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Notes and Queries, July 29, 1905. 


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C O N T E N T S. -No. ,->4. 

FOTBS : Residence Dinners in Durham, 1 Shotley Wills, 
2 "Quandari*," 4 -Knights of Windsor "Dogmatism is 
puppvism full grown" " Prickle-l>*t " Marquis of Salis- 
bury in Fitzroy Square ' The Northampton Mercury' 
Deaths of ilie Aged James Clarence Mangin. 5" Betty " 
Matthew Arnold's ' Horatian Echo ' Millikiii-Entwisle 
Families, 6. 

QUERIES : Plundered Pictures TrtHeton an.l " The 
Tabor" Marriage Service Bridges, a Winchester Com- 
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of Padua Count A. <le Panigna o : Holloway Comet 
c. ir><0 Bail of Montrose Statue in a Circle of B >oks 
Walker Family Solitary Mass Statutes of Merton, 8 
"Broken heart" Calland C. Hope Weir Horseshoes for 
Luck Godiva's Birthplace Florida, it. 

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Guisers " An o'd woman went to mmket," 10 Bringing 
in the Yule "Clog" Christmas under Charles I., 11 
"Cursals " Pa'rick Bell Mrs. Carey, 12 " He ?aw a 
world" BirMi at S-a The Mussnk 'Steer to the Nor'- 
Nor'-West,' 13 "Fortune favours fools" Bananas 
School Slates Hicha'd of Scotland "Stub" Vincent 
Stuckey Lean, 11 Inscription 011 Statue of James II. 
Blake: Norman: Oldmixon Travels in China, ]."" Mr. 
Pilblister and Betsy hi* sister" Whitsunday Suppres- 
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Wares Wanted, 1(5 -Split Innnitive Excavations at Kich- 
borough Pnrish Clerk, 17 Chiltern Hundreds 'The 
Death of Nelson,' 18. 

KOTKS ON BOOKS: Hakluyfs ' Navigations ' The 
Stratford-on-Avon Shakespeare 'The Poore's Lamenta- 
tion for the Death of Queen Elizabeth ' ' Photograms ' 
'Clergy Directory' 'Burlington Magazine' Keviews 
and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THERE are very few people now living who 
remember these once famous entertainments. 
I was myself a guest at one of the last of 
them, at the house of Dr. Jenkyns, who died 
in 1878, the last of the old prebendaries, 
though I believe he was not quite on the 
same footing as the older men had been. 
The following note is based partly on my 
own recollections, and partly on those of 
siiy friends Mr. Thomas Jones, of Durham, 
Proctor and Notary, and the Rev. William 
Green well, Minor Canon and Rector of St. 
Mary's in the South Bailey, whose memories 
of Durham go much further back than mine 

The Dean and the twelve Prebendaries 
of the foundation of Queen Mary each kept 
three weeks of "close residence" in their 
turns, during which they always slept in 
their houses in the college, maintained hos- 
pitality, and attended every service in the 
cathedral, or, as i j was then commonly called, 
"the abbey." If they failed to comply with 
any one of the above customs only once, 
saving by reason of sickness or some other 
urgent cause, they began their residence 
over again. I have understood that Dean 

Waddington, having been obliged by the 
death of a near relation to go away during 
his close residence, took it again from 
beginning to end. 

During their close residence the Dean and 
Prebendaries gave " residence dinners," about 
five or six, or two a week. These were on 
a very bountiful scale in respect both of 
meat and of drink, and usually took place 
at 7 o'clock. At one dinner would be enter- 
tained nobility and gentry, with members 
of the Chapter, and the more wealthy of the 
beneficed clergy ; at another, the Minor 
Canons, the head master and second master 
of the Grammar School, the less wealthy 
beneficed clergy, and professional men ; at 
another, the Mayor and Corporation, with 
other citizens ; at another, at 2 P.M., the 
singing men, with tradesmen, tfec., who 
always went from the dinner to the after- 
noon service. And there would be other 
dinners for guests not easily classified. At 
some, probably those of the second grade, 
there would be officials such as the Receiver, 
the Chapter Clerk, &c. And before the days 
of railways, when strangers in Durham were 
few and far between, they came in for their 
chance. I have heard my father say that 
once when my grandfather and he were 
passing through Durham they attended the 
afternoon service, immediately after which 
the verger came to them with "Archdeacon 
Bouyer's compliments, and would they favour 
him with their company at dinner that 
evening ? " They gladly accepted the invi- 
tation. It was a residence dinner, and they 
met the famous Count Borouwlaski, the 
Polish dwarf, who then lived in Durham. 
"The little count" brought his own tiny 
knife and fork, now in the Durham Uni- 
versity Museum, and was accommodated 
with a big book on his chair to raise him 
to the height of the table. The count was, 
as usual, very entertaining, the archdeacon 
very kind and hospitable, and the strangers 
enjoyed a delightful evening. At the end 
of dinner came the grace. One chorister, in 
a brown gown faced with white, attended by 
the butler with a shilling on a silver waiter, 
and a wax candle in his hand, read, in English, 
the first portion of Psalm cxix., " Bead imma- 
culati," on a monotone. The prebendary said 
"Tu autem," and the boy went on with 
"Domine miserere nostri,'' on a monotone 
which sweetly sounded through the great 
room. The prebendary then handed the 
shilling over his left shoulder to the boy,* 
who descended to the kitchen, where he 

I remember the benevolent smile with which 
Dr. Jenkyns did this. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io' s. m. JAN. 7, 

received a posset and a jelly for his imme- 
diate delectation, and a tart and a cheesecake 
to take home with him. At least that is 
what Mr. Jones remembers to have been 
usual when he was a chorister. The grace- 
cup with mulled wine went round to all the 
guests, and the two grace-cups that were used 
are still in the possession of the Chapter. They 
are a very fine pair, silver gilt, with handles 
and covers, standing about 15 inches high, 
and holding about three pints apiece. They 
have engraven on them the arms of the 
bishopric ensigned by mitres. The date- 
letter, confirmed by the leopard's head 
crowned, shows that they were hall-marked 
in 1764. 

There was a man cook in the service of the 
Chapter who went from house to house. 
The last but one was named Sanglier, a 
Frenchman, doubtless, and he lived in the 
small rectory house of St. Mary's in the 
South Bailey. 

There are two interesting drawings, dating 
from about 1780, in the Kaye Collection at 
the British Museum, iii. 1, 2, one of which 
represents a residence dinner at Durham 
with the prebendary at the head of the 
table, in gown, cassock, bands, and wig, and 
about half a dozen gentlemen in the pictur- 
esque dress of the period ; these are the only 
figures shown in the drawing. The other 
represents a number of old women in uniform 
cloaks sitting at a long table, from one end 
of which the prebendary, habited as above, 
and with a benevolent smile, as in the case 
of Dr. Jenkyns handing the shilling, is 
distributing to them long clay pipes. They 
appear to have just had their dinner, and 
the grace-cup is on the table, having just 
gone round. The expressions on their 
countenances are exactly those of the old 
women in Caldecott's illustration of Mrs. 
Mary Blaize, when she " strove the neigh- 
bourhood to please with manners wondrous 
winning," and cups of tea. J. T. F. 


SHOTLEY WILLS, 1463-1538. 

THE following five wills have been tran- 
scribed from the registered copies preserved 
in the Probate Court at Ipswich. No. I. and 
No. II. are written in abbreviated Latin in 
an unusually crabbed hand, by no means easy 
to decipher. The Latin is here extended. 
A few words have baffled the skill of the 
modern transcriber. 

The parish of Shotley, in Suffolk, occupies 
the apex of a triangle of land, bounded on 
its two sides by the rivers Orwell and Stour, 
and having for its base the railway line con- 

necting Manningtree with Ipswich. The- 
parish lies in two manors Over-Hall-with- 
Netherhall and Shotley Hall or Kirk ton. 

No. I. 
(Book II., fo. 120".) 

In clei nomine Amen septimo Kalendas Augus-tii 
Anno Domini millesimo cccclxjij . Ego Johannes 
Pertryche de Schotele alias Kyrketon compos 
mentis & bene memoria: condo testamentum nieuin 
in hunc modum In primis lego Animam meam deo 
omnipotenti beate niarie ac omnibus sanctis corpus 
que meum ad sepeliendum in cimiterio beate marie 
de Schotle alias Kyrketon. Item lego summo Altari 
eiusdem ecclesie iij' iiij' 1 pro decimis oblationibus <fc 
aliis omissis transactum. Item lego ad reparacionem 
ecclesie beate marie de Schotle alias Kyrketon 
infernio siveexternio ubicumque[?one word] necesse- 
facere x 1 . Item convento fratrum Augustini de 
Orford x" pro xxx u [a trentall Sancti Gregorii. Item 
convento fratrum minorum Gippewici x 1 simili 
modo pro xxx u . Item lego Johanne Halle uxori 
Roberti Halle filie mee xiij' iiij j sub hac condicione- 
viz. nt ipsa Johanna & nee ipse Robertus perturbant 
nel [vel] ad [? iniuriam] aliquo modo proturbanfc 
sive contradicant Thomam perteryche filium meum 
quacumqueexcausasiveproaliqua viz. sivebonamo- 
bilia sive immobilia Efc si contingatquod Absit quod 
isti duo faciant ut laborant contra meam ultimam 
voluntatem tune volo quod nichil [nihil] habeat 
sive habeant de bouis meis nisi ad [? one word] 
predicti Thomse filii mei sicut sibi placuit Residuum 
vero omnium bonorum meorum debitis Abstractis 
do <fc lego Thomce pertryche ac Agneti consorti sue- 
heredibus & Assignatis suis ut ipsi ordinent & 
disponant pro anima mea & uxore meo [sic] sicut 
melius viderint expedire In cuius rei testimonium 
sigillum meum presentibus Apposui ac eciam his 
testibus domino Andreo capellano Roberto ov'ton 
ballivo de Herwiche [Harwich] Johanne Hastyng' 
minore de Schotle & Aliis multis Anno domini 
probatum fuit, &c. Apud. Gippewicum xxiiij' die- 
mensis Januarii Anno supradicto Et comyssa 
supradict' etc. 

No. II. 
(Book III. ,fo. 156 b .) 

In Dei nomine Amen undecimo die mensis 
Novembris Anno domini nullesimo cccc mo Ixxxxiij". 
Ego Thomas Pertryche de Schoteley senior compos 
mentis et sane memorie condo testamentum meum 
in hunc modum. In primis lego Animam meam 
deo omnipotenti beate marie ac omnibus sanctis 
Corpus que meum ad sepeliendum in Cimiterio 
ecclesie parochialis de Schotley predicti. Item, 
lego summo Altari eiusdem ecclesie vi" viij' 1 . Item 
lego fabricando une fenestre in parte Australi dicte 
ecclesie iij 1 iiij d . Item lego domini [sin] fratrum- 
minorum de gippevvici pro uno trigintali pro anima 
mea ad celebrandum x". Item lego domini [.s:c] 
fratrum Augustini de Orford iij" iiij d . Item lego 
Johanne filie mee uxori Johaniiis worry de villa 
predicta duas pecias terre iacentes infra Sewair 
croft cum domo k gardina sibi & heredibus suis 
post obitum Agnetis uxoris nice. Item lego Agneti 
uxori mee totum illud tenementum in quo habito 
cum omnibus suis pertinentiig ubique jacent diu 
quedam vixerit. Et volo quod post decessum uxoris 
mee illud tenementum predictum cum pertinentiis 
auis dividatur inter duos filios meos equaliter viz. 
Thomam & Johannem Ita eque inter eos dividatur. 
Et volo quod Johannes filius meus habeat mansiona 

s. in. JAN. 7, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

sua in meo tenemento predicto & heredibus suis ita 
tanien quod Johannes predictus & heredes sui 
solvant aut solutum faciant Thome p'tryche filio 
meo predicto heredibus & executoribus suis unam 
porcionem terre ad quantitatem mei dimidii 
tenement! [? one word] inter vicinos videbitur 
dividi. Insuper volo quod quis filiorum meorum 
super vixit quod ille habeat sibi aut here- 
dibus suis filiis ant filiabus imperpetnom. Et si 
sorte aliquis filiorum meorum decesserit absque 
[? licita] procreatione quod ex [?four words] tene- 
mentum meum cum omnibus suis pertinentiis 
vendatur <fc denarios ex eo provenientes dispo- 
iiandos pro me uxore mea <fc parentibus meis. Item 
lego Johanne filie mee predicte unum campum qui 
vocatnr overyard quod sicut supra ilium donuim 
edificet sibi & heredibus suis imperpetuum ita 
lumen quod per campum predictum habeat via 
pedestrium [?one word] que ad ecclesiam. Insuper 
volo quod si executores mei non habeant in mobi- 
libus unde pro me disponant quod vendant unam 
peciam terre & pecunia inde provenienti disponant 
prout Salute Anime mee videbitur expedire. Et 
si Aliquis filiorum meorum voluerit illam porti- 
onem terre comparare volo quod illi emant pro aliis 
lego Thome filio Johannis verrey in pecuniis xx* 
vel aliquod aliud ad valorem illius pecunie. Item 
volo quod le g a vell pitte que jacet in pastura que 
vocatur subfen quod exspendatur in emendandum 
viam quod regiam & Alias non nisi conveniant cum 
executoribus meis. Residuum vero de executoribus 
viz. Thome Blosse seniori de Schotley Thome 
p'tryche filio meo & Johanui filio meo quod ipsi 
disponant pro salute Anime mee uti deo duce 
videbitur. In omnisrei testimonium sigillum meum 
apposui data die & Anno supra dictis hiis [his] 
testibus Johanne pand' Symone merche Adam 
bunsch. Item lego & do Thome p'trych filio meo le 
wor' [*K.] growml apud fyschbane & quod habeat 
siuun placitum in omnibus terris meis viz. venando 
volucres capiendo. 

Probatum &c. coram nobis apud Gippewicum 
ultimo die meusis Januarii Anno domini supra 
dictp. Et commissa &c. Thome Blosse & Thome 
p'trich' executoribus juratis &c. Reservata [potes- 
tate] Alleri coexecutori cum venerit &c. 

No. III. 

(Book XL, fo. 53". ) 

In the name of god Amen. And in the yere of 
our lord god M 1 ccccc xxxij the xxiiij u Daye of 
August I John P'tryche of Shotley in the Countie 
of Boffin theDiocise of Norwich yeman beyng in 
good memorye att that tyme lauded be god make 
this my testament and last Will fErst I bequeth my 
soule to the blessed Trinite our blissed ladye and 
to all the holie companye of hevyn. And my bodie 
to be buried in the cherch yerde of Shotley. Also I 
bequeth to the highe Aulter of the said cherch for 
my oblacions and tythes forgoten iijs; iiijrf. Also 
I bequeth to my mother cherch of Norwich iiijtf. 
Also I Will that myn Executors shall honestlie 
bury me and kepe my xxx" Daye and my yere 
Daye. Also I Will that myn Wyff shall haue 
terme of her lyff myn tenement that I clwelle in 
W' all the londes therto belongyng And all my 
other tenements <fc londes both fre and copye 
Where so euyr they Do lye Durying hir lyff naturall 
and keping hir selff a wedowe. Also I Will aft r 
my Wyffs deth that Margaret my Doughter haue 
my teneme't callyd Harlyuggs and Popys felde 
somtyme Jamys Brausyu. Also I Will aft r the 

Decease of my Wyff the said Margaret shall haue 
a close called Shorte londe close. Also I Will that 
aft r my Wyffs deth Which of my two Doughters 
Elizabeth and Margaret be habelest [ablest, 
most able] to by my house that I dwelle 
in W the Close the yerdys and gardeyn 
plottys therto belongyng conteyneng by estimation, 
iiij acres more or lesse payeng to there susters than 
beyng a lyve or to there children of there bodies 
laufullye begoton v markys starlyng to eu'y suster 
that is to seye eu'y yere vjs. viijrf. to eu'y oon of 
them till the s'm of x& be paide equallie to them or 
to there children. Yf ony of myn Doughters Dye 
be fore there mother that than I Will that there 
susters than beyng a lyve shall haue porcion and 
parte equallye to be deuyded be twyxt them or 
there children beyng a lyve yf ony they haue lauful- 
lye begoton As is before Writon. Also I bequeth 
to the said Elizabeth my Doughter aft r her mothers 
deth oon acre in newecroft callyd Dorokys acre w* 
all the residue in the same felde. Also I bequeth to 
the said Elizabeth aft r hir mothers dethe a medowe 
callyd brodrushe Rye close & also [?f]ulsen o'y 
Wyse called heyclose. And [fo. 53 b ] yf all my 
doughters dye or there mother than I will that all 
my nouses & londes whereso euyr they lye be solde 
aft r my wyffs deth by her executors or assignors 
And the money thereof comyng to be disposed in 
messys and dedys of charite most pleasing god 
and for saluacon of our soulys and all cristen 
soulys. Reseruyd ahvey to there children yf ony 
they haue than beyng a lyve v markys a pece 
growyng & comyng of the sale of all myn tene- 
ments & londes a fore writen. Also I bequeth 
to my Wyff all myn moveabillys to do w' them 
what she will payeng my dettys and p'formyng 
this my last will and testament. Also I requyre 
all my Eoffeoffers in all my said houses & londes to 
deliue' estate whan they shalbe requyred to the 
p'formaunce of this my last will and testament [? one 
word] I make & ordeyn myn executrices my Wyff 
Elizabeth myn doughter and Margarett to se this 
my last will p'formyd. Also I will that my Wyff 
shall have my Close called Parmentars otherwise 
callyd Bettys close in fee simple that is to geue and 
to selle. And also I will that John Smyth my 
godson shall haue iij.. iiijrf. And also I do 
faythfullie requyre and desire the p'son of Er%varton 
S' Nycoll to be sup'viso 1 and assistent to my 
executrices in good councell to the p'formaunce of 
this my last will and testament & he to haue 
vjv. viijtf. In witnesse whereof I haue putt to my 
scale In the p'sence of Thomas Blosse and George 
Warre w* other mo. Also I will that if ony of 
my doughters stryve w* other or with my executrix 
so that this my last will shall be hendered & take 
noon effecte or onysute to be made that than I will 
that hir parte shalbe deuyded & go equallie to the 
Residue of hir susters non stry vyng. Be it knowen 
to all men that 1 syr John Jermyn priest att the 
instaunce of the good man p'trych [? end wanting]. 

Proved at Ipswich, 27 Sept., 1532, by the execu- 

No. IV. 
( Book X III., fo. 51\) 

In the name of god amen. I Margery Partrych 
Syngylwoman of Shotteley beyng in good mynd & 
hole memory the xxvj te day of March in the yere of 
o r Lord god M'ccccc xxxviij te make of last will and 
Testament in this man' folowyng ffyrst I bequeth 
my Soule to Allmyghtie god my maker & to o' 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io- s. m. JAN-. 7, im 

ILady saynt Mary & vnto all the holy companye of 
Hevyn & my body to be buryed in the Cherch yarde 
of Shotteley aforesaid. Item 1 bequeth my Ten'fc 
lyeng in Dedh'm [in Essex] holdyn by Copy of 

Courte Rolle w l all the londs therto belongyng 
to my Syster Elyzabeth Partrych hyr heyers & 
assigneis aft r the deth of my Mother Isabell Part- 
rych And tlie Residue of all my goods I gene vnto 
my Mother & my Syster Elyzabeth aforesaid for to 

se me Honestlye buryed. Whom I make myn 

executryces. Wyttenes of this my powre [poor] 
Will and Testament Syr John Bulle pryst Rycharde 
Maye & Margerye May w* other. 

Proved at Ipswich, 8 Oct., 1538. 

Dedham lies in the valley of the Stour, 

which separates Essex from Suffolk. Ded- 

ham is bounded by the Essex parishes of 

Langham, Ardleigh, and Lawford, and the 

.'Suffolk parishes of Stratford St. Mary and 

East Bergholt. It is not improbable that from 

'the Partridges of Shotley were descended 

the Partridges whose history begins in the 

registers of Stratford and the adjoining 

parish of Higham in the years 1589 and 1585 

respectively. See 'Partridge of Shelley 
Hall ' in Muskett's ' Suffolk Manorial Farui- 

'liea.' ii. 165-70. 

No. V. 

(Book XIII. , fo. 7 b .) 

In the name of god Amen I Isabell pertryche 

wedowe of the p'ish of Shotteley in Suff beyng in 

; good mynde lawded be Jesu The iiij te daye of Apryll 

& the yere of our lorde god M'cccccxxxviij" 

make my last will & Testament in this man' 

. & forme folowyng [fo. 8"] ffyrst I bequeth my 

> soule to god to our ladye <fc to all the companye 

in hevyn my body to be buryed in the cherch yarde 

of Shotley I bequeth to the high Aulter ther iiij' 1 
for my tythes forgotton & not don. Item I bequeth ij 

Trentallys of three score masses to be said by some 

honest pryst for my husbonds soule & myn ft our 

ffrynds Soulls. Item I bequeth & geue to Johan 

'Pette the yonger iiij nr Ewe lambys. Item I bequeth 

to my doughter Elyzabeth p'trych my pece of 

; grounde callyd Belts the which I gaue hyr State 

in tyll such tyme as the said Johan Pette com to 

the age of xx t! yerys. Then she to haue yt. And yf 

yt fortune hyr to dye or [before] that tyme Than 

the said pece of grouude to remayno to my said 

. doughter Elyzabeth & to hyr assign' in ffee Symplee 

'for en'. And I will the rente therof be payde 

alweys & as yt hath eu' be in the house that I dwell 

in. And also I geue to the said Johan Pette my 

' Ten'tt callyd Burton when she comyth to the age 

aforesaid. And yf she dye a fore the age Than 

my said doughter Elyzabeth to haue yt in ffee 

Symplee as ys aforesaid wreton. Also I geue to 

the said Johan Pette oon Brasse pott next the best 

whan she comyth to the age aforesaid. The Resydue 

of all my gooddys moveabylls & vnmoveabyHs wher 
so eu' they ley or be I geue to my said doughter 

i Elyzabeth payeng my detts and honestlye buryyng 
me. And eu' a monge as she may be some dedys 
of Charytie to remembyr my soule my husbonds 
soule & all Oystyn soulls or cause to be don. 
Whom I ordeyri & make my sole executryx and 
:Sup'vyso r Master Symoncle Nycolls p'son of Erwar- 
.'toii whom I geue iij' iiij' 1 . These be wyttcnes of 

this my last will and Testament Thomas Blosse the 
elder Rychard Brome John Turno r Will'm Smyth 
and John Branston the elder. 

[Fo. 8 b ] Proved at Ipswich, 5 May, 1538, by the 

No. V. appears to be the last recorded will 
of any Partridge of Shotley, but the following 
notes prove that the name continued to 
exist in the parish. The register is incom- 
plete : baptisms begin in 1644, marriages in 
1687/8, and burials in 1571. An examination 
of the last section down to 1612 brought to 
light eight entries relating to a family named 
Patrick, and also the two following, both in 
1604 : 

The same daie [30 of August] An infant the 
daughf of Thorn's patrich bur. 

The 23 of December Thorn's Patrich the husband 
of Mary bur. 

The following notes are from various 
sources : 

1628, 22 April, marriage licence, Thomas 
Fuller, widower, and Alice Pattriche of 
Shotley, widow, to be married at S. Helen's, 

1639, 18 Oct., administration of Alice 
Partrige of Shotley granted to her aunt 
Susan, wife of William Browne, during the 
minority of her sisters, Mary and Hester 

1657, 26 Nov., administration of Alice 
Partridge, late of Shotley, Suffolk, spinster, 
granted to Henry Partridge, her uncle 
(P.O C.). 

1671, "John paterredg of Shotely singell- 
man and Mary Barrnard ware married the 
24th of August" (Brantham parish register) 

1728, marriage licence, John Partridge, of 
Shotley, Suffolk, to Ann Waller of the same, 
at Mistleigh or Manningtree. E. M. 

" QUANDARY." Many speculations have 
been hazarded as to the origin of this word ; 
but we have all of us overlooked a highly 
important piece of evidence, to which Dr. 
Ellis drew attention as far back as 1871. 
The ' N.E.D.' gives the earliest quotation as 
from Lily's 'Euphues': "in a great qunn- 
darie," ed. Arber, p. 45, the date being 

The next quotation is the very important 
one from Stanyhurst's ' Virgil ' (ed. Arber, 
p. 94) in which quanddre is so used as to show 
that the accent was on the penultimate, the 
date being 1582. 

The next quotation is dated 1611. But 
there is another notice of the word, in 1582, 
which practically explains its origin. This 
is from Rich. Mulcaster's ' First Part of the 
Elementarie which 'entreateth chefelie of 

io' s. in. JAN. 7, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

the right writing of our English tung,' 
printed at London, 1582. 

In describing the sound of the letter e 
Mulcaster says : 

"Whensoeuer E is the last letter [in a word] 
and soundeth, it soundeth sharp, as me, #<' [see], 
v:e, ayre [agree]: sailing in the, the article, ye the 
pronown, and in Latin words, or of a Latin form, 
when tlieie be vsed Knglish-like, as certio r are [.sic], 
qn.andare, where e, soundeth full and brode after 
the origiuall Latin." 

This is to say, that an expert in English 
pronunciation, writing at the very time 
when the word was quite new, distinctly 
tells us that quandare is a word " of a Latin 
form," and that it is used "English-like," 
i.e , with some very slight change. Dr. Ellis 
remarks on this : " Observe that quandary 
is referred to a Latin origin, quam dare, as if 
they were the first words of a writ." See his 
'English Pronunciation,' p. 912. 

I much doubt if quam dare is right ; it is 
difficult to see how a sentence can thus begin. 
But if any one can produce an example, the 
question will be settled. 

My own guess is that quan: dare is a 
playful mode of reference to the phrase 
quantum dare, " how much to give." This is 
a question which causes perplexity every 
day, notably to one who contemplates going 
to law, or contributing a subscription, or 
buying any luxury or even any necessity. 
At every turn this searching question puts 
the thinker "in a quandary." For such an 
abbreviation, compare rerbum sap., infra dig., 
pro tern., nem. con., &c. 


KNIGHTS OF WINDSOR. (See 5 th S. v. 209, 252 ) 
A paragraph from Australia, which has been 
copied into The British Australasian, alludes 
to the succession to an English baronetcy of a 
Hobart cabman, and adds that "the position 
carries an income of about 4,000^. yearly, and 
residence at the Royal Foundation, Windsor 
Castle." The statements as to income and 
residence can hardly both be true, and may 
neither of them be so. But a correspondence 
as to the "Poor Knights" may be supple- 
mented by this note. D. 

(See 10 th S. ii. 520.)- Quoted, and I think the 
source given, in Crabb Robinson's 'Diary.' 

W. T. 

" PRICKLE-BAT." Stickle-back, stickle-bay, 
and j)rickle-back are well-known variants of 
this friend of our childhood, and I think I 
have come across dittle-bat. The above, 
however, is a new acquaintance, and is to be 
found in Hassell's ' Life of Morland,' p. 106, 

where the author gives the title to one of his- 
pictures as 'Children fishing for Prickle- 

In the notices of the career of the late 
Marquis of Salisbury which appeared in the- 
newspapers on the occasion of his death,, 
reference was made to the fact that in his 
early days he lived in a part of London not 
usually patronized by the members of our 
great families. Amongst his London resi- 
dences I saw no mention of No. 21, Fitzroy 
Square, where he lived from 1860 to 1862. 
He was then Lord Robert Talbot Oascoigne 
Cecil, M.P. for Stamford. I have verified the 
entry in the directory by the St. Pancras 
rate- books, and find that the house was rated < 
at 901. It is now occupied by the British 
and Foreign Sailors' Society. R. B. P. 

vi. 25.) As an addition to my note at the- 
above reference, I send on the following 
cutting taken from The Daily Mail of 3 De- 
cember last : 

" A famous county newspaper, The Northampton 
Mercury, has just changed hands, the proprietors,. 
Messrs. S. S. Campion & Sons, having sold it to a 
local syndicate. This is the only paper in the 
kingdom which can prove unbroken publication for 
one hundred and eighty-four years. It has also the- 
distinction of being the oldest privately-owned, 
paper in England. It was founded in 1720 by 
Robert Raikes, the philanthropist, and William 
Dicey, ancestor of Professor Dicey. The founders 
started the famous Dicey Chap-books, and remainedi 
for over fifty years the principal producers of chap- 
books and broadsheets." 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

DEATHS OF THE AGED. In The Guardian's 
obituary list of 14 December last forty- three 
deaths are recorded. In six cases the age is- 
not stated. Of the remaining thirty-seven 
eleven were aged ninety and over the senior 
being the Rev. George Elton, M.A.Cantab., 
aged ninety-five; eleven were between eighty 
and ninety; eight between seventy and eighty; 
five between sixty and seventy ; onefifty -eight, 
and the youngest of the whole list fifty-two. 
Out of the whole forty-three thirty-one were 
males. It would be easy to supplement this 
list from other papers. An aunt of my own 
died on 1 December in her ninety-ninth 
year. The unseasonably severe cold at the 
end of November was, no doubt, the cause 
of a large proportion of these deaths. 



duction to his 'Life of Mangan' Mr. D. J. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io- s. 111. JAN. 7, iocs. 

O'Donoghue quotes the following statement 
from a memoir prefaced by John Mitchel 
to his edition of Mangan's poems : " He 
n-ever published a line in any English 
periodical." Tins statement is disproved, by 
the sudden appearance to the writer of an 
oversetting of Schiller's poem ' Hope,' which 
is to be found in vol. vii. N.S. of Chambers' s 
Journal, April, 1847. This poem, which does 
not appear in any edition of Mangan's poetry, 
runs as follows : 

The future is man's immemorial hymn. 

In vain runs the present a-wasting : 
To a golden goal in the distance dim 

In life, in death, he is hasting. 
Ihe world grows old, and young, and old, 
iJut the ancient story still bears to be told. 

Hope smiles on the boy from the hour of his 

birth ; 

To the youth it gives bliss without limit ; 
It gleams for old age as a star on earth, 

And the darkness of death cannot dim it. 
*ts rays will gild even the fathomless gloom 
When the pilgrim of life lies down in the tomb. 

Never deem it a Shibboleth phrase of the crowd, 

Never call it the dream of a rhymer ; 
I lie instinct of Nature proclaims it aloud : 

We are destined for something sublimer. 
Ihis truth which the witness within reveals 
Ihe purest worshipper deepliest feels. 

J. C. Mangan. 

2, Dolphin Terrace, S.C.R., Dublin. 

." (See 9 th S. xi. 227.) Some 
American students at Gottingen told me 
that they have heard the term " black betty " 
used in the United States of a kind of " black 
pudding" or "haggis." On p. 50 of 'A 
.New Dictionary of Americanisms,' by Sylva 
Clapin, one reads: " Hetty, the straw- 
bound and pear-shaped flask of commerce, 
in which olive oil is brought from Italy." 

[The latter meaning is noted in the 'N.E.D.'J 

This poem appeared first in The Century 
Guud Nobly Horse for July, 1887. Arnold 
was a constant reader of this magazine, and 
on his expressing a wish that "something 
could be done" to render its publicity less 
restricted, a friend one of the leaders of the 
Guild suggested that the poet might him- 
self do something " by sending them a con- 
tribution. In reply, while pointing out his 
inability, through pressure of work, to 
promise anything," the illustrious patron 
agreed that "if he could make anything of 
;a little Horatian Echo, in verse, which had 
Jam by for years, discarded because of an 
unsatisfactory stanza, they should have it " 
Within a few weeks the revised MS. was 

sent, bearing the date 1847 "a relic of 

youth quite artificial in sentiment," but 

containing "some tolerable lines, perhaps." 
The friend above alluded to, upon receipt of 
the poem, wrote back inquiring whether the 
author had not intended the title to be in 
the plural or ' An Horatian Echo.' To this 
"the ex-School-Inspector " answered that if 
the plural were used it was to be Echoes, not 
Echos ; but "the composer" thought that 
" the singular was preferable." Hence the 
title as we know it ' Horatian Echo.' 


are given below from the will of Catherine 
Price, of the parish of St. Mary, Woolnoth, 
in the City of London : 

" To be buried in the churchyard of Lee, Kent. 
Mentions indenture bearing date Nov., 1743, be- 
tween Henry Price, then of the parish of Saint 
Bride's (my late husband), and Francis Smith, of 
the parish of St. Paul, Covent Garden, relating to 
10 acres of land in Unwell, in the county of Norfolk; 
15 acres in Upwell, in a place called .Netmore, in 
the occupation of John May ; also lot of 16 acres 
called Lake's End, in Upwell, in the occupation 
of John Raper ; also the ' Hen and Chickens ' in 
Whitechapel High Street, in the occupation of 
John Allen ; also one undivided third part of tene- 
ments in Noble Street, in the parish of St. Olave, 
Sikver [? Silver] Street. 

"Bequeaths 'Hen and Chickens' to Mary Ent- 
wisle, Margaret Entwisle, and Jane Millikin, 
widow, all of Lombard Street, London, milliners, 
and immediately after their decease to the use of 
Halley Benson Millikin, son of the said Jane 
Millikin. Legacies to ' my cousin Robert Smith,' 
4 Elizabeth Caton, niece of my said late husband.' 
Mary Entwisle sole executrix. Witnesses Basil 
Herne, Basil Herne [sic], William Herne. 

"Dated July 8, 1764. Proved Nov. 14, 1765, by 
Mary Entwisle, sole executrix." P.C.C., Register 
Rushworth, fo. 423. 

A correspondent says : 

" Part of Lombard Street is in the parish of 
St. Mary, Woolnoth, and I conjecture that in her 
second widowhood Catherine Price went to live 
with the sisters Eutwisle. 

" As to the houses and land which appear to have 
been settled on the second marriage of Catherine, 
it is not clear whether they originally formed part 
of her estate or of that of Henry Price. Possibly 
the part of tenements in Noble Street came to her 
From her first husband." 

The purport of the above will be made 
rather more clear by adding that Katherine 
Price, younger surviving daughter of Dr. 
Edmond Halley, had first married, 2 October, 
1721, Richard Butler, of St. Martin ', 
widower (cp. published 'Register of Church 
of St. Margaret, Lee,' p. 13). Her second 
liusband was Henry Price, who died in 
January, 1764. 

Reference to the marriage of James Milli- 
kin. and Jane Entwisle, 26 October, 1749, 

io* s. in. JAN. 7, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

was made at 9 th S. xi. 85 ; xii. 185. Their 
son Halley Benson Millikin (born circa 
1750 ?) must have received his first Christian 
name in consequence of an early acquaint- 
ance (if not blood relationship) existing 
between the respective families. 

Chicago, U.S. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be sent to them 

admirable "Murrays," which seldom nod, 
though sometimes, as in the case of the 
charges of what was the dearest hotel in the 
world, they become out of date by reason of 
change, I find a paragraph which is worth a 
query. It is in the handbook which includes 
Lyons. The account of that provincial 
museum needs some alteration. There are 
at least four pictures of great literary interest 
which are not named, probably because the 
writer of the handbook despised the nine- 
teenth century. The lives of George Sand 
and of Madame de Stae'l are conspicuously 
illustrated by two of them ; the Romantic 
movement by a third ; and the Napoleonic 
story by a fourth. Moreover, the frescoes of 
Puvis de Chavannes now need notice. 

The query is called for by an allusion to the 
"Lyons Perugino" as having been " presented 
to the city of Lyons in 1815, by Pius VII." 
Is not this one of the hundred pictures, 
mostly Peruginos, which were "comman- 
deered " from the city of Perugia and 
its inhabitants by the French revolutionary 
forces? Is it not the case that when the 
Duke of Wellington marched the High- 
landers into the Louvre to see that the Pope 
got back his pictures, which Louis XVIII. 
was most unwilling to give him, there were 
only two Peruginos there 1 I always heard 
that the excellent taste which dictated the 
robbery at Perugia of exactly the right 
things was at that time in advance of the 
taste manifested in Paris by the art authori- 
ties. The result was that, of all the admirable 
pictures by Perugino captured, only two were 
thought good enough for the Louvre, and all 
the others had been scattered to the pro- 
vinces. The Duke of Wellington had trouble 
enough over getting back the pictures 
in the Louvre, without bothering to repeat 
the process in every provincial museum. 
The Pope did not send back the two to 

Perugia, of which they had been the glory, 
but retained them in the Vatican, where they 
are still. Did he add insult to injury by 
giving to France the others which he did not 
retain for his own glory ? How were they 
his to give? D. 

ST. RENNET'S CHURCH. In ' Twelfth Night,' 
III. i., we have : 

Viola. Save thee, friend, and thy music : dost 
thou live by thy tabor ? 

Cloicn. No, sir, I live by the church. 

Viola. Art thou a churchman ? 

Clown. No such matter, sir : I do live by the 
church ; for I live at my house, and my house doth 
stand by the church. 

In Act V. i. 42, the Clown says: "The 
bells of Saint Bennet, sir, may put you in 

Malone stated that "The Tabor" was the 
sign of an eating-house kept by Tarleton, 
the celebrated clown or fool of the theatre 
before Shakespeare's time. Boswell said that 
Malone was mistaken, and that the sign of 
Tarleton's house was "The Saba," meaning 
the Queen of Sheba. See Boswell's ' Malone's 
Variorum,' 1821. 

In a recent pamphlet it is stated that 
Malone was right ; that Tarleton's house 
was at " The Sign of the Tabor " ; and that, 
moreover, it was next to St. Bennet's Church 
in Gracechurch or Gracious Street. If this 
is true the two passages quoted would seem 
to be most interesting topical allusions, and 
tend to fix a much earlier date for the play 
than is usually assigned it. What are the 
facts, so far as can be ascertained 1 Was it 
" The Tabor " t And was there a St. Bennet's 
Church in Gracious Street ? QUIRINUS. 

New York. 

MARRIAGE SERVICE. What is the origin 
of ' The Form of Solemnization of Matri- 
mony' in the Book of Common Prayer? Who 
was the author of the service as it now 
stands ? If it is a translation, from what 
Roman office is it translated? There is no 
corresponding office now existing in the 
Roman liturgy. B. 

1833 William Thomas Bridges, only son of 
Capt. Philip Henry Bridges, R.N., entered 
Winchester College as a Scholar. His record 
is as follows : C.C.C., Oxon., B.A. 1843, M.A. 
184G, D.C.L. 1856; barrister, Middle Temple, 
1847 ; Acting Att.-Gen. at Hongkong, 1854-7; 

m., 1856, Frances Gertrude, widow of 

Carrow, and d. of Broderip ; d. 30 Sept., 

1894. Names to fill in the above blanks will 
be welcomed ; but the purpose of this query 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io< s. m. JAX. 7, i%5. 

is to discover whether the above is identical 
with "Bridges, son of Capt. Bridges, of 
Court House, Overton," who became a Com- 
moner at Winchester in Short Half, 1837. If 
not, who was the latter 1 ? 


anxious to learn the author of the following : 

Be sure that Love ordained for souls more meek 
His roadside dells of rest. 


As in a gravegarth count to see 
The monuments of memory. 

A. M. T. 

ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA. The cult of 
this saint is often referred to as a recent 
development in the Roman Catholic Church, 
notably in France and in Ireland. But in 
' Lavengro ' (vol. i. chap, ix., edition 1851) 
George Borrow makes an Orangeman of 
Clonmel in the year 1815 drink "to Boyne 
water and to the speedy downfall of the 
Pope and St. Anthony of Padua." Can any 
one furnish information as to the nature of 
the cult of the saint at that period? Was 
his invocation then used, as now, as a means 
of recovering lost property 1 and why did an 
Orangeman nearly ninety years ago single 
him out for execration, together with the 
Pope ? B. 

On 15 and 16 December, 1853, a collection of 
autographs and MSS. belonging to the former 
was sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson at 
their Great Room, 191, Piccadilly. In the 
catalogue is " Lot 94, Letters of Charles I." 
They were bought by a person named Hol- 
loway. Who was this count, and where did 
he live in 1853? Also, who was Holloway, 
the purchaser? what were his initials? is he 
alive now ? and, if so, where does he live? 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

COMET c. 1580. In the registers of the 
French Church in Southampton is mentioned 
a public fast, 6 April, 1581, to deprecate the 
Divine wrath " threatened in the appearance 
of the Comet which began to show itself on 
the 8th of October and which lasted until the 
12th of December" ('Relics of Old South- 
ampton,' 1904, p. 75). Has this comet been 
identified ? C. S. WARD. 

EARL OF MONTROSE. Mr. Andrew Lang, in 
his 'St. Andrews' (London, 1893), mentions 
(p. 228) an account-book kept by the tutors of 
the youngEarl of Montrose while he was study- 
ing there in 1627 to 1629. Have these accounts 

ever been published ? and, if not, where can 
the originals be consulted 1 L. L. K. 

edition of Thomas Hey wood's ' Pleasant 
Dialogues and Drammas' (1637) appeared in 
1903 at Louvain, under the careful editorship 
of Prof. W. Bang, as one of the series of 
"Materialen zur Kunde desalteren Englischen 
Dramas." This very miscellaneous volume 
includes an epitaph on Mrs. Katharine Skip, 
who died in 1630, and also the following : 

" Of Mr. Thomas Skipp her husband, since de- 
ceased, and buried in the same Tombe, whose Statue 
is plac'fc in a circle of Bookes, for the great love he 
bore to learning. 

What stronger circle can Art-magick find 
Wherein a Scholers spirit can be confind, 
Than this of Bookes? next how he spent his time, 
Scorning earths drosse to look on things sublime. 

So long thy love to learning shall be read, 

Whilst fame shall last, or Statues for the dead." 

This verse naturally provokes the inquiry if 
this statue "in a circle of books" is still 
extant ; if so, where? 


WALKER FAMILY. Peter Walker married 
Rebecca Woolner, in Suffolk (probably at 
Ipswich), about 1770. He held some scholastic- 
appointment at Oxford or Cambridge. Their 
daughter Charlotte married Lieut. Francis 
McLean, R.N., at St. George's, Hanover Square, 
25 December, 1802. 

John Walker, vicar of Bawdsley, Suffolk, 
and a minor canon of Norwich Cathedral, 
died at Norwich in 1807, aged fifty-two. 

I shall be very glad if any reader will 
kindly give me information regarding the 
parentage of either Peter or John. 


2, Willow Mansions, Fortune Green, Hampstead. 

SOLITARY MASS. The Roman Church, I 
understand, does not permit a priest to say 
Mass without at least the attendance of a 
server. Is this rule ever relaxed ? or has it 
ever been ? For instance, if a priest is alone 
in a heathen land can he celebrate quite 
alone ? I read somewhere that Dr. Pusey 
used to celebrate every morning in his college 
rooms at Oxford. If this is true, did he 
always have a server ? 


Libau, Russia. 

correct version of the famous saying in 
connexion with the above : " Nolumus leges 
Anglise mutare," or " Nolumus leges Angliae- 
mutari" ? I have seen both, in my numerous, 
references.. The first mentioned would seem 

io* s. in. JAX. 7, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to be the correct one, to judge from the fact 
that the speakers were asked to sanction a 
new style of legislation, and not whether they 
would or would not alter the laws of Eng- 

"BROKEN HEART/' What is the origin of 
the metaphorical pathology expressed in the 
sentence, " She died of a broken heart " ? 


CALLAND. I should be glad to obtain 
information about Augustus, Charles, and 
George Calland, who were all three admitted 
to Westminster School on 12 January, 1784. 
Charles matriculated at Oxford from Christ 
Church, 3 April, 1788, and was admitted to 
Lincoln's Inn in the following year. 

G. F. K. B. 

CHARLES HOPE WEIR. I desire to know 
the date of the death of Charles Hope Weir, 
the friend of Adam Ferguson. He was living 
in Edinburgh in 17G1. Where can an account 
of him be found ? D. E. 

New Bedford, Mass. 

them on walls or nailing them on doors which 
is the right side upwards? I have always 
considered the front of the shoe should be 
top, but I know several people who maintain 
the reverse, although they can give me no 
reason for so doing. What is the rule 1 I 
notice in Fred Barnard's frontispiece to the 
"Household Edition "of 'Dombeyand Son' 
a horseshoe is represented on a shed door 
back upwards. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

GODIVA'S BIRTHPLACE. Is the birthplace 
of Godiva known ? The ' D.N.B.' is silent on 
the point. A. R. C. 

FLORIDA. " In 1763 it was ceded to Great 
Britain by the Spaniards in return for 
Havana. Vigorous efforts were made by the 
British Government to promote settlements 
by liberal grants of land to settlers.'' The 
above is a quotation from an encyclopedia, 
which also states that a Mr. Drake, I believe, 
has written a ' History of Florida from the 
Earliest Days.' Unfortunately I could not 
find this in the Free Reading - Room in 
Liverpool. An ancestor of mine died 
possessed of a large tract there, and if I 
could see the original grants of land and the 
grantees, I could fill in one or two important 
gaps in the family pedigree. Where in 
London can I find names, &c , of grantees ? 
I suppose duplicates of grants were made. 


(10 th S. ii. 503.) 

I FEAR no one can possibly accept the 
proposal to regard the Icel. veizla as the 
original of wassail; for it would obviously 
have only given some such form as wait set. 
It does not explain the ai in the second 

I see that the passage from Robert of 
Gloucester which is already quoted in my 
dictionary is again quoted in ' N. &, Q.' But 
my reference to "Hearne's Glossary, p. 731," 
has been wholly neglected. It seems hard 
that such indifference should lead to a new 
and unjustifiable etymology. 

As I fear your readers will not take the 
trouble to refer to this "p. 731," I take the 
opportunity of doing so on their behalf. On 
that page Hearne gives " a remarkable frag- 
ment," as he calls it, from an old MS. ; and he 
also refers us to the word queme in his Glos- 
sary. There he gives yet another passage, 
which is of great interest. I give it here in 
prose : 

" Lord king, Wassaille, said she [Rowena]. The 
king asked what that might mean ; for he knew 
nothing of that language [English]. A knight had 
learnt their language in youth. His name was 
Brey [or Brey], and he was born a Briton ; he had 
learnt the language of the Saxons. This Brey was 
the interpreter of what she had told Vortigern. 
' Sir,' said Brey, ' Rowen greets you, and calls you 
king, and addresses you as lord- This is their 
custom and their manner, when they are at the ale 
or feast. Each man that loves wherever it may 
seem good to him shall say Wasseille, and drink to 
him. The other shall say again Drinkhaille. He 
that says Wasseille drinks of the cup, and, kissing 
his companion, gives it up to him. DrinkheiUe, saj s 
he, and drinks thereof, kissing him in jest and play.' 
The king said, as the knight had taught him, 
' Drinkheille' smiling on Rowen. Rowen drank as 
pleased her, and gave it to the king, and afterwards 
kissed him. This was, indeed, the first Wassaille, 
and that first one became famous. Of that Wo&a/Slt 
men talked a good deal, and [said] Wassaille when 
they were drinking their ale. Many times that 
young maiden wassailed and kissed the king," &c. 

I fear I owe an apology to those who con- 
sult my dictionary. It never occurred to 
me that any one would cast a doubt upon 
this extremely well-known story, and so I 
quoted from Robert of Gloucester only. Of 
:ourse, I ought also to have quoted the much 
older account in Layamon, which simply 
settles the question. See vol ii. pp. 175, 176. 
I give the earlier and later texts side by side, 
but modernized : 

Dear friend, wens hail ; Dear friend, wassail ; 
The other saith, drinc The other saith, dring- 
haU. hail. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [iu"- s. m. JAN. 7, 1905. 

And again : 

The custom came to this The custom came to the 

land, land, 

Wivs hail and drlnc hceil. Wassayl and drmg-hayl. 

As the older and better text has woes 
hail, i.e., " be thou hale," where the later 
one, written by a Norman scribe with frequent 
mistakes (observe his dring /), has wassail, I 
can see no more to be said. We thus have 
the most sure evidence in a first-rate authority 
(from a philological point of view) that the 
phrase which was intelligently written as 
wees hail by an Englishman was stupidly 
turned into ivassail by a Norman scribe who 
had something to learn. 


The wassail song, of which MR. ADDY 
quotes a very corrupt version from Sheffield, 
is well known in many parts of the country, 
and is published, with music, as No. 37 of 
Novello's ' Christmas Carols,' price Id. In 
the Bradford district I have heard the 
children sing : 

Here we come a-wesselling 
Among the leaves so green ; 
An' here we bring our wesley-bob, 
The fairest to be seen. 
For it is the Christmas time, 
When we travel far an' near ; 
So God bless you, and send you 
A Happy New Year. 

In Novello's version the third line is weak, 
Here we come a- wandering ; 

and the Bradford version, though its wassail 
bowl is corrupted to "wesley-bob," points 
to the real original. In Bradford the 
wassailers are usually girls, and their "bob " 
consists of an elaborately dressed doll, 
sitting under an arch of flowers, ribbons, 
and " green " ; the whole coverea with a 
fair white linen cloth, which is raised from 
time to time for spectators who are likely 
to contribute. Presumably the doll was 
originally the Virgin and Child. 

Hadlow, Kent. 

The following is part of a carol sung in 
Leicester by children, and the tune and the 
words, I am told, have not altered during the 
last fifty years : 

I have a little whistlebob, 
Made out of holly tree 
The finest little whistlebob 
That ever you did see ; 
For it is a Christmas time, 
When we travel far and near, 
And I wish you good health and 
A Happy New Year. 

The expression a " load " of holly or mistletoe 

s still used in the market here every year, 
meaning a bunch, no matter how small. 



S. ii. 504) Mumming or guising was a custom 
maintained down to a comparatively late 
;ime, and it would be of much interest to know 
whether the custom still survives in Oxford- 
shire or other counties. A note in Brand's 
Antiquities,' 1853 (Sir Henry Ellis), says 
that it was in that year common in Oxford- 
shire, where at Islip the mummers either 
alacked their faces or wore masks, and 
dressed themselves up with haybands tied 
round their arms and bodies. Thesmaller boys 
Dlacked their faces and went about singing : 
A merry Christmas and a Happy New Year, 
Your pockets full of money, and your cellars full of 


And the following lines were still sung at 
bhe Christmas mummings in Somersetshire : 
Here comes I, liddle man Jan ( ? January), 
With my zword in my han ! 

(? the keenness of winter) 
If you don't all do 

As you be told by I, 
I '11 zend you all to York 
Vor to make apple-pie. 

To this day, I believe, the (dis)guisers go 
about in the north of Scotland visiting their 
friends on both Christmas Day and New 
Year's Eve. The new-comer is, of course, on 
account of his disguise, treated as a stranger, 
but the hospitality of the host never fails on 
this account. A poor girl begging, a pedlar 
selling little wares, a farmer's wife who has 
lost her way, or any other personation which 
is at once likely to be credible and to afford 
occasion for clever acting or ready wit, is 
resorted to. Generally the guest reveals his ot- 
her true self before departing ; and in the 
remote islands of Shetland, where through 
the long winter the people are wholly depen- 
dent on " home-made '' interests and amuse- 
ments, this idea is worked out moreelaborately. 
The plan is for some of the young people of a 
neighbourhood to band themselves together 
disguised, and then, in a troop, to visit the 
houses of the lairds or the large farmers. 
See further The Osborne Magazine of some 
few years ago ; and there is a good deal of 
information on this curious subject in Brand's 
' Antiquities,' 1853 (Ellis), vol. i. pp. 461-6. 


(10 th S. ii. 502). An account of the sources 
whence have come the stories of ' The House 
that Jack Built' and of 'The Old Woman 
who couldn't get her Pig over the Stile' will 

in. JAX. 7, wo*.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


be found in Edward Clodd's ' Childhood of 
Religions,' pp. 126-7, and a bibliography of 
the subject in Note E, p. 262. Mr. Clodd 
quotes the poem at the end of the Passover 
subjects used by the Jews, which some of 
them " regard as a parable of the past and 
future of the Holy Land." H. A. STRONG. 
University, Liverpool. 

The late J. O. Halliwell (' Nursery Rhymes 
and Tales of England,' pp. 112, 131) notes 
the coincidence pointed out by ME. WATSON, 
and says that the historic interpretation was 
first given by P. N. Leberecht in 1731, and is 
printed in The Christian Reformer, vol. xvii. 
p. 28. YGREC. 

BRINGING IN THE YULE " CLOG " (10 th S. ii. 
507). Probably MR. RATCLIFFE is aware that 
there is an old proverb " Dun 's in the mire" 
or "As dull as Dun in the mire.' 3 "Dun" 
is evidently the name of a horse, and the 
saying no doubt had its origin in the dreadful 
state of the roads in early times, although 
one knows many a country by-road, to this 
day, where "Dun " might easily be stuck in 
the mire. The old English custom consisted 
in dragging the Yule "clog," or "log," through 
the mud to its resting-place on the brand- 
irons, preparatory to its consumption on 
Christmas Day. It was done with the cere- 
monies alluded to, of dancing and other 
accompaniments of any kind of noise and 
ebullitions of joy. In Herrick's ' Hesperides ' 
one of the 'Ceremonies for Christmasse' is 

Come bring, with a noise, 
My merry, merry boys, 

The Christmas log to the firing ; 
While my good dame she 
Bids ye all be free, 

And drink to your hearts' desiring. 

I think it is worthy of note that "dun," or 
dark red or brown, was often interchange- 
able with the sanguine colour, a symbol of 
the sun ; and I would ask whether it is not 
possible that the Yule log, being, as it is 
thought by Brand, a winter counterpart of 
the Midsummer fires, made within doors 
because of the cold, is not a relic of sacrifice 
to the sun-god. What is certain is that 
objects even approaching the sanguine colour, 
like "dun," were sacred to the sun, whose 
rays were certainly typified by horses. In 
a note to Ben Jonson's masque of ' Christ- 
inas,' Gifford says of this joyful pastime that 
a log of wood, called Dun the cart-horse, is 
brought into the middle of the room, and 
some one cries out, "Dun is stuck in the 
rnire ! " Two of the players then come 
forward, and, with or without ropes, com- 
mence to try to drag it out. They pretend 

to be unable to do so, and call for help. 
Some of the others join them, and make 
awkward attempts to draw Dun out of the 
mire, in the course of which the log is made 
to fall on the toes of some of the players. 
"As dull as Dun in the mire" occurs in Ray's 
' Proverbs ' (Bohn), and Douce, in his 'Illus- 
trations of Shakespeare,' also alludes to it. 

[In the West Riding we heard in boyhood the 

Olive-coloured dun, 
Ugliest colour under t' sun. 

This has no bearing on the question under dis- 
cussion, but seems worth recording as folk-phrase.] 

"Clog" and "log" must have been 
synonymous terms. 

N. Bailey, in his 'English Dictionary,' 1759, 
defines dog to mean a load or log. 

John Brand, in his ' Popular Antiquities,' 
1795, heads a chapter 'The Yule Clog or 
Block, burnt on Christmas Eve,' and fre- 
quently refers to it in the same sense. 

The Gentleman s Magazine for August, 1790, 
says : 

"At Rippon in Yorkshire, on Christinas Eve, 
the chandlers sent large mold candles and the 
coopers logs of wood, generally called Yule Clogs, 
which are always used on Christina* Eve. ; but 
should it be so large as not to be .all burnt that 
night, which is frequently the case, the remains 
are kept till old Christinas Eve." 

A writer in the same magazine for February, 
1784, says : 

" That this rejoicing on Christmas Ece had its 
rise from the Juul, and was exchanged for it, is 
evident from a custom practised in the Northern 
Counties of putting a large dog of icood on the fire 
this evening, which is still called the Yide clog." 

Southey, in ' The Doctor ' (1834), says : 
" Clogg was the English name, whether so called 
from the word log, because they were generally 
made of wood, and not so commonly of oak or fir 
as of box, or from the resemblance of the larger 
ones to clogs, wherewith we restrain the wild, 
extravagant, mischievous notions of some of our 
dogs, he knew not." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

On the "Yule-block," see Hone's 'Year- 
Book,' col. 1110, and on the "Yule-log," 
'Book of Days,' ii. 734, with an illustration. 
In East Yorkshire " clog " was the word, not 

log." W. C. B. 


505). On this see ' Hudibras,' part i. canto i. 

1. 227 : 

Quarrel with Mined Pies, and disparage 
Their best and dearest Friend Plum-Porridge. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. JAN. 7, IMS. 

"CuRSALS " (10 th S. ii. 509). The "farm of 
cursals " probably belonged to one of tbe 
"Cursal Prebends" of St. Davids. Why 
these were so called has not been quite satis- 
factorily explained. See 'X.E.D.' 

J. T. F. 


S. ii. 487). The estate of Antermony, or more 
properly Auchtermony, originally belonged 
to the Flemings, Earls of Wigtown, and was 
probably acquired by Alexander Bell, the 
father of Patrick, before the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Alexander was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son James. Patrick Bell, 
the second son, studied and held a bursary 
in theology in the University of Glasgow, 
1G78-83. He became minister of the parish 
of Port of Menteith, May, 1683; succeeded his 
brother in the paternal estate 1685 ; and was 
deprived of his benefice by the Privy Council 
in 1689, for not reading the Proclamation of 
the Estates, 'not praying for their Majesties 
William and Mary, and not observing the 
thanksgiving. As his successor in the parish 
was not appointed till 1697, it is probable 
that some understanding was arrived at 
whereby Bell continued his ministrations till 
that date. When he left he carried off a 
quantity of the session records with him, and 
refused to give them up until legal proceed- 
ings were taken against him in 1706. He 
married Annabella, daughter of John Stirling, 
of Craigbarnard, and died 4 July, 1722, 
having had issue at least two sons : Alexander, 
who died vitd patris, a,nd John, who succeeded 
to Auchtermony. He was a merchant in 
Constantinople and a distinguished traveller, 
and was sent by the Emperor of Russia on an 
embassy to Persia, 1715-18, and to China, 
1717-22 He published 'Travels in Diverse 
Parts of Asia,' 2 vols. 4to, Glasgow, 1762-3, 
and died 1780. J. B. P. 

The Rev. Patrick Bell, minister of Port of 
Menteith, born in or about 1660, studied and 
held a bursary of theology at Glasgow Univer- 
sity from 1678 to 1683. He was presented by 
Higgins of Craigforth to the living of Port, 
to which he was admitted on 15 May, 1683. 
He was deprived of his benefice by the Privy 
Council on 3 October, 1689, for not reading 
the Proclamation of the Estates, not praying 
for their Majesties William and Mary, and not 
observing the thanksgiving. On 2 December, 
1685, he was served heir to his brother James, 
who died without issue, in the barony of 
Antermony (not Auterraony), in the parish 
of Campsie, Stirlingshire. They were sons 
of Alexander Bell, a writer in Edinburgh, 

who had probably bought the property. 
This Alexander married, before 1657, a name- 
sake, probably a relative, Grizel Bell, daughter 
of James Bell, Provost of Glasgow, whose 
wife was Isobel, sister of Campbell of Blyths- 
wood. Grizel was one of Provost Bell's three 
daughters and heirs-portioners. The Provost 
had a son Patrick, a merchant in Glasgow, 
who predeceased his sisters. He had married 
Margaret, daughter of James Hamilton, of 
Dalziel. The Rev. Patrick married Annabella, 
daughter of John Stirling, of CraigbarneL 
They had a son John and a daughter Grizel. 
John was born in 1691, and passed as a phy- 
sician in 1713, and went into the Russian 
service, and accompanied embassies from that 
country to Persia and China. He was a keen 
Asiatic traveller, and was for some years in 
Constantinople. He wrote ' Travels from 
St. Petersburg to Various Parts of Asia.' In 
1746 he married Mary Peters, and settled at 
Antermony, where he died, without issue, 
aged eighty- nine. The half-sister of Mary 
Peters was Jane, daughter of Benjamin Vigor,, 
of Fulham, who married the last Earl of 
Hyndford in the Scottish peerage, and died 
in 1802, aged eighty-six. Dr. Bell sold Anter- 
mony to Capt. John Lennox, reserving, how- 
ever, his life-rent. His sister Grizel married 
a Mr. Brown and had two daughters, who 
were both dead by 1766, and are interred in 
the churchyard of Glasgow Cathedral. See 
further Scott's 'Fasti,' ' The Retours,' ' Scots 
Lore,' and others there cited. 


Patrick Bell was educated at Glasgow 
University (1678-83), and was married (not 
born, as stated) in 1685. He was the last 
of the Episcopalian clergymen, and was 
deprived of his living (Port of Menteith) by 
order of the Privy Council, 3 October, 1689, 
for not reading the Proclamation of the 
Estates, and for refusing to pray for their 
Majesties King William and Queen Mary. 
Shortly after 1689 he was served heir, in 
succession to his elder brother, of the estate 
of Antermony, of which his father, Alexander 
Bell, was former proprietor. From what 
stock Alexander Bell first of Antermony 
came would be interesting to hear ; also 
the name of his wife, who, it is surmised, 
was related to or connected by marriage 
with the Grahams of Gartur. 


[Information as to Alexander Bell's wife is sup- 
plied above by MR. ANDERSON.] 

MRS. CAREY (10 th S. ii. 449). It is singular 
that two correspondents of ' N. & Q ,' at an 

s. in. JAN. 7, woo,] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

interval of fifteen years (see 7 th S. viii.), 
should inquire for a "Mrs. Carey," although 
the lady referred to was well known at the 
commencement of the last century as Mary 
Anne Clarke. Huish, in his ' Memoirs of 
George IV.,' also calls her "Mrs. Carey." 
Did she ever adopt that name? 

In the preface to the work ' Evidence and 
Proceedings upon the Charges preferred 
against the Duke of York,' by Col. Wardle, 
M.P., 1809, now before me, she is stated to 
have been the daughter of a Mr. Farquhar, 
and to have been married at the age of fifteen 
to Mr. Joseph Clarke, the son of a respectable 
builder of Snow Hill, London, the offspring 
being two boys and a girl then living. In 
1802, in consequence of Mr. Clarke's dissolute 
life, she separated from him, and in the 
following year placed herself under the pro- 
tection of the Duke of York. These par- 
ticulars differ in every respect from those 
given in 1 st S. iv., 4 th S. xi., xii., 6 th S. xi., 
7 th S. viii., 8 th S. vii., 9 th S. vii. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

" HE SAW A WORLD " (10 th S. ii. 488). The 
lines quoted seem to be a confused remi- 
niscence of a verse by William Blake in 
' Auguries of Innocence,' a poem beginning 
thus : 

To see a world in a grain of sand, 
And a heaven in a wild flower : 
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, 
And eternity in an hour. 

See his 'Poetical Works,' edited by W. M- 
Rossetti, p. 180 (Bell & Sons, 1891). 


BIRTH AT SEA IN 1805 (10 th S. ii. 448, 512). 
Perhaps this birth may be entered in the 
records of the Royal Navy at the Admiralty 
in Whitehall, or at the Public Record Office. 

If the ports are known from which the 
vessel departed and at which she arrived in 
1805, Lloyd's List and .Lloyd's Register of 
Shipping (at the library of Lloyd's, Royal 
Exchange, London) would show the names of 
the vessels which left the port of departure 
in 1804-5, the ports they sailed for, the dates 
of departure from, and of arrival at each, 
respectively, and their owners' names. 

The newspapers, gazettes, magazines, &c., 
of that time, both at the ports of de- 
parture and of arrival, would probably 
give the list of passengers embarked and 
landed. If the business of the then owners 
be traced down to the present time, it is 
probable that the log or journal of the 
particular vessel required may still bo in 
existence, and contain an entry of this birth. 

If the vessel belonged to the Royal Navy r 
her log should be at the Public Record Office 
or perhaps at the British Museum. If she 
belonged to, or was hired by, the East 
India Company, her log would be at the 
India Office, Whitehall. 

The birth would not have been officially 
registered in England, as the Act 6 & 7 
William IV., cap. 86, sec. 20, making a record 
of births compulsory, did not come into force 
until 1 March, 1837. It is also impossible 
to say positively where it would be found, 
either as a birth or a baptism, in any 
ecclesiastical record in England, or even iff 
entered in any such record. But in any 
case, if the name of the vessel be known, 
there can be no very great difficulty to find 
a record of the birth, especially if the ship's- 
log or journal is extant. C. MASON. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

THE MUSSUK (10 th S. ii. 263. 329, 371, 431). 
Olufsen, in ' Through the Unknown Pamirs,' 
p. 44, writes : 

The chief means of water transport employed 

is made of the entire hide of an animal, the skin of 
a goat or wolf being preferred. It is tanned quite 
smooth, the holes at the head and three of the legs 
are tied taut, while in the fourth leg is placed a 
wooden tap with a wooden stopple. Through the 
tap the skin is blown full by the native, who seizes- 
the tap with his left hand, and with his left elbow 
presses the distended hide close up to his chest. 
He now throws himself into the stream, and whilst 
the hide keeps him above water, he, with his legs- 
and right arm, works slantwise across the river." 

There is more on the same subject. 

H. A. ST. J. M. 

If MR. RALPH THOMAS has not yet succeeded 
in procuring an illustration of the skin-boat 
from India, he may perhaps be interested to- 
find an account, with a photograph, of the 
senai, as it is called on the Indus, in that 
very pleasant book Gore's ' Lights and Shades 
of Hill Life in the Afghan and Hindu High- 
lands of the Punjab,' pp. 121 ff. 


ii. 427, 490). I shall be much obliged to any 
one who will inform me who was the captain- 
to whom this incident is said to have happened. 
My grandfather, the late John Matthews, 
of St. Ives, Cornwall, owner and master of 
the schooner Eldred, who died in Australia 
1866, was a master mariner from about 1825- 
to 1850, and made several voyages across the 
Atlantic. Many years after his death, a 
reputable person informed the deceased's 
son that he (Mr. Matthews) had related the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no* s. in. JAN. 7, 1905. 

story as having happened to himself, begging 
the said person on no account to repeat it 
during the narrator's lifetime. This is why 
I am anxious to get at the facts. 


" FORTUNE FAVOURS FOOLS " (10 th S. ii. 365, 
491). It seems not unlikely that this proverb 
is an adaptation of an older one, viz., " Fortune 
favours the hardy man, "in Chaucer's ' Troilus,' 
iv. 600. This may have been applied, in 
particular, to the fool-hardy man. Chaucer 
'had it from Virgil's "Audentes Fortuna 
iuuat," 'yEn.,' x. 284. It also occurs in 
Terence, ( Phormio,' I. iv. 26. 


BANANAS (10 th S. ii. 409, 476). In El Grdfico 
of Madrid, Niimero 187, for 17 de Diciembre 
de 1904, MR. J. PLATT will see a confirmation 
of MR. JAGGARD'S opinion as to the superiority 
of the bananas grown in Las Cariarias. On 
p. 8, in an illustrated article headed 'Los 
Platanos de Canarias : Esplendida Exporta- 
tion,' these words occur : 

"El platano es originario de Asia, de donde en 
tiempos remotos paso al Africa, llevandolo despues 
nosotros a America, y aun en el Mediodia de la 
Peninsula pueden cultivarse con exito, aunque 
nunca son tan sabroeos y tiernos como los canaries, y 
pocas plantas le igualan por la majestad y ele- 
gancia desu aspecto, la amplitud y la bellezade sus 
hojas, la riqueza de su floracion, las cualidades de su 
fruto y las numerosas utilidades que de todo el se 


SCHOOL SLATES (10 th S. ii. 488). In con- 
nexion with this subject it is worth while 
recalling these remarkable lines in Chaucer's 
Roundel, which has been named 'Merciless 
Beauty ' : 

Love hath my name y-strike out of his sclat, 
And he is strike out of my bokes clene 
For ever-mo ; ther is noil other mene. 
Surely slates are not very modern. 


Slates " to write upon " must have been in 
use long before Walpole's time (1781), for. they 
are so described by Thomas Dysch, the author 
of the 'New General English Dictionary,' 
1754, and by Dr. Ash in his 'New and Com- 
plete Dictionary of the English Language,' 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I have a small book of accounts connected 
with a night school carried on in this village 
some eighty or ninety years ago. Under 
date 5 November, 1820, is the entry " 1 doz. 
of slates, 4s. 6d." These would presumably 
be the small plain slates without frames 

which I remember to have seen in use in the 
charity school here about forty years ago. 

This note may not prove of much use as a 
reply to your correspondent's question, but 
the recorded price of school slates at the 
time named is not without value. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. . 

RICHARD OF SCOTLAND (10 th S. ii. 408, 449). 
By far the best account of this personage 
is to be found in a pamphlet of 96 pages, by 
the late Thomas Kerslake, called ' Saint 
Richard the King of Englishmen and his 
Territory, A.D. 700-20 ' (1890). 

Mr. Kerslake was a careful and painstaking 
investigator who has left many valuable 
notes and papers on historical subjects. He 
traces St. Richard's connexion with St. Boni- 
face and Willibald down to his burial at 
Lucca, proving that he was "Rex Anglorum, : ' 
as stated on his tomb in an epitaph of seven 
lines. The subject is led up to in a previous 
pamphlet, published in 1879, 'Vestiges of the 
Supremacy of Mercia, 1 &c. 

In addition to the ' Hodceporicon of St. 
Willibald,' the late Bishop Brownlow read 
papers before the Devon Association at 
Twerton in 1891, on ' The Brother and Sister 
of St. Willibald,' and at Plymouth in 1892, 
on 'St. Boniface in England.' Both papers 
are printed in the Transactions of the Devon 
Association for the years as above, and con- 
tain much matter of interest in connexion 
with St. Richard. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

" STOB " (10 th S. ii. 409, 495). I see no reason 
why stob may not be the usual M.E. tfob, 
which is the modern stub. Cf. A.-S. stybb, 
Icel. siubbi, a stump of a tree. It might 
easily have been the name for a " clearing " 
where the stubs had been left. I do not 
admit "corruption"; it is a word used in 
the interest of guessers who wish to infringe 
sound-laws. To me, Olive does not suggest 
" holy " ; it rather suggests Olaf. 


Stobe occurs as the name of a family in the 
north of England, as I have a book-plate 
label of John and Ann Stobe, Whitehaven, 
1803. A. H. ARKLE. 

VINCENT STUCKEY LEAN (10 th S. ii. 466). 
As bearing on the question raised at this 
reference it may be interesting to place on 
record that " A Bill to enable Persons of 
Irish Birth or Extraction to adopt and use 
the Prefix O, or Mac, before their Surnames," 
was introduced into the House of Commons 
by Mr. MacAleese and other Irish members 
in the session of 1898. The third section of 

io<,i905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that Bill was as follows : " All ancient statutes 
prohibiting the use of O or Mac before Irish 
-surnames are hereby repealed." It is evident 
that the promoters of the Bill were under 
the impression that the prefixes mentioned 
were prohibited by law, although they were 
apparently unable to refer to the particular 
statutes. When the Bill was in Committee 
the Attorney-General for Ireland stated that 
there was " no statute or principle of common 
law to prevent any one taking the prefix O 
or Mac." The Bill was afterwards dropped, 
.and has not been reintroduced. It may, 
therefore, be inferred that its promoters were 
convinced that the supposed "ancient 
statutes " have no existence in fact. 

F. W. READ. 

if at any time the prefixes Mac and O were 
prohibited in Ireland. In 1465 (5 Edw. IV. 
cap. 3) a law was passed enacting 

"" that every Irishman that dwells betwixt or 
amongst Englishmen in the County of Dublin, 

Myeth, Uriell, and Kildare shall take to him an 

English surname of one town or colour or 

arte or science or office.'' Blue-book on 'Sur- 
names in Ireland,' 1894, p. 15 : Irish Ptnny Journal, 
1841, p. 383. 

I myself know that it was fashionable in 
Belfast forty years ago, and doubtless earlier, 
when a person "came into town" to drop the 
paternal O or Mac. I have known persons 
named Connor, Allen, Waters, and Alexander, 
whose rural relatives still retained the original 
cognomens of O'Connor, McAllen, McWaters, 
and McElshender. Dr. Killen, in his 'Remi- 
niscences,' 1901, p. 172, says : 

" The Rev. Henry Cooke is by far the most cele- 
brated name connected with the ministry of the 
Irish Presbyterian Church in the nineteenth cen- 
tury. When he entered College he was known as 
MacCooke, and is so designated in the earliest 
printed Minutes of the Synod of Ulster. He dropped 
the Mac from his name before he appeared as a 

There are families of the name of Leane, 
out as they all occur in county Cork or 
Kerry, I presume they are of pure Irish 
extraction, Leane being the ancient Gaelic 
name for the Lake of Killarney. 


S. i. 67, 137). The inscription given in the 
first reply at the second reference corresponds 
with that now on the pedestal, except that 
in the latter there is "gratite" instead of 
"gratia," and that there are full stops after 
at D and c in the date, while there is none 
at the end. 

The second reply says that the inscription 
faas evidently been shorn of its greater part 

and the last word altered. The words quoted 
in the query were only an extract, i.e., the 
first two lines. The inscription as given by 
Chamberlayne in the 1723 edition of his 
4 Magnte Britannia? Notitia,' to which refer- 
ence is made, is actually shorter than the 
existing inscription, in that JCOBUS appears 
instead of JACOBUS, and the date " 1686 " 
(Arabic figures without "anno") is given, 
instead of "Anno M.D.C.LXXXVI " (Roman). 
Also there are five commas and two full stops, 
which do not appear in the pedestal inscrip- 
tion. On 11 August, 1904, in the House of 
Commons, Lord Balcarres, representing the 
First Commissioner of Works, replied to a 
question drawing his attention to the error 
in the Latin inscription. He said : 

"The inscription is a facsimile of that on the 
original pedestal. When the statue was removed 
some years ago from Whitehall-yard it was found 
to be necessary to renew the pedestal, but it was 
thought best to make no alteration in the old 
inscription, which was probably contemporaneous. 
In the circumstances the First Commissioner of 
Works considers it would be preferable to leave 
it alone." See Times, 12 August, 1904. 
There is no doubt that " gratise " for " gratia " 
was in the inscription on the old pedestal. 
I have seen at the Office of Works the rubbing 
taken from it. 

One would think that a grammatical error 
was not worth renewing. If the mason had 
cut an extra c in the date, I suppose that the 
official mind would have thought it right to 
reproduce it. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

(10 th S. ii. 447). The 'D.N.B.,' under John 
Oldmixon (1673-1742), the historian and 
pamphleteer, says : 

"In his 'History of the Stuarts' (p. 421), Old- 
mixon, speaking of the disinterment of the remains 
of Admiral Blake, a native of Bridgwater, says that 
he lived while a boy with Blake's brother Hum- 
phrey, who afterwards emigrated to Carolina. Mr. 
John Kent of Funchal has pointed out that Old- 
mixon was in all probability author of the ' History 
and Life of Robert Blake written by a Gentle- 
man bred in his Family,' which appeared without 
date about 1740." 

This publication is called by Prof. J. K. 
Laugh ton, under Admiral Robert Blake, "an 
impudent and mendacious chap-book." 

No doubt your correspondent has consulted 
MR. JOHN KENT'S reference to the Norman 
family at 8 th S. v. 149. A. R. BAYLEY. 

Could Oldmixon be Old Mikes son ? Mike 
was formerly pronounced with an ee. 



TRAVELS IN CHINA (10 th S. ii. 408). Two 
"lists of works of various descriptions re- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. m. JAN. 7, 

lating to that long-shut-up empire " v\'ill be 
found in 5 th S. v. 232 ; vii. 342, to which I 
may add Earl Macartney's ' Embassy to 
China,' by Sir George Staunton, Bart., be- 
tween September, 1792, and September, 1794. 

71, Brecknock Road. 


(10 th S. ii. 408). This rather long and 
humorous poem may be found in ' Old- 
Fashioned Children's Books,' published by 
Andrew W. Tuer, at the Leadenhall Press, 
in 1900, entitled 'The Dandy's Ball.' The 
original date given is 1823, but nothing is 
said about the author's name. In this edition 
the poem is profusely illustrated with coarsely 
executed woodcuts in facsimile. 

Newbouroe Rectory, Woodbridge. 

WHITSUNDAY (10 th S. ii. 121, 217, 297, 352). 
We, too, call the first Sunday after Easter 
u'eissen Sonntaa. This was, and with Roman 
Catholics is still, the day when children were 
confirmed, for which solemnity the girls were 
dressed in white. Catholics keep this up to 
the present day ; with Protestants various 
customs prevail. In my part of the country 
the girls wore white dresses during the con- 
firmation, but black ones when receiving the 
Communion for the first time. 



(10 th S. ii. 367, 435). Other books on this 
subject are George Neilson's ' Trial by Com- 
bat,' 1884 ; L. Sabine's ' Notes on Duels and 
Duelling, Alphabetically Arranged,' 1855 ; 
Thomas Comber's ' Discourse of Duels,' 1687 
(not in Lowndes); Douglas's 'Duelling Days 
in the Army ' ; Mackay's ' Extraordinary 
Popular Delusions,' <fec. ; 'Belgian Anti- 
Duelling Association,' in Chambers' s Edin- 
luryh Journal, 28 December, 1839; 'Old 
London Duelling Grounds,' in Chambers' s 
Journal, 12 January, 1895 ; an account of 
De Boutteville, one of the greatest duellists 
of the seventeenth century, in Macmillaris 
Magazine, about September or October, 1903 ; 
'In the Days of Duelling.' in Pearson's Macia- 
zme, 1900; 'Duels and Duelling,' a "turn- 
over" in The Globe, 16 October, 1903. 

Duelling was checked in the army in 1792. 
boon after this an anti-duelling influence was 
beginning to be felt among civilians. In The 
Gazetteer for 2 April, 1796, it is said : 

" Another duel has been prevented by the inter- 
ference of Justice Addington, who, at the insti- 
gation of some friends to harmony, granted a 
warrant against Messrs. Didelot and Onabatti, two 

of the Opera Corps, who had agreed to settle some- 
difference in an honourable way in Hyde Park. On 
being apprehended, they were brought before Mr. 
A. at Bow-street, and persuaded to shake hands it* 
good fellowship." 

The last duel of any note between English 
subjects on English ground is said to have- 
been in May, 1845, between two lieutenants,. 
Hawkey and Seton, the latter being killed. 
French duels may sometimes have a ridicu- 
lous ending, and Mark Twain did well to- 
acquire a French duelling-pistol to hang on 
his watchchain as a charm, before they be- 
came extinct ; but we also had our funny 
scenes. A droll occurrence 
" took place at Venn (?) between the son of a respect- 
able chemist of Plymouth and the son of a retired 
gentleman. It appears that they had a slight 
quarrel about a young Jady, and neither being dis- 
posed to relinquish his Love for her, they decided 
on a duel. They fired, two rounds each, neither 
wishing to hit the other,, because they regarded 
their own lives better than. to. give them up for the 
person they were fighting for." Chemist, and! 
Druygist, 14 January, 1860. 

The last duel in Scotland was, I believe,, 
between Mr. (afterwards Lord) Shand and 
another, when the seconds, however, loaded 
the pistols with a charge of powder only ! 


I was told by my father, seventy years agoj. 
that the stoppage of duelling was brought 
about by an incident at Kingston-on Hull,, 
when a young married officer, refusing on 
account of poverty to join the mess, received 
a challenge in the shape of a Round Robin- 
from all his fellows, and was killed in the- 
first encounter. Is any authority for this, 
story known to exist? H. T. 

(10 th S. ii. 407, 471). In connexion with the 
communications on the above subject, per- 
haps it may not be out of place to direct 
attention to the following statement, culled 
from that great work ' The Conquest of 
England,' by John Richard Green, M.A., 
LL.D. (Macmillan & Co., 1883) : 

" It may be well to note that the word ' Angul- 
Saxon' is of purely political coinage, and that no man 
is ever known, save in our own day, to have called! 
himself 'an Anglo-Saxon.' The phrase, too, applied 
strictly to the Engle of Alercia and the Saxons of 
Wessex, not to any larger area. For the general 
use of ' Engle ' and ' Saxon,' I must refer my 
readers to Mr. Freeman's ' Norm. Conq.,' i. A pp. A." 
-Vide p. 193. 


119, Elms Road, Claphsm, S.W. 

PENNY WARES W^^BD (10 th S. ii. 369, 415, 
456). 'Index to the Periodicals of 1891, f 

p. 127, has "Penny Dinners," 'Index, to th 

io- s. in. .TAX. 7, 190-1] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Periodicals of 1892,'^ p. 147, has " Penny 
Provident Fund of Xew York." ' Index to 
the Periodicals of 189"),' p. 158, has ''Penny 
Dreadfuls"; also "Penny Provident Fund 
of America/' 'Index to the Periodicals of 
1899,' p. 169, has "Penny in the Slot 
Machines." 'Index to the Periodicals of 
1900,' p. 171, has " Penny and its Story/' 
"Penny Meals,'' " Penny Patriotism." "Penny 
Toys," ' Penny for your Thoughts." ' Index 
to the Periodicals of 1901, : p. 182, has "Penny 
and its Value in 1693." Gatty's ' Hunter's 
Hallamshire,' 1869, p. 168, has "Fuller's 
penny knife." ' Index to the Periodicals of 
1896,' p. 154, has ''Penniless Poor."' 'Index 
to the Periodicals of 1897,' p. 162, has 
41 Pennies : Tricks with Pennies." H. J. B. 

What are "Garden Pennies"? In Mait- 
land's 'History of London' (vol. ii. book viii. 
p. 1354) occurs the following paragraph : 

"This [Stepney] being at present a Rectory im- 
propriate, the Principal and Scholars aforesaid 
[King's Hall and College of Brazen-nose in Oxford] 
receive the Great Tithes ; an 1 the Incumbent, for 
his Support, the small, Easter Offerings, Garden 
Pennies, and Surplice Fees; which are very con- 


West Haddon, Xorthamptonshire. 

I find a note made in 1866 that Penny 
Readings were commenced in 1859 by Messrs. 
Sulley and Cowing at Ipswich. 



SPLIT INFINITIVE (10 th S. ii. 40f>). I am 
glad that MR. EDWARD SMITH has intro- 
duced the split infinitive to these columns, 
because we may now hope to have an authori- 
tative pronouncement on the subject. It has 
been observed at the first reference that " the 
two leading novelists of the English world, 
Mr. Meredith and Mr. Hardy, both tolerate 
this usage." It may be added that it was 
frequently employed by Robert Browning. 
In the face of these authorities, one would 
like to know on what foundation the objec- 
tion to the usage is based. Is it grammatical, 
logical, or historical ? But first of all the 
organic structure of the infinitive must be 
explained, because it is on this, if on any- 
thing, that valid objection can be taken. To 
feegin with. What part of speech is the to of 
the infinitive It is obviously quite a dif- 
ferent thing from the preposition to, indicat- 
ing direction : 

To be, or not to be, that is the question. 

To err is human : to forgive, divine. 
It is plain that the to in these lines is entirely 
distinct from the to in such a sentence as " I 

am going to London." But our pundits ay 
you may not qualify a verb by inserting ail 
adverb between this to and the verb. As a 
matter of fact, a number of verbs have 
actually been qualified by an affix. We 
have, for instance, to outrun, to foresee, 
to misquote, to counteract, and many 
others. Why is it right to say " to outrun/' 
but wrong to say " to quickly run " ? Why 
may we say " to misquote," but nob " to 
wrongly quote " ? All this seems to me to 
require working out, and I, for one, demand 
something more than the i/)se dint of a 
reviewer. I do not think, with MR. EDWARD 
SMITH, that our increasing acquaintance with 
French literature and fuller intercourse with 
the French people have anything to do with 
the growth of the locution. Our intercourse 
with literary France was closer in the days 
of Horace Wai pole. I believe the usage has 
arisen solely from a desire to emphasize more 
clearly the qualifications of the verbs we 

Macaulay (and indeed every writer) con- 
stantly employs the split infinitive in the 
passive voice of the verb. Is "to be tho- 
roughly spoilt" right, and "to thoroughly 
spoil : ' wrong ? And on what ground is it 
justifiable to split the auxiliary and the 
verb } I read in to-day's paper that A has 
publicly asked for something and has been 
publicly congratulated, and that B will 
shortly formulate certain terms. Does the 
splitting of the auxiliary and the verb stand 
on a different footing from the splitting of 
the mysterious to and the verb? and, if so, 
why? W T . F. PRIDEAUX. 

289, 373). Other works on this subject are : 

" Battely (A.), Antiquities of Richborongh and 
Reculver. abridged from the Latin, map and plate, 
p. Svo (1774)." Priced iu a recent second-hand 
catalogue at &*. 

" Smith (C. Roach), Antiquities of Richborough, 
Reculver, and Limne, illusts. sq. Svo (18o<))." 
Priced in the same catalogue at 10.. (xl. and lii--. 
Two copies, apparently the same edition. 


PARISH CLERK (10 th S. ii. 12 215, 373). 
Much information on this subject will be 
found in the thirty-sixth volume of the 
Trant'tctions of the Devonshire Association, 
just issued, in a paper by the Rev. J. T. 
Chanter, entitled ' The Parish Clerks of 
Barnstaple, 1500-1900. With a Survey of the 
Origin and Development of the Order of 
Parish Clerks and their Status at Different 
Periods' (pp. 390-414). 


Salterton, Devon. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. JAN. 7, 

CIIILTERN HUNDREDS (10 th S. ii. 441, 516). 
A very valuable and authoritative work on 
the above is 'The Stewardship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds,' by F. S. Parry, C.B., published 
officially by Eyre & Spottiswoode in 1893. 

'THE DEATH OF NELSON' (10 th S. ii. 405, 
493). The epitaph on the Duke of Cumber- 
land, subsequently used in ' The Death of 
Nelson,' was printed in ' The Words of such 
Pieces as are most usually performed by the 
Academy of Ancient Music,' second edition, 
1768, p. 199. T. Norris, Mus.Bac., is given 
as the composer's name. H. DAVEY. 

15, Victoria Road, Brighton. 


The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and 
Discoveries of the English Nation. By Richard 
Hakluyt. Vols. IX., X., and XI. (Glasgow, 
MacLehose & Sons.) 

ALT, but completed is the worthy task, boldly and 
patriotically undertaken and brilliantly executed by 
Messrs. MacLehose, of placing within reach of the 
reading and studious public the record of English 
adventure and empire-building in the most brilliant 
period of our national history. The work is, indeed, 
virtually in the hands of the student, what remains, 
though indispensable and all-important, being to a 
great extent in the nature of index and appendix. 
With the appearance of each succeeding instalment 
the sense of the importance of the task accom- 
plished becomes augmentingly obvious. To say 
that 'The Principal Navigations' is unknown 
would be extravagant. It is an avowed classic, 
standing side by side with the works which are our 
chief national treasures, and leagues in front of 
our chronicles. At the same time, it is unfamiliar 
to the general public, for the reason, before all 
others, that it has long been inaccessible. That 
excuse for ignorance is now withdrawn, and Hak- 
luyt must henceforward form part of every library 
claiming consideration. Perusal has hitherto been 
practically confined to those occupied with 
historical studies. It should now extend to al! 
interested in the growth of empire and the 
exploration of countries outside the range oi 
classical knowledge. Deeply interesting chapters 
are opened out in the later volumes. In vol. ix 
we are occupied ^yith voyages to Florida and New 
Mexico, explorations of the Gulf of California, anc 
visits to the city of Mexico. Of poignant interest 
is the account of the attempt, under Rene Goulaine 
de Laudonniere and Jean Ribaut, at the direction 
of Coligny and with the sanction of Charles IX., t 
found a Huguenot colony in Florida. At first th 
attempt met with a certain amount of success, anc 
the relations between the native chiefs and the 
French invaders were of the most amicable nature 
The deplorable result was that the Spaniards, treat 
ing the Huguenots after their fashion, massacrec 
the whole of the prisoners. Apart from othe 
matters of interest, it is pleasant to read of th 
protection afforded the fugitives by Hawkins, wh 

upplied Laudonniere with food and clothing, and 
>laced at his disposition a vessel on which t< 
scape. These incidents belong to 1564-6. French, 
authorities, in dealing with Laudonniere, make 
ittle mention of Hakluyt. Laudonniere himselr 
mblished in 1586 ' Histoire Notable de la Floride r 
ontenant les Trois Voyages fails en icelle par des- 
Japitaines et des Pilotes Francais.' It is in a sense 
atisfactory, though it has nothing to do with the 
ubject, to find that these murders by the Spaniards, 
at which Charles IX. connived, were revenged by 
Dominique de Gourgues, a celebrated mariner, who- 
n consequence had to fly France for his life .and 
accept employment from Elizabeth. A novel on 
he subject of these conflicts, entitled ' Le Tahon, 
appeared in Le Siecle in 1857- A portrait of Lau- 
donniere by Crispin de Passe, from the Grenville 
^ibrary in the British Museum, is given ^at }>. 4.. 
Much interesting information concerning Florida is- 
supplied, and we hear of the practice of scalping, of 
the existence of bison, &c. Some of the statements 
are somewhat hard to credit, as when we are told ot 
people considerably over two hundred years old, 
A portrait of Raleigh, which serves as frontispiece, 
s after an original attributed to Zucchero in the- 
Dublin Gallery. An admirable portrait of Hawkins, 
a map of the world by Peter Plancius, 1594, maps 
of Florida and of the coast of China, with views or 
ships in the navy of Henry VIII., are in the same 
volume. Fine portraits of Drake, Sir Robert 
Dudley, and Sir Anthony Sherley, with other maps 
and plans of surpassing interest, follow in vol. x. 
Among the contents of this volume are the exploits 
of Drake and Hawkins, both of whose deaths are 
described, as well as those of other Ehzabetnau 
neroes. In the eleventh volume are descriptions or 
explorations of the coast of Brazil, the Straits ot 
Magellan, the South Sea, "and round about the 
circumference of the whole earth." Herein we 
have a brief account of the two voyages of Mr. 
William Haukins of Plimmouth, father to Sir 
John Haukius, Knight, and his bringing over 
the Brazilian king, who was presented to King 
Henry VIII., but died on the return voyage. 
Portraits of Thomas Cavendish and Sir Christopher 
Hatton, with other designs of surpassing interest, 
are given. We might easily go on for ever, since 
there is no point at which to stop ; but considera- 
tions of space forbid further amplification. 1 he- 
volumes are, of course, a treasure-house rich ana 
inexhaustible, and the manner in which the task or 
republication is executed is such as to commend the 
work to every lover of fine books. It is pleasant t 
know that the reception of the reprint has surpassed 
expectation, and has emboldened the publishers to 
undertake the issue in a similar form of ' Hakluyt u 
Posthumus; or, Purchas His Pilgrimes, a work 
even rarer than that of which it is a continuation. 
This, founded on materials left by Hakluyt, has 
not previously been reprinted. All the maps (over 
seventy in number) in the 1625 edition will be 
reproduced, the fine title-page will be executed in 
facsimile, and the work will be enriched by a com- 
plete index upon a scale corresponding to modern 
requirements. Of this a thousand copies only, 
all of which will doubtless be subscribed for before 
publication, will be issued. Two volumes wil 
appear in the autumn, and it is hoped that t 
entire work will within a couple of years be in the 
hands of the subscribers. The last copy of t 
original, in anything like a good condition, though, 
defective in some respects, brought by auction 44/. 

io* s. in. JAN. 7, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


7Y<<3 Work* of William Shakespeare. " Stratford 
Town" Edition Vol. I. (Stratford-on-Avon, 
Shakespeare Head Press.) 

SENTIMENTAL reasons must count among the motives 
to the production of the superb edition of Shake- 
speare of which the first volume is now before us. 
Nothing is more natural than that the birthplace 
of Shakespeare should give to the world an adequate 
and sumptuous edition of her greatest son. As the 
home of Shakespeare, Stratford-on-Avon claims, a 
species of supremacy among cities, and ranks as a 
shrine with Delphos. It is useless for London even, 
the scene of Shakespeare's triumphs, to contest the 
supremacy with the Warwickshire home, seeing 
that if it be urged that Shakespeare is England's 
poet, and not Stratford's, it may with equal justice 
be maintained that he is not England's poet, but 
the world's. "He was not of an age, but for all 
time," Jonson's immortal utterance, may be supple- 
mented with, He was not of a place, but for the 
world. Stratford has, however, elected to have an 
edition of its own,and in supplyingsuch has met alike 
the requirements of the book-lover and the scholar. 
So far as regards the latter there is matter for 
hearty congratulations. Which of us has not wished 
for a text undisturbed by note and undefiled by 
conjecture? There are tens of thousands of readers 
who require explanations of Tudor phrase and a 
history of the growth of Shakespeare's tex-t. For such 
men have laboured diligently and well, and between 
the publication of the great Variorum text of all the 
commentators, with its monstrous growth of eru- 
dition and absurdity, and the new Variorum of Dr. 
Horace Howard Furness, now in progress, innumer- 
able editions, appealing to every class of readers, 
have seen the light. Ample room remains for an 
edition such as is now given us, and the moderate 
number of subscribei's to which appeal is made 
one thousand in all might, we should suppose, 
easily be quintupled. Adhering for a moment to 
the sentimental aspects, we may say that the work 
is printed in the house of Julius Shaw, one of the 
poet's most intimate friends and one of the witnesses 
to his will. The house in question is situated two 
doors to the north of New Place, and, so far as the 
main structure is concerned, has undergone little 
change since the poet's days. For the text Mr. 
A. H. Bullen, the best, and sanest of editors, to 
whom are owing the best editions we possess of 
the early dramas, is responsible. Its aim, as 
announced, is to stand midway between Dyce and 
Clark and Wright, the editors of the Cambridge 
text, less austere than the latter, but more rigorous 
than the former. So far as we have gone in com- 
paring the present text with that of the Cambridge 
Shakespeare, a labour in which naturally we cannot 
proceed far, the advantage, so far as regards 
adherence to the First Folio, is with the new work. 
Such differences as we have found, however, 
though fairly numerous, are rarely important. 

The first volume, which contains four plays, 
' The Tempest,' ' Two Gentlemen of Verona,' ' The 
Merry Wives of Windsor,' and ' Measure for 
Measure,' has for frontispiece a fine reproduction 
of the Droeshout portrait. Its preliminary matter 
consists of 'The Epistle Dedicatory,' by John 
Heminge and Henry Condell, to the Earls oi 
Pembroke and Montgomery, the address ' To the 
Great Varietie of Readers,' Ben Jonson's address 
' To the Reader,' ' The Names of the Principal 
Actors in all these Plays,' the 'Commendatory 
Verses,' and the 'Additional Commendatory Verses,' 

all from the 1623 folio. In paper, text, typography, 
&c., the volume leaves nothing to be desired. A 
more beautiful and luxurious, and, so far as we are- 
able to judge, more accurate, commendable, and 
desirable edition of Shakespeare does not exist. 

The, Poore's Lamentation for the Death of Queen 

Elizabeth. (Printed for private circulation.) 
To our valued friend Mr. Alexander Smith, of 
Glasgow, with whose knowledge and zeal as a 
bibliophile our readers are familiar, we owe thi 
handsome and interesting reprint of a unique 
poetic tract preserved in the Malone Collection- 
in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Anonymous in 
authorship, this work was issued in 1603 for 
Thomas Pauier in " Cornehill" "at the signe of 
the Cat and the Parrets." It was known to John, 
Payne Collier, who has left an account of it from.' 
which Mr. Alexander Smith quotes. An elaborate- 
eulogy of Queen Elizabeth, whom in alliterative 
fashion it calls 

Our good and Godly gracious royall Queene, 
it no less fulsomely eulogizes her successor, for 
whom it invokes a life thrice exceeding that of 
Nestor. Not very considerable is it as poetry, bub 
it is scarcely below the average of the didactic or 
elegiac work of the epoch. It has, however, some- 
historic value, giving a rimed account of the suffer- 
ing of the princess in the reign of Bloody Mary 
during her transference from one place of confine- 
ment to another. The verse is nai've at times, and 
we find lines such as the following : 
Elizabeth, Elizabeth, I say, 
From little England now is torne away. 
A genuine service to letters is rendered by those 
who preserve such waifs and strays of our early 
literature, and we own our obligation to Mr. Smith 
for allowing us to count the reprint, of which- 
twenty-five copies only are issued, among our 

Photograms of the Year 1904. (Dawbarn & Ward.) 1 
THE advance in photographic art which Photo- 
grams has at once assisted and chronicled is happily 
maintained, and much of the work exhibited in the 
present volume is fully entitled to rank as art. The 
frontispiece, entitled ' L'Effort,' exhibits wonderful 
effects of light, and it is followed by some splendid 
landscape effects of French origin. From all parts- 
of the world they come, until it must puzzle the 
most competent to award the prize of merit. The- 
composition is not in every case quite successful,, 
but the collection may be studied with delight as 
well as advantage. 

The Clergy Directory and Parish Guide, 1905. 


THE thirty - fifth annual issue of this admirable 
directory is before us, and once more fulfils every 
condition of excellence. It is thoroughly up to 
date, supplies all information to be expected in a 
work of its class, and is, as experience shows, the 
handiest and most convenient of similar com- 

The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. 
THE frontispiece to The Burlington consists of 
' The Good Shepherd,' a wall painting of the third 
century, in the Catacomb of Prtetextatus. This is 
wonderfully reproduced in colours. Mr. A. H. 
Smith deals with 'The Sculptures in Lansdowne 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. JAN. 7, iocs. 

House ' seven of which are well reproduced. Opus 
AnXanum, the Syon Cope,' is treated by May 
Morris and is also illustrated. Following tins 
-comes a third article on 'The Carvallo Collection,' 
wS again is followed by Part II. of Mr. Hodg- 
iin's ' Transfer Printing on Pottery.' Six volumes 
of this excellent periodical have now appeared. 

MR P LA.NDOX sends to The Fortnightly a warm 
.encomium upon London. When the home-sick 
traveller rejoces in the sight of the white cliffs of 
AlbTo ?it is not England, but " the deep humming 
tong"" of Westminster and the pigeons that dip 
and utter round the Eleanor Cross of Charing" tor 
which he reallv pines. Mr. Francis Gribble deals 
with 'Sainte-Beuve,' on the failures of whose life 
*e has much to say. Sainte-Beave, he declares, 
was "equally famous as a litterateur wd notorious 
Is a libertine." For critical acumen Sainte-Beuve 
Raised but in other respects he is severely 
udwd 'Eton under Hornby' is pleasantly anec- 
Ztal Mr Edward Dicey contributes some ^ Recol- 
lections of 'Arthur Sullivan,' descriptive of him as 
n rather than a musician. Mr. Ernest Rhys 
'Mr 'Swinburne's Collected .Poems,' 

rit on r . 

md displays much taste and imperfect informa- 
tion -Si I The Nineteenth Century Prince Kropotkm 
'neaks with no uncertain voice on 'The Constitu- 
tional Agitation in Russia.' Mr. Edward H. Cooper 
wrTtes on 'Children's Christmas Amusements.' 
What he says is not, like his recent utterance, 
directed against a single entertainment, and he sup- 
J -|f some curious facts, or at least makes some 
furious Statements. In treating. of The Position 
of the Australian Aborigines in the Scale of 
Wnrnan Intelligence,' the Hon. J. Mildred Creed 
S with a subject on which he is entitled to 
sneak and combats the view that places the abori- 
K at the bottom. Mr. Newton-Robinson has an in- 
teresting paper on 'The Revival of the SmaU-Sword.' 
'A? the Rose in June' has a pleasant flavour of 
riMticitv Mr. Frederick Wedmore writes appro- 
ckt vely on ' Fantin and Boudin.' " Undoubtedly 
the best book of the season is " so-and-so, says at 
close of the number a cocksure gentleman who 
iurnXs a monthly contribution to the review. 
Tndee Parry supplies in The Cornhill an agree- 
able aWmt y of 'A Welsh Rector of the Last 
Centurv ' In No. 10 of "Blackstick Papers 'Mrs 
Richmond Ritchie gossips pleasantly about Jacob 
Omnium,' a name now fading from public memory, 
but once conspicuous. ' The Tercentenary of " Don 
Quixote"' by Mr. Austin Dobson, is a short and 
.characteristic poem, just published at Madrid as 
r contribution to the movement -it celebrates 
Mr E V Lucas writes on ' G. D. [Georg< 
l)verl Friend of Lamb.' Few more eccentric 
irinrl hearted and self - oblivious creatures than 
Dyer" can have existed. Mr. .Frank T. Bullen's 
Land of Romance' is situate m the West Indies 
In The Gentleman's Mr. J. Holden MacMichae 
begins an account of ' Charing Cross and its Imme 
rliate Neighbourhood,' for which he is disposed tc 
-claim consideration as the hub of the terrestria 
universe. Mr. Frank Lawrence tells afresh t 
-curious and quite forgotten story mi he Case o 
M Perreau.' Mr. Cuthbert Hadden discourses 01 
' The Robin.' Our own observations lead us t 
<ioubt the entire accuracy of some of his com 
ments. Miss Georgiana Hill has a paper on ^ 
Great Lady of the Seventeenth Century, and Edit 
<Jray Wheelwright one on 'The Influence of th 

k.ymri in Literature.' Though reduced now to six- 
ence The Poll Mall Magazine shows no falling oif 
11 the character of its illustrations or its letterpress, 
'he photogravure of Reynolds's 'Country Girl' 
vhich forms the frontispiece is of quite remarkable 
ieauty. A characteristic poem by Thomas Hardy 
pens the number. Next comes an interesting 
,nd valuable paper by Mr. John Burns on ' London 
Jld and New,' which is admirably illustrated. Im- 
nediately following contributions are by Mr. H. G. 
A r ells, Mr. H. C. Bailey, and Mr. Herbert Vivian, 
t is, indeed, difficult to imagine a more ideal 
election, from the popular standpoint, of contents. 
Mrs. C. Towle writes in Longman's concerning 
hat interesting personality Aubrey de Vere, and 
Janon Vaughan has a capital paper on ' The Flora 
f Hants.' in ' At the Sign of the Ship ' Mr. Lang 
vvns to having discovered who was the Eliza Logau 
ifter whom he inquired in ' N. & Q.' She was, it 
.ppears, by birth a Miss Manson, and of course 
narried a Logan. These particulars are obtained 
"rom Mr. Jonathan Nield, author of ' A Guide to 
.he Best Historical Novels ' (Elkin Mathews), a 
work of which we had not previously heard. Mr, 
~.iang also describes a curious American version of 
The Ballad of Lord Bateman,' beginning, very 
strangely, "In India lived a noble lord." 


We must call special attention to the following 
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WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 
To secure insertion of communications corre- 
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which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication "Duplicate." 

F. P. MARCHANT (" But for the grace of God, 
there goes "). Dean Farrar, in the fourth sermon 
in 'Eternal Hope,' attributes this saying to John 
Bradford. See 9 th S. vii. 269, 351. 

H. W. UKDEBDOWN ("Boxing Day: Christmas 
Box ") See the editorial note at 9 th S. iv. 477 and 
MR. HOLDEN MACMIOHAEL'S article 9 th S. v. 10. 

W. CURZOX YEO ("Lass of Richmond Hill"). 
The locality of this song was discussed at con- 
siderable length in the First, Second, and Third 
Series, and at still greater length in the last four 
volumes of the Fifth Series. It is Richmond in 

J. Gooos ("Mad as a hatter"). The earliest 
instance of this phrase in the 'N.E.D.' is from 
Thackeray's ' Pendennis,' chap. x. See also 9"' S. 
vi. 448; vii. 251, 396. We do not know who used 
the pseudonym "^Esop" in the middle of last 


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ios.iu.jAN-.7,i905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



THIS WEEK'S ATHEKS1UM contains Articles on 









of 1904. The REV. R. LOVETT. 


Last Week's ATHENAEUM contains Articles on 





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s. in. JAN. H, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. -No. 55. 

WOTE 3 : Sufferings of Troops in Winter, 21 Biblio- 
graphical Notes on Dickens and Thackeray, 22 Kpi- 
taphiana, 23 ' Yankee Doodle ' Clergyman as City 
Councillor Cranmer's Library, 24 Holy Maid of Kent 
English Canonized Saints, 25 Dagger Pies Vanished 
Pastimes Nelson In Fiction The Victoria and the Cani- 
perdown, 26 Luther Family " Totem," 27. 

>QL KIUK3 : Hugh Percy London Bridge Theatre Besant 
Warren Hastings and Sir Charles Malet Rev. Thomas 
Newman David Morgan, Jacobite "Broach" or 
" Brooch," 28 -" Walkyn Silver " " Wapiti "Pembroke 
College, Cambridge Sir Thomas Cornwallis " Blood- 
funkers" "Caveac" Tavern Abbotsley, St. Neots, 
Hunts "Heart of my heart" Police Uniforms: Omni- 
buses, 29 Polar Inhabitants Spanish Arms Triplicate 
Writing Holyrood Font, 30. 

REPLIES: Sir Walter 1'Espec, 30 Spelling Reform 
" Licence " and "License," 31 Great Seal in Gutta-percha 
Mercury in Tom Quad Queen Anne's Last Years- 
Bibliography of Christmas Heraldic Children at Execu- 
tions, 33 Algonquin Element in English English Burial- 
ground at Lisbon Bio id used in Building, 3i Three 
T-ulors of Tooley Street -High Peak Words Ben Jonson 
and Bacon Battlefield Sayings, 35 George Washington's 
Arms Parish Documents Armorial Visiting Cards 
"Phil Elia." 36 - Heacham Parish Officers ' Hardyknute 1 
Sarum, 37 "The" as part of Title ' Assisa de Tol- 
loneis,' &c. Sir William Cal vert Modern Italian Artists 
Agnostic Poets, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'New English Dictionary' 
Madame d'Arblay's Diary and Letters Boswell's 'John- 
son' 'Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Century' 
4 Halejjhana ' Routledge's "Miniature Reference Series" 
Mr. DodgS'm's ' Don Quixote' in Basque' Fry's Guide 
to London Charities.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



AT the present time, when the war in the 
Far East has drawn attention to the hard- 
ships inseparable from a winter campaign, 
it may not be uninteresting to recall the 
sufferings of our army in the Crimea during 
the winter of 1854-5. The following notes 
are extracted from letters written from the 
camp before Sebastopol by the late General 
Maxwell, O.B., who commanded the 46th 
Regiment during the siege. These, of course, 
were not intended for publication, and do 
eiot pretend to be anything more than 
private letters, written at odd moments 
and sent home to his friends, to tell them 
of his life and work at the front. At the 
same time they are interesting as giving 
the impressions of an officer on the spot, and 
showing that the army was quite alive to 
the mismanagement and procrastination of 
the authorities. They also form an additional 
testimony to the good conduct of our soldiers 
under very trying circumstances, and to the 
appalling loss of life caused by sickness, 
chiefly due to exposure and starvation. 

Camp before Sebastopol, 

Sunday, 12 Nov., 1854. 

We arrived at Balaclava on Wednesday last, 
landed and marched here (seven miles) that night, 
passed the night alfresco, and of course hard rain 
and no grub. No one at home can form the ghost 
of an idea of the hard work a soldier has here ; 
what between the trenches and alarms we have 
never a moment to ourselves. I feel for the men, 
as they have been wet for three days ; the work in 
the trendies is no joke. We march down there at 
6 P.M., as soon as it is dark, and remain there till 
some time next day ; half of the men are on the 
qui rive, the others lie down ; but, poor devils ! 
of late you see them lying up to their middles in 
water. How they stand it I know not. What a fool 
I was to be so anxious to come out here ! We have 
only commenced work yet. The Russians cannot 
drive us away, but starvation and cold may. We 
hear that we are to winter here ; if so I shall often 
remember you, as I have got the fur coat here. 
Old Garrett has got a brigade ; I have the regiment 
and have my hands full ; it quite one after 
the quiet, dry, snug work in barracks at home. So 
much for my doings. All 1 can tell you about 
Sebastopol is it has not fallen ; we only have in- 
vested the south side, all the rest of it being open 
to the enemy. The French and ourselves are 
bombarding away day and night, and have been 
doing so since the 5th of last month, and are likely 
to do so for another month ; and even when we get 
in we cannot remain, as- the strong forts on the 
south side command the town. A pretty look-out 
we have. The fact is, we have tried too much, and 
if we fail you may all thank the press for it. 

I, to my great joy, met Colin* at Constantinople ; 
he had been sent down sick, but was nearly well. 
Poor fellow, he was nearly naked ; I was happy to 
be able to clothe him in a complete suit. He ex- 
pected to be back here very soon, and appeared 
anxious for it, which I rather wonder at. We were 
too late for the action last Sunday :f [except those 
of] our people we sent out before us, and our friend, 
the Editor of The Times, will be happy to hear that 
they did at least as well as their neighbours. The 
pluck and spirit of the men is wonderful. Last 
night in the trenches a party of ours were at work ; 
the Russians came out, and our fools wished to be 
allowed to go at them with their spades and pick- 
axes. I am sorry to say that this morning cholera 
made its appearance in our camp, and we bare lost 
five men. I trust it may stop as it is an awful 
scourge. The men care nothing for bullets, but 
don't like the cholera. 

Camp before Sebastopol, 8 January, 1855. 
That infernal town is as far off as ever from being 
taken, and looks as nice and comfortable to our 
longing eyes as the Russians could wish. Our 
winter has commenced now ; it was ushered in with 
a devil of a fall of snow, and then hard frost with 
a biting cold north wind ; but poor weather for 
tents, but they are wonderfully warm, more so than 
you can fancy, or we may be getting accustomed to 

* His brother, in the 93rd Highlanders. 

I Inkerman. Two companies only of the 46th 
were at this battle. The remainder of the regiment 
had been detained at home, owing to an inquiry 
into a case of " bally-ragging" an officer. A cartoon 
appeared in Punch with reference to this incident. 
See issue of 19 August, 1854, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io< h s. in. JAN. u. 1905. 

them and to the cold. The mercury was down to 8 
last night ; I think that is the lowest we have had 
it yet. If it does not get worse we may weather it 
yet, but we are sadly reduced ; our Brigade, con- 
sisting of the 1st Battalion Rifle Brigade, 46th, 
63rd, and 58th, can only turn out 700 men fit for 
duty. Yesterday the 63rd could only turn out/cw 
men ! This morning we have 244* men fit for duty: 
that includes officers, servants, and every man in 
the regiment. We have 337 away sick at Balaclava 
or Scutari, and 174 sick here. We have buried, 
since landing on 8 November, 169 only 9 of these 
from loss in the trenches by shot, the remainder 
killed by hard work, exposure to cold and wet, bad 
or rather short allowance of food, and insuffi- 
cient clothing. The poor fellows are half naked, 
have no change of clothes, and consequently are 
never, I may say, dry. They have at the very most 
only one night in bed not in bed, but in their 
tents : that is to say every other night they pass in 
the trenches, and from their proximity to the 
enemy and cold they dare not sleep, and hard work 
it is. This night I have the pleasant prospect of 
marching down there at five o'clock, remaining till 
six next morning. My duty when there is to see 
that our guards are properly posted, and sentries 
out in every direction. I have a deal of ground to 
walk over, rough and hilly ; on a fine, dry night it 
keeps me warm, but on a wet, dark night it is 
dreary work : and that is the sort of night we must 
be most wide awake. Your fur coat, which I most 
providentially brought out, has been the saving of 
my life. With another one over it to keep off the 
wet, it is a famous thing. If I had only a pair of 
waterproof boots and a good, strong waterproof 
coat, I should be all right ; but I am in hopes of 
getting them from some of the numerous supplies 
coming out. We hear a great deal of wooden houses 
and no end of things coming out from the generous 
people at home ; but, alas ! they will come up to us 
too late, I am afraid. Everything here is top late. 
The authorities here are most supine and dilatory 
about everything ; I suppose their eyes will be 
opened when the whole army is like the 63rd, dead 
or in hospital ; then I hope they will have to give 
an account to the country for their mismanagement. 
The Timvs correspondent (with one exception) gives 
a fair account of what is going on here, drawn mildly, 
of course, when he talks of the ill-treatment of the 
men. The exception I allude to was his account of 
the 46th not turning out for the trenches the night of 
the gale ; a more unfounded lie never was ; never 
did wet, half-clothed, poor devils, without a morsel 
to eat all day, turn out more willingly not a murmur 
to be heard. I sent the captain who marched them 
down and remained with them that night in the 
trenches, and the adjutant who paraded them, to the 
correspondent todemandhisautnority. Hewouldnot 
give it up, but said he was sorry at having written 
it, and was very contrite ; but the fact is, he must 
please his employers. One never sees Lord Raglan ; 
he and his staff live in a good house, his horses have 
good stables, and are all very comfortable. I wish 
their house were burnt down and they put in tents. 
He believes, I verily think, that the men are getting 
all the good things the papers talk of; but don't 
think the whole army is so badly off' as our brigade. 
The 3rd and 4th Divisions are the hardest worked, 

* This is the figure in the letter, but from the 
"Morning State" of the regiment, given later on, 
there would seem to have been only 140 fit for duty. 

and consequently the greatest sufferers in the army. 
Colin is with the Highland Brigade near Balaclava. 
Their men are very well, fat, and well fed. They 
are well because they have no trenches and expo- 
sure ; well fed because they are close to Balaclava, 
where the supplies are kept. We are seven miles- 
off, and the country is in such a state, and the com- 
missariat so bad, that our biscuit, meat, and rum 
are often obliged to be sent for by fatigue parties of 
poor men worn out with work in these infernal 
trenches. All our clothing and other supplies we 
send men for, and the wooden houses, &c., will lie r 
and are lying, at Balaclava, with no means of being 
brought up ; our want of arrangement is beyond 
conception. They have commenced a railroad from 
Balaclava to this again too late ; it will be finished 
when the weather gets fine and the country is in 
good order. I sometimes tremble to think what 
the consequences of all this mismanagement will be i 
but triumph at last we must, at a frightful cost of 
men. I was never better in my life; eat, if pos- 
sible, better than ever when I can get it. Salt 
meat is poor stuff to live on, so we take every 
opportunity of getting preserved meats, but at 
ruinous prices. Till this time we have been supplied 
by Maltese and Greek rascals, whom the Govern- 
ment have stupidly allowed to settle at Balaclava 
and charge what they choose for things. Living, 
as we are, men are reckless of expense, and, not 
knowing how long they may live to eat, pay 

Morning State of 46th Regiment, 8 Jan., 1855. 
Men fit for duty, including all casualties, such 

as officers, servants, &o. ... 140 1 

Sick at Scutari 337 

Sick in tents here . l"4 


Lost from disease since landing 9 Nov.... 160 
By shot 9 

169 . 

From this state, you may judge how our men get 
n. We have sent away six officers sick. 

T. F. D. 


SEVERAL bibliographies of Charles Dickens 
have been compiled since the death of that 
writer, and the latest of them appeared a few 
months ago under the editorship of Mr. J. C? 
Thomson. It is not, perhaps, very high praise 
to say that this little work is a decided 
advance upon its predecessors, though it still 
leaves much to be desired ; and I consider 
that it appeals more to the student of 
Dickens than to the collector of his works. 
This was perhaps the object of the compiler, 
especially as very few of the writings of 
Dickens come within the category of "rarities." 
Nevertheless, it would have been better if the- 
collations of the books had been drawn up on- 
a more scientific plan, and if the whole work 
lad been subjected to closer revision. A few- 
errors will be discovered on close inspection,, 

10* s. iir. JAX. 14, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


misprints abound, and, to give only one 
example, the name of the " great George " is 
consistently misspelt "Cruickshank." Some 
notice of the collected editions should also j 
have been given, as the prefaces which | 
Dickens specially wrote for some of the | 
volumes are of value. These, however, are | 
minor blots, which can easily be removed if I 
a second edition is called for. To say that 
the book is not perfect is merely equivalent 
to saying that it is a bibliography. 

A great dramatic critic of my acquaintance 
once told me that he considered the " thirties " 
of the last century the barrenest period in 
theatrical history. This remark cannot be 
applied to literature, for that decade wit- 
nessed the blossoming into fruit of the 
greatest writers of the Victorian era. But 
it also created several problems in literary 
history, some of which still remain unsolved, 
and are likely to elude the acumen of the 
most skilful bibliographer. 

I have in my possession a small quarto 
volume, the contents of which consist of 
plays extracted from The Carlton Chronicle, 
and pasted down by the writer of the plays 
and the former owner of the book. This was 
the late Mr. W. H. Logan, the author of 
'A Pedlar's Pack of Ballads and Songs,' and 
co-editor with James Maidment of 'The 
Dramatists of the Restoration.' The plaj 7 s 
are really burlesques, of the ' Bombastes 
Furioso' order, and are all in print, with the 
exception of the last, which was copied in 
manuscript by Mr. Logan, who prefaced the 
collection with the following note : 

" The following absurdities appeared in the pages 
of Th>; Carlton Chronicle & clever Conservative 
journal of the time which was edited by Percival 
Weldon Banks, Esquire, Barrister-at-Law, the 
'Morgan Rattler' of Fraser's Magazine. In The 
Carlton Chronicle appeared for the first time some 
of Boz's 'Sketches.' W. Harrison Ainsworth, 
James Maidment, Theodore Martin. W. B. D. D. 
Turnbull, and the writer of these pages, were con- 
tributors. It is supposed that at this date 
December, 1856 there are not above four complete 
sets of The Carlton Chronicle in existence. 
W. H. L." 

The plays Avritten by Mr. Logan are dated 
1836 and 1837, when Dickens was contributing 
his ' Sketches ' to The Evening Chronicle I 
have never seen a copy of The Carlton Chro- 
nicle, and the only one that I can trace was 
that formerly belonging to James Maidment, 
which realized the sum of six shillings and 
sixpence at the sale of that gentleman's 
library on 17 May, 1880 (lot 5018). Mr. 
Maidment's copy was purchased by the late 
Mr. John Mansfield Mackenzie, of Edinburgh, 
at whose sale on 11 March, 1889, it fetched 
only three shillings (lot 245). The book 

world was evidently unaware of the value' 
of the compilation, owing, doubtless, to the 
fact that Dickens's contributions had never 
come within the cognizance of bibliographers 
In one of Mr. Logan's productions, a 
Christmas pantomime called 'The Loves of 
Hookey Walker and Sally Roy ; or, Harlequin. 
Humbug,' a note occurs at the bottom of 
bhe page: "See Thwacka way's 'Mountain 
Sylph,' in which Eolia most ingeniously 
transforms herself into a butterfly." There 
are other references to the ' Mountain Sylph,' 
which is styled an opera ; but, so far as I 
know, its existence has been ignored by all 
writers on Thackeray, although it is known 
that about the date of The Carlton Chronicle 
he occasionally occupied himself in composing 
trifles for the lyric stage Of the contributors 
to The Carlton Chronicle who are named by 
Mr. Logan, the venerable and respected, 
figure of Sir Theodore Martin alone survives. 

W. F. PfilDEAUX. 


THE following epitaph in the churchyard of 
Lydd, Kent, may be of interest. I have a>, 
photograph of the tombstone. 


Memory of 

Lieu* Tho s Edgar of the Royal Navy 
who departed this life Oct r 17 th 1801 

Aged 56 years 

He came into the Navy at 10 Years of age- 
was in that memorable Engagement 
with Adm 1 Hawk and sail'd round the World, 
in company with the unfortunate 
Captain Cook of the Resolution 
in his last Voyage when he was killed 
by the Indians at the Island of O whie 
in the south Seas the 14 th Feb>, 1778. 
Tom Edgar at last has sail d out of this World 
His shroud is put on & his top sails are furl'd 
He lies snug in deaths boat without any Concern' 
And is moor'd for a full due ahead & a Stern 
O'er the Compass of Life he has merrily run 
His Voyage is Completed his reckoning is done. 

Hollis, Long Island, New York. 

Aubrey records an epitaph on a tomb of. 
1398 ('Wilts,' part ii. p. 104) as follows : 

Tu qui transieris, videas, sta, perlege, plora ; 

Es quod eram,eteris quod sum : pro me, precor, ora.. 

This distich had considerable vitality, for 
in 1580 a brass put up to Edmund Hodson, 
formerly Fellow of Winchester College, in. 
the cloisters there, runs : 

Whoso thow art, wyth lovinge harte, 
Stonde, reade, and thincke on me ; 
For as I was, so nowe thow arte, 
And as I am, so shalte thow be 

Finally, on a tombstone dated 1810, in- 

NOTES AND QUERIES, do* s. m. JAN. w, wos. 

OPenalt Churchyard, Monmouthshire, I hav 
seen the inscription : 

Remember we as you pass by ! 

As you are now, so once was we ; 

As we are now, so you must be ; 

Therefore prepare to follow we ; 

Dry up your Tears our Parents dear, 

Weep not for we that Sleepeth here. 

'Other examples might be interesting. 

[See first query, p. 28.] 

The following inscription is to be seen on a 
:granite headstone in Streatham Cemetery 
"Garratt Lane, Tooting, S.W : 
In Memory of 
David Stolz 
of Balham, 
By Race of Jonah i. 9. 

But God will redeem my soul from the power 
Of the grave, for He shall receive me. 
To Him my spirit I consign : 
Asleep, awake, I do not fear. 
My body too I do resign : 
I dread no evil, God is near. 

Reference to Jonah i. 9 gives us the key : 
" And he said unto them, I am an Hebrew ; 
;and I fear the Lord, the God of heaven, 
which hath made the sea and the dry land." 
The quatrain is the last part of a Hebrew 
'hymn^entitled ' Adoun Olam.' 


The following epitaph is quoted in a 
paragraph published in The Daily Chronicle 
of 2 December, 1904, and is stated by the 
writer to have been found by him in a 
volume of the ' Annual Register ' issued close 
upon a century ago : 

"Epitaph in Kilkeel churchyard: Here lie the 
remains of Thomas Nichols, who died in Phila- 

delphia, March, 1753. Had he lived, he would 
have been buried here." 

I have not been able to verify the quota- 
tion, time not permitting of an exhaustive 
search ; but it seems to me to be so tho- 
roughly characteristic as to deserve a place 
in the collection published in 'N. & Q.' 


I send an epitaph from an old stone in the 

cemetery at Dacca, Bengal, which, although 
written from memory, is, I believe, correct : 

Oh ye of Scotia's sons 

For whom music hath a charm 

Your souls to cheer, your hearts to warm, 

Pause and dp homage to the shade 

Of one who in the fiddling trade 

Had few compeers, and, what is better, 

He was the essence of good nater. 


I send the following epitaph, copied from 
'the churchyard of St. Peter's, near Broad- 
stairs, believing it has not appeared in 

' X. & Q.' before. The monument is an upright 
slab, and at the top are depicted two angels 
and two trumpets. 

In Memory of M r Richard Joy 
(Call'd the Kentish Samson) who 

Died May 18 th 1742 Aged 67. 
Herculean Hero ! Fam'd for Strength 
At last Lies here his Breadth & Length. 
See How the Mighty Man is Fall'n ! 
To Death y e Strong & Weak are all one. 
And the Same Judgment doth Befall, 
Goliath Great, as David Small. 

It is said that he could lift a weight of 
2,200lb. CHR. WATSON. 

264, Worple Road, Wimbledon. 

[For references to Jay or Joy see 8 th S. iv. 506 : 
v. 134.] 

'YANKEE DOODLE.' (See 10 th S. ii. 480.) 
The original version of 'Yankee Doodle' 
consists of fifteen verses of four lines each, 
which may be found in ' Young Folk's His- 
tory of America,' edited by Hezekiah Butter- 
worth, pp. 266-8 (Boston, 1881). Of the other 
amusing songs belonging to the same epoch 
(1775-83), one, entitled 'The Battle of the 
Kegs,' is printed in the appendix to (Surgeon) 
James Thacher's ' Military Journal,' Hartford, 
1854. Both these books are in my library. 

Chicago, U.S. 

following is from The Times of 22 December, 
1904 : 

" In Castle-Baynard Ward, at which Alderman 
Sir David Evans was the returning officer, Mr. 
Gr. T. Thornes retired, and the Rev. Percival 
dementi-Smith, Master of the Mercers' Company 
and rector of St. Andrew-by-the- Wardrobe, was 
unanimously elected in his place. Mr. Clementi- 
Smith is the first clergyman who has been elected 
to the Corporation since the Reformation." 


CRANMER'S LIBRARY. (See 6 th S. xi. 309, 
412 ; 7 th S. xii. 345.) At the first and last of 
:.he above references a request is made for 
information concerning any books bearing 
he autograph "Thomas Cantuarien.," with 
;he statement at the first reference that the 
reater portion of Archbishop Cranmer's 
x>oks are in the British Museum, but that 
many were sold and scattered. I may say 
;hat there is a book bearing this signature 
on the top margin of the title-page in the 
ibrary of the Royal College of Physicians. 
^ts title is : " Digesto- | rum seu Pandectaru' 
mis Csesa- | rei Tonms Secundus, quod | 
ulgo Infortiatum | appellant. [Woodcut, 
printer's device.] Parisijs | Ex officina Claudij 
heuallonij, sub | Sole aureo in via ad diuum 
acobum. | 1527." 8vo. It is significant that 

ID-- s. in. JAX. 14, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

the first article in the book is headed, " Soluto 
matrimonio quemadmodum dos petatur." 
There are no underlinings or MS. notes. 


Lee, at p. 48 of his new book, ' Great English- 
men of the Sixteenth Century ' (1904), in his 
interesting account of Sir Thomas More, 
refers to Elizabeth Barton, " the Holy Maid 
of Kent," as "staying with the monks of the 
Charterhouse at Sion House, London." 

I may perhaps be allowed to point out 
that it is against the rules of the Order of 
Carthusians to permit women to enter a 
Charterhouse unless it be a nunnery, which 
the one referred to evidently was not ; 
indeed, the order had no nunnery in the 
English Province, all their priories being for 
monks. Further, there was no Charter- 
house at Sion House. 

There was a Carthusian Priory or Charter- 
house, founded by Henry V., at (West) 
Sheen, now known as Richmond in Surrey, 
and the priory would not be far from where 
the Observatory now is, in the Old Deer 
Park. More, in his letter to Cromwell, 
printed in the Rev. T. E. Bridgett's 'Life 
and Writings of Sir Thomas More' (1892), 
refers to " the Prior of the Charter- 
house at Shene" coming to him and talking 
about the Maid (p 330); and further on 
he states " that after her own confession 
declared at Paul's Cross" on 23 November, 
1533, he sent word by his servant "unto the 
Prior of the Charterhouse, that she was 
undoubtedly proved a false, deceiving hypo- 
crite." But there does not appear to be any- 
thing to show that the Maid ever went to 
Sheen Charterhouse. 

In the same letter, however, More expressly 
states (p. 326) : 

"After this, I being upon a clay at Sion, and 
talking with the fathers together at the grate, 
they showed me that she [i.e., the Maid] had 
been with them, and showed me divers things 

that some of them misliked in her Afterwards, 

when I heard that she was there again, I came 
thither to see her, and to speak with her myself. 
At which communication had, in a little chapel, 
there were none present but we two." 

Compare also F. A. Gasquet, ' Henry VIII. 
and the Eng Mon.' (1895), vol. i. p. 143. 

Sion Monastery was on the opposite side 
of the river to Sheen, the site being now 
occupied by Sion House, between Isleworth 
and Brentford, in the county of Middlesex. 
It was a foundation of the Order of St. Bridget 
of Sweden, and according to the rule of the 
order monks and nuns lived under the same 
roof, though the two communities were 
completely separate. The sisters, with the 

abbess, dwelt in one court, and the canons- 
and lay brothers in a separate court by them- 
selves (' Mon. Angl.,' Ellis, vol. vi. p. 542). Ifc 
is said that the rule, although less austere 
than that of the Carthusians, included a strict 
enclosure and the exercises of a contempla- 
tive life. (See Hendriks's 'The London 
Charterhouse,' 1889, pp. 127-8, and G. J. 
Aungier's ' The History and Antiq. of Syoii 
Mon.,' 1840 ; see p. 85 as to More's meeting, 
with the Maid.) 

It may be worth while also to call attention 
here to the note on p. 13 of Thomas Wright's 
' Letters relating to the Suppression of the 
Monasteries' (Camden Soc., 1843), wherein, 
referring to the subject of the Holy Maid, he- 
mentions "the fathers and nuns of Syon, the 
Charter House, [sic] and Sheen," as if there 
were three places. What, of course, must 
have been intended was the monks and nuns 
of Syon and the monks of Charterhouse at 
Sheen. H. W. UNDERDOWN. 

list is perhaps not complete, and some details 
I am unable to fill in ; but, such as it is, 
it may be of interest in reference to the 
recent discussion in 'N. & Q.' under the 
heading ' Martyrdom of St. Thomas ; 
St. Thomas of Hereford.' 

/. Formal Canonizations. 

1. St. Alban is stated by Matthew Paris to 
have been canonized by Pope Adrian I. in 794. 

2. St. Willibald was canonized by Leo VII. 
in 938. 

3. Pope Adrian IV., the only English Pope, 
canonized St. Siegfried in 1158. 

4. 5. Alexander III. canonized St. Edward 
the Confessor, 7 February, 1161/2, by the 
bull Uliiis devotionis constantiiun, and 
St. Thomas of Canterbury on 22 March, 
1173/4, by the bull Gandendv.m estunirersitati. 

6, 7. Innocent III. canonized St Gilbert of 
Sempringham in 1202 (bull lost), and St. Wol- 
stan, 14 May, 1203, by the bull Gum secundum 

8, 9. Honorius III. canonized St. Hugh of 
Lincoln, 18 February, 1220/1, by the bull 
Dirince dignatio ])ietatis, and St. William of 
York, 18 March, 1226/7, by the bull Qui statuit 

10. St. Edmund Rich was canonized by 
the bull of Innocent IV., dated 11 January, 
1247/8, Novum, mat r is ecclesice. 

1 1 St. Richard of Chichester was canonized 
20 February, 1261/2, by the bull of Urban IV., 
Exidtet angelica turba. 

12. St. Thomas of Hereford was canonized 
17 April, 1320, by the bull of John XXII,. 
Uniyenitus Filius. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. in. JAN. u, 1005. 

13. Boniface IX. (Pope from 1389 to 1404) 
-is stated to have canonized St. John of Brid- 

14, 15. Callixtus III. (Pope from 1455 to 
1458) canonized St. Osmund of Salisbury, 
1 January, 1456/7, and (according to Platina, 
who is probably wrong) St. Edmund the King 
-(date unknown). 

16. In some year unknown St. Stephen 
Harding appears to have been canonized on 
17 April (see Benedict XIV., ' De Canoniz.,' 
lib. i. c. 13, n. 17, t. 1, p. 100). 

II. Equipollent Canonizations. 

When the offices of a saint are extended to 
the Universal Church he is said to receive 
-equipollent canonization. 

St. Ursula and her companions were thus 
lionoured by St. Pius V. (Pope 1566 to 1572) ; 
St. Anselm by Alexander VIII. (1689-91) ; 
St. Margaret, Queen of Scotland, by Inno- 
cent XII., 15 September, 1691; St. Boniface 
by Pius IX. (1846-78) ; St. Augustine of Can- 
terbury by Leo XIII., 28 July, 1882, and 
St. Bede by Leo XIII, 13 November, 1899. 

I may add that St. Bede was at the same 
time declared a Doctor of the Church. The 
same title of honour was declared to St. An- 
selm by Clement XI. in 1720. 


DAGGER PIES. By the accidental omission 
of a reference in the first edition of Nares's 
* Glossary ' a quotation of two lines has been 
run on, in subsequent editions, to form part 
of another quotation which follows it, and 
the whole is printed thus : 

" Good den good coosen ; Jesu, how de 'e do? 

When shall we eat another Dagyer-pie, ' 
Out bench-whistler, out ; I '11 not take thy word 
for a Dagger pie. Decker's ' Satiromastix,' p. 115. 
Hawkins 3.' ; 

The first two are the opening lines of a 
little dialogue in verse attributed to S. Row- 
lands, 1602, called ' 'Tis Merrie when Gossips 

The 'N.E.D.,' vol. iii. p. 7, col. 3, quoting 
from Nares, as above, naturally attributes 
them to 'Satiromastix.' 

Another mistake in Nares also affects this 
'Dagger-pie' article in the 'N.E.D.' There 
were two taverns with the sign of the 
'"Dagger." Nares knew only of that in 
Hoi born ; but it was the " Dagger " in Cheap- 
side which gave its name to the pies/ See 
the second part of 'If you know not me, 
you know nobody,' Act I. sc. ii., by Hey- 
wood. The scene is Hobson's shop. During 
his absence the two apprentices leave their 
business. The second prentice, going out, 
says: "I must needs step to the Digger in 

Cheape, to send a letter into the country vnto 
my father." Hobson comes back to his shop, 
and, when this prentice returns, asks him, 
"And where have you been] 2nd Pren. At 
breakfast with a Dagger-pie, sir." Collier, 
in the Shakespeare Society's reprint of the 
play, has a note on the two " Daggers." 


VANISHED PASTIMES. When I was a boy 
I must have been a little " hooligan," for one 
of the pastimes or diversions of winter was 
indulgence in the dangerous practice of 
shooting orange-peel at all and sundry from 
a copper Y-shaped '' toy," the horns of which 
were connected by elastic, from which the 
tiny catapults of orange-peel were shot 
broadcast. I do not know what recalled to 
me quite spontaneously the memory of those 
boyish instruments of torture, but I have 
not seen them in any of the small shops 
devoted to the menus ^CU'SM-S de la jeiinesse 
for many years past, and now wonder 
whether police restrictions were quietly 
brought to bear upon the vendors in the 
same way as they were upon the vendors 
of "squirts" and other obnoxious pastimes 
which were such discordant conditions of 
life in the last century. 


NELSON IN FICTION. "Nelson's peerless 
name " has time and again figured in the 
pages of romance with more or less veri- 
similitude. Just now, with the centenary 
of Trafalgar coming on this year, I have 
noticed three tales of adventure in which 
" the Norfolk Hero," as we love to call him, 
is introduced. These are : 

1. Mr. Henty's last story, ' By Conduct 
and Courage,' said by some to be his best 

2. ' The Commander of the Hirondelle,' by 
Dr. W. H. Fitchett, which contains fine 
thumbnail sketches of Nelson. 

3. * England Expects : a Story of the Last 
Days of Nelson,' by Frederick Harrison, 
which has a stirring account of the culmina- 
ting scene at Trafalgar 1 . 

It would be interesting if a complete list 
of tales dealing with Nelson and his times, 
directly or indirectly, could be furnished. 



The subjoined cutting from a recent number 
of The Somerset County Gazette, under the 
heading ' North Perrott,' deserves, I think, 
preservation in 'N. & Q.' : 

"Ax INTKKKSTIXO RELIC. An exceedingly in- 
teresting relic has been placed in the north transept 

io<"s.m.jA_v.i4,i90o.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the parish church, immediately above the 
Hoskyns' family pew. It is the Union Jack which 
was flying on the ill-fated Victoria when she went 
down after being rammed by the Camperdown a few 
years since. When the Victoria sank this flag, strange 
to say, was found floating on the surface of the sea. 
It was picked up and sent to the Admiralty. The 
late Admiral Sir Anthony Hoskyns, when he had 
the command of the Mediterranean Fleet, hoisted 
the same flag on the Victory, then his flagship, and 
it was in turn hauled to the masthead by Admiral 
Tryon, who afterwards assumed the command, and 
who, it will be remembered, went down with his 
hip. On the occasion of the funeral of the late Sir 
Anthony Hoskyns, at North Perrott, the flag was 
used as a pall. It was afterwards given by the 
Admiralty to Lady Hoskyns. On her death this 
relic passed to the family, and they placed it in the 
parish church, where it hangs in graceful folds, 
commemorating the names of two brave men, and 
is a visible reminder of one of the saddest disasters 
in the history of the British Navy." 


LUTHER FAMILY. (See 10 th S. ii. 323.) The 
earliest record of this family in my possession 
is from the Visitation of Essex, 1634(Harleian 
Soc. vol. xiii. p. 439), and it commences with 
the Richard whose monument the REV. JOHN 
PICKFORD refers to ; but no mention is made of 
the brother Anthonie Luther. Can MR. PICK- 
FORD or any other of your readers give any 
earlier information respecting this family ; 
a,lso the date of Anthonie's death ? It is 
possible that he died prior to 1634, and that 
the inscription was only placed on his tomb 
at the death of his brother Richard in 1638 

My interest in the family arises from the 
grandson (Richard) and granddaughter (Jane) 
of the above - mentioned Richard having 
married the daughter (Rebecca) and son 
(Edward) of my great-great great-great-great 
uncle, Alderman Edward Rudge, Sheriff of 
London in 1637. 

It was the great-granddaughter (Charlotte 
Luther) of Richard Luther and Rebecca 
Rudge, and sister of John Luther, M.P. for 
the county of Essex, who married, as his 
third wife, Henry Fane, of Wormsley, M.P. 
for Lyme Regis, and brother to the eighth 
Earl of Westmorland ; and the manner in 
which Miles or My less passed to the Fane 
family is described in the "Gentleman's 
Magazine Library : English Topography," 
part iv. p. 96, thus : " My less, the property of 
F. Fane, Esq. (related to the Right Hon. Earl 
of Westmorland), formerly belonging to John 
Luther, Esq. [who, though married, died s.p. 
in 1786], who left it to Mr. Fane at his 

This is confirmed by the following entry in 
'Burke's Landed Gentry ' (ed. 1846, p. 395) : 

" Francis [second son of Henry Fane and Char- 
lotte Luther] of Spetisbury, Dorset, and Green 

Park Place, Bath, M.P. for Dorchester, who 
succeeded under the will of his uncle John 
Luther, Esq., to the large estates of Myless's, &c., 
and died without issue, when those estates passed 
by entail to his elder brother " 

John, who married Lady Elizabeth Parker, 
daughter of Thomas, third Earl of Maccles- 
field, and by whom he had issue John, 
mentioned in the next paragraph, and others. 

In 'Burke's Peerage' (ed. 1897, p. 1524) 
Charlotte Luther is described as sister and 
co-heiress (with Rebecca her sister, wife of 
J. Taylor, Esq.) of John Luther, Esq., of 
Myles, Essex ; and ' Burke's Commoners,' 
iv. 9, gives the representation of the Luther 
family as vested in Mr. Fane (John, grandson 
of Charlotte Luther) and Dr. Taylor (John 
Taylor Gordon. M.D., grandson of Rebecca 
Luther), of Clifton. According to ' Burke's 
Landed Gentry 1 (ed. 1846, p. 478), this 
Dr. Taylor, or Taylor Gordon, is of royal 
Scotch descent as well, as being a descendant 
of the Earls of Huntly. 

I have been unable to trace with any 
certainty that the Luther family of Essex 
were descended from Martin Luther ; but it 
may be interesting to quote the following in 
this connexion, which appears in ' Burke's 
Commoners,' iv. 9 : 

"Established in England during the reign of 
Henry VIII., and undoubtedly allied to the cele- 
brated Reformer, the Luthers remained seated in 
Essex for centuries, intermarrying with the leading 
families of thatcounty,representingitinParliament, 
and exercising paramount influence in its local 


9, Broughtou Road, Thornton Heath. 

" TOTEM." If there is any book to which 
one turns with confidence for the etymology 
of American words, the ' Century Dictionary ' 
is surely that book. Its note on totem would, 
however, be hard to beat for muddled 
arrangement, and liability to mislead the 
seeker for information : 

" Amer. Ind. ; given as from ' Massachusetts 
Indian wutohtimoin, that to which a person or place 
belongs' (Webster's Diet.); Algonkin dodaim 
(Tylor) ; Algonkin otem, with a prefixed poss. pron. 
nt 'otem, my family token." 

A commentary seems necessary to elucidate 
the facts which the above ingeniously 

(a) Massachusetts ivutohlimoin, though 
here brought into the foreground, is at best 
only distantly connected with totem. If it 
were possible to imagine a lexicographer 
giving tooth as from German zahn, it would 
be a fair parallel to the quotation from 

(b) It is a detail, but the quaint ortho- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* B. in. JAN. u, ms. 

graphy dodaim is not Tylor's, but School- 
craft's. See his ' Indian Tribes,' 1851, p. 151. 
(c) The real origin of totem is from 
" Algonkin " (i.e. Odjibway) otem, which first 
appeared in European literature in 1612, in 
the French of Lescarbot (" son daemon appelle 
aoutem,'' p. 683). It then dropped out of sight, 
until it was reborrowed from the Odjibway 
into English in the form totem, the initial t 
being due to the incorporation of part of a 
possessive pronoun. Totem is to Lescarbot's 
aoutem exactly as Shakspere's nuncle is to 
uncle. This the ' Century ' knows, and tries 
to explain ; but I doubt if any one fresh to the 
matter would understand its explanation, 
which must be my excuse for restating well- 
known facts in (I hope) simpler language. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be sent to them 

HUGH PERCY. At the dispersion of the 
Ashburnham Library was sold a somewhat 
remarkable folio MS. in the handwriting of 
Hugh Percy. Numerous dated entries occur 
in it, ranging from 1658 to 1662. It contains 
on ninety-four leaves a large number of 
examples of the rules of arithmetic, written 
in a small and beautiful hand, and embellished 
with very quaint grotesque initials, in red, 
blue, and green ink. It must have been a 
work of enormous labour, and of great utility 
to a student of commercial arithmetic. On 
a fly-leaf after the title-page is the following 
note : 

"Mary Percy was Borne at Way mouth in Mel- 
comb Regis the 28 h day of January in the year 
1645. Departed this Life at Bursys [?] 13 July 
between 9 & 10 at night 1704. 

Shee was both Vertuos obedjente & a loueing Wife 
Hath Left this World ; her Followers wee must bee 
Shee is gon ; Shee is gon to her Eternall Rest 
Learn to Submit ; God knows what is the best 
In her Ring Let loue abide till Death Deuide 

(1689 in Nouem 1 *) 

Loue did abide and Death Did Deuide 

(1704 in July) 

Wnoe So Eer thou art with Loueing Hart 
Stand Read & thinke on me for as 1 was Soe 
Now thou art & as I am Soe Shalt thou bee 

My brother William Percy died the 5 $ day of 
June 1705 on bord the John & Elizabeth in the 
Latitude of Cape finister." 

The allusion to the motto in her wedding or 
betrothal ring is unusual and pathetic. 

There are at the end of the volume notes 
of the births of Richard, Hugh. Mary, Easset, 

and William Percy, children of Richard anc? 
Tamzine (Thomasine ?) Percy. 

I shall be greatly obliged to any corre- 
spondent who can identify the Hugh Percy 
(doubtless the husband of Mary, born 1645),. 
the writer of this curious volume. 


much obliged by any information as to the- 
London Bridge Theatre, which was in Tooley 
Street. I have two views of it, exterior and 
interior, and should like to acquire any play- 
bills or cuttings relative to it ; also to ascer- 
tain date of its opening and closing. 


5, Essex Court, Temple, B.C. 

BESANT. I am told that Sir Walter Besant 
and Mrs. Annie Besant accented the family 
name, one on the first and one on the second 
syllable. I should like to know which 
accent was used by which owner, and whe- 
ther in either case the s was given the z 
sound. D. M. 

Union League, Philadelphia. 

[Sir Walter called himself Besant, riming with 
pleasant. J 

MALET. I should be glad to verify a tradition 
in our family to the effect that at the trial of 
Warren Hastings, and after Sir Charles Malet 
had given his evidence, Warren Hastings 
replied, "Sir Charles, you are the soul of 
honour." HAROLD MALET, Colonel. 

REV. THOMAS NEWMAN. Who was Thomas- 
Newman, a minister who, with many others, 
had his passage paid out to the Plantations- 
by the Privy Purse, 1721-5 ? E. E. COPE. 

to trace the descendants of David Morgan, 
of Monmouthshire, executed for high treason, 
in 1746. His will names only a daughter, 
Mary Morgan. Is anything known of her 
subsequent history 1 GEORGE RICKWORD. 


Pull off, pull off the broach of gold. 
This line, so spelt, occurs in ' Lady Clare ' at 
p. 230 of the new " Florin Edition " of ' Poems- 
by Tennyson ' issued by the Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. Nobody, of course, could be 
audacious enough to suggest the possibility 
of a printer's error in such a publication, 
and so we are driven to inquire whether we 
shall be expected in future to spell the word 
" broach" in this way, whatever its meaning. 
Unfortunately the word does not occur in 
the short list of 'Alternative or Difficult 
Spellings ' in Mr. Hart's fascinating Rules 

s. in. JAN. 14, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


for Compositors'; but in the 'N.E.D.' we 
are informed that "broach 1 ' arid "brooch" 
are the same word, both having reference 
to the spit or pin which forms part of the 
article, " the differentiation of spelling being 
only recent and hardly yet established.' 
Yet the former spelling indicates " a tapering 
instrument," "a spit," &c., and the latter is 
said to be " now used mainly as a (female^ 
ornament." The examples cited of the latter 
use go back as far as Chaucer, and in them 
the word is uniformly spelt without an a. 
How long a period is considered necessary 
by philologists before a spelling can be said 
to have become established 1 

7, New .Square, Lincoln's Inn. 

" WALKYN SILVER." Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' inform me what was the nature 
of this payment, formerly exacted from some 
estates in Westmorland 1 


Staveley, Kendal. 

tionaries spell the name of this animal in the 
same way, and mark it as stressed upon the 
first syllable (wapiti). I was therefore sur- 

grised to find that Paul Fountain, in his new 
ook on ' The Great North- West' (1904), not 
only always spells it wipiti, but in his glos- 
sary, p 349, accents it upon the second 
syllable (tmpiti). Is this an error of the 
press ? Or can any reader confirm this pro- 
nunciation, from personal knowledge of how 
the term is sounded in Canada 1 


when I was staying at my old college, the 
late Master (Dr. Searle) showed me a beau- 
tifully executed MS. history of the college, 
written by his predecessor (Dr. Gilbert 
Ainslie). Has this ever been printed ? I 
have considerable collections for the college 
history, and have been disappointed that no 
book on it has been printed by Messrs. F. E 
Robinson & Co. in their " College Histories " 
series. T. CANN HUGHES, M.A., F.S.A. 


Brydges's ' Collins' s Peerage,' vol. ii. p. 546, 
this knight's tomb in Brome Church, Suffolk, 
bears the inscription : 

"Here lies Sir Thomas Cornwallis, son of Sir 
John, who was of Queen Mary princely Councell, 
and Treasurer of Gales, and after Controller of her 
Majesties household, in especiall grace and trust of 
his mistress at his untimely death. 1 ' 

As he died (probably in the eighty-sixth year 

of his age) in 1604, one does not quite see 
how his death could be called untimely. 
Should "her" be read for "his" in the last 

Among the MSS. belonging to Lord Bray- 
brooke at Audley End mentioned 'Eighth 
Rep. Hist. MSS. Comrn.,' p. 277, is the char- 
tulary and register of Sir Thos. Cornwallis, 
and the third document therein transcribed 
is said to be 

" 3 & 4 Philip & Mary Letters Patent of the 
guardianship of the heir of Sir Thomas Cornwall-it* 
Qtalics mine] to John Bowall [i.e. BoxallJ, I).])., 
William Cordell, Esq., their Majesties' Solicitor- 
General, and John Suliarde, Esq"." 
Can any one explain how there came to be 
an heir of Sir Thomas Cornwallis at that date, 
the guardianship of whom was vested in the 
Crown? During the whole of the above 
regnal year, i.e. from 25 July, 1556, to 5 July, 
1557 (except between the 9th of August and 
the 1st of September, 1556), Sir Thomas was 
at Calais, where he was Treasurer. 


"BLOOD-FUNKERS." Was this a common 
term of abuse as blood-letting fell out of 
fashion ? M EDICU LU.S. 

" CAVEAC " TAVERN. I should be much 
obliged if any of your readers could give me 
any information about an old London tavern 
known as the " Caveac" Tavern, formerly in 
Spread Eagle Court, Finch Lane, E.G. It i.s 
supposed to have been erected about 1700, 
and pulled down about 1800, " Caveac " being 
the corruption of the name Cahuac, a French- 
man, the first proprietor. J. P. SIMPSON. 

be very glad if any one could send me a list 
of the incumbents of Abbotsley from the 
earliest times up to the present, or could 
tell me where the information is to be found. 


264, AYorple Road, Wimbledon. 

"HEART OF MY HEART." -- Will any one 
kindly indicate where I can find the poem 
from which the following is an extract ? 
Heart of my heart, she has broken the heart of me : 
Soul of my soul, she will never be part of me 
She whom I love, but will never be love of me ; 
Song of my sorrows, 

My lady of moods. 


the present London police uniform adopted ? 
and when did the existing form of omnibus 
;ome into use? Each of these questions I 
iave heard so frequently discussed, and with 
mch extravagant vagueness of date, that ifc 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. HI. JA*. w, 

is possible that ' N. & Q.' may come to the 
rescue and fix the point for ever. At a guess, 
I should say that the old top hat and cut- 
away coat (with "ducks" in summer) lasted 
up to 1864 or 1865, when the present uniform 
came in. 

The transformation of the "'bus "is more 
difficult to determine. Again, one might 
hazard a "shot" that it began not much 
before 1887, or even later. Whether the aboli- 
tion of the door and the introduction of the 
staircase were simultaneous it would be hard 
to say. Certainly some omnibuses were 
spoken of, by way of distinction, as "stair- 
case " omnibuses as late as 1889 and 1890 ; and 
even then the knifeboard prevailed. The 
"garden seats," as a universal practice, are 
not much more than a decade old. 

I have heard elderly people declare that 
they " cannot remember " such a thing as an 
omnibus with a door. PHILIP NORTH. 

Characters, and Reflections' of Fulke Gre- 
ville, published without the author's name 
in 1756 (p. 27), we are told that "the two 
polar regions of the globe are fabled to be 
inhabited, one by giants, the other by pigmies, 
and both are most uncomfortable climates." 
From what source did Greville derive this 
piece of folk-lore ? K. P. D. E. 

_ SPANISH ARMS. Can your readers kindly 
give me the bearers of the following arms, 
blazoned on some fine Hispano - Mauresque 
majolica, dating circa 1500 ? 

1. Sable, three Catherine wheels or, on a 
chief azure three fleurs-de-lis of the second. 

2. Arg.. an eagle displayed azure. 

3. Party per pale, dexter as in No. 2 ; sinister, 
Az., a bend or. H. 2. 

TRIPLICATE WRITING. I want to hear of 
the best kind of manuscript book for writing 
in in triplicate all three copies to be on 
fairly stout, and not flimsy, paper, and the 
writing clear and permanent. Carbon sheets 
are, I suppose, essential. Can any one re- 
commend such a book 1 

50, Beecrofb Road, Brockley, S.E. 

HOLYROOD FONT This font was removed 
from Holy rood by Sir R. Lee in 1544. After 
defacing it with an inscription he presented 
it to St. Alban's Abbey. It appears to have 
been taken from the abbey during the Civil 
War. I shall be glad to know whether any 
description of the font exists, and if it was 
destroyed on being removed from the abbey 

Q. W. V. 

(10 th S. ii. 287, 513.) 

IT is rather odd to see the great and munifi- 
cent Baron of Helrnslac in Yorkshire styled 
"Sir Walter." It is little wonder that 
families of his name desired to trace some 
relationship, but descendants they could not 
be, as his sisters Hawise, Albreda, and 
Odeline were his heirs. He himself was the 
heir, probably son, of " Willelm Spech," who 
held in 1086 (Dora. Bk. i. 214b and 215) 
Wardon and other manors in Bedfordshire 
in cajnte, for these descended to him. 

In Devonshire in 1166 we find Richard 
" Espec " holding three knights' fees of 
Robert FitzRoy, and (Richard " Spec ") one 
of the Honor of William de Traci (' Liber 
Niger,' 120, 121). This Richard de " Espech," 
as husband of (Margaret?) the daughter and 
heiress of William de " Treiminettes " ("de 
tribus Minutis"), of " Branford," confirmed to 
the church of St. Nicholas at Exeter and 
the monks of Battle, there serving God, the 
advowson of St. Peter at Branforf, given 
them by Walter de Tribus Minutis and 
William his son, whose daughter "I married" 
("duxi uxorem"). Robert "Espac"oneof the 
witnesses. This grant was further confirmed, 
first by Robert "de Espech," as son (and 
heir) of Richard "Espec," and witnessed by 
Master Alard, then Sheriff of Devon ; and 
afterwards by William " Espech," as son of 
Richard and brother (and heir) of Robert 
" Espac." This priory at Exeter was a cell of 
Battle Abbey (Coll. Top et Gen., i. 62, 382). 

This is how the family of Speke became 
possessed of Brampford-Speke, so called after 
them to this day. I do not see how " L'Espec " 
could ever have meant "Spicer." Norman 
| surnames were derived from a great variety 
j of sources ; even opprobrious nicknames were 
handed down, and the names of animals and 
birds were used. Anyhow, the only example 
of a similar word given in Du Fresne's 
edition of Du Cange's ' Glossary ' is " Espec, 
nunc Pivert: 1'oiseau a plumage jaune et 
vert," identified as the green woodpecker. 

If this was the origin of the surname it 
would make it more probable that all who 
bore it were descended from one so nick- 
named, from some personal peculiarity that 
suggested its being given him, perhaps per- 
severance in going through with anything 
he undertook, returning again and again if 

"De tribus Minutis" is another peculiar 
surname, possibly originally given to one for 

in. JAN. 14, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


performing some remarkable feat in that 
brief space, or to one who used to say, as 
some do now, "I shall only be two or three 
minutes," knowing well they will be much 
longer. There may, of course, be a more 
subtle derivation for both surnames, but I 
am afraid this is too small a matter to ask 
PROF. SKEAT to give us his opinion upon. 


It is quite certain that the O. French espec 
has nothing to do with spicer, but is a totally 
different word, and means a speight, i.e., a 
woodpecker. Godefroy's 'O.F. Diet.' gives 
espec, especque, espoit, espois, a woodpecker, 
with several quotations. A very clear one is 
from an old glossary : " Picus, ung pivert ou 
especque." Pivert is still in use. The O.F. 
espec resulted from an attempt to adopt the 
Du. and G. specht. Cf. Prov. E. wood-spack, 
wood spite, both given by Swainson (E.D.S.). 
Cotgrave has both e'peiche and Jpiche, "a 
speight, the red - tailed woodpecker, or 
highaw." The form e'peiche is still in use ; so 
says Hatzfeld. The E. form is speight, which 
is also used as a proper name There was 
an editor of Chaucer who spelt it Spegkt. 

SPELLING REFORM (10 th S. ii. 305, 450). It 
would be interesting to know what is the 
ground of the preference which MR. RALPH 
THOATAS feels for the spelling forego rather 
than forgo. I suppose forebid, foreget, or 
foreswear would have no attraction for him, 
so that he would say that he liked forego 
best because he, and probably a majority of 
his contemporaries, have always so written 
it. He does not trouble himself about which 
is right. Neither do I : that is to say, I do 
not desire to alter a spelling in accordance 
with what I perceive to be the true origin 
of the word. But if I find that there are 
good literary authorities, ancient and modern, 
for a certain spelling which does accord 
with the true etymology, I like to side with 
those who know the fact rather than with 
those who do not. Now the for words are 
generally akin to the German words beginning 
with ver, and the fore words to those in 
German beginning with vor. If, then, I find 
two words/ore<70 and forgo, differently built 
up, and entirely differing in signification, 
though differing but little in sound, 1 am not 
surprised that they should have been con- 
founded, though I should see cause for regret 
if the blunder should be perpetuated. I wrote 
some of this to a friend many years ago. He 
answered, "Ah ! Shakspere and Milton are 

good enough for me, and as they spelt so I 
spell." What he meant was that as their 
later editors spelt so he spelt ; and I have 
thought it might interest your readers, or 
some of them, if I showed how Shakspere and 
Milton themselves did deal with those verbs. 
I have not Mil ton at hand nor the concordance ; 
but, if my memory serves me, he had four 
times to express the sense " do without," and 
then the word he used was forgo. Once he 
expressed going before, and his word was, as 
might be expected, forego. I am not sure of 
the numbers, but I am quite sure of the 

Nor is there any doubt in the case of 
Shakspere. 1 mean Shakspere himself, not 
his editors. Eleven times they use the word 
forego or its belongings : in eight of them 
they mean him to express "do without" ; but 
the poet himself spelt them, so far as the 
First Folio teaches us, forgo. In two cases 
one in ' All 's Well that Ends Well,' and one 
in 'Othello' he means "goes before," and 
writes " fore-goer " and " fore-gone." 

There is one more an interesting one in 
'All 's Well that Ends Well,' Act I. sc. iii. : "By 
our remembrances of days foregone.'' So write 
the editors, and so nearly wrote Shakspere 

" of days forgon." It may be that he 

spelt wrongly in the opposite way from 
theirs ; but bearing in mind that the German 
absolute equivalent of the English forgo is 
vergehen, and that that means "to pass away, 
to elapse," it would seem that we have here 
another meaning for the legitimate word 
forgo, the passage meaning "of days gone by " 
or "of vanished days." ALDENHAM. 

" LICENCE" AND " LICENSE " (10 th S. ii. 484). 
Like every one else, I have the greatest 
respect for PROF. SKEAT as an authority in 
the etymology of our language. In my 
note at 10 th S. ii. 451 I should not have said 
that license, practise, and prophesy are spelt 
with ce when used as nouns " in defiance of 
all rule." It was a mistake due to a partial 
alteration of my sentence, which is not 
worth explaining. I had PROF. SKEAT'S 
dictionary at hand when I was writing. 
My objection was, and is, to the two spellings, 
the arbitrary double forms which serve no 
useful purpose and are a real trouble in the 
schoolroom. PROF. SKEAT is in favour of ce 
in all these words. In the case of the third 
word I read in his dictionary that the 
distinction between the sy and cy forms is 
"unoriginal, arbitrary, and absurd." Very 
well, then ; cannot we get rid of the double 
form altogether 1 There is no good reason 
why in these matters we should be bound by 



the mere custom of former centuries ; more 
especially since we most of us know how 
erratic and haphazard the spelling of our 
ancestors was. In his dictionary PROF. 
SKEAT rightly raises his voice against 
ascendant and descendant ; in this he rebels 
against former usage and authority ; but he 
falls away over the word attendant, because 
he has found attendaunce in Chaucer ; in this 
he becomes again a slave to authority and 

I appeal to PROF. SKEAT to have the 
courage of his opinions, and to head the 

Sarty of reform in spelling. He will probably 
nd that Oxford, Cambridge, the Conference 
of Head Masters, and the chief London 
printers will support him in bringing about 
some useful changes, which other authorities 
are too cautious to originate. F. P. 

528). The Great Seal of Ireland at the pre- 
sent day is made of gutta-percha of a green 
colour. The process consists of softening 
two discs of gutta-percha in hot water and 
impressing the matrices on the discs. To use 
no stronger word, the very name " gutta- 
percha " is enough to condemn such a material 
for the purpose ; but apart from considera- 
tions of a sentimental nature, the use of 
gutta-percha is to be deprecated, for when 
subjected to certain changes of temperature, 
and after the lapse of some years, it seems 
to lose some of its consistency and to become 
fragile and gradually decay. The seal of 
Ulster's office used to be made in gutta- 
percha, but I have substituted for it pure 
vermilion wax, which is practically everlast- 
ing, and, even if not encased in a metal box, 
is safe from being eaten by rats or mice, 
owing to the red lead in the colouring. 

I may mention that the Great Seal of 
England is made of a very brittle yellow 
material, mostly composed of resin, the result 
being that it is very easily broken. I would 
suggest to the Clerks of the Crown and 
Hanaper that they should return to the ways 
of our forefathers, and use pure wax, which 
can be obtained, specially prepared, from 
Messrs. Ready, of the British Museum. 

It is lamentable to contemplate that in a 
hundred years or so there will hardly be a 
perfect specimen of the gutta-percha Great 
Seal of Ireland, or the resin Great Seal of 
England, in existence. 


MERCURY IN TOM QUAD (10 th S. ii. 467, 
531). I knew Tom Quad in the early thirties, 
when a current story explained the recent 
deposition of Mercury. Coming to chapel 

one morning, men beheld the eloquent grand- 
son of Atlas arrayed in surplice, doctor's 
hood, scarf, bands, and trencher cap, his 
black face peering out of these adornments 
unacademically. A frost had hardened the 
water in the basin, giving access to the god 
during the night; but the ice had been care- 
fully broken, so that no one could approach 
him in the morning without a plunge into- 
freezing water five feet deep. King Gaisford, 
in his rage and fury, commanded that the 
image should be removed, and I seem to- 
remember it lying in the St. Aldate's yard of 
which Canon Thompson speaks. When Lord 
Derby came down to be installed as Chan- 
cellor he is said to have recalled the freak, 
and to have confessed himself one of its 
perpetrators. SENEX. 

QUEEN ANNE'S LAST YEARS (10 th S. ii. 503). 
The book is : 

" Memoirs of the four last years of the reign of 
Queen Anne, from 1710, to her death. In which 
the characters of the most eminent persons of both 
parties that acted under that Princess are impar- 
tially drawn : and the history of those important 
transactions are [sic] set in a clear light. To which 
is prefixed a succinct view of the continual struggles 
of parties, from the Reformation to 1710. London, 
printed for T. Cooper, at the Globe in Paternoster 
Row, 1742." 

I do not find this in Halkett and Laing's 
'Dictionary,' though it is mentioned in 
Watt, but without information as to the 
author. An earlier work, with a somewhat 
similar but still longer title, and dated 1729,. 
is mentioned by both, and attributed to 
" Gibson." 

I do not know whether the 1742 book is- 
founded on, or is perhaps merely a reissue 
of. that of 1729, as I have not seen the latter. 
The former is written in the Whig interest, 
but is of no value. J. F. R. 


503). May I add to W. C. B.'s second valuable 
list the following, relating to what must ever 
be a subject of unabated interest ? 

Thomas K. Hervey. The Book of Christinas i 
descriptive of its Customs, Ceremonies, Traditions, 
iSuperstitions, Fun, Feeling, and Festivities. 8vo, 
1836. With illustrations by R. Seymour. The 
Athenanim gave a very favourable review of this 

William Sandys, F.S.A. Christmas Tide: ita 
History, Festivities, &c. 

Christmas in N aples. The L)uke of Andria Carafa, 
in The Daily Messenger of Paris, Nov. or Dec. (pro- 
bably the latter), 1903. 

Santa Claus in Italy. The Daily Telegraph, 
20 Dec., 1903. 

Christmas in France. Coxe's 'Tour through, 

in. JA>-. 14, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Bygone Christinas Days. Sir Edwin Arnold in 
The Daily Telegraph, 26 Dec., 1903. 

Household Words, Sept. or Aug., 1896. An article 
on fare for particular seasons. 

Christmas Eve in Bethlehem. By Ella T. Wheeler. 
The Queen, 1899. 

Christmas Customs. In The Queen, 11 Jan., 1868, 
quoted from The Broad tmy. 

Christmas in Mediseval England. By G. Holden 
Pike, in The Queen, 22 Nov , 1903. 

Yule and Christmas: a Study in Germanic Origins. 
A paper read at the January, 1897, meeting of the 
Glasgow Archaeological Society, by Dr. Alexander 
Tillie. See The Antiquary, March, 1897. 

Brand s Popular Antiquities. Bohn, 1853, vol. i. 

Christmas in Mexico. The Globe newspaper, 
23 Dec., 1903. 

Yule-Tide Celebrations. The Globe, No. 810. 

Christmas Carols aud Customs. The Queen, 
29 Dec., 1S66. 

Christmas-Tree Land. The Queen, 20 Dec., 1902. 

Christmas Cakes. The Globe, 27 Dec., 1902. 

Gloucestershire Wassailers' Song. The Penny 
Post, 1 May, 1871. 

Games for Christmas Parties. Pearson's Weekly, 
1 Jan., 1898. 

Twelfth Night : its Decay as a Festival. House- 
hold Words, Nov. or Dec., 1896 

Christmas Cards : their Origin and Manufacture. 
The Windsor Afaya~ine, I think, of the year 1897. 
Also a note by Peter Lombard in The Church Times, 
1 Jan., 1892. 

Twelfth Night in 1810. The Globe, 8 Jan., 1904. 

Christmas Stories. The Globe, 26 Dec., 1903; 
also a paragraph of the same date, ' Mumping' and 
' Furmety.' 


HERALDIC (10 th S. ii 408). The arms im- 
paled, Sinister, "a chevron between two fleurs- 
de-lis in chief and a crab in base," belong to 
the Scottish family of Crab of Robslaw. 

In ' Burke's Armory ' they are thus given : 
" Az., a chevron arg between two fleurs-de- 
lis in chief and a crab in base or." Crest : 
"A salmon naiant." 

In the collection of seals in the British 
Museum there are two impressions of these 
arms : the one is said to belong to Paul Crab 
(A.D. 1310), bearing the words s' PAVLVS 
CRAB ; the other is that of William Crab, 
burgess of Aberdeen (A.D. 1499), which has, 
besides the arms, a crest on a helmet, "a 
cherub's head in profile, between two wings 
erect"; supporters, two swans rising; and 
the legend '* S : wilelmi crab." The numbers 
of these two seals are 15,987 and 15,988. 

The original founders of many towns in 
Scotland were Flemish settlers. One of the 
most famous of these was John Crab, who is 
first mentioned in the siege of Berwick, 1319, 
where stones discharged from his crane shat- 
tered the roof of the English "sow," and 
payments occur for his services at Berwick 
(1329-31). When Edward Balliol besieged 
Berwick, 1332, he conducted ten ships from 

Berwick to the Tay and captured Henry of 
Beaumont's ship, the "Beaumonts Cogge " ; 
but his vessels were burnt in the engage- 
ment which followed, and the Treasury paid 
35y. 4s. to the Flemings who owned them. 
Shortly afterwards Crab acquired land near 
Aberdeen, and became burgess and custuraar 
of that town. His name is spelt in various- 
ways, Crawe, Crab, Crabb, Crabbe. An Adam 
Crab was Bailie of Aberdeen between 1384 
and 1387 ; and a Sir John Crab, chaplain, 
was a custumar of St. Andrews between 1384 
and 1402. I think the arms dexter could be 
traced by reference to Papworth and Morant's- 
' Dictionary of Coats of Arms,' which I have- 
not to hand. 

I venture to call attention to my own 
heraldic query, under the name Waterton 
(10 th S. ii. 29), of which I have at present 
received no solution. CHR. WATSON. 

MR. EADCLIFFE'S description of the arms 
on his tankard conveys no indication of 
tincture. That of the dexter side might 
apparently be the coat of (1) Kelland of 
Painsford, Devon (Sable, a fess argent, in 
chief three fleurs-de-lis of the last) ; or of 

(2) Kempton, of Cambridge, or of Hadley, in 
Middlesex, or of London (Azure, a fess or, 
in chief three fleurs-de-lis of the last) : or of 

(3) "Sire W. Wolford, a Gascoigne" (Sable, 
a fess or, in chief three fleurs-de-lis of the- 

That of the sinister side may be the coat of 
(1) Crabb of Castlewich, in Cornwall (Azure, 
a chevron between two fleurs-de-lis in chief 
and a crab in base or) ; or of (2) Crab of 
Robslaw, in Scotland (Azure, a chevron 
argent between two fleurs-de-lis in chief and 
a crab in base or). From the last- mentioned! 
coat there may possibly be other develop- 
ments in which the charges remain unaltered 
while the tinctures are changed. It is here- 
assumed that the fess in the one case and th& 
chevron in the other are not differentiated 
by variety of outline, but formed by simple- 
straight lines. H. A. W. 

454, 516). In ' Nollekens and his Times,' by 
John Thomas Smith, the author, amongst 
very many curious and interesting remi- 
niscences, narrates the following : 

" I remember well, when I was in my eighth 
year, Mr. Nollekens calling at my father's house 
in Great Portland Street, and taking me to Oxford 
Road to see the notorious Jack Rann, commonly 
called ' Sixteen-string Jack,' go to Tyburn to be 
hanged for robbing Dr. William Bell, in Gunners- 
bury Lane, of his watch and eighteenpence in 
money ; for which he received sentence of death 
on Tuesday, the 26th of October, 1774. The criminal 



dressed in a pea-green coat, with an immense 
nosegay in the button- holes, which had been pre- 
>sented to him at St. Sepulchre's steps; and his 
nankin small-clothes, we were told, were tied at 
each knee with sixteen strings. After he had 
passed, and Mr. Nollekens was leading me home by 
the hand, I recollect his stooping down to me, and 
observing, in a low tone of voice, 'Tom, now, my 
little man, if my father-in-law, Mr. Justice Welch, 
-had been High-constable, we could have walked 
by the side of the cart all the way to Tyburn." 

-Such were the barbarous notions then in 
vogue as to the duty of " teaching the young 
idea" by the object lesson of "shocking 
examples." WALTER B. KINGSFORD. 

United University Club. 

Even as late as 1869 there were a few old- 
fashioned schoolmasters who still permitted 
their pupils to witness executions, from the 
object-lesson point of view. I was a small 
Tjoy at a school in Norwich during that year, 
and I vividly remember being taken by the 
usher we called assistant masters ushers 
then to see the last public execution in 
Norwich. The criminal's name was Hubbard 
Lingley, and I think he murdered his uncle ; 
but I have never heard the details of the 
crime. The whole ghastly scene made a very 
profound impression on me, and I remember 
it distinctly to this day. For years I kept 
one of the broadsides purporting to contain 
"the last dying speech," fec., with a little 
woodcut, supposed to represent the actual 
execution, at the head of it, which were 
hawked about amongst the crowd. 


ii. 422). Would MR. PLATT kindly tell us 
whether the word " wpodchuck," in its 
meaning of Picus viridis, is the same as that 
which signifies the Virginian marmot (Arc- 
tomys monax)'! Further, does the form 
woodchuck render the sound of the Algonquin 
word exactly? or has it been modelled by 
the influence of folk-etymology ? 


S. ii. 448). Some years ago I endeavoured to 
obtain through 'N. & Q? information con- 
cerning the graves of Dr. Dodd ridge and 
Henry Fielding, both of which are in the 
English Cemetery at Lisbon. I failed to 
obtain any first-hand particulars; but should 
MR. MARSHAM-TOWNSHEND like to refer to 
what was said, he will find Doddridge at 
7 th S. viii. 8, 112, 177, and Fielding at 8 th S. 
iv. 164, 314. 

I very much wish a list of those buried in the 
English Cemetery at Lisbon could be inserted 

in 'N. & Q.' Many distinguished officers 
who fell in the Peninsular War lie in this 
sacred enclosure, as well as the two notable 
men above mentioned. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

The inscriptions at the Estrella were copied 
by the late Rev. C. B. Norcliffe, of Langton 
Hall, Malton, in 1876, and the MS is doubtless 
still at Langton, in the possession of his 
brother. The oldest M.I. he copied were 
those of Sir Samuel Wright, 21 January, 
1737-8; Henry Fielding the novelist, and Dr. 
Philip Doddridge. Mr. Norcliffe informed 
me that many were concealed by the luxu- 
riant growth of the prickly pear. Some of 
the residents at Lisbon prior to the earth- 
quake are mentioned in the notes in William 
Carew's Prayer Book, printed in the Mis- 
cellanea Genealogica, vol. iv., New Series, 
pp. 321-3; and numerous letters which tell 
the history of the factories in Portugal 
(Lisbon and Oporto) are in the English 
Foreign Office. G. D. LUMB. 

Some years since some records with refer- 
ence to English Roman Catholics buried at 
Lisbon were obtained from the English 
College. It would bo worth while inquiring 
whether the College library contains any 
account of the cemetery in the last century, 
as it very likely may do. 


BLOOD USED IN BUILDING (10 th S. ii 389, 
455). MR EDWARD PEACOCK is in error when 
he ranks blood with "other materials equally 
useless " for imparting strength to mortar. 
Standage's ' Cements, Pastes,' kc. (Crosby 
Lockwood & Son, 1893), includes certain 
recipes for blood cements for filling joints 
between brick and building stones, &c., bul- 
lock's blood, slaked lime, ashes, and alum 
being the ingredients. A Chinese blood 
cement, said to be in general use for making 
wooden pasteboard and other vessels water- 
proof, is composed of 100 parts of slaked 
lime, 75 parts of bullock's blood well beaten, 
and 2 parts of alum. In another recipe iron 
filings and cement are used along with the 
blood and lime. Milk, cheese, and eggs 
(chiefly the white) appear in others. The 
albumen in the blood, white of eggs, &c., 
appears to be the medium of value. 


Wood Hall, Calverley. 

That this practice has been continued into 
recent times is certain, for when I spoke to a 
local builder on the subject he informed me 
that his father, some years ago, made a 
lime-ash floor in a cottage situated in the 
adjoining village of East Budleigh, and 

io">s. in. JAX.H, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


mixed the materials with a quantity of 
bullock's blood so as to make the work more 
solid and durable. The floor yet remains, 
and in good order, but is quite white, the 
lime having destroyed the red colour of the 
blood. As pointed out by MR. E. PEACOCK, 
the red colour of Roman mortar or cement is 
sometimes due to iron stain ; but it is more 
frequently owing to an entirely different 
-cause. Some years since, when making a 
careful examination of the Roman masonry 
of the Julian Tower at Chester Castle, I 
noticed that red bonding mortar had been 
employed ; and on my referring the matter to 
the late C. Roach Smith, the well-known 
antiquary, he informed me that it was 
due to the use of red pounded tile with the 
lime of the mortar. In connexion with this 
subject, the following remarks on a portion 
of the Roman wall laid bare on Tower Hill, 
London, during some excavations in the 
year 1852, recorded in that author's ' Roman 
London' (1859), p. 16, will be read with 
interest : 

"The core of the wall is composed of rubble 
cemented together with concrete, in which lime 
predominates, as is usual in Roman mortar. 
Founded tile is also used in the mortar which 
cements the facing. This gives it that peculiar red 
hue which led Fitzstephen to imagine the cement 
of the foundations of the Tower to have been 
tempered with the blood of beasts (casmento cum 
sanguine animalium temperato)." 

Salterton, Devon. 

Many South African native tribes notably 
the Zulus and others of the Bantu race use 
bullock's blood to polish the mud floors of 
their huts, which gradually assume an appear- 
ance something like black marble. The coat- 
ing of blood is frequently renewed, and it 
combines with the soil in producing a hard, 
firm, and solid flooring. I have also seen 
bullock's blood used for the same purpose in 
the farmhouses of Boers up-country. 


15, Grosvenor Road, S-W. 

A good deal is given about this practice in 
7 th S. vi. 265, 349; vii. 13, under ' Kirk Grims.' 
Let me add these further notes : 

Adamnan, ' S. Columba,' ed. Fowler, p. 137. 

' Seven Champions of Christendom,' under S. 
George, chap. xvi. 

Southey's ' Madoc,' 1853, note on p. 294. 

Addy, * Hall of Waltheof,' 1893. chap. ix. 

Literature, 30 July, 1898, p. 91. 

W. C. B. 

I remember in my schooldays an Indian 
missionary who bought and demolished old 
idol temples. He found extreme difficulty in 
breaking down the walls, and ascribed this 

to the use of sugar as an ingredient of the- 
mortar. It would be interesting to know 
whether sugar has ever been subjected to 
expert building tests in this country, and if 
there are practical possibilities of its regular 
employment as a constituent of mortar. 

Streatham Common. 

ii. 468). A propos of the three tailors of 
Tooley Street beginning their address, "We, 
the people of England," a district councillor 
of New Maiden, in April, 1902, having just 
been elected, announced, by way of thanking 
the electorate, that they had " raised him 
from obscurity to a niche in history." 


HIGH PEAK WORDS (10 th S. ii. 201, 282, 384, 
472). It will be interesting to MR. ELWORTHY 
and your readers to know that vrin'rau* is a 
very common word in Dumfriesshire, and is 
used to describe peats set up to dry in open 
form, so that the wind can pass freely 
through. It is also applied to hay raked 
into loose rows to dry. GEO. IRVING. 

BEN JONSON AND BACON (10 th S. ii. 469). 
There is no intimation whatever in my copy 
of 'Ben Jonson,'by John Addington Symonds 
(Longmans, Green fe Co., 1888). of Rare Ben 
having been in the service of Bacon. 


119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

BATTLEFIELD SAYINGS (10 th S. i. 268, 375, 
437 ; ii. 275). An English book called ' La 
Compagnie Irlandaise,' by Capt. Kirwan, 
was published shortly after the Franco- 
Prussian War, and I read it when it first 
appeared. It was an interesting account of 
the adventures of the Irish Company of the 
Foreign Legion in the service of France. 
When the company were advancing under 
fire at the siege of Montbelliard, a very tall 
Irishman was observed to duck his head 
every time a shell flew over the ranks. " Pas 
de gyinnastique !" cried a sergeant; "hold 
up your head, man." ' ; Faith, I will, as soon 
as there 's room enough," said the soldier. _ 

A man who had been through a campaign 
told me, some years ago, that a young 
soldier, who for the first time found himself 
in the firing-line, called out to his captain, 
when the enemy's missiles began to whizz 
past, "Please, sir, they're firing real bullets ! ;} 


I have been told of a colonel who, durin-g 
the Peninsular War, addressed his regiment 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io<" s. in. JA*. w 

before going into action in these words, " My 
men, you are going to hold the worst post 
there is. By to-night you will be either the 
most distinguished regiment in the British 
army, or the most extinguished." 

General Prim, when colonel of his regiment 
in the Spanish army during the war of 
Morocco, is said to have flung his cap into 
the enemy's trenches, crying out to his men, 
"Follow me! O caja 6 faja!" ("Either a 
coffin or a general's sash ! ") W. L. POOLE. 


327, 417). I think Dr. Conway is mistaken 
in saying that the estate (is the family 
meant ?) gave name to the village of Washing- 
ton, co. Durham. Is not it more likely to be 
the other away about that the village gave 
name to the family, especially taking into 
account the prefix "de," de Wessington or 
Washington? K. B R. 

(10 th S. ii. 267, 330, 414, 476, 512, 535). In the 
discussion of this subject at these refer- 
ences parish registers are mixed up with 
parish documents (or records), which it would 
have been better to have kept apart. 

By clause 17, section 8, of the Local Govern- 
ment (England and Wales) Act of 5 March, 
1894, church registers are excluded from 
parish records by these words : " The cus- 
tody of the Registers of Baptisms, Marriages, 
and Burials, &c., shall remain as providec 
by the existing law unaffected by this Act.' 
That being the case, the two subjects should 
be dealt with separately. 

As regards parish documents (or records) 
no mention has yet been made of a Bill for 
the Preservation of Public and Private Loca 
Records. This Bill (108) was presented to 
the House of Commons by Mr. Bull (Ham 
mersmith) on 19 March, 1903, and was reac 
the first time. It was down for the seconc 
reading on 7 April, 1903, but Parliamen 
adjourned on 8 April for the Easter holiday . 
and (so far as I know) nothing further wa 
done with this Bill. It was proposed in th 
Bill to be cited as " The Local Records Act 

The Bill presented by the Marquis of Salis 
bury in the House of Lords on 12 August 
1904, and mentioned by MR. PAGE at the la; 
reference, is of a much more comprehensiv 

ne for the Government to grapple with, if 
we may judge from their consumption of 
ime over it. Five years have been spent 
bus : 

The Committee was appointed 10 August, 

The official letter from the Treasury and 
wo Schedules of Queries to England and 1 
Vales, Scotland and Ireland, 30 November. 

Latest date of a reply to this letter,. 
6 August, 1902. 

Report of the Committee, 29 October. 

Bill of Mr. Bull presented, read a first time 
n the House of Commons, 19 March, 1903. 

Bill of the Marquis of Salisbury, presented 1 
nd read a first time in the House of Lords, 
2 August, 1904. 

It would be an inestimable boon if the- 
authorities of all the remaining City parishes- 
vould at once decide upon following the 
most excellent example of their City brethren, 
and send all their "local records" to th& 
jruiklhall Library as soon as possible. Of 
the sixty-one City parishes (within the Bills 
of Mortality of former times), forty-three 
lave sent in their local records, leaving: 

ighteen more parishes to do likewise. 


29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

ARMORIAL VISITING CARDS (10 th S. ii. 509). 
Such cards are still used in Italy. I have 
before me now the card of one of the com- 
mittee of the Exhibition of Sienese Art of 
last autumn, which he was good enough to 
give me in September. It bears his coat of 
arms and coronet in the left-hand corner. 

Dowanhill Gardens, Glasgow. 

These are in use in Portugal at the present 
time. E. E. STREET. 

"PuiL ELIA" (10 th S. ii. 527). As most 
lovers of Charles Lamb are aware, the so- 
called preface to the 'Last Essays of Elia,' 
signed Phil Elia, was one of Lamb's own 
"lie children." This was a form of mystifica- 
tion in which he delighted. The ' Biographical 
Memoir of Mr. Liston ' and the 'Autobio- 
graphy of Mr. Munden' are other well-known 
instances. As Procter (Barry Cornwall) 
states in his edition of the 'Essays.' the 
preface was evidently intended originally as 
~ postscript to the first series of 'Essays/ 

nature than Mr. Bull's Bill of 1903; but in my Lamb at the time did not intend to furnish 

humble opinion the definition of the expres- any more contributions to The London 

sion "Local Records" is most unsatisfactory Magazine, in which the first 'Essays' had 

and perfunctory (see clause 6, section 6, on appeared, except possibly a few pieces he 

p. 4 of this Bill). may have had in hand, and was only pre- 

This subject appears to be a very difficult vailed upon to continue them at the solicita^ 

io*s. m. JAN. 14, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

tion of the publishers. The preface, as 
originally printed, contained several intro- 
ductory paragraphs afterwards omitted, and 
the conclusion, containing the humorous 
reference to the " ponderous tomes of figures 
in his remarkably neat hand (the ledgers of 
the East India House), which, more properly 
than his few printed tracts, might be called 
his 'Works.''' F. A. RUSSELL. 

4, Nelgarde Road, Catford, S.E. 

[MR. J. R. NUTTALL sends a cutting from The 
Manchester Guardian of 5 January confirming MR. 
R UDELL'S conclusion.] 

335, 371, 431). Although MR. HOLCOMBE 
INGLEBY appeals specially to DR. FORSHAW 
for "chapter and verse" respecting my 
statement that it is the duty of a parish 
constable to communicate personally with 
the coroner and empanel a jury in cases of 
sudden death or suicide, perhaps I may be 
allowed to say a word or two as well. Since 
I penned my note I have been looking up 
information concerning the duties of parish 
constables ; but as I have found it rather a 
difficult task, I will detail my experience. 
First of all I wrote to Eyre ife Spottiswoode, 
to ask if anj r Act of Parliament was in their 
possession containing such information. The 
only one they could supply me with was 
An Act to render unnecessary the General 
Appointment of Parish Constables, 35 & 36 
Viet., chap. 92, 10 August, 1872. From this 
it appears that after 24 March, 1873, no 
parish constable would be appointed, except 
where the Court of General or Quarter Ses- 
sions deem it necessary. Section 4 states : 

" The vestry of any parish after due notice 

may at any time resolve that one or more parish 
constables shall be appointed for their parish, and 
in such resolution may fix the amount of salary to 
be paid to him or them, which salary shall be 
paid out of the poor rate of the said parish," &c. 

On the establishment of parish councils in 
3894 this power of the vestry passed to 
them, under section 6, subsec. 1 (</), of 
the Local Government Act, 56 & 57 Viet., 
chap. 73. I have had the opportunity of 
looking through the "instructions" in 
the possession of our local parish con- 
stable, but they simply relate to his duties 
with respect to the preservation of the 
peace. There is not a word in them govern- 
ing his action in case of a sudden death or 
suicide. Finding no information here, I then 
applied to our resident police constable. He 
told me that as the duty of communicating 
with the coroner was the only one to which 
any appreciable pay was attached, the parish 
constable generally performed it. If he, for 

any reason, failed to do it, the police constable 
would have to carry it out. He showed me 
a book bearing the following title: 

^"Code | of Rules and Regulations | for the | 
Northamptonshire Constabulary | approved by | the 
Court of Quarter Sessions | April, 1881 ; | Issued by 

| the Chief Constable 1 October, 1881. | Northamp- 
ton | Stanton & Sons, Printers, Abington Street.'' 

From it I copied the following paragraphs. 
Sec. 56, p. 12 : 

" It is the duty of the Constabulary on hearing 
of any case of sudden death to enquire mto the 
circumstances and inform the Coroner, provided 
the Parish Constable does not do so," &c. 

Sec. 336, p. 89 : 

" It is the duty of the Constabulary on hearing 
of any cases of sudden death to enquire into the 
circumstances immediately. Previous to the Con- 
stable going for the Coroner, he should ascertain 
whether or not the Parish Constable (if one is resi- 
dent) has sent for him ; if he has not done so, or 
does not state his intention of doing so, then it 
would be the duty of the Police Constable to inform 
the Coroner without delay," &c. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

HARDYKNUTE ' (10 th S. ii. 425, 536). In his 
disquisition MR. A. C. JONAS ignores two of 
the points raised at the first reference, and 
in a somewhat hasty and inconclusive fashion 
grapples with the third. "I am not aware," 
he observes, " that all along there have been 
advocates for the authorship of Sir John 
Bruce of Kinross." It might have been 
expected that, in the circumstances, he would 
have endeavoured to supplement the im- 
perfect knowledge thus admitted, but this 
he does not appear to have done. He refers 
to Percy's "threshing" of Lady Wardlaw's 
claim, and leaves his readers to infer that 
the result established the lady as the author 
of the ballad given by Ramsay. If he will 
look a little more closely into the matter, 
he will find that Percy writes : 

" Hence it appears that Sir John [Bruce] was the 
author of * Hardyknute,' but afterwards used Mrs. 
Wardlaw to be the midwife of his poetry, and sup- 
pressed the story of the vault ; as is well observed 
by the editor of the 'Tragic Ballads,' and of Mait- 
land's ' Scot. Poets,' vol. i. p. cxxvii." 

Percy and the authorities he cites may be 
all wrong, but that is not to the immediate 
purpose, which is the attribution of the poem 
to Bruce. In the contents of the ' Reliques,' 
vol. ii., this descriptive entry speaks for 
itself : " Hardyknute. A Scottish Fragment. 
By Sir J. Bruce." THOMAS BAYNE. 

"SARUM" (10 Ul S. ii. 445, 496). I fear MR. 
HAMILTON has not noticed the second word 
in the second line of my note, which is its 
" point." I took it for granted that most 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. JA*. u, 1905. 

people ought by this time to be aware that 
S'ar' stands, not for Sarum, but for Sarisbirie, 
Sarisbiriensis, or the like ; and I was anxious 
to find earlier positive evidence of the "de- 
lusion." Q- V. 

*' THE " AS PART or TITLE (10 th S. ii. 524). 
If it be true, as COL. PEIDEAUX contends, 
that the definite article "the" forms an in- 
tegral part of the title of a newspaper, such 
as The Times, the common phrase "this 
morning's Times" must be incorrect, and we 
should say "this morning's The Times. 11 If 
COL. PEIDEAUX uses the former expression, 
how does he justify it? H. A. HARBEN. 

'AssisA DE TOLLONEIS,' &c. (10 th S. ii. 387, 
451). I am greatly indebted to J. B. P. for 
the trouble he has taken and for his reply, 
which (as he himself suggests) does not get 
me much "forrader." The list of councils, 
&c., does not mention one of either David at 
Newcastle ; so I have no evidence even of the 
original date of the 'Assisa de Tolloneis.' 
Dr. Macray suggested to me that possibly 
the "&c." after millesimo was put down by 
the copyist for the press because he could 
not read the rest of the date ! Less greatly 
daring, I suggest that he read a date which 
did not coincide with the reign of David I., 
arid which was, in fact, the date of some 
subsequent revision of the law in question. 
But I shall be glad of any further light. 



SIR WILLIAM CALYERT (10 th S. ii. 528). 
Sir William Cal vert 'died at Mount Maskall, 
Kent, on 3 May, 1761. He was the eldest 
son of William Calvert, of Furneaux Pelham, 
Herts, a brewer, Alderman of Portsoken 1741 
until his death. Sheriff in 1743, Lord Mayor 
in 1748 ; member of Parliament for the City 
of London, and subsequently for Old Sarum, 
Wilts ; colonel of the Red Regiment of Militia; 
and received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from the University of Cambridge during 
his mayoralty. EDWARD M. BORRAJO. 

The Library, Guildhall, E.G. 

Sir William Calvert was born about 1704, 
knighted at St. James's Palace 18 February, 
1744, and buried 11 May, 1761, cet. fifty-seven. 


29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

[Reply from MR. E. H. COLEMAX will appear 
next week.] 

MODERN ITALIAN ARTISTS (10 th S. ii. 468). 
Daniele Bucciarelli, Professor of Drawing 
at the Communal School at Modena, is also a 
painter, and resides at No. 88, Via Yalegtro 
in that city. 

Federico Cessi is engaged at the Regia 
Scuola, Modena. 

Vicenzo Marchio is, I believe, dead some 
years ago. 

Further information may be obtained from- 
Cav. d' Atri, modern picture dealer, Via Con- 
dotti, Rome. JOHN HEBB. 

AGNOSTIC POETS (10 th S. ii. 528). I should 
think that DR. KRUEGER will be likely to get 
what he wants if he writes to The Agnostic 
Journal, Farringdon Road, London. 



A -Veu' English Dictionary on Historical Principles* 
By Dr. James A. H. Murray. PargeterPen- 
nacked. (Vol. VII.) (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
A SENSIBLE advance towards the completion of Dr. 
Murray's great task is made by the issue with the 
new year of a triple part of vol. vii., containing a 
large instalment of the letter P. It occupies 168. 
pages, and supplies a total of 4,720 words illustrated 
by 18,039 quotations. Against these figures Funk's 
' Standard ' can oppose 2,388 words and 348 quo- 
tations. Of this important contribution to the 
alphabet two main words only, parrock (whence 
park)=& fence or hurdles with which a space is 
enclosed, a paddock, and path, belong to Old 
English, though, as we are told, a few others, such 
as parsley, part, pear, pease, and pea (in peacock); 
had been introduced from Latin before or during: 
Anglo-Saxon times. The remaining words appear 
first in Middle English or the modern period. Few 
words are from the Greek, such as are given being,, 
with the exception of patriarch, patriot, and their 
derivatives, scientific formations from patho. Words 
from Spanish, Italian, Dutch, and Low German 
are also few, and there are none of old Norse 
derivation. Turkish contributes pasha, Tamil 
pariah and patchmdi, Chinese Pekoe, and the 
Algonquin group pemmican. Pass as a verb occu- 
pies sixteen columns, its senses, uses, and con- 
structions branching out into 140 sense-groups. 
Other considerable articles are those on part, par- 
ticular, party, pay, peace, pen, and pencil. Attention 
is drawn to the fact that jjas., in the phrase "to- 
come to pass," is " apparently not a verb infinitive, 
but a noun meaning 'event,' 'issue,' or 'fulfil- 
ment.' " 

Pariah first appears in Purchas's 'Pilgrimage' 
(1613) under the form of Pareas, who are naively 
said to be "worse than the Diuell." Curious infor- 
mation is found under Parian. Pari passu is 
accepted into the language, as it is in the ' Stanford 
Dictionary.' The derivation of the name Paris 
Garden from Robert de Paris, who had a house 
there in the time of Richard II., is quoted from 
Blount's ' Glossographia ' without comment. It is 
impossible to condense within reasonable space the 
amount of information supplied concerning parish, 
which first appears in Norman French sajtaroche 
(hence parochial). Parish clerk is met with in 
1386, parish councils in 1772. Under park we find 
Sa parke* gate in 1260. We fail to trace Shake- 

io* s. m. JA>-. n, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


speare's "I'll be a park, and thou shalt be my 
deer." The origin of parkin, a Yorkshire luxury, 
is unknown. It is probably, as is conjectured, from 
the name Perkin, with er sounded as ar, as is con- 
stantly the case. Under park, parley, and other 
words of cognate derivation is much of interest. These 
lead naturally to parliament, the discussion of which 
supplies one of the most interesting essays in the 
work. The amount of historical information fur- 
nished under this head is not easily indicated. It is 
satisfactory to find an account of the French parle- 
ment, often misused by English writers. Parlia- 
mentarian is used so early as 1613. Parlour has 
also an interesting history. Parlous is, of course, 
a syncopated form of perilous. Under Parnassian 
Mr. Gosse is given as authority for the use of a 
term applied to poets of the nineteenth century 
belonging to the Parnasse Moderne. That name, it 
might be indicated, is taken from the ' Parnasse 
iSatyrique' of the seventeenth century. Parole has 
more significations than are generally known. 
Paroxysm, in the form paroxixmos, is encountered so 
early as 1577. No very definite origin is found for 
parrot, which is first encountered in 1525. Some 
space is devoted to parsley, petersilie, petrosilye, 
&c. ; and much that is interesting and instructive 
is furnished concerning parson Many of the com- 
binations of part, such as part-song, are of extreme 
interest. Part as a verb, " Come let us kiss and 
part,'' is not less worthy of study. Carew and 
Cowley both use parterre. Walpolehas, "I am not 
parti"! to the family." Under particle we should 
like Byron's "The mind, that very fiery particle." 
Partlet, the name of a hen, is no older than 
Chaucer, and parturition is no earlier than the middle 
of the seventeenth century ; parturient is half a 
century older. Party has, of course, many signi- 
fications. Parly, in " the spirit of party," first 
appears in 1729. De Quincey claims to have coined 
parvani/nity in 1830, as an antithesis to magnanimity. 
Boyle used it, however, a century and a half earlier. 
Wotton first uses Pasquinade in 1592. Of Pasquin, 
the coadjutor of Marfprius, an excellent account is 
given. We would fain draw attention to patten, 
patter, and a hundred more words, and have not, 
indeed, gone through more than a section of the 
number. As is obvious, however, the space we 
have to devote to notices of books is very small, 
and the calls upon it are numerous and urgent. 
We quit this instalment the more readily since we 
know that it is already being studied by some of 
our readers. No part of this monumental work has 
involved more labour than the present, and its 
appearance exactly up to date is matter for con- 
gratulation. At p. 567 the first cross-heading is not 
quite accurate. 

Diary and Letters of Madame cCArblay, 1778-1840. 

With Preface and Notes by Austin Dobson. 

Vols. I. and II. (Macmillan & Co.) 
A NEW, handsome, well - illustrated, and, in a 
sense, definitive edition of Fanny Burney's ' Diary 
and Letters' is one of the greatest boons that can 
be given to the lover of eighteenth-century litera- 
ture and art. Apart from the interest felt in Fanny 
herself who, at the outset at least, before she is 
rather spoilt by homage, is a bewitching creature 
her revelations cast a light upon England in the 
days of Johnson not elsewhere to be obtained. As 
regards Johnson himself, who at the time the diary 
begins was close on seventy years of age, nowhere 
except in the immortal pages of Boswell can we find 

him depicted more exactly to the life. Our author 
is, indeed, herself a Boswell, whose attention to 
her subject is continually distracted to herself, of 
which she had an overweening, if easily explicable^, 
estimate. Charming as she is, we are at times a 
little impatient of her egotism and her affectation, 
and, in spite of Macaulay's defence of her from the- 
gross and ill-natured attack of Croker, we think 
her vainglory is but ill concealed. If ever there 
was homage by which the head of a girl might well, 
be turned it was hers. Dr. Johnson seems to have 
been really in love with her during her residence at 
the Thrales', and though he was then an old man r 
she seems almost capable of reciprocating his adora- 
tion. Reynolds was enthusiastic in her praise, and 
Burke was sincere and outspoken in homage. 
Similar tributes were paid in later days to a 
namesake, Fanny Kemble, Mrs. Butler ; but the 
worshippers in this case, though they included Mac- 
aulay, Rogers, and Longfellow, were less august. 

The present edition of the diary and letters is= 
based upon the first edition, published in two- 
separate instalments by Colburn in 1842 and 1846, as- 
edited by her niece Charlotte Barrett. It has beeni 
carefully and sympathetically edited by Mr. Austin, 
Dobson, whose whole life might well have been a 
preparation for the task, and whose notes are 
admirably helpful and serviceable. The notes to 
the original edition were, it was felt, inadequate to 
modern requirements, and those now supplied were 
written expressly for this issue. Conciseness has 
been a chief aim of Mr. Dobson. The information 
presented is, however, in every case adequate, and 
the whole constitutes an admirably conscientious 
and thorough piece of work. Appendices to the 
volumes are new, and include unpublished letters 
and extracts from various sources which were too 
long to be incorporated in the notes. The illustra- 
tions, consisting of portraits, views, autographs, 
and plans, have a charm of their own, and con- 
stitute an attractive feature in the work. In the 
volumes already issued we have as frontispiece to 
the first volume a portrait of Frances Burney, taken 
in 1782 by Edward Francis Burney, and to the 
second one of Hester Piozzi (Mrs. Thrale), by 
George Dance, R.A., from the National Portrait 
Gallery. Other portraits are of Dr. Johnson, by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds ; of Dr. Burney, by the same ; of 
Burke, by Romney ; and of Samuel Crisp, the 
heroine's " Dear Daddy." There are in the first 
volume three autographs of Fanny Burney. The 
views, meanwhile, are numerous and well selected. 

At this period of her life when she was young and 
overflowing with animal spirits, Fanny Burney was 
simply delicious. Her style had not yet been spoilt 
by her imitation of Johnson, and her shrewd obser- 
vations are admirably expressed. Her delight in 
the homage she received is touching, and her 
enjoyment carries one away. In the range of lite- 
rature we scarcely know a passage more en- 
chanting than the following which, familiar as 
it is, we must quote upon hearing of Dr. John- 
son's admiration for her 'Evelina': "But Dr. 
Johnson's approbation ! it almost crazed me with 
agreeable surprise it gave me such a flight of 
spirits, that I danced a jig to Mr. Crisp without 
any preparation, music, or explanation to his no 
small amazement and diversion. I left him, how- 
ever, to make his own comments upon my friskiness, 
without affording him the smallest assistance." A 
more delectable possession than this is not easily 
to be hoped. The only thing that could add to its 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. JAN. u, 1905. 

value would be a reissue in the same form of the 
' Early Diary.' That may not, however, be expected 
yet awhile. The sixth and last volume will have a 
general index. 

Boawdfs Life of Johnson. 2 vols. (Frowde.) 
THOUGH announced as in two volumes, and issued 
in that shape, this admirably cheap and convenient 
dition of this great classic reaches us in one volume. 
Two volumes, respectively of 680 and 704 pages, are 
Toound in one. So fine is, however, the paper that 
the work can easily be slipped into the pocket 
and carried with little sense of weight. In a cheap 
edition such as this we are always disposed to 
regard portability as a crowning virtue. A man 
going for a long journey even is safe against dul- 
ness if he carries with him a book such as this, 
-which he can at will dip into or study. Portraits 
of Johnson, each after Reynolds, are given as 
-frontispieces to the two volumes. Vol. i. repro- 
duces the title-page to the third edition, which is 
followed in the text. Boswell's and Malone's adver- 
tisements to the various early editions are inserted, 
as is the chronological catalogue of Johnson's prose 
works. A good index is given in the second 
volume, and the edition is complete, convenient, 
and satisfactory in all respects. 

The Poetn and the. Poetry of the Nineteenth Century. 

Edited by Alfred H. Miles. 3 vols. (Routledge 

& Sons.) 

IN a form equally pretty and convenient, and at a 
price which brings them within reach of all, Messrs. 
Routledge & Sons have supplied a reissue of the 
encyclopedic work of Mr. Miles upon the poets and 
poetry of the last century. Three volumes already 
issued deal with Crabbe to Coleridge, Southey to 
'.Shelley, and Keats to Lytton the first Lord Lytton, 
that is. That the remaining volumes, completing 
the series, will appear we doubt not. The work 
will then have genuine value to the student, since 
many of its contents are elsewhere inaccessible. 

lialeffhana. Part VI. By T. N. Brushfield, M.D., 


MANY of our readers will welcome the appearance 
of a further portion of Dr. Brushfield's 'Ralegh- 
ana,' reprinted, like the previous parts, from the 
TraWiartioHS of the Devonshire Association. It 
furnishes a very valuable bibliographical study of 
' The History of the World,' and reproduces the 
portrait from the third edition, 1617. Happy are 
those who have kept the successive parts. 

A Dictionary of Abbreviations. Contractions, 

By Edward Latham. (Routledge & Sons.) 
Who Wrote That ? By W. S. W. Curson. (Same 


Mottoes and Badges. (Same author and publishers.) 
THESK three serviceable and pretty little volumes 
have been added to the "Miniature Reference 
Series" of Messrs. Routledge. They are all useful, 
some of them specially so. In days in which we 
are all so unduly hurried we are ourselves often 
:t a loss to know the meaning of abbreviations. 
We fancy we have before mentioned the abbre- 
viation W.L.P. on the title of a book. This meant 
Wesleyan Local Preacher, and is not given by Mr. 
Latham, whose book is, however, commendably 
full. All the works are valuable, and all are as 
cheap as they are pretty. 

MR. E. S. DODOSON, whose synopsis of the Basque 
verb we mentioned so recently as 24 December last, 
has sent us an Essai de Traduction Basque de 'Don. 
Quichotte,' 1 with instructive notes in French. It is 
printed at Biarritz by Ernest Seitz. 

THE forty-first edition of Herbert Fry's Royal 
Guide to the London Charities, edited by John Lane 
(Chatto & Windus), an excellent work in its class, 
appears revised and corrected up to date. 

ANTIQUITIES OF YORK. A Committee has been 
formed to promote an Exhibition of old York Views 
and Portraits of Local Worthies, to be held in 
March and April of this year, with a view to 
arousing interest in the preservation of the many 
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&c., during the last two centuries. Possessors of 
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Dr. Evelyn and Mr. Benson, Exhibition Build- 
ings, York. Arrangements have been made with 
the Education Committee of the York Corporation 
for the collection to be shown in the Exhibition 
Buildings, and every precaution for the safety and 
insurance of the exhibits will be taken, and mea- 
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or copied without permission from the exhibitors 

igotictz ta 0m|r0ttir*ni8, 

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to" s. in. JAN. u, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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CONTENTS.-No. 56. 

NOTES : The Nail and the Clove, 41 Disbenched Judges 
43 Father Paul Sarpi in English Literature, 44 Books o 
Lady Dilke The Lyceum Theatre, 45 Lady Carnegie 
afterwards Countess of Southesk George Romney, 1610 
" But for the grace of God there goes John Bradford," 46 
Extraordinary Tide in the Thames Robert Bloomfield 
" Gutta cavat lapidem " Marvell's Poems and Satires, 47 

QUERIES : Eighteenth - Century Plays Charles f. __ 
Spain Farmer of Hartshill, 48 Danish Surnames 
Duelling Edmond and Edward John Cope, Engraver 
"God called up from dreams" " And has it come to 
this?" "As such" Heraldic Mottoes Sailors' Chanties 
"God rest you merry " " Gospel of fatness "Gold 
smith's ' Edwin and Angelina,' 49' Notes on Genesis ' 
Pig hanging a Man Arithmetic "T. D." Richard 
Warren Municipal Documents "Je ne viens qu'en 
mourant," 50. 

REPLIES : Split Infinitive, 51 Coliseums Old and New. 
52 "To have a month's mind" Maze at Seville, 54 
Roman Theatre at Verulam Sir William Calvert Verse 
Translations of Molifire Tarleton and the Sign of "The 
Tabor," 55 Cross in the Greek Church London Ceme- 
teries in 1860 "The Crown and Three Sugar Loaves" 
Holborn, 56 Bringing in the Yule " Clog "Bishop of 
Man Imprisoned Inscription on Statue of James II. 
Walker Family, 57. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'Roger Ascham's English Works 
Douglas's 'Theodore Watts-Dunton '' Rugby School 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


IN the * Oxford English Dictionary ' the 
word clove (sb. 3 ) is acknowledged to be a 
difficulty : 

" It is identical with L. davits, ' nail,' which was 
also used as a lineal measure (see nail) ; but how 
the measure and weight were related is not known. 
Nor does it appear how the English form of the 
word came to be dove, although its phonetic history 
may have been parallel to that of clove, sb. 2 ." 

The term is defined as " a weight formerly 
used for wool and cheese, equal to 7 or 8 Ibs. 

I owe so much gratitude to the 'O.E.D. 1 
that I have tried to solve the problem, and 
perhaps my essay may be of use when " nail " 
comes to the front. 

My study of the subject leads me to the 
conclusion that the L. clavus and the Fr. dou 
were blundering equivalents for "nail " ; the 
scribes of the time had got hold of the wrong 
nail. I propose to show this by the develop- 
ment of the word, first as a measure, then as 
a weight. It is a rather long story, for it is 
an episode connected with the rise of our 
system of measures and weights from their 
origin ; but if the story is half as interesting 
to readers of 4 N. & Q.' as the working out of 

it has been to me, I believe I shall be par- 
doned for its length. 

Of the earliest lineal measures, the chief 
was the natural cubit, the length of the fore- 
arm from elbow to finger-tip, the mean 
measurement of which in men is about 18i 
inches. It was divided into 6 palms, or 
hands, each of 4 digits or finger-breadths. 
The division of the cubit into 24 digits 
probably influenced the use of this number 
in other measures, the scruple-division of 
the ounce, the grain-division of the penny- 
weight, and perhaps the astronomical day 
just as the division of the half cubit or span 
into 12 digits was the first step in the duo- 
decimal system. 

In due course the length of the cubit 
became fixed by law. That of the Egyptian 
common cubit was fixed at a length (equal 
to 18-24 English inches) such that a fathom 
of four cubits was exactly one-hundredth of 
a stadium, or one-thousandth of a geographical 
mile. When the Egyptian royal cubit was 
introduced, its additional length (making it 
equal to 20'62 English inches) was given by 
adding a rather short palm (as in the cubit 
and a handbreadth of Ezekiel), and making 
this builder's cubit contain 7 palms, each of 4 
digits, slightly shorter divisions than those of 
the common cubit. The hieroglyphic of the 
digit is a finger. 

Before going further it may be well to note 
the usual divisions of the common cubit 
whether in Egypt or in other countries. 

1. The foot, a convenient measure, two- 
thirds of the cubit, divided into 4 palms or 
16 digits. 

2. The span, half of the cubit and equal to 
about 9 of our inches. It has always and 
everywhere been a popular measure. In 
southern France the popular cloth-measure, 

despite of the metric system of thefrancki- 
nan Government, is still the pan. The pawn 

of Geans (palmo of Genoa) is one of the 
neasures mentioned in Recorde (1654). In 
England women measure cloth by the long 
inger or half-span, the length of the middle 

finger, from tip to knuckle, bent. 

3. The palm or hand, the palmus minor. 
Originally 3 inches (4 digits) in England, it 
rose to 4 inches, becoming thus the " hand " 


4. I mention pour memoire the scaeft-mund 
of Anglo-Saxon times, or hand-shaft, the 

.tahan sommesso the fist with thumb ex- 
,ended, equal to about half a foot. 

The span of the Greeks, half the Egyptian 
Common cubit, was divided into 12 daktuloi 
he Romans divided their somewhat shorter 
nlmus major into 12 uncice. The 2wlmo of For- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io<" s. m. JAX. 21, IMS. 

tugal exactly, to a hundredth of an inch, the 
Roman palmus (equal to 8 '74 inches) is di videc 
into 12 dedos or digits. The modern Roman 
palmo (equal to 8'79 inches) is, or was, of 12 
oncie, and the foot>,piede, is of 16 ; this support 
the view that the ancient uncia was, originally 
at least, the twelfth of the palmus major. 

Passing to the foot the Greek pous (the 
Olympic foot, two- thirds of the Egyptian com- 
mon cubit) wasdivided, like the modern Roman 
piede, into 16 daktuloi, of which the span had 
12. The Roman foot, originally the same as 
the Greek foot, was shortened so that 5,000 
feet should make the Greek land-mile of 
stadia. It is probable that there were two 
divisions of the Roman foot : the original, 
into 16 uncice or diyiti ; a later one into 12 
pollices, thumb-breadths, sometimes called 
uncice in the generic sense of twelfths, the 
imcia occupying the honorary position as the 
twelfth of the foot, while favpollex (It. pollice, 
Fr. pouce) was the actual twelfth. The L. 
oncia, from Gr. oy/a'a, connected with 6'w, 
certainly had the original meaning of a nail, 
a nail-breadth, and was thus akin to unguis. 
In India we find the span divided into 12 
ungli, or nails. In France once or oince meant 
a nail. 

In England for many centuries there was 
the same double series of lineal measures as 
in other countries. From the span came the 
popular ell- measures the Flemish ell of 3 
spans, the English and Scottish yard-ell of 4 
spans, the English ell of 5 spans, correspond- 
ing to the French a^lne. The span was 
probably, as with other peoples, divided into 
12 ongkice, nails or inches, for ynce, unch, or 
"inch" (with its doublet "ounce") is ob- 
viously derived from the Roman term. But 
the foot also arose at a very early period 
of English history. Perhaps it may not be 
superfluous to remark that the foot is not 
taken from the length of the human foot, any 
more than the thumb-breadth or a barleycorn 
was the unit of length, or a grain of some 
cereal the primitive unit of weight. The foot, 
like the minor measures, was at first a frac- 
tion (generally two-thirds) of a cubit, and was 
so named from its being, very roughly, about 
the length of a very long human foot. Our 
foot is not the short Roman foot, nor the long 
Rhineland foot of Scotland, nor the still 
longer French foot. It is a foot peculiar to 
our country, and evolved here scientifically ; 
it became the standard measure of England, 
and was divided into 12 parts, called " inches," 
leaving the synonym " nails " for the 16 digits 
or nail-breadths which it contained as an 
extension of the popular span. In course of 
time it was found desirable, in order to estab- 

lish the use of the foot, to adopt a measure 
combining it with the span. So the " yard " 
or " verge," of 3 feet, divided into 4 spans, or 
quarters, became a standard lineal measure. 
It had a rival in the ell of 5 spans (45 inches) r 
which survived, principally in arithmetical 
exercise books, up to about the last century. 
Now, how were these two ells, that of 4 spans 
and that of 5 spans, divided for cloth measure ? 
In Wingate's ' Arithmetick,' 1670, 1 find "That 
a Yard, as also an Ell, is usually subdivided 
into four Quarters, and each Quarter into 
four Nails." Cocker, 1677, says the same in 
almost the same words. 

So a nail denoted a sixteenth, either of the 
4-span yard or of the 5-span ell ; not any 
distinct length. It had become, like the 
Indian "anna," the generic term for a six- 
teenth. But with the gradual disuse of the 
ell the nail became the synonym of the six- 
teenth of a yard, and it is still among the 
standard imperial measures. 

Passing to " nail " as a weight, we find a, 
development of the same idea of its being a 
sixteenth part. Just as L. uncia, It. oncia, 
From the twelfth of a span, became the six- 
teenth of a foot, so Fr. once, from one-twelfth 
of the duodecimal pound, became one-six- 
teenth of the livre poids de marc ; and so the 
Roman ounce, the basis of all our weights and 
measures (except the royal troy pound, now 
bappily obsolete), became the sixteenth of 
our averdepois pound. Thus "ounce," a 
doublet of unch or ynch, brought the idea of 
'nail" into our weights as well as our 

Here I tread on ground beset with pitfalls. 
The importance of the wool trade as a source 
of revenue to the Plantagenet kings led to 
nuch confused legislation on our weights. 
The mess which the statutes of our kings, 
especially the Plantagenets, made with our 
weights and measures, creates a difficulty in 
distinguishing the royal fictive standards 
: rom the real standards of commerce. The 
greater part of the statutes on the sub- 
_ect is fiction, often deliberate fiction, out 
of which the truth is extracted with difficulty. 
One thing is certain that our weights were 
on the convenient sexdecimal system from 
the dram, through the ounce, the pound, the 
stone, 16 of each unit making one of the 
next, up to the wey, or " weigh," of 256 pounds, 
he weight of a coomb, or boll, or half-quarter 
of wheat ; then 8 weys were equal to a 
chaldron, the measure of 20 true hundred- 
weights of wheat. Some of these larger units 
were halved for convenience ; the wey, or 
oad, would thus be halved to correspond 
vith the weight carried on each side of the 

io">>-.2i,i905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


pack-saddle. This lesser wey would contain 
16 of the lesser stone, the London stone of 
8 pounds, a weight so convenient that it 
survives to this day in the meat trade, and I 
believe in the Eastern counties for cheese. 
When Edward III. raised the hundredweight 
to 112 pounds, he divided it into 4 quarters, 
and each quarter into 4 units of 7 pounds. 
Now what name should be given to this 
weight ? The term " nail " presents itself at 
once as applicable to the sixteenth of the new 
hundredweight. And so it was used in this 
sense. Andrew Halyburton, the merchant 
trading from the Netherlands, before 1500, 
uses "nail," plural "nallis,"for the 7 pound 
weight of wool. How would the scribes of 
Plantagenet times, ignorant of the human 
origin of the term " nail," render it in their 
law Latin and French ] Very naturally they 
blundered, and rendered it by L. davits and 
Fr. clou, clone, or, in the script of the time, 
clove. Apparently these terms "nail" and 
"clove" took with the people, especially the 
latter, and so we find the London stone of 
8 pounds sometimes called a clove. Quotations 
under ' Clove' in the ' O.E.D/ show the wey 
as of 32 cloves, each by statute of 7 pounds, 
but by custom of 8 pounds. 

One quotation (1328) is : " quse quidem 
trona continet in se quatuor pisas et quatuor 
clavos," meaning " which Tron balance has 
in (or with) it 4 ' weighs ' or weys and 4 
cloves." Now I came across, in the Guildhall 
Library, a document of very recent date 
quoting an order of 1297, in which it is said 
that the wool tron for the town of Lynne 
" continet in se quatuor pisas et quatuordecim 
clavos." This is translated as an auncel 
weighing machine provided with "4 burden 
points and 14 pivots or pins." So here the 
thirteenth-century scribe puts " nail " into 
Latin as clavus, and " wey " as pisa t and the 
end - of - the - nineteenth - century antiquary 
restores clavus as a pin, and pisa as the 
burden point of a steelyard. 

It is interesting to observe how the scribes 
capped their rendering of "nail" as clavus 
by translating " weigh " as pisa, I think it 
probable that both terms were put into 
French and then into Latin. One clerk would 
naturally translate " weigh " by jiois, as in 
aver de pois ; then some bright colleague, 
perhaps the ingenious inventor of clou and 
clavus, would put pois into Latin in the 
leguminous form of pisum, modifying its 
termination in accordance with the old 
English pisa, pease. 

The story I have attempted to tell shows the 
trend of the human mind towards three 
factors of measure : 24, 12, 16 (or 8). The 

first gives way to the duodecimal system^ 
which in its turn gives way, except perhaps 
for money, to the sexdecimal system, the 
system which is on the whole best adapted 
to mental calculation. Agricultural folk, 
labourers, women, prefer a system enabling 
them to double and to halve almost indefi- 
nitely, while offering them resting-places at 
superior or inferior units with familiar names, 
as, for instance, in our measures of capacity. 
Our "nail" system resembles the "anna" 
system of India, where that term means a 
sixteenth. It matters little that there is no 
actual anna coin ; the idea of a sixteenth as 
a division of the rupee or of any other unit 
land, a venture, a crop is most convenient 
to the popular mind. EDWARD NICHOLSON, 
1, Huskisson Street, Liverpool. 


THE following notes are intended as sup- 

g'ementary to the articles on Mr. Justice- 
olloway and Mr. Baron Ingleby in the 
' Diet. Nat. Biog.' In printing them I may 
mention that I have not as yet seen the 
lately published volume of additions and 

Sir Richard Holloway, "being well in 
health and of good and disposeing mind and 
memory, but by reason of his age infirme," 
made his will at Oxford, on 12 January, "in 
the eighth yeare of the Reigne of William 
the third, &c., 1696." The Spartan simplicity 
of the allusion to the reigning monarch by 
the sturdy old Jacobite is certainly comical. 
There were four sons : 1. John (born about 
1661, died February, 1720), of St. John's 
College, Oxford, and of the Inner Temple, 
barrister - at - law. 2. Richard (born about 
1664, died 10 September, 1681), of Christ 
Church, Oxford, and a student of the Inner 
Temple (1678). 3. Henry (born about 1667,, 
died November, 1741), of Christ Church, 
Oxford, and of the Inner Temple, barrister- 
at-law. 4. Peter, likewise a lawyer. To his 
eldest son John Sir Richard gave all his- 
interest in his lodgings in Serjeants' Inn, 
in Fleet Street, London, and property "in 
Hockmore Streete, in the parish of Ifley, 
in the county of Oxon " (now transferred from 
Iffley to Cowley). His daughter Elizabeth 
Holloway was given " the house I live in, 
being held of Magdalen College, in Oxon, for 
the Terme of forty Yeares " ; also, " all that 
meadow of pasture ground called ffryars, or 
the Grey ffryers, lying in or near the parish 
of St. Ebbe, in Oxford." Property at Church 
Cowley and Temple Cowley is likewise named. 
Holloway died at Oxford in the beginning of 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [io* s. m. JAN. 21, 1905. 

1700. His will was proved ou 20 February 
of that year (registered in the Prerogative 
Court of Canterbury, 25 Noel). 

Sir Charles Ingleby, or Ingilby, who wore 
the ermine not longer than four months, was 
the third son of John Ingleby (died 28 Novem- 
ber, 1648), of Lawkland Hall, Yorkshire, by 
his second wife Mary (died 19 November, 
1667), daughter of Sir Thomas Lake, of 
Canons, Middlesex, Secretary of State to 
James I. He was born at Lawkland, 20 Feb- 
ruary, 1644, and was buried there 5 August, 
1718. His seat was at Austwick Hall, York- 
shire. By his marriage to Alathea (died 
September, 1715), daughter and heiress of 
Richard Eyston, of Saxton, in the same 
county, he had issue a son, Thomas (born 
1684, died 1729), Serjeant-at-Law, and four 
daughters : Dorothea (born 1681) ; Mary (born 
1683), married William Hesketh,Esq. ; Alathea 
(born 1685), a nun at the English monastery 
at Liege ; and Anne (born 1688), married Mr. 
Fell, an apothecary in London. These facts 
will be found set forth in Mr. Joseph Foster's 
4 Pedigrees of the County Families of York- 
shire,' a source of information unaccountably 
overlooked by the writer in the ' D.N.B.' 


IN my communication on Bishop Hacket's 
'Life of Archbishop Williams' (9 th S. x. 401, 
423 ; xi. 103) I quoted from that very remark- 
able biography a number of appreciative 
passages relating to Father Paul. These, of 
course, need not be here repeated. Before, 
however, passing on to the immediate pur- 
pose of this note, I should like to record the 
opinion of one great modern writer, I mean 
Lord Macaulay. The following passages are 
taken from his ' Life and Letters ' (2 vols., 
1876) : 

"I have adopted an opinion about the Italian 

historians I place Fra Paolo decidedly at the 

head of them." Vol. i. p. 450. 

" On my return home I took Fra Paolo into the 
garden. Admirable writer !" Vol. ii. p. 282. 

" I read part of the Life of Fra Paolo prefixed to 
his history. A wonderful man." Vol. ii. p. 283. 

"To have written the History of the Council of 
Trent, and the tracts on the Venetian Dispute with 
Rome, is enough for one man's fame. "Vol. ii. p. 284. 
*" Fra Paolo is my favourite modern historian. 
His subject did not admit of vivid painting ; but 
what he did, he did better than anybody." Vol. ii. 
p. 284. 

I am almost certain that our great historian 
took the key-note of his historical style from 
Father Paul. For the sake of comparison, 

I quote from the folio of 1676 the words with 
which Sarpi opens his history : 

"My purpose is to write the History of the 
Council of Trent. For though many famous His- 
torians of our Age have made mention in their 
Writings of some particular accidents that happened 
therein," &c. 

The personal note throughout is characteristic 
of both writers. 

And here I may be permitted to call atten- 
tion to two splendid articles on Fra Paolo 
Sarpi by Mr. Andrew D. White, at one time 
American Ambassador to both Russia and 
Germany, in The Atlantic Monthly for January 
and February, 1904. The second concludes 
with these glowing and inspiring words : 

"At last, under the new Italian monarchy, the 
patriotic movement became irresistible, and the 
same impulse which erected the splendid statue to 
Giordano Bruno on the Piazza dei Fiori at Rome, 
on the very spot where he was burned, and which 
adorned it with the medallions of eight other mar- 
tyrs to ecclesiastical hatred, erected in 1892, two 
hundred and seventy years after it had been 
decreed, a statue, hardly less imposing, to Paolo 
Sarpi, on the Piazza Santa Fosca at Venice, where 
he had been left for dead by the Vatican assassins. 
There it stands, noble and serene, a monument of 
patriotism and right reason, a worthy tribute to one 
who, among intellectual prostitutes and solemnly 
constituted impostors, stood forth as a true man, 
the greatest of his time, one of the greatest of all 
times, an honor to Venice, to Italy, and to huma- 

The first extract I shall give is from the 
pen of that curious writer Tom Coriat, of 
Odcombian fame ('Coryats Crudities,' 1611, 
p. 247) : 

" In this street [called S* Hieronimo] also doth 
famous Frier Paul dwell which is of the order of 
Serui. I mention him because in the time of the 
difference betwixt the Signiory of Venice and the 
Pope, he did in some sort oppose himselfe against 
the Pope, especially concerning his supremacy in 
ciuill matters, and as wel with his tongue as his 
pen inueighed not a little against him. So that 
for his bouldnesse with the Popes Holynesse he 
was like to be slaine by some of the Papists in 
Venice, whereof one did very dangerously wound 
him. It is thought that he doth dissent in many 
points from the Papisticall doctrine, and inclineth 
to the Protestants religion, by reason that some 
learned Protestants haue by their conuersation 
with him in his Conuent something diuerted him 
from Popery. Wherefore notice being taken by 
many great men of the City [Venice] that he be- 
ginneth to swarue from the Komish religion, he 
was lately restrained (as I heard in Venice) from 
all conference with Protestants." 

Walton, in his ' Life of Sir Henry Wotton,' 
has these passages (I quote from the text 
printed in the ' Reliquiae Wottonianse,' 1685) : 

"Matters thus heightned, the State [of Venice] 
advised with Father Paul, a Holy and Learned 
Frier (the Author of the ' History of the Council of 
Trent') whose advice was, 'Neither to provoke the 

io*s.ui.jAy.2i,i9Q3.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Pope, nor lose their own Right ' : he declaring pub- 
lickly in Print, in the name of the State, ' That the 
Pope was trusted to keep two Keys ; one of Pru- 
dence, and the other of Power : And that if they 
were not both used together, Power alone is not 
effectual in an Excommunication.' " 

"These Contests were the occasion of Padre 
Paulo's knowledge and interest with King James, 
for whose sake principally Padre Paulo compiled 
that eminent History of the remarkable Council of 
Trent : which History was, as fast as it was written, 
sent in several sheets in Letters by Sir Henry Wot- 
ton, Mr. Bedel, and others, unto King James, and the 
then Bishop of Canterbury, into England, and there 
first made publick, both in English and in the uni- 
versal Language." 

A very notable feature in Sir Henry 
Wotton's 'Reliquise Wottonianse, 3 1085, is a 
letter dated 17 Jan., 1637, addressed "To the 
Right Worthy Provost and Professor Regius 
of Divinity [Collings] in Cambridge." From 
his long residence as British Ambassador to 
the State of Venice, Wotton became inti- 
mately acquainted with Father Paul, and 
the personal details he has preserved of that 
illustrious man are in the highest degree 
interesting. The letter is too long to quote 
entire, but the following extract is worth 
reproducing here : 

" And now, Sir, having a fit Messenger, and not 
long after the time when Love-tokens use to pass 
between Friends, let me be bold to send you for a 
New-Years-gift a certain Memorial, not altogether 
unworthy of some entertainment under your roof ; 
namely, a true Picture of Padre Paolo the Servita, 
which was first taken by a Painter whom I sent unto 
him from my House then neighbouring his Monas- 
tery. I have newly added thereunto a Title of mine j 
own Conception, Condi ii Tridentini Eviscerator ; \ 
and had sent the Frame withal, if it were portable, 
which is but of plain Deal, coloured Black like the 
Habit of his Order. You have a luminous Parlour, 
which I have good cause to remember, not only by 
delicate Fare and Freedom (the Prince of Dishes :) 
but above all, by your own Learned Discourse : for 
to dine with you, is to dine with many good Authors: 
In that Room I beseech you to allow it a favourable 
place for my sake. And that you may have some- 
what to tell of him more than a bare Image, if any 
shall ask, as in the Table of Cebes [a Greek quota- 
tion omitted] ; I am desirous to characterize a little 
unto you such part of his Nature, Customs, and 
Abilities as I had occasion to know by sight or by 
enquiry. He was one of the humblest things that 
could be seen within the bounds of Humanity ; the 
very Pattern of that Precept, Quanta doctior Tanto 
nbmissior. And enough alone to demonstrate, 
That Knowledge well-digested non infiat. Excel- 
lent in Positive, excellent in Scholastical and 
Polemical Divinity. A rare Mathematician, even in 
the most abstruse parts thereof, as in Algebra and 
the Theoriques ; and yet withal so expert in the 
History of Plants, as if he had never perused any- 
Book but Nature. Lastly, a great Canonist, which 
was the title of his ordinary service with the State : 
And certainly in the tirae of the Pope's Interdict, 
they had their principal light from him. When he 
was either reading or writing alone, his manner was 
to sit fenced with a Castle of Paper about his Chair, 

and over head : for he was 9f our Lord of St. Al- 
ban's opinion, That all Air is predatory ; and espe- 
cially hurtful when the spirits are most employed. 
You will find a Scar in his Face, that was from a 
Roman Assassinate, that would have killed him as 
he was turned to a wall near to his Covent : And if 
there were not a greater Providence about us, it 
nii-ht often have been easily done, especially upon 
such a weak and wearyish Body. He was of a quiet 
and settled Temper, which made him prompt in his 
Counsels and Answers ; and the same in Consulta- 
tion which Themistocles was in Action." 

I should say that this letter was included, 
for the first time, in the edition of 1685 of 
the 'Reliquise.' Burnet prints it also in his 
'Life of Bishop Bedell, published in the 
same year (p. 253). A. S. 

(To be continued.) 

Kensington Art Library has been the reci- 
pient of a splendid gift, the fine collection of 
the late Lady Dilke having been presented 
to it by Sir Charles Dilke, -who has added 
some valuable books from his own collection. 
Lady Dilke's library was largely made up of 
rarities, including incunabula and works 
from the Aldine and Elzevir presses, mostly 
in choice morocco bindings. It is to be 
hoped, for the convenience of bibliophiles, 
that a special catalogue will be issued. 

H. T. 

THE LYCEUM THEATRE. Now that, for the 
first time for a great number of years, there 
is no longer a Lyceum amongst the London 
playhouses, a few of its memories, so dear to 
all old lovers of the drama, may be worth 
recording in the pages of ' N. & Q.' Few of 
ou r London theatres have had a more chequered 
career than the Lyceum, in spite of the many 
successes achieved on its boards. Built some- 
where about 1765, it passed from theatre to 
picture gallery, lecture hall, panorama, and 
a host of other entertainments, and then 
back again to theatre, till its destruction by 
fire in 1829. It arose, however, phoenix-like, 
from its ashes five years afterwards, and was 
renamed " The English Opera-House." Beaz- 
ley was the architect, and it was one of the 
costliest theatres erected in London up to that 
date. Its greatest successes were Weber s 
opera ' Der Freyschiitz,' which was first given 
in English there, and a number of German 
operas which followed one another for some 
considerable time. From an opera-house it 
once more became a theatre, and then followed 
a long period when it served as a place of 
extremely miscellaneous entertainment, at 
one time even affording shelter to Madame 
Tussaud's waxworks. In 1840 it once again 
reverted to the drama, but its most interest- 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [io<" s. m. JAN. 21, 1905. 

ing legitimate period did not commence til! 
1844, when it came under the management o 
Mr. and Mrs. Keeley. Under them it soor 
became a favourite house for burlesque anc 
comedy, and in a year or two was in the front 
rank of London theatres. ' Jack Sheppard, 
which was one of Mrs. Keeley's greatesi 
triumphs ; ' Nicholas Nickleby,' in which 
she took the part of Smike and in which 
Charles Dickens much admired her ; ' Martin 
Chuzzlewit,' in which Mr. Keeley (who 
often played old women) as Mrs. Gamp 
was inimitable; and 'Mrs. Caudle,' were 
amongst their greatest successes. Charles 
Mathews followed the Keeleys, and thougl 
all his productions were not successful 
yet under him the Lyceum kept up its 
reputation. Henry Irving first appearec 
there on 11 September, 1871, under the 
management of Bateman, the father of that 
very charming actress Miss Isabel Bateman 
and with his management is very closely 
identified the rise of Irving to fame. I sup- 
pose most of us can remember that wonderfu! 
succession of popular plays, Shakesperian 
and others, which used to pack the Lyceum 
from floor to ceiling night after night, and 
evoked an enthusiasm almost equal to that 
which greeted Kean. 'Charles the First,' 
'The Bells," Hamlet/ ' The Lyons Mail,' and 
' Faust ' were amongst the greatest successes 
of that period, which those who witnessed 
them can never forget. Never before had such 
gorgeous settings of any plays been seen in 
London, and from that time dates the new 
era of scenic production. Like so many of 
our old London landmarks, the Lyceum has 
passed away, but old playgoers will always 
cherish kindly recollections of it, and of Sir 
Henry Irving, Miss Ellen Terry, and the 
'many other charming actresses and actors 
who helped to make it one of our greatest 
homes of the drama. 


[ '[We doubt whether some of the pieces mentioned 
above were first seen at the Lyceum, and counsel 
perusal of the account of that theatre by E. L. 
Blanchard in the Era Almanack of 1877.] 

COUNTESS OF SOUTHESK. When editing the 
'Memoirs ' of Count Gramraont I overlooked 
the most interesting account of this lady's 
last days given in Sir William Fraser's ' His- 
tory of the Carnegies ' (i. 153-9). A selection 
of eight letters written by this notorious 
beauty is printed, and wonderful composi- 
tions they are. At the time of her lord's 
death the countess was residing in Paris, 
from which she wrote, on 9 March, 1688, to 
Mr. Denis, of London (apparently her banker 

there), that she had heard on all hands the 
news of the loss which she had sustained of 
a husband whom she lamented as much as 
he deserved. 

In an earlier letter, dated 2 January, 1686, 
she writes that she is beginning to form the 
resolution of ending her life in a monastery, 
insufficiency of this world's money apparently 
being the cause of this melancholy strain. 
In another letter, dated Paris, 14 October, 
1687, the countess is again the gayest of the 
gay ; she complains, however, that her coach- 
man is sick in the hands of surgeons upon 
her charges, and that he had not been able 
to drive her except twice since she came to 
Paris, but she thanks God that her horses 
are well, and that she has enough money to 
serve her till the day of payment. 

The countess was at Brussels in February 
and May, 1695. She died in Holland in 
October of that year. Her body was brought 
to Scotland, and her funeral took place at 
Kinnaird on 13 December. 


GEORGE ROMNEY, 1610. Among the Ash- 
molean MSS. (No. 1729, 56, f. 104, a, b) 
there is a warrant from James I. to the Earl 
of Salisbury, dated 24 January, 1610, con- 
cerning one George Romney, of St. Clement's 
Danes, gent., who is described as one of 
the six "recusants" whose goods were con- 
fiscated and bestowed upon the persons 
named in the warrant. It would be interest- 
ing to know if this George Romney was in 
any way connected with the famous artist 
who came up to London in 1762. 

47, Lansdowne Gardens, Clapham. 


JOHN BRADFORD." (See ante, p. 20.) The 
late Dean Farrar, whose sermons on ' Eternal 
Hope' were published in 1878, probably read 
this saying in the second volume of ' The 
Writings of John Bradford, M.A.,' Parker 
Society, Cambridge, 1853. In the 'Biogra- 
phical Notice,' p. xiiii, we find what follows : 
"The familiar story, that, on seeing evil-doers 
taken to the place of execution, he was wont to 
exclaim, ' But for the grace of God there goes John 
Bradford,' is a universal tradition, which has over- 
come the lapse of time. And Yenning, writing in 
1653, desirous to show that, * by the sight of others' 
sins, men may learn to bewail their own sinfulness 
and heart of corruption,' instances the case of 
Bradford, who, ' when he saw any drunk or heard 
any swear, etc., would railingly complain, Lord, I 
iave a drunken head ; Lord, I have a swearing 
heart.' " 

The reference is to "Ralph Venning, The 
leathen Improved, an Appendix to Canaan's 
Flowings, sect. 110, p. 222. Lond. 1653." 

io*s. m. JAX. 2i, was.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


This volume was published nearly a century 
after Bradford's death, which occurred in 
1555, in the reign of Queen Mary. As Foxe 
and Fuller are not mentioned by the learned 
editor of the above-quoted ' Biographical 
Notice,' I conclude that the story is not found 
in their pages. JOHN T. CURRY. 

I hope you will find room in your valuable 
paper for the subjoined paragraph from 
The Times of 9 January, in which is recorded 
the phenomenal tide in the Thames on 
Saturday, the 7th inst. : 

"An extraordinary tide was seen in the Thames 
on Saturday afternoon. It should not have been 
high water at Putney Bridge until about a quarter to 
four, but the river bed was full at midday. Moreover, 
although there was a partial ebb and flow twice, 
there was practically no diminution of the quantity 
of water up to the usual time for the ebb according 
to the tide table. This is an occurrence which has 
not previously happened in living memory above 
London Bridge, although there is a record of a 
multiple ebb and flow at Wapping Old Stairs. At 
half past one the tide was a foot higher than any spring 
tide in recent years. Shortly after this the water 
began to recede towards the sea, and flowed in that 
direction for about half an hour. Then the tide 
again turned, and it was feared that the water 
would overflow the banks of the river. The tide 
rose slightly higher, but at a quarter past three the 
ebb set in, and the water rapidly went eastward. 
Though at one time grave apprehension was felt 
lest the banks should be submerged, the water 
fortunately lowered about the usual hour, and 
no damage appears to have been done." 

W. J. M. 

ROBERT BLOOMFIELD. At 9 th S. xii. 364 I 
was allowed to insert a short note concerning 
Bloomfield's grave and certain portraits of 
the poet which were sold after his death. I 
am able now to report the erection of a 
memorial tablet on the house at Shefford, 
Bedfordshire, in which Bloomfield died. It 
was unveiled by the donor, Miss Constance 
Isherwood, daughter of theRev.Richardlsher- 
wood, rector of Meppershall, on 4 May, 1904, 
and a full account of the proceedings appeared 
in The Bedfordshire Times of 6 May. The 
tablet bears the following inscription : 

"Robert Bloomfield, Pastoral Poet, died here 
August 19, 1823. Erected by Constance Isherwood, 
Meppershall Rectory, 1904." 

The tablet was placed on the house by 
permission of the present owner, Mr. A. 

It appears that a contemporary portrait 
of Bloomfield is located at Shefford. From 
the descriptive report of the unveiling of the 
memorial tablet in The Bedfordshire Times I 
copy the following paragraph : 

"Before the ceremony begins we have time to 
stroll about the wide clean street of this quaint yet 

smart little town, and attention is soon arrested 
by a portrait of Bloomfield in the shop window 
of Mr. Alfred Thomas Inskip, the watchmaker. 
Without more ado we wait upon Mr. Inskip, and 
learn from him that his grandfather was on very 
friendly terms with the poet. Indeed, their 
intimacy continues, for they lie side by side in the 
churchyard. The portrait is a mezzotint, and on 
the back of it are these words, in the writing of 
Thomas Inskip the grandfather : ' Mr. Bloomfield 
himself told me that the most correct likeness of 
him ever painted was done by Peele & Son to the 
proprietor of The Mammoth. He painted it whilst 
resident in England and took it away with him to 
America, after promising it to the author. It is 
now hanging in the museum at Philadelphia.' 
Whether we are to infer that this mezzotint is a 
copy of the painting is an open question, but it has 
the appearance of being a good portrait." 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 


CADENDO." In ' Polydori Vergilii Adagiorum 
Opus,' Basilese, 1550, p. 369, Xo. 464, is the 
following : 

Lapides excayant aquse. 

Job. cap. xiiii. proverbiali figura dicit, Lapides 
excavant aquas. Res mira, ut durities lapidis emol- 
liatur aqua : id tamen gutta facit, non bis, sed stepe 

It would appear that Polydore Vergil had 
the proverb in his mind when he wrote the 
above ; but "non bis" in place of " non vi " 
is interesting. It is, perhaps, only an accident 
that the words "durities " to " cadendo " read 
somewhat like a pentameter and a hexameter, 
although, if so taken, there would be several 
false quantities. Concerning the proverb 
see 5 th S. viii. 513, where are early examples, 
illustrations, and many references to former 

edition of these has recently appeared, which 
is said to contain "some long passages and 
many important new readings from manu- 
scripts acquired by the British Museum " ; 
there is nothing whatever to indicate where 
in the volume these are to be found, though my 
object in writing this note is not to complain 
of this omission, but to protest against the 
perpetuation of a stupid emendation in the 
lines on ' Paradise Lost,' which is said to be 
due to Capel Lofft. Marvell, it will be 
remembered, has been decrying the allure- 
ments of " tinkling rhyme," and continues : 
I too, transported by the mode, offend, 
And while I meant to praise thee, must commend. 

One would have supposed that the meaning 
of those lines was sufficiently clear, but, for 
some inscrutable reason, Lofft, who has been 
followed by Mr. Aitken (in the first issue 
only of his volumes) and the editor of this 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [io s. in. JAN. 21. UGG. 

new edition, thought that "mis-commend" 
for " must commend " would be an improve- 
ment, and thus destroyed the point of the 
couplet. The editor of Crashaw who intro- 
duced us to the "follower of one Areopagus " 
(' IS T . & Q.,' 9 th S. xii. 87) seemed likely to 
hold the record as an annotator for some 
time, but I am inclined to think that he will 
have to yield to the new editor of Marvell. 
The latter, finding in Mr. Aitken's edition 
(' Upon Appleton House,' 11. 443-4) 

A levelled space, as smooth and plain, 
As clothes for Lilly stretched to stain, 

instead of printing "cloths" for "clothes," 
and telling those who might be ignorant of 
the fact that " Lilly " was the common way 
of spelling Sir Peter Lely's surname, an- 
notates it (Lilly) thus : " A well-known dyer 
of the age." G. THORN DRURY. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be sent to them 

I wish to find out whether the first editions 
of any of the following plays are in existence, 
and where they may be found : 


1. Anon., 'The Arcadian Nuptials,' 1764. 

2. John Ozell, ' Melicerta.' 

3. Richard Ticknell, ' Gentle Shepherd,' 1781. 

4. Henry Norris, ' The Deceit,' 1723. 

5. W. Hawkins, ' The Enlisted Shepherds,' 1786. 

6. John Hughes, ' Cupid and Hymen,' 1735. 

7. Joseph Waller, 'Love in a Cottage,' 1785. 

J3. Archibald Steele, ' The Shepherd's Wedding,' 

9. Lady Craven (Eliz. Fitzhardinge), ' The Arca- 
dian Pastoral,' 1782. 

10. Josiah Cunningham, ' The Royal Shepherds,' 

11. Colley Cibber, ' Myrtillo,' 1716 ed. 


1. Th. Shrapter, ' The Fugitive,' 1790. 

2. John Speed, ' Stonehenge,' 1635. 

3. Charles Bonnor, ' The Gentle Laird.' 

4. Anon., ' Whitsuntide ; or, the Clown's Con- 
tention,' 1722. 

5. Anon., 'Philander and Rose,' 1785. 

6. Matthew Fielde, 'Vertumnus and Pomona,' 

7. Anon., 'Lynce and Pollidore,' 1781. 

8. Anon., 'Dioue,' 1733. 

9. D. D., Gent., 'The Faithful Shepherd,' 1633. 

10. Theophilus Cibber, ' Damon and Daphne,' 1733. 

11. James Cobb, 'The Shepherdess of Cheapside,' 

12. Alex. Pennecuik, ' Corydon and Cochrania,' 

13. George Linley, ' Gentle Shepherd,' 1781. 

14. Wm. Houghton (or Haughton) and Henry 
Chettle, ' The Arcadian Virgin,' 1599. 

15. Ant. Davidson, ' The Shepherd of Snowdon.' 

16. John Maxwell, ' The Shepherd's Opera,' 1739. 

17. Richard Graves, ' Echo and Narcissus,' 1774. 

18. Anon., ' Chace,' 1773. 

19. John O'Keefe, 'Colin's Welcome.' 

20. Anon., ' Arbanes ; or, the Enamoured Prince.' 

21. Rob. Dodsley, ' The Extravagant Shepherd.' 

22. William Shirley, ' The Shepherd's Courtship.' 

South Hadley, Mass. 
[Of some of these the songs only were printed.] 

CHARLES I. IN SPAIN. Est-ce que quelque 
obligeant lecteur de ' N. & Q.' pourrait m'in- 
diquer quels sont les ouvrages anglais ou je 
pourrais trouver d'amples details sur le voyage 
dramatique que fit Charles I. en 1623 en 
Espagne, etant Prince de Galles, pour con- 
naitre 1'Infante Marie, sceur de Philippe IV. ? 

Dans les livres espagnols qui ont ete a ma 
porte'e, je ne trouve que des relations tres- 
limitees, quoique les fetes se succedereut 
pendant les six mois que dura le sejour du 
Prince a Madrid ; et certes, ce ne fut pas la 
moins originale la procession des mqines de 
toutes les communautes religieuses, citee par 
Don Angel Fernandez de los Rios dans son 
' Guide de Madrid,' lesquels avec grand re- 
cueillement ; silencieux et en contemplation, 
portant des Christs dans les mains, les figures 
couvertes de cendre et les tetes couronnees 
d'e'pines ou d'herses, avec de grandes croix 
sur les epaules ; les uns se frappant les 
poitrines avec de grosses pierres et les autres 
portant des os humains dans leurs bouches 
comme signe de mortification, defilerent de- 
vant toute la cour le Vendredi saint de cette 

Outre la correspondance particuliere du 
Prince avec son pere, il est probable que les 
impressions personnelles du Due de Bucking- 
ham ou de quelqu'autre personnage de la 
suite aient ete publiees, et la sans doute 
seront rapportees abondamment leurs rela- 
tions sur les mceurs et coutumes de la cour 
d'Espagne a cette epoque-la. 

Je me fais un plaisir de croire qu'entre les 
erudits collaborateurs de 'N. & Q/ il s'en 
trouvera qui voudront bien me renseigner, ne 
fussent que par des simples references biblio- 
graphiques, dont je les remercie d'avance, et 
que je lirais toujours avec plaisir. 


46, Gran Via, Bilbao, Espagne. 

FARMER OF HARTSHILL. Could _ any of 
your readers give me information re- 
specting the family of Farmer of Hartshill, 
Warwickshire ? Their pedigree was recorded 
in the Visitation of 1680. It was printed 
privately by the Rev. G. W. Dash wood, but 

io s. in. JAX. 21, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the book does not appear to be in the British 
Museum. I wish to trace a Thomas Farmer 
of Atherstone (1640-76), who I think was 
of this family. A. J. C. GUIMARAENS. 

DANISH SURNAMES. Is it known from 
what sources the ancient Danes and Norse 
men obtained their names ? Did they adopt 
place-names? and were surnames known to 
them? G. H. W. 

DUELLING. Can any one supply the name 
of the author of the following small book ? 

" The British Code of Duel : a Reference to the 
Laws of Honour, and the Character of a Gentle 
man, &c. London, Knight & Lacey, 1824. 12mo." 

It is entered in the British Museum 
Catalogue, but without author's name. Hal- 
kett and Laing do not mention it. 

C. W. S. 

EDMOND AND EDWARD. Were the above 
names used indifferently in mediseyal times 
for the same person ? I have seen it stated, 
but have no proof, that the names were so 
confused. FRANCESCA. 

LONDON. Who was he? and what did he 
engrave? (Mrs.) HAUTENVILLE COPE. 

13c, Hyde Park Mansions, W. 


anxious to learn the author of the following, 
and where it is to be found : 

"God called up from dreams a man in the vesti- 
bule of heaven, and said unto him, 'Come thou 
hither and see the glory of My house,' and to the 
angels that stood around the throne He said, ' Take 
from off him his robe of flesh.' " 

I_believe it was quoted by Proctor in one of 
his works, in which he said, " It seems as if 
the dream of the German poet was right 
when he said, God called," &c. J. M. 

of your readers say where in Mr. Watts- 
Dunton's works the following lines occur ? 
And has it come to this ? Long since, they sold 
Britannia, fettered, to their harlot, Gain ; 
Bartered her bound her in a golden chain 
Nay, trampled our great Queen in mire of gold. 


" As SUCH." I find this expression con- 
stantly used in the letters of my grandfather, 
William Fowler (1795-1820), in the sense of 
" accordingly." For example : " I shall want 
plates of all descriptions colouring. As such, 
if J. and F. have time, they may colour any 
of Jihe engravings that are now printed " ; 
" Your letters have been received regularly 
as such I am thankful." I thought it 

might be peculiar to W. F., until I found a 
letter introducing him to Benjamin West, 
from the Rev. William Peters, 8 January, 
1807, worded thus : 

" Your preeminent merit as an artist and worth 
as a man must make every ingenious son of science 
look up to you for countenance and protection. 
As such I have the pleasure to recommend to your 
notice Mr. Fowler." 

I do not find this use of "as such " in the 
'N.E.D.' Is it known in other writings of 
the period, or in literature ? J. T. F. 


HERALDIC MOTTOES. What book contains 
the fullest and most authentic alphabetical 
list of mottoes ? I know nothing since C. N. 
Elvin's ' Handbook of Mottoes, 1 I860, of 
which, if no one else comes forward or has 
the author's rights, I am prepared to under- 
take a new edition ; of course with all 
possible assistance from 'N. & Q.' I am 
acquainted with the list in 'Burke's Peerage' 
and in Mr. J. A. Mair's ' Book of Proverbs.' 

C. S. 

SAILORS' CHANTIES. Is it possible to 
discover the origin of these sea choruses, 
and when they were first sung and invented ? 
I have Miss L. A. Smith's ' The Music of the 
Waters,' which does not afford the infor- 
mation I seek. I cannot trace " chantie " in 
any dictionary. S. J. A, F. 

['Slang and its Analogues' says: "Obviously a 
diminutive of chant, a song." The earliest reference 
is to an article on ' Sailors' >?hanties and Sea-Songs,' 
Chambers' a Journal, 11 Dec., 1869, pp. 794-6.] 

" GOD REST YOU MERRY." In a well-known 
carol the first line 

God rest you merry, 

is generally seen written with the comma 
after the word you. But is not " God rest 
you merry " an old English expression ? If 
so, the word "merry" should not be separated 
:rom the verb by a comma, as if it were 
in adjective qualifying the noun. I should 
36 glad of information on this point. 

B. C. W. A. 

" GOSPEL OF FATNESS." Who invented this 
phrase? MEDICULUS. 

mve in my possession a book called 'The 

Quiz, by a Society of Gentlemen. 1 It was 

ipparently first published in periodical form 
n 1797. The fifteenth paper of this work is 

entitled 'A Plagiarism of Dr. Goldsmith's.' 
The sum of this is that the author asserts 
hat Goldsmith's 'Edwin and Angelina' is an 

almost literal translation of a French ballad 



called 'Raimond et Angeline,' which first 
appeared in a novel entitled ' Les Deux 
Habitants de Lozanne,' printed in 1606. The 
book, the writer says, 

" is very rare, the volume that I have read being 
the only one that I ever saw : I am sorry that it is 
not now in my possession : it being the property of 
the Duchess di Levia, who I believe is at present 
in Italy. Most probably Goldsmith, in his wander- 
ings over the continent, had met with this little 
work, and being struck with its merit had first 
translated it for its beauty, and then, relying on' 
the obscurity of the author, published it as his own. 

Dr. Goldsmith hath interwoven many stanzas 

which are in themselves beautiful ; yet for my 
part, I am better pleased with the compressed 
length of the French ballad, and think it, upon the 
whole, infinitely more perfect." 

The writer then prints the French ballad 
of which he says he has modernized the 
spelling. The following is the first stanza 
exactly as it appears in the book : 
Entens ma voix gamesante, 
Habitant de ces vallons ! 
Guide me march tremblante, 

Qui se perd dans les buissons : 
N'est il pas quelque chaumiere, 

Dans le fond de ce reduit ; 
Ou je vois une lumiere, 
Perce 1'ombre de la nuit. 

Is all this an elaborate piece of mystification 1 
Upon the whole, it seems most likely that it 
is. At least we can hardly consider it to be 
anything else until a copy of ' Les Deux 
Habitants de Lozanne,' including the ballad, 
is discovered. BERTRAM DOBELL. 

C. H. M. Who is the author of this book ? 
The third edition was published by George 
Morrish, 24, Warwick Lane, Paternoster 
Row, in 1862. The author dates from Dublin. 

E. R. 

PIG HANGING A MAN. In turning over the 
pages of William Hone's ' Table Book ' we 
have come on the following story. ' N. & Q.' 
has recorded many instances of a similar 
punishment befalling a sheepstealer, but we 
do^not call to mind any other case where the 
office of executioner devolved upon a pig. 
If there be any such, it would be doing a 
good work to record them in these pages. 

" S wine Harry. This is the name of a field on 
the side of Pinnow, a hill in Lothersdale, in Craven ; 
and is said to have derived its name from the 
following singular circumstance. A native of the 
valley was once, at the dead of night, crossing 
the field with a pig which he had stolen from a 
neighbouring farmyard; he led the obstinate 
animal by a rope tied to its leg, which was noosed 
at the end where the thief held it. On comin" to 
a ladder-style in the field, being a very corpulent 
man, and wishing to have both hands at liberty, 
but not liking to release the pig, he transferred 

the rope from his hands to his neck ; but when he 
reached the topmost step his feet slipped, the pig 
pulled hard on the other side, the noose tightened, 
ind the following morning he was found dead. I 
believe this story to be a fact. It was told me by 
an aged man, who said it happened in his father's 
time. Sept. 2, 1827. T. Q. M." 

Is there any field called Swine Harry in 
Lothersdale? and does this tale attach to 
it at the present time 1 N. M. & A. 

ARITHMETIC. I ask the help of readers to 
identify an old arithmetic, of which title and 
prefatory matter are missing. It is a small 4to 
of 178 pp., adorned with a beautifully en- 
graved plate for each portion of the subject, 
e.g., ' Addition,' ' Division,' &c. These plates 
are in facsimile MS. of the most ornate and 
flourishing description, introducing nonde- 
script angels, fishes, eagles, &c. (drawn by 
one continuous stroke of the pen), such as 
were regarded as the acme of calligraphic 
achievement in the olden days of ornamental 
penmanship. The book embraces fractions, 
' Merchants' Accompts,' foreign money tables, 
book-keeping, ledger examples, &c. The last, 
being dated 1694, may furnish a clue to the 
date. Several signatures of various members 
of the Savery family, of " Pawlett, co. Som.," 
occur, the earliest being that of "Thomas 
Savery, 1716." 0. KING. 


" T. D." Profs. Greenough and Kittredge, 
in their 'Words and their Ways' (1902), 
p. 252, speak of "the labourer engaged in 
laying a watermain and in smoking his 
1 T. D.' " What does this abbreviation mean ? 
It apparently refers to some kind of pipe. 


RICHARD WARREN. Can any correspondent 
say if Richard Warren, of " Cleybury," Essex, 
had issue by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Rowland Hay ward, Lord Mayor of Lon- 
don in 1570 1 WM. JACKSON PIGOTT. 

Manor House, Dundrum, co. Down. 

of the documents that accompanied the Report 
of Commissioners appointed to inquire into 
the Municipal Corporations in England and 
Wales ('Parl. Papers,' 1835, vols. xxiii.-xxvi.)? 
Lists of the documents sent are appended to 
the respective reports of each borough, and 
as a class they appear to be an invaluable 
source for students of British municipal 
history. Where are they ? Can any one 
oblige with a clue ? A. L. 

family is this motto ascribed 1 The symbol 
is an oak-leaf. W. B. GERISH. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

io-s.m.jAx.21,1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(10 th S. ii. 406 ; iii. 17.) 

THE condemnation of the split infinitive 
seems so devoid of adequate justification that, 
personally, I am accustomed to look upon it 
as merely idiosyncratic. The use of the idiom 
can be defended on various grounds, not the 
least substantial of which is the need of 
allowing language that freedom from purely 
artificial restraints which it continually and 
successfully claims. No learned academy or 
body of critics is powerful enough to cramp 
and tie down a language to a particular mode 
of expression, for, to use a theological phrase, 
it will " work out its own salvation," in 
defiance, if need be, of grammar. We may 
be sure, therefore, that the most virulent 
slating will not effect the destruction of the 
split infinitive if this really is syntactically 

The trouble over this matter is but slightly 
based on the adverbial nature of the qualifi- 
cation. The infinitive is, strictly speaking, a 
verbal substantive to which is affixed the 
dative preposition "to"; and in order to 
determine the legitimacy of splitting it, it is 
best, as COL. PRIDEAUX remarks, to collate 
the infinitives of compound verbs. Now, 
whether the first elements of long-used 
compound verbs, such as believe, forgive, &c., 
were originally prepositional or not, we 
are fully justified in regarding the bulk of 
similarly constituted verbs as consisting of 
an adverb joined to a verb, especially in such 
cases as fore-shadoiv, fore-shorten, uprise, over- 
throw, forthcome, underlie, &c., where the 
nature of the first syllables is clear. No one 
challenges the adverbial qualification of an 
unsplit infinitive, or the predication of some- 
thing about an infinitive which includes an 
adverbial prefix, even if this be merely 
hyphened. It therefore appears highly 
illogical to deny that an infinitive may be 
legitimately split by an adverb which does 
not happen to be actually glued on to the verb. 

The difficulty, in reality, is one which 
concerns the length of the unattached adverb. 
There is a subtle feeling that the balance of 
the sentence is in danger of being destroyed 
if the verb is made top-heavy by placing a 
trisyllabic or polysyllabic advero within 
the infinitive. Adverbs of one or two 
syllables readily adhere to the verb as 
prefixes, and thus disguise their reprobate 
individualities. But it is generally assumed 
that there is no glue strong enough to make 
such processional words as circumstantially, 

extraordinarily, disproportionately, and the 
like, stick within the split infinitive, and 
therefore they must be trailed after verbs 
like cartloads of bricks. The majority of the 
adverbs in common use, however, do not 
attain such unwieldly dimensions, and may 
well be admitted within the split infinitive, 
especially if clarity of apprehension is 
promoted thereby. And surely the idiom is 
not to be pilloried if it serves to make the 
sentence more harmonious as, for instance, in 
"He decided to rapidly march on the town/' 
where "to march rapidly" is certainly less 
pleasing to the ear. From such considerations 
as these I therefore infer that the split 
infinitive does not merit the censure which 
critics frequently bestow on it. 


Some time ago a certain critic fell foul of 
me for one solitary use of the phrase " from 
whence," and the consequent correspondence 
in * N. & Q.' called forth a strong reply from 
PROF. SKEAT, justifying the use in any case, 
and sternly denouncing our cocksure critic 
of these latter days. But the same critic 
blamed me also for having split on the rock 
of the split infinitive, an example of which 
doubtless existed somewhere in my book of 
500 pages, though I failed to find it. I am, 
therefore, keenly interested in this discussion. 
I note that COL. PRIDEAUX, at the last refer- 
ance, gives examples only of infinitives in 
the present tense. But what about the past 
infinitive] "To have gloriously died for 
one's country," for example, rings true enough. 
But is it right ? And if so, why not " to 
gloriously die " ? It is not the to which is 
modified, and it is not have, but die and died. 

First of all " split infinitive " is a mis- 
nomer. The infinitive is not split, but is split 
in the position of its qualifying adverb in 
question from its preposition to, which in 
origin, though not in present function, is the 
same as that expressing direction. "I am 
ready to go" meant ad eundum, a aller, 
zum Gehen. Historical reasons cannot be 
adduced against inserting the adverb between 
to and its infinitive, because it occurs as early 
as Wicliff; nor logical ones either, as no 
position can point out more clearly to which 
word the adverb refers. 

Further, analogous positions of qualifica- 
tions are common in English, as COL. PRIDEAUX 
justly remarks. His examples are : " to be 
thoroughly spoilt," " he has publicly asked 
for something," "he has been publicly con- 
gratulated." He might have added : "he 
fully admits," " at exactly the same hour," 

NOTES AND QUERIES, cio* s. m. JA*. 21, 1905. 

" with scarcely a shirt on his back," "the con- 
quest by Pizzaro of Peru." I agree with him 
also in not believing in French influence in 
the making of this form. " II ne peut pas 
entrer dans notre intention de seulement 
effleurer ici les differentes faces de cette ques- 
tion," owes its origin to the same tendency 
towards clearness and succinctness as " I am 
bound to fully admit that I was mistaken." 


COL. PRIDEAUX congratulates MR. EDWARD 
SMITH on having "introduced the split in- 
finitive to these columns, because we may 
now hope to have an authoritative pronounce- 
ment on _ the subject." But the first such 
introduction was just forty-three years ago, 
when, in 3 rd S. i. 88, that long-valued corre- 
spondent HERMENTRUDE, under the heading 
'Wrong Position of the Adverb,' protested 
against " the placing of the adverb between 
the preposition and the verb : e.g., * We are 
anxious to entirely get rid of it.'" It was 
added, " Will no influential grammarian 
arrest this Transatlantic intruder into the 
Queen's English, and banish it from good 
society and correct diction, for the term of 
its natural life ? " But, alas ! the split in- 
finitivewho gave it that name, and when ? 
is with us still. ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

The subject was discussed some time ago 
in 'N. & Q.' The late DR. FITZEDWARD 
HALL found many instances of the split 
infinitive in the works of excellent authors, 
but none, I think, in the works of Shak- 
speare or Milton. I am of opinion that it is 
best to avoid the split infinitive ; but it seems 
to me absurd to call it ungrammatical. 


With some trepidation, and at the risk, 
I am afraid, of being accused of frivolity, I 
venture to introduce the following story. It 
is taken from an article on ' The Provincial 
Humour of America ' in Chambers' s Journal 
for March, 1904 : 

"The prisoner, a faded, battered specimen of 
mankind, on whose haggard face, deeply lined with 
the marks of dissipation, there still lingered faint 
reminders of better days long past, stood dejectedly 
before the judge. ' Where are you from?' 'From 
Boston.' ' Indeed,' said the judge; 'indeed, yours 
is a sad fall ; and yet you don't seem to thoroughly 
realize how low you have sunk.' The man started 
as if struck. ' Your honour does me an injustice,' 
he said, bitterly; ' the disgrace of arrest for drunken- 
ness, the mortification of being thrown into a 
noisome dungeon, the publicity and humiliation of 
trial in a crowded and dingy court -room, I can 
bear ; but to be sentenced by a police magistrate 
who splits his infinitives that is indeed the last 


COLISEUMS OLD AND NEW (10 th S. ii. 485, 
529). A very interesting subject for discus- 
sion has been introduced by MR. CECIL, 
CLARKE, for there is frequently much difficulty 
in gaining any trustworthy information about 
London buildings after they have been de- 
molished. Especially is this so in the case of the 
Coliseum, or Colosseum, which was situated 
in Regent's Park. I have in my possession 
one of the catalogues or book of description, 
issued in 1845, when it had changed proprie- 
tors after its attractiveness had declined, and 
there appeared " every probability that this 
truly magnificent edifice would be razed to 
the ground." It may not be undesirable to 
give the title-page of this brochure, which 
is as follows : 

" A | Description | of The Colosseum | as | Re- 
opened in M.DCCC.XLV. | under the Patronage [ of 
Her Majesty the Queen, and H.R.H. Prince Albert. 
I With numerous illustrations and eight coloured 
Sections | of | The Panorama of London, | Embossed 
by Mess" Dobbs, Bailey. & Co. | This Catalogue 
has been prepared for the Proprietor by Mess" 
Kronheim and Skirring, Engravers, and | Designers, 
and the Illustrations and Letter-press are printed 
from Stereotype plates cast by the Patent Process 
of Mess" Kronheim & Co., 3, Earl Street, Black- 
friars. | London : Printed by J. Wertheimer and 
Co., Finsbury Circus. | M.DCCC.XLV." 

Most of the documents issued by showmen 
are couched in grandiloquent language, and 
this catalogue is rather worse than such 
things ordinarily are. The proprietor, whose 
name does not figure in this book, says he 
"consulted Mr. William Bradwell, of whose 
taste, skill, and judgment in decorative and 
scenic effects he had often witnessed the 
admirable results," and under his advice the 
property was purchased, and he prepared 
the plans for the work to be done. We are 
told that the "outlay was enormous," and 
that the visitors would feel that a higher 
desire than " the object of mere gain must 
have prompted so lavish an expenditure." 
There were two entrances : that on the west, 
under the portico facing the Regent's Park, 
was originally the only one ; that on the 
east, in Albany Street, was formed when the 
alterations were being made. There was an 
apartment newly constructed by Mr. Brad- 
well, and dignified by the fine - sounding 
name "The Glyptotheca, or Museum of 
Sculpture," which took the place of a room 
formerly known as the "Saloon of Arts." 
This chamber had a frieze modelled from the 
Elgin marbles, above which were "twenty 
fresco paintings of allegorical subjects on 
panels," for which Mr. Absolom was answer- 
able. There were shown many works of art 
from the studios of some of the "most 
eminent British and Foreign Sculptors." 

io*s. in. JAX. 2i, wo*] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


There was an " Ascending Room " for the 
use of visitors, which we are told was 
" raised by secret machinery to the required 
elevation." This was doubtless what we now 
know as a " lift," which is met with in almost 
every large building. The chief attraction 
was, of course, the 'Grand Panorama of 
London,' which this catalogue tells us was 
'almost entirely repainted by Mr. E. T. 
Parris," as, owing to a variety of causes, that 

gentleman had been prevented from " doing 
imself complete justice." With reference to 
this painting, it says : 

"This extraordinary, and, in its peculiar style, 
unequalled effort of human ingenuity and perse- 
verance was projected and commenced by Mr. 
Homer, and completed by Mr. E. T. Parris and 
assistants, under the latter gentleman's direction." 

It will be noted that the name of Horner 
is spelt with only one o, as is the case in 
'Old and New London,' and not, as Elmes 
spelt it, " Hornor." 

The feature of this catalogue is the eight 
embossed plates of the panorama, with an 
engraved key-plate to each section. They 
are stamped upon a coloured ground, show- 
ing the Thames in a bright blue, and the 
sky in pink and blue tints, making very 
effective pictures, and helping one admirably 
to form a faint idea of what the whole thing 
was like. The buildings on the painting 
seem to have stood out well, notwithstanding 
the "extreme inaccuracy as to architectural 
details," which perhaps in a work of such 
magnitude might almost be looked for. It 
is hardly necessary to say that the view was 
taken from a staging erected above the dome 
of St. Paul's, which appeared immediately 
below the spectator's feet. 

There were also conservatories, a Gothic 
aviary, an exterior promenade, a repre- 
sentation of the Mer de Glace, Mont 
Blanc, a mountain torrent, and stalactite 
caverns, all of which are duly pictured in 
this little book. There was also what is 
notified as being an "Entirely New and 
Extraordinary Panorama of London by 
Night, projected and carried out by Mr. 
Win. Brad well, and painted by Mr. Danson 
and Mr. Telbin." This was a very fine work 
of art, and probably the truth was hardly 
exceeded when it was proclaimed "that 
nothing short of reality can equal the 
amazing coup d'oeil before us." There was 
also a "Glaciarium" of artificial ice for skating 
at all seasons of the year, and a camera 
obscura " on a scale never before attempted," 
presenting a "living moving picture," 
another panorama of the north-west quarter 
of London. This was sixty years ago, yet 

we must say that pleasure-seekers seem to 
bave been well catered for in those days, and, 
making allowance for the change of taste, 
it is perhaps permissible to think that the 
new Coliseum can hardly in some respects 
give a better entertainment than that pro- 
vided by the old one. 

In this catalogue there is no mention of 
there having been a bazaar upon the premises,, 
but there may have been one at an earlier 
date; neither at this later date is there 
any allusion to a panorama of Lisbon by 
night, nor to the exhibition of the earthquake 
there spoken of by MR. E. DYSEY. It would 
be of considerable interest if the name of the 
proprietor in 1845 could be put on record. 


I can corroborate MR. DYSEY' s recollections, 
as I was a frequent visitor to the old Colos- 
seum in the forties and fifties, when I lived 
in the neighbourhood. Although called the 
Coliseum in some of Elmes's plates, the 
official designation was "The Royal Colos- 
seum." I still possess some of the old pro- 
grammes, from which I learn that the 
"Magnificent Diorama of Paris by Night, 
painted by Messrs. Danson, covering an area 
of Forty-Eight Thousand Square Feet," was- 
presented at the evening entertainment, and 
the " Colossal Panorama of London by Day, 
painted by E. T. Parris, Esq.," and covering 
the same area, was exhibited in the morning. 
The great earthquake at Lisbon was, as- 
stated by MR. DYSEY, shown in another part 
of the building ; but London and Paris, 
though described respectively as a panorama, 
and a diorama, were more properly cyclo- 
ramas, as they extended over a circular area, 
and were seen by spectators from the centre. 
The fact that London and Paris covered the 
same area, Paris being substituted for London 
in the evening, may have given rise to the 
joke that a portion of the canvas was utilized 
for both representations. The building was 
a fine one, though the dome was rather squat, 
and it may be doubted if Sir Walter Gilbey's 
handsome villa sufficiently compensates for 
its loss. 

Particulars about the Leicester Square 
entertainments will be found in Tom Taylor's 
' Leicester Square ' ; vide the chapter on ' The 
Shows of the Square,' pp. 447-76. 


The following is extracted from The Times 
of 12 March, 1875 : 

"The Last of the Colosseum. Her Majesty's 
Commissioners of Works and Public Buildings have 
at length found a purchaser for the building and 
site of the Colosseum, which is now being rapidly 


demolished. Situated between Albany Street and 
Regent's Park Road, and overlooking the Park, the 
present building was erected in 18'24 by Mr. Hornor, 
a well-known land surveyor, at a cost of 30,000. 
A further sum of 100,000^ was expended by that 
gentleman on the decorations of the interior and 
purchase of works of art. It was then opened 
with a Panorama of London, painted by Mr. 
Hornor, who made his sketches from an observatory 
created on the top of St. Paul's Cathedral, the 
painting covering over 46,000 square feet (more 
than an acre) of canvas. In 1843 the projector 
failed, and the building passed into the hands of 

" In 1845 the buildings were considerably altered 
and remodelled from designs furnished by the late 
Mr. Bradwell, Chief Machinist at Covent Garden, 
when the Albany Street entrance was added, with 
a picturesque armoury as an anteroom. Upon the 
stage passed the Cyclorama of Lisbon, depicting in 
ten scenes the great Earthquake of 1755. Ill 
fortune attended this as every other effort to restore 
the fortunes of the place, and for the last twenty 
years the building has been gradually falling to 
decay. The lease has been purchased by Mr. Bird, 
and on the site a number of residences will be 

The Cyclorama of Lisbon was first opened 
in 1848 (not 1845). The building then con- 
tained a rustic armoury or refreshment 
cottage ; the cyclprama and music hall, 
decorated with copies of three of Raphael's 
cartoons by Horner ; and a camera obscura. 
The exhibition when reopened in 1845 con- 
sisted of the Glyptotheca, or museum of 
sculpture ; a grand panorama of London, 
painted by E. T. Parris ; conservatories ; 
Gothic aviary ; exterior promenade with re- 
productions of stalactite caverns, mountain 
torrents, &c. ; and a camera obscura. The 
evening exhibition was a panorama of ' Lon- 
don by Night,' painted by Messrs. Danson and 
Telbin. The grand panorama by Parris was 
reproduced in book form in eight coloured 
sections, printed by Kronheim & Co., and 
embossed by Dpbbs, Bailey & Co., a rare little 
volume. The introduction to the text, after 
reciting the history of the building, pro- 
ceeds, "Some alterations were made which 
did not elevate its character as a place of 
public amusements." This probably refers to 
an artificial skating - rink arranged with 
suitable surroundings, and much frequented 
during the summer of 1842; vide Reynold's, 
Leigh's, Whittock's, or Cruchley's 'New 
Picture of London ' ; Kidd's ' Guide to the 
Lions of London,' &c. MR. CECIL CLARKE 
is welcome to the loan of these and several 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

The mention of the Coliseum forcibly re- 
minds me of the days of my childhood, for 
I can remember being taken to see the 
panoramic picture of London at the Coliseum 

in 1837, and wondering where my ball would 
go, if thrown down upon it from the gallery. 

Upon entering the building, one passed 
into the saloon festooned with draperies and 
an awning of which MR. MACMICHAEL speaks; 
and amongst the sculptures and casts was 
a colossal statue of the last Earl Harcourt, 
who died in 1830. Of this I lost sight for 
many years, until I saw it placed at the 
entrance of the Harcourt aisle in Stan ton 
Harcourt Church, near Oxford, and it is 
there, I suppose, at the present moment. 
The earl lies ouried with many of his ances- 
tors in the vault beneath the Harcourt aisle 
in that church. 

A small engraving of the Coliseum was in 
Leigh's 'New Picture of London,' a book 
which I have not seen since that distant 
time. It was profusely illustrated with en- 
gravings of buildings in London and its 
vicinage, many of which have since been 
swept away. ' JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

"To HAVE A MONTH'S MIND" (10 th S. ii. 
487). Among my notes I find references 
to examples of this expression in Scott's 
'Journal,' i. 222 ; Vanbrugh's ' Plays,' i. 333 ; 
Congreve's ' Plays,' p. 358 ; and to a work 
the title of which I cannot decipher. The 
expression is a common one, and is explained 
in the 'Century Dictionary,' where other 
examples are given from the ' Paston Letters,' 
iii. 463 ; Jeremy Taylor, ii. 373 ; and Shak- 

Boston, U.S. 

A post - Reformation example occurs in 
Butler's ' Hudibras,' I. ii. Ill : 

For if a trumpet sound, or drum beat, 
Who hath not a month's mind to combat ? 

This is explained as an "ardent desire," 
which is only a secondary application ; the 
term really arose from the Catholic system 
of prayers for the dead. A. HALL. 

See 6 th S. vi. 205, 251, 352, 374, 410, 458 
516 ; vii. 115, 298 ; viii. 312 ; 9 th S. vi. 104 
195, 295, 414. G. L. APPERSON. 


This expression will be found in Pepys's 
' Diary,' under date 20 May, 1660 : " Though 
I had a month's mind, I had not the boldness 
to go to her." 


[MR. NORMAX PEARSON also refers to Pepys.] 

MAZE AT SEVILLE (10 th S. ii. 508). In 
reference to the query of ST. SWITHIN for the 
plan of a maze in the pavilion of the Alcazar 

. in. JAN. 21, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Gardens, Seville, I beg to enclose a rough 
design (made by myself from the original), 
which may be of use to him. The design is 
said to have been similar to that of the maze 
in the garden itself ; but I cannot trace the 
same plan through the now neglected paths 
of the labyrinth. S. F. G. 


[Our contributor's plan has been forwarded to 

527). In the following extract taken from an 
article on ' Verulamium,' signed C. H. A., 
which appeared in The Illustrated London 
News of 7 March, 1891, your correspondent 
will find an answer to his question : 

" It is a remarkable coincidence that Verulara 
and Pompeii resemble each other in a marvellous 
degree as regards shape, dimensions, arrangement 

of streets, and position of buildings The theatre 

at Verulam not only occupies the same relative 
position, but is, singularly enough, nearly the same 
size as its model, being 193ft. Sin. in diameter, 
against 195 ft. approximately in Pompeii. The 

the daytime, called upon the landlord, expressing 
his surprise at the circumstance, no person being in 
the house in the daytime. The landlord told his 
Worship, that if he would call in the evening, his 
curiosity should be amply gratified; but added, that 
if the quality of his beer was not bettered he might 
lose some of his principal customers. The Alderman 
attended, and, the better to make his observation, 
was prevailed on by the landlord to put on one of 
his old great-coats, a slouched hat, &c. He was 
then, with some apology by the former, introduced 
into a back room, nearly filled with the halt, the 
lame, and the blind, who had lost all their infirmi- 
ties in the plenitude of his porter. After the mutual 
relations of their day's adventures, songs, &c., it 
was proposed, as usual, to one of the oldest of them, 
who acted as President, to name the supper, when, 
whether he had not before noticed the new guest or 
not, fixing his eye on Mr. Calvert, he exclaimed, 
'For supper to-night I think we must have an 
alderman hung in chains /' While this was acceded 
to by the whole company, the Alderman, thinking 
he was discovered, and that they meant to use him 
ill, made a precipitate retreat out of the room, and 
communicated, with much embarrassment, his sus- 
picion to the landlord ; his apprehension, however, 
soon subsided, aa before the host could give him an 

._,._ [ explanation, he was called backwards to take orders 

distance from the stage to the back is the same in , for supper, when, without taking any notice of the 

both cases. The stage in the Italian theatre is, 
however, much wider than in ours ; so is the pro- 
scenium. Both the theatres appear to have been 
richly adorned with frescoes and marbles ; at 
Verulam slabs of the latter material thirteen- 
sixteenths of an inch thick are found. In Pompeii, 
a smaller theatre exists close to the larger one ; in 
Verulam, foundations have been struck which are 
strongly suspected to have belonged to another 
theatre. Unfortunately these interesting relics of 
dramatic art cannot be seen ; the theatre described 
above was excavated some forty years since, and 
after the dimensions had been taken the earth was 
carefully replaced." 

Accompanying the article are several pic- 
tures and also plans of ancient and modern 
Verulam. From these plans it appears that 
the position of the theatre was a little to the 
north-west of St. Michael's Church, the site 
being in a field now known as " The Black 
Grounds." JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

' N. & Q.,' 3 rJ S. vi. 103, devoted a page to 
' St. Albans-Verulam,' and traced the limits 
of the old British town. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SIR WILLIAM CALVERT (10 th S. ii. 528 ; iii. 
38). The following amusing story is told of 
this gentleman in the 'City Biography,' 
London, 1800 : 

" Like the generality of brewers, Mr. Calvert 
had a number of public-houses belonging to him ; 
one of these, in a low neighbourhood, which he had 
let on a very trivial consideration, at length 
increased so high in its demands for his intire, that 
the Alderman, amazed at the consumption, as he 
seldom heard of any company being seen there in 

worthy brewer, he stepped to a poulterer's in the 
neighbourhood, and soon returned with a fine turkey, 
and a link of pork sausages, which, presenting to 
his guest, he assured him, when spitted with the 
link of sausages to be roasted, was the alderman 
meant by the company to be hung in chains for the 
supper. The adventure so well pleased the brewer, 
that the melioration of the beer was immediately 
attended to." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

ii. 448, 516). Moliere's 'Dramatic Works/ 
with plates, rendered into English by Henri 
Van Laun, 6 vols., 1875 ; ' Moliere,' 3 vols., in 
" Bohn's Library," translated. Are not these 
two in verse 1 L. J. H. 

[Neither is in verse.] 

AND ST. BENNET'S CHURCH (10 th S. iii. 7). 
The church of St. Bennet, or more properly 
St. Benet, stood on the east side of Grace- 
church Street, at the southern corner of 
Fenchurch Street. I do not know the exact 
date of its demolition, but it was standing 
in 1856. Its site is now partly or wholly 
occupied by the roadway of Fenchurch Street, 

which was widened 

when the church was 

62, Palace Road, Streatham Hill. 

St. Benet, Gracechurch, was " called Grass- 
church, of the Herb Market there kept" 
(Stow). The church, built previous to 1190, 
was destroyed at the Great Fire (1666), and 
re-erected in 1685 from the designs of Sir 
Christopher Wren. It was pulled down 


NOTES AND QUERIES, cio* a. m. JA*. 21, iocs. 

about thirty-five years ago. Cunningham 
says, " The yard of the ' Cross Keys Inn ' in 
Gracechurch Street was one of our early 

469, 531). MR. MARCHANT may be right when 
he says that the inclination of the lower bar, 
upon which the feet are made to rest in 
Russian crosses, " points the mind upward 
and raises the hopes of the believer towards 
the Resurrection," for Russian ecclesiastical 
art is permeated with mysticism; but I always 
thought myself, since I began to take an 
interest in these things, that the bar was 
placed aslant in order to remind the spectator 
of the earthquake that took place at the 
Crucifixion, or of the tradition, preserved in 
the East, that our Lord was lame. If W. W. P. 
wishes to study Russian crosses, he should 
go to the Alexander Museum at Petersburg, 
where he will find hundreds of them. They 
are, as a rule, curious and interesting, but 
astonishingly poor in detail. At the top there 
is often a face with the inscription under- 
neath in Slavonic, "The image that was not 
made with hands," an allusion to St. Veronica ; 
below this is a cross, the figure that is 
stretched upon it being emaciated, and with 
feet and hands entirely out of proportion to 
the rest of the body. The Blessed Virgin, 
Mary Magdalene, St. John the Evangelist, 
and Longinus are also represented, and every- 
thing is explained by lettering thus, for 
instance, G. G. stands for the hill of Golgotha, 
and so on. Texts from the Bible or from the 
Russian Service-Book are also very common. 

LONDON CEMETERIES IN 1860 (10 th S. ii. 169, 
296, 393, 496, 535). The old gravestones seen 
by MR. JOHN T. PAGE (8 th S. ii. 393) probably 
belonged to the Stepney Meeting - House 
Burial - ground, which was also called the 
Almshouse Ground or the Ratcliff Workhouse 
Ground. This was situated at the north-east 
corner of White Horse Street, near the junc- 
tion with Salmon's Lane, and opposite the 
Brewers' Almshouses. According to Mrs. 
Basil Holmes ('London Burial-grounds, 
pp. 179, 300), it was connected with the Inde- 
pendent Chapel at Stepney, and was first 
used in 1781. There are still many tomb- 
stones in it, and the ground is fairly tidy. 
The gate is generally open, as the entrance to 
the almshouses is through it. Size, half an 
acre. A view of the ground from the alms 
houses is given at p. 178 of Mrs. Holmes'; 

White Horse Street, running in a north- 
easterly direction, is distinct from White 

lorse Lane, which ran from west to east, and 
s now included in the line of the Commercial 
cload. There was also another White Horse 
Lane, which connected Stepney Green with 
Vlile End Green, and will be seen marked in 
lorwood's map. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

[White Horse Lane now connects Stepney Green 
and Mile End Road.] 

(10 th S. i. 167, 214, 297, 373). As the great- 
granddaughter of Abram Newman, I have 
iccess to the deeds relating to Fenchurch 
Street ; but the old house was rebuilt. I 
traced the ownership of Newman & Dayison's- 
warehouse, and sent it to Sir W. Rawlinson ;, 
but he never even acknowledged it. 


13c, Hyde Park Mansions, W. 

HOLBORN (10 th S. ii. 308, 392, 457, 493). 
With regard to the suggestion that hoi or 
hull signifies water, I recollect reading (I 
think it was in Seaham's ' History of Hull '} 
a note as to this. The author's view was 
that the word Hull did imply a connexion 
with water, and compared it with pool, as in 
Liverpool. Perhaps the same idea may be 
traced in Ulleskelf (Yorkshire) and Ulles- 
water, on the borders of Westmoreland. 
Compare also Ullesthqrpe and Ullapool. 

In this connexion it may be worth while 
to recall that the name of the land upon 
which Gray's Inn now stands was Portpool, 
a name still preserved in Portpool Lane, 
which runs down from Gray's Inn Road 
to Leather Lane. If there ever was a 
stream of water running alongside Holborn, 
such stream, whether natural or artificial^ 
must have had its rise on the high ground 
somewhere near Portpool, perhaps at St. 
Chad's Well in the Gray's Inn Road, close 
to Gray's Inn. May we not then here again 
trace a connexion between hoi, pool, and 
ivater ? 

In The Antiquary for this month, at p. 19, 
is an article on ' Some London Street-names,'' 
by the Rev. W. J. Loftie. In it he says : 

"Two parallel roadways which lead westward from 
the city are called by different names, yet from the- 
same river. A bourne breaks out from the clay hill 
on which Regent's Park stands, and burrows its 
winding course south-eastward, cutting for itself a 
passage until it reaches a tidal inlet from the 
Thames. The upper course of the brook is 
naturally described as the Hole bourne. The 
tidal estuary into which it resolves itself is the 
Fleet. There are many other burrowing brooks in. 
England, and many other fleets. All have the 
same characteristics, and are called Holing Bourne, 
Holing Beck, Holing Beach, and Holing Brook, 
often corrupted into Hollingbourne, Beck, Beach, or 
Brook, with various other modifications ; and the 
local antiquaries generally, as in the Kentish ex- 

. in. JAK. -21,190s.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ample, invent a holly-tree to account for the name, 
in steal of looking to see if the brook does cut a hole 
for itself." 

Purfleet and similar names, he says, speak 
for themselves. 

At what precise point in "the hill on 
which Regent's Park stands " does the Fleet 
break out? and where precisely is the hole 
it has cut for itself 1 


BRINGING IN THE YULE " CLOG " (10 th S. ii. 
507; iii. 11). The saying "Dun is in the 
mire " is much older than Shakespeare's 
time, for it occurs in Chaucer. In the fifth 
volume of my edition of Chaucer's works 
there is an 'Index to Subjects and Words 
explained in the Notes,' filling more than 
sixty columns, and giving references to dis- 
cussions of subjects of very various kinds. 
There is a similar one to my edition of ' Piers 
Plowman.' I have often wondered whether 
any one ever refers to them, as the neglect 
of them seems almost universal amongst 
your readers. I refer to Brand, to Giffard's 
notes to Ben Jonson, to ' Romeo and Juliet,' 
and to Hazlitt's 'Proverbs' (which include 
Ray's), all noticed at the last reference. 

But I further refer to Hoccleve, to Skelton, 
to the Towneley Mysteries, to Beaumont and 
Fletcher, and to Butler's ' Hudibras.' So the 
subject is tolerably common. 

I read, at the last reference, that dun was 
"often interchangeable with the sanguine 
colour, a symbol of the sun." Where can I 
find any such interchange 1 I see no trace of 
it in the 'New English Dictionary,' which 
seems to imply that it was used in direct 
opposition to all ideas of brightness. 


On Tyneside the word "clog," I think 
without exception, is in use. R. B R. 

South Shields. 

S. ii. 487, 534). I desire to thank MR. HARRY 
GOLDING for his cuttings, and the other 
correspondents who have kindly replied 
through your columns and directly. I have 
also found a sketch of this apostolic bishop's 
career in 'Works of Rev. A. M. Toplady,' 
1825 (6 vols.), vol. iv. 


St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

(10 th S. i. 67, 137 ; iii. 15). As MR. R. PIER- 
POINT refers to my note at the second refer- 
ence, I take this opportunity of stating that 
the appearance of tne word " gratia," instead 
of " gratise," in my copy of the inscription 

is not my fault. I wrote "gratise" when I 
sent the note ; and again when proof was 
submitted I intimated that the word should 
thus appear. I noticed it was printed 
"gratia" after all, and, thinking I could do 
no more, consoled myself by noting the 
error in my file copy and adding the words, 
"I corrected this in proof sent, but it was not 
altered. J. T. P." JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

WALKER FAMILY (10 th S. iii. 8). I never 
heard of Peter Walker, but, if I am not 
greatly mistaken, the minor canon at Nor- 
wich was named John, a native of Oxford, 
presented by Lord Chancellor Thurlow to the 
vicarage of Stoke Holy Cross ; also rector 
of St. John's, Timberhill, and St. Peter per 
Mountergate, in Norwich, and Bawdsey, in 
Suffolk ; died in 1807 ; and was buried in 
Norwich Cathedral. FRED. NORGATE. 


Roger Anchani's English Works. Edited by William 
Aldis Wright, M.A. (Cambridge, University 

No less interesting than the first volume of the 
"Cambridge English Classics "is the second, con- 
sisting of the ' Toxophilus,' ' Report of the Affaires 
and State of Germany,' and ' The Scholemaster ' 
of Roger Ascham, edited by Dr. Wright, the 
esteemed Vice -Master of Trinity. A curious 
tribute to the value of the series is borne uncon- 
sciously by ourselves. More than one edition of 
Ascham's English works has slumbered upon our 
shelves. The convenience of the present edition, 
the attractiveness of the type, and the generally 
appetizing appearance of the book have led us to 
an experience we commend for imitation in the 
perusal of the work and the substitution of fami- 
liarity with two out of three of Ascham's writings 
for a sort of general idea of the contents. Agreeable, 
indeed, has been the task thus accomplished, and 
the English prose of Ascham. is more pleasurable 
than that of most of his successors of Tudor times. 
His arraignment of Malory even, and of the English 
translations of Italian tales, seems less harsh when 
it is read in its entirety and with its context ; and 
his picture of " that noble ladie Jane Grey" as he 
saw her at " Brodegate in Lecetershire," when he 
found her, while "all the houshpuld, Gentlemen 

and Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the Parke 

in her Chamber, readinge Phaedon Platonis in 
Greeke, and that with as moch delite, as som ien- 
tleman wold read a merie tale in Bocase," familiar 
as it is, gains in freshness. A propos of the ' Toxo- 
philus' and the comparison between that pursuit 
and the games with his devotion to which Ascham 
was rebuked, it may be pointed out that in times 
immediately succeeding those in which he wrote 
indulgence not only in cards and dice, but even 
in bowls, was penalized in the interest of archery. 
The defence of cards and dice undertaken by 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [io< s. m. JAX. 21, 1905. 

Pliilologus on p. 21 is curiously significant in face of 
the statement concerning him of Camden : " Never- 
theless, being too much given to dicing and cock- 
fighting, he lived and died a poor man." Among 
modern reissues of English classics this series is 
entitled to a foremost place. 

Theodore Watts-Dunton: Poet, Novelist, Critic. 

By James Douglas. (Hodder & Stoughton.) 
MR. JAMES DOUGLAS has accomplished in a remark- 
able fashion a task from which most writers have 
shrunk that of furnishing a sustained biography 
of a man still happily living. Under such con- 
ditions the work constitutes rather an apologia or 
a eulogy than a criticism or a life. It is natural to 
compare Mr. Douglas's work with the immortal 
life of Johnson by Boswell, which, however, was 
published after the death of its subject. Ben 
Jonson was also the recipient of an extraordinary 
eulogy, which, as the title, 'Jonsonus Virbius,' 
indicates, was written after his death, a work in 
which Lord Falkland, Lord Buckhurst, Sir John 
Beaumont, and many poets and wits of his time 
participated. ' Letters and Poems in Honour of 
the Incomparable Princess Margaret, Dutchess 
of Newcastle,' appeared two years after her death. 
'An English Miscellany,' presented to Dr. Furnivall 
in 1901, is perhaps the nearest precedent in serious 
literature for such a tribute as is now given. 

A few years ago the claims on consideration of 
Mr. Watts-Dunton were known only to the esoteric. 
Such recognized the 1 , importance of his contribu- 
tions to The Athenceum, and his steps towards the 
substitution of his own " poetics " for that of 
Aristotle. Since his publication of ' Aylwin,' 
however, he has sprung into popularity, and his 
name throughout the reading public is now one 
with which to conjure. No half-hearted disciple 
is Mr. Douglas. With the zeal of the true "con- 
vertite " and worshipper, aided, it is to be supposed, 
to some extent by Mr. Watts-Dunton himself, he 
has traced his subject from his birth in what is 
variously styled Cowslip Country or Buttercup 
Land, by the Ouse, on the confines of East Anglia, 
to his present residence in Putney, which he shares 
with our one great living poet Mr. Swinburne. To 
this long-sustained pursuit well on to 400 pages are 
devoted, the work thus putting to shame all but 
a few acknowledged and immortal biographies. 
Full information is supplied concerning a life inter- 
esting in itself, apart from its associations and 
intimacies, and a bright light is cast upon an all- 
important epoch in our literary history. Mr. 
Douglas has enjoyed the closest friendship with 
Mr. Watts-Dunton, and has turned to best advan- 
tage his opportunities and privileges, showing the 
relations between his friend and the great poets 
of the last century, and flooding the life of Mr. 
Watts-Dunton with a light such as is cast upon 
none of his associates. Mr. Douglas's style is cul- 
tivated and animated, and his descriptions are 
lifelike and natural. He has enriched his volume, 
moreover, with numerous illustrations, the value 
of which it is hard to overestimate. One of these 
is a portrait of Mr. Watts-Dunton serving as 
frontispiece. So like is this to Mr. Swinburne, 
the closest associate of the original, that we had 
to rub our eyes and look again and again before 
we were sure that a mistake had not been made. 
Others consist of reproductions of pictures of Dante 
Gabriel Rossetti and views of Cowslip Country and 
of spots associated with 'Aylwin.' Most numerous 

and important of all are representations of the 
exterior and interior of The Pines, Mr. Watts- 
Dunton's present home. We have less than we 
could wish about Mr. Swinburne. In other respects 
the information is ample and well conveyed. 
Students of the literature of the latter half of the 
nineteenth century will rejoice in the possession 
of Mr. Douglas's work, the loyalty and eloquence 
of which are alike remarkable. 

THE Rugby School Register, Vol. III., May, 1874, 
to May, 1904, revised and annotated by the Rev. 
A. T. Michell, is printed for subscribers by Mr. A. J. 
Lawrence, the school bookseller at Rugby, and 
deserves warm commendation. Old Rugbeians are 
said to cherish the memory of their school with 
more than usual pertinacity, and this admirable 
record shows, at any rate, the unwearying devotion 
of one of them. Mr. Michell's is not a bare list 
of names, but supplies the after career of each boy. 
Such detail could only be secured by unremitting 
assiduity, and the compiler has employed special 
efforts, with remarkable success, to make thelistcom- 
plete. Full indeed and interesting it is, and we hope 
that all Rugbeians will secure a copy of it, and that 
other schools of note will follow the example set by 
Mr. Michell. We believe that no such up-to-date 
record is available of any other school, or, indeed, 
college. We have tested the list many times and 
found it invariably accurate, even in cases where 
a change of name has been made, which is always 
difficult to trace and verify. 


THE booksellers have plenty of treasures and 
works of general usefulness for New Year pur- 

Mr. H. Cleaver, of Bath, offers four works on 
costume for 61. 6s. These include Russia, Austria, 
China, and Turkey. There are 273 coloured plates. 
Other noteworthy items in the catalogue are original 
editions, in parts, of ' Bleak House ' and ' Little 
Dorrit ' ; Fielding's works, 1898, 6^. 18s. 6d. ; and Noel 
Humphreys's ' Butterflies,' 3 vols., 45*. The works 
on India include Forrest's ' Picturesque Tour,' 
2?. 10s. Under Ireland we find Trench's ' Realities 
of Irish Life,' O'Brien's ' Round Towers,' and works 
by Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall. There is a first edition 
of Leech's ' Follies of the Year,' price 30*. This is 
scarce. A handsome set of Marryat's novels, 24 vols. , 
is priced at 11. 10s. : a beautiful set of Morris's 
' Birds,' 61. 6s. ; a set of Punch, 1841-1902, 22Z. 10s. ; 
a set of Scott, the Author's Favourite Edition, 
88 vols., 1829-36, 9Z. 9s. ; and Smollett, the 1901 
edition, 61. 67. 

Mr. Bertram Dobell's list contains many first 
editions, and some books in old morocco from the 
late Prof. Corfield's collection. The first editions 
include ' Paracelsus,' 12mo., 1835, 11. Is. ; ' Sordello,' 
1840, 15s. : Mrs. Browning's ' Seraphim,' 1838, 
11. 10s. ; Coleridge's ' Fall of Robespierre,' Cam- 
bridge, 1794, 51. 5s. ; ' Addresses to the People,' 
Bristol, 1795, 4. 4s. ; ' Zapolya, a Christmas Tale, un- 
cut,, 1817, 31. 3s. ; 'Sibylline Leaves,' 21. 5s. ; Lamb's 
' Tales from Shakespeare,' with the plates by Mul- 
ready, engraved by Blake, 2 vols., 1807, bound by 
Bedford, very rare, 271. 10s.; 'Blank Verse,' by 
Lamb and Lloyd, 12mo, 1798, blue morocco, uncut, 
21/. ; Shelley's' Queen Mab,' 1813, 311. ; ' The Revolt 
of Islam,' 1818, 41. 10s. ; IKeats, 1817, 101. 10s. ; 

io*s.m.jAx.2i,i905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Bewick's 'Birds,' Newcastle, 1797-1804, 6?. 10s. ; 
and the rare original Lausanne edition of ' Vathek,' 
21. 12s. Other interesting items are to be found under 
America, Ballads, Caricatures, and Kehnscptt Press. 
Under Juvenile is Tabart's series of juvenile books, 
in the original wrappers, 1804, 1805, 1807, 9?. 9s. 
Mr. Dobell states that " this is in all probability a 
unique collection." Among books in choice bind- 
ings is Dobell's ' Sidelights on Charles Lamb,' a 
fine specimen of Zaehnsdorf's work, 4?. 4-s. 

Mr. Francis Edwards has a catalogue of dramatic 
literature. The items include the rare first edition 
of Beaumont and Fletcher, 1647, 30?. ; also the 
second edition, 1679, 15?. ; ' Memoirs of Mrs. Bil- 
lington,' 1792, 21. 2s. ; Genest's ' English Stage,' 
1832, 12?. ; Massinger's ' Works,' 1813, bound by 
Zaehnsdorf, 51. 5s. ; Moliere, Paris, 1835, 9?. There 
are also many most interesting collections of play- 
bills. Under Shakespeare is a very fine copy in 
drop case of the Fourth Folio, price 50?. There are 
many works on costume Planche, 11. ; Racinet, 181. ; 
Atkinson's ' Russian Costume,' 6?. 6s. ; ' L'Annee 
Fran^aise,' Paris, 1885-8, 161. A copy of Acker- 
mann's ' Microcosm ' is priced at 20?. 

Mr. Charles Higham, of Farringdon Street, has a 
collection of theological and philosophical books, 
including an interesting collection of 400 tracts and 
pamphlets made by Dean Boyle, 33 vols. , 21. 12s. 6d. 
One volume, containing a Butler item, bears a note 
that it was lent to Mr. Gladstone when he was 
editing Butler's works. Among other items are a 
set of The Expositor, 1875-1900, 81. 8s.; Green- 
wood's 'Cathedra Petri,' 6 vols., II. 5s. (The Athe- 
n(Kiim spoke highly of this work) ; Ivimey's ' His- 
tory of the Baptists,' 21. 2s. ; a copy of ' Tract XC.' 
for half-a-crown ; ' The Polychrome Bible,' 15 vols., 
1893-4, 31. 3-s. There are a number of items under 
Maurice, Newman, Tulloch, Vaughan, and Missions. 
Mr. Macphail, of Edinburgh, opens his list with 
Oliver Goldsmith's first work, ' Memoirs of a French 
Protestant condemned to the Galleys of France,' 
London, 1758, 65s. : also an early Milton, 1688, 
with list of subscribers' names, 55-s. Swinburne's 
' Poems and Ballads,' Moxon, 1866, is 55-s. Other 
items are Ley den's 'Complaynt,' 1801-2, rare, 28-s. 6d. ; 
' The History of the House of Douglas,' 1902, 42s. 
(only 150 copies printed of this edition ; the work is 
now out of print) ; ' The Great Seals of England,' 
112 engravings, 1837, 15s.; Pierotti's 'Jerusalem 
Explored,' 35*. ; ' Rome,' by Francis Wey, full 
green morocco, 21?. ; Allan Cunningham's ' Songs of 
Scotland,' 4 vols., a choice set, 22*-. 6(?. ; Mudford's 
' Campaign in the Netherlands,' 1817, rare, 11. Is. ; 
'The Book of Job,' on vellum, with R. T. Rose's 
illustrations, 37. 3-s. ; Kay's portraits, over 500, of 
Edinburgh celebrities, 1837, 4?. 15s. There is also a 
collection of miniatures, on satin paper, of the saints, 
the work of Portuguese nuns, 1780, 55-s. There are 
some interesting lots under Bric-a-Brac. 

Messrs. Edwin Parsons & Sons, of Brompton 
Road, issue a catalogue full of choice works on art. 
They have a large collection of oil paintings and 
original drawings, of which they invite inspection. 
Among some of many treasures in this list we pick 
out Smith's ' Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters,' 
9 vols., imperial 8vo, 1829-42, 42?.: 'Portraits by 
Van DycV 1641, 101. 10s.; Humphry Ward and 
Roberts's 'Biographical Essay on Romney,' with 
catalogue of his works, 70 illustrations, Japanese 
paper, 121. 12s. ; Holbein's ' Portraits,' 84 printed 
in colours, by Bartolozzi, 1792, 40?. ; Lodge's ' Por- 

traits,' large paper, India proofs, 1823, 12?. 12-s. ; 
' The National Gallery, ' edited by Poynter, 14?. 14s. ; 
Turner's ' Southern Coast of England,' 1826, 10?. 10s. ; 
'Dutch and Flemish Masters,' 1821, 25 guineas; 
Lebas's 'Engravings after Dutch Masters,' 1784, 
very rare, 45?. ; J. Foster's ' The Stuarts,' India 
proof, edition de luxe, 15?. 15-s. These are only a few 
out of nearly 1,300 items, which include a clearance 
list of works in general literature. 

Catalogue No. 8 of Mr. H. H. Peach, of Leicester, 
contains a number of valuable items. Under Early 
Printing collectors will find much to interest them, 
the descriptions of the books being given very fully ;. 
many are scarce. In the general list there is a 
rare book, the second and altered edition of ' The 
Institution of Christian Man,' the book of the 
Reformation, partly dictated by Henry VIII. 
Under Oxfordshire is a copy of the Articles agreed 
upon "in the Convocation holden at London in the 
yeare of our Lorde God 1562," black-letter, 2?. 2s. 

Mr. Richardson, of Manchester, has a copy of 
La Caricature Journal, vols. i. to x., Paris, 1830-5, 
81. 10s. ; also the scarce edition of the ' Greville 
Memoirs,' 6?. 15s. ; the first edition of 'Davenport 
Dunn,' 5?. ; Pauly's ' Russia,' 4?. 10s. ; and Purcell's- 
' Orpheus Britannicus,' 3?. Mr. Richardson has 
purchases of sporting and other books from the 
library of the Marquis of Anglesey. 

Messrs. Sotheran's Catalogue 647 contains three 
rare theological incunabula, 20?. ; ' Arabian Nights,' 
Villon Society, 13 vols., 14?. 14-s. (only 500 printed) ; 
Matthew Arnold's complete works, edition de luxe, 
bound by Riviere, 16?. 16-s. Under Australasia. 
we find Lycett's ' Views,' 1824, a coloured copy, 
very rare, 21?. ; and Wallis's ' Views,' twelve large 
plates engraved on copper by Preston, a convict, 
1820, very scarce, 8?. 8s. Under Bibliography we 
notice Arber's ' Transcript of the Registers of the 
Company of Stationers, 1554-1640,' only 230 privately 
printed, 7?. 10-s. ; Dibdin's ' Decameron,' 1817, very 
scarce, 9?. 9s. ; ' Bibliotheca Spenceriana,' 1814-23, 
8?. 10-s. ; and ' The Decameron,' 1620, 8?. 8s. There 
are some very choice botanical works, including 
that delightful old book Loddiges's ' Cabinet,' 
1818-33, scarce, 19?. 19-s. A copy of Bryan's ' Dic- 
tionary of Painters ' is priced at 52?. 10s. Under 
Byron is a choicely bound copy of the recent 
13-vol. edition, in blue morocco, 9?. Lady Meux's 
Publications, only 300 printed for private circula- 
tion, 189S-1900, are 22?. 10s. ; ' Tom Brown's School- 
days,' first edition, 1857, very rare, 12?. 12s. Under 
Charles Lamb is a tine copy of the ' Poetical 
Recreations ' of The Champion, 1822, very rare, 21?. 
A copy of the original subscription edition of 
Lodge's ' Portraits ' is priced at 35?. We have only 
space to give a few more valuable items. An 
original set of ' Musees FranQais ' is 52?. 10s. 
'Paradise Lost,' first edition, 24?. : Molinier's 'Le 
Mobilier Royal des XVII. et XVIII. Siecles,' 50?. ; 
and Dallaway's ' Sussex,' 42?. There are also many 
interesting items under Trials. 

Mr. Walter T. Spencer opens his catalogue with 
a set of Harrison Ains worth's works, first editions, 
92Jvols., 1834-78, price 80?. Under Alken are ' Real 
Life in London,' in the 56 original parts, 30?. ; ' Real 
Life in Ireland,' 8?. 8s.; 'National Sports,' 24?.; 
and many others. A complete set of The Alpine 
Journal is offered for 24?. 10s. There are a number 
of works under America, Angling, and Military. 
Lovers of Cruikshank will find plenty to interest 
them. The list of books with coloured plates is a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io<" s. m. JAN. 21, 1905. 

long one, and includes ' Popular Pastimes,' Sher- 
woods, 1816. Mr. Spencer states it to be the first 
copy he has ever catalogued. The price of this is 
61. 6s. Papworth's 'Views of London,' 1816, is 
put at 201. A curious collection of valentines, 
1821-2, can be had for '35s. Under Charles Dickens 
are first editions and many rarities. These include 
' The Village Coquettes,' 1836, 14. 14s. ; ' Pickwick,' 
in parts, 18Z. 18s. ; ' Martin Chuzzlewit,' in parts, 
71. 7s. ; ' The Christmas Carol,' 81. 8s. ; and under 
" A ' Find ' and no Mistake ! " four numbers of The 
Penny Satirist, containing 24 extra illustrations to 
' Nicholas Nickleby,' Nov. -Dec., 1838, 11. Is. Under 
Disraeli we have a handsome set of first editions, 
1826-80, 2$. There is much of interest under 
Drama. Under Pierce Egan the items include 
' Boxiana,' 5 vols., Sherwoods & Virtue, 1823-9, 20. 
There are first editions of George Eliot's works, 
including 'Adam Bede,' 31. 18*. 6d. A large parcel 
of Goldsmith's reprints of old tracts, 62 vols., 
vellum, is priced SI. 8s. Other entries include a set 
of Judge Haliburton's works, 24 vols., all first 
editions, 1837-60, 91. 15s. ; Leigh Hunt's "Juvenile 
Library," 1800-1, 31. 3s. ; Leigh Hunt's Journal, 
1850-1 ; George Meredith's * Poems,' first edition, 
Parker, 181. 18s. ; ' Sette of Odd Volumes,' 44 vols., 
14. 14s. (the first contains a sketch of the life of 
Mr. Quaritch) ; Sheridan's 'Critic,' 31. 3s., and 'A 
Trip to Scarborough,' 6?. 6*'., both first editions. 
There is also much of interest under Tennyson, 
Thackeray, and Wordsworth. 

Mr. Albert Sutton, of Manchester, has a good 
list of miscellaneous literature. Collectors will 
find plenty to interest them under the headings 
Africa, Alpine, America, Lancashire, and Shake- 
speare. Under the last there is a collection of 
twenty volumes, all relating to Shakespeare, 1783- 
1845, 87. Other items include the Spenser Society, 
54 vols., 111. ; a set of The Studio, SI. ; Scott, the 
Library Edition, 25 vols., 1854, 11. Is. ; 'The Axon 
Tracts,' 62 of these, II. 10s. ; Holbein Society, 
1869-92, 18 vols., 11. Is. ; Lancashire Parish Register 
Society, 16 vols., 51. 15s. ; Historic Society, Liver- 
pool, 1849-1900, 53 vols., 61. 10s. ; and Macaulay, 
Library Edition, 1853-76, 12 vols., 51. There are 
many valuable works under Portraits. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp issues from his St. Martin's 
Lane address a catalogue containing thirteen pretty 
views of "Bygone Times " picture postcards. They 
are reproductions from rare old prints, and well 
deserve the notice of the collector. The books 
include scarce works on Africa. A fine copy of 
Matthew Arnold's 'Empedocles on Etna,' first 
edition, is 31. 10-s., and ' Friendship's Garland,' 1871, 
:35s. ; Ashmole's 'Berkshire,' large -paper copy, 
E.Curll, 1719, very scarce, 101. 10s. ; Coates's ' Read- 
ing,' 1802, 4to, contemporary calf, 3/. 10. ; an 
exceptionally fine copy of Boileau, 2 vols., folio, 
1718, 4Z. 4s. ; a collection of fifty fine old book- 
plates, 51. 10.s. ; Sowerby's ' Botany,' 151. lo.s. ; Cole- 
ridge, Pickering's original editions, 14 vols., 48*. : 
and the scarce first edition of Hobbes's ' Leviathan,' 
1651. 30.s. There is also a copy of Hakluyt, 1599- 
1600, 311. 10s. 

Mr. Thorp also issues a catalogue from Read- 
ing. The collection it contains of Berkshire 
books and pamphlets is very interesting. These 
are purchases from the library of Mr. Job Lpwsley. 
Among rarities are ' The History and Antiquities 
f Berkshire,' Reading, 1736, 9/. 15*. ; Aehmole, a 

choice copy, 101. 10s.; Blagrave's 'Bpoke of the 
Making and Use of a Staffe. newly invented by 
the Author, called the Familiar Staffe,' 1590, 30-s. ; 
also ' The Mathematical Jewel,' 51. 10s. The general 
list includes many items of interest : Reynolds's 
Graphic Works,' 1833-8, 40?. ; Pope, 14 vols. 4to, 
1769, 61. 10s. ; ' Newgate Calendar,' 5 vols., 51. 5s. ; 
Historical MSS- Commission Reports, 31. 10s. ; 
Wheatley's 'Primroses' ('London Cries'), 51. 5s. 
There are also first editions of Dickens and Swin- 

Mr. Voynich's new Short Catalogue, No. 11, con- 
tains very rare books. Many of the items have the 
note " Not in Lowndes, Stevens, or Sabin." Under 
American Presses we find Asplund's 'Annual 
Register of the Baptist Denomination in North 
America,' 1791, 11. 10s., and Brady and Tate's version 
of the Psalms, 1791, 11. 16s. A copy of Scott's ' Vox 
Cteli,' 1624, is priced 31. 3.s. There is a choice New 
Testament, Robert Stephanus (Geneva), 1551, 
101. 10s. There is an edition of Ctesar printed on 
grey blotting paper, a very curious specimen, 
Venice, 1737, 4/. 4.s. : also a document of great 
rarity, a Bull of Pius IV., 1562, 11. Is. ; Burton's 
' Anatomy of Melancholy,' a very rare copy of 
the fifth edition, 1638, 81. 8*. ; and Quintus Curtius, 
translated by Brende, 1553, 101. 10s. There is much 
of interest under English Music and English Plays, 
also under English Presses before 1640, and Scot- 
land and Scotch Presses. Searchers after Shake- 
speariana will find many treasures ; indeed, each 
item in the four hundred affords much of interest. 


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WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

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entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication "Duplicate." 

H. W. UNDERDOWN (" Froissart and Robert 
Bruce's Heart "). Discussed at considerable length 
7 th S. vii. 247, 329, 432, 490 ; viii. 189, 289, 410. 

J. ASTLKY (" Shape of Christ's Cross "). See 
7 th S. iv. 322 and Dean Farrar's article ' Cross ' in 
Smith's ' Bible Dictionary.' 


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CONTENTS.-No. 57. 

NOTES : Capt. George Shelvocke, 61 Wood's * A th. Oxon.,' 
ed. Bliss : Sir W. Ralegh, 62 Robert Farren Cheetham,64 
" Jockteleg," 65 'Visitations of Southwell' Angelo 
Benedetto Ventura Stafford : Tatton " Number-Men " 
'The Lass of Richmond Hill' "Fed up" "Tour- 
maline," 60 "The Naked Boy and Coffin" "Pro- 
gressive" Woman, Heaven's Second Thought Lady 
Lucy Hamilton Sandys, 67. 

QUERIES : " Perficient" 'Paradise Lost" of 1751 
Dettingen Trophies, 68 Royal Regiments of the Line 
Ancient Religious Houses Tyrrell Family " Cut the 
loss " Verschoyle : Folden " The gentle Shakespeare," 
69 Weeper in the House of Commons Verses : Author 
Wanted" Sdckpenny "Rupert as a Christian Name, 70. 

REPLIES : The Envied Favourite, 71 Bibliographical 
Notes on Dickens and Thackeray Bridges, a Winchester 
Commoner Sir T. Cornwallis Tarleton and the Sign 
of "The Tabor," 73 Marriage Service Comet, 1580 
"An old woman went to market," 74 Mayers' Song 
Authorsof Quotations Wanted Sarum Police Uniforms: 
Omnibuses, 75 Maze at Seville Blood used in Building, 
76 Dr. Burchell's Collections Nelson in Fiction Algon- 
quin Element in English "Broken heart," 77 Allan 
Kamsav " Humanum est errare " "Broach" or 
" Brooch," 78-" Phil Elia," 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS -.-Mrs. Toynbee's Edition of Walpole's 
Letters Browning's 'Men and Women' Mrs. Barrett 
Browning's Works Latham's 'Famous Sayings' Har- 
inttle's 'Dictionary of Battles' Routledge's "Muses' 

Obitunry : Mr. W. Fraser Rae Mr. T. W. Shore. 
fjotiees to Correspondents. 

SHELVOCK is a little township in Shrop- 
shire, some twelve miles from Shrewsbury. 
Round about it Shelvocke families were 
seated for many generations. l n the printed 
calendars of the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury we find the wills of William Shelvocke, 
of Shardon (presumably Shrawardine), and 
of Richard Shelvocke, of Baschurch (proved 
in 1582 and 1597 respectively). One of the 
last of the Shropshire Shelvockes was John 
Shelvocke, who died in the parish of St. Mary, 
Shrewsbury, in 1G85, leaving a son Charles, 
and grandchildren John and Ellenor. His 
second wife (by whom he had no children) 
died before him (also at Shrewsbury) in 1681. 
She was a well-to-do lady, by name Joyous 
or Joyce, sister of George Hodson, gent., of 
the Lea, in Shropshire, and was possessed of 
a goodly estate at Tregynon, in Montgomery- 
shire. In the last decade of the seventeenth 
century some members of the family had 
taken to a seafaring life, and as a natural 
consequence settled in Deptford, Greenwich, 
and other places near London beloved of 
sailors. By will dated 8 February, 1697/8, 
one Reynald Shelvocke, of Deptford, mariner, 
then belonging to H.M.S. Gloucester, left his 
all to his wellbeloved sister Ellener Harding; 

he died on the high seas a bachelor before 
16 April, 1700, when the will was proved. In 
regard to his baptismal name it is worth 
noting that Acton Reynald is likewise a 
Shropshire township. Another seafarer of 
this name was Richard Shelvocke, a sailor 
on board H.M.S. Devonshire, who died at 
Kinsale, in Ireland, some time before 30 June, 
1696, on which day his estate was adminis- 
tered to by his relict Anne, then residing in 
St. Giles, Cripplegate. 

Capt. George Shelvocke, the well-known 
privateer, came, as his tombstone records, 
of a Shropshire family which had been 
long resident in Deptford, and was born 
in 1674 or 1675. His 'Voyage round the 
World by the way of the Great South 
Sea, perform 'd in the Years 1719, 20, 
21, 22, in the Speedwell of London, of 
24 Guns and 100 Men (under His Majesty's 
' Commission to cruize on the Spaniards in the 
late War with the Spanish Crown),' ttc., pub- 
lished in 1726, is summarized in the ' Diet. 
Xat. Biog.' It was followed two years later 
by a rival narrative, the very title of which 
is hostile, ' A Voyage round the World, being 
an Account of a Remarkable Enterprize 
begun in the year 1719, chiefly to cruise on 
the Spaniards in the great South Ocean,' 
from the pen of William Betagh, who for a 
time had been Shelvocke's captain of marines. 
Betagh was an Irishman, who, " urg'd by 
his voracious appetite," says Shelvocke, 
grumbled at short commons, grew insolent, 
and had to be excluded from the captain's 
table and the great cabin. On the other 
hand, Betagh, while confessing to his prowess 
as a trencher knight, dwells upon his chiefs 
particular affection for strong liquors, espe- 
cially his " drinking of Hipsy, a liquor com- 
Eounded of wine, water, and brandy, which, 
y the admirers of it, is also call'd meat, 
drink, and cloth." ("Hipsy," by the way, is 
not to be found in the ' N.E.D.') "As his 
pretended narrative is intirely a deception," 
he writes in his dedication, "and his whole 
conduct an indignity to his country, I thought 
it my duty to give a genuine account of the 
man as well as our voyage." Despite his 
failings, Shelvocke showed himself a brave 
and capable leader in times of danger. Far 
different was the conduct of the officer ap- 
pointed to command the expedition, Capt. 
John Clipperton, from whom Shelvocke soon 
parted company. Even the virulent Betagh 
cannot deny the accuracy of Shelvocke's 
description of Clipperton in a sea fight, 
grotesquely though it reads : 

"Early the next day [12 Nov., 1721] there came 
off a great many of the Success's people from 



s. m. JAX. ss, 1905. 

Macao aboard of us they acquainted me that 

their Commander Clipperton had left me designedly 
(as I have before related), that they went directly 
to Guam, one of the Ladron Islands, where they 
were very well refreshed and supply'd with pro- 
visions Capt. Clipperton weigh* d with his ship 

in order to attack a ship of 20 guns from Manila 
who had lain quietly in the road with them all the 
time till now. in approaching her, he ran his ship upon 
the rocks, and soon found the enemy was prepar'd 
for him, for they had raised two batteries of half 
the ships guns to receive him. I am almost ashamed 
to relate this man's behaviour in this skirmish ; but 
as I think he deserves to be exposed I shall divulge 
it in the manner I receiv'd it from his chief Officers, 
who talk'd of it publickly at Canton; for Clipperton 
perceiving his case desperate, and the loss of his 
ship past redemption to all appearance, had 
recourse to his case of brandy for a supply of 
spirits to animate him in makinga vigorous defence ; 
but he took so abundantly of that intoxicating 
cordial, that he in an instant became dead drunk, 
and tumbled on the deck, and snor'd out his time 
in a beastly manner, whilst his first Lieutenant. 
Davidson undertook the command of the ship, 
which he bravely executed till he was kill'd : he 
was succeeded by Capt. Cook, their second Lieu- 
tenant, who made a handsome resistance, and got 
the ship afloat again after she had lain on the rocks 
48 hours, all which time Clipperton had been lost 
between sleeping and drinking as fast as he waked, 
so that he did not recover himself till they were 
out at sea, and then by his impertinent questions 
and behaviour sufficiently convinced them that he 
knew nothing of what had pass'd during their 
engagement, c., which lasted two days and two 

Capt. Shelvocke died in the parish of 
St. Mary Woolnoth, London, according to the 
Administration Act Book, 1743, of the Prero- 
gative Court of Canterbury, i.e., in his son's 
official residence in Lombard Street, on 
4 December, 1742, aged sixty-seven, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Nicholas, 
Deptford. Near his tomb was placed a tablet 
to the memory of his wife Susanna, daughter 
of Capt. Richard Strutton, of Deptford ; she 
had died in 1711. He did not leave a will. 

His only son, also George Shelvocke, was 
born about 1702, and as a stripling of seven- 
teen accompanied his father on his voyage 
round the world. The implacable Be tag h 
contemptuously refers to him as " Georgy " 
and as " an interloper." " He knew nothing 
of sea affairs," continues the irascible captain 
of marines, 

"or indeed of any thing else that was commendable 
or manly. His imployment at London was to dangle 
after the women, and gossip at the tea-table ; and 
aboard us, his whole business was to thrust himself 
into all society, overhear every thing that was said, 
then go and tell his father : so that he was more 
fit for aboarding school than a ship of war. Yet 
had this insignificant fellow a dividend of 660 pound 
out of one prize, in prejudice to many honest brave 
men, destroy'd, lost and begger'd at the captain's 

It would be interesting to know whether 
the younger Shelvocke deigned to notice this 
tirade in his edition of his father's ' Voyage/ 
published in 1757, but I have not met with a 
copy. He was well educated and did some 
respectable literary work, including a trans- 
lation of Casimir Simienowicz's ' The Great 
Art of Artillery,' published by J. Tonson in 
1729. The translation was made from the 
French version a copy of the Latin original 
being unprocurable and was undertaken 
purely by the encouragement of Col. Arm- 
strong, Surveyor-General of H.M.'s Ordnance. 
From 1742 until his death in 1760 he was 
Secretary to the General Post Office, Lombard 
Street, with a salary of 2001. a year. He was 
elected F.K.S. 10 March, 1743, and F.S.A. 
2 February, 1744. On 26 May, 1758, he 
married at Greenwich, as her second husband, 
a lady whom he described in his will, dated 
28 April, 1754, as " my loving cousin Mary 
Jackson, widow, now living with me." He 
died suddenly in one of the official apart- 
ments of the General Post Office 12 March, 
1760, aged fifty-eight, and by his desire was 
buried with his father at Deptford. The 
inscriptions on their tombs are given in 
Hasted's ' Kent,' edit. Drake, vol. i. (all un- 
fortunately published). 

His widow did not long survive, as she 
died 24 July, 1761, aged fifty-four, at her 
house at Knightsbridge, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey (see 'Registers,' edit. 
J. L. Chester, p. 398). In her will she men- 
tions " my dear Mr. Shelvocke's picture drawn 
by Mr. Hymer" (probably Highmore). By 
her first husband she had a son, Charles Jack- 
son, who was Comptroller at the Foreign 
Office, General Post Office, and was living, as 
late as 1793, at Tooting ; and a daughter 
Mary, who married, 22 May, 1758, Benjamin 
Cooke, Mus.Doc., organist of Westminster 
Abbey, and died 19 March, 1784. 




AMONGST a number of MSS. penes me, that 
formerly belonged to J. Payne Collier, is a 
letter dated 22 August, 1851, addressed to 
him by Dr. Bliss, and written apparently for 
the purpose of assisting him in the collection 
of materials for his papers on the life and 
character of Sir W. Ralegh. These papers 
were read at meetings of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and were printed in the Arckcea- 
logia, vols. xxxiv. and xxxv. The letter 
contains so much of interest; as to warrant 
its transcription in extenso : 

10*8. III. JAX. 28, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

St. Mary Hall, Aug. 22, 1851. 


On my return home for a little space before I 
proceed to the sea for the remainder of the 
vacation, I find your letter. You shall have an 
immediate answer, first assuring you that I have at 
all times much pleasure in giving you any assistance, 
and that I beg you will never hesitate to apply to 
me if you fancy I can do so. 

The cancel in Wood 1 would send you if I had 
one, although I am now ashamed that such a 
bibliographical curiosity ever was allowed but I 
was then thirty-seven years younger than I am now, 
which is the only excuse (a very poor one, I allow) 
I have to offer. Wood states that Sir W. Raleigh 
"devirginated a maid of honour." I printed an 
indelicate story told by Aubrey on this subject, and, 
when six or twelve (I forget which) copies had been 
printed, took out the tale and replaced it with some 
lines by Sir Egerton Brydges, which stand in the 

General impression. It was a premeditated cancel 
etween the printer, my old friend Joseph Harding, 
long since dead, and myself ; but you will do me a 
kindness not to notice it. There was a similar 
cancel in the account of Selden, both from Aubrey's 
MSS. in the Ashmole, a selection from which you 
must know, printed about 1812 or 1813, and which 
deserves to be referred to. 

I have looked at my slips of paper touching 
Raleigh, and find the following : 

Matriculated at Magdalen, Nov. 5. 1602 : " Gual- 
terus Rawleygh. Walceriensis, equitis filius an. 
nat. 16." 

Matriculated at Corpus, Oct. 30, 1607: "Gualterus 
Ralegh. Dorcest. militis filius an. nat. 14.'' 

Matriculated at Exeter, Oct. 14, 1586 : " Georgius 
Rawlye. Devon, pleb. fil. an. 18." 

Matriculated Alban Hall, May 4, 1582 : " Georgius 
Raleghe. Buckingamensis gen. fil. an. 12." 

Matriculated at St. Mary Hall, Dec. 1, 1581: 
" Guiliellmus Ralegh." 

'Britannia & Raleigh,' a dialogue in verse, c., 
Marvell's works, iii. 314. 

Life of William I., by Ralegh, MS. Tanner, 103, 

Letters from him, MSS. Tanner, 278 and 290. 
Poems by Sir W. R. among Rawlinson's MSS. 
When the University printed Raleigh's works, I 
looked at a portion of the miscellaneous works, 
and corrected them, without making any parade of 
the matter, from MSS. in Ashmole, Bodley, and the 
B. Mus. It was not desired to give various readings, 
but I took such as appeared to me the best from the 
various materials before me. I think I have met 
with one or two poems that I fancied at a subse- 
quent time 1 had not before seen, but of this I am 
very uncertain. You say you are going to press 
immediately if so I fear the offer of aid would be 
useless, but I shall be here for a week and will do 
anything I can. 

In great haste 

Very truly yours 

J. P. Collier, Esq. 

P.S. I have been told that there are many most 
valuable original letters by Raleigh in the State 
Paper Office, and once was shown some transcripts, 
but not allowed to have them, fearing I might 

There had evidently been some corre- 
spondence on the subject, and Collier was 

aware of one of the leaves containing the 
memoir of Ralegh in Bliss's edition of Wood's 
work having been cancelled, and another 
substituted for it ; the memoir in question- 
is included in vol. ii. (1815), and occupies 
pp. 235-49. The following lines appear in 
a foot-note at p. 239, in illustration of a 
passage in the text in which Ralegh is noted 

as "out of favour [inter alia] for 

devirginating a maid of honour " : 

But in vain she did conjure him 

To depart her presence so. 
Having a thousand tongues t' allure him, 
And but one to bid him go. 
When lips invite, 
And eyes delight, 

And cheeks as fresh as rose in June 
Persuade delay, 
What boots to say, 
" Forego me now, come to me soon " ? 

4 Poems,' by Brydges, 12mo, p. 50^ 

Bliss attributes them to Brydges, but this 
is certainty an error ; all he did was to edit 
'The Poems of Sir Walter Raleigh' (1814). 
The one from which the foregoing lines are 
quoted is headed ' Dulcina,' and consists of 
five ten-line verses, the one copied being the 
second. Hannah in his 'Courtly Poets' does 
not assign the poem to Ralegh for want of 

The lines (hardly worthy of the place they 
occupy) simply acted as a stopgap, to replace 
" an indelicate story " that appeared on the 
cancelled leaf, and was transcribed from 
Aubrey's MS. in the Bodleian Library. To. 
this no allusion is made in the first edition of 
Aubrey's 'Lives of Eminent Men'; but the 
story finds a place in the second ('Brief 
Lives,' 1898, ii. 185), with necessary omissions. 
Xo conception can be formed of the gross 
character of the anecdote referred to except 
by perusal of the original MS. , in which the 
author recorded all the gossiping stories of 
his period without attempting to exercise 
any discrimination in their selection or 
rejection, so that, as noted by one of his 
biographers, "his anecdotes require to be 
read with critical distrust." Except as a 
mere freak on the part of a young man (for 
Bliss was considerably under thirty years at 
the time), it is difficult to understand why 
he should have perpetrated " such a biblio- 
graphical curiosity " as a " premeditated 
cancel," not only in the memoir of Ralegh, 
but of that of Selden also, which latter is 
now unable to be identified. No copy of 
either cancelled leaf has been preserved as 
far as is now known. All the members of 
the Ralegh family mentioned in the letter 
are recorded in Foster's 'Alumni Oxon.' It 
is interesting to learn that Bliss edited some- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. m. JAX. ;, iwe. 

of the miscellaneous writings of Ralegh for 
the eighth volume of the Oxford edition of 
the works of the latter (1829), a fact not 
mentioned in the bibliographical list of the 
former in the 'D.N.B.' Who was Joseph 
Harding ? 

The P.S. relating to the hindrances 
experienced by literary men in the prose- 
cution of their researches during the first 
half of the last century offers a striking 
contra-st to the assistance, courtesy, and 
facilities for pursuing their inquiries which 
they meet with at the present day in the 
various public libraries, tkc. 


Salterton, Devon. 

THE name of Robert Farren Cheetham 
belongs only to the byways of literary history 
and bibliography. A brilliant career 
appeared to be open to him, but his own 
high hopes and the expectations of his 
friends were frustrated by an early death. 
His literary remains are inconsiderable, but 
they will compare favourably in quality with 
the productions at the same age of many who 
have attained distinction. The notice of him 
which appears in Mr. Finch Smith's 'Admis- 
sion Register of Manchester School' can be 
somewhat amplified. He was the son of Mr. 
Jonathan Cheetham, a flour merchant of 
.Stockport, and was for five years under the 
care of the Rev. William Jackson, M.A., 
master of the Free Grammar School at Stock- 
port. Cheetham lavishes high praise on his 
first master as one " whose heart was purely 
of celestial frame." From Stockport the 
.young scholar proceeded to Manchester, and 
was admitted to the Grammar School 27 July, 
1792. Three years later he published a tiny 
pamphlet of ' Poems, by MA9HTH2.' This 
was printed by George Nicholson & Co., 
Palace Street, Manchester, and extends to 
thirty - seven pages, somewhat curiously 
numbered. Nicholson, who was a man of 
literary taste and published many excellent 
selections, appears to have admired the boy's 
talent and included some of his verses 
in the ' Literary Miscellany.' The ' Ode 
on the Inadrniration of the Grandest 
Objects because daily before our Eyes,' 'On 
the Superior Felicity of the Humble State,' 
and ' On the Mischievous Effec ts of Prosperity ' 
belong to a form of literature now out of 
fashion. In 1796 Cheetham again sought 
public favour. Nicholson had now left 
Manchester, and the little volume of ' Odes 
and Miscellanies' was printed by J. Clarke, 
of Stockport, These "juvenile productions" 

are dedicated to Charles Lawson, M.A., Head 
Master of the Free Grammar School, 
Manchester, as "a small but sincere testimony 
of gratitude for his care and instruction 
during the last four years." The dedication 
is followed by a letter. " Many of the pieces 
which form the present volume, have already 
come before you as school exercises ; not a 
few have received yourapprobation : on these, 
therefore, whose decision shall I fear ? " asks 
the young poet. He mentions that he has 
j completed his nineteenth year, and is about 
to leave school for "the muse- wreathed banks 
of Isis." This is the reason he assigns for "a 
strong desire to separate by publication the 
efforts of the schoolboy from (I hope) the 
maturer productions of the Collegian." In 
addition to Mr. Lawson it appears that " the 
Tenth Muse, the all-accomplished Seward," 
and The British Critic had told him that he 
"can write." His neighbours seem to have 
been willing to encourage his talents, as there 
is a goodly list of subscribers, in which the 
names of Cheshire gentry and Manchester 
merchants are pleasantly intermingled. The 
poem ' On the Love of Fame ' was spoken at 
Manchester School in 1795. An ' Ode for 
Her Majesty's Birthday ' was spoken at the 
Theatre Royal, Stockport, in the character of 
Britannia, 18 January, 1796. From an address 
to ' Health ' we learn that the young author, 
in spite of temperate living, was daily in 
physical anguish : 

Yet still the tooth of Pain this temple gnaws, 
he says. 

I know thou tread'st the carpet of the plain, 
I know thou lov'st the brook-adorned dell, 
The dark embowering wood and mountain's swell, 
But now I cannot fly the Town and Learning's 

Pass a few loitering years aud by the side 
Of vallied brook, I '11 woo thee for my bride ; 
Till then farewell ! a long and sad adieu ! 

Unless Oxonia's breeze this wasting frame renew. 
An address to the 'School-Fire' does not 

give one the idea that the Manchester boys 

were made too comfortable whilst pursuing 

their studies: 

Thy cheerful blaze, dispersing Winter's cold, 
Attracts my eyes and lures my frosted feet : 
In vain it lures, since I can but behold 
Thy flame, at useless distance, from my seat. 
My chattering teeth the cold, cold hour bespeak, 
My stiffly-bending fingers ask thine aid, 
And deem it hard that rigid rules were made, 
And oft thro' rigid rules would prompt to break. 
E'en now, methinks, in tantalizing guise, 
Thy blaze arises, " smiling as in scorn," 
And makes me Nature's Sophocles despise, 
And cease with eye-less (Edipus to mourn. 
O could I change, Vertumnus-like, my form, 

Unken'd by Varro's classic eyes, 1 'd catch thine 
influence warm. 

8. III. JAN. 28, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The book ends with ' Declamatiunculse 
Dute. ; 

In 1798 the same printer issued a quarto 
pamphlet of forty - five pages, containing 
"Poems by Robert Farren Cheetham, of 
Brasen-Nose Coll., Oxon." This is dedicated 
to Lord Duncan : 

" The song of victory is certainly most grateful 
to a Victor's ear. To your lordship, therefore, I 
beg'd to present my little offering, which you 
deigned to accept with that politeness by which 
you are uo less characterized than by your martial 

This dedication is dated "Stockport, August, 
179S." In the preface the young poet has a 
shot at the reviewers those hardened foes 
of literature ' The British Critic, when his 
verses were published under the pseudonym 
of Mathetes, said that they displayed vigour 
and melody ; but when they were reissued 
with Cheetham's name, it declared that " they 
abounded with puerilities and ill-constructed 
rhymes." This British Critic is decidedly at 
a disadvantage in the encounter. The Monthly 
Revieiv objected to the phrase " Cupid's whet- 
stone," to whom Cheetham opposes Horace : 

" Cupidp 

Semper ardentes acuens sagittas. 
General and unappreciative praise, or censure, I 
despise ; the self-important reprehension of igno- 
rance, thanks to niy stars I can heartily laugh at ; 
friendly and discriminative correction or applause is 
what I earnestly and solely desire : and this I have, 
and have had from some characters to whom litera- 
ture is under the highest obligations." 

The first piece in this third collection is an 
'Ode spoken at Manchester School in 1796.' 
It ends : 

Thrice happy Britain ! quiet now thy fears ; 
Around thy shores the duteous bands arise, 
Prompt to each virtuous and each bold emprize, 
And proud to boast the name of Volunteers. 

This pamphlet also was published by sub- 
scription, but the proceeds were given to 
the contributions for the benefit of those 
who volunteered into the army at a period 
when projects of invasion were feared. 
Pictures of these volunteers in their martial 
costume were formerly favourites in Man- 
chester homes. A second ode was spoken at 
Manchester School in 1797, and is also full of 
warlike ardour and denunciations of " the 
recreant Gaul." Another poem recalls to 
memory the abortive French attempt to 
invade Ireland. The rest of the verse is less 
bellicose, and we turn from these echoes of 
half-forgotten wars to happier themes. There 
are translations from Anacreon, the " wild 
and animated Statiu.s," and Silius Italicus, 
and a couple of suggested emendations in 
the text of Anacreon and Euripides. There 

is a letter written on Valentine's Day. " The- 
old-fashioned but innocent custom of sending, 
valentines," we are told, " is generally known, 
to have arisen from the prevalent opinion 
that birds on this day begin their 'amorous, 
dalliance.' All the world knows that St. Vin- 
cent achieved his immortal victory on the- 
same day." 

It is not easy to make any selection from 
Cheetham's longer pieces. Here is an epi- 
gram : 
Heaven's high command, " Thou shall not steal," 

The lovely Zara does not keep ; 
Our plundered breasts her thefts reveal ; 

While, hopeless of redress, we weep. 

The last couplet of his first pamphlet reads : 

In-Cupid's wars the victors ever fly : 

They fly that wound, and they pursue that die. 

Cheetham did not publish anything after 
1798. He took his B.A. degree at Oxford, 
24 June, 1800, and, stricken down in the 
twenty-fourth year of his age, died at Stock- 
port, 13 January, 1801. An untimely ending 
to a promising career : 
Cut is the branch that might have grown full 

And burned is Apollo's laurel bough. 


t; JOCKTELEG." (See 8 th S. vii. 506; viii. 113; 
9 th S. vi. 328.) In the eighth chapter of the 
1 Life of Sir Walter Scott,' Lockhart, referring 
to Dr. Somerville, the venerable minister of 
Jedburgh, says, "We heard him preach an 
excellent circuit sermon when he was up- 
wards of eighty-two ; and at the judge's- 
dinner afterwards he was among the gayest 
of the company." In 1813-14 Somerville- 
was confined to the house by an accident^ 
and he turned his leisure to good account 
by writing ' My Own Life and Times, 
1741-1814.' In the chapter of the work 
devoted to Scotland as it was in the author'* 
.early days, a reference is made to the 
unsatisfactory character of the inns that were- 
then in existence. They were so ill provided 
with utensils, for example, that travellers- 
had to carry with them their own knives- 
and forks " in a case deposited in the side 
pocket of their small clothes." Having stated 
this, Somerville proceeds thus : 

"And I may here mention that it was not only in 
travelling that this case and its contents were 
called into requisition. Most of the clergy, on the- 
occasion of their catechetical examinations when, 
according to ancient custom, it was their duty to 
dine with the farmer of the district visited and 
the greater number of the company at weddings and 
public dinners were similarly provided. The knife 
most in use was called Joclcteleg, a corruption or 


John of Liegf., the most celebrated cutler in that 
city in the century before last, and the inventor of 
that species of manufacture." 

Although this extract does not meet the 
point raised at the last reference, it is an 
important confirmation of previous state- 
ments on the meaning of a singular term, 
and it has special interest as the evidence of 
a man whose father counted Allan Ramsay 
among his intimate friends, and who himself 
knew personally Robertson, Hume, Adam 
Smith, Lord Monboddo, Burns, and Scott. 
Burns visited Jedburgh in his Border tour of 
1787, and in the journal he kept during his 
progress he refers to Somerville as "the 
clergyman of the place, a man and a gentle- 
man, but sadly addicted to punning." Dr. 
Somerville died on May 1C, 1830. 


ing record was edited for the Camden Society 
in 1891 by Mr. A. F. Leach. On p. 119 a 
testator mentions his house, land and appur- 
tenances "within Morton towne and foyeder," 
which last word the editor suggests means 
*' for ever." But it is merely somebody's 
misreading of " fey Ides," i.e., fields, a quite 
usual phrase. On p. 121 another testator 
leaves his " tuffall of paysen the which 
standeth over inyn oxen," and the editor 
marks "tuffall" with "query." It is " to- 
fall," i.e. fall-to, now called a lean-to. Mention 
is made on p. 129 of the house of black- 
friars " at the greate fote " in Lincoln, which 
the editor cannot explain unless it be great 
font. This is doubtless another misreading, 
and should be "grease," i.e., stair; the 
" grecian stairs " are mentioned in Maddison's 
4 Vicars-Choral of Lincoln,' 1878, p. 26. 

W. C. B. 

ii. 368.)-In The Times of 18 March, 1828, 
there is an advertisement for 
'" heirs at law of Caroline Ventura (wife of Angelo 
Benedetto Ventura), formerly of Shenley Hill, in 
'the county of Hertford, afterwards of Southampton 

Row, Bloomsbury but late of Kilburn 

deceased (who died in the month of August)," &c. 


STAFFORD : TATTON. The writer will be 
glad to communicate with the descendants (if 
any) of the three daughters of John Stafford, 
of Macclesfield, Esq., attorney-at-law, and 
Lucy, fifth daughter of William Tatton, 
of Wythenshawe, co. Chester, Esq. Sarah, 
eldest daughter, married Harry Langford, of 
Macclesfield, Gent. Lucy, second daughter, 
living in 1807, married Samuel Wilkinson, 
Esq , sometime colonel of the Surrey Militia. 
.Penelope Margaret, third and youngest 

daughter, married the Rev. Richard Popple- 
well Johnson, rector of Ashton-upon-Mersey, 
living 1807, and had a daughter named 

7, Grange Avenue, Heaton Chapel, by Stockport. 

"NUMBER-MEN." I recently came across 
this term for the first time, and, as it is 
probably unknown to the Philological Society, 
make a note of it. 

It is used by an old Liverpool publishing 
firm upon the wrappers of their 'Grand Folio 
Bible,' dated 1813, when referring to their 
canvassing agents, thus : "Those subscribers, 
therefore, who choose to be accommodated 
with the Apocrypha may now be supplied by 

giving orders to the Number-men." In the 

United States the term " back-number-men " 
is still applied to old-book dealers who stock 
serials. WM. JAGGARD. 

139, Canning Street, Liverpool. 

p. 20.) For " Surrey " should be read York- 
shire. A. H. 

[Our contributor speaks positively. It will be 
well, however, to consult what was said in the very 
long discussion in the last four volumes of the Fifth 
Series. ] 

" FED UP." Within the past three or four 
years, the slang term "fed up" has come into 
common use, meaning as if from overfed or 
stuffed full that some practice is being so 
overdone as to be wearisome. It is now to 
be found in such a serious place as the City 
article of The Times, in which, on 1 Oct., 1904, 
applauding a decision of the Government to 
make an immediate issue of Exchequer 
bonds, it was said : 

" We are, indeed, of opinion that November would 
not have proved a very convenient time from the 
City's point of view, whatever may have been the 
feeling of the City at the beginning of August, when 
every one was in a state of nervous apprehension 
regarding new issues of any kind, and particularly 
issues of high-class securities, with which they 
were, to use an expressive piece of slang, ' fed up.' " 

important mineralogical term is remarkable 
for the variety of ways in which our dic- 
tionaries explain its origin. The only point 
of agreement between them is that it has 
something to do with Ceylon. The oracle of 
our school - days, Nuttall, derives it from 
" Tour mal i, in Ceylon," apparently a place- 
name. The ' Century ' says it is " from 
tournamal, a name given to this stone in 
Ceylon." The ' Encyclopaedic ' says " from 
the Cingalese turamali, under which name 
it was first introduced into Europe in 1703." 

10* S. III. JAN. 28, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


No authority is quoted for any of these 
opinions, so I have had some trouble in 
ascertaining the facts. I find that the 
'Encyclopaedic' is alone correct. Its in- 
forination is from Garmann's ' Curiosse Specu- 
lationes,' a book published at Chemnitz in 
1707, in which turamali is given as the 
Ceylon term for this stone. Fortunately 
there is a good modern Cingalese dictionary, | 
by B. Clough, 1892, which has enabled me 
to verify Garmann's statement. Clough gives 
" Toramalli, a general name for the cor- 
nelian." Obviously, turamali and toramalli 
are merely variant orthographies of the one 
Cingalese word, and obviously our tourmaline 
is taken from it. The etymology perpetuated 
in the ' Century ' is the reverse of the truth. 
Tourmaline is practically pure Cingalese. 
Tournamal is hopelessly corrupt. 


Press of Saturday, 3 December, 1904, states 
as follows, and as the matter is of some 
interest to the increasing number of those 
who have a regard for the past of London, 
I venture to send it for preservation in 

" We are told that the Guildhall Museum has 
been placed in possession of another curious old 
City sign, which was displayed in the seventeenth 
century outside an undertaker's shop that was 
situate at the corner of Fleet Lane and Farringdon 
Street. The naked boy is the only portion of the 
sign that has been recovered, the miniature coffin, 
which hung with it, having been lost. The figure 
is a good piece of carving in wood. Some idea of 
the original sign may be gathered from the head of 
an old advertisement, on which are depicted the 
coffin and the naked boy swinging together. The 
advertisement issued by the citizen of old ran as 
follows : 

" ' At ye lower corner of Fleet Lane, at ye signe 
of ye Naked Boy and Coffin, you may be accom- 
modated with all things for a funeral, as well ye 
meanest as those of greater ability, upon reasonable 
terms ; more particularly coffins, shrouds, palls, 
cloakes, sconces, stars, hangings for rooms, heraldry, 
hearse and coaches, gloves, with all other things 
not here mentioned, by Wm. Grindly, Coffin 



[MR. G. YARROW BALDOCK also refers to the 
article in The City Press.] 

" PROGRESSIVE." This word has of late 
become quite a recognized party term in 
municipal politics, but the occasion of its 
being so first used does not seem to be 
generally known. The writer believes it to 
have been appropriated for party purposes 
under the following circumstances. A Par- 
liamentary candidate, some few years ago, for 
a Midland constituency was pressed by the 

clergy for a declaration of his views as to 
Church property, and he thereupon stated 
that he was prepared, if elected, to oppose 
disestablishment in any form. The consti- 
tuency rejected him, and he shortly afterwards 
stood for a borough where the middle-class 
vote was strong, and he stated in his address 
that lie was ready to vote at once for dis- 
establishment of the Church in Wales, and 
that his mind was open as to doing the 
same in the case of the Church of England 
generally. Thereupon a letter in an opposi- 
tion morning paper, calling attention to his 
former declarations, congratulated the con- 
stituency on the prospect of having a 
member " whose principles progressed with the 
requirements of his candidature," and the 
letter was headed ' Progressive Politics.' This 
was in 1884. The term seems to have struck 
some astute political organizer(whohoped that 
its origin as above would be forgotten) as an 
excellently suggestive label for party pur- 
poses ; and, so far as the writer has been able 
to ascertain, it was then first used by the 
advanced party in municipal politics. There 
is a curious analogy to this in the belief that 
the term " Liberal " was first suggested to the 
political party in England which has since 
appropriated it by an article in a Tory review 
which reproached the Whigs and Radicals of 
the day with their meanness and illiberality 
towards their political opponents. 

G. B. F. 
[For Liberal as party name see 8 th S. v. 168, 272, 490.] 

George Meredith, in ' Diana of the Cross- 
ways,' makes his heroine say (ch. xiv.) : 

" I suppose we women are taken to be the second 
thoughts of the Creator ; human nature's fringes, 
mere finishing touches, not a part of the texture." 

Steele, in his 'Christian Hero' (p. 48, 
ed. 1802), says of Adam : 

"He awaked, and by a secret sympathy beheld 
his wife ; he beheld his own rougher make softened 
into sweetness, and tempered into smiles : he saw 
a creature, who had as it were Heaven's second 
thought in her formation." 

It is interesting to observe both the coinci- 
dence of the idea and the different applica- 
tions of it in the earlier and later writers. 
The obvious parallel of Burns's "prentice 
han' " with the passage in Steele has been 
noticed by me already in ' N. & Q.' (10 th 
S. i. 357). C. LAWRENCE FORD. 

evidently an intimate of Nell Gwyn's, as she 
occurs as ' ; my Lady Sanes" in one of Nelly's 
bills for sedan chairs, dated 13 October, 1675, 
and was the first witness to that famous 
woman's will. Rochester mentioned "the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. JAX. 28, 1005. 

good Lady Sands " in one of his satires 
(1678). She was buried in Westminster 
Abbey, near the font, on 4 August, 1687, from 
the parish of St. James, Westminster. As 
she died intestate, her estate was adminis- 
tered to on 15 August by Frances, Countess 
Dowager of Portland, as principal creditor. 
Col. Chester, in a learned note, identifies her 
as a daughter of George Kirke, the notorious 
Groom of the Bedchamber to King Charles II., 
by his first wife Anne, daughter of Sir Robert 
Killigrew ('Westminster Abbey Registers,' 
p. 218). These particulars, I regret to say, 
do not appear in Peter Cunningham's ' Story 
of Nell Gwyn ' (ed. 1904). 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be sent to them 

" PERFICIENT." In Webster's 'Dictionary,' 
1828, this word is entered only as a noun, 
and explained as "one who endows a 
charity." Although this entry has been 
taken from Webster by nearly every later 
dictionary, none of these has adduced any 
authority for it. We shall be obliged to 
any one who can refer us to a place where 
"perficient" is so used, and still more for 
a quotation. "Perficient" was formerly a 
common adjective; " perficient founder'" is 
applied by Blackstone to the endower of an 
eleemosynary corporation, just as "pious 
founder" might be; but ' perficient" and 
"pious," so used, are not the founder himself, 
but adjectives qualifying him. No one has, I 
think, shortened "a pious founder" into "a 
pious " ; has any one (out of the dictionaries) 
called a perficient founder "a perficient"? 

'PARADISE LOST' OF 1751. Can any of 
your readers throw light upon a copy of 
' Paradise Lost,' which 1 cannot identify with 
any of the described editions, and which is 
not, I understand, in the Catalogue of the 
British Museum 1 It is a duodecimo of 
350 pp., followed by an unpaged index of 
subjects, of the nature of a concordance. 
There are two consecutive title-pages, iden- 
tical in wording, place, and date, but 
differing in the order of the publishers' 
names, as well as in type and quality of 
paper. The first is in a clear well-cut type 
on thick paper ; the second is in inferior 
type on coarser paper. The title runs : 

"Paradise Lost. | A Poem in Twelve Books. \ 
The Author | John Milton. | London MDCCLI." 

But the first title-page has : 

" Printed for J. & R. Tonson and S. Draper, 
T. Longman, S. Birt, E. Wicksted, C. Hitch, 
J. Hodges, B. Dodd, C. Corbet, J. Bdtidley 
J. Oswald, and J. Ward." 

The second : 

"Printed for J. & R. Tonson and S. Draper 
and for S. Birt, T. Lonyman, G. Hitch, J. Hodges, 
B. Dod, E. Wicktted, J. Oswald, J. Ward, J. 
Brindley, and C. Corbtt." 

These title-pages are followed by a dedica- 
tion (headed by his heraldic achievement) to 
the "Right Honourable John, Lord Sommers, 
Baron of Evesham," undated and unsigned ; 
but as it refers to his " Lordship's encourage- 
ment that occasioned the first appearing of 
this Poem in the Folio Edition," his Lordship's 
"ever obliged Servant" was evidently Jacob 
Tonson the elder, whose sumptuous folio 
edition, published by subscription in 1688, 
owed much of its success to Lord Somers's 

Next comes Elijah Fenton's ' Life of 
Milton' (pp. xxviii), and a postscript giving 
the author's connecting lines between the 
eighth and twelfth books, and some new 
additions in other places of the poem. 

The commendatory poems, in Latin by 
Samuel Barrow, M.D., in English by Andrew 
Marvel, originally prefixed to the second 
edition in 1674, follow, and the paragraph 
headed the 'Verse,' defending the absence 
of rime. 

Then come the twelve books in order, 
each with the argument prefixed and with 
the illustrations designed by Hayman, and 
engraved by J. S. Muller, for Bishop Newton's 
edition of Milton, published in 1749. There 
are also numerous vignettes and tail-pieces, 
as well as Vertue's portrait of Milton. The 
book is in its original leather binding, and 
has belonged at various dates between 1790 
and 1815 to Betty Dosson and Elizabeth 
Durston, of Shapwick, Somerset. 

The difficulty is to reconcile the dates of 
the various parts of the book. The date 
1751 and Hayman's illustrations suggest 
Bishop Newton's edition, but the first volume 
of that, published in 1749, had a life and 
elaborate notes, which this book does not 
contain, nor is there anything to indicate 
that it is a second or abridged edition. 

Can it be a composite volume pieced 
together by some collector? 

J. A. HEWITT, Canon. 
Cradock, S.A. 

History : or the Present State of all Nations, 

io'S.m.jAx.2s,i905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


third edit., 1744-6, contains at vol. ii. p. 831 
the following account of some of the trophies 
of the British victory at Dettingen : 

"List of French standards taken at the battl 
near Dettingen, on the 16th of June, O.S. 1743. 

'1. A white standard finely embroidered wi',1 
gold and silver, a thunder-bolt in the middle, upon 
a blue and white ground. Motto, Sentere Giyantes 
Both sides the same. 

" 2. A red standard, two hands with a sword 
and with a laurel wreath and imperial crown at top 
Motto, Incorrttpta Fi'fes ct- avita Virtu*. On the 
other side the sun. Motto. JW p1uril>m impar. 

"3. A yellow standard, embroidered with golc 
and silver, the sun in the middle. No motto. 

" 4. A green ditto, in the same way. 

"5. The mast of another torn off, but appears to 
have been red. 

"6. A white standard, embroidered with goldanc 
silver ; in the middle a bunch of nine arrows tiec 
with a wreath, all stained with blood, the lance 
broke ; the Cornet killed without falling, being 
buckled behind to his horse, and his standarc 
buckled to him. Motto. Alt trim Jo'i*,a}(era Tda 
This standard belonged to the Musquetaires Noirs, 
and was taken by a serjeant of Lieutenant General 
Hawley's of the right squadron of the whole line. 

"In a private letter concerning this battle, we 
were told, that Sir Robert Rich's regiment having 
lost their standard, a private man rode into a 
squadron of French horse, sword in hand, and 
retook it." 

A marginal note to the last paragraph 
says, " Thomas Brown of Kirkleatham, 

Are these standards in existence now ? 

the origin of regiments of the army being 
styled Royal Regiments ? and does the 
honour carry any privileges with it ? What 
is the list of Royal Regiments previous to 
the introduction of the territorial designa- 
tions in 1881 ? R. S. C. 

reader oblige by giving some reference to two 
of the above, believed to have been situated 
in the county of Bucks, but not described in 
the local histories viz., of Thwaites and of 
Gore (or Gare), near Hanslope ? R. B. 


TYRRELL FAMILY. What object can Lips- 
comb's ' Buckingham ' have in giving only 
five sons to Baronet Thomas of Thornton 1 
Burke's ' Extinct Baronetcies ' says " Sir 
Thomas Tyrrell had six sons and four 
daughters"; Foster's 'Peerage' says six 
sons ; Browne Willis says " six," and observes 
at the births of some Tyrrell children, " Two 
leaves are cut out of the parish register " 

Again, what motive had Lipscomb, in his 
1847 edition, in making Sir Charles Tyrrell 

die the year of his daughter's marriage 
(1755)? The Gentleman's Mariazine. The Lon- 
don Magazine, and other periodicals of that 
century, publish his death in January, 1749; 
and the War Office lists discharged him 
"dead " in 1749. 

Lastly, what has become of the gravestones 
off the church-vault of the Tyrrell family ? 
Lysons's 'Buckingham' remarks, "Thornton 
Church has been comfortably refitted, but 
the antiquary will regret the removal of the 
monuments." GRAY'S ELEGY. 

"CUT THE LOSS." What is the origin of 
the phrase ''cut the loss"? In The Standard, 
Friday, 16 December, 1904, p. 5, one reads : 

" The estate secured by the French Carthusians 
in Cambridgeshire between Ely and Peterborough 
which cost nearly 10,100A, has been abandoned 
by that community as being unsuitable for their 
particular agricultural requirements. The monks 
were to have built a large Brother House on the 
estate on their expulsion from France, and an agent 
of the Brotherhood made the purchase. The Carthu- 
sians are eminently practical agriculturists, and 
when the advance guard appeared on the scene, 
and saw the land, they decided that they could not 
occupy it. They are now settled in Essex, and are 
prepared to cut the loss, which is expected to be 


VERSCHOYLE : FOLDEN. I desire informa- 
tion about the name Yerschoyle. It is 
obviously French ; but is it the name of a 
place, or a personal or Christian name ? 

Folden is a surname of which I have not 
been able to obtain any information, even 
after consulting the latest works on the 
origin of British surnames. Foulden occurs 
as a place-name in England and Scotland, 
and there is a Folden Fiord on the west coast 
of Norway. Is the name of Scandinavian 
origin ? What is its meaning ? 


of being thought ignorant or stupid, may I 

je allowed to give expression to some ''obsti- 
nate questionings " suggested by the presence 
of this epithet in the celebrated lines " to the 

eader," under the portrait of William Shake- 
speare (of Stratford) on the first page of the 
Shakespeare Folio of 1623, and signed B. J., 
standing, of course, for Ben Jonson 1 

And the first of these "questionings" is 
Who was "the gentle Shakespeare" referred 
to? Of course, I shall be told that he was the 
original of the " figure " placed above. But, 

f so, then I want to know why the term 

' gentle" is applied to him. Is it as an attri- 
bute of his birth, or his character and dis- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io i " s. in. JAN. as, uos. 

position ? If the former, how is it appro- 
priate ? Did not the heralds refuse his claim 
to the right of bearing arms ? And did not 
Jonson himself ridicule his claim ? If the 
latter, what evidence is there that he de- 
served it ? Are there not indications in the 
known facts concerning him that he did not? 
Was he not litigious and a relentless creditor ? 
And did not Jonson speak of his "saucy 
jests," and Greene of his "tiger's heart 
wrapped in a player's hide " ? 
_ These matters seem contradictory, and give 
rise to the suggestion that Jonson had some 
one else in his mind when speaking of " the 
gentle Shakespeare," Who was it ? Was it, 
as the Baconians say, Francis Bacon, who 
assumed the name of "Shakespeare," and 
wrote under it as a pen-name 1 If so, does 
not the meaning of the inscription become 
clear, and susceptible of the following para- 
phrase and interpretation (I assume that 
readers have the inscription before them or 
in their memory) ? 

" The figure or portrait above was cut (engraved) 
and inserted ^here for (instead, or in the place, of) 
the Gentle Shakespeare (the Shakespeare of the 
following plays Francis Bacon, who was 'gentle' 
both by birth and disposition). 

"In executing it the engraver endeavoured to 
produce a likeness more lifelike than nature. 

" could ke have drawn his wit (the Gentle 
Shakespeare's) as well in brass as he has hit his 
face (the features of the other), the print would 
have surpassed in beauty any engraving before pro- 

"But, since he cannot (or could not). Reader, 
look (for that wit) not at his picture (the Stratford 
man's picture), but hit book (' the Gentle Shake- 
speare's ' book)." 

Now, I do not think I should have ven- 
tured to make these inquiries and sugges- 
tions, but that I see the same view taken by 
a recent writer, Mr. Pitt-Lewis, K.C., a well- 
known authority on the law of evidence, who, 
moreover, places side by side on the cover of 
his book (' The Shakespeare Story ') the por- 
traits of " Shakespeare " and Bacon, by way 
of contrast, and, as it were, of antithesis, 
pointing out that round the latter is printed 
the legend, " Si tabula daretur digna animam 
mallem" the text, as it would seem, of 
Jonson's reflections on and under the other. 

All these things seem to me perplexing, 
and I see no way out of my perplexities at 
present except through the Baconian heresy. 
Can any readers of 'X. & Q.' save me from 
the consequences ? JOHN HUTCHIXSON. 

Middle Temple Library. 

[1. " Gentle " means of a character appropriate to 
good birth ; see the ' N.E.D.' Surely it was in those 
days a traditional term of compliment. Is there 
anything heraldic in "Gentle shepherd, tell me 
where ? 2. Unless this adjective is unsuitable to 

Shakespeare, the whole inscription is as clear with 
the ordinary interpretation as without it clearer, 
indeed, since " his " has not, to refer to two different 
persons in one sentence.] 

that very curious book 'The Court of Cacus,' 
by Alex. Leighton (1861, p. 46), reference is 
made to " the weeper in the House of Com- 
mons, who cried like a crocodile with his 
hands in his breeches pockets." What is the 
origin of this jocosity? JAMES HOOPER. 



The waking lark y* earely knows to draw the night 

Puts in my minde the trumpe y* blowes before the 

latter daye. 

The... to invite the great god sent a starre, 
Whose friends and nerest kin great princes are. 
Who though they run the waie (?) or sin and dye, 
Death seames but to refine ther maiestye. 
So died the Queene and did her courte remove 
ffrom this base earth to be enthronde above. 
Then she is changde, not dead no good prince dies, 
But onlye, like the sun, doth set to rise. 

This verse, with some riming proverbs in the 
same handwriting (early seventeenth cen- 
tury), is on a fly-leaf of a copy of Philip 
Barrough's ' Method of Phisick,' R. Field, 
159G. I send it to ask if it is known. 


37, Belvoir Street, Leicester. 

" STICKPENNY." In 1601 all the inhabitants 
of Cawston, Norfolk, had rights of pasture 
on the common, or Common Bruery, for all 
sorts of beasts, and might take heath, ling, 
flags, &c., on paying the queen 13s. 4d. a 
year, by the name of "Stickpenny." Else- 
where it is stated that they gave lOd. yearly 
for "stick pence," collected by the hey ward, 
at Michaelmas. Was "stickpenny" a recog- 
nized legal term? or was it peculiar to this 
Norfolk parish ? JAMES HOOPER. 


of 26 Oct., 1904, had a picture of the German 
Crown Prince and a small boy. Beneath is a 
note of the family of the King of Bavaria, and 
the statement that the eldest son of the Arch- 
duchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este " bears 
the fine old Stuart name of Rupert." I always 
thought Rupert was a German name, and I 
shall be glad if any one can tell me if any of 
the kingly house of Stuart ever had such a 
Christian "name, except Rupert Prince Pala- 
tine who can hardly be called a Stuart. 
Ordinary information is one matter, but 
historical accuracy is a necessity. 


ws.m.jAx.28,1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(10 th S. ii. 505.) 

ALL students of folk-lore will be grateful 
to MR. KUMAGUSU MINAKATA for furnishing 
what is apparently the earliest version of the 
incident which may be termed ' The Foul 
Breath ' occurring in the above well-known 
story. The following references to various 
Eastern and Western sources I give from a 
collection of notes made for a work on the 
subject of the origin and diffusion of the 
tales in Boccaccio's ' Decameron,' which I 
hope may some day see the light, and which 
may perhaps be useful to the readers of 
<N. &Q.' 

The incident is found in the old 'Conte 
Devot,' ' D'un Roi qui voulpit faire bruler le 
Fils de son Senechal,' which is printed by 
Meon in his ' Nouveau Recueil de Fabliaux 
et Oontes Inedits des XII., XIII., XIV., et 
XV. Siecles,' 2 vols., Paris, 1823, vol. ii. p. 331, 
and of which an abstract is given by Legrand 
in his 'Fabliaux ou Contes,' tc., third ed., 
1829, vol. v. p. 56. Here the master of the 
king's sons causes enmity with the king, who 
has adopted the son of the seneschal, by 
telling the youth that the king complained of 
his breath, and that when he served the king 
he must turn his head. He does so, and the 
king, noticing his altered demeanour, asks 
of the master the cause ; he is informed that 
the youth is obliged to do so owing to his 
(the king's} offensive breath, as the youth 
alleged. The king accordingly resolves to 
have him burnt to death, &c. 

It is also found to the same effect in 
the old Italian collection of stories called the 
' Cento Novelle Antiche, 1 but only in the 
edition of Borghini of 1572, where it forms 
the sixty-eighth. It does not occur in the 
edition of Gualterrazi, and was apparently 
taken by Borghini from ' Libro di Miracoli 
di nostra Donna' to make up the number of 
the 'Novelle' to 100. (See 'Le Novelle 
Antiche,' edited by Guido Biagi, Firenze, 
1880, p. 245.) 

We also find it told of the Emperor Martin 
and his nephew Fulgentius in No. 98 of the 
English ' Gesta Romanorum,' of which an 
analysis will be found in Douce's 'Illustra- 
tions to Shakespeare,' p. 565 of the edition 
in one volume, 1839. The story itself may 
be found in the introduction to Swan's trans- 
lation of the Latin text at p. 1 of the edition 
in one volume published in " Bohn's Library " ; 
and it forms the seventieth of the English 
'Gesta' as edited by Herrtage for the Early 

English Text Society, and is also given in 
Latin in Oesterley's edition of the ' Gesta,' 
where it is No. 283, appendix 87, p. 688, in 
the notes to which, p. 749, will be found a 
large number of parallels for which no space 
can be found here, and most of which 
relate, not to the particular incident of the 
offensive breath, but only to the story of the 
treacherous man who. seeking to encompass 
the death of some one else, is himself killed. 

It is also stated to be in the ' Summa Pre- 
dicantia' of Bromyard, 'Invidia,' I. vi. 26, 
and in the ' Liber de Donis ' of Etienne de 
Borbonne, the references to which I am unable 
at present to check. Clouston, in his 'Popu- 
lar Tales and Fictions,' vol. ii. p. 444, states 
that it is in the ' Anecdotes Chretiennes de 
1'Abbe Reyre '; and Douce, in his ' Illustra- 
tions,' &c., refers to the ' Patraiias de Timo- 
neda,' pat. 17, and says it is reproduced by 
Minsheu in his address before his ' Spanish 
Grammar,' 1623. The above references I 
regret I am unable at the moment to verify. 

It also forms an incident in the 'Nugse 
Curialium' of Walter Mapes, ob. 1182, ' De 
Contrarietate Parii et Lausi,' dist. iii. cap. iii. 
pp. 124-31 of the edition of that work by 
Wright, published for the Camden Society, 

It is told very shortly in ' Dialogus Crea- 
turum,' dial. 120, of Nicolaus Pergamenus, 
an Italian physician of Milan, named May no 
de' Mayneri, born between 1290 and 1295. 
(See an article by Pio Rajna in the Giornale 
Storico delta Litteratura Italiana, iii. i. x. 42, 
and afterwards published separately under 
the title of 'Intorno al Cosidetto Dialogus 
Creaturum ed al suo Autore,' Turin, 1888; 
see also p. Ixxxiv of 'Exempla' of Jacques 
de Vitry, edited by T. F. Crane, 1890.) 

It will be found at p. 276 of the edition of 
Diebeiden altesten lateinischenFabelbiicher 
des Mittelalters, des Bischofs Cyrillus Specu- 
lum Sapientine und des Nicolaus Pergamenus 
Dialogus Creaturum, herausgegeben von Dr. 
J. C. Th. Graesse," 1880 (Stuttgart, Litter. 
Vereins). Here it is told of the emperor's 
tailor, who says the barber complains of the 
emperor's breath when he is shaving the 

The tale also belongs to the East, for it is 
the lady's twenty-second tale in the collec- 
tion of tales called ' The Forty Vazirs of 
Sheykh-Zada ' (p. 239 of the complete trans- 
lation in English by E. J. W. Gibb, 18F6). 
Here the king is told that his favourite 
courtier said that he had leprosy, in proof of 
which he would see that the courtier avoided 
the king's breath. The next day the courtier 
is given a dish flavoured with garlic, and told 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io i " s. in. JAX. 28, iocs. 

that when he approaches the king he must 
hold his sleeve to his mouth, as the king 
dislikes the smell of garlic. 

Similarly it is told of the King of Africa 
and his vezirs in Clouston's ' Persian Tales,' 
1892, p. 49, taken from ' Mahbub al Kalub,' 
or ' Delight of Hearts.' Here also the king 
is told by a dervish that his vezir says he 
(the king) has foul breath, and the vezir is 
given a dish of garlic and told to keep at a 
distance from the king because he dislikes 

According to Clouston ('Popular Tales,' &c., 
vol. ii. p. 44), the tale is also found orally in 
North Africa in the ' Contes de la Kabillie ' 
(Riviere's French collection). 

There is an Indian version given by Ver- 
niew in his 'The Hermit of Motee Jhurna, 
also Indian Tales and Anecdotes,' Calcutta, 
1873 (Clouston's 'Persian Tales,' 124, and his 
'Popular Tales,' &c., ii. 450). In this a fakir 
is told he must not approach his face too 
near the king when speaking to him as it is 
disrespectful, and the king is informed the 
fakir averts his face so that the king should 
not observe his drunken habits. 

In all the above tales the incident forms 
part of the story of how it is sought to 
encompass the disgrace of a favourite. In 
the following it is a device of a wife to obtain, 
at her lover's bidding, a token from her 
husband as a proof of her affection for her 
lover. In this form it seems to be first found 
in the ' Exempla ' of Jacques de Vitry, who 
was born before 1180, and died in 1240. The 
story is exempla ccxlviii., and according to 
the analysis given by Mr. Crane in his 
admirable edition of the 'Exempla,' published 
for the Folk-Lore Society in 1890, it is as 
follows : A wicked woman, when she wished 
to see her lover, used to tell her husband that 
he was ill and must not leave his bed until 
she returned. The husband believed every- 
thing she said and obeyed her. One day 
she told her lover that she was more fond 
of him than of her husband. The lover 
demanded as the proof of this that she should 
bring him her husband's best tooth. On her 
return to her home she began to weep and 
feign sadness. When her husband asked her 
what was the matter she said she did not 
dare to^tell him. Finally she yielded to his 
entreaties and told him she could not endure 
his foul breath. He was surprised and 
grieved, and said, " Why did you not tell 
me ? Is there any remedy for it 1 " She 
replied that the only remedy was to have 
the tooth from which the offensive odour 
proceeded extracted. He followed her advice, 
and had drawn a good and sound tooth, which 

she pointed out, and which she took at once 
and carried to her lover. This story, it may 
be mentioned, is one of those given by 
Wright in his 'Latin Stories' (Camden 
Society), although he does not mention Vitry 
as the author. 

The story of the extraction of the tooth by 
a ruse of the wife also forms the subject of 
the well-known " cycle " story, the framework 
of which is that three women find a ring or a- 
jewel, and agree that it shall belong to the 
one that plays the best trick on her husband. 
In the ' Mambriano ' of Francesco Bello, called 
" II Cieco da Ferrara," who flourished at the 
end of the fifteenth century and the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth, it forms the trick 
of the second woman in canto xxv. stanza 7, 
canto xxv. stanza 92, and this is followed by 
Malespini in his ' Ducento Novelle,' part iii. 
No. 95. (See the excellent monograph on 
this subject, "Novelle del Mambriano del 
Cieco da Ferrara, esposte ed illustrate da 
Giuseppe Rua, Torino, 1888," 105 ; also Lieb- 
recht, 'Zur Volkskunde,' Heilbronn, 1879, 
p. 124 et seq.) It also occurs in a 'Favola' 
of Flaminion Scala ('Theatro delle Favolfr 
Rappresentative,' &c., Venezia, MDCXI., gior- 
nata xx., ' Li Duo Fidi Notari ' (quoted by 
Rua, op. cit., 116). 

This cycle story has also passed into the- 
popular fiction of Italy, and can be found in 
" Fiabe, Novelle e Racconti Popolari, raccolti 
ed illustrati da G. Pitre," Palermo, 1875, 
vol. iii. p. 255, No. clxvi., under the title of 
'Li Tri Cumpari' ('The Three Gossips '), 
where it also forms one of the three tricks- 
played by the women on their husbands. 

The story from Vitry bears a striking 
likeness to the ninth of the seventh day of 
Boccaccio's 'Decameron,' where one of the 
promises made by Lidia to her lover Pyrrhus 
was to obtain one of her husband's teeth, 
which she accomplishes by telling his page* 
to turn away their heads when serving him 
as he disliked their bad breath, and then 
telling the husband they did so on account 
of his bad breath caused by a decayed tooth. 

There is a Latin poem called ' Comedia 
Lidise,' which is attributed to Matthieu de- 
Vendome (who flourished at the end of the- 
twelfth century) and which is very similar 
to the tale in the 'Decameron,' as it con- 
tains not only the above ruse of the wife, but 
also the other tests imposed on the wife 
by her lover which are contained in the- 
' Decameron,' but which do not, however, 
oncern us here. It will be found printed in 
Edelestand du Meril, ' Poesies Inedites du 
Moyen Age,' Paris, 1854, p. 350 else/]., from 
a MS. in the Royal Library of Vienna, 

s. in. JAX. 28, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


No. 312. Du Meril says (p. 350), " The first 
verse prevents us from attributing it to any 
other writer" (i.e., than Matthieu de Ven- 
dorne). If this were so, it would seem to 
be unquestionably the source of Boccaccio's 
tale ; but the ascription of it to Matthieu de 
Vendorne is, notwithstanding what Du Meril 
says, anything but certain, and until his 
assertion can be proved it seems far more 
likely that the poem was derived from 
Boccaccio than the reverse. 

It may, perhaps, be worth mention that 
there is a curious converse form of the story 
in Nicholai Pergami, ' Dial.,' 78 (p. 223 of the 
edition cited), where a young and virtuous 
wife does not tell her husband of his breath 
being offensive, as she did not know but that 
all men were alike in this respect. 

The story in this last-mentioned form will 
be also found, but in a more extended form, j 
in the seventh of the 'Novelle Inedite di 
Giovanni Sercambi,' 'De Puritate' ("C/olle- 
zione di Operette Inedite e Kara Pubblicata 
della Libreria Dante in Firenze"); and it also 
is to be found in ' Hieronym. advers. Jovi- 
nium,' i. 27, which is quoted by Prof. Ales- 
sand ro d'Ancona in his notes, p. 70, to the 
above-mentioned edition of Sercambi. 

Waltham Abbey. 

THACKERAY (10 th S. iii. 22). The absence, j 
noted by COL. PRIDEAUX, of reference to the ] 
opera of ' The Mountain Sylph ' by writers on 
Thackeray, is owing to the fact that there is 
no occasion for any. The opera was written, 
not by William Makepeace, but by T. J., 
Thackeray. I have no knowledge of their 
relationship, or of the names represented by 
the initials. My information as to the point 
in question, namely, the connexion of W. M. 
Thackeray with 'The Mountain Sylph,' is 
derived from my father-in-law, the late John 
Barnett, who composed the music, and from 
the title-page of the pianoforte arrangement 
of the songs. E. E. FRANCILLON. 

In his interesting notes from The Carlton 
Chronicle scrap-book, COL. PRIDEAUX quotes 
"See Thwackaway's 'Mountain Sylph,' " and 
goes on to say that this opera has been 
ignored by writers on Thackeray. As I have 
pointed out in another place, it has been so 
ignored because it was the work not of W. M., 
but of T. J. Thackeray. ' The Mountain Sylph ' 
libretto by T. J. Thackeray and music by 
John Barnett was produced at the English 
Opera-House (Lyceum Theatre) in August, 
1834. The opera was highly praised in The 

Athenaeum at the time of its production,. 
though the critic consistently spelt the 
librettist's name "Thackwray"; it will alsa 
be found dealt with under Barnett in Grove's- 
'Dictionary.' WALTER JERROLD. 


iii. 7). This Commoner, who was admitted in 
the autumn of 1837, was evidently distinct 
from William Thomas Bridges, the Scholar 
mentioned by MR. WAINEWRIGHT. Both boys 
appear on the school "Long Koll" dated 
11 November, 1837, but unfortunately by 
their surnames only. The practice of printing 
Christian names as well as surnames on the 
Roll was not introduced until 1854. H. C. 

SIR T. CORNWALLIS (10 th S. iii. 29). I have 
a most remarkable document, partly in print 
and partly in MS., dated " the last day of 
July," 1604, explaining in a most friendly 
manner how and why King James I. was 
horribly hard up. It appears to be a warrant 
to "Sir Charles Cormvallis Knight whom we 
have appcjinted to be our collector in our 
Countie of Norfolk " to raise forced (?) loans 
of 20. each, to be repaid on 24 March, 1605. 
It is signed by Thomas Kerry, accepted 
rather like a bill by one Thps. Welch, and 
the receipt of the 20. is signed Charles 
Cornwalys and dated 13 October, 1604. It 
is finely printed in court hand. 


ST. BENNET'S CHURCH (10 th S. iii. 7, 55). As 
the distinguishing marks of Patch the fool 
were his fantastic costume and his bauble, so 
the wandering clown mounted his platform 
to the strumming of his tabor, from which 
he was inseparable. Hence the probabilities 
are all in favour of the sign of Dick Tarleton, 
actor and clown, having been " The Tabor " 
and not " The Saba," although " The Saba " 
is printed, I believe, in an early edition of 
Tarleton's 'Jests,' where, however, its point- 
lessness compared with " The Tabor " 
suggests that it is a misprint for the latter. 
In the passage in 'Twelfth Night^' _ quoted by 
QUIRINUS the clown's reply to Viola's ques- 
tion, " Dost thou live by the tabor 1 " imputes 
a second possible interpretation of the- 
question, namely, ff Dost thou live by [the- 
sign of] the tabor 1 ?" Viola's real meaning 
having been " Dost thou gain thy living in the 
calling of which the tabor is the symbol 1 " 

St. Benet's Church, Gracechurch Street, 
was one of the twenty-nine City churches- 
pointed out in 1854 for erasement. It was 
completed by Wren in 1685. Daniel), in his 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [10* s. in. JAN. 28, 1005. 

'London Churches,' says that the church 
stood at the corner of Fenchurch Street and 
Gracecharch Street. It was a living united 
with that of St. Leonard, Eastcheap. The 
church was curiously planned, like many 
others of Wren's churches, to fill every inch 
of an irregular site. 


MARRIAGE SERVICE (10 th S. iii. 7). See the 
notes on matrimony, by the Rev. F. E. 
Warren, in the 'Prayer-Book Commentary 
for Teachers and Students, containing His- 
torical Introduction, Notes on the Calendar 
and Services, together with Complete Con- 
cordances to the Prayer-Book and Psalter' 
((Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge). 

Castle Pollard. Westmeath. 

The Rev. J. H. Blunt, in his ' Annotated 
Book of Common Prayer,' says (p. 261), "Our 
English office " (for the solemnization of 
matrimony) "is substantially the same as 
the old Latin one "; and he gives, in parallel 
columns, the present service side by side 
with the Salisbury "Use," which it closely 
follows, with a portion here and there from 
the York "Use": an instance of the careful 
way in which the Prayer-Book was founded 
on ancient service books already in use in 
England. ERNEST B. SAVAGE, F.S.A. 

St. Thomas', Douglas. 

The greater part of our service of matri- 
mony is taken from the unreformed service 
books, Use of Sarum and of York. Part of 
the opening address and the announcement 
beginning, "Forasmuch as M. and N. have 
consented together in holy wedlock," were 
suggested by words of Hermann's ' Consulta- 
tions,' mainly compiled by Melanchthon and 
Bucer, 1543. The Sarum Use was revised 
by St. Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, about 
4085, probably from Anglo-Saxon devotions. 

"The service is taken in substance from the old 
Office in the Sarum Manual, omitting the formal 
Benediction of the Ring, and the special form of 
the Nuptial Mass immediately following the service. 
In the old service the opening exhortation, the 
questions and answers, the words of betrothal, 
and the words on putting on the ring were always 
in English. Some of the hortatory portions are 
borrowed, as usual, from Hermann's ' Consultatio.' " 
Bp. Barry's ' Teacher's Prayer-Book.' 

See also 'The Old Service Books of the 
English Church,' by C. Wordsworth and H. 
Littlehales (Methuen, 1904), chap, ii., where 
specimens of the English portions of the old 
service are given. 

Liban, Russia. 

COMET c. 1580 (10 th S. iii. 8). I am obliged 
to head this reply as MR. WARD has headed 
his query. But the literal part of the desig- 
nation is quite unnecessary, as there was 
only one comet recorded in that year. It 
was first seen in China on 1 October, and 
also discovered by Mostlin at Tubingen on 
the 2nd. Tycho Brahe obtained a series of 
observations of the comet from 10 October 
to 12 December, and its orbit was calculated 
by Halley, and afterwards by others ; no de- 
viation from a parabola was noticed, and the 
perihelion passage occurred on 28 November. 

W. T. LYNN. 


In reply to MR. C. S. WARD, I find that 
this comet was discovered in China. It 
was visible from 2 October to 12 December, 
1580. The orbit was computed by Schjellerup. 
Perihelion passage, 28 November, 1580. Large 
eccentricity. Very long period ; perhaps 
over 9,000 years. But, of course, the orbit 
may not be elliptical. J. ELLARD GORE. 


ii. 502 : iii. 10). This story has been dealt with 
previously in ' N. & Q.,' and the probable 
origin from " A kid, a kid ! " in the Jewish 
service book pointed out in this and other 
journals. It is upwards of fifty years since 
I first heard this story of ' The Old Woman 
and the Pig which wouldn't go o'er th' Brig.' 
Until reading MR. WATSON'S contribution, I 
was not aware that it was a stile the pig 
wouldn't go over ; and, indeed, before a pig 
could pass over a stile it would be necessary 
for it to have an acrobatic training. 

In the Derbyshire version it was a " brig " 
which the pig would not go over, and 
children were told that it was because of the 
" devil that was in it " ! Indeed, the tale as 
I heard it when a child had a good deal of 
the uncanny about it, and I can remember 
that the folks of the villages in which I 
first heard the story were of the opinion 
that evil and good were matched against each 
other in it ; though this was not said, but 
implied in their talk about it. 

The old woman had duly bought her pig, 
and had driven it home almost as far as the 
" brig " near her home, when the pig, piglike, 
refused to go any further, and began to head 
backwards. A dog coming near, she appealed 
to it, " Dog, dog, bite pig ; pig wunner goo 
o'er th' brig, an' Ah shonner get home to- 
night ! " Nothing was heard about her old 
man's supper, either in the first appeal or in 
any of the following requests to dog, stick, 
axe, fire, water, ox, butcher, rope, rat, cat, 
and man. It will be noticed that in the 

s. in. JAN. 28, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Derbyshire story, told as I learnt it, an axe 
is appealed to, and lastly a man. The old 
woman had appealed to everything as far as 
the cat, which, like the rest, would not, nor was 
there mention of milk in a saucer as an 
inducement to the cat to kill the rat. Just 
then a man in white appeared, and to him 
the old woman appealed. The man spoke to 
the cat, which began to kill the rat, the rat 
to gnaw rope, rope to hang butcher, butcher 
to kill the ox, ox to drink the water, water 
to slack the fire, fire to burn the axe, axe to 
chop the stick, stick to beat the dog, dog to 
bite the pig, pig to run o'er th' brig, "an 1 so 
th' owd woman got home that night." I 
remember the children used to make a ring, 
and as they rattled off " the cat began to kill 
the rat," &c., danced round merrily. The 
most interesting bit in the story, as told in 
Derbyshire to me and other children, was 
that the man was Christ Himself. 


MAYERS' SONG (10 th IS. i. 7 ; ii. 512). Some 
seventeen or eighteen years ago, when this 
subject was engaging the attention of the 
readers of Northamptonshire Notes and 
Queries, I contributed to the second volume 
of that now defunct magazine the words and 
music of the Mayers' song formerly in vogue 
in this village. Bearing this in mind, on 
reading the question propounded in 'N. &, Q. ; 
by MR. GERISH I wrote to that gentleman 
direct, asking if a -copy of this melody would 
be of any service to him. On receiving a 
reply in the affirmative, I at once supplied 
him with a harmonized setting. I did not 
reply to the question through ' N. & Q.,' as 
I deemed that its columns were not open to 
the printing of notation. Should MR. WAINE- 
WRIGHT also desire a copy of this melody I 
will gladly send him ona 

I have many versions by me of the old May 
carol. These invariably give the fourth line 
quoted as 

For fear we die in sin 

Or else we die in sin. 

I think therefore the word " should " has got 
inserted by some scribe in error. Hone's 
version, as follows, seems to be most gene- 
rally used : 

ISemewiber us poor Mayers all, 

And thus we do begin 
To lead our lives in righteousness, 
Or else we die in sin. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

iii. 8). For " As in a gravegarth," &c., see 

' X.E.D.,' 8.v. " Grave, sb. 1 5. attrib. and comb.," 
-"1880, Rossetti, 'Ballads and Sonn.,' 273" 
(the passage inquired for is the only example 
given). C. P. PHINN. 


' SARUM" (10 th S. ii. 445, 496 ; iii. 37). The 
second word in the second line of Q. V.'s note, 
to which he refers me, is "delusion," the 
delusion being "that Sar, with a stroke 
through the tail of the r, stands for Saruni." 

I fear that I am still under this delusion ; 
for I am inclined to maintain that Sar, " with 
a stroke through the tail of the ?," must 
stand for Sarum, and for nothing else. Sar', 
I allow, may stand for Saresburia, or Sara, or 
any word that begins with those letters. 
Unfortunately I was not in time to correct 
my reply at p. 49G of the last volume. The 
stroke which I had written through the tail 
of my } was turned into an apostrophe above 
it. S. G. HAMILTON. 

29). Mr. Punch's Almanack for 1862 shows 
us the old police uniform cutaway coat, 
white ducks, and "topper." During 1863, 
according to the same authority, the white 
trousers seem to have disappeared ; while 
early in 1864 the force is pictured in a 
substantial coat of the modern pattern. The 
extinction of the " topper " by the helmet 
clearly took place in 1864. In that year 
Tenniel twice drew John Bull in the habit 
of a policeman. On 14 May we find him in 
a top hat, and on 29 October in the helmet 
which, with certain modifications, has 
endured to the present day. In his issue 
of 25 February, 1865, Mr. Punch pokes fun, 
both verbal and pictorial, at "Robert's" new 

69, Russell Square, W.C. 

The present form of omnibus became uni- 
versal between January, 1880, and December, 
1888. I left England at the former date, 
when tram-omnibuses, as I heard them called, 
were extremely rare, and found them universal 
on my return early in 1889. Doors were 
;aken off omnibuses about 1880. The ticket 
system now in vogue came into use by the 
LG.O.C. in January, 1891, but had been used 
3y trams and the Star Omnibus Company 
some time previously. Within the last few 
years I have tried to invite materials for a 
aibliography of the omnibus in ' N. & Q.' 
9 th S, Index). EDWARD HERON-ALLEN. 

As to the former query I refer MR. PHILIP 
NORTH to the pages of The Illustrated London 

As to omnibuses with doors, these were plying 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [io< s. m. JAN. 2s, 1005. 

in many parts of this city up to a dozen years 
ago. The method of opening and closing the 
doors was somewhat ingenious. There was 
no conductor, and passengers were supposed 
to place their fares in a box with a glass 
front placed at the remote end of the bus. 
Immediately under the driver's feet was a j 
wooden arrangement of the nature of a lever, 
to which was attached a strap. This strap 
went along the top of the bus (inside) and 
was fastened to the top of the door. To open 
the door the driver took his foot from the 
" brake," and the door flew open ; to close the 
door he would again press the lever with his 
foot. CHAS. F. FORSHAW, LL.D. 

Baltimore House, Bradford. 

1 take the following from a diary of 1845: 

" When we landed [at Aberdeen], poor dear papa 
had great difficulty in getting a minibus, and grand- j 
mama was so ill, he thought, after we got into the I 
minibus, he must have stopped it and got a doctor." I 

" Mamma and my sister and brother came to meet 
us in a minibus at Granton Pier [Edinburgh], but 
as they were a little late, we were already out of 
the boat into the omnibus; however, my mother 
came to the door, and my beloved papa gave me 
out to her, and followed with the luggage." 

" It poured a deluge of rain, and my dearest 
papa hired a minibus, and took us to call on Mrs. 
Hay and Miss Monro, also some shopping." 

Edinburgh, 7 March, 1846 : 
"My sister and I went in a minibus with mama 
to Major Hope's, at Seatield, where we had lunch." 

According to the above, " minibus " would 
appear to have been the then name for a cab, 
and to be distinct from "omnibus." 

In New York in 1870 omnibuses had doors, 
to which was attached a strap, the other end 
of which was fastened to the driver's foot, so 
that he might be aware of the ingress or 
egress of any passenger, there being no guard. 


MAZE AT SEVILLE (10 th S. ii. 508 ; iii. 54). 
From the vantage ground of an English sick- 
bed it gives me exquisite pleasure to look 
down on the lines of the little maze in the 
pavilion at the Alcazar in Seville. This I 
am enabled to do by the kindness of your 
correspondent A. F. G., to whom I feel very 
grateful. The brotherhood of 'N. & Q.' is 
a good and excellent thing ; but that needs 
no insistence from ST. SWITHIN. 

BLOOD USED IN BUILDING (10 th S. ii. 389, 
455 ; iii. 34). It was not sugar, in the 
English sense of the terra, that the natives 
of India used, and use, for hardening their 
mortar, but jaggery, an exudation of the 
palm tree, from which sugar can be, and in 
many places is, made. Probably the very 

matter which makes it useful in hardening 
mortar is extracted when the sugar of com- 
merce is produced. The spire of St. Mary's, 
Fort St. George, was built with mortar 
hardenedinthisway. Thisison record (see'The 
Church in Madras,' p. 394). There can be 
no doubt that it was the custom at that time 
(1794) for the Company's engineers to use 
jaggery. At the present day it is regarded 
as an unscientific method ; but the natives 
continue the use of it. FRANK PENNY. 

I doubt whether blood would be used in 
building for any but superstitious reasons. 
The explanation of its supposed use in 
ancient buildings given by DE. BRUSHFIELD 
is probably correct. Many years ago I was 
engaged in experiments, for the Public Works 
Department of the Madras Presidency, on 
the amelioration of the very unsatisfactory 
mortar made from the fat lime of Southern 
India : that is to say, with lime from shells, 
chalk, or other pure forms of limestone. Such 
mortar has very little strength, and even 
that is only acquired by drying ; but if the 
lime, before the addition of sand, be mixed 
with two or three parts of pounded brick 
(surkhi) it makes a cement which not only 
gives a mortar of great strength, for 
masonry, for concrete work, or for plastering, 
but also becomes strongly hydraulic, its 
tenacity being greatly increased if it sets 
under water, or is otherwise kept wet. The 
light brick colour of this mortar would very 
possibly be attributed by persons ignorant of 
its composition and fond of the marvellous 
to an admixture with blood. This cheap and 
strong hydraulic mortar was used by the 
Pvomans, pounded brick being used when 
natural puzzolana was not obtainable. The 
Indian builders of old used it with great 

A question having been asked about the 
use of sugar for the improvement of mortar 
and plaster, I may mention that the Pro- 
ceedings of the Madras Government, Public 
Works Department, for 1875, contains, with 
an account of i\\Q surkhi mortar experiments, 
that of some investigations on the strength 
of fat-lime mortars made with the addition 
of some other substances ; among them the 
effect of sugar was considered. It was found 
to improve somewhat the strength of mortar 
and plaster made from fat lime, but the 
results were very poor compared to those of 
surkhi mortar, and the sugar mortar is quite 
devoid of hydraulic quality. 

With regard to a statement that blood 
is used in South Africa to keep earth floors 
hard, it is possible that it might have that 

10-s. m. JAX. as, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


effect, especially if it were the serum only of 
the blood which was used. In England the 
blood collected in the large slaughter-houses is 
sent in casks to factories, where its serum is 
separated and dried, thus producing albumen 
for sizing and other purposes. While it is 
to be hoped that this albumen does not take 
the place of egg-albumen for confectionery, 
yet it might make a good glazing material 
for an earth-floor. Blood-albumen sounds 
less pleasant, and it is possible that a floor 
glazed with it might afford as fine a culture- 
medium for the tetanus microbe as the 
downy earth-floors of St. Kilda. In India 
the earth floors almost always used in 
native houses, and well adapted to bare feet, 
are kept hard and clean by a periodical 
wash of cow-dung made fluid with water. 
When this has dried, the floor has become 
coated with a mixture of straw-fibre which 
binds the surface and some biliary matters 
which drive away fleas, thus keeping the 
floor in good and comfortable condition. 
The use of blood for the purpose would, one 
might suppose, be rather favourable to insect 


(10 th S. ii. 486). Dr. W. J. Burchell's library, 
botanical and general, was sold at Messrs. 
Foster's, 54, Pall Mall, 5 Dec., 1865. PROF. 
POULTON should call and ask Messrs. Foster 
if he may see the sale catalogue; or I would 
lend him my copy. W. ROBERTS. 

47, Lansdowne Gardens, Clapham, S.W. 

NELSON IN FICTION (10 th S. iii. 26). In 
response to MR. JAMES HOOPER'S suggestion 
I offer the following list of novels and tales 
" dealing with Nelson and his times, directly 
or indirectly ": 

By Conduct and Courage. G. A. Henty. Battle 
of Cape St. Vincent, &c. 

In Press Gang Days. Edgar Pickering. Battle 
of the Nile. 

At Aboukir and Acre. G. A. Henty. Battle of 
the Nile. 

Afloat with Nelson. C. H. Eden. Nile to Tra- 

The Admiral. Douglas Sla.deu. 1798-9. 

The Vice- Admiral of the Blue. Roland B. Moli- 
neux (pub. U.S.)- Naples and London (Hardy, Lady 
Hamilton, <fcc.). 

The Extraordinary Confessions of Diana Please. 
Bernard Capes. Naples, 1798-9 (Lady Hamilton, 


When George III. was King. Amyot Sagon. 
Time of Nelson (Cornwalll. 

A Friend of Nelson. Horace G. Hutchinson. 
Sussex in 1801-15 period. 

Springhaven. R. D. Blackmore. Trafalgar. 

Trafalgar. B. Pcrex Galdus (trans.)- Ditto. 

England Expects. Frederick Harrison. Ditto. 

Nelson's Yankee Boy. Costello (pub. U.S ). 

With the Sea Kings. F. H. Winder. Ditto. 

'Twas in Trafalgar's Bay. Walter Besant and 
James Rice. Dorset, 1805 (short story). 

The Commander of the Hirondelle. W. H. Fit- 
chett. Nelson and his times. 

Chris Cunningham. Gordon Stables. Ditto. 

Hearts of Oak. Gordon Stables. Ditto. 

His Majesty's Sloop Diamond Rock. H. S. 
Huntingdon (pub. U.S.). Ditto. 

Diana's Crescent. Miss Manning (op.). Ditto. 

The following depict maritime life in the 
days of Nelson, i.e., from late eighteenth to 
early nineteenth century : 

Ben Brace. Capt. F. Chamier. 

Frank Mildmay. Capt. Marryat. 

King's Own. Ditto. 

Mr. Midshipman Easy. Ditto. 

The Fire Ships. W. H. G. Kingston. 

Ben Burton. Ditto. 

The Log of a Privateersman. " H. Collingwood" 
(W. J. C. Lancaster). 

Under the Meteor Flag. Ditto. 

The Death Ship. W. Clark Russell. 

Uncle Bart. G. Manville Fenn. 

As We Sweep through the Deep. Gordon Stables. 

Unless I am mistaken, the above lists will 
be found to include very nearly all the fiction 
(of any note or bulk) which deals with the 
great admiral. JONATHAN NIELD. 

422 ; iii. 34). In reply to DR. KRUEGER, 
there is no etymological connexion between 
woodchuck, the bird, and woodchuck or wood- 
shock, the quadruped. The former may have 
influenced the orthography of the latter, 
which is corrupted from a Cree word, 
variously written by different authorities, 
but most correctly ivuchak (see Watkins, 
'Cree Dictionary,' 1865). Other Algonquin 
dialects have similar names for this animal. 
Roger Williams gives the Narragansett 
equivalent as ockqutchaun : compare also 
Abenaki agaskw, Shawnee ochaikah, Odjib- 
way ojeeg. This last is unaccountably 
omitted from the glossary to Longfellow's 
' Hiawatha,' although used in canto xvi. : 
He was telling them the story 
Of Ojeeg, the Summer-Maker, 
How he made a hole in heaven, 
How he climbed up into heaven, 
And let out the summer-weather, 
The perpetual, pleasant Summer. 

J. PLATT, Jun. 

"BROKEN HEART" (10 th S. iii. 9). This 
expression is not always " metaphorical " ; it 
is sometimes literally true. A short pamphlet 
was published last year, by the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, on 'The 
Physical Cause of the Death of Christ.' It 
is written by Dr. E. Symes Thompson, and I 
think all will agree that what he says on 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10* s. m. JAX. as, 1905. 

matters connected with his profession comes 
with authority. He draws attention to a 
treatise, with the same title, written by Dr. 
Stroud, and published in 1846. I will not 
quote largely from the pamphlet, which deals 
with a subject too solemn for the pages of 
' N. & Q.' ; but the following bears directly 
upon the query : 

"The actual cause [of our Lord's death] was 
agony of mind, producing rupture of the heart. 
Mental shock, whether of sorrow or of joy, has 
frequently occasioned sudden death, and rupture 
of the heart has been observed not, as might have 
been supposed, to occur when the tissues of the heart 
are degenerated, but when nothing has previously 
occurred to impair their strength. It is only strong 
muscle that undergoes rupture from the energy of 
its own contraction. It is not the auricle that 
ruptures, nor the thin right ventricle, but the 
thick -walled left ventricle, which, contracting 
violently upon its contents, the blood being unable 
to escape with sufficient rapidity through the 
aorta, and the valves being perfect, the blood reacts 
upon the ventricular wall, which is torn at the 
point of least resistance and the blood escapes into 
the pericardium. But two instances of this have 
fallen under my own observation." Pp. 12, 13. 

And again : 

" It is probable that some of the deaths that have 
occurred as a consequence of severe shock, fright, 
or excessive joy may have been caused by cardiac 
rupture rather than mere syncope, asystote, or 
nerve shock." P. 14. 

The pamphlet seems to have been first given 
as an address to the members of the Guild 
of St. Luke, by Dr. Symes Thompson when 
he was Provost of the Guild. 


A broken heart is by no means a mere 
metaphorical locution that has no foundation 
in fact. The affection is believed to have 
been first described by Harvey ; but since 
his day several cases have been recorded, for 
which see ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. i. 432, 497 ; also 
Dr. Townsend's ' Cyclop, of Practical Medi- 
cine' ; and other authorities cited in Timbs's 
'Things not Generally Known,' Second 
Series, 1861, p. 174. 

[MR. E. H. COLEMAN refers to 3 va S. x. 514.] 

ALLAN RAMSAY (10 th S. ii. 386). Mr. Gosse 
has very kindly written to me regarding the 
note at the above reference. He says that 
probably a line has fallen out in the para- 
graph which he devotes to Ramsay in 
4 English Literature : an Illustrated Record.' 
The sentence to which I drew attention was : 
" In 1725 he published his best work, the 
excellently sustained pastoral play of ' The 
Gentle Shepherd,' the life of Ramsay." I 
ventured an exposition of the phrase that is 
thus made to follow the title of the poem, 

but Mr. Gosse's suggestion makes speculation 
on the subject absolutely unnecessary. The 
sentence, he says, must represent two sen- 
tences of his MS., the first ending with the 
word "Shepherd," and the second running 
somewhat thus : " [Little else occurred to 
mark] the life of Ramsay." This at once 
dispels the difficulty presented by the text as 
it stands, and invests the movement with the 
ease and lucidity that are familiar charac- 
teristics of Mr. Gosse's graceful style. 


"HUMANUM EST ERRARE" (10 th S. i. 389, 

512 ; ii. 57, 293, 351). There is a yet earlier- 
instance of this saying in the collection of 
'Adagia' by Gilbertus Cognatus (Gilbert 
Cousin of Nozeray, 1506-67), included in later 
editions of Erasmus's great work. See p. 518* 
of Grynseus's 1629 ed., where, under the 
general section ' Morum Contagio,' may be- 
seen, in the part from Cognatus, 
"Errare humanum est. 

"Seneca lib. 4. Declam. 3. Pater, inquit, hu- 
manum est errare. Vulgo hodie ita profertur : 
Humanum est, peccare : sed perseuerare, diaboli- 

The words in the elder Seneca are " Per 
humanos, inquit, errores" (quoted by MR. 

SONNENSCHEIN, 10 th S. i. 512). 

On referring to Mr. King's book (No. 667, 
"Errare humanum est") I notice that, 
although he draws from the ' Adagia,' he 
still gives Polignac as the source of " Errare 
humanum est, :; and suggests that Cic.. ' Phil./ 
12, 2, 5, may be the source of the med. prov. 

"Humanum diabolicum." Surely its more 

immediate derivation is from Augustine, 
' Serm.,' 164, 14 (see 9 th S. xii. 62), " Humanum 

fuit errare, diabolicum est in errore 

manere." To escape this latter condemnation 
myself may I point out that, presumably 
owing to a 'slip of my pen, at 10 th S. ii. 293, 
under " Humanum est errare," " saltern 
hominis non est " was printed instead of 
" saltern hominis est " 1 EDWARD BENSLY. 

The University, Adelaide, S. Australia. 

" BROACH " OR " BUOOCH " (10 th S. iii. 28). 
This subject was fully discussed at 4 th S. iii. 286, 
371, 446. Many examples of the two forms 
of spelling the same word will be found in 
Nares's ' Glossary ' and Annandale's ' Imperial 

71, Brecknock Road. 

In the matter of Tennyson's spelling, I 
quote, perhaps, a more cogent case : 
So Lawrence Aylmer, seated on a style 
In the long hedge, ' The Brook.' 

Tennyson's ' Poems,' Glasgow, David Bryce & 
Son, 1899. H. P. L. 

io">s. in. JAX. 28, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

IA" (10 th S. ii. 527 ; iii. 36). The 
preface in question is an abridged text of 
'A Character of the late Elia,' which 
appeared in The London Magazine for Janu- 
ary, 1823. Mr. W. C. Hazlitt includes this 
in his collection of ' Essays and Criticisms by 
Thomas Griffiths Wainewright,' remarking 
that it "has a strong smack of Lamb's 
peculiar style, but, on the other hand, it 
agrees much in manner with the concluding 
portion of Wainewright's undoubted paper, 
'Janus Weatherbound.'" Mr. Bertram Dobell 
discusses the matter in his ' Side-Lights on 
Charles Lamb,' and decides in favour of the 
view that the preface is by Lamb himself. 


The Letters of Horace Walpole, Fourth Earl of 
Orford. Arranged and edited by Mrs. Paget 
Toynbee. Vols. IX.-XII. (Oxford, Clarendon 

A THIRD instalment of four volumes has been added 
to Mrs. Paget Toynbee's definitive edition of Wai- 
pole's letters, leaving but one further instalment, 
also of four volumes, to appear. Little more than 
six months has elapsed since vols. v.-viii. were 
given to the world (see 10 th S. i. 498), so by the 
middle of a year still new we may hope to be in 
possession of the completed work. The period 
covered is 1774-83. Sir Horace Mann remains the 
chief correspondent, though the Hon. Seymour 
Conway and the Rev. William Mason run him 
close, and the Countess of Upper Ossory springs 
into prominence. Among promiscuous letters is 
one to George Colman, complimenting: him, with 
more zeal, we should suppose, than sincerity, upon 
his translation of Horace's ' Art of Poetry.' Some 
of the letters to Madame du Deffand appear for 
the first time. Walpole, of course, knows French 
well enough. His style, however, in his French 
correspondence is not specially vivacious. The new 
portraits which are supplied are of much interest. 
A frontispiece to vol. ix. shows Horace Walpole, 
from a plaque in Battersea enamel from the South 
Kensington Museum : that to vol. x. exhibits Wal- 
pole and Mrs. Darner, from a painting by Angelica 
Kauffmann, in the possession of Earl Waldegrave. 
Another volume has for frontispiece the cha- 
racteristic picture of Walpole from the National 
Portrait Gallery, reproducing a drawing by 
Dance. Other portraits are George IV. when 
Prince of Wales, by Reynolds : Gainsborough's 
Frances Seymour Conway, Countess of Lincoln ; 
Reynolds's First Baron Heathfield, Mr. William 
Windham, Admiral Keppel, and the Rev. 
William Mason ; Dance's First Baron Clive and 
Lord North ; Gainsborough's Mrs. Robinson ; and 
Romney's Elizabeth Berkeley, Baroness Craven. 
There are in addition other designs, facsimiles, &c. 
Up to the close of May, 1783, 2,413 letters are 
printed as against 2,247 in Cunningham. We have 
already spoken in commendation of the arrange- 
ment and the notes, and can only pronounce this 

edition worthy of its author and the great repre- 
sentative press by which it is issued. 

Brownings Men and Women. Edited by Basil 
Worsfold. Vols. 1. and II. (De La More Press.) 
THOCOH uniform in shape and appearance with 
" The King's Classics," to which we have frequently 
drawn attention, these two volumes of Browning's 
poems belong to a different series, entitled "The 
King's Poets." Neither less dainty nor less valu- 
able are they than the works with which they are 
associated, and they are likely to prove no less- 
popular, being excellent in all typographical re- 
spects, well edited, and carefully annotated. Each, 
volume has a capital portrait, that to the first con- 
sisting of a striking and beautiful, if rather senti- 
mentalized, design by Field Talfourd, and that to 
the second of Watts's better-known and more virile 
likeness. In the first volume is also a clever and 
highly appreciative introduction, mainly critical, 
but to a certain extent biographical : to the lattec 
are affixed many excellent notes. Among Brown- 
ing's poems, 'Men and Women' are notable in 
many respects, and in none more, perhaps, than 
in that they constitute a species of response to 
the ' Sonnets frjm the Portuguese,' perhaps Mrs. 
Browning's most remarkable utterance. These 
two pretty volumes are equally suited for the 
library and boudoir, and introduce very agreeably 
what promises to be a delightful collection. 

The Poetical Works of ElLabeth Barrett Browning. 


OF the one-volume editions of the poets which we 
owe to the taste and enterprise of Mr. Frowde this 
will be probably the most acceptable. During many 
years Mrs. Browning's poems were in their entirety 
all but inaccessible to the general reader ; and when 
we were first the happy possessors of an edition, the 
seventh, published in 1866, we found a difficulty in. 
selecting for companionship precisely the poem we 
wanted. That perplexity is now over, since we can 
carry with us, with no sense of weight and discom- 
fort, the entire works. That Mrs. Browning is, 
since Sappho, the most inspired of poetesses may 
perhaps be maintained. Had her artistic sense - 
been equal to her sympathies and perceptions there 
is no saying what position she might not have 
occupied. The present complete edition has a por- 
trait from a photograph after a drawing by Talfourd. 
In our perusal we have come across a rather obvious, 
but embarrassing misprint on p. 213, stanza xciii. 
1. 4, where the substitution of "he" for the renders 
the verse unintelligible. The volume deserves, and 
will obtain, a warm welcome. 

Famous Sayings and their Authors. By Edward 

Latham. (Sonnenschein Co.) 
Dictionary of Battles. By T. Benfield Harbottle-. 

(Same publishers.) 

Two additions have been made to the useful 
and now rapidly enlarging series of reference dic- 
tionaries. The first, which is by that indefatig- 
able gleaner in the field Mr. Latham, whose name 
is familiar in our pages, is announced as a ' Col- 
lection of Historical Sayings in English, French, 
German, Greek, Italian, and Latin.' Its compila- 
tion has obviously been a matter of difficulty 
and labour, and the result is satisfactory. 
Very many of the sayings advanced are the 
reputed last words of their authors. Nothing, 
as the compiler knows, is much more fallacious- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. EIO* s. ni. JAX. as, uws. 

than are such utterances. Even when, which 
is not always the case, the phrase has been 
used by the man to whom it is imputed there is 
rarely any proof that it is his last utterance. 
" Deep dream of peace " are said to be the last words 
of Leigh Hunt. That he used them, or their equi- 
valent, in his ' Abou Ben Adhem ' we know ; that 
they were the last words he spoke we venture to 
doubt. To Thistlewood is attributed " I shall soon 
know the grand secret," and to Rabelais "Je vais 
querir un grand peut-etre." "No, no!" are said 
to be the last words of Emily Bronte. They may 
well be so ; but they scarcely constitute a famous 
saying. We have marked for notice scores of 
words in various languages, but there is no need for 
long comment. The work may be read with amuse- 
ment and advantage, and we found difficult the 
task of abandoning its perusal. The sayings are of 
very unequal value. Many of them are, however, 
curious, and most repay perusal. Mr. Latham, in 
his interesting preface, concedes that the ascrip- 
tion to certain people of well-known phrases is 
often dubious. Mr. Latham, we understand, has, 
in deference to a generally expressed opinion, begun 
an index to the sayings, which, so soon as it is 
ready, will be added to the work. 

It is sad to hear that Mr. Harbottle, who is 
responsible for the ' Dictionary of Battles,' died 
while the work was going to press, leaving to Mr. 
Dalbiac the revision of proofs. It is a useful com- 
pilation and up to date. 

MESSRS. ROUTLEDGE & SONS have reissued in a 
cheap and an attractive form, in shilling volumes, 
the series of poets first published by Messrs. Law- 
rence & Bullen under the title of " The Muses' 
Library." At the appearance of successive volumes 
of what was, and is, the daintiest edition of 
the less accessible poets we drew attention 
to the merits of each. The collection includes 
Edmund Waller, 2 vols., edited by G. Thorn Drury ; 
Coleridge, edited by Richard Garnett, C.B. ; Henry 
Vauyhan, edited by E. K. Chambers, 2 vols. ; 
Marcell, edited by G. A. Aitken, 2 vols. ; Donne, 
edited by E. K. Chambers, 2 vols. : William Browne, 
edited by Gordon Goodwin, 2 vols. ; Drummond of 
Haicthi~>iden, edited by Wm. C. VVard, 2 vols. : 
Thomas Careic, edited by Arthur Vincent ; Keats, 
edited by G. Thorn Drury, 2 vols. ; John Gay, 
. edited by John Underbill, 2 vols. Each volume is 
in a pretty cloth cover, suggestive of the original 
binding. The whole constitutes for the lover of 
poetry a most enviable collection. Well do we 
remember the time, a couple of generations ago, when 
the pretty little editions then issued by Sharpe, 
Cooke, and others under the title of "British 
Poets" did, indeed, "keep the word of promise to 
the ear," but only to break it to our hopes, since 
the presence of the Yaldens, Orams, Glynns, 
Grangers, and others was very far from com- 
pensating for the omission of most of the Tudor 
and virtually all the Restoration poets. A writer 
such as Carew. Suckling, or Marvell was then 
unattainable. We have now made amends for 
shortcoming, and all the poets a man can seek to 
read or possess are available. The conditions of 
appearance furnish a guarantee that the text is 
in every case pure and uncastrated, and the series 
in its present shape is an incomparable boon. 

WE regret to notice the death of Mr. W. Fraser 
Rae, on the 22nd inst., of pneumonia. He was a 

great authority on the Junius question and also on 
the history of the Sheridans. He contributed notes 
to 'N. fc Q.' on 'Mr. Dilke on Junius,' 'House of 
Commons Sessions,' and other subjects, and was an 
accomplished man of letters with an unusually wide 
range of learning, as his published works suggest. 

MR. T. W. SHORE, of whose death we also hear 
with regret, was a contributor of ours. He wrote in 
the Ninth Series on 'Kingston Coronation Stone,' 
and contributed several articles on ' Oxford as a 
Place-name.' A biography appears in The Times 
of the 17th inst. 

MR. A. L. HUMPHREYS, of 187, Piccadilly, will 
issue forthwith, in an edition limited to one hundred 
copies, a work entitled ' Somersetshire Parishes : a 
Handbook of Historical Reference to all Places in 
the County.' It will appear in eight parts, whereof 
the first. Abbas Combs to Binegar (including Bath, 
44 pp.), is now ready. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication "Duplicate." 

MANCUNIAN ("Religion of all sensible men"). 
Put by Disraeli into the mouth of Waldershare in 
' Eridymion,' but related by Toland in his ' Clido- 
phorus' (1720) of the first Lord Shaftesbury. See 
the communications by MR. W. E. COCKSHOTT and 
GENERAL PATRICK MAXWELL at 9" 1 S. x. 271. The 
lines you inquire about do not refer to Napoleon at 
St. Helena. They should run : 

The breaking waves dashed high 
On a stern and rockbound coast, 
and are from Mrs. Hemans's ' Landing of the Pil- 
grim Fathers.' 

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CONTENTS.-No. 58. 

KOTBS : Recently Discovered Keats MSS., 81 Father 
Paul Sarpi In Early English Literature, 84 Photographs 
and Lantern Slides : their Registration Col. W. Light's 
Publications, 85 Patent Medicines " Earpick " 
" Swedenborgianism " in Philadelphia William Kastell 
New Year's Eve inBaskish " Prosopoyall" Christmas 
Custom in Somersetshire Nathanael Taubman, 86 
"Larcin": Bevan, 87. 

QUERIES : Englishmen under Foreign Governments 
Eton Lists Strahan, Publisher " Harpist" Sunset at 
Washington Laurel Crowns at Olympia " The hungry 
forties" Halls of the City Companies Cope of Brams- 
hill James and Jane Hogarth, 87 Kingsley Quotation 
Roper Sothern's London Residence 'Suffolk Mercury' 
Faded Handwriting Authors of Quotations Wanted 
Kennington Rev. Randolph Marriott " And thou, blest 
star " " Snowte " : Weir and Fishery, 88 Torpedoes, 
Submarines, and Rifled Cannon Baptist Confession of 
Faith, 1660 "jElian" Firearms " Abraham Newland" 
'The Phenix,' 1707 Verse on a Cook Gladstone as 
Playwright, 89 Patents of Precedence, 90. 

REPLIES : Horseshoes for Luck, 90 Heraldic Mottoes 
Isabelline as a Colour Southey's ' Omniana, ' 92 Children 
at Executions Loutherbourgh Flying Bridge Ruskin 
at Neuchfitel, 93 Ben Jonson and Bacon " Dogmatism 
is puppyism full grown" Heraldic ' The Northampton 
Mercury ' Count A. de Panignano : Holloway Duelling 
Bacon or Usher? 91 "Walkyn Silver" Solitary Mass 
Split Infinitive, 95 Rule of the Road' Notes on the 
Book of Genesis," 93 Mercury in Tom Quad Hugh 
Percy Disbenched Judges, 97 Arithmetic Penny 
Wares Wanted " Hand "Felix Bryan Macdonough 
Blake : Norman : Oldmixon Sir T. W. Stubbs, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Garrick Club 1 Sir George 
Trevelyan's 'American Revolution ''The Shade of the 
Balkans 'Burton's 'Anatomy.' 

THE rediscovery, in October last, of the 
Woodhouse transcript of ' The Fall of 
Hyperion,' which differs in some important 
respects from the printed version of the 
poem, and contains, moreover, twenty-one 
additional lines, has already been made 
known. With the consent of Lord (Jrewe, the 
owner of the manuscript, this has just been 
published, and with his kind permission, 
obtained through the good offices of Mr. 
Sidney Colvin, I am enabled to communicate 
to students of Keats some further matters 
of considerable interest. At the end of the 
manuscript is a small collection of minor 
poems, most of which are already familiar ; 
but among them are two early poems which 
have never appeared in print, and there are 
some points arising from a study of the 
transcript which throw fresh light upon the 
poet's work. The earliest poem included in 
our manuscript bears the date August, 1814 ; 
it is therefore, so far as we know, only 
preceded among Keats's Juvenilia by the 
' Imitation of Spenser,' which was written in 
1813, and published among the 'Poems' of 
1817. Of as little intrinsic value as its 
predecessor, it is, I think, of equal interest 

in the light it throws upon the influences 
which affected his early work. It runs as 
follows : 

Fill for me a brimming bowl 

And let me in it drown my soul : 

But put therein some drug, designed 

To banish women from my mind : 

For I want not the stream inspiring 

That fills the mind with fond desiring, 

But I want as deep a draught 

As e'er from Lethe's wave was quaff d, 

From my despairing heart to charm 

The Image of the fairest form 

That e'er my reveling eyes beheld, 

That e'er my wandering fancy spell 'd. 

In vain ! Away I cannot chace 

The melting softness of that face, 

The happiness of those bright Eyes, 

That breast earth's only Paradise. 

My sight will never more be blest ; 

For all I see has lost its zest : 

Nor with delight can I explore 

The classic page, or Muse's lore 

Had she but known how beat my heart, 

And with one smile reliev'd its smart, 

I should have felt a sweet relief 

I should have felt " the joy of grief." 

Yet as a Tuscan mid the snow 

Of Lapland thinks on sweet Arno, 

Even so for ever shall she be 

The Halo of my Memory. 

Aug. 1814. 

Just as in the 'Imitation of Spenser' we 
only see the Elizabethan master through the 
veil of his later and more conventional 
imitators, so here we have the influence of 
the early poems of Milton acting upon the 
young poet, though he is only treating a- 
conventional subject in a purely conventional 
manner ; and the lines are interesting as 
certainly Keats's first experiment in the 
measure which he learnt from Milton and 
Fletcher, and was afterwards to bring to 
such perfection in ' Fancy ' and ' The Eve of 
St. Mark.' 

The next verses calling for comment are 
those entitled 'A Song,' of which the first 
line runs : 

Stay, ruby-breasted warbler, stay. 
They were first printed by Lord Hough ton 
among the early poems, but were omitted by 
Mr. Buxton Forman from his editions of 
Keats because, in a scrap-book 
" containing a mass of transcripts by George Keats 
from his brother's poetry, this poem is not only 
written in George's hand, but signed ' G. K.' instead 
of ' J. K.,' and indeed it reads more like one of the 
effusions which George is recorded to have produced 
than an early poem by John." 

With this evidence before him Mr. Forman 
had no choice but to reject the lines ; but 
their appearance in the Woodhouse transcript 
puts a somewhat different complexion on the 
matter. It is highly probable, as I have 
shown elsewhere, that Woodhouse obtained 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. FEB. *, IMS. 

the poems for transcription from Brown, and, 
moreover, that they were all in Keats's auto- 
graph ; and Brown is the last person who 
could be expected to honour George Keats 
by the preservation of one of his poems. 
This evidence, though not conclusive against 
the signature in the scrap-book, is at least 
as weighty ; and I incline myself to restore 
the lines to John, though their quality is not 
such as to make that restoration an act of 
grace. If John indeed wrote them, he wrote 
them at a very early stage in his poetic career. 
A sonnet ' On Peace ' is also found in the 
Woodhouse transcript. It runs as follows: 
O Peace ! and dost thou with thy presence bless 
The dwellings of this war-surrounded Isle ; 
Soothing with placid brow our late distress, 
Making the triple Kingdom brightly smile? 
Joyful I hail thy presence ; and I hail 
The sweet companions that await on thee ; 
Complete my joy let not my first wish fail, 
Let the sweet mountain nymph thy favorite be, 
With England's happiness proclaim Luropas 


O Europe ! let not sceptred Tyrants see 
That thou must shelter in thy former state ; 
Keep thy chains burst, and boldly say thou art 

free * 

Give thy Kings law leave not uncurbed the (great ?) 
So with the honors past thou 'It win thy happier 

fate ! 

The sonnet is undated in the manuscript, 
but we can hardly be wrong in assigning it 
to 1814 or 1815. It was obviously inspired 
either by Napoleon's retirement to Elba or 
by the peace which followed upon the battle 
of Waterloo. The weakness of the sonnet 
would lead us to favour the earlier date. 
A^ain we notice a reminiscence of the early 
poems of Milton (the " sweet mountain 
nymph " being borrowed from ' L' Allegro '), 
whilst a phrase here and there suggests that 
Keats had already made the acquaintance of 
Wordsworth's ' Poems ' of 1807. 

Another early poem shows the influence of 
Wordsworth in a somewhat amusing way. 
In 1816, probably early in the year, Keats 
sent to his future sister-in-law, Georgiana 
Augusta Wylie, an "elegant" set of verses 
in the manner of Moore, then fashionable. 
Their first line runs : - 

come, Georgiana, the rose is full blown. 
These stanzas were not published till 1883, 
when they appeared in Mr. Buxton For- 
man's monumental edition. They are to be 
found in the Woodhouse transcript, but for 
the name "Georgiana" in the first stanza is 
substituted " my dear Emma " ; and in the 
third stanza for " And there, Georgiana," we 
read " There, beauteous Emma." It will be 
remembered that Emma or Emmeline, accord- 
ing to the exigencies of metre, was the name 

by which Wordsworth referred to his sister 
Dorothy, and there can be little doubt that 
Keats intended to veil the identity of his 
tuture sister-in-law under the same nom de 

The next point upon which our manuscript 
bhrows new light is the identity of the friend 
bo whom Keats addressed his fine sonnet- 

O that a week could be an age ! 

This sonnet was first published by Lord 
Houghton in the ' Life, Letters,' &c., of 
1848, with the title Sonnet, ' To John 
Hamilton Reynolds ' ; and it is generally 
attributed to February March, 1818, when 
Keats was at Teignmouth. No other manu- 
script of this poem is known to exist, so 
that it seems probable that Lord Houghton 
printed it from the Woodhouse transcript ; 
but it is headed there 'To J. R.,' which, as 
Mr. Colvin has reminded me, would un- 
doubtedly refer not to Reynolds who always 
signed himself and was addressed J. H. 
Reynolds but to James Rice, known to 
Keats and many of his circle as one of the 
wittiest and most lovable of men. Keats 
was in correspondence with Rice at the time 
when this sonnet is agreed to have been 
composed, so that there is no improbability 
in the matter ; whilst it is quite easy to 
understand, when we consider the small part 
played by Rice in the literary life of Keats, 
how Lord Houghton might for the moment 
forget his existence, and interpret J. R. as 
referring to Reynolds. 

My last note upon the contents of this 
Woodhouse transcript deals with that 
pathetic sonnet written by Keats late in 181& 
The day is gone, and all its sweets are gone, 

which is preserved in a somewhat different 
form from that given to the world by 
Lord Houghton. In 1. 3 Woodhouse reads 
tranced for light far more in keeping with 
the spirit of the line, and more characteristic 
of Keats ; whilst still more striking is the 
fact that the second and third quatrains are 
transposed. A truly Shakspearian effect,. 
always striven after by Keats in his later 
sonnets, and often attained as no other poet 
has attained it, is secured by the repetition 
of the word "faded" when it is reserved for 
the climax of the sonnet, and the general 
effect of the whole is immeasurably enhanced. 
Thus : 
The day is gone, and all its sweets are gone ! 

Sweet voice, sweet lips, soft hand, and softer 

Warm breath, tranced whisper, tender semitone, 

Bright eyes, accomplished shape, and lang'rous 
waist ! 

in. FEB. 4, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Vanish'd unseasonably at shut of eve, 

When the dusk holiday or holinight 
Of fragrant-curtain'd love begins to weave 

The woof of darkness thick, for hid delight : 
Faded the flower and all its budded charms, 

Faded the sight of beauty from my eyes, 
Faded the shape of beauty from my arms, 

Faded the voice, warmth, whiteness, paradise 
But, as I 've read love's missal through to-day, 
He '11 let me sleep, seeing I fast and pray. 

It is, of course, quite possible that another 
MS. of the poem was in the possession of 
Lord Houghton, and that he did not use the 
Woodhouse transcript in this instance ; but 
the variation between the two versions is 
not, in my opinion, too great to be due to 
Lord Houghton alone. It must be remem- 
bered that the conception as to the duties of 
an editor were different in the middle of the 
last century from what they are to-day, and 
my examination of the MS. of ' The Fall of 
Hyperion ' side by side with Lord Houghton 's 
printed text has revealed discrepancies even 
more striking than these. But, in any case, 
the version which I have just printed is 
undoubtedly authentic, and I believe that 
many students of Keats will think it superior 
to the other. 

Together with the Wood house transcript 
of 'The Fall of Hyperion, and other Poems, 1 
Lord Crewe discovered a fragment of the 
autograph MS. of the 'Ode to Fanny,' 
which, apparently, was lost together with 
the transcript, and has never been collated 
since its publication in 1848. It consists of 
one sheet containing stanzas 2 and 3, one 
bottom half-sheet with stanza 5, and one 
sheet with stanzas 6 and 7. The paper is 
ordinary foolscap, and bears the water-mark 
Wilmott, 1818. The MS. not only preserves 
several rejected readings, but in some places 
enables us to correct the printed text ; for 
it seems unlikely that Keats, who did not 
prepare the poem for publication, wrote 
another copy of it. 

I print Lord Houghton's version, with 
notes upon the variations to be observed in 
the MS. 


Ah ! dearest love, sweet home of all my fears, 
And hopes, and joys, and panting miseries, 
To-night, if I may guess, thy beauty wears 
A smile of such delight, 
As brilliant and as bright, 
As when with ravish'd, aching, vassal eyes, 
Lost in soft amaze, 
I gaze, I gaze ! 

There are no important variations in this 
stanza, though the punctuation is different. 
The note of interjection in line 1 is placed 
by Keats after love and not after Ah, and 
there is no comma after fears or joys. In 
1. 4 "A smile of such delight " is altered to [ 

"A smiling of delight," and then the of is. 
cancelled as though to make room for a mono- 
syllabic adjective ; but this was not supplied,, 
and so Lord Houghton was obliged to restore 
the first reading. 


Who now, with greedy looks, eats up my feast ? 
What stare outfaces now my silver moon ? 
Ah ! keep that hand unravish'd at the least ; 

Let, let, the amorous burn 

But, pr'ythee, do not turn 
The current of your heart from me so soon. 

O ! save, in charity, 

The quickest pulse for me. 

The MS. preserves a false start for the first 
line, "My temples with hot jealous pulses 
beat." In 1. 6 heart is cancelled for thotif/hts^ 
Stanza 4 is wanting, and 5 shows no varia- 
tions from the printed text. Lord Houghton 
prints 6 and 7 thus : 


I know it and to know it is despair 
To one who loves you as I love, sweet Fanny ! 
Whose heart goes flutt'ring for you every where,. 

Nor, when away you roam, 

Dare keep its wretched home, 
Love, love alone, his pains severe and many : 

Then, loveliest ! keep me free, 

From torturing jealousy. 


Ah ! if you prize my subdued soul above 
The poor, the fading, brief pride of an hour : 
Let none profane my Holy See of love, 

Or with a rude hand break 

The sacramental cake : 
Let none else touch the just new-budded flower 

If not may my eyes close, 

Love ! on their last repose. 

Stanza 6 seems to have given Keats some- 
trouble, for the following false starts are- 
preserved : 

I know it ! yet sweet Fanny I would feign 

Knoll for a mercy on my lonely hours. 

I know it : yet sweet Fanny I would feign 

Cry your soft mercy for a 

For "Fanny," "girl" was first written, 
but immediately cancelled. The last part of 
the stanza differs substantially from Lord 
Houghton's version. It runs thus : 

Xor when away you roam. 
Dare keep its wretched home. 
Love, Love alone has pains severe and many : 
When loneliest keep me free 
From torturing jealousy. 

It will be agreed that the change in the 
punctuation at the end of 1. 5 and the MS. 
reading in 1. 6 of has for his much improve 
the sense. On the alteration of 1. 7 it should 
be remarked that Keats's w's and w's are always 
much alike, as any one acquainted with^his 
autograph MSS. can testify ; but the W at 
the beginning of the line is unmistakable, 
and the absence of the note of interjection 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. m. FEB. 4, ins. 

corroborates the view that the reading re- 
corded above is what Keats intended. It is, 
moreover, far more effective. 

In stanza 7 there is little divergence to 
remark upon. In the last line Keats wrote 
last. Lord Houghton printed lost in 1848, 
but in the Aldine edition corrected to last. 
Mr. Buxton Forrnan, regarding the Aldine 
last as a misprint (as, indeed, it is quite likely 
to have been), reproduced in his editions the 
reading of the first edition. 

2, Grove Place, Oxford. 


(See ante, p. 44.) 

ANOTHER intimate friend of Father Paul's, 
even more so than Wotton, was that truly 
-excellent man William Bedell, afterwards 
Bishop of Kilmore, in Ireland. Sir Henry 
Wotton, in a letter which he addressed to 
King Charles I. in Bedell's interest, uses this 
expression : "This is the Man whom Padre 
Paulo took (I may say) into his very Soul " 
<' Life,' p. 32). Bedell was chaplain to Sir 
Henry Wotton in Venice for eight years, 
and Burnet, in his life of the bishop, has 
many sympathetic references to Father Paul, 
-and what follows may suffice in the way of 
quotation (p. 7) : 

" P. Paulo was then the Divine of the State, a 
n>an equally eminent for vast learning and a most 
consummated prudence ; and was at once one of 
the greatest Divines, and of the wisest Men of his 
Age. But to commend the celebrated Historian of 
the Council of Trent, is a thing so needless that I 
may well stop ; yet it must needs raise the Character 
of Bedell much, that an Italian, who, besides the 
^caution that is natural to the Countrey, and the 
prudence that obliged one in his circumstances to 
a more than ordinary distrust of all the World, was 
tyed up by the strictness of that Government to a 
very great reservedness with all people, yet took 
Bedell into his very Soul ; and as Sir Henry Wotton 
-assured the late King, He communicated to him 
the inwardest thoughts of his Heart, and professed 
that he had learnt more from him in all the parts 
of Divinity, whether Speculative or Practical, than 
irom any he had ever conversed with in his whole 
life. So great an intimacy with so extraordinary a 
person is enough to raise a Character, were there 
-no more to be added. P. Paulo went further, for 
-he assisted him in acquiring the Italian Tongue, in 
which Bedell became such a Master, that he spoke 
it as one born in Italy, and penned all the Sermons 
he then preached, either in Italian or Latine ; in 
this last it will appear by the productions of his 
Pen yet remaining, that he had a true Roman Stile, 
inferior to none of the Modern Writers, if not equal 

to the Ancients The intimacy between them 

grew so great and so publick, that when P. Paulo 
'was wounded by those Assassinates that were set 

on by the Court of Rome to destroy so redoubted 
an Enemy, upon the failing of which attempt a 
Guard was set on him by the Senate, that knew 
how to value and preserve so great a Treasure ; and 
much precaution was used before any were admitted 
to come to him, Bedell was excepted out of those 
rules, and had free access to him at all times." 

Towards the close of the year in which he 
published his ' Life of William Bedell, Bishop 
of Kilmore,' viz., 1685, Bishop Burnet visited 
the city of Venice. By this time Father Paul 
was dead nearly sixty-three years, and the 
following is the only reference Burnet makes 
to him. I must say there is such an air 
of indifferency in his remarks as we should 
scarcely expect from a man who wrote the 
life of one of Father Paul's dearest friends 
(' Letters,' ed. 1687, p. 109) : 

" I went to the Covenfc of the Serri but I found 
Father Paul was not in such consideration there 
as he is elsewhere ; I asked for his Tomb, but they 
made no account of him, and seemed not to know 
where it was ; it is true, the Person to whom I was 
recommended was not in Venice, so perhaps they 
refined too much in this matter. 1 had great 
Discourse with some at Venice concerning the 
Memorials out of which F. Paul drew his History, 
which are no doubt all preserved with great care 
in their Archives, and since the Transactions of the 
Council of Trent, as they are of great Importance, 
so they are become now much controverted by the 
different relations that F. Paul, and Cardinal 
Pallavicini have given the World of that matter ; 
the only way to put an end to all disputes in matter 
of fact is to Print the Originals themselves." 

In a letter, without date, and from the 
initials addressed to Sir Henry Goodier, Dr. 
Donne mentions Father Paul by name and 
no more (p. 144) : 

"Justinian the Venetian is gone hence, and one 
Carraw come in his place : that State [Venice] hath 
taken a fresh offence at a Friar, who refused to 
absolve a Gentleman, because he would not expresse 
in confession what books of Father Paul, and such, 
he knew to be in the hands of any others ; the State 
commanded him out of that territory in three hours 
warning, and he hath now submitted himself, and 
is returned as prisoner for Mantua, and so remains 
as yet." 

As far as I can make out, this is the only 
mention by Donne of Father Paul in the 
collection of ' Letters ' published by his son 
in 1651. Turning, however, to ' The Life and 
Letters of John Donne' (2 vols., 1899), by 
Mr. Gosse what a wealth of most interest- 
ing matter he has brought together in this 
delightful biography, worthy alike of his 
subject and of himself ! I find the following 
bequest in Dr. Donne's will (vol. ii. p. 360) : 

"To Doctor King my executor I give that medal 
of gold of the synod of Dort which the estates 
presented me withal at the Hague as also the two 
pictures of Padre Paolo and Fulgent io which hang 
in the parlour at my house at Paul's." 

s. in. FEB. 4, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The late Rev. Dr. Hannah, in his edition of 
Bishop Henry King's 'Poems,' 1843, prints 
the will of the latter (p. cviii), but I cannot 
see that he, in his turn, bequeathed the 
portraits above mentioned. He probably 
disposed of them in his lifetime to some 
member of his family ; indeed, from a remark 
in the will, this is very likely. 

The following passage is taken from a letter, 
without date, written by Bishop Bedell to 
Dr. Samuel Ward, of Cambridge. It is printed 
in Dr. Richard Parr's ' Life of Archbishop 
Usher,' 1686, and how it came to be included 
in that biography is not quite apparent. 
Bishop Bedell died on 7 February, 1642 ; the 
letter must therefore have been written before 
that time (p. 445) : 

"Touching the Propositions of Molina opposed 
by the Dominicans, and the Letters of Hippolytus 
de Monte-Peloso, I am glad you have met with them : 
For I sent you the Originals which P. Paulo gave 
me upon occasion of speech with him touching that 
Controversy, reserving no Copy to my self. The 
occasion was the contention of the Jesuits and 
Dominicans before Pope Clement the 8 th . And those 
Letters were week by week sent from Rome to Padre 
Paulo, of the carriage of the Business. When you 
find a trusty Messenger, 1 desire you to send me 

At the close of this folio there are a number 
of interesting letters of a miscellaneous cha- 
racter, one of them being 'A Letter from 
Padre Paulo (Author of the History of 
the Council of Trent) to the Abbot of 
St. Medard,' and dated "From Venice this 
22d of July, Ki08." 

James Howell, in his ' Survay of the Sig- 
norie of Venice/ 1651, has these references 
to Father Paul : 

" She [Venice] hath allso two very eminent men, 
the one a sound Divine, the other a learned Casuist, 
that have a pension from the Republic, who are 
allwayes ready in case She have any contestation 
with Rome, to defend and vindicat Her by public 
writing, and to satisfy the world of her proceeding, 
as Paolo Servita did." P. 8. 

" The Senat with much maturity pouder'd these 
Breves, and therupon sent to confer with their 
learnedst Counsellors in the Civill Lawes, amongst 
whom they admitted Paul of Venice, of the Order 
of the Servites, an eminent Divine and Canonist, 
with other Padouan Doctors, to consult what 
answer they shold return the Pope." P. 147. 

A. S. 
(To be continued,) 

REGISTRATION. I have recently had occa- 
sion, in investigating a question of Indian 
archaeology, to search for photographs and 
lantern slides illustrating the matter. The 
Government of India published in 1900 a 
'List of the Photographic Negatives of 

Indian Antiquities' existing in Calcutta and* 
London. To begin with, this list has not been 
brought up to date, and further, a large 
proportion of the negatives are at Calcutta, 
and not easily accessible to English students. 
I would suggest that you should open your 
columns to a general discussion on the 
question of the collection and registration of 
photographs and lantern slides for scientific 
purposes. The art of photography is now so 
generally known, and half-tone blocks are so- 
largely used in the magazines and illustrated 
papers of the day, that there must be an 
enormous stock of pictures and blocks 
in existence which would be most valu- 
able for the illustration of scientific and 
educational books and contributions to the 
proceedings of learned societies. It is needless 
to say that if existing photographs and blocks, 
free from the complications attaching to- 
copyright, could be made available in this 
way, the cost of illustrations would be greatly 
reduced. Some societies such as the 
Hellenic, the Geological, and the Anthropo- 
logical Institute are doing something in the 
way of collecting photographs relating to 
their special subjects. It seems a practical 
suggestion that each scientific society should 
open a register, and invite photographers and 
publishers to furnish entries of their negatives 
and blocks, giving the address of the owner 
and the terms on which the use of such illus- 
trations would be allowed to scientific and 
literary men. Whether Government should 
be moved to establish an official registry office 
for India and the colonies is another question. 
I am quite conscious of the difficulties which- 
surround the matter, and I now venture to- 

Elace the subject before your readers in the 
ope that from the discussion some useful 
suggestions may be contributed towards the 
solution of the problem. EMERITUS. 

[We think the scheme a good one, but are not 
prepared to insert lists ourselves, as the demands- 
on our space are pressing.] 

the corrigenda volume of the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography' a correction is made 
which needs contradiction. In the original 
article on Col. William Light, who founded 
Adelaide in South Australia, he is credited 
with the publication of two books, 'Views 
of Sicily' (London, 1822, "by Major Light") 
and 'Views of Pompeii' (London, 1828, "by 
William Light, Esq., late on the Staff of the 
Army under the Duke of Wellington in the 
Peninsula "). These are in the corrigenda, 
volume unnecessarily and wrongly attributed 
to Sir Henry Light, who was author of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io- s. m. FEB. *, 

* Travels in Egypt' in 1818. I need but point 
out that when Major Light's 'Views of Sicily 
appeared Sir Henry Light was a captain in 
the Royal Artillery. The authorship o; 
''Views of Sicily' is vouched for on the title- 
page. I had no idea of any doubt on the 
subject when, in 1901, Messrs. Sampson Low 
published my book 'The Founders of Penang 
and Adelaide.' A. FRANCIS STEUART. 

PATENT MEDICINES. These do not appeal 
to be anywhere defined in the ' H.E.D.' under 
"* Patent'; and the only illustrative quota- 
tions of the term are misleading, being given 
under " 3. Of an invention : Protected or 
covered by letters patent," &c. At the time 
to which these quotations refer patent inedi- 
cines were so protected, but this is not the 
case with one in a thousand of the so-called 
" patents " which now afflict humanity. They 
are simply proprietary medicines bearing a 
'Government stamp. The distinction is of 
some importance, and ought to have been 
explained. C. C. B. 

" EAEPICK." William Fisher, priest in the 
Minster of Sheppey (Kent), by his will, 
proved 5 June, 1505, gave " to the Shrine 
of St. Sexburga a little crucifix with a ere 
pike of silver." The will was proved at 
Canterbury, iu the Archdeacon's Court 
{vol. x.). ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent. 

[The 'N.E.D.' has one earlier quotation, dated 


The late Dean Hole, in his ' A Little Tour in 
America,' is made to assert, on p. 323, that 
among the places of worship in the city of 
Philadelphia, in the year 1725, there was 
"one Swedenborgian." As, however, the 
"New Church," commonly called "Sweden- 
borgian," was not organized in America 
before 1788, the Dean's statement is mani- 
festly erroneous he probably meant 1825. 

WILLIAM RASTELL. The 'D.N.B.,' xlvii. 
305, says : "He was continued in office by 
Elizabeth, resigning office early in 1563." In 
fact, he had already fled to Flanders before 
10 January, 1561/2 ('Cal. S.P., Span., Eliz.,' 
vol. i. p. 224). JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

Eve is nocke buena in Castilian ; and the 
Baskish gabon is the literal translation of 
that. Gab on ! or Gau on ! is also used for 
the nightly salutation " Good night ! " the 
Basks not using the plural as the Castilians 
do when they say, "Buenas noches !" As 

Christmas was once the beginning of the 
civil as well as of the ecclesiastical year, the 
Basks still call New Year's Eve gabon tsar or 
sar, literally "old good night." They do not 
apply this term, as one might have expected, 
to Twelfth Night. They call Christmas Day 
egu or egun, or egum berri (or barri), i.e., 
" new day." New Year's Day is iirthatse, 
from urte (or /iwrte)=year, and hatse or 
haste = beginning. The Epiphany is Tru- 
fania, a word which has not yet, I believe, 
been explained. Can the syllable tru be in 
any way connected with trois (rois)] The 
good in noche buena reminds one, of course, 
of "Good Friday" as translating "Vendredi 

" PROSOPOYALL." The twenty-fifth chapter 
of Montaigne's ' Essays,' Book I. , is an elabo- 
rate and substantial disquisition ' Of the 
Institution and Education of Children,' as 
Florio expresses the title. Somewhat before 
the middle, after showing how the young 
man should comport himself when beginning 
to make his way into society, the essayist ap- 
propriately quotes from Seneca, "Licet sapere 
sine pompa, sine invidia." Then he proceeds, 
"Fuye ces images regenteuses," &c. This ex- 

gression Florio renders, " Let him avoid those 
rosopoyall images of the world," &c. " Proso- 
poyall " does not seem to have won the favour 
of a MS. commentator on the copy of Florio 
which prompts this note, for he has wantonly 
put his pen through it and inserted "im- 
perious," as an epithet more to his mind. 
Probably "Prosopoyall" was foredoomed to 
neglect, but it need not greatly disturb any 
scholarly reader of Florio, and, at any rate, 
it is interesting in itself as illustrative of 
the translator's vocabulary. " Prosopopeyall 
gravitie" occurs in the essay 'Of Experience.' 
Other examples would be useful. 


Lake's Falmouth Packet for 30 December, 
1904, remarks : 

"A curious Christmas - Eve custom, known as 
burning the faggots,' is observed in many inns in 
Somerset. Ashen faggots are thrown on the fire, 
and as soon as the bands have burst the customers 
are allowed to help themselves out of large cans 
of ale produced by the landlord/' 


achievements of this chaplain R.N. are 
duly chronicled in the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' 
iVhen ashore he lived in the parish of St. 
Margaret, Westminster. On 8 November, 
711, Taubman, having in view " the par- 
.icular perills I am soon to be exposed to," 

io*s. in. FEB. 4. INS.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


made his will, and "having," as he says, 
"neither wife nor children of my owne," 
was able to leave liberal bequests to his five 
sisters Jane, Abigail, and Mary Taubman, 
of the city of Dublin, spinsters ; Elizabeth 
Cumberford, also of Dublin ; and Eleanor 
Warren, residing near that city. An uncle, 
Thomas Taubman, of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, woodmonger, is likewise mentioned. 
The will was proved on 12 March, 1723/4 
(P.C.C. 71, Bolton). GORDON GOODWIN. 

"LARCIN": BEVAN. A much later use of 
larcin than any given in the ' X.E.D.' list of 
quotations is to be found in a poem entitled 
' Christmas,' which is set out in a foot-note to 
Letter iv. of the ' Parochial Letters from a 
Beneficed Clergyman to his Curate,' pub- 
lished in 1829. The line runs : 

Committed on the long " half year " a larcin, 
the latter word riming with " parsing," and 
so showing that the final g was not sounded. 
The poem, which runs to some 200 lines, 
abounds in points, as do the letters. I am 
afraid the author is one of those " whose 
memorials have perished with him," or almost 
so. A pencil note states him to be the Rev. 
Be van, of Worcester College. The letters 
show him to have been earnest and practical : 
the poem, clever and jovial. Perhaps some 
kindly pen will be able to give him an 
enduring niche in the pages of ' X. & Q.,' as 
he seems to have missed a place among those 
honoured in our 'Diet, of Nat. Biog.' 

Sedgeford Hall, Norfolk. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be sent to them 

oblige me with the names of Englishmen 
who are occupying important positions under 
foreign Governments, or have occupied them 
in the past? Examples which occur to me are 
Kaid Maclean, at present, and Sir John Acton, 
who was Prime Minister at Naples at the end 
of the eighteenth century. R. DE C. 

[" Chinese " Gordon is a notable instance.] 

Among the late Mr. Chetwynd-Stapylton's 
papers is a letter from Lord Monson, written 
in 1861, in the course of which occurs the 
following passage : 

" I have had a letter from Mr. Lambert Larking, 
the antiquary of Kent, and he tells me of Mr. 
Clayton having the largest and oldest collection of 

Eton Lists he ever saw Mr. Clayton's collection 

contains a Montem List about 1743." 
Can any reader tell me anything about this 
Mr. Clayton, or where his collection now is ? 

8, St. James's Street, S.W. 

STRAHAN, PUBLISHER. Who carries on the 
business of Alexander or Alfred Strahan, who 
was a publisher in London in the seventies 1 
I want to get particulars of a book he issued 
about 1875. W. J. JOHNSTON. 

[Alexander Strahan's books are now divided 
among Messrs. Isbister, Messrs. Sonnenschein, and 
Messrs. Kegan Paul.] 

"HARPIST." This is a vile word, the earliest 
example of which, according to the 'H.E.D.,' 
is 1613-16, W. Browne, * Brit. Past.,' ii. v. : 
That Oeagrian harpist, for whose lay, 
Tigers with hunger pinde and left their pray. 

The Guardian (24 September, 1890) is also 
cited for " Mr. John Thomas, harpist to the 
Queen." The 'D.N.B.' has not escaped the 
word. Was the older form "harper," which 
has furnished a number of people with a 
pleasant surname, not fine enough or too 
old-fashioned? A. R, BAYLEY. 

what time does the sun set on 15 December 
at Washington ? E. N. F. C. 

any authority for the common statement 
that the crowns of the Olympian victors were 
formed from the Alexandrian laurel Danae 
(or fiuscus) racemosa ? 


" THE HUNGRY FORTIES." This phrase has 
been repeatedly used by Mr. Chamberlain, 
and now appears frequently in political 
leading articles. When and where was it 
used first ? C. B. A. 

many of these halls in existence that are not 
used by their respective companies? I believe 
that the Pewterers' Hall is let to a firm of 
hatters, but I am desirous of knowing 
whether others are used for similar purposes. 

A. F. H. 

COPE OF BRAMSHILL. How did the Copes 
of Bramshill get the baronetcy ? 


[We presume that the pedigree given in Burke 
represents the received view of the descent.] 

amongst my collection of memorial rings one 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. HI. FEB. 4, 1905. 

with a large oval head surrounded by small 
garnets and containing a plait of brown hair; 
it is engraved inside "In memory of James 
and Jane Hogarth." I should be much 
obliged for any information on the identity 
of these Hogarths. FEED. A. CRISP. 

KINGSLEY QUOTATION. In which of Kings- 
ley's novels does the following quotation 
occur ? 

"There is no because in anything. We all are 
constituted differently, and therefore see things, as 
it were, through different-coloured spectacles." 


ROPER. I am trying to trace the ancestry 
of John Henry Roper, who was a subscriber 
and member of " Lloyd's " from 1837 to 1845. 
He is supposed to be the youngest son of 
Noah Roper, of Hough-on- the-Hill, Lincoln- 
shire, but there is no mention of any one of 
this surname in the registers there. He 
married Harriot Seagood. 


The Stone House, Rye. 

of the list of houses (10 th S. ii. 425) to the 
fronts of which tablets have been affixed at 
the instance of the Duke of Bedford, which 
includes one upon 27, Southampton Street, 
Covent Garden, to David Garrick, prompts 
me to register a regret that no medallion, 
either Society of Arts, London County 
Council, or private, has ever marked the 
spot where Edward Askew Sothern, creator 
of the inimitable Lord Dundreary, lived for 
a time and died. The 'D.N.B.' chronicles 
that he passed away in a house "in Vere 
Street, Cavendish Square." But did not this 
famous actor in reality occupy rooms at 
332, Oxford Street, over a branch of the 
Sun Office ? This, at any rate, has always 
been pointed out to me as the actual place 
where his decease occurred on 21 January, 
1881. Is it too late to hope for the com- 
memorative plaque in this case also ? 


[Sothern lived for some years in Wright's Lane, 
Hampstead, in a house with other theatrical and 
musical associations.] 

' SUFFOLK MERCURY.' (See 2 n(1 S. x. 238.) 
Will MR. C. GOLDING, of Paddington, or heirs, 
allow his copies of the Suffolk Mercury or 
St. Edmund's Bury Post, 1717 - 1731, to be 
inspected by me 1 HERBERT NORRIS. 

16, Cambridge Road, Battersea Park. 

FADED HANDWRITING. Many years ago I 
asked the readers of * X. & Q.' if any one 
knew the means of reviving the ink of the 
handwriting in old manuscripts, and I ob- 

tained a very prompt and useful reply, sug- 
gesting a formula with some tanin mixture. 
This I have since lost. Would any one be 
kind enough again to indicate it? 


59, Rua das Flores, Lisbon. 

[Recipes for reviving faded handwriting will be 
found at 6 th S. v. 249, 355 ; vi. 71, 91.] 


1. Heu : vitam perdidi, operose nihil agendo. 

2. If pathos be a sense of loss, a deep longing, 
mingled with melancholy. 

3. Che par sorriso, ed e dolore. 

4. Of what great contemporary was it said, "he 
was always beating about the bush without 
starting the hare"? Quoted in 'Studies of a 
Biographer,' I believe. 

5. Velut inter ignes, Luna minores. Which may 
have suggested Wotton's " Ye meaner beauties of 
the night." 

6. If I forget, 

The salt creek may forget the ocean. 
In Hardy's ' Woodlanders.' 

[5. "Velut, "&c., is from Horace, 'Odes,' I. xii. 


KENNINGTON. VVill some student of old 
Kennington and its immediate vicinity kindly 
send me privately a resume of the literary 
and other worthies who lived in or were asso- 
ciated with that part of Southern London 1 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

Diana Feilding, a daughter of George Feilding 
(son of Basil, fourth Earl of Denbigh). Who 
was he when and where born, baptized, 
married, died, and buried 1 Does any por- 
trait of him exist, and where 1 C. MASON. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

"AND THOU, BLEST STAR." The following 
lines evidently refer to William Pitt ; but 
who was their author ? 
And thou, blest star of Europe's darkest hour, 
Whose words are wisdom, and whose counsels 


Whom earth applauded through her peopled shores 
(Alas ! whom earth, too early lost, deplores), 
Young without follies, without rashness bold, 
And greatly poor amidst a nation's gold. 

W. T. L. 

habitants of the seaside parishes of Seasalter 
and Whitstable, in Kent, in their wills 
(proved in the Archdeacon's Court at Canter- 
bury) mention both weirs and fisheries. As 
to the weir (gurges\ it was probably con- 
structed on the shore or banks left dry at 
low water. The chief place for the weirs on 

ioos.m.FEB.4,1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Seasalter shore was the Snowte, belong 
ing to Favershara Abbey, which grante 
leases for weirs at the Snowte. What is th 
origin or meaning of this word "Snowte"? 

For a fishery the word used is voraguie (o 
should it be read voragine ?). Sometimes sue" 
are ordered to be sold. Does this word mean 
a fishing- boat with all the fishing gear, or 
place to fish off a certain part of the shor 
with licence from the lord of the manor ? 

Nets for "molletts" (mullets) and sag-net 
are mentioned once in these wills. 


Tankerton-on-Sea, Ken*. 

CANNON. A hundred years ago Britain wa 
daily expecting the armada of Napoleon 
Were the above weapons really imaginec 
by that demonic genius ? or are tlie following 
lines one of the many instances of th 
piercing insight of the poet t 

He has shown off his tricks in France, Italy, Spain 
And Germany, too, knows his legerdemain ; 
So, hearing John Bull has a taste for strange sights 
He is coming to London to put us to rights. 

To encourage his puppets to venture this trip, 
He has built them such boats as can conquer a ship 
With a gun of good metal that shoots out so far, 
It can silence the broadsides of three men-of-war. 

This new Katterfelto, his show to complete, 
Means his boats should all sink as they pass by our 

fleet ; 
Then, as under the ocean their course they steer 

right on, 
They can pepper their foes from the bed of old 


If this project should fail, he has others in store 
Wooden horses, for instance, may bring them safe 


Or the Genius of France, as the Moniteur tells, 
May order balloons or provide diving-bells. 

The verses are from Henry Kirke White's 
' Poetical Works ' (London, Pickering, 1840), 
p. 221, 'The Wonderful Juggler.' 

The poet treats the armada with derisive 
and patriotic scorn, and " vante sa patrie," as 
all good poets should ; but there are indica- 
tions in every line that he appreciated the 
magnitude of Napoleon in 1804 : 
This juggler is little and ugly and black ; 
Like Atlas, he stalks with the world on his back. 

Kirke White should be better known. He 
is the author of one of the most powerful 
hymns in the language, ' The Star of Beth- 
lehem.' Perhaps this reminder may induce 
some of your readers to look him up. 


Molyneux Park, Tunbridge Wells. 

shall feel obliged if any of your correspon- 

dents can supply me with the full text of 
the above ancient and interesting document 
presented to Charles II., or say in what 
works and libraries it may be found ; and also 
if the original now exists, and where it can 
be seen. B. BRADLEY. 

4, Maywood Avenue, Fishponds, Bristol. 

." The Rev. W. B. Gregg was 
lately inducted to Riseley Vicarage, Beds, 
amongst those present on the occasion being 
Lord St. John (patron of the living and 
^lian). My authority is The Beds Standard 
of 10 June, 1904. I have been puzzling my 
brains as to the meaning of JElian. Can 
any one tell me ? M.A.OxoN. 

Can anything be gathered as to the social 
standing 'or wealth of a yeoman in the 
seventeenth century from his possession of 
firearms 1 E. S. R 

name and place are engraved on the inside 
part of a watch. Is this watchmaker known ? 
Was he any relation of the person of the 
same name whose signature used to appear 
on Bank of England notes ? To quote an old 
song : 

Sham Abraham you may, 
But you must not sham Abraham Newland. 


' THE PHENIX,' 1707. Can any one tell me 
f " The Phenix | or, a [ Revival | of | Scarce 
and Valuable Pieces | London M.DCC.YII." is 
;o be relied on for its historical facts ? I find 
n it the following, under Sir Philip Sydney, 
which seems to be wrong somewhere : 

" He marry'd the Daughter and sole Heir of Sir 
Brands Walsinyham, then Secretary of State ; a 
Jady destinated to the Bed of Honour, who (after 
iis deplorable Death at Zutphen in the Netherlands, 
vhere he was Governour of Flushing, and at the 
ime of his Uncle's being there) was marry'd to my 
^ord of Essex, and since his death to my Lord of 
y t. Albans, all persons of the Sword," &c. 

W. H. M.-G. 

VERSE ON A COOK. Will any of your 
saders inform me where I can find these 

That cook (I could scold her) 

Grows worse as she's older; 

I wonder who told her 

That woodcocks were drawn. 

Are they by any well-known author ? 

J. C. S. 

fanchester Courier of 20 April, 1901, under 
heading 'A Play by Kipling,' occurred 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 th s. in. FEB. 4, 1905. 

the following statement, which I should much 
like verified : " There is no reason why Mr. 
Kipling should not perpetrate a play, for we 
are all playwrights now, even Mr. Gladstone 
having been guilty of writing a blank-verse 

How far is this true 1 Verses, original and 
translated, Mr. Gladstone did write; but it is 
news to me that he ever ventured into the 
devious paths of a playwright. 

J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

of precedence have been granted as early as 
circa 1660 to the sisters of a Scottish noble- 
man whose father had died vitapatris ? and, 
if so, where would it be recorded? 


Lostwithiel, Cornwall. 


(10 th S. iii. 9.) 

ASSUMING that "luck" in the uneducated 
mind consists ultimately in the absence or 
prevention of maleficent influences, then the 
horseshoe, whether worn or fixed, takes its 
place as a potent protector against those 
evils, and so as a promoter of the good 
fortune called "luck." I have contended 
elsewhere that the horseshoe is the crescent, 
the symbol of the moon in all countries, 
ancient and modern. She represents in all 
ages the Universal Mother, whether known 
as Ashtoreth, Aphrodite, Esetat-Jedhri, Isis, 
Parvati, Diana, or Madonna. She is there- 
fore the great protector of all her children, 
and her symbol is used, as perhaps the most 
potent amulet, to counteract malevolence by 
all people. 

Our English horseshoe is, of course, a highly 
conventionalized crescent, but the Turkish 
is identical in pattern with that on the 
standard. Whether the shoe should be sus- 
pended with the toe or heel upwards is 
rather a matter of local and personal opinion, 
though it is much more usual to see the toe 
upwards, probably because it is so much 
easier affixed or hung up. The position ol 
the amulet would not seem to be material, 
considering that the crescent appears some- 
times "horns up," sometimes "horns down,' 
but more commonly with one horn up anc 
the other down. We hear it often remarked 
" Horns up for fine weather " ; and the follow- 
ing seems to point to the belief that a shoe 
fastened in that position has the most power 

"July 24, 1895.' I know'd a farmer not very var 
icrevrom, and he had terblebad luck wi' his stock. 
:Ie know'd they must be overlooked. Well, a 
neighbour told'n he couldn' expect no other, so 
ong as he did keep th' oss shoe wrong zide up. 
Nif he did mind to save his beast, he must put n 
upright, wi' the heels o' un up-on-end. Well, zo he 
took and turned th' osa shoe tother way, and he 
ever hadn' a-got no bad luck arterwards.' " 


MR. PAGE has opened an intensely interest- 
ing subject, but one which ramifies so widely 
as to need a book rather than a short reply 
For its full treatment. The brief answer to 
his question is that both ways are " the right 
way " to hang a horseshoe on a door. Each 
man must decide for himself, according to 
his idea of the derivation of the use and 
the particular symbolism he attaches to it. 
Gipsies hang the shoe with its points (the 
heel) upward, in cup -form, "to catch the 
good luck," but grooms generally hang it toe 
upward, in roof-form, to ward off bad luck. 
Christians who take the symbol to mean 
imply omega, and a reminder of Him who 
aia, "I am Alpha and Omega," will, of 
course, hang it toe upward ; and so will 
those students of the ancient wisdom who 
tell us that the lucky horseshoe and the 
omega in the above quotation are both re- 
minders of the crux ansata which was placed 
in the right hand of an initiate. Those who 
hold that the luck attaching to the shoe is a 
reminder of the time when it used to repre- 
sent the crescent moon of Isis will place it 
gipsy fashion, with the heel upward. Some 
who are curious in these matters say that 
the arrangement with the heel upward is 
right for the votaries of a feminine deity ; 
while the roof fashion, or toe upward, or 
omega- wise, belongs to votaries of a mascu- 
line deity. The former is an invocation of 
the moon-god, while the latter invokes the 
sun-god. One is correct for worshippers of 
Isis, and for Roman Catholic Christians, who 
assign the blue robe and the crescent moon 
of Isis to the Virgin Mary ; while the omega 
form must be used by Protestant Christians, 
who object to invocations of the Virgin. 

The statement that the luck of the horse- 
shoe dates from the time when iron was a 
sacred metal (was there ever such a time ?) 
has often been made ; and to those who hold 
this view the position must be quite indif- 
ferent. So it should be to those who tell us 
that the original lucky objects were not 
horseshoes at all, but metallic rings, broken 
from the heads of mediaeval figures of saints, 
where they had been worn in nimbus form. 

The suggestion that the shoe represents 
old-time horns of honour, or horns of iron, 

10* 8. IIL FEB. 4, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


or horns of the altar, implies that it should 
be hung heel upward ; while if we consider 
it as the horns of Eblis it takes the same 
position, but is then "black magic," an in- 
vocation of a Prince of Evil. 

One might pursue the subject much fur- 
ther, and show that the omega is a feminine 
sign in the deeper mysteries ; and one might 
wander into some of the modern guesses, 
such as that which connects the sign of the 
horseshoe with the rainbow and the covenant 
made with Noah ; but one must consider the 
space of ' N. & Q., J and perhaps enough has 
been given to show that either way of hanging 
the shoe may be correct. 


Hadlow, Kent. 

A horseshoe should always be hung with the 
ends pointing upwards, in order to represent 
a pair of horns horns being the universally 
recognized counter-charm to the evil eye, 
and therefore to witchcraft in general. A 
less scientific reason is that if the ends hang 
downwards all the good luck will run out 
from them, as fluid from an inverted cup. 

Though one usually sees them nailed on 
doors, &c., in country places, with calks up- 
wards, this seems to be wrong. Mr. "Worth- 
ington Smith, in his ' Dunstable '(1904), says : 
"In old times tha horseshoe, when used for 
good luck, was invariably represented with 
ends upwards, like a cup." 


I have often heard my mother, a native of 
Shropshire, say that the correct way to hang 
up a horseshoe is with the front downwards, 
so that the luck may not run out. 

I have also heard her say that when a 
horseshoe is picked up in the road with the 
front nearest the finder luck is on its way, 
and vice versd. E. SMITH. 


Horseshoes should be affixed with the open 
part downwards to keep the luck in. 


These should be put heels upward, tnough 
it is easier to hang them the other way, 
and I cannot doubt that they are .then 
equally effective. In John Aubrey's 'Remains 
of Gentilisme'it is noted (Folk-Lore Society's 
edition, p. 123): "At Mr. Ashmole's thres- 
hold the hollow of the horseshoe pointeth 
into the house." ST. SWITHIN. 

I have understood that they should be 
suspended or nailed back upwards, "so as to 
keep the luck from dropping out." 

But what says MR. HEMS 1 After a visit 
I paid "Ye Luckie Horseshoe" Studio in 1883 
I heard an interesting explanation of the 
sign that would make me, at any rate, accept 
that worthy contributor's ideas on the subject 
as pretty conclusive. W. CURZON YEO. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

In a volume I possess, containing some 
200 pages, closely filled with manuscript and 
chance cuttings upon hippology, there are 
a few but not many illustrations of old 
horseshoes turned the wrong way up ; also 
the following, although I cannot say from 
where the information originally came : 

"Of course, lucky as it is to have a horseshoe 
nailed over one's door, it is just as unlucky to fix it 
upside down, i.e., with the points upward. A cer- 
tain farmer who found a rusty shoe in the road, 
and unwittingly did this, fell into dire adversity : 
His hens declined to lay their eggs, 
His bacon tumbled from the pegs, 
And rats devoured the fallen legs : 
His corn, that never failed before, 
Mildewed and rotted on the floor. 
His grass refused to end in hay, 
His cattle died, or went astray 
In short, all moved the crooked way. 
At length, when the unfortunate man was almost 
ready to end his misery by suicide, a chance stranger, 
who happened to call, espied the cause of his ill 
luck, and cried : 

' No wonder skies upon you frown 
You 've nailed the horseshoe upside down ! 
Just turn it round, and you will see 
How you and Fortune will agree.' 

The farmer turned the horseshoe round, 
And showers began to swell the ground : 
The sunshine laughed amongst his grain, 
And heaps on heaps piled up the wain. 

The loft his hay could hardly hold, 
The cattle did as they were told ; 
His fruit-trees needed sturdy props 
To hold the gathering apple crops. 

His turnip and potato fields 
Astonished all men by their yields. 
Folks never saw such ears of corn 
As on his smiling hills were born. 
His barns were full of bursting bins, 
His wife presented him with twins ; 
His neighbours marvelled more and more 
To see the increase of his store. 
And now the merry farmer sings, 
' There are two ways of doing things : 
And when for good luck you would prajr 
Nail up your horseshoe the right way.' " 
My own old horseshoe many times noticed 
in print I found on the morning I first 
entered Exeter (4 December, 1866). It has 
been nailed of course the right way up ! 
successively in front of the three residences 
I have had since, and may still be seen in situ. 
Further, I have admittedly been a very lucky 

Fair Park, Exeter. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* B. m. FEB. *, uo& 

HERALDIC MOTTOES (10 th S. iii. 49). Besides 
Elvin's/ Hand book of Mottoes,' 1860, and 
the various editions of Fairbairn's ' Crests ' (a 
new edition of which has just been published), 
also the list given at the end of Burke's 
'General Armory,' I would refer your cor- 
respondent to the following : 

' A Translation, in Verse, of the Mottos of the 
English Nobility and Sixteen Peers of Scotland.' 
By Amicus. 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1822-5. 

Knight and Butler's * Crests of Great Britain and 
Ireland,' &c. Edited by Joseph MaoLaren. 2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1883. 

Washbourne's ' Book of Family Crests.' 2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1882. 

English mottoes will also be found in the 
following foreign works : 

' Dictionnaire des Devises historiques et herald- 
iques avec figures et une table alphabetique des 
noms.' By A. Chassant and Henri Tausin. 3 vols. 
8vo, Paris, 1878. 

' Die Wahl- und Denkspriiche, Feldgeschreie, 
Losungen, Schlacht und Volksrufe, besonders des 
Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, gesammelt, alpha- 
betisch geordnet und erlautert.' By J. Dielitz. 
4to, Frankfurt-a.-M., 1888. 

'An Alphabetical List of English Mottoes, 
as they occur on British and American Book- 
Plates,' was compiled in 1900 by J. F. Verster, 
of Amsterdam. Reference should also be 
made to the list of works treating of mottoes 
at p. 65 in Gatfield's ' Guide to Printed Books 
and Manuscripts relating to Heraldry,' &c., 
8vo, London, 1892. 


There is a 'Dictionary of Mottos' in 'The 
Book of Family Crests/ 1856, vol. i., and a 
list of the mottoes appertaining to the City 
Companies in The Penny Post of 1 March, 
1886. Heraldic mottoes, with explanatory 
illustrations, will be found in Burke's 
' Heraldic Illustrations ' ; also in Burke's 
'Vicissitudes of Families,' 'Rise of Great 
Families,' ' Anecdotes of the Aristocracy,' 
and ' Romantic Records of Families ' ; G. L. 
Craik's ' Romance of the Peerage," and, I 
think, Walford's 'Tales of our Great Families': 
' House Mottoes and Inscriptions, Old and 
New, drawn from many Lands,' by S. F. A. 
Caulfield ; a tract on ' Martial Mottoes,' by 
W. H. Longstaffe ; ' The Book of Public Arms,' 
compiled and edited by Arthur Charles Fox- 
Davies and M. E. B. Crookes; Palliser's 
'Devices'; 'The Blazon of Episcopacy,' by 
the Rev. W. K. Riland Bedford ; Paradin's 
'Devices'; Pallavicini's 'Devices and Emblems/ 
and many similar works. 


An excellent list appeared in an offshoot of 
the original edition of Fairbairn's 'Book of 
Crests/ entitled "Book of Mottos borne by 

Nobility and Gentry, Public Companies, 
Cities, &c., with their English significations, 
bearers' names, titles, &c., and occasional note* 
and illustrations, selected from ' The Book 
of Family Crests ' and other sources," 1851, 
crown 8vo. Another list may be seen at 
the end of Chambers's ' Twentieth-Century 
Dictionary.' WM. JAGOARD. 

Will not Messrs. Routledge's excellent 
little work on ' Mottoes and Badges,' which 
is mentioned with praise ante, p. 40, answer 
fully or in part the requirements of C. S. ? 

H. T. 

If C. S. will go to the Reading-Room at the 
British Museum he will find a considerable 
number of books having lists of mottoes 
collated under the head of ' Heraldry.' 

I venture to say that a comprehensive book 
of heraldic mottoes would be attractive to the 
public at the present time, and that a com- 
plete list of canting or punning mottoes 
such as " Ver non semper viret," for Vernon ; 
"Quitel,"for Kettle; and "Festina lente," 
for Onslow (I quote from memory) is a 
desideratum. LLEAVELYN LLOYD. 

Blake House, Winslow. 

ISABELLINE AS A COLOUR (10 th S. i. 487 ; ii. 

75, 253, 375, 477, 537). I think PROF. SKEAT 
will allow that a sixteenth-century English 
mercer may very easily have transformed 
some such Italian phrase as " color di zibel- 
lino " into /sabella. I merely gave escarpin 
as an illustration of my meaning as to the 
prefix because I could not think of any 
Italian word with the i prefix at the time, 
and was writing in the country away from 
books of reference. PROF. SKEAT fails to note 
my proof from Littre that the word occurs 
in England a good many years before it does 
in France, and therefore may very con- 
ceivably be of English origin. He also does 
not note my far graver slip in speaking of 
the summer coat of the same ; it should of 
course have been the winter coat. Perhaps 
PROF. SKEAT will now kindly tell us who the 
fair Isabella was who was the sponsor of 
the colour ; or, if not, what the origin of the 
name really is. Was the sponsor our own 
Queen Elizabeth ? H. 2. 

SOUTHEY'S 'OMNIANA/ 1812 (10 th S. ii. 305, 
410, 530). At the last reference COL. PRI- 
DEAUX says: 

" My authority for adding the names of Gale & 
Curtis was contained, to the best of my recollec- 
tion, in a heap of memoranda which had been 
collected by Mr. Shepherd in view of a revised 
edition of his work, and which were temporarily 
placed at my disposal." 

s. in. FEB. 4, i90o.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Messrs. Longman's statement that they paid 
the printing charges and that there is nothing 
in their ledgers to show that they took over 
the sheets from any other publisher or printer 
seems very conclusive. If COL. PRIDEAUX 
requires more confirmation he may find it in 
one of the foot-notes on p. xc of vol. i. of 
' The Poetical and Dramatic Works of Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge,' ed. 1877 (of which Mr. 
Shepherd was the editor), where the work is 
described: "Omniana, or Horse Otiosiores. 
London : Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, 
Orme and Brown, Paternoster-row." I ab- 
stained from discussing the subsidiary points 
raised in COL. PRIDEAUX'S former note, for 
the reason that they have, as it seems to 
me, no bearing on the question at issue, 
the interesting bibliographical features of 
'Omniana' to which COL. PRIDEAUX calls 
attention being, one and all, absolutely con- 
sistent with the plain conclusion to which 
the facts, so far as they can be ascertained, 
obviously point, viz., that ' Omniana ' was 
printed for and published by the house 
of Longman only, and that in assigning 
a share in the transaction to Gale & Curtis 
"some one has blundered." Possibly COL. 
PRIDEAUX could consult once more the 
Shepherd memoranda with the view of dis- 
covering the quarter in which the mistake 
originated. The question really resolves 
itself into a balance of probabilities. That 
the Shepherd-Prideaux Bibliography of Cole- 
ridge is not at all points infallible must, I 
fear, be admitted. This being so, whether of 
the two suppositions is the likelier : that we 
have here an instance of the fallibility of that 
work, or that a complicated series of trans- 
actions, such as COL. PRIDEAUX'S theory 
postulates, should have escaped all notice in 
Southey's voluminous correspondence, and 
remained unrecorded in the books of the 
firm of Longman ? I have no hesitation in 
arriving at my own conclusion, which is not 

CHILDREN AT EXECUTIONS (10 th S. ii. 346, 
454, 516; iii. 33). MR. HIBGAME could not 
have been taken to witness an execution in 
1869, as public executions were abolished 
in the previous year. Hubbard Lingley was 
executed on 26 August, 1867. 


The Library Guildhall, E.G. 

LOUTHERBOURGH (10 th S. ii. 389). Philippe 
Jacques de Loutherbourg's 'Romantic and 
Picturesque Scenery of England and Wales, 
1805, does not contain a reproduction of, or 
reference to, the Hampstead Heath views in 
question. But possibly the originals are two 

landscapes described in Bryan's ' Dictipnary 
of Painters and Engravers,' 1898, as being in 
the Bordeaux Museum. The Glasgow Gallery 
also contains some of his works executed 
while in England. The prices which some of 
bis pictures realized are given in Adolphe 
Siret's ' Dictionnaire Historique et Raisonne 
des Peintres,' 1833. In Lysons's 'Collectanea,' 
vol. i. p. 4, is the following handbill : 

"The Breaking-up and Distribution of the first 
Collection of Pictures by the Artists of Great- 
Britain, ever formed in this country. The Last 
and only Day of shewing the Poets' Gallery, or 
Purchasing Tickets for a Chance of any part of that 
inimitable Collection, as the Lottery begins Draw- 
ing this Day and will be determined To-morrow. 

Those Ladies & Gentlemen who have already 

purchased Tickets, may have their Prints by send- 
ing for them. To those that have not seen the 
Prints, it is necessary to say they are the Size of 
General Wolf, engraved from Pictures painted by 
P. J. de Loutherbourg, and Mr. J. Laporte." 
Poets' Gallery, 11 February, 1779. 


FLYING BRIDGE (10 th S. ii. 406, 491). This 
kind of ferry is common in America. There 
are a dozen or more between Pittsburg 
and Oil City, on the Allegheny river. The 
first is at Hulton, twelve miles above Pitts- 
burg. There is a wire cable stretched across, 
high above the river, and the boat is attached 
to this by a wire with a trolly. This is 
called a swing-ferry, for the current is not 
strong enough to make the boat fly. 



RUSKIN AT NEUCHATEL (10 th S. ii. 348, 512). 
Like MR. COLES I venture to think that 
MRS. STEPHENSON is under a misapprehension 
regarding Ruskin and Neuchatel. This place 
is probably confounded with Schaffhausen, as 
MR. COLE suggests. Or was MRS. STEPHEN- 
SON perhaps thinking of a passage in 'Modern 
Painters,' part iv. chap. xvii. sect. 13, and 
by some curious mental process transferring 
it to Neuchatel ? The passage runs thus : 

" The first thing which I remember, as an event 
in life, was being taken by my nurse to the brow of 
Friars' Crag on Derwentwater ; the intense ]oy r 
mingled with awe, that I had in looking through 
the mossy roots, over the crag, into the dark lake,, 
has associated itself more or less with all twining 
roots of trees ever since." 

Canon Rawnsley, ' Literary Associations of 
the English Lakes,' vol. i. p. 148, says : 

" One calls to mind that it was at the ' Crag of 
the Friars' that John Ruskin received one of those 
impulses to care for the close study of natural form 
that made him what he was." 
And at p. 150 : 

"That early impression of the wonder of Friars' 
Crag on Ruskin's boy-mind was not effaced by all 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. m. FEB. , IMS, 

the glorious landscape which he studied and loved 
in other parts of England, or on the Continent. 
Speaking to a friend a few years ago Raskin said, 
' The scene from Friars' Crag is one of the three or 
four most beautiful views in Europe.' " 

The view from Schaffhausen was evidently 
" one of the three or four most beautiful 
views in Europe"; which were the others'? 
But whichever or wherever they may be, it 
was incontrovertibly at Friars' Crag that 
Ruskin received his first revelation of the 
glories of nature. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

BEN JONSON AND BACON (10 th S. ii. 469 ; iii. 
35). Those interested in the relations between 
Jonson and Bacon should read a singularly 
little-known work entitled ' The Tale of the 
Shakespeare Epitaph, by Francis Bacon 
(Baron Verulam and Viscount St. Albans).' 
The only edition I know is one published by 
Belford Clarke & Co., in Chicago and New 
York, in 1888. EDWARD HERON- ALLEN. 

Although there is no evidence that Jonson 
was Bacon's secretary, in his ' Baconiana ' 
Archbishop Tenison writes regarding the 
'Essays' of Bacon : 

" The Latine translation of them was a work 
performed by divers hands ; by those of Dr. Hacket 
{late Bishop of Lichfield), Mr. Benjamin Johnson 
(the learned and judicious Poet), and some others, 
whose names I once heard from Dr. Rawley, but I 
cannot now recal them." 

This Dr. Rawley was Bacon's chaplain. 


(10 th S. iii. 5). This mot "has been assigned 
to Douglas Jerrold " with perfect justice, and 
may be found on p. 28 of 'The Wit and 
Opinions of Douglas Jerrold.' The sentence, 
which properly runs " Dogmatism is puppy- 
ism come to its full growth," originally occurs 
in one of his plays, which one I cannot recall 
at the moment; when I can I will supple- 
ment this information. WALTER JERROLD. 


HERALDIC (10 th S. ii. 408 ; iii. 33). I notice 
that MR. WATSON gives "crawe" as a variant 
of "crab." Is this so? Is it not equivalent 
to "crow"? A crow in the dialect of the 
North of England is " a craw." R. B R. 

South Shields. 

5). The cutting from the Daily Mail sent 
by MR. J. T. PAGE is incorrect. Robert Raikes 
the philanthropist was born 14 September, 
1735 ; the reference is probably to his father, 
also Robert Raikes, who founded The Glou- 
.cesttr Journal in 1722. 

Robert Raikes the younger succeeded to 
the printing business at the death of his 
father, which took place 7 September, 1757. 

Greenford, Middlesex. 

(10 th S. iii. 8). There can be no question as 
to the purchaser of the autographs sold by 
Puttick & Simpson in December, 1853. The 
lot mentioned by MR. MASON (No. 94) was 
bought by my old friend Marseille Middleton 
Holloway, a well-known printseller, then 
living at No. 14, Henrietta Street, Covent 
Garden ; but what became of these MSS. I 
know not. The only thing I can now suggest 
is that they passed into the hands of Mr. 
John Benjamin Heath, a staunch friend and 
patron of young Holloway, who has now been 
for some years dead. He retired from affairs, 
leaving an only son, who carried on his 
father's business at Bedford Street, Covent 
Garden, but did not long survive him. 


MR. MASON may find some information re 
the first of these personages in Mr. Puttick's 
MS. list of sales in the British Museum 
(Newspaper Room). The name may have 
been an imaginary one to conceal the identity 
of the real owner. Holloway was an auto- 
graph dealer ; the firm was at one time 
Holloway & Sons. I once possessed a copy 
of one of their excellent catalogues, but find 
that I cut out such entries as interested me 
and threw the remainder away. There may 
possibly be copies in the B.M. 


DUELLING (10 th S. iii. 49). 'The British 
Code of Duel,' 1824, is perhaps the book 
referred to in the second edition of 'Duelling 
and the Laws of Honour,' by J. C. Bluett, 
p. ix, where the author is said to be Joseph 
Hamilton, Esq. Although the second edition 
of Bluett's book bears the date 1836 on the 
title-page, it cannot have been published 
before the year 1840. W. S. 

BACON OR USHER? (10 th S. ii. 407, 471.) 
Farnaby was not the only contemporary who 
attributed to Bacon the verses beginning 
" The world 's a bubble." A copy of the lines 
was found among Sir Henry Wotton's papers 
with the name " Francis, Lord Bacon," at the 
bottom (see 'Reliquiae Wottonianre,' p. 513). 
Wotton, it may be recollected, was an inti- 
mate friend of Bacon, whose epitaph he wrote 
on the monument at St. Albans. 

Another credible witness is Joshua Sylves- 
ter, whose 'Pauthea' was published in 1630, 
about three years after Bacon's death. The 

s. in. FEB. 4, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


title- page reads "Panthea : or Divine Wishes 

and Meditations Revised by J. M., Master 

of Arts......Whereunto is added an appendix, 

presence as a server of one who should not 
serve, e g., a woman. This rubric has since 
been modified to some extent, as may be 

containing an excellent elegy written by the ' gathered from consulting " Deer. Auth.S.R.C. 

L. Discount St. Albans," &c._ This elegy is 2745 ad 8," where it is clearly stated that a 

woman may "answer" Mass urgente necessi- 
tate, but may not "serve." 

St. Thomas Aquinas (iii. 83, v. ad 12) 
quotes a Papal decree to the effect that no 

the poem referred to " The world ; s a 
bubble," &c. The verses therefore were 
recognized in 1630 as the work of Bacon. 

" WALKYN SILVER " (10 th S. iii. 29). This 
seems to have been a payment which carried 
with it a right of way through certain part 
of an estate. Walkers were forest officers 
appointed to walk about a certain space of 
ground committed to their care. A " walk" 
was a footpath. J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

SOLITARY MASS (10 th S. iii. 8). The follow- 
ing passage from O'Brien's ' History of the 
Mass,' fifteenth ed., pp. 8, 9, may be of use to 


" When Mass is said by a priest alone, without 
the attendance of people, or even of a server, it is 
called a Solitary Mass. Masses of this kind were 
once very common in monasteries and religious 
communities (Bona, p. 230), and they are still 
practised to a great extent in missionary countries. 
-They cannot, however, be said without grave neces- 
sity ; for it is considered a serious offence by theo- 
logians to celebrate without a server, and this server 
must always be a male, never a female, no matter 
how pressing the necessity be. Strangely enough 
fcolitary Masses were forbidden, in days gone by, 
by several local councils, and this principally for 
the reason that it seemed ridiculous to say, 'Dominus 
vobiscum,' the Lord be with you, ' Oremus,' let us 
fray, and 'Orate, fratres,' pray, brethren, when 
there were no persons present. The Council of 
Mayence, held in the time of Pope Leo III. (A D 
815;, directly forbade [by its 43rd Canon] a priest 
to say Mass alone. The prohibition not merely to 
sing it, but to celebrate at all without witnesses, 
was repeated by the Council of Nantes, and for the 
reasons alleged. Gratian cites a canon in virtue of 
which two witnesses at least were required for the 
due celebration of every Mass : and this we find to 
> the rule among the early Cistercians. Cardinal 
Bona ('Rer. Liturg.,' p. 230), from whom we copy 
these remarks, seems much in doubt as to whether 
solitary Masses were wholly abrogated in his day 
f instances, however, a well-known exception in 
Jase of a certain monastery which enjoyed the 
>rmlege from the Holy See of celebrating without 
ivmg any person to respond. According to the 
iresent discipline of the Church, whenever necessity 
compels a priest to celebrate alone he must recite 
;e responses himself, and otherwise act as if he 
id a full congregation listening to him. He must 
t omit, abridge, add, or change anything, to suit 
the peculiar circumstances of the occasion, but must 
dp everything that the rubrics prescribe for ordinary 
Mass, and this under pain of sin."' 

The rubrics of the Roman Missal ('De 
>efectibus,' X.) censure as "defects" the 

priest may celebrate High Mass (missarum 
solemnia) unless two persons be present to 
answer his "Dominus vobiscum" and "Orate 
pro me." The Angelic Doctor adds, however, 
that one server is sufficient at Low Masses, 
that the one server stands for the people and 
answers for them. 

To say a Low Mass, then, without a server 
but with some one to answer, is permissible, 
and, in fact, not uncommon. But I once 
had the misfortune to be without a server 
or even a congregation. This was in a 
country place on a dark winter morning. A 
devout old lady had answered my Mass daily 
for several weeks, and I had every reason to 
suppose that she was present on the day in 
question. As she was rather hard of hear- 
ing, and sometimes a little uncertain as to 
the part of the Mass that I had reached, I 
had on other occasions been obliged to supply 
some of the responses myself. Hence I was 
not surprised on this particular morning to 
have to "answer" more than usual. When 

did at last discover that I was the only 
person present in the church, I determined 
;hat I had gone too far to draw back, and so 
[ went on to the end of my one and only 
' Solitary Mass." S. G. OULD. 

St. Benedict's Abbey, Fort Augustus, Scotland. 

The priest must have some one to serve 
lirn at Mass, but the Romanists do not 
require a communicant. Dr. Pusey never 
"celebrated :) in his house without a communi- 
cant as a rule, his son, who resided with him 

at Oxford. 


39, Alexandra Road, Hornsey, N. 

SPLIT INFINITIVE (10 th S. ii. 406 ; iii. 17, 51). 
By the voice of the pundits it has been 
decided that the split infinitive is not un- 
grammatical. I venture none the less, with 
reprehensible rashness, to declare it inele- 
gant and detestable. In the instances ad- 
vanced its employment weakens the sentence. 
Surely "rapidly to march" and "gloriously 
to die," the latter especially, are more vigo- 
rous than "to rapidly march" and "to 
gloriously die." For the mere sake of 
euphony it is to be avoided. In writers 
such as Fanny Burney you will constantly 

i ' --' i. ww*a LUC sucii a.s raiiuy Duruov ^uu win (juustetiii/iy 

ilerk or other server, and the encounter it. But it is not in Shakespeare 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io- s. m. FEB. 4, isos. 

or Milton, those supreme masters of our 
tongue, nor, I venture to say, in Keats, 
Tennyson, or Swinburne. There are those 
who will say " the custom is a bad one " 
instead of " the custom is bad." The latter 
phrase, I hold, is vigorous English, the former 
flabbiness and superfluity. The split infini- 
tive and the use of "a one "will, I think, 
be discountenanced by all who regard what 
Daniel calls " the treasure of our tongue." 


Surely the discussion of a question of this 
character is but little to the purpose. 
Grammar is a matter of convention ; and 
what is conventional is right, in the sense 
that it is not worth disputing. The man 
who considers such an infinitive ugly need 
not use it ; but if he tries to convert every 
one else, he must expect to find that some 
of them prefer to have their own way, which 
(as a matter of fact) is just what he wants 
for himself. 

I suppose the phrase was invented by 
some penny-a-liner who preferred as their 
manner is to be smart rather than to take 
the trouble to investigate. They hate research 
because they have no time for it. One of 
the most favourite (but ill-natured) devices 
for raising a silly laugh is to call a word 
or phrase "American." I see this usual 
manoeuvre is quoted at p. 52 (ante), where 
the "split infinitive" is called a "Trans- 
atlantic intruder " even by so good a scholar 
as HERMENTEUDE. Yet, as also stated on 
the same page, DE. HALL "found many 
instances in the works of excellent authors'" 
I have been informed that it occurs five 
times in Golding's Ovid (1567). I remember 
finding an example in Jerrold's ' Story of a 
Feather' (1843), published long before we 
had much to do with American journals. 1 
dare say many people are unaware that there 
was a time when no infinitive was preceded by 
to, but rather denoted by a suffix. In Anglo- 
Saxon to is not the sign of the infinitive, but 
of its dative case, which was only used as a 

Moreover, infinitives without a to are used 
to this day after what are pleasantly called 
"auxiliary verbs," which merely means that 
they are so common as to be indispensable. 
In "I may go" the go is an infinitive ; and 
in "I may comfortably go" we have an 
intrusive adverb, of the same character as 
occurs in the "split infinitive." 

I cannot say that my sympathies are on 
the side of pedantry, which usually means 
dogmatism founded upon one's own private 
opinion. They are rather on the side of 
scholarship, which does not shrink from 

investigation, due to a desire to learn what 
are the usages (rather than the opinions) of 
good and well-known writers ; always re- 
membering that fashions change, and that 
phrases have their day. Any one who will 
actually take the trouble to read our older 
authors will certainly meet with many sur- 
prising things. "The least fowl out," i.e., the 
smallest bird known, occurs in 'Piers the 
Plowman,' B. xii. 267. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

EULE or THE ROAD (10 th S. ii. 467). May 
I (at the risk of boredom) state that many 
years ago a gentleman who was driving me 
informed me that the rule was not purely 
arbitrary, but arose from the need that the 
driver, with reins in left hand, should have 
his right hand free to ward off pistol or 
sword blow aimed at him by another man 
passing him on his right hand ? 


National Liberal Club. 

Here is another version of the rule : 

The rule of the road is a paradox quite, 

Both in riding and driving along : 
If you go to the left you are sure to go right, 

If you go to the right you go wrong. 

But in walking the streets, 'tis a different case : 
To the right it is right you should bear ; 

To the left should be left quite enough of free space 
For the persons you chance to meet there. 

In the collection of oddities in verse in which 
I have found these lines they are ascribed 
to Punch. The first quatrain would seem 
to have been written before the birth of 
Mr. Punch. Possibly the second may be an 
addition of his. In his fifty-third volume, at 
p. 129, is a parody of the first, entitled ' The 
Rule of the River.' THOMAS LANGTON. 

' Whitaker's Almanack,' 1903, p. 695, gives 
the following rimes : 

The rule of the road is a paradox quite ; 

For in driving your carriage along, 
If you bear to the left you are sure to go right, 

If you turn to the right you go wrong. 

But in walking the streets, 'tis a different case : 
To the right it is right you should steer ; 

On the left should be left enough of clear space 
For the people who wish to walk there. 

Another reading is also given. 


C. H. M. (10 th S. iii. 50). As was customary 
with writers among the Plymouth Brethren 
half a century ago, C. H. Mackintosh ap- 
pended only his initials to most of his work. 
He was the author of a series of expository 
volumes "Notes" they were all termed 

10* B. in. FEB. 4, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


on the books of the Pentateuch, besides 
numerous treatises on doctrinal and Church 
questions from the Brethren point of view. 
Mr, Mackintosh was associated with J. N. 
Darby. His name is absent from the ' D.N.B.,' 
but inquiry at Mr. Morrish's, Paternoster 
Square, would no doubt elicit all the infor- 
mation E. R. desires concerning C. H. M. 


The author of this and several other 
popular little commentaries on the Old 
Testament was the late C. H. Mackintosh, 
one of the best of the Plymouth Brethren 
writers. Some fifteen or twenty years ago 
I met him at Leamington, where he was 
sojourning for health, and found in him a 
charming personality allied to a profound 
knowledge and love of books. 


0. H. Mackintosh was a preacher among 
that sect of the Brethren which was governed 
by the late John Newton Darby. Originally 
an Irish schoolmaster, he developed, amidst 
the many opportunities for activity afforded 
by " Brethrenism," into what is known as 
a "teacher," and a writer of considerable 
fluency. His volumes on the books of the 
Pentateuch follow the lines of Dean Law's 
well-known series ' Christ is All,' and have 
Jiad a very wide circulation. But Mack- 
intosh wrote little beside that has survived. 
In his particular sect he was regarded as a 
useful man, but in no sense a leader. For 
a fair account of him see 'A History of the 
Plymouth Brethren,' published by Hodder & 
S tough ton, which, on the whole, is a mode- 
rate, though rather bare and bloodless, 
account of the sect of Brethren to which 
Mackintosh belonged. P. F. H. 

[MR. F. (T. HALEY, MB. C. HICHAM, Q. V., and 
MK. J. B. WAIXEWRIGHT are also thanked for 

MERCURY IN TOM QUAD (10 th S. ii. 467, 531 ; 
iii. 32). The following anecdote is extracted 
from 'Oxford and Cambridge Nuts to Crack ' 
(1835), now become a rather scarce book : 

" At the time a late Dean issued an order, during 
a. hard frost, that no undergrad was to indulge in 
the exhilarating and customary sport of skating 
upon the ice that covered the reservoir in ' Tom 
Quad.' The order came upon the fraternity like a 
thunder-clap, at the very moment some scores 
were preparing for the sport ; amongst them \vas 
Reade of that ilk, a wag, and he resolved to pay 
the Dean off, even at the hazard of being paid off 
himself. He accordingly stuck up a notice on the 
margin of the ice to the ejfect that no one was to 
kate there as the Dean intended publicly to enjoy 
that sport at ten o'clock the next day. The College 
smelt a rat, and at the hour named a large number 
of spectators were collected, when Mr. Reade, 

whose rooms faced the reservoir, dressed in a wiy 
and gown, a la Dean, which he had procured 
ad interim, approached, be-skated, with all the 
gravity of his superior, and, to the no small amuse- 
ment of those present, cut such capers in his skates 
that the whole were in a continuous roar of 
laughter." P. 261. 

^ We have nob yet been told in what collec- 
tion the statue at Brasenose called Cain and 
Abel (see 10 th S. ii. 532) has found a home. It 
was, I believe, the gift of Dr. Clarke, who was 
one of the burgesses of the University in the 
eighteenth century, and whose monument 
may yet be seen in the chapel of All Souls' 
College. When we read of the destruction 
or migration of these relics of antiquity we 
are reminded of Lord Byron's lines : 

I've stood upon Achilles' tomb, and heard Troy 

Time will doubt of Rome. 


HUGH PERCY (10 th S. iii. 28). In all pro- 
bability the Hugh Percy mentioned by MR. 
J. ELIOT HODGKIN is a descendant of the 
Percys of Shaftesbury, co. Dorset. In 
Hutchins's ' History of Dorset,' vol. iv. p. 74, 
there is a pedigree of the Percy family, but 
it ends with Henry Percy (son and heir of 
Christopher), living 1565. It would be 
interesting to continue this to later times by 
an examination of wills and administrations, 
and extracts from parish registers at Shaftes- 
bury and neighbourhood. I would suggest that 
MR. HODGKIN repeat his inquiry in Somerset 
and Dorset Notes and Queries (editor, Canon 
Mayo, Long Burton Vicarage, Sherborne), 
and he will perhaps get answers from local 

I may mention that Bursys, where Mary 
Percy is stated to have died, is in the parish 
of Tarrant Gunville, Dorset; it is now a 
farm, but formerly was a manor, and 
members of my family lived there about 

There have been already several inquiries 
in the above-mentioned Somerset and Dorset 
Notes and Queries (vols. iv. 255 ; viii. 108) 
respecting the family of Percy, which would 
interest MR. HODGKIN. E. A. FRY. 


DlSBENCHED JUDGES (10 th S. iii. 43). It 

may be useful to supplement MR. GORDON 
GOODWIN'S note on Sir Richard Hollo way 
with a reference to my note at 9 th S. vi. 466. 
A valued correspondent of 'N. & Q.' has 
privately informed me that Sir Richard 
Hollo way was baptized at St. Aldate's, 
Oxford, on 21 October, 1627, and was buried 
there on 21 December, 1699 (Parish Register). 
He married Alice, daughter of John Smith, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. FEB. 4, 1905. 

sometime Mayor of Oxford, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Henry Bos worth, of St. Giles's, 
Oxford. She was baptized at St. Aldate's, 
5 January, 1C41/2, and buried there on 
10 September, 1672, having died on 7 Sep- 
tember (Clark's 'Wood's City of Oxford,' 
Oxf. Hist. Soc., iii. 133, 199, 450). For the 
baptisms of their children, see the same 
volume, p. 200. 1 suggest that, for conveni- 
ence of future reference, the name of each 
of the two judges mentioned in MR. GOOD- 
WIN'S note should appear in the index to the 
current volume of 'N. & Q.' separately. 

H. C. 
[H. C.'s suggestion had been anticipated.] 

ARITHMETIC (10 th S. iii. 50). Has your 
correspondent consulted a well-known work 
entitled ' List of Arithmetic Books from the 
Time of Printing to the Present Time,' drawn 
up from actual inspection by Prof. Augustus 
De Morgan, London, 1847 1 A copy can be seen 
at the Corporation Library, Guildhall, E.C. 


PENNY WARES WANTED (10 th S. ii. 369, 415, 
456; iii. 16). In a very entertaining children's 
story, ' Lady Anne, the Little Pedlar,' 1823, 
I find the phrase " market-penny." It was 
the term for the sixpences which market- 
garden employes filched for themselves out 
of the proceeds of the morning's sale at 
Covent Garden, on their way back to the 
gardens, in this case near Turnham Green. 

"!LAND" (10 th S. ii. 348, 493). I do not 
think the writers who have replied to my 
query about " iland " have quite understood 
the sentence in which it occurs. I am aware 
that the words "iland" and "island" occur 
as place-names far inland, but if your readers 
will look at the sentence again they will see 
it refers, not to the place or position of grow- 
ing crops, but to the place, apparently, in the 
"new barne" where the barley had been 
stored. The sentence which follows in the 
MS. states that "the 3rd, 4th, ^ 6th, 8th, 
10th, and part of the llth dressings came 
out of the middlestead [i.e , the threshing 
floor] and first mow on the left hand in the 
old barne." 

This shows conclusively, to my mind, that 
the word "iland" refers to some portion 
of the "new barne" already mentioned ; but 
why is it so called ? A. H. ARKLE. 

At the present time there is a small, well- 
defined area, covered by cottages with their 
gardens, situated at Ringmer, Sussex, and 
known as "the Iland." I have not seen it 
spelt. None of the villagers whom I have 

asked are aware why it is so called. Those 
who live there are referred to as " up at the 
Hand." This village of Ringmer, I may 
mention, is very interesting, both to the 
antiquary and the topographer. Further, it 
was from Ringmer, at " The Delves," that 
Gilbert White wrote some of his letters on 
' The Natural History of Selborne,' or Ring- 
mer, for the names qua natural history were 
almost interchangeable. 

Temple, E.C. 

FELIX BRYAN MACDONOUGH (10 th S. ii. 527). 
CELT will find in The Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for June, 1836, p. 672, one or two 
additional particulars concerning Capt. Felix 
M'Donough. In the notices of deaths it is 
there stated that he died, steeped in poverty, 
in that year, and had dragged on existence 
as a bookseller's hack. EDWARD J. PARKER. 

CELT has referred to 9 th S. x. 136, Has 
he overlooked the communications given in 
4 th S. iii. 300, 419 1 


71, Brecknock Road. 

(10 th S. ii. 447 ; iii. 15). DR. GUSTAV KRUEUER 
will find that Oldmixon is the name of a small 
hamlet near Weston - super - Mare. John 
Oldmixon, the Whig historian, was the 
owner of that part of it in the parish of 
Bleadon which his ancestors had held for a 
good many generations. If existing, this 
must be one of the rarest surnames in Eng- 
land, as the family never seems to have 
spread. In Collinson's ' History of Somerset ' 
(iii. 591) it is stated the place was formerly 
called Oldmixton, but I find it Oldemixon 
in an Inq. p.m. of 49 Edw. III. 

It is not, however, very unlikely to have 
been called so from having been the site of 
an old mixen, a kitchen midden, or prehistoric 

Who that mysterious Sir John Oldmixon 
was who died in America in 1818 is still an 
enigma (3 nl S. xi. 399 ; xii. 76). 



SIR T. W. STUBBS (10 th S. ii. 189). I am 
glad to say that since sending this query I 
have obtained the information required from 
Mr. Honorius Grant, of the British Con- 
sulate, Oporto. 

Sir Thomas married in 1799 Joanna 
Candida de Seixos Barbosa, and died 27 
April, 1844. For his services he was created, 
18 December, 1833, Baron Villa Nova de Gaia, 
and on 20 May, 1835, Visconde Villa Nova de 

s. in. FEB. 4, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Gala. He commenced his military career in 
the 50th British Kegiment, 20 July, 1793. 

Sandgate, Kent. 

The Garrick Club. By Percy Fitzgerald, F.S.A. 


A PLEASANT and very readable account of the 
Garrick Club has been supplied by Mr. Percy Fitz- 
gerald, now for nearly thirty years a member. An 
industrious and a voluminous author, principally 
on subjects connected with the stage, Mr. Fitz- 
gerald is eminently we may say exceptionally 
qualified for the task he undertakes. Most of the 

Srincipal social clubs, from the Athenaeum to the 
riental, have found their historians ; and one poli- 
tical club, the Reform, has enjoyed the same 
privilege. Thanks to its possession of a magnificent 
gallery of pictures, chiefly portraits of actors, pre- 
sented to it by its members, the Garrick offers 
special temptations to a writer devoted to theatrical 
pursuits. The character of the early members, many 
of whom were celebrated in literature or on the 
stage, constitutes a further attraction. In a sense in 
which the term can be used of no other institution 
of like standing, the club is social. Membership 
has from the outset involved something like the 
dream of the French revolutionaries liberty, 
equality, and fraternity while within the club 
gates, and the admission of a member has enabled 
him virtually to dispense with an introduction on 
approaching his fellows. Conviviality was in the 
early days a feature of the club, and still, though 
in a less degree, continues ; and a share much larger 
than is commonly allotted to general conversation 
has prevailed. To describe the men brilliant, 
fashionable, witty, erudite, or socially distinguished 
who at different periods have frequented the 
club is a task for Mr. Fitzgerald and not for the 
critic of his volume. The club was distinguished 
from the outset as a circle of wits, and the presence 
among the early members of men such as Barham 
(Ingoldsby), "Tom" Duncombe, Capt. Gronow, 
Theodore Hook, Lockhart (we suppose this, who is 
only called J. Lockhart, to have been John Gibson 
Lockhart, the son-in-law and biographer of Scott), 
the Mathewses (Charles and Charles James), John 
Poole (of ' Paul Pry '), and James Smith, justifies the 
use of the title. A full description of the manner 
in which, through the generosity of Rowland 
Durrant, concerning whom ordinary biographies 
are silent, the Mathews collection of pictures 
became the property of the club is supplied. 
This noble collection, the value of which cannot 
easily be overestimated, has received signal addi- 
tions in subsequent years, and stands now, it is to 
be supposed, in its line unrivalled. It is to be 
wished that Mr. Fitzgerald were a more trust- 
worthy guide, since his work is apt to be regarded 
in some quarters as official or inspired by the 
trustees or committee of the club, which is not the 
case. A complete guide to the pictures is a desi- 
deratum. On the task of preparing such more than 
one competent pen is supposed to be engaged. 
Reference is made to the exclusion from member- 
ship of Thomas Campbell, in consequence, it is said, 

of a costly habit in which he indulged of breaking 
the glasses from which he had been drinking. Con- 
siderable space is afforded Thackeray, whose por- 
trait forms a frontispiece to the book, and a full 
discussion is to be found of the dispute between 
him and Edmund Yates, which led to the banish- 
ment of the latter from the club and one of the not 
infrequent resignations of Charles Dickens. It is 
expedient that the truth should be known, and 
Mr. Fitzgerald is an unprejudiced witness, whose 
bias, if any existed, would be in the direction of 
Dickens. There are many interesting portraits of 
people named in the book, though comparatively 
few of these are from club sources. The work is- 
brightly written and eminently readable. It will 
recommend itself to others besides the members of 
the club with which it deals. 

The American Revolution. By the Right Hon. Sir 
George Otto Trevelyan, Bart. New Edition. 
3 vols. (Longmans & Co.) 

A REVISED and cheaper edition of Sir George 
Trevelyau's ' American Revolution ' treads closely 
upon the heels of the first edition. It is in some- 
respects superior to the preceding work, and con- 
tains a notable addition in an excellent portrait of 
the author. So far as regards the first volume, a- 
marked improvement has been effected. This, 
originally published as Part I., and covering the 
period from 1766 to 1776, has now been rearranged 
and, to some extent, rewritten. What is judged 
to be irrelevant has been expunged and replaced 
by other matter, the result of subsequent dis- 
covery or reflection ; the entire work has been, 
arranged in chapters, consecutively numbered, and 
the whole now forms a continuous and sustained 
history of the period discussed. To the successive 
volumes of the original edition we drew attention, 
(see 9 th S. iii. 138 ; xii. 458), pointing out that the 
history was written from an American standpoint 
rather than a British, did full justice to the loyalty 
of the American colonies until stirred by intoler- 
able wrong, and showed in the clearest light the- 
pigheadedness and incapacity of English manage- 
ment and the rapacity and greed of English com- 
merce. What we read concerning Russian mis- 
management and rapine to-day is less astounding 
than are the revelations of English dishonesty a 
century and a quarter ago. Considering the point 
of view taken, no less than the vivacity of the 
pictures afforded, there is no cause for surprise 
that the popularity of the work in America has 
been as great as that in England. Something in. 
the way of an approach to international amity haa 
been fostered, if not aroused, by its appearance. 
For the first time the American has been shown- 
how large a proportion of what was best in English, 
life and thought sympathized with him in his- 
endeavour to throw off an unjust and abominable 
yoke. From historical students and from statesmen 
of authority Sir George has received assurances of 
the salutary effects 01 his writing, while the more 
enlightened portion of the American press has 
welcomed the book as making for friendship. Most 
important result of its appearance is the call on 
the other side of the water for a recasting of those 
American school-books which have preached ani- 
mosity and encouraged dislike to Great Britain. 
"It is manifest," says one periodical of wide circu- 
lation and influence, " that most of our school his- 
tories of the United States will have to be rewritten, 
for the major part of them fail to recognize the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [HP s. m. FEB. 4, iocs. 

momentous truth which the work before us must 
be held to have established." In its present shape 
the history is likely to be productive of further 
benefit, simply because its perusal is more of a 
pleasure and less of a task. The chapters dealing 
with the conduct of affairs in England are still the 
most animated, but those dealing with American 
discontent and outbreak have gained greatly in 
vivacity. No attempt has been made to modify 
the view expressed concerning George III., who 
remains the most sinister character in the book, 
and whose influence is shown as constantly malig- 
nant. Some interesting matter is furnished in 
appendixes. The new edition will do much to 
popularize a useful, readable, and in many respects 
brilliant history. 

The Shade of the Balkans. (Nutt. ) 
.FOR this collection of Bulgarian folk-song and pro- 
verbs, for the first time rendered into English, and 
for the essays, the popular poetry, and the origin of 
the Bulgars with which it is associated, three writers 
are responsible. Pencho Slaveikoff who is spoken 
of as " the caged lion of Sofia " and as " the figure 
of revolt "is answerable for the poems in the 
original. Among other things noteworthy about 
him, he is the owner of remarkable eyes: "Eyes 
weary with the world's trouble, darkling eyes, eyes 
of the twilit woods, then of a woodland faun, eyes 
that lure you and dance away from you, eyes that 
laugh at you and their owner, unbearable eyes." 
"I.," otherwise "H. B.," otherwise Henry Bernard, 
lias executed the translation and the notes, and 
E. J. Dillon writes on ' The Origin and Language of 
the Primitive Bulgars.' The book thus constituted 
is a pleasant and valuable contribution to folk-lore. 
Many of the songs are of great merit, and all are 
full of character. Like most folk-lore poems, they 
have a vein of deep melancholy, and are generally 
in a minor key. Some of them recall Heine, notably 
the ' Pomak' song, No. 42. Familiarity with scenes 
of slaughter is continually manifested, and the 
blood in which since 1876 Southern Bulgaria has 
been steeped exercises a strong and easily per- 
ceptible influence. The growth of flowers out of 
the graves of unfortunate lovers, common in ballad 
literature, is an occasional feature. In ' The Legend 
of the Sweet Bash' it is thus said : 

And from the grave of him a vine did grow, 
And from the grave of her a blushing rose, 
Because they loved each other all too well. 

Other poems, such as ' The Samovila as Wife,' are 
linked to legends of swan-maidens. Very strange 
and quaint is 'The Last Journey of St. Peter's 
Mother,' who, in spite of her son's position as janitor 
of heaven, drops, for her miserliness and want of 
sympathy, into hell, whence she is unable to escape. 
Many of the proverbs are curious. Among such are 
"God is not sinless; He created the world," with 
its suggestion of Omar Khayyam ; " The man who 
has looked life in the face fears not to die " ; " The 
Heiduck's shadow is the scaffold." Profoundly 
interesting are the introduction and essays. We 
learn, however, with deep regret, that the songs 
of the Bard of the Dimbovitza our admiration for 
which is deep-seated are spurious, and are to be 
classed with Ossian and similar works. They are 
presumably "built by Mile. Helene Vacaresco, 
decorated by Carmen Sylva, and rendered into 
English most charmingly byMissAlmaStrettell." 
The Roumanian peasant, we are told, " has not the 

remotest idea of these songs ; of their form, of their 
context, or of their language." Thus to be told 
diminishes greatly the gratification we have received 
from a work which, in that and other respects, is a 
delight. Some of the stories are excellent. One 
of a Royal Highness selling to an evening paper the 
documents concerning his projected assassination 
is staggering. There is some banter of the " pran- 
cing procession of adjectives " of Mr. Edmund Gosse 
when, after patronizing Norway and Holland, he 
"was good enough to consider Bulgaria." 

The Anatomy of Melancholy. By Robert Burton. 

3 vols. (Bell & Sons.) 

OF the numerous works forming part of " The 
Standard Library," which is now issued in a new 
and superior shape as " The York Library," we are 
disposed to regard this with most favour. Reprints 
of Burton's classic work are many, some of 
them being very handsonie in shape. We know no 
edition, however, prettier, more legible, cheaper, 
and more convenient than this, which may, as 
we have tested, be perused with comfort and 
delight. It has a capital introduction and notes 
trustworthy in the main, if not always impeccable, 
reproduces in diminished size the quaint and signi- 
ficant title-page of the original edition, and has an 
excellent index. For the man who collects books 
for the purpose of study the edition is ideal. 

t&oiitt* t 

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CONTENTS.-No. 59. 

NOTES : St. Sepulchre, 101 William and John Talman, 
103 Sufferings of Troops in Winter, 101 Proposed Temple 
Bridge and County Hall Recent Finds in Westminster, 
105 Shap, Westmorland Francis Bacon : Singular Ad- 
dressChinook Jargon, 106. 

QUERIES : "Maskyll" Queen of Duncan II., 107 
Franciecus de Platea Mr. Fraser Rae and Junius Joseph 
Wilfred Parkins Local 'Notes and Queries '" Caren- 
tinilla" Gold v. Silver 'God save the King,' 108 
George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham William Symson 
Author of Quotation Wanted" Lamb " in Place-names 
Fitz Warine Family Middleton " When our dear old 
Catholic fathers "" Oh ! the pilgrims of Zion" "May 
virtue all thy paths attend," 109. 

REPLIES : Holyrood Font, 109 Torpedoes, Submarines, 
and Rifled Cannon "The hungry forties "Heraldic 
Mottoes Sothern's London Residence Con- Contraction 
John Wesley and Gardens, 111 Royal Regiments of the 
Line "Phil Elia" " Wassail," 112 Besant British 
Merzotinters Anthony Brewer ' Hardyknute,' 113 
The Chiltern Hundreds Dryden Portraits Epitaphs : 
their Bibliography Queen's Surname Kant's Descent- 
Blood used in Building, 114 Spirit Manifestations 
" God called up t'rom dreams " " The " as part of Title 
"Tourmaline" Verschoyle : Folden, 115 Baptist Con- 
fession of Faith, 1660 Nelson in Fiction" God rest you 
merry "Coliseums Old and New, 116. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Murray's ' Museums '' Cambridge 
Modern History" 'Guide to Historical Novels' 'At 
Shakespeare's Shrine ' 'Upper Norwood Atbenseum 
Record' 'The Burlington ' Reviews and Magazines. 

Obituary : Mr. T. Blashill; Rev. W. K. R. Bedford. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


MR. HOLDEX MAC-MICHAEL conjectures at 
10 th S. ii. 192 that the "Saint" in "St. Sepul- 
chre" is redundant, and he states at the same 
time that "Sepulchre' 1 is in reality merely a 
contraction of " St. Pulchre." 

This is an ingenious etymological effort. 
It sounds at first plausible enough and allur- 
ing, but on examination it would seem to 
lead into a cul-de-sac and to a mare's nest. 
MR. MAcMiCHAEL infers that the two words 
Pulcheria and Pulchre are synonymous ; but 
it would be interesting to learn on what 
authority he connects the two. 

It is necessary toqueiy, first of all, whether 
there was ever any such a saint as " St. Pul- 
chre." Personally, till now, I have never 
come across such a one, either " at prayer " 
or elsewhere, and indeed it is a question 
whether "Pulchre" is really the French 
equivalent for the Latin " Pulcheria." De 
Mas Latrie in his ' Tresor de Chronologic, 
d'Histoire et de Geographic,' and the writer 
in Migne's ' Dictionnaire Hagiographique,' 
both give the word "Pulcherie," and make 
no reference at all to any saint " Pulchre/' 
Other authorities are equally reticent. 

However, the point at issue really resolves 
itself into this, viz., To whom were the "Sepul- 

chre" or "St. Sepulchre" churches dedicated? 
This conundrum once settled, we shall either 
have dissolved the new theory or given it a 
fresh lease of life. 

From the Bollandists ('Acta Sanctorum,' 
10 September) and from other sources we 
learn that many were the churches founded 
by St. Pulcheria ; but it would be interesting 
to discover even one church that was dedi- 
cated to the holy empress herself. On the 
other hand, it is well known that there have 
been, and are still, a number of churches in 
different lands that have borne the title of 
" Sancti Sepulchri" (we may note the gender 
of " Sepulchri," which is not masculine). In 
England we have many such, and amongst 
them several of great architectural interest, 
each of which is in its way all but unique. 
We may instance, for example, the so-called 
"round churches "of Cambridge, of North- 
ampton, of Little Maplestead in Essex, and 
the Temple Church in London. Moreover, it 
has been pretty well proved that the afore- 
said circular churches (though sometimes 
erroneously thought to have been Jewish 
synagogues) were originally the property of 
the Military Order of the Knights Templars, 
with whom it was a common practice to build 
round churches at the commanderies and 
priories of the Order in imitation and com- 
memoration of the great basilica of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem a church that it was 
the end and object of the Order to defend. 
In this connexion it may be well to quote the 
opinion of the great architectural authority 
Viollet-le-Duc, who in his 'Dictionnaire 
Raisonne de 1'Architecture Francaise,' under 
'Sepulchre' writes as follows: "L'Ordre 
des Templiers elevait in chaque commanderie 
une chapelle qui devait etre la representation 
de la rotonde de Jerusalem." Nor was it 
unnatural that the knights, many of whom 
had, no doubt, been to Jerusalem, should 
endeavour to produce at home a replica of 
that far-off Sepulchre for which they were 
pledged to live and to die, and in which their 
hearts were already metaphorically buried. 

These circular churches were often known 
either as Temple or Sepulchre churches, and 
there can be no doubt that they were replicas 
(more or less) of the prototype at Jerusalem. 
The knights built their first London (circular) 
church at Holborn ; but later they removed 
to the Temple. The site of the Holborn 
Templar church is now occupied by South- 
ampton Buildings. 

In France there are the circular church 
famous in the annals of the Templars at Paris, 
which formed part of the most important 
commandery of the knights in Europe ; the 



s. in. FKB. n, 1903. 

round church of St. Benignus of Dijon, which 
was unquestionably an imitation of the 
Jerusalem St. Sepulchre, as were, likewise, 
the circular churches of Metz, in Lorraine, 
and of Laon ; the rotunda of Lanleff, in the 
department of C6tes-du-Nord, and the cir- 
cular monument (evidently having the same 
origin) at Rieux-Minervois, near Carcassonne. 
In Italy we may note the round church of 
St. Sepulchre at Brindisi, the ancient Brundu- 
sium ; in Spain the exact replica of the 
Holy Sepulchre to be found in the Templar 
church of La Vera Cruz at Segovia, in which 
there is a small chapel which is an exact 
model of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem 
(' Impressions of Spain,' by Lady Herbert, 
p. 621). All these, then, are imitations, in a 
greater or less degree, of the Jerusalem 
prototype, and, needless to say. they have 
no connexion whatever with St. Pulcheria, or 
with any " St. Pulchre." 

But this is not all. We may cite as further 
proof the testimony of the chroniclers who 
mention the foundation of the little circular 
church of Neuvy-Saint-Supulchre, in the 
department of Indre, in France. They state 
clearly that the church was constructed in 
imitation of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, 
and hence the name: "Fundata est ad 
formain Sancti Sepulchri lerosolimitani " 
(Viollet-le-Duc, 'Diet. d'Architecture'). The 
resemblance to the prototype became in this 
case still more complete when, in 1257, a 
fragment of the tomb of our Saviour was 
presented to the Chapter of Neuvy ; for the 
relic was placed in a sort of grotto, erected in 
the centre of the rotunda, in imitation of the 
tomb of our Lord in the basilica at Jerusalem. 
This grotto existed till 1806, when it was 
destroyed by a cure of Neuvy, as it hid the 
altar at the end of the nave (ibid.). 

There is a similar instance in the case of 
the Chapter House (Salle du Chapitre) of the 
Cathedral of Constance, where there is a 
monument which at one time was placed in 
the cathedral itself, and which was intended 
to serve the same purpose as that at Neuvy, 
namely, to recall to mind the real tomb in 
the centre of the rotunda of the Jerusalem 

But besides these circular churches, or 
replicas, there are numerous non-circular 
churches, up and down the land, which were 
merely dedicated under the title of St. 
Sepulchre. The church of St. Sepulchre at 
Newgate, London, is one of these ; as are also 
the St. Sepulchre church at Cambray, that 
at St. Omer, and that in the diocese of 
Angers ; the Augustinian church at Piacenza 
in Italy, and the priory church of St. 

Sepulchre de Sambleriis, in the diocese of 
Troyes, in France. Under the same dedication 
were the bishopric of Borgo San Sepolcro, 
suffragan to the metropolitan see of Florence ; 
the ruined Benedictine Priory at Canterbury ; 
the hospital of St. Sepulchre at Hedon, or 
Newton-St.-Sepulchre, in Yorkshire ; and the 
hospital of St. Sepulchre belonging to the 
Canons Regular of St. Sepulchre, which 
used to exist at Warwick. 

In mediaeval times there existed the Sacred 
Military Order of the Knights of the Holy 
Sepulchre. This Order was afterwards amal- 
gamated by Pope Innocent VIII., in the year 
1484, with the better-known Military Order 
of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem 
otherwise known as Knights Hospitalers, 
Knights of Rhodes, or Knights of Malta ; 
and consequent upon this union, the Grand 
Master of the Knights of St. John incor 
porated amongst his othertitles the additional 
one of "Sancti Sepulchri Dominici humilis 
Magister " a title held with distinction by 
Prince Ceschi di Santa Croce, the Grand 
Master lately deceased. This Military Order 
of the Holy Sepulchre, properly so called, 
is to be distinguished from the knighthood 
of the same which is still conferred at the 
Holy Sepulchre formerly by the Franciscan 
Gustos of the Holy Land, and since 1861 
by the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, to- 
whom the right of nomination to the knight- 
hood was at that date transferred. In the 
sacristy attached to the Latin Chapel in the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem 
is preserved the straight double-edged sword, 
with cross-guard, of the renowned Godfrey 
de Bouillon, which is still used by the 
Patriarch in giving the accolade to the 
knight-elect. Godfrey de Bouillon, the first 
Latin King of Jerusalem, was also the first 
Baron of the Holy Sepulchre. The badge of 
the Military Order aforesaid is the red 
patriarchal double-armed cross, and that of 
the knighthood at least in more modern 
times the fivefold cross of Jerusalem in- 
red. In 'The Book of the Wanderings of 
Brother Felix Fabri ' (1484, Palestine Pilgrim 
Text Society) a most interesting account of 
the dubbing of the Knights of the Holy 
Sepulchre is given, as well as a sketch 
indicating what would be expected of 
them. This prolific writer also supplies no 
fewer than forty arguments by which to 
manifest how this of all knighthoods is quite 
the best. 

And last, but not least, there is the 
ecclesiastical feast and Officium Divinum 
of the Holy Sepulchre, observed, in some 
places at least, on the Second Sunday after 

s. in. F. 11, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Easter. The Collect of this feast runs as 
follows : 

"Donrine Jesu Christe, qui pro nobis mortem 
subire, et Sepulchre depositus tertia die resurgere 
voluisti : concede nobis famulis tuisut qui Sepulchri 
tui memoriam recoliruus, resurrectionis quoque 
gloria; participes esse mereamur. Qui vivis et 
regnas," &c. Breviarium Mouasticum : iSupple- 
mentuni pro diversitate Locorum, &c. 

It may be of interest to those outside 
Catholic circles to know that, even in this 
twentieth centurj 7 , canonesses of the Holy 
Sepulchre still exist in England, at Xew 
Hall, Chelmsford. Xew Hall itself is not 
without interesting historical associations. 
In 1517 it came into the possession of 
Henry YIIL, who purchased it either from 
the then Bishop of London, or, according to 
Camden, from Anne Boleyn's father. Henry 
gave it the name of Beaulieu, and not a few 
of his State Papers were " given from our 
Palace of Beaulieu." The name Beaulieu 
leads up to a curious coincidence, for Fulk 
of Xerra ; Count of Anjou, founded a Bene- 
dictine monastery "in honore Sancti Sepul- 
chri " near Loches in Touraine, to which the 
name of Bellus Locus was given, which in 
the French is Beaulieu (9 th S. viii. 397). 

Finally, we have a corruption of St. 
Sepulchre in "Selskar" Abbey, Wexford. 
The church attached to this ancient Danish 
abbey was dedicated to SS. Peter and Paul, 
but in the time of the Crusades a chapel was 
added to it, in which were deposited some 
relics of the Holy Sepulchre, and the devotion 
thus stirred up caused the original dedication 
to be almost forgotten, and the place came to 
be known as " St. Sepulchre " Abbey, which 
was later on corrupted into "Selskar." 
Vide ' Danish Wexford,' by John Cullen, Irish, 
Ecclesiastical Record, 1882. 

All this seems to show clearly that the 
' ; saint "in St. Sepulchre is by no means a 
mere redundancy, and that, on the other 
hand, it is simply the equivalent to "holy," 
which in its turn is the natural term applied 
to the tomb of our Lord the Sanctum 
Sepulchrum par excellence. Possibly this 
may suggest a truer piece of etymology. 

ME. MAcMlCHAEL may not be aware that 
the vulgar pronunciation of St. Sepulchre 
at Xorthampton is " St. Pulker's," and that 
the church of the name is known indifferently 
either as " St. Pulker's " or as " Pulker's 
Church " the latter for preference. Does 
this throw light upon the mysterious "St. 
Pulchre " ? 

To conclude, may I ask whether any 
reader of ' X. <fc Q.' has ever come across a 
church in any part of Western Christendom 
dedicated to St. Pulcheria, or any church, in 

any part of the world, named after "St. 
Pulchre " 2 Or does any one know of an actual 
instance of the " Saint-Pulchre " being con- 
verted into "Sepulchre" or "Sepulchre"? 
Should this information not be forthcoming, 
I fear that in all probability " St. Pulchre'' 
will transmigrate into her own sepulchre ^ 
and, if so, may she rest there in pace. 

B. W. 
Fort Augustus. 

[See also 9 th S. x. 445.] 


To the interesting article on the Talmans-, 
father and son, in the ' Diet. Xat. Biog.' I 
can add a few particulars from Clutterbuck's 
and Cussans's histories of Hertfordshire and 
other sources. 

William Talman, architect and Comptroller 
of the Works to William III., was the second 
son of William Talman, of Westminster, gent.,, 
by his wife Sibilla, daughter of James 
Morgan, of Westminster, "cordwinder." By 
will dated 5 January, 1662'3, and proved 
26^ February following (P.C.C. 25, Juxon),. 
William Talman, senior, left his freehold 
estate "in East Coate, Wilts, which I lately 
purchased of \Ym. Shergall," to his elder son 
Christopher ; while his son William was to 
inherit "all my Collidge Lease and the three 
tenements thereby demised being in King 
streete, Westminster." The Eastcott pro- 
perty is now in Easterton, which was formed 
in 1875 from the parish of Market Lavington, 
and the name Shergall still survives (as 
" Shergold ") in the village. 

William Talman, the son, purchased the 
manor of Felmingham, in Xorfolk, where he 
died. His will, dated 18 October, 1719, with 
a codicil dated 22 Xovember following, was 
proved by his widow Hannah on 10 February. 
1719/20 (P.C.C. 44, Shaller). Therein he 
bequeathed to his eldest son John his estate 
in the Xew Itiver, his chambers in Gray's 
Inn (for life), and all his collections of draw- 
ings, prints, and books. He had also paid off 
the mortgage on the Hinxworth estate upon 
his son's marriage (between 3 July, 1716,. 
and 18 October, 1719) with Frances, second 
daughter of John Cockayne, of that place. 
He directed " all and every my Potts and 
Statues "to be sold towards the payment of 
debts and legacies. 

His eldest son, John Talman, F.S.A., made 
his will on 7 March, 1719/20, as of Hinxworth,. 
Herts, and he desired to be buried in the 
chancel of the church, on the south side of 
the altar. His collections of "drawings, 
bookes, and prints bound or in portefoglio's 
relateiug to Ecclesiasticall buildings and 



Ornaments," were originally bequeathed by 
him to Trinity College, Cambridge ; but, 
shortly before his death, increases in his 
family obliged him to revoke this bequest 
(by codicil, signed 4 August, 1726), and order 
the collections to be sold. His will was 
proved on 9 February, 1726/7, by his widow 
Frances (P.C.C. 53, Farrant). 

Clutterbuck (iii. 529-30) and Cussans 
('Odsey Hundred,' p. 12) give the inscrip- 
tions to John and Frances Talman, on slabs 
on the floor of the chancel of Hinxworth 
Church, as follows : 

" Here lyes the Body of John Talman, a person 
of excellent learning and strict religion and 
honesty, who spent near twenty years in Travels 
through France, Germany, and Italy, in which 
time he made a fine collection of the most curious 
paintings and drawings of the noblest buildings 
and curiosities in those Countrys : upon his return 
into England he married Frances, the daughter of 
John Cockayn, of this parish, Gent, and had by 
her six children, four [.sic] of which survived him, 
viz., Frances, Anne, Mary, John, and Elizabeth. 
He departed this life the 3rd of November, 1726, 
much lamented by all gentlemen of his acquaint- 
ance, aged 40 years." 

"Frances, relict of John Talman, Esq rc , died 
March 22nd, 1732, aged 46 years. Her body lyeth 
buried by her said husband." 


(See ante, p. 21.) 

THE following are some further extracts 
from General Maxwell's letters from the 
Crimea. They give interesting particulars 
as to the much improved conditions under 
which the army had to face the second 
.winter of the siege : 

Camp [before Sebastopol], 

1 July, 1S55. 

Long before this you will have heard of our lass 
in poor old Raglan's death. A better loved man 
never was whether or not he was a great General 
I know not ; but his death is a most undoubted loss 
to this army. I have no doubt that our failure of 
the 18th June* had a good deal to say to his death, 
as any depression of spirits is much against a man 
attacked with the prevailing complaint here. Who 
will succeed him no one can tell. In the meantime 
Simpson commands. We are working away, both 
the French and ourselves, making fresh batteries to 
try and catch the ships in the harbour. It is not a 
harbour, but more like our Scotch lochs, about a 
mile wide. If we could destroy the shipping it 
would be a great point gained. What our future 
plans are to be I cannot tell I suppose another 
bombardment and then an assault. Our Brigade 
will have its turn next time: we were most fortunate 
last time in haying had splendid cover, and not a 
man hit. I begin to look forward to another winter 
here with dread : it is indeed a dismal look out. 

* The assault on the Redan, IS June, 1855. 

We shall be well found in everything, which will 
make it more bearable than last winter ; but those 
trenches in winter nothing can make bearable. 
Something favourable may turn up for us in the 
meantime. We are all heartily tired of the siege, 
as you may well fancy. The Russians must be more 
tired of it than we are, that 's one comfort. The 
Mail arrived to-day ; no letter from home. No 
news is good news. Poor old Lord Raglan's body 
is to be put on board ship to-morrow. A funeral 
procession of French and English is to do the 
honours to the poor old man. Report says that we 
niay expect a fight soon in the country. Our cavalry, 
it is said, are to move out on Wednesday. This is 
Monday, high time for the plungers to do some- 
thing, for the working parts of the army hold them 
very cheap indeed, altnough I suppose they will do 
their work when called on, and the sooner that is 
the better. 

Coddrington* will do, I think. I would rather 
have had Sir Colinf if the war goes on. Next spring 
will see some work done. Don't believe the news- 
paper accounts of drunkenness. There is too much, 
but it is not nearly so bad as they make out. I 
have had for the last three months on an average 
450 men in camp. In that time 115 cases of drunken- 
ness have been brought before me rather more 
than 1 a day out of 450 men. There is no passing 
cases over ; every man who comes home drunk is 

Camp, 24 December, 1855. 

I suppose you see by my letters that we are all 
getting on famously now, the men well fed, clothed, 
easily worked, and very well. Long may it last ! 
About a third of the army is still under canvas, and 
must remain so for the rest of the winter ; but the 
men in tents have double tents and wooden floors 
to keep them off the damp ground, so they are not 
to be pitied. Most of the officers have built 
tolerably comfortable huts for themselves. Govern- 
ment have given us none, as we were led to expect. 
Guessing as much, I encouraged the officers to 
build for themselves, giving them every assistance. 
The consequence is that they are mostly housed, 
and very comfortable the houses are. VVe get 
supplies enough now, paying enormous prices for 
everything, especially at this time ; but they must 
be had. Our weather hitherto on the state of 
which so much of our comfort depends has been 
very fine. Of late we have had the thermometer as 
low as 6 below zero, but it is healthy weather ; 
although too cold for pleasure, it is better than wet. 
We are looking out for some more promotions 
coming out. The last Brevet did nothing for not 
the least deserving men in the army the command- 
ing officers of regiments and we all confidently 
expect something to be done for us. 

Camp, 4 February. 1856. 

What do you all think about this peace ? The first 
accounts we received took us all by surprise, and gave 
universal satisfaction here with a few exceptions 
every one was pleased, all being tired of the war. 
I must confess that my first feeling was of sorrow 
when I heard that peace was to be. "Our occu- 
pation's gone," was my thought. I thought of self 
first, but I soon changed my mind, and if peace is 

* Sir Wm. Codrington, K.C.B., who succeeded 
i James Simpson as Commander-in-Chief. 
t Sir Colin Campbell, afterwards Lord Clyde. 

s. iii. FEB. 11, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


established. I shall be as glad as my neighbours. 
We should have had a splendid army about 
70,000 English in tip-top order, besides Turkish 
contingent and Germans. We were busy looking 
to our men's appointments, &c., to be ready for the 
field, and are so still ; but can't enter into the spirit 
of the thing, knowing that it will be of no use. We 
may have one more campaign, and, if so, you will 
see what our arms can do. If one only reflects on 
the dreadful waste of life caused by war, he never 
would wish for its prolongation. For instance, 
take the case of the 46th Regiment : 

Left England from first to last (exclusive of 

officers) 1,287 

Died in camp 270 

In hospital at Scutari 288 

Invalided to England (many of 

whom died) 185 

752 752 

Our present strength 535 

And there are many regiments have been as much 
cut up a sad waste of life, so the sooner it is over 
the better. 

T. F. D. 

HALL. The much-discussed proposal of Mr. 
Bennett to build a new bridge across the 
Thames east of Somerset House, and erect 
thereon an arcaded building to accommodate 
the London County Council and its staff, has 
not as yet been recorded in these pages. The 
principal features of the structure are to be 
its fine hall, a tower rising 445 ft. from the 
bridge, and the entire use of its roadway for 
electric trams, &c., with footpaths on either 

The whole suggestion has been described 
in some detail and illustrated in The Daily 
Graphic, 7 January, Daily Chronicle and 
Morning Leader, 9 January. 

Mr. Bennett refers to old London Bridge 
and the existing Ponte Yecchio at Florence 
as suggestions of this ambitious scheme, but 
he apparently quite overlooked the proposal 
brought forward by Mr. Thomas Mosley, 
civil engineer, of Bristol, who in 1843 
suggested improving Waterloo Bridge in 
almost an identical manner. The Pictorial 
Times for 5 August, 1843, contains three 
excellent illustrations and a long explanatory 
note of the idea : 

" The first sketch represents the elevation of a 
structure proposed and designed by Mr. Thomas 

Mosley to^be erected over the whole length and 

breadth of Waterloo Bridge, constituting a room or 

gallery with an uninterrupted promenade in the 

middle of the room the whole length of the building. 
It is also proposed to construct a conservatory over 
the room extending the length of the three centre 

arches The fabric will be supported either 

entirely by cast-iron pillars and arches or by a 

combination of stone and iron The room or 

gallery is proposed to be appropriated to the 
exhibition and sale of works of art, scienae, and 
literature, from all parts of the world, and to be 
denominated the European Universal Gallery [:]. 

The undertaking is an extensive one ; but as 

the bridge has hitherto, in a monetary point of 
view, been a failure, it is more than probame that 
the projected change will be made, since the rent 
of the proposed arcade would be a source of 
permanent revenue.' 1 

The design was submitted to Prince Albert,, 
but it did not advance beyond the discussion 
stage. Probably it was too bold an under- 
taking for the times. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

whole of the district in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Abbey is of much 
interest, but perhaps Great College Street 
and some of the adjacent streets nave the 
greatest claim upon our attention, for there- 
abouts have been found, at different times,, 
many evidences clearly bringing out the 
antiquity of this spot. The hand of the 
spoiler has been sadly felt here, and to all 
appearance will, in the near future, be laid 
heavily upon it again. In my various notes 
on 'Westminster Changes' I have alluded 
to much that has been begun, and the shoring- 
up of other houses indicates that much more 
is intended. I now wish merely to call 
attention to some of the relics of the past 
found in the small area bounded by Tuftort 
Street (a portion of which was long known 
as Bowling Street, and yet earlier as Bowling. 
Alley) on the west, the mill-stream or Great 
College Street (which figures on so many 
old maps as the " Dead Wall ") on the north., 
and Barton Street on the east. This plot of 
ground had upon it many houses, in two 
blocks, divided by a little court or alley, now- 
done away with and built over, known as 
Black Dog Alley (see 10 th S. ii. 5, 118, 174). 
Most of the houses were of reputed eighteenth- 
century work, although experts haveexpressed 
an opinion that there were traces in some of 
them pointing to a seventeenth - century 
origin. This space of ground has been 
cleared, and upon it have been erected a 
house for the Cowley Fathers, and a building 
to be utilized by Westminster School. The 
old mill-stream formerly meandered along 
the line of Great College Street, and during 
recent excavations traces were noticed of a 
brick culvert or bridge; and in what was 
formerly the course of the stream were dis- 
covered a variety of small articles, while 
others were found within a score of feet 
thereof. These were shown at a recent 
meeting of the Architectural Association by 
Mr. E. Prioleau \Yarren, who had prepared 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io- s. m. FKB. n, 1005. 

a paper on them, but on account of his illness 
it had to be read for him. There were several 
pieces of pottery, some spoons, knives, and 
a few glass bottles. Some of the spoons were 
of pewter, others of brass. Upon a few 
were initials, one being marked with "S. G.," 
and another with " H." To these the date of 
the middle of the seventeenth century has 
been assigned. One is marked with " T. S.," 
and is thought to belong to the period 
1680-90. The knives were considered to 
belong mostly to the seventeenth century, 
but one is, not improbably, of an earlier 
date. The author of the paper bought a 
"greybeard" jug, which when purchased 
was corked down, and when opened was 
found to contain a variety of small articles ; 
and he says that he has little doubt " as to 
the nature of this deposit inside a corked 
jug, found in the clay of the mill-stream 
bank." The articles were " a small piece of 
cloth or serge formerly red of the shape 
of a heart, and stuck full of round-headed 
brass pins, a small quantity of supposed 
human hair, and some clippings of finger- 
nails." Mr. Warren thinks that they con- 
stituted a "malevolent charm," the intended 
victim of which was most likely a woman. 
These old-world relics are of vast interest, 
but probably the most interesting was a 
portion of the shrine of St. Edward, which 
it is supposed was carried away at the time 
of the Reformation. It is pleasing to be 
able to record, upon the authority of the 
Dean of Westminster, that this fragment 
has been restored to the Abbey authorities. 

For the particulars here given I am 
indebted to Mr. Reuben Vlrich, who was 
present at the^meeting, and I thought the 
matter of sufficient interest for preservation 
in <N. &.Q.' W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 


SHAP, WESTMORLAND. I beg to point out 
to Mr. R. D. Trimmer and Mr. 0. G. Crump 
<see ' Calendar of Charter Rolls,' 1903, i. 594), 
to Father Gasquet (see Transactions Royal 
Historical Society, xvii. 3, and ' Collectanea 
Anglo-Prsemonstratensia,' i. viii.), and to all 
others whom it may concern, that the village 
and abbey of Shap are in the county \of 
Westmorland. As a matter of fact they are 
at least six miles from the nearest point in 
Cumberland, to which county they are 
ascribed by the gentlemen in question. 
There seems no adequate reason for depriv- 
ing Westmorland of the only monastery it 
possesses. Q. V. 

attention has been drawn to the following 

singular address to Bacon, which appears on 
the third leaf of ' The Attourney's Academy,' 
by Thomas Powell, third edition, 4to, 1030 : 

" To true Nobility and Tryde Learning, beholden 
to no Mountaine for Eminence, nor supportment 
for his Height, Francis, Lord Verulam, and 
Viscount St. Albanes. 

give me leave to pull the Curtaine by, 
That clouds thy worth in such obscurity, 
Good Seneca, stay but a while thy bleeding 
T' accept what I received at thy Reading : 
Here I present it in a solemne straine, 

And thus I pluckt the Curtayne back agaiue. 
The same 

Thomas Powell." 

1 do not think that this passage has yet been 
used by any of the Bacon-Shakespeare advo- 
cates, though it is pretty sure to be no%v 
seized upon by them. I do not myself think 
that it lends any fresh support to their cause, 
though it may, no doubt, be so handled as to 
seem to do so. Powell has other dedications 
or addresses couched in somewhat similarly 
mysterious terms, so that we need not lay too 
much stress upon this one. As I conceive, 
the lines mean no more than that Powell, 
considering that Bacon, like Seneca, was 
unjustly degraded and punished, offers him 
the assurance of his gratitude for the instruc- 
tion which he had received from him, either 
orally or from his writings ; and also expresses 
his unabated faith in the worth and integrity 
of his preceptor. But I am not sanguine 
enough to hope that so simple an explana- 
tion as this will be accepted by the Baconians. 


THE CHINOOK JARGON. In most parts of 
the world, where Englishmen come into 
regular contact with native races, some form 
of mixed language springs up as a means of 
communication. Pidgin English is the best 
known, and has been exhaustively illustrated 
by Leland in his 'Pidgin English Sing-Song.' 
Even more curious is the Chinook Jargon, 
which has been an object of interest to 
philologists for a century; but it is only since 
the discovery of gold in the Yukon territory 
that it has penetrated to any extent into our 
literature. Our dictionaries have not as yet 
included much Chinook only a few botanical 
terms, names of roots and fruits, such as 
camas,2)owitch,iva2)p&too. The general reader, 
however, now finds Chinook words, not only 
in works of travel, but especially in the con- 
stantly swelling volume of fiction written 
around the Klondyke. There is one novel 
with a Chinook title, ' The Chicamon Stone,' 
by C. Phillipps-Wolley, chicamon being the 
jargon word for "gold." And I cherish the 
memories of at least two heroines with 
Chinook names, viz., Jack London's Tenas 

s. m. FEB. ii, i90o.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hee-hee ("Little Laughter") and Elizabeth 
Robins's Princess Muckluck. One need only 
turn over the fine stories of these two authors 
to become quite learned in the jargon. One 
favourite expression is che-cha-quo, as London 
writes it, although it is really two words, 
and not three (eke, new, and chaquo, come). 
Elizabeth Robins spells it c/ieckalko, where 
the I is intended to be silent, and she often 
uses it attributively, e.g., "chechalko boots" 
(' Magnetic Xorth,'p. 31), " checJialko persons," 
&c. It means a greenhorn, new-comer, tender- 
foot, the "griffin " of Anglo-Indians. Potlach 
is a gift, the "curashaw" of Pidgin English. 
Puck-a-puck is a fight, and muck-a-muck means 
food generally, corresponding to Pidgin Eng- 
lish chow-chow. Turn-turn is the heart, and, 
according to Mr. Hale, is intended to repre- 
sent its beating, but we have a shrewd sus- 
picion that it is just our own "tummy." 
tiiwash, a term applied to Indians of different 
tribes, is said to be from the French sauvaye. 
There are several Russian and Siberian words 
still current in Alaska, relics of the Russian 
occupation. Our novelists use bidarra (canoe), 
2wka (fur coat), and tundra (moorlands), 
which are Russian, while shaman (sorcerer) 
and nerka fa kind of salmon) are Tunguse. 

WK must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be sent to them 

"MASKYLL." In a petition of the Commons 
dated 1432 ('Rolls of Parliament,' iv. 405), 
which complains of deterioration in the 
quality of the wines of Saxony and 
Guienne, it is stated that these wines 
had formerly not more than four or five 
inches of lees in the "tonne maskyll," and 
three or four inches in the pipe. What 
was the "tonne maskyll"? and what is the 
etymology of the distinguishing epithet? 
Are there any other instances in which this 
term is used, either in English or in any 
other language 1 HEXRY BRADLEY. 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

QUEEX OF DUXCAX II. Who was the 
Queen of King Duncan II. of Scotland, d. 
1094] It has been very generally assumed 
that King Duncan married Ethelreda of 
Duubar, daughter of Earl Gospatric and 
sister of Waldef I. of Allerdale. The autho- 
rity for this marriage appears to be a docu- 
ment known as the ' Cronicon Cumbria?,' of 

which there seem to be three versions. The 
copy in Dugdale has the following paragraph 
relating to the marriage and connexion with 
Waldef and his son Alan : 

"Cui Alauo successit Willelmus films Doncani, 
comes de Murreyse, nepos ipsius Alani et hreres, 
procreatus ex Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui." 
' Monasticon, 3 iii. p. 585. 

The .copy in Canon Prescott's 'Register of 
Wetheral Priory ' has not got the final words 
" patris sui," but the deed by Bain from 
the Tower Records has, and it may be given 
here as it is practically a translation : 

" And William FitzDuncan, formerly Earl of 
Murreve [Moray], nephew of said Alan, begotten 
of Ethelreda, sister of his father Waldeve, suc- 
ceeded to Alan. 1 ' ' Calendar of Documents,' ii. p. 16. 

The extraordinary thing is that Mr. Bain 
overlooked the absurdity of the document or 
translation, for how could William Fitz- 
Duncan the alleged son of Alan's aunt be 
Alan's nephew] A short tabular pedigree 
makes the point more clear: 



Alan William FitzDuncan. 

But there is another confusing point : in 
the Dugdale and Prescott copies of the docu- 
ment it is stated that Octreda, i.e. Ethelreda, 
married Waldeve, son of Gilmin. It there- 
fore seems clear that the ' Cronicon Gumbrise ' 
must not be trusted where it is not corrobo- 
rated by other deeds. A further instance 
of its untrustworthy character may be given. 
William FitzDuncau is said to have married 
Alice, daughter of Robert de Rumely, and 
the editors of ' Scottish Kings ' and the ' Scots 
Peerage ' have been misled into adopting that 
view. But Alice de Rumeli in her charter to 
St. Bees gives her father's name as William 

It appears to me extremely doubtful that 
King Duncan married Ethelreda, sister of 
Waldef, and it would be interesting to dis- 
cover the name of his queen. The fact that 
Duncan was Earl of Moray before he suc- 
ceeded to the throne suggests an alliance 
between him and the daughter of Lulach of 
Moray. This point is of the utmost import- 
ance, and curiously enough it has been totally 
overlooked by Scots genealogists. The mere 
fact that Duncan was Earl of Moray settles 
the real origin of the Morays, for the identity 
of Alexander de Moravia (1089-1150), the 
ancestor of the Moray s of Skelbo and Culbin, 
can no longer remain uncertain. He was be- 
yond doubt son of Duncan, and identical with 
Alexander, the nephew of King Alexander, 
who attested the foundation charter of Scone 


NOTES AND QUERIES, cio* s. m. FEB. n, 1905. 

in 1116. Alexander de Moravia evidently 
held out against King Alexander in Suther- 
land, the country of his grandmother Ingi- 
biorg. Sir .Robert Gordon, in his original 
MS. of the 'Earldom of Sutherland,' makes 
an Alexander first of the family, and there 
can be little doubt that Alexander de Moravia 
was lord of Sutherland, because about 120C 
Hugh Freskin conveyed half of Sutherland 
to St. Gilbert, who gave the lands to his 
brother Sir Richard de Moravia, of Skelbo 
and Culbin. As St. Gilbert and Sir Richard 
were grandsons of Alexander, the princely 
gift can only be explained on the ground 
that they had some hereditary right to the 
district. As most of the great houses oi 
Murray* descend from Skelbo and Culbin it 
would be well to ascertain further proof of 
the latter's descent from Duncan, as well as 
the real name of Duncan's queen. 

D. M. R. 

edition of the ' Explanatio in Psalterium ' by 
Turrecremata, of which Zapf has given an 
account. It is also noticed by General 
Hawkins in his work on early printing. It 
bears the imprint Craca. The British 
Museum has recently acquired another book 
viz., Franciscus de Platea, 'Restitutiones,' 
&c. printed in the same types as the 
' Explanatio.' _ It bears the date 1475, but 
no place of printing, and it has a watermark, 
the cross-keys looped, found in books printed 
in^Poland. At the end of the work are two 
shields exactly similar in form to those used 
by Peter Schoeffer. The dexter shield bears 
the letters I H C, the sinister the single initial 
M. Can any reader inform me what these 
letters stand for 1 I am much interested in 
finding out. S. J. ALDEICH. 

Mr. Fraser Rae was, as is well known, 
a persistent investigator of the mystery 
surrounding the authorship of the Junius 
letters. Though he succeeded in putting 
some of the suspects out of court, he added 
others, and so left the question in the same 
perplexing obscurity. Lately in conversation 
he hinted that he knew who the writer of the 
letters was, but when asked why he did not 
disclose the fact he replied, " That 's a card I 
mean to keep up my sleeve." Among the 
papers Mr. Rae left behind him, can any 
confirmation be found for the above state- 
ment ? T 


your readers tell me when this gentleman 
died, and where he was buried ? In his day 

Joseph Parkins was a notorious character. 
He was elected Sheriff of London in 
1819, and at the end of his term of office 
was censured by the Court of Common 
Council. Henceforth he was always known 
as " the Ex," or the " XXX Sheriff." For 
some time he was the champion of Olive, 
" Princess of Cumberland," and he was also 
on the side of Queen Caroline. During the 
Fauntleroy sensation he was very prominent. 
In 1825 he came forward as a candidate for 
Carlisle. For many years the London papers 
were full of his letters. Once he thrashed 
the editor of The Morning Herald ; he engaged 
in fisticuffs frequently with those who 
differed from him ; he often appeared in the 
law courts. When did this remarkable man 
die ? H. W. B. 

American readers would often be assisted 
in making researches upon English topics if 
there was available a fairly complete list of 
English local Notes and Queries, including 
not only separate periodicals, properly so 
designated, but the names of newspapers 
conducting 'Xotes and Queries' columns. 
The list should give the usual bibliographical 
information as to style and place of publica- 
tion, date commenced, and date discontinued, 
if no longer current. I should like to see 
some attempts made, with the Editor's per- 
mission, to compile such a list. 

Chicago, U.S. 

[Lists appeared 8" 1 S. ii. 423, 509, and a correction 
at iii. 73. The demands on our space prevent us 
from reprinting those lists, but room may be found 
for supplementary contributions, such as Yorkshire. 
Notes and Queries, noticed 10 th S. i. 320.] 

" CARENTINILLA." This word, correctly 
rendered " canvas " by Trice-Martin's 'Record 
Interpreter ' (it is not in Du Cange), occurs 
not infrequently in English documents, as 
the material for " wool-sheets." Was it an 
English fabric ? The distinctive part of the 
name is clearly derived from quadraainta ; 
but does it mean that there were forty threads 
to the inch, or forty to the nail ? Q. V. 

GOLD v. SILVER. Do the relative quantities 
of gold and silver known to exist correspond 
approximately to the relative conventional 
values of those metals ? A. S. P. 

' GOD SAVE THE KING.' I desire a referen c e 
to what appeared to be an authoritative pro- 
nouncement, in the form of an official letter, 
in the public prints of 1901 or 1902, as to the 
roper rendering of the opening lines of 
PGod save the King.' Is the right version 

io* 8. in. FEB. 11, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that with " noble " in the first two lines, as 
superseding the " gracious " which was 
adopted through the reign of Queen Victoria ? 
I think so, but have not found the published 
letter above named. W. B. H. 

was assassinated at Portsmouth by John 
Felton on 23 August, 1628. Charles I., being 
then at Southwick (about six miles^ from 
Portsmouth), the seat of Sir Daniel Norton, 
had notice of the event sent to him. 

Is it known who took that notice to the 
king ? and if so, who was he 1 C. MASON. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

WILLIAM SYMSON. I possess a copy of 
4 The Christian Synagogue,' by John Weemse, 
of Lathoquar, 1623. In this volume an intro- 
ductory letter is signed William Symson. 
Will any one kindly tell me who he was and 
where an account of him may be found ? 

W. S. 

" There never was anything by the wit of man 
so well devised or so sure established which in con- 
tinuance of time hath not been corrupted." 

W. T. L. 
[Part of the Preface to the Prayer Book.] 

"LAMB" IN PLACE - NAMES. Would any 
reader be kind enough to give me informa- 
tion on this subject ? I am already aware 
that there is a Lamb-ley in Northumber- 
land and in Notts ; a Lambs-ley in the Isle 
of Wight ; a Lamb-(b)rook in Somerset ; and 
a Lamb-(b)ourn and a Lamb-wood in Berks, 
tfcc. But I should be glad to know of other 
instances, especially of a Lamb-hill, Lamb- 
well or Lambs- well, or of a Lamb-spring. 

"Well"' and "spring" not infrequently 
occur in place-names, but I have never come 
across (in England) a Lambs-well or a Lamb- 
spring. Though beside the point rather, I 
may add that there is an interesting inn 
sign at Frome, in Somerset, called, not " The 
Lamb and Flag," but "The Lamb and 
Fountain." B. W. 

Fort Augustus. 

FITZ WARINE FAMILY. It is generally 
accepted that Warine, founder of the baronial 
house of Fitz Warine, was a member of the 
ruling family of Lorraine. If, as seems pro- 
bable, and as Eyton suggests, he is identical 
with Warine the Sheriff, from the charters 
in Dugdale's ' Monasticon,' he had a brother 
named Reginald, and a son named Hugh. As 
he must be considered the patriarch of the 
Quarterly per fesse indented cult in armorial 
descent, it is a question of interest to defi- 
nitely ascertain his parentage. Perhaps some 

of his descendants who are more familiar 
with early continental pedigrees than I am 
may be able to assist. H. R. LEIGHTON. 
East Boldon R.S.O., Durham. 

MIDDLETON. The claim, under this family 
name, in re the late New River Company, is 
indisputable ; but Stow tells of a John Mid- 
dleton who brought a water supply from 
Highbury to Cripplegate about 1483. Is this 
worthy recorded historically ? A. H. 

About forty years ago a song was common 
in Liverpool and district having the refrain, 
" When our dear old Catholic fathers ruled in 
Ireland long time ago," or words to that 
effect. What was the poem ] or in what 
book may a copy of it be seen 1 C. W. 

"On! THE PILGRIMS OF ZiON." Can any 
of your readers inform me if the following, 
which appears in the commencement of 
'The Wages of Sin,' by Lucas Malet, is by 
her, or only quoted ? 

Oh ! the pilgrims of Zion will find a sure rest ; 
Shout to the Lord of glory ! 

Like tired birds in a swinging nest, 

They'll be cradled to sleep on Abraham's breast. 
Shout to the Lord of glory ! 

I asked the question at 9 th S. x. 408, but 
failed to receive a reply. E. M. SOTHEBY. 


Will any of your readers kindly inform us, 
directly if possible, who wrote a short poem 
commencing with this line, and in what 
work it can be found ? 

L. STANLEY JAST, Chief Librarian. 
Croydon Public Libraries. 


(10 th S. iii. 30.) 

PROBABLY no more definite information as 
to this font exists, or is obtainable, than was 
brought together in a contribution to the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland by Wil- 
liam Galloway, architect, which appears on 
pp. 287-302 of the first volume of the new 
series of their Proceedings, 1878-9. He nar- 
rates the accredited gift of " the gret brasyn 
fount" by Abbot Bellenden to Holyrood 
Abbey towards the close of the fifteenth 
century ; its being carried away, with other 
loot, by Sir Richard Lee, of Sopwell, who 
accompanied Hertford's destructive invasion 
of Scotland in 1544 ; its presentation by him 
to the parish church of St. Stephen at St. 
Albans (along with the brass lectern, still 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io< s. m. F C . 11, 1905. 

there, which was looted at the same time) ; 
the inscription lie put upon it that, originally 
designed for the baptism only of the children 
of kings, it now offers the same service for 
the meanest of the English ; and its ultimate 
melting down into money in the reign of 
Charles I. during the Civil Wars, a century 

There appears to be no actual description 
of the font. It is variously called a fair font 
of solid brass, a very noble font of solid brass, 
an eminent font of solid brass, and a curious 
work of gilded brass. J. L. ANDERSON. 


The following is from a paper by Mr. 
Galloway, architect, which was read at a 
meeting of the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland, held at Edinburgh, 11 April, 

"Apart from any conjectures as to its history, 
this lectern is of special interest as being the only 
known example formerly pertaining to Scotland 
which has escaped the disastrous issues of civil 
and religious commotions. Its history is very sin- 
gular. About the year 1750, when a grave was 
being dug in the chancel of St. Stephen's Church, 
St. Albans, Hertfordshire, the lectern was found 
buried in the soil. It is supposed to have been 
thus concealed at some time during the Civil Wars. 
It is of cast brass, and of a handsome design, con- 
sisting of an eagle with expanded wings supported 
by a shaft decorated with several groups of mould- 
ings, partly circular and partly hexagonal. The 
eagle stands upon a globe, and the shaft has been 
originally supported on three feet, which are now 
gone. In its present state the lectern is five feet 
seven inches in total height. It bears the inscrip- 
tion, Oeorffius Creichtoun, Episcopus Dunkeldensis. 
He died 24th January, 1543, and previous to his 
elevation to the see of Dunkeld he had been Abbot 
of Holyrood. The probability therefore is, that the 
lectern had been presented to Holyrood by the 
Abbot on his elevation to the see of Dunkeld, and 
that it was taken from Holyrood by Sir Richard 
Lee, who accompanied the Earl of Hertford in his 
invasion of Scotland in 1543. On his return, Sir 
Richard presented to the parish church of St. 
Albans a brazen font bearing a magniloquent in- 
scription, to the effect that though previously 
designed for the baptism only of the children of 
kings, it now, in gratitude for its rescue from the 
fire which consumed Edinburgh and Leith, per- 
formed the same service for the meanest of the 
English. This font, which was doubtless abstracted 
from Holyrood, is no longer known to exist, and 
there seems no reason to doubt that the lectern, 
which was saved by being buried during the Civil 
Wars, was abstracted at the same time, and given 
to the parish church of St. Albans by the donor of 
the font." 

The "gret brasin fownt" is said to have 
been the gift of Robert Bellenden when he 
was Abbot of Holyrood, about the year 1490. 

W. S. 

In ' St. Albans, Historical and Picturesque,' 
by Messrs. Ashdown and Kitton (1893), will 

be found (p. 89) the following reference to 
this font : 

" The far-famed brass font of S. Alban's Abbey 
perished in the Cromwellian period. Sir Richard 
Lee is said to have brought away as spoil from 
Scotland a richly decorated brass font, in which 
the children of the Kings of Scotland were wont to 
be baptised, and it was presented by him to the 
Abbey Church. Camden, who published his 
' Britannia ' in 1586, speaks of this font. Norden 
mentions it, and also quotes the inscription upon 
it ; and Weever states it to have been in the 
church in his time, 1631. It was removed during 
the Civil War by one Hickman (see Newcpurt's 
' Repertorium '), an ironmonger, and a Justice of 
the Peace, who, in his Puritan zeal, probably 
smashed it and converted into money the material 
of which it was made. A vyooden one, of the same 
shape (see Fuller's 'Worthies'), supplied its place 
until a marble one of Georgian style surmounting 
a slender pillar, still preserved in the building, 
was substituted. The inscription upon Lee's gift, 
as printed in Norden, reads : ' Cum Letha oppiduin 
apud Scotos non incelebre et Edenburgus primaria 
apud eos ciuitas, incendio conflagrarent, Richardus 
Leus eques auratus me flammis ereptum ad Anglps_ 
perduxit. Huius ego beneficij memor, non nisi 
Regum liberos lauare solitus, nunc meam operam 
etiam infimis Anglorum libenter condixi. Leus 
victor sic voluit. Anno domini M.D.XLIIII & Hen- 
rici Octaui xxxvi.'" 

Further, on p. 176 we read : 

" Sir Richard Lee came from an old Sussex family 

and probably lived at St. Albans previous to 

the grant to him of the Nunnery [Sopwell] 

He accompanied the expedition under the Earl of 
Hertford to Scotland in 1547 |_?]t and in the plunder 
of Edinburgh brought away from Holyrood the 
curious font of brass, adorned with embossed 
figures, which was used in the Abbey Church until 
Cromwell's time, when it disappeared. (See Ne\v- 
come's ' Abbey of St. Albans,' A.D. 1795.) There is 
every likelihood that the curious eagle lectern now 
in St. Stephen's Church (St. Albans) formed part 
of the Scotch plunder of Sir Richard." 

Newcome, the historian referred to above, 
remarks (p. 469) : 

"On this expedition he [Sir Richard] accom- 
panied the army into Scotland, and, in the plunder 
of Edinburgh, brought away from Holyrood House 
a curious font of brass, adorned with figures 
embossed. He afterwards set this font up in the 
Abbey Church. It had on it a proud inscription 
(see Camden) ' that it had served for the baptizing 
the king's children in Scotland.' But this privi- 
lege, though it raised veneration in the minds of 
the pious, yet could not save it from the rapine of 
Cromwell's soldiers, after being used in the church 
about 100 years." 

This author records (p. 471), "Sir Richard 
had a very handsome wife (whose maiden 
name was Margaret Greenfield), who was in 
no small favour with the king." The knight 
died in 1575, "and was buried in the chancel 
of St. Peter's Church (St. Albans), where 
also, in the same vault, were deposited the 
bodies of his wife and two daughters." 

10* s. m. FEB. 11. loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Although old leaden fonts are by no means 
rare, I know of no ancient brazen one in 
this county, nor does Paley ('Illustrations 
of Baptismal Fonts,' 1844) refer to the 
existence of any. I have, however, seen 
bronze ones abroad. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

On the occasion of my first pilgrimage to 
Edinburgh, many years ago, I purchased in the 
course of my rambles in Holyrood Palace a 
little book of 192 pages, entitled "History of 
Holyrood, with Descriptive Guide and Cata- 
logue of Portraits and Paintings. Edinburgh: 
lloberfc M'Bean, Keeper of the Chapel-Royal "; 
and the following excerpt therefrom may 
perhaps interest Q. W. V. : 

'The successor of Archibald Crawford, who 
died in 1483, as Abbot of Holyrood, was Robert 
Bellenden, an ecclesiastic distinguished by his 
humanity to the poor and his liberality to the 
Abbey, which he covered with lead. Among his 
munificent gifts were the 'great bells,' the 'great 
brass font,' and a ' chalice of fine gold.' The font 
is probably the one which Sir Richard Lea, Captain 
of Pioneers in the Hertford invasion, carried off 
' in the tumult of the conflagation,' and which he 
presented to the church of St. Albans, with the 
magniloquent inscription engraved on it which 
Cam den has preserved. The Scottish font is made 
most unpatriotically to say (luckily in Latin) : 

' ' When Leith, a town of good account in Scot- 
land, and Edinburgh, the principal city of that 
nation, were on tire, Sir Richard Lea, Knyght, 
saved me out of the flames, and brought me to 
England. In gratitude for his kindness, I, who 
heretofore served only at the baptism of kings, do 
now most willingly render the same service even to 
the meanest of the English nation. Lea the con- 
queror hath so commanded ! Adieu. The year of 
man's salvation, 1543-4, in the thirty-sixth year of 
King Henry VIII.' 

4i This font was afterwards conquered by the 
Roundheads, and sold as old metal." See p. 24. 

119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

[MR. ANDREW OLIVER also refers to Mr. Gallo- 
way's paper.] 

CANNON (10 th S. iii. 89). Every history of the 
submarine and many have come out lately 
mentions the offer of them by an inventor to 
the Governments of the United States,France, 
and the United Kingdom. They were tried 
and rejected by Pitt, and tried and for a time 
adopted by Napoleon. Considering the 
difficulties of the original invention, the 
development of the submarine a century ago 
was most remarkable. D. 

" THE HUNGRY FORTIES " (10 th S. iii. 87). 
The origin of the title, as far as I am aware, is 
to be found in a letter addressed to an anti- 
bread tax meeting at the Free Trade Hall, 
Manchester, about eighteen months ago, by 

my wife. I believe this is the first time it 
was used, and by Mrs. Unwin. My wish is 
to fix the origin of the title once and for all ; 
it has now become a phrase in literature, and 
I hear it everywhere quite apart from the 
book. Mr. Chamberlain himself has used it 
more than once. T. FISHER UNWIN. 

HERALDIC MOTTOES (10 th S. iii. 49, 92). 
MR. LLEWELYN LLOYD will find a list of 
punning mottoes at 7 th S. v. 401. 

PI. K. H. 

88). Sothern lived for many years at a 
beautiful house, with a garden in front and 
in the rear, called The Cedars, South Ken- 
sington. I stayed with him there often 
between 1865 and 1872. H. A. STRONG. 

A curious slip has occurred in the note to 
my short communication. Kensington should, 
of course, stand for " Hampstead. :> We have 
Lanes in this delightful suburb, but not a 
Wright's Lane that I am aware of. 


[The slip is ours. We dined more than once with 
Sothern in Wright's Lane, Kensington.] 

CON- CONTRACTION (10 th S. ii. 427). Qui- 
RINUS asks whether the letter C was ever 
known as "the horn." It is so referred to 
in ' Love's Labour 's Lost,' where we have 
" What is AB spelt backward with the horn 
on his head ? " 

AB spelt backward is BA 

and the words " horn J represent .f C^ 

The words quoted occur in the 33rd line of 
I their page in the First Folio, and 33 is the sum 
of the position-numbers, in the twenty-four- 
letter alphabet in use in 1623, of the five 
letters given above, thus : 

2 1 3 14 13=33 
B A C X. 


JOHN WESLEY AND GARDENS (10 th S. i. 349). 
James Gordon, the " eminent " nurseryman 
of Mile End, is mentioned frequently by 
botanical writers. Peter Coliinson (Lysons's 
'Environs of London,' supplement, p. 447), 
writing in 1764, describes him as "most 
celebrated." Lysons (p. 147) says he first 
introduced the Sophora, japonica into Eng- 
land ; and (p. 492) that he had his grounds. 
in the parish of Stratford, Bow, and St. 
Leonard's, Bromley. He was "well known 
for his extensive culture of exotic plants." 
According to the ' Annual Register ' he gave 
his name to the well-known order of plants 
called Gordonia, about 1776. He is men- 
tioned in Richard Wesfcon'a ' Critical Remarks 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io"> s. in. FEB. n, 1905. 

on Botanical Writers,' a propos of Miller's 
'Gardener's Dictionary.' The Gentleman's 
Mag. of 1781 records the death, at Barking, 
of Mr. James Gordon, senior, the " ingenious 
and eminent botanist," 20 January. The will 
of James Gordon, nurseryman, Fountain- 
bridge, Edinburgh, was proved 6 April, 1788. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

(>9). Royal regiments received that prefix 
as a token of the sovereign's favour and 
appreciation of their achievements in arms. 
These regiments are distinguished by their 
dark blue facings and the scarlet band 
(except in Scotch and Rifle Regiments) 
round the forage caps of ranks that wear the 
peaked cap. To be exact, the same facings 
are worn by six other regiments, which are 
not styled " Royal," but bear the appellation 
of the Sovereign or Consort, as " The King's " 
(8th), " The Prince Albert's " (13th), &c. 

The following is a list of the Royal Regi- 
ments forty years ago : 1st (The Royal 
Regiment), 2nd (The Queen's Royal Regi- 
ment), 6th (The Royal 1st Warwickshire), 
7th (Royal Fusiliers), 18th (Royal Irish), 
21st (Royal North British Fusiliers), 23rd 
(Royal Welsh Fusiliers), 35th (The Royal 
Sussex Regiment), 42nd (The Royal Highland 
Regiment), 60th (The King's Royal Rifle 
Corps), 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers), 100th 
(The Royal Canadian Regiment), 101st (Royal 
Bengal Fusiliers), 102nd (Royal Madras Fusi- 
liers), 103rd (Royal Bombay Fusiliers). In 
addition, the following were considered Royal 
Regiments : The King's Own (4th), The 
Queen's Own (50th), The King's Own Light 
Infantry (51st) ; the first two of which now 
bear the title of " Royal." H. P. L. 

" PHIL ELIA " (10 th S. ii. 527 ; iii. 36, 79). 
When Lamb wrote to his publisher John 
Taylor on the eve of publication of the 
'Essays of Elia' he enclosed a "Dedication 
to the friendly and judicious reader"; but 
before the letter was finished he decided it 
was not to be inserted in the book. He goes 
on : " The Essays want no Preface : they are 

all Prefate There will be a sort of Preface 

in the next Magazine which may act as 
an advertisement, but not proper for the 

The "sort of Preface" was 'A Character 
of the late Elia,' bearing the signature of 
"Phil-ffiia," and it was published in the 
January number of The London Magazine, 
1823. The essay appears to be so character- 
istic of Lamb's style that it is somewhat 
strange that it should ever have been 

ascribed to anybody else. The following letter 
seems to indicate that Lamb claimed it as 
his own. 

To Moxon, who published the ' Last Essays 
of Elia,' to which the 'Character' (slightly 
altered) appeared as the Preface, he wrote 
(1833) : " I send you the last proof not of 
my friendship pray see to the finish. I 
think you will see the necessity of adding 
those words after ' Preface ' and ' Preface ' 
should be in the Contents-table " (the italics are 
mine). The conclusion to be drawn from 
this, I am inclined to think, is that the " Pre- 
face" was to be understood as one of the 
'Last Essays,' and therefore written by 

S. BUTTERWORTH, Major R.A.M. Corps. 


"WASSAIL" (10 th S. ii. 503; iii. 9). The 
Icel. veizla would have given some such form 
as ivaissel, rather than ivaitsel, because the t 
would have been assimilated to the s. Com- 
pare the modern E. bless from O.E. ble'tsian. 

It is said that such a form as ivaitsel would 
not explain the ai in the second syllable. 
In the Yorkshire version of the carol which I 
have quoted there is no ai in the second 
syllable ; the forms are wessel, used as a sub- 
stantive, and wesselling, the participle of a 
verb. In discussing these words with a friend 
I was told that ivossel, instead of wassel, is 
often used in the Sheffield version of the 
carol, and I find that in the passage which 
Hearne quotes from Robert of Brunne the 
form wossaile occurs twice. PROF. SKEAT 
omits this in his prose version of the same 
passage given ante, p. 9. Yet this form 
strongly favours the derivation from Icel. 
veizla, because in Middle English we find 
such words as ston (the o being long) from 
O.E. stdn, O.N. steinn, stone. 

The woes hail of Layamon is merely an old 
" popular etymology," of no more value than 
Selden's wish-hail and the other curiosities 
which PROF. SKEAT refers to in his dictionary. 
As for the story about the British king 
Vortigern and Rowena, the less said about 
it the better. It comes from the romancers 
who invented the derivation of Britain from 
Brut, King of Troy, and of Ludgate from 
King Lud. 

The proposal to regard the Icel. veizla as 
the original of wassail gains weight from the 
fact that, in a Yorkshire version of the carol 
referred to, it is preceded by the adjective 
jolly, which may very well stand for a popular 
interpretation of Jala. In ' Eireks Saga 
RauSa' a splendid J6la-veizla is mentioned 
(" var fa buit til Jola-veizlu, ok var5 hon sva 

io* s. iii. FEB. ii, IMS.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


skorulig, at menn fottuz vart slika rausnar- 
veizlu set hafa' 1 ). It seems to me that this 
Jola-veizla is the jolly-wessel of the Yorkshire 
carol, which I have heard nearly every 
Christmas for the last fifty years, and that 
icassail is the perverted form of a word which 
would have been better written waissel or 
u'assel. Anthony Wood has preserved a carol 
beginning : 

A jolly Wassel Bo\vl, 

A Wassel of good ale, 
Well fare the butler's soul, 
That setteth this to sale 
Our jolly Wassel. 

See the whole carol in Brand, ' Popular 
Antiq.,' 1849, i. 5. 

I have just noticed that Mrs. Press, in her 
translation of ' Laxdcela Saga,' c. 26, renders 
veizla as uussail. This translation, published 
in 1899, appeared in a series called "The 
Temple Classics," edited by Prof. Gollancz. 
In a note at the end Prof. Gollancz says, 
"The manuscript translation has had the 
advantage of being revised by a competent 
Icelander." S. O. ADDY. 

BESANT (10 th S. iii. 28). A lady friend of 
the late Sir Walter and Lady Besanfc for 
thirty-five years informs me that they 
invariably pronounced their name with the 
accent on the second syllable Besant. T. 

BRITISH MEZZOTINTERS (10 th S. ii. 481, 521). 
MR. GORDON GOODWIN has been kind enough 
to answer my query as to Loggan's biography 
published in 'X. & Q. 1 in 1881 (6 tn S. iv. 90). 


ANTHONY BREWER (10 th S. ii. 468). The 
name of Brewer does not occur in any docu- 
ments relating to Newcastle-upon-Tyne to 
which, as a student of local history, I have 
had access. I think it hardly likely that the 
play of 'The Lovesick King,' published in 
London in 1655, was performed here at or 
about that period, and I find no record of it 
among the amusements of later date. My 
doubts are founded upon the following letter, 
which appeared in The Weekly Flying Post 
of 10 January, 1656, quoted by the late John 
Hodgson Hinde in the Archceologia JZliana, 
iv. p. 235 : 

" Letter from Newcastle-upon-Tyne. I send you 
a piece of exemplary justice, which as it sets an 
example to other magistrates of this nation, so also 
can no* be unfitly communicated to you. On the 
28th of December a cluster of lewd fellows, adver- 
tising to act a comedy within the precincts and 
bounds of this town, daring, as it were, authority, 
and outfacing justice ; our vigilant magistrates 
hearing of it, resolved to set a boundary to their 
sinful courses, and clip the harvest of their 
hopes ; concluding such enormities the proper 

nurseries of impiety, and therefore they repaired' 
to the place, where having begun, Alderman Robert 
Johnson, Mr. Sheriff, and divers godly men, step in 
to see their sport. But their sudden approach 
changed the scene both of their play and coun- 
tenances, so that the interlude, proving ominous, 
boded no less than a tragedy to the actors, turning 
the play into a tragi-comedy. After they had done, 
they were apprehended and examined before the 
Mayor and other Justices of the Peace, and found 
guilty of being common players of interludes, 
according to a statute made in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, and according to law adjudged to be 
whipped : which accordingly was performed in the 
public market-place, when a greafe concourse of 
people thronged to see them act the last part of their 
play, their robes of honour hanging in public view. 
Therefore let the nation know their names and 
habitations, that all that have converse with them 
may look upon them to be such as the laws of the 
land hath concluded them to be, rogues and vaga- 
bonds, as followeth : 

John Blaiklock of Jesmond. 

John Blaiklock, his son, both Papists. 

James Morehead of Newcastle. 

Edward Liddell of Jesmond, a Papist. 

James Edwards of Useburu. 

Thomas Rawkstraw of Newcastle. 

Richard Byerley of Useburn. 
All whipt in Newcastle for rogues and vagabonds." 

The full title of Brewer's play, according 
to Lpwndes, is ' The Love Sick King, an 
English Tragical History : with the Life and 
Death of Cartesmunda, the Fair Nun of 
Winchester.' RICHARD WELFORD. 


'HARDYKNUTE' (10 th S. ii. 425, 536; iii. 37). 
To charge a correspondent with imperfect 
knowledge is easy, out to demonstrate it is- 
not. The charge, supposed to have its base 
in my confession that I did not know 
Mr. Gosse's writing on the subject, is weak, 
because I was fully informed of the "definite 
conclusions" come to by that gentleman; 
and to those only did I refer. 

The charge that I ignored any part of the 
first note is incorrect, and what I am said 
to have ignored is not specifically named. 
When I referred to a writer who threshed 
the subject, was that not sufficient to guide 
those interested, and enable them to form 
their own opinion, independently of what I 
said or " inferred " ? 

What I, however, left readers to "infer" 
is only on a par with what was left for 
readers to surmise in the first note under 
this heading. It was my desire that readers 
should, as they had a right to, form their 
own conclusions from what evidence might 
be produced. I was quite aware of the 
quotation now given from Percy, and I am 
also aware that this quotation, in part, is 
discounted by the statement that Sir John 
Bruce " pretended " to have discovered the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10* s. in. FEB. n, IMS, 

" fragment in a vault at Dunfermline." I am 
quite pleased that those interested should 
judge between the notes under this heading, 
together with the authorities named. 


THE CHILTERN HUNDREDS (10 th S. ii. 441, 
516 ; iii. 18). MR. SHORE will find some 
appreciable additions to his information in 
the 'New English Dictionary,' s.v. 'Chiltern,' 
and in the works there cited. Q. V. 

DRYDEN PORTRAITS (10 th S. i. 368, 435 ; 
ii. 18). The portrait belonging to the Rev. 
John Dryden Pigott is probably at Sundorne 
Castle, near Shrewsbury, as that gentleman 
took the name of Corbet and succeeded to 
that estate. (Mrs.) HAUTENVILLE COPE. 

13c, Hyde Park Mansions, W. 

44, 173, 217, 252, 334 ; ii. 57, 194, 533). What 
is the source of the lines quoted by Dr. 
Forahaw at the head of his monthly collec- 
tion of curious epitaphs in Yorkshire Notes 
and Queries ? 

I copied the following rendering of the 
last two lines from an old stone in the 
southern portion of Lutterworth Church- 
yard, Leicestershire, in 1881 : 

Praise wrote on tombs is vainly spent ; 

A man's best deeds is his best monument." 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire, 

QUEEN'S SURNAME (10 th S. -ii. 529). What 
the surname of the Danish royal family is 
I do not know. But surely the querist is 
aware that the name of the present royal 
family in this country is not Guelph, but 
Wettin. Guelph was the name of the 
Hanoverian line, of which Queen Victoria 
was the last. Our King begins a new 
dynasty, which will probably be called by 
future historians the Saxe-Coburg (or per- 
haps the Gothic) dynasty, or some such 
distinctive name, as the name of the Angevin 
dynasty was taken from the father of 
Henry II. Our rulers have always retained 
their paternal name, whether Plantagenets, 
Tudors, Stuarts, Guelphs, or Wettins. 


.8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

KANT'S DESCENT (10 th S. ii. 488). The 
tradition that Kant was of Scottish descent 
is not injured by the name being found in 
Suffolk. Thousands of Scots are in that 
district to-day because of the fisheries. From 
there to Holland is an easy voyage, and I find 
"Andrew Kant" (or Cant) in 1721, of Dort, 
Holland, in Public Record Office Assignment 

Books, appointing attorneys in London to 
receive his Exchequer dividends. Some of 
the Cants voyaged from Leith to Norway 
and Sweden circa 1700. W. YOUNG. 

20, Hanover Street, N. 

Is MR. RIVERS acquainted with the infor- 
mation given in the question raised by a 
previous correspondent ? See 7 th S. viii. 267. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

MORTAR (10 th S. ii. 389, 455 ; iii. 34, 76). 
Reference having been made to the use of 
sugar in India as an ingredient in mortar, it 
may be worth adding that in The Times of 
13 and 16 October, 1886, appeared four letters 
headed ' A New Use for Sugar.' 

The first, signed Thomson Hankey, speaks 
of equal quantities of finely powdered lime 
and good brown sugar, mixed with water, 
producing a cement of exceptional strength, 
and of the said cement having been tried at 
Peterborough Cathedral, two large pieces of 
stone of the broken tracery of a window 
having been firmly joined together by sugared 
mortar. Mr. Hankey says that it has been 
successfully used for joining glass, the severest 
test. He states that the lime must be 
thoroughly slaked, and that he believes that 
sugar mortar will be found to be as good as 
Portland cement. He suggests that it is pro- 
bable that Portland cement would be made 
much stronger by the addition of sugar, and 
that treacle might have the same effect. It 
had been suggested to him that the use of 
sugar is the secret of the success of the old 
Roman mortar. 

The second letter, signed W. Robert Cornish, 
surgeon-general, says : " In India the practice 
of mixing 'jaggery,' or unrefined sugar, with 
mortar in certain proportions, is a very 
ancient one." He says also that in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, when Hyder 
Ali's horse threatened the settlement of 
Madras, the people were called upon to build 
a wall. This wall existed until 1859, when 
Sir Charles Trevelyan, the then Governor, 
had it removed. But so firmly was the brick- 
work held together that the greatest difficulty 
was found in the demolition of the town 
wall. The separation of the bricks from the 
mortar was quite impracticable. He adds 
that fourteen years ago (i.e., in or about 1872), 
in examining some old records, he came across 
the original specification of the Government 
for the composition of the mortar for the 
wall, and that it included a certain quantity 
of " jaggery," to be mixed with shell lime 
and river sand. He sent the receipt to The 

10* s. m. FEB. ii. 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Madras Mail, in which it was published, he 
thinks, in 1873. I suppose that this receipt 
contained the exact quantities of the in- 
gredients, and might be recovered from The 
Madras Mail. He says that the polished 
" chuuam" walls for which Madras is famous 
are prepared with cement made with un- 
refined sugar. 

The third letter, signed Nathaniel Steven- 
son, says : 

"I have used about an ounce of brown sugar to 
half a pint of water in making plaster of Paris 
models. These models are certainly smoother and 
much harder, and therefore far less liable to damage, 
than others. I find this of special advantage in 
working vulcanite,' &c." 

The fourth letter, signed Raj, says : 
"Sugar in its coarse state, called 'goor,' has been 
used in India from time immemorial, and its value 
as an ingredient in niortar is exceptionally great. 
Masonry cemented with this mortar I have known to 
defy every effort of pick and shovel, and to yield 
only to blasting when it has been found necessary 
to remove old puckah buildings." 

According to J. H. Stocqueler's ' Oriental 
Interpreter,' 1848, r/oor means "unrefined 
sugar " ; jaggery, " sugar ; sugar in its un- 
refined state ; refuse molasses "; and chunani, 

II ma J T? j^TT^rm T)TT^T- T*f\-rvrm 



SPIRIT MANIFESTATIONS (io tu S. ii. 388). 
The best work on this subject is ' The Occult 
tSciences,' by Messrs. Smedley, Taylor, Thomp- 
son, and Rich (1855). Therein, under the 
chapter entitled 'Modern Spirit Manifesta- 
tions,' your querist will find all he desires. 



S. iii. 49). This 'Dream upon the Universe' 
is to be found in De Quincey's 'Analects 
from Richter,' and in a shortened form is 
given by R. A. Proctor in the last chapter of 
his book ' The Expanse of Heaven.' 


Is not the German poet Jean Paul Richter? 
1 See Carlyle's ' Miscellaneous Essays,' iii. 55, 
where the dreams are set out fully. The 
passage to which J. M. refers is not in 
Proctor at least, I think not but is in that 
perhaps most eloquent of all works on 
popular astronomy, Mitchel's 'Orbs of 
Heaven,' Lecture ix. p. 195. Lucis. 

" THE " AS PART OF TITLE (10 th S. ii. 524 ; 
iii. 38). In reply to MR. HARBEX, I may say 
that the view I expressed on this subject 
in my former note was limited to the typo- 
graphical aspects of the question. English 
grammar, or rather idiom, is not always 
founded on a logical basis. The title of a 

book or newspaper is the name which is 
printed on the title-page of a book or the 
heading of a paper. If the article, definite 
or indefinite, forms a constituent of this 
title, I maintain that it is an integral portion 
of it, and when the title is expressed in full, 
the whole should be printed in the same 
type. Thus, in the case of ' The Virginians,' 
'The School for Scandal,' 'A Tale of Two 
Cities,' or The Times, I hold that, according 
to the practice of ' X. &, Q.,' the article should 
be printed within inverted commas or in 
italics, as the case may be. But though an 
integral part of the title, the status of the 
article as a part of speech is not altered, and 
if the main portion of the title is qualified 
in any way, it may, in accordance with 
English usage, be eliminated. This, in my 
opinion, does not detract from the status of 
the article, as an integral part of the title. 
A leg is an integral part of the human body, 
but it may be lopped off, should circum- 
stances require it. I would therefore say 
to-day's Times, Thackeray's 'Virginians,' 
Sheridan's 'School for Scandal,' Dickens's 
' Tale of Two Cities,' for the simple reason 
that I am talking English in accordance 
with the spirit of the language. In the 
Literary Gossip of The Athenaeum for the week 
in which MR. HARBEN'S inquiry appeared 
there is a paragraph in which the writer 
mentions " the extended Outlook" and two 
or three lines lower down " The Daily 
Telegraph? Here I hold the printer to be 
perfectly right, because, while the title of 
The Outlook is qualified by an adjective, that 
of the daily paper is not. 


iii. 66). I am glad to find that MR. JAMES 
PLATT accepts the etymology given in my 
' Concise Etymological Dictionary,' ed. 1901, 
at p. 564. I even give the reference to the 
volume and page of dough's book. The 
only difference is that I consulted the earlier 
edition of 1830. I deny that tourmaline is 
Cingalese ; it is mere French. The Cingalese 
word has no -ne. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

VERSCHOYLE : FOLDEN (10 th S. iii. 69). The 
querist says Verschoyle is "obviously French." 
Surely this is a slip of the pen. He must 
mean " obviously Flemish." It belongs to 
the same class as the names Verbeeck, Ver- 
brugge, Verhoef, Vermeulen, Verplanck, 
Verschure, and others, having as prefix the 
syllable ver, contracted from van der, " of 
the." Sometimes the fuller form occurs, as 
Vauderbeeck, Vandermeulen. The French 
equivalent would be de la, as in Da la Planche. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. m. FEB. n, iso5. 

Sclmyle in old Dutch and Flemish is a femi- 
nine substantive, meaning a hiding-place, 
nook, or corner, whence comes also another 
well-known surname, Schuyler. The personal 
name Verschuyle corresponds to such English 
surnames as Corner, Hearne, and Wray, all 
three of which have much the same sense. 
The spelling Yerschoyle, instead of Ver- 
schuyle, is either corrupt or a Flemish pro- 
vincialism, as in some dialects (for instance, 
in that of Antwerp) the difficult diphthong I 
wj changes to oy. JAMES PLATT, Jun. 

The only time I came across the name 
Verschoyle was in 1900, when I met a 
Lieut.-Col. Verschoyle, then commanding a 
battalion of the Duke of Cornwall's Light 
Infantry. He has now retired from the 
service. K. M. BEGBIE. 

68, St. John'a Park, Blackheath. 

Verschoyle is the name of a Dublin family 
whose ancestor migrated thither from Utrecht, 
in Holland, to escape the persecutions of 
Philip II. They were resident in St. Cathe- 
rine's parish, Dublin. The first were two 
brothers: 1. Henricke Verschuyle (will proved 
1623), of St. Thomas's Street, Dublin, brewer, 
who had a son Henry ; 2. William Verschoyle 
(will proved 1648), of Dublin, gent., who 
married Cath. van Pilkam. 


Osbaldwick Vicarage, York. 

Verschoyle is the name of a family which 
settled in Ireland early in the seventeenth 
century. They are said to have come from 
Holland on account of the religious persecu- 
tion in 1568. (See Burke's ' Gentry,' ninth 
edition.) Probably the name is taken from 
some village, or they may have assumed the 
Dutch word Verschil, which means difference 
or variance, when they left the count ry, as a 
token of its distracted state. 

Folden, from the A.-S. fold, a fold ; and 
A.-S. den, a valley, an enclosure for deer, &c. 

There are four places named Folden Fiords 
in Norway, all being within an area of 
183 miles by 240. 


iii. 89). In the Reference Library of the 
Baptist Missionary Society in Furnival 
Street, Hoi born, there is a book entitled 
4 Confessions of Faith and other Public 
Documents illustrative of the History of the 
Baptist Churches of England in the Seven- 
teenth Century.' This volume contains " The 
Second Humble Address of those who are 
called Anabaptists in the county of Lincoln. 
Presented to His Majesty, Charles the Second, 

King of England, Scotland, France, and 
Ireland," &c. The book can be seen at the 

NELSON IN FICTION (10 th S. iii. 26, 77). 
Through inadvertence I omitted one juvenile 
work of fiction in my Nelson lists. Towards 
the end of list No. 1 immediately after 'His 
Majesty's Sloop Diamond Rock 'I ought to 
have inserted the following : * Diamond 
Rock," by J. Macdonald Oxley (Nelson and 
his times, ending with Trafalgar). 


[MR. G. GILBERT states that Nelson figures in 
Sir A. C. Doyle's ' Rodney Stone.'] 

"GOD REST YOU MERRY" (10 th S. iii. 49). 

See ' As You Like It,' V. i., and ' Romeo and 
Juliet,' I. ii. The last citation makes it quite 
clear that " Rest you merry !" was an ordinary 
colloquial salutation, like the modern Ameri- 
can "Be good to yourself !" at parting. 


I have always heard the first line of the 
carol referred to as " God bless you, merry 
gentlemen," with the comma after "you"; 
and do not believe that such an expression 
as " God rest you merry " is known in any 
sense. W. I. R. V. 

COLISEUMS OLD AND NEW (10 th S. ii. 485, 
529 ; iii. 52). In a series of ' Letters from 
London,' which appeared in a New York 
journal in 1852, one entire letter is devoted 
to a description of " the wonderful Coliseum, 
which must ever rank as amongst the most 
interestingfand artistic exhibitions of the vast 
metropolis." The panoramic view of London 
had, however, been replaced by one repre- 
senting "the Lake of Thun," "a most mar- 
vellous piece of scenic painting." There were 
many other things to be seen, including 
fountains, conservatories, picture galleries, 
and a magnificent concert hall, while a cyclo- 
rama, or moving landscape, representing the 
Tagus from its mouth as far as Lisbon, is 
described as "alone worth coming many miles 
to see." After the Coliseum he visits no fewer 
than seven other panoramic exhibitions, in- 
cluding the Diorama in Park Square, Regent's 
Park ; the Diorama of the Ganges, " a superb 
and extremely fashionable resort in Regent 
Street "; " Mr. Allom's magnificent panoramic 
painting of Constantinople " ; " the Cosmorama 
in Regent Street"; "the Tourists' Gallery," 
where he much appreciated a tour through 
Europe ; " the Panorama" in Leicester Square ; 
and finally "the Gallery of Illustration in 
Regent Street," where the Diorama of Eng- 
land, depicting the four seasons, and the sports 
and pastimes of the people in the eighteenth 

io<>> s. in. FEB. 11, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


century, "delighted him beyond words. 1 ' 
Everything he saw in London appeared to 
delight him, and he is quite as enthusiastic 
over the wonders of Madame Tussaud's as he 
is over the Tower and Westminster Abbey. 
Panoramas and such-like exhibitions which 
delighted our fathers have passed away, but 
I doubt whether there are so many exhibi- 
tions really suitable for children now as there 
were fifty years ago. One wonders what has 
taken the place of the good old Polytechnic 
and similar institutions, which were the 
delight of our childhood. 



Mtxitms. their History and (heir Use. By David 
Murray, LL.D., F.S.A. 3 vols. (Glasgow, Mac- 
Lehose & Sons.) 

DR. MURRAY'S excellent work on museums grew, 
we are told, out of a presidential address delivered 
by him in the winter of 1897 before the Glasgow 
Archaeological Society. In the course of the studies 
pursued with a view to the preparation of this, 
the author discovered that, though a considerable 
literature on the subject was in existence, 
information concerning the history and develop- 
ment of museums as scientific institutions was 
with difficulty to be found in ordinary works of 
reference. On the shortcomings of works of this 
class he insists ; and the investigations we have 
personally conducted have convinced us of the 
justice of his complaint, not only as regards this 
country, but also so far as concerns France. After 
some tentative efforts, the results of which were 
not, as he confesses, wholly satisfactory, he began 
the labours which have resulted in the present 
volumes. The product is, in the first place, a 
"bibliography of bibliographies," a work the im- 
portance of which is gradually being grasped. 
Much space is accorded to the subject of museo- 
graphy. With books on the practical working of 
museums, " the collection, preparation, and pre- 
servation of specimens : their registration and 
exhibition," Dr. Murray actively concerns himself, 
prefixing to the section a short subject -biblio- 
graphy. The second and third volumes are largely 
made up of details as to catalogues and other 
works relating to particular museums and special 
collections. Museums which have issued no cata- 
logues, or of which no description has been put 
forth, do not appear. Allowance being made for 
the limitations and restrictions thus imposed, the 
information supplied is of remarkable utility to a 
large class of readers, and the history is a work of 
great labour and erudition. 

In the collections will be found the most useful 
and valuable portion of the work, and that which 
will most commend it to the antiquary and the 
scholar. To the general reader, however, its intro- 
ductory chapters are a mine of delightful informa- 
tion, and few works of modern days contain more 
that will interest and stimulate our readers. 
Passing over with brief mention the great institu- 
tion at Alexandria, founded in the third century 
before Christ by Ptolemy Philadelphia, and chro- 

nicling the waggery of Neickelius, scarcely intended 
as such, in his ' Museographia,' that the most com- 
plete museum of natural history that the world has 
seen was Noah's Ark, Dr. Murray points to temples 
and great ecclesiastical edifices as the homes of 
what we will simply call curiosities. In Milan, 
says Addison, were relics reaching to the time of 
Abraham. Hair from the beard of Noah was pre- 
served at Corbie. Moses's brazen serpent is still 
shown in the nave of San Ambrogio in Milan. Pliny 
mentions the bones of the monster to which Andro- 
meda was exposed as being in his time in Rome. 
Every church had its treasury, most of which con- 
tained relics, and many of the most beautiful objects 
which now adorn our museums belonged at one time 
to churches. The Renaissance was, of course, a 
great period for collecting, and the discovery of 
America and the establishment of missions among 
the heathen did much to encourage the preserva- 
tion of rarities and curiosities. Some eminently 
interesting pages are devoted to the first collectors, 
from Henry Cornelius Agrippa de Nettesheim, the 
cabalist, downwards. George Agrippa (Bauer), the 
father of mineralogy, \yas the means of inducing 
Augustus of Saxony to fill cabinets which developed 
into the Royal Collection of Dresden. Andrea 
Cesalpini formed in the sixteenth century a her- 
barium, still preserved in Florence. Catalogues of 
curiosities were printed so early as the middle of the 
sixteenth century. One of the most interesting of 
these in English is that of the rarities in the Univer- 
sity of Leyden, 1591 (qy. 1691 ?). Among the objects 
catalogued is the skin of a man dressed as parch- 
ment. In the museum of the Royal Society of 
London there was a bone said to be taken from 
the head of a mermaid. Unicorns' horns were in 
great estimation and commanded a high price. 
Giants' bones were common, and a portion, at least, 
of a mummy was indispensable in every museum of 
any pretension. We might continue for ever ex- 
tracting from Dr. Murray's interesting pages. Of 
the origin of the British Museum a full account is 
naturally given, and we have, as might be expected, 
something about the Hunterian and Kelvingrove 
Museums in Glasgow, the_ former owing much to 
Capt. Cook, the latter to Livingstone. The arrange- 
ment of the catalogues, &c., relating to particular 
museums is under names of places, some twenty 
pages being devoted to London. It is quite impos- 
sible to do full justice to the many aspects of a 
work which we warmly commend to our readers. 
Nothing in its line more valuable and serviceable is 
to be found. 

The Cambridge Modern History. Edited by A. W. 
Ward, Litt.D., G. W. Prothero, Litt.D., and 
Stanley Leathes, M.A. Vol. III. (Cambridge, 
University Press.) 

THE third volume of ' The Cambridge Modern 
History,' planned by Lord Acton and directed and 
executed by the principal living historians, deals 
with the great and enduring schism which divides 
the Christian world into Protestant and Catholic. 
The end of this is not yet in sight, though the field 
of battle and the nature of the combat are changed, 
and a chance exists that those so lately the 
bitterest of antagonists may coalesce in resisting 
what they now regard as their joint enemy. Against 
the supposition of such rapprochement may be 
advanced the fact that no alliance of the kind was 
formed in presence of the persistent, and at one 
time eminently menacing advance of the Ottoman 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io< s. m. F M . n, 1905. 

power. Christian leagues were .indeed formec 
against the Turks. How half-hearted and diplo 
matic to use no word of stronger condemnation 
these were, is shown by Dr. Moritz Brosch, who 
writes the chapter on ' The Height of the Ottoman 
Power.' What is most obvious, and also mosi 
expected, in the volume is the proof furnished how 
inextricably interwoven are political and dynastic 
ambitions with theological differences. Whether 
we are dealing with the strife in France between 
Huguenot and Leaguer, the contests of which 
Mary, Queen of Scots, was the perpetual centre, or 
the " spiritual ardour of the Catholic reaction,' 
with which the volume is largely concerned, the 
truth is equally manifest. Of the writers who took 
part in the previous volume, and whose names 
appear in the present, the most conspicuous i 
Mr. Stanley Leathes, one of the editors, who remains 
a constant and valuable support. Other contributors 
include the late Samuel Rawson Gardiner, Dr. 
Sidney Lee, the Master of Peterhouse, Major Martin 
Hume, and Prof. J. K. Laughton. Among the 
articles of most interest are those on the literary 
aspects of epochs. Such are Mr. Tilley's chapter 
on 'French Humanism and Montaigne,' which 
includes compendious notices of the ' Pleiade ' and of 
French poets generally to Malherbe, together with 
a very short account of the ' Satyre Menippee ' ; 
' The Elizabethan Age of English Literature,' by 
Dr. Sidney Lee, whose contribution is all too brief, 
but whose verdicts are fortunately accessible else- 
where ; and Mr. A. J. Butler's ' Close of the Italian 
Renaissance.' With these may be associated the 
Rev. Neville Figgis's ' Political Thought in the Six- 
teenth Century.' The account by the late Thomas 
(j raves Law, sometime Librarian of the Signet 
Library, Edinburgh, of Mary Stewart, as he elects to 
call the Queen of Scots, is interesting in spite of its 
brevity. Of the period between Mary's marriage 
to Bothwell and her surrender after crossing the 
Splway a good account is given, the despair and 
disgust of the Catholic powers being vividly painted. 
An excellent description of the Casket Letters emits 
no very distinct utterance concerning their genuine- 
ness, but declares them to have had no effect upon 
international politics. If genuine they would show 
Mary as something "far worse than an ill used wife 
conniving at the murder of a worthless husband 
who threatened to be her ruin." Prof. Laughton's 
account of the Elizabethan naval war with Spain is 
equally vigorous and striking. It shovys, however, 
how vacillating was the policy of Elizabeth. To 
Medina Sidonia is attributed the disastrous to the 
Spaniards result of the first encounter of the two 
fleets on 21 July, the fighting on which day "gave 
the key-note to all that followed." From the charge 
of niggardliness in the supply of powder, frequently 
brought against her, Elizabeth is defended. The 
allowance had been great beyond precedent, but so 
also was the expenditure. Another error that is 
dispelled is that England was saved from a very 
great danger by the providential interference of 
storms. Full credit is allowed by Dr. Sidney Lee to 
the patriotic action of the Roman Catholics in the 
chapter on the closing years of Elizabeth. Of the 
queen it is said that "her political creed, even 
more avowedly than that of her father, brother, 
and sister, was the creed of despotism." Here we 
draw breath. It is obviously impossible to do 
justice to, or indeed give the slightest account of. 
the various interesting and important chapters 
which constitute the volume. No pretence is made 

to supply an account of one of the most important 
volumes of the series. In every case in which we 
have tested the accounts we have found them 
condensed and lucid. All that we miss are the 
illustrative pictures of historical characters for 
which the scheme, with its limitations, seems 
hardly to provide space. 

A Guide to the Best Historical Novels and Tales 

By Jonathan Nield. (Elkin Ma thews.) 
How welcome and useful is Mr. Nield's guide to 
the best historical novels is proven by the fact that 
the work, which first saw the light in May, 190 
has already been twice reissued. So much has been 
added to it since its appearance that the third 
edition is almost twice the size of the first. In 
the second edition were introduced eminently 
desirable features, including perhaps the most 
indispensable of all complete indexes to authors 
and titles ; while the third constitutes in some 
respects a new book. Detailed descriptions, with 
special references to localities and personages 
have been substituted for vague generalitfes ; 
original dates of publication have been supplied ; 
novels of special value have been indicated ; a new 
arrangement, in three columns, of the separate items 
has been made ; and various modifications and 
alterations have been accomplished. Thus rear- 
ranged, and in part reconstituted, the book is not 
only a valuable work of reference, but, what it 
claims to be. a pleasant and an edifying guide to the 
lover and the student of historical fiction. Our 
own attention was drawn to it in connexion with a 
recent suggestion in our columns that, in connexion 
with the centenary of the Battle of Trafalgar, a list 
of the tales connected with Nelson should be pub- 
lished. Such a list as was pointed out already 
existed in Mr. Nield's work, which will hence- 
forward be always at our elbow. Our own leisure 
if the use of such a word is not ironical has not 
been largely occupied with the perusal of fiction. 
With the great works of Scott, Thackeray, Balzac, 
Defoe, Dumas, Hugo, Flaubert, and others we are, of 
course, familiar, and we have distant recollections- 
of Cooper, Ainsworth, Lytton, and James, and others 
more recent of Stevenson. Such knowledge as we 
possess fails, however, to suggest an omission, 
except it be a novel of Leatham's, the name and 
subject of which we alike forget. How far fiction 
is to be trusted as a basis of historical information 
we know not. It must, however, be conceded that 
:he historical views of most of us concerning the 
Wars of the Roses and other epochs are coloured by 
the Chronicle-plays of Shakespeare, which, for the 
sake of the argument, may be treated as novels ;: 
t is known that ' Quentin Durward ' has been 
employed as a text-book in French Lycees ; it is 
*lt that the light cast by works such as ' The 
loister and the Hearth ' and ' Esmond ' is clearer 
than can be obtained from history, and that a work 
such, even, as 'La Chartreuse de Parme ' deserves the- 
recognition it has won. We are delighted to have 
made acquaintance with Mr. Nield's valuable book, 
and are content to think we shall have it at hand' 
or future suggestion and reference. 

At Shakespeare's Shrine : a Poetical Antholor/v. 
Edited by Chas. F. Forshaw, LL.D. (Stock.) 
OT the first attempt is this of Dr. Forshaw to 
ollect rimed homages to Shakespeare. It is, how- - 
ver, the most elaborate and the most ambitious. 
evious works of the class, including Dr. Ingleby's- 

in. FEB. 11, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


' Centurie of Praj'se,' have restricted their extracts 
to early writers, if not to those of established 
reputation. l)r. Forahaw has come down to modern 
days, and has burdened his book with passages 
from nineteenth or twentieth century obscurities 
in a manner destructive of all sense of balance or 
proportion. A single couplet of Thomas Heywood 
from the ' Hierarchic of the Blessed Angels,' which 
is not given, 

Mellifluous Sliake-spearc, whose enchanting Quill 

Commanded Mirth or Passion, was but Will, 
is worth reams of modern rubbish ; and Dryden's 
comment on his own mangled version of ' The 
Tempest,' also not given, 

But Shakespeare's magic could not copied be ; 

Within that circle none durst walk save he 
(we quote from memory), is far better than the 
longer extracts from him which are supplied. Much 
of interest is, of course, furnished the tributes of 
Ben Jonson, Milton, Matthew Arnold, Hartley 
Coleridge, Thomas Hood, and many others being 
given. A sense of burlesque is, however, conveyed 
when we find Mr. John George Speed fa writer 
wholly unknown to us, as are many of Dr. Forshaw's 
bards) beginning some verses with 

England! spare that place ; 
Touch not a single stone, 

which seems like a barefaced imitation of a once- 
popular song, 

Woodman ! spare that tree ; 
Touch not a single bough. 

Drayton's quatrain on Shakespeare of the inser- 
tion of which, naturally, we do not complain is un- 
worthy of both poets. On the whole, of things of little 
repute which appear, Garrick's " Ye Warwickshire 
lads and ye lasses" is the best. There is a good 
lilt about " For the wag of all wags was a W(trn:i<-];- 
*hin wag.' 5 This was written by the actor for his 
once famous Shakespeare Jubilee, which, absurd as 
it was in some respects, eclipses in interest what 
has since been done. Dr. Forshaw who is a con- 
tributor to his own volume speaks generously of 
the share of 'N. & Q.' in announcing his scheme, 
and securing him a portion of his material. We 
acknowledge his kindness, but we cannot conceal 
our impression that the omission of a third of his 
matter would improve his book. The choice of a 
great subject does not necessarily beget great treat- 
ment, or we should not have so many contemptible 
hymns contemptible, that is, from the literary 
standpoint. Dr. Garnett has allowed of the appear- 
ance in ' At Shakespeare's Shrine ' of his lecture 
on ' Plays partly written by Shakespeare,' delivered 
before the London Shakespeare Society in April 

mmer Norwood Athenctum : The Record of the 
Winter Muting* and Summer Excursions, 1904. 
(Printed by Truslove & Bray, West Norwood.) 
THE work of the twenty-eighth season of the 
Upper Norwood Athenjeum has been excellent in 
every way. The winter meetings were resumed, 
and special permission having been obtained from 
the Duke of Wellington, Apsley House was the 
first place visited, Mr. H. Martyn Hill being the 
conductor. Mr. Hill in his paper related the story 
of George II. and the soldier Allen. Allen, who 
had fought under the king at Dettingen, had an 
apple-stall on the present site of Apsley House. 
The king, riding past one morning, saw Allen, and 

asked what he could do for him. " Please, your 
Majesty, to give me a grant of the bit of ground my 
hut stands on, and I shall be happy." " Be happy," 
said the king, and Allen's wish was granted. 
Allen's son became a lawyer, and, after a stately- 
mansion had been erected, put in a claim which was 
settled by the payment of 45W. per annum as ground 
rent. Another winter meeting was at the museum 
of the Record Office, the paper being read by Mr. 
Thomas H. Alexander. The summer excursions 
included Ockham (paper read by Mr. Charles 
Wheeler), the Pilgrims Way and Coldrum (paper 
by Mr. \V. T. Vincent), Chenies and Latimer (Mr. 
A. J. Pitman), Ongar (Mr. H. A. King), Colnbrook 
and Stanwell (the editor, who also took St. John's 
Gate at one of the winter meetings), and Winchester,, 
when Mr. G. H. Lindsey-Renton was the leader. 
The last paper, like all the others, had been carefully 
prepared. We would advise Mr. Renton to read 
Mr. Sergeant's ' Winchester,' one of the series of 
excellent guides to the Cathedrals published by 
Messrs. Bell & Sons, and reviewed by us on, 
26 February, 1898. Mr. Theophilus Pitt, who edits 
The Record for the first time, has done so with 
much care, and the number of beautiful illustrations 
render the booklet very attractive. We would 
suggest to the Upper Norwood Athenseum that it 
would be interesting to arrange for a general meet- 
ing with the members of kindred societies, such 
as those of Hampstead, Woolwich, Balham, &c. ; 
it would be pleasant to compare notes as to progress 

THE Burlington opens with a beautiful frontis- 
piece of Adam and Eve, after Lucas Cranach, from 
Buckingham Palace. Other admirable reproduc- 
tions of the same master, also from the royal 
collection, appear, accompanied by an article of 
Mr. Lionel Cust. In an editorial article it is said 
that the mordant caricatures of Mr. Max Beerbohm 
will soon be appreciated. Further portrait draw- 
ings by J. F. Millet, from the Staats Forbes collec- 
tion, are given, concluding a valuable paper. At 
p. 395 some striking miniatures are reproduced. 

THE Fortnightly opens with '"King Lear" in. 
Paris,' by M. Maurice Maeterlinck. From this we 
learn that the recent performance of 'Lear' at the 
Theatre Antoine has not been wholly successful, and 
that, propos of this play, the best-known Parisian 
critics were writing in a style recalling the worst 
heresies of Voltaire. M. Emile Faguet speaks of 
most of it as being "no more than a heap of stupid 
crimes, foolish horrors, and idiotic vices.'' It is, 
M. Faguet declares, a " bruto-tragedy or bruto- 
drama." Prof. J. Churton Collins writes eloquently 
and well on the enlightened side under the heading 
' Greek at the Universities.' Under the title ' The 
Red Virgin of Montmartre' the late Louise Michel 
is described. ' French Life and the French Stage ' 
resolves itself into an account of the production at 
the Odeon of ' La Deserteuse ' of M. Brieux and at 
the Comudie Franchise of M. Capus's latest farce. 
' Kitchen Comedies,' by Mrs. John Lane, presents 
amusingly most, but not quite all, of the aspects of 
the servant question. On ' Compulsory Greek as a 
National Question ' Prof. \Vestlake writes, in the 
Nineteenth Century, in a sadly different spirit from 
Prof. Churton Collins, and we turn from his article 
with som discouragement. Mr. Fuller Maitland 
describes the madrigal as 'A Waning Glory of 
England.' It is curious that of three musicians of 
the middle of last century, whose works are selected 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. FK*. n, 1905. 

for praise, two died in 1856 and one in 1854. Homage 
is paid to many composers of to-day, including Sir 
Hubert Parry, whose " Who can dwell with great- 
ness" is warmly commended. Lady Currie gives 
some singularly vivid sketches of the life to be con- 
templated 'From the Toll-bar of the Galata Bridge,' 
connecting Pera with Stamboul. Sir George Arthur 
writes on The Bishops and the Reformation 
Settlement.' Baron Suyematsu's article on 'Moral 
Teaching in Japan ' donne furieusement a penset: 
It will be long before our army accepts teaching 
such as is afforded the Japanese soldiery. Very 
hopeful and of good omen is Prof. Vambery's article 
on 'The Awakening of the Tartars.' Fancy a 
Tartar quoting Wyclif, Luther, Voltaire, and Her- 
bert Spencer ! Mr. H. W. Lucy supplies to the 
Cornhill a paper on ' The Lungs of the House of 
'Commons,' which is very amusing. ' A Russian 
Napoleon' deals with Count Suvoroff, assuredly 
one of the greatest and most remarkable soldiers 
of the eighteenth century. Mr. Frank T. Bullen 
$cives a picturesque description of 'Kingston, 
Jamaica,' which is declared to be an ideal winter 
resort. Mr. Shenstone writes ' On Weighing Atoms,' 
and His Honour Judge Prowse on 'Old -Time 
Newfoundland.' General Maunsell furnishes some 
interesting 'Recollections of Active Service.' In 
the Gentleman's Mr. J. H. MacMichael continues 
iiis very interesting 'Charing Cross and its Imme- 
diate Neighbourhood.' Mr. R. 0. Sherington has a 
full account of ' The Tottenham Street Theatre.' 
Mr. Tompkins does justice to Grant Allen, though 
-we are far from agreeing with some of his views. 
' A Frenchwoman's Love-Letters ' are those of 
Mile, de Lespinasse. A frontispiece to the Pall 
Mall consists of a drawing of Albury Old Church, 
to illustrate verses of Mrs. Marriott Watson, 
mnder the title of ' London at Prayer ' Mr. Charles 
Moriey deals with the Great Synagogue in Jewry. 
Trof. Nispi-Landi describes ' The Buried Treasures 
of the Tiber." Lord Avebury and Mr. John Hare 
are depicted by Mr. Herbert Vivian in ' Studies in 
Personality.' 'A Lincolnshire Treasure House 'is 
well written and well illustrated. ' Darky, the 
!Boundary Bog,' in Longman's, is very touching. 
' Hampstead Revisited,' by Prof. Sully, awakens 
melancholy reflections. In spite of modern and 
terrible innovation, the streets of Hampstead are 
still happily aecidented. Among much amusing 
matter, Mr. Lang suggests burning a proof-reader 
pour encourager Us autres. 

A CORRESPOSDKKT writes : " The death of Mr. 
Thomas Blashill, F.R.I.B.A., formerly architect to 
the London County Council and late of Highbury, 
took place at his residence, 29, Tavistock Square, 
W.C., on 20 January, after a short illness. He was 
born in 1830 at Sutton-on-Hull, Yorkshire, and was 
the son of Mr. Henry Blashill, of that place, and 
grandson of Mr. Robert Blashill, living near 
Patrington, Yorks, about 1780. Mr. Blashill 
married Honor Pitt, second daughter of Benjamin 
Wharton 'Nind, formerly of Leyton, Essex, by 
'Ellen, nee Womersley, his wife. She survives, 
without issue. Mr. Blashill was educated at Hull 
and Scarborough, and professionally at University 
College. For some time he was in a stockbroker's 
office, but this not proving congenial to his taste, 
he articled himself to an architect, which profes- 
sion he finally adopted. Besides being the author 
of 'A Guide to Tintern Abbey' and the writer 
of the 'History of Sutton -iu-Holderness,' his 

birthplace, a very valuable and interesting addi- 
tion to Yorkshire topography, he contributed 
several instructive articles to The Antiquary, and 
many papers to the leading archaeological, archi- 
tectural, and antiquarian journals of the day. He 
was a prominent member of several of the learned 
societies, and took a keen interest in local affairs. 
Readers of ' N. & Q.' will miss his timely notes, 
and the antiquarian world will have lost a kind- 
hearted and genial friend. He died at the age of 
seventy-five, and was buried at Highgate Cemetery 
on 24 January." 

J. T. P. writes: "An occasional correspondent 
of ' N. & Q.,' the Rev. William Kirkpatrick Riland 
Bedford, for many years rector of Sutton Coldfield, 
Warwickshire, has just passed away. He died at 
Cricklewood, aged seventy-eight, on 23 January. 
At 8 th S. ix. 218 he was alluded to by the late Sam 
Timmins (Este) as ' the highest authority for all 
relating to Sutton Coldfield.' His last contribution 
to ' N. & Q.' will be found at 9 th S. xii. 512." 

We must call special attention to the following 
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ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
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WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
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ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and. page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication "Duplicate." 

D. M., Philadelphia ("The more I know of men 
the more I think of dogs "). This seems to be from 
a French original. Various French forms of the 
saying are quoted by LADY RUSSELL at 7 th S. ix. 288 
and by M. PAUL MASSON at 8"' S. iv. 456. 

F. E. POTTER ("The Marseillaise"). See the 
many articles on the origin and composer of the 
'Marseillaise' in the eighth volume of the Ninth 

E. M. SOTIIEBY ("Bolt from the blue"). See 
the discussions in 7 th S. iii., iv. ; 8 th S. iii., iv., v. 

J. H. RELTON ("Vice-Chamberlain Coke"). Will 

P. M. ("John Gilpin's Route"). See 9 th S. xii. 
170, 217, 255, 371, 437. 

CORRIGENDUM. Ante, p. 56, col. 1, 1. 20 from 
bottom, for " 8 th S." read 10 th S. 

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242. Family History. 

243. Selected Books and Manuscripts. 

244. Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. 

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s. in. FEB. is, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.-No. 60. 

NOTES : Omar's Prosody Shakespeare and Agincourt. 121 
Clocks stopped at Death, 124 " Wilie-beguilies "Com- 
missary Court of Westminster, 125 "Oriel" "Had 
better have been " " Thrub Chandler," 126. 

QUERIES : " Once so merrily hopt she "Milton Portrait 
'Burton Abbey Cartulary " Algarva " Sir Abraham 
Sbipman Hippomanes Molly Lepel's Descent Sir 
Walter Raleigh's 'Historic of the World,' 127 " Most 
moving first line in English poetry " Authors of Quota- 
tions Wanted Anchorites' Dens ' Moser's Vestiges ' 
Delafosse, Winchester Commoner ' The Forte Frigate' 
Small Parishes ' Kebecca,' a Novel, 128 -Saxton Family, 

EPLIE8 : Englishmen under Foreign Governments, 129 
Charles I. in Spain Bibliographical Notes on Dickens 
and Thackerav, 131 "Broken heart" The Lyceum 
Theatre, 132 Ser.ieantson Family of Hanlith London 
Cemeteries in I860 Tyrrell Family Ainsty' Paradise 
Lost' of 1751, 133 Spelling Reform Verse on a Cook- 
Clergyman as City Councillor The Nail and the Clove 
Coutances, Winchester, and the Channel Islands, 134 
English Burial-ground at Lisbon Sir T. Cornwallis 
Samuel Wilderspin Extraordinary Tide in the Thames, 
135 Police Uniforms : Omnibuses, 136 Danish Surnames 
William III. at the Boyne 'The Northampton Mer- 
cury ' " Snowte " : Weir and Fishery, 137. 

NOTES OX BOOKS : Barnabe Barnes's ' Devil's Charter' 
and 'Ben Jonson's Dramen ' FitzGerald's Translation 
of Omar' Intermediate ' ' Folk-lore.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Obituary : Mr. H. H. Drake. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


IT is curious that amid all the mass of 
literature which has been written around 
Omar and FitzGerald, there is nowhere any 
popular account of what a niljai is, metrically, 
or how it is recited in the original by Persians. 
Of course there are treatises on Oriental 
prosody, but they would be caviare to the 
general reader, and it is of him that I am 

Surely there must be many who only know 
Omar in translation, especially among 
students of Latin verse, who would be glad 
to learn just what a rubdi is, prosodically. 
Unfortunately, there is a notion abroad that 
the line of ten syllables, employed by Fitz- 
Gerald and most of his successors, is, as one 
of them expresses it, " a beautiful echo of the 
old Persian music." Even Whinfield, who 
should have known better, declares that it 
very clearly suggests it. Never was there a 
more patent error. With the best will in the 
world, I am unable to detect in the deca- 
syllabic line the slightest movement of the 
Persian. Indeed, it is difficult to see how a 
line of five regular feet could suggest one of 
four feet, which are never all alike, and 
frequently all differ. Let us take the first 

line of what Mr. Swinburne has called the 
" crowning stanza" of all FitzGerald wrote : 

Oh, Thou, who Man of baser Earth didst make ! 
In the Persian it runs as follows : 

Ai Vakif e asrar e zamir e hama kas ! 

This is a typical rubai line, and will repay 
study. Expressed in longs and shorts, its 
paradigm would be : 

' _ | ^, ' v^ | s^ ' ^ I ^ ' 

Like every mbdi line, it contains four feefc, 
and consequently four accents : 

I. A foot of three syllables, stressed on 
the central one. 

2 and 3. Two feet of four syllables each, 
stressed on the ante-penultimate. 

4. A foot of two syllables, stressed like an 

It will be perceived that this differs entirely 
from FitzGerald's line. Whinfield employed 
the same line as FitzGerald, but his transla- 
tion is more literal : 

Oh, Thou ! who know'sfr the secret thoughts of all ! 
Unaltered I cannot accept this as an echo of 
the Persian, but perhaps the following might 
pass as such : 

Oh, Thou ! who dost know the secret thoughts of 
each and all ! 

As I have hinted, it is one difference 
between the English line and the Persian 
that the former is ahvays regular, whereas 
the latter may be varied in no fewer than 
twenty-four different ways, and may consist 
of as many as thirteen, or as few as ten 
syllables. It may not be unwelcome if, to 
complete this necessarily short sketch, I give 
some idea of how the changes are rung. 

1. The first foot admits of only two forms : 
the anti-bacchius, as in the specimen above, 
and the molossus ( ' ). 

2 and 3. The second and third feet are very 
irregular and variously stressed. If, as is 
more usual, they have four syllables, they are 
stressed on the ante-penultimate, as in the 
specimen above. (One meets with ^ ' ^ 
^ ' >-' and ^ ' .) 

4. The last foot may consist of one or two 
syllables : one if the final of the preceding 
foot is long, but an iambus (as above) if it 
is short. In either case the fourth ictus is 
upon the last syllable of the whole line. 


AT first sight one is inclined to deride the 
passage in ' Henry V.' (IV. viii. 80-112) which 
contrasts the small number of the dead upon 
the English side with the vast losses of the 
French, as the merest exaggeration of local 



s. in. FEB. is, 1905. 

patriotism. But the chroniclers, although 
their accounts of the numbers engaged vary 
considerably, are in practical agreement 
regarding the great slaughter of the French 
by the invaders in this amazing battle. 
Agincourt proved even more deadly to France 
than Poitiers: the whole English loss did not 
amount to a hundred men ; while the French 
lost, in dead and prisoners, ten thousand 
men the flower of their army. Monstrelet 
puts the total of the French forces at one 
hundred and fifty thousand six times the 
numbers of the English. But Henry's army 
cannot have contained twenty-five or even 
twenty thousand men. He had lost one-fifth 
of his invading army before Harfleur, in 
which he left five hundred men-at-arms and 
a thousand archers as a garrison. The 
remainder, according to his chaplain Elmham, 
consisted only of five thousand archers and 
scarcely nine hundred men-at-arms ; but 
Monstrelet estimates the former at fifteen 
thousand, the latter at two thousand. 

Prof. C. W. C. Oman, in his account of the 
battle, shows that Henry's line was composed 
on the old plan that had been seen at Crecy : 
"Right, centre, and left each consisted of a 
small body of men-at-arms, flanked by two 
bodies of archers, drawn up in the triangular 
harrow-shape, and protected by a line of 
stakes.'' The French, on the other hand, 
repeated the mistakes of Poitiers. Dismount- 
ing almost the whole of their men-at-arms, 
they formed them into three solid lines, one 
behind the other, on a front no broader than 
that of the English army. On the wings, 
indeed, were small squadrons of mounted 
men under picked leaders, who were ordered 
to ride on ahead of the main body, and clear 
away, if possible, the English archers from 
before their comrades' advance. The ineffec- 
tive charges of these squadrons began the 
battle. Man and horse went down before 
the English shafts, or ever they got near the 
stakes of the bowmen. The main battle, 
weighed down by the heavy armour of the 
period, and tired out before they reached 
the enemy's lines, also fell an easy prey to 
Henry's archers. Stuck fast in the mud and 
riddled with arrows, the nobility of France 
were hewn down, while the archers " beat 
upon their armour with mallets as though 
they were hammering upon anvils," and 
rolled them one over another until the dead 
lay three deep. For when the English arrows 
had given out, Henry bade his whole army 
charge, and it was the onset of the archers 
with axe, mallet, and sword that settled the 
day. "That unarmoured men should have 
prevailed over mailed men under the odds 

of six to one, and on plain open ground, is- 
one of the marvels of history.'' While the 
victory was yet unachieved, news was 
brought to Henry that the enemy waa 
attacking his rear, and had, indeed, already 
captured a large part of his baggage. He 
accordingly issued orders that the prisoners- 
were to be killed. He knew that the French 
forces still outnumbered his own, and that, 
were they to rally, the prisoners, of whom a 
considerable number had already been taken, 
would constitute a formidable danger. The 
knights to whom the king issued his com- 
mand flatly refused to obey, and a squire 
with three hundred archers had to be sent to 
execute it. Prisoners, we must remember, 
were noblemen and gentlemen, and the large 
ransoms paid by them would in ordinary 
cases fall to the share of their captors. 
Unfortunately the sequel proved that this 
horrible deed was not a military necessity. 
The news brought to the king had been 
grossly exaggerated (see the play, IV. iv. and 
vii.). The attack on the rear of his army was- 
nothing but an attempt to plunder. One 
Isambart of Agincourt, at the head of a few 
men-at-arms and some six hundred peasants, 
fell upon the English baggage and rifled a 
large part of it. Many jewels were lost. 
Monstrelet mentions a sword, ornamented 
with diamonds, which was part of the royal 
property. Walsingham tells us the English 
crown was captured. What crown was this ? : 
Henry IV., we know, at his coronation wore 
a crown known as St. Edward's, which was 
arched over instead of being open as hereto- 
fore. The head of the same monarch's 
monumental effigy at Canterbury is sur- 
mounted by a lovely open crown. The 
arched crown is shown in the sculpture of 
the coronation of Henry V. on the arch of 
his chantry chapel at Westminster, although 
in his portrait at Queens College, Oxford, 
he wears a circlet similar to that used by his 
father's predecessors. 

In the eleventh volume of The Ancestor 
Mr. A. E. Maiden, under the title ' An Official 
Account of the Battle of Agincourt,' prints- 
with an explanation a MS.'contained in Leger- 
Book A of the city of Salisbury. This ac- 
ount, after reciting the fact that King Henry 
rossed the sea with a great army, mentions 
the siege of Harfleur. It continues, " On 
ris march he was opposed by a great French 
army of about a nundred thousand men, 
while he himself had not with him more 
than ten thousand." The list of the French 
slain "in the field of Argencott on Friday,. 
Deing the feast of Saints Crispin and Cris- 
pianus, th> 25th of October, 141&," then, 

io- s. in. FEB. is, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


follows. It begins with the names of a Con- 
stable of France, followed by three dukes, 
five counts, over eighty messieurs of high 
degree, " and four thousand valiant knights 
and esquires, without counting the common 
folk." The king's prisoners are given as the 
Dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, the Marshal 
of France named Bursegaud, the Count de 
Rychemond, the Count de Verdon, the Count 
d'Eu, "and the brother of the Duke d'Alencon, 
and other gentlemen (et le frere Duyk" de 
Launson et autres sieurs)." The Latin lan- 
guage yields to French with Monsieur Dam- 
piere the first of the slain with this prefix 
down to the end of the list of those killed 
upon the French side. The sentence giving 
the list of French prisoners states the cir- 
cumstance in Latin, the names in French ; 
but after that Latin is resumed. 

Shakespeare follows Holinshed closely, 
only omitting mention of " the earle of 
Nevers," a brother of John (Sanspeur), Duke 
of Burgundy, the "comes de Nywere" of 
the Sarurn list. This count was ancestor of 
the Hohenzollerns, the Kings of Saxony, 
and the Dukes of Mantua. To take the three 
lists in order those of Holinshed, Shake- 
speare, and Sarum each begins with the 
High Constable of France, called Charles 
Lord de la Breth, Charles Delabreth, and 
Dominus de Brut respectively. Charles 
d'Albret was the bastard brother of Joan, 
Queen-Dowager of England. He led the van, 
and died of his wounds the day after the 
battle. The Count de Rychemond, mentioned 
above, who was brought a prisoner to Eng- 
land, was Queen Joan's second son, by her 
first husband, and afterwards Arthur III., 
Duke of Brittany. Shakespeare makes the 
Constable advise the Dauphin not to dis- 
parage Henry : " You are too much mistaken 
in this king." Before the battle the Dauphin 
had said England 

is so idly king'd, 

Her sceptre so fantastically borne 
By a vain, giddy, shallow, humorous youth, 
That fear attends her not. 

This prince, Louis, the hero of the tennis- 
balls, never succeeded to the French throne, 
but died in the same year as the battle. 
His next brother Jean was Dauphin, in his 
turn, but for two years, and was succeeded 
by the third, afterwards Charles VII., Joan 
of Arc's king. Of Louis, Orleans is made to 
say in the play, " He never did harm, that I 
heard of." "Jaques of Chatilon, Lord of 
Dampier, admerall of France," is simply 
" Monsieur Dampiere" in the Sarum list. The 
latter, unless he figures under another name, 
omits mention of the Lord Rambures, Master 

of the Crossbows. Shakespeare gives him. 
two lines of dialogue. Sir Guischard Dolphin,. 
Great Master of France, is, I suppose, 
represented in the Sarum list by ''Monsieur 
Gangers de Dolpyn." In the fight the Duke 
of Alencon commanded the second battle, 
and, endeavouring to restore the fortune 
of the day by a furious charge, broke 
the English line and struck down Hum- 
phrey, Duke of Gloucester, with his own 
hand. The English king, rushing forward' 
to protect his brother, himself received, 
a blow which brought him to his knees. 
The French duke was, however, forced- 
to yield, and was slain before Henry 
could save him. Jean, Due d'Aleneon, was 
great-nephew of Philip VI., and ancestor of 
the House of Bourbon and of the Dukes of" 
Mantua. The next name is that of Anthony, 
Duke of Brabant, younger brother of John, 
Duke of Burgundy, and elder brother of 
Philip, Count of Nevers, mentioned above. 
His two sons, John IV. and Philip, dying 
without issue, the duchy reverted to his 
nephew, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. 
Though not present at the battle, Burgundy 
visited soon after the stricken field where - 
his two uncles had been slain. The next 
name is that of Edward, Duke of Bap. 
Shakespeare then gives the names of eight 
counts : Grand pree, Roussie, Fauconbridge 
(Fauconberge in Holinshed), Foyes, Beau- 
mont, Marie, Vaudemont, and Lestrale 
(Lestrake in Holinshed). The Sarum list, 
besides the omitted Nevers, gives only 
Russe, Breue, Saunies, and Grauntepre 
among the counts ; but among the Messieurs 
is John de Beaurnond. In the latter list 
the last name among the slain is that of Mon- 
sieur de Haly Lerceuesque de Soyns (Sens), 
In the play Grandpre, " a valiant and most 
expert gentleman," makes a speech (IV. ii.), in 
which he describes our men as "yon islands 
carrions, desperate of their bones." Vaude- 
mont was Frederick of Lorraine, by his 
marriage with Margaret, heiress of Vaude- 
mont and Joinville, ancestor of the House of 

With regard to the French prisoners, both 
Holinshed and Shakespeare content them- 
selves with mentioning by name only the- 
two captured princes of the blood royal and- 
the Marshal of France the Lord Bouciqualt 
(Bursegaud in the Sarum list). Jean Bouci- 
cault had been one of the challengers of 
Europe at the jousts of St. Ingelvert, where 
John of Gaunt's two elder sons, the Earl of 
Derby (aftersvards Henry IV.) and Sir John 
Beaufort (Earl of Somerset and Marquess 
of Dorset later), ancestor of the House of r 



s. in. FEB. is, 1005. 

Tudor, maintained the honour of England. 
The poet Charles, Duke of Orleans, was for 
five-and-twenty years a captive in England. 
The nephew of Charles VI., he had married 
in 1408 his cousin Isabel, the virgin widow 
of our llichard II. Through his mother, 
Valentina Visconti, he laid claim to the 
Duchy of Milan, and bequeathed his costly 
pretensions in this quarter to his son, by 
Mary of Cleves, afterwards Louis XII. of 
France. John, Duke of Bourbon, first cousin 
-to Charles VI., to whom Shakespeare gives 
the line " Let 's die in honour : once more 
back again," died a prisoner in 1433, and 
was buried in London at Christ Church, 

The English slain are given by Shake- 
speare, word for word from Holinshed, as 
Edward, Duke of York, the Earl of Suffolk, 
Sir Richard Ketly (Kikelie in Holinshed), 
Davy Gam, Esquire, "and, of all other men, 
but five-and-twentie." The Sarum list gives 
only York and Suffolk, "and no more of the 
.leaders, and about fifteen others of gentle 
blood (et circa xv. de aliis personis valet- 
torum)." French authorities estimate the 
.English loss variously from 300 to the 1,600 
of Monstrelet. The Duke of York, who com- 
manded the right wing, had grown very 
corpulent, and was struck down by Alencon. 
Henry, stooping to succour his cousin, was 
assailed by the French prince, who struck 
off the king's jewelled diadem. This Duke 
of York is the Edward of Norwich, Earl of 
'Rutland and Duke of Aumerle (Albemarle), 
who appears in 'Richard II.' as the faithful 
-friend of that unhappy prince. This duke 
was the elder brother of Richard, Earl of 
Cambridge, grandfather of Edward IV. and 
Richard III., whom Henry had executed for 
high treason before embarking for France. 
' Their mother was Isabella, daughter of Peter 
-the Cruel, King of Castille, whose elder 
sister Constance carried her claim to the 
crowns of Castille and Leon to her husband, 
. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. Suffolk 
is Michael de la Pole, the third earl, and 
was only in his twenty-second year. He was 
succeeded in his title by his brother William, 
afterwards first Duke of Suffolk, whom 
Shakespeare makes the lover of Queen Mar- 
garet. Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, 
Henry's uncle of the half-blood, describes 
the manner of their deaths to the king : 

The pretty and sweet manner of it forc'd 

Those waters from me which I would have stopp'd ; 

.But I had not so much of man in me, 

And all my mother came into mine eyes 

And gave me up to tears. 

He makes York, who lies "larding the 

plain" like a nobler Falstaff, "all haggled 
over," die with his wounded arm over the 
neck of the already lifeless Suffolk (IV. vi.). 
This touching episode is not to be found in 
Holinshed. Davy Gam, being sent by Henry, 
before the battle, to ascertain the strength of 
the enemy, reported : " May it please you, 
my liege, there are enough to be killed, 
enough to be taken prisoners, and enough to 
be run away." He was himself to be num- 
bered among the slain, but not before he had 
saved his king's life in " this glorious and 
well-foughten field." Owen Tudor is also 
said to have saved Henry's life on this occa- 
sion ; he certainly espoused his master's 
widow, Katherine of France, and became by 
hergrandfatherof Henry VII. The chroniclers 
describe the battle whereat, to quote Mont- 
joy's words, 

Our vulgar drench their peasant limbs 
In blood of princes ; 

but Shakespeare makes the men who fight 
for and against his hero- king live and move 
before us. The battle inspired Michael 
Drayton to write a famous ballad ; and a 
modern poet, Mr. William Watson, in ' The 
Father of the Forest, 1 beautifully says of 
Henry : 

The roystering prince, that afterward 
Belied his madcap youth, and proved 

A greatly simple warrior lord, 

Such as our warrior fathers loved 

Lives he not still? for Shakespeare sings 

The last of our adventurer kings. 

His battles o'er, he takes his ease, 

Ulory put by, and sceptred toil. 
Round him the carven centuries 

Like forest branches arch and coil. 
In that dim fane he is not sure 
Who lost or won at Azincour ! 

When the lovely Gothic gateway-tower of 
Queen's College, Oxford (facing St. Edmund 
Hall), was destroyed, early in the eighteenth 
century, a singularly happy inscription was 
removed also. This recorded in Latin the 
fact that " Henry V., conqueror of his enemies 
and of himself, was once the great inhabitant 
of this little chamber." A. R. BAYLEY. 

sary of the death of Queen Victoria recalled 
lately to the mind of the writer an episode 
in his experience which had an interesting 
sequel. On the day of Queen Victoria's 
funeral he photographed Balmoral, the 
Queen's Highland home, showing the clock 
in the tower with the hands pointing to the 
hour at which on 22 January she had passed 
away, now four years ago. The photograph 
was taken in the midst of a blinding snow- 

io* s. ni. FEB. is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


storm, the photographer standing breastdeep 
in snow. It was the only photograph taken 
of Balmoral that day, and to obtain it the 
writer had to walk the eight miles from 
Ballater and back again in three feet of 
snow, carrying his camera, the roads being 
impassable to any wheeled conveyance. 

After he had secured one print from the 
negative it came by an accident which ren- 
dered it useless ; but from that one print he 
was able to make copies, several of which he 
sent to various illustrated papers, and one of 
which (an enlargement) he forwarded to His 
Majesty King Edward VII, which His 
Majesty was graciously pleased to accept. 

The pictures in the various papers (The 
Sphere, Black and White, The Graphic, &c.) 
were accompanied by a foot-note explaining 
that it was " an old Scotch custom " to stop 
the clock at the hour of a death. The state- 
ment is correct, and the custom still prevails 
in high life and humble, though its observ- 
ance may be less common now than in past 

But the sequel still remains to be told. 
In June of the same year, five months | 
later, the writer happened to be again at j 
Balmoral, and had some conversation with 
constable Reed, an old residenter, who spoke 
of the newspaper references to the old Scotch 
custom of stopping the clock, and declared > 
that, in this case at all events, the clock had 
not been stopped by any human hand. 

The clock was still going at ten o'clock on 
the evening before the funeral. The photo- 
graph was taken at twelve noon on the day 
of the funeral ; but the hands pointed to 6.25 
the exact hour of the Queen's death. 

It was the snow that did it. A crescent- 
shaped wreath, which is seen in the photo- 
graph, had gathered on the lower part of the 
dial, arresting the hour hand at VI. and the 
minute hand at V. 

Further inquiry confirmed Mr. Reed's 
statement that no human agency had been 
at work in the matter. Nature herself, as if 
in sympathy with a sorrowing nation, had 
here, at Queen Victoria's beloved Highland 
home, done what in Scotland it is indeed 
customary to dp for those for whom time and 
all things transitory have ceased to be. 



" WILIE-BEGUILIES." In his translation of 
Montaigne's essay on ' The Art of Conferring ' 
(book iii. chap, viii.), Florio gives "certaine 
verbal] wilie-beguilies ;; as the equivalent of 
certaines finesses verbales. This dexterous 
and suggestive rendering is its own happy 

commendation, for it indicates the shade of 
meaning presented in the original, and if" 
not itself strictly classical in form, it offers no 
difficulty of interpretation. The diminutive 
quality of the substantive has an attractive- 
ness of its own, and the echo that its sound 
readily gives to the sense dignifies it with 
onomatopoetic value. It would beinteresting 
to know the history of " wilie-beguilies,' ; 
which does not seem to have been sufficiently 
self-assertive to win the respect and considera- 
tion of the lexicographer. 


There are some interesting documents regis- 
tered in this small court. The estate of John 
Skelton, " poeta laureatus," was administered 
to therein on 15 November, 1529, William 
Mott (or Mote), curate of St. Margaret, 
Westminster, appearing in the business 
(6, Bracy). 

Another poet, Thomas Churchyard, was 
rich enough to have a will made for him as 
he lay a-dying. In book Elsam, folio 475,. 
we read : 

" Memorandum the xxix th of Martch anno 1604 
Thomas Churtchyard Esquier being of perfect 
mynde and memory did dispose of his worldlie 
goods as followeth in the presence of vs here vuder 
written, ffirst he gaue to his brother George the- 
some of xx u all the rest of his goods and cattells 
he gave vnto George Onslowe whom he made his 
executor, that he should see him buried like a 
Jentleman per me Nathaniell Mathewe, Gabriel 
Pope, the mark of Joane Moore, Silvester Earlums 

The will was proved on 3 April, 1604, the 
day before the poet's burial in St. Margaret,. 
Westminster. There is an inaccurate version 
of this will, which was "obtained from a 
dealer in waste paper," in Payne Collier's- 
'Bibliographical Account of Early English- 
Literature' (vol. i. p. vii, Notes and Correc- 

But by far the most interesting entry 
relates to Ben Jonson. There can be little^ 
doubt of his identity with the " Beniaminus 
Johnson, nuper civitatis Westmonasterii/' 
administration of whose goods of the value 
of eight pounds eight shillings and ten pence 
was granted on 22 August, 1637, to William 
Scandret, " vni Creditoruin " (Act Book, 
1637, folio 53). An inventory of the effects 
is extant, which might contain some interest- 
ing items, but this I have not seen. 

Titus Gates, "S.T.P.," also figures in 
these books, administration of his effects 
having been granted on 16 August, 1705-, 
to Rebecca Gates, the widow (Act Book, 1705, 
folio 29). She was probably a second wife, 
as Gates is known to have married in 1693 a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. m. FEB. is, 1005. 

'rich widow named Margaret Wells, of 

Muggletonian sympathies. 
I should mention that these entries (the 

one relating to Thomas Churchyard excepted) 

were noted by Mr. G. H. Rodman in his 
report prefixed to the printed Calendar of 

the Court (1864). GORDON GOODWIN. 

"ORIEL." (See 4 th S. v. 577; x. 256, 360, 
412, 480, 529; xi. 164; 6 th S. iv. 252, 336; 
9 th _S. xi. 301, 321, 375, 491.) To the quo- 
tations illustrating the use of the oriel in 
English architecture I may add an extract 
from the Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer's 
Memoranda Roll of 43 & 44 Henry III. (m. 8 
dorso) : 

" Wyndlesora Visores. Johannes Pollard, [&c. ] 
affidauerunt marescallo pro x.s. iiij.d. 
positis in capellam Regine faciendo ad stagnum 
in superiori Ballio Castri Ita quod sint ibi due 
Capelle vna superius et alia inferius Et in vna 
Torrella cum vno Oriolo facienda vltra priuatas 
Cameras Regine iuxta nouam Cameram." 

Q. V. 

"HAD BETTER HAVE BEEN." This curious 
locution appears in The Athenceum of 24 De- 
cember, 1904, p. 869. I have tried in vain to 
parse it. It has often enough been spoken 
of by grammarians and dictionary-makers, 
but few of them have the courage to say 
flatly that it is wrong, that it is an incidental 
corruption of high antiquity arising from the 
elision, in slipshod speech, of nearly all the 
letters in the word would. "I'd better" 
'means "I would better." "I'd rather" 
means " I would rather." It seems futile to 
go back to immemorial usage. Yet Ogilvie's 
'Dictionary' says, "The great antiquity of 
'this construction in English forbids the 
supposition that the had in such phrases is 
a corruption of would, as has been suggested." 
I notice that a modern English grammar of 
very excellent character (C. P. Mason) evades 
'the difficulty in much the same way, adding, 
" The analogous construction with lief is 
unquestionably genuine." Well, had lief 
<inay be genuine, as from antiquity ; but it 
is wrong all the same. Dr. Murray's ' His- 
torical Dictionary' has made a brave attempt 
4o explain matters (under ' Have ') But it 
is a hopeless failure as far as justifying the 
locution is concerned. It would appear that 
some of the reasoning, such as it is, is derived 
from Dr. Fitzedward Hall, who published in 
the Amer. Philol. Jour. (ii. 282, &c.) a long 
.and wordy disquisition, bristling with archaic 
precedents, but in no way justifying the 
-syntax. Hall quotes Samuel Johnson, who 
says it is " a barbarous expression, of late 
intrusion into our language," and proceeds 
ito remark, " What Dr. Johnson was pleased 

to think on any point of English of which 
the just ruling demands a somewhat indus- 
trious inspection of our older authors is 
hardly of noticeable import." Indeed ! 

Let us take the thing to pieces. A few 
examples, where the locution reaches abso- 
lute extravagance, will bring us face to face 
with it. 

Thackeray is one of the worst offenders, 
as, "I think we had best go to-day, my dear"; 
"I had rather have had" ; "When he makes 
an appointment with Doctor Swift he had 
best keep it." Oddly enough, in ' The Vir- 
ginians ' (ch. Ixiii.) Thackeray makes Dr. 
Johnson say, " I had rather hear Mrs. War- 
rington's artless prattle," &c. ;" A man had 
better marry a poor nurse for good and all." 
The late Miss Martineau, however, leaves the 
great novelist far behind : " This family had 
better have been without milk to their coffee " ; 
"I knew a gentleman in America who told 
me how much rather he had be a woman 
than the man he is." An odd specimen occurs 
in George Gissing : "Please don't trouble. 
I'd much rather you didn't." "Why?" 
"Because / had." Even Mr. Dowden has a 
lapse of this sort : " lie had rather leave off 
eating than poetizing " (' Southey,' p. 54). Of 
course it occurs in Shakespeare ; but I 
suspect that it usually appeared in the 
earlier printings as an elision only, and that 
his editors have filled it out, sometimes 
even with disregard to the rhythm. For ex- 
ample ('Othello,' III. iii.), "Thou hadst been 
better have been born a dog " was probably 
" Thou 'dst been better," &c. I had several 
other Shakespearian quotations still more to 
the point ; but they are mislaid. 

I shall be told that writers make language : 
rules do not. Well, if it can be pointed out 
to me that R. L. Stevenson or Dr. Newman 
ever used such hideous locutions, I shall be 
silenced, if not convinced that I am wrong. 

"THRUB CHANDLER." Mr. Wheatley in 
his ' How to Make an Index,' on p. 73, gives 
the following : 

" William Morris used to make merry over the 
futility of some cross-references. He \yas using a 
print of an old English manuscript which was full 
of notes in explanation of self-evident passages, but 
one difficult expression, viz., ' The bung of a thrub 
chandler,' was left unexplained. In the index 
under Bung there was a reference to Thrub 
chandler, and under Thrub chandler another back 
to Bung. (Still the lexicographers are unable to tell 
us what kind of a barrel a ' thrub chandler ' really 


I do not like to quote Mr. Wheatley with- 
out saying that his book has lately been of 
the greatest use to me. RALPH THOMAS. 

s. in. FEB. is, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of ouly private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be sent to them 


know the author and the words of a song 
sung in 1837, and called as above. 

C. L. E. C. 
Alton, Hants. 

[The title-page of the song is as follows : 
(Picture of a bird sitting on a pear tree.) 
'Hop't 8he' 


Convivial Glee 
Sung with the most rapturous applause 

at all 

Pleasant Parties. 
Composed and Harmonized 


B. R-h, Esq rc 
Entered at Stationers' Hall. 
London, Published by I. Willis & Co., Royal 
Musical Repository, oo, St. James Street ; 7, West- 
morland Street, Dublin, and all the Principal 
Music Sellers in the United Kingdom." 

Its words, so far as we recall them, are as 
follows : 

A pie sat on a pear tree, 

A pie sat on a pear tree, 

A pie sat on a pear tree, 
Heigho ! heigho ! heigho ! 

Once so merrily, 1 

Twice so merrily, > Hopt she ! 

Three times so merrily J 

Heigho ! heigho ! heigho ! 

In singing, the company stood up round the table, 
each with a glass of wine, water, lemonade, or 
other beverage in his hand. The first four lines were 
sung in chorus. One then, standing apart, drank 
from his glass while the others sang, "Once so 
merrily," and blurted out "Hopt she!" doing the 
same at the second and the third lines, on each occa- 
sion repeating "Hopt she ! " At the close his or her 
glass was supposed to be empty, and was turned 
super naculvm. An optional penalty for not finish- 
ing the glass was suggested. This proceeding, in 
^vhich, about the period mentioned, we often par- 
ticipated in or near Leeds, caused endless merri- 
ment among the juveniles, and was not scorned 
of their seniors. 1 

MILTON : A PORTRAIT. Can any one 
identify a portrait, said to be that of John 
Milton, but very unlike any authentic 
likeness of that poet, which is hanging in the 
Combination Room at Christ's College ? The 
portrait represents a young man, with long, 
yellowish-brown hair, parted in the middle. 
His clothes are dark, and he wears a broad 
linen collar and muslin cuffs turned back over 
the sleeve and fringed with lace. In his right 
hand he holds a small book, probably a Bible 
or a Prayer-Book, handsomely bound in light 

blue leather with gold tooling. In the corner 
of the picture is the motto, " Xec ingratus 
nee inutilis videar vixisse." A. E. S. 


used to be in the possession of the Marquess 
of Anglesey. It does not appear in the cata- 
logue of the Beaudesert Library as offered 
for sale last month. Who is the present 
owner ? Q. V. 

" ALGARVA." This is the sign on the facia 
of a public-house situated on the eastern 
side (at the top) of Southampton Buildings, 
Chancery Lane, which I pass daily. Can any 
reader state the meaning of the word? It 
has a look of being Spanish or Italian. I 
have searched both Dr. Brewer's books in 

obliged for any information regarding the 
history of Sir Abraham Shipman previous to 
1661. The following entries refer to him : 

" 1660-1. Sir Abraham Shipman, knight, a 
gentleman in ordinary of the privy chamber," &c. 
4 State Papers, Colonial,' vol. xii. 

" Licence to Sir Abraham Shipman to maintain 
Sir Robert Howard's lighthouse at Dungeness, 
co. Kent, on expiration of a former grant thereof 
to Sir Edward Howard. January 1661." 'Domestic, 
Charles II.,' vol. xxix., 'Docquet Book,' p. 79. 

F. W. GRAHAM, Col. 


HIPPOMANES. What has modern science 
to say of this substance, supposed by the 
ancients to possess aphrodisiac properties ? 
It is alluded to by Aristotle, Theophrastus, 
^Elian, Pausanias, Vergil, and Juvenal. As 
these writers are familiar to me, I do not 
want to be referred to any passages in their 
works. I simply wish to ascertain whether 
the beliefs of the ancients on the subject had 
any sound basis in fact. What do anatomists 
and physiologists say about it? 


MOLLY LEPEL'S DESCENT. Can any reader 
direct me to an article proving that the 
beautiful Molly Lepel, Lady Hervey, was of 
Danish, and not of French, descent ? 

A. F. S. 

WORLD.' I have a folio copy of this work, 
" Printed for Robert White, John Place, and 
George Dawes ; and are to be sold by 
Thomas Rookes at the Lamb and Ink-bottle 
at the East-end of St. Paul's, MDCLXVI." It 
has a finely engraved allegorical title-page 
by Ren. Elstrack, dated 1665. This edition 
is not mentioned by Lowndes, and from 
the place and date of its printing, it 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io' s. in. FEB. is, 1905. 

seems not unlikely that many, if not most, 
of the copies were destroyed in the Great 
Fire, and that it is therefore scaice. I shall 
be glad to learn if other copies are known 
to your readers. WM. NORMAN. 

6, St. James's Place, Plumstead. 


POETRY." In an article headed ' Cowper 
and Castaway ' in The Saturday Eevieiv of 
7 January, based on Mr. T. Wright's recent 
edition of the poet's 'Letters,' pre-eminence 
is claimed for Cowper as " writer of the most 
moving first line in English poetry : 

O that those lips had language ! Life has passed 
With me but roughly since 1 heard thee last. 

In his poetry Cowper does not," the writer 
remarks, " wave the flag like Campbell ; 
rather he spreads the pall at least in 
those noble lines on Kempenfeldt that have 
the crystal simplicity, the obviousness which 
is the privilege of genius" an unusual and 
pleasing tribute, in such a place and at the 
present time, to the bard of Olney. Are the 
great English poets, it might be asked, 
becoming less read than formerly? The 
replies of experts publishers or booksellers 
would be of special interest. J. GRIGOR. 


Amice, quisquis es, dummodo honestum, vitse 

Is the quotation correctly given? As it 
stands, it would seem to mean " O friend, 
whosoever thou art, I am weary (if I may say 
so honourably) of my life." B. A. 

Truth for ever on the scaffold, Wrong for ever on 

the throne ; 
Yet that scaffold sways the future, and behind the 

dim unknown 

Standeth God within the shadow, keeping watch 
above His own. 

[ J. R. Lowell, ' The Present Crisis.'] 

ANCHORITES' DENS. Have any books on 
these somewhat uncomfortable dwellings been 
published 1 or has any attempt been made to 
compile a list of these dens in England ? I 
am, of course, aware of the existence of the 
'Ancren Riwle.' Q. W. V. 

'MOSER'S VESTIGES.' The following passage 
is in ' Lincoln's Inn Fields,' by C. W. Hecke- 
thorn, 1896, p. 60, and, slightly altered, is 
repeated in ' London Souvenirs,' 1899, by the 
same writer, p. 29 : 

"In 'Moser's Vestiges,' Will's is thus referred to : 
'All the beaux that used to breakfast in the coffee- 
houses and taverns appendant to the inns of court 
struck their morning strokes in an elegant deshabille, 
which was carelessly confined by a sash of yellow, 

red, blue, green, &c., according to the taste of the 
wearrr and were [sic] of the celebrated Doiley manu- 
facture. The idle fashion was not quite worn out iu 
1765. We can remember having seen some of these 
early loungers in their nightgowns, caps, &c.' " 

What is ' Moser's Vestiges ' ? 


Long Half, 1839, one of the sons of the Rev. 
Daniel Charles Delafosse, vicar of Wands worth, 
became a Commoner at Winchester, but left 
after ten days. Was he the third son, 
Robert M. D. Delafosse, ensign 26th Bombay 
N.I., who died at Mhow, 22 April, 1844, aged 
twenty-three 1 More probably, perhaps, a 
younger brother. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

THE FORTE FRIGATE.' Can any one give, 
or direct me to, the complete song of which 
the following is the first verse 1 
There was a fine frigate, the Forte was her name, 
And in the West Indies she bore a great fame 
For cruel hard usage of every degree ; 
Like slaves on a galley we ploughed the salt sea. 

The rest of the verses, I am told, gave a 
systematic account of a sailor's work from 
waking to sleeping ; but the point of view 
was such that on one occasion a man caught 
singing it received " four dozen." It was a 
widely known Royal Navy song about 1845, 
and the reputation of the Forte frigate was 
consistent with the tenor of the song. 

H. K. ST. J. S. 

SMALL PARISHES. The following paragraph 
is taken from the ' Church News ' column of 
the Daily Mail, 29 October, 1904 : 

" Which is the smallest or the least populated 
of all the parishes in England ? The death of the 
Rev. D. T. Barry, late rector of Fishley, raises the 
question, for Fishley (which is near Yarmouth) is 
returned as containing only fifteen persons. It ia 
probable that there are parishes even smaller than 
this there is a record of a parish with one house 
and it would be interesting if a list could be made." 

Perhaps some correspondents may be able 
to supply particulars of other small parishes 
in England. H. W. UNDERDOWN. 

[See 8 th S. xi. 25, 78.] 

'REBECCA,' A NOVEL. I bought on the 
quais at Paris for ten centimes, on 24 March, 
1904, the first two volumes of a book entitled 
"Rebecca; or, the Victim of Duplicity; a 
Novel in Three Volumes. Uttoxeter, printed 
by R. Richards ; sold by Lackington, Allen 
& Co., London, 1808." Will one of the learned 
readers of ' N. & Q.' be so good as to say by 
whom this book was written, in what printed 
catalogue or bibliography one can find a 
description of it, and where the third volume 
is to be seen ? Tastes differ about all things ; 
but to some people the book is interesting 

io< s. in. FEB. is, i90o.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and attractive. The scene of the first volume 
which reminds one of 'The Vicar of Wake 
field,' is laid in the village of W , in Cum 
berland ; that of the second at Hampsteac 
The vicar is more than once described as th 
"parish priest"; "Deists" and "Jacobins 
are referred to among contemporary dan 
gerous classes ; Italian and French word 
are quoted ; the old spelling " Winander 
mere" is used, but "Brighton" has alread 
superseded "Brighthelmstone." The Cum 
bfrland dialect appears to be used here anc 
there. E. S. DODGSOX. 

In compiling some notes on this ancien 
family I have come across the following 
names, which would appear to be either 
variants of or synonyms for the original : 

Sexdecim (Vallibus de Ebor') = Sexten or 
Saxton in the vales of Yorkshire. Nicholas 
de Sexdecim Vallibus de Ebor' was clerk oi 
the city of York in July, 1327. On 4 July 
1334, his "late wife" Elena was granted a 
licence for alienation in mortmain of four 
shops ( " quatuor shopas " ) and nineteen 
shillings of rent in York, held in burgage by 
service of rendering Is. 4tZ. yearly to the king 
as "husgable" (what is this?), by the hands 
of the bailiffs of the city, at St. James the 
Apostle (Inq. ad quod Damnum, 8 Ed\v. III.). 
Sextenedale, alias Sixteendale, alias Sere- 
vals=Sixteendole, the toll exacted by millers 
of one-sixteenth of every bushel of corn 
ground by them. "William de Sextenedale, 

als ," &c., was fined 801. in 7 Henry II., 

1160/1 (Madox, 'Hist. Excheq.,' second ed., 
17G9, i. 501, and index). 

Secu', alias Setu', alias Set vans or Septvans. 
Sec\i'=secums (Lat.), seac (Saxon), a broad- 
edged axe or hatchet for hewing stones in 
the quarries. 

Setu'=Seton. See below. 
Setvans = seven cornfans or winnowers. 
Arms of "De Septvans, alias..,..." &c., of 
Milton Septvans, co. Kent, temp. Edward I. 
and II. : Az., three cornfans or (' Dering Roll 
of Arms,' fo. 90-1, published in The Reliquary, 
1875 to 1878). 

Sapy, a nickname for Septvans. Applied 
to Robert de Saxton in Aug., 1322. late Con- 
stable of Scarborough Castle, co. York. 

Seton, alias Seeton = Saxton, co. York. 
"Prreliuin de Seton," "Seeton apud Charyng- 
crosse" ('Three Fifteenth-Century Chroni- 
cles,' &c., Camden Soc., 1880, pp. 160-2). 

Would some more competent authority 
kindly favour me with an opinion on these 
names ] I have reason to think it highly 
probable that the Saxtons were for genera- 

tions most extensively interested in corn- 
milling in Yorkshire and elsewhere. 


Adelaide, S. Australia. 

[W. C. B. pointed out at 9 th S. xii. 186 that the 
name Sexdecim Valles " is a difficulty to those who 
are unacquainted with Yorkshire topography." He 
quoted several instances from publications of the 
Surtees Society, and added that Sixtedale, Sixten- 
dale, Sexeudale, Sixendale, &c., were all forms of 
the modern Thixendale, a village on the wolds in 
the East Riding. Husgable is house tax ; see 
'Gavel' in 'N.E.D.'] 


(10 th S. iii. 87.) 

THE roll of illustrious English, Irish, and 
Scotch men who have served under foreign 
Governments is a splendid record of romance 
and adventure, as well as a tribute to the 
overflowing strength of England, but one 
too long for admission to the pages of 
N. & Q.' Still more interesting would it 
be, did space permit, to give the converse 
picture, and array side by side our gains as 
well as our losses. 

With regard to distinguished Englishmen 
in the service of other countries, it would be 
necessary to eliminate those who were at the 
same time in the service of their own 
countrj r such as, for example, the first Duke 
of Marlborough, the first Duke of Wel- 
ington, Marshal Beresford, or Generals 
Wilson and Trant, all of whom held foreign 

With the exception, perhaps, of Sir 
Villiam Stanley, it is almost solely in con- 
nexion with France that we find the sword 
drawn against the parent country. 
To mention a few names at haphazard, of 
nglishmen or their immediate descendants : 
The flight of the wild geese and emigra- 
ion of General Sarsfield's Irish Brigade to 
''ranee is well known. So, too, are the names 
f Generals Hamilton and Kilmaine and 
General Nugent, who fought against our 
orces at Oudenarde and Ramillies. The 
Dillon family gave several generals as well 
s a regiment named after them to the 
rench armies of the seventeenth, eighteenth, 
nd nineteenth centuries, and also an arch- 
ishop to Toulouse. Another Irishman held 
ank under the fleur-de-lys, Sir Gerard 
ally, whose son, the Comte de Lally 
nd Baron de Tollendal, was Cornmander-in- 
"hief of the French Army in India. Sir 
jJerard's grandson, the Marquis de Lally 



s. in. FEB. is, IQQS. 

Tollendal, was a prominent figure in politics 
during the Revolution and during the reigri 
of Louis XVIII. More recently another poli- 
tician might be mentioned M. Waddington ; 
also a soldier who made his way to the front 
recently in the African wars of France, 
General Dodds. 

Under the great Napoleon we have the 
ever-faithful Marshal Macdonald, Duke of 
Tarentum, and the war minister Clarke, Duke 
of Feltre; and under the third Napoleon that 
gallant but unfortunate soldier Marshal 
MacMahon, Duke of Magenta. In another 
exciting, but less dangerous sphere we find 
John Law, the creator of the Mississippi 
Bubble. The great Duke of Berwick, the 
victor of Almansa, was the son of James II. 
and nephew of the Duke of Maryborough. 

In Italy one recalls Sir John Hawkwood, 
Admiral Acton in the service of the King of 
Naples, and Baron Ward (once a Yorkshire 
jockey), the Prime Minister of Parma. One 
would be tempted also to refer to the head 
of the Roman Church Pope Adrian IV., the 
only English Pontiff. Nor must we forget 
in recent times " Garibaldi's Englishman " 

In thinking of Greece it is only necessary 
to mention Byron, Trelawny, and Parry. 

In Spain the names of Sir William Stanley, 
of Generals Dillon, O'Reilly, O'Mahony 
(Count of Castile), of Count Gage, and of Sir 
De Lacy Evans occur ; also those of the 
Captain-General of Catalonia,General Francis 
Lacy, and the Prime Minister Richard 

In Austria we find engaged in the wars 
against the Turks Thomas Lord Arundell, 
and in later years Field-Marshal Nugent, a 
prince of the Holy Roman Empire and a 
magnate of Hungary, Field-Marshal Viscount 
Taaffe (Earl of Carlingford), General Nicholas 
Taaffe, and possibly Count Taaffe, the 
Austrian minister. In Hungary, during the 
critical months of 1848 and 1849, one of the 
most successful of the Hungarian generals 
was the Englishman General Richard Guyon. 
Turning to Russia, we have a pioneer of 
Central Asian trade, Capt. John Elton, who 
finished his adventurous career under the 
banners of Persia; Field-Marshal Count Lacy, 
" the Prince Eugene of Muscovy " ; General 
Maurice Lacy, who fought under Sou varoff; 
Admirals Greg and Elphinstone; the vic- 
torious Count de Browne. Field-Marshal, and 
a still more celebrated Field-Marshal in the 
war against Napoleon I., Barclay de Tolly, 
the son of a Scotchman. 

In Prussia: General Keith, and his brother 
Field-Marshal Keith, mortally wounded at 

Bochkirch, and Count Douglas. Field- 
Marshal York, too, was English by descent. 

In Bavaria: Sir Benjamin Thompson, other- 
wise the Count von Rumford, the founder of 
the Royal Institution of Great Britain, and 
urer of smoky chimneys. 

In Holland : the bankers George Clifford 
(the friend of Linneeus) and John Hope 

In Portugal : Admiral Sir George Sartorius, 
and Sir Charles Napier of Acre celebrity. 

In Sweden : General Barclay, who fought 
under Gustavus Adolphus, General Malcolm 
Hamilton, and Baron Reay. 

In Turkey or Egypt we come across 
General Guyon again, Gordon Pasha, Hobart 
Pasha, Sir Samuel Baker, General Valentine 
Baker, and Hicks Pasha. 

In Brazil and Chile : the Earl of Dundonald 
and Ambrose O'Higgins (Viceroy of Peru, 
and father of the Liberator of Chile). 

In Madagascar : General Shervington. 

In India : George Thomas, the general of 
the Begum Somru. 

In Afghanistan : Sir Thomas Salter Pyne, 
Dr. Grey, and Dr. Hamilton the last-named, 
by the way, a lady. 

In Borneo : Sir James Brooke, who subse- 
quently became Rajah. 

In 'China : General Gordon, Sir Robert 
Hart, Admiral Laing. 

In Japan : William Adams, the favourite 
of two Emperors of Japan in the seventeenth 
century, and Prof. Ernest Fox well. 

In Tonga : Mr. Baker. 

In Morocco, Kaid Sir Harry Macleanh as 
already been mentioned. In the Soudan the 
lieutenant of the Mahdi, "Osman Digna," 
was believed to have been an Englishman, 
George Nisbet. R. B. 


Premising that Englishmen include Britons 
generally, and putting a wide interpretation 
on the qualifying adjective "important," I 
would mention Admiral Thomas Gordon, 
Governor of Cronsfadt, who died in 1741. I 
sketched his career at considerable length 
in The Aberdeen Free Press, 3 and 19 Sep- 
tember, 1898. Again, there was General 
Patrick Gordon, Peter the Great's right- 
hand man, whose ' Diary ' was issued by the 
Spalding Club ; also Field-Marshal Keith, of 
Frederick the Great's army. 

The literature of the subject includes Hill 
Burton's delightful 'Scot Abroad'; W. H. 
Davenport Adams's ' Under Many Flags,' 189G ; 
Father Forbes Leith's ' Scots Men-at-Arms' ; 
Mr. James Ferguson's elaborate history of the 
' Scots Brigade in Holland ' ; and Mr. Th. A. 
Fischer's excellent books 'The Scots in 
Germany ' and ' The Scots in Eastern and 

io* s. in. FEB. is, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Western Prussia.' See also Otto Donner's 
'Scottish Families in Sweden and Finland' 
(Helsingfors, 1884). J. M. BULLOCH. 

118, Pall Mall. 

A. C. Hobart Pasha was a Turkish admiral 
and minister. The Egyptian Government 
service is hardly a case in point, but many 
Englishmen obtained the title of Pasha for 
distinguished conduct. 

Prof. W. R. Morfill, in his history, has 
much to say on the subject of Britishers in 
Russian service, e g., General Patrick Gordon, 
who assisted Peter the Great to suppress the 

Streatham Common. 

CHARLES I. IN SPAIN (10 th S. iii. 48). DON 
FLORENCIO DE UHAGON would read with 
interest several letters in James Howell's 
' Epistoke Ho-Elianse' (vol. i. sect. 3, ed. 1713), 
which are dated from Madrid, 1622-3, and 
comment on the royal courtship then pro- 
ceeding. Here is a graphic passage from 
No. xviii., addressed to Capt. Tho. Porter : 

" There are Comedians once a Week come to 
the Palace, where under a great Canopy, the Queen 
and the Infanta sit in the middle, our Prince and 
Don Carlos on the Queen's right hand, the King 
and the little Cardinal on the Infanta's left hand. 
I have seen the Prince have his eyes immovably 
fixed on the Infanta half an hour together in a 
thoughtful speculative posture, which sure would 
needs be tedious, unless affection did sweeten it : 
It was no handsome comparison of Olii'ares, that 
he watcht her as a Cat doth a Mouse. Not long 
since the Prince understanding that the Infanta 
was us'd to go some mornings to the Casa de Campo, 
a Summer-house the King hath tother side the 
River, to gather May Dew, he did rise betimes and 
went thither taking your Brother with him, they 
were let into the House and into the Garden, but 
the Infanta was in the Orchard, and there being a 
high partition wall between, and the door doubly 
bolted, the Prince got on the top of the wall and 
sprung down a great height, and so made towards 
her, but she spying him first of all the rest, gave a 
Shriek and ran back ; the old Marquis that was 
then her Guardian came towards the Prince and 
fell on his Knees, conjuring his Highness to retire 
in regard he hazarded his Head, if he admitted any 
to her Company ; so the door was open'd, and he 
came out under that Wall over which he had got 
in : I have seen him watch a long Hour together in 
a close coach in the open Street to see her as she 
went abroad : I cannot say that the Prince ever 
did talk w T ith her privately, yet publickly often, 
my Lord of Bristol being Interpreter : but the King 
always sat hard by, to over-hear all. Our Cousin 
Archy hath more Priviledge than any, for he often 
goes with his Fool's Coat where the Infanta is with 
her ifexmas and Ladies of Honor, and keeps a- 
blowing and blustering amongst them, and flurtes 
out what he list." 

It occurs to me to wonder if the picture of 
a dwarf by Velazquez in the Prado Gallery 

at Madrid, entitled ' D. Antonio el Ingles,' 
can be a presentment of Archie : Antonio is 
near enough to Archibald for any speaker of 
Romance to come. ST. SWITHIN. 

My friend DON F. DE UHAGON has anti- 
cipated a long formed intention of mine by 
asking for a collection of contemporary allu- 
sions to the matrimonial visit paid by the 
Prince of Wales to Madrid in 1623. In the 
cosy Biblioteca Sagarminaga, in the Palacio 
de la Diputacion Provincial at Bilbao, con- 
taining about 12,000 volumes, there is a book 
entitled "Amistades de Principes por Don 
Fadriqve Moles (En Madrid, En la Imprenta 
Real, Afio de 1637)." On f. 64 occurs the 
following allusion to the question : 

" Singular fauor, y proteccion f ue, la q' tuuo Dios 
de nuestro gran Monarca Filipp Quarto, en desba- 
ratar por causas justas el matrimonio, que por tan 
hecho se tuuo a los 9. de Otubre de 1623. entre el Rey 
de Escocia [stc], e Infante Maria, con que nos libro- 
de caer en los males que han caido otros ; razo que 
deuiera enfrenar mucho, a los que tan sin rienda 
lleuan en sus exercitos, enemigos de Dios, y de la 

On f. i. verso there is a phrase which 
serves as an answer to the recent discussion 
in 'N. & Q.' (9 th S. xi. 129, 377) about the 
origin of the name Diego. It evidently was 
regarded by the author as equivalent to 
Tiago in " Sant-Iago," i.e., lacobus : 

" Para acreditar esta verdad, es valiente exemplo 
el de Christo Senor nuestro, respeto de luan y 
Diego sus primes, " 

i.e., to confirm this truth the example of 
Christ our Lord is useful, with respect to 
John and James His cousins. 


THACKERAY (10 th S. iii. 22, 73). It would be 
interesting to identify T. J. Thackeray, who, 
as shown by MR. R. E. FRANCILLON and MR. 
WALTER JERROLD, was the librettist of ' The 
Mountain Sylph.' On referring to the account 
of the Thackeray family in The Herald and 
Genealogist, ii. 315-28; 440-55 (1864), I find 
the only member who bore the initials 
T. J. was Mr. Thomas James Thackeray, 
who was a second cousin of the novelist. 
The father of Mr. T. J. Thackeray was 
Thomas Thackeray, born 1767, died 1852, 
who held an appointment in the medical 
service of the East India Company on the 
Madras Establishment, from which he retired 
with an ample fortune, and settled at Bath. 
He was the eldest son of Thomas Thackeray, 
born 1736, died 1806, who was a surgeon at 
Cambridge, and who himself was the eldest 
son of Dr. Thomas Thackeray, born 1G93, 
died 1760, Head Master of Harrow and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io th s. in. FEB. is, 1905. 

Archdeacon of Surrey. Dr. Thackeray's 
youngest son was William Makepeace 
Thackeray, who joined the Bengal Civil 
Service in 1766, and became the grandfather 
of the novelist. This branch of the family 
forms the subject of Sir William Hunter's 
delightful book 'The Thackerays in India.' 
Mr. Thomas James Thackeray was born at 
Madras, 5 September, 1796, and baptized 
there on 13 October. He was educated at 
Eton, and admitted pensioner of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 15 October, 1814. He 
took the degree of M.B. in 1820, and was a 
captain in the 2nd Somerset Militia from 
1824 to 1855. He was the author of a ' His- 
tory of the Agricultural Society of England,' 
written in French, and of other works in 
that language published at Paris in the years 
1846, 1847, and 1848. He also wrote a work 
on the ' Military Organization and Adminis- 
tration of France,' partly printed (at Woking) 
in 1856, and was responsible for some 'Lec- 
tures and Manuals on Rifle Practice.' He 
settled at Clench Wharton, co. Norfolk, and 
was alive in 1864 when the Thackeray family 
memoranda were printed in The Herald and 

I think that Mr. Thomas James Thackeray 
may probably have written the libretto of 
' The Mountain Sylph.' He was evidently a 
man of considerable culture, and the name 
of " Thwackaway," which was applied to him 
by Mr. Logan, would seem to indicate that 
he was popular in the society in which he 
moved, as disagreeable men seldom receive 
the honour of a familiar nickname. Probably, 
also, he felt no ambition to figure in bio- 
graphical dictionaries, arid has therefore been 
forgotten, like Edward Moran and other 
popular contemporaries of his, who were 
well known in their day, but have since 
passed into oblivion. Perhaps ME. JERROLD, 
or some other correspondent, may be able 
to give some further particulars of him. I 
am ignorant of the date of his death. 


The references under this title to John 
Barnett's ' Mountain Sylph' have reminded 
me of a letter in my possession, addressed 
by my great-uncle, Thomas Dibdin, to C. 
Taylor, dated 30 August, 1834, i.e., five days 
after the first performance. In this letter 
Thomas Dibdin wrote, "The whole of the 
opera of the ' Mountain Sylph ' is mine, but 
another gentleman has been praised in the 
papers for it highly." From the context I 
gather that "the amateur gentleman" for 
whom the piece was written had not paid 
up, and the venerable dramatist was medi- 
tating a retaliatory assertion of his author- 

ship. It is to be inferred that T. J. Thackeray 
subsequently made good his promises, and so 
retained his fame as librettist. 


" BROKEN HEART " (10 th S. iii. 9, 77). 
CANON SAVAGE refers to Dr. Stroud's treatise 
on ' The Physical Cause of the Death of 
Christ,' published in 1846. 

To the second edition of that treatise, pub- 
lished in 1871, there is an appendix containing 
a letter from Sir James Y. Simpson, of Edin- 
burgh, to Dr. Hanna, in which he expresses 
his strong belief that the view adopted and 
maintained by Dr. Stroud, attributing our 
Saviour's death, not to the mere result of 
crucifixion, but to rupture of the heart, is 
fundamentally correct. Sir James gives 
his reasons at some length, and states that 
this opinion has not been in any way altered 
by later observations on the subject both 
here and on the Continent. 

I would suggest to all who are interested in 
the medical view of the subject to read Sir 
James Simpson's letter. JAMES WATSON. 


THE LYCEUM THEATRE (10 th S. iii. 45). 
Surely Charles Kean's settings were quite as 
gorgeous as those of the Lyceum. The 
" Charles Kean Collection " at the Albert and 
Victoria Museum, South Kensington, for- 
tunately preserves the effects produced by his 
scenes, painted by the artists themselves. 
Few things have given me greater pleasure 
than I enjoyed whilst inspecting them. 


Narbonne Avenue, S.W. 

MR. HIBGAME, in his interesting note, is 
slightly at fault in writing : 

"Built somewhere about 1765, it passed from 
theatre to picture gallery, lecture hall, panorama, 
and a host of other entertainments, and then back 
again to theatre, till its destruction by fire in 1829." 

James Payne was the architect of the 
building which was erected in 1765 for the 
exhibition of the Society of Artists, and 
which he named the Lyceum. Three years 
later, when a number of the members crossed 
the Strand to Somerset House, the premises 
were purchased by Mr. Lingham, a breeches- 
maker in the Strand, who let them for any 
purpose for which he could find a tenant. 
The most notable entertainments were 
Dibdin's ' The Whim of the Moment ; or, 
Nature in Little' (1789), and others of the 
kind, "the whole written and composed, 
and will be spoken, sung, and accompanied, 
by Mr. Dibdin." 

The year 1809, when the burnt-out company 
from Drury Lane obtained a special licence 

10* s. in. FEB. is, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to give dramatic performances here, was 
probably the first date when it became a 

The subsequent remarkable mutations of 
this house are of great interest. Its history 
has been written and published within recent 
years, but for the moment 1 cannot recall the 
name of the author. Vide Mr. Barton Baker's 
' The London Stage,' vol. ii. p. 36 ; also 
Cunningham's ' London,' Timbs, and several 
similar works. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

39, Hillmarton Road. 

(10 th S. ii. 250). If other information be 
lacking, is not the first consideration the 
probable origin of the surname? Walker's 
' Dictionary ' tells us that " surnames origin- 
ally designated occupation, place of residence, 
or some particular thing or event that related 
to the person." li Serjeantson " seems to imply 
son of some one known commonly in his time 
as "The Sergeant": 

" This word 'Sergeant ' is used in Britton for an 
Officer belonging to the County ; and the same 
which Bracton in his Fifth Book, cap. 4, num. 2, 
calls Servientem Hundredi, and is in truth no other 
than Bayliff of the Hundred. And the Steward of 
a Manor is called Serviens Manerii : Coke, vol. iv. 
Copyhold Cases, fol. 21 a." Cowell. 

More details concerning this family have 
not been found by the present writer than 
the following, from The Craven Herald in 
1901, over the signature " R. B. Cragg." " The 
monks of Fountains were the chief over- 
lords or proprietors in this p'sh " (Hanlith). 
"In the Abbey's rent roll for 1357 I find one 
called Scberlantson " (? Scheriantson). "In 
1361 one Eich' 1 Serjeantson held a cottage of 
the Abbot at Malham" (an adjoining hamlet). 

"In the poll tax of Rich. II., of 1379, a Will 

S n and his wife lived at Kirkby - Malham 

[another adjoining hamlet], and they paid 4f/. In 
1530 this family was settled at Hanlith, and must 
have been yeomen. In 1569 the 'Rising of the 
North ' found the head of the family siding with 

the Nortons At the dissolution of the Abbeys 

by Henry VIII. Hanlith was granted to John Lam- 
bert, whose grandson Josias, about 1610, sold it to 
the Serjeantsons ; and they have held it ever since." 


LONDON CEMETERIES IN 1860 (10 th S. ii. 169, 
296, 393, 49G, 535; iii. 56). I am extremely 
obliged to COL. PRIDEAUX for replying so 
kindly and fully to my question respecting the 
burial-ground in White Horse Street, Stepney. 
From what he says I have no doubt it is 
the Stepney Meeting Ground, near Salmon's 
Lane, which I remember to have seen. 

With regard to the East London Cemetery, 
closed, as MR. liAClilCHAKL informs us, in 
1854, 1 may say that I have now located its 


site. From a map issued with ' The Pictorial 
Handbook of London ' (Bohn, 1854), it appears 
to have been a plot of ground lying a little 
to the north-west of the Commercial Gas 
Works, near the point where Ben Jonson 
Road joins Harford Street. Whether the 
site is now built over or not I am unable to- 


est Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

TYRRELL FAMILY (10 th S. iii. 69). Has your 
correspondent consulted 3 rd S. xii. ; 4 th S. iv. r 
v. ; 6 th S. iii. ; 7 th S. ix. ; 8 th S. ii., iv., which 
furnish many particulars respecting this 

71, Brecknock Road. 

In my experience Lipscomb is always 
useful, but not always exact. 

I have seen it stated that a subsequent 
owner by purchase of the Thornton estate 
caused the old Tyrrell monuments or tomb- 
stones to be thrown into the River Ouse, 
which flows close by. This is almost in- 
credible, though not impossible. If true, it is 
possible that they may now be in a better 
state of preservation than they would have 
been in air exposed to wind and frost. Those 
interested should investigate on the spot. 

A cabdriver now claims the Tyrrell 

A short article on the Tyrrell family 
appeared a few months ago in The People. 

Blake House, Winslow, Bucks. 

AlXSTY (10 th S. ii. 25, 97, 455, 516). I have 
not an unlimited range over topographical 
works, but I can find no mention of Ainsty 
except as regards a district about York. 
MR. ARTHUR HALL seems to know of an 
Ainsty in Cambridgeshire ; but Prof. Skeat 
does not include it in his 'Place-names of 
Cambridgeshire ' (Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society), a fact which is for me very sig- 
nificant. I cannot, of course, accept the 
suggestion that ain and an must be equiva- 
lent. ST. SWITHMT. 

' PARADISE LOST ' OF 1751 (10 th S. iii. 68). 
This is clearly a further reprint of the 
"smaller edition," of which I possess the 
ninth issue. Of this, the title-page (single) 
is the same as CANON HEWITT'S, but is dated 
1711, and the name of Jacob Tonson appears 
alone as publisher. It is faced by a portrait 
of Milton, with an epigraph by Dryden. 
The volume contains (1) the dedication to 
Lord Sommers, (2) the poem in Latin by Dr. 
Barrow, signed S. B., M.D., (3) the poem of 
Andrew Mar veil, 'The Verse.' Many of the 
plates show marks of having been signed, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io- s. m. FEB. is, iocs. 

; but the signatures have been badly scraped 
off. Uniform with it is the 

" Paradise Regain'd. | A | Poem | In Four Books. 
I To which is added | Samson Agonistes. | And | 
Poems on several Occasions. | With a Tractate of 
-Education | The Author | John Milton. | The Fifth 
Edition. Adorn'd with Cuts. | Printed for J. Ton- 
son at Shakespears Head," &c. 1713. 

In this too the signatures of the plates are 
scraped out, but on one I can read "Pigue" 
or "Pigrie." Each section in this latter 
volume has a separate title-page, all dated 

The volume mentioned by CANON HEWITT 
cannot be a composite volume pieced together 
by some collector, as I have found just the 
same volume, with all the details described 
by this gentleman, in the Munich Hof- und 
Staatsbiblipthek. Here this volume figures 
as tome i. Tome ii. contains 'Paradise 
Regain'd,' 'Samson Agonistes,' ' Poems,' and 
the 'Tractate of Education,' "the eighth 
edition,'' printed for J. & R. Tonson, R. 
Ware, J. Hodges, &c., 1743. Tome ii. has 
the same types and quality of paper, but 
only one title copper-plate, without other 
illustrations. Also the pages are one or two 
millimeters shorter than in tome i. Roth 
Munich volumes, in the original brown leather 
binding, bear the arms of the Princes of the 
Palatinate ; they came from Mannheim or 
Heidelberg to Munich with the library of 
Charles Theodore, Elector of the Palatinate. 

(Dr.) M. MAAS. 


SPELLING REFORM (10 th S. ii. 305, 450; iii. 
31). At the last reference I mentioned, from 
memory, the instances of the verbs forgo and 
forego in Milton ; and as I am now able to 
consult the first editions and the concord- 
ance, I can give the exact references. Forgo, 
meaning do without : ' Paradise Lost,' vii. 
1134 (modern editions, via. 497), viii. (modern 
editions, ix.) 908, x. 538 (modern editions, 
xi. 541); 'Samson Agonistes,' 1. 940, 1. 1483; 
4 Hymn of the Nativity,' 1. 196. Forego, 
meaning go before: 'Paradise Regained,' 
dv. 483. ALDENHAM. 

VERSE ON A COOK (10 th S. iii. 89). This 
half-stanza is from a poem called 'A Table 
of Errata,' by a poet named Thomas Hood. 

iii. 24). Surely there must be some error in 
the statement made by The Times of 22 De- 
cember, 1904 (quoted by MR. UNDERDO WN), 
that the Rev. Percival Clementi-Smith, rector 
of St. Andre\v-by-the-Wardrobe, had been 

unanimously elected as a City Councillor for 
Castle- Raynard Ward, and that he was the 
first clergyman who had been elected to 
the Corporation since the Reformation. An 
inquiry addressed to the Town Clerk of Hull 
(Mr. E. Laverack), who is also a solicitor, 
brought the following reply : 

"In reply to your letter of 20 January, I beg 
to inform you that section 12 of the Municipal 
Corporations Act, 1882, provides that a person shall 
be disqualified for being elected, and for being, a 
councillor if and while he is in Holy Orders, or the 
regular minister of a dissenting congregation. This 
disqualification, however, does not apply to those 
members of the Councils of the City of Oxford and 
the Borough of Cambridge who are elected to 
represent the Universities." 


THE NAIL AND THE CLOVE (10 th S. iii. 41). 
MR. NICHOLSON may beinterested in the article 
in The Gentleman's (referred to in a recent part 
of the ' New English Dictionary,' s.v. ' Paul ') 
as to " Paul's foot." See also ' Pes Pauli ' in 
Willis and Clark's 'Architectural History of 
Cambridge,' Glossary. As to wool weights, I 
shall be glad toknow whether MR. NICHOLSON'S 
investigations lead him to accept Thorold 
Rogers's statements (e.g. in the appendix to 
vol. ii. of 'Agriculture and Prices') as to 
most extraordinary variations in the number 
of stones in a sack not only between different 
localities, but in the same locality at different 
times. My own impression is that the Pro- 
fessor consistently read "sack" every time 
he found an s., and that the letter, as a fact, 
frequently stands for " sarpler." Q. V. 

ISLANDS (10 th S. ii. 68, 154. 231). In view of 
the obscurity of this subject, perhaps it may 
be of interest to summarize very briefly 
MR. LEE'S paper in the twenty-ninth Bulletin 
of the Societe Jersiaise, which he very kindly 
sent me. On 28 October, 1406, Alexander VI. 
transferred Jersey and Guernsey to the 
diocese of Salisbury, and on 20 January, 1499, 
the same Pope transferred all the islands to 
Winchester diocese. Henry VII. wrote to 
the Bishop of Winchester on 25 October, 
1499, with reference to the Bull of the latter 
date ; and on 1 January, 1500, the Winchester 
register records the admission of a priest to 
the living of St. Brelarde's, Jersey. This 
admission is also recorded in the Coutances 
register. No further act of jurisdiction of 
the Bishop of Winchester in the islands, is 
recorded in the register of that see before 
14 June, 1569. The last act of jurisdiction 
registered by the Bishop of Coutances is 
dated 31 May, 1557. In 1565 the Privy 
Council supported the claims of the Bishop 

10* s. in. FEB. is, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of Coutances. The Bishop of Winchester's 
claim was finally approved by an order in 
Council dated 11 March, 1568/9. One wonders 
whether the Bulls of 28 October, 1496, and 
20 January, 1499, were ever communicated 
to the French bishop. Xo record of any 
act of the Privy Council in the reign o'f 
Edward VI. dealing with this matter seems 
to remain. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

S. ii. 448 ; iii. 34). There is a little about 
this burial-ground in 'Portugal illustrated 
in a Series of Letters, 3 by the Rev. VV. M. 
Kinsey, B.D., second edition, London, 1829. 
The letter which contains the references is 
No. iv. and is dated Lisbon, 1827. The author 
speaks of the burial-ground as near to some 
barracks, "at the moment of which we are 
speaking, occupied by one of our regiments 
of guards." * 

The author says, "We sought in vain for 
the tomb of Fielding, whose remains were, 
we knew, nevertheless deposited here." He 
speaks of the cypress trees and of there 
being " a variety of trees not usually seen in 
our northern churchyards." Also, 
"among the monuments, we found one erected to 
Thomas Parr, by order of the general court of 
Governors of Christ's Hospital in 1792 : and on the 
portico of the receiving house, looking down an 
avenue in the cemetery, we observed the following 
inscription, which shows that this sacred spot was 
purchased by the British and Dutch merchants 

Impensis Britannorum et Batavorum, 1794." 

Pp. 103-5. 

It may be that the inscription refers to the 
receiving house, and not to the piece of land. 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 

SIR THOMAS CORNWALLIS (10 th S. iii. 29, 73). 
The document described by MR. HERON- 
ALLEN is evidently one of the Writs of Privy 
Seal for Loans a kind of royal promissory 
note or Exchequer bill issued by James I. 
to raise money, after he had indignantly 
told his grudging Commons that he did not 
want their " supply," which, however, we are 
told, they had no intention of granting him. 
It is a document well known to students of 
old records. These writs were directed to all 
persons of means in each county, requiring 
them to pay to the county collector the 
amount mentioned in the writ, which in 
those I have seen appears to have varied 
according to individual circumstances or 

* A force of 5,000 men was sent to Lisbon in 
December, 1826, to give aid to Isabella, Princess 
Regent of Portugal, against the absolutists. It left 
in April, 182$. 

assessment. The writ then passed into circu- 
lation as paper currency, and sometimes was 
not presented at the Exchequer until two 
or three years after the date specified for 
its redemption had elapsed. A note of its 
repayment was then made upon it, signed 
by the Teller of the Exchequer who paid it 
as well as by its then holder or assignee. Its 
phraseology is very curious, and may be of 
royal composition, or more probably it was 
merely the usual form of such writs. It 
is certainly a document of much " con- 
stitutional" interest. A perfect specimen 
should have a large papered impression of 
the Privy Seal affixed to it, and the name of 
the person to whom it was directed, and who 
had to make the advance, written upon the 
fly-leaf of it. It is printed in " Secretary :> 
not " Court-hand '' type. G. B. M. 

SAMUEL WILDERSPIN (10 th S. ii. 528). It 
has been stated by a correspondent ( th S. i. 
332) that the portrait by Herbert, R.A., was 
then (April, 1898) in the possession of Mr. 
J. W. Young, of Belgrave Road, Rathmines, 
Dublin, who married one [of Wilderspin's 
daughters. This portrait " was engraved by 
Agnew, but for some unknown reason prints 
were not published." For a list of Wilder- 
spin's works and the families into which his 
son and daughters married see 9 th S. i. 270. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

(10 th S. iii. 47). In view of the possibilities 
of the Thames Harbour Bill, which is shortly 
to claim the attention of Parliament, and. 
which, if it becomes law, will settle all ques- 
tions of tide in the Thames above Gravesend 
regardless of the forces of nature, at the 
absolute will of a committee of men, it is 
due to that little band of volunteers who 
are promoting the Great Thames Barrage 
Scheme that present records should be fairly 
stated, and the assertion in The Times that 
' no damage appears to have been done" is- 
open to correction. As a matter of fact, 
there was very considerable loss and incon- 
venience in Kent and Essex by breaches and 
overflow of the river walls, and large tracts 
were inundated, as there is plenty of local 
newspaper evidence to show ; and many of us 
remember having to travel on the London 
and Tilbury Railway through floods so deep 
that it was only by the greatest caution that 
the engine-drivers could prevent the water 
from putting out their engine fires. 

The Barrage Scheme, if carried out, will 
revolutionize the Lower Thames, by keeping 
the tide always high, but no higher than 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io< h s. in. FEB. is, 1905. 

needful, conducing to pleasure and safety, 
and at the same time affording room for 
motor or sailing yacht traffic ; and if that is 
not sufficient, then there would be room for 
the whole of the British navy to lie in peace 
in a deep-water harbour, with never a fear 
for a return of the tide. The idea bristles 
with promise for London, but the misfortune 
of it is that the Thames Conservancy, having 
now completed, so far as is humanly possible, 
the pioneer idea of Teddington Lock, has 
fallen into an almost moribund condition. It 
is an old saying that the song of the dying 
swan is most melodious, but that does not 
hold good of the valedictory remarks of 
Sir Frederick Dixon Hartland, the retiring 
Chairman, when he said to a Daily Graphic 
interviewer : 

"When you take into account the fogs that you 

get on the river, and the immense turns in the 

river, I don't see how steamboats can compete with 

omnibuses and the railways. In Paris you have 

boats each holding from forty to fifty, and running 

every two minutes. A system properly worked 

in summer as pleasure traffic might do, but I don't 

see how they are to be carried on all the year, and 

I fancy they will have to be stopped eventually. If 

they will allow the sale of drinks on board they 

might pay expenses. The profit on the drink would 

not do it ; but people would come who otherwise 

would stay away. This has been proved before." 

_ That is scarcely a hopeful picture of the 

tides of London's future ; and in such a case 

a return to the primitive ways of old London 

might not be entirely out of the question, or 

even undesirable. The Civil and Mechanica" 

Engineers' Society, in discussing this lock 

at Gravesend, suggested that the Thame> 

lightermen, who for years past had conductec 

dumb barges up the river with the flood anc 

down again with the ebb tide, would have 

their motive power, and with it their living 

taken from them. Such, indeed, was the 

motive power of the historic Gravesend til 

boats, the common passenger boats to London 

from the time of Queen Elizabeth to Kinj 

George III., when steamboats were inventec 

to disturb the peaceful, happy scene. 

such again is to be the scene of the Thames 

the greatest river of the world, then wit! 

a lock at Gravesend Denham's well-knowr 

lines may be literally fulfilled. That woul< 

be charming for a poetical London ; but 

fear that the doom of the Thames is traffi 

to the utmost in bigger and yet bigger steam 

ships, and the Thames Conservancy's dredg 

ing for deeper and yet deeper channels wi 

scarcely accord with the dumb barge traffic 

Even now the Suez Canal is becomin 

obsolete through its insufficiency of depth 

and ships of the future will be passing rpun 

the Cape again for the want of a bigge 

anal. May such ships of the future ever 
gain enter the Port of London 1 If with a 
reat bar with locks at Gravesend, yes, and 
o London's hearts' content ; but without it, 
hen good-bye to London as a seaport of the 
vorld, and good-bye to Gravesend as the 
ea-gate key. CHARLES COBIIAM. 


29, 73). The Illustrated London News of 

May, 1847 (p. 288), gives the approximate 
iate of the introduction of the "knife-board" 
mnibus. There is on the page indicated an 
engraving of such a vehicle plying for hire, 
and also a sectional back view of this "im- 
proved omnibus. " From the letterpress I 
copy the following paragraphs : 

"This new omnibus involves two points of 
mportance to the public improved construction 
ind consequent reduction of fare. 

" Several of the new carriages are now building for 
,he Economic Conveyance Company, by Messrs. 
Adams &Co., at their works, Fairfield, Bow ; who 
"iave patented this vehicle. Its prominent differ- 
ences from the omnibuses in general use, are its 
easiness of access, that [? the] roof of the carriage 
;>eing raised, so as to admit the free entrance, 
without stooping, of a tall person ; whilst a safe 
mode of holding on is afforded till the passenger is 

" The interior of the roof of the carriage is to be 
appropriated to advertisements, whilst its exterior 
will form a seat for the outside passengers. Thir- 
teen passengers may be carried within, and about 
fourteen without. For the interior conveyance 
twopence per passenger, and for the outside one 
penny, for an average distance of a mile will be 
charged. It is not, however, intended to convey 
passengers strictly by the mile, but from one part 
of the metropolis to another, averaging the distance 
of a mile ; and other omnibuses will be in attend- 
ance to convey the traveller to, or towards his 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

To the London Road-Car Company belongs 
the credit of having introduced ''garden- 
seat " omnibuses into England. Its first 
vehicle, an illustration of which is given in 
my book ' Omnibuses and Cabs : their Origin 
and History,' published three years ago. had 
the staircase at the front ; but this arrange- 
ment proving dangerous to the public, altera- 
tions were made which produced the present 
type of omnibus. This was in 1881. The 
same company introduced the ticket system 
rolls of tickets and the L.G.O.C. adopted 
it in 1891. Neither company found it a 
reliable check, and it was relinquished for the 
"bell punch" system now in vogue. But 
several years before the London Road-Car 
Company came into existence, tickets were 
issued in the omnibuses of the Metropolitan 

s. iii. FEB. is, IMS.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Kail way, which ran .from Portland Road 
Station to Piccadilly Circus for the con- 
venience of railway passengers. The con- 
ductor collected the railway tickets in the 
omnibuses, and passengers who had not come 
by train were given tickets in exchange for 
their fares. 

The "minibus" mentioned by MR. BARCLAY- 
ALLARDICE was undoubtedly a cab. It was 
one of the names by which Boulnois's cab 
was known in London in 1832. Another 
name was " the omnibus slice," bestowed 
upon it because of its resemblance to the 
front part of an omnibus. 


66, Morshead Mansions, W. 

A minibus was a closed vehicle in vogue in 
Scotland fifty or sixty years ago, with the 
door behind, and a seat for two passengers 
on either side. If my memory serves me 
aright, it ran on four wheels, and differed 
in construction from any kind of carriage 
now in use, in that the driver's seat was 
placed very high sometimes, I think, _ on 
the front of the roof, as in the original 
omnibus. R. E. B. 

I should like to say that the tunic and 
helmet of the police were adopted about 
1863 or 1864, but I believe the "white ducks" 
were abolished many years before that date. 

I can distinctly remember as far back as 
1838, and at that date, and for many years 
after, I recall omnibuses with doors : they 
ran from Mile End Gate to Paddington, I 
think. The conductor stood on what was 
termed a "monkey-board," and held on by 
a leather strap. R. MURRAY. 

180, Ennersdale Road, Lewisham, S.E. 

DANISH SURNAMES (10 th S. iii. 49). 
Surnames do not seem to have been known 
until a period some centuries after the Viking 
age. Some nicknames may have survived 
the person thus designated ; but most of the 
names adopted, when surnames appear in 
the twelfth century, were taken from the 
various parts of the Danish realm, from the 
town, village, farm, &c., nearest at hand 
Many quaint names have survived in Norway 
owing to any place in the locality of the 
family being chosen. The nobility chose 
names of animals for preference, viz., Buk 
(Buch), Brus, Hjort, Ged, Hog, Krage, Kalv 
other surnames were taken from weapons 
and utensils in general use, viz., Hammer 
Brand(t). About 1500 the King of Denmark 
tried to make the noble families each have 
their own special surname, under which the 
branches of the same family could be known. 

Vames like Gyldenstjerne, Rosenkrans, and 
Ivitfeld thus arose. After the Reforma- 
,ion the students followed suit, latinizing 
heir birthplace, viz., Pontoppidan. The 
townspeople when the custom became general 
hose as a rule their surname from the various 
professions. W. R. P. 

OF THE BoYNE (10 th S. ii. 321, 370, 415, 453). 
In support of MR. PICKFORD'S supposition 
that William crossed the Boyne at very 
shallow water, I may direct attention to the 
'ollowing lines from ' The Fops at the Boyne' 
n Thornbury's ' Songs of the Cavaliers and 
Roundheads' (Hurst & Blackett, 1857) : 
"Fire-drakes, ford the Irish river," 

Panting cried Mackay ; 
Then the splashing and the gurgle 

As the waters fly : 
Some were wading to the ankle, 
Some to full mid-thiyh. 

The italics are mine. 

The skull of the Duke of Schomberg in 
St. Patrick's Cathedral was turned up in the 
course of some repairs in 1902, but was buried 
in its former resting-place. 


119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

5, 94). Mea culpa ! I inadvertently sent off 
the paragraph from the Dail;/ Mail without 
annotation, and, but for MR. R. L. MORETON'S 
reminder, the error concerning Robert 
Raikes would have been allowed to stand. 
My apologies are due to both Editor and 
readers. It was Robert Raikes, father of 
the philanthropist, who, with Mr. W. Dicey, 
founded The Northampton Mercury in 1720, 
as set forth in my previous note at 8 th S. vi. 
25. The two men also founded The Gloucester 
Journal in 1722 ; but ultimately the partner- 
ship was dissolved, and Dicey retained sole 
possession of the business at Northampton, 
while that at Gloucester fell to the share of 
Raikes. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

iii. 88). As a projecting point of land is 
called a ness or a naze, both apparently con- 
nected with nose, there seems to be no reason 
why it may not also be called a snout. See 
prov. E. snout in the ' Eng. Dialect Dic- 
tionary.' WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Probably Snowte is but another spelling of 
snout, and would, therefore, be equivalent 
with nose, which is not an uncommon name 
for a small headland ; e.g., at Torquay there 
is Hope's Nose. W. C. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no* s. in. FEB. is, 1905. 


The Devil's Charter. By Barnabe Barnes. Edited 

from the Quarto of 1607 by R. B. McKerrow. 

(Louvain, Uystpruyst ; London, Nutt.) 
Btn Jomoriij Dramen. In Neudruck herausgegeben 

nach cler Folio 1616 von W. Bang. Erster Teil. 

(Same publishers.) 

THESE two works constitute vols. vi. and yii. of 
"Materialien zur Kunde des iilteren Englischen 
Dramas," edited by a society of English, American, 
and Continental scholars, and issued in handsome 
and attractive guise from the presses of Louvain 
and Leipzig. That some notable reprints, includ- 
ing Thomas Heywood's 'Pleasant Dialogues and 
Drammas,' had been issued under this designation 
we had heard, though we had not previously come 
across any of the publications. The reprint now 
before us of the first part of the 1616 folio of Ben 
Jonson, which is issued under the editorship of 
Prof. Bang, is the most important work as yet 
undertaken by the society. What is the value of 
this first folio of Ben Jonson has become gradually 
known to scholars and collectors, with the result 
that the work, once a drug in the market, is 
now at a premium, and worth as many pounds 
as it was formerly worth shillings. In recog- 
nizing the value of this beautiful reprint, and in 
acknowledging the spirit and enterprise of the 
publishers, to whom English scholarship is under 
deepest obligation, we cannot but regret that it is 
reserved to foreigners to accomplish what should be 
assumed as a national responsibility, and tojopen out 
a series of works such as neither of our Shakespeare 
Societies has attempted. Already we begin to 
speculate as to what we may not expect from a 
series that starts in such fashion. Most heartily 
do we, on the strength of what is before us, com- 
mend the work to pur readers, and urge them to 
support an institution that promises to do for us 
what has not previously been attempted. In the 
first part of Ben Jonson appear in facsimile ' Euery 
Man in his Humour,' ' Euery Man Ovt of his 
Humour,' 'Cynthias Revels,' and the opening por- 
tion of ' Poetaster or His Arraignement/ suggesting 
that the whole will occupy four numbers of the 
same size as the present. Facsimiles of the various 
title-pages are given, the work reproducing also 
Vaughan's portrait and the emblematical general 
title of Hole, with the date 1616 and the words 
* The Workes of Ben Jonson,' which brought on the 
poet the derision of his more jealous and ill-natured 
contemporaries. The 'Catalogue,' the 'Carmen 
Protrepticon ' of Selden, the commendatory verses 
of Chapman, Beaumont, and others, are also pre- 
served. Prof. Bang's task is admirably discharged, 
and we are disposed to regard the publication as 
the greatest contribution yet made to the Tudor 
drama from a foreign source. 

Barnabe Barnes's grim and curious play l The 
Devil's Charter ' is now for the first time edited and 
reprinted from the quarto of 1607. Recent as is 
Mr. McKerrow's introduction, fresh light has been 
cast upon Barnes since its appearance. That Barnes 
was in little favour with his fellows, and had a 
reputation that might be judged irreconcilable 
with his origin (he was the son of a bishop), was 
known ; that he was a brawler, an evil liver, and a 
profligate was to be gathered from evidence, internal 
and external ; that he was a murderer, a prison- 

breaker, and a fugitive from justice has but recently 
been discovered. By the light of contemporary 
revelations his choice and treatment of a subject 
acquire new interest. Barnes had little lyrical in- 
spiration, but had a certain amount of ill-regulated 
ability. He appears to have been one of the most tur 
bulent and disorderly worshippers and imitators 
of Marlowe, and will doubtless, if he is judged im- 
portant enough, find in due time his rehabilitates. 
The basis of his tragedy, which deals with the life 
and death of Pope Alexander VI., and was per- 
formed before King James at Christmas, 1606, 
is taken in the main from Guicciardini, who is 
introduced at the end of each act as chorus. 
Alexander, who has sold his soul, like Faustus, to 
the devil, is a monster of iniquity. The devils 
introduced are at times rather hilarious crea- 
tures. Written in a style farced with Latin- 
isms, the play is a mine for the philologist. 
It is quite possible to think of Barnes gloating 
over the iniquities he describes. Pantagruell is 
mentioned in connexion with a character called 
Pantaconger. One scene, in which Alexander woos 
from a window, is unparalleled in the drama 
until we reach the worst iniquities of Restoration 
time and the choicest utterances of Wycherley. 
There is no list of characters. There are some 
useful notes, textual and others, and a valuable 
introduction, dealing with bibliographical points of 
great interest. An index at the close is a useful 
feature. Had we space to dilate on the play we 
could find much to say concerning it. As it is, 
we confine ourselves to urging strongly our readers 
to subscribe to a series which promises greatly to 
enrich our stores of accessible literature. The 
works seem to be issued under the protection of 
the great University of Louvain, in which M. Bang 
is Professor of English Philology. In typographical 
respects and in accuracy the publications we have 
seen are alike ideal. 

The Rubdiydt of Omar Khayyam. Translated by 
Edward FitzGerald. Illustrated by Gilbert 
James. (Routledge & Sons.) 

THIS edition of FitzGerald's Omar Khayyam con- 
tains seventy - five stanzas, each printed on a 
separate page, and is accompanied by twelve re- 
productions in photogravure of designs by Mr. 
Gilbert James. These, though slightly sentimen- 
talized, are Persian in character, are pleasantly 
suggestive, and add greatly to the attractions of the 
book. Especially happy is the design serving as 
frontispiece. It is a delightful work for either 
library or boudoir, and forms presumably the first 
issue of what is called "The Photogravure Series.'' 
What works will constitute appropriate companions 
to the ' Rubaiyat' we know not. We are thankful, 
however, for what we have, and wait patiently 
for what time will show us. 

THE later numbers of the Intermedia!)-*, contain, 
among other articles relating to a wide range of 
subjects, papers on the second marriage ot the 
Duchess of Berry, certain existing descendants of 
Napoleon the Great, the project of marriage cut 
short by the death of Leon Gambetta, the armorial 
coats of bishoprics and abbeys, and the still-existing 
boundary stones marking the limits of the corree 
of two adjoining parishes. 

THE first article in Folk-lore is the second part 
of Mr. Cook's account of the sky-god of Europe. 
Then come ' Notes from Armenia,' by J. R Harris. 

in. FEB. is, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In the collectanea occur some Irish beliefs, 
among which we read that " the poor here [Tip- 
perary] have wonderful faith in the priest, who 
they believe 'can turn them into turkey-cocks, or 
fasten them to the ground.' " Into what, one may 
ask, did these Christian shamans transform recal- 
citrant parishioners before the turkey was intro- 
duced from its native country, America ? 


MR. BLACK WELL, of Oxford, has a clearance 
catalogue, which contains much of interest under 
Antiquarian, Bibliography, Heraldry, and Topo- 
graphy. Previous catalogues can still be had, 
including a selection from the library of the late 
Canon Ainger. 

Mr. Dobell's Catalogue 128 contains much to 
interest us. Under Goldsmith we find a copy of 
the first edition of ' The Vicar of Wakefield,' 2 vols. 
12mo, 1766, handsomely bound in crimson morocco, 

\ri -W alen a first, fiHitirm of ' Shft StooDS tc 

1709-10, 6?. 6-1. Under Swift is a first edition of 
'Gulliver,' including the very rare spurious vol. iii., 
57. 5". There is a Shakespeare Folio, second 
impression, 1632, 1257. : another copy, 45?. : and a 
third copy, 467. A copy of Shirley's plays, 1653, is 
priced at 121. 12*. : a first edition of 'Paradise Lost' 
is to be had for 30?. : a first edition of ' Rasselas,' 
original binding, uncut, 51. 5s. ; Beaumont and 
Fletcher, first edition, 36?. The excessively rare 
original edition of Herrick is marked 18?. 18s. 
Under America are many rare works. There are 
also interesting collections of historical pamphlets. 
Among Dryden items is the first edition of all the 
volumes of the 'Miscellany,' 1684-1709, price 12?. 

Mr. Dobell sends us also Catalogue 129. In this 
are books from the library of the late Duke of 
Cambridge. Among these are a large-paper copy 
of Bell's 'British Theatre,' with brilliant impres- 
sions of the numerous fine portraits, 1791-G, 31 vols., 
6? 6s. ; ' Protests of the House of Lords,' 1641-1735, 
12*. (''?. ; Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes,' 14 vols., 
1?. 10s. ; and Wilkes's Xorth Briton, complete set, 
3 vols. folio, 1769-70. 12s. Qd. The miscellaneous 
portion includes a first edition of ' Northanger 
Abbey,' 1818, 3?. 3s. Under Cruikshank is a set 
of the original editions of 'The Comic Almanack,' 
1835-53. 37. 10s. Under Dickensiana is the very 
rare 'Posthumous Papers of the Cadgers' Club,' 
1838, 2?. 18s. ' Real Life in London,' 1822-3, is 67.6s. 

Mr. Downing, of the Chaucer's Head Library, 
Birmingham, has an interesting little catalogue. 
The items include the rare Collier Shakespeare, 
8 vols., 1878, IS?. 18s. (there were only 58 copies of 
this privately printed) : the Vale Press Shakespeare, 
38 vols., in the original green cloth, 227. 15s. : Reid's 
'Cruikshank Catalogue,' 3 vols. 4to, 1871, 16?. 16s. 
(this contains 313 etchings, and is very scarce) ; a 
tine copy of Constable's 'Landscape Scenery,' 1855, 
very scarce, 4?. 4-s. ; Hogarth, Baldwin, 1822, 5?. 5s. : 
Lodge's ' Portraits,' 1821-34, 22?. 10s. ; a cheap set 
of the ' Musee Francais,'6 vols. atlas folio, 10?. 10-s. ; 
Roscoe's 'Novelists' Library,' 1813-33, scarce, 
10?. 10s. 

Mr. Francis Edwards has a clearance cata- 
logue of books, ancient and modern. There are a 
number of works on Afghanistan and Australia, 
many of them from the library of the explorer 

James Bonwick. Under China is a copy of Leech's 
' Butterflies of China and Japan,' price 7?. 10s- 
Under India occur 'Fort St. George Records,' 
38 vols., 6?., and 'Bombay Government Records,'' 
1885-1903, 4?. : also Hampson's ' Moths,' 2/. 10*. 
Under Egypt is the first series, complete in 12 vols., 
of English translations of the Assyrian and Egyptian 
inscriptions, 2?. '2s. In the general portion of the 
catalogue are a copy of Le Monitenr, 1 Jan., 1790, to 
30 June, 1814, 15?. ; the Standard Library Editioa 
of Thackeray, 8?. ; Stephens's ' British Entomology,. 
7?. 7s. ; Scott, 1842, 17. vols., 8?. 8s. ; the Gadshill 
Dickens, 6?. ; and Wheatley and Cunningham's* 
' London,' 35s. There are works on costumes- 
and interesting coloured stipple and other engrav- 
ings. Many noteworthy items will be found under 
Architecture, Anatomy, Birds, and Folk - lore. 
There are publications of scientific and learned! 
societies, among them being the Camden, a com- 
plete set of Archceolorjia, 30?., also Archcvoloyia- 
Oambrensit, 40?. 

List 277 of Messrs. William George's Sons, Bristol, 
contains works on Heraldry and Antiquities 
local to the British Isles. The catalogue is well, 
arranged and easy of reference. Under Somerset* 
may be noticed Collinson's ' County History, '7?. Is. ;-. 
' Illustrations of the County,' from old drawings in 
the British Museum, 6?. 16s. 6f?. ; and Green's. 
'Bibliotheca,' 1902, which The Athenaeum described 
as being the best and most thorough county biblio- 
graphy that has yet been issued. 

Mr. Henry Gray, of East Acton, issues what he 

calls "International Bulletins." We have received 

the last two. No. 242 is devoted to Family Histories, 

many privately printed and mostly scarce. Dr.. 

Howard's ' Arundell Family,' 6 vols. folio, is priced, 

at 12?. 12s. : Canon Jackson's work on the ' Ayliffe 

Family,' 4?. 4s. ; a 'Collection relating to the 

Howorth Family,' 15?. 15s. Among other records 

j are those of the Borthwicks, Cranmers, Colbys, 

i Carnegies, Carlisles, Prideaux, Penningtons, &c. 

| No. 243 contains fine books, rare tracts and 

MSS., and many choice engravings. 

Mr. Charles Higham has a big list of theological 
books at low prices. Among the items are a set of 
Calvin, 52 vols., SI. 3s. ; The, Clergyman's Magazine, 
47. ; a number of Cardinal Newman's works, in- 
cluding the original edition of his 'Apologia': 
Pusey's 'Minor Prophets,' 1?. 4-s.; Dr. Parker's 
'People's Bible,' 31. 7-s. Qd. ; and Tregelles's Greek 
Testament, 17. 8s. There are some new books at 
reduced prices, including the works of Jeremy 
Taylor, 10 vols., 18s., published at 57. 5-s. 

Mr. Hugh Hopkins, of Glasgow, has in his list a 

number of family histories. These include Fraser's 

' Scotts of Buccleuch,' 17?. 10s. ; also ' The Frasers 

of Philorth, 107. There are many works relating to 

! Glasgow. A complete set of the Bannatyne Club 

i Publications, Edinburgh, 1823-67, is priced at 1757. 

Among general items are ' The Arabian Nights.' 

| Villon Society, 15?., and Burton's ' Scotland,' 87. 10<. 

Under Burns are Allan Cunningham's edition, 27., 

and the Memorial Catalogue of the Exhibition in 

! Glasgow, 1896, 4?. 10s. Only fifty copies of this special 

i edition were printed. Pickering and Moxon's edi- 

; tion of Coleridge is 147. 10s. : Crowe and Caval- 

i caselle's ' Painting in Italy,' 187. ; Dibdin's ' Deca- 

' meron,' 1817. 157. ; Dibdin's ' Tour in France,' 1821, 

j 317. 10'. (both of these are full bound in morocco) ; 

I Douglas's ' Peerage of Scotland,' 107. 10s. ; Hun- 

i terian Club Publications, 10?. 10s ; Kay's ' Portraits 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. in. FEB. is, 1005. 

of Eminent and Notorious Scotch Characters,' 1837, 
"102. 101. ; "Library of Old Authors," 53 vols., 11. 10s. ; 
Meyrick's ' Antient Armour,' 3 vols. folio, crimson 
morocco, Bohn, 1842, 121. ; Ritson's works, 31 vols., 
211. ; Roy's ' Roman Antiquities,' 41. is. ; Buskin's 
' Modern Painters,' 1873, 101. 10s. ; and Pickering's 
edition of Walton and Cotton, 2 vols. imperial 8vo, 
16Z. 10s. 

Catalogue No. 9 of Mr. H. H. Peach, of Leicester, 
contains interesting manuscripts. It is also rich 
in specimens of early presses. Among Bibles is 
a sound copy of Cromwell's Bible, 102. 10$. Under 
Bibliography we find one of the 200 copies of ' Three 
Hundred Notable Books added to the British 
Museum, 1890-99' (a letter from Dr. Garnett pasted 
in), price 11. 12s. 6d. There is a letter of Lord 
dive's, dated Calcutta, 29 Sept., 1765, which 
states: "Bengali will at last afford you some 
agreeable news after the many disastrous accounts 
of massacres, mutinies, &c. Peace and tranquillity 
is at last restored to these much distressed pro- 
vinces." The price is 51. 5s. Under Music is a 
miscellaneous collection of eighteenth-century songs, 
3 vols., 41. 4s. In the general list we find Beaumont 
and Fletcher, 1679, 81. 8s. ; Dibdin's ' Typographical 
Antiquities,' 1810, 4 vols., 11. 10s. ; Dugdale's 'St. 
Paul's,' 1716, 11. 5s. ; and Shelley's ' Masque of 
Anarchy,' first edition, 1832, 31. 10s. 

Mr. A- Russell Smith has a number of books 
tinder Americana, also Old American Maps, very 
interesting. Under Bibliography is a catalogue 
of a curious collection of early plays, price 21s. 
Among general items are Chalkhill's ' Thealma and 
Clearchus,' first edition, 1683, 11. 7s. ; a copy of the 
Form of Prayer used after the Fire of London, black- 
ktter, 1666, '21. 2s. (a copy of this sold at Sotheby's 
in 1857 for 41. 12s.) ; an heraldic manuscript from 
the library of John Ives (circa 1610), 242. ; and Caw- 
dray's ' Proverbs,' T. Creede, 1600, SI. 3s. There 
are a number of interesting engravings and auto- 
graphs. Among the former is a collection of satirical 
prints relating to the South Sea Bubble, 21. 2s. 

Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co.'s list opens with 
'Acts of Parliament,' 1803-1903. 85 vols., 81. 8s. 
This is from the library of the Duke of Cambridge. 
Under Biblia Sacra are rare items. An extra- 
illustrated copy of Burnet's 'History of his own 
Time,' 1724-34, is priced at 382. ; Camden's ' Bri- 
tannia,' extra-illustrated, 1806, 502. ; Chaucer, 1561, 
folio, black-letter, in the original oaken boards, 
scarce, 152. 15s. : Caxton's ' Golden Legend,' 1520, 
very rare, 252. ; Payne Collier's 'Old Man's Diary,' 
privately printed, 51. 5s. ; also his ' Illustrations of 
'Old English Literature,' 4?. 4s. Under Dictionaries 
are ' The English Dialect,' Funk & Wagnalls's, 
Littre's, and Skeat's. Glasse's 'Art of Cookery,' 
"printed for the Author, and sold at Mrs. Ash- 
burn's, a China-Shop, the Corner of Fleet-Ditch," 
1747, is 172. 17s. There are a large number of books 
under India and its Neighbour-lands. Among these 
we note the very scarce Oriental Translation 
Fund's Publications, 1832-46, 142. 14s. ; a very fine 
copy of La Fontaine, 1776, 31?. 10s. ; a scarce set of 
Lecky, 232. ; a copy of the ' Heptameron,' 1792, 
'81. 15s. ; and Reynolds's works, 521. 10s. There are 
a number of valuable editions of Shakespeare, niany 
in choice bindings ; also a copy, in the original 
cloth, of Smith s ' Catalogue Raisonne of the 
Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters,' SGI. A set of 
Hertslet's ' State Papers,' 1841-93, is priced at 451. 

Mr. Albert Button, of Manchester, has a good 
list of general literature. We find among the items 

Bibliographica, 3 vols., 1895-7, 21. 17s. 6(2. ; The 
Anglo-Saxon Review, 11. 16s.: Stillman's 'Venus 
and Apollo in Painting and Sculpture' (only 555 
copies printed), 21. 2*. ; and a first edition of Jane 
Austens 'Emma,' 11. 16s. There are many items 
under Cruikshank and Dickens. A copy of John- 
stone and Croall's 'Nature-printed Seaweeds' is 
priced at 11. 16s. (this was published at 82. Ss.) ; and 
Hamerton's ' Landscapes,' first edition, 31. The 
special selections include Alpine, America, Derby- 
shire, Staffordshire, Trials, &c. 

Messrs. Henry Young & Sons, of Liverpool, 
in their new list have the rare first edition of 
Lodge's ' Portraits,' 322. The initial cost of this work 
was 40,0002. A copy of Boccaccio, rare German 
translation, 1535, is 81. 8s. ; Walton's ' Lives,' 
original edition, most rare, 152. 15s. ; Stephens's 
' Runic Monuments, 1 52. ; Farmer and Henley's 
' Slang Dictionary,' 11. 7s. ; The European Magazine, 
23 vols., 1792-1803, 51. 5s. ; and Solon's 'Art of the 
Old English Potter,' 31. 10s. There are handsomely 
bound sets of Dickens and Thackeray. Bowles's 
' Life of Ken,' with 300 extra plates, is 142. 10s., and 
Tuer's ' History of the Hornbook,' 31. 10s. Under 
Heraldry we find ' The Order of the Garter, 1800-20,' 
402. Under Garrick is a MS. from the library of 
the late Duke of Cambridge, ' Lethe ; or, ^-Esop in 
the Shades,' 1777, 11. 7s. Under Cruikshank is the 
first edition of 'The Omnibus,' 42s. A handsome 
set of George Meredith is priced at 11. 7s. Gell's 
' Pompeii ' is 11. 7s. Arnold's ' Collection of Cathe- 
dral Music,' 1847, very scarce, is 51. 5s. ; and Max- 
well's ' Irish Rebellion,' 1845, 32. 10s. 

WE notice with regret the death on Sunday last 
of Henry Holman Drake, in his eighty-fifth year. 
Mr. Drake, who was proud of his descent from the 
celebrated mariner of Elizabethan days, was a con- 
stant correspondent in our columns. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 

Eut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
eading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication "Duplicate." 

R. W. ("Ephis and his Lion"). No reply to 
your query at 10 th S. ii. 448 has yet been received. 
Should one come to hand, it will be inserted. 

ERRATUM. In the Index to 10 th S. ii. p. 563, col. 2, 
the article on Richard of Scotland should have 
been attributed to the Rev. Jerome Pollard- 
Urquhart, not to Col. F. E. R. Pollard-Urquhart. 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lisher" at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, B.C. 

io s. in. FEB. is, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(Continued from Second Advertisement Page.) 





bas a large Stock of these, all fully Indexed. 
He deals principally in Incunabula, Bindings, 
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LIBRARY of the late F. YORK POWELL, Esq.. Regius Professor 
of Modern History in the University of Oxford, sometime President 
of the Folk-Lore Society, comprising his Collection of Books on 
History and Biography, Antiquarian Literature, Topography, 
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Books illustrated by G. and R. Cruikshank, Phiz, Leech, 
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Catalogues issued and sent fjost free on 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. LIO< s. in. FKD. is, 1905. 

' Her stories are a series of exquisite sketches, full of tender light and shadow, and soft, harmonious colouring This 

sort of writing is nearly as good as a change of air." Academy, 

ENGLISH LITERATURE ix THE REIGN OF VICTORIA. '"One of the most delightful of our novelists, gifted with 
delicate inveiition, charm of thought, and grace of style." PROF. MORLEY. 

UNIFORM EDITION, each Volume illustrated with a Vignette Title-Page. 
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The VILLAGE on the CLIFF. 

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TO 'flVSTTT'PTR and nthpr Slrptr-hpts ! MISS ANGEL ; FULHAJVL JbAWJN. 



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UNIFORM EDITION, 7 vols. each containing 4 Illustrations. 3s. 6d. each, bound in cloth. 



CRANFORD, and other Tales. 

MARY BARTON, and other Tales. 

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io<>' s. in. FEB. 25, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.-No. 61. 

NOTES The Newly Discovered Quarto of 'Titus Andro- 
nicus '141 Heriot, H2-FatherPaulSarpi, 144-Cbaucer s 
Father "Lead "=Language Lincolnshire Saying 
"Bunt " 145-Tsarskoe Selo : its Pronunciation "Tzar, 
not "Czar "-Q in the ' H.B.D.'-Vice-Chamberlain Coke 
"Tandem "Benjamin Gooch, 146. 

OUERIES -.Permission Cap Lord De Tabley and ' X. & Q.' 
Constables or Governors of Stirling Castle-Wilkes s 
Parlour Cardinal Newman or Another? 147 Authors ot 
Quotations Wanted Lord Mayors Straw - Plaiting 
Burns's Letters to George Thomson Scottish Naval and 
Military Academy Fishmongers' Company and the 
German. Emperor-The Essay-P. d'Urte's 'Genesis m 
Baskish, 148 Irish Potato Kings Mair and Burnet 
Families Autiiiuity of Japan, 149. 

REPLIES :-" Lamb" in Place-names, 149 -Split Infinitive, 
150 Bibliographical Notes on Dickens and Thackeray- 
Patents of Precedence, 151 "Tourmaline" " Wassail 
Goldsmith's ' Edwin and Angelina' Con- Contraction, 
152-Conditions of Sale-Copying Press Flaying Alive 
Edmond and Edward Motor Index Marks Antiquary . 
Antiquarian, 153 Font Consecration Bankrupts in 1708-9 
Hour of Sunset at Washington Travels in China- 
Hamlet Watting Heraldic "Hand," 154 Bacon or 
Usher? Besant Bringing in the Yule "Clog," 155 
"Cut the loss" H in Cockney Prescriptions "The 
Nakel Boy and Coffin," 155 Joseph Wilfred Parkins- 
Kant's Descent- John Hcton, 157 " Carentinilla," 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Tilley'a 'Literature of the French 
Renaissance ' ' Early Scottish Charters 'Butler's ' Hudi- 
bras ' ' Popular Ballads of the Olden Time 'Coleridge's 
Table Talk and Omuiana ' ' The Edinburgh.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE following notes, I may say by way of 
preface, have the approval of Dr. Richard 
Garnett, to whose high authority I submitted 
them before sending them to 'X. & Q.' At 
the time when he wrote on the subject in the 
* Illustrated History of English Literature,' 
he was inclined to limit Shakespeare's inter- 
ference with the play to the fifth act, but he 
Eermits me to say that the passages adduced 
y me make it probable, in his judgment, 
that traces of Shakespeare's hand may be 
found in other parts of the play as well. 

I daresay that many of the parallels which 
I quote have been already pointed out ; but I 
have found them independently, and adduce 
them now with a special intention. And it 
will be noted that I quote almost entirely 
from plays attributed, with great probability, 
to dates approximating to 1594, when a 
certain set of thoughts, turns of phrase, &c., 
might be in Shakespeare's mind, and ready 
to appear in work he was engaged upon 
about that date. For my drift is this. If 
these passages are not in the newly found 
quarto, then Shakespeare's part in ' Titus 
Andronicus' took place between 1594 and 

1598, the date of the well-known attribution 
of the play to Shakespeare by Meres in 
Palladis Tamia.' And if they are, the 
inference is that Shakespeare had something 
to do with the play in or before 1594. As 
Shakespearian students will anticipate, his 
name does not appear on this quarto. Of this 
Messrs. Sotheran, out of whose hands it has 
already passed, are able to assure me. I may 
add that they will transmit these notes of 
mine to the purchaser of the quarto, a careful 
inspection of which is much to be desired in 
the interest of scholars. This will be admitted 
by all who think with me that the places in 
the play which I here cite are almost beyond 
question Shakespeare's. In the conjectural 
dates of first writing or production of other 
plays I follow Prof. Dowden. 
(a) 'Tit. And.,' II. i. 82 <?. : 

She is a woman, therefore may be woo'd ; 

She is a woman, therefore may be won ; 

She is Lavinia, therefore must be lov'd. 

'1 Henry VI.,' V. iii. 77-8 (conj. date 

She's beautiful, and therefore to be woo 
She is a woman, therefore to be won. 

That both these passages are Shakespeare's 
is probable from their resemblance to lines 
in Sonnet xli., of course Shakespeare's 
beyond question : 

Gentle thou art, and therefore to be won ; 

Beauteous thou art, therefore to be assailed. 

(6) 'T. A.,' III. ii. ad in. : 
Marcus, uuknit that sorrow-\vreathen knot- 

' Taming of the Shrew,' Y. ii. 136 : 

Fie, fie ! uuknit that threatening unkind brow. 

There is a difficulty which I cannot solve 
! connected with this passage of the ' Taming, 
| surely Shakespearian, if any part of the 
'Taming' is so. The Cambridge editors do not 
reprint the quarto of 1594, the old 'Taming/ 
on the ground that Shakespeare had nothing 
whatever to do with it. Yet they record 
various readings from this same quarto in 
this speech of Katharine's ; and for anything: 
they tell us it may be substantially the same 
as the text of the folios here. If so, it is 
probable that Shakespeare had something to 
do with the 1594 Quarto of the 'Taming'; 
and I am much inclined to Craik's opinion 
that the 'Love's Labour's Won,' mentioned 
by Meres in 1598, is Shakespeare's 'Taming 
of the Shrew ' under an alias. The coincidence 
in date between the newly found 'Titus 
Andronicus' and this early quarto seems to 
me to be of significance. 

(c) 'T. A.,' III. ii. ad Jin.: 

Titus. Come, take away. Lavinia, come with me 
I'll to thy closet ; and go read with thee 
Sad stories, chanced in the times of old. 


NOTES AND QUERIES, do* s. in. FEB. 25, i%5. 

' Richard II.,' V. i. 40, possible date of com- 
position 1594 (appeared in quarto 1597) : 
In winter's tedious nights sit by the fire 
With good old folks, and let them tell thee tales 
Of woeful ages long ago betid. 

Cf. ib. III. ". 155 sq. 

It is noteworthy that this scene of Act III. 
of 'Titus Andronicus' is not found in any of 
the quartos accessible hitherto ; its presence 
or absence in the newly found quarto will be 
of significance. 

(d) ' T. A.,' IV. ii. 122 :- 

He is your brother, lords, sensibly fed 
Of that self-Wood that first gave life to you, 
And from that womb where you imprison d were 
He is enfranchised and come to light. 

4 Richard II.,' I. ii. 22 : 
Ah, Gaunt, his blood was thine ! that bed, that 


That metal, that self-mould that fashion d thee, 
Made him a man. 

(e) 'T. A.,'V. iii. 73: 

Lest Rome herself be bane unto herself, 
And she whom mighty nations curtsy to 
Do shameful execution on herself. 

Richard II.,' II. i. 69 : 
That England, that was wont to conquer others, 
Hath made a shameful conquest of itself. 

(/) There is a peculiarly Shakespearian 
manner which has not been sufficiently noted 
by Shakespeare students, and this neglect 
has led even Theobald to make a wrong con- 
jecture. In 'Macbeth,' I. ii. 56, the folios 

Point against point, rebellious Arme 'gainst arm. 
Theobald, however, places the comma after 
" rebellious " : 

Point against point rebellious, arm, c. 
But now compare : 
41) Turn face to face, and Woody point to point. 

' K. John,' II. i. 390. 

(2) Harry to Harry shall, hot horse to horse, 
Meet, &c. '1 Henry IV.,' IV. i. 121. 

(3) That face to face, and royal eye to eye, 

You have congreeted. 'Henry V.,' V. ii. 30. 
(4) Lastly, and significant as nearest in 
date of production to 1594 (if not in that 
same year) : 

face to face 
And frowning brow to brow. 

'Richard II,' I. i. 18. 

Now (5) for the same arrangement and 
place of adjective compare 'T. A.,' V. iii. 
Tear for tear, and loving kiss for kisa. 

(rj) There is a parallelism which I rather 
mention than press. ' T. A.,' III. i. 233-4 : 
Then give me leave, for losers will have leave 
To ease their stomachs with their bitter tongues. 

'2 Henry VI, 'III. i. 182: 
But I can give the loser leave to chide. 

In the quartos of the 'First Part of the 
Contention' we have "leave to speake." It 
may, of course, be objected that, both plays- 
being in dispute, a correspondence between 
them is not of much significance, and, besides, 
that the expression is proverbial and general 
property. Yet the absence of this passage 
from the newly found quarto might be signi- 

(h) The following doubt, which inspection 
would solve, does not very directly concern 
the Shakespearian question, but is in itself 
interesting. Act V. sc. ii. of 'T.A.' seems 
to me to bear indications of alternative 
treatments of the scene mixed together. The 
stage directions " Titus exit above : ' or "from 
above" and "Enter Titus below" are con- 
jectural, being omitted in quartos and folios. 
In 11. 45 and 59 Titus (above) says : 
Lo, by thy side where Rape and Murder stands, 

So thou destroy Rapine and Murder there. 
And then : 

Tamora. These are my ministers and come with 

Tit. Are these thy ministers ? What are they 

called ? 

Tamora. Rapine and Murder: therefore called so 
'Cause they take vengeance of such kind of men. 
Tit. Gopd Lord, how like the empress' sous they 

And you the empress ! 

Later, Titus (below) says : 

Welcome, dre^d Fury, to my woeful house : 
Rapine and Murder, you are welcome too : 
How like the empress and her sons you are ! 

I am aware that these repetitions, &c. t 
are capable of another explanation, and 
perhaps the taking up of the name Rapine 
and Murder by Tamora after Titus may be 
part of the " closing " with him of which she 
speaks, 1. 70 (I here conjectured "glosing,"' 
but I think this in any case unnecessary). 
I only mention this scene as one which it 
might be worth while to scrutinize as it 
stands in the newly found quarto, keeping 
this suggestion of alternative trea-tment in 
view. D. C. TOVEY. 


(See 9"' S. x. 328, 333, 433, 497 ; xi. 75, 173.) 
IN Scotland a herezeld or heriot was a 
casualty exigible on the death of a tenant. 
It was payable to the landlord by the heirs 
of a deceased tenant, and could be exacted 
only in baronies where the custom was 
established by early practice. It is doubtful 


whether or not herezeld still exists ; some 
authorities hold that it is entirely obsolete 
Even in the eighteenth century it was seldom 
exacted, and then only in some districts o 
the Highlands and in some of the southern 
counties. A herezeld was 

" the best audit ox, kow, or uther beast, quhilk 
ane husbandman possessour of the audit pairt o 
ane dauach of land (foure oxen gang) dwelland ane 
deceasand theirupon lies in his possession the time 
of his decease, quhilk audit and suld be given tones 
landislord or maister of the said land." 

In Green's 'Encyclopaedia of Scots Law 
(1897, vol. vi. p. 180) this is said to mean 
" the best movable, or, more properly, the 
best thing capable of moving e.g., ox, cow, 
horse, <fcc. of which the tenant died possessed.' 
According to Craig, 'Jus Feudale,' third 
edition (1732), the herezeld was originally a 
testamentary bequest by the tenant as a 
mark of gratitude ; but it was claimed after 
wards as a right. It was due only when the 
tenant was residing and died on the estate, 
and it was not due when he had been warned 
to remove, and a decree of removing had 
been obtained against him. It could not be 
exacted from feuars, but from tenants only 
(see Hunter on 'Landlord and Tenant,' 1876, 
vol. ii. p. 302). In an action decided in 1763 
it was observed that 

"a herezeld is not a casualty incident to a feudal 
holding ; it was originally due only in the case of a 
tenant at will dying in possession of a farm, and by 
acceptation of it the master is bound to continue 
the widow and children of the tenant deceased in 
possession of the farm for another year, on the 
same terms." 

Stair (' Institutions,' ii. 3, 80) says that 
herezelds were 

"introduced by custom from the Germans, as 
the word of their language expressing the same 
evidenceth ; which signifieth the gratuity left by 
the labourers of the ground to their master, and 
which is now due by custom, whether left or not ; 
and therefore rather from custom than from the 
nature of the fee. And we have neither rule nor 
exam pie for paying it by any but by the labourers of 
the ground, so that, though it be not expressed, it 
is not reserved to the superior, but belongs to the 
vassal, as iSkene, race 'Herezeld' ('De Verborum 
Signiricatione,' subjoined to his edition of 'Acta 
Parl.,' 1597), observeth ; but whereas he seemeth 
to make a herezeld only due by tenants possessing 
four oxengang of land to their masters going to the 
war, such poor tenants possessing only four oxgate 
of land or less, not being able, by reason of poverty, 
to go in person with him ; yet the constant custom 
layeth herezelds most upon tenants possessing more 
lands, and generally upon all who are not cottars 
(not paying immediately to the master, but to his 
tenant dwelling upon the ground), and there is no 
difference whether he be a master or a farmer, and 
it is only due at the tenant's death." 

Jamieson (' Scottish Dictionary ') defines 

heriot as " The fine exacted by a superior 
on the death of his tenant (Galloway)." H& 
says the word is radically different from the 
old Scottish term " herreyelde," which was. 
used in the same sense. He derives heriot 
from A.-S. heregeat. 

" It primarily signified the tribute given to the 
lord of a manor for his better preparation for war ;. 
but came at length to denote the best audit or 
beast of whatever kind which a tenant died 
possessed of, due to his superior after death. It is 
therefore the same with the English forensic term 

There is confusion here between the terms 
" superior " and " landlord." 

Jamieson, following Skene, derives here- 
zeld from Belg. here, heer, a lord or master, 
and yeild, a gift, tribute, or taxation ; but 
he holds that it was extended in Scotland 
to the imposition of landholders on their 
tenants. He adds, "The duty or gressoume 
(yrassum) payable, according to the tenor of" 
many modern leases, by every new successor 
to the lease, seems to be a relic of this custom." 
He calls it inhuman to tax a man's property 
"because of his paying the common tribute 
to nature," or taxing his heirs at the very time 
when a family had met with a severe loss. 
He quotes Sir David Lyndsay (' Satyre of the- 
Thrie Estaitis ') as follows : 

We had ane meir, that caryit salt and coill, 

And everie ilk yeir, scho brocht us liame ane foill,. 

Wee had thrie ky, that was baith fat and fair, 

Nane tydier into the toun of Air. 

My father was sa waik of blude, and bane, 

That he deit, quhairfoir my mother maid gret 

maine ; 

Then scho deit, within ane day or two ; 
And thair began my povertie and wo. 
Our gude gray mair was baittand on the feild,. 
And our land's laird tuik her, for his hyreild,. 
The vickar tuik the best cow be the heid, 
Incontinent, quhen my father was deid. 

See Dr. David Laing's edition of Lyndsay V 
' Poems,' Edinburgh, 1879, vol. ii. p. 102. 

The 'New English Dictionary' defines 
lereyeld, herield, hyrald, hyreild, herrezeld, 
lerezeld, as : 

"The render to the superior of the best living 
animal of a deceased vassal : at an early date 
commuted for a fixed money payment, and now 
practically obsolete. The same word as O.E. 
Jeregeld, used in Scotland in sense of Heriot." 

This definition is incorrect, for, as I have 
shown, heriot or hereyeld was rendered not by 
;he heir of a vassal to his superior, but by 
he heir of a tenant to his landlord. 

J. A. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* s. m. FEB. 25, iocs. 


(See ante, pp. 44, 84.) 

IN 'The Epistle to my dear Lucilius,' 
before his 'Historical Memoires on the 
Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James,' 
1658, Francis Osborn remarks : 

"And he that desires a more exemplary mani- 
festation of this infallible (though for ought I ever 
observed, seldome practised) Truth, may tinde it in 
that learned Italian's ' History of the Council of 
Trent' ; a Piece that challenges all the veneration 
our partial Modern Readers do or can offer at the 
Shrines of Antiquity." 

*Qregorio Letti, in his 'II Nipotismo di 
Roma : or, The History of the Popes 
Nephews,' thus writes (I quote from the 
English translation of 1G73, p. 133) : 

"In the interim, -it ds worth the Readers curiosity 
to be inform'd of an accident that befell Padre 
Pallavicino, the Popes Confessor, a Jesuite, in hopes 
of obtaining a Cardinals .Cap, which at last he got, 
had undertaken to write the 'Story of theCouncelof 
Trent ; which indeed may justly be call'd his, for the 
greatest part of it is not History and Relation, but 
an abundance of words, by which he endeavours to 
.prove, that the History of Fra. Paulo, upon the 
same subject, was and is false ; but he stumbles at 
every step he goes, and is so ill furnish'dwith Argu- 
ments, that for my part, I must confess, that I 
never believ'd Fra. 'Pa,ulo's History to be real, sin- 
cere and true, but since I read the Jesuites : And 
he that will profit by them, let him read them both 
with an equal disinteressment." 

Walton's 'Life of Bishop Sanderson' ap- 
peared in 1678 ; and the following passage, 
taken from it, is simply delightful. 1 quote 
from the edition of ' Walton's Lives,' 1858 
(p. 410) :- 

"At this happy time of enjoying his [Sander- 
sons company and this discourse, he expressed a 
sorrow by -saying to me, 'Oh that I had gone 
Chaplain to that excellently accomplished gentle- 
man, your friend, Sir Henry Wotton ! which was 
once intended, when he first went Ambassador to 
tile State of Venice : for by that employment I had 
been forced into a necessity of conversing, not with 
him only, but with several men of several nations ; 
and might thereby have kept myself from my un- 
manly bashfulness, which has proved very trouble- 
some, and not less inconvenient to me; and which 
,1 now fear is become so habitual as never to leave 
me : and by that means 1 might also have known, 
or at least have had the satisfaction of seeing, one 
of the late miracles of general learning, prudence, 
and modesty, Sir Henry Wotton's dear friend, 
Padre Paulo, who, the author of his life says, was 
born with a bashfulness as invincible as I have 
found nay own to be : a man whose fame must never 
die, till virtue and learning shall become so useless 
as not to be regarded.'" 

From " The Modest Critick, &c , By One 
of the Society of Port-Royal," 1689, we have 
the following references to Father Paul. The 
.preface was evidently written by the trans- 

lator, and he seems to have taken exception 
to the strictures passed on the Father in the 
body of the work. He goes on to say : 

" It is not to be wondred, that one of the Romish 
Church should so sharply censure the incomparable 
Fra Paolo, whose Judgment and Learning carried 
him beyond their Argument*, and whose Honesty 
was above Calumny : But the History of the Council 
of Trent is sufficient to maintain that Author's 
Credit against all their Suggestions." 

Here is the passage in the text referred to 
in the foregoing extract (p. 125) : 

"Fra Paolo, in his 'History of the Council of 
Trent,' gives what Colours he pleases to what he 
says : No body ever had that Art in a more eminent 
degree. He shews also a great Capacity, in search- 
ing to the bottom the Matters of Learning which 
he has in hand, to give his Readers a perfect know- 
ledge thereof : No body ever writ with more Skill, 
nor with more Wit, and never with less Justice and 
Truth. He is a passionate man, who employ'd all 
his Art in hiding his Passion : He made a jest in 
every thing, that he might not be thought to be 
angry; but he falls into another D'efect : He raileth 
too much, in a Subject so serious as his is ; for 
his Passion is seen in every thing he speaks. So 
that Historian, with his great Genius, has the most 
Vicious Character that can be in the way of writing 
History, where nothing is less pardonable than 
Enmity. An Historian is no longer believ'd, when 
once he is thought too passionate ; which gives 
occasion of examining the Honesty which is neces- 
sary for him that pretends to write." 

I have tried, but in vain, to find out the 
name of the author of this truly excellent 
little book : ib extends to only 151 pages, 
small octavo, excluding "The Preface" and 
address "To the Reader." Anthony Arnauld 
and Pierre Nicole, both members of the Port- 
Royal Society, were alive for several years 
after its publication, and from some acquaint- 
ance with the ' Moral Essays ' I should not 
be astonished if it were yet discovered that 
the last named was in reality the author. I 
do not forget that De Tillemont was also a 
member of the Society : he died on 10 Jan., 
1698. At the same time, we must not forget 
Addison's remark in The Spectator (No. 562) ; 

"The Gentlemen of Port Royal, who were more 
eminent for their learning and humility than any 
other in France, banished the way of speaking in 
the first person out of all their works, as arising 
from vain-glory and self-conceit. To show their 
particular aversion to it, they branded this form of 
writing with the name of an egotism ; a figure not 
to be found among the ancient rhetoricians." 

It is well known that Pierre Nicole edited 
' Les Provinciales, ou Lettres Ecrites par 
Louis de Montalte,' published at Amsterdam 
in 1735, under the pen-name of " Guillaume 
Wend rock." In the copy before me there is 
a beautiful portrait of that distinguished and 
lovable man, with this inscription, "Pierre 
Nicole Connu Sous Le Nom de Guillaume 

10". s. in. FEB. as, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Wend rock," which I very much appreciate. 
A second edition of ' The Modest Critick ' 
appeared in 1691, but I have never seen it. 

In the Rev. Richard Ward's ' Life of the 
Learned and Pious Dr. Henry More,' 1710, 
Father Paul is mentioned in two passages 
(pp. 60, 120) : 

" And I am reminded here of what the Venetians 
us'd to say of Father Paul's Cell, when they shew'd 
it unto Strangers ; viz. ' This was the Paradise in 
which a good Angel dwelt.' " 

"And as it is Noted in the Life of that Great 
Light and Ornament of Venice, Father Paul, that 
in speaking of Persons, when there was any thing 
to be taken notice of that was amiss, he would 
insert usually some thing or other that might take 
off from a Fault's too much appearing in its worst 

Before closing this note I should like to 
say a word on the portrait engraved by 
Lombart for the ! Life of Father Paul,' 1651. 
The same portrait has been engraved by 
Sturt as a frontispiece to 'The Letters of the 
Renowned Father Paul,' 1693- Again, it 
appears in the first volume of Courayer's 
* Histoire Du Concile De Trente,' published 
at Amsterdam in 1751. "F. Lucas" is given 
as the name of the engraver. That the last 
two were copied from Lombart's portrait I 
have not the slightest doubt. Let me say at 
once I do not believe for a moment that it is 
a real likeness of Father Paul at all. A 
more disappointing portrait of an illustrious 
man, and one so contrary to what is known of 
his personal appearance, was never called into 
existence the nose, for example, to borrow the 
words of Shelley, " once seen never to be for- 
gotten, and which requires the utmost stretch 
of Christian charity to forgive"; while 
the whole expression of the face has some- 
thing of the look of a superannuated village 
schoolmaster. In contrast, what a pleasure 
it is to turn to Pine's beautiful little portrait, 
1721 ! It is given as a frontispiece to 'The 
Rights of Sovereigns and Subjects,' by Father 
Paul, 1722. The expressive eye, finely arched 
and well-set nose, and the noble forehead, 
with its deep central indent, are all sugges- 
tive of the profound thinker and student of 
human nature. It carries with it its own 
certificate of character. Then there is a por- 
trait, understood to be both contemporary and 
authentic, given by Dr. Alexander Robertson 
of Venice, in his ' Life of Fra Paolo Sarpi.' ] 
may say that this is an exceedingly read- 
able and intensely sympathetic biography 
and gives a very good popular account oi 
Father Paul. A. S. 

See also the General Indexes to the Seconc 
and Fifth Series, and an admirable article in 
The Quarterly for April, 1893. U. D. 

CHAUCER'S FATHER. Lately, in looking 
trough a file of Chancery Warrants, my son 
found a writ, 10 May, 36 Edw. III. (1362), 
;o the Sheriffs of London, to summon before 
;he King's Council, at Westminster, Adam 
de Bury, John Chaucer, William Heroun, and 
Richard Lyons, " wherever they may be in 
the City," on the morrow, in good time, on 
pain of forfeiture. Nothing else seems ta 
lave been discovered bearing on this matter, 
[t occurred immediately after the termination 
of " the second Great Plague." Possibly the 
King wished to raise some money ; if so, 
the Subsidy Rolls may throw some light on 
the subject. R. E. G. KIRK. 

" LEAD "^LANGUAGE. A student in the 
University here recently cited, in a class 
exercise, a Forfarshire word, lead, as mean- 
ing language. The reference was made 
in regard to the Anglo-Saxon word loeden 
(language), of which he believed the modern 
word to be a derivative. The form was new 
to myself, although I may claim to have a 
substantial acquaintance with the Scottish 
dialect. The student supported his inter- 
pretation of the word by a quotation from 
a local writer of verse. This quotation was, 
as follows : 

Your crack-jaw words o' half an elf, 

That rummle like a witch's spell, 

Are no' the lead o' ony tongue 

That ever in a head was hung. 

The survival seems to me an interesting 
one, and I therefore bring it up in 'N. & Q.' 

W. B. 
St. Andrews. 

from Bardney " is said to a person who has- 
the habit of leaving doors open when he 
could shut them. The meaning is not very 
clear. Did the saying originate in connexion 
with the monks of Bardney Abbey ? 

In Brittany one is told, "II faut aller a 
Paris pour apprendre a fermer les portes 
derriere soi"('La Legende de la Mort,' pat? 
A. Le Braz, 1892, p. 118, note). 


" BUNT." As a record of the fatal riotous 
strike and sad event which happened at 
St. Petersburg on Sunday, 22 January last, 
it may perhaps be worth observing that the 
Russian word for a riot or revolt, viz., bunf 
(borrowed from German .5*mc?=union of- 
tradesmen, perhaps with regard to the Swiss 
Confederation against despotic rulers), is also 
used to express a strike or cessation of work 
in Russian. Hence the remark which the 
Russian Ambassador at Washington is saio> 
to have made that it was not a revolt, but 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io i " s. in. FEB. 23, 1905. 

a strike, which had just taken place in the 
capital might be called rather a quid pro quo. 

a recent number of Punch (1 February, p. 74) 
I notice some striking lines on the present 
situation in Russia, among which occur the 

And kept unsullied that majestic halo 
Circling the sacred Head at Tsarskoe Selo. 

The name of this place is so much in every 
mouth just now that it may not be amiss if 
I point out that this pronunciation is wrong. 
I find to my surprise that it is so in most 
of the gazetteers (e.g., Lippincott, 1880, 
Worcester, 1887, Smith, 1895), but there is 
one honourable exception Ogilvie gives it 
correctly, viz. as T&dr-sko-e 8elo. Tsarskoe, 
which is three syllables, means Imperial. 
Selo means a village with a church, and 
Crimes, not with "halo," but with " below." 

"TZAR," NOT " CZAR." When will our daily 
papers cease to misspell the name of the 
Ilussian self-ruler? Surely the correct and 
phonetic transcription of the Russian name 
(which^is derived from Csesar, like the Ger- 
man Kaiser) is not its Magyar-Hungarian 
spelling Czar, but, according to our own 
pronunciation, Tzar in English, or Tsar in 
French, or Zar in German and Italian. 


Q IN THE 'H.E.D.' The almost exhaustive 
character of the great dictionary has perhapa 
never been better shown than in this section. 
I have gone very carefully through the 
various aliases of "quinine" and the other 
cinchona alkaloids, and have found only one 
omission, that of quinodia, the alternative 
form of quinodine. I have counted over fifty 
words in this group under Q, and have pro- 
bably missed several. It is somewhat strange 
that the first quotation for quinetum should 
be dated 1880, when this drug had already 
become unimportant on account of the fall 
in the price of quinine. It must have been 
introduced four or five years before then. 

There is no mention under quacksalver of 
quacksalver' 1 s spurge or of quacksalver's turltith, 
both of which are in Gerard as names of 
different varieties of spurge. Neither of them 
is in Lyte, which is curious if quacksalver is 
of Dutch origin. 

Quaking ash, a name for the aspen (see 
Rennie's 'Conspectus of Pharmacopoeias,' 
1837), does not appear under Q, but is 
mentioned in Section A, under ash. 

C. C. B. 

' Duchess Sarah,' by Mrs. Colville, there is 
a letter from the Duchess to Mrs. Coke dated 
1 November, 1709, copied from H.M.C., 
Twelfth Report, Appendix, part iii. p. 83. 
Mrs. Colville then adds, p. 204, " Mrs. Coke 
was the first wife of Mr. Coke, who for so 
many years, and under two reigns, held the 
post of Vice-Chamberlain at the Court." The 
lady to whom this letter was addressed was 
the second, and not the first, wife of Mr. 

Vice-Chamberlain Coke's first wife, whom 
he married in June, 1698, was Lady Mary 
Stanhope (elder daughter of Philip, second 
Earl of Chesterfield) ; but she died January, 
1703/4, consequently, as the above-mentioned 
letter was .dated November, 1709, it must 
have been written to Mr. Coke's second wife, 
to whom he had been united in October, 
1709. This lady was Mary, daughter of 
William Hale, Esq., of King's Walden, Herts, 
a maid of honour to Queen Anne. She died 
January, 1723/4, leaving one son and one 
daughter, becoming through the latter great- 
grandmother of the second Viscount Mel- 
bourne, Prime Minister, and to that noble- 
man's sister, who married as her second 
husband another Prime Minister, viz , the 
last Viscount Palmeraton. 

It may not be uninteresting to record that 
the Vice-Chamberlain's second wife was a 
distant connexion of the Maryborough family. 

As Mrs. Col ville's book is of great historical 
interest, I may be pardoned for correcting 
the above-mentioned clerical error. 


9, Broughten Road, Thornton Heath. 

"TANDEM." (See 9^ S. x. 308, 455 ; xi. 256, 
353.) As instances of the use of tandem in 
the meaning of a carriage appear to be rare, 
the following example is worth recording. 
Under date London, 11 August, 1807, Byron 
wrote : 

"On Sunday next I set off for the Highlands. 
A friend of mine accompanies me in my carriage 
to Edinburgh. There we shall leave it, and proceed 
in & tandem (a species of open carriage) th[r]ough 
the western passes to Inverary, where we shall 
purchase shelties, to enable ue to view places in- 
accessible to vehicular conveyancts." 'Letters and 
Journals,' 1898, i. 143. 

Boston, U.S. 

BENJAMIN GOOCH. When writing on this 
able surgeon for the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' I 
failed to recover the date of his death. He 
is perhaps identical with Benjamin Gooch, 
of Halesworth, in Suffolk, surgeon, who died 
between 20 November, 1775, and 20 March, 

io* s. m. FEB. 23, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1776, the dates respectively of the making 
and proving his will (registered in the Pre- 
rogative Court of Canterbury, 123, Bellas). 
He possessed property at Framlinghara, Suf- 
folk. By his wife Elizabeth he had an only 
daughter, also Elizabeth, who was married 
to John D'Urban, M.D., of Halesworth. A 
search through Davy's 'Suffolk Collections,' 
s. >;'. 'Halesworth' and 'Framlingharn,' has 
revealed nothing. GORDON GOODWIN. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be sent to them 

PERMISSION CAP. The London Gazette, 
No. 2031 of 1685, has: 

" His Majesty's High Commissioner attended 

with Four Knights on Foot And in his return 

to the Palace having the High Constable on his 
right hand, and the Great Marshall on his left, 
with Permission Caps and in their Robes." 

In No. 2564 of the same (1090) we find : 
" A Guenea Xegro Boy in a black cloth suet, 

and on his head a black Cloth Permission Cap 

strayed away on the 3d instant." 

There are other entries similar to the first 
of these, to which also may perhaps be com- 
pared "Here's three permission bonnets for 
ye," in Allan Ramsay's 'Three Bonnets,' 
1722. I shall be glad of information as to 
the meaning of " permission cap." 


Hugh Walker, in his extremely interesting 
biographical sketch of this versatile writer, 
has the following at p. 37 of this all too brief 
monograph : 

" He [Lord De Tabley] wrote frequently to JVbte* 
and Queries, especially in 1879, during the first half 
of which he contributed no fewer than fifty-one 
articles under various signatures." 

Will some one who knows these various 
signatures kindly furnish me with the 
references thereto ? Mr. Tinsley Pratt, in 
his ' Bibliography of De Tabley ' (Manchester 
Quarterly/, April, 1900), makes no allusion 
to these ''fifty-one articles." 

Again, did De Tabley's contributions con- 
tinue until his death in 1895 ] If so, refer- 
ences also, please. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

[Mr. Walker is correct in his statement that Lord 
De Tabley contributed fifty-one articles to ' N. & Q.' 
in the first half of 1879. Two were signed with his 
name, and will be found in the Index to 5 th S. xi. 
under ' Warren, J. L.' ; twenty-two were signed 

Zero, and twenty-seven A, being duly indexed 
under these signatures. In 5"' S. xii. one article bore 
his name, eleven were signed Zero, and eighteen A. 
This information will enable Lord De Tabley's 
earlier and later communications to be traced.] 

CASTLE. In these days of the inferior 
parliamentary, ministerial, and plutocratic 
" nobility," one turns to the ancient military 
and feudal aristocracy to find the real 
genuine noblesse. Old Scotland, for example, 
was divided into four military districts, the 
chief command being at Stirling Castle. The 
commanders (Constables or Governors) were 
chosen from the most reliable military 
officers of the aristocracy. I desire to have 
the ancestry, arms, and posterity of these, 
commencing with those of Stirling Castle, 
for consolidation in book form as basis for 
aristocratic organization. My ancestor, Eoberb 
de Forsyth, was Constable (or Governor) in 
1368. He was son of Osbert, and descended 
from Grimoard de Forsath, Vicomte de 
Fronsac in 1030 Aquitaine, France, from 
which country many of the old cavaliers of 
Scotland were descended. The Ear^of Man- 
was Governor temp. Charles I. Who were 
the others 1 What are their arms, ancestry, 
and posterity ? Please address direct. 


Ottawa, Canada. 

WILKES'S PARLOUR. Was Wilkes's Parlour 
at Guildhall or the Mansion House? and why 
was it so called 1 C. L. E. C. 


lately read Rene Boylesve's ' L'Enfant a la 
Balustrade,' which has been translated into 
English, furnished with a title that has no 
relation to that affixed by the original author, 
and characterized by some critic, with an 
undiscriminating literary palate, as " the 
French 'Cranford.'" One of the heroines, 
when a girl of fifteen, was taken by her 
father, an an ti - clerical Deputy, to Rome, 
where she met Lord "Wolesley," a charming 
young man, who had " des cheveux d'enfant, 
des dents deferame, et des yeux de la couleur 
de 1'eau qui clapote au foud d'une caverne 
marine." He had also a profound admiration 
of Newman, and offered to present the 
maiden to his Eminence, who was at that 
time in Rome : 

"Elle eu 1'honneur d'approcher Newman dans les 
jardins du Pincio. II se garda de toute parole 
mondaine, et comme il avait paru connaitre le nom 
du depute de Paris, il lui dit, non sans amenitS, 
mais sans faiblesse, qu'il venerait, quant ;\ lui, dans 
les persecuteurs de TEglise les artisans iuconscients 
d'une ceuvre sacree : 'Qui sait, dit-il, si Ntiron, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10* s. m. FEB. 25, 1905. 

dont 1'horrible regne donna tant d'elan a la vertu 
chretienne, u 1'teil de Dieu ne vaut pas 1'aputre 
Pierre ? II est necessaire de contempler unelongue 
suite de siecles pour 1 'intelligence complete des 
grandes verites,' " &c. P. 81. 
Will somebody tell me whether Newman 
ever really spoke or wrote words to this 
effect, and give, if possible, an exact quota- 
tion of them ? ST. SWITHIN. 

readers of ' N. & Q.' kindly help me to 
trace any of the following, which may or 
may not be correctly cited ? I have met 
them in reading and forgotten where, or 
have not yet been able to find their source : 

1. L'amour est 1'histoire de la vie des femmes, 
c'est un episode dans celle des hommes. 

I know the English form of the idea in 
Byron's ' Don Juan,' canto i. st. 194, but have 
no notion of the French author. 

2. Leura Merits sont des vols qu'ils nous ont faits 

I understand this is Piron's, but where ? 

3. Mon verre est petit [n'est pas grand], mais je 
bois dans mon verre. 

4. Voltaire, quel que soil le nom dpnt on le nomme, 
C'est un siecle vi\ r ant, c'est un siecle fait homme. 

A reference to Lamartine's ' Meditations 
Poetiques : xviii. Ressouvenir du Lac Leman,' 
appears to be incorrect, or else I have not 
consulted the right edition. 

5. Un jour de fete, 

Un jour de deuil, 
La vie est faite 
En un clin d'oeil. 

Mery, but where 1 

6. Les grandes douleurs sont muettes. 
Vauvenargues ? and where 1 

7. Thanks are lost by promises delayed. 
Is not this from Pope 1 

8. Swayed by every wind that blows (or some- 
thing like it). 

9. Is there not a quotation to the effect 
that if one does a kindness a number of times 
to another, and refuses to do it the last time, 
only the refusal is remembered ? It may be 
English or French. EDWARD LATHAM. 

LORD MAYORS. Who was Lord Mayor ol 
London in 1821 1 Is there any book which 
contains the names and history of the Lord 
Mayors of London from 1830 to 1840 ? 

C. L. E. C. 


[John T. Thorpe was Lord Mayor in 1820-1, and 
Christopher Magnay in 1821-2. ' Haydn's Diet. oJ 
Dates' gives a list of Lord Mayors, s.v. ' Mayors of 

STRAW-PLAITING. Will some reader kindly 
give me early references to the practice of 

this industry in England? I desire to 
ascertain when the plaiting of straw for use in 
the manufacture of hats or bonnets became 
a recognized industry. The earliest date of 
which I have note is in James I., but doubtless 
there are earlier references. 


In Willis's Current Notes, November, 1852, 
p. 96, I note that 

the very interesting series of letters which Burns 
addressed to the late Geo. Thomson were sold by 
Mr. Nisbet at the close of the sale just completed 
of the library of the late Mr. C. 13. Tait. The 
volume was put up at 200 guineas, and after keen 
competition, was knocked down at 260. The pur- 
chaser is an English nobleman, whose name has not 
yet transpired ; but we are able to communicate to 

our readers that there is every probability that 

the volume will remain in Scotland." 

I shall be glad to learn of its present where- 
abouts. 1 fancy most readers of ' N. & Q/ 
are conversant with Mr. J. Cuthbert Hadden's- 
book on George Thomson which appeared a 
few years ago. 


71, Bon-Accord Street, Aberdeen. 

Could any reader refer me to an account 
or history of the above Academy, which I 
believe was founded in Edinburgh in the 
year 1836, but which no longer exists? I 
have heard that in the Crimean War alone 
a hundred of its pupils fought, of whom 
ten died on the field. 


EMPEROR. I should be glad to be informed 
of the date of the account in The Times of 
the presentation by the Fishmongers' Com- 
pany of a jewelled casket to H.I.M. the 
German Emperor (William II.) and its 
approximate cost. 


30, Sussex Square, Brighton. 

THE ESSAY. Is there a separate history of 
the essay, or some volume in which its history 
is given at length ? D. M. 

D'Urte's translation of the book of Genesis 
and part of Exodus in the " Anecdota Oxoni- 
ensia" has been mentioned in 'N. & Q.' 
(9 th S. v. 396, 442 ; viii. 378). Neither in the 
Oxford edition nor in my criticism thereon 
published in two numbers of The American 
Journal of Philology (Baltimore, in Maryland, 
1902) was it pointed out that in xliv. 5 
the words cena eguiazqui emgutuco laitic 
mean literally "the which (thing) he will 

10* a.m. FEB. 25, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


truly know/' Can it be ascertained from 
what edition of Calvin's French, which he 
follows generally very faithfully, or from 
what other source, D'Urte may have taken 
this interpretation of o<W('eTcu? The Trini- 
tarian Bible Society of London means, I be- 
lieve, to publish a third edition of 'Etorkia' ; 
and in that, if I am allowed again to revise 
the text, I propose to change the words, and 
read cenaz asmatzen baitic? i.e., "whereby 
indeed he divineth ?" 

In the Chapel of Jesus College, in Oxford, 
the window nearest to the entrance from the 
ante- chapel, on the north side, was filled 
with stained glass to commemorate the 
editor of the said volume of "Anecdota," Mr. 
Llewelyn Thomas, whom I met at Bayonne, 
at St. Jean de Luz, and at Biarritz, when he 
was chaplain to the Anglican Church in the 
last-named town in the summer of 1892. 
This page of ' X. & Q.' may possibly outlast 
that window ; so let it bear a copy of the 
inscription which runs at the foot thereof : 


Has the epitaph of another distinguished 
British Bascophile, Sir Thomas Browne of 
Norwich, been published ? Where does it 
exist] E. S. DODGSON. 

IRISH POTATO KINGS. Is any reader able 
to give me any information as to the antiquity 
or historical uses of the Irish potato ring ? 

H. W. D. 

to the grant of arms on record in the Heralds' 
College, made 7 November, 1774, to Arthur 
Mair, Esq., of the parish of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields, his father, the Rev. William Mair, 
minister of Kincardine O'Neil, in Aberdeen- 
shire, married " Katherine, daughter of the 
deceased Robert Burnet (formerly minister 
in Aberdeenshire, related to the family of 
Leys, of which family was Bishop Burnet)." 
I shall be grateful for any information as to 
the parentage of this Robert Burnet and his 
connexion with the Burnets of Leys. Was 
this Arthur Mair one of the founders of the 
firm of Cox & Mair, army agents ? 


High Steep, Jarvis Brook. Sussex. 

ANTIQUITY OF JAPAN. I recently read that 
the present Emperor of Japan claims that his 
dynasty has occupied the throne "from time 
immemorial," but have not the reference at 
hand. The Daily Chronicle, of 11 February, 
in its ' Office Window ' column, states that 

11 February "is the anniversary of the coro- 
nation of the first emperor, who ascended 
the throne at a place called Kashiwara, near 
the modern town of Nara, some five-and- 
twenty centuries ago." Now how far is this 
claim to antiquity borne out by historical 
evidence ? And what are the earliest records 
of Japan ] Long as the boast of 2,500 years 
is, it pales before that of Menelik, the present 
Emperor of "Ethiopia" or Abyssinia, who 
claims to be lineally descended from King 
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. 

56, Eyot Gardens, Hammersmith. 

(10 th S. iii. 109.) 

THE index to Kemble's 'Charters' contains 
A.-S. Lamb-burne, i.e., Lamb-bourn ; Lamla- 
hcim, i.e., " lambs' home," unless it is an error 
for Lamba-ham, i e., "lambs' enclosure," 
which is far more likely ; Lambe-hith, i.e., 
"lambs' hithe or landing-place," familiarly 
known as Lambeth ; and Lamb-hyrst, i.e., 
Lamb-hurst, said to be in Hampshire. 

From a philological point of view, the sb. 
lamb is of considerable interest, as it is one 
of the few words which, like child, made the 
plural in -ru, Mod. E. -er. Hence Laniber- 
hurst, in Sussex, is simply " lambs' hurst '' ; 
not from the singular, but from the plural. 
Like the Latin corpus (pi. corp-ora\ it was 
once a " neuter in -os." 


In Stephen Whatley's 'England's Gazetteer,' 
Lond., 1751, vol. i., will be found the three 
following "Lambs," which I think are worth 
transcribing : 

" Lambcote, or Lorncote (Nott.), near the Trent, 
S.W. of Bingham, was sold by Geo. Pilkington in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth to John Rosell, whose 
posterity had it lately, if they have it not still. 

" Lambcole (Warw.) was originally a member of 
Lower Eatendon, and belonged to Kenilworth 
Abbey, but at the Dissolution was granted to Rich. 
Andrews and Leonard Chamberlain, Esqrs., and the 
heirs of the former. It came afcerwarda to George 
Ld. Willoughby of Brook. 

" Lamborne (Essex), 4 m. from Epping, between 
Waltham Abbey and Rumford, belonged anciently 
to the said Abbey. This manor is held by the 
service of the ward-staff, viz., to carry a load of 
straw, in a cart with 6 horses, 2 ropes and 2 men, 
in harness, to watch the said ward-staff, when it is 
brought to the neighbouring hamlet of Abridge. 
There were certain lands in this parish formerly 
called Minchin - Lands, which belonged to the 
monastery at Stratford le Bow, and were granted 
by K. Henry VIII. to Sir Ralph Sadler, who sold 
them to Owen Low, Esq." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. HI. FEB. 25, iocs. 

A ward-staff, I find, is a constable's or 
watchman's staff. Some further information 
on the subject of this ancient "service of the 
ward-staff" would be very acceptable. I 
should also like to know something more 
about " Minchin-Lands." WM. NoRMAK. 

6, St. James's Place, Plumstead. 

In the immediate vicinity of Jedburgh 
there is a field which bears the name of 
" Lamb Skin." It belonged, along with other 
property, to the Ainslies, a family famous 
in the history of Jedburgh. One of them 
attained to some fame as a surveyor. John 
Ainslie was born in Jedburgh on 22 April, 
1745, and one of his first efforts as a draughts- 
man, if not the earliest, was his 'Plan of 
Jedburgh.' On this plan the field above 
designated is marked very prominently. The 
copies now extant are very scarce, but one is 
to be found in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
Unfortunately there is no date on the plan, 
but as it was the first, and we know that 
Ainslie surveyed Selkirkshire in 1772, it is 
more than likely that the theory of Mr. 
George Watson, who fixes the year as 1770 
or 1771, is correct. To quote again from 
Mr. Watson, who has devoted some research 
to the work of this townsman, " On 1 January, 
1782, Ainslie's 'Atlas of the World' was 
published." It is interesting to note that 
instead of the familiar term now in general 
use, "as the crow flies" the earliest reference 
to which phrase Dr. Murray, in his ' English 
Dictionary,' gives in a quotation of date 
1800 the term "distance thro' the air" was 
employed." J. LINDSAY HILSON. 

Public Library, Jedburgh. 

There is a Lam with, or Lamwath, stream 
in Holderness, East Yorkshire (see the index 
to Poulson's ' History of Holderness '). 

W. C. B. 

There is a village and parish called 
Lamberhurst in Kent, some five miles from 
Tunbridge Wells. Other than those men- 
tioned by the querist, the only place-names 
which I have come across in which the name 
appears are those of Lambrigg in Westmore- 
land, Lambcote in Warwickshire, Lambcroft 
in Lincolnshire, Lambourne in Essex, Lamb 
ston in Pembrokeshire, Lambton in Durham, 
Lambeth in Surrey, and Lamb Abbey (or 
Lamorbey), near Bexley in Kent. The manor 
of this last-mentioned place at one time 
belonged to the Lamienbys. Lamerton in 
Devonshire is sometimes called "Lamberton." 

Lambholm is an island in the Orkney 
group. Lambrook is in Somerset, Lambston 

^n Pembroke, Lambeg in Antrim, and Lamber- 
nurst in Sussex. Then we have Lamba, an 
!slet in the Yell Sound, and Lambe, an islet 
in the Firth of Forth. 


The 'Post Office Guide' 
near Glasgow. 

jives Lambhill, 

SPLIT INFINITIVE (10 th S. ii. 406 ; iii. 17, 51, 
35). The statesmanlike note of PROF. SKEAT, 
if I may be allowed to use the phrase, has set 
this question on a proper basis. The dis- 
ussion has, however, been useful, as it has 
shown that the " split infinitive " is neither 
ungrammatical nor illogical, and that its 
employment is purely a matter of taste. It 
maybe hoped that "those who have failed 
in literature and art " will now allow its use 
without mast - heading every writer whose 
views or tastes differ from their own. The 
great point is that the English language, 
like the English Constitution, is a living 
organism. A continual process of growth 
is going on, and to say that Shakespeare or 
Milton did not employ a certain locution is 
no argument against its legitimate use at the 
present day. Both Shakespeare and Milton 
employed many forms which will not be 
found in Chaucer or Gower, just as at the 
present day we do not always follow the 
constitutional methods which prevailed in 
the time of Edward I. or Henry VIII. If 
writers like Browning or Meredith have 
thought that by "splitting the infinitive" 
the expression of their ideas has gained in 
precision, in emphasis, or in euphony, they 
have been perfectly right in disregarding the 
critics, and in following their own opinion. 

We are given to understand by those to 
whom the split infinitive is abhorrent that 
its use is carefully eschewed by standard 
English authors. It may, therefore, be of 
interest to mention that Dr. Hall's paper in 
The American Journal of Philology (1882, 
pp. 17-24) is chiefly composed of a list of 
examples of the idiom, with full references. 
The authors quoted range from Wyclif to 
W. H. Mallock and Leslie Stephen, and in- 
clude such names as Lord Berhers, Tyndale, 
Dr. John Donne, Sir Thomas Browne, Samuel 
Pepys, Dr. Richard Bentley, Defoe, Edmund 
Burke, Dr. Samuel Johnson, Robert Southey, 
S. T. Coleridge, Charles Lamb, W. Words- 
worth, Lord Macaulay, De Quincey, Herbert 
Spencer, Charles Reade, Matthew Arnold, 
Bishop Wilberforce, and John Ruskin. It 
would, of course, take up too much space in 

io* s. in. FEB. as. 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


' X. & Q.' to reproduce the quotations from 
these selected writers, some of whom are, I 
believe, considered to be masters of English, 
though betraying no qualms when inserting 
unattached adverbs within their infinitives. 

Dr. Hall came to the conclusion that the 
two writers who were especially addicted to 
the use of the phrase were Madame D'Arblay 
and Bishop Pecock, the latter furnishing such 
an instance as this: "forto perfitli, sureli, 
and sufficientli undirstonde Holi Scripture." 
I hasten to observe that I am not penetrated 
with admiration by this particular example, 
for it reminds one feoo much of those sepa- 
rable German verbs whose component parts 
are apt to be sundered by a swamp of paren- 
theses ; but it shows to what lengths an 
enthusiast will go in this direction. One 
may balance this with such half-hearted 
Shakespearean usages as "to proceed and 
justly and religiously unfold," and " to line 
and new repair our towns " (' King Henry V.,' 
I. ii. 10 ; 1 1. iv. 7). Besides these, there'may 
be also added to Dr. Hall's list Byron's "to 
slowly trace " (' Childe Harold,' II. xxv.). 

If, therefore, there are some authors in whose 
works the split infinitive in all its naked 
shamelessness has escaped detection, it is 
obvious that there nevertheless exists abun- 
dant support for its use if the personal baste 
of a writer inclines him to regard the idiom 
with favour or indifference. But if he shares 
MARO'S fierce hatred of the construction, 
it will at least be judicious to so place the 
adverb that there can be no doubt as to what 
verb is qualified. J. DORMER. 

Is not the question one of feeling rather 
than one of rules ] Is anything to be gained 
by using the split infinitive ? or is it a mere 
unnecessary vulgarism ? It seems to me that 
it may be used to increase the delicacy of our 
expression in certain cases, and that its use 
is therefore legitimate. 

If we take a phrase like " I certainly think 
he is wrong " (see Sweet's ' English Grammar ' 
on position of adverbs), and turn it into an 
infinitive construction, we get three possible 
forms, corresponding to the three possible 
forms of the original. 

1. I certainly think he is wrong. 

Then you ought to certainly think I am 

2. Certainly I think he is wrong. 

Then you ought certainly to think I am 

3. I think certainly he is wrong. 

Then you ought to think certainly I am 


In No. 1 is not " I certainly think " equiva- 
lent to " I consider," the adverb being blended 

with the verb to form a new compound, viz., 
the verb " to certainly-think," and do we not 
change the sense by writing "certainly to 
think"? Would not this sufficiently justify 
the use of the split infinitive in certain cases ? 
"I hardly open my eyes " is equivalent to "I 
half-open my eyes," and the infinitives would 
express the same difference. Thus, " What a 
pleasure it is to hardly open your eyes and 
look through the waving boughs ! " is, I think, 
preferable to " What a pleasure it is hardly to 
open your eyes and/" &c. P. G. WILSON. 

When MARO condemns such a phrase as. 
"the custom is a bad one," he condemns 
Addison. But Dr. Johnson says that this 
mode of speech is not elegant, though it is 
used by good authors. Dr. Johnson himself 
is one of those who have used the split 
infinitive. But, so far as I know, he has used 
it only once. In the Bible I have met with 
several instances of the adverb joined to the 
infinitive, but with no instance of the split 
infinitive. In ' Hamlet ' we find : 

Rightly to be great 

Is not to stir without gteat argument, 
But greatly to find quarrel in a straw 
When honour's at the stake. 

And in ' Paradise Lost ' is the line : 

Strongly to suffer and support our pains. 
Ill the poetry of Gray there is no instance 
of an adverb being joined to the infinitive^ 
with the exception of the negative "not ta 
wound my heart" and "still to bring." la 
the poetry of one or two other well-known 
poets I looked in vain for such examples. 


I Is to the sign of the dative in A.-S. ? I 
thought in to write = ihe act of writing, to, 
as in to-day, to-morrow, and V Archdeacon in 
Northern dialect=/ie, the definite article, 
not=Fr. a dire, Lat. ad dicendum. The verb 
is usually qualified by words following, but 
not always. T. WILSON. 

THACKERAY (10 th S. iii. 22, 73, 131). The 
title-page of the printed music score of ' The 
Mountain Sylph ' is as follows : 

"The Mountain Sylph, A Grand Opera in two 
Acts, as performed at the New Theatre Royal 
English Opera House. Written by T.J.Thacke- 
ray, Esq*. Composed by John Barnett." 


PATENTS OF PRECEDENCE (10 th S. iii. 90). 
Warrants of Precedence were issued certainly 
as early as 1660. I can think of one on 
record in Ulster's Office granted as early as 
1669 to the daughters of Thomas, Viscount 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io* B. m. FEB. 25, 1905. 

Thurles, eldest son of Walter, eleventh Earl 
of Ormonde (see ' The Scots Peerage,' 8vo, 
1904, vol. i. p. 53) ; and there are several 

I should say that such warrants in Scotland 
would be on record in the Lyon Office, if they 
were not destroyed by the fire there in the 
reign of Charles II., or reference might be 
made to the records of the Privy Seal in the 
New .Register House, Edinburgh. 


in. 66, 115). I should like to thank PROF. 
&KEAT for referring me to his ' Concise Dic- 
tionary.' I ought to have consulted it before 
writing my note, but had only his larger 
dictionary by me. It may interest him if I 
add that I have now traced the erroneous 
statement that tournamal is the true Cinga- 
lese name for this stone as far back as 1775, 
when it appeared in Dr. Priestley's treatise 
'On Electricity' (vol. i. p. 368). Thence it 
got into Chambers's ' Cyclopaedia,' 1786 edi- 
tion, and into liees, 1819, and so through other 
works of reference to the ' Imperial ' and 
* Century ' dictionaries of the present day. 

In his note on this subject MR. JAS. PLATT, 
JUN. (whose communications I always read 
with the liveliest interest), has, unwittingly, 
reslain the slain. Just over ten years ago I 
spent some time and trouble in investigating 
the history of the word tourmaline, and the 
result of my researches was printed in the 
number for February, 1895, of the Monthly 
Literary Register and Notes and Queries for 
Ceylon. I there gave practically all the facts 
that MR. PLATT has recorded in his note, and 
a good deal besides. (Should MR. PLATT 
desire to see my communication, I shall be 
most happy to lend him the volume con- 
taining it.) I sent a copy of the paper 
referred to to PROF. SKEAT, drawing his 
attention to the error in his ' Concise Etymo- 
logical Dictionary ' (fourth ed., supplement); 
and I am glad to see that in the latest edition 
of that admirable little work the mistake has 
been amended. That the word tourmaline is 
a corruption of the Sinhalese toramalli seems 
probable; but how it received a pseudo- 
French termination I have not found. I 
hope that MR. PLATT will continue his in- 
vestigations into the history of the word in 
European languages. DONALD FERGUSON. 

20. Beech House Road, Croydon. 

"WASSAIL" (10 th S. ii. 503; iii. 9, 112). I 
do not accept MR. ADDY'S suggestions ; nor 
do I suppose that others will do so. I take 
his points one by one. 

1. He says the M.E. form ought to have 
been waissel / but it was not. 

2. The form wossel is simply due to the 
action on the a of the preceding iv, just as we 
write wan, but pronounce it as if it rimed 
with on. It therefore shows that the second 
letter was short a, and not ai at all. 

3. The argument that stone is steinn in 
Icelandic has nothing to do with it, because 
the o in stone is long ; and the o in wossel is 
not so. 

4. There is no reason why Layamon's wees 
hail should be " popular etymology," for his 
were not the days when popular etymologies 
of ordinary substantives were being con- 
stantly made up, as they were in Tudor times. 
His story may be all false, and yet it may 
represent an old tradition. Really, we must 
consider chronology. It is true that popular 
etymology has at all times misinterpreted 
place-names and personal names ; but wassail 
is not a personal name. 

5. I account for the spelling wassail, also 
for the form wossel; MR. ADDY can only 
account for a spelling ivaissel, which I do 
not find. It is for him to tell us where it 
occurs. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

S. iii. 49). Mitford, in his life of Goldsmith, 
has written on this subject as follows : 

"It has been alleged that this ballad is only a 
translation of an ancient French poem, entitled 
' Raimond et Angeline.' The discussion that took 
place on the subject may be seen in The Monthly 
Review for (September, 1797, and The European 
Magazine for 1802. It appeared in a small obscure 
volume called 'The Quiz' in 1767. That only one 
of these poems can claim originality is clear ; but, 
speaking with diffidence on a production in a 
foreign language, I should pronounce the French, 
in many of its parts, to have the air of a transla- 
tion ; there is a coldness and flatness in some of the 
lines ; and it is certainly very inferior in beauty 
and spirit to the English. This at least is certain, 
that no such poem, in its present dress, could have 
appeared in an ancient French novel, for it is in 
the language and style of Florian and the writers 
of that day, a little altered and disguised." 

I suppose that the date of 1767, given to 
'The Quiz' by Mitford, is wrong, and that 
MR. DOBELL'S date of 1797 is right. Other- 
wise Mitford's reference to Florian is not 
happy ; for Florian was born in 1755. 


CON- CONTRACTION (10 Ul S. ii. 427 ; iii. 111). 
One's first feeling on reading MR. WILLIAMS'^ 
note is annoyance that this sort of hanky- 
panky should be played with the text of the 
First Folio. But on second thoughts the whole 
proceeding seems so extremely puerile that 
annoyance becomes merged in amusement. 



Will ME. WILLIAMS explain his contention a 
little more fully] Is it affirmed that as the 
compositor set up the text the great Bacon 
stood over him and slipped in his cryptic 
sentence ? or is he supposed to have arranged 
with the compositor to expand or contract 
the lettering so that this phrase should 
appear at the thirty-third line? The text, 
I may say, shows no sign of this, so that I 
think that question may be answered in the 

Then, again, it is a little unfortunate that 
the line happens to be the thirty-first, unless 
the stage directions are counted, which is 
unusual. It is also a little unfortunate that 
ME. WILLIAMS'S answer by no means fits the 
question. As I understand it, we are asked 
if the C reversed, used as an abbreviation for 
Con, might not have been known as "the 
horn." MR. WILLIAMS'S answer is that " the 
horn " in a passage in the First Folio stands 
for C, which is another story altogether, and 
can have no warrant whatever except in 
the imagination of the writer. Even if 
QUIRINUS'S question could be answered in 
the affirmative, which has yet to be seen, it 
would lend no support to MR. WILLIAMS'S 
contention. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY. 

fSedgeford Hall. 

With all respect to MR. WILLIAMS, I beg 
to point out that he takes for granted what 
he is asked to prove, and adds a minus 
quantity to our information on the point 
raised by QUIRINUS. If any positive instance 
of the sign in question being called " the 
horn " can be found, I sincerely hope it will 
be sent to Dr. Murraj', for incorporation in 
the supplement to the ' New English Dic- 
tionary.' Does not QUIRINUS bring down the 
use of this contraction rather late ? I know 
it well in MSS. down to about the end of the 
fifteenth century, and in a certain number of 
printed books of that century; and should 
be sorry to fix a positive date for its dis- 
appearance, seeing that a compositor might 
casually use a single one in a book to save 
trouble in "justifying" some awkward line. 
But it is certainly rare in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. It had, however, a name so late as 
1597, as may be read in Morley's 'Intro- 
duction to Musick, 3 book i. p. 36, that name 
being, as one might expect, neither more nor 
less than con per se. May we have a refer- 
ence to books in which this sign is " horn- 
shaped " ] As it is not very common, a note 
of the pages would save trouble in finding 
the instances. Q. V. 

CONDITIONS OF SALE (10 th S. ii. 269). The 
earliest " Conditions of Sale " I have been 

able to find in my office relate to some 
houses in St. Luke's (Old Street), and are- 
dated 14 November, 1787. They are very- 
short, but substantially the same as those of 
the present day. EDAVARD HERON-ALLEN. 

COPYING PRESS (10 th S. ii. 488). Your 
correspondent should refer to 8 th S. xi. 226, 298, 
337, for instances of its use in 1809 and 1782, 
and for the description of a machine invented 
by Mr. Wedgwood, which had been in the 
possession of the family of your contributor 
for at least three generations, and was thea 
in excellent preservation. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

FLAYING ALIVE (9 th S. xii. 429, 489 ; 10 th S.. 
i. 15, 73, 155, 352 ; ii. 14). At the fifth refer- 
ence I gave a quotation relating to the 
human skin nailed to the door of Hadstock 
Church, Essex. From a paragraph in The 
East London Advertiser of 21 January, I 
learn that this skin was recently offered for 
sale at Stevens's Auction Rooms : 

"When the door was removed for repairs lately 
the ghastly remnant was found under an iron 
hinge. Now this last memento of a Danish pirate, 
encased in a mahogany box, with a collection of 
literary references to it, has gone for 31. &* , not 
a high price for a relic of such rarity." 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

EDMOND AND EDWARD (10 th S. iii. 49). I 
have frequently met with these names used 
indifferently for the same person in original 
documents and other MSS. of the seventeenth 
century. But whether so used in " mediaeval 
times " I cannot state with any such degree 
of certainty. W. I. R. V. 

MOTOR INDEX MARKS (10 th S. ii. 468). The- 
letters were assigned to the various registra- 
tion districts in the order of time when appli- 
cation was made by the several authorities 
(with one or two exceptions). S and I 
precede or follow the other letters in the ca^e- 
of Scotland and Ireland respectively. Edin- 
burgh has plain S and Glasgow plain G. la 
England, when the single alphabet had beer* 
exhausted by being assigned to the first seb 
of applicants, the list was continued by A A 
AB, &c., followed by B A, B B, &c., C A* 
C B, &c., and so on. ' W. S. B. H. 

ANTIQUARY r. ANTIQUARIAN (10 th S. i. 325,. 
396; ii. 174, 237, 396, 474). I have before me a 
copy of a letter dated " Trieste, 14 January, 
1883," from that great purist Sir Richard 
Burton, to Bernard Quaritch, criticizing a, 
pamphlet of mine which he had sent him. 



He says : " It begins badly, ' musical anti- 
quarian,' adjective for substantive." I have 
said " antiquary " since then. 


FONT CONSECRATION (10 th S. ii. 269, 336). 
I am much obliged to MR. J. HOBSON 
MATTHEWS for his information. An account 
of the ceremony will be found in an Anglo- 
Saxon Pontifical in the Public Library at 
.Rouen, also in the Pontifical of Edmund 
Lacey, 1421. Q. W. V. 

BANKRUPTS IN 1708-9 (10 th S. ii. 487). 
Walter Rye, in his 'Records and Record 
Searching,' 1888, says that the bankruptcy 
deeds before 1831 are at the Bankruptcy 
Commissioners' Office, after that year in 
Close Roll. A correspondent at 8 th S. v. 417 
stated that the records subsequent to 1710 
were in the new Bankruptcy Buildings next 
Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. Probably 
MR. MASON may obtain some information 
from the following work in the library of the 
London Institution, Finsbury Circus : " The 
Bankrupts' Directory with an alpha- 
betical list of all those persons who have 
surrendered themselves to, or have been 
summoned to be examined by, the Commis- 
sioners according to the last two Acts of 
Parliament," London, 1708. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

iii. 87). The latitude of Washington being 
38 55' N"., and the sun's declination 23 15' S. 
on 15 December, the hour angle at rising or 
setting will be 70 32', equal in time to 
4h. 42m. By that interval, then, the sun 
will rise or set at Washington before passing 
the meridian. But as the meridian passage 
takes place on 15 December at 5m. before 
noon by mean time, the sun will set 4 h. 42 m. 
after that, ie, at 4h. 37m. by a clock 
regulated to Washington time. 

W. T. LYNN. 


TRAVELS IN CHINA (10 th S. ii. 408 ; iii. 15). 
In the Royal Geographical Society's library, 
1, Savile Row, W., the other day why do we 
say the other day when we mean an other 
day 1 I came across a book which will pro- 
bably give the information about English 
travellers in China desired by the REV. EDWIN 
S. CRANE. Its title is 'Bibliotheca Sinica: 
Dictionnaire Bibliographique des Ouvrages 
relatifs a 1'Empire Chinois,' par Henri 
Cordier, vol. i., Paris, 1904. No doubt the 
librarian would allow the inquirer access to 
this book, or would help him to the desired 

information. He might also refer to the 
recently issued volume dealing with China 
in " The World's History," edited by Helm- 
holt, and the articles in the ninth edition of 
the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica' and supple- 
ment, whioh, I believe, give bibliographies. 
56, Eyot Gardens, Hammersmith, W. 

HAMLET WATLIXG (10 th S. ii. 488). This 
gentleman is still living in Ipswich. He is 
a very aged man, and I believe he has copies 
of every drawing he has ever done, many of 
them very remarkable. For instance, some 
curious mural drawings were discovered 
under the whitewash when the church at 
Earl Stonham was being restored. These, 
owing to needful repair, had to be destroyed, 
and Mr. Watling's copies are all that 
remain of them. M. E. NOBLE. 

HERALDIC (10 th e S. ii. 408 ; iii. 33, 94). My 
authority for stating that Crawe is a variant 
of Crab is the first volume of the ' Exchequer 
Rolls of Scotland.' John Crab, custumar of 
Aberdeen, is described on p. 64 as Crawe, in 
the passage where mention is made of him 
as buying rope for military engines at Ber- 
wick and Norharn. The passage runs thus : 
*' et Johanni Crawe, ad emendum Cordas pro 
dictis machinis, vijl. vjs. et ijd" The date is 
1327. On pp. 398 and 530 he is called Crabbe 
and Crab. Is there not a connexion between 
the words craw and crab ? Cf. Skeat's 
'Etymol. Diet.,' sub 'Crayfish, Crawfish.' 


Crow in Northern dialect is doubtless 
cra?t>,as is shown by the story of the Yorkshire 
clergyman who asked Abp. Temple to let 
him hold in plurality a Northern living over 
some hills only a few miles away. " You are 
not a craw and you shan't have it." But has 
E. B R thought of crayfish=ecrivisse, G. 
Krabbe, to scrab, and crabbed 1 T. WILSON. 


Reference to Prof. Skeat's ' Concise Dic- 
tionary ' will, I think, substantiate what 
R. B R says as to the impossibility of 
" era we " being a variant of " crab." 


"ILAND" (10 th S. ii. 348, 493 ; iii. 98). I see 
no particular difficulty. If a detached part 
of a barn can be called a bay, it may also be 
called an island. See 'Goaf in the 'Eng. 
Dialect Dictionary,' and ' Island ' in the 
'N.E.D.,' which does not appear to have been 
consulted. The latter shows that an island 
is applied to anything that is in any way 
isolated or detached ; as a cluster of houses, 
a clump of trees, and the like. It is obvious 

s. in. FED. -2.-,, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that the Ringmer island consists of a clustei 
of cottages within a well-defined area. 


An older word " Ayot " appears in the next 
parish to this. There are two churches 
Ayot St. Lawrence and Ayot St. Peter, both 
on high ground, very nearly surrounded by 
the river Lea ; and 1 atn told that " iland ' 
in A.-S. and O.F. includes peninsula. 



Does not this word mean the upper 01 
high land, landing, or storey In a barn, wholly 
or in part, divided into two floors ? I certainly 
remember a barn of that character in which 
sixty years ago I performed prodigious feats 
of leaping from the high landing into the 
gradually lowering mow below, while two 
men gaily plied their flails on the threshing- 
floor. The threshing-floor was in the centre, 
where the big doors opened, and on either 
side of it were huge bags into which the 
sheaves of corn were unloaded from the wains 
in harvest time. The west bay had an upper 
continuation over a spacious storehouse, in 
which latter place were a root-cutter, grind- 
stone, barrows, and various small gear. It 
was, in fact, part of the barn, but partitioned 
off from the west bay to a height of perhaps 
nine feet, and covered with boarding to form 
a floor for the space above. The upper space 
went to the apex of the roof, and was open 
to the rest of the barn at its east end. Now, 
whenever a good harvest came, the top storey, 
the " i-land," would be filled first ; then the 
mow in the west bay would be built up against 
it. In the instance quoted by MR. ARKLE, 
the upper storey had been filled with rye, 
which was allowed to remain after the ad- 
jacent corn had been thrashed not an un- 
common practice where the grain in the 
upper land or storey differed from that which 
was built up in the adjoining bay. 


BACON OR USHER ? (10 th S. ii. 407, 471 ; iii. 
94.) In the first edition of 'Reliquiae Wot- 
tonianoe,' 1651, p. 538, the verses beginning 
"The World's a bubble" are subscribed 
"Ignoto"; in the editions of 1654, 1672, and 
1685 this signature was changed to "Fra. 
Lord Bacon." But whether the ascription 
was made by Sir Henry Wotton himself, or 
by Walton, who edited Sir Henry's papers, 
cannot be stated with certainty. Wotton's 
admiration of Bacon is shown in the very 
interesting letter which is printed at p. 411 
of the 'Reliquiae,' 1651. 

The weight of evidence is certainly in 

favour of Bacon's authorship. If Ussher, 
who did not die till 1656, had been the writer, 
would he have allowed the lines to have stood 
in Farnaby, Sylvester, and Wotton un- 
corrected ? W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Did Wotton write Bacon's epitaph in St. 
Michael's Church, St. Albans ? I thought, 
and think, till I know better, that it was 
written by his cultor and fautor, Thomas 
Meautys. T. WILSON. 


BESANT (10 Ul S. iii. 28, 113). People ought to 
be allowed to pronounce their names as they 
please; but I remember that W. Besant when 
an undergraduate was called Besant. It is a 
foreign name, and there can be no antiquity 
in the Besant pronunciation, said to have 
been favoured. B. P. O. 

As opposed to T.'s statement, I have ifc 
from a gentleman how he was told by the 
late Sir Walter that his surname should be 
pronounced as if it formed a rime to 
"peasant." This would seem to be conclu- 
sive in respect of a name about the pronun- 
ciation of which there has been so much 
difference of opinion. CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenseum Club. 

507 ; iii. 11, 57). I am afraid I might perhaps 
have written less ambiguously, and said that 
dun, being often interchangeable with the 
sanguine colour colloquially, was probably 
also, like the latter, a symbol of the sun. In 
any case, I was, I think, guarded enough not to 
say that "dun is often interchangeable with 
}he sanguine colour as a symbol of the sun." 
But there is some evidence in folk-lore that, 
lor amuletic and sacred purposes, the dun 
and the sanguine colours were equally effec- 
tive, for the sun himself sometimes wears 
almost a dun aspect, and the red breast of 
;he robin, which Grimm identifies with the 
sun-god, varies from a dull orange colour to 
almost a brown or dun colour. The berries 
of the rowan tree were none the less sacred 
o the Northern sun deity because they 
ometimes bore a yellow rather than a red 
int, as the sun himself can scarcely be said 
,o be always of a red hue. The "Red Cow," 
oo, as we meet with her on the signboard, 
an, when we dip into her origin, be traced 
JQ a source much more highly fabled than 
ler presence as a tavern sign would suggest ; 
ind practically the ''Dun Cow" has been 
lisplaced in London, where only one instance 
urvives, by the "Red Cow," of which there 
ire still many instances. The old "Red 
Jow " half-way house at Hammersmith, for 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [io' s. m. FEB. 25, 1905. 

instance, is spoken of in a mid eighteenth 
century newspaper, in connexion with a 
highway robbery, as the "Dun Cow." And 
is not brown or dun colour a compound of 
red and black listre, in fact? 


There is a picture illustrating the ' Bring- 
ing in of the Yule Log 'in Brand's 'Obser- 
vations on Popular Antiquities,' p. 248 
(Chatto & Windus, London, 1877). 

D. v. B. 

In support of PROF. SKEAT'S note on dun 
there is Lady Macbeth's ghastly invocation : 

Come, thick night, 
And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell ! 


Streatham Common. 

"CuT THE LOSS" (10 th S. iii. 69). The 
expression in full is "cut short the loss" a 
maxim occurring as one of three "golden 
rules" adopted by David Ricardo (b. 1772, 
d. 1823), and prescribed by him to the 
intending operator on the Stock Exchange. 
Bicardo's rules were ; " 1, Never refuse au 
option when you can get it ; 2. Cut short 
your losses ; 3. Let your profits run on." 
The meaning of the second rule is self-evident 
in its general application, as instanced in the 
case of the Carthusian purchase. If to sell 
involve loss, to delay the sale may involve 

Greater loss. Therefore sell now, and, by so 
oing, "cut the loss"; more explicitly "cut 
short the loss." In its application to Stock 
Exchange transactions, the maxim prescribes 
that when stock is bought, and when, con- 
trary to anticipation, it is found that prices 
are falling, you should resell immediately, 
and by so doing " cut short your losses." 


This evidently means to diminish the loss 
of anything by some action whereby a certain 
amount of compensation for tlie loss is 
ensured : 

"The Spaniards have amusingly and successfully 
cut the loss' in one small matter. As is well 
known, the terms of surrender of Santiago involve 
the transportation back to Spain of the captured 
Spanish soldiers at America's expense : and the 
contract has now been obtained by the Spanish 
^transatlantic Company. Spanish soldiers will go 
back to Spain in Spanish ships manned by Spanish 
sailors, and all that America will have to do is to 
pay. The Westminster Gazette, 1898. 



307, 351, 390, 490, 535). Jealous of the 

reputation of my native county, I cannot 

allow MR. HELM'S aspersion to pass. I was 

born in Norfolk, and know something of it ; 
but I have never known a Norfolk man, rich 
or poor, use an h where it should not be, or 
omit it where it should. Whatever other 
words or letters they may misuse (and their 
grammar is not always of the best), in this 
respect they are unassailable. 


PRESCRIPTIONS (10 th S. i. 409, 453 ; ii. 56, 
291, 355, 492). DR. FORSHAW says I give no 
authority for my opinion that the scruple 
and the gramma were the same, and that this 
is only an assumption. The grounds for my 
statement are to be found in the work I 
mentioned, the English edition of Paulus 
^Egineta, vii. 26. I will quote them : 

1. Table of weights : 

"Two oboli, which make a gramme (i.e., *crupu- 

2. Commentary on the section : 

"24 scruinila, or rather scriptnla, called by the 
Greeks ypa^<tra." 

3. Table of weights used by Arabian phy- 
sicians : 

= 18 1 3 , grains. 
Darchimi=2 dwt. 6, 9 ? grains " (i.e. 54, 9 j grains). 

It is easy to recognize the Greek terms in 
the Arabic form of grame and drachimi, the 
r being transposed, as in our "grass" and 
"gerss." The weights against each show that 
not only the Greek, but also the Arab, phy- 
sicians, Avicenna and others, used gramma as- 
the equivalent of " scruple." 

I may mention that this division of the- 
Roman ounce into drachms and scruples was- 
applied to other ounces which arose in the- 
Middle Ages, notably to our Troy ounce, now 
happily moribund, probably an offshoot of 
the ounce of Caliph Almamiin's new weights, 
which superseded the old Egyptian-Roman 
weights in the East, but were similarly 


iii. 67). A week or two ago there was an 
inquiry in The Globe from a correspondent 
who seemed to think that the sign of the 
" Naked Boy " was a hopelessly cryptical one ; 
but there is evidence extant quite sufficient, 
I think, to establish its true origin as that 
of a clothier, intimating the tradesman's 
readiness to provide habiliments for those 
in need of them. Woollen-drapers, mercers, 
and tailors, as well as undertakers and coach- 
makers, employed the sign. John Ellison was 
a woollen-draper at the "Naked Boy and 
Woolpack," over against Bull Inn Court in 
the Strand (London Evening Post, 22 Feb- 

in. FEB. -25, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ruary, 1732). Messrs. Wells & Hartley were 
mercers in Ludgate Street at the sign of the 
<l Naked Boy and Wool pack " (Daily Advertiser, 
<> April, 1742). In ' The History of Signboards ' 
(1884, 8vo, p. 450) the sign is assumed to bear 
a satirical allusion to the changeableness 
of fashion in dress a changeableness con- 
sequent, no doubt, at one time, upon the 
variableness of the English climate, and 
the greater taste for colour and general 
attractiveness in men's costume. But the 
instances given or the references made to 
this fickleness of fashion are by no means 
conclusive as to this having been the origin 
of the sign. Possibly it was at one time 
the " Naked Man," and the impropriety 
'became an aftergrowth, since it was not 
considered indelicate in the ancient religious 
plays for the dramatis personce to appear in 
the simplicity of an Edenic wardrobe. In 
* The Comedy of Errors,' where Antipholus 
of Syracuse has just had " measure of his 
body" taken by the tailor, Dromip S. ex- 
claims, " What, have you got the picture of 
old Adam new apparelled ? " There is a token 
extant (Beaufoy Collection, No. 878) of the 
"Naked Boy " in Palace Yard, Westminster. 
This was the sign of Thomas Lloyd, in 1725, 
""one of the Cart Tail Makers to his Majesty, 
which Place is in the Gift of the Duke of 
Dorset, as Lord Steward of the Household " 
-(Evening Post, 21 October, 1725). 


This sign was reproduced in The Daily 
Graphic of 12 December, 1904, but the in- 
formation accompanying it is very inaccurate. 
The contributor of the note to The City Press 
is probably at fault in describing it as an 
"old City sign which was displayed in the 
seventeenth century." The sign may have 
originated with William Grindley, whose 
advertisement is quoted, and who was pro- 
prietor of the business before 1750. About 
that date he was succeeded by Mr. Butler, 
great-grandfather of the donor of the sign 
-to the Guildhall Museum. My research into 
the history of the house and its site is not 
complete; but I believe I am correct in 
identifying it as part of Robert Pyle's gift 
to the Clothworkers' Company, 1538 ; vide 
'Register ' for the year 1838, p. 9 et seq. The 
whole of this estate was built upon about 
i680, and it is, therefore, preferable to identify 
the sign as of the eighteenth century. 


39, Hillmarton Road. 

JOSEPH WILFRED PARKINS (10 th S. iii. 108). 
This eccentric person contested Carlisle 
an 1818, not in 1825. W. W. Bean, in 'The 

Parliamentary Representation of the Six 
Northern Counties of England,' states that 
there were three candidates John Christian 
Curwen (Whig), Sir James Graham, Bart. 
(Tory), and J. VV. Parkins (Whig), and that 
Mr. Parkins retired at 3 P.M. on the second 
day of the election, having polled forty-nine 
votes. He adds that 

"Parkins was Sheriff of London and Middlesex in 
1819-20. He went out to India as a poor boy and 
returned to England a wealthy man. He appears 
to have been a very eccentric person both in 
England and America, and for some years made 
himself conspicuous in various eccentric ways. It 
is stated that the annals of electioneering when he 
was a candidate for this city [Carlisle], replete as 
they were with tomfooleries, could scarcely produce 
a parallel. He went to America about 1825, and 
died at New York in 1840." 


The above-named ex- Sheriff of London 
died in New York in 1840. For further par- 
ticulars see Gowan's ' Catalogue of American 
Books,' New York, 1852, No. 11, p. 29, and 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1840, vol. ii. p. 549. 

KANT'S DESCENT (10 th S. ii. 488 ; iii. 114). 
The following paragraph, showing the Prime 
Minister's belief in the Scottish ancestry of 
Kant, appeared in The 'Times about a year 

" Mr. Balfour and Kant. The editor of the 
KSniyyberffer Hartungxche Ztitunrj informs us that 
he has received from Mr. Balfour the following con- 
tribution to the jubilee number of that journal, 
issued in connexion with the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the death of the great Kunigsberg philo- 
sopher, Itnmanuel Kant : ' Kiinigsberg does well to 
keep alive every memory connected with the great 
man whose writings opened a new epoch in the 
development of philosophy. I am proud to think 
that, though Kant was a German of the Germans, 
his ancestors were countrymen of my own, so that 
Scotland niay have something more than a strictly 
philosophic interest in the perpetuation of his 
memory. A. J. Balfour.' " 

W. S. 

A propos of Andrew Kant, of Dort, men- 
tioned by MR. W. YOUNG, it is extremely 
interesting to note that Andrew was the 
name of the minister Cant, who figures so 
conspicuously in Spalding's 'Troubles' as a 
rabid Covenanter. The Scots descent of Kant 
was discussed in Scottish Xotes and Queries, 
First Series, i. 122, 143 ; ii. 30. 


118, Pall Mall. 

JOHN ECTON (10 th S. i. 327). The parish 
registers of St. Michael-in-the-Soke, Win- 
chester, record the baptisms of John, son of 
John Ecton, on 14 February, 1674, and of 
Bridgett, daughter of John Ecton, on 29 De- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10* s. in. FEB. 25, 1905. 

cember, 1676. The first of these entries 
relates presumably to the author of 'Liber 
Valorum et Decimarum.' H. C. 

' CARENTINILLA. " (10 th S. iii. 108). I am 
able now to add the price of this fabric, 
which may throw some light on the question 
of its nature. In 1312-13 and 1314-15 it 
cost 3d. an ell. Q. V. 


The Literature of the French Renaissance. By 
Arthur Tilley, M.A. 2 vols. (Cambridge, Uni- 
versity Press.) 

IF the study of the literature of the Renaissance 
is more interesting and stimulating in France than 
elsewhere, the reason may be found in the violent 
hostility provoked in that country by the Refor- 
mation and the consequent persecution to which 
the thinker was subject. Nothing correspond- 
ing was visible in the same degree elsewhere. 
At a time when the Parlement and the Sor- 
bonne were burning men such as Dolet at the 
stake, Rome was the safest place in which a 
freethinker could take shelter. In Spain the 
trumpet blast of Reformation awoke no echoes, 
the intellectual Hfe of the country having been 
stifled by a system of scientific and continuous 
persecution. In Germany the boldest innovators 
found influential protectors, while the victims of 
" bloody " Mary consisted rather of the humble 
and the pious than of the learned and the wise. 

In France meanwhile the strife between leaguer 
episodes. Before the opposing sides were definitely 
formed the leaders of revolt in France had a 
sufficiently hard time. Some were put to death ; 
others committed suicide ; others, again, betook 
themselves to exile. Rabelais even, the greatest 
of all, owed his safety to the protection of patrons 
such as the Du Bellays and to the special favour 
of Francis I. It is interesting and saddening to 
trace the fate of the separate members of that 
brilliant party that met at Liguge. In place, then, 
of pleasant discussions concerning the humanists, 
we have to study the actions of men between whom 
and death interposed little except the protection 
of the Court (itself not too secure) of Navarre. 

Upon the literary aspects of this thrilling epoch, 
and upon the writings of the principal poets, 
essayists, philosophers, satirists, moralists, &c., 
Mr. Tilley, the Lecturer at King's College, Cam- 
bridge, has written a comprehensive, serviceable, 
and erudite work, which the student may read 
with pleasure and will turn to with advantage. 
The circumstances under which the task was 
executed, and the sources of obligation, are stated 
in a preface, which the student will naturally con- 
sult. Beginning with the accession of Francis I., 
the work ends with Regnier and Malherbe, 
1555-1628, thus covering virtually a century. 
Early chapters are devoted to Francis and his 
Court ; to Humanism, the leading spirit in which 
is Bude, the friend of Erasmus, born in the same 
year, the reviver of Greek learning, founder of the 
College de France and the Bibliotheque du Roi ; 

and to the moulding of the language. It opens out 
with Clement Marot and his predecessor Cretin. Jean 
Marot, Coquillart, and Octavien (or, as Mr. Tilley 
prefers to call him, Octovien) de Saint-Gelais, the 
series of literary judgments which constitutes the 
most attractive portion of the work. 

The school of Marot occupies a separate chapter, 
after which we reach Margaret of Navarre, who 
supplies, perhaps, the best portion of the book. 
Rabelais, Montaigne, and the Pleiade are naturally 
the subjects of chapters, and there is in the second 
volume a short but useful summary of the Renais- 
sance theatre, drawn from the tragedies of Jodelle- 
and the comedies (virtually translations) of Pierre 
Larivey, with a separate reference to tragi-comedy, 
the earliest instance of which is advanced in the 
' Celestina ' of Fernando de Rojas, the longest of 
Spanish plays. In his ' Apology ' Sidney speaks of 
the "mungrell Tragy-comedie." We have closely 
studied a work which covers one of the most 
interesting epochs in the history of human thought, 
and have marked unavailingly scores of passages- 
for comment. Small opportunity for censure is 
afforded, though there are some pardonable 
academic strictures upon licences of speech, which 
in their own time were not regarded as such. In. 
the case of Rabelais, sufficient allowance is scarcely 
made for the fact that coarseness of speech was 
employed principally as a defensive measure, and 
was, like the guffaw of the clown, used to disguise 
or reduce to no importance the sagest and most 
pregnant utterances of the day. To Christie's great 
work on Dolet the best contribution in its way of 
any Englishman to French literature full justice 
is done. A very pleasant picture is afforded of 
Margaret of Navarre, whose attitude towards 
religion is said to have been very similar to that of 
the mass of English people at the beginning of the 
reign of Elizabeth. The work is excellent in all 
respects, and its contents are rendered generally 
accessible by a good index. Considering the large 
number of entries, a remarkable amount of space is 
devoted to the minor writers with whom the epoch 
swarms. We knowno other work, English or French, 
which gives within the same space so much service- 
able information. Most of the early French 
writers have been edited in the "Bibliotheque 
Elzevirienne" or in other forms. There are still 
some, however, to whom access is not easy. Mr. 
Tilley's work commends itself warmly to the- 

Early Scottish Charters prior to A.D. 1153. Col- 
lected, with Notes and an Index, by Sir Archibald 
C. Lawrie. (Glasgow, MacLehose & Sons.) 
THE early Scottish charters granted before the 
death of David, " the good king," popularly known 
as "the saint," are mostly accessible in the pub- 
lications of the Scottish printing clubs, Dugdale, 
and such institutions as the Surtees Society and 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Alone or 
in conjunction with the Maitland Club the Banna- 
tyne Club issued very many. Sir Archibald puts 
their number at 134. From various sources the 
present editor has collected no fewer than 271 
charters, some of them printed for the first 
time. On the value of these it is needless to- 
insist. They constitute the chief source of in- 
formation we possess concerning Scottish history 
before feudal customs were virtually established 
by David I. Beginning with ' The Book of Deer,' 
the discovery of which in I860) sent a thrill to the- 

m. FEB. 25, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


heart of Scottish antiquaries, they end with the 
charter to Brinkeburn, A.D. 1153, edited for the 
Surtees Society by Mr. Page, and attributed by 
him, presumably in error, to Malcolm, not William, 
de Gwarrenne. With one exception, the 'Notitire 
of Grants to the Church of Deer' are translated 
from the Gaelic, are Irish, and were written, 
according to Mr. Skene, in the early part of the 
reign of David I. The charters generally are in 
Latin, and are of varied interest. One of them is 
granted to the church of St. Serf by Macbeth and 
Gruoch, the King and Quen of Scots. Another is a 
letter of Alcuin to the monks of Candida Casa, in 
Wigtonshire, desiring their prayers, first printed 
in its entirety in Haddan and Stubbs ; one from 
Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, to King Alex- 
ander I. ; three letters from Pope Callixtus II., 
casting a lighten Scottish ecclesiastical history, &c. 
So well known to antiquaries and historians are 
these precious documents that it is needless to 
dwell upon them. They are now presented in a 
collected and comprehensive form, and are easily 
accessible to the student, who has had previously to 
hunt them out in works not always within reach. 
It is in the notes and illustrations, which form the 
larger portion of the volume, that the most im- 
portant contribution to scholarship is made. With 
the patient fidelity of a herald Sir Archibald has i 
followed down the track of these grants, showing 
which of them are avowedly spurious, hinting at | 
or proving the uncertainty of others, and supplying ' 
all obtainable information concerning the personages 
and institutions mentioned. In his opening note 
he describes the discovery of k The Book of Deer,' 
published in its entirety in 1869 by the Spalding 
Club, and points out the sanguine hopes of illu- ! 
mination derived from its appearance. Its value j 
and its interest in regard to Columcilla, otherwise , 
St. Columba, and St. Drostan are conceded. Doubt i 
is cast, however, as to whether, as Mr. Skene sup- 
posed, there was a Mormaer over each province of 
Northern Scotland. The general value of the j 
' Notitiie ' is said to have been exaggerated, and there 
is some question whether a monastery continued ] 
to exist at Deer from the time of St. Columba to ' 
the reign of David I. In addition to the mention ! 
of Lady Macbeth, we come on occasional references j 
to legend or romance. To the appropriation of the ! 
lands of the Cistercian Abbey of Deer were to be 
attributed by Keith Marischal the sorrows of his 
line, celebrated by Sydney Dobell and Rossetti. 
On p. 273 we come upon the Boy of Egremont and 
" What is good for a bootless bene?" though Sir 
Archibald thinks it probable that he was a 
brother, and not a son, of Alice de Romelie. 
Curious antiquarian references abound, such as the 
practice of Jaying on the altar a knife as a symbol 
of gift. We could derive from successive notes 
endless matter of interest. The book is a boon to 
scholarship such as Messrs. MacLehose have taught 
us to expect from their University Press. 

Samuel Butler's Hudibras. The Text edited by 

A. R. Waller. (Cambridge, University Press.) 
THE third volume of the admirable series of 
"Cambridge English Classics" differs from its 
two predecessors in being in verse, as well as 
in some editorial respects. It is printed from 
the edition of 1678, the first of all the three 
parts, the text of which it adopts, while in an 
appendix are supplied the variants between the 
accepted text and that of the early editions of 1662 

and 1664. The variants in question are not seldom 
significant. In the first) edition of the first part the 
opening line of canto i. reads 

When civil dudgeon first grew high 
a reading which we have always preferred 
instead of 

When civil fury first grew high. 

Considerable change has been made in the famous 1 
lines about Montaigne playing with his cat, and 
alterations of importance are of frequent occur- 
rence. It may not arbitrarily be decided which 
text is preferable. The later has at least the 
advantage of being the more ample, supplying 
many passages not to be found in the earlier. 
Among the lines which do not appear in the first 
edition, and are now given, is the famous distich. 
Compound for Sins, they are inclin'd to ; 
By damning those they have no mind to, 
perhaps the best known and the most frequently- 
quoted in the book. We ourselves first heard this- 
publicly quoted sixty years ago by a Quaker orator, 
who, however, for "damning" substituted the more 
innocent word "blaming." Butler's rimes are the 
most ingenious and flexible on record. They are 
not always such as would pass muster in the present 
century. Even the surprise rime in the secondi 
part of the second canto, 

And straight another with his Flambeaux, 
Gave Ralpho o'er the eyes a damn'd blow, 
ingenious as it is, is not quite satisfactory. In 
this, as in previous volumes, eccentricities of 
punctuation are left unaltered, Mr. Waller justly 
holding that the "'pointing' of those days is no 
more a stumbling-block than the spelling," and. 
asserting that it "gives to the general reader an 
added sense of nearness to the actual f jrm in which 
the author made his appearance." We shall be 
glad of a companion volume with Butler's other 

Popular Ballads of the Olden Time. Selected and 
edited by Frank Sidgwick. Second Series. 
(A. H. Bullen.) 

THE second telection of popular ballads issued by 
Mr. Sidgwick is in no way inferior to the first, and 
the augmenting series will prove an inestimable 
boon to those who do not possess the large and 
authoritative work edited by Mr. Chappell and Mr. 
Ebsworth for the Ballad Society, or the admirable 
collection of Prof. Francis James Child. We have 
already spoken in high praise of the first series, the 
name of Mr. Bullen on the title-page and his share 
in the publication furnishing a guarantee for purity 
and authenticity of text. These things are more 
important than might be supposed, since modern 
squeamishness is threatening to deluge our shelves 
with works from which the scholar cannot confi- 
dently quote. There seems a danger, indeed, that, in 
spite of Macaulay's protest, duly quoted amidst 
the preliminary matter, " Rifadmenti, harmonies, 
abridgments, expurgated editions," may become 
pur ordinary fare. Works such as this are, accord- 
ingly, to be prized and cherished. Something over 
fifty ballads are included in the present volume. 
They are described as 'Ballads of Mystery and 
Miracle and Fyttes of Mirth.' The selection is 
admirably made and edited. It begins with ' Thomas 
Rymer,' from the lost TytlerrBrown MS. Follow- 
ing this come ' Cospatrick,' 'Clerk Colven,' 'Tarn 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io B. 111. FEB. 25, IMS. 

Lin,' ' The Wife of Usher's Well,' ' Clerk Sanders,' 
' The Three Ravens ' (which we are disposed to 
place at the very top of ballad literature), 'Fair 
Helen of Kirconnell, and innumerable others, in- 
cluding 'The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington' and 
'"King John and the Abbot.' Indexes of titles and 
first lines add to the value of a scholarly and trust- 
worthy compilation which appeals strongly to the 
Jovers of poetry. The ' Fyttes of Mirth ' are 
-specially attractive. 

The Table Talk and Omniana of Coleridge. Arranged 

and edited by T. Ashe, B.A. (Bell & Sons.) 
.No pleasanter addition could be made to the 
attractive " York Library" thati this work of Cole- 
ridge, which is stuffed full of matter. Herein are 
many of his most pregnant utterances, such as that 
Swift was " anima Rabelaisii habitans in siccp." 
There are few books to which one can turn with 
more certainty of reward. The man would be "not 
unwise," to use Milton's words, who dipped into it 
frequently, even daily. In its present shape it can 
be so dipped into with comfort as well as advantage. 

The Edinburgh for January opens with a review 
of so much of the second volume of ' The Cambridge 
Modern History ' as relates to the Reformation in 
.England. It is written by one of competent knovy- 
ledge, and we trace in it an earnest desire to avoid 
partisanship which has been almost always success- 
ful, though we think we have discovered a few 
mistakes as to facts. It is not evident, for 
example, that what are now called the Home 
Counties had at first accepted the ideals of the 
continental reformers to the extent with which 
they are credited. There were more persons burnt 
at the stake for heresy near London than in many 
districts further removed from the centre of govern- 
ment ; but this is no index to the number of people 
who shared the convictions of those who suffered. 
Aubrey de Vere is sympathetically treated by one 
well able to appreciate his verse, which has never 
been popular with the multitude, though his brother 
poets valued it highly. His love of nature, espe- 
cially in its simpler and milder forms, is his most 
valuable characteristic. This has been attributed 
to his early friendship with Wordsworth, but was 
evidently inborn. The paper on Bishop Creighton 
does justice to one who, as an historian, has hardly 
been estimated at his true value. The fact that he 
did not take a side, but endeavoured to present 
things as they were, not as they ought to have 
been, has led niany to conclude, most unjustly, 
that he was indifferent to subjects whereon he had, 
>in truth, strong convictions. We know of no modern 
English writer who has possessed more fully the 
>rare gift of fairness when judging those persons 
whose stupidity, not to dwell on their crimes, must 
have been most repugnant to his own temperament. 
'Sweden' is a paper the production of a writer 
who knows the country well, uot only as it exists 
for the modern tourist, but also as it was in the 
remote past. Whether it be true that the Swedes 
of to-day are the fullest representatives of the 
Teutonic stock we are neither prepared to affirm 
nor deny. They have the physical characteristics 
of the Old Germans in a marked degree, and their 
intellectual gifts tell in the same direction. In 
early times, however, there must have been no little 
admixture of Lapland blood, and it would be 
strange if the Mongolian strain were altogether 
-absent. ' Homer and his Commentators ' is in 

great part a review of M. Victor Berard's 'Les 
Pheniciens et 1'Odyssee,' a work which will greatly 
modify, if indeed it does not revolutionize, the old 
fashioned Homeric scholarship. Manila is not a 
place from which we should look for important 
contributions to scientific literature. Nevertheless 
the Rev. Jose Algue, a Jesuit priest stationed 
there, has found means of issuing in that far-away 
station a book on cyclones, which cannot but be of 
great importance to the merchant-navies of the 
world. The work seems but little known as yet, 
though it has reached a second edition. Whether 
M. Algue's conclusions are, on the whole, satis- 
factory, it must be left to future experience to 
demonstrate. There are, however, reasons for 
accepting them, at least provisionally, as they are 
based on long-continued and careful observation. 

THE ' Select Documents illustrative of the His- 
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Wickham Legg has edited, will be published in. 
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JOWKTT'S translation of Aristotle's 'Polities' is 
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also translated by Jowett, Dean Wickham's ' Horace 
for English Readers,' and Mr. Tozer's translation 
of the ' Divine Comedy.' Mr. H. W. C. Davis con- 
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10*8. III. MARCH 4, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 62. 

NOTES : Mrs. Thrale and Johnson's 'In Theatre,' 11 
J3enson Earle Hill, 162-The Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly 
163 Queen Anne as Amateur Actress, 16-4 Congreve' 
Birthplace " L'gly rush " Quarfcerstaves The Fitz 
williams The late Dr. H. H. .Drake- Contempt for th 
Law in a Will, 165. 

QUEKIBS: "Perit" Irritability of Character, 166 
" Bottleman "Moscow Campaign Turing : Baunerman 
Translations of Domesday Kipley Persehouse : Sabin 
Sir James Cotter, 167 De Morgan : Tuberville Compte 
Prison Lucas Families Spur-post Abbey of St. Vale'ry 
sitr-Somme "Pompelmous" " Dinkums " Bidding 
Prayer Sibilla de Gournay Hertfordshire Iconoclast 
Sir Alexander Grant's Will Samuel Butler, 1*53 Song 
Wanted" Call a spade a spade " ' The Lady's Museum ' 
Modern London,' 1804 Millar's ' Geography ' Wooder 
Fonts, 169. 

REPLIES: "The gentle Shakespeare," 169 "Walkyn 
Silver," 170 "And has it come to this?" Authors o 
Quotations Wanted Halls of the City Companies, 171 
'Steer to the Nor'-Nor'- West 'Molly Lepel's Descent 
St. Sepulchre, 172 Birth-MarksGeorge Villiers, Duke o 
Buckingham Blood used in Building : Sugar in Mortar 
173 Cataloguing Seventeenth-Century Tracts Cope o 
Bramshill Q icen's Surname, 174 Gold r. Silver Patent 
Medicines Clocks stopped at Death Clergyman as City 
Councillor Saxton Family, 175 Luther Family Sir 
El win Arnold" When our old Catholic fathers lived " 
" Ob ! the pilgrims of Zion " ' Rebecca,' a Novel, 176. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' Hakluytus Posthumus' Kanke's 
' History of the Keformati m ' ' Heralds' College and 
Coats of Arms ' ' Remarkable Comets' 'Browning 
Calendar' ' Quarterly Review ' ' English Historica 

Bookse'ltrs" Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 




A THRALE - BOSWELL item has recently 
come into the possession of a local collector, 
a description of which may be of interest to 

It consists of a card, about 4 inches by 
31 inches, on the face of which is written 
apparently in Mrs. Thrale's hand a copy of 
the Latin verses ' In Theatro,' composed by 
Dr. Johnson while attending an oratorio at 
Covent Garden Theatre with Mrs. Thrale in 

On the reverse is an English paraphrase of 
the verses unmistakablj 7 in Mrs. Thrale's 
handwriting made by her at Dr. Johnson's 
request : 

" When we were got home, however, he repeated 
these verses, which he said he had made at the 

oratorio, and he bid me translate them 1 gave 

him the following lines in imitation, which he liked 
well enough, I think." ' Anecdotes of the late 
Samuel Johnson,' Piozzi, London, 1786, 72-4. 

Above the Latin verses is written in Bos- 
well's handwriting, "By Samuel Johnson, 
LL.D." ; above the English verses [translated] 
"By Mrs. Thrale," and below them, ''Mrs. 
Thrale gave me this, 1775, James Bos well." 

In the manuscript the Latin verses appear 
exactly as published by Mrs. Piozzi in the 
'Anecdotes,' and as reproduced by Dr. George 
Birkbeck Hill in his 'Johnsonian Miscellanies ' 
N.Y., 1897, i. 19C-8. In the English para- 
phrase, however, there are variations in 
three out of the four verses which may make 
a comparison of them of some interest. 

The manuscript verses are as follow : 

When sixty years have chang'd thee quite, 

Still can theatric Scenes delight ? 

Ill suits this Place with learned Wight 

May Belts or Coulson cry. 
The Scholars pride can Brent disarm ? 
His heart can soft Guadagni warm ? 
Or Scenes with sweet delusion charm 

The Climacteric Eye ? 
The social Club, or lonely Towr, 
Far better suit thy Midnight Hour. 
Let each according to his Powr 

In Worth or Wisdom shine ! 
And while Play pleases idle Boys, 
And wanton Mirth fond Youth employs, 
To fix the Mind and free from Toys 

That useful Task be thine ! 

The verses as published by Mrs. Piozzi read : 
When threescore years have chill'd thee quite, 
Still can theatric scenes delight ? 
Ill suits this place with learned wight, 

May Bates or Coulson cry. 
The scholars pride can Brent disarm ? 
His heart can soft Guadagni warm ? 
Or scenes with sweet delusion charm 

The climacteric eye ? 
The social club, the lonely tower, 
Far better suit thy midnight hour ; 
Let each according to his power 

In worth or wisdom shine. 
And while play pleases idle boys, 
And wanton mirth fond youtji employs, 
To fix the soul, and free from toys, 

That useful task be thine. 

Dr. Hill identifies (Charlotte) Brent and 
jfuadagni with well-known singers of the 
period. Of the other persons named in the 
verses he writes : 

" Bates was perhaps Joah Bates, a musician, in 
vhose orchestra Herschel, the astronomer, played 
irst violin. See 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' under 'Bates.' 

do not know who Coulson was. It is possible 
hat he was Johnson's friend, the Rev. John 
Joulson, Fellow of University College, Oxford 
'Letters,' i. 323), and that Bates was another 

It hardly seems probable that a pro- 
essional musician would have considered 
hat a theatre at the time of a performance 
f an oratorio was a place ill-suited to a 
'learned wight." But accepting the name 
s Betts, as written by Mrs. Thrale, and 
following out Dr. Hill's alternative that 
Bates was another scholar of University 
College, the present writer ventures to sug- 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [lo* s. m. MARCH *, 1905. 

gest a possible identity with Joseph Betts, 
matriculated at University College in 1736, 
B.A. 1740, M.A. 1743, and Savilian Professor 
of Geometry 1765-6. He was a contemporary 
of the Eev. John Coulson, M.A., University 
College, 1746, whom Johnson visited at times, 
and with whom he stayed in University 
College in June, 1775 ('Letters of Samuel 
Johnson,' Hill, Oxford, 1892, i. 323). 

In 1764, when writing to William Strahan 
regarding the entering of George Strahan as 
a Commoner of University College, Johnson 
says, "The College is almost filled with my 
friends, and he will be well treated " (' Let- 
ters,' i. 113). 

Betts died in 1766, however, which makes 
it a rather far cry to 1771, when the verses 
were written. Some allowance may be made 
for Mrs. Thrale's poetical licence or her in- 
accuracy, and since Johnson's acquaintance 
with the Thrales began before the date of 
Betts's death, it is not impossible that he 
may himself have mentioned the two names 
in conjunction to Mrs. Thrale. At a later 
period he mentioned Coulson a number of 
times when writing to Mrs. Thrale from 
Oxford. E. P. MEERITT. 

Boston, U.S. 


A PASSAGE of some interest in one of the 
works of this writer induced me a few weeks 
since to inquire into the details of his career ; 
and after some difficulty I constructed the 
following notice. 

Benson Earle Hill was born at Bristol, in 
or about the year 1795, and was educated at 
the establishment of Dr. Watson on Shooter's 
Hill, and at the military colleges of Marlow 
and Woolwich. On 20 March, 1809, he was 
appointed second lieutenant in the Royal 
Regiment of Artillery (London Gazette, 1809, 
pt. i. 375), and was ordered to Ireland in 
1810. His promotion to the rank of first 
lieutenant was dated 17 March, 1812 (ib. t 1812, 
pt. i. 854). 

Hill was appointed in the following June 
" to a company in the Kent district " ; and in 
1814 he was sent with his regiment, under 
the command of Sir Edward Pakenham, to 
New Orleans, landing again in England on 
30 May, 1815. His regiment was stationed 
at Ostend from 6 to 26 June, when it 
marched to Brussels. On 11 July it was 
at Mons, under Sir Alexander Dickson, and 
was engaged afterwards in reducing the 
frontier towns of Belgium and France. In 
the middle of September he returned to 
Brussels on leave to witness the inauguration 
of the King of the Netherlands. He saw at 

the end of that month the Emperor Alex- 
ander pass through Mons, and on 9 October 
he was presented, as being on the staff of 
Sir Alexander Dickson, to the King of Prussia, 
at Maubeuge. 

The following winter Hill was quartered 
in various towns near the frontiers, and in 
April, 1816, he obtained leave, owing to the 
death of a near relative, to return from 
Valenciennes to England. From July, 1816, 
to February, 1819, he was housed in the camp 
at Shorncliffe or at Archcliffe Fort, Dover, 
where his sister Isabel joined him. From the 
latter date until he retired from the army on 
half-pay (801. a year) in July, 1822, he was 
with his regiment at Woolwich, living with 
his sister in a cottage in Nightingale Vale. 
During this period he made constant expe- 
ditions to London to see his friends on the 
stage or to join in amateur theatricals, and 
it was while living at Woolwich that he 
entertained Charles Mathews the elder in 
the manner described by Mrs. Mathews 
('Memoirs of C. Mathews,' second edition, 
1839, iii. 126-42). The brother in the summer 
of 1822 went touring about the kingdom with 
Trotter's company. He visited, among other 
places, Worthing, Cheltenham, and Windsor, 
where he met Edmund Kean. In 1825 he 
was in Scotland, in 1827 in Ireland, but his 
theatrical career was not a success, and their 
resources were diminishing. Brother and 
sister were together in London from Janu- 
ary, 1828, to September, 1841, when she 
went to Richmond for her health. He is 
said to have assisted Theodore Hook in the 
editorship of The New Monthly Magazine for 
a short time ; but by 1841 they were in the 
depths of poverty, and Miss Helen Faucit 
was among those who aided them in their 
distress. Isabel, who was born at Bristol, 
21 August, 1800, died, after struggling against 
consumption for several years, in January 
or February, 1842, and was buried at Old 
Brompton Cemetery. 

A gleam of sunshine came when Hill suc- 
ceeded in December, 1841, to the post of 
editor of The Monthly Magazine, but it soon 
died away. The number for July, 1842, was 
the last which he supervised, and at very 
short notice F. G. T. (Tomlins) took his place. 
His "last employment was at the free list of 
the Lyceum Theatre." He caught a severe 
cold, which resulted in consumption ; and his 
death "in London at an obscure abode, in 
penury and distress," is recorded in The Gen- 
tleman's Magazine for November, 1845, p. 543, 

The works of his composition which are 
entered under his name in the British Museum 
Catalogue are : 

10* 8. HI. MARCH 4, 1905.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1. Recollections of an Artillery Officer : Adven- 
tures in Ireland, America, Flanders, and France. 
1836. 2 vols. 

2. Home Service ; or. Scenes and Characters from 
Life at Out and Head Quarters. 1839. 2 vols. 

3. Playing About ; or, Theatrical Anecdotes and 
Adventures. 1840. 2 vols. 

4. A Pinch of Snuff: Curious Particulars and 
Anecdotes of Snufftaking, by Dean Snift, of Brazen- 
Nose. 1840. 

5. The Epicure's Almanac, or Diary of Good 
Living. 1841. Continued for 1842 and 1843, the 
latter volume being in great part a reissue of its 
predecessor. Hill "was born in a city renowned 
for good eating," and makes many references to 
dishes popular in the Western Counties. He well 
remembered " in his youth seeing the antique domi- 
cile" of Mrs. Sarah Lunn, near the Abbey at Bath. 
Another paragraph refers to what he had heard in 
Sicily. These volumes are still worth turning over. 


THE fiat has gone forth, and in a short 
time this popular place of amusement -will 
have ceased to exist. In The Daily Telegraph 
of Saturday, 21 January, Mr. Maskelyne's 
advertisement reads : 

"Egyptian Hall. Last two Performances at this 
world-famed hall previous to its demolition. Estab- 
lished 31 years. Lessee. Mr. J. N. Maskelyne. 
Mr. Martin Chapender's Season. To-day, at 3 and 8, 
Mr. Nelson Jackson, the brilliant humourist : Mr. 
Walter Graham, the human marionette ; Miss 
Eileen Elyce, elocutionist ; Gems of animated 
photography ; Mr. Maskelyne's latest illusion, 

* Well I 'm ! ! ' ' The Miser ' (a phantasy) ; 

and Mr. Martin Chapender, the celebrated con- 

When the doors closed after the evening 
entertainment, the last of the Egyptian Hall 
as a place of absolutely irreproachable amuse- 
ment had been seen ; and The Daily Telegraph 
of the following Monday contained this 
announcement : 

" The Egyptian Hall is closed for demolition. 
Mr. Maskelyne has Removed to his New Home of 
Mystery, St. George's Hall, \V. (adjoining the 
Queen's Hall)." 

It is well to be able to fix definitely the date 
of closing, as after a very short time it is 
frequently difficult to do so. 

The Egyptian Hall is numbered 170, Picca- 
dilly, and dates from 1812, when it was built 
from the designs of Mr. G. F. Robinson, its 
cost being 16,000?. It is said to be, in part 
at least, an imitation of the great temple oi 
Dendera, in Upper Egypt. The first tenant 
was Mr. Bullock, who exhibited here for 
seven years his celebrated museum, which