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Full text of "Russia of yesterday and to-morrow"

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY 
AND TO-MORROW 



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THE FORMER CZAR AND THE CZAREVITCH 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY 
AND TO-MORROW 



BT 

BARONESS SOUINY 



nivsTtuTvy with 

PHOTOaKAPHS 



NEW YORK 

THE CENTUBY 00. 

1917 



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CONTENTS 

CHAPm PA<n 

I AvAXBiOHa Russia 8 

n The Miutakt Paxtt T[ 

ni Unbaijuiced Foucies 57 

IV The RrsBUN Coubt 90 

V Akutockatic Wouxn in Russian Lips and 

Pouncs 195 

VI The E»» of the Rohanoff Dtnastt — 
The Grand Dukes — Petnces with a 

BiBTHKIOHT TO THE ThKOHB . 161 

Vn The Gekhan Influence in Russia — ^The 

Baltic Question 185 

VIII Axekica and Russia XXO 

IX Russian Akt, Dramatic Lite&atusb and 

Music . i66 

X The Peasants — Bueeaocbact — Ijttij: 

NOEIUTT 2S6 

XI Travxlino IN Russia of Yebtekdat, 
Which Will Also Be the Russia of 

To-mor&ow 3S8 

XII Russia of To-moseov 864 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

The FoniKr Czar and the Czarevitch Frontitpiece 

Bloody Sunday, when the Order was given to the 

Soldiers to Fire on the People 18 

Grand Duke Nicholas S5 

A. Branssilow 4>fi 

Connt and Countess Witte 6S 

Alexandra, the Former Czarina 106 

Gregory Rasputin 1*8 

Military Parade 18fi 

The Former Czar Praying with a Hegiment before 

its being sent to the Front 191 

Sebastopol, Crimea 209 

The Blessing of the Water 227 

Arsinstschef 261 

Father Gapon with the Workmen and Women . . 296 

The Duma, with the Picture of the Czar . 818 

The Taurida Palace, where the Duma Convenes . 887 

Moscow 867 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND 
TO-MORROW 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY 
AND TO-MORROW 

CHAPTER I 

AWAEENINO BtTSSIA 

The idea of Russia as a mysterious country 
was maintained in a century of the telegraph 
and essential materialism, in a world accustomed 
to an open display of mankind's thou^ts, feel- 
ings, and actions. This was the real mystery. 

To enter Russia one had to cross the famous 
and dreaded frontier, which in a way was the 
shrewd invention of an imaginative government 
to make visitors shudder before its "almi^ti- 
ness." It is worth while to recall this inqui- 
sitional institution, now possibly vanished forever, 
to those who have crossed the Russian border and 
to others who may be interested in the time when 
Russia was a countiy of the past. 

From the first crossing of the frontier, the 
traveler found that the train crept into the 
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• atJSSiA: OFtilSTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
station as if the slow turning of the wheels sang: 
"Take care I You enter Russia, the holy, the 
mysterious t It is not essential what your trunks 
contain; it is more essential what your mind con- 
tains. If you have any thoughts of freedom or 
any anti-goremmental ideas hidden anywhere in 
your head or heart, be sure that they will be dis- 
covered by the hawk-like eyes of our police." 
Everybody who for the first time stepped over 
the Russian border has felt the disquieting con- 
viction that he must be an anarchist at heart, and 
in his excited fancy has seen across the frontier 
tiie flaming sign, Siberia. 

The train stopped. The tension grew during 
the enforced waiting in locked cars until a smil- 
ing friend — sometimes one made such a new 
friend and had become confidential with him — 
who had traveled in civilian clothes stepped out 
of his compartmoit fully equipped as a Russian 
goieral. He nniled, and winked out of the 
window, hereupon the door was suddenly 
thrown open, and two soldiers sprang forward 
with outstretdied rifles. The passenger grew 
pale ; tfae general smiled. It was only the tribute 
pud to his power to protect whom he wanted pro- 
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AWAKENING- RUSSIA 
tected or to arrest whom he wanted arrested. 
The protected ones marched between the two 
soldiers, just as the arrested ones marched, and 
handed out their passports with troubling fingos. 
They were then received by a colonel of the mili- 
tary police, who, bowing peaceably and smoking 
cigarettes, conducted them to a special waiting- 
room for guests of honor, where they fared 
sumptuously before they were finally led to the 
side of the station where their train stood. 
There an assiduous employee placed a carpeted 
bridge up to the car-steps, and the conductor 
relieved the traveler of all his hand-bags and 
settled him "paternally" in a large and comfort- 
able compartment The conductor returned 
again and again, anticipating every wish, bring- 
ing cushions, candlesticks, bed linen sealed in 
bags, and finally asked if the bartn would like to 
drink something "enheartening." 

That was for the protected one; but for those 
less fortunate it was quite another story. A 
gendarme in Cossack uniform, his chest beaded 
with cartridges, pierced the luckless traveler with 
suspicious eyes as he took his passports and sent 
him to the custom-hall. AU the poor, traveling 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

with their bundles, were huddled together in the 
middle of the place, while with trembling fingers 
they untied the ropes of their boxes or opened 
their willow baskets to display their possessions 
to the eagle eyes of the custom-officers. Cring- 
ing, and searching for copecks with which to 
worm themselves into the good graces of the 
officials, they waited like sheep until they were 
dismissed with a haughty gesture or with lamen- 
tations and protestations were compelled to pay 
some duty. 

Another complication arose with the reading 
of passports. It was the special pleasure of the 
police official to complicate the simple duty of 
calling the names and handing back the papers. 
To the joy of most of the spectators, he pro- 
nounced the Jewish names witii sneering suspi- 
cion. The poor victims advanced, bowing ser- 
vilely, and the papers were shown to them, but 
withheld tantalizingly while the official con- 
ducted an inquisition. The poor Jew, perspir- 
ing, finaUy came to doubt his identity. He was 
sent before another official, who made him pay 
another ruble to get out of the hall. 

The real mysteiy began with the arrival at the 
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AWAKENING BUSSU 
Russian capital. Hospitable, generous Russia 
bestowed unlimited personal and individual free- 
dom on everybody. If one did not interfere with 
the sanctity of her policy, did not speak too much 
about freedom, one received all the freedcon ever 
dreamed of. There was no bothering, no hurry, 
or no limitation. Everything was ready at any 
boor of the day, and this lack of system was 
neither peculiar nor strange; it was absolutely 
understood that everybody did as he pleased. 
There was no formality. Politeness existed only 
to make life as easy as possible. Most extrava- 
gant hospitality was showered on the stranger; 
he found himself in the midst of a Russian life so 
simple, so informal that he imagined himself as 
belonging to Hbe nation, actually one of its chil- 
dren. The Russians talk so wonderfully, dis- 
course so cleverly on philosophy and art, that 
every word seems frank, new, and interesting. 
Yet despite this apparent intimacy, despite this 
apparent understanding, after months or years 
the stranger was no nearer a real knowledge of 
the people than on the first day. It might 
happen that in an animated discussion a Russian, 
suddenly bored by the conventional smoothness 
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BUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

of the ctHiversation, would feel an unconquerable 
desire to utter insult, to spit words on the amazed 
stranger — ^words of cruel truth and disdain that 
opened the abyss between the Russian and the 
outer world. The Russian is eager to pursue 
everything to the end; he drains out the last 
drop fnhn the fordgner's psychology. A free- 
nias(xiry prevails among Russians, and no out- 
sider will ever penetrate their spirit, their music, 
or the mysterious splendor of their Byzantine 
souls. Mystified, frightened, and enchanted at 
the same time, the foreigner remains in a per- 
manent tension of mind, waiting for the rising of 
the curtain behind which he imagines the "great 
Russian truth" to be. 

The director of the Russian state stage, the 
censor, hesitated many years to lift the curtain. 
A narrow opening recently revealed to the 
startled spectator the scene of a revoluticai in one 
dramatic act> in which the Romanoff dynasty was 
dragged from the throne. The representatives 
of the Duma, assembled on a platform around 
the empty throne, declared that Russia had 
beccane a democracy. Then the curtain fell, and 
the great plot was hidden again in the immensity 



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AWAKENING BUSSU 
of a land with a shuddering setting of coldness, 
of solitudes, where a wonder people breathe and 
live in imrealized hopes and expectations. Since 
the European War has brought the world within 
grasping distance of the Russian people — the 
good, strong, obedient masses — ^the idea has pre- 
vailed, with a mingling of shyness and hope, that 
Russia is awakening, tliat Russia is the land of 
the future. 

The Russian people hare been awakened by an 
event that has brought a new excitement into the 
war, which after nearly three years had become 
conmionplace. That the czar could be dismissed 
as if he were a Uchtwrnmik, or under-official, that 
a few men, indifferent to the people yesterday, 
could hold Russia in their hands, were at first 
overwhelming thoughts. The masses do not 
reflect, and the man who gave the word to hoist 
tiie red flag was looked upon as so miraculous a 
hero that the people enthusiasticaUy enjoyed each 
revolution-day, although on tiie next they mi^t 
awake to the sober consideration of why tiiey 
hoisted the flag of the people. 

The "fundamental change," as it is called, is 
not so fundamental as it appears. It is still a 
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RUSSIA OF YESTEBDAY AND TO-MORROW 

victory of tb& ofBcials and not of the people. 
The men were not at home; they were fij^ting 
at the front for the old regime, which ordered the 
Great War. The people were not consulted. 
The new order of things was dictated, and the 
five heroes who started the revolution at the risk 
of their own lives depend on the good-will of the 
people. No one can imagine just what an 
awakening of the Russian people will prove to 
be. The millions of illiterates see in this awaken- 
ing the wild intoxication of a liberty that could 
make short work with their superiors. This lib- 
erty could be cataclysmic, a terribly serious thing, 
an elemental thing that would shake Russia to its 
foundations. 

Russian history never has faced facts. It has 
told only of tremendous greatness or tremendous 
baseness, which has helped to increase the world's 
curiosity. History elsewhere has shown with 
mathematical sureness the renewing, the develop- 
ment, of all ihe peoples of earth, as well as Uieir 
downfall; but it is a most disturbing truth that 
history is not applicable to Russia. 

Between Russia as it was and Russia as it will 

be lies the moral deft of centuries. That means 

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AWAEENIXG RUSSIA 
not the few men who awoke to a superhuman 
ccHirage and activity, — they have always heea in 
Russia; they have been alive in the anarchists, 
nihilists, and terrorists, — it means the people, the 
Russian masses, who were left in a state of primi- 
tiveness of mind and who have been reared with 
the poison of superstitious imagination. En- 
lightenment for the people was the lurking 
danger for czarism, for the church. Even when 
the individual barin was no longer permitted to 
lift the whip, tbe big knout of czarism and the 
church always swayed over the Russians. They 
did not walk straight and erect as other people 
walk; they crept along sleepily, dreamily, and it 
was only what they dreamed that was known to 
the outer world. Deeds were like the explosion 
of compressed forces, the electrical outburst of 
friction, occurring sporadically. 

Previous upheavals in Russia have never led 
to logical evolution toward civilization. Yet out 
of the chaos of social, racial, and hiunan problems 
had grown this world's colossus, the most menac- 
ing power in the European concert of nations. 
But the colossus was on a clay pedestal. It was 
an immense body whose members did not work 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

organically, because the brain had not the capac- 
ity to coordinate. Svents of the most horrid and 
tragic consequences — wars, revolutions — have 
convulsed from time to time one side of the body 
without the other side taking any part in them. 
People in tiie north of Russia have been kept in 
darkness about their brothers in the south. They 
have only the general ties of Slavism, without any 
knowledge of one anotJier; yet tiirough the whole 
enormous body flows one red stream of sacred 
Slavic blood. This war aroused this blood, 
brou^t the people together; Pan-Slavism was 
their sacred war-cry. Those of the north for the 
first time saw their brothers of the south; they 
sat side by side in the mud of the trenches, they 
learned to know one another, they had the same 
idioms, the same longing for home and children, 
the same sufferings, and they were dying side by 
side. They certainly were dying. By the hun- 
dred thousands, ruthlessly, recklessly, they were 
thrown into battle. Why not? Russia's human 
storehouse is inexhaustible. 

Revolution, with its terrible nihilism, has been 
antipathetic to the world outside of Russia. It 
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AWAKENING RUSSIA 
was not the sound earth in which a democracy 
could grow. Russia had to wait for a more 
optimistic expression through which to make her- 
self understood to civilization. Only the war 
could bring about the solution of ^he Russian 
problem, the simple adherence of the masses to 
me single idea, to death or victory. Those two 
words contain tiie power to awaken a people. 
They gave strength to the strongest. The men 
facing death gained the courage to bring forth a 
new national life. 

Nowhere else in the world have revolutions 
been of so fantastic a character and of so short 
duration as in Russia. The revolutions have told 
the most dramatic stories; they have always been 
the revolutions of individual men, the great cries 
of pained and suffering men and women who 
endured physical tortures to free their brethren 
from moral enslavement. They are the stories 
of the wildest, the most amazing courage of mea 
who would fight bears without weapons. The 
physical and mental strain whidi led to the climax 
of the deeds of these martyrs was so terrible that 
they collapsed before their tasks were done, and 
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RUSSIA OF YESTEHDAY AND TO-MORROW 

all was in rain. Everybody sank back to the old 
slarery, and the heroic ones ^o were not sacri- 
ficed took their deception into exile. 

Does not it sound like a fairy-tale, the story of 
the two young men who went to Eronstadt, the 
fortress within five miles of Petrograd, and 
organized the disorganized soldiers, who, singing 
"The Marseillaise," marched on a Sunday morn- 
ing through the small streets of tiie fortress to 
the casino, where the officers were sitting at Sun- 
day dinner? The commandant and his officers 
were frightened when they heard the soldiers 
singing and saw them marching, led by two men 
swinging the red flag. "Revolution I" was the 
paralyzing thought, and before the troops arrived 
at the casino, the officers had fled from the for- 
tress in boats, to announce to Petrograd the terri- 
ble events taking place at Kronstadt. Not one 
shot was fired. But the imagination of the 
government officials was set on fire. The news* 
papers printed details of the most terrifying 
reroluticmaTy movement, and nobody dared to 
approach the fortress. 

In the meantime, while waiting for develop- 
ments, the young revolutionists gave the soldiers 
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AWAKENING RUSSIA 
a good time. Count Witte» who was then in 
power, sent Prince Dolgomky to the fortress 
with a white S&g. The two young heroes 
received the prince and dictated the conditions; 
the czar should proclaim freedom of speech and 
press, the people should send representatives to 
the imperial coimeil, and the Dimia should he 
established. The prince, gracefully dismissed by 
the youngsters, went back to Petrograd and 
remained there a few days, while tiie most fantas- 
tic reports about Kronstadt were spread in the 
capital Meanwhile the people looked with timid 
admiration toward the fortress which stood 
mysterioxis and silent on the bank of the Neva. 
Again the prince returned to the fortress taid 
was received by the two revolutionists, to whom 
he brought a document, signed by Count Witte, 
in whidi the czar granted all that had been asked. 
It was supposed that £ronstadt was full of revo- 
lutionists; and it was not imagined that the two 
leaders were absolutely alone in possession of the 
fortress, while the soldiers were enjoying their 
vacation tremendously. The two leaders kept 
Prince Dolgoruky for two days under guard, 
vdiile they scaped over Finland to Sweden and 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
thence to America, where one is still living. 
The five leaders of new Russia, strong and 
sincere in their holy zeal, have forgott^i the 
psychology of the people. The Russia of to-day 
is a democracy to the outside world and to the 
exiled, but not to the people. And this is the 
pessimistic utndertone that stifles all joy for the 
wonderful change in Russia. In this revolution 
the people as a whole were not the inspiring 
element. The few at home had their share in it 
— ^tfae excitement of killing, of threatening to 
enter the houses of the nobles, whidi had been 
forbidden sanctuaries to them. They could 
arrest ministers, high court officials, the czar him- 
self. Finally tfaey raised the red flag on the 
historic Winter Palace of the czar, where liie 
great Catharine, the people's idol, oace lived. 
Moreover, the holy synod, the great, mysterious 
power of tiie church, was disrobed of its sanctity, 
was exposed in its nakedness; its head, the 
"Little Father," was disgraced. 

Despite the tremendous deed of the Ave heroes 
of new Russia the revolution was not eruptive 
enou^. It was too hesitating. First, the czar's 
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AWAKENING RUSSIA 
abdication was demanded in favor of the 
czarevitch, with Michael as regent. Then, when 
the czar had also abdicated for his son, Michael 
was asked to accept the throne; and after 
Michael, who was unwilling to pay the debts of 
the dynasty with his head, decline*^ the new 
rulers wavered in their resolution to have no 
throne at all. There was the weak point. They 
were not organized. They were resourceful, but 
they were not ready to remove all the old 
machinery of government. Instead of consign- 
ing the royal robe of czarism to a historical 
museum and draping the young republic with 
the ermine of power, crowning it with the fresh 
mthusiasm of the people who had helped to 
destroy the throne, the leaders made mistakes 
they could not hel^ making because they, too, like 
the people, were Russians. Their wonderful 
mentality, overdeveloped on one side, lacked sys- 
tematic training. Unfortunately, it was not a 
time for mistakes. In ibe first few days of hesi- 
tation, of vain promises impossible to fulfil, it was 
easy to lose what might never be regained. The 
Russian people are like diildren. Take away 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

their doll, and they must have another plaything 
to replace it, to bold their attention. 

The first signal of the new epoch in Russia was 
the killing of Rasputin, the peasant. A noble- 
man killed him. It had been hammered into the 
people's minds that Rasputin was the criminal 
who had brought the country to the edge of an 
abyss. The peasants hated Rasputin ; they were 
never proud of his glory when he lived. He had 
no right to live like a prince in a palace; he was 
no better than they. Why should a man who had 
tramped through the villages, a sectarian who had 
followers among the idle, a man who could neither 
read nor write, exercise such power? They 
could not imagine that it was the power of all of 
them that Rasputin daringly represented as a 
contrast to the weakened forces of the nobles. 
But Rasputin was dead; murdered by a noble- 
man. In their minds it was not the business of 
a nobleman to kill a peasant. Rasputin should 
have been judged by his own. They would have 
killed him, too, if he was guilty of being a traitor 
to holy Slavism. 

Rasputin is dead, and the people will beg^ to 

defend the peasant, even though, as they said, he 

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AWAKENING RUSSIA 

had misled the czar and the czarina and had taken 
away vodka in an hour when it was most needed 
to help the people in their distress. Rasputin is 
dead, and that they do not have vodka they wiU 
finally understand to he a good thing; instead of 
vodka they now have money in the savings-banks, 
enou^ to buy food for their families. But food 
cannot be bought even with all the money that 
their sons fighting at the f rcmt have sent home to 
them. And the money cannot buy back their 
slain children; it cannot restore their crippled. 
Rasputin is dead, the Duma has punished even 
the czar; but the scarcity of food still prevails, 
the sons are not coming home, the enemy is still 
on Russia's soil. Where are ihe promised wan- 
ders? 

The five leaders of the revolution are the living 
torch flaming in the ashes of old Russians hopes 
— the torch which scorched despotism, and must 
be kept burning by the breath of the people. 
Those who risked their lives as well as the lives 
of the soldiers to transform Russia fundamen- 
tally have the fault of their race, the sinister fault 
of the Slavs — ^fanaticism, blind, tenacious fanat- 
itnsm. They may exult in this fanaticism, which 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

gave the elemental strength of a Hercules or a 
Samson, which made them start a revolution; but 
they must do great t^gs to sustain the sugges- 
tion of invincibility. They must have the magic 
force to change the Tatar into a European, not 
giving time to the Tatar to ask the primitive 
question: If it was possible to dethrone a czar, 
in whose name good and bad were done to the 
people, in whose name will things be done now? 
And if all will be done in the name of the people, 
then every man has the right to make demands. 
Like diildren annoying their parents and teach- 
ers, they will ask much and tirelessly. And 
what of the church wonders? When the Little 
Father, the czar, could be sent away, and no other 
czar took his place, can God be sent away, too? 
Thousands of illiterates will begin to think, to 
move, to ask their rights ; and the wonder-work of 
the five who have forgotten how many centuries 
it requires to educate a people to the balanced 
state of mind for a democracy, is in serious 
danger. 

Despite all the e£Forts of the Government of 
former Russia, most of the people again and 
again refused to obey the imperative command 
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AWAKENING RUSSIA 

to industrialize their energies. They were 
artisans or peasants; comparatively few were 
working-men in factories. Now they will be 
forced into the modem rut; they will become like 
the ccnmnon people of the other countries, a dis- 
gruntled result of industrialism, victims of the 
machine. Worse than this, Russians will be a 
dull people without the foreigners' mechanical 
efficiency, deprived of their own native imagina- 
tion, divorced from the mystical shyness of their 
religion, and in misunderstanding struggle with 
their new rulers. Their conception of life and 
happiness is so different from that of other 
nations that it cannot be understood by an Amer- 
ican mind. Their joy partakes of an indolence 
which has nothing to do with the dolce far mente 
of the children of the sun, nor is it the fateful 
nirvana or kismet of Orienttd peoples. It is a 
bodily and mental indolence coupled with a rest- 
less and yearning soul eager for its redemption. 
The climate has influenced the Russian. The 
long nights and the frightful cold have increased 
his dreamy laziness. A warm stove, the family 
crowded together in one room, the boiling, com- 
forting samovar, an ikon under a little burning 



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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

lamp, meditation upon the abstractions of life — 
this is all that he has asked from his saints. In 
this primitive uniformity his spirit has developed 
into one single touching quality — patience. 
There is a great power in patience that fast- 
living people can hardly understand. It stores 
up vast possibilities. Patience has caused the 
simple Russian to create wonders of art com- 
parable with the masterpieces of Benvenuto 
Cellini. The illiterate peasant has l>een happy 
in his own way, and it will be a trtigedy for him 
when he is forced suddenly to live a life dictated 
by the will of others. 

It will be the greatest fight for the new rulers 
to accustom Russian children to regular school- 
work. Parents will revolt at the idea of having 
children taught things whidi are all right for the 
masters. And the children who learn how to read 
and to write will grow up to revolt against the 
world. The patience that the parents had, no 
longer existing with the children, will be replaced 
in the new generation by the self -destroying urge 
of anarchism, which will revenge lost, happy, 
primitive conditions by turning on society. 

In former Russia the poor felt less poor, less 
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AWAKENING RUSSIA 

humiliated than in other countries. True, they 
seldom rose, they seldom left their original status. 
The Russian people were strongly divided in the 
classes which are mentioned by the laws; nohility, 
clergy, burgesses, merchants, artisans, and peas- 
ants. And these classes again were strongly 
divided in inherited and personal nobility, in 
privileged burgesses and burgesses; but in prac- 
tice only the nobility and tiie peasantry had 
clearly defined rights and obligations that gave to 
these two groups distinct class character. 

The peasants confided their rights to the 
nobility. This was the original idea of the 
foundation of the zemstvos. The peasantry was 
the first to have representatives for its interests 
in the coimdL But the number of represmta- 
tives was fixed by a special law in a manner to 
secure predominance for the representatives of 
the nobility; in very few district zemstvos have 
the peasants had the preponderance. Even in 
this strong and broad-minded institution of Rus- 
sia that Alexander II foxmded in 1864 the land- 
owning nobles had great power, and the peasants 
had to submit to their decisions. 

A.utocrBcy was the sun around whidi every- 



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RUSSU OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
tjiing circled. Blindly the people accepted it. 
It was an eatablished, a tested idea, and the crown 
was necessary to this fantastic figure, which 
embodied the magtuficence of the Slavic imagina- 
tion. The conceptitm of the czar was absolutely 
inseparable from the Russian picture. The new 
rulers must have something great in store to 
replace the superstition of majes^ that was deep 
in the people's souL 

Russia is struggling with her noblest forces out 
of the century-old mysticism and nightmare 
cruelties to the light of humanity. Five men, 
among them one who has been a martyr for free- 
dom, will help the country in these trying days. 
They vrill dictate, they will condemn, and they 
will judge. 



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CHAPTER II 

T HB*. MnJTAET FABTX* 

Thbee years ago, at one of the resplendent 
balls of the Club de la Noblesse, a foreign attache, 
overwhelmed by the brilliant coloring, looked 
around the vast ball-room, and watched the entry 
of a great grand duke with his suite, together 
with numerous little grand dukes, garbed in 
scarlet and gold or green and gold, their swelling 
diests covered with decorations, and with dia- 
mond-glittering orders suspended about their 
necks on orange, black, or red ribbons. 

Music trumpeted the sharp rhythms of the 
polonaise, and the dancers, solely young officers 
with their noble young ladies, advanced couple by 
couple. 

"One would suppose Russia to be a military 
state," remarked the attach^. "Uniforms every- 
where. Do they mean merely show or do they 
denote a new spirit for greater preparedness?" 

Who would ever reply to a diplomat? In 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
Russia Tariegated uniforms always have be«i 
preferred to dull black-and-white evening 
clothes, which do not differentiate a gentleman 
from his lackey. In training for the army the 
youths of Russia's higher set were following their 
sense of patriotic duty, and their love of dis- 
tinguishing themselves from the bureaucratic 
classes through bravery and elegance. It was 
unthinkable that a yoimg aristocrat should be 
other than an officer, one of the splendidly trained 
bodyguards or cme of the highly admired convoys. 
It was playing with arms without a deep con- 
sciousness of its terrible significance, and the 
uniform did not impose so great a degree of 
importance as in some countries, notably Ger- 
many, where it necessitates on the part of officers 
rigid rules and restrictions. 

In Russia a imiform is not sacred; it is seen 
everywhere, even at night in the gay restaurants 
and cabarets, and did not prevent an old general, 
with all bis decorations on the breast, from being 
present in sudi a place and carrying a beautiful 
young girl in his arms like a baby, gaily feeding 
her from a bottle not containing milkl On the 
ccaitrary, Hx uniform in Russia protects its 



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THE MnJTARY PARTY 
wearer from his extravagances, which are indul- 
gently tolerated because he w an officer. 

Perhaps beneath the surface there was a deep 
meaning in this frivoUty on the part of Rus- 
sia's army men. Perhaps they had a premoni- 
tion of the tragedy to come. The play became 
bitter reahty*. Alas I all those who lived and 
waltzed in buoyancy and superabundance of 
spirits, alert and slim in their regimeatals, are 
dead I The same trumpets that once blared the 
polonaise now play for them the Danse Macabre, 

On reflection, it is as if a new mihtary idea was 
behind that pomp and ghtter; as if a new con- 
sciousness was bom in the youth of the country, 
who felt the responsibihty of the debt they owed 
their native land — a debt contracted in the Russo- 
Japanese War, lost through the ridiculous 
arrogance of its leaders. 

They went forth arbitrarily, every man a gen- 
eral, convinced that the little yellow men of the 
little antiquated island would furnish them game 
for a himting-trip, to be brought back like bears. 
They even formed regiments independently. 
Like ancient highwaymen, getting permission 
from the czar, they went down to the River Don, 
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BUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

where the Cossacks lived, and equipped their men 
fantastically, and adventurously started forth. 
All the distractions of the capital foUowed; 
Mukden and Fort Arthur became a kind of 
Coney Island. 

Incredible as it seems, even the grande* dame* 
were allured by the adventure, following with 
their servants, building amateur hospitals, and 
hampering the Red Cross by good-natm^ con- 
fusion, by their dilettantism and unfitness for the 
serious task. 

The provisions sent to the front never reached 
their destination. The story of the Grand 
Duchess Maria Pavloma, who collected half a 
million rubles to buy boots for the soldiers, was 
one of the most notorious. The official to whom 
the train canying those longed-for articles was 
confided held auction-sales at every big station I 
From far and near people came to profit by this 
rare occasion to buy cheap boots, till, yAvax the 
train finally reached Mukden, the soldiers, 
eagerly opening those cars, found only empty 
boxes! 

Ahl the unpardonable sins of Fort Arthm-l 

Instead of bagging their game, the Russians 
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THE MILITARY PARTY 
put their feet into the wolf -traps of efficiency thai 
the Japanese had set in their strong, mathemati- 
cal, modem warfare. Port Arthur was encir- 
cled, starred; the hmiters took the next Siberian 
express home, deserting their men. 

Russia's youth learned that the Japanese War 
was the blackest spot in the military history of 
the nation. They felt that they must wash it 
clean when the next occasion arose. 

A military spirit haunted the young officers; 
the military party was its result, started first by 
a few whose ambitions were awakened, and who 
had learned that the time was past when other 
nations could be frightened by the acrobatic 
ability and the wild aspect of the Cossacks. The 
mihtary party grew and grew and became 
mighty. The Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaie- 
vitch headed it. From Bulgaria he brought 
Radka DimitriefiF, a general who was his adviser 
in the modem training of the army. And as no 
party ever was created without becoming hungry 
for deeds and losing its sense of proportion, it not 
only "prepared," but longingly and fanatically 
sought an opportunity for action. 

Nicholas's first army act was to gatiier masses 
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RUSSU OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
of soldiers at the Austrian border, apparently not 
for a short manceuTo:, but as a permanent insti- 
tution. The soldiers irritated and provoked witii 
their idle observation the Austrian soldiers who 
were at the frontier in pursuance of duty. 

This was in September, 1918. Critical days 
followed. A clash with Austro-Hungary seemed 
inevitable, especially in the li^t of the unsettled 
Balkan questions. The news was alarming. 

Nicholas passionately worked upon the czar 
to declare war against Austria; but the czar, 
thanks to the president of the ministry, £okow- 
zow, a peace man, who had not much faith in 
Nicholas's organization, and to Rasputin, stood 
steadfast. By special messenger the oLd Em- 
peror of Austria sent a letter in his own hand- 
writing to the czar imploring him to prevent war 
between the two nations. 

Every one was convinced that the dangerous 
tension was past Life went daily on its accus- 
tomed course; on the surface all seemed serene. 
Behind the scenes, however, feverish preparations 
began. Nidiolas secretly worked his machina- 
tions. He paid visits to the Balkans, where his 
father-in-law, the King of Mtmtenegro, ^o was 
d2 



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THE MILITARY PARTY 

always debghted to fish in troubled waters* 
inflamed his ambitions for the Russian throne. 
But the Russian crown was not to be gained 
by Kicholas even through a cleverly plotted 
assassination of the czar. There were other pre- 
tenders. The King of Montenegro slyly sug- 
gested that the only road to an overpowering 
popularity for his scoi-in-law was to become a war 
herot The secret heart's desire of the grand 
duke was fed by -Mr. Iswolsl^, the Russian am- 
bassador in Paris. It was the same Iswolsky 
about whom the representatives of otber powers 
said that it was repugnant to sit at the same 
table with him. He longed to revenge a personal 
matter that went back to the time when he led the 
foreign aflfairs in Austria. Despite his resist- 
ance and the interposed interests of Russia, 
Count Berchthold, the former Austrian prime 
minister, made a coup d'Hat by the annexation of 
Bosnia-Herzegovina, which Austria fostered for 
more than twenty years. Iswolsky was dis- 
missed for the failure of his mission, and made a 
vow to revenge this incident and his personal 
offended vanity. 
He stirred up the fire of continuing and in- 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

creasing misunderstaodrngs between the nations 
when tiie Balkan questions were discussed 
in Paris, and awoke in every diplomat the 
unpleasant dread of a poison spider which is only 
waiting for the proper moment to throw the cob- 
webs of its miserable intrigues over £urope. 
And so it was. How far his personal influence 
went in the plot of Serajewo history perhaps will 
reveaL Rubbing his hands, with a wide smile on 
his broad, unpleasant face, he exclaimed when the 
declaration of war was made public in Paris, 
"That's my little war!" 

Promenading in the sunshine of Bordeaux, 
enjoying life, he proudly entertained whoever 
cared to listeu with a recitation of the result of 
his diplomatic slyness, while his brothers were 
slaughtered by the million for the trick he played 
on Austria. 

The earth was prepared; the seed was planted. 
It was easy enough to accelerate events which 
would shake Austria to action; to buy subjects in 
Serbia, to murder the Crown Prince of Austria. 
The first blood was shed, and its odor was as a 
contagion, pbisoning the excited minds of the 
people. War was in the air; everything breathed 
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GRAND DUKE NICHOLAS 



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THE MILITARY PARTY 

forth war. Nicholas Nicolai^itch became the 
hero of the hour. 

He changed the whole system in one day. He, 
the general-in-chief of the army, commanded 
everything, everywhere. No longer was there 
tiie ministerial power of yesterday; the Dimia's 
opinion no longer counted. There was only 
Nicholas. With him or against him? To be 
against him was to be summarily executed. He 
commanded the palace of the czar. The czar 
himself was considered only a necessary figure- 
head. He was locked up in the palace without 
being allowed to see one of his old advisers. The 
document, the declaration of war, lay on his desk 
for him to sign. In his heart's depression he 
stipulated with Nidiolas to see Prince Schere- 
metzeff, his oldest and most sincere friend, after 
whidi he would sign the fateful paper. 

On the morning of July 81 he sent for his old 
friend, the prince. The czar's message never 
reached the prince; that very morning he was 
found dead in his bed. 

The czar was broken by this news. He saw 
not only bis power strangled, but his own person. 
When the grand duke entered with the ministers 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

and the generals of ihe great staff, the czar stood 
erect, deadly pale, and set his name upon the 
death-sentence of the people for the second time 
during his reign. Nidiolas Nicolai^vitch had 
triumphed. The excitement of the people was 
tremendous. Vodka flowed in streams for the 
lower classes, and diampagne for the higher. 
There followed a week-long madness and in- 
toxication. The si^t of the grand duke 
brou^t about an artificially hei^tened entiiu- 
siasm amounting to a paroxysm. The day was 
his. 

He returned to his palace and summcsied the 
generals, and they sped in gala attire to pay their 
tribute to the victor to be. The entire staff 
waited in the imposing reception-room; the sun- 
light floated throuj^ the hig^ windows, reflecting 
prism-like the gold-and-bejeweled uniforms of 
those representatives of the hi^ Russian war 
counciL Imposing in their appearance, con- 
vinced of their own greatness and indispensabil- 
ity, they stood in rows, expectancy on their faces 
and in their hearts, hoping that in the next room a 
rich buffet would reward them for their heavy 
task. 

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THE MILITARY PAHTY 

The door flew open, and the grand duke 
entered, tall and slim, towering over all others. 
He glanced at them with haughtiness, cold reso- 
lution in his eyes. He was accompanied by his 
private adviser, the Bulgarian general. He 
paused in front of the assembled sta£f and said in 
a voice which whistled throu^ the air like a 
whip: 

"I merely wish to say to you that any one who 
steals wiU be banged." 

Thus be spoke, then turned, and left the room, 
the lobster-red generals remaining behind. The 
audience was over. Nidiolas bad in his generals 
eighteen bitter enemies the more, who, instead of 
being his supporters, were to become his curse. 

Why will the Russians never be victorious? 
A httle incident like this, with its overbearing 
impertinence and conceit of the bom autocrat, 
will forever disturb Russia's path to conquest. 
What Nidiolas did to his direct subordinates each 
does to those beneath him in revenge for his own 
humiliation, and to exercise his power over others. 
So on down to the lowest soldier, the hi^er 
always uses the whip over the lower, while he 
cringes before his own superior. 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

It is the eternally vicious circle. Eveiy one 
studies the weak points of the man above him* 
and plays upon them with bribes of every variety. 
With a few exceptions all are selfish egotists, not 
working for the national cause, but for their own 
a^randizement. 

Nicholas thought that his iron fist could 
enforce discipline. He punished pitilessly the 
smallest mistakes. His flatterers made capital 
out of this, and sought out crther men's errors and 
reported them to him. Without any distinction 
as to rank he punished, whipping with his own 
hands generals who had lost battles. And they 
lost, lost constantly. He dismissed the serious 
ones, putting new, unfit, and inexperienced men 
into high positions as leaders. Kever did he alter 
his own omnipotent ideas, but regarded himself 
as a war god, sacrificing to his own stubborn 
beUef in his infallibility the best blood of the 
nation. 

Th^ 'were well prepared, the proudest regi- 
ments imaginable. The flower of Russian youth 
had rushed into the first battles with high enthu- 
siasm, and with the determination to show to the 
world how the youth of Russia would win the 
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THE MILITAHT PARTY 
war. All are buried in the swampy lakes of 
Masuren, the hope, the pride of their country. 

All of the young, trained officers were kiUed, 
and there were no others to replace them. The 
officers of the reserve, who had had only one year 
of training, were put into places of responsibility 
and sent to the front as leaders. After six 
weeks' training students were given rank and 
sent to lead the soldiers. 

What were the consequences of this military 
hodge-podge? Generals were dismissed, and 
swae of them were sent to Siberia; others com- 
mitted suicide, and the grand duke himself was 
shot at by two officers. General Sievers shot at 
him when he raised his famous whip, but failed. 
Another young office-, the adjutant of the gen- 
eral who lost the fortress at Brest-Litovski, in 
bringing the news to the grand duke was slapped 
in his face. Not willing to endure this himtiiha- 
tion, he took his revolver, and wounded the grand 
duke in his arm. With a second bullet he killed 
himself. 

Instead of acknowledging those terrible mis- 
takes. Nicholas hissed and with each lost battle 
saw only the vanishing of his personal ambition. 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
Nerertiieless he stiU remained the war god for 
those at home. They dreamed of Russia's 
unlimited extension. They had only to cross the 
Black Sea to Constantinople, and capture Aus- 
tria and Hungary, to open the door to the Bal- 
kans from the other side. On the day when the 
fortress Frzemysl was taken the Russian capital 
prepared a celebration for Nicholas, as if the 
war's decision had already rung for Tictorious 
Russia. 

In the procession after the solemn service at 
the cathedral, under the shadow of the conquered 
flags, Nicholas marched alone, triumphant. In 
front of him marched the slim little czar, who, 
serious and worried, glanced at the cheering 
people. His poor people I He bent his head, 
and let Nicholas have all the credit. He knew 
better; he knew the inside history, and at what a 
price this single victory had been bought, and he 
decided that very day to remove this pitiless, 
aspiring figure> his uncle Nicholas Nicolai^tch. 
Still imaware, Nicholas returned to head- 
quarters. The enemy prepared the great drive 
into Poland, chasing the grand duke's soldiers 
before them. Nicholas's star grew paler and 
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THE MIUTARY PAHTY 

paler, and was extinguished forever when the 
immense fraud of one of his creatures, Sukhom - 
linoff, the minister of war, was revealed to the 
czar. 

In the first year of the war vast stores of 
ammunition and equipment were squandered, 
and the regiments were deprived of the necessi- 
ties for continuing the fitting. In blind rage 
Nidiolas ordered the unspeakable stratagem of 
throwing the weaponless soldiers into the first 
firing-line. There is no otiier war in history in 
which such cold-blooded cruelties were commit- 
ted as those that the grand duke forced on the 
Russian people. 

With his medieval conceptions, he built his 
false sovereignty on top of the writhing bodies of 
men; but it was washed away by the floods of the 
shamelessly shed blood and the tears of all the 
mothers who sent their sons to fight for the 
beloved country. 

The czar dismissed Nicholas as the general-in- 
diief of all the armies, appointing himself to this 
positicm, and sent Nicholas to the obscurity of the 
Caucasus. There he will have time and leisure 
to awake from his dream to the consciousness of 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

his sin8» for which he will have to answer before 
the High Judge, not having been sentenced on 
earth. 

The spy and traitor stories which every war 
brings forth are nowhere so exciting, so incredible, 
and so tragic as in Russia. Traitors are always 
found in high positions, with no other aim than 
greed for money. Flans worked out in the Rus- 
sian general staff brou^t one of the greatest vic- 
tories to the enemy wholly on the basis of those 
plans. This gave to the enemy the greatest 
advantage. The investigation was confided to 

Colonel D , who was one of the most reliable 

men in the whole army. He was for many years 
a colonel at the Grerman-Russian frontier, and 
was well known and decorated for his tact, his 
discipline and his clever knowledge of German 
activities. It was he who helped the army cross 
the frontier at a point where the Grermans never 
expected it. It was he ^o directed the first 
little invasions into East Prussia; and tt was he 
who was also courteously asked by the Germans 
not to destroy the kaiser's hunting-lodge, Romin- 
ten, where before the war he had often be^i the 
kaiser's guest. 



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THE MILrrAHY PAHTK* 

It was amazing; nobody could explain it. 
How could the enemy get hold of those plans, 
elaborated to the last detail? 

It is the eternal psychology of overdoing 
cleverness and of sleeping surety. The colonel 
felt himself so safe that he neglected prudence; 
suspicion turned on him. He was called to head- 
quarters, which did not disquiet him» as that 
happened often enough, and without the least 
presentiment he entered the room of Hie grand 
duke. He was arrested on the spot in so brutal a 
manner that he lost his exterior calmness, marvel- 
ously guarded for years, and falling on his knees, 
he cried for mercy> promising to deliver all the 
ofiOcers who took part in the immense intrigue 
that betrayed the country and caused a great loss 
of life. 

Grace was promised him, and he named the 
young officers, all his subordinates. Thirty were 
arrested. 

In his trial he protested against his arrest, 
because he fooled the enemy in selling antiquated 
plans, never practicable for the Russians, because 
the Germans had entirely changed the roads, one 
of Hindenburg's tricks. 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
Nevertheless he was hanged, with his thirty 
poor subordinates. All those who have passed 
the frontier will remember the elegant, polite 
man, liked hy every one. The man and the 
frontier have disappeared forever. 

After the dismissal of Nicholasi the czar 
showed a personal activity and an intrepidity 
which deeply impressed his people. Recruits 
drawn from the remotest parts of Russia, who 
had imagined their czar, but never personified 
this holiest of their fictions, were presented to him 
as his troops, and heard his voice, really a simple 
human voic^ which spoke fatherly words to them 
and blessed them. In such an hour the Russian 
people were willing to be cut in two for their 
"Little Father." 

Despite mismanagement and demoralization 
on the part of the leaders, the soldiers have 
accomplished wondei^ in bravery and self-sacri- 
fice. Here and there a military light has shone 
through the darkness of ignorance and con- 
sciencelessness, and thus far conditions have been 
far better under the czar's own command. A 
fine man like General Brusiloff had been sup- 
pressed in the first period of the war. But what 
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THE MILITAKY PASTY 
can the finest mind achiere in Hie field when 
everything in the background is inefficiency? 
Althou^ the administration started with the 
best intentions, as in the other fighting countries, 
to organize ammunition plans and offices for 
emergencies and investigations, thorough disor- 
ganization . resulted. The officials were unfit, 
lazy, and without any comprehension of the tre- 
mendous fact that the big wheel of state must 
stop if the least tiny bit of machinery shps a cog. 
They always supposed that the loosening of a 
small screw would never be noticed, and when 
the whole mechanism suddenly stopped no one 
could find where the difficulty lay. 

The same naivet^ of perception regarding the 
needs of the soldiers was obvious when the word 
was given out that the men badly needed under- 
wear. A great collection was arranged by the 
women, and the articles freely and generously 
contributed included innumerable silk, lace- 
trimmed nightgowns and imderwear — elegant 
women's trousseaux I 

For years the leaders have prepared minutely 
at the green table the most exact plans and maps 
for war. They could not fail, for ihe reckoning 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
was ri^t. Their reigments really were wonder- 
fully trained and of wonderful physique; their 
military storehouses were filled with the best and 
richest war materiaL All was done in the best 
style possible; nowhere were there petty econo- 
mies; whatever modem warfare had invented was 
bou^t up by the Russians; and they went to the 
front a proud train of fully equipped* self-ccm- 
scious, and brave men. The men are artists in 
building trenches and fortifications. They are 
blindly obedient, they are patient, and they are 
sober. They are healthy and can endure hard- 
ships. 

The decisive moment arrives, and they fail; 
ihe madbine does not work. How explain this? 
And how is it that when the failure is often 
explained and made clear, the mistakes are com- 
mitted over and over again? 

Imagine the legions of men who were conse- 
crated to help make Russia victorious in this cam- 
paign ! The enemy, when numerically exhausted, 
was sometimes forced to yield and withdraw 
before this wall of hmnan bodies. All in vain. 
In the end they lost their position. 

"Misfortune," they si^ed in Archangel, 
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THE MILITARY PARTY 

"blew up all the ammunition just arrived from 
America." In America "bad hick" blew up the 
immense factories that were molding tiieir guns. 
Was it also misfortune that in an American fac- 
tory fifty million cartridges ordered by a Russian 
commissioner after a special design, when virtu- 
ally ready for delivery, were discovered by an- 
other Russian inspector to be unfit for Russian 
rifles and to be made after a German pattern! 
The cartridges would have found their way 
over Russia into German rifles if circumstances 
had not led to the commissioner's removal. 
American genius invented a machine to destroy 
the cartridges, and after the necessary delay 
caused by the criminal official they were made 
over for use by the Russians. The railroad from 
Archangel is not yet ready in the third year of 
war, and whole trains of ammunition simply dis- 
appear en route, never arriving at all. The staff 
sit in their headquarters and paint battles on the 
maps, while the poor devils of soldiers have to 
face the bullets of their adversaries. 

Of what use the military spirit, the military 
party? Words I 

When the drawing-card of the military party 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

failed, they spread the idea of a rebirth of the 
time of Napoleon* and told to the people that 
the enony had been let into the gates of Russia, 
to be caught at the decisive moment, as was 
Napoleon's great army before Moscow. When 
this moment would arrive naturally no one coidd 
know. After this fiction became outworn, the 
fata Morgana of the Dardanelles in the blue dis- 
tance, was shown the people; and, as the pUce de 
rimtance, the Turks would be swallowed by Rus- 
sia's immensity. 

It was evident that the Russian is a conqueror 
and not a soldier, that preparedness and military 
parties never will make one of him. The famous 
cossack is nowadays a vanquished glory. He is 
lost in modem warfare, being used only to bring 
about terror and fright among the inhabitants of 
occupied places. The Russian's whole nature 
struggles against military discipline; he is a 
fanatic, he is courageous, and he is fatalistic, and 
he loves to gamble with his life. He invented the 
spectacle of the alluring war-play, the daring 
races and horseback riding, to tame the wildness 
which from time to time boiled in bis blood and 
cried for an outlet. 

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THE MILITABY PARTY 
The fairy-tale of an inexhaustible supply of 
men still prevails, wil^out any realization of the 
crude truth that mere men, without thoroughly 
trained officers, are a phantasmagory; and thai 
the more men taken, the fewer are left at 
home for providing for those who are in the 
field. 

The Goremment of old Hussia sat in a terrible 
network of inconsistencies, and as the ministers 
saw that the people at home, who had given their 
strong, healthy youngsters, were awaking from 
their dull obedience to the point of asking why 
and were beginning to revolt, they hurried the 
czar to the conviction that he must make a sep- 
arate peace. They used the influence of Ras- 
putin, who preached against war, and the czar, 
finding himself weakened, grasped the idea and 
lent his ear to the propositions which were 
brought before him by his own ministers, who 
may have been back of the peace appeal of the 
kaiser, made known in 1016. But those who are 
to-day the leaders of young Russia were in the 
opposition and strongly at work, and so strongly 
and so cleverly that t^e main points of the peace 
overtures were never discussed before the Duma, 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

because of the accusations that the members 
hurled at the head of the GoTemment. Blinded, 
the ministers thou^t first of their own safe re- 
treat, and no one was diplomatic enough to dis- 
cover what lay behind the military inactivity. 

When the czar, arrested, uttered the exclama- 
tion that he was betrayed, be spoke the truth. 
He was betrayed. The generals who had sur- 
rounded him were allied with the democratic 
party, and the warnings of the various grand 
dukes had never made any impression on him, be- 
cause be knew that each of them would have 
taken the opportunity to become the autocrat of 
all the Russias. The czar was a Romanoff and 
knew all about the Romanoffs. He was long de- 
throned before the actual physical removal. It 
did not best serve the outcome of the war that 
Russia should suddenly walk her own way toward 
peace, and it could not be the moral result of the 
war, which has swallowed so much of the best 
of all countries, that there could be a separate 
understanding, which would be (mly a latent 
danger. 

Himuinity cried for peace, but humanity had 
to save mankind from future disasters. The war 
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THE MILITART PARTY 
had gone too far; it was no longer the question 
of a nation. It was a cataclysm that shook the 
world, and the end had to be logically annihilat- 
ing for one side or the other. It was no Iong» 
the war party; it was no longer Mr. Iswolsky who 
held the fate of the Russians in hand. It was the 
highest ethical command that had to save Russia 
and the world from further medieval enterprises 
of ennobled highwaymen. It was autocracy in 
every form, which had to be uprooted through the 
war, and then all the dead, all the martyrs, all 
the greatness of the people's sacrifice, would be 
justified. 

With young Russia are ihe iron will and the 
good faith that will perhaps take the place of 
skiU and training. The oiemy is on the soil, 
deep in Russian territory, and he will make fur- 
ther advance; he wiU threaten the capital. All 
this perhaps will happen because the enemy still 
believes that the war must end in his own military 
victory. 

It is to the highest credit of the Russians that 

they are not soldiers by nature, and that they will 

be the first to help to annihilate a profession which 

brings about the destruction of mankind. 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

Let them return to the conquests of more 
peaceful achierements ; let them discorer their 
own country. What space for the wildest sport, 
activity, and self-sacrifice! 



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CHAPTER III 

UKBALAfTCED POLICIES 

The fire heroes of new Russia who restored 
the country from sickening conditions of state 
and court corruption to the sound healthiness of 
a clean democracy discharged not only the czar, 
the passive cause of all the unhappiness and 
misery in Russia, but discharged every man con- 
nected with ike old regime. They filled the 
prisons, from which Mhe political priscmers of 
former Russia were released, with ministers and 
courtiers whom they regarded as o£Fenders 
against the people. 

The shadow of Stolypin, the reactionary prime 
minister who succeeded Witte, appears as intro- 
ducing the last political tragedies which led up 
to war and to the victorious entry of young Rus- 
sia. 

After Stolypin, assassinated, had expired in 
his arms in the foyer of the grand opera house in 
Eieff, Kokortsoff, who then was the minister of 
finance, took up the labor of prime minister. 
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RUSSIA OF YESTEHDAY AND TO-MORROW 
In January, 1914, Eokovtsoff was to celebrate 
his tenth anniversary as minister of finance. The 
invitations to the banquet were sent out, the com- 
memoration medal was ordered, when, without 
warning, the prime minister received the odudous 
imperial letter, in whidi the czar gracefully 
accepted EokovtsofTs resignation, indispensable 
to the recovery of his healtiil The title of count 
was bestowed on him as a little balm for his 
wounds, and he was offered three hundred thou- 
sand rubles from the imperial treasure, which 
Eokovtsoff "gratefully" refused. KokovtsoflF 
was petrified, and with him all those who under- 
stood the meaning of this indication of a new 
undercurrent, tiie mihtary party. What might 
not have been prevented if Eokovtsoff, the fine, 
scholarly man, with his sensibility and kindliness, 
with his inflexibility toward all flatt^^rs, and 
with his clean record, had retained the leadership 
both as premier and miniafa'T ' of finance! 

An atmosphere of peace and slow, ^stematic 
progress was about him. There was no disturb- 
ance when Eokovtsoff had any matter of business 
in his hands; there was a quiet certainty that he 
would always drive the state carriage back to its 



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UNBALANCED POLICffiS 
right track. Russia's often depressing political 
anxieties were moored to rest in the cahn port of 
his conscientiousness. It was simply marvelous 
what this man accomplished. His task included, 
besides the national finances, which worked like 
well-oiled machinery with Davidoff as chief 
engineer, the great pohtical burden of being 
premier, the crux of all Russian statesmanship, 
and the supervision of the department of customs. 

During the ten years of his service he improved 
the Russian finances to a point of amazing stabil- 
ity. He cleared the Augean stable of irregular- 
ities, and discarded relentlessly the officials who 
had established a flourishing trade in concessions 
and claims, which legally only the prime minister 
could confer. Most of the high f uncticoiaries had 
hated KokoTtso£F for his stubborn deafness to the 
usual custom of granting opportunities to all 
kinds of high-place corruptionists, and his dis- 
missal was greeted in certain circles as a relief, 
and aroused the hope that the good old times 
when the ministers closed one eye, and in excep- 
tional cases both, would come again. 

Public opinion attributed the minister's down- 
fall to his financial system, which was fimda- 



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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

mentally wrong. The state's cash-box had heen 
filled by the abuse of Ihe people's preference for 
vodka. The GoTemment held the monopoly of 
all the Todka distilleries, so of course the state did 
not interfere with the appetites of the people. 
As it was sanctioned by the Goremment, the peo- 
ple would not believe that vodka was thdr curse, 
their certain ruin, and the state profited by 
the drunkenness of her misled children. Public 
opinion forgot that Kokovtsoff, in selling vodka, 
did not create a new situation; that he simply 
took the monopoly out of the hands of private 
persons, who had enridied themselves through 
the people's scourge. 

This was the reproach and criticism of Eo- 
kovtso£F at a time when Rasputin intrigued 
against the prime minister. Rasputin never for- 
gave Kokovtsoff for energetically protesting 
against his meddling in governmental affairs. 
On the other hand, Rasputin was the instrument 
used by the military party to get rid of Kokovt- 
soff, who was determined to preserve peace and 
to maintain friendly relations with Germany. 

Kokovtsoff retired to private life, and Russia's 
new regime, instead of seeking counsel of the lit- 



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UNBALANCED POUCIES 
tie man mth the intelligent face and mild expres- 
sion on his noble features who had been able to 
give the Government a temporary equilibrium, 
put him in jaiL 

The man who had helped to undermine Ko- 
koTtsoff*s position in 1914 was Count Witte. 
He hoped that his hour had again come to re- 
place the prime minister or in any case, to pre- 
vent the choice of a new man. He was strongly 
with the party of the Grand Duke Xidiolas; 
but he forgot those who at that mcnnent wanted 
no minister's influence in the czar's environment. 

As a fallen star, Count Witte, thrown from 
the sky of political constellations, roamed rest- 
less in Russia's politics. The people looked with 
a kind of amazed enmity at this ghost of a time 
of Russia's rapid development — a development 
which had proved to be only a card-house buUt 
by Witte and blown down by the Russo-Japanese 
War. Over-anxious to regain the czar's favor, 
his unremitting efforts to play the general ad- 
viser in actual politics always split on the fact 
that he had sold Russia to Germany in those un- 
fortunate commercial treaties of 1907. Those 
treaties were like ui abyss along whidi all tiie 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
ministers tiwl, afraid to look into its deptiis^ 
each of them knowing that it would never be 
spanned without victims. The renewal of the 
treaties before the outbreak of the war was a 
source of ever-present apprehension. 

The great national events of the end of July, 
1914, tile beginning of the war, caused the Rus- 
sians to forget old animosities for a while. 
Count Witte breathed more freely; again the 
time had come when he was beard and his in- 
fluence was felt. 

After the disaster of Poland, after the failure 
of Gallipoli, Witte worked feverishly to bring 
about a separate peace, knowing that it was the 
secret desire of the czar, who was shaken by the 
loss of his best regiments and near relatives. 

The military party saw itself in danger, and 
decided that Count Witte's earthly existence was 
no longer desirable. He died suddenfy. 

The hfe of Count Witte is a strange story of 
justified ambition and back-stairs romance, a 
genuine Russian stoiy conceived in the brain of 
a woman. 

Matilda, later his wife, was first married to a 
subordinate ofiiLcial of the ministry. Her house 



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UNBALANCED POLICIES 
was open not only to the comrades of her hus- 
band, but especially to l^e aristocratic set, whidi 
through family ties and duties was close to the 
court. Matilda was equipped with the penetrat- 
ing intellect of the Russian Jewess and was the 
center of this famous coterie. One simply went 
to Matilda. There was a coming and going with- 
out formality; a free intoxication, with no dis- 
guise of human weaknesses. There was no se- 
cret, no political or court gossip, that was not 
brought to her. 

Stronger than any man, with an ircm will in 
a slim, small body, she drank her guests all under 
the table, yet never became drunk herself. Her 
drinking had a distinct purpose. She was de- 
voured by ambition, first for herself, and Uien for 
the man of her heart Witte, then a small ofiS- 
cial in the ministry, was a daily guest in her 
house. He was a dangerous mixture of the Bal- 
tic German and the Russian, with an overpower- 
ing physical appearance. He was modest in this 
circle, where Russia's hi^est aristocracy felt 
wholly at home without any restrictions. He 
listened smilingly to the weaving of intrigues 
about the czar. No Duma existed at that time; 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
there were only the czar and his imperial brutes, 
or his servile creatures good and bad> and the 
"almi^tiness" of the police, with their reign of 
terror. It was a time in which it was e&sy to 
rise, a time when a young czar, afraid before his 
own country, before his own sovereignty, grasped 
at every strong plank to keep him above water. 

Matilda brewed Witte's career out of her in- 
timate knowledge of politics and society. Dar- 
ingly she used all the little and big influences 
until Witte, with intellectual superiority and vast 
working power, jumped from the position of an 
obscure official in the ministry to that of a po- 
litical factor who was heard and noticed. 

Witte was wise enough to realize that his driv- 
ing force was Matilda, that without her he never 
could maintain this new position or reach the 
heists of their mutual dreams. 

She was still the wife of another, to divorce 
i^om would be to stir up a homets'-nest of dis- 
reputable affairs, exposing her aristocratic pa- 
trons and her ccnnpromised past. The enemies 
of the coming man gladly enough would utilize 
the scandal to crush him before he started. 

The darkest hour for Witte and Matilda 
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dawned. It was imperative for the realization 
of their schemes to get rid of the husband. 
Witte's career was in danger, and Matilda was 
not willing to forego her own diare in the glory 
due to her efforts. 

Then Matilda suddenly became a widow. 
Witte married her, and they remained to the last 
an inseparable couple. 

Witte rose to the dreamed-of glory. The day 
when the "Countess" Witte, the Jewess of liie 
doubtful and miiy past, was admitted among the 
ladies presented to the czarina crowned her am- 
bitions, and her heart began to tremble for the 
stability of her great man's happiness. She was 
made of the same material as the women of the 
Renaissance, who walked cold-bloodedly over 
corpses to their magnificence. The shadow of 
her under-world life may hare been haunting her 
when the sim set on the glory of her idol. She> 
with her piercing intellect, knew that the logical 
end of Witte's career led to his downfall, and 
she was prepared for it. To the external world 
she played the most interesting r61e throughout 
Witte's life. She was the dignified, tactful, and 
inspiring companion of the great man; she was 
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RUSSIA OP TESliaiDAT ANB TO-MORROW 

the tragic, silent Muse when Witte was wrecked. 
It was the greatest homage for her that all the 
young boys of her former circle, when ripened to 
"excellencies," retained an admiring remem- 
brance of her strong personality, of her kindness 
and intelligence. 

Count Witte was a statesman by adventure 
and not by tradition, and for that reascm he could 
never be an educator for a young czar. He 
feared too much for his own position, sometimes 
overstretching his authority, and sometimes yield- 
ing in servility to the moods of his sovereign. 
The czar had to look up to Witte, to the physical 
Witte; he respected muscles which he himself did 
not possess, and Witte's firm fist always imposed 
on him In the instability of his own indecisive 
character. 

Witte loved to be ccnnpared with Peter tibe 
Great. He forgot tiiat Peter's greatness was 
the sincerity of his barbarism, the most extreme 
goodness or the most extreme evil, while Witte 
fluctuated unbalanced between both. 

Above all parties, but sharply antagonizing 
the efforts toward bringing about a separate 
peace* the minister of foreign affairs, Sazonoff, 



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UNBALANCED POLICIES 
strictly followed his own political course. He 
had nothing in common with the fanaticism of 
the Pan-Slavists, notiiing with the ambitions of 
the grand-duke's party. In his red palace on the 
Moika, behind the impenetrable quiet of the 
foreign ministry, Sazonoff had for many years 
been working out logically to an end a scheme 
of foreign pohcy. This policy could not be a 
success because it was far too advanced for Rus- 
sia. His was the natural mistake of tiie culti- 
vated mind, educated in countries where the 
subtle filigree-work of the ancient diplomacy is 
perhaps stiU applicable, to follow the precepts 
of other nations. Sazonoff was in love with Eng- 
land. He saw throu^ England's eyes, and was 
of the sincere conviction that from that side mi^t 
come tiie great salvation, the "awakening" of 
Russia. Twice in three years Monsieur Poin- 
carS, the President of France, made a triimiphal 
trip to Petrograd to popularize Sazonoff's pol- 
icies. England wished to emphasize the idea of 
the Triple Alliance for the purpose of frighten- 
ing Grcrmany, of keeping in the background the 
eternal menace. 
Sazonoff's work expressed this menace. He 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
harnessed Russia to the interests of England in 
tiie far Cast, Russia's long-tailed, capriciousi 
untamed horse to the heavy, well-bred, steady- 
going steed of Great Britain. England made 
large promises for the coupling of this badfy 
matched team, whispering into Sazonoff 's willing 
ear the alluring word "Dardanelles!" 

When the fata Morgana of Constantinople 
paled on the horizon of the Allies' mihtary opera- 
tions in the Orient, Sazonoff found his policy 
crippled, and then he joined in tiie blind fury 
against Germany, whose stubborn endurance pre- 
vented him from giving to his country the result 
of his policy, the long-coveted warm-water prat. 

Sazonoff, a human enigma, vrith a head of a 
pleasant ugliness, a Slav through and through, 
with all the refinement of the Western culture, 
with a calculated reserve, a sophisticated spirit, 
and analytical mind, would have been a natural 
diplomat to Louis XIV, but never to a Russian 
czar or to a democracy. He was apjKtinted am- 
bassador to London. 

There was no transparency in Russia's pol- 
itics. Behind them was always the man who 
nude the policies, and he was a Russian; he was 
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UNBALANCED POLICIES 

mysterious. He promised, but he never kept 
his word, thou^ not because be did not wish to 
keep it. It was not bis fault; it was yours, for 
you shoukl know that be gave his word to be 
pleasant to you without realizing that it would 
entail an inconvenience to him to-morrow. It 
was the psychological mistake of Sazono£F to com- 
press the economic interests that Russia had with 
her allies into blood treaties. Former Russia 
would have deceived her allies sooner or later, not 
from wickedness, but simply because she never 
could endure the supervision of an outsider or 
could be forced to show her books. It would 
have meant an absolute contradiction of her own 
nature; it would have delivered too much of Rus- 
sia to the cold criticism of the world; or, what 
the old regime feared most, it would have put 
upon the Government such responsibility as 
other governments sustain, and that meant a pro- 
found revoluticm of Russia's self. 

To-day the new rulers are trying to destroy 
the different arbitrary systems which menawd 
the security of the people. Russia had four 
prime ministers after the outbreak of the war. 
Goremykin temporarily took the portfolio after 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

the dismissal of Kokovtsoff, and so it happ^ied 
that Russia had in tiie hour of her fate a substi- 
tute leader at the head of a department where the 
most extensive efficiency, the most intense state 
wisdom, and the most capahle mind were de- 
manded. Poor old Goremykin always had been 
the substitute housekeeper of Russia. This was 
the second time that he had been called in. He 
was too old, too tired to face the inmiense tasl^ 
the gigantic responsibility, and he had nothing to 
say in an hour when the world had its head under 
the guillotine of national hostilities, and lost its 
head. 

The military system wanted him just as he was, 
colorless, without any influence on the czar, just 
a jwlitical marionette. After a year-tong war, in 
the autumn of 1915, Russian politics were again 
in sad confusion. The Government's control, an 
utter failure, ended with a clash. The situation 
was hopeless in its mismanagemoit. The most 
unspeakable bribes hampered the filling of con- 
tracts and the delivering of all kinds of indis- 
pensable materiaL Russia's industries were 
crippled throng the hmrying away of all Ger- 
man directors, technical and medianical artisans; 
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UNBALANCED POLICIES 

untrained Russians had to r^lsce them. Amer- 
ican commercial representatives ^o were ready 
to accept orders were kept waiting months and 
months before their propositicau were submitted 
to the ministers. As a minister himself never 
decided, but appointed the famous "commission," 
consisting of a certain numb^ of other officials, 
he escaped all respcmsibility. For everything 
that had to be decided a commission was formed, 
ovOT which sat another commission to supervise 
it; so, if mistakes were made, eveiy man was 
saved. Ouv'* by one the members of a c(»nmission 
studied the tenia of eveiy contract in minute de- 
tail The official most interested in deriving 
profits made the most ridiculous objections, 
which inevitably aroused the opposition of the 
others; and when the decision was favorable, he 
added a foot-note to the report, stating that he 
joined the minority. So he never was suspected 
by the official hi^er up. The conunissi(m acted 
mysteriously. It shut itself behind closed doors, 
and nobody was permitted to disturb its secret 
meetings. No word penetrated to the outer 
world, but every few minutes the man who had 
submitted the contract received the telephoned 
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RUSSIA OF YESTEHDAY AND TO-MORROW 

result of the pourparlen from some supernatural 
spirit, and from tiie same spirit the report, whidi 
was kept strictly Cfmfidential, could be bou^t for 
a hundred dollars as soon as the commission 
adjourned. 

No wonder that the congestion in ports and 
at the frontiers grew into nightmares. The 
goods to be transported covered the ground for 
miles and miles in tiie open air, without any pro- 
tection against rain and snow. At Vladivostok 
and Archangel, on the Siberian and Finnish rail- 
roads, affairs were in complete disorder, and no* 
body could imagine how this chaos in transpor- 
tation ever woidd be cleared. In the meantime 
soldiers and leaders at the front waited in anxiety 
for supplies that would enable them to be at 
least on the defensive instead of being shot down 
like poor animals. 

In September, 1915, the czar, more and more 
inclined to the peace suggestions floating about 
him, let Goremykin change the hard seat of the 
prime minister for the restful grandfather's 
chair, and Stiirmo' appeared as a demcmstration 
of the new system. He also was a substitute, a 
figure of indfirt'pgT^bahlp political tints, a poli- 
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UNBALANCED POLICIES 

tician without anf ritonance^ a. puppet with some 
power behind him. Thus the statesmen in Rus- 
sia drove their personal ambitions in different 
directionst neglecting erimiually the vital policy 
for the country, a clean and good administration. 
Nothing was accomplished. 
' Military operations were ctanpletely aban- 
dcoied, and the public looted with painful amaze- 
ment and faint revolt on this hussez-aller, laissez- 
faire. 

Sturmor had to disappear into the anonymity 
whence he emerged, and the new prime minister, 
Trepof, sprang up. This man Trepof was an 
unfortunate choice. In the eyes of the world 
and among the Russian people his name was the 
personification of darkest Russia, of the "sys- 
tem," of the searching ochrana (the secret serv- 
ice), the most frightful terroristic and nihilistie 
era. It brought back the martyrs, the hanged 
and buried-alive martyrs, and all this in a time 
idien the people needed to see beams of hope 
through tiieir political leaders. 

Again and again the world was assured by 
printed and spoken words that Trepof had a most 
liberal mind, and that he was quite the contrary 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

of what his father, the dark goTcmor of St. 
Petersburg, had heen. All in vain. The curse 
stuck to his name, and his remoral soon followed. 

The czar, tired of selecting ministers, hazard- 
ously nominated Prince Golitzin as the fourth 
prime minister. Prince Golitzin was a political 
blank, and no time was given him to develop. 

In the gravity of the situation the czar found 
himself isolated. He was frightened by the 
wei^t which pressed upon him. Governmental 
errors were exposed by the horrors of the war. 
Like enormous wings, gray hopelessness spread 
about him. The flattering tongues became 
speechless, hesitating, and stammering; the sov- 
ereign descended from his ihrone and attempted 
to be a man among men. 

The czar sought his people; he sou^t the 
Duma. He opened the assembly for the first 
time in its existence, thus at last giving it his 
official recognition. The people cheered the czar; 
they embraced one another with tears of joy in 
tiieir eyes. The czar, the "Little Father," was 
in the midst of those who represented the de- 
mands of the country. He would listen, he 
would understand. The spoken word would 
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UNBALANCED POLICIES 

reach his ears, and never again would be mis- 
interpreted by the scoundrelly intermediaries who 
always had had their own interests first in mind. 

The progressives in the Duma triumphed. 
Speaking with new-foimd fearlessness, they 
forged plans for the present and spun dreams for 
the future. 

At this time the czar, without political sup- 
port, without an adviser, desiring one thing, do- 
ing another, himself mibalanced, hoped to find 
refuge with the Duma. The Duma saw in the 
apparent insignificance of Stiirmer, then prime 
minister, its great opportunity to choose from 
its members the man of the hour. 

The Duma was disappointed in its hopeful en- 
thusiasm. It was no more than an imperial 
mood, a moment of distress or loneliness and 
perhaps curiosity, that made tJie czar drive to 
the Tauritzky Palace, where the Duma sits — the 
little piece of sugar in the hand of a sovereign to 
beguile the men of the people. 

The Duma was offended, and split into fac- 
ticHis, distrusting <me another, accusing one an- 
ottier. Everywhere notifications cbuded the 
political sky, and around live questions again and 

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RtTSSU OP tESTERDAY AUB TO-MORHOW 

again were spun intrigues of postmal influence. 

The Duma was stiH like a child struggling 
throu^ infantile diseases, and found it hard to 
grow up in a state famify of old prejudices and 
had principles. 

It seemed impossihle that the century-old in- 
dividual power governing Russia could be 
scratched out with a pen-stroke. The Duma did 
not yet represent for the people Ihe invincihle 
rock of security. They were not quite familiar 
with the idea that a body of men could be united 
to benefit them. In this one body were too many 
souls, and each of those souls lived in a separate 
body and had separate ambitions. The Russian 
believes in the individual man, whom he worships 
or whom he curses. A whole body, a corpora- 
tion, means nothing to his imagination. The 
Duma was an eternal contradiction when it be- 
came a constitutional foundation in an autocratic 
state. 

But it was only an official call that the czar 
made on the Duma, and all efforts on both sides 
never would have developed a mutual imderstand- 
ing, as the czar found no response to his peace 
ideas. The Duma could not comprehend that 
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this idea had always been the real part of him- 
self. The czar had not the nature of a con- 
queror; he suffered physically under the stress 
of battle, and the sight of blood gave him nau- 
sea. 

The presidents of the Duma were subjected to 
the same surprising changes as the ministry. 
How many presidmts were elected and rejected 
after the war began I The Duma and tiie gov- 
enunent of the czar were always quarrelsome 
brothers. With crafty efforts the Government 
tried to conceal its state affairs, and the Duma 
was like a battle-field from which the members 
were always forced to retreat. The imperial 
Government, with its frightful disorder, its ever- 
flourishing graft system, was the terrible ob- 
stacle in the way of providing for the necessities 
of the men at the front and the people at home. 
None of the last unhappy ministers should be 
held personally responsible for a system that had 
lasted more than a century. The imperial Gov- 
ernment was an old, crumbling body, and it was 
known that firm decision could crush it. That 
this decision would come from the men of the 
Duma was not doubted. 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MOBROW 

In 1916, Russia looked with kai^g eyes to 
Protopopof , who then, as president of tiie Duma, 
seoned to take state affairs away from a rotten 
Goremment. But at that time the Duma itself 
was a quarreling, disorganized body, its members 
jealous and envious of one another's powers. 
When Protopopof was ntuninated minister of the 
interior, it seemed a triumph for the Duma. But 
it has been very rare for a man not to lose his 
head as minister of Russia. On the one side he 
was o£Fered mountains of gold if he would let the 
cobweb of protectionism remain untouched; on 
tiie other hand, his political position always was 
threatened by a party. 

As usual, the ministers — and Protopopof, too 
— ^worked for the party that they hoped would 
become the most powerful in Russia. This time 
Protopopof was on the wrong side, and blinded 
by his influence over the czar, he had not the fore- 
sight to suspect^ in the Duma's consequent op- 
position to ererything he proposed, the bigger 
forces behind the Duma, which caused its last 
adjournment 

Russia is the country where everything has 
been begun wonderfully and never has been fin- 
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UNBALANCED POLICIES 
ished. The sense of time and economy does not 
belong to the Russian character. There ia lav- 
ishness, a squandering of time, words, and money, 
wiucb leads to no practical result It will re- 
quire years to separate the wheat from the chaff. 
From the Russian point of view it is not aston- 
ishing that a prominent member of tiie Duma 
who attended the sessicms for only a few weeks 
every year kept a sumptuous apartment in a first- 
class hotel of the capital, merely because he could 
not decide to pack his trunks. Life is too short 
for decision, and his volet was of the same opin- 
ion. The room filled with an ever-increasing col- 
lection of clothing, boots, and hats. The tables 
were covered with bottles, jars, boxes, perfumes, 
and medicines, papers and books, cigarettes, 
everything, as if a large family were on the point 
of moving. Nobody was ever permitted to touch 
a thing or to clean up the place, and it was a 
puzzle how the occupant ever managed to climb 
over aU the obstacles and into his bed. During 
the sessions he lived in tiiat atmosphere of "com- 
fort," where he was able to stretch out his hand 
to secure at once whatever he needed. There he 
gathered his friends about the ever-ready aam- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MOHEOW 
orar, losing all account of time, arguing until 
the new day shone through the windows. 

The Russian never knows exactly what he 
possesses or what he owes. He is not ashamed 
to borrow, because he himself lends freely. His 
is in a paradisic state of unconcern; but if this 
unconcern is to extend to the vital questions of 
politics that involve other races who are exact- 
ing about keeping their affairs in order, Russians 
must first ctmquer themselves before conquering 
the world. 

These characteristics of the individual Russian, 
the inconsistencies and contouiicticnis in his na- 
ture, make him appear mysterious to more con- 
ventitmal nations. One could look with amazed 
interest on the habits of the soft-hearted, easy- 
going Russians and on their unbalanced politics 
if in the development of those qualities did not 
slumber an ever-present danger for the wotM 
outside of Russia — a danger which in new Rus- 
sia will x>ass away, because liberty will give self- 
control and self-respect Russians will cease to 
be a servile people, who himible thonselves like 
slaves, and are kept obedient by tiie cruelty of 
tiieir rulers. 

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UNBALANCED FOLIClBS 

The new proviaional Gorernment is so fan- 
tastically composed that it is imaginable only for 
Russia. Five heroes went into this adventure 
with w<aiderf ul courage — ^the courage that naive, 
strong people have. They are victorious, but 
if they are not following a plan clearly outlined 
for them by a friendly, experienced ally, no one 
can f orsee how they will make the mormons body 
of Russia move organically. 

Prince Lvoff, the president of the ministry, is 
the onfy one who has the repose of official tradi- 
ticoi. The honor came to him not because he 
forced the czar to abdicate ; the honor was always 
his. He had worked practically, progressively, 
and honestly. He had accMnpIished wonders in 
the zemstvos, which to outsiders always appeared 
to be peasant organizations, but which really 
were the organizations of the nobility that pro- 
tected the interests of the peasants because they 
were its own. The peasant depended on the 
noble landowner, and to enjoy the blessings of 
the zemstvos, he had to submit to the decisions 
made by the nobles. That was to a certain ex- 
tent profitable for the peasant, who was too child- 
like to dispose of bis harvests in an advantageous 



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BUSSU OF YESTEBDAT AND TO-MORROW 

way, who had not the money to buy machinery 
or to pay laborers, and who was shielded from 
exploitation by money-lenders. The zemstvos 
freed the peasant from the persecution of scoun- 
drelly provincial governors, who before the zemst- 
vos existed kept him in a serf -like oppression; 
freed him from the district police, who nagged 
him and took away his little money for imagixuuy 
misdeeds; freed him in a certain degree from the 
despotic superintendents of the estates of nobles, 
who forced an arbitrary system. 

In former years there was a patriarchal system 
in the zemstvos. The Russian preferred to have 
his own autocrat, whom he could approadi per- 
Sfmally, whose voice he could hear; even if he 
profited not at all, it was good to speak to the 
naUchalnik, who was the zemstvo's chief of the 
district. Thai, too, it was always a change for 
the peasant, an excuse for a little journey, far 
getting away from the village to bring home new 
experiences and prestige. 

The natschalnik had to be eliminated because 
he had too good an opportunity to rob the peasant 
and to conceal conditions which should be re- 
vealed; for the nat*chalmk was not a saint, and 
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JJSBJlLASCED P0UCIE8 
wished to make more money than his position 
paid him. Then the affairs of the peasants were 
confided to the judges of the zemstvos. The re- 
lation ceased to be personal, and petitions and 
complaints had to be made on proper papers and 
in prop^ writing. This was a new embarrass- 
ment for the peasant, who despised documents, 
which he could not read, and who was suspicious 
when another person read a paper for him. He 
was never sure that he was told the ri^t thing. 
He thou^t that it would make life simple 
to school his children, hut the children were not 
eager to learn. Why should they study books? 
They knew ererything about animals and what 
grew in the fields from their parents, who had 
learned from their parents. The Russian peas- 
ant has a wonderful instinct for plants and herbs. 
The schools that the zemstvos provided were 
hopeless institutions, for the teachers understood 
how to adapt themselves more to the good-will 
of the peasants than to their own duties. The 
teachers waited for the boys to come to sdiool, 
but there was always some work to keep the chil- 
dren at home. And when the zemstvo sent a 
coomiissiffli to inspect the sdiools, there was sud- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

den calamity unless the visit had been announced. 
Then ereiytbing was prepared ; the children were 
present and clean, and the parents made a holiday 
of the inspection, inviting tile conmiission to eat 
and drink. Afterward, parents and commissitm- 
ers, in happy mood, walked to the schooL The 
report was astonishingly encouraging. 

That tiie zemstros were not only necessary for 
agriculture, but a blessing, was shown by their 
attitude at the beginning of the war. Here the 
great personal work of Prince Lto£F came in. 
He, as a really grand seigniour, devoted all his 
powers to the aid of his cmintry. It was not a 
mystery how the business of war had always been 
managed in Russia. Prince Lvoff, with the aid 
of the brave, tireless, and practical zemstvo mem- 
bers, started the private purchase of supplies tat 
the people and the army with the zemstvos' 
funds. Without the zemstvos and their work the 
war could not have been carried on, and tiie wt^k 
of recruiting in remote Bussia would have been 
impossible. 

After the first year of the war the people in 
the south of Russia revolted against recruiting, 
against the war. The peasants had to be chained 
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UNBALANCED POLICIES 
before they could be talnn sway from their hemes. 
And they bad not even vodka to make their de- 
parture mwe cheerful. llieiT treatment was so 
brutal and so cruel that with cries and screams 
they protested against fighting and dying. The 
zemstros regulated conditions, giving generously 
to the statCf and having a free hand for the peo- 
ple in the provinces. 

The good practical machinery of the zemstvos, 
once regulated, worked marvelously for the war, 
and Prince Lvoff could look with satisfaction 
up(m it, for young Russia is one of its products. 
Prince Lvoff became tiie head of a democracy by 
diance, but he was the ri^t man. 

Most amazing was the selection of Alexander 
Guschkoff as minister of war, or, better to ex-, 
press it, the minister for providing the soldiers. 
Nothing could be less warrior-like than this min- 
ister of war, and it is certain that he had never 
been familiar with military strategy. In his 
earlier activities he had known mudi about cotton 
and its manufacture, and had some knowledge of 
sanitation. The contract for a new system of 
waterworks from Lake Ladoga to Petrograd 
was awarded throu^ him, but not without oppo- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
siticHi from great experts, who thought his ideas 
wrong and fought his schemes in the Duma of 
1914. He is a great admirer of America and s 
Pan-Slavist throu^ and throu^ idiid) is a con- 
tradiction. He is one of tiie Russians who are 
gifted in gathering experiences from which to 
form absohite opinions without digesting the ex- 
periences. He is a sound mtmey-maker, unfor- 
giving when once offended, never able to bear 
criticism, and ready to avenge bitterly any griev- 
ance from the men who were in power during the 
former i^^gime. 

Professor Paul Miliuloff, tbe foreign min- 
ister, is a personality, and has a ri^t to be proud 
of his achievements; and he is proud. Known, 
respected, but not loved, he remembers how ter- 
ror looks, and he will realize that to a certain ex- 
tent it must reign in Russia. He will have to 
use it despite his theoretical point of view of un- 
restricted freedom. The triumph of the first 
days of the revolution sustained t^e hi^ tensicm 
in ^niiich Miliukoff had lived for years. In for- 
tunate circumstances he will be steadfast, but 
with the first little mistake, the first sign of dis- 
organizaticai, he may lose the beautiful equili- 



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UNBALANCED POLICIES 

brium with which it is necessary to balance the 
state affairs of young Russia. 

Rodzianko, the last president of the Duma, is 
also a personality, physically and mentally. He 
is good-natured and not much of a republican. 
He knows ihat Russia must have a figiu%head, 
and tliat this figurehead must be crowned; that, 
like old Russia, young Russia needs a "Little 
Father"; that there is not a great difference be- 
tween yesterday and to-morrow; that Russians, 
to be contented, must have their distractions, their 
joys, and their fears. He is fanatical enou^ to 
swear fealty to the flag of Pan-Slavism and to 
save Russia from all her foster-fathers. 

Kerensky, the minister of justice, is popular, 
strong, and suggestive. He is a simple, impres- 
sive speaker, and he has the most difficult task: 
he must be just not only to young Russia, but to 
the unhappy supporters of tiie unbalanced old 
regime. 



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CHAPTER IV 

THE RU88UK C01TBT 

The great Catherine had endured for seven* 
teen years the domination of the senile Czarina 
Elizabeth. As the wife of an idiotic husband she 
had lived under unspeakable conditions, in a 
country ^ere not <Hily nature sleeps most of the 
year, but where the people were scarcely awak- 
ened to the dayli^t, in the midst of a court of 
most ridiculous intrigues, of little and big cruel- 
ties, and of the most barbaric scenes. After the 
death of the empress, by the force of her per- 
sonality she had broken the diains of an enslaved 
czarina, and had shaken off the suspicion and 
superstition that the court and the Government 
— ^the people did not count at that time — at- 
tached to her. She was proclaimed empress. 
With the jubilant cheerings of the people in her 
ears, she made her entry into the Winter Palace, 
accompanied by one of the three Orloff brothers, 
while the others interned her husband the miser- 
able Czar Peter in Sdiliisselburg. 
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THE RUSSIAN COUBT 

Catberine now breathed freely for the first time 
in her life. The little incident— the strangling 
of her husband — ^the li^t cloud aa her new 
glory, soon disappeared, and life became gay 
and peaceful about her. Daik Russia lay be- 
hind her, a curtain that she kept carefully 
dosed. 

In constant correspondence with the artists 
and philosophers of Europe, she dreamed dreams 
of beauty, of freedom, and of the happy evolu- 
tion of her people. In reality she did not press 
her new ideas upon tiiem. She knew the coimtry 
of her adoption, and she had learned from Peter 
the Great, who, in trying to move the sleepy co- 
lossus to a new culture, used the most barbaric 
weapons and was true to his motto: "The stick, 
liiough diunb, can teach." 

Catherine needed space for her wide lungs, 
thirsty for fresh air; she needed the consolation 
of art and science for the hunger of her soul; and 
she needed .the imperial pomp of her court to 
demm^ate her will oower to her primitive sub- 
jects. 

She completed the Winter Palace and built the 
Hermitage, the gallery of art wonders. When 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
one enters througfa the spacious arch into the im- 
mmse square, with the Winter Palace in all its 
warm tints, in the hackground, one can imagine 
Catherine standing on the balcony overlooking 
the parades of her beloved regiments. The f rcait 
of this palace faces the Neva, a stream of strongly 
flowing water broad oioug^ to make the tear- 
bathed fortress of St. Peter and St. Paul, on ibe 
distant side of the river, appear as a vision of 
hills on the top of which the golden spires of a 
church tower reflect the sunbeams. Over this 
fortress there is always a fine, consoling fog, 
created by the dampness which emerges, like veils, 
from the Neva. 

In Catharine's time the vast, magnificent rooms 
were Med with her spirit and with the joy of 
hfe that she preserved in her sound body. To- 
day the Winter Palace is a dead splendor, and 
sad with the memories of all the tragedies, crimes, 
and terrors that sigh from every comer. 

Kvery historic spot is kept untouched: the 
rooms where Nicholas I brooded in deep melan- 
choly, in eternal fear of being strangled like his 
predecessors; the basement where the czar hid 
himsdf to take the relieving poison; the bottle 
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THE RUSSIAN COUKT 
which contained the fatal medicine, and even the 
spoon. 

The apartments of Alexander are left intact, 
still breathing an incredible warmth of life from 
this amiable sovereign. Here are the pen he 
used for the last time, the half -smoked cigarette, 
tibe diair pushed back as he left the room to at- 
tend the parade from which he was brought back, 
a poor, mutilated body, to expire on a small bed 
behind two columns and a portiere. 

With the assassination of this most European 
of all the czars gaiety and life were extinguished 
from the Winter Palace. Gaiety did not mark 
the reign of Alexander III. Shadows of pale 
fear followed the heavy czar and obscured his life 
and that of Maria Feodorovna, the Danish 
princess whose warm blood froze in the sad- 
ness of the court. Her whole hope was in the 
future, and, with the atavism of queens who 
mixed poisons for their husbands, she dreamed 
of her own autocracy, the unbounded expansion 
of herself to the great independence attained by 
Catherine. Her sons were frail little boys with 
all kinds of inherited diseases. The czareritt^, 
the stubborn little Nicholas, who was never ap- 



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RUSSIA OF 'YESTERDAY AND TOMORBOW 
pToachable by reason, vas not an obstade to faer. 
Perhaps, she thought, she could educate Nidiolas, 
who was timid and not at all an imperial child, to 
renounce the throne in favor of his younger 
brother Michael, nearer to her heart. It served 
her purpose that Michael, who showed signs of 
consumption, had to live out of Russia most of 
the year. 

With the terrible ambiticm of ruling Russia in 
faer mind, the czarina did not prevent her husband 
from heavy drinking, though knowing that his 
constitution was shaken by alcohol. The giant's 
heart was weak, and his days seemed nimsbered. 
Circumstances favored the hopes of Maria 
Feodoroma. Secretly she formed her party, 
the camarilla of Maria Feodorovna, which 
worked feverishly to carry out her purposes. 
Her sons became men, and Alexander, notwith- 
standing his heart disease, lived longer than the 
physicians prophesied. Maria Feodorovna be- 
came restless. The czarevitch returned from 
his constant joumejdngs about the world, bring- 
ing back only his improved health and an eternal 
discontent. He was a poor, lonesome boy. He 
was never gay, and bis debauches were not the 



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THE KUSSIAN COURT 

outlet of an oTer-sparklmg youth, but the result 
of the cyziicism of a life without deep motiTe. 
He koew the history of his country; he feared his 
future, which was like the condemnation to cer- 
tain death. It would not have been difficult to 
crush tiie tiny buds of his modest ambiticm. Like 
all weak natures, Nicholas needed a tremendous 
amount of flattery; he needed tenderness and ad- 
miration. With his comrades of the regiment he 
was often intoxicated, and in the sober moments 
of his hfe he was extremely bored and melan- 
choly. 

He crested his own little rourt of sycophants, 
and he created the later influences, priests and 
courtiers; and as a court is not imaginable with- 
out womanly domination, the center of his hfe 
was the ballet-dancer Kresdiinskaja. The Kre- 
schinskaja was not a simple dancer, but cxie of 
the most clever and beautiful pupils selected from 
the best of the imperial ballet school, and institu- 
tion -where the dancers, taken at a tender age, are 
not only trained for dancing, but for accomplish- 
ments built up on a firm educational founda- 
ti<HJ. 

The Kreschinskaja was an embodied flame, 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

with eyes like fire in her spiritualized face. She 
was a queen among the aspiring creatures in the 
czarevitch's circle. She held Nicholas in her del- 
icate fingers, and the day that she presented him 
with her first son he promised to make her his 
czarina. Why not ? There was Peter the Great, 
who married, despite his living wife, Eudoxia, 
the Finnish laundress, and made her the czarina. 
And the Kreschinskaja was far more than a peas- 
ant girl She could help Nicholas reign; she 
could be the real intuitive force of his hfe. The 
somewhat confused conception of his task as heir 
to the throne seemed suddenly to take distinct 
fonn in the czarevitch's mind; it would never be 
a burden if the Kreschinskaja could aid him. 
She was a child of the people, with the brain of 
an empress. 

Maria Feodorovna smiled contentedly on the 
czarevitch's pseudo-court She let her camarilla 
nourish and support his idea of marrying the 
duicer. Hun, she was sure, his light as czar 
would never bum, and Michael, who was sick 
and good-natured, woula be only too glad to 
leave the reins of the government in the hands of 
his mother. 

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THE RUSSIAN COVKT 

All the czarina's schemes developed rapidfy. 
Alexander's enormous body, underfed by the 
heart, which was too weak to circulate the blood, 
swelled and swelled. Day and ni^t he sat in 
his big arm-chair, tortured by suffocation and 
worrying about Nicholas, who was so poor a 
czarevitch. 

From Gatshina the czar was brought to his 
Crimean castle at Yalta. Here the ministers 
revealed to him the dangerous ideas of the czar- 
evitch and the machinations of Maria Feodor- 
ovna's camarilla. The czsr had one of his 
fits of temper, which, despite his desperate ill- 
ness, were the terror of the court. He was still 
the czar, though the dying czar. He summoned 
Nicholas to Yalta, and forced on him the plan 
to marry him to Uie sister of the Grand Duchess 
Sergius, the Princess Alix of Hesse. 

It was an imperial order. Only by accepting 
the czar's decree could the czarevitch alter his 
father's resolution to send the Ereschinskaja to 
Siberia and to kill her brood. The Kreschin- 
skaja had to abdicate, but she was permitted to 
retain her place in the imperial ballet. Later, 
when the czarevitch was omnipotent, he gave a 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

fortune to tite dancer, built a magnificent palace 
for her, and bestowed titles cm his sons. 

In the white eaatle at Yalta began the drams 
of the life of the czarevitch and the Princess Alix 
of Hesse. 

The princess arrived in the Crimea, a sacrifice 
to high diplomacy. The cool, white, slender 
flower of a highly cultivated country, Uie young 
girl with a sad expression in her eyes, was ter- 
rified at being placed on the throne of Russia, 
where the assassination of crowned heads was 
still an every-day affair. She was presented to 
the czarevitch, who made a pitiful impression in 
his state of complete breakdown following his 
separation from the Kreschinskaja. After they 
bad exchanged a few conventional words, they 
were taken to the si<^ czar, who, heavily uplift- 
ing his enormous stature, gave his blessing to 
the couple kneeling before him. 

At the head of the bed stood ibe czarina. The 
girl victim raised her eyes, and met a look of 
hatred. She nearly fainted, and was led away 
by her sister, the Grand Duchess Sergius. 

It was springtime. The czarevitch and the 
princess walked in liie solitude of the Crimean 



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THE RITSSIAN COURT 

gardcsi, around the white C8stle> where tiie prepa- 
rations for their wedding were hurried. The 
two young people, drawn together by eadi 
other's heart distresses, tried to find amid the en- 
tanglement of unknown dangers a tie that would 
bind them to the duties which they owed to ibe 
circumstance of being bom on the heights. In 
this icy atmosphere the throbbing heart has no 
rights, and they had to surrender their youthful 
dreams. 

The czar loved his new daughter, and the 
young princess passed days with him, understand- 
ing the anxieties of this dying colossus, who was 
surrounded by the spider system of his wife and 
who had no confidence in the capacities of Nicho< 
las. With the czar's hands in hers she made a 
silent vow to help the czarevitch uphold the bur- 
den of a crown. They were married with the 
dark wings of the death angel around them. The 
Grand Duchess Serg^us received her sister in her 
arms after the lugubrious ceremonies, and took 
off the virginal veil of tiie yoimg bride. The 
two sisters found themselves in tears, united un- 
der the weight of their fates, and they accepted 
their lots silently. 

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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
With the increasing weakness of the czar, the 
camarilla again showed its gorgon head, and the 
bride> unprotected by the apathy of her husband, 
shuddered in fear. Alexander III expired. 
The pomp of the funeral was over. The czarina 
mother took up her residoice at the Annitschkof 
Palace, the residence of the widows of the czars. 
The young czar took the oath of office. Cos- 
tumed in the pomp of the imperial ermine, the 
heavy crown on his head, he looked like a fri^t- 
ened child who tries on his father's hat, his fa- 
ther's coat The hat slipped over the diild's 
face, and the frail body disappeared completely 
in the coat. This impression remained. The 
czar's physical appearance was unfortunate for 
a sovereign. Little, thin, with a face that ex- 
presses nothing openly, he always gave the idea 
that his position must be a very embarrassing 
one, and the expression of his eyes was ahnost 
apologetic He was not a man for publicity, 
not a decoration. He was not a czar of all the 
Russias. When he appeared, the people were 
immediately attracted by the mi^ty bodies of 
the Romano£F grand dukes, the towering, weighty 
moi behind him. Nobody looked into the czar's 
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THE RUSSIAN COURT- ■ " ' 
face, nobody noticed the frozen smile, which con- 
trasted pathetically with the sad eyes, and nobody 
ever imagined that publicity meanf for the czar 
physical pain. 

On the day of the coronation in Moscow thou- 
sands were buried under the grandstand erected 
for the people who watched the entry of the 
czarina. Above the dominant ringing of the 
Great Bell, which was answered by hundreds of 
other bells, the czarina's ear was struck by the 
death-screams of the people who had been wait- 
ing for her at the arch of the Kreml; and the six 
horses harnessed to the imperial coadi, after a 
second of hesitation, sped over bloody bodies. 
The czarina's heart shrank; she grasped in a des- 
perate pressure the hand of her husband, who, 
deathly-pale, looked out on the fateful scene, 
which augured ill for his reign. The czarina's 
anxious questioning met furtive glances. No 
one would tell her of the sinister omen that gave 
tragic significance to the holy day of her corona- 
tion as the Empress of all the Russias. 

Moscow celebrated despite the mourning of 
thousands of her inhabitants. The great ban- 
quet-hall in the Kreml was a spectacle unforget- 
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RtrSSiA "OP -YteSTEHDAY AND T&-MORH0W 

able to all vdio were present. It f onned the ri^t 
background for the canopy over the throne, for 
the colorf Illness and brilliancy of the Russian na- 
tional costumes and unifornis, and for the jeweled 
and brocaded robes of the holy synod. The 
Mayor of Moscow presented to the young 
czarina, who sat white and erect on her thrcme, 
the famous bouquet in the handle of which was 
the button that, when pressed, flooded Moscow 
with millims of electric lights. The czarina, who 
was crowned Alexandra Feodoroma, was led 
to the balcony, where she stood tmder the silent 
glances of the masses waiting on the plaza. The 
Kreml lights were first extinguished, and then the 
czarina pressed the button of her bouquet, and 
Moscow flamed in an illumination never before 
seen. Mute and depressed, the people gazed at 
the white figure who, with hep first official step 
into Russia, had brou^t death to them. The 
young czarina returned white and trembling to 
the banquet-hall. From all the German cities 
the best artists had been assembled in Moscow for 
a most wonderful concert under a conductor from 
the home country of the former Princess Allx. 
She hid the tears of homesickness under her long 



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THE RUSSIAN COURT 

lashes. The melodies dear to her heart brou^^t 
back the memory of her happy maidenhood, and, 
shivering in the warmth of the summer night, her 
heart was contracted with bitter presentiments. 
Then remembering her vow, she raised her head, 
and ^en the irksome days of the coronation cer- 
emonies were over, she resolved to live in strict 
devotion to her new duties. 

The yomig czar found himself a sovereign 
without knowing the men of his fatiier's reign, 
trusting nobody, loving nobody, and even a 
stranger and timid before his bride, who de- 
veloped an unexpected energy and interest in 
state affairs. In her veins was the blood of 
women who knew their duties, and she had de- 
cided to be true to her traditions. The czar 
looked up to his young wife, who spoke wisely 
and with determination; but she did not speak 
his language, the language of his people. She 
was a foreigner, and Russia looked at her onfy as 
the czarina ^o would perpetuate the imperial 
race. 

The czarina devoted herself fervently to the 
study of the language, so that she mi^t come 
nearer to the heart of the Russians and win her 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY A2<ID TO-MORROW 

husband's confidence. Her hope looked forward 
to the child she was expecting. Her first-bom 
was a princess, and the poor czarina became timid 
again before sinister fate. She saw herself and 
the czar drifting apart under the influence of the 
czarina-mother. She lived in the shy feeling that 
the people met her with hostile superstition, and 
she sou^t consolation in religion, in tjie new~ 
faith of the Greek Church. Her second child, 
so anxiously longed for, came. Again a lovely 
Uttle girL The czarina-mother triumphed. 
Hers might be the final victory, and her hopes of 
seeing the Grand Duke Michael on the throne 
grew. She kept the whole pohce system in her 
hands, and the spirit of revolutitm then flowering 
through Russia served her purpose. All that 
was not plotted by the anarchists the cruel, fan- 
tastic camarilla invented. The little freedoms of 
the young sovereigns were imder terrible espion- 
age. For every theater party, for every enter- 
tainment, they provided cleverly arranged and 
dramatically discovered assassins. The young 
czarina became a silent woman. She suffered 
more and more from the misinterpretation of 
everything she said and did, and even her 
104 



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ALEXANDRA, THE FORMKR CZARIXA 



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THE RUSSIAN COUBT 
ttiou||^t^ her unspoken word, was a source of 
eternal suspicion and persecution. Her young 
joy of life was slowly tortured to death by the 
ever-watching creatures of her mother-in-law. 

From time to time the sovereigns longed for 
pleasures congenial to their youth, and the court 
marshal sent out invitations to court balls. In 
the big ball-room of the Winter Palace, under the 
soft, warm li^t of diousands of wax candles, 
the waltzing couples appeared languishing and 
exotic. The li^ts deepened the richness of the 
brocades, and brou^t out the wonders of 
resplendent diamonds and pearls on the Russian 
national costumes. 

The czarina was very lovely, with a timid and 
yet proud carriage of her fine head and the roses 
of youth blossoming on her cheeks. She liked to 
dance, and the great court balls always surprised 
her into the tense expectation of a yoimg girl. 

At one of the balls, in the midst of the sweep- 
ing chords of the mazurka, the li^ts suddenly 
fluttered as if moved by a mysterious draft; a 
cold air blew through the room, and the ladies 
shivered witii fright. A subdued whispering ran 
throu^ the assembly, no one knowing anything, 
107 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORBOW 

but eveiy one foreboding. Looking with livid 
faces toward the place where the imperial couple 
danced, the guests saw only that the czar, grasp- 
ing the czarina's hand, left the ball-room as if in 
flight. The music ended with a crash. The 
next day the rumor filled the capital that the 
ball-room in the Winter Palace was undermined, 
and that a bomb was discovered just in time to 
prevent the explosion that would have blown to 
atoms all the guests, amtmg tiiem the imperial 
couple. 

The ball-room was closed. The camarilla 
worked well. Terror crept throu^ the palace, 
crept through the doors into the private rooms 
of the sovereigns, and in livid fright they fled 
from the capital to bury themselves in the solitude 
of Tsarsko-Sselo, nowhere sure that plots would 
not be forged in their closest entourage. Rest- 
lessness grew, a frightful restlessness, and they 
had a home nowhere. Then the imperial duty 
demanded that they travel through the country, 
and on all of their tours accidents were arranged: 
rails were loosened, and a number of persons lost 
their lives; but the death of the imperial family 
was frustrated in time. The Russian people 
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THE RUSSIAN COURT 
attributed all misfortune to the young czarina, 
and the saying went around that wherever she 
walked she would walk over blood. And wher- 
ever she went, she met enmity, she who was not 
yet taken into the lap of the Russian Church and 
who was not blessed with the heir that the land 
expected of her. With a tortured spirit the 
czarina looked forward to her third child. Again 
in the cradle lay a Uttle girl, and the camarilla, 
the great spider, had its web around the soul of 
the young couple. 

The czar faced the disappointment of his hope 
for an heir. He gave away to the melancholy of 
former years, to the discontent. He drank to 
forget his imperial misery. The stories of the 
victims of the Ockrana, of the tireless Trepof 
hunting anarchists, of Flehve, of Siberian hor- 
rors, of executions and torturing of young men 
and women, all lost interest for the czar. What 
was all this in comparison with the eternal fear 
strangling his own throat? He signed death- 
sentences mechanically every morning without 
any knowledge of the cases. Behind the iron 
gate of etiquette and fear lived the crowned 
heads. From the hands of the court-torturers, 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 
called chamberlains, ministers, or priests, they 
received their servants, their teachers, their con- 
fessors. Their sleep was interrupted to prevent 
rest, to prevent foi^^etfulness; their meals were 
poisoned to simulate plots. The windows were 
barred to the free and fre^ air. They lived 
anemically, trembling in the swampy air of 
gossip, treascn, and baseness. An impoietrable 
wall was erected around the imperial prisoners, 
and their souls were moved by the wires of a 
hundred-years-old system of court mechanism. 
They were moved to smile, to be graceful, to be 
crueL In their names all fri^tful crimes were 
committed. The church revived the medieval 
inquisition among the Jews, and the pogroms 
were red-lined in the calendars of entertamment 
of the czar. 

And the people stood outside the gates, bitter- 
ness in their hearts and curses on their lips for the 
czarina, the foreigner who was not even able to 
bring forth an heir to the throne. The jailers of 
the imperial couple grew into an almighty power, 
and the imperial leading actors of this tragedy 
shrank to a legendary existence behind their 
pristm walls. Special automobiles incased in 
110 



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THE BUSSIAN COUKT 

coats of mail were built to take the czar from 
Tsarsko-Sselo to the capital, if his presence was 
necessary. The Winter Palace was deserted, 
only a small wing being reserved for tiie members 
of the imperial family, and that strongly guarded. 
The open gardens were surrounded by a hi^ 
gate of wonderful ironwork, and behind the gate 
the shrubberies grew dense and tall so that 
nobody could ever catch a glimpse into those 
endianted gardens. 

For a long time the people whispered that the 
czar and the czarina had been assassinated by the 
camarilla, and that only dummies were shown to 
hide the black deed from avenging Europe. 

In deepest seclusion the czarina gave birth to 
her fourth dau^ter, — ^poor little ^11 — and then 
the book of interest for her existence seemed com- 
pletely closed. She clung to the diurch. Mys- 
ticism developed to the hothouse flower that 
intoxicated the czarina's free mind. The church 
decided that the power of the death-bringing 
ockratui and its executioners had gone too far, 
and feared for its own decreasing influence at the 
court and among the people. Everything had 
paled before the overwhelming terrors of the 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 
police. There was no room for politics* for the 
Goremment; there was onfy the police. Noth- 
ing progressed. Scioice and art stagnated. 
Like a forest uninhabited by birds, the land was 
deserted by its poets. Normal joys were cast out 
to give place to the terrible debauches of vice and 
drunkenness. 

It was now that PobiedoDOstsef , the sly high 
officer of the holy synod, saved the influence of 
the church. He loosened the chains around the 
wrists of the imperial couple. They could move 
again and travel without the death-clattering 
horseman speeding ahead. The czarina could 
play with her little daughters and could let them 
grow in all possible freedom. Every year when 
the Easter bells had sent their last peals through 
the capital, when "Christ was risen," the imperial 
family went to the Crimean castle, the Russian 
Riviera. In the sunshine of this part of Russia, 
in the gaiety of the South, the dark shadow of the 
camarilla lost its horror; it seemed to disappear, 
and Uie church dominated. First little liberties, 
were permitted, and passed undisturbed. Then 
excursions were ventured upon, informal motor 
trips; again the court had among its members 
lis 



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THE BUSSIAN COURT 

the younger, gayer set. Under the blue sky and 
the spring spell the czarina's heart warmed. She 
became young again. With a longing for mysti- 
cal wonders, she was ready for the sweetness of 
a young girl's romance. Providence had pre- 
pared for her this romance, which one day was to 
end tragically because she, the heroine, was the 
tragic Muse. 

With anxious discretion the secrecy of this 
romance was guarded by the czarina's friends, 
80 that it might not be revealed to the hawk-eyes 
of the camarilla and the world. The court- 
marshal, Baron Freederickoz, again took up the 
long-interrupted program of court pleasures. 
The Winter Palace was opened for one big ball, 
and every one was struck by the charm and the 
maidenly beauty of the czarina. 

The czarina opened the ball with Count Orloff, 
ihe tall, slender man with the noble face who was 
one of the courtiers of the Crimean happy days; 
and ^en the coimt bowed deeply before his 
empress, her face flushed, and her embarrass- 
ment was noticed and discussed; but even evil 
tongues did not dare to criticize the unfortunate 
woman. 

lis 



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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
The moming came when the sound of all the 
bells, followed by the twenty-one-gun salute, 
announced to all Russia the birth of an heir. 

The czarina became the subject of the coun- 
try's blessings. The holy mother, the church, 
had finally taken Alexandra Feodorovna into her 
special care. A new, fresh hope warmed Russia. 
Hymns were simg everywhere, the czar showed 
himself to the people, and the holy synod con- 
templated triumphantt^ the miracles of the 
church. 

The baptism was celebrated with the greatest 
pomp. The throng was permitted to gather 
around the Easan Cathedral to watch the pro- 



The czarina-mother, Maria Feodorovna, had 
to carry the child, the unwelcome grandson who 
annihilated all her efforts and her ambitions for 
her son Michael. She held the little bit of 
potmtial manhood in her arms, breathing on the 
babe wordless curses. Poor little boy so ardently 
longed for, and then persecuted at his entrance 
into the world I 

The czarina trembled for her new happiness. 

Her little treasure had to be watched, and eren 

114 



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THE RUSSIAN COURT 

then she was never sure which of all the mirses 
or ladies in waiting, bought bjr the czarina- 
mother, mi^t betray her. 

The camarilla never hesitated at assassination. 
Positive^ true is the stoiy that one morning whoi 
the czarevitch was put into his bath, the czarina, 
in a neighboring room, heard the diild utter a 
terrible scream, followed by helpless whining. 
She rushed into the nursery, to find tiie hoy 
lying in his tub, with a blue face, and desperately 
struggling to get out of this death-bringing 
danger. The czarina snatdied her son out of ice 
•water. The terrible mistake was attributed to 
the nurse. Again the liberties of the imperial 
couple were curtailed; again the terrors of anar- 
chists and revolutionists convulsed the official 
class. Political riots took place, cruelties were 
committed. Free speech, spiritual freedom were 
violently demanded, and apparently tlie camariUa 
supported the revolution of the studmts. In 
Moscow the reign of terror instituted by the 
Grand Duke Sergius was avenged in blood. All 
remember the terrible death of this autocrat, who 
himself knouted the prisoners. The czarina saw 
in the tragic lot of her sister her own picture, 
lis 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

She suffered terribly under real and imaginaiy 
persecutions, and more and more plunged into the 
mysticism of theosophy and the Greek Churdi. 

From time to time the most abominable stories 
of the imperial court trickled out to the people. 
The diabolic influence of the camarilla was one 
of the red-fluaed horrors. 

These external events served to push the ter- 
roristic movements and the machinations of 
the czarina-mother into the background. The 
Russo-Japanese War broke out The camarilla 
sou^t another himting-field. Much depended 
on the outcome of this war, whidi could bring in 
its failure the abdication of the czar if a fanatic 
could not find the right moment to assassinate 
him. Maria Feodorovna sent all her creatures to 
the front, forgetting that the Russian always 
prefers the sparrow in his hand to the dove on the 
roof. Port Arthur's famous hi^waymen lived 
in opulence, and let the soldiers bleed to death in 
the traps of the Japanese. 

Before the Baltic fleet was sent out, the czar 

arrived in Reval to give it his imperial blessing. 

He stood embarrassed and too shy to make a 

gesture, glancing only at Hbe proud fleet whidi 

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THE RUSSIAN COURT 

was to win the victory that the armies could not 
achieve. The mechanical words prepared by the 
minister of the court came hesitatingly and stam- 
meringly from his lips. The people were remote 
from him, from his soul, and they looked apathe- 
tically at him. Then the czarina, who accom- 
panied him and who was never separated from 
her httle son, had the spontaneous inspiration to 
lift the czarevitch in her arms, and, holding the 
child, just one year old, high above the czar's 
head in radiant maternal pride, showed the 
smiling boy to the people. For the first time 
they saw the czarina in flesh and blood, noble and 
beautiful, not the former czarina, the cursed, pale, 
curbed woman avoiding all contact, who, they had 
been told, hated all Russians. And there she 
stood the embodiment of the Madonna, with her 
laughing boy in her arms. Cheers thundered 
from men's lungs, echoing over the sea like a cry 
of hope. 

The czarina herself felt a new life running 
through her veins, a new courage to take up the 
struggle for her son's sake, for her own redemp- 
tion from the dark powers that stretched out their 
fangs. A time of hope freed her mind. The 
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RUSSIA OF YE8TEHDAY AND TO-MOREOW 

czarina tben lored the sea> and she passed weeks 
on the imperial yacht, the Standard, with only 
a small suite, the persons nearest her heart. 
Among them was Count OrIo£F. 

The most discouraging war news could not 
depress the czarina. She lived on the Standard 
with her Uttle girls, her hoy, and her romance, and 
she hved untroubled, young, and happy. Then 
the fleet that she had sent out with her hlessings, 
and which in thou|^t she accompanied through 
all its voyage, met the fleet of Admiral Togo, and 
was destroyed. 

The czarina was thrown bat^ into deep mel- 
andioly. Even the innocent blessing of the 
czarevitch had failed to save the fleet from dis- 
aster! 

The Russo-Japanese War ended. The czar 
was forced to accept the so-called constitutional 
government. He himself was hidden behind 
Witte, then the mi^ty premier. The czar was 
remote from state affairs, and the next few years 
passed in the uncertainty of fears and the nag^ 
ging threatenings of plots. What happened to 
Russia was accident^ As the cards fall in a 
game, ministers were chosen and thrown away. 
118 



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THE RUSSIAN COXJRT 

Despite the moral crumbling of his imperial 
life the czar longed, in the weariness of his heart, 
for something great; and if the backbone of his 
principles had not been so terribly injijred by 
the demoralization of those aromid him, be could 
have saved the world from its greatest curse — war 
among nations. He not only dreamed of disarm- 
ammt; he spoke of it Russia's politics let him 
speak and apparently supported his moral rise, 
his utterly European conception of the world. 
Again an amazing episode was staged to make 
the nations believe that Russia, despite Siberia, 
despite the horrors that were known and the 
rumors of corruption that were wide-spread, 
made a noble gesture of peace. 

As always in Russia grandiose ideas contra- 
dict the seriousness of achievements. The czar 
had the enli^tenment of a supreme duty; it was 
the enlightenment of an hour, and the idea was 
extinguished in a moment when it should have 
been translated into an act. He suddenly 
became afraid of the enormous consequences of 
his great idea — ^tfae revision of Russia herself, the 
elimination of the Jewish problem, the education 
of the people, the political changes. The min- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
istera wrung their hands over the czar's sudden 
awakening, and the church worked with the 
ochrana to put into effect plots for more political 
assassinations. The czar's sovereign courage 
sank hack into lethargy, and he became again a 
supine puppet moved by his creatures. 

The disgraceful end of the war with Japan 
had crushed the popularity of the czarina-mother. 
Maria Feodorovna preferred to live outside of 
Russia for a while until the people could forget 
all the basenesses which had been committed un- 
der the flag of the camarilla. This camarilla had 
become very shabby, and in order to clothe it 
anew she went to England where she played 
Russia's interests into the hands of King Edward 
VII, encouraging his scheme for the political 
isolation of Germany, undermining and discredit- 
ing German influence in Russia. 

Court life in Tsarsko-Sselo was reduced to the 
interests of the nursery. Despite their unwel- 
come entrance into the world, tiie four little prin- 
cesses became sunbeams in the gloomy sedusitm 
of their parents. Not the slightest shadow ever 
rested upon the sweet maidenhood of the girls. 
They were kept totally ignorant of the tragedies 
ISO 



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THE RUSSIAN COUHT 
of the Russian court. The czarina did not wish 
her daughters to be erudite; she desired them to 
be happy and free, and let them pass their days 
in the fresh air of the gardens, in the healthful 
pleasures of outdoor sports. As they grew older 
they became the faithful companions of their 
beloved father whenever he appeared publicly. 
It was as if the young, beautiful princesses should 
protect the ever-threatened czar, and they did 
protect him. 

The czarevitch, the child of his mother's heart, 
enjoyed his little life, horseback-riding on his big 
niu^e, a Cossack of the bodyguard. He was tire- 
lessly watched by the giant, who was the only 
person who could bend the iron will of the wide- 
awake, unusually intelligent child. As time 
went on the czarevitch embarrassed his teachers 
in arguing with them, as it is difficult to convince 
him to the contrary when once he has an idea in 
his head. His delicate health was a source of 
never-ceasing anxiety to the czarina. What 
would become of her if an ever-envious fate again 
should strike her? And the envious fate was not 
resting. 

It was in August, 1913, in Poland, in the hunt- 
ISl 



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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
ing-castle of the czar, that the czarevitdi, making 
a false step, dislocated his hip and caused a severe 
rupture. A slight operation would hare cured 
him in a short time, but a peculiar hereditary 
disease, which makes every wound bleed con- 
stantly, rendered a surgical incision impossible. 
The dislocation developed a tubercular tendency, 
and the czarina faced the possibility that her son 
would be an invalid for life. Of all her tragic 
moments this was the most tragic. That the poor 
imperial woman did not lose her mind in this new 
trial, which the people again attributed to her 
black fate, was due to the consolation of a woman, 
of her soul-friend, the last of the intimate group 
belonging to the happy dajrs on the yacht 
Standard. Count Orloff had died of tuberculosis 
in Egypt. 

Mme. Anna Wiribouwa had divorced her hus- 
band, who was an officer on the Standard. Since 
then she had lived in strict privacy in her house in 
Tsarsko-Sselo, which was connected with the 
czarina's apartments in the imperial castle. Her 
influence never touched her sovereign's external 
life, and in this perhaps lay her great power. 
She never sought the czarina; the czarina sou^t 
IXff 



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GREGORY RASPUTIN 



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THE RUSSIAN COURT 
her. It was Mme. Wiribouwa who brought Ras- 
putin to the court. In Russia, where nature, 
climate, and & predisposition to the mystical 
work together, psychic forces are often found 
funong persons of the humble classes. Mme. 
Wiribouwa knew of Rasputin tramping as a 
simple peasant over the country, comforting the 
poor, relieving the sick. Rasputin entered the 
gate of the palace. 

When the peasant was brought before the 
czarina to heal her son she received this humble 
man as the redeemer sent to her by the super- 
natural powers she believed in. Her faith was 
not deceived. Despite the physicians' diagnosis, 
the czarevitch improved. The little life in him 
was strengthened by the hope he saw in the 
glances of his mother. He felt the sound power 
of the simple peasant who spoke of things that 
other men scarcely dared to think, of likes and 
dislikes. 

When the peasant appeared, the dark priests 
smiled indulgently as on a new hysterical mood 
of the czarina, and ridiculed the words of the man 
whom they feared in the depths of their black 
hearts ; but before they were aware of it, Rasputin 
IJtS 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

aired the mur^ atmosphere of the imperia] 
prison. He freed the souls of the jailed imperial 
couple; he gave them back their self-confidence. 
The sovereigns suddenly moved about as other 
human beings moved, fearlessly among their 
people. For the first time the Russians shared 
in the hopes and anxieties for their beloved little 
czarevitch. The whole country took part in this 
wonder-healing, and Rasputin was the great man 
of the hour; he had brought back the czar to his 
people and the people to the czar. His radiant 
eyes shone fearlessly through falsehood, and he 
saw the rich fatten themselves by the sweat of the 
poor. He destroyed the camarilla, uid diased 
the false priests from the court. No murders 
were a»nmitted in his name, for he himself loved 
Uf e dearly. He lived close to the imperial couple, 
because the sovereigns could not live in a hut in 
bis home village. He was simple and natural 
enou^ to adapt himself to the customs of court 
life, and did not accentuate the unwashed appear- 
ance of the poor peasant to make his impression 
stronger. He changed his linen shirt to the 
purple silk of the Russian national costume, and 
mstead of walking on bare feet, he wore ^lining 
lis 



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THE RUSSIAN COXJBT 
hi^^ boots. He even enjoyed the refinements of 
life, vidt^ did not emasculate him. He listened 
to every one who sought him, and they did seek 
hiuL From far and near people of every class 
traveled to see him, and waited for hours in the 
hall of the house at the Quai Anglais, where he 
lived when he was in Petrograd. Automobiles 
and carriages, elegant and himible, stood in line 
before the house, and one after anoilier men and 
women were received, spoke to Rasputin, and 
went away c(Hnforted by a few good words and 
the unforgetahle impression of his face. He did 
not know more than the ten commandments 
require of men, and he never argued. He made 
no compromises, no comments; but he fought 
mercilessly courtiers or priests or ministers who 
in politics or mysticism circumvented the Biblical 
laws. 

Rasputin, with the tenacity and force of a 
diild, attained whatever he had in his mind. He 
desired that his brethren might be freed from the 
scourge of alcohol. He saw in vodka the black 
devil which had the people in its grip, to fog their 
spirits and to change the sound forces of the Rus- 
sian into vice and slavery which made the people 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
the victims of the sinners above them. He abol- 
ished the use of vodka in Russia ; the czar ordered 
prohibition. Rasputin wanted peace with the 
same tenacity, and he was murdered by those who 
made the war. 

Rasputin is dead. His death was the only 
mysticism in his life. He died a martyr; martyr- 
dom was the natural end of his hfe. 

That he found a place in the Russian court is 
not mere accident; it will seem natural when it is 
known how the crowned heads longed for all 
which was not of the court, not dark. He was 
the result of mystical desires, and all desires are 
more or less mystical. He brought the earthly 
flavor to the court; he was the light in contrast to 
the darkness that then was in power. He had 
the courage of the illiterate; he found words for 
thoughts which every one has, but in the entangle- 
ment of time and custom simply has lost. He 
was a contrast to the ochrana, covering thousands 
of crimes committed by men who lived as cowards 
under the shelter of this terrible name; he was a 
contrast to the mystical priests who heard the 
confessions of the distressed hearts of the sov- 
ereigns, to make later a flourishing commerce of 
128 



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THE RUSSIAN COURT 

those confessions. He walked unafraid through 
the world, preaching practical Christianity, which 
is the religion of children, and he did not pretend 
to be sent from God. He was a man with all the 
simplicity of a man, with the faults of a man; and 
his influence was greater for this reason. 

Many have described Rasputin; few could ex- 
plain him. It was not he who sou^t influence 
in political affairs with the czar. The ministers, 
uncertain in their own positions, and insincere in 
their ambitions, were responsible for the influence 
of Rasputin. 

Rasputin lost the sense of proportion, as any 
man would have lost it who saw the whole court 
circling around him. He could not explain his 
wonder force, but he finally believed in it, and 
thought that he was sent by a supernatural spirit 
to command the world. He abused his power, 
and whoever, being of flesh and blood, has not 
done so? With his increasing might in the 
world, the czarina saw the faith she had in Ras- 
putin justified, and so the peasant became om- 
nipotent and unshakable. It was no longer the 
question what his religion was, and if he had been 
a Roman Catholic, he might have been another 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
Richelieu; then his natural force, badfy used, 
would have been directed. 

The czarina could make him understood. She 
who was reared and educated in England, the 
graduate of a university; she who knew and dis- 
cussed all the philosophers and their systems, she 
must have found intellectual and religious re- 
sources in him. Her gratitude to him when the 
little czarevitch improved in health, and her fixed 
idea that with Rasputin's removal her son would 
be in danger again, w»% perhaps reasons why 
she should protect him for a short time, but not 
for years, not after his death, which was shame- 
ful and full of horror. It is ^squieting that 
Rasputin eould be assassinated without making 
an end of him; he exercises his spell beyond the 
grave. He still puzzles the world, and he will 
represent in his memory the greatest mystical 
idea of his time of former Russia. 

In any democracy Rasputin would have been 
either a great socialist or a great healer. He 
was no more than the illumined figure of a La 
Salle or the strong magnet of a Silly Sunday. 
The murder of Rasputin, with its frightful 
details, leads back to the diabolic spirit of the 
ISO 



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TSE RUSSIAN COURT 
czarina-mother's creatures. Maria Feodorovna 
hated Rasputin for interfering with her cherished 
plans; she hated him for having brought peace 
and cahn to the persecuted souls of the czar and 
czarina; and she hated him most for his new 
influence in political affairs, and for sustaining 
the czar in his peace ideas. 

When the war broke out the czarina-mother, 
by an irony of fate, found herself in Berlin. 
Instead of being interned for all her mis- 
chierous deeds, she was treated very cour- 
teously, and even in this time of confusion and 
excitement a separate car for her and her suite 
was attached to the train for the Danish frontier. 
That the kaiser ignored her presence at the Hotel 
Bristol seemed to her the essence of brutality, 
which, once in a place of safety, with the German 
frontier at her back, she exaggerated into stories 
of infamous treatment. After her arrival in 
Petrograd she added fanatically to the persecu- 
tions of the German element. She accentuated, 
i^enever she could, the German descent of the 
czarina, and accused her of heading the peace 
party at the court as a German agent. £ven the 
great tragedy of the country, of Europe, did not 
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prevoit her evil spirit from inciting the most 
extraordiiiuy intrigues. The only man she could 
not shake in bis firm position was Rasputin, and 
when finally it was said that Rasputin had been 
murdered by Prince Yusupoff, who is married to 
the granddaughter of the czarina-mother, it was 
no longer a puzzle as to who had played the lead- 
ing hand in this foul game. 

There are heavy, solemn times in Russia. 
With a great, simple gesture the representatives 
of the people dethroned the czar. With pitiless 
severity they will judge the men who were around 
the czar, not his creatures, but his oppressors, who 
made him a constant victim. It was easy for the 
world to say that the czar was a nonentity on the 
Russian tiirone. The world did not realize how 
much force it required to be even a nonentity on 
the Russian throne, to have borne for more than 
twenty years a burden that would have crushed 
any man. The czar had in his frail body the 
quality of superhuman endurance; he never 
lived in the present. How could he? He Uved 
in the hope of the morrow. His imprisonment 
was not a great change in his condition. He 
always lived as a man c(mdemned for life to 



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THE RUSSIAN COXJRT 

imprisonment, a man who looked out every day 
to catch a glimpse of the heaven to conTince him* 
self that heaven still existed. Joys were few in 
his imperial life. He had a vast fmid of child* 
like faith; he had the passive heroism of a martyr 
to endmre long years in his imperial jail. Noth- 
ing has changed for him. To-day he is the 
prisoner of the people, from whom he was remote 
through the absolutism of his entourage. The 
day when he signed the declaration of war he 
dropped his majesty. He slipped out of the 
disguise of crown and ermine, which had hidden 
his little, modest body and his face, and he put 
on the gray coat of the soldier, and was a simple 
figure behind the lines. The only sign of courage 
that he gave was to talk peace again in a time of 
wholesale hatred, and if he had not been unlucky 
in the choice of men around him, perhaps the 
world would have listened to his plea. As he 
lacked ambition and a consciousness of his exalted 
place in life, he will be relieved to be a prisoner of 
the people instead of the prisoner of the poisoned 
system which had threatened his life ever since he 
took the throne. 

These are not the times of boundless passions 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

that put Louis XVI oa the scaffold to make him 
pay for his weaknesses with his head. The czar 
is officially jailed by his people, and that is enou^ 
to abolish forever czaiism in Russia. 

In the future history of Russia petiiaps there 
will be no longer a so-called court life. The 
people have hoisted the red flag on the Winter 
Palace. The long-untouched historic rooms will 
be emptied of their musty imperial relics, which 
will be sent to a museum. Those fascinating 
renmimts of barbarism may fall to dust v/iib the 
democracy of the new times. 



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CHAPTER V 

ASISTOCBATIC WOMEN IN BUBSU2T LIFE 
AND POLITICS 

Silent, strong, and inspiring, Russian wcnnen 
always have been the support of their men 
in every political and social movement. The 
change in Russia's political organization and the 
overthrow of the former rulers could not have 
been executed if the way had not been prepared 
with the tireless help of women. 

The Russian woman is wonderful. She is the 
source of sparkling life, joy, and hope. She is 
also a source of delicate wisdom, of vast tender- 
ness, of patience and forgiveness. Ko other 
woman can smile as tiie Russian smiles, no other 
wcHuan has tears so hot and so sincere, and no 
other woman can hate so strongly and endure so 
silently what she endures for her man. 

In former Russia, at the time when every house 
throughout the country was undermined by the 
passions of anarchism, involving sisters, mothers, 
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RUSSU OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
and daughters, secret meetings were held in the 
palaces of hi^ officials as well as in the poor 
dwellings of students. The woman-flower of 
the aristocracy, violently inflamed hy human 
tragedies, threw bombs, was sentenced, and was 
tortured the same as the simple girl of the people. 

Russian society was then in a paroxysm of 
terror and fright. A whole world stared breath- 
lessly at the women and their sacrifices, fbeii 
fanatical help, their speediless devotion to their 
men's cause. To-day, when the cause is perhaps 
victorious over that sinister control, the dark 
despotism of a secret police, a single leaf out of 
the book of woman's martyrdom during that 
terrible political era should flutter into the world. 

The night of the assassination of one of the 
most feared governors of former St. Petersburg 
a dinner party was given in the house of a general 
in the suite of Czar Nidiolas II to honor the 
arrival of a new French envoy. The daughter of 
the house, young and charming, sat beside the 
distinguished guest, and conversed in the wonder- 
ful, animated way of Russian women. As the 
guests rose the young lady dropped her fan. 
The diplomat picked it up, and at that moment 
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the girl bent to whisper into the surprised gentle- 
man's ear that she desired him to wait for her in 
his closed coach at the back of the house. Know- 
ing something about the strange world in which 
he lived, the envoy, greatly agitated, anxiously 
watched the moment when he could leave the' 
house. 

The heavily veiled young woman slipped into 
his coach, and told him to take her to his private 
hotel. The diplomat became a little uneasy when 
this daughter of a general in the suite of the czar 
asked a rendezvous with him alcaie. Flattered 
l^ her attention, he had merely thou^t to take 
her to a cabaret where society women never are 
seen publicly. 

The young woman leaned back silently in her 
comer until the carriage turned into a certain 
street; then she looked out of the window. She 
stopped the carriage, to leave a message with 
friends, she said. The diplomat saw her disap- 
pear into one of the uniform red-brick houses of 
the rather poor quarter. Returning after a few 
moments, she smiled happily. The diplomat 
asked her if something specially nice had hap- 
pened to her. She nodded, and slipped her cool 
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fingers into the hand of the elderly gentleman as 
if to distract his attention from the little incident. 
Once in his room, she was gay, witty, amusing. 
She smoked, drank champagne, and gracefully 
accepted the gallantries of her host. Suddenly 
he saw her glancing fererisbly at the clock, and 
counting abs«it-mindedly tiie strokes of the hour. 
At the last stroke an explosion was heard, as if 
in the distance an automobile tire Had blown out. 
She covered her face, and after a moment jumped 
up, opened the window, and, leaning out, sup- 
pressed a cry of joy. 

The dipbmat followed excitedly, stood beside 
her, and saw a handkerchief swaying in the air 
like a little white flag. The girl dosed the win- 
dow slowly, turned to the elderly gentleman, 
kissed him cheerfully on botb cheeks, and said 
sweetly: 

"Thank you for your hospitality. It is dme. 
Our man is dead, and you must know that you 
saved me from certain death, and perhaps you 
saved my country, too." Looking at the per- 
plexed diplomat, who unwittingly had helped kill 
the man, die smiled charmingly and offered him 
her glass of champagne. "Drink this," she sud, 
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RUSSIAN LIFE AND POLITICS 

"and I will drink from your glass. It is the 
greatest honor a woman can pay a man in this 
country." The French cavalier could not refuse 
despite his hurt vanity, now understanding per- 
fectly well why she had chosen him for the adven- 
ture. Thus she established an alibi and made the 
French embassy protect her I No other alihi 
would have been strong enough to save her from 
the searching Ochrana which knew her to be in fhe 
plot. To-day she was safe, but to-morrow die 
might be among those taken chained in the 
Fortress of St Peter and St. Paul. 

Whose heart does not contract with emotion on 
learning that a young girl fourteen years old was 
put into prison and left there twenty years for 
having hidden her brother's anarchistic doc- 
uments? She had no part in his life; sAie was 
too young to be an anarchist. She had only 
understood the danger, and had saved him by 
sacrificing herself. Later, when she came back 
to the dayli^t, she was an anarchist, and was 
hanged in place of her betrothed, who had thrown 
a bomb. 

The wife of one of the most despotic governors 
of this time was known as the angel of the stu- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
dents about to be executed. When only seven- 
teen, to free her father from Siberia, she bad been 
married to the old tyrant, and crucifying her 
young womanhood to buy mercy for bis victims^ 
she endured with the stoicism of a martyr her life 
with him. 

Young aristocrats left behind them the 
splendor and luxury of their life, with its warm 
protection, to share the misery and exile of the 
anardiists who had won them to the cause. 
These women anardiists, students of the univer- 
sities of Switzerland and of the Sorbonne in 
Paris, many of them princesses by birth, lived 
amidst the greatest hardships, doing needlework 
or laundering to support themselves and their 
male associates. Deserted by their famihes in 
most cases, they starved, too proud, too haughty, 
to permit any one to catch a glimpse of their 
private lives. Unforgetable was the funeral of 
such a silent victim, who, having lived on ten cents 
a day, faded away like a poor flower. To these 
women, who had no independent influence, but 
were a great help to the cause of their men, — 
husbands, brothers, sons, — should be erected a 
memorial, for they were no less heroic than the 

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men who are buried in the swamps of Ma- 
suren. 

Emotion is the great motive power in the Rus- 
sian woman's life. Latent or awakened, it is 
never to be known whence it will come or whither 
it will drive. Nothing has dianged. Conditions 
have always been the same for women in Russia. 
Centuries ago the noble woman, the woman 
boyare, lived in her castle, with all the power of 
the original landed aristocrats, in her environ- 
ment of warm comfort, and imaware of the sordid 
details of life. She had her serfs, her devoted 
servants, who feared and adored her as a kind 
mother, considerate of her people's joys and sor- 
rows. Between the barina and the peasant girls 
who have been accustomed humbly to submit 
themselves to the debauches of the barin grew a 
tolerant, understanding sympathy, and she pro- 
tected the women from the brutality and the 
dnmkenness of their own men. 

When the Russian lady of to-day goes "home" 
to her estate she drops all the artificial life of 
travel and the social duties and restrictions of tiie 
cities. She returns to the primitive sovereignty 
of the boyare woman. She is surroimded by a 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
crowd of servants, male and female, serf -like in 
their devotion. She maintains her own cHurdi, 
in which services are held with great pomp, the 
peasants standing in rows, caps in hand, and 
bowing deeply to let the barina pass. She lores 
her people, but she never takes the initiative in 
educating them, although she knows exactly what 
WQuld be the ri^t thing to do. She keeps them 
illiterate, ignorant, unless her husband is one of 
the progressives. 

Through the whole womanhood of Russia there 
runs the sincere simplicity and concealed force 
with which Catharine, the peasant ^1 who 
became the wife of Peter the Great, tamed her 
man. He thundered, and she, childlike, hid her 
face in her sleeves; but with a twinkle in her eyes, 
soft and devoted, with motherly patience, she 
snuggled to the giant, and was absolutely certain 
to bring him back to his senses. 

The Russian woman is wonderfully womanly. 
She is the most passionate lover, the most natural 
bride, the most imderstanding companion, and 
above all the best mother imaginable. She is the 
real half of her man's life; she is an instrument 
and a very powerful one, whether in the rank of 
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RUSSIAN LIFE AND POLITICS 
a low official or among the forceful women who 
were near the throne. 

It was an open secret that the Counteas I , 

with her fearless frankness and her practical 
energy, brought many business deals to success- 
ful conclusion. The American would say that 
she is a very smart business woman to get things 
done in Russia. She took neglected affairs out 
of the desks of mischievous tchitummiks, where 
they would have moldered for decades. She took 
them out by force, end because the only force in 
former Russia was fear, she used her influential 
position with the court. It was often a blessing 
that such a soimd institution as the countess 
existed near the sovereign, and it is to be regret- 
ted that she was not made the president of a bank. 
This noble woman of r^nement and tradition 
had the sparkling esprit of the grand dame, and 
liie Russian is far more a grand dame than all 
other women have been, tar she uses her intellect, 
her eloquence, and despises the cheap and futile 
stratagems of the courtezan. 

Life is serious in Russia nowadays, and the 
time has passed when women, hke the lilies of the 
field, are nourished and adorned. Perhaps it will 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

be under the Countess I 's constructiTe power 

that women will work in cooperation with men 
and not as their competitors. Competition 
between the sexes would nerer do in Russia, but 
women could replace men until their little sons 
were grown up, and able to take their tasks from 
their mother's hands. Any help for the better- 
ment of industries or government will be wel- 
comed with enthusiasm, even thou^ coming 
through the mediation of a grand dame. 

And Madame N , being so great an aristo- 
crat that she does not need a title, for her ancestor 
was the mother of Peter the Great, played 
cleverly on the weakest side of the European 
man, his vanity and his worship of titles and 
decorations. She opened a gay little shop where 
pretty titles and buttimhole jewels could be 
bought. One can imagine what entertainment 
the lady got out of the stupidities and ambitions 
of the parvenus. The profits of this business 
went to one of the charitable institutions under 
the protection of the czarina dowager. Madame 

N had in her stock the greatest assortment of 

honors and orders, and the choice was merely a 

matter of price. It is to be feared that, with tiie 

IM 



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RUSSIAN LIFE AND POLITICS 

ezpulsitm of the German elemoit, the business 
ceased to flouiisfa, as the Russian gets his "Excel- 
lency" anyway, and in most cases dieap^. 

Near the throne, too, was the Countess K , 

and in the heginning of the war, the news trickled 
throu^ the dense tissue the censor had thrown 
over Russia that she, one of the most interesting 
women of the aristocracy, had been arrested. 
Those who knew that she had formerly had the 
principal political salon in Fetrograd and that in 
her white villa on the islands she had gathered the 
diplomatic and pohtical world hoped that her 
arrest was founded on over-excitemoit. She was 
not the woman to sell her country. In times of 
peace everybody spoke about tiie amusing 
intrigues of the white villa and the brilliant 
countess, who was not only a perfect conversa- 
tionalist, but had the political flair. 

The diplomats had their secret wires in the cool, 
white little villa. They received information 
there, and perhaps sometimes acted on it. The 
snake in this amusing and amused Eden was 
Ambassador I , a former head of the min- 
istry, and the rabbit was the German ambassador. 
Everybody watched Ambassador I , who had 



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fttJSSIA OF YESTERDAY AKD TO-MORROW 

ft great appetite for swallowing the passive Ger- 
man, and it was said that the Countess E 

prepared the meal. Then she was working for 
her own country, and her intrigue, even if justi- 
fied, was naturally not very fair, because she 
played on her intimate friend^p with the Ger- 
man ambassador. 

However, the news of her impris<Hmient 
sounded very serious, and one day the newspapers 
published broadcast the information that the 
countess had been court-martialed and shot For 
all those who had passed enchanting hours in her 
white villa it seemed to emerge in memory, ghost- 
like in the silvery clearness of the Russian early- 
summer ni^ts, when the sun set only for a short 
misty dawn, to rise again in ardent splendor; 
where men and women glided shadowlike over the 
narrow paths among shrubberies and the young 
birdi-trees, which vibrated in the morning air, 
and where have been whispered not ancient love- 
sonnets, oh, no, but death-breathing state affairs. 
And another picture of memory shows the 

Cotmtess K in her palace of the Sergev- 

skaga, where she opened her doors for magnifi- 
cent fetes, like the tales of a thousand-and-one 
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nights* where the young imperial daughters and 
the fervent young aristocrats danced to the soft 
and warm melodies of Russian music. 

The Countess K was not shot. From the 

palaces of gaiety now sway the flags of the Red 
Cross; the white nurses are the graceful dancers 
of a little while ago, and the poor suffering crip- 
ples are their brilliant partners of the fantastic 

f^s. The Countess K will never go back 

to the old profe8si<m of breeding poison bacilli 
from little hurt vanities, and developing them 
into the fri^tfulness whidi now is killing youtii 
and happiness and beauty. Her participatim in 
dangerous plots led, under the new regime, to her 
arrest from the Chinese embassy, where ^e was 
hiding, and where the infuriated soldiers found 
her and dragged her to prison. 

Another palace on the Quai de la Noblesse 
bears the flag of sadness; it is the home of the 
Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, or the Grand 
Duchess Vladimir. 

She and the grand duke were once regarded as 

the most worldly couple of the capitaL He was 

as beautiful as a young god, and she the most 

admired woman, full of the joy of living. Their 

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Bfe was the eternal source of the gayest stories of 
the chnrnque scandaleute. Unforgetable are the 
famous erents of the Restaurant Ernest that 
banished the grand duchess for one year from 
the Russian court The Troupe franfauCt Tery 
much patronized by the imperial family, had its 
seastm in the Michelsk Theater, and high society, 
after the theater, had its supper parties at the 
Restaurant Ernest in the historic ckambre* 
$iparie». On a certain ni^t the grand duke's 
party was rather conventional, and the grand 
duke himself was bored. The party grew more 
and more silent, and involuntarily listened to the 
increasing gaiety in the neighboring room. The 
mtdtre d'hdtel was asked about the laughing and 
joyful party, which turned out to be the Frsich 
players. The grand duke ordered the door 
opened, and, to the amazement of tiie actws, the 
wide wings slipped aside, and they found them- 
selves mingling with court society. The grand 
duke, who had decided to enjoy the night, drank 
more than court etiquette permitted, and forget- 
ting his noble station, he put his arm around the 
waist of the leading woman, the respectable wife 
of the principal actor, and kissed her. Instantly 
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tiie actor put his arm around the grand dudieas 
and kissed her. The somewhat misty eyes of the 
grand duke beheld this action, and the aristocratic 
blood of his imperial Hig^ess began to boil. 
He slapped tiie actor in the face. This was the 
signal for a battle, which ended with broken china, 
tables, and chairs, and with the entrance of the 
pohce, who closed the place, thus ptmishing the 
poor manager for his short-sightedness in having 
permitted a "mixed" party with those "French 
plebeians." 

Next morning the grand duke was summoned 
before his brother, the Czar Alexander III, who, 
looking at the variegated face of Vladimir, which 
showed the nicest pattern in green, blue, and 
yellow, had to conceal his laughter under his 
indignation. He ordered that the grand duchess 
should live for a while in the cooler social atmos- 
phere outside Russia. Since then the huidsome 
grand duke has died. Maria Pavlovna has 
pleasantly and charmingly headed charity fetes 
or favored Paris and Biarritz with her presence, 
giving hister to French- American society, and 
bringing back to Russia much interesting and 
valuable information of a character more com- 
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mercial than diplomatic. It was said that 
through the cleverness of the grand duchess the 
union of the French plants of Schneider-Creuzot 
and the Russian Putilow munition plants were 
hrought about. It is certain that the grand 
duchess now brings by her warm-heartedness 
much blessing to the poor soldiers who are nursed 
under her roof. She is very Russian, this grand 
duchess of German descent. 

The activities and ambitions of another char- 
acter, the Grand Duchess Anastasia, wife of the 
Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolai^vitch, ended in the 
autumn of 1915 with t^e dismissal of the grand 
duke. She is the daughter of the King of Monte- 
negro, a splendid business man, who put into his 
dau^ter's head the idea of becoming czarina. 
This, he dreamed, would be the best and the last 
coup of his active life. The first year of the 
Great War the grand duchess lived in a dream of 
ever-growing glory, being surroimded by flat- 
terers who paid court to the "czarina-to-be," thus 
widening the cleft between the palace in Peterhof 
and the marble palace on the Neva. Her fanat- 
icism for all that was Slavic set on fire the 
ima^ation of the grand duke, her husband, and 
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started the cohfiagration of the world. She has 
seen her glory bioken to pieces, she has faced the 
donnf all of the grand duke, and it was said that 
she would return with her husband, who would 
accept his reinstatement to former superiority in 
the army from the hands of those who dictated 
the abdication of the czar. 

The czarina is the great tragic figure in the new 
drama where the imperial family have the leading 
parts. She is accused of having betrayed Rus- 
sia; she is made the cause for sins committed more 
than half a centiuy ago, and she is not Russian. 
This is her greatest crime, and she is paying the 
debt to her own deceived soul. She tried too hard 
to be a Russian, she gradually narcotized her 
soimd spirit with the incense of the Greek Ortho- 
dox Church and its mysticism. She was in a 
state in which a hiunan being, desperately 
unhappy, intoxicated herself to forget, to live 
under the veil of imreality. The reality in the 
life of the czarina made everybody shudder who 
knew what her life was. Her strength was 
broken on the day of her coronation and never 
quite recovered. Had she had the self-preserv- 
ing energy of the great Catharine, she would have 
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shaken off ibe wei^emng influence of the czar, 
under which she suffered. The czarina contra- 
dicts by her actions what was a reproach to her. 
She is not a German; she walked along with the 
czar as far as he went, and she never revolted ; she 
never struggled to find again her own way to 
li^t and certainty. Her martyred soul was con- 
demned to death ; her mind became blind, and her 
eyes looked into a hopeless emptiness. She 
looked for a strong hand that would guide her 
and teach her when she had forgotten how to 
walk straight. She thought the light must shine 
from the people, and she took the hand of the 
peasant, humbling herself and beheving in the 
simple faith of Rasputin. He was not the dark 
power for her; he was her U^t, and his death had 
brought back to her the dark powers which have 
strangled her hfe. The czarina is a legendary 
personality, a woman who lost her way in the 
density and the mystery of Russia. 

She did not belong to the influences in Russia; 
she had the terrible passivity which tiie czar pos- 
sessed, and which was paralyzing to everybody in 
his environment who had not the force to resist 
or to dominate him. The only salvation would 
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hare been for the czarina to separate fr<»n the 
czar. It is too late now; she has descended the 
steps from the throne which she was unable to 
hold. By birth she had carried into Russia the 
strong will of those women who knew their duties ; 
but she became a Russian, and that was her doom. 

The strong cruelty and the cold calculation 
with whidi the czarina dowager, Maria Feodo- 
rovna, worked, should have been an example for 
her. Her tireless, unscrupulous machinations 
brou^t Nicholas to his falL 

Althou^ Maria Feodorovna was heart and 
soul in the war enterprise, war between Russia 
and Germany, war between the old and new 
r^^es, she must have been disagreeably sur- 
prised when the war led to the revolution de- 
throning the RomanofiFs. In her mind the new 
regime meant her ruling influence throu^ 
Michael; the appointment of ministers and in- 
terior and foreign politics in her own hands. A 
second Semiramis of the North she would have 
governed Russia in the darkest, reactionary form 
without any concern for the people. 

Many years ago when a procession headed by 

the priest Father Gapon marched to the Winter 

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Palace, people from all parts of the city joined 
the slow-moving masses that with peace in their 
soul sang their sacred old songs and carried their 
pleas to the czar. £ven the police did not dare 
to stop this pilgrimage of faithful men and 
women, and let the procession pass through the 
ardi at the entrance of the court of the palace. 
It happened that the czarina-mother, who had at- 
tended mass in the chapel of the palace, saw the 
procession sweeping toward the square and heard 
the monotonous singing. She thought that it 
was the first sign of the storming of the palace, 
and, before the czar knew ihe intentions of the 
approaching people, she summoned the guards, 
and it was she who gave the first order to shoot 
among the kneeling men and women who were 
prostrating themselves before the Little Father 
and who fell dead with tbeir faces in the dust 
Children, anxious to see the parade, had climbed 
on lantern-posts, trees, and gates, and were shot 
down, falling from their lofty places to the feet 
of their parents. 

Whoi the czar recognized the terrible error it 

was too late. The frightened soldiers who had 

fired on their own brethren bent their heads, and 

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they will never forget what the czarina-mother 
made them do. The silence of death covered the 
place, from which the soldiers who had drawn 
their rifies, helped to lift the bodies to the large 
open peasant wagons. With the bloody Sun- 
day the name of Maria Feodorovna was fatally 
associated. 

Nothing could break the force of the czarina 
dowager; no priest, no superstition. She loved 
life, and she knew that life never lay in the dusky 
air of the church. She walked over corpses when 
it was necessary to push her plans. Her politi- 
cal education was finished in England, where 
passions or sentiments were never mixed with 
politics. She went home from Germany when 
the war broke out. The Germans, not knowing, 
let her go back to Russia with her heart full of 
hate and contempt for Germany and the unshak- 
able resolution to change the Russian system. 
She is not Russian at all, and, paradoxical as it 
may seem, this makes her strong in Russia. 

In the seclusion of her little house in Tsarskoje- 

Sselo lived the only woman who has been close to 

the czarina, and whose influence was not with 

state affairs, but with the little personal happiness 

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that was brought to the czarina in the last years. 
It was a spiritual influence toward the supernat- 
ural; and instead of clarifying the czarina's mind, 
it was confusing. Anna Wiribouwa, the gen- 
uine fanatic, devoted her entire life to redeem- 
ing the czarina from the dark powers that sur- 
rounded her. With the help of Rasputin she de- 
stroyed the pale fear which held the czarina in 
an eternal suppression of her own personahty. 
She knew why the czarina could not reach the 
sympathy of Russians. It was the insincerity 
and the uncertainty of the czarina's own f eeliiigs. 
The Russians are very susceptible to this. They 
cannot be deceived. They will not have imita- 
tions. The czarina always seemed to be embar- 
rassed before Russians because she was anxious 
to please them. Anna Wiribouwa was the 
woman in whom the czarina confided all her 
struggles. Religion did not help any longer 
after the despicable intrigues of the court monks. 
Anna Wiribouwa decided that the czarina had to 
be cured by the psychic forces, and the great mis- 
take began with Rasputin. 

Anna Wiribouwa's life was bound to that of 
the czarina throu^ a deep secret, which is the 
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RUSSIAN LIFE AND POLITICS 
secret of the two women, and which never will be 
revealed unless Anna Wiribouwa betrays tlie 
great tragedy of an empress. But Anna Wiri- 
bouwa is a Russian, who would die a thousand 
deaths before delivering a secret buried in her 
souL She is one of the strong even in her errors; 
and she is one of the wonderful Russian women 
without any ambition. She would have had the 
same devotion for the czarina if the sovereign 
had been a simple woman, and she will have the 
same devotion for her in her exile. Both are of 
the same planet, to speak in the terms of Anna 
Wiribouwa; their souls united for tiie earth and 
for eternity. Anna Wiribouwa is the great 
enigma in this court tragedy, and her strong be- 
lief in the czarina will help to transfigure this 
pathetic image of a sovereign. 

Among these big figures connected with recent 
events, are many stories of women who are still 
working behind the scenes, and who one day will 
be at the head. Others, married to Russians, 
were persuaded to barter Russian interests to 
foreign powers. One of these is the Countess 

N , an American by birth, divorced from her 

first husband, a Grerman baron. As the wife of 
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a former military attach^ in Paris she had 
opened years before the war her hospitable home 
to woiUd-be society people of rising ambitions. 

Count N was removed from Paris to be one 

of the leading officers in the general staff of the 
Russian army, and the countess was arrested at 
the beginning of the war, accused of having sent 
information to her first husband, the German 
baron, with ^om she had remained on friendly 
terms. The intermediary, a young attach^ who 
had been rewarded by the countess with her 
favor, was shot. The counters, it was said, was 
sent to a fortress, but was later released, and is 
living imder surveillance in the house of her hus- 
band. But who ever will know the real dramas 
that took place under the secrecy of a court-mar- 
tial? Win these veiled human tragedies be re- 
vealed some day by those who took part in them? 
The Russian woman is deeply rooted in her 
own coimtry. She develops differently in other 
conditions. Her personal independence is ab- 
solutely harmonious with the Russian life. Fre- 
quently her contempt of conventi<malities pro- 
duces a strange opinion regarding her moral 
sense. The mother of the Crown Princess of 
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Crcrmany and the Queen of Denmark, the Grand 
Dudiess Anastasia of Mecklenburg-Scbwerin, 
held court in her villa amid the enchanting per- 
fumes of the Riviera gardens. It was a court of 
the time of the Decameron of Boccaccio, no 
more, no less. Yet despite all, — and this is the 
point of greatness in the laxities of the uprooted 
Russian nature, — she gave her dau^iters not 
through example, but throu^ the sincerity of her 
criticized life, the liberty to become what she had 
been or to he happy in the strong and simple 
duties of family life. 

The morganatic wives of the di£ferent grand 
dukes remain in modest retirement, that is never 
observed in other nations. They are far too in- 
telligent to be banal or to be rejected by Hie aris- 
tocracy, and they live outside Russia in the full 
happiness of their marriages. They would have 
returned if the Grand Duke Michael took the 
throne. He himself once gave up the rig^t to 
the crown l^ marrying the divorced wife of one 
of the officers of his regiment. 

The Russian aristocrat ia really the Russian 
woman. All the national diaracteristics are 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TCVMORROW 
of refinement. She takes care not only of the 
beauty of her body, but first of all and especially 
of the beauty of her soul and her spirit. 

The Russian man adores his woman. He 
listens to b^, and conversation is tiie chief 
attraction that women exercise over men. 
Women are the warm touch, the reconciling ele- 
ment in Russia, the steady element in this coun- 
try of contradictions. There slimibers a vast 
hope in the heart of a people where women are 
so sincere in their greatness and in their sins, 
where hypocrisy has not yet impregnated their 
souls. A Russian woman's lore cannot be 
boui^t. She shares voluntarily the degradation 
of her man, and she shares gladly his heists ; but 
she will never humiliate herself to a social lie. 



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CHAPTER VI 

THE END OF THE BOMANOFP DYNASTY — THE 

(aUND DUKES — PRINCES WITH A 

BUTHIUOHT TO THE THKONE 

When the little czarevitch was stricken with a 
disease that seemed iDcurable, Russia had to f ac% 
the problem of the succession to the throne. The 
Romanoffs had to pass in review one by one. 

There was, first of all, the czar's broths, the 
same Grand Duke Michael who was chosen by 
the new democracy as regent for the little czar- 
evitch. The holy synod of old Russia would 
never have recognized Michael as a possible heir 
to the throne, because he had renounced his rights 
when he Carried the divorced wife of one of the 
officers of his regiment. He met Mme. de Woul- 
fers at Gatshina, at the home of his general, 
Baron Girard de Soucanton. The general and 
his wife favored the romance of the grand duke 
without believing in his serious intention. How- 
ever, despite the ambitious intrigues of the czarina 
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dowager, he threw away tiie imperial burden and 
married Mme. de Woulfers. Baron Girard was 
pensioned for the mere accident of having Intro- 
duced the beautiful woman to the grand duke, 
and Michael's name was erased from the book 
of Russia's court, and his disgrace was published 
by the czar's declaration in the newspapers that 
he would not be responsible for any debts con- 
tracted by his brother. 

The Russian crown seemed not to be attractive 
to the Romanoffs when in competition with the 
favor of women. For them the crown jewels lost 
their brilliancy when compared with tine luster of 
beautiful eyes. Of the three sons of the Grand 
Duke Vladimir, Cyril, the eldest, a rear admiral 
in the Russian navy, gave up his right as heir 
presumptive to the throne when he married a 
Princess of Cobui^, the divorced wife of the 
czarina's brother, the Grand Duke of Hesse. 
The czar could not object to the pedigree of the 
princess, but the rules of the imperial house and 
of the Church of Russia did not recognize the 
marriage of divorced persons. The grand duke 
was banished from the court and dismissed from 
the navy, but after a year he was restored to his 
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THE END OP THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 
rank in the service, while still ignored at court. 

Boris, the seccmd son, would then have been 
heir, but the idea of making the gay Boris a czar 
seemed to the world only a joke fit for the opira 
comique — ^Boris, tiie trotteur of the Parisian 
boulevards; Boris, who was the center of all the 
chroniquet Kondaleiuet wherever the great world 
dined, supped, and sojourned ; Boris, the spurious 
imitation of the Prince of Wales, later King 
Edward VII. There was this difference betwera 
the two that the Prince of Wales was a grand 
viveur, with an exuberance of spirit and temper- 
ament, and bored with the conventional and insig- 
nificant life to which a crown prince is condemned 
in England, where even a king is a grand seignior 
of leisure, while Boris had no resources. The 
stories of the Prince of Wales were amusing and 
witty, but the amusements of Boris were more or 
less shocking, and if he had not been a grand 
duke of Russia, an excuse for his idle life, he 
would have been looked on as a negligible quan- 
tity of society. The Russians would have re- 
volted against tiie crowning of Boris, thou^ less 
for his private life than for the negative heroism 
that he showed in the Russo-Japanese War. 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

There was still the third of the brothers, 
Alexander, a good-looking officer of the body- 
guard who was probably not exposed on the 
firing-line of the Great War. 

The Grand Duke Paul, brother of Alexander 
III, also preferred domestic happiness to the 
uncertainty of a Russian throne. He married as 
his second wife the Countess Hohenfelsen. By 
his first wife, the Princess of Greece, he had two 
diildren, the Grand Duke Dmitri Favlowitch 
and the Grand Duchess Maria, the much criti- 
cized, capricious Princess of Sweden, who, bored 
by her husband and her life at the Swedish court, 
divorced Prince Wilhelm and went back to Rus- 
sia. 

Dmitri was pointed out as the presumptive 
czarevitch not officially, but officiously. After 
the death of their mother, Dmitri and his sister, 
children of tender ages, passed their youth in 
Moscow under the care of the Grand Duchess 
Sergius. Despite the curse resting upon the 
house of Sergius, the children had a delightful 
and happy youth with the angelic grand duchess. 
The terrible end of the tyrant made a lasting 
impression tm the delicate Dmitri, especially 
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THE END OF THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 
after he learned that cai the first day set for the 
assassination the death-bringing bcnnb had not 
been thrown because he accompanied the grand 
duke, the rcTolutionists sparing the life of the 
little boy. 

The idea of being thou^t of as the future czar 
of Russia depressed Dmitri. He had to leave 
the care of his beloved aunt and to take posses- 
sion of the palace on the Moika, vrhere first of all 
he built a big skating-room, his boy's dream. 
The preparation for a future czar meant first the 
undergoing of the hardship of an extremely 
severe mlhtary education, to be a perfect horse- 
man, to be trained as if for a circus, to become the 
best shot and most fearless filter, whereas the 
spiritual qualities of Dmitri were speciaUy deyel- 
oped. A princely life, with its reckless pleasures 
in worthless company, the squandering of health 
and moral ideals and frequent intoxication 
seemed to be inseparable from the conception of 
an heir to tiie Russian throne. The delicate, 
slender Dmitri became a pathetic figure in his 
blas£ youthfulness. Life had no secrets for him, 
and his refined, subtle tastes became submerged 
beneath brutalities that he thought heroic. Once 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

he oSeaded his superior officer publicly, and 
though the military honor apparently was saved 
by the arrest of the young grand duke in his own 
palace, the incident was not the careless f riTolity 
of thou^tless youth, but the alarming sign of 
the Romano£F inheritance. In military life an 
eternal contradiction was forced cm the imperial 
princes. In one way they were treated as simple 
(^CCTS in their regiments, being on terms of 
cordiality with their fellow-officers, which is to 
say that tiie princes condesc^ided to their com- 
rades» and therefore never got over the selfishness 
of the autocratic feeling. An invisible barrier 
was erected even by the superiors who always 
danced on a glass floor with every Uttle im- 
perial hi^mess. Sooner or later, for some certain 
purpose, a party was formed around eadi inexpe- 
rienced princely boy, encouraging his self- 
importance, which was often the basis of his later 
tyranny or viciousness. It was seldom that one 
of the grand dukes played a really active part in 
Russia's pohtics. All were more or less figure- 
heads of a party, and used by it until it ended 
invariably in sensational scandaL 
Another Romanoff, who died recently, tiie 
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THE END OP THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 
Grand Duke Constantin Constantinovitch, the 
dreamer and poet among Uian, himself too 
modest, too much of a philosopher to believe in 
the blood privilege vrhich gives the right to gov- 
ern a people, imagined bis splendid boy Oleg to 
be tiie hope of Russia. Oleg was killed in 
Poland. He was only seventeen when he took 
his conunission and went to the front to replace 
fallen comrades. Only a week, and he died a real 
hero I 

No, the Russian thrcme was not a place longed 
for. It was a place with no prospects, with a 
sterile hopelessness for everything to which a 
man aspired in hfe. The power of a Russian 
czar extended only so far as his creatures per- 
mitted; he himself was the most oppressed man 
in his country. 

The circle around the Romanoffs grew very 
thin at last. Even the popularity of Nicholas 
Nicolaievitch was a story believed only outside 
Russia. Those who exultantly went into the 
first battles were killed or wounded, and the sol- 
diers whom the grand duke led are gone. The 
men now fighting on the Eastern front never saw 
Nicholas. This same grand duke who told his 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
generals that he would hang every one of them 
who mi^tA steal would hare also gladly hanged 
the five who became the rulers of new Russia, the 
men whom he was compelled to obey faute de 
mieva. 

Long before the will of the people ended the 
Romanoff dynasty it was in danger through the 
circumstance of the little czarevitch's physical un- 
fitness. In this boy slumbered all the qualities 
tram whidi to mold a real emperor. He was 
morally and physically superior to the models of 
grand dukes with which the world is familiar. 
His ambitions were not satisfied by the brilliancy 
of military spectacles; he had the ambition to 
know, to study, to search for the deeper sense of 
things. The child was so beautiful that a special 
angel should have guarded him for his impending 
task. 

So mudi youth, so many talents, and so much 
manly force of the Romanoff could have been 
mobilized for the sake of Russia if the tendency 
to terrible debauches had not been deeply rooted 
in tins dynasty. There were no moral restric- 
tions. The czars never hesitated to be bigamists, 
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THE END OF THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 

to sin against the laws, for the breaking of which 
they themselves persecuted their subjects. 

There were other princes in Russia called im- 
perial highnesses, not quite grand dukes, and it 
was not a secret that a party was at work for a 
new dynasty. It intrigued for Prince Yusu- 
poff, who recently was brought before the eyes 
of the public in connection with the murder of 
Rasputin. Those who have met the elegant 
prince and know of bis estheticism and refine- 
ment will never believe that he could have spotted 
his white, slender fingers with blood. Prince 
Yusupoff married the daughter of the Grand 
Duchess Xenia, the rally sister of i^e czar, and his 
own cousin. He would have brought a new line 
without the slightest assurance for the better- 
ment of conditions. The prince did not give the 
impression of a personality that could bring into 
Russia not only new blood for the coming im- 
perial race but new ideas, a complete change from 
old rules, from autocracy, he himself being a de- 
scendant of the Tartars. 

He was educated at Oxford, and if he had 
been chosen l^ the czarina-mother to be the first 
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BtJSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

<lf the new dynasty, it would have been a teniUe 
cnnen for him. Any complicity in the disappear- 
ance of Rasputin, with all its cruel and barbaric 
details, would have been a sad beginning for a 
promising career. The Russian throne would 
hare been only the stimulus of an adventure and 
not the supreme desire of a noble youth to give 
to a belored country freedom and constitutional 
ri^ts. Even if Prince Yusupoff himself is in- 
nocent of this murder, the world first learned his 
name in this bloody connection, and his house 
was Tirtually used to carry out the plot With 
this entry into the history of Russia he could 
never have been accepted either by his own coun- 
try or the world. 

There are still many princes in Russia, noble- 
men of long traditions, some of them dating back 
in the origin of their families to the Ruriks, an 
older dynasty than the Romanoffs. They have 
names known all over the world. Among them 
are revolutionists and anarchists, grand seigniors 
and scientists, fascinating and alarming in the 
combinatioQ of hi^&st idealism and lack of con- 
science, bringing wherevrar ttiey go the contradic- 
tions oi tiieir own natures, and always giving 
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THE END OP THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 
the impression of the instabili^ of their own 
country. Very adaptable to the habits and lan- 
guages of other countries, they startle by their 
extravagances, their mixture of grand seignior 
and brute, stirring curiosity, and leaving behind 
them the puzzling idea of something mysterious, 
something which the other parts of the European 
world never will understand. 

It is only a Russian aristocrat who can pene- 
trate the most profound thoughts of other na- 
tions. He points out all the weak spots with a 
Rabelaisian humor; the non-Russian always is 
the subject of his polite sarcasm. Lauj^iingly 
and seriously he avenges Russia for the miscon- 
ceptions of the world, and he takes advantage of 
human foibles wherever he meets them. A 
wealthy American was the lau^ing-stock of the 
Russian jeunease dorie a few years ago. The 
American, traveling with his wife and daughter, 
met in Moscow a genuine Russian prince. Fa- 
ther, mother, and daughter made the most of this 
precious acquaintance, and when the prince sug- 
gested that they stay for the season in Moscow, 
the American millionaire, desirous of showing 
the Russian aristocracy what American money 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

could buy, looked for the best palace on the mar- 
ket. The Russian Prince saw his opportunity 
to get out of some nagging debts, and he drove 
with the family to find a suitable residence. 
Wiib. critical eyes the Americans glanced at the 
rather plain dwellings, finding nothing that was 
premising until the carriage stopped before a 
government building, which, with its closed win- 
dows and drawn curtains, gave the impression 
of being uninhabited. The American liked the 
noble-looking house, and be liked the hiUy place 
on which the palace is erected. He liked even 
the two tiny "shield-houses" on each coiner of the 
paku^, built for the special bodyguard, as the 
Prince explained. A bodyguard! That would 
be a new experience for the American, and he 
asked the prince to help him purdiase the palace. 
The prince smiled. Even though it was a govern- 
ment building, where the president of the min- 
istry resided when he came to Moscow, why could 
not this house be bou^t for a few days? There 
was no danger of the ministers' coming at that 
time, and the prince gave a handsome tip to the 
superintendent of the palace, who made no ob- 
jectioa when he led the family through the vast 
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THE END OF THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 

rooms, which were not wholly satisfactory in tiie 
way of fumishirig. The American lady decided 
to have more rugs on the floors and to add many 
draperies. In the big ball-room life-size por- 
traits of the czar and the czarina met with favor. 
When the treasures of silver were shown, the 
millionaire was ready to buy the house, and the 
prince not only made the arrangements for the 
first payment, but he insisted on giving a dinner 
party that night. The superintendent, knowing 
the extravagant vagaries of the gay prince and 
being silenced by money, helped to prepare for 
the banquet. The party was extremely gay. 
The prince introduced as his guest his lawyer, 
who took charge of the big cheek given by the 
American. After a dehcious Russian dinner, 
with vodka and champagne, the family was 
driven back to the hotel to pass the last ni^t 
before taking possession of the palace. Alas I 
the next day the prince had left the city, and a 
note expressed his regret that, despite all efforts, 
the government building was not available. He 
had gone to the Caucasus, where he hoped to find 
a castle which would be more worthy of the re- 
fined taste of the ladies. Afraid of being laughed 
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at, the American kept sOent, and Moscow was 
greatly amused by the story, which did not do 
any harm to the scoundrelly prince. 

Th^ richest part of Russia was owned by the 
Romanoffs and the hi^ aristocracy. In most 
cases the management of the land was left to ir- 
responsible superintendents. It was understood 
that these men made fortunes out of the prop- 
erties confided to them. In only a few cases, 
where frauds were too flagrant, were inquiries 
made, and then the most mispeakable cmditions 
affecting land and peasants were exposed to the 
dayli^t. 

There are parts of Russia in which many him- 
dred thousand acres of mineral and forest lands 
are idle and ruined, because they are too remote 
from their owners, who live somewhere outside 
of Russia, and do not take the shghtest interest 
in the property left to them by their ancestors. 
The wealth of these families was unmeasurable, 
and as long as a superintendent collected the 
rents it was a matter of indifference where he 
procured the money or how tenants and peasants 
were treated by the rascaUy employees who filled 
their own pockets, jeopardizing the well-being 
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THE END OP THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 
not only of the people, but of their masters. 
Often a discharged superintendent left an es- 
tate a rich man, and the grand seignior was 
ruined. 

It was the dream of Tolstoy to bring liie hijj^ 
aristocracy to such a consciousness of their duty 
that they would take land matters into their own 
hands. His dream has become a realization. 
Prince Lvoff, one of the five who rescued Russia, 
took the direction not only of the land interests 
of the people, but of the nobility. 

Outside of Russia Russians always have dis- 
cussed their own country with innumerable sighs 
and plans to change the politics — how to make it 
possible to live in Russia. Outside of Russia the 
noblemen were the greatest liberals and revision- 
ists of Russia, but when they returned they crept 
back under the quilt of moral laxity. The home 
atmosphere did not agree with the ideas brought 
from other countries, and, then, they would have 
had to explain, to educate, to begin with the a 
b c's of reforms. Changes, they thou^t, would 
disturb the machinery of government, would 
trouble the people, and would not help much. 
The Russiwi's ear was deafened by every-day 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
complaints, and drastic means were necessaiy to 
shake die whole system. 

The spectator outside of Russia is now released 
from an eternal tension of wonder about what 
will become of the country after the war. The 
high-flying ideals of Prince Kropotkin have been 
realized. The high aristocracy will no longer be 
the beautiful decoraticai of Russia and other 
parts of the world. The grand seigniors will 
stay at home, and put into action what they so 
beautifully dramatized in words. They will fi- 
nally look on the people as human beings, chil- 
dren confided to the care of those older and wiser. 
It was always the greatest puzzle to the world 
that ail the representatives of the best of Rus- 
sia, hving outside of their own country, had ad- 
mirable qualities, many talents, an absolute 
taste in literature, — they are never dilettantes, 
but always artists or philosophers, with the wis- 
dcon of the ancient Greeks, — and yet at home 
they contented themselves with the most terrible 
and scoundrelly system, and even took part in it. 
The Russian aristocrat is more democratic in Rus- 
sia than elsewhere, perhaps because he is the real 
aristocrat, the individual man^ not the man who 
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THE END OF THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 

must submit to laws made only for the people. 
There were always special laws for the aristoc- 
racy in Russia, and if the Russian aristocrats had 
only lived up to their privileges as the real gen- 
tUhommea »ans peur et garu reproche, the people 
would have been saved. 

The Russian aristocrat has not quite under- 
stood his great responsibility as a sovereign in 
his own realm, — for the large estates are really 
little kingdoms, — and if the little kings had had 
the ambition to rule their own dominions Russia 
could have been an ideal state, different in po- 
htical combinations, but still a model in itself, and 
the world would have reckoned with it as it reck- 
ons with Oriental countries. Russian culture 
was similar to the Russian frcmtier; with his first 
step across it the foreigner reahzed that he was 
in alien provinces. 

The world has known and judged Russia by 
the aristocrats and the revolutionists, both arous- 
ing the greatest interest and curiosity wherever 
they went. And because the world has learned 
by these travelers something of the qualities of 
Russians, and foxmd them different from other 
Europeans, it should tolerate and imderstand the 
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different etmceptkma of life tiiat the Russians 
have had and always will have. They aie too 
original, too strong in their good and bad char- 
acteristics, to be absorbed by a political system 
practical in other countries. The innumerable 
classes of aristocrats, hig^ and low, are composed 
of inniunerable little autocrats. They have not 
the snobbishness of the younger nations with a 
desire to be more than they really are. They are 
so utterly convinced that the world consists of 
them, and that, therefore, nothing beside them 
really counts, that class distinctions have been 
carried to such an extreme that no Russian ever 
had the false ambition to enter circles to which 
be could not belong by birth or social position. 
The Russian does not feel honored to be tolerated 
in society; he would not go where he did not ac- 
tually belcmg. 

Russia for this reason has been the most aristo- 
cratic and the most democratic country. Social 
questions naturally were solved on the idea that 
an elephant never would seek the company of a 
fox. Those wonder-people of spirit and talent 
and genius will find their happiness in their own 
way, and all eiforts of the world to conform Rus- 
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sian politics or commercial conditions to its mod- 
els must be vain from beginning to end. Rus- 
sians belong to the white race, but Russiui habits 
must be studied as Chinese or Japanese habits 
are studied, and even more, because the Russian 
is changeable in his loves and his hates. A hig^ 
aristocrat, when asked which he preferred, France 
or England, answered seriously, "I prefer noth- 
ing which is not Russian." 

How far the Russian remained Russian in his 
own country- ia illustrated in a little story. A 
Russian prince, a graduate of German and Eng- 
li^ universities, with a profound knowledge of all 
that was modem in Europe, was an enthusiastic 
representative of the last cry in culture. When 
in Russia he lived in his wonderful castle in the 
Crimea, where his ancestors had possessed the 
richest vineyards. The young prince squandered 
a great deal of his fortune. He squandered until 
he became an old prince, though he still owned 
his castle. Outside Russia he was a fanatic, op- 
posed to the throne and the Russian Government. 
It happened that when the former Imperial 
family was passing the springtime in the Crimea, 
the czar and the czarina stopped at the prince's 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
castle for its famous view. The old prince, 
student of Heidelberg and Oxford, the demo- 
cratic aristocrat, received his sovereigns with all 
the honor due them. He led the empress to the 
little hill from which the view is mrat beautiful, 
and when her Majesty, clasping her hands, ex- 
claimed that it was a place where she would wish 
to live, the old aristocrat answered with a bow: 
"Your Majesty, the place is yours." 
The next day he made the legal transfer, re- 
taining for himself only the small house in which 
his superintendent had lived. The prince did 
what his Russian grand seignioral generosity 
dictated despite his adopted democracy. Would 
he ever have turned his castle into an asylum for 
tuberculosis workers? 

And the Russians adored their princes. They 
were diverting; they were the people's fairy- 
tales; and the more barbaric they were, the more 
they appealed to the imagination of their coun- 
trymen. The readjustment of Russia, with 
the accompanying circimistances, is likened to 
the French Revohition. This is wrong. The 
Russian people will not do away with the nobility. 
The good old names, whidi the people worship, 
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THE END OF THE ROMANOFF DYNASTY 
are associated wil^ their legends. But the Rus- 
sians have parted from the Romanoffs. The 
dynasty is ended, and even if one Romanoff 
should be different, the name to-day is accursed 
in Russia. The people have been abused and op- 
pressed by them. The Romanoffs aire allied with 
the Siberian horrors, end as the Siberian Tictims 
— ^those who have not been murdered — come back, 
the pale and ruined witnesses of the Romanoffs* 
government, there can never be a place for this 
dynasty. 

No, the Russian Revolution is not like the 
French Revolution. It is a revolution of a 
higher ideal. Intelligence and necessity coolly 
domiimte, organizing, and not delivering en bloc 
the nobility to the wild blood-orgies of the mob. 

It is the people's springtime in Russia. The 
traditions of an old aristocracy are as politically 
dead in Russia as they are in France. The Rus- 
sian nobility may retire to its Faubourg St. 
Germain, still preserving the refined qualities tiiat 
a past splendor has left it; or, what is even pos- 
sible in Russia, it may mingle with the democ- 
racy, gaining reputation as a clas8> which is not 
exhausted, not degenerated, which also has suf- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
f ered and si^ed under the corruption of & Gov- 
ernment composed of creatures of the czar. 

No one in the world can take away the prestige 
of a real nobleman, and the Russian people will 
recognize the real noblemen in those who were 
the first to join young Russia. It would be a 
proof of the inferiority of the high Russian 
aristocracy if it showed itself as an aristocracy 
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CHAPTER Vn 

THE OEEMAN INiXUENCE IN BUBBIA — 
THE BALTIC QUESTION 

On the Isaacs Plaza, with the Isaacs Churdi 
of malachite in the background, is the building 
of Uie German embassy, once a fine palace, one 
of the best buildings in former St. Petersburg. 
Then a German architect rebuilt it to show Ger- 
many's latest art to the Russians. When the 
palace was finished, it had lost the aristocratic 
appearance of an ambassador's residence, but 
had gained new significance through the artist's 
triumphant idea of placing on the roof a gigantic 
bronze group, representing two heavy-looking, 
tmclothed warriors leaning on two enormous 
horses, personifying will and strength. The 
Russians objected to this muscular expression of 
German characteristics, and demanded that the 
statue be changed, thus cutting off some of the 
power and wilL It was a dramatic moment when 
the modified bronze group was again carried to 
the roof. 

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KUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

All this happened one year before the outbreak 
of the Great War. In their amazement the Rus- 
sian people were for the first time made aware 
that an embassy needed to demonstrate the char- 
acteristics of the people represented. The affair 
gave occasim for the most humorous comm^its 
accompanied by suggestions of ways that other 
nations might demonstrate their characteristics. 
On Sundays the population of St. Petersburg 
wandered to the Isaacs Plaza and looked with 
astonished glances up to the roof, while they ex- 
pressed their opinions about the mightiness of 
the Germans. They suddenly noticed Germany; 
they had never noticed her before. Germans 
came to Russia because Russia was a great em- 
pire where they found room and were needed, 
with other practical thinj^ imported into Russia. 
The Russians knew what German industries 
meant; they personally knew the Germans from 
having sometimes worked in the factories with 
them; they knew that they loved work and never 
drank vodka; that day by day, morning and 
night, they labored silently, seriously, soberly. 

The efficiency of the Germans had never both- 
ered the Russians. Germans were Germans, and 
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THE GEKMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 
did not know better. The German salesman was 
a popular figure in the little villages, where he 
was always anxiously awaited for the ready-made 
articles he carried. He knew exactly what the 
people wanted; he was a good man to deal with; 
he cheated less Uum the Jews, and gave credit. 
It was the same in the big cities, where t^e Ger- 
mans imported French and even American 
goods^ and it was the same in the industries* 
where German technical ^ciency worked out 
astonishing results from Russian inventive 



Peter the Great employed Germans in his navy 
yards when he needed workmen n^o did not re- 
main drunk for a week at a time. Catharine the 
Great offered lands on the Dnieper and the Volga 
to Germans made destitute by the Seven Years' 
War, and Alexander I colonized weavers of 
Saxmy and Silesia on the Black Sea, in the 
Taurida Provinces, to improve the wool industry. 
The Germans of the time of Peter the Great be- 
came Uie engineers and contractors of Russia, 
and built ports and cities. On &e Volga a won- 
derful fertility blessed the banks of the river, and 
the red-roofed, friendly little houses developed 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

into communities, and the communities grew into 
villages and towns with model adminstration. 

"When the fleet of Catharine moved up the 
Volga, the empress stopped at those green, blos- 
soming borders, enthusiastically cheered by the 
people of her native country. The kind, im- 
perial woman, who, mother-like, protected and 
loved the clean, industrious men and women, 
granted them the privilege of retaining their lan- 
guage, their customs, and their religious faith. 
In the heart of Russia, on the Dnieper, the Men- 
nonites, persecuted in their own country, lived 
their sober, active lives unmolested, maintaining 
their sectarianism. No one saw any harm in the 
idyllic life of German colonists, who kept tiie 
privileges of former times, never abusing tiiem, 
never taking advantage of the Russians. The 
German ants were a curiosity to their Russian 
nei^bors, who on Sundays used to drive ova: to 
the little villages to look at the spotless streets, 
clean houses, and little flower gardens, as chil- 
dren look at a picture-book. 

In time the Saxcms on the Black Sea became 
the kings of the steppes, became Russian sub- 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 
flesh and blood, their model estates and their 
names alone recalling their Grerman descent. 
One of these landowners could indulge the royal 
mood of devoting twenty thousand acres of land 
to the purpose of acclimatizing species of animals 
that never before had hred in Russia. For 
hours and hours one can drive in these enchanted 
gardens over land where twenty years ago grew 
only sod for sheep-grazing; now the rarest trees, 
shrubs, and flowers spread shade and coolness 
end beauty. All kinds of birds fly about in ap< 
parent freedom in immense aviaries, the wires of 
whidi are artistically hidden in foliage. Big and 
little houses are built to protect the antelopes 
and other animals not used to winter weather, 
which are of short duration in this semi-tropical 
part of Russia. 

The owner lives as a Russian patriarch among 
the peasants, in the simple house of his ancestors, 
where the white wooden floors are scrubbed every 
morning, where he shares Uchi and bortsck with 
his people. Around his dwelling are erected 
himdreds of clean little houses for his peasants, 
who take care of the grounds and of half a mil- 
lion sheep. All of them are the Little Russians 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 
of the southero proTinoes. and they lived peace- 
fully and gladly under tiie direction of German 
efficiency, wlucb is too deep-rooted in this King 
of the Steppes to be subjugated by Russian in- 
dolence. 

In May, 1914, the czar went to visit the owner 
of the gardens, and passed the ni^t in one of 
the spotless guest-rooms of the private house; for 
there is a separate dwelling where less intimate 
visitors are lodged and received wiUi the largest 
hospitality, never intruding on the privacy of the 
owner. He has become too much of a Russian 
for that After the czar's visit this King of the 
Steppes was ennobled, and he dedicated to the 
czarevitc^ *^he Acclimatization Gardens, a really 
royal present. 

Less idyllic in surroundings, but tirelessly in 
factories, German directors, managers, and work- 
men labored for the Russian state. Wonderful 
things were accomplished, and no one had in 
mind that this working hand in hand could grow 
into a bad influence, a Germanizing of the Rus- 
sians. There was nothing but the serious work 
of serious men who labored in common, the Rus* 
sians in their lines, the Germans in theirs, and 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 
neither interfering with the other or creating ill 
will. The Germans naturally took up the work 
which did not lie in the field of Russian activity. 
The Gennans living in Russia loved Russia; 
their hard home training relaxed in the mild dis- 
cipline, and life itself revealed more of its heauty 
and enjoyment to them, their sense of duty not 
being overstrained, as in Grermany. Their lik- 
ing for titles and decorations was easily satisfied, 
and they were t2ie last who would have changed 
the situation by mixing in Russian politics. No 
(me spoke about "influence.*' 

From time to time chauviniste newspapers or 
fanatics would start a Fanslavistic demonstra- 
tion against the Germans. This came and went 
sporadically without arousing special attention. 
Foreign societies and corporations were required 
to change their names into Russian, to have Rus- 
sian directors on their boards, and the Germans 
gladly ccmformed to this regulation, never refus- 
ing this absolutely just demand. 

Around the Russian throne history shows po- 
htical intrigues in which Germans were con- 
cerned. The Empress Anna raised her favorite 
Byron, secretary to the Polish King Maurice of 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

Saxony, to the dukedom of Courland. Peter 
II, her successor to the throne, exiled Byrcai to 
Siberia; and after his short reign, the Empress 
Elizabeth supported Maria Theresa in her Seven 
Years' War againtt Frederick II of Prusna. 
The nephew of Empress Elizabeth, the idiotic 
Peter III, protected Gorman interests, and it 
was the greatest thought of his wife, tiie Princess 
of Anhalt-Zerbst, later the Great Catharine, that, 
despite her own German descent, she conspired 
vMk the Riusiatu againtt the German intruding 
spirit and dethroned her husband. Catharine 
the Great did not quarrel with Frederick II, but 
she never let his politics interfere with her Rus- 
sian pohcy, only enjoying a hel esprit correspond- 
ence with the Voltairean philosopher. 

Catharine was dear to the heart of Frederick, 
and the court tongues tried to spin a story of her 
mother's tender relations with him before Cath- 
arine was bom. Catharine's mother lived and 
intrigued at the court of Frederick whenever she 
(Xiuld, but her dau^ter never permitted her to 
go to Russia. 

German princesses married Romano£fs. One 
of them, the Grand Duchess Hel^e, a Princess 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 
of Wurtemburg, gathered German spirit, art, 
and music about her, and German diplomacy. 
Bismarck was then ambassador at St. Peters- 
burg. The political giant had a penchant for 
Russia, and understood how to stroke the Rus- 
sian bear bdiind tiie ears. He wanted the 
powerful neighbor to be on most friendly terms 
with Germany, knowing how deeply German in- 
terests lay in Russian soil. Bismarck's warning 
not to provoke Russia might ring in many Ger- 
man ears to-day. His policy was repudiated by 
the "new course" and his fundamental wisdom by 
empty words. 

The first of August, 1914, dawned and Rus- 
sia was one of the arenas into which ahen nations 
were thrown before the hberated bestiality of 
man. Germans, petrified, looked on the friends 
of yesterday, who had become the persecutors of 
to-day. The Russian mobs, inflamed by vodka 
and bribes to a mad fervor of patriotism, marched 
to the German embassy in Petrograd, looted the 
palace, killed the last German official, and rushed 
to the roof, from which they threw down the enor- 
mous bron2e group, representing force and will, 
dragging it to the Moika, a little river near 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
by, into which they flung it with much howling 
and cursing. 

Under the blinding and infuriating spirit of 
war everything that was German or of German 
origin was driven out pitilessly. The hi^- 
placed directors and managers of state plants, 
factories, and banks, the master workers, the 
laborers, most of them naturalized or Russian 
bom, were chained together like criminals with- 
out any r^j^ard to age or position or titles and 
sent to Siberia. The people reveled in vandalism 
and would have robbed and piBaged the bouses 
of their kinsmen, without consulting their feel- 
ings, if the word had been given, just to satisfy 
the lust of the hour. Excellencies of yesterday 
were arrested and shot, if denounced by a muzhik. 
Germans were free game in those days; but who 
woidd imagine that the red-flamed war hyena 
would seek the peaceful little spots on tiie Volga 
and the Dnieper? In the warm ripeness of those 
August days, when the flowers blossomed in the 
little gardens, when the fields waited for the harv- 
est in their golden fertility, when the red-roofed 
houses seemed to slumber in the quiet of midsum- 
mer warmth, the bloodthirsty beast dragged the 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 

people to icy regions ss prisoners. They are 
gone forever, those blessed colonies which Cath- 
arine loTcd, their happiness buried, and the 
results of century-Img industry obliterated. In 
their blind rage the Russians have hurt tiie mem- 
ory of their greatest empress and benefactress. 
And in the Taurida Provinces, where from an en- 
nobled Russian of German descent the czar had 
accepted a princely present, the police hunted 
for the landowner's brother, a naturalized Ger- 
man who had gone to the Black Sea to pass the 
summer in the home of his old mother. 

After Grerman interests, German vitahty had 
been crushed, suddenly, like a ghost, invisible, but 
surely felt, roamed a Gennan party which ad- 
vocated a separate peace. It was said that the 
trail of this party led to the throne, the czarina 
being a German princess. Whenever the czar- 
ina had an attachment to her native country, it 
was drowned in the strong current of Russia's 
moral influence. As Empress of Russia she had 
to give up her own self, in truth and in faith, to 
Russian interests in church and state. It may 
be that the czarina was suffering in the depths of 
her heart through this war which has put her 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

brother and sister in the ranks of the enony, — 
this was her holy right, — ^but first of all she was 
the sovereign, the mother of her country, the 
mother of the future czar. Why should the czar- 
ina, who never had mixed in state afifairs, sud- 
denly excel in MaduaveUianism, and why should 
Rasputin, who was illiterate, whose conception 
did not cross the spiritual borders of Russia, have 
been her instrument? Was there no minister, no 
statesman who could represent the czarina's in- 
trigue? 

The czar's great Icmging for peace was never 
a secret, and when he saw that military disasters 
were irreparable, when, after Gallipoli, he saw 
that the promise of the Dardanelles was post- 
poned indefinitely, the desire filled his heart to 
see the war tragedy end. Rasputin spoke the 
language of the people,— no people wants war, — 
and he strengthened the czar in his desire. 
Though Rasputin possessed the great power of 
the ignorant, he had learned enough to know that 
the desire of a czar is a delicate thing, which can 
not be prematurely exposed to political discus- 
sion. The people were not permitted to speak 
peace, to think peace ; their energies were directed 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 

to war. Less and less the people who reflected 
could find out the reasons for the continuation of 
the struggle, and when every hope for their own 
gain was gone, they were merely allies, merely 
men to die for the policy of the Entente, which 
they did not understand. 

Then the revolution came. The people awak- 
ened to the real sense of this war, to the war with- 
out victory, as the President of the mother de- 
mocracy of the United States declared, to the 
war for the people's holiest rights, tiieir hberation 
from gray autocratic despotism. But why 
should the Russian suddenly seek the German 
influence in the misery of the country, in its fail- 
ure! The Russian army lacked the same spirit 
in the Russo-Japanese War and sufiFered under 
the same conditions. 

There are no longer Germans living in Rus- 
sia who have not heen interned; therefore the 
German influence must come from the Baltic 
Provinces. The Baltic Provinces — ^that is an en- 
tirely different question, a question by itself. It 
was in the thirteenth centiuy that German 
knights first entered the land on the Baltic Sea, 
— Livonia and Esthonia, for Courland then he- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
longed to the Kingdom of Poland, — conquered 
the inhabitants, and forced the Christian religion 
on them. To-day the people of the Baltic Prov- 
inces are mostly Lutheran. The kni^ts took 
possession of the land, obtaining their ri^ts first 
from Sweden, under which sovereignty they lived 
until Peter the Great conquered the provinces 
and granted them the same ri^ts from Russia. 
They remained German, kept their language, 
and brought the Baltic Provinces to hi^ culture. 
They reigned on their estates like dukes, keeping 
the original people, the Esthonians and Letts, in 
a serf-like condition. They fortified their castles, 
built cities with Grerman administrations, and 
were recognized as a free people, with their own 
laws and privileges. 

Beside the kni^ts who developed into the 
haughty Baltic barons that sat above all in the 
councils there was evolved a class of Crerman 
patricians like those of medieval Germany. 
These patricians were strictly classified as burn- 
ers, who under certain rules admitted the peo- 
ple into their guilds and thus into their profes- 
sions. 

The Baltic Provinces flourished. Agricul- 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 
ture, industries, and commerce extended widely, 
and science had its home at the famous university 
in Dorpat The Baltics belonged to Genuans of 
the hi^est type. 

Their ri^^ts were respected by Peter the Great 
and renewed by Catharine, who made courtiers of 
her Grerman subjects. Baltic noblemen were 
called into Russian governmental and court af- 
fairs. They were known and esteemed by all the 
czars as the most loyal and trustworthy subjects. 

The Baltics remained unmolested until 1880. 
The divergences between the Russians and the 
Baltics broke out as a natural result of di£Ferent 
opinions in regard to their duties in official posi- 
tions. The Baltic was not pliable, a hard, but 
just, administrator, and could not adapt himself 
to the earlier standards which impHed a flourish- 
ing system of graft in the Government. Under 
the reign of Alexander II the tension between the 
Russians and the Baltics became unbearable, and 
when among the growing anarchism of the Rus- 
sian youtii the searching poHce discovered a Bal- 
tic, the treachery of the German-speaking sub- 
ject was exploited. Prince Shahavskoy, the 
Governor of Estiionia, after having been de- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
nounced by Baltic aristocrats for bribery and 
protection in railroad affairs, avenged him- 
self, and a terrible period of suppression of 
everything Baltic began. The Baltics were no 
longer tolerated as German subjects under 
the sovereignty of the Russian czar; they had 
to declare thonselves entirely Russian. Their 
mother-tongue, in which their children had 
been taught, was suddenly prohibited. A ter- 
rible confusion began to take place. Officials 
of the German city administrations were re- 
placed by Russian bureaucrats, llie street 
names appeared in signs, which neither £sdK>- 
nians nor I^etts nor Germans could decipher. 
The Baltics were diadowed constantly, and the 
sli^test opposition was exaggerated to a state 
crime. Spies of the Government and of the 
police lived imsuspected in harmless families, sat 
among the children in school-rooms, sat in the 
church pews, sat among the university studaits. 
The victims of this terrorizing system were 
seized, taken to the fortresses, and often disap- 
peared, without any trial, into the darkness of 
Russian prisons or were deported to Siberia. 
The syston did not help to make the Baltics more 
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loyaL The spirit of oppositicm grew among ibe 
intelligent until it became open reTolt. 

Alexander II had no power, being himself re- 
strained by the system which he hated. He 
could not free himself, and was helpless to pre- 
vent the inforcement of the new laws that the 
Russian Government imposed upon this free peo- 
ple. Among clergymen, teachers and students 
the ochrana operated mercilessly. To be de- 
nounced by a peasant, whose word in Russia 
would have been less than the harking of a dog, 
was sufficient cause for the arrest, without ques- 
tion, of a Baltic. Sometimes it took years for 
the desperate family to find out where the fa- 
ther, son, or husband hved, or whether he had 
been simply executed. This was the great Bal- 
tic tragedy. 

One of the greatest of Baltic physicians was 
put to trial because a Russian workman accused 
him of having declined to attend the peasant's 
wife in childbirth. In this case the police feared 
to arrest the physician because of his popularity, 
and he was permitted to give a reason for his 
failure to go to the woman. The doctor remem- 
bered the call of the man, and remembered also 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
that he had a strong reasrai for sending the man 
to his assistant, who unfortunately could not he 
foundj but he could not recall exactly what that 
reason was. The whole city was in an uproar, 
and a kind of revolution was expected. The 
Germans and even the Letts had decided to re- 
volt against the arbitrary system of the police, 
but the police merely sneered at the x>ossible up- 
rising and decided to make a good capture on the 
day of the trial. 

The wife of the physician, in deejiest distress, 
stood at the window gazing out into the damp- 
ness of the November day when suddenly a 
young woman in the street looked up and greeted 
her laughingly. The face seemed to the wife a 
godsend, and she rushed down-stairs to ask the 
young woman into the house. Yes, it was she 
who had been ill of childbirth fever and ^rtio had 
been nursed, through the kindness of the doctor, 
day and night. She remembered well enou^ 
the kind wife who had come to her, brining re- 
freshments. Suddenly the physician's wife 
knew why her husband could not help another, 
why he had to send away the man just as he was 
entering the carriage to drive to the suburb 
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THE GERMAN IKFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 
where he had saved the life of the little mother 
ill of childbirth f even 

The young woman, a real Russian and the wife 
of a small goremment official, gladly appeared 
at the trial, and her testimony freed the physi- 
cian, who had been for a long time on the black- 
list and would have been just the ri^^t x>er8(m to 
use as an example. 

The Baltics breathed heavily under the straog- 
gling of their freedom. Whm Alexander II 
was murdered, his son, Alexander III, disdain- 
fully scratched out with one penstroke the old 
privileges of the Baltics. It was then, that hun- 
dreds of Baltic noblemen left the provinces, to 
become again, what their ancestors had been, 
German subjects. Those whose interests were 
buried in Russian soil and who could not leave 
the country submitted to the new regime with 
teeth set together. 

Their ri^ts, their laws, their language, and 
their university were taken from them. They 
had to be Russian; their children had to be un- 
true to their own blood. Their existence hecame 
a lie; they sinned against the holy law of race. 
A nation never can love what its ancestors hated. 
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A nation can not build peace and happiness on 
old distresses. 

Despite the suhmission of the Baltics to the 
new conditions, those who had been deported 
were not pardoned, but their families were per- 
mitted to share their exile. The Baltics suffered 
silently. They accepted the terrible change with 
the dignity of a cultivated people. They en- 
tered the Russian state service and became loyal 
subjects of the czar. His personal bodyguard 
was composed of Baltics, whom he knew he could 
trust, for a Baltic never broke his oath. The 
Baltics became the most able ofiBcials in the Gov- 
ernment and the best officers in the Russian army. 
But these Baltics, who became more Russian than 
the Russians, denied their own souls, and what 
they had suffered in the surrender of their own 
freedom they made their Esthonian and Lett 
subordinates suffer. They never had been mild 
masters, and had treated the natives of the coun- 
try whidi they had ctxiquered and oppressed as 
the Russian treated his serfs or even worse. The 
Russian had always had a patriardial feeling tor 
his serfs, was kind and condescending, and the 
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serfs were devoted to the house to which they be- 
longed. 

Beneath their cringing subordination the 
Esthonians and Letts hated the haughty Bal- 
tics, who stepped over them as if they were in- 
sects, who never took the sli^test interest in 
their well-being, and who looked at them as they 
looked at the animals belonging to their estates. 
Like the animals, they had their stables ; they had 
food, tibey even had schools, but they had no 
love. In the cold repudiation of them as a hu- 
man class they suffered from a terrible hopeless- 
ness. Childlike, undeveloped, and frightened, 
these people were always on the defensive. 
When it was brou^t to the attention of the Bal- 
tic barons that in these watching serfs slumbered 
a terrible latent danger ready to break out at any 
opportunity, they lauded disdainfully. Those 
animals, those cowards, who for centuries had 
been trampled under foot, had lost the courage 
to stand up against their masters. 

The Baltics did not see the looks of hatred 
which flashed in the narrow little eyes when, in 
the middle of the ni^t, the Lett servants were 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
awakened out of heavy sleep after a hard day's 
work to harness sleigh» and to drive the barons, 
the junker's gay parties, through the icy, ghm- 
mering woods. On the sleighs, which were har- 
nessed as tiie Russian troika, the footman had to 
stand behind the seats with crossed arms. Drunk 
with weariness, the icy air striking their faces, 
the poor boys were often overccnne with sleep 
and fell from the slei^is speeding over tiie frozen 
snow. No one would notice that a footmui was 
lost, and the boy would lie on the ground to sleep 
his last sleep. The next morning, perhaps, an 
over-anxious father or mother would go out to 
seek a son, and would find him frozen. Some- 
times they would find bim only when the snow 
had melted away, or they would find him de- 
voured by wolves. The barons forgot these lit- 
tle incidents, but they were deeply engraved in 
the hearts of the people. 

The Esthonians and Letts waited patiently for 
their hour to come, and ihe hour struck. In the 
midst of the confusicm of the Russo-Japanese 
War, in the midst of raging internal revolutiwi, 
the Esthonians and the Letts slunk up like wild 
beasts, a commimity of revolutionists of their 
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own. It was a peasant war, cruel and f rig^ful, 
not less barbaric than those of the Middle Ages, 
where knights were speared on pitchforks, where 
castles were burned and pillaged, and before the 
eyes of thdr mothers children were thrown into 
the flames. It was a terrible avenging of humil- 
iation against haughtiness. This people had 
been thwarted in their ambition to take part as 
human beings in the progress of the world. If 
one spoke of a man who asked for some distinc- 
tion, the Baltics always said: "He is only an 
Esthonisn or a Iictt He does n't count.** 

While the Estbtmians and tiie Letts hated 
equally the German and the Russian, they pre- 
ferred the Russian's compromising character to 
the knouting discipline of the German barons; 
and when the crater of hatred opened, it spit fire 
and poison orer the German masters who had to 
be protected by Riusian soldiers from a people 
that nominaUy belonged to provinces they had 
dominated not only materially, but morally and 
in spirit. The proud castles, strongholds of cul- 
ture in primitive Russia, were razed to the 
ground. 

The Esthonians and tbe Letts are the sworn 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

enemies of the Baltics and always will be. In 
this the original population of the Baltic Fror- 
inces is not absolutely wrong. The Estbtmiaiu 
and the Letts never had justice. They were 
dependent on the good-will of their enslavers, 
who humiliated them, arousing their bad instincts 
instead of teaching them to conquer their base 
qualities. Even for their devotion the nofolemoi 
had only a cruel contempt, and an incident in the 
peasant revolts will always remain in the memoiy 
of the Letts. One of the hi^ aristocrats had to 
flee throuj^ ni^t and fog to save his life and his 
family. The servants, all Letts, generously 
helped those who had been their masters to escape 
from the infuriated peasants who stormed 
through the country from estate to estate, killing, 
murdering, and robbing. Whoi the noble 

family left the estates. Count K promised 

the old butler, who guarded the abandoned castle, 
the greatest reward if it should not be demolished 
by the hordes. The old man did his best, but be 
could not prevent the wing containing the 
predous library frcnn being destroyed by fire. 

After the revolt Count K returned under 

the protecti<m of the Government, and v/hea he 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN BUSSIA 
discovered tiie loss of his books he became 
enraged. Instead of being grateful to the sei^ 
vant who had helped to save the other part of the 
castle, his first act was to execute his old butl^ 
hy hanging him to a tree in the courtyard. 

In the Baltic race is a strange mixture of the 
bluest moral sense, the loftiest ideals, and the 
firmest will power, an intellectuality more cre- 
ative than in other Germanic races, an individu- 
ality untouched by Prussianism, a wildness of 
temperament, a sharpness of wit, and the hau^- 
tiness of a race that has always been masters. 

In the Baltics the Lutheran spirit had domi- 
nated, suffocating beauty and charm, and seclud- 
ing woman in the dull insignificance of the 
German chatelaine of the Middle Ages. The 
women lived for housewifely duties, practising 
the strictest economy for themselves, while the 
mea enjoyed separate existences. Nowhere was 
the natural difference between the male and the fe- 
male so obviously expressed as among the Baltics. 
Th^ brought to mind the proud-plumaged male 
and the gray-feathered female among the birds. 
The women were not attractive, with their thin, 
flat bodies clothed in self-woven coarse material 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAT AND TO-MORHOW 
of an offending simplicity and ugliness, pressed 
into bodices with innumerable buttons in the 
front; with their colorless hair drawn back from 
foreheads always too high and too square; md 
with the little lace bomiets that brides as well as 
matrons had to wear to express the dignity of the 
iQarried state. Intolerant of everything that 
was graceful and free-minded in womanly spirit, 
they persecuted charm wherever it could be 
found, while they forgave the immoralities their 
own men committed as masters on the big estates. 
With a heroic self-mastery the Baltic noble- 
women bore the escapades their men indulged 
in outside their castles; but their dominion was 
sacred ground, and the strictest decorum had to 
be observed when once inside the gates. 

Oh, the domestic tragedies when a Baltic took 
home a wife from another country, a woman with 
another spirit, with artistic or modem education t 
Her brilliant feathers were plucked out by the 
jealous gray hens, and before she was aware of 
it she was squeezed into the coarse, moth-colored 
dotfaes, the emblem of her dignity. If she tried 
to fly away, she was lost forever, and ber name 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA. 

The Baltic nobleiPtnium has held high the 
banner of female virtues, extinguishing the best 
in herself and the best in her men — ^humanity and 
the kind tolerance which are much more than the 
cold sense of duty. 

The Baltics are about to die out. Th^ lire 
outside their estates, being German subjects, 
which means to be no longer individual men but 
uniformed. They are the low and hi^ officials 
in the Russian Grovemment. They are in the 
army. They are the most chauTinistic Ru^ians 
and the most dangerous, their acquired Russian 
characteristics not being excusable because of 
Slavic origin. It seemed less a sacrifice for tiie 
Baltics to be under Russian sovereignty than to 
submit their hau^ty manners to Gennan discip- 
line: and their methods of treating subordinates 
were mudi easier to exercise with the servile Rus- 
sian than with the socialistic Gennan. 

The race has naturally suffered from inter- 
marriage with the Russian. This crossing was 
not an improvement for the moral qualities, and 
in the last few years the Baltics have shown more 
degeneration among the nobles than for the 
preceding seven centuries. Among them have 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORBOW 

been gentlemrai murdra^rs, gentlemen traitors, 
and many of the descendants of the proud 
families are moral victims of raci^ mistakes. 

It is a mistaken idea that the German influoice 
could ever overwhelm the world. It was not the 
fault of the individual German that so many mis- 
takes in tact were made. It was the fault of a 
German Government which was too young, too 
ambitious not to show oflF wherever Germans'set- 
tled aftei the fatherland had become an Empire. 
Their growing power went to the Germans* head 
as young wine; and beside this, they had the idea 
of defending their young nobility as the parvoiu 
always does. And also, like parvenus, they used 
too much of their elbow power, too much space; 
spoke too loudly and they appeared always as a 
compact mass. It was, as the Russian said sar- 
castically: "If two Germans come together, 
they immediately form a quartette; if four, they 
found a Getangt Verein; and if ei^t, they 
unite in the Sanger Bund. Wherever a Ger- 
man hves and sees his advantages, if condi- 
tions are favorable to him, he is inclined to accept 
the habits of the country, the language and the 
traditions. Wherever he settles the German 
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THE GERBIAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 

will be to a certain eztait an educator, but be wiU 
oerer be either feared or loved. At bis best be 
will be accepted and respected. Grcrmans 
among other races are like teachers with their 
pupils. The boys anxiously wait for the oppor- 
tunity to play tricks, and as teachers rarely here 
sufficient sense of humor to smile on school-boy 
pranks, the Germans make the mistake of whip- 
ping. 

The German language was a habit to tlie Rus- 
sians, a comfortable institution; but it has been 
used only as a commercial means of communica- 
tion. The Russian aristocrat spoke French, 
wrote his letters in French, and even introduced 
French words now and then when speaking Rus- 
sian. When the war broke out signs were dis- 
played everywhere forbidding the use of the G^er- 
man language on penalty of terrible punishment. 
At the Russian frontier travelers beheld tbese 
signs before they were permitted to leave tiie 
cars, but the first words they beard on Russian 
soil from the lips of the lugubrious-looking cus- 
toms official was the question, "Haben tie lachU 
2u verzoUenf" ("Have you nothing to declare?") 
A Norwegian traveling in Russia took the train 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

from St. Petersburg to Moscow. The Nor- 
wegian shared the compartment with a Russian 
gmeraL The general, a talkative old man, 
looked sCTutinizingly at his silent trareling com- 
panion, and recogmzing him as a foreigner* asked 
if periiaps he understood Russian. The Nor* 
wegiw shook his head. *'Then periiaps 70U 
speak French f the old general continue^ 
uneasy- at the thought that he might have to pass 
many hours with a dumb vis-i-Tis. The Nor- 
wegian smilingly answered tiiat he did not even 
speak French, but perhaps the general could 
speak English? Then the general shook his 
head. No, he did not understand English. 
Then with a sudden gesture the general dmt the 
door of the compartment, turning a terrible look 
on the Norwegian as he whispered: "Sprechen 
Sie DeuUchf The Norwe^an answered tim- 
idly that he knew a little German. The general 
sighed as if Uberated from a great wei^ and 
said: "Thank GodI then we can have a good 
chat together." Indeed, he chatted in plain 
German about innumerable oflSdal and military 
secrets, complaining, swearing, accusing, drink- 
ing the forbidden vodka and even champagne 
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THE GERMAN INFLUENCE IN RUSSIA 

out of a tea-cup which the guard poured fran a 
teapot At the end of the journey tJie general 
assured the Norwegian that he had had a very 
pleasant time. 

In Russia there was no German influence to 
destroy; there were only German interests whidi 
were elosety intertwined with the Russian. In- 
dustriaUy and ccHnmerciaUy, Russia suffered ter- 
ribly at the beginning of the war when deprived 
of Grerman skill and help; many factories had to 
be closed, and in certain parts of Russia trade 
was entirely stopped. Indeed, German interests 
in Russia are destroyed forever or for many years 
to come. The life-work of many is gone, and 
another priceless thing, the confidence between 
the two nations, which, paradoxical as it may 
seem, was rooted in an innermost understanding, 
the German's lore of Russia for her philosophy, 
her art, her poetry, and her melancholy. When 
the Grerman becomes drunk he sings sad songs; 
when the Russian is drunk he weeps and talks 
philosophy and is deeply melandiolic. 

Russia is an immense grave for the peaceful 
adiievements of centuries. 

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CHAPTER VIII 

AMERICA AND KUB8IA 

To the Russian's imaginaticm nothing is so 
Tivid, so exciting, as the idea of America. To 
bis mind it has not been the country to whidi one 
takes a wrecked existaice» a broken life, or wbexe 
one goes for adventure, to find gold and every- 
thing that a man can buy with gold. It is not 
that. For him it has been like a light, like a star 
of hop^ like a heaven on earth, vast, but not with 
the vastness of his own country, which is fright- 
ening, but with the vastness of the sky, gay and 
blue, full of sunshine and brightness. Even 
thou^ the Russian never may go to America, 
that it exists has made him glad in the conscious- 
ness that, if his own land should make him too 
unhappy, he would be welcomed in another part 
of the eartii as a human being, as a simple man. 

In Russia many, many speak of America, the 
poorest, the most desperate, those who have beoi 
so hopeless that they have lost the strength to go 

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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

away frtnn their own soiL This one thought 
has seemed vastly comforting to them, that 
America was discovered for the poor, and was not 
the land of the rich only. They must preserve 
this hope that America is the great mother, with 
wide-stretched arms, ready to receive children, 
many children, from all parts of the world. 

The real, the true Russian is not an emigrant 
by nature. He does not like to move; every 
change frightens him. He is not curious, and 
new things do not touch him. His interests are 
deep in the Russian soiL He must know who 
are his friends or his enemies and he must talk 
about them; otherwise, life would lose its charm 
for him. Those who have emigrated from Rus- 
sia have been in most cases the Jews, the Gali- 
cians, students who fled for anarchistic reasons, 
refugees whose families were involved in unlucky 
politics, and aristocratic soldiers of fortune. It 
is very seldom that the Russian peasant is to be 
found among the emigrants. 

And when one of the peasants, devoured by an 

imappeasable longv^g to catch a glimpse of the 

earthly paradise which America seems to be, 

dares the adventurous journey, he travels thou- 

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HU88U OF YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 

sands of miles to go somewhere over tiie Rusnan 
border. Then again he travels throu^ a foreign 
country* where he is completely lost, owing to his 
lack of knowledge of the language. Finally, he 
is passed over the gangway to the immense boat 
which is to carry him across the sea ; then his heart 
beats faster, and he forgets the weariness and 
hardships of the joum^. He sighs deeply, his 
eyes are directed forward with the movement of 
the boat, he daspa his hands, and his lips move 
in a silent prayer. The ship cuts the high waves, 
and over him is the inunensity of the sky ; he feels 
that in this holy solitude of the elemoits a man is 
so poor and small a thing that Uiere are no k«iger 
differences among those who go out to America. 
Day by day he sits beside his bundle, his poor 
property, staring silently into the vanishing hours 
which drop into the sea. Every morning more 
of space is between him and his own land, and 
every day a piece of his memory disappears, until 
finally his soul is filled with expectations of the 
future, and the past has left him completely. 
Then hours ccsne when the sky is darkened and 
the clouds are restless. An anxiety never felt 
before enters his heart, a fainting weariness 



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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 
before the cruel impenetrable wildness of the sea. 
Deathly tired, he has no resistance, and gives up 
the little struggle before so enormous a grave. 

The Russian sighs and thinks. Every one must 
pass through a test to reach America, and he 
makes himself ready for his entry; he prepares 
himself for the solemn hour when his foot will 
step ashore. It is night again. The big boat 
is suddenly quiet, its tireless modiinery stopped. 
But no sleep touches the eyes of the Russian, who 
looks in deepest bewilderment into the clear, sum- 
mer night, from which stands forth the statue of 
a woman, not an icon, not the Holy Little 
Mother, but a woman great and triumphant, kind 
and serious and protecting — Liberty, America 1 
And behind the statue there lies an enchanted 
city, with buildings soaring into the sky. 

With the dawn the Russian goes back to the 
place where he can make himself clean. He has 
the idea that it is Sunday, and it will be like 
entering a church. People will look at him; his 
hair must be brushed, his face washed, and his 
b'gh boots shining. There, at the first view of 
America, he feels like a himian being, equal to 
all who are on the boat with him. He can not 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

speak to them, but they all have the same expres- 
si<Hi in the eyes as they look forward to the won- 
ders to come. 

Then a veil covers all the wonders of the new 
world. The Russian rubs his eyes; the veil 
remains. He sees perstms, gay and happy, 
leisurely walk over the gangway, and he sees 
others who are not permitted to leave the ship. 
A rope is drawn between the favored ones and 
many poor men and women who, like himself, 
are waiting impatiently to go on land. His eyes 
question. Why are some free to land and why 
not all? He gets his answer when he and the 
others from the steerage are pushed like sheep 
into a hall at Ellis Island. With head bent he 
enters America. The wonderful expectation is 
killed in him; a dull, submissive expression comes 
into his face. 

It is only a world of illusion, this new, redeem- 
ing world; it does not exist in reahty. Reality 
is the same as in Russia, the difference between 
those who have mcmey and tliose who have not. 
The poor are examined to find out whether they 
carry diseases from the Old World, and the rich, 
who perhaps do carry them, are allowed to spread 
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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

them in the New World as in the Old. As he is 
a Russian, he xmderstands and is sad. The next 
day, when he is free to leave the island and to 
enter the real new world, New York, his hopeful- 
ness has shrunk, and his eyes, which were so 
eager, are tired. He walks through the long 
stretch of streets with another man who shows 
him where the Russians live. This Russian quar- 
ter is poor; it is the same as in Russia, only it is 
confusing. The Russians have to learn English, 
and so they mix together. They do not look 
happy, but they all hope to be happy when they 
can go back home with what they can earn in the 
new countiy — money, as much as they want. 
They will buy land and houses for the children. 

The Russian sees that there is a will and an 
energy that were not in Russia. He goes about, 
asks and asks, and nobody can understand him. 
Those who might understand him have forgotten 
the language of the Russian soul; they have no 
time to answer. A Russian who no longer has 
time to answer questions of the heart, who hur- 
ries away in the morning and 1^0 comes back in 
the evening tired, looking out only for his food 
and his bed, is no longer a Russian. The new- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
comer finds himself alone, and a great homesick- 
ness takes possession of him and paralyzes him. 
There is no beauty, no rest, no happiness. There 
is a uniform, nerrous rush, and what is from the 
old home-counby seems no longer to interest 
them. They smile pityingly when he speaks of 
what he thou^^t America would he— the para- 
dise. He knows better now. There is more of 
paradise at home, where th^ have their little 
places, and sometimes think that the ground 
belongs to them as well as to their masters. 
They tramp along the country roads, imd the 
doors of the houses are opened for them; every- 
body talks, everywhere a cabbage soup is ready 
for them, and Russia is like a big, big home. He 
looks at his rabies, which he has brought with 
him. They are melting like his e^iectations; 
almost nothing is kft. 

Hfr meets the disapproving looks of his own 
people. He who is so strong, why does he not go 
to work, too? There is work in America if one 
wants it, and this is the great thing here. The 
more work a man has, the more he loves the coun- 
try. He loves the week-days better than the 
Sundays, whidi are dull. The working-peo- 
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AMIIRICA AND RUSSU 

pie are too tired to gather, to dance, or to 
sing. 

No, the new-comer is not in haste to work. 
He will go about and see where the wonders lie; 
he can not believe that America has only work, 
nothing but work, waiting for the children who 
come from an Old World where th^ hare no 
promises, no prospects. He walks days and 
days, and he sees that there are streets for the 
rich and streets for the poor, and he sees that the 
poor and the rich never mingle. He sees that 
there are many who look neither poor nor rich, 
and are not gay, but noisy. He stands and looks 
at the sky-high houses and the stream of people 
that rushes in and out; he sees the faces tense and 
worried; he returns to his sleeping-place. And 
he has not discovered Am^ica. 

One morning he has only a few copecks left, 
and misery has come to him. Oh, what a misery t 
It does not mean so much the hunger of the body 
as hunger of the soul. Nobody asks him if he is 
himgry, nobody cares if he dies, nobody has a 
word of compassion; for all this nobody has time. 
He lies on his bed day after day and becomes 
weak; he will never see his own coimtry again, 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 

and he has never seen America. And one day 
he has no bed at alL He could not pay, uid the 
man viho wanted his bed could pay. Desperate 
and deserted, be takes his small bundle. He 
has the one desire to be home again, away from 
the meiciless, rushing world, whidi is like the sea 
itself: those who are not able to swim will be 
drowned pitQessly. But to go home he must 
hare money, and for this he has to go to work. 
As he is no longer strong and beautiful and full 
of expectation, work is hard to get. He must 
accept any sort of hard labor until he comes to 
the work that be did in his home countiy. And 
the day when he sits in the workshop with the 
work he is used to before him he thinks that he 
has found America. He concludes that every 
<xie must discover his own America — ^the Amer- 
ica of his ambitions. America is like the big 
machine which worked at home in the fields 
separating the chafiF from the wheat. Now he 
knows the difference between Russia and Amer* 
ica. In Russia they always have time to wait. 
The father waits, the children wait, and so the 
generations wait, and the country and everything 
else are behind. 

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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

The Russian brings his foreign skill into the 
uniformity of the workshop, and this is liked by 
Americans. Suddenly he is aware that he is dif< 
ferent from others and that which his father and 
grandfather waited for has come to him. He 
discovers in himself all sorts of possibilities which 
he never felt before. He is strong again, 
stronger than ever before. There is something 
new in his blood, which he never would have felt 
in his own country, neither he nor his children, 
because it is not demanded, because they could 
live without any effort. They could have their 
tea and their soup and their bread, and they had 
time to talk about religion. Everything remained 
just as it was when his fathers were serfs. 
America opens his eyes, and with doubled energy 
he works to make money so that be may go back 
to teach his children what progress a man may 
make. And then it is true that there are no 
class distinctions in America, because the poor of 
yesterday can be rich to-morrow, and the illit- 
erates can become the teachers if they study. 
No matter what he has been or from what he 
comes, a man may rise. 

The Russian writes home, if he can write, or a 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
nei^bor writes for him, and tells about the won- 
ders of America and how much he has in the 
sftTings-bank. Ellis Island is not the invention 
of a cruel Goremment, and America cannot be 
plucked like a bird. 

America is the model school for Russia in 
which to learn everything that the Russians lack. 
Into the remotest parts of Russia the idea of 
America has penetrated — an idea of a new 
encouragement for a stronger expression of life. 

America is so strong that it pulverizes nation- 
alities. As nationally strcmg as Russians are in 
their country, where no room is left for the influx 
of another people, in Am^ca they are scarcely 
noticeable. But what is noticed strangely 
interests the American. A Russian is to &e 
American like a book with seven seals, and if the 
book is opened, the American cannot read the 
mysterious signs; he cannot read in the Russian 
what he reads in other people. Russian charac- 
teristics are not comprehensible to him. He 
calls the Russian inscrutable. The American 
does not like contradictions; his mind is straight- 
forward. The food for his soul as well as for his 
body must have the simple wholesomeness under- 
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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

stood and consiuned by tlie masses. This is tiie 
great diffeience between Russia and America, 
that Russia has no care for the masses, only for 
the individual man. This has expanded m the 
Russian a finesse of art, literature, and music, 
and for tiie Russian only. What a tremendous 
value must lie in this individual art I What great 
charm the Russian art must exercise over Amer- 
icans when they feel a longing to penetrate to the 
soul of a people I It is this that Russia gives to 
America for the stimulus of energies that Amer- 
ica bestows on her. In the closer approach of 
the two peoples lie enormous possibilities. 

The Russian cannot be Americanized, and this 
is the great advantage. The race always takes to 
America its originality and will keep that orig- 
inality even when the heart is remote from Rus- 
sia. With great simplicity and sincerity the 
Russian marches in the columns of America's 
immigrants. He never disturbs bis neighbor, 
and is more intelligent than the Jew. Like the 
American, he is tenacious in business, and trading 
with the Russian is still a disquieting puzzle. 
Even Uiough many things may be changed now, 
neither the Russian merchant nor his character- 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
istics in trading can be changed. There is raie 
remaricable likeness between the American and 
the Russian: both are like children who always 
seek to get the bigger end. The American is 
even slower in his business resolutions — if it is 
business and not gambling — ^thao the Russian. 
The American talks business without talking 
business. He talks over and over things, and 
has the same time to waste as the Russian. The 
Russian shows that he is in no hurry, while the 
American always piles up appointments, appar- 
ently to keep him busy. The Russian has (me 
business in mind, and he pursues it tenaciously 
and frankly. It must be known that the Russian 
does not believe in business carte blanche; there 
must be some tricks in it, or it would not be busi- 
ness. And with all his honesty, a Russian would 
not admit any advantage that mi^t lie in a 
business for him. 

Russians never will have trustees. They have 
cooperative companies, which buy necessary 
materials more easily and more quickly than the 
individual man. The cash — a Russian never has 
cash. He has property, but to get cash he has 
to borrow or seU. The whole Russian mercantile 
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ami:rica and rttssia 

business is based on a system of long credit. It 
is hard for an American to understand liiis, but 
it is harder to accustom the Russian to pay cash. 
It is even a danger for a Russian to have a certain 
amount of money at his disposal. He inmiedi- 
ately buys what he likes and not what he needs. 
This is the reason that the Jews and the Germans 
had sudi a good time trading with the Russians. 
They knew the national weak point and played 
on it. The German merchant always had in his 
shop what Uie Russian liked, and if the Russian 
went to buy what he needed, at the same time he 
bought something he liked. The German wrote 
it in the big book, and the Russian never needed 
cash. Sometimes the Russian's whole harvest 
was taken away, or his sheep or wood or horses, to 
give him a new sheet in this big book. The Rus- 
sian was never much bothered about this. It will 
be different in America ; he will buy only what he 
needs. 

But Russia needs many, many things v»7 
badly. Russia's httle towns are in a state of 
touching primitiveness, more than romantic, less 
than oidurable. Besides a broad comfort, a 
waste of space, — ^this is perhaps something that 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
would be adequate to American proportions, — a 
a lack of hygienic institutiona worse than in Italy 
and little better than in the Orient. The streets 
are seldom paved, and in bad weather it is impos- 
sible to leave the house without danger of being 
drowned in masses of dirt and mud. The houses 
are kept warm by immense stoves, and most of 
them are lifted by oil-Iampa which smell bad. 
It is regarded as a crime to let in fresh air; the 
houses are not heated for storm aad wind, the 
inhabitants declare. The windows are plastered 
with papers, only a small pane being left so that 
it can be opened. In this atmosph«« of human 
breaths, of cigarettes, of Russian leather, and of 
cabbage soup the Russians live throu^ the whole 
winter and until late in the spring. Oniy when 
the sun begins to ripen the wheat are the windows 
opened and is the winter spirit let out. This is no 
exception at all ; it is the normal state of the Rus- 
sian town. The water is not drinkable; in the 
bath-tubs, which naturally never exist in the 
average Russian house, it looks brown and 
muddy. 

The Russians have their communal bath- 
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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 
where they lie on wooden benches. Every Sat- 
urday whole families, men, women, and children, 
march to the bath-houses with their samovars and 
big, round loaves of black bread. There they 
remain for hours and hours not only bathing, but 
washing their clothing, which can be quickly 
dried in the warm rocons, and ready to be put on 
again. Th^ chat, drink their tea, and the 
weekly bath is as much an entertainment to the 
Russian as the motion-picture is to the American. 

In Russian towns there is usually neither 
plumbing nor sewer. Infectious diseases, such 
as typhoid fever and cholera, are prevalent, and 
the Russian patiently endures them. That is 
what life brings, and no one can change it. 

The houses of the peasants are indescribably 
worse than those of the middle class in poverty, 
uncleanliness, and bad air. Yet the peasants are 
not so poor, not so primitive, not so helpless as 
they appear; they are only hopelessfy lazy. 
They would like to have all conditions dianged, 
but they do not know where to begin first. 
They need a Russian-American Cleaning Com- 
pany; it would pay wonderfuUy. 

Those who are to-day at the head of the Grov- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 
emment know exactly the conditions of the 
country; they have studied them. It is to be 
hoped that they will not make the mistake made 
by former govenunents, and, instead of institut- 
ing radical refonns, send commissicms to investi- 
gate. This would take years, and the people, 
still living in old filthiness, would not readity 
open their minds to the demands of a new Russia. 
The bodies must be freed before the spirit can 
work properly. 

America should investigate. America should 
send out commissions to make necessary changes. 
America's prosperity resulting fran the war 
cotild become a peace prosperity, the result of 
constructive work instead of destructive work. 
This would assure more peace in the world than 
anything else. If America would go into Rus- 
sia, it would become a matter-of-fact Russia, and 
not the country for which every other nation has 
a big scheme — ^to exploit it or to ruin it. But 
America will not see in Russia a country for 
colonization; it will be merely an outlet for 
American pragmatism. The American would 
have the liberty to work out in Russia ideas that 
in bis own country are sometimes hampered by 



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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

the trust system, enslaving in another way and 
retarding the development of a free trade. The 
Russian hates the idea of brusts; to him they seem 
nothing hut a despotism limiting free commerce. 

.In the immensity of his country the Russian 
has created his islands of trade, which have stead- 
ily floiuished, old-fashioned, but sure. The big 
fairs are held with regularity every year, and 
with the same regularity represent the same mer- '' 
chant names. When the fathers die the sons 
succeed them. And between these merchants is 
mutual confidence. They hare the proud con- 
viction that they are providing the country from 
the farthest east to the west, from the north to 
the south. 

Every year in Nijni-Novgorod, the commercial 
heart of Russia, all the thousand little streams of 
labor from all parts of the country converge. 
The annual fair is the most fantastic, the most 
primitive, the greatest demonstration of indus- 
trial Russia. All Russia gathers to buy and to 
seU. Nijni-Novgorod becomes a place of pil- 
grimage to which all bring their year's work. It 
never deceives. In the Russian's mind it always 
will remain the great, benign spot from which 



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tttTSdiA OlB VESTEftDA? AM) TO^UORIIOW 
&&I fathers and grandfathers hrou^t home 
wealth or economic independence. 

In Russia is far more wealth ^an Americans 
imagine, not orer-ni^t wealth, not the dazzling 
heights of multi-millions, but a solid, established 
wealth, with the gld-f ashioned habit of keeping 
monef in a trunk that is hidden somewhere, or 
investing it in land where treasure is deep in the 
earth or where there is enough timber to heat big 
Russia. The Russian is superstitious ctmcem- 
ing eTerything that lies underground. The 
forces that have slept since etemily cannot be 
liberated without Uie tribute of human victims 
who try to lift the mysterious treasures to the 
daylight. It is difficult to get a Russian to labor 
beneath the eartb. There lurk dangers unknown 
to hiiQ — dangers that he cannot meet with tbe 
courage of a man, that he cannot fight, aven^g 
dangers, mythical dangers, which still exist in 
imagination. Russia never has had volcanoes or 
earthquakes, and the Russian, who knows that in 
oilier parts of the world towns disappear, is of 
the strong conviction that it is because the slum- 
bering forces beneath the ground have been dis- 
turbed in their quiet secrecy. With all bis super- 
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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

stition, the Russian is shrewd enou^ to buy such 
a piece of land. Often he lies down on the 
ground with his ear close to the earth; he listens, 
and it seems to him that he can hear the spirits 
that would lure him to free them. 

It happens that a simple man makes a journey 
from the Caspian Sea to the capital with a bit of 
sulphur in his pocket. A traTcler has told him 
tiiat the piece of land he owns is of the greatest 
value on account of the yellow stone t^at lies all 
around his mountain like a crown. Yes, he him- 
self has seen this strange glimmering in the sun- 
shine, and has liked it very much to look at, and 
sometimes he has had the idea it might be gold. 
Men laughed at him, and showed him how soft it 
was. Then he understood that it was not gold. 
But the traveler told him it could be changed into 
gold. In the capital he shows the piece of sul- 
phur to a man at the inn, and the man takes hJT" 
about ; everybody seems amazed. But it requires 
much mon^ to have all those f eUows around, and 
at last, tired of all the promises, and having spent 
all his rubles for a stupid dream, he goes back, 
leaving the piece of sulphur with his address. So 
the valuable specimen may lie forgotten som&r 



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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 
where, for the Russian is usually too indo- 
lent to form a company for exploiting latent 
riches. 

So it is everywhere in Russia. From the Cas- 
pian Sea to the White Sea, through Siberia, the 
Caucasus, and the Ural Mountains, gold-mine^ 
copper-mines, iron-mines hare been opened, and 
the half finished work deserted because, first of 
all, the officers of the companies generally stole 
the money necessary for development. The 
absolute lack of organization usually destroyed 
any effort to disclose Russia's mineral resources. 
Uvea the coal-mines in the Donetzky district 
have been closed because filters were needed for 
the impregnated waters. Sometimes a mining- 
fever crazed Russia, and then companies were 
hurriedly formed to exploit some newly dis- 
covered virginal district. Such work has been 
started with all liie scientific skill of Russian 
engineers; but after a ^ort time enthusiasm 
waned in the face of unexpected obstacles or on 
account of the severe cold, too much solitude, or 
lack of amusements, and finally the Russian 
oomes to the conclusion that life is too short to 
bather with mines in the wilderness. Most of 



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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

the successful mining companies are therefore 
French, English, and Belgian. 

What Russia has not produced for herself in 
iron and coal England, Germany, and even 
Poland sent to her cheaper and without trouble. 
It is known that only one-fifth of Russia's per 
capita need for iron is covered by domestic pro- 
duction. The oil-fielda in Baku were unex- 
ploited imtil the Swedish engineer Nobel 
obtained large concessions. English companies 
have been recently organized that control many 
thousand acres. All these mineral lands 
belong to the crown, and will now be free to 
benefit the Russian people. 

It should be understood that labor and skill are 
not lacking in Russia; what is needed are money 
and organization. Americans can achieve won- 
ders by engaging Russian engineers and furnish- 
ing necessary capital. Russian propositions, 
when presented to Americans, are often declined 
for the reason that Americans have enough op- 
portunities in their own young country. But 
Americans are confronted by the labor problem, 
which unquestionably will hinder them more in 
the future tban in the past, on account of reduced 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
immigratiixi owing to the wholesale num- 
slau^ter in the European War, and, aa the 
colonization of Chinese and Japanese is pro- 
hibited, the working of mines will be limited. In 
the meantime America's great abihty in orgimiz- 
ing and financing should be employed for the 
benefit of Russia and to the ultimate advantage 
of her own industries. In former Russia it was 
difficult to procure proper treaties. To-day the 
new order is too young, too efferrescen^ to make 
possible any conclusion as to how much better 
conditions will be. In any case, they could not 
be worse for foreign interests. 

There is much more money in Russia since the 
war than there ever has been, because of the 
abolition of vodka and the savings of the soldiers. 
In 1915 the increase of deposits was more than 
one billion rubles. Despite all the killed, the 
crippled, and the missing men in Russia, fbete is 
still a flourishing manhood among the people, an 
inexhaustible store of health, patience, and good- 
will. And there are the Jews, v^o in masses 
will overflow Russia after all restrictions are 
removed. They will grasp the possibilities well 
known to them. They will take back to Russia 



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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

their keen inteUigence and penetrating mentality. 
With characteristic perseverance they will take 
from Russian hands the reins of commerce, and 
Russia will be ruled by Jewish capital. Jew- 
ish industrialism will triumph over Russian 
national indolence. A vast field of activity is 
open for the Jew imtil the American intervenes 
with his strong, clear initiative. 

It is easy to handle the Russian laboring 
classes since the abolition of vodka. In former 
times the Russian's reasm was always drunk; 
to-day he will be amenable to sound arguments, 
and he vrtio has been enslaved for centuries should 
not be left to his own childlike decisions. He 
cannot dispose of himself to-day; he is absolutely 
helpless if not directed. It is a conscientious 
duty to direct the free Russian workman and 
peasant in the right way. This is the ethical 
task that America will have to carry out — ^the 
task of the mother democracy to educate the 
young country, which suddenly from darkest 
autocracy has come into the light of freedom. 

There is a great danger for the leaders as well 
as for ^e people ; both will lose their sense of pro- 
portion. They will do tbings that will make 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 

them regret the liberty they have attained, and 
the result may be that, tired and exhausted, they 
will prefer to be again under the knout of gov- 
ernors or police merely to have somebody who 
knows exactly what they should do. It is the 
hour for America to help Russia, even though 
America has her own struggles. But America is 
so energeti<^ so wonderfully equipped, that she 
could help the new Russia organize, help her 
stand on her feet, not as a menacing colossus, but 
as a gigantic power guided by the spirit of light. 
Russians have a boundless confidence in Amer- 
icans. They know that Americans are not 
despotic, that they are thorou^y practical, with 
an utilitarian ideal. They know that there is no 
danger that Russia will become a dependent 
colony of the United States, or that American 
influence could annihilate Russia's own interests. 
Americans have many times sou^t trade with 
Russia, and have met such entirely different com- 
mercial conditions that, discouraged, they have 
given up; even in time of need the American and 
the Russian have come together in trade only 
through English, German, or Swedish inter- 
mediaries. The Russian peasant knew not only 
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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

that he could emigrate to America, but he knew 
about American machinery, the technical won- 
ders that had been brought to Russia by the 
zemstvos for work in the fields. American 
mechanical skill has always been a great stimulus 
for the inventive spirit of Russia. If a people is 
able to invent all sorts of machinery to save 
human labor, why should not the Russian, who 
loves to work artistically and to invent all kinds 
of miniature objects just for his own pleasure, 
be able to direct big things? Few know how 
many Russian inventions have gone into the 
world, even to America. The Germans know. 
They value Russian ideas, utilize them, and 
present to the Russian, ready-made, what he has 
thou^t out. America also knows something 
about the efficiency of Russian engineers. It. 
would be the greatest mistake if Americans who 
take up the tremendous railroad problems of Rus- 
sia imagine that American engineers could solve 
them. The Russian knows his own country and 
its labor conditions. Americans wiU take their 
ideas into Russia, and these will be an obstacle in 
the way of success. AU Americans have to do is 
to use their precise and strict methods of business 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

organization, tbeir sure and solid systems of 
finance, and Russia will reward tbem by supply- 
ing raw materials dieaper than America, with 
her hi^ cost of labor, can produce them. 

America will discover that immigration from 
Russia and Poland will cease c<xnpletely &(tet 
tbe war. Jews, workmen, and mtellectuals will 
rush back home again, to be near when free 
Russia shows the power of her strong limbs. 
To-day sbe shows only an acrobatic virtuosity; 
she gives an nm^r-jng performance without the 
assurance that the "pyramid of the fire," who 
now form the govemmoit will be really the pillar 
upon which the well-being of the ^ole country 
can rest While America congratulates Russia 
m her rise, America still lacks confidence; she is 
afraid tiiat in commercial relations Russia may 
have unknown traps. America waits for Russia 
to ccxne to her, and this is a mistake. She shotdd 
go to Russia, and then will understand Russia. 
Now she is interested without having any vital 
part in Russia's commerce. She cannot see her- 
self seriously connected with Russia without the 
help of the English, who now giuu'antee the pay- 
ment for everything that Russia purchases in 
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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 

America. England does not perform this serv- 
ice to Russia for lore only, and America would 
be amazed by an exact estimate of the good profit 
lost to her in tiius always having a broker between 
her and Russia. In former years Germany did 
this work. She imported into Russia a tremend- 
ous amount of American machinery, because the 
Russian was stubborn, and would not accept 
German manufactures even though much 
cheaper. Germany sold to the Russians Ameri- 
cui products at hi^ profits on long credit. 

The American financial genius must find ways 
and means of compromising with Russian com- 
mercial ideas. The two nations must come 
together in a pacifist union, the world's trade. 
Japan is the most dangerous competitor. With 
English support, Japan now supplies Russia, 
but those who know the Russian realize that the 
dose union with Japan is temporary and caused 
only by war conditions. The Russian peasant is 
not incline to trade with the Japanese. He is 
afraid, be is superstitious. To him there is 
something sinister about the Japanese, too 
stereotyped, too polite. In the mind of the sim- 
ple Russian still remains the memory of the "hell- 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
stories" of the Russo-Japanese War, the tales of 
the thousand devils who are like leeches sucking 
the heart's blood of the people. With all the 
effort that Japan is putting forth, she never will 
be popular in Russia, and though the Russian is 
patient, he finally shakes off other races he does 
not trust. 

The Russian does not trust the Jews. It was 
not only the f onner regime which drove the Jews 
out of Russia. It was the people, the idiosyn- 
crasy of the people. The unlimited colonization 
of the Jews in free Russia will be hard for the 
Russians to accept. The Russian has a race 
hatred for the Jew; he cannot help himself, and 
it is stronger than his democratic sense of duty, 
which bids him accept them as brethren. The 
peasant knows only the Jews who nag him. 
Although the Jews were not in power, they found 
a thousand ways to force a strangling money sys- 
tem on the Russians. The Russian people have 
never fully estimated the Jewish intelligence, 
wfaidi is antipathetic to them. The reeeptiveness 
of the Jews, which absorbed the Russian's ideas, 
turned into money what had lain idle in the Rus- 
sian's brain, ideas guessed or dragged out in an 
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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 
hour when the Russian was drunk from the Todks 
which a Jew had sold to him. The Jews took 
advantage of all the Russian's weak points to 
the uttermost. They were the white slavers of 
Russia, and played on the Russian's worst 
instincts. The peasants never will forget this 
influence. But these were the oppressed Jews 
of the past, the avenging Jews. 

America will seem to young Russia more and 
more a redeeming factor, after all the terrible 
experioices of the war, throu^ which she had to 
dance to various melodies played by her allies. 
Not by France. Russians worship the French 
because in their historic memory the Frendi were 
the people who even in defeat left the imf orget- 
able impression of chivalry. Can America see 
ber moral advantage in Russia? Can she see 
that she will be received with open arms and open 
hearts? The Russians who will go back to their 
country will form the first bridge for trade 
understandings. Even if the Russian became a 
citizen of the United States when he had no hope 
of a free Russia, he will go back, and he will take 
with him the simple joy of working and a strict 
sense of duty, which is not taught in America by 
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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND T(MfORROW 
a knouting superintendent, but by the necessity 
of keeping up with life. The Russian knew that 
when he was not at work on time there was 
another man waiting to take his place; be was not 
missed, only sneered at. It is easy to get 
empk>ymeDt in America. No questions are 
asked; it is not any me's concern why a man 
works, only how he works. 

It is a great mistake that the United States of 
America postponed the establishment of broad 
and dose business relaticms until after the war. 
It may be too late. Free Russia may be under 
the economic domination of others not so advan- 
tageous either for Russia or America. Russia 
wishes nothing better than to give her enormous 
contracts and orders to Americans, who could 
then employ the Japanese as sub-contractors. 
American capital should be invested in Russia's 
big railway propositions, which will be guaran- 
teed by the state and would assure big dividends. 
Amoica should send out experts to investigate 
mineral lands and to start mills and factories. 
Propaganda concerning Russia's business fu- 
ture should inspire quick acti<m not only for 
Russia's sake, but for the expulsion of American 



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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
interests in Russia. The American spirit is the 
only acceptable commercial spirit for Russia and 
the only one not destructive, not likely to under- 
mine and to overthrow the national prosperity. 
The clean, dear point of view of the American 
will bring into tiie confusion of Russia's business 
ideas precision and practicability. 

The question is. How far will Americans adapt 
themselves to Russian characteristics? The Rus- 
sian in a foreign country has the innate amiability 
not to make himself conspicuous by his patriot- 
ism; he bothers no one with the misery his heart 
suffers in his exile. For tiiis reason Americans 
may have tiie mistaken conception that a Russian 
who has lived in the United States for many years 
and whose children were bom in the country 
would be too deeply rooted to go back to more 
primitive and less comfortable conditions. The 
Russian will go hack. The mother has sung it 
to her diildren, and the father has promised it. 

Since the poUce were chased away from the 
door-steps of Russia a vast wave of happiness has 
flooded the hearts of the Russians in America. 

The self-sufficiency of Russia will depend on 
American support that is not political. It is 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

sure that Russia never could be ruled by the same 
forms of liberfy that prevail in America or at 
least not at the b^;inning; that will perhaps be 
the final toudL Russia must find her own 
policy, for Swiss* French) or American systems 
are not apphcable to her. Russia probably will 
beaxne a very democratic country with very 
autocratic leadars, with the knout of justice, 
which sometimes is more painful than the knout 
of despotism. Justice is a greats a terrible word. 
It means the enforcement of the laws, it is f ri^t- 
ful, because in Russia the laws have never been 
just. 

What America can do is to teach young Russia 
from her own experience in creating a new coun- 
try. This makes America the only partner for 
Russia. Russia, with her vastness of untouched 
land, is like a new country; with her illiterates, 
her Caucasians, Kirghize, Armenians, and other 
peoples, slie has her race problems like America, 
whidi is dealing fairly and wisely with them. If 
America's sanitary efficiency could cmly reach 
Russia, it would awaken the people to the state of 
human beings. And this mi^t be the first, the 
greatest, and most conscientious work to be done. 
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AMERICA AND RUSSIA 
Russia and America have so much to give each 
other of ethical, spiritual and practical values 
that the alliance of which Russians dream and 
which the Americans once declined must come 
about. 



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CHAPTER DC 

RUSSIAN AST, DRAMATIC LTTERATUR^ 
AND MUSIC 

Dramatic productions have a greater influ- 
ence on the Rusaians than on iJie people of other 
nations. Russians live through what passes on 
the stage; it even stirs the imagination danger- 
ously, and the censor of old Russia had good 
reason to be careful in scrutinizing new Utera- 
ture. 

Both the simple Russian man and the Russian 
woman of the world have the irresistible impulse 
to represent on the stage what devours their 
souls. It was a most impressive and imforget- 
able performance that took place one day in t^e 
waiting-room of a little station. The train had 
to stop on account of a heavy snow-storm, and 
the conductor announced that there was no possi- 
bility of proceeding until the storm ended. The 
waiting-room was filled with passengers of every 
class. In one comer was the typical platform 
before the icon of Hm Holy Mother, with pictures 
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DRAMATIC LITERATURE AND MUSIC 

of the czar and the czarina flanking it Two 
students, having; the good idea of relieving the 
tedium of waiting, sprang on the platform and 
began to improvise dialogue. As they spoke and 
acted they were suddenly interrupted hy a young 
woman, who took part as a third character in the 
unexpected little play. Then in one comer, 
lighted only by the little red flame under the icpn, 
a wonderful ccanedy was logically developed, 
men and women understanding one another's 
innermost feelings, entering and leaving the 
scenes, and taking up their cues as if the play 
had been written by a great dramatist and 
rehearsed for weeks. They were all great artists, 
those amateurs, because they had something to 
express and because they had the natural gift for 
expression. Even the inevitable priatav listened, 
amused. When the dialogue became too free he 
groaned; but he was shaken by lau^ter the next 
mranent when one of the students directed his 
words to a cat that had appeared on the stage at 
just the right moment to catch a mouse. The 
performance ended with the tingling of the 
station beU which announced the starting of the 
train. 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
The Art Theater of Moscow started in much 
the same way. Men and women of society 
played as amateurs until they became so fas- 
cinated by the spell, which grew from their 
artistic ambitions, that they devoted souls and 
bodies to the development of the great new art 
with which Stanislawsky and his actors surprised 
the world. It is not a Russian art for Russian 
plays; it is universal, and therefore is for every- 
thing that has been written for the stage. And 
here is the point. Nothing in the world ever has 
been written that woidd not echo in a Russian 
soul; no thought exists that has not been buried 
in the colorful mind of a Russian, and it requires 
httle to resurrect such a thou^t, to make it live 
in all the wcmders of life. 
M^ The Russians were the first to act with realism, 
to clear the stage of old traditions, to move and 
to speak without the yard-high heels of false 
pathos. They were the first to gpve the stage the 
significance of its ration {teire and to exert a 
powerful artistic influence. In the simplicity 
with which Stanislawsky's actors presented the 
ideas of the writers was an eternal beauty that 
revealed the most secret intentions — intentions 
lifiS 



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DRAMATIC LITERATURE AND MUSIC 
of which the poet dreamed and which he nerer 
dared to express. With his art instincts Stanis- 
lawsky enlightened the remotest meaning of the 
poet's fantasy and gave form to vague visions. 
His artistic courage stimulated not only the 
dramatic art of Russia, but of the whole world. 
He was redeeming, because he was not experi- 
menting. He was decided in his methods. He 
did not hint timidly; he expressed unreservedly. 
With the firm brush of the great artist he put the 
picture of life on the stage. Stanislawsky was a 
conqueror. Everything paled beside the inflam- 
ing world of his invention; everything was gray 
beside the colors he dared to use; everything 
seemed mummified beside the freshness of his ar- 
tistic figures. Long before Russia was freed from 
its enslavers it was freed in its art. For the 
people it was promising and consoling that Stan- 
islawsky was loved and cheered as a national 
hero. 

i/Great artistic instincts lie in the Russians. 
They are sincere in their emotions; emotion is 
the leading power of their lives. A Russian 
expresses everything, and everything that he 
expresses reflects his own souL He writes only 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
when the impulse is so strong that it bursts for 
an outlet, and then he pours forth tiie joys and 
horrors of his soul, which is never timid, never 
disguised in cowardly conventionality. Unafraid 
and truthful, he revealed the terrible weaknesses 
of his brothers. The Russian poets were for the 
world the greatest hope. With sacred sincerity 
they disclosed themselves; never draping terrible 
instincts with the pitiable wrapping of lies. 
They described Russian barbarism, with its cor- 
ruption in society and politics, and gave to the 
world the most pessimistic view of its darkness 
and impenetrabihty, leaving to the world judg- 
ment and understanding of the holy beauty of 
their self-sacrifice. 

Stanislawsky showed to the czar in "Tsar 
Fjedor," majestic cruelty, tortured humanity, 
the chain of terrors, which significantly was left 
open for the links of FjedoT^a successors; and 
whoever understood the deep intenticms of this 
interpretation knew that, with the last link of 
mysticism, the chain would be closed around a 
whole people. But like strong animals which 
scent danger, the people collected their last forces 
to burst open the rusted irons, and a whole nation 
MO 



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DRAMATIC LITERATURE AND MUSIC 

now advances, young, new, happy, and free. 
Russian poets will hang the laurel on their tragic 
Muse, which accompanied them wherever they 
wandered and wherever they rested, in the midst 
of the lowhest, in the midst of the highest 

Even the gaiety in Russia's dramatic art was 
tragic, laughter under tears, smiles under curses. 
The stage was always a mirror for the people. 
They wrote and produced only what was their 
own. They lashed their own conditions merci- 
lessly, and in Russian hterature are satires imd 
sarcasms incomprehensible to other nations. 
Russians were interested in their own miseries, 
their own hopes, in their own people, their own 
country. Russian genius was so enlarging and 
enh^tening that other nations partook of its 
grandeur. Tolstoy moved the whole world not 
temporarily, but for eternity; he preached a new 
reUgion, the religion of humanity, and he was the 
holy man of Jasnaja Poljana to whom Russians 
made pilgrimage. Much was known in Amer- 
ica of this poet prophet of the Russians, and more 
is known of his philosophical and humanitarian 
system since his eldest son Ilya Tolstoy came to 
the United States to bring to the masses a deep 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
understanding of the influence with which Leo 
Tolstoy anticipated the TeToluti<xi. Yet Leo 
Tolstoy's divine hopes of happiness for his 
brethren were more of a biblical character, of the 
fulfilment of the prophecies of a millennium and 
his great spirit mi^t have suffered a thousand 
wounds in seeing the Russians march throng 
death to their freedom. Gogol, simple, great 
GogoU was so utterly Russian, so strangely mod- 
ern, that only Russians understood him; Gorky, 
the poet who wrote his own life as it was, had the 
courage not to disguise himself, but to show that 
he was one of the people be dramatized. Every 
country has its darkest part, which is all misery. 
What made darkest Russia fascinating to the 
world was that in the humblest burned a little 
flame of wisdom, of longing. 

Dostoyevsky, who made bis readers suffer, who 
made them shudder as no one else could, was a 
pitiless surgeon not only for the Russians, but for 
all mankind. It is so easy to be consoled with 
the criticism that the Russian poets exaggerated, 
that they only sunned their own misery, that Rus- 
sian hearts and Russian ideals were torn to pieces, 
and that it was never so with other nations. 
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People always will be consoled, always will think 
that terrible truths belong to their neighbors, and 
that they are exempt. So they read with a ferer 
of fascination the story of Russia as told by her 
poets and dramatists. Having a superstition 
for majes^ and holiness, Russian poets have 
never hesitated to disrobe their majesties and to 
exhibit their poor nakedness first, and then to 
make them grow vastly greater than weak mor- 
tals, to make them immortal as martyrs of the 
crown or of society. 

What amazed the world was the fearlessness 
of men who braved death in writing the truth. 
It was a soul of wonder, tbis soul of the Russian 
poet. Will it remain the same when suddenly 
the Russians become happy and satisfied, when 
everything that their poets ardently demanded 
is received? WiD Meretschowkowsky, will Al- 
exandreieff, Arsinatschef and £uprin, still for- 
tunately living, answer in their new works? The 
pen which wrote the most terrible accusations 
against a country, the pen which described great 
horrors, which was dipped in blood, suddenly 
halts at the miseries of yesterday, and trembles 
over a white sheet of paper, after it has been 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MOKROW 

dipped in the blue ink of the happiness of to- 
day. 

Still, there is a great curiosity in the world 
to know more and more about the soul mechanism 
of the Russians. The outside world does not un- 
derstand that they have souls without any medi- 
anism, without any conventionality, with the im- 
pertinence of childhood, and with the frightened 
consciousness that they may be punished for 
what they are saying. The Russian idio oouM 
not read or write, and who knew nothing of 
poetry and philosophy, was interested only in 
himself. He listened to the melodies of his own 
being, which laughed, cried, and silenced him. 
The song in the Russian has triumphed over en- 
slavement, persecution, and death. The Rus- 
sian folk-lore shows the serene simplicity, the 
original rhythm, of himself. 

The Russian knows what a sky means when it 
is blue. He has found hundreds of melodies for 
this longing for a^blue sky; he has found them 
in the darkness of the long winter nights. He 
adores Bowers, the poor, rare blossoming of a few 
weeks in the year. He looks on a flower as 
Heaven's message, and he has many stanzas 
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ready for it when it unfolds its beauty for him. 
He loves the sunshine; in the darkness of winter 
days he promises it to his children. And he 
worships his children, but he conceals this tmder- 
ness under a half -humorous, half -bear-like strict- 
ness; be will even slap a child or a woman so that 
he may not show bow profound his love is. 

Russian music lives not only for the elect; it 
belongs to all the people. It is the sincerity of 
the music that makes all the world that is not 
Russian vibrate to it without knowing why. It 
is the music that other nations love and fear; it 
is not the music to whidi they dance; it is not the 
music that the organ in the street plays. 

Russians do not compose music with the sweat 
of their brows; they simply express themselves in 
melodies instead of in words. The chained men 
and women sang on their way to the icy solitudes 
of Siberia, and these songs will become sacred 
hymns in memory of their martyrdom. They 
sang in the depths of Siberian mines when they 
were permitted to sing, and their words often 
contained their stories, so that they understood 
one another even when they were forbidden to 
talk. There is a frightening beauty in those 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

songs, in which the same melody returns again 
and again, sometimes only four notes telling a 
whole life story. 

In the harbaric times of Peter the Great, when 
the czar sat in the Kremlin with bis trembling cour- 
tiers, drinking, and making aU around him drunk, 
they sang and danced to the hideous caricatures 
of Russian melodies that Peter had had changed 
into gallant songs, like those he had heard in 
other parts of Europe. The spontaneous cry of 
race pierced through minuet or gavot, but from 
time to time Peter would Usten to another song, 
heard from the court below, where men of high- 
est rank lay on their knees, their heads on a 
block, singing to forget the sinister moment when 
their souls would be sent into eternity. Listen- 
ing, the czar would wave his hand to stop the 
voices of his creatures about him, who ghost-Hke 
stared out of the windows, feeling that their 
own turn at the block would come sooner or 
later. 

Peter could not see the faces of the condemned 
while they sang, and he ordered that they be 
turned toward the window. They continued sing- 
ing with a superhuman power, so that the execu- 



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DRAMATIC UTERATURE AND MUSIC 

tioners paused, with swords in the air. Peter 
became impatient. The song stirred his wild 
blood, and he commanded his courtiers to descend 
with him to the courtyard to make an end of the 
singing traitors. Oh, those blood melodies I 
They have found their way back to the songs of 
the people, and they appear again and again in 
Russian music, to which mankind often hstens 
terrified. 

Like every one else in the eighteenth century, 
the Russian court patronized Italian music and 
singers, whose melodies were smooth beside the 
wild and melancholy Russian songs; French bal- 
lets took the place of Russian national dances, 
and Russian nobles were tamed to the minuet and 
the gavot. An old instrument, the tympanon, 
which had been invented for the artificial arias of 
Louis XIV, was brought to Russia for the great 
Catharine, and it was she, foreign bom, who 
reviewed the old Russian songs on this strange 
kind of cymbal. 

Old Russian music, old songs of war and love, 
have been collected and passionately interpreted 
with the intensity that belongs only to the Rus- 
sian musical soul by young Sasha Votitchenko, 



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HU3SIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

^ose cradle stood in Little Russia, v^ere i3x 
people sang happy songs. The old tympanon 
was preserved in his family, and as a little boy 
be listened to the enchanting tunes whidi 
his father and grandfather found in the diords 
of the primitive instrument. In the little 
boy's mind arose the desire to find more and 
more of those wonder-songs, which make peo- 
ple dream, whidi ring wildly, and to which 
Little Russia danced fiery dances. He went 
out, a little tympanon under his arm, searching 
for tiiem, like a wandering musician, to find 
the way into the hearts of the people, who would 
sing for him and would give to him what they 
were not willing to disclose to a stranger. But 
Votitchenko, young, persevering, and passion- 
ate, never saw obstacles. He found and col- 
lected treasures everywhere, in Great and Little 
Russia, in Siberia, in Georgia, in the Caucasus; 
and he revealed ancient folk-lore of beauty, treas- 
ures for the whole world. It is most wonderful 
how he ever achieved 'die miracle of uprooting 
some of those century-old melodies, known only 
by a small group of peasants in some distant ixr- 
ner of vast Russia, and transplanting them by the 
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means of the old tympanon to the modem world. 
In this time of turmoil, which lacks totally the 
spirit, the childlike faith, and the simplicity of 
the past, it is strange to listen to those melodies 
of hope, love and sorrow in the same words that 
were sung by the forefathers. 

Young Votitchenko wandered over Russia 
coming into contact with peasants who have re- 
mained in the same primitiveness of culture and 
civilization as their ancestors of two hundred 
years ago. He had to disguise himself as pilgrim 
monk or simple peasant. He lived in the midst 
of the people and lived their hfe. So he entered 
the very soul of their song, their music; for the 
daily life of the Russian is all music. He never 
separates this expression from his feelings; it is 
almost a religious rite to him. 

Starting at dawn, with the song for the risfaig 
sun, which is quite pagan in its ori^n, the peas- 
ant accompanies his labor in the fields with the 
grand old songs of the harvest. The meadows, 
the brooks, and even the small birds which fly 
high and jubilant in the morning air, are all sub- 
jects for songs. When he returns to his home he 
sings another refrain; and at evening, in the pure 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

and perfumed summer nights of the plains, be is 
inspired by tbe more romantic music; be sings 
of love or complains to tbe stars of his broken 
heart. 

There b music in every phase of the peasant's 
simple life, and true to tbe always contrasting 
character of his nature, the same peasant who 
sings the most tragic lore-song of passicmate 
su£Fering at the next moment may dance the 
national dance with a wild and savage joy. 

Votitchenko learned all the fantastic mysti- 
cism of this people. Tbeir imaginatim, filled 
with old legends and ballads, with beliefs in good 
and evil spirits, with aU tbe superstitions of 
primitives, tells the story of tbe reigning spirit 
of tbe forest, with his great beard and his eyes 
of gold. Every old womui relates mysteriously 
tbe tale of tbe "Flowers of Fire" which grow in 
tbe impenetrable depths of the forest, and once 
a year, at midnight, bum, sending an illuminat- 
ing glow of "sacred fire" throughout all tbe 
woods. She has seen the reflectim oa the sky, 
and so have tbeir grandmothers and all their an- 
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DRAMATIC UTERATURE AND MUSIC 

expressed in a music rich in color and poetry, and 
only to be found in the heart's melody of a won- 
derful people. 

Having heard of a hamlet far north in Siberia 
where lived an old peasant who knew songs for- 
gotten by all others, Votitchenko undertook the 
journey, traveling many days to the itba where 
the venerable Ostap had passed his ninety-ei^ 
years. 

The old man, not di£Ferent from other old men 
who wish to lengthen their days, shook his head. 
He would not sing; the thin thread of breath 
which still kept him alive mi^t break. But 
yoxmg Votitchenko was stronger in his will than 
the old man. He has made the journey; he had 
to have his scmgs — songs forgotten by all, songs 
the old must give to him. Qh, yes, Ostap knew 
smigs ; oh, so beautiful that only the great men of 
his youth, nearly a c^itury ago, could sing, and 
that nobody else could ronember, and so the 
songs would die with him. The old man closed 
his eyes; he sank into reveries of the past, of his 
youth and vigor. All was silent in the modest 
isba. Feasants had entered silently to listen to 

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RUSSU OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
the tympanon, which sang under the young 
traveler's fingers, songs they all knew and lored. 
Very softly, not to awake old Ostap from his 
thou^ts, he played the melodies, to whidi the 
people moved and hummed. Votitchenko struck 
rich chords, and the little wooden house vibrated 
with the sounds of dance music, love-songs, war- 



Ostap, as if awakening from a long sleep, 
blinked at the young musician, bait forward, 
listening to the joyful, fiery songs, his little eyes 
opened wide, his wrinkled old face strai^tened 
as in a tension. Suddenly he rose, his big frame 
trembling like a leaf from emotion. The other 
peasants, moving to a cramer, were struck with 
awe, as if th^ saw a vision. Grandfather Ostap 
had not «tood up for fifteen years ; some of the 
women crossed thonselves, and a child began to 
cry. Old Ostap, as if far away, began first with 
a shaking voice, and then sang strongly and 
loudly. Votitchenko excitedly followed tiie 
strange song, note by note, and at the third 
strophe could play it fluently. Old Ostap was 
still standing, still singing, — but suddenly, ex- 
hausted, he fell back into his chair, his eyes stared, 
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DRAMATIC UTERATURE AND MUSIC 

his heart beat no longer. The great old son of 
a warrior had expired with his song; but the 
aong, the forgotten song, lives, and will live for- 
ever. 

In strange tuid sharp contrast to his life among 
peasants and people of medieval minds and an- 
cestors, young Votitchenko was called to Yalta. 
The czar was anxious to listen to the old tym- 
panoD which had once been a court instrument and 
now took up the immortal songs of the people. 
Yet there was no contrast between the simplicity 
of the peasant and the simplicity with which 
Nicholas II received the nmsician. There was no 
formahty, there was no etiquette, but the same 
spirit as that of the old peasant Ostap and some- 
what of the same atmosphere. The little czar- 
evitch, tenderly guarded by the simple Cossack 
with the childish blue eyes, had the same big smile 
as the Siberian peasants. 

The czar asked Votitchenko to play for him, 
only regretting that the czarina, being ill, could 
not be present, as she was more musical Ihan he. 
But tiie czar understood the melodies of his peo- 
ple and it will be everlastingly in the memory of 
the Russian Votitchenko that he found the same 
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sincerity of soul and heart in Uie palace as in 
tiie hut. 

In the country the peasants sit together and 
sing. Unconsciously and without any training, 
they form the most wonderful and most exact 
dioruses, every one taking up a part with a nat- 
ural and sure musical feeling. Nothing could be 
more elemental and sublime than those voices 
united in their expression of masculine power and 
feminine sweetness. The profound bass voices 
pour forth a Ti^ole world of strength, and no- 
where else are the high-pitched sopranos of such 
angelic clearness. The Greek Church, in con- 
trast to the Roman Catholic Cuhrch, which min- 
gles in the music of the mass the rec<mciling 
voices of boys and the accusing tones of men, 
lets only men sing its sacred melodies, lets the 
softness of many tenors redeem the thunders of 
gigantic basses, nowhere so nobly colored as 
among the Russian voices. 

Another original form in Russian musical ex- 
pression is that of the Gipsies. Unlike the 
Hungarian Gipsies, th^ do not represent the 
national music. These Russian Gipsies are the 
remnants of a bygone time, and they have kept 
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their indiTiduality without singing their own 
songs, which are too wild, too much a medley 
from all the countries through which they passed 
before settling in Russia. They are not Slavs, 
llie Russian adores these Gipsies, but only when 
he is intoxicated by wine or joy or happiness. 
Then he calls them, and they sing for him strange, 
cheap music, popular and ephemeral, composed 
at the table of a caf^; but they sing the motives 
with all the passion of their own feelings in deep, 
emoticmal voices and without any instrumental 
accompaniment. A whole band of these Gipsies 
sing, old and young, ugly women, witdi-like, 
neglected, dressed in shabby clothing of all vari- 
eties, and men in ragged garb, some of them in 
shirtsleeves and high boots, a mixture of Rus- 
sian peasant and Gipsy, rusty, strong, and dar- 
ing. When they begin to sing in chorus, one of 
two soloists leading the melodies, all their repul- 
siveness is forgotten. Like a wave their ele- 
mental singing rolls over ihe tense listeners. 

When the Russians began to compose great 
operas there was not only a revelation, but a 
great hope for a new epoch in music. A Rus- 
sian composer never has been misunderstood or 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
misinterpreted in his own f»untry. Russia has 
always received her own musicians as other coun- 
tries received ax>wned heads, and nowhere else 
have artists felt such a wonderful atmosphere of 
warmth. 

The Russians are great artists in color, and 
they know how to create a background for beauty. 
The Interior of the Marinsky Theater is as deli- 
cate in its blue and ivory decorations as the 
boudoir of a beautiful woman, and its e£Fect is 
so harmonious that it prepares for the wtwiders 
of the Russian music. When the curtain rises 
for *3oris Godunuff," sung by Russians for Rus- 
sians, no compromises or changes are tolerated, 
no modifying of scenes or characters. Chalia- 
pine — Boris Godunoff — walks from the door of 
the Kremlin, over the red carpet, over streams of 
blood, to the churdi door, far fnmi aU the others 
on the stage. Livid, lonesome, frightful, and 
fri^tened, he strikes the tragic diords of his 
wild soul, begs for absolution, cries in repen- 
tance, cringes before the saints, and despises the 
priests, who stretch out their mysterious claws to 
drag him into their mystical depths, calling to 
their aid all the bells, the terrible Great Bell 
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sounding like the last judgment. Boris Godun- 
off, sobbing, sinks on his knees. The curtain 
falls, the ringing of the bells dies away, the music 
stops, and there is deep, anxious silence. The 
theater remains dark for one moment, the air is 
vibrant with the emotion of men and women. 
Light flames again and the conversation of soft, 
musical voices is subdued. Russians cannot 
suddenly change their feelings. Touched 
deeply, shaken, recalling sufferings, the luxury 
around them seems only play life. The orches- 
tra interpreted the real life in the truths, the 
cruelties, and the repentance of the singer, who 
desires to be good, but cannot live without power. 
Music and what is in this music Cbaliapine has 
fathomed. Russia has been revealed in both 
words and music. 

On the same square with the imperial opera 
was the Drame Muncale, the democratic opera, 
the opera for the young, for aspiring artists. In 
the simple, cold amphitheater, which was not an 
ideal temple of art, the public was rather more 
ready to criticize than to enjoy. It did criticize 
and it did enjoy. An entirely new tradition, a 
young, fighting spirit permeated the interpreta- 
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tions. Here was the home of a very realistic 
opera. Meanings were not conveyed subtly, but 
crudely, strongly. There was a vibraticsi like a 
young storm-wind; intelhgence triumphed over 
artificiality. "Carmen" was staged as never be- 
fore, realistically, sincerely. This Carmen was 
one of the many who lure men to the under-world, 
to the tragic end. All on the stage were Car- 
meru; Carmen was the expression of aU. 

The old star system was entirely eliminated. 
It was the triumph of the ensemble. All false 
opera settmgs had disappeared, and it seemed 
natural that these people should sing their joys 
and sorrows, that their voices sometimes idiould 
become hoarse and lou^ from passion. AU of 
them were young. It was the application of the 
same artistic idea that Stanislawsky embodied in 
his Moscow Art Theater. It was the same dar- 
ing youthfulness with which Serge Dia^ileff 
started his marvelous combination of baUet and 
decorative art. 

In Russia dancing and dancers have never 

been the frivolous hor» d'ceuvres of the operas; 

they have given another expression to amours 

and tragedies, gaiety and romance. Dancing 

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was a form of culture, a flower which had to be 
planted in its own earth. The dancers of the 
Russian fantasias were trained spiritually as well 
as bodily in the school which an imperial gen- 
erosity started and maintained. It was a hijj^ 
school, and the young men and women who were 
sent to the rows of the imperial ballets were 
young ladies and young gentlemen of education. 

It was not only the splendor of the settings and 
costumes, it was the spiritualized art, that amazed 
the world, that taught what high and sacred 
meaning could be attached to the ballet The 
Russian invented character dances, substituting 
gestures for words that would have been sup- 
pressed; but the people who understood unspoken 
words passionately loved the ballet, asking more 
and more of the dancers. Dancing was never a 
mechanical art to them, but was significant of 
something subtle and exalted. Nowhere were 
the PierroU and Pierrette* more vivacious or the 
PetroushJetu more tragic. 

DiaghilefiTs extraordinary Ballet Russe had, 
whether one would admit it or not, a great in- 
fluence on the artistic progress of the epoch. 
Who would deny the importance of the art of 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

decoration embracing the work of such painters 
as Ruskin, Bilibine, Repine, Bakst and Alexan- 
der Benoit? Of the marreknis rtme-enrtcene ot 
"Coq d'Or" hy Rymsky Korsakoff, with Lar- 
ionow and Gontschanowa? Who would deny the 
audacious victories of the modem musicians, 
Moussorgsky, Ryms^ Korsakoff, Balaghireff, 
Borodine, and the amazing Igor Sta*aTinsky, 
whose first representation of the "Sacre du Frin- 
temps" in Paris marked a date in the history of 
music? Who would deny the sacred fire brou^^t 
to the people by the dancers, !Nijinsky, Bohn, the 
Fokines, the Karsavinas, and Pavlowa? 

It was the intelligent classes which took part 
in the rich development of modem art in Russia 
rather than the blas6 great boyars. One of the 
great merchants of Russia, a Moscow Croesus, 
Nidiolas Riabouschinsky, undertook the publica- 
tion of a hterary and art review such as only a 
Russian would understand how to produce. 
Never was there more sumptuous printing. 
Unique in form, it was filled with splendid illus- 
trations, worked out in minute detail, every en- 
graving protected by tissue paper specially fili- 
greed for the subject it covered. To direct the 



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DRAMATIC LITERATURE AND MUSIC 
French part of the review, Alexander Mercereau 
came from Paris. To encourage young Russian 
painters, Riabouschinsky arranged the most mar- 
velous exhibitions. To choose the pidures he 
himself went to Paris. Once in the studio of the 
famous young artist, Henry Doucet, since killed 
at the front, he selected a picture for the ex- 
hibition in Russia. When the young artist ex- 
plained that he could not ^ve that picture be- 
cause it was nearly sold to another person, Ria- 
bouschinsky, without saying a word, paid twice 
the price asked for it, so that he might not lose 
it from his collection. 

The Russian is more generous to the artist 
than to the art dealer. He must know the artist; 
he goes to the studios to find the best, even though 
the fame of the artist has not yet come. He im- 
derstands art ; he feels it, and is never a collector 
from any snobbish ambition. The canvases rep- 
resenting the newest movements, the most prog- * 
ressive painters, — Cezanne, Van G^gfa, Seruzier, 
Odilon, Redon, Metzinger, Gleizes, Picabbia and 
others were taken to the young artists of Russia, 
so that they could see how far the French artists 
were going in their intentions. Riabouschinsky, 
ft8$ 



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BUSSU OP TESTERDAT AND TO-MORROW 
instead of being supported in his great artistic 
ambitions by the imperial GoTemmoit, had to 
fig^t for his ideas. The censor watched at the 
frontier, and in the name of the state rehgion 
held up the pictures of Girieud, the iconoclast, be- 
cause he thought they might have an influence on 
the liberal spirit. 

Riabouschinsky really gave the £lan. Many 
others followed, and the new art entered all the 
larger cities of Russia, thanks to the aiterprising 
generosity of men who belonged neither to the 
great nobility nor to the officials, but to the 
bourgeoisie, whidi in Russia is so different frcnn 
the bourgeoisie of other countries. 

The Tetriakoff. Pollakoff, and Morosoff col- 
lections give vivid testimony of where the great- 
est interest in art and the greatest developm^it 
of younger artists is to be expected The feel- 
ing for art is so deep in the Russian that there 
is no difference between the noble and the rich 
merdiant and the simple man of the people. 
The originality in Russian art and literature 
never was influenced, and even if the Russians 
have studied in the schools of France or Italy, 
they go home to write their own books and paint 
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their own pictures. They never compose a song 
that is not their own; they are too strongly in- 
diTiduaL Tliey cannot imitate, they are all too 
creative. 

So many eternal beauties grow out of old Rus- 
sia's old distresses, so many flowers of art and 
poetry and music sprang forth from the suffering 
of the people, that the heart is filled with anxiety 
and curiosity to know what new wtmders will be 
discovered when the jubilant hymn has been sung 
in young Russia, and whether the songs and the 
pictures created from the realized ideals of lib- 
erty will replace the art which has been for cen- 
turies the splendor of the Russian souL 



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CHAPTER X 

THE PEASANTS — BUREAUCSACY — LITTLE 
NOBnJTT 

The Russian peasants always belonged to the 
nobles; after their liberation they became serv- 
ants instead of serfs. They suffered and yet 
they did not suffer, for as long as the Russian 
can hold some one responsible for his fate, he is 
patient and resigned. If he is in misery, he holds 
his oppressers responsible; and if he is drunk, it 
is due to his misery. 

Depraident on kindness and love, the Russian 
peasant never revolted from punishment, and he 
would die for a kind barin; but he would never 
endure indignities from a superintendent, who 
was no better than he himself, who committed the 
same crimes, and who had base blood in his veins. 
It made no difference to the peasant whether the 
superintendent was in power or not. The peas- 
ant never recognized him, and obeyed him with 
teeth set, only waiting for the opportune mconent 
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THE PEASANTS— BUHEAUCRACY 
The Rxissian peasant was not envious of the 
nobleman's riches or of his idle life. He saw no 
more happiness among the nobles than he himself 
could hare; he would not know what to do with 
all the things with which the master smrounded 
himself. He has his sheep fur, and bis Win had 
his sables; both kept warm. The barina put 
around her head the same kind of woolen scarf 
that the peasant's wife wore when the wind 
whistled over the steppes. The barina could lie 
all day on her couch and read books and nibble 
candies, but this seoned more difficult than to 
scrub floors and to brush velevet chairs, because 
she, first of all, had to study how to read, and the 
servant knew that the barina, when a little girl, 
often had shed tears when her tutors made her 
sit quiet for hours to get the letters into her head. 
No, there was not such a difference. The barin 
also drank, sometimes, and the barina cried the 
same as the peasant's wife cried when he, dnmk, 
beat her. It was just the same, only that the 
barina wuited money, and the barin si^ed, and 
had to get it from somewhere, and in his sorrow 
be often came to the peasant, explaining and 
apologizing for increasing the rent of the farm. 
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Poor barm/ He looked grieved, and the peasant 
yielded; the peasant knew that if he did not ytdd 
voluntarily, he would be forced to pay more, and 
he preferred the ctmdescension of the noble, -who 
came personally to ask a favor ftvm him. 

As long as the nobles stayed on their land 
everything was all right. The grandparents had 
lived on the land, and the peasants' grandparents 
had been the serfs of the old, old baring. There 
was a tie. Oppression seldom came from the 
landowners ; it came from another power, which 
represented the nobks, and it was against this 
that the peasant revolted. As a class ihe Rus- 
sian peasants never felt humiliated. They were 
servile and humble, but that was their good 
right They did what they had seen their par- 
ents do, and it would be a shame if what had been 
good enough for one's parents was too low for 
tme's self. 

The peasant loved the land even if it was not 
his own. He cultivated the ground, and was 
proud and happy when the wheat stood hi^ in 
the gold of the summer sun and the animals were 
healthy, and the pigs were nowhere so fat as in 
his peas, even if the stable belonged to his barm. 



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Some day he would have his own little piece of 
ground ; but that might not be such an untroubled 
happiness, because then, if the storm ruined his 
wheat, the damage occurred to him alone, and no 
one else was unhappy. Even his pig would not 
be so weU off in the little pen he could provide 
for it, and would be much better with all the 
others. 

No, to have property was not the peasant's 
dream. The sky was not divided into thousands 
and thousands of pieces, and so it should not be 
with the land. It should be cultivated by many 
for many. Over the sky rules God, and over 
many thousands of acres ruled the noble; as long 
the barin was kind and benevolent, Ihe Russian 
peasant wanted nothing changed. He had his 
work* and when Sunday came it was a real Sun- 
day, for there was nothing to worry about; he 
and his family were content. It was his fault 
and not his barin't when he went to the inn with 
his weekly wages to drink, to make useless 
speeches about slavery — ^to drink until his last 
copeck was thrown away; and it was his fault 
when his family was poor and had nothing to 
eat and his children became miserable. It was 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
his fault when he hegan the next week without 
joy, grumbling and quarrelsome, lazy and dis- 
obedient, so that the barm had to whip him to 
bring him back to his senses. The barin was 
sorry, but he had to use the knout. It was not 
the master's fault ; it was his. God also punishes 
his children, and the noble, who understood the 
soul of the peasant, did not despise him when he 
whipped him. He spoke kind words, gave him 
a ruble, and sent him home. So he was often 
cured for several weeks, and he was happy again, 
and his wife was happy, and his children had 
bread. 

Sometimes it happened that one of the peas- 
ant's children seemed unhke his brothers and sis- 
ters, with different features, different ideas, al- 
ways discontented and envious of things that 
would not make a peasant happy. Then the 
barin was kind raou^ to speak with his rebellious 
child, and to take him from the estate to make 
him work somewhere else; or he might even give 
money to buy books the child wanted and to send 
him to school, and one day the boy himself wrote 
books, or put flowers, animals, houses, and even 
the faces of his father and mother on pieces of 
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linen, which, as his mother si^ed, would make 
beautiful aprons. Then people made a fuss over 
the boy and praised his art, as they called it, be- 
cause his parents were only peasants. That was 
what a peasant never could endure in all his hu- 
mihty. Only a peasant 1 But that was much. 
There were others who were less; for instance, 
the police. The police had a (»rtain power to 
nag and to make a man's life unbearable ; but this 
was not a privilege; it was a misfortune. Such 
a poor creature was a policeman, who measured 
his power by copecks, and was friendly or hostile 
according to how much had been paid for his good 
graces! Was he not more pitiable than the peas- 
ant? 

And there were persons who came and wanted 
to know why the peasants were not more inde- 
pendent. These people would organize the peas- 
ants and would persuade them to leave the soil, 
to work in factories behind machines more dan- 
gerous than ftnimala ; becausc one can never know 
the moment when a machine mi^t turn around 
to avenge itself on the human creatures who are 
its slaves. 

The Russian peasants vrill have nothing to do 
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EUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
with these monsters. One day the batin brous^t 
one to the fields, where be thou|^t the work be- 
hind the plow with horses and oxen not quick 
enou^. There it stood menacing the men 
around it, who looked like pygmies, and who put 
all the little screws into its body to make it work. 
And woe to the man who forgot one little part or 
put in the wrong screw! The monster treated a 
man, a sacred human being of flesh and blood, aa 
a piece of straw, crushed him, and spit him out 
a bloody bundle. 

No, the Russian peasant did not like madiines; 
he would not have the responsibility they 
brought to him. He did not like the medianical 
world. There was so much more beauty in the 
little flowers, the blosstuning trees, and the snow 
crystals. No, he preferred to fight with wolrea 
and bears that announced the danger; and even 
if he was killed, he had fought them first He 
was helpless with the machines, and he would not 
change his work under the sky, in the open air, 
for work imderground or in the factories, where 
the ears were deafened by the terrible noise, 
^ere danger lurked in every comer, and where 
a man could command or dismiss, a man without 



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THE PEASANTS— BUREAUCRACY 

any mercy, a man who had become a machine him- 
self. The Russian reasoned that» if there existed 
men who invented such artifidal thunders and 
lightnings, there would be found others who 
would work them, men with mechanical minds, 
men who had never worked in the fields, men 
who Dever felt masters, because l^y never felt 
oppressed. 

It was a misfortime for the peasants to have 
a city in the neighbothood, idiere they were lured 
to take positions as dreomHa in shops or inns 
particularly attractive to them on account of the 
eternal tips. Even the boys were taken to the 
capital as little servants, in their national cos- 
tume, their only pay being the silken shirts and 
nice boots and sufficient food. Some of them re- 
mained illiterate, and after a while returned to 
the country to be peasants again, a fate most im- 
desirable, because they took back with them all 
sorts of pretensions that spoiled the sunplicity 
of the people. Sometimes they learned to read 
and to write, and then they were most ambitious 
to find masters with whom they could travd. 
These made good servants, obedient, intelligent, 
and direwd, and when they came to see their 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
peasant parents, th^ were shown to the others 
as wonders, since th^ had learned a little Ger- 
man or French and had picked up gentle man- 
ners. But, as an old peasant said, they had lost 
their religion and they did not believe in the ri^ts 
of the nobles. 

It did occur that the landowner was far away 
from the people who toiled in his fields and did 
not know when the long winter brou^t no woi^ 
and no money with which to buy what was neces- 
sary; vrbea the animals died of diseases, and no 
one could find out the cause, when the wife fell 
ill, and tiie children, too. Oh, there were trying 
times; but this was fate, and perhaps, if the 
barin would come to see to things, all would be 
much better. But in the noble's castle lived a 
stranger who had no heart, t^o was paid to 
supervise the peasants; and when the harvest was 
poor, he took from the peasant's mcmey, so that 
the barin'g income would not be cut down and be 
would not lose his place, which gave his wife the 
privilege of driving in the noble's coaches and 
sitting on the hannett splendid furniture. So 
the peasant suffered because the barin was not 
there to look after his childroi. For this the 
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THE PEASANTS— BUREAUCRACY 

peasant revolted now and then, but it did not 
help much; it made life cruel. The pohee 
hounded the peasant, who loved to live 
in the open air, to tramp; he was jailed and 
forgotten, and his family could die of starva- 
tion. 

This was all very sad, but it was because Rus- 
sia was so vast, and the nobles had too many 
estates; the barin could not have his eyes every- 
where, and it served the peasant right that he 
had not good sense, as his wife said to him wor- 
riedly, when he first began to drink and to curse 
and to take his ax to kill the superintendent. It 
was not his fault that he met other men who had 
the same misery at home and who had to drink to 
forget and to gain courage to kick the cold- 
blooded, fat superintendent and his wife, the 
stupid, puffed-up woman, who had ear-rings, and 
short-nosed, ridiculous children that no longer 
spoke Russian. Russian was not fine enough I 
But these sinful thoughts and actions were very 
unfortunate, and brought him to the abyss. God 
probably had tried him, and he had failed. He 
wished only that his children, if they ever grew 
up under these sad conditions, would be wiser 
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KUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

than he, and that they would not fall Tictims to 
the vodka devil. 

When the prison was too crowded, the peasant 
was sometimes given his freedom ; sometimes he 
was dragged to a wagon, wfaidi wheeled slowty 
many miles to a place far away from his province 
iniiere nobody knew him, where tiiey tbou^t him 
a conmKn criminal, where nobody understood 
that he was only a misled peasant who never 
would revolt again if he could go back to 
his family. And bis family waited at home, and 
after a wbUe he was believed dead, and the poor 
wife went to work to feed the diildren. The 
children, bloodless and thin, began to work too 
early or died of smallpox, which always attacks 
the feeble more often than the well fed. 

Oh, no, there had not been always joy and 
happiness for the peasant, and the rich nobles 
were to blame; the nobles did not know the holy 
responsibility that the ownership of property im- 
plies. It was not the bad education or the lack 
of education of the people that had kept Russia 
back from civilization, it was the' indifference 
of the nobles; it was also the vastness of the coun- 
try. 



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THE PEASANTS— BUREAUCRACY 
Often a Russian aristocrat, living in Moscow, 
would say, if a remote place was mentioned: 

"I believe I must own some land out there, I 
found a deed among my father's papers when he 
died." 

It happened that a yoimg heii was the first 
man in three generations who wanted to see an 
old family estate somewhere in Simbirsk, where 
the communications were difficult, and the par- 
ents never took the time or suffered the incon- 
veniences, to make the long trip from the capital. 
It came into his head, when the "intendant" had 
refused to advance money on a tract of ten thou- 
sand acres of unmortgaged land, to travel in- 
cognito to the estates and to see what the "in- 
tendont" was like. The "intendant" was thought 
trustworthy, as the yoimg man's ancestor had 
liberated the serf grandfather and rewarded him 
for faithful service with the post of overseer. 
Sometimes a peasant, sent by all the others, 
would make the long journey to present a peti- 
tion to the harin. The young harin remembered 
the white-bearded old man who sat in the kitchen 
to have, first of all, his tea, while he blessed the 
children of his barin with tears in his eyes. The 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
harin't father had explained to the s(m that peas- 
ants always had tears in their eyes when th^ 
wanted something special and that they were 
never contented; that there were always com- 
plaint of the "intendant" about the peasants, and 
from the peasants about the "intendant," and 
that the best thing to do was not to pay any at- 
tention to this, and to let them fight their own 
fights. The peasant was dismissed with prom- 
ises, but in reality the letter that the harin wrote 
to the "intendant" did not help much, and the 
peasant's life was much harder. 

The young heir took the boat, and where the 
Kama River crossed the Volga he left the boat, 
and he took a coach witii three speedy horses to 
make the drive of twenty hours. The pristao 
of the little town where the boat stopped 
equipped him with the power necessary, and even 
a gardaooy sat on the box of the coach. 

Nothing could be more peaceful and beautiful 
than the forgotten vast, high plains surrounded 
by white birch trees, whidi are nowhere so strong 
as in Simbirsk. The roads were bad, and often 
the coach sank deep in the muddy ground. The 
inn oa the deserted road, where the ni^t had to 
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THE PEASANTS— BUREAUCRACY 

be passed, was the most primitive. Its one state- 
chamber had three beds in it, in case there mi^t 
be, in the night, other travelers. Its price was 
one ruble without linen, as it was taken for 
granted that the traveler would carry his own 
sheets and towels. The state-chamber had not 
been opened for months, and had been left un- 
touched after the last visitor, who had preferred 
to sleep without bed linen. The innkeeper was 
very sorry that the noble traveler had not an- 
nounced his coming the week before. To open 
the windows the young man used a knife to pry 
out the papers around the casements and to let 
in the wonderful aromatic air from the fields and 
the woods. The innkeeper shook his head dis- 
approvingly, and prophesied to the inexperienced 
young man a bad cold, which always came from 
too much fresh air. 

In the hall, whidi was used as the dining-room, 
sat several peasants and a wandering Jew with 
his bundle.' As it was late, they had stretdied 
their tired limbs on the benches. A glance at 
the poor Ahatver showed how exhausted he was, 
but the innkeeper rebuked them roughly for dis- 
respect to the nobleman. The Jew instuitly see- 
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BUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
ing his opportunity, awoke and displayed his 
goods, showing that he had everything that could 
be needed for the night under the roof of the 
inn. Smiling and happy, he retired to a remote 
comer, although the young man would have been 
mudi more pleased if the Jew had gone out for 
a walk while tea, a delicious cabbage soup, some 
fresh ^roggi, and a piece of delicate ham were 
served for his supper. The night in the inn was 
a torture; but it was Jime, the ni^t was short, 
and with the dawn the young man left the room 
where the blood-thirsty insects were awake. 

The old peasant who drove the coach pointed 
out to the young man the sloping milestone that 
marked the boundary of his estate. 

The young barin was sQent and even a little 
moved as he drove for hours and hours over land 
which was his. He looked around. The seed 
was planted, the ground tilled. The little col- 
onies of peasants, which were passed here and 
there, appeared no better and no worse than the 
other poor, rudimentaiy villages in the vast soli- 
tudes of the Russian landscapes. Dirty diildren, 
amazed, glanced at the coach. Disturbed do^ 
infuriated, ran with the horses, only to ^eed 



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THE PEASANTS— BUBEAUCBACT 

back to the poor houses where they had left old 
bones. The slow and groaning coach moved in 
a serpentine route over the uneven road to the 
top of the plain, which seemed to lie in a veil of 
delicate sunbeams. The earth breathed forth a 
wcnderf ul fertility from its open furrows of dark 
soil. 

In the distance oxen drew a plow, and a young 
boy, shouting and whipping the animals, walked 
behind. Like clouds, between sky and earth, in- 
num^able sheep moved over the meadows, nib- 
bling the grass and rubbing one another's wool, 
for they had not been liberated from their winter 
dress. Suddenly at the end of an alley of old 
maples shone yellow and friendly the castle of 
the estate. 

The gardovoy turned to say slyly that perhaps 
the barin would better keep bis incognito and 
make the scoundrelly superintendent believe that 
he was a possible purchaser, for the "intendant" 
was a rascal who cheated everybody, whose 
daughters were kept like barigckruu and even had 
a French governess, and whose sons were in the 
regiments in Samara. All this did not belong 
to an honest "intendant" whose grandparents bad 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
been serfs. The yOung man accepted the sug- 
gestion of the gardovoy. The old peasant on 
the box smiled; Russians like to play a little 
comedy. The coach stopped. The place seemed 
sleepy in the waimth of midday. A kind of 
Russian butler, barefooted, and with a towel over 
his shoulder, appeared around -the comer of the 
porch. He looked perplexedly at the coach, at 
the young man, and at the severe gardovoy. 
Visitors 1 They had not been announced; or 
perhaps it was an inspection of the police. First 
of all he scratched his head and then bowed 
humbly. The gardcooy did the tdking. Was 
Simeon Wassiliewitsch at home? Why, yes* he 
was at home; he was out looking at the stables. 

"Then," the gardaooy replied, "tell Simeon 
Wassiliewitsch that noble travelers are here to 
buy the place.'* 

The Russian butler opened his mouth wide. 

"What, is the place to be sold?" he asked. 

"PaackoUt" said the gardovoy, which meant, 
"Hurry up or I will kick you," and tiie butler 
paackoUed, to come back after a while in a clean 
blue-linen shirt, with high boots on his feet, and 
his hair wetted with water or grease. The yoimg 
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THE PEASANTS— BUREAUCRACY 
man was asked to take a seat until Simeon Was- 
siliewitsch and his wife Sofia Bogdanowa ap- 
peared. It seemed tiiat the house suddenly was 
awakened into a sta£e of excitement Doors 
were opened and shut, windows were opened, and 
from one of them a rosy-faced, fair-haired girl 
looked out, to withdraw, embarrassed, on meet- 
ing the young man's lau^iing glances. 

When the gardovoy returned from the stable, 
where the horses were unharnessed, he nniled 
whimsically. 

"The place looks pretty good," he said. 
"Simeon Wassihewitsch lives here like a moth in 
a fur-coat." 

The "intendant," alarmed, came hurriedly from 
the courtyard. He was a rusty-looking fellow, 
with sly eyes and a Icmg mustache, whidi gave 
him a martial look. The gardovoy explained in 
a few words what the young man had come for. 
Simeon bowed a little uneasily, and also scratched 
his head. No one had informed him that the new 
heir, the young coimt, would sell the estate, which 
had belonged to the family for more than a hun- 
dred years. 

"That is why," the gardo/ooy nodded, "the 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

pristav has ordered that Simeon Wassiliewitsch 
shaU show the estate in minutest detail." 

The "intendant," who avoided having much 
to do with the pohce, completely changed his 
pohcy. He probably thou^t it wise to be very, 
very hospitable, and, bowing, he said that it was 
an honor to show the place where he had been the 
superintendent; he was proud to show how good 
and faithful he had been. And how long would 
his excellency, as he addressed the young boy, 
give him the great joy to remain there? Several 
days, perhaps? Then the guest-rooms would be 
put in order ri^t away, so as to make it as com- 
fortable as possible for his Excellency under his 
humble roof. The gardovoy smiled at the well- 
oiled speedi of Simetm Wassiliewitsch as he went 
away. 

The house was clean and comfortable, with its 
vast rooms, large windows, and wide halls. It 
was partly furnished with good old things, 
mingled with pieces that showed an incredible 
provincial taste, i^ch made the young heir smile. 
He had lost his timidity, and had decided to go 
to the bottom of affairs. Anyhow, the estate 
was in good condition, — ^that was apparent, — 
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THE PEASANTS-BUREAUCRACY 

and the sly Simeon had made a good fortune ftw 
himself. An excited race of little butlers, all 
barefooted at first, and then booted, went on 
throng the halls, and finally a fat housekeeper 
appeared to find out what the guest needed. 
The housekeeper looked astonished when the 
young man asked for water with which to wash 
himself before luncheon. Water at that time of 
day! Such a request was a little embarrassing, 
for all the water-bearers were in the fields, and 
the water was rather remote from the house. At 
last liiey compromised on a tea-cupful of bailing 
water from the kitchen. Not only was the water 
remote, but the bath-room turned out to be the 
little river that flowed at the foot of the garden, 
shrubbery separating the gentlemen's part from 
the ladies'; for the housekeeper explained that 
the ladies, having a French education, were very 
particular. In old times nobody thought of such 
a division. She appeared to prefer the old times. 
In the dining-room the window-shades were 
closed on account of the bright sunli||^t and it 
looked cozy, with the round table, the sideboard 
with many bottles and steaming dishes, and with 
the friendly, singing samovar. First, a bowing 
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RUSSU OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

with fluttering of white dresses and floating hair 
was visible from the ladies of the household, and 
the wife of the superintendent, round and stout, 
felt honored when the young man kissed her fat, 
white hand, and she responded with the cus- 
tomary hght touch of her lips on his temple. At 
the sideboard the men took their glasses of vodka, 
while the ladies stood modestly waiting at the 
round table for the men to start the limchecm, 
which turned out to be an excellent dinner. 

The whole family was somewhat frightened by 
the news that the estate was to be sold. This 
seemed quite imbelievable to Sofia Bogdanowa, 
who considered herself a kind of queen and who 
never thought that a new owner could dispose 
of the property. She sighed, and mentioned the 
innumerable inconveniences, — the distance from 
social life and the long winters, — but naturally 
they could not pass the whole winter there; after 
Christmas they always moved to the little town, 
where there would be pleasures for her dau^ters. 
The daughters, sweet, pretty girls, were shy and 
silent They sat without saying a word beside 
their Swiss governess, who looked up with burn- 
ing, longing eyes, like a poor cow. They talked 



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THE PEASANTS— BUHEAUCRACY 
French, real French, and Sofia Bogdanowa 
mingled with her Russian many French words to 
show her noble education. Simeon was proud of 
his family. He left the conversation to his wife, 
and was zealous to have his guest try his best wine 
from Bordeaux. 

The place was so charming, so calm, and so 
remote not only in miles, but in spirit, that even 
this lady, who thought herself the lost cry in 
fashion, was like a picture of the precievse time 
of Tolstoy's youth. She read Frendi novels and 
lived entirely in the world of romance, leaving 
everything practical to Simeon, and her only 
dream was to spend part of the time in the capital 
and part of the time in Carlsbad. 

Wopderful horses were in the stables, — horses 
of fast breed, with little, intelligent heads, — and 
the young heir passed most of the day on 
horseback, speeding over the ten thousand 
acres. In the evenings he walked with the 
young ladies; he was young with them, and 
without worries. The estate was in good con- 
dition and most profitable; even the misleading 
figures that Simeon showed gave an idea of how 
much he must have put into his own pocket 



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RUSSU OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORBOW 

And there was a coal-mine sonewhere, the 
gardovoy had found out from the servants, who 
did not like Simeon and wanted to have a real 
baria. It was like having margarin instead of 
real butter.. Yes, Simeon sold the fresh butter, 
and sent it to the River Kama, whence it was 
shipped God knew how far, perhaps even to Ger- 
many. No one could tell exactly. The peasants 
had to eat an imitation of butter, which was called 
margarin. It was reaUy astonishing how far 
advanced this Simbirsk overseer was in modem 
inventifms. 

It was not imtil the last day of the visit that 
the dramatic moment came when the young heir 
turned out to be the count, the owner himself. 
It was the real last act of a merry comedy. Sofia 
Bogdanowa shed tears, the little girls looked 
radiant. The governess had guessed it, and 
Simeon grew white. The gardovoy had to con- 
firm the young man's daim, for Simeon never 
would have believed it. But evnything came to 
a good end. Simem agreed to pay double rents, 
to send verified reports about the estate, and 
even to drive with the young count to the provin- 
cial town, where he could get cash from the bank. 
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THE PEASANTS— BUREAUCRACY 

The "intendant" also promised to have a bath- 
room in the house when the comit would honor 
the castle with a visit in the himting-season, and 
that he would look after the peasants, who now 
came to make complaints and who had suffered 
under Simecm's heavy rule. 

This was one of the lucky cases where the 
estate was not neglected and ruined, where the 
peasants were treated badly only when they dis- 
obeyed and refused to work. The "intendant," 
who was regarded as the representative of the 
count, had his seat in the zemstvos, and so the 
ri^ts of the individual peasant were disregarded. 
The zemstvos supervised the estates as a whole, 
their products, and, as far as possible, the san- 
itary conditions. They tried to eliminate infec- 
tious diseases among the peasants and their live 
stock. Smallpox always has been prevalent 
in Russia, and nowhere else are so many scarred 
faces to be seen. 

The zemstvos had departments where lands 
were registered, with all details concerning them. 
They have regulated the prices of food-stuffs, 
established (^edits, and made possible quicker and 
easier work. They also took care of the peasants. 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
who were occupied only a few weeks in the year, 
on account of the climate, and ^o emigrated to 
other parts of Russia where population is needed 
and the opportunities are better. The provinces 
cooperate in having land exploited and the out- 
put increased. The zonstvos were the cmly 
organizaticHis in old Russia that really worked 
without graft and bribery. The members had 
had their own interests too long jeoparded not 
to know that oppression of the peasant meant 
their own ruin. They knew all the resources 
which slumber in Russia's people; the unweak- 
ened force of the primitive folk and the wonder- 
ful naivete of imaginative souls that fomid 
expression in tiieir legends and their music. 
Russian nobility and Russian x>easants rose frcnn 
one source, and it is most promising that the head 
of the zemstvos will help rule new Russia, for 
that means that the democracy that rules has its 
roots in the heart of Russia. 

An entire class by itself is the little nobility 
composed of the bureaucracy, the clergy, and the 
.police. In the smaller towns it is this class which 
has played the first violin. The governor, the 
head of a province, was the center around which 
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THE PEASANTS— BUBEAUCRACT 

the petty ambitions of this dass circled socially. 
The governor himself usually was a removed gen- 
eral of the anny or an embarrassing nobleman, 
with youthful ains on his record, which made his 
high family want him out of the way, or an aspir- 
ing politician rising to more exalted place. In 
any cas^ he was a man to be respected. To be 
received t^ the governor and to be invited to bis 
f ^s was the aim of every woman and the ambi- 
tion of all officials. Generally the governor had 
a good time. He had only to hold his hand open 
to obtain presents big and small from all sorts of 
petitioners, who never would have been heard by 
the minista in the capital if they had not been 
recommended by the provincial governor, the 
intermediary through whose influence everything 
had to go. Between the petitioner and the gov- 
ernor flourished the Uchnin&tDniks, whose good 
graces were absolutely necessary to gain tabe gov- 
ernor's ear. Sometimes it was the wife of the 
governor who, aware of her importance, pro* 
tected, favored, and rejected persons or demands. 
In the smaller towns the same intrigues were 
woven for little matters as in Moscow or Petn^ 
grad for large affairs. 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

The same system of bribes and graft was 
empk^ed ereiywhere. It was the great achieve- 
ment of the governor never to be caught He 
always had his "sale mcmaieur," ^o listened to 
the petitioner. Those who paid best were beard 
first. 

If a regiment was stationed in one of the little 
towns, life and pleasm^ were amazing. There 
were two clubs* tbe aristocratic and the club of the 
lettered. The club of nobility, with the governor 
as president* was the goal of social ambition. Its 
bylaws required the strictest bdiavior (m the 
part of its members: a fine of one ruble for spit- 
ting against the wall; two rubles for using the 
curtains instead of a handkerchief; five rubles for 
caUing the waiters swine or attempting to shoot 
them when drunk; exclusion from the official 
dining-room for a week for breaking chairs or 
china when drunk. The members were always 
fined, which assured the club a good income. 
Ladies were not excluded; on the contrary, it was 
fashionable for them to dine at the club. 

The literary club was simpler. It was an 
assembly of journalists, physicians, lawyers, 
prosperous merchants, and the discontented. It 
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THE PEASANTS— BUREAUCRACY 

had something of a political character, and 
women were admitted on certain days. This 
club was suspected. It was a dangerous milieu, 
where loiarchigtdc and socialist meetings were 
sometimes discovered, and then closed by the 
chief of police, who was a member of the club of 
nobility. In many cases the chief of police was a 
jovial man who, behind closed doors, yielded to 
compromises when the champagne was not too 
bad and when members offered him sufficient 
money. So it happened that on one stormy 
political night such a club was closed and 
reopened twice. 

Gossip blossomed in the provincial towns, but 
to a certain degree gallant adventures were 
tolerated, especially if the sinners belonged to the 
exclusive class and did not mix with unimportant 
personalities. There were rarely any apartment- 
houses in the small towns, for there was space 
enough for a family to have a house to itself. 
The usual frame house was spacious and charac- 
terless. The hall, overheated and never aired, 
was a mixture of fur coats belonging to both 
sexes, rubbers of all sizes, umbrellas, fur caps, 
and woolen scarfs. There was a drawing-room 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY ANO TO-MORROW 

of cold splendor, which was opened only for great 
occasions. A white marble table stood in the 
middle of the room, like an island, and on it were 
the family albums in velvet, cheap German work. 
Bed and blue velvet comer sofas, uncomfortable 
ann-cfaairs, and artificial flowers in alabaster 
vases completed its magnificence. In one comer 
was a hanging icon, with its ever-burning light, 
and in another were assembled glasses containing 
preserved cucumbers and fruits. The doors of 
the various rooms were never closed, and some- 
times a visitor enjoyed the imexpected view of 
the lady of the house in the act of dressing. But 
the lady was never timid or bypocriticaL On the 
contrary, ^e was proud of her complicated 
French toilet articles and French cosmetics. As 
she was likely to be rather indolent, she often 
abandoned the marvels of make-up, sometimes 
for days, preferring to lie on her couch with her 
books and her dgarettes, not discommoding her- 
self and receiving visitors in her negligee. Lying 
in a dim light, her untidiness was partly con- 
cealed, and the air was heavy with French per- 
fumes. 
The women of the middle class in. Russia are 
SIB 



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THE PEASANTS— BUREAUCRACY 
atout like Orientals, and have the same qualities. 
Their daughters are confided to governesses; and 
the young girls, sometimes of the finest material, 
have the greatest possibilities. But as the par- 
ents are blind and too much occupied with their 
own lives, the noblest ideals are often abused. 
Many of the girls, if not married to husbands 
whom in most cases tiiey hated, went to the uni- 
versities or to the capital. To get away from the 
narrow laziness of their families, they joined in 
political agitatifms. In the Russian literature is 
too much of good and bad inspiration, which 
easily allures both boys and girls to a misunder- 
standing of freedom or liberty of life. But 
there is a wonderful stock of human force, intelli- 
gmce, and aspiration in the provinces, which 
young Russia will use ri^tly, and the corrupt 
and ridiculous class of little nobility will vanish. 
To travel was always the fairest desire of the 
idle provincial ladi^. To have a country hom^ 
owned or rented, at one of the fashionable Cau- 
casian water resorts or at the seashore was 
absolutely necessary to them. It is not like 
traveling; it is like an emigration when such a 
family moves to its summer residence. A Rus- 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
sian train conductor U the most indulgent 
creature in the world. He waits at the car-door 
until the Uchmowfdh, with his wife, children, and 
servants is settled in a cranpartment with his 
hand luggage. This hand luggage consists, 
many times, not only of a certain number of 
cushions and bed-covers, in addition to bags, 
boxes* and baskets, but of sewing-machines, 
cradles, perambulators, musical instruments 
belonging to the daughters, and finally the pets 
of the children, birds, dogs, rabbits and even 
white mice. A family often travels for twenty- 
four hours and longer to reach the summer place. 
After a few hours the crowded compartments 
have become like a little town where all the people 
know one another. The travelers lau^, chat, 
and sleep; they smoke and drink. 

Russia has wonderful health resorts in the 
Crimea and the Caucasus, which are favored by 
climate and situation. They are equal to those 
of the Italian and French Kivieras, and rich in 
mineral waters helpful for all sorts of invalids. 
Along the shores near Yalta in the Crimea is a 
girdle of fascinating gardens and palaces of the 
ridb Russians and the aristocracy. After the 



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THE PEASANTS— BUHEAUCBACY 
former czar's family showed a preference for fhe 
Russian Riviera, hotels were opened and prices 
became as hi^ as in other fashionable places. 

The Russian watering-places never were pre- 
pared to furnish the accommodations to be found 
in resorts not so remote from the center of the 
European world. Side by side with the greatest 
luxury the most disagreeable conditions pre- 
vailed, and European and American visitors 
could not understand the existence of certain 
institutions that shocked even the good-natured 
Russians. 

At Eislavodsk everything is beautifully cared 
for, and nothing b different from places like 
Carlsbad or Vichy. Elegantly gowned women 
promenade to the ever-playing music, drink the 
mineral waters, and stop at the different arcades 
to purchase typic^ souvenirs or to drink tea or 
eat ice-creams in caf^s or confectionery shops. 

Yet only a few yards from the bath-house, the 
milieu of the fashionable world, the waters drip- 
ping f rran big pipes collect in a round hole, which 
the poor folk of Kislavodsk have enlarged to a 
good-sized pool, and here, quite unembarrassed, 
partly undressed men and wranen, old and young, 
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RUSSU OP YESTERDAY AND TO-HCMtROW 

sit close together taking their baths, and deriring 
benefit from the healing springs. 

Tourists vdio go for the first time to Eia- 
lavodsk and pass this peculiar spectacle are 
startled, but finally thej accept the aituatkn. It 
isRui 



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CHAPTER XI 

TKATZLINO IN RUSSIA OF TESTEUIAT. WHICH 
WILL BE ALSO THE 1U8SIA OF TO-MOUUIW 

In former Russia liie loss of a passport was a 
calamity. AU possible excuses were rejected; 
the travelo* without the paper with official seal 
was absolutely barred if there was not some au- 
thority to testify to his harmlessness and to his in- 
nocent intention of traveling in Russia only for 
pleasure. To add the words "for instruction" 
was dangerous, because former Russia did not 
want anybody to make a tour of discovery; and 
if such a tour was announced officially, the curious 
man naturally never learned what he wanted to 
know. The Russian official ctmcealed every- 
thing that could be valuable to the stranger. 

For the outsider the greatest barrier is nat- 
urally the language, and if Russians are obstinate* 
—as\d that is what they usually are toward a 
stranger, — ^they will not speak a word except in 
Russian. Therefore the traveler must collect 
words from his pocket dictionary, and as he pro- 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
nounces them absurdly, the Russians shake their 
heads as they dismiss him sneeringly. 

If the passport was lost, and there was no one 
of authority on the train to recognize the unfortu- 
nate person, in mild cases, he was detained for 
twenty-four hours in the frontier town, with 
mixed people, mixed languages, and mixed habits. 
It was only by good luck that be could leave the 
restaurant, where waiters told sinister stin^es of 
travelers without passports who were recognized 
as terrible Criminals* or mistakai for them, and 
who were not only kept out of Russia, but were 
put in jail and sometimes even chained. Such a 
delay was hair-raising, and it is strange that tips 
did not help at all. The chief trick of officials 
was to be over-exacting concerning passports, as 
this strictness could hide many laxities in other 
directions, and the more the head of the gensdai^ 
mje at the frontier discovered irregularities, the 
more efficient he was supposed to be. For each 
irregularity he received a new decoration, and 
after he had collected many little orders he was 
ripe for the Alexander Nevsky, formerly much 
coveted, which shone day and ni^t on the happy 
bearer's breast. 



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TRAVELING IN RUSSIA. 

When finally a high official would speak in 
favor of the poor victim of the Russian frontier, 
the unfortunate traveler was released, only to be 
convoyed to his destination by a gendarme. The 
next difficulty arose at the entrance to his hotel. 
It was a very European hotel vdiich the stranger 
entered despite the porter in purple blouse and 
with peacock feather in his cap. Without delay 
the passport was demanded, and before the key 
was handed to the little bellboy in national cos- 
tume the traveler had to deliver his papers. Be- 
fore this trap all other impressions vanished. 
The traveler, with cold perspiration on his fore- 
head, told his story to the European-speaking 
manager, who tried to make him imderstand that 
the hotel could not protect guests without pass- 
ports. 

The manager advised that the ambassador 
from the traveler's country be called up; but if 
the ambassador was out, and bis staff dining or 
supping somewhere, the traveler would be asked 
for his credentials. Among the letters of the 
traveler might be one addressed to a general in 
the suite of the czar. This general could do 
everything; he could achieve miracles. His visit- 



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BU93IA OF TESTEBDAY AND TO-MORROW 

tDg card cxnild make it possible to travel throu^ 
Russia without a passport. But the general was 
on dufy at Tsarskoje Sselo, and only after a tele- 
ph(me message brought answer by an aide-de- 
camp that the general exx>ected the gentleman 
from abroad, and would be glad to see him the 
next morning, the hotel manager was satisfied, 
and the litUe bell-boy led the weary traveler to his 
very European suite. 

The rooms in the hizurious hotels of the Capital 
are not different fnnn those of liie hotel palaces 
in other parts of the world. The bath-rooms con- 
tain the same comforts, and it is only at the wat^ 
that travelers will look with a certain apprehen- 
sion. The water in Fetrograd is the color of 
chocolate. Residents assure strangers that it is 
the hi^ percratage of iron that makes it of so 
dark a tint; but those who know will confess that 
Fetrograd is still lacking in sanitary regulations. 
The water questi(ai is not solved. It is very dis- 
agreeable to alter the water, still muddy after 
being filtered by the hotel filters, whidi work day 
and ni^t. A servant provides a bottle of boiled 
water, according to a strict rule of the hotds, to 
prevent the everlasting danger of fyphoid fever 
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TRAVELING IS RUSSIA 
or cholera. But even with this boiled water the 
cautious attendant brings a bottle of excellent 
mineral water, with which he advises the guest to 
clean his teeth, because one can never know in 
Russia what devil can sit in the drinking-water 1 
No one could be more attentive than the Russian 
servant. Smiling and indefatigable, he guesses 
the wishes of foreigners. The door of an apart- 
ment is always protected, a servant waiting in 
the ante-chamber for orders, and eag^ to please 
Uie stranger confided to his care. Attention 
bou^t with money is less obvious than elsewhere, 
and tips are comparatively modest. The servant 
smiles; he tries to draw attention to things not 
known to the travels, to what passes in the 
streets. He tells who lives in neighboring rooms, 
and even relates interesting scandals of well- 
known personages or of distinguished society 
ladies. He is never impertinent, but always 
humble. Sudi a searant is a keen observer, and 
never loses his sense of social distances. 

The Russian servant is absolutely different 

from all others. He is servant heart and soul; 

he would be nothing but that, and wants to give 

satisfaction. He waits tenderly on his master 

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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
with fatherly affection, and even when taking 
part in the most intimate conversation he never 
presumes; that is something beyond his mider- 
standing. He is not a Socialist. He is always 
contented until he is associated with otiiers of 
his own class who are not Russians. The dis- 
contented Russian is very dangerous. The 
slightest sign of freedom is usually misunder- 
stood by a servant, and there is no difference be- 
tween disobedience and mutiny, between word 
and deed, between offense and murder. The ex- 
pression on Uie face of the Russian servant is ex- 
tremely patient and good-natured. He smiles, 
and if the master is disturbed, he tries to smooth 
him. He begs, he sheds tears, he wants to be 
beaten; and if the master is Russian enough to 
slap his servant he is adored, because after such 
a storm comes the soft reaction of repentance and 
forgiveness. 

The climate of Petrograd is trying. Most of 
the year it is exceedingly damp. When cold, the 
north winds are unbearable; and when hot, the 
sun is nowhere more merciless than in the long, 
unshaded avenues of Petrograd. To walk over 
the Kasan or the Isaacs Plaza on a warm day is 
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TRAVELING IN RUSSIA 

torture. So really nobody walks, and when the 
stranger leaves the hotel door the little ittvots- 
chiks overrun one another to be at his disposal. 
They shed tears to get a few copecks, but they 
finally yield their demands good-naturedly when 
they see that their arguments are vain. Women 
travelers are warned never to hire one of the good- 
looking drivers who wait in front of the hotels. 
In dark-green, wadded coats they sit solemnly on 
the boxes of their comfortable-looking tittle 
coadies; the harness of their long-tailed horses 
is ornamented with silver, with little silver beUs 
on their collars. It is not considered respectable 
for a woman to drive in these carriages, which are 
used by the demi-world. 

When the traveler left to the istvoachik what 
to see first in former St. Petersburg, he was 
driven over the Neva Bridge to the Narodni 
Dom, the House of the People, which Czar Nich- 
olas II gave to his beloved people and dedicated 
to them. It was indeed an imperial gift, and 
it would be ungrateful if the Russian people ever 
should forget the memory of this czar. The czar 
trusted to the progressive taste of Russians when 
the house was consecrated to the best perform- 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
ances that the aristocracy saw in the Imperial 
Opera and the Micfaelsk Theater. The house 
has under its roof two wonderful theaters, one 
vast and airy, with every seat at one price. The 
operas and ballets were given with the artists 
from the Marien Theater, and the settings were 
of the same colorful beauty as in the Imperial 
Opera. The second theater is an amphitheater 
in li^t oak, and here were offered the best Rus- 
sian plays, with excellent casts. The vast build- 
ing has large restaurants where the people can 
have everything to eat at a very low price and 
where alcohoHc drinks are not served. The res- 
taurants are open during the day for students and 
laborers. Surrounded by a garden where tm 
warm evenings all kinds of refreshments can be 
had, the Narodi Dom gives the impression of an 
establishment as elegant as any place of amuse- 
ment in Paris or London. The theaters are al- 
ways crowded, and the people follow the per- 
formances with great intensity. Opera-tickets 
sell for twenty-five cents, and those for the plays 
for ten. 

Then the coachman drives to the Alexander 
Nevsky Monastery, idiere the great saint of St. 
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TRAVELING IN RUSSIA 

Petersburg has his cathedral. On the way he 
points out the imperial buildings, the monument 
of Peter the Great, of Catharine, the Little 
Mother. He knows exactly what is worth while 
looking a1^ and he makes himself imderatood by 
intelligent signs; one can see that he is sorry that 
the foreigner can not speak his language. But 
when imderstood, he can tell all sorts of stories 
about the czar, the generals, the ministers, and 
about the saints. He is wide-awake, and his re- 
marks are very clever; sometimes he can even 
read. He never fails to give his name and to 
reccnnmend himself for the next time. 

But the serious question of the passport has to 
be settled before the foreigner can breathe freely. 
The general in the suite of the czar called 
promptly in all his military pomp. With a sto- 
icism to be admired, he wore his warm uniform, 
his official uniform, with all his decorations for 
the first call, and he looked really a war hero. 
When the servants, with many bows, announced 
him, they looked on the stranger with a kindli- 
ness mixed with a certain respect, and when the 
foreigner was ready to receive the ctdler, the 
servants, still bowing, ushered him to the door, 
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RUSSU OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
where they waited for him with crossed arms. 
The double doors flew oprai, when the general 
stood impressive and formal But his face 
changed quickly to a most charming amiability. 
Immediate^, without asking, the servant dis- 
mantled the general of his heavy coat, for it was 
ninety degrees in the shade, but the sword stiU 
hung at his side, for, as he said, a Russian soldier 
never parts with his swonL This sounds very 
martial, but after the usual glass of tea and very 
cold cogn&c, silently served by the Uckelavik, the 
general leaned back in the deep fauteuil, talk- 
ing interestingly and amusingly in his wonderful 
French or English, and then mechanically un- 
buckled the leather belt to which the sword was 
attached, the ever-present servant taking it and 
placing it tenderly on the couch. Then the gen- 
eral being quite comfortable, the hours ran like 
sand under the animated conversation, and, as 
understood the Uckelavik brought the zakomtka, 
the cigarettes and then served the luncheon, 
knowing exactly what a general would like and 
what a foreigner should be taught. The Rus- 
sian cuisine is excellent. They have those won- 
derful fish of the Volga, immense in size and with 



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TRAVELING IN RUSSIA 
only the one strong bone in the center. It is the 
greatest delicacy, this cold stor (assitrina) the 
famous producer of caviare. Eveiything was 
seasonable — the cold bortsch, the sour cream, the 
iced caviar and the champagne cup. To his 
amazement the foreigner found afterward, when 
the weekly bill was presented, that he had been 
the guest of his guest who had ordered the lunch- 
eon before presenting himself. Then last of all 
a mighty round loaf of bread was brou^t. 
Baked in its center was a silver salt-cup, orna- 
mented with unique tula work, with salt in it, 
whidi means aoyez le hienvenu. 

When the luncheon was ended and conversa- 
tion became a little less lively the general sud- 
denly smiled and said, "Let us have a little nap; 
it is so refreshing on such a hot day." The 
tgcJielavik was only waiting for the faint. In- 
stantly, the general's high boots were off and 
lying down peacefully beside his sword on the 
couch he took a long doze. AH was so natural 
because among persons belonging to the same 
social world formality absolutely ceases and that 
makes life in Russia from the beginning wonder- 
fully human and joyfuL 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

a ni^t's trip distant. He was not very busy, 
but every week he had two trying days, — he 
sij^ed, — as then he had to be on duty with his 
Majesty. Sometimes it was pleasant when the 
czar was in a good humor; but when he had one 
of his fits of temper it was unbearable* and heavy 
drinking was the only rescue. The czar never 
knew what he wonted, and as every two days 
there was a diflferent officer on duty, every two 
days he changed his ideas about governing Rus- 
sia. One day Russia seemed to him the easiest 
state to rule, and the next he thou^t that Russia 
should be chained as a whole, from the highest to 
the lowest, the people being lower than beasts. 
And when the czar had one of his deaf -minded 
days nothing could make him change an opinion. 
Then brandy helped him to total forgetfulness 
of decisions that he was about to make. The 
general shook his head ; it would end sadly some 
day, and then those who were devoted to the czar 
could not help him much. 

With his powerful influence, the general made 
it possible to have the Hermitage opened, which 
was closed on account of repairs and for the 
hanging of new pictures. Nothing could have 



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TRAVELING IN BUSSIA 

been more interesting to a stranger than to see 
Russian artists at work, because all the officials 
who superintended the Hermitage were artists, 
and the arrangement of this gallery is an example 
of the intense love of art in Russia. No other 
gallery in the world has so lively a touch, so little 
the atmosphere of a museum, although it is not a 
gallery for modem art. The building itself is 
flooded with light, the walls are not overcrowded, 
and the rooms are warmed by the wonderful 
colors of lapis lazuli and malachite. 

The official who guarded the treasures of Hie 
crown solemnly opened the door to this sanc- 
tuary; but as it was nearly dinner-time, he left 
the foreigner in the care of the general, who 
promised to deliver the key at the office when 
the visit was ended. In the quiet of this high- 
ceiled room, which opens on the Neva, the setting 
sun sent red and gold beams over all the jewels 
and precious treasures. It was like the revival 
of a childhood dream, in whidi the chairs were of 
gold and the floors of diamonds. It is amazing 
how little the Hermitage, with its priceless col- 
lections, was watched when compared with an 
empty imperial palace. But there was always a 



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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

certain imcoocem regarding things; the watch- 
ing was concentrated on the pers<m of the czar. 

Among the royal wanders of the Wint^ 
Palace, suddenly they came upon a little model 
of a new military bridge, with all the minutest 
details reproduced. The general swore at this 
open display of militiuy secrets, and severely 
rebuked the officer on duty, who could not 
explain why the model had been left there. 
Only a few days before the cranmission had 
shown it to the Grand Duke Nicholas, and prob- 
ably it had been forgotten. The general put it 
in a box and carried it to the war ministry, where 
he left it with a responsible officer. He explained 
that he did not believe Ihat the model bad been 
forgotten. It was more likely that a rascally 
official wanted to show the model, which was of 
great military importance, to a spy, by whom 
he would be highly rewarded. And the Winter 
Palace, deserted in summer, was a favorable 
place for such an imdertaking. 

When the summer sun sets, Petrograd is 

wrapped for an hour in a dense veil of warmth 

and humidity, which is very depressing, as not 

a breath of wind blows. The general, after 

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TRAVELING IN RUSSIA 

having dianged his uniform for a khaki blouse 
and a li^t cap, directed his patient coachman 
to the islands in the Neva, where one of his 
friends, a hi^ aristocrat, was expecting him to 
dinner. A telephone-call was sufficient to an- 
nounce a foreign friend. The islands are in a 
swampy stretch of the river that has been partly 
drained. There are summer houses and palaces, 
areas of land planted in the time of Peter the 
Great, blossoming shrubs, green lawns, and white 
castles, all very fascinating in the evening dusk. 
Saluted by two sentinels, the coach drove tfarou^ 
the maple-lined alky to the hig^-columned house. 
The family was assembled in the cool hall with 
several invited guests, all informally smoking 
cigarettes and drinking cold tea even before 
dinner. 

The host, a minister, welcomed the foreigner 
so heartily, and his wife had so many questions 
to ask the traveler, that he had no chance to 
satisfy his own curiosity. This vivacious hos- 
pitality, i^ch focuses all interest oa the guest, 
is naturally the method which prevents the for- 
eigner from getting into the intimate life of the 
Russian. Informahty becomes stereotyped, and 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
the foreigner who dines, sups, and takes part in 
many amusements for weeks or months suddenly 
discovers that he is never taken into the con- 
fidence of the family. It is very significant that 
Russian women never gossip about one anoth^. 
Tragedies that may happen among them are 
treated seriously and with delicacy and never as 
a scandal; the sincerity of the Kussians is too 
great, and they do not call what is destiny 
or temperament immorality. They are never 
ashamed of their tragedies, their unhappiness, 
and among themselves they speak of tiie last 
consequences of a tragedy bravely and frankly. 
The intensity of feeling in Russian family life 
does not permit of little jealousies or suspicitms. 
Without any hesitation sins are confessed, and 
it is rarely that parents abandon unhappy chil- 
dren. In many cases in former Russia whole 
famihes were brought to misery by the anarchis* 
tic tendencies of one member. There is a won- 
derful tie, without narrow-minded despotism* 
between daughters and sons and their fathers and 
mothers. A great freedom of spirit prevails 
everywhere. Conversation flows imhampered by 
hypocrisy over the widest range oi subjects, and 
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TRAVELING IN RUSSIA 
the grown-up dau^ters have their share in it. 
Russian women are never frivolous, and Russian 
mothers have a beautiful, warm dignity; they are 
always the best comrades of their husbands and 
their sons. It is not what they say that makes 
an impression on the foreigner; it is how they 
say it. 

Finally, it is true that the members of a Rus- 
sian family know much more about their guest 
than the guest knows about them. There are 
so many differences in every-day habits that, fas- 
cinated by the strange color, the traveler often 
forgets the individual person in the impression 
as a whole. In the absolute informaUty it seems 
as if Russian servants are accustomed to guests, 
and therefore the foreigner feels that there are 
no embarrassing extras for him. There are, too, 
always touching little attentions. "We noticed 
that you preferred this dish," the host may say, 
"or this entertainment." He sends a box of 
candies or cigarettes which the guest has chosen 
amraig others, or he bestows the favorite flowers. 
In any case, there is always a siirprise for the 
guest, and, amazingly, it is just the thing he 
likes best. 

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RUSSIA OP YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
Russian ladies seldom take part at the zakoutt- 
k(u and vodka served at a sideboard, sometimes 
in another room. They have excellent things 
to eat, but they drink only in special eases, and 
then the preference is for champagne. The 
Russian lady rarely drinks, and it is not usual for 
her to smoke. It is understood that liie men 
may smoke their cigarettes during the meal. 
Russian conversation is a source of ever-flowing 
interest. It may begin with every-day events 
and end in the depths of abstract philosophy. 
Russian poets voice the expression of the people ' 
and absolutely without exaggeration. Their 
deep knowledge of art and scioice, their never- 
satisfied curiosity, expel from life all banality. 
Life to them is ibe great mystery; nothing is 
C(HnmonpIace. Even their debaudies are of an 
extraordinary intensity. 

After dinner a troika party is arranged. The 
silence and fresh air afiford relaxation and pre- 
pare for the new and interesting pleasures to 
come. The troikas speed noiselessly through 
alleys on the banks of ihe Neva, through poor 
quarters, over big stones to other islands, where 
there is a stop before a sxunmer variety show, a 
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huge garden with cabarets in the open air, li^t- 
opera, prize-fighters, and other attractions. 
There are crowds inside, and the many outside 
who are peeping in are laughingly accepted and 
never diased away. It is very democratic) this 
autocratic Russia. When ladies are in the party, 
private boxes are preferred. Supper with 
champagne is served, and a little private dance 
may be arranged. After all, the chief enter- 
tainment is when the Gipsies are let in. It is not 
a real party without them. This Russian fad 
is not at first understandable to the foreigner. 
To him Gipsies would mean a fantastic group of 
strange beauties and black-haired men in theat- 
rical costumes. Instead, middle-aged, or per- 
haps young women, in untidy clothing, sleepy 
and apathetic, slouch in. One of the principal 
singers has a bad toothache, and her face is 
wrapped in a white handkerchief. The men are 
common-looking and, on tiie whole, rather repul- 
sive. 

But Russian society cordially greeted them, 

and was sympathetic with the woman who had 

toothache and grateful that she appeared despite 

the pain. The Gipsies sat in a circle. The gen- 

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eral oflfered several of them, with whom he talked, 
champagne, which they took, and drank slowly 
to the general's health. Then they began to 
sing. It was like opium, a warm, wann melody 
repeated and taken up by the chorus until the 
woman with the toothache came in. Her voice 
was as if heavy drops of a sweet, intoxicating 
wine were changed into sounds. The ear became 
drunk, the melody passing from the ear to the 
mind, and singing it into complete forgetfulnesa. 
It is the highest degree of intoxication, the most 
dangerous, this drunkenness caused by human 
voices, and it frequently happens that men give 
up life and hfe's duties, family and money, to 
live among liie Gipsies, to sing with them, and 
to have them sing their songs. Agtun a Russian 
mystery. The foreigner takes away an impres- 
sion of a terrible hypnotic force, which has a 
destroying attraction for Russians. 

It was daylight when the general's sleeping 
coachman was idiistled for, and as the morning 
air was chilly, the party drove to a caf^ at the 
point of the island from which the view of the 
Baltic Sea, at the mouth of the Neva, was 
resplendent in the golden light of the warming 
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The morning hours do not count in the life of a 
Russian, his activity beginning after luncheon. 
Officials are rarely to be seen before noon. Even 
if their nights are not passed in cabarets, they 
never go to bed before two o'clock in the morn- 
ing. It is the custom to receive visitors after 
midnight, and many ladies never see the natural 
light for a'whole winter. 

With great pride the general showed the for- 
eigner the imperial library. It was uma^ng that 
even in summer, with the schools closed, the 
hbrary was a lively place. The Russian swal- 
lows books. He is eager to instruct himself 
thoroughly about everything in which he is inter- 
ested. He never hves on the surface of things, 
and he would never be satisfied to work for his 
daily bread only, to have no hours in which to live 
his own life, his own joys. It is astonishing that 
in the moment when a Russian is first able to read 
he understands everything, that the faculty of 
knowing existed before the mind was trained. 
This is the most promising thing about the Rus- 
sian people, but it is also the most perilous, 
because when the Russian finds printed what he 
thinks about life's incompleteness it makes him 
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unhappy and melanchofy. Nowhere else are 
people 80 life-denying as in Russia. The ques- 
tion "Why!" is put and discussed by the most 
simple perscms. But nowhere else are life- 
bringing ideas so wonderfully understood as in 
Russia, and a Russian may live in a trance OTor 
a new thought. A Russian never will discuss 
business affairs after the few office hours neces- 
sary for them; business is a duty that he gets rid 
of as soon as possible. There are so many 
delightful things waiting for bis mind that be 
would not for the world burden bis spirit with 
too much work. This is the reason why negotia- 
tions are either hastily closed or are drawn out 
for a month or two or drop into oblivion. The 
Russian's imagination must be kept vividly alive 
in all business affairs. 

A decision to undertake a journey cannot be 
left to the last moment, because express tickets 
are not to be had at railway stations. Tickets 
must be obtained in advance, for they are given 
out carefully and are numbered, like American 
parlor-car tickets. No Russian can endure 
being crowded on a train. If he pays to travel 
first-class, he must be left ^one. Russian cars 
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have many small ccxnpartments, each one 
arranged for two persons. Such a compartment 
is like a little salon, and is always gay with flowers 
and cushions. It is a pleasure to travel for days 
in Russia. There is a feeling of comfort and 
security. The trains never rush at a dizzying 
speed; nowhere could it be more comfortable to 
sleep than in a Russian sleepingHsar. 

Cosmopolitan Russia ends in Moscow. Even 
the big hotels cannot be maintained at the modem 
European standard of Fetrograd. They can- 
not be kept clean. The Russian traveler does 
not concern himself with sanitary conditions; be 
detests discomfort and prescribed rules. Rules 
in Russia are always to be circumvented. If a 
foreigner in Moscow is not the guest of a family, 
the old-fashioned Russian hotels are to be pre- 
ferred to the modem ones. Bath-rooms are not 
numerous, for the Russians have their famous 
public baths, the steam baths, which no Russian 
would fail to visit at least once a week. 

Life in Moscow is very stirring, ^o definite 

office hours are observed. Business is transacted 

in European-looking offices, which always belong 

to foreign representatives, or in the back yards 

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of houses, in little rooms lighted by small kmps, 
^ere the samoTar is bcuhng, and where the real 
merchants sit at a table drinking tea, smok- 
ing, and sometimes discussing large affairs. 
Then there are the big Russian restaurants, 
where men sit about the whole day, closing deals 
between meab, and leaving only to go to another 
restaurant Around the historic Kreml are the 
principal stores, in dark houses, dai^ courtyards, 
in dark and dirty streets. Everything that is 
modem disturbs Moscow. The new department 
stores are hideous and garish in comparison with 
the individual, elegant shops where time and 
attention is given to each buyer and where arm- 
chairs invite customers to stay on for hours. A 
great modiste never would keep a lady without 
serving the usual glass of tea, and, to make it 
easy and pleasant to buy things, milliners send to 
the houses many hats from which to make a 
choice. 

In Moscow the private residences of the aristo- 
crats and rich merchants are like realized tales 
of a vanished splendor. The Russian delights 
in velvets, brocades, carpets, and coudies. No 
one could be more conservative in his taste and 
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his living, no one more erratic in his spiritual life. 
He has an indefatigable desire to pierce life's 
mystery, its joys, and its distresses. He despises 
all earthly needs in the midst of Oriental luxuries. 
When new Russia is touched by the naturally 
growing servant problem, there will be another 
revolution. The Russian wiU never have his life 
changed; that life he considers his own. 

Moscow is a vivid picture of the Russian, the 
visible contradiction of what he aspires to and 
what he loves. In him an absolute satisfacticoi 
with conditions is unthinkable. Even though he 
may have dreamed of the change for years, the 
revolution came too suddenly for him, and while 
he will admire its achievements, and with it him- 
self for having had tiie wonderful energy to bring 
about what he had talked of for more than a 
century — freedixn, he will look around timidfy 
and ask himself what this freedom is. When the 
many personal restrictirais that freedcon demands 
are placed upon him, when his life is exposed as 
in a mirror, he will never live up to this freedom. 

When traveling from Moscow to the interior 
of Russia, the modem man, used to comfort, 
must absolutely resign himself to privations. If 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
he is fortunate, he may be sent from one family 
to another, where he will be received with a hos- 
pitality warming to his heart and soul; but where 
be will be dismissed after a ^riiik with the same 
amount of joy that greeted him. The Russian is 
afraid of foreigners and their criticisms; hosts 
and servants live in a certain tension under the 
eyes of strangers. Of course the hosts are so 
amiable that guests would be the last to be aware 
of the strain, but when a Russian says some day, 
"Dear friend, you should not spend your precious 
time with us bumble and boring people," then it 
is high time to leave the place. Sometimes it 
happens that the stranger, accepted at first with 
secret sighs, but after a time regu*ded without 
suspicion, becomes so attracted by real Russian 
life that he would stay always. This would be 
accepted by a Russian, who would never ask such 
a friend, "Why are you not attending to your 
business?" or say, "We can not keep you for- 
ever." The stranger becomes absohitely a mem- 
ber of the family, sharing wealth, joys, and griefs, 
and in nearly every Russian household is to be 
foimd such an intruder, who has entered this life 
of insouciance, this life of kmg days and long 



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TRAVEUNG IN RUSSIA 
nights, this life of sociability, where friend^ps 
are not knotted and unknotted in a few weeks. 
"This is my brother," the Russian will say, and 
the foreigner will find out that he, once a 
stranger, has become the man's brother because 
of an aflBnity of souls stronger than blood ties. 
Or a foreigner might begin to discuss his host's 
hobby, philosophy, and they would continue days 
and days, then weeks, months, and years, and 
it would be natural that the arguing would end 
l(»iging, but not the courage to live up to. 

If the traveler in Russia would go not only 
with a guide-book in his hands, but with an 
awakened soul, he would discover many human 
desires realized for which other countries hare a 
longing, but not the coiirage to live up to. 

On the way to southern Russia it is worth 
while to stop in the university town of Charkow, 
an old town with frightful pavements and so- 
called "Grand" hotels, where the doors do not 
close, and one has to push trunks against them 
to keep the rooms from being invaded by late- 
comers with confused senses, where the water 
does not run, vrbeTe the bed-springs slip cogs and 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-UORBOW 

erable fleas and flies drive <me almost to suicide, 
and where, despite all these things, the traTckr 
enjc^s the spirited people, with their eagerness 
for humanity and progress. 

Nature had somewhat neglected Charkow, and 
no trees gave shade for tiie hot mcmths; but a 
park of many thousand acres was made by the 
simple method of makin g the school-childmi 
plant trees twice a year, each little boy and girl 
tending his or her special tree. Then another 
generaticm planted new trees beside the old ones 
of their fathers and mothers. In the afternoon 
and evening the people go to the park, really 
their park, and each greets his tree or his shrub 
or his flower-bed. In this simple way is shown 
the Russian diaracter, its great simplicity, its 
patience. 

Russians never can understand why foreigners 
care to travel through Russia for pleasure, 
because the Russian himself does not travel mudi 
in his own country; he prefers to take his 
pleasure-trips in other countries, wh^e he has 
more comfort for less mon^. But he is proud 
of his railway trains, and he is right Nothing 
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could be more comfortable or more beautiful 
than the Caucasian Express, the White Express, 
as it is called. The cars are finished in bird's-eye 
maple, the seats being covered with li^t gray, 
protected in summer with white linen. This train 
takes the traveler first to the Caucasian watering- 
resorts. Very elegant, very lively, and wonder- 
fully favored by nature are these little places 
among the harsh mountains. The hotels, first 
class according to Russian ideas, are very expen- 
sive, and the pleasures and the ni^t life are 
healthful for Russians who live more than three 
parts of the year on remote estates. The 
waters of Kislavodsk are nearly as efiBcacious 
as those of Vichy and Saratoga; but Kislavodsk 
was so gay and colorful that sick folk were made 
to feel more or less like intruders who disturbed 
the joyful picture. The extravagant luxury of 
the ladies was most amazing and amusing. 
They promenaded to their morning baths in 
evening clothes and jewels, and the men danced 
in raw silk suits or white flannels in the evening. 
The landed aristocracy took their debutante 
daughters to Kislavodsk, and after the season 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

many brilliant ofiBcers of the Caucasian and Don 
regiments went back to their garrisons witii 
young brides and their debts paid. 

From Kislavodsk the wonderful express 
brings the traveler easily to Tiflis, that strange 
city, so European and yet so Asiatic. What 
Tiflis is or ever will be has nothing to do with 
changes in politics or govemment. It is like a 
little kingdom by itself; it is something of a real 
kingdom, a wild kingdom where every man can be 
a king. The Caucasians are the best specimens 
of mankind, the men and women n^alty tall and 
slender and seignior-like. They look like people 
just from the hand of the Creator. The Cau- 
casians are wild, but noble. They are nuve and 
strong, and they have a feeling of contempt for 
ugly, stooping people. Tiflis itself, in the 
nacreous hgbt of the mountains, often appears 
imreal, and to ride on horseback throu^ the 
mountains and the hi^ plains, where aH the 
petty habits of culture are abandoned, and where 
a fresh spring at which to wash the face and 
hands is all of comfort, is wonderfully reviving, 
for one feels thoroughly cleansed in the rippling 
wind and the crisping air. For days one might 
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TRAVELING IN RUSSIA 
live on bread and milk and cheese. Nature alone 
makes one happy. If cHte is escorted and pro- 
tected, the mountain highwaymen, who are 
princes, send liie traveler on from one to another, 
and everywhere he is revived with the hospitality 
of Bible times. 

From Tiflis the traveler would take the train 
to the Black Sea and the Crimea, the sub-tropic 
porticm of Russia. In the autumn the Crimea 
looks like the dreamed-of fruit gardens of 
romance. The people have the languid laziness 
that characterizes a country ^ere sun and earth 
are the gardeners. In spring Livadia and Yalta 
have been the imperial Riviera, the seat of the 
high aristocracy, and very exclusive. 

Unchanged for centuries flows the broad, 
majestic Volga in her many-hundred-miles-long 
course, sending big boats from the south of Rus- 
sia to the north. It is a many-weeks' trip, and 
the uniformity of the tranquil days submerges 
nervousness in tJie unbroken grandeur. The 
boat life is contemplatiye, with no rush, no hurry, 
no impatience. No one in haste would put his 
foot on a Volga boat, and no business man in 
Russia is ever in a hurry; he will be in time for 
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BUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
the annual fair at Nijni-Norgorod, and bidden 
in the hold axe the treasures he wiB exhibit there. 
They come from afar, those merdiants; they 
come from the Persian border; they come from 
Manchuria. It is a solemn hour, the morning 
hour on tbe boat; the men pray, the Russiwa 
sailors sing their folk scHigs. It is another holy 
hour vbea the sun sets, when the boat mores 
toward the ni^t, dividing the calm water with 
the rhythmic motion of its wheels. The days are 
enchanting in their monotony. Life on the boat 
is subdued. Many languages are spoken, but, 
with a kindly tact, voices never become loud or 
disturbing. Cities are passed, and travelers 
come and go without haste. Sometimes a boat 
lies at a pier for several hours, and the traveler is 
able to go on shore to catch glimpses of places 
entirely Russian. The stranger may have a 
letter to a hospitable family that may be waiting 
for the unknown foreigner who will be recognized 
immediately as a non-Russian. Samara is one of 
tile largest cities that the boat passes. There the 
Transsiberian train brings Siberian merchants to 
the steamer. Samara is a vast place in a vast 
plain. Enormous Russian bazaars, which are 



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built in quadrangles, with all sorts of shops out- 
side as well as inside, have an Oriental touch with- 
out the Oriental noisiness. The Russians move 
with a silent poise, wait patiently, make their 
selections, and buy. Extremely interesting are 
the gold and silver shops, with their masses of 
silver and gold icons, the marvelously worked 
tea-glasses, and the enormous diamonds. It is 
the Russian's pride to buy for his wife the largest 
stones possible and many of them, and to have 
her travel with immense diamond ear-rings, 
chains, and bracelets. In the typical Russian 
restaurants, where the prosperous merchants eat 
and sit comfortably in their national blouses with 
their stout, bejeweled wives, contented with life, 
they pass hours over their meals, never speaking 
when consuming witii great appetite masses of 
food that would satisfy other mea for a week. 

On the plains about Samara are raised the 
famous mares which supply the milk for the 
kumiss cure. Special establishments give oppor- 
tunity for the treatment of tuberculosis and 
anemia. Samara was a regimental town. It 
will he emptied now, and wiuA name will they 
give to the proud hussars of Alexandra Feodor- 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
oma, the black and silver uniformed regiment 
of the czarina? 

At the time of the fair Nijni-Novgorod looks 
as if there were no original inhabitants at alL 
Private houses as well as the gattiftices lodge the 
merchants. Russian hospitality never lets a 
foreigner suffer if he has been recommended by 
a friend. Rooms are reserved in the Convent of 
the Sisters of Saint Afrossinia. At the station 
small, hi^-wheeled utvo»chik» are hired; on <me 
trunks are fastened, on another, the traveler. 
That means that a cover of leather is strapped 
over the lap even when the weather is not rainy, 
to prevent the traveler from being lost en route, 
owing to the speed of the horse. The little car- 
riage rocks behind the hmrying horse as it passes 
over sticks and stones, rolling from one side to 
another as if it were drunk; and despite the 
leather cover, the passenger must hold on with 
both hands not to be thrown from the seat The 
little horse leaves the town behind and speeds 
over a road that looks like hardened waves. The 
air is freshened by a fine cooling breeze from the 
hills, over which the beams of evening red shine 
upon tiie golden cross of the mcmastery. 
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Nijni-Novgorod is so filled with life through 
the six weeks of the big fair that, exhausted, it 
falls deeply asleep for the rest of the year, when 
the courtyards where the enormous quantities 
of goods have been shown are closed. In the 
innumerable little booths all the venders of earth 
are assembled, from grains to Oriental pearls, 
from house-woren materials to Persian gold 
brocades, frcnn the skin of calves to the noble furs 
of sable and silver fox, from the httle nail to the 
pine wood, everytiiing that mankind needs to 
live in or to be buried in. But the center of all 
this Oriental, cosmopolitan life is the Russian 
merchant, with bis kindly poise, his patience, and 
his broad-minded dealing. He has no pettiness, 
he likes to live and to let live. 

Nijni-Novgorod is another thing that will 
never be touched by politics or government. It 
will remain as it always has been, the unique mer- 
cantile center of Russia, which is a Russia of yes- 
terday. And this Russia of yesterday should be 
the Russia of to-morrow, for it should not become 
the banal road of idle travelers, but always 
endure as the land which has to be discovered. 

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CHAPTER XII 

KU88U OF TO-HOBBOW 

YouNO Russia has a tremoidous task to 
justify her proud name of a democracy. Onfy 
with a clean conscience will she win the power to 
establish in Russia's heart faith in herself. She 
made her first steps into a world of blood and 
tears, and she must protect the early days of her 
childhood from the contradictions that brought 
about the death-sentence for old Russia. But 
while young Russia proclaimed freedom, she 
apparently continued and tolerated the policy of 
old Russia. She continued war, which is not the 
initial demand of a democracy. Democracy in 
Russia should have made her entrance as a con- 
structire, and not as a destructive, power. This 
was not the fault of young Russia; it was the 
fault of old Russia, and to maintain her existence 
young Russia will be compelled to make promises 
the fulfilment of which will exhaust her toider 
youtit 

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RUSSIA OP TO-MORROW 

With a sparkling generosity the five granted 
all' kinds of new wonders to the people, who 
looked bewildered on events so adventurous, so 
incredible, and could not comprdiend why at the 
same time young Russia rushed her children into 
battles, into new miseries. If the five were so 
strong, so mighty; if they were to replace all that 
was yesterday imperative to the simple Russian 
mind; if they had the sincere conviction that old 
Russia was not the reality, that land and people 
had been held in the spell of a century-ltmg 
dream, a dream of terrible nightmares; if the 
morning red of a great truth was so flaming as to 
awaken the last poor illiterate, why should the 
people open their eyes to see only a continuation 
of the dream? 

The people had to be avenged. This was the 
first great idea, and it would have been a strong 
idea if, after the first intoxication of revolt there 
could have followed the supreme redeeming act of 
peace. 

The great sensation in the Russian spring 
festival, beginning with the arrest and tiie dis- 
missal of the czar and with the arrest of the czar's 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

conunon crimiiuls, — the excitiiig holiday of the 
brief elementary revohitkm is past. The people 
hare interred the victims of young Russia with 
the most impressive pomp. The first trains f ran 
Siberia have come in, and all the emotions that 
accompanied the men and wfHnen when they 
mardied away chained have been revived by their 
return. The people, now dull, are expecting 
otho" things to happen. They have bread and 
clothing. They have been given money and 
many promises. But the people, stirred up, have 
lost tiieir ancient patience, which was like a halo 
around their heads. They are eager and 
demanding; they are beginning to reflect; they 
enjoy the new right to draw conclusions. 

The czar, they reason, was sent away, and all 
of us have freedom to do as we like. What is 
freedom which is bestowed on the last muzhik and 
taken away from the czar? Perhaps the czar 
had too much freedouL And the men who freed 
us, have they also the right to dictate to us? 
What really has changed? Those who ruled 
Russia for hundreds of years, and who, despite 
all the maledictions, made a great Russia and 
brou^t out all the immense resources of men and 



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earth, were they not Russian? Was not the czar 
a Russian? Those who punished the czar, who 
still mi the fortress of St. Peter and St Paul, the 
lugubrious memorial of darkest Russia, are they 
the Russians of to-morrow? 

It was perhaps right tiiat the people should 
show the czar that God has given them the power 
to disgrace a sovereign who did not march toward 
the light, but are those five, the rulers of Russia, 
marching toward the light? Why are they the 
rulers of to-morrow when still afraid of the Rus- 
sia of yesterday? Otherwise the czar would have 
freedom to go wherever he wants to go. 

The Russian people slept. From time to 
time they irubbed their sleepy eyes, blinked into 
the world, and noticed something different to 
them. Yes, one day they had more than their 
grandfathers ; they were free to work or to starve. 
They were gratefuL Not all of them suffered 
from the suppression of free speech; there were 
many among th^n who could not read and write. 
They knew only that they lived in a world of 
limitations. They knew that there are strict 
laws in nature for animals, and that a man should 
not revolt against rules that God has dictated 
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and that men have only iuteipreted. And when 
tiiey were unhappy or discontented they could 
accuse the man who interpreted God's laws for 
them. They could accuse the czar, and they 
could hope that some day God would inspire the 
czar to goodness. So they lived between hope 
and fear. 

Prorisional government is what the people will 
not imderstand. It is vague to them; democracy 
is vague to them. They will go about discussing 
democracy, and will try to find out what that 
great word really means. Some of Uiem have 
been in America; some of them are still there. 
Democracy is the expression of the power the 
people have. They have not a czar in America; 
they have a President. He is like a czar, and yet 
he is not. He is not the father of his people. 
He is not loved; he is not hated. He is the head 
of a great business. Russians can not grasp the 
idea that the state is a tremendous business pro- 
position. They are old fashitmed, and think 
there must be some superhuman being who knows 
all about the people, the omnipotent one who 
rewards and who punishes. The Russian mind 
is strongly directed to the unit, to the one of the 
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great number, vfaich is responsible for the little 
numbers that form the big figures. They must 
have this one. The czar had not a position; he 
had a mission. But a President — ^bow can he be 
popular, and how can people believe in his final 
decision, when before his election they stripped 
him of all his good qualities, because a part of the 
people belonged to a political party that favored 
another man? And bow is it possible, so the 
Russian ponders, to look up to a man who was 
not elected because he was the wisest and strong- 
est, but because the party who elected him was 
stronger, had more mcmey, or had better fighters? 
The President's own party has to pull together 
the stripped figure and show his capacity as a 
whole. Each new figurehead must first stru^le 
against all kinds of prejudices among the people 
who accepted him or rejected him. When finally 
he has b^fun to win confidence, to be a man of his 
own personality, of his own color, when he has 
ceased to be a figurehead, the battles begin again 
for a new man. And this they call democracy. 
This mij^t be possible for a country like Amer- 
ica, where the people were first before they had 
their rulers, where the people settled from oM 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MOHROW 

counta*ies from which they brou^t knowledge of 
everything that history taught them. The set- 
tlement of America began only when Russia still 
had her czar. 

It is very difficult to take away from the Rus- 
sian the idea that the czar was the man next to 
Giod, that he had to be crowned with a heavy 
diadem of gold and costly stones, that he had to 
he draped in a purple robe bordered with ermine, 
that splendor distinguishes bim from other 
mortals. When this man, sometimes kind and 
generous, stepped down from his golden throne 
and condescended to the people, great miracles 
were achieved; victories were won where the czar 
showed himself. The Russians wor^ped this 
mysterious force, and that made of them the 
devoted, the imaginative, the patient people. 

The Russian people look to-day on the five 
heroes of the revolution as the link that connects 
the Russia of yesterday with the Russia of 
to-morrow. They have a childlike confidence in 
those five. They see in them their own force 
reflected, a force never known before, and tihey 
accept the five as those who will prepare young 
Russia for to-morrow. 

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RUSSIA OF TO-MORROW 

The Russians would not talk of a republic. 
They were afraid before this denial of their 
holiest convictions. The five who first headed 
the new (Jovemment were wise enough to call 
themselves "provisional." They know why. 
These rulers will have to answer, and they will 
disappoint the people, whom th^ hurried into 
tremendous changes, from whom they took away 
the illusion that beyond enslavement exists a con- 
tentment on earth. As a substitute for the czar 
the five must provide for to-morrow an equal 
grandeur for the people's soul, which still is the 
Russian soul that they would not sacrifice for 
the comfort of the body. The meaning of the 
Russia of to-morrow for the people can be felt 
only throuji^ a deep knowledge of the Russian 
character. 

The Russian as an individual man did not 
bother much about the blessings that the five 
bestowed first so hberally. Personally he had 
nothing to do with the question of religious free- 
dom. If sects appeared or disappeared, that 
was merely a matter of a few who fanatically 
beUeved in a new Messiah. The Russian knew 
that every one has to suffer for his faith, and a 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

faith would not be worth while if there was no 
suffering for it Christ died for mankind. 
Christ was the great martyr. The man who 
preadies a ,new faith must know that he, also, 
will be a mar^ some day; that belongs to his 
holy vocation. If a man who proclaims a new 
faith has not the courage to die for that faith, 
then the faith is wrong. The Russian Churdi 
did not want the sectarians; she did not want the 
Jews, who are a strong race, a convincing race, a 
race that has had its martyrs, which stiU has its 
martyrs. In the Riissian people is a holy respect 
for everything that has suffered for a conviction, 
and if they object to the Jews as a race, fbey 
respect their faith. 

The Russia of to-morrow means more for the 
Russian than political freedom. Even in the 
darkest days of old Russia the human being felt, 
as nowhere else, rest for the soul. Nothing was 
ridiculed, neither imagination nor utopianism. 
The soul could expand; it could laugh and cry. 
Human sins met nowhere else such kindly, sym- 
pathetic understanding. Nowhere else was there 
such fertile earth for fantastic ideas. Freedom 
for Russia means more than the simple hberties 
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RUSSIA OF TO-MORROW 
which are permitted in other democracies, whoie, 
for utilitarian reasons, tiie people are able to 
rule themselves, where the people recognize 
restrictions which are necessary for maintaining 
public order, and where the exceptional cases are 
punished. In Russia are too many exceptions, 
and the first disappointment for the Russians 
will come through the simple laws to which 
every man has to submit for the sake of the 
country. 

There will be many little revolutions growing 
out of the varying opinions of what freedom 
means. In Russia live many persons who never 
have been connected with political movemmts. 
These will demand other reforms, a differoit sort 
of freedom. The Slavic fantasy is so extensive 
that every man in Russia has his own dream, 
which he will want fulfilled, and every man will 
rush to the new rulers to make his own demands. 
When the busy ministers will not have special 
time for him, the Russian will go back home to 
tell his fellow-men that such a thing as freedom 
does not exist, and that he prefers to be ruled by 
a czar, who had a regular cabinet, with many men 
employed to listen to petitions, rather than to be 
87S 



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RUSSU OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

snubbed by men of the people who think them- 
selves the new autocrats. 

It is a fact that the cabinet of the czars at whidi 
petitions were received was like a little govern- 
ment of itself. Catharine the Great desired to 
meet all petitioners, to look into demands per- 
sonally, and to grant them or to explain why 
they could not be granted. She had to give up 
this plan, and she appointed three high officials 
as state secretaries to communicate with peti- 
tioners "kindly, patiently, indulgently"; but 
sealed letters addressed privately and confi- 
dentially to "His Majesty's own hand" reached 
the sovereign without intervention. 

Czar Paul tried to imitate Catharine and made 
every effort to come into contact with the people, 
who went to the palace. To facilitate the receiv- 
ing of petitions, a large iron box painted yeUow 
was attached to one of the windows on the groimd 
floor of the Winter Palace in Petrograd. This 
box had to be opened by the state secretary and 
the contents submitted to the czar. Some peti- 
tions were so absurd that they were partly torn 
and returned throu^ the postoffice. Others 
were published in the St. Petersburg "Gazette," 
d74 



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RUSSU OF TO-MORROW 

with the reasons for refusal. In 1790 this same 
Czar Paul was so eager to meet all demands from 
his people that be issued a ukase forbidding the 
presentation of unreasonable requests; but it 
gradually became impossible to prolong the box 
metiiod of communication. 

In the time of Alexander I a commission of 
appeals was established, and in the time of Czar 
Nicholas the court of petitions was reorganized, 
more or less on the basis upon which it bad existed 
under the last Czar Nicholas II, the members 
being appointed by the czar himself. To their 
tonaer duties were added others relating to 
orphans and lunatics. By the wish of his 
Majesty the reasons for refusals to grant favors 
were sometimes given, but this could not always 
be observed. Czar Nicholas II gave orders to 
enlarge the court's sphere of work by accepting 
appeals to imperial mercy for criminal charges 
and misdemeanors. 

In 1007, an average year, 65,875 petitions went 
through this court, and of this great nxmiber 
64,174 were fortunate enough to be attended 
to without delay. As a rule 65,000 petitions 
were presented annually. Imperial benevolence 
875 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
toward children readied 10.000 cases a 
year. 

This court of petitions will cease to exist, and 
the people will expect every one of the provisional 
rulers to confer personally with the petitioners. 
The first discontent will be awakmed. What 
the Russians endured from the "Little Father" 
they will never accept from democratic rulers. 
And the people will demand more and more, 
beheving that nothing can be refused them. 
The people have been promised freedom, and 
freedom is an elastic word. The people will take 
their petitions to the provisional Governmoit, 
and all refusals will be regarded as a terrible 
injustice. This democratic Government sits 
among the people, and people must be heard. 
Freedom has rung in the last little village of 
Russia, and men and women are on their way, 
with hopes of acquiring more sheep or land from 
this wonder of democratic Government, an insti- 
tution which had the muscles of a giant and was 
forceful enou^ to turn over the throne. They 
think that now the five are only waiting to listen 
to their desires, and to do kind things for the 
mothers and fathers whose children are still fight- 
876 



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RUSSIA OF TO-MORROW 
ing, still dying. But they will discover that in 
the consideration of their demands nothing has 
changed, that this provisional Government is an 
invisible body which cannot be toudied and which 
is impersonal. They will be received by some 
tired, busy clerk and they will see their petition 
disappear into a desk. They will go back shak- 
ing their heads and not understanding at all why 
a democracy should be better for Russia. The 
democratic leaders will si^ more heavily imder 
the demands of the people thui the people sighed 
under their oppressors. 

The Russians dream now of electing a czar oy 
the grace of the people, a czar who will unite in 
his person all the qualities scattered among the 
members of the body called the provisional Gov- 
ernment. The provisional Government does not 
impose the idea of a reverent feeling of remote- 
ness. The Russians cannot see that they are 
bound now to help their rulers instead of hamper- 
ing them. They cannot see this, because "ruler" 
is a higher idea for them, an idea which wears a 
crown, which is specially and personally helped 
by God. The excuse for the delay of affairs 
idiich are important to the individual man has 
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RUSSU OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 
vanished; the people want to have their own, their 
private griefs considered first, and every one of 
them will revolt against neglect. For what is a 
people's Government when the poor people crane 
last? 

In crown and ermine was a ma^c spell that 
banished criticism, and the mtmardiial idea must 
be forever removed from the people's hearts. It 
is like in the old song of mother's love for her 
erring child. When the child has torn out the 
mother's heart, which rolls on the floor, the 
mother's dying voice murmurs : "T^e care, my 
child, not to fall over my heart and hurt your- 
self." 

With the hymns of freedom in Russia, tears 
were shed for the czar and, dethroning him, they 
expected to proclaim the czarevitch enthus- 
iastically. But the five forced the czar to 
abdicate for himself and for the czarevitch, the 
pretext to keep the dynasty being merely an act 
of policy. 

Nothing was brought before the people con- 
cerning those last happenings between the czar 
and the representatives of the Duma, who, one 
morning, manifested themselves as rulers to the 
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RUSSIA OF TO-MORROW 
surprise of the people. "God has illuminated 
these men," the people said as they prayed that 
injustice in Russia would end. "They will sit 
at the right of the czar, and will restore Russia's 
glory to the inner and the outer world, and the 
czar will make a new oath." 

The world outside of Russia must not have the 
illusion that the Russian democracy is settled. 
How should a people so long mysterious as a 
whole suddenly be awakened to new ideas, though 
the Russian has not changed? The world outside 
of Russia rejoiced at the victory of the democ- 
racy, and did not realize what the Russians might 
suffer in the exposure of their young helplessness. 
They always belonged to the democracy of 
genius, which made them all equal before the 
great world spirit. The democracy applicable 
to others will make of them dull, simple people, 
with stomachs satisfied, and with their nuseries 
disclosed through health departments. Chari- 
table women will go among them and will force 
them to become happy. 

Old Russia will change from the mysterious 
conditions of hunger and fear to the banal cer- 
tainty of a people who wiU recognize business 
879 



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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

opportunities. Old characteristics of the primi- 
tive, ibe strange Russia will be first sacrificed to 
a practical spirit, and old Hussia will be buried 
and burned and reconstructed into sky-scrapers, 
into factories. The people will forget the songs 
of their oppression; they will become fat and 
banaL They will read and write, and will quote 
the wisdom of the newspapers instead of their old 
sayings uid prophecies. They will become a 
political people, with all the prosaic horrora of 
elections, and small ambitions will take the place 
of cruel grandeurs. Heroism will be eliminated ; 
there will be no longer risk of Ufe or deportation, 
no longer the dream-Uke secret meetings. The 
Russians were the wonder-people who thou^t 
they had to wait for something marvelous, great, 
and new, an earthly heaven. They had fougfat 
for life» not only for suffrage and imagined 
splendors. The people were serfs, and their 
souls had wings; the suppressed word had much 
more to say than unrestrained speech, and hopes 
were more beautiful than realizations. 

The Russian suddenly will have to close his 
mind to spiritual miracles and to open it to the 
day's necessities. He will no longer have time 



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RUSSIA OF TO-MORROW 
to discuss the affairs of souls and their beatitudes; 
he will discuss new corporations. He will live 
much faster, and the charm of the long, long 
days, which began only at noon and ended when 
the next morning dawned, will disappear. There 
will be no limger many, many holy days, with 
the interruption of churdi services, for the saints 
never have had room in the pragmatism of a 
democracy. Gaiety and life of individuality will 
change into the hypocrisy of civilized habits. 
Souls will be emptied, and art will be submerged 
by inventions of practical value. A nation of 
dreamers and philosophers will become bathed, 
clean-shaved Russian citizens. 

Beneath all that was Russian to the outer world 
slumbers quite another Russia, not the barbaric 
Russia, not the anarchistic, nihilistic Russia, not 
the Russia known to-day, — the confused people 
who bhndly follow the strongest or run in wild 
disorder in another direction, — but a Russia that 
is revealed only to those who know her, who love 
her so greatly that they would not die for her, but 
would live for her; a Russia young, emanat- 
ing, above democracy and autocracy; with a 
force too overwhelming to be freed, a force that 
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RUSSIA OF YESTERDAY AND TO-MORROW 

would conquer the whole world, a force that must 
be tamed at any cost until Russian ideals, throu^ 
education, enter into ihe age of ripeness and 
become like a precious wine, golden, heavy, and 
sweet, a wonder drink for all mankind. This is 
the Russia of to-morrow. 



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BERKELEY 

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