pines, 

^Ihid., XXXTX, .360. 
-IhifJ., VII, 27.3. 
Ubiil., VII, 74. 


which seemed to realize that they were not natives 
and were in strange company for they grew in 
groups with branches fraternally interplaced." ^ 

Of the forest of the valley of the Shiawassee 
Eiver, Bela Hubbard wrote: "The woods of this 
part of ]\Iichigan comprised a very mingled growth. 
Oaks, not gnarled and spreading, as in the more 
open lands, but at once massive and tall, and of 
centuries' age; the elm, that most graceful and 
majestic of trees of any land; the tulip, or white- 
wood, magnificent in size and height above even the 
Titans of the forest; the broad and green-leaved 
linden; the clean-bodied beech; the saccharine 
maples, so superb in their autumnal dresses — dyed, 
like Joseph's coat of many colors; the giant syca- 
more, ghost-like with its white, naked limbs — these 
are the common habitants of the forest. We have 
reached, too, the latitude of the evergreens, which 
from hence northward to the farthest limits, be- 
came a distinguishing feature of the Michigan forest, 
imparting to them a more wonderful variety and 
majesty. Many a towering pine, 150 feet in height, 
now began to lift its head above its fellow in- 
habiters, green through youth and age, through \er- 
dure and frost. In many places the desert gloom 
was deepened by the dense and somber shade of 
hemlocks, which bent their graceful spray to the 
earth, and almost shut out the light of day. We 
took the measure of a white oak that stood at the 
border of the timbered land and the openings. It 
'Ibid., XXXVIII, 664. 


was thirty-five feet in circumference, — nearly twelve 
feet diameter." ^ 

Xorth of a line drawn from the southern end of 
Lake Huron to the mouth of Grand Eiver was pre- 
eminently the native habitat of the white pine in 
Michigan. As already indicated, it was found south 
of this line, most notably in the much-prized type 
designated "cork" pine. The clays and loams of 
the southern counties were mainly preempted by the 
hardwoods, leaving the sandy plains and ridges of 
the northern area to the pines and spruces. Even 
in this section, where heavier soils appeared, the 
hardwoods were likely to supersede the pines. Thus 
Leverett notes a maple forest on the clay ridge at 
the headwaters of the Manistee and Au Sable rivers. 
On the other hand, the tendency of things to go 
awry north of the Straits, which Lovejoy has noted, 
is illustrated by the presence of white pine on the 
deep heavy clays about Ewen in southern Ontonagon 
County, while hardwoods flourish on the deep sands 
near Shinglcton, where the soil augur of J. A. Jeffery, 
Land Commissioner of the Duluth, South Shore and 
Atlantic Eailway, showed sand down at least six 
feet in depth. Spalding and Fernow describe the 
distribution of the white pine in Michigan as follows : 

"In Michigan the distribution of the species is 
entirely controlled by the character of the soil, all 
sandy areas being pinery proper, with large areas 
of pure growth of several square miles in extent con- 
taining only white pine. Occasionally, and especially 

'Ibid., Ill, 192. 


on the driest and poorest sandy gravels, the red pine 
[Pinus resinosa) associates and sometimes predomi- 
nates, the white pine not representing more than ten 
to twenty per cent of the number of trees. In the 
]iortliern regions jack pine (Pinus divaricata) takes 
the place of the red pine. The typical pine forest 
on fresh sandy soils consists of wliite pine (-iS to 55 
per cent of the dominant growth) mixed with red 
pine (25 to 45 per cent) with scattering hemlock 
(10 to 15 per cent) and occasional fir and hard- 
woods. On moister sand with loam or clay subsoil 
hemlock and hardwoods replace the pine, the red 
pine vanishing entirely and the white pine occurring 
only in large isolated individuals. Into wet or 
swampy places the white pine also penetrates in 
single individuals among arbor vita?, hackmatack, 
and spruce. As the loam in the composition of the 
soil increases, the hardwoods increase numerically, 
the white pine occurring only in single individuals 
and groups, and red pine and hemlock only occa- 
sionally. Finally, the heavy clay soils toward the 
southern range of the species give absolute preponder- 
ance or exclusive possession to the hardwoods, mainly 
sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech, although oc- 
casionally white pine appears scattered, or even in 
smaller or larger groups." ^ 

Of particular areas a number of special studies 
have been carried on to ascertain the character and 
correlation of the flora, fauna and physical condi- 

^ Spalding and Fernow: "The Wliite Pine," Washington, 
189!), 14; map facing p. 11. 


tions of the regions considered. Such a study has 
been made, for example, of Wahiut Lake in Oakland 
County and its environs, by C. A. Davis of Ann 
Arbor.^ Of the flora of the highlands adjacent to 
the Lake, Davis says : "The distribution of the trees, 
now left only in woodlots, indicates that the forest 
was formerly dense, and the trees of good size, the 
kind of association found depending upon the type 
of soil covering a given area. The heavier soils of 
the moraines, the clay loams, where well watered, 
were covered by the hard-maple and beech, associated 
with red, white and burr oaks, basswood, walnut, 
hop hornbeam and other trees of the mesophytic or 
moist, drained soil type. In slightly drier areas 
the hickories and white oak dominated, although in 
strong mixture with some of the other kinds, and 
on sandy loams this association passed into nearly 
pure white oak, then to black or yellow oak and 
white oak associations, and finally, on very dry sites, 
becoming a forest, with black and scarlet oaks, of 
the oak openings type, on such areas as the sandy, 
glacio-fluvial deposits, both south and north of the 

"One who has traveled about the southern penin- 
sula of Michigan," writes B. E. Livingston, "can 
hardly have failed to notice, for instance, the differ- 
ing vegetations of the pine plains, the oak forest, 
and the beach and maple forest. There is hardly a 
single plant found common to the first and last of 

' "A Biological Survey of Walnut Lake, Michigan," 
Lansing, 1908, p. 228. 


■these groups." A group of plant species associated 
together in a region under given conditions of cli- 
mate, topograph}^ and soil, Livingston designates a 
"plant society,"' and he proceeds to describe such 
plant societies in Kent County. The soil is mainly 
sandy. The topography is morainic, with outwash 
aprons and glacial drainage valleys in the intervals 
between the moraines. On tlie uplands, Livingston 
discriminates five plant societies: (1) the beech- 
maple society, comprising beech, sugar maple, en- 
chanter's nightshade, wild licorice, woodnettle, cat- 
nip, pokeweed, richweed, nightshade, and red-berried 
elder; (2) the maple-elm agrimony society^ compris- 
ing sugar maple, American and rock elms, agrimony, 
spikenard, honewort, spice-bush, moonseed, black 
snake-root, and wild black cherry; (3) the oak- 
hickory society comprising white and red oak, shag- 
bark and pignut hickory, false Solomon's seal, north- 
ern bedstraw. Aster Icvvis, and paneled cornel; (4) 
the oak-hazel society comprising the white and red 
oak, Asier la'vis, A. macrophiilJus, New Jersey tea, 
hazel, spurge, HeJiantlius occidentalis, Soiidago 
ccesia, and hoary pea; (5) the oak-pine-sassafras 
society, comprising the white and red oak, white 
pine, sassafras, plantain-leaved everlasting, worm- 
wood, sand burr spurge (narrow-leaved form), 
huckleberry, lupine, sweet fern, bracken, and Solidago 
nemoralis. Societies 3, 4 and 5 were found on steep 
slopes where erosion is at present rapid, as along the 
margins of the stream valleys and along old glacial 


channels. Livingston thinks the character of the soil 
made no difference here. All the heavy clay soil in 
the southern townships^ whether rolling moraine or 
till plain, he finds to have been occupied by the beech- 
maple society (society 1). The oak-hickory society 
was usually found on the light loamy soil, with transi- 
tion zones between it and the beech-maple society 
held by the maple-elm-agrimony society (No. 2). 
The very sandy loam bordering the valley of the 
Thornapple River was found to be occupied by the 
oak-hazel and the oak-pine-sassafras societies.^ The 
Grand Eapids sand plain was mainly covered with 
societies 4 and 5. Hemlock was found in the north- 
western section of the county in the beech-maple 
society. "White pine existed in the northern portion 
of the county. There were instances where white 
pine grew in the beech-maple group. The inter- 
mediate society 3 was found on the loamy soils and 
on the dryer clay areas. On the lowlands plant so- 
cieties are differentiated with reference to their posi- 
tion in, or adjacent to, lakes, swamps, marshes, 
springs and streams ; and the conclusion is reached 
that the degree and character of soil-moisture, rather 
than the type of soil itself, determines the distribu- 
tion of plant species in this region, and presumably 
elsewhere. It is suggested also that the recent 
geologic history of the district may have had its in- 
fluence. Since, as already known, tlio conditions of 

' Rept. State Bd. Geol. Survey of Mich, for the year 1901 : 
Lansing, 1902; p. 81. 


soil, topography, surface drainage and soil-moisture 
varies exceedingly throughout the two peninsulas, it is 
not surprising that the natural flora and the products 
of agriculture likewise vary even in the same locality. 


The possessors of the land came into a rich in- 
heritance of natural wealth^ — of forest life, of edible 
and medicinal plants, of aquatic animal and vegetable 
organisms, of valuable rocks, minerals, metals and 
fuels. The varied conditions of climate, topography, 
soil and geological structure favored a great variety 
of natural resources. This in turn has affected the 
distribution of population and of industries. The 
limitation of agriculture to restricted areas has per- 
petuated undeveloped regions still open to explora- 
tion and exploitation by the industrial pioneer. 


To the first white settlers, the timber resources 
of Michigan appeared inexhaustible, and they 
fiercely assailed the forest as the chief hindrance to 
a livelihood from the soil it encumbered. Yet the 
))ioneer was peculiarly dependent on the forest for 
the means of existence. It yielded building material 
of every sort and of a quality that today is scarcely 
to be obtained. It afforded shapes of every form 
and quality for implements and tools, furniture and 



equipage. Prostrate it served as fences, while its 
succulent twigs saved hungry live-stock from winter 
starvation. Erect it warded off the blasts of winter, 
and it bestowed upon the surface of the land its 
covering of humus which, of itself and through the 
organic life it housed, fertilized the soil and rendered 
sterile sands agriculturally productive^ retained soil- 
moisture and retarded the run-off of rain and snow, 
withheld erosion while preserving an even flow of 
spring and stream. It sheltered bird and animal life 
useful to man. It furnished primitive road material 
in a land of swamps and marshes. It dripped de- 
licious sweets and exuded essential gums and pitch. 
It hived the bee whose honey made a substitute for 
sugar. By the distribution of the moss carried on 
its trunks, it became a primitive compass to guide 
the wilderness wanderer, while out of its depths 
weird music sighed or wailed in breeze or gale. At 
the last its ashes evoked the soil into increased pro- 
ductivity and contributed a primitive saleratus and 
lye to the requirements of housewifery. Yet the 
ubiquitous forest must go, if the more valuable con- 
tri!)utions of tillage were to l)e gathered in. And 
it did steadily disappear, and continues to withdraw, 
it is estimated, at a rate which uncovers 100,000 
acres of virgin soil each year. 

Nevertheless, the forest in Michigan is still far 
from extinct. An estimate of the United States 
Forest Service (1919) put the standing timber in 
Michigan .at 53,000,000,000 feet B. M., which ex- 
perienced lumbermen regard as a conservative state- 


ment. A recent war-time estimate by the Forest 
Service (not very close, it is admitted) judged 58 
per cent of the standing timber — then put at -iS^iOOO,- 
000,000 feet B. M.— to be hardwoods, of which 10 
per cent was believed to be oak, -45 maple, 15 beech, 
10 birch, 7 elm, 6 basswood, and 2 per cent ash. 
Of the total stand of softwoods, about 5 per cent 
was estimated to be white pine, 1 Norway pine, 6 
jack pine, 66.5 hemlock (formerly despised but now 
precious because nothing better can be obtained at 
a moderate price), 5 spruce, 8 tamarack, 6 white 
cedar, and 2.5 per cent balsam fir. 

The estimated forest area of Michigan is 3,500,000 
acres. There is in reality no accurate estimate of 
the amount of standing timber in Michigan. The 
Bureau of Corporation's Report on the lumber in- 
dustry (1914) put the total stand in i\Iichigan at 
47,600,000,000 board feet, including 2,000,000,000 
feet of white and Xorway pine, 15,000,000,000 feet 
of hemlock, 5,200,000,000^ feet of other conifers, and 
25,400,000,000 feet of hardwoods. The Bureau was 
not assured of the correctness of its figures, and the 
United States Forest Service, in its report on timber 
depletion in response to a Senate Eesolution (1920), 
was so doubtful of its estimates that it did not ven- 
ture to give separate statistics for each of the Lake 
states, but presented a combined rating for these 
states as follows: Eastern hardwoods, 69,350,000,000 
feet; eastern softwoods, 40,760,000,000 feet. The 
most detailed figures on this subject are buried in 
the files of the State Board of Tax Commissioners 


at Lansing. The data there contained have not been 
assembled in such a way as to show what timber 
remains standing in Michigan ; and the Tax Com- 
mission seems unable — and the Public Domain 
Commission seemed unable or unwilling — to under- 
take the necessary investigation of these records. 
The Public Domain (now Conservation) Commis- 
sion, charged with the duty of maintaining the 
forests belonging to the State itself and of protect- 
ing those of private owners, is quite without defi- 
nite information concerning the magnitude of the 
task which it has been set to do. Therefore, one 
must continue to suppose that there is a certain 
quantity of each sort of timber still standing in 
Michigan, and that this is disappearing at a rate 
which even the most optimistic lumbermen do not 
assert will leave any marketable standing timber in 
the State at the end of fifty years, if present methods 
are not radically revised. This must necessarily 
ensue, if the present estimated annual cut in Michi- 
gan of 1,000,000,000 feet is adhered to. It will nor- 
mally increase. 

The extraordinary abundance and excellence of 
the forest growth in Michigan has already been noted. 
So inexhaustible did it appear that three generations 
of settlers took no pains to preserve or reestablish 
it. Black walnut was worked into fence-rails ; white 
oak made good "sheeting" for dwellings; bird's-eye 
maple would make excellent stove wood; and potash 
was more prized than the splendid trees of which 
it was the residue gathered in from the "burn-pile.'' 


The first farmers sought to avoid forests by locating 
on the prairies that clotted the southern counties; 
but there was need of lumber for home consumption 
and for exportation to the deforested areas of the 
East and to the treeless country west of the Great 
Lakes. Michigan prairies, too, were relatively of 
limited extent and the timbered country was required 
for agriculture. Saw-mills arose where water- 
power was most readily available, and soon lumber 
and logs were making their way down the Huron, 
the Flint, the Saginaw, the Grand and other streams 
— by boats, by rafts, in cribs ; and then by railroad, 
to and on the Great Lakes and beyond them, — a 
process which has gone on for a century and which 
has not yet reached its conclusion. "What the mills 
could not use, the fire consumed. "Niggering off," 
as the phrase went, raised no misgivings where home- 
making demanded infinite labor with saw and ax 
and where the best effort of man seemed scarcely 
to scratch the limitless forest resources of the State. 
The forest slowly retired before the resolute as- 
saults of the woodsman. Much timber was removed 
from the southern counties prior to the Civil War. 
The period following the war saw the great pinery 
in the northern half of the southern peninsula grad- 
ually disappear, until now the State is gathering in 
the few slight remnants of its former magnificence 
as a memento of what will never be again ; and finally 
the northern peninsula, primarily prized for its min- 
eral wealth, produced its crop of millionaires through 
the exploitation of its forest wealth. Eailroads, like 



the Pere Marquette, were constructed with the defi- 
nite purpose of removing such portions of the forest 
as were valued for the lumber market. Ivey esti- 
mates that from two-thirds to four-fifths of the 
traffic of the Pere Marquette was at one time com- 
posed of forest products. This traffic was transitory, 
and where the character of the soil precluded agri- 
culture, such lumbered railroads eventually fell on 
evil days. Thus the Pere j\Iarquette has recently 
sought permission to abandon its Kalkaska branch 
because there is no traffic that replaces its erstwhile 
lumber and log freight. Between 1870 and 1890, it 
has been estimated that 13,000,000 acres of ]\Iichigan 
territory was deforested, that is, one-third of the 
total area of the State ; and while some of this land 
was converted to the uses of agriculture, numbers 
of acres remain in a disused cut-over condition. 

Since the prosperous days of the lumber industry 
of the late eighties and nineties, when Michigan led 
the country in the magnitude of its output, there 
has been a progressive decline in the product of its 
saw-mills. In 1909 this was 1,889,724,000 feet; in 
1912 it was 1,488,827.000 feet; in 1915, 1,100,000,- 
OQO; and in 1918, 940,000,000 feet, when its pro- 
duction was exceeded by tAvelve states, including 
Minnesota, Florida, Alabama and Wisconsin.^ Of 
lath the number reported to the Forest Service for 
1916 was 109,323,000; 1917, 84,352,000; and 1918, 
48,533,000 pieces. Of shingles, 201,171,000 pieces; 

' U. S. For. Serv. : "Production of Lumber, Lath and 
Shino-lps." 1918, p. 13. 


1917, 203,907,000; and in 1918, 118,565,000 were 
similarly reported. 

The combined hardwood and softwood types of 
trees in Michigan represent a great variety of mer- 
chantable types, and help to explain the presence 
of many important wood-using industries in the 
State, such as the manufacturing of planing-mill 
products, boxes and crates, agricultural machinery, 
automobiles, pulp and excelsior, handles, furniture, 
toys and novelties. Of these varieties, maple — par- 
ticularly sugar maple — has held a foremost position 
among the hardwoods and white pine among the 
conifers. Maple was native to all parts of the two 
peninsulas. In 1910 Michigan was credited by the 
United States Forest Service with producing more 
maple lumber than all the remainder of the country 
put together, and in 1918 with 40 per cent of the 
country's output. In the latter year the 178 mills 
reporting gave their product of this wood at 287,- 
000,000 feet. It bulked large as planing-mill ma- 
terial, where it figi;red much in the manufacture of 
flooring. The Bureau of Forestry's report on "the 
Wood-using Industries of Michigan" (1912) put the 
consumption of sugar maple by Michigan planmg- 
mills at 185,000,000 feet in 1910, of which 156,- 
000,000 feet were grown in the State. In many other 
industries also this wood holds an important position. 
In the northern portion of the State, it is employed 
in large quantities in the wood-carbonization plants, 
in association with iron ore, for the production of 
chemical l)y-products of the iron smelting furnaces. 


The original stand of sugar niajjle in Michigan must 
have been enormous, aiul wliile it has disappeared in 
much of the virgin forest area of the State, it sur- 
vives in the wood-lot of many a Michigan farm from 
Lake Superior to the southern boundary, frequently 
as the highly prized sugar-bush, while it is still an 
important element in the large timber holdings of 
the northern peninsula. 

As a present timber resource, white and Norway 
pine — once the glory of the Michigan forest — have 
dwindled in importance. The output of white pine 
in Michigan in 1918, as reported by 124 mills, was 
46,664,000 feet, this being 2.4 per cent of the white 
pine cut in the entire country. Near Lake Su- 
perior and at a few points in the Lower Peninsula, 
a very few restricted stands of virgin white pine 
remain. The Interlaken State Park in Grand 
Traverse County has some very fine specimens, and 
there is another good stand not far from Grayling. 
As far back as 1910, the manufacture of boxes and 
crates in Michigan consumed 27,394,360 feet of 
white pine grown within the State, while more than 
that quantity was imported for this purpose. In 
the manufacture of sash, doors and blinds, twice 
as much white pine was brought from "without 
Michigan as was then used from the domestic sup- 
ply. In a miscellaneous group of wood-using in- 
dustries, 54,000,000 feet of extra-state white pine 
was consumed as against 2,605,000 feet of home- 
grown material.^ One commonly hears that good 

^ ^^'ood-^lsing Industries of Michigan. 


white pine lumber, Michigan-grown, is now quite 
impossible to secure. This is not strictly true, but 
so nearly so that one is justified in treating the 
wood as a negligible factor in the local lumber 

Magnificent oaks stood in the primeval Michigan 
forest. They were sought for ship timber and for 
general construction purposes, and occasionally a 
house was mainly built of it from sill to roof- 
boards. The 1918 report of the Forest Service 
ignored the Michigan cut, undoubtedly for the rea- 
son that it w^as insignificant. In 1910, the manu- 
facture of furniture consumed 1,856,795 feet of 
white oak grown within the State, and similarly 
1,000,000 feet of red oak; and 100,000 of burr oak. 
The manufacture of agricultural implements in that 
year took 322,000 feet of white oak, and 50,000 of 
red oak. Car construction utilized 90,000 feet of red 
oak grown in Michigan, while 1,430,059 feet con- 
sumed were grown outside the State. Of the 520,000 
feet of white and red oak employed in the making 
of caskets, none grew in Michigan. While 1,020,000 
feet of white oak was imported for the construction 
of boats and ships, only 185,000 feet was home- 

Hemlock, once despised by the carpenter and 
joiner, constituted one of Michigan's most impor- 
tant timber species in 1918, with its cut of 266,000,- 
000 feet. This was 15.7 per cent of the country's 
total output, only Washington and Wisconsin ex- 
ceeding Michigan in hemlock production. 


Sixty-five mills reported an output of 7,523,000 
feet of spruce in 1918, as Michigan production; 
while the birch contributed 48,807,000 feet reported 
by 131 mills; 29,788,000 feet of elm came from 162 
mills; 5,627,000 feet of ash from 134 mills; 29,788,- 
000 feet of basswood from 162 mills and 46,181,000 
feet of yellow poplar from 143 mills, producing 18.1 
per cent of the country's production.' The elm is 
one of the handsomest and most robust trees, and 
forms a striking and attractive feature of the south 
Michigan countryside today. It yielded in 1918, 
28,841,000 feet of lumber— 17.3 per cent of the na- 
tional total. Michigan beech constituted only 2.8 
per cent of the American product with more than 
9,000,000 feet to its credit. Although some sup- 
pose its range to be restricted to the southern coun- 
ties, it abides near the Lake Superior shore, in 
situations where, by all the rules, it has no license 
to be. 

Of the manufactures related to agriculture, the 
report of the findings of the Forest Service expert, 
already adverted to, shows that agricultural imple- 
ments consumed more yellow poplar than any other 
type — 4,261,000 feet, none of which was grown in 
Michigan. Then' follow white ash, 1,139,000 Michi- 
gan grown; white pine, 1,844,000; sugar maple, 
900,000 feet; while otlier ^lichigan varieties are rep- 
resented by white elm, basswood, white oak, cotton- 
wood, silver maple, Norway pine, hickory, hemlock, 

^U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 84.): "Production of Lumber, 
lath and Shingles in 1918." 


elm, beech, cork elm, red oak, cliestiiut burr oak, red 
ash and yellow oak. These woods used in this indus- 
try comprised 6,792,250 feet in 1910. The imported 
woods amounted to 9,821,980 feet^, including such 
exogenous types as red gum, cypress, short-leaf pine, 
paper birch and pitch pine. Boxes and crates re- 
quired 105,671,926 feet of home grown lum- 
ber, including 27,000,000 feet of beech; hemlock, 
26,000,000; sugar maple, 23,000,000; and basswood, 
12,000,000. Handles took more than 37,000,000 
feet of ^lichigan material, of which sugar maple was 
by far the largest item, 23,000,000 feet; and the drift 
of handle factories to the northern peninsula, where 
maple is still an important element in the existing 
stand of timber, illustrates the groat importance of 
this wood in the handle industry. Sugar maple 
leads among the Michigan woods used in the vehicle 
industry, 6,839,500 feet; while the indispensable 
hickory was imported to the extent of 6,084,400 feet, 
and 381,700 feet of Michigan hickory was consumed. 
The aggregate consumption of ]\Iichigan wood in 
this industry is given as 15,784,600 feet, while just 
about the same quantity was imported. Into tanks 
and silos went 2,665,000 feet of tamarack, 850,000 
of white pine, 100,000 of hemlock, 35,000 of sugar 
maple, 25,000 of beech, all Michigan grown, an 
aggregate of 3,675,000 feet, 17,021,000 being im- 
ported. In 1910, then, Michigan factories con- 
sumed 1,282,561,200 feet of lumber, while the State's 
total cut is placed at 1,681,081,000 feet. There 
were large importations as well as exportation «, as 


is still the case. Xinety-nine kinds of wood were 
used by Michigan manufactures in 1910, of which 
sugar maple, white pine and hemlock supplied more 
than half the total consumption. Sugar maple com- 
prised a quarter of this aggregate.^ 

The presence of an extraordinarily rich and varied 
forest growth brought to Michigan many industries 
using wood in their productive processes. Almost 
every little city has had its factory for making some 
implements or articles employing wood in its con- 
struction. Thus tlircsliing-machines and other farm 
implements were manufactured at Birmingham as 
early as 1854. Corn-planters were made at Grand 
Haven, fanning mills at Plymouth and near St. 
Johns, pumps at several places, wagons and carriages 
at Flint, furniture at Grand Eapids, Owosso and 
elsewhere, caskets at Owosso, plows at Albion, 
threshing-machines at Battle Creek and Port Huron, 
portable houses at Bay City and St. Johns, harrows 
at Detroit, forks and hoes at Jackson, baskets at 
Lowell. The Forest Service report of 1913 lists 
thirty firms manufacturing agricultural implements 
in ]\Iichigan, twenty-six firms making boats and 
ships, two hundred and fourteen manufacturers of 
boxes and crates, twelve firms making caskets, 
twenty-two chair manufacturers, three manufac- 
turers of excelsior, ninety-nine furniture factories, 
thirty-one handle factories, four manufacturers of 
matches and tooth-picks and twelve of musical in- 

' Wood-using Industries of Michigan, Washington, 1912. 


struments, one hundred and twenty-five manufac- 
turers of sash, doors, and blinds, in addition to a 
very large number of concerns producing planing- 
mill and other products of wooden construction. 
These factories consumed, in 1910, 1,282,000,000 feet 
of wood, costing $29,050,000. The ten years inter- 
vening since the publication of the Maxwell Report, 
which afforded the foregoing data, has seen the de- 
velopment to stupendous proportions of the automo- 
bile industry of Michigan, itself an enormous con- 
sumer of forest products. While definite informa- 
tion is not available, there seems a tendency for 
wood-using industries to transfer the scene of their 
operations to the northern peninsula, whose forest 
resources are less depleted Statistics prepared by 
the Upper Peninsula Development Bureau early in 
1920 indicate the presence in the Upper Peninsula 
of eighty-six saw-mills, four tanneries, four paper 
mills, six wood carbonization plants, six handle fac- 
tories, two box factories and one excelsior plant. The 
establishment at Iron Mountain of a plant for the 
manufacture of wooden parts required by the Ford 
Motor Company was itself a significant indication 
of the drift northward of the wood-using industries. 
In addition to this very large output of factory 
products, the State has been called on to furnish 
out of its forest resources great quantities of mine 
props for the underground workings of its own iron 
and copper mines, of poles and posts, the estimated 
product of the Upper Peninsula in 1920 being 3,000,- 


000 fence-posts alone; tog^ether with great quantities 
of general building material, hoops, staves, ties, and 
charcoal furnace wood. 

The inchistries and products here enumerated 
clearly have a relation to agriculture, through their 
connection with the economy of the farm and the 
farm-home. There are also unfinished materials, 
such as posts, poles, pickets and rails for which the 
Michigan farmer has been indebted to the forest, 
as well as such home-made articles as barrel-hoops, 
handles, whipple-trees. The yield could be much 
greater if fire had been kept from the cedar swamps 
and oak uplands. 

Long ago the people of Michigan began the syste- 
matic imdermining of this remarkable industrial de- 
velopment based on its timber resources. As rapidly 
as human labor, assisted by poM'er and fire, could 
do the work, the splendid hardwood- forest of the 
southern counties was swept aside by the pioneers. 
Great trees were felled in windrows, such portions 
of them as could serve the settler's requirements were 
preserved, and the remainder freely consigned to 
the flames. Log-rollings afforded recreation and 
merry-making to the primeval home-builders in the 
Michigan wilderness. The brilliant illumination of 
the night on which the burn-piles were reduced to 
ashes in the presence of the gathered neighbors, 
hither come in quest of such conviviality as the oc- 
casion might afford, appears to have Impressed in- 
effaceably the memories of the older inhabitants of 
the State. Tt signified agriculture, food, sunshine 


and smiling fields, light and air and long vistas from 
farmstead to farmstead. That was good. If it was 
wasteful, it was also necessary, if civilized life were 
to subsist in the haunts of wild beasts and savage 
men. As the people gained a foothold in the land, 
the product of their saw-mills went forward to regions 
which had already suffered from forest depletion or 
where the forest had not existed in historic times. 
That also was good and necessary. But as time 
progressed, the agencies of forest devastation got out 
of bounds, and they have continued to the present 
moment. They have undermined the legitimate and 
necessary utilization of forest products, until Michi- 
gan has arrived at the point when it is yielding less 
wood than it requires, is importing forest products 
from other states and covmtries, is losing wood-using 
industries to regions better supplied with forest re- 
sources, and is face to face with serious inconvenience 
and deprivation from its own improvidence and over- 
consumption of this most imperative necessity. 

If the wasteful removal of the forest in the agri- 
cultural sections of the State was excusable, the per- 
sistent devastation in those areas where there was 
little hope of replacing timber with farm crops can- 
not be extenuated. Here in the process of deforesta- 
tion, the young growth was shattered and destroyed 
with the mature trees. A relatively small portion 
of the felled trees was economically utilized. Those 
cast off were carelessly left on the ground to cumber 
it with del)ris and to afford every facility for the 
ignition and spread of wild fire throughout great 


areas. These "brush fires'' killed the yoimg growth 
that eventually would have reconstituted the forest 
of merchantable timber of cut-over lands; they de- 
stroyed the humus of the soil, the decomposed forest 
litter containing much nitrogen which could only 
bo restored by the painful and costly process of re- 
fertilization, which conserved soil-moisture, and 
maintained those animal orsranisms that convert raw 
soil to forms suital)le for plant-food. On the lighter 
sandy soils of the State, which prevail in many coun- 
ties on both sides of the Straits of Mackinac, these 
periodic burnings and re-burnings were definitely 
calamitous, producing veritable sterility in some quar- 
ters, so that a blasted heath is found where vegetation 
useful to man should be. Such lands as these, when 
settled on by the poor, the misdirected and deceived 
persons, yield nothing but hardships, penury, dis- 
aster, a delinquent tax sale and a damaged reputa- 
tion for Michigan farm lands. 

The removal of the covering forest from the hill- 
tops so characteristic of the State's topography, pro- 
moted denudation and erosion — the creation of worth- 
less land where the forest once stood, perhaps, too, 
destroying the fertility of the surrounding arable 
fields which have received the sandy outwash of the 
scoured and denuded uplands. Where this outwash 
reached the water-courses, they were choked with 
sand-bars; and they became torrential in brief sea- 
sons when the run-olf was excessive, and scant of 
water at other times. Some welcomed wild fire as a 
land-clearing agency, without perceiving that such 


clearing operations were best conducted with fires 
under control in seasons of sufficient moisture to pre- 
vent burning from getting out of hand. Some even 
Avelcomed sucli forest devastation because of tlie wild 
berries that would arise in the haunts of the pines 
and hardwoods. Carelessness and indifference were 
the rule even when a moment's thought would seem 
to have suggested caution and restraint. It is quite 
so even to the present hour. 

It was inevitable that much virgin timber should 
vanish in these forest conflagrations. A pioneer has 
described the fires in the vicinity of Owosso in 1856, 
when lanterns were required in the daytime and even 
the fish in the river were suffocated by the smoke. ^ 
"Among the most vivid recollections of niy early boy- 
hood," writes Arthur Hill, "are those of certain days 
when the smoke from the burning forests about Sagi- 
naw was so dense that children living in the out- 
skirts lost their way in coming to and going from 
school." Such destructive conflagrations occurred in 
1871 and 1881.- In 1911, the official report of the 
forest fires of the vear records 191 fires, which burned 
on 153,407 acres, with an estimated damage — notori- 
ously low when emanating from such a source — of 
$3,470,000.3 The United States Forest Service esti- 
mated the area burned over in 1919 at 500,000 acres, 
and the spring and autumn of 1920 saw multitudes 

i"Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Soc. Collections," XXX, 371. 

^"Micli. Forestry: Some Questions Answered, etc," Lan- 
sing: Mich. Forestry Commission, p. 1. 

^Rept. State Game, Fish and Forestry Warden, 1912, 108- 

9,0 in I! A I. Mir in a AN 

of brush and forest fires wlierever and whenever con- 
ditions became favorable. In reality every year 
chronicles its ruthless devastation of our forest re- 
sources, virgin and second-growth, and there is not 
the least indication that the State is effectively meet- 
ing this major problem in conservation. 


]\retalliferous rocks are found chiefly in the Upper 
Peninsula, where the covering of glacial drift is 
much shallower than south of the Straits. Yet the 
southern peninsula has made its contribution of coal, 
which is wanting in the northern peninsula, of 
gypsum, of limestone, and, of chief importance, salt. 
Both sections are well supplied with gravel for road 
material, clay suitable for brick and^ in the southern 
peninsula, for the manufacture of pottery, and with 
building stone, glacial bowlders and quarry material, 
although their distribution is not uniform and equal. 

Michigan had no sooner embarked on statehood 
than it created the State Geological Survey and 
placed it in charge of Douglass Houghton, a physi- 
cian and man of scientific attainments of Detroit. 
This first geological survey of Michigan compre- 
hended four departments of work in the fields of 
zoology, botany, geology and topography. The in- 
vestigations were continued through four seasons 
(1838-1841), and then the field work was discon- 
tinued through lack of funds consequent on the finan- 
cial depression of that time. Houghton then con- 


ceived the plan of a combined linear and geological 
survey of the public lands of the United States under 
the control of the General Land Office. He was en- 
gaged on this survey at the occurrence of his un- 
timely death in Lake Superior near Eagle River in 
a storm in the autumn of 1845. Houghton's re- 
searches and published reports are credited with lay- 
ing the scientific foundation and information for 
the enormous mineral development that has ensued 
in both peninsulas. His published reports related to 
the presence of salt, marl, coal, gypsum and other 
minerals of the southern peninsula, to copper, lime- 
stone and minor minerals in the northern peninsula ; 
and a party of his surveyors immediately in charge 
of William Burt is credited with ascertaining the 
presence of iron ore on the Marquette Range in 

Before active mining operations could be under- 
taken, it was necessary to extinguish the Indian title 
to the metalliferous lands of the region. The Sagi- 
naw Valley, where coal and salt were later developed, 
was relinquished by the Indians very largely in 1819, 
while the mineral region of the northern peninsula 
came into the possession of the United States in 1843 
(revised in 1854). Then, following the survey of 
these lands, exploitation was earnestly undertaken, 
first under permits issued by the Secretary of War, 
and then under an act of Congress in 1847 provid- 
ing for the sale of mineral lands at a fixed price. 
Large tracts of mineral lands came under private 
ownership through grants made in aid of canal, road 


and railroad construction. Surveys were continued 
at intervals for many years and even now the Geo- 
logical Survey of Michigan undertakes from time 
to time field work that, it is hoped, will reveal addi- 
tional resources that may enrich the commonwealth. 

Unlike iron, copper made its presence known to 
the first explorers of the Lake Superior country, and 
had hitherto been extensively utilized by the Indians 
in the manufacture of weapons and utensils, of which 
there are several notable collections both within and 
without the State and which are still being increased 
by occasional discoveries here and there throughout 
the district. Michigan copper, unlike that found 
in Montana, Arizona, Utah and many other places, 
is a formation of pure copper uncompounded with 
other elements. Rarely it forms a metallic cement 
combining pebbles in a conglomerate formation. 
More commonly it is dispersed through the rock in 
large masses and in granules, frequently at great 
depths below the surface, but occasionally exposed 
on the surface itself. It was these exposed masses 
of copper that engaged the attention of the early 
Jesuit and other French and English explorers. 

The native mining operations suggested locations 
for similar enterprises by the whites, as in the case 
of the Isle Eoyale Mine at Houghton. In Michigan 
the copper veins were distributed along a rather 
narrow axis from Porcupine Mountain near the Lake 
Superior shore westward from the Keweenaw Penin- 
sula and near the center line of this peninsula for 
quite its entire length, with points of major dis- 


tribution, such as northeastern Ontonagon County 
(Minnesota and Michigan mines), near Portage 
Lake (Isle Royale and Quincy mines), near the 
boundary of Houghton and Keweenaw counties 
(Calumet and Hecla, Ahmeek, Wolverine and 
Mohawk mines), and near Eagle River (Cliff, Phoenix 
and Keweenaw Copper Company's mines). Con- 
trary to an impression sometimes encountered, there 
is no mining of copper beneath Lake Superior, but 
the copper deposits emerge on Isle Koyale and other 
islands in Lake Superior and on its Canadian shore, 
but in amounts that have seldom been remunerative 
to its miners. Some of the mines on the Copper 
Range have been operated for many years, a very 
few having their inception before 1850. The de- 
posits are manifestly very far from being exhausted. 
The metal is being secured in some instances from 
shafts extending to a depth of more than a mile, 
which makes costs high; nor is the ratio of copper 
recovered to the rock raised to the surface high, in 
some instances amounting to ten or eleven pounds 
of metal to the ton of rock in mines that have, 
nevertheless, been operated at a profit. 

Unlike iron ore, copper when elevated to the sur- 
face must be "stamped" to dislocate the metal from 
its rock container, and this process is performed 
where there is ample supply of water, at present on 
Portage and Torch lakes and, in most instances, on 
the shore of Lake Superior. Unlike iron ore, too, 
much of the metal is smelted in the same district 
where it is mined. A leeching plant at Lake Linden 


also recovers much copper from the refuse deposits of 
the old stamp mills, subjected to a secondary process 
which has proven very successful in regaining addi- 
tional quantities of copper. 

Little copper is consumed locally, although various 
schemes for its use in local manufactures have been 
projected. Most of the metal goes out of the country 
by water to the eastern consuming centers and to 
Europe. Alexander Henry, the first to attempt cop- 
per mining operations in the region, predicted the 
failure of such attempts through the remoteness of 
the market and the insuperable difficulty of export- 
ing the product. The opening of the artificial water- 
way at Sault Ste. Marie (1855) and into Portage 
Lake (18G0 and 1873), with the completion of sev- 
eral lines of railway into the copper district, has 
falsified these predictions^ and more than one billion 
pounds of copper have been produced in the area 
since the inauguration of mining seventy-five years 
ago. The labor was performed at first chiefly by 
experienced miners from Cornwall, Avho still con- 
stitute a distinctive and interesting human element 
in the local population. Later came Finns, and 
more recently Slavs and Italians. The directing 
personnel is largely of New England stock, and much 
New England capital has been absorbed in the cop- 
per country. Boston has always figured largely in 
the industry on the side of finance and market opera- 
tions. Together with old established mines, the 
district comprises mines in the stage of initial de- 
velopment, where excavation has not yet been begv 


or where it has not reached the copper district, or 
has not uncovered remunerative quantities of it. 
While there are areas in which mining operations 
have long since ceased and the land has returned 
to its wild neglected status, there are other areas 
in which for the first time mineral exploitation is 
being carried forward. Copper mining in Michigan 
suffered from the recession of business following the 
conclusion of the World War, but the return of 
normal relations throughout the commercial world 
is expected to reestal)lish the industry on a reason- 
ably satisfactory basis. 

A by-product of the copper industry is of par- 
ticular importance to Michigan agriculture. Arsenite 
of lime is recovered from tbe smelters and is service- 
able as a grasshopper and general poison. It was of 
advantage in the grasshopper "epidemic" of 1920 
CO have an abundant supply of this sidjstance readily 
available, and it was freely utilized. 

With the exception of Brazil, the Lake Superior 
region has the largest deposits of iron ore known 
to exist in the world. These occur in Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota and in Canada. The deposits 
in Michigan are found in three ranges: The Mar- 
quette, the Menominee and the Gogebic. The ex- 
ploitation of the Lake Superior iron ores followed 
the discovery of this mineral on the Marquette Range, 
as already stated, in 1844. The following year a 
company organized at Jackson carried on explora- 
tions in the same district and located the famous 
"iron mountnin" near Teal T>ake, lictwecn the pres- 


ent sites of Ishpemiiiff and isTegaunee, about twelve 
miles inland from Lake Superior. The next year a 
small amount of ore was taken out and smelted at 
Jackson. Bog iron ofe was distributed at various 
points in the southern counties of the State, and 
for its utilization a number of forges, or furnaces, 
had been erected. Such a forge appears to have 
been first employed for smelting this Lake Superior 
ore. In 1847, a forge was established on the Carp 
Eiver close to the present site of Negaunee, for 
the purpose of converting the iron ore, which was 
found in a loose formation on the surface of the 
land, to a form that could be transported out of the 
country. This and other forges erected in this vicinity 
prepared the iron ore in the form of "blooms," in 
which condition it was shipped out of the district 
to eastern markets. After some years, blast furnaces 
were erected and the process of smelting the ore 
was begun. The iron was shipped from the mines 
to the forges or furnaces, most of which were con- 
structed close to the lake shore, and thence went 
forward by water. At first conveyance was by 
wagons, later by railroad. Ore docks were built in 
the harbor of Marquette, first of simple construction 
involving much labor in transferring the mineral 
from train to dock and from dock to ship. Then a 
type of dock was designed whereby the railroad ore 
cars deposited their load directly into pockets, 
whence in turn the ore was sent through shoots into 
the hold of the vessel along side. The marvelous 
perfection of present equipment of such docks per- 


mits the loading of a cargo of 10,000 or more tons 
of iron ore in two or three hours, while at the port 
of destination the reverse process is likewise rapidly 
completed through the use of great "clams'' or "Hew- 
litts," which snatch many tons of mineral out of 
the ship at a single "bite," placing it on the dock 
for shipment by railroad to the furnaces and con- 
suming centers of Ohio and Pennsylvania. The 
abundant forests of the Lake Superior district have 
afforded wood for the manufacture of charcoal em- 
ployed in the smelting of a portion of the iron ore 
mined here, but most of it is smelted and utilized 
outside of the Lake Superior region. The local smel- 
ters using charcoal derive from the iron and the 
wood by-products, including acids and other chem- 
icals of great commercial importance and add mate- 
rially to the industrial status of northern Michigan. 
The iron deposits of the Marquette Eange have a 
general eastern and western trend, with Negaunee 
at the eastern end, while its western extension ap- 
proaches L'Anse. At various points mines have 
been opened : at Negaunee, Ishpeming, Michigamme, 
Republic, Gwinn and other locations, the ore being 
exported largely through Marquette, although the 
completion of the Peninsular Division of the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern Railway to Negaunee in 
1864, made shipments possible out of the Lake 
Michigan port of Escanaba. For some years, too, ore 
reached L'Anse, to which port the line of the present 
Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad was 
opened in 1872, and where an ore dock of the pocket 


type was erected, later to be dismantled. From these 
mines of the Marquette Range an aggregate product 
of 121,059,070 tons (1854-1916) of iron ore has 
gone forward to market. The ore exhibited great 
tensile strength because of its relative freedom from 
phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic and other impurities, 
and while the early production running as high as 
65 per cent pure iron to the rnine-run of ore has not 
been maintained — the present percentage being about 
50, — the ore is still highly favored by consumers of 
the metal. 

Southwest of the Marquette Eange some fifty or 
sixty miles is the Menominee Range, the second to 
be developed in IMichigan. Mining operations here 
began about 1870, and the total output to 1916 was 
10-1:,902,919 tons. The product goes out through 
Escanaba from ^uch mining points as Iron Moun- 
tain, Crystal Falls, Iron River and Stambaugh. 
Water-power development on the Menominee River 
has assisted in furnishing hydro-electric power for 
the use of the mines and the mining towns. 

In the westernmost county of the Upper Penin- 
sula not far from the Montreal River, the last of 
the three iron ranges of the State was opened up 
about 1880, following exploratory work by Pumpelly 
and Brooks. The outlet for the product of this dis- 
trict was by way of Ashland, Wisconsin, to which a 
railroad was shortly constructed — now a portion of 
the Chicago and Northwestern line — and at which 
docks were provided. The deposits extend over into 


Wisconsin, and this fact is a sufficient reason for 
the pressing of ^lichigan's claim to the territory west 
of the Montreal River, resulting from the original 
alleged erroneous survey of the interstate line at 
that point. The mining properties are located at 
Ironwood, Bessemer, Wakefield and other points in 
Gogebic County, and up to IDIH had yielded an 
aggregate of 95,607,671 tons of ore. 

In the iron industry, as in other mining opera- 
tions, production is maintained at each mine for 
a greater or less period of years and when ore bodies 
become exhausted, the mine is abandoned and the 
workings allowed to fill with water. In 1917, the 
active iron mines in ^lichigan numbered thirty-four 
on the ilarquette Range; eleven on the ^Menominee 
Range; and twenty-two on the Gogebic Range. The 
ores uncovered have varied greatly in texture, solidity 
and chemical composition. They have been desig- 
nated by such discriminating terms as hematite, 
specular, magnetic and lamenite. On the Marquette 
Range hard ores were found at Republic and some 
other points, and were formerly much desired for 
smelting purposes, while the soft ores were discarded 
as unsuited to the furnaces. Improved smelting 
methods have reversed the situation. The ores of 
the Menominee and Gogebic ranges are soft hematite 
in character. An analysis of the Michigan iron ores, 
published in the report of the State Geologist for 
1917, showed the following results as an approxi- 
mate average for each range: 


Percentafje of Content. 

Marquette Range: Iron, 54; phosphorus, .03; silica, 8 
mantrancse, .24; moisture, 8. 

Menominee Range: Iron, 53; phosphorus, .04; silica, 8 
manganese, .18; moisture, 7. 

Gogehio Range: Iron, 53; phosphorus, .04; silica, 7 
manganese, .39; moisture, 11. 

At the beginning of mining operations, masses of 
ore were often found about the surface of the ground, 
the result of glacial action, and in outcrops, occa- 
sionally in the form of "iron mountains." The first 
mining consisted, then, in removing this most ac- 
cessible portion of the visible ores. Later, open pits 
were frequently sunk, such mines still obtaining at 
a few points, as near Wakefield. Such exploitation 
of the ore bodies liad the character of quarrying, 
which in time was extended beneath the surface of 
the ground; and eventually true shafts of consider- 
able depth were driven along the veins, involving 
extensive surface construction of hoists and other 
 equipment. While there is some "bog ore" in the 
Upper Peninsula, as in the Seney swamp, this is of 
no commercial importance. The question is often 
asked as to how long the iron ore and copper de- 
posits in the Lake Superior region will continue to 
be workable. In 1921, the State Geologist reported 
a visible supply of iron ore in Michigan of two hun- 
dred million tons, with an annual production from 
twelve to eighteen million tons. It is evident that 
the industry has a definite period of duration not 
very prolonged. There remains the possibility of 
utilizing low grade ores, not at present being worked, 


and of discovering through exploration ore bodies 
that will materially add to the present ore reserves. 
The first possibility must rely for its realization on 
private enterprises; the second, on liberal support 
of the State Geological Survey as well as on private 

While Michigan is not ordinarily classed as a sil- 
ver-producing state, its production of this metal in 
the year 1919 amounted to 441,430 fine ounces. 
In the pioneer days of copper mining, silver in its 
pure native form was not infrequently uncovered 
in conjunction with the red metal, and many stories 
are related of the practice among the Cornish miners 
at the old "Cliff'' and other mines, of depositing 
small nuggets of silver in their boots and elsewhere 
about their persons on the theory that whatever be- 
sides copper was revealed in their mining operations 
belonged to the miner himself, — a view not shared 
by the owners of the mine but circumvented only 
with difficulty. Occasionally the silver was recov- 
ered embedded in nuggets of copper, and the mass 
was then popularly referred to as a "half-breed.'' 
A very remarkable silver formation on a diminutive 
island near the north shore of Lake Superior was 
discovered shortly after the Civil War, and while 
the "Silver Islet" lay just outside the territorial 
limits of the State, Michigan citizens were pri- 
marily concerned in developing its rich vein of the 
metal and were the beneficiaries of their enterprise 
from which $2,000,000 to $3,000,000 in the aggre- 
gate were realized. The area of the Porcupine ]\Ioun- 


tains in the western part of the Upper Peninsula 
has yielded small amounts of silver for years, and 
in the early seventies of the last century, a number 
of mines were opened in the vicinity of Ontanogan 
River, an outlet of Lage Gogebic into Lake Superior; 
but the elaborate expectations of the promoters were 
not fully realized. In recent years much of the 
product of Michigan silver accrues from refining 
operations connected with the copper industry. 

It was inevitable that a region rich in mineral 
resources should attract the attention of the gold- 
seeker. Tlie presence of this precious metal was 
discerned in the quartz, but the State Geologist, in 
his report for 1885, is doubtless correct in giving 
credit to the Ropes Gold Mine for the first syste- 
matic effort at gold mining in upper Michigan. The 
gold-bearing serpentine is located some six miles 
northwest from Ishpeming, and here gold Avas dis- 
covered in 1881. Regular mining began in 1882. 
A stamp mill and concentration plant were erected, 
and the bullion found its way eventually to the 
United States mint. The product was a combina- 
tion of gold and silver in the ratio (1885) of about 
2 to 5. Some rich rock was discovered. In one 
instance seventeen pounds of rock yielded $103 of 
gold.^ The gold content of the rock was variable 
in amount, being described as "pockety," and al- 
though in the fifteen years in which this mine was 
worked, gold and silver to the value of approxi- 
mately $650,000 was removed, of which in the aggre- 
^"Mineral Statistics," Mich., 1885, p. 159. 


gate 80 per cent was gold, the mining operations 
were eventually abandoned, and the property today 
has little surface indications of the mining activity 
that once obtained there.^ Yet there are some even 
now who insist that the mine will eventually be re- 
opened and will richly repay the confidence which 
has been placed in it. Evidences of the presence 
of gold were found throughout a considerable area 
adjacent to this mine, and not a few other efforts 
to recover the metal wore undertaken, in some in- 
stances with very encouraging results. From one 
of these short-lived mines, some $7,000 of gold were 
taken out in a few months, but the vein soon dwindled 
to inadequate proportions. In the Dead Eiver dis- 
trict and even within the city of Marquette, aurifer- 
ous deposits were uncovered near the surface, but 
for vears interest in gold mining in Michio;an has 
remained dormant. 

Persons of a speculative turn of mind may some- 
times wonder what the industrial development of 
Michigan Avould be like if, with its enormous wealth 
of luetallic minerals, an adequate supply of coal ex- 
isted within the State. Southwest from Saginaw 
Bay an extensive area productive of coal reaches as 
far as Jackscn and Calhoun counties, but the vein 
is normally thin, and, except in the territory close 
to Saginaw Bay, has been of no great economic im- 
portance. As far back as the territorial period, out- 
crops of coal were observed and very early its re- 
moval was undertaken. Thus it was mined near 
^Ihid., 1S!)!», p. 291). 


the Shiawassee Eiver at Corunna and near the Grand 
Kiver at Grand Ledge. For years mines were worked 
close to Jackson, and for a quarter of a century ex- 
cellent coal has been secured at St. Charles in Sagi- 
naw County and close to Bay City. Even as far 
north as Arenac County a very thin formation was 
uncovered, while detached masses occasionally ap- 
peared in the morainie accunmlations beyond the 
region of the coal formations proper. Yet all told 
the State's production is small compared with its 
requirements, according to the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, amounting to one-tenth or one-thir- 
teenth of the consumptive demand in normal years. 
The coal measures lie close to the surface, so close, 
indeed, that occasionally mining operations have 
been hindered by the insufficiency or absence of the 
covering rock, permitting the encompassing drift 
and surface waters to cumber the openings driven 
into the coal measure. Unfortunately, the Upper 
Peninsula, the seat of an enormous wealth of metallic 
minerals, seems wholly lacking in coal of any sort. 
Even if the coal of the Lower Peninsula were ade- 
quate for State needs, it is non-coking in quality. 
However, the admirable waterway system encom- 
passing Michigan on almost every quarter affords a 
ready avenue for the importation of coal from neigh- 
boring states. 

If Michigan lacks coal, it is superabundantly sup- 
plied with peat. Occasionally one hears of attempts 
being made to perfect processes for its economical 
utilization as fuel, but, so far as is known, little sue- 


cess has as yet been attained. The cost of dehydrat- 
ing the substance is the chief impediment. Near 
Chassell on the Keweenaw Peninsula, the National 
Humus and Chemical Company has exploited local 
peat deposits in the manufacture of fertilizer and 
stable litter. Its great absorbing qualities favor its 
use in the stable, and, when artificially nitrogenized, 
in addition to its original nitrogenous content, 
recommend it strongly for fertilizing purposes, inde- 
pendently of, or following, its use in the stable. This 
industry, however, is as yet too near its incipiency 
to write positively of its success. It appears to con- 
tain very attractive possibilities. 

In the district between the copper country and 
Marquette close to the western extremity of the 
Huron Mountains and the head of Huron Bay, is 
an extensive formation of slate, on which quarrying 
operations were carried on for fifteen or twenty years 
in the seventies and eighties of the last century. A 
narrow gage tramway was constructed to convey 
the product from the quarries to the dock five miles 
distant. Several companies were early organized to 
work the formation and high hopes were entertained 
of financial success. Undoubtedly the slate is of 
excellent quality, except one feature which is held 
responsible for the failure of the enterprise: it was 
considerably shattered in its natural state and its 
removal involved much wastage. Expert opinion lias 
recently held that an improved method of quarrying 
would have obtained better results, but it has also 
been pointed out that very much slate is available 

102 h'l h'AL MICllldAX 

in more accessible parts of the United States and 
that market conditions irrespective of availability 
are frequently difficult to meet. The formation ex- 
tends westward to the head of Keweenaw Bay and 
even beyond it, and hopes are still entertained tliat, 
with more scientific handling of the waste product, 
commercial development may again be secured. Un- 
doubtedly the slate formations lie close to water 
transportation on Lake Superior and, with other con- 
ditions equally favoral)le. the industry may revive. 
The site is one of great natural charm, and has at- 
tracted the tourist and hunter since the quarries 
were closed some thirty years ago. Although dis- 
tant from the railroad, agriculture has attained con- 
siderable development in the vicinity, and lumbering 
is active. The old workings are now in a decayed 
condition, the pits water-filled and the buildings aged 
and weather-Avorn. 

The glacial drift of both peninsulas abounds in 
bowlders suitable for building purposes, and in some 
places the surface of the land was thickly strewn 
with them, ocasionally of great size. Before the use 
of concrete became common early in the present 
century, foundations, walls and even pavements were 
composed of this rough bowlder material. There 
existed also in both peninsulas outcrops of bed-rock, 
chiefly sandstone and limestone, likewise available 
through quarrying for construction purposes. In 
the Lower Peninsula such formations and quarries 
were operated in Ionia, Kent, Eaton, Calhoun, Hills- 
dale, Jackson, Shiawassee, Iosco, Huron, Barry and 


Saginaw counties, but these enterprises have now 
been discontinued, so far as information now at 
hand indicates. The sandstone of these formations 
was likely to take on a yellowish hue because of 
the oxidation of the iron carbonate in the cementing 
material. The most important formations of work- 
able sandstones were found in the northern peninsula 
adjacent to Lake Superior at Marquette and on both 
shores of Keweenaw Bay. During the last quarter 
of the last century, a number of quarries were opened 
in both areas and continued to produce large quanti- 
ties of excellent building stone until the local supply 
was exhausted or market conditions became unfav- 
orable. The Marquette quarries, just south of the 
city, yielded a brown sandstone that was very much 
sought, the raindrop variety having a particularly 
pleasing appearance. A hard attractive brown sand- 
stone also was derived on the western shore-line of 
Keweenaw Bay between L'Anse and Pequaming, 
while on the opposite side of this waterway the fa- 
mous Portage Entry redstone was taken out for 
many years in very large quantities. Indeed this 
formation was quarried until very recently, when 
the cost of removing the over-burden, then become of 
considerable deptli, and also apparently a change in 
taste among the users of building stone, made quarry- 
ing unprofitable. From these sandstones of Lake 
Superior many well-known structures in many cities 
of both the United States and Canada were erected, 
the stone being transported great distances both l)y 
rail and water. Its proximity to tlie shore of the 


lake facilitated shipment, where gravity could be 
relied on to bring the rough stone from the pits to 
the finishing mills beside the docks. The stone, 
-when first extracted from its matrix, was readily 
workable into any desired design by machine tools, 
and then, when exposed to the air, dried and hardened 
into a condition of great duration both as against 
fire and weather. The many abandoned open pits 
along the south shore of Lake Superior testify to 
the very active demand once entertained for this 
building-material, a demand now transferred to the 
less sightly but more adaptable and cheaper concrete 
construction. At present (December, 1931), there 
remains only one active sandstone quarry operating in 
Michigan, near Grindstone City, Huron County. 

From 1860 to 1916 Michigan produced 236,724,878 
barrels of salt, valued at $98,815,061.^ The output 
of salt in 1919 was 2,492,378 short tons. Salt was 
one of the first mineral resources of Michigan to 
whi-ch attention was given by the State Geological 
Survey. Douglass Houghton, the first State Geo- 
logist, was convinced of the presence of salt in the 
Saginaw valley and he persuaded the legislature to 
make provision for exploratory work under State 
direction. Investigations were conducted both in the 
valleys of the Grand and the Saginaw rivers, but 
early results were not encouraging and State efl'orts 
were discontinued. Some years later private agencies 
resumed these investigations and by 1860 the definite 
success of salt production in Michigan was estab- 

^ "Mineral Resources of Michigan," Lansing, 1916, p. 159. 


lished. There remained the problem of eliminating 
impurities from the product — particularly bromine, 
iron and gypsum, — and in 18G9, the State inspector- 
ship of salt was created to promote greater purity 
in the saline output. Seven years later, an associa- 
tion of salt producers was organized to control the 
marketing of the product, and by 1880 Michigan was 
producing nearly half the salt of the country. Since 
that time the State has continued to hold first place 
in most of the years to the present time, occasionally 
yielding the primacy to ISTew York. Although there 
is some evidence of salt in the rocks of the Upper 
Peninsula, the State's production has during this 
period been confined to the southern peninsula. By 
1890 salt was being produced in the counties of 
Saginaw, Bay, Huron, St. Clair, Iosco, Midland, 
Manistee, Mason and Gratiot. More recently Wayne 
has taken first place, that county's production in 
1916 amounting to 9,000,000 out of 16,000,000 bar- 
rels produced in the State. This shows the shifting 
of the major output from the Manistee-Ludington 
area in the northwestern Lower Peninsula, which in 
turn had taken the supremacy from the Saginaw 
district. Indeed, the whole region fronting the St. 
Clair and Detroit rivers overlying a deep layer of 
rock salt, is now the most important salt territory 
of Michigan, although important regions of rock salt 
are likewise found underlying Manistee and Mason 
counties in the northwest, and Alpena and Presque 
Isle counties of the northeast. The Saginaw salt 
has been obtained from a liriuo found at a depth of 


600 to 1,000 feet or more, while the Manistee salt 
is derived from a brine artificially produced through 
the injection of fresh water from the surface of the 
ground into the salt formation, in penetrating which 
it dissolves a quantity of salt which the return flow 
of water to the surface conveys thither, where it is 
concentrated and purified. Formerly the evapora- 
tion of the water from the brine was cheaply per- 
formed by the use of waste fuel and waste steam 
from the saw-mills of the locality, so that the timber 
supply has adversely affected the salt industry of 
Michigan. Yet recent statistics of salt production 
show that the industry is on a much larger scale 
now than ever before. For the past forty years the 
State has produced more than one-fourth of the 
national supply of this most necessary article. In 
addition, by-products, such as bromine, calcium 
chloride, bleaching and caustic soda, have been de- 
rived from the salt industry. During the war the 
production of bromine, especially at Midland, as- 
sumed great importance. The reserves of salt remain 
very large, in some places the deposits having a 
thickness of 500 to 800 feet, at moderate depths. 
Definite information concerning exact distribution 
and available quantity of salt in the State is wanting. 
However, it seems evident that the ancient oceanic 
beds in which this product is obtained are sufficient 
for all future requirements. 

In the early period of the gypsum industry, the 
product was largely utilized as "land-plaster," but 
with the increasing use of artificial fertilizers, this 


has lessened in importance, so that at present g}'psvim 
goes more largely into the manufacture of gypsum 
plasters employed in the building-trades, plaster- 
board, fire-proofing and calcimines.^ In 1916, mixed 
wall-plaster constituted the most important of these 
gypsum products, its value being then G2.7 per cent 
of the total of raw and calcined products of the 
State. Stucco had 26.2 per cent of the total value 
of gypsum products in that year. In 1916 five 
mines, two quarries and eight mills were reported 
by the State Geologist in operation. Kent County 
is the main location of the industry, since the gypsum 
formations here are extensive and accessible. Still 
other gypsum beds exist in Iosco, Arenac, Ionia, 
Tuscola, and Eaton counties in the southern penin- 
sula, and near St. Ignace, Mackinac County and on 
St. Martin's and adjacent islands of the northern 
peninsula. The g}-psum beds of the State have been 
officially described as inexhaustible. The production 
for 1916 was 457,375 tons, and in 1919, 339,125 tons. 
This is the maximum yearly output. The total 
production of the United States for that year was 
2,750,000 short tons. New York was then the largest 
producer of gypsum, Iowa second, and Michigan 

At a number of localities in Michigan are situated 
mineral springs of considerable therapeutic reputa- 
tion. In 1911 twenty-two mineral springs were re- 

^ "Mineral Resources," Midi.. 1916, 161. 
*U. S. Geol. Survey: "Mineral Resources," 1916, Pt. 11., 


corded by the United States Geological Survey, as 
yielding 931,343 gallons of mineral water. In 1919 
the number reported was ten springs yielding 1,570,- 
906 gallons. These springs were located at Saginaw, 
Grand Eapids, Mt. Clemens, Maltby, Ogemaw 
County and Xorthville, Wayne County. The total 
value of these waters in 1919 was put at $132,312, 
at an average price of eight cents a gallon.^ The 
Michigan Geological Survey notes a progressive de- 
crease in the output of these waters since the high 
point of more than 8,000,000 gallons in 1902. As 
they are chiefly potable rather than medicinal, local 
conditions related to the water supply have their in- 
fluence on the demand for these mineral waters.- 

Some nine miles from L'Anse in Baraga County 
is a deposit of graphite which has been worked in- 
termittently for some years. This graphite is of 
too low a grade for lubricating purposes, but it has 
been used in the manufacture of paint. In the 
vicinity of the old Eopes Gold Mine near Ishpeming 
is a deposit of low-grade asbestos, as yet unworked. 

If Michigan is poor in its coal resources, it is even 
more inadequately provided with oil and gas, so far 
as existing knowledge goes. There are a number 
of wells within the city limits of Port Huron, ap- 
parently an extension of the Ontario field. The oil 
from one group of these wells is consumed in the 
manufacture of lubricants, for which it is said to be 

*U. S.Geol. Survey: "Mineral Waters in 1918," 515. 
^Mich. Geol. Survey: "Production and Value of Mineral 
Products in Michigan," Lansing, 1917, 184. 


especially well adapted.^ Small quantities of oil 
have been discovered in borings in the neighboring 
territory, but not of economic importance. In the 
Saginaw Valley, test borings have been made at sev- 
eral points and some oil obtained thereby, but, while 
the geological formation is regarded as favorable, 
a commercial yield of oil has been obtained at widely 
separated points in Michigan but with meager re- 
sults. Lenawee County in the southern portion of 
the Lower Peninsula, and Schoolcraft County in the 
southern part of the LTpper Peninsula have had oil 
booms as recently as 1920, but little has been achieved 
in either territory. In both peninsulas are large 
formations of oil-bearing shales which may eventually 
be drawn on for petroleum. Small outputs of oil 
have been recovered at Allegan, Kalamazoo, Kill- 
master, Ludington, at East Lake, Stronach, Mt. 
Pleasant and Osseo. The aggregate product has been 
quite negligible. 

Eaw material, as marl, limestone, clay and shale, 
for the manufacture of cement abounds in Michigan. 
The largest deposits of nearly pure calcium carbonate 
are in the northern portion of the southern peninsula, 
and in the eastern part of the northern peninsula, 
and hence at points more remote from markets and 
the sources of fuel. According to the Michigan Geo- 
logical Survey, more than one hundred marl deposits 
each above fifty acres in extent and with an average 
depth of at least ten feet have been discovered in 

^Mich. Geol. Survey: "The Occurrence of Oil and Gas in 
Michigan," Lansing, 1912, 56. 

110 in li'AL MICUJOAN 

the southern peninsula of Michigan. The Survey 
regards this as probably less than one-fourth of the 
total number in this peninsula. Some deposits are 
1,000 acres in extent and have an average depth of 
twenty or more feet. The Upper Peninsula also has 
marl deposits. IMarl is found in twenty-two counties 
of the State. The total area is estimated at 27,000 
acres. Some of these marl deposits are unfavorably 
situated for development, but many others are ad- 
vantageously located and are at present being ex- 
ploited in the manufacture of cement. Shale is 
distributed very widely throughout the State, often 
in close association with other raw materials required 
in cement making. Cement manufacture began in 
Michigan in the early seventies at Kalamazoo, where 
marl and clay were employed in a vertical kiln. 
While this enterprise was a financial failure, other 
plants sprang up and the industry developed very 
rapidly after l(Si)5. The later stage of the industry 
involves the use of rotary kilns and powdered coal 
as fuel. Since 1S!)(!, thirty-five cement plants are 
said to have been built or projected in Michigan, 
of which eleven were still in operation in 1917. Of 
these eleven, six were using marl and clay, and five 
limestone and shale. Cement plants have been lo- 
cated at Alpena, Fenton, Bellaire, Bellevue, Bronson, 
Coldwater, Kalamazoo, Elk Rapid.s, Farwell, White 
Pigeon, Charlevoix, Marlborough, Bay City, Lupton, 
Chelsea, Cement City, Spring Arbor, Lakeland, 
Athens, Three Rivers, Gray Village, Wyandotte, 
Xewago, Mocherville, Union City, Petoskey, Man- 


Chester, Lima, Qiiiney, Grass Lake, and Brighton. 
This distributed the industry widely over the entire 
Lower Peninsula of Michigan, thus utilizing the 
widely extended marl and limestone deposits and 
distributing the output widely among the consumers. 
That output in 1918, according to the United States 
Geological Survey, was 3,554,872 barrels, a decrease 
from the 1917 production of 4,088,899 barrels.^ It 
is economically desirable that cement factories should 
be erected in the Upper Peninsula to supply the 
local requirements. There is al)undant raw material 
available, and wliile the local market is not as ex- 
tensive as in the southern portion of the State, it 
exists and might well be supplied from a plant within 
the district. 

Limestone is distributed widely over the State, but 
that of commercial importance is found chiefly in 
the northern portion of the Lower Peninsula and 
in the eastern part of the Upper Peninsula. De- 
posits here lie close to transportation routes by rail 
or water, and in recent years have been largely ex- 
ploited. These limestone formations contain de- 
posits of a high calcium carbonate content, which 
have been utilized as fluxes in blast furnaces at 
Sault Ste. Marie, Marquette and Duluth, at the 
carl)ide works at Sault Ste. Marie, and at the copper 
smelters in the copper country. The purity some- 
times attains 98 per <^'ent of calcium carbonate. The 
dolomites which are also found here and elsewhere 
in the State, while utilizal)le as linings for open 

'"Ccmont in IHIS'': V. S. Geol. Survey, p. 572. 


hearth furnaces and in the manufacture of paper by 
the sulfite process, are mainly employed as road 
material and railway ballast, while building stone is 
thus derived in Monroe County. Still other quarries 
of limestone are in Eaton, Wayne and Huron coun- 
ties, which are valued because situated in areas where 
outcrops of rock are seldom encountered suitable for 
quarrying. Eecently there has been a tendency to 
employ the high calcium limestones in the North as 
a soil corrective, for which they are well adapted. 
Near Ishpeming is a formation of marble, designated 
the "verde antique," which yields a greenish marble 
barred with white bands of dolomite, which when 
polished is extremely beautiful. This marble area 
is now being commercially exploited. In the south- 
ern peninsula limestone is employed in the manu- 
facture of concrete, as noted in another paragraph. 
The value of limestone produced in Michigan in 
1917 is stated by the State Geological Survey to have 
been $3,320,895.^ In 1918 the United States Geo- 
logical Survey ranked Michigan sixth in the pro- 
duction of limestone.- The product in that year 
was 134,813 tons, valued at $8.80 a ton. The Geo- 
logical Survey notes that the demand for building 
lime had declined almost to the vanishing point.^ 
In 1917 Michigan produced 236,612,000 common 
bricks, which represents a decrease from the output 

^See Kept, on Mich. Limestones in "Production and 
Value of Mineral Products in Michigan," Lansing, 1915, 111. 
2 "Lime in 1918": U. S. Geol. Survey, p. 817. 
Ubid., 822. 


for several years preceding. Drain tile were also 
manufactured of a value of $734,012. The figures 
for 1916 show also 5,539,000 vitrified bricks pro- 
duced, valued at $80,915. In addition there were 
small amounts of fire-proofing and hollow building 
tile or blocks.^ There has been a steady increase in 
the production of pottery, which, in 1917, amounted 
to $1,187,981, attributed to the increased output 
of porcelain and decorated ware, and porcelain 
sanitary and electrical supplies. The manufacture 
of flower-pots is an important element in this total, 
and other items include clay pipes, crucibles, spark- 
plugs and insulators. ]\Iichigan clays are employed 
in the manufacture of flower-pots, but imported clays 
for porcelain pipes and other white ware, since 
Michigan lacks kaolin for this purpose.^ The brick- 
making and related industries are confined very 
largely to the southern half of the Lower Peninsula 
where suitable raw material is available. "Wayne 
County, where lake clay is abundant, is a particularly 
important center for the manufacture of common 
bricks. The Michigan Geological Survey has stated 
that most of the surface clays in IMichigan are of low 
grade, and, due to their sandy or calcareous nature, 
most of these chiys are adapted for making only 
common brick and tile or low grade pottery.^ Ex- 
posures of clay or shale beds suitable for the manu- 

* "Production and Value of Mineral Products in Mich- 
ifran," 1917, 153-154. 
Ubid., 155. 
Ubid., 151. 


facture of vitrified, fire and front brick, vitrified 
tile and fire-proofing are likewise stated not to be 
abundant. At Grand Ledge, Jackson, Corunna, Bay 
City and Flushing, shales of the coal-measures have 
been utilized for making vitrified and front brick, 
vitrified tile, sewer pipe, conduits and fire-proofing. 
Slip clays suitable for glazing pottery are found in 
Ontonagon County.^ 


The forest and prairies, lakes and streams of Michi- 
gan were the natural habitat of multitudes of animals 
of many sorts, some of them serviceable to man and 
some noxious and even dangerous. This animal life 
varied from period to period with the migration of the 
species and the destruction wrought by enemies hu- 
man and otherwise. The figure of the huntsman 
depicted on the shield embodied in the State's coat- 
of-arms, with the attending moose and elk support- 
ing this same shield, were symbolical of the part 
played by this wild life in the pioneer era of Mich- 
igan history. Charles S. Wheeler has enumerated 
some fifty species of animals found in early Michigan, 
including the bison, caribou, elk, moose, common deer, 
panther, lynx, wildcat, gray wolf, fisher, sable or pine 
marten, red fox, gray fox, ermine or white weasel, 
mink, badger, skunk, otter, wolverine, black bear, 
raccoon, four bats, two moles, two shrews, flying 
squirrel, black and gray squirrel, fox squirrel, two 

^ "Production and Value of Mineral Products in Michi- 
gan," 1916, 178. 


chipmunks, striped gopher, woodchuck, beaver, iive 
kinds of mice, muskrat, common rabbit, wliite hare, 
porcupine and opossum. He states further that 
"three hundred and thirty-six kinds of birds have 
been reported as residents or migrants. Dr. Miles re- 
ports 43 reptiles, including turtles, snakes, frogs, 
toads and lizards; also IGl land and fresh-water mol- 
lusks." ^ George W. Sears, traversing the Michigan 
wilderness some eighty years ago, from Saginaw to 
the Muskegon Eiver, encountered droves of wild tur- 
keys amid heavy timber almost hourly. Deer were 
everywhere "on all sorts of ground and among all 
varieties of timber. Very tame they were too, often 
stopping to look at the stranger, offering easy shots at 
short range and finally going off quite leisurely." W. 
J. Beal has left us an account of the game animals of 
his Lenawee County home, where "black bear occa- 
sionally devoured pigs as they were allowed to run 
among oaks and beeches to fatten on the nuts known 
as shack or mast," where "wolves were thick enough, 
often making night hideous by their howling which 
resembled the howling of a lonesome dog," and where 
"occasionally the screams of a wildcat terrified some 
belated footman. Foxes were numerous and cun- 
ning. Deer, badgers, porcupines, minks and musk- 
rats were plentiful. Deer ate the young wheat of the 
fields. Wild turkeys were often seen in flocks and 
sometimes wintered on corn left in the shock in the 
field. Partridges and quail were abundant, wild 
pigeons so numerous that at times of wheat seeding 
^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections" XXXII, 359. 


the farmer had to watch his fields to save the seeding. 
Coon, mink, otter and nuiskrats were hunted and 
trapped for their fur. Opossums, turkey buzzards 
and eagles were occasionally seen, but no crows had 
arrived." Fox squirrels, he tells us, came later from 
the South to join their many relations already 
domiciled in the State. In the northern peninsula 
there is considerable temporary testimony to the in- 
adequate game supply in the pioneer period, so that 
the Indian population, as David Thompson relates, 
was sparse through the poverty of the means of sub- 
sistence and, according to the Elder Henry, was on 
occasion forced to cannibalize to save a remnant of 
the family or tribe. 

From all this array of animal life, the first settlers 
of Michigan derived an income from the catch and 
sale of furs, and the trade remains surprisingly 
large after all these years of destructive forays by 
their human foes on the denizens of the woods. Miss 
Johnson quotes from the trader, Burnett's ledger 
of 1796-1797, as follows: "Sold 99 packs composed 
of 5 bears, 5 pound beaver, 10 fishers, 58 cats, 74 doe, 
78 foxes, 108 wolves, 117 otters, 183 minks, 557 
bucks, 1,231 deer, 1,340 muskrats, and 5,587 rac- 
coons."^ C. A. Weissert of Barry County notes 
among the furs dealt in, the marten, beaver, mink, 
muskrat, otter, raccoon and fisher.- At points of 
vantage throughout the two peninsulas arose the posts 

^ Johnson: ":\richigan Fur Trade," Lansing, Mich. Hist. 
Commission. 1919, 97. 

■' "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXVIII, 659. 


of the fur trade : On the tributaries of the Saginaw 
and the Grand, on the St. Joseph and the Kalamazoo, 
and by the Lake Superior shore, while Mackinac and 
the "Soo" were famous outfitting points and places 
of concentration for the enormous traffic in peltries 
throughout Michigan and the great Northwest. Some 
interior points Avere designated by names of house- 
hold familiarity among the pioneers of Michigan. 
It was thus with Knagg's place and Williams' ex- 
change in the Shiawassee Valley and Campau's post 
on the Saginaw. Hither the trapper brought his 
catch of beaver, so much an article of barter in the 
fur country that it served as currency in lieu of coin. 
The slaughter began with the Indians and the French 
and has never ceased even to this hour. It brought 
extermination to the buffalo, the elk, the moose, the 
caribou, the panther and the wolverine, as also to 
the passenger pigeon and the wild turkey.^ The State 
Game, Fish and Forest Fire Commissioner refers 
to estimates by dealers in the 1920 fur trade, which 
put the catch of furs in that year as selling from 
three to six million dollars; and the Commissioner 
estimates the normal annual output in Michigan as 
worth two million dollars. - 

Beaver and other furs are still secured, but re- 
course has recently been had to the creation of an 
artificial supply through the propagation of highly 
valuable species of foxes. In 1920 the Bureau of 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXIII, 358. 
* Kept. Midi. State Came, Fish and Forest Fire Dept. of 
the Public Domain Commission, 1919-1920, 8. 


Biological Survey of the United States Department 
of Agriculture estimated, on the basis of incomplete 
information, the investment in the silver fox ranches 
in Michigan at $522,785, and that these ranches 
were stocked with some 661 animals. This is re- 
garded as an under-estimate. Muskegon on the 
Lake Michigan side of the southern peninsula has 
become one of the most important centers of fox 
farming in the United States, while a beginning in 
this industry was made, in 1920, at Houghton and 
]\Iarquette. Fox farming in Michigan has become a 
well-established industry. 

The preservation of fur-bearing animals is in- 
volved in the movement for greater forest protection, 
since the forest and cut-over lands provide for wild 
life of many kinds. It is recognized to some extent 
that the destruction of the forest and bush areas 
by fire means the removal of game and a valuable 
trafTic arising therefrom. Skins of bear and beaver, 
mink, otter and other small fur-bearers, usually are 
marketable at a good price. A list of fur quotations 
from January, 1920, places the price of a lynx 
skin at $12 to $20, wildcat from $3 to $5, wolf at 
$15 to $25, to which was added (until 1921) a bounty 
of $35 for his destruction as a noxious animal. Mink 
skins were quoted at $12 to $16, skunk at $1.50 to 
$8, weasel from $0.50 to $2, and muskrats, a leader 
in the market, at $3 to $4. Bear pelts, and bears are 
not uncommon in the north Michigan woods, were 
salable at $20 to $40, marten at $25 to $35, and 
raccoon at $5 to $9. Ordinary foxes went at $15 


to $25. Badger was quoted at $1.50 to $2. Beavers, 
once the king of the trade, were valued at $15 to 
$35 each, and the fisher and otter were given as 
high a rating.^ The high price of furs of the late 
post-war period had the effect of greatly stimulating 
the destruction of fur-bearing^animals, until even 
muskrats became exterminated in some localities 
where they had once flourished." The destruction of 
the forest cover through commercial operations and 
fires likewise has diminished the game supply of the 
State in the opinion of the Commissioner and of 

In the open November season (now limited to 
ten days) there continues to be a very large annual 
destruction of deer in the northern counties, esti- 
mated by the Commissioner in 1920 at 28,000 head. 
Below the Straits of Mackinac the depletion in the 
number of deer was so great by 1920 that the State 
Game, Fish and Forest Fire Commissioner thought it 
advisable to take measures for their augmentation. 
The major portion of the kill of deer now pertains to 
tlie Upper Peninsula, where, in spite of a shortened 
season for hunting, 1920 witnessed the largest ship- 
ment in the five years preceding, the number passing 
the Straits being 5,079 head. In 1918 two herds 
of nineteen individuals of elk were released from 
refuges to covert in Alpena and Presque Isle coun- 
ties of the southern peninsula. Two years later it 

'"The arand Rnpids Herald, Jan. 11. 1920. 4. 
*"Rept. State Game, Fish and Forest Fire Commissioner," 
1919-1920, 8, 9, 


was estimated that the original numher had increased 
100 per cent.^ In 1923 sixty Norway reindeer were 
introduced into northern Michigan. 

There is said also to be a large increase in the 
number of migratory wild ducks and geese and other 
fowl as a consequence of the treaty for their pro- 
tection contracted with Canada and reinforced by 
legislation. Of particular importance to Michigan 
agriculture is the undoubted increase in the numbers 
of many varieties of insectivorous birds in the State, 
the consequence of protective legislation and educa- 
tion of the people, whose appetite for noxious in- 
sects and weed-seeds ought to be a highly appreciated 
contribution to the State's agricultural welfare. On 
the other hand, the predatory fox is also reported 
to be growing in numbers, in spite of the bounty paid 
for its destruction; while the undoubted increase 
in the number of wolves and coyotes, especially in 
the northern peninsula, has caused much concern 
to the sheepmen of the district. Squirrels, too, are 
said to be increasing, especially in some parts of the 
State, and make some trouble to the farmers' gran- 
aries. Isle Eoyale, close to the extreme northern 
boundary in Lake Superior, is remarkably well 
stocked with moose — an animal seen only on rare 
occasions on the mainland. The deputy of the State 
Game, Fish and Forest Fire Conmiissioner, stationed 
on the island, reported (1920) upwards of one thou- 

' "Rcpt. State Game, Fish and Forest Fire Commissioner," 
li)l!)-1920, p. 15. 






sand moose there, an estimate regarded as moderate 
by the Commissioner. 

In 1916 the Public Domain Commission established 
a game farm four miles southeast of j\Iason, Ing- 
ham County, whose principal service has been the 
propagation of ring-necked pheasants, for the pur- 
pose of stocking the wild lands of the State. In 
1920, 58,468 eggs were produced on this farm, of 
which 38,463 were sent to individual applicants for 
hatching, and 4,461 adult birds reared on the farm 
were distributed in general field covert, principally 
in the southern counties of the Lower Peninsula. 
The State Game, Fish and Forest Fire Commissioner, 
who was responsible for this undertaking, reports 
general success in securing pheasant colonies even in 
northern counties where results were not anticipated. 
It was believed that this bird would well replace 
the ruffed grouse whose depletion, it was hoped, 
would be offset by this imported variety.^ In 1919, 
the propagation of wild turkeys was also begun at 
the State game farm and a few birds were released 
in 1921. The bird was formerly very abundant, if 
the accounts of pioneers are to be credited, but has 
been completely exterminated in a wild state." 

' "Rept. State Game, Fish and Forest Fire Commissioner," 
1919-1920, 12. 

^ How "Xature, dospite man's grasping ways, provides 
more altundaiilly Hum ever food and shelter for the birds 
and animals," is deseribed by George Shiras, 3d, in The 
National (leographic Marjazine for August, 1921, page 202fT. 
Shiras is very familiar with wild life and the conditions 


"Oar lakes were well stocked with excellent fish," 

writes L. D. Watkins of Manchester, "bass, pike, 

pickerel, perch, sunfish and blue-gills were the most 

common and were easily taken." ^ Harvey Tower, 

writing of the Oceana County of seventy years ago, 

informs that from ten to fifty barrels "to a haul" 

of whitefish were not unusual; while the Indians 

of the Sault Ste. Marie caught them with their 

hands amid the rocks and rapids. Bela Hubbard 

enjoyed the rare sport of landing with his hands, 

after a vigorous tussle, one of a school of sturgeon 

discovered gamboling in the waves breaking amid the 

bowlders near the "shore. "I do not wish you to lose 

faith in my veracity," Mrs. A. M. Hayes of Hastings 

assures her readers, "but I have seen squaws spear 

sturgeon near-by on the river that would weigh 

all the way from sixty to one hundred pounds." ^ 

under which it lives in the Lake Superior country. His 
thesis is that the primeval forest yielded less sustenance 
and poorer cover for l>irds and animals than is now afforded 
by the vegetation that has replaced this original forest 
cover, with a resulting increase in animal life in this 
region. There is historical evidence of the truth of this 
opinion. David Thompson, the fur-trader, who was fa- 
miliar with the Lake Superior shore more than a century 
ago, refers to tlie paucity of gaiue here. Forced canni- 
balism among the Indians was not unknown. Similarly, it 
has been pointed out that the northern Michigan cut-over 
area affords excellent conditions for bee-keeping, since the 
vegetation it now carries comprises many plants that yield 
nectar. The State Inspectoi^^of Apiaries in 1021 adverted 
to the presence of alsike and white clover, wild red rasp- 
berry, blackberry, fire-weed, basswood, boneset, aster, 
etc.. on tlie uplands of this resion as favorable to bees. 

' "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections." v. XXII, p. 265. 

'Ibid., VIII, 225; v. Ill, p. 199; v. XXVI, p. 240, 


Michigan is estimated to have 16,000 miles of 
rivers and small streams and it has innumerable 
inland lakes — the home of many varieties of edible 
fish, such as pike and pickerel, perch, bullheads, 
bass and trout, the aggregate output of which se- 
cured by commercial fishermen and sportsmen, while 
not statistically ascertained, is undoubtedly very 
large. The Great Lakes encompassing the State yield 
the great supply of marketable fish, amounting in 
1917 to 29,737,335 pounds. In that year 3,183 per- 
sons were engaged in this occupation in the State, 
and the total product was valued at $1,668,529.^ 
Of the Great Lakes in the IMichigan area. Lake Huron 
contributed the largest fraction of the total supply — 
13,363,207 pounds. Lake Michigan was second in 
rank, with some two million pounds less product 
than Lake Huron ; while Lake Superior, with an 
output of 2,891,131 pounds, was a very poor third in 
rank. It seems to be a fact, not generally under- 
stood, that the growth of fish in Lake Superior is 
much less rapid than in the lakes of a more southerly 
latitude. This is attributable to the lower tempera- 
ture prevailing in this greatest fresh-water sea and 
to the diminished supply of vegetable matter con- 
sumed by fish as food. John Lowe of the Northern 
State Normal School, Marquette, has estimated that 
during the first year of life, a fish in Lake Superior 
increases some three ounces in weight, while in 
Lake Michigan the growth is about thrice as rapid. 

^"Fisliery Industries of the U. S. Bur. Fisheries," 1919, 
123, 124. 


It has become evident that the fidi supply of the 
Great Lakes is diniinishing, and the great im- 
portance of the industry has promoted the estab- 
lishment of hatcheries both by the State and the 
United States for the propagation of fish for planting 
in the inland waters and in the Great Lakes. Hatch- 
eries owned or operated by the State under the direc- 
tion of the Michigan Fish (now Conservation) Com- 
mission were located (December, 1920), at Paris, 
Mecosta Connty ; Comstock Park, Kent County ; Hen- 
rietta, Wexford County; Drayton Plains, Oakland 
County; Detroit; Sault Ste. Marie; Grayling, Craw- 
ford County ; and Bay Port, Huron County ; while 
other hatcheries were under construction at Manis- 
tique, Schoolcraft County in the Upper Peninsula; 
Oden, Emmet County; Hastings, Barry County; 
Benton Harbor, Berrien County; and Harrisville, 
Alcona County. From these fish hatcheries during 
the year 1920, the number of fish distributed through- 
out the State aggregated 128,225,300, including fry, 
fingerlings and yearlings. These included 12,132,- 
000 l)rook trout (fry and advanced fry) ; 0,458,500 
rainbow trout; 9,018,000 wall-eyed pike; 53,870,000 
perch (fry) ; 18,000,000 whitefish (fry) ; and 891,- 
000 lake trout (fry). During the past twenty years, 
according to the superintendent and secretary of the 
Michigan Fish Commission, most of the work of 
fish propagation in the Great Lakes has been main- 
tained by the United States Bureau of Fisheries, 
which operates hatcheries in Michigan at North- 
ville, Alpena, and Charlevoix. The list of species 


of fish planted by the Michigan Fish Commission 
in the year 1920 also includes brown trout, large- 
mouthed and small-mouthed black bass, bluegills, 
bullheads, landlocked salmon, and rocky mountain 
whitefish, whose numbers are in most instances less 
than one million. 


At favored spots along the waterways of Michigan, 
the early settlers erected their water-wheels and 
mills, where the farmer ground his grain and re- 
duced his logs to lumber. Such points were the 
rapids of the Grand at Grand Rapids, the big rapids 
of the Shiawassee at Owosso, the big rapids of the 
Muskegon at Big Eapids and at almost countless 
other locations throughout the State. Many grist- 
mills still use this economical source of power, though 
steam has replaced water as the motive force for 
the lumber industry. Today, it is hydro-electric 
power that gives the water-courses of Michigan their 
chief economic importance. The development under 
this head gives Michigan a leading place in the 
United States. The potential water power of the 
State has been estimated at 332,000 horse power, of 
which the total actual developed power was put at 
213,000 horse power.^ The Geological Survey of 
Michigan has investigated the available water power 
of the Upper Peninsula. - 

' Statement of tlic National Bank of Commerce in New 
York, March 10, 1920. 
='See 1910 Report. 


Of the various hydro-electric power companies op- 
erating in Michigan, the Escanaba Traction Com- 
pany, which has a series of stations on the Escanaba 
Eiver in the Upper Peninsula, is credited by the 
Michigan Public Utilities Commission with the great- 
est kilowatt capacity (Dec. 31, 1918), namely, 100,- 
800 ; while the Consumers Power Company's twenty- 
one stations on the ]\Ianistee, Muskegon, Grand, 
Lookingglass, Shiawassee, Au Sable, and Kalamazoo 
rivers, with 75,900 kilowatt capacity, was the largest 
actual producer of current in 1918, the output ap- 
proximating 228,000,000 kilowatt hours.^ Other 
large producers of power are the Cleveland Clilfs 
Iron Company (26,000,000 K. W. H.) operating 
on the iron range near Marquette; the Indiana and 
Michigan Electric Company (54,000,000 K. W. H.) 
on the St. Joseph River; and the Detroit Edison 
Company managing five plants on the Huron River. 
A considerable number of concerns are operating 
single stations of a few hundred kilowatts potential 
capacity, and still other plants municipally owned 
and operated, like those at Marquette and Escanaba. 
The agricultural significance of this electric power 
development is chiefly in connection with the inter- 
urban railroad, which has become a highly prized 
service in many parts of the State. 

^Statement of the Michigan Public Utilities Commia- 
sion, 1920. 



The land of Michigan originally belonged to the 
Indian inhabitants. Territorial sovereignty came to 
the United States by its treaty with Great Britain 
in 1783. Actual possession of the southern penin- 
sula resulted from Jay's Treaty, becoming effective 
in 1796; while it remained for the Governor Lewis 
Cass in 1820 to assert American sovereignty north 
of the Straits of Mackinac. Title to much of the 
land, however, was first bestowed on the United 
States through a series of treaties with the Indians. 

Notable among these treaties is that of Detroit in 
1807, ceding a tract in the southeastern area of Michi- 
gan ; the Saginaw Treaty of 1819, ceding, a large 
region in the east-central portion tributary mainly 
to Saginaw Bay; the cession by the Pottawatomies 
in 1821, of lands in the southwest between the St. 
Joseph and Grand rivers; while the large territory 
north of this river, embracing the northwestern and 
northern parts of the Lower Peninsula and much 
of the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula, not 
already granted, as far west as the Chocolay Eiver 
near Marquette, was ceded by the Ottawas and Chip- 
pewas in 1836. The region west of this line was 


us RURAL MIC 11 1(1 AN 

granted by the Chippewas to the United States by 
a treaty contracted at La Pointe, ^Yisconsin, in 
1842 and a supplementary treaty in 1854, while the 
Menoniinees had already yielded their claim to the 
country east of the lower Menominee Eiver in 183().^ 

Thus, with the addition of sundry minor grants, 
did the United States possess itself of much of the 
soil of Michigan with whatever it might contain. 
Those who suppose that the Indians were commonly 
robbed of their lands should read these treaties 
Avhich are the foundation of all land titles in the 

Previous to the settlement of these lands, it was 
necessary to survey and subdivide them. Unlike the 
states of the East and South, Michigan happily was 
comprehended within the excellent scheme of land 
survey provided by the old Congress of the Con- 
federation in 1785, and thus was spared the hap- 
hazard and costly practice obtaining in the older 
commonwealths. The Congressional plan, first ap- 
plied to the famous "Seven Eanges" of Ohio, con- 
templated the bisecting of the future state east and 
west by a "base line," the division of the land into 
equilateral townships of thirty-six sections of one 
square mile each in area, the designation of the town- 
ships by their position north or south of the base 
line and their range east or west of the meridian 

'Eoyce: "Indian Land Cessions in tlie United States," 
(Bur. 'of Amer. Ethnology, 18th Annual Kept.) ; Washing- 
ton, 1896-97. 


line, and of the sections by successive numbers within 
the township. Of the surveyed portions of the terri- 
tory plats, maps and records were to be kept, so that 
it would be relatively easy to locate authoritatively 
any tract of land in the surveyed area, and thus in 
the main avoid costly litigation and conflict of title. 
Subsequently provision was made for the subdivision 
of sections into fractional portions; and while the 
description of tracts of land by "meets and bounds" 
is occasionally met with in ]\Iicliigan, much of the 
land is located under the old Congressional plan 
of 1785; and the Auditor-General of the State has 
earnestly sought to make the practice universal in 
order, among other things, that the identity of all 
lands subject to taxation shall be beyond question.^ 
In 1920, Auditor-General 0. B. Fuller estimated the 
total number of descriptions of property on the tax 
rolls of Michigan at some 1,500,000. Of the 300,000 
descriptions of property on which taxes are annually 
returned as delinquent, he states the number of these 
that are erroneous to be from 15 to 20 per cent of 
the total, partly due to error in the caption of the 
plat, and partly due to indefinite description of the 
property. He lias knowledge of faulty descriptions 
only in cases in which property is returned as de- 
linquent for taxes, but he believes that in the south- 
ern — and therefore the oldest — counties of the State 
40 per cent of all property is described by meets 
and bounds in spite of the form of description ap- 
' Hinsdale: "The Old Northwest," ch. XIV. 


proved by the United States survey, although the 
tendency is believed to be steadily in this direction.^ 

The records of the General Land Office at Wash- 
ington indicate that the survey of lands in Michigan 
began in 1826. The meridian line was located at 
longitude 84 degrees, 22 minutes, 24 seconds; and the 
base line at 42 degrees, 2G minutes, 30 seconds. Their 
point of intersection on the boundary between Jack- 
son and Ingham counties became the starting-point 
for running the lines of the "Congressional'" town- 
ships into which much of the State has been divided, 
and which in many, but not all cases, constitute the 
unit of local government in the rural sections. Next 
came the location of the section lines, along wliich 
today in many instances rural highways have been 
established, sometimes along the "quarter-line" in- 
stead, thus giving to the countryside of Michigan a 
checker-board arrangement, in some respects more 
convenient than esthetically pleasing. On these 
lines the surveyors set corner-posts and quarter-posts, 
notched and inscribed to indicate their exact position, 
while "meandering stakes" marked the course of 
streams and the shore-line of lakes. Through de- 
fective surveying, corners of sections and townships 
did not always "close*' accurately, and the traveler 
by road still encounters strange "jogs" or deflections 
from the direct course, caused by the necessity of 
correcting a defective corner, or of setting a boundary 
on a new meridian if the nominal requirement of a 
township six miles square was to be even approxi- 

iQ. B. Fuller, Auditor-General: Letter of Sept. 20, 1920. 


mately adhered to. At a few places in Michigan, 
where grants by the French and British governments 
had been made previous to the American occupation 
of the land, the system just described was not em- 

In connection with the linear survey, notes were 
taken of the main physical features of the land 
surface: the timber, soil, moisture, streams, lakes 
and swamps; and special pains were taken in the 
Upper Peninsula to ascertain the rock and mineral 
formations, specimens being sent to Washington with 
their accompanying field notes, as indicative of the 
mineral resources of the region. It was while en- 
gaged on this combined linear and geological survey 
that Douglass Houghton lost his life in Lake Superior 
in the autumn of 1845, and it was a party of his 
surveyors that discovered the presence of iron ore 
near Negaunee in 1844. In some instances, through 
carelessness or fraud, grossly inaccurate surveys were 
perpetrated, necessitating the repetition of the work. 

The life of a United States surveyor in the pioneer 
period was hard and laborious and not devoid of 
unpleasant, even dangerous, features. The deputy 
surveyor was accompanied by chainmen and axmen 
to assist him in his work. Life was in the open, 
exposed to storms and mosquitoes and flies. Camp 
equipage, provisions and instruments must be packed 
to the place where they were required. Food must 
be prepared as best it could. Beds were made od 
spruce and balsam boughs, with boots perhaps for 
pillows. There was no "eight hour day." Notes, 

Fig. 3. Percentage of increase or decrease of total population of 
Michigan by counties (1910-1920). (For explanation of shading 
see Fig. 4.) 




f/^yyy^ 5 TO 1 5 Pea cent 
^$$^ (6 TO 25 »za cr»»T 
y^^^ 26 TO 50 i»CB CEfcT 


Fig. 4. Percentajro of increase or decrease of rural population of 
Michigan bj' counties (1910-1920). Rural population is defined 
as that residing outside incorporated places having 2,500 inhabi- 
tants or more. 



ilie loss of wliich miglit be irreparable, must be 
carefully recorded and preserved. Sickness and ac- 
cident must be endured as best they might. Yet 
these men were the pioneers of civilization in Michi- 
gan, as they forced their way through the dense forest 
and across the morasses and water-courses of the 
inter-morainal depressions, as they labored in the 
shadow of giant trees and the deep silence of the 
wilderness, and slept to the howling of the wolf and 
the hooting of the owl — if they slept at all. They 
were laying the foundations of rural life in Michi- 
gan. ^ 

The United States lands having been surveyed, 
their sale or other disposition by the Government 
was in order. At various points in the State land 
offices were opened according to the center of gravity 
of the business : at Detroit, White Pigeon, Ionia, 
Sault Ste. Marie, and Marquette, where last all land 
office business for the State has been centered with 
the discontinuance of all other offices at less strategic 
points. The Marquette office still (1919) has 73,000 
acres of United States land at its disposition, mainly 
in the northern section of the State, the largest 
holdings being in Schoolcraft and Chippewa counties 
and on Isle Eoyale. In the pioneer period, the 
journey to the "local'' land office was often long and 
arduous, yet it was rarely undertaken, for did not 
two hundred dollars possess a man of a quarter 

'An interest injj account of tlie life and work of a U. S. 
purveyor is found in "Midi. Pioneer and Hist. Soc. Collec- 
tions," V. XXVII, 306, written by C. S. Woodard of Ann 


section of fertile soil — its fertility attested by the 
vigorous growth of stalwart trees that only time and 
prodigious labor could remove? In the great specu- 
lative year of ISSG more than four million acres of 
these Michigan lands were sold by the Government, 
computed to be one-fifth of the total United States' 
sales of that year. The panic of 1837 brought punish- 
ment to many who had speculated too wildly in 
Michigan real estate, particularly the purchasers of 
town sites in platted cities which, it was hoped, were 
destined to make their buyers rich out of their rapid 
increment of value. Eventually, however, most of 
Michigan's 36,000,000 acres passed out of public 
into private ownership, much of it by sale, 2,551,000 
acres by homestead entry, and still other large quan- 
tities by grants of various sorts; 1,021,000 acres to 
the State for the benefit of its primary schools; 750,- 
000 acres to the State and thence to the corporation 
which constructed St. Mary's Ship Canal; 500,000 
to the State itself for internal improvements (1841) ; 
nearly 400,000 to the company which built the canals 
joining Portage Lake with Lake Superior; 100,000 
acres for the construction of the ship canal con- 
necting Lake La Belle on the Keweenaw Peninsula 
with Lake Superior (1866). 

Land, also, was forthcoming for the construction 
of the "military" road from Fort Wilkins on Ke- 
weenaw I'oint to the Wisconsin-Michigan line by 
way of Houghton. At a time when it was thought 
necessary that capital should be interested in rail- 
wad building through large grants of lands by the 


federal government to the state for that purpose, 
Michigan Avas not forgotten. From 1856 a series of 
acts of Congress conferred on the State those lands 
bestowed on the companies which bnilt the railroad 
lines now ^forming portions of the Chicago and 
jSTorthwestern and the Duluth, South Shore and At- 
hmtic railroads in the Upper Peninsula, and the 
Grand Eapids and Indiana, the Pere Marquette and 
the Lansing-Mackinac sections of the Michigan Cen- 
tral railroads in the Lower Peninsula. The grants 
were of the riglit of way and of alternate sections 
on both sides of it, and by 1880 had amounted to 
luore than 3,000,000 acres. 

It thus appears that no inconsiderable fraction 
of the area of Michigan was freely relinquished by 
the national government, primarily to the State, but 
eventually to the private concerns interested in ex- 
ploiting its natural resources. The construction 
companies receiving these bonus lands from the State 
have in turn disposed of them wholly or in part. 
These grants have, therefore, to a considerable extent 
become incorporated in the common general mass 
of farm lands. In the southern peninsula, the Grand 
Eapids and Indiana, and the Pere Marquette rail- 
roads have thus wholly disposed of their land grants, 
save such portions as they may have chosen per- 
manently to retain. In the Upper Peninsula the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railway still retains 
nearly 200,000 acres of its land grant; the Detroit, 
Mackinac and ]\Iarquette Land Company now pos- 
sesses some 150,000 acres of the lands originally 


granted to the railroad of that name now comprised 
in the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway 
system, while the latter retains some 60,000 acres 
of the old Marquette, Houghton and Ontonogan 
Eailroad grant. The St. Mary's Mineral Land Com- 
pany, present holders of the St. Mary's Ship Canal 
land grant, still is in possession of some 92,000 acres. 
All these holdings are mainly of timber and mineral 
lands. In the southern peninsula, the Michigan 
Central Eailroad still possesses some 11,000 acres 
of the old grant to the Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw 
section of its present system, which carry a price of 
$2 to $10 an acre. 

The grants of land by the United States for edu- 
cational purposes in Michigan were likewise very 
extensive. According to the famous Ordinance of 
1787, section number 16 of each surveyed township 
was bestowed on the State in aid of primary educa- 
tion. In this manner approximately 1,021,000 acres 
came into the possession of the State.^ These lands 
were disposed of, first by the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction and then by the Commissioner 
of the Land Office after 1843, along with other lands 
granted to the State for educational purposes. At 
first the minimum price of school lands was set at 
$12 an acre, later reduced to $5, then to $4. Accord- 
ing to Knight, the average sale price of two-thirds 

'This is the niiinlu'r of aores rpjjortcd l)y tlio Commis- 
sioner of the General Land OfRco. Knifjlit in "Mich. Pioneer 
and Hist. See. Collections," VII, 28, gives the total num- 
ber of acres patented to the State at 1,067,397. 


of this grant disposed of before the year 1885 was 
$4.58 an acre. The university lands sold at some- 
thing over $11 an acre on the average. Of these 
school lands the State still (July 1920) owns 8,066.15 
acres. In addition to the school lands, grants were 
also made by the United States to the University, 
the z\gricultural College and the normal schools. 
Through purchase, also, these became incorporated 
mainly in the agricultural lands of Michigan. A 
much larger contribution of acreage resulted from 
the act of Congress of 1850, which conveyed to Ar- 
kansas by name and other states by inclusion "wet 
or swamp lands" within their borders. Out of this 
legislation Michigan derived by patent from the 
United States 5,655,689.56 acres, likewise largely dis- 
posed of for the benefit of the primary schools. 

The average price of improved farms in Michigan 
in 1921 is placed at $91 an acre by the statistician 
of the Cooperative Crop Eeporting Service. This 
represents an increase of $4 an acre over the pre- 
ceding year, although the downward tendency of 
prices of farm products was beginning to manifest 
itself in land valuations in some localities.^ How- 
ever, in a state where soil and climatic conditions 
vary so markedly, with differences in market and 
transportation conditions, extreme variation in the 
valuations placed on agricultural lands are to be 
expected. The appraisers for the Federal Land Bank 
of St. Paul have found that, in evaluating lands, each 
farm presents a distinct problem in itself, particularly 

^ "]\Iich. Crop Kept.," Lansing, March, 1921, 4. 


in the less developed sections. One of these ap- 
praisers found the highest priced land to be in the 
southeastern counties of Monroe and Lenawee, his 
valuations running as high as $200 an acre with in- 
stances of sales at a higher figure. Yet he found 
some lands in those same counties worth not over $10 
an acre. The least valuable farm lands, as might be 
expected, were in the northern jDortion of the Lower 
Peninsula (the Upper Peninsula was out of his juris- 
diction), where the most worthless land was ascribed 
to Muskegon, Lake, Kalkaska and Eoscommon 
counties. In this region the valuations were $5 to 
$15 an acre for uncultivated tillable land, and $30 to 
$40 an acre for the best grades of cultivated lands. 
Starting with a base line of $0.00 for some land in 
every county, his colleague finds his maximum valua- 
tion for land to be $200 an acre in Oakland, Wayne, 
Macomb, Genesee, Branch and Gratiot counties, $250 
in Saginaw County, $150 in St. Clair, Lapeer, and 
Midland counties; $100 in Huron and Isabella; $80 
in Alcona County, $70 in Alpena, Gladwin and Clare 
counties; $30 in Roscommon County; $50 in Oscoda 
County, and $40 in Montmorency County, while the 
fruit-raising county of Grand Traverse in the same 
latitude attains values of $100 an acre. The ap- 
praiser for the LTpper Peninsula finds the most 
highly developed agricultural counties having, con- 
sequently, the highest range of land values, to be 
Menominee, Delta, C^hippewa and Houghton, in 
which his valuations range as high as $100 an acre, 
although he concedes that sales occasionally occur 

140 RURAL MH'lltaA}^ 

in excess of that price. Tliis is not essentially in- 
consistent with the opinion of the Assistant State 
Leader of County Agents in tlie Upper Peninsula, 
who reports the highest land vahu'S to be reached 
in Menominee County at $150 an acre. 

It is in the Upper Peninsula and the northern 
half of the Lower Peninsula that approximately 
12,000,000 acres of cut-over lands are located, whose 
price is an object of interest to the seeker after 
cheap raw lands capable of development by hard 
labor into productive agricultural holdings. One 
railroad company gives the minimum price for its 
cut-over lands at $7 an acre. A land company op- 
erating in the neighborhood of Chatham and Trenary 
southeast of Marquette has sold its holdings at an 
average price of $17.90 an acre. Another company, 
Avith 10,000 acres at its disposal, has placed a price 
of $15 to $20 an acre on its holdings. Another con- 
cern, operating between Keweenaw and Huron bays, 
has sold eighty "forties" at prices ranging from $10 
to $15 an acre. It should be understood, however, 
that the sales of these lands go with reservations 
of mineral and frequently many other rights and 
privileges which impair the title and of themselves 
reduce the value of the property. ... In a state 
where land values vary so markedly as in Michigan, 
an average price for farm land as a whole is not 
very significant; however, the Fourteenth United 
States Census found the average acre value of land 
alone in Michigan to be $50.40. (See Appendix A.) 

These prices refer to lands from which the forest 


has been removed, "cut-over," which composed nearly 
one-third of the State's area.^ These are largely un- 
productive stump tracts, increasing, it is estimated, 
at the rate of 100,000 acres each year.^ At a time 
when it is difficult to retain Michigan farmers on 
improved lands in the most favorably situated sec- 
tions of the State, these northern cut-overs have not 
proven very attractive to those in quest of land to 
till. Of late, however, there has been a consider- 
able influx of grazers, chiefly from the depleted ranges 
of the West, to whom free pasturage for a period of 
years with the final option of purchase at a low 
price is given. The abundant summer forage, in- 
sured by seldom failing summer rains, the presence 
of water and favorable proximity to the Chicago 
market have interested a considerable number of 
these grazers; and when the problem of winter feed- 
ing has been squarely met through the growth of 
winter forage by the grazers themselves, an increas- 
ing demand for these stump lands may be looked 

Aside from these deforested regions are consider- 
able tracts of wet lands, only Florida, Mississippi, 
Louisiana and Arkansas exceeding Michigan in the 
possession of such areas. ^ The counties in the Lower 
Peninsula below latitude 41 degrees are credited with 

' Estimate of F. Roth, Professor of Forestry, Univ. of 
^licli., "Rpport of the Public Domain Commission," Jan. 9, 
1920, p. 5.55. 

^Tanette: "Michigan's Millions of Idle Acres," Detroit, 
1920. p. .32. 

* Miller and Simons: "Drainage in Michigan," p. 17. 


2,1'''5,000 acres of reclaimablo wet lands. Beyond 
this line to the Straits ol' Mackinac these are esti- 
mated at 661,000 acres, while the Upper Peninsula 
is 25 per cent swamp, or 2,598,000 acres, according 
to the authors of "Drainage in Michigan." Like 
the cut-over tracts, these wet areas present a problem 
to those who would extend agriculture to the idle 
acres of the State. Much wet land has hitherto been 
reclaimed by local drainage operations, but for much 
of that which remains. State aid and management 
would seem required. Thus the great Taquamenon 
swamp in the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula, 
said to cover 500,000 acres, much of it otherwise 
fertile clay, will require the removal of a rocky ele- 
vation in the lower course of the Taquamenon River 
before its drainage can be accomplished ; and this is a 
task better proportioned to the resources of the State 
than of a local drainage district. Th-at the State 
has considerable tracts of land which, as hitherto 
utilized, cannot yield a livelihood to their possessors 
and pay the taxes assessed, is indicated by the re- 
version to the State since 1893 of 2,300,000 acres. 
Of this amount, 445,798 acres were re-sold, of which 
there again reverted to the State 190,598 acres.^ 
The number of acres now (1920) in arrears for taxes 
is stated to be 3,000,000.- This is one-twelfth of 
the total area of the State, and is indicative of the 
effect of poor soil and other adverse conditions on 
agriculture. However, it is also significant of nu- 

' Janette, supra, pp. 14, 16. 
''Ihid., p. 12. 


merous wild-cat operations by private agencies and 
of a defective public policy on the part of the State 
government itself. No one doubts that there is 
much excellent agricultural land in Michigan, but 
this is often segregated in tracts of moderate propor- 
tions, without any trustworthy indication of its true 
extent and general desirability for the home-seeker. 
The State is at present without a comprehensive and 
detailed classification of its lands, and it remains to 
be seen whether the soil survey now in progress under 
the auspices of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
the Michigan Department of Agriculture and the 
United States Bureau of Soils is really to be of 
very much help in determining the relative desira- 
bility, ultimate productiveness and most economi- 
cal use of each parcel of land. The legislation of 
1917 made provision for a soil classification of 
this character, but for reasons variously set forth, 
the work, then assigned to the Geological Survey of 
Michigan, was not proceeded Avith, and the present 
survey is under quite diff^erent auspices and lacks the 
cooperation of all agencies that might naturally be 
expected to partici])ate. If the various types of land 
are clearly differentiated and classified, it should 
have the effect of more chjsely approximating land 
prices to worth as related to productivity in the eco- 
nomic sense of the term. 

With one-third of the area of the State in unpro- 
ductive cut-over lands, and these in the hands mainly 
of a few large owners, the problem of their disposi- 
tion remains unsolved. Marquette County is one of 


the most developed in the cut-over section ; yet with 
an area of l,li)G,800 acres, it has only 900 farmers 
and these own only 90,000 acres, 500,000 of wliich 
are tillable. Many of the large land holders employ 
agents to promote the sale of their cast-off real estate. 
These rough lands do not appeal to native American 
farmers ; and it is, therefore, necessary to interest 
recent arrivals from Europe, whom necessity and a 
less fastidious standard of living have prepared for 
the hardships of this pioneer agriculture. Stumps 
have to be removed, the virgin sod turned under, 
fences and buildings erected — a procedure that has 
been repeated in Michigan during five generations at 
least, and which must continue for still other genera- 
tions before the State is beyond the pioneer stage 
throughout the two peninsulas. The mechanical 
agencies are now more effective, but the human factor 
may still be quite without capital and perhaps without 
the New World experience that fits him fully for his 
task. The process of creating such a pioneer agri- 
cultural community may be illustrated by reference 
to the settlement of "Aura" between Keweenaw and 
Huron bays, Baraga County. The land was under 
control of Charles Hebard and Sons, Incorporated, 
lumbermen of Pequaming. "In the spring of 1914," 
writes W. J. Colenso, secretary of the Company, "we 
put our Point Abbaye lands on the market, and by 
early summer six or seven families had built houses 
and began cultivating the soil. We sold these lands 
on contract, requiring twenty per cent of the pur- 
chase price as the first payment, and the balance in 


five equal annual payments with interest. To date 
have sold eighty forties, or 3,200 acres on Point 
Abbaye. This locality is called Aura, and is located 
about four miles from this village (Pequaming), 
and the settlers are all Finns. A large school has 
been built there by the L'Anse township, and they 
have a large attendance. These farmers have gotten 
together and purchased a tractor which will be used in 
clearing and cultivating the land. This country is 
rapidly developing into a first-class farming district. 
We still have about 120 forties of cut-over lands on 
Point Abbaye to dispose of."' The company did not 
extend financial assistance to these settlers, so far as 
is known, wlio are described by J. H. Jasberg, gen- 
eral colonization agent of the Mineral Eange Rail- 
road, as quite penniless and able to succeed only by 
outside work, particularly in the woods in winter. 
The company built a road into the settlement and 
sold lumber to the settlers, it is said, at a figure 
below the market price. This firm is credited with 
marked liberality in its dealings with employees, 
and it is likely that the Aura settlers have been 
afforded rather more favorable consideration than 
normally elsewhere in the district. It has become 
manifest to some observers, however, that successful 
colonization of these cut-over lands requires very 
liberal terms as regards payments of interest and 
principal, a carefully elaborated system of financial 
credits for the purchase of equipment and live-stock, 
and adequate provision for the installation of 
improvements and community conveniences and ad- 


vantages. Some preliminary work has been done 
in this direction, but no definite project has as yet 
(October, 1920) been undertaken. As yet the idea 
of exploitation rather than that of reconstruction 
is the common conception, and the State has done 
very little to promote a different policy. 

The United States Census of 1910 indicates that 
the number of farms operated by their owners was 
172,310; by managers, 1,961 ; and by tenants, 32,689. 
This signifies that something less than one-fifth of 
the operators were tenants. Ten years later, before 
the publication of the results of the fourteenth cen- 
sus as related to farm tenure, a study made by the 
]\[ichigan State Farm Bureau indicated that tenancy 
of farms in Michigan had increased 2 per cent in 
the interval. This survey covered 52,561 farms in 
thirty counties. In these thirty counties the number 
of rented farms was 9,637, while farms operated 
by their owners numbered 42,92-1. The increase in 
farm tenancy the Bureau attributed to the inade- 
quacy of long-time rural credits which permitted 
the purchase of farms without assuming intolerable 
burden of debt, a disproportionate rise in the price 
of country real estate as compared with economic 
value, lack of cooperation "which takes .the extreme 
elements of chance out of farming," and the greater 
attractiveness of city life. Of the thirty counties, 
it was found that tenancy was actually increasing 
in eighteen, unchanged in six and decreasing in six. 
The counties surveyed were said to be well distributed 
throughout the State. The survey elicited the fact 


that tenancy is much more prevalent in the Lower 
than in the Upper Peninsula. The percentage of 
rented farms in the two peninsulas is given as 21 and 
8 respectively. 

In 1921, the statistician of the Cooperative Crop 
Eeporting Service found that approximately 18 per 
cent of the farms of the State is rented, of which 
15 per cent is on shares and 3 for cash. The aver- 
age size of theso farms is §8.5 acres with a value 
of $7,750. The average cash rental paid was $175 
per annum, which averages something over five dol- 
lars an acre.^ The Fourteenth United States Cen- 
sus indicates that, in 1920, the numbei- of farms 
operated by owners had fallen off 12,901 during the 
previous decade ; while the number of farms operated 
by tenants had increased by 2,033. The number of 
farms operated by managers had increased by 358. 
(See Appendix A.) 

As compared with the southern peninsula, land 
holdings in the north of Michigan are much larger 
and ownership is concentrated in a few persons and 
corporations. The situation is set forth by the 
Bureau of Corporations of the United States De- 
partment of Commerce in its report on the lumber 
industry of July 13, 1914. The investigations of 
the Bureau led it to the conclusion that of the 
Upper Peninsula's area of over 10,080,000 acres, 
about 56 per cent was held by ninety owners. Thirty- 
two owners held 47 per cent of the area ; thirteen 
37 per cent, and one, the Cleveland Cliffs Iron 

»"Mich. Crop. Kept.," March, 1921, p. 4. 


Company, owned 14 per cent. The last mentioned 
corporation, with its subsidiaries, was credited with 
holding 1,515,392 acres, a tract of land which, if 
blocked off in a single area, would comprise sixty- 
six townships whose circumference would amount to 
195 miles. There were twelve holders of over 100,000 
acres each, nineteen of 40,000 to 100,000; twenty- 
seven of 15,000 to 40,000; and thirty-one of less 
than 15,000 acres each but still possessing over 
60,000,000 feet of timber. These ninety holders of 
land in the Upper Peninsula possessed 5,999,036 
acres, which comprised 56.3 per cent of the whole 
area.^ These extensive holdings were promoted by 
the large grants of land conveyed by the federal gov- 
ernment in aid of various works of internal improve- 
ment, roads, railroads and canals, with lavish gen- 
erosity and with little consideration of the prospec- 
tive value of the rights bestowed. Thus the rail- 
roads of this section received grants from Fort Wil- 
kins on Keweenaw Point to the Wisconsin state line, 
221,013 acres were patented to the builders, and 
762,803 acres in the northern peninsula alone in 
aid of canal construction. 

In 1850, Congress had bestowed on the states tracts, 
designated "swamp lands," within their borders, on 
condition of their being reclaimed; and Michigan 
thus came into possession of 5,655,689 acres to June 
30, 1914. These lands were in turn disposed of 
in large amounts in aid of the construction of roads 
and railroads. Thus in 1881, the just completed 

'"Lumber Industry," II, 188-190-198. 


Detroit, Mackinac and Marquette Eailroad, joining 
Marquette with the Straits of Mackinac, received 
from the State 1,32G,G88 acres lying in the eastern 
counties of the Upper Peninsula ; and of this grant 
the Upper Peninsula Land Company — a subsidiary 
of the present Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company — came 
into possession of some 700,000 acres. A group of 
holders in addition to the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Com- 
pany also became the owners of another very large 
aggregate of these swamp lands. There have been 
no very considerable alterations in the general situa- 
tion as regards land tenure in the Upper Peninsula 
since their report was prepared. Present-day pur- 
chasers or lessees of undeveloped tracts in this section 
must deal with one or another of these large land- 
holders. Of these undeveloped lands, more than 
10,000,000 acres are in the northern peninsula. 
Much of the acreage not here in farms is in the pos- 
session of one or another of these large land-owners. 
While it is their policy to dispose of holdings except 
where these are required for mineral or lumber opera- 
tions, provided their terms can be met, there has been 
no systematic plan of land colonization yet under- 
taken by them. 

The influx of immigrants had very little direct 
encouragement or direction from the State itself. 
In creating the Public Domain Commission in 1909, 
the Legislature made provision for an immigration 
commission. The secretary of the Public Domain 
Commission was permitted to act as immigration 
commissioner. The organization thus established 


was directed to collect, compile and publish in- 
formation likely to prove attractive to settlers 
within the commonwealth, but was given slight 
resources or machinery for accomplishing important 
results. In December, 1918, an agent of the com- 
mission was stationed in New York for the pur- 
pose of directing newcomers towards Michigan, but 
to the end of the fiscal year just preceding the 
outbreak of the World War, he appears to have 
persuaded only twenty-four • farm laborers to seek 
a domicile in this State. The War caused a dis- 
continuance of even this effort, and the commis- 
sion lacked faith in its efficacy. The sugar com- 
panies have maintained agents in New York for the 
purpose of directing immigrants to the beet fields and 
factories of Michigan, but quite without avail. The 
attitude of the commissioner was apologetic and 
evinced little faith in the work the statute set 
for him to do. It was undoubtedly a fundamental 
error to combine the office of Immigration Commis- 
sioner and Secretary of the Public Domain Commis- 
sion. No effort was made to secure a commissioner 
with special experience and aptitude for such work 
as the law contemplated. Nor were the resources 
placed at the disposal of the commissioner at all 
adequate for liis task. The State has never had a 
comprehensive soil classification; and, therefore, the 
Commissioner of Immigration was unable closely to 
define and discriminate parcels of land in wliich 
home-seekers might be concerned. It was quite 
impossible for the commissioner to indicate to a 


land-seeker definitely the location of tracts of each 
type of soil, the character of the drainage, soil-mois- 
ture, subterranean water, climate, economic and so- 
cial environment, and such other information as 
would determine for the inquirer whether or not that 
location was for him desirable. There remained, 
therefore, in the view of the commission, little more 
than the poor expedient of general advertising of 
the resources of the State directly and through the 
agency of development bureaus. To obtain such 
detailed information for the whole State or for any 
large portion of it will require years. 

The basis of Michigan's homestead exemption law 
is found in an article of the second state constitu- 
tion adopted in 1850 and attributed to Eev. John 
D. Pierce, better known for his connection with the 
early school system. Its inclusion in the legal system 
was characteristic of the reforming tendencies that 
centered about the middle point of the last century, 
and it remains essentially unchanged, a part of the 
constitutional law of the commonwealth. "Every 
homestead of not exceeding forty acres of land," 
runs the second section of Article XIV, "and the 
dwelling house thereon and the appurtenances to be 
selected by the owner thereof and not included in 
any town plat, city or village," or in lieu of this 
a certain amount of urban property "shall be exempt 
from forced sale on execution or any other final 
process from court." This exemption does not apply 
in case of mortgage or other lawful alienation of 
title, but in such cases the previous consent of the 


wife, if the owner be a married man, must be secured 
to the document. "The homestead of a family, after 
the death of the owner thereof," stipulates the third 
section, "shall 1)e exempt from the payment of his 
debts in all cases during the minority of his chil- 
dren"; and another section protects the same privi- 
lege of the owner's widow during the period of her 
widowhood. Thus does the State seek to relieve its 
inhabitants from the liability to eviction from the 
family homestead, a proceeding prejudicial to family 
life and the well-being of the community. 


Historically speaking, the Indians were the first 
agriculturalists of Michigan. This population has in 
historic times belonged mainly to three Algonquin 
tribes: the Chippewas (or Ojibways), the Ottawas 
and the Pottawatomies. Of these the Chippewas and 
the Ottawas dwelt chiefly in the Upper Peninsula 
and the northern portions of the Lower Peninsula, 
and to them may be added a few Menominees ad- 
jacent to the river called by their name. The Pot- 
tawatomies are associated more especially with the 
southern sections, but there has been, in fact, con- 
siderable intermingling of tribes throughout the two 
peninsulas. The census of 1910 showed the Indian 
population of Michigan to be 7,519, and that it had 
been increasing. Their number in 1920 was 5,614. 
The most considerable numbers were in Baraga, 


Emmet, Isabella, Mackinac, Chippewa and Leelanau 
counties, all in the north; although counties as 
far south as Allegan, Saginaw, and Cass made a 
fair showing. The presence of missions, schools 
and reservations, together with the distribution of 
game (for the Indian is still a huntsman) seems 
to determine the location of this Indian population. 
This same census also disclosed that among the 
Chippewas, 109 were farmers, and 286 farm laborers 
in 1910; that of the Ottawas, 109 were farmers 
and 278 farm laborers; and that among the Pot- 
tawatomies 35 were farmers and 63 farm laborers. 
While neither quantitatively nor qualitatively is 
the Indian a present important agricultural factor 
in Michigan, the pioneer farmers of European stock 
had to reckon with him in many ways. While the 
Michigan Indians seldom were dangerous, except 
sometimes when in liquor, they frequently were an- 
noying. Even if their labor was not prized, they 
might on occasions keep an ill-provided family from 
starvation with their berries, corn and maple sugar, 
venison and fish. Indian agriculture was crude. It 
was exemplified by the squaw, not by the men. "They 
were excellent judges of land," writes C. A. Weissert 
of Hastings, "and cultivated the prairies or the black 
soil of the river flats. They planted their corn not 
in rows but haphazardly, the product being softer and 
whiter than that brought in by the whites. To pre- 
serve it the Indians smoked it and then buried it in 
the earth." He tbiiiks that this "probably was the 


original maize commonly raised by the Indians in 
this country." ^ Weissert was writing of Barry 
County in 1911, and he remarks that "traces of their 
garden-beds were visible until recent years." In- 
deed, evidences of their primitive agriculture were 
seen in many other points of the State before being 
obliterated by the tillage of the whites. Even yet the 
steel point of the plow sometimes turns up the primi- 
tive stone hoe and other stone and copper implements 
of these pioneer tillers of the soil in Michigan. Yet 
contemporary opinions of the Indian's agricultural 
importance do not seem to be flattering. One state- 
ment reports that he is too much inclined to loaf, that 
his methods remain primitive, ami that, even as a 
farmer, he often produces less food than he consumes. 
The national government has sought to do something 
to correct these tendencies. In the first of the last 
century, one Trombley is said to have been main- 
tained as an agricultural instructor for the Indians 
near the present site of Bay City.^ Various treaties 
with the Indians entered into by the United States 
had promised some provision for Indian education, 
and at length, in 1891, an act of Congress established 
an Indian school in Isabella County, which was 
located on the property of an old Methodist mission 
adjacent to Mt. Pleasant. Agriculture is included in 
the course of study of this school, whose 320 acres 
of land afford opportunity for its practical study. 

^"Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXVIII, 

="'Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Soc. Collections," V, 275. 


Of the 150 graduates since 1905, 24 are reported to 
be farmers. The present Congressional appropriation 
is on the basis of an enrollment of 350 students. 
The larger number of these Indians of Isabella 
County are stated to be good farmers. 

The first Europeans to establish themselves in 
Michigan were the French. The motives of their 
coming were the propagation of the gospel among the 
heathen and the fur trade. The first settlements were 
at such strategic points as Sault Ste. Marie, tSt. 
Ignace and Mackinac, and Detroit. These spread 
along the Detroit and St. Clair and about the head 
of Lake Erie, and eventually appeared in the valley 
of the St. Joseph Eiver, while detached posts were 
established on the Upper Grand, Kalamazoo, Shia- 
■wassee and other streams. In their settlements there 
was little significance for Michigan agriculture. 
Their proper environment was the forest and the 
water-courses; their implements the paddle and the 
rifle. In the period following the American Revolu- 
tion, however, a considerable number of French- 
Canadian farmers settled in southeastern Michigan, 
usually in compact 'groups of farms all fronting on 
one or another of the rivers of that section. The 
French were a peculiarly sociable folk and these 
water-courses afforded a ready means of inter-com- 
munication. In a country, too, where springs were 
scarce and wells were drilled only with much labor 
in the refractory clay soil, the P^corse or the Rouge 
were a convenient substitute for the town pump. So, 
side by side, the Canadian French held their farms 


of eiglity, one hundred and twenty, one hundred and 
sixty or two hundred French acres (embracing some 
four-fifths the area of an American acre), each on 
a narrow river frontage .of twenty-three to fifty-eight 
rods. Eventually there were several hundreds of 
these French farms (442 in 1805) extending eight 
or ten miles, sometimes farther, up the Rouge, the 
Eaisin, the Iilcorse, the Clinton and Huron rivers, 
with still others on the Detroit and St. Clair. 

As a farmer, the Frenchman here was very unlike 
the Yankee soon to appear. He saw no reason for 
aggressive energy in clearing the land and putting it 
to agricultural uses. His tillage was strictly limited. 
His interest in horticulture was greater, and apples 
and pears, peaches and cherries were grown in con- 
siderable quantities for home consumption and for 
export by themselves or in the form of cider. As a 
husbandman, the Frenchman was quite as thriftless 
as his Indian friends. He is charged with habitually 
depositing his barnyard manure on the ice of river 
and lake or of removing his out-buildings when the 
accumulations became insurmountable, rather than 
spreading them over the fields: and some state that 
he threw away the wool sheared from the backs of 
his sheep rather than spin it into yarn — a practice 
which, however, was undoubtedly exceptional. Ac- 
counts seem generally to agree that, if his farm 
buildings were shabby and his agriculture not suf- 
ficient for home needs, the Frenchman's heart was 
light, his loyalty certain, his piety complete, his hos- 


pitality unstinted/ His children were more numer- 
ous than his cattle, and today there are in Michigan 
approximately 100,000 inhabitants reporting French 
as their mother tongue. The total immigration into 
the State seems not to have been extensive. Families 
were large generation after generation. During the 
past century, however, there has been some innuigra- 
tion from Canada, from the eastern states, and from 
France itself. Inquiries regarding motives for their 
coming to ]\Iichigan elicit the "rentier" system in 
Quebec, whereby the eldest son of the family is en- 
gaged to work the homestead and provide for his 
parents, necessitating that the other children seek 
their fortune elsewhere; or that it was the attrac- 
tiveness of work in the woods or surface labor about 
the mines (one does not find many underground 
workers among the French) ; or it was to escape 
military service in the occupied portions of Alsace 
and Lorraine that brought the normally non- 
migratory Frenchman overseas and to Michigan. Not 
many of these have gone into farming, nor are they 
regarded as an agriculturally important stock. Ob- 
servers, even among the French themselves, state 
that they are too conservative, too easy-going. With 
exquisite humor James Hoar of Lake Linden relates 
how Farmer Buckwheat from the thither-side of 
Torch Lake engaged the reverend father of the parish 
to employ priestly rites for the banishment of the 
grasshopper, and when results did not approximate 
'"Census of 1910, Population by Mother Tongue," 980. 


expectations, refused the fee. Observers say that the 
more hardy Finn is replacing the French farmers 
in the Upper Peninsula. In the Lower Peninsula he 
has ceased to be a distinguishable factor in rural 

If the Indian and the Frenchman were first on 
the ground, it was the Yankee who dominated the 
institutional growth of Michigan; and who, in so 
doing, manifested scant regard for his forerunners 
in the region. There was no. accident about his com- 
ing. He entered the territory usually, though not 
always, by the water route which, after 1825, ex- 
tended from Lake Champlain to Detroit. Not a few 
came hither from the Genesee Valley in western Xew 
York by the same avenue of approach ; and others 
re-migrated from the western reserve of Ohio, which 
the foresight of Connecticut had set aside along with 
the southern shore of Lake Erie as a boon to her 
Revolutionary veterans and as a condition of her 
cession of sovereignty in that quarter to the United 
States. If by the same token Massachusetts had not 
retained any portion of the soil of southern Michi- 
gan, her progeny were there in due time. There were 
instances of overland journeys both to the north and 
the south of Lake Erie from western New York into 
southern Michigan ; but normally the immigrant 
made his ingress by Erie Canal boat and lake steamer 
to Detroit, perhaps to Monroe or even to the Lake 
]\Iichigan ports of the west shore. Beyond the roads 
were very bad : one might fare better on the rivers 
or within the open forest. Gradually and not slowly 



the southern counties filled up from Lake Erie to 
Lake Michigan with these masterful people of the 
stock that had converted colonies into a nation and 
whipped Indians and French, British and Hessians 
in the process. These were to renew the battle with 
the wilderness and convert it by the millions of acres 
into farms and homesteads and into desolate wastes. 
In 1830 Michigan Territory had a population of 
less than 30,000. In the ensuing ten years it aug- 
mented at the rate of nearly 20,000 each year. It 
was during this decade that the foundations were 
laid of institutional life. The town meeting, a heri- 
tage from New England, became definitely a part of 
the governmental system as community after com- 
munity appeared, mushroom-like, in the Michigan 
woods. A territorial enactment of 1827, greatly re- 
sembling an early pronouncement of the IMassachu- 
setts general court, made provision for popular edu- 
cation ; but it remained for the Constitution of 1835, 
embodying the ideas of Isaac E. Crary, to determine 
the fundamental elements in the public school sys- 
tem: common school and higher education, state 
directed and natiou-illy assisted, with public libraries 
but at first without free tuition. The Yankee was 
a Puritan and as such he did not forget to illegalize 
Sunday sports, gaming and merchandising; and even 
today it is without the law in Michigan to indulge 
in Sunday baseball, theatrical performances, racing, 
or to operate a place of business. All this applied to 
the State as a whole, but when adopted, Michigan 
was predominantly rural, and the town meeting has 


continued to be an important and interesting feature 
of rural life even to the present time, wherever the 
population is mainly of this same Yankee stock or 
has come under strong Yankee influences. On the 
first Monday in April in these sections of the State 
]\Iichigan farmers still gather within their township 
at the town hall or school-house, or, if the day is 
favorable, in the open air in the yard, for the purpose 
of arriving at a decision in regard to the building 
or improvement of public roads and bridges, and it 
may be for the enactment of ordinances and the 
consideration of other aifairs of local concern. It is 
genuine democracy similar to that which framed 
measures against the tyranny of George III or exists 
in the smaller cantons of Switzerland. 

As pertains to county government, the example of 
New York is most closely adhered to. The township 
supervisors who assess the farmer's property for pur- 
poses of taxation meet jointly at the county seat to 
attend to the administrative and legislative affairs of 
the county as a whole, while the farmer's deeds and 
mortgages are recorded with the county register of 
deeds who produces an abstract of title for a fee. The 
county surveyor may be called in to run a line or 
establish a corner, and the county drain commis- 
sioner lays out the drainage ditches that run from 
farm to farm into the natural water-courses. Eural 
justice is administered in the first instance and in 
cases of minor importance by one of the four justices 
of the peace of the township; the constable is the 
same innocuous official that time and literature have 


found him to be elsewhere. Michigan state police, 
created by the legislature in 1919, is extending its 
watchfulness into the rural districts for the appre- 
hension of thieves, often of urban domicile, and other 
law-breakers who trouble the peace in rural Michigan. 
The township board of four ex-offieio members 
administers township affairs in accordance with the 
resolutions of the town meeting, corresponding to 
the selectmen of New England. The township board 
of health should attend to public health and sanita- 
tion within the township where other higher authority 
does not enter, and it has charge of rural cemeteries 
in most cases, although cities and villages often 
locate their cemeteries well without their borders and 
thus serve rural as well as urban dwellers. The 
record of rural births and deaths is kept by the 
township clerk, with whom chattel mortgages are 
recordecl. The township may have made provision 
for fence viewers, pound-masters, destroyers of 
noxious weeds and inspectors of fruit-trees. These 
institutions of local government have a familiar New 
England influence in the copper country or Marquette 
as in Marshall or Lansing. It worked effectively also 
in the realm of finance, for it was New England capi- 
tal that developed the copper and iron mines of the 
Upper Peninsula and the first railway lines of the 
Lower Peninsula. 

Most ubiquitous of the foreign whites in Michigan 
are the Germans. They came early, almost as soon 
as the Yankee element, and their coming was en- 
couraged by the abortive revolutions of 1830 and of 


1848 in the Fatherland. They settled in Wayne, 
Macomb, Washtenaw and Saginaw counties before 
Michigan became a state, and then in Berrien, St. 
Joseph, and St. Clair counties, in Clinton and 
Leelanau, and in Marquette County by the Lake 
Superior shore. In 1910, they composed one-sixth 
the population of Berrien County, one-sixth of 
Monroe, one-fifth of Huron, one-seventh of Mason, 
one-fifth of Washtenaw, one-fourth of Manistee, and 
one-fourth of Saginaw. These are counties of the 
southern peninsula, and mostly of the southern half 
of it. They have never constituted such a large pro- 
portion of the northern peninsula, although the popu- 
lous county of Houghton contained (1910) more 
than 5,000. The aggregate of these people, born in 
Germany or the children of parents born there, was 
quite 425,000 in 1910. Or if they are differentiated 
on the basis of mother tongue, their number in the 
Thirteenth Census (1910) was 396,513. That would 
make them about one-seventh of the State's popula- 

Revolutionary disappointments were not the only 
occasion for the German migration to America and 
to Michigan. Compulsory military service expatri- 
ated some of these folk, while burdensome restraints 
and the difficulty of securing land attracted still 
others to the freer American life and to good farms 
on easy terms. A south German farm would cost, as 
Andrew Tenbrook of Ann Arbor has pointed out, 
perhaps two hundredfold the price of a Michigan 
homestead, and if the Michigan acquisition were in 


a wilderness where hardship and hard labor was the 
rule of daily life, the German could work and so 
could his entire family, for that had been the prac- 
tice in Bavaria and Saxony and would be no novelty 
here. Intensive agriculture was the necessary regime 
of old Germany, where every rod of ground must do 
its bit in the maintenance of a large and increasing 
population. The habit of thrift and industry learned 
in the old home was steadily maintained in the 
American home, and German farmers have habitu- 
ally been regarded as good workers in Michigan, 
They excelled as truck-gardeners, and while German 
cookery did not always commend itself to the Yankee 
palate, their sauerkraut and kohlrabi became domesti- 
cated in many a home devoid of all other German 
associations. It would have been well if the Old 
World German practice of preserving the forest cover 
on hilltops had been retained here to the advantage 
both of our uplands and lowlands. The Germans 
were religious and communities congregated here 
and there throughout the State: Lutherans in Ann 
Arbor, Eoman Catholics in Westphalia, Clinton 
County, Mennonites at "Holy Corners," Kent County, 
while Moravians, United Brethren and Dunkards 
might arouse curiosity by rites unfamiliar to the 
native churches. For German women to work in 
the field was normal overseas but attracted disapprov- 
ing attention here, where standards of life and think- 
ing were different. However, this responsibility for 
the common income raised the family from poverty 
to affluence and furthered the economic well-being of 


the whole State. It coiihl not exliibit itself in min- 
ing as in agriculture, and the mining industry of the 
northern peninsula has never had a large German 
element attached to it. Thus the iron mining county 
of Iron, in 1910, had a German population of only 
750 in a total of more than 15,000 inhabitants. 
Gogebic County numbered 1,430 Germans in a popu- 
lation of 23,333. On the other hand, the "Green 
Garden" settlement of Germans near Marquette is 
one of the most attractive agricultural communities 
in the State, and the corn and cabbages, apples and 
plums, grown within sight of Lake Superior in the 
season of 1920 would have done credit to the best 
agriculture of a more southern latitude. 

When ]\Iichigan had been ten years in the Union, 
there appeared on its western shore southwest of 
Grand Eapids a colony of Hollanders. Eeligious 
differences in the mother-land had caused this band 
of pilgrims to come overseas and, after some investi- 
gation, they established themselves in their Michigan 
"Canaan," where, as the Moses of their exodus. 
Pastor Van Eaalte notes, fruit-raising, with general 
farming, might prove a desirable form of agriculture. 
Although some of the immigrants settled in Iowa, 
the major portion of them came to Michigan. They 
included heads of families, persons of the middle 
classes and of rural experience. They were very 
religious and have been tenacious of their faith and, 
to some extent, of their language to the present time, 
although readily assimilated to the common life of 
the State. They held education in high esteem, as 


was manifested by the founding of Hope College as 
an academy in 1851 and as a college in 1866. They 
became a highly respected element in the population 
of Michigan. The settlement began in privation and 
extreme suffering like that of the Pilgrims of 1620; 
but their industry and sobriety subdued the wilder- 
ness and made of central western Michigan one of 
the most highly developed farming areas of the State. 
Even in point of numbers the Dutch element became 
important. The United States Census of 1910 makes 
the foreign whites reporting Dutch as their mother 
tongue to number 92,694 (p. 979). This population 
is centered heavily in Kent and Ottawa counties. Of 
Kent's population in 1910 (nearly 160,000), ap- 
proximately one-fifth was born in Holland or the 
children of parents born in that country. This 
represents, no doubt, a considerable urban popula- 
tion. However, the statement still applied to some 
7,000 of the county's inhabitants living outside of 
Grand Eapids. In Ottawa — a more definitely rural 
county — the proportion of direct Dutch descent was 
still greater, one-third of the population in 1910 
being of Holland birth or parentage for both father 
and mother. Allegan County also showed a strong 
Dutch element. 

The Finnish element in the rural population of 
Michigan is very largely, although not exclusively, 
in the Upper Peninsula. The Finns seem to have 
been attracted hither chiefly by the opportunity for 
work in the woods and mines. Finland is, however, 
primarily an agricultural and not a mining country, a 


land suitable to stock-raising and forest industries. 
The Finn is an excellent dairyman, aiid in northern 
Michigan, as iji old Finland, \vhatever he does he is 
very likely to own a milch cow or two and to care 
for them A-ith what the Yankee would consider quite 
absurd solicitude. Finland is a country of dense 
forests and is extremely well watered; so is — or was 
— the northern peninsula of Michigan, where the 
Finn feels very much at home, a sentiment enhanced 
by climate and topography. Most Finns here have 
once worked in the mines; but many have come out 
of the earth to earn a livelihood from its surface. 

The Finn is hardy, conservative and clannish. His 
standard of living normally is not high. He is fit 
for pioneering, and competent observers believe, 
probably correctly, that the agricultural future of 
the northern section of the State is chiefly in his 
hands. He is of one of the least assimilable stocks 
in rural Michigan, but he is educable, and such a 
project as the Otter Lake Agricultural School in 
Houghton County has effected an improvement in his 
husbandry. He is by nature refractory and must be 
handled tactfully. The Finn is very different from 
some of the other elements in the rural population, 
taciturn, unemotional, seemingly devoid of humor. 
He represents the Asiatic Turanian type, with a 
language wholly unrelated to the native tongues of 
western Europe; and some of his presumed natural 
uncommunicativeness and sullenness may be attrib- 
uted to linguistic shortcomings rather than to a will- 
ful resolve to say or do nothing pleasant. In the Old 


World, ethnologists discriminate several types of 
Finns each with its own Finnish habitat: one type 
less "heavy-headed" and obtuse than the other. Both 
types seem to be represented in America. Finland 
is a tri-lingual country, Russian and Swedish being 
domiciled there with the vernacular. In Michigan, 
it is not easy at once to determine whether one is 
dealing with a Finn or a Swede. The name is 
Swedish and Swedish may be readily spoken by the 
person in question. The slightly almond eyes and 
general appearance of the features help to resolve the 
doubt in favor of a Finnish prime relationship, 
although here, as in Finland, there may be an inter- 
mingling of these stocks by marriage. Normally 
the Finn was temperate even before the adoptioii of 
prohibition, contrary to common opinion, as was 
shown by his vote in favor of constitutional prohi- 
bition. In the copper country, for example, mining 
locations with a large Finnish element, and certain 
rural precincts almost wholly Finnish in composi- 
tion, were overwhelmingly in favor of the prohibitory 
amendment, leaving it to urban constituencies of 
definite American and aristocratic tendencies to tip 
the balance to the contrary, side. How far the Finn 
leans to socialistic doctrines is not easy to determine, 
although the strike of copper miners in 1912 showed 
that these views were frequently held, even in rural, 
as distinct from mining, locations. A similar ten- 
dency in Finland has been attributed to the system 
of land tenure in large estates, to opposition to the 
tyranny of the one-time rule of the Czar, and per- 


haps also to a close connection between Finnish and 
German higher education and philosophic thought. 
Tendencies acquired in the Old World may have 
persisted in iVmerica through a failure thoroughly to 
assimilate the Finn in this country and to his 
subordinate position in economic life. It is believed 
that education, proprietorship, and the breaking down 
of isolation will counteract his interest in Marxian 
doctrines. On the other hand, the Finn's willingness 
to dwell in isolated communities and to perform hard 
labor under rough conditions adapts him to rural 
life in the undeveloped portions of the State, and 
it must be remembered that these areas are still very 
extensive. The fact that these Finnish farmers are 
at the outset often ill provided with capital increases 
their readiness to settle on cut-over lands, when those 
in a more favorable financial situation would prefer 
to purchase improved farms. With little capital 
save their physical strength, they are credited with 
great reliability in meeting their financial obliga- 
tions. The agent of one large land company in the 
Upper Peninsula informs the writer that he has en- 
dorsed promissory notes on behalf of many Finnish 
clients of his, aggregating some $30,000 in amount, 
and never lost a dollar in any transaction. 

Bearing in mind the conditions under which the 
Finn lives in the Old World and the tenacity with 
which he retains his habits, one is not surprised 
to find transferred to American soil practices from 
eastern Europe. Thus one sees in northern Michi- 
gan instances of those curious combinations of house 


and barn with some question as to which portions are 
occupied by man and which by beasts, although the 
impression should not be created that Finns com- 
monly live in this manner. They are likely sedu- 
lously to exclude the outer air from their dwellings, 
and cases of tuberculosis are especially frequent 
among them. Adjoining the farm-house is probably 
the bath-house, where the bather steams himself 
thoroughly by throwing water on heated stones in 
the center of the floor, and perhaps terminates the 
process by a roll in the snow outside. His live-stock 
is as well housed as himself, and, although his thrift 
may cause him to shear his sheep at least twice in the 
year, involving a winter as well as a summer clip, 
he seeks to make amends by withholding the shorn 
brute from all contact with the outer air, a procedure 
which is said often to result in serious respiratory 
difficulties, but one which he is loath to abandon. 
The wool so derived is frequently carded and spun 
at home and knit into mittens and socks. There still 
is considerable demand for the old-fashioned spin- 
ning- vvneel, thought to be a relic of a well-nigh 
forgotten art practiced by our grandmothers, but 
still in use in many localities of northern Michigan. 
The Finn, like the German, is musical, but what he 
regards as music the American commonly frankly 
spurns, because the native American is prone to mis- 
understand Finnish art as well as Finnish character. 
Finnish music seems usually to run in the minor key 
as if consonant with the normal minor mood of the 
race. The annual "saengarfests" held at various 

Fig. 5. Density of total population of Michigan by counties (1920) 
(For explanation of sliading see Fig. 6.) 


Fig. 6. — Density of rural population of Michigan by counties (1920). 



points in the Lake Superior region where Finns con- 
gregate for the purpose, merit more attention than 
they have received. 

Testimony is not lacking from authorities as to 
the capacity of the Finn for assimilation into Ameri- 
can life. They point to the supreme test of assimi- 
lability, the frequent inter-marriages between those of 
Finnish and of native American stock. The Finnish 
farmer is the most teachable of any national element 
and his capacity for cooperation is notable. If a 
Finnish farmer loses a horse or a cow, it has been 
observed, his neighbors make up a contribution that 
compensates the loss of the animal. They are 
mutually very helpful in time of trouble. Coopera- 
tive business enterprises are common among them. 
At the little Finnish settlement at Eock in Delta 
County, there has been conducted a cooperative store, 
flour-mill, creamery, insurance society, and pure- 
bred bull association. This case is not imique by 
any means. 

It is striking that more than one-fourth of the 
Finns in the United States — numbering more than 
200,000 when classified by their mother tongue — 
dwelt in Michigan in 1910, and presumably do so 
still. At that time an excess of 11,000 persons in 
Houghton County were born in Finland, with large 
numbers in Marquette, Gogebic and the other coun- 
ties adjoining Lake Superior, a much smaller pro- 
portion in the southern counties of the Upper Pen- 
insula and a very trifling but widely scattered 
Finnish population in the Lower Peninsula. While 


it cannot be stated definitely what proportion of the 
Upper Peninsula Finns are in agriculture, the num- 
ber is large and is increasing, for the Finn has a 
very strong inclination to the land and towards forest 
industries, and testimony is general that he is forg- 
ing ahead of other racial stocks in the agriculture of 
the northern peninsula. 

The Scandinavian element in the State has not 
been as large as in Minnesota or Illinois, for example. 
The census of 1910 showed that in Michigan there 
were 16,454 inhabitants who spoke Danish as their 
mother tongue, 17,891 speaking Norwegian, 64,391 
speaking Swedish. How this Scandinavian popula- 
tion distributes itself between town and country can- 
not be stated definitely. There are both urban and 
rural communities having a large Scandinavian ele- 
ment. They are proportionally numerous both in the 
city of Marquette and in some townships of ]\Iar- 
quette County. As farmers they seem to be uni- 
versally regarded with much favor. Their farm- 
steads are commonly neat and well maintained. They 
are in a high degree literate and are of a deeply 
religious character. A Swede will not willingly labor 
on Midsummer Day, the day of St. John the Baptist, 
which is for him a religious holiday. A wedding is 
not an occasion for hilarity : it is a solemn religious 
event, obsen^ed with prayer and pastoral disserta- 
tion. Topographical and climatic conditions un- 
doubtedly directed Scandinavian migration towards 
the northern boundary of the United States. In 
these respects the Upper Peninsula is said greatly to 


resemble Sweden, where also mining is an important 
pursuit. At present, however, there are few Swedish 
miners, agriculture and urban callings having drawn 
most Scandinavians out of the mines, except in 
Gogebic County. They are a very readily assimilated 
racial stock and, unlike their neighbors the Finns, 
are soon lost in the general mass of Americans. It 
should be noted, however, that among the number 
of those in Michigan who speak Swedish as their 
mother tongue, there are numbers (how many can- 
not be stated) of Swedish-speaking Finns, who, in 
the opinion of some observers, possess in a high de- 
gree the tendency to go to extremes in belief and 
conduct that is associated with the Finnish type. 

The Bohemian population of Michigan has never 
been large, and niimbered only 10,130 according to 
the census by mother tongue of 1910. In recent 
years, however, it has become a much more important 
factor in the rural districts of some parts of the State. 
It was attracted thither by the introduction of the 
cultivation of the sugar-beet and thus is a particu- 
larly important element in the population of the 
territory adjacent to Saginaw Bay. In southern 
Gratiot and Saginaw counties, these Czechs are 
steadily taking over farms formerly possessed by 
more familiar American types. T. P. Steadman of 
Elsie writes as follows in regard to these newcomers 
who have fallen under his observation : "As a aren- 
eral thing, they are honest and reliable financially. 
They are good workers and usually law-abiding, al- 
though they sometimes fight among themselves. 


They are good farmers and are quite quick to take 
up American methods. Their standard of living is, 
of course, much below that of the native-born Ameri- 
can, although the second generation mark a distinct 
improvement in that particular. During the war 
they were law-abiding and patriotic. They bought 
liberty bonds quite freely and are holding them quite 
as well at the present time as the native-born Ameri- 
cans. They seem to be little concerned as to political 
matters, local or general. In this they are distinctly 
different from German communities which I liave 
known. They patronize savings banks quite freely 
and rely greatly upon the banker whom they have 
learned to trust." Steadman is of the opinion that 
one-fourth of the farms in the vicinity of Bannister 
and Ashley, Gratiot County, have come into the pos- 
session of Bohemians. They are very well adapted 
for developing the rougher lands of the State. Their 
Slavic congeners, the Croatians, Slovenians and 
Poles, are also settling in small communities in 
upper Michigan. 

The negro population of Michigan is relatively 
sparse, particularly in the rural districts. The total 
in 1910 was only 17,115, being six-tenths of one per 
cent of the whole population. More than one-third 
of this numl)er belonged to the urban county of 
Wayne, and only 4,959 were represented as rural. 
Outside of Wayne County, only Washtenaw and Cass 
counties had a negro population exceeding one thou- 
sand, Avhile some of the counties of the northern 
sections of the Lower Peninsula were almost wholly 


without this element. The populous counties of 
Houghton, Marquette, and Gogebic on the south shore 
of Lake Superior, had respectively sixty-one, eighty- 
three and six negro inhabitants, indicating that min- 
ing does not attract colored folk. Nor did such 
dominantly rural counties as Clinton and Gratiot, 
with thirty-eight and ninety-two negroes numbered 
in tlieir census, indicate that agriculture is a popular 
vocation for negroes in this State. Even the popu- 
lous county of Saginaw contained only 343 negroes. 
In the rural county of Cass the situation is peculiar 
and interesting. Here the 1910 census showed a 
negro population of 1,414. Booker T. Washington 
has described the negro community in Cass County 
after a brief visit to it in 1903.^ He ascertained that 
it was composed of the descendants of escaped slaves 
who sought refuge among the Quakers of that section 
about 1840 and thereafter, to whom also came num- 
bers of manumitted slaves and free negroes. They 
engaged in agriculture. They became a well-estab- 
lished, intelligent, law-abiding community. In 
Calvin township, the negroes became the larger part 
of the population and a considerable element in 
Porter and some other townships. In the quality of 
their agriculture, he found they compared very 
favorably with their white neighbors and presented a 
marked contrast to most southern communities of 
negroes with which he was familiar. Their standing 
and relationship with the whites he describes as 
excellent. They have good land, good buildings, 
^ The Outlook, LXXIII, 292. 


modern equipment, schools, churches, bank credit 
and hold otHce quite without distinction of race. 
They are situated in the southernmost tier of coun- 
ties, close to the boundarj- of Indiana, in one of the 
oldest and best-developed agricultural counties of 

The impression one receives from a study of the 
settlement of Michigan, as of other American states, 
is primarily of a group of communities whose mem- 
bers are associated together by a common origin, by 
religious afliliations, or by a common language and 
national relationship. Besides the large racial ele- 
ments already noted, there are in rural ]\Iichigan 
communities formerly Belgian, Lithuanian, Polish, 
Croatian, Eussian, English and Scottish in nation- 
ality. With the non-English-speaking stocks here 
represented, the problem of assimilating them into 
common American life has not been solved. Studies 
conducted by Gilbert Brown of the Department 
of Psychology in the Northern State Normal 
School indicate how completely isolated, socially and 
intellectually, many of these rural enclaves have 
remained to the present time. For the purposes of 
this investigation Brown employed the rural census 
blank used by the College of Agriculture of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. The collation of the informa- 
tion so obtained brought out such facts as the fol- 
lowing : In one community of ten families including 
seventy-eight persons, of whom thirty-three were 
born in Finland, two in Sweden, and forty-three in 
the United States (all the parents being born in 


Europe), the Finnish language was spoken in nine 
homes and Swedish in one. The language of the 
newspapers read in these homes corresponds to the 
foregoing classification. Only a "cheap grade of farm 
Journal" formed the magazine-reading in six homes, 
while no magazines were taken in four homes. All 
these people had church aMiations, but this was Avith 
a foreign-language church. No societies were repre- 
sented in these homes, but in all cases there was 
membership in the Grange. The only community 
events attended by these people were represented by 
two school socials during the period under review. 
There were four children of school age not in attend- 
ance. All fathers in this community, except one, 
could speak English, but none could read or write it. 
All mothers in the community, except one, cannot 
speak English, and none can read or write it. This 
is undoubtedly but one of many instances. Brown 
believes that there are at least seventy-five such com- 
munities in the Upper Peninsula, which is doubtless 
a conservative estimate; and the Lower Peninsula 
has its quota. One agent of a colonization company, 
who has looked over the situation in Michigan with 
a view to a systematic attempt at establishing farmers 
on the less developed lands of the northern part, 
emphatically objected to this segregation by national 
groups of new settlers in rural districts. He believes 
it feasible so to organize a scheme of colonization that 
nationally non-related individuals will be associated 
together, and by this very situation will be much 
more quickly merged in the common life of the 


State. Perhaps this is true, but surely the presence 
of people in the same locality, kindred in speech, re- 
ligious connection, economic and social status, has 
encouraged and comforted the members of the group 
in their new and strange situation and rendered them 
less ready to leave their rural homes for urban life. 
Either way has its advantages and disadvantages, 
which it is not the purpose of this book to discuss 
in detail. Here the problem is only recognized as it 

The question as to what contributions have been 
made to agricultural practice in Michigan by the sev- 
eral European stocks is not readily answered. While 
the existence of some procedure within a certain 
group may suggest its foreign antecedence, only very 
careful investigation can determine the facts beyond 
question. The writer's observations have suggested 
a number of rural customs unfamiliar at least in the 
older more thoroughly Americanized sections of the 
State: For example, the practice observed among 
Finnish and Swedish farmers of exposing hay and 
grain in the fields on long narrow racks or about 
stakes, to facilitate drying and curing. L. M. 
Geismar, an Alsatian by birth, introduced among the 
farmers of the copper country the Alsatian practice 
of sheep-raising, Avhereby capitalists in town provide 
the means for acquiring small flocks of sheep, which 
are turned over to small farmers for care and main- 
tenance on an agreed basis of compensation and 
division of the returns. That Finnish farmers shear 
their sheep twice or more each year and not infre- 


qiiently spin their own yarn and work it up into 
mittens and socks is understood to be derived from 
a custom of old Finland. Those who have partaken 
of a meal at the table of a Finnish or a German- 
American farmer are at once confronted with dishes 
and flavors to which the Yankee palate is unaccus- 
tomed. Equally odd appeared the wooden shoes of 
the Hollanders of west IMichigan and the two-wheeled 
cart that sometimes still moves upon our country 
road. In settlements of newcomers from Europe, 
these roads are frequently private ways with bars up 
at intervals, although in appearance they are public 
thoroughfares of inferior construction. There are 
undoubtedly many strange customs of this order in 
rural Michigan awaiting study and description as 
opportunity presents itself. 

For statistics of population, see Appendices C, D 
and E, and also Figs. 3-6. 




The statistician of the Michigan Cooperative Crop 
Reporting Service states that the average value of 
the tame hay crop of ]\Iichigan for the past fifteen 
years is $44,514,000; of corn, $41,540,000; of oats, 
$31,760,000; of wheat, $19,4 '29,000; of potatoes, 
$18,334,000; and of beans, $17,184,000 (six-year 
average). Charts prepared by the same agency indi- 
cate that corn is one of the three leading crops in all 
counties of the Lower Peninsula except Presque Isle 
and Alpena in the northeastern section; while it 
appears in this class only in Luce and Menominee 
counties in the Upper Peninsula. Similarly oats is 
the leading crop in Presque Isle, Alpena, Oscoda, 
Alcona, Ogemaw, Iosco, Sanilac, and St. Clair in the 
southern peninsula; and in all counties of the Upper 
Peninsula save Luce, IMenominee and Keweenaw. 
Potatoes are shown to occupy a position not lower 
than third in all counties of the Upper Peninsula, 
the northwestern counties of the southern peninsula, 
together with Lapeer and Oakland towards the south- 
east. For statistics of farm crops, see Appendix F. 




The marshes and prairies provided native grasses 
that have served as forage both for the pioneer and 
for farmers of tlie present day. Even now one fre- 
quently observes in regions peopled by Finns cocks 
of marsh hay gathered with much persistency even 
miles from home. With the removal of the forests, 
the cut-over country also provided great stretches of 
grass-land for pasture, if not for a native hay crop. 
In the Lake Superior country, clover is now growing 
in places in great profusion in a wild condition. In 
the cultivated sections, clover and timothy hay have 
for years been the standard, but more i^ecently alfalfa 
has steadily progressed as a favorite source of hay 
and is grown as far north as the Lake Superior 
region. It cannot as yet be regarded as the dominant 
hay crop of the State. Statistics regarding alfalfa 
in Michigan are not available. In 1920, hay main- 
tained its position as the State's most valuable crop, 
its value being placed by the Bureau of Crop Esti- 
mates at $38,004,000. This represents a yield of 
3,149,000 tons, which was 150,000 tons less than the 
sixteen-year average. The average yield was 1.3 
tons to the acre.^ 

While definite information regarding the quantity 
of hay of different types grown in the State is not 
available, the United States Monthly Crop Report 
for January, 1919, gives the percentages of the vari- 

>"Mich. Crop Rept.," Lansing, Jan., 1921, 7. 


ous kinds of hay produced in Michigan, as follows: 
Clover, 27; timothy, 26; clover and timothy mixed, 
35 ; alfalfa, G ; millet, 2 ; other tame grasses, 1 ; grains 
cut green, 1; wild hay, 2. There has undoubtedly 
been an increased yield of alfalfa in the interval 
and, in the opinion of the statistician of the Bureau 
of Crop Estimates, it may now amount to 8 or 10 
per cent. Chippewa County in the eastern Upper 
Peninsula has for years been a leading commercial 
producer of hay, and its yield in 1921 was 52,210 
tons. The largest producers of hay, however, are 
such well-developed agricultural counties in the 
Lower Peninsula as Gratiot, Sanilac, and St. Clair, 
each yielding more than 100,000 tons. One occa- 
sionally, also, finds farmers who have grown millet, 
vetch, sweet clover and other forage crops not regu- 
larly at home in Michigan. Some efforts to grow 
such imported species as lupine, serradella, spurry- 
grass have sporadically been undertaken. 


Wheat was the most important money crop in 
Michigan for very many years. Indeed, even when 
its cash return was trifling and did not cover the 
cost of production, habit and the belief that this 
crop was a prerequisite to successful seeding of hay 
caused farmers annually to set aside a portion of their 
tilled land for wheat. It has been the staple crop 
chiefly of the southern section, and the Thirteenth 
Census showed few counties whose wheat production 


ran into six figures outside of the four southerly tiers, 
where alone was a county yield of at least one-half 
million hushels. Here the clay and clay-loam soils 
were favorable to its growth^ and the climate was 
considered to be so, although the freezings and thaw- 
ings, light snowfalls and occasional icing of the land 
surface, were in reality frequently detrimental to the 
growing crop. Winter wheat was commonly groAvn, 
although spring wheat was sometimes planted in the 
pioneer period. In the Upper Peninsula, as might 
be expected, it has been more common to plant spring 
wheat, although the abundant winter snows have 
demonstrably been favorable to winter wheat, when 
the crop has been sown sufficiently early, usually in 
August, to gain a good start before winter has set in. 
In the pioneer days, wheat was often planted year 
after year on the same field without rotation, a prac- 
tice which brought its inevitable result of depleted 
soil and diminished product to the acre. At first 
yields ran from thirty to forty bushels to the acre, but 
in the eighth decade thoy had fallen off to half this 
quantity or less, attributed to non-rotation, non- 
fertilization, greater severity of the winters and the 
increase of insect pests; so that wheat, which was at 
one time regarded as the surest of all cereal crops, 
suffered seasons of quite complete failure in the late 
nineties, and farmers began to consider whether it 
was desirable to plant it at all.^ Production has by 
no means ceased, and the yield for the State in 1920 
was 13,795,000 bushels of winter wheat and 480,000 
^ "Kept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1876, 390. 










of spring wheat. In the pioneer era^ wheat was 
planted on the newly cleared field among the stumps 
on the vmplowed ground which was lightly dragged 
in preparation for receiving the seed. The crop has 
never been cultivated, as in some parts of Europe, 
except in a few instances for experimental purposes, 
although a special wheat-cultivator is said to have 
been invented in Oakland County.^ 

Standardization of types of wheat was not secured 
for years and many varieties were grown, such as 
Eeed Chaff, Bald, Mediterranean, Club, Soules, 
White Flint, Eed Amber, Tappahannock, Blue Stem, 
Boughton, Lancaster, while the Diehl and Treadwell 
were considered especially choice sorts.^ In 1877, 
the Fultz wheat was referred to as a new variety, the 
seed for which was introduced by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. It is described as hav- 
ing white chaff and stiff straw, growing to medium 
height, and as the earliest variety then grown. It 
was a red wheat, with a berry bright, plump and hard, 
and was said to be the heaviest kind then known, one 
farmer reporting a bushel that weighed sixty-five 
pounds. It was reported to be well adapted to heavy 
rich soil.3 The Gold Medal resembled the Fultz, 
but was a white wheat of fine quality. The Clawson, 
introduced from New York after the Civil War, be- 
came a favorite variety. It is described as a red 
chaff, bald wheat, hardy, a strong grower, standing 

•"Ropt. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1889, 449. 
''Ibid., 1877, 141. 
^Ibid., 141. 


up well, of soft straw, not apt to rust, with long 
heads, bowing down, filled with a large, white, plump 
berry, surpassing in beauty all other kinds while 
standing in the field ready for the reaper. The most 
recent variety of wheat to win favor among Michi- 
gan farmers is that known as Eed Eock, reported to 
have had its origin from an individual kernel selected 
from a white Plymouth Rock wheat, and which was 
planted at the Experiment Station of the Michigan 
Agricultural College in the autumn of 1908. This 
i^ a bearded red wheat having also a red chaff. The 
qualities claimed for Red Rock wheat are exceptional 
winter hardiness, high yield, extra stiff straw, and 
those characteristics that yield a bread far above 
that usually produced from Michigan-grown wheat.^ 
This wheat is reported to have withstood ice condi- 
tions during the winter better than other varieties, 
to have righted itself well after lodging, to be un- 
usually rich in protein content, and to outweigh 
the official standard bushel of sixty pounds. It has 
been grown in the Upper Peninsula with very satis- 
factory results. 

Climatic conditions in the southern portion of the 
Lower Peninsula are favorable to the growing of 
corn ; but to the northward the season is normally 
too short and the temperature too low for the suc- 
cessful maturing of the grain, although at intervals 
fully ripened corn is secured as far north as Lake 
Superior and corn for forage is commonly produced 
throughout the State. The light sandy soil fre- 

J'^Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1917, 659, 


quently occurring in some of the northern counties 
is likewise unfavorable to corn culture. The firm 
quality of the soil and moderate height of the stalk 
does not require the deep planting characteristic of 
the prairie states, and IMichigan corn is sown in hills 
by a corn-planter, the hills being placed equidistant 
to permit cultivation in either direction without 
alternating the reach of the cultivator, if grain 
rather than forage is sought. Corn was grown by 
the aboriginal inhabitants of Michigan, who, as one 
pioneer describes it, planted the seed not in rows but 
haphazardly, the grain being softer and whiter than 
that brought by the whites. To preserve corn, the 
Indians are stated to have smoked it and then buried 
it in the earth. To prepare it as food, the squaws 
pounded the kernels in a mortar made by burning a 
bowl in the end of a log or in hollowed blocks of 
stone. It was eaten in the form of soup or cooked 
with venison or other meat.^ This is the true Indian 
corn, bv which desisrnation it is commonlv referred 
to by the early settlers rather than "maize," by 
which it is known to Europeans. The immigrant 
whites also relied on corn for food for man and 
beast, and sometimes made extremely long journeys 
to obtain a few bushels of seed for sowing among 
the stumps or girdled trees or after the first breaking 
of the virgin soil. A chain dragged back and forth 
across the field was a primitive corn-marker before 
the advent of the three or four legged home-made 

*"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXVIII^ 


device that even yot fnnftions in that capacity. 
Some farmers insisted tlie seed must be in the ground 
by the fifth of May, while May tenth came to have 
ahnost the force of a Biblical injunction, althougli 
good crops were secured I'roiM dune plantings. The 
number of kernels to bo placed in each hill was re- 
duced to a poetic formula : 

"One for the blackbird, one for the crow; 
One for the cut-worm and three to grow." 

Frost had to be reckoned with in the pioneer era, 
even more than now, for the heavy timber impeded 
the free movement of the atmosphere and the ground 
deep with humus might be damp and cold. If corn 
was good for folks, it was also well liked by "friends 
in feathers and fur," and it required constant vigi- 
lance to save its tender shoots from the deer and its 
grain in the ground or the shock from the pigeon 
and the wild turkey, the squirrel and the raccoon. 
What escaped these claimants to the first fruits was 
ground in a hand-mill, a half-bushel in an evening, 
says one narrator; or even a large coffee-mill might 
be pressed into service. In the pioneer period, more 
concern was manifest in corn as human food than as 
provender for live-stock, at a time when pigs ran 
freely in the woods and were nourished by its acorns 
and beech-nuts. 

Corn has continued to be an important element 
among Michigan field crops. In 1904, the yield was 


37,000,000 bushels produced on one and one-quarter 
million acres, and its value was $19,235,000.^ The 
average yield for that year was given as 28.6 bushels 
to the acre, while for the decade, 1895-1901, it was 
32.13 bushels. Among the corn-producing states, 
only Iowa exceeded Michigan's product to the acre, 
as reported by the State Board of Agriculture.^ An 
additional value to the Michigan corn crop accrued 
from the general use of the stalks as fodder and for 
industrial purposes. The Michigan Corn Improve- 
ment Association was organized in 1904 with the ob- 
ject of promoting the production of more and better 
corn in this State. An annual exhibition of prize 
corn was planned in connection with the farmers' 
"round-up"' at the Michigan Agricultural College, 
cash prizes being offered for the best exhibits. At 
that time many varieties of corn were grown in the 
State with little attention to purity of type. A list 
of varieties in 1906 included Hathaway, Pride of 
the North, Hackberry, Mortgage-lifter, Huron Dent, 
Reid's Yellow, Leaming, Shenandoah Valley, Min- 
nesota King, and Golden Ideal, which were said to 
be grown in Michigan in "fairly pure form." ^ Other 
varieties of that year included White Dent and White 
Cap Yellow Dent, of which several good types were 
said to exist in the State. The Giant Cuban was 
grown as ensilage corn. The dent corns also included 
Calice, Eed, Strawberry and California Calice; while 

^"Rcpt. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1906, 293. 
''I hid., 1900, 293. 
'-Hid., 295. 


among the flint corns, there were reported Smut-nose, 
King Philip, Yellow, and White.^ 

The census of 1910 showed a production of 
52,906,812 hushels of corn. The counties yielding 
more than 1,000,000 bushels were Allegan, Barry, 
Berrien, Branch, Calhoun, Cass, Eaton, Gratiot, 
Hillsdale, Ingham, Ionia, Jackson, Kalamazoo, Kent, 
Lenawee, Livingston, Macomb, Monroe, Oakland, 
Saginaw, St. Joseph, Shiawassee, Tuscola, Van 
Buren, Washtenaw ajul Wayne. The premier corn 
county was Lenawee with a yield 'of 3,053,197 
bushels. It will be observed that these are all south- 
ern and the oldest agricultural counties in the State. 
By 1920 the yield had advanced to 65,000,000 bushels, 
at the rate of 40 bushels an acre. In that year 34 
per cent of the State's acreage went into ensilage, the 
average yield being 7.8 tons to the acre. The quality 
of the crop in 1920 was rated at 92 per cent, 15 per 
cent better than the ten-year average.^ 

Wheat and corn among the grains figure largest 
in the calculations of Michigan farmers, but all 
standard species grown in northern latitudes should 
be produced on the farms of the State, most of them 
on any farm in any season. In 1920, 9,702,000 
bushels of rye were grown on 660,000 acres. By this 
date a hardy prolific variety of rye, known as 
"Eosen," and established by the Michigan Agricul- 
tural College, was rapidly making its way into popu- 
lar favor. "Rosen rye," writes F. A. Spragg, plant- 

•"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1906, 295. 

2 "Crop Kept, for Mich.," Lansing, Nov., 1920. 


breeder at the Michigan x4.gri cultural College, and 
J. W. Nicolson, then extension specialist, "is a stiff- 
strawed, large-headed variety, which when pure 
ordinarily has four full rows of grain on over 99 
per cent of its heads."' Eosen rye, these writers ex- 
plain, "was selected and improved from an envelope 
of Kussian rye furnished in 1909 by Mr. Eosen, a 
student from Eussia at the Michigan Agricultural 
College." The rye, after satisfactory tests at the 
College, was distributed as seed to farmers through- 
out the State and has maintained its high reputation.^ 
The Finnish farmers of Houghton County are stated 
ly the agricultural agent to have grown a similar 
type of rye for years. Although the average yield 
to the acre in 1920 was given at 14.7 bushels, the 
Eosen variety has produced from 45 to 60 bushels. 

Barley has never been a popular grain crop in 
Michigan, having a production of only 6,240,000 
bushels in 1920, grown on 240,000 acres. The fifteen- 
year average is 25.2 bushels to the acre. ]\Iost of 
this is spring planted ; but the Michigan Agricultural 
College, using selections derived from the United 
States Department of Agriculture, has developed a 
type of winter barley adapted to the climate of the 
State. This was distributed to growers through the 
Michigan Crop Improvement Association. Yields 
exceeding fifty bushels to the acre have been attained.^ 
The most widely grown variety of barley in ]\Iichi- 

^ Spragg and Nicolson : "Rosen Rye," Mich. Agr. Coll. 
Ext. DivV. I'.ull. No. it July, H)I7. 
'^ Michigan Farmer, CLV, 1G7. 


gan, according to J. F. Cox, is the common six-row 
type, with the Wisconsin Pedigree as the highest 
yielding strain. He (k'scribcs this as "a bearded type 
well adapted to Michigan." A black barbless type of 
barley has also l)een introdnced, described as an ex- 
cellent yielder and drought-resisting.^ 

The climate of ]\Iichigan is regarded as especially 
favorable for the growing of oats, both in respect to 
moisture and length of season, with relative freedom, 
especially in the northern sections, from prolonged 
hot dry periods. The clays and clay-loams are well 
adapted to this crop. Its relation to other crops, 
clover, timothy, alfalfa, and sweet clover, also favor- 
ite forage crops of the State, also encourages the 
production of oats. The average yield, 1905-1919, 
was 33.1 bushels to the acre. The tendency to raise 
oats is increasing. The southeastern counties of the 
State lead in oat production northward to the 
"Thumb" district.- In 1920, 56,430,000 bushels of 
oats were produced on 1,425,000 acres, a yield that 
averaged 39.6 bushels an acre. 

Fields of buckwheat are encountered on many 
Michigan farms, although they are usually small. 
In 1920 this grain recorded an output of 609,000 
bushels from 42,000 acres, which was 4.4 per cent 
of the United States crop. 

Not all farmers attempt to raise clover seed, and 
the yield in 1920 all told was reported at 120,000 

^Michigan Farmer, CLIV, 451. 

''Mich. Agr. Coll. Bull.: Cox: "Oats in Michigan," 1920, 


bushels on 80,000 acres. In the Lake Superior coun- 
try, clover seed is represented as difficult to secure 
in good condition because rain is likely to occur in 
the harvest time. It is grown in marketable quan- 
tities in Ontonagon County. 


Michigan produced nearly 29,000,000 bushels of 
potatoes in 1919, and 35,700,000 in 1920, which was 
8.3 per cent of the United States crop. They are 
of predominant importance in certain portions of the 
State, particularly in the central counties of the 
northern Lower Peninsula and in Marquette, Me- 
nominee, Delta and Houghton counties in the Upper 
Peninsula. Thus, in 1919, the counties producing 
more than 1,000,000 bushels in the southern penin- 
sula were Mecosta, jMontcalm, Osceola, together with 
Oakland in the southeastern section ; while in that 
year Houghton County led the Upper Peninsula with 
a yield of 650,000 bushels, followed by Menominee, 
Delta, and ]\farquette counties. Montcalm's product 
of 2,381,730 bushels led the State. With potatoes, as 
with other products of the soil, the tendency has been 
to eliminate many varieties in favor of a few types 
of approved quality. The report of the Michigan 
Board of Agriculture for 1868 lists fifty-five varieties 
of potatoes with the yield of each as determined ex- 
perimentally. In this list the now long-forgotten 
Chenery topped the production record with 353 
bushels to the acre. The average yield in 1920 was 


111 bushels an acre, but in the newer sections of the 
State much hirger yields have been recorded. Yields 
of 400 bushels to the acre in the Upper Peninsula 
have been maintained for several years in succession, 
and 500 to 600 bushels have been reported. In 1920, 
a farmer near Marquette gathered sixty-five potatoes 
from one hill, more than fifty of marketable size. 
The cool moist climate of this area and of the neigh- 
boring region of the southern peninsula is favorable 
to this crop. J. ^^'ado Weston enumerates the 
varieties of potato best adapted to this territory as 
the Irish Cobbler, Early Ohio, and Triumph, for 
early kinds, and Green Mountain, I'ural, and Russet 
Burbank for late types. 

Michigan pioneers soon discovered the potentiali- 
ties of the potato crop. Thus a pioneer farmer of 
the Grand Traverse region planted potatoes among 
the logs on the virgin soil by merely gashing the 
earth with his ax, placing the seed in the opening 
and re-covering the hole with turf. These primitive 
methods of culture produced results far above ex- 
pectations and demonstrated the capacity of the 
north country for potato production.^ The total 
output of the State in 1882 is reported to have been 
11,078,796 bushels on 113,745 acres. The price for 
potatoes in that year ranged from 63 cents in April 
to 47 cents in October.^ The production varied little 
from this quantity during that decade. The price 
ranged well below $1 a bushel, dropping to 15 cents 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Roc. Collections," 38, 304. 
^"Rept. Mich. Ed. Agr.," 1892, 401. 


in 1888, but the average for the ten-year term was 
about 50 cents. 

To improve the quality of the crop, there exists 
the Michigan Potato Producers Association, which, 
starting as a series of county organizations chiefly 
for educational purposes, was reorganized in 1920, 
primarily for the purpose of inspection and certifica- 
tion of seed potatoes, with attention to exhibits, 
education and legislation in relation to the industry. 
In 1920, the Association reported the inspection of 
269 acres of seed potatoes, of which 192 acres passed 
inspection and were certified. Approximately 25,000 
bushels of certified seed potatoes were for sale in 
Michigan in that year. In this work of inspection 
and certification, the Association cooperates with the 
Michigan Agricultural College, which provides the 
inspectors. Two field and one bin inspections are 
made. The standard for certification adopted by the 
Association requires that a field must not show at 
the first inspection moje than 10 per cent of black 
scurf, wilt, blackleg, leaf-roll, curly dwarf, spindling 
sprout, mosaic or hills weak from other causes, or 
more than 15 per cent of all diseases combined. At 
the second inspection a field is disqualified if it 
shows more than -1 per cent of any one, or more than 
8 per cent of all combined of the diseases named 
above. Fields are disqualified if they show more 
than 10 per cent of varietal mixture at the first 
inspection, and more than 1 per cent at the second. 
Fields infected with late blight or tip-burn, or in- 
fested with leaf-hoppers, Colorado beetles or with 


other pests to such an extent as to make identifica- 
tion difficult are disqualified. To pass the bin 
inspection, potatoes must show freedom from scab, 
black-scurf and late blight, not have over 10 per 
cent of light or 2 per cent deep infection of wilt, and 
be free from other diseases and from frost-injury. 
Potatoes in the bin must show not over 1 per cent 
of varietal mixture and must conform to varietal type, 
be uniform, symmetrical, smooth, and practically free 
from serious cuts, fork punctures, bruises and other 
mechanical blemishes. There are also limitations on 
weight. Potatoes are sold in clean bags holding one 
hundred pounds and bearing the certification tag of 
the Association. For the purpose of introducing 
certified seed potatoes into new localities and of 
determining results from the use of such seed, the 
Association furnishes certified seed to growers for 
such demonstrations, and it publishes lists of growers 
of certified seed, which, in 1920, bore thirty-seven 
names, of whom eight were in- the Upper Peninsula.^ 
Michigan beans, grown in the southern counties, 
have an established reputation and have been a highly 
favored money crop. The output in 1910 was 
5,282,511 bushels, chiefly from the counties of Clin- 
ton, Eaton, Genesee, Gratiot, Huron, Ingham, Ionia, 
Isabella, Kent, Lapeer, Livingston, Macomb, Mid- 
land, Montcalm, Saginaw, Sanilac, Shiawassee and 
Tuscola, each of which produced more than 100,000 
bushels. There is a tendency for the counties impor- 

^ From statement and pamphlets furnished by the Secre- 
tary of the Mich. Potato Producers Assoc. 


tant in the bean crop to coincide with those producing 
largely of corn, but the two lists also show interesting 
differences, indicating a somewhat more northerly 
trend of bean production, although the crop is not 
regarded as a safe venture in the northern counties. 
How^ever, on the Lake ^Michigan shore of the Upper 
Peninsula, excellent yields of beans have been secured 
year after year. A hardy rust-proof type was 
developed at the experiment station at Chatham and, 
when sown in the northern latitude, has given very 
satisfactory results. Anywhere in the State the bean 
crop is attended with much uncertainty, and this, 
together with unsatisfactory market conditions, has 
somewhat discouraged bean culture, so that in 1920 
the production fell off from the 1910 figures to 
3,575,000 bushels, grown on 275,000 acres and hence 
averaging a product of 13.5 bushels an acre. In 1921, 
by a cooperative arrangement between the Farm 
Bureau and the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, a laboratory was established at Saginaw for 
the study of bean diseases with a view to their 

Peas as stock feed and for canning are grown in 
both peninsulas and are occasionally met with as an 
important local crop. 

The abundance of rich muck lands and the com- 
paratively cool, moist summers of Michigan are 
favorable to the growing of celery.^ The industry 
has developed largely in the territory about Kalama- 
zoo, Muskegon, Decatur, Grand Ifaven, Vriesland 

»"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," lOl.J, p. 32.3. 


and Hudsonville; while the celery grown on the 
Taquamenon Swamp near Newberry in the Upper 
Peninsula, though not large in amount, is very highly 
prized because of its flavor and crispness. Celery is 
also grown in truck-gardens about such large market 
towns as Detroit, Grand Eapids, Bay City and many 
other cities of the southern peninsula. The Bureau 
of Crop Estimates of the United States Department 
of Agriculture gives statistics of the commercial 
acreage and production of celery in Michigan as 
follows: 2,935 acres with a yield of 168 crates pro- 
ducing 2,465 cars of celery. By counties the acreage 
ran thus in 1919 : 

Counties Acres 

Allegan 150 

Bay 25 

Berrien 35 

Cass 40 

Kalamazoo 790 

Kent 400 

Lenawee 140 

Muskegon 144 

Ottawa 730 

Van Buren 200 

Washtenaw 30 

Total 2,684 

These statistics are undoubtedly not complete, 
since they represent the acreage for Luce County in 


the Upper Peninsula as zero, while other reliable 
sources of information indicate a shipment of 100 
dozen stalks six days of each week from October 1 to 
January 1. The acreage is small, but is said to be 
readily increasable with favorable labor conditions. 

Michigan celery is grown on the heavy well- 
drained muck-lands of which the soil is very deep, 20 
to 30 feet, with a subsoil of hard stiff clay. Three 
or four feet of good top soil are said to be sufficient 
for the growing of celery, provided it is well-drained 
and strong. Black ash and elm muck-lands are best 
for celery production. The marketing begins about 
July 1 and continues until midwinter. The Kalama- 
zoo, Grand Haven and Muskegon districts grow early 
celery, starting their marketing about July 1, con- 
tinuing until October. The Grand Haven and 
Muskegon crops are shipped across the lake to Chi- 
cago, while the Kalamazoo product is sold largely 
in other cities throughout the United States. De- 
catur, Vriesland, Hudsonville and other smaller sec- 
tions where the crop is grown more extensively begin 
shipping later and aim to dispose of it before freezing 

In 1920, Michigan ranked fifth among the states 
producing sugar-beet seed. The output that year 
was 515,000 out of a total of 6,770,000 pounds. The 
states exceeding Michigan were Idaho, Montana and 
California. The average yield to the acre in Michi- 
gan was 765 pounds, which falls considerably short 
of California's yield of 1,200, but not much below 
that of Idaho, placed at 800 pounds. Wliilc the 


growing of sugar-beet seed in Michigan is at present 
confined to tlie southern peninsula, its growth in the 
Upper Peninsula is advocated, as the heavy snowfall 
permits the seed-producing beets to be left in the 
ground during the winter, without lifting and re- 
planting them in the spring in readiness for the 
second year's growth in which the seed is obtained. 
Frost seldom penetrates the snow covering in the 
northern sections of the State and vegetables are not 
likely to suffer injury from freezing. There are 
other problems, however, connected with the growing 
of sugar-beet seed that have as yet not been solved. 
The United States Bureau of Markets reports an 
average yield of sugar-beet seed in Michigan for 
1919 of only 430 pounds, and in 1920 of 715 pounds. 
In 1919 Saginaw County produced the largest quan- 
tity of sugar-beet seed, the reported output being 
105,000 pounds, followed by Lenawee County Avith 
43,500 pounds, Montcalm with 35,000, Gratiot with 
34,000, Isabella with 32,000, Clare with 30,000, 
Huron with 18,000, Tuscola with 10,000, and Bay 
County with 9,000 pounds. 


The profusion of fruit-growing in the vicinity of 
the Detroit River, which aroused the admiration of 
Cadillac, also attracted the favorable comment of 
the Jesuit Father, Nau, who, in a letter descriptive 
of his field of labor, under date of October 2, 1735, 
speaks of "this stretch of country" as "the finest in 


Canada. There is scarcely any winter, and all kinds 
of fruit grow there as well as they do in France." ^ 
Many years later another observer recounts how, 
along the Kiver Eaisin, "everywhere, in the wild- 
Avood and in the glade, on the river's edge, and as 
far away under the over-arching trees as the eye 
could see Avas a wealth of grape-vines. Everywhere 
hung clusters of rich, purple fruit; everywhere, with 
a wild luxuriance that far surpassed the stories their 
fathers had told of the vineyards of sunny France." 
And it is related how at one point a man walked for 
eighty rods on grape-vines without touching the 
ground. These wild vines, in the hard cold season 
of 1875, are stated to have been the only grapes 
that matured sufficiently for the requirements of the 
local vintage, although by that time cultivated varie- 
ties had been introduced.^ 

When American settlers began to enter the Michi- 
gan territory after the War of 1812, they found a 
varied assortment of native fruits already established 
there. Some of these are strictly indigenous, such 
as the wild plum, wild crab-apple, wild cherry, 
and many varieties of berries, such as the wild 
strawberry, black, white and red raspberry, blue- 
berry, huckleberry (high-bush and low-bush). The 
salmon-berry, variously styled also the white-flowered 
raspberry, and, in the Lake Superior country, the 
thimble-berry, produced its attractive white flowers 
on its broad-leaved stem, and then its delicate pale red 

* "Jesuit Relations," LX\aiI, 283. 
^"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1875, 81. 


fruit, in the region north from Houghton Lake in the 
southern peninsula and throughout the northern 
peninsula and on Isle T^oyale; and it remains a popu- 
lar element in the wild fruit resources of the north- 
country even now. Enormous quantities of these 
wild berries are still consumed locally and exported. 
In both peninsulas, also, the tiny delicious winter- 
green was a favorite for gathering in the early spring, 
both for the diminutive red berry and the leaves. 
It must have been the French voyageurs, the mission- 
aries, or some Johnny Appleseed who established the 
apple in Michigan, but it is reported in many widely 
separated sections of the territory and the State by 
the pioneers: along the Detroit River, in Huron, 
Eaton, St. Joseph, Shiawassee, Lenawee, on Scales' 
Prairie in Barry County, in the Saginaw Valley and 
in the vicinity of Escanaba in the Upper Peninsula. 
Along the Detroit River, in the Grand Traverse 
region and elsewhere appeared the pear, whose intro- 
duction is credited to the French of the early eigh- 
teenth century. 

Nurseries were established in the southeastern 
settlements even before Michigan became a state, 
and in the first decade of statehood. Throuijh their 
agency improved varieties of fruit were introduced. 
Among the varieties of apples thus brought into 
Michigan at the outset of its history are the Baldwin, 
Bellefleur, Tart Bough, Canada Red, Snow, Rhode 
Island Greening, Fall Pippin. Sunmier Pippin, Green 
Newton Pippin, Porter, Rambo, Golden Russet, Tal- 
man's Sweet, Green Sweet, Esopus Spitzenburg, 


Swaar, and Twenty-ounce apple.^ Varieties of 
pears inehuled the Bartlett, Biiifum, White Doyenne, 
Flemish Beauty, Seekel, and Stevens' Genesee.^ Of 
peaches, there were the Early Anne, Sweetwater, 
Royal Kensington, Prince's Eed, Eareripe, Orange, 
Pound, Barnard, Early York, Malta, and Red-Cheek 
Melcoton/ Efforts to grow apricots and nectarines 
failed through unfavorable climatic conditions. 
Among the cherries, the Amber Heart, Black Heart, 
Black Tartarian, May Duke,. Ox Heart, Carnation, 
and ^^^lite Tartarian ; and among the plums, Coe's 
Golden Drop, Duane's Purple, Green Gage, Bleekers 
Gage, Hulings Superb, Smith's Orleans, Washington 
and Yellow Gage, are noted. J. C. Holmes, who 
was both practically and officially connected with this 
early period of Michigan horticulture, concedes that 
many varieties of early fruits at first introduced into 
Michigan proved unsuitable, but others on the lists 
just recorded are still standard varieties for the 

Fruit-culture was quite generally distributed 
throughout the settled portions of the State in the 
period before the Civil War. There is abundant testi- 
mony that the removal of the forests, by exposing 
the land surface to frigid air currents, made the cul- 
ture of the less hardy varieties, such as the peach, 
increasingly difficult and the return much more un- 
certain in the inland counties, and by the war era 

^ Listed in a paper by J. C. Holmes, read before tbo 
Mich. State Pomoiogical Soc at R^f^tle Creek, Feb. 25. 
1873; "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," v. X, p. 73. 


the Lake Michigan shore had definitely become the 
great "fruit-belt" of the State. Commercial peach- 
growing in Berrien County is dated as far back as 
1835 with the first shipment of the fruit from St. 
Joseph in 1840.^ Grapes soon appeared in the 
vicinity of Grand Haven^ on .the western shore, al- 
though the wild variety had grown with the most 
extraordinary profusion near Lake Erie in the south- 
eastern section of the southern peninsvila. While 
exceptionally severe winters, such as those of 1873 
and 1875, which iced the surface of Lake Michigan, 
were quite disastrous to fruit-trees even in the far 
western counties, the normal mild winter and cool 
growth-retarding temperatures of the lake shore 
country were so advantageous to the fruit-growers 
that the industry naturally settled itself in that dis- 
trict, and has remained its dominant agricultural 
interest to the present time. By 1884 a very large 
fraction of the State's total output of fruit was 
credited to the three southwestern counties of this 
region, Allegan, Van Buren and Berrien, which pro- 
duced one-ninth of the apples, two-thirds of the 
peaches, and three-fifths of the grapes grown in 
Michigan, as calculated from the return of the State 
census of that year.- 

By 1899, the State production of orchard fruit was 
reported in the United States census returns as 
9,859,862 bushels, and ten years later at 15,320,104 
bushels. Among the several species of these fruits, 

'"Kept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1888, 283. 

=" Thirteenth U. S. Census— Abstract. 411. 


apples had a yield in 1909, according to the same 
source, of 12,332,296 bushels, while the yield in 1920 
was 16,500,000.1 Peaches produced 1,686,586 
bushels; pears, 666,023 bushels, while in 1920 the 
yield was 1,100,000; plums, 181,188 bushels; cher- 
ries, 338,945 bushels; while quinces, always a low 
yield in Michigan, recorded 13,481. Grapes, which 
produced 41,530,369 pounds in 1899, rose to 120,- 
695,997 pounds in the decade following.- 

The distribution of this production by counties in- 
dicates the areas in which the fruit crop bulks largest 
in the agricultural economy of the State. The 
counties yielding more than one-half million bushels 
of orchard fruit in 1909 include Allegan, Berrien, 
Kent, Oceana, Van Buren and Grand Traverse, 
arranged in the order of their relative importance. 
Allegan County in that year had an orchard crop of 
more than one million bushels. Among central and 
eastern counties, which rank high in field crops, the 
fruit counted for relatively less; thus, Genesee 
County produced only 143,800 bushels of orchard 
fruit; Lenawee, 254,514, and Hillsdale, 186,917 
bushels. That hardy fruits comprised the main crop 
of these same counties is indicated by Genesee's out- 
put of 130,568 bushels of apples; while Lenawee's 
apple yield was 230,581 bushels, and Hillsdale's, 
164,432 bushels. Hardy fruits, like apples, plums 
and cherries are well distributed throughout the 

'Thirteenth U. S. Census— Abstract. 411. 

='U. S. Dept. Agr.: "Monthly Crop Reporter," April, 1921, 

206 'RURAL MICH 10 AN 

State and as far north as the Lake Superior shore in 
the Upper Peninsula where very abundant yields 
occur. The north Michigan counties made a very 
small showing in the fruit returns for the Thirteenth 
Census, but in the interval, numerous young orchards 
have been set out in this section and these give prom- 
ise of very satisfactory yields henceforth. While 
peaches and grapes make a showing at many points, 
particularly in the southern peninsula, many miles 
from the lake shore, these are usually points of good 
elevation and consequent air drainage. However, 
they are not unknown even as far as the Lake Su- 
perior shore-line, where, at Marquette, a very hardy 
variety of peach, named from that city, has had 
quite accidental origin but seems destined to persist 
and at least to provide good budding stock for a 
more favorable peach latitude but where climatic 
conditions still demand exceptional hardiness. 

Berries and cherries, both wild and cultivated, are 
found in many parts of the two peninsulas, but 
certain sections have emphasized the production of 
one or another of them. Thus the region of Grand 
Traverse Bay has been described as the "original 
home of the North Michigan cherry," while On- 
tonagon County in the extreme northern portion of 
the Upper Peninsula and St. Joseph County in the 
extreme southern part of the Lower Peninsula have 
been famous in the production of strawberries. There 
is a large local demand for the output, yet rail ship- 
ments from some sections are heavy in the height of 
the season. In 1909 the aggregate strawberry pro- 


duction for Michigan was ascertained by the federal 
census to be 14,218,708 quarts. Of this total, Berrien 
County produced more than three million. Van Buren 
County more than one million, and Wayne County, 
1,425,320 quarts. These counties have excellent 
markets for this fruit close at hand. The raspberry 
output of the State in the year was 8,381,943 quarts, 
with Berrien County here leading also with its crop 
of 2,849,794 quarts, and with Sanilac also a heavy 
producer. While in the Upper Peninsula the com- 
mercial berry crop is small, there is a remarkable 
in-gathering of the wild red raspberry, blueberry, 
and "thimble-berry," a portion of which is con- 
sumed locally while thousands of crates are sent to 
Chicago and other southern urljan markets during 
the season. The State's cherry crop in 1909 is rep- 
resented by 338,945 bushels, with Grand Traverse 
County's 40,000 bushels leading and with large out- 
puts from Allegan, Benzie, Berrien and Oceana, all 
on the Lake Michigan shore. 


Among the indigenous forest trees of Michigan 
were many bearing edible nuts, such as the hickory, 
oak, butternut, walnut, beech, and the hazel-busli. 
While nut-growing forms no part of systematic agri- 
culture in the State, the natural output has a place 
in the domestic economy of the southern peninsula 
and of the southern counties of the northern penin- 
sula, where, near the Lake Michigan shore, the 


butternut grows freely and yields profusely. The 
Thirteenth Census (1909) gave the output of nuts 
of all kinds in Michigan at 961,137 pounds. Coun- 
ties with relatively large outputs were Allegan, Clin- 
ton, Ionia, Iosco, Lapeer, Oakland, St. Joseph, and 
Wayne, all of which exceeded 40,000 pounds. Oak- 
land led with 75,917 pounds, followed by Calhoun 
with 07,435 pounds. In the Upper Peninsula only 
Chippewa County made any visible showing with its 
paltry 100 pounds (possibly beechnuts) although the 
situation in Delta County adjacent to Big Bay de 
Nocque would seem to have warranted high expecta- 
tions in relation to butternuts. The chestnut is not 
common in Michigan and seems to be at home only 
in the southeastern counties, and its artificial plan- 
tation was undertaken some years ago by the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern Railway along its 
right-of-way north of Adrian. Sporadic attempts 
at the introduction of nut-bearing trees have occurred 
in Michigan, looking to the addition of the filbert, 
the almond, the pecan and the Persian and Japanese 
walnuts to the native nut-trees. The results are 
understood not to have been greatly encouraging.^ 
State law has made provisions for the planting of 
nut-bearing trees along the highways and the legis- 
lature of 1919 laid such a duty on the broad shoulders 
of the State Highway Commissioner. - Interest in 
the commercial growing of nuts has led to the or- 
ganization of the Northern Nut Growers Association 

^Michigan Farmer, Sept. 25, 1920, 367. 
=*?. A. 36-1919. 


(1910) for the purpose of promoting an intelligent 
interest in nut-culture and of scientifically investi- 
gating the problems and the introduction of new 
varieties. In the membership of this association are 
several residents of Michigan. The use of nuts in 
the diet prescribed at the famous Battle Creek Sani- 
tarium has undoubtedly done something to enhance 
public interest in nut-culture. 


The wet lands in the .southwestern portion of the 
southern peninsula have been quite extensively used 
for the growing of mint. In 1919 the assistant truck 
crop specialist of the United States Department of 
Agriculture estimated the production of peppermint 
and spearmint in INIichigan by counties as follows : 

Peppermint: Spearmint: 

County Acres County Acres 

Allegan 300 Allegan 550 


Berrien 395 Berrien 290 

Cass 520 Cass 50 

Gratiot 50 St. Joseph 80 

Muskegon 30 Van Buren 750 

St. Josepli 550 

Van Buren 625 Total 1720 

Total 2470 

The major portion of the commercial mint crop 
in the country is grown in this section of Michigan 
and in northern Indiana, and, according to the 
expert just mentioned, the higli tide of production 

210 RURAL MirillGAN 

was reached in 1914, wlieii the two states yielded 
some 600,000 pounds of mint. Then the production 
fell off until 1919, when the output was 225,000 
pounds. Mint, when harvested, has its essential oil 
removed by distillation. Mint is said to produce 
normally 30 pounds to the acre, but yield? are .said 
to vary from 10 to 80 pounds. The mint is cut 
with a scythe and, after the oil is extracted, the 
straw is used as a stock food.^ 

The commercial growing of mint in Michigan is 
said to date from the year 1830. In 1847 the price 
of ])eppermint oil has been given at $1.25 a pound, 
while in 1919 prices are reported to have varied 
from $3.50 to $G.(i0 a pound. In the record pro- 
duction year of 1914, mint oil sold at about $1 a 
pound, according to the expert of the Department 
of Agriculture. The industry seems to have suffered 
occasionally from over-production and from mo- 
nopoly, and as far back as 1888 the c(mipetition of 
Japanese oil was taken notice of, although in 1886 
St. Joseph County, Michigan, was credited with a 
production of 70,000 pounds of peppermint oil, one- 
fifth of the world's outpiit." The oil is used for con- 
fectioners' and medicinal purposes. In 1920, the 
experimental growing of peppermint in the Upper 
Peninsula was undertaken by the Land Commissioner 
of the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad, 
with apparently satisfactory results. In this instance, 

^ On mint-culture in Midi., see Kept. State Bd. Agr., 
1888, 452. 
''Ibid.. 4rA. 


the plot was located in a portion of the Seney Swamp 
east of Marquette ; but it has been claimed that mint 
will do well on dry lands, if the soil is sufficiently 
rich. Since South Bend, Indiana, is at the center 
of the mint-growing territory of Indiana and Michi- 
gan, the mint-growers in that area have been or- 
ganized for their mutual advantage, with official 
headquarters in that city.^ 

In 1909, the value of ginseng produced in the 
State was, according to the Thirteenth Census, 

Of late the culture of goldenseal has become of 
commercial concern in the Upper Peninsula, where 
one grower estimates the yield to the acre in the 
quadrennium at $20,000 to $25,000. 


In Michigan agriculture, muck and sandy lands 
present special difficulties. It is recognized that 
muck-land farming presents peculiar problems : of 
drainage, of fertilization, of discovering crops suited 
to such lands. As stated by Ezra Levin, of the 
State Department of Agriculture, who has an estab- 
lished reputation as an expert in this department of 
agriculture, "there are two types of muck-farming 
in Michigan: extensive and intensive." Extensive 
muck-land agriculture "is concerned with celery, 

i"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," v. 18, 51.5. 
See also Van Fleet: "The Cnltivntion of Pepj)ermint and 
Spearmint," U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 604. 1917; Henkel: 
"Peppermint," U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 00, 1905. 


onions, cabbage and lettuce. Less than one-half 
of one per cent of the total area of muck and 
peat lands in Michigan is given over to intensive 
farming. Not very much more than that is being 
extensively farmed.'^ Levin believes that "the de- 
velopment of swampy lands in Michigan will come 
through extensive farming." The problem, then, is 
to bring about a safe system of agriculture for these 
swamp lands. He proceeds to point out that two 
factors in relation to muck-lands must constantly 
be kept in mind : frost and the quality of the soil. 
The crop rotation for such lands "has to do with 
cattle — either dairy or beef cattle — as a pivot, alsike 
and timothy or white sweet-clover hay, corn or sun- 
flower form silage, and sugar beets — the sugar beets 
and hay as cash crops."^ 

Hay, Levin holds, constitutes an excellent cash 
crop for muck-lands, since it removes nitrogenous 
elements of which the soil already possesses an ex- 
cess supply.- He points out, however, the value of 
green-manure. While small grains are regarded by 
Levin as subject to special risks as muck-land crops, 
the order of preference among thom he gives as 
follows : oats, spring barley, rye, winter barley and 
wheat. Levin further recommends for grain cul- 
ture on muck-lands: 1. "Heavy seeding, at least 
one and a half times the amount of seed that the 
highland farmers use in the vicinity; 2. Applying 
acid phosphate or potash, or both; 3. Thoroughly 

'Letter of Oct. 25, 1920. 

^Journal of the Amer. Peat 8oc., No. 3, July, 1920, 297. 


rolling the seed-bed." ^ He further states that 
"buckwheat and millet are considered important 
muck crops in subduing the sod. It cannot be said 
that those are profitable as a regular part in the 
rotation." Levin is also quite sure that sugar-beet 
culture offers the best prospect of success in muck- 
farming. It must be understood, however, that Lev- 
in's conclusions are not universally accepted. 


One of the most striking features of Michigan 
agriculture has been the gradual elimination of a 
great number of mongrel varieties of grain and 
the progressive standardization of types to a few 
varieties of approved quality and character. In 1918, 
J. F. Cox, of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
recommends among the red varieties of wheat suit- 
able for bread-making, the Eed Rock, or, in lieu of 
that, Egyptian, Shepherd's Perfection, Mediterra- 
nean, and Eed Wave, among such excellent types as 
are available. Among the white wheats adapted 
for pastry flour and breakfast foods, he mentions 
Plymouth Pock, White Pock, Dawson's Golden Chaff, 
and American Banner as leading varieties.^ 

The Michigan Agricultural College is stated to 
have begun the distribution of pedigreed grains from 
its breeding plats in 1909.^ Several of the varieties 

^Jmi/rnal of the Amer. Peat Soc, No. 3, July, 1920, 298. 
2"Rept. Midi. Bd. Agr." 1918, 652. 

' MS. article by A. L. Bibbins, Secretary, Mich. Crop 
Improvement Assoc., 1920. 


of wheat just noted were among the first released 
by the College. To systematize this work of grain 
improvement throngh cooperation with the Michigan 
Agricultural College, a number of farmers, in 1911, 
organized "The ]\Iichigan Experiment Association." 
"The plan generally followed," says Bil)bins, secre- 
tary of the Crop Improvement Association, "was to 
allow any member of the Association to obtain from 
the station plat an amoimt of grain varying accord- 
ing to the supply, from one peck to one bushel. The 
member was then required to sow this seed beside 
his own variety and report his results to the secre- 
tary of the Association." The Association recognized 
the impossibility of securing a single type of any 
grain adapted to all portions of a state so varied 
in conditions of soil and climate as Michigan ; but 
the type adapted to particular conditions might be 
ascertained. Thus, as Bibbins states, it was de- 
termined that the Worthy oat is suited to rich heavy 
soil, and this is said at present to be the most ex- 
tensively grown variety in Michigan. Coincidentally, 
it was ascertained that the Alexander oat is appar- 
ently best adapted to sandy loam types of soil. Simi- 
larly Rosen rye was first distributed by the College 
through the members of this Association. It had 
been the function of the Michigan Experiment As- 
sociation to determine experimentally suitable varie- 
ties of grain. To develop its work among the farm- 
ers of the State and carry out a more extensive 
scheme of crop improvement, a reorganization was 
effected in 1917, under the designation of "The 


Michigan Crop Improvement Association." "This 
organization/' writes its secretary, "includes in its 
activities the testing out of improved varieties and 
methods in cooperation with not only the farm crops 
department (of the Michigan Agricultural College), 
but also with other departments closely related with 
successful crop production, such as plant pathology, 
bacteriology, etc.'' The Association does not confine 
its attention to varieties of grain developed at the 
College, however, but is concerned with types origi- 
nated on the farms of the State and elsewhere. 
Agents of the Association make inspections of such 
grain just before harvest and then after the seed is in 
storage. Ninety-nine per cent of purity, practical 
freedom from noxious weeds and disease, conformity 
to a prescribed standard of germination, color and 
weight a bushel are required for approval by the 
Association. After inspection, the Association pub- 
lishes a list of farmers having approved seed for 
sale. Marketing of pure seeds is now also effected 
through the Michigan State Farm Bureau, through 
cooperation with the Michigan Crop Improvement 
Association. Through various agencies of publicity, 
the county agricultural agents, the grain exhibit in 
connection with farmers' week at the Michigan Agri- 
cultural College and otherwise, the character and 
advantages of improved types of grain are brought 
home to the agricultural population. While farmers 
are traditionally conservative, such demonstrations 
are not lost. Thus, the sowing of the initial one 
bushel of Rosen rye in Jackson County in 1912 ex- 


tended among the farmers of the State until in 
1918 it was estimated by the Crop Improvement As- 
sociation that Si per cent of the rye in Michigan 
was of the pure-bred variety. The Michigan Crop 
Improvement Association now (Jan. 4, 1921) has 
five hundred members, twenty of whom reside in the 
Upper Peninsuhi. 

During the period from 1910 to 1920, the plant- 
breeder, F. A. Spragg, of the Michigan Agricultural 
College, is credited with contributing to Michigan 
agriculture such new plant varieties as Worthy oats, 
Alexander oats, Eosen rye, Red Rock wheat, American 
Banner wheat, Michigan Two-row barley, Michigan 
Black Barbless barley, and Robust beans. ^ The new 
white sweet clover was also introduced into the State 
in this period. Corn variety tests were undertaken 
to establish local standardization of the grain. It is 
also claimed that wheat variety tests conducted 
throughout the State in recent years have established 
the outstanding excellence of Red Rock and Egyptian 
of the red wheats, and the American Banner of the 
white wheat. Variety tests for oats have shown, it is 
asserted, the Worthy, Wolverine, College Suc- 
cess and College Wonder to be "outstanding." In 
southern Michigan, Cox enumerates the Johnson, 
the Strube in the Saginaw A^alley, and the White 
Bonanza, New Victory and Swedish Select as excel- 
lent types over a wide territory. Among the six-row 
barleys, Wisconsin Pedigree is placed in the lead, 
while of the two-row types, the Michigan Two-row 

• J. F. Cox in TJie Michigan Farmer, Feb. 5, 1921. 


is the best producer. The Michigan Black Barbless 
barley is said to out-yield other kinds in adverse years 
and yields high in favorable seasons. Eight years of 
experience with Eosen rye left its supremacy unchal- 
lenged. Tests were also conducted in relation to 
soybeans to determine the types best adapted to 
Michigan. Bean tests have placed the improved 
Eobust variety in the lead as a hardy disease-resistant 
type. Northwestern varieties of alfalfa were tried 
out and it was demonstrated that the Grimm, Cos- 
sack and Baltic were of outstanding excellence for 

Evidence accumulates that Michigan farmers are 
increasingly particular regarding the quality of the 
seed they plant. April 29, 1921, the Michigan State 
Farm Bureau reported that, during the preceding 
winter, fifty thousand Michigan farmers had bought 
seed through their seed department. The department 
stated that it had put out three million pounds of 
seed of "known origin, adaptability, purity and per- 
cent of germination." It claimed to have increased 
the registered Grimm alfalfa acreage of the State 
by 500 per cent, and it handled 750,000 pounds of 
]\Iichigan-grown clover seed and retained it for 
Michigan users, it reported. As evidence of the in- 
creasing diversity in field crops, it was then stated 
that the department was handling sweet clover and 
vetch, for which there was reported a good demand, 
and millet and Sudan-grass were also on their list. 
Twelve carloads of "ITubam" (annual white sweet 
clover) were reported to have been sown in the 


season of 1920, and it was anticipated that there 
would be 1,000 acres planted in the season of 1921. 
It was claimed that this new crop would revolutionize 
crop rotation and the productive power of the soil.^ 
' Mich. State Farm Bur. News Serv., April, 29, 1921, 2. 



Blois' Gazetteer of 1838 estimated the number of 
neat cattle in Michigan at 149,350. Of horses the 
number was 23,430; of sheep, 37,806; of hogs, 
181,825. The total amounts to 392,411. 

A glimpse of the place of live-stock in Michigan 
agriculture in the middle of the last century is ob- 
tained from a survey, the results of which are pub- 
lished in the collections of the Michigan Pioneer 
and Historical Society for 1887. Of Shiawassee 
County, it is said that ''raising stock has become 
quite a business. Besides the cattle slaughtered at 
home, the amount sold and taken out of the county 
for each of the years 1852 and 1853 was not less than 
$10,000. Almost every farmer has a flock of sheep, 
and wool-growing has become an important business, 
the amount sold in 1853 exceeding $10,000. Nearly 
every farmer raises or makes his surplus amount of 
butter and pork."^ The township of Napoleon, 
Jackson County, with a population of 301, produced 
"80,000 pounds of wool, 800 barrels of pork, and 
700 barrels of beef."^ Wayland Township, Allegan 

' "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XII, 388. 
'Ibid., 396. 



County, witli its population of 331, produced "1,350 
pounds of pork, 247 pounds of wool sold, 3,825 pounds 
of butter made." ^ From Ann Arbor came the report 
that 'Sve raised and disposed of in the year of 1853 
in our county 1,000 head of fat cattle, 2,000 hogs 
fatted, 1,000 store hogs, 10,000 sheep-pelts, and 
200,000 pounds of wool." ^ For statistics of live- 
stock see Appendix G. 

One of the most striking evidences of the advance 
registered in Michigan agriculture has been the re- 
placement of mongrel live-stock by pure-bred types 
of a few standard varieties. Thus in the census of 
1920, 1,293 farms reported 2,779 head of pure-bred 
horses, including 478 Belgian, 45 French Draft, 14 
Hackney, 1,63 G Percherons, 59 Shire, 205 standard 
bred, 123 Clydesdale, and 219 of other types. The 
same census showed 62,800 pure-bred beef breeds 
of cattle, and 46,533 head of dairy breeds. Of the 
beef breeds, there were enumerated 1,519 Aberdeen- 
Angus, 1,825 Hereford, 1,067 Polled Durham, 11,712 
Shorthorns, and 144 of other types. Of the dairy 
breeds, 291 were Ayrshire, 429 Brown Swiss, 3,369 
Guernsey, 32,702 Holstein-Friesian, 8,296 Jersey, 
1,446 all other breeds. The total number of pure- 
bred sheep reported from 2,639 farms were 21,342, 
comprising 24 Cheviot, 72 Dorset Horn, 1,910 Hamp- 
shire Down, 100 Leicester, 268 Lincoln, 4,998 Merino, 

Ubid., 400. 

^ "Thirteenth Census of the U. S. Abstract with Supple- 
ment for Mich.," 1910, 336. 


2,800 Oxford, 2/267 Eambouillet, 7,942 Shropshire, 
42 Suffolk, 919 other breeds. The swine numbered 
33,527, reported from 7,656 farms. Of these the 
Berkshire breed had 1,618, the Chester- White, 7,869, 
the Duroc-Jersey, 12,842, the Hampshire, 1.023, the 
Poland-China. 8,739, the Spotted Poland-China, 219, 
the Tamworth, 135, the Yorkshire, 376, and all 
others, 676. Statistics of pure-bred live-stock are 
given in Appendix H. 

The Michigan Improved Livestock Breeders and 
Feeders Association was org:anized in 1890. and its 
membership fluctuates from 200 to 300. although its 
annual meetinsrs at East Lansinor orenerallv brincf 
out twice or thrice these numbers. The object of 
the Association is declared in its constitution, "to 
promote the interests of breeders of the various breeds 
of improved livestock in Michigan," and "any per- 
son interested in improved breeds of livestock may 
become a member of this association by paying one 
dollar into the treasury." The annual dues are one 
dollar. The secretary states that, when this Asso- 
ciation was established, there was not sufficient in- 
terest in particular breeds of live-stock to organize 
separate societies for them individually. In the 
interim, however, separate organizations have been 
created for horses, sheep, swine and cattle, and vari- 
ous varieties of each species, although thev are 
affiliated with the general parent organization. At 
their annual conferenc-e held at the 5lichigan Agri- 
cultural College during the winter, discussions take 


place relating to problems connected with improving 
live-stock, protection from disease, market conditions, 
and the like. 


The number of sheep in Michigan in 1878 is given 
at 1,670,790, producing 8,666,467 pounds of wool, 
an average of 5.19 pounds a head. By 1884 the num- 
ber had increased to 2,453,897, yielding 13,827,542 
pounds of wool. Thence the number declined and 
reached 1,260,295 in 1897-8, producing 8,207,594 
pounds of wool. In the latter year, however, the 
amount of wool to a head of sheep was 6.51 pounds, 
indicating, with the similarly increased output of 
the year immediately preceding, an improvement of 
the wool-producing types of sheep in the period.^ 
In the years Just given, the counties showing the 
largest number of sheep in the order named were 
Washtenaw, Eaton, Jackson, Calhoun, Lenawee, 
Ingham, Branch, Livingston, Oakland and Hills- 
dale.^ Washtenaw's quota was then 79,059, while 
Hillsdale possessed 46,519 sheep, representing the 
extremes of the ten counties mentioned. Not only 
did Washtenaw County excel in the number of sheep, 
its yield of wool to a head (7.79) was in excess of 
the State's average. Several counties showed a still 
larger average product but the total number of 
sheep was small. It will be noted that the counties 
excelling in the number of sheep owned were all 

'"Kept. :\Iicli. Bd. Agr.," 1900, 202. 
UbicL, 204. 


southern, the oldest agriculturally of the State, where 
sheep-raising had long been a well-established busi- 
ness. The ten counties enumerated had nearly one- 
half the sheep and wool output of Michigan. 

The severe drought tliat afflicted the range country 
east of the Rocky Mountains in Montana and adja- 
cent territory in the summer and autumn of 1919 
forced large shipments of cattle and sheep into more 
favored regions. The cut-over country south of Lake 
Superior, well supplied with succulent grasses and 
brush, received large consignments of animals. The 
United States Department of Agriculture and the 
Tapper Peninsula Development Bureau promoted this 
migration, and very considerable numbers of sheep 
found their way into the northern peninsula of 
Michigan. The movement was continued in 1920, 
but with the return of more favorable conditions in 
the seasons of 1920 and 1921, the tide fell off. Its 
recession, however, left the northern counties of the 
State much better stocked with sheep than had for- 
merly been the case, and the ten million acres or more 
of cut-over lands of Michigan were being seriously 
considered as a new range for the live-stock industry.^ 

In addition to this large-scale sheep ranching in 
the northern range country, there has been developing 
a small-scale intensive sheep business participated 
in by farmers, chiefly of Finnish nationality and of 
limited means, financed by townsmen on a profit- 
sharing basis. 

Of the breeds of sheep represented in Michigan 

^"Yearbook," U. S. Dept. Agr., 1919, 401. 


during this period, the Oxford Downs are said to 
have been imported in about the year 1883. It is 
stated by one breeder of this type that up to 1887, 
"there were less than half a dozen flocks of pure- 
bred Oxfords in Michigan."^ The popularity of the 
breed seems to have increased. The breeders, cen- 
tering in Genesee County, organized an association, 
and by 1899, the estimated number of pure-bred Ox- 
fords in the State is placed at 2,500.^ The lowest 
average yield of wool to a head up to that date is 
given at 8.5 pounds. One flock is credited with an 
average of 11.5 pounds a head, while this record 
had been exceeded in some instances, it is claimed. 
Other breeds of sheep in the State during the period 
under review included the American, French and 
Delaine Merinos, Shropshire, Hampshire, Southdown, 
Cotswold, Lincoln, Leicester and Horned Dorset. In 
popularity the Shropshire is reported as leading, and 
although at that time the Merinos are said to have 
composed the chief flocks of the State, they were 
giving place to the Shropshire breed. ^ 

Michigan had 2,224,000 head of sheep on January 
1, 1920, valued at $11.80 a head, with an aggregate 
farm value of $2G,243,000. In 1919, these sheep 
produced 9,554,000 pounds of wool, weighing on an 
average 7.4 pounds. The total number of fleeces 
was 1,291,000.* Flocks of sheep on Michigan farms 

^"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1899, 398. 
'■"fbid., 400. 
^Ibid., 1892, 365. 

* "Yearbook," U. 8. Dept. Agr., 1919, 669-672. The re- 
turns of the Fourteentli U. S. Census show that there were 


normally are small, probably averaging 25 to 30 
head. In 1920 a very bad situation in relation to 
the wool market reacted adversely on the sheep in- 
dustry of the State. The Bureau of Crop Estimates, 
however, found that the number of lambs at the close 
of the year had increased as a result of slow market- 
ing, so that the net loss of sheep stood at only 4 per 
cent, and the total number of head was found to be 
2,135,000 in February, 1921. The estimated valua- 
tion of 14,000,000 was not much over half that of 
the preceding year. 

Classified with reference to breeds, the Cheviots 
numbered 1.1 per cent of the aggregate; the Cots- 
wold, 2 ; Oxford Downs, 6.9 ; Rambouillet, 6 ; Shrop- 
shires, 46.8; Southdowns, 2.8; Tunis, .1; others, 4; 
jSTondescript, 4.1 per cent.^ 

With increasing stringency, the statutes of the 
State seek to protect sheep and other live-stock 
against the depredation of dogs. Dogs are required 
to be licensed and wear a tag, and they may be killed 
on view when attacking live-stock or trespassing in 
rural districts on private property. The proceeds of 
the dog tax are primarily for assignment, on order 
of a city council or township board, to the owners 
of sheep killed by dogs. Since sheep suffer also from 
the depredations of wolves and coyotes, a large bounty 
of $35 (until 1921) was provided for their destruc- 

in Michigan (Jan. 1, 1920) 1,209,191 sheep on hand on 
farms, and that 7,835,558 pounds of wool were produced in 
1919. Of mohair, 1,617 pounds were produced in Michigan 
in 1919. 

^"Mich. Crop Kept.," Bur. Crop Estimates, May, 1920, 6. 


tion, which, however, did not prove very eiTective. 
It has been necessary in certain districts to call in 
the systematized efforts of the United States Bio- 
logical Survey to reinforce whatever may be done 
by the State Game, Fish and Forest Fire Commis- 
sioner's department in ridding the State of these 
noxious animals in the interest of the sheep in- 
dustry. The problem of these destructive pests is 
admittedly difficult. According to the expert in- 
vestigations of the United States Biological Survey, 
coyotes made their way into Michigan some ten years 
ago and are now thought to number one thousand 
individuals. Since they enter mainly from Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota, the task of dealing with them 
is at least a tri-state problem. They have penetrated 
nearly to tlic Straits of Mackinac (January, 1921) 
and are likely to cross the Straits over the ice and 
become at home in the southern peninsula as well. 
Timber wolves have entered the State from Canada 
over the ice of Lake Superior and were in 1921 
considered to number some five hundred individuals. 
Both wolves and coyotes have caused considerable 
damage to sheep and to a less extent to other do- 
mestic animals, as well as to deer and other wild life. 
It was recommended that the present ineffective 
bounty on predacious animals be abolished and that 
local wardens, or deputized hunters, operating under 
the immediate direction of the regular force of dis- 
trict wardens of the State Game, Fish and Forest 
Fire Commissioner's department, should be regularly 
employed to destroy the varmints, and that the op- 


erations of this force should be supervised by an 
expert of the United States Biological Survey, it 
was so ordered in 1921. It is believed that this pro- 
cedure would well-nigh rid the State of these 
predatory animals which otherwise are likely greatly 
to discourage the sheep industry in the Upper Penin- 


Horses were introduced into ]\Iichigan by the early 
French, "hardy, strong, of quiet disposition, some 
of them quite speedy." An amalgamation of this 
type with the breeds introduced by the American 
settlers is said to have taken place. The horses 
introduced by the eastern immigrants are described 
as of moderate size, being fifteen to sixteen hands 
high and weighing 1,000 to 1,200 pounds. English 
thoroughbred stallions crossed with native mares im- 
proved the strain, contributing the carriage and 
driving horses of later days. About 1854 the Morgan 
and Blackhawk horses were introduced from New 
England, it is stated. Hamiltonian and other trot- 
ting blood was similarly brought in. During this 
period also draught horse breeds, mainly of English 
blood, entered the State. Then came Percherons 
from France. Next came Clydesdales and English 
types. In 1892 the Percheron type is said to have 
been rather more popular than the Clydesdale and 

UL S. Bur. F^iol. Survey: "Special Rcpt.— :\Ii jhioan In- 
vestigations — Predatory Animal Control," 1020-1921: J. 
S. I-igon, Predatory Animal Inspector. 


P^iiglish shire animals. By this date also other types, 
SulTolk Punch, and Belgians, were in evidence. The 
Belgians have made excellent records here and 
are found in large numbers on the well-known 
"Prairie Farm" in the Saginaw valley.^ Cleveland 
Bays and French coach horses were also represented 
in Michigan. It was averred that "the common horse 
has seen its best days. Electricity has killed him, 
and henceforth he will not pay his breeder unless 
the American public can be induced to follow Paris 
fashion to eat him."' The intervening thirty years 
since the foregoing was written have hardly vindi- 
cated the prophecy. In 1893, Michigan numbered 
530,294 horses, valued at $40,659,072, averaging 
$76.67 each.- 

The Yearbook of the United States Department 
of Agriculture for 1919 informs us that, on January 
1, 1920, there were 6-10,000 horses in Michigan, 
whose farm value was $60,800,000, at an average 
price a head of $95. To this may be added 4,000 
mules, at an average price of $99 a head, with an 
aggregate farm value of $396,000.^ The increas- 
ing use of automobiles and tractors is displacing 
horses and mules, and the Bureau of Crop Estimates 
finds the number of colts and young horses less in 
1920 than in former years. The decline in the total 
number of horses in that year is 4 per cent, equivalent 
to 26,000 head. The average price a head in 1920 

* Michigan Farmer, CLIII, 806. 

="-Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1892, 373, 375. 

= "Yearbook," U. S. Dept. Agr., 654. 


is estimated at $93, which is also a decline of $2 
for the year. 


The statistics of the United States Department of 
Agriculture show that on January 1, 1920, there 
were in Michigan 1,450,000 sw^ine. Their average 
price a head was $22, and their aggregate farm 
value $31,900,000.^ In the case of swine as of other 
animals, the year 1920 registered a decline in num- 
bers, but of only 1 per cent, due to a retardation of 
marketing caused by adverse market conditions. The 
indicated number of swine in the State on January 
31, 1921, was, therefore, 1,435,000 head, valued at 
$20,520,500, a loss of more than $11,000,000 during 
the year. 

The relative number of the several important 
breeds of swine in ^Michigan were distributed by the 
Bureau of Crop Estimates as follows : Berkshire, 
8.4 per cent; Cheshire, 1.2; Chester-White, 24; 
Duroc-Jersey, 29.4 ; Hampshire, .9 ; Poland-China, 
25.7; Tamworth, .2; Kazorback, .2; others, 4.6; non- 
descript, 4.7 per cent.- 

Returns to the Secretary of State's office in 1892 
showed the total number of swine in Michigan to be 
301,812. These were distributed widely throughout 
the State, each farmer maintaining a few animals. 
The most popular breeds were then stated to be the 
Poland-China and Berkshire. However, other breeds, 

* "Yearbook," U. S. Dept. Agr., IfllO, 676. 
^"Mich. Crop. Kept./' May, 1920, 6. 

230 JU'UAI. MirillflAN 

now little heard of, were found in Michigan in the 
middle period. Thus the Essex hog, described as 
"a small boned black liog with generally an erect 
ear, and distinguished by the softness of the skin 
and fineness of the hair, with fine-grained and de- 
licious meat,"' is said to have been introduced into 
^lichigan about 18()8/ Somewhat later appeared 
the Duroc-Jersey, or "Jersey Red," which experiments 
at the jMichigan Agricultural College in the late 
eighties seem to demonstrate as a superior breed, 
and which has become a favorite in the State.^ 


Again, in 1892, a general review of live-stock con- 
ditions in the State was presented in the Eeport of 
the Michigan Board of Agriculture for 1892. It 
was recognized that "cattle-growing has not been 
conducted on so extensive a scale in this state as in 
some of the western states, but all farmers grow 
more or less cattle. N^early all milk their cows and 
manufacture the milk into butter, or contribute to 
cheese-factories, and grow the calves on skim milk." ^ 
The writer further explains the breed of cattle most 
in demand "up to a very late date had been that 
which included cows that were fairly good milkers, 
and that would ijroduce calves that would grow into 
good beef cattle. For a few years past more atten- 

^"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1892, 381. 
''Ibid., 384. 
^Jhid., 357. 


tion has been given to dairy breeds and now many 
farms are stocked with this class of cattle exclusively. 
Nearly all the improved breeds of cattle have been 
introduced and kept in the state, although some 
breeds have so far made little showing. In many 
sections of the state there are large feeders of cattle 
which consume the coarse products of the farm, as 
well as purchased grain, at a fair profit, and leave 
a large quantity of manure. The num1)er of cattle 
in the state at last report was 643,452." ^ 

The number of milch cows in Michigan, January 
1, 1920, was 873,000, at an average price a head of 
$96, with a farm value of $83,808,000. To this 
are to be added 773,000 head of other cattle, having 
an average price a head of $42.80, and a farm value 
of $33,084,000.2 The Bureau of Crop Estimates 
in its report on live-stock for 1920 notes a 2 per 
cent decline in the number of milch cows during 
that year, which is equivalent to 17,000 head. The 
decline in numbers and of price, put at $26 a head, 
is attributed to the lessening in demand for dairy 
l^roducts. The decline in the numbers of cattle other 
than milch cows was found to be 6 per cent, while 
a loss of 34 per cent in price was announced. 

Of the total number of cattle in Michigan, the 
Bureau of Crop Estimates (May 1920) reported that 
Aberdeen-Angus amounted to 1.7 per cent; Ayr- 
shire, .5; Brown Swiss, .6; Devon, .1; Dutch Belted, 
.1; Galloway, .7; Guernsey, (i.l; Hereford, 4.1; 

'"Kept. Mich. Bd. A;,n-.," 1892, 357. 

* "Yearbook," U. S. Dcpt. Agr., 1919, 659. 


Holstein, 40; Jersey, 11.1; Polled Durham, 1.4; Eed 
Polled, 1.7; Shorthorn (Durham), 23.9; others, 1.8; 
nondescript, C.2. This illustrates the very evident 
preference of Michigan farmers for the Holsteins.^ 


The Census of 1910 reported that Michigan had 
9,967,039 fowls of all kinds. Their value amounted 
to $5,610,958. The number of chickens and Guinea- 
fowls was 9,724,713, and of turkeys, ducks and 
geese, 202,778. 


The United States Census indicates the production 
of honey on farms in Michigan in 1909 to have 
been 2,507,810 pounds. As these statistics are under- 
stood not to have been obtained from beekeepers 
within cities and villages, where also considerable 
quantities of honey are produced, they must be re- 
garded as inadequate. The same source of informa- 
tion reports a production of 28,524 pounds of wax 
in 1909. The value of both honey and wax was 
placed at $296,742. The latest available informa- 
tion regarding honey production in Michigan is from 
the State Apiary Inspector, who estimated (Feb- 
ruary 1921) that the output of extracted honey is 
8,000,000 pounds; of comb honey 2,000,000 pounds; 

^"Mich. Crop Kept.," Lansing, May, 1920, 6, 


and of bees' wax 500,000 pounds. The beekeeping 
industry is well distributed throughout the southern 
peninsula but chiefly in the "Thumb" section and 
has made a good beginning iji the northern region, 
where conditions have been found very favorable, 
owing to the large amount of wild vegetation which 
yields subsistence for the little workers.^ 

The beekeepers of Michigan are organized in a 
State association which is interested in their social 
and educational affairs. There are thirty-five county 
societies, while the marketing of their product is in 
charge of the Michigan Honey Producers Exchange. 
The home market is excellent but is said to be in- 
adequately supplied. In the view of the State Apiary 
Inspector (1921), beekeeping is now passing into 
the hands of specialists, the general farmer having 
relinquished the business very largely. There are 
reported to be from 8,000 to 10,000 beekeepers in 
the State. ( An estimate of the Michigan State Farm 
Bureau puts the number of beekeepers in Michigan 
at 15,000, possesvsing 150,000 colonies of bees.) 

]\Iichigan possesses several kinds of native and 
cultivated plants well suited to the bee industry, 
including the clovers, white and yellow, alsike, and 
the white sweet clover; while in the northern counties, 
the raspberry, milkweed and firewood are the chief 

^ See Michigan Farmer, Aug. 13, 1921, pages 9-137. Cf. 
Cliap. IX. Anioiif,' tlie plants siiilal)le to hoes in the north- 
ern cut-over area, the State Apiary Inapeetor notes alsike 
and white clover, wild red raspberry, blackberry, fire-weed, 
bassvvood, boneset and aster, 


sources of honey. There are also goldenrod, Spanish 
needle, asters and boneset; also buckwheat and bass- 
wood, producing honey of a definite and much 
prized flavor, and the dandelion and fruit blossoms.^ 
' Michigan Farmer, Mar. 12, 1921, 3. 



In the annals of the pioneers of Michigan, an 
ever-recurring note is the remoteness of the settler's 
market, the difficnlty of getting there and the reac- 
tion of this situation on prices and production. Ob- 
viously, roads when they existed were bad, excep- 
tionally so in a country of swamps, bogs and marshes. 
The rivers were useful, but, although early territorial 
and state statutes dignified most of them by the 
designation "navigable," it made considerable dif- 
ference what vessels sought to navigate them and 
how far one ventured up their tortuous channels. 
Daniel Ball endeavored to transport flour regularly 
from Owosso to the mouth of the Saginaw by water, 
but was not long in relinquishing the attempt. The 
Grand, Saginaw, Huron, St. Joseph and Kalamazoo 
served well the first inhabitants of the State, when 
/oads were fathomless in mud and the rail head was 
at Pontiac, Ann Arbor and Hillsdale. The Upper 
Peninsula streams were little used save for lofirijinff 
operations, since most of them were short and rapid, 
particularly on the Lake Superior side of the divide. 
In south Michigan, ])efore the middle of the last 
century, the patient slow-moving oxen commonly 



took wheat and corn to the mill and returned with 
flour and meal and sundry articles of family use 
from the country store or even from Detroit or 
Grand Eapids. 

"When winter came and the sleighing was good," 
relates Edward W. Barber, a pioneer of Vermont- 
ville, Eaton County, "father yoked the oxen, hitched 
them to a rough sled, drove to Marshall, twenty- 
eight miles distant, purchased a load of wheat at 
forty-four cents a bushel, had it ground and was 
home again in four days." This illustrates the 
market facilities of pioneer Michigan. "It was some 
years before a mail reached us once a week unless 
the river was high," says R. C. Kedzie of his Lenawee 
home of the second quarter of the last century. "We 
were twenty-five miles from a mill, store, post-office, 
doctor, minister and civilization in general and par- 
ticular. Our roads were merely trails through the 
woods marked by blazed trees, and our only bridge 
over the river was a canoe." In going to mill, "the 
bags of wheat were carried over the river in the canoe, 
the horses were unharnessed and made to swim the 
stream, the harness piece by piece was ferried over, 
then all parts put together again, the grain loaded 
up and the driver could then go to Monroe to get 
his grist ground."^ When Captain Scott of Clinton 
County went to Ann Arbor for seed- wheat in 1834, 
he traveled with an ox team. "Not having bags to 
put the wheat in, it was put loose in the wagon- 
box. On the way home, the wagon got mired cross- 

^ "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXIX, 529. 


ing the swamp, and we had to spread down our 
blankets and carry the wheat in pails and put it 
on the blankets, and when we got the wagon out, 
load up again." ^ The father of L. D. Watkins 
of Manchester, that same year, required six days to 
transport his family and effects the fifty-nine miles 
to "Fairview Farm." ^ 

For the convenience of the first travelers, woods- 
men and farmers, a remarkable network of paths 
interlaced through the forests and prairies, wrought 
by the feet of the deer, the Indians and their ponies. 
Some of these well-marked routes bore special desig- 
nations, as the Canada trail down the Huron Valley 
to the Ontario shore of the Detroit Eiver, the "Nesh- 
inguak" between Detroit and Saginaw, while other 
foot-ways ran to the Grand Biver Valley, between 
the Grand River and the Kalamazoo, even to far 
away Mackinac, Joining lake with lake, stream with 
stream, camp-site with camp-site. The pioneer soon 
learned their utility, and, if he paused to note the 
beauty of the physical environment through which 
they passed on the line of least resistance, he also 
was glad that he could so readily advance through 
a wilderness that, without these primitive thorough- 
fares, Avould have greatly restricted his movements 
and have retarded the penetration by the whites of 
the inner reaches of the country. 

However, the old trails were narrow and unsuited 
for wagons and sleighs. The settler must almost at 

^Ibid., XVII, 412. 
== Ibid., XXII, 262. 


once become a builder of roads. The national govern- 
ment led the way in this work, for reasons of its own, 
primarily of a military character, and constructed 
roads from Detroit to Chicago (early in the second 
quarter of the last century), from Detroit to Fort 
Gratiot at the mouth of Lake Huron, to Saginaw 
Bay and into the Grand Eiver Valley. These na- 
tional thoroughfares have left a considerable impres- 
sion on the pioneer literature of the State. "When 
the four-or-six-horse stage-coaches" entered Saline 
on the Chicago Eoad, "with a grand flourish of wliip 
and tin horn blowing and prancing horses, nearly 
every person in town would be at the tavern — all 
business at a standstill — to see, as a great' event, 
with almost as much of a curiosity as a menagerie, 
who had come or who were going . and the horses 
changed." ^ 

Perhaps the deepest impression of all was im- 
planted by the horrible roads that joined Detroit with 
its hinterland, through a welter of mud and marshes, 
until a plank-way relieved the unhappy situation in 
which travelers had formerly commonly found them- 
selves in traversing this section of the State. Occa- 
sionally the stage departed from the established route 
altogether and sought a more passable way over the 
forest floor among giant trees whose enormous tops 
had spaced the trunks at ample distances from each 
other. "The roads were almost always poor and 
often terrible," writes W. J. Beal. "People frequently 
went on foot from place to place or rode in lumber 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXV, 394. 


wagons, sometimes over a road of poles on stringers 
a quarter of a mile long without dirt or gravel on 
top. This was corduroy road, long to be remembered 
by anyone who has ever ridden over such a thing 
in a wagon without springs." ^ 

These difficult conditions in respect to transpor- 
tation reacted adversely on market conditions and 
the price of the products of the pioneer farms. In 
early Eaton County, meat sold at four cents a pound 
and eggs at three cents a dozen. An Ottawa County 
reminiscencer quotes the local price of wheat as fifty 
to sixty cents a bushel, of pork as $2.50 to $3 a liun- 
dredweight, and of flour as $2.50 to $3 a barrel. 
In his home town the price of horses was $30, of 
cows, $8, of oxen, $30. This reacted on land values, 
which here ran at $4 an acre in addition to the 
government price of $1.25. The assessed valuation 
of four townships in this county is stated to have 
been $19,081." At Vermontville, potatoes are said 
to have sold for a shilling a bushel in 1839. Since 
whatever was produced before the advent of the rail- 
road must be consumed in the locality, there was 
likely to be a surplus that must be disposed of at 
prices which now seem absurdly low. It was other- 
wise in the northern peninsuUi where much of the 
population was engaged in mining and lumbering, 
and required largo importations of food-stuffs and 
manufactured articles to satisfy the local require- 
ments. Beef came hither on the hoof on shipboard, 

'Ihid.. XXXTT, 246. 

2 "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," IX, 264. 


and hay was transported from Detroit to the copper 
country in the period following the Civil War. 

To ameliorate transportation conditions was the 
great desire of the settlers. The territorial council 
chartered companies for the purpose of improving 
the navigation of certain rivers by removing obstruc- 
tion and straightening the water-courses. Other 
companies undertook the construction of plank-roads, 
or turnpikes. Tlie territorial and state governments 
established highways between such important points 
as Pontiac, Ann Arbor and Adrian; Monroe and 
Ypsilanti ; Mount Clemens, Saginaw and Sault Ste. 
Marie; Niles, Kalamazoo and Saginaw, Marshall and 
Grand Eapids, Coldwater and Berrien. Blois' Gazet- 
teer of Michigan for 1838 describes forty-two mail 
routes in the State, indicating that there was weekly 
mail service between Detroit and Lapeer, Detroit 
and Utica, Detroit and Howell, Maumee and Jones- 
ville, Ypsilanti and Plymouth, Saline and Grass 
Lake, Jonesville and Marshall, Coldwater and St. 
Joseph, Ann Arbor and Pontiac, Ann Arbor and 
Ionia, Marshall and Coldwater, Marshall and Cen- 
terville, Pontiac and Ionia, Mount Clemens and 
Lapeer, Adrian and Jonesville, Adrian and Defiance, 
Ohio; Michigan City, Indiana and Grand Haven; 
Battle Creek and Eaton, Kalamazoo and Saugatuck, 
Ionia and Saginaw. Thrice in the week, it appears, 
the mail passed between Toledo and Adrian.^ Mitch- 
ell's Tourist Map of 1835 describes three principal 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXVIII, 


stage routes in jMichigan. Of these one ran from 
Detroit through Ypsilanti^ Saline, Tecumseh, Jones- 
ville, Coldwater, Niles, La Porte and Michigan City 
to Chicago. The schedule called for a stage over 
this route three times each week. A second stage 
line Joined Detroit with Monroe, Toledo and Lower 
Sandusky, also with a thrice-a-week stage. Twice 
in the week the stage ran from Monroe through 
Adrian to Tecumseh. The same map indicates steam- 
boat lines on the adjoining Great Lakes between 
Buffalo, Detroit, Fort Gratiot, and Chicago. The 
steamers touched at the coast villages, and ascended 
or connected with steamers that ascended the larger 
rivers, such as the Grand and the St. Joseph. Blois 
gives the registered tonnage for vessels on Lake 
Erie in 1836 at 24,045, represented by 45 steamboats 
of an aggregate tonnage of 9,016, and 211 other 
craft. The steamer Illinois of 755 tons, built in 
1838 at Detroit, is credited with the maximum ca- 
pacity for her day.^ 

It thus appears that, at about the time Michigan 
gained statehood, immigrants and merchandise 
could pass between Michigan and the Atlantic sea- 
board by a route which involved on the westward 
journey a short steamer run up the Hudson to 
Albany, a canal passage of three or four days be- 
tween Albany and Buffalo, a ride of forty hours by 
steamer from Buffalo to Detroit, and thence a stage 
or wagon journey into the interior. 

If the facilities for reaching the inner portions 

Ubid., 595. 


of the State were arduous and inadequate, the rail- 
road quickly suggested a remedy for the delays and 
losses which the frontiersmen suffered because of 
these conditions. The first charter granted to a 
railroad in Michigan was that of the Detroit and 
Pontiac Eailroad under date of July 31, 1830. Up 
to 1837 nineteen other railroad companies were char- 
tered with an aggregate capital of $10,000,000. If 
charters could have built railroads, a contemporary 
suggestion that the horse would soon become a su- 
perfluous animal might readily have become a reality. 
The actual work of railroad-building did not follow 
immediately on the grant of charters. 

Article XII, section 3, of the Michigan Constitu- 
tion of 1835, under which the first State government 
was organized, declared that "Internal improvement 
shall be encouraged by the government of this state; 
and it shall be the duty of the legislature, as soon 
as may be, to make provision by law for ascertaining 
the proper objects of improvement in relation to 
roads, canals and navigable waters."^ This section 
was the constitutional expression of an ardent popular 
desire. Governor Mason in his message of January 
2, 1837, definitely brought the subject to the fore. 
He declared that Michigan was "amply competent 
to construct her own internal improvements." He 
would have the State undertake the construction 
of a trans-state canal beween the lakes to the east 
and west of the southern portion of Michigan; and 
he suggested that the headwaters of several streams 
^ "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXVIII, 597. 











having their rise near the center-line of the State 
might readily be given canal connections and hence 
establish additional trans-state waterways. Indeed, 
the sanguine temperament and exuberant imagina- 
tion of the youthful governor, reflecting well the 
temper of his fellow citizens, hardly placed bounds 
to any conception of internal development that might 
be brought forward at the moment. The legislature 
acted promptly. "The subject of internal improve- 
ment," declared its committee which took the matter 
under advisement, "is one which is occupying the 
intelligence of the age." Internal improvement was 
"the great lever which is opening the sealed-up foun- 
tains of national wealth and civilization." Michigan 
seated "by nature in the very lap of wealth and 
power" should not be laggard in seizing her oppor- 
tunity. She was not laggard. Under the direction 
of a State Commission of Internal Improvement, 
the construction of three railroads was undertaken : 
the Northern, joining the St. Clair and Grand 
River; the Central, joining Detroit with the mouth 
of the St. Joseph River; and the Southern, con- 
necting Lake Erie with southern Lake Michigan. 
Private enterprise had already established a rail- 
road between Maumee Bay and Adrian, which served 
the needs of passengers and freight in that direction, 
and had instituted construction on the central line 
west from Detroit. The Commission on Internal Im- 
provement eagerly pressed its own projects until 
financial difficulties forced the cessation of work and 
finally the sale of the publicly owned railroads that it 


had extended to Kalamazoo and to Hillsdale but could 
not continue beyond these points. The sale to private 
corporations was effected in ISiG, and six years 
later, private enterprise had extended the central 
and southern lines to Chicago, thus for the first 
time given an eastern rail connection with Lake 
Erie and the east. The Michigan Southern Kail- 
road consolidated with the old Erie and Kalamazoo — 
the first railroad opened in Michigan, — and with the 
line joining Detroit and Toledo, the beginnings of 
Michigan's present railway system were definitely 
secured. Within three years after the Michigan 
Central and the Michigan Southern railroads reached 
Chicago in 1852, they were linked up with the New 
York Central and the Erie railroads of New York 
State by lines to the northward and the southward 
of Lake Erie, thus giving southern Michigan an 
eastern market and rail connection with the eastern 

The establishment of all-rail transportation be- 
tween Chicago and the ocean, by its saving of time 
and money, stimulated immigration into the North- 
west. This and reduced freight charges increased 
the aggregate of production, then chiefly agricultural, 
in this region. Eingwalt, quoting Henry C. Carey, 
ascertains the cost of traveling from New York to 
Chicago in 1838 to have been $7-1.50. The Com- 
mittee on Internal Improvement of the Michigan 
Legislature stated (1837) that the rate for passengers 
by stage in Michigan M-as six to eight cents a mile, 
and for merchandise between Detroit and Marshall 


$2 a hundredweight. In 1854 the cost of carrying 
freight by wagon was estimated to be fifteen cents 
a ton-mile.^ It was the steam railway that wrought 
a fundamental change in the situation of Michigan 
agriculture as related to transportation and markets. 

Clearly an inhabitant of Jackson County, for ex- 
ample, could not have prospered unless he could dis- 
pose of his surplus wheat and live-stock beyond the 
bounds of his own neighborhood. Detroit was his 
best market, as it had at least water transportation 
to the seaboard. However, to get to Detroit with a 
load of grain or live-stock was costly, until, in the 
forties, steam wrought a fundamental change. Eing- 
walt, quoting Williams' "Traveller's and Tourist's 
Guide," gives the passenger fare from Boston to 
Chicago in 1851 as $23. The fare from Boston 
to Detroit was $1G. From New York to Chicago, 
according to Carey, the fare was $17. A railway 
convention held in Cleveland agreed on passenger 
fares between Xew York and certain western cities 
for the year 1855. In this agreement were included 
the New York Central, the Xew York and Erie, the 
Pennsylvania, and the Baltimore and Ohio railroads. 
By this agreement, fares like the following were 
established : Between Xew York and Sandusky, 
$14.65 ; Xew York and Cleveland, $13 ; Xew York 
and Detroit, $15; Xew York and Chicago, $22; 
Xew York and Toledo, $10.^ 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXVIII, 

^ Ibid., 604; quoting "The Michigan Commercial Register 
and Citizen's Almanac for 1855," 41. 


Doggett's "Railroad Guide,'* as quoted by Eing- 
walt, gives the freight rates in Michigan for 1848 
at $0.0844 a ton-mile for first-class freight. For 
second-class freight the rate was $0.0650. The Michi- 
gan Central Railroad in 1848 charged $6.04 to carry 
a ton of wheat from Detroit to Kalamazoo. For 
a ton of merchandise, the charge was $11.64. The 
price for ten barrels of flour was $6. In 1850, this 
same railroad charged $4.40 to transport a person 
the same distance of 146 miles. Doggett's "Railroad 
Guide" for 1848, according to Ringwalt, reports the 
average passenger fare for the 241 miles of Michigan 
railways at 3 cents a mile. These are significant 
facts in relation to the settlement and development 
of the Northwest. 

Time is also an important factor. Quoting Wil- 
liams' "Traveller's and Tourist's Guide," Ringwalt 
gives the time required for a journey from Boston 
to Detroit in 1851 as forty-three hours, and from 
Boston to Chicago as fifty-four hours. The Michigan 
Central and the Michigan Southern railroads had 
then not been completed, nor were their eastern con- 
nections established. After their completion, Roberts, 
in his "Sketches of the City of Detroit" (1855), 
writes that the establishment of the direct line to 
St. Louis, Missouri, via the Michigan Central and 
the Joliet and Northern Indiana railroads, made it 
possible to set down passengers in St. Louis forty- 
eight hours out from NeM^ York.^ 

Statistics of the commerce of Detroit in 1854 con- 

^ 'Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXVIII, 605. 


tained in "Sketches of the City of Detroit," make 
the shipments from that city by way of the Great 
Lakes and the Canada Great Western Railway (now 
the Grand Trunk), to include 337,000 barrels of 
flour, 897,000 bushels of wheat, 587.000 bushels of 
corn, 228,000 bushels of oats, 2,000,000 pounds of 
wool and a very large quantity of other commodities.^ 
In 1854, the Michigan Central Railroad is reported 
to have carried through Detroit 451,689 passengers. 
The influence of this railroad on the development of 
the interior of southern Michigan is legitimately in- 
ferred. The author of the "Sketches" tells us that 
the population of that section of the State tributary 
to the Michigan Central was, in 1855, 216,852; that 
the number of acres of improved land was 844,309 ; 
and the products of this district in 1854 included 
3,137,875 bushels of wheat, 3,450,946 bushels of 
corn; 943,330 bushels of other grains; 1,078,244 
bushels of potatoes ; 86,760,889 feet of lumber. There 
are said then to have been 298 sawmills and 93 flour- 
mills in this section. 

The State and the railroads grew together. Be- 
tween 1840 and 1845 Michigan increased by 90,000 
in population; 95,000 were added in the next five 
years, 110,000 in the next five years, and nearly a 
quarter of a million between 1855 and 1860. 

The present railway system of Michigan had its 
inception in these two great trunk lines begun under 
public auspices and completed by private enterprise. 
The decade following their completion in 1852 saw 

^Ihid., 606. 


the establishment of another trans-state route, the 
old Detroit, Grand Haven and Milwaukee Eailroad, 
which reached Grand Rapids in 1857 and Grand 
Haven on Lake Michigan in the following year. 
The main line of the Grand Trunk was formed out 
of several elements, the easternmost of which date 
from the eighth decade of the last century, at the 
close of which this line reached Chicago. The first 
constituent line of the Pere Marquette was opened 
from Saginaw to Flint in 1863, and the system, 
which now has its ramifications throughout a large 
portion of the southern peninsula, was gradually 
built up out of some fifty different entities, through 
numerous reorganizations and financial performances 
that left the company with a dubious record.^ These 
units with their connections and feeders are the 
main elements in the railway system of the Lower 
Peninsula. The development of raining and lumber- 
ing in the Upper Peninsula led to railway extensions 
in that direction, consummated in the ninth decade 
of the last century, with the construction of the 
Michigan Central to the Straits of Mackinac (1881), 
and the Grand Rapids and Lidiana (now a part of 
the Pennsylvania system) a year later where a con- 
nection was established with the Detroit, Mackinac 
and Marquette line (now a part of the Duluth, South 
Shore and Atlantic Railroad). The Ann Arbor 
Railroad reached out towards northern Michigan 
by a route deflected somewhat more toward the north- 

^Ivey: "The Pere Marquette Railroad Company," Lan- 
sing, 1919. 


west, joining Toledo, Ohio, with Frankfort on the 
Lake Michigan shore in 1889. All these railroads 
which had their terminus on the Lake Michigan 
shore have established car ferries, thus opening up 
through routes with railways in the Upper Peninsula 
of Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois. 

In the Upper Peninsula railroad construction had 
its inception in the short line connecting the lake 
port of Marquette with the iron mines about Ne- 
gaunee and Ishpeming, which was opened in 1857. 
Out of this as a nucleus has developed the present 
Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic system, which 
represents a series of consolidations such as are char- 
acteristic of the larger Michigan railway companies. 
One element in this "South Shore" system reached 
L'Anse on Keweenaw Bay in 1872, while another 
was projected easterly to the Straits in 1881. Eleven 
years later the gap between L'Anse and the copper 
country on the Keweenaw Peninsula was filled in, 
connecting with the local lines there already estab- 
lished. Then the line extended easterly to Sault 
Ste. Marie, and westwardly to Duluth. Meanwhile, 
one element in the line of the Chicago and North- 
western had joined the ]\Iarquette iron range with 
water transportation by way of Lake Michigan, when 
Negaunee and Escanaba were connected in 1864; and 
a direct route to Chicago was established when the 
gap between Escanaba and Green Bay, Wisconsin, 
was filled in in 1872. Tjater the Northwestern Line 
reached out to the towns of the Menominee and 
Gogebic iron ranges in the southwestern portion of 


the Upper Peninsula, while the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul entered the same territory and reached 
into the copper country through its connection with 
the Copper Eange Eailroad and the South Shore. 
The "Soo Line" Railroad was constructed east and 
west through the southern portion of the Upper 
Peninsula, and eventually this line and the "South 
Shore'' fell under the control of the Canadian Pacific. 
These railways, with their branches, and numerous 
short independent lines built by lumbering and 
mining companies for their own local requirements, 
provide the railway system of the northern penin- 
sula of Michigan. 

By 1850 Michigan had 350 miles of railroad, 
which, according to Romanzo Adams, was five times 
the mileage of Ohio. Steadily year by year, the 
remoter portions of the State were brought into 
relation with this railway network, until in 1918 
the total railway mileage was 9,035, of which 6,762 
miles were in the Lower and 2,273 in the Upper 

In 1886 came the electric street railway, first in- 
troduced into Michigan, it is claimed, on the streets 
of Port Huron in that year. Four years later the 
 era of the inter-urban railway was inaugurated with 
the establishment of the line from Ypsilanti to Ann 
Arbor. At first the motive power was the "Porter 
enclosed steam motor," changed to electric traction 
in 1896.^ This new service, according to Junius E. 

^"Rept. Mich. Railroad Commission." 1918. 78. 

= "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXV, 261. 


Beal, was much appreciated by the farmers, as well 
as by town-dwellers along the line, and the rate 
afforded them of seventeen rides for one dollar 
brought patronage that was a surprise to the pro- 
moters of this pioneer enterprise. This line was 
extended to Detroit on the east and to Jackson on 
the west and in a few years much of the southern 
territory of Michigan was made accessible to electric 
inter-urban railways. The northern part of the 
State in both peninsulas, where population is less 
dense, is not so fully provided with electric rail- 
ways, but short lines were constructed in the Upper 
Peninsula nearly as early as in the Lower, and while 
there are no long trunk-lines in this region, the min- 
ing ranges are supplied. The total trackage in 
1918 was 1,717 miles for the State. To forestall 
possible electric competition, the Ann Arbor rail- 
road installed motor-cars on its steam line in May, 
1911. Several individual combination passenger 
and baggage cars, each having its own motive equip- 
ment, using at first gasoline and then kerosene as 
fuel, were put into operation, and since they make 
stops at cross-roads as well as municipalities, gave 
a service much appreciated by the rural population 
along the line. Rising costs have of late discouraged 
the company and there has been talk of its discon- 

The Constitution of Michigan permits municipali- 
ties to furnish electric power to consumers without 
their boundaries to an amount not exceeding 25 per 
cent of that granted within the municipal limits. 


To wliat extent farmers have availed themselves of 
the opportunity all'orded to ohtain electric power for 
farm use is not apparent, although there are in- 
stances of their having done so, for example, at 
IMarquette and Iron Eiver. The Consumers Power 
Company, the largest private electric power corpora- 
tion in the State, serving a wide territory in the 
southern peninsula, reports considerable rural serv- 
ice where power lines have been extended from cities 
and villages into the rural districts adjoining them. 
Eural consumers are also served from certain trans- 
mission lines where the voltage does not exceed 10,000 
volts. This company also has consumers at many 
resorts in the Lower Peninsula. For rural exten- 
sion the regular city rate is charged by this company, 
except for resort business, where there is a minimum 
charge of $13 a year, which is deposited before the 
current is turned on and which permits consumers 
to receive current at the regular city rate. Both for 
public and private lines, the problem of rural service 
is of high overhead cost in relation to the amount 
of power furnished. It seems necessary to arrange 
with consumers for the construction of the trans- 
mission lines into their territory, with a surcharge 
to cover depreciation and taxes on the extension. 
If Michigan were an "Old World" country, her 
products would be going forward to market by 
water, quite as much as by rail ; but, while the State 
possesses a magnificent system of water communi- 
cations adjacent to her borders, little effort has been 
made to develop internal avenues of transportation 


by water. When the State was in its infancy, bright 
dreams were entertained of such an inland canal 
system linking up her river systems and affording 
a ready means of trans-state shipments by water. An 
abortive effort was made to join the Saginaw and 
Grand Eiver basins in this way, the evidences of 
which are still said to be traceable in the vicinity 
of Bad Eiver, Saginaw County; and a much more 
ambitious plan of canalization was undertaken^ in- 
tended to unite Lake St. Clair with the mouth of the 
Kalamazoo Eiver. At the same time companies were 
established for the purpose of improving river navi- 
gation, and the State made similar efforts on public 
account. From time to time, agitation has been in- 
stituted to interest the people of the State in this or 
that internal waterway project, and the subject occa- 
sionally is brought forward even now. The physical 
conditions are most favorable on the Saginaw-Grand 
Eiver route, and in former times advantage was 
sometimes taken of the spring freshets which sub- 
merged the low country of the region and thus made 
possible the movement of logs between the two water- 
courses. Farmers along the shores of the Great 
Lakes and on the larger islands still send forward 
a portion of their produce to market by boat, as in 
the case of Manitou and Beaver Islands of Lake 
Michigan, and the settlements on the "Garden" 
Peninsula and on Huron Bay in the Upper Penin- 
.sula, adjacent to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior 

The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 afforded 


Michigan a direct and relatively cheap means of 
transportation to the .seaboard. The traffic carried on 
the Erie Canal in 1837 amounted to 667,151 tons. 
By 1845 it reached 1,038,700 tons. It reached 
3,159,33-1: tons in 1852, and continued above this 
mark for several years, and exceeded 3,000,000 tons 
in most years of the last three decades of the cen- 
tury. Then a decline set in, until an upward turn 
manifested itself as late as 1920.^ Meanwhile the 
St. Mary's Ship Canal had been opened in 1855, 
and this waterway became of vital importance to 
the economic progress of the northern peninsula. 
Wiseacres had opined that its traffic would never 
warrant the cost of its construction, but it mani- 
fested its usefulness from the outset and, by a steadily 
increasing tonnage, developed a traffic which, in 1916, 
aggregated almost 92,000,000 short tons. As late 
as 1920, its tonnage of freight amounted to 79,- 
282,496. A better conception of the significance of 
these figures can be obtained when it is noted that 
the 1920 traffic of the Panama Canal was 9,374,499 
tons. In 1919 the Suez Canal passed 16,013,802 tons 
of freight. This indicates that the Michigan water- 
way exceeds threefold the combined commerce of the 
two world-renowned waterways. 

This enormous water-borne commerce of the Great 
Lakes is promoted by exceptional docking facilities 
for bulk commodities, such as ore and grain, a type 
of vessel specially designed for their economical 

^ "Rept. of Superintendent of Public Works, New York," 
Albany, 1919, 462. 


handling, and by remarkably low freight rates. In 
1920, the rate on iron ore from the head of Lake 
Superior to points on Lake Erie was $1.10 a ton, 
and on copper $.35 a hundredweight; while the rates 
on grain from Lake Superior and Lake Michigan 
points to the eastern lake terminals prevailed be- 
tween three and four cents, with occasional descents 
below, and ascents above these points according to 
fluctuations in the demand for cargo space.^ 

Not only has the extension of the facilities of the 
United States post-office to the rural portions of the 
State greatly alleviated the isolation and monotony 
of rural life, but it has also materially affected rural 
market conditions. On December 21, 1920, the post- 
office department reported 1,800 rural mail routes 
in operation in Michigan. Their mileage was 49,545. 
There were also 147 star routes, aggregating 1,565 
miles in length. During the fiscal year of 1920, 
the rural mail routes in Michigan carried approxi- 
mately 5,121,780 pieces of parcel mail, weighing 
an approximate aggregate of 18,765,876 pounds. It 
is manifest that the service put at the disposition 
of the farming population by the post-office has been 
availed of to a very considerable extent. There was 
a time M'hen outlying communities received their 
letters and papers by a weekly carrier on foot, sledge 
or horseback, a service in which the Indian had fre- 
quently an important part, as he made the long 
difficult journey from Detroit to the Straits of 

* "Annual Kept, of the Lake Carriers' Assoc, 1920," 
Detroit, 1920, 214, 217. 


IMackinac, or reached tlie iniiiing settlements on the 
Lake Superior shore from some point in Wisconsin, 
in the season wlien the lakes were closed to shipping. 
Then it was that postal rates ran at twenty-five cents 
a letter and the receiver paid, if his available supply 
of cash met the postal requirements. 

The telephone system of Michigan^ which has 
greatly quickened communication throughout the two 
peninsulas and between country and town, in 1917 
possessed 1,072,()51 miles of wire, and utilized 43,128 
instruments, which gives a ratio of one telephone to 
140 persons. In the ratio of telephones to popula- 
tion, Michigan was less well served than her neigh- 
bors, Ohio, 1 to 102, Indiana 1 to 162, and Illinois 
1 to 172. In 1917, 603,254,645 messages and talks 
occurred over tlie lines of the Bell system, while 
296,575,452 messages and talks took place on the 
"independent" lines of the State, the total thus 
amounting to 899,830,097 telephone communications. 
This very strikingly indicates the place telephone 
transmission has acquired in modern life. How much 
of this service belongs to the strictly rural districts 
can scarcely be determined, but the census returns 
for 1920 indicate that 97,874 farms in Michigan 
reported telephones and that these represented 49.8 
per cent of all farms in the State. The census report 
for 1917 indicates that the systems and lines having 
an annual income of less than $5,000, which were 
1,298 in number, employed 46,941 miles of wire and 
53,928 telephones, and that the number of messages 
and talks over these lines was 57,840,250. The total 


investment in these lesser lines was then $1,511,373, 
and their gross receipts, exclusive of the assessment 
of mutual companies, was $277,744.^ The major 
portion of these smaller companies was doubtless as- 
signable to the rural districts. The rural population 
has greatly appreciated the many advantages accru- 
ing to them from telephone service, so much so that 
occasionally they have independently promoted their 
own neighborhood systems without reference to the 
larger systems under corporate control. A farmer 
living on such a rural neighborhood telephone line 
near Flint, explained its construction by the less cost 
and less delay in its installation. Tn this instance 
the farmers bought the poles, wire and equipment and 
furnished the labor tliemselves. The cost is given for 
each of them as $15 cash in addition to labor. The 
line connected with the Bell system at Flint, the 
annual cost for the connection a party being $8.00 
a year, later raised to $12.00. 

The general market situation may he regarded as 
favorable. Both peninsulas arc in easy reach of 
the great Chicago stock and grain market, while other 
live-stock markets exist in Detroit, Toledo, Cleve- 
land, Buffalo, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh 
and lesser places, all very accessible by rail or water 
to the producers of Michigan. The home market is 
extensive, for the State has lumbering, manufactur- 
ing, mining and marine industries that call largely 
for food supplies. More than half the population of 
the State are city dwellers and hence consumers of 

'U. S. Census of Electrical Industries, 1917, — Telephones. 


farm products. In 1909, according to the Eeport of 
the State Board of Agriculture for 1914, the manu- 
facturing industry of Michigan employed 271,071 
persons, who received in salaries and wages $153,- 
838,000. Similarly, the lumber industry then had 
35,627 wage earners, and the mining industry 
42,133 employees. On June 30, 1912, the'officers and 
employees of the steam railroads numbered 45,252, 
receiving salaries and wages of $32,635,516. In 1913, 
according to this report, the electric railroads em- 
ployed 9,195 persons who received $6,510,297.^ 

City dwellers are consumers of farm products, and 
the census of 1920 showed that Michigan contained 
fourteen cities with a population ranging from 10,000 
to 25,000, and fourteen cities whose population ex- 
ceeded 25,000. The greatest urban market was that 
of Detroit, whose population had increased 113.3 
per cent in the decade and numbered 993,678. Xext 
in rank was Grand Eapids with 137,634, and Flint 
with 91,599. 

Several Michigan cities have established municipal 
markets which enable farmers to dispose of their 
products directly to urban consumers. Such a mar- 
ket is maintained by the city of Flint, which was 
established November 6, 1920. Since the first of 
the year 1921, the Market Master reports, all avail- 
able space has been utilized by farmers, demonstrat- 
ing their interest in this facility for disposing of their 
products. There are accommodations for 125 
wagons. During the winter the market was opened 
^"Eept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1914, 475. 


on Wednesays and Saturdays, but with the coming 
of spring a daily service was instituted. Sales are 
restricted to actual producers^ except in the case of 
products not locally grown. Thus some baked goods 
have been sold by non-producers. Producers are free 
to establish prices without restriction. Sales to 
middlemen, although favored, had not taken place 
to any extent up to May, 1921. The effect of the city 
market was manifested, it is reported, in the reduced 
prices charged by retail stores on market days. Meat 
sales ranged from three and four tons to eight and 
ten tons each market day from November 1 to April 
1, when they terminated because of the approach of 
warm weather. The Market Master reports that 
farmers realized on their sales from 100 to 200 per 
cent in advance of returns under other conditions. 
Thus one farmer, after disposing of 100 hogs in the 
municipal market, estimated his "benefit" at $1,000. 
Another farmer reported returns on the sale of seven- 
teen hogs at $135 above current shippers' quotations. 
Beef, selling at $96 on the market, was worth only 
$35 to local butchers, it was stated. Favorable 
market prices attracted large numbers of buyers 
daily. Regulations enforced at the Flint municipal 
market relate to sanitation and inspection of weights 
and measures, as well as to quality and wholesome- 
ness of products. Identification of the vendors with 
addresses is required. Vendors make formal appli- 
cations for stall space at the market, paying a rental 
charge for the accommodation. A daily market re- 
port is issued. That for April 30, 1921, relates how 


"the first offering of asparagus appeared today and 
sold quickly. Supplies of eggs, green onions, rhubarb 
and potatoes were heaviest, with butter, apples, and 
poultry coming next. Demand was heaviest for eggs, 
asparagus, rhubarb and poultry. Potatoes were not 
wanted, and other vegetables M'ere almost entirely 
lacking. Apples of very ordinary quality sold well, 
the supply being light. One farmer was selling 
tomato and lettuce plants for transplanting, also 
home-grown radish-seed and grass-seed. Dahlia 
bulbs were also offered. . . . Butter was slightly 
weaker, most sales made at 50.'*^ Then follow price 
quotations for commodities sold on the market. 
This market reporter is posted in the market and is 
mailed to some fifty local producers.'- 

The Detroit Board of Commerce adverts to the 
opinion of transportation experts that Detroit ranks 
ninth among the transportation centers of the United 
States, although ranking fourth in population and 
third as an industrial center ; and it believes that 
this situation demonstrates "the desperate need of 
the Michigan metropolis for better means of ingress 
and egress, for materials and passengers." ^ The 
Board puts the num.ber of industries in Detroit's 
industrial district at 3,000, of which 1,411 have pri- 
vate railway sidings, having a combined capacity of 
17,184 cars. The city is served by fifteen railroads, 

^ For a description of the farmers' market in Ann Arbor, 
see The Michifinn farmer. Aiifj. 27. 1921, p. 3-175; Burd: 
"The Value of a Farmers' Curb Market." 

'^Detroit and World Trade, Detroit, 1920, 35. 


of which ten are classified as major systems, includ- 
ing the Michigan Central, New York Central, Pere 
Marquette, Wabash, Grank Trunk, Detroit, Toledo 
and Ironton, the Detroit and Toledo Shore Line, 
Pennsylvania, Canadian Pacific, and the Detroit 
United Eailway. The line last named is an electric 
system with wide ramifications. The Canadian 
Pacific has only passenger service into the city, while 
the Detroit and Toledo Shore Line provides only 
freight service. There are five terminal railways to 
assist the local distribution of freight. The railroads 
which enter the city have twenty-eight freight-houses 
and sixty-two sets of team tracks, with a combined 
capacity of 2,989 cars. These are the terminal and 
shipping facilities available to shippers not pos- 
sessed of private trackage."- 

Four lines of lake steamers make Detroit their 
home port or port of call. These lines are desig- 
nated the Great Lakes Transit Company, the Detroit 
and Cleveland Navigation Company, the White Star 
Line, and the Ashley and Dustin Line. These lines 
operated thirty-seven vessels in 1920, whose total 
freight capacity was 122,500 tons. 

The distribution of freight by motor truck, both 
inter-city and intra-city, is said to be dominated by 
the Detroit Transportation Association, of 400 to 
500 members, operating 2,000 motor and 500 team 
trucks, whose aggregate capacity is 7,000 tons.^ It 
is estimated that about half of the mileage of im- 

^Ibid., 37. 
mid., 40. 


proved highways in ]\Iiehigaii is comprised in those 
pntering Detroit, and these roads connect the city 
with the other large population centers throughout 
the southern portion of the peninsula. 

It is apparent that Detroit's transportation facili- 
ties, as here described, have great significance for 
jlichigan agriculture. The Detroit Board of Com- 
merce reports an aggregate freight tonnage entering 
the city by rail in 1918 at 32,700,774,169 pounds; 
by electric railways at 184,796,000 ; by steamships at 
3*78,582,000; while the highway tonnage by trucks 
is estimated in 1918 at 87,640,000 pounds. It does 
not appear what proportion of this in1)ound tonnage 
is attributable to the products of Michigan farms. 


The development of Michigan's transportation as 
indicated in the foregoing pages suggests that this 
first condition of a market for farm products has 
been fairly adequately solved. Latterly the farmers' 
chief problem has been one of selling their output 
at a remunerative price, and to this end various 
agencies have been called into service. The statutes 
of the State forbid monopolistic arrangements for the 
purpose of enhancing prices. However, saving of 
consumption costs has been effected through coopera- 
tive purchasing, and better sale prices have been 
sought through sales associations, such as those estab- 
lished by grape-growers and potato-growers, and 


through the agency of the newly created Michigan 
State Farm Bureau. 

The Michigan legislature of 1015 authorized the 
State Board of Agriculture, which also has control 
of the Michigan Agricultural College, to appoint a 
State director of markets. It was the duty of this 
official to investigate the production and marketing 
of farm products, and he was given compulsory 
powers in the securing of the necessary evidence. 
The director was also to assist in the organization 
of cooperative and other associations for improving 
the relations among producers and consumers, and 
afford them such services under adequate rules and 
regulations as relate to standardizing, grading, pack- 
ing, handling, storage and sale of products within 
the state of Michigan, not contrary to law, and 
enforce such rules and regulations by actions or pro- 
ceedings in any court of competent jurisdiction. 
This official should also give information to Michi- 
gan producers regarding market conditions elsewhere 
in the Union, and he should provide auction markets 
for the disposal of farm products. Through bulletins 
he was to give information to producers and con- 
sumers in order to facilitate mutual business connec- 
tions. It was expected, also, that he would investi- 
gate and report to the Public Utilities Commission 
delays and inadequate service in relation to the 
transportation of food supplies. Similarly, he was 
to keep the attorney-general informed regarding com- 
binations to restrain trade and fix the prices of food- 


stuffs. He might assist in the prevention of waste 
of perishable food-stuffs. 

This act seems comprehensive enough to effect real 
reforms in the marketing of farm products. In 
reality it amounted to very little. The oflficial ap- 
pointed to the position had little faith in the efficacy 
of the measure, and confined his attention very 
largely to the formation of cooperative selling agen- 
cies among certain groups of farmers, deprecating 
any effort at assisting in direct marketing between 
producer and consumer, chiefly on the ground that 
85 per cent of farm products, as he stated, was not 
susceptible of such market operations, since they 
involved manufacturing and other intermediate treat- 
ment. The act had not provided an appropriation 
for the maintenance of this department and eventu- 
ally the position was allowed to become vacant and 
to remain so. Through a cooperative agreement be- 
tween the extension department of the Michigan 
Agricultural College and the United States Bureau 
of Markets, some features of the work comprised in 
the act of 1915 were continued. In a small way the 
standardization and certification of farm products 
was undertaken, but more particularly the institu- 
tion of selling organizations among farmers along 
the lines of such products as potatoes, grain, live- 
stock and fruit was fostered after the establishment 
of the Michigan State Farm Bureau, in association 
with this organization. 

The grapes in the southwestern counties of Michi- 
gan are marketed by small local associations on a 


F.O.B. basis. There is a tendency towards their 
federation, thus eliminating competition among 
them. These local associations are usually stock 
companies which own their own offices and market 
the grapes of their members commonly on a basis 
of a daily pool of varieties. Most of them are said 
to handle other fruits as well and to buy baskets, 
twine, spray material, posts, hay and feed for their 
members. Few of the individual associations actually 
sell the grapes, according to the report by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Mar- 
kets, but confine their activities to inspection and 
loading, keeping accurate accounts of the amounts 
of each variety delivered daily. The usual practice 
is to give each member 75 or 80 per cent of the 
estimated market value of each day's hauling and to 
pro-rate the surplus among the members when the 
books are balanced at the close of the season. The 
returns to stockholders depend, it is stated, on the 
particular arrangement entered into by each asso- 
ciation.^ Grape-juice factories in this region, in 
Van Buren County, buy on a standard contract that 
guarantees to the grower the daily market price on 
bulk stock with a fixed minimum. At Benton 
Harbor and St. Joseph an active street market has 
been developed, in which farmers dispose of their 
product from the wagon to the highest bidder. If 
the owner thinks that he can secure a higher price 
for his grapes by an express or freight shipment to 

»U. S. Dopt. Agr., Bull. 861 : "Marketing Eastern Grapes," 
Washington, Sept. 13, 1920, 40. 


an outside market, he refuses the hids and passes 
on to the railway station. This method of marketing 

Michigan grapes contrasts with the sales through the 
local associations, and it is questionable which yields 
the higher return to the producers, although in the 
opinion of the investigators already quoted, the re- 
turns to those using the associations seem, in the end, 
to be larijer. 

Michigan grapes are of excellent quality and are 
favored in the markets. Table stock is usually put 
up in four-quart baskets. Baskets are packed in the 
field directly from the vines. These grapes enter into 
competition with those from Xew York, and, since 
they are said to be packed with less attention to the 
appearances, sell slightly under the New York prod- 
uct, although quite equal to it in quality. The 
Concord is the principal market variety. The distri- 
bution of the Michigan crop is very extensive: east 
to Massachusetts and New Jersey, south to Florida 
and Texas, west to Idaho and Wyoming, and in 1918 
shipments are said to have been made to thirty-one 
states and one hundred sixty-nine cities. The great 
Chicago market is close at hand with convenient 
water transportation from the southern Lake Michi- 
gan ports. Much of the output goes west and south. ^ 
The Michigan Potato Growers Exchange, organ- 
ized in the summer of 1918, was one of the most 
ambitious enterprises as yet undertaken in the State. 
It constituted a central selling and purchasing 
agency for a large number of local cooperative asso- 

'lUd., 40. 


ciations of farmers living in the northern counties, 
the potato belt of the Lower Peninsula, and was ex- 
tended to the potato territory of the Upper Penin- 
sula. Its name is somewhat misleading, for, although 
its main reason for existence is the sale of potatoes 
through a cooperative arrangement, it also handles 
other bulk farm products, such as hay, beans, grain, 
apples, and vegetables; and it purchases on account 
of its members supplies for the farm, including 
feeds, fuel, poison and implements, amounting in 
1920 to nearly $1,000,000. At the outset, twenty- 
eight local cooperative organizations were federated 
under a plan which involved the exclusive handling 
of certain farm products on a contractual basis of 
payment for the service rendered, guaranteed with 
a promissory note, so familiar a feature of present- 
day cooperative agreements of this character. Simi- 
larly, the individual member of each local pays his 
membership fee of ten dollars and signs a binding 
contract, likewise made more effective by giving his 
promissory note, in no case as yet forfeited, as. an 
assurance of good faith and loyalty to the associa- 
tion. Xotes c.nd fees afford working capital, the 
unused surplus of which is returned to members at 
the end of the year. The by-laws contemplate vari- 
ous associated activities for the central association, 
such as the grading and standardization of product, 
collection of information in regard to outside market 
conditions, adjustment of traffic difficulties and 
settlement of transportation problems. At the end 
of the first nine months of its existence, the Michi- 

2G8 RLliAL M mil Id AS 

gan Potato Growers Exchange had more than fifty 
local associations comprised within its organization, 
and this number had been doubled by the spring of 
1920, while in January, 1921, the member.ship com- 
prised 12-4 locals, twelve of whicli are in the Upper 
Peninsula. To June 30, 1919, the Exchange had 
handled 2,227 cars of potatoes and other farm 
produce and the first year's business amounted to 
approximately $2,000,000. Sales had been made in 
more than half the states of the Union and foreign 
business was in contemplation. The business trans- 
acted in the second year amounted to approximately 
$5,000,000, 2,158 cars of potatoes being handled, to- 
gether with 1G8 cars of apples, 174 of cider apples, 
31 of peaches, 12 of onions, 3 of carrots, 18 of wheat, 
3 of buckwheat, 1 of corn, 102 of rye, Gl of beans, 
2 of peas, 17-4 of hay, IG of straw, 1 of posts, 2 of 
wood, 74 of cherries and 113 cars of cabbage, and also 
large quantities of fruit, vegetables and other 
products in less than carload lots. The Exchange 
operates on a commission basis, amounting to ap- 
proximately 2.5 per cent, and its operating income 
comprised, at the end of the fiscal year 1920, 
$119,484. Its operating expenses were $95,71 G. The 
reserve thus arising from the operations of the Ex- 
change was placed at the service of the purchasing 

In the early spring of 1921, a temporary agreement 
between the Michigan Potato Growers Exchange 
and the Michigan State Farm Bureau was effected. 

^Micli. State Farm Bur., 'News Service, March 26, 1921. 


By the terms of this agreement^, "the highly special- 
ized potato and other commodities marketing ma- 
chinery of the Potato Growers Exchange" was "made 
available to the farm bureau locals and to cooperative 
associations of farm bureau members now aflfiliated 
with the elevator exchange, in return for hay and 
grain sales service from the farm bureau elevator 
exchange." The two exchanges reciprocally took out 
memberships and business operations were to be con- 
ducted in each exchange as in the case of other 

To promote favorable market conditions for 
Michigan fruit, a considerable number of local selling 
associations has been formed, including the Michi- 
gan Fruit Growers Exchange, the Fenville Fruit Ex- 
change, South Haven Fruit Exchange, Benzie Fruit 
Exchange, Benton Center Fruit Association, Bangor 
Fruit Growers Exchange, Berrien County Fruit 
Association, Fremont Cooperative Produce Company, 
Hart Cooperative Company, Mason County Fruit and 
Produce Exchange, Milburg Fruit Growers Associa- 
tion, Saugatuck Cooperative Fruit Association, and 
the Shelby New Era Cooperative Association. The 
plan of organization of such an association may be 
illustrated by reference to the South Haven Fruit 

The South Haven Fruit Exchange was organized 
in 1914, and in 1920 had approximately 125 mem- 
bers. It is a joint stock company, each member 
being limited to two shares of stock. It has a pack- 

•Rept. Mich. Potato Growers' Exchange, 1019-1920, etc. 


ing-hoiise and siding with a capacity of fourteen 
cars and situated adjacent to a vessel dock. The 
Excliange also operates its own cider and vinegar 
plant to which low-grade apples are sent. A contract 
has been entered into with a cannery for the utiliza- 
tion of low-grade peaches. Stock at par is $100 a 
share and a neAv member pays an additional premium 
of $50. This premium is for good will, increased 
value of buildings and equipment, and the like. 
Partial payments for stock and premium are per- 
mitted. Each member signs a crop contract agree- 
ing to deliver at the Exchange peaches, pears, 
quinces, apples, at "tree-run/' which are there sorted, 
packed and shipped, or made into vinegar as market 
condition and quality require. Net returns are paid 
to growers, after cost of handling and 5 per cent sell- 
ing charges. Profits are returned to growers on 
basis of fruit delivered to the Exchange. Growers, 
on delivery of fruit, are provided with a receipt and 
later a card showing the grading thereof. Finally 
comes a statement of net returns. Growers may draw 
money on account as soon as they begin delivering. 
The Exchange has a storage with a capacity of 5,000 
barrels. It handles feeds, fertilizers, spray materials, 
flour, and whatever can be purchased in quantity to 
advantage. The Exchange owns 30^000 crates for 
fruit. The longest distance any member hauls to 
the Exchange is fourteen miles, the average being 
three to four miles. ^ 

' Ftatoment of James Nicol, President of the South Haven 
Fruit Excliange. 


The Michigan Fruit Growers Exchange has its 
headquarters at Benton Harbor. It has some 1,200 
members, and during the 3'ear 1920 handled 1,200 
cars of fruit. 

The constitution of The Michigan Fruit Packers 
Federation, adopted February 6, 1918, describes the 
organization as "a cooperative association formed for 
the purpose of mutual help and without capital stock, 
and not for pecuniary profit.'' Its object is stated 
to be "to promote the mutual interests of the pro- 
ducer and the consumer of fruits by (a) improving 
the conditions under which Michigan fruits are 
grown, harvested and marketed, (b) Fostering 
efforts directed towards the adoption of uniform 
standards in connection with the handling of fruits 
from farm to market and particularly as regards 
grading and packing, (c) Securing the best obtain- 
able conditions and services as regards transporta- 
tion, storage and refrigeration, (d) Collecting and 
disseminating timely information as to supply and 
demand, carlot movements to markets, and prevail- 
ing prices in diiferent wholesale markets, (e) Cor- 
recting trade evils and abuses, by discouraging all 
customs and practices not in accordance with sound 
business principles, (f) Extending and developing 
markets for Michigan fruits and specifically en- 
deavoring to open new markets, (g) To rent, buy, 
build, own, sell, mortgage and control real and per- 
sonal property as may be needed in the business, 
(h) Striving to increase by judicious advertising or 
otherwise the demand for the consumption of Michi- 


<jan fruits and farm products, (i) Furnishing the 
opportunity for huying cooperatively farm supplies, 
(j) Providing a hasis on which member associations 
may obtain needed credit, (k) Adjusting grievances 
and differences between growers and their respective 
sliipping associations, when requested. (1) Coiip- 
erating with the state and federal agencies along 
such lines as may be beneficial to the fruit-growing 
industry, (m) Cultivating a spirit of cooperation 
among the members and suggesting means whereby 
they may be mutually helpful in every legitimate and 
lawful way. (n) Generally by doing such other 
things as are necessary with respect to qualities, the 
cost of production and distribution of fruits and 
farm products as expressed in returns to the pro- 

Any association of growers of fruits and farm 
products in the State is eligible to membership in 
the Federation, when it conforms to its principles 
and regulations. A number of State officials having 
to do with fruit and marketing are honorary mem- 
bers. The management of the Federation is in the 
hands of its board of seven directors. Membership 
dues are $50. Two classes of contracts between the 
association and its members cover exclusive selling 
agreements or information service only. The oper- 
ating expenses of the association are defrayed by "a 
percentage charge laid upon returns for produce sold 
or by a uniform fixed price per package, and upon 
supplies purchased, the amount of such charge to be 
fixed by a board of directors." There were, at last 


report, fifteen cooperative fruit-growers associations 
holding membership in the Michigan Fruit Packers 

On November 1, 1917, the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture had listed twenty-five coopera- 
tive fruit and produce marketing and six cooperative 
celery shipping associations in Michigan. All were 
in the southern peninsula and in the vicinity of the 
Lake Michigan fruit district. December 24, 1920, 
the Michigan State Farm Bureau estimated that there 
were three hundred cooperative elevator associations 
in the State. 

The production of milk in Michigan is an increas- 
ingly important aspect of rural economy. In 1889, 
22-4,537,-1:88 gallons of milk were produced, and ten 
years later the output was 309,617,046 gallons, while 
in 1909 it was 283,387,201 gallons. The recent 
census of 1919 showed the product to be 337,954,884 
gallons. The growth of urban centers has afforded 
an increasing market for the milk supply of the 
State. The associated milk producers of Macomb 
County are reported to furnish approximately 
70,000,000 pounds of milk to the Detroit market. 
It is affiliated with a much larger organization styled 
the IMichigan Milk Producers Association, of some 
10,000 members, which sells milk on a contractual 
basis, the Detroit price being established by a milk 
commission representing the interests of producers, 
dealers and consumers. The milk producer who be- 
comes a member of this association agrees to "con- 
stitute and appoint the Michigan Milk Producers 


Association my agent with full authority to soil all 
milk produced by me, reserving only such amounts 
as are required for my family use." The agreement 
further requires the handling of milk in a cleanly 
manner in accordance with the rules prescribed by 
the Detroit Board of Health. Inspection of the 
cows, stable and equipment by an agent is permitted 
with a view to the correction of such unsanitary con- 
ditions as may be discovered. The association is 
referee for disputes regarding weight and grading 
of milk. It receives 1 per cent on gross sales in com- 
pensation for its services. 

Detroit is, of course, the largest urban milk mar- 
ket in IMichigan. In August, 1915, the average daily 
consumption was estimated to be 47,5G9 gallons, 
and of market cream, 5,953 gallons, which was 
thought to constitute a daily per capita consumption 
of .(33 of a pint of milk and .08 of a pint of cream. 
In 1921, the City Department of Health put the 
Detroit consumption of milk at 80,000 gallons. It 
was estimated that the summer consumption then 
amounted to 700,000 pints daily, and the winter 
consumption to 600,000 pints. Detroit's milk supply 
was, in 1921, furnished by some 7,500 farmers. In 
1915, there were 140 distributors of milk in Detroit, 
who obtained their supply from farmers living at 
considerable distances from the city and who either 
delivered their product directly as now, by wagon 
or truck, steam or electric railway to consumers or 
dealers in the city, or to collecting stations located 
in the country, some of which had facilities for pas- 


teuriziiig and cooling the milk before shipment. 
Some of the larger plants were equipped to manu- 
facture surplus supplies of milk into butter, cheese, 
condensed milk and casein. The basic price was' 
F.O.B. Detroit, resulting in varying returns to 
farmers according to cost of delivery to the city 

For many years it has been the practice of Michi- 
gan farmers to dispose of their live-stock for ship- 
ment to the Detroit stockyards, which, in 1919, re- 
ceived 128,201 head of cattle, 374,903 of hogs, 
314,898 of sheep, and 86,447 calves, while the 1920 
statistics are: cattle, 118,755; calves, 99,009; sheep, 
296,201 ; hogs, 430,863. The yards, in West Detroit, 
are served by the main trunk-line railroads of the 
State and Ontario, across the Detroit Eiver, and the 
management takes pride in the facilities offered and 
the sanitary conditions characteristic of the place. 
A part of the receipts of live-stock at the yards is 
taken over by the local packing-plants, of which there 
were ten in 1919; and they also serve the require- 
ments of stockers and feeders. In addition, a sup- 
ply of live-stock is consigned direct to packing-plants, 
not noticed in the figures here given. The Detroit 
packers, in 1919, are reported to have slaughtered 
200,000 cattle, 1,000,000 hogs, 500,000 sheep, and 
100,000 calves, aggregating 13,820 tons of meat 
products valued at $12,765,000. The market also 
furnishes stock to the big Chicago plants. The 

' Clement & Warber : "Tlip IMarket Milk Business of De- 
troit in 1915," U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. No. 639. 


Detroit Packing Company, in the process of being 
established in the -winter of 1921, has a reported 
capacity of some 1^000 hogs, 150 cattle and several 
hundred head of sheep^ lambs and calves daily. In 
justification for Detroit's position as a packing 
center, this concern points to statistics which indicate 
that out of 2,500,000 cattle, 8I/3 per cent were 
shipped to Detroit, while the Detroit packers are 
reputed to have slaughtered 72,000 more head than 
were received at the local stockyards. It is believed 
that uneconomical cross-hauls are revealed by these 
figures and the fact that only 26 per cent of Michi- 
gan-grown hogs reached Detroit, while Detroit 
packers imported into the State 62^/2 per cent of 
their live hogs. It is proposed to develop the local 
market for the State's live-stock resources. 

On March 20 and 21, 1919, the representatives of 
some seventy-five live-stock shipping associations met 
at the Michigan Agricultural College for the pur- 
pose of establishing an organization under the title 
of "Michigan Livestock Exchange." The board of 
directors there chosen represented Grand Traverse, 
Cheboygan, Mecosta, Shiawassee, St. Joseph, Lena- 
wee, and Genesee counties. The organization, it 
was determined, should be financed by a membership 
fee of ten dollars for each local association and a 
charge of fifty cents a car for each carload of live- 
stock shipped by local societies. Cooperation with 
other associations and exchanges was contemplated 
in the by-laws. Eegarding the live-stock industry of 
Michigan, it was the declared purpose of the Michi- 


gan Livestock Exchange "to so unite this industry 
that it can bring the great prestige and financial 
power which the industry represents to bear in the 
solution of the many probk^ms that are now confront- 
ing the live-stock organizations." ^ 

The Michigan Livestock Exchange, at its annual 
meeting early in 19 2 1, went on record as favoring 
the investigation of the practicability of establishing 
cooperative commission houses in Detroit "to com- 
pete with those privately owned," since it was claimed 
that 90 per cent of the stock handled by such houses 
now comes from Michigan cooperative associations. 
The Exchange also went on record as favoring coop- 
eration with the Livestock Producers Association in 
its campaign to eradicate tuberculosis as related to 
live-stock, which was reacting unfavorably on the 
market price. The Exchange also declared its readi- 
ness to affiliate with the Michigan State Farm 
Bureau in such manner as had already been found 
feasible by other similar associations of producers, 
but at the present Avriting (April, 1921), such an 
affiliation has not taken place. ^ The Michigan Live- 
stock Exchange was then the selling agency for 105 
locals. Each local has a constitution and by-laws in 
accordance with which the directors and the manager 
conduct its affairs. The manager assembles require- 
ments for shipping accommodations, and when a 
carload has been made up, orders the car. The man- 
ager is paid on the basis of the number of head of 

^Michigan Farmer, April 5, 19.19, 532. 
*76mZ., Feb. 19, 1921, 222. 


live-stock shipped, with additional allowances for 
special services, such as furnishing bedding, chang- 
ing partitions in cars, and the like. A protection 
fund to cover losses to stock is provided, and members 
are mulcted for the non-performance of shipping 
ao-reements. The manager of each local association 
is in active charge of all shipments, receives pay- 
ments for stock shipped, and keeps the accounts; 
while the Michigan Livestock Exchange is the central 
agency for effecting cooperation among the locals. 

In addition to the farm products sold within the 
State, there is a large export business. The United 
States Bureau of Markets reports the shipment of 
farm products to points outside Michigan, in 1920, 
as follows: Apples, 5,493 carloads; beans, 1,500; 
cabbage, 298; cantaloupes, 144; celery, 549; cherries, 
382; cucumbers, l(j; grapes, 4,480; lettuce, 110; 
mixed deciduous fruits, 15; mixed bunched vege- 
tables, 6; onions, 531; peaches, 2,160; pears, 1,109; 
plums and prunes, 187; potatoes, 9,025; strawberries, 
439; tomatoes, 28; watermelons, 58; carrots, 8; 
cauliflower, 2. 

With the purpose of establishing for agriculture 
in Michigan the sort of organization that had ob- 
tained results for other branches of industry and 
for labor, the Michigan State Farm Bureau was 
brought into existence in the autumn of 1919. Its 
growth was much more rapid than its promoters 
anticipated, a development enhanced by the economic 
difficulties in which farmers found themselves in the 
industrial slackness that ensued after the stimulating 


effect of the great war had spent its momentum. At 
first the offices were at Birmingham, near Detroit; 
but the large increase in the niembersliip and acdvi- 
ties caused the Bureau to be removed to Lansing, 
and a branch office was (1921) established in the 
Upper Peninsula at Escanaba. 

At its inception the work of the farm bureau, ac- 
cording to its secretary, was threefold in purpose : 
educational, commercial and legislative. Obviously 
the commercial element was of chief concern; but 
the agent of the organization, who carried on a vigor- 
ous membership campaign throughout the State, 
presented forcibly the new idea of state-wide coop- 
eration, thus seeking to break down the characteris- 
tic individualism of the farmers; and when the 
legislature of 1919 convened, the farm bureau had 
its program of legislation to lay before the law- 

The constitution of the State Farm Bureau defi- 
nitely set forth the aim of the organization. "The 
purpose of this association," ran the first section, 
"shall be to encourage, correlate and promote the 
efforts of the county farm bureaus of Michigan 
affiliated with it, and their individual members, and 
to cooperate with other agricultural organizations in 
advancement and improvement of agricultural in- 
terests in Michigan and the nation, educationally, 
legislatively and economically, l)y doing primarily 
and princijially for nicinhcrs and not for pecuniary 
profit, the following, namely: buying and selling mer- 
chandise, farm machinery, fertilizer, stock feeds, 

280 L'Uh'AL Alien WAN 

live-stock, or any other farm products whatsoever; 
operating storage warehouses, elevators, creameries 
or mills; canning, preserving, pickling, evaporating, 
dehydrating or otherwise converting or manufactur- 
ing farm fruits, grains, vegetables or any other kind 
of farm products whatsoever; securing best results 
in grading, packing, marketing and advertising of 
products of members ; renting, buying, building, 
owning, selling and controlling such buildings, equip- 
ment and other real and personal property as may 
be deemed necessary in the conduct of the affairs of 
this association." All these activities were to be 
carried on without pecuniary profit to the associa- 
tion and substantially at cost to its members. This 
was a large undertaking and could not be fully 

All members of county farm bureaus organized in 
accordance with the constitution of the State Farm 
Bureau were eligihle to membership. County farm 
bureaus were admissible to membership on vote of 
the executive committee and were allowed a voting 
representative on the board of delegates and another 
representative for every five hundred paid-up mem- 
bers in addition to the first five hundred members 
belonging. These voting representatives were re- 
quired to be actual farmers and duly authorized by 
their county farm bureau. County farm bureaus 
Avere required to pay dues to the State Farm Bureau 
of not less than $500, but with this amount as a 
minimum their contribution was to be proportional 
to the number of members. Control over the affairs 


of the State Farm Bureau was vested in the board 
of delegates from the county farm bureaus, propor- 
tional to the membership of each as stated above. 
The board was authorized to adopt "such by-laws, 
rules and regulations for the conduct of the affairs 
of this association as shall be deemed advisable." 
The board of delegates at the annual meeting, held 
on the first Thursday in February, was directed to 
choose the executive committee, composed of the 
president, vice-president and six other farm bureau 
members. It fell to the executive committee to 
"execute the policies of this association as determined 
by the board of delegates," and it was "empowered 
to manage the affairs of the association, to have 
charge of the disbursement of funds, to judge qualifi- 
cation of all membership applications, and to appoint 
and employ such agents as may be necessary for the 
conduct of its affairs.'"' The president and vice-presi- 
dent were to be chosen at the annual meeting. The 
secretary and the treasurer were to be appointed by 
the executive committee. The board of delegates 
were to choose representatives to the American Farm 
Bureau Federation. Officials of the association- were 
made ineligible to hold any state or national, public, 
elective or appointive office. The by-laws provided 
for various committees with special duties related to 
the work of the association. ^ 

It was of prime importance to bring within the 
scope of the farm bureau a large proportion of the 
active farmers of the State. A membership organi- 
zation was quickly built up and canvassed succes- 

282 RURAL MWllIilAN 

sively all, or nearly all, the counties. It was fre- 
quently reported that from 85 to 95 per cent of the 
farmers visited accepted membership. It was found, 
also, that they based great expectations on their mem- 
bership in this association. To meet these expecta- 
tions the establishment of several departments of 
work quickly ensued and, within ten months the 
number of employees increased from three to ninety. 
Departments of marketing, seeds, elevator exchange, 
traffic, forestry and publicity were formed in quick 
succession. These worked in cooperation with and 
under the supervision of the secretary. The interest 
of the farmer is to buy and to sell at advantage to 
himself. In the course of the year 1920 the seed 
department was actively procuring high-grade seed 
for the members of the bureau. Buyers were sent 
to the Northwest to procure northern-grown alfalfa 
adapted to climatic conditions in'-]\Lichigan. Facili- 
ties were afforded for the sale of high-grade Michi- 
gan-grown seed, as for example, Eosen rye groAvn 
on Manitou Island under a condition of isolation that 
insured against cross-fertilization. Seed before be- 
ing distributed to purchasers was cleaned and tested 
to insure purity and germination. Later in the year, 
an elevator exchange was created to establish a cen- 
tral sales agency for such cooperative elevator asso- 
ciations in the State as might bind themselves by 
contract with this department. By the end of Janu- 
ary, 1921, some fifty such associations were reported 
to have accepted the arrangement which made Ihe 
elevator exchange of the State Farm Bureau the 


selling agency for the local associations with a prior, 
and under certain conditions, an exclusive right of 
disposing of their grain, beans and hay. Through its 
wool pool, the State Farm Bureau sought to counter- 
act adverse market conditions for this product and in 
its warehouses, first at Lansing and Grand Eapids 
and later at many other points throughout the State, 
collected and held for a better market price more 
than 3,000,000 pounds of wool during the lirst season 
of 1920. At the beginning of 1921, a forestry de- 
partment stood ready to dispose of members' fence- 
posts, stakes, fire-wood and other wood-lot products, 
and to supply these to members not locally provided 
with them. A dairy and sugar-beet department were 
then contemplated. The officers of the organization 
were manifestly very ambitious of making the sales 
service all-comprehensive. 

The farm bureau members were concerned with 
securing at low prices many commodities vital in 
their industry and domestic economy ; so in the course 
of 1920 the reorganized and enlarged purchasing 
department handled phosphate by the train-load from 
the South, tile, binder-twine, bags, coal, cement and 
lime, and many other agricultural necessities. Its 
dealings were with local cooperative associations and 
county farm bureaus on a contractual basis. Orders 
were assembled and forwarded to the Lansing office, 
which in turn made its purchases in quantity direct 
from the producers. The traffic department at Gtrand 
Eapids assisted in the securing of freight ears for 
shippers, and sought to bring about adjustments of 


rates, over-charges, delays, and other causes of com- 

Meanwhile, a large force of agents was building up 
the membership of the organization. Early in 1920, 
it stood at some 23,000. The announced membership 
increased until, July 17, 1920, it had reached some 
70,000. At September 25, it amounted to 81,358; 
October 16, 88,000, and at the close of the campaign 
in the Upper Peninsula (November 13, 1920) 6,462 
members belonged to the State Farm Bureau. 

The Michigan State Farm Bureau has thus sum- 
marized the results of the first year of its operation : 
"It has successively placed upon a self-supporting 
basis departments of seed, wool, elevator exchange, 
and purchasing. Other departments, including 
tralhc, legislation, organization and publicity were 
developed." The membership campaign, concluded 
in December, 1920, brought 97,000 ten-dollar-a-year 
members pledged for three years. The seed depart- 
ment had, it was averred, worked a revolution in the 
Michigan seed industry, whereby a more economical 
system of distribution was created; there was a 500 
per cent increase in the amount of Grimm alfalfa 
seed sown; while over 3,000,000 pounds of seed were 
distributed throughout the State "carrying guaran- 
tees that exceeded the guarantees of all state seed 
concerns and even the requirements of the state law." 
All of this seed was cleaned, freed of noxious weeds, 
and, in the case of most alfalfa and all sweet clover, 
scarified. This business was conducted through 369 
cooperative associations located in seventy-nine coun- 


ties. In the autumn of 1920, the seed department 
claims to have bought up one-half of the world's 
supply of registered Grimm alfalfa, all of which was 
sown in Michigan. On the other hand, more than 
750,000 pounds of Michigan-grown clover seeds were 
handled by this department. All of it was certified 
as to origin and history. The Farm Bureau reports 
the handling of no imported or southern-grown 
clover seed. Through its bonded warehouse, the de- 
partment stabilized the seed market, issuing ware- 
house receipts to growers and allowing pre-payment 
to one-half the value of the grain handled. It was 
claimed that a permanent improvement in Michigan 
agriculture has been effected through the services 
rendered by the seed department. Success was 
claimed for the wool pool, which gave buyers an 
advance of three to twelve cents a pound over the 
prices offered elsewhere. The pool had handled some 
3,500,000 pounds of wool to April 15, 1921, for 
15,000 growers. The manufacture of 5,000 blankets 
from "tags"' and "rejects" brought the grower 
eighteen cents a pound, it was stated, when the 
market price for such grades was ten cents. The 
manufacture of suitings from the clothing grades, 
under the direction of the Farm Bureau, had yielded 
a return twice that which would have accrued from 
outside dealers, it was claimed. Similar profits and 
savings accrued from the operations of the elevator 
exchange and the purchasing department, it was held. 
A saving of three to thirteen dollars a ton on pur- 
chases of commercial fertilizer was brought about. 


The list of other commodities purchased through the 
Bureau iucludes tile, harness, tires, cotton-seed meal, 
oil-meal, feed, coal, building materials, and posts. 
Great savings resulted from the operations of the 
traffic department in adjusting claims against the 
railroads, which secured 4,711 refrigerator cars for 
the handling of fruit during the season, thus effecting 
large savings to producers in a falling market and 
rapid marketing of the crop. Cooperation between 
the railroads and the shippers is facilitated through 
this agency. The Bureau takes credit for the unusual 
amount of agricultural legislation enacted at the 1921 
session of the legislature.^ 

In the spring of 1921, the forest products depart- 
ment of the Michigan State Farm Bureau divorced 
itself, and, under the designation the "Michigan 
Forest Products Bureau," undertook to continue this 
specialized service to the farmers of the State. It 
was planned that this service and inspection should 
include : timber estimating, land classification, scal- 
ing and inspection of timber and lumber, schemes of 
forest planting and protection, and the listing and 
sale of forest products and property. As matters 
stand, on the marketing side, this service involves 
the disposal of forest products grown chiefly in the 
northern counties to farmers in the southern coun- 
ties whose local supply is now inadequate. The 
Bureau's office remains in Lansing. 

In order to obtain the benefits of cooperative sell- 

^Mich. State Farm Bur., Xeics Service, No. 68, May 21, 


ing agreements, it was necessary to devise a -plan of 
organization which would avoid a violation of the 
statutes of the State prohibiting combinations in 
restraint of trade and for the purpose of curtailing 
production and the enhancement of prices otherwise 
than through the ordinary operations of the market. 
Such statutes had been enacted by the legislatures 
of 1899 and 1905, which declared it "unlawful for 
two or more persons, firms, partnerships, corpora- 
tions or associations of persons, or any two or more 
of them, to make or enter into or execute or carry 
out any contracts, obligations or agreements of any 
kind or description by which they shall bind or have 
bound themselves not to sell, dispose of or transport 
any article or any conmiodity, or any article of trade, 
use, merchandise, commerce or consumption below a 
common standard figure or fixed value, or by which 
they shall agree in any manner to keep the price 
of such article, commodity or transportation at a 
fixed or graduated figure, or ])y which they shall in 
any manner establish or settle the price of any article, 
commodity or transportation between them or them- 
selves and others, so as to directly or indirectly pre- 
clude a free and unrestricted competition among 
themselves, or any purchasers or consumers, in the 
sale or transportation of any such article or com- 
modity, or by which they shall agree to pool, combine 
or directly or indirectly unite any interests that they 
may have connected with the sale or transportation 
of any such article or commodity, that its price might 
in any manner be affected. Every such trust as 


defined herein is declared to be unlawful, against 
public policy and void." ^ 

These restrictions have been irksome to farmers as 
to others who desire to secure better prices through 
restrictive arrangements and cooperative selling. A 
gubernatorial candidate, in the primary campaign of 
1920, who claimed to represent the agricultural in- 
terests, emphasized the need and desire of farmers to 
enter into agreements for the purpose of enhancing 
prices. "The state of Michigan," he said, "should 
ffrant to the farmer the right to collective sale of his 
products or collective buying of necessaries that he 
may require for the farm. ... If two or more 
farmers. in the neighborhood should meet and agree 
to ship their potatoes together in a carload lot to 
some buyer and agree upon a price that they would 
demand for their potatoes, they could be sent to jail 
for conspiracy. When the farmer shall be given the 
right to do this so-called collective bargaining, it 
will prove a great benefit to both farmers and con- 
sumers in this country." In effect, farmers have 
found a method of obtaining the advantages of coop- 
erative selling within the law, through the establish- 
ment of agencies whereby they deliver their products 
to a common organization which disposes of them 
on such terms as it deems best for the producer. Act 
number 171 of the legislative session of 1903 pro- 
vides that "any corporation organized under this act, 
the purpose of which is not primarily or principally 
for net pecuniary profit, but the objects of which re- 

' Compiled Laws of 1915, Sec. 15013. 


quire the transaction of business and the receipts 
and payment of moneys in the conduct of its affairs, 
shall have the right and power to transact such busi- 
ness and receive, collect and disburse such moneys, 
and acquire, hold and convey such properties as are 
naturally or properly within the scope of its articles 
of association." Many associations for the collective 
purchase and sale of farm products and supplies have 
been established under this statute. 



For some years subsequent to the Civil War^ Michi- 
gan farmers concerned themselves to a notable degree 
in the growing of Chinese sugar-cane or sorghum. 
The Report of the State Board of Agriculture for 
1<S65 refers to its culture in the State as then of 
several years duration, and the production of sirup 
in that year is estimated at 400,000 gallons.^ The 
juice was extracted from the cane by a roller press 
operated by the grower of the crop. One producer 
reports a product of two hundred gallons to the acre 
of cane, which sold at seventy-five cents a gallon.^ 
The output seems to have been restricted to the south- 
ern counties of the Lower Peninsula and to have been 
greatly stimulated by the sugar scarcity of the war 
era. It was hoped that sugar could be extracted 
from the sorghum sirup, and led to legislation in 
1881 providing a bounty for sugar production from 
this source or from beets. R. C. Kedzie related how 
only one farmer qualified for this bounty by pro- 
ducing 20,235 pounds of sugar from sorghum.^ 

^"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1865, 17. 

^Jhid., 1870, 150. 

3 "Mich. Pioneer and Hist. Soc. Collections," XXIX, 202. 



With the establishment of the beet-sugar industry, 
sorghum culture languished. The Thirteenth United 
States Census reported 416 acres of sorghum in the 
State in 1909, yielding 2,7r)r) tons of cane, valued at 
$18,595. In the period of the great war one occa- 
sionally heard of Michigan-grown sorghum as a 
substitute for sugar in a time of great scarcity, but 
sorghum culture seems now to have become an aban- 
doned phase of Michigan agriculture. On the basis 
of census returns, the United States Department of 
Agriculture records the production of sorghum in 
Michigan as follows : In the year 1859, 86,953 gal- 
lons of sirup; 1869, 91,686 gallons; 1879, 102,500 
gallons; 1889, 45,524 gallons; 1899, 24,059 gallons; 
1909, 21,350 gallons.^ These figures are admittedly 
incomplete, since small quantities of sirup produced 
were unreported. 

The beet-sugar industry in Michigan had its origin 
in experimental efforts by the Michigan Agricultural 
College, which demonstrated the adaption of the 
State for sugar-beet culture. As far back as 1881, 
the State legislature had provided a bounty of two 
cents a pound and tax exemption to encourage the 
creation of a domestic sugar supply. Nature had 
provided a delicious but inadequate sugar product 
derived from the sugar maple growing everywhere in 
both peninsulas. First the Indians and then the 
white pioneers had exploited this native source of 
sugar, but it was wholly insufficient to meet the grow- 

nj. S. Dept. Agr.. P'armers Bull. 477: "Sorghum-Sirup 
Manufacture," Washington. 1912, 1918, 


ing requirements. The Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege imported some 1,760 pounds of sugar-beet seed 
from Europe in 1890, which was distributed to 
farmers throughout the Lower Peninsula. The re- 
sults were highly gratifying. The average product 
to the acre was nearly fifteen tons, with 13.86 per 
cent of sugar in the juice, as reported by E. C. 
Kedzie of the Agricultural College.^ Even better 
results were secured from a second experimental 
demonstration in 1897. By the year 1899^ the Col- 
lege had distributed more than 5,000 pounds of beet 
seed, and seems entitled to claim primacy in the 
establishment of the beet-sugar industry in Michigan. 
Meanwhile the United States Weather Bureau had 
mapped the area of climatic conditions favorable to 
the culture of the sugar-beet. It was believed that 
the sugar-beet could not be grown far from the 
isotherm of 70 degrees — an opinion since disproved 
— and that three inches of rain during each month 
of the growing season with ample sunshine were re- 
quired. Michigan fell within this area, but it has 
been demonstrated that the sugar-beet does very well 
in the northern districts of the State where tem- 
peratures average well below the 70 degrees isotherm, 
and that the greatly enhanced amount of sunshine 
and twilight resulting from the higher latitude of the 
region is remarkably favorable to sugar-content. In 
1897 the legislature provided a bounty of one cent 
a pound on sugar produced in Michigan. 

The first beet-sugar factory in ]\Iichigan was 
^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXIX, 203. 


erected at Bay City by the Michigan Sugar Com- 
pany in 1898. The United States Sugar Manufac- 
turers Association reported in 1920 sixteen active 
beet-sugar factories in the State, at Bay City, Bliss- 
field, Holland, St. Louis, Marine City, Menominee, 
Alma, Caro, Carrolton, Croswell, Sebawing, Mount 
Clemens, Lansing, Owosso and West Bay City. Ap- 
proximately $22,000,000 are invested in the industry. 
The output of sugar in the season of. 1920 is 165,899 
tons. The factories handled in that year 1,24:3,868 
short tons of beets. The farmers received an average 
price for beets of $10.08 a ton.^ Of the beet-sugar 
factories here enumerated, only one is located in the 
Upper Peninsula (at Menominee), and it derives 
more than four-fifths of its beets from Wisconsin. 
The Upper Peninsula product comes almost entirely 
from Menominee and Delta counties. The excess of 
sunshine and twilight are factors favorable to sugar- 
beet culture in the Upper Peninsula, since it aug- 
ments the sugar-content ; but other conditions seem 
not to have been equally favorable, and beet culture 
is a minor industry outside of the Saginaw Valley. 
Here is a moist climate, a rich clay and clay-loam 
soil, a water-table close to the surface, and, at the 
outset, a considerable population of German-Ameri- 
cans disposed to do hard labor incident to the 
cultivation of sugar-beets. The presence of the raw 
material, with abundant pure water of the requisite 
chemical composition, of limestone and of coal in 

^U. S. Dept. Agr., Monthly Crop Reporter, April, 1921, 
p. 38. 


the same territory, favored the erection of beet- 
sugar factories in the same portion of the State. 
With the introduction of beet culture came an influx 
of Bohemians and Hungarians, familiar with beet 
tillage in the mother lands. From hired help in the 
beet fields, these national types hitherto strangers to 
this section of the State have become landed pro- 
prietors and are rapidly becoming a significant ele- 
ment in the agricultural population of east-central 
]\Iichigan. It should be noted, however, that coun- 
ties in all sections of the Lower Peninsula grow 
sugar-beets to some extent, from Monroe in the 
southeast and Berrien in the southwest, to Charlevoix 
and Cheboygan counties in the north. 

The sugar-beet growers in Michigan have for years 
been dissatisfied with their contracts with the beet- 
sugar companies, and, through organization, have 
vigorously sought readjustments in their favor. The 
Michigan Sugar Beet Association, in 1921, was re- 
ported to have 9,000 members, out of the 12,000 
sugar-beet growers in thirty-eight counties. The 
Association prepared a schedule of prices calling for 
compensation to growers of $6.45 a ton when sugar 
was bringing five cents a pound. There was an 
ascending scale of prices, until a price of $19.35 was 
to prevail when sugar was selling at fifteen cents. 
The sugar companies refused to have anything to do 
with this schedule of prices and the growers were 
left free to contract as they might determine. 

The manufacture of cheese in the factory dates 
from the close of the Civil War, and it seems to have 


developed rapidly in the southeastern counties of 
the State.^ The institution of the factory system is 
attributed to Jesse L. Williams of Eome, New York, 
whence it spread westwardly to Michigan. Hitherto 
cheese-making had been a domestic process charac- 
teristic of the period of pioneering, and in conse- 
quence the output had been small. By 1867, under 
the new method, it seemed likely that in a few years 
the State product would exceed local consumption, 
and the price was 13.5 to li cents a pound. ^ The 
low price of wool and sheep reacted on the cheese 
industr}1 in the State, by promoting a transfer of 
interest to this new department of agriculture, but 
even so the Board of Agriculture in 18(38 estimated 
that not more than one-eighth of the cheese consumed 
in Michigan was then produced within its borders. 
However, the domestic manufacture of cheese was 
not wholly abandoned, and by 1899, 331,176 pounds 
were produced on the farms of the State. The fac- 
tory output in that year was, according to the 
Twelfth Census of the United States, 10,422,582 
pounds. Ten years later the farm production had 
fallen to 291,176 pounds, while the factory output 
advanced to 13,382,160 pounds. The schedule of 
production by counties indicates that the center of 
gravity of the cheese industry was in the central 
counties of the southern peninsula in 1909, with St. 
Clair leading with an output of 72,390 pounds, fol- 
lowed at a distance by Kent, Montcalm and Lapeer, 

'"Rept. Mich. Hd. Agr.." 1865, 133. 
^Ihkl., 1867, 139. 


■while only Houghton County in the Upper Peninsula 
made any showing. 

The manufacture of butter in factories was intro- 
duced into Michigan apparently even later than that 
of cheese-making, and was also originated in New 
York.^ The Board of Agriculture in several reports 
issued in the post-bellum era takes considerable 
pains to explain a new method of butter-making as 
an incident of cheese production whereby the double 
advantage of obtaining both products from the same 
milk was duly set forth. By 1888 the State's one 
hundred cheese factories were matched, it was an- 
nounced, by as many creameries." The making of 
butter on farms has gone forward coincidentally 
with its production in factories, and in 1899, the 
farm output w^as 60,051,998 pounds, while the fac- 
tory product was only 7,820,712 pounds, as reported 
in the Twelfth United States Census. In another 
decade, the farm production had fallen off somewhat 
and stood at 50,405,426 pounds, and the factory out- 
put had advanced to 35,511,760 pounds, indicating 
a seven-fold increase in the production of creameries 
during the ten-year period. The Thirteenth United 
"States Census (1910) indicated that the production 
of butter was then, and remains, widely distributed 
throughout the two peninsulas, varying primarily 
with the density of the rural population, with the 
counties as Berrien, Branch, Calhoun, Eaton, Gene- 

'"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1868, 228. 
Ubid., 1888, 388. 


see, Hillsdale, Ingham, Kent, Lapeer, Lenawee, 
Macomb, ]\rontcalm, Oakland, Ottawa, Saginaw, St. 
Clair, Sanilac and Tuscola exceeding the million- 
pound rank, Kent taking first place. 

The Fourteenth United States Census ascertained 
that, in the year 1919, Michigan produced 382,- 
822,631 gallons of milk, which represented an in- 
crease of 19.3 per cent over the output for 1909. Of 
the product of 1919, 130,864,366 gallons were sold. 
Of butter, 25,755,423 pounds were manufactured. 
The sales of butter amounted to 10,154,869 pounds, 
which may be compared with sales of 30,010,783 
pounds in 1909. Of cream, the 1919 sales Avere 
4,459,626 gallons, compared with 2,485,061 gallons 
in 1909. In 1919, butter-fat to the amount of 
31,647,906 pounds was sold, compared with 18,- 
287,691 pounds in 1909. The most recent estimates 
available give the number of dairy cows in Michigan 
as 802,000, distributed on an average of four cows 
to a farm. In 1920, these cows are considered to 
have produced 3,492,000,000 pounds of milk, valued 
at $104,760,000. The Michigan Food and Drug De- 
partment reports for June 30, 1920, 248 creameries 
in Michigan, 65 cheese factories, 35 condensed milk 
and powdered milk plants, 258 ice-cream manufac- 
turers, 19 milk skimming stations, 1,016 cream 
buying stations, 939 milk distributing plants, 98 milk 
depots, 104 milk stores, and 1,742 milk wagons.^ 

In February, 1920, the ]\Iichigan Allied Dairy 

^Michigan Farmer, May 21, 1921, 20. 


Association was organized with headquarters in 
Lansing, for the purpose of fostering and encourag- 
ing the dairy industry of Michigan in cooperation 
with the State Food and Drug Department and the 
Michigan Agricultural College, "by endeavoring to 
increase economical production of milk and cream 
upon the farms of Michigan upon both a quantity and 
a quality basis; by endeavoring to improve the 
quality and uniformity of the dairy products of the 
State; by stimulating consum|)tion of milk and 
products, and in obtaining the practical and efficient 
operation of any plant manufacturing and-' dis- 
tributing milk and milk products in Michigan; and 
also in assisting and bringing about a more complete 
observance of all dairy laws now on the statute books, 
in the repealing of any that may have become obso- 
lete, or in obtaining new legislation designed to assist 
in the furtherance of the principles and objects 
already indicated." Associated in this organization 
are representatives of the creamery butter manufac- 
turers, ice-cream, condensed and powdered milk, 
cheese, milk and cream producers, fluid milk dis- 
tributors, and dairy products equipment and supply 
dealers, organized under the familiar Act 171 of 
1903. The Association has its board of directors abd 
general officers, and employs a salaried secretary to 
attend to its routine business and is affiliated with 
the Michigan State Farm Bureau. 

In April, 1921, it was announced that, through the 
efforts of the Michigan Allied Dairy Association, a 
dairy division of the newly created State Department 


of Agriculture was established. The announced 
duties of this division were "to foster and encourage 
the development of quality dairy production in 
Michigan, to enforce existing dairy laws and to bring 
about needed dairy reform." It was recommended 
by the Michigan Allied Dairy x\ssociation that 
twenty inspectors be employed, distributed as fol- 
lows : butter interests, six ; cheese interest, one ; con- 
densed and powdered milk interests, one; ice-cream 
interests, two; market milk and production, ten. 
The dairy association suggested, it was stated, that 
$100,000 be appropriated to the maintenance of this 

Canning on the farms began before factory pro- 
duction and has continued alongside of it, with a 
steady increase in the output of factory goods. The 
special United States census on canning and pre- 
serving in Michigan reported products of a value of 
$8,194,000, in 1914. This came from ninety-one 
establishments, employing an average number of 
2,507 wage earners, and the cost of materials used 
aggregated $4,893,000. Michigan's rank among the 
several states was then eleventh. 

Before the interposition of the Government com- 
pelled the packers to relinquish enterprises of this 
character. Armour & Company at their Frankfort 
plant packed red raspberries and red sour cherries; 
while at Mattawan, the company's grape-juice fac- 
tory pressed an average of 2,500 tons annually. At 

' JMicliipan State Farm Bur., News Service, Lansing, April 
23, 1921, 2. 


Traverse City a cooperative canning factory con- 
ducted by local farmers utilizes low-grade as well as 
superior grade fruit, particularly cherries. 

In 1921;, the Michigan Canned Food Company 
erected a cannery at Owosso for the purpose of can- 
ning corn and peas; while another plant at Yale 
handled peas, and one at Greenville was under con- 
struction. It was purposed that this company should 
have seven factories in operation in ]\Iichigan in 

In May, 1921, The National Canners Association 
reported, through its director of inspection, eighty- 
two canning factories in Michigan, whose total pack 
in 1920 was over 50,000,000 cans, valued at approxi- 
mately $10,000,000. Upwards of 40,000 acres were 
then devoted to canning crops. Seventy per cent of 
the canning factories in the State were said to be 
located on the line of the Pere Marquette Eailroad 
between Benton Harbor and Petoskey. 

The National Canners Association maintains an 
inspection service in Michigan. Members must main- 
tain their plants in accordance with the rules of the 
national association, involving a sanitary condition, 
and the use of sound wholesome materials. It is the 
expressed object of this service, which cooperates with 
the j\Iichigan Food and Drug Department and the 
Michigan Canners Association, ''to produce a full 
can of clean wholesome food, thereby protecting the 
consumer and ultimately helping the canner and the 
agricultural interest by creating a greater demand 


for can goods." The legislature of 1921 enacted what 
is described as a "model canning law." 

In the pioneer period, when cider vinegar might 
be out of the question, a domestic supply of beer and 
vinegar was obtained from maple sap derived from 
the flow at the close of the season, and which was 
slightly boiled to establish the desired consistency. 
With the apple orchard came the cider press and cus- 
tom cider mills, where apple cider for beverage 
purposes and for vinegar was produced to an extent 
which, if undetermined, was, and still is, manifestly 
very large. 

The Indians were the first sugar-makers in Michi- 
gan. The source of supply was in both peninsulas, 
and the product of the aborigines' unaccustomed in- 
dustry, if not attractive to the white man's palate as 
it came from the red-man's kettle, was not infre- 
quently the only provision against starvation. It 
featured rural manufacturing among the whites, as 
among the Indians, everywhere in the State, and it 
remains a considerable item in the agricultural out- 
put even today. When the sap begins to rise in the 
tree late in February or early in March, the farmer 
relieves the tree of a portion of its supply by the 
process of "tapping," whereby an incision is made 
in the trunk bark not far above the ground, into 
which a "spile" is inserted as a conduit to the bucket 
beside the tree. In the pioneer period, the spile and 
all accessories were of wood. A trough hollowed from 
a log of ash or pine received the sap, conveyed 

o02 AT AM/- MICH 1(1 AN 

thither in a pair of wooden pails borne suspended 
from a sort of neck-yoke surmounting the stalwart 
shoulders of the workers. Boiling in kettles of iron 
or brass reduced the watery sap of a delicate sweet- 
ness to the delicious amber liquid sirup and, ulti- 
mately if sufficiently prolonged, to the equally deli- 
cious maple sugar, suited to the taste of the most 
exacting epicure. Primitive methods have yielded 
to more elaborate processes, in which implements of 
metal have replaced those of wood. Sugar-making 
time, coming at a season when other labors of the 
farmer are less exacting than usual, remains one 
of the few high spots in the rural calendar. The 
Thirteenth United States Census listed fifteen coun- 
ties as contributing to Michigan's output of maple 
sirup, or 209.093 gallons in 1909, the lead being held 
by the counties of Eaton (2(;,r)96 gallons), Hills- 
dale (23,041 gallons). Ionia (12,005 gallons), 
Genesee (10,625 gallons), and Ingham (10,428 
gallons). Eeturns were entered from northern coun- 
ties, such as Grand Traverse and Crawford in the 
Lower Peninsida, and from Delta, Iron and Dickin- 
son in the Upper Peninsula. Of maple sugar, the 
-output stood at 293,301 pounds. The same number 
of counties gave this total, with Eaton again in the 
leading position with 90,511 pounds.^ Ten years 
later the Michigan Cooperative Crop Pcporting Serv- 
ice found the production of maple sirup to be 190,200 
gallons, the output of 848,000 trees, and the produc- 

^ Thirteenth Census of the U. S., "Abstract with Sup- 
plement for Mich.," 660. 


tion of maple sugar amounted to 47,100 pounds. 
That year's product Avas rated as 96 per cent of a 
high-grade medium.^ A generation ago Eugene 
Davenport of Woodland, Barry County, urged the 
growing of sugar maples as a profitable investment, 
and he set forth detailed calculations of outlay and 
income to the conclusion that his one thousand maple 
trees yielded a product of $240 net, or 24 cents a 
tree, in a season. Trees of twenty years' growth were 
in the producing class and were annually, without 
fail, making an income for their owner with a rela- 
tively small outlay of labor and capital. The demands 
for maple wood for flooring, furniture, and wood 
carbonization furnace requirements have undoubtedly 
greatly depleted stands of sugar maples, yet the 
business still has its place in Michigan agriculture. 
]\Iichigan's output in 1009 was less than that of 
Vermont, Xew York, Pennsylvania, iSTew Hampshire, 
Maryland, and Ohio. It was estimated in 1920 that 
there were some 1,800 maple sirup producers in the 
State furnishing 150,000 gallons of sirup. - 

With a view to rehal)ilitating the once flourishing 
maple sirup industry of Michigan there was organ- 
ized in 1917 the Michigan Maple Syrup Producers 
Association, for the purpose of establishing standard 
grades for the product of its members, providing a 
label indicative of the soi;rce and quality of the 
sirup, and to discipline members violating the rules 
of the organization. Four years later, this associa- 

»"Mich. Crop Kept.," May, 1920, 4. 
'Michigan Farmer, March 5, 1921, 296. 


tion effected an arrangement with the Michigan 
State Farm Bureau for the marketing of its sirup 
through the Bureau's forestry department. It was 
further contemplated to establish a central cannery 
and blending plant to handle the output of members. 
The association emphasized the unusually excellent 
flavor of maple sirup produced in Michigan in rela- 
tion to the marketing of the State's product^ and of 
the necessity of reopening and maintaining unim- 
paired groves of sugar maple trees as a means of per- 
petuating the industry. In March, 1921, there were 
some fifty active members of this association under 
agreement to furnish the selling agency with two 
thousand gallons of their product. It is required 
of members that one-third of their product of aver- 
age grade must be sold through the association. The 
association recognizes three grades of sirup as mar- 
ketable through its organization. The membership 
is largely in the south central counties with the sec- 
retaryship at Charlotte, Eaton County, in the heart 
of the commercial sirup-producing district. As the 
governing body of the ]\Iichigan Maple Syrup Pro- 
ducers Association, the membership elects a board of 
seven directors, who select the executive officials. 

It has been many years since the pioneer women of 
Michigan of necessity spun and wove the material 
for their own cloth, and the spinning-wheel is now 
preserved in museums as a relic. Nevertheless, even 
now among certain elements in the State, this primi- 
tive method of obtaining socks and mittens from 




wool of unquestioned virginity still persists. The 
practice appears to be common among the Finns and 
obtains somewhat also among the French inhabitants. 
Until recently one large Chicago mail-order house 
supplied spinning-wheels to the trade of the north 
country, and there is at least one Finnish resident of 
the .copper country who, in 1920, reported a total 
output of some fifty such machines, mainly dis- 
tributed in Michigan, but to some extent sold else- 
where, as far east as Massachusetts and as far west 
as Wisconsin and Xorth Dakota. It is said to be the 
practice among the Finnish farmers, when requiring 
mittens or socks, to deprive a member of the small 
domestic flock of slieep of its woolly coat, and to 
convert it step by step into these articles of clothing, 
which do not require a "truth in fabric law" as an 
insurance of quality. 

The production of cloth by the factory process is 
not an important industry of Michigan. There are 
several small woolen mills in both peninsulas. The 
Clinton Woolen Manufacturing Company of Le- 
nawee County has been in operation since 1866, and 
is engaged chiefly in the manufacture of cloth for 
uniforms. It reports a consumption of some 1,000,000 
pounds of greased wool annually, but imports its 
raw material largely from western wool centers, 
since it does not find readily available within the 
State wool of a grade suitable to its requirements. At 
Eaton Rapids another concern consumes approxi- 
mately 2,000,000 pounds of raw wool annually, 



mostly home grown. Both concerns have produced 
virgin woolen fabrics to meet such specific demand 
as may arise. 

The unfavorable wool market of 1920-1921 led 
the Michigan State Farm Bureau to dispose of a 
portion of its warehouse stock that had accumulated 
through the wool pool, by arranging for the con- 
version of certain grades into blankets and cloth. 
Thus residents of the State acquired material made 
from undoubted virgin wool, became accustomed to 
look to a home market for raw wool, and in so much 
relieved the local wool market situation. 

Even the native Indians had their primitive grist- 
mill. One of these is described by W. J. Beal. "A 
long pole or sapling was pinned to a tree, like a well- 
sweep; a small pole was suspended from the elevated 
end of the sweep, the lower part of which v.-as pestle- 
shaped ; the top of a stump was hollowed out, to hold 
the corn. The sweep was then worked up and down 
by one of the squaws, while another steadied and di- 
rected the pestle, which smashed the corn as it came 
down." ^ The white man had an easier way. At 
Big Eapids on the Muskegon, at Owosso, at Grand 
Eapids, at Elsie, at Jonesville, at Lansing, and at 
very many other points of vantagi: throughout the 
State, especially in the southern peninsula, a mill- 
dam impounded the waters which gave power to the 
mill. The early mills were of low capacity, Ean- 
som grist-mill on Ransom's Creek in Grand Tra- 
verse County had "one run of stones and a capacity 

^ "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXXII, 237. 


of grinding five biisliels of grain in an hour." ^ Hun- 
dreds of these little grist-mills do a customs service 
of great utility to the farmers of the adjacent country- 

Similar in motive force and capacity were the saw- 
mills, indispensable for getting out building material 
where an effort was made to improve on the axe, 
cross-cut saw and their accessories as a producer of 
lumber. There was also a saw-mill on Eansom's 
Creek aforesaid, operated "by one muley saw whose 
running capacity would cut one thousand feet of 
lumber in a day." ^ The father of Edward W. Bar- 
ber of Eaton County built his mill-dam on the Scipio 
Creek at first only of earth, which the flood waters 
soon carried away. Then a mixture of brush pro- 
duced a substantial barrage which two generations 
left still intact. Here was erected the mill, "equipped 
with an old-fashioned wooden water wheel with an 
upright sash for the saw." ^ The rural population 
not only relied on these little home-made saw-mills 
for the local lumber supply, but they succeeded often 
in producing a surplus for export down stream to 
markets both within and without the State. Steam 
replaced water as motive power in most of the saw- 
mills, but numerous water-driven grist-mills remain 
in the southern peninsula, while "midget mills," fre- 
quently gasoline-driven, serve the farming commu- 
nities in both peninsulas of the State today. In 
1904 the flour and grist-mills of ]\Iiehigan produced 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections;' XXXII, 305. 
'loia., WXl, 197. 


3,901,219 barrels of wheat flour, and the census re- 
turns for the years 1909 and 1914 did not vary 
greatly from this quantity, the output for 191-1 being 
3,050,744 barrels. In 1914, 74,662 barrels of rye 
flour were manufactured, 15,773,491 pounds of buck- 
wheat flour; 221,600 pounds of barley, meal; 131,646 
barrels of corn-meal and corn-flour;- 466,510 pounds 
of hominy and grits; 149,893 tons of bran middlings; 
216,760 tons of feed, offal; and 12,755 pounds of 
breakfast foods. ^ 

There has been progressive advancement in Michi- 
gan in the kind and quality of the farm implements 
used. At one time all grain was threshed by the 
flail or trodden out by horses on the barn floor. There 
were no reapers, mowers, drills and cultivators. 
"Grain was separated from tlie chaff by holding a 
shovelful in a stifi: breeze and sifting it off by shak- 
ing the shovel. Wheat was cut with the cradle, which 
was a great advance upon the sickle that preceded 
it ; and the hand-scythe that had been the only means 
of reducing the grass. All grain was sown broad- 
cast; and those who were boys fifty years ago and 
retain a vivid recollection of the horrors of riding 
' a horse to plow corn, will appreciate the advantages 
of the cultivator." ^ "A hand-mill, such a mill as 
the slaves used to grind their corn for iioe-cake and 
hominy," reduced corn to edible proportions — a half 

* Census of Manufactures, 1914 — Michigan: 29. 
='S. B. IVTfCrarkon in "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Col- 
lections," XIV, 610. 


bushel in an evening.^ In preparing the virgin soil 
for its first crop, '"The big A harrow with inch-square 
teeth, drawn by two yoke of oxen, pulled out the 
loose grubs and partially leveled the ground." - "The 
land was broken up by the use of a very stout plow 
and three or four — sometimes as many as seven — 
yoke of oxen hitched one team ahead of another. 
This stout plow was almost always a home-made 
affair constructed of wood, excepting the coulter and 
the share. ... I remember to have seen a plow with 
a wooden mould-board and only one handle," writes 
W. J. Beal, "Wood's patent was the first plow with 
a cast-iron mould-board that I remember to have 
seen or used. I have read of a prejudice among farm- 
ers against using an iron plow on the ground that it 
poisoned the laud for crops, but I never heard of this 
among the farmers of southern Michigan." ^ The 
forest was searched for a tree whose divided trunk 
yielded the frame for the farmer's home-made drag. 
"The selected tree was cut down," says Edward Bar- 
ber, "the crotch severed from the trunk and the re- 
mainder of the top. The oxen hauled it to the house. 
The limbs were hewed on four sides with an ordi- 
nary axe, holes bored through them for the teeth, 
which were driven by lifting a heavy stone and throw- 
ing it with all the force possible upon the square end 
of the teeth. A clevis was attached to the forward 

Uhid., 622. 
^IhicL, XVIII. 420. 
Ubid., XXXII, 242, 243. 


end of the improvised drag, the knotty part serving 
to hohl it firmly in place; and with this home-made 
harrow, the work of getting in wheat went on." ^ 

The garnered grain was threshed with a flail, like 
a heavy pole ten feet long, broken in two in the mid- 
dle and fastened together again with a leather string 
hinge."' The grain was winnowed first "with a hand 
fan" shaped like the half of a round table "with a 
box-like side eight inches high running around the 
rounding edge. The fan was of tightly woven splints 
for lightness, and it had two handles on the rim. 
I put on about a peck of wheat at a time, took hold 
of the handles, put the rounding side against me, 
then tossed it up and down with a sort of flapping 
motion, and the wheat falling quicker than the chaff, 
would lie on the fan and the chaff float on the floor." ^ 
In due time appeared mechanical fanning-mills for 
cleaning the grain, factories for the manufacture of 
which sprang up at several points in the southern 
part of the State. Mechanical contrivances for 
threshing grain and horse-power for operating. them 
appeared prior to the Civil War. One John Lee- 
.land of St. Joseph County is said to have (1835) 
"made for his own use a threshing-machine which 
was worked by a crank turned by hand-power (two 
men), and it would thresh about thirty bushels in 
a day." ^ A little later a "harvester" was invented 
by a Kalamazoo farmer. "Phifer's wheel gang-plow 

1 Ibid., XXXI, 199. 
^Ibid., XIV, 623. 
^Ibid., XVIII, 515. 


and cultivator," "Allen's \veeding-hoe/' and "the 
New Yorker self-raking reaping machine" appeared 
soon after the Civil War.^ Forty years ago the 
necessary implement equipment for a Michigan farm 
was given by H. Marhoff as follows : One wagon at 
$60; one sleigh at $25; two plows at $1-1 each; two 
harrows at $12 each; one wheel cultivator at $30; one 
gang plow at $25; one grain-drill at $80; one mower 
at $75 ; one harvester and binder at $350 ; one wheel- 
rake at $25; one fanning-mill at $25; shovels, hoes, 
forks, and so forth, at $13.^ A further auxiliary 
equipment was recommended, including a horse hay- 
fork and carrier, hay-tedder, mounted spring-toothed 
harrow and a land roller. This list is interesting as 
revealing the stage of development attained by the 
mechanical aids to agriculture at this period. 

There was early manifested a tendency in Michi- 
gan for the manufacture of agricultural machinery 
in small cities. Detroit confines its attention in this 
direction to the construction of farm tractors, while 
Grand Eapids possesses only an assembling plant of 
the International Harvester Company. Nor does 
this industry feature the wood-using activities of the 
Upper Peninsula. At Saginaw are a group of fac- 
tories which produce sugar-beet pullers, serviceable 
in the surrounding territory ; bean-threshers, gasoline 
engines for farm use, and pump-jacks, Avhile several 
large machinery firms from without the State dis- 
tribute from this center. At Jackson, one concern 

'"Kept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1868, 285, 273, 286. 
^Ibid., 1881-1882, 311. 


makes hand agricultural implements, such as forks, 
lioes and rakes, of which the annual output is re- 
ported to run from 150,000 to 160,000 dozen. An- 
other company produces potato-cutters, hand auto- 
matic potato-planters, a potato-planter with ferti- 
lizer attachment, a fertilizer mixer, a double-cylinder 
high-pressure sprayer, an elevator potato-digger, a 
potato-sorter, and short ton truck. Battle Creek has 
long been known as a manufacturing point for grain 
threshers. The Nichols and Shepard Company re- 
ports an output of 2,000 separators and 400 traction 
engines annually. The Advance, Bumely Company 
reports its annual product at 3,000 (oil-pull) tractors, 
300 engines, and 750 separators. Port Huron also 
has an important place in this department of farm 
machinery construction. The Port Huron Engine 
and Thresher Company had its beginning at Battle 
Creek, removing to Port Huron in 1884. Formerly 
producing a wide variety of machines, in 1920 it re- 
ports a more restricted activity, including 188 en- 
gines and tractors, and 1,125 grain-threshers and 
attachments with corn-shellers, portable saw-mills 
and some types of road-making machinery. The 
'Bryant Engineeiring Company manufactures ma- 
chinery for flour-mills, grain elevators, and feed- 
grinding plants. Two types of machines are turned 
out ; one of these is for the fine grinding of all kinds 
of grain, while the other is used to prepare ear corn 
for further grinding. The concern reports the con- 
struction of approximately 200 grinders and 50 


crushers yearly. The Anker Holth Manufacturing 
Company manufactures cream-separators. Cadillac 
makes a smut-removing machine. At Calumet in 
the Upper Peninsula^ there was inaugurated, in 1920, 
the construction of an "all-service" truck-body, whose 
"adjustable hinge" permits the transformation of the 
wagon-box into a platform wagon-bed, or the adjust- 
ment of the sides of the body at angles required in 
various types of farm work. 

Before the advent of the automobile, Michigan was 
a large producer of wagons and carriages. The 
United States census of manufactures (1914) shows 
that in 1904 Michigan produced 174,889 carriages, 
valued at $7,784,444 and 52,273 wagons, valued at 
$2,352,958. Five years later there was a decline 
of 83,331 in the number of carriages, and of 23,553 
in the number of wagons manufactured in the State. 
By 1914, carriage production had dropped to 25,265 
and wagon output to 11,454. 

Since the pioneer era, flour and grist-mills have 
existed at many points, particularly where water- 
power was available. The university city of Ann 
Arbor has for more than forty years operated a plant 
which manufactures agricultural machinery, for- 
merly of many sorts but now exclusively hay-presses. 
These hay-presses, which enjoy an established repu- 
tation, are of several types, adapted to various serv- 
ices, from the baling of alfalfa to. sorghum and 
cane. For some years an annual average of some 650 
presses has been turned out by the Ann Arbor Ma- 


chine Company, and there is a considerable export 
business, amounting, in 1919, to about 100 tons, 
valued at $75,000.^ 

The manufacture of woven wire fence is in a re- 
markable degree concentrated in Adrian. This is 
attributed to the circumstance that J. Wallace Page, 
founder of the Page Steel and Wire Company, lo- 
cated in Adrian. As has happened in many similar 
instances, as with the manufacture of paper at Mon- 
roe, employees of this concern, having received train- 
ing and experience through their connection there- 
with, eventually established themselves in business 
on their own account. In 1921, there were five com- 
panies manufacturing Avire fencing in this city, whose 
aggregate output was estimated at 87,500 tons. Of 
this amount the Peerless Wire Fence Company pro- 
duced nearly one-half." Adrian is credited with being 
the principal manufacturer of woven-wire fencing in 
the world, and its exports of this commodity in 1919 
were 2,149 tons, valued at $254,336. Exports of 
wire fencing are sent to South America, north 
Europe, and Cuba.^ 

Farm machinery is not manufactured in the Upper 
Peninsula, but the availability of suitable material 
has led to the manufacture of large quantities of 
goods closely related to rural requirements. At Es- 
canaba a factory is engaged in the making of butter 

' Statement by S. C. Case, Ann Arbor Machine Co., and 
Detroit and World Trade, 83. 

^Statement by The Adrian Wire Fence Co., Inc., April, 

"Detroit and World Trade, Detroit, 1920, 84, 


dishes, of which 391,053,000 are reported to have 
been produced in 1919. In that year this establish- 
ment also turned out 171,262 cases of clothespins, 
1,791,000 pie-plates, and 28,832 cases of tooth-picks. 




The first care of the pioneer farmer of Michigan 
was his home, at least some sort of shelter for the 
family against the inclemencies of the weather. This 
he was not left to erect unaided. Willing neighbors 
and even Indians gathered for the raising. Ample 
material was at hand in the forest. Skillfully the 
four corners were carried up, even and perpendicular, 
and when the roof-trees were in place, a bottle of 
whiskey and a loud hurrah dedicated this new wilder- 
ness abode. "Shakes," or shingles riven from the 
oak, or a covering of bark of elm or basswood kept 
out the storm as well as might be, while puncheon 
floors, also hewn from the logs, shut out the earth 
beneath. Doors swung on wooden or leathern hinges, 
while the wooden latch responded to the tug of the 
latch-string, which seldom was drawn within, for the 
days of tramps and thieves had not yet arrived. One 
glazed window was considered very liberal. "At one 
end of the house was a hugh fire-place five to six 
feet across, the back consisting of flat stone, the 
sides or jambs, of curved beams, above which rested 
a square stick-chimney, the slender sticks piled up 



cob-house fashiou often on the outside of the house. 
. . . Stones, or rough and-irons kept large sticks of 
wood three and four feet long up out of the ashes. 
Over the fire-place swung a great iron crane, or bar, 
on which were hung half a dozen, more or less, of 
S-shaped pot-hooks and short pieces of chain. These 
hooks the house-wife used supporting kettles, pots, 
tea-pots and griddles. The crane was swung out, 
the kettles hung on the hooks, and back again went 
the crane with pots over the fire." ^ Here roasted 
pigs, chickens and spare-ribs suspended before the 
fire. Baking was done in the brick oven. Johnny- 
cake baked well on a small board tipped towards the 
fire, while potatoes roasted in hot ashes. Then came 
into use baking-tins and tin heat-reflectors. Lastly 
arrived crude cook-stoves, "costly, clumsy,, heavy and 
inefficient." From the cross-beams supporting the 
upper floors hung gun and powder-horn, together 
with seed-corn, onions and rings cut from the pump- 
kin and destined for service in delicious pumpkin 
pies, if the art of the house-wife, under trying cir- 
cumstances, was equal to the occasion. The house 
was built without nails and with ample ventilation 
through the interstices of the logs until these were 
closed with mud or moss. The Michigan "one-post" 
bedstead puzzled the eastern correspondent of the 
settler, according to L. D. Watkins, until they learned 
that it was built into the corner of the room with 
only its outer corner supported on the upright post 
that occasioned its name. A ladder led to the loft 
^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," V, 32, 238. 

318 RURAL MIC in a AN 

above and perhaps another to the unwalled pit that 
served as cellar below. 

Equally crude was the hand-wrought furniture of 
the house. First arose the one-post bedstead. "When 
that was finished," Henry Eawland of Clinton County 
relates, "my next work was chairs; I split a short 
log in two, bored four holes in the round side with a 
two-inch augur, and put in four stout sticks for legs, 
and set it up, and 1 had a chair for two people; and 
then I made another and had enough." For a table 
they had a chest, while a broom was produced from 
a pole. "A half a yard from the large end of the 
pole we sawed into the wood for an inch or so all 
around; took the bark off and shaved down long 
slender shavings, or splints, till near the end ; lapped 
them over and tied them down ; and we had a broom." 
The family table was constructed from packing-box 
boards.^ Light from within the dwelling came from 
the open fire or from candles, made by a process of 
dipping candle-wicking into melted tallow with a 
sufficient repetition to gain the required diameter. 
Eeal progress was achieved with the advent of candle- 
molds; just before the Civil War kerosene lamps 
appeared. "About 1858," writes R. C. Kedzie, "I 
bought my first gallon of kerosene for $1.50, paying 
$3 for a glass lamp and chimney for burning the 
kerosene. The oil was of an inferior quality as com- 
pared with the kerosene of to-day; contained much 
naptha ; and gave a disagreeable odor in burning." ^ 

^"Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XIX, 621. 
^lUd., XXIX, 533. 


It was the terrible accidents arising from the highly 
inflammable quality of this early kerosene that con- 
strained the legislature to provide for the inspection 
of oil. 

The Xew Englander or Xew Yorker who brought 
his family to the Michigan wilds in the era of pio- 
neering, not only gave them a life of primitive sim- 
plicity, hardness and toil, but he inflicted on them 
the unspeakable loneliness of the wilderness home- 
builder. "Our nearest neighbors were on the west, 
seven miles," L. D. Watkins writes; "north, four 
miles; east, four miles; and south, six miles. Thus 
we were nearly in the center of a wilderness about 
ten miles in diameter, on which no white man had 
ever made a mark since the Government survey." 
"No human tongue can tell the hours of loneliness 
men and women endured," says the Scotchman, Eob- 
ert Malcom, pioneer of Oakland County. "It was 
no unusual sight to see the family — old and young — 
strike out through the woods to a neighbor's cabin, 
a distance of two or three miles, simply to find com- 
panionship." "AYe could appreciate, in its full ex- 
tent, the solitude, the boundlessness, the sublimity 
of this earliest of earth's offspring — the grand, old, 
untutored forest," writes Bela Hubbard. "He who 
has only traversed woodlands where at every few miles 
he meets a road leading to civilized belongings, knows 
little of the sense of awe inspired by a forest soli- 
tude that has never echoed to the woodman's axe and 
where every footstep conducts only into regions more 
mysterious and uid^nown." To E. C. Kedzie "it was 


woods, woods everywiiere, trackless, savage, terrify- 
ing. They seemed to smother ns and we gasped to 
drink in the open sky. Go out from onr house in 
any direction, it was unbroken forest for long dis- 
tances; take the trail eastward, and it was five miles 
to the first house. ... Go west and it was six miles 
to the home of Harvey Bliss. . . . Strike out north 
or south through the lonely woods, and it was twenty 
or more miles to a white man." This was the com- 
mon situation to the early settlers as related by them- 
selves, and they were repeated decade after decade 
from Lenawee to Gogebic County, from the shore of 
Lake Erie to the shore of Lake Superior. 

Nevertheless, life had also its pleasant side for the 
wilderness farmers of the olden time. A raising, a 
husking or a logging-bee must have its accompani- 
ment of conviviality, song and story-telling. There 
were "quilting frolics," hurly-burly and kissing 
games, with dancing to the fiddled tune of "Zip 
Coon" and "Money Musk." Apple-parings and 
corn-huskings gave opportunity for contests of speed, 
and spelling-matches and debates displayed rustic 
_ intellectual prowess. If axmen had their chopping 
matches, miners had their drill-running contests, 
lieligious meetings, especially revivals and camp- 
meetings, which last figure less in the early than in 
the later period of settlement, contributed to the 
interest in existence, and even funerals were of value 
in breaking the monotony of a life not so redundant 
with entertainment as the present age. Such enter- 
tainments as had place in early rural life were do- 


mestic, for halls and auditoriums belong to a more 
prosperous period. Just when the "bowery dance'' 
appeared is not in the record, but it afforded a quasi- 
natural pavilion that had cheapness if not other 
qualities to commend it. 

Intellectual stimulation was derived through the 
debating society. In a rude structure of logs oc- 
curred the weekly meetings of "the Atlas Debating 
Society/' in primitive Oakland County just as Michi- 
gan was entering on statehood. Hither came the 
young men from the farms far and near for those 
jousts of wit and wisdom that would prepare them 
for their destined career at the bar, on the bench 
and in the halls of legislation. Hung from the beams 
overhead or standing in the corners of the room were 
the rifles, whose serviceableness was suggested by the 
bowlings of the hungry wolves outside that accom- 
panied the voices of the debaters within. The great 
fire-place in the foreground gave illumination. It 
was useless to speculate whether the farmer's Satur- 
day night in town, now spent at the movies and the 
ice-cream parlor, is as productive of human qualities 
equally as noble and creative. Circumstances are 
the masters of men now as then.^ 

Sparse as was the population in its pioneer epoch, 
it was at intervals decimated by malignant pan- 
demics, that brought dread and pitiful suffering to 
communities only too inadequately provided with 
facilities for dealing with these fearful visitations. 

'Account of Eno9 Goodrich: "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. 
Collections," XI, 263. 


It was the cholera in 1832, and the nameless pesti- 
lence that struck down men, women and children 
in Shiawassee County in 1848, and that afflicted 
Oceana County in 1865. The rank vegetation that 
moldered on the moist earth was popularly pre- 
sumed to yield a fever-laden miasma, when disturbed 
by the plow, and even the sap that exuded from the 
green logs that formed the walls of the house and 
which soured and stank in the heat of summer, was 
considered to have a similar capacity for a baneful 
influence on the health of the dwellers therein. Even 
the waters of the streams were deemed poison-bearing 
and productive of a deadly affluvia on occasion. Two 
maladies were endemic: the "Michigan rash," which 
caused merriment as well as annoyance and lacked 
malignity ; and the "shakes," or ague, which was as 
characteristic a feature of Michigan pioneer exist- 
ence as candles and stick-chimneys. "We could 
always tell when tlie ague was coming on," says 
A. D. P. Van Buren, "by the premonitory symp- 
toms — the yawnings and stretchings; and if the per- 
son understood the complaint, he would look at his 
finger-nails to see if they were turning blue. No 
disease foretold its coming by such unerring signs 
as the 'fever 'n ager.' ... At first the yawns and 
the stretchings stole upon you so naturally, that for 
a time you felt good in giving way to them; but they 
were soon followed by cold sensations, that crept 
over your system in streaks, faster and faster, and 
grew colder and colder as in successful undulations 


they coursed down your back, until you felt like 
'a, harp of a thousand strings/ played on by the icy 
fingers of old Hiems, who increased the cold chills 
until his victim shook like an aspen-leaf, and his 
teeth chattered in his jaws. There you laid shaking 
in the frigid ague region for an hour or so until you 
gradually stole back to a temperate zone. Then com- 
menced the warm flashes over your system, which 
increased with heat as the former did with cold, 
until you reached the torrid region, where you lay 
in burning heat, racked with pain in your head and 
along your back, for an hour or so, when you began 
by degrees to feel less heat and pain, until your 
hands grew moist, and you were relieved by a copious 
perspiration all over your body, and you got to your 
natural feeling again. Getting back to your normal 
condition, you felt relieved and happy, and as you 
went out doors everything about you was pleasant 
and smiling, and you seemed to be walking in a 
brighter and happier world. . . . The first question 
asked a settler, after he had been here a short time, 
was: 'Have you had the ague yet?' If answered in 
the negative, the reply would be, 'Well, you will have 
It; everybody has it before they have been here long.' 
... No one was ever supposed to die with the ague. 
It was not considered a sickness. 'He ain't sick; 
he's only got the ager,' was a common expression 
among the settlers.^ It was many years before the 
relation between the mosquito-propagating swamps 
* "Mich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," V, 300. 


and marshes and this pandemic was ascertained and 
that not in Michigan but far away in the tropics of 
Cuba and Panama. 

Public provision in relation to health was not 
organized for many years. Physicians were few and 
miles apart. The "beat" of Thomas Phillips of 
Oceana County extended for fifty miles along the 
Lake Michigan shore, and was covered on foot, when 
need was. Patients received much more time for 
less fee than now. In 1873, under the impetus of 
the State medical society, came the establishment 
of the State Board of Health, Avith an initial appro- 
priation of $4,000. Coincidentally, the State in- 
spectorship of oils was designed to protect the pub- 
lic against the highly inflammable brands of kerosene 
then on the market. Shortly the State Board of 
Health was familiarizing the general public with 
sanitary principles through the medium of sanitary 
conventions. No one claims that health and sanita- 
tion in rural communities are adequately provided 
for. On September 15, 1920, the Michigan Depart- 
ment of Health initiated the organization of a bureau 
of child hygiene and public health nursing, which 
•contemplated carrying out chiefly a rural program, 
since the cities were conceived to be well equipped 
to care for their own needs. As planned, work was 
to start with the schools, through which access to 
the homes would be secured. District conferences to 
consider the problems of the rural public health nurse 
were scheduled. 

By 1920 projects for the improvement of rural 


health conditions under various auspices were under 
way in Michigan. The State Department of Health 
was conducting a traveling clinic, which combined 
a tuberculosis clinic and one for children. It was 
the purpose of the latter to discover remediable de- 
fects in children and to afford an opportunity for 
examination for tuberculosis. As a result of these 
clinics, several county nurses reported that physical 
defects, siTch as defective vision, adenoids and en- 
larged tonsils, have been corrected. The Michigan 
Anti-Tuberculosis Association, in 1920, conducted a 
series of clinics in rural districts, in cooperation with 
the farm bureaus. The report of such a clinic held 
in Manistee County runs thus : Number of thorough 
chest examinations, 28; positive tuberculosis, 7; sus- 
picious tuberculosis, 7 ; negative tuberculosis, 14 ; ex- 
amination of school children, including mouth, nose 
and throat examinations, 82 ; enlarged glands, 73 ; 
decaying teeth, 57 ; goiters, 36 ; enlarged tonsils, 58 ; 
adenoids, 33 ; defective hearing, 5 ; temperature ex- 
ceeding 99 degrees, 34. 

During the first six months of 1920, tuberculosis 
clinics by the Michigan Anti-Tuberculosis Association 
were held in eleven counties, when this work was 
assumed by the State Department of Health. Num- 
bers of counties, including Ingham, Kent, Muske- 
gon, Berrien, Bay and Saginaw, have established their 
own clinics, and the attendance is said greatly to 
exceed the facilities. The present plan of work for 
the local anti-tuberculosis societies which have been 
organized in various sections involves cooperation 


with tlic State society, use of the local newspaper 
puhlicity, the sale of seals to finance the work, edu- 
cation through health talks, clinics, health plays, 
pageants and movies, distribution of literature, es- 
tablishment of hot school lunches and the promotion 
of a constant health crusade. In April, 1921, there 
were twenty-nine local anti-tuberculosis societies in 
Michigan, in addition to forty-two tuberculosis com- 
mittees of clubs and other organizations. 

As evidence of the increasing interest in the health 
of the people, urban and rural, public health nurses 
are now maintained in many localities throughout 
the two peninsulas. In April, 1921, they were re- 
ported from fifty of the eighty-three counties of the 
State. The State Department of Health then had 
listed 266 public health nurses, under various desig- 
nations, such as county nurse, visiting nurse, indus- 
trial nurse, Eed Cross public health nurse and school 
nurse. Of some the field work was country wide; of 
others, local. 

The director of the Bureau of Child Hygiene and 
Public Health Nursing of the Michigan Department 
of Health summarizes the work of the bureau as 
follows : "Sanilac County is planning to have the 
services of a dentist for two months during the 
summer months to do work among the rural school 
children. St. Clair County is equipping a Health 
Truck for this purpose which goes about over the 
county during the entire summer. On this truck 
the local merchants are buying space for their ad- 
vertisements, which help materially in making the 


truck almost self-supporting. Lapeer County lias 
organized a special piece of work in infant welfare, 
where regular well-baby conferences are held, dis- 
tributed geographically throughout the county so 
that all the rural districts of the county are cov- 
ered. This is being carried on satisfactorily. Ee- 
quests for our prenatal letters are increasing and dur- 
ing the past two months the Bureau of Child Hy- 
giene has reached, through talks and demonstrations, 
from eight to ten thousand people, mostly children, 
because it is in our school children we have hopes 
for Public Health work." 

Eural nursing in Kent County (the second most 
populous county of the State) was organized in 1915. 
Dental hygiene was featured and a portable equip- 
ment adapted for use in the rural schools was ac- 
quired with the financial aid of the Anti-Tuberculosis 
Society. Eventually (1919) the county board of 
supervisors assumed responsibility for the dental 
clinics. A dentist was employed and the county 
nurse made local arrangements for the clinic. There 
is a preliminary home visitation to establish a good 
understanding with the parents.^ 

During the World War, the Michigan Division of 
the Women's Committee of the Council of National 
Defense operated an inter-urban car equipped as 
a traveling child welfare exhibit and a weighing and 
measuring center. It was transported without charge 
by the three principal inter-urban companies of the 
State. This "Children's Year Special'' carried a 

^Public Hcallh, Lansing, Feb., 1921, 64. 


staff of three to five persons, including the executive 
secretary of the child welfare department, a physi- 
cian, two trained nurses and a chart-maker. This 
project is credited with the warm cooperation of 
the ]\Iichigan Department of Health. Thousands 
are reported to have visited the car, bringing babies 
and young children for examination, at the fifty-two 
places where the "Special" stopped for periods in 
duration from two to forty-eight hours.^ "By visit- 
ing Special," runs the report, "numbers of people re- 
ceived their first insight into child welfare work. 
Some towns where little or no child welfare work 
was in progress decided to immediately undertake 
something in that line." All committees are re- 
ported to have stated that the visiting "Special" 
greatly stimulated interest in child welfare. The 
equipment of the car included an exhibit of posters 
and other publicity material, a display of good and 
bad toys, a model layette, and a "Don't" table. Here 
were visible sermons against the use of pacifiers, long- 
necked nursing bottles, pickles, doughnuts, tea, cof- 
fee and sausage as applied to children. Literature of 
child hygiene was freely distributed. 
- Numbers of Michigan counties now maintain pub- 
lic health nurses whose ministrations are primarily 
to the inhabitants of the villages and the country, 
since the cities are likely to provide for their own 
needs. The University of Michigan, in the fall term 
of 1920, inaugurated a course in the training of pub- 

'Rept. of Caroline Bartlett Crane: Childrens Bureau, 


lie health nurses, of which the first semester's work 
is theoretical and is carried on at the University, 
while the second semester provides field work in 
Detroit. The problem of providing health officials 
possessed of medical knowledge and experience for 
the rural sections has long concerned the State De- 
partment of Health, which has sought to persuade 
the legislature to abolish the present system, which 
allows local officials, chiefly the township supervisors, 
wholly devoid of medical science, to serve as the 
health officer, in favor of a system of full-time phy- 
sicians in every county of the State. 

The question is sometimes raised regarding the 
relative prevalence of insanity and other mental dis- 
orders in rural as compared with urban communities. 
It is recognized that the greater loneliness and mo- 
notony attending rural life may intensify a ten- 
dency toward psychopathic conditions in certain indi- 
viduals. As a countervailing influence, the greater 
prevalence of psychoses arising from alcoholism, 
syphilis and drug addiction among city dwellers is 
noted by the superintendents of the State hospitals 
of Michigan. There is a general agreement among 
these superintendents that, when proper allowances 
have been considered, there is no definite evidence 
of a preponderating amount of insanity in rural, 
as against urban, districts. 

In 1914 a special State commission investigated 
feeble-mindedness, epilepsy and insanity in Michi- 
gan. The investigation brought out that the district 
with the largest number of admissions of persons to 


institutions for this class had a population ranging 
from 2,000 to 5,000. The lowest number was from 
strictly rural populations. Of admissions to the 
State hospitals, cities of 10,000 or over contributed 
G8.5 per cent of the cases of insanity due to syphilis, 
and 66.6 per cent of those resulting from alcoholism 
or drugs. On the other hand, among the cases of 
mental disorder arising from personal peculiarities 
rather than environment, 55.4 per cent of epilepsy 
and feeble-mindedness, and 58.6 per cent of all cases 
of manic depressive insanity admitted to Michigan 
State hospitals come from districts having a popu- 
lation of less than 10,000, according to the investi- 
gators ; while 43.5 per cent of the cases of manic de- 
pressive insanity, and 42.17 per cent of cases of 
epilepsy and feeble-mindedness come from districts 
of .2,000 or less. It was found that dementia prgecox 
was slightly more prevalent from these smaller dis- 
tricts. Likewi^iC, senile dementia had 41.9 per cent 
of admissions from districts with less than 2,000 

Followino- the War, the Eed Cross undertook work 
in line with its particular objects, a phase of which 
"is related to rural connnunitics of the State. Thus 
in Oakland County, work in five departments was 
planned: public health, social welfare. Junior Red 
Cross, first aid, and home service. The plan con- 
templated the division of the county into eight zones 
composed of groups of school districts. In each zone 
a health center was designed, with a Red Cross nurse 

'Feeblemindedness, etc., in Mich., Lansing, 1915, p. 21. 


in residence and where an office would be maintained. 
A Ford automobile was to be provided each nurse. 
Traveling clinics were to visit each health center regu- 
larly. Under the direction of the American Eed 
Cross, each zone was financed for one year, after 
the expiration of which period it was hoped that 
each zone would provide its own funds through a 
school tax. There was to be a public health nurse 
and a social welfare worker with county-wide juris- 
diction. It M^as purposed that the home service work 
should be continued for a considerable period in 
order to care for the former service men. The Junior 
Eed Cross feature of the plan was not carried out, 
and it is as yet too early to write definitely regard- 
ing the other features of the program. Eed Cross 
work of this general character is reported from 
Muskegon and other counties. 



If the rural debating society is a thing of the past, 
it is not thus with the agricultural fair, which also 
dates back to the early days of Michigan agriculture. 
The promotion of fairs was an object of the Michigan 
State Agricultural Society organized under an act 
of the State legislature of 1849, "for the purpose 
of promoting the improvement of agriculture and its 
kindred arts.'' ^ The society's constitution made pro- 
vision for a president, for a vice-president in each 
organized county and for a corresponding secretary in 
each such county to be affiliated with the State society 
as well as the local county agricultural society. The 
State society was to hold an annual fair, and its 
executive committee was to provide premiums "on 
such articles, productions and improvements as they 
may deem best calculated to promote the agricultural 
and household manufacturing interests of the state, 
having special reference to the most economical or 
popular mode of competition in raising the crops 
or stock or in the fabrication of the articles offered." 
The county agricultural societies were deemed "auxil- 
iaries" of the State society. The right to establish 

>"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1859. 



county, township or district agricultural societies 
was specifically recognized by the statutes, which 
should have the power to possess real estate for the 
furtherance of their objects, and to issue bonds for 
the purchase of land and the erection of buildings; 
and a tax levy in aid of such societies was authorized, 
whose proceeds were to be apportioned by the county 
boards of supervisors. 

These early statutes for the promotion of Michi- 
gan agriculture are in effect today, and the county 
fairs, which were a principal activity of these socie- 
ties, are still very popular throughout both penin- 
sulas both for the urban and the rural population. 
At the ninth annual fair of the Berrien County 
Agricultural Society, held at Xiles during three 
September days of 1859, there were 648 entries, in- 
cluding 72 horses of class A, and 50 horses of class 
B ; 7 of trotting horses ; 4 entries of Durham cattle ; 

15 of Devon cattle; 32 of "natives and grades"; 17 
of sheep ; 7 of swine ; 14 of poultry ; 24 of field crops ; 
72 of vegetables; 32 of fruit; 4 of cooperage; 23 of 
farming implements; 3 of manufactures of grain; 
14 of manufactures of leather ; 12 of horseshoes and 
shoeing; 4 of domestic manufactures; 46 of domestic 
manufactures — ladies; 17 of needle and shell work; 

16 of painting and drawing; 67 of bread, preserves; 
5 of flowers and house-plants; 16 of dairy products; 
45 of miscellaneous articles.^ "The third day," says 
the secretary's report, "the fair opened with a grand 
exhibition of horses, followed by an exhibition of 

»"Rcpt. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1859, 323. 


cattle arranged in classes. At 2 o'clock P. M, an 
able address was delivered by Hon, Francis W. Shear- 
man of Marshall. Then followed a trial of trotting 
horses and female equestrianism. . . . The pre- 
miums awarded amounted to over $500 which were 
all paid in cash." The society owned seven acres 
of ground within the city limits of j^iles "enclosed 
with a substantial fence," and "handsomely fitted 
up." In the same year there were 870 entries at the 
Hillsdale County fair, 952 at the St. Clair County 
agricultural fair, and the Washtenaw County fair 
numbered l,fi52 entries in that year. Among the 
exhibits at this fair in 1859 was a pair of oxen weigh- 
ing 4,000 pounds and a cow "said to give sixty-five 
pounds of milk a day."' The Ann Arbor Local News 
of October 18 notes that "the general interest in 
wool-growing was manifest in the large and choice 
assortment of sheep exhibition." The sheep were 
chiefly of the Spanish Merino, Silesian and South- 
down breeds, the paper reports. Then there was a 
floral and a fine art display, in the latter depart- 
ment appearing "E. H. Crane's revolving, self-setting 
game and rat-trap." The paper observes that rat- 
catching is surely a "fine art," as pursued by this 
device which when set would "catch a rat, kill him, 
throw him away in a box and set itself for another, 
and so continue to do until it has caught fourteen." 
In the implement exhibit at this fair, there caught 
the attention of the assembled farmers "Rirdsall and 
Brokaw's combined Clover-thresher, Huller and 
Cleaner," which "threshes, hulls and cleans from 


four to six bushels per hour, and wastes not a kernel." 
The agent for the thresher also had on exhibition 
"Hallock's Combined Cross-cut and Circular Saw- 
mill, . . . made simple and strong, easy to operate 
and not liable to get out of order.'' U. B. Daley of 
Salem exhibited "a one-horse clover-picker," while 
Messrs. Dow and Covert were on hand with their 
"eight-horse power threshing machine,"" of light 
draft and run "first by two span, then by a single 
span, and finally by a single horse." Forsbee's Pat- 
ent, Cast Iron Cultivator, constructed on the jointed 
parallelogram principle, costing only ten dollars, 
had five teeth and a coulter and could be set at va- 
rious widths. A. D. Hoffman of Belleville had on 
exhibition "a model of his late patent hand-power 
cider mill, a new thing," and "one of those ingenious 
improvements which are objects of interest to every 
farmer." The machine was built in two sizes, whereby 
with one "a man can make a barrel of cider in two 
arid a half hours, with the other two barrels in the 
same time," and a ten-year-old boy could operate 
either. "The celebrated Buckeye ]\Iower that carried 
off the first premium of the TJ. S. Agricultural So- 
ciety at their trial in Syracuse in 1857, was on ex- 
hibition." "Cook's Sugar Evaporator" was another 
"success" of the fair, which "produced the nicest 
sirup from the cane in al)out thirty minutes." 

Equally notable was the vegetable exhibit. It 
contained a specimen of the "California pie-melon," 
which weighed, it was understood, thirty or forty 
pounds on occasion, "keeps two years without diffi- 


culty and makes a pie difficult to distinguish from 
apple." There were speeches and band-music, and 
"it was a goodly sight to see the sturdy yeomanry 
thus gathered together, and happily nothing occurred 
to mar the pleasure or dim the splendor of the day," 
for the eight thousand or more who were in at- 

This was not the first fair held in Ann Arbor. 
Twenty years before a "state fair" had been called 
there for the autumn of 1839, and thither appeared, 
it is said, only two exhibitors on the grounds which 
lacked everything but space that a fair requires. 
After issuing the announcement of the event, the 
president of the agricultural society had forgotten 
the appointed date and hence omitted the necessary 
preparations. About 1870 the State Pomological 
Society held its first fair on the grounds of the Kent 
County Agricultural Society.^ 

Today the West IMichigan State Fair, held at 
Grand Eapids, shares interest with the Michigan 
State Fair at Detroit as the dominant event of the 
year in Michigan agriculture. Much of the descrip- 
.tion of either fair today, as well as the local fairs, 
might be taken from the accounts of similar events 
seventy years ago. with such modifications and addi- 
tions as the passage of the years would suggest. 
Electricity, farm motors, talking machines, social 
work, governmental activities are represented now 
as contrasted with the earlier epoch. The Grand 

^"Rept. Mich. Bd. Agr.," 1859, 585. 
''Ibid., 1870, 349. 


Eapids fair of 1920 "was a regular fair — the big 
West Michigan show hekl in Grand Rapids, Sep- 
tember 20-24, judged by any standards, crowds, 
noise, midways, hot-dogs, big pumpkins, fine stock, 
patchwork quilts, commercial exhibits, small boys 
under foot and daring aviatress overhead." ^ Time 
has seen the elimination of many village fairs, which 
a generation or more ago had place in rural com- 
munities of the State. Even these miniature events 
had keen interest for the people of the country-side, 
as some middle-aged folks can still plainly recall. 
All the family went. The children's shoes must be 
neatly blackened in a row, the evening before, against 
the early hour that all must rise and go wagon-wise 
to the great event in town. There. Taffy, Punch and 
Judy, and the antics of a clown vied in popular in- 
terest with the products of domestic skill and the 
field and pasture. Counties still have their annual 
autumnal fairs, even those by the Lake Superior 
shore, and the agricultural displays at the Houghton 
or Escanaba fairs in the Upper Peninsula show a 
remarkable variety and quality of the products of 
the northern farmsteads. 

For the purpose of extending State aid to agri- 
cultural fairs in Michigan, the legislature of 1915 
established the Michigan Agricultural Fair Com- 
mission, on which the State Board of Agriculture, 
the Michigan State Agricultural Society, the Michi- 
gan State Grange, the Ancient Order of Gleaners, 
the Michigan State Association of Farmers Clubs, 

^ Michigan Farmer, Oct. 9, 1920, 440. 


and the West Michigan State Fair Association were 
to have representation. This commission was to de- 
termine the financial assistance to be rendered fairs 
thioughout the State and an initial appropriation 
of $50,000 was provided to this end, a sum raised to 
$75,000 in 1919. 

The ]\Iichigan State Grange of the Order of Pa- 
trons of Husbandry was incorporated by an act of the 
legislature in 1875. At the same time provision was 
made for the incorporation of county and subordinate 
granges, which incorporation is enjoined among local 
granges by the constitution and by-laws of the order. 
The State Grange is affiliated with the National 
Grange, and is in turn affiliated with county and 
subordinate granges. The work of each grange is 
ritualistic in accordance with the ritual appropriate 
for the grade of each in the order. For the granges 
of each class a corps of officials is provided consist- 
ing of a master, overseer, lecturer, secretary, steward 
and other officers, some of whom receive compensa- 
tion in accordance with the declared preference of 
the organic law for low salaries, interest and profits. 
The declared object of the order as expressed in 
file preamble of its constitution is "for mutual in- 
struction and protection, to lighten labor by dif- 
fusing a knowledge of its aims and purposes, expand 
the mind by tracing the beautiful laws the Great 
Creator has established in the Universe, and to en- 
large our views of creative wisdom and power." The 
order takes its position on the principle that "the 
soil is the source from whence we derive all that 


constitutes wealth. . . . The art of agriculture is 
the parent and precursor of arts, and its products 
the foundation of all wealth." The Grange exists to 
promote knowledge of these natural laws that under- 
lie production and to strengthen and encourage its 
membership through their mutual association. Aside 
from the social and educational aspect o'f its work, 
the Grange in Michigan has promoted cooperative 
marketing through its local and central organizations, 
and has also seen established under its a?gis several 
farmers' mutual fire insurance companies, and has 
directly fostered the organization of a life insurance 
company, whose insurance in force, December 31, 
19-20, amounted to $11,382,405.56. One-half the 
number of policy holders are farmers. Its annual 
meetings afford the State Grange an opportunity 
for formulating and espousing policies with reference 
to taxation, marketing, education and production in 
which the farmers of the State are presumed to be 
especially interested. The State Grange has thus 
taken favorable action in relation to a State income 
tax and a tonnage tax for mines, favored acts in aid 
of agricultural education both locally and at the 
Michigan Agricultural College, promoted prohibi- 
tion and women's suffrage and, at one time, a State 
warehouse for marketing farm products. 

By no means all the farmers or all farming com- 
munities of the State are affiliated with the Grange. 
The 638 subordinate granges of Michigan in 1920 
had 41,567 members, enrolled as reported by the 
secretary. Nor is membership uniformly distributed 


throughout tlic two peninsulas. Of the aggregate 
number, ninety-one granges are located in the Upper 
reninsula,with the counties of Delta, Chippewa and 
Marquette in the lead. The largest Grange member- 
ships are in the counties of Allegan, Branch, Eaton, 
Kent, Lenawee and Muskegon, each of which has 
more than one thousand members, Lenawee leading 
with 3,019 in 1920. 

The Grange Mutual Fire Insurance Company of 
Michigan, Limited, whose secretarial office is at Ros- 
common, employs the executive committee of the 
State Grange as the final court of appeal in case 
of disputes concerning the adjustment of losses. This 
company was organized in 1913 and reports (April, 
1921) nearly six million dollars of insurance in force. 
The company writes what is designated the "rodded'' 
and the "unrodded" classes of insurance. In 1920 
it reported losses of $13,376.62. Officers are elected 
and amendments to the by-laws are made by members 
voting by mail from their own granges. The com- 
pany operates on the "advance assessment" plan, and 
in case of loss pays three-fourths of the value, except 
with live-stock killed by lightning, when full value 
is allowed. 

The Patrons Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 
whose office is at Lansing, is also closely associated 
with the Grange, although the latter is not finan- 
cially responsible for it. The company writes three 
classes of business : the "roddcd" and the "unrodded" 
on the annual assessment plan, each policy being 
assessed on the anniversary date; and in the third 


class, a policy is written for a term of one, three or 
five years and the premium is paid in advance. In 
this class are received all types of property permis- 
sible under the Act of 1919, the company confining 
its membership to the Grange; and, in order that 
insurance might be continued, it was required that 
members' dues be paid in the subordinate Grange. 
The same requirement now obtains for classes 1 and 
2. Only members of the company have a vote in its 
affairs, although formed imder the auspices of the 
Michigan State Grange. In April, 1921, this com- 
pany reported some $24,000,000 of insurance in 
force, and losses were running at the rate of about 
$50,000 annually. On December 31, 1920, 8,130 
policies were in force. 

The Ancient Order of Gleaners has been operat- 
ing in Michigan for upwards of thirty years, and in 
1921 it had eighty thousand members in Michigan, 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The organization's life 
insurance department has paid out some seven million 
dollars in benefits and reported assets in April, 1921, 
of $1,347,680. Its Cooperative Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Company, conducted as are other mutual in- 
surance companies, carried risks of twenty-four mil- 
lion dollars. In April, 1921, there were reported 990 
local "arbors" in Michigan. The counties having the 
largest number of members were then Tuscola, Sani- 
lac, Huron, Lapeer, St. Clair, Genesee, Saginaw, 
Isabella, Montcalm, Gratiot, Oakland, Midland, Liv- 
ingston, Shiawassee and Mecosta. 

The Gleaner Clearing House Association is or- 

342 nuRAL MICH in Ay 

ganized nntler the "Cooperative Law" of 1917, for 
the enactment of which the Order claims the credit. 
This statute provides that "any number of persons, 
not less than five, desiring to become incorporated 
for the purpose of conducting any agricultural, 
dairy, mercantile, manufacturing or mechanical 
business in the State of Michigan upon a cooperative 
plan or in accordance with the principles of co- 
operation, may associate themselves as a cooperative 
corporation, company, association, society or ex- 
change, and by complying with the provisions of 
this act, they and their successors and assigns may 
become a body politic and incorporate." Section 10 
states that "the stock, property, aifairs and business 
of every corporation organized under the provisions 
of this act shall be managed by a board of not less 
than five directors, who shall be stockholders, and 
shall be chosen annually by the stockholders at such 
time and place as shall be provided by the by-laws 
of said corporation." The directors choose the presi- 
dent, secretary and treasurer and other officers. The 
amount of stock held by an individual may be lim- 
ited by the by-laws of the corporation. The by-laws 
are required to provide for the payment of divi- 
dends (not to exceed 7 per cent), accumulation of re- 
serve fund, and the division of profits on the co- 
operative plan among members doing business with 
the corporation ; and they may provide for coopera- 
tive dividends to non-members. Distribution of 
profits must be annual or at a shorter interval. 
Under this act, the Gleaner's iVssociation owns and 


operates twenty-six elevators and buying stations 
in Michigan, and also two in Ohio. The business is 
managed and financed from the central office at Grand 
Eapids. The authorized capital stock is $1,000,000. 
On December 31, 1921, the reported value of the 
land, buildings and merchandise owned by the asso- 
ciation was $467,809.-19. The equipment was valued 
at $38,991.76. The total capital assets were given 
as $506,801.25 ; and the total current assets as $497,- 
720.92. This made an aggregate of assets of $1,004,- 
522.17. During the year the association is reported 
to have handled about $6,000,000 worth of farm 
products. The shares of stock are for ten dollars 
each and are all owned by farmers. Even the gen- 
eral manager owns only one share. Each stockholder 
has but one vote regardless of the quantity of stock 

The Michigan State Association of Farmers 
Clubs, "believing that the social, moral, intellectual 
and financial condition of the farmer is advanced by 
local organization of Farmers' Clubs, and that the 
organization of other local clubs will be promoted 
by a central or state association of clubs already in 
existence," has adopted a constitution which pro- 
vides for a president, vice-president, secretary, treas- 
urer, and six directors. The annual meeting is held 
in Lansing at a date determined by the executive 
committee. Each member club is required to pay to 
the State Association dues amounting to fifty cents 
for the family membership thereof, the aggregate of 

* Statement of Grant Slocum, President, April, 1921. 


which must not fall below five dollars a club. The 
membership roll of the State Association in 1920 
names sixty-three local clubs chiefly in the east- 
central and southeastern counties of the southern 
peninsula (Clinton and Shiawassee counties lead- 
ing). The aggregate reported membership of the 
local clubs amounted to 3,178. It was expected that 
the State Association would serve as a clearing-house 
for ideas related to agriculture and would enable the 
united membership to promote its interests more ef- 
fectively. A glimpse of the subjects in which the 
federation is concerned is obtained in the resolutions 
adopted at its annual meeting of 1920. These in- 
clude a recommendation of increased State aid for 
rural schools and the consolidation of rural school 
districts; approbation of the Michigan State police, 
particularly for its activity in enforcing the dog- 
license law, control of automobile traffic on the pub- 
lic highways and the enforcement of the prohibition 
law, and the general protection of property; and a 
recommendation that the force be continued and ade- 
quately supported; and a similar resolution in re- 
gard to the Livestock Sanitary Commission was 
adopted. Ample legislative appropriations for the 
Michigan Agricultural Coll<?ge were commended, 
while the project of a State soil survey was en- 
dorsed. Similar action was taken in regard to the 
State Department of Health and the Anti-Tubercu- 
losis Society. On the other hand, the State's box- 
ing law, which legalizes "the disgraceful, demoral- 
izing and degrading business of boxing," was as- 


sailed and its repeal requested of the legislature. 
In the realm of national affairs, the Great Lakes-St. 
Lawrence deep waterway was indorsed, an em- 
bargo on wool, woolens, sheep products and beans 
was requested, the "full enforcement'' of the national 
prohibition law was demanded, a tariff was requested, 
"which shall protect the American farmer on cattle, 
wheat, beans and milk, in competition with cheap 
labor in other countries"; and Congress was asked 
to stiffen the requirements for the admission of im- 
migrants to the United States. The outlawry of the 
"insidious practice" of speculating in farm products 
on the board of trade was demanded of Congress. 

A statute of 1871 provided that any five or more 
persons associated together to promote the interests 
of pomology^, horticulture, agriculture and kindred 
arts and sciences, may incorporate as a local or state 
organization. The Michigan State Horticultural So- 
ciety was organized in 1870, whose declared object 
is "to encourage among the people a greater love for 
choice fruit products; to awaken a larger interest in 
Michigan's horticultural possibilities, and to offer 
practical suggestions along modern cultural and 
marketing methods." The membership reported in 
June, 1921, is about 675. Its work is purely educa- 
tional and aims at relating science to horticulture 
with a view to "bring the grower and his needs and 
the scientists with their research work together for 
the development of the horticultural interests and 
meet the needs of the growers in solving the problems 
and raising the standards of the horticultural prod- 


nets in Michigan." Each year two or three meet- 
ings are held in different sections of the State in 
order to cast the influence of the society as far as 

Societies for the marketing of agricultural prod- 
ucts are discussed in Chapter VII. 



The farmer folks who spread over the primeval 
Michigan wilderness a century ago had regard for 
education and only primitive means of securing it. 
The school-house was literallj^ of wood in every par- 
ticular, each element in its construction hand-made 
and home-made — the walls of logs cobbed up tier 
upon tier, the roof of shakes supported on long 
transverse poles, the floor of puncheons, the desks 
and benches of slabs, the door swung on wooden 
hinges and held by a wooden latch that answered 
to the leathern latch string, oiled paper often in 
lieu of glass in the windows, wooden beams even in 
the fire-place and mud-covered sticks in the chim- 
ney. There was ample ventilation, if less warmth. 
A miscellaneous assortment of text-books, outnum- 
bered oftentimes by the users of them, had come 
with the settlers from their eastern homes. Web- 
ster's Spelling Book and Daboll's Arithmetic were 
certain to have place among them. The teacher's 
fitness for his task was ascertained by a com- 
mittee of school inspectors whose qualifications were 
likewise primitive, and, in addition to his instruc- 
torial duties;, the master must be competent to 



thrash his oldest pupils, male and female, to set a 
good copy, to be his own janitor and to mend the 
quill pens of his students. The wild life of the ad- 
jacent forest, Indians, insects, birds and reptiles, 
were likely to call occasionally and trouble the rou- 
tine of the pioneer school. The summer term was 
less trying to the teacher, since the labor of the 
older pupils was required on the farm at home. 
Compensation was according to the standards of the 
age and circumstances. It often ran as low as eight 
dollars a month, but boarding round reduced the 
cost of living to the minimum. The cash income 
of the school district was derived from the bene- 
ficiaries of the school in accordance with a scale of 
tuition based on a count of heads and the attend- 
ance record. The rate-bill presented the amount due 
from each parent until, in 1869, legislation abol- 
ished it in favor of free schooling, nineteen years 
after the second State constitution had enjoined 
provision for free education on the legislature. 

Almost at the outset of the State's existence, the 
grant of the sixteenth section of every township, 
provided by the United States in favor of the State 
itself rather than each local school district as else- 
where, had established the foundation of the State's 
present primary school interest fund, later aug- 
mented by the proceeds from the grant of the so- 
called swamp lands already adverted to in a previous 
chapter. The net cash returns from the sale of these 
lands have been invested, partly at the rate of 7 per 
cent interest, partly at 5 per cent, which interest re- 


turn alone can be expended, and that only for school 
puriDoses, chiefly teachers' salaries. Many rural 
schools of Michigan, as well as urban, particularly 
those in poor sparsely peopled regions, have been 
greatly helped by the State aid arising from this 
fund, especially since its augmentation by the addi- 
tion thereto of railroad and other similar taxes has 
made it amount to several million dollars every year, 
distributed through the office of the superintendent 
of public instruction to each school district in pro- 
portion to its population of children between the ages 
of five and nineteen years inclusive. 

The early constitution and laws of the State like- 
wise made provision for libraries designed to serve 
rural as well as urban needs, and financial assistance 
for them was contained in the provision for the dis- 
tribution of income derived from fines imposed in 
the courts for violation of the penal laws. The pro- 
vision of reading matter through local rural libraries 
still leaves something to be desired, but the exten- 
sion of the service of the State Library at Lansing 
into all parts of the State desiring it, and, in a very 
few instances, of city libraries into outlying por- 
tions of the county, has done something to amelio- 
rate the rural reading facilities. In 1917 the legis- 
lature permitted county boards of supervisors to 
establish libraries or to contract with existing li- 
braries for county service. In that year the super- 
visors of St. Clair County authorized a contract with 
the Port Huron Public Library for service to the 
county. In 1921 this Port Huron Library was thus 


receiving two thousand dollars from the county. 
Six stations were established outside the city to 
handle books for this service. The total county cir- 
culation through these branches from October 1, 
1919, to October 1, 1920, is reported to have been 
10,543 volumes. A similar arrangement exists in 
Menominee County between the county and the Spies 
Public Library of Menominee. There are thirty 
branch libraries (October, 1920), located in drug and 
general stores, a cheese factory, a school and ice- 
cream parlor and a residence. During the first six 
months, with some branches operating for a shorter 
period, there was a county circulation of 11,127. 
As illustrative of the favor shown locally to this 
service, Stephenson, a hamlet in a well-developed 
rural neighborhood, received 225 books which gave 
a circulation for the first three months of 1170, of 
which 633 were juvenile, and 537 adult reading. By 
vote of the supervisors, the county undertook to 
maintain one-half the expense of maintenance of 
the Spies Public Library, provided the county's 
share did not exceed $5,000. County service began 
in February, 1920. The books are distributed in 
containers constructed to serve as book-shelves at 

The first Michigan schools were district, com- 
prising fractions of townships a few miles square. 
No effort at relating rural school curriculums to the 
agricultural environment or requirements was made. 
Reading, writing, arithmetic and spelling, sometimes 
grammar and geography, were serviceable to every- 


body. The select-school, academy, union school or 
branch of the State University in town gave oppor- 
tunity for additional schooling to such as were am- 
bitious for it. As a social center, the pioneer rural 
school functioned chiefly in spellings-down and de- 
bating. The multiplicity of schools in every town- 
ship divided local resources, both tutorial and ma- 
terial, and obviously impoverished the whole educa- 
tional effort of rural Michigan. In 1891 and 1909 
the legislature outlined and made possible township 
unit schools, involving the consolidation of existing 
one-room district schools into larger plants employ- 
ing instructors with higher training and compensa- 
tion. The southern rural communities of the State, 
however, were extremely slow in adopting this new 
and optional system, which made progress more rap- 
idly in the Upper Peninsula, particularly in the min- 
ing and lumbering sections where local conditions 
were more favorable and where leadership was more 
definitely in the hands of the most enlightened per- 
sons of the community. 

There remained lack of proper provision for dis- 
tinctly agricultural education for rural children, and 
the establishment of a school at Otter Lake, Hough- 
ton County, with positive provision for laboratory 
and field work for boys and girls below the high- 
school grade, seems to have inaugurated in 1912 a 
new era in rural education in ]\Iichigan. In 1917 the 
State legislature was persuaded to extend financial 
aid to such schools wherever established, and, after 
the re-enactment of the law in 1919 and 1921 to 


correct errors in its drafting, a large number of 
consolidated rural schools teaching agriculture and 
domestic science sprang up even more rapidly in the 
southern peninsula than in the northern. (See Plate 

The consolidated rural school act in its present 
form as it came from the session of 1921, enables 
the county commissioner of schools, acting in behalf 
of three or more existing school districts or the board 
of education in township districts to submit the 
question of consolidating such separate districts and 
of establishing therein, or in an existing township 
district, a rural agricultural school. In the school 
which follows the adoption of such a proposal by 
the qualified voters, provision is made for instruc- 
tion in domestic science, manual training and agri- 
culture. Such a school has at least five acres of 
land and a corps of teachers, engaged for at least 
nine months of the year, and qualified to give in- 
struction in agriculture, domestic science and 
manual training. The State aid is $1,000 a year, 
and also $400 for each vehicle employed in the trans- 
portation of pupils. 

The original school, at Otter Lake, had done much 
to introduce progressive agricultural methods and 
to Americanize an isolated rural community of Fin- 
nish people. It had demonstrated the value and 
method of land clearing, promoted the introduction 
of progressive practices in agriculture (tillage and 
stock-raising) and served as a community center 
for persons otherwise wholly without such facilities. 


While the two acts for the establishment of town- 
ship unit districts in the Upper Peninsula and for 
the whole State respectively had improved rural edu- 
cation through the abandonment of small inade- 
quately supported districts, they lacked the essen- 
tial and distinctive training in agriculture for the 
children of the countryside. Thus the adoption of 
the rural agricultural school under the acts of 1917 
and 1919, if generally followed everywhere in rural 
Michigan, would undoubtedly revolutionize Michigan 
agriculture and rural life within a generation. As 
yet, only a fair beginning can be said to have been 

It is notorious that the quality of rural school in- 
struction is much below that of urban communities. 
Until recently, normal training was not a prerequi- 
site to the granting of permission to teach in the 
schools of Michigan, and, up to 1921, only six weeks 
of such training were required. Untrained teachers 
were most commonly found in tlie country schools, 
where they were extremely young and inexperienced 
as well. An educational expert of the department 
of public instruction estimates that 21 per cent of 
the teachers of the State held third grade (signify- 
ing lowest grade) and special certificates in 1920, 
and that another 24 per cent were holders of second 
grade certificates. Teachers of this class are more 
common in the rural than in the village and city 
schools. It is estimated, on the other hand, that 

'Mich. Dept. Public Instruction: Consolidated Schools, 
Lansing, 1919. 


200,000 children were then being taught in the 
7,280 rural schools where such inexpert instruction 
was in order. It is estimated that 65 per cent of the 
one-room rural schools of Michigan maintain in- 
struction during nine months of the year, 21 per 
cent for eight months, 10 per cent for seven months, 
and -f per cent for less than seven months. Forty- 
nine per cent of such schools is estimated to main- 
tain ventilating systems. Forty-eight per cent was 
below the department's standard of size. Sixty per 
cent had two-side cross-lighting, and 25 per cent 
three- or four-side cross-lighting. Only 34 per cent of 
the schools had the requisite quantity of natural 
light — a ratio of window-space to floor-space of one to 
five being the approved standard. Even schools with 
the standard quantity of natural light frequently had 
it improperly distributed. Medical inspection and 
school nursing were very largely lacking.^ 

On the positive side, it may be stated that the 
general laws of the State, as related to rural schools, 
provide for compulsory attendance; county normal 
training schools for the training of rural school 
teachers; a uniform and approved course of study; 
physical education in all schools, with required in- 
struction in districts of more than 3,000 popula- 
tion; fire-drills; the approval of the plans of all 
school buildings costing over $300, by the depart- 
ment of public instruction of the State; for ventila- 

* Rural Education in Mich. : Mich. State Teachers' Assoc, 
pub. Kalamazoo, Oct., 1920. 


tioii in the case of all new and replaced heating sys- 
tems ; for the use of school buildings and grounds as 
community centers and for entertainment; for the 
instruction of school officials by experts of the State 
department of public instruction and for the payment 
of the tuition of rural school pupils desiring to at- 
tend high-schools outside the district and for their 
transportation thereto. 

The educational leaders of the State recognize that 
the fundamental defect in the Michigan rural school 
situation is the small district, which involves gross 
inequalities in taxable resources as compared with 
urban districts^, and hence inadequate provision of 
whatever is essential in a progressive effective school 
system. There are counties in vdiich the township 
valuations run as high as nearly $14,000 for a child 
of school age resident therein, and others in which 
such valuations fall as low as $600. Obviously such 
a situation involves great divergence in the tax rate 
and limits the income availal)le for school purposes 
so that equality of educational opportunity is im- 
possible. The remedy is in a larger school district 
and hence enlarged unit of taxation. While town- 
ship school districts are permitted, there is no pro- 
vision for a county district. Apparently there must 
be either compulsory consolidation of present small 
school districts, or a general state tax for the support 
of schools, in addition to the proceeds of the present 
primary school interest fund, the latter being dis- 
tributed among the districts in quotas related to re- 


quirements or the character of the school work therein 

Under the leadership of the department of public 
instruction of the State, the legislature of 1921 
enacted a series of laws, some of which directly bear 
on the rural schools. A considerable number of 
township unit school districts had been organized- 
by special acts of the legislature at a time when local 
loffislation was common and constitutional. All such 
districts were brought under the general law in 1921. 
The township unit law was clarified and simplified. 
The amended consolidated rural school law increased 
State aid to $1,000 a school, thus abolishing the dis- 
tinction between Class A and Class B, while $400 a 
vehicle were allowed for the transportation of pupils. 
School districts were permitted to erect teacherages 
for the housing of school teachers, a welcomed inno- 
vation, especially in sections in which housing con- 
ditions are inadequate and unsatisfactory. Districts 
Avhich lack a high-school are required to pay the tui- 
tion of school pupils to a neigliboring high-school 
up to $60 a year. A minimum term of nine months 
-in all schools of the State is now required by law. 
School officers are empowered to levy taxes for the 
special purpose of putting school-houses in safe and 
sanitary condition. By 1925, all persons undertak- 
ing to teach in Michigan must have at least one 
year of professional training above the four-year 
high-school course. Private and parochial schools 

^ INIich. State Teachers' Assoc, Quarterly Review, Jan., 
1921, 11. 


are brought under the supervision of the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction. 

In 1919 the legislature created the Athletic Board 
of Control which was to license and supervise box- 
ing contests in the State. The statute provided that 
all the earnings of this board should be expended 
for the promotion, stimulation and supervision of 
physical education and athletics in the public schools 
of Michigan. The expenditures were to be distrib- 
uted by the chairman of the Athletic Board under 
conditions determined by the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. It was purposed that the funds 
should accrue primarily for the benefit of the rural 
schools which were quite without facilities for ath- 
letic recreation. To ascertain just what the condi- 
tions really were, a questionnaire was distributed 
among the commissioners of schools. From the an- 
swers received, it appeared that tlie first need of the 
rural schools was for recreational material ; secondly, 
for instruction for teachers in the fundamental prin- 
ciples of play, recreation and physical education ; and 
finally for supervision and leadership in the work. 
The first requirement was satisfied in part by the 
purchase of athletic material out of the funds pre- 
viously referred to. The limited amount of money 
available would not permit the uniform distribu- 
tion of athletic material to all the schools of the 
State, so the board of control wisely determined to 
make provision first for the small rural schools, next 
for the small towns, and finally for the cities. Under 
this plan, balls, bats, and other similar equipment 


were provided in very large quantities to very many 
schools of the two peninsulas, and were greatly ap- 
preciated by the beneficiaries. Likewise a few connty 
athletic institutes were held for the improvement of 
athletic instructions. Up to June, 1921, the De- 
partment of Public Instruction, which has charge of 
the distribution of this athletic material, reported 
the purchase and distribution of 1,000 dozen four- 
teen-inch outseam playground balls, 800 dozen regu- 
lation indoor bats, 150 dozen regulation basketballs, 
500 dozen soccer balls, 75 dozen regular baseballs, 
40 to 50 dozen catcher's outfits, 25 dozen tennis 
rackets, 1,500 sets of boxing gloves, 50 dozen strik- 
ing bags, and, in addition, small amounts of volley- 
balls, volley-ball nets, tennis nets, basketball goals, 
playground slides, giant strides, regulation footballs 
and the like, in quantities dependent on requests 
made for these articles by various schools. The policy 
of the department is stated to be, "not to send ma- 
terial for competitive games, but to send materials 
which might be used by the masses of the children 
rather than any select group." 

. Menominee County has sought to establish the boy 
scout organization on a county-wide basis, making 
provision for the boys of the small towns and com- 
munities as well as of the cities, and has employed a 
paid executive to take charge. This work is still in 
its incipiency, but much is hoped from it. 

In 1917 Congress enacted what is known as the 
"Smith-Hughes Law," whereby the United States 
cooperates with such states as accept and conform 


to the requirements of this act, iii aid of vocational 
education, including agriculture, home economics and 
the manual arts. Michigan promptly accepted the 
terms of the Smith-Hughes Law. The legislature 
of 1919 created the State Board of Control of Voca- 
tional Education, which in turn appointed super- 
visors and adopted a plan of work and procedure. 
The federal aid is extended only to schools uelow 
college grade and on condition that an equivalent 
expenditure is incurred by State or local administra- 
tions. The board alone cooperates with the schools 
that operate under the law, and, under the Michigan 
plan, shares equally with the local school districts, 
the State's moiety of the contribution for such vo- 
cational education. In 1920 fifty-nine schools, three 
in the Upper Peninsula, received federal aid under 
the Smith-Hughes Law in connection with agricul- 
tural education. These were all public high-schools, 
with the exception of the Menominee County Agri- 
cultural School. Pupils are required to be above the 
age of fourteen years and to have pursued, or to in- 
tend to pursue, agricvdture as a vocation. There 
were approximately two thousand such pupils in these 
schools in 1920, taking work in agriculture. The 
local school districts provide buildings and equip- 
ment. There must be suitable laboratory facilities 
and outdoor field work, conducted under instructors 
of approved qualifications. The course of study, cov- 
ering four years, includes such subjects as plant life, 
farm carpentry and mechanical drawing, farm crops 
and soils, horticulture, animal husbandry, farm man- 


agcnient and farm machinery, cement construction 
and use of the gas engine. The number of schools 
conforming to the Smith-Hughes Law as applied in 
Michigan increases annually, and was sixty-five in 

To prepare agricultural teachers and leaders, and 
to diffuse knowledge of scientific agricultural prin- 
ciples and processes among the farmers of the State, 
the Michigan Agricultural College was opened in the 
summer of 1857. In this departure from the then 
accepted ideas of education, Michigan appears to 
have taken the lead in this country. The project 
had been broached at the inception of statehood, and 
and for many years it was conceived proper to con- 
nect agricultural education with the University of 
Michigan. After its establishment in 1819, the 
Michigan Agricultural Society had promoted the 
project for a State school of agriculture, and the 
State constitution of 1850, in one of its articles, 
made provision for it. For a time the University 
maintained a department of agriculture, but in 1855, 
the legislature by law laid the legal basis for a sepa- 
-rate institution and appropriated the State's salt 
spriiig lands in aid of the venture. The executive 
committee of the State Agricultural Society deter- 
mined the site which was selected in the wilderness 
three and a half miles east of the capitol at Lansing. 
Its location without the agricultural zone of the 
State, as it then was, did not give general satisfac- 
tion, but all efforts to remove the institution to Ann 
Arbor failed. The control of the College at first 


rested with the State Board of Education^ which also 
administered the State normal school; but in 1861, 
a separate board, that of agriculture, was created to 
have charge of the Agricultural College. The fol- 
lowing year (1862) the College became the bene- 
ficiary of a grant by the United States of 240,000 
acres of land in its aid, under the "Morrill Act," and 
at the same time had its curriculum somewhat de- 
fined, particularly as regards instruction in engineer- 
ing as well as agriculture, as a condition of receiv- 
ing this contribution to its resources. 

In 1875 the College faculty undertook extension 
work among the farmers of the State through in- 
stitutes in which addresses by experts from the staff 
were supplemented by discussions by the attending 
farmers themselves. This procedure associated scien- 
tific knowledge with practical wisdom, and was de- 
signed to promote a good understanding between the 
Agricultural College and the farmers.^ 

In 1885 the legislature made provision for the pub- 
lication through bulletins and press notices of in- 
formation arising as the result "'of experiments made 
in any of the different departments of the agricultu- 
ral college, and such other information that they may 
deem of sufficient importance to require it to come 
to the immediate knowledge of the farmers and hor- 
ticulturists of the state." Hundreds of bulletins have 
been issued by the College in accordance with this 

*0n tho oarlv liisiory of the l\Iich. Afjr. Coll.. soo R. C. 
Kedzie in "Alich. Pioneer & Hist. Soc. Collections," XXIX, 
554 and Pres. T. C. Abbot, Ibid., VI, 115. 


legislation. In 1889, the legislature accepted the 
provision of federal aid for the establishment of an 
experiment station, and ten years later provided for 
a station in the Upper Peninsula, where conditions 
of climate in particular made a distinct experiment 
station desirable. In the same year, the. State Board 
of Agriculture was authorized to "hold institutes 
and to establish and maintain courses of reading and 
lectures for the instruction of citizens of this state 
in the various branches of agriculture, mechanic 
arts, domestic economy, and the sciences related 
thereto." Such institutes were required to be held 
annually in every county where an "institute so- 
ciety" had been organized by residents of the county. 
In the stress of the Civil War (1863) military train- 
ing was made a required course at the Michigan Ag- 
ricultural College, and so remains. 

As now organized, the Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege embraces five divisions of work : Agriculture, 
including forestry and horticulture, engineering, 
home economics, veterinary medicine, and science and 
letters. There are also two experiment stations and 
"the division of extension work. The income of the 
College is derived from the proceeds of the sale of 
lands granted by the United States (now approxi- 
mately $7U,000 per annum), the income from a tax 
of one-fifth of a mill on taxable property within 
the State, amounting to about $550,000 per annum, 
while the federal government contributes $30,000 per 
annum in aid of the experiment stations, which also 
receive the income from certain fees. There are still 


other federal and state appropriations, such as that 
arising under the Smith-Lever Act accruing to the 


On May 8, 1914, Congress enacted the Smith- 
Lever Law, "in order to aid in diffusing among the 
people of the United States useful and practical in- 
formation on subjects relating to agriculture and 
home economics, and to encourage the application 
of the same." It was proposed to establish in con- 
nection with the land-grant agricultural colleges ex- 
tension work for persons not actually in residence at 
the colleges, which should consist "of giving of in- 
struction in practical demonstrations in agriculture 
and home economics," whereby information should 
be imparted through "field demonstrations, publica- 
tions and otherwise," the work to be carried on by 
mutual agreement between the secretary of agricul- 
ture and the agricultural colleges. A permanent ap- 
propriation by the United States was carried in the 
act, the moneys to be apportioned among the states 
in proportion to their respective rural populations, 
conditioned on a similar appropriation being made 
by the states themselves. 

In accordance with this act of Congress, extension 
work by the Michigan Agricultural College has been 
maintained in many counties of the State — a work 
in which the counties, as well as the State and the 
United States cooperate for financial support. At 
the head of this extension work is an Extension Di- 


rector, located at the Agricultural College, with a 
corps of state and assistant state leaders. This ex- 
tension work for the farmers themselves is conducted 
by the county agricultural agents; that for the boys 
and girls by the county leaders of boys' and girls' 
club work. In April, 1921, there were sixty-two 
county agents, of whom twelve were located in the 
Upper Peninsula. Of the home demonstration 
agents there were twelve in as many counties, of 
whom seven were in the southern peninsula and five 
in the northern. There were twenty-two leaders of 
boys' and girls' club work, of whom seven were in 
the Upper Peninsula and fifteen in the Lower. Of 
the Lower Peninsula counties, Macomb was credited 
with two club leaders; while eleven other counties 
had what is designated "collaborators," all of whom, 
with the exception of two, were in the southern, 
peninsula. In this department, there was one state 
leader and four assistant state leaders- 

Under the allotment of funds by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Michigan was eligible to 
receive in 1921, $103,267. The total of funds from 
fill sources, state as well as national, for cooperative 
agricultural extension work for 1920-1921 was $352,- 
265, of which $11,850 was assigned to administra- 
tion; $3,000 to the printing and distribution of pub- 
lications; $169,721 to county agents.; $38,912 to 
home economics; $46,287 to boys' clubs; $8,500 to 
animal husbandry; $7,600 to poultry; $18,075 to 
agronomy; $13,300 to horticulture; $5,800 to botany 
and plant pathology; $4,400 to agricultural engineer- 


ing; $5,200 to farm management; $14,800 to mark- 
eting; and $1,820 to miscellaneous specialists.^ 

The work under the Smith-Lever Law is carried 
on by the State in cooperation with such counties as 
determine, through the action of their board of su- 
pervisors, to adopt the scheme as applied to the en- 
gagement of a county agent, a home demonstration 
agent, or a leader of boys' and girls' club work, or 
some combination of these activities. While in many 
counties the supervisors have not seen fit to appro- 
priate county funds for such undertakings, — nor 
would federal and state funds sufficient for such 
work in all the counties be available, — in a consid- 
erable number there has been a positive demonstra- 
tion of their benefits, and it undoubtedly is a very 
important cause of rural advancement. 

It was demonstrated that the printing and dis- 
tribution of bulletins by the Agricultural College 
would not make a very strong impression on a great 
number of farmers, who suspected, and sometimes 
derided, the practical agricultural knowledge that 
emanated from such sources. Personal contact 
would, it might be presumed, partially remove this 
attitude of aloofness, and there are indications that 
the county agricultural agents have, where they 
have been sufficiently active and tactful, effectively 
improved agricultural practice. Where this activity 
has taken the form of directly aiding in the purchase 
and sale of commodities, it has been resented on the 

'U. S. Dept. Agr. : "Statistics of Co-operative Extension 
Work," 1920-1921, 10. 


]iart of middlemen as an unwarranted interference 
with legitimate business operations, although the 
farmers have undoubtedly greatly appreciated the 
profits accruing to them through such cooperation. 
Primarily, however, the work of the agricultural 
agents is to suggest and to instruct; to promote care 
in the selection of seed and live-stock, encourage 
soil conservation, inform on market conditions, 
bring expert assistance to bear on such emergencies 
as may arise, such as epidemics and pests, and, in 
general, to reinforce experience with knowledge 
gained through education and expert investigation. 
Results are not capable of mathematical determina- 
tion, but without doubt the visible agricultural ad- 
vance that has taken place in recent years is par- 
tially attributable to the agents of the extension 
service of the College. ^Yhether they have put forth 
the effort that might be expected of them, may, in 
some instances, be questioned. Whether or not the 
work and investigations carried on by the College 
qualifies its students and graduates to deal with the 
great variety of problems confronting the Michigan 
farmer in all portions of the State has been ques- 
tioned repeatedly. Ultimately, this is a question of 
administration belonging to the College itself, and 
is susceptible of correction, when necessary, with a 
vigorous administration of College affairs. 

Usually associated with the county agricultural 
agent is the home demonstration agent, also operat- 
ing under the Smith-Lever Law. This service, start- 
ing in Erie County, New York, in 191-i, has been 




extended to Michigan. The purpose underlying the 
appointment of home demonstration agents is de- 
scribed as "the buikling up and improvement of 
the rural home along lines similar to those which are 
being followed in the development of the farm." ' 
The lines of work undertaken by these workers in- 
clude phases of home management, the production 
and preservation of food, the planning of meals, the 
care of children, home care of the sick, making and 
remodeling clothing, improving home surroundings, 
while there are many opportunities afforded for com- 
munity service. The advantages, construction or in- 
stallation of household, particularly kitchen, equip- 
ment and conveniences are exemplified, which, with 
better arrangements of the room and its furnishings, 
materially reduce the labor of the housekeeper. 
Household accounts and budgets are installed 
through encouragement of the agents. There is in- 
struction to groups of women, often at the school, 
in new and approved methods of canning fruits and 
vegetables. At school, also, children are weighed 
and tested and the consumption of milk is encour- 
aged with striking benefits to the subject. The hot 
lunch at school is introduced, and there are general 
nutrition instruction and demonstrations. Home 
nursine: features the work of the home demon- 
stration agent, and in times of epidemic, especially 
in isolated communities, the "F D.A." has become a 

>U. S. Dept. Acrr. Bull.. Circ. H., Jan., 1921; Status 
and Results of Home Demonstration Work — Nprthern and 
Western States, 4, 14. 


veritable angel of mercy to the distressed and af- 
flicted. Prenatal instruction is not omitted. The 
salvaging of garments out of castoff clothing and the 
utilization of food material is explained. The 
women of the rural district and small towns greatly 
appreciate the instruction they receive in the art of 
millinery and dressmaking, the fashioning of pat- 
terns and forms, and the adoption of approved styles. 
There is provision for office consultation and home 
visitations, involving thousands of miles of travel 
by automobile and otherwise. 

Particularly promising of permanently valuable 
results is the boys' and girls' club work, for habits 
and ideas inculcated in youth, at an age when sus- 
ceptibilities are keenest, are most likely deeply to 
impress the subject. Boys' and girls' clubs con- 
template an organization of five or more young 
people in a group for the purpose of carrying out 
some definite project. Such a club is said to be 
"standard" when it has a local club leader in charge 
during the year, when it has a local organization 
with officers and prescribed duties, when there is a 
definite year's program of work, involving at least 
six regular meetings, whose record and that of prog- 
ress of each member is kept by the club secretary, 
when a local annual exhibit is held or a public dem- 
onstration is given by the club demonstration team, 
when at least 60 per cent of the membership complete 
the project and file a final report with the state club 
leader, when a judging team is competitively chosen 
and an achievement day is held during the year. 


Eecognition of partial or entire achievement of these 
conditions is manifested in a club charter and a 
"national seal of achievement." 

A definite program of work for the clnb, called a 
"project," may relate to the growing of a field of 
corn or other crop, the care and marketing of live- 
stock, such as calves, pigs, poultry, or rabbits, handi- 
craft, domestic arts including garment-making, cook- 
ing and canning, the provision of school lunches, care 
of a garden, and other undertakings simple and defi- 
nite in character, carefully planned and fully brought 
to completion, with an historical account of the whole 
proceeding. Obviously such enterprises closely re- 
late themselves to school and farm work jointly, al- 
though they may also be undertaken by urban chil- 
dren, when extensive areas of land are not required. 
The work is new but has progressed rapidly in 
Michigan. The statistical exhibit prepared by the 
State Department of Public Instruction shows that, 
in 1914, there were 1,960 club members enrolled; a 
year later, there were 3,460. In 1916, the number 
was 5,9-20; 1917, 16,480, showing the influence of the 
war appeal; and in 1918, 31,000. The most recent 
figures show a membership of 22,260 in 1127 clubs. 
The total value of products was $216,025.35. In 
1921 this work was being maintained in twenty 

For years the officials of the Michigan State Fair 
have provided a free sojourn at this exhibition at 
the Fair's expense, with a view to bringing the boys 
in contact with this instructive agricultural institu- 



tioii and for the purpose of special teaching in agri- 
culture. The boys are selected competitively, the 
examination covering both eighth grade and agri- 
cultural subjects. This service is extended to the 
most distant counties of the State, and, although its 
cost is high, its benefits are deemed by Fair officials 
to warrant the outlay. 

The annual event at the Michigan Agricultural 
College, known as "Farmers' Week," attracts large 
numbers of farmers to the institution to observe ex- 
hibits of farm products and processes, and to listen 
to addresses and discussions of a wide variety of 
topics related to agriculture. For a few weeks each 
Avinter, also, short-courses of instruction are given at 
th3 College, especially designed to meet the practical 
needs of men and women directly from the farm or 
desiring brief scientific instruction in relation to 
agricultural and rural problems. These winter 
short-courses involve studies in agriculture, horti- 
culture, dairying, beekeeping, farm mechanics, farm 
management and other departments, which should 
have the result of reducing agricultural knowledge 
to system and the improvement of methods. 

Two of the State's normal schools likewise have 
undertaken agricultural instruction in somewhat the 
same manner. Not only do the normal schools give 
courses for the training of teachers for rural schools, 
but the Western State Normal School at Kalamazoo 
annually gathers together farmers and persons inter- 
ested in rural life and rural social work to hear 
addresses by some of the country's most distinguished 


leaders in agricultural progress, in what is desig- 
nated "the rural life conference." In addition to 
training rural teachers, the Central Michigan Nor- 
mal School at Mt. Pleasant has special meetings of 
farmers to discuss topics of common interest, as 
spraying and the wool market situation. There is 
also a week's course for farmers and, in the summer, 
a week's training course for boys' and girls' club 
workers. Farmers' week at this school is featured 
by exhibits, such as seed testing, soil testing, feeds, 
and grains. There is a program of addresses by 
agricultural experts of state and national reputation, 
with demonstrations and discussions by persons di- 
rectly connected with agriculture in Isabella County 
and elsewhere. 

In 1912 the legislature authorized county boards 
of supervisors "to appropriate and raise money by 
tax to be used for cooperative work with the Michi- 
gan Agricultural College in encouraging improved 
methods of farm management and practical demon- 
strations and instruction in agriculture." The next 
year, the legislature authorized county boards of su- 
pervisors to create the oflfice of farm commissioner, 
subject to a referendum to the voters, for the pur- 
pose of improving agricultural practices within the 
county ; but this provision of law was rendered prac- 
tically inoperative by the Smith-Lever Act of the 
United States. In 1907 legislation had authorized 
the establishment of county schools of agriculture, 
manual training and home economics, and such a 
school has for some years been maintained by Me- 

372 RURAn MIC in a AN 

110111 iiiec County in the Upper Peninsula. The Me- 
nominee County Agricultural School domiciles its 
])U])ils and gives instruction in agriculture, includ- 
ing botany, farm crops, soils and soil fertility, hor- 
ticulture, gardening, insect and orchard practice, 
animal husbandry, live-stock types and breeds, stock- 
judging, dairying, poultry, farm management, 
manual training including farm mechanics, mechani- 
cal drawing, carpentry, girls' handicraft, forging, and 
farm machinery, drainage, domestic economy, in- 
cluding cooking, serving, dietetics, sewing, laundry- 
ing, home decoration, household chemistry, home 
nursing and millinery, together with academic stud- 
ies. During the winter term, short-courses are of- 
fered for the benefit of students wlio are unable to 
remain throughout the year, while a three-days' ses- 
sion, or farmers' institute, in the early spring, pre- 
sents a variety of meetings under the leadership of 
persons prominent in agricultural practice and in- 
struction. This school purposes to be a sort of ag- 
ricultural college for the Upper Peninsula. A simi- 
lar school for a time existed in Chippewa County 
in the Upper Peninsula, but for reasons related to 
its location primarily, failed to satisfy its supporters 
and in the summer of 1921 was discontinued. 

An early statute of the State (1819) had provided 
that, where, in any county "the inhabitants thereof 
have organized and established or may hereafter or- 
ganize and estal)lish a society for the encouragement 
and advancement of agriculture, manufactures and 
the mechanic arts," and where the society has raised 


as much as $100 for the promotion of its objects, the 
county board of supervisors is permitted to levy a 
tax in further aid of the work of such a society, for 
the purchase of premiums, "the diffusion of valuable 
agricultural, manufacturing and mechanical knowl- 
edge," or otherwise to promote the objects of the 
society. In many counties of the State, agricultural 
societies or farm bureaus have been organized and 
have become the recipients of county financial aid 
in the promotion of their work. Later (1855), a 
State statute made provision for the incorporation 
of such county, town or district agricultural and 
horticultural societies. 


Most Michigan farmers do not attend schools of 
agriculture, but very many obtain knowledge of im- 
proved agricultural processes through the columns 
of the agricultural papers published within the State 
and elsewhere. Of Michigan's agricidtural press, the 
oldest periodical is "The Michigan Farmer and Live- 
stock Journal," whose history is nearly coincidental 
with that of the State. This paper, in 1843, suc- 
ceeded "The Western Farmer," founded at Detroit 
several years previous. Down to 1893, when the 
paper was taken over by M. J. Lawrence and Brother 
of Cleveland, Ohio, proprietors of "The Ohio Far- 
mer" (whose firm name became the Lawrence Pub- 
lishing Company two years later), there were many 
changes in the ownership, place of publication, and 


form of the paper. In its development, also, "The 
Michigan Farmer" has absorbed several other pub- 
lications in the field of Michigan agriculture. It has 
grown in size and influence and now has over 80,000 
Michigan farmers as subscribers besides many from 
without the State. ^ 

"The Michigan Business Farmer" was first pub- 
lished as a four-page market letter in 1913. The 
paper became consolidated with "The Gleaner" and 
in 1921, following a period of rapid growth, reported 
more than GO, 000 subscribers throughout the State. 
Like^^The Michigan Farmer," it is a weekly pub- 
lication at the present time. Its place of publication 
is Mt. Clemens, near Detroit.^ 

"The Michigan Patron" was first published at 
Adrian, Michigan, in 1901. After various vicissi- 
tudes, the paper was taken over by the Michigan 
State Grange, in 1917, becoming its official organ. 
The dues of members of the Grange include a pay- 
ment as subscription to "The Patron," which was 
then sent to every Grange family in the State. It 
is a monthly periodical with an issue of 24,000 copies 
in March, i921.3 

In the Upper Peninsula, at Menominee, is pub- 
lished "The Cloverland Magazine," whose origin was 
in 1903, in the periodical then styled "The Sugar 
Beet News and Northwestern Farmer." Its present 

* From a statement by Burt Wermuth, associate editor, 
April. 1921. 

^'^tatement of G. M. Slocnm, publislier. March. 1921. 

' Statement of J. W. Helme, managing editor, March, 


title dates from 1915, after consolidations with other 
publications had been effected. It now reports a cir- 
culation of nearly a third of a million in the terri- 
tory between Sauit Ste. Marie and Minneapolis.^ It 
is a monthly magazine, attractively presented, and is 
devoted heartily to the progress, chiefly agricultural, 
of the cut-over territory in the Great Lakes country. 
Its relations with the Upper Peninsula Development 
Bureau are close and harmonious. 

At Sault Ste. Marie is published a weekly edi- 
tion of the "P]vening News" of that city, which, 
through a cooperative arrangement with the county 
agent and the Chippewa County Farm Bureau, car- 
ries much agricultural news and comment, relevant 
chiefly to the eastern end of the Upper Peninsula. 
There are, in addition, a number of "small town" 
weeklies whose designation and contents indicate 
the rural appeal of the publication. 


Among the pioneer farmers of Michigan, religious 
observances had motives not purely derived from 
piety, although the isolated situation in the primeval 
wilderness undoubtedly intensified the meditations 
of the settlers and turned them more definitely in 
the direction of things supernal. The camp-meet- 
ing brought men and women together, to visit and 
to be entertained, to sing and to become informed, as 
well as to give vent to sentiments of devotion and 

'Statement of R. M. Andrews, editor, May 11, 1921. 


spirituality. Dcmonstratious of the worshipers 
might take forms that, to the undevout, seemed 
grotesque and ridiculous, but this did not detract 
from their appeal to the country folk whose daily 
life was one of drudgery and severest toil. The cir- 
cuit-rider, making his round of many miles, on foot, 
on horseback or by boat, gathered and disseminated 
the news at a time when newspapers were seldom 
encountered, and at the same time ministered to 
the religious life of his scattered flock for a 
meager recompense save of hardship. His worldly 
goods were bound up in his saddle-bags and included 
his Bible, his hymnal and his church discipline with 
a few clothes and personal belongings. His cash 
returns might amount to $100 per annum, but en- 
tertainment was free, if rough and meager. Services 
were held in the homes of the settlers, sometimes in 
the school-house, the court-house, or a barn. Epis- 
copal visitations were attended with great difficulties 
and there are records of amusing, if trying, experi- 
ences of reverend gentlemen deposited in muddy 
abysses on the "highways" that should have conveyed 
.them to their expectant flocks in the interior. Even 
yet there are remote communities in which such 
pioneer conditions still obtain to a degree. There 
are still clergymen who eke out a precarious liveli- 
hood by farming, or other pursuits tliat have more 
reference to the necessities of this life than of the 
next. There is Eev. William Maltas, a former 
Methodist circuit-rider, now associated with the 
Episcopal Church in ChipiJewa County of the Upper 


Peninsula, who mingles farming with his priestly 
functions, moving from station to station, fourteen 
in number, early and late and tirelessly, and who is 
credited with remarkable success with his rural par- 
ishioners. He is not an isolated instance of agri- 
cultural clergymen of this diocese. There, too, is 
the Eev. Fr. William Gagneur of the Society of 
Jesus, whose ministrations, like those of his black- 
robed predecessors, are chiefly to the red men of his 
large missionary parish north of the Straits, to which 
he has given unstinted service for a generation. 

From the outset, divers religious communities es- 
tablished themselves within the borders of the ter- 
ritory. Some of these had characteristics especially 
'distinctive. The Moravians, of German origin, 
settled on the Clinton River late in the eighteenth 
century, having obtained their lands from the Chip- 
pewa Indians. They interpreted the Scriptures most 
literally, as illustrated by their selection of wife or 
husband by lot. Mormon missionaries appeared early 
among the farmer folk of the southern counties, and 
in the fifth decade of the last century, under the 
leadership of "King'' James Strang, established 
themselves on Beaver Island of Lake Michigan, where 
they mingled agriculture with fights with the hos- 
tile fishermen of the lake and from whence they 
were at length forcibly dispersed, some of their 
descendants still being found on Drunnnond Island 
of Lake Huron. More acceptable were the Quakers 
who early appeared in Calhoun, Jackson, Lenawee, 
Oakland and Cass counties, sober and industrious 


as belonged to their tradition ; while their Teutonic 
congeners, the Mennonites and Dunkards, were also 
settled within the State. The Mennonites' eight 
organizations in Michigan in 1916 still reported 
509 members, while the branch called "Eeformed" 
added 108 additional members. At "Holy Corners," 
Kent County, they periodically washed each other's 
feet in "the bucket of peace" until a narrow con- 
servatism and rural simplicity and piety gave way 
before the forces of modernity. The Israelite House 
of David, near Benton Harbor, is a communistic 
religious society, not restricted to Michigan, which 
possesses a fine park and zoological garden, and lives 
by agriculture and manufacturing and the income of 
their tourist business. A portion of their agricul- 
tural supplies is derived from High Island, Lake 
Michigan. The observer notes their unshorn tresses, 
while their belief in perpetual existence without 
death for the sinless is a cardinal element in their 
religious life. They are credited with exceptional 
thrift and acumen. 

It scarcely requires comment that the salaries paid 
to the ministers of the gospel in Michigan as well as 
elsewhere are meagre. The census returns of 191') 
place the average salary of a minister of the ^lethod- 
ist Episcopal Church in Michigan at $1,1()0, which 
readily suggests that pastors of rural parishes obtain 
an income considerably short of this figure. Num- 
bers of states make a far worse showing than Michi- 
gan and some make a better report. The average 
of Baptist salaries stood at $995 in Michigan; while 


the Congregationalists did better with their average 
contribution to the shepherd of the flock of $1,219. 
Episcopalian rectors received on an average $1,517, 
while Eonian Catholic priests performed their holy 
offices for an average stipend of $745. The Presby- 
terian average salary was $1,503. Even if the parish 
house and other emoluments are added to the pastoral 
income, it is evidently quite necessary in the poorly 
supported rural parishes that clergymen augment 
the family income by resort to agriculture or other 
adventitious pursuits. Thus one clergyman in the 
Upper Peninsula (Eev. Wm. Poyseor) is credited 
with being one of the largest and most successful 
producers of maple sirup in the State, as well as 
a valiant defender of the faith. His tappings run to 
2800 trees per annum, and he ships his product to 
fourteen states. 

The Young Men's Christian Association has a 
county-wide organization in the counties of Gogebic, 
Houghton and Iron in the Upper Peninsula, and 
Charlevoix, Antrim, Grand Traverse, Kalkaska, Os- 
coda, Alcona, Iosco, Mason, Huron, Tuscola, Sanilac, 
Montcalm, Gratiot, Ottawa, Kent, Ionia, Clinton, 
Shiawassee, Genesee, Lapeer, St. Clair, Allegan, 
Barry, Eaton, Livingston, Oakland, Van Buren, Cal- 
houn, Waslitenaw, St. Joseph, Branch, Hillsdale, and 
Lenawee in the Lower Peninsula. Usually lacking 
the equipment and facilities that pertain to a city 
association, the small towns and rural districts cov- 
ered by this work carry out projects of study and 
recreation under the general direction of a county 


socretcary associated with a county committee of 
twenty to twenty-five residents, and, when practi- 
cable, local associations were also estal)lished. As de- 
scribed by the state secretary in charge of rural 
work, "county Avork of the Young Men's Christian 
Association is an effort on the part of an organized 
group of Christian men to develop Christian char- 
acter in the lives of men and boys in the various 
communities of the county. It works with the home, 
the school, the church and otlier constructive agen- 
cies. ... Its aim is to stimulate boys and young men 
to be physically fit, mentally alert, socially straight, 
and religiously definite." The "Christian Citizen- 
ship Training Program" is employed, being carried 
out under local leadership supported by public 

Undoubtedly, the migration of young people from 
the rural to the urban districts has adversely affected 
the condition of the rural church. "The loss to the 
country church," writes Eev. C. H. Harger, "is as 
real, and as great as is the loss to the farms and to 
the country towns; for among these young people 
Ayere the coming constituents and members of the 
small town country churches. It has taken many 
of the small town churches twenty years to overcome 
the inherited indifPerence of parents, the influence of 
early environment, and develop in some of these 
young people an interest in religion. Those who took 
with them to the cities a Christian experience and 
the purpose to live clean and useful lives, it is notice- 
able, benefited by the change. Not a few of this 


class have been singled ont and advanced from 
places of common labor to positions of responsibility 
and* large trust. 

"It is also noticeable that not a few of those who 
have returned, ' have been demoralized by their ex- 
periences in the city. They have formed objection- 
able habits which they did not have before. Many 
have lost their former energy and have become in- 
dolent; they have lost the spirit of thrift and have 
become spendthrifts; all are dissatisfied with the old 
surroundings, and they are all anxious to get back 
to the factories and to the places of pleasure and 
pastime in the cities. No matter whether these re- 
main in the country or return to the city, in their 
present state of mind they are mentally, and there- 
fore physically, incapacitated for efficient work on 
the farm ; they are lost to the country." ^ 

The writer is by no means hopeless regarding the 
rural church. Eural life is favorable to religion. 
But it is required that the rural church progress 
with the developing mind of the rural population. 
"It seems to me an opportune time for the country 
church to get a new hearing and to demonstrate again 
as during the war that it can serve the people on 
week days as truly as on Sunday." Harger points 
out that the agencies that are serving country life, 
such as the extension workers of the ^lichigan Agri- 
cultural College, should not be ignored by the clergy- 

*TTar<jpr: "The Coimtry Church in 'Miehi<fan," Michigan 
Congregational Conference, pub., I.ansing, 1!>21, 9. See also 
The Michigan Farmer, July 23, 1921. 


man of a rural parish or his church people. The 
rural church should promote boys' and girls' club 
work and serve the whole community as a social 
center. It will thus gain a new and stronger hold 
on the countryside which will serve it well in its 
religious ministrations. 

Each summer the Michigan Agricultural College 
holds a conference for the benefit of rural clergymen 
and their wives, for discussion and instruction cal- 
culated to enrich their rural work. In 1920, the 
Michigan Congregational Conference, for example, 
paid the transportation and local expenses for a 
group of fifteen of its pastors and their wives, to 
enable them to attend this conference, and the out- 
lay was deemed to be well spent. 


The legislature of 1921 gathered together into one 
department the several governmental agencies of 
Michigan which had functions directly related to 
agriculture, placing the department under a com- 
missioner with a salary of $5,000 a year, empow- 
ered, with the approval of the State Administrative 
Board, to appoint assistants and employees and de- 
termine their compensation. To this new depart- 
ment were at once transferred the Department of 
Animal Indiistry, the State Food and Drug Commis- 
sioner, the State Veterinary Board, the Immigra- 
tion Commission, the Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion, and the State Director of Markets, The powers 
and duties of the State Board of Agriculture in re- 
lation to the inspection and regulation of orchards, 
vineyards and nurseries, and apiaries, the testing of 
agricultural seeds, the analysis of commercial fer- 
tilizer, the testing and examination of insecticides, 
and the analysis and testing of commercial stock 
foods, the investigating and improving of marketing 
conditions, were likewise intrusted to the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of the State. The offices of 
State Inspector of Orchards and Nurseries, and of 




Apiaries were abolished and their functix)ns be- 
stowed on the Department. It also takes over the 
duties of the Department of State in the collection 
and publication of statistics and other information 
relating to agriculture. The control of all lands and 
other property vested in the State for the purpose 
of holding agricultural fairs devolved on this new 
department. x\n annual state fair at Detroit was 
authorized, which was placed immediately under 
the direction of a Board of Managers of State 
Fairs of twenty memliers, appointed by the governor 
and senate. The income should constitute a per- 
petual revolving fund to defray Fair expenses. The 
Michigan Agricultural Fair Commission was at the 
same time abolished. (See Fig. 7.) 

It M'as made the duty of the State Department of 
Agriculture "to foster and promote in every possible 
way the agricultural interests of the State of Miclii- 
gan; to cooperate with agricultural agencies in the 
different counties of the state and of the federal gov- 
ernment; to foster direct trading between the pro- 
ducer and the consumer; and to prevent, and assist 
in preventing, by all available means authot-ized by 
law, the sale of unimproved land and lands not suit- 
able for agricultural development within the state 
by fraud, misrepresentation or deceit and the pub- 
lication of false or misleading statements or adver- 
tising matter designed to affect such sales." 

The creation of this new department is in line 
with the suggestion of the United States Secretary 
of Agriculture in 1919, who urged the establishment 















• r- ( 








of such departments in all states, whereby the coop- 
eration of the various bureaus of the federal depart- 
ment with state agencies would be much easier and 
more effective.^ It was his view that the agricultural 
colleges would confine their attention to educational 
work and the state departments of agriculture to 
regulatory and administrative duties, and with whom 
the federal bureaus would be associated in matters 
related to quarantines, the control of animal diseases, 
orchard and nursery inspection, seed inspection, feed 
and fertilizer control, statistical inquiries, the pro- 
motion of rural finance, distribution and marketing 
along approved lines. ^ 

^U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull., Jan., 1919: "Need of Strong 
Departments of Agriculture in the States," 7. 

^ The tentative scheme of organization of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture (July, 1921) provides fur four bu- 
reaus: agricultiu'al development, woods and drugs, animal 
industry, and dairying, each having a director at its head. 
The Bureau of Agricultural Development couiprises the 
divisions of immigration, settlement, agricultural fairs, 
agricultural statistics, land problems, drainage, orchard 
and nursery inspection, apiary inspection. The Bureau of 
Foods and Drugs comprises the divisions of food inspec- 
tion, drug inspection, weights and measures, fertilizer in- 
spection, feeding stuffs, insecticides and fungicides, seed in- 
spection; chemical laboratory (State Analyst and Chief 
Chemist, for the Department of Agriculture). The Bureau 
of Animal Industry comprises all veterinary activities 
(Chief Veterinarian and Assistant Veterinarian; Examina- 
tion Board of Veterinarians; Stallion Board, Slaughter- 
liouses, meat inspection ; cooperation with the United States 
Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry; 
state farms and herds; appraisals). The Bureau of Dairy- 
ing comprises inspection of market milk, creamery and 
cheese factories, condensed and powdered milk factories; 
ice-cream plants. At the head of the Department of Agri- 


Eeplacing the Livestock Sanitary Commission, the 
legislature, in 1919, created the Department of Ani- 
mal Industry, in charge of a commissioner appointed 
for a six-year term, and reassigned to the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in 1921. On the recommenda- 
tion of the Commissioner of Animal Industry, the 
governor was directed to appoint a state veterinarian, 
also for a six-year term. This official must be a 
graduate of an institution qualified to confer the 
degree of veterinary surgeon and competent to diag- 
nose, treat and control diseases of live-stock. Gen- 
eral charge of the protection of the health of the 
domestic animals of the State from contagious and 
infectious diseases was given to this commissioner. 
It followed that quarantine was subject to the com- 
missioner's direction. The presence of contagious 
and infectious disease among animals was required 
to be reported to the Commissioner, whose office is in 
Lansing. In case the destruction of diseased live- 
stock became necessary as a protective measure, the 
Commissioner was to appraise its value and on this 
basis the owner was entitled to recover from the State 
the sum thus determined, with restrictions of amount 
as to tuberculous cattle. The observance of quaran- 
tine regulations was definitely enjoined on the own- 
ers of animals exposed or infected. At the same 
time, the importation of such live-stock was pro- 
culture is a commissioner, while liis subordinates include 
a deputy commissioner, chief clerk (general office work 
for the Department of Agriculture, bookkeeper, stenog- 


hibited. The representative of the Department of 
Animal Industry in each county was to be the county 

The practice of veterinary surgery, medicine or 
the grant of a license by the State Veterinary Board, 
which consists of three members with stipulated 
dentistry is unlawful in Michigan except following 
qualifications. Such a license is grantable only on 
an examination following a regular course of in- 
struction in an improved veterinary college. There 
is provision for the reciprocal licensing of veterina- 
rians from other states and provinces on the basis "of 
equality of educational standards and mutual recog- 
nition/' equal to those determined by the statute. 
Practitioners living outside of Michigan but ad- 
joining its boundary are permitted to practice in 
Michigan after obtaining a license and provided reci- 
procity is granted. All Michigan licenses are re- 
vocable for cause after a hearing of charges. 

In 1913, the legislature ordered that "no person 
shall feed to animals or fowls the flesh of an animal 
Avhich has become sick, or which has died from such 
cause, or offal or flesh that is putrid or unwholesome," 
reckoning such an offense a misdemeanor with an 
attached penalty of not to exceed $100 fine or ninety 
days in jail or both. 

The administrative work of the old Dairy and 
Food Department, established by the legislature in 
1893, was assigned to the new Food and Drug De- 
partment in 1917. The commissioner of this depart- 
ment has "charge of the supervision and enforcement 


of all laws of this state relating to the dairy and 
food, drug and liquor business, weights and meas- 
ures," and other duties proscribed by law. Among 
the statutes thus falling to the Food and Drug Com- 
missioner to enforce are those prohibiting the adul- 
teration and misbranding of foods, with special pro- 
visions relating to the adulteration and misbranding 
of butter, cheese, lard, fruit, jelly or fruit butter, 
buckwheat flour, vinegar, maple sugar and sirup and 
sausage, whose purity is protected by law. A series 
of statutes, under the administration of this depart- 
ment, is designed to protect the purity and sanitary 
qualities of milk and milk derivatives, and to es- 
tablish standards of fat-content. The percentage of 
milk-fat required for butter is 80, of cream 18, and 
of milk 3. To put an end to short-weight milk con- 
tainers used in the retail trade, it was required that 
bottles or jars should have "clearly blown or other- 
wise permanently marked in the side of the bottle, 
the capacity of the bottle and the word 'sealed,' and 
in the side or bottom of the bottle the name, initials 
or trademark of the manufacturer and designating 
number, which designating number shall be differ- 
ent for each manufacturer and may be used in iden- 
tifying the bottles." The use of all other containers 
is prohibited under penalty and forfeiture of bonds 
to the State, while return shipments of milk con- 
tainers over a common carrier are required to be 
received washed and cleansed. The use of the Bab- 
cock test by licensed testers is subject to regulation 
designed to secure a fair average sample of the milk 

390 RURAL AfW/flOAN 

tested. An act of 1917 authorizes the appointment 
of local medical milk commissions "for the purpose 
of supervising the production, transportation and 
delivery of milk which it is intended to use for in- 
fant feeding and sick-room clinical purposes, under 
whose supervision certified milk may be sold in cities, 
villages and townships. The sale of butter under a 
State brand or registered trademark which is not 
now used is provided for, tlie issuance of the brand 
being under the control of a State commission. The 
brand is required to carry the words, 'Michigan But- 
ter, License iSTumber ', and the words, 'State But- 
ter Control.' " Milk by-products, such as skim-milk, 
whey and buttermilk, to be used for feeding purposes 
for farm animals must be pasteurized before being 
returned or delivered to any person. 

For the fruit trade, an act of 1917 regulates the 
size of baskets. The standard for grapes and other 
fruits and vegetables is the two-quart, four-quart and 
twelve-quart climax basket, whose dimensions are 
definitely prescribed ; while the standard basket or 
other containers for small fruit, berries and vege- 
tables, is of the capacity of one-half pint, pint, quart 
or its multiples, dry measure, also with fixed di- 
mensions. An act of the same year determines the 
grades for apples. "Michigan standard fancy" ap- 
ples consist "of hand-picked, properly packed apples 
of one variety, which are well-grown specimens, nor- 
mal in shape, uniform in size, of good color for the 
variety, and which are free from dirt, insect in- 
jury, fungus disease, bruises and other defects, ex- 


cept such as are necessarily caused in the opera- 
tion of packing." Inferior grades are designated 
"Michigan Standard A," "Michigan Standard B/' 
and "Michigan unclassified." Containers of apples 
offered for sale must have the name of the packer and 
other relevant information displayed on the surface, 
while the apples on the inside face of the package 
when offered to view must fairly represent the con- 
tents throughout. The size of fruit and vegetable 
barrels is likewise definitely prescribed. 

The State Food and Drug Commissioner is also 
State Superintendent of Weights and Measures, 
whose standard is required to conform to that 
adopted by the United States Bureau of Standards. 
In addition, counties, through their boards of super- 
visors, and municipalities may employ a sealer of 
weights and measures, and sixteen counties and 
twenty cities do. An act of 1863 specifies the weight 
a bushel of various kinds of grains and other com- 
moditieSv unless a different weight is contractually 
agreed on, which for wheat is 60 pounds ; rye, 56 
pounds; shelled corn, 56 pounds; corn on the cob, 70; 
corn-meal, 50 ; oats, 32 ; buckwheat, 48 ; beans and 
clover seed, 60 ; timothy seed, 45 ; barley, 48 ; pota- 
toes, 60 ; onions, 54 ; peas, 60 ; cranberries, 40 ; 
Michigan salt, 56 ; mineral coal, 80 ; and orchard- 
grass seed, 14. Definite specifications for the con- 
struction of platform and other scales are published 
by the Department. 

For the purpose of acquiring information regard- 
ing the proihu'tion of farm ))ro(lucts in Michigan, 


a cooperative agreement has been entered into be- 
tween the State anc^ the United States Department 
of Agriculture, which together bear the necessary 
expense. Some 2,600 reporters gather the informa- 
tion locally, reporting either to Lansing or Wash- 
ington. The county and township reporters mail 
their results directly to Washington where they are 
tabulated. The field agents report to Lansing, the 
tabulation of which is then forwarded to Washing- 
ton. The results, as finally ascertained by the Fed- 
eral Crop Eeporting Board, are telegraphed to Lan- 
sing for publication. About 200 reporters are sta- 
tioned in the Upper Peninsula. In addition to the 
regular force special agents report particular crops 
in which each is interested, as for beans, maple 
products, honey bees, potatoes, live-stock, fruit, 
prices, mills and elevators. This service for some 
years was maintained as a bureau in the Department 
of State but the legislature of 1921 transferred it 
to the new State Department of Agriculture. Fur- 
ther legislation of this session assigned a new, but 
greatly desired, function to the township and (out- 
side of Detroit) city supervisors, who are required 
to collect information regarding farm products at 
the time of making their assessment rolls in the 
spring of each year. On blank forms prepared by 
the Commissioner of Agriculture, the supervisors 
henceforth will obtain statistics showing the total 
number of acres in each farm, the acreage of each 
crop sown or planted, the acres of tillable land used 
exclusively for pasture, the acreage of new lands 


brought under cultivation for the first time, the num- 
ber of growing fruit-trees and vines of bearing age, 
the number and classes of live-stock, and such other 
data as may be required. This information is, when 
possible, to be secured through a personal interview 
with the owner or operator of the farm. Eeturns 
are made to the State Commissioner of Agriculture 
for publication. 

Under the direction of the department of farm 
management of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
classes in farm accounting have recently been held 
for adult farmers in various counties of the State, 
and instruction and assisting in the problems of 
farm management have been afforded by the staff of 
this department by direct visitation and by corre- 
spondence. The general aim is to direct farm ac- 
tivities along lines that shall be most profitable eco- 
nomically. Through questionnaires, the department 
seeks to gather information directly from farmers 
which will indicate the kind of farm practices now 
being employed and out of which may come sug- 
gestions for a more economical system of farm op- 
erations. There is cooperation in this work between 
the College and the Grange, the farm bureaus and 
the farmers' clubs. The Michigan State Grange is 
reported to have made a considerable appropriation 
for the investigation of farm practice and the en- 
couragement of farm accounting and improved 
methods. A feature of this work has been the dis- 
tribution at low cost of farmers' account-books, pre- 
pared and sold by the College. Some three thousand 


copies of these books are stated to have been thus 
disposed of to July, 1921. It is hoped thereby to 
standardize farm accounting methods. 


As a part of the governor's scheme of reorganiza- 
tion of the State government, the legislature of 1931 
established the Department of Conservation, directed 
by a commission of six members, who should "be 
selected with special reference to their training and 
experience along the line of one or more of the 
principal lines of activities vested in the Department 
of Conservation and their ability and fitness to deal 
therewith." This commission was to appoint a Di- 
rector of Conservation at a salary of $5,000 a year, 
and such assistants and employees as might be re- 
quired under the act. The State Administrative 
Board was to determine the number and compensa- 
tion of these additional employees. The powers and 
duties hitherto belonging to the Public Domain Com- 
mission, the State Board of Fish Commissioners, the 
Mackinac Island State Park Commission, the Michi- 
gan Cxeological and Biological Survey, the Michigan 
State Park Commission, and the State Game, Fish 
and Forest Fire Commissioner, were transferred to 
the new Department of Conservation. It was made 
the duty of this Department "to protect and con- 
serve the natural resources of the State of Michigan ; 
to prevent the destruction of timber by fire and other- 
wise; to promote reforesting of non-agricultural 


lands belonging to the state; to guard against the 
pollution of lakes and streams within the state; and 
to foster and encourage the protecting and propaga- 
tion of game and fish. On behalf of the people of 
the State, the Connnission of Conservation may ac- 
cept gifts and grants of land and other property for 
any of the purposes contemplated by this act." The 
investigation of the undeveloped natural water- 
power of the State was also made the duty of the 
Commission of Conservation, as well as to make a 
report to the governor and legislature before Janu- 
ary 15, 1923. 

The first appointments to the Conservation Com- 
mission were not wholly reassuring as to the char- 
acter of the work that was destined to be accomplished 
l)y it; and it is still too soon to pass judgment on 
this mooted point. It was hoped that somewhere in 
the act provision had by implication been made for 
a soil inventory, and, if not here, then in the act 
creating the Department of Agriculture. This, too, 
remains a matter of doubt. A backward step was 
taken by the Conservation Commission when it dis- 
continued the work of the topographical and biologi- 
cal survey previously conducted bA> the Michigan 
Geological Survey. Michigan cannot hope for ef- 
fective work in this department until scientific and 
administrative ability wholly replaces political con- 
siderations in the making of appointments to the 
Commission itself and in all departments of its 
work. To this new Department of Conservation, 
therefore, falls primarily the duty of promoting the 


conservation of the State's natural resources. 
Whether it will he ahle to accomplish anything of 
note remains to be seen. That the legislature failed 
specifically to recognize the great importance of a 
land inventory and soil classification is disappointing. 
It is true that such a soil survey is now under way 
under the a-gis of the oMichigan Agricultural Col- 
lege cooperating with the United States Bureau of 
Soils ; but the plan of the work does not seem to con- 
form to advanced conceptions of what such a sur- 
vey ought to be; nor in the work as now carried on 
is full use being made of all the scientific res(5TH=ces, 
personal and otherwise, available in the State, 
through cooperation of its expert talent from its in- 
stitutions of higher learning, the Geological Survey, 
and elsewhere. It is evidently too great and broad 
an undertaking for one investigator or department 
to have in charge without full cooperation with all 
available agencies for obtaining the largest results. 
Such forest policy as the State may be said to 
have dates from the year 1899 when the legislature 
created the Michigan Forestry Commission of three 
persons, including the Commissioner of the State 
Land Office, whose duty was described "to institute 
inquiry into the extent, kind, value and condition of 
the timl)er lands of tlie state; the amount of acres 
and value of timber that is cut and removed each 
year and the purpose for which it is used ; the extent 
to which the timber lands are being destroyed by 
fires, used by wasteful cutting or consumption, lum- 
bering, or for the purpose of clearing the land for 


tillage. It shall also inquire as to the effect of the 
diminution of timber and wooded surface of this 
state in lessening the rainfall and producing 
droughts, and the effects upon the ponds, rivers, 
lakes and the water-power and harbors of the state, 
and affecting the climate and disturbing and de- 
teriorating natural conditions."' It must make a 
study of second-growth timber, the protection, condi- 
tion and improvement of overflowed and stump lands. 
The Commissioner of the State Land Office was 
directed to withdraw from entry 200,000 acres of 
state tax homestead lands, and the Commission was 
authorized to receive conveyances of land from pri- 
vate sources. The Commission was to set before the 
legislature a forestry policy for the State, and the 
act carried an initial appropriation of $2,000 a year 
for inaugurating this work. The amount of this 
appropriation may be taken as the due measure of 
the importance of the work which the Forestry Com- 
mission had been set to perform as held by the com- 
bined legislative wisdom of the day. 

In 1901 the legislature placed lands m Roscommon 
and Crawford counties under the Forestry Commis- 
sion to be held as a permanent forest reserve. In 
1903 the State Land Commissioner was made Forest 
Commissioner, whose "orders shall be supreme in all 
matters relating to the preservation of the forests of 
this state and to the prevention and suppression of 
forest fires." By the same act township supervisors, 
mayors of cities and presidents of villages were made 
local fire wardens. The Forest Commissioner was 


directed to appoint a chief fire warden. His sal- 
ary, as might be expected, was only $500 a year. 
His duty was to enforce the provisions of ''this act 
throughout the state." Provision was made for in- 
vestigation and inquiry regarding the forests of 
the State and their protection from fire through the 
chief warden and his deputies, and such additional 
assistants as in an emergency might be necessary. 
With its usual niggardliness in such matters, the 
legislature put the daily wage of fire wardens at $2, 
one-third chargeable to the State and-Jie residue to 
the local municipality, but it set forth emphatically 
the responsibility and penalties for the careless or 
malicious setting of fires in woods and grass lands, 
provisions which, if they had ever been enforced, 
would have done much to solve the forest fire prob- 
lem in Michigan. An act of June 4 of the same 
year definitely designated lands in Crawford and 
Roscommon counties, described as "delinquent state 
tax, homestead, swamp and primary school lands," 
as a forest reserve under the control of the Forestry 
Commission, which was to place them in charge of a 
Forestry Warden and his deputies, for the purpose of 
protection and reforestation. The tract amounted 
to some 34,000 acres, and Filbert Roth, later head 
of the Department of Forestry of the University of 
Michigan, was appointed Forestry Warden. The 
reforestation was undertaken in 1904, the running 
of fire-lines in 1905. Restraining trespassers and 
disposing of dead and down timber was instituted. 


In his annual report^ Eoth set forth with clearness 
and emphasis the forest requirements of the State, 
the harm wrought by wasteful methods of manage- 
ment. His own policy with reference to the forest 
reserves was used, but as this proved unsatisfactory, 
a nursery at Higgins Lake was established. 

In 1907 the office of State Game, Fish and For- 
estry Warden was created out of the former offices 
of Chief Warden and Game and Fish Warden, which, 
unlike the Forestry Warden, was charged with gen- 
eral protective work throughout the State. It was 
obligatory on the deputies of the Game, Fish and 
Forestry Warden "to familiarize themselves by per- 
sonal investigation with the locality and the condi- 
tion of the cut-over lands, prairie lands and other 
districts in their respective counties where tires are 
most likely to start and spread, aiid to take such 
precautions as they shall deem reasonable and proper 
to prevent the starting or spreading of fires in such 
districts, and in doing so, may enter upon lands and 
remove or destroy brusli, rubbish and other danger- 
ous combustible material, wherever necessary." 
This provision of law, if it had remained more 
than a dead-letter, would have done much to relieve 
Michigan of the perennial losses from forest fires. 
The State Game, Fish and Forestry Warden has be- 
come the State Game, Fish and Forest Fire Com- 
missioner, but the fires burn as frequently and as 
fiercely as ever. The Forestry Warden became the 
State Forester, but he cannot obtain results without 


resources. The fatal flaw has been defective person- 
nel or defective resources for such personnel as was 
capable of achieving anything. 

In 1909 the Public Domain Commission was cre- 
ated. The Secretary of State, Auditor-General, the 
Commissioner of the State Land Office (after 1914 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction), and per- 
sons appointed by the governor from the Regents of 
the University of Michigan, the State Board of Agri- 
culture, and the Board of Control of the Michigan 
College of Mines on nomination of these bodies them- 
selves, composed the 'T. D. C," as common parlance 
styled it. The office of Immigration Commissioner 
was attached to this new body, which in 1915 also 
acquired the appointment of the State Game, Fish 
and Forestry Warden, whose designation later be- 
came the State Game, Fish and Forest Fire Com- 
missioner. There was also to be a State Forester 
to have charge of the forests, and a Chief of Field 
Division to attend to cases of trespass and in general 
look after the real estate operations of the Commis- 
sion. The secretaryship of the Public Domain Com- 
mission might have become an office of great impor- 
tance in the work of conservation which evidently 
had been in the minds of the sponsors of these altera- 
tions in the organic acts related to this subject. But 
scarcely any will claim that the secretaryship was 
ever held Ijy any one of aggressive tendencies or 
possessed of a well-defined progressive policy, so the 
position has continued to be largely clerical. 

Since the creation of the Michigan Forestry Com- 


mission in 1899, and its siipplanter, the Public Do- 
main Commission, definite areas of land, now aggre- 
gating 157,064.74 acres, have been set apart as State 
forests in the northern counties of the southern penin- 
sula and another on the Lake Superior shore of the 
northern peninsula. Fire-lines have been run, steel 
watch-towers have been erected, a small fire fighting 
force has been organized in relation to both the State 
and private forests, a small tree nursery for growing 
seedlings has boon established at Higgins Lake in 
Crawford County, plantations of several varieties of 
evergreen trees (at present white, Norway, Jack and 
Scotch pine) have been instituted in various State 
forests, amounting in 1920 to 9,124 acres. Exchanges 
of State lands with the United States and with pri- 
vate owners have been consummated for the purpose 
of consolidating present holdings; but the net result 
is egregiously inadequate in comparison with the 
demands of the existing situation. There are ten 
to twelve million acres of cut-over and undeveloped 
lands requiring attention, which it seems physically 
impossible to re-stock with a new forest-cover by arti- 
ficial means. Nature would accomplish very much 
unaided, but her efforts are frustrated by the lack 
of fire control and the utter inadequacy of the meas- 
ures taken. The efforts of the Public Domain Com- 
mission up to 1921 have been largely of a routine 
character. The laws relating to the burning of 
slashings and forest waste that constitute a fire men- 
ace, and to the malicious or careless starting of forest 
and grass fires, remain unenforced in most instances, 


nor have the penalties been applied. It would not 
be historically correct to say that nothing has been 
accomplished, bnt the achievement is pitifully dis- 
proportioned to the necessities of the existing situ- 

Undoubtedly :Michigan has lacked a constructive 
conservation policy and plan. The various activities 
under this head that the legislature has from time 
to time sought to create have l)een disorganized and 
unrelated. One boardjms dealt with fish propaga- 
tion, another with fish protection. The same agency 
was charged with game and with forest protection, 
although in the opinion of experts the work calls for 
differentiation between 'these two functions. The 
work assigned to the immigration commissioner was 
neglected. There was no organized cooperation be- 
tween the Michigan Agricultural College, the Uni- 
versity of ]\Iichigan and the IMichigan College of 
Mines, the State Geological Survey in the prosecu- 
tion of the State soil survey instituted in 1915 by 
the Agricultural College and resumed in 1920. There 
are drainage projects transcending the boundaries 
and resources of local drainage districts which might 
better be carried out by a State drainage department, 
but there is no such department. There is no com- 
plete survey of the inland waters of the State and 
their fish and other resources. Inadequate provision 
has been made for re-stocking the waters of the 
State with fish. There has been no mobilization of 
the abundant intelligences in undertaking a compre- 
hensive solution of these problems. 



The present highway system of Michigan comprises 
a network of about 75,000 miles^ constructed by 
townships, good roads districts, the counties, and the 
State. This is the order in which the adoption of 
road construction by the several kinds of districts 
was placed on the statute book. It will be observed 
that these districts represent an area successively 
larger than that covered by the earlier type, answer- 
ing to the growth of the State and the expansion of 
local interests. As a unit of road work the town- 
ship antedates statehood, and its road officials are 
the commissioner of highways and the overseer or 
overseers of highways. The voting of road taxes 
rests directly with the voters in their annual town- 
ship meetings or with the to^vnship boards. Two 
taxes are levied: the road repair tax is on taxable 
property within the township outside of incorporated 
villages; the highway improvement tax is on all 
property within the township including incorporated 
villages. Good roads districts, of which there are 
(1920) only three in the State, comprise a union 
of township and municipalities for road work. 

The act of the legislature of 1909 which estab- 
lished the present county road system was revolu- 
tionary in its effect, for it created a larger unit of 
road construction with an organization competent 
to carry out a comprehensive highway policy under 
ample financial support. As the law now stands, a 
board of county road commissioners, of throe mem- 


hers, elected at the autumnal elections in the even- 
numbered years, directs the county road system, which 
is financed by the county supervisors with State aid 
Acting only as an "administrative board/' the county 
road commission appoints a superintendent, or engi- 
neer, who is in direct charge of the highway work 
which the commission has undertaken. The com- 
mission adopts as part of the county system such 
roads within the county outside of c^ies and vil- 
lages as it may determine, and also roads within 
municipalities by agreement therewith. The tax for 
the county road is voted by the board of supervisors. 
The State assists highway construction and main- 
tenance through grants in aid to road districts, as 
just described, based on the character and dimen- 
sions of the road, and itself constructs and main- 
tains what are designated "state trunk-line high- 
ways," which are main through routes within the 
State, charging a portion of the cost to the counties 
traversed in accordance with a schedule in the case 
of federal aided roads based on the relation between 
trunk-line mileage and assessed valuation. This 
work is financed through the State's moiety of the 
tax on automobiles, the general property tax levied 
by the legislature, the sale of bonds, and the State's 
quota of the federal grant in aid of highway con- 
struction. The State Highway Commissioner and 
his corps of experts, with whom are associated an 
advisory board, administers the State Highway De- 
partment, Avliich prepares plans and specifications, 
determines the amount and recipients of State aid, 


lets contracts, and performs a variety of duties. Tlie 
act providing for the construction of liigliways by 
this department was enacted in 1919 and, up to 
June 30, 1920, 592 miles of trunk-line road were 
placed under construction by the State which, it 
was estimated, would cost nearly $10,000,000. It 
should be understood that trunk-line roads are not 
necessarily improved, but of the 5,500 miles in Michi- 
gan, 2,392 were improved up to the end of the fiscal 
year of 1920. At the same time, a total of 335 miles 
of federal-aided road had been placed under con- 
struction, to cost $5,633,000. The State Highway 
Department constructs bridges on State trunk-line 
highways, and 154 of these of more than thirty-feet 
span had been completed and G2 others had been 
placed under construction, to cost some $2,000,000.^ 
The State also maintains trunk-line highways and 
requires similar action on the part of districts re- 
ceiving State reward under penalty of a deduction 
of the cost of maintenance from any reward moneys 
that may accrue to such a delinquent district or of 
having the work done directly by the State and 
charged against the district. Many districts have 
instituted a regular patrol system. From May 1 to 
December 31, 1919, the State participated in the 
maintenance of 4,878 miles of trunk-line and federal 
aided road, at a total cost of $1,263,740, of which 
amount the State contributed 62.1 per cent.^ 

' "Eighth Biennial Rept. of the State Highway Commis- 
sionor." T.ansing, 1920, 7, 8. 
Ubid., 14. 

The "Covert Act" of 1915 provides a method bj- 
which the owners of GO per cent of tlie land fronting 
on a highway whicli it is desired to improve may 
petition for its improvement, whereon the county 
road commission or the State Highway Commissioner 
cooperates in the drafting of specifications and the 
letting of contracts. Such roads serve as feeders to 
main highways or links in incomplete systems, and 
have been constructed beyond \vhat was anticipated 
when the act was first adopted. 

Seven classes of roads are recognized by the law, 
in accordance with which the reward the State allows 
the road district responsible for construction is de- 
termined. Lowest in this classification is a road of 
class A — a sand-clay road, whose basic width of 
metalled surface is nine feet and whose grade does 
not exceed G per cent, except where circumstances 
warrant a departure from this maximum in accord- 
ance with specifications approved by the State High- 
way Commissioner. The reward is 25 per cent of 
the cost but may not exceed $3,000 a mile. To June 
30, 1920, 201 miles of road of this class had been 

The six remaining classes have similar require- 
ments as to grade, contour, and basic width, but 
vary the State reward according to the materials used 
and the width of roadway constructed. Thus a road 
of class B is composed of gravel or burnt shale. A 
class C road is made in two courses; at the bottom, 
crushed stone or slag, and a top course of gravel or 
blast furnace slag. D class roads have a bottom 


course of gravel or slag and a top of crushed stone. 
Of the gravel roads in class B, 3,415 miles had been 
built to June 30, 1920 ; while the roads in classes 
C and D were manifestly less favored, since only 286 
miles of class C and 11 miles of class D had been 
constructed at the same date. On the other hand, 
there had been constructed 783 miles of the class E 
type, which is a macadam road with or without a 
bituminous binder, and properly bonded. The con- 
crete type belongs to classes B, C, D and E, while 
classes F and are entitled to an additional $2,500 
a mile and trunk lines may receive State reward to 
50 per cent of their cost but not to exceed $15,000 
a mile. 

The surface sands and gravels of Michigan yield 
abundant material for the construction and main- 
tenance of roads. The United States Geological Sur- 
vey reports for 1919 a production of 2,639,483 short 
tons of gravel, 539,800 of building sand, 204,045 
of paving sand, and 67,916 of railway ballast, in 
addition to large quantities of sand used for manu- 
facturing and other purposes. There was undoubt- 
edly much material produced and used locally that 
did not appear in the record. In addition enormous 
quantities of waste rock from the iron and copper 
mines and from the quarries are available and are 
similarly employed. ^luch use also is made of the 
stamp-mill sand that is a by-product of stamp-mill 
operations along Portage Lake and Lake Superior 
in the copper region. 



The preliminary report of the United States Cen- 
sus for 1930 rehitive to drainage in Michigan shows 
that on December 31, 1919, Hillsdale County had 
204,165 acres in organized drainage enterprises. 
Similar figures for Jaeksoh County Avere 76,139 
acres; for Lenawee, 275,535; Monroe, 251,387; Wash- 
tenaw, 193,284; and Wayne 259,667. This indi- 
cates that the percentage of each county in drain- 
age enterprises was as follows: Hillsdale, 53.4; Jack- 
son, 16.8; Lenawee, 58; Monroe, 68.6; Washtenaw, 
36.5; and Wayne, 65.4. In Allegan County 58.8 
per cent of the area is in drainage enterprises; in 
Barry, 40.3 ; in Eaton, 95 ; Ionia, ^79.1 ; Kent, 26.5 ; 
Montcalm, 33.1; and Ottawa, 71. In Berrien County 
the percentage was 33.7; in Branch, 48.3; Calhoun, 
57.8; Cass, 20.3; Kalamazoo, 22.1; St. Joseph, 10.5; 
Van Buren, 44.1; Benzie-Charlevoix, .2; Chippewa, 
1.8; Emmet, .5; Grand Traverse, .6; Manistee, 3.4; 
Missaukee, 8.4 

The bulletin on Drainage in ]\Iichigan, a part of 
the Fourteenth United States Census, notes that 
drainage enterprises are confined largely to the most 
southerly forty-seven counties of the Lower Penin- 
sula. The total works completed by the drainage 
enterprises to December 31, 1919, comprise 16,023.8 
miles of open ditches, 2,173.9 miles of tile-drains, 
and 33.1 miles of accessory levees. Under con- 
struction were 118.4 miles of ditches and 8.4 miles 
of tile-drains. These figures do not include drains 


or levees installed by individual farm owners, 
supplemental to the works of the enterprises, nor 
the works of flood protection or levee districts that 
had not undertaken the construction of ditches or 
tile-drains. There are three pumping districts for 
land drainage among the enterprises in Michigan. 
The Census found the principal crojis grown upon 
the drained lands to be wheat, corn and sugar-beets. 
The aggregate area of the farm land that was re- 
ported as provided with drainage is 3,156,632 acres. 
The area of farm land reported as needing drainage is 
given as 2,070,387. The area requiring drainage only 
is 579,813 acres, while that requiring both drainage 
and clearing is given as 1,490,574 acres. The total 
land in operating drainage enterprises, which include 
the completion of drainage works authorized or which 
had begun actual construction work on or before 
January 1, 1920, is 9,729,171 acres, which includes 
7,182,352 acres of improved land, and which consti- 
tutes 55.6 per cent of all improved land in farms. 
The timbered and cut-over land in these enterprises 
is estimated at 2,195,562 acres, and of other unim- 
proved land, 351,257 acres. The area of land that 
is swampy or subject to overflow in these enterprises 
is 1,020,207. The area that suffers a loss of crops 
from defective drainage is put at 692,224 acres. The 
total assessed acreage is 15,766,478. The aggregate 
capital invested in or required for the completion of 
operating enterprises is $25,048,980. 

Michigan's first comprehensive drainage law was 
enacted in 1839, but the present county drain sys- 


tern was established by Act 254 of the legislative 
session of 1897. The Miller and Simons report on 
drainage of 1918 gave the number of county drain 
commissioners in the State as seventy, of whom 
sixty-three were serving in the southern peninsula 
and seven in the northern. Thirteen counties had 
no drain commissioiiers, namely Antrim, Crawford, 
Kalkaska, Oscoda and Otsego in the Lower Penin- 
sula; and Baraga, Dickinson, Houghton, Gogebic, 
Iron, Keweenaw, Mackinac and Schoolcraft in the 
Upper Peninsula. The report states that during the 
twenty years, 1898-1917, expenditures on county 
drains were made in sixty-three of the eighty-three 
counties of the State, while Alcona, Antrim, Craw- 
ford, Kalkaska, Leelanau, Montmorency, Ogemaw, 
Otsego and Oscoda in the Lower Peninsula, and 
Alger, Baraga, Delta, Dickinson, Gogebic, Hough+on 
Iron, Keweenaw, Luce, Marquette and Schoolciaft 
in the Upper Peninsula, had spent nothing for this 

Miller and Simons criticize the Michigan drain- 
age system as "piece-meal"' in design and execution, 
. lacking a well-planned outlet with a network of 
laterals. "Too often small drains," they observe, 
"constructed independently, without following any 
general plan have resulted in discharging the water 
from the individual drains into existing natural or 
artificial water-courses which already may be over- 
taxed; resulting in the flooding of the lower lying 
lands, thus aggregating the necessity for improve- 


ments of the water-courses. . . . The tendency in 
the construction of county drains in Michigan has 
too often been to limit the size and depth in order 
that they might be of a type readily constructed by 
teams and scrapers or, as in many cases, by hand." 
This necessitates reconstruction with all the legal 
performance that must accompany it.^ 

]\Iiller and Simons compute that, under the pres- 
ent Michigan drainage law, al)out 9,300 drains have 
been constructed, whose aggregate length is approxi- 
mately 20,000 miles and cost approximately $18,- 
000,000. The law provides for the payment of costs 
by the beneficiaries in not to exceed three install- 
ments, and the investigators compute that some 60 
per cent of the drains has been paid for in one in- 
stallment and the remainder largely in not to ex- 
ceed two installments. Miller and Simons point out 
that the rights of property owners are amply pro- 
tected in the Michigan drain law, and that exces- 
sive costs have usually been avoided and litigation 
almost wholly so. On the other hand it has fre- 
quently, in a proposed drainage project, been impos- 
sible to secure the requisite majority of interested 
property owners' signatures to the petition request- 
ing the establishment of a drain ; and the inability 
of the drain commissioner, as against the petitioners, 
to determine the route and area of the drainage dis- 
trict, has operated to the detriment of a^ project 
that would better have been constructed on other 
* Miller and Simons: "Drainage in Michigan," 28. 

412 RURAL MIL! Ilia AN 

lines and specifications than that which was pro- 
posed.^ The Michi«j-an draina<,'-e law is also criti- 
cized becansc of a lack of provision for adequate and 
definite estimates of cost in advance of construction. 
There is often a lack of competent engineering ad- 
vice before construction is uiylertaken, resulting in 
ineffective drains produced at nigh cost. The method 
of cleaning out drains is criticized as needlessly 
cumbersome; it is suggested that an annual main- 
tenance tax for this work should simplify the process 
and insure better results. The present law is criti- 
cized because it fails to provide for access to an exist- 
ing drain by a laud-owner whose land is not tra- 
versed by it, save by resort to the detailed pro- 
cedure laid down for the original construction of a 
project. Projects involving outlets of considerable 
extent, draining wet lands that can produce nothing 
until such outlets are established, sufi'er from the lack 
of provision for the issue of bonds by drainage dis- 
tricts whereby the expenditure can be deferred until 
production is instituted on the drained lands. 

It will appear from the preceding paragraph that 
.the county is the unit for drainage and reclamation 
operations in Michigan. There are drainage pro- 
jects, however, which greatly transcend county boun- 
daries and financial resources for their accomplish- 
ment. An example is the Saginaw basin and the dis- 
trict tributary to the Taquemon River of the Upper 
Peninsula. In the case of the Saginaw, evidently the 
drain commissioner of no one county is competent to 
'lUd., 52. 


determine the scope and execution of the project as 
a whole. Drainage operations on the upper reaches 
of the tributaries of this stream will most snrely 
affect the interests of the cities adjacent to the lower 
river; while if these municipal interests are to de- 
termine the whole project, the drainage of the low- 
lying overflowed lands above these municipalities is 
directly affected. Drainage operations involving the 
deepening of the channel of the Manistique or the 
Taquemon, which will require extensive channeling 
in solid rock, will involve a financial outlay doubt- 
less beyond the means of local drainage districts to 
provide. To meet the requirements of situations 
such as these, and to prepare plans and specifications 
for the larger drainage projects, apportion costs, ad- 
just differences, and develop a comprehensive drain- 
age system for the entire State with reference to the 
general good, seems to l^e the proper function of a 
state drainage department. Although its establish- 
ment has from time to time been broached, as yet the 
legislature has not taken the necessary action, unless 
it may be considered to have been comprised in the 
newly created departments of conservation or of 
agriculture.'- 'i 

The glacial topography of Michigan, as indicated 
in Chapter I, has created large tracts of land which 
can only be recovered to agricultural uses through 
artificial drainage. It is estimated that there are 

' See Miller and Simons : "Drainage in IMichigan," Lan- 
sing, 1918, 58ff. This monograph was prepared with spe- 
cial view to the information of the legislature (session of 
1919) which was expected to consider this subject. 


4,400,000 such acres. The statute provides that 
"drains may be located, established, constructed and 
maintained, and drains and water courses may be 
cleaned out, straightened, widened, deepened and ex- 
tended, whenever the same shall be conducive to the 
public health, convenience or welfare.'' The super- 
vision of drainage operations is placed under the 
county drain commissioners, chosen in every county, 
if the requirements of law are observed, at the regu- 
lar November elections in alternate years. Before 
the act of 1897, drainage was an affair of the town- 
ships. The drain commissioner acts only on appli- 
cation of at least one-half of the freeholders of the 
land traversed thereby. The commissioner tenta- 
tively determines the location of the proposed drain, 
the right-of-way is secured by release or condemna- 
tion proceedings, and, when the required hearings 
and official determinations have taken place, a final 
order of determination is issued fixing the route of 
the drain and the boundaries of the special assess- 
ment district which must meet its cost, together with 
the apportionment of costs among the beneficiaries. 
The work is done on contract with the land-owners 
or the lowest responsible bidder, whoever he may be. 
When drains traverse more than one county, the 
statute provides for the appointment of special com- 
missioners to act with the regular county drain com- 
missioners in locating the drains and apportioning 
costs, and in case of a failure to agree, provision is 
made for an appeal to the State Highway Commis- 
sioner as arbitrator. Drainage of State swamp lands 


is now under the control of the county drain com- 

As a factor in development, the drainage of the 
Avet lands of Michigan is extremely important. Col- 
lating the results of studies by Miller and Simons 
and by Leverett, it is estimated that in the Lower 
Peninsula ll.C) per cent of the area is swamp and 
lake. In the northern peninsula 25 per cent of the 
area is estimated of the same character, but infor- 
mation is less definite here. This works out to 4,146 
square miles of lake and swamp in the Upper Pen- 
insula. Leverett suggests that one-fourth of this is 
capable of drainage. Miller and Simons' estimate is 
similar to Leverett's, namely, 2,598,000 acres, which 
amounts to 24.6 per cent of the area of the Upper 
Peninsula. However, these investigators, in the ab- 
sence of sufficient data, did not estimate the reclaim- 
able wet lands. Leverett estimates that one-fourth 
of the wet lands of the northern peninsula are ca- 
pable of drainage. 

In the southern peninsula, Leverett estimates the 
lake and swamp area at 11.6 per cent, while Miller 
and Simons approximate this area, with their in- 
clusion of 2,175,000 acres, which works out approxi- 
mately 12 per cent of the aggregate southern penin- 
sula area. In the northern twenty-one counties of 
this peninsula, which is also the area of sandy waste 
lands, Miller and Simons estimate that there are 
661,000 acres of reclaimablo wet land. During the 
five-year period, 1913-1917, fifty-seven counties of 
both peninsulas expended on the construction of 


drainage projects $5,917,G10.50, and the area as- 
sessed for this work amounted to 3,214,500 acres. ^ 
Among these counties only three, Mackinac, Menomi- 
nee and Ontonagon, are in the Upper Peninsula, 
where, as yet, little artificial drainage has been under- 
taken. In his most recent report on the lands of 
the northern twenty-nine ctrftiitics of the Lower 
Peninsula, Leverett estimates their area of lake, 
swamp and wet lands at 4,3G5 square miles. The 
State Geologist calls attention to the fact that some 
22 per cent of the soils of the southern peninsula are 
clay and thus susceptible of improvement through 
drainage ; and he also points out that of the lands 
capable of drainage, extensive areas may be unsuited 
to agriculture, because of the presence of a saudy bot- 
tom or sub-stratum. 

* "Drainage in Michigan," facing p. 25. 



At a time when Michigan, as elsewhere, is suffer- 
ing from low prices of agricultural products, one 
occasionally hears a protest against any agitation 
for developing the waste lands^, whereby additional 
farm products will be sent to a market already over- 
crowded with unsalable commodities or those sal- 
able at unremunerative prices. The man of the 
north country must take a different view of this 
problem. He observes that, in the end, it is de- 
sirable to take the broad view of any economic ques- 
tion; that the development of national resources, 
wherever they are and of whatever sort, is the funda- 
mental American doctrine and normal reaction. 
Along this line America has grown great. If Michi- 
gan agriculture is now suffering, this is primarily 
due to defects of distribution rather than to over- 
production. The present situation is undoubtedly 
temporary and a normal basis of prices will be 
reached long before any large portion of the cut- 
over lands is brought under cultivation. Develop- 
ment is a very slow process, and the products of the 
new lands will only very gradually reach the outside 
market. Indeed, much of this product will be lo- 


418 RURAL MICniGxiN 

cally consumed. Nor is it proposed to place all or 
any large proportion of the ten million idle acres 
nnder the plow. Large areas should be planted to 
new forests to replace the old ones that once occu- 
pied these lands. Other portions will go into ranches 
for grazing. Other parts will be employed in horti- 
culture, whose products will be locally absorbed with- 
out any a])preciable effect on the general market for 
farm products. 

Those who purchase northern cut-over lands are 
either of recent European origin, whose financial re- 
sources are too meager to allow them to buy improved 
farms; or they are ranchers who desire tracts much 
more extensive than could profitably be acquired in 
the more developed sections of the State. By all 
means the foreign population should be encouraged 
to get back to the land. Many cannot afford high- 
priced improved lands ; but with labor and sweat they 
will improve the rough stump areas, make a home in 
what was recently a wilderness, and develop taxable 
property where formerly lands went delinquent for 
the non-payment of taxes, thereby easing the tax 
burden for the entire State. 

The progressive improvement of cut-over areas 
diminishes the forest-fire and brush-fire danger. The 
source of the grasshopper pest is in these same tracts 
of wild grass and brush lands. Finally it should 
be recognized that the productivity of the farms in 
the older sections of the State is declining because 
of the too continuous cropping of the land and soil 
erosion. It would be better to turn to the virgin 


soils of the north country, giving these over-worked 
farms of the south a rest, permitting them to re- 
turn to grass or forest for a period. 

If it is true that farmers cannot make a fair return 
on their investment in the older sections of the 
State, that may be attributed to the too high valua- 
tion which they place on their holdings. If they 
were to capitalize their net return at the current rate 
of interest, they would probably find that such is 
the case. It would seem to be better, then, that these 
farmers should reduce their capital investment in 
lands by purchasing greater acreage at less cost far- 
ther north. It is not too far north to obtain a high 
return of farm products to the acre. 

The Michigan Academy of Science held a sympo- 
sium on the idle lands of the State at the University 
of Michigan, ^ilarch 31 to April 2, 1920. On the 
thesis, "Michigan's undeveloped area represents one 
of the few great reserves of land suited to agricul- 
tural purposes, awaiting development," J. F. Cox 
of the Michigan Agricultural College pointed out 
that the agricultural progress of the northern cut- 
over areas had been liampered by the extreme vari- 
ability of the quality of the soil, leading to the selec- 
tion by settlers of lands too poor for agriculture, too 
remote from developed markets, as well as to 
the lack of skill in farm practice on the part of the 

He points out that, "generally speaking, the better 
f^andy loams, loams and clays of the entire cut-over 
country are well adapted to cloxer. grasses and 


other forase crops, wliich can be depended upon to 
furnish excellent pastures and meadows. .... The 
better types of soils are naturally seeded to June 
grass, alsike clover and timothy. The heavier loams, 
clay loams and clays, where second-growth is not 
too thick, carry good pastures throughout the sum- 
mer seasons. On the lighter loams, the pasture 
tends to dry up and run short. The light pine and 
hardwood soils and jack-pine plains are of little 
value for grazing purposes, except for a very brief 
period in late spring and early summer, when they 
offer light grazing. 

"After clearing, the loams, clay loams and clay 
can be depended upon to produce excellent crops of 
rye, barley, oats, spring wheat, root crops, peas and 
oats, and buckwheat. Winter wheat is gaining rap- 
idly in acreage, and bids fair to become a dependable 
crop on adapted soils. 

"Corn can be depended upon on the above-named 
soils for silage purposes in the lower part of Meno- 
minee and Delta counties, throughout the northern 
part of the Lower Peninsula and along the southern 
shore on adapted soils of the Upper Peninsula. Early 
varieties are dependable for grain, but these regions 
cannot be termed 'corn lands' in the sense that corn 
can compete with barley or oats as a feed grain. 

"The well-drained loams and sandy loams of north- 
ern Michigan, in general, are splendidly adapted to 
potatoes. It is well within the realm of possibility 
that northern Michigan will become one of the great- 
est centers of potato production in the United States. 


"One of the problems of feeders, who have recently 
brought stock into upper Michigan, is to provide for 
winter feed. Summer pasturage is plentiful. The 
clearing of more land for the production of barley, 
rye and oats for grain feed, of silage, root crops and 
clover and timothy hay, and alfalfa to winter over 
stock, will make this business much more secure. 

"Certain areas of the Upper Peninsula can pro- 
duce all crops necessary to sustain a thriving dairy 
and livestock development. The Ontonagon valley, 
for instance, a great range of approximately 250,000 
acres of strong clays and clay loams of high fertility, 
can produce the grass, grains and winter feed such 
as roots, peas and oats, or possibly sunflowers and 
early corn varieties for silage to maintain a profitable 
dairying or beef -cattle industry. 

"The same condition exists in Chippewa County, 
which has been a profitably farmed timothy and 
small grain region for a number of years. Great 
diversity of crops and proper drainage in both these 
regions is advisable. 

"In Menominee, Delta, Dickinson and part of Al- 
ger counties are large areas of loams, and less ex- 
tensive areas of clay loams, well adapted to farming 
which have been taken up to a comparatively small 
extent. Loams and better sandy loams of this region 
offer excellent conditions for potato growing. The 
rotation of rye or spring-seeded small grains with 
clover is well adapted. 

"In the northern part of the Lower Peninsula and 
the Upper Peninsula considerable development has 

422 I.' I If A L MK'HKIAN 

been accomplished on the better lands, but there still 
remain large areas of excellent land awaiting 
clearing. ^^ 

"In briefly stating the situation, the following facts 
stand out : 

"1. Michigan possesses a vast area of undeveloped 

"•2. For the mopt part this land is stump land or 
poorly drained land, which will require considerable 
time and expense to prepare for cropping. 

"3. Long-time loans at a low rate of interest would 
be of great help to individual farmers. 

"4. The soils are extremely variable. A compara- 
tively large acreage is well adapted to farming, and 
an even larger acreage can be termed unsuited for 
farming under present conditions. 

"5. The agricultural possibilities of this area are 
frequently misrepresented to the detriment of its 

"G. With proper crops, under the right conditions, 
a great development of successful farm communi- 
ties can be made, much to the benefit of the 

"•7. Forest fires cause great damage to incoming 
settlers, a great loss to standing timber and the young 
growth, and injury to soils through burning out of 
organic matter. More adequate forest-fire regula- 
tions to remove this menace is necessary. 

"8. A state agricultural and soil survey to prop- 
erly designate the value of land for farming, graz- 


ing and forestr}' purposes and adequate fire control 
are necessary for the sound and reasonably rapid 
development of Michigan idle lands. 

"9. Settlers must in all cases be established on 
the good lands only and prevented by an interested 
state from dissipating their energies on land which 
cannot be profitably worked. In no case should they 
be permitted to be persuaded by the occasional igno- 
rant or unscrupulous land dealer to settle on jack 
pine and light blueberry plains and other inferior 
areas. . . . 

"10. Michigan's northern country has been repre- 
sented both as a great desert from an agricultural 
standpoint, and as 'cloverland/ a coming Eden. 
Somewhere between the two statements lies the truth. 
On the whole, Michigan has in her undeveloped 
northern country a region of great agricultural po- 
tentiality, which, if properly developed as farming 
land, grazing land and forestry land, in accordance 
with its fitness from a soil and climatic standpoint, 
will add materially to the wealth and prosperity of 
the state." ^ 

At this session of the Michigan Academy of Sci- 
ence, it was resolved that the proper procedure for 
the reclamation of Michigan's non-productive area 
should be as follows: "1. That an inventory be made 
of the land resources of Michigan by counties. This 
inventory should constitute a series of county reports, 

^"Michigan Tfllo Land.'" Reprinted from tlie 22d Report, 
Mich. Acad, of Science, 1021, 21. 


accompanied by map? along the following lines : a. 
Nature of physical conditions, b. Present economic 
conditions, together with the record of present and 
past experiences in the use of the area. c. A classi- 
fication of the land according to its highest indicated 

"3. That in the study of the physical conditions of 
the land (a) first and chief attention be given to 
soil conditions, with a classification of soils which 
will recognize their genesis and which will give maxi- 
mum emphasis to their distinguishing qualities. 

(b) That climate bo adequately considered as a fac- 
tor in utilization; and (c) that topography, drainage, 
location, and the size of areas of unit characteristics 
be separately recognized and considered as factors 
affecting possible use. 

"3. That an intensive study of land economics be 
made for each area on the manner of present utili- 
zation of the land and the history of its use. In con- 
nection with this study there should be determined 
(a) extent of idleness of the land, (b) the different 
types of use to which land is now being put, and 

(c) the returns from the several uses and the place of 
these uses in an economy of the area. 

"4. That the land of Michigan shall be classified 
into a series of classes on the basis of return, or an- 
ticipated return, ranging from land suited to highest 
grade and most permanent agriculture through graz- 
ing and forest land to permanent waste land. 

"5. That the work of this survey be carried out 
with the fullest utilization of the scientific personnel 


in the State and in consultation^ and if feasible in 
cooperation, with the proper federal agencies." ^ 

As compared with such highly developed agricul- 
tural states as Iowa and Illinois, Michigan possesses 
very large tracts of lands not yielding any products 
of economic importance. Such lands have been esti- 
mated to amount to ten million acres. To derive 
some sort of output of economic value from these 
unproductive areas is in part the purpose of three 
development bureaus that have been established, two 
in the southern peninsula and one in the northern. 

The Northeastern Michigan Development Bureau 
was incorporated as an association "not for pecuniary 
profit," January 31, 1910, and comprised within its 
interest the counties of Alpena, Alcona, Arenac, Bay, 
Cheboygan, Crawford, Clare, Gladwin, Iosco, Mont- 
morency, Midland, Ogemaw, Oscoda, Otsego, Presque 
Isle, Eoscommon, and Saginaw. The secretary's of- 
fice is at Bay City. The Western Michigan Develop- 
ment Bureau operates in a group of twenty counties 
in the western and northwestern section of the Lower 
Peninsula, as far south as Ottawa and Kent counties, 
and as far north as Emmet County, while extension 
to the Indiana line in 1921 was planned. Its Articles 
of Association, as amended May 1, 1912, set forth 
that the bureau is organized for the purpose of "the 
encouragement and advancement of agriculture, 
manufactures and the mechanic arts" in its territory. 
The secretary's office is at Grand Eapids. All the 
territory within the Upper Peninsula falls within 

^Ibid., 2, 


the scope of the Upper Peninsula Development Bu- 
reau, described in its report for 1919, as "an insti- 
tution designed to contribute towards and assist 
in every way possible the growth, progress and de- 
velopment of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan 
... by assisting in every way possible individuals, 
corporations and organizations within the Peninsula, 
and to reach out for greater expansion by attracting 
individuals and organizations from without." The 
secretary's office is at Marquette. 

The secretary of the Northeastern ]\Iichigan De- 
velopment Bureau describes the association as "an 
agricultural board of trade," and in its literature 
are featured the agricultural advantages, including 
fruit-culture, live-stock, and summer vacation aspects 
of the district. The secretary of the Western Michi- 
gan Development Bureau calls attention to the in- 
troduction of G51 settlers into this territory in one 
year, together with settlers' movables ; the promo- 
tion of good roads (claiming the origination of the 
West Michigan Pike, and a share in the starting of 
the Mackinac Trail) ; while many meetings among 
farmers were held, "for the purpose of inculcating 
better methods of farming." The three bureaus, 
having regard for the great acreage of cut-over grass- 
lands in their territory, have promoted grazing, es- 
pecially sheep culture, and have sought the intro- 
duction of sheep from the western ranges, especially 
in seasons of drought. The Upper Peninsula De- 
velopment Bureau (organized in 1911) has inter- 
ested itself in the settlement of cut-over lands, intro- 


duction of sheep and cattle from the western ranges, 
the tourist business, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence 
Waterway project, the destruction of noxious ani- 
mals, good roads, introduction of new industries, 
and whatever else may appear to promise the indus- 
trial and agricultural improvement of the country. 

All the development bureaus issue pamphlets re- 
plete with descriptive matter pertaining to their ter- 
ritory, praising their good qualities, emphasizing 
characteristic products and the possibility of pro- 
ducing crops as yet not characteristic of the region, 
their advantage in relation to fruit-culture, grazing, 
general farming, raw material, their scenic attractive- 
ness and recreational advantages, and whatever may 
appear to have interest for the prospective home- 
seeker in these less developed areas of the State. 
Eesults are hardly capable of a statistical presenta- 
tion, 3?et one gathers the impression that these ef- 
forts are not useless from the standpoint of attract- 
ing attention to the section and occasionally settlers 

The sandy lands of Michigan occupy millions of 
acres in all sections but predominant in the northern 
peninsula. Their area cannot be stated definitely 
until a comprehensive soil survey and classification 
lias been carried to completion. These were the old 
pine lands referred to in Chapter IT. Here the prob- 
lem is to determine what crops, forest or field, can 
lie grown profitaldy to such an extent that a liveli- 
liood from the land may be secured. Experimental 
work has been conducted by private agencies rather 

428 RURAL MlCruaAN 

than by the Michigan Agricultural College, in the 
Upper Peninsula chiefly under the encouragement of 
the Upper Peninsula Development Bureau in co- 
operation with county agric-uTtural agents and the 
land commissioner of the Duluth, South Shore and 
Atlantic Eailway. In the Lower Peninsula, Edward 
E. Evans of West Branch has specialized in farm 
crops for sandy soils, producing and distributing 
seeds of many varieties. Sand vetch and, for the 
still lighter soils, the wood-pea have been found suit- 
able. For sandy soils in northern Michigan sara- 
della and sainfoin are also thought to have possibili- 
ties of useful culture, while lupines, although con- 
sidered as possibly useful, have not been demon- 
strated a valuable crop as yet. The yellow and white 
annual sweet clover, Swedish "golden rain" oats, 
broad bean, soybean, hidalgo-pea, lentil, and other 
imported types have been taken account of, but it is 
now too early for definite values to be assigned them 
for sandy lands in general, although in restricted 
areas in some instances good results appear to have 
been obtained. The energetic pursuit of this field 
of investigation may, in the next few years, determine 
positively what sandy soils are capable of accomplish- 
ing in the agriculture of Michigan. 

Near Grayling, Crawford County, in the sandy 
land area of the Lower Peninsula, the Northeastern 
Development Bureau, in cooperation with the Michi- 
gan Agricultural College, has recently undertaken 
experimental investigations of crops adapted to the 


light sandy soils of the region. The projects are 
described as having to do "with the nse of lime, 
potash, acid phosphate, with such crops as vetch, 
peas, oats, sweet clover, alfalfa, etc." The demon- 
strations are in charge of the extension department 
of the College and its soils department. The Grand 
Eapids and Indiana Eailway some five years ago 
began cooperative work at the demonstration farm 
at Howard City and demonstration plats at Cadillac 
and Big Eapids. Various clover, vetches, lupines, and 
the like, were tried out. This work was interrupted 
by the war. This bureau is particularly favorable 
to the annual white sweet clover, or "Hubam" which, 
with vetch, is regarded as the best soil-builder. 

Agriculture in the northern counties of the south- 
ern peninsula and the whole of the Upper Peninsula 
presents not only problems of soil and markets but 
also of climate. It has, therefore, been necessary to 
determine, from these points of view, what crops 
and methods must be employed if success is to be 
the reward of rural industry. Trial and experience 
seem to demonstrate that the climate is too cool for 
corn to mature over much of the area, except in an 
exceptionally favoral)le season and in the southern 
counties of the district. Beans likewise are not 
adapted, although under exceptional conditions good 
crops have been secured. On the sandy loams and 
medium loams, such crops as clover, beans, peas, rye, 
vetch, buckwheat, corn, potatoes, root-crops and small- 
fruit do well; while the heavier soils produce also 


crops of timothy, wheat, oats and harley.^ While 
climate and soil conditions are regarded .as favorable 
to the sugar-beet, its culture is confined to the south- 
western portion of the (!Tstrict, west of Lake TNIichi- 
gan. All root-crops seem to thrive here; while the 
almost unfailing rainfall of the growing season is 
favorable to forage crops and live-stock. However, 
with live-stock there remains the problem of winter 
feeding, which is not insoluble and perhaps not more 
serious than drought feeding in the southern coun- 
ties. Eecent success in the growing of sunflowers for 
ensilage may solve this problem, although expert 
opinion is not unanimous in regard to the value of 
the crop. On the heavy clays, principally in Chip- 
pewa County, hay does exceptionally well, and has 
been largely exported from the region. There being 
no large cities in the district, the absence of large 
local markets must be considered. Expert opinion 
seems to favor the region as a dairy section, and there 
is now a considerable traffic in milk and cream both 
local and by railway to urban markets within and 
without the district. 

In estimating the dairy possibilities of the region, 
the human factor must also be considered. The large 
foreign population, particularly Scandinavian and 
Finnish, is attracted naturally to dairying. Sheep- 
raising on the large cut-over ranges has been pro- 
moted in both peninsulas, but the consensus of expert 
local opinion seems to favor the industry in the hands 

'Walker & McDowell: "Farming on Cut-over Lands of 
Mich.," U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull., 425, p. 4. 











.— H 









































of persons familiar witli the country rather than 
by incoming ranchers from the western ranges. 
Sheep-raising on a moderate scale by local farmers 
has made good many times. In weighing the agri- 
cultural possibilities of the region, it must be recog- 
nized that the proximity of the Great Lakes is a 
factor of great importance, causing climatic condi- 
tions to vary markedly within a few miles back from 
the shore line. This is to be considered in relation 
to fruit husbandry, which in areas adjacent to the 
lakes on suitable land has been remarkably success- 
ful. However, care must be taken in selecting the 
varieties of fruit. From the list of apples, the as- 
sistant state leader of county agents in the Upper 
Peninsula has selected the Wealthy and Northwest- 
ern Greening as, on the whole, the types to be favored 
here. The Secretary of the State Horticultural So- 
ciety favors the Macintosh Red. Berries, including 
currants, gooseberries, blackberries, red raspberries, 
and strawberries are universally, both in the wild and 
domesticated state, grown in the district. Plums and 
cherries produce on occasion in a very remarkable 
abundance, while pears yield not so well. Garden 
vegetables in wide variety do very well. 

In the opinion of the special investigators of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, who 
studied agricultural conditions and described them 
in a bulletin published in 191fi, "mixed farming 
rather than a highly specialized type is apparently 
well adapted to the majority of farms in this dis- 
trict." The study embraced 801 farms in the cut- 


over divstrict of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 
where the average investment for each farm was 
$(j,85G, and the family income $559. In addition, 
if free of deht, the family had what the farm could 
furnish for its living. If income is small, so are ex- 
penses among persons whose standard of living is 
not so highly developed as among the old American 
stock. Grouping the farms by size and family in- 
come, the investigation brought out the fact that, 
of the farms investigated, those having an area of 
20 tillable acres or less, the family income was $213. 
Farms of 20 to 40 acres gave a family income of 
$339; of 40 to GO acres, $533; of 60 to 80 acres, 
$G22 ; 80 to 100 acres, $939 ; 100 to 140 acres, $1,179 ; 
over 140 acres, $1,586.^ This shows the steadily 
increased income with the addition of tillable area. 
The investigators observe that "the little farm well 
tilled may succeed, and frequently does succeed in 
this area, but the prospects are brighter for the 
larger farm if that larger farm has sufficient area 
under cultivation. Among the records there are 
those of quite a number of farms, having satisfac- 
tory labor incomes on less than forty acres of cleared 
land, but these farms have rich soil, exceptionally 
good livestock, and, as a rule, a considerable acreage 
of woods pasture. A family engaged in general farm- 
ing may make a fair living on a farm with forty 
acres under cultivation and should be able to make 
money with 80 to IGO acres under cultivation. The 

^ "Farming on the Cut-over Lands of Michigan," etc., 
supra, 9, 10. 


rapid enlargement of the cultivated area on each 
farm, when it can be done economically, is the first 
and most important agricultural problem in this 
district and the one that has the widest and most 
general application." ^ 

It has been shown statistically that there is no 
labor income on farms with a large area unimproved. 
To operate such a farm involves a disproportionate 
outlay for taxes and interest on lands yielding small 
or no return. Thus in the 801 farms under investi- 
gation as above noted, whose average acreage was 
108, it was ascertained that farms with less than 
forty tillable acres had a minus labor income, while 
only those farms possessing a tillable area of eighty 
acres or more had a labor income above $100. Mani- 
festly, then, it is uneconomic to hold large areas of 
unimproved lands, except where new and favorable 
developments can be anticipated. This is the ra- 
tionale of the vigorous campaigns for stump re- 
moval that has characterized some of the cut-over 
districts of the State since the war period. In the 
summer of 19"^ 1, it was planned actively to promote 
land clearing in the Upper Peninsula under expert 
guidance through the extension department of the 
Michigan Agricultural College. 

The Department of Agriculture investigators re- 
ported a lack of crop rotation on the newer cut-over 
farms under review, while the more successful of the 
older farms had developed it definitely. The rota- 

* "Farming on the Cut-over Lands of Michigan," etc., 
supra, !), 10. 


tion most successful was that of grains, legumes 
and inter-tilled crops. These were grown in a three- 
or four-year rotation. In the latter grain was the 
crop for the first year, for the second year, hay; the 
third year, hay or pasture ; and the fourth year, inter- 
tilled crops. The three-year rotation was in general 
use where pasture on undeveloped land was abundant. 

The clearing of cut-over lands obviously calls for 
much heavy labor, and this seems favorable to cer- 
tain sturdy European stocks inured and willing to 
labor under rough conditions and with low initial 
returns. During the early years of farm-making, 
there is opportunity for work in the woods during the 
winter and always for additional land-clearing opera- 
tions. Indeed, most farmers of the northern cut- 
over country are only part-time agriculturists, de- 
voting a fair proportion of their time to lumbering 
or other pursuits to augment the family income. 

In the farm economy, care must be taken not to 
grow more vegetables and small-fruits than can be 
taken care of at home, except where urban markets 
are available. On the other hand, the farm will pro- 
duce ample supplies of fuel from its timber and 
slashings, with fence-posts and stakes, not only for 
home use but also for shipment to outside markets. 
Lumber, stone, sand and gravel are usually locally 

At Escanaba, in the heart of the cut-over country, 
exists the factory of the A. J. Kirstin Company, 
manufacturers of stump-pullers. Some of these 
operate by man-power and some by horse-power, on 


the clutch and drum principle. Selling at a price 
ranging from $100 to $400, these pullers are sold to 
a reported amount of about $1,000,000 annually. 
Three-fourths of this business is domestic and direct 
from factory to customer. About 10,000 machines 
are produced annually, the company reports; and 
the hand-power clutch and drum type predominate. 
These hand-power machines are chiefly used on small 
acreages. Experience has shown that usually the 
best combination is of explosives and stump-pullers, 
whereby the stumps are first riven to pieces and then 
removed by the puller. 

In addition to explosives obtained through com- 
mercial channels, the farmers of the cut-over area 
have obtained large quantities of ^'TNT" relin- 
quished by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture to the State Highway Department, and by 
the Highway Departments to the local farm bureaus 
for land-clearing operations. The reported contri- 
butions thus furnished 750,000 pounds. The price 
was very much less than that normally paid for ex- 
plosives, since, as salvaged war material, it was not 
distributed on a commercial basis. It proved a great 
boon to the stump country, but aroused some oppo- 
sition on the part of private concerns handling ex- 
plosives, and for this or other reasons, this source of 
supply was largely cut off in the spring of 1921. 
There remained large quantities of "government" 
picric acid, which it was planned to dispose of simi- 
larly when a safe method of handling had been se- 
cured. It is evident that land-clearing operations in 


Michigan, even with these facilities available, have a 
long future before them. 

It is recognized that the agricultural progress of 
Michigan, particularly in the undeveloped sections, 
is closely connected with adequate financial assist- 
ance. Outside the regular channels of banking, there 
is no agency specifically created for the purpose of 
affording financial aid to farmers or to rural develop- 
ment. There are at the present time no colonization 
companies, such as obtain in Wisconsin, for extend- 
ing financial assistance to settlers. A purpose to 
establish such enterprises has from time to time 
been expressed, but as yet without definite results. 
Up to March, 1920, the Federal Land Bank of St. 
Paul, which embraces in its operations the State 
of Michigan, had placed loans in this State aggre- 
gating $4,150,500, of which $1,366,600 was allocated 
to the Upper Peninsula. On December 31, 1920, 
there had been chartered in Michigan 121 farm loan 
associations, 3,440 loans had been made, involving 
the total loans of $6,475,000. This gave an average 
loan of $1,882.^ This was a year marked by a ces- 
sation of business on the part of the Federal Farm 
Loan Board, caused by the pendency in the Supreme 
Court of the United States of a suit involving the 
constitutionality of the Federal Farm Loan Law and 
the consequent discontinuance of the operations of 
the Federal Farm Loan Board. With the final de- 
cision of the court favorable to the act, it may be 
expected that the benefits of the law will manifest 

»Rept. of Federal Farm Loan Bd., Feb. 9, 1921, 5. 


themselves in Michigan on a much larger scale than 

Even cursory observation of the cut-over districts 
of Michigan makes clear the impossibility of develop- 
ing some of them agriculturally. The area of these 
lands in arrears for taxes in 1920 was stated to be 
three million. During five years the acreage re- 
verting to the State because of the nonpayment of 
taxes is given as 2,300,000.^ There are on the tax 
rolls 5,000,000 acres with an average value of $5 
an acre. This is nearly one-seventh of the State. 
Of the lands which revert to the State as delinquent 
for taxes, some are re-sold, some are exchanged with 
private or public holders in order to consolidate the 
State's holdings; and some are transferred to the 
Public Domain (now Conservation) Commission to 
be held as public lands, some of them to be organized 
as State forests. The fact that these lands reverted 
because they were unable to produce returns equal 
to the tax requirements assessed against them, indi- 
cates that they will permanently remain public prop- 
erty, and the State intends to hold them as such. 
Of the lands which are re-sold at the annual tax sale, 
many acres revert, and revert again and again to 
the State, after this or that purchaser has discovered 
their worthlessness for agriculture, mining or other 

The problem of the economic utilization of the cut- 
over non-productive lands within the State is peren- 

'Janette: "Michigan'3 Millions of Idle Acres," Detroit, 
1920, 12. 


nially discussed and remains obviously unsolved. At 
the outset, it must be understood that the character 
of these lands, except where experimentally ascer- 
tained, is not determined, and in few cases is a mat- 
ter of public record. Obviously then, the first atten- 
tion must be given to their classification after investi- 
gation by competent authorities, who have in view 
all the elements that enter into the determination 
of their economic importance. The cut-over areas 
contain some excellent arable land, capable of pro- 
ducing field and forage crops equal to the best sec- 
tions of the State; other tracts may provide range 
for live-stock through nati\e and cultivated grasses; 
while another portion will produce forest products 
more advantageously than field crops or pasture. It 
has been proposed that the State should resort to 
condemnation proceedings on the initiative of town- 
ships, counties or municipalities, to disengage the 
idle lands of the north country from the dead hand 
of their present possessors who are failing to make 
any economic use of them, while, fire-swept season 
after season, they constitute a general fire hazard 
and are steadily being impoverished by the same 
destructive agency. Thereon, the State should carry 
out a policy of reforestation for that portion of the 
area which offers itself as best adapted to this use, 
while other areas can be set aside for grazing pur- 
poses to all who may wish this accommodation. Co- 
incidentally, provision would be made by State or 
local administration for fire control through an ade- 


quate system of wardens, fire-fighting equipment, and 
removal of slashings.^ 

C. 0. Sauer has sketched a plan for a soil survey, 
which includes such data as would normally interest 
the homeseeker and purchaser of a farm. Of pri- 
mary interest, he points out, is the location of the 
markets accessible to the farmer, which should be 
plainly indicated on a sketch map of the region. The 
map also shows significant topographical and drain- 
age features. Geographical features should be de- 
scribed in terms of their origin. Local names of soils 
should be retained wherever possible. Soils should 
be related to slopes in the description of them. There 
should be a brief interpretation of the climate, in- 
cluding "the average length of growing season, fre- 
quency of unseasonable frosts, depth of frost action, 
amount and duration of snow-cover, distribution of 
rain during growing season, frequency of droughts 
and rainy 'spells' at critical periods, intensity of 
precipitation, occurrence of hail and violent wind- 
storms." Farmers' experiences of local weather 
conditions should not be ignored. Typical farm prac- 
tices should be described. There should be abun- 
dant photographic illustration. A map showing the 
actual use to which the land is being put should be 
included. Present or past forest cover should lie 
noted. Such a map is very significant to the stu- 
dent and inquirer. The history of the use of the land 
should be stated. 

' "Michigan's Millions of Idle Acres," 44. 




A SUMMARY statement of census findings will 
afford us a measure of the State's resources and 
will show how near we have yet come to reaping the 
capabilities of the land. Between these results and 
a fair optimism lie the possibilities of the produc- 
tion of the State; and the figures of different periods 
show the tendencies. 

The aggregate population of Michigan in 1920 
was 3,668,412, a decided increase from the returns 
for the previous decade which showed 2,810,173. 
Of the total, the one city of Detroit had 993,678, an 
increase of 113.3 per cent over the 1910 figure of 
465,766. On the other hand, the population of 
Michigan in 1920 dwelling in the rural sections, rep- 
resented by places of less than 2,500 inhabitants, was 
1,426,852, which was 38.9 per cent of the total popu- 
lation. Evidently Michigan had ceased to be pre- 
dominantly a rural commonwealth after the manner 
of its pioneer period. Only twenty years before, the 
rural inhabitants had numbered 60.7 per cent of the 
whole. Thus in a score of years the rural had yielded 
to the urban element in its composition. Of the 



eighty-three counties of the State in 1920, thirty- 
three, Allegan, Berrien, Branch, Cass, Charlevoix, 
Cheboygan, Chippewa, Clinton, Eaton, Emmet, Gra- 
tiot, Hillsdale, Houghton, Ionia, Iron, Isabella, La- 
peer, Lenawee, Livingston, Macomb, Manistee, 
Mason, Mecosta, Menominee, Midland, IMonroe, 
Montcalm, Ottawa, Presque Isle, St. Joseph, Shia- 
wassee, Tuscola and Van Buren, showed a larger 
rural than urban population, as the census employs 
the term. 

The most striking feature of the census returns, 
but one for which observers of rural conditions were 
prepared, was the drift from the rural to the urban 
communities. Between 1910 and 1920 Alpena, Alle- 
gan, Barry, Bay, Berrien, Branch, Cass, Cheboygan, 
Clinton, Eaton, Emmet, Grand Traverse, Gratiot, 
Hillsdale, Houghton, Ionia, Isabella, Kent, Lapeer, 
Lenawee, Livingston, Manistee, Mason, Mecosta, 
]\Ienominee, IMonroe, j\Iontcalm, Muskegon, Ottawa, 
Saginaw, St. Clair, St. Joseph, Schoolcraft, Shia- 
wassee, Tuscola, Van Buren, Washtenaw and Wex- 
ford showed a definite loss of rural population. Of 
the counties which had a positive increase of rural 
population, Gogebic, in the extreme northwestern 
portion of the State, led with its rural growth of 
32.5 per cent, while Iron had 26.6 per cent of in- 
crease. These northern counties are in the formerly 
undeveloped l)ut now developing section of the State. 
The effect of the adjacent automobile industry on the 
rural sections of the counties containing them is not 
manifested in Genesee County, whose rural popula- 


tion increased 21.4 per cent in the decade; in Ingham, 
whose rural increase was 9.7 per cent; and Oakland, 
with a rural increase of lfi.7 per cent of population. 

The census of 1930 enumerates 196,647 farms in 
Michigan, of which the fifteen counties of the Upper 
Peninsula had 12,317. In the well-developed agri- 
cultural counties of the south are the largest number 
of farms. Kent County had 5,605; Lenawee, 5,083; 
Berrien, 5,444; Saginaw, 5,143; Allegan with 5,734 
stood at the top of the column ; while Menominee led 
in the Upper Peninsula with its 2,106, followed by 
Houghton with 1,741. Many of these counties hav- 
ing a large number of farms are of relatively small 
area. Allegan's area is 833 square miles; Lenawee's 
743 ; and Berrien's 569. This contrasts with the 
situation in ' Marquette County, the largest in the 
State, whose area of 1,870 square miles contained 
only 846 farms, and Mackinac's area of 1,044 square 
miles had 479 farms. Counties in the northern por- 
tion of the southern peninsula also show relatively 
few farms. Thus Eoscommon, in 1920, had 267 
farms; Ogemaw, 1,281; Montmorency, 421; Oscoda, 
278; and Crawford, 212. 

The Fourteenth Census (1920) ascertained that 
there were in Michigan in 1920 an aggregate of 
196,447 farms out of 6,448,366 farms in the entire 
United States, which placed Michigan in the fif- 
teenth place under this head. The number of acres 
in Michigan farms wfrs 19,034,204, the rank being 
twenty-third. The number of acres of improved 
land was 12,926,241, while 3,217,100 acres were in 


woodlands. Of other unimproved land, the acreage 
was 2,890,803. The average number of acres to a 
farm in Michigan was 96.9; the average number of 
improved acres 65.8. The value of farm lands and 
buildings is $1,437,862,310, the State's rank being 
fourteenth. The average value of land and build- 
ings to a farm is estimated as $7,313, at $75.58 an 
acre. The rank of the State in value for each farm 
was twenty-ninth, and in value an acre, sixteenth. 

Classified with reference to their size, there are 
in Michigan 12,744 farms under 20 acres. The farms 
ranging in size from 20 to 49 acres numbered 40,765 ; 
from 50 to 99 acres, 71,391 ; from 100 to 174 acres, 
52,645; from 175 to 499 acres, 18,075; of 500 acres 
and over, 827. These figures clearly bring out the 
fact that Michigan farms average of only moderate 
size, a good acreage in the minds of the farming 
population appearing to be 80. 

Of the total number of farms, 34,722 were oper- 
ated by tenants, in which respect Michigan ranked 
twenty-fourth. There were 23,280 share tenants; 
422 share-cash tenants; and 9,312 cash tenants. Of 
farms operated by their owners, Michigan ranked 
sixth, having 159,406. There were 72,866 owned 
farms free from mortgage (the rank of the State 
being here eleventh). Of the owned farms, 78,761 
were mortgaged, in which respect the State ranked 
second. Thus it appears that 51.9 per cent of the 
owned farms were mortgaged. The farm mortgage 
debt in Michigan was $144,103,067 for 67,119 farms 
reporting this item. In the amount of its farm mort- 


gage debts only Wisconsin and Missouri exceeded 
Michigan. The average interest rate for farm mort- 
gages was six per cent. The average mortgage debt 
to a farm was $2,147. 

The vahio of all farm property in Michigan was 
reported at $1,703,334,740, of which land alone rep- 
resented $959,186,538, and the buildings $477,499,- 
672. The implements and machinery were rated at 
$122,389,927 and the live-stock at $204,258,603. The 
value of all farm property for a farm worked out at 
$8,976, in which item the State ranked thirteenth. 
In value of all farm property Michigan ranked four- 
teenth, of land alone sixteenth, of buildings seventh, 
of implements and machinery fourteenth, of live- 
stock sixteenth." 

The total farm expenditures for labor were given 
as $31,944,861 for the year 1919, the State ranking 
eighteenth under this head. Out of this total, 
$24,875,549 were paid in cash, the balance going 
imder the heading of rent and board. The reported 
expenditures for fertilizers were $4,887,253, and 
$22,104,883 for feed. 

The number of foreign-born white farmers in 
Michigan in 1920 was 48,264, of which 2,034 were 
born in Austria; 13,393 in Canada; 1,142 in Den- 
mark; 2,203 in England; 3,947 in Finland; 264 
in France; 9,745 in Germany; 3,280 in Holland; 
933 in Hungary; 819 in Ireland; 298 in Italy; 654 
in Norway; 2,479 in Poland; 1,538 in Eussia; 436 
in Scotland; 3,088 in Sweden; and 371 in Switzer- 


Male persons operated 190,G71 farms; and fe- 
males, 5,776 farms. Of the owners, 153,872 were 
males and 5,534 females. Of the managers, 2,300 
were males and 19 females. Of the tenants 34,499 
were males and 223 females. Females operated 440,- 
426 acres. 

The total area of organized drainage enterprises 
in Michigan was 9,778,269 acres. Improved farm 
land amounted to 7,754,161 acres, while timbered 
and cnt-over land comprised 1,663,345 acres. Other 
unimproved land was 360,763 acres. The total land 
area of the State was 36,787,200 acres. The area in 
drainage enterprises was 26.6 per cent. Swampy or 
wet lands or those subject to overflow in organized 
drainage enterprises was given as 1,037,361 acres. 
The cost of organized drainage enterprises was re- 
ported at $25,480,099. 

The census returns show the total value of all 
farm crops in Michigan in 1919 to have been $404,- 
014,810, distributed as follows: cereals, $170,897,- 
885; hay and forage, $105,280,992; vegetables in- 
cluding potatoes $65,096,550; all other crops, $62,- 
739,383. The total value of live-stock products in 
1919 was $111,076,235, as compared with $48,380,- 
551 in 1909. Of dairy products the value was 
$71,074,727 in 1919, and $26,727,538 in 1909. 
Chickens and eggs returned a value of $34,960,771 
in 1919 and $17,926,239 in 1909. Wool and mohair 
were valued at $4,623,778, as against $3,430,032 a 
decade earlier. Honey and wax had a value of 
$416,959 in 1919 and $296,742 ten years before. 


These valuations obviously should be considered in 
connection Math the high prices prevailing at the 
later date. 

The State ranked sixteenth as a producer of corn 
in 1919; fifteenth in wheat; twelfth in oats; eighth 
in barley; second in rye; fifth in buckwheat; and 
ninth in hay. In sugar-beets Michigan ranked sec- 
ond; sixth in maple sugar; fifth in maple sirup; 
fifteenth in honey. Michigan ranked tv/enty-first in 
swine; sixteenth in number of all cattle; thirtieth 
in beef cattle ; ninth in dairy cows ; fifteenth in num- 
ber of horses; thirty-seventh in number of mules; 
and twelfth in number of sheep. 

A comparison of the yields to the acre of im- 
portant farm crops, based on the reports of the 
Bureau of Crop Estimates of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, shows that Michigan pro- 
duced corn in 1920 at the rate of 40 bushels to the 
acre, while the yield in Wisconsin was 43.9 bushels, 
Illinois 34, Iowa 46, and New Hampshire 45. Michi- 
gan's yield of wheat ran 15.5 bushels to the acre as 
compared with Minnesota's 19.6, Ohio's 12,7, Kan- 
sas' 15.4, and New York's 23.3 bushels. The yield 
of oats was 39.6 bushels to the acre, as against 41 
bushels in Indiana, 34 in South Dakota, and 39 in 
Pennsylvania. Of barley the acre yield in Michigan 
was 26 bushels, 31.7 in Wisconsin, 18 in North Da- 
kota, and 27.7 in Ohio. Similarly the State pro- 
duced rye at 14.7 bushels, as compared with a yield 
in Wisconsin of 16 bushels, 17 in Minnesota, and 
17.5 in New York. Buckwheat yielded 14.5 bushels 


to the acre, as compared with Ohio's output of 20.9 
bushels, and Indiana's yield of 20 bushels. 

Potatoes yielded 105 bushels to the acre, while 
New York produced 125 bushels, Ohio 100, and 
Minnesota 95. The production of hay ran at 1.21 
tons to the acre in Michigan, 1.70 tons in Wiscon- 
sin, 1.44 in Iowa, and 2.60 in Nebraska. Beans 
yielded 13 bushels to the acre in Michigan, 14 in 
New York, 8 in Colorado, and 10 in California. Of 
sugar-beets, Michigan's acre product was 8.67 tons, 
as against 10.70 for Colorado, 9.64 tons in Ohio, 
8.66 in Wisconsin, and 11.57 in Utah. Other crops, 
like flax-seed, hops and tobacco, which are impor- 
tant in other noffthern states, are negligible in 

As might be surmised from what has already been 
stated regarding the relative productivity of the sev- 
eral sections of the State, the southern tier of coun- 
ties make the largest aggregate showing of agricul- 
tural products. The Annual Summary of the Michi- 
gan Cooperative Crop Eeporting Service indicates 
that the counties producing more than 500,000 
bushels of wheat include Gratiot, Allegan, Berrien, 
Cass, Kalamazoo, Kent, Ottawa, Barry, Calhoun, 
Clinton, Eaton, Hillsdale, Ionia, Genesee, Lenawee, 
Monroe, St. Clair, and Washtenaw, all southern coun- 
ties of the southern peninsula. The counties pro- 
ducing more than 1,000,000 bushels of corn in- 
clude Gratiot, Mecosta, Montcalm, Huron, Saginaw, 
Sanilac, Tuscola, Allegan, Berrien, Cass, Kalamazoo, 
Kent, Barry, Branch, Calhoun, Clinton, Eaton, 


Hillsdale, Ingham, Ionia, Jackson, St. Joseph, Shia- 
wassee, Genesee, Lenawee, Livingston, Monroe, Oak- 
land and Washtenaw, also southern, but with a more 
northerly trend than appear in the list of wheat- 
producing counties. Eight southern counties pro- 
duced more than 1,000,000 bushels of oats: Gratiot, 
Huron, Saginaw, Sanilac, Tuscola, Clinton, Genesee 
and St. Clair. The large yields of rye and barley 
are also in this territory. While the only counties 
producing over 1,000,000 bushels of potatoes are also 
southern, large yields are reported for the northern 
counties. It should be understood, however, that, 
while the northern counties are usually larger in 
total area than those in the southern portion, their 
farm areas are much smaller. It is interesting to 
observe that, where northern counties make any 
showing iu the production of a croja, the acre yield 
runs higher frequently than for the most southerly 
counties, as, for example, in the case of potatoes, 
whose yield in 1920 was reported at 134 bushels to 
tlie acre in Houghton County and GO bushels in 
Branch County (taking the extremes of the State). 
The yield of oats in ]\Ienominee County was 27.3 
bushels to the acre, and Hillsdale County 23.4 bush- 
els. The hay output in Chippewa County was 1.57 
tons to the acre and 1.3G in Lenawee County. Corn 
yielded 39 bushels to the acre in Delta County and 
36 in Clinton, but it should not be supposed that the 
aggregate corn crop is large in northern Michigan. 
Since the beginning of the State's history, agri- 
culture has received its greatest development in the 


southern counties. The Fourteenth United States 
Census, however, reveals that it is liardly holding its 
own in this section. Quite uniformly in these coun- 
ties appears a diminution of the total acreage in 
farms and the acreage of improved farm lands. 
Thus in the decade, Oakland County showed a de- 
crease of total farm area of 14.8 per cent, while the 
area of improved farm lands decreased 16.5. Simi- 
larly the improved farm lands of Macomb County 
fell off 4.4 per cent; of St. Clair, 1.9; of Calhoun, 
3 ; of Washtenaw, 3.9 ; Monroe, 3 ; of Lenawee, 
2.5; of Wayne, 18.3; of Hillsdale, 3.4; of Living- 
ston, 6.5; of Berrien, 2.3; of Cass, 2.1; of Allegan, 
7.5; of Barry, 2.5; of St. Joseph, 3.6; of Kala- 
mazoo, 7.2 ; of Branch, 3 ; and of Van Buren, 5.7 
per cent. These are the oldest agricultural counties 
of the State, in part of which farming has continued 
for about a century. Even the central counties of 
the southern peninsula have a similar trend. Dur- 
ing the same period the area of improved farm land 
in Oceana County decreased 1.1 per cent; of Clin- 
ton, 2.3; of Shiawassee, 2.4; of Ionia, 4; of St. 
Clair, 1.9; of Sanilac, 4.5; of Bay, 17.8; of Eaton, 
1.8; of Jackson 2.8; of Genesee, 6.8; of Ingham, 
3.9; of Lapeer, 1.7; of Kent, 3.5; of Ottawa, 3.6. 
Undoubtedly in counties like Wayne, Oakland, 
Ingham and Genesee, there has been a tendency for 
the city to encroac-h on the country; but such an ex- 
planation does not apply to such predominantly rural 
coimties as Clinton, Branch or Eaton. Taken in con- 
nection that a similar decrease in the total farm 


area in these counties has occurred, it must be as- 
sumed that there is a retrograde agricultural move- 
ment in this section of the State. 

On the other hand, the counties in the northern 
portion of the southern peninsula and throughout the 
northern peninsula have displayed an agricultural 
advance in the decade. Thus Arenac County showed 
an increase of 31.1 per cent in improved farm lands; 
Clare County an increase of 22 per cent; Gladwin, 
of 34.9 per cent; Mason, 7.2; Manistee, 13.7; Lake, 
7.3 ; Newaygo, 0.9 ; Montmorency, 30.2, and Ogemaw, 
21. These counties are without large cities but with 
a much smaller proportion of their land in farms, 
because of the poverty of the soil or the presence of 
forest lands, public or private. Thus Arenac County 
has only 135,334 acres in farms, while Van Buren 
has 341,089 acres, and Branch County 308,805. 
Manistee County has 147,569 acres in farms, as 
against 308,805 acres in Branch County, although 
Manistee exceeds Branch County in area by 65 square 
miles. Although the farm area in these northern 
counties is proportionally less, the census returns 
indicate that it is materially increasing. 

An even more striking situation appears for the 
counties of the Upper Peninsula, where soil condi- 
tions on the whole are believed to be much more 
favorable than in the northern counties of the south- 
ern peninsula. Thus Gogebic County in the decade 
showed a total farm area increasing by 109.2 per 
cent, and an improved farm land area increasing by 
107.3 per cent; but the acreages themselves were 


relatively small, 27,442 and 9,829 respectively. 
Similarly Houghton County in the copper country 
increased its farm area by 43.6 per cent, and its im- 
proved farm lands 58.1 per cent, the acreage of 
improved lands being 56,798. Chippewa County, 
relatively well developed agriculturally, had in 1920, 
185,202 acres in farms and increased in the decade 
5.1 per cent; while its 105,870 improved acres showed 
an increase of 33.4 per cent. Marquette Covmty, 
with 88,450 acres in farms, increased 30.4 per cent; 
and Menominee County, Avith 222,353 acres in farms, 
increased 32.8 per cent. Delta County's 142,137 
acres in farms increased 26 per cent, while its 53,021 
acres of improved farm land had increased 23.5 per 
cent. These figures confirm the opinion that the 
cut-over lands of the northern counties are witnessing 
the most definite agricultural advance; for here are 
good as well as poor soils at moderate prices avail- 
able to the farmer, often of foreign parentage, lack- 
ing capital but willing to labor and sustain the pri- 
vations of pioneering in a new country. 

If one compares representative counties in the 
three sections of the State having distinctive agri- 
cultural features, one perceives to what extent the 
northern counties lag behind the southern in agri- 
cultural development. Thus in the Upper Peninsula, 
Marquette County with an aggregate area, as 
reported by the census, of 1.196,800 acres, has only 
88,450 acres in farms; Menominee Coimty, with 
675,840 acres, has less than one-third of this area 
in farms; Delta County, with 748,160 acres, has less 


than one-fifth in farms. In the northern counties 
of the southern peninsula, Arenac, with a total area 
of 239,360 acres, has 135,334 in farms; Gladwin, 
Avith 332,160 acres, has 154,633 in farms; and Clare, 
with 372,480 acres, has 186,581 in farms. Finally, 
selecting representative counties from the three 
southernmost tiers in the Lower Peninsula, Hillsdale 
County, with an aggregate area of 381,680 acres, has 
362,815 in farms; Calhoun wiLh 443,420 total acres, 
has 407,958 in farms; and Eaton, with 365,440 acres, 
has 342,500 in farms. In the northern counties there 
are sections not included in the present farm acre- 
age that cannot reasonably be expected to serve any 
agricultural purpose. One large owner in this terri- 
tory is reported recently to have turned back to the 
State 22,000 acres rather than pay taxes on these 
unproductive lands; very much of the State's pres- 
ent holdings under the control of the Conservation 
Commission were acquired in this manner. On the 
other hand, there is a large but undetermined acre- 
age whose situation as regards soil, climate and 
drainage warrant high hopes of important agricul- 
tural productivity. 

Isle Eoyale in Lake Superior, at one time prized 
for its copper deposits but which in this respect 
proved disappointing, is now largely abandoned and 
unoccupied save by a few fisher folk. The United 
States still holds large acreage on the island, which 
is of itself good evidence of its non-availability for 
economic uses. Drummond Island, at the head of 
Lake Huron, is chiefly important for its timber re- 


sources. The best farming area is in the eastern 
section of the island. Its agricultural development 
is, however, backward. Beaver Island, in northern 
Lake Michigan, has had a more distinctive agricul- 
tural history. In the fifth decade of the last century 
it was the site of a IMormon colony, come hither 
from Wisconsin, which during the regime .of "King" 
James Jesse Strang, had established a flourishing 
agriculture there. Eventually the Mormons got into 
difficulties with their neighbors, chiefly the fisher- 
men of that part of the lake, and were dispersed 
after the assassination of their quondam "king." 
Some of their descendants are said to be residing 
still on Drummond Island but without any religious 
affiliation with Mormonism. Agriculture on Beaver 
Island today is reported to be in a degenerate state. 
Soil conditions on Beaver Island are variable, light 
sands and clays occupying its surface, with good 
arable land in the interior. The surface is quite level 
with a tendency to undulation. Some of the eleva- 
tions once bore such Biblical designations as "Mount 
Pisgah," in IMormon days, while the island had its 
"Sea of Galilee" and "Eiver Jordan." There is con- 
siderable swamp land on the island and artificial 
drainage is necessary. 

Agricultural conditions on the Manitou Island of 
Lake Michigan are reported to be above the average. 
One observer states that the farmers are up-to-date 
and that the yield of potatoes and other crops was, 
in 1919, above the average on the mainland. Here 
the Michigan Agricultural College has had a plan- 


tation of Eosen rye for the purpose of securing seed 
free from cross fertilization. Some of this rye has 
been offered for sale by the Michigan State Farm 
Bureau. High Island, near by, is largely in the pos- 
session of the religious society known as "The 
Israelite House of David/' situated near Benton 
Harbor, which reports the ownership of some 2,980 
acres out of the 3,200 of the island. The island 
yields saw-timber, and the House of David has under 
cultivation some 200 acres, part of which is devoted 
to fruit and the remainder to the growth of vege- 
tables, which yield abundantly, it is stated, and are 
of fine quality. 

In Michigan agriculture, it must have become clear 
that no crop or feature predominates. Thus, the 
Crop Reporting Service of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture shows that, in 1920, the 
State ranked first as a producer of rye, third as a 
producer of potatoes, fourth in buckwheat, third in 
apples, and fourth in pears. 

The growth of cooperation among Michigan 
farmers is one of the most striking features of recent 
agricultural history. The American farmer is nor- 
mally individualistic, but the force of circumstances 
has directed him along this new path. There were 
reported in May, 1921, 123 cooperative associations, 
memljers of the Michigan Potato Growers Exchange. 
At the same date, the number of cooperative cream- 
eries was at least 74. The membership of the Michi- 
gan Livestock Exchange similarly comprised 104 
cooperative associations. The list of associated ex- 


changes includes 21 local associations, chiefly fruit.^ 
It was believed that there were about 100 live-stock 
shipping associations and cooperative elevators in 
the State.- 

The  "Directory of American Agricultural Or- 
ganizations," published by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in 1920, lists some forty-nine 
associations and societies among farmers, designed 
to promote their economic or social interests; but 
the list is far from complete, since there arc known 
to be a large number of cooperative associations, of 
a very local range, not included in this directory. 
As a business man, the Yankee farmer, who is still 
an element of great importance in Michigan agri- 
culture, especially in the southern peninsula, does 
not take kindly to cooperation, and it is apparently 
chiefly among the more alien elements that coopera- 
tion flourishes best. Habits of cooperation acquired 
in the old country persist on American soil. Thus, 
in Finland, in 1920, there were reported 023 coop- 
erative associations, which is indicative of a well- 
developed practice of cooperation among persons of 
Finnish nationality. Recalling that the Finnish 
population of the Upper Peninsula is large, in rural 
as well as urban areas, it follows that cooperative 
business arrangements among them are not infre- 
quently encountered. There were, in 1920, thirty- 
eight cooperative stores listed in the Upper Penin- 

"■ Monthly Crop Reporter, April. 1921, 40, 41. 
' From a detailed Hat prepared l)y Hale Tenant, Ajjent 
in Marketing, Michigan Agricultural College, May 9, 1921. 


siila. A survey of twenty-six of these elicited the 
fact that the average membership of the associations 
reporting was 245, which would indicate a total 
membership of 9,310 for the entire number of stores. 
The total capitalization is given as $559,500, for 
twenty-five stores reporting. The total paid-in 
capital was put at $212,418 for these stores. The 
aggregate of sales was $3,821,158, for twenty-four 
stores. This gives an average annual business of 
$125,881. The turn-over of sales amounted to 14.2 
times the paid-in capital. The overhead expense 
averaged 10.1 per cent, and ranged from 5 to 15 
per cent. In all but four stores, only one vote was 
allowed to each member regardless of the number of 
shares owned. There was a nominal or small rate 
of interest on stock (5 to 6 per cent). Profits were 
divided on the basis of purchases by members. In 
addition to stores, there are cooperative creameries, 
insurance societies and grist mills, while the Finnish 
and other sections of the population were very 
willing to become members of the farm bureaus. 
The spirit of cooperation expresses itself socially as 
well as economically, mutual relief and help being 
freely ofi'ered and received. 

In the southern peninsula, cooperative stores are 
infrequently encountered, while there is a strong 
tendency to establish cooperative shipping associa- 
tions, elevators, and threshing outfits. Definite 
statistics are lacking. 

A distinctive tendency in Michigan agriculture 


is the desire of farmers for the inspection and grad- 
ing of their products. Thus, the Michigan State 
Farm Bureau has reported great interest in the 
process of grading wool gathered into the wool-pool 
in its various warehouses throughout the State, and 
the fact that there are in reality definite grades of 
wool is becoming recognized by the farmers. A 
corollary is the recognition that prices should be 
adapted to gradations in quality. The inspection 
service of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Bureau of Markets, extends to a few points 
in Michigan, the chief inspection office being situ- 
ated at Detroit, while service is extended to Bay 
City, Flint, Grand Eapids, Jackson, Lansing, Port 
Huron, Saginaw, Battle Creek, and Kalamazoo, and 
requests for additional points of service are being 
pressed. Thus, the farmers of Chippewa County 
were desirous, in 1921, of having this inspection 
service for their export hay. Through this service, 
both shippers and purchasers have reliable and im- 
partial information on which to base a judgment in 
case of disputes between them, railroads have a fair 
basis for an adjustment of claims, and the consum- 
ing public is protected against loss and imposition. 

There is little tendency to work farms with lalwr 
that is transient and not from the farmer's family. 
Thus, the United States Department of Agriculture 
reports that, in 1920, the percentage of grain har- 
vest work done by transient labor drawn from 
without the county was 5 in Michigan, while in 


Kansas it was 31 per cent;, in North Dakota 41, and 
Washington 43 per cent.^ There has been, however, 
a large influx of country dwellers into the large 
cities, especially the centers of automobile manufac- 
ture, until the movement was checked by the adverse 
industrial conditions of the winter of 1920-1921. 
This had the effect of causing the abandonment of 
many farms to an extent which, in the summer of 
1920, was truly alarming. An estimate of the State 
crop reporting service, based on an investigation 
conducted in April, 1920, through the public schools, 
was to the effect that 18,232 farms would not be 
worked that year, and that 11,831 farms were not 
operated in 1919. It was estimated that of the 
214,565 farm-houses in the State, 30,300 (in 1920) 
were vacant, and tlmt some two-thirds of these were 
not occupied in 1919. The total number of men and 
boys on the farms of Michigan was given as approxi- 
mately 230,000, which represented a loss of 20,000 
during the year preceding, and a still further drop 
from the figure of 276,000 of three years previous.^ 
Taking the average size of farms as 91.5 acres, there 
appeared to be an average of one man or boy to 
operate each 82.5 acres. The effectiveness of this 
force was still further reduced by the attendance 
of boys at school for a part of the time, while most 
of the men were above the age of fifty. It was obvi- 
ous that the superior attractiveness of urban life had 
done its work. 

> The U. .V. Monthly Crop Reporter, April, 1921, 45. 
""Mioh. Crop Rept'., May, 19.20, 4. 


A year later the situation was radically altered. 
In April, 1921, the percentage of farm labor was, 
on the side of supply, 108 per cent of the demand. 
The farm labor supply was d-i per cent of normal, 
while the demand was 87 per cent of normal. The 
supply of farm labor was, in 1921, 123 per cent of 
the supply in 1920.^ 

In 1920, the average wages of farm laborers em- 
ployed by the month, as reported by the Michigan 
Crop Reporting Service, were $53 with board and 
$75 without board. In 1919, these wages were $42 
and $60. Day wages for harvest labor were $4.10 
with board, in 1920, and $4.95 without board. In 
the preceding year, these wages were $3.50 and $4.30. 
For other than harvest labor, the wages in 1920 were 
$3.30 and $4.15 as against $2.80 and $3.60 in 1919.^ 

The returns of the Fourteenth United States 
Census indicate the amelioration of the conditions of 
rural life that have taken place. In 1920, there were 
82,437 automobiles on farms in Michigan ; to which 
are to be added 78,919 trucks and 5,584 tractors. 
There were 15,695 farms reporting gas or electric 
light, while 29,729 farms had water pumped into the 
house. Obviously there are many farms in Michigan 
which lack these conveniences. Half of the 196,000 
farms still want telephone service, for example. 

The yields will increase with the growth of popu- 
lation. New lands will come under the plow. New 

'Mich. Crop. Kept., April, 1921, 11. Cf. U. 8. Monthly 
Crop Report. April, 1921, 37. 
^Ihid., Dec, 1920, 4. 


crops and animals — or at least new varieties and 
breeds — will come into prominence. The means of 
communication will be bettered and extended. The 
vast waterways and the water-powers will be de- 
veloped. Educational agencies will multiply in num- 
bers and effectiveness. The institutions of rural life 
will greatly increase and take on new meanings. The 
statistics show a steady development; this progress 
will proceed. New agricultural methods will come. 
We have every reason to expect that the rural life 
of Michigan will keep step with the urban life; the 
constructive forces of society in the future will make 
this possible. 


Statistical Appendices 

Appendix A — Farms and Farm Property. 

Appendix B — The Number of Farms in Michigan by Coun- 
ties, 1900, 1910 and 1920. 

Appendix C — Population of Micliigan by Sex, Color, and 

Appendix D — Urban and Rural Population of Counties, 
1920, 1910, and 1900. 

Appendix E— Urban and Rural Populations 1920, 1910 and 

Appendix F — Crops. 

Appendix G — Live-Stock and Live-Stock Products. 

Appendix H — Pure-Bred Live-Stock. 




Fourteenth Census: 1920.— Farms and Farm Property* 

FARM ACREAGE JAN. 1, 1920 APR. 15, 1910 

Number of farms. 196,447 206,960 

Operated by : 

Owners 159,406 172,310 

Free from mort- 
gage 72,869 88,705 

Mortgaged 78,758 82,631 

No mortgage re- 
port 7,779 974 

Managers 2,319 1,961 

Tenants 34,722 32,689 

Operated by : 

White farmers... 195,714 

Native 147,4.50 

Foreign born... 48,264 

Colored farmers. . 733 

Land in farms: 

Total, acres 

Improved, acres. . 

Average acreage 
per farm : 










All farm property. $1,763,334,778 

Land and build- 
ings 1,436,686,210 

Implements and 

machinery . . . 122,389,936 

Live stock 204,258,632 



APR. 15, 1910 

M, 088, 858.379 



The number of farms 
in Michigan in 1920 
was 196,447. These 
farms contained 19,- 
032,961 acres, of which 
12,925,521 acres were 
improved land. From 
1910 to 1920 the num- 
ber of farms decreased 
5.1 per cent; the total 
acreage increased 0.5 
per cent ; and the im- 
proved acreage in- 
creased 0.7 per cent. In 
1920, 51.7 per cent of 
the land area of the 
5tate was in farms, and 
«>5 8 per cent of the 
farm land was im- 

The number of white 
farmers in 1920 wa.s 
195,714, of whom 147,- 
450 were native and 
48,264'foreign-born. Of 
the native white farm- 
ers, 115,624 were own- 
ers, 1,925 managers, 
and 29,901 tenants. Of 
the foreign-born white 
farmers, 43,219 were 
owners, 385 managers, 
and 4,660 tenants. The 
733 colored farmers 
comprised 563 owners, 
9 managers, and 161 
tenants. The number 
of female farmers was 
5,776, including 5,534 

"„lrl''-'^^ ^fi ^' ^.. "u^'"'' ^^^ P""^^^ summaries, being statements of 
Tv.rfir 7 /T'' '"^J''^' *" correction, by the Bureau of the Census, 
Department of Commerce. 



APPENDIX A— Continued 

VALUES JAN. 1, 1920 APR. 15, 1910 

Average value per 
farm : 

All farm property 8,976 

Land and build- 
ings 7,313 

Land alone 4,883 

Average value per 
acre : 

Land and build- 
ings 75.48 

Land alone .... 50.40 


Farms reporting 
amount of 

Number 67,119 

Value $420,108,1.')6 

Amount of debt . . $144,103,067 
Per cent of value 34.3 

Average rate of in- 
terest paid, per 

cent 6.0 

Average debt per 

farm $2,147 







$ 75,997,030 



owners, 19 managers, 
and 223 tenants. 

The value of all farm 
property in 1920 was 
$1,763,334,778, as 
compared with $1,088,- 
858,379 in 1910, an i i- 
crease of 61.9 per cent 
The value of land and 
buildings in 1920 was 
436,686,210 ; of im- 
plements and machin- 
ery, $122,389,936 ; and 
of" live stock, $204,- 
258,632. As compared 
with 1910, the value 
of land and buildings 
in 1920 showed an in- 
crease of 59.4 per 
cent ; of implements 
and machinery, 145.2 
per cent ; and of live 
stock, 48.2 per cent. 
The average value of 
land and buildings per 
farm was $7,313 in 
1920, as compared with 
$4,354 in 1910 ; and 
1920, as against $32.48 in 

that of land alone per acre was $50.40 in 

The value of the 67,119 farms for which complete mortgage reports 
were secured in 1920 was $420,108,156, and the amount of the mort- 
gage debt was $144,103,067, or 34.3 per cent of the value. The aver- 
age rate of interest paid was 6.0 per cent. 

In 1920, 51.9 per cent of all farms operated by their owners were 
mortgaged, is compared with 48.2 per cent in 1910. 




Table Showing the Number of Farms in Michigan, bi" 
Counties, 1000, 1910 and 1920: From the Four- 
teenth U. S. Census 


li>20, . . 



state total 

"^ 106.t)47 









































































APPENDIX B— Continued 







Grand Traverse 



Houghton . . . . 








Kalamazoo . ... 
Kalkaska . . . . 


Keweenaw . . . . 



Leelanau .... 


Livingston . . . 


Mackinac . . . . 

Manistee .... 
Marquette ... 



Menominee . . , 




































5, .334 
































APPENDIX B— Continued 


Midland . . . 
Missaukee . . 
Monroe . . . . 
Montcalm . . 

Muskegon . . 
Newaygo . . . 
Oakland . . . . 


Ogemaw . . , . 

Ontonagon . 




Ottawa .... 

Presque Isle 
Saginaw . . . 
St. Clair . . . 
St. Joseph . . 


Schoolcraft . 
Shiawassee . 

Van Buren . 
Washtenaw . 


Wexford ... 











































































Population of Michigan by Sex, Color, and Nativity 

Washington, D. C, July 19, 1921.— The Bureau of the 
Census, Department of Commerce, to-day issued a prelimi- 
nary statement giving the composition of the population 
of Michigan according to sex, color, and nativity, as shown 
by the census taken as of January 1, 1920. 

The total population of the state, 3,668,412, comprised 
1.928,436 males and 1,739,976 females. The correspond- 
ing figures for 1910 were as follows: Total, 2,810,173; 
males, 1,454,534; females, 1,355,639. During the decade 
the total population increased by 30.5 per cent, the male 
population by 32.6 per cent, and the female population by 
28.4 per cent. The ratio of males to females in 1920 was 
110.8 to 100, as against 107.3 to 100 in 1910. 

The distribution of the population according to color in 
1920 was as follows: White, 3,601,627; Negro, 60,082: In- 
dian, 5,614; Chinese, 792; Japanese, 184; all other (Fili- 
pino, Hindu, Hawaiian, and Korean), 113. The corre- 
sponding figures for 1910 were: White, 2.785,247; Negro, 
17,115; Indian, 7,519; Chinese, 241; Japanese, 49: all 
other (Filipino), 2. During the decade the white popula- 
tion increased by 29.3 per cent, while the Negro population 
increased by 251 per cent. 

The foreign-born white population numbered 726.215 in 
1920, as against 595,524 in 1910. Tliis element constituted 
19.8 per cent of the total population in 1920, as against 
21.2 per cent in 1910. 


Urban and Rukal Population of Counties: 1920, 1910, 

AND 1900 
[A minus sign (— ) denotes decrease.] 






















Grand Traverse. . 





• Ionia 





















Presque Isle 


St. Clair 

St. Joseph 




Van Buren 




All other counties' 




2,241,560 1,426,852 







































4.. 558 




















11,. 504 




8, .593 




































112, .571 











































5 285 










































' Comprises all counties in which there were no incorporated places having 2,500. 
Benzie, Clare, Crawford, Gladwin, Huron, Iosco. Kalkaska, Keweenaw, Lake 
Ontonagon, Osceola, Oscoda, Otsego, Roscommon, and Sanilac, 



APPENDIX Ti— Continued 


Cent of 



Per Cent Urban in 
Total Population 



























68 9 









- 19.5 

5 4 




















17. T 





































































































- 23 . 3 
































40 3 




























































40. 5 





























25 7 



23 !i 

17 2' 



- 46.4 


















-3 5 













































































































































Inhabitants or more in 1920. These counties are Alcona, Antrim. Arenac, Haraga, 
Leelanau, Luce, Mackmac, Missaukee. Montmorency, Newaygo, Oceana, Ogemaw, 


RiR \i. Mirnic! \^: 



































rH -^ O 





!a a. 

K O 

o a. 



^ 1 

O 1 





















7 8 

















rH .rHrHCO-*ClO • r-i . 
l^ . rH C-1 CO • rH . 

CO . 









211,0 2 


z; o 

a> . CI rH O L-S M< rH • t~ • 

(2 . rH C<1 CO • L- . 

, • CO • 














CO rHrHCOOfClCO • t~ 
Ol rH CO CO  '■ • 

CO • 










Urban territory 

Cities and villages of: 

500,000 inhabitants 
or more 

100,000 to 500,000 

50,000 to 100,000 

25,000 to 50,000 in- 

10,000 to 25,000 in- 

5,000 to 10,000 in- 

2,500 to 5,000 in- 

Rural territory 

Cities and villages of 
less than 2,500 in- 

Other rural territory. 

in ,/ 0) »- ' uj fl w • 

q; ^ O p3 

O 3 M 

£■ 1=. a. a 

go a" 


.2 C — O' 

1_ r "•- JH O br rH 

t. _ 3 H o t- O..S to 

S3_, . C xS—a 


.2 5- 

CIS c^ 2^ g o « 
.— Q, cc "o "I:; '^ 

o - .c ^ .s ^ Ji 3 .5 



































o ca 






a o 











bo ao 







o o 






























































I «ic g a- "" ^ 

fc « 
























J3 C<1 



























Crops — Fourteenth Census: 1920 


All crops $404,014,810 

Cereals 170,897,885 

Other grains and seeds 23,442,687 

Hay and forage 105,280,992 

Vegetables 65,096,550 

Fruits 26,129,793 

Other crops 13,166,903 



Com acres 


Wheat acres 


Oats acres 


Rye acres 


Dry beans acres 


Hay and forage. acres 


Hay crops acres 

Corn cut for forage, 

Other forage crops, 
including s i 1 age, 


Potatoes acres 


Sugar-beets . . . .acres 


Apples trees 







314, ^-73 































The value of all 
crops harvested in 
Michigan in 1919 was 
$404,014,810. Corn 
was valued at $67,633,- 
385, wheat at $45,- 
722,488, oats at $31,- 
412,962, rye at $18,- 
252,291, and dry beans 
at $17,329,268. The 
value of hay and for- 
^ige was $105,280,992 ; 
of potatoes, $49,055,- 
600 ; of sugar beets, 
$11,793,836; of ap- 
ples. $11,686,542 ; of 
peaches, $1,232,495 ; 
and of grapes, $5,793,- 
575. As compared 
with 1909, the total 
value of crops for 1919 
shows an increase of 
165.6 per cent ; corn, 

128.6 per cent ; wheat, 

175.7 per cent ; oats, 
69.7 per cent; rye, 
362.7 per cent; dry 
beans, 78.4 per cent; 
potatoes, 394.8 per 
cent ; and sugar beets, 
194.1 per cent. 

The acreage of corn 
in 1919 was 1,269,155, 
representing a decrease 
of 20.2 per cent, as 
compared with 1,589,- 
96 acres in 1909. The 
acreage of wheat was 
1,056,687 in 1919, as 
against 802,137 acres 
in 1909. an increase of 



APPENDIX F—Contmned 


Peaches trees 

Grapes vines 





pounds 115,871,465 






31.7 per cent. That of 
oats was 1,514,808 
acres in 1919 and 
1,429,076 in 1909 ; of 
rye, 912,951 acres in 
1919 and 419,020 in 
1909 ; and of dry 
beans, 314,873 acres 
in 1919 and 403,669 
in 1909. The average yield of corn per acre in 1919 was 35.5 bushels; 
of wheat, 19.3 bushels ; and of oats, 24.4 bushels. The corresponding 
figures for 1909 are 33.3 bushels of corn, 20.0 bushels of wheat, and 
30.7 busliels of oats. 

In 1919, 3,644,952 acres were in hay and forage, including 655,784 
acres in timothy, 1,852,789 acres in timothy and clover mixed, 120,299 
acres in clover, 348,254 acres in silage crops, and 418,031 acres in 
corn cut for forage. The total production of hay and forage was 6,345,- 
510 tons, of which 2,551,806 tons were silage. The total acreage in 
hay and forage in 1909 (not including corn cut for forage) was 2,715,- 
447 acres and the total production 3,634,196 tons. 

There were 280,53-' acres in potatoes in 1919, as compared with 
365.483 acres in 1909, representing a decrease of 23.2 per cent. The 
production was 23,929,560 bushels in 1919, as against 38,243,826 
bushels in 1909. Tlie average yield per acre was 85.3 bushels in 1919 
and 104.6 bushels in 1909. 

The acreage of sugar beets in 1919 was 106,450, as compared with 
78.711 acres in 1909. an increase of 35.2 per cent. The production in 
1919 was 1,025,550 tons, as against 706,990 tons in 1909, an increase 
of 45.1 per cent. 

The production of apples in 1919 was 5,843,271 bushels ; of peaches, 
448,177 bushels; and of grapes, 115,871,465 pounds. 




Live-Stock and Live-Stock Products — Fourteenth 
Census: 1920 


JAN. 1, 1920 

Horses 605.509 

Colts under 1 year old 17,526 

Colts 1 year old and under 2... 24,170 

Mares 2 years old and over 284,014 

Geldings 2 years old and over... 277,806 

Stallions 2 years old and over . . . 1,993 

Mules 5,884 

Colts under 1 year old 290 

Colts 1 year old and under 2 . . . 429 

Mules 2 "years old and over 5,165 

Asses and burros 145 

Cattle 1,586,042 

Beef cattle 329,901 

Calves under 1 year old 100,592 

Heifers 1 year old and under 2.. 3S,660 

Cows 2 years old and over 50,617 

Steers 1 year old and under 2 91,265 

Steers 2 years old and over 43,928 

Bulls 1 year old and over 4,839 

Dairy cattle 1,256,141 

Calves under 1 year old 263,911 

Heifers 1 year old and under 2.. 165,364 

Cows 2 years old and over 802,095 

Bulls 1 "year old and over 24,771 

Sheep 1,209,191 

Lambs under 1 year old 359,175 

Ewes 1 year old and over 809.125 

Rams and wethers 40,891 

Goats 1,607 

Swine 1,106,066 

Pigs under 6 months old 687,089 

Sows and gilts for breeding 184,556 

Boars for breeding 14,199 

All other hogs 220,222 


APR. 15, 1910 

Horses 605,509 *6n2,410 

Mules 5,884 *3,638 

Cattle 1,586,042 •1,261,773 

Sheep 1,209,191 *1, 545, 241 

Chickens 10,913,645 9,698,401 

Hives of bees 93,348 115,274 

* Excluding spring colts, calves, and lambs. 

Of the 196,447 farms 
m Michigan in 1920, 
186,354 reported do- 
mestic animals. Horses 
were reported by 176,- 
259, mules by 2,852, 
cattle by 173,417, 
sheep by 35,454, and 
hogs by 138,170. 

Tlie number of horses 
on these farms in 1920 
was 605,509, which in- 
cluded 563,813 horses 
2 years old and over, 
24,170 colts from 1 to 
2 years old. and 17.- 
526 colts under 1 year 
old. The value re- 
ported for horses was 
$56,433,765, an aver- 
age of $93.20 per head. 
The number of horses 
on April 15. 1910 (ex- 
cluding spring colts, in 
order to make a fair 
comparison with the 
figures for January 1, 
1920) was 602,410. 

The number of mules 
in 1920 was 5,884. in- 
cluding 290 colts un- 
der 1 year old, 429 
colts from 1 to 2 years 
old, and 5.165 mules 
years old and over. 
The total value was 
$661,115, an average 
of $112.36. The num- 
ber of mules in 1910 
(excluding spring 
colts) was 3,638. 

The total number of 
cattle in 19 2 was 
1,586,042, including 
329.901 beef cattle and 
1,256,141 dairy cattle. 
Beef cows numbered 

0,617 and dairy cows 



APPENDIX G — Continued 


Milk gals. 382,822,631 352,858,180 

Wool lbs. 7,835,558 11,965,405 

Eggs doz. 55,986,999 59,915,851 

Chickens raised 12,441,555 12,877,537 

1919 1909 802,095. The value re- 

ported for cattle was 
$101,717,971. The 
number of cattle in 
1910 (excluding spring 
calves) was 1,261,773. 
The 1,209,191 sheep 
reported in 1920 included 359,175 lambs under 1 year old, 809,125 
ewes, and 40,891 rams and wethers. The sheep were valued at $13,688,- 
379, an average of $11.32. The number of sheep in 1910 (excluding 
spring lambs) was 1,545,241. 

Of the 1,106,066 swine on farms in 1920, 687,089 were pigs under 
6 months old, 1 4,556 sows for breeding, 14,199 boars for breeding, 
and 220,222 other hogs The value reported for swine was $19,621,714. 
The total production of milk in 1919 was 382,822,631 gallons, as 
compared with 352,858,180 in 1909. The production of wool in 1919 
was 7,835.558 pounds; of honey, 1,321,447 pounds; of eggs, 55,986,999 
dozen ; and the number of chickens raised was 12,441,555. The value 
of all dairy products, excluding home use of milk and cream, was $71,- 
074,727 ; of eggs, $23,514,540 ; and of chickens raised in 1919, .$11,- 

Domestic animal., kept in village barns, city stables, and elsewhere 
not on farms were reported as follows: Horses, 58,474 in 1920, as 
compared with 100,238 in 1910 ; mules, 894 in 1920 and 700 in 1910 ; 
cattle, 42,061 in 1920 and 47,385 in 1910 ; hogs, 23,970 in 1920 and 
13,894 in 1910. 








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Accounting, farm, 393 
Adrian, situation of, 43 

wire-fence made at, 314 
Adulteration, 389 
Agent, county agricultural, 363 

home demonstration. 363 
Agriculture, Department of, 

development of, 417 

early, 41 

in central counties. 449 

in northern counties, 450 

in northern Michigan, 427, 

in southern counties, 449 

of northern Lower Penin- 
sula, 46 

railroads and, 245 

rank in, 446 

southeastern, 42 
Ague. 322 

"Alexander" oats, 214 
Alfalfa, in Michigan. 217 
Americanization, 177, 178 
Animal Industry, Bureau of, 

Department of, 387 
Animals, Michigan, statistics 
of, 219 

predatory, 120. 226 

wild, list of, 114, 115 
Ann Arbor, fair at, 334, 335, 

hav-presses manufactured 
at, 313 

Railroad, 248, 249, 231 

settlement of. 43 
Anti-trust Act. Michigan, 288 

farmers and. 2SS 
Apiary inspector, 383 
Apples. 202 

grades of, 390 

Apples, history. 202 

varieties, 202, 431 
Apricot, 203 

Armour and Company, can- 
nery, 299. 300 
Arscnite of lime, from copper 

country. 91 
Artesian wells, 57, 58 
Asbestos. 108 
Ash. 78 
Association, anti-trust act 

and, 288 
Associations, aliens and, 455 

cooperative, statistics, 454, 

farm. 262. 263 

in Finland. 455 

live-stock. 221 

marketing. 264 
Athletic Board of Control, 357 

material distributed by, 358 

schools and, 357 
Aura, described, 144 
Automobiles, on Michigan 
farms, 459 


Balicock test, 389 
Banking. 436 
Barber, E. W., quoted, 60 
Barley, 191 

black l)arbless, 192 

new varieties of, 216 

varieties, 102 

winter, 191 
Barrel, size of, 391 
Baskets, size of regulated, 390 
Basswood. 78 
Battle Creek, settlement of, 43 

threshers manufactured at, 
Bay dc Noc, Upper Peninsula, 




Boal, J. E., quoted, 251 
Beal, W. J., quoted. 115 
Boa IIS, 100 
. distribution, 100 

in Upper Peninsula, 197 

laboratory, 197 

soy, 217 
Beaver Island, 453 

Mormons on, 377 
Beech, 78 
Bee industry, 233 
Beekeepers, 233 
Bees, 232 

association, 233 

distribution, 233 

plants for, 233 
Beet seed, 199, 200 

distribution, 200 

in Tapper Peninsula, 200 
Beet-sugar bounty. 291 

factories, 293 

history. 292 

in Saginaw valley, 293 

in Upper Peninsula. 293 

on muck lands, 213 

production of, 201 

statistics. 293 
Benton Harbor, fruit market- 
ing at, 205 
Berries, 201, 202 

northern, 431 

I'pper Peninsula, 207 
Bibbins. A. L., quoted, 214 
Biological Survey of Michi- 
gan, 394 
Birch, 78 
Birds and agriculture, 120 

migratory law for, 120 
Births, recording of, 101 
Blois, quoted, 240 
Bohemians, in Michigan, 174 

Steadman on, 174 
Boundary dispute with Wis- 
consin, 95 
Bounties, 225, 220 
Bounty, for sugar production, 

Bowlders, 102 
Boyce, S. S., quoted, 10 
Boy scouts, 358 
Bran, production of, 308 
Breakfast foods, production 

of, 308 
Bricks. 112. 113 
Bridges, 405 
Brown, G. L., quoted, 177 

Buckeye mower, 335 

Buckwheat. 192 

Butter-liowls, manufacture of, 

Butter, distribution, 290 

history, 290 

production of. 290 

state l)rand for, 390 

statistics. 290 
Butternut, 208, 209 

Upper Peninsula, 50 

Cadillac, elevation near, 8 

smut-removing machine 
manufactured at, 313 
Calumet, all-service truck 

manufactured at, 313 
Campau, Louis. 44 
Canadian Pacific Railway. 250 
Canals, early projects for, 242, 

Erie, 254 

immigration on, 158 

St. Mary's Ship, 11, 254 
Candles. 318 

Canning, Armour and Com- 
pany and, 299 

distribution, 300 

fruit, 299 

law, 301 

Michigan Canned Food Com- 
pany, 300 

statistics. 299, 300 

vegetables, 300 
Carriages, manufacture of, 313 
Cattle, 230 

breeds, 230, 231 

pure-bred, 220 

statistics of, 230, 231, 297 
Celery, 197 

distribution, 198 

in Upper Peninsula, 54, 199 

marketing of, 199 

soil. 199 

statistics, 198 
Cement, 110 

history. 110 

production. 110 
Cemeteries, township, 161 
Central Michigan Normal 

School, 370 
Cheese, distribution. 290 

factories, statistics of, 297 



Cheesp. history. 295 
production of, 295 
statistics. 295 
CheiTv, crop, 207 
distribution. 207 
on Grand Traverse Bay, 200 
varieties of. 203 
Chestnut, 209 

Chicago and Northwestern 
Railroad. 249 
fruit market, 2(i0 
Milwaukee and St. Paul 
Railroad. 250 
Children's Year Special. 328 
Child welfare work. 32S 
Chippewa County. r)unl)ar Ag- 
ricultural School of. 372 
soil of. 421 
Cholera, 322 
Church, 375 

camp-meetings. 37(^i 
circuit-rider, 37(> 
condition of rural, 3S0 
conference at the Michigan 
Agricultural College, 

Germans and. I(i3 
Cider. 301 
Circuit-rider, 376 
Cities as markets. 25S 
Clays, area of. 41() 

of Chippewa County. 421 
of eastern Upper Peninsula, 

of Ontonagon County. 49 
of Ontonagon Valley. 421 
of Saginaw valley, 45 
southeastern. 41 
used in pottery. 113 
Clerk, township, 161 
Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Com- 
pany, 148 
Climate, elevation and, 8, 9 
fruit and, 204 
topography and, 8. 9 
Clinic, dental, Kent County. 
state, 325 
Clinton Woolen Mills, 305 
Cloth, production of, Michi- 
gan, 305 
Clover, annual white sweet, as 
soil-buiMer. 429 
seed. 193 
sweet, 216 
Cloverland Magazine, The. 374 

Clubs, bovs' and girls" stand- 
ard, 368 
constitution of, 343 
Michigan State Association 

of, 343 
policies, 344 
statistics, 344 
Club-work, described, 368 
leaders of, 364 
statistics, 309 
Coal. 99 

distribution. 100 
history. 99 
Coast of Michigan, length of. 

Coldwater. settlement of. 43 
Collal)orators, 364 
Colonization. 145 
Commissioner of Agriculture, 
of the State Land Office, 397 
Communities, in Michigan, 177 
Concord grape. 2(iti 
Condemnation, for idle lands, 

Condensed milk, 297 
Conservation. Director of, 394 
in Michigan. 402 
State Department of, 394 
Consolidated Rural School Act, 

Consumers' Power Company, 
rural service of, 252 
Cookery, early, 317 
Cooperation, 273 

among the Finns, 172 
law for, 342 

Michigan farmers and, 454 
Cooperative associations, 273 
Crop Reporting Service, 392 
stores, etc., 455. 456 
Copper, 88 

by-products. 91 
character of, 88 
Country, 18, 50 
Indian use of, 88 
location of, 88 
miners, 90 
mining of, 89 
production of, 90 
stamping and smelting of, 
Corn, 186 

distribution. 190 
frost and, 188 



Corn, history, 187 
Indian. 153, 187 
in north country, 420 
planting, 188 
varieties. 189 
yield, 18!) 
Counties, nid to ai?riculture, 
371, 373 
yield of farm crops in, 447, 
County asent, ropres(>nts State 
Veterinarian, 388 
agricultural agent, 3(!.'') 
drain coniniissloner, 414 
government. New York and, 

road commission, 404 
schools of agriculture, 371 
Covert road law, 4()(! 
Cows, dairy, statistics of, 297 
Cox, J. F., quoted, 419,420 
Coyotes, 220 
Crawford County, forest re- 

soTVf in, 397 
Creameries. 297 
Cream, production of, statis- 
tics. 297 
Credits, farm, 430 
Crops, improvement of, 213 
northern, 429 
on cut over lands, 420 
rank in, Michigan, 440, 454 
reports on, 392" 
rotation of on northera 

farms, 433, 434 
statistics of, 471 
value of, 181. 445 
yield of, 440. 448 
Customs, European, in Michi- 
gan, 179 
Cut-over lands, farming on, 
grazing on, 420, 427 


Dairy and Food Department, 
Association, 298 
bureau in Department of 

Agriculture, 299 
products, value of, 445 
Dairying, northern, 430 
Dances, 321 
Davenport, quoted, 303 

David, House of, on High Is- 
land, 454 

Israelite House of, 378 
Davis, C. A., quoted, 05 
Deaths, recording of, 101 
Deliates, early, 321 
Deer, 115 

destruction of, 119 
Department of Agriculture, bu- 
reau of dairying in, 299 

Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege and, 3S(i 

secures agricultural statis- 
tics, 392, 393 

State, 383, 380 

TI. S. funds from, 304 
Detroit, as market, 245, 258 

Cadillac on site of, 591 

commerce of, 247. 202 

Grand Haven and Milwau- 
kee Railroad, history 
of, 248 

industries in, 200 

market milk and live-stock, 
274. 275 

motor truck lines to, 201 

Packing Company, 270 

railroads to, 201 

roads to, 201, 202 

steamship lines at, 201 

terminals, 201 

tractors manufactured at, 

Transportation Association, 

transportation to, 200 
Development Bureaus, 425 

of agriculture, 417 
Director of Markets, 383 

State, 203 
Disease, 321, 322 
Dogs, laws for, 225 
Dolomite, 111, 112 
Drag, early. 309 
Drainage, 408 

by counties, 408 

criticism of, 411 

crops and. 409 

Michigan law for, 409, 

Miller and Simons on, 410 

state and, 412, 413 

statistics, of, 408 

U. S. census on. 408 
Drains, making of, 414 

on state syvamp lands, 414 



Drummond Island, 452, 453 

Mormons on, 377 
Duluth, South Shore and At- 
lantic Railroad, 249 
Dunbar Agricultural School, 

Dunkards, 378 
Duroc-Jersey hog, 230 
Dutch, character of, 165 

distribution, 165 

in Michigan. 164 

statistics, 165 


Eaton Rapids, woolen mill at, 

Education, land-grant for, 348 
pioneer. 347 
vocational, 358 
Electric power, furnished by 
municipalities, 251, 252 
railways, 250 
Elevation, climate and, 8, 9 
in Upper Peninsula, 50 
of Cadillac, 46 
of central counties, 44. 45 
of northern Lower Penin- 
sula, 46 
Elevator Exchange, 282 
Elk, 119 
Elm, 78 

Escanaba, butter-bowls made 
at, 315 
other manufactures at, 315 
stump-pullers made at, 434, 
Essex hog, 230 
Eureka, ridge near. 9 
European influences, 179 
Evans, E. E.. on sandv lands, 

Explosives, use of, 435 
Extension work, 364 

Factories, wood-using, 80, 81 
Fairs. 332 

in Upper Peninsula, 337 

of Berrien County described, 
333, 334 

of other counties, 334 

State, 384 

state aid for, 337 

village, 337 

Washtenaw County de- 
scrilied, 334, 335 

West Michigan State, 336 
Fanning-mill, 310 
Farm bureau, 263 

and forest products, 286 

constitution of, 279 

departments, 282 

incorporation of. 287 

membership, 282 

membership statistics, 284 

Michigan State, and Potato 
Growers Exchange, 268, 

organization of. 278 

purchases by, 286 

work of, 282 
Farmers, nationality of, 444 

Week, 370 
Farming, northern. 431, 432 
Farms, aliaiidonnn'nt of, 458 

acreage bv counties, 442, 
443, 452 

expenditures, 444 

mortgages, 443 

ownership, 443 

rank of, 444 

size, 443 

statistics of. 442, 461, 463 

tenancy, 14(t. 147, 443 

valuation, 443 
Federal Land Bank of St. 

Paul, 436 
Feed, in northern Michigan, 

Fence, manufacture of, 314 
Fernow, quoted, (il 
Ferries, car. 249 
Fertilizer, from peat, 101 

from Sturgeon River 

Swamp, 54 
Finland, Kia. 166 
Finnish farmers and land 

clearing. 9 
Finns, and prohibition. 107 

and sheep-raising. 179, 180 

and Socialism. 167 

and Swedes, 1(!7 

as farmer, l(i(> 

character of, 106 

co'iperation among. 172 

habits of. 16S. 1G9 

honesty of. 1(>8 

in cut-over country, 168 

in Finland. 167 

in Michigan, 165 



Finns, music of, 169 

progress of, 173 

statistics, 172 
Fire, forest, law for, .39S 

state wardens and, .S9S, 399 
Fish, abundance of, 122 

liatcheries, 124 

industry, 123 

liinds of, 123 

of Lake Superior, 123 

output. 123, 124 
Flail, 310 
Flint, as market, 258 

market at, 258 
Flour, production of, 308 
Food and Drug Commissioner, 

Department, 389 

pioneer, 317 
Forester, State, 400 
Forestry warden, 398 
Forests! and settlement, 73 

area, 71 

burning of. 47 

Commission, Michigan, 39C> 

commissioner, state, 397 

department. Farm Bureau, 

depletion, 72 

devastation of. 70, 73, 82 

effects of removal, 84 

fire law, 398 

fires, 84, 85 

game and, 118 

kinds of trees in, 71 

Livingston on. 47 

Michigan Forest Products 
Bureau. 2.S(i 

near Manchester. CO 

necessity of removal of, 83 

of Clinton County. tiO 

of Detroit area, (iO 

of Eaton County, tiO 

of Kent County, Livingston 
on, ()7 

of northern Lower Penin- 
sula, 40, 47 

of Saginaw, 01 

of Shiawassee Valley, 62 

of southern counties, 61 

of Upper Peninsula, 49 

pioneers and. 69 

railroads and devastation 
of. 74 

reserves, 397 

size of, 71 

Forests, soil and, 38, 39 

southeastern, 41, 42 

State, 401 

Tax Commissions record of, 

uses of, 69 

Watkins on, 60 
Fox farms, 117 
Freight, from Detroit, 247 
French, and agriculture, 155 

and Finns, 158 

character of, 157 

farms in southeastern 
Michigan, 155 

immigration, 158 

in Michigan, 155 

methods of farming, 156 

settlements, 155 
Frosts, and forests, 9 

clearings and, 9 

elevation and, 9 

near Great Lakes, 17 
Fruit, 201 

associations, listed, 273 

-belt, 19, 204 

distribution, 205 

exchanges listed, 269 

history of, 201, 205 

northern. 431 

sale of regulated, 390 

selling associations, 269 

wild, 201 

yield of, 204, 205, 206 
Furniture, pioneer, 318 
Furs. 116 

posts. 117 

prices for. 118 

trade in. 116 


Gagneur, Rev. W., 377 

Game. 114 

and agriculture. 116 
extermination of, 117 
farm near Mason, 121 
forest and, 118 
in Upper Peninsula, 116 
of Lenawee County, 115 
species of, 114 

Games, 320 

Garden-beds, Indian, 154 

Geismar, L. M., and sheep- 
raising, 179 
Finns and. 179. 180 
on effect of northern exten- 
sion of State, 20 



Genesee County, settlement of, 

Geological Survey, of Michi- 
gan. 86. 394 
Geology of Michigan, 6 
Germans, as farmers, 1G3 

distribution of. 162 

immigration. 162 

in Germany. 163 

in Michigan, 161 

in Upper Peninsula 164 

religion of, 163 

statistics, 162 
Ginseng, 211 
Glacial rivers, 7 
Glaciation, effect of on soils, 

Gleaners. Ancient Order of, 

Clearing House Association. 
341. 342 

insurance, 341 

law for, 342 

statistics, 341, 348 
Gold, 98 

Ropes Mine, 98 
Goldenseal, 211 
Government, local. 160, 161 
Grain crops, 183, 190 

improved, distribution of, 

new varieties, 216 

on muck-lands. 212 

standardization of, 213 

weight of, 391 
Grand Haven, temperature at. 

Grand Rapids, and Indiana 
Railroad. sandy land 
experiments of, 429 

as market, 2.58 

population, 258 

settlement of, 44 
iJraiid Uivcr outlet. 7 
Grand Trunk Railway, 248 
Grange, farm accounting and, 

insurance. 339. 340. 341 

Michigan State. 338 

Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company. 340 

policies. 339 

subordinate. 339 

work of. 338 
Grape. 201 

hisf-ory, 201, 204 

(irape, in southeastern Michi- 
gan, 201 

marketing of, 264, 265 
Graphite. IDS 
Grazing, northern Michigan 

and. 426. 427 
Great Lakes and Michigan, 10 

area of. 16 

commerce on, 247 

depth of. It) 

effects of. 11. 16, 17. 431 

elevation of. 12 

frosts and. 17 

geological history of, 12 

rivers of. 13 

shore-lini> of, 20 

temperature of. 16 
Grinders, manufacture of, 

Crist-mill, history, 306 

Indian. 306 

of whites. 306 
Grits, production of, 308 
Gypsum. 106 

distribution, 107 

production. 107 

uses, 107 


Hail-storms. 26 

distribution. 26, 27 

lakes and. 26 
Handles, manufacture of, 79 
Hardwoods, (i3 

Livingston on. 65 

of Walnut Lake. 65 
Ilarger. Rev. C. II.. on rural 

church, 380 
Harvester, early, 310 
Hay. 182 

alfalfa. 182 

crop. 182 

harvesting of. 179 

in Chippewa County, 183 

kinds. 1S3 

mint, 210 

on ' .uck lands. 212 

-press. 'M'A 
Health, rural. 324 

rural work for. 326. 327, 

State Board of. 324 

township board of, 161 
Hemlock. 77 

pnxluction of. 77 



lliggins T.akc, tree nursery at, 

High Island, 454 

House of David and, 37.S 
Highway Department, State, 
404. 40.") 

improvement tax. 403 
Hoar, .Tames, quoted, 1.58 
Holmes, J. C, horticulturalist, 

"Holy Corners," 378 
Home demonstration agent, 

365, 366 
Homestead Law, Michigan, 

Honey, distribution, 233 

plants Yielding. 233 

statistics, 232 
Horses. 227 

history, 227 

pure-bred. 220 

statistics. 228 

varieties, 227, 228 
Horticultural Society, Michi- 
gan State, 345 
Houghton, Douglass, State 
Geologist, 86 

his work. 87 
Houses, pioneer, 316, 318 

vacant farm, 458 
Hul)am, as soil-liuilder, 429 
Hubbard. Bela. quoted. 319 
Huller. clover. 334. 335 
Humus, destruction of. 47 
Huron Mountains, 8 
Hygiene, bureau of, 324 

Imlay Channel, 7 
Immigration Commissioner, 

149, 150, 383 
Implements, at Washtenaw 
County Fair, 335 
early, 311 
farm. 308 
historv of, 308 
list of; 311 
manufacture of. .311 
not manufactured in Upper 
Peninsula. 314 
Improved lands, southern 

counties, 449 
Income, on northern farms. 

Incorporation, act of 1903, 

288, 289 
Indians. 54 

and whites. 153 

as farmers. 153 

corn of. 153 

distribution of, 153 

garden-beds of, 154 

government and. 154 

of Michigan, 152 

opinions of, 154 

school for, 154 

statistics, 152 

treaties with, 127 

tribes. 152 
Insanity, in rural communi- 
ties, 329 
Inspection, of farm products, 
456, 457 

of wool, 457 
Insurance. Grange, 339 
Internal improvements, 242 
Interurban railways, 250 

farmers and. 251 

health work on, 327, 328 
Iron, analyses of, 95, 96 

bog, 92. 96 

charcoal. 93 

deposits of. 91 

discovery of. 87 

furnaces. 92 

history of. 91 

iron, kinds of, 95 

on Gogebic Range, 94 

on Marquette Range, 93, 94 

on Menominee Range, 94 

quality of, 94 

reserves, 96 

situation of, 96 

statistics, 95 

transportation. 92 
Islands, agriculture on, 452, 

Isle Royale. 452 

moose on. 120 
Israelite House of David, 378 

Jackson, manufacture of im- 
plements at, 312 
settlement of, 43 
JefEery, J. A., quoted, 40 

Kalamazoo, settlement of, 43 
Kedzie, R. C, quoted, 290, 320 



Kent County, health work in, 

Kerosene, 318 
inspection, 319 
quality of, 318 
Keweenaw Peninsula, 8 
growing season in, 18 
Waterway, 11 
Kirstin Company, A. J., man- 
ufacturer of stump- 
pullers, 434, 435 

Labor, farm, 457 

statistics of, 458 
Lake Algonquin, 12 

Chicago, 12 
Duluth, 12 

Ontonagon, 12 

Saginaw, 12 

Superior. 12, 19, 123 
Lakes, Great, 10 
Lamps, kerosene, 318 
Land, at Aura, 144, 145 

cessions of, 127 

classification of, 35, 3G, 143, 
151, 424,438 

clearing of, 144. 433 

colonization, 145 

cut-over, 140, 420 

delinquent for taxes, 437 

description of, 129 

economics, 424 

grants, 135, 138, 148, 149 

grazing, 141 

homestead entry of, 135 

offices. 134 

ownership of, 140, 147 

prices, 138, 164, 239 

reversion of to State, 142 

sale of, 134, 384 

sandy, agriculture on, 428 

settlement, 144 

speculation in, 135 

State forest, 398 

State tax homestead, with- 
drawn from entry, 397 

statistics of, 445 

survey of, 128 

swamp, 138 

tenancy, 140 

tenure, 14(! 

Tiffin on, 30 

United States, 135 

wet. 141. 142, 415 

worthless, 143, 144 

Lapeer County, health work 

in, 327 
Latitude, effect of, 20 

extent of, Michigan, 20 

Geismar on, 20 
Leverett, Frank, 10 

soil survey by. 31 
Levin, Ezra, quoted, 211, 212 
Libraries, 349 

county. 349 

Menominee County, 350 

St. Clair County, 349 

State, 349 
Life, loneliness of pioneer, 319 
Light, gas and electric, on 

farms, 459 
Limestone, 109, 111 

country, Upper Peninsula, 

distribution. 111 

uses. 111, 112 
Live-stock, 219 

destruction of diseased, 387 

Detroit market for, 275 

history, 219 

marketing of, 275 

products, 445, 473 

pure-bred, statistics of, 475 

Sanitary Commission, 387 

standard varieties of, 220 

statistics, 275 
Livingston, B. E., quoted, 40, 

47, 05, GO 
Loams, crops on, 420 

of Upper Peninsula, 421 
Loan-associations. 430 
Loneliness, pioneer, 319 
Longyear, H. M., quoted, 00 
Longyear, J. M.. quoted, 9 
Lowe, John, quoted, 123 
Lower Peninsula, early agri- 
culture in. 41, 42 

population and agriculture 
of, 40 
Lumber, early production of, 

use of, 79 


Machinery, farm, manufac- 
ture of. 80 
Mail routes, rural, 255 
Mails, early, 240 
Malcolm, quoted, 319 
Maltas. Rev. W., 370 
Manitou Islands. 453, 454 



Manufaotiiros. SO 
Maple, 75 

sugar and sirup, .SOI. .302 
Syrup I'roduccrs Assiieia- 

tion of Micliigan, 804 
use of, 7.'5 
Marhlo, 112 
Markets, 2.57, 27S 
director of, 20.3 
early, 235 
niunicipal, 25S 
prices, 239 
railroads and, 245 
U. S. Bureau of. Inspection 
service in Michigan, 
Upper Peninsula and, 239, 
Marl, 109 
Marquette, climate of, 19 

peach, 20() 
Mason, (ianie Farm near, 121 
Meal, production of, 30S 
Measure, of grains regulated, 

Mennonites, 378 
Menominee County Agricul- 
tural School, 371. 372 
Merino sheep at Washtenaw 

County Fair, 334 
Michigan, Acadeniv of Science, 
quoted. 419. 423. 424 
Agricultural College, 213, 

21(1. 3(iO. 370. 428 
Agricultural Fair Commis- 
sion. 337. 384 
Allied Dairy Association, 

Business Farmer, The, 374 
Canned Food Company, 300 
Central Railroad, impor- 
tance of, 247 
Corn Improvement Associa- 
tion. 189 
Crop Improvement Associa- 
tion. The. 215 \- 
Experiment Association, The, 
Farmer. The. 373 
Fish Commission. 394 
Forest Commission. 390 
Forest Products Bureau. 286 
I'>uit (irowers Exchange, 

Fruit Packci's Federation, 
constitution (if. 271.272 

Michigan. Geological Survey, 
Honey Producers Exchange, 

Impioved Livestock Breed- 
ers and Feeders Asso- 
ciation. 221 
Livestock Excliange. 276 
Maple Syrup I'roducers As- 
sociation. 303 
Milk I'roducers Associa- 
tions, 273 
Patron. The, 374 
Potato (Jrowers Exchange, 

266, 267. 208. 269 
Potato Producers Associa- 
tion. 195 
State Agricultural Society, 

State Association of Farm- 
ers Clubs. 343 
State Horticultural Society, 

Sugar Beet Growers Asso- 
ciation. 294 
Midget mills. 307 
Midlings, production of, 308 
Midsummer Day, 173 
Milk-bottles, standards for, 
commissions, 390 
Detroit's consumption of, 

handling of. 274, 275 
market. 273 
l)roduction of, 273, 297 
|)roducts plants, statistics 

of, 297 
puritv and standards of, 

shipment of. 389 
statistics. 297 
Mills, grist. Indian. 306 
saw. 307 
woolen. 305 
Minerals, 49. 86 
Mineral springs. 107 
Mining. Upper Peninsula, 87 
Mint. 209. 210 
Monopolv. law on. 287 
Moose. 120 
Moravians, 377 
Mormons. 377 
Motor cars, on Ann Arbor 

Railroad. 251 
.Mountains. 7 



Mt. Pleasant, Indian school at, 
154, 155 

Muck, crops on, 211 

Muck lands, 53 

Agriculture on. 55, 56 
in Lower Peninsula, 55 

Muskegon, fox-farming at, 118 


National Canners Association, 
operations in Michigan, 
Humus and Chemical Com- 
pany, 101 
Negroes. 175 

distribution. 175. 17G 
in Cass Count.v, 176 
New England and township 
government, 160, 161 
capital in Michigan. ItJl 
immigration from, 15S 
influence on Michigan, 159 
New York, and county gov- 
ernment, 160 
Immigration from, 158 
Niles, settlement of, 43 
Nipissing Great Lakes, 12 
Normal schools, agricultural 

education at, 370 
Northeastern Michigan De- 
velopment Bureau, 425 
Northern Nut <irowers Asso- 
ciation. 209 
Nurse, public health, 826, 328, 

Nurseries, fruit, 202 
inspection of, 383 
tree. 399 
Nuts, 208, 209 


Oak, 77 

openings, 39 
Oats. 192 

"Alexander." 214 

new varieties. 216 

Worth V, 214 
Oil. 108 

inspection of, 319 
Ontonagon Valley, soil of. 421 
fircliards. iiispcctinn of. 3S3 
(.>xford L>own shrc)). 224 

Packing plants, at Detroit, 

Papers, agricultural, 373 
Park Commission, 394 
Pasteurization. 390 
Patrons Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Companv, 340 

of Husbandry, 338 
Paynesville, temperature of, 

Peach, history of. 203, 204 

in nortliern ^lichigan, 206 

■■Marquette," 206 

varieties of. 203 
Pear. 202 

varieties, 203 
Peas. 197 
Peat, 54 

fertilizer from. 101 
Peppermint. 209 
Pere Marquette Railroad, 

history of, 248 
Petroleum, 108, 109 

at Port Huron, 109 
Pheasants. 121 
Physicians. 324 
Pine, importation of. 76 

.lack, 64 

r<'d. 64 

standing white, 76 

use of. 76 

white. 4(i, 63 
I'low. early. 309 
Plums, varieties of, 203 
Police, state, 161 
I'ollution of streams, 395 
Pomological Socictv, State, 

Pontiac, settlement of, 43 
Poplar. 7S 
Population. 159.440 

automobile industry and, 
441. 442 

changes in, 441 

increase of, 247 

market conditions as af- 
fected by. 258 

nationality of, 444 

of cities. 2"5S 

of northern Lower Peuin- 
sula. 46 

rural, 440 

sex, 445 



Population, table of. 466 
urimn and rural. 468 

Porcupino Mountains, 8 

Portage Lako, canals of, 11 
red stone. 103 

Port Huron, macliinorv manu- 
factured at, 312 

Post office, and rural life, 255 

Posts. 81, 82 

early trading, 117 

Potatoes. 193 

on northern soils, 420 

Pottery, 113 

Poultry, 232 

Power, electric, furnished hy 
municipalities, 251, 252 

Poyseor. Rev. W., as farmer, 

Prairies. 39. 40 

Preachers, in agriculture, 379 
salaries of. 378 

Precipitation, 25 

Prices, early, 239 

Primary school interest fund, 
348, 349 

Products, farm, value of, 445 

Project, clul), 369 

Pul)lic Domain Commission, 
394, 400, 401 

Puritanism in ^Michigan, 159 
Sunday and, 159 


Quakers, 377, 378 
Quarantine, 387 


Railroads, 241, 242 
charters, 242 
Chicago and New York 

reached by, 244 
Detroit, firand TIaven and 

Milwaukee. 248 
early protects for, 243 
effect of. 244 
electric. 250 
(irand Trunk. 248 
history. 242 
in Tapper Peninsula. 248, 

Michigan Central, effect of, 


Railroads, Pere Marquette, 248 

rates. 244 

sale of. 244 

state and, 244 

statistics of, 250 

to Detroit, 261 
Rainfall, 25, 26 
Raspberry, 207 
Rate-bill. 348 

freight, by Great Lakes, 

railroad. 244, 245 
Rat-trap, 334 
Red Cross, rural work of, 330, 

Reforestation, 438 
Reindeer, 120 
Religious communities, 377 
Reports, local agricultural, 

Reptiles, 115 
Rivers, 13 

dams on, 15 

drainage basins of, 14 

flow of, 15 

improvement of, 240 

navigable, 235 

of Lake Superior, 51 

transportation on. 15 
Roads, classes of. 406, 407 

county system of, 404 

early." 235, 238. 239 

improvement of, 240 

maintenance, 405 

material for construction of, 

of Michigan, 403 

private, 180 

repair tax, 403 

stage routes, 240, 241 

state, 405 

taxes. 403 

territorial and state, 240 

to Detroit. 262 

trunk-line, 405 
Ropes Cold Mine, 98 
Roscommon County, forest 
reserves in, 397 

"Rosen," 190, 214 
Rotation, crop, on northern 

farms, 433. 434 
Roth, Filbert, Forestry War- 
den, 398 
Rye. 190 

Finns and. 191 

"Rosen," 190, 214 



Saginaw, manufacture of im- 
plements at, 311 
Saginaw Valley, U, 7 

frosts in, 9 

geological history of, 13 

soils of, 45 

topography of, 7 
St. Clair County, health work 

in, 326 
St. Joseph, fruit marketing at, 

St. Mary's Ship Canal, 11, 254 
Salt, 1U4 

by-products, 106 

reserves, 106 
Sand, agriculture on, 48 

experiments on, 428, 429 

farming on, 428 
Sandstone, 102. 103 

in Upper Peninsula, 103 

Portage redstone, 103 
Sanilac County, health nurse 

in, 326 
Sauer. C. O., quoted, 439 
Sault Ste. Marie News, 375 
Saw-mills, 307 

output of, 74 
Scandinavians, as farmers, 

character of, 173 

distribution, 173 

in Michigan, 173 

statistics. 183 
Schneider. C. F., quoted, 24 
Schools, agricultural, 351 

comparison of districts, 355 

cf)nsolidation of, 355 

early. 351 

laws for, 354 

origin of, 159 

pioneer. 347, 348 

rural, 353 

rural scliool acts of 1921, 

Smith-Hughes Law and, 359, 

teacherages for, 356 

township. 351 
Scouts, boj'. 358 
Sears, G. W., on game, 115 
Seed, handled by Farm Bu- 
reau, 282 

standard. Farm Bureau and, 

Seney Swamp, tests on, 54 
Settlement, 42, 43, 150 

character of in Michigan, 

New England and, 158 
of central counties, 44 
of northern Lower Penin- 
sula, 46 
of Upper Peninsula, 52 
"Shakes." 322 
Shale, 114 

oil-bearing, 109 
Sheep, Alsatian practice of 
raising, Houghton 

County, 179 
breeds, 224, 225 
distribution, 222 
exhibition of at Washtenaw 

Countv Fair, 334 
history, 219, 224 
in Upper Peninsula, 223 
on farms, 225 
pure-bred varieties, 220. 221 
-raising, northern, 430, 431 
statistics, 222. 224 
Sickness, 321, 322 
Silos, manufacture of, 79 
Silver, 97 

Sirup, maple. 301-304 
Slate, 101 

Slavs, in Michigan, 175 
Smith-Hughes Law, 358 

-Lever Act, 363 
Snow, distribution of, 28 
Societies, agricultural, 332, 
333. 373 
incorporation of, 373 
Soils, 31 

character of, 35, 36 
classification of, 151, 395 
erosion and, 38 
glaciation and, 37 
moisture of and vegetation, 

67, ()8 
of central counties. 44 
of Copper Range, 50 
of Ja<'ks()n County, 43 
of northei-n counties, 47 
of northern Lower Penin- 
sula, 45, 46, 47 
of Saginaw Valley, 45 
of southeastern counties, 41 
of southern counties, 43 
surveys of, 31 
timber on. 38 
vegetation and, 59 



Soo Line Railroad, 250 

Sorghum. 20. 291 

Soutti Haven Fruit Exchange 

described. 2(iy 
Spalding, quoted, 04 
Spearmint, 209 
Spinning, home, 304 

wheels, used by Finns, 169 
Spragg, F. A., plant-breeder, 

Springs, 57 

mineral. 107 
Spruce, 78 
Squirrels, 120 
Stage routes, 240, 241 
State Board of Agriculture, 
Board of Control of Voca- 
tional Education, 359 
Board of Education, Michi- 
gan Agricultural Col- 
lege under, 361 
Board of Health. 324 
Forester. 400 
Forests, 398, 401 
Game, Fish and Forest Fire 
Commissioner, 394, 399 
Highway Commissioner, 404 
Statistics, agricultural, 384, 

Steadman, T. P., quoted, 174, 

Steamers on Great Lakes, 241 
Steamship lines, to Detroit, 

Stone, for Viuilding, 102 
Strang, "King," 377 
Strawberry, 200 
Streams, length of. 123 
StumiJ-pullers. manufactured 

at Escanaba, 434, 435 
Sturgeon River Swamp, utili- 
zation of, 54 
Sugar, bouutv for production 
of. 290 
companies, and settlement, 

maple, 301-304 
Sugar Beet News and North- 
western Farmer, The, 
Sugar-beets in northern lati- 
tudes, 21 
on muck lands, 56, 213 
seed, 199 
Sunday, Michigan and, 159 

Sunflowers as ensilage, 430 
Sunlight at various latitudes, 

Sunshine, 24 

Supervisors, crop reports of, 

township, 160 
Survey, land, 128, 129, 130 

soil, 439 
Surveyor, life of, 131 
Swamp lands, drainage of, 

milkweed, 10 
Swine, 229 

breeds of, 221, 229 

statistics, 229 


Tanks, manufacture of, 79 
Taquamenon Swamp, celery 

grown on, 54 
Taxes, arrears of, 437 

for highways, 403 
Tax sales. 437 
Teacherages, 356 
Telephones, Michigan, 256 
on farms, 459 
rural, 256 
statistics, 256 
Temperature, Great Lakes 
and. 17 
of northern and southern 
Michigan. _22 
Tenancy, 146, 147 
"Thimble-berry," 202 
Thresiier. Birdsell, 334, 335 
Threshers, manufacture of, 

Threshing, grain, 310 
machine, early, 310 
Tile. 113 
Timber, kinds of, 71 

standing. 71 , o.c 

Time, of railroad travel, 246 
Topography. 5 

effects on agriculture, 8 
of central counties, 44 
Tornadoes. 29, 30 
Town-meeting. 160 
Township board. 161 

government, 161 
Tractors, on Michigan farms, 

Trails, 237 



Transportation, 235. 230 
by water, 241. 252, 253 
by railroad. 241. 242 

Travel, by railroad. 246 

Treaties, English and Indian, 

Tree nursery. 399 

Trees. 39, 40 
on prairies, 39 

Truck, all-service, 313 
on Michigan farms, 459 

Tuberculosis, clinics, 325 

Turkeys, wild, 115 
on Game Farm, 121 

Twilight of northern latitudes, 


United States and education, 

Upper Peninsula, agriculture 

in, 422 
character of, 50 
climate of, 19 
climate and agriculture in, 

crops for, 421 
Development Bureau, 425, 

eastern, soil of, 48, 49 
elevation of, 50 
farm area of. 450 
Finns in, 173 
grazing in, 53 
importation of food into, 

239, 240 
land ownership in, 147 
manufactures in, 314 
mining in, 52 
precipitation in, 25 
program of settlement for, 

423, 424 
railroads in, 248, 249 
settlement of, 52 
sheep in, 223 
sunshine in. 25 
tillable lands of, 52 
tonic atmosphere of, 23 
topography of. K 
western, character of, 49 
winter in. 29 
wood-using industries in, 

yield to the acre of farm 

crops in, 448 

Vegetables, 193 

Vegetation, of Kent County, 
of northern Lower Penin- 
sula, 47 
soil and. 59 

Vehicles, manufacture of, 79, 

Veterinarian, State, 387 

Veterinary surgeon, licensing 
of, 388 

Vinegar. 301 

Vocational education, 358 
State Board of Control of, 


Wages, farm, 459 

Wagons, manufacture of, 313 

Walnut Lake, vegetation of, 

Warden, fire, 398 

forestry, 398 

State Game, Fish and For- 
estry, 399 
Washtenaw County, fair at, 

334, 335 
Water, distribution of, 56 

in farm houses, 459 

transportation by, 252, 253 

underground, 56 
Water-power, 125 

companies, 126 

development of, 395 

of the Upper Peninsula, 126 

statistics, 125 
Watkins, L. D., quoted, 319 
Wax, bees, 232 
Weights and measures, 389 

county sealers of, 391 

State Superintendent of, 
Western Michigan Develop- 
ment Bureau, 425 
West Michigan State Fair, 330 
Wheat, 183 

Claw son, 185 

Fultz, 185 

Gold medal, 183 

historv. 185 

kinds of, 185 

production, 184 



Wheat, red rock, 186 
standardization of, 213 
standard varieties of, 213, 
■Ulieeler, C. S., on game, 114, 

Wild cherry, Upper Peninsula, 
rice, 42 
Williams, .T. L., 295 
Wind, 9, 30. 31 
-storms, 29 
velocity of, 30 
Winter, feed for, 421 
precipitation in, 27 
Wintergreen, 202 
Wolves, 220 

Women's Committee, Council 
of National Defense, 

Wood, importation of, 79 

use of, 7.S 

-using industries, 75, 80, 81 
Wool, grading of, 457 

hoine-si)uu, 109 

manufacture of, 300 

pool of by Farm Bureau, 

yield, 222, 223, 224 
Woolen mills, 305 
"Worthy oat," 214 

Yankees, 158 

Yield, in northern counties, 
of farm crops, 446, 447 
Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, 379 
County organization of, 379 

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