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ENGLISH EDITION 



OF 



A. IVANOFF'S 

EUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



(A. IVANOFFS) 

RUSSIAN GRAMMAR 



(IQtk EDITION U5tk THOUSAND). 



TRANSLATED, ENLARGED, AND ARRANGED 



FOR THE 



USE OF ENGLISH STUDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN 

LANGUAGE 



BY 



WALTER E. GOWAN, 

MAJOK IN HEH MAJESTY'S INDIAN ABUT. 





LONDON : 
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., i, PATERNOSTER SQUARE, 

1882. 



LONDON : 

FEINTED BY GILBERT AND BIYINGTON, LIMITED, 
ST. JOHN'S SQUARE, CLEEKENWELL. 



THE ENGLISH EDITION OP THIS GRAMMAR 
18, BY GRACIOUS PERMISSION, 

MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 

TO 
HER ROYAL AND IMPERIAL HIGHNESS 

MARIE ALEXANDROVNA, 
DUCHESS OP EDINBURGH, 

AND 

IMPERIAL PRINCESS OP RUSSIA. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (OaaweHie). 



FA.OB 

J. HE FACE . . . . Vll 



y . face xi 



NOTE ON THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE ix 

RUSSIAN, ENGLISH, AND GREEK ALPHABETS 

CLASSIFICATION OF RUSSIAN LETTERS . 

RUSSIAN LETTERS AND THEIR SOUNDS . . . . . xi xx 

/PERMUTATION OF RUSSIAN LETTERS xxi 

EPENTHESIS, OR INSERTION OF LETTERS ... .^ 

PROSTHESIS, OR PREFIXING OF LETTERS . . * . . xxi 

f & 
APOCOPE, OR ABRIDGMENT OF VOWELS, &c. . . . . . xx jj 

SYNCOPE, OR CONTRACTION OF WORDS BY STRIKING OUT LETTERS' 
CLASSIFICATION OF RUSSIAN WORDS ...... xxii 

RUSSIAN WORDS TRACEABLE TO ROOTS xxii 

ROOTS OF REGULAR RUSSIAN VERBS . . . . . xxiii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

FIRST PART: 

ETYMOLOGY 1 4 

THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE 4 26 

THE NOUN ADJECTIVE . 26 39 

THE NOUN OF NUMBER OR NUMERAL .... 39 45 

THE PRONOUN 45 51 

THE VERB 5178 

THE ADVERB 7881 

THE PREPOSITION 81, 82 

THE CONJUNCTION 82, 83 

THE INTERJECTION 83 



( vi ) 



PAGB 



SECOND PABT : 

SYNTAX . 

PBOPOSITIONS 

THEIE PEINCIPAL PAETS 

THEIE SECONDABY PAETS , . . - 

THE CONSTEUCTION OF A PEOPOSITION . 

THE SIGNIFICATION OF A PBOPOSITION . 

THE DIVEBSITY OF EXPEESSION IN A PEOPOSITION 

CONSTEUCTION OF COMPOUND PEOPOSITIONS . 

PEBIODICAL AND BEOKEN SPEECH .... 

CONCOED OF WOEDS 

GOVEENMENT OF WOEDS . ,. 

EMPLOYMENT OF CASES WITHOUT PEEPOSITIONS 
EMPLOYMENT OF CASES WITH PBEPOSITIONS . 

DlSTEIBUTION OF WOEDS 

MAEKS OF PUNCTUATION 

THIED PAET: 

OETHOGEAPHY 

EMPLOYMENT OF CAPITAL LETTEES 

EMPLOYMENT OF SMALL LETTEBS .... 

PBOPEE USE OF SEPAEATE WOEDS 

THE HYPHEN 

DISJOINTING OF WOBDS 

CONTBACTION OF WOBDS 



} 8490 



9093 

93101 

9499 

99101 

101104 

104108 

108 

108110 

11O-118 

118, 119 

119, 120 

120 

120 



PREFACE. 



IN the belief that, amongst the gradually increasing number of 
English officers who are recognizing the importance of the study 
of Russian, a demand exists for a Modern Russian Grammar, it 
occurred to me that I might profitably devote some time and 
labour, during my leave from India, towards endeavouring to pro- 
vide for this want. 

The method of setting about such a task seemed to me to be one 
of two : 1st. I might either compile, from the few existing works 
in the Russian and English languages, a guide of the kind required, 
and thereby produce that which would of necessity be imperfect, 
and at the same time far from original. 2nd. Or I might take a 
practical work, by a recognized Russian Grammarian, and try and 
adapt it to the special requirements of English Students of the 
Russian Language. 

The latter course I have endeavoured to follow, and the scope of 
the enlargement and arrangement of the Russian Grammar, which 
I have selected for the purpose, may be thus explained : 

The original text, having been written by a Russian for Russians 
contains no Alphabet, or explanations of the various sounds of the 
several letters. Essentials under this and other heads have been 
supplied in the first twenty pages of the English edition. 

Russian words occurring throughout the English text have been 



( viii ) 

accentuated, 1 so as to ensure, as far as possible, a correct pro- 
nunciation. 

The final letters or syllables of words, marking the changes to 
which each is subject either through declension or conjugation, 
have been printed in a different type, so that the radical letters may 
stand out more clearly. Prefixes have been similarly dealt with. 
The principle of reducing every simple and compound word to a 
root has been thus kept in view. 

Mr. Henri Biola, Professor of Russian at the Staff College, has 
been good enough to help in the revision of the pages of a Grammar 
which it is hoped will be of use in enabling Englishmen (and 
especially English officers) to become better acquainted with the 
language of a great and growing country. 

W. E. G. 



1 N.B. Russian words in this Grammar which begin with capital letters, and 
which are unaccented, take the accent on the initial letter. 



( fc 



NOTE. 

THE Russian language is a dialect of the Slavonian, the common tongue of a 
large family of nations descended from the Scythians, but whose earlier origin is 
unascertained. Many of the modern roots are Sanscrit, Greek, 1 Latin, and 
German. The spoken language incorporated many words from the Polish and 
other Slavonian dialects, the Tartar and Mongolian. The written character is a 
very neat one ; and the printed has much resemblance to the Greek, some also 
to the Latin. The Alphabet is as nearly phonetic as can be desired, and has the 
advantage of expressing complex consonantal sounds. That Russian literature" 
has not yet contributed its full quota to the great hive of human learning should 
be mainly ascribed to over-government, to its being yet in the youth of its exist- 
ence, and still in a condition which compels it to borrow much. When civiliza- 
tion shall have taken firm root in all classes, then Russia will no doubt enlarge 
her pretensions ; but the time is corning, and the minds to do the work are 
ripening. Extract from the " Encyclopedia Britannica" 



1 In the 9th century, two Greek Missionaries were sent into Moravia by the Byzantian 
Emperor, Michael III., to translate the Bible, and other theological works, into Slavonian. 
Finding letters unknown to the inhabitants, they composed an Alphabet after the model of the 
Greek, with a few additional characters, to express the sounds peculiar to the Slavonian 
language. Extract from the Introduction to " Heard 1 s Practical Grammar o the Russian 
Language" St. Petersburg, 1827. 



RUSSIAN LETTERS AND THEIR SOUNDS. 



VOWELS l AND SEMI- VOWELS. 



English 
letters. 


English 
words. 


,4 


are, far. 


U 


am, fat. 


r 


own, alone. 


u 


fate. 



(1) The hard vowel A, a, is represented by 



The ordinary sound of the Russian a is that of d : Ex. MTB, 
mother, pronounced mat*. 

It has also the sound of a when found at the end of certain 
words and not accented : Ex. 6a6a, old woman, pronounced baba. 

In the inflection aio of adjectives, if it be accented, its sound is 
that of d : Ex. cyxaro, gen. of cyxoa, dry, pronounced sookhova. 

NOTE. When it is unaccented, and follows certain consonants 
(JK, H, in, m), its sound is that of d: Ex. jK#pa, heat; HCBI, hours; 
lUfluyirb, a wag ; maiKy, I spare, from m^HTB ; pronounced jra, 
tchasoui, shaloon, shtshoj'od. 



English 
letters. 



English 
words. 



ya or ya yard, yarrow. 

The soft vowel fl, n, is represented by-J i 

a made. 

a solar. 

"When it is accented, and in any part of a word or syllable, its 
sound is that of yea : Ex. yhia, ditch ; M/ZCO, meat ; 3ap/z, dawn : pro- 
nounced yma, myaso, zarya. 

When not accented, and at the end of words, its sound is that of 
y : Ex. BpeM/z, time, pronounced vremya. 

1 In the pronunciation of Russian vowels it should be noticed whether the word 
in which they occur is isolated, whether the vowel itself is accented, and whether it 
begins a syllable. 



When not accented, and at the beginning of words or syllables, its 
sound is that of ye: Ex. /Zflpo, kernel; 4eB#rt, nine: pronounced 
^dro, dev^tft*. 

After a consonant, and not accented, it has the sound of a : Ex. 
BflJKy, I tie (from Basalt), pronounced vdjoo. 

The letter H, in the suffix en, of pronominal and other verbs, is 
pronounced sa : Ex. ciapait^, to endeavour ; represented thus 
staratsfl. 

English English 

letter. words. 

(3) The hard vowel B, 9, is represented by e f enmit y> 

(let. 

This letter, and not e, is used at the beginning of certain Russian 
words, and of foreign words in use in the Russian language, and 
also after a vowel : Ex. aa ! ho ! axt ! hey ! S'TOTB, this, &c. ; 
aKBaiopt, the Equator ; no^Tt, poet ; pronounced ei, gkh. <?tot, 
tfkvator, potft. 

English English 

letters. words. 

ye yes. 

yo yoke, 

yo yonder. 

6 sop. 

i sit. 

e spell. 



(4) The soft vowel E, e, is represented by 



At the commencement of words or syllables, and after a vowel, 
its sound is that Q^ ye: Ex. euva, scarcely; BCJHKOe, great (neut. form 
of BaJHRia) : pronounced y<?dva and 0eleekqy 

When it is accented it takes the sound of yd or yo : Ex. &IKE, a 
fir-tree ; iB^'pAO, firmly ; pronounced ydlka and tvyorda. 

In such cases in this Grammar it will be found marked with two 
dots instead of the ordinary accent mark. 

When accented, and found after the consonants w, u, w, 114 and ^, 
it has the sound of 8: Ex. JKIHB, gall, pronounced joltch*, and 
marked as above indicated. 

After a consonant, when not accented, its sound is that of i : Ex. 
HteHa, wife, pronounced jifna. 

After a consonant (other than those specified above), when 
accented, its sound is that of e : Ex. CM^pib, death ; c^p^ue, heart ; 
pronounced sm#rt r and smltse. 



NOTE. The vowel e is used, instead of 9, in the following 
Russian words : npo^Kn., project ; pe^cipt, register ; tf#ecT>, sword- 
hilt ; etfpeHiop'L, a corporal, &c. ; which are pronounced prokt, 
re^str, ^fes, <?freitor, &c. 

(5) The hard vowel LI, bi, has no exact equivalent in English. 
It has a hollow or muffled sound, and its true pronunciation can 
only be seized by hearing it from the mouth of a Russian. 

After the letters 6, <?, M, rc, $, its sound resembles the French oui 
pronounced very shortly, or that of the English we : Ex. rpn6&/ 
(plur. of rpii6T, a mushroom) : 6bi, you ; MM, we ; cnonw (plur. of 
cnom>, a sheaf) : pronounced gribo^*, voui, mom, snap0wz, &c. 

After other consonants its sound is that of the English uee : Ex. 
Cbmt, a son, pronounced sueen. 

NOTE. This vowel may always be distinguished from u by its 
thicker sound. It occurs in the genitive case singular, and 
nominative case plural, of substantives ending in a, and in the 
nominative, plural, of those ending in ff. 

English English 

letters. words. 

f ^ *11 

1 ill. 

(6) The soft vowel u is represented by the J ra * 

ye 

oui 

Its ordinary sound at the commencement of words and syllables is 
that of i : Ex. M#TH, to go ; pronounced z'dtee : and also in the word 
MWpT>, peace, pronounced nur. 

At the commencement of certain cases of the pronoun of the 
third person it bears the sound of a diphthong: Ex. %xt, of them, 
theirs, pronounced cekh. 

After the semi-vowel &, it has the sound of ye : Ex. ciara* (plur. 
of ciaiBfl, an article), pronounced statye. 

NOTE 1. After a preposition ending in , it takes the thicker 
sound of bi : Ex. npe^&w^ymiH, preceding, pronounced pred<w- 
dooshtshii, &c. Indeed, some writers substitute the letter bi for 
the combined letters 5w shown in the above example. 

NOTE 2. Many writers retain u in all words composed of the 
preposition npu and a word commencing with a vowel: Ex. 
npwofimaxfc, to communicate ; npwixaTL, to arrive, &c. But it is 
more regular to change tlie into i, and to write such words thus : 
np/oSmaii, and npeixaiB, &c. 



English English 

letter. words. 

(7) The soft vowel /, , is represented by the i 

Its ordinary sound is that of the English i : Ex. JH.MH, lily, pro- 
nounced leelfya. 

Before a consonant this vowel is only met with in one word in 
the whole of the Russian language, viz. M?'pt, universe, pronounced 
nur, and which should not be confounded with the word Mttpt, 
peace (see second illustration of the ordinary sound of u). 

NOTE 1. The vowel i is used instead of u, of which it is, indeed, 
a shorter form, before all vowels and before the semi- vowel u : Ex. 
cie (neut. form of ceil, this or that) : npeyqaiL, to accustom ; 
npziiTHbiH, agreeable ; remn, genius, &c. 

NOTE 2. The letters u and * are exactly similar in sound; the 
first is used before consonants, and the second before vowels : Ex. 
A(wmHa, a valley ; /mb, July ; MijtH^qa, a mill ; Hieme, reading ; 
BMUiHfl, a cherry; HacHJiee, violence. 

English English 
letters. words. 

f 6 no. 

(8) The hard vowel 0, o, is represented by < 6 not. 

C & was. 

The ordinary sound of this letter is that of the English o or 8 : 
Ex. flOMa, of a house, or the idiom for " at home ;" KOJOKOJT., a bell : 
pronounced doma and kolokol. 

When, however, it occurs in a syllable upon which the accent 
does not fall, its pronunciation is that of the English a : Ex. 
xopoiiio, well, pronounced Marasho. 

English English 
letters. word. 

(9) The hard vowel Y, y> is represented by oo moon. 

The sound of this letter resembles that of the English do or 08 
Ex. 6ypfl, tempest ; r^6a, creek, bay ; pronounced biwrya and gooba. 

English English 
letters. words. 

(LO) The soft vowel 10, H>, is represented by 

At the beginning of words or syllables the sound of this letter i 
that of the English y u : Ex. wrt, south, pronounced .yr/g. 



At the end, or in the middle, of words or syllables, its sound is 
that of the English u : JEx. Moftjiw, I love, pronounced \ub\u. 

(11) The medium vowel #, /&, has for the most part the same 
sounds as the Russian E, e (see above, letter No. 4), viz. that of the 
following 1 English letters : ye in the word yes, and of yo or yeo in the 
words yoke or yonder and y<?<?man, and also that of ay in the word may. 

At the commencement, and sometimes in the middle, of words 
and syllables, its sound is that of ye : Ex. /&CTb, to eat ; H/&n>, no, 
not ; pronounced yest 1 and ny<?tt. 

When accented it has the sound of yeo only in the words 3B/&3bi 
(plur. of 3fii>3Aa, a star) ; rn/b3^a (plur. of rflfe^o, a nest) ; crapa (plnr. 
ofci>A.i6, a saddle), &c., and their derivatives; pronounced zvy#5zdwi, 
gn^ozda, sy<?odla. Also UB/6.n>, past tense of UBiiCTH, to blossom ; 
o6p/&.n>, past tense of o6pi>CTH, to acquire ; pronounced tsv^ol and 
abr^tfol, &c. 

When accented and at the end, and sometimes in the middle, of a 
word or syllable, its sound is that of ay : Ex. Ha cmi/6, on the table 
(from CTO.ii)) ; B/&pa, faith ; pronounced na stolay and vdyra. 

NOTE. As a general rule, it may be observed that when a 
primitive word or root is written with rc>, that vowel is retained in 
all its derivatives. 

(12, 13, 14) The semi- vowels &, &, w, have no separate sounds of 
their own. 

Siffce no Russian word can end with a consonant, the hard or 
soft semi-vowel, "6 or &, forms the termination of such as do not 
end with a vowel : Ex. rjar6^5, a verb ; BiiB&, a branch, &c. 

The hard semi-vowel 5, though mute, gives to the consonant 
which precedes it a strong and dry sound, as though it were 
double. It causes, too, a feeble consonant to be articulated like its 
corresponding strong consonant: Ex. CTaH8, stage, station; BH3&, 
elm ; KpOBS, roof; inecitf, pole, perch ; 6pai&, brother, &c. ; pronounced 
stann, vya$s } krq^*, shes^, bra^. 

In the prefixes, into the composition of which the hard semi- 
vowel & enters, it is only retained before the vowels e, u, /&, TO, u : 
Ex. oosmHBHtiH, objective; Bff/6xaiB, to enter; npw^ymiH, pre- 
ceding ; a4570Tafln>, aide-de-camp ; ofo/ZBHTB, to announce, &c. 

The soft semi- vowel 6 may be said to be a modified form of u. 
It gives to the consonant which precedes it a soft and liquid sound : 
Ex. cian&, arise (imp. mood of ciaHOBHTLca) ; BS3&, swamp, band ; 



KPOB&, blood; mecT&, six; 6pai&, to take; pronounced staw 1 , vyaz*, 
kro0*, shes^, bra/, leaving the original sound of the final u to melt 
away in the mouth. In the middle of a word or syllable the same 
process takes place. 

NOTE 1. The semi-vowel & cannot be placed either after the 
guttural letters t, K, x, or the liquid 14. It may appear, however, 
after any of the other consonants, and that, too, in the middle of a 
word : Ex. Bec&Ma, very ; CKOJ&KO, how much, how many, &c. 

NOTE 2. When the letter A occurs before the termination nymi>, 
the soft semi- vowel & is inserted : Ex. KOJOTB, to pierce, KOJ&nyTL ; 
cipkiflTb, to fire, CTpiM&HyTB, &c. 

NOTE 3. The importance of distinguishing between the hard 
and soft semi-vowels & and & will be seen by a reference to the 
following words, the signification of which depends on the pro- 
nunciation of the final consonant: 

6pai5, brother; 6pai&, to take. 

Bass, an elm ; BH3&, a bog, band. 

K.iaA5, a treasure ; KjaA&, cargo. 

KpOBff, a roof; KpOB&, blood. 

Mai5, mate (at chess) ; Max&, mother, 

nepers, a finger; nepci&, earth. 

j, a raft ; IUOT&, flesh. 

5, heat; DBU&, dust. 

CTO.I&, a table; CTOJ&, so much. 

}fro.i5, a corner; ^roj&, coal (charcoal), 

i^ntf, a flail ; U^n&, a chain. 

IH6CT&, a pole ; ineci&, six. 

merojtf, a goldfinch ; meroJ&, a fP 

&c., &c. 

The soft semi-vowel u is always found after a vowel, and is but a 
shortened form of u. Its pronunciation is very brief, and, in con- 
junction with the vowel which precedes it, it forms but one syllable : 
Ex. &<m, give (imp. mood of ^aBaib) ; MO&, my, mine ; pronounced 
da r , mo*, &c. 

CONSONANTS. 1 

(15) The labial and strong consonant J7, n> is in sound similar to 
the English p : Ex. rco/n>, a priest, pronounced jo#e. 

1 In the pronunciation of Russian consonants, it should be observed whether the 
following vowel is hard or soft, and whether such vowel terminates the wcrd cr 
syllable. 



( xvii ) 

(16) The ordinary sound of the feeble consonant B, 6, is that of 
the English I. 

It moreover takes the sound of its corresponding strong consonant 
n at the end of words or syllables terminating with the hard semi- 
vowel and before any strong consonant : Ex. 6o<ft> bean ; otfrnpaTh, 
to rub round ; pronounced bopp and ajotirat*. 

(17) The sound of the labial and strong consonant (p is that of 
the English /or ph : Ex. ^panrt, a beau or fop, pronounced /rant. 

(18) The ordinary sound of the labial and feeble consonant B, e, 
is that of the English v : Ex. fiipa, faith, pronounced payra. 

It, moreover, takes the sound of its corresponding strong consonant 
$ at the end of words or syllables terminating with the hard semi- 
vowel g and before any strong consonant : Ex. pOtfT), ditch ; tfiiiopHHirb, 
Tuesday ; pronounced roff and /tornik. 

(19) The ordinary sound of the guttural and strong consonant 
K, K y is that of the English k and of e in certain examples. 

Moreover, before the feeble consonants 6, d, m, 3, it takes the 
sound of its corresponding feeble consonant i : Ex. /TL Bory, to God ; 
Afb floftpy, to the good ; /n> 3eMai>, towards the earth ; pronounced 
//'bohoo, ^dabroo, ^zemlay, &c. 

Before the strong, consonants K, m, v, it receives the aspirated 
articulation of x : Ex. r> KOMy ? towards whom ? /fro ? who ? KG 
y ? towards whom ? pronounced ^omoo, ^to, ^tchemoo, &c. 



(20) At the beginning, and in the middle, of certain words the 
guttural and feeble consonant F 9 ^, preserves the sound of the English 
cj : Ex. ^pOMb, thunder; aepSt, coat of arms; enCiHy, I will perish ; 
pronounced $rom, ^erb, ^eebnoo. 

It has also other sounds. At the end of words and before the 
consonant m it takes the sound of its corresponding strong consonant 
K : Ex. MOZT, I could (from MOIL), pronounced mo/. 

It is aspirated in the following words : B6^a, of God ; /"ocno/jb, 
Lord ; 6.iaeo, good, well ; pronounced B6^a\, .Saspod 1 , bla^o. 

In the words Eozt, God, y66tt (it is) wretched; also before a 
strong consonant (#, m, n, &c.), and in foreign words ending in ptt, 
such as CTpac6yjtM5, Strasbtfwy, it takes the aspirated sound of the 
strong consonant x, which may be represented by kJi. Hence the 
above words are pronounced BoH, oobo^, StrasbourM. 

In the terminations cno, Hto, ow and eio of adjectives arid of 

b 



( xviii ) 

pronouns, its sound is that of the English v : Ex. Kpaceazo, of red ; 
CHHJMO, of blue ; o^HC^o, of one ; Bcezo, of all ; pronounced krasnava, 
seenya^a, adnavo, vsevo. 

In foreign words adopted in the Russian language it is pronounced 
either as the English g or k, according to the sound of the letter 
which it replaces : Ex. ^pa^ia, grace ; ^6c^HTaJB, hospital ; pronounced 
yratsiya, hospital . 

(21) The sound of the guttural and strong consonant X, x, is 
that of kh : l Ex. 0paivn>, temple, church ; pronounced Mramm. 

(22) The ordinary sound of the dental and strong consonant 
T, m, is that of the English t : Ex. me-iira, a cart or waggon, pro- 
nounced felayga. 

Before the feeble consonants 6, i, d, OK, 3, this letter takes the 
sound of its corresponding feeble consonant d : Ex. 6mjLri, I have 
surrendered ; O^SLIBT., recall ; pronounced o^r/al ; odzwiff. 

In words wherein cm is followed by , the letter m is not pro- 
nounced : Ex. nocmubiu, abstinent; ^acm H bin, private ; pronounced 
posnwii, tchasnwii. 

(23) The ordinary sound of the dental and feeble consonant /f, d, 
is that of the English d : Ex. doMi>, a house, pronounced ^om. 

This letter, moreover, takes the sound of its corresponding strong 
consonant m at the end of words and syllables terminating with 
the hard semi-vowel 5, and when found before any strong consonant : 
Ex. ca<fa>, garden ; BO^Ka, brandy or whiskey ; pronounced sat^, 
votfka. 

In words wher,ein 3d is followed by /, the letter d is not 
pronounced : Ex. noadHO, late, (adv.) npaadflHKT,, holiday ; pro- 
nounced pozna, praznik. 

(24) The buzzing or hissing an'd strong consonant /Z7, ?^, 
resembles in sound the compound English letter sh \ Ex. WKa^-b, 
cupboard, pronounced &kaff. 

(25) The ordinary sound of the buzzing or hissing and feeble 
consonant IK, OK, is that of the compound English letter zh, or the 
French j : Ex. iwc^v, I wait (from w/jaTb) ; MyoKn., husband ; JOJ/ca, 
butt ; pronounced zMoo, moo;', %'ka. 

This letter, however, takes the sound of its corresponding strong 

1 There are no English words that properly exemplify the very guttural sound of 
the Russian x, but the sound of ch in the Mcotch word loch is very like it. 



consonant m at the end of words and syllables terminating with the 
hard semi-vowel V, and when found before any strong consonant : 
Ex. HOa/et, knife; KpprcKa, tankard, jug; pronounced no^, kroo^ka. 

(26) The ordinary sound of the hissing and strong consonant 
C, c, is that of the English * : Ex. cecipa, sister, pronounced sestra. 

Before the feeble consonants 6, i } d, w, 3, this letter takes the 
sound of its corresponding feeble consonant 3 : Ex. 6opT, collection ; 
ropi>Ti>, to burn ; c^ait, to surrender ; OHtHMaiB, to compress ; pro- 
nounced rbor, ^orat*, zdatf, 2/imat*. 

Before tu and u this letter takes the hissing sound of w : Ex. 
, to sew together; CHaciie, prosperity ; pronounced 



(27) The ordinary sound of the hissing and feeble consonant 3, 3, 
is that of the English z : EJ. SBOHT*, ringing (sound), pronounced 



This letter also takes the sound of its corresponding strong 
consonant c at the end of words or syllables terminating with the 
hard semi-vowel 5, and when it is found before any strong con- 
sonant: Ex. B03i, a load; CKa^Ka, tale, fable; pronounced voss; 
skaska. 

NOTE. The 3 of the particles H3, B03, pas, is changed into c 
when the word with which they are to be connected begins with a 
hard consonant : 

Ex. H3 . . . HCipe6HTB, to destroy. 

BOS . . . BOCKpecenie, resurrection. 
pas . . . pacneMaiaib, to unseal. 

(28) The sound of the lingual and strong consonant JJ, ^, is that 
of the compound English letter ts : Ex. i{apb, Tsar or Russian 
Emperor's title; nepeifb, pepper; pronounced &aV, perefc. 

(29) The sound of the buzzing or hissing and strong consonant 
*/, u, is that of the compound English letters ck or tch : Ex. ^en^HKt, 
cap or cowl, pronounced tck&ptcMk. 

In the word uio, what that, (pronounced s^to), and before the 
consonant u, the same letter takes the sound of tu : Ex* napo^HO, 
designedly, pronounced naros^na. 

The word TO^HO exactly, is, however, pronounced to^na, to dis- 
tinguish it from TOIWHO, to have nausea, pronounced tos/ma. 

(30) The sound of the buzzing or hissing and strong consonant 



Uf, % is that of the compound English letters shch or shtsh : Ex. 
t^tiib, shield, pronounced shtsheet 1 . 

Before the consonant H the same letter has the simple sound of 
lit : Ex. noMOHiBflK-B, assistant, pronounced pamo^nik. 

(31) The sound of the palatal and liquid consonant J[, j, is 
approximately that of the English l\ Ex. AOJT>, dale, valley; 6oJb, 
pain ; pronounced dol, bo^. 

(32) The sound of the labial and liquid consonant M, M, is that 
of the English letter m : Esc. JuaiL, mother, pronounced ?^at Y . 

(33) The sound of the palatal and liquid consonant H, H, is 
that of the English n : Ex. waiut, our, ours ; OWT>, he ; pronounced 
?/ash, on. 

(34) The sound of the palatal and liquid consonant P, p, is that 
of the English r broadly articulated : Ex. j004T>, gender, race ; pro- 
nounced rod. 

N.B. The letters r } &, have been omitted from these observations, 
because the first is practically obsolete, whilst the use of the second" 
is confined to a few words only, taken from the Greek, in which its 
sound may be represented by the English letters th. Explanation, 
moreover, of the sounds of the letter r will be found in 8, page 2, 
of the Grammar. 

Although an endeavour has been made to explain the pronun- 
ciation of the Russian letters, it must be confessed that all attempts 
to express the sounds of one language by the characters of another 
are imperfect, oral instruction being the only sure means of 
acquiring a correct pronunciation. 

CHANGES WHICH RUSSIAN LETTERS UNDERGO. 

Most of the apparent irregularities of Russian Etymology being 
founded upon the mutability of the letters, the Student is advised 
to pay particular attention to that part of the Grammar which 
treats of their changes and reciprocal effect upon each other in the 
formation of derivatives, and in the declension and modification of 
words. These changes will explain the omission of some rules 
that are to be found in other Grammars, but which are rendered 
superfluous by a knowledge of the more fundamental rules relating 
to the letters. 



( xxi ) 



PERMUTATION OF RUSSIAN VOWELS, SEMI-VOWELS, 
AND CONSONANTS, SUBJECT TO THE VARIOUS RULES 
OP DERIVATION, DECLENSION, AND CONJUGATION. 



VOWELS AND SEMI- VOWELS. 



change into 



1. H 

2. T, 

3. b and fi 

4. a 

5. K) 

6. bi 

7. e 

8. o 

9. t 
10. b 



11. r 

12. A 

13. 3 

14. K 

15. T 

16. ii 

17. x 

18. c 

19. CK 

20. CT. 



EPENTHESIS. 

Epenthesis, or the insertion of a letter in the middle of a word, is 
exemplified as follows : (a) the vowels o and e are inserted between 
two consonants at the end of words : Ex. oroiib, fire; Btepi> ; wind ; 
(b) the consonant Ji is inserted after the letters 6, e, M, n, $, when 
they would otherwise be followed by TO or e: Ex. JU06./7K), I love 
(from jiioouTb) ; Aemeiue, cheaper (from ^emeuo), &c. ; (c) the 
consonant H is prefixed to the pronoun of the third person when it 
stands after a preposition or an adverb : Ex. y ero, he had ; 
, against them. 



change into 





i 1 [ any other vowel, 
o ; before I any two consonants. 


3 


e j 
a N 

. y 




any consonant. 
; r, K, x, at, 4, in, in, U. 




ii 




r, K, x, JK, 4, in, m. 







i after ^ 


r, K, x. 




e 




JK, 4, in, m, U- 




n 




i. 




H t 




any vowel. 


CONSONANTS. 




\ 

i" 




/ 

H \ T I. 
M > 1> b ' 

j a, e, H, y, K), b. 




i 




H, K), b. 


>< 


r 

!- 


before ' 


H, e, H, y, K), b. 
e, B, v, b. 

.,-, 




}} 




H, e, H, y, w, b. 

J 



( xxii ) 



PROSTHESIS. 

Prosthesis is the placing- of a letter at the beginning of a word to 
facilitate pronunciation : Ex. 06ceMB, eight, instead of OCGML; 
, of rye, instead of 



APOCOPE. 

Apocope is the modifying of a vowel at the end of a word : Ex. 
HT06&, in order that, instead of HTo6&f ; CO MHOM, with me, instead of 
co MHOTO, &c. 

SYNCOPE. 

Syncope is the striking out of a letter from the middle of a word 
to facilitate or soften the pronunciation : Ex. nojTOpa, 1^, instead 
of nojffTOpa, &c. 



CLASSIFICATION OF RUSSIAN WORDS. 



All Russian words are either primitive (nepBOo6pa3HOtf) Ex. 
cadT>, garden ; o? derivative (npOHSBOAHoe) Ex. cfldoBHHKt, gardener; 
or compound (cJiowRoe) Ex. c#doBo#CTBO, garden^ (from eadz, 
garden, and eod&mb, to conduct) . 

RUSSIAN WORDS TRACEABLE TO ROOTS. 

Every Russian word is, moreover, traceable to a root (KopeH&), 
or reducible to certain radical syllables or letters which become 
words by the junction of other syllables or letters. Roots may be 
divided into principal and secondary. From the principal (iMaBHBin) 
roots denominative words or parts of speech can be formed by the 
mere addition of a semi- vowel or a vowel : Ex. from the root end 
comes BH&, sight ; from the root pyK comes pyKa, a hand. The 
secondary (npiuaTOHH&iH) roots are subdivided into, (a) initial 
(npeAtHAymm), which consist of auxiliary words or particles in unioji 
with other principal roots at the beginning of which they are 
placed. These are called prefixes or prepositions : Ex. y -xo#&, 
departure; 0m-Ka3&, refusal, &c. ; (b] final (nocxfeAyiomm), or such 
as form the termination of other principal roots. These are called 
suffixes : Ex. BOfl-a, water, A^Ji-ami), to do, &c. 



The roots of the following words can at once be traced after 



( xxiii ) 

removing their prefixes and affixes, and then reducing compound 
words to derivative, and derivative to primitive, as seen above : 

npH3tf&iaoHecTBOBaTb, to superabound (root 6bim). 
3ac0Mdi>Te.ibCTBOBaHie, attestation (root end). 
HeaatfMCHMOCTb, independence (root euc). 
HeH3JW/&/?MMbiH, immeasurable (root Mibp). 
npeAC/&daTe,ibCTBOBaTb, to preside (root end), 
cocmpadame, compassion (root cmpad). 

, inventive faculty (root 6pjbm). 
, auxiliary (root MM). 

H ; satisfactory (root meop), &c. 



ROOTS OF REGULAR RUSSIAN VERBS. 

The root of regular Russian verbs can be ascertained by striking 
off the final letters nib of the infinite mood of the imperfect aspect, 
together with any of the preceding vowels #, u, n, o, y, e, n. 



ERRATA. 



Line 


For 


Bead 


Page 


Line 


For 


Read 


25 


lerKiS 


JerKiS 


54 


3 


nepenATH 


nepeiiiH 


33 


nap^iie 


oaptiie 


55 


33 


noAyJt 


noAyJi 


23 


ciapocry 


ciapocrb 


61 


15 


no0Ay 


noiiAy 


5 


sepKaxb 


aepKaJT. 


62 


18 


pacKpaTHBaib 


pacKpauiHBaxb 


3 


PJ'KH 


PJKH 


63 


12 


vBOAa.ii 


yBH/itj^ 


36 


pyKbi 


pyKbi 


j> 


39 


CTyKHy-HHIb-HTb 


ciyKHy -euib -etT, 


14 


in the oblique 


in this one 






-HMT, -Hie -yn> 


^-6Mi> -eie -yn> 




cases 


oblique case 


64 


1 


A'fe.iaii, %UBH 


A^ati, H;HBH 


9 


MypaseBT> 


MypaebCBX 





45 


BHAUBclBIIjifi 


BH.lblBaBIlliu 


18 


nyjKOB'b 


lyJKOB-b 


65 


5 


ci-iasi 


CA*JaBT, 


18 


on 


in 


67 


42 


praising himself 


praising one's self 


20 


MeAB'EHeHOK'b 


MeABtateHOKi 


68 


3 


yjbiOHyjuiHCb 


y.ibi(5aBiiiHCb 


22 


.ibBc'iiHii and 


JbBe'HKH and 


69 


44 


o 


or 




MuirieiiKa 


HbinieHKH 


71 


5 


lisniaib 


'B3;i;aTb 





.ibB.'tTa 


JbBaia 


72 


18 


prefixes 


aspects 


2 


IiepKBH 


IU'PKBII 


74 


31 


work 


wink 


8 


JJ 





76 


16 


CMOTpauiifica 


CMOTpamificH 


27 


Bopo6b6a 


Bopodeft 





22 


bifl, aa, 6 


biu, aa, oe 


4 


K0ie.il 


Koxeji 





37 


by means of 




5 


note 


knot 






either 


from either 


17 


Baxopx, Biixpa 


Hnxop't, Biixpa 


78 


9 


force 


voice 


21 


neufl 


neua 


>5 


24 


HIOCKOJbKO 


eicKOJbKO 


3 


ceroAHaniHbift 


ceroABsinHifi 


1 M 


27 


Becbta 


BCCbMa 


14 


yctie'iiBbift 


yc'BieHHHfl 


79 


1 


npOBOJKAilTb 


npOBOAiiib 


18 


Be-iMKT. -a -o 


BCJHKI -a -6 


80 


6 


ee no, Bint not 


He not, H-BTI no 


16 


li'pilMil 


qe'pebiB 


?> 


15 


TaKIIM'b 


Taui'iMb 


22 


Hafi. HaH-iyqinia 


ean, naii.iy'iiuiii 


82 


18 


BlSA* 


B-BAb 


23 


iiafifioj-Be 


naHOdj-Be 


84 


28 


adjective npo- 


past tense of 


6 


oixe 


HH/K6 






iii.n.iii 


iipoihii 


7 


Haiuyqiiiift 


HaH-iyioiia 


88 


10 


not so 


not to 


8 


HafixyAiiiitt 


iiauxyAuiiii 





35 


H^PBWMT, 


nepBbiMi 


19 


ceciepi) 


ceciepi 


90 


18 





a 


23 


jj 


j> 


> 


28 


BOSOBnOBlI.IUCb 


B03o6nOBM.lHCb 


7 


(UCHbarO 


o^^Hbefl 


91 


6 


Kalmucks, a 


Kalmucks arc a 


8 


OJe'HbeMy 








23 


ioftiiffl 


iMiimuin 


28 


ABa, sing., for 


ABa, siw,^., /or 


92 


14 


Poccifi 


Poccia 




all genders 


>wasc. & neut. 


'? 


20 


M(i.Ibf)I,I 


MO.II-nbl 


29 


AB1>, plnr. 


AB-B, ^em. 


93 


2 


cpaHu'niii 


Cpa/KGHlH 


2 


HOIOB^BA 


no.iOBBiia 





4 


MHoatecBio 


MHOSteCTBO 


6 


COOOK) 


coGoio 


94 


8 


ibe 


ibe 


12 


-we -LIU 


-ie -ia 





24 


^pajiHuxft 


MHnepa^bewxT) 


11 


j jj 





95 


14 


co^HHeaia 


co4UHeuitt 


14 


j 








34 


TpedoBaib 


ipeOoBarb 


8 


6"HXblT> 


6nbIXT> 


97 


2 


BoiicKa 


BOflCKa 


3 


1TO ? 


(qio) ? 


j 


13 


HtepTBOBHTb 


/KepiBOBaTb 


25 


medeieYb, p/Kerb 


meCeieTt, psteii 


5> 


18 


aaB^AWBaHie 


saB'BAHBaHie 


27 


Boexi 


BdeiT) 


98 


25 


MUJOCTbl 


MM.IOCTH 


28 


Mbliaib 


MbliaTl 


99 


29 


MOpeMb 


Mdpe.Mi 


29 


6.eeii 


(U4en 


105 


34 


AJDbl 


AJbnw 


30 


MaynaeTi 


MflyKaeiT. 


jj 


37 


AjniHCKHXT. 


AJbniiiCKHXT. 


*5 


Clillllbil 


CBHUbH 


107 


28 


Cd.iKue 


C6.inue 


31, 


xpiOKaeiT) 


xpwKaeiT, 


109 


23 


KOpojeBCKoe 


Kopo.ieBCKoe 


jj 


BOpKyeii 


BopnyeTT) 


110 


18 


HHCTHTyTT) 


HHCTHTyii 


32 


KJOK^eTT. 


KJOXIGTI 


jj 


26 


PdJKAeCTBO 


POJKA6CTBO 


33 


KBaKaeii 


KBaKaerb 





28 


nOABHSKH 


IIO,U!f'l.'!KII 


34 


HjyHJHtai^ 


jKVJKataTT. 


111 


8 


npoHiueCTBie 


n^oHcmecTBie 


35 


atyjKHJar'b 


aty/K/Karb 


112 


9 


BtAiaie 


Bt>ACFiie 


30 


CKpiinKt 


CKpUflKfi 


J5 


67 


*e.i'B3a 


jKe.rtaa 



INTRODUCTION. 



1. Russian Grammar elucidates those rules of the Russian 
language which should be adhered to, both in Conversation and 
in Writing. 

2. In order to correctly express our thoughts, we must know, 
(1) the proper use and meaning of words in all their inflections or 
changes ; (2) how to connect such words so that the sense of our 
expressions may be perfectly clear; (3) how to write words in con- 
formity with rules laid down by the best authors. 

3. Agreeably to the above requirements, Grammar divides itself 
into three parts : 

I. Etymology (CiOBonponsBefleHitf). 
II. Syntax (CjLOBOco4HHeme). 

III. Orthography 



FIEST PAET. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

4. Under the head of Etymology are explained, (1) the deriva- 
tion (iipOHCXOJKAeHi'e), (2) the construction (cociaBtf), (3) the significa- 
tion (3Ha4em), and (4) the changes (nepeMlma *) of words. 

^ 5. A word may express any sort of idea or feeling : Ex. Apyrs 
friend, Mope sea, CKpoMHOCT& modesty, ^ofip&w good, kind, nfli& five, 



1 All Russian words placed within brackets after English words are in their 
primary terminations. They are so placed in order to let the student see, without 
search, what are the corresponding Russian equivalents for such terms as are in 
common use in every grammar. Trans. 

B 



( 2 ) 

H I, VBaJKaib to consider, HHiatomeft l he who reads, 6ira/z 2 running-, 
aaeipa to-morrow, MeiK/jy amongst, between, cjiflOBaTCJ&HO con- 
sequently, axT> ! ah ! oh ! OH oh ! ah ! 

6. Words are made up of syllables (cjors), and syllables of 
letters (6yKBfl). 

7. A letter is that which is produced by separate sounds of the 
voice. 

8. There are thirty-six letters in the Russian Alphabet. 3 

05s. The Slavonic letter ir is pronounced in a twofold man- 
ner, (1 ) as u in the word Mvpo chrism or holy oil, and CVHOA& 
synod ; and (2) as e in the words Evanr&iitf Gospel, and 
HcavL Esau. The letter ir is only used in modern Russian 
in the word Mvpo, and its derivatives, such as Mvpo- 
noMaaame rite of anointing, MVponocHua bearer of the 
holy oil, etc. 

9. Russian letters are divided into vowels (iMacna/z 6yKB0), semi- 
vowels (no.iyr.iacHfl# 6^KB), and consonants (conacim/J 6yKB0). 

10. The vowels are pronounced without the aid of other letters. 
They are as follows : a, e, n, i, o, y, H, "fc, a, H), fl. 

N.B. The vowel e accented is pronounced in several words 
like io (HO) : Ex. e\iKa fir-tree, je'At ice, MCAT. honey, mead, 
noerb * he, she, or it sings. In such cases two dots are 
sometimes placed over the letter e, thus e. 

11. The semi-vowel H (or u short) is written and pronounced 

after vowels : Ex. AHApett Andrew, lerKm light, noKowHbitt tranquil. 

The semi-vowels t and b'are employed after consonants. TJ 

gives them a hard sound : Ex. CTO.I5 table, 015^345 departure. 

But L gives a soft sound to the consonant which precedes 

it : Ex. CTO.I& so much, so many, atoHbiii business-like. 

The letter v (a/Kima, name of this Slavonic letter), as has 

been said in the observation at foot of 8, is pronounced 

in a twofold way, viz. either like the vowel u, or like the 



1 First person, singular number, present participle, active, of the verb leiaifr, to 
read. Tram. 

2 Present gerund of the verb 6l>raT6, to run. Trans. 

3 See Table facing p. xi. Trans. 

4 Third person, singular number, present tense, of the verb nte, to sing. Trans. 



( 3 ) 

consonant <?. In the first case, therefore, it may be reckoned 
as a vowel, and in the second as a consonant. 

] 2. The consonants are uttered with the aid of vowels. The 
consonants are 6, B, r, A, >K, 3, K, i, M, n, n, p, c, T, <&, x, q, M, m, m, e. 

13. One vowel, or the coupling of one or more vowels with 
semi- vowels or consonants, forms a syllable : Ex. a, o, y, a, W35, OT&, 
ail, eii, npit-cip0-MT&, ow-4/ft.i&-HbiH, y-Kpa-we-m-e. 

14. Words are made up of one or more syllables, and are 
classified as mono-syllabic (oj(UOCJi6iKBoe),dis-s//lladic (^BycMOJKHoe), tri- 
syllabic (ipexaiojKHoe), and poly-syllabic (MHoroaio/KHoe) : Ex. noJK5 
regiment, 3a-KOH5 law, H6-JO-B/&K5 man, eo-fiep-iiieH-CTBO perfection. 

15. Words may be either primary (KOpeHHoi) or derivative 



16. Primary words are such as are not derived from other words : 
Ex. Becai& joy, jKajti& to pity. 

17. Derivative words are formed from the primary: Ex. BecaiLHaKff 
merry fellow, Bece'jbiii merry, Bece^HTftca to make oneself merry, &c., 
derived from Becejbe ; 3KaiocT& pity, cow&ikme commiseration, HiajKm 
miserable, des^AOCtEbiu pitiless, cjKajHTftca to take pity on, jKcU& it is 
a pity, &c., derived from ffia.ii>T&. 

18. Compound (cjiowftoe) words are formed by the junction of 
two or more single words : Ex. MOpeiuaBaTe.i& navigator, 
good action, ffesjipuci^aciie impartiality, &c. Integral 
words can be formed in like manner, such as FeHep 
Major-General, KTO-HH6JA& someone, &c. 

19. All words in the Russian language are divided, according 
to their meaning, into umeparts of speech (qaci& pij<m.) These are : 

I. Noun Substantive (Ham 

II. Adjective (HMa 

III. Numeral (Haia 

IV. Pronoun 

V. Verb 

VI. Adverb (Hap^iie). 

VII. Preposition (IIpe4ji6r&). 
VIII. Conjunction (CoK)35). 

IX. Interjection 

B 2 



( 4 ) 

20. Words belonging to the first six parts of speech have 
variable terminations, whereas those belonging to the three last 
named do not alter in any way. 

THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE (HMH CymecTBHiei&Hoe) 

21 . A Noun Substantive is the name of any object : Ex. Eor& God, 
40M5 house, 36M.ia earth, TepnijH& patience, qacT> hour, o'clock, &c. 

22. Objects (npe^Meis) are (1) animate (ojymeBje'flHbiH), i.e. 
those which have life and voluntary motion : Ex. HeJOBi>KT man, He'iptf 
Peter, &c., &c. 

Obs. The names (HMH) by which we call people are personal 
(JHHHWH) objects : Ex. 6pai5 brother, cecipo. sister, AieK- 
caHp5, Alexander, Map&/& Mary, no.iK6BHHK8 colonel, co.i- 
4ai5 soldier, Macieps master, &c. 

(2) Inanimate (Heo#yffleB.ieHHBiH), i.e. those which have not 

life and voluntary motion. Ex. 4yo5 oak, flOM5 house, 
KOMHaia room, nepo feather. 

Obs. To the class of inanimate objects belong the sensitive 
(qyBCTBeHHbm) : Ex. 6.I6CK& splendour, r6pen& bitterness, 
3anax5 smell. 

(3) Intellectual (yMCTBeHHbm) or abstract (oTBjeneHHbm), which 
are presented to the understanding by such words as cnpoM- 
HOCTB modesty, npHjeffiaH^ application, BOoSpaaieHi^ imagi- 
nation, BpeMfl time, ro4T> year, &c. 

Obs. Bors God, Boro i ieJOBiKjj godly man, anrej^ angel, ayxtf 
spirit, 4yina soul, and other similar nouns which denote 
immaterial beings, are called spiritual (yjyxoBHbw) objects. 

23. Nouns Substantive are divided into (1) appellative (napH- 
uaiejibHoe), or common (66mee), under which denomination come all 
objects which are common to a class. Ex. H&!OBi>K& man, Kopojfe 
king, ropOA town, pa^ocib joy, &c. 

(2) Proper (c66cTBeHH00), by which we distinguish one object 
from all others that may be like it. Ex. AjeKcaH^pS 
Alexander, MapL^ Mary, Pocci# Russia, Bojra Volga, &c. 

Obs. To the proper nouns belong not only all Christian 
names of people, but also their patronymics, and family 



( 5 ) 

or surnames. Ex. HeaHOtftm son of John, Ueipoeua 
daughter of Peter, TypreHtf5 Toorgeneff, HyiiiKiiiiB Poosh- 
kin, &c. 

(3) Collective (Co6HpaTeJBH0<?), which by the use of one word 

imply few or many objects representing the same sort 
or kind. Ex. ceMeHCTBO family, Hap6fl& people, BOHCKO 
army, .ito forest, &c. 

Obs. In order to note a quantity of animals, birds, or 
insects, the following collective nouns are used : cia^o 
herd or flock of cattle or sheep, xaSyHff drove or stud of 
horses, eras flight or covey of birds, or pack of dogs, 
pott swarm of bees, &c. 

(4) Material (BemeciBeHHoe), which indicate the substance 

of the object, be the quantity large or small. Ex. 36.1010 
gold, Mi>fl& copper, jepefio wood, MyKo. flour, Macjo oil, 
butter, &c. 

24. It is a peculiarity of the Russian language that nouns 
substantive may be (1) augmentative (yBejnHHTCJbHO^), or those which 
show the unusually large size of an object. Ex. coJAaTHiiji big 
soldier, pymma large hand, ciojam^ huge table, &c. 

(2) Diminutive (vMeHLUiHTejLHOtf), or those which designate 
the smallness of the object. Ex. coJAaiHK5 small soldier, 
pyiKfl small hand, CTOJHKT> little table, &c. 
To the class of diminutive nouns belong (a) the compli- 
mentary (npHBtTCTBCHHOtf) or caressing (.lacKaieJiBHOtf), which 
are used in the Russian language when addressing or 
naming favourite objects, or in order to give expression 
to a sense of love for such. Ex. 6paieq5 dear brother, 
cecTpwaa dear sister, Bae^, Banwma, BanHHKa dear John, 
Kai/?, Kaiibiiirt, KaieeLKa dear Kate, joma^yuiKa dear horse, 
KOpoBVinKfl dear cow, pyieHBKfl dear little hand, &c. (b) 
Derogatory (yHflqnJKiiTeJtHOtf), or those which give expres- 
sion to a want of regard for an object, or a sense of its 
insignificance, or a contempt for it. Ex. KHHTKOHK^ miser- 
able book, 40MHIDK0 wretched house, JOina^eHK^ sorry 
horse, &c. 

25. In the case of nouns substantive the gender pO5, numbei 
MIHXIO, and case nafleattf, should be observed 



( 6 ) 

26. Nouns substantive in the Russian language have three 
genders (po^s), viz. masculine (MyjKecKw), feminine (iKeHCKm), and 
neuter (cpeAHm). 

The gender of nouns substantive is ascertained either by 
their meaning or by their termination. As touching the 
former, all objects of the male sex (no matter what may 
be their termination) are of the masculine gender. Ex. 
Oiyra servant, nknH uncle, noAMaciepbtf foreman, MteLio 
money-changer, &c. ; and objects of the female sex (no 
matter what may be their termination) belong to the 
feminine gender. Ex. ciyacaHKa servant-maid, RH.RJI nurse, 
flOH& daughter, &c. 

The same rule applies to animate objects which distinguish 
male (caneus) and female (caMKa) in animals. Ex. .ieB5 
lion, jBBHua lioness, Gapaas ram, OEnd ewe or sheep, ntiyxtf 
cock, Kypnufl hen, &c. 

Nouns ending in H and T> belong to the masculine gender. 
Ex. Mypasew ant, ope\i5 eagle, DOKOW rest, CTOI& table, &c. 

Nouns ending in a and a belong to the feminine gender. 
Ex. ninara sword, jiiiU lily, 3a66ra care, fly ma soul, &c. 

Nouns ending in o, e, and MH belong to the neuter gender. 
Ex. OKHO window, Mope sea, BpeM/z time, &c. 

To the neuter gender belongs also n\\iii child. 

Of nouns substantive, which terminate in t, some belong to 
the masculine gender. Ex. ^en& day, KOpaGjft ship; whilst 
others belong to the feminine gender, as T^H& shadow, 
plane, surface, &c. 



27. Besides the above, there are, in the Russian language, 
other nouns substantive ending in a and A, which are of the common 
(66miw) gender. In other words, such nouns as have the same 
termination for both masculine and feminine genders. Ex. on pom 
orphan, 6po#ara vagabond, iuaKCfl whiner, po#H/z kindred, &c. 

28. Augmentative and diminutive nouns, no matter what may 
be their terminations, belong to the gender of those nouns from 
which they are derived. 

29. Foreign nouns employed in the Russian language which 
end in u and y, when they denote animate objects, are of the 
masculine gender, and when they refer to inanimate or abstract 



( 7 ) 

objects are of the neuter gender. Ex. KOJa6pw humming-bird, 
KaiiaAJr cockatoo, which are of the masculine gender: napH=3aiuafl5 
bet, wager, which is of the neuter gender. 

30. Personal nouns have two genders, viz. masculine and 
feminine. Ex. HMneparops Emperor, HMnepaipHiw Empress, Fefle- 
pa.15 General, Feflepajbiiia General's wife, MOHaxtf monk, MonaxiuiA 
nun, cod^S male neighbour, cock^a female neighbour, &c. 4 H P eR - 
ipHCfl directress, HHcneKipHO? inspectress, SKOHOMK^ housekeeper, 
refer solely to the persons of the female sex who perform the duties 
indicated by their respective designations ; whereas, on the other 
hand, AHpeKTOpin0, MHcneKTOpnm, SKOHOMina are the Russian de- 
signations for the wives of a director, inspector, and house steward 
respectively. 

With regard to the names of peoples; the feminine is derived 
from the masculine thus : from POCCWHHH& Russian (man), 
comes Pocci/iHKa Russian (woman) ; from AfliMHiaiiHHS 
Englishman, AHiMHHaHM Englishwoman ; from Hi>Meu& 
German (man), we get H^MIM German (woman), &c. 
Personal nouns which denote kindred or affinity have for 
each sex separate denominations : 

Oieiiff father, Mais mother. 

CbiH5 son, 4oH& daughter. 

Bpais brother, Cecipa sister. 

uncle, Te'TKa aunt. 



31 . In the Russian language the denominations of the several 
degrees of relationship are extremely numerous. It may be well to 
observe the following :. 

Teci& father-in-law, wife's father. 
Te'm# mother-in-law, wife's mother. 

brother-in-law, wife's brother. 
or CfiOHHeHHijfl sister-in-law, wife's sister. 
CBOJIK& brother-in-law, wife's sister's husband. 
CfieKOp?J father-in-law, husband's father. 
CBeKpoB& mother-in-law, husband's mother. 
4efiep& or 4^Bep& brother-in-law, husband's brother. 
SoioBKft sister-in-law, husband's sister. 
3ai& son-in-law or brother-in-law, daughter's husband or 
sister's husband. 



( 8 ) 

HesiciKa daughter-in-law or sister-in-law, son's wife or 
brother's wife. 
or BOTHHM& stepfather. 
stepmother. 
stepson. 
stepdaughter. 



32. There are two numbers (HHCJO). The singular (e^6ecTBeH- 
Eoe), which speaks of one object : Ex. (5pai& brother, p^Ka river. 
The plural (MHOJKeciBeHHoe), which refers to two or more objects 
of the same sort : Ex. 6paTta brothers, pijKtt rivers, &c. 

33. Certain nouns substantive are used in the singular number 
only, whilst others, although referring to one object, have only a 
plural form. 

Of the former class there are (l)the greater part of the proper 
(coftcTBeflHOtf) nouns: ^?.PnM5 Rome, Beaysiw Vesuvius, &c. 
(2) the greater number of the material (BemecTBGHHoe) 
nouns : Ex. 364010 gold, MOJOKO milk, &c. (3) the names 
of the virtues and the vices : Ex, Tepnims'tf patience, 
indolence, &c. (4) many of the abstract 
nouns : Ex. CHacT?> fortune, ciapocift old age, &c. (5) many 
of the names of plants, especially of the kitchen -garden : 
Ex. maBC4& sorrel, JiyK5 onion, &c. 

Of the latter class some have meanings different to that 
of the singular form : Ex. JL&AU people, HOJKHHIIW pair of 
scissors, Bopora gate, &c. Others are the names of old 
towns and places : Ex. A.0HH&1 Athens, 0epMonft.i Ther- 
mopylae, &c. 

34. Certain nouns have in the singular number one sig- 
nification, and in the plural another. Ex. Bic5 weight, Bicbt 
scales, Aeebra J copeck, fleHBrw money, Hacff hour, iac&! watch, 
clock, &c. 



35. Cases (naflejKB) are the terminations of nouns which show 
the various relations in which objects stand to each other. 

% 36. In the Russian language there are seven cases. They 
answer to certain questions : 



( 9 ) 



(1) Nominative (nMeHUTeJbHbm), which answers to the ques- 

\ / V / ' -I 

tions KTO? who ? HTO? what? 1 Ex. KTO npHme.i'b? (past 
tense of verb npnATH), who came ? Ans. EpaT& brother. 
*JTO y Te6a BT> pyKaxi. ? What is there (or hast thou) in 
(thy) hands ? Ans. nuana a hat. 

(2) Vocative (sBarejibHbm), which has its termination like the 
nominative, points to the designation of the object to 
which we refer. Ex. BpaTtf ! noAH 2 CK)Aa. Brother ! come 
here. 3AOpoB&-.iH Tbi, jK)6e3HbiH Apyn>? Art thou well, 
dear friend ? 

(3) Genitive (pOAHTC-ibHbm), which answers to the questions 

Koro ? *ler6 ? ^ea ? *lba ? *Ibe ? Of whom ? Of which or of 
what ? Whose (masc. fern, neuter) ? J5e. Koro SA^Cb Hi>T5 ? 3 
is not here ? ^*. BpaTa, brother. ^ero BA^Cb H^TS ? 
is not here? Ans. Hl^anbi, the hat. ^ea STOTZJ AOM ? 
house (is) this ? ^tw. Moero npiaTej^, My friend's. 

(4) Dative (AaTejbHbm), which answers to the questions KOMV? 

^eMy ? To whom ? To which ? or to what ? JJk. Koiviy 

Tbi OTA3J5 4 KHHry? To ^ow didst thou give back the 

book ? Ans. BpaTy, To the brother. ^eiwy Tbi VAHB- 

lambca ? 6 What dost thou admire ? ^w*. nuan/b 
the hat. 

(5) Accusative (BHHHTCJbHbm), which answers to the questions 

Koro ? ^TO ? whom ? which ? what ? Ex. Koio Tbi 
? 6 Whom dost thou see ? Ans. 6paT# brother. 
Tbi AepJKninb ? 7 #^^ dost thou hold ? ^ft$. iiLian?/ 
the hat. 

(6) Instrumental (TBOpHTCJbHbm), which answers to the ques- 



1 The questions, KTO ? Kord ? KOM^ ? KtMt ? KOMX ? serve for the animate nouns ; 
whilst HTO ? Herd ? Hesiy ? HtMi ? He'Mi ? are used in the cases of the inanimate 
and abstract nouns. 

2 Second person, singular number, imperative mood, of the verb DO&TH. Trans. 
8 With the impersonal verb HtT5 the genitive case is required. Tram. 

4 Past tense of the verb OTfldTb. Trans. 

* Present tense of the verb y^BRiaTtca, which governs the dative. Trans. 
6 Present tense of the verb BH4tTb. Trans. 

* Present tense of the verb jepJKaTB. Trans. 



( 10 



tions Klurs ? ^1^5 ? by whom ? by wliat ? or by 
which ? Ex. Kt.M5 ibi AOBOJCWS ? : With whom art thou 
satisfied ? As. Eparo.M&, with the brother. *Hi.M TH 
^OBoje5 ? with w/^, or with which, art thou satisfied ? 
Ans. ffljfino70, with the hat. 

(7) Prepositional (npe&iovKB&w), which answers to the ques- 
tions o KOMI, ? o Mean, ? npn KOMT> ? npa HCMT, ? Ha 
KOMT, ? Ha MeMt ? BT> KOMT, ? BI> MCMT, ? about whom ? about 
which, or what ? near or at whom ? near or at which or 
what ? on whom ? on which or what ? in whom ? in 
which or what ? J5b. KOMT> a roBopib ? 2 tffoi^ w/i<m do 
I speak ? A*. Spark, about brother. MeMT> a roeopib ? 
about which or what do I speak ? A,s. nijani, about 
the hat. 

Obs. The nominative and vocative cases, the terminations of 
which are not subject to change (further than is caused by 
number), are called the direct (npaMofi) cases ; whereas all 
the other cases, the terminations of which do alter (differing- 
the one from the other), are called the oblique (nocBeHiibw) 
cases. The prepositional case is always used with prepo- 
sitions (npej.i6rs). The following are the most frequently 
used prepositions: o, or 061, or 060 (about), Ha (on or 
upon), npn (near, at, in the presence of), BT> or BO (in or at). 

37. The declension (cooHenitf) of nouns marks the changes of 
termination which they undergo according to number and case. In 
the Russian language there are three declensions. 

To the first belong those nouns substantive which terminate 

in &, u and &, being of the masculine gender. 
To the second those which terminate in a and H, of both the 
masculine and feminine genders, and those in 6 of the 
feminine gender only. 

To the third those which terminate in o, e and MX, being of 
the neuter gender. 

38. Nouns substantive are declined according to the following 
tables : 



1 Abbreviated form of the adjective ^OBo^tHbiti. Trans. 

2 Present tense of the verb roBOpHTb. Trans. 



Singular Number. 



Habeas. 

Cases. 


IST DECLENSION. 

MASC. TERMINATION. 


2ND DECLENSION. 

FEM. TERMINATION. 


3RD DECLENSION. 

NEUT. TERMINATION. 


liMCMI. H 3Bai. 

Nom. & Voc. 


i 


I 


b 


a 


A 


b 





e 


Mil 


POHT. 

Gen. 


a 


* 


H 


H 








a 


a 


(Mill 


Dat! 


y 


K) 


K) 


B 


6 


B 


y 


K) 


(Mill 


BHH. 
Ace. 


(-b 

^ 


I 


"} 


y 


K) 


b 





e 


Mil 


Tfiop. 
Instr. 


on 


en 


CM'L 


OH) 


CK) 


bK) 


on 


CM'L 


eneM-b 


Dpe/j. 
Prep. 


, 


, 


B 


B 


B 





B 


* 


eini 



Plural Number. 



rbien. H Ssax. 
Nom. & Voc. 


bl 


H 


B 


bl 


H 





a 


H 


e.a 


Gen. 


m 


e, 


el 


I 


b 


el 


1 


el 


enx 


Dat. 


-'Mil. 


HM'b 


AMI 


aM-b 


AMI 


AMI 


aM'L 


JIM'I, 


enanii 


BHH. 
Ace. 


("OBI 


6BI 


efl} 

B j 


( X 
lu 


b 
B 


B) 


a 


A 


cna 


TBOp. 
Instr. 


aMii 


JIMH 


JIMU 


aMii 


JIMU 


JIMU 


a B 


JIM II 


eiiaMii 


Prep. 


ax^ 


flXl 


HX-b 


axx 


flXT> 


AXl 


axi 


, 


en an. 



EXAMPLES OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. 

Singular Number. 





Animate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Animate Object 


H. 3. 


CJOei, 
elephant. 


CTO.Il, 

table. 


nOKOH, 

rest, or room. 


flapb, 
Tsar. 


P. 


CJOIia, 
of an elephant. 


CTOJ^, 

of a table. 


noKoa, 
of rest, &c. 


qapa, 
of a Tsar. 


4- 


C-iOHy, 
to an elephant. 


CTOJy, 
to a table. 


HOKOIO, 
to rest, &c. 


ijapro, 
to a Tsar. 


B. 


(MO Ha, 
an elephant. 


CTOJIX, 

a table. 


noKofi, 
rest, &c. 


papa, 
a Tsar. 


T. 


C.10HOMI, 
by an elephant. 


CTOJOMl, 

by a table. 


noKoeMi, 
with rest, &c. 


nape'Mi, 
by a Tsar. 


n. 


CJOH*, 

about an elephant. 


Ha CTOJ*, 
on a table. 


Bl HOKO-B, 

at rest, &c. 


iipn uajrfi, 
in the presence o 
a Tsar. 



Plural Number. 





Animate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Animate Object. 


H. 3. 


C-IOHbl, 


Cmiti, 


noKon, 


ijapn, 




elephants. 


tables. 


rooms. 


Tsars. 


P. 


C.IOHOBT), 


CTOJOBl, 


noKoeB-b, 


n;apft, 




of elephants. 


of tables. 


of rooms. 


of Tsars. 


4- 


CJIOHaMl, 


CTOJaMl, 


IIOKOflMT>, 


ijapairb, 




to elephants. 


to tables. 


to rooms. 


to Tsars. 


B. 


CJOHOBT), 


CTOJM, 


DOKO0, 


ijap6E, 




elephants. 


tables. 


rooms. 


Tsars. 


T. 


C.TOnflMH, 


CTOJaMH, 


nOKOSMH, 


qapaMH, 




by elephants. 


by tables. 


with rooms. 


by Tsars. 


n. 


C.IOHaXT), 


na cto.iaxT), 


BT> nOK03XT>, 


np0 ijapaxi), 




about elephants. 


on tables. 


in rooms. 


in the presence of 










Tsars. 



Singular Number. 





Animate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


H. 3. 


ibcien.'b, 
flatterer. 


crop. 


trophy. 


FB03AB, 

nail. 


P. 


jibcteija, 
of a flatterer. 


ypOJKaa, 
of a crop. 


of a trophy. 


of a nail. 


4- 


jbcieijy', 
to a flatterer. 


ypomaro, 
to a crop. 


Tpo*e"io, 
to a trophy. 


to a nail. 


B. 


jbcxeita, 
a flatterer. 


ypoffiaii, 
a crop. 


Tpo*ii, 
a trophy. 


a nail. 


T. 

n. 


X 

by a flatterer. 
/ 

about a flatterer. 


ypoataeitfi, 
by a crop. 

about a crop. 


with a trophy, 
about a trophy. 


by a nail. 

/ 

about a nail. 



Plural Number. 



i 










H. 3. 


.IbCTCIJb'l, 


ypoataH, 


Tpo*e"H, 


FBOSAH, 




flatterers. 


crops. 


trophies. 


nails. 


P. 


JbCienoBi 


ypOHt&JB'b. 


s 

TpOvCcB D 


rB03#0 




of flatterers. 


of crops. 


of trophies. 


of nails. 


4- 


jbCieija'M'b, 


ypojKaflM-b, 


TpooeaMt, 


FBOS^aMX, 




to flatterers. 


to crops. 


to trophies. 


to nails. 


B. 


JbCTeiJOBl, 


ypoatan, 


TPO*^H, 


TBOSAH, 




flatterers. 


crops. 


trophies. 


nails. 






. 







T. 


.IbCTeiJHMH. 


ypoataaMH, 


TpO*cHMH, 


TBOS^aMHj 




by flatterers. 


by crops. 


with trophies. 


by nails. 


n. 


o .ibCTerjaxb, 


00i> y pO/ttai/iX D 


o ipose'ax'b, 


i 




about flatterers. 


about crops. 


about trophies. 


about nails. 


i 









EXAMPLES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. 



Singular Number. 





Animate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


H. 3. 


CTapocia, 


3B-B3AS, 


ny*Jfl, 


itfnb, 




headman. 


star. 


bullet. 


chain. 


P. 


ciapocTbi, 


3Bt3A&, 


ny\iH, 


q-BDH, 




of a headman. 


of a star. 


of a bullet. 


of a chain. 












t 


4- 


CTapocrfc, 


3B'E34*, 


nyJ"B, 


irftn, 




to a headman. 


to a star. 


to a bullet. 


to a chain. 


B. 


ciapocty, 


BBtSAy, 


nyjro, 


iVfcnb, 




a headman. 


a star. 


a bullet. 


a chain. 










t 


T. 


CTapOCTOK), 


38*34610, 


nyjero, 


ntaftDj 




by a headman. 


by a star. 


by a bullet. 


with a chain. 


n. 


ciapOCTt, 


/ 


ny-i*, 


ea utiiii, 




about a headman. 


in a star. 


about a bullet- 


on a chain. 



Plural Number. 







I 




H. 3. 


CTapOCTU, 


3B-B34H, 


nyJB, 


ilinH, 




headmen. 


stars. 


bullets. 


chains. 


P. 


CTapOCTl, 


1 


nyjb, 


il'Tiiieii, 




of headmen. 


of stars. 


of bullets. 


of chains. 











. 


4- 


CTapoctairb, 


3B*3AaMl>, 


uyjaMi, 


uftnuWLf 




to headmen. 


to stars. 


to bullets. 


to chains. 











r 


B. 


CTapociy, 


3B*B3 AM, 


nyje, 


ITBIIH, 




headmen. 


stars. 


bullets. 


chains. 


T. 


CTapociaMH, 


/ 


ny-iHMH, 


Hl;naMH, 




by headmen. 


by stars. 


by bullets. 


with chains. 


n. 


o CTapocxaxi, 


r 


o ny^axi, 


BI ^B^flx^, 




about headmen. 


in stars. 


about bullets. 


in chains. 



Singular Number. 





Animate Object. 


Animate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


H. 3. 


capoia, 


A4H, 


exitt] 


KHCTb, 




orphan. 


uncle. 


week. 


bunch, or wrist. 


P. 


CBPOTU, 


44H, 


HGAi-IH, 


KUCTH, 




of an orphan. 


of an uncle. 


of a week. 


of a bunch, &c. 


4- 


CHPOTB, 


AHA*, 


Begirt, 


KHCTH, 




to an orphan. 


to an uncle. 


to a week. 


to a bunch, &c. 


B. 


cepoiy, 


4H4H), 


eeAtJH), 


KHCTb, 




an orphan. 


an uncle. 


a week. 


a bunch, &c. 


T. 


CHPOTOK), 


ABACK). 


eeAtJero, 


KHCTbH), 




by an orphan. 


by an uncle. 


by a week. 


with a bunch, &c. 


n. 


CHPOTB, 


npa AH4*, 


Bl HeA*JfB, 


Bl KIICTH, 




about an orphan. 


in the presence of 


in a week. 


in a bunch, &c. 






an uncle. 







Plural Number. 





Animate Object. 


Animate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


H. 3. 


cnpoTW, 


i 


ee/jlUH, 


KMCTH, 




orphans. 


uncles. 


weeks. 


bunches, &c. 


P. 


CHPOTT., 


AflAeft, 


nefliib, 


KHCTefi, 




of orphans. 


of uncles. 


of weeks. 


of bunches, &c. 


4- 


CHpoiaMt, 


i 


HeAlUflMt, 


KBCTaMl, 




to orphans. 


to uncles. 


to weeks. 


to bunches, &c. 


B. 


ceporB, 


AAeft, 


He^iiH, 


KHCTB, 




orphans. 


uncles. 


weeks. 


bunches, &c. 


T. 


cnpdiaMO, 


AHAHMH, 


HeAilflMH, 


KHCTHMH, 




by orphans. 


by uncles. 


by weeks. 


with bunches, &c. 


n. 


o CHpdtaxi, 


npn 4;ijnxT>, 


B D H (. f j L.TfIX D* 


B1 KHCTHXt, 




about orphans. 


in the presence of 


in weeks. 


in bunches, &c. 






uncles. 







EXAMPLES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

Singular Number. 





Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


Inanimate Object. 


H. 3. 


A&IO, 


dCmecrso, 


n6ie, 


HMfl, 




affair. 


society. 


field. 


name. 


P. 


Aiia, 


<56meciBa, 


s 


iiMenn, 




of an affair. 


of society. 


of a field. 


of a name. 


4- 


r 


dOineciBy, 


no-no, 


inKMlII, 




to an affair. 


to society. 


to a field. 


to a name. 


B. 


A-B.IO, 


dfiojecTBO, 


ndjie, 


HMfl, 




an affair. 


society. 


a field. 


a name. 


T. 


i 


66meCTBOMT>, 


ndjeMi., 


imeHesn,, 




with an affair. 


by society. 


with a field. 


with a name. 


n. 


/ 


BT> 66meCTB'fej 


Ha no.rii. 


o6i> I'IMCHH, 




about an affair. 


in society. 


in a field. 


about a name. 



Plural Number. 



n. 3. 


A^a, 


66mecTBa, 


nojfl, 


HMCna, 




affairs. 


societies. 


fields. 


names. 


p. 


A-B.II>, 


dGmecTBT., 


no-ieii, 


HMeni, 




of affairs. 


of societies. 


of fields. 


of names. 


4- 


A-BJaMi, 


dfimecTBaan., 


t 


HM01!UMT>, 




to affairs. 


to societies. 


to fields. 


to names. 


B. 


AtJa, 


odmeciBa, 


no., 


HMena, 




affairs. 


societies. 


fields. 


names. 


T. 


A*JaMH, 


66mecTsaMH, 


HO^flMH, 


IIMCIlaMH, 




by affairs. 


by societies. 


with fields. 


with names. 


n. 


o At-iiirfc, 


BT> d(5mecTBaxx, 


BT> no.iaxi, 


061 HMeHaxi, 




about affairs. 


in societies. 


in fields. 


about names. 



Singular Number. 



Plural Number. 





Anira. or Inanim. 


Inanimate Object. 


Aniin. or Inanim. 


Inanimate Object. 


H. 3. 


x 

face, or person. 


aepitajo, 
mirror. 


faces, or persons. 


86pK84&) 

mirrors. 


P. 


.iiiqa, 
of a face, &c. 


sepKa.ia, 
of a mirror. 


of faces, &c. 


ot mirrors. 


4- 


to a face, &c. 


to a mirror. 


/ 
to faces, &c. 


to mirrors. 


B. 


jequ, 
a face, &c. 


3t'{)i;;uo, 
a mii'ror. 


juqa, 
faces, &c. 


3epKa.ia, 
mirrors. 


T. 


x 

by a face, &c. 


3l'l)K,'LK)M'L, 

with a mirror. 


/ 
by faces, 'fee. 


with mirrors. 


n. 


na Jim (;, 
on a face, &c. 


BT> 3epKa.it, 
in a mirror. 


about faces, &c. 


in mirrors. 



39. Rules for the Declensions. 

(1) Nouns substantive, taken from foreign languages, and which 
end in "6, u and &> are declined according to the first declension : 
Ex. CK)JKei5 subject, aHTHKBapiw antiquary, B6KC6J& bill of exchange. 
Those which end in a and H, and also in &, and which are of the 
feminine gender, are declined according to the second declension : 
Ex. 4>pa30 phrase, apivfi/j army, MOAG.I& model. Nouns taken from 
foreign languages, and which terminate in 0, e } u, y, are not 
declined at all : Ex. ^eno depot, JKC-ie jelly, KOJMOpH humming- 
bird, KaKa^y cockatoo, &c. 

(2) The vowel bi is never found after the letters r, at, K, x, H, m, m : 
it is changed in such a case into u. For this reason the nominative 
case of the plural number of nouns which end in 5 are not quite 
according to the ordinary rule. Ex. Bpam enemies (from spars), 
uo'fKu knives (from HOIKD), HY-IKM. stockings (from HJMOKB), &y\u 
spirits (from jyx5), acmt nights (from HOH&), nituaiim tents (from 
raajaiii5), njamu cloaks (from ruams), &c., instead of Bparbi, no/Kbi, 
qyjKb'l, &c. In like manner the genitive case of the singular 
number and the nominative case of the plural' number of nouns 
ending in a are Kimrn books (from KUHIY&), Be.ibMO5KW grandees 
(from BCJbMO/Ka), pyKw hands (from pvKti), and not Kuarbi, Be^BMOJKb?, 
pyKb'i, &c. 

(3) After the same letters, too (r, at, K, x, M, m, m, and K also), a and 
K) never follow. In place of a, a must be written, and in place of 
K), y. Ex. In the genitive case singular we find cep^ua, and not 
(from cepjae, heart). So, too, in the dative case of the same 



( 16 ) 



word we have cepAuy, and not cepAiw. Similarly the dative case 
of jKHJnmtf (dwelling-) is jKH.iHmy, and not jKBMHmw. 

(4) Nouns substantive which end in i^e are declined after the 
manner of those which end in 0, except that the instrumental case 
of the singular number, instead of OMI, has CMI. Ex. cep^aeMt 
(from cepaue heart), noJOieHneMt (from noJOieHue towel), and the 
like. Those nouns which terminate in no accented have in the 
instrumental case of the singular number OMti : Ex. anijoMt (from 
HHUO egg), jauoMt (from AEU,O face, or person). 

(5) All words containing the letters JK, n, H, m, m, which carry 
in the instrumental case of the singular number the accent (y^ape- 
HJe) on the last syllable have OMt, and not CMT>, for the termination 
of that case. Ex. HOJKOM-L (from HOJKT, knife), OTUOMT> (from OTeirL 
father), &c. Similar words which do not carry the accent on the 
last syllable have CMT., and not GMT., for the termination of that 
case : Ex. MyraeMt (from MVJKT> man, husband), MtcaueMt (from Mi>- 
cam> month), &c. 

(6) In the declensions the letter /b never follows the letter *. Con- 
sequently, in the dative and prepositional cases of the singular number 
of nouns which end in in it is necessary to write #, and not /& : Ex. 
<DpaHaiH, to France (from <I>paHEUfl) ; 0-iihiH, about a lily (from jiuifl). 
The same rule is preserved in the prepositional case, singular 
number, of nouns which end in iu and ie. Thus Ilpa AHToniH, In 
the time of Anthony (from AHTOHIW) ; BT> coHHHeHia, in the com- 
position (from COH a Henie); &c. 

(7) Nouns feminine which terminate in 6 also have in the dative 
and prepositional cases of the singular number u, and not /& : Ex. 
BT, Cii()Hpn, in Siberia (from CH6ap&), &c. 

(8) In nouns masculine which terminate in &, the genitive case 
of the singular number has a : Ex. tfRb day, AH/Z ; 3Bep& wild beast, 
3fiip^. In nouns of a like termination, but of the feminine gender, 
the termination of the same case of the same number has u : Ex. 
rfeH& shadow, T^HW ; ABep& door, pepM. To the first part of this 
rule the following word is the sole exception : nyi& (road), which 
although of the masculine gender, has for the termination of its 
genitive case singular w, thus, uviu. Moreover, this word 
departs generally from the common rules laid down for the declen- 
sions. (Vide ^41.) 

(9) A few nouns of the masculine gender ending in & take, in the 



( 17 ) 

nominative case of the plural number, the termination of the 
genitive case of the singular number with this difference, that the 
accent is shifted to the last syllable : Ex. BeKceJ& bill of exchange, 
plur. BCKce.1/? ; nncap& writer, plur. nacap/z, &c, 

(10) In nouns substantive which terminate in ie, the nominative 
case of the plural number has a, and not u : Ex. JKejaHifl wishes, 
(from weA&m'e), not HtejaHm, &c. The genitive case of the plural 
number of these nouns ends in iu, and not in eei> : Ex. JKeiam'w, 
and nut jKCJametfff, &c. 

(11) Nouns substantive which terminate in in also have in the 
genitive case of the plural number iu : Ex. Jimm lily, Ji&jiiu, &c. 

(12) Nouns substantive which terminate in &/z have in the genitive 
case of the plural number eu, for which reason the letter & is 
dropped in the oblique cases : Ex. cy/j&/? judge, cy&eu, &c. 

(13) Nouns substantive which end in en and /&/? change in the 
genitive case of the plural number the final letter n into u : Ex. 
WBeu seamstress, IIIBCM ; 3M/&# snake, 3Ml>w, &c. 

(14) Nouns which end in &, and in which the letters OK, u, w, ui, 
are found, also have in the genitive case of the plural number eu : 
Ex. HO?Kew, (from HOJKS) ; M6H/M, (from MCI&) ; majiaffleM, (from 
majanis) ; n.iarne (from iLiams), &c. 

(15) Nouns which end in w^e have in the genitive case of the 
plural number 5 for their final termination : Ex. yHH.iHW{e school, 
YHHJinm8, &c. 

(16) Nouns which terminate in KO have in the nominative case 
of the plural number u instead of a for their final letter : Ex. IWJIOKO 
apple, plur. /I&IOKU ; but BOHCKO army, troops, and 66.iaK0 cloud, 
are exceptions to this rule, as we find BOHCKO- armies, o6.iaKa 
clouds. 

(17) Many material nouns, of the masculine gender, which ter- 
minate in 5, #, and 6, when placed after words denoting weight or 
measure, . take in the genitive case of the singular number the 
termination of the dative case of the same number, i.e. take the 
final letters TO and y, instead of the letters peculiar to their proper 
terminations, viz. a and a. Ex. ciaKans Maw (not Ma^). from Haw, 
cup of tea; apmnntf auacy (not aT.iaca), from auacs, arsheen, or 
Russian ell, of satin, &c. When, however, the same nouns stand 
after words which do not express measure or weight, then the 
terminations of their genitive case (singular) are according to the 

c 



( 18 ) 

ordinary rule, i.e. in a and n, and not in y and jo : Ex. BKVC& 
flavour of tea ; ni}KHOCT& auaca, softness of satin, &c. 

(18) The accusative case, singular number, of nouns of the mas- 
culine gender which terminate in K, u, &, is, in the declension of the 
inanimate and abstract nouns, like the nominative ; and, in that 
of the animate nouns, like the genitive. Ex. a BHJKy 1 (qio?) cmis, 
CTOJM ; pynew, pyHB^ ; K0pa6j&, K0pa6.m I see (what /) table, 
tables; brook, brooks ; ship, ships, fl BHIK^ (KOFO?) 6pai#, 6par&<?05 ; 
MypaB&/, MypaBe'0& ; 3Bf>p/z, 3Bepe# I see (whom or what ?} brother, 
brothers ; ant, ants ; wild beast, wild beasts. The accusative case, 
singular number, of nouns of the masculine and feminine genders, 
which terminate in a, is in y : Ex. cjyra, man-servant, cjyn/ ; KHHIYZ 
book, KHHry. Similarly the accusative case, singular number, of 
nouns of the masculine and feminine genders, which terminate in /z, 
is in w. Ex. cyflijf judge, cyAb/o ; nyj/z bullet, np/o. The accusa- 
tive case, singular number, of nouns of the feminine gender, which 
terminate in &, is always like the nominative. The same remark 
applies too to all nouns of the neuter gender, without any 
distinction. The accusative case, plural number, of nouns of any 
gender is, in the declension of the inanimate nouns, like the 
nominative, and in the declension of the animate nouns, like the 
genitive. 

Obs. Collective nouns, even though they may denote a 
collection of animate objects of either the masculine or 
neuter genders, are declined in the accusative case like 
the inanimate nouns : Ex. OHT. paaStus 2 /^npia'reJLCKiM 
He defeated the enemy's regiment ; J3acTyx5 
eraflo, The shepherd drove in the flock, &c. 

(19) The Vocative is, as a general rule, like the nominative; yet 
in certain nouns it has a peculiar termination of its own, borrowed 
from the Church Slavonic tongue: Ex. Eor& God, voc. EoJKe; Oieus 
Father, voc. OTH, &c. 

(20) Nouns which terminate in MR change n in all the oblique 
cases of both numbers into e : Ex. BpeJW/& time, BpeMe/w ; 

&c. One word alone with this primary termination of 



1 Present tense of the verb BHA-feib. Trans. 

2 Past tense of the verb paaSnrb. Trans. 

3 Past tense of the verb npHFH&Tf>. Tram. 



( 19 ) 

retains in the genitive case, plural number, the letter a : this word 
is C&MH seed, d>M/?5 of seeds. 

(21) The words He6o heaven, and 4^40 miracle, in the cases of 
the plural number have nom. He6eca, ny^eca- ; gen. He6ecff, nyflecff, 
and so on. But when by the use of the word vfao is understood 

monster, qy^o forms its plural thus, Hy/jw, Hy^tf, ny- 
, &c. 

(22) The following nouns and a few others form their genitive case 
plural like their nominative case singular ; in other words, there 
is no change in form between the two cases : Ex. qe.iOBi>K&, man (or 
of men) ; coj/jarff, soldier (or of soldiers)'; /jparyHS, dragoon (or of 
dragoons) ; rycaps, hussar (or of hussars) ; y.iaH5, Uhlan (or of 
Uhlans) ; Ka^eTg, cadet (or of cadets) ; TypoKtf, Turk (or of Turks) ; 
rpeHaep&, grenadier (or of grenadiers) ; peKpyitf, recruit (or of 
recruits) ; apniHH5, arsheen (or of arsheens) ; ny^5, pood (or of 
poods) ; HyjoKtf, stocking (or of stockings) ; canorff, boot (or of 
boots), and others. Hence it is not correct to speak of coj/taioes, 
rycapo05, apniHHoes, nyAo'05, ny.iKo<?&, canoro0&, &c. The word 
cajKeub (a sajen, or Rusian fathom) in the genitive case, plural 
number, has ca*KeH5, and not caJKeii& or caateH<?#. 

(23) Certain nouns,, which terminate in 5 and &, take in the pre- 
positional case of the singular number y or TO, instead of /&. In all 
such cases the accent falls on the final syllable : Ex. na 6oi/ on 
the side or flank, from 6oK&; BI j&cy in the forest, from .ite; 
BT> paw in Paradise, from paw ; &c. 

40. The following are some examples of nouns substantive 
which depart from the ordinary rules of declension : 

(1) Nouns which terminate in anum and mum have in the 
plural number special terminations. 

Plural Number. 



(Animate Objects.) 

N. & V. H. 3. AnrjHiaHe, Englishmen. 

G. P. AHiMBiaBT., of Englishmen. 

D. 4. AeiMeiaHaMT,, to Englishmen. 

A. B. AHrJHHaei, Englishmen. 

I. T. AnriHiaHaMH, by Englishmen. 

P. n. 06i AHrinidHaxT>, about Englishmen. 



(Animate Objects.) 

peasants. 
KpecTbani, of peasants. 
KpecTbawaMt, to peasants. 
KpecTbaHT), peasants. 
KpecibflHaMH, by peasants. 
KpecTbaeaxi, about peasants. 



N.B. The singular number of nouns substantive terminating in dnuns and 
ftnum is declined according to the examples given of the first declension (vide 
paragraph 38). 



( 20 ) 

(2) Nouns Substantive terminating in emiw are declined in loth 
numbers according to the following examples : 

Singular Number. 



(Animate Objects.) 

N. & V. H. 3. TejenoR^, calf. 
G. P. Te^eHKa, of a calf. 
D. 4- Te^eHKy, to a calf. 

A. B. TejeHKa, a calf. 

I. T. TejeHKOMi,, by a calf. 

P. n. Te-ieHK-B, about a calf. 



(Animate Objects.) 
Bo-neHOKT., wolf's cub. 
Bo-iie'HKa, of a wolf's cub. 
Bo-iie'BKy, to a wolf's cub. 
BoJieeKa, a wolf's cub. 
BOJICHKOMI, by a wolf's cub. 
BojieHKt, about a wolf's cub. 



Plural 



N. & V. H. 3. le-iaxa, calves. 



G. P. Tejarb, of calves. 

D. 4- TeJHTaMT), to calves. 

A. B. Te.iflTT>, calves. 

I. T. Te.ifliaMH, by calves. 

P. n. Tejfliaxi, about calves. 



Bojiaia, wolf's cubs. 
Bo-naT"b, of wolf's cubs. 
Bo-naxaMi, to wolf's cubs, 
Bojqarb, wolf's cubs. 
B(MiaTaMn, by wolfs cubs. 
Bojiaraxi), about Coif's cubs. 



N.B. According to the above two examples on eHOKG are declined pefieiiOKi 
child, infant ; atepefie'HOKi, foal ; arHenoKX, lamb ; KOieeoKi, kitten ; nopoce'BOK^, suck- 
ing-pig ; qbiiue'HOK'b, chicken; MeAB*neHOKT>, bear's cub. But .ibBeeoKt, lion's whelp, 
and Mbime'noKT), little mouse, respectively make their nominative case plural in eeKH ; 
thus, JLB^HKH and Mbim^HKH, and not -ibBaxa and Mbiuiaia. 



41. The following nouns substantive depart altogether from 
the ordinary rules of declension : 

Singular Number. 



Animate Objects- 


Inanimate Objects. 


Hi. 3. AHTH, 
N.&V. child. 


MaTi>, 
mother. 


IJepKOBb, 
church. 


Hyxb, 
road. 


P. 4HTflTH, 

G. of child. 


Maiepn, 
of a mother. 


IJ^PKBH, 

of a church. 


HyxH 
of a road. 


4. 4 0T TH 5 

D. to a child. 


Maiepa, 
to a mother. 


LJepKBH, 
to a church, 


ny, 

to a road. 


B. 4HTH, 

A. a child. 


Maib, 
a mother. 


IJepKOBb, 

a church. 


Dyib, 
a road. 


T. 4HTHT6K), 

I. by child. 

11. 4HTHT0, 

P. about a child. 


Ma/repbK), 
by a mother. 

Marepn, 
about a mother. 


IJepKOBbK), 

by a church. 

Bi I^^PKBH, 
in a church. 


nyiejTb, 
by a road. 

Ha nyni, 
on a road. 



( 21 ) 
Plural Number. 



H. 3. Aim, 

N.&V. children. 


MiVirjm, 
mothers. 


IJCPKBII, 

churches. 


Ilyiii, 
roads. 


P. A* T B> 
G. of children. 


Maiepfi, 
of mothers. 


HopKBcfi, 

of churches. 


nyie'B, 
of roads. 


4. 4*THMl, 

D. to children. 


MaiepaMi, 
to mothers. 


IJepKBaMl, 

to churches. 


HyxaMTi, 
to roads. 


B. AtT^fi, 
A. children. 


Marepefi, 
mothers. 


IJepKBHj 

churches. 


nyTH, 

roads. 


T. AtTbMH, 

I. by children. 


MaiepaMH, 
by mothers. 


HCPKBUMH, 
by churches. 


HyiaMB, 
with roads. 


H. A*Tarb, 
P. about children. 


Maxepaxi), 
about mothers. 


B-b IJepKBaxx, 
in churches. 


nytaxT), 

about roads. 





Obs. The word AOH& (daughter) is declined like Mai&. 



rocno4b, Lord, 
rdcno^a, of the Lord. 
r6cno4y, to the Lord, 
rdcno/ia, the Lord. 
FOCDO^H ! O Lord I 
r6cno40MX, by the Lord. 
rdcnoAt, about the Lord. 



N. H. XpecToci, Christ. 

G. P. XpacTa, of Christ. 

D. A- XpHCiy, to Christ. 

A. B. Xpecia, Christ. 

V. 3. XPHCT ! O Christ ! 

I. T. XpiicidMi, by Christ. 

P. 0. XpHCTt, about Christ. 



42. The following words have special inflections both in the 
genitive case singular, in the other oblique cases of that number, 
and in all the cases of the plural number : 

(1) By changing the intermediate letter e of the nominative case 
singular into 6 : 

Ex. JeBT>, lion, JbBa. Bopo6beii, sparrow, Bopotfba. 

Je'4T>, ice, jbja. MypaBeii, ant, MypaBba. 

Jem, flax, Jbea. Co.ioneii, nightingale, cojOBba. 

Pyie"ft, brook, pyiba. JKiue'ij'b, tenant, HtEMbqa. 

yjett, beehive, yjba. A*-^ 1 ^ statesman, 4i>.ibqa, &c. 

(2) By changing the intermediate letter e of the nominative case 
singular into U : 

Ex. Hae'Mi, rent, nafiMa, I 

Sae'Mi, loan, aaiiMa. I 

(3) By changing the intermediate letter a of the nominative case 
singular into u : 

Ex. 3aaqx, hare, saiiqa, &c. 

(4) By the elision of the letter e of the nominative case sin- 
gular : 



. isthmus, nepemefiKa. 
, gladiator, Oofiqa, &c. 



Ex. Mo.ie'tfeQi, Te Deum, 
IlfiBe.n,, Paul, EaB.ia, 
Ope'JT., eagle, op.ia. 
KoTe4T>, kettle, Kowa. 
yse^x, note, y3.ia. 
nene.n>, ashes, ne"n.ia. 
Koae.n>, he-goat, K03.ia. 
Oce'JT., jackass, donkey, oc^a. 
KyneijT), merchant, Kynqa. 
OTeqi), father, oma. 
Kaaieeb, stone, uaMHa. 
Ileiib, stump, blockhead, nun. 
b, day, 4Hfl. 

strap, pejma. 



KoBe'pi, carpet, Kospa. 
B-brepi, wind, Btipa. 
Ulaiepi, tent, inaipa. 
Kocxepi, funeral pile, KOCipa. 
Xpefieii), spine, or ridge, xpe6ia 
Ernneii, Egypt, Erania. 
Ofleci, oats, OBca". 
Heel, dog, nca. 
A^HO^^, lamb, arnija. 

, autocrat, 
, stalk, 

KameJb, cough, 
CejeaeHb, drake, cdiesna. 



(5) By the elision of the letter 
gular : 

COHI, sleep, cea. 
Oroeb, fire, ornA. 

b, psalm, ncaviMii. 
corner, yr.ia. 
b, charcoal, ywa. 
yropb, pimple, yrpa. 
.Io6T>, forehead, Ji6&. 
noco.n>, ambassador, noc.ia. 
cover, Mexja. 

crest, tuft of hair, 
xox.ia. 

b, harpoon, Carpa. 
Byropi, hillock, 6yrpa. 

Also many other words terminating in OKT>. 



o of the nominative case sin- 

Bnxop-b, tuft of hair, BHXpa, 

CBe'KOpi), father-in-law, husband's father, 

CBe'Kpa. 

POTT., mouth, pia. 
3aMom>, castle, r.aMKa. 
Horoib, nail, Hona. 
^eroib, tar, pitch, ^ena. 
3oBi, call, invitation, sna. 
IIIOBi>, seam, msa. 

, share, 
otb, slice, 
, elbow, 
, stocking, 



43. The following words have special terminations for the 
nominative case of the plural number : 

OKO, eye, oin. 
yxo. ear, yme. 
pyKaBT>, sleeve, pyKasa. 
jieiiapb, physician, jeKapa. 
TJia.3T>, eye, wasa. 
6oapHHT>, boyard, 6oape. 
6ap0HT), gentleman, master, 6ape. 
rocno40Hi, lord, master, mister, 



, master of the house, xoaaesa. 
raypaex, brother-in-law, wife's brother, 

mypba. 
6pan>, brother, dpatba. 

, Godfather, a gossip, KjMOBba. 
, friend, 
KH33b, prince, 
c6jeq;e, sun, cojeqa. 
nepo, pen, nepba. 



The following nouns have two terminations in the nominative 
case of the plural number: #OM5 house, plur. 401^ and AOM&/; 
tutor, plur. yHHTej^' and yiHTe.iM ; npo<i>eccop5 professor, 



( 23 ) 

plur. npo$eccop and npo*eccop&e. The first of these terminations 
is in each instance the more frequently used in the language of 
conversation, and the latter in literature. 

The following nouns (and others which by practice can easily be 
ascertained) have the termination of the nominative case of the 
plural number in bH : 

Ciy.n>, chair, ciy.ibfl ; npyrb, twig, rod, npyiba ; cyicb, branch, bough, cyiba. 

44. The following nouns have in the plural number double 
terminations, conveying in each instance different meanings : 

B fiKi>, B'EKH, eyelids. BiiKa, centuries. 

x.i'fcfi'b, xjiflbi, loaves. xj*6d, grain of various kinds. 

qstrb, i^Btibi, flowers. ijBln'a, colours. 

3y6i, 3y6bi, teeth in the mouth. 3y6bfl, teeth of a comb or of a saw. 

MlJXi, JTBXH, pair of bellows. Mtxa, furs of all kinds. 

JIHCTI, JBCTM, leaves of a book, sheets of JHCTbfl, leaves of a tree. 

paper. 

MyHfb, MyjKH, men. MyjKba, husbands. 

CbiBT>, cbiflOBba, sons. CUBM, sons of the fatherland only. 

In the case of the following words : 

jpeBO, tree or wood, ^epeea, 4ep^Bba. 
KaMenb, stone, KUMIIH, Kaveiiba. 

yrojb, charcoal, yrJH, yrojba. 

Kopenb, root, Kopnn, KOpeHbfl. 

hook, crook, KpiOKii, 



The latter termination is used in a collective sense only. 
KOJ^HO (knee) has for its plural KO^iflW and KO.ii>Ha,, the last 
signifying race or generation. 

45. The following nouns have special terminations in the 
genitive case of the plural number : 

In etit, CBd^bCa, wedding, genitive plur. csa4e6i. 

c^4b6a, fate, destiny, cy^fo. 

TflHtfa, lawsuit, Taate6x. 

In eis, Aeebra, copeck, 4^neri. 

cepbra, earring, ceperx. 

In ot, poara, rod, pdaon. 

In e5, me'ttKa, finger-board, nieeKi. 

, cradle, JWjeKi. 

nurse-maid, II/IHCKX. 

spoon, Joa?eKi. 

, small hand, handle, . pyieni. 

, ring, link, KOJeqeKi. 

, little window, OKOiueK'b. 
And so too have other nouns whose nominative case singular ends in IKO and mico. 



( 24 ) 



In OK&, 



In CM, 



In aJit, 
In o.J5, 



In e.\b } 



In eMt, 



In t'H5, 



35 
JJ 

5) 




JJ 
> 

33 



J3 



peMece.il. 
i0ce.il. 



CBH3Ka, bundle, ^. plur. CBBSOKI. 

6a6Ka, grandmother, midwife. 6a6oK'b. 

flOCKa, board, plank, AOCOKT>. 

naiKa, stick, 

HeiMa, broom, 

C-B4JO, saddle 

Bec.io, ear, 

peMec^o, trade, craft, 

H0CJO, number, 

sepKa-io, mirror, 

KyKja, doll, KyKOJi. 

3-10, evil, 30JX. 

(This word is used in the genitive case only of the 
plural number.) 

CTCKJ6, glass, i.e. pane of gen. plur. 

glass, and mirror glass, 
HiMa, needle, 

Kpdfijfl, roof, 
Kanja, drop, 
ca6.ia, a sabre, 
IIT.IH, noose, 
36M.ia, earth, 
niicbMo, letter, 
TiopbMa, prison, 
KOp'iMa, inn, 
TbMa, darkness, 

(When TbMa means number. In the Ancient Slavonic 
reckoning this word signified ten thousand.) 






Hroj'i,. 


n 


KpOBP.lb. 





nanejb. 


j) 


ca6e.ib. 


n 


nete\Jb. 


n 


SCM^Jb. 




| 


a 


HHCCM'b. 





TIOPCMT). 


u 


KOp^^MT,. 


5> 


T6MT,. 



CpeBBo, beam, genitive plur. 

cocna, fir-tree, 

sepeo, grain, kernel, 

6oflHa, slaughter-house, 

HOJOTHO, linen, 

KynajbHa, bathing-place, 

cy4HO, vessel, 

cnajbea, bedroom, 

rpiiBna, ten copeck-piece, 

Beiepea, vespers, 

HapeBiia, title of the Russian 

Imperial Princess, 
ofii^ea, Mass, 

KHJI JKiiti, unmarried Princess, 
song, 

i, custom-house, 
6^CHa, tale, a story, 
BBinea, cherry-tree, 
6ainea, tower, 




> 
> 




t) 



> 

j> 




> 



6pe'Beei. 
coceei. 
sepeHi. 
OoeHi. 



Kynajem. 



cnajeHi. 
rpHBeei,. 



I^ap^BeHi. 

Koa/KeHX. 



TaMoaieei. 

Oacein,. 



In ettb, 



In OH5, 



In ep?, 



In #(5, 



aepeBHH, village, hamlet, 

mine, 

, bake-house, 
H, quarry, 

KyXHa, kitchen, 
OKBO, window, 
cyKHo, cloth, 
cecrpa, sister, 
Bejp6, pail, 
flApo, kernel, 
pe6p6, rib, 
no-ioi^Hije, towel, 
OBIJ, sheep, ewe, 
KO-ibijo, ring, 
cep4ije, heart, 

flight of steps, 



KyXOHT.. 

OKOHT). 

C^KOH-b. 

cecrepi. 



fljepi. 
pe6ep-b. 



N.B. The genitive case, plural, of Kymaete food, is KyraaHbGBi, 
and of noMtCTLe an estate noM'ficxiii. 

46. Nouns which are used in the plural number only are de 
clined, if of the masculine gender, according to the first declension ; 
if of the feminine gender, according to the second declension ; and 
if of the neuter gender, according to the third' declension. The 
gender of such nouns is ascertainable by their nominative and 
genitive cases : 

(1) Nouns which terminate in the nominative case in bi or u, and 
in the genitive in eeti or 06V, are of the masculine gender. Ex. 
mnnu&{, pair of tongs, nunmo0& ; THCKM, press, vice, THCKo'05; o66w, 
hangings, tapestry, oftoeez. The following is an exception : OKOB&I, 
chains, fetters, owed. This noun is of the feminine gender. 

(2) Any other nouns which terminate in the nominative case in 
61 or u, and in the genitive case in any sort of termination, are all 
of the feminine gender. Ex. canw, sledge, caee'w ; HOHtHEm&z, pair 
of scissors, HOJKHHUS; CJHBKM, cream, CARBOKV. The following is 
an exception : JIKVJM, people, JiWfreu. This noun is of the masculine 
gender. 

(3) Nouns which terminate in the nominative case of the plural 
number in a are of the neuter gender. Ex. Bopom, gate; 

wood ; ycrd, lips, mouth. 



( 26 ) 

Concerning the Declension of Compound Nouns. 

47. In compound nouns the last word alone is declined. Ex. 
MOpexoAei|&, navigator, Mopexo^iw, MOpexoAuy, &c. 



48. Certain proper nouns have their own peculiar appositions : 
Ex. PnnapA& Ib6UHoe Cepdye, Richard Lion-hearted. In all such 
instances the proper name only is declined, the noun or nouns in 
apposition remaining without change : Ex. PnHap^o^& Jbeuttoe 
Cepdiqe, by Richard Lion-hearted; Pflqap^/6 JLteunoe Cepdi^e, 
about Richard Lion-hearted. 

49. The following compound nouns, which used to be declined 
separately, are now only inflected in the latter word: E[ap&rpaA&, 
Tsar's City (name given by the Russians to Constantinople), I(ap&- 
, &c. ; HoBropOAff, New City (Novgorod;, HoBropOA#, &c. 



50. Nouns substantive, to which is prefixed the word nod or 
noJiy (contracted from noMeuua, half), have in all the oblique cases 
noJiy : 'Ex. noJ^eHft mid-day, gen. TLOAJ/AIMI, dat. no.i$AH70, ins. 
uojLyAReMti,prep. o 



THE NOUN ADJECTIVE (HMH 

51. Nouns adjective are coupled with nouns substantive, in 
order to show the quality, attributes, and circumstances of the 
object. Nouns adjective agree with the substantives with which 
they are coupled in gender, number and case. Ex. xpa6pz>m 
BOHH&, brave warrior; xpa6p&i BOHHW, brave warriors ; xpa6pw#5 
BOHH00&, of brave warriors ; GkjiaH jomaA&, white horse ; 3(MOTa/z 
mnam, golden sword ; BjifllHM 66meciBO, local society ; &c. 

52. Nouns adjective are comprised under the following heads : 

(1) Qualifying (KaqecTBennoe), which denote the quality or 
property of the several objects with which they are coupled. Ex. 
xpafipWM, brave ; BBicoKm, high ; Ma^ibiw, little, small ; &c. 

(2) Possessive (npHTflffiaieJBHoe), which point out either to what 
the object belongs, such as PoccincKm Russian, and jBBHHbw per- 
taining to a lion, &c. ; or the substance of which the object is made, 
or to which it relates for example, SOJOTOW golden, KaMene&m, 
of stone. 

N.B. The possessive adjectives are formed from nouns substantive. 



( 27 ) 

(3) Circumstantial (oScTOSTewibCTBeHHOf), which point to the de- 
pendence of the object on the circumstances of time and place. Ex. 
ceroflHHiiiH&JM ypoK&, lesson of to-day ; Biepammw 06^45, dinner of 
yesterday ; a^tiim^ 66meciBO, local society ; &c. 






53. Nouns adjective have seven terminations, viz. for masculine 
gender, in biu } ou, iu ; for feminine gender, in a/i, HA ; for neuter 
gender, in oe, ee. 

Ex. Masc. cjaBHbzw^ xy^ow ~\ CHHZW 

Fern. cASLEHaal renowned, xyaa/zl bad, C&EHH blue. 

Neut. 



54. All nouns adjective are subject to changes of termination 
in connection with the ordinary rules of declension. The qualifying 
adjectives are moreover influenced by changes of termination, con- 
nected with the use of shortened (yciqeHH&iw) forms, and with the 
degrees of comparison (cienea& cpaBHem;?). 



55. The shortening (ycfrieH^) amounts to a contraction of the 
full termination of the adjective in question. For example, 
instead of BeJLHK^ -an -oe, great, Be.iHK&-a-0 are the forms 
used. 

56. Qualifying adjectives have, therefore, for every case and 
number, two distinct terminations, viz. the full (uojiRoe) and the 
shortened 



57. The possessive and the circumstantial adjectives, on the 
other hand, have but the one full termination. Ex., HejiOB-feHecow' 
an -oe human, 6yMaHtH&m -an, -oe made of paper, a^iimitt -nn -ee 
belonging to this place. 

Obs. Certain of the possessive adjectives, which are derived 
from personal nouns, may have two distinct terminations ; 
such as, 



The full, iiapCKifi -aa -oe 






belonging to 
The shortened, ijapeBi esa BO ) Tsar. 

The full, OTEioBCKifi -aa -oe") 

or > patrimonial. 

The shortened, OTDOB^ -osa -OBO ) 



. afl - 



-OBa -OBO 



belonging to 
one's ancestors. 



6paiHifl -aa-ee 

6paTH0ei -HHea [ fraternal. 
-HHHQ 



{ 28 ) 
58. The shortened terminations of adjectives are as follows : 

(1) Of the qualifying adjectives 

Singular Number. Plural Number. 

Masc. Fern. Neuter. All genders. 

In &, b. a, R. o, e. w, u. 

Ex. o6p5 kind, o6pa, Ao6po, #o6p&i; 

CHH& blue, CHH/?, CHH/, CHHW. 

(2) Of the possessive adjectives (derived from personal nouns) 

eet, 068, UHV ; eea, oea, una ; eeo, oeo, UHO ; eew, oeti, umi. 

n;apff5, mpeea, nap^o, 



3HTHW/J5, 3flTHlf^, 3STBMWO, 3flTHW&?. 

59. The degrees of comparison of nouns adjective denote the 
various standards of the quality or property of an object. Ex. 
learned, yMH/60 or yMH/&wwm more learned, and caaibia 
most learned ; icpH&w black, HepHfl> or HepHT&mam 
blacker, and Bec&Ma HepH&m blackest of all, lit. very black ; 
c*ia6wM weak, CA&6ri>e or cja6/&Mmm weaker, and caMbm cja6bm 
weakest. The degrees of comparison are three : 

(1) Positive (no-iOJKHTeJLHflJz), which indicates the simple quality 
or property of an object, without making any comparison between 
it and any other object which may possess a like quality or pro- 
perty. Ex. BajKH&m HHH& important rank; BbicoKa/z ropa, high 
mountain ; &c. 

(2) Comparative (cpaBHHTCJLH^^), which intimates, in a greater 
or less degree, the quality or property of one object as compared 
with one or more objects of the same sort. Ex. Bti nsopEUM 
BaJKH/MMty/o AO.IJKHOCT& Heate-in o5, You have chosen a more important 
duty (or office) than he; 9io CVKHO nepH/&0 Heate^H TBO, This 
cloth (is) blacker than thine; Epaitf MOW Bbiuie Te&, My brother 
(is) taller than thee ; &c. 

(3) Superlative (upeBOCXOAfl&fl), which points out the object 
possessed of the greatest degree of superiority or inferiority 
amongst a lot of objects of the same kind. Ex. On$ qHiaems 

no.ie3Hyw KHnry, He is reading a most useful book ; BOTT> 
T iepHO(? CVKH0, Here is the blackest cloth (of all) ; &c. 



( 29 ) 

60. Nouns Adjective have in the comparative degree two 
distinct terminations, viz. a full termination in nuwiu -aa -ee and 
aiiwiu -an -ee, and a shortened termination in ne, Jbu. we, ue, we, wp. 
Ex. cuAiRibuwitt stronger, CIUI>H/&, CHIBHT&M; nyGoHafttitf'tf deeper, 
TJijftwe ; Jieiue lighter ; ihwe quieter ; CAaiu/e sweeter. 

O&s. The terminations ibilmiU and ctuium may be used to 
express the superlative degree, but when so employed the 
words M3 ecTbxv, of all, must be understood. Ex. Pocci/? 
ecmb cKM>ETbuwee rocy^apciBO BT> CBBT/b, Russia is the most 
powerful sovereignty in the world. 

61. The superlative degree is formed 

(1) By placing before the full termination of either the 
positive or comparative degree the words caMbiu most, npe very. 
Ex. CaMbm npiaiH&iw 4CH&, Most pleasant day ; CaMa/z BbicoHawaowz 
ropa, Highest mountain (of all) ; HpeK^cmbiu qBiTOKS, Prettiest 
flower. 

(2) By placing before the full termination of the positive 
degree the words eecbMa extremely, ouem very. Ex. BecLMa 
noje3Hoe H3o6p4ieHie, Extremely useful invention; ()uem 
, Very pleasant meeting. 



(3) By prefixing to certain adjectives of the comparative 
degree the particle nau, very best. Ex. ffauxyvniiu cnoc66&, 
very best method ; mufto&e uoAemoe 4'fejo, much the more useful 
work. 

62. For further intensifying the comparative degree the 
following word can be placed before the shortened termination of 
that degree topdado much. Ex. Om topdsdo VMH/&<?, no iopdsdo 
, He (is) much more clever, but mucli worse than, &c. 



For the purpose of detracting from the quality of an adjective 
the particle no (little) can be prefixed to the comparative degree 
of the adjective in question. Ex. Om nocnAbRrie eact, He (is) a 
little stronger (than) you ; &c. 

63. The following nouns adjective have their own peculiar 
forms of the degrees of comparison : 



( 30 ) 



great, in the 
sense of famous, 

great, in the 
sense of large, 
Mii.ii.iii small, 

BblCOKJH tall, 

nusKifi lower, 

xopomifi good, 

xyAoU bad, 

ciapbift old, 

MO-iOAofi young, -\ 

4o.irifi long, 

KpaiKifl short, J 



Comparative. 
Full. Shortened. 



Superlative. 



66.ibiiiiB, 

Mi'iii.niiii, 

Biiic.miii, 

o Ham i ft, 

jyiiuifi, 

xyAiiiifi, 

CTapiiiniifi, 

nil 



& 6dibiiie, 

& MeHbUie, 

Bbime, 



Bbicoiattmiu 
enaiaiiraiii. 



xyrce, 
ciapte & ciapine, 

MO-IOJKe, 

& 4o.ibine, 



CTapuiifi. 
juaAiniii. 
40JH(aHuiiti. 
KpaTiaaniift. 



64. Qualifying nouns adjective can be used either in a 
depreciative or softened (cMariiiTeJBHbm) sense, with either full or 
shortened terminations ; or in an augmentative (ycnjieHHbJw) form, 
with either full or shortened terminations. 



Depreciative or Softened. 

f 6tJeobKifl AOMHKTi, little white house ; 

1 6'BJOBaTbifl 40MT>, whitish house ; 

( 40M^ (VkienoKT), the house (is) a little white ; 

V.40MT) 6'LiOBarb, the house (is) whitish. 



Ex. 



Full termination 



Shortened termination 



Augmentative. 

Full termination . . . 6i>JexOBbKifi AOMT>, very white house ; 
Shortened termination . dtJexoneKT) 4010 or OtJenieHCKi, the house (is) quite white. 

65. Certain nouns adjective are used in the sense of appellative 
(HapHuaie.ibHO) nouns substantive. Ex. Bi>'i6opH&m, deputy (lit. 
one chosen); 4 acoBo'w, sentry ; rociHH&fl (KOMHam), drawing-room ; 
cwAoma (KOMHaia), dining-room; HiapKoX roast meat. 

Again, other nouns adjective are converted into surnames, and 
are used as proper names. Ex. TOJCTOM, Tolstoi; Ba^ynaHCK/M, 
of Trans-Danube ; &c. 

66. Certain of the qualifying nouns adjective have no degrees 
of comparison at all; for instance, niiMow dumb, orfenoM blind, 
jKCHaT&r^ married ; and such other adjectives the meaning of which 
will not admit of an increasing or diminishing of their peculiar 
significations. 



67. To many adjectives which denote quality of a good kind 



( 31 ) 

the particles He not, and 6es without, can be prefixed. This 
process has the effect of giving- to the adjectives so treated a con- 
trary signification to that which they previously held. Ex. He- 
M ^agreeable, w^HHCT&m unclean, fascEJLbmiu powerless, &c. 
O&s. The particle ties, which is called a preposition, signifies 
deprivation, or the want of possession of anything, no matter 
what. Hence many adjectives which primarily indicate bad 
qualities when joined with this particle or preposition, come 
to express on the other hand good qualities. Ex. 
harmless, fiesonacRbiu safe, &c. 



68. Certain nouns adjective, which are derived from one and 
the same word, may, according to their meaning, appear in two 
forms, viz. be either possessive or qualifying adjectives. Ex. BCMHOM, 
terrestrial, seio/wo^, earthern, (from 36MJi)', seMMUucmbtu, earthy; 
30.1 OTOM, golden, WJiomucmbiii, auriferous, (from 30Mmo). 

69. The following is the table of the declensions of nouns 
adjective with full terminations : 

Singular Number. 



Cases. 


Masc. Gender. 


Fern. Gender. 


Neuter Gender. 


N. & V. H. 3. 


biii, oii, iii, mil. 


an, an. 


oe, ee. 


G. P. 


aro, aro. 


oii, eii. 


aro, aro. 


D. 4- 


OMy, emy. 


oil, cii. 


OMy, eMy. 


A. B. 


( aro, arc. ") 
( MH, ofl, iii, eia. ) 


yro, row. 


( aro, aro. " 
( oe, ee. j 


I. T. 


bIMl>, BMl. 


oro, OH, ero, efl. 


MM!., HM'Ii. 


P. H. 


OMI, esn,. 


e8. 


OM'I., CM'L. 



Plural Number. 



Cases. 


Masc. Gender. 


Fern. Gender. 


Neuter Gender. 


N.&V. H. 3. 


Lie, ie. 


bia, in. 


Mii, ia. 


G. P. 


uix, im>. 


I.IX'L, IIXT>. 


HXT>, HXl. 


D. A- 


WM^, HM^. 


I.IM'f>, IIM't) 


I.IM'I,, UM'f.. 


A. B. 


C bixi, HXI 1 
^ we, ie. > 


f WXl, HXl. ^ 

i, wa, ia. j 


bie, ia. 


I. T. 


UMQ, iniii. 


LIMH, IIMII. 


I.IMIK IIMII. 


p. n. 


MX I, HXl. 


blXl, HXl. 


blXl, 0X1. 



EXAMPLES OF THE DECLENSION OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE. 
With an Animate Object of the Masculine Gender. 



Cases. 



Singular Number. 



H. 3.. 

N.& V. 


cii.ii.ni.iii ope.n>, 
powerful eagle. 


P. 
G. 


CHjBearo opja, 
of a powerful eagle. 


4- 
D. 


CHJiBHOMy op-iy", 
to a powerful eagle. 


B. 
A. 


co-iBnaro opja, 
powerful eagle. 


T. 
I. 

n. 
p. 


CIUBHblMl OPJOMT., 

by a powerful eagle. 

f r 

CHJBHOMT. Op.lt, 

about a powerful eagle. 



Plural Number. 

CHJBHBie Op.IbI, 
powerful eagles. 



CHJBHWXl 

of powerful eagles. 



CHJBHMMX 

to powerful eagles. 

CHJbHblXl Op.lOBT>, 

powerful eagles. 



b} f powerful eagles. 



CHJBFibixi) op^ax^, 
about powerful eii^les. 

1 O 



With an Inanimate Object of the Feminine Ge-nder. 

Cases. Singular Number. 

pyccKia H36bi, 
Russian huts. 



H. 3. 

N.& V. 


pyccuaa 036a, 
Russian hut. 


P. 
G. 


pycCKoft 0s6bi, 
of a Russian hut. 


4- 
D. 


pycCKOii 03(VB, 
to a Russian hut. 


B. 
A. 


pyccnyio 0s6y, 
Russian hut. 


T. 
I. 


pyCCKOK) 0360H), 
with a Russian hi 



n. 



j BT> pyCCKOfi 

in a Russian hut. 



PyCCKHXl 

of Russian huts. 



to Russian huts. 

pyccKia H36bi, 
Russian huts. 

PyCCKHMH 03(5aM0, 

with Russian huts. 
Bl p^CCK0Xl H36aXT>, 

in Russian huts. 



Cases. 

H. 3. 

N.&V. 

P. 
G. 

4- 
D. 

B. 
A. 

T. 
I. 

n. 

p. 



With an Inanimate 
Singular Number. 



Object of the Neuter Gender. 

Plural Number. 



MtCTO, 

former place. 



M*BCTa, 

of a former place. 

npe;KneMy Mtciy, 
to a former place. 



former place. 

npeJKHHJTb M-ECTOMT., 

by a former place. 



na 



former places. 



WBCTT,, 

of former places. 



on a former place. 



MtCTHM'B, 

to former places. 

npe/KHia M-fecia, 
former places. 

npe*'B0MH MtCTHM0, 

by former places. 

Ha npe'/KHox'B wfeciaxx, 
on former places. 



With an Animate Object of the Masculine Gender. 



Cases. 



Singular Number. 



H. 3. 

N.&V. 


AoCpbiii 6parb, 
kind brother. 


P. 
G. 


4o6paro 6pata, 
of a kind brother. 


4- 
D. 


4<56pOMy 6paty, 
to a kind brother. 


B. 
A. 


4o6paro tfpara, 
kind brother. 


T. 
I. 


4o6pUMi CpaiOMT), 
by a kind brother. 


n. 
p. 


o 4o6pOMi Opart, 
about a kind broth 



Plural Number. 



kind brothers. 



CpaTbCBl, 

of kind brothers. 



to kind brothers. 

AoOpux-b 6paTb 
kind brothers. 



by kind brothers. 

jofipuxi. OparbfixT,, 
about kind brothers. 



Cases. 



With an Animate Object of the Feminine Gender. 



Singular Number. 



n. 3 

N.&V. 


4<5<5pafl cecipS, 
a kind sister. 


P. 
G. 


466pofi cecrpft, 
of a kind sister. 


4- 
D. 


4o6pofi cecipt, 
to a kind sister. 


B. 

A. 


Ao6py cecip^, 
kind sister. 


T. 
I. 


Adoporo cectporo, 
by a kind sister. 


P. 
P. 


o 466poti cecxp-fe, 
about a kind sis 



Plural Number. 



cecipw, 
kind sisters. 



ceciepi, 
of kind sisters. 



to kind sisters. 



cecxepi, 
kind sisters. 



cecipaiaa, 
by kind sisters. 



o AoflpMxt cecipaxi, 
about kind sisters. 



Cases. 

H. 3. 

N. & V. 

P. 
G. 

4. 
D. 

B. 
A. 

T. 
I. 



P. 



With an Inanimate Object of the Neuter Gender. 



Singular Number. 



joopoe 
kind deed. 



4o6paro 

of a kind deed. 



to a kind deed. 



A<5(5poe 
kind deed. 



by a kind deed. 



4d6pOMi 

about a kind deed. 



Plural Number. 

4ofipblfl /Vkia, 
kind deeds. 

4o6pwxi AfaT,. 
of kind deeds. 

4odpbiMi 4%jdv&, 
to kind deeds. 



kind deeds. 

4o(5pbiMH 4f..iaMH, 
by kind deeds. 

4o(5pMXi 4-S.iaxi, 
about kind deeds. 



With an Inanimate Object of the Masculine Gender. 



Cases. 


Singular Number. 


H. 3. 

N&V. 


upoc.Toii KaMent., 
ordinary stone. 


P. 
G. 


npociaro KaMHS, 
of ordinary stone. 


4- 
D. 


UpOCTOMy KaMHK), 

to ordinary stone. 


B. 

A. 


npocTdii KaMenb, 
ordinary stone. 


T. 
1. 


npOCTUM'b KUMHCMX, 

by ordinary stone. 


II. 
P. 


IIpOCTOMT> KaMIJ'6, 

about ordinary ston< 



Plural Number. 



KUMBH, 

ordinary stones. 



npocTbixi 

of ordinary stones. 

npOCTLIMT) KaMHflM-b, 

to ordinary stones. 



npocTbie 
ordinary stones. 

npOCIblMH KaMIlflMH, 

by ordinary stones. 

UpOCTblXT) KaMHHXT., 

about ordinary stones. 



With an Inanimate Object of the Feminine Gender. 



Cases. 



Singular Number. 



n. 3. 

N&V. 


npociaa uocib, 
common bone. 


P. 
G. 


DPOCTOH KOCTU, 

of common bone. 


4. 
D. 


npocidfi KOCTH, 
to common bone. 


B. 
A. 


npOCTyK) KOCTb, 

common bone. 


T. 
I. 


npOCTOH) KOCTbK), 

by common bone. 


n. 

P. 


o npocT<5fi K<5cTU, 
about common bone. 



Plural Number. 

npocTbia KOCTH, 
common bones. 

npocTbixi Kociefi, 
of coininou bones. 

npOCTblMT> KOCTHMb, 
to common bones. 

DpOCIblfl KOCTH, 
common bones. 

DpOCTblMII KOCTHMH, 

by common bones. 

o npocibixi KOCTax^, 
about common bones. 



With an Inanimate Object of the Neuter Gender. 



Cases. 

H. 3. 

N.& V. 

P. 
G. 

A- 
D. 

B. 
A. 

T. 
I. 

n. 

P. 



Singular Number. 

npocT<5e paci^Hie, 
a common plant. 



npociaro 

of a common plant. 

npocidMy pacieniio, 
to a common plant. 

npocT<5e pacieHie, 
a common plant. 

npocibiMi pacie'uieM'b. 
by a common plant. 

o npocioMT) pacTcniH, 
about a common plant. 



Plural Number. 

ijpocTbia pacieHifl, 
common plants. 

npocibixi pacTeniii, 
of common plants. 

npocibiMi pacieniflMi, 
to common plants. 

npocibifl pacteoifl, 
common plants. 



npocibiMH 

by common plants. 

o npocTbixT> pacTeuiflX"b, 
about common plants. 



With an Inanimate Object of the Masculine Gender. 



Cases. 

H. 3. 

N. & V. 

P. 
G. 

4. 
D. 

B. 

A. 

T. 
I. 

n. 
P. 



f&ngular Number, 

.itTiiiii 4<Mib, 
summer day. 



4HH. 
of a summer day. 



4B, 
to a summer day, 



4BBB, 
summer day. 

J-STHHMI ,yu : M'b, 
by a summer day. 

o .itTiieiTB 4Ht, 
about a summer day. 



Plural Number. 



4BH, 
summer days. 



of summer days. 



summer days. 



4IIHMH, 

by summer days. 

.liiTHUX'I, 4IUIX'b, 

about summer days. 



Cases. 



With an Inanimate Object of the Feminine Gender. 



Singular Number. 



H. 3. 


.riiinaa no'ib, 


N. &V. 


summer night. 


P. 


J'STHCH HOMU, 


G. 


of a summer night. 


4- 


.rfcTiirii Ho-JH, 


D. 


to a summer night 


B. 


r 
.llTBK>ID BOHb, 


A. 


summer night 


T. 


r , 
JCfiTBeH) BOlbH), 


I. 


by a summer night. 




/ f 


n. 


Jl1JTB<}fi HOHB, 


p. 


about a summer nig 



Plural Numter. 

.IJ.TllJJI HOHH, 

summer nights. 

.liiiinixi, noiea, 
of summer nights. 

J'tTHHM'b HOHflMl, 

to summer nihis. 



Hu'IlI. 

summer nights. 

JtTIIHMH HO l l;niII, 

by summer niglits. 

O JtTHHXT, HOlaXX, 

about summer lights. 



Cases. 

H. 3. 

N.&V. 

P. 
G. 

4- 
D. 

B. 
A. 

T. 
I. 

n. 
p. 



With an Inanimate Object of the Neuter Gender. 



Singular Number. 

j-fcTHee OAtiuo, 
summer coverlet. 

jtiHaro OAtiua, 

of a summer coverlet. 



to a summer covelet. 



O4i>fl.io, 
summer coverlet. 



with a summer coverlet. 

o -itTHeMi 04ta.i1;, 

about a summer coverlet. 



Plural Number. 



summer coverlets. 



.lliTHHXT. 

of summer coverltts. 



to summer coverlets. 

JtTHia 04*a^a, 
summer coverlets. 



with summer coverlets. 



about summer coverlets. 



70. Certain Possessive Adjectives which are derived from 
animate objects, and which terminate in itt, &/z, i>e, such as 0-ieHW 
-&& -be, of a deer, are declined in the following manner : 



Cases. 

N.&V. H.3. 
G. P. 



D. 
A. 
I. 
P. 



B. 
T. 

n. 



Singular Number. 
Masc. Termination. Fern. Termination. 

OilHM. 

0-ieHbHro. 
o-i^Hbeiuy. 
o.ieHift. 

oi&rfcun. 



0-ieHbeMy. 

O.u'HbR). 



oO'b o.ienbeii. 
Belonging to a deer. 



Plural Number. 



Cases. 


Masc. Termination. 


Fern. Termi: 


N.&V. H.3. 


0.1CIILH. 


o.icubn. 


G. P. 


O.IHHXT>. 


O.It'HbIIXT>. 


D. A. 


o.ieiibn. 


O.lOHbHMX. 


A. B. 


OJCHbH. 


O.ienbH. 


I. T. 


o.ieubiiMii. 


O.lt'HbllMn. 


p. n. 


061, O.I^IIbHXl. 


061 o.i^nbH 



Neuter Termination. 

o.u'ubc. 
cueiibJiro. 



O.Il'HLIIM'L. 

od> O.H'HLCMI. 



Neuter Termination. 

O.K'HbH. 

OJCHbHXl. 

O.ICHLHM'b. 

0.1(5HblI. 

OI^HbHMH. 



below. 



The Possessive Adjective BOHJ/U, Divine, is declined as 





Singular Number. 




Plural Numbei . 


Cases. 


Masculine. Feminine. 


Neuter. 


All Gender" 


N.&V. H.3. 


EoHtiii. E<5%ifl. 


EoJKie. 


Ed/Kin. 


G. P. 


EoHtifl. EoJKiett. 


Ed/Kia. 


EdHviBXi. 


D. 4. 


Bowiio. Bdaiieii. 


EdUK). 


EdJKlHMT). 


A. B. 


EdiKiii. E(5HJiio. 


Ed;Kie. 


Ed/Kin. 


I. T. 


EdJKiHMI. BoJHiCK). 


EdaciHMi. 


Ed/KiHMH. 


P. H. 


Ed>KieMX. Edfltiefi. 


OEoJKiCMi. 


EoJKinxi. 



72. The following is a table showing the several forms of the 
shortened terminations of possessive nouns adjective : 





Singular Number. 


Plural Numbei\ 


Cases. 


Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Neuter. 


All Genders. 


N.&V. H 3 


T>, b, 


a, a, 


o, e, 


LI, H. 


G. P. 


a, a, 


oii, eft, 


a, a, 


LIXT., BX'b. 


D. 4. 


V HI 


oft, eft, 


y, , 


LlMl, IIM'L. 


A. B. 


j a, n, j 


y, , 


o, e, 


C MXX, HXl. ") 
(. M, H. } 


I. T. 


MMI., 1IMI,, 


OH), e, 


MMI,, IIM1,, 


I.IMII, IIM1I. 


P. D. 


OMl, CMl, 


oft, eft. 


OMX, CHI, 


LIXl, HX'L. 



Examples of the declensions of Nouns Adjective with shortened ter- 
minations. Possessive adjectives derived from personal nouns (vide 

58, N. 2). 

Singular Number. 



Cases. 


Masculine Gender. 


Feminine Gender. 


Neuter Gender. 


N. & V. H. 3 


OiqdBi, 


CpaiBHBa, 


cecipaBO. 


G. P. 


OTqoBa, 


6paTBHBOfi, 


cecrpaaa. 


D. 4. 


OTqoBy, 


CpaTiiiuion, 


cecrpaBy. 




C" OTDOBa. ) 






A. B. 


\ V 

( OTMOBl, ) 


CpaiBHBy, 


cecipaBO. 


I. T. 


OTU,OBLIM'b, 


fipaTBIIBOIO, 


cecipuBbiMi. 


p. n. 


O0l OTUOBOMl, 


OpaTBHHOii, 


o cecxpaaoMi. 




Of the father. 


Of the brother. 


Of the sister. 


Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masculine Gender. 


Feminuie Gender. 


Neuter Gender. 


N.&V. fl. 3. 


OTHOBLI, 


6paTiiniiM, 


cecipaBbi. 


G. P. 


OTqdBWXl, 


CpaTBOBblXl, 


Ce'CTpBBMXl. 


D. 4- 


OTUdBLIMl, 


6paTHHin,nri>, 


ce'crpii m,i ML. 


A. B. 


( otqoBbixi, ") 

(^ OTUOBH, ) 


f fipdiBaBbixi, ") 


fcecxpHUbixi. ") 

(_ Ce'CTpBBW. ) 


I. T. 


OTqoBLIMH, 


fipaTHIIIILIMII, 


Ce'CTpBBblMH. 


p. n- 


o6i> orqcBbixi, 


CpUTBHULIXl, 


Ce'CTpBBblX'b. 


Singular Number. 


Cases. 


Masculine Gender. 


Feminine Gender. Neuter Gender. 


N.&V. H. 3. 


HiiKii.iinn, .'Oin,,. 


EKaTCpiiiniiia 4a'ia, 


Hapunbino cJo. 


G. P. 


HiiKo.iiiiia 41111, 


Ef;aTCpiinniioii Aa-ni, 


HapuuLina cc.ia. 


D. 4- 


HiiKdiiiny 4BEO, 


EitaTepHHuiioii ^ait, 


I^apuqbiHy cejy. 


A. B. 


HsiKo.iinrb 46Bb, 


EKaiepaBHBy 4aiy, 


Hapl'mi'IMO rc.io. 


I. T. 


HlIKO.llIHLIM'b Alie.M'b, 


EKaiepHBiiBOK) Aa4eio, 


HapaqwiibiMi CC.IOMI. 


P. n. 


HllKd.IIIIIOM I, 4B'B, 


in, Ei;aTCpiiiuiiioii .Ta-ili, 


o IJapiiqbiHOMx CGJ-B. 




St. Nicholas's day. 


Catherine's country- hou so 


. Tsarina's 1 village. 



1 Title of the Russian Empress. Trans. 



( 38 ) 

The plural of the three last examples is according to those given 
in the table above. 

Obs. Qualifying nouns adjective with shortened terminations 
are inflected only in poetry, 

Ex. TaMi Symz/tfws 1 cime Mope 

There rages the blue sea, 
H OH#y 2 40 CHH/Z MOp/J 
I will go to the blue sea. 

QoiB*u0ai 8 CHHW Mop/o 

I will admire the blue sea. 

IIor.iflafcy 4 na cime Mope 

I will gaze on the blue sea. 

73. It is especially necessary to observe the following rules for 
nouns adjective : 

(1) To insure the agreement of nouns adjective with nouns sub- 
stantive in gender, number and case, the nominative case, plural, of 
the adjective in question must, if the substantive is of the masculine 
gender, always terminate in e. Similarly, if the substantive is of 
the feminine or neuter gender, the nominative case, plural, of the 
adjective will terminate in n. Ex. XpaSpbitf BOHHW brave warriors, 
from BOHH5 ; Crkibi/z crfcn&i white walls, from crfeHa ; cnaU creiua 
blue glasses, from cieiuo. 

(2) With regard to the adjective Eomu Divine, the nominative 
case, plural, terminates (for all genders) in u. Ex. EojKm XpaM&i 
God's temples, from xpaM5 ; KOHCZ'U IJepKBM God's churches, from 
uepKOB& ; EoiKiw C03jdflz;& God's creatures, from C034aiii. 

(3) Adjectives derived from animate nouns, and which ter- 
minate in iit, have in the nominative case of the plural number &u 
(for all genders). Ex. (XieB&M pora, horns of a deer; Me^B'fciK&M uiyo&j, 
bearskin coats; DTHH&U rfilttja, birds' nests. 

(4) Nouns adjective of the masculine gender terminate in ou 
only when the accent lies on the ante-penultimate letter. Ex. 
xvflow bad, H^MOU dumb, &c. When the accent is not on the 
ante-penultimate letter or syllable, adjectives of the masculine 
gender terminate in biu or iu. Ex. ^oSp&m kind, 

great, &c. 



1 Present tense of 6ynieBaTb. Trans. 8 Future tense of no^HBHTbca Tram. 

2 Future tense of 4011410. Tram. * Future tense of norja^tib. Trans. 



( 39 ) 



(5) Nouns adjective which terminate in niu have in the genitive 
case, singular, the termination mo, and are declined according to 
the table of nouns adjective terminating in niu ( Vide 69). Ex. 
cviHiu blue, &c. All other nouns adjective ending in iu have in 
the following cases of the singular number the termination here 
specified : In the genitive case aio, in the dative OMI/, in the 
instrumental UMti, in the prepositional OMV. In the plural number, 
however, they are declined like adjectives which terminate in niu. 
The following is an instance of this rule : BBICOIWW high, &c. 



The Noun of Number or Numeral. 



74. The numerals indicate the quantity or number of the 
objects spoken of. Ex. v^unt one, nepBW^ first, flibjKHHfl dozen, &c. 



75. Numerals are divided into 

(1) Cardinal (KO.iHiecTBeflHOtf), or those which point out the 
number of the objects, by answering to the question CKO.IBKO ? 
How many ? Ans. OAHHT> one, 4Ba two, &c. 

() Ordinal (nopaflKOBoe), or those which determine the sequence 
or order in which one object shall follow another. The ordinals 
answer to the question Koiopww ? Which ? Ans. IlepB&M first, &c. 

Table of the Russian Numerals. 

Cardinal. Ordinal. 



OJHHI, masc. 
o.jiia, fern. 
04116, neut. 

04HH, tnasc. cfc M 
04 Ht, /em. 



C sing. 



. / 
\ 







twasc. 
an, ye7. 
oe, wewi. 

we, masc. 
bin, fern, t 



neut. 



sing. 



P lur ' 



gen. 

5) 



ipn, 



iniib 



ceMb, 

BOCeMb 



3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 



-La -fce -LH, 
HeTBepiwii -aa -oe -tie -LW, 
nHTMii, &c. 
inecioft, &c. 
ce/itMdfi, &c. 

BOCbMOli, &C. 

, &c. 

ii, &c. 

&c. 
iii, &c. 



1st. 



2nd. 

3rd. 

4th. 

5th. 

6th. 

7th. 

8th. 

9th. 
10th. 
llth. 
12th. 



cdpOKi, 



Cardinal Numbers (continued). 

Tpnnu,wiTb, 13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

5a4qaTb-04Hfli, &c. 21, &c. 

30 



40 
50 
CO 
70 

80 
90 
100 
200 
300 
400- 
500 
600 
700 
800 
900 



BOCCMbAGCflTl, 

AGBflHOCTO, 

CTO, 



Tpacia, 



mecTbco'Ti, 



BOCCMbCdTl, 



Tbicaia, 



1000 
2000 
10,000 
100,000 
1,000,000 
2,000,000 
Tb'icaia MH-uioHOBi, 1000,000,000 
(T. e. MH.iiap,vb) (i. e. milliard) 
1,000,000,000 



CTO TbICflHT>, 

SIH.I.lidHT>, 



Ordinal Numbers (continued). 

i, &c. 13th. 

i, &c. 14th. 

i, &c. 15th. 

', &c. 16th. 

ft, &c. 17th. 

*, &c. 18th. 

*> &c. 19th. 

(ii, &c. 20th. 

lii, &c. 21st, &c. 

30th. 

lii, &c. 31st, &c. 

copOKOBofl, &c. 40th. 

'H, &c. 41st, &c. 

50th. 

i, &c. 51st, &c. 

iuecTH4ecaTbiii, &c. 60th. 

inecTb4ecaT^-aepBLiii, &c. 61st, &c. 

ceMH4ecaTbifl, 70th. 

ceMb4ecaTi-nepBbifl, &c. 71st &c. 

BOCbMH4ecaTbiii, &c. 80th. 

Boce.Mb4ecaTb-nepBbiii, &c. 81st, &c. 

4eBHHOCTblfi, &C. 90tll. 

4eBae6cTO-nepBbiii, &c. 91st, <fcc. 

coibifl, fec. 100th. 

CTO-n^pBbifi, &c. 101st, &c. 

4Byxi-coTbiii, &c. 200th. 

4BicTH-ncpBbifl, &c. 201st, &c. 

B, &c. 300th. 

i, &c. 301st, &e. 

i, &c. 400th. 

leiupecia nepBbiH, &c. 401st, &c. 

i, &c. 500th. 

i, &c. 501st, &c. 

i, &c. 600th. 

mecTbcoTi. nepsbifl, <fec. 601st, &c. 

ceMH-coibifl, &c. 700th. 

ceMbcoTT) nepsbifi, &c. 701st, &c. 

BOCbMH-COTblfi, &C. SOOth. 

BoccMbcoii nepBbiii, &c. 801st, &c. 

4eBaTH-coTbifi, &c. 900th. 

4eBaTbc6iTi nepBbiii, &c. 901st, &c. 

Tbicaqebifl, &c. 1000th, &c. 

4Byxi-Tbica4HbiB, &c. 2000th, &c. 

4ecaiH-Tb'icaHFibia, &c. 10,000th, &c. 

CTO-TbicaHBbift, &c. 100.000th, &c. 

MHJJiOHHblH, &C. 1000,000th, &C. 

4Byxx-MH.uioHbiH, &c. 2000,000th, &c. 
Tbicaie MHJJiouHbifi, 1000,000,000th, &c. 

6H.i.ii6HHbiii, &c. 1,000,000,000th, &c. 



Fractional Numerals. 

HOJOBHIia, 

Tpeib, 



ocbMyxa or ocbMyiima, J 

no.ixopa, 1 J 

nojxpexba, 2J 

nojiexBepia, 3J 



Circumstantial Numerals, 

other. 
last. 



Proportional Numerals. 

double. 

Tpoi'moft, treble. 

leiBepuoB, quadruple. 

or CTOpainbiii, centuple. 



ipoe, 
iii&xepo, Aecaiepo. 



Collective Numerals. 

EflTCpO, 



Sets of Two, &c., &c. 
napa pair, 66a both, ABofiKa two, 



three, nnioK'b five, 
ten, 4K);i;unu dozen, and IIO 
half dozen ; ABU ^ecaiKa score, 
hundred. 



76. To the class of cardinals belong 

(1) Collective (co6HpaTej&H0e) numerals, such as nap# pair, 
ipoHM triplet, woe set of two, 66# both, flKMHHa dozen, &c. 

(2) Fractional (woftuoe), such as HeTBepi& quarter, 
half, no^TOpa one-and-a-half, &c. 



77. Numerals, according to their composition, can be either 

(1) Simple (npocroi), or such as are formed from one primary 
word ; for instance, flBfl, ipw, nepBbm, &rc. 

(2) Compound (cJOJKHOe), or such as are made up of two or more 
words: p/&-HumaT& (4B/&-Ha-ecaT&) twelve, naT&-4ecaiff, fifty; cro- 
nepB&m, hundred (and) first; &c. 

78. The cardinal numerals are declined like nouns substantive, 
and the ordinal like nouns adjective ending in &m and ou. Tpeiiw 
third, is declined after the manner of nouns adjective terminating 
in iu, which are derived from animate nouns. (Fide 70). 

79. The ordinal numeral nepB&iw, when used in the sense of 
Jif qmrn best, or oufrrabiu excellent, has degrees of comparison 
, nepB/6wmm, caM&m 



80. The numerals enuRbiu sole, ABOaKm two-fold, 
ternary, and the like, have the meaning of qualifying nouns 
adjective, and are declined as nouns adjective. 



( 42 ) 

81. The declension of the cardinal numerals is as follows : 
Singular Number. Plural Number. 



Cases. 

N. H. 

G. P. 

D. 4- 

A. B. 

I. T. 

P. H. 



Masc. 



Fern. 



OAHOFO, 

OABOMy, 



onflow, 



Neut. 

OABO. 

OABOro. 

OABOMy. 

OABO. 

OABHSTb. 



Masc. & Neut. 
OAHH, 

OABHXl, 
04BHMT>, 



Fern. 

OABt. 
OAB-fcX-b. 



C OABH, 

OABHMH, 

061 



one. 



Cases. 


Masc. & Neut. Fern. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


Asa, AB*. 


TP'B, 


leibipc. 


G. P. 


AByxt, AByxi,. 


ipexi, 


Heiwpex^. 


D. A. 


AByM-b, ABYMI. 


Tpe'MT), 


HeibipeMT,. 


A. B. 


(. ABa, AB*. j 


(" ipexT>, 

(TPH, 


leiwpe. ) 


I. T. 


ABJMfl, AByMfl. 


ipeMa, 


leibipbMa. 


P. D. 


o AByn., o AByxi. 


Tpexi, 


o Heibipexii. 




two. 


three. 


four. 



Cases. All Genders. 


All Genders. 


All Genders. 


All Genders. 


N. H. naib. 


BOCCMb. 


OAMBHa^qaTb. 


copOKi. 


G. P. nflTH. 


OCbMH. 


O^HBBaAUaTH. 


copOKa. 


D. 4. naie. 


OCbMH. 


OAHBBaAqaiH. 


copOKd. 


A. B. naib. 


BOCeMb. 


OAHBHa^EiaTb. 


COPOKI. 


I. T. naibro. 


OCeMbK). 


OAHBBaAB,aTbK>. 


copOKa. 


P. II. DflTU. 


BOCbMH. 


apB OAHBBajqaiH. 


o copoKa. 


five. 


eight. 


eleven. 


forty. 



Cases. All Genders. 


All Genders. 


All Genders. 


All Genders. 


N. H. nflTbAecarb. 


CTO. 


ABtCTH. 


naTb-coYt. 


G. P. nflTMAecaiH. 


era. 


AByXT>-COTl. 


BaTH-COT^. 


D. 4 UflTHAeCflTH. 


ciy, cia. 


ABVMX-CTaMX. 


n/ITH-CTdMX. 


A. B. naibAecflTi. 


CTO. 


AB-BCTH. 


naib-corb. 


I. T. naiHOAecHTbio. 


cia. 


ABysia-CTaMH. 


naibio-CTaMH. 


P. n. o nHTHflecaTH. 


o era. 


Wb AByXT.-CTaXT>. 


o naTH-craxi. 


fifty. 


a hundred. 


two hundred. 


five hundred. 



( 43 ) 



Cases. 

N. H. 

G. P. 

D. 4. 

A. B. 

I. T. 

p. n. 



Singular Number. 


Plural Number. 


All Genders. 


All Genders. 


TucaiH, 

T&Cflll;, 


TLICfllH. 
T&CH'Il. 

iMnn;uri>. 


TUCfliew, 


T&CfliaMH. 



thousand. 



When before the genitive, dative, and prepositional 
cases of tfoceMb, prepositions terminating with a vowel 
are used, in place of OCLMH it is usual to write 06cbMH. 
Ex. y 06cbMH yHeHHKo'tftf, with eight pupils ; 



, for eight soldiers ; o 06cbMn KHiir0#5, 



books. 



eight 



. The dative case of the numerals copOKi> and CTO, when 
used with the preposition no up to, terminates in y, and 
not in a. Ex. Hait a.iH no cry py6.iew, They gave them 
100 roubles each. 



82. HlecTfr (6), CCM& (7), ^eBais (9), and ^ecfli& (10), are 
declined like nai& (5); 4BinaAuai& (12), TpimaAuaT& (13), Heiwp- 
(14), namaAuaT& (15), inecTHa^aaTft (16), ceMHa ( nnai& (17), 
(18), 4eB}ITHa4^aT6 (19), ABa#aaT& (20) and TpKA^aTft 
(30),likeo^HnaAuaT& (11) ; mecTb^ecaTS (60), and ceMb^ec/iTS (70), like 
naTbAecaT& (50) ; BOceMb^ecais (80), like BOCCM& (8) and flecai& (10) 
joined together ; ACBJIHOCTO (90), like CTO (100) ; ipncTO (300), and 
neibipecm (400), like ABtciw (200; ; inecibcoTS (600) , ceMbcoxg (700), 
(800), and 4eBaTbc6i& (900), like naibcois (500). 



83. With regard to the declension of the cardinal numerals, it 
must be observed that, in the instances of o^HHtf, #B0, ipw, qeib'ipe, 
the accusative case is like the nominative or the genitive, according 
to whether the noun denned by the numeral in question is animate 
or inanimate. In the instances, however, of the rest of the 
cardinal numerals commencing with nai& five, the accusative case 
is like the nominative, without distinction as to the nouns being 
animate or inanimate. 



84. Examples of the Declension of the Collective and Fractional 

Numerals. 



Cases. 


Masc. & Neut. Fern. 


For all Genders. 


N. H. 


<5<5a, 66t. 


ip6e. qexBepo. 


G. P. 


OOOHX'b, 06-fcnXX. 


ipoaxx. ^etBep^ixx. 


D. 4. 


060HMT>, 06'BQM'b. 


TpOHMX. ^GTBepblMX. 


A. B. 


COOOHXX, 061JHXX. 

(. 66a, 66t. 


TpOHXT). HGTBepblXX. 

ipoe. qeiBepo. 


I. T. 


060HMH, 061JHMH. 


TpOlIMIl. leiBCpblMH. 


p. n. 


BT> odOMxi, npn oOiaxx. 


o ipOHxx. ea leisepbixx. 




both. 


set of three. set of four. 


ABOC set of two, and o6oe both, are declined like ipoe ; naiepo set of five, meciepo 


set of six, 


&c., are declined like leiBepo. 


Cases. 


Masc. and Neut. Fern. All Genders. 


N. H. 


nojTOpa, n(mopbi, no-iTOpacia. 


G. P. 


nojyropa, no^yxopbi, nojiyTOpacia. 


D. 4. 


nojyiopy, nojyiopt, no^yiopaciy. 


A. B. 


nojiopa, nojiopbi, eojuopacTa. 


I. T. 


nojyTOpbiMi, nojyTOporo, nojytopacTa. 


P. H. 


o nojyTOpt, B'b nojyiopt, o no^yiopacxt. 




one and a half. one hundred and fifty. 


85. 


In the instances of the compound cardinal numerals, every 


word is 


declined, together with the substantive and adjective with 


which they may be joined : 


N. H. 


ipHcra co.iaii. 


ceMbcorb HOBbixx KHnri,. 


G. P. 


Tpe'XT) COTb COJA^Tl. 


C6MHCOTX HOBblXX KHIirb. 


I). 4. 


Tpe'Ml CiaMl COJ4HTaAIl. 


CCMHCTaMX HUBblMl KHUFaMX. 


A. B. 


/ f 

TplICTa C0.1A<lTb. 


CCMbCOTX UOBblXX KHHFX. 


I. T. 


ipeiwa ciaMH coJAaiaMH 


CBMblOCTaMH HOBblMII KHHraMH. 


p. n. 


o xpe'xx ciaxi; co.i^aTaxi. 


o ceMiicxaxx OOBWXX KHiiraxx. 




three hundred soldiers. 


seven hundred new books. 


N. n. 


leibipecia 4Ba4qaib O^HHT, py6jb. 


G. P. 


qeTbipe'xicorb ABaAuaTii OAHOFO py6jn. 


D. 4- 


ieTbipeMT>CTaMT> ABa^ijaTH OAHOMy py6.iio. 


A. B. 


qeibipecia 4BdAqaib OAHHI pyfijb. 


I. T. 


qeibipbinacTaMH 4Ba4uaTbio O^HUMI py6.ie'Mi. 


p. n. 


o leTbipexiciaxT. 4Ba4qaiu OAHOMT. pyfi^-B. 



four hundred and twenty-one roubles. 



( 45 ) 

N. H. i6cflia BoceMb corLipM^qaTB mem pyo'.ie'fl, 

G. P. TftCH^H OCbMH COTl TpO/jqaTH HI6CTH py6jft, 

D. 4- TijicflTB OCBMH ciasn TpHfluaTH mecTH py6.iiMT>, 

A. B. TLicaiy Bocenib coil TpH/waTb niecTb py&i&, 

I. T. TbiCHiero BoceMbio CTUMH Tpe/maibK) luecibio 

P. II. TblCHTB OCbMH CTaXl TpHAqaTH 1H6CTH pyfl.JHX'b, 

one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six roubles. 

86. The last word of the compound ordinal numerals is alone 
declined with the substantive and the adjective joined thereto. 
Ex. N. H. T&cflia B<5ceMb corb Tpe^qaib mecioii 1*041. 

G. P. mecraro ro^a. 

D. 4. raecT6Myrd4y. 

A. B. nieciofi FOA*. 

I. T. inecT^iMi roAOMi. 

P. n. .0 ,, uiecioMi r<54t!. 

the ne thousand eight hundred and thirty-sixth year. 

87. Ordinal numerals, like nouns adjective, terminate in ou only 
when the accent falls on the ante-penultimate letter. Ex. Biopow, 
second; IUCCTOM, sixth ; BOCbMOM, eighth ; &c. 

88. When the collective and fractional numerals are declined 
with nouns substantive, the numeral in question is alone subject to 
inflection, the substantive remaining in the genitive case. 

Ex. N. H. flecflTOKi rpynii, napa Jornada, i^TBepib 

G. P. 4ec4iKa rpyin-b, napw 

D. 4- aecsTKy rpymi, nap-6 

A. B. ^ecflTOKi rpynn>, napy 

I . T. flecflTKOMi rpyini, naporo JOinaA^fi, q^TBepTbio JHCT&. 

P. H- o aecaTKt rpymi, o napt joraa4efi, o ^TBCPTH ancia. 

set of ten pears, pair of horses, leaf of paper, 

from rpyraa. from .lomaflb. from .IHCTX, &c. 



THE PRONOUN 

89. The pronoun is used in place of a noun. 

90. Pronouns are 

(1) Personal (JHHHO^) : Ex. of first person, ff I, MM we ; of second 
person, mbi thou, 6bi you ; of third person, o he, ona she, OHO it ; 
OHU they (masc. and neut. genders), onri> they (fern, gender). Ex. 
ff nniwy, 1 I am writing; mbi o^eHB npnjeHt^wK, 2 thou (art) very 
diligent ; o& 4o6pbiw TOBapnm, he (is) a good comrade ; OHU 
they went away. 

1 Present tense of nncarb. Trans. 2 Shortened form of npH.ie'jKHbiB. 
3 Past tense of yixaib. Trans. 



( 46 ) 

(2) Reflective (B03BpaiHO^), or those which show that the person 
or persons, or thing or things, perform an action which is reflected 
back to the agent or agents. There is in the Russian language 
but one such pronoun for both numbers and all genders. This is 
ce6v?, self. Ex. Om OTKaabiBaems ce&"/& BT, nam/fe, He denies himself 
food; Tbi 40BOJ^& cooow, Thou (art) satisfied with thyself; OHU o 
ce6n He 3a6oT.#wcfl, They do not take care of themselves. 

(3) Demonstrative (yKaaaieJBHoe), or those which serve to 
indicate any kind of object; such as, ceu, cifi, cie, ciu, this, 
these; dmoms -a -o -w, this, these; moms -a -o -76, that, those; 
OHbiu -an -oe -bie -MX this one, that one, or the said; maKou -an -6e 
-bie -bin suoh a one, &c. Ex. Bmomv ^OMS KpacHB5, a toms 6e3o6pa3e/f&, 
This house (is) pretty, but that one (is) ugly. 

(4) Possessive (npHTfljKaiejfcHO^), or those which denote to 
which of the three persons an object belongs ; such as MOU -A -e -u, 
my, or mine ; meou -A -e -u, thy or thine ; eto, his or its 
(lit. of him or of it); ceou -H -e -u, his, her, its or their own; 
Hams -a -e -u, our, ours ; earns -a -e -w, your, yours ; uxs, their or 
theirs (lit. of them). Ex. BOIT. MOM cmitf, Bam# Kunra, TBO* nepo, 
Here (is) my table, your book, thy pen. 

(5) Relative (oTHOCHieJLHO^), or those which are used in place 
of nouns, and which form a connection between the person or 
persons speaking and the object or objects about which they 
speak ; such as, nomopuu -an ~oe, who, which, what ; Koil -OH -oe, 
who, which, what ; Kmo, who ; umo, what ; ueu -bH -be -bu, whose ; 
Kanou -an -oe, what sort of. Ex. H Kynw^5 Knnry KOiopyw flafiiio 
JKCJa./z& HMto&, I have bought a book, which I have long wished to 
have. 

(6) Interrogative (BonpociiTeJBHoe), or those which, in form, are 
the same as the relative pronouns, and which by means of questions 
endeavour to ascertain to whom or to what an object belongs. Ex. 
KoTopb^t nac&? What o'clock (is it)? Kmo npHWeUS? Who has 
come? *ieu AOM5? Whose house (is) it? 

(7) Definite (onpefl'kiHTeJBHOtf), or those which point with 
preciseness to the person or object spoken of ; such as, caMS -d -6 -u ; 
caMbiu -an -oe -bie -bw, the same, the very same ; eecb, ecu, ecii, ecn, 
the whole, all ; mwdbiu -an -oe -bie -bin, each one, every one. Ex. 
OHT. caMS 6bU& Taint, He himself was there ; fl 

, I saw this same book. 



( 47 ) 

(8) Indefinite (neonpeflixieHHOtf), or those which speak some- 
what uncertainly of a person or thing ; such as, HibKmo, somebody ; 
nfbumo, something ; nfbKomopbiu -an -oe -we -bia, someone, a certain 
one ; HUKmo, nobody ; nuumo, nothing ; Kmo, any one ; Koe-umo, 
something; UHOU -an ~6e -we -bin, another; Kmo-Mi6o, somebody or 
other; umo Mi6o, something or other ; Kmo-Hu-6ydb, somebody or other . 
umo-HU-6ydb, something or other. Ex. BT> Hi>KOTOp0.M5 rop04/& SLUM 
pas-iHHH&J/z 3.ioynoTpe6.ieHi/?, In a cer tain city there were abuses of 
various kinds ; OHT> #niiCU5 noe-umo nowe, He wrote something new. 

To the class of indefinite pronouns belongs the word H'fecKOJBKm 
-an -oe -bie -WA, some, a few. This word is used, however, only in 
the oblique cases of the plural number. Ex. Hi>CKO.iF>KW#ff, H'BCKOJS- 

KtUC5, HliCKOJLKtUW, H.ijCKO.IBKW#&. 

Obs. The pronoun ec&ttiU -an -oe -we -bin every one, all, is 
a definite pronoun when used in the sense of Kawdbiu -an 
*oe -we -bin, each one. Ex. BCSKW (HJH KaHt^ww) ooaaans 
TpyAHW&Cfl, Each one (is) obliged to labour. And it is an 
indefinite pronoun when used in the sense conveyed in the 
following sentence : 3^CL poAHica BCHK^O po^fl X-iiSff, Corn 
of every kind grows here. 

The cardinal numeral oduuv, one, a, an, has sometimes the 
meaning of an indefinite pronoun. Ex. OAM& MOW npiaie^ft ompa- 
BHJCH BT> JioH^OHS, A (certain) friend of mine has set out for London. 
In this sentence odunv stands for HfbKomopbiu or w'bKmo. 

91 . Some of the pronouns are declined as substantives, and 
others as adjectives. The pronouns declined as substantives are the 
following : the personal, n, mbi, Mbi, 6bi, o#&, ona, OHO, OHU, oiifb; 
the reflective, ce6n ; some of the relative or interrogative, such as 
Kmo, umo ; and the indefinite, uuKmo, Huumo, HJbKmo, Hnumo. All 
the others, which have for each gender a special termination, are 
declined as adjectives. 

92. Declension of the Pronouns. 

(1) Pronouns declined like substantives : 

Singular Number. 

Fern. Neut. 

(ma she. oed it. 

ea, er<5. 

efl, eMy. 

ee, erd. 

ilO, HMl. 

npa eett, B 



Cases. 


All Genders. 


Masc. 


N. 


H. 


II, 


Tu thou. 


OHI he. 


G. 


P. 


M6HJ4, 


xedfl, 


erd, 


D. 


A. 


MHt, 


Te6t, 


CMy, 


A. 


B. 


Mean, 


Te<5. 


erd, 


I. 


T. 


MHdH), 


T(X5dH), f 


HMl, 


P. 


n. 


000 MH'li 


aa leG*, 


Hi'MX, 







Plural Number. 






Cases. 


All Genders. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


N. H. 


Mfai we, Bbi you. 


OBH they. 


oe* they. 


OBH they. 


G. P. 


Hact, BacT>, 


HXl, 


HXl, 


HXI. 


D. 4- 


IWM'L, BaMTi, 


HMT>, 


HMT>, 


DMT.. 


A. B. 


Haci>, Baci, 


HXt, 


HXX. 


Hit. 


I. T. 


IIHMH, BilMH, 


HMH, 


HMH, 


IIMII. 


P. H. 


o iiaci., na Baci, 


HHXX, 


HHXT), 


BT HIIXX. 



. With regard to the declension of the pronouns of the third 
person OH5,OH,OH0, OHw,OH'B,it is necessary, when prepositions 
are used with the oblique cases of such pronouns, to prefix the 
letter H to the case in question ; thus, y wero MOH HOJK&, He has 
my knife ; fl n#y Kt WCMJ, K5 WCH, en HHMT> en weio, en WHMH, I 
go to him, to tier, with him, with her, with them. But if the 
genitive case of this pronoun, both singular and plural, is 
used in the sense of a possessive pronoun, then the letter H 
is not prefixed. Ex. fl 6biM y eto npiaiej^, y ek Gpaifl, H y 
HXt cecipw, I was at his friend's, at her brother's, and their 
sister's. 

The following are declined in one number only : 



N. H. nil KTO who? 

G. P. ce6i, of self. KOFO, 

D. 4. ce6t, KOM, 

A. B. ce6fl, Koro, 

P. n. o ceo"*, o KOMI, 



HTO, what. BHITO, nothing. 
BHierd. 



IJBHTO, no one. 

BBKOrd, 
HBKOMy, 
HBKOr6, 
HBHtMl, 
OB KdMT), 

Koe-Kid, KTO-Jiido, KTO-He6^AB are declined like KTOJ and Roe-lid, HTO-^a6o, TTO- 

, like ITO. 



HTO, 

TBMX, 




HHHTd. 
BHH'BM'b. 
HH 



(2) Pronouns declined like adjectives : 







Singular Number. 




Plural Number, 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


MOH, my, mine. 


MOB, 


Moe. 


MOH. 


G. P. 


Moerd, 


Moefl, 


Moero. 


MOHXT). 


D. 4. 


M06My, 


MA, 


MoeMy. 


MOH.MT,. 


A. B. 


( Moero, ") 

( MOH, j 


MOW, 


Moe. 


( M01IXX. ^ 
( MOH. ) 


I. T. 


1 


MO^K), 


MOBMl. 


MOHMII. 


P. H. 


MOe'Mt, 


M0e*fi, 


MOe.MT). 


MOHXl. 



Tfidfi -& -e -^, thy, thine, theirs, their ; CBOH -a -e -rf, his, her, its, their own, are 

declined like Noii - -e -H. 



( 49 ) 







Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


nami., our, ours 


, BaBia, 


same. 


Damn. 


G. P. 


Bauiero, 


sauiefl, 


B^raero. 


flauinxi. 


D. A- 


Banieiay, 


Haul cii, 


Hamemy. 


BUUIBMl. 


A. B. 


f Baniero, ") 
( Bami, y 


udmy, 


Baiiie. 


f BamHXi. 
^ Bam if. 


I. T. 


Haiinnn,, 


naniew, 


BaOIHMl. 


liaiiiinui. 


p. n. 


nalllCMT,, 


iiaincii, 


o eamejii. 


BaiUHXl. 




Bami, -a, 


-e, -H, is declined like 


iiamx, -a, -e -H. 






Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


cefi, this, 


cli, 


ci6. 


hese. 


G. P. 


cer<5, 


cefi, 


cerd. 


CHIT,. 


D. A- 


ceMy, 


ceii, 


ceMy. 


CRHl. 


A. B. 


Ccero, ") 
(. cefi, ) 


Ctaft, 


CM. 


f CHXl. 

(ell 


I. T. 


CHMl, 


C^H), 


eiun. 


CHHH. 


p. n. 


ocen, 


o cefi, 


o ceiii. 


CHXl. 






Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


TOTI, that, 


Ta, 


TO. 


T*, those. 


G. P. 


Tor6, 


TOfi, 


Toro. 


Ttx*. 


D. A- 


TOMy, 


TOfi, 


TOM^. 


T'liMX. 


A. B. 


f lord, } 

( TOTl, ) 


Ty, 


TO. 


(T*. 


I. T. 


TtMT., 


TOH), 


Tto. 


nm. 


P. H. 


TOMl, 


TOfi, 


TOMl. 


TtXl. 






Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


feoii, this, 


fea, 


TO. 


fee. 


G. P. 


feoro, 


feoff, 


feoro. 


feaxx. 


D. .4. 


feomy, 


feoff, 


feoiay. 


DFIIMI. 


A. B. 


C^ioro, ") 


fey, 


feo. 


f 5THXI. 
^ fell. 


I. T. 


feHMX, 


6lOK), 


fenn. 


BT0MH. 


P. H. 


<5l> feoMT>, 


061 feofi, 


0(5l 9TOMT), 


O6l> BTHXT). 



E 







Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut, 


Mas.Fem.& Neut. 


N. H. 


OHMfi, 


6naa, 


dHoe. 


dHbie, oHbifl. 


this or that one, 


these or those. 




the said, 






the said. 


G. P. 


oHaro, 


deofl, 


oearo. 


OOblXl. 


D. 4- 


deoMy, 


OHOfi, 


OHOMy. 


6HbIMT>. 


A. B. 


foearo, ") 

I OHblfi, j 


deyio, 


6Hoe. 


C dnxbii. 
\ oHbie, oHbia. 


I. T. 


uIIHMX, 


onoio, 


dHblMl. 


dHMMH. 


p. n. 


061 deosTB, 


o6i> oeofi, 


061 OOOMI. 


c6x dHbixi. 






Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


left, whose, 


ibfl, 


ibe. 


IbQ. 


G. P. 


iberd, 


Hbefi, 


Hberd. 


^bBXl. 


D. 4- 


HL6M^, 


Hbefi, 


HbeMy. 


qbHMl. 


A. B. 


fibertf, ") 
iiefi, j 


IbK), 


ibe. 


( HbHXl. 
[ IbH. 


T. T. 


IMIMT,, 


HblO, 


nan. 


1LHMIK 


P. H. 


o ibe'Mi, 


o Hbett, 


o ibe'srb. 


IbHXX. 






Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Mas.Fem.&Neut. 


N. H. 


icaicoii, 


Utfiff. 


naKoe. 


Kiiia'e, Kaitia. 




what sort, 








G. P. 


Kaicoro, 


KaKdft, 


KaKdro. 


Kanrixx. 


D. 4- 


KaKdMy, 


KaKdfi, 


KaKoMy. 


KaiaiMi,. 


A. B. 


CuaKdro, ") 
(Kandfi, j 


KaKyH), 


Kanoe. 


( icaiuixx. 
(KaKie, Kanifl. 


I. T. 


KaKHMX, 


KaKdro, 


Eaiin. 


lulKllMII. 


P. H. 


BX KaKdMT), 


El KaKdii, 


Bit lulKOMl). 


BX lulKUXX. 


TaKoti, fl, de, ie, ifl, are declined in 


the same manner. 






Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


caMi>, alone, 


caiwa, 


cai6. 


CUMH. 


G. P. 


caiuord, 


CAMdl, 


caMord. 


caMiixx. 


D. 4- 


caMOMy, 


caMofl, 


caMOMy. 


CaMHMT). 


A. B. 


( caMord, ) 
( caMi, j 


f caMyro,) 
\ camoe, > 


cano. 


/ caMexi. 

t CaMH. 


I. T. 


CaMHMt, 


caMdro, 


CaMHMl. 


CaMQMH. 


P. H. 


C;iM<)M'I,, 


o caMdfi, 


CaMOMX. 


CaMHXT>. 







Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Mas. Fern . &Neut 


N. H. 


caMbitt, 
the very, the 
self same. 


caHafl, 


ca.Moe. 


caMbie, caMMH, 
these or those 
very, the self 










same. 


G. P. 


caMaro, 


caMoli, 


cainaro. 


caubixi. 


D. 4- 


CaMOMy, 


cii.MOii, 


CdMOMy. 


caMUMi. 


A. B. 


(" cfiMaro, " 

\ CHMblfi, ) 


caMy, 


cauoe. 


fcdMMXl. 
( C.'lM WC, CUMMH. 


I. T. 


CaMUMT., 


caMoro, 


CaMMM'B. 


CUMWMII. 


p. n. 


CilMOM'b, 


o cu.MOii, 


CUMOM't. 


o caMbixi. 







Singular Number. 




Plural Number. 


Cases. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


All Genders. 


N. H. 


BGCb, 

all, the whole. 


BCH, 


Bee. 


BCt. 


G. P. 


Bcero, 


Bcefi, 


Bcerd. 


BCtXl. 


D. 4. 


BceMy, 


Bcett, 


BCGMy. 


BCtMl. 


A. B. 


( Bcero, ^ 
| Becb, | 


BCH), 


Bee. 


{BCtXX. 
BCt. 


I. T. 


BC'BM'b, 


BCCK), 


BCtMX. 


Bci.MH. 


P. H. 


060 BC6MI, 


ea Bccii, 


UPII BCtJMT). 


BO BCtXl. 



The pronoun nfbKmo is used only in the nominative case, and 
bwno only in the nominative and accusative cases. Ex. Nibumo KO 

/b npHXOAH^^, somebody came to me ; fl CKaaty BaM^ Hibumo HOBO^ 
I will tell you something new. For the other cases of these two 
pronouns the oblique cases of Kmo-mo and umo-mo are substituted. 
Ex. Koeo-wo ntrL, 0/00 0^2 (is) wanting; KO^-TO CKy^HO, some 
one (is) dull ; H^O-TO ne OCTam5, something is not obtainable ; 
H/&JW5-TO ero Harpa^^m^, they will reward him with something. All 
the other pronouns are declined like adjectives with full ter- 
minations. 

THE VERB (Fiard!*)- 

93. A Verb denotes the action or condition of an object. Ex. 
, to praise; XBa^UTbca, to praise one's self, to boast; 6bimb 
, to be praised, &c. 



94. Verbs are divided, according to their signification, into the 
following Voices (Sajortf) : 

( 1) Active (^HCTBHTeJBHbm), which denotes an action that passes 
from the agent to the object. Now, as the greater part of verbs of 
the active voice require the accusative case, their class can be 



( 52 ) 

ascertained by the questions Roio ? Whom? *Im 6? What? Ex. fl 
Xfia.170 (Koto) ? I praise (whom) ? Ans. EpaT#, Brother, fl HHiaw 
*lmo ? I am reading (what) ? Ans. KnHry, a book. 

(2) Neuter (cpe^Hw), which, being the opposite of the active 
voice, denotes some kind of condition or action that does not 
pass from the agent to any object, but which is complete in itself. 
Ex. Hdmu, to go (once) ; xo^itt&, to go (more than 'once) ; cnaw&, 
to sleep ; i>x#w&, to drive ; ujL&Kamb, to weep. 

Obs. (1) The verbs 6bimb,to be, and cmamb, to become, to begin, 
which are of the neuter voice, are called Auxiliary (ficnoMora- 
Te^LH&m) Verbs, because they assist in forming the tenses of 
other verbs. Ex. fl ydy HHiam&, I will read ; Tbi 6buz Ha- 
rpaJKA^wff, Thou wast rewarded ; OHT> ciaM nvicdmb, He began 
to write. The verb fibimb when used separately stands in 
the place of the verbs cymecTBOBawi&, to be, to exist, and 
, to find oneself, to exist, to be. Ex. y wero ecmb 
, He has books, lit. (there) are books with him ; fl 6tU5 
y GpaVra, I was at (my) brother's. The verb 6bimb is in such 
instances called a Substantive Verb (cymecTBUTe.ibH&ZM i\iaro.i&). 

Obs. (2) All Verbs which give expression to the call or cry 
of the several four-footed animals or of birds are of the 
neuter voice. Ex. .leBtf pbiKaewtf, the lion roars, from p&i- 
Kait ; M6ABi>A& pefiemtf, the bear growls, from pefitiL ; co6aKa 
H .IHCHU0 .lawmtf, the dog and the fox bark, from 

ewis, the crow caws, from KapKaib ; copoKtf 
J, the magpie chatters, from meoeiait ; jouia4& 
the horse neighs, from pjKaib ; BO.IK5 BoeiT>, the wolf howls, 
from BbiTB ; 6biK5 H KOpoBrt Mbi4aT&, the bull (or ox) and the 
cow low, from Mbinaib; OBUO- 6.iem5, the sheep bleats, from 
6.ieflTb; KotWKa MflVKaems, the cat mews, from MflVKaib ; 
xpK)Kaewi5, the pig grunts, from xpioKaib ; rojy6& 
the pigeon coos, from BOpitOBaib ; Kypima niomemv, the hen 
clucks, from luoxiaib ; ^aryniKa KBaKams, the frog croaks, 
from KBaKaib ; cipeKoaa H nne^a jKyHUKaitf, the dragon-fly and 
the bee buzz, from 



(3) Reflective (B03BpaTH&m), which indicates an action that is 
reflected back from the object to the agent. The reflective verbs 
of the Russian language are formed by the union of a verb of the 
active voice with a contracted form of the reflective pronoun 



( 53 ) 



ce6a (en). Ex. XBa.m/w&ca = xeajitto ce6a, to praise one's self; 
= MBI/W& ce6a, to wash one's self. 



(4) Reciprocal (B3aHMH&m), which denotes a reciprocal action 
between the agent and the object or objects. Verbs of this voice 
also terminate in en. They answer, moreover, to the questions CT> 
K-EM't ? With whom ? Ex. ccopwm&ca, to quarrel ; cpaJKa/n&ca, to 
fight ; &c. 

Obs. There are some verbs without the suffix en that have 
the meaning of verbs of the reciprocal voice. Ex. cn6pwm&, 
to dispute; 'irpom&j to play. All such answer to the 
question, C't K-BMT. ? With whom ? 

(5) Common (66mm). These likewise terminate in en, and 
without the particle they are not used. They have the meaning 
of verbs of either the active or neuter voice. Ex. Go/rw&ca, to fear, 
to be afraid of ; Koro? nero? of whom ? of what ? noBHHOBa/r&ca, 
to be obedient to; KOMy? HCMy? to whom? to what? na^/zm&ca, 
to rely on ; na Koro, na HTO ? on whom ? on what ? ipy^w&ca, to 
labour ; naA'B H^MI ? at what ? (The above have the meaning of 
verbs of the active voice.) YjwSam&ca, to smile ; OHVTww&ca, to 
appear ; and jtHwm&ca, to be lazy ; have the meaning of verbs 
of the neuter voice. 

(6) Passive (cipaAaTe.iBH&m), which betokens the condition of 
one object with the action of another. Ex. 6ww& JioSaMy, to be 
loved, &c. Verbs of the passive voice are formed by joining an 
active verb with various parts of the auxiliary verb GBITB. They 
answer to the questions, idjMi ? HtMT> ? ly whom ? by what ? 
Sometimes verbs of the passive voice terminate in en. Ex. IIOHH- 

, to be respected, &c. 



% 95. Certain verbs, according to the meaning which they convey, 
are of various voices. Ex. Active Verb OHT. Hrpaems Ha CKpnnK^ 
HOB^W ntcHW, He is playing a new song on the violin. Neuter 
y er l _ OHT> ne yHHic^, a Brpaems, He does not study, but plays. 
Reciprocal Verb fl 6eLrca CT> HHMT> na pannpa#ff, I fenced with him 
(lit. fought with rapiers with him). Eeflective Verb fl flojro 
HaAT> STOW mfaeio, I laboured for a long time over this 



( 54 ) 

problem ; &c. Verbs of the Neuter Voice before which certain 
prepositions are placed become Verbs of the Active Voice : 



Ex. : Neuter Verb, E^IU, to go ; Active Verb, nepeEftTu, to go across. 
X04HT&, to go; 0#xonT&, to go round. 
cnai&, to sleep ; npocuan, to oversleep. 

96. The properties of Russian verbs which render them liable 
to changes of termination are mood (HaiuoHeme) , tense (BpeM/z), 
aspect (BHAT>), person (AKHO), number (nncwio), gender (po^tf), par- 
ticiple (npnHacT^), gerund 



97. The mood gives expression to various forms of action or 
of condition, either in the person or agent. 

98. Russian verbs have three moods : 

(1) Infinitive (Heonpe/j'fe.ieHHOi?), which does not show by whom 
or when the action was performed ; i. e. which does not point out 
the time, or number and gender of the person or persons, at which, 
and by whom, the action was performed. Ex. nncaw&, to write ; 
, to fight ; &c. 



() Indicative (HatflBiiTeJBiioe), which shows by whom and 
when the action was performed which shows, in fact, the time and 
number, and even the gender, of the person or persons, at which, 
and by whom, the action was performed. Ex. H nnwy, I am 
writing; TLI cpaJKa^ca, thou foughtest; on# Hrpiutf, she played; &c. 



(3) Imperative (IIoBe.iHTe.iBH0<?), which conveys an order, wish, 
or prohibition, for or against a thing being done. Ex. UHWU, write 
(thou) ; nyciB OHI AiuaerB, let him do (it) ; He cpa/Kanxecb, do not 
(you) fight; &c. 

Obs. In order to express by means of a Russian verb the sub- 
junctive (cocJiaraTe.iBHoe), or conditional (^CA6^Eoe),mood, which 
is in use in foreign languages, the conjunction 6bi is added 
to the past tense of the verb in question. Ex. fl KOHHM./J& 
6bi 3T0 Aiuo, ecJH fibi HMiu& Aocyrff, I would have finished 
this business if I had had time ; &c. 

99. The tense of a Russian verb shows either that the action 



( 55 ) 

of the agent is now taking place, or that it has taken place at some 
time or other before, or that it will yet take place. And therefore a 
Bussian verb has three tenses, viz. present (Hacioamee), past (npo- 
, and future (6yAymt?e). 



100. The aspect of a Russian verb shows the difference of time 
required for the performance of an action. Ex. OH& piiuajt, he was 
deciding ; OH& ptmHJ5, he has decided; OH& KpHiw^uff, he shouted 
(once) ; OH& xa3KHBaJ5, he used to walk (habitually}. 

101. Russian verbs have four Aspects: (1) imperfect (necOBep- 
(2) perfect (coBepmeHH&m) ; (3) perfect of unity (O^HO- 
(4) iterative (MHoroKpaiHWw). The present tense has no 

aspects. The past tense may have all four. The future tense has 

three , viz. imperfect, perfect, and. perfect of unity. 



102. The signification of the several aspects is as follows : 

(1) The imperfect aspect denotes either that the action has 
not altogether ceased, or that it will not finish. Ex. fl uncaM, 
I wrote; fl 6y#y nncam&, I will be writing; &c. 

(2) The perfect aspect denotes either that the action has been 
quite completed, or that it will definitely cease. Ex. fl Hannca^ffj 
I have written (once for all) ; fl Hanwuy, I will write (finally}. 

(3) The aspect of the perfect of unity denotes either that the 
action has taken place or will take place once, and that rapidly. 
Ex. Tbi crfmyM, thou hast knocked ; fl CT^Ky, I am going to 
knock. 

(4) The iterative aspect denotes that the action has taken 
place several times. Ex. fl HHTW&U&, I used (often) to read ; Ofl5 

He was in the habit of walking. 



Obs. Russian verbs admit, too, of a fifth aspect being added, 
that of the inchoative (HaHHHaiejBH&jw) . This aspect denotes 
that any sort of action has merely been begun. Ex. fl sa- 
irlus = fl HaHdUtf nfcr&, I began to sing ; OETL 3 nrpaewtf = 
0H5 HaH/tm5 wrpam& cwo MHHvry, He will begin to play 
this minute ; Bfrrep* uodyM = Bi>Tep& Hana^s Ayib, The 
wind began to blow. 



( 56 ) 

103. The infinitive mood does not indicate the time at which an 
action takes place, yet it has all four aspects : (1) imperfect, CTy*iati>, 
to knock; (2) perfect, /iGCTyiaiB, to knock a little ; (3) perfect of 
unity, ciyKwym&, to give a knock ; (4) iterative, wyKueamb, to knock 
repeatedly. 

\ 104. The indicative mood comprises all the tenses and all the 
aspects pertaining to those tenses. 

105. The imperative mood, although it does not possess tenses, 
has three aspects : (1) imperfect, ciyw, knock (thou) ; (2) perfect 
of unity, CTJKHU, knock (thou) once ; (3) perfect, nociyuu, knock 
(thou) a little. 

106. Russian verbs have three persons, which are usually 
represented by the personal pronouns: 1st person, a, MM; 
2nd person, TBI, BBI ; 3rd person, OH&, OHa, OHO, QRU, OH/&. Ex. fl. 
nmiuy, MM uuweMV, mbi UEwewb, ebi n&weme; OH& nnctLfB, OHO- 
uvicdja, OHO' EECCLJO, OEU or OH/& DHCCUU. 

107. The two Numbers of Russian Verbs are the Singular and 
the Plural. The former denotes the action or condition of one agent 

o 

or object: Ex. fl cipow, Jam building (a house). The latter points 
to the action or condition of two or more agents or objects : Ex. MBI 
CTp6w.M&, We are building (a house). 

108. The use of the gender in Russian verbs is confined to 
the past tense. Ex. fl HHia.i&, ona HHiaia, OHO HJH AHW/Z Hniajo, 
/read, she read, it or the child read. 

109. A participle is an adjective formed from a verb. Ex. 
6orama70w^'w CBOM yM5 H&ymMu 6yAewB no.ie3e& ce6i H 
, The youth (who) enriches his intellect with science will 
be useful to himself and to others. The Russian participle takes 
the place of two words, viz. the relative pronoun KOiop&zw, who or 
which, and any of the tenses of the indicative mood of a verb ; 
thus, instead of saying K)HOintf, KOTop&zw o6oramaew& CBOM VM& 
HayKflJWM, &c., it is usual to express the sentence in Russian in the 
way above shown. 

1 10. Participles, being formed from verbs, possess voices, tenses, 



( S7 ) 

and aspects ; and, as verbal adjectives, they possess also genders, 
numbers, and cases. 

111. A Gerund is a verb placed in such a form as to contain a 
meaning which is not complete without the addition of some other 
verb. Ex. CMompA 6$ OKHO, OH5 JK)6yeiwca npexipSLCEbiMZ mnoMG, 
Whilst looking out of the window, he admires the beautiful view. 

112. A Gerund, being part of a verb, has voices, tenses, and 
aspects. 

113. The terminations of Russian verbs are subject to change 
according to their mood, tense, aspect, person, number, and gender. 
These changes are called conjugations 



114. Russian verbs have two conjugations. The 2nd person, 
singular number, present tense, indicative mood, of regular Kussian 
verbs of the 1st conjugation invariably terminates in ewi> : Ex. Tbi 
HHia0w&, TjAiiewb, npomam&cfl. Whereas the corresponding part of 
a regular Russian verb of the 2nd conjugation ends in uwb : Ex. 
CTOWW&, Bepiztwi&, KopMMtw&ca. 



115. Before considering the conjugation of the other verbs, it 
may be well to conjugate the auxiliary verb 6&1T&, to be. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Imperfect aspect . . 6fciTb, to be. 
Iterative aspect . . fowdmb, to be (often). 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense of font. 



Singular Number. 

fl ecMb, I am. 

TH CCH, Thou art. 

OHT, ) (He-) 

Ona V ecTb, 4Shev. is. 

Ofld) (It, ) 



Plural Number. 

MM ecMU, We are. 
M ecx^, You are. 

oil \ cyTb> They are - 



Obs. ECMB, eca, CCMW and ecie, are not in use in modern 
Russian. 



Present Tense 0/*6tiBaTB. 

fl dbiBaro, I am often. 

TLI dMBaemb, Thou art often. 
OHT, ^ rHe 



Ofla CdbiBaerb, 3 She f is often. 



OH6J 



It J 



Past Tense o, 



fl dr.m>, 


I was. 


TbI dbUT., 


Thou wast. 


OHT> dbm>, 


He was. 


Oui'i Cbi.iu, 


She was. 


OHO dbuo, 


It was. 



Past Tense of 



a dbiBan>, I used to be. 

Tbi dbiBiUT), Thou usedst to be. 

OBT, dLiBfuT>, He ") 

Ona dusiia, She f-used to be. 

OHO dLIBliO, It J 



Future Tense of 



fl dyAY, I will be. 

TLI dy^einb, Thou wilt be. 

OHT. ^ fHe ^ 

Ona C dyACTT., ] She > will be. 

OHO) ' Ut ) 



MM dwaaeM-b, 
BLI 

OHrf 



Mu dbi.m, 
BLI 

OH^ 1 ) 
OH*] 



MM 
Bu 
OHH 



Mw 6yAenrb, 
BLI 6yfleie, 



We are often. 
You are often. 

are often. 



We were. 
You were. 



We used to be. 
You used to be. 

to be. 



We will be. 
You will be. 
They will be. 



THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



By4b TLI, Be thou. 

IlycTb om., ona, OHO, 

Let him, her, or it, be. -' 



Be you 

flycTb OHO, OH*, 
Let them be. 



PARTICIPLES. 



Present of CLITL 
Present of 
Past of dHTb . 
Past of 6binaTi. 
Future of dMTb 



cyrqifi -aa -ee -ie, -ia,* who, or which, is, or are. 
dbiBdronjifi -aa -ee -ie -ia, who, or which, is, or are. 
dLiBinifi -aa -ee -ie -ia, who, or which, was, or were. 
dbiBaBiiiiu -aa -ee -ie -ia, who, or which, used to be. 
-aa -ee -ie -ia, who, or which, will be. 



Present of duib 
Past of dbiib . 

Past Of 



GERUNDS. 

dy^yie, being. 

dLiBi, dbiBraa, having been. 

dwBaBT>, dbiBaBfflH, having often been. 



* Ancient Slavonic form, cwfi -aa -oe -Lie -wa. 



116. The auxiliary verb ciaiB, to become, to begin, has only 
two tenses, viz. the future, a ciawy, and the past, fl cia.Jff. The 
first of these is used in place of the same tense of the verb 6biTL 
(a Gy^y) : Ex. fl ciany, or fl 6yy, nncait, I will write. The second 
in place of the same tense of the verb HanaiB, to begin : Ex. fl cxa^?, 
or fl Haiajff, nncam&, I began to write. 

117. The regular Russian verbs are conjugated in the follow- 



ing manner :- 



FORMS OF THE CONJUGATIONS. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

(Has no Tenses.) 



ASPECTS. 
Imperfect .... 


TERMINATIONS. 
ara, ib, TH. 

HTb, Hb. TH. 


EXAMPLES. 

C ptraatb, to decide. 
< neib, to bake. 
C H6CTH, to carry. [all. 
C ptinuTb, to decide, once for 
< Hcneib, to bake through. 



Perfect of Unity . . 


HyTb. 

HBalb, LlIJUTb. 


(^ noneciH, to carry away, 
^yeyib, to blow. 
^ cxyKHByib, to knock. 
(. 4BBHyib, to move. 
( iiaiiiiiiiaTb, to sew on. 






| AtJUBaib, to do. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 





Singular Number. 

a ro, y. 


P.lural Number. 


The Present Tense 
has no Aspects. 


TH emb, Biiib. 

OBI") 
OHa [-...eTX, HTT>. 

OHO J 


Mbl CMl, HMl. 
Bbl 6T6, HT6. 

(OH* J 



Past Tense. 



Imperfect and Perfect 


f fl, TH, QBT>...JIT>. 
Ona....ia. 
(^ Oeo... jo. 


Mbl, Bw "^ 
OBH >JLU. 
Ofli ) 


Perfect of Unity . . 


T fl, Tw, OHT-eyji. 
OHa-nyja. 
(_ OHo-Hy.io. 


Mbi, Bbi^ "^ 
OHH > Hy^H. 
Oe-6 ) 




( a, Tbi, OHX-0Baji, MBa.li. 


Mbi, Bw "^ 




Ona-iiBa.ia, LiBa.ia. 

C OHO-OBa^O, bIB&IO. 


Oat ) 



( 60 ) 



Future Tense. 



ASPECTS. 



Imperfect ... 



Perfect 



Perfect of Unity . 



TERMINATIONS. 




EXAMPLES. 



MM 6f flem-b 



Tb, <n>, TH. 



Has the same terminations as the Present Tense. 



fl ey. 

TM neiiib. 

OHT>, Ona, OHO, ...HGTI. 



MM Hesrb. 

BM eeie. 



OH* 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Has no Tenses.) 



For the Imperfect, 


Singular Number. 

TbI H, b, ft. 


Plural Number. 
BM . . ..IITO, bie HTG 


Perfect, and Perfect 
of Unity .... 


HycTb, OHI, ] 
OQ5,OH6J eTll HT1>< 


nvcib / H 9 WTI, yi^. 

' (Oflt HTl, ail,. 









PARTICIPLES. 



GERUNDS. 



ASPECTS. 

The Present Tense 
has no Aspects. 



Present Tense. 



Singular Number. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 
-mifl, -aa, -ee. 

Plural Number. 

Masc Fern. & Neut. 
-raie -mia. 



All Numbers and Genders. 



-a, -a, -yiH, -ma. 



For all Aspects. 



Past Tense. 



Singular Number. 
Masc. Fern. Neut. 
-Binifi, -aa, -ee. 

Plural Number. 
Masc. Fern. & Neut. 
-Binie, -sraifl. 



All Numbers and Genders. 



-BX, -inn. 



Verbs which terminate in CR are also conjugated according to 
the above table, by adding cb or en. Ex. H saHHMaiocL, I occupy 
myself ; TBI nponfanBam&cfl, Thou art taking a walk ; Bbi 
You are laughing; OHW y#HB.iaK)wcfl, They are astonished. 



( 61 ) 

The conjugation of verbs of the passive voice will be explained 
separately. 

118. With regard to the forms of their conjugation, Russian 
verbs are classed as 

(1) Regular (npaBH.ii>H&m), or such as retain the primary 
syllable in all their moods, tenses, aspects, and numbers, and which 
have, in all their parts, regular terminations, according to the 
ordinary rules for the conjugation of verbs. Ex. nmiiy, I write ; 
niiCcUtf, I wrote; Han H my, I will write ; HStacfl/z/o, I am explain- 
ing ; H3T>acH^&, I explained ; H3tflCH^z, I explained once for all; 
jo, I will explain ; &c. 



(2) Irregular (aenpaBHJtHbm), or such as do not everywhere 
retain their primary syllable, and which in their terminations 
depart from the ordinary rules for the conjugation of verbs. Ex. 

me.i&, raoH^y (from H^TH, to go) ; &M5, ius, (from icm&, to eat) ; 
y (from 6pai&, to take) ; B3JU& and B03tMy (from B3HT&, to take) ; 
(from joJKHT&ca, to lie down) ; Aert and Amy (from jeib, to 
lie down) ; &c. 

(3) Those conveying a seme of fullness (H3o6iui>H&m), or such 
as have in the present tense two distinct terminations conveying 
the self-same meaning. Ex. frmwy and wmaio, I move 

and CTpad^JO, I endeavour ; ajiny and a.itfa-70, I am hungry ; 
and ftjLucmdjo, I shine ; w&wy and Ma^aw, I am beckoning. 



(4) Defective (iieAOCTaTOHHbm), or such as have not any par- 
ticular tense or aspect. Ex. noHM<m& to catch, oqwym&cfl to wake 
up, MOABumb to utter, paHwmo to wound, which have no present 
tense ; or the following, which have no past or future tenses of the 
perfect aspect : o6offiam& to worship, oyRuddmb to await, onacawi&ca 
to dread, no^paJKams to imitate, coJKa.i/&w& to commiserate, &c. 



(5) Impersonal (SesjHHH&m), or such as are used only in the 
3rd person. Ex. MOJKBO (it is) possible, AOJIKHO (it) should be, 
Kawmca it appears, ffiaj& (it is a) pity, nto (T. e. He ecib) there is not, 
cnumcfl one is drowsy, rofiopwmcfl it is said, xowmcfl one would like, 
it dawns, Moposwwff it freezes, rOBOp^ms they say, &c. 



(6) Frequentative (y^amaTeJBH&m), or such as denote a certain 



( 62 ) 

amount of continuance in the time of the action which they 
illustrate. Ex. noxdoicueamb to walk up and down, norjLkfibieamb to 
look round, &c. 

119. Russian verbs, according to their coastruction, are also 

(1) Simple (npocw0M), or such as have not prefixed to them 
prepositions or other words, and which therefore retain their primi- 
tive meanings. Ex. #feHCTB0<?aw& to act, HOCWW& to carry, \wumb 
to walk, HB.i/zm&CH, to appear generally, &c. 



Compound (cAOMRbiii) , or such as have prefixed to them 
prepositions or other words (in some instances nouns substantive). 
Ex. fijiaiOTBOpumb to do good, sdoj&hciBoeamb to do evil, coxbtLCt- 
Boeamb to co-operate, omROcumb to take away, pascKstibieamb to 
narrate, yxo/pw& to go aioay, notLBAJimbcn. to make one's appear- 
ance, &c. 

Obs. The greater portion of the compound verbs are formed 
by prefixing prepositions to the iterative aspect of simple 
verbs. Ex. nepeffalbwamt to do over again, om&wmmb to 
ride away, pacKipwueamb to paint all over. Very many 
simple verbs, in order to form their perfecl aspect, take as 
prefixes various prepositions, or else borrow the perfect 
aspect bodily from compound verbs. Ex. nucdmb to write, 
; ciaBwm& to erect, nocmBumb ; Kpacwm& to colour, 
; interns to blossom, pacn.tfbcmb ; &c. 



EXAMPLES OP THE CONJUGATIONS. 

120. Of the Regular Verls. 

(1) Conjugation of Verbs of the Active and Neuter Voices : 
Aspects. INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Imperfect . . . 4-kiarb. ciyiaib. ataib. 
Perfect. . . . c/CB-iarb. nociyiaTb. noJKBTb. 
Perfect of Unity. CTyKHyib. 



Iterative . . ^'LiLiBaib. (not used). /Kiiudib. 

to do. to knock. to live. to see. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense. Imperfect Aspect. 



fl. 


A-kiaio. ciyqy. 


HJHBy. 


Dn/ny 


Tbl. 


r i 

$'I.l(1CIIIb. CTy^IHinb. 


JKUBeUIb. 


BH4Binb. 


OBX, oaa, oe6. 


/ t 

4'fe.iaeTb. ciyiBTb. 


HJI1BCTX. 


Bl'uilTb. 


Mbi. 


4't.iaOMT>. CTyiHMTi. 


JKHBi'Ml. 


BB4UMI. 


Bu. 


4"kiaeTe. ciyiHTe, 


/EIIBCTe. 


BB4BT6. 


OBB, oui. 


4'iiaiOTi. ciyqari. 


BByTl. 


/ 




I do, &c. I knock, &c. 


I live, &c. 


I see, &c. 


Ay*. 


Past Tense. 






Imperfect . . . 


4-Bjaji -a -o -JB. ciyiaji -a -o -JB. 


KlUT, -& -6 -.111. 


BH,V!;.IX -a -o -JIB. 


Perfect .... 


CA&iarb-a-o-.iH. nociyiaji'b -a -o -JH. 


no/Ki'ui -a -6 -.HI. 


yBB4ajcb -a-o -JH. 


Perfect of Unity . 


n-rxTT^rnr 1L o rt MY 













Iterative . . . 4i.ibiBaxb-a-o-.iH. (not used). ;i;iiBa.ii -a-o -.111. BH^biBaJT. -a -o -JH. 
I did, &c. I knocked, &c. I lived, &c. I saw, &c. 



Future Tense. Imperfect Aspect. 



Sing. Num. n 6y4T 



or ciyiaTb, or atHTb, 

oaa^ 
OHO) 

Plur.Num. MM 6y46Mi -\ 

/ ? x 

M'BJiaTb. or ciynaTb. 

OBB A 
OHB 



or ataib 



I will do, &c. I will knock, Ac. I will live, &c. 



or 



or BH4tib. 
I will see, &c. 



Singular Number. 



lural Number. 



Future Tense. Perfect Aspect. 

a cjluaH). nociyiy. nosKHBy. 

nociyiHuib. 



Tbl 



noiHiicemb. 



OBI ^ 
oaa > 
oeo 3 



BM 

OBB 
OH* 

I will do, &c. 



nociyidiT.. 
I will knock, &c. I will live, &c. 



yBHHty. 



VBB4Hrb. 

I will see, &c. 



Perfect of Unity. 

nil ciyKHy, -Hnib, -HTb, 

-IIM^, -Hie, -yix. 

I will knock, &c. 



nil 



nil 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Imperfect Aspect. 



sing. Number. 


4-kiaii 


CiyiH. /K11BH. 


nil 


nycib 


C OH ?) ' 
s Qua / 4'i>-iaeT'b, 

(OHO) 


or CTyiHrb, or JKiiBeii, 


> 

let him see, &c. 


Plur. Number. 


4-BJafiTe 


CTyiMTe. HillBHTP. 


nil 


nycib 


fOBM") ' 


or ciyqaTX, or HByTT, 


Or BH48TI, 




do, &c. 


knock, &c. live, &c. 


let them see, fee. 






Perfect Aspect. 




Sing. Number. 


/ 


nociyiH. noatHBH. 


nil 


nycib 


< OH a > C4lJ.!aeTT>, 


or nociyqeTT,, or noffiHBeii. 


nil 




(ouo 3 






Plur. Number. 


C4li.iaHTe. 


DOciyiHTe. DoiKiiBiiie. 


nil 


nycib 


f OI1II *) ' 

\ : > C4't.iaioT'b 
(^ 0113 ) 


t or nociyjaTi, or noa;nByTT>. 


ml 




do, &C. 


knock, etc. live, &c. 








Perfect of Unity. 




Sing. Number. 


m7 


ciyKHH, nil 


nti 






C OHl ~\ 








b < OHH ^ CTyKHCTl. 

(OHO 3 




Plur. Number. 


nil 


CiyKHiiTe. nil 


nii 




nyci 


knock, &c. 








PARTICIPLES. 








Present Tense. 




& T f Masc. 
Singular \ -p. 


f 


CTyiaiqiH, a.-iiBymiii, 










**"" \ Neut. 


fiAA 




IftAJI 


II|O^| 






Plural f^ aSC \ 
AT /, K t em. & 
2K*6r. | Neut> 


mie, 


nmtn 


W1 f\ 






j 




m'fl. 


He who does, &c. 


he who knocks, &c. h who lives, &c. 


he who sees, &c. 


Aspects. 




Past Tense. 





Pei-fect of Unity . 



eTyifiimiiii, /Kiininiii, nii,vl;iiiiiiii. 

a, -ee,-ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, -ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, -ie,-ia 

nr>irvaQimiiCT nr>:i;if imii i< T/OII i-fcuriT. .i 



M 
If ' . o 

Impertect . 4^<^iniii, ~.j . , 

-aa, -ee,-niie, -uiia, -aa, -ee,-ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, -ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, -ie,-ia. 

*r 61*1 6 C I/ * . C^KowlcLBIIima nOCTy i&BUI III II ill II BIO 1 H * V BH/l'BBIIIi i 

-aa, -ee, -ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, -ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, -ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, -ie, -ia. 

nil CTyKHyBiiiifl, nil nil. 
aa, -ee, -ie, -ia. 

f j . 

Iterative . . . A'BJLiuaBUiiii, (not used), JKHBaBiiiUi, liii^uBuifiniii, 

-aa, -ee, -ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, ie, -ia, -aa, -ee, -ie, ia. 

he who did, &c. he who knocked, &c. he who lived, &c. he who saw,&c. 



All Numbers \ 
and Genders. 

Aspects. 
Imperfect . . 

Perfect . . . 
Pa-feet of Unity 



GERUND. 

Present Tense. 
, doing. ciyid, knocking. 

Past Tense. 

C/im>. / \ aBT>. 

< / CTV4 \ 

^aBimi, ) (aBiuH, 



living. 



seeing. 



^aBUlH, j L ' t&BDft, 

, 1 VBT), ) 

A cx y KH iyBu,e,r * * 

having done. having knocked. having lived. having seen. 



(2) Conjugation of Verbs of the Reflective, Reciprocal and Common 
Voices : 

Aspects. INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Imperfect . . . xsaJHibCfl, cpa/Kaibca, yjbi6aTbca. 

Perfect .... noxBajHibca, cpaaHibca, nil. 

Perfect of Unity . nil. nil. yjwCHyTbca. 

to praise one's self. to fight. to smile. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 



Singular Number. a xsajwcb, cpan;aiocb, 

TbI XBaJHIHbCfl, Cpa/KaeilJbCff, 

ona > xBaJHTca, cpaataeica, 
OHO) 

Plural Number. MW XBa.in.MCH, cpaajaemca, 

BM xBajHTCCb, cpamaeTecb, 

OHH I f 

- > xBajaTca, cpa/KaiOTCflj 
I praise myself, &c. I fight, &c. 



yjbi6arocb. 
y.ibi6aenibca. 

yjbi6deTca. 



yjbi6aeiecb. 
yjbi6amca. 
I smile, &c. 



Aspects. 
Imperfect. . . 

Perfect . . . 

Perfect of Unity 
Iterative. . . 



Past Tense. 
XBajMJca, cpaiKaJCfl, yjbi6ajca, 

-JOCb, -JHCb, -jaCb, -JOCb, -JflCb, -JaCb, -JOCb, -JHCb. 

noxBaJQJca, cpasHJca, nil. 



, -JOCb, -JHCb, -JaCb, -JOCb, -JHCb. 

nil. nil. 



, -JOCb, -JHCb. 

nil. 



XBaJHBaJCfl, l 
-sajacb, -sajocb, ? nil. 

-BaJHCb. J 

I praised myself, &c. I fought, &c. I smiled, &c. 



Singular Number. 



Plural Number. 



Future Tense. 
Imperfect Aspect. 



114 

OHa > 6y 
000 ) 

Mbl 6y46Ml, 
Bbl 6y46T6, 

OIIII 
OBl! 



I will praise 
myself, &c. 



or cpaJKaibca, or 

I will fight, &c. I will smile, &c. 



Singular Number. 



Plural Number. 



Perfect of Unity. 



Tbl 
OHl} 

oea > 
oao) 

MM 
BU 

OIIII I 

OB!) 



nil. 



XBa.ll!Cb, 
r'OHT)^ 
< OHa > XBcUIUTCfl, 

(.ono) 



nycib 



Pniise thyself, &c. 



Perfect Aspect. 

rocb, or cpaffiycb. \ 



or 



or 



noxBaiHMca, or 
noxBaJHiecb, or cpaautecb. 



rOHX 

nycn < ona 

(. OHO 



c ' ^ 
nycTL j ou | > 



noxiia.uicb, 



Praise thyself, &c. 



till. 



noxBaiarca, or cpaaaica. 

I will praise my. I will fight, &c. 

self, &c. 

i 

nil. nil. a 

I will smile, &c. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Imperfect Aspect. 

cpamafica, yjbi6afica. 

nyctb j oua > cpaataeica, nycib j OH a > yjufiaexca. 
Coed) COBO) 

cpaJKafitccb, 

nyctb j H !| i cpaataioTCH. nycib 



Fight thou, &c. 

Perfect Aspect. 

cpaaiicb. 



Smile thou, &c. 



nycib < OHH > cpa3MTca. 
cpaaaiecb. 

' *i 
^lj cpaaaica. 

Fight thou, &c. 



nil. 




Perfect of Unity. 



nil. 


nil. \ f 

nyctb < ona > yjuoneica 

(oed) 


nil. 




nUi. nvn 


b | 0|J ^ > yjibiOnyTca 








Smile thou, &c. 


PARTICIPLE. 


Present Tense. 


") Masc. t 


-XBa^amifica, ") 


/'cpaajaiom.iaca,') 


(liuOSamnite*. 


S .9' ( Fern. 


n if/ 'ii I 




\ 




< HJtlULM^ > 


-< m.aaca 


' ) Neut. ( 






/ 




1H'XL/1 5 I 




Pl ur . -i Mate. i 


- jeca, ) 

. inpn _? 


r mieca, ^ 

f .--- ini af*a 1 


C m,ieca. 




> mniL/ij j 






he who praises 


he who fights, &c. 


he who smiles, &e. 




himself, &c. 






Aspects. 


Past Tense. 


Imperfect. 








"} Masc. / 


'XBcLIlIBIIlifica, ^ 


r cpaataBiiiifica,) 


ry, U (5aBmific. 


Num. T 
) Neut. ( 






< maaca. 






( meeca. - 


Plur. "> Masc. 

JM 111H, \ Fg^ft, fy N"dUt 






. 






( mieca. 








Perfect. 








~\ Masc. /'noxBajHBUiificai 


r cpaauBiniflcfl.) 






/ ITTflP/MI * 


> nil. 




^ *9 J 




Plur. ") Masc. ( 
Num. ] Fern. & Neut. < 




- . 


> 




I miaca. ' 




Perfect of Unity. 








~\ Masc. 






( yjbiOBvBiniaca 


S j T H 9' }> Fern. 
Num. C 
j A/eut. 


, A 


nil. 


j raaaca. 
(. meeca. 


Plur. } Masc. 

Num. ) Fern. & Neut 
j 






C mieca. 
^ miaca. 




he who praised 


he who fought, &c. 


he who smiled, &c. 




himself, &c. 










GERUND. 




Present Tense. 


All Numbers'} 


XBajacb, 


cpa>Kaacb, 


y.iuo'aacb. 


and Genders. / pr, 


lising himself. 


fighting. 


smilinif 



Aspects. 




^ f 




Att Numbers \ 
and Gender s.J 




Past Tense. 




Imperfect . . . 


xBaJHBiiracb, 


cpa/i;aBmnci>, 


yjbltiHy'BniHCB. 


Perfect .... 


( nOXBn.IHBIllIICb, 

( iioxBa.uicb, 


") CcpaaHBHiHCb, ") 
) ( cpaaacb. ) 


nil. 


Perfect of Unity . 


nil. 


nil. 


yjbi(5flyBmHCb. 




having praised 


having fought. 


having smiled. 




himself. 







(3) Conjugation of Verbs of the Passive Voice : 



Aspects. 

Imperfect 
Perfect . 
Iterative 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

6biTb xBa.iii.My, or HarpaauaeMy, 

or HarpajKjeHy, 



6biib 

6biBaib 

to be praised. 



or nocbuaesiy. 
or 



or 



to be rewarded. 



or nocwjaeMy. 
to be sent. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Instead of the following antiquated method of conjugating verbs of the present tense and 
passive voice fl ecMb or fl CbiBaio xBajHMi, or earpa/K4aeMT>, or nocbiiaeM'b, &c., I am praised, 
or rewarded, or sent, &c. it is usual to invert the phraseology so as to convert the passive 
into an active form. 



Ex. Mena 
re6fl 
ero, ee 



Baci 

HXb 



Imperfect Aspect, 




or Harpa;KAaKm> or nocbuaiOTT,, &c., They praise, or reward, 
or send me, &c. 



Pas* Tense. (Passive Form.) 

Cbl.IX XBa.IlIMb, 



or 



or nocbuaeMi. 



6bi.ia 

(Ju.H) xBa.ni.Mo, 

6 u.i 1 1 



or earpaJK4aeMa, or nocbuaeMa. 
or narpa>KAaeMO, or nocbuaejio. 

or Harpaat^aeMbi, or nocbuacMbi. 



(Active Form.) 



M6Hfl - 
TC6fl 

erd 
ee 

eaci 

BJIC/I, 
IlX'b 



xua.in.in, 



or earpaJKAain, or nocbi.iaia. 



I was praised, &c. or rewarded, &c. or sent, Ac. 



Aspects 
Perfect . 



Iterative 



Aspects. 
Imperfect 



Perfect 

Imperfect 
Perfect . 




MCH/1 

xefia 
ero, ee 



( 69 ) 

(Passive Form.) 

6t>w> noiBa'.ieB'b, or narpaxAe'B'b, or 

6bua noxBa.iciia, or Barpa/n^eiia, or noc-iana. 

dbLio noxBa.ieiio, or HarpaJK^eflo", or nocjaao. 

di'i.ni noxBi'uenbi, or iiarpa/K^enu, or nocjanu. 

I was praised, &c. or rewarded, &c. or sent, &c. 
(Active Form.) 

or narpaAii.iH, or 



(Passive Form.) 



Baci> 

liX'L 



TbI 

OBI ) 

ona 6uu;'ija 

Ofl6 CbiBLio XBaJUMO, 



6LiBa.iH 



or earpaJK^aeMi, or noctu.lOMi. 



or Harpaat^^eMa, or 

or Harpaat^^eMO, or nocbi.iacMO. 




or 



or nocu.iaeMM. 



(Active Form.) 



MCfia 
xeda 
ero, ee 
aaci 



6WBa- XB3JHJH, 

jio they praised, 



or earpaJKAaJH, or 

or rewarded, or sent me, drc. 



Future Tense. 

Instead of using the now obsolete form of fl 6y#y XBaJHMT>, I will be praised ; 
or narpaJKjaeMi, rewarded ; or nocbuaemi, sent, &c., it is usual to say 
Meea 6y4yi^ XBaJHTb, they will praise ; or Harpaat^aib, reward ; or no- 
CbuaTb, send me, &c. 

fl 6yay noxBajeex, or narpaJKae'H'b, or nowaHX, &c. or MOBS, &c. noxBcUaii), 
or HarpaAHini, or nomji&Ti, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

nycTb Mena XBa.iarb, let me be praised ; or Harpaac^aiOTi, rewarded ; or 
nocbuaiOT'b, sent, &c. 

nycTb MGH^ noxBajaii, let them praise ; or earpa^aii, reward j r no- 
rorb, send me, &c. 



Aspects. 



PARTICIPLE. 
Present Tense. 



King. 
Num. 



Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 



Plur. ") Masc. 
. ) 



Num. ) Fem.&Neut 




he who is praised, &c. he who is re warded, &c. he who is sent, &c. 



Past Tense. 



Sing. 
Num. 

Plur. 
Num. 



Sing. 
Num. 

Plur. 
Num. 




nil. 



nil. 





he who was praised, <fcc. he who was rewarded, &c. he who was sent, Ac. 



AU Numbers ") 
and Genders- ) 



GERUND. 
Present Tense. 
or 



being praised. 



rewarded. 



or nocbuaeMi. 
sent. 



All Numbers ") 
and Genders. ) 



Past Teme. 



or 



having been praised. 



rewarded. 



or 



sent. 



121. Conjugation of the Irregular Verbs. 

The following 1 Table exemplifies the manner of conjugating some 
of the Russian Irregular Verbs : 



Q 
O 

O 



H 
< 

tf 

UJ 

p* 



QOO 



H 
1 
O 

i i 

Q 
fc 



VE MOOD 






t& 

i"^ 
























e 



i 

3 

SS 

PH* 






- 
1 



1g:S 
* iff 



8 > 'S l- 
- 






4? 




fa S 

Din 

Pi 



0) ^ 

* 



s * ^ 





















ta ta 

v^^ 



s 











Mi - 









** * j> SS^^-S 

I -g- S a 3 1 * - I S B B S J ^1 S 1 i 
Z S : i a 1 1 li 1 1 1 1 1 1 |i 

- - 2 - S -o 



B la 






S - . v .r 



. . 
3 ^ S 

- : 



v ~ 

*o *o /^ 

^ (S s -e 



t 

P-i a 

fiOQ 



-* 



a 



at 



V 

PH 



Jj 

.i 






i rre s 



s ri 



_= >a 

H H 
v(B vS 

-H a a 1 



^S 






t>- 00 G5 O rn ^ CO 



00 O5 O 1-1 



C 00 



OS 
^ 




0/w. Of the irregular verbs inserted in this Table, only two are used in the Aspect 
of the Perfect of Unity, viz. (No. 27) Tpacta ipaxHyib, and (No. 22) cipHib cipHrayTb ; 
whereas in the Iterative Aspect the following are found: ( No. 3) B63TB, (No. 4) BecTH 
BaJKHBaib, (No. 13) HGCTH eaiuHBaTi, (No. 23) ctib c-BKaib, (No. 29) tcib *,iaib, 
(No. 30) -Bxaib 1>3maTb. The verb MOib (No. 12) is not used in the future tense of 
the Imperfect Aspect. One cannot, therefore, say H fiy^v or MLI 6y,jeMT> MOib- 



122. RULES FOE THE CONJUGATION OF RUSSIAN VEEBS. 

For the conjugation of Russian Verbs there are many rules, but 
there are also a large number of exceptions to them. We will note 
only those rules which may be pronounced steadfast, i.e. such as 
admit of the least number of exceptions. 

I. Rules for the Infinitive Mood. 

(1) The infinitive mood of Russian Verbs of the imperfect 
aspect generally ends in m& preceded by any of the vowels a, e, u, 
o, y, w, /&, n. Ex. HHTOWb, to read ; Tepewib, to rub ; \Eduiumb, to 
praise; KO.IOW&, to prick; tQivymb, to sink; pbzwb, to dig; HM/&W&, 
to have; 3a6aBJ^m&, to amuse. We also find the same termination 
mb preceded by the consonants 3 and c. Ex. .i-fcawb, to climb ; 
rpbiswb, to s-naw ; luecwb, to plait; UBl>cwb, to bloom. A very few 

f * CJ * v 

verbs have their infinitive mood in Ub and mu; such as BJC^b, to 
drag; Eftmu, to go (on foot). 

(2) The infinitive mood of Russian Verbs of the perfect aspect 
likewise generally ends in mb. This termination has, however, 
various prefixes. Some verbs form their perfect aspect in a way 
peculiar to themselves 

Ex. OTJHHaw&j WJivmumb, to distinguish, 

npne/zwb, to receive, 

o^/fcwib, to dress. 

B3H?wb, to take. 



Others, in order to form their perfect aspect, take as prefixes various 
prepositions : 

Ex. JLioftumb, nojiioftumb, to love. 

uncdmb, namicdfflb, to write. 

Others, again, borrow a perfect aspect from compound verbs 
analogous to themselves : 

Ex. 6epe^b, coepe^b, to guard (which is from 

the verb coeperawb). 
roioBWWb, nmiYOTommb, to prepare (which is from 

' J X J, \ 

the verb nparoTOBji^wb). 
CMOip/bWb, rcocMOTp/btfZb, to behold (which is from 

the verb riocMaipHBaTb). 





( 73 ) 

(3) The infinitive mood of verbs of the aspect of the perfect 
of unity ends in nymb. Ex. uuTHymb, to wink; cmcuymb, to 
give a whistle ; jepy>w&, to give a pull. 

(4) The infinitive mood of verbs of the iterative aspect ends 
in ueamb and bieamb. Ex. \&s&u8amb y to be in the habit of walking; 
vhnbieamb, to be in the habit o/" seeing ; vmieamb, to read often. 

Note. But few Eussian verbs have the iterative aspect, which 
can in good style and conversation be used, and therefore 
this aspect should be employed with great discernment. 
Verbs ending in ueamb and bieamb cannot have an 
iterative aspect. Ex. pa3CMaTpM0dwz&, to examine ; oftfabieamb, 
to oblige, &c. 

II. Rules for the Indicative Mood. 

(1) The first person singular number, present tense, has two 
terminations, viz. in TO and y. Before the latter there is always a 
consonant. Ex. Mfl,y, I go ; cna/, I sit down. The terminations 
of the second person of the same number and tense are in ewb and 
uwb respectively, and those of the third person of the same number 
and tense in emu and wwff. The terminations of the first person, plural 
number, present tense, are eMV and UM$ ; of the second person of the 
same number and tense erne, ume ; of the third person of the same 
number and tense (of verbs of the first conjugation only) wwff or ymt. 
Thus it will be found that the second person of the singular number, 
present tense, of verbs of the first conjugation has ewb for its 
termination ; and so the third person of the plural number, present 
tense, of verbs of this conjugation will end in wmti or ymt. Ex. *in- 

thou readest; ^niaTOWB, they read; zenewtb, thou leadest; 

, they lead ; similarly the second person of the same number 
and tense of verbs of the second conjugation has uwb. Consequently 
the third person of the plural number will be in am$ or 
Ex. Momuw/b) thou art silent ; MOJHarb, they are silent ; 
thou gazest ; CMoip/zmtf, they gaze. Amongst verbs of the second 
conjugation there are two only which do not follow this rule, viz., 
6feKww&, thou runnest ; 6fcry*B5, they run (not {ybmamv) ; XOIIUM, 
thou desirest ; XOTATH&, they desire (not XOH#W&). 

(2) Verbs which terminate in the*first person, singular number, 
of the present tense in iy> change i in the second and third persons 



( 74 ) 

singular, and in the first and second persons plural into OK. Ex. 6e- 
per?/, I take care, &c. ; 6epe#cw&, 6epe#cem&, 6epeJKjw&, 6epe>Kew. 
In the third person of the plural number they retain the letter i ; 
thus, 6epe?/25, erepee?/m&, they watch. 

(3) Verbs which terminate in the first person, singular number, 
of the present tense in ay, change K in the second and third persons 
singular, and in the first and second persons plural, into u. Ex. B.ie- 
Ky, I attract; VAQuewb, EAQuemfi, vHeueMti, EJieueme.. In the third 
person of the plural number they retain the letter K ; thus, 
WKymt, they cook. 

(4) Monosyllabic Verbs, which terminate in umb, change 

in the first person singular of the present tense into &w. Ex. numb, 
to drink ; mu#to, to sew ; mmb, to twine ; 6im&, to beat ; n&/o, 
U1&/0, B&TO, 6bW. To this rule the verb 6pwm&, to shave, is an ex- 
ception, as it makes 6p/&>, &c. 

(5) The present tense is used sometimes in the sense of the 
future. Ex. aaeipa H iijy BT> ^epeBH/o, To-morrow I am going to 
the village. 

(6) The past tense of verbs of the imperfect and perfect 
aspects terminates in M. It is formed, as a general rule, from the 
infinitive mood of the imperfect and perfect aspects by changing m& 
into M. Ex. mnamb to read, HHia.15, xorfewft to desire, xorLf5; MHW& 
to knead, MLi&. When the infinitive mood terminates in ^&, the 
termination of the past tense is generally found to be either in K5 
or tti. Ex. BJie^S to attract, B.ietf&, 6epew> to guard, 6epee5. Similarly, 
when the infinitive mood terminates in emu, smu, the termination 
of the past tense is in C5 or 3$. Ex. uecmu to bring, HCCS ; 

to carry, BC3&. The exceptions are : HE^cmu to blossom, and 
to lead, whose past tenses are uuiutf and Be^5 respectively. 

(7) The termination of the past tense of verbs of the aspect 
of perfect of unity is in nyM ; thus, Mnr#y?w& to work, makes 



(8) The termination of the past tense of verbs of the iterative 
aspect is in uea,M or meaM. The past tenses of both the perfect 
of unity and iterative aspects are derived from their respective 
infinitive moods by changing mb into M : Ex. xajKW0#w&, to make 
a practice of going, xajKMtfdU5. Verbs which do not possess an 
iterative aspect replace the want of one by adding the word 



( 75 ) 

to the past tense of the imperfect aspect : Ex. fl Obiedjo 
I used to meet. 

(9) The future tense of verbs of the imperfect aspect is formed 
by prefixing the future tense of the auxiliary verb fftinib to the 
infinitive mood of the verb which is being conjugated : Ex. fl Gyfly 
xua.iww&, Tbi Gy^efflb \BcUumb, &c., I will praise, &c. 

(10) The future tense of verbs of the perfect aspect has the 
same terminations as has the present tense of verbs of the imperfect 
aspect. Ex. fl /wxBcUW, Tbi /zoxBa.iww&, &c., I will praise, &c. 

(11) The future tense of the aspect of the perfect of unity 
terminates in ny, newb, &c. It is formed from the infinitive mood 
of the same aspect by casting away the final letters iw&; thus, 

, to move, makes flBuwy, 4BHH0W&, &c. 



III. The Imperative Mood. 

(1) As a general rule, only two persons of the imperative 
mood are used, viz. the 2nd and 3rd : Ex. HHraw read (TH, thou, being 
understood), nycib OHJJ, OHO- or OHO, Hnraew&, wrdume (BH), nycn> OEU 
or OH/& HHiaJOWtf. There are cases, however, in which the 1st person 
may be used ; for example, Eyb ff 6orai&, H 6bi rcoMortf CMy, were 
I rich, I would assist him. In the same way, the 1st person plural 
of the present or future tenses of verbs of the perfect aspect is used 
for the 1st person plural of the imperative mood ; thus, une'Mt, kneMti, 
nouneMfi, nokneMV, let us go, let us eat, &c. In such instances the 
suffix me is frequently added to the 1st person plural of the impera- 
tive mood : Ex. uoftkwiuMme, chfteMme, let us run, let us sit down. 

(2) Sometimes the infinitive mood is used in place of the 
imperative ; thus, Mo.i4am& ! He myM/6W6 ! Be silent ! Do not make 
a noise ! 

(3) In the practice of a high style of conversation or writing, 
to the 3rd person of the imperative mood is added the particle da ; 
for example, d# BCTynwrntf instead of nyciB OH5 BCTynwm,let him enter. 

IV. The Participles. 

\ 123. The active participles of verbs of the active and neuter 
voices terminate as follows : The present participle in i^m, ii^an, i^ee, 
for the masc., fern., and neut. genders, respectively. This participle 



( 76 ) 

is derived from the 3rd person, plural number, present tense, indica- 
tive mood, by changing the final letters m$ into wflu : Ex. CMoipawtf, 
they regard ; CMOipa^m, &c., he who regards, &c. The past participle 
in ewitij euian, eiuee, for the masc., fern., and neut. genders, respec- 
tively. This participle is derived from the singular number, past 
tensej indicative mood, by changing M into ewiu : Ex. CMOip-Jutf, 
I regarded ; CMOipimm, &c., he who regarded, &c. In the case 
of verbs which have not the letter A in the formation of their past 
tense, the final letter & of that tense is changed into wiu, &c. Ex. 
poctf, he grew; pocwitt, &c., he who grew, &c. The past participles 
of the following verbs are as follows : vecmu to lead, Be^ 

, to go, uiej&, medium ; nwbcmu, to blossom, rjBlu&, 

, to fall, uaM, u&dwiU. 



124. To the terminations of the participles of verbs of the 
reflective, reciprocal, and common voices, the particle en is added. 
Ex. CMOipawmcH, he who regards ; CMOip'BBtw/MCfl, he who re- 
garded ; &c. 

125. The participles of verbs of the passive voice are derived 
only from verbs of the active voice. The present participle of 
verbs of the passive voice ends in Mbiu. This participle is formed 
from the 1st person, plural number, present tense, indicative mood, 
of the active voice, by changing the final letter 5 into &w, an, ee> 
(for the masc., fern., and neut. genders respectively). Ex. XBaJHMtf, 
we praise ; xfiaJHMbm, &c., he who is praised ; &c. The present 
passive participles of the following verbs form an exception to this 
rule : ucKamb, to seek, ECKOMblti ; nacwm, to pasture, nacoJit&m ; 
Becww, to lead, sedoMbiu. The past participle of verbs of the passive 
voice ends in nubm or- mwu, &c. This participle is formed from the 
singular number, past tense, indicative mood, active voice, by 
chansrin^ the final letters M of that tense into HHbiu or mbiU. 

DO 

Ex. AiuaJtf, he made, ukAMtHbiu, he who is made ; miu&, he sewed ; 
w&moe, that, which is sewn; &c. The following verbs form ex- 
ceptions to the above rule : XBajmw&, to praise, x.BaiWWU ; HOCWW&, 
to carry, EomeHHbiu ; npom^&, to pardon, np6me/f&i# ; 3a6biBft?w&, 
to forget, 3a6b'iw&zit and ttfieetMbiu. 

Obs. The present participle of a verb of the passive voice can 
only be formed by means of either of the two neuter verbs 
6biBait and 



( 77 ) 

126. In the Russian language there are no other future par- 
ticiples than that of the verb foimb, viz. ftynyujfiu -an -ee -ie -in. 






127. Participles are declined as nouns adjective. 

128. Participles of the passive voice have both full and 
shortened terminations ; thus, from the full forms come the fol- 
lowing shortened forms : yBaJKaeM&m, -an, -oe, respected, 
-a -o j HHiaHH&m -an -oe, read, Hniantf -a -o. 



129. As a general rule, participles with full terminations are 
confined to writing and to books, whereas in conversation the 
shortened forms of such participles are more often met with. Ex. 
#OM& xopomo JiocTpoens, This house (is) well built ; 9ra 

, This book (is) read through ; HpHKasame 
The order .(is) executed. In conversation are likewise used such 
participles as have the meaning of nouns adjective ; for instance, 
OHS cyWjiii pe6enoK&, He is a regular child ; panenbiM o<i>Hijep&, a 
wounded officer ; Henpoxo^zui&zw jfcctf, an impenetrable forest ; &c. 



V. Gerunds. 

\ 130. Gerunds of the present tense of verbs of the active and 
neuter voices end in a, H, or ynu and TOHU. Ex. CTVH& knocking, 
sitting, HHia/j or ^EISHOUU reading, uzuiyuu writing. 



^ 131. The gerunds of the past tense of such verbs end in eft or 

' ' . 

emu. Ex. ciuitftf, cmxbEwu, having sat, &c. 



132. The first noted terminations of gerunds of either of the 
above tenses (those in a, a, 8$) are shortened, whereas those last 
noted (in yuu, wuu, emu) are full. The former are used in ordinary 
writing and in conversation, the latter in less refined language, or 
in the vulgar tongue. 

133. The gerunds of the present tense, like the participles of 
the same tense, are formed from the 3rd person, plural number, 
present tense, indicative mood, of the verb, by changing amv into a, 
and wntiiymti and wmti into a. Ex. MQJwdmtf they are silent, MOjqa ; 
x6^w&, they go, xo#/j; BeAywff, they lead, se^; JKCJa/omff, they 
wish, JKC.IEU. 

134. The gerunds of the past tense are formed from past 



( 78 ) 

participles by changing the termination ewiti into ULU or 69. Ex. 
MO-iHaflwm, MQJL^iaewu, M0.i4a0ff, having been silent ; Hanucaewiu, or 
Hanmcaewu, having written. 

135. In the case of verbs of the reflective, reciprocal, and 
common voices, the particles Cb and en are respectively added to 
the shortened form of gerunds of the present tense, and to the full 
forms of gerunds of the past tense. Ex. npanact, hiding, 
cnpaiaffwrnct, having hidden, &c. 

136. To gerunds of the present tense, passive force (which are 
but seldom used) is prefixed the future gerund of the auxiliary 
verb 6bimb : Ex. 6ydyuu xsajHM5, being praised. In like manner, 
to gerunds of the past tense, passive voice, the gerund of the past 
tense of the same verb is prefixed : Ex. 6bW6 XBaieH5 or /zoxBadCHtf, 
having been praised. 

137. Gerunds have sometimes the meanings of adverbs. Ex. 
OHS umiuemv cmon, he writes standing, &c. Gerunds of this kind 
are called verbal adverbs (oirjarojLHoe 



THE ADVERB. 

138. An Adverb is generally used with a Verb, in order to 
show the quality, circumstances, and mode of action. Ex. H man. 
miixo, I weni quietly ; OHS /TjoorpHBavicfl euepd eepxoMV, He went 
out yesterday on horseback. Certain adverbs are also placed before 
other parts of speech : (a) Examples of those preceding nouns 
substantive : MHMO ipyfloffff, many labours ; HWCKOMKO coJAai5, 
several soldiers; esaMibtifi nenetz, in lieu of money ; eMibcmo KHHF&, in 
place of books. (b] Examples of those preceding nouns adjective: 
OH& 6ueii9 npHjeffieHS, he is very industrious; eecbmd uoAesRaa 
KHHH&, an exceedingly useful book. (c) Examples of adverbs coupled 
with others, in order to intensify the meaning which it is desired 
should be conveyed : eecbMa xopoino, exceedingly good ; ouenb 
6.1H3KO, very near ; lopdsdo panie, much earlier ; e#0a npHM^THO, 
scarcely perceptible. 

^139. According to their respective significations, adverbs are 
classed as follows : 

(1) Adverbs of Quality: These denote the quality or mode 
of action, in answer to the questions mud ? how ? E&RUJW 66pa30.M& / 



( 79 ) 

in what manner? Ex. fl nposoray (from npOBOHtt)aw&) Bpe.M/z xopomo, 
I pass time well ; Tbi Bee nkji&ewb KaKi Hn6yvjb, Thou doest every- 
thing anyhow ; OHS JK)6HT5 npory.!HBam&ca rrfcuiKOM'b, He likes to 
take his exercise on foot j &c. 

(2) Adverbs of Quantity: (a) Answering to the question, 
CKO.IBKO? how much? how many? Ex. MBOFO, MOJO, nicKOJbKO, 
OAHaiKAbi, &c. (6) Answering to the question, BO-CKOJBKO? how 
many times ? Ans. BflBoe two-fold, Bnaxepo five-fold, &c. 
(c) Answering to the question, Ha-CKOJtKO ? into how many times ? 
Ans. Ha-ABoe in two, Ha-neiBepo, into four, &c. 

(3) Adverbs of Place : These answer to the questions idn ? 
where ? Kydd ? whither ? oxity^a ? whence ? from what place ? 
Answers : BA^CB here, Tyrb here or there, iaMT> there, Bea^i every- 
where, HHr#B nowhere, r^-HHSy^b somewhere or other, Aoiua at 
home, Ty#a thither, cio^a hither, flOMOH homewards, oiiy^a thence, 
oicib^a hence, HS^a-in from afar, CHapy?KH from without. To this 
class of adverbs belong also certain nouns substantive, used in the 
instrumental case, that is, when such signify the way by which one 
travels : OH& r fexa^5 MopeMB n floporow 3xBOpU&, He went by sea, 
and fell ill on the road. 



(4) Adverbs of Time : These answer to the question, 
when? Answers: cero^na to-day, aafiipa to-morrow, Hb'mii at 
present, 411^5 by day, HOHBTO by night, npejK^e before, nocit after, 
Hacio often, piyjKO seldom, paHO early, noa^HO late, &c. To this 
class of adverbs belong also yiKe' already, eme still, again, 
Bee always, &c. 

(5) Adoerbs of Precedence, such as cnepfia 1 first, at first, 
cnaHaia first, at first sight, cnoBa anew^ onaib again, BO-nepB6?o?5, 
firstly, BO-BTOp&z#& secondly, &c. 

(6) Adverbs of Intensity and Augmentation, such as BecbMa 
extremely, onenb, ropaaAO much, oiHfflKOMb too much, Kpafine to the 
utmost, &c. 

(7) Adverbs denoting diminution or decrease, such as epa 

scarcely, Hyib hardly, Haciby with difiiculty, DOHTH almost, &c. 



(8) Adverbs denoting sufficiency : AOBOJbHO enough, DOJHO fully, 
that will do, enough, &c. 

(9) Interrogative Adverbs, such as Kor^a? when? 



( 80 } 

why ? 4.ia wio ? for what ? r^t ? where ? Kyfla ? whither ? 
is it possible ? indeed ! &c. 

(10) Affirmative Adverbs, such as no&iHHHO really, indeed, 
HCTUHHO verily, BT caMOJW5 iiji/6 in fact, ia yes, TaKt so, 4'BficTBH- 

V * J V * 

T6.IBHO actually, KOHCIHO of course, &c. 

(11) Negative Adverbs, such as HC no, flirt not, He lain* not so, 
HHKaKt by no means, HHMajo not at all, HHCKOJLBKO not any, OTHIO^B 

./ f 7 J J 

by no means, coBci>Mi> He and BOBCC He not at all, &c. 

(12) Hypothetical Adverbs, such as no-KpaHHM Mip/& at least, 
asocB it is to be hoped, MyiB-JH scarcely, Bp^i-JH it is doubtful 
whether, MOJKeT&-6BiT& perhaps, &c. 

(13) Exclusive Adverbs, such as TOKMO, TOJBKO and J.HHIB only, 
e^HHCTBCHHO solely, KpoMt besides, &c. 

(14) 'Adverbs of Comparison, such as noAo6flO like, HapaBES 
on a level, iaKWJW& 66pa30Jt5 in this manner, &c. 

(15) Adverbs denoting disparity or dissimilitude, such as nnaqe 
otherwise, HanpoTMBT, on the contrary, Ha-o6oporB vice-versa, &c. 

(16) Adverbs denoting partnership, such as BATBCT'B together, 
B0o6m.e in general, generally, aa-o^no jointly, &c. 

(17) Adverbs denoting exchange, such as BM"BCTO instead of, 
B3aMi>H&, in lieu of, &c. 

(18) Adverbs of illustration, such as HMCHHO namely, TO CCTB 
that is, KaKT>-TO as follows, nanpHMiptf for example, &c. 

(19) Adverbs denoting suddenness of action, such as HeB3Ha T iaH 
unawares, BHesanHO unexpectedly, BApyn> all at once, MrnoBeHHO 
instantaneously, He^aflHHO unexpectedly, &c. 

(20) Enclitical Adverbs employed in popular speech, such as 
MO.IT. then, 46 said he, 4ecKaiB so to say, GHIHB then, &c. 

140. All Adverbs, except the qualifying (KanecTBeHHOe?), and 
adverbs of quantity (KO.iii4ecTBeHH0e), are called circumstantial (06- 
CTO/iTe.itCTBeHHO^) adverbs. 

141. Adverbs denoting quality, which are derived from qua- 
lifying nouns adjective, have degrees of comparison, as, for example, 
xopoino good, jymue better ; Bece^o joyous, Beceiie more joyous, Bctxi, 
Bece^ie merrier than all. Certain of the adverbs, too, which denote 



( 81 ) 

quantity, place, and time, have likewise degrees of comparison, such 
as MEorc much, 66,ii>e more, 66.i^e ocixi more than all, SJHSKO near, 
(Lii'iiKe nearer, BC^XT. SJHJKC nearer than all, paHO early, paste earlier, 
BciXT paflie earlier than all. 



THE PREPOSITION. 

> 142 Prepositions indicate the relationship between objects. Ex. 
<&M sa CTO.I&, the pupil sat down at the table. Prepositions 
likewise serve to alter the meaning of the words to which they are 
prefixed : Ex. do-xo^s income, revenue, #-xo5 departure, npu-\6j(6 
arrival, eoc-xow ascent, Jiepe&kaxmt to alter, paSMkuamb to ex- 
change. 

^ 143. Prepositions are classed as separable and inseparable. 

144. The separable prepositions require after them the oblique 
cases noted below : 

(1) Genitive: 6e3i>, Geao without, ja for, pa^H for the sake 
of, 40 up to, list out of, OTL a way from, y at, H3i>-3a 
from behind, H3i>-noAT> from under. 

(2) Dative: KT., KO to, towards. 

(3) Accusative : npo concerning, Hpe3i>, Hepesi through, across. 

CKB03b through. 

(4) Instrumental : na^t, Ha^o over. 

(5) Prepositional : npa near, in the presence of. 

(6) Genitive or Instrumental : M&Kyjy, Me/Ki between, among. 

, (7) Accusative or Instrumental: sa behind or for, no^t under, 
at, npe^T), nepe^i before. 

(8) Accusative or Prepositional: BT, BO in, into, Ha on, upon, 

against, o, o6i> ; 060 about. 

(9) Genitive, Accusative or Instrumental : ci, co from, with, 
together with. 

(10) Dative , Accusative or Prepositional: no by, up to, after. 

145. Amongst the class of separable prepositions may be 
reckoned also certain adverbs of place which govern the genitive case. 
Ex. 6^H3T> near to, Bos-ii beside, no^i along, near, OKOJO about, 
np6iHBT> opposite to, MHMO by, cpe^a in the midst of, snepe^H in 
front of, nosaAH behind. 

G 



( 82 ) 

146. The inseparable prepositions are BOS, Bbi, HHS, nepe, npe 
and pas. They do not alter the cases of the nouns which follow 
them, but they change the meaning of the word to which they are 
prefixed : Ex. ro^HbiH suitable, 8bfao&HbiU profitable, M-fena ex- 
change, nepevAna alteration, cipoHTL to build, pascTponmb to 



THE CONJUNCTION. 

147. A conjunction serves to connect either words or whole 
sentences. Ex. HsaHS u IIeTp5 npniiuit, John and Peter came ; 
EC.IH a 6f Ay 3AOpOB5 mo npi'kty KT, Baivn>, If I am well, then I will 
come to you ; OH& ujiu He \6uemv ujiu He uooKemti nOMo^b MH/&, He 
either does not wish to, or cannot, help me. 

148. Conjunctions are divided into the following: 

(1) Copulative (coeAHHiiTeJbHbm), such as H and, #aJKe even, 
npHTOMi with this, HC TOKMO and ne TOJbKO not only, CBepxT>-TOr6 
besides which, Taione likewise, JKC but, &c. 

(2) Partitive (pasA'B.iiiTe.ibHbn'O : HJH and .laCk) or, &c. 

(3) Explanatory (H3T>acHHTe.ibHbm) : HTothat, 6y^TO as if, B-BA'I. 
then, now you must know, Tor^a KaKT> whilst, TaKT> 4TO so that, 
TaKi) itairL as, &c. 

(4) Reiterative (noBTOpHT&ibH&m) : HH-HH neither nor, 
and OT4acTH partly, TO-TO now then, &c. 

(5) Comparative (cpaBiiHTe^bflbrw) : KaKT> Tain> as so, 

cmib as much so much, HeJKe.in than, 4iMi> T^MI the more * 
the less, Taia-JKe KaKT> both and, &c. 

(6) Conditional (yoioBH&m) or Suppositional (npeAnoJOJKHieJb- 
Ebitt) : eateJiH, ec,ia if, 4To6i>i in order to, ^a6bi in order that, 
Kor^a 6bi whenever, TO 6bi in order that, TO then, therefore, &c. 

(7) Concessional (yCTynfrreJbB&fu) : XOTS although, nycTL be it 
so, nycKau so be it, noJKajyfl if you like, &c. 

(8) Causal (BHHOCj6BHWu) : H6o for, ia Toro 4TO for the reason 
that, because, DOTOMy HTO because, &c. 

(9) Antithetical (npOTHBonoj6?KHbtM) : HO but, OAflaKO how- 
ever, BnpoieMi. furthermore, a but, &c. 



( 83 ) 



(10) Conclusive (aaiuiOHHTe.ibiifcw) : main, thus, HOCCM^ for this 
reason, Git^OBaieabHO a nd ciaio 6biib consequently, naKOue at finally, 
at last, &c. 

To the class of disjunctive conjunctions belongs likewise the 
particle *JM, which is affixed to a word in order to express a question. 
Ex. EbUM AU Bbi BT> MOCKB/& ? Have you been in Moscow ? Tow& Ju 
mo 40MT> ? /* that the house ? 



THE INTERJECTION. 

^ 149. Interjections are exclamations 1 which serve to express 
various feelings. 

^ 150. Their classification is as follows: 

(1) of surprise : a ! axi> ! axifi ! 6a ! 6a ! ofi-JH ! is it possible ! 

(2) of approval : afi-ja ! Hcnojaib ! hail ! TO-TO ? 6paeo ! 

(3) of joy: ypa ! 

(4) of assurance : en-efi ! npaso ! right ! 

(5) of call : afi ! reft ! 

(6) the answer to a call : a ! acs ! HTO ! ay 1 

(7) of laughter: xa ! xa ! XH ! XH ! 

(8) of indignation : TM>y ! oyfi ! 

(9) of incitement : ny ! ny-ie ! 

(10) those which imply a proposal : "Ha! Ha-ie! 

(11) of fear : OH ! axiw ! 

(12) of threat : van* ! BOTL ! jo6po ! 

(13) of reproach : 3 ! ax't 

(14) of prohibition : TCT>! 

(15) of sorrow and commiseration : oxt! yBbi ! 

(16) of indication : BOTL ! BOHT> ! 

151. Interjections likewise serve to express various sounds. 
Ex. 6yxi> ! naBT, ! xjont ! 



1 As such exclamations are, for the most part, mere sounds, they cannot well be 
represented in every instance in another language. Trans. 



SECOND PART 

Biopoe). 



SYNTAX. 

1 52. Syntax expounds the rules for employing words so as to 
form intelligible speech. 

153. Speech is the expression of our thoughts by means of 
words. 

154. A short sentence expressed in words is called & proposition 
(npe^oiKenie). Ex. ^jKopbiciie ecib Ao6pOAi>reJb, disinterestedness 
*is (a) virtue ; ropjocib nopoKt, pride (is a) vice ; OHH oyflyrb 6oraibi, 
they will be rich ; &c. 

155. The proposition consists of two principal parts the 
subject (noA.iejKaiH.ee) and the predicate (CK^QMOG) . 

(1 ) The subject is any or everything spoken of in the propo- 
sition ; such, for example, as has been indicated above in 154, viz. 
6e3KopbicTie, ropAocib, OHH. 

(2) The predicate is all that speaks of the subject ; thus, in 
the same examples, Ao6pOAi>Te.ib, nopoKt, Soraibi. 

156. The subject and the predicate are sometimes joined by the 
verb 6biT&, to be, as is seen in the examples given in 154. The 
verb 6biT& in the forms of its present tense is, as a rule, omitted ; 
thus, ropAOdb nopoia, pride (is a) vice ; H Gi^em,, 1 I (am) poor ; 
OHT> 6orarb, 2 he (is) rich. 

157. The subject is, generally speaking, a noun in the nominative 
case. Ex. JLfbmo npomjo, 3 Summer has past; Tynu saKpbUH co 



1 Abbreviated form of Ot^nLifl. Trans. 

2 Abbreviated form of GoraTbiU. Trans. 

a Neuter form of the adjective npdui.iuB. Tram. 



( 85 ) 

Clouds hid the sun ; &c. Other parts of speech may, however, take 
the place of a noun substantive as the subject. These are : (a) a 
noun adjective or a participle : Ex. UoMsnoe npe^noMHTaeicfl npiai- 
HOMV, The useful is preferable to the agreeable ; jnuuebiu He 3awB- 
qaert, HTO OAHO mcmokiqee npHHaAJercfirt naMi>, The idle (man) does 
not perceive that the present alone belongs to us. (b) Nouns 
numeral : Ex. Taint mbicnnu naiii 3a OTMHSHV, There thousands fell for 
fatherland ; &c. (c) Pronouns : Ex. ff iiHffly, / write; Bmomz npn- . 
jejKe<5 a mom$ Jiknhez, This one (is) diligent, but that one (is) 
lazy ; &c. (d) Verbs in the infinitive mood : Ex. /fri>Jiami> Apyrii.r5 
c*mcT.iHBi>i.MM ecib BeJHHaniuee CHaciie, To make others happy is the 
greatest happiness; &c. (e) -Adverbs denoting time and place: 
CetoditH TCILIO, It is warm to-day adrtcb Bece.io, a maMt cKyiHO, Here 
(it) is cheerful, but there (it) is dull. Adverbs of quantity may also 
represent the subject : Ex. Mnoto norfiftio H MCLAO cnac^ocfc, Many 
perished, and few were saved. (/) In a few cases interjections: 
Ex. IIporpeMtjo ypd! There thundered forth hurrah! Pa3aj6c& 
tipdeo ! Bravo resounded ! 

158. The predicate may be (a) A noun substantive in the 
nominative case : Ex. CKVK& CCT& Gojimm npa3w#5 Jiwueu, Weari- 
ness is the ailment of idle people; &c. (b) A noun adjective or a 
participle, with a shortened termination : Ex. Barai, oneKynt ojibimeuz 
M uecmewf, Your guardian (is) experienced and honest ; &c. (c) A 
verb in the indicative or imperative mood : Ex. OHT> numaemti, He 
reads ; HoMotu BaJHS Bort, God help you; &c. (d) An adverb of 
quality : Ex. /Knib BT> TIeTep6ypr/6 npiAmuo, HO oqent dopoio, To 
live in St. Petersburgh (is) agreeable, but very expensive. 

Obs. In a few cases a pronoun may take the place of the 
predicate. Ex. fl He mbi, I (am) not thou j &c. 



159. The subject and the predicate are called the principal 
parts or elements of the proposition, to which are joined the other 
and secondary parts that serve to illustrate and amplify the principal 
parts. The secondary parts consist of the complement, the definition, 
and the circumstantial words. 

160. The complement (flono.iflHTeJi>H00) illustrates or adds to 
the signification of the subject and of the predicate. It may be 
(a) A noun substantive in any of the oblique cases : Ex. OHT> 
H nntiie, He loves music and singing ; &c. (d) An 



( 86 ) 

adjective or a participle when either of these parts of speech stands 
in the place of a noun substantive : Ex. OHI jK&itert tonuMaio H cjid- 
6aio, He pities the persecuted (one) and the weak; &c. (c) A per- 
sonal pronoun, in any of the oblique cases, and a reflective pronoun : 
Ex. Mw 0}KHU!M TC0V, We have expected thee ; OHT> AyMaert o ce6n>, 
He thinks of himself. (d) A verb in the infinitive inood : Ex. 
OH& jiboHia uumdmb, He likes to read ; &c. 



161. The definition (onpe^iHTeJBHO^) points to the quality or 
to any of the attributes, both of the subject and of the predicate, 
as well as of the complement. The definition may be either an 
adjective or numeral, or a pronoun (except a personal, relative, 
and reflective). The definition answers to the question KaKoa? 
of what kind? HGH? whose? KOTopwfl ? which? cKOJbKO? how 
much ? how many ? Ex. 3a ecw 9my odmupnyw ycaAi>6y mwt 60- 
^dmblu coci>AT> 3aiuaTH.n cmo mwcHUZ py6.ien, For all this vast farm 
our rich neighbour paid a hundred thousand roubles ; &c. 

162. Circumstantial words (o6cTOflTejLCTBenH&w CJOB) are ex- 
pressed by the various parts of speech in the proposition which indicate 
place , time, mode, and cause or object of the action : (a) To indicate the 
place of action the following questions serve : rjfc ? where ? Ky/ja ? 
whither ? OTKy^a ? whence ? Ex. OH& 6&u& BI J%JK/& H BHAluff 
maM9 nany, He was in Rome, and /^er^ saw the Pope ; &c. (o) To 
indicate the time of action there are the interrogatives 
when? Kara? how? ^o^ro-^w? how long? Ex. Ha 
OH& 3aHfli5 6bUi> moicdbiu dem cs ywjoo, ^o eeuepa, During the holidays 
he was occupied each day from morning till evening. (c) To indicate 
the mode of action the questions are Ham, ? how ? KaKiuwtf 66pa30JW& ? 
in what manner ? Ex. OH& TpyAoica neymoMuMO, He labours j- 
defatigably. (^?) To indicate the cause or object of the action, the 
questions are no^eM^ ? why ? 4Jfl nezo ? for what ? aaniMt ? why ? 
OTHero? from which cause? Ex. Bet Boopy>K0.iHC& &j;z saiqumbi 
, All have armed themselves for the defence of fatherland. 
06s. From the examples here adduced it is apparent that 
nouns substantive are used in the oblique cases, both as 
circumstantial words as well as complements. The dif- 
ference consists in this, that the latter class of words answer 
to the questions Koro ? Hero ? KOMy ? K^MT. ? &c. ; whilst 
the former correspond with the interrogative adverbs 
KOivia? noHCMy? &c. 



( 87 ) 

163. Nouns substantive coupled with adjectives, when found 
separately in the proposition, and serving to illustrate another sub- 
stantive, are said to be in apposition. Ex. HeTepSyprb, eeMiKOdnnnan 
cmo.im^a Pocciu, ocHoBang IleTpoJMS B&IHKHJWS, St. Petersburgh, the 
magnificent capital of Russia, (was) founded by Peter the Great ; &c. 

164. Appositions (npHJOHfem'e) likewise have their own com- 
plements and definitions, as is apparent from the preceding example : 

Pocciu. 



165 A proper noun, or an appellative noun, may also be used 
as an apposition. Ex. E(api> loanm, Tsar John ; Pfcua AMypt, River 
Amoor ; &c. 

166. Address expressed by the vocative case is sometimes found 
in the beginning, middle, or end of a proposition : Ex. fl OHJH^aio 
ie6a, Aw6e3Hbiu dpytz, I expect thee, dear friend. Introductory words, 
such as Cjidea Boty, Glory to God ; Kawemcfl, it seems ; MO OK ems 
6\)imb y perhaps, &c., are likewise inserted : Ex. Bw, Kdwemcfi, ycia./m, 
It seems you are tired. Neither the address nor the introductory 
words enter into the composition of the proposition, and can be 
omitted without interfering with its sense. 

167. The principal parts of the proposition can also be omitted. 
In that case the subject or the predicate will be understood. 
Ex. Xowy no UOAHMZ H nad^wddio 3a pa66xa.Mw, / walk along the 
fields and look after the works. Here there are expressed the 
predicates alone, the subject fi being in each case understood. 

168. With impersonal verbs the predicate is in every case 
expressed without the subject or a person ; hence the proposition 
itself is said to be impersonal: Ex. Moposumz, it freezes ; efbpumcn, 
one believes ; &c. 

% 169. Propositions, according to their construction, are simple or 
compound. A simple proposition is confined to one sentence onlu, 
and consists of but one subject and one predicate : Ex. ffadejtcda 
ycjaoicddemz JKUSHB namy, Hope ctiarms our life. A compound pro- 
position embraces two or more sentences, and is therefore made up of 
two or more propositions : Ex. Hadeotcda yc^awddemG JKH3H& Haiiiy, 
Menmbi yKpawdwmti ee, a cmpdcmu coKpaiqdjomv, Hope charms our life, 
dreams embellish it, and passions shorten (it) ; &c. 



( 88 ) 

170. Propositions, according 1 to their signification, may be 
principal, subordinate, and introductory. 

(1) A principal proposition comprises some main idea, has its 
own separate senee, and does not depend on any other proposition : 
Eir. Moil Gpamfi, KOiopbiii He^aeno npOHSBCAent BT> o$nn.ep&i, omnpd- 
6UMH ez noxodz, My brother, who not long ago was promoted to 
(be) an officer, has set out for a campaign ; &c. 

(2) A subordinate proposition, on the other hand, depends on 
the principal proposition, which it illustrates, and may be joined 
both to the subject and to the predicate : not so complements, 
definitions and circumstantial words. For instance, in the pre- 
ceding example, the subordinate proposition is joined to the 
subject. Subordinate are coupled with main propositions by means 
of grammatical parts of speech, viz. relative pronouns, verbs in the 
form of participles and gerunds, adverbs of time and place, and 
conjunctions. 

(3) An introductory proposition is not connected either with 
a main or subordinate proposition, and may be omitted without 
upsetting the sense of the passage in which it occurs. Ex. Bbi, 
H dyMaw, ctfopo KOHHHie fli-io, You, / think, will soon finish (your) 
business. An introductory .proposition cannot be placed at the 
beginning of a sentence : if it is so placed it becomes the principal, 
and what was the principal is turned into the subordinate pro- 
position ; thus, tt dyMaio HTO BBI CKopo KOHHHie A^O. Here H dyMaw 
has become the main proposition, and the rest of the sentence has 
been turned into a subordinate proposition. 

171. To a principal or to a subordinate proposition is sometimes 
joined a quoted proposition, comprising some lengthy passage intro- 
duced without change : Ex. HMnepaiopff A^eKcaH^p5 I. CKaaajg 
Hapo^y, "fl BCTyna/o He BparoMtf a B03Bpam.aio BaMiMHpt H ToproBjK)," 
The Emperor Alexander I. said to the people, " I come not as an 
enemy, but to restore to you peace and commerce/' 

172. Propositions, according to variety of expression, may be 

(1) Narrative, or such as contain the illustration of any sort 
of subject, or simply a tale concerning it : Ex. Meitf 6bn& HepcbLMff 

H0.W5 JKUeH, HO OflHH 3aKOHbI MOIMII 6bITb OCHOBaH:eJM5 HXT> 

CHaciia, The sword was the first sovereign of the 



.( 89 ) 

people, but the laws alone could be the foundation of their civic 
happiness. 

(2) Interrogative, or such as suggest questions : Ex. SaniMT, 
npoxoAOttf MII 6e35 BiiiiMaHi/z MUMO TpyAo'05 36M.ieAi>.ii>ua, npo-iHBaio- 
m.aio norb na^t coocTBeimo/o UOAOCOJO, Why do we pass by without 
notice the labours of an agriculturist who pours out his sweat over 
his own strip of land ? 

(3) Exclamatory, or those which give utterance to a cry of 
surprise, or of some strong feeling : Ex. ^BaAnaib ipa 
xpHCiiancKHXT) Ayiiib npHSbiBatOTCfl KI> HOBOU JKHSHH, HI. 

CBoero 4e.iOB r fe i iecKaro ^ocioHHCTBa ! Twenty-three millions of 
Christian souls are called to a new life, to the recognition of their 
own human worth ! 

(4) Imperative, which express a wish, command, or pro- 
hibition : Ex. Haipamdcbume Aoopo/ji>Te.ib, npoceibu^dume JIO^CH, yco- 
eepweucmeyume BOcnmaHie, Reward virtue, enlighten the people. 
perfect education. 

Obs. Imperative propositions may be (a) impressive, or 
those giving expression to a precise injunction. The con- 
struction of such entails the addition of the conjunction me 
to the imperative mood: Ex. uumduwe rpoMHe, read (thou) 
louder; &c. (6) softening, or such as are employed in 
ordinary conversation and in popular phraseology. These 
are formed by means of the addition of the particle Ka to 
the imperative mood : Ex. CKaJKHffa Mflt, Prithee tell 
me ; &c. 

(5) Hypothetical or conditional, or such as are formed by the 
addition of the conjunction 6bi to the past tense of a verb : Ex. 
Kor^a 6bi BH noaeoKOMH^HCb c/b HHMT>, TO nojK)6in 6bi ero, Had you 
become acquainted with him, you would have liked him ; &c. 

173. Compound propositions are formed 

(1) By coupling one principal proposition with another by 
means of conjunctions. Ex. Ha Bora ynoBaw, a caait He iMoinaH, 
Hope in God, and be not careless ; &c. 

(2) By coupling principal with subordinate propositions, by 
means of the various grammatical parts of speech (vide 170) : 



( 90 ). 

Ex. HcTop?/? ecib HayKa, Koxopa^ nsoSpaiKaerb BX cBaaiiOM'b 
cymecTBeHHbia nepeivrliH&j BT> JKHSHH HapoflOBii H.IH rocy4apcTBi>, History 
is the science which depicts in a connected narrative the actual 
changes in the life of peoples or of sovereignties. A subordinate 
proposition may occur at the beginning of a sentence : Ex. JEcju 
ne cvyMJbewi) cmsdmb e$ HeMHoiuxz cjoedxv moio, nibMti HOJIHO cepdi^e, 
TO MHoro-piqieM-L io.ibKO paaBe^eniL BO^OIO c66cTBeunoe nyBCTBo, // 
thou canst not say in a few words that with which (thy) heart (is) 
full, then with much speech thou only dilutest thine own feeling 
with water; &c. 

174. Speech is formed by coupling simple or compound pro- 
positions possessing some connection of their own. 

175. Speech is either periodical or abrupt. Periodical speech 
consists of several compound propositions. Ex. fl roTOBiuca 6birb 
TOpatecTBa BeJHKOJinHaro : HO xopJKecTBo, mjijkmioe MHOK) 

Moe oJKHAauie TaKoe ate HVBCTBO, naKoe noipacajo 

MOW Ayniy, Kor/ta npe^ciaBHJHCb Mflt BT> nepBbiM paai 
H yBMA-feji) PHMT> nocpe^H ero aanyciiBiueH paBHimbi, nor^a 
KO xpa>iy CBfliaro Heipa, H ociaHOBH.ica no4T> ero H3yMHTewibHbiMT> 
CBo^OMi. I made myself ready to be a witness of a magnificent 
triumph : but the triumph which I saw exceeded my expectation. 
.... The same sort of feeling agitated my mind when the Alps 
were presented to me for the first time, when I saw Rome amidst 
her (lit. its) desolated ruins, when I came beneath the temple of 
St. Peter, and remained beneath its amazing vault ; &c. Abrupt 
speech consists of several simple principal propositions, coupled by 
grammatical parts of speech. Ex. nyBCTBO yciaiocTH Dcneajo : ciubi 
MOH BOSOBHOBHJHCb : ^bixanic Moe ciaJio jerKO. The feeling of 
fatigue disappeared : my strength was renewed : my breathing 
became easy, &c. 

176. Syntax embraces the rules : (1) of the concord (coiMa- 
coBame) ; (2) government (ynpasjeHie) ; (3) arrangement (pa3Ml>- 
meaie), of words; and (4) punctuation (npenHHame). 

I. CONCORD OF WORDS. 

177. Concord of words signifies their regular coupling in all 
parts of the proposition. 



( 91 ) 

178. The most important rules under this head are the follow- 
ing : . 

(1) The subject and the predicate, when expressed by declinable 
parts of speech, agree in case, but in gender and number they may 
differ when the predicate is a noun substantive : Ex. KauiMb'iim 
Hapodti Konyroiiiiw, The Kalmucks, a nomad race, &c. 

(2) When the verb 6biTb indicates a temporary condition, the 
predicate is used in the instrumental case : Ex. Bpaxs MOM Tor^a 
6i>iM KademoMZ, My brother was then a cadet ; IlepBWtf Oyoymt 
nocdfbduuMu H noc.ii>AHie nepGbiMU, The first shall be last, and the 
last first ; &c. 

(3) A predicate expressed by a verb or participle with a 
shortened termination always agrees with the subject in gender, 
number and person : Ex. /(OMT> npo^ant, the house has been sold ; 
AepeBH/z KyiLieHa, the village has been bought; nncLMa oiupaBjeubi, 
the letters have beeen despatched ; &c. 

(4) Definitions agree with those words which they define in 
gender, number and case : Ex. MHorie flHKie napo^bi noK.iOHSK)Tca 
HeSecHbiMT* CB'frnbaM'i,, many wild races worship the heavenly lumi- 
naries; &c. 

(5) An apposition agrees with its substantive in case, whilst 
it may differ from it in gender and number : Ex. JKejfeo, nojeafliii- 
wiu Meiajji), HaxoflHTCff y naci> BT> H3o6n.iiH, Iron, a most useful 
metal, is found with us in great abundance ; &c. 

(6) When there are two nouns (an appellative and a proper) 
in apposition signifying one and the same object, but of a different 
gender and number, the predicate agrees as to these with the appel- 
lative noun : Ex. r6po#T> AenHbi cjaBHJca B-L ^peBHOCTH, The town 
of Athens was famous in antiquity ; &c. 

(7) In the case of titles, such as Be.iH4ecTBO Majesty, BbicoHeciBO 
Highness, CBtaocTb Serene Highness, &c., the words defined by them 
agree with them in gender : Ex. IlMnepaiopCKoe BeiHiecTBO, Impe- 
rial Majesty; Baina CfiiTJOCTb, Your Serene Highness, &c. ; but 
the predicates belonging to them agree in gender with the person- 
age to whom the title relates : Ex. Ero HMnepaiopCKoe Beji'ineCTBO 
H3BO.iH.rb B03BpaiHTbCfl H3i> MocKBbi, His Imperial Majesty was 
pleased to return from Moscow ; Ea Kopo-ieBCKoe BbiconecTBO noci- 



( 92 ) 

Befc Bbicniifl yieGHbin saBe/jenm, Her Royal Highness visited 
all the high schools; Ero CfiiTJOCTt 6bi JT> 3anaTT> uijbifl AeHb BaiKHbiMii 
A^uaum, His Serene Highness was engaged the whole day with 
important business ; &c. 

(8) If there are two or more substantives of different genders, 
and one of these is of the masculine gender, the definition 
will also be of the masculine gender: Ex. OHT, npiiHeci. Baivn> noebie 
maHbi, KHIIFH H jan^Kapibi, KynMumie no Baineiuy jKejaHiK), He 
brought you the new plans, books and maps bought according to 

your desire. 



(9) If two or more definitions relate to the same object, 
then both the subject and the predicate are put in the plural 
number : Ex. E'kioe H AsoBCKoe MopA naxodnmcn, BT, npe^-kiaxi, 
Poccifi, The White Sea and the Sea of Azoff are situated in the 
confines of Russia; &c. 

(10) When several objects are referred to, and their general 
number is expressed by the pronouns ece or nuumo, the predicate is 
placed in the singular number : Ex. Bee eMy Hpaeudocb, ece eocxu- 
\UI<IJIQ ero, everything .pleased, everything charmed him ; HH npocbfibi, 
HH Mo.ibo'bi, HH caesbi HecHacTHbix-b Hmmo ne MOUO ero Tponyib, 
Neither the requests nor the prayers nor the tears of the unfortu- 
nate nothing could touch him. 

(11) A separate object relating to any of two or more persons 
spoken of in the proposition is placed in the singular instead of 
the plural number : Ex. Ilocji xaKoH neyAa^H, 66a 6paia noBiciUH 
HOCK (not HOCM), After such misfortune, both brothers became dis- 
couraged (lit., hung down their noses) ; &c. 

(12) The verb 6bimi) in the present tense does not always 
agree with the subject in number, and is sometimes placed in the 
singular, although the subject be in the plural number : Ex. Y Meea 
ecmb pibdwH KapmuHbi, I have rare pictures, &c. 

(13) When the verb 6bimb in the past tense is found between 
two substantives of different genders, it must agree in gender with 
the first, and not with the second. Ex. HeipT, fout pfaoe H Bece- 
joe jura, Peter was a playful and merry child. 

(14) When the subject is represented by the adverbs of 
quantity MHO^O, much, many ; MOJO, little ; H'fecKOJbKO, some, 
several ; CKO4bi;o, how much, how many ; CTOJbKO, so much, so 



( 93 ) 

many the predicate is placed in the neuter gender and singular 
number. Ex. Bt> STOMT> cpaHteniii yOumo nncKOMKO o*imepOB'b, In 
this engagement several officers (were) killed. 

(15) The words MiiojuecBio, multitude, 66.ibiima Hacib, greater 
part, Majiaa nacib, lesser part, require the verb or predicate to be in 
the singular number : Ex. TUMI. co6pdj,ocb MHomecmeo co-iAarb, 
There were collected a multitude of soldiers ; EoMwan nacmi) HaiUHXt 
TOBapnmeii npousecdend BT. o*nuepbi, The greater part of our com- 
rades were promoted to officers. 

(16) Verbs which relate to one object must be put in the 
same tense and aspect : Ex. OUT. crbM 3a cio.n>, nodyMciM, nanucdjz 
p'fciiiHTe.ibHbiH oiBtrb H omTipdouM ero KT> npocMie-iK), He sat down 
at the table, thought a little, wrote a decisive answer, and sent it off 
to the petitioner ; but when there are adverbs or conjunctions with 
the verbs, different aspects may be used : Ex. OHT. crbM aa CTO.n>, 
doMO AyMa.n>, nomoMZ cmaM nucamb oiB-BTb H naKoufyb omnpdeuM 
ero KT> npocnxeJK), He sat down at the table, thought for a long time, 
then began to write an answer, and finally despatched it to the 
petitioner. 

(17) A gerund in a subordinate, ; nda verb in a main, proposi- 
tion must express the action of one and the same person : Ex. Ilo.iy- 
quBT> nucbMO, a nanucaxb OTfiirb, On receiving the letter, I wrote the 
answer, &c. Therefore it would be irregular to say, Cioa na ropfe, 
rjasa MOM Bocxnina.nicb npenpacHbiMT. BH,JOMI>, Standing on the 
mountain, my eyes were enchanted with the beautiful sight, 
instead of Cioa Ha ropi, a Bocxuma-ica npenpacHbiM'b BH^OMT,, Stand- 
on the mountain, I was enchanted with the beautiful sight ; &c. 

II. THE GOVERNMENT OF WORDS. 

179. In the government of words are explained the various 
relations between the principal and the secondary parts of the pro- 
position. 

180. These relations show the dependence of one word on 
another, and such words are said to be governing, and governed or 
subordinate: Ex. IHyMT, 6ypH, o6pa30BaHie cep^ua, &c. ; the noise 
of the tempest, the formation of the heart, &c. Here the words 
and o6pri306dnie are the governing words, whilst 6ypu and 
fi are the governed words, or those dependent thereon. 



( 94 ) 

181. The principal rules in the government of words are con- 
tained in the subjoined use of the oblique cases with and without 
prepositions. The nominative and vocative cases being direct, do 
not depend on other words, and therefore are not subject to govern- 
ment. 

(a.) Use of the Cases without Prepositions. 

182. The genitive case answers to the questions, Koro? of whom? 
i iero ? of what ? nefl ? HLH ? Hbe ? whose ? and is used 

(1) Where there are two nouns substantive in a complementary 
phrase : Ex. MCHH HsyMibaBbicoTa lop*, The height of the mountains 
astonished me; &c. A complement is sometimes used in the dative 
instead of in the genitive case : Ex. 3i>cb HasHaneea ivfcfla MJbcmaMti, 
Here (is) noted the prices to the places ; &c. In certain masculine 
nouns signifying quantity, the termination of the genitive case is 
changed into that of the dative : Ex. H Kyinm. ny^t cdxapy n 
<^yHTi> ndw, I bought a pood (36 Ibs.) of sugar and a pound of tea 
(vide 39). Nouns substantive in the genitive case can be changed 
into nouns adjective : Ex. Jyn* co.iHn,a, A ray of sun ; coJtne^Hblu 
JiyHT), solar ray; &c. 

(2) In the case of nouns substantive derived from active verbs 
which require the accusative case : Ex. Vmenie noJiesuijixt muw cno- 
c66cTByen> KT> ofipasoedmio yMa, The reading of useful books aids in 
the education of the understanding ; &c. Certain nouns derived 
from neuter verbs also require the genitive case : Ex. BT> MHHepsuib- 
Hbixi. BCT04HHKaxi> npOHCXO^HTi KunibHie eodbi, In mineral sources 
the boiling of water takes place ; &c. 

(3) In indications of quantity, measure, and weight : Ex. Y Haci> 
MHoto padombi a Majio epemenu, We have much work, but little time. 

(4) After nouns adjective of the comparative degree : Ex. Cia- 
pbin Apyn> jyime Hoewxz deyxti, An old friend (is) better than two 
new ones ; &c. 

(5) In the case of nouns adjective indicating merit, strangeness^ 
fullness: Ex. /[OCTOHBLIU yeavcewn, worthy of respect; n 
topdocmu, free from pride OBT> iKXiyiMi. KOiue.ieKT> nojuwfl 

He received a purse full of money. 

(6) In the case of the numerals no.nopa, flBa, 66a, ipa, 

and their compounds, such as ^ea^uaib pa, copoin, xpn, &c., the 
genitive case is placed in the singular number : Ex. iKxnopa py6.w, 



( 95 ) 

1^ roubles; ca cmo.id, two tables ; 6(5a 6pdma, both brothers; ipn 
KHUIU, three books; Heib'ipe cmeKJid, four panes of glass ; naib- 
46CHTT. ipn codddma, fifty-three soldiers, &c. ; but with all the other 
numerals the genitive case plural is used : Ex. Haib cw(uo0&, BOCCML 
fipdmbeez, CTO cmiiKOM, Tb'icana Kumti, five tables, eight brothers, 100 
panes of glass y 1000 books, &c. 

(7) In the case of the numerals ^Ba, 66a, ipn, Heib'ipe, and 
their compounds, the adjective is used in the nominative case of 
the plural number, and in the same gender as that to which the 
substantive in question belongs : Ex. Ero mpu nocdfbdmH conuHeniH 
HitfijH 6o.ibffl6fi ycniiX'L, His three last compositions had a great 
success ; &c. In the case of all the other numerals, beginning 
with five, the adjective and the substantive must agree in number 
and case : Ex. CeMb nocxfeAHnxt coHHHeniH, the seven last composi- 
tions ; &c. 

(8) In the case of active verbs, when their action extends to 
a part only of the object : Ex. 4aa MH^ denem, Give me some money. 
With such verbs are always understood adverbs of quantity, such 
as HCMHOIO, little, few ; nncKOMKO, some^ several ; &c. 

(9) In the case of active verbs with the negative adverb <?, 
not : Ex. fl ne Awfaw npaaAHOCTH, I do not like idleness ; &c. The 
genitive case is also used when the negative precedes the verb 
which comes before the governing verb : Ex. Tbi He XOTBlt HHiaib 
SiHOU KHUIU, Thou didst not desire to read this book. 

(10) Active, reflective, and common verbs implying wish, 
expectation, deprivation, fear, danger, require the genitive case : 
Ex. H otceJidjo BaMi> ycnri>xa BT, BatiieM-b ffcxb, I wish you success in 
your business; OHT> 6.iro OKdaM naipddbi, He long expected a 
reward ; Bbi \iuiuuJiu Menu ydoeoMcmein BH^tib saci, You have 
deprived me of the satisfaction of seeing (lit. to see) you; H ona- 
cdiocb nowdpa a Tbi 6ouwcfi uaeodnemJi, I dread a fire, and thou 
fearest an inundation ; &c. 

(11) The following verbs also govern the genitive case: 
, to require; yjocTHraib, to attain ; croHTt, to cost ; OTB!>- 

, to test ; AOMoraibca, to solicit; oi^maTbca, to obey; CTbiflihbCH, 
to be ashamed of ; and certain others of similar signification, 
v/hich answer to the questions KOFO ? Hero ? 

(12) The genitive case is required after adverbs denoting 
place, such as 863.1%, beside ; no^-iii, near ; 6jiH3i>, near ; B,jo.ib, along ; 



( 96 ) 

, outside ; BHyipn, inside ; cnapyjKH, on the outside ; MHMO, by ; 
OKOJO, near; and others after which are put the questions KOFO ? 
nero? 

183. The dative case answers to the questions KOM^? HGMy? 
and is used 

(1) With certain active verbs, such as no^paJKaib, to copy ; 
/z0MoqB, to aid ; cjyjKHTb, to serve ; yroHUaib, to please ; 

to harm ; w/iyTCTBOBaib, to travel with ; &c. 

(2) With certain reflective and common verbs, such as 
jflTbCfl, to be surprised at; pa^OBaibCfl, to rejoice at; npe/jaibcs, to 
give one's self up to ; MO.IHTLCS, to worship ; jKaJOBaibca, to complain 
to; HpaBHTbca, to please; &c. 

(3) With the impersonal verbs, such as JK&ib, it is a pity ; 
cibiflHO, it is shameful ; xoieica, one desires ; Ha^oSHO, it is necessary ; 
nyjKHO, it is needful ; &c. 

(4) When the complement is a personal object indicating 
relations/lip, friendship, enmity, &c. : Ex. Oflb MHJb dndfi, Tbi eMy 
dpyit, He (is) uncle to me, thou (art a) friend to him; OHT> Uempy 
6oM>w6u nenpiAmejib, He is a great enemy to Peter ; &c. 

(5) With the adverbs npaJH^HO, becoming; cooiB'feTCTBeuHO, 
corresponding to ; coo6pa3HO, conformably to ; &c. 

(6) The following adverbs likewise require the dative case . 
BOnpeKH, contrary to ; Ha-3.i6, despite; Ha-cMtx'b, in derision of; 
ea-nepeKopi., in spite of; BT>-yro/ty, for the pleasure of; &c. 

184. The accusative case answers to the questions KOFO ? HTO ? 
and is used 

(1) As a complement, after active verbs without a negative : 
Ex. OHT nynuM pibdnyw mmy, He bought a rare book ; &c. 

(2) As a complement, after neuter verbs indicating a known 
distance or time : Ex. OHT. 6ijKa,n> i^Tbjyw eepcmy, He ran a whole 
verst ; Mbi He cnaiH ecio mm, We did not sleep the whole 
night; &c. 

185. The instrumental case answers to the questions K%MT ? 
HTBMI. ? and is used 

(1) With all the passive verbs: Ex. OHT> 6bi.n> JK)6nMi |CBMa 
, He was beloved by all his comrades ; &c. 



( 97 ) 

(2) With the reciprocal verbs, followed by the preposition en : 
Ex. HaiiiH BoiicKa xpa6po cpajKajncs c5 Henpiaie-iflMn, Our troops 
bravely engaged with the enemy ; &c. 

(3) With certain of the reflective and the common verbs, such 
as saeHMaiBca, to occupy one's self; VMbiibca, to wash one's self; 
ropAHTbca, to pride one's self ; Bocxamaica, to be charmed with ; 
.JK>6oBaTbCfl, to delight in ; &c. 

(4) With verbs indicating power, management, arrangement, 
such as B-ia^iib, to rule ; ynpaB.iTb, to govern ; pacnopajKaibca, to 
dispose ; aaB^biBaib, to manage ; o6.iaflaTb, to possess ; pacno.iaraTB, 
to place ; &c. 

(5) The following verbs likewise require the instrumental 
case : ^opoiKHTb, to prize ; JKepiBOBaib, to sacrifice ; oGiboBaTb, to 
abound in ; cipaAaib, to suffer ; &c. 

(6) Nouns substantive derived from verbs which govern the 
instrumental case require that the words subordinate to them 
should also be in the same case : Ex. pacnopaHte'Hie UMyi^ecmeoM^, 
the distribution of 'property ; saBfyjbiBame dnJidmu, the management 
of affairs ; &c. 

186. The prepositional case is always used with prepositions. 
With the prepositional case are used many verbs answering to the 
questions OKOMT.? OHeMi>? BT> qeirb? npn 4eMT>? such as flyMaib, to 
think about ; MeniaTb, to reflect ; coiKa^iib, to regret ; ne^tunTbca, 
to grieve; 3a66iHTbCff, to busy one's self; xjonoTaib, to bustle ; ynpa- 
JKHaTbca, to occupy one's self; HaxoflHTbca, to be situated; cociOi'iTb, 
to consist of; &c. 

1 87. Certain verbs require various cases. The more frequently 
used of such are the following : 

(1) }Ka.i1>Tb, to pity; npocHTb, to beg; which require the geni- 
tive or the prepositional. 

(2) yAOBieiBop/iTb, to satisfy ; noKpOBHTeJCTBOBaib, to protect ; 
which require the dative and the accusative. The dative when the 
action relates to an intellectual object : Ex. y^OBjeTBOpaib oKeJtdniio, 
JK)6omicm6y, to satisfy desire, curiosity; noKpOBHTe^bCTBOBaib uayxaMS 
H xydowccmeaMZ, to encourage the sciences and arts. The accusa- 
tive with a personal object : Ex. y#OB.ieTBOpHTb npocumeMi, to satisfy 
i\\z petitioner ; noKpoBihe.ibCTBOBaTb tftitdimxz cupomz, to protect poor 
orphans, &c. 

' H i 



( 98 ) 

(3) In the case of the verbs YHHTB, to teach, and oSyiaib, to 
train, the personal noun is placed in the accusative, and the object 
of the action in the dative, case : Ex. OHT> ynnrb MOIO cecmpy mysmvnby 
He teaches my sister music, &c. 

(4) The verb c-iiAOBaib, to follow, governs the dative and the 
instrumental. The former, where intellectual nouns are concerned: 
Ex. CU1>AOBaTb dofipbiMt npuMwpaMZ H coeifanaMti, To follow good 
examples and counsels. It requires all other nouns to be in the 
instrumental case, before which is used the preposition sa : Ex. 
BOHHBI Cjii>Ayiorb 3a ceouMZ no.iKoeodi^eMZ, The soldiers follow (after) 
their leader, &c. 

(5) The verbs HcnpaiUHBaib, to ask for, aaaiyjKHBaib, to deserve, 
HCKaib, to seek, when used in the present tense, and in the imperfect 
aspect of the past and future tenses, require the genitive case ; but 
when used in the perfect aspect they govern the accusative case : 
Ex. OHT, HcnpaiiiHBaerb, or HciipauiBBawn>, edmeio cowdcin, He asks, or 
he asked, foxy our consent ; Get HcnpocH.n>, or ncnpocHTL, ediue couid- 
cie } He asked, or will ask, for your consent; &c. 

(6) The following verbs govern the accusative and the instru- 
mental cases : npeneSperaTb, to despise ; Gpocaib, to throw ; Bep- 
liib, to turn ; npOMbiiiLiaTb, to cTeal ; xoproBaib, to trade; Spb'iaraib, 
to sprinkle. 

(7) The verb y^ocioHBaib, which requires the genitive case, 
sometimes governs the instrumental case also : Ex. y/jociOHTb 
nazpddbi H Mujocmw, . to bestow rewards and favours ; Focyflapb 
y^ocioHJ'b ero ceouMK pasioeopoMt, The sovereign honoured him with 
his conversation ; &c. 

(8) The verb HaSjio^aTb, to observe, when it suggests the 
question HTO ?, requires the accusative case : Ex. Ha6jK)AaTD 
nopAdoKK H iiucmomy, to observe order and cleanliness ; and when 
it suggests the questions aa MtMi> ? aa KtMT> ? it takes the instru- 
mental case, with the preposition 30. : Ex. Ha6.!H)4aTb 3a nopndKOMti 
H 3a uucmomow, to look after order and cleanliness. 

Obs. The rules of government, to which a verb is subject, 
remain the same when that verb is changed into another 
part of speech : Ex. OHT> flOCTHrb CBoefl i^nm, He attained 
his object; ^ociHraiomiH f u t n>Jiu, one who attains (his) object ; 
, the attainment of an object ; &c. But nouns 



( 99 ) 

substantive, derived from active verbs which require the 
accusative case, govern the genitive, as already stated in 
182 : Ex. cipoenie doMa, Hieme Kumu, the building of the 
house, the reading of the book. Others, again, govern the 
dative, with the preposition KZ : Ex. noHieflie KZ podumeji- 
RMT), yeaJKeiiie KI> cmdpuiUMt, reverence to parents, respect to 
elders; &c. 

(9) The verb Cuaro4apHTb requires the accusative case, whilst 
words derived from it govern the dative : Ex. fl (xiaro^apib Eota, 
I thank God ; fiMtiodapeme Bdiy, thanks to God; 6j,aiodapA cooeMy 
dhdib, OHT> yiLiamiii Bd> A<xirH, thanks to his uncle, he paid all his 
debts. 

(b) Use of the Cases with Prepositions. 

1 88. The government of the oblique cases likewise depends on 
prepositions : 

(1) The prepositions 6e3i>, .ifl, pa^H, #o, H3i, OTT>, y, and their 
compounds H3i> sa, HS'b-noA'b, always require the genitive case. 

(2) Kt (KO) governs the dative case. 

(3) IIpo, Hpe3T> (nepesij), coo:ib, the accusative. 

(4) Ha^T>, the instrumental. 

(5) Ilpn, the prepositional. 

(6) The prepositional adverb Me^y (MeJKi>) requires the 
genitive and the instrumental : Ex. BTOT& r6po#5 JLeaJHTt Meoicdy 
doyxti pTbK5, or M&xcdy doyMH pnnaMU, This town lies between two 
rivers ; &c. 

(7) When sa answers to the question KVa? whither? it requires 
the accusative : Ex. 3a ptKy, 3a Mope, beyond the river, beyond the 
sea. But when it answers to the question idn ? where ? it governs 
the instrumental : Ex. 3a p^KOK), 3a MOpeMb. Likewise, when it 
answers to the question 3a HTO? for what? it requires the accusa- 
tive case : Ex. TM 6bUT HaKa3aHT> 3a Annocmi), a OHI no^yMMJ-b 
uarpa/iy sa npuacycdtiie, Thou wast punished for idleness, and he 
received a reward for industry. 

(8) When noflT> answers to the question Ky^a? whither? it 
requires the accusative : Ex. QHT> cte> nods depeeo, He took a seat 
under the tree. But when it answers to the question r^'fe ? where ? 



it governs the instrumental : Ex. om> CHAtrrb nod% depeeoMV, he is 
sitting- under the tree. 

(9) npeAT> or nepefli> requires both the accusative and the in- 
strumental : Ex. OHT. npe^cia^'L npedti Focyddpfi or npedti Focyddp- 
eMtij He presented himself before the sovereign. With inanimate 
and abstract objects, this preposition is more often used in the 
instrumental case : Ex. OHI> HBibca npedz topodoMti, He appeared 
before the town ; OHT> npaBt npedti ceoeio cJeibcmbw, He (is) right in 
bis own conscience &c. 



(10) "When BT> (BO) answers to the question KVfla ? whither? 
it requires the accusative : Ex. OHT> nome.rb 05 no.ie, He went into 
the field. But when it answers to the question r^ii ? where ? it 
governs the prepositional : Ex. Om> ryjiaerb 05 nojn, he takes a walk 
in the field. The preposition BT> (BO) with certain verbs indicating 
promotion, bestowal of rank or reward, under any conditions what- 
ever, requires the accusative case of the plural number, and that 
case must in such instances be like the nominative : Ex. IIponaBecTb 
BT, 04>imepbi, to promote to (be an) officer ; HasHaHHib BT> KauAHyjaibi, 
to appoint (as) candidate ; &c. 

(11) When na answers to the questions K\a ? whither? iia 
Koro ? on whom ? Ha <n6? on what ? it requires the accusative case : 
Ex. OHT> oinpaBiLica Ha ocipOBT., He set out for the island ; fl Ha- 
AiBfOCB Ha Bamy ApyjK6y, I rely on your friendship. But when the 
same preposition answers to the questions rAi> ? where ? Ha KOMT> ? on 
whom? na Hen>? on what (implying rest)? it governs the pre- 
positional : Ex. Fopa Sina Haxo^HTca Ha ocipOBt CimHjin, Mount 
Etna is situated in (lit. on) the island of Sicily; &c. 

(12) When o (061.) answers to the questions o HTO or 060 HTO ? 
against what? it requires the accusative : Ex. OHT> yiUH6cfl o Kaftieiib, 
He hurt himself against the stone. But when it answers to the 
questions o KOMI? about whom? o ie]vn>? about w^hat? it governs 

'the prepositional case: Ex. OHI> roBOpHTT) o KaMH^ He speaks about 
the stone ; &c. 

(13) When CT> (co) answers to the question CT> nero ? from off 
what? it requires the genitive case : Ex. OHT> ynaji> CT> Joma^H, He 
fell from off the horse. When it answers to the question CT> Koro ? 
like whom? CO T ITO? like what ? indicating comparison, it requires 
the accusative : 'Ex. BeJirinnoK) CT> Jioma^b, In size like a horse? &c. 
When, again, it answers to the questions CT> Kt>n> ? with whom ? c r b 



( 101 ) 

? with what ? it governs the instrumental : Ex. OHT> Kyn6n> 
ca-HH CL JoniaABK), He bought a sledge piM a horse; &c. 

(14) When no answers to the questions no H6My ? over what? 
and no HeMt ? at what rate ? it requires the dative case : Ex. OHT 
ryjAerB no no^y, He walks ora the floor; fl njany no py6.iib, I pay at 
the rate of a rouble. But when it answers to the question no HTO ? 
up to what ? it governs the accusative : Ex. Om> yine.n> BT> Bo^y no 
caMyto mew, He went into the water up to (his) very neck. When, 
again, this preposition answers to the question no KOMI. ? after 
whom ? it governs the prepositional : Ex. Ont n.ia4en> no OTirfe, He 
cries after (his) father. When no is used in the sense of nooit, 
after, it likewise takes the prepositional case : Ex. Ho CMepiH fleipa 
Be-iHKaro, After the death of Peter the Great ; &c. 

III. THE PLACING OP WORDS. 

189. The placing or arrangement of words shows the order in 
which they should follow when used in speech. 

190. In the arrangement of words in a proposition, that order 
must infallibly be adhered to in which our thoughts succeed each 
other. The more closely we keep to the ordinary conversational style 
in the arrangement of our words, the more natural, easy, and clear, 
will be our expressions. 

191. This very style, the use of which is maintained by cul- 
tivated writers, comprises the observance of the following most 
important rules : 

(1) The principal object in our sentence should be placed first 
of all, i.e. first should come the subject, then the action of the subject, 
or the predicate, and lastly the complement : Ex. fle'ipt ocHOBa.n> 
HeTepo'yprL, Peter founded St. Petersburg ; &c. Speech should 
begin with those words which most occupy our though ts : Ex. Tpn,- 
HIJM CHJBHMH rpOMT., Rumbled the loud thunder; &c. 

(2) Sometimes before the principal portion of the proposition the 
secondary parts are placed, as these serve to prepare the way for the 
main object of the narrative : Ex. B$ mmiu ObicoKou dunbi, na 6epeiy 
MocKQbi pnKu, jcjKajH na ipasi #ea MOJO^bie He.iOBiKa, In the shade of 
a tall lime tree, on the bank of the river Moscow, two young men lay 
on the grass. 

(3) Where there are many definitions placed together, the 
following order should be observed : first the pronoun, then the 



( 102 ) 

numeral, after these the adjective or participle, and last of all the noun 
substantive : Ex. Tfc ABa Si^Hbie 6paia nMiuon> xopomia CIIOCOOHOCTH, 
Those two poor brothers have good abilities ; &c. 

(4) A qualifying noun adjective is alwa} T s placed before a pos- 
sessive adjective : Ex. Eoiaman aojoiaa innara, a rich golden sword. 
And circumstantial adjectives are placed before both qualifying and 
possessive adjectives : Ex. Sdnwnee npiaiHoe oomeciBO, the local 
pleasant society ; &c. 

(5) Cardinal numerals are placed before a noun substantive : 
Ex. EM^ on. po^y ceMbdecamz .ife., He is seventy years old. To merely 
express a number approximately, the numeral may be placed after 
the substantive : Ex. Einy 6n> pofly .itrb ceMbdecnmz, He is about 
seventy years old. 

(6) Ordinal numerals are placed before cardinal : Ex. He^ebie 
flBa naca, the /?<?/ two hours. 

(7) From the juxta-position of cases similar in termination an 
irregularity, and even a confusion of expression, ensues : Ex. OUT, 
nOHHTa.icfl ecrbMti eoucKOMti 6nbiTHbiMT> H xpa6pbiMi> IKXIKOBOAUGMI,, 
He was considered by all the troops an experienced and brave leader. 
In order to avoid such a fault, the words must either be transposed 
or their cases changed : Ex. OHT DOHHT&lca 80 eceMti eoucKrb onbii- 
HbiftTb H xpaSpbiMt no.iKOB04ueMT>, He was considered in the whole 
army, &c. 

(8) Verbs should not be placed at the end of the proposition : 
Ex. OHT> pasHbia HayKH SHdemz, He knows various sciences. Instead 
of this, the sentence should stand thus, OHT. 3ndem$, &c., He knows, 
&c. This rule may only be departed from when the whole emphasis 
of the phrase is contained in the verb : Ex. ^o^pwxT. .iio^eii xedjinmti, 
a S-ibixT, npesupdjomz, Good people sue praised, but wicked (people) 
are despised ; &c. 

(9) Adverbs of quality are placed before a verb when a com- 
plement or a subordinate proposition is attached to it : Ex. Kpbi- 

OT.1H4HO DHCaXb 6aCHH, KOTOpbia, 6C3T> COMHtflia, Bbl HHTajH 

pa3T>, KrwilofF wrote fables excellently, which doubtless 
you have read several times. But when the verb is unaccompanied 
by a complement, adverbs may be placed after it : Ex. KpbUOBT. 
nucEun. omMuno, Krwiloff wrote excellently. 

(10) An adverb must infallibly be placed before that word which 
it qualifies : Ex. OHT, coeepuienuo KOHHH.II HOBHM nepeBoji,, He has 
completely finished (his) new translation, &c. If this rule is not 



( 103 ) 

observed, and if the adverb is transposed, an altogether contrary 
signification will result : Ex. OHT> KOBHO.IT> coeepmeuno HOBLIH nepe- 
BO4T>, He has finished (his) perfectly new translation. 

(11) The negative adverb ne must be placed before that word to 
which the negation refers : Ex. OHT> He cero^Ha 6bLn> y 6paia a snepa, 
He was not at (his) brother's to-day, but yesterday. The following 
arrangement would therefore be irregular : Oirb He 6bJ.n> cero^na y 
6para a BHepa. A similar rule must be observed with all words 
used in the sense of adverbs. Such should infallibly be placed before 
the words to which they relate : Ex. HaB-fecTHie MGHS, no-Kpaihieft 
Mt>pi>, o SAOpoBKfe BameMt, Inform me, at least, about your health. 
This sentence would have a directly contrary signification were it to 
be thus written : H3Bi>CTi';Te, no KpaHHeii M^pi, MCHH, &c., Inform me 
at least, &c. 

(12) In the construction of conditional or prepositional pro- 
positions with impersonal verbs, or with adverbs, to the conjunction 
6bi is added the past tense of the verb fibimb : Ex. BaMt no-iesHO 
GbiAO 6bi nporyjHBaibca, It would have been useful to you to take an 
airing. Many offend against this rule by expressing the phrase 
thus : BaMT) nojiesno 6bi nporyjLHBaiLca. 

(1#) The conjunction 6bi must not be used in one and the same 
proposition : Ex. ECJH 6bi a Tatrb KopoiKo He snaxb 6bi Bact, TO He 
noBipHJi. 6bi BaMT>, If I had not so intimately known you, I would 
not have believed you. Here the conjunction 6bi should only be 
inserted in the first proposition, after the word ecJiu. 

(14) One and the same word should not be often repeated, 
especially if that word be a pronoun : Ex. OHT, Bb'iKynHJTi uxt, 

B3HJ-b UX$ KT> Ce6i, KOpMHJT, UXti KaKT, C60UXV A^TeM, H OTOC^aJT> UXd KT. 

pOAHTa!8MT> uxti, He bought them, took them to himself, as his own 
children, and sent them away to their parents. 

(15) Words, the signification of which is contained in the 
preceding word, must not be repeated : Ex. CeiodumaHiu dem Kama 
pa66ia doMO npodojwajiaci), To-day's day our work was long con- 
tinued, should be Cero^Ha Hama pa66ia 6bua npOflO.UKMTe,!bHa, 'I'o- 
day our work, &c. Such a fault is called & pleonasm. 

(16) Expressions should not be turned in a way that is foreign 
to the Russian language : Ex. Bbi cJHiiiKOM'b eme Mo^o^bi, 4i66bi 
saHi'iib cio.ib BaffiHVK) ^ojJKHOCTb, You are still too young to undertake 
such an important duty. Such turnings of phrase appertain to the 



( 104 ) 

French language. In Russian they should be expressed thus : BH 
eme TaK'L MOJOABI, HTO ne MojKeie sanm, &c. An error of this kind 
is called a gallicism. 

IV. PUNCTUATION. 

192. The signs of punctuation serve to illustrate the coupling 
or disconnecting of propositions and their parts. 

193. The signs of punctuation (suant npemmaHia) are: 
(1) comma, 3anaiaa ( , ) (2) semicolon, Tonna ct aanaiOH ( ; ) 
(3) colon, ABoeioqie ( : ) (4) full stop, xoiKa ( . ) (5) point of 

suspension, MnoroToiie ( ) (6) note of admiration, 3HaKT> 

BOCKJBUaTeJBHblfi (!) (7) note of interrogation, 3Hain> Bonpocii- 
Te.ibHbiH (?) (8) hyphen, nepia or xnpe ( - ) (9) parenthesis, 
CKooKa or 3HaKT> BMicTHTe.ii>Hi>iii ( ) (10) inverted commas, ^Byaanaiaa 
or BuocHbiii 3eaKT> ( " " ). 

194. The comma is placed 

(1) Between two or more subjects and predicates which are 
not connected by conjunctions : Ex. BesyBiii, 9iHa H Feiua cyib orHe- 
Abiiuamia ropbi BT> Espont, Vesuvius, Etna and Hecla are the vol- 
canic mountains of (lit. in) Europe ; &c. 

(2) When the following conjunctions are repeated, u, uu, ujiu : 
Ex. If AOJKflL. u CHf>ri>, HIJH, Both rain and snow fell, &c. ; Oflt He 
yM'ieii, HU MHiaib, uu nacaTb, He can neither read nor write; Bbi 
u*iu He MOF.IH, ujiu He xorLm aioro CAijaib, You either could not, or 
did not wish, to do this. 

(3) When the conjunction u couples the main propositions with 
the various subjects : Ex. B'b TOTT, 4CHb paapasiuacb yjKacuaa 6ypa, u 
ripOJHBHofi ^OiK^b 3aionH.n> Muoria y^HUbi, On that day broke a ter- 
rible storm, and heavy rain flooded many streets. But when the 
conjunction u couples two principal propositions which relate to one 
and the same subject, the comma is not inserted : Ex. TaMT> CBH- 
pi>ncTBOBa.!a cMbnaa 6ypa u nponsBo^iba cipauiubia onycTomenia, 
There a violent storm raged and produced frightful desolation. 

(4) A comma is placed before the conjunction u when the latter 
of two propositions comprises the result of Me first, and when after 
the conjunction u are understood the conjunctions noiOMy, orroro : 
Ex. H ceroAHa Miioro xoAHJn>j u (ommoto) ycia.n>, I have walked much 
to-day, and (hence] I am tired, &c. 

(5) If for the conjunction u the conjunctions KaK'b H, Tain. H, can 



( 105 ) 

be substituted, then a comma is not placed before u : Ex. Tpy^bi AO- 
CTdBUJiu eiay u cjaBy u cocToaaie, ( His) labours brought him loth fame 
and fortune, instead of KOKV cjaey, manti u cocTOflHie. 

(6) Before the conjunction ujiu, when it signifies explanation : 
Ex. Fe^LBeuifl, ujiu lIlBeiiuapia expand ropHciaa, Helvetia or Switzer- 
land (is a) mountainous country. But when EUH is used in a 
disjunctive sense, the comma is not used : Ex. OHT> JKC-iaxb 6bi ixait 
BI> FepMaiiiK) UM IlTa.iiK), He wished that he might go to Germany 
or to Italy. 

(7) In short propositions before the conjunctions a and HO : 
Ex. Om> npflxoAFLTb KT> saMT>, HO BH yiKe yfcxaja, He came to you, 
but you had already gone away ; &c. 

(8) With two or more qualifying adjectives without con- 
junctions : Ex. CBea6opn> ecib meepnan, ipoman, u HenpncTynnas 
KpimocTb, Sveaborg is a solid, imposing, and impregnable fortress. 
But when one of the adjectives is a possessive or circumstantial 
adjective, the comma is not inserted : Ex. Bnepawniu npikmnbiii 
BeHep"B, Yesterday's pleasant evening. 

(9) Between commas are placed all the annexes of the subject 
and of the predicate, as also the subordinate and introductory 
propositions and words : Ex. Bann> ipy4i>, Kcuwemcfi, npnxo^HrL KT> 

y, Your labour, it seems, approaches the end. 

Obs. 1. Participles, gerunds, the pronouns KOiopbiH, KOH, Ka- 
KOH, KTO, HTO, the adverbs KaKt-io, TO-eciB, HanpnM'BpT>, KpoMt, 
and the conjunctions HTO, Sy^TO, ecjn, TO, HejKejH-H-BMt, KpoMl), 
KaKt, require a comma to be placed before them, as also 
words which separate the subordinate from the main pro- 
position. If, however, a participle is employed as an adjective, 
and a gerund as an adverb, a comma is not inserted : Ex. 
^eiOB-Bia mpydku^iitcfi He 3naen. CKVKH, The man who labours 
does not know dullness; OHT. MHTaen, cmon, He reads (whilst) 
standing. 

Obs. 2. The subject, the predicate, and the copula, are not 
separated by signs of punctuation : Ex. A^nbi nonphiTbi CITE- 
roMT., The Alps (are) covered with snow, &c. Neither are 
definitions or complements divided from their principal parts : 
Ex. BepiuiiHbi ivmornx'b A-mificKHX-b ropi. noKpuibi B^mbiM-b 
CHl>roMT> it jbAOMT>, The summits of many Alpine mountains 
(are) covered with perpetual snow and ice. 



( 106 ) 

(10) The adverbs BO-nepBLixi, BO-BiopHXt, &c., and the con- 
junction HaKOHeiri, are separated by commas : fix. Bonep6bl1i, BBI 
H3ep)KHTe xyrb MHOFO 4eHen>, a eo-emopbixv, noTepaeie MHOFO spe- 
MCHH, Firstly you there spend much money, and secondly you lose 
much time ; JlaKone^, OHT, pimHJca ixaib Bt flepeBHK), At last he 
decided to ride to the village. 

(11) If nouns in the vocative case are found in the middle of 
a sentence, they are separated by commas : Ex. K r b BaMT>, MuJocmu- 
6biu locydapb, oSpamaiocL ci. npocbta), To you, dear sir, I turn with 
a request. But when a sentence begins or ends with a noun in the 
vocative case, after that noun notes of admiration will be put : Ex. 
MuJiocmuebiu Focyddpb ! noaBoJbie oGpaiMTbca KT. BaMi>, &c., Dear 
sir ! allow me to turn towards you, &c. 

195. A semicolon divides one proposition from another: 

(1) When its several parts have been already separated by 
commas : Ex. To-inb'i jKHiejea 6iffiain H3T> orHa, DOJKH pyccnie IIIJH 
BT>oroHb ; 04HH cnacajH JKH3Hb, apyrie HCOIH ee na jnepiBy, Crowds 
of inhabitants fled from the fire, Russian regiments went into it ; 
some saved their lives, others sacrificed them. 

(2) In abrupt speech, when the main propositions are expressed 
briefly, and do not depend on each other : Ex. Hpo/KurOBaTbiMH 
ocipOBaMH paaSpocaebi HeSo-ibmia pomn ; orb AepeBHH 40 AepeBna 
6tryi5 yam ^opoJKKH ; uepKBH S^-Biorb, In (shape like) oblong 
islands are scattered small groves; from village to village run 
narrow paths ; the churches look white. 

196. A colon is placed 

(1) In the middle of the proposition, before the explanation of 
any of the parts or appellations: Ex. MeJOB'feK'b HM-kerb naib BfliniHnx'b 
HVBCTBT. : apinie, c.iyx'b, BRVCI, o6oii;;iiie H ocaaanie, Man has fire 
exterior senses : sight, hearing, taste, scent and touch ; &c. 

(2) Before quoted or foreign words : Ex. Pyccnaa noc^OBHua 
roBOpirrb : " yneHbe cfiirb a neyneHbe TbMa," A Russian proverb 
says : " learning (is) light, and ignorance (is) darkness/' 

(3) Before a subordinate proposition, when it comprises in itself 
the explanation of the causes or results of the action, expressed in 
the main proposition, and when with this may be placed the con- 
junction noTOMY-HTO : Ex. OHT, yfrfcjihca BT> HeBOSMOJKBOCTH >KHTb BT> 



( 107 ) 



craiuirfe : doxo/jbi ero YMeiibiiia.iHCb, a jy^cxo^bi yBe.!HHHBaunci>, He 
convinced himself of the impossibility of living- in the capital: his 
income decreased, and his expenditure increased. This sentence can 
be thus expressed : nomoMy-umo 40x6451 ero yineiibiiiajiHCb, &c. 

197. The full-slop is placed 

(1) At the end of the sentence or proposition which comprises 
in itself complete meaning 1 . (See Ex. 175.) 

(2) After separate words not possessed of any grammatical 
bond. For example, the table of contents of books, or circulars : 

npaeaxi) B0o6me, about rights generally, &c. 

(3) With shortened words : Ex. HB. ToHHapOB'b, Ivan Gon- 
teharoff, &c. 

198. Points of suspension are inserted to mark some unexpected 
interruption of speech : Ex. KaKoe-io npe^HyBCTBie Mena ycipa- 
maeT'L .... HO, HfrrL, 310 Meiia ! Some sort of presentiment distresses 
me ..... but, no, it is a dream ! 

199. A note of interrogation is placed after a question: KTO 
npHiiie.n>? Who has come? &c. 

200. A note of admiration is placed wherever a wish, command, 
prohibition, are indicated, and also after interjections : Ex. HCHOJHH 
CKOpM ! CMHPHO ! Do (it) quickly ! Silence ! Intense surprise is 
sometimes indicated by a double note of admiration (!!), and strong 
doubt by a double note of interrogation (??) . 

201. A hyphen is placed 

(1) Whenever any word has been omitted: Ex. SaKOHt MOH 
, My law (is the) truth ; EorL-MOii man,, God (is) my shield. 

(2) In the case of some unexpected change of speech : Ex. 
Kpsuocb H B4pyn>, Kain> 6yAio 6bi HST. rjy60Hbi a^a, sapest-ia 

6ypa The sun was hid, and suddenly, as if from the depths of hell, 
began to roar the tempest. 

(3) Between the speeches of two persons when they are not 
named : Ex. ^liM'b TH 3aHHMaeinca ? ^niaio Hciopiio KapaM3ima. 
KoTopwii TOMT,? 4 B ^ fl ^^ aTI)I ^- With what art thou occupied? 

1 am reading Karamzin's history. Which volume ? The twelfth. 



( 108 ) 

202. Words or whole illustrative passages are placed within 
parentheses : Ex. MomiaH'b (6tbian zopd) ecib BbicoHanmaa H3t rop'L 
BI> Efiponi, Mont Blanc (the white mountain) is the highest mountain 
in Europe, &c. 

203. Inverted commas are placed in order to distinguish quoted 
or foreign words that are used in the sentence : Ex. EKaiepima 
Biopaa CKaaaia : " .lyHine npocii'iTb #ecaTb BHHOBHbixt H^MT. HaKaaaib 
ojfloro HeBHimaro." Catherine II. said : " It is better to pardon 
ten criminals than to punish one innocent person." &c. 



THIRD PART. 

enie nipeiie). 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

204. Orthography treats of the regular use of words in 
writing. 

205. The chief rules of orthography consist in the proper use 
of letters and of separate words, and in the correct division of 
syllables. 

^ 206. Letters, according to their delineation, are capitals 
(npOHHCHaa) and linear 



USE OF CAPITALS. 
207. Capital letters are written 

(1) At the beginning of each sentence. 

(2) After a full stop. 

(3) After a colon when inverted commas appear in the pro- 
position : Ex. CyBopOBT> oififriajT. : " H anaio KyiyaoBtf, a Kyiy30B& 
3HaeiT> Meim ;" SoovorofF answered: ' ' I know Kootoozoif, and 
Kootoozoff knows me." 

(4) After notes of interrogation and of admiration, if the 
meaning of the sentence is finished : Ex. Tbi Hiqeiiib fiipuaro 



( 109 ) 

CHaciia ? Dost thou seek true happiness ? Il^eMi Ha BparoBT> ! Let 
us go against the enemy ! 

(5) At the beginning of every verse. 

(6) In nouns relating to the Divinity : Ex. Eon>, God ; 
Co3AaTej&, Creator ; HpOBH/rfiHie, Providence ; &c. 

(7) In the names of Saints: Ex. AnocTO.n>, Apostle; HpopoKT,, 
Prophet ; IIpe^Teqa, Forerunner ; &c. 

(8) In Proper Names: Ex. AjCKcaHflpt, Alexander; Mapi>a, 
Mary; /I6HAOin>, London ; ^H^np-i^Dneiper; BesyfiiM, Vesuvius, &c. 

(9) In adjectives employed as proper names : Ex. PoccificKaa 
Hinnepia, Russian Empire; lepnoe Mope, Black Sea, &c. 

(10) In various words used in the sense of proper nouns ; 
such, for instance, as the names of ships, of streets, of bridges, &c. 

(11) The name, patronymic, and title of the ruling Emperor, 
and of the whole of the most august House are written in full, 
in capital letters: Ex. EfO IIMIIEPATOPCKOE BEJHqECTBO 



His Imperial Majesty the Sovereign Emperor Alexander, Son of 
Alexander, &c. Likewise the adjectives which refer to the Sovereign : 
Ex. BhlCOqififflltt, Most High, &c. 

Obs. The initial letters only of the names and titles of foreign 
ruling personages are written with capital letters : Ex. Ero 
MMnepaTOpcKoe H Kopo^eBCKoe Be^MHeciBO IhinepaTOp-b Tep- 
MaHCKiH H KopoJL IIpyccKiH BnjbreJibMT), His Imperial and 
Kingly Majesty the German Emperor and Prussian King 
William, &c. 

(12) In pronouns relating to the person of the Emperor and 
of his House : Ex. Ef6 BEJIiqECTBO, BO BpeMs npeSbiBaHia Cfioero 
BI> I(apcKOMT> Ce^i'fe, nOBei r fejn> AOCiaBiiTB Kt HeMy OT^CTLI, His Majesty, 
during his stay at the Royal village, ordered (them) to send reports 
to him, &c. 

(13) In letters and business papers all titles like Knast, 
prince; rpa^t, count; 6ap6m>, baron ranks, names, and offices, 
when a person is indicated by such : Ex. Feaepai^ <$eJBjM&pmaxi. 
KHH3b BapaTHHCKiM, General Field-Marshal Prince Baryatinski; 
Kaim.iepT> KnasL FopHaKOB'B, Chancellor Prince Gortchakoff, &c. In 
the same way when addressing persons of these ranks : Ex. Bame 



( no ) 

Cmie-ibCTBO, Your Serene Highness; Ero IIpeBocxoflHTe.!bCTBo, His 
Excellency ; Ero Ejaropo^ie, His Honour ; Ero IIpeocBamencTBO, His 
Eminence ; and the complimentary designations used in writing : 
MibocTHBbiH Tocyflapb H Focno/tnH'b, Dear Sir and Mister, &c. For 
the sake of politeness, pronouns which relate to the second person 
are put in capital letters : Ex. fl npocfLTb ac$ o ^ocxaBJieeiH MH-fc 
BauiHX'b ruaHOBT), I asked you regarding the furnishing to me of 
your plans. 

(14) The initial letters of adjectives relating to God and His 
Saints: Ex. BceBbiiuia, Most High; BceduBHbiH, Most Mighty; 
IIpenoAoSHbiM, Reverend ; &c. 

(15) The initial letters of the designations of governments 
and tribunals: Ex Focy^apCTBeeHbiH CoB-irb, State Council; Dpa- 
Bi'iTe.ibCTByiomiM CeHarB, Executive Senate; KaHqaiapia MaHHCTepcTBa 
BHyipeHHHX-b fr^Ai*, Chancellory of the Ministry of Home Affairs; &c. 

( 1 6) The initial letters of the titles of scientific and educational 
institutions : Ex. AKa^eMJa HayKi, Academy of Sciences ; Mnnepa- 
.lorHHecKoe OomeciBO, Mineralogical Society; FopnbiH HHCTHiyi'L, 
Mining Institute ; &c. 

Obs. The rules in clauses 11, 12, 15 and 16 are observed in 
petitions and in business papers generally. 

(17) In the initial letters of the titles of books: Ex. Ilvie- 
mecTBie Bonpyrb CBirra, Travels Round the World ; &c. 

(18) In the initial letters of the names of festivals : Ex. 
CBtuoe BocKpeceme, Easter Sunday; BjaroB^meHie, The Annun- 
ciation ; POJKACCTBO XpHCTOBO, Christmas Day, lit. Birth of Christ. 

(19) In the initial letters of the names of orders : Ex. Op4eflT> 
noBH3KH, Order of the Garter ; &c. 

(20) In the initial letters of the characters in fables, &c. : 
Ex. OflHaiKAbi Je6eAb, PaKi>, H myKa, &c., Once upon a time a swan, 
a lobster, and a pike ; &c. 

USE OF SMALL LETTERS. 

^ 208. Rules for the use of the letter a : Nouns ending in o, 140, 
M^e, and M^e, have, in the nominative and accusative cases of the 
plural number, a : Ex. BOHCK# armies, OKH# windows, CTCHM^ glasses, 
persons, cepAUrt hep"ts, y4H.inm# schools, 3piunmtf spectacles 



( 111 ) 

not BOHCKM, OKHbij &c. The exception to this rule is HOJOKO apple, 
which makes a6.!OKM. But all the diminutive nouns ending in KO 
and i^e have u, bi: Ex. sepHbiuiKO grain, plur. sepiibiiiiKH. 
mirror 



209. The letter 3 in the prepositions BOS, H3, HH3, pas, before 
the letters K, a, T, x, u, H, ill and m, is changed into c : Ex. 
BOCKjinuaHie exclamation, BOcnHTaiiHHin> pupil, Hcipeoirrb to destroy, 
HCXOAT> exodus, ncEvkienie cure, H4e3aii> to disappear, nponiuecTfiie 
occurrence, ncmnnaTb to pinch. 

210. The letter i is written before vowels and before the semi- 
vowel u : Ex. npiflmoe HSB'icrie pleasant news, jKapiuH iiojib hot 
July, &c. Before a consonant the letter i is written in the word 
M?'pT> universe, and in all words derived therefrom Ex. M/pCKOfi 
world, BCCM/'pHbiii universally, B.iaflHMfl'p'b Vladimir, &c. in order to 
distinguish them from the word MMpT>, peace, and its derivatives. 
In foreign words adopted in the Russian language, after the letter u, 
is written u, and not bi : Ex. iiw4>pa cipher, Me^HU^Ha medicine, 
and not iw<i>pa and MCAimbma, although in such instances the 
pronunciation is the same. 

211. Although in the terminations of the diminutive and 
caressive nouns the form of the letter e is preserved, it is pro- 
nounced like u. Instead, therefore, of writing UB r feTO4WKi> blossom, 
is written, &c. 



212. The double letter en is found at the beginning of the 
following words only, and their derivatives : CHaciie prosperity, 
CHerb account, cnacLiMBbiH fortunate, ec i iaciflbiH unfortunate, pas- 
cnerb calculation, CHHiaib to count, &c. 

213. Rules for the letter ij : This letter is found at the 
beginning of two radical words only, viz. lixaib (I^AHTb) to ride or 
drive, tab to eat. It occurs in the beginning or the middle of the 
following words and their derivatives : 

' 
A. oo.rfianb, disease. 

April. 6 P* ro (from Cpaib), I shave. 

6tci, demon. 

6tcHTb, to drive mad. 
diineHCTBO, madness. 
61>raTb, to run. 
C^a, woe. 

poor. 



B. 

Cect^a, conversation. 
6ecl54Ka, summer-house. 
6.iii,iMLiii, pale. 



poverty. 
6'B.ibiii, white. 

cataract (in the eye). 
sturgeon. 



B. 

to meet. 
to know. 
, to taste. 
knowledge. 
Bl>40MOCTb, intelligence. 
B'E^bMa, witch. 
B'E/iUHBOCTb, politeness. 
news. 



, &c., confession. 
eyelids. 
B'EKO, eyelid. 
century. 

eternal. 
, eternity. 
Etna, Vienna. 
fitiiciVb, crown. 

B'EiioK'b, wreath. 
B'BHHKT), broom. 
BliHO, dowry. 
B'fcpa, faith. 

, &c., to believe. 
to weigh. 
Btci>, weight. 
B-BCIJ, scales. 
B'EniaTb, to hang. 

HO B'BCHTb, ditto. 

aaatca, curtain. 

verandah. 
branch. 
wind. 
to announce. 

, &c., to inform. 
, &c., to visit. 
pole. 

BliJl'l'b, tO blow. 

Biepi, fan. 

r. 

Fj'fedT), proper name. 
retBi, anger. 

bay (colour). 
nest. 
ropijKH, a game. 
rpaMOT-Bii, learned man. 
sin. 



A- 

, Dneiper. 
, Dneister. 

armour. 
4-BBa, virgin. 
to put. 

, to put on. 

H3ji>BaTbCH, &c., to mock. 
, grandfather. 

ie, action. 
0, business. 
e, act. 
, to divide. 
onpej-BJHTb, to define. 
pa34l;,iHTb, &c., to separate. 
A"BT0, children. 

at. 

glands. 
iron. 

3. 

aastca, curtain. 
aaM^iauie, observation. 
3iinaBl>c'b, curtain. 

b, commandment. 

b, shyness. 
ie, eclipse. 
axb, to project. 
3Bt34a, star, 

SB-fipb, wild beast. 

/ 
3Mtfl, serpent. 

Sp^JbiM, ripe. 
3tBT>, mouth. 

stBUTb, to yawn. 
3l>aiJija, eyeball. 



Indian. 
, turkey. 

K 

a, cripple. 
room. 

cage. 
knee. 
, strong. 



( 113 ) 



, left. 
, healer. 

b, to cure. 
(These two words are sometimes 
spelt with e instead of H, but the 
latter is more regular.) 

t, to cuddle. 
, idleness. 
HTb, to plaster. 
, absurd. 

, magnificent. 



., forest. 

j-Biiiiii, forest imp. 
jl>3Tb, to climb. 

j-ECTHHija, staircase. 
JiTO, summer. 

H 

Me4B-B4b, bear (from Bt^an, to 
know, and MeAT>, honey). 
Mtflb, copper. 
WE.!!), chalk. 
Mima, exchange. 
nepeMtea, alteration. 
a, &c., treason. 
measure. 



e, hypocrisy. 

yM-EpeeeoCTb, &c., moderation. 
HTb, to knead. 
cio, place. 

aib, to insert, 
eaM'BCTHHKi, viceroy. 
), month, or moon. 
b, to mark. 

to remark. 
b, to make a mark. 
), fur. 

, to mix. 
, mixture. 
Miraaib, to impede. 
DOM-BmaTejbCTBO, folly. 
noM-fcxa, &c, obstacle. 
oKi), sack. 

burgess. 



H 

na4t.flTbOH, to hope. 

intention. 



eacji4CTBO, inheritance. 
nac'CKosioe, insert. 
bride. 

, daughter-in-law, 
or sister-in-law. 

, week. 
eira, indulgence. 
et4po, womb. 
Htatnufi, tender. 
Hiiwani, proper name. 
HtMecii, German. 
H'EMo'fi, dumb. 
Htxx, no, not. 

O 

OoptiaTb, to find. 

H3o6ptTdTi>, to invent. 

npiotiptiaTb, to acquire. 
06*41, dinner. 
o6i4Hfl, mass. 

06tTT), VOW. 

pi'omise. 
., hut. 
answer. 



, captivity. 
, mildew. 
, bald. 
no6-B4a, victory. 
DOB'ET'b, district. 
nojiao, log of wood. 

, Monday. 
b, to visit. 
npHB'ET.iHBOCTb, affability. 
, example. 
, sweet (not salt). 
ntrifi, piebald. 
ntHa, froth. 
ntHfl, punishment. 

, denarius (a coin). 
song. 

yxii, cock. 
nixoia, infantry. 
iiliiiiiii, pedestrian. 

, pawn (in chess). 



pt4Kifi, rare. 



, radish, 
piaaib, to cut. 

npoptxa, slit. 
p'E3Bbiii, playful. 
ptSHoii, carved. 
p1>K, river. 
P'tna, turnip. 
p-ECHHija, eyelid, 
ptib, speech. 

Haptiie, dialect. 
ptmHTb, to decide, 
ptraeio, sieve. 

ptme'TKa, grating. 
, to pour forth. 



b, reed, pipe, 
i, ferocious. 
cnt>;i;iii, fresh. 

CBliTT), light. 

cirtTi'iTb, to illuminate. 
CBlJia, candle. 

npocfliuieHie, &c., enlightenment. 
CJCBAT>, track. 

to follow, 
i, &c., last. 
c.i'Iiiiuii, blind, 
b, laughter. 

I, to laugh. 
CMliuiiioii, &c., laughable. 
CMtia, estimate. 
CH'fir'b, snow. 
cdstCTb, conscience. 

advice, 
lie, doubt, 
b, neighbour. 

to hasten, 
arrow. 
CTBHa, wall, 
clraepx, north. 
c'h^Jo, saddle. 

CtCTb, tO Sit. 

ctAHHa, greyness (of hair). 
c*Mfl, seed, 
a, vestibule, 
cover. 

b, to shade, 
cieo, hay. 
cipa, sulphur. 



ctpuft, grey. 
ctTOBaib, to lament. 
c-BTb, net. 
C^ib, to flog, 
ctaib, to sow. 



Te-itra, cart. 
T-BJO, body. 
T*eb, shade. 
Ttcebift, narrow. 

CTECHHTb, &C., to Crowd. 

T"ECTO, dough, 
liraeib, to amuse, 
yiixa, amusement. 



to convince. 
, district. 



bread. 

stye (for animals), 
xptex, horse-radish. 



, flower. 

to blossom. 
, flute. 
, to draw off. 
to heal. 
, &c., to cure. 
Hli.ib, mark. 

, to aim. 
to kiss. 
, whole, 
price. 
, chain, 
itt, clinging. 

, &c., to cling to. 
, to grow stiff. 
>, flail. 



H 

man. 



Words which have the letter /b retain it in all compound and 
derivative words : Ex. siipa, faith ; BtpyK), I believe ; fiipK), I trust ; 
BijpHbifi, faithful ; BipiiocTb, fidelity ; yfiipeHJe, assurance ; yB'fepefl- 
HOCTb, confidence ; noB-fepeHHbiH, agent ; Bipoarie, probability ; 40- 
CTOBijpHbiH, authentic; jerKOB'fepHbin, credulous; cyeflipie, super- 
stition ; &c. Two words only do not follow this rule, viz. HafliaTbCfl, 
to hope, and OAiiBaTb, to dress ; from which come HafleaMa, hope ; 
and OAea^a, clothing. 

The letter /& is written in the syllable /6, which is prefixed to 
pronouns and adverbs : Ex. H/&KTO, W/&HTO, /&KOTOpbiH, /6CKOibKO, 
WftKor^a ; but the word Henor^a, want of leisure, is written with e. 

In the following instances the letter /& appears at the end and in 
the middle of words ; 

(1) In the dative and prepositional cases of nouns substantive 
terminating in a and a : Ex. Giyr/6, to a servant ; o cy^fc/S, about 
a judge. Excepting those nouns which end in in : Ex. Pocciff, 
which has Poccin and o POCCIH, &c. 

(2) In the prepositional case of nouns which end in u, 5 and & of 
the masculine gender : Ex. BT> IIOKO/&, in peace ; npa CTOJ/&, at a table ; 
BT> OFH/&, in the fire. Also in the prepositional case of nouns which 
end in o and e : Ex. Ha OKH/&, on the window ; BT> noj/6, in the field, 
but those ending in ie take u ; thus, BT HMimit*, in possession; o ptiiie- 
mu, about the decision. 

(3) In the comparative and superlative degrees which terminate 
in ne and Tbtiwiu : Ex. CBfa/se, CBi>T.i/6HiiiiH. 

(4) In the numerals O^H/&, AB/&, 66/6, ^B/bHa^uaTB, #B/&CTH. In 
the first and third of these examples the letter /& appears in all the 
cases. 

(5) In the dative and prepositional cases of the pronouns H, TLI, 
ceoa ; thus, MH/6, ie6/6, o ce6/6. 

(6) In the instrumental case, singular number, of the pronouns 

KTO, T ITO, TOT'B, BeCb ; thus, K/6MT., H/bMl, T76MT>, BC/6MT>. 

(7) In all the cases of the plural number of the pronouns TOTB 
and Beet. 

(8) In the nominative case, plural, of the fern, form of the 
pronoun of the third person : OHa, <mi. 

(9) In verbs, the first person of the present tense of which ends 
in ibto, the letter n occurs in all the tenses and moods, except of 6pHTb, 



to shave : Ex. CM^TB, to dare, CM/&K), CM/MT>, CM/&H. And likewise in 
all words derived from these verbs : Ex. CM/&JOCTL, CM/MMH, CM/&Jb- 
HaK'B, daring, bold, bold fellow, &c. 

(10) Except the three verbs, vMepeib to die, xepeib to rub, 
nepeib to push, and its derivatives, sanepeifc to lock, ownepeib to 
unlock, all have Tb instead of e before the termination m& of the in- 
finitive mood : Ex. CMOip/Sib, XOT/&TB, BHA/&TI>. These verbs have also 
Tb before the terminations M of the past tense, indicative mood : 
JSk. CMOTp/6,n>, xoT/jn>, BHA/6JH.. The participles and gerunds, and 
also all words derived from these verbs, likewise maintain the letter 
rb : Ex. B6^/6Bniiw, #BHA/&BT>, BHA/Sme, npmvtHbRie, npomw'bme. 

(11) In the adverbs B634/&, BH/&, rfl/&, 40KOJ/&, 40TOJ/&, 3A/&cb, K.POM/&, 

EblR/b, OTCOI/&, nOAI/b, BnOJH/6, B03.I/&, BnpaB/&, BJl/&Bfl>, BCKOp/&, HaKa- 

Hyn/6, HaeAHH/6, DOCJ/&. Likewise in nouns adjective formed from 
these adverbs : Ex. BH/6iimiH, 3Aft>iimiH, hblBfbilBift, &c. 

The letter /& also appears before it in the terminations of the 
following nouns Afi^/Sfi, A.I6KC/6H, Cepr/&H, Maie/Mi, rpaMomii, and 
in the derivatives of the verbs 4/b.iaib and ATbficTBOBaib, such as 



\ 214. The letter Tb is not written in the following cases : 

(1) In the middle of words, after the letters r, K, x, JK, H, m, m, 
except in the case of the two pronouns K/&MT> and ( i/bMT>. 

(2) When the letter e is pronounced like e (iio or o) : 
men, n^ej-b. Exceptions : Substantives : rH^a^a 

Verbs : oop/6ai>, and ijB/6.n>, and their compounds 



(3) In the designations of races, terminating in ne : Ex. Gia- 
, Slavs ; PoccL&Mtf, Russians ; ApM, Armenians ; &c. 

(4) In foreign words received into the Russian language ; 
except Anp/tab, April ; B/6Ha, Vienna ; and their derivatives. 

Obs. In order to avoid mistakes in the use of Tb in words 
wherein the letter e also occurs, it should be observed that w 
represents the sound on which rests the accent : Ex. .iej/6flTb, 
to fondle ; ie.itt>ra, eart ; c/Sfiep'b, north ; lI/&Mem>, German ; 
JK6JI/&30, iron ; nepeM/&Ha, change ; &c. 

215. The Greek letter Q appears only in the beginning of the 
following Russian words: 9& ! #Ton>, #XT>! aKoii, ^iaKT>, (?'raKOH, and 



in the beginning and middle of foreign words introduced into the 
Russian language : Ex. $xo, 0KBaTOpi>, 3K3aMein>, 0Taan>, noaMa, 

UOdTb, &C. 

216. The letter <9, in pronunciation like $, appears in words 
introduced into Russian from the Greek : (Ex. A0HHbi Athens, 
GepMoniLibi Thermopylae, &c.), and also in words taken from the 
Latin or the French. In such it stands for th : Ex. 9c66pb Esther, 
0e#op r b Th(3odor, 00Ma Thomas, &c. 

217. The letters 5 and & mark the distinction in the pro- 
nunciation of those words ending either in the one or the other. 
The former gives a hard articulation : Ex. cmi5 table, iiiecTS pole, 
Mai& mate; but the letter & gives 'a soft utterance: Ex. cmi& so 
much, so many, iflecT& six, MaT& mother. The semi-vowels & and & 
after the sibilant letters 5K, H, ill, m, mark no kind of distinction in 
pronunciation : Ex. HOIKS knife, pOJK& rye, M6H5 sword, TC4& to flow, 
KaMbims reed, Mbiui& mouse. In such cases it must be observed that 
all nouns of the masculine gender take 5 after the sibilant letters 
above enumerated : Ex. pyoeara border, jyqg ray, iuK>45 key, epaH5 
doctor, madams hut, ruams cloak, ri JK)m& ivy, &c. The same remark 
applies to the patronymic nouns: Ex. HfiaHOBuqs, MiixaiiJOBHH&, 
Herpeses, &c. But nouns of the feminine gender terminate in & : 
Ex. poJK& rye HOHS night, nyCTOHi& waste ground, noMom& aid. 
After the u in the middle of a word, 6 is not written : Ex. 
daughter, xo'/na point, stop, ne^Ka oven, nTH*/Ka bird, &c. 



218. The letter 5 occurs in the genitive case, plural, of nouns 
ending in a, o, and up : Ex. cjym c^yrs, OKHO OKOH&, y inhume 
Y4iLiHm5; likewise in the same case and number of the following 
words : Tbica^a TbicaHS, cajKen& caaiees ; and in certain cases, 
singular and plural, of the masculine and neuter forms of the 
pronouns Hauitf and Bains. 

219. The letter b occurs 

(1) In the infinitive mood of active and neuter verbs: Ex. 
CMOTpf)T&, 6i>raT&. Likewise before the suffix en in reflective, 
reciprocal, and common verbs : Ex. XBa.iHT&Cfl, cpaiKai&ca, HaA'taT&ca. 

(2) (a) In the 2nd person singular of the present and future 
tenses, indicative mood, of active and neuter verbs : Ex. BMAUIII&, 

; (6) in the 1st and 2nd person singular, and 2nd person. 



plural, of the present and future tenses of reflective, reciprocal, and 
common verbs : Ex. XBajibc&, XBajHiu&ca, XBajHiec&, &c. 

(3) In the 2nd person of both numbers of the imperative 
mood : Ex. ociaB&, ociaB&ie, &c. Exception : perfect aspect of the 
verb .IOJKHT&CH, .iurb, which in the 2nd person plural of the im- 
perative mood makes jrarre. 

(4) Words taken from foreign languages, after the letter A 
have & : Ex. A-i&nbi the Alps, aj&rb (musical term alto), 6pfu&/fHTi 
brilliant, &c. 

PROPER USE OF SEPARATE WORDS. 
220. The negative adverb He is written separately 

(1) Before possessive and circumstantial adjectives : Ex. ue 
pyccKia, ne SCXIOTOH, He a/jimma, He BHepanmiH, &c. 

(2) Before numerals : Ex. ne o^HHt, He BnepBbiH, &c. 

(3) Before the pronouns : Ex. He OHT>, He Hann>, ne TOTL, &c. 

(4) Before verbs and adverbs: Ex. ne BHHCV, He jK6Jan>, ne 
, He jKCJaa, &c. 



221. The negative adverb He is written conjointly 

(1) With nouns adjective, and adverbs of quality: Ex. 
HeGoraibiH poor, weBeceJbiH sad, weSoraio poorly, esecedo sadly. 

Obs. If adverse conjunctions precede adjectives or adverbs of 
quality, the negative adverb He is written separately : Ex. He 
6oraibiH HO CWTHWH o6i>Ai>> not a rich, but a copious dinner; 
OHO xoifl He Bece.io HO no^esflO, although (it is) not cheerful, 
yet (it is) useful. 

(2) With participles: Ex. 03aBHcamiii ^dependent, W^BHJKHMMM 
mmoveable, &c. 

(3) The negative adverb He is written conjointly with words 
which either have no signification of their own, as Hexyrb sickness, 
(?JK)AHM1> misanthrope, w^qeciHBbiK impious, w/naBHCTt hatred, 
6 j Hacibe bad weather; or else an altogether different meaning, 
as WtfuapiiHeHHbiH unutterable, /^npaB^a untruth, it is not true, 
KiopUT&U enemy, <?noKopHOCiUb disobedience. 

222. The particle HU is written conjointly only with the 
following words : /mKio, wwKaKOH, Hnixk, wwKy^a, /mKaKt, WMKor^a. In 
all other instances it is written separately : Ex. HH CKOJbKO, HH Majo : 
OHT> ne yM^en* HU HHiaib HU DHcaib, he can neither read nor write. 



223. When the prepositions aa, no, Ha, H3i>, CT>, BT> are joined 
with other parts of speech, and thus form adverbs or conjunctions, 
they are written conjointly with the word to which they are joined : 
Ex. 3#H'i>M'b, sarkMt, rcoioMy, /royipy, /^npHM-fep-b, /faKanynii, the day 
before ; ^ciapn, of old ; cnaHaja, CHHay, ceepxy, <mn3^, ffBepxy, 
tfnpaBO, trnpoHeMT., WflKOfleivb, &c. But if these prepositions do not 
form adverbs or conjunctions, and govern some one case or another, 
then they are written separately : Ex. 3a rfeMT> ca/jOMT. Hamt flOMt, 
Our house (is) behind that garden ; IIofiAy no TOMy 6epery, I will go 
along that bank ; CMoipa na npHM'fep'b 466pbixt TOBapnmeu, Look to 
the example of good companions; OHT> yixajt co BctMt CBOHMT. 
ceMewcTBOMT., He went away with his whole family ; &c. 

224. The conditional conjunction, 6bi (6i>) is only joined in the 
two following instances : HTOW, #a6bh In all others it is written 
separately : Ex. H npHffle.n> 6bi KI> BaMT,, eoin 6bi ninijt BpeMff, I 
would have come to you if I had had time. 

225. The copulative conjunction ate (JKT>) before various parts 
of speech is written separately : Ex. TOTL ace, OAHaKO ate, HTO HTL, HAH 
JKe, CMOipn ate. It is also written separately in the comparative 
conjunction Tain, ate: Ex. PnMjflHe 6b'un TaFb ate cxiaBHbi, KaKi> H 
rpeKH, The Romans were as famous as the Greeks. But in the 
case of the copulative conjunction Tanase it is not separated : Ex. 
fl TaiOKe ObUT, BT> IleTepro^i, I was also at Peterhoff. The word 
Toate, when it implies uniformity, is written conjointly : Ex. fl Toase 
noi^y, I likewise will go. But when it is used as a pronoun it is 
written separately : Ex. OHT> TO ate OTB-fenaJi, Mnij HTO H BaMX, He 
answered me the same as he did you. 

COPULATIVES. 

226. A hyphen is called a copulative (anaia coe^HHHTeJbHbiH), 
and it may serve to connect two or more separate words : Ex. 
TeHepai'b-a^'biOTaHTi, General Aide-de-camp ; ^ifoHK 
physico-mathematical. 

227. Copulatives may connect 

(1) Two nouns substantive: Ex. IeHepa.n>-<i>e.ibAMapuia.rb, 
O'fHijep'b, General Field-Marshal, superior officer, &c. 

(2) Two adjectives : Ex. CfjBepo-AMepHKaHCKie niiarbi, North- 
American States. Likewise adjectives with substantives : Ex. 

,, Lower Kamtchatsa, &c. 



( 120 ) 

(3) Numerals with adjectives : Ex. Tpexij-yroJLHbiH, tri- 
angular, &c. 

(4) Prepositions with various parts of speech, i. e. when such 
a union forms an adverb: no-pyccKH, in Russian; no-6paTtiiii, 
after the manner of brothers; no-MoeMV, in my way; BO-Biopbix'b, 
secondly, &c. 

(5) Compound prepositions, such as H3t-3a, HSt-no^T., &c. 

(6) The conjunctions TO, .1660, with various parts of speech : 
Ex. KTO-TO, KaKoH-io, rfli-TO, KTO-.iH&'o, Kora-.iH6o. 

228. Copulatives, or hyphens, serve also to connect words 
which are disjointed by being carried on from one line to another, 
and of this mention is made below. 

DISJOINTING OF WORDS. 

229. In carrying on words from one line to another, the 
following rules should be observed : 

o 

(1) To carry on regular syllables: Ex. 6.ia-ro-pa-3yM-Hbiii 
ne-.io-BTiK'B, discreet man. 

(2) In compound words, or those made up with other parts of 
speech, to disjoint their component parts: Ex. LJapb-rpaj'b, HOB- 
ropoA'B, Boc-xoflt, MOpe-xoAi., orL-fe^L, &c. 

(3) Words of one syllable cannot be carried on from one line 
to another: Ex. rpo-MT> (rpOMt), CTpa-cn> (opacTb), BOJ-KT, (BO.IKT>), 



(4) One letter only of polysyllabic words cannot be transferred 
to another line : Ex. apiui-a, 



CONTRACTION OF WORDS. 

230. Contracted words must end ordinarily in a consonant : 
Ex. HMJI npnj. (npH.!ara>re.ii>Hoe), MVJK. poA., MBOJK. IHC.I., ^aT. 034. 

231. The following comprise the more commonly used contrac- 
tions: r. (rocnoAHHt), r-JKa(rocnoaia), M. r. (MIIJOCTHBEIH rocyAapb), 
nanp, (HanpHMtpt), T. e. (TO CCTL), H npOH. (H nponee), n.T. 4. (H 
Tain> 4ajie), H. T. n. (H TOMy noAoSfloe), c. n.6. (CaHKTnerepo'yprb), no 
P. X. (no PojKyjecTBTi XpHCTOBOMi.) , OTi> C. M. (oTi, CoTBOpenifi Mipa), 

BM. (flMtCTO). 

THE END. 






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