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No. 132. 

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io s. vi. JULY 7, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. No. 132. 

INOTES Shaw's ' Knights of England,' 1 Magdalen 
College School and the 'D.N.B.,' 2 - Inscriptions at 
Milan 4" Martingale ": its Etymology Virgil, ^Eneul, 
I 462 5-" Albion "Hotel, Aldersgate Street-Sir Thomas 
More sainted by a Bask in 1666 T Lieut.-General Henry 
Hawley, 6 "Tony Lumpkin "Kipling Family, 7. 

QUERIES : Pledge in a Bumper, 7 " Plew " Queen 

Anna Maria of Spain -Royal Arms of Spam-Quince 
Family John Earle of St. Kitts Commonwealth Mar- 
riages Gatton Inscription - Stoughton Bottles, 8- 
Nathan Rothschild and Waterloo Knights of the Round 
Table Caspar Boninus Acts xxix. : Lost Chapter 
John Hoy 'New York Times': 'Christian Union 
"Dio-nity of Man " Cockroaches to destroy Vermin 
Horse-shoeing in the Sixteenth Century Sea-Urchin 
Burial-Grounds and Cathedrals : their Consecration, 9. 

REPLIES .-Snakes in South Africa, 10 Maynards of 
Curriglas, 11 Christina, Queen of Sweden Vowels on 
Monuments Flags " Duma," 12 Lombard Street, No. 1 
Medical Coroner Henry Alvarez, S.J. : Henry Alway 
Doncaster Weather-Rime Irun, Spain Tom Thumbs 
First Appearance in London, 13 Seddon Family 
" E^oteles" " Roan" : its Etymology Sir John Fastolf, 
14 "Gula Augusti" Barnes: Origin of the Name 
" Mininin," a Shell, 15 Authors of Quotations Wanted 
Macaulay on the Thames Robin Hood in French 
' Aryan Sun-Myths 'References Wanted, 16. 

INOTES ON BOOKS : The Manors of Suffolk ' ' Aylwin ' 
' Burlington ' ' Magazine of Fine Arts 'Reviews and 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


DR. W. A. SHAW'S recently published 
volumes on ' The Knights of England ' fill 
a gap, and will be of great service to anti- 
quaries. There are, however, undoubted 
omissions in the earlier reigns ; and I venture 
to suggest that if readers would send to 
* N. & Q.' the names of knights omitted in 
Dr. Shaw's work, with the authorities for 
their having been knighted, it would be 
helpful to students. 

I send a list of some knights who fought 
at the battle of Shrewsbury, 21 July, 1403, 
or who are named in records connected with 
the battle or with combatants. 

The following nine men were knighted 
by Henry IV. on 21 July, 1403, shortly 
before the battle. The first eight named 
were slain in the battle. The ninth was 
murdered by his servant on the battle- 
iield, after the fight was over. (So the 
' Annales Ric. II. et Hen. IV.' and Otter- 
bourne's ' Chronica Regum Anglise,' both 
nearly contemporary.) 

Hugh Scherle (Shirley). 

John Clifton. 

John Kokayn (really Edmund Cockayne). 

Nicholas Ganvile (Goushill). 

Walter Blount, standard-bearer. 

John Calverley (Calveley). 

John Massey of Podyngone (Podington). 
Inq. p.m.) 

Hugh Mortimer. (Claus. 4 Hen. IV.) 

R. Gousile (Robert Goushill). (Inq. p.m.) 

The two following were taken prisoners, 
and beheaded at Shrewsbury on 23 July, 
1403 (' Annales ') : 

Richard Vernon, of Shipbrook. (Inq. 

Richard Venables, Baron of Kinderton. 
(Inq. p.m.) 

Hugh Browne is also styled " Sir " in the 
' Annales ' ; but he may be the same person 
as Hugh Browe, who fought on Hotspur's 
side. (Inq. p.m.) 

The following twenty-three knights are 
styled " chivaler " in the Patent Rolls of 
1 to 11 Hen. IV. and 4 and 5 Hen. IV., or 
in the Close Rolls of 4 and 5 Hen. IV. They 
were presumably knighted before 21 July, 

Robert de Hilton. 

Gerard Salveyn. 

John Pudesay (Pudsay). 

John Colvile de Dale. 

William de Wilughby. 

Gilbert Halshall (Halsall). 

John de Pull (or Pulle). (Pardon.) 

William de Stanley. (Pardon.) 

John Massey, of Tatton. (Inq. p.m.) 

Hugh Crowe. 

Robert de Legh. 

William de Legh. (Inq. p.m.) 

Richard de Wenyngton. 

Thomas Grosvenor. 

Thomas Nevyll. 

William Clyfford. 

Peter de Dutton. (Pardon.) 

Laurence Fyton. (Pardon.) 

William Beauchamp, of Powyk. 

Nicholas Hauberk. 

Ralph Percy. 

Richard Vernon. 

John Calveley. 

The following are styled knights in various 
chronicles and records, or in Visitations, 
monuments, &c. : 

Nicholas (or John) Burdon, of co. Notts. 

Nicholas Langford. 

Reginald Mottershead. 

Hugh Stanley. 

Jenkyn Hanmer, of Hanmer. 

Arthur Davenport, of Calveley. (Inq. 

Robert Malveysin, of Malveysin Ridware. 


Thomas Wendesley, of Wendesley. (M.I.) 

William Handsacre, of Handsacre. 

Richard Hussey, of Albright Hussey. 

In vol. ii. p. 11, it is stated that Richard 
de Sandford was knighted on the morrow 
of the battle of Shrewsbury. This is im- 
possible, as he was slain in the battle. I 
am doubtful if he could have been knighted, 
as his name is not given in the ' Annales ' 
or in Otterbourne ; nor is he styled knight 
in the inscription in the stained-glass window 
formerly in Battlefield Church, where he 
was depicted kneeling in armour, with a 
surcoat emblazoned with his arms, and the 
inscription " Sanctus Cedda, ora pro anima 
Ricardi Sonford." 

For the same reason, whether Richard 
Hussey, the last named above, was knighted 
is doubtful. In Battlefield Church was a 
similar figure, with the inscription, " Sanctus 
Joh'es Bapt' ora pro anima Ricardi Husee." 
Should we not expect to find " domini " or 
" militis " appended to their names, had 
they been knighted ? 

The various Patent and Close Rolls, &c., 
which record the names of these knights 
at the time of the battle of Shrewsbury, 
will be found abstracted in several recent 
volumes of the Transactions of the Shrop- 
shire Archaeological Society. 


Oxon Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 

THE 'D.N.B.' 

(See 10 S. iv. 21, 101, 182, 244, 364 ; v. 22, 
122, 284, 362.) 

THE following notes cover the names from 
D to Harmar. 

D'Avenant, Sir Will) am (1606-68), poet 
and dramatist. Son. of John D'Avenant, 
vintner and proprietor of the " Crown " 
Tavern, and Mayor of Oxford at his death 
in 1621 ; educated under Edward Sylvester ; 
the " Sweet Swan of Isis " and putative 
godson of William Shakespeare ; employed 
by the King in the Civil War ; Poet Laureate ; 
opened Drury Lane Theatre 1658, and at Re- 
storation established the " Duke's Theatrical 
Company." What was the precise position 
of Edward Sylvester ? Do Wood's words, 
quoted under Cheynell at the last reference, 
imply, perhaps, that Sylvester sent on boys 
from his private school to M.C.S., or that 
he was an assistant master at the latter 
school ? Other pupils of his were William 
Eawes, President of Trinity College, Oxon 
(b. 1624) ; John Owen, Dean of Ch. C'h. 

(b. 1616) ; Charles Wheare (with D'Avenant) r 
son of Degory Wheare, first Camden Pro- 
fessor of History ; John Wilkins, Bishoi> 
of Chester (b. 1614); Henry Wilkinson,. 
Principal of Magdalen Hall (b. 1616) ; and 
Thomas Willis, the physician (b. 1621). 

Dobson, John (1633-81), Puritan divine, 
Chorister in 1654, which * D.N.B.' omits- 
to mention ; expelled from Fellowship for 
writing a libel in vindication of Dr. Thos. 
Pierce (1663;, but soon restored ; held various- 
clerical preferments. 

Drope, Francis, (1629 ?-71), arboricul- 
turist. Choiister in 1641 (omitted in 
' D.N.B.'), as also in 1602 was his father,, 
the Rev. Thomas D., vicar of Cumnor ;. 
Demy 1645, but ejected in 1648, having 
probably, like his brother John (Demy 
.1642), borne arms for the King in garrison 
of Oxford ; Fellow after Restoration. Others 
of the name, in the earlier generation, also 
choristers one of whom, Edward, while- 
Fellow, was perhaps tutor to Sir Robert 
Howard, the dramatist. 

Earwaker, John Parsons (1847-95), anti- 
quary. Assistant master under Dr. R H 
Hill at M.C.S. 

Ellerton, Edward (1770-1851), founder of 
scholarships. Usher 1795, Master of M.C.S, 
1798-1810 (succeeding W. R. Cobbold, and 
being followed by Henry Jenkins) ; Fellow ; 
founded Ellerton Theological Essay Prize[ 
1825, and exhibitions at Magdalen (one for 
choristers) and Richmond School ; joint- 
founder of Pusey and Ellerton Scholarships,. 
1832 ; wrote against Tractarianism ; v. G. V. 
Cox's ' Recollections,' 218 ; his portrait by 
unknown artist at M.C.S. 

Featley or Fairclough, Daniel (1582-1645),. 
controversialist. Second son of John Fair- 
clough (cook to Dr. Humphrey, President of 
Magd., and afterwards to C.C.C.) ; chorister 
of Magd. ; Scholar and Probationer-Fellow 
of C.C.C. ; first of family to adopt vulgarized 
spelling of surname ; chaplain to Archbp.. 
Abbot ; rector of Lambeth ; Provost of 
Chelsea Coll. ; member of Westminster 
Assembly ; narrowly escaped murder, 1642- 
1643, as adherent of Church of England ; 
imprisoned for eighteen months, when he 
wrote ' The Dippers Dipt ' against the 
Anabaptists. His nephew Henry a chorister, 
as also Daniel in 1660 both in holy orders' 
The name spelt " Faircloath " in Minute 
Books of Dorset Standing Committee, 1646- 
1650 (ed. C. H. Mayo), 209. 

Ferebe, or Feribye, or Ferrabee, George 
(b. 1572 ?-fl. 1613), composer. Chorister 
1589 ; entertained Ann, Queen-Consort, with 
a four-part song set to wind-instrument 

10 s. vi. JULY 7, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

music, 1613, and made chaplain to the King. 

John Ferebe, probably his brother, chorister 

in 1591, suffered much in Civil War, being 
rector of Woodchester, co. Gloster. 

Field, Richard (1561-1616), Dean of 
Gloucester. Leaving Berkhampstead School 
he matriculated at Magdalen, aged sixteen, 
probably as a " poor scholar " ; chaplain in 
ordinary to Elizabeth and James ; Pre- 
bendary of Windsor ; friend of Hooker ; 
wrote '^Of the Church, Five Bookes.' 

Ford, James (b. 1752), Minor Canon of 
Durham, and afterwards of Canterbury. 
Chorister 1765 ; father of antiquary of same 
names (q.v. in 'D.N.B.'). 

Forman, Simon ( 1 552-1 611), astrologer and 
quack doctor. In May, 1573, he " made his 
way to Oxford with a friend, Thomas Ridear 
of C.C.C. He entered Magd. Coll. as a " poor 
scholar," and studied at the School attached 
to the College ; obtained a large, disreput- 
able practice, chiefly among Court ladies ; 
frequently imprisoned, his philtres referred 
to in Ben Jonson's ' Epicene ' ; among his 
MSS. which came into Ashmole's possession 
was ' The Booke of Plaies,' with earliest 
accounts of performances of ' Macbeth ' 
(1610), 'Winter's Tale' (1611), and ' Cym- 

Foxe, John (1516-87), martyrologist. 
Sent by friends to Oxford, aged sixteen, " he 
must undoubtedly have attended M.C.S." ; 
Fellow : " about 1564, when one West 
(formerly of Magdalen) was charged in the 
Court of High Commission with making 
rebellious speeches, Foxe used his influence 
procure the offender's pardon, on the sole 
ound that he had belonged to the same 
hool and college at Oxford as himself " ; 
.tor successively to Sir Thomas Lucy of 
larlecote (whom some identify with Shake- 
peare's " Justice Shallow "), and to children 
jf Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey ; attended 
former pupil, the Duke of Norfolk, at his 
execution, 1572 ; four editions of the ' Actes 
and Monuments ' popularly known as ' The 
Book of Martyrs ' appeared in author's 
lifetime, the first in 1563. 

Foxe, Samuel (1560-1630), diarist. - 
Eldest son of the martyrologist ; from 
Merchant Taylors' School became Demy, 
aged thirteen ; his father, writing to the 
President (Humphrey), tells him he had sent 
his little Foxe to him, that he might become 
an academic ; in 1576, " his stature for his 
years being somewhat large," he left for 
France without permission of his tutors or 
knowledge of his father ; readmitted to 
College, having acquired a fondness for dress, 
which displeased "his father ; Fellow, but 

deprived ; visited Leipzig, Padua, and. 
Basle, 1581-5 ; restored to Fellowship ;:. 
M.P. Oxon University 1590 ; his diary- 
appended to Strype's ' Annals.' His son 
Thomas, M.D. (1591-1652), matriculated 
Magd. 1607 ; Demy next year ; Fellow, 
Bursar, and Proctor ; a letter extant of his 
describing to his father Ben Jonson's recep- 
tion at Oxford. 

Fulman, William (1632-88), antiquary. 
Fellow of C.C.C. ; published ' Academise 
Oxoniensis Notitia,' 1665 ; absurdly sup- 
posed to have written ' The Whole Duty of 

Gabell, Timothy (b. 1737), Minor Canon 
of Winchester. Chorister 1748 ; father of 
Henry D. G., Head Master of Winchester 
Coll. (q.v. in 'D.N.B.'). 

Garbrand, Thomas (b. 1539), chorister and 
Fellow; Garbrand, William (b. 1549),. 
Demy. Both Fellows, sons of Herks Gar- 
brand, a Dutch Protestant who, fleeing 
from religious persecution, settled as a book- 
seller at Bulkeley Hall, in St. Mary's parish 
Oxford. In next generation Tobias Gar- 
brand (1579-1638), Demy and Fellow, vicar 
of Findon, Sussex. See under John Gar- 
brand in ' D.N.B.' 

Gilchrist, Octavius Graham (1779-1823), 
antiquary. Chorister 1787 ; edited poems 
of Bishop Richard Corbet ; an authority 
upon dramatic literature. His brother 
Alfred a chorister in 1791. 

Giles, Nathaniel (d. 1634), composer. 
Choiister 1559 ; organist of St. George's,. 
Windsor ; master of children of the Chapel 
Royal, Mus. Doc. Oxon. 

Grayle or Graile, John (b. 1648), rector of 
Blickling, Norfolk, and writer. At M.C.S.. 
under Thomas Smith (q.v. in 'D.N.B.'); 
named after his father, a Puritan (q.v. also). 

Green, John Richard (1837-83), historian. 

A native of Oxford ; at M.C.S. from age- 

of eight to fourteen, when he had reached 

the head of the School ; a few months before, 

in an essay on Charles I., had incurred the 

displeasure of his teachers by coming to his 

own conclusion that Charles was in the wrong ; 

worked in London as a parish priest ; 

librarian at Lambeth ; author of ' Short 

! History of the English People,' &c. ; sug- 

i gested Oxford Historical Society and Eng- 

\ lish Historical Review. 

Greenhill, William (1591-1671), Noncon- 
formist divine. Perhaps identical with the 
Greenhill, chorister 1604-13 ; Demy 1605 ; 
member of Westminster Assembly ; Par- 
liamentarian Chaplain to royal children ; a 
" Trier." Thomas G., probably his brother 
(1603-34), chorister in 1613. A relative,. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 7, 

Nicholas G., (1582-1650), Demy, Prebendary 
of Lincoln, &c. An earlier Nicholas Green- 
hill third master of Rugby School (1581- 
1604) ; v. W. H. D. Rouse's ' History of 
Rugby School,' p. 42. 

Grey, Thomas, second Marquess of Dorset 
(1477-1530). At M.C.S. under Wolsey with 
two of his brothers ; K.G .; commanded 
unsuccessful expedition for recovery of 
Guienne 1512 ; Warden of Scottish Marches ; 
witness against Queen Catherine and signer 
of articles against Wolsey ; pensioner of 
Empeior and Most Christian King ; grand- 
son of Queen Elizabeth Woodville, and grand- 
father of Lady Jane Grey. The William 
Grey who, dying in 1605, aged thirteen, was 
buried in the College Chapel was the younger 
son of Arthur, fourteenth Lord Grey de 
Wilton (q.v. in 'D.N.B.'). 

Hammond, Henry (1605-60), divine. 
Prom Eton entered Magdalen when thirteen ; 
Demy 1619 ; Fellow ; Archdeacon of Chi- 
chester ; compiled ' Practical Catechism ' ; 
Canon of Ch. Ch. and Public Orator ; Chaplain 
to Charles I. ; " his face carried dignity and 
attraction in it, and was scarce ever clouded 
with a frown or so much as darkened by 
reservedness " (Gadbury) ; a portrait in the 
-College Hall. 

Hansell, Peter (1764-1841). Chorister 
1777 ; Minor Canon and Precentor of 
Norwich ; father of Edward H. H. (q.v. in 
'D.N.B.'). A grandson, Thos. Wm. H., 
chorister in 1849, aged ten. 

Harley, John (d. 1558), Bishop of Hereford. 
Master of M.C.S. 1542-8, succeeding 
Godall ; chaplain to John Dudley, Lord 
Warwick, and to Edward VI. ; deprived of 
his bishopric in March, 1554, for his Pro- 
testantism ; v. Wilson, 85, 96. 

Harmar or Harmer, John (1594 ?-1670), 
Professor of Greek at Oxford. Demy ; 
Usher of M.C.S. 1617, being succeeded in 
1626 (upon his appointment to Mastership 
of Free School at St. Albans) by John 
Langton, sometime chorister : while he was 
^,t St. Albans the school was visited by the 
King ; while professor, " in September, 
1659, he appears to have been one of the 
victims of a practical joke ; a mock Patriarch 
visited the University, and he delivered a 
olemn Greek oration before him " ; lost 
his emoluments at Restoration. 

I thank H. C. for his courteous caveat 
(10 S. v. 285), and, if ever these notes are 
Tevised, will expunge the statement regarding 
the apparently apocryphal use by Winchester 
College, in ancient times, of a coat containing 

I was well aware that the Revs. H. C. 
Adams and W. J. Sawell were sometime 
Master and Usher respectively of M.C.S., 
and have already thanked MR. PICKFOBD for 
his information (v. 285). My notes, such as 
they are, are concerned with the School in 
relation to the ' D.N.B.', and do not pretend 
to give a complete list of the Masters and 
Ushers. Are they not in Bloxam's ' Register 
of S. Mary Magdalen College,' vol. iii. ? 


St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

(To be continued.) 


IN the small Protestant Cemetery attached 
to the Cimitero Monumentale, near the Porta 
Tenaglia, at Milan, are the following inscrip- 
tions to English-speaking persons (May, 
1905) : 

1. Mary Ashhurst McEuen, Philadelphia, 

2. Elizabeth, w. of Henry E. Moll, ob. 

20 March, 1898, aged 31. 

3. Eliza Mary Elkington, ob. 27 Oct., 1897. 

4. Sophie, eldest d. of Colonel and Mrs. 
Inglefield, ob. at Milan, 11 Oct., 1897, a. 47. 

5. James Milnes Stansfield, of the Manor 
House, Flockton, ob. 22 Feb., 1882. 

6. Harriet Elizabeth Kennard, w. of John 
Corrie, of Dunrod, Scotland, ob. at Milan, 

21 Oct., 1870. 

7. John Bardman, of Manchester, ob. 
16 Jan., 1876, at Trezzo sull' Adda, a. 55. 

8. Elizabeth Mary. w. of Harcourt T. M. 
Marley, b. 28 April, 1836, ob. 9 Jan., 1905. 

9. Albert Harcourt Marley, b. 30 May, 
1861, ob. 14 Dec., 1897. 

10. Margaret Kinross, b. 11 June, 1837, 
ob. in Varese, 18 Oct., 1901. 

11. Maurice Dopping Churchward, b. 
7 Aug., 1894, ob. 20 Aug., 1895. 

12." Rose Riddiford, ob. 2 May, 1878. 

13. Jonathan Tong, of Manchester, ob. at 
Milan, 5 June, 1881, a. 59. 

14. Louis Eugene Bell, of Detroit, Mich., 
U.S.A., b. 25 Aug., 1856, ob. 26 April, 1887. 

15. Bessie Bell Chester, b. 13 July, 1867, 
ob. 22 Aug., 1887. Erected by her husband. 

16. Leonora Whilhelmina Stuart, d. of 
the fourth Earl of Castelstuart, ob. at Milan, 
3 May, 1899, a. 54. 

17. Henry North, M.A., priest, vicar of 
Breinton, Hereford, ob. at Milan, 28 July, 
1897, a. 53. 

18. Anne Mary Grossman, ob. 13 March, 

19. Carlo Harris, b. in Madras, ob. in 

10 s. vi. JULY 7, 


Milan, a. 66, 24 Jan., 1875. Placed by his 
w. Augusta. (In Italian.) 

20. Percy Southampton Bowen, Lieutenant 
57th Regiment, Royal Italian Army, b. 
26 March, 1844, ob. at Milan, 1 Feb., 1877. 

21. Constance Eva, d. of Percy and Julia 
Lauder Bowen, b. 9 Jan., 1874, ob. 18 Nov. 

22. William H. Lee, b. 26 Dec., 1829, in 
Hartford, Conn., U.S.A., ob. at Milan, 
11 June, 1873. 

23. Caroline Seffert, b. 8 July, 1803, ob. 

11 May, 1901, a. 98. 

24. Georgina Sophia Torriano, ob. at 
Milan, 7 Jan., 1878, a. 84. 

25. Caroline Mary Gresley, Countess Lan- 
gosco di Langosco, b. at Lichfield, England, 

12 Dec., 1809, ob. in Milan, 18 Nov., 1902. 

26. Thomas Millerd, Captain of Her 
Britannic Majesty's Guards. Placed by his 
children. (In Italian.) Date unfortunately 
omitted in my notes. 

27. David Macdonald Smith, R.N., ob. 
at Milan, 14 April, 1890, a. 46. 

28. Alfred Henry Newman, b. in Hamburg, 
12 Aug., 1852, ob. in Milan, 22 Feb., 1876. 
(In Italian.) 

29. John Mackenzie, b. 21 March, 1795, 
ob. 3 Nov., 1882. Late of Malta and Laird 
of Glack. 

30. Major William Sugden, late 24th 
Regiment, ob. in Milan, 25 Feb., 1895. 

31. William Kennedy, late of Moulmein, 
Burmah, eldest s. of the late Daniel Kennedy, 
of Edinburgh, b. at Tomatin, Inverness-shire, 
" 1 Jan., 1842, ob. at Milan, 11 Aug., 1901. 

32. Edith Margaret Andrews, ob. 6 April, 
01, a. 31. 

33. Charlotte, w. of Col. S. H. S. Inglefield, 
of Col. Foster Coore, ob. 1 Feb., 1901, a. 76. 

34. Francis Caroline Finch-Hatton-Besley, 
Gotton, Somerset, ob. 26 May, 1901. 

35. Amerensia Mina Chilton, b. 18 Nov., 
1865, ob. 31 July, 1873. 

36. Francis Hoare, vicar of Holy Trinity, 
Derby, ob. 5 May, 1893, a. 60. 

37. Helen. There appears to be no further 
inscription, but the cross is much overgrown 
with ivy and weeds. 

38. Percy A. R. Hancock, b. 5 May, 1888, 
ob. 7 April, 1893. 

39. W. J. Hamilton, of Belfast, ob. 
10 Feb., 1895. 

There are besides a number of interments 
with no inscriptions. 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut.-Col. 

usual meaning of this word in English is" an 
arrangement of straps fastened at one end 

to the reins, and at the other to the girth., 
to prevent a horse from rearing or throwing 
back his head." The word came to us. 
directly from France, and occurs in Cotgrave- 
(ed. 1611), and in Rabelais, i. 67. So far is. 
the history of this word traced in ' N.E.D.' 
The etymology of F. martingale is doubtless. 

Prof. Skeat in his ' Concise Dictionary * 
derives the word from Span, almartaga, and 
suggests that martaga may be derived from 
an Arabic root rataka, to walk with short- 
steps. This is Yule's explanation. I think 
that the history of the Spanish original of the 
French word, as shown by that eminent 
scholar Dozy, must compel us to reject the 
rataka etymology. Dozy discusses this word 
' Almartaga 'in his ' Glossaire ' (1869), 159. 
The Spanish word almartaga simply means a 
halter (" que sirve para atar los caballos y 
mulas, y tenerlos en los pesebres, 6 llevarlos. 
de una parted otra," Acad.). Dozy says that 
almartaga is derived from the Arabic root 
rataka (with 'ain as the third consonant )_ 
The substantive raid 1 means in popular 
Arabic a stake to which to fasten an animal. 
Al-marta'a in Spanish Arabic meant " le 
licou, 1'instrument pour retenir un cheval.'* 
Ar. al-marta'a became in Spanish almartaga 
by the not uncommon change of 'am to g. 

VIRGIL, ' ^ENEID,' I. 462. A correspond- 
ence took place in The Liverpool Daily Post 
and Mercury a few months ago upon a new 
translation of one of the best -known passages- 
in Virgil. Prof. Tyrrell declares that the 
pathetic significance usually assigned to the 

Sunt lacrymse rerum, et mentem mortalia tangunt 
is unwarranted, and that the poet's meaning 
was that " even inanimate things weep for 
us, and the works of men's hands touch the 

I fail to see (perhaps I am loth to perceive > 
Prof. Tyrrell's authority for prescribing 
" inanimate things " as a closer translation of 
rerum than the usual one of " affairs " ;. 
and why should mortalia be limited to " the 
works of men's hands " ? Is not this a case 
in which the spirit of poetry is in danger of 
assassination by the grammarian ? If VirgiL 
did not mean that there is a constant source 
of tears in human affairs and intelligence is- 
racked and bewildered by the pathos of 
mortality, then must Latin be a less affluent 
and synthetic language than I have conceived 
it to be, and something has been left unsaid 
which some later poet ought to express. It- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 7, im 

be noticed that Prof. Tyrrell's transla- 
tion involves Virgil in the pathetic fallacy, 
an error to which that poet was not prone. 
Why does there come to mind the examina- 
tion long ago of a French class in a Scottish 
parish school the very parish in which I am 
now writing ? The schoolmaster of the old 
.Scottish type (it was long before the days of 
school boards) asked a boy to give him the 
French for "I love you." " Je vous aime," 
answered the lad. " Yes, that will do," 
said the dominie, " but I prefair j'aime vous 
as being more leeteral." 


The Evening News of 10 March had an 

interesting note on the history of this place 
under the title of ' The Last of the Taverns.' 

'The writer, in his enthusiasm, claims for it a 
greater age as a tavern than by right belongs 
to it : " That is the way business has been 
done there for 150 years." " One little 
association of lawyers has dined here five 
times a year for 105 years without a break." 
Neither statement is correct. By an adver- 

'tisement in The Morning Chronicle for 
22 June, 1810, it is possible definitely to fix 
the date of the opening of the tavern : 

"Albion House, Aldersgate-street. Messrs. John 
-and Daniel Kay beg to inform their Friends and the 
Public, that they have fitted up the above House 
(late the residence of the Right Honourable Thomas 
Harley) as a Tavern in a very superior stile, and 
they solicit the honour of their patronage and 
encouragement. " 

This identification of the previous occupier 
is confirmed by reference to ' The Universal 
British Directory ' for 1790. On p. Ixxxi, 
vol. i., Aldersgate Street is given as the 
address of the Right Hon. Thos. Harley, 
M.P. for Herefordshire ; and on p. 170 the 
name occurs again as Harley & Lloyd, 
merchants, 152, Aldersgate Street. 

The history of the tavern has not yet 
been written at length, but there is a notice 
of it in ' Old and New London,' ii. 226, in 
which some work by Timbs is quoted. Its 
celebrity for civic feasts and regimental 
dinners was gained at an early date : before 
1840 the wonderful cuisine and the plethora 
of dishes provided became famous. The 
-cost of dinners was correspondingly high, 
and the extravagant entertainments given 
by Sir William Curtis, Lord Southampton, 
and others are still traditions of the house. 

The changes of proprietorship are not 
important : by 1834 John Kay only was 
carrying on the business, and by 1856 it was 
in the posse ?sion of J. & T. Staples. It now 
.belongs to the London Taverns Company. 

I believe Alderman Staples was one of its 

Proprietors during the year of his Mayoralty, 
885-6. Also I do not think I am at fault 
in identifying it as the birthplace of Mr. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

IN 1666. Sir T. More having been beatified 
by Pope Leo XIII. , it is interesting to note 
what was written of him in the oldest 
known book in the Souletin dialect (which is 
still spoken in the south of French Baskland), 
namely, ' Onsa Hilceco Bidia ' (' The Way 
to Die Well '), by Jean de Tartas, rector of 
Arue, dedicated to the Marquess of Monein, 
and printed at Orthez, Basses Pyrenees, in 
1666. Of this book there is one copy in the 
Municipal Library at Pau, and another in 
that of Prince L. L. Bonaparte, unhappily 
transported (to the eternal disgrace of 
Europe) to Chicago. On p. 110 one reads : 

"Thomas Morus, personag^ saindu batec com- 
munsqui bere adisquider erraiten cian prouerbio, 
eta sententia eder haur, ' Quam plurimi in hac vita 
Inferni mercari solent, cuius vel olijuidio Ccelum 
lucrati fuissent.' Hanitz gendec pena, eta triuaillu 
handirequin infernia aquisitcen, eta ardiasten dute, 
eta nur, edo nahi balira, pena eta triuallu haren 
erdiaz, Paradusia, eta Celuco Erresuma, irabaz, eta 
ardiaz liroite." 
This may be rendered as follows : 

"T. More, a holy personage, used commonly to 
say to his friends this beautiful proverb or sentence, 
' Quam,' &c. Many people do with great pains 
and labour acquire and obtain hell, and (yet) if they 
had striven, or wished, they might have gained or 
obtained, with the half of that toil and trouble, 
Paradise, and the Kingdom of Heaven." 

The marginal reference of this anecdote is 
" In vita Thorn. Mori. cap. 12." As I am 
preparing for the press a reprint of this inter- 
esting book, I should be thankful to any 
friend of ' N. & Q.' who would say to what 
edition of the life of More the Souletin 
imitator of Axular referred, and rectify the 
letter of the Latin. Tartas goes on with 
some remarks about the reprimand admin- 
istered (" Ibidem ") to a lady whom More 
accused of devoting too much attention to 
her hair, and twice more calls him a 
saint: "Saindu hare berac"=this saint 
himself, and "saindu hare "= this saint; 
both in the active case, which is so great an 
ornament to Baskish syntax. 

officer is styled " Sir John Hawley " through- 
out Mr. Skrine's ' Fontenoy ' ; and the 
misnomer is repeated in the review of this 
book in Blackwood's Magazine for June. 
Then, again, Mr. Skrine gives General 

10 s. vi. JULY 7, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hawley's age as eighty at his death in March, 
1759 ; and the writer of the aforesaid review 
hazards the conjecture that in 1745 Hawley 
must have been nearer seventy than sixty. 
In my article on the ' Parentage of Lieut. - 
General Hawley ' at 8 S. ix. 121 I gave a 
copy of the marriage licence granted to 
General Hawley's parents, which bears date 
'" 21 Jan., 1683/4." If the eldest son (Henry) 
was born within twelve months of his parents' 
marriage, he would only be sixty at the 
battle of Fontenoy and seventy-four at the 
time of his death. 

In the account of Charborough, the old 
seat of the Erle-Drax family, in Hutchins's 
* History of Dorset' (vol. iii.), reference is 
made to the supposed portrait of General 
Henry Hawley, the Governor of Portsmouth, 
who died in 1759. The portrait in question 
represents an officer falling in battle by the 
bursting of a grenade. Now General Henry 
Hawley died in his bed, and the Charborough 
portrait cannot be meant for him ; but there 
is very little doubt that it is a posthumous 
picture, depicting the death of Col. Francis 
Hawley at the battle of Steinkirk in 1692. 
This Col. Hawley married Judith Hughes, 
half-sister to General Thomas Erie, of Char- 
borough, and their eldest son was Lieut. - 
General Henry Hawley. 


" TONY LUMPKIN." It is natural to think 
of this name as a characteristic invention of 
the author of ' She Stoops to Conquer,' 
which was written in 1771 and produced in 
1773. Goldsmith is said to have been in 
Yorkshire in 1764, a visit which gave title 
to ' The Vicar of Wakefield.' Is it possible 
that he may have been at Scarborough ? 

On 16 November, 1726, Anthony Lumpkin, 
of Wisbech, and Ann Garbut, of Scarborough, 
ere married by licence at the latter place. 
30 March, 1728, they had a son born to 
hem, who was baptized by the name of. 
Anthony in May following, at Scarborough, 
and buried there, 4 May, 1730. 

Dickens, we know, took notes of names 
that struck his fancy for use in future novels. 
oldsmith may have done the same. 

W. C. B. 

KIPLING FAMILY. It may be useful to 
mention that a number of individuals bearing 
the above name are buried in Bowes Church- 
yard. On a recent visit I noted the following: 

Thomas Kipling, d. 9 July, 1713, aged 73. 

Charles Kipling (son), d. 16 July, 1735. 

John Kipling (son of T. K.), d. 19 March, 

Richard Kipling, died 1773. 

William Kipling, died 1777. 
Jane, wife of John Kipling, d. 1864, aged 33. 
William Kipling, died 1902, aged 89. 
In the churchyard of Romaldkirk, a few 
miles distant, I noted : 

William Kipling, died 1890, aged 78. 
John Nicholson Kipling, d. 1877, aged 64. 
William Kipling, died 1861, aged 82. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

PLEDGE IN A BUMPER. I shall be grateful 
to readers of ' N. & Q.' who can direct us 
to any discussion of the use of the verb 
pledge in connexion with the drinking of 
healths. I am acquainted with the ety- 
mological conjectures proffered in various 
dictionaries, from Phillips, 1658, down to 
the American * Century Dictionary,' in 
which the expression is variously explained 
as guaranteeing the drinker from poison or 
from assassination while drinking ; but I 
want to know if the matter has anywhere 
been seriously discussed on historical evi- 
dence. The quotations collected for the 
' New English Dictionary ' throw no light 
on the origin of the expression, and do not 
point in any way to either the anti-poison 
or the anti-assassin theory. They begin 
after 1551, and show two sub -senses : the 
earlier apparently being for a person to 
drink in response to a person who has drunk 
to him, or in following the lead of one who 
drinks to another ; the latter, simply to 
drink to a person. For the former, cf. 
Shaks., ' Hen. VIII., I. iv. 47, " Here 's to 
your Ladiship, and pledge it, Madam " ; 
J. Howell's Epistle Dedicatory to Cotgrave's 
' Diet.,' 1650, " This word pleger is also taken 
to drink after one is drunk unto " ; also 
Swift, ' Poisoning of Curll,' ' Works,' 1755, 

III. i. 149, " Mr. Pope very civilly drank 

a glass of sack to Mr. Curll, which he as 
civilly pledged." Compare also Ben Jonson's 
well-known " Drink to me only with thine 
eyes, and I will pledge with mine." The sense 
"to drink to (the health of) a person " I find 
doubtfully in the seventeenth century, but it 
is usual after 1700, e.g., 1718, Freethinker, 
No. 86, p. 218, " Pledge us in Champagne 
and Burgundy." It will be seen that neither 
variety of sense throws any light on the use 
of " pledge." I cannot doubt, however, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY :, 

that in some work dealing with drinking 
usages the early history of the custom may 
explain wherein the " pledging " consisted, 
and what the drinkers " pledged " them- 
selves to. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

" PLEW." Among the quotations sent in 
for the ' N.E.D.' are the following : " The 
beaver-skins have fallen, according to their 
phraseology, to ' plew a plug ' " (Mayne Reid, 
' Scalp Hunters,' 1851, xviii. 130). " Each 
beaver-plew of full-grown animal or ' kitten ' 
fetched six to eight dollars overhead " 
(Blackwood, 1899, Jan., 40). Will any one 
who knows tell me what plew means, and 
what is the history and origin of the word ? 

be grateful for information where I can find 
an authoritative statement of the date of 
birth of this second wife of Philip IV. of 
Spain and mother of Charles II. 


ROYAL ARMS or SPAIN. The armory 
adopted by the county of Northumberland 
consists of the arms of King Oswald of 
Northumbria, blazoned as paly of eight or 
and gules. This is also the device of the 
province of Cataluna, quartered in the 
royal arms of Spain. Is this a mere coinci- 
dence ? or is there an historical connexion 
with St. Oswald to account for the identity ? 

QUINCE FAMILY. Can any one give me 
information about the family of Quince or 
De Quince of Berkshire or Oxfordshire ? 
Richard Troubridge, of Cavendish Street, 
married, in or before 1755, Elizabeth de 
Quince. I should be glad of any informa- 
tion about her or her family. 

66, Gloucester Gardens, W. 

Earle, of Totnes, married Mary, daughter 
of Timothy Hare, of St. Kitts, and had two 
sons : Henry, of age in 1723, and Timothy, 
born in 1704. Henry married Margaret 
Gladwin, and from his will, dated 4 Decem- 
ber, 1735, registered 19 January following, 
he appears to have died at St. Kitts in poor 
circumstances, leaving such property as he 
had to his wife, her heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators, and assigns. He had, however, an 
annuity of 200Z. per annum under his uncle 
Timothy Hare's will. 

Was John Earle, of St. Kitts baptized 
at St. Mary Cayon, 14 May, 1722 ; married 
Elizabeth Burt, 20 December, 1745 ; died 

of apoplexy, 10 November, 1771 the son 
of the above Henry Earle ? 

Mary Earle, of St. Kitts, who married 
Henry Berkeley, and " Miss " Earle, of 
St. Kitts, who died of the sickness that 
carried off so many in the autumn of 1759,. 
and who was no doubt the " Anne " Earle 
buried on 3 October in that year, were of the 
same generation as John, and may have been 
his sisters. HENRY W. POOK, Col. 

parish register of Tawstock, North Devon,, 
between the records of a marriage performed 
by Justice Champneys on 17 Dec., 1657, 
and of one celebrated on 16 March of the 
same year (O.S.), " In Tawstock Church, 
by John Ridley, Rector of the same," I find 
the following note : " 20th December, 1657 r 
did putt an end to the publique order about 
Marriages." I shall be glad to be informed 
how an end had been put to the order about 
marriages, by which I presume the writer 
referred to the Act of 24 August, 1653. 
Burn in his ' History of the Parish Register 
in England ' says : " The Act was confirmed 
in 1656, except so much as declares no other 
marriage to be valid," which is not the same 
thing as the statement in the register. 

Further, I should like to know where the 
marriages were performed by justices, as I 
have never met with an instance of the place- 
being named where the marriage was per- 

In the register I have mentioned I have,, 
as usual, met with strange names ; but one 
occurs there which in my transcription and 
examination of Devon registers, I have 
found only once before, namely, Ananias. 

GATTON INSCRIPTION. There is an inscrip- 
tion on the base of the urn at the Town Hall,. 
Gatton (the proverbial " rotten borough," 
with Sarum, of England) : " H.M. dolus 
malus abesto," 1765. Can any of your 
readers give an interpretation ? 


STOUGHTON BOTTLES. Since some thirty- 
five years ago or so, the expression " standing 
like a Stoughton bottle " (stupidly immobile 
has been a family " gag " with me, and 
have heard it occasionally elsewhere. The 
first attribution of it I ever heard was in the 
early seventies, told of an actor playing the 
hero of an English comedy, the name of which* 
I forget, to a small and very apathetic 
audience. His epilogue words were some- 
thing like, " Well, I am happy at last ; and 
so are you, Frank ; and so are you, Nelly ;. 

10 s. vi. JULY 



and so, I think, are our good friends the 
audience." But he substituted, " And so are 
we all, except those - - fools who have 
been sitting, like a row of Stoughton bottles, 
in front of the footlights the whole evening." 
I should much like to know what these 
articles are, but can find no trace of then 
nor any one who knows. 


That excellent writer on Anglo-Judaica, Mr 
Lucien Wolf, describes at some length ir 
The Jewish World (15 June) the transmission 
of the great news through the agents o 
Nathan Rothschild. Briefly, Mr. Wolf's 
proposition is that the information was- a 
once made known to the Government, anc 
the idea that it was " used for speculativ< 
purposes is very largely an exaggeration.' 
He also dismisses as an " absolutely fantastic 
legend " the hitherto accepted statemem 
that the great speculator was present at the 

The story is told with the greatest detail by 
Mr. Frederick Martin (' The Bankers of the 
Red Shield ' in ' Stories of Banks and 
Bankers,' 1865), and it is difficult to realize 
that we have to dismiss as wrong in many 
particulars an historical episode that had at 
least the support of reasonable probability. 

Perhaps Mr. Wolf will be induced to give us 
in these pages references to the authorities 
for his disbelief, and in the general discussion 
of the question we shall also, perhaps, learn 
the source of the assailed story. 


[Mr. Leopold de Rothschild's account of the 
manner in which his grandfather learnt the news 
is printed at 9 S. xi. 286.] 

is to be found any information with respect 
to this quasi-Masonic order ? Is it still in 
existence ? ANDREW OLIVER. 

GASPAR BONINUS. Can any one give 
information as to a painter of this name, 
and say where any of his works are to be 
found ? F. B. PALMER. 

29, Bryanston Square, W. 

[You do not mean G. Bonini ?] 

ACTS xxix. : LOST CHAPTER. In the 
British Ecclesia, No. 9, is printed what is 
called the lost chap. xxix. of the Acts of the 
Apostles, containing twenty-six verses. It 
is there said that it was discovered by C. S. 
Lounoni in Constantinople, and that an 
" interleaved " English translation of it, 
from the Greek, is found in his book of 
' Travels in Turkey and Greece,' published 

by Longmans, 1801. Can any leader oblige 
me with accurate information about these 
Acts ? Is there such a book as Lounoni's 
' Travels ' ? What is the real age of these 
Acts ? They are not mentioned in Hone's 
long list of Apocryphal writings. Are they 
a modern fabrication ? What books men- 
tion them ? I do not find them in Calmet, 
nor in Lardner, &c. D. J. _j 

JOHN HOY. Can any one give me infor- 
mation respecting John Hoy, the proprietor 
of Searle's or Serle's Coffee-House in Serle 
Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields ? He died in 
1804, and was a Catholic. TIVERTON. 

With the exception of one or two volumes 
of the first named these papers are not in the 
British Museum. Where could I see the 
volumes for 1872 and 1873 ? Could one of 
your American readers kindly help me ? 

L. L. K. 

" DIGNITY or MAN." Who first used, or 
brought into general notice, the phrase 
" dignity of man " ? W. M. T. 

have lately been told that cockroaches were 
sometimes introduced, by the sackful, into 
ships for the purpose of destroying such 
things as bugs and fleas. Is there any truth 
in this statement ? and if so, is this practice 
still followed ? BACCHUS. 

TURY. Where can I find an illustration of a 
machine used in the sixteenth century for 
confining horses when being shod ? 


SEA-URCHIN. I am anxious to learn the 
Drovincial names given to the common sea- 
urchin (Echinus sphcera). What is it usually 
ailed on the coast of Dorset, Devon, Corn- 
wall, and other counties ? I should also 
ike to know of any folk-lore which relates 
o it. The traditional beliefs of our fisher- 
men in connexion with their business have 
>een little studied, I think. Their theories 
,vith regard to the " common objects of the 
eashore " seem to have been quite neglected. 

A. D. 

HEIR CONSECRATION. By what historical 
uthority is it possible to consecrate burial- 
bounds under the Anglican Church ? Is it 

fact that there is no record of the consecra- 
ion of the older cathedrals ? MEDICULUS. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 7, woe. 



(10 S. v. 428,473.) 

THE story of the South African snake 
which hangs from the bough of a tree and 
strikes with fatal effect at passers-by is to 
be found, with variations, in most parts of 
the world where there are tree-snakes. In 
Anson's ' Voyage round the World,' 1744, 
it is said that the island of Quibo, on the 
Pacific coast of Panama, not only abounds 
in tigers, but 

"the Spaniards, too, informed us that there was 
often found in the woods a most mischievous serpent, 
called the flying snake, which they said darted itself 
from the boughs of trees on either man or beast that 
came within its reach ; and whose sting they believed 
to be inevitable death." 

This story would appear to be strongly 
confirmed by a fatal accident said to have 
happened, also in Central America, during the 
unfortunate expedition of 1770, in which 
Nelson took part, against the Spanish in 
Nicaragua. It is thus related in Southey's 
* Life of Nelson ' : 

"The men had to march through woods almost 
impassable. One of the men was oitten under the 
eye by a snake which darted upon him from the 
bough of a tree. He was unable to proceed from 
the violence of the pain ; and when, after a short 
while, some of his comrades were sent back to assist 
him, he was dead, and the body already putrid." 
What foundation there was for this part of 
the story I know not, but the sequel throws 
considerable doubt on the credibility of the 
whole : 

"Nelson himself narrowly escaped a similar fate. 
He had ordered his hammock to be slung under 
some trees, being excessively fatigued, and was 
sleeping, when a monitory lizard passed across his 
face. The Indians happily observed the reptile 
and, knowing what it indicated, awoke him. He 
started up, and found one of the deadliest serpents 
of the country coiled up at his feet." 

The philanthropic lizard running over 
Nelson's face to warn him that a deadly 
serpent was comfortably sharing his ham- 
mock warns the reader also that little trust 
can be placed in Southey's critical faculty, 
in zoological matters at least. But this is 
not all : 

" He suffered from poison of another kind : for 
drinking at a spring in which some boughs of the 
manchineel had been thrown, the effects were so 
severe as, in the opinion of some of his friends to 
inflict a lasting injury on his constitution." 
This part of the story is very suspicious. 
Putting aside the possibility of this man- 
chineel-poisoning of the water, we find that 
within a fewdays Nelson was ill with dysentery 

and that within a fortnight he had been 
carried to the coast and was on board ship 
again, invalided presumably with dysentery. 
Some months afterwards, on sick leave at 
home, he was " still suffering from the fatal 
effect of the West Indian climate." Over 
1,400 men, out of 1,800 sent on this expe- 
dition, had perished, nearly all from disease, 
apparently in less than a month. 

Now the whole story the snakes, the 
monitory lizard, the manchineel gives me 
the impression that Southey had obtained it 
at second hand from some inaginative 
survivors of the expedition, and inserted it 
in his narrative to give local colour. My 
personal experience of countries where 
" flying snakes " are likely to be found is 
confined to Southern India and Burma. 
In the former country the story attaches 
itself to a beautiful, harmless, and gentle 
snake, Dryophis (formerly Passerita] myct- 
erizans. It is of a delicate green colour, 
growing to nearly six feet, of which the tail 
is four-tenths, so slender as to be not more 
than finger-thick, with a very thin neck and 
a long head tapering to a sharp-pointed 
snout. It is known to Englishmen as the 
" eye-snake," from the habit attributed to 
it of hanging from a bough and striking at 
the eye of passers-by. Accounts vary as to 
whether the person struck loses his life or 
only his eye. The foundation, such as it is, 
for this story is probably that the snake is 
able to retract the forepart of its body into 
two or three parallel folds, and, letting these 
spring out, dart its jaws suddenly on the 
lizard or small bird that comes within reach. 

In Southern India this harmless snake is 
known to natives only as " patcha pambu " 
(green snake) or " mukke pambu " (snout 
snake). I have a vague idea of having once 
heard of an almost fatal accident from the 
tree-vipers which are plentiful in the jungles 
of Southern India, but I certainly never 
heard of any wicked habits attributed to 
them. Their poison is not nearly so virulent 
as that of the three or four true Thanato- 
phidia of India, still they are venomous ; and 
yet it is to the harmless Dryophis that is 
attributed all the mischief they might do 
only they do not. Like other snakes, 
they devote their attention to getting their 
living, and not to unprofitably molesting 
passers-by. Accidents happen from all the 
venomous snakes, but I maintain that they are 
always accidents, the snake being either 
frightened or defending himself in fact, not 
being able to get away from real or imagined 

The whole subject of snakes is so inter- 

10 s. vi. JULY 7, woe.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


woven with fable and fallacy, with traces of 
primitive serpent-worship and with modern 
serpent-hatred, that only those who study 
snakes scientifically have any chance of 
divesting themselves of the craving for the 
marvellous which distorts even what may 
be seen. In India it is the English, and in a 
less degree the town natives who are possessed 
by prejudice and fallacy in regard to snakes ; 
the country folk are almost entirely free 


Perhaps the following little incident is 
worth recording in ' N. & Q.' 

On Sunday, 3 April, 1898, a few of us sat 
enjoying the grateful shade within the stoop 
at Dixon's Hotel, in the large central square 
at Mafeking. Suddenly, on the opposite 
side of the great market-place, there appeared 
the tall form (he stands 6 ft. 3 in. in his 
.socks) of the then rector, the Rev. William 
Haye Weekes, now the Venerable Arch- 
deacon of Kimberley. Arrayed in his 
cassock, he was waving aloft in a most 
excited manner, as he jumped about with 
.amazing agility, what appeared in the 
distance to be an assegai. The explanation 
came presently. The little church at Mafe- 
king, dedicated to St. John (afterwards 
almost destroyed by the Boers), was situated 
just round a corner. It happened to be 
Sunday-school time, and it seems that on 
-entering the edifice the gallant cleric whose 
devotion and courage, during the long siege 
shortly afterwards, deservedly won for him 
the admiration of the world discovered, 
coiled beneath a seat upon which a little girl 
.sat, an immense snake. To seize a church- 
warden's staff and " go for " the reptile was 
the work of a moment. But the creature, 
thus disturbed, glided between the rector's 
legs, and made rapidly for the open square 
Weekes followed, and it was the battle royal 
between the two we had witnessed, although 
distance and dust combined had prevented us 
from observing the serpent itself. I am 
thankful to say he soon succeeded in knock- 
ing the snake on the head. HARRY HEMS. 

I can remember the engraving mentioned 
by O. It is entitled ' Boa Constrictor seizing 
a Government Messenger ' an enormous 
python lifting a horseman from his saddle, 
whilst his companions are fleeing in terror. 

Let me refer your readers to ' The Romance 
of Natural History,' First Series, by P. H. 
Gosse (1863). JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

I am greatly obliged to O. for his reference 
to ' The Last Journals of Dr. Livingstone,' 

but he will pardon me, I hope, for saying 
that his quotations from that work are no 
reply to my request for confirmation of the 
assumed fact that the mamba is in the habit 
of attacking persons without aggression on 
their part. I said that I had heard of a case 
in which a rider who got between a mamba 
and her nest had been attacked, and the 
first quotation given by O. justifies the fact. 
No doubt the poor girl and the Arab also got 
between the hole or nest and the mamba, 
who was sunning herself or himself, and they 
suffered terribly in consequence. 

In O.'s second quotation the snake there 
named, the bubu, is not a mamba at all. 
It seems to be a kind known in the Zulu 
country, and not in Natal ; it is called by 
the natives " hlonhlo-hlonhlo " (pronounced 
nearly " slonslo-slonslo "), and its habit is 
to spring into the air and come down with 
fatal effect upon its victim's head. A friend 
of mine saw two Zulu girls killed by one, and 
he fortunately shot the snake. 

The reference to the python taking a man 
off his horse may or may not be true ; certain 
it is that the Kaffirs in my time had tales about 
very large pythons. The largest I saw and 
measured, when dead, was 22 ft. 1 in. long. 
We had plenty of puff adders in Natal about 
the size O. mentions. F. CLAYTON. 


Permit me to supplement the above note,, 
and to indicate further the relationship 
between the families of Maynard and Denny. 

In stating that Samuel Maynard was the 
only son of Sir Boyle Maynard, of Curriglas, 
co. Cork, I overlooked the fact that there 
was a second son, Barry Maynard, who 
married in 1703 Ursula Coningsby, first 
cousin of Thomas, Earl of Coningsby. There 
was no issue of this marriage. 

Sir Boyle Maynard had three daughters : 

1. Angel Maynard, who married Col. 
Digby Foulke, from whom descended the 
earls of Bantry, Sir Chamberlen Walker, 
M.D., Admiral Sir Hovenden Walker, and 
Dr. Chamberlen Walker (10 S. iii. 428). 

2. Catherine Maynard, who married Barry 
Denny, son of Edward Denny, of Castle 
Lyons, co. Cork, and Lady Catherine Barry. 
Their daughter Anne Denny married the 
Rev. Maurice O'Conor, and had issue Jane 
O' Conor, who married the Rev. Barry Denny. 
Their first son, Sir Barry Denny (1st Bt.), 
married Jane, daughter of Sir Thomas Denny 
and Agnes Blennerhassett. (From this 
marriage the present family of Dennys of 
Tralee are descended.) From their second 



son, the Rev. Maynard Denny, descend th 
Collingwood Dennys. Their daughte 
Ursula married Samuel Morris, and ha< 
two sons : 1. Col. Sir George Morris, Ushe 
of the Black Rod of the Order of St. Patrick 
2. Samuel Morris, whose daughter Georgin 
married Lloyd Henry, 7th Marquis o 
Ruvigny, 13th Marquis of Raineval. 

3. Mary Maynard, who married in I67C 
Col. Edward Denny, of Tralee Castle, M.P 
son of Sir Arthur Denny and Lady Ellen 
Barry. Their son Col. Denny, M.P., marriec 
in 1699 the Lady Letitia, daughter anc 
coheiress of Thomas, Earl of Coningsby 
Their first daughter Catherine marriet 
William Sprigge, of Cloneroe, King's County 
M.P., and had issue Mary Sprigge, wh 
married Sir Lawrence Parsons, Bt., from 
whom descend the Earls of Ross. Thei 
second daughter Mary Denny married Col 
John Blennerhassett, of Ballyseedy, "Fathei 
of the Irish House of Commons." Fron 
their first son John Blennerhassett descenc 
the family of Jemmett Browne of Rivers 
town, co. Cork, and from the second sor 
Arthur the Barons Headley and the Tisdalls 
of Charlesfort, co. Meath. 

The children of Col. Edward Denny and 
Lady Letitia Coningsby were : 1. Rev 
Barry Denny ; 2. Sir Thomas Denny (both 
above named) ; 3. Col. Arthur Denny, who 
married the Lady Arabella Fitzmaurice ("the 
admirable Lady Arabella Denny "). who 
founded the Magdalen Asylum, Leeson 
Street, Dublin. Their only daughter, Letitia 
Denny, married Col. Rowland Bateman, oi 
Oakpark ; and their daughter Elizabeth 
Bateman married Col. James Crosbie, from 
whom are descended the Crosbies of Bally- 
heigue Castle. F. F. C. 

489). Queen Christina's book was called 
" Ouvr. de loisir, ou Maximes et Sentences : 
Reflexions sur la Vie et les Actions d'Alex- 
andre ; Mem. de ma Vie.' These appear in 
the ' Memoires ' of Archenholz, published 
at Amsterdam 1751-9. Archenholz was 
librarian to the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, 
and it was from his memoirs that Lacombe, 
D'Alembert, and Renouard compiled their 
works on Queen Christina, the former adding 
to a collection of her real letters a continua- 
tion of which he alone was the author. 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

374, 414). A full account of the use of the 
seven Greek vowels as a Gnostic invocation 
is given in ' Egyptian Magic,' by E. A. Wallis 

Budge, Keeper of Antiquities in the British 
Museum (1899), at pp. 57, 58, 177, 178,. 
which may be summarized thus : they con- 
tained all the names of God ; they were a- 
powerful spell ; they form a name in which 
are contained all names, all lights, and all 
powers. See also Revelation L 8, "I AM. 
Alpha and Omega." T. B. WILMSHUKST. 
Tunbridge Wells. 

FLAGS (10 S. v. 469). H. T. C. would, I 
think, find it of special interest to consult 
" Flags of the World : their History, 
Blazonry, and Associations ; from the- 
Banner of the Crusader to the Burgee of 
the Yachtsman ; Flags, National, Colonial, 
and Personal ; the Ensigns of Mighty 
Empires ; the Symbols of Lost Causes. Bv 
F. E. Hulme, F.L.S., F.S.A." 


" DUMA " (10 S. v. 426, 472). I am not in 
agreement with MB. A. L. MAYHEW about 
the derivation of this word. Whether the 
Scandinavian Domr and the Slav Duma 
spring from the same root is not exactly the 
question which I take up, although, to my 
thinking, the root is to be found in the- 
Sanskrit (Max Miiller, ' Science of Thought '). 
The Slav or Russian meaning of the word is- 
thought, and to this meaning it is strictly 
limited. The Duma is a council of thinkers 
(of opinion), ponderers. The word has- 
grown up from two roots : of the first the- 

onsonantal sound alone is retained ; the- 
second is to be found in um, the Russian for 
bhe capacity of the mind ; Sanskrit mna r 
whence also the Russo-Slav mnit, to think,, 

My chief point, however, is this : the^ 
Duma v/as entirely unknown in Russia 
Before the reign of Ivan the Terrible, who 
first established a Duma, or council of the 
eading Boyars and other notables about his. 
:erson, in 1572. The word itself does not 
5ccur in Russian history of the period when 
Scandinavian influence predominated at 
Novgorod and at Kief. Nestor did not 
mploy the term ; he could not have known, 

The Duma assembled in the Tsar's own 
hamber, in the Golden Hall of the Kremlin, 
>r in the vestibule of the same. From 1572" 
o the time of Peter the Great the formula 
f the Duma was : " The Tsar has directed,, 
nd the Boyars have [by his command} 
ecreed," &c. 

The Scandinavian institution of the Ice- 
andic Domr was therefore never introduced 
ito Russia, and the Russian Duma cannot 
ossibly be of this origin. 

10 s. vi. JULY 7, i906.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

It is very probable that the Greeks con- 
ferred the name of Russ on the Variags or 
Varengs, and that the Slavs, who bore only 
local names according to their situations, 
finally accepted it ; but the derivation is 
still a moot point. It may be observed by 
the way that the vulgar pronunciation has 
ever been " Rassia " (for "Rossia")*; I 
speak from a familiar acquaintance with the 
vernacular. In ras there is an acceptation 
of a sense of scattering ; and the Slavs were 
indeed scattered. Ros also in the Slav 
tongue implies distribution idti v ros, to go 
in scattered, separate form. But as yet we 
can only speculate on rus, ros, and ras. 


Galenic, Truro. 

LOMBARD STREET, No. 1 (10 S. v. 406). 
Of the buildings on this site preceding that 
erected by Messrs. Smith, Payne & Smith in 
1838 not very much is known. Mr. F. G. 
Hilton Price ('Handbook of London Bankers,' 
p. 79) informs us that Sir Charles Raymond, 
Bt., started a bank in 1778 under the style 
of Raymond, Harley, Webber & Co., at 
George Street, Mansion House, but in 1789 
it became extinct. From The Morning 
Chronicle of 26 May, 1797, I am able to add 
a little to this. 

It is there announced that at Garraway's 
on 12 June there would be offered the lease- 
hold " Banking House and Mercantile 
Residence " at George Street, in the occupa- 
tion of Harley, Cameron & Son, " who 
would give immediate possession." The 
property " was uniformly erected with wings, 
suitable office, spacious court-yard with 
standing for two carriages, stabling for four 
horses, and arched vaults " ; the whole 
occupying " a front of about 90 feet and an 
extensive depth." The household furniture, 
fittings, horses, coaches, cellar of wine, &c., 
" the property of Mr. Charles Cameron," 
ere to be sold on the premises at the same 


In addition to these advertisements the 
name of Harley, Cameron & Co. appears as 
bankers at George Street in the Directories 
of 1790 and 1794. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

s -. 

MEDICAL CORONER (10. S. v. 489). Was 
not Wakley, the founder and editor of The 
Lancet, the first medical coroner ? In any 
case, Wakley was evidently in Ingoldsby's 
mind when he called a " medical crowner " 
" a queer sort of thing," for in another poem, 
'The Brothers of Birchington,' he is intro- 

" Roussia " has never been heard in the country, 
although the adjective is " Rouski." 

duced by name as holding an inquest ort 
the body of the monk whose soul had been, 
transferred to the infernal regions by mistake: 
a case of "mistaken identity" on the part 
of " Old Nick." Wakley 's name is, of 
course, wrongly pronounced by St. Thomas 
a Becket, who cannot be expected to trouble 
himself about such mundane trifles a& 
modern proper names. 


(10 S. iv. 126, 374). A further indication 
that these names represent one person is to 
be found in the fact that Henry Alway was- 
in Rome 19 Jan., 1564, when he signed a 
testimonial in favour o: Thomas Sackville- 
(Cath. Rec. Soc., ii. 3). 


407, 456). MR. PEACOCK'S communication 
at the first reference is most valuable, as it 
will have secured in your pages a permanence 
which local conditions have denied. Potteric 
Carr is, except in name, a carr no longer,, 
the extensive operations of the Great Northern 
Railway Company having left the land almost 
as dry as ordinary agricultural land. Tho 
decoy which once existed there is perpetuated 
by a signal-box known as the " Decoy " 
cabin. Not only wild duck, but wading 
birds such as the heron, were at one time to- 
be seen there. Now there is no place for 

There is no doubt that a tremendous 
downfall and inundation would be necessary 
in order to induce such birds to revisit 
Potteric Carr ; and when such an occurrence- 
takes place, those who may remember this 
old rime will have just cause to fear " some- 
thing waur." When I wandered over this, 
carr a few weeks ago, after heavy rain, I was 
very much surprised to find the soil hard,, 
firm, and unyielding, where fifteen years ago- 
the footprints were immediately filled with 

T7I /"< -D 

water. & <^- > 

IRUN, SPAIN (10 S. v. 470). Is not the- 
foot-note a joke, poking fun at conjectural, 
etymology ? J- T. F. 

LONDON (10 S. v. 385, 454). In the numerous 
notes on this celebrity I have not seen 
mentioned a curious book (copiously illus- 
trated, in paper covers) by P. T. Barnum. 
This had a very large sale in England, and 
explained the devices by which he imposed 
upon the public, both European and American 
the fabrication of mermaids ; the exhibi- 
tion of an old negress Joice Heth purporting; 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 s. vi. JULY 7, im 

to have been the nurse of Washington ; and 
his finding out Tom Thumb. He admits 
him to have been the smallest child he had 
ever seen, but it is evident that he was one 
of the sharpest, and did credit even to his 
tutor. This pamphlet enjoyed a wide 
circulation about 1854. 


I have a cabinet photograph by J. B. 
Currie, 16, Edgware Road, Hyde Park, of 
'Tom Thumb sitting on a chair, placed on a 
table. Mr. Barnum (wearing a moustache) 
is beside him. I have endorsed the photo- 
graph 1843, because when I bought it, some 
years ago, there was an announcement 
-attached to the sample displayed at the 
photographer's shop, that it was taken in 
18431 pre 

presume by the proprietor. 


SEDDON FAMILY (10 S. v. 470). Richard 
'Seddon's parents lie buried in Eccleston 
parish churchyard, near St. Helens. There 
..are two tombstones giving particulars of 
various members of the family, but I do not 
recall any uncles. Possibly the vicar, the 
Rev. B. S. Clarke, M.A., could give some 
information. H. W. D 

" EGOTELES " (10 S. v. 488). There is a 
critical edition of ' The Pardoner and the 
Frere,' by Prof. F. J. Child, in his ' Four 
Old Plays,' 1848. Egoteles is there said to 
be " apparently a misprint for egetoles, 
edge-tools." This explanation is accepted 
by Mr. J. S. Farmer in his ' Dramatic 
Writings of J. Hey wood,' 1905, where he 
prints " no staves nor edge-tools," without 
even a foot-note to tell us that the reading 
is conjectural. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

This word looks as if it were intended for 
JEgoiheles (<iiyo6r)\a<$), Caprimulgus, goat- 
sucker. See the story told by William 
Turner in 1544 : 

" When I was in Switzerland I saw an aged man 
who fed his goats upon the mountains, which I had 
gone up intent on search of plants: I asked him whether 
he knew a bird of the size of a Jferuta, blind in the 
daytime, keen of sight at night, which in the dark 
is wont to suck goats' udders, so that afterwards 
the animals go blind. Now he replied that he 
himself had seen many in the Swiss mountains 
fourteen years before, that he had suffered many 
losses from those very birds ; so that he had once 
had six she-goats blinded by Caprimtdgi, but that 
one and all they now had flown away from Switzer- 
land to Lower Germany, where nowadays they did 
not only steal the milk of she-goats, making them 
go blind, but killed the sheep besides. And on my 
asking the bird's name, he said that it was called 
the Paphii*, otherwise the Priest. But possibly 
that aged man was jesting with me. Yet whether 
he was jesting, or spoke gravely, still I have no 

other German name than what he gave me for 
Caprimulffug. If there be any then who have in 
readiness a better or a fitter name than this, let them 
produce it." 'Turner on Birds,' edited by A. H. 
Evans (Cambridge, 1903), p. 49. 

Turner's challenge, I need scarcely say, 
has long been answered. One of the 
German names for the goatsucker is Ziegen- 
melker. ANPIEL. 

This is certainly a ghost-word as it stands. 
But the fifteenth-century scribes constantly 
write o like e, and e like o. The right reading 
is egetoles, an inferior spelling of eggetoles, the 
M.E. form of " edge-tools." The ' N.E.D.' 
duly gives edge-tool as the old form of 
" edged tools." The sense is that "it is a 
good thing they had neither staves nor 
weapons, or there might have been harm 
done." WALTER W. SKEAT. 

[MR. WALTER JERROLD and H. K. ST. J. S. are 
also thanked for replies.] 

"ROAN": ITS ETYMOLOGY (10 S. v. 425)' 
I suppose it is not possible that the West 
Yorkshire farmers' derivation of this word 
can have anything to do with the fact. 
They talk (or used to do) of a rowan (roan) 
horse as a horse that has a colour approach- 
ing that of rowan berries ; and they gave 
me the idea that they supposed this to be 
the meaning of the word just as " chestnut " 
meant a horse of the colour of a horse- 
chestnut. Need I say, for South-Country 
readers, that the rowan is the mountain 
ash ? It competes with the ivy for the third 
place in the well-known rime : 
The oak, and the ash, and the bonny rowan tree, 
They all do grow in the North Countree. 


Sin JOHN FASTOLF (10 S. iv. 145, 214). 
In a ' History of Norfolk,' written by William 
White in 1845, I find the following reference 
to Sir John Fastolff, or Fastolf, or Falstaff, 
of Caistor Castle : 

"Sir John Fastolff, born at Caistor or Yarmouth, 
in 1378 erected Caistor Castle. In early life he 
entered upon a brilliant military career. Having 
received an appointment under the English regency 
in France, he signalized himself by many acts of 
bravery during a forty years' campaign. In the 
course of this period he was made, in the field of 
battle, knight-banneret, a baron of France, Knight 
of the Garter, marshal of the regent's household, 
the King's lieutenant in Normandy, and progres- 
sively appointed to various other offices. After his 
return to Caistor, he was constantly exercised in 
acts of hospitality, munificence, and charity ; be- 
came a founder of religious and other edifices, a 
generous patron of learning, an encourager of piety, 
and a benefactor to the poor. Yet this truly great 
and eminent character has, by a quibble on the 
name, been by hypercritics supposed the Sir 

10 s. vi. JULY 7, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


John Falstaff which our immortal bard Shakspeare 
has exhibited in the various characters of an old, 
humorous, vapouring, cowardly, lewd, lying, and 
necessitous debauchee, who was constantly lounging 
about Prince Henry's Court. Never were two 
characters more strongly and distinctly contrasted. 
When Prince Henry was degrading his high birth 
by associating with a Falstaff, the Norfolk hero was 
honourably employed, lighting the battles of his 
country in France. Fastolff was heir to large 
estates, and afterwards immensely rich. The 
poetical Falstaff was nearly three score years of age 
.at the battle of Shrewsbury, A.D. 1403; when the 
historic Fastolff was not more than twenty-five. 
The former ended his career soon after Prince 
Henry ascended the throne the latter survived 
Henry V. no less than thirty-seven years, and died 
.at Caistor in 145!).'' 

From the foregoing it would appear that 
the Norfolk hero was not the man who was 
immortalized by Shakespeare. 

Any further light on this subject would be 
very highly appreciated by me. 


Seton Cottage, Great Yarmouth. 

" GULA AUGUSTI " (10 S. v. 408, 499). 
See ' Gule,' sb. (2) in the ' N.E.D.' The 
etymologies are all worthless, as is there 
shown. The W. gwyl is merely the Lat. 
uigilia done into Welsh, and the Irish spelling 
is feil. The W. gwyl was an attempt at 
explaining gula by popular etymology ; 
gula Augusti (origin unknown) occurs as 
early as 1204 (Ducange), and was spelt 
gule, goule, in Old French. 

What Vallancey is capable of saying 
respecting Old Irish is almost beyond belief. 
On his own showing, he does not know 
whether his pretended cut or gul began with 
a c or a g ; and he clearly did not know 
that the W. gw represents an Indo-Ger- 
manic w. 

The incredible legend about the Latin 
form gula furnishes the clearest evidence as 
to the absence of all knowledge of the origin 
of the word, and the futility of discussing it. 
When it comes to guessing, no one will accept 
-any one's guess except his own. 


:308, 352, 472). The derivation of the place- 
name Bernieres cannot be given with cer- 
tainty, but a consideration of analogous 
words may lead to a plausible explanation. 
'The well-known Norman family of De 
Redvers or Rivers was called in official 
documents De Ripariis, and sometimes De 
Ripuariis or De Riveriis. According to 
Huet, ' Origines de la Ville de Caen,' which is 
quoted by De Magny in his ' Nobiliaire de 
Normandie,' this name is derived from a 
.seigneury lying about four leagues from 

Caen called Reviers, or, in Latin, Ripuariae, 
an adjectival form which denotes its situa- 
tion on the banks of several streams. The 
Counts de Reviers de Mauny still represent 
one of the principal families of Normandy. 
As I showed at the last reference, the name 
of Berners was latinized as De Bernariis, 
and the seigneury of Bernieres would there- 
fore be called Bernariae. This is probably 
derived from an adjectival form of berne, 
an old Norman-French word of which the 
history is given by Prof. Skeat in his valuable 
work ' The Place-Names of Hertfordshire,' 
1904, p. 60. The meaning of this word is 
" a brim, edge, bank, or slope," and it was 
adapted from the Dutch berm, which is 
closely related to the English brim. The 
meaning of Bernariae or Bernieres would 
therefore be of a similar nature to Riparise or 
Reviers, and the word would be akin to the 
English name Barnet. Another analogous 
name is Ferrers, in Latin De Ferrariis, which 
is now represented by Ferrieres, the name of 
a seigneury and village in Normandy. 


"MINININ," A SHELL (10 S. v. 449, 497). 
I forgot to mention in my account of this 
word that it is accented on the first syllable. 
The Kincardineshire dialect is more like the 
Aberdeenshire than the Forfarshire, and the 
word is not known to several people con- 
versant with the latter. I have never heard 
the word outside Stonehaven itself, though 
the shell occurs at Bervie. Gaelic is not 
now spoken on that part of the coast ; and 
there seems no possibility of a connexion 
with Spanish, as all intercourse with 
Spaniards has been confined to the west 
coast, so far as I am aware. The word 
may possibly occur in print, as I was once 
told by a native of the town that he had got 
a prize, offered by The People's Friend, for 
the best necklace of natural objects, with 
one composed of these shells. 

May I add, in support of my assertion 
that Norse influence is strong on that coast, 
that I have heard Stonehaven children say, 
in claiming anything, " That 's till me," 
meaning " That 's mine," which recalls Old 
Norse. Compare " upp a skip til Snaekolfs " 
(Njala), " up on Snowcolf's ship." 

1, Castlebar Road, Baling, W. 

In my reply, for "western" read 
' eastern," as I meant to write. In 
the valuable ' Irish-English Dictionary ' 
of the Rev. Patrick S. Dinneen (Dublin, 
1904) one finds min meaning " small, little." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. do s. vi. JULY 7, 1900: 


v. 408). The lines beginning " I will go 

forth 'mong men " will be found in the closing 

scene of Alexander Smith's ' A Life Drama.' 


The quotation from chap. ix. of Macaulay's 
' History ' should read 

"in that beautiful valley through which the 
Thames, not yet defiled by the precincts of a great 
capital, nor rising and falling with the flow and ebb 
of the sea, rolls under woods of beech round the 
gentle hills of Berkshire." 

The substitution of " flowing " for " falling," 
and the omission of the words " flow and," 
make nonsense of the passage, which forms 
part of a somewhat Macaulayese description 
of Lady Place, Berks. J. A. J. HOUSDEN. 

supply the reference.] 

ROBIN HOOD IN FRENCH (10 S. v. 468). 
There are several works by Baron Franois 
Adolphe Loeve-Veimars in the British 
Museum. One is ' Popular Ballads and 
Songs from Tradition,' &c., Paris, 1825. 
The Catalogue has a note as follows : 

" Incomplete ; being only an appendix to a larger 
work, consisting of French translations of poems 
from various languages." 

There is another copy, " on vellum," but 
whether the note applies equally to this 
copy or not I do not know without referring. 


'ARYAN SUN-MYTHS' (10 S. v. 429). 
' Aryan Sun-Myths, the Origin of Religions,' 
is by Sarah E. Titcomb, and was published 
in 1889 by Messrs. Nims & Knight, Troy, 
New York State, an English edition being 
issued by Messrs. Kegan Paul, Triibner 

REFERENCES WANTED (9 S. x. 67, 110; 
10 S. iv. 154). 2. The torpedo or cramp 
nsn - The elegiac couplet which was quoted 
is taken from the twenty-ninth piece in the 
' Epigrammata Selecta ' of Baudouin Cabil- 
liau of Ypres (1568-1652), p. 7 in ' Balduini 
Cabillavi Yprensis e Societate lesu Epigram- 
mata Selecta ' (Antwerp, 1620). 

The complete epigram is as follows : 

Areanas hiemes, & caeca papauera ponti 

Abdo sinu, ac celerem frigida vincla necem. 
Lt tibi dicor iners torpedo sepulta veterno, 
Tarn cito qiue surdo curro per ossa gelu ? 
Unfortunately the four Latin verse quota- 
tions included in the query at 9 S. x. 67 have 
been omitted from the index of the Series 
as well as from that of the volume. 



Tb< Manors of Suffolk: Xofe* on their History and 
Derolntiov.Tht Hundred* of Haherf/h and Black- 
hoi/ni. By W. A. Copinger, M.A. (Fisher 

FEW English counties are fortunate enough to- 
possess an historian so energetic, so erudite, and 
so devoted as Dr. Copinger, the five volumes of 
whose collection of ' Suffolk Records,' as well as his 
' History of the Parish of Buxhall,' have been t he- 
subject of comment in our pages. He now begins, 
in somewhat tentative fashion, a work of long 
breath on his favourite county. The present volume 
is the first of six folio volumes already written on 
the Suffolk manors. It deals with the hundreds of 
Babergh and Blackbourn, forming part of the Liberty 
of St. Edmunds, one of the three great parts into> 
which, at a period previous to the Norman Con- 
quest, Suffolk was divided. The remaining volumes 
will be sent to the press so soon as a sufficient 
number of copies have been subscribed for to repay 
the Cost of printing. Too formidable for single ac- 
complishment seems the task already discharged,, 
embracing as it does the history of the 20,000 manors, 
of the county. That the labour should be lost is. 
inconceivable. It needs to be clone, and it is done? 
to perfection ; and if private patronage is not, as it 
should be, forthcoming, the task of printing the 
collections should be undertaken by a society. 

In the Introduction much valuable information is 
supplied 011 the place held by the manor, as the- 
most prominent social institution of the country, 
in the early Norman period. Nothing very definite- 
is said concerning the origin of the manor, the idea- 
advocated by Mr. Seebohm in ' The English Village 
Community,' that " the most reasonable hypothesis,. 
in the absence of direct evidence, appears to be- 
that the manorial system grew up in Britain, asl 
grew iip in Gaul and Germany, as the compound 
product of barbarian and Roman institutions- 
mixing together during the periods, first of Roman 
provincial rule, and secondly of German conquest,"" 
meeting with apparent acquiescence. Lords of 
manors, it is declared, were in former days per- 
sonages of importance, " especially if, in addition to- 
the right to hold a Court Baron, a right belonging; 
to every lord, he had the right to hold a Court 
Leet." "A manor cannot at the present day be 
created of which a copyhold can be held, except by 
the transcendent power of an Act of Parliament, of 
which one or two instances can be found in the- 
Rolls." Since the statute of Edward I. the king 
himself, it is said, is incapable of creating a manor. 
To the genealogist the researches undertaken are of 
high interest, and we are glad to see in the rather- 
exiguous list of subscribers one or two important 
American libraries. 

From the Domesday Survey the descent of most 
manors is traced to the present day. Much in- 
formation of historical and antiquarian importance- 
and interest is supplied. Under Long Melford (the 
sacking of the Hall of which is described by Peck 
in his ' Desiderata Curiosa') we have an account of 
the losses of Elizabeth, widow of Lord Savage, 
created in 1641 Countess of Rivers. She was a 
Roman Catholic, and the owner, iu addition to- 
this manor, of estates in Essex and Cheshire - 
and it is said concerning her losses during the 

10 s. vi. JULY 7, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


'Civil War that they exceeded those of any other 
person, not even excepting Lord Arundel of War- 
dour. One hundred and fifty thousand pounds an 
enormous sum for those days represents the 
-devastation at Long Melford and St. Osyth, and 
the countess had to fly for her life. The fury was 
not only in the rabble, but many of the better sort 
behaved themselves as if there had been a dissolution 
of all government. Some excellent views of manor 
houses of interest are afforded, and many curious 
inscriptions are furnished. Under the manor of 
Boxford is one on the family of Peyton beginning : 
Here under lyeth a woorthy squyer that Rycharde 

Pay ton Kyght 
An honest Gentleman, and thyrde sonne to Robert 

Payton Knyght. 

The word "Kyght" at the end of the first line 
should presumably be hyyhf called. Under Norton 
Manor is mentioned a Solomon-like decision of 
King Henry III., sitting in the Exchequer Court, 
concerning a monstrous fish claimed by Sir John de 
Pakenham as wreck at sea. 

The volume abounds with curious and interesting 
matter, and we could, did space permit, supply 
^abundance of similar entries. Exact and authori- 
tative references are supplied, and the whole work 
is monumental in erudition and in labour. It will 
be nothing less than iniquitous if the encouragement 
required for the publication of the remaining 
volumes be not forthcoming. Complete and trust- 
worthy indexes form a special and a praiseworthy 

.Ayliirin. By Theodore Watts-Dunton. (Frowde.) 
A MORE beautiful and attractive edition of Mr. 
Watts-Dunton's romance of ' Aylwin ' cannot be 
anticipated can scarcely, indeed, be desired. A 

1ocket edition on Oxford India paper, bound in 
eather, and supplied with a dedication, postscript, 
and portrait of the author, the book is every way 
worthy of its subject, and must, one would say, 
remain in perpetuity a favourite edition of the 
work. It is, moreover, an ideal production of the 
fine press from which it is issued. 

The BurlinytOH Magazine for Connoi^enrs. 
AN important article in The Burlington deals with 
the Oppenheim collection at South Kensington, 
many articles in which are reproduced. A frontis- 
piece to the June number illustrates ' Tiles in the 
'Coloured Pottery of the Renaissance in the Austrian 
'Country.' Following this comes James Northcote's 
' Ladies of the Bulwer Family.' Plates iv., v., and 
vi. are a continuation of ' Netherlandish Art at the 
Guildhall.' Four further plates illustrate ' Early 
German Art at the Burlington Fine- Arts Club.' 
Botticelli's ' Lucretia ' is reproduced from the 
cassone front in the collection of Mrs. John L. 
Gardner, Fenway Court, Boston, U.S.A. 

The Magazine of Fine Art*, No. 8. (George Newnes.) 
FIRST of the supplemental plates in the June 
number of The Magazine of tine Art.*, serving as 
frontispiece to the number, comes ' A Study in Reel 
Chalk/by Sir Edward Burne-Jones, which shows a 
beautiful' female head. One of the most noteworthy 
articles in an excellent number is a study of the 
work of Eugene Carriere, many of the illustrations 
to which are superb. One of these, a supplemental 
plate, presents the sculptor Devillez and his mother. 
The portraits reproduced include those of the de- 
ceased artist himself and of Paul Verlaine, the 

poet. There is also a very fine nude study. Thirteen 
illustrations accompany Mr. Granville Fell's ' Art 
from Munich,' and seven Mr. Frederick Wedmore's 
'Whistler's Lithographs.' One of these, a supple- 
mental plate, presents Limehouse. Among other- 
illustrations Meissonier's ' Le Vin du Cure ' repays 
attention. ' Landscape Art at the Royal Academy ' 
is a good contribution of Mr. Malcolm Ball. A 
rather pessimistic view is taken of ' The Advertiser 
and the Artist.' An art-poster of Rosbach water, 
of which a few are to be seen on our walls, deserves 
high praise. 

' AT THE TURN OF THE YEAR,' by the late Fiona 
Macleod, is a very consoling defence of the winter 
season, contributed to The Fortnightly. It calls 
the blithe starling "the bird of cheerfulness," and 
speaks of the breeding-change that may be seen 
even before Christmas. Mr. W. H. Mallock sends 
a controversial article on ' Sir Oliver Lodge on 
Mind and Matter.' Marcelle A. Hinckes has a 
deeply interesting and significant paper on ' The 
Art of Dancing in Japan,' which is immediately 
followed by a eulogy by Mr. W. Archer of ' Ibsen ,s 
Craftsmanship.' Of two papers on the Woman 
Question, that of Mr. Havelock Ellis on 'The 
Awakening of Women in Germany ' is the more 
philosophical and intellectually stimulating. The 
second, by Lady Grove, is on ' The Present Dis- 
abilities of the Women of England.' Some interest 
is inspired by B. E. Baughan y s ' The Apostasy of a 
Wagnerian.' 'According to Meredith,' by Mrs. 
Belloc Lowndes, turns out, rather surprisingly, to 
be a story into which it is possible to read some 
anticipations of a modern came celebre. 

IN The Nineteenth Centura, under the title ' Mrs 
Atkyns and "the Dauphin,'" Mr. Ralph Nevill 
puts in further evidence for one of the claimants to 
be Louis XVII., and gives a romantic account of 
the devotion to Marie Antoinette and her son 
shown by a Miss Walpole, who on 15 October, 1778 
played the heroine, disguised as a man, of ' The 
Camp,' a musical entertainment falsely ascribed to 
Sheridan. She married a Mr. Atkyns, of Kettering- 
ham Hall, Norfolk, and took a very active interest 
in the Bourbons. A good deal about her will be 
found in the last volume of the Ninth Series. Miss 
Rose M. Bradley rhapsodizes pleasantly concerning 
' Soft Siena and her Children? Miss Mary Church 
Terrell, a coloured woman, puts in 'A Plea for the 
White South.' Mr. Alfred Lyttelton commends 
the reissue of Lord Acton's letters ; and Mr H 
Hamilton Fyfe writes on ' The Revival of Sculp- 
ture.' Mr. John Nisbet advocates ' Timber-planting 
on Waste Land ' ; and Sir Aston Webb, ' Improved 
Shop Architecture for London.' 

IN The Gornhill Prof. S. Alexander has a very 
interesting essay on 'The Mind of a Dog.' 'A 
Sceptic of the Stone Age ' furnishes a quaint story 
of primaeval agnosticism. M. Paul Villars has a 
gratifying account of ' Twenty Years in London ' 
and the changes they have witnessed. Mr. Frank 
T. Bullen writes eloquently on ' The Winds of the 
Ocean. ' Mr. R. Brudenell Carter, F. R. C. S. , dealing 
with 'Alcohol and Tobacco,' encourages the 
moderate use of the former, but will have none of 
the latter. Dr. Holland Rose, treating of General 
Marbpt and his memoirs, says that, although the 
man is a gascon, the memoirs are of no slight value 
and of enthralling interest. 

THE Gentleman' 1 * keeps up its newly regained 
reputation. Its opening article is on the voyages of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY :, im. 

John Sanderson, known to the student of Purchas. 
* Laying Waste of Pleasant Places ' utters a lament 
we ;u -c all ivaily to echo. Where, indeed, will this 
destruction of green breathing-places ^end ? A third 
part appears of the ' Pepysian Treasures.' A 
specially attractive paper is that on ' Milton in his 
Latin Poems.' 

A. P. Sinnett, in The National Review, makes many 
hold assertions, concerning the truth of which we 
should be glad of proof. In 'Tea as a National 
Beverage' Dr. Alexander Haig writes an alarmist 
article, propounding a problem the answer to which 
is Holritur ambulando. ' Samuel Pepys, the Rege- 
nerator of the Navy,' shows how much the country 
owes to the diarist. 

AMID much excellent fiction in The Idler appears 
a capital account of the Corniche d'Or of the Esterel. 
Mr. Robert Barr in 'The Idler's Club' describes 
' Two Fishing Inns.' 


JUNE JULY appear to be favourite months with 
the booksellers. Catalogues are as plentiful as the 
roses, and their contents are quite as varied. 

Mr. Thomas Baker's list (No. 495) opens with an 
important Roman Catholic work, ' The Letters and 
Memorials of Cardinal Allen, A.D. 1532-94,' with 
introduction by Father Knox. The letters consist 
of 284 documents, of which 225 are here printed for 
the first time. The volume is a thick 4to, pub- 
lished in 1882 at 30*. ; Mr. Baker now offers it for 
(is-, (vl. Other items include Westwood's ' Pala?o- 
graphia Sacra Pictoria,' 50 plates copied from 
illuminated MSS., 1843-5, 31. 10*. ; the Paris edition 
of Albertus's works, 1890, 38/. ; set of the Bradshaw 
Society, 18/. ; Morland's ' Evangelical Churches of 
Piedmont,' with account of "the late Bloody 
Massacre," and plates of the atrocities, London, 
1658, 4/. 4*. ; Hook's ' Archbishops of Canterbury,' 
3/. 10*. ; and Jacobite pamphlets, 1747-9, a rare 
collection, 21. 2*. There are also interesting items 
under Anagrams, Architecture, &c. 

Mr. B. H. Blackwell, of Oxford, sends ListCX., 
which is rich in works on history and political 
economy. We quote a few items : Thorpe's ' Ancient 
Laws of England,' 2 vols., 1840, 3/. 3*. ; Carlyle's 
' Frederick the Great,' 6 vols., 1859, '21. 2*. Gi' 

reprint of Roy's satire on Wolsey : 
! Caytyfe, when thou thynkest least of all, 
With confusion thou shalt have a fall. 
Mr. Blackwell has also a Clearance List of Perio- 

Messrs. Bull & Auvache send two catalogues 
-CXCIX. and CCC.). Among the items in the 
former we find a complete set of the Surtees Society 
Publication*, isr>- \\m, 38/. ; Copinger's 'The Bible 
and its Transmission,' 28 fine facsimiles, folio, 4/. 4*. ; 
and Percy Society Publications, including the two 
suppressed pieces, 10/. 5*. 

The second list includes works on Alchemy, 
Magic, Witchcraft, Astrology, &c. Among tlie 
items are Josiah Chorley's ' Metrical Index to the 
Bible,' Norwich, 1711, 15*. (one of the very few 
books dedicated to the Trinity ; see 7 S. v. 368, 478) ; 
and Mazzffi de Castanea's ' Sacra et Aritmetico-Ana- 

grammatica Opuscula,' Naples, 1710, 27. 2*. This 
book contains the enormous number of 2,093 Cabala.. 
This example is from the library of the Rev. W. 
Begley, who knew of no other copy in England. 

Mr. Thomas Carver, of Hereford, has Pickering'B 
beautiful edition of Walton and Cotton, russia 
extra, 1836, 8/. ; Dingley's ' History from Marble,' 
by Gent and Gough ^Nichols, 1867-8, very scarce, 
3/. 3*. ; Brees's ' Birds of Europe,' 1875-6, 21. 12s. M. ; 
Chaffers's 'Old China,' I/. 12*. tx/., and his 'Col- 
lector's Handbook of Marks and Monograms ' - 
' Turner,' by Sir Walter Armstrong, printed on 
Japanese vellum, large paper, 1902, IO/. 10-*. ; ' Sir 
Thomas Lawrence,' Gpupil series, 4/. 4-s. ; and a fine 
set of the early edition of ' The Three Tours of 
Dr. Syntax,' 3 vols., 3/. 10*. The larger portion of 
the catalogue is devoted to Topography. 

Mr. F. S. Cleaver, of Bath, has Baker's ' Chronicle 
of the Kings of England,' folio, 1670, 21*. ; ' Complete 
Concordance to Burns,' edited by Reid, 9*. (id. ; 
Earle's ' Costume,' 1620-1820, 12*. bU ; Robertson's 
'Kafirs of the Hindu Rush,' 11*. (vl. ; Small's 
'Scottish Market Crosses,' 1900, 11*. tid. (only 500* 
copies issued) ; Capt. Siborne's ' War in France and 
Belgium in 1815,' 15*.; Smollett's Works, 10 vols.,. 
Constable, 1900, 5/. 5*. ; Alken's ' National Sports,' 
large folio, 1903, 47*. (*/. ; ' The Three Tours of Dr. 
Syntax,' 1903, 27*. Qd. ; Lamb's Works, 12 yols.^ 
Dent, 1904, 4/. 7*. M. There are interesting items 
under Bath, including Anstey's Guide, 1832, 9*. ; 
'Bath Characters,' 1807; Scarth's 'Aqua? Soils," 
1864, 13*. 6V/. ; Peach's ' Historic Houses,' 10*. ; and 
Wood's ' Description,' with figure of Bladud, 1769, 
12*. 6U 

Mr. James G. Commin, of Exeter, has the scarce- 
edition of Thomas a Kempis, Strasburg, 1487, 15/. 15*. ; 
Alken's ' Popular Songs,' 6/. 10*. ; Bonn's extra 

Museum,' 6 vols., 1820, 21. 15*. Under London are 
plates by Rowlandson and Pugin. Among portraits 
is a mezzotint of Lady Hamilton from the painting 
by Reynolds, 21. 5*. 

Mr. Bertram Dobell has Alken's ' Touch at the 
Fine Arts,' 1824, 4/. 15*. ; first edition of Matthew 
Arnold's 'Friendship's Garland,' 1871, I/. 10*. ; The 
Literary Hmnbuy or Weeklt/ Take-in, by Jaspero 
the Younger, 13 numbers (all published), very scarce, 
1823. I/. 1*.; first edition of 'George Herbert's 
Remains,' 12mo, 1652, I/. 15*. ; Holyoake's 'Mathe- 
matics no Mystery,' ' Practical Grammar,' 1847, 
' Handbook of Grammar,' 1849, ' A Logic of Facts,' 
1848, 'Rudiments of Public Speaking,' 1849, in 
1 A*ol., 12mo, 4*. (\d. : a presentation copy of Keats'.s 
' Endymion,' first edition, with the one-line page of 
erratum and the five-line slip of errata, 8vo, red 
morocco, Taylor & Hessey, 1818, 32/. ; first edition 
of 'Richard Feverel,' 3 vols., original cloth, 1859, 
5/. 5*. ; and first edition of Newman's ' Apologia,' 
bound up with Kingsley's pamphlet ' What, then, 
does Mr. Newman Mean ? ' 1864, I/. 1*. There are 
collections of _pamphlets and MSS., including 
' Hours of the Virgin ' (one in Gothic letter, printed 
on vellum, 1527-41, 16/.); and many items of in- 
terest under Scotland, R. L. Stevenson, and 

MM. A. Geoffroy Freres, of Paris, have sent us 
No. 31 of their Catalogues d'Estampes et de Livres. 
Collectors will find much to interest them under 

10 s. vi. JULY 7, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Costumes chi XVII. Siecle, Rois de France, Reines, 
Clerge, Protestantisme, Medecins, Artistes, Mili- 
taires, &c. 

Mr. William Glaisher has a supplementary list of 
remainders. There are many items under Drama, 
including Hastings's 'Theatre,' price 2*. Qd. (The 
Afhentntm described it as "an accurate and trust- 
worthy compendium of the history of the stage "). 
Count Zu Leiningen-Westerburg's 'German Bpok- 
Plates ' is priced 4*. (id. ; Burnand's ' Reminis- 
cences,' 7*. 6^7. ; Gust's ' Wars of the Eighteenth 
and Nineteenth Century,' 9 vols., 10*. ; Ricketts's 
' The Prado and its Masterpieces,' 40*. ; Williams's 
' Toledo and Madrid,' 6*. ; Lubbock's ' Hundred 
Best Books,' 71. 10*-., &c. 

Mr. Goad, of Bath, sends a short list of books in 
the original bindings, selected from his Old Book 

Mr. George Gregory, of Bath, has Reclus's 
' Earth and its Inhabitants,' 42 vols., 57. ox. ; UArt: 
Barm Hehdomadaire, first 50 vols., 1875-91, 107. ; 
and Britton's 'Cathedral Antiquities,' 87. There 
are sets of The Ancestor, 40*. ; Annual Reyixter, 
1788-1878, 15/. ; Archn>olo>jical Journal, St.; Biblio- 

fraphical Society, 167. ; " Delphin Classics," 
67 vols., 1819-30, 127. 12*. ; Blackwood's "Classics 
for English Readers," 28 vols., 20*. Under Holbein 
is a copy of ' Imitations of Original Drawings in the 
Collection of His Majesty, for the Portraits of 
Illustrious Persons of the Court of Henry VIII.,' 
84 portraits printed in colours, 1812, 167. There is 
a fine copy of ' Don Quixote,' Madrid, 1780, 80*. 
Another handsome book is ' The Dresden Gallery,' 
2 vols., elephant folio, 1836, 207. A copy of Hogarth 
contains the two rare suppressed plates, 1806, 67. 
Stockdale's line edition of Gay's ' Fables,' 70 engrav- 
ings by Blake, 1793, is 84*. ; Gotch's ' Architecture 
of the Renaissance in England,' 1894, 57. ; and 
Hutchins's ' County of Dorset,' with the Appendix, 
a spotless copy in original boards, 1796-1815, 287. 
There are many interesting entries under the fol- 
lowing heads: French Classics, Theology, Bibles, 
and Church History. 

Mr. James Gunn's list includes publications of the 
Eragny, Vale, and Essex House Presses. Among 
other items are ' Christ and His Mother in Italian 
Art,' edited by Julia Cartwright, 1897, 37. as. ; 
Pollard's 'Henry VIII.,' 47. 4*.; Morris and Mag- 
nusson's " The Saga Library," 6 vols., 67. 6*. ; ' Naval 
and Military Trophies,' by Gibb and Holmes, In- 
troduction by Viscount Wolseley, 50*. ; Holmes's 
' Queen Victoria,' 25*. ; Gibb's ' House of Stuart,' 
37. 15*. ; and Wedmore's ' Turner and Ruskin,' 
57. 15*. Under London will be found Mogg's ' Lon- 
don in Miniature ' and a description of the Colosseum 
as reopened in 1844. Mr. Gunn has a selection of 
originals from Turner's 'Liber Studiorum.' 

Messrs. Lowe Brothers, of Birmingham, have 
botanical works from the library of the late F. W. 
Burbidge, of Dublin and Kew. These include 
Curtis'* Magazine^ 1833-51,20*.; Gerard's 'Herbal,' 
a fine copy, 1633, 87. ; and Hooker's ' Icones Plan- 
tarum,' 27. 2*. Under General are Wilson's 
' American Ornithology,' rare, 67. 6*. ; Lysons's 
' Britannia Depicta,' 27. ; Buffon's ' CEuvres,' 47. 4*. ; 
Ireland's 'Picturesque Tours,' 1795-1801, 67. 6*.; 
Mrs. Centlivre's Works, 1761, 27. 16*. ; Dawe's 'Life 
of Morland,' 1807, 27. 2*. ; ' Picturesque America,' 
36*. ; and a choice set of ' Fors Clavigera,' 1871-84, 
57. 5*. Under Witchcraft is an account of Jane 
Wenham, the last witch found guilty by an English 

jury. Particulars about her will be found at 10 S- 
iv. 149, 197, 318. Under Addenda is a fine copy of 
Ackermann's ' Westminster Abbey,' 1812, 77. 7*. 

Messrs. Myers & Co.'s list contains some rare 
books and choice Cruikshank items. Among the 
latter are five drawings in colour, signed, 30' 
guineas ; a set of The Scourge, 11 vols., uncut, 1811- 

16, 167. 16*. ; Carey's ' Life in Paris,' first edition, 
uncut, 1822, 227. 10*. ; Annal* of ttportiiuj and Fancy 
Gazette, 1822-8, very rare, 577. 10*. ; and 'Paul Pry/ 
as performed by Liston, 37. 3*. General items 
include Higgins's ' Anacalypsis,' 107. 15*.; Blome- 
field's 'Norfolk,' 1805-10, 97. 10*. ; Pennant's 'Lon- 
don,' 1805, 67. 10*. ; Boydell's ' Scenery of the 
Thames,' 942 illustrations beyond the 76 coloured 
engravings, 827. 10*.; Skeat's 'Chaucer,' with sup- 
plement, 7 vols., and Langland's 'Piers the Plow- 
man,' 2 vols., 77. 15*. ; Froissart's ' Chronicles,' 1849, 
107. ; complete set of the Eragny Press books, equal 
to new, 307.; and ' (Euvres de Dorat,' 14 vols.,, 
1770-6, 107. 10*. 

Mr. H. H. Peach, of Leicester, sends Catalogue 18,. 
which contains a collection of 44 autograph letters 
addressed to George Stepney (1663-1707), 127. 12*.,, 
and a letter of Carlyle's, Chelsea, 18 Dec., 1866,, 

17. 10*. This was evidently in reply to some poems 
sent to him by a young man. While recognizing 
" some vestige of talent, still more of industry,'* 
Carlyle advises him, instead of "wasting the best 
years on what he calls poetry," to gather " know- 
ledge for himself, gradually gathering wisdom for 
himself, which is the one thing needful to be a 
man ! This once his, what matters it whether he 
expresses himself in lines that jingle or in lines that 
don't, or not in lines at all, but, infinitely better, in 
actions, in conduct, which are quite silent?" The 
catalogtie, although consisting of fewer than three 
hundred items, is full of interest. Among early 
printed books is one by Froben, who was the first to 
print books pocket size (1494). There are Broad- 
side Ballads and Chapbooks. A copy of ' Don 
Quixote,' 1687, is 37. 10*. This translation (the 
second attempted in England, Shelton's being the 
first) is by J. Phillips, the nephew of Milton. 

Messrs. W. N. Pitcher & Co., of Manchester, have 
McKenny and Hall's ' Tribes of North America,' 
scarce, Philadelphia, 1848-50, 77. 10* ; a fine tall copy 
of the first edition of Bacon's ' Advancement of 
Learning,' 1605,207. ; Billing's ' Baronial Antiquities 
of Scotland,' 57. 10*.; Bryce's 'American Common- 
wealth,' very scarce, 1888, 37. (this edition was 
rigidly suppressed, owing to an action for libel 
caused by the author's criticism of the Tammany 
Ring) ; a complete set of H. B.'s (John Doyle's) 
' Political Sketches,' carefully coloured, 917 plates, 
McLean, 1829-48, 607. ; a collection of 80 large 
coloured caricatures by Rowlandson, Gillray, Cruik- 
shank, &c., 1818-20, 77. ; and Mackenzie's 'Castles 
of England,' extra -illustrated, 1897, 217. Items 
under Cruikshank include 'Punch and Judy,' first 
edition, 1828, scarce, 47. 15*. ; and The Pocket' Maga- 
zine. Under Dickens are first editions of ' The Story 
of Little Dombey,' green wrappers, 1858, 10->*. ; and 
' The Battle of London Life ; or, Boz and -his- 
Secretary,' by "Morna" (Thos. O'Keefe). Here 
Dickens is shown in a supposed journey with his 
secretary (a member of the detective force) the 
dark and fearful realities of London life. There 
is a portrait by Sala, the book is very scarce, Pierce, 
1849, 27. Under Ruskin occur ' Stones of Venice/ 
Autograph Edition, 1873-4, 37. 16*. ; and ' Prteterita,' 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 7, 

wrapj>ers as issued, 188.1-1900, I/. 10*. Under Spain 
is the first edition of Ford's 'Handbook,' scarce, 
15*. ; under Tobacco, a rare book dated London, 
1616, ' Tobacco Tortured ; or, the Filthy Fume of 
Tobacco Refined,' 37. 5*. ; and under Yorkshire, 
Foster's ' Pedigrees,' 11. 15*. 

Mr. C. Richardson, of Manchester, has a pre- 
sentation copy of Arnold's ' On Translating 
Homer,' 1862/37.; John Burke's 'Commoners,' 
4 vols., 18:53, '21. 10*. ; Chetham Society, 165vols., 
227. 10*. ; Duruy's ' Rome,' 6/. ; Early English Text 
Society, 1864-75, 97. 10*.; 'Vicar of Wakefield.' 
coloured plates by Rowlandson, Ackermann, 1823, 
137. 10-N'. ; Mrs. Delany's ' Autobiography,' very 
scarce, 1861-2, 7/. 10*. ; Arthur Hallam's ' Remains 
in Prose and Verse,' privately printed, 1853, rare, 
147. (presentation copy to Prof. Conington) ; Holme's 
" Academy of Armory,' Chester, 1888, 15/. (with the 
exceedingly rare index) ; ' N. & Q. ,' 97 yols. , half- 
morocco, and 8 General Indexes in original cloth, 
1849-98, 40/. ; and a set of the Spencer Society 
Publications, 167. 

Messrs. James Rimell & Son have a catalogue 
(No. 202) devoted to Art. There are over thirteen 
hundred items. It is rich in works on Turner, 
Ruskin, Morland, Miniatures, Pottery, &c. We 
can name only a few. A collection of 94 original 
water-colours 'by Turner, Etty, and others is 487.; . ------ ---- L ...... __ ______ , 

Blake's ' Book of Job,' original issue, Blake, 3, j Demons, and Embryology. There is also the history 
Fountain Court, Strand, 1825, 117. 11*.; Harding's ! of a condemned book and its association with the 
' Biographical Mirror,' 1795, 207. ; ' Portraits of ! firs t historian of the Bastille and with Voltaire, 
Members of the Kit-Cat Club,' very rare. 17:53, 3*57. ; hps ^ a miri r-t c w^ii nro iron\ TT,I_ 
and 'Stafford Gallery,' 1808-16, rare, 227. Under 
Ruskin are best editions of ' Modern Painters,' 
1848-60, 227. 10*. ; ' Stones of Venice,' 1851-73, 87. 15*. ; 
' Architecture of Venice,' 1851, very scarce, II. 5*. ; 
and ' The King of the Golden River,' very rare, 
1851, 37. 3*. In a long list of valuable works on 
Costume is a very scarce one, Chalon's ' Paris,' 1822, 
127. 12*. 

Mr. Albert Sutton, of Manchester, in Cata- 
logue 141 has the Chetham Society Publications, 
1840-1904, 168 vols., 247. ; British Association 
Reports, 1831-98. 107. ; Cumberland and Westmor- 
land Antiquarian and Archaeological Society's 
Transaction*, 1877-1900, very scarce, 207. ; Fielding 
and Smollett, with introductions by Gosse and 
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jo s. vi. JULY u, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. m. 

NOTES : Mayflower Pilgrims, 21 Montaigne, Webster, 
and Marston, 22" Grangerizing," 24 Alphonso : Haakon 
Spanish " Soledadilla " "Clever," 25 W. Stow, 26 
Shakespeare Allusion Versailles Warwick Punch 
Bowl, 27. 

QUERIES : Plus and Minus ' Northamptonshire 
Families 'Lady Hope of Kerse, 27 'Diary of an In- 
valid ' " Hypocrite " Serbian - English Dictionary 
Literary Pastimes " Paauw " Paul Braddon, Topo- 
graphical Artist Half -Married, 28 St. Edith Literary 
Allusions Watling Street Sun and Spirituality 
" Solidarity of the human race " Bunsen on the Vale of 
York Mortimer of Trowbridge Tadpole Heraldic 
Surname Bell Family of Annandale Bishop Island 
" O dear, what can the matter be ? " 29 Clement's Inn 
Sundial " No riches from his little store " " Red ruin " 
Anglican Clergymen Earthquakes in Wales Chalice at 
Leominster Church, 30. 

REPLIES : Hampshire Booksellers and Printers, 31 
Kipling's 'With Scindia to Delhi ' " Mother of dead 
dogs," 32 G. J. Holyoake: Special Constables Sir 
William H. De Lancey Devon Provincialisms, 33 
Direction Post v. Signpost Gordon : the Name in Russia 
May Light and Young Men's Light, 34 Gordon House, 
Kentish Town Eton Swishing Robert Harley, Earl of 
'Oxford. 35 John, Lord Trevor Clocks with Words 
instead of Figures Churchwardens' Accounts Cateaton 
.Street, 36 Daniel Tuvill Louis Philippe's Landing in 
England " Pightle " : " Pikle " Robert Wingfield's 
Descendants Authors of Quotations Wanted, 37 'Sussex 
Drinking-Son Pidgin English Medical Coroner North 
Sea Bubble Companies of Invalids G. Rossetti's 'Tre 
Ragionamenti 'Americans in English Records Goethe : 
" Bells, bugs, and Christianity," 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Proverbs and Epigrams of John 
Heywood ' ' Dramatic Writings of Ulpian Fulwell ' 
Skeat's ' Place-Names of Bedfordshire ' Druitt's ' Manual 
of Costume ' Cotton's ' Inscriptions on Tombs in Madras ' 
'Trelawny's Recollections.' 


THE English ancestry has been traced for 
>sa few of the passengers of the Mayflower on 
her historic voyage from Plymouth, England, 
to Plymouth, Mass., in 1620 ; but as to 
most of them very little has thus far been 
ascertained, notwithstanding the many 
attempts that have been made. The follow- 
ing list contains the names of such of them 
as now have numerous descendants in the 
United States and as to whose ancestry but 
little has been discovered. I have given 
the known facts about them, including the 
names of their children, in the hope that 
some of your readers can furnish evidence 
of their descent, clues as to their probable 
ancestry, or suggestions as to possible lines 
of further inquiry. 

Alden, John, born about 1599, joined the 
ship at Southampton as a cooper. Children : 
John, Joseph, Elizabeth, Jonathan, Sarah, 
Ruth, Mary, David, Rebecca, Priscilla, and 

Allerton, Isaac, mar. first at Leyden, 
Holland, 4 Oct., 1611, Mary Norris, and 

secondly at Plymouth, Mass., before 1 June, 
1627, Fear Brewster. Children: Bartholo- 
mew, Remember, Mary, Sarah, and Isaac. 
Said to have been of London. He was 
probably born about 1588. 

Billington, John, married before 1605 

Eleanor . Said to have been froiA 

London, probably over thirty-five years old 
in 1620. By tradition said to have been 
country bred. Children : John and Francis. 

Brown, Peter, married at Plymouth, 
1624-5, Martha Ford, widow. Children, so 
far as known : Mary, Priscilla, Rebecca, 
and Peter (though the existence of the last 
has been questioned). He was probably 
middle-aged in 1620, and is said to have been 
a carpenter. 

Carver, John, governor and leader of the 
party, wife Katharine. Said in one account 
to have been the son of James Carver, of 
Lincolnshire, yeoman ; in another to have 
come from Essex. Probably born about 
1560, or even earlier. Some suppose his wife 
to have been a sister of the Rev. John 
Robinson, the pastor of the pilgrim congrega- 
tion in Holland. 

Chilton, James, married before 1620. 
Had daughter Mary, who married John 
Winslow, and he left a married daughter in 
England. He was probably born at least 
as early as 1580. His wife's name is said 
to have been Susanna, but it is not clearly 

Cook, Francis, married in Holland Hester 
Said in one account to have come 

from Blyth, Yorkshire, near Austerfield. 
Children : Jacob, Jane, Esther, Mary, and 
John. He was born about 1582, and is said 
to have been from the north of England 
and a member of John Robinson's congrega- 
tion both in England and Holland. 

Doty or Dotey, Edward, said to have 
been of London. Children : Edward, John, 
Thomas, Samuel, Desire, Elizabeth, Isaac, 
Joseph, and Mary. 

Eaton, Francis, married Sarah - - in 
England. Children : Samuel, Benjamin, 
and Rachel. Was a carpenter and of the 
Leyden congregation ; born probably about 

Hopkins, Stephen, said to be of London ; 
married in England. Children : Giles, Con- 
stance, Oceanus, Damaris, Deborah, Caleb, 
Ruth, and Elizabeth. Believed to have 
been the Lay Reader of the Bermuda expe- 
dition of 1609 (see Purchas, iv-174). Born 
probably 1588 or earlier. His second wife, 
who came with him, was Elizabeth . 

Howland, John, born about 1593 (as 
supposed), perhaps brother of George How- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY u, im 

land, of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East (will 
28 May, 1646), or of the family of Newport 
Pond, Essex (see also will of Humphrey 
Howland, of London, 10 July, 1646). 
Children : Desire, John, Jabez, Hope, 
Elizabeth, Lydia, Ruth, Hannah, Joseph, 
and Isaac. He may have been related to 
John Carver. 

Mullins (Molyneux ?), William, of Dorking, 
Surrey, in 1620, but his children were not 
born there. He was probably born before 
1585 or 1580. Children: Joseph, Sara, 
Priscilla, and William. The last had Sara 
and Ruth born at Dorking after 1620, and 
then came to America. The daughter of 
William sen. (Sara) had married 

Blunden, and was living in England in 1621. 
Priscilla married John Alden. 

Priest, Degory, born about 1597, married 
in Leyden, 4 Nov., 1611, Sarah (Allerton) 
Vincent (widow of John). Had a dau. 
Mary and was a " hatter." Left a wife and 
at least two children in Holland. 

Rogers, Thomas, probably born about 
1570 (more or less). Was of the Leyden 
congregation. Children : Joseph, John, and 
Eleazer, and perhaps others. 

.Sampson, Henry, probably born about 
1615 ; was a cousin of the Tilleys (John and 
Edward). Children : Stephen, John, James, 
Caleb, Elizabeth, Hannah, Mary, and Dorcas. 

Soule, George, born about 1599. Chil- 
dren: John, George, Benjamin, Zachariah, 
Nathaniel, Elizabeth, Susanna, Mary, and 

Tilley, John, came with wife and daughter 
Elizabeth (who later married John Howland). 
His first wife has been thought to have been 
a daughter of John Carver. He may have 
come from near Larden, in Shropshire. Was 
probably born 1575 or earlier. (His brother 
Edward and wife Ann were also of the May- 
flower company.) His second wife, as is 
supposed, was Bridget van der Velde, whom 
he married in Holland ; his dau. Elizabeth 
was probably born about 1607. 

Warren, Richard, married before 1611 

Elizabeth , who was born after 1583. 

Children : Mary, Ann, Sarah, Elizabeth, 
Abigail, Nathaniel, and Joseph. He may 
have come from Essex, and was probably 
born 1575 or earlier. 

White, William, perhaps a son of Bishop 
John White ; married at Leyden, 27 Jan.- 
1 Feb., 1612, Anna Fuller. He was pro- 
bably born about 1591. Children : Re- 
solved and Peregrine. 

EDWIN A. HILL, Historian, 
Society of Mayflower Descendants, Conn. 

1221, K. Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 

(See 10 S. iv. 41, 121, 201, 302 ; v. 301, 382.) 

IN his ship of fools Marston has found a 
place for 

some philosophers, and a few critics ; one of which 
critics has lost his flesh with fishing at the measure 
of Plautus' verses ; another has vow'd to get the 
consumption of the lungs, or to leave to posterity 
the true orthography and pronunciation of laugh- 
ing ; a third hath melted a great deal o' suet, worn 
out his thumbs with turning, read out his eyes, and 
studied his face out of a sanguine into a meagre,, 
spawling, fleamy loathsomeness, and all to find 
but why mentula should be the feminine gender, 
since the rule is, Propria qwt' maribus tribuuntur 
mascula dica#. ( The Fawn/ IV. i. 218-28. 

This gird at fantastical scholars is a close- 
imitation of Montaigne : 
This man, whom about mid-night, when others- 


plodding on his~books~he doth seek how he shall 
become an honester man, or more wise, or more 
content ? There is no such matter. He wil either 
die in his pursuit, or teach posteritie the measure 
of Plautus verses and the true orthography of a 
Latine word. Book i. chap, xxxviii. p. 110, col. 2. 

Webster and Dr. Donne have reflections 
of a similar kind : 

Sil. What 's that, Bosola? 

Delio. I knew him in Padua, a fantastical 
scholar, like such who study to know how many 
knots was in Hercules' club, of what colour Achilles' 
beard was, or whether Hector were not troubled 
with the tooth-ache. He hath studied himself half 
blear-eyed to know the true symmetry of Caesar's 
nose by a shoeing-horn ; and this he did to get the 
name of a speculative man. ' The Duchess of Main",' 
III. iii. 49-58, p. 81, col. 1. 

As I shall have to show that Webster has 
copied Dr. Donne in * The Duchess of Malfi,' 
it may not be amiss to hazard a guess here 
that his reference to Caesar and the turn he 
has given to the passage in Montaigne were 
suggested to him by the following : 

We see in authors, too stiff to recant 

A hundred controversies of an ant ; 

And yet one watches, starves, freezes, and sweats,. 

To know but catechisms and alphabets 

Of iiiiconcerning things, matters of fact, 

How others on our stage their parts did act, 

What Caesar did, yea, and what Cicero said. 

Why grass is green, or why our blood is red, 

Are mysteries which none have reach'd unto, &c. 

' An Anatomy of the World,' 11. 281-89. 
Of the philosophers in the ship of fools, 
One knows nothing; dares not aver he lives, goes, 

Nym. A most insensible philosopher. 
Don. Another, that there is no present time, and 
that one man to-day and to-morrow is not the same 

10 s. vi. JULY 14, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

owes none 

; so that he that yesterday owed money, to-day 
i none, because he is not the same man. 

' The Fawn,' IV. i. 236-42. 

The philosophy is that of Montaigne, who 
argues that man can have no certainty about 
anything that is supposed to exist in or 
around him : 
In few, there is no constant existence, neither of 

our being, nor of the objects Heraclitus avereth 

that no man ever entered twice one same river ; 
Epicharmus avoucheth that who ere while borrowed 
any money doth not now owe it ; and that he who 
yesternight was bidden to dinner this day, commeth 
today unbidden ; since they are no more them- 
selves, but are become others, &c. 

Book ii. chap. xii. p. 309, cols. 1 and 2. 

Marston has snapped up a phrase from the 
following passage : 

To those well-meaning people there need no 
sharpe encounter or witty equivocation : their 
speech is altogether full and massie, with a naturall 
and constant vigor : they are all epigram, not only 
taile, but head, stomacke and feet. Book iii. 
chap. v. p. 444, col. 2. 

Don. That salt, that criticism, that very all 
epiyram of a woman, that analysis, that com- 
pendium of wittiness ! ' The Fawn,' IV. i. 284-6. 

Webster, too, has acted similarly in regard 
to one that always lingers in my mind : 

The aoule must be held faxf irith ones teeth, since 
the lawe to live an honest man is not to live as long 
as they please, but so long as they ought. Book ii. 
chap. xxxv. p. 382, col. 1. 

Boxola [fata//i/ wounded]. Yes, I hold my weary 

xmtl in my teeth ; 
'Tis ready to part from me. 

' The Duchess of Malfi,' V. v. 96-7, p. 100, col. 2. 

Mr. Bullen thinks that possibly there is 
an allusion in what follows to the execution 
of Sir Edward Digby, who, for his share in 
the Gunpowder Plot, was drawn, hanged, 
and quartered : 

I will rather marry a woman that with thirst 
drinks the blood of man! nay, heed me, a woman 
that will thrust in crowds, a lady, that, being 
with child, ventures the hope of her womb, nay, 
gives two crowns for a room to behold a goodly man 
three parts alive quartered, his privities hackled 
off, his belly lanch d up. Nay, I'll rather marry a 
woman to whom these smoking, hideous, bloodful, 
horrid, tho' most just spectacles, are very lust, 
rather than reaccept thee. ' The Fawn,' IV. i. 

The allusion may be to the execution of 
Sir Edward Digby, but the reflections of 
Marston are much like similar reflections in 
Montaigne : 

I could hardly be per s waded before I had scene 
it, that the world could have afforded so marble- 
hearted and savage-minded men, that for the onely 
pleasure of murther would commit it ; then cut, 
mangle, and hacke other members in pieces : to 
rouze and sharpen their wits, to invent Tinused 
tortures and unheard-of torments; to devise new 
and unknowne deaths, and that in cold blood, with- 

out any former enmitie or quarrell, or without any 
gaine or profit ; and onely to this end, that they 
may enjoy the pleasing spectacle of the languishing 
gestures, pitifull motions, horror-moving yellings, 
deep fetcht groanes, and lamentable voyces of a 
dying and drooping man. For that is the extremest 
point whereunto the crueltie of man may attaine. 
Book ii. chap. xi. p. 217, col. 1. 

Cuckolds, who publish their shame to 
the world, are fools : they should rather 
wink at faults than expose them : 

Curiosity is everywhere vicious, but herein per- 
nicious. It is meere folly for one to seeke to be 
resolved of a doubt, or search into a mischiefe, for 
which there is no remedie, but makes it worse, but 
festereth the same : the reproach whereof is in- 
creased, and chief ely published by jealousie ; and 
the revenge whereof doth more woimd and disgrace 
our children then it helpeth or gracethus. BOOK iii. 
chap. v. p. 442, col. 1. 

Hercules In all things curiosity hath been 
Vicious at least, but herein most pernicious. 
What madness is 't to search and find a wound 
For which there is no cure, and which unfound 
Ne'er rankles, whose finding only wounds ? 
But he that upon vain surmise forsakes 
His bed thus l9ng, only to search his shame ; 
Gives to his wife youth, opportunity, 
Keeps her in idlef ul deliciousness, 
Heats and inflames imagination, 
Provokes her to revenge with churlish wrongs, 
What should he hope but this ? 

' The Fawn,' IV. i. 587-98. 

And why should men make such a pother 
about a matter that is dictated by the very 
laws of nature ? 

It lieth not in them [i.e., women] (nor perhaps in 
chastitie it selfe, seeing she is a female) to shield 
themselves from concupiscence and avoid desiring. 
Book iii. chap. v. p. 440, col. 2. 

Hercidex. Why should it lie in women, 

Or even in chastity itself (since chastity 's a female), 
T' avoid desires so ripened, such sweets so candied ? 
' The Fawn,' IV. i. 598-600. 

It is wisdom to proclaim yourself a cuckold, 
if you are such ; by doing so you blunt the 
edge of your adversary's weapon : 

Wee flout him no lesse that toileth to prevent it, 
then laugh at him that is a cuckold and knowes it 
not It is a goodly sight to draw our private mis- 
fortunes from out the shadow of oblivion or dungeon 
of doubt, for to blazon and proclaims them on 
tragicall stages; and misfortunes which pinch us 
not, but by relation. Book iii. chap. v. p. 442, col. 2. 

Zuc. As for me, my Fawn, I am a bachelor now. 

Here. But you are a cuckold still, and one that 
knows himself to be a cuckold. 

Zuc. Right, that 's it ; and I knew it not, 'twere 
nothing ; and if I had not pursued it too, it had 
lyen in oblivion, and shadowed in doubt, but now 
I ha' blazed it.' The Fawn,' IV. i. 376-81. 
There is nothing to be ashamed of in being 
a cuckold : 

I know a hundred cuckolds which are so honestly 
and little undecently. An honest man and a gallant 
spirit is moaned, 'but not disesteemed by it. 
Book iii. chap. v. p. 442, col. 2. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY u, im. 

Hercult*. Indeed, I must confess I know twenty 
;are cuckolds, honestly and decently enough ; a 
worthy gallant spirit (whose virtue suppresseth 
his mishap) is lamented, but not disesteem d by it, 
Ac. 1 The Fawn,' IV. i. 385-8. 
(Note that editions 1 and 3 read " cuckolds, 
and decently and stately enough." Mr. 
Bullen follows edition 2, which accords 
more closely with Montaigne.) 

And why should humble mortals complain 
of being cuckolds, when it is well known 
that even Caesar, Pompey, Cato, and Anthony 
were tarred with the same brush, and raised 
no objection to it ? 

Lucullus, Csesar, Pompey, Anthony, Cato, and 
divers other gallant men were cuckolds, and knew 
it, though they made no stirre about it. Book iii. 
chap. v. p. 439, col. 2. 

Znc. I found it out that I was a cuckold ! 

Here. Which now you have found, you will not 
be such an ass as Caesar, great Pompey, Lucullus, 
Anthony, or Cato, and divers other Romans, 
cuckolds, who all knew it, and yet were ne'er 
divorced upon 't, &c. ' The Fawn,' IV. i. 357-61. 

There is none of you all but hath made one cuckold 
or other. Book iii. chap. A*, p. 443, col. 1. 

Hercnlex. For there is few of us but hath made 
some one cuckold or other, &c. ' The Fawn,' IV. i. 

(To be continued.) 


THE question, Which was the first instance 
of " extra-illustrating " ? has not, I believe, 
been discussed in these pages. If we accept 
the expression as applying to any volume 
in which have been inserted drawings, 
engravings, maps, MS. notes, or additional 
matter of any kind, it is obviously probable 
that there are examples both recorded and 
existing before 1769. Granger in his dedica- 
tion says : 

" This singular book, which has been the employ- 
ment of my leisure hours for several years of my 
life, will doubtless be numbered amongst my idle- 
nesses, perhaps my weaknesses, but, I hope, never 
amongst my sins." 

The last proposition is debatable, but there 
is a suggestion that during the " several 
years " he was in correspondence or discussed 
the plan of the book with contemporary 
print-collectors and librarians. The evidence 
at hand does not predate the actual publica- 
tion of his work (1769). Thus W. Huddes- 
ford writes to him (Nov., 1772) : 

"Your parting with the prints may be good 
<economv, but why insult me with it ? The good 
Arch. B. P. disposed of with more ease than he ever 
gave away a small living ! And cruel usage ! Poor 
Tony also ! That Tu Brute stab has felled me 

quite. Perhaps you depend upon some future 
Publication. I will insert a clause that no tearing 
out of books shall be suffered. I will indurate 
Price's Heart. None shall come from Bib. Bod. I 
will do every scandalous and malicious thing that 
revenge can dictate. I will tell you of every Print 
I find, which I imagine you have not seen. I will 
rake up every anecdote that can occasion you 
Labour and Waste of Paper to insert. 

"I did hope to have dozed away the Winter in 
solitude and Deafness. But you have thrown down 
the glove, and I accept the challenge." 

This is only an extract from a number of 
letters to Granger in my possession, but 
nearly all have been published in extenso ; 
see " Letters between the Rev. James 
Granger, M.A., Rector of Shiplake, and 
many of the Most Eminent Literary Men 

of his Time Edited by J. P. Malcolm, 

Author of ' Londinium Redivivum,' from 
the Original in the possession of Mr. W. 
Richardson," London, 1805. This Richard- 
son was the printseller of Covent Garden 
who published portfolios of portraits to 
illustrate the ' History.' 

Huddesford's threat to forbid the tearing 
of plates from books is of interest. As 
Granger's biographer in the ' D.N.B.' indi- 
cates, the advance in the price of prints 
after the publication of the ' History ' 
was remarkable, and their enhanced value 
explains the sale of Granger's first collection 
of portraits, largely the gifts of sympathetic 

A little volume now before me is a very 
early example of extra -illustrating applied 
to a topographical work. To the third 
edition of J. C. Crull's ' Antiquities of 
St. Peter's, Westminster,' there has been 
added in MS. " The Lives of the Abbats of 
Westminster, extracted from Dart's 'Anti- 
quities of Westminster,' abridged by John 
Prater. 1771." In this are inserted thirty- 
four excellent sepia drawings of the monu- 
ments and a number of prints, including 
Hollar's views of the north and west fronts, 
D. King's view of the south front, and other 
less rare illustrations. 

I do not claim for this a date earlier than 
1772, but even that makes it of considerable 
interest, because I suggest it is very doubtful 
whether Granger's plan was applied to any 
work except his own until many years later. 
Perhaps, even, it is not too much to claim 
that Pennant's (' Of London,' 1790) was the 
first topographical volume so dealt with. 
In fact, although he writes, " I have con- 
densed into it all I could, omitted nothing 
that suggested itself, nor amplified anything 
bo make it a guinea book," there are many 
indications that he favoured the idea of 

lo s. vi. JULY 14, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

extra-illustration and prepared his book 
accordingly. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

39, Hillmarton Road, X. 

ALPHONSO : HAAKON. These two to 
many somewhat unfamiliar Christian names 
are engaging much attention at the present 
time as borne by two kings who have married 
princesses of our royal family. 

Alphonso or Alfonso, King of Spain, is the 
thirteenth of his historic and time-honoured 
name in that country. The first was Alphonso 
the Catholic, King of the Asturias, 739-58. 
The tenth was Alphonso the Wise, the com- 
petitor of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, for the 
Imperial crown. It was his sister Eleanor 
who was the beloved wife of Edward I. 
Their third son Alphonso, born at Beaune, 
in Gascony (famous for its wine), on the 
morrow of St. Clement, 1274, became, by 
the death of his brothers, his father's heir, 
but died when ten years old, 19 Aug., 1284, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Alfonso is a name of Visigothic or Vandalic 
rrigin, and is a contraction of Adalfuns, 
brought into Spain by one of these tribes 
from the southern shores of the Baltic, their 
original seat. Adel in Anglo-Saxon cethel 
meant noble, and funs in A.-S. fus 
meant eager. 

The late Mr. R. Ferguson in ' Surnames 
as a Science,' p. 146, suggested that Adolphus, 
which represented this name in Germany, 
was not a mere Latinization of Adolph, the 
division of the syllables being Adol-fus, not 
Adolf-us. If that is so, then Adolfus, who 
occurs as a landholder in Essex in the days 
of Edward the Confessor (Dom. Bk.), may 
have been an Alfonso ; but in the same 
record and county we find Adelulfus, which 
may be the same man, but is not the same 
name as spelt. The word fuss is still in use, 
although its meaning has changed for the 
worse ; see Prof. Skeat's ' Etymological 
English Dictionary.' 

It should be mentioned here that Miss 
Yonge in her ' History of Christian Names,' 
ii. p. 237, wrote under the heading of 
' Hilda ' : 

" Gothic Spain coined, however, the most noted 
form of the name when Hildefuns, or Kittle eager- 
ness, came on the Latin lips of her people to be 
Ildefonso or Illefonso, as the great Bishop of Toledo 
of the seventh century was called. Then, shorten- 
ing into Alfonso, the name came to the second 
gallant king of the Asturias," &c. 

Haakon, though a popular and favourite 
Christian name in Norway and Sweden, is 
hardly known here, except perhaps in Hull. 
In the Orkney and Shetland Isles, however, it 

seems to have been kept up from the days 
of Earl Hakon, the half-brother of the Earl 
St. Magnus. The first Hakon, King of 
Norway, was brought up at the Court of our 
King jEthelstan, and henceforward known 
as Hakon yEthelstane-fostre. 

It appears from Domesday Book that in 
the days of Edward the Confessor there was- 
one landholder named Hacon in each of 
these shires : Essex, Norfolk, Derby, Chester. 
Hants, and Wilts. When we come to- 
tenants at the date of the survey 1086 
we find only one Acun or Hacon. He 
was holding lands at Hainton and elsewhere- 
in Lincolnshire, and left three sons called 
" fitz Hacon "William, Alan, and RadulL 
William, the eldest, was Sheriff of the county- 
in the reign of Henry I., and had two sons,. 
Thomas and Simon. " Thomas fitz William 
fitz Hacun " left an only daughter and 
heiress, Grace de Saleby, wife of Brian de 
Lisle, but had no issue. Her heirs were a- 
Warwickshire family called De Hardreds- 
hull, but the name of Hacon, as we usually 
spell it, was never used or revived by their 

There is a village in Lincolnshire called! 
Hacconby, in D.B. Haconesbi. 


know, no translation has ever appeared in. 
English of the dainty verse-form known in 
Spanish as a soledadilla. This must surely 
be the shortest of all existing fixed forms of 
poem. The triolet has eight lines ; the- 
quatrain, which we have borrowed from the 
Persians, has four ; but the soledadilla has 
only three, and of those the first, which rimes, 
with the third, is always much shorter than 
the others. Now that the study of Spanish 
has received such a noteworthy impetus, 
the following specimens of this quaint 
measure may be welcome to many readers : 

(a) Fatigas 

Yo por la calle no lloro, 
Porqxie la gente no diga. 

(b) Por ti 

Las horitas de la noche 
Me las paso sin dormir. 

JAS. PL ATT, Jun. 

" CLEVER." That the word clever has 
caused much trouble to etymologists is well 
known. The only adequate account of it 
is that given in the ' N.E.D.,' and my present 
object is merely to add a few supplementary 
notes that help to demonstrate the correct- 
ness of the view there given. 

The first hint as to its origin came from 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY u, woe. 

Mr. Wedgwood, who quoted the form 
Mover, " clever," as existing in Danish 
dialects ; and he further called attention 
to the M.E. diver, " a claw," and to Dunbar's 
use of cleverus, as exemplified by Jamieson. 

In 1889 I quoted the E.Fries. klufer, 
"*' clever," as explained by Koolman. I had 
previously (in my ' Dictionary ') quoted 
the M.E. clifer, " ready to seize," from 1. 221 
of the ' Bestiary,' and called attention to 
Sir T. Browne's notice of the E. Anglian 

The ' N.E.D.' explains that the E. Fries. 
klufer should rather have been *klifer, and 
implies that the Dan. dialect forms Mover, 
Mever, likewise exhibit a wrong vowel ; for 
the true base is *klif-, the weak grade of 
*klif-, " to adhere to," the root from which 
the A.-S. clifian, " to adhere to," was formed 
as a secondary or weak verb. 

We know how much confusion has existed 
feet ween the strong verb cleave, " to split," 
;and the weak verb cleave, " to adhere to," 
although they were originally wholly un- 
connected, and belonged to different con- 
jugations. The base of the latter, as above 
noted, is *kllf ; but the base of the former is 

Either owing to a similar confusion, or 
from some phonetic cause, the O. Norse 
kllfa, " to climb " (originally " to stick to "), 
appears in Danish as klyve ; and Norwegian 
-dialects have both kliva and klyva, which 
rendered the stressed vowel uncertain. 
Moreover, the Dan. dial, klover was doubt- 
less affected by association with Dan. 
klogtig, also meaning *' shrewd," of which 
the original sense was probably " skilful in 
discerning," as it is ultimately connected 
'with cleave, " to split, to separate." Hence 
the misspellings of the E. Fries, and Dan. 
dialect forms can be accounted for, and their 
connexion with the M.E. diver, adj., " ready 
to seize," and the A.-S. clifer, " a claw," 
clifian, " to cleave to," can then be estab- 

But this is not all. The A.-S. clifian, 
O.Sax. klibhon (as Schade writes it), corre- 
spond to Du. kleven, G. kleben, to cleave to, 
with an e. Similarly, Kalkar records a 
Mid. Dan. klever (which we have all missed), 
meaning precisely " sprightly " (cf. Norf. 
clever, "active"), and secondly "clever" 
or " crafty." No wonder that he compares 
it, as he does, with our own word. 

When we observe the spelling of clever 
and that of Dunbar's cleverus, and further 
observe the counties in which the dialect- 
word clever is in use, I think we may fairly 
.assume that, after all, it is not a native word, 

but is of Scandinavian (perhaps, indeed, of 
specifically Danish) origin. This would 
also account, to some extent, for the late- 
ness of its introduction into the standard 
speech. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

W. STOW. All those who are interested 
in London topography know more or less 
what is in print with regard to John Stow, 
the honoured historian of our city. There 
is, however, an obscure Stow about whom, 
perhaps, some one of your correspondents 
could give me a little information. He wrote 
a booklet with a title of which the first part 
is somewhat similar to that of the famous 
' Survey.' It runs as follows : 

"Remarks on London, being an exact Survey of 
the Cities of London and Westminster, Borough of 
Southwark, and the Suburbs and Liberties con- 
tiguous to them. By W. Stow, London. Printed 
for T. Norris at the Looking Glass and H. Tracy at 
the Three Bibles, on London Bridge, 1722." 

At the beginning is an " Epistle Dedicatory, 
to his Royal Highness, George Prince of 
Wales," also a quaint preface, in which we 
are told that one of the designs of 
" this piece is to shew people how to spell and write 
proper their superscriptions on letters, for a bad 
hand and wrongful orthography, or false spelling, 
a fault too incident to many men as well as women 
in general, have caused the miscarriage of many 
letters ; which is not only a loss to the Crown, as 
the general and penny post offices are a branch of 
the royal revenue, but may also prove a great 
detriment to the writer as well as to the person 
wrote to." 

The earlier portion of the " Survey " 
contains a list of all the streets, lanes, &c., 
in London, with some quaint topographical 
notes interspersed. Here are specimens of 
these notes taken at random : 

" Luteners Lane in Drury Lane. It is commonly 
called Newtners Lane, but the wickedness of the 
inhabitants having gain'd (as well as some places by 
it) the name of Little Sodom, they have given it 
the nice name of Charles Street, as a stone shews 
at the west end of it." 

" Paris Garden by Gravel Lane, Southwark. 
Here was formerly much bearbaiting, and other the 
like sports, which are now used at Hocklev i' th' 
Hole ; also was lately a large pond for the (lucking 
of scolding women, but is now down, and here is a 
plying place for watermen." 

" Hogs Yard by Tothill Fields. In this yard are 
almshouses founded by Dame Dacres, a lady of 
honour to Queen Elizabeth, and in the above said 
fields is a Bridewell for the correction of sturdy 
rogues and strum] >ets." 

" Little Sanctuary, in King Street. Here is the 
ancient Three Tun tavern, kept at present by Mr. 
Beech the quaker." 

Then follows a short account of the cathe- 
drals, chapels, and churches of London. 
The volume concludes with particulars 
about the London Post Office, a table of 

10 s. vi. JULY M, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

hackney coach rates, &c., and " an exact 
and compleat list of the flying coaches, stage 
coaches, waggons, and carriers, with the 
inns they come to and days of the week they 
go out of London." From this one can 
Ascertain the names of all the chief London 
inns at the time that the volume was pub- 

My copy has the heraldic book-plate of 
John Towneley, Esq. PHILIP NORMAN. 

reference to Shakespeare has not, I think, 
been noted in the " Allusion books " or 
* N. & Q.' ; it may perhaps be familiar to 
the Baconians : 

See how the Learned Shades do meet, 
And like yEriall shadowes fleet, 
More in number then were spide 
To flock 'bout the Dulichian Guide. 
The first, Museus, then Catullus, 
Then Naso, Flaccus, and Tibullus ; 
Then Petrarch, Sydney, none can move 
Shakespeare out of Adonis Grove, 
There sullenly he sits ; but these 
Admire thy novell Rhapsodies, 
Dear Friend, which ever shall subsist, 
Spite of Oblivion's hiding-mist. 

Anthony Davenport. 

To the Author, before Sheppard's ' Loves 
of Amandus and Sophronia, 1650. 


VERSAILLES. Anachronisms are often 
amusing ; and I came across one recently 
which I have not seen noticed. Mickle (best 
known by his translation of the ' Lusiad ' 
of Camoens) wrote an elegy on Mary, Queen 
of Scots, in which, after mention of the death 
of Francis II. by which she became a young 
widow, occur the lines : 
No more a goddess in the swimming dance, 

May'st thou, queen ! thy lovely form display, 
.No more thy beauty reign, the charm of France, 

Nor in Versailles' proud bowers outshine the day. 

The palace at Versailles was built by 
Louis XIV., nor was there a royal residence 
of any sort in what was formerly a village, 
until Louis XIII. erected a small chateau 
as a sort of hunting-lodge in 1632. This was 
about seventy-two years after Mary returned, 
, widowed queen, to Scotland. 

W. T. LYNN. 

Castle is an interesting sketch, by L. A. 
Hawkes, of an old woman, with the following 
inscription : 

" I myself have seen this Punch Bowl filled four 
times when the present Earl came of age. It holds 
38 Gallons of Brandy, 18 Gallons of Rum, 100 Gallons 
of Water, lemons and Sugar in proportion. Jan. 11, 

7 > " 



(Q items. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

PLUS AND MINUS. The modern quasi- 
prepositional use of these w r ords is obviously 
not founded on any similar use in Latin, and 
its origin seems to need more elucidation 
than it has received. From evidence con- 
tained in Cantor's ' Vorlesungen iiber 
Geschichte der Mathematik,' vol. ii., second 
ed., 1899, it appears likely that the origin 
was mercantile rather than mathematical. 
With this agrees the earliest English example 
found in the material collected for the 
Dictionary : " Item, v. yerdys mynus the 
nayle, welwet blake, at xjs., liiijs., iijd. oft." 
(1481-90 in 'Howard Household Books,' 
p. 317). Can any one supply other early 
instances ? Any good examples down to 
the seventeenth century would be welcome. 
I should also be glad to have any evidence 
(in addition to that supplied by Cantor) 
bearing on the early history of the mathe- 
matical (or commercial) use of plus and 
minus in other countries. How far back 
can the equivalent use of moins be traced in 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

BY OSWALD BARRON. In the able review 
of the above in The Athenaeum of 30 June, 
p. 789, it is stated that for inclusion in the 
above " evidence is asked. . . .of an ancestry 
in the male line on an estate in the county 
before the accession of George III. on 
25 October, 1760." Can it be explained 
how, on that principle, the family ot Dryden, 
of Canons Ashby in that county, is included ? 
The male ancestry is deduced from John 
Turner, who in 1781 (twenty years after the 
accession of George III.) married the heiress 
of Canons Ashby and took the name of 
Dryden. Of course, in virtue of descent 
from that marriage, the present family have 
a female descent from the house of Dryden ; 
but their inclusion among the nineteen 
families who in that county possess estates 
derived in the male line since 1760 gives the 
impression that they, like the others, were 
similarly descended. G. E. C. 

LADY HOPE OF KERSE. According to 
G. E. C.'s ' Complete Baronetage,' Sir 
Alexander Hope of Kerse, 1st Bt. (1637-73), 
married, 12 Nov., 1659, at Delft, " Mistress 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY u, 

Louisa Hunter." On^l6 Nov., 1687, as 
Fountainhall records, Sir William Binning, 
late Provost of Edinburgh, "pursued Hope 
of Carse on the testament of Col. [John] 
Gordon," who was one of the murderers of 
Wallenstein. In connexion with the case 
a copy of Gordon's will, made at Lubeck in 
1648, was got, and is now in the Commis- 
sariot of Wigtown. Although there is much 
evidence bound up with the will, it is not 
clear how Lady Hope was connected with 
the colonel. Her aunt is given as Mrs. 
Petrie, who seems to have been the daughter 
of Gordon's mother by her third husband, 
Lieut. Vitz. Can any reader solve the point ? 
The name Hunter does not come into the 
documents at all. J. M. BULLOCH. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

' DIARY OF AN INVALID.' Napier in his 
' Peninsular War,' Book II. chap, vi., points 
out that the celebrated Convention of Cintra 
was executed at a distance of thirty miles 
from that place : 

"Yet Lord Byron has gravely sung that the con 
vention was signed in the Marquis of Marialva's 
house at Cintra, and the author of the ' Diary of an 
Invalid,' improving upon the poet's discovery, 
detected the stains of ink spilt by Junot upon the 

Who was the author of the ' Diary of an 
Invalid ' ? WM. H. PEET. 

" HYPOCRITE." The Rector of Little 
Chart, near Ashford, Kent, writes to me : 

" Only last evening I was amused at hearing a 
strange use of a familiar word in this locality. Some 
one inquiring for cottage lodgings asked if she could 
not be taken in at a certain cottage. The reply 
was, ' Oh, no ! they have got two or three of the 
Hypocrites staying there.' These lodgers proved to 
be some members of a travelling theatrical com- 
pany. It is curious that the word should have been 
used in its original sense." 

It is certainly curious, as such a use of 
the English word is not recorded either in 
' N.E.D.' or in ' E.D.D.' I wonder if any 
of your correspondents can furnish other 
examples of this classical use of the word. 


' Simplified Grammar of the Serbian Lan- 
guage ' Mr. Morfill remarks that " a Serbo- 
English dictionary is still a desideratum, 
and the student must betake himself to 
German aids." Is this still true ? Can any 
reader tell me if a Serbian-English dictionary 
has ever been published ? I can hear of 
none, yet it seems impossible that this 
beautiful tongue quite the best worth 

study of all the Slavonic languages, Russian, 
alone excepted should so long have been 
neglected here. Apparently Mr. Morfill's is- 
the only Serbian grammar in English. There- 
are fortunately many good Serbian grammars, 
in German, such as those by Macun, Vymazal,. 
&c. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

LITERARY PASTIMES. Reading the follow- 
ing curious Latin couplet, 

Odo tenet muliem 

Madidam mappam tenet anna, 

the singularity of which is obvious, I wa 
reminded of a similar Latin couplet which 
the long-forgotten Dr. Stern, of Abyssinian 
fame, propounded to me when I was a very 
small boy staying with one of my father's- 
friends in the country, and the precise form 
of which I have never come across anywhere. 
It ran like this when broken up into syllables t ma . ma, &c., 
and read, when combined into good Latinity,. 
thus : 

Te tero Roma date telum latete. 
Perhaps some of your learned readers can 
tell me the exact form of this trifle, and also 
give other examples in ancient and modern 
languages to amuse us. The Jews diverted 
themselves on occasions in precisely th& 
same way, but I cannot give examples. 


"PAATJW." In the ' H.E.D. ' the word 
" Paauw " is defined as " the name applied 
generally in S. Africa to species of Bustard.'* 
Is species here singular or plural ? 


His water-colour drawings of old buildings 
in Lancashire and elsewhere seem in most 
cases, to be " worked up " from engravings- 
and drawings. Biographical particulars of 
him are desired. He is of recent date, and 
may, indeed, still be living. C. W. S. 


HALF-MARRIED. The following curious- 
entry appears in the marriage registers of 
Horsley, co. Gloucester (see Phillimore's 
'Gloucestershire Parish Registers : Marriages/ 
vol. xii.) : 

"John Pegler and Ann Thomas were half- 
married, I proceeded no further, because they paid 
me but one-half, viz., 2s. 6rf." 11 Aug., 1732. 

I have, in the past twenty years, searched 
a great many registers, and do not remember 
ever seeing any entry of a like nature. 

It is a pity the parson did not mention 
how far he had proceeded in the service- 
before he discovered that the fee he required 

10 s. vi. JULY H, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

was not forthcoming. The vicar was buriec 
21 Feb., 1732/3, and on 23 June, 1734, a John 
Pegler married Lydia Prout. What became 
of Ann Thomas ? and was John ready witl 
the full fee on his second venture ? 


ST. EDITH. Was there ever a St. Edith 
or is there a mistake in the translation of 
will recently sent to me from Norwich, datec 
1450 ? " the feast of St. Edith, 23 Sept.' 
Would it be St. Giles ? 

(Mrs.) F. H. SUCKLING. 
Highwood, Romsey, Hampshire. 

LITERARY ALLUSIONS. Exact reference 
wanted for the following remarks and allu 

" Milton was never so much a regicide as 
when he smote King David." Apparently 
apropos of Milton's versions of the Psalms. 

" Lowell's hideous and Boeotian jest on 
Milton's blindness " (Swinburne, ' Studies 
in Prose and Poetry,' p. 40). 

Landor (' Last Fruit off an Old Tree ') : 
Three women France hath borne, each greater far 

than all her men. 

Two are Joan of Arc and Charlotte Corday 

who was Lander's third ? 

Jane Austen, ' Persuasion,' chap. xx. : 
"Anne [Elliot] placed herself nearer the end oi 

the bench more within the reach of a passer-by. 

She could not do so without comparing herself with 

Miss Larolles, the inimitable Miss Larolles; but 

still she did it " 

Who was the inimitable Miss Larolles ? 

H. K. ST. J. S. 

WATLING STREET. ' The Twelve Churches; 
or, Tracings along Watling Street,' was pub- 
lished in 1860. Is the author known ? 
There is no name given in the ' Book of 
British Topography,' by J. P. Anderson, of 
the British Museum. ANDREW OLIVER. 

SUN AND SPIRITUALITY. The sun is said 
to have been the badge of the spirituality. 
What is the precise meaning of this word ? 
and in what way would a badge be used in 
connexion with it ? JOHN T. PAGE. 

Was this phrase coined by the French Com- 
munists ? MEDICULUS. 


title-page of Thomas Gill's ' Vallis Ebora- 
censis,' 1852, is quoted : " The Vale of York 
is the most beautiful and romantic vale in 
the world, the Vale of Normandy excepted. 
Chevalier Bunsen." The same sentence 
reappears in an article on ' Yorkshire ' in 

The Quarterly Review, October, 1868, p. 492 ; 
but in neither case is there any reference to 
book or authority, nor are we told when and 
to whom the statement was made. Is there 
not an error ? and ought not Lombardy to 
be substituted for " Normandy " ? 

W. C. B. 

Edward Mortimer, who owned property in 
Trowbridge and Lower Studley, Wilts, and 
in Norton St. -Philip, Somerset, during the 
latter half of the seventeenth century, and 
who died at Trowbridge in 1704, married 
Katharine Houlton, sister of John Houlton 
of Bradford, Wilts (who married Jane Selfe, 
of Benacre), and of Joseph Houlton, of 
Trowbridge. Sarah Mortimer, the grand- 
daughter of Edward Mortimer, married 
Benjamin Horlock, of Trowbridge. Can 
any of your readers give information about 
the ancestors of Edward Mortimer, and the 
name of his father and place of residence ? 
Albany Hotel, Hastings. 

TADPOLE. Can any one furnish a list of 
the local names of the tadpole used in English- 
speaking countries ? A Scotch friend of 
mine says the common tadpole is a " paddy 
leddle," but probably there are other names 
for it beyond Tweed. " Bull-head," ' 'bully," 
" pod-noddle," " pot-noddle," and I believe 
other words are current in Lincolnshire. 
What is American for tadpole ? A. D. 

HERALDIC SURNAME. Can any reader 
give the origin of the surname of the family 
bo which the following arms belong ? Arg., 
a chev. engr. sa. between three crabs gu. 

Has this bearing been assumed by more 
}han one family ? If so, by whom ? 

F. P L. 

ion regarding this family, and their crest 
and motto, with any details as to the origin 
of these, is sought. 


BISHOP ISLAND. I am much interested in 
Bishop Island, off the coast of Clare, and 
hould be glad to know why it was so called. 
?here was in years gone by a monastic estab- 
ishment on the island. Was the name 
Lerived from a priest ? and if so, who was 
le, and of what family or origin ? Some 
ale hangs by the name of the island, I pre- 
ume, and possibly some romance. 



Is it known who composed this song ? 



Or is it a traditional child-song ? I have 
heard different versions of it, both words 
and air, though the variations are not very 
considerable of either. This verse was in 
vogue in the Isle of Man : 

He promised to buy me a fairing should please me, 
And then for a kiss, O he vowed he would tease me; 
He promised to buy me a bunch of blue ribbons 
To tie up my bonny brown hair. 

In Liverpool, as an alternative to this 
verse, though it must surely be a separate 
verse, I have heard sung the following : 
He promised to buy me a garland of roses, 
A basket of lilies, a garland of posies, 
A little straw hat, and a bunch of blue ribbons 
To tie up my bonny brown hair. 

Are there any other variants or any other 
verses ? Can any one give the complete 
song ? Is the pretty little air traditional ? 
Where can I see the prettiest version of it ? 

CLEMENT'S INN SUNDIAL. What is authen- 
tically known of this figure of a kneeling 
negro boy, which was in Clement's Inn garden 
until built over, and is now in the Temple 
Gardens ? Waif ord ( ' Old and New London,' 
iii. 33) says it is of bronze, and was brought 
from Italy, early in the eighteenth century, 
by Lord Clare ; but in a publication of 1857 
it is said to be the only specimen in London 
of the work of Johan van Nost, who had a 
lead foundry in Piccadilly, somewhere near 
the present White Horse Street, in the time 
of Queen Anne, and who cast the two curious 
leaden vases at the south front of Hampton 
Court Palace. Albert Smith, in his novel 
' The Adventures of Christopher Tadpole,' 
alludes to the Clement's Inn figure as sug- 
gestive of " hot pies " a mode of street 
gaming formerly in vogue, of which par- 
ticulars may be found in Mayhew's ' London 
Labour and London Poor.' ' W. B. H. 

[Cor,. MALET stated at 6 S. ix. 338 (1884) that the 
Earl ot (jrranard has a similar sundial, which came 
from the Earl of Moira's house in Dublin. A letter 
on the subject from the late A. J. C. Hare was 
printed at the same reference.] 


Will some contributor kindly refer me to an 
early publication of this familiar song, and 
if possible identify its author ? I give one 
verse : 

No riches from his little store 

My lover could impart ; 
He gave a boon I valued more : 
He gave me all his heart. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

" RED RUIN." The present Minister of 
Education notes in his ' Life of Hazlitt ' 

:hat Tennyson has made famous the above 
phrase, used by the essayist in his vivid 
description of the " fight," in which Neate 
makes " red ruin " of Hickman's cheek. 

Did Hazlitt originate this happy expres- 
sion ? I confess with shame that I do not 
inow when or where the late Laureate 
employed it. CHAS. GILLMAN. 

[King Arthur says to Guinevere, 

The children born of thee are sword and fire, 
Red ruin, and the breaking up of laws. 
See Tennyson's Idyll of * Guinevere,' 1. 423.] 

ANGLICAN CLERGYMEN. I shall be much 
obliged to any one who can furnish me with 
biographical notes concerning the following 
"hurch of England ministers about whom 
she usual works of reference (as Hennessy, 
Foster, &c.) are practically silent. I give, 
as briefly as possible, all the facts I have. 

Cockbaine, Christopher ; died (blind) 
21 Nov., 1844 ; buried in churchyard of 
Threlkeld, Cumberland ; bequeathed 50Z. 
bo the parish ; does not appear to have been 

Heckstall, Brooke, born 22 April, 1724 ; 
admitted to Merchant Taylors' School, 1736 ; 
of Eman. Coll. Camb., LL.B., 1747 ; rector 
of SS. Anne and Agnes with St. John 
Zachary, London, 17 Sept., 1764, to 5 April, 
1780 ; died on latter date. 

Maude, John, A.M., rector of same, 
10 Feb., 1690, to April, 1696 ; interred in 
church on the 20th of the month ; previously 
vicar of Walthamstow (?). 

Snowe, Kichard, rector of same, 9 May, 
1780, to 6 Feb., 1788 ; buried in church 
seven days later. 

Teste, William, rector of St. John Zachary 
between 1551 and 1560. 


6, Clovelly Road, Baling, W. 

earthquake shock at Neath, in South Wales, 
on 27 June. Can any of your correspondents 
oblige me with the date of an earthquake 
shock which I felt at Neath in the early 
thirties ? It was before March, 1836, and 
I distinctly remember it. L. 

can I see an illustrated account of a fine pre- 
Reformation chalice which was in 1853 in 
the custody of the rector and churchwardens 
of Leominster ? Has any detailed account 
of the church plate of Herefordshire been 
printed ? T. CANN HUGHES, M.A., F.S.A. 


* Information concerning his sister Deborah, born 
in 1763, will also be welcome. 

10 s. vi. JULY H, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(10 S. v. 481.) 

MB. F. A. EDWARDS mentions, in his 
Winchester list, " T. Blagden, printer, 
1784-96." According to The Hampshire 
Chronicle of 17 May, 1790, " Mr. [Thomas] 
Blagden, printer and bookseller " of that 
city (being a widower, aged thirty-four : 
see Harl. Soc. Publ. xxxv. 74), married on 
9 May, 1790, "Miss [Frances] Hawkins, 
only daughter of the late Rev. William 
Hawkins, formerly vicar of Boldre and 
Lymington, Hants." It appears from the 
pedigree in Anderdon's ' Life ' of Bishop 
Ken, vol. ii. p. 828 (second edition, 1854), 
that this vicar of Boldre was great-grandson 
of Izaak Walton, the angler, and that his 
father was William Hawkins, the great- 
nephew, executor, and first biographer of 
the bishop. As to William Hawkins, the 
biographer, and his father, Dr. William 
Hawkins, Prebendary of Winchester, see 
9 S. vi. 371 ; vii. 477 ; 10 S. i. 127. The 
biographer, who had been a Winchester 
scholar, entered at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, 3 Oct., 1698, and at the Middle 
Temple, 25 May, 1706. Anderdon records 
the marriage of William Hawkins, vicar 

of Boldre, with the widow of Tre- 

herne (I should be grateful for further par- 
ticulars of this lady), but he assigns to them 
no children. On the other hand, he states 
that " Thomas Knapp Blagdon, of Win- 
chester " (was he the printer or another ?), 
married Frances Hawes, a niece of the vicar 
of Boldre. The vicar was of St. John's 
College, Oxford, B.A. 1739-40, and was at 
Boldre from 1751 to 1777. One Thomas 
Nixon Blagden, son of John, of Chichester, 
gent., became scholar at Winchester College 
in 1798. He was afterwards Fellow of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, B.D., and was 
appointed vicar of Washington in 1828, and 
rector of Ashurst, Sussex, in 1836. Was he 
related to the printer ? 

The following notes upon some of the 
other Winchester booksellers or printers 
mentioned in MB. EDWABDS'S list may be 
of use to readers desirous of obtaining further 
information about them. 

Isaac James Philpot, of Winchester, 
married Mary Round at the Cathedral, 
22 June, 1730 (Cath. Reg.). 

William Prior, of S. Stoneham, paper- 
maker, bach., married Jane Roe, of N. 

Stoneham, sp., aged 23, at the Cathedral, 
2 May, 1736 (Cath. Reg. Harl. Soc. 
xxxvi. 137). 

David Henry, born near Aberdeen, 26 Dec., 
1710, died at Lewisham, 5 June, 1792, and 
buried there 13 June. " For more than 
fifty years he took an active part in the 
management of The Gentleman's Magazine "; 
editor, with R. Cave, 1754-66 ; alone, 
1766-78 ; with J. Nichols, 1778-92. His 
first wife, whom he married in 1736, was 
Mary, sister of Edward Cave (' D.N.B.,' 
Ix. 338). See Gent. Mag., Ixii. i. 578 ; 
Nichols's ' Lit. Anecd.,' iii. 423, &c. ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. of Books. 

James Ayres. Cf. John Meaisey, infra. 

Thomas Burdon, of St. Michael's, Win- 
chester, bookseller, bach., aged 27, married 
Jane Widmore, widow, aged 30, at St. 
Michael's, 16 April, 1765 (Parish Reg. 
Harl. Soc. xxxv. 115). 

John Burdon is described as having been 
" of College Street " in the notice of the 
death of his third son Charles (Hampshire 
Chronicle, 29 Aug., 1803). Charles, one of 
four sons, died aged 24 (Nichols's ' Lit. 
Anecd.,' iii. 673 ; Gent. Mag., Ixxiii. i. 887). 
Another son, the Rev. George Burdon, M.A., 
rector of Falstone, Northumberland, who 
had been a Winchester scholar (1783), 
died at Ramsgate on 2.2. July, 1834 (Gent. 
Mag., N.S. ii. 550). 

William Greenville, of St. Mary Calendar, 
Winchester, shopkeeper, wid., aged 30, was 
licensed to marry Susannah Mayo, sp., 
aged 25, on 13 Feb., 1759 (Harl. Soc. 
xxxv. 324). 

John Meaisey, of St. Maurice, Winchester, 
gent., wid., aged 40, married Mary Ayres, 
wid., aged 35, at St. Lawrence, Winchester, 
20 Oct., 1765 (Parish Reg. Harl. Soc. 
xxxvi. 25). 

John Wilkes, of St. Lawrence, Winchester, 
printer, bach., aged 22, married Rebecca 
Lover, sp., aged 21, at St. Lawrence, 
8 Dec., 1771 (Parish Reg. Harl. Soc. 
xxxvi. 350). He owned Milland House, 
Sussex, near Liphook (Gary's ' New Itinerary,' 
third ed., p. 27), and died there in March, 
1810 (Gent. Mag., Ixxx. i. 394, where he is 
described as of Ave Maria Lane, London). 
Buried in the same vault as his wife Rebecca 
and his daughter Ann (M.I. at St. Lawrence, 
Winchester). See Brit. Mus. Cat. of Books ; 
and as to the frontispiece to his ' Hist, and 
Ant. of Winchester,' vol. ii., see 9 S. x. 30. 

Lockyer Davis. See ' D.N.B.,' xiv. 169. 

James Robbins, of St. Lawrence, Win- 
chester, printer,Lbach., aged 25, was licensed 
to marry Mary^Dowling, sp., aged 25, on 


28 Jan., 1789 (Harl. Soc. xxxvi. 169). Their 
tomb stands near the south-west corner of 
the Cathedral yard. 

Charles Henry Wheeler, of Little St. 
Swithun, Winchester, gent., bach., was 
licensed to marry Eliza Gilmour, sp., on 
18 July, 1823 (Harl. Soc. xxxvi. 334). 

My identifications of Philpot, Prior, 
Greenville, and Meaisey must be regarded 
as only tentative. H. C. 

<10 S. v. 426, 518). " Mlech " has nothing 
to do with Moloch or Melech. It is a 
Sanskrit word applied more or less contemp- 
tuously to any non-Hindu, much as the 
Greeks used " barbarian." Kipling is far 
from being a safe guide to the pronunciation 
of Indian terms. Take the following lines 
from the same poem : 
To left the roar of musketry rang like a falling 

To right the sunshine rippled red from redder lance 

and blade 
Above the dark Upsaras flew, beneath us plashed 

the blood. 

Here Kipling evidently means us to say 
Upsara, but the name which denotes a 
kind of Eastern Valkyrie is really a dactyl, 
Upsara. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

The Sanskrit word which Mr. Kipling 
writes as mlech, and which in Hindi is pro- 
nounced and written milichh, has no possible 
connexion with the Semitic Moloch. It 
means a person who makes no distinction 
between clean and unclean food, and who 
is therefore, in the eyes of a Hindu, an out- 
cast and barbarian. There is a confusion 
in F. W.'s reply between the two Arabic 
words (which have been adopted in Persian 
and Urdu) malik and mdlik (more correctly 
mdlik). The former signifies a king, and 
the latter an owner or possessor. Mulk, a 
country or kingdom, and milk, property, 
are respectively the correlated ideas. All 
these words, including Moloch, come, of 
course, from the same Semitic root. I may 
add that during thirty-five years' Indian 
service I never recollect being addressed as 
malik or mdlik, though I would not venture 
to say that such a mode of address is un- 
known. Huzur, majesty, and gharib-parwar, 
nourisher of the poor, are the usual terms 
employed by natives in addressing a Euro- 
pean superior. W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

" MOTHER OF DEAD DOGS " (10 S. v. 509). 
Carlyle's " Mother of dead dogs " is, 
negatively, the Limbo of intellectual collapse. 

Positively it is the grand generating principle- 
which produces, in endless diversity, the 
superficial gauds of commonplace and those 
inanities of speech and writing that have 
been immortalized as " damnable iteration. 5r 
The sons of this vast receptacle or prolific 
force energetically illustrate the contention 
of the Preacher that " the thing that hath, 
been, it is that which shall be ; and that 
which is done is that which shall be done ; 
and there is no new thing under the sun." 
Appropriately, therefore, the seer finds his 
recreation in the lanes and the fields, com- 
muning with the Eternal Silences and sole- 
wandering by the shores of Old Convention. 
De Quincey, Jeffrey, and the rest, unable 
to command this independence of outlook 
and resolute trend of individual purpose, 
slip into the shallows, and presently swim 
with the surging and fulsome mass of futilities 
The figure is fully delineated in " Latter-Day 
Pamphlets," No. v., the Stump-Orator 
furnishing the commentator with a con- 
venient text. The thought of this artist, 
and of the cheerful agility with which he 
continues to play at see-saw through his 
vapid and ineffectual career, suggests " the 
dog that was drowned last summer, and! 
that floats up and down the Thames with 
ebb and flow ever since." 


When Carlyle had emitted a pungent 
phrase in speech, letter, or book, he seem- 
ingly was apt to repeat it with quotation 
marks. This is analogous to his habit of 
inventing imaginary authors, books, and 
periodicals to father passages upon. " The 
mother of dead dogs " is the Thames of his 
day, either literally or as a symbol for modern 
life in ignoble conditions. Compare his 
use of " Houndsditch." His regard and 
affection for living dogs are well known, and 
are suggested by his angry allusions. Some 
of your readers can doubtless furnish a. 
classical phrase for a noble river of which 
this is the converse. It escapes me, how- 

I saw Carlyle on more than one occasion 
" grieving by the shore of the mother of 
dead dogs." He was leaning over the 
Embankment, contemplating the river about 
opposite to where the " King's Head and 
Eight Bells," Chelsea, now stands. He had 
a slouch hat with a high crown, and a long 
clay pipe. The shades of evening were 
falling, and I shall never forget the utter 
solitude of his presence, without a soul 
about but myself. He had probably often 
observed the dead dogs floating down the 

10 s. vi. JULY H, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Thames, as I have occasionally, I might say 
frequently. J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

CONSTABLES (10 S. v. 126, 156, 191, 212, 
274). As a further contribution on this 
interesting subject I may perhaps be per- 
mitted to add that shortly before his death 
(14 Jan., 1893) my friend Mr. Frederick 
Ross presented me with his staff as a 
special constable during the Chartists 
agitation in the Metropolis. Those who had 
the good fortune to know Mr. Ross will 
remember what a neat hand he wrote, and 
in his well-known calligraphy, on a slip-label 
attached to the staff, is the following : 
" Special Constable's Staff, 10 April, 1848, 
Chartists' Riots, 1848. Frederick Ross." 
The staff is made of very light wood canary 
or deal, I should say and is in length 
exactly eighteen and a half inches ; round 
its thickest part, four and three-quarter 
inches ; and in weight exactly nine ounces. 
I have previously written in these pages 
on special constables, and told of my twenty 
years' connexion with this body, and of my 
collection of staves (some hundreds in number) 
from every part of the kingdom. MB. E. 
MARSTON says (10 S. v. 156) that he was 
sworn in "at the mature age of twenty- 
three." My son, at the age of eighteen 
years, was last October sworn in as a special, 
thus making three generations of our name 
honorary constables for this city. Eighteen 
is, I think, the legal age for admittance. 
MR. MARSTON says that his baton " has long 
since disappeared." I shall have pleasure 
in sending him the one I have, if only he 
will promise me that, for the sake of the 
distinguished Yorkshireman who gave it to 
me, he will treasure it. 

Baltimore House, Bradford. 

409, 517 ; v. 72, 276). The Lady Hamilton 
of Lady De Lancey's narrative was the wife 
of General Sir H. D. Hamilton, who is him- 
self alluded to in the narrative. This infor- 
mation has been obtained in time for inclu- 
sion in the edition of the narrative now under 

Information on the following point is 
required. On the night of 1 5 June Sir William 
De Lancey was dining with General Alava, 
Spanish Ambassador to the Netherlands. 
Alava, who had commanded a Spanish line- 
of-battle ship at Trafalgar, served in the 
Peninsula under Wellington, and knew 
both the Duke and De Lancey intimately. 

Can any of your readers who are acquainted 
with Spanish literature inform me whether 
Alava has left any autobiography or remi- 
niscences in which De Lancey may be 
mentioned ? B. R. WARD, Major, R.E. 
Halifax, N.S. 

Pillum of course means dust, and Mrs. 
Hewitt, in her carefully written and generally 
accurate little book ' The Peasant Speech 
of Devon,' after giving an example of the use* 
of the word, says, " pillum is a corruption of 
pulvorem, the ace. of pulvus, dust " ; but 
this derivation appears to me to be far- 
fetched and improbable. I have searched 
through the reports of, the Committee on 
Devonshire Provincialisms published in the 
Transactions of the Devonshire Association 
under the direction of that well-known philo- 
logist and antiquary Mr. F. T. Elworthy,. 
F.S.A., and although the word is given and 
its meaning explained, no attempt is made 
to trace its derivation. 

Bodley, I do not think there can be a doubt,, 
must arise from the name of a long-estab- 
lished firm of Exeter iron-founders, which 
would appear, as is customary, on every 
kitchen range made by them, of which there 
must be a very large number up and down 
the country-side. Messrs. Bodley are under- 
stood to claim a common ancestry with Sir 
Thomas Bodley (who was an Exeter man),, 
the founder of the Bodleian Library. 

Whilst pillum is familiar to me, I have 
never heard the word bodley used to denote- 
a kitchen range. FRED. C. FROST, F.S.I. 

Bodley was a well-known maker of kitchen 
ranges who nourished in Exeter early in the 
last century. His grandsons still carry on 
the business in the city. The use of their 
stoves was almost universal in Devon ;: 
hence a fireplace, nine times out of ten, in 
country places hereabouts is known as the- 

Pillum is good West-Country lingo for 
dust. Mrs. Sarah Hewitt, in her ' Peasant 
Speech of Devon ' (1892), aptly illustrates 
the use of the word as follows : 

the. My dear, whot a vellum of pillum there is oi> 
tha Holserry rawd ! 

He. "A vellum of pillum!" Whot's that, Mrs. 
Hosegiide ? 

She. Why, dawntee knaw "vellum" is volume,, 
and " pillum " is mucks adrowed? 

He. Oh, yes ! but what is " mucks " ? 

She. Oh, yii poor gladdie ! Why, pillum a- wet, tii 
be sure. 

Perhaps it may be well to add that 

Holserry rawd " means Hols worthy Road., 


,nd a " gladdie " is a fool, although the word 
" gladdy " is the common name for the 
yellowhammer. As an example of the use 
of " gladdie " the same gifted authoress 
quotes : 

"By Gor! missis, I knaw 'e's a fool a rigler 
gladdiej Listenee tii'n 'ow'e chitter'th tii hiszelf." 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

Pillum is the Devonian pronunciation of 
, Cornish Celtic word pilm which means 
" flying dust." 

To " till " is commonly used in Devon- 
shire for " to set " a gin or snare. 


University, Liverpool. 

Halliwell includes pilm in the ' Archaic 
Dictionary,' the entry being " Pilm, Dust, 
Devon. Grose has pillum. Hence pilmy, 
dusty." THOMAS BAYNE. 

A certain kind of kitchen range, which, 
according to the ' E.D.D.,' comprises an 
oven and a fountain on either side of the 
fireplace," is called a bodley from George 
Bodley, who invented it. A " fountain," 
I presume, is what people outside Devon- 
shire usually call a boiler. ST. SWITHIN. 

Bodley, till, and pillum or pilm are all 
fully explained, with examples, in the 
"* English Dialect Dictionary.' 


[MB. A. J. DAVY is also thanked for a reply.] 

449, 496). In the chapter of his ' Colloquies 
on Society ' which begins with a description 
of the writer's walk to the Druidical Stones 
on the Penrith road, Southey uses the form 
*' directing post " : 

" Even on such occasions as this it is desirable to 
propose to oneself some object for the satisfaction 
of accomplishing it, and to set out with the inten- 
tion of reaching some fixed point, though it should 
be nothing better than a milestone or direction 

" Finger post," for obvious reasons, is the 
oommon name used in Scotland for the 
guiding factor at cross-roads, while " sign- 
post," if known at all among us, must be 
comparatively rare. A " signboard " and 
a " sign " we all know, but we associate the 
-article with the wall by a tradesman's door- 
way, and not with a post. A tradition, 
pointing to the academic career of the 
famous Dr. Chalmers at St. Andrews, con- 
veniently illustrates the popular use of "sign" 
in this connexion. The legend is that a 
body of students, feeling one night happy 
and irresponsible, detached the signboard 

of an inn and carried it in triumph to the 
quarters of one of their number. Presently 
Boniface, who had tracked the depredators, 
arrived, and vehemently, at the carefully 
bolted door, demanded restitution of his 
property. Then from within came a voice, 
said to have been that of Chalmers, pro- 
nouncing in solemn tones the text, " An evil 
and adulterous generation seeketh after a 
sign," &c. The story is probably an inven- 
tion, but such things have been done at 
St. Andrews, even since the days of Chalmers, 
and its appositeness may perhaps excuse its 
introduction here. THOMAS BAYNE. 

In ' Musarum Deliciae ' (reprint John 

Camden Hotten), vol. ii. p. 409 (i.e., in ' Wits 

Recreations,' London, 1640), is ' The Post 

of the Signe.' It is a poem in praise of an 

alehouse, apparently " The Three Bears " 

or " The Dancing Bears." The woodcut 

represents three bears and their keeper 

dancing. The keeper has a cup in one hand : 

Then to put you out 

Of fear or doubt, 

He came from St. Katherine-a,. 
These dancing three, 
By the help of me, 

Who am the post of the Signe-a. 

(Second stanza.) 


469). The following records of the name 
exist in Russia : 

Edict (1658) of John Casimir, granting 
rights of citizen of Poland to Henry Gordon, 
Marquis of Huntly. 

Same granted in 1676 to Major George 

In 1699 John Gordon was confirmed as 
heir of Henry Gordon and George Gordon, 
and as Marquis of Huntly. 

Col. Gordon was A.D.C. to Stanislas 

Admiral Thomas Gordon was invited to 
Russia by Peter I. 

There were also in Russia Alexander, 
Andrew, Peter, and a Lieut. Gordon. 

All these are taken from consular records, 
and most conspicuous amongst these names 
is that of John Patrick Gordon, who married 
the daughter of Col. Bokhoven and died in 
Moscow in 1699. 

" Gordan " is, of course, Gordon russified. 

Colenic, Truro. 

494). I have examined many of the wills 
proved at Canterbury of persons resident 

10 s. vi. JULY M, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in the various parishes in the diocese o: 
Canterbury, for reference to the dedication 
of the churches, altars, lights, &c., in 
the churches ; and it would seem that the 
bachelors, young men, maidens, anc 
the women, maintained a light in some 
of the parish churches. The year is that 
-when the will was proved. 

At Biddenden was the light of St. Mary 
called "Young Men's Light" (1463); the 
light called " Young Men's Light " (149; 
and 1503) ; also " the Young Wemyn's 
Light" (1518). 

At Frettenden, in 1519, George a Forde 
gave a bequest to the light of the young men 
and to the light of the maidens. 

At Whitstable were the light of Our Lady 
" that the men doth keep " (1533) ; and Our 
Lady Light called " the Wymen's Light " 

At St. Mildred's in Canterbury was the 
" Cross Light " called the " Bachelors ' " 
<1503) ; also called the " Cross Light of 
Bachelors " (1515). 

At Faversham, Henry Hatche in 1533 
desired to be buried before the Bachelors' 

v. 490). No doubt the Gordon House which 
stands at the corner of Gordon House Lane, 
Highgate Road, is the one referred to. For a 
long time it served as two residences, but 
the entrance gates were shared jointly. 
There is every indication that in former 
years it was a mansion by itself. In 1819 
Kentish Town parish probably extended as 
iar north as this. As for the name, it may 
be conjectured that the original owner was 

ETON SWISHING (10 S. v. 489). Though 
I cannot give the reference asked for, the 
following may be of some interest. 

In The English Illustrated Magazine of 
November, 1884, is an article entitled ' A 
Visit to Eton,' by Mr. Mowbray Morris 
Among the illustrations is ' A Well-known 
Spot,' by Mr. H. Railton. This gives the 
block and certain birches ; but there is no 
one in the room. 

It ought not to be forgotten that the 
block was stolen by an enterprising boy 
some twenty-five years ago. A former 
block had been stolen, and another (earlier) 
had been destroyed. 

I remember showing a friend of mine 
many years ago some of the sights of Eton. 
When we got to the head master's room 
Tthe old lady in charge said, as she pointed 

out to us the new block, " Gentlemen used 
to cut bits off the old block and have them 
set in gold, and wear them on their watch- 
chains, but nobody seems to care about this 
one," i.e., the then new block. I had a 
pamphlet of which the title was if I remem- 
ber rightly ' How I stole the Block.' I 
regret that I gave it away. 

For other magazine articles about Eton 
and Etonians see 

Macmillari's, January, 1888. 

The English Illustrated, July, 1890. 

The Strand, November, 1895, and Febru- 
ary, 1901. 

The Pall Mall, August, 1900, and February, 

In The London Chronicle of 4-6 August, 
1757, i.e. vol. ii. p. 125, col. 2, is the following: 

"When the Irish are bragging of their Claret, it 
puts me always in Mind 01 an Eton Scholar, who 
every quarter pays for his own Rods." 
It is in a letter or article against the use of 
things imported from foreign countries. 


' A Boy being swished at Eton ' is the 
frontispiece of a little work on corporal 
punishment entitled ' A Century of School 
Punishments,' which bears the date 1875 
but no publisher's name. It contains 
several other illustrations of the manner of 
administering corporal punishment in our 
public schools. 

A pamphlet entitled ' The Rod For and 
Against' (Star Publishing Company, 1898), 
has several illustrations of Eton swishings 
of a more or less realistic character ; and a 
copy of ' The Rodiad ' I once picked up at a 
second-hand bookshop in Farringdon Road 
as frontispiece ' An Eton Swishing 
sketched by -sin Eyewitness.' 

I remember the article in a London 
magazine WINCHESTER inquires about, and 
cut it out at the time, but unfortunately 
omitted to preserve the name of the magazine. 
Was it Harmsworth's ? 


In Forests Sporting Notes and Sketches, 
ol. xxi. (1904) p. 246, is an article entitled 
Eton in the Sixties.' Facing p. 247 appears 
an illustration, ' In the Bill,' to which WIN- 
CHESTER is referred. R. L. MORETON. 

S. iv. 206, 317 ; v. 390, 471). The following 
extract from Carry le's ' Letters and Speeches 
>f Cromwell,' dated 2 Sept., 1648, may throw 
, little light on the parentage of Abigail Hill. 
Mention is made in it of " my Lord and Lady 
Mulgrave and Will Hill," and it is addressed 


.NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY u, im. 

*' For the Right Honourable the Lord 
Wharton " (Letter Ixviii.) : 

" ' Will Hill' is perhaps William Hill, a Puritan 
merchant in London, ruined out of ' a large estate ' 
by lending for the public service ; who this summer, 
and still in this very month, is dunning the Lords 
and Commons, the Lords with rather more effect, 
to try if they cannot give him some kind of 
payment, or shadow of an attempt at payment 
he having long lain in jail for want of his money. 
A zealous, religious, and now destitute and insolvent 
man ; known to Oliver ; and suggests himself 
along with the Mulgraves by the contrast of 
' Friends high and low.' Poor Hill did after infinite 
struggling get some kind of snacks at the Bishops' 
hands by and by (' Commons' Journals,' vi. 29, 243)." 

JOHN, LORD TREVOR (10 S. v. 508). 
The bust at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
which MR. PICKFORD mentions, is said in 
Le Keux's ' Memorials of Cambridge,' i. 61, 
to be that of " Thomas, Lord Trevor " ; 
and I suppose that Le Keux thereby meant 
Thomas, the second Lord Trevor of Bromham, 
who was of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
M.A. 1712. See 'Graduati Cantab.' (1823). 
His younger brother John, the third Lord, is 
not mentioned in the ' Graduati ' ; and 
their father Thomas, the first Lord, who was 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas 1701-14, 
was of Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
matriculated in 1673. See Foster's ' Alumni 
Oxon.' The third Lord, as " John Trevor, 
Esq., of the Inner Temple " (where he was 
admitted in 1712 : see ' Calendar of I.T. 
Records,' iii. 429), married Elizabeth Steele 
on 31 May, 1731, at St. Paul's Cathedral 
(Harl. Soc., Registers, xxvi. 99). H. C. 

INSTEAD OF FIGURES (10 S. v. 349, 413, 476). 
There is a clock in Southampton Street, 
Strand, on whose face the letters of " George 
Newnes " do duty as the figures (George 
Newnes, Limited, publishers). 

If my memory serves me rightly, the office 
of The Morning Post, when it was at the 
junction of Wellington Street and the 
Strand, had a clock outside with the figures 
represented by " Morning Post " plus (per- 
haps) an asterisk. The present temporary 
office of the newspaper has no such clock 

369, 410)." Tos " was, I think, loose wool, 
that either had been or required to be 
" toused " (i.e. pulled, teased). " Tozy " 
means woolly, curly. I have heard it as 
the name of a poodle. I do not know whether 
there may be any etymological connexion 
between the words " tos " and " to we," 

but in the ' Morebath Churchwardens* 
Accounts ' (Appendix to Devon Notes and 
Queries, July, 1903, pp. 74, 76) I see "iiij Ib. 
of lame towe and veil wolle," also " a lame- 

Coins whose edges had been fraudently- 
clipped were, of course, thereby reduced 
in value. The Pilton Churchwardens' Ac- 
counts have in 1508 " Item : for a lowans- 
of badde grotes cryppe, iijs. ijd.," the- 
editorial gloss being " clipped coin " (see- 
Som. Rec. Soc. vol. iv. p. 55). In South 
Tawton Churchwardens' Accounts, 1561 r 
I find an entry which seems to read : " Item. 
I ask alowans of xijs. [s. or d. ?] in batyng 
the forthynges off ij pens ferthynge cooyng,. 
which is the some of xviijd. [d. or s. ?]." An 
explanation of this somewhat puzzling: 
exercise in arithmetic would be welcome. 

Would not "an Abbott," under 1642/3^ 
represent a certain tithe or fee paid on this- 
land to a neighbouring abbey before the- 
Dissolution, and subsequently to the Crown? 
"Say" (1652/3) was a thin sort of stuff; 
" buccoram," buckram ; " caddas," a sort 
of braid or trimming. Thus the seats were* 
covered first with the buckram, fastened 
on with tacks ; then with the green say and 
caddas, studded with brass nails. 

M. E. N. 

" Staile " is still used for handle. At 
Haworth, Yorks, in the seventies, the boys, 
of the National school were accustomed to- 
taunt those of the Wesleyan school by 
shouting these lines : 

Methody Methody, mule-rort, lang-brush stail ; 
Five Kerns in a cake, and t' warst mak' o' male. 

A " mule-rort " would be a bray ; " kern '* 
is for currant ; " mak " means kind. 


CATEATON STREET (10 S. v. 429, 475, 497 r 
513). The name appears in Manchester 
street records for the first time in 1668, and 
has continued down to the present year. 
No satisfactory explanation of the meaning 
of Cateaton has yet been contributed by 
local antiquaries, but many curious guesses, 
have been made, ranging from the A.-S. catt^ 
to the Greek kata (down, under). Cateaton. 
Street, Manchester, was certainly in olden, 
times a hollow way or moat-like thorough- 
fare, with a roadway frequently under water 
from the drainage of the high banks on either 
side. Was this the character of the London 
Cateaton Street ? It is just possible, as- 
Mr. Roeder has pointed out, that the name- 
was brought to Manchester by Sir Edward 

10 s. vi. JULY 14, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Mosley (died 1665), who had property in this 
particular corner of our old town. As M.P 
for a Cornish constituency Sir Edward hac 
spent much of his time in London. In later 
Ttimes it is certain that many London street- 
Tiames were boldly transferred to the northern 
city, as witness our Manchester Piccadilly. 
Pall Mall, Chancery Lane, Bond Street, 
Cheapside, &c. There is also a Cateaton 
Street in Bury, Lancashire. G. H. R. 

517). As the sender of the query at 9 S. 
vii. 309 concerning this little-known author, 
I desire to thank A. S. for his interesting 
note. I may perhaps be allowed to supple- 
ment it by quoting from the 1629 edition 
of * Vade Mecum ' the preliminary address 

To the Christian Reader ' : 

" Not to derogate in any thing, from the worth 
of the Author, know that this Manual of Essayes 
was first composed by Mr. D. T. (a man whose 
pious endeauors in his Pastorall charge hitherto, 
and his both zeale and courage for the poore 
afflicted members of lesus Christ, hath of late* 
been sufficiently demonstrated. ) It was then Dedi- 
cated to a bright shining Light of this Church 
Militant here on earth, but since translated, and 
now more transparent in that Tryumphant one 
abpue. It hath layne a long time at the Pits 
brimme of Obliuion, and the reuolution of some 
more yeares (it is to bee doubted) would haue cast 
it in, and couered it quite ouer, had there not 
beene preuention. 

"It is now redeemed thence for thy sake, re- 
printed for thy benefit: It is Diuine and Morall, 
both Instruction and Direction, make it thy Vade 
Mecum. I will assume it to be worth thy labour. 
As for such passages where with it appeareth 
enlarged, they are but so many Flowers, gathered 
out of more copious Gardens, they are none of 
mine : Tali non dif/iiu* honore, I am not worthy of 
them, and haue therefore quoted my Authors in 
-the Margent, beeing such (as I hope) will not seeme 
to be any disparagement to the former Worke : 
Not to hold thee any longer in that, to which all 
this but introduceth, if the Booke please, goe but to 
Guild-Hall Gate, and there thou shalt finde it 
ready bound to thy hand : The price is not great, 
the Stationer may haue thy Money, but thou shalt 
haue the profit, And I in the meane time, shal rest 
still as euer, Thine, AXOXYM. MUSOPHIL." 

I may add that copies of D. T.'s works 
were in the library of the late G. W. Napier, 
a well-known collector and contributor to 
' N. & Q.,' and were sold by Messrs. Sotheby 
on 22 March, 1886. C. D. 

(10 S. v. 349, 391, 473). It may be well to 
mention that it was said at the time, I 
believe on good authority, that the ex-king 
assumed the name of Smith in imitation 

* "Before Rochel." 

of that of William Smith, F.R.S., 
the eminent geologist. I think there is 
some evidence for this in the memoir of 
Smith by John Phillips, F.R.S., which was 
issued in 1844. I cannot, however, speak 
on this point with absolute certainty, as 
nearly half a century must have passed 
since I read the book. K. P. D. E. 

A few days ago I saw a print (by E. 
Haumont, of Havre) of the steamer Express, 
1850. The inscription at the foot of this 
print may interest readers of ' N. & Q.' : 

" Steamer oui a transporte le Roi Louis Philippe 
et la Reine Marie Ame'lie du port du Havre a New- 
haven, le 2 mars, 1848, pendant la Revolution 




F. W. Paul, R.N., Commander. 
The steamer which conveyed King Louis Philippe 
and Queen Marie Amelie from the Port of Havre 
to Newhaven on the 2nd of March, 1848, during the 
French Revolution." 

F. P. 

" PIGHTLE " : " PIKLE " (10 S. v. 26, 93 
134, 174, 317, 376, 470). Painted on a 
tablet in Eversley Church is a catalogue of 
the gifts to the parish : and among others 
is the following : 

"M r Nicholas Parvis gave six shillings and eight 
pence per ann. to y e Poor for ever Payable ovit of 
one Piddle of ground & one piece of other ground 
called Kitscroft now in William Barnes to be dis- 
tributed upon Good Friday every yeare." 

Belonging to me in Yateley is a piece of 
and of three roods known as the Workhouse 
Piddle. This is the local pronunciation of 

Hilfield, Yateley, Hants. 

Pightle is not a rare word. I have before 
me a deed dated 1864 in which a field at 

3asingstoke is described as Joyce's Pightle. 

[ think Mr. Birrell calls his house at Shering- 
ham The Pightle. J. J. F. 

3. v. 488). At p. 4 of 'Muniments of the 
Family of Wingfield,' by Viscount Powers- 
:ourt, it is stated that Robert, son of Sir 
Robert Wingfield, and grandson of Sir 
Anthony Wingfield of Letheringham, died 
without issue. 

G. H. JOHNSTON, Lieut.-Col. 

v. 489). The passage beginning " Thee 

th the welcome Snowdrop I compare " is 
rom a sonnet of Wordsworth's, written in 
827, and entitled 'To - - in her Seven- 
eenth Year.' Under the title is the legend, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY u, 

" Lady Fitzgerald, as described to me by 
Lady Beaumont." The lyric is one of the 
" miscellaneous sonnets " included by the 
poet in that division of his work to which 
he gave the title ' Poems of the Imagination ' 
and it occurs on p. 657 of the single-volume 
edition of the ' Complete Poetical Works,' 
published in 1888 by Messrs. Macmillan 
with an introduction by Mr. John Morley. 

" This main miracle on the world " 

are the closing words of Tennyson's ' De 
Profundis ' (Macmillan's 1894 edition, p. 532). 
H. K. ST. J. S. 

' SUSSEX DRINKING-SONG ' (10 S. v. 508). 
The " Bridge," in the song to which 
H. K. ST. J. S. refers in his very nattering 
query, is Houghton Bridge, over the Arun : 
a bridge remarkable in Sussex landscape 
because it stands at the entry of Arun Gap, 
one of the finest and most secluded of English 
valleys. This bridge is of interest in history : 
it stands on the site of what is probably a 
prehistoric crossing of the Arun, and it is 
also the bridge by which Charles II. escaped 
after Worcester to Shoreham, where he 

The inn there, on the left or eastern bank, 
kept by Mr. Duke, will bear out my verse. 


90, 116, 174, 454). I have frequently heard 
a near relative of mine, who arrived at 
Hongkong in 1851, and finally quitted the 
colony for England in 1853, refer to the 
embarrassments that at that date arose 
from the use of pidgin English in European 
households. She always spoke of the jargon 
itself as pidgin English, and never as Canton 
English. The best authorities as to the 
actual adoption of the name in print to 
whom I can refer DR. MURRAY are the 
editors of the following papers : North 
China Herald, China Mail, London and 
China Telegraph, and London and China 
Express. N. W. HILL. 


MEDICAL CORONER (10 S. v. 489; vi. 
13). Would not the occasion of the 
coroner's office being first confined to the 
medical profession date from a decision in 
the negative (Reg. v. Herford 6 Jur. N.S. 750 ; 
29 L. J., Q. B. 249) as to whether coroners 
had authority to inquire of arsons, and to 
hold inquests in case of fire ? This is now 
provided against, says Mr. Rudolph Wels- 
heimer, in sec. 44 of the present Act, which 
limits the authority of coroners to inquisi- 

tions of death. See ' The Coroners' Act, r 
by Sir John Jervis, 1888, fifth ed., p. 4. 


NORTH SEA BUBBLE (10 S. v. 509). If 
POLITICIAN is interested in Bubbles generally,, 
he should consult the ' Historical Register/ 
1720, pp. 289-96. He will find there a list 
of 18 projects, the petitions for which were 
dismissed on 12 July, 1720, by the Lords 
Justices in Council ; also a list of about 85- 
Bubbles already " set up and carry'd on," 
including the well-known one " For carrying 
on an undertaking of great Advantage, but 
no body to know what it is." 


(10 S. v. 489). MR. MACLEAN should try 
the War Office, though my experience tells 
me that he must not be sanguine of finding^ 
papers of disbanded corps. Why not 
inquire, too, of the Assistant Secretary,. 
Chelsea Hospital, where are retained th& 
only Invalid Companies ? 


S. v. 428, 477). I am obliged to J. F. R. 
and MR. W. M. ROSSETTI for their kind 
replies to my query, especially to the former 
for sending me to my copy of the Cornell 
catalogue. I detect a slight error in this 
admirable production: " pp. viii-|-100 " 
should be pp. viii+102. I share the hope of 
MR. ROSSETTI that some day the two remain- 
ing ' Ragionamenti.' will be given to the- 
world. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

v. 163, 432, 476, 497). I have a copy of 
' Lieut. -Colonel John Lilburn Tryed and 
Cast ; or, his Case and Craft Discovered,* 
1653, 4to, which contains in a contemporary 
hand the signature of John Custis. I have 
no means of proving who this person was, 
but think he was in all probability a Lin- 
colnshire man. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Wickentree House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

TIANITY " (10 S. v. 270, 416, 492). It is 
more likely that the blank in Goethe's 
epigram should be filled with the word 
" Pfaffen," a contemptuous expression for a 
priest, like the English " shaveling " and 
" massmonger." Those who invented the 
vilest libels against Luther would certainly 
distort any expression of Goethe's. 

M. N. G. 

10 s. vi. JULY K, 



The Proverbs, Epigrams, and Miscellanies of John 

Htywood. Edited by John S. Farmer. (Early 

English Drama Society.) 
The Dramatic Writings of Ufpian Fulwell. (Same 

Editor and Publishers.) 

UNDER the careful supervision of Mr. John S. 
Farmer two important additions have been made 
to the well-conceived and admirably executed 
series of " Early English Dramatists." Among the 
literary figures of the sixteenth century John 
Heywood stands prominent, and to him is accorded 
the place of honour in the collection. A previous 
volume was occupied with his dramatic writings, 
while the present gives those miscellaneous works 
by which he is perhaps most familiar. Hey wood's 
position in regard to the drama is best exemplified 
in his interludes, which constitute the nearest 
approach to comedy that the early stage presents. 
A sort of quasi-dramatic shape is assigned 'A 
Dialogue,' with which the present volume begins. 
A veritable mine of old proverbs (introduced mostly 
in rime) is found in this portion. Its value in this 
respect is known, and it furnishes the basis of 
every book on proverbial lore. A singularly early 
(but not the earliest recorded) use of "liger de 
maine " (legerdemain) is encountered in No. 68 of 
the first 'Hundred of Epigrams' (p. 143). Many 
of the epigrams are humorous, while some have an 
underlying vein of pathos. A special feature in 
this, as in preceding volumes, is the ' Notebook, 
Word-List, and Index,' which, in addition to its 
other merits, serves as a glossary. It occupies 
between one and two hundred pages. 

Ulpian Fulwell will be strange to most students 
of the drama. His name stands opposite ' Like 
will to Like, quod the Devil to the Colier,' a 
realistic drama illustrating the doctrine inculcated 
in the first half of the title : 

Your Collier of Croydon hath sold his coals 
And made his market to-day, 
And now he danceth with the Devil, 

For like will like alway. 

Fulwell, concerning whom little is known, was, to 
judge by the dialect employed, a Somersetshire 
man, and was rector of Naunton, in Gloucester- 
shire. He was also, says Mr. Farmer, author of 
the ' First Parte of the right liberal science : 
Entituled Ars adulandi,' which ran into three 
editions between 1576 and 1580. Nichol Newf angle 
is in this the name of the Vice. 

Subscribers to this precious collection are to be 
congratulated upon the rapid progress that is being 
made with it. 

The Place-Name* of Bedfordshire. By the Rev. 

W. W. Skeat, Litt.D. (Cambridge, Deighton, 

Bell & Co.) 

IF some benevolent autocrat in days gone by had 
decreed that no man should presume to produce a 
book on place-names until he had first proved his 
fitness for the work by a special study of general 
etymology, we should have been spared many 
worthless treatises which darken counsel with 
words without knowledge. We should have been 
saved from such fictitious forms as Leighton 
Beaudesert, which imposed on the lettered public 

bfttfv I 19 ' y^the country folk, knowing 
better, and ignoring the ingenious bookman, went 
calmly on saying Leighton Buzzard, as their fathers, 
did before them. We are grateful, therefore, when 
one so splendidly equipped for the undertaking as 
of Pi -11 r S h - 1S attenti n to this department 

serv oi ' gy ^ H r-!? S f rea dy Performed the same 
^ce for Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, and 
Hertfordshire, he now brings his search-light to 
bear on the dark places of Bedfordshire topography 
with illuminating results. He judiciously discusses, 
the place-names under the heading of the suffixes 
-banyh -cote -ford, &c., which will enable the 
investigator of names in other counties con- 
veniently to compare and match them with thoL 
here given, win e a general index enables him to. 
turn to the nommant prefix. 

As some specimens of Prof. Skeat's conclusions, 
we may note that Bedford was originally the ford 
of Beda ; Stagsden, " the dene or valley of one 
btache or Eustache ; Pertonhall, "the heaJe or 
nook of Pearta ; while Souldrop (a word which 
any minor poet might welcome into his passionate 
vocabulary) is merely" dirty village," sul-thorp! 

X an -L? S J OW must in Saxon times hav e meant 
^linoth s stow, just as Elstree is known to have 

PrS < f^L 1 - S , tre l- In discussing Melchbourne- 
Prof. Skeat thinks that melch as a dialect word is 
only applied to fruit or eatables (p. 6). Surely this 
s to restrict the meaning of the word unduly It 
is most commonly applied to weather that is soft 
and mild. In Yorkshire and other northern counties 
a melch, day is one that is damp and warm. 

A Manual of Costume as illustrated Ini Monu- 
More PrsT e ' S '' ^ Hefbert Druitt - (De La 
THIS is an excellent work of reference which no 
one who takes an interest in monumental brasses 
or the history of English costume should fail to- 
possess. It contains a large number of repro- 
ductions of rubbings and photographs, but we 
regret to say that many of them are not so clear as 
they might be. For the sake of accommodating their 
size to that of an octavo volume, the more minute 
detail of the figures is not seldom rendered obscure 
When the reproduction is on a scale so much 
smaller than the originals, we do not see how it 
could have been otherwise. 

The arrangement of the text is wise. To have 
based it on chronology alone would have been a 
serious mistake, Mr. Druitt has classified the 
objects he deals with under Ecclesiastical, Aca- 
demical, Military, Civilian, and Female, and has 
wisely thought it not becoming to dwell on the 
beauty or ugliness of long-disused modes of dress. 
Ihis is doubtless the right course to follow in a 
scientific manual, but we cannot help remarking 
how much more attractive the earlier examples 
are than those of a later time. Degradation began 
to take place towards the end of the fifteenth 
century, and went on steadily until memorial 
brasses ceased to be used. Let any one who requires 
proof of this compare the brass of Dame Margaret 
Cpbham, 139o with that of Alice, Lady Norton, 
Io80, or of Johanna, Lady Brooke, 1618. These 
we need hardly say, are by no means the most 
striking contrasts that could be produced. 

Had the Introduction been published separately it 
would have formed by itself a most interesting essay. 
It abounds with noteworthy facts, many of which 
have not fallen under the attention of the ordinary 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 s. vi. JULY u, im. 

reader. The author, for example, tells some pitiable 
stories of wanton destruction occurring in times 
which it is still the fashion to regard as civilized. 
For example, in the last year of the eighteenth 
century the chancel of Ingham, in Norfolk, was 
-cleared of all the memorials of the Stapleton family, 
which were sold for what they would fetch as old 
metal. A little more than twenty years antecedent 
to this a similar atrocity was perpetrated at Sheepy 
Magna, in Leicestershire. 

Mr. Druitt gives an excellent engraving ot the 
brass of Andrew of Evyngar and Ellyn his wife, 
which exists in the church of All Hallows Barking ; 
its date is about 1536. It is a beautiful work of 
.art, wherein Gothic and Renaissance ideas are most 
-curiously blended. It is, moreover, noteworthy as 
being, so far as we are aware, the only surviving 
monumental brass in England on which is repre- 
sented the dead Christ on His mother's lap. Such 
brasses must once have been not uncommon. We 
know that one formerly existed in Hereford Cathe- 
dral as part of a memorial to Bishop Mayo or 
Mayew, who died in 1516. Wills, inventories, and 
churchwardens' accounts testify that this subject 
was frequently represented by sculpture in churches 
.and chantries in days before the Reformation. 

.List of Inscriptions on Tombs or Monuments in 
Madras. By Julian James Cotton, C.S. (Madras.) 
THIS valuable and pathetic volume contains all 
epitaphs of adults earlier than 1800 buried in the 
Madras Presidency, and such entries of later date as 

Sossess historical or local interest. It is, with 
le ' List of Inscriptions on Tombs or Monuments 
in Bengal,' edited a decade ago by Mr. C. R. Wilson, 
rto which it is a companion volume, the most im- 
portant effort yet made to preserve the crumbling 
memorials of Europeans who died in India, and is 
due to a systematic recension of inscriptions from 
European graveyards throughout India, which has 
been made at the instance of the Secretary of State, 
.and so carries with it official authority. It is impos- 
sible to attempt to do justice to a work that, besides 
its poignant interest for individuals, supplies much 
matter indisi>ensable for the historian: "Con- 
sidered to-day as the only witness that there ever 
was a Danish East India Company, Tranquebar has 
^become even more of a city of the dead than Seram- 
pore, in Bengal, and is famous solely for its mis- 
sionaries. No less than seventeen of these Halle 
magisters lie buried in its graveyards, and pious 
hands annually repaint the letters on their tombs." 
No inconsiderable contributions are made to South 
Indian notabilities by the Huguenots. Of these 
the Carnacs became such a power in the land that 
the origin of the name Carnatic was popularly 
.assigned them. Very pathetic is it to see the early 
age at which the deaths appear, especially of the 
military. Valuable notes are added to numerous 
names. Many of the monuments are erected to 
officers by their comrades. Conspicuous among the 
monuments in St. George's Cathedral is that with 
its Latin inscription to Bishop Heber. We despair 
of conveying an adequate idea of the contents of 
this volume, many of which speak for themselves. 

'Trdawnif* Recollections of the Laxt Day* of Shelley 
and Byron. With Introduction by Edward 
Dowden. (Frowde.) 

SHELLEY worshippers will welcome the appearance, 
in so attractive a form, of Trelawny s ' Recol- 
lections,' with the original illustrations. To the 

merits of this book, in its way a classic, Prof. 
Dowden bears an eloquent tribute in his intro- 
duction. As he justly says, the book gives us 
"three living and breathing figures: one as 
Trelawny conceived him, not without certain 
innocent and attaching human infirmities, yet admir- 
able and lovable in noble and beautiful manhood ; 
the second, of the breed of the Titans, but a Titan 
deformed in mind as well as in body; the third, 
Trelawny himself, the adventurer of romance, 
generous, courageous, self-willed, with a touch of 
devil-may-care-recklessness and pride." The man 
who plucked from the flames the heart of Shelley, 
and who uncovered the dead feet of Byron, has a 
message to the world, and this book is more 
interesting even than his ' Adventures of a Younger 
Son,' which has been favourably compared with the 
work of Robert Louis Stevenson. Nowhere do we 
come so close to the real Shelley as in the charming 
volume now reprinted. 


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COL. DURAND ("Billycock hat"). The derivation 
of this name from "Billy Coke" Mr. William 
Coke was put forward at 6 S. ii. 355. See, how- 
ever, 6 S. ii. 224 ; the ' N.E.D.,' which favours the 
derivation from butty-cocked ; and vol. i. of Farmer's 
' Slang and its Analogues.' 

W. MERCER ("Apres moi le deluge"). There is 
a full discussion of this saying in the third edition 
(1904) of King's ' Classical and Foreign Quotations.' 

INQUIRER, Dunedin, New Zealand. We cannot 
trace the Ambidextral Association in the 'Post 
Office Directory ' or in ' The Year-Book of Scientific 
and Learned Societies.' 

M. B. ("Avalon"). See the articles at 8 S. vii. 
211 and the books there mentioned. 


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CONTENTS. No. 134. 

JfOTES : The Author of ' A Yorkshire Tragedy,' 41 White 
Family of Southwick, 43 Signs of Old London, 45 Jean 
d'Etcheberry Jowett of Trinity Hall and the Epigram 
on his "Little Garden"" Ikona," South African Term 
'Piers the Plowman,' 46 Fielding's First Marriage 
" Arrival " : " Departure," 47. 

QUERIES : Defoe Tracts Monumental Brasses, 47 
"Dish of turnips" Churches and Post Cards Genea- 
logyAuthors of Quotations Wanted Henry Paulett 
StT John, B.N., 48 The Three Choirs Catte Street- 
Col. Charles Godfrey Double-barrelled Opera-Glasses 
Darkness in London, 49 Swift's Concealment of his 
Marriage Pincushion Sweet P. B., Translator, 1708, 50. 

HEPLIES : Cresset Stones, 50 " Plew " Early Latin- 
English-Basque Dictionary Right to Arms, 51 St. An- 
drew's, Antwerp Floral Emblems of Countries Lafon- 
taine's Milkmaid Houses of Historical Interest" Rime " 
v. " Rhyme," 52 Christopher Martin and the Defence of 
St. John's, Newfoundland Royal Arms in Churches, 53 
Miller of Hide Hall Ropes used at Executions Funeral 
Invitations in Scotland Samuel Williams, Draughts- 
man, 54' Home, Sweet Home ' Santorin and St. Irene 
Xavier de Maistre's Allusions Wall Family " Swerve " 
Chepstow Castle and Sir Nicholas Kemeys, 55 Lieut. - 
General Henry Hawley Burney Family " Duma," 56 
"O dear, what can the matter be?" Gatton Inscrip- 
tion, 57. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' A New English Dictionary on 
Historical Principles '' The Sketch-Book. ' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
JVotices to Correspondents. 


OF all the doubtful plays ascribed to 
Shakespeare none is more remarkable, or 
has been thought to have a better title to 
be considered (at least in pe,rt) the work 
of the great dramatist, than ' A Yorkshire 
Tragedy.' Hitherto no one has given a 
probable guess at the real author of the 

S'ay. This is the more curious because 
r. Fleay, in his ' Biographical Chronicle 
of the English Drama,' after reciting a 
number of circumstances which should have 
led him to " spot " the author, avows himself 
unable to do so. " Although I give way," 
he says, 

""before this external evidence, and reluctantly 
admit Shakespeare's authorship of this Yorkshire 
play, I have not cancelled my previous efforts to 
land another author. There may be some possibility 
that such author may be found, though I do not 
dare to hope for it." 

What Mr. Fleay did not dare to hope for 
I have, I believe, discovered ; and I believe, 
moreover, that the evidences which I can 
produce of the reality of my discovery are 
so convincing that my conclusion can hardly 

be disputed. Those evidences I now propose 
to state as briefly as possible, reserving a 
fuller demonstration for another occasion. 

Circumstances which I need not stop to 
recount led me recently to read for the first 
time George Wilkins's play entitled ' The 
Miseries of Inforst Marriage.' When I had 
done this it struck me that there was a great 
resemblance between this play and ' A 
Yorkshire Tragedy,' although some years 
had elapsed since I had read the latter. It 
is not a play, however, which is easily for- 
gotten, and when I read it again I found 
that my memory had not deceived me. In 
short, it took me but a little while to come 
to the conclusion that the two plays were 
written by one and the same author. What 
led me to this conclusion I will now relate, 
not, however, producing all the evidence at 
my command, but only pointing out the 
leading facts for the benefit of those who 
desire to study the question for themselves. 

Any one who will take the trouble to read 
the two plays will be struck by one quality 
which they have in common. It is hard to 
express this quality in a word, but let me 
term it intensity. I mean by this that 
elemental power which is the most striking 
characteristic of ' Wuthering Heights,' and 
which makes the reading of that novel an 
unforgettable experience. The leading cha- 
racters of Wilkins's plays, like those of 
' Wuthering Heights,' are creatures of im- 
pulse and passion, and not reasonable beings. 
They go forward, dominated by their 
passions, to an inevitable doom.* Again, 
any one studying the plays will become 
conscious of the fact that the author, though 
a writer of much power and vigour, had 
little refinement of feeling or, to put the 
case more strongly, was a somewhat coarse- 
minded and coarse-natured man. This, as 
it seems to me, is the one thing that renders 
it impossible that Shakespeare could have 
written (I do not say could not have revised) 
' A Yorkshire Tragedy.' He could not have 
drawn the character of the brutal husband 
in that play without having introduced 
some touches that would have relieved and 
humanized it. 

Passing from these points (which might 
be much enlarged upon), let us proceed to 
examine the style of the plays, and the par- 
ticular mannerisms of their author. Here 

* It is true that ' The Miseries of Inforst Marriage ' 
ends in happiness of a sort ; but this ending, as Mr. 
Fleay has shown, and as any reader can see for him- 
self, is not the true one. The play, as originally 
written, ended tragically ; and it is most unfortunate 
that the author spoiled it by altering the conclusion. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 21, 

again we shall find a perfect consonance of 
qualities in them. In both there are many 
riming passages, many broken lines, and a 
general resemblance in the movement and 
cadence of the verse. Both, too, have a 
good many prose passages the style of which 
(supposing that Shakespeare did not revise 
or touch up the plays) is evidently imitated 
from the prose passages in Shakespeare's 
dramas. Let the reader compare the two 
following passages, and ask himself whether 
they do not exhibit such similarities of 
manner and expression as to lead to the 
conclusion that both of them must have 
proceeded from the same brain and pen : 

Scarborough. Trouble me not, 
Give me peri, incke, and paper, I will write to her. 

! but what shall I write ? 

Mine owne excuse ; why no excuse can serve 

For him that sweares, and from his Oath doth 

swerve ! 

Or shall I say my marriage was inforst ? 
'Twas bad in them, not well in me, to yeeld : 
Wretched they two whose marriage was compeld : 
He onely write that which my grief e hath bred : 
Forgive me Clare, for I am married : 
'Tis soone set downe, but not so soone forgot, or 

worne from hence. 

Deliver it unto her ; there's for thy paines : 
Would I as soone could cleanse these perjur'd 


' Miseries of Inforst Marriage,' Act II. 
Huxband. Why sit my hairs upon my cursed head ? 
Will not this poison scatter them ? my brother 's 
In execution among devils that 
Stretch him and make him give ; and I in want 
Not able to relieve, nor to redeem him ! 
Divines and dying men may talk of hell, 
But in my heart its several torments dwell ; 
Slavery and misery. Who, in this case, 
Would not take up money iipon his soul ? 
Pawn his salvation, live at interest? 

1 that did ever in abundance dwell, 

For me to want exceeds the throes of hell. 

' A Yorkshire Tragedy,' sc. iv. 

The above are typical extracts, which 
have not been selected, but chosen almost 
at random : in fact, almost any two passages 
taken from the two plays would serve the 
purpose equally well. 

As I have stated already, there are in 
both plays many riming passages, some 
instances cf which the reader will have 
noticed in the above extracts. As before, 
I give an instance from each of the plays. 
In the first extract a father whose daughter 
has committed suicide because her lover, 
enforced by his guardians, has married 
another, expresses his grief : 

Thou hast no tongue to answer No, or I, [aye] 

But in red letters writes, For him I die. 

Curse on his traitorous tongue, his youth, his blood, 

His pleasures, children, and possessions ; 

Be all his dayes like Winter, comfortlesse, 

Restless his nights, his wants remorcelesse, 

And may his corps be the Physicians stage, 
Which plaid upon stands not to honoured age : 
Or with diseases may he lie and pine, 
Till griefe wax blind, his eyes as it doth mine. 

' The Miseries of Inforst Marriage,' Act II. 

In the next extract the Husband, who has 
murdered his two children, expresses his- 
repentance : 

0, that I might my wishes now attain, 
I should then wish you living were again, 
Though I did beg with you, which thing I fear'd r 
O, 'twas the enemy my eyes so blear'd ! 
O, would you could pray heaven me to forgive, 
That will unto the end repentant live ! 

' A Yorkshire Tragedy,' sc. x. 

I do not think I am wrong in believing that 
in the fourth line of the above extract there 
is an intentional allusion to the last line of 
the extract from ' The Miseries.' ' A York- 
shire Tragedy,' in fact, is not so much a 
complete play in itself as the true last act of 
' The Miseries.' 

I hope that the reader who has gone so- 
far with me will at least allow that I have 
already made out a case for consideration,, 
if no more than that. I am willing, how- 
ever, to admit, that the arguments I have 
advanced might still permit a reasonable- 
doubt to be entertained on the matter ; but 
fortunately I have one in reserve which is- 
(as I conceive) conclusive. There is one 
peculiarity in the plays under notice which 
is hardly to be accounted for on any theory 
save that of their common origin. This 
peculiarity consists in a trick of repetition 
of words and phrases, of which there are in 
both plays many examples. The following 
specimens are chosen just as they occur in 
' The Miseries ' : 
You shall : you shall be my Master, sir. 
Lie with my wife, and get more bastards. Do, do, do. 
What will you give me ? What will you give me f 

What will you give me ? 
Their soules, their soules, their soules. 
That 's good, that 's good. 

These examples are all taken from the 
fifth act of ' The Miseries.' I have not 
counted all the instances in that play ; but 
there must be at least fifty of them. They 
are equally abundant (comparatively) in 
' A Yorkshire Tragedy,' from which the 
following instances are selected : 

I 'm damn'd, I *m damn'd ; 
The angels have forsook me. Nay, it is 
Certainly true ; for he that has no coin, 
Is damn'd in this world ; he is gone, he 's gone. 
A vengeance strip thee naked ! thou art the cause, 
The effect, the quality, property ; thou, thou, thou.. 
Money, money, money ; and thou must supply me. 
Puh ! bastards, bastards, bastards ; begot in tricks, 
begot in tricks. 

10 s. vi. JULY 21, i906.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

A trouble, trouble ! Three children, like three evils, 
Hang on me. Fie, fie. fie ! Strumpets & bastards. 

Is it necessary for me to say anything 
more in support of my contention that George 
Wilkins was the author of 'A Yorkshire 
Tragedy ' ? Or is it possible to explain 
the remarkable points of resemblance 
between the two plays on any other theory 
than that of their common origin ? I 
think not ; but if any one wants further 
proofs, I will undertake to furnish them. 

If it is allowed (as I think it must be) 
that George Wilkins was the author of ' A 
Yorkshire Tragedy,' it is obvious that he 
must in future take a much higher rank in 
our estimation than he has hitherto done. 
The author of a play which has been thought 
not unworthy of Shakespeare must have had 
powers within him which, owing to some 
unfortunate circumstances, never came to 
their full development. Of his personal 
history we know absolutely nothing ; but 
from the fact that all the plays with which 
he is known to have been connected were 
produced in 1607 and 1608, we may fairly 
conclude that he was then, in all probability, 
a young man. Whether his career was cut 
short by death, or whether he simply ceased 
to write, we cannot tell ; but it seems most 
reasonable to suppose that one who made 
so promising a beginning would have gone 
on to further triumphs had he lived. 

What share (if any) Shakespeare had in 
the production of these plays must remain 
uncertain. But there are so many passages 
in them which seem to bear the stamp 
of the great dramatist's style that I can 
hardly doubt that they received the benefit 
of his revision, and were most likely fitted 
for the stage by him. That Wilkins col- 
laborated with Shakespeare, not only in 
Timon of Athens ' and ' Pericles ' (which 
has been previously suspected, though never 
proved), but also in ' Macbeth ' (with which 
no one has thought before of connecting him), 
I believe I shall be able to show clearly and 

[conclusively on a future occasion. 

AT 10 S. iv. 473 H. C. expressed an opinion 
that some account of John White of South- 
wick, and his family, would be welcomed 
by readers of ' N. & Q.' Unfortunately, 
very little is known concerning this man, 
and the following notes have been delayed 
in the hope that a further search would 
discover his parentage, and decide the ques- 
tion as to whether he was, or was not, 
descended from either of the well-known 

families of the same name at Farnham and 
South Warnborough ; but this it has failed 
to do. 

Some information concerning his relatives 
and his early life is to be gathered from his 
will. He bequeaths a small sum to the 
poor of Havant, " where," he says, " I was 
born and baptized " ; to the poor of Heston 
and Hounslow, in Middlesex, " emonges 
whom I did dwell 7 years " ; and to the 
poor of Farlington, " where I was first 
married." He mentions his brothers Ralph 
Henslowe and Francis Robins ; his cousins- 
Henry Bickley and Dr. Thomas White,. 
Warden of the" New College in Oxford ; and 
his friends the Earl of Leicester ; Sir 
William Cecil, Kt., the Queen's secretary 
(to whom he leaves a colt " for the friend- 
ship I have always found in him, with most 
hearty request to extend his favour towards 
my son in the office of Wards and Liveries "); 
Mr. William Uvedale and his wife ; Mr. 
Anthonie Coope and his wife ; and some 
others. A few notes respecting these persons 
and places, showing a connexion with the 
South Warnborough and Farnham families, 
may be the means of eliciting some informa- 
tion concerning his parents. 

Havant is some five or six miles south- 
east of Southwick, and belonged before the 
Reformation to St. Swithun's Priory at 
Winchester, the Bishop of Winchester being 
the lord of the manor. It was bounded on 
the east by the manor of Lymbourne,. 
belonging to the Pound family, and by 
Warblington, a lordship which had fallen to 
the Crown by the attainder of Edward 
Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick, in 1499, and' 
was granted to his sister Margaret, widow 
of Sir Richard Pole, K.G., with other lands, 
on her being created Countess of Salisbury 
in 1513. Warblington Castle was, according 
to Sir John Oglander, built by her for a 
residence ; it was here she was arrested in 
1539, and, after her execution two years 
later, the lordship and castle were granted 
by Henry VIII. to his favourite Sir Richard 
Cotton. On the west Havant was bounded 
by Bedhampton, then belonging to the Coope 
family. William Coope, Constable of Port- 
Chester Castle, and Lieutenant of Southbere 
Forest (which extended from Bedhampton 
to beyond Southwick), died in 1513. He 
was one of the executors of the will of Sir 
Reginald Bray. By his wife Barbara 
Quarles he was father of Stephen Coope, 
who succeeded him as Constable of Port- 
chester Castle and Lieutenant of Southbere 
Forest. Stephen married Anne, daughter 
of William Saunders, of Banbury, and aunt 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 21, 1006. 

of Sir Anthony Cooke, and died in 1534 
leaving his Bedhampton estates to his son 
Anthony, who, with his wife (Anne, daughter 
of Sir Humphrey Stafford, of Blatherwick) 
is mentioned in the will of John White oi 
South wick. 

Heston is a parish in Middlesex, of which 
Hounslow was then a chapelry. The living 
was in the gift of Winchester College. In 
1529 Thomas White, M.A., was collated to 
the vicarage of Heston, and in 1532 to the 
vicarage of Hampton on Thames ; he 
resigned the latter in 1541, and the former 
in 1550 (Hennessy's ' Nov. Rep. Eccl. Par. 
Lond.,' pp. 192, 218). It would appear, 
therefore, that John White of Southwick 
was a near relative (perhaps a younger 
brother) of this vicar, and that it was during 
the seven years immediately preceding his 
marriage that he lived here. 

Possibly this Thomas White was the 
scholar admitted to Winchester College in 
1508 from " Haverhill." Mr. Kirby has 
very kindly examined the original register 
at the College, and he informs me that the 
description of Thomas White is " de Ha. . . . 
films tenentis Wynton." The place-name 
he is not certain about, and he thinks it may 
perhaps be intended for Havant, as it bears 
a certain resemblance to the " Hauantt " 
-after Edward More's name in 1492, although 
it is quite unlike the " Havant " after another 
^scholar's name in 1509. Strange to say, 
JTohn White of Southwick appears to have 
been connected with both Havant and 
Haverhill ; the latter, now a town of several 
thousand inhabitants, was apparently at 
that time only a small hamlet, in the parish 
of Sturmer, on the borders of Essex and 
Suffolk. John Doreward, who died in 
February, 1496, by his will directed that 
his manor of Sturmere, held of the Duke of 
Buckingham, as of the manor of " Ha very 11 
Halle," should remain, after the death of 
Margery his wife, to John Wingfield and 
Margaret his wife, his cousin, and their issue 
male (Cal. Inq. p.m. Henry VII., No. 1,144). 
-John Wingfield was brother of Lewis Wing- 
field, the father-in-law of John White of 
Southwick. Robert Wingfield, of Upton, 
first cousin of John and Lewis, married 
Margery Quarles, aunt of Barbara, wife of 
William Coope, of Bedhampton (Metcalfe's 
' Visitations Northants,' p. 192) ; and their 
son Robert Wingfield married Elizabeth, 
sister of S'r William Cecil, Kt., the Queen's 
secretary, mentioned in the will of John 
White. Anne Cecil, another sister, was the 
wife of Thomas White, of Tuxford, Notts, 
son of Nicholas White, of Suffolk, and 

possibly related to John White of Southwick, 
for Sir Daniel Norton, who married Honor 
White, writing in 1609 to Lord Salisbury 
(Sir William Cecil's son), claimed to be re- 
lated to him through his wife (Dom. St. 
Papers, 23 Aug., 1609). 

The immediate predecessor of Thomas 
White in the vicarage of Heston was Edward 
More, a Winchester scholar from Havant 
in 1492, and elected Warden of Winchester 
College in 1526. It may be only a coincidence 
that on the death of Edward More, in 1541, 
John White of Farnham (afterwards Bishop 
of Winchester) succeeded him as Warden 
of Winchester College, and Thomas White 
resigned the vicarage of Hampton. 

According to the pedigree of White of 
South Warnborough given by Berry in frs 
' Hampshire Pedigrees,' p. 241, Richard 
White, brother of Robert White (1455-1512), 
of South Warnborough, settled in Essex, and. 
married Mary (or Maud), daughter of Sir 
William Tyrell, of that county ; her brother 
Sir Thomas Tyrell died in 1476, and in the 
list of estates owned by him are found lands 
at Wickford, Essex, and also the manor of 
Avon, with other lands near Christchurch, 
Hants (Inq. p.m. 16 Edw. IV.). In 1511 
the manor of Wickford, Essex, came by 
inheritance to William Pound, of Drayton, 
father-in-law of John White of Southwick ; 
and at Avon resided Sir Edward Berkeley 
and his wife Christina, daughter of Richard 
Holt, and aunt of William Pound. Lora, 
daughter of Sir Edward Berkeley, married 
John Blount, Lord Mount joy, whose niece 
Elizabeth was the wife of Andrews, Lord 
Windsor, of Stan well, Middlesex. Lord 
Windsor owned lands in Heston parish, and 
was buried in Hounslow Chapel in 1543, 
during the vicariate of Thomas White ; his 
family had long held lands in Hampshire, 
and lie was related to Nicholas Fauconer, 
Ranger of East and West Forest, Hants, 
who was buried in Southwick Church temp. 
Edw. VI. (see Fauconer pedigree in Sir 
Thomas Phillipps's ' Vis. Hants ' : the 
exact relationship is doubtful, as there is 
evidently an error in the pedigree). His 
Brother Sir Anthony Windsor married first 
Elizabeth Lovell, niece of Katherine (Hussey), 
vife of Sir Reginald Bray, and secondly 
Anne Troyes, a sister-in-law of William 
Pound, of Drayton. His eldest son, William, 
second Lord Windsor, married (as his third 
wife) Elizabeth Cowdray, granddaughter of 
Robert White, of South Warnborough. 

Dr. Nicholas Harpesfield was vicar of 
Havant from 1526 to 1548 ; he was an 
overseer of the will of his cousin Richard 

10 s. vi. JULY 2 i, 1906.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


Norton, of East Tisted, father of Isabel 
Norton, the third wife of John White of 
Southwick. He was a Wykehamist, and 
was born at the manor house of " Wichford " 
(perhaps Wyeford, in Tadloy), Hants, the 
residence of his uncle William More. His 
aunt Jane (Norton) was the second wife of 
Edward, Viscount Lisle, and thus step- 
mother of Elizabeth Grey, wife of Edmond 
Dudley, and afterwards of Sir Arthur Plan- 
tagenet, of Drayton, who was created 
Viscount Lisle in 1523. Aunt Jane was also 

fodmother of Reginald Bray, nephew of 
ir Reginald Bray (see Baigent's ' History 
of Wyke '). Richard Norton, elder brother 
of Isabel, married Erne, or Emlyn, Welles, 
daughter of Thomas Welles, of Brambridge, 
and first cousin of Dr. John White of Farn- 
ham, Bishop of Winchester. 

Ralph Henslowe, John White's " brother," 
was of Boarhunt, adjoining Southwick, and 
married Clare Pound, half-sister of Katherine, 
the first wife of John White (see 9 S. vii. 436 
and 10 S. iv. 270). 

Francis Robins was a tailor who settled 
at Portsmouth shortly before 1553, when 
he was admitted a burgess of the town ; he 
died about 1575, apparently without issue. 

Henry Bickley was the eldest son of 
Thomas Bickley, of Portsmouth, by Anne, 
daughter of John de Port, and was one of 
the largest owners of property in the town ; 
he was Mayor in 1539, 1546, and 1551, and 
represented the borough in Parliament in 
1553. His relationship to John White was 
perhaps only through his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Brune, of Rowner, Hants, 
and granddaughter of Nicholas Tichborne 
by his wife Anne, daughter of Robert White, 
of South Warnborough. 

Dr. Thomas White, Warden of New College 
Oxford, according to a pedigree in Hutchins's 
' History of Dorset/ i. 154, belonged to the 
Farnham family ; but the information given 
in this pedigree cannot be relied on. He 
was a Winchester scholar, from Leckford, 
Hants, aged twelve in 1526 ; Prebendary of 
Winchester 1541 (resigned 1574) ; Warden 
of New College, Oxford, 1553 (resigned 1573) ; 
Archdeacon of Berks 1557 ; Chancellor of 
Sarum 1571. He died 12 June, 1588. In 
his will (P.C.C. 41 Rutland) he mentions his 
brother Richard White, and appoints his 
two nephews, Edward and Henry White, 
executors and residuary legatees. It is just 
possible these nephews were the two Win- 
chester scholars from Kilmeston, Edward 
in 1559, and Henry in 1571, for John White 
of Southwick owned a moiety of the manor 
of Kilmeston, and in his will is the following 

bequest : "to Richard White, my f armour 
at Kylmeston, one of my short gowns, and 
to his wife 20s., and to every one of his. 
children 13s. 4d." ALFRED T. EVERITT. 
High Street, Portsmouth. 

(To be continued.) 


THE following list of named houses existing 
in the City before the Fire is compiled from 
the MS. catalogues of the second series of 
Chancery Proceedings, 1579 to 1639, in 
P.R.O. The signs are placed in the order 
in which they occur in the catalogues. In 
a few instances the same sign is twice 
referred to in the series, but in this case the 
second reference is omitted. 

" Three Cuppes," in St. Leonard, Shore- 

Red Lion, St. Botolph, Aldgate. 

Angel Inn, Charing Cross. 

Bull's Head, Smithfield. 

Red Lion, Watling Street. 

White Horse, Friday Street. 

Cock and Star, Fenchurch Street. 

Bell, St. Sepulchre-without-Newgate. 

Queen's Head, Stepney. 

Spread Eagle, St. Andrew, Holborn. 

Hart's Horn, Basing Lane. 

Cross Keys, London Wall. 

Antelope, Smithfield. 

White Hart, Holborn. 

Three Nuns, Aldgate. 

Crown, Newgate Market. 

George, St. Dunstan (sic). 

Swan with Two Necks, St. Thomas the 

Two Black Boys, Cheapside. 

Queen's Head and Cross Keys, Stepney. 

Blue Boar, Islington. 

Prince's Arms, Goswell Street. 

Rose Inn, Holborn Bridge. 

Goat, West Smithfield. 

Sword and Buckler, St. Giles-in-the-Fields. 

Mitre, Bread Street. 

Three Crowns, All Hallows, Lombard 

Vine, Kent Street, Southwark. 

Black Boy, West Smithfield. 

Hare and Bottle, St. Agnes, Aldersgate 

Dolphin, Ludgate Hill. 

Mitre, Fish Street. 

Red Bull, St. John Street, Clerkenwell. 

* The addition of " Street " to the name of this 
parish, now SS. Anne and Agnes, is an error which 
certain of the P.R.O. cataloguers appear to have 
been rather fond of making. 



Golden Bull, St. Dunstan-in-the-West, 
Fleet Street. 

Hart's Horn (Brewhouse), St. Kathe- 
rine's (sic). 

Black Boy, Berniondsey Street, St. Olave, 

Mermaid, St. Mary-at-Hill. 

Swan, Long Lane, West Smithfield. 

Walnut Tree, St. Olave, Southwark. 

Three Pigeons, Cheapside. 

Red Bull, St. Clement Danes. 

These appear to be all the named houses 
in the neighbourhood of the City about which 
suits arose in the High Court between the 
dates given. WILLIAM MCMUBBAY. 

UBQUIJO, who has lately been examining 
some Baskish books in Oxford and London, 
and who learned English in England, has 
told your readers at 10 S. iv. 333 how 
(following a suggestion which I gave him at 
San Sebastian; last year) he found the missing 
manuscript of Jean d'Etcheberry, of Sara, 
where the famous Axular lies buried, and 
where King Edward VII. lately witnessed 
& game of pelota. As a contribution towards 
his conscientious edition of the precious 
book, I offer the following quotation from 
p. 166 of a volume entitled " Cambo et ses 
Alentours, par C. Duvoisin, Bayonne, 1858." 
One reads there : 

"Je termine par quelques mots sur le docteur 
Jean d'Etcheberry, iiatif de Sare. II fut medecin 
attitre de la ville d'Ascoitia, et composa differents 
ouvrages. Le P. Larramendi parle avec eloges de 
son dictionnaire quadrilingue, Basque, Espagnol, 
Fran9ais et Latin. II declare meme avec simplicite 
que cet ouvrage ne lui a pas ete inutile pour la com- 
position de son grand dictionnaire. Da reste, le 
docteur Jean d'Etcheberry etait \\n homme fort 
savant et profondement religieux, comme ses livres 
en font foi." 

Mention was made at 10 S. iv. 256 of the 
dictionary in Baskish, Latin, Castilian, and 
French of Joannes d'Etcheberry. I quite 
overlooked at that time a note which had 
been communicated to me at Bilbao, at the 
end of 1904, by Don F. de Uhagon, to the 
effect that in El Averiguador Universal (in 
imitation of ' N. & Q.') of Madrid, 1882, 
Don J. M. Sbarbi states that he is in posses- 
sion of a manuscript word-book, apparently 
of the eighteenth century, in those four 
languages. Don J. M. Sbarbi is a priest 
now living at 46, Calle de Moratin, Madrid, 
as Senor de Uhagon informs me. DON 
JULIO DE UKQUIJO, having sent him a 
photogravure of a leaf in the MS. at Zarauz 
which bears the name of J. d'Etcheberry, 
has been informed that Senor Sbarbi is con- 

vinced that his dictionary is in the hand- 
writing of the author whose other books 
the former is about to publish in Bayonne. 
[See also p. 51.] 

Most of us are familiar with this epigram, 
which is quoted in the ' D.N.B.' under Joseph 
Jowett, LL.D. ; and most of us have 
ascribed it to Archdeacon Wrangham. It 
may be as well, however, to index in ' N & Q.' 
under the above heading the statement in 
The Gentleman's Magazine for June, 1823, 
pt. i. 491, by a writer signing his communica- 
tion W. F. M., and dating it from Sandhurst, 
that the author was " a Mr. Horry, an 
American, who was a fellow commoner of 
Trinity College," even though such a state- 
ment is probably incorrect. 


term occurs repeatedly in one of Kipling's 
amusing poems on the South African War, 
printed in ' The Five Nations,' 1903, but no 
explanation is vouchsafed of its meaning 
or history. The following is an example : 
We are no five-bob colonials we are the 'ome- 

made supply, 
Ask for the London Ikonas ! Ring up the M. I. ! 

As it is not in any dictionary, it may be as 
well to place on record here, for the benefit 
of future Kipling commentators, that ikona 
is a corruption of Zulu hai'kona, literally 
signifying " not a bit of it," but employed 
by colonials in the sense of " I don't know." 
Of course its application to our mounted 
infantry of the line, as in the verse quoted 
above, was an Africander pleasantry, imply- 
ing that they were greenhorns or ignoramuses. 
JAS. PL ATT, Jun. 

' PIEBS THE PLOWMAN.' When Southey 
wrote his ' Colloquies on Society,' in the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century, a close 
and accurate acquaintance with early English 
literature was a comparatively rare accom- 
plishment. It is not particularly surprising, 
therefore, to find him, in the valuable and 
characteristic section of the work entitled 
' The Library,' allowing Sir Thomas More 
to begin one of his speeches with the remark, 
" ' Of whole heart cometh hope,' says old 
Piers Plowman." Some sixty years after 
the production of this entertaining work there 
were still to be found in high academic 
positions men who shared the view of Southey 
(and presumably Sir Thomas More) regarding 
the authorship of the singular ' Vision of 
William.' One remembers having seen 

10 s. vi. JULY 21, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


somewhere, within the last twenty years, 
an English paper set by a University Local 
examiner, who desired candidates to tell 
what they could of certain authors, of whom 
*' Piers Plowman " was one. This was 
inexcusable in the light of what had then been 
done by Prof. Skeat to make known all that 
<jould possibly be discovered about both 
the poet and his poem. 

Still another example of the same inex- 
plicable indifference to historical accuracy 
has just come under notice. The author 
of a newly published translation of the 
' Memoirs of the Lord of Joinville ' says 
inter alia, in her preface, that her original 
had been composed " before Piers Plow- 
man had voiced the wrongs of the 
English people." Here, of course, it is 
possible to offer the defence that the poem, 
and not its author, is intended, and in that 
case one can only reply that it would have 
been well if the reference had been at once 
explicit and accurate. As it stands it is 
neither the one nor the other, and instead 
of helping the writer's purpose, it only mars 
her otherwise bright and serviceable survey. 

graphers of Henry Fielding have been, as is 
well known, baffled in their attempts to 
discover when and where the great novelist 
was first married. The desired information 
has at length been supplied by Mr. T. S. 
Bush, of Bath. In a letter to The Bath 
Chronicle he states that he found the follow- 
entry in the registers of the church of 
>t7 Mary, Charlcombe : 

" November ye 28, 1734. Henry Fielding, of St. 
ames, in Bath, Esq., and Charlotte Cradpck, of ye 
ime parish, spinster, were married by virtue of a 
ince from y e Court of Wells." 

Mr. Bush also found from the same 
3gisters that Sarah Fielding, the sister of 
[enry, was buried in Charlcombe Church, 
"" in ye entrance of the chancel, close to ye 
Rector's seat," on 14 April, 1768. Hitherto 
it has been supposed that she was interrec 
Bath Abbey, from the fact that a mura' 
kblet erected to her memory by Bishop 
[oadley is there to be seen. Charlcombe 
a secluded parish about two miles fron 
ith, with a church which is one of the 
lallest in England. These attributes 
lay have made it attractive to the Fieldings 

W. T E. 

budent of Mr. Howard Collins's valuable 
' Author and Printer,' and of the mon 
mt ' King's English,' feels as timorous o 

landling his mother tongue as the angels 
nentioned by Pope who hesitate to tread. 
Jsage has caused a singular variation in the 
manner in which these two words are em- 
ployed. The former may be a person ; e.g., 
Vtr. Oswald Crawfurd writes in The Times 
12 June) a journal frequently pilloried in 
The King's English 'about " a new, 
English-speaking arrival in London." I 
lave not seen the latter word used in this 
nanner, but its employment for innovation 
s very general, i.e., something which arrives 
md is recognized as a departure from the 
egular order. Primarily, of course, the 
words connote no more than the acts of 
3oming and going. 

Streatham Common. 


WE must reqviest correspondents desiring in- 
r ormation on family matters of only private interest 
x) affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
ri order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

DEFOE TRACTS. As an American student 
of Defoe visiting England specially to 
examine his rarer pamphlets, may I encroach 
upon your space to ask whether any of your 
readers can aid me to obtain the opportunity 
to make a brief examination of any or all 
of the following items in Lee's list, which 
have so far eluded a thorough search ? 

1. The Liberty of Episcopal Dissenters in Scot- 
land truly Stated. By a Gentleman. 1703. 

2. The Layman's Sermon upon the late Storm. 

3. A Letter from the Man in the Moon to the 
Author of ' The True-Born Englishman.' 1705. 

4. A Second Journey to the World in the Moon, 
&c. By the Author 'of * The True-Born English- 

5. A Declaration without Doors. By the Author 
of 'The True-Born Englishman.' 1705. 

6 A Modest Vindication of the Present Ministry : 
From the Reflections, &c., in The Lord Haver- 
sham's Speech. 1707. 

7. Mere Nature Delineated ; or, a Body without a 
Soul. Being Observations upon the young Forester 
lately brought to Town from Germany, &c. 1726. 
Please reply direct. W. P. TRENT. 

Parr's Bank, Bartholomew Lane, E.G. 

MONUMENTAL BRASSES. I am attempting 
to compile a complete record of all known 
articles upon, illustrations of, or references 
to monumental brasses in Europe, especially 
in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, which will be issued under the title 
of ' A Bibliography of Monumental Brasses.' 
For some years I have been collecting material 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VL JULY 21, im. 

for this work, which has all been recordec 
and arranged by means of the card inde> 
system of the American library bureau. I 
is desired to check this as far as possible 
prior to publication, and thus insure as 
much accuracy, both in record and in detail 
as can be hoped for in a first edition ; hence 
this appeal to the readers of ' N. & Q. 
I have recently completed a collation o 
' N. & Q.' from the commencement to th( 
end of 1900 for references to brasses, anc 
now have records of everything that has 
appeared in its pages to that date. 

Suitable acknowledgment of any assist 
ance given will be cheerfully and gratefully 
made in the preface or introduction to the 
book, which, it is hoped, will be ready for 
publication within twelve months. I have 
collated all the well-known volumes dealing 
particularly with this special subject, includ- 
ing the publications of the C.U.A.B.C., the 
Monumental Brass Society, the Oxforc 
University Brass-Rubbing Society (now the 
Oxford Antiquarian Society ),Haines, Boutell 
Waller, Cotman, Kite, Farrer, Belcher, Davis 7 
Stephenson, Franks, Cambridge Camden 
Society, Hudson, Jeans, Beloe, Bower, 
Badger, Dunkin, Stothard, Weever, &c. 

What are chiefly needed are references from 
The Gentleman's Magazine, Archceologia, 
The Archaeological Journal, the Proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries (subsequent to 
1900), and from the publications of county 
or local archaeological, architectural, or eccle- 
siological societies, field clubs, &c. 

I shall be glad to hear from any one willing 
to undertake special local research, and to 
advise of any work already done in or for 
that special neighbourhood. All communi- 
cations should be addressed to me, P.O. 
Box 54, Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A. 


"DISH OF TURNIPS." In 1836 an old 
naval captain, a veteran of the great war, 
wrote his reminiscences. In describing a 
passage home in 1785, he says that when 
off the Lizard " the wind shifted to the east- 
ward, and it was nineteen days before we 
arrived at Spithead, having a dish of turnips 
all the way up Channel." Can some one of 
* N. & Q.'s ' readers throw any light on this 
expression ? I am pretty sure that it does 
not mean, in the abstract, " a head wind," 
and that, in fact, it is net a bit of naval or 
nautical slang. Can any one supply a 
reference to its use on shore ? 


some time been making a collection of the 

churches of England on post cards, and it 
has occurred to me that others may have- 
done the same. I have some 1,680 churches,, 
every one collected or sent me by personal 
friends, and I am rather anxious now to 
extend the collection, which is rapidly 
becoming quite a history of architecture. 
There may be others who are beginning a 
like collection, and should they or any of 
your readers feel disposed to send me their 
churches, I w T ill gladly return a card of the 
historic church of this town. 

I may perhaps add that I am not using 
them in any competition or for any purpose 
of gain. (Rev.) G. A. TAIT. 

The Church House, Dartford, Kent. 

GENEALOGY. With the Editor's permis- 
sion I should like to say that I wish to corre- 
spond with any one interested in the genea- 
logies of middle-class families, with a view 
to the systematic exchange of manuscript 
copies of unpublished pedigrees. 

50, Beecroft Road, Brockley, S.E. 

should be glad to know the author of the- 
following lines : 

Like ivy, woman's love doth cling 
Too often round a worthless thing. 
Somewhat similar lines were quoted in the 
First Series, but the authorship was then 
doubtful, and I believe the above to be the 
correct rendering. Can any of your readers- 
assist me ? STEWART FISKE. 

Mobile, Ala. 

[MR. B. DREW JULYAN stated in 1880 (6 S. i. 346> 
that the lines were entitled ' On Woman's Love,'" 
and that as a lad in Cornwall he had copied them 
forty years earlier " out of, I think, The Fahnouth 

Where can I get the complete poem, 

Play me a march low-toned and slow, 
A march for a silent tread ? 

Eversley, Ramsgate. 

Who wrote the following lines ? 
Bide a wee and dinna wearie ; 
The day 's no so long, 
And the way 's no so drearie. 

M. S. L. 

Anna James at St. Nicholas's, Nottingham,. 

n 3 Aug., 1789. His father was, it is 
believed, Paulett St. John (d. 1778 ?), who 
married Sibbett Lawes. From a seal in the- 
oossession of the descendants, the family 

eems to have been a branch of the Bletso> 

10 s. vi. JULY 21, 1900.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


St. Johns. Can any one give me information 
as to this St. John or his father or mother ? 
Please reply direct, unless the reply is of 
general interest. R. STEWART-BROWN. 

5, Castle Street, Liverpool. 

THE THREE CHOIRS. Are not the follow- 
ing very early notices of the Three Choirs ? 

" The Anniversary meeting of the three Choirs, 
viz., of Worcester, Hereford, and Gloucester, will 
be held at the Guildhall of the City of Worcester, 
on Wednesday and Thursday the 8th and 9th of 
September next, when all gentlemen that are 
Subscriber's to the said meeting are desired to give 
their Attendance, by John Hoddinot, Organist of 
Worcester, Steward. And all Gentlemen that are 
to be performers this Meeting, are desired to take 
Notice, that they have particularly obliged them- 
selves to meet at Worcester on Monday the 6th of 
Sept. next, in order for the better regulating the 
Scheme of Musick to be performed on the two 
Days above mentioned." Evening Po*t, 19 Aug., 

" Notice is hereby given to all whom it may con- 
cern or give pleasure, That the Meeting of the Three 
Choirs of Worcester, Hereford, and Gloucester, is 
this year held in the City of Worcester, on Tuesday, 
the 3rd of September, 1734. On the two Days 
following will be perform'cl several grand Pieces of 
Musick in the Cathedral Church, and a Concert of 
Musick each Night at the Town-Hall." St. JameS* 
tinning Poxt, 13-15 Aug., 1734. 


CATTE STREET. I do not find cat as an 
Anglo-Saxon adjective in any of the dic- 
tionaries. Perhaps PROF. SKEAT will be 
so kind as to elucidate the subject. I observe 
that he adds at 10 S. v. 507 a word to the 
existing lists. I find the following words 
or names in which cat, in various shapes, 
means " small " : 

Catte Gat, the narrow way, or strait. 

Catte Water, Plymouth, a narrow passage 
to the ancient harbour. 

Catte, Catten, Cateaton Street, a narrow 
City Street. See 10 S. v. 429, 475, 497, 513. 

Kitt's Catty or Cotty or Coity House, in 

Cutty sark, in Burns. 

Cutty pipe, every where ; and so on. 

Cattegat I lately saw translated " cat's 
gut " in a daily paper. But surely it was 
Cat-Gat or Cutty Gate before ever a cat was 
seen in Northern Europe or the Arabic kitta 
became an English word. W. J. LOFTIE. 

is well known in history as the brother- 
in-law of John, Duke of Marlborough. He 
was captain of Horse Guards in 1674 ; 
major and captain-lieutenant of Lord 
Gerard's Regiment of Horse, June, 1679 ; 
colonel of the 4th Dragoon Guards from 
December, 1688, until he retired from the 

army in 1693 ; Master of the Jewel Office, 
1698-1704, and Clerk of the Board of Green 
Cloth from 1704 until his death ; M.P. for 
Malmesbury, 1689-90, and for Wycombe, 
1691 to 1713. He married Arabella 
Churchill, the cast-off mistress of James II., 
and died 23 Feb., 1714/15, aged 66, being 
buried at Bath. By his wife he left two 
daughters and coheirs, viz., Charlotte, wife 
of the first Viscount Falmouth, and Eliza- 
beth, married to Edmund Dunch, Master 
of the Household to Queen Anne. But he 
had also a son who predeceased him. This 
we gather from Luttrell's ' Diary,' where, 
under date of 27 March, 1705, we are told, 
" The Earl of Derby's Regiment [16th Foot] 
is given to Col. Godfrey's son " ; and on 
11 July, 1706, " Col. Godfrey, Jun., is made 
groom of the bedchamber to the prince." 
This Col. Francis Godfrey was further pro- 
moted brigadier-general on 1 Jan., 1710, but 
seems to have died in the year following, 
the vacancy in his regiment being filled up 
on 17 Feb., 1711. 

I shall be glad to learn something of the 
family and antecedents of Col. Charles 
Godfrey. W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newton-le-Willows. 

Can any reader of * N. & Q.' kindly furnish 
particulars as to when double-barrelled opera - 
glasses came into use in this country to replace 
the single-tube opera-glasses in vogue till 
then ? The first reference to the matter 
which has been traced occurs in ' Vanity 
Fair,' where it is stated : 

" The general [Tufto] took up his opera-glass 
the double-barrelled lorgnon was not invented in 
those days and pretended to examine the house, 
but Rebecca saw that his disengaged eye was work- 
ing round in her direction." 

This episode is supposed to occur a few days 
before the battle of Waterloo in 1815, so 
that apparently the double-barrelled glasses 
were not in use then, but were in use in 
1848, when Thackeray wrote ' Vanity Fair.' 
Any reference, either to scientific or other 
literature, giving a more approximate clue 
to their general introduction in this country 
would be of considerable interest. J. R. 
[They were a novelty in 1846.] 

DARKNESS IN LONDON. The following 
note, which was made soon after the darkness 
was witnessed, has been lent to me. It tells 
of an event so strange as to call for a record 
in'N &Q.': 

" There was an Egyptian darkness overspread 
part of London one day this year [1879] from half- 
past ten in the morning till ten minutes to eleven, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. vi. JULY 21, urn 

lasting therefore twenty minutes. People could not 
see each other who were in the same room. It was 
not a f og ; it was not a natural eclipse ; yet scarcely 
any notice was taken of the phenomenon." 

Is there any scientific account of what 
took place V If the date is known, it would 
be well to put it on record. ASTARTE. 

Has it ever been suggested that the true 
reason for Dean Swift's not publishing the 
fact of his marriage to Stella was an honest 
scruple in his mind as to the marriage of 
priests ? This would explain his never 
meeting Stella except in the presence of a 
third party, and is reconcilable with his 
satire of celibacy in the ' Tale of a Tub.' 

T. N. 

PINCUSHION SWEET. The sweetmeat 
called " humbug " has found a place in the 
' New English Dictionary,' but that called 
" pincushion " has not. Surely the latter, 
which was well known, must have been 
mentioned in some of the children's books 
or similar literature of fifty years ago. Cannot 
a reader of ' N. & Q.' report it ? 

W. C. B. 

P. B., TRANSLATOR, 1708. Who was 
"P. B.," whose English translation of 
Minucius Felix and of Tertullian's ' Apology ' 
was published in London in 1708 ? "P. B." 
in his prefaces describes himself as 
"a Gentleman of Condition and not a Mercenary 
Pen. He conceals his Name, and therefore hopes 
for no Reward, not so much as a barren Praise." 
I believe the book is not in the British 
Museum Library. C. W. B. 

(10 S. v. 308, 394.) 

THE cresset stone at Lewannick (Cornwall, 
according to my measured drawing of it in 
The Building News (13 June, 1879), has a 
circular bowl 18 in. in diameter, and is 
7 in. deep. The seven holes are each 
2 in. wide and 3| in. deep. It stands upon 
a stone (square at the top, octagonal at 
bottom) 14 in. in diameter, and 13 A in 
high. It is of granite. 

There is a cresset stone with one cup in it 
at Westminster Abbey. 

The late Rev. T. Lees, in an exhaustive 
paper upon 'Cresset Stones,' read before 
the Royal Archaeological Society at Carlisle 
(in 1882), defined the term "cresset" as 

Middle English, from the old French crasset, 

meaning a cup or vessel containing a light, 

fixed on the top of a pole. He gives the 
ollowing list of cressets : 
Calder Abbey. Partly mutilated, but 

perhaps, when perfect, sixteen cups. Those 
xisting are 3 in. in diameter and 2f in. 

deep. They are placed in four regular rows. 

Like the abbey itself, this cresset is of New 

rled Sandstone, and measures 22 J in. by 

21 in. and 4 in. thick. 

Furness Abbey. Also of Red Sandstone, 

14 in. by 12 in. by 5 in. thick, with five 

cavities : the central one, 5 in. in diameter, 
in. deep ; two others, 3| in. diameter, 

2| in. deep ; the remaining couple, 3 in. 

diameter, 2J in. deep. 

Wool Church, Dorset. Purbeck marble, 

10 in. by 8 in. by 5 in. high. Five cups, 

3 in. diameter, 2 in. deep. 

Carlisle Cathedral. Of Red Sandstone, 

much decayed, impossible to judge original 

size. Six cups remain, 4 in. diameter, 

3 in. deep. 

St. Mary's Monmouth. Probably of 

Pennant stone. The fragment measures 
18 in. by 11 in., and shows six cups, 2 Jin. 

diameter, 2 in. deep. 

St. Mary's Abbey, York. The cresset 

stone originally here is now to be seen in 
the Museum of the Philosophical Society 

in that city. It is 12f in. by 8| in., and 
5 in. deep. It contains six cups, placed in 
two rows, 3f in. diameter at top, 2 Jin. at 

Llanthony Abbey. This cresset is circular 
(about 12 in. diameter, 6 in. deep), and 
possesses three cups. 

Chalgrove Church (Oxon). According to 
a list of its muniments in 1365, it then 
possessed a cresset with fifteen holes. 

There are existing examples of cresset 
stones in Sweden, where they are commonly 
known as vigvattens-sten (holy- water vessels), 
though without any apparent reason. At 
Strio, in the diocese of Sund, is one with 
five cups ; and in Nobbelop (also in Sund) 
is a cresset measuring 17 in. by 13 in., and 
containing six cups. Preserved in Stock- 
holm Museum are four cresset stones. One 
came from the church at Balla. It is 17 in. 
by 12 in., and has six cups, 4 in. diameter 
and If in. deep. Another is from Eunarps 
Church, near Skane, 14 in. by 10 in., and 
about 6 in. deep. It has six cups, 2 J in. 
to 2J in. diameter, 2 in. to 2f in. deep. A 
third (source unknown) measures 9J in. by 
9 in., and 7J in. deep. It has four cups. 
The remaining one has not been identified 

10 s. vi. JULY 21, i906.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


.&s regards original location. It is 17 in. 


by 13 in., and contains six cups. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

"PLEW" (10 S. vi. 8). " Plew " is the 
French pluie, skin, and means the whole 
skin of the beaver. Many of the trappers, 
or " mountain men," who earned a pre- 
carious livelihood by hunting and trapping 
in the Rocky Mountains, were of French 
origin, either from St. Louis or the " North- 
West," as the Hudson's Bay territories were 
called, and their language was full of terms 
derived from the French. Ruxton, who is 
one of our best authorities for the wild life 
led by these hunters, says : 

"The 'beaver' is purchased at from two to 
eight dollars per pound ; the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany alone buying it by the pluie, or ' plew,' that is, 
the whole skin, giving a certain price for skins, 
whether of old beaver or ' kittens. ' Adventures 
in Mexico and the Rocky Mountains,' by George 
F. Ruxton (Murray, 1847), p. 245. 

The same author, in his * Life in the Far 
West' (Edinburgh, Blackwood & Sons, 
1849), makes one of his characters say 
(p. 19) :- 

" Beaver's bound to rise human natur can't go 
on selling beaver a dollar a pound. Them was 
the times when this child first went to the 
mountains ! Six dollars the plew, old 'un or 

As to the expression " a plew a plug," it 

I meant that a plug of tobacco cost as much 
as a whole beaver-skin, showing how greatly 
the latter had depreciated in value. Trade 
in the plains was almost entirely carried 
on by exchange of commodities, and 
*' beaver" was the currency. In the work 
last quoted Ruxton says (p. 106) : 

" Money is seldom given in the mountain market, 
where ' beaver ' is cash, for which the articles 
supplied by the traders are bartered." 

T. F. D. 

" Plew " is an anglicization of Canadian 
French pelu, which is a provincial form of 
French poilu, identical with Spanish peludo, 
Latin pilutus. The meaning is defined as 
follows in Sylva Clapin's * Dictionnaire 
anadien Frpnhis,' 1894 : 

" Pelu, plus, contraction probable de poilu. 
Designation monetaire de . la valeur de 20 sous 
(ancien chelin), inventee par les Canadians du 
Nord-Ouest pour repondre a 1'expression indienne 
attay pelleterie. Les Anglais se servent pour cela 
<du mot >ikin, peau." 


TIONARY (10 S. iv. 143, 255, 333). I am 
happy to say that, after all, MB. DODGSON'S 

inquiries have led to the discovery of the 
unpublished dictionary of Joannes d'Etche- 
berri in Basque, Latin, French, and Cas- 
tilian, mentioned by him at the second 
reference. MB. DODGSON had been informed 
about eighteen months ago by your corre- 
spondent Don Florencio de Uhagon (Madrid) 
that a manuscript of this kind was in the 
library of Don J. M. Sbarbi (Madrid), and 
believes that he at once wrote to ' N. & Q.' 
to raise an inquiry about it ; but he had 
quite forgotten the subject until a few 
weeks ago, when he asked me to investigate 
it. It is a satisfaction to learn from the 
information that I have received from 
Senor Sbarbi, to whom I sent a photogravure 
of a page of the other manuscript of Etche- 
berri which I am about to publish in Bayonne 
that there can be no doubt that the latter 
was the writer of the manuscript in question. 
It would perhaps be too long to quote here 
his reasons for arriving at this conclusion, 
in which I quite concur. 

I may add that I have discovered more 
than thirty allusions to, and documents 
concerning Dr. Etcheberri, the friend of 
D. M. Larramendi, and medical assistant 
of the Jesuits at Azcoitia, although Mr. 
Llewelyn Thomas in his edition of D'Urte's 
translation speaks of the impossibility of 
identifying him. JULIO DE UBQUIJO. 

St. Jean de Luz. 

[See MB. DODGSON'S note, ante, p. 46. We 
regret that the great demands upon the space of 
' N. & Q.' prevent its from printing all the commu- 
nications received from its numerous contributors.] 

RIGHT TO ARMS (10 S. iv. 188). The 
question on this subject having so far been 
unanswered, the following facts may be 
acceptable to others than MB. FOTHEBGILL, 
who asked the question. 

At present the Heralds certainly do not 
acknowledge any prescriptive right, although 
no doubt they would grant, with or without 
some alteration, a coat that had been used, 
provided the full fees were paid ; the altera- 
tion of a coat, or even a crest, requires the 
payment of the full fees for a grant, and that 
if the coat had only recently been granted. 

There has been so much written of late 
for and against the official Heralds, and so 
much of it beside the mark, that a brief 
statement of the actual facts may be useful. 

The Heralds are household servants of the 
Crown, and as such receive small salaries, 
which for the whole thirteen officers amount 
to 252L 18s. ; besides this they are allowed 
certain fixed fees, on the creation of dignities, 
grants of arms, and searches in the official 
records (see return made to the House of 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 21, im. 

Commons relating to the College of Arms 
in 1863) ; but their chief income is from 
charges for professional services, each 
Herald having his own private practice, 
and making what charges he thinks fit. 

As to the prescriptive right to arms being 
formerly allowed there can be no question 
whatever there is ample evidence of this ; 
and as to their granting arms at all, 
it arose beyond doubt from men who 
wanted help to design proper arms 
asking the aid of some herald, for it must be 
remembered that all the great nobles kept 
each a herald of his own, and Sir Christopher 
Barker, Garter to King Henry VIII., had 
been previously a herald to Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk. 

The great point (and one that appears to 
have been overlooked by all writers of letters 
and pamphlets on the subject) is the ignor- 
ance and indifference of the Heralds. It 
would be easy to fill pages with particulars 
of errors and false records made by the 
official Heralds from early times down. I 
will mention a few facts showing official 
ignorance of or indifference to the essential 
principle of heraldry, the distinction in arms 
not only of families, but also of branches 
of one family. 

1. A peer now living was granted the same 
arms as another peer of an entirely different 
family as far as is known, a small augmenta- 
tion for services suitable for a younger 
brother being added. 

2. The undifferenced arms of a baronet 
still enjoying the ancient estates and title 
of his family were granted to a stranger in 
blood, as testamentary heir of a far removed 
younger branch. 

3. The undifferenced arms of another 
baronet were granted in the present century 
to a man who took the same name from 
maternal descent from quite another line 
of the family, the grantee not having even 
inherited an ancient estate. The same arms 
had previously been granted with a small 
difference to another family on taking the 
name of still another line. 

4. Another peer has been granted a 
wonderful coat compounded of the arms of 
two different families of the same name, 
various additions by way of augmentation 
being made. 

On the other hand, Burke, &c., have been 
instructed to omit the crest from the achieve- 
ment of one baronet, and he has been urged 
to obtain a new grant. Strangely enough, 
the Heralds attempted to write the family 
as ignoble in their Visitation of 1620 ; but 
the then head of the family wrote to W. 

Camden, Clarenceux, his letter sealed with 
his arms and crest (still to be seen in the 
British Museum), the result being that a 
pedigree and shield of sixteen quarters were 
entered. The crest has constantly been 
published until of late without question. 

This is put as briefly as possible much 
might be added, the difficulty being to stop ; 
but it indicates the character of official 
heraldry. ARTHUR J. JEWERS. 

ST. ANDREW'S, ANTWERP (10 S. v. 449). 
If the following description is correct, it is 
evident that the monument was not erected 
by Mary, Queen of Scots : 

"Against a pillar facing the right transept is a 
medallion portrait of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, 
by Porbus. attached to a monument erected to the 
memory of two English ladies, Barbara Maubray 
and Eliz. Curie, who served as her ladies in wait- 
ing. One of them received her last embrace 
previous to her execution." 'Murray's Handbook 
for Travellers on the Continent: Part I., being a 
Guide to Holland, Belgium,' &c., eighteenth ed., 
1873, p. 148, .r. St. Andrew's Ch. (Antwerp). 


509). See the list of national emblems in 
Brewer's 'Diet, of Phrase and Fable,' 1895, 
p. 473, s.v. ' Flowers and Trees.' 


The same idea, substantially, forms the 
opening of the story of the Barber's Fifth 
Brother, El-Aschar, begun on the 31st of 
the 1,001 nights (vol. ii. Mardrus's edition). 
H. K. ST. J. S. 

v. 483). Thomas Love Peacock lived at 
18, Stamford Street, Blackfriars, after his 
marriage with Miss Jane Gryffydh in 1820 
(v. biographical notice by his granddaughter 
prefixed to vol. i. of Peacock's ' Works, 7 
1875, p. xxxvii). Is this the house that has- 
lately had a tablet affixed by the London 
County Council to denote the residence of 
John Rennie ? or has an alteration in the 
numbering of the street taken place since 
then ? 

It is, I think, less than a year since the 
County Council put up a tablet on the house 
in Doughty Street occupied by Sydney 
Smith from 1803 to 1806, when evening; 
preacher at the Foundling Hospital. 


" RIME " v. " RHYME " (10 S. v. 469, 514).. 
My sympathy is entirely with " modern 
philologists " among whom PROF. SKEAT* 
is eminent in their " wish to correct what 
has gone wrong" in our mother-tongue. 

10 s. vi. JULY 21, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

They do not it is presumed propose 
at once to correct all words which in form 
have become inconsistent with their origin ; 
for that would be as if to attempt the 
straightening and shaping of an English 
oak, the removing of gnarls and tortuosities 
after centuries of growth. Yet a gentle 
culture not involving disturbance, and even 
the lopping of an ill-grown branch or word, 
may benefit the tree or the language. 

But has not a somewhat violent change 
been given to the word in question ? To 
me, and probably to others unprepared 
for it, it seemed at first glance a misprint ; 
but as such slips are not common in ' N. & Q.' 
it dawned on me that the act was with 
intent ! I find, moreover, that this claimed 
reversion to old spelling was not broached 
yesterday. Dr. Johnson in 1755, though 
considering the clpim for rime, gave the word 
as rhyme, his opinion being that " the 
manner of waiting it should depend on the 
use of it by our best writers." He gives 
thirteen examples from eight poets, of whom 
two Spenser and Milton write the word 
both with and without the h, while by the 
other six Shakespeare, Butler (in ' Hudi- 
bras '), Denham, Dryden, Young, and Prior 
the h is not omitted. Certainly PROF. 
SKEAT has carried his research much further 
back than the time of Spenser ; but it may 
be submitted that, although rime was 
written by Chaucer, his spelling and phrasing 
have in a great measure passed away, and 
are now only with difficulty undei stood 
by the generality of English readers. It 
may also be said that until the day of 
Johnson spelling was in a fluid, indefinite 
condition, and that it was mainly his labour 
that gave it precision. And, it must be 
repeated, rhyme stands as his decision. But 
it will be said the language has not stood 
still a hundred and fifty years, and that the 
study of philology is pursued with greater 
keenness now than in the day of the great 
lexicographer, although much research is 
evident in his work. 

There is certainly the question of origin, 
the root and history of words as shown by 
spelling, the theory which R. T. perhaps 
in bitterness inspired by frequent corrup- 
tions thinks " long since exploded." The 
argument against the h appears to be that 
it is the property of the word rhythm, and 
that rhyme and rhythm have no relationship, 
one coming from a Teutonic or Romance 
source, the other from the Greek. And yet 
if there be no racial connexion between the 
words there is certainly a sympathetic con- 
nexion. Nor does the argument of distinc- 

ion of race seem likely to keep its 
)osition, for the Professor has shown the 
atest belief to be that rime or, as we have 
)een writing it, rhyme is " ultimately of 
Irreek origin." Should this be so, the motive 
or the change will not be apparent ; it 
might be a phonetic benefit, but is it advis- 
able that one other word of double meaning 
should be added to the long list of such 
entanglements (several of one syllable readily 
occur, e.g., fine, mine, pine, till, still, date,, 
toll, lean, loom, mole, mould, rail, rear),, 
and that rime should henceforth answer 
equally for the hoar-frost and the jingle of 
verses ? SENEX. 

[The insertion of the h in the case of Shakespeare 
s the work of modern editors. In the First Folio* 
t is generally we believe invariably omitted.] 

408). MR. KING should consult Judge 
D. W. Prowse's ' History of Newfoundland r 
(1895), where (pp. 174-5) he will find the 
account he wants. A deposition by Martin 
will also be found in ' Calendar of State 
Papers, Colonial Series, America and West 
Indies, 1677-80,' No. 595, pp. 214-5. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

230, 294, 336). The setting up of the king's 
arms in churches was customary long before 
the Restoration ; it began, indeed, when the 
Rood, with its flanking images of St. Mary 
and St. John, came under the order of 
demolition, the arms being often substituted 
as a decoretion to the Rood-loft, or beam, 
and as a reminder cf the king's supremacy 
in the church. 

In Canon Morris's 'History of St. Mary 
on the Hill, Chester,' the churchwardens' 
expenses of 1622 show that " the church 
was ornamented by the king's arms wrought 
on a, table (or board) w'th gould and oyle 
cullers," the cost being 3Z. 

At Scuth Tawton the account for 1585-6 
contains the following items : " Paid. . . .for 
the making of the tymber to paynt the 

quen's armes on, viijs. iiijd for bordes- 

for the same, vijs. iiijd p'd the paynter, 

xxviijs." In 1605: " Item : for that I 
was cited about the king's armes, iijs. ijd.' r 
The apparitor had, I suppose, reported 
that the change in the arms demanded by 
the accession of James I. had not yet been 

MR. EDWARD PEACOCK'S reference to the 
blunder in the date upon the royal arms 
in Northorpe Church finds a parallel in 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 21, uoe. 

St. Sid well's Church, Exeter. At the latter, 
on the front of the western gallery, are the 
royal arms, displayed in heraldic colours, 
upon a panel 3 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. Above them 
^gilded) may be read " G. R. IIIL," and 
below "1812." Of course, the fourth 
George did not begin his reign until 1820. 
This inaccuracy has existed as long as the 
oldest inhabitant can remember. 

An exceptionally well-carved coat of 
Toyal arms in wood (3ft. by 3ft. Gin.) 
exhibiting much cleverly manipulated 
mantling, and with the original gilding 
And colouring still fairly bright long stood 
upon the centre of the fifteenth century 
Rood-screen in the ancient church of 
St. Michael at Honiton. It was placed 
there in 1730, and remained in situ 150 
years. In 1880, during the renovation of 
the venerable fabric, these arms were 
removed. Later, they came into my pos- 
session, and I still have them. The fleurs-de- 
lis of France are in the second quarter, and 
in the fourth is the Hanoverian horse. There 
is a facsimile of them in one of the rooms 
shown to the public at Hampton Court 
Palace, and both look like the handiwork of 
the same craftsman. 

Honiton was formerly the centre of the 
district producing the lace named after it. 
It is worth recording, therefore, that the only 
actual tomb known to have been erected 
to a specified lace-worker in Devon exists 
in its churchyard. This stands just outside 
the priests' door (north-east). A small brass 
let into its face is well preserved, and on 
that may be read : 

of 100 for ever), who deceased y e 27 th day of July 
A DM617, jetata [sic] suse 50. Remember the 



The supporters of the royal arms appear 
in the spandrils of the door of the north aisle 
of All Saints', Colchester, built about 1531, 
at the time of the suppression of chantries. 
The aisle appears to be the design of an Ox- 
ford architect, and has details similar to some 
in Balliol College, to which the living was 
annexed about the above period. Before 
that time the only aisle of the church was 
the north chancel aisle, or sepulchre chapel, 
used on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday. 
The windows are moulded inside and outside 
as at Oxford ; and the tower, finished at the 
same time, has an entasis similar to that in 
St. Peter's at the Walls, Oxford. 


MILLER OF HIDE HALL (10 S. iii. 328, 376). 
At the former reference I asked for infor- 
mation with regard to a pedigree of the 
Miller family, published in Clutterbuck's 
' History of Hertfordshire,' which appeared 
to be incorrect. At the latter MR. W. B. 
GERISH kindly replied with some suggestions. 

From examination of wills and monu- 
mental inscriptions it is now evident that 
the Miller pedigree, as shown by both 
Clutterbuck and Cussans, is full of errors. 
The Millers of Hide Hall were descended 
from the Millers of Wrotham (baronets of 
Oxonhoath) ; but in both of these printed 
pedigrees Hester Miller, heiress of Shipley, 
Derby, who married Edward Mundy, is 
shown as a daughter of the owner of Hide 
Hall, Hertfordshire, whereas she was of the 
main line of Kentish Millers, her father 
being Humphrey Miller, lieutenant-colonel 
in the Guards, a nephew of Sir Humphrey 
Miller, first bart. To add to the difficulty, 
Hester Mundy 's monumental inscription 
states that she was a daughter of Col. 
Nicholas Miller, and niece of Sir Humphrey 
Miller, Bt. an error to be accounted for 
by the fact that the monument was raised 
some years after Hester Mundy's death. 

266, 315, 375, 418, 457, 498). Sixty years 
ago I saw (at the stalls which at that time 
lined the Mile End Road) rope for sale which, 
according to the seller, had been used to hang 
a man at the Old Bailey on the morning 
before. To judge from the quantity sold, 
the hangman of those days must have given 
long " drops." The rope was sold at so 
much a foot sixpence, I think. O. S. T. 

S. v. 487). The following invitation to the 
funeral of Lord Bellenden, father of the 
celebrated Mary Bellenden, was sent out by 
his son in November, 1706 : 

"The honour of your presence to accompany the 
corps of my Lord Bellenden, my father, from his 
lodgings in Patersan's Land, near the Cannongate 
foot, to his burial-place in the Abay Church (Holy- 
rood) upon Sunday, the 3rd instant, at 8 of the 
clock in the morning, is earnestly desired by John 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

v. 109, 312, 417, 498). I am afraid MR. 
SAND FORD'S original query, whether there 
exists a portrait of this wood engraver, is 
being lost sight of. I think there is no doubt 
*hat Ottley's date of birth is wrong and 

10 s. vi. JULY 2i, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

I Redgrave's right. I have a very good 
I opinion of Redgrave's ' Dictionary of Artists.' 
I do not think I should have sent this com- 
munication, however, if it were not that I 
-wish to ask your old contributor MB. 
PICKFORD to favour us with the real name 
of Horace Guilford, whom he mentions at 
p. 417 as contributing to a periodical ; but 
he also published two books. 


VERSES (10 S. v. 367, 476). An article 
entitled ' The Romance of some Celebrated 
Songs,' by B. Mansell-Ramsey, which ap- 
peared in The Strand Magazine, June, 1903, 
also contained (with slight verbal differences) 
the two stanzas printed by Mr. Sterling 
MacKinlay. N. T. 

SANTORIN AND ST. IRENE (10 S. v. 468, 
510). The story of the governor being 
deluded into the belief that he was kissing 
a girl when he was only hugging a sooty 
saucepan has been told also by Straparola 
I think, in the third story of his second 
night. Many years have past since I read 
his ' Nights,' and my recollection of the 
story may be imperfect. There is something 
similar in a play, older than Straparola, 
toy the nun Roswitha. E. YARDLEY. 

v. 409). In ' (Euvres de Xavier de Maistre,' 
tSociete Saint-Augustin, Desclee, de Brouwer 
& Cie., Lille, 1885, the passage referred to 
occurs in chap. xxx. (not xxxii.) of ' Voyage 
autour de ma Chambre.' 


WALL FAMILY (10 S. v. 489). It may 
possibly be of use to MR. BODDINGTON to 
know that the descendants of Dr. John 
Wall by his marriage with Catherine Sandys 
were C.F. or founder's kin at Winchester 
'College. Martin Sandys, Catherine's father, 
was admitted there as scholar C. F. in 1686, 
and his family claimed descent from the 
founder's sister Agnes through the families 
of Fiennes, Danvers, and Barker. The 
College MS. book of pedigrees mentions Dr. 
Wall's marriage with a daughter of Martin 
Sandys, but without details, and it gives 
no particulars of their descendants, though 
several of them became scholars at Win- 
chester. There is a collection of C.F. pedi- 
grees at Heralds' College. Has MR. BOD- 
DINGTON yet examined it ? 

The descendants of Col. John Wall by his 
first wife Mary Brilliana seem to have been 
C.F. through both of them. For she (as 

I gather from 9 S. ii. 309 ; iii. 232 ; iv. 14) 
was daughter of Robert Martin by a daughter 
of Dr. Edmund Bray, of Fifield. This Dr. 
Bray, who was admitted as C.F. at Win- 
chester in 1691, claimed the kinship through 
his father's mother, Susanna, daughter of 
Sir John Danvers, Kt., of Culworth, and 
wife of Edmund Bray, of Fifield (see Baker's 
' Northamptonshire,' i. 606). The College 
pedigree book does not mention Dr. Bray's 
descendants, but it contains an old news- 
paper cutting, marked in ink with a date 
which looks like Feb., 1759. According to 
this cutting, Brilliana, widow of Edmund 
Bray, M.D., fourth daughter of Alexander 
Popham, Esq., and niece to the late Right 
Hon. Robert, Earl of Oxford and Mortimore,* 
died on " Wednesday, the 17th instant," at 
the hcuse of Robert Martin, Esq., of Fifield. 
The other side of the cutting has an adver- 
tisement of Baldwin's Daily Journal, printed 
only for R. Baldwin at the Rose in Pater- 
noster Row, London, and sold by the printer 
of " this Paper," by R. Bond in " Glocester," 
and by the " Newsmen." In 1759 the 14th, 
not the 17th, of February was Wednesday. 

H. C. 

" SWERVE " (10 S. v. 426). One would 
hardly expect to find in ' The Century Dic- 
tionary,' published in 1891, a word which, 
according to MR. THOMAS, has " been used 
in cricket for the last two seasons." The 
word used in baseball, however, is not 
swerve, but curve. Under that word MR. 
THOMAS will find information in ' The 
Century Dictionary ' and also in the ' N.E.D.' 

Boston, U.S.A. 

KEMEYS (10 S. v. 446). Thanks to the 
invaluable columns of ' N. & Q.,' and the 
courtesy of Mr. Herbert A. Evans, of The 
Grange, Littlemore, Oxford, I have obtained 
from that gentleman full information on 
the points contained in the query appended 
to my note on the above. 

It appears that Mr. W. H. Greene (now 
believed to be deceased) was about a dozen 
years ago a contributor on local antiquities 
to The Chepstow Advertiser (from which paper 
possibly my original cutting was obtained) ; 
and that Mrs. Bromedge was at that period 
a lady of advanced years, who, previous to 
her removal to Bournemouth, had lived the 
greater part of her life in Chepstow. On 
reference, too, to Coxe's ' History of Mon- 
mouthshire,' at Mr. Evans's suggestion, I 

* He died 21 May, 1724 (G. E. C.'s 'Peerage'). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io 8. vi. JULY 21, im. 

find mention made of Mrs. Williams, the 
custodian of the castle, as follows : 

"The castle [Chepstow] and site belong to the 
Duke of Beaufort, but were held on a lease of lives 
which expired in 1799 on the death of Mrs. Williams, 
the late occupier, though by the kindness of the 
Duke of Beaufort, her husband still retains posses- 
sion of the castle. This lady, who was alive in my 
first expedition, and furnished me with much infor- 
mation, was eighty-five years of age. Her family 
by the female line afforded rare instances of 
longevity ; her mother, Mrs. Hutton, lived to the 
age of 101, her grandmother reached 103, and her 
great-grandmother, Mrs. Charles, who died aged 
106, performed the office of midwife to Lady Gage, 
when she had passed her hundreth year." Coxe's 
4 Monmouthshire,' 1800, p. 377. 

There can be little doubt, therefore, that 
Mrs. Williams received her account of Sir 
Nicholas Kemeys's death traditionally from 
her predecessors, and that it would be quite 
trustworthy. That the gallant baronet was 
barbarously murdered by order cf Col. 
Ewer for his stubborn defence of the castle 
for the king is also confirmed by William 
Winstanley in ' The Loyall Martyrology ' 
(London, 1665), p. 68, wherein we find : 

" Sir Nicholas Kemish, an eminent Cavalier, ! 
whose Worth and Gallantry cannot be sufficiently 

mentioned This gallant Knight put to his help- I 

ing hand and surprised Chepstow Castle The I 

Castle was (afterwards) stormed and taken by 
Colonel Euro, where this renowned Knight, for his I 
Gallant Loyalty, was by the barbarous Enemy ; 
slain in cold blood." 

10, Royal Crescent, Bath. 

vi. 6). MR. CHARLES DALTON takes excep- 
tion to the age and Christian name of 
Lieut. -General Hawley, as given in my 
recent work on Fontenoy and the June 
number of Blackwood. There is a good deal 
of mystery about the age and early career 
of this personage. MR. DALTON claims to 
have discovered his parents' marriage certi- 
ficate, dating trom 21 Jan., 1688/4 ; and 
assumes that the future general was born 
within a year. This is surely a very lerge 
assumption ; for Hawley may well have 
been the child of a previous marriage. In 
the absence of any record of his baptism 
we are compelled to fall back on tradition 
and the probabilities. According to Camp- 
bell Ma^lachlan, ' Life of William Augustus, 
Duke of Cumberland,' he was born " before 
1679 " (see also, for age, the article in the 
* Diet. Nat. Biog ' ). His first commission, 
again, was dated 1694 ; and as he had put 
in fifty-one years' service at Fontenoy, he 
was probably " nearer seventy than sixty," 
as the Blackwood states. 

With regard to his Christian name, he 
is always referred to in dispatches as "Lieut.- 
General Hawley," without initials, but as 
invariably he signs himself " J. H. Hawley." 
Autograph letters in the Public Record 
Office place this beyond all doubt ; and they 
are my authority for styling him " John." 

BTJRNEY FAMILY (10 S. v. 510). The 
father of Capt. James Burney, who died in 
1884, aged ninety-one, was the Rev. Charles 
Burney, D.D. (son of Chas. Burney, Mus.Doc.),. 
who married in 1783 a daughter of Dr. Rose, 
of Chiswick, and kept a school at Hammer- 
smith, which he afterwards moved to Green- 
wich. I cannot trace William Burney in 
the pedigrees of the family of Charles. 
Burney, Mus.Doc. 

G. H. JOHNSTON, Lieut.-Col. 

I believe the querist could get the infor- 
mation required by referring to the ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog.,' vol. vii. p. 415. I married a 
lady of the name of Burney about fifty-six 
years ago, and could give more particulars 
if wanted. F. V. 

8, Ladbroke Road, W. 

" DUMA " (10 S. v. 426, 472 ; vi. 12). 
As the distinguished Russian folk-lorist 
Gosp. Evgen. Anichkov, who gave us last 
month at Oxford the Ilchester Lectures on 
comparative Slavonic folk-songs, told me,, 
the word Duma, i.e. thought, was chosen 
by the Russian Government, in preference 
to any other name, to denote the new 
national assembly of councillors, merely as 
the most harmless term, since it had been 
already applied to such a council of deputies 
in the sixteenth century. According to the 
authority both of Miklosich (cf. his Old 
Slavonic and his comparative Slavonic 
dictionaries, Vindobonse, 1862-5, and Vienna,. 
1886) and of Goryaev (comparative Slavonic 
dictionary in Russian, Tiflis, 1896-1901), 
there is no doubt that Duma is originally 
akin to, or of common Indo-European 
parentage with, the Icelandic word domr,. 
the Gothic doms, and Anglo-Saxon dom, 
our doom. It does not prove, of course, 
that Rurik, the Scandinavian founder of 
the first Russian state at Novgorod, in the 
ninth century, introduced into Russia^ the 
Old Norse judicial institution of a Domr. 
By the way, one may regret the strong pre- 
judice expressed by a leading man like 
Leo Tolstoi against the new Duma. He 
is said to have condemned and " doomed it 
to death," before having given it a fair trial. 


10 s. vi. JULY 21, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



<10 S. vi. 29.) MR. SWYNNERTON can find 
this song, three stanzas, with the music, 
printed in the original edition of William 
Chappell's priceless ' Popular Music of the 
Olden Time,' vol. ii. p. 732, circa 1855 (the 
only unmutilated edition, absolutely trust- 
worthy), " sung as a duet at Harrison's 
Concerts," not later than 1792. It is printed 
in ' The British Lyre ; or, Muses' Repository ' 
(Preface dated 5 Jan., 1793) : 
Oh, dear ! what can the matter be ? 
Dear ! dear ! what can the matter be ? 
Oh, dear ! what can the matter be ? 

Johnny 's so long at the Fair. 

He promised to buy me a Fairing should please me ; 
And then for a kiss, Oh ! he vowed he would tease 

me ; 
He promised to bring me a bunch of blue ribbons, 

To tie up my bonny brown hair. 

And it 's (Da Capo). 

He promised he 'd bring me a basket of posies, 
A garland of lilies, a garland of roses, 
A little straw hat, to set off the blue ribbons, 

That tie up my bonny brown hair. 
Authorship unknown. With variations. 
Heard by me in 1828. 

Molash Priory, Ashford, Kent: 
The earliest copy of this song appears to 
loe that printed in ' The British Lyre ; or, 
Muses' Repository,' published in 1793 ; it is 
there called a favourite duet. Both verses 
quoted by MR. SWYNNERTON are to be found 
in the before-named publication. The air 
and words are printed in Chappell's ' Popular 
Music of the Olden Time,' vol. ii. p. 732. 

[Further replies next week.] 
father, the sixth Lord Monson (an assiduous 
contributor to ' N. & Q.' in the " fifties "), 
the former owner of Gatton Park (which 
property was sold by my late brother 
Viscount Oxenbridge to Mr. Jeremiah Cole- 
man some fifteen years ago), always looked 
upon the four inscriptions on the urn under 
the " Town Hall," in the park near the 
mansion, as very poor jokes. The four 
inscriptions, if my memory does not deceive 
me, were : " Vox populi vox Dei " ; " Stat 
ductis sortibus urna " ; " Salus populi 
suprema lex " ; and the fourth, the line 
quoted by your correspondent, of which, 
in spite of his constant references to the 
subject of the initials H. M., 1765, my 
father never gave me, as far as I can recollect, 
any explanation. 

The Gatton property had no long con- 
nexion with the Monson family, having been 
purchased by Frederick, fifth Lord Monson, 

my father's cousin and predecessor, from 
Sir Mark Wood. EDMUND MONSON. 

Brooks's Club. 

In this inscription, " H. M. dolus malus 
abesto," I think that the capital letters are 
simply used as an abbreviation of " huic 
monumento." WALTER B. KINGSFORD. 

In a Handbook to Reigate,' by R. F. D. 
Palgrave, published in 1860 at Dorking, is 
the following : 

" The little temple protecting a classic urn, 
among the trees behind the house, was Gatton's 
Town Hall. We are now so far removed from the 
days of ' pocket boroughs,' and the electoral rotten- 
ness we have to struggle against is so much more 
the ignorance of many voters than the servility of a 
few, that the inscription upon the urn's base, 'Stat 
ductis sortibus urna,' would hardly of itself explain 
to a stranger the use for which the temple was 
designed ; unless indeed metaphor be construed as 
a prophecy, and urna translated into ' ballot-box.'" 




A New English Dictionary on Historical Principle*. 
(Vol. VIL O-P.) Ph- to Piper. By Dr. James 
A. H. Murray. (Oxford, Clarendon P*ress.) 
THE double part of the ' New English Dictionary ' 
which now appears begins the second half of vol. vii. 
Owing to the lost etymological history of many of 
the words, and the entangled meanings of the pick*, 
pikes, pile*, pink*, and similar groups, it may well 
have been the hardest piece of work yet done in 
the 'Dictionary.' The opening portion gives the 
words in ph, constituting virtually a letter in them- 
selves, "not originally nor phonetically belonging 
top. With insignificant exceptions, they are deri- 
vatives from Greek words in <p, which the Romans, 
npt identifying it with their /, represented by the 
digraph ph." A history of the digraph and the 
substitution for it of / in popular and medieval 
Latin, in Italian and Spanish, and exceptionally in 
English, e.(j. fancy, forms the first article in the 
section. Most of the words beginning with ph are 
scientific or philosophical, the most extensive group 
being the compounds of photo, which in themselves 
occupy fifteen columns arid are 240 in number, all 
except six consequent upon the introduction of 
photography in 1839. Photosphere was employed in 
1664 by Dr. Henry More. With much labour the 
earliest use of photography has been traced to Sir 
John Herschell in 1839. Phantasmagoria, a name 
for an exhibition of optical illusions in London in 
1802, belongs to that date; phantasm, however, 
then spelt "fantesme," goes back to the ' Ancren 
Riwle, 1225. Phantasmal is first employed by 
Shelley. Phantom appears in the 'Cursor Mundi.' 
Under meaning 3, a mental illusion, appears 
Wordsworth's "She was a phantom of delight." 
Pharmaceiitic is met with so early as 1541, and 
pharmacopea in Burton's ' Anatomy of Melancholy. ' 
Pharos, for a lighthouse in general, occurs in Le- 
land's ' Itinerary,' 1552. Phises of the moon belong 
to the nineteenth century, but as a plural of pha-fi* 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 21, 

to the seventeenth. Pheasant, earliest form 
" fesaund," the Phasian bird, has an interesting 
history. Coleridge in 1825 seems to have introduced 
phenomenal, though Bacon is responsible for pheno- 
mena. Philabeg is an erroneous form of fiiKbeg^ a 
kilt. An excellent history of philander, substantive 
and verb, is given. Bacon m his ' Essays ' \isesphifan- 
thropia. Philip is said to be used of a sparrow, 

}>erhaps in imitation of its chirp, " phip." Philippina 
las a short but interesting account. It is very 
curious to find the term Philistine, ' ' applied (humor- 
ously or otherwise) to persons regarded as the 
enemy," employed by Dekker. Of Philomel, Philo- 
mela, it is said that with reference to the ancient 
myth it is properly feminine, and involves the error 
of attributing song to the hen bird. In the history 
of the philosopher's stone, Chaucer is the first 
authority cited. With regard to philosophical and 
its confusion with " scientific " it might be noted 
that about 1840 there was a trade known as a philo- 
sophical instrument maker. Phfebades, priestesses of 
Apollo, is used by Chapman. Late uses of Phu-lnis 
for the sun-god might ne found in song. An excel- 
lent account is supplied of phoenix. Phosphorus has 
a curious history. Phrase and its compounds offer 
abundant points of interest. Phrenologist is first 
heard of in 1815. Many of the words in ph are 
sufficiently crabbed. Pianoforte first occurs in a 
playbill of Covent Garden in 1767, piano organ so 
early as 1844, and pianola in 1901. Pibroch occurs 
in 1719. With pic begins a noteworthy collection of 
disconnected words : picador, picaroon, piccadill, 
piccaninny. Pick as a substantive and verb has a 
great variety of significations, many of them very 
quaint, curious, and uncertain of origin ; cf . pick-a- 
back, to pick one's way, to pick up one's crumbs, and 
many others, including picket, pickfork, pickings. 
Pickle, in the form " a rod in pickle," goes 
back to the time of the Marprelate controversy. 
Of pickle-herring, a very full account is given. 
Pick-me-up is first encountered in 1867. Picnic 
seems of very dubious origin, and has changed 
greatly in meaning. In connexion with many words 
the information supplied is encyclopaedic. Steele 
is the first authority for picturesque. Pidgin or 
pigeon English is derived from the word "bigeon," 
a Chinese effort to pronounce '"business." It is 
curious to find in reference to a word so familiar 
as pie=& dish, that except in Gaelic, no related 
word is known outside English. In 1362 it was a 
popular word. Of piece it is said that the ulterior 
origin is obscure, and that the arrangement 
adopted is to a great extent provisional. Apiece of 
woollen cloth, it may be said under 4a, used to be. 
half a century ago, about fifty yards. Piepowder is 
of course from the Latin. Pier is of unknown 
origin. In the case of pierce, as in that of piece, 
the ulterior origin is declared uncertain. Piety is 
an early form of pity. Pig is one of the words in 
common use, but of obscure origin, with which this 
portion of the work abounds. Pigmey as an 
endearing diminutive probably arose from the fond 
prattle of nurses. Pike has manifold senses, 
including peak, and the study of them offers much 
difficulty. Pilfer is cpnjecturally derived from 
pelfre=s]>oil. Under j)il garlic will be found much 
curious information. Pilgrimage of grace in its 
earliest form is pilgrimage for grace. Pill is 
another ordinary word with a strange history. 
Pillicock is a darling, a minion. Pillory is of 
uncertain origin. Important histories are supplied 
xinder pillow, pink, pilot, and innumerable other 

words. No previous section, indeed, repays study 
as does this, and the difficulty that attends the 
words in pi gives rise to much conjecture. The 
last word, pipe, with its combinations, affords 
matter of unending interest. In connexion with. 
pipe, to whistle like a bird, a quotation from Blake 
might be commended. 

The Sketch-Book. By Washington Irving. (Bell & 


How far the appearance in " The York Library "fof 
' The Sketch-Book of Geoffrey Crayon ' gives promise^ 
in^ the same attractive form of other works of 
Washington Irving we know not. We welcome, 
however, the reappearance of the first volume of 
the most English of American authors, and are 
thankful for the appreciative observations with 
which it is prefaced. The effect of the early volumes 
of Irving upon the English public is not easily 


MR. EDWARD BAKER, of Birmingham, has in' his 
Catalogue 241 a copy of the rare black-letter- 
Chaucer, 1561, 21/. ; first editions of ' The Rivals,' 
1775, 15/. 15*., and of 'The Critic,' 1781, 3/. 10*. ;. 
first complete edition of Bacon's 'Essays,' 1625, 
151. 15s. ; Traill and Mann's 'Sp9ial England,' 
4/. 4*. ; Cooper's Novels, first editions, 21 vols., 
6/. 10*. ; Nash's 'Mansions,' 6^. 6*.; Funck & 
Wagnalls's 'Dictionary,' 3 vols., 4to, 37. 3*.; and 
Hamerton's 'Paris,' 21. 2*. Under Occult we note 
Con way's ' Demonology,' 30s. 

Mr. Thomas Baker has a Clearance Catalogue 
(No. 496) of Theological Works, including the 
library of an Irish priest. Among the items are 
Migne's ' Patrologia Latina, Cursus Completus,* 
222 vols. in 215, half red morocco, new, 120/. ; 
Migne's 'Theologize Cursus Completus,' 28 vols., 
1839, 21. 18*. ; Baring-Gould's ' Lives of the Saints,' 
16 vols., "21. IO/. ; a complete set of ' Civilta Catto- 
lica,' 176 vols., 12/. 12*. ; ' Athanasii Opera Omnia,' 
3 vols., folio, 1698, 21. Is. Qd. ; M'Clintock and 
Strong's 'Biblical Cyclopedia,' 12 vols., 3f. 18*. M. ; 

<T>:UI: TTI . w ._ T>-I,I-'__ . i A _i 

of the Middle Ages,' 1843, 3/. 15*. The list takes a 
wide range, for we find the names of Newman, 
Dean Vaughan, Spurgeon, Dean Stanley, and many 

Mr. Richard Cameron, of Edinburgh, has a 
specially interesting item in his new list, consisting 
of over a thousand letters and documents addressed 
to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Spring Rice, 
1837-8, consequent upon an inquiry into the Pension 
List, when all pensioners military and naval 
officers, literary men, and others were called 
upon to furnish statements as to the terms upon 
which their pensions were granted, with details of 
services rendered. The documents are in six thick 
folio volumes, and are priced 5/. 5*. Among por- 
traits and views are a set of the Kings of Scotland 
and Queen Mary, 9 plates in frames, 1680, 35*. ; 
John Sobieski Stuart, in full Highland dress, from 
a painting by Ross, 1848, in frame, 25*. ; 36 large 
coloured plates of Old London, letterpress by 
Habershon, 12*. M. ; Buck's View of London, rare, 
1749, 35*. ; and Battle of Culloden, 5*. 6d. Other- 
items include a large number of works on Edin- 

10 s. vi. JULY 21, 


burgh ; Hogg's ' Jacobite Relics of Scotland,' first 
edition, 2 vols., 1819-21, 25*. ; Jamiesoii's 'Dictionary,' 
with Donaldson's supplementary volume, 1879-87, 
4. 15-s. ; and Birkbeck Hill's 'Footsteps of Dr. 
Johnson in Scotland,' large paper, 1890, 30*. (pub- 
lished at 71. 7*'.). 
Mr. Alfred Cooper, of Hammersmith, has a set of 

England arid Wales,' 4/. ; Lockhart's ' Scott,' 
10 vols., 1839, original cloth, 25*. ; ' Speaker's Com- 
mentary,' 9 vols., 2/. 10*.; Thiers's 'Consulat et 
1'Empire,' 32 vols., Paris, 1845, 31. ; Reclus's 'Geo- 
graphy,' edited by Ravenstein, 21 vols.,4/. ; Roscoe's 
edition of Pope, 10 vols., 1824, 21. 2*. ; The Revised 
Version, 5 vols., Oxford Press, 1885, 15*.; 'Lloyd's 
Yacht Register,' 23 vols. 1878-1900, 3/. 15*. ; and 
Macaulay's 'Essays,' 3 vols., 1843, scarce, 30*. There 
is a long and varied list of Theological Works. 

From Day's Library we have a Clearance List. 
The following are new as published : Lumholtz's 
'Unknown Mexico,' 18*. M. ; Brandon's 'Gothic 
Architecture,' 18*. Qd. ; Mrs. Bishop's ' Korea,' 
7*. 6d. ; 'Charles Dickens's Letters,' 3 vols., 8*. M. ; 
Ackermami's 'Microcosm of London,' 3 vols., 1904, 
42*. ; Pugin's 'Fifteenth-Sixteenth Century Orna- 
ments,' 10*. 6d ; and ' Ramsay and the Earlier Poets 
of Scotland,' 12*. Qd. 

Messrs. S. Drayton & Sons, of Exeter, send us 
two catalogues, Nos. 180-81. Among items in the 
former are the very scarce edition of 1837 of ' John 
Mytton,' 12/. 12*. ; John Doyle's (H. B.'s) 'Political 
Sketches,' 9 vols., large folio, McLean, 1&30, 9^. 9*. ; 
The Clarendon Press facsimile of the First Folio 
(No. 794 of the 1,000 printed), 10/. 10*. ; Britton's 
'Cathedral Antiquities,' 6 vols., folio, 1836, 9/. 9*. ; 
The " Abbotsford Scott," 1842-7, 13 vols., royal 8vo., 
4/. 10*. ; 'Don Quixote,' 4 vols., royal 4to, full 
crimson morocco, Madrid, 1780, 51. 10*. ; ' Claude de 
Lorrain,' 3 vols, royal folio, Boydell, 1819, 11. 10*. ; 
Ray's ' English Words not Generally Used,' 1674, 
25*.; and Borlase's 'Antiquities of Cornwall,' 
1769, 32*. 6d. Under America are two rare coloured 
prints of Salem and " New Yprck," c. 1700, price 
5/. 5*. Two large coloured prints by Morland are 
71. 10*. The second list is devoted to Theology, 
and includes a set of the " Library of Anglo- 
Catholic Theology," 88 vols., 63*. ; and Dr. Smith's 
' Dictionary of the Bible,' 4 vols., 42*. 

Messrs. William George's Sons, of Bristol, have 
an American broadside, 'Penn's Treaty with the 
Indians,' a sheet 15 by 19 inches, 10*. Under Biblio- 
graphy is Francis Fry's ' Descriptions of the 
Editions of the New Testament,' 28*. ; and imder 
Bookplates is a set of the Ex-Libris Society's 
Journal, 31. 3*. A copy of Solon's ' Ancient Art 
Stone-Ware of the Low Countries,' is priced 
2/. 12*. 6d. Under French are the ' Biographic 
Universelle,' 52 vols., Paris, 1811-28, 5/. 5*. ; and 
* L'Heptameron,' 3 vols., blue calf, a choice copy, 
1853-4, 3/. 15*. Under Gladstone are ' The State in 
its Relations to the Church,' 1839, 2*. 6d. ; and ' The 
Vatican Decrees and Vaticanism,' 2 thick vols., 
6*. 6d. Other items include Granger's 'Biographical 
History,' extra-illustrated, 1824, of. 5*. ; a series of 
the works of William Morris, printed with the 
Golden Type, 8 vols., 8/. 8*. ; The Coronation 
Procession of Queen Victoria, a roll five feet long, 
7*. 6d. ; first editions of ' The Stones of Venice,' 
91. 15*., and 'The Seven Lamps,' 31. 3*.; the 

"^Border Edition " of the Waverley Novels, 48 vols.,. 
15/. 10*. (in paper covers over the cloth, as issued 
at 48 guineas net) ; F. S. Ellis's ' Lexical Concord- 
ance to Shelley,' 16*.; Walpole's 'Anecdotes of 
Painting,' Major's edition, 5 vols., russia, fine 
copy, 1828, 6A 6*. ; Aspin's ' Naval and Military 
Exploits,' plates beautifully coloured, 1820, 4f. 4*. ; 
Brayley's and Britton's ' Beauties of England and 
Wales/ 1801-15, 24 in 25 vols., 5t. 18*. : Dugdale's. 
'Monasticon Anglicanum,' 8 vols., 1817-30, 20/. ; 
and ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' with the supple- 
mentary volumes, 91. 15*. 

Mr. Frank Murray, of Derby, has a copy of 
'Baulme for Bleeding England and Ireland/ 1643,. 
rare, 4/. 4*. A number of works will be found 
under Derbyshire, including Dr. Cox's 'Derby- 
shire,' 3/. 3*. ; Glover's 'History,' 27*.; Jewitt s, 
21*. ; and Lysons's, 36*. ' The Bagshawes of Ford/ 

land,' 2f. 10*. ; Milton's ' Defence,' first edition, 
1692, 21. ; Lindley's 'British Fruits,' 31. 10*.;. 
Booth's ' Battle of Waterloo,' 25*. ; and first edition* 
of Horace Smith's ' Tin Trumpet,' 25*. 

Messrs. James Rimell & Son have Blome's ' The 
Gentleman's Recreation,' 1686, 121. 12*. ; early 
editions of Borrow, 14 vols., 12/. 12*. ; Duke of 
Buckingham's 'Court of George III.,' 51. 5*. ;- 
Burton's 'Anatomy of Melancholy,' 1660, St. 15*. ; 
Carlyle's ' Past and Present,' 1843, 31. ia>-. 6d. (pre- 
sentation copy to Mrs. Buller) ; Valpy's "Classical 
Library," 1833, 57. 5s. ; Coleridge's 'Fears in 
Solitude,' first edition, 1798, and ' Frost at Mid- 
night,' bound with others, 14/. 14*. ; Weaver's 
'Art of Dancing,' 1720, 3?. 13s. 6d. ; Drayton's. 
' Poly-olbion,' 1622, 111.10*.; Hakluyt, 1903-5,. 
71. 10*. ; Herbert of Cher bury 's ' Occasional Verses,' 
1665, If. 7*. ; complete sets of Jesse's Historical 
Memoirs, 30 vols., Nimmo, 1901, 91. 12*. 6d., and 
Lady Jackson's Works, 14 vols., 6/. 10*. ; a set of 

1840-48, 19 vols., 21/. (from the Huth Collection)! 
Old works on music include Glarcanus, one of the- 
earliest writers, 1516-1629, 81. 8*. 

Mr. James Roche has Upham's 'Buddhism,' 
Ackermann, 1829, 31. 10*. ; 'Dramatists of the 
Restoration,' 1872, 31. 15*. 6d. ; Le Brun's 'Galerie 
des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais, et Allemands, 5 ' 
1792-6, very rare, 81. 18*. 6d. ; and Woodburn's 
' Gallery of Rare Portraits,' 1816, 4/. 18*. 6d. Under 
Naval and Military is a collection of old cavalry 
illustrations, very rare, 1776, 51. 15*. 6d. ; and under 
Theatrical is 'Galerie Theatrale,' 144 plates, repre- 
senting the costumes of the old and new French 
stage, Paris, circa 1850, 2f. 12*. Qd. Under India 
we find Forbes Watson and Kaye's ' People of 
India,' 468 portraits, 8 vols., 1868-75, Wf. 8*. 6d. 
There are many beautiful books of prints, including 
Bartolozzi's Works, edited by Tuer, 2/. 12*. 6d. ; 
'The Stafford Gallery,' 3L 18*. M. ; and Finden's 
'Gallery,' 2*. 8*. 6d. There are also some scarce 
publications of the Arundel Society. 

Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co. offer a set of 
Hansard, 1806-92. very scarce, 210A ; ' The Annual 
Register,' 1758-1902, 311. 10*. ; Biographies of the 
Queens and Princesses of England and Scotland,. 
33 vols., 1842-70, 22/. 10*. ; Bentley 1 * Mixcellany, 
1837-48, 12/. ; Ashmole's 'Berkshire,' 1723, 71. 10*. ;: 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. vi. JULY 21, 

"Lodges in Windsor Great Park,' executed by 
special command of Queen Victoria, 1839, 5f. (from 
the library of the Duke of Cambridge); Buck's 
" Antiquities,' 1721-49, 73/. 10*. ; Byron's Works and 
Moore s Life, with Finden's plates, 10 vols., 4to, 
large paper, 1830-39, 19/. 19*. ; Dyer's 'Cambridge,' 
extra-illustrated, 1814, II. 10*. ; Camden's ' Bri- 
tannia,' with 6,240 additional plates and maps, 
1806, 50/. ; 'Don Quixote,' the first edition of the 
first English translation, 1620, 35/. ; " Chronicles 
of Great Britain and Ireland," edited under the 
direction of the Master of the Rolls, 1858-98, 757. ; 
Lord Vernon's privately printed edition of Dante, 
extremely rare, 4 vols., folio, 1858-65, 167. 10*. ; and 
George Eliot's Works, 25 vols., all first editions, 
31 /. 10*. A set of ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
with oaken case, is offered for 18/. 18*., and in a 
note it is recorded that The Time* net cash price 
for this is 79/., and that this work was "the 
occasion of the Nadir of Modern Advertising." 
There are a number of important works under 
India and Ceylon. Under Ruskin is a very choice 
set of best editions, 75^. A fine set of ' N. & Q.,' 
1850-1902, is priced 42^. 

Mr. James Thin, of Edinburgh, has two lists, 
Nos. 151 and 152. The items in the former in- 
clude Bentham's Works, 1843, 22 vols., 11. ; the 
largest-paper copy of ' Border Antiquities,' 1814, 
31. ; the Edition de Luxe of the Brownings' 
Poetical Works, 23 vols., 9/. 9*. ; ' The Century 
Dictionary,' 6/. 15*. ; ' Pictures from the Private 
Collections of Great Britain,' 4 vols., elephant 
folio, 1872, 6/. 15*. ; Kiriglake's 'Crimea, '8 vols., 
.3/. 10*. ; Roberts's Holy Land, 5/. 10*. ; Nisbet's 
' Heraldry,' 1804, " t L 15*. ; a fine set of The Scot* 
Magazine, 1739-1826, 97 vols., half-russia, 10/. ; ' The 
iSomers Tracts,' 16 vols., 3/. ; Stephens's 'Old 
Northern Runic Monuments,' 4/. 10*. ; Rawlinson's 

* Herodotus,' 3/. 15*. ; Journal of the Statistical 
Society, 1868-1905, 12/. ; Wright's ' Vocabularies 
of our Forefathers,' 12*. 6rf. ; Green's^ 'Short 
History,' 4 vols., 21. 15*. ; and Fronde's 'England,' 
Library Edition, scarce, 5/. 10*. There are some 
important works relating to Scotland, including 
Archaioloffia Hcotica, Billings's ' Antiquities,' Ban- 
natyne Club, National Manuscripts, &c. 

The second is a Short List of New Books at 
Greatly Reduced Prices. Among these are Earle's 

* Two Centuries of Costume in America,' New York, 
1903, 10*. M. ; Kristeller's ' Early Florentine Wood- 
cuts,' 1897, 18*. 6d.; and Mrs. Frankau's 'Eigh- 
teenth Century Colour Prints,' folio (published at 
SI. 8*.), 21. 10*. 

Mr. James Thorpe, of Brighton, has Dickens's 

* Edwin Drood,' in parts as issued, 10*. ; Park's 

4 Topography of Hampstead,' 1814, 30*. ; Waverley 
Novels, Caclell, 1846, 85*. ; first editions of ' Kenil- 
worth,' 'Abbot,' and ' Peveril of the Peak'; Sir 
Henry Irvine's edition of Shakespeare, 8 vols., 30*. ; 
Horsfield's 'Sussex,' 1835, 70*. ; Lower's 'Worthies 
of Sussex,' 1865, 15*. ; The Theatre, 39 vols., 85*. ; 
Wright's ' The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon,' 
10*. 6r/. ; the " Aldine Poets," 32 vols., 1890-3, 42*. ; 
Camden Society, 1838-49, 65*. ; William Hewitt's 

* History of the Supernatural,' 15*. ; ' Imperial 
Dictionary of Biography,' 16*. ; Lodge's ' Portraits,' 

5 vols., 26*. 6<Z. ; and 'Views of London,' 1840, 
17*. 6'/. There are Pickering's Diamond editions 
and a number of medical works. 

Mr. Wilfrid Voynich has another Short Cata- 
logue (No. 18) of scarce works. The descriptions 

given of each item are so full that these lists are 
valuable for reference. A book of great interest for 
students of the early history of America, is Sir 
Thomas Herbert's ' Travels,' as the last part relates 
how Madoc ap Owen Gwyneth discovered America 
"above three hundred yeares before Columbus." 
The author quotes some verses in Welsh. The book 
was published in London^ 1638, and is 6/. 6*. 
Another rare work is ' De Nature Divinis Charac- 
terismis,' by Corn. Gemma, containing curious 
pictures of monsters, 1575, 2/. 10*. The sixth edition 
of the Bible in Italian, with the Apocrypha, Venice, 
1487, is 12/. 12*. Under Broadsides are some relat- 
ing to the Naples Revolution of 1647. There is 
much of interest under Classics, including a rare 
edition of Ovid, Parma, 1508, 4/. 4*. ; and Seneca, 
Bergamo, 1552, 2/. 2*. Among English books 
printed before 1640 is one secretly produced in 
1584, Macchiavelli's ' II Prencipe con alcune altre 
Operette,' 5/. 5*. Under English Literature is a 
curious book, Cave Beck's ' The Universal 
Character, by which all the Nations in the World 
may understand One Another's Conceptions, read- 
ing out of one common Writing their own Mother 
Tongues,' 1657, If. 1*. Under Mathematics is 
' Victorias (B. ) Fayentinus Albertus de Saxoiiia 
Thonias Bradwardinus Anglicus,' numerous mathe- 
matical diagrams, 1506, 6/. 6*. Bradwardine 
died in 1349 Archbishop of Canterbury, and was 
commonly known as Dr. Prof undus. He is referred 
to in ' The Nun's Priest's Tale.' To England falls 
the honour of having produced the earliest Euro- 
pean writers on trigonometry. 

Messrs. Henry Young & Sons, of Liverpool, have 
a collection of Horace Walpole's chief works, 
35 vols., the first octavo issue, 1806-51, 45/. ; Moliere's 
'CEuvres,' with hand-i>ainted engravings, Paris, 


1802, 9/. 9*. ; 'Historical Portraits,' 12/. 12*. ; 'The 
Royal Gallery of Art,' 12/. 12*. ; Gell's 'Pompeii,' 
1817-32, 8/. 8*. ; original editions of Morris, Tenny- 
son, and the old dramatists ; and some fine por- 
traits and prints, including Reynolds's ' Lady 
Seaforth,' May 10th, 1787, 25/. The illustrations 
add much to the interest of the catalogue. 


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lo s. vi. JULY 28, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 135. 

NOTES .'Fielding's ' Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon,' 61 
"Verify your references," 62 White Family of South- 
wick, 64 Scott's 'Guy Mannerin^' and 'Antiquary,' 65 
" Yam" : its Origin Bishop Family of Bray " Lealand" 
in W. Morris, 66 Lord's Prayer, c. 1430 Devil's Advocate 
in Tibet Pennefather : Origin of the Name, 67. 

^QUERIES : " Plum " : Jack Horner " Plum "=Raisin, 
67 Bullim : its Locality St. Charles Borromeo : his 
Portraits Manor Mesne Preseren , Slavonic Poet 
French Chateaux, 68 Cherry in Place-Names E. C. 
Brewer's School at Mile End Inscription at Constance 
" Eyelashes of the road "Humphrey Halley Chingford 
Church : " Nunquam non paratus " " Red Lion," Henley- 
on-Thames St. Peter's in Chepe : St. John Zachary 
" Four Corners " " Breaking the flag," 69 Palm Sunday 
and Hill-Climbing: Church Ales Thomas Russell, Over- 
seer of Shakespeare's Will "Le Fludous" Strode's 
Regiment, 70. 

REPLIES : St. Edith, 70-Shaw's 'Knights of England' 
Punch, the Beverage "Gula Augusti," 72 Abbey or 
Priory ' Diary of an Invalid ' Sea-Urchin " O dear, 
what can the matter be ?" 73 Acts xxix. "Hypocrite" 
Earthquakes in Wales Geoffrey de Lusignan, 74 

St. Kitts " Clever " Burial-Grounds and Cathedrals 
Tom Thumb in London, 76 Sir John Fastolf Miss 
Meteyard " Mininin," a Shell Tadpole, 77 Heraldic 
Surname " Albion " Hotel, Aldersgate Street^Direction 
Post L\ Signpost Kipling Family Cricket : Pictures and 
Engravings, 78. 

:NOTES OX BOOKS :' Parvus Cato, Magnus Cato' 
' The Legend of Sir Perceval ' Cicero on Friendship and 
Old Age Bliss Carman's 'Sappho ''The Dream of the 
Rood ' ' Pierce the Ploughman's Crede ' The Reade 
Family and Dr. Johnson 'Journal of the Folk-Song 
Society ' ' Monumental Inscriptions at St. Anne's, Soho ' 
North Wraxall Terriers. 

.Notices to Correspondents. 


TO LISBON,' 1755. 

IT is a fact well known to bibliographers 
'that two issues, or, to speak more accurately, 
*wo editions, of this book were published 
during the year 1755. This fact has, never- 
theless, apparently escaped the notice of 
Auctioneers and booksellers, as I have seen 
no reference to it in their catalogues ; and 
I therefore propose to give a short collation 
and description of the two editions, in order 
that they may be differentiated for the future. 

We owe it to Mr. Austin Dobson that the 
fact in question was first brought to light. 
In the Introduction to the beautiful reprint 
of the ' Voyage to Lisbon ' which he edited 
for the Chiswick Press in 1892, Mr. Dobson 
gave a short sketch of the history of the two 
editions, and an account of the principal 
features by which they are distinguished. 
It was on Thursday, 6 February, 1755, that 
the ' Journal ' was first announced in The 
Public Advertiser, to be quickly followed by 
a publisher's notification that Fielding's work 

would appear on " Tuesday, the 25th inst., 
in One Volume Duodecimo, Price 3s. bound," 
and that it was " Printed for the Benefit of 
his Wife and Children." The book was duly 
published on the promised date, and reviews 
of it appeared in The London Magazine for 
February, and in The Gentleman's Magazine 
and in The Monthly Review for March. It 
is from the brief notice in the last-named 
review that practical proof is supplied of the 
priority of the shorter version, even if 
internal evidence were not sufficient to 
decide the point. This notice says inci- 
dentally that the "Comment on Boling- 
broke " occupies twenty-seven pages. To 
speak precisely, in the shorter version it 
occupies twenty-seven pages and a half 
(pp. 201-2.8), while in the longer version it 
occupies only twenty-two and a half (pp. 223- 
245). It is clear, therefore, as Mr. Dobson 
points out, that as the book was first pub- 
lished on 25 Feb., 1755, the shorter version 
was the one reviewed, and consequently is 
the earlier. 

The employment of the terms " shorter 
version " and " longer version " is necessi- 
tated from the fact that a comparison of the 
first issue of the book with the version which 
in 1762 was included in Fielding's ' Works ' 
shows that the first issue was apparently 
" manipulated " by the suppression or 
excision of a number of passages. But 
during the progress of Mr. Dobson's reprint 
it .was discovered that there existed another 
issue, published by the same publisher, and 
having the same date, dedication, and title- 
page, but corresponding in all respects with 
the version published in 1762. Mr. Dobson 
accounts for this second issue on the ground 
that the great earthquake of Lisbon, which 
had taken place on 1 November, 1 755, afforded 
good " topical " reasons for a reprint. This 
solution receives some colour from the fact 
that the advertisements of the book, which 
had ceased for eight months, were resumed 
on 4 December. Millar, the publisher, on 
this occasion availed himself of the oppor- 
tunity of reprinting the book, not as it had 
been edited for the press, but as it had been 
originally left in manuscript by its author. 
It is not probable that the first edition had 
been exhausted, as a careful examination 
of the two issues shows that the first four 
leaves, containing the half-title, title, and 
' Dedication to the Public,' were not re- 
printed, but were transferred bodily to the 
second edition. 

The title of the two editions is as under : 

" The I Journal j of a | Voyage to Lisbon, 
By the late | Henry Fielding, Esq ; | 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 28, 

[Vignette.] j London : \ Printed for A. Millar, 
in the Strand. | MDCCLV." 

The following are the collations of the 
two versions : 

Shorter Version. 12mo, pp. iv+iv-f-xviii 
+ 19-276, consisting of half-title, ' The | 
Journal | of a | Voyage to Lisbon,' pp. [i, ii], 
verso blank ; title as above, pp. [iii, iv], 
verso blank ; * Dedication to the Public,' 
pp. [i]-iv ; ' The Preface,' pp. [i]-xvii ; 
p. [xviii] blank ; ' The Introduction,' pp. [19]- 
41 ; p. [42] blank ; * The Journal,' pp. [43]- 
246, misprinted 198 ; fly- title, ' A | Frag- 
ment | of a | Comment | on | L. Boling- 
broke's Essays,' pp. [247, 248], verso blank ; 
' A Fragment,' &c., pp. 249-76, misprinted 
201-28. Pp. 241 to 246 are misnumbered 
193 to 198 ; and pp. 249 to 276 are mis- 
numbered 201 to 228. The register is [A], 
four leaves ; B-N6 in twelves. 

Longer Version. 12mo, pp. iv+iv+xvi 
4- 17-246, consisting of half-title, ' The | 
Journal j of a j Voyage to Lisbon,' pp. [i, ii], 
verso blank ; title as above, pp. [iii, iv] ; 
' Dedication to the Public,' pp. [i]-iv ; ' The 
Preface,' pp. [i]-xv ; p. [xvi] blank ; * The 
Introduction,' pp. [17]-37 ; p. [38] blank ; 
' The Journal,' pp. [39]-219 ; p. [220] blank ; 
fly-title, ' A | Fragment | of a | Comment | 
on | L. Bolingbroke's Essays,' pp. [221, 222], 
verso blank ; ' A Fragment,' &c., pp. 223- 
245 ; p. [246] blank. The register is [A], 
four leaves ; B-M3 in twelves. 

The type employed for the first edition 
or shorter version is much larger than that 
used for the second edition or longer version, 
which will account for the former containing 
thirty more pages than the latter, although 
this is not apparent on a cursory inspection 
of the books. The collation shows, how- 
ever, that the last forty-five pages (including 
the unpaged fly-title to ' A Fragment ') are 
misnumbered . 

The passages that were suppressed in the 
first edition, but were restored in the second, 
relate in the main to the captain of the ship, 
and to the captain's nephew, who is happily 
described by Mr. Dobson as a military ccx- 
comb of the type of Ensign Northerton. 
These passages (one of which is of consider- 
able length) are reprinted by Mr. Dobson 
in the notes to his edition. In the first 
edition, moreover, the name of Fielding's 
landlady at Ryde, the prototype of many a 
seaside landlady in fact and fiction, is Mrs. 
Humphrys, w r hereas in the second she ap- 
pears as Mrs. Francis. The variations 
between the two editions render it necessary 
that the Fielding collector should have both 
upon his shelves. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 


THE injunction " Verify your references !' r 
recently revived in the pages of ' N. & Q., r 
is one which increasingly demands attention- 
It is bad enough to have careless slips con- 
cerning easily ascertained facts thrust upon 
our notice day after day in the press, and 
these even in high-class newspapers ; but 
it is intolerable that what may be excused 
because of the extreme haste with which 
daily journals have to be produced should 
be found in books published under dis- 
tinguished auspices or written by authors 
of repute, who should be trusted to take 
some care in dealing with matters of fact. 

In ' The Cambridge Modern History ' 
(vol. ix., ' Napoleon,' published this year) 
there appears, for instance, in chap. xxii. 
1 Great Britain and Ireland, 1792-1815,' 
by Mr. G. P. Gooch, M.A., M.P., late Scholar 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, the statement 
(p. 689), " The old King's Jubilee (October, 
1810) had scarcely been celebrated when the 
clouds finally gathered round him." Yet 
reference to so easily accessible a work a& 
' The Annual Register ' would have shown 
that " the joyful event of our beloved 
Sovereign entering the 50th year of his 
reign " which was in accordance with the 
Mosaic idea of a Jubilee was both officially 
and popularly celebrated in October, 1809. 

The same period is responsible for a ques- 
tion which may be put to Mr. A. T. Quiller- 
Couch as to the authority upon which he- 
represents not once, but three times 
George, Prince of Wales (afterwards 
George IV.), as being commonly known as- 
" The Prince Regent " several years before 
he actually became so. Mr. Quiller-Couch 
in * The Mayor of Troy ' carefully dates- 
his story as one of 1803, but in chap. v. he 
causes admirers of his hero to exclaim : 

" ' There is no man like him ! ' 

" 'If we exclude a certain resemblance .' 

" ' You refer to the Prince Regent ? ' " 

That this is not a mere slip is shown by 
the fact that in chap. xvi. we are told that 
there was seen at Portsmouth in the spring 
of 1804 

"that rotund, star-bedecked figure in the stem 
sheet, beside the Port Admiral that classic but 

full-blooded face crowned with a chestnut wig 

AVho could it be if not his Royal Highness the Prince 
Regent? Yes, it was he." 

And the existence of a Prince Regent years- 
before there was one though George, Prince 
of Wales, was originally named as Regent 
in a Bill of 1789, which, while it passed the 
House of Commons, was dropped in the 

10 s. vi. JULY 28, 1906. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

House of Lords because his father had 
temporarily recovered his sanity, and though 
the question of a possible Regency was 
mooted again in 1804, owing to a brief re- 
lapse is once more emphasized in chap. xx. 
But the characters of " Q." would seem to 
revel in the joys of anticipation, for Mr. 
Orlando B. Sturge, a " pressed " actor, 
exclaims (in chap, xiv.) in the spring of 1804, 
" Phoebus, what a name ! " though Byron 
did not publish until four years later his 
' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' with 
the famous lines, 

Oh ! Amos Cottle Phoebus ! what a name 
To fill the speaking-trump of future fame ! 
It may be that a novelist can claim some 
licence in regard to mere matters of historical 
detail ; but what is to be said in extenuation 
of the blunders of those who make a boast 
of being specially well informed ? There has 
just been published a volume of * Essays in 
Literature and History,' by J. A. Froude, 
with an introduction furnished by Mr. H. 
Belloc, M.P. In this introduction it is 
condescendingly said of Froude : 

"That the man was by nature accurate, well 
read, and of a good memory, appears continually 
throughout this book, and the more widely one has 
read one's self, the more one appreciates this truth. 
Fcir instance, there is often set down to Disrael: 
the remark that his religion was ' the religion of al 
sensible men,' and upon being asked what this 
religion should be, that Oriental is said to have 
replied, ' All sensible men keep that to themselves. 
Now Disraeli could no more have made such a 
witticism than he could have flown through the 
air ; his mind was far too extravagant for sue! 
pointed phrases. Froude quotes the story [in ' A 
Plea for Free Discussion '], but rightly ascribes i 
to Rogers, a very different man from Disraeli an 
Englishman with a mastery of the English Ian 

In face of so positive a statement, wha 
ordinary reader could believe that it really 
was " that Oriental " as Mr. Belloc un 
worthily calls Disraeli who used this par 
ticular phrase, and in ' Endymion,' the las 


novel he wrote ? In chap. Ixxxi., in an 
account of an interview between Princ 
Florestan and Waldershare, the latte 
observes, " Sensible men are all of the sam 
religion." " And pray what is that ? 
inquires the prince. " Sensible men nev 

The perpetrator of this blunder, when 
is admitted that the saying is a deliberat 
" crib " from an earlier authority, ma 
claim that he was technically correct i 
stating that Disraeli did not " make " th 
witticism. But neither did Rogers. Tl 
original of the story, as far as it can be tracec 
for it may not be the original, after all 

to be found in one of Speaker Onslow'& 
otes to Bishop Burnet's ' History of his- 
wn Time.' Burnet had been describing 
ir Anthony Ashley Cooper, afterwards- 
arl of Shaftesbury, and Onslow noted : 
" Aperson came to make on him a visit whilst he was- 
tting one day with a lady of his family, who retired 
>on that to another part of the room with her 
ork, and seemed not to attend to the conversation 
etween the earl and the other person, which turned 
oon into some dispute upon subjects of religion ;; 
r ter a good deal of that sort of talk, the earl said 
; last, ' People differ in their discourse and pro- 
'ession about these matters, but men of sense are 
eally but of one religion.' Upon which says the 
ady of a sudden. 'Pray, my lord, what religion is ; 
lat which men of sense agree in ? ' ' Madam,' says 
le earl immediately, ' men of sense never tell it. "' 
Oxford University Press edition (second, 1833), 
ol. i. p. 175. 

But allusions to familiar sayings of the 
3ast are apt to be astray ; and even so- 
otably " well-read " an author as Mr. 
Austin Dobson though he does not boast 
n print to be so has fallen into a singular 
rror in a note to the "Temple Library" 
dition of Hazlitt's ' Lectures on the English 
Comic Writers.' In the introductory lecture- 
n ' Wit and Humour,' Hazlitt made use of 
he quotation, " From the sublime to the 
idiculous, there is but one step " ; and 
Mr. Dobson' s note is : 

From the sublime.' ' De sublime au ridicule il 
n-y-a qu'un pas.' This is given indifferently to- 
Talleyrand and Napoleon." 

' Indifferently " indeed, but in a different 
sense of the word from that intended by 
Mr. Dobson, for Thomas Paine had made the 
phrase famous in ' The Age of Reason,' the 
ledication of which is dated 27 January, 
L794, though some portions of the work 
were added in October, 1795. Among the- 
latter is to be found the following : 

The sublime and the ridiculous are often so- 
nearly related that it is difficult to class them 
separately. One step above the sublime makes the 
ridiculous, and one step above the ridiculous makes 
the sublime again." 

And Paine was so pleased with the idea 
that in a note towards the close of this same 
Part II. he used it again, in order to have 
a fling at Burke : 

" When authors and critics talk of the sublime,, 
they see not how nearly it borders on the ridiculous. 
The sublime of the critics, like some part of Edmund 
Burke's 'Sublime and Beautiful,' is like a windmill 
just visible in a fog, which imagination might dis- 
tort into a flying mountain, or an archangel, or a 
flock of wild geese." 

These are but samples of a large sack,, 
but they suffice to show the wisdom and 
necessity of the advice to " verify your 
references." ALFRED F. ROBBISTS. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 28, im. 


(See ante, p. 43.) 

WE now come to John White as the owner 
of Southwick Priory. On 7 April, 1538, 
William Norton, the last prior, surrendered 
the priory into the hands of the King. A 
writer in the recently published volume of 
^the ' Victoria History of Hampshire ' says : 

" The Priory of Southwick was assigned to one 
John White, a mean fawning servant of Wriothes- 
ley's He wrote to Wriothesley five days after the 
surrender, saying that by the provision of God, and 
his master's help, he has attained to what he has 
desired all his life, viz., an honest house in which to 
bid his guests welcome. He complained, however, 
that the stuff in the house was but slender, only 
four feather beds, and the furniture old, and m 
manner rotten. He also was much aggrieved with 
Dr. Layton, tor he took away hence twelve of the 
best of the bacon hogs hanging in the roof, which 
the other visitors had given him. It. is not sur- 
prising to learn that he was in such trouble with 
the monastery servants that he knew not what to 
do. Not one of the husbandry servants would stay 
with him, though they knew in what need he stood 
-of them in the sowing of barley." 

It appears to have been nearly a year 
later, viz., on 15 March, 30 Henry VIII. 
,(1538/9), that John White, described as of 
J " Southwyke, co. Southampton, gent.," for 
.& payment of 2511. 13.s. 4d., received the 
grant of the "house and site of the late 
Priory of Southwyke, the church, belfry, 
.and churchyard, and all messuages," &c., 
*' to hold of the Crown in chief as the 
twentieth part of one knight's fee, and a rent 
. of 28s. yearly " (Patent Roll, 30 Henry VIII. 
part 6, m. 17, 6). In his will John White 
makes the following reference to this grant : 

" William Noxton [xic], last Prior of Southwicke, 
and the convent of the said priory, by deed dated 
7 April, 1537 [*ic], surrendered the scite of the late 
priory into the hands of the King. Shortly after 
the said King, of his goodness to me the said John 
White, being then his servant, sworn in the room 
.of a squire for his body, and for money paid to Sir 
John Williams, Kt., treasurer of the Court of Aug- 
mentation, and to Sir Brian Tuke, Kt., treasurer 
to the King's Chamber, demised to me the scite of 

the said late priory I would that my posterity 

should have the 7th April, being then Passion 
Sunday, in a peri>etual memory, and that the poor 
people may l>e something refreshed always on 

Passion Sunday Every Passion Sunday next after 

my decease, and from thence for ever, immediately 
after the service be finished, I will that there be 
given among twenty of the most needy people 
within the parish of Southwieke 20*."; 
and 3s. 4<. at each of the parish churches \ 
of Portchester, Wymering, Widley, Farling- 
ton, and Havant, " the said moneys to be 
paid out of my manor of Southwicke." 

In 1553, fourteen years after purchasing the 
priory, John White was admitted a burgess 

of the Corporation of Portsmouth, and the 
following year he was appointed Seneschal, 
or Steward a post said to be somewhat 
similar to that of Recorder. In the borough 
records there is an account of a court held by 
him in December, 1554, when Roger Stayn- 
ton, the Master Gunner of Portsmouth, was 
disfranchised for using indecent and insulting 
language to the Mayor, and was also heavily 
fined for carrying off " one gunne of Iron " 
belonging to the town. John White was 
Sheriff of Hants in 1556 ; and in the early 
part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth he 
appears to have been employed by the 
Government in superintending the erection 
of fortifications round Portsmouth. 

He died on 19 July, 1567, and left instruc- 
tions to be buried " in the Church of Sowth- 
wicke, in the vault under the marble tombe 
that I made, in which marble tombe the bones 
of my late loving wyves, Katherine and 
Anne, doth lye." This tomb still stands in 
its original position, within an aperture in 
the north wall of the chancel. It is an altar- 
tomb, and in the centre of the flat upper 
slab are effigies engraved in brass of John 
White and Katherine, his first wife ; below 
are smaller effigies of their five sons and four 
daughters, and above are two shields : one 
bearing the arms of John White, as given 
by Berry (' Hampshire Pedigrees,' p. 193) ; 
and the other, the same arms impaling 
Pound (Quarterly, 1, Argent, on a fesse 
gules three mullets of the field, between two 
boars' heads couped sable in chief, and in 
base a cross formee fitchee of the last, for 
Pound ; 2, Argent, three fleurs-de-lis azure, 
for Holt ; 3, Argent, a chevron between 
three eagles' legs erased sable, for Bray ? 
4, Argent, a saltire engrailed gules, for ....). 
On the wall above the tomb are painted 
shields with the arms of White impaling 
Wingfield, quartering Goushill and Warren ; 
and White impaling Norton. The inscrip- 
tion on the tomb has been given (10 S. iv. 

The first wife of John White was Kathe- 
rine, daughter of William Pound, of Dray ton ; 
and their eldest son Edward was born in 
1536. Of the children whose effigies appear 
on the tomb, only two sons, Edward and 
Thomas, and three daughters, Mary, Anne, 
and Edborough, appear to have survived 
their father. Thomas Wliite, the second 
surviving son, was of Stubbington and New- 
lands the latter, a farm in the parish of 
Southwick, he inherited under his father's 
will ; he was a Winchester scholar, from 
Southwick, aged twelve in 1556, and was 
probably the Thomas White of Newlands 

10 s. vi. JULY 28, 


who was appointed overseer of the will 
of Lady Anne Lawrence in 1602. A list 
of his numerous descendants, many of whom 
settled in the Isle of Wight, is given by 

Mary, the eldest daughter of John White, 
married Richard Norton, the occupant of 
Newlands farm. His will (P.C.C. 22 Holney) 
dated 26 April, 1569, was proved 9 May, 
1571. He left a small sum to each of the 
churches of Southwick, Bishops Sutton, 
and Nutley ("where my mother lieth 
buried "), Hants, and to Clymping, Sussex. 
He mentions his children Anthony, Benjamin, 
and Isabel, all under age ; his farm at Bishops 
Sutton, and his manor of Penesholte ; and 
he appoints his cousin Benjamin Tichborne 
one of the overseers of his will. His widow 
married secondly Richard Warneford, by 
whom she had a daughter Elizabeth, living 

Anne, the next daughter, married John 
Britten, and inherited the lease of " Beaw- 
mondes " in North Fareham : they were 
both living in 1567. 

Edborough White married Peter Bullaker, 
and had a daughter Elizabeth, living 1567, 
and a son Edward, living 1580. Edborough 
and her husband inherited the lease of the 
farm of Chillinge, which John White had 
" by the gift of Queen Mary and King Philip." 
Chillinge (probably the farm of that name 
on the shores of the Solent, in Titchfield 
parish) had previously belonged to Richard 
Uvedale (son of Sir William Uvedale and 
Dorothy Troyes), Captain of the Isle of 
Wight, who was hanged at Tyburn, 28 April, 
1556, for complicity in the Dudley conspiracy 
(see ' Uvedale Family,' by G. Leveson Gower, 
p. 53). Mrs. Edborough Bullaker and Mrs. 
Marie Warneford were living in 1598, and 
are mentioned in the will of their cousin 
Henry Henslowe, of Boarhunt. 

John White married secondly Anne, 
daughter of Lewis Wingfield, and widow of 
Anthony Pound (see 10 S. iv. 271) ; the date 
of the marriage was probably 3 January, 
1548/9, not 1547/8, as given in the Inq. p. m. 
mentioned by H. C. (10 S. iv. 473). A son 
John was born 1550 Winchester scholar 
from Southwick, aged thirteen in 1563 ; 
under his father's will he inherited the manor 
of " Kilmeston Plonkenet." Anne White 
died 23 November, 1557, and the inscription 
to her memory given at 10 S. iv. 271 is said 
to be on a brass plate affixed to the north 
side of John White's tomb, but now hidden 
by pews. 

The third wife of John White was Isabel, 
daughter of Richard Norton, of East Tisted, 

and widow of George Dabridgecourt (died! 
26 February, 1558/9), of Stratfieldsaye. The 
marriage settlement, executed before ther 
marriage, was dated 22 November, 1559^ 
the marriage recorded in the register at 
Stratfieldsaye, on 8 December, 1559, of 
" Mr. Thomas Whyte and Mrs. Dabridgecort " 
(' Hampshire Marr. Reg.,' v. 12) doubtless^ 
refers to this couple. 

An Inquisition was held at Winchester on 
26 August, 1567, after the death of John- 
White, and he was found to have been 
seised of the site, &c., of the late monastery 
of Southwick with the church, &c., of the- 
manor or lordship of Southwick ; of tene- 
ments in Petersfield under grant of July,- 
36 Henry VIII. (1544) ; of the manors of 
Herberlin and Bury ; of Wicker and 
Morrells, in Portchester ; and of half the 
manor or lordship of Kulmeston. The- 
Inquisition recites that by deed dated 
22 November, 1559, he settled before their 
marriage upon his wife Isabel the manor of 
Burhunt Herbert, and an annuity out of 
the manor of Southwick. He died or* 
19 July, 1567, Edward, his son and heir,, 
being then aged thirty-one years. 

High Street, Portsmouth. 

(To be concluded.) 

QUARY.' Sir Walter Scott's ' Guy Man- 
nering,' 1815, and 'Antiquary,' 1816 the- 
two novels which immediately followed 
< Waverley' resemble each other closely in- 
many points which I do not remember to 
have been observed. 

The plot turns upon a missing heir who- 
was kidnapped in childhood ; there is a 
military officer who has distinguished himself 
in the East, and whose fame has preceded 
him ; there is a proud and conceited baronet; 
there is difficulty with the young lady's 
father on account of the supposed illegiti- 
macy of her suitor. A time-serving lawyer 
who seeks to profit by his client's misfor- 
tunes ; a mendicant who is instrumental 
in the restoration of the family fortunes ;- 
an undesirable alien who does illegal things^ 
with the connivance of the squire, and whose^ 
pocket-book is a feature of the examination 
before the magistrates ; a magistrate who- 
preserves the papers of a previous inquiry % 
and a cave'on the sea-coast used by smugglers^ 
and criminals, all come in the main lines of 
the two stories ; but there are many smaller 
points which will occur to careful readers. 

In what edition during the author's life- 
time was any revision made of the text o 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. vi. JULY 28, im. 

the novels ? I have been using ' Guy 
Mannering,' 3rd ed., 1815 ; ' Antiquary,' 
.5th ed., 1818 ; ' Rob Roy,' 3rd ed., 1818 ; 
.and have noted the following slips. 

Guy Mannering. 

Vol. i. p. 65, " sybil " (all Scott's old 
women are " sybils ") ; ' Antiquary,' i. 327, 
iii. 283, iii. 57, 76 ; ' Rob Roy,' iii. 71. 


Vol. i. p. 46, Scott uses " caenobite " in 
the sense of solitary monk or hermit. 

131, Sir Arthur is called Sir Robert ; and 
ii. 42. 

190, " let Lovel and I." 

215, " black ebony." 

219, "he sunk into slumber." 

244, " everybody has played the fool in 
their turn," 

308, for " versions " read visions. 

332, Lovel is called " Neville " a name 
which is supposed to be kept as a revelation 
:for the very last. 

Vol. ii. p. 40, for " natural " read national. 

169, " an' anger him " should be that had 
anger'd him. 

177, the lieutenant is styled " captain," 
but this may be purposely. 

268, burial service in breviary (see 10 S. 
iv. 75). 

308, " Like the rest of her ancestors, she 
.adhered to the Roman Catholic faith." 

318, 323, " anti-chamber." 

Vol. iii. p. 202, "every one has their 

288, ^ Monkbarns will call," read we 'II. 

317, " anybody may think as they please." 
Rob Roy. 

Vol. i. p. 12, " tied up in a parcel of red 
tape ; for " of " read with. 
^ Vol. ii. p. 122, the hero arrives in Glasgow 
on Thursday, but the day is subsequently 
described as the sabbath, pp. 122, 157 161-2 
195,199,219,224. W C B. 

- V X.M " : ITS ORIGIN. In his ' Notes on 
English htymology,' 1901, Prof. Skeat says : 

" )"///. I have had a -reat deal of trouble in 

trying to locate this l The fact is that the 

'"" nridnally came from Benin, on the W. African 
- Bottled by a passa-e in Hakluyt's 
vol. n. it. _, p. li><>. In a descrii>- 
... .-..,..K-- made to Benin in 1588, we there 
: . heir bread is a kind of roots ; they call it 

Prof. Skeat would no doubt be interested 
tlie vocabularies in the second volume of 
Harry Johnston's 'Liberia,' just pub- 
lished. He will there find that yarn in the 
Vai tongue of Liberia is jambi, and in the 
Wolof, spoken in Senegal, is nyambi. From 

quite another source I happen to know that 
yam in the Serer (a dialect related to Wolof ) 
is nyam. I conclude from this linguistic 
evidence that Benin is too far east to be 
the home of this term. Its real native 
country is Liberia and Senegambia. 


pedigree of Winch, entered in the Heralds' 
Visitation of Berkshire, 28 March, 1665, 
records a Simon Winch, of Fifield in Bray, 
then aged thirty-one, married to Ann, 
daughter of Robert Bishop, of Bray. A 
Chancery suit of 1691 (Winch v. Winch, 
Reyn. 428/188) supplies a scrap of the pedi- 
gree of this family of Bishop, which runs as 
follows : 

Robert Bishop above named married 

Mary , who made her will as of Oakley 

[Green in Bray], widow, 20 April, 1656, 
proved in the P.C.C. 18 Sept. following. 
Their daughter Ann married at Bray, 
24 April, 1654, Simon Winch, by whom 
she had a son Richard Winch, of whom 

Bishop, son of Robert, had issue : 

1. George Bishop, of Bray, gentleman, 
died 3 Nov., 1690, intestate. 

2. Elizabeth, married John Lidgold, of 
Burnham, Bucks. 

3. Mary, died before 1668. 

4. Margaret, aged twenty-one in 1668, 
married in 1670 George Yeildall, and died 
in 1675, a widow, intestate, leaving an only 
child, Elizabeth, born 1671, married c. 1690 
her cousin, the aforenamed Richard Winch 
of Bray, gentleman, son of Simon and Ann, 
and plaintiff with his wife in the Chancery 
suit of 1691. 

5. Sarah, dead in 1691. 

6. Rebecca, married to William Yeildall, 
of Easthampstead, Berks. 

The will of Mary Bishop, of Oakley Green, 
1656, mentions a grandson, James Bishop, 
whom I do not at present place. 

50, Beecroft Road, Brockley, 8.E. 

Hall and the Wood ' (' Poems by the Way ' 
1896) occurs this stanza : 

And by the hilts a slug-horn lay 

And there beside a scroll ; 
He caught it up, and turned away 

* rom the lealand of the bowl. 
The strange expression in the last line seems 
mean merely the dining-table ; which is 
called in other stanzas also " the field of wine" 
and the meadow of the cup " ; and doubt- 
less, if the poem had been longer, would have 

10 s. vi. JULY 28, 



become " the acre of the dish," or " the 
pightle of the platter," or " the close of the 
tankard," or what not. 

But I should like to point out that the 
* N.E.D.' does not give sub verbo either this 
or any other instance of the word lealand 
used metaphorically. Now W. Morris is an 
-author whose peculiarities are entitled to 
the utmost respect. H. K. ST. J. S. 

LORD'S PRAYER, c. 1430. It may be well 
to note that the fifteenth-century version 
of the Lord's Prayer printed by MR. A. R. 
MALDEN at 9 S. x. 345 is taken from the ' Fons 
Jacobi,' MS. 103 in the Salisbury Cathedral 
Library. In 1900 the Early English Text 
Society published part i. of this quaint and 
interesting ' Jacob's Well.' F. J. F. 

ing extract from an account of the home- 
coming of the Tashi Lama (The Times, 
7 June) reads like an episode of Bartholomew 
Fair : 

" The hall was cleared and the floor swept. Then 
came another round of tea, which gave place to a 
religious controversy between two monks. These 
hitched up their clothes, slapped their hands 
together, stamped their feet, looking for a verbal 
opening just as a pugilist looks fora chance to get in 
with his left. One represented Satan and the other 
;some sacred personage, the discussion dealing with 
the birth of Buddha. Satan said Buddha was born 
with red trousers ; after which sally he went into 
loud roars of laughter, which drowned the indignant 
reply of his opponent. The saint then declared 
that Satan had a tail, whereat every monk in the 
room laughed delightedly. And so the two kept at 
it for about half an hour, frequently verging on 
blows which never ensued. When Satan looked a 
winner all over, the controversy was declared closed 
-and the saint the victor another injustice to the 
Devil, who is no more popular in Tibet than in 
Exeter Hall." 


Etymologists in general may be puzzled as 
to the origin of this name. I cannot lay 
claim to any ingenuity in the following 
discovery, as I came across it by mere 
chance when searching for something else. 

In the Latin will of William Le Fuller, 
tmade in the ninth year of the reign of 
Edward II., printed in The Genealogist, 
-vol. i. p. 344, the testator bequeathed some 
-annual rents, arising from house property 
in London, to " Will'i Panyfadre. . . .habend 
-et tenendu' eidem Will'o heredib' et assig- 
natis suis imp'petun'." Now the name 
" Panyfadre " is undoubtedly Spanish, and 
ought to be given in three words, thus : 
"" Pan y Fadre " Pan being the father's 
surname, and Fadre the mother's maiden 

name. The probability is that Senor Pan 
y Fadre came to England at the time of 
the marriage of Edward I. with Eleanor of 
Castile, and that in course of time his surname 
became anglicized into " Penefather " or 
" Pennefather." It is not suggested that 
the William Panyfadre mentioned in the 
aforesaid will was the direct ancestor of the 
Cromwellian soldier Cornet Matthew Penne- 
father, the founder of the Irish family of 
this name (Burke's ' Landed Gentry ') ; but 
there is good reason to think he was of the 
same kith and kin. England is full of 
families whose respective ancestors bore 
foreign names in the far past. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to aflix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" PLUM " : JACK HORNER. Can anything 
be said as to the age of the nursery rime of 
' Little Jack Homer ' ? What is the earliest 
known trace of it or mention of it ? The 
earliest reference to it at present before me 
is that by W. Taylor in The Monthly Maga- 
zine of 1813 : " Little Jack Homer, we fear, 
misapplies the word plum, when he calls a 
dried raisin or currant by that name." This 
probably carries back the rime into the 
eighteenth century. And of course, pace 
W. Taylor, the appellation " plum " for 
raisin was well-established usage in the early 
part of that century, when, e.g., Dr. Watts 
in his ' Logic ' instanced the definition of a 
grocer as " a man who buys and sells sugar, 
and plumbs and spices, for gain." 

I may add that our first example of " plum" 
in the sense of " a good thing," " the best 
thing " in a book, among salaried appoint- 
ments, &c., is distinctly figurative, from the 
plum pulled out by Jack Horner from his pie. 

Information as to the antiquity of the 
rime, or early examples of this use ot "plum, ' ' 
will be thankfully received. 


[The supposed historical allusions in Jack Horner's 
lines are given at 2 S. iv. 156, 215 ; v. 83, 178.] 

" PT/UAI "= RAISIN. Is it known how the 
word plum in certain connexions, as in the 
(modern) use of plum-pudding and plum- 
e, came to be applied to a dried grape or 
raisin, which is neither etymologically nor 
historically a " plum " ? The earliest evi- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 28, im. 

dence of this use known to us belongs after 
1700, when " plum-pudding " began to 
make its appearance. Before that date 
our forefathers feasted at Christmas on 
plum-potage (quots. 1573 to 1682), plum- 
porridge (1591 in Lilly, ' Endymion,' to 1727 
in Arbuthnot, ' John Bull ' ; resuscitated 
by Scott in 'Marmion'), plum-broth (1614- 
1750) ; Digby, writing to Pope in 1724, quotes 
the statement that " Christian chearfnl- 
ness " was " not incompatible with Christmas 
pyes and plum-broth." In 1635 also we 
find in Glapthorne's play ' Lady Mother,' 

Your schoolefellow, 

With whome you us'd to walk to Pimblicoe, 
To eate pltunbe cake and creame. 
(See * Pimlico ' in ' New Eng. Diet.') 

But there is reason to think that in all 
these delicacies " plum " really meant plum, 
that is to say, dried plum or prune. By 
1713, however, it had become customary 
to add currants and raisins to plum dishes 
in order to add to their sweetness ; thus, 
in a recipe of that date for making plum- 
broth given by Nares, we find the ingredients 
were a leg oi beef, a piece of the neck, three 
pounds of prunes well stewed, two pounds of 
currants, and three pounds of raisins. 
Possibly about this time the raisins finally 
took the place of the plums, as being sweeter 
and free from stones, while the dishes 
retained their old names as plum-broth, 
-porridge, or -pudding, whence a later genera- 
tion might draw the inference that the 
plums in question were raisins. The identi- 
fication may have begun in the nursery or 
in the kitchen, and become general ; it 
appears in Johnson's ' Dictionary,' 1755, 
where sense 2 of plum is said to be " Raisin ; 
grape dried in the sun." Curiously, this is 
illustrated by the quotation " I will dance, 
and eat plums at your wedding. Shake- 
speare." I do not know where this passage 
occurs ; if any reader can locate it, I shall 
be glad ; but there is not the slightest 
reason to believe that raisins were called 
" plums " in Shakespeare's time ; indeed, 
this abuse of the word was unknown to 
Bailey in 1730. And what was the nature 
of the Christmas pie, out of which Little 
Jack Homer extracted his plum ? The 
modus operandi suggests that it was a covered 
plum-pie in a dish. As plum-broth already 
contained raisins as well as plums in 1713 
it is possible that plum-pudding, at its first 
introduction, may also have had both fruits ; 
but apparently raisins were the main in- 
gmhents in 1711, when a vindication of 

icheverell says that the expression "a 
dark light morning " is "just as proper as 

I had a good Plumb Pudden to-day with a. 
mixture of Flower and Raisins." 

We shall be obliged to any one who can 
supply evidence oi raisins being called 1 
" plums " before this date, or contribute 
any further light upon the transference of 
the name. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

Munro, Governor of Madras, writing home 
to his wife in 1826, and describing the 
scenery of the Nilgiri Hills, which he was 
then visiting, compares it to the country 
about " Bullim " : "It is Bullim, but 
Bullim on a grand scale." 

Can any reader say where Bullim is ?' 
Lady Munro was born a Miss Campbell, 
daughter of Mr. Campbell, of Craigie House, 
Ayrshire. Is there a Bullim in that neigh- 
bourhood ? I have heard the neighbour- 
hood of Dunkeld also suggested. Assuming 
that Bullim is in Scotland, I cannot find it 
in any accessible atlas. G. S. F. 


I possess a fine painting, by a great master 
of the Spanish School of the sixteenth century ,. 
representing ' St. Charles Borromeo adoring 
the Crucified Christ.' Are there any other 
portraits in existence ? Is there anything: 
mentioned in works on St. Charles Borromea 
about such portraits or religious paintings 
containing his portrait ? 


Brook Street Art Gallery, W. 

MANOR MESNE. This term appears in 
deeds relating to Denton, Lincolnshire, 1462 
and 1538 ; in neither case was any one men- 
tioned in them lord of the manor, but 
some may have held a lease of it. Is it a 
recognized term for a leased manor ? 


26, Sloane Court, S.W. 

glad of references to any book or periodical 
containing remarks on the poems of Dr. 
Franz Preseren, or renderings into English. 
Preseren wrote in Slovenian, a language 
little studied here, and he has been styled 
the Slavonic Petrarch. In some respects 
he resembles Byron, whose ' Parisina ' he 
translated into Slovenian. A magnificent 
edition of his works was published at Laibach 
in 1900. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

FRENCH CHATEAUX. I should be much 
obliged if any one familiar with the south 
of France, Correze &nd Gironde, could give 
me information about some castles which 

io s. vi. JULY ss, i906.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

were standing before the Revolution purchased by the said William Halley of Susan 
Cazenac, De la Douze, Mayac, Limerac, Sandwith, heretofore of London, & afterwards of 
and Mondiole. The Seigneur of Mondiole, Altonburjr in the county of Huntingdon, widow 
Henri d'Abzac, fled to England at the 
Revocation ot the Edict of Nantes, but 
while he lived kept up communication 
with his relations in France. It would be 

interesting to know if his chateau or those 
of his relatives survived the Revolution. 

D. T. 

inform me as to the meaning of Cherry in 

The Domestic State Papers, by Bruce, 
show these items : 

1633, March 19. Letter from Christopher Ful- 

wood, Middleton [Yorks ?] to his brother, Humfrey 
Fulwood, Broken Cross Gatehouse, London : sends 
a warrant to prevent seizure of his estate at Middle- 
ton, to be shown to George Halley, in London, 
their cousin." 

"1637, Sept. 13. A receipt for 11. 6. paid by 
Humphrey Halley on behalf of John Abbott, the 

-\ir * P S"r A i j-* _r J.T ~v..!-. - 

place-names such as Cheriton, Cherrybeare, Mayor of Huntingdon, as portion of the ship-money 

lercombe ? charged on Huntingdon, by writ 12 Aug., 1636." 

Cherrybrooke, and possibly Chercombe 

A la Ronde, Lympstone, Devon. 

I have two water-colour drawings repre- 
senting the Rev. E. C. Brewer's School at 
Mile End in 1838. Can any one inform me 
if the proprietor of this school was the late 
Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, and whether the 
building still exists ? 


Who was Humphrey Halley ? and what 
relationship existed between him and William 
Halley and Edmund Halley, sen. (ob. 1684) ? 

1, Park Row, Chicago, U.S. 

PARATUS." A friend in South America 

^^ to me ***** ?**! * a ?""!f 1 ^ 
on a stone m this church, the hand holding 
a battle-axe, with the motto " Nunquam 
non paratus." My friend possesses some 
INSCRIPTION AT CONSTANCE. In the plate marked with the same crest and motto, 

Cathedral of Constance I found the follow 
ing inscription in brass lettering on the floor 

I. N. L. B. de 

ROLL a Bernau 

E. C. C. & W. C. C. 

ob. 19 August 

1832, JEt. 71 


and is anxious to trace its history. Can 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' throw light on the 

it Blucher or General F. W. Bulow who 
addressed the people from a window at the 

inscription mean. The verger could not 
help me. CHAS. A. BERNAU. 

Pendeen, Bowes Road, Walton-on-Thames. 

T , , ' e \\ -,- " Red Lion," Henley-on-Thames ? When 

I shall to very grateful to any reader who did the incident occur * ? j. g. Burn's history 
will tell me what thetot three hnes^f this | of Henley-on-Thames does not refer to it. 


I should be glad to know whether the early 

EYELASHES OF THE ROAD." By whom registers of St. Peter's in Chepe and St. John 
were roadside wastes so called ? [ Zachary still exist, and also if there is any 

MEDICULUS. list of the monuments in these churches 

HUMPHREY HALLEY. In some Chancery Previous to the Great Fire. P. M. 

Proceedings Public Record Office : Young FouR CORNERS." I should be glad of 
v Halley, 1693, touching the sett ement of L information as to the game of "Four 
the estate of Edmund Halley, sen (who died Corners, played at the Swan, Chelsea," as 
n April >( 1684), mention is made of the pay depicted in a small print by Carington 
a small legacy of 51. due to Eliza- Bowles, 1788. It appears to have been a 
Partridge from the will of Humphrey varie ty of skittles, with four pins set diamond- 
alley deceased. The same document wise to the bowler. Is it the same game as 
sets forth the payment of an annuity from the French carreau ? R . BLUNT. 

the estate of E Halley, sen., to Mrs. Susan Glebe House, Glebe Place, Chelsea, S.W. 
Sandwith m full till her death." 

In the deed dated 21 April, 1694 (see 10 S. " BREAKING THE FLAG." Is this a very 
v. 266) the property thereby transferred is old expression ? In the days of Trafalgar 
described thus : * flags were shot away, and thus very literally 

" In Minceing Lane and Fanehurch Streete, in the J> roke n * TO the m f st - But nowadays the 
parish of All-Hallows-Stayneing ; Old All-Hallows- breaking ot the royal standard from the mam,. 
Stayneing, in London, on the ground heretofore when the king sets out to sea, apparently 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 s. vi. JULY a, im 

means nothing more serious than the unfurl- 
ing of the flag, the shaking of it out to the 
breeze. W. L. BUTTON. 

CHURCH ALES. Palm Sunday seems to have 
been a time when the villagers kept up an 
annual custom. of assembling on hills and 
having a feast. It is said that this is " a 
remnant of remote antiquity " ; also that 
Gregory the Great ordered that at the annual 
feast of the dedication of churches the people 
should build booths round the church and 
there feast themselves, in lieu of offering 
their ancient sacrifices. Sir R. C. Hoare 
remarked that the custom of ascending hills 
on Palm Sunday is not confined to Silbury 
(near Avebury) ; it prevails on other con- 
spicuous eminences, such as Clea Hill (near 
Warminster), Martinsell (near Marlborough), 
and other hills. Can any one give the date 
and wording of Pope Gregory's order ? Did 
4t church ales " originate from this order ? 

T. S. M. 

[The first example of "church-ale" in the 
'N.E.D.' is 1419. See the various illustrative 
quotations there Riven, and also 6 S. x. 244, 391.] 

rently, from the will, this gentleman was of 
Warwick. According to one of the old 
Quaker registers at Somerset House Grace 
Russell, daughter of Thomas Russell of 
Warwick, married Richard Stanley, yeo- 
man, of the manor of Arrow, co Warwick 

*? ^'rr! 687 ' ^ as this lad y a descendant 
of the Thomas Russell mentioned in the 
will ? and is his pedigree extant or his further 
connexion with Shakespeare recorded ? Who 
also was Richard Stanley ? I have heard 
that he was a grandson of Sir Foulke Stanlev 
whose coat of arms is said to have been thai 
of the Isle of Man, et have failed to note 

in ' The 


Hatch End, Middlesex. 

"LE FLUDOUS." This is two or three 
times (e.g in 1 772) the attribute of "Syr 
Gyffroun in Li biaux Disconus ' (Ritson) 
I am quite at a loss for an explanation Wil 
some one help me ? HP L 


this regiment ? 



(10 S. vi. 29.) 

ACCORDING to the ' Old English Calendar/ 
Jie feast of St. Editha is upon 15 September. 
[)r. Husenbeth in ' Emblems of Saints ' 

1882, third ed.) gives her day as 16 Sep- 
tember, and her date as 984. He remarks 
:hat in ancient art she is represented " as a 
nun, with royal insignia, washing the feet 
of the poor." 

Dr. Owen in ' Sanctorale Catholicum ' 

1880) mentions two saints of this name. 
The St. Edith who was an abbess and 
Datroness of Pollesworth, in Warwickshire, 
was honoured upon 15 May. The other's 
^articular day, he tells us, was 16 September, 
and the date of her death 950. Of her he 
remarks : 

" St. Edith, virgin, daughter of Edgar, King of 
England, and patroness of Wilton Abbey. It is 
said that while she was a nun at Wilton she used 
oft gayer clothes than her profession asked, and 
she was therefore blamed of St. Ethelwold. She 
answered neither unsuitably nor full courteously. 
'God's doom,' said she, 'that may not fail, is 
! (leased only with conscience.' Therefore I trow 
;hat as clean a soul may be under those clothes that 
are arrayed with gold as under thy slight fur- 

In a foot-note is a quotation from Lam- 
barde's ' Kent ' as follows : 

"At a small village in Kent, near to Otford, 
called Kemsing, St. Edith was greatly honoured 
for preserving corn from blasting, mildew, and 
other harms.'' 

In a small illuminated book I possess, 
printed at Ratisbon, St. Edith is represented 
in abbess's attire, crowned, holding a book 
in her right hand and a crozier in the left. 
In a brief record of her therein we learn that 
her mother was S. Wilfrida, the daughter of 
noble parents, for whom King Edgar con- 
ceived a violent passion, and whom he carried 
from Wilton Abbey when she was receiving 
her education there. After a time she re- 
turned to the abbey, and took the veil. 
Her daughter, born in 962 (St. Edith), was 
thus brought up in a convent, never knew 
the world, and at the early age of fifteen 
became abbess of Winchester, Barking, and 
another house. She also erected a church 
dedicated to St. Dionysius, in which her 
body was placed after her death, which 
occurred at Wilton, 16 September, 984, in 
the twenty-third year of her age. The 
incident described above is given as follows : 

"Being reproved by St. Ethelwald, Bishop of 
Winchester, for the gay dress she wore, * My 

10 s. vi. JULY 28, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


father,' the maiden replied, ' the mind may be as 
modest and God-fearing under fine clothes as under 
a serge habit. The God I love looks to the heart, 
and not to the dress.' " 

There are at least two St. Gileses. St. 
Giles the Athenian (JEgidius) to whose 
honour St. Giles's at Edinburgh and many 
other of our churches are dedicated died 
in 700. His day is 1 September. The other 
St. Giles was one of the early associates 
of St. Francis of Assisi. His day is 23 April, 
And his date is ascribed to 1262. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

St. Edith of Wilton was the daughter of 
King Edgar by Wilfrida, a beautiful nun, 
whom he had carried off forcibly from her 
seclusion. For this sacrilege, says Mrs. 
Jameson (' Legends of the Monastic Orders,' 
1890, p. 95), Edgar was placed by St. Dunstan 
under an interdict for seven years. Wil- 
frida, as soon as she could escape from the 
power of the king, again took refuge in her 
convent, and there brought forth a daughter, 
Editha, whom she educated in all the learn- 
ing of the times, and who was a marvel for 
her beauty as well as for her sanctity and 
her learning. She refused to attend her 
father's Court, but expended the rich dowry 
he gave her in founding the nunnery at 
Wilton, now the seat of the Earls of Pem- 

Even at the time when all princess-nuns 
wore costly garments St. Edith had a weak- 
ness for splendid attire, which might well 
qualify her for the tutelar-saintship of dress- 
makers. Being rebuked on this account by 
St. Ethel wold, she replied that " pride may 
<exist under the garb of wretchedness, and 
a mind may be as pure under these vestments 
as under your tattered furs." And " mere 
man," in the person of St. Ethel wold, is 
said to have held his peace. Ray has " Pride 
may lurk under a threadbare cloak." Was 
it not St. Augustine who said that pride may 
lurk even in rags ? 

One was under the impression that 
'St. Edith's Day was 16 September ; but 
MRS. SUCKLING'S quotation makes it the 

At least two St. Ediths are recognized by 
liagiologists, and St. Edith of Polesworth 
and St. Edith of Wilton are liable to be mis- 
taken the one for the other. The latter is 
commemorated on 16 September ; but it is 
not improbably she whose feast was on the 
23rd of that month in the fifteenth century. 
She was born in a convent, and became an 
abbess at fifteen. She died a virgin, and 

without being martyred, at the age of twenty- 
two ; and the thumb with which she had" 
crossed herself was found to be uncorrupt 
long afterwards and venerated in consequence 
by the faithful. ST. S WITHIN. 

St. Edith was a Saxon virgin, and was 
born at Kemsing, three miles from Sevenoaks. 
In the church at Kemsing is a small stained- 
glass window to her ; and in the village, at 
the green at that end of the road to the 
station, is St. Edith's Well. The interior 
of the church is very fine and interesting. 
It is a quicker and better way to alight at 
Otford Junction, and walk the two miles 
thence to Kemsing Village by the foot of 
the Downs. 

I am not quite certain of the date in Sep- 
tember, but my notes have it the 1 6th. The 
Rev. W. M. Cunningham, Catholic Church, 
Sevenoaks, would no doubt answer further 
inquiries on the subject. 


St. Edith, abbess, sister of King Edgar, 
died 14 May, 980, and her niece St. Edith, 
virgin, Edgar's daughter, died 15 Sept., 

On 18 July was observed the feast of SS. 
Edburga and Edith, virgins, daughters of 
Redwald, King of the East Angles. They 
died in 620. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

There appear to be two St. Ediths or 
Edithas honoured in the calendar on the 
15th of September, not the 23rd. St. Giles 
is commemorated on 1 September. 

MRS. SUCKLING will find a valuable article 
by H. DE B. H. on ' The Various St. Ediths 
in the Western Calendar ' at 7 S. vii. 163. 
Mr. Harry Hems also published an interest- 
ing letter on the subject of St. Edith in The 
Illustrated Church News of 9 March, 1895. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

There is a long account of St. Edith, the 
daughter of King Edgar, in the ' D.N.B.' 

There certainly was a St. Edith if we are 
to credit Alban Butler. He states that she 
was a natural daughter of King Edgar, and 
was brought up by her mother Wulfrida in 
the monastery of Wilton, where she became 
a nun, her mother having become the abbess. 
She built the church of St. Denis at Wilton, 
and died on 16 September, 984, aged twenty- 
three. William of Malmesbury states that 
her festival was kept with great veneration 
on 16 September, and a life of this saint was 
written by Capgrave. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 28, 

vi. 1). With regard to the REV. W. G. D. 
FLETCHER'S note, I should be very glad 
indeed if ' N. & Q.' might be made the 
medium for obtaining and testing data for 
the dubbings of knights whose names are 
not mentioned in any of the early heraldic 

In the particular case in question I think 
there can be no doubt that MR. FLETCHER is 
incorrect in asserting that nine persons are 
recorded as being knighted at the battle of 
Shrewsbury. The chronicle gives the names 
of the nine knights as specified by MR. 
FLETCHER, but only asserts with regard to 
them that they were all killed on that day. 
But after the last of these nine names the 
chronicle (' Annales Henrici III.-IV.,' Rolls 
Series, No. 49, p. 369) adds the words " qui 
ep die susceperat ordinem militarem." The 
singular number of the verb distinctly limits 
the statement to Robert Gousil. 

In Otterbourne's Chronicle (Hearne, ' Duo 
Scriptores,' vol. i. p. 244) exactly the same 
words are used, leaving no shadow of doubt 
as to the reading. Besides, I think it will 
be possible to prove that all the preceding 
eight knights named were already knights 
before in some cases, some time before 
the battle of Shrewsbury. 

As to the case of Sir Richard de Sandiford, 
MR. FLETCHER mistakes the meaning of the 
words "on the morrow." These words 
simply mean " on the morning of the day of 
the battle." It is quite a common phrase, 
and is never used to mean the day following. 

PUNCH, THE BEVERAGE (10 S. iv 401' 
477, 531 ; v. 37, 71). An early example o f 
this word occurs in R. Ligon's * Trve & 
' History Of the Island of Barbados ' 
r, p. 32, where we read : 
" flinch is a fourth sort, & of that I have drunke 

18 m l .f WD ^ * ^ ar put together? which K f n ' 

;, and fit for 

it is made of water & 

the earliest 
for the following is an 

at'mteT^li A(1 T; m \ t0 f Th ? mas Colle y> Merchant, 


esting as showing that the original form of 
the word in English was punch. The earliest 
example also proves that the liquor rum 
could not have been one of the ingredients 
of punch, as originally concocted ; for the 
word rum, meaning the liquor, is first re- 
corded in 1654 (though found three years- 
earlier in the form rumbullion}, and the 
liquor itself could not have been manufac- 
tured before about 1640 certainly not so> 
early as 1632. ALBERT MATTHEWS. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

" GULA AUGUSTI " (10 S. v. 408, 499 ; vi. 
15). Miss SCHOMBERG'S quotation from 
Bond's ' Handy Book ' at the second refer- 
ence evidently refers to St. Balbina, daughter 
of St. Quirino, who is said to have been 
cured of a malady in the throat by being; 
touched with St. Peter's chains by Pope 
St. Alexander I. Their bodies were buried 
in the cemetery of Prsetextatus, and after- 
wards removed to the church of Sta. Balbina 
on the Aventine, so well known to visitors 
to Rome. Other miracles of a similar kind 
are recorded. There is a tradition that 
St. Peter was chained by the neck when in 
custody in the Mamertine prison. The- 
words " Gula Augusti " may well refer to- 
the practice of touching the pilgrim's neck 
or throat with these chains, which was a very" 
general custom until they were enshrined 
in the beautiful reliquary which now hold* 
them in the Basilica of S. Pietro in Vincoli. 
In a MS. diary in my collection, written by 
the celebrated master of ceremonies Paris- 
de Grassis, he relates that after the Mass of 
the feast on 1 Aug., 1509, Pope Julius II. 
venerated, according to the custom, these- 
chains, and afterwards " Cardinales omnes 
iverunt ad catenam et ligati sunt omnes in 
gutture cum ilia catena." 

The poet Novidius Fraccus in Book VIII. 
* Sacr. Fastorum ' (edit. Romse, 1547)j, 
p. 92, also refers to this ancient custom in, 
the following lines : 

Finierat, magnus fuerat concursus ad aram : 
Parsque clabat collo vincula, parsque preces, 
burnt ad htec vulgus, ligat et sua colla ; rogatque- 
Uorporaque atque animas, ut pia facta juveiit. 

The 1st of August, or the Feast of St. Peter 
in Chains, is now called in Rome and else- 
where by the name of " Ferragosto." Can! 
this be, as some have supposed, an allusion, 
to these iron chains ? or has it some refer- 
ence to those profane festivities once on a 
"ime held in memory of the dedication of the 
temple of Mars, and now transferred in 

10 s. vi. JULY 28, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

the sick and cast out devils ? The well- 
known greeting on this day, " Buon Ferra- 
gosto," suggests that one is expected to 
make merry and to be generous. The 
laudable custom of paying Peterpence on 
this day still continues, as well as that of 
giving presents to one's friends, and tips 
to the different servants of the Pope's 
household, just as was formerly done in the 
case of the Roman Emperors. Fraccus 
remarks in allusion to the name : 

"Ferise August! a ferendis epulis sunt dictse 
Feriari Augusto vulgus afferare ait. Quodque dape 
Augusto 1'eriari mane solebant, se afferre Augustum 
mine ait ille rudis."' 

As I am writing from Oxford, and in the 
parish of St. Peter-in-the-East, may I call 
the attention of those interested in the 
matter to the elaborately groined roof of 
its beautiful chancel, on which are repre- 
sented those very chains about which we 
have had so interesting a discussion ? 


ABBEY OB PBIOBY (10 S. v. 327, 378, 417 
457). The statement of MB. J. A. RAN- 
DOLPH that Newstead, Notts, was an abbey, 
is not borne out by the documents printed 
in the 'Records of the Borough of Not- 
tingham,' where no allusion to the house as 
an abbey, or its chief as an abbot, is to be 

Instances in vol. i. : 

"Aldrfedo] priore de Novo Loco circa 1189.'' 
P. 8. 

" Domino Roberto, priore de Novo Loco d. 1240." 
-P. 38. 

" Prior de NOTO Loco. 1339." P. 132. 

"Priorem et conventum de Novo Loco, in 
Schirwod. 1348." P. 144. 

"Willelmus, prior Domus de Novo Loco in 
Shirwod. 1396. '-P. &34. 

Instances in vol. ii. : 

"Tenementum prioris de Novo Loco. 1410-11." 
P. 78. 

" Priori de Novo Loco in Shirwode. 1413-14." 
P. 90. 

"Prioris et conventus de Novo Loco in Shirwode. 
1413-14." P. 92. 

Dr. Thoroton in his great work gives 
numerous references to Newstead, always as 
a " priory " and its head as a " prior." 
The same may be said of J. T. Godfrey in 
his history of the parish and priory of 
Lenton. W. STEVENSON. 

15, John Street, Hull. 

' DIABY OF AN INVALID ' (10 S. vi. 28). 
This work was originally issued in 1820, 
and was often reprinted, the fifth edition 
appearing in 1835. Its full title is " The 
Diary of an Invalid, being the Journal of a 
Tour in Pursuit of Health, in Portugal, Italy, 

Switzerland, and France, in the Years 1817 r 
1818, and 1819, by Henry Matthews, A.M. r 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge." The 
passage referred to is on p. 19, but it is fair 
to add that Matthews speaks of the ink- 
spilling as a legend. Much p,s travelling has- 
changed perhaps, indeed, as a consequence- 
of this change the whole volume is well 
worthy of perusal. Henry and his brother- 
Charles Skinner were friends of Byron, and 
were in his set at Cambridge. They were 
both classical scholars and keen wits. 

Matthews was a son of John Matthews,. 
M.P. for Herefordshire 1803-6 (for whom see- 
the 'D.N.B.'), and the father of Henry 
Matthews, the present Viscount Llandaff of 
Hereford. W. P. COUBTNEY. 

This was by Henry Matthews, who was 
a judge in Ceylon, and died there in 1828. 
The passage referred to in ' The Peninsular 
War ' occurs on pp. 16, 17 of the ' Diary.' 
Being at Cintra, the author writes : 

"Walked over the Royal Palace Hard by is 

the palace of the Marquis Marialva, famous for the 
Cintra convention. The ink which was spilt on 
this memorable occasion is still visible on the floor 
scattered, as it is said, by Junot, in an ebullition- 
of spleen when he put his name to the instrument. 
but surely he had not the most cause for vexa- 


The author was Henry Matthews. The- 
entry in Allibone is interesting. H. B. W. 

The author was Henry Matthews. There 
is a short notice of him in Tuckwell's ' Remi- 
niscences of Oxford,' pp. 13, 260. 


THOMAS, and MB. E. YABDLKY are also thanked for: 

SEA-UBCHIN (10 S. vi. 9). To us boys 01* 
the Fife coast between sixty and seventy 
years ago a seal was a Wullie Powret, and a 
sea-urchin a Wullie Powret's egg. A. W. 

The sea-urchin is also known in thi^> 
locality as sea-egg and sea-hedgehog. 




(10 S. vi. 29, 57.) I can remember hearing: 
this beautiful song in my boyish days, now, 
alas ! more than fifty years ago. It was- 
then, and I have no doubt it is still, a favour- 
ite all over Northumberland. The tune and 
some of the words have ever lingered in my 
ear. I have only once seen the song in- 
print. It is to be found in The English 
Illustrated Magazine for December, 1889 r . 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 28, iocs. 

-with five delightful pictures by Hugh Thom- 
son. It is there described as anonymous, 
and consists of the stanzas given by MB. 

It seems to me that the song is incomplete. 
Was there not a triumphant ending to 
Jenny's expectation ? In that case another 
stanza would be required, which, if it exists, 
J hope some one will supply. Thomson's 
last illustration would appear to be founded 
on the idea, as it represents Johnny's return 
from the fair and his sweetheart with posy 
in hand and little straw hat on head, which 
Tprove that he had kept his promise. 


I append the third verse of " O dear, what 
can the matter be ? " which I have known 
.for many years as a whole song. The air is, 
I fancy, traditional. This third verse is, 
I think, a modern addition, but it was once 
; given to me as the end of the song : 

Hark, hark ! here he is running ; 

.See, see ! see he is coming : 

Hark, hark ! lu-iv lie is running ; 

Johnny's come back from the fair. 


In 'Old English Ditties,' selected from 
*W. Chappell's * Popular Music of the Olden 
Time,' by J. Oxenford, London, 1861, the 
above song is printed in practically the 
same words as those given by MB. 
SWYNNEBTON. Only two verses are noted. 

Ai M | K r 'V T' i!- A '- K M Is refers to the version in 
'Old English Ditties. 'J 

ACTS xxix. : LOST CHAPTER (10 S. vi. 9). 
The name of the discoverer of this MS. 
should bo C. S. Sonrini, not Lounoni. The 
long-lost chapter was published as an eight- 
page pamphlet in 1871 by Geo. J. Stevenson, 
.54 Paternoster Row, headed " never before 
published.'' The title-page says : " Trans- 
it i J * S ' Sonnini > from an original 
Greek Manuscript, found in the Archives at 
onstantmople, presented to him by the 
Sultan Abdoul Achmet." This Greek MS 
ni>]j-urs to have been translated by Sonnini,' 
And the translation inserted in his 'Travels 
"} T Km kt '- v ll "< 1 ^eece.' The French edition 
1 is in the British Museum ; no English 
translation is there. In addition, he wLte 
Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt.' This 
has been translated by Hunter andby Monk! 
also states that "a com- 



the subject ; 

we may possibly gain further information 

That there was a copy in Greek appears 
clear. Is it known where it now is, and will 
it bear examination ? Is it genuine, or a 
forgery ? An English copy found as an 
inset in a French book requires good evi- 
dence. In a note in the pamphlet we are 
told : "A copy of the firman of the Sultan, 
granting permission to C. S. Sonnini to 
travel unmolested in all parts of the Ottoman 
dominions, can also be produced." 

."), West Avenue Road, Walthamstow. 

Longmans published in 1801 an English 
edition of Sonnini's (not Lounoni's) ' Travels 
in Greece and Turkey ' but, so far as I can 
see, it contains no reference to Acts xxix. 


"HYPOCBITE" (10 S. vi. 28). When 
Nassau Senior was being examined in 
divinity for Greats, he construed 

play-actors." He was asked to give the 
E. V. equivalent, which he could not or 
would not do. The examiner, losing his 
temper, put irritating and sarcastic questions, 
which Senior answered in the same vein, 
and was plucked. He wrote to his father : 
" I am ploughed for Greats ; never mind, I 
shall get a First Class next time." He put 
on Whately as a tutor, and kept his word, 
having probably made himself more familiar 
with the E. V. NESTOB. 

The earthquake referred to took place on or 
about 29 Dec., 1832, there being references 
to the same in SpurrelFs ' Carmarthen,' 
Dillwyn's * Swansea,' and The Cambrian 
newspaper of the period. ABTHUB MEE. 


The Geoffrey de Lusignan mentioned in 
Charter Roll 41 Hen. III. M. 13 was tho 
fourth son of Hugh X. of Lusignan and Queen 
Isabella of Angouleme. He was Lord of 
Jarnac and (j.u.) Viscount of Chatelherault 
in France, and Lord of Hastings in England, 
and died before July, 1263, leaving issue by 
his wife Jane (suo jure Viscountess of Chatel- 
herault, &c.) a son Geoffrey II., who married 
Petronilla de Sully and d.s.p. 1305, and a 
daughter Eustache, Lady of St. Hernim,-. 
She married in 1276 Dreux de Mello III., 
Seigneur de 1'Orme, by whom she was 
mother of the Dreux de Mello (Drogo de 
Merlon) who succeeded his uncle Geoffrey 
de Lusignan. Petronilla de Sully married 

10 s. vi. JULY 28, i9(x>. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

secondly (contract dated March, 1308, 
Anselme, ' Histoire de la Maison Royale de 
France,' 1727, i. 430), as second wife, John II., 
tfth Count of Dreux. These particulars are 
taken from a pedigree of the Lusignans I 
made out about twelve years ago. Much 
confusion exists as to the various Geoffrey 
de Lusignans ; see ' L'Ancienne Famille de 
Lusignan,' &c., by Charles Farcinet, second 
ed., Fontenay-le-Comte, 1899. RUVIGNY. 

LITERARY PASTIMES (10 S. vi. 28). MR. 
BRESLAR will be pleased when he reads the 
following quotation from Camden's ' Re- 
xnaines,' second ed., printed in 1614, p. 345 . 

"But I will end with this of Odo, houlding 
Maister Doctors Mule, and Anne with her table- 
cloth : which cost the maker much foolish labour, 
for it is a perfect verse, and euery word is the very 
same, both backward and forward. 
Oclo tenet mulum, madidam mappam tenet Anna. 
Anna tenet mappam madidam, mulum tenet Odo." 
This is an excellent example of a palindrome 
in verse. It may also consist of a word, as 
"" Madam," or of a sentence, as " Madam, 
I'm Adam," with which salutation our first 
father is supposed to have introduced himself 
to our mother Eve. It will be remembered 
that the example discussed in this series 
<iii. 249, 310, 375 ; iv. 35, 175) was shown 
by MR. ELWORTHY at the last reference to be 
a, pentacle rather than a palindrome. I do 
not think he will find anything magical or 
cabbalistic in the verse given by Camden. 

MR. BRESLAR'S first quotation is not a 
"" couplet," but a mediaeval hexameter, and 
should run 

Odo tenet mulum ; madidam mappam tenet Anna. 
I conjecture that the second is also a hexa- 
meter, thus : 

Te tero, Roma, manu nuda ; date tela ; latete ; 
but this is a mere guess. 

[Reply by PROF. BENSLY next week.] 

$. v. 426, 518 ; vi. 32). F. W., who speaks 
-t the second reference of mdlik as a form of 
address, is probably referring to a common 
exclamation used by natives in Northern 
India when addressing a superior. When 
they wish to object politely to an order, 
they say, " Huziir malik," " The Presence 
is Ruler ! " i.e., " You can, of course, do as 
you please, but ." W. CROOKE. 

My memory may be at fault, but I am 
certainly under the impression that when I 
was in India a servant would often begin 
what he had to say to me (after receiving an 

order, for instance) with the words, " Huzoor 
malik hai." The huzoor was sometimes sup- 
pressed, I think, and only the words mdlik 
hai pronounced. As there was usually no 
third person present on such occasions, I 
conclude that unless the mdlik were addressed 
to the circumambient air, it was intended to 
apply to myself. To be sure, mdlik was 
never used alone, as huzoor and gharib- 
parwar were, but always in conjunction with 
huzoor or ap (the respectful form of " you "). 
I should add that my acquaintance with 
India was limited to the North-West 
Provinces. F. W. 

491). Immediately on the appearance of 
my note MR. AXON wrote to me, and I for- 
warded him my parcel of books, &c. A 
fortnight later MR. Gross's reply appeared, 
and MR. AXON has passed the whole material 
on to him. In it there are several items 
which MR. Goss is glad to see. I make this 
note merely to finish the matter so far as 
' N. & Q.' is concerned ; for now, instead of 
two persons working independently on the 
same thing, only one will undertake the task, 
through the publicity given to the matter 
in ' N. & Q.' RALPH THOMAS. 


(10 S. vi. 30). These verses were written by 
Helen Maria Williams, and set to music as 
a glee for four voices by Robert Cooke. They 
are printed as follows : 

No riches from his scanty store 

My lover could impart ; 
He gave a boon I valued more : 

He gave me all his heart ! 

But now for me, in search of gain, 
From shore to shore he flies ; 

Why wander riches to obtain, 
When love is all I prize ? 

The glee was published by Birchall, music - 
seller in Bond Street, about 1800. 


355, 518). In a copy of The Universal 
Magazine for 1753 in the British Museum 
the musical piece on p. 321 is called ' A New 
Country Dance ; The Countess of Coventry's 

There is a piece of music in the British 
Museum Library entitled ' Lady Coventry's 
Minuet.' On the same page is a duetto for 
voices on this same minuet, called ' Se 
Lontana Ben mio tu sei.' The above was 
published about 1740, according to the 
British Museum Catalogue. This minuet 
was the theme of a set of variations, by Mr. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 28, uoe. 

Tacet, in 1770 ; the latter is also in the 
British Museum Library. T. MILLS. 

BISHOP ISLAND (10 S. vi. 29). Do not 
names like this, Bishopsgate, Bischofsheim, 
Bishopsley, and Bishop Stortford, infallibly 
indicate ecclesiastical property more cor- 
rectly, episcopal property ? Bishop this and 
Bishop that occur all over the country and 
the place - name is probably connected 
with other localities identified with church 
property, like Abbey Street in Bermondsey, 
Priors Hard wick in E. Warwick, Nunthorpe 
and Nuneaton, and the numerous Minsters. 
Both Bishopton in Renfrew and Bishop- 
briggs (more correctly Bishop-riggs) are 
stated by Mr. Johnston, in his ' Place-Names 
of Scotland,' to be of the same origin, i.e., 
they were respectively a " town " and 
" lands or rigs " appertaining to the Bishop 
of Glasgow. Bishopsbourne in E. Kent, 
near Canterbury, belonged to the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury ; but who the par- 
ticular bishop was with supervision of the 
coast of Clare an Irish correspondent can 
perhaps say. J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

The full name in Irish is " Island of the 
Hungry Bishop," and the eponymistic story 
is that an avaricious bishop withdrew to it, 
with his hoard, during a time of famine on 
the mainland. The storms of winter pre- 
sently made access to it impossible. Pro- 
visions failed, and the bishop was starved ! 

C. S. WARD. 

REGISTERS or ST. KITTS (10 S. iv. 327). 
Seeing MR. GRUSELIER'S query at the above 
reference, I wrote to the Venerable the Arch- 
deacon of St. Kitts (Rev. F. Caunt), asking 
him if he could oblige me by making the 
inquiries indicated by your correspondent 
After some little delay he has sent me the 
following list of the parish registers o: 
St. Kitts, with their earliest dates, though 
he has not yet been able to make a complete 
list of them. I trust it may be of service to 

1. Holy Trinity, Palmetto Point, 1732. 

2. St. George, Basseterre, 1747. 

3. St. Thomas, Middle Island, 1759. 

4. St. Anne, Sandy Point, 1801. 
". St. Mary, Cayon, 1825. 

If the Archdeacon (as I have asked hiir 
to do) sends me any further list, I will forward 
it- J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

Antigua, W.I, 

"CLEVER" (10 S. vi. 25). Among th 

Suffolk taxpayers for 1327 are four calle< 

le Claver." In the list for 1674 are on 

Clever and several called Clover. Clover is- 
k fairly common name in Suffolk at the 
>resent day. S. H. A. H. 

;ULUS will find the first part of his question 
mswered by referring to Article XX. of the 
Jhurch of England in any Common Prayer 
3ook. As to cathedrals, he should refer 
,o Hook's ' Church Dictionary,' under the- 
leading ' Consecration of Churches.' 


LONDON (10 S. v. 385, 454 ; vi. 13). The 
newspaper extract and other information 
>vhich I gave at the first reference are suffi- 
3ient to prove that the photograph purchased 
by CLIO could not have been taken in Eng- 
and in 1843. A valued correspondent of 
;his journal, R. B. P., has also referred me 
;o an account, with illustrations, of Tom 
Thumb's first appearance at the Princess's 
Theatre, which is contained in The Illus- 
trated London News of 24 Feb., 1844, p. 124. 
The performance must have been trans- 
ferred to the Egyptian Hall a little later, as 
the " General " was on exhibition there in 
the following April. 

I very much doubt if such things as- 
" cabinet " photographs were in existence 
in 1843. My youthful recollections of that 
period extend only to the hideous " daguerreo- 
type," which had to be looked at in a cross 
light before it became visible. I speak under 
correction, but so far as memory serves me, 
I think the " carte-de-visite " did not comer 
in till after the Crimean War, and the- 
" cabinet " photograph a year or two later .. 
But this has nothing to do with Tom Thumb , 
except to afford collateral evidence that 
CLIO'S photograph must be assigned to a* 
later visit of the " General " to London. 


Tom Thumb's appearance in London in 
the buskin was, of course, much before 1846 r 
but it would be interesting to know the exact 
diminutiveness of the actor who impersonated! 
him in Fielding's burlesque opera in 1730,. 
which was altered in 1778 by Kane O'Hara. 
It must have been in Fielding's burlesque- 
that Mrs. Gibber (born in 1710, and conse- 
quently about twenty years of age) acted' 
the part of Tom Thumb at the Haymarket 
Theatre. But the following interesting 
theatrical announcement from The Crafts- 
man of 29 April, 1732 in which the Miss- 
Robinson who took the part of Tom Thumb 
the Great must have been the unfortunate 

10 s. vi. JULY 28, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Maria Robinson, pupil of Hannah More evi- 
dently relates to Fielding's play, although, 
in this case, it was acted at Drury Lane : 

Never Acted there before. 

For the Benefit of Mr. Chetwood 

By His Majesty's Company of Comedians, at the 

"Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, on Wednesday next, 

being the 3d Day of May, will be presented. 
The Tragedy of Tragedies : Or, The Life and Death 

of Tom Thumb the Great. 

In three Acts. The Parts of King Arthur and 
Queen Dollalolla by Mr. Mullart, and Mrs. Mullart, 
who perform'd them originally. Lord Grizzle by 
Mr. Gibber, jun. Queen of the Giants by Mr. 
Bridg water. The Princess Huneamunca by Mr. 
Harper. The Ghost of Gaffar Thumb, by Mr. 
William Mills. And the Part of Tom Thumb the 
iireat, by Miss Robinson. With proper Habits, 
.Scenes, Machines, &c. Decorated in a new 

To which will be added, a Ballad-Opera, call'd 

The Devil to pay ; or, The Wives Metamorphos'd. 

The Part of Jobson by Mr. Harper ; Nell by 

Miss Raftor. 
With several New Entertainments. 

William Rufus Chetwood for some time kept 
a, bookseller's shop in Covent Garden. He 
was also for twenty years prompter to Drury 
{Lane Theatre ("Biographia Dramatica'). 

Wheeler's ' Noted Names of Fiction,' 1870, 
p. 364, says : 

"It may be noted how on ballad authority we 
learn that ' Tom a lyn was Scotsman born.' Thus 
The Quarterly Review: 'Now Tom-a-lin, other- 
wise Tamlane, is no other than Tom Thumb him- 
self ; who was originally a dwarf, or dwergar, of 
/Scandinavian descent, being the Thaumlin, i.e., 
Little Thumb, of the Northmen. Drayton, who 
introduces both these heroes in his " Nymphidia," 


: seems to have suspected their identity The prose 

history of Tom Thumb is manufactured from the 
ballad ; and by the introduction of the fairy queen 
at his birth, and certain poetical touches which it 
yet exhibits, we are led to suppose that it is a 
arifacimento of an earlier and better original.' " 


SIB JOHN FASTOLF (10 S. iv. 145, 214 ; 
i. 14). BARON SETON OF ANDRIA makes no 
ntion of the ' Paston Letters.' May I, 
then, be permitted to draw his attention to 
Prof. James Gairdner's three-volume edition 
of this fascinating collection, published in 
1872 ? There are among these letters very 
many from Sir John Fastolf, from which one 
gains a shrewd idea of what manner of man 
he was ; and in the lengthy, but highly inter- 
Besting Introduction he figures frequently. 
At p. Ivii Prof. Gairdner gives us a brief 
outline of the man's remarkable career, and 
At p. Ixxxvii a character sketch. At 
p. Ixxxix we read of the building of Caistor 
Castle for Sir John was over seventy before 
he was able to realize his life's dream of 
orecting a magnificent dwelling-house on his 

ancestral estate of the number of acres it 
covered, of its " six-and-twenty chambers 
besides the public rooms, chapel, and offices," 
and of the large amount of its furniture, &c. 

It is evident that the able administrator 
and stout old soldier turned merchant made 
an uncommonly good thing out of those 
regular journey ings which his fleet of barges 
took between Yarmouth and London ; and 
if he was not exactly popular with his fellow- 
men, it may have been because his wonderful 
aptitude for fortune-making, and his strong, 
oft-expressed dislike to give long credit either 
to Governments or private persons, were the 
reverse of palatable to those who were less 
enterprising or businesslike than he. 

Falstaff must surely have been an original 
creation of Shakespeare's fertile brain, and 
was no wilful caricature either of " the 
historic Fastolf " or of the martyr Oldcastle, 
so ruthlessly sacrificed by his quondam 
friend the fifth Henry. We have, indeed, 
Shakespeare's own assurance that in depict- 
ing Falstaff, Oldcastle was " not the man " 
intended. ELEANOR C. SMYTH. 

32, Stanmore Road, Edgbaston. 

More particulars of this celebrated man 
will be found in vol. iv. (East and West 
Flegg Hundreds) of the ' Churches of Norfolk,' 
by T. Hugh Bryant, published by The 
Norwich Mercury Company, Norwich. These 
volumes are ably written, and deserve the 
attention of all lovers of ecclesiology and 
manorial history. 


Miss METEYARD (10 S. v. 450, 496). 
Some forty years ago a publication (I think, 
forty numbers) was issued, entitled ' Men of 
Eminence.' It contained photographs of 
celebrities with their biographies. Miss 
Meteyard's portrait appeared. My copy 
bears a note of the date September, 1865. 



"MINININ," A SHELL (10 S. v. 449, 497 ; 
vi. 15). It is surely possible that there is a 
word minnie, meaning " very small," from 
the Gaelic min, " small," with a diminutive 
suffix, and that a minnievin, i.e., a " very- 
small one," is what MR. MURRAY heard. 
Or perhaps an intrusive n has crept in for 
the sake of euphony. 



TADPOLE (10 S. vi. 29). In South North- 
amptonshire the tadpole is known by 
children as a " pot-ladle." There is an 
evident similarity between this name and 



paddy-leddle " mentioned by 
, ,-. ''T, .1 _ j.,* j,^^i<-> ' jji her 

[10 S. VI. JULY 28, 1930. 

Pot-ladle. In Suffolk and 

Another proof of the fact that a * Dictio - 

[ l.y MK. T. BAYNE next week.] 
HERALDIC SURNAME (10 S. vi. 29).The 
arms Are,, a chevron engrailed sable between 
tnree 'crabs gules, are those of Bndger, an 

u e ;i. T f s, 1oa Y and Kent. I fancy 

i Sussex bear 
C. L. D. 

cognate arms. 

Are., a chev. eng. sa. between three crabs 
gu., are the arms borne by the families of I S 
Bridger or Briger, 
Coombe, Sussex, 
also gives from Glover's 'Ordinary 

players, the umpires, and the male spectators 
(1 other players), excepting one little boy, 
wear breeches and white stockings ; the- 
hats are various, e.g., small cocked hats and 
hats not very unlike the modern straw hat ;. 
the players wear queues. In the back- 
ground is a large house, which is perhaps- 
White Conduit House. 

According to ' The Amusements of London, 
by William B. Boulton, 1901, vol. i. p. 66, 
White Conduit House stood " in a space- 
bounded approximately to-day by the present 
Penton Street, Cloudesley Road, Alton Street, 
and Denmark Road." Mr. Boulton says 
that Mr. Bartholomew, the proprietor, in 
1754 provided bats and balls for his customers 
and encouraged the game of cricket in the 
adjoining meadow, laying " the foundations, 
of the vast organization of the modern 
and that 

in 1784 the club which met in that meadow in- 
cluded the Duke of Dorset, Lord Winchilsea, Lord 

So says <"**, He , ~^~ ColoneTTarleton, and no less a light of the 
the ' cricket world than Thomas Lord, the founder of 

game blazon (without mentioning the tmcture | the Marylebone Club " (pp. 67, 68). 

of the chevron), and attributes it to the 
families of Briger or Bridger or Bryger, 
without saying where they are seated. 

(10 S. vi. 6). There is an exhaustive list 
of taverns in London where Freemasons' 
lodges have been held in the current number 
of Qiiatuor Coronati, which is the chief 
iournal of Masonic research. 


449, 496 ; vi. 34). I have frequently heard 

I have also a printed cotton handkerchief 
measuring about 35 by 26 inches. It has a 
group of the following cricketers : W. 
Denison, " Esq r ," Clarke, Mortingell, Pilch, 
Lillywhite, Parr, N. Felix, " Esq r ," Guy, 
Hillyer, O. C. Pell, "Esq.," Dorrington r 
A. Mynn, " Esq r ," Sewell, and Dean. At 
the top (middle) is a man with a cricket bat 
in his hand, standing on a flying bat (animal).. 
In the other parts of the margins are six 
figures of cricketers, wearing flat caps,, 
representing " Play ! " " Forward ! " " Leg 
Halt Volley," " Home Block," " The Draw," 

*T 4 Tt7, "XWV - * **/ ,/ y-N . 1* i 1 1 

" handposts " used in South Northampton- and The Cut ; ten rules, beginning 

shire. JOHN T. PAGE. 

KIPLING FAMILY (10 S. vi. 7). The 
district named by MR. W. E. WILSON 
abounds in Kiplings. The cradle of the race 
Kiplin village, near Richmond, Yorks. 
Any one interested will find early records 
in works issued by the Surtees Society, the 
North Hiding Record Society, &c. 


(lo S. iv. 9, 132, 238, 496 ; v. 54, 96, 177). 
I have a coloured reprint entitled ' Repre- 
sentation of the Noble Game of Cricket as 
played in the celebrated Cricket Field near 
White Conduit House, 1787.' It is oval, 
measuring about 7 by 5J inches. There 
are two wickets of three stumps each, with- 
out bails. The game is apparently single 
wicket. The bats of the batsmen and the 
two umpires are long and curved. The 

1. The Ball must weigh not less than five- 
ounces and three quarters " ; also at the- 
bottom (middle) a picture of a cricket match 
or game. Among the few spectators are a 
man wearing a cocked hat, one wearing a 
tall hat, and some ladies in coalscuttle 

Nine of the group of cricketers wear tall 
hats ; Parr wears something like a billy- 
cock ; N. Felix, Esq., a cap ; Hillyer, no 
hat or cap ; A. Mynn, Esq., a low " tall "" 
hat ; Dean, a cap. Pilch and A. Mynn 
(especially the latter) are big men. W~ 
Denison, Esq., and Lillywhite are clad in 
frock coats, &c. I think that the hand- 
kerchief came to my house about 1850. 
A friend of mine, learned in cricket, judging 
by the doings of the men in the group, puts 
its date at 1845. It is dedicated " To the- 
admirers of the noble game of cricket." 


10 s. vi. JULY 28, 



Parvus Cato, Magmi* Cato. Translated by Benet 
Burgh. Printed at Westminster by William 
Caxton. (Cambridge, University Press.) 
THE tract here reprinted is the second of the eight 
contained in the famous book belonging to the collec- 
tion of John Moore, Bishop of Ely, presented in 
1715 to the University of Cambridge, and already 
laid under contribution for the important series of 
Cambridge reprints. Like all the series, it belongs 
to the very outset of Caxton's career, and, like the 
* Anelida and Arcite ' and Lydgate's ' Temple of 
Glas,' included in the same series, it is believed to 
be unique. 

Like these works, again, it is issued in facsimile 
by M. P. Dujardin, who certifies that 250 copies 
only have been printed, and that the impressions 
have been rubbed off the plates and the negatives 
destroyed. Dibdin ascribes to Lydgate the transla- 
tion of both parts. This seems probable enough. 
Caxton, however, expressly declares it to be the 
work of Benet (or Benedict) Burgh, the opening 
words of his edition of 1483 being : " Here begynneth 
the prologue or prohemye of the booke callid Caton, 
whiche booke hath ben translated out of latin in to 
Englysshe by Mayster Benet Burgh, late Archedeken 
of Colchester and hye chanon of Saint Stephens at 
Wesmestre, which ful craftly hath made it in 
balade ryal for the erudicion of my lorde Bousher, 
sone and heyr at that tyme to my lord the erle of 
Estsex." This rendering of the "precepts" of 
Cato is in seven-line stanzas, each prefaced by a 
Latin distich. It is very prosaic and sufficiently 
edifying. The ' Parvus Cato ' occupies three pages 
only ; the ' Magnus Cato ' is in four books. The 
former ' Cato Parvus or Facetus ' is attributed by 
Warton to Daniel Churche, a domestic in the Coitrt 
of Henry II. The bibliographical interest of these 
reprints is exceptional ; their execution is marvel- 

The Legend of Sir Perceval : Studies upon itnOri(jin, 
Development, and Position in the Arthurian Cycle. 
By Jessie L. W T eston. Vol. I. (Nutt.) 
THE task Miss Jessie Weston began in her studies 
of the Legend of Sir Ga wain and that of Sir Lancelot 
du Lac, both of them contributed to the admirable 
" Grimm Library " of Mr. Nutt, she continues in 
her present work, which constitutes the seventeenth 
volume of the same series. This latest volume, 
which is to be followed by another, deals especially 
with the ' Perceval le Gallois ' of Chretien de Troyes 
and the continuation of Wauchier de Denaiii. In 
opposition to Prof. Foerster and Prof. Golther, 
Miss Weston holds that there were Arthurian 
poems not mere /?*, but finished literary produc- 
tions before Chretien de Troyes, who is taxed with 
liorrowing shamelessly and wholesale from a pre- 
decessor. Very interesting is the theory that in 
certain aspects of the Bleheris-Ga wain-Grail story 
we have a confused remembrance of nature-worship 
as exemplified in the cult of Adonis or Tammuz. 
It is impossible for us to deal at length with the 
argument of the book, and we must content our- 
selves with pronouncing the whole a very erudite 
and interesting work, and commending its study 
to our readers. A noticeable feature in the ' Sir 

Perceval' of Chretien de Troyes is that the purity 
of life needed by one destined to accomplish the 
quest of the Grail is far from being observed by the 
hero, whose conduct is no whit more exemplary 
than that of Sir Gawain and other knights who- 
incurred the condemnation of Roger Ascham. 

Cicero'* Book* of Friendship, Old Aye, and Scipio's 

Dream. (De La More Press. ) 
Sappho: One Hundred Lyric*. By Bliss Carman. 

(Same publishers.) 

OF these additions to " The King's Classics," edited 
by Prof. Gollancz, each is in its way noteworthy. 
The former consists of a translation by John 
Harington of Cicero's ' De Amicitia,' and two by 
Thomas Newton of the 'De Senectute ' and the 
'Somnia Scipionis.' All these renderings belong 
to Tudor times, and are characteristically racy, 
Harington, who was the father of Sir John Haring- 
ton, the translator of Ariosto, married a natural 
daughter of King Henry VIII. , and was in the service 
of Princess (afterwards Queen) Elizal>eth, and was 
with his second wife committed to the Tower. His 
translation, which may be read with much interest,, 
is dedicated to Katherine, Duchess of Suffolk.- 
Newton's translation of ' The Book of Old Age,' first 
published by T. Marshe in 1569, is an admirable 
piece of work. The volume has as frontispiece an 
illumination from a fourteenth - century MS. of 
Cicero in the Harleian Collection. 

In the 'Sappho' Mr. Carman gives full transla- 
tions of supposedly recovered lyrics of the poet. 
The scheme is one of the most ambitious that could' 
be attempted, and a moderate amount of success 
may be regarded as a matter for congratulation. 
The frontispiece reproduces Sappho from a Greek 
gem in the British Museum. An introduction by 
Mr. C. G. D. Roberts treats the leap from the cliff ' 
as a myth. 

The Dream of the Rood. Edited by Albert S. Cook. 

(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
Pierce the Plo'uyhman'x Crede. Edited by the Rev. 

W. W. Skeat, Litt.D. (Same publishers.) 
THESE are two of the convenient editions of our old 
English classics which the Clarendon Press is pro- 
ducing at a moderate price for the benefit of students, 
' The Dream of the Rood,' a short poem of 156 lines, 
apparently belonging to the seventh century, has 
sometimes been attributed to Caedmon, but Prof. 
Cook agrees with Dietrich in ascribing it to Cyne- 
wulf as the best specimen of his work. The editor 
discusses its authorship and literary characteristics 
in a full introduction, and appends notes and 

Prof. Skeat's excellent edition of 'The Plough- 
man's Crede ' has been before the world for nearly 
forty years, and is too well known to require com- 
mendation. It remains the fullest and most com- 
plete that can be placed in the hands of young 
scholars who desire to study their own language. 
The curious statement that a dying friar was "put 
under a pot," apparently to hasten his end (1. 627) r 
still needs elucidation. 

The Reader of Black wood Hall, irifh a Full Account 
of Dr. Johmon't Aiicetfry. By Aleyn Lyell Reade. 
(Privately printed.) 

A CURIOUS fate has been that of the author of this 
book. Moved by an ambition, now pretty generally* 
diffused, to trace his own pedigree and connexions,, 
he began in 1898 researches concerning both, "fol- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. JULY 28, 

lowin-' up those branches of the family that had 
. "inlo poverty and obscurity as ?arefuUv as 

Le t . . whom fortune had been more kind. While 

".cc^ed he dragged into his net, through the 

Hick mans of Stourbridge (see Pedigree VII.), no 

, Mi than Dr. Johnson. This has doubled his 

task the portion devoted to carrying back to Henry 

Ford the maternal ancestry of Dr Johnson and to 

tracine his connexion with the Jessons of West 

SSS& the Barnesleys of Trysull, the Harrisons 

d Hardwickes, and similar tasks, occupying as 
oh si ace as is devoted to the labour originally 
unde rtXen. As to the books printed by Michael 
JohnsoCthe father of Dr. Jolmson, Mr. Reade 
r-fe-s students to our own General Indexes. Par- 
tfculars are supplied of the trial of Michael Johnson 
for carrying on illegally the trade of a Bt/rteu*, in 
EngHsh y a tanner. "The result of this trial is un- 
known, the books in the possession of the Clerk of 
the Peace for Lichtield going back only to 1855. 
With exemplary diligence, facts bearing upon the 
relatives of Dr. Johnson and those in any way 
connected with him have been ^ traced out. On 
some points on which Dr. Birkbeck Hill was at 
fault Mr. Reade indicates a satisfactory conclusion, 
and he all but establishes the fact that Johnson s 
family was much less obscure than the lexicographer- 
was in the habit of asserting. 

In the Reade pedigree we come across many 
persons of interest. Among these are Paley of the 
Kvidences'; Sir Thomas Reade, whose position at 
Sr Helena brought him into close association with 
Nai>oleon ; Charles Reade, the novelist ; Dinah 
Maria Mulock (Mrs. Craik), the author of 'John 
Halifax, Gentleman'; and many others. It is im- 
possible to convey an idea of the claims of a book 
which is a veritable labour of love, is enriched with 
numerous i>edigrees and illustrations of scenes and 
]>ersons, and is a remarkable specimen of genealogical 

Journal of the Folk-Stony Societ-i/. No. 8. (84, Car- 

lisle Mansions, Victoria Street, S.W.) 
YKKY satisfactory work is being done by the Folk- 
Song Society, with whose objects we naturally 
sympathize. The tunes given in the present portion 
are gathered from seven counties, including London. 
Some of them are very quaint, one especially, 'A 
Withy Carol.' which MR. F. SIDGWICK printed at 
111 S. iv. 84, and which represents the castigation 
inflicted on the infant Christ by His mother. It is, 
-of course, regrettable that the task of preserving 
these productions has been deferred to a period 
when the ballads are but rarely encountered, and 
when nuxlern squeamishness calls for abridgment 
Hi excision. A very respectable product attends, 
however, modern labours, ;ui<l we heartily com- 
mend to our readers an institution under dignified 
patronage, and boasting such zealous officials as 
\Ii-s Lucy Broadwood, Hon. Secretary, and Mrs. 
Gonime, Hon. Treasurer. 

M mi a nit ntdl lii-if/'ifitionxand Extract* f 
ut St. Am"''* Church, Soho. Edited by Willia 
Kssington Hughes, F.R.Hist.S. (Mitchell, Hughes 
fc Clark.) 

To the editor of the present volume is 'due th 
llent condition of the parish registers o: 

St. Anne's. Soho, which are now secured in a way 

which we have declared to afford a good example 
to all parishes with valuable registers. Sever 

children of George II., while he was living as 

Prince of Wales in Leicester Square, were christened 
n St. Anne's Church, which makes Soho more 
of a royal parish, and earlier as a residen- 
tial quarter, than Kensington. The chief foreigner 
buried in the churchyard is the King of Corsica, 
concerning whom Mr. Hughes quotes the lines 
Fate poured its lessons on his living head, 
Bestow'd a kingdom, and denied him bread. 
Hazlitt has a long inscription giving the date of his 
death as September, 1830. Dryden and Burke were 
first buried at St. Anne's, and then removed to W r est- 
minster Abbey. Mr. Hughes advocates the pub- 
lication of the registers of the parish, which is too big 
a task to be accomplished without assistance by 
the Harleian Society. The few arms given of the 
Families buried in the parish have been drawn by 
Mr. Arthur Jewers, F.S.A. Among the inscriptions 
is that of Charles Trelawiiy Brereton, who, we 
may mention, though the fact is not noted, was the 
t'atner of the famous Trelawiiy, friend and bio- 
grapher of Shelley and Byron. The arms of 
Trelawiiy Brereton are supplied. The list of names 
s very interesting. 

THE REV. F. HARRISON* has forwarded Four 
Terrier* of North Wraxall Hector,!/, extracted from 
the Registers of the Bishop of Salisbury. These, 
which are dated 1588, when the Rev. Thomas 
Goddard was rector, are reprinted from the Wilt- 
shire Archer ological and Natural History Magazine. 

to C0msp0nfonts. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notice* : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
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WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
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WE cannot undertake to advise correspondents 
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to the means of disposing of them. 

W. J. FISHER ("There, but for the grace of 
God"). Dean Farrar, in the fourth sermon in 
' Eternal Hope,' attributes, this saying to John 

CORRIGENDA. 10 S. v. 393. col. 1, 1. 20 from foot, 
for "if" read vn/e. ; 10 S. yi. 34, col. 1, 1. 16 from 
foot, for " direction " read directing/. 


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CONTENTS.-No. 136. 

NOTES : "La vie est vaine": L. Montenaeken, 81 Phcebe 
Hessel and Fontenoy : William Hiseland White Family 
of Southwick, 82 Masquerier's Portrait of Napoleon 
Gotham and the 'N.E.D.,' 84 Michael Hewetson, 85 
American Emigrants "Killing-meat" Maori Names 

QUERIES: "Mill-dog" Millstone of Spain E. E. An- 
trobus : B.M. Catalogue "Botherhithe," 87 French 
Quotation " Sorner Fleetwood Brass Grants of 
Dean's Yard Franceys : Francissus : Le Franceys, &c. 
Passion-Flower Legend "A Sunday well spent," 88 
Authors of Quotations Wanted Johnson's Poems 
Tournaments: Bayard's Green Dr. Johnson and 'The 
New London Spy' Lumley of Watton, Norfolk, 89. 

REPLIES : Lieut. -General Henry Hawley, 89 "Rime" . 
"Rhyme," 90 The Right Hon. A. J. Balfour Literary 
Allusions Houses of Historical Interest St. Edith, 91 
" O dear, what can the matter be ? " Literary Pastimes 
Oicket : Pictures and Engravings Tadpole Burney 
Family Pledge in a Bumper, 92 Louis Philippe's Land- 
ing in England "Place" Macaulay on the Thames 
Gibbon, ch. Ivi. Note 81, 93" Anser, apis, vitulus," &c. 
"Tony Lumpkin" .John Danister, Wykehamist Devon 
Provincialisms, 94 English Spelling "Mother of dead 
dogs" "Pour" Catte Street Proverb against Gluttony 
Canbury House, Middlesex John Hoy, 95 Flags 

Park, Salop, 97. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Three Additions to Daniel ' 
' A Browning Treasure Book ' ' The Pocket Dickens ' 
' Harold's Town and its Vicinity ' ' King's Lynn with 
its Surroundings ' ' Summer Holidays ' ' Hampstead 
Garner' 'Lyra Britannica' ' English History in Verse.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


'<See 7 S. viii. 329 ; 8 S. vi. 26 ; 9 S. xii. 54 ; 
10 S. iv. 92.) 

FOR a long time I have been trying to find 
ome corroboration of the statement made 
by the late William Sharp (cf. 8 S. vi. 26 ; 
9 S. xii. 54) that the poem ' Peu de Chose et 
Presque Trop,' the first two stanzas of which 
are quoted at the head of the eighth part of 
' Trilby,' by G. Du Maurier, was written by 
Leon Montenaeken, a Belgian poet, and have 
only just been successful in my quest. By 
the way, ' Trilby ' is the title of a short 
: story by Charles Nodier, first published in 
1822, the scene being laid in Scotland. It 
would be interesting to learn when and where 
Montenaeken's poem first appeared in print 
whether in ' Trilby ' (pub. 1894 ?) or earlier ; 
.also how Du Maurier became acquainted 
with it. At any rate, here are a few par- 
ticulars for those readers of ' N. & Q.' who, 
like myself, have been haunted by the poem. 
The hundreds of English versions that have 
been made and published testify to its 
popularity. A letter of mine in The Academy 

of 22 July, 1905 (p. 766), elicited no response ; 
The Saturday Westminster Gazette of 24 Feb- 
ruary last kindly inserted an inquiry for me, 
but without result. 

An English version of the first two stanzas 
(headed "After the French of Alfred de 
Musset ") appeared in T.P.'s Weekly of 
30 January, 1903, p. 371. The lines have 
also been attributed to Maeterlinck (cf. ' The 
Burgraves,' Pitt Press Series, p. 136, notes ; 
Journal of Education, April, 1905, p. 269) 
and others. 

On 15 March last I was informed by 
Messrs. Chappell & Co. that M. Montenaeken 
really does exist, and I have now to apologize 
for ever doubting it. I only doubted it, 
however, so long as I was unable to procure 
any evidence of the fact. This has now been 
forthcoming, as Messrs. Chappell say they 
have a letter from him on the subject of 
their purchase of the copyright in the poem 
in connexion with the song published by 
them, ' A Song of Life,' music by Teresa del 
Riego. The second page contains the three 
original stanzas (these appear in the Daily 
Express of 3 July, 1902), an English version 
by the author, and the words to which the 
music has been set. Messrs. Novello, Ewer 
& Co. also publish an English version, called 
' Peu de Chose (Life is Vain),' music by Cecile 
Sarah Hartog ; and there is another song 
based on the poem, published, I believe, by 

The question of authorship is now, I think, 
settled beyond dispute ; but if M. Monte- 
naeken happens to see these remarks, he may 
be able to furnish some particulars concern- 
ing Du Maurier's connexion with his poem. 

As another instance of much in little in 
French poetry may be mentioned (cf. 10 S. 
iii. 148) : 

Un jour de fete, 

Un jour de deuil, 
La vie est faite 
En un clin d'ceil, 

by, I believe, Mery (but. where ?). 

In a poem called ' L'Harmonie imitative de 
la Langue fran9aise,' by Antoine Pierre 
Augustin de Piis (1785), occur the lines : 

Souvent 1'idee a Fair de devancer les signes, 
Tant on peut enoncer dans deux lignes ! 
On s'eveille, on se leve, on s'habille, et Ton sort ; 
On rentre, on dine, on soupe, on se couche, et 1'on 

Truly, as has been said, the whole of life is 
summed up here in two lines by the concision 
of the French language. 

Here is another specimen of the capacity 
of the French language for expressing a 
great deal in a few words : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. *, loos. 

On eutre, on crie, 

Kt c'est la vie ; 

( )n bailie, on sort, 

Et c'est la mort. 

These lines were written in an album (1836) 
by the poet Ausone de Chancel (cL L Inter- 
mediaire des Chercheurs, 25 March, 1891, 
col 170)t EDWARD LATHAM. 


SEVERAL correspondents have asked why 
my recent work on Fontenoy contains no 
reference to the well-known case of Phoebe 
Hessel. My reason for ignoring this old 
lady is a demonstrably incorrect statement 
in her epitaph, as given in the histories 
of Brighton. It runs thus : 

Phoebe Hessel, 

Who was born at Stepney in the year 1, 13. She 
served for many years as a Private Soldier in the 
Fifth Regiment of Foot in different parts of Europe, 
and in the year 1745 she fought under the command 
of the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of 
Fontenoy, when she received a Bayonet Wound in 
her arm. Her long life, which commenced in the 
reign of Queen Anne, extended to that of George IV , 
by whose munificence she received comfort and 
support in her latter days. She died at Brighton, 
win-re she had long resided, December 12, 1821, 
aged 108. 

Now the 5th Foot took no part in Fontenoy. 
The 3rd (the Buffs), then styled " Lieut.- 
General Howard's," .won undying glory 
there ; and Carter suggests that the numeral 
5 was substituted for 3 by a careless stone- 
cutter ('Curiosities of War,' 1871, p. 188). 
It is obviously impossible to accept such 
an hypothesis as any foundation for Phoebe's 
claim to centenarian rank. Those who are 
interested in her story will find it discussed 
at 1 S. vi. 170 and 5 S. i. 222. 

There is another reason for doubting Mrs. 
Hessel 's presence at Fontenoy. It is that 
people who have outlived all contemporaries 
often succumb to the temptation of linking 
their obscure names with some great land- 
mark in history of ancient date. In the 
sixties there lived an American clergyman 
who posed as the very last survivor of 
Bunker's Hill, fought in 1775. His story 
of the battle, as told in countless pulpits, 
was highly dramatic. He used to describe 
the British grenadiers advancing in faultless 
line ; the orders given by the " continental " 
officers to delay firing until the whites of the 
enemy's eyes were visible ; the crashing 
volleys and bayonet charge. But when the 
veteran was gathered to his fathers, a sceptic 
examined the registers at his birthplace, and 

discovered that the old impostor was unborn! 
in 1775. 

The disused graveyard attached to Chelsea 
Hospital contains a flat tombstone which, 
thus sketches the career of another old 
soldier : 

" Here lies William Hiseland, a veteran if ever 
soldier was, who merited well a pension if long 
service be a merit, having served upwards of the 
days of man. Aiitient but not superannuated, 
engaged in a series of wars, civil as well as foreign,, 
yet not maimed or worn out by either. His com- 

Elexion was fresh and florid, his health hale and 
earty, his memory exact and ready, in stature he 
exceeded the military height, in strength he sur- 
passed the prime of youth. And what renders his, 
age more patriachal [we], when above one hundred 
years old he took unto himself a wife. Read, fellow- 
soldiers, and reflect that there is a spiritual warfare 
as well as a warfare temporal Born 7th August,. 
1620, died 7th February, 1732, aged 112." 

If we accept these figures we must credit 
Hiseland with having lived in nine reigns,, 
reckoning the Commonwealth as one. But 
does his epitaph deserve more credit than, 
that of his sister in arms ? 


[At 10 S. i. 406 MR. F. T. HIBGAME made a note 
that Morgan Street, St. George's-in-the-East, had 
been renamed Hessel Street in honour of Phoebe. 
See also 10 S. ii. 16, 74. At the latter reference 
MR. J. T. PAGE gave the inscription on her tomb- 
stone. It begins with the words "In Memory of," 
and there are a few other slight verbal differences.] 


(See ante, pp. 43, 64.) 

EDWARD WHITE of Southwick was Sheriff 
of Hants in 1574 ; was elected burgess of 
Portsmouth in 1575 ; he married Mary 
(born 1534), daughter and coheir of Anthony 
Pound, of Drayton. In his will (P.C.C. 
11 Tirwhite), dated 25 November, 1580,. 
and proved 9 March, 1580/1, Edward White 
refers to his brothers Thomas and John ;: 
his sister Warneford and her daughter Eliza- 
beth ; and to his sister Bullaker, who is to- 
" hold farm of Lymbourne until my son 
Thomas shall be twenty-one." Trustees are 
appointed for the education and bringing 
up of his son Thomas, and his eldest son John 
is appointed executor ; his wife Mary is not 
mentioned in the will, she therefore probably 
predeceased him. 

John White succeeded his father at South- 
wick. He was elected a burgess of Ports- 
mouth in 1591, and an alderman (or Mayor's 
Assistant, as they were then called) the- 
following year ; he was Sheriff of Hants in 
1599. By his wife Frances, daughter of 
Butler, of Badminton, co. Gloucester,. 

10 s. vi. AUG. 4, 1906.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


he had three daughters, Honor, Bridget, 
and Mary. He died in 1607. An Inquisi- 
tion was held at New Alresford on 26 Sep- 
tember, 7 James I. (1609), when he was found 
to have been seised of the site, &c., of the 
Priory of Southwick, and of the manors of 
Southwick, Burhunt Harbert, Harberlyn, 
Bury, Morrells, Bellony, Newlands, and 
Wicker ; the rectories of Southwick, Wan- 
stead, and Wymering ; half the manor of 
Kilmeston, al's Kulmeston Plugnett ; the 
advowson of the church of Widley, &c. An in- 
denture of 18 October, 1606, is recited therein, 
whereby John White made a settlement on 
the marriage of his eldest daughter Honor 
with Sir Daniel Norton, of Tisted, Hants, 
Kt. Sir Daniel received the Southwick 
property, and all the other property, charged 
with the payment of 5,OOOZ., viz., 2,600 
to Bridget White, second daughter of the 
said John, at the font-stone in the Temple 
Church, London, and 2,4001 to Mary White 
his youngest daughter. It was also found 
that John White died at Southwick on 
8 December, 5 James I. (1607) ; that his 
widow Frances was still living there ; and 
that Honor, wife of the said Sir Daniel 
Norton, Bridget, and Mary, his daughters 
and heirs, were then aged eighteen years, 
sixteen years and eleven months, and fifteen 
years nine months respectively. 

Bridget, the second daughter, married 
Sir Henry Kingsmill, Kt. (died 1625), of 
Sidmanton, Hants ; she died in 1672. For 
issue see Burke's ' Extinct Baronetcies.' 

Mary, the youngest daughter, married 
William Cave, son and heir of John Cave, 
of Pickwell, co. Leicester, and had issue a 

n William, aged one year in 1619 (Vis. 

icester, 1619). 

Sir Daniel Norton, who married Honor 

hite, was the eldest son of Sir Richard 

orton, Kt., of Rotherfield, in East Tisted, 
nts, by his second wife Katherine, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Kingsmill, Kt., of Sidmanton, 
Hants. (Sir Richard Norton's first wife 
was Elizabeth, daughter of William Wayte, 
of Wymering, and widow of Richard Pound, 
son of Anthony Pound by Anne, daughter 
of Lewis Wingfield. ) Sir Daniel was knighted 
in 1603, Sheriff of Hants in 1608 and 1626, 
and M.P. for Hants in 1624 and 1628. In 
the year last named Sir Daniel and his wife 
had the honour of entertaining King Charles 
and his Court at Southwick for several 
weeks between June and September. The 
King desired to be near his favourite Buck- 
ingham, who was then at Portsmouth, pre- 
paring for his second expedition to Rochelle. 
The news of Buckingham's assassination on 

23 August was brought to the King while 
he was at prayers in the chapel at South- 
wick ; it affected him so greatly that he- 
retired at once to his chamber, remained 
there for two days, and apparently was not 
able to return to London with his Court 
before 6 September. 

In November, 1632, Sir Daniel Norton 
was in London, and received a message- 
from Sir John Eliot, " the patriot," then 
imprisoned in the Tower, requesting him 
to call and see him. At the ensuing inter- 
view Sir John expressed an earnest desire- 
that his son should marry with Sir Daniel. 
Norton's daughter ; the question of settle- 
ments was arranged, and it was decided 
that young John Eliot should proceed at 
once to Southwick to become acquainted with 
Miss Honor Norton. On the same day Sir 
Daniel wrote a letter to his wife, telling her,, 
if John Eliot and his daughter " should like 
the one the other, that then they might 
marry as soon as they woulde." This was 
wTitten on Monday the 26th. Dame Honor 
acted promptly : the young couple were 
married at " West Burrant " Church, ad- 
joining Southwick, on Wednesday the 28th,, 
at nine o'clock in the morning, before the 
arrival of the licence which Dame Honor 
had sent for. Unfortunately, however, for 
all parties concerned, Sir John Eliot died in 
prison a few hours only before the marriage,, 
and therefore his son and heir, being under 
age, was in ward to the King. An infor- 
mation was exhibited in the Court of Wards 
and Liveries " against Sir Daniel Norton,. 
Kt., and Dame Honor his wife, John Ellyott,. 
esquier, and Honor his wife, Francis Tren- 
chard, gent., and Jonathan Fletcher, clarke,, 
for the Ravishment of the said John Ellyott,. 
our Warde, and marrying him to the 
daughter of the said Sir Daniell Norton 
without the licence of the said Courte " ; 
and fines amounting to 4,OOOZ. were imposed 
upon the offenders. A detailed account of 
this interesting case, with the answers of 
the several defendants, appears in The 
Genealogist, N.S. i. 21. 

Sir Daniel Norton died in 1636. His 
eldest surviving son was the well-known 
Parliamentary colonel Richard Norton 
Cromwell's "Idle Dick Norton." Dame 
Honor Norton appears to have been as 
devoted as her son to the Parliamentary 
cause, to judge by the following extract 
from Mercurius Aulicus of Wednesday, 
16 August, 1643 : 

"It was also signified from thence [Portsmouth]; 
that the Lady Norton, mother to that most noble 
Colonel who hath done such wonders of late days,.. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 4, im. 

and governess for the present of the town of Ports- 
mouth, for the Committee dare do nothing without 
her advice, was very busily employed in making 
.siinif new \vorksaboutPortseyBridge; and was not 
only rvrry day in person amongst the workmen, 
whom she encouraged much by her presence, but 
brought with her also every day 30 or 40 maids and 
women in a cart (they may live to be so coached 

hereafter) to dig and labour in the trenches It 

was further signified from thence that the Com- 
mittee by her direction had caused a dungeon to be 
made there as dark as hell, that if the liberty of 
the subject should be laid up there nobody should 
have hope to find it, intended for such malefactors, 
as it now appears, who either do refuse to tike the 
new oath, or to pay their taxes, or otherwise shall 
show any good affections to his sacred Majesty." 

The will of Dame Honor Norton, the last 
of the White family of South wick, was dated 
12 April, 1648 (P.C.C. 220 Grey). She 
desired to be buried in the parish church of 
Southwick, near where her husband was 
laid, and she bequeathed to her grand- 
daughter Honor Eliot the parsonage of 
Portsea and Portsmouth, and the site of the 
manor of Stubbington, held under lease 
from Winchester College ; the bequest 
was to be void if her son Richard paid to the 
said Honor Eliot, or her assigns, the sum 
of 500Z. on her marriage, with an allowance 
in the meantime of 40?. per annum. The 
Stubbington here mentioned, then a manor, 
is now a farm within the borough of Ports- 
mouth, and is not Stubbington, near Titch- 
field, where her cousins resided. There are 
also bequests in her will to her son Edward 
Norton, and to her daughters Honor Eliot, 
Katharine May, wife of James May, and 
Mary Norton ; she also refers therein to her 
deceased children Thomas and Elizabeth, 
and to her late house in Covent Garden. 
The will was proved by her son Richard 
Norton, the executor and residuary legatee 
on 26 November, 1651. 

High Street, Portsmouth. 


Amongst some correspondence of the Rev 
Dr. T. F. Dibdin I found the following 
interesting letter, addressed to him by John 
James Masquerier (1778-1857) : 

A fv Tu , Brighton, May'lT, 1835. 

MY DfcAR DiBDix,-On my return here from 

iwn I found your letter and prospectus, which had 
been left by Col. Charlewood, I am delighted at 
your present success, and be assured that all in mv 
IK.W.T shall IK, done to forward your views-ndtE 
PHer or myself expect more than one copy each- 
...- is off for the Continent, and I intend goingln a 
K u days, tor the summer months 

What you ask concerning the picture of Bona- 
1 -are can be answered m a few words. In the year 
1800 I was painting a portrait of Capt. (since 

Admiral) Schank to whom I expressed a wish of 
seeing my mother who was then resident in Paris, 
and he, being a Commissioner of the Transport 
Board, kindly procured me a licence for that pur- 
pose. When in Paris I got through the interest of 
a friend acquainted with Josephine, the permission 
to be at the Thuilleries, where I saw Bonaparte in 
the gray great coat which has since been so well 
known, but which at that time was so different 
from all the portraits I had previously seen of him, 
the French thinking that a great man must neces- 
sarily be dressed in finery. I however sketched 
him as I saw him, and the picture was seen in Eng- 
gland by more than 20,000 persons, including the 
late Prince of Wales and Tallien, who was then in 
London on his return from Egypt and who left in 
the Exhibition room the following testimony as to 
the likeness of the First Consul : 

" J'ai vu le Portrait du General Buonaparte fait 
par Mr. Masquerier, et je 1'ai trouve tres ressemblant. 
" TALLIEN. Londres, ce 24 Mars, 1801." 

The picture was afterwards sold for the purpose of 
going to America where it is now I know not, nor 
can I send you the print of it, having only one left. 
The produce of the picture was about 1,000?., the 
beginning, as I believe you know, of my little 
fortune. This is quite enough of self, so adieu 
Yours sincerely, J. J. MASQUERIER. 

P.S. Do you remember Bob. Poste and I supping 
with you ? ! ! ! It was somewhere about Queen 

Masquerier was living at Paris with his 
mother when, on the outbreak of the Revo- 
lution, she was arrested, and imprisoned 
until 1794. The artist escaped, and the date 
he names was evidently the first opportunity 
he had of returning to her. It was Madame 
Tallien, whose portrait he had painted, who 
introduced him to Josephine. The sketch 
he then made of Napoleon was with other 
material elaborated into the important 
work 'Napoleon reviewing the Consular 
Guards in the Court of the Tuileries.' This 
was exhibited in Piccadilly, 1801, and is 
now in the possession of the Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts. Vide ' D.N.B.' 


GOTHAM AND THE 'N.E.D.' Is it not 
surprising that a work of such high standing 
as the 'New English Dictionary' should 
lend the weight of its authority to the state- 
ment that the identity of the Gotham of the 
ancient tales remains unsettled ? The com- 
piler of the otherwise illuminating section 
under Gotham ' states at the commence- 
ment that " there is a village so named in 
Notts, but it is not certain that this was the 
place alluded to." 

Having had the whole matter under 
review for some time, I lay it down, without 
fear of contradiction, that nobody ever dreamt 
of disputing the location of the Gotham tales 
at the village half-a-dozen miles south of 

10 s. vi. AUG. 4, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Nottingham until well into the nineteenth 
century. Then some one discovered that 
the place-name Gotham is duplicated in 
Sussex, although there is no village there. 
This was the signal for one or two Sussex 
antiquaries to build up a highly artificial 
case for the southern Gotham, supported 
by the warping of facts, after the usual 
manner of old-time local historians, to 
strengthen what was otherwise quite un- 
tenable. The only really rational point in 
the Sussex claim begins and ends with the 
idea that the Gotham tales were written by 
a Sussex man Andrew Boorde as was 
once believed ; but the idea is not generally 
credited nowadays. As Dr. Furnivall says, 
" Those who contend for Boorde's author- 
ship of this book are obliged to admit that 
the greater part of its allusions do not suit 
the Gotham in Sussex, but do suit the Gotham 
in Nottinghamshire." Just so ; and nobody 
took an opposite view until the Gotham 
tradition had been current for several 

Beyond confirmatory references to York, 
Loughborough, Leicester, and the " Newark" 
of Leicester, the name of Nottingham is 
introduced nine times in the earliest extant 
edition of the tales (that of 1630, reprinted 
by Mr. W. C. Hazlitt in his ' Shakespear 
Jest-Books '), as well as in all later editions. 
Of the multitude of old-time writers who 
incidentally refer to Gotham, every one whc 
introduces locality at all, infallibly indi- 
cates the Notts village. Instance Fuller's 
'Worthies,' 1661; John Taylor's 'Part of 
this Summer's Travels,' 1639 ; Richard 
Braithwaite's ' Time's Curtaine Draune,' 
1621, as well as Braithwaite's later ' Drunken 
Barnabee's Journal,' 1648-50. The future 
Archbishop Laud, in his yet earlier unpub- 
lished skit on ' Gotam College,' 1613 (see 
3 S. v. 1), does not mention locality, but he 
does suggest that 

" There is leave granted they [the fellows] may 


remove Cuckoo Bush, and set it in some part of the 
College garden, and that in remembrance of their 
famous predecessors they shall breed a cuckoo every 
year, and keep him in a pound till he be hoarse, ancl 
then, in midsummer moon, deliver him to the Bush 
and set him at liberty." 

And " Cuckoo Bush " yet remains one of the 
sights of the Nottinghamshire Gotham, 
pointed out (with other reputed scenes of 
the tales) for the entertainment of those 
whom some local rimes describe as 

The fools who thither go 

To see the Cuckoo Bush, I trow. 

158, Noel Street, Nottingham. 

MICHAEL HEWETSON. (See 4 S. iv. 74.) 
This distinguished Irishman and divine was 
the friend and adviser of the saintly Bishop- 
Wilson, referred to in Noble's ' Continuation, 
of Granger ' ; they became acquainted with 
each other when students at Trinity College,. 
Dublin, at which the former was entered 
on 18 July, 1660. In 1700 they were both, 
(with other zealous workers) associated with 
the Rev. Dr. Thomas Bray (the first com- 
missary of the Bishop of London to Mary- 
land) in founding the Church of England in 
the Colonies and Dependencies of the British 
Empire, and from their efforts emerged on 
16 June, 1701, the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. In the 
following year Archdeacon Michael Hewetson 
(he had been collated to the archdeaconry of 
Armagh on 9 November, 1693) was appointed. 
Commissary of the Bishop of London to- 

He was a descendant of John Hewetson 
or Hewsonne, of the city of York, borrt. 
circa 1498, and his wife Margaret Lambert,, 
second daughter of John Lambert, of Cal- 
ton, ob. 1569, a descendant of the Con- 
queror through his granddaughter Gundred,. 
daughter of William, Earl Warren and 

The second son of John Hewetson was the 
Rev. Christopher Hewetson, M.A., vicar of 
Swords, co. Dublin, 1547 ; and treasurer 
of Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin, from 
13 March, 1596, until his decease on 5 April,. 
1633. He was buried in the chancel of the- 
church of Swords (S. Columba) ; the 
funeral entry is in Ulster's office. Chris- 
topher had a son, William Hewetson,. 
M.A., rector of S. Werburgh's, Dublin, 
1660-76, who married Elizabeth, daughter- 
of the Right Rev. Thomas Ram, D.D.,. 
Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin in 1605. 

Michael Hewetson, their fourth son, the 
future archdeacon, was born in Dublin in 
1643, and at the age of seventeen years 
(18 July, 1660) entered Trinity College,. 
Dublin, having been educated by the cele- 
brated Rev. Zachariah Taylor, of Rochdale,. 
Lancashire. He took his B.A. degree in 
1665, M.A. in 1683 ; was rector of Swords 
in 1672 ; Clashran in 1674 ; prebendary of 
Tasagard, 1675 ; and vicar of St. Andrew's,. 
Dublin, 1678. 

Upon St. Peter's Day in 1686, 220 years 
ago, he, as archdeacon, assisted at the recon- 
secration of Kildare Cathedral, and, after 
that ceremony, at the ordination of his 
friend Thomas Wilson. They jointly pre- 
sented for use in the cathedral a paten worth 
between six and seven pounds (of the value 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 4, im 

of that day). Besides this paten, there 
^exists another precious relic of Wilson's 
ordination day the little memorandum 
book which his friend gave him soon after 
the ceremony, having first inserted in his 
-own handwriting the account of the day's 
proceedings. It is a very small duodecimo, 
bound in brown leather, with brazen clasps, 
and, together with some MSS. of the bishop, 
is in the possession of Sion College, London. 

In 1690 a portrait of the archdeacon, in 
his clerical habit and scarf, was painted by 
Luttrel, and engraved by the celebrated 
artist John Smith. One impression of the 
engraving had long been in the British 
Museum, whilst a second (which formed 
part of the ten thousand mezzotints collected 
by the late Lord Cheylesmore) was added to 
'that collection about 1904. 

The archdeacon was author in 1701 of 
* St. Patrick's Purgatory in Lough Derg, 
-co. Donegal,' giving an account of the 
-pilgrims' business there. He died at Bally- 
shannon, co. Donegal, in 1724. 


Hotten, in his introduction to ' The Original 
Lists of Emigrants to America,' tells us 
that the early settlers left the old country 
because of persecution, both political and 
religious. The proceedings against the re- 
monstrants were taken in the Courts of Star 
Chamber and High Commission. All the 
decree -books of the first-named jurisdiction 
are lost, and many of those of the latter, 
so all interested in American ancestry have 
been prevented from using the records of 
the fines and punishments as a means of 
.genealogical information. This hindrance 
has now been removed by the important 
discovery that two sets of the fines imposed 
by the Star Chamber and High Commission 
exist in the Public Record Office : one 
.series for both Courts appears to be perfect, 
but some of the other set have been lost. 

As the fines in each case give residence of 
delinquent, and in some instances name 
-wife and children, the importance of this 
discovery to the descendents of the Pilgrim 
Fathers cannot be overrated. I intend to 
copy and index these fines at once, as they 
will form a very useful addition to my other 
lists of emigrants. GERALD FOTHERGILL. 
11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth, S.W. 

" KILLING-MEAT." I wonder if this term 

s generally known, as meaning the odd 

i of liver -and the like sold in small 

quantities by butchers at Launceston in 

the old times when each of them had a 

special slaughtering day. Three or four 
pennyworth of " killing-meat," indeed, fur- 
nished an appetizing meal for many of the 
working classes, whose children used to wait 
with dishes and basins at the slaughter- 
house door to receive it. R. ROBBINS. 

MAORI NAMES. The following note has 
been sent me by my sister, who has lived 
many years in New Zealand : 

"Ngaire is the Maori name, and is pronounced 
Niry, the same as wiry. Being only a village, it 
has no English name, and several people are so 
pleased with the Maori name that they have called 
their little girls Ngaire. Ngaire has been altered, 
for the original spelling and word was Te Ngaere, 
and I think was pronounced Tee Na-er-y, and meant 
'the Ngaire swamp.' Many of the Maori names 
are too long, as Whakarewarewa, Waiongongoro, 
and Whangamomona. Yet we say these names 
quite pat now we are used to them. The English 
manage to slip in a few syllables to some names. 
Wai means water, roto is lake, and moana is sea. 
I think the missionaries were responsible for the 
spelling of Maori names like Ngaire. They tried to 
spell exactly as the word was pronounced, and so 
the g was put after n, to represent a certain nasal 
sound the Maories made ; but the English drop all 
that and pronounce it Niry. There is a place 
called Kete Marac ; the English just call it Kitty 
Maria; and the maupau bird they call ' more pork !' 
I used to call it ' more-pour,' as we always heard it 
before heavy rain." 


" TROWZERS." As an early example of 
the use of the word trowzers the following is, 
I think, worth noting : 

' I slipt down the Garden-Stairs with my Trowzers 

at my Heels I would that the Devil had had the 

Trowzers before I had seen them : For I was cer- 
tain, that my Trowzers were the strongest evidence 
against us." 

A foot-note says : 

' Trowzers are commonly wore by those that 
ride Post down into the North, arid are very warm ; 
at the same Time, they keep thee f *c] Coat, Breeches, 
&c. very clean, by being wore over them." "The 
True Anti- Pamela: or, Memoirs of Mr. James 

Parry, Late Organist of Ross in Herefordshire 

Written by Himself." The Second Edition, care- 
fully revised. London, 1742, p. 216. 

The adventure in which these extracts 
appear is dated 8 October, 1735, " a Day 
that I have just Reason to remember." 
The first edition, according to a book cata- 
logue (No. 65, item 181) issued recently by 
Mr. Frank Hollings, 7, Great Turnstile, was 
published in 1741. 

In Richardson's ' Dictionary ' the follow- 
ng is given from the writings of Richard 
Wiseman : " By laced stockings and 
trpuzers." Prof. Skeat in his ' Etymological 
Dictionary ' makes the same quotation, but 

lo s. vi. AUG. 4, 190G.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


gives " trowzers " with the w, as it appears 
in Wiseman's book. The full passage is 

" By laced Stockings and Trowzers the swellings 
.in his Legs and Thighs went off, and they continued 
well without farther use of the laced Stockings. "- 
Richard Wiseman's ' Severall Chirurgical Treatises,' 
1676, b. i. c. 18, p. 85. 

In the next paragraph the word " Trowze " 
appears four times, it being apparently the 
singular, while " Trowzers " seems to be the 

On p. 83 is the following : 

" Bandage is of great help in the cure of these 
pituitous Swellings : indeed we can doe nothing 
considerable without them. Those I especially 
recommend to you are the laced Stocking, Trowze, 

Sleeve and Glove. They as fitting most firmly 

require your consideration and care how they be 

The sixth edition, 1734, called ' Eight 
Chirurgical Treatises,' has the same spelling 
of " Trowze " and " Trowzers." 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
Iformation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" MILL-DOG." I have quotations of 1877 
and 1880 for this word, denoting some kind 
of implement or appliance used by Canadian 
lumbermen. What is its exact meaning ? 
Can earlier examples be given ? 


Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

MILLSTONE OF SPAIN. This is mentioned, 
,s the name of some Spanish mode of raising 
revenue, in Johnson's ' Kingdoms and 
Commonwealths,' 1630, p. 232, and in 
Ho well's 'Foreign Travel,' 1642. What 
kind of impost does the name refer to ? 
What is the Spanish word that it renders ? 

This gentleman was author of books on most 
various subjects, the first of which is dated 
1848, and the last 1875 that is, supposing 
he had no namesake, of which I am doubtful. 
Thus I find in Phillips's ' Dictionary ' a 
namesake (or the same man ?) who is de- 
scribed as " English politician, born 1818." 
Here, contrary to his usual practice, our 
indefatigable biographer gives no reference 
to any other dictionary, though the motive 
of his own is that the person mentioned is 
taken from some other named source. 

The ordinary inquirer who examined 
only the General Catalogue at the British 
Museum would be much deceived. The 
Catalogue of our national library is a trap 
for the unwary one .which catches, and 
certainly deceives, not only readers, but 
the officials. For no reason whatever 
except as a relic of a system of the past 
devised, one would think, to give students 
trouble if a man wrote a song, that is put 
in a totally distinct catalogue, ' Author of 
Words to Music,' without even a cross- 
reference from or to the General Catalogue. 

It appears to me that this should be 
remedied. Of course the answer (and no 
doubt a fact) is that the staff have already 
more than they can cope with. But " Why 
should London wait " ? 

After he became a politician (?), and before 
he wrote books, Mr. Edmund Edward 
Antrobus wrote songs, and it is in relation 
to these that I have been led to make my 
researches. The first I find in the Music 
Catalogue is " Sequel to Fanny Gray : the 
music by Mrs. W. Wylde [1843 J." She was 
a daughter of Dr. Jay. Who wrote the words 
and music of ' Fanny Gray ' ? To another, 
' How oft at Eve,' the music was by Dr. 
Jay (1846); another was 'The Lady of 
Herondale,' which I do not find at the B.M. 
In fact, from the short experience I have 
had of the Music Catalogue, I should say 
the collection of pieces of music must be 
the most defective and incomplete thing in 
the Library. 

I am told by one who knew Mr. Antrobus 
that he was a very wealthy man, as, indeed, 
I presume he must have been to have lived 
some fourteen years at Kensington Palace 
Gardens, where he died in 1886. He was 
a tea merchant and an enthusiastic musician, 
and no doubt also artistic, as one of his books 
is entitled ' The Rise and Progress of Paint- 
ing.' More than this I should not know 
but that I have been fortunate enough to 
be favoured with an advance sheet of the 
supplement to Mr. Boase's ' Modern English 
Biography,' and there I find the first date 
Mr. Boase is able to give is Antrobus's 
election as an F.S.A. in 1848. No mention 
is made of any previous biography, of his 
birth, father, education, or his business. 
Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' supply these, 
and thus get rid of the supposition, if in- 
correct, that he was related to the four 
successive baronets called Edmund An- 
trobus ? RALPH THOMAS. 

" ROTHERHITHE." In ' Old and New 
London,' vol. vi. p. 134, the late Mr. Edward 



Walford states, with regard to Rotherhithe 
that " Henry IV. resided there in an old 
stone house, when afflicted with leprosy 
he is said to have dated two charters thence.' 
I should much like to find out what is the 
authority for this supposed residence of 
Henry IV. His " leprosy " is considered by 
Dr. Norman Moore to have been " herpes 
labialis." See ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy.' PHILIP NORMAN. 

FRENCH QUOTATION. Where does this 
quotation come from ? 

" Je ne voudrois pas reprendre mon coeur en ceste 
sorte : meurs de honte, aveugle, impudent, traistre 
et desloyal a ton I)ieu, et semblables choses ; mais 
je vondroifl le corriger par voye de compassion. Or 
sus, mon pauvre cieur, nous voila tombe dans la 
fosse, laquelle nous avions tant resolu d'eschapper. 
Ah! revelons-nous, et quittpns-la pour jamais, 
reclamons la misericorde de Dieu." 

Is it from St. Franois de Sales ? J. B. 

" SORNER." Since this word has cropped 
up again perhaps finally in old Scottish 
legal phraseology, it may be as well to give 
an instance in the eighteenth century, in 
which " sorning " was apparently a capital 
crime. " Sorning " is denned in Tomlins's 
' Law Diet.,' 1835, as 

, -, , wastefully and 

forcibly taking meat and drink from the 
king's subjects without paying for it, for- 
merly punishable by death." Vide also 
Jamieson. When Mr. Meysey-Thompson 
asked in the House of Commons on 15 June 
" whether ' sornari,' as in Scotch law, was 
a disease, or a crime, or a vegetable, and if it 
was a vegetable, why could it not be dis- 
tributed for cultivation among the poor ? " 
the Lord Advocate replied with dignity that 
" sornari " was neither a disease, nor a crime, 
nor a vegetable, and that it was equivalent 
to the English slang " sponger." 

In Mist's Weekly Journal, 3 Sept. 1726 
(No. 71), is the following : 

" Kdinhurjrh, An- _>:, ended the Trials of four 

gypsies, vi/.., two Men and their reputed Wives- 
the Jury brought them in (lullt,, of the Crime of 
,W//>/,. v , rani nth,-,- circunutancegflbdled: The two 
\N .HUM, ,,U.u,k v their Bellies, a Jury of Matrons 
unpannell'd, who not having finish'd their 
Examination, Sentence fc not yet paoU" 

What is the etymology of this word ? 


FLEETWOOD BRASS. I should be very 

glad if any one would give me the colours 

the three coats of arms over the memorial 


reader of ' N. & Q.' give me information, 
of the present whereabouts of the Grant 
family who from 1746 to 1848 kept at 2,. 
Little" Dean's Yard, the boarding house for 
Westminster School which still bears their 
name ? The last member of the family 
of whom I have any record is a Mrs. Maria 
Dixon, who died in 1872 at Hammersmith. 

L. E. T. 

&c. About 1850, under the chancel floor 
in Urswick Church, was found a monumental 
slab bearing a floriated cross and an inscrip- 
tion : 



The only reference to such a name in the 
immediate neighbourhood is in the signature 
of a witness to a charter to the Ulverston 
burgesses, 32 Ed. I., where is found "John, 
le Fraunceys." The name appears fre- 
quently in Yorkshire, e.g. at Gilling, Marske, 
Applegarth, Arkilgarth, Bowes, Bolton, &c. r 
at dates from 23 Hen. III. to 2 Ed. II., and 
in Swaledale, 14 Hen. VII. Is anything 
known of the family to connect it with 
Urswick ? The stone is elaborate, and the- 
lady must have been of some importance. 
In Yorkshire the members of the Fraunceys- 
family appear to have been of a litigious 

Urswick Vicarage, Ulverston. 

quete de Jerusalem,' by Myriam Harry, 
the following words relate to the passion- 
flower : 

"II. examinait curieusement cette corolle, quf 

portait an milieu de son etoile nacree les attribute 

de la Passion et qui, selon la legende, etait eclose 

le jour de Paques, au seuil du Tombeau." 
Nearly all the passion-flowers come from 
the New World, but one or two are natives 
of the Far East. They can scarcely have- 
been known in Europe during the Middle 
Ages. Is it true that the story connecting 
them with Christ's sepulchre and Easter 
Day was invented by Jesuits, who found 
one of the American varieties and were- 
much struck by it ? P. P. M. 

the author of the lines, 

A Sunday well spent 

Brings a week oi content ; 
and where were they first published ? They 
are often erroneously attributed to Sir 
Matthew Hale (see ante, p. 20), and have been, 
printed as leaflets by more than one society 

10 s. vi. AUG. 4, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


under the heading ' Sir Matthew Hale' 
Golden Maxim ' ; but they are not to b 
found in any of his works. They woulc 
seem to be a poetical rendering by some on 
of Hale's letter to his children on keeping 
the Lord's Day. A. B. 

Whence come the following quotations ? 

Where love is there comes sorrow 

To-day or else to-morrow ; 

Endure the mood, 

Love only means our good. 
Countless generations of mankind 
Depart, and leave no vestige where they trod. 


JOHNSON'S POEMS. Johnson has a littl 
poem addressed ' To Lady Firebrace, a 
Bury Assizes ' : 

At length must Suffolk beauties shine in vain, 

So long renowned in B n's deathless strain ? 
A note to these verses states that " the l^ 
was Bridget, third daughter of Philip Bacon 
Esq., of Ipswich." Who was B n ? anc 
what is the " deathless strain " ? 

In ' London : a Poem,' there are severa 
blanks which I should like to see filled up 
Thus 1. 50 of that poem runs : 

Let live here, for has learned to live. 

Again, 1. 74 : 

And strive in vain to laugh at H y's jest. 
Another edition reads " at Clodio's jest." 

Can any one give me the information I 
want ? T. M. W. 

These jousts or combats were held by roya 
authority, one such official site being calle 
Bayard's Green. It is desired to know the 
exact locality thus defined. One gazetteer 
states, in bald terms, near Brackley, 
Northants ; another places it in Tusmore 
Park, Oxfordshire. This confusion of 
counties is harassing ; moreover, we meet 
with the equivocation as to Bayswater and 
Bainard. A. H. 

SPY.' A small octavo volume has recently 
come into my possession, entitled ' The New 
London Spy. . . .exhibiting a Striking Por- 
trait of London, as it appears in the Present 
Year, 1772.' It is very racily written, and 
on p. 43, in describing a visit to the Temple, 
the author says : 

" There were various kinds of figures parading this 
spot likewise, and in particular, one character which 
my friend pointed out to me as very extraordinary, 
and deserving my particular notice. That person, 
said he, in the plain clothes, who walks so pensively, 
as if enveloped in thought, and absorbed in the sole 

idea that now fills his mind, is the Colossu* of 
modern literature ; he is a walking library, a re- 
pository of words, whose whole life has been devoted 
to the most intent study, so that he quotes the 
classics with as much ease and certainty, as a 
laborious divine does his bible, or an able lawyer 
the statutes ; and is as precise in ascertaining the 
etymology of a word, as a parson in settling his 
tithes, or a usurer in adjusting his debts. He has 
been so absent on some occasions, as to mistake the 

kennel for the footpath yet notwithstanding 

these peculiarities, he is justly revered for his 
learning ; and has many virtues in private life, that 
are worthy of imitation, and claim respect." 

I imagine there can be no doubt that this 
is intended for a pen portrait of the great 
lexicographer, but I should like to know if 
it has been so identified, and also, if possible, 
the name of the author of the book. 


6, St. James's Place, Plumstead. 

be obliged to any of your readers who would 
tell me the name of Isaac Lumley's parents, 
or direct me to a pedigree of his family. The 
said Isaac Lumley was dead by 1825. 

L. E. L. 


(10 S. vi. 6, 56.) 

IF MR. SKRINE will consult General 
Hawley's will at Somerset House, he will 
find that this document (29 March, 1749) and 
the four codicils thereto are all signed " He. 
Hawley." This abbreviation of the tes- 
tator's Christian name led to a misreading 
on the part of the late Mr. Manners Chi- 
chester, who wrote Hawley's memoir in the 
'D.N.B.,' and headed his article 'Hawley, 
Henry, or Henry C.' There are two other 
wills at Somerset House which ought to 
remove from MR. SKRINE'S mind the idea 
that there is a mystery about Henry 
Hawley's birth. In General Thomas Erie's 
will (proved 7 December, 1720) is this 
request : 

"I give to each and every of the children of my 
Brother* Francis Hawly [.sic], esquire, deceased, 
riz., Henry, Edward, and Anne, the sum of 501. 
And in the will of Lieut. -Col. Henry Hawley 
Lieutenant-Go vernor of Kinsale), proved 
* September, 1724, is this clause : 

* General Erie must have been half-brother to 
Jol. Francis Hawley. Mrs. Judith Hawley, in her 
etition to William III., styles General Erie her 

brother," which misled me in my former com- 
innication to 'N. & Q.' as to Mrs. Hawley's 
elationship to the aforesaid general. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VI..AUO. 4, woa. 

"I give and devise unto my nephew Col. Henry 
Hawley my right, title, and interest in Ster- 
minster [*ic], in the county of Dorset, wherein I 
have an estate." 

Again, MB. SKBINE contends that Lieut.- 
General Henry Hawley could not have been 
born within twelve months of the marriage 
of Francis Hawley, " bachelor," and Judith 
Hughes, " spinster " (January, 1683/4), 
because he received his commission 10 Janu- 
ary, 1694. It is very evident that MB. 
SKBINE has never heard of " child com- 
missions in the army." This subject .was 
thrashed out in ' N. & Q.' (8 S. passim) 
by myself and others. Apparently, " the 
captain crying for his pap " and " the major 
crying for his parritch " are unknown 
personages to MB. SKBINE. There is not a 
shadow of a doubt that the brothers Henry 
and Ed.ward Hawley received their first 
commissions as children. William III. was 
a good soldier, but he bestowed several 
commissions on children whose fathers had 
fallen in battle. He even went so far as to 
give a captain's commission to his infant 
goddaughter William Theresa Douglas " to 
pay for her education." This young lady 
received a captain's pay from the States of 
Holland as an officer in Col. George Hamil- 
ton's foot regiment ; and when the corps 
was reduced, in 1714, she claimed half -pay. 
There is, therefore, nothing remarkable in 
Henry Hawley being an ensign at the age of 
nine. His contemporary Percy Kirke (the 
younger) received his ensign's commission 
from Charles II. when twelve months old 
and joined his regiment ("The Lambs") 
as senior captain in 1702. Henry Hawley 
was placed on half -pay in 1698, on the 
reduction of General Erie's* regiment after 
the Peace of Ryswick. The consequent 
loss of income to Mrs. Judith Hawlev 
(Henry s mother) was doubtless one of the 
causes which led her to petition William III 
11 October 1699, and bring to the King's 
notice that "her endeavours to fit her 
children for his Majesty's service have 
engaged her in great difficulties." In 1702 
Henry Hawley joined Sir Richard Temple's 
corps as an ensign. Four years later he 
was a captain in his fathe/s old 

h^r^ut MB< !r NE insistS that 

Fontenov '' TT % " 0ne 7 ears ' service 
tenoy. He certainly had been 

mints 1 :" 1 ^ W&S C lonel of two infantry 

when he joined the navy at seventeen years 
of age, because soon after his birth he had 
been entered as one of the crew on board 
his uncle's ship ! This lord was also " an 
infant in the infantry," having been given 
an ensign's commission soon ofter birth. 

MB. SKBINE is particularly unfortunate 
in pinning his faith to Mr. Maclachlan's 
works. The latter's * Orders of William, 
Duke of Cumberland ' (London, 1876), has 
caused MB. SKBINE to style Brigadier 
Richard Ingoldsby, of Fontenoy notoriety, 
by the erroneous Christian name of " James " 
in his recent book. Ingoldsby's biographer 
in the ' D.N.B.' draws special attention to 
Mr. A. N. C. Maclachlan's blunder. 

Lastly, MB. SKBINE refers his readers to 
autograph letters in the Public Record Office 
signed " J. H. Hawley." I suggest that the 
letters in question may have been written 
and signed by General Henry Hawley's 
secretary. I may say that I have been for 
over twenty years a frequent toiler among 
seventeenth- and eighteenth-century military 
entry books and commission registers at the 
Public Record Office ; but I have never come 
across a commission to a " J. H. Hawley," 
or found any mention of a military knight 
called " Sir John Hawley." 


" RIME " v. " RHYME " (10 S. v. 469, 514 ; 
vi. 52). -My remarks seem to have been 
quite misunderstood. My point is that 
rime was the standard spelling in Tudor 
English as well as in modern English the 
spelling, for example, used in the old editions 
of Shakespeare. The statements quoted 
from Johnson are most misleading, as his 
spellings are historically valueless. The 
statement, for instance, that " Spenser and 
Milton write the word both with and without 
the h " cannot possibly be inferred from 
Johnson, who merely wrote for those of his 
own time, with but small regard for the 
history of our spelling. He can never be 
trusted without verification, and he is 
usually careful to give vague and inexact 
references. His work is most valuable 
from some points of view, but certainly not 
from the point of view of accuracy in follow- 
ing the spellings of the books to which he 

I regret to say that I am far away from 
books ; but some advance might be made if 
your readers would try to solve the question, 
What is the earliest example of the spelling 
rhyme ? I am confident that it is not so old 
as 1550 ; and I have no doubt that any 
quotations for it earlier than 1600 would be 

10 s. vi. AUG. 4, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


valuable for dictionary purposes. Can any 
be found ? If, so the more the better ; we 
might then obtain a date worth having. 


v. 201). Mr. Balfour has a great many 
royal descents besides that set out by MR. 
HELTON. His senior descent is as under, 
,nd is some six generations nearer the 
royal house ; and it is interesting to note 
that the blood royal comes to the Balfours 
after passing through only three families 
the St. Legers, Manners, and Cecils : 
Lady Anne Plantagenet, sister=p(2) Sir Thomas St. 

to Kings Edward IV. and I Leger. 

Richard III., 1439-1475. 

Lady Anne bt. Leger,=pSir George Manners, Lord 
1526. Ros, 1513. 

Thomas, first Earl of Rutland, K.G., 1543. 
Hon. Sir John Manners, 1611. 
Sir George Manners of Haddon, 1623. 
John, eighth Earl of Rutland, 1679. 

Lady Margaret Manners,=j=James, third Earl of 
1682. Salisbury, K.G., 1683. 

James, fourth Earl of Salisbury, 1694. 
James, fifth Earl of Salisbury, 1728. 
James, sixth Earl of Salisbury, 1780. 
James, first Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., 1823. 
James, second Marquis of Salisbury, 1868. 
Lady Blanche Cecil=pJames Maitland Balfour. 



Galway Cottage, Chertsey. 

LITERARY ALLUSIONS (10 S. vi. 29). In 
the second series of essays entitled ' Among 
my Books ' Russell Lowell devotes an article 
to Prof. Masson as biographer and editor of 
Milton. Towards the close of the discussion 
he considers the poet's personal character- 
istics, and concludes that " in no other 
JEnglish author is the man so large a part of 
his works." This he illustrates from various 
points of view, including in his survey this 
deliberate travesty of a famous passage 
near the opening of ' Paradise Lost,' book iii.: 

"If he, is blind, it is with excess of light, it is 
.a divine partiality, an overshadowing with angels' 
wings. Phineus and Teiresias are admitted among 
the prophets because they, too, had lost their sight, 

and the blindness of Homer is of more account than 
his Iliad." 


Let H. K. ST. J. S. turn for Miss Larolles 
to the first volume of Miss Burney's ' Cecilia.' 
He will not lay the novel down till he has 
finished it. W. T. 

v. 483 ; vi. 52). The house in which John 
Rennie resided from 1793 until his death in 
1821 was No. 27, Stamford Street. About 
the year 1824 Stamford Street was renum- 
bered, with the result that No. 2.7 became 
No. 52. In 1868, as a consequence of another 
renumbering of the street, the house received 
the number it now bears, No. 18 ; and it was 
on this house that the tablet in commemora- 
tion of John Rennie was erected on 27 Feb- 
ruary last. It will thus be seen that this was 
not the house in which Thomas Love Peacock 
resided in 1820 (see the L.C.C.'s ' Indication 
of Houses of Historical Interest in London/ 
part ix.). 

The house in which Sydney Smith resided 
from 1803 to 1806 was No. 14, Doughty 
Street, and a tablet was affixed to this house 
at the expense, I believe, of the Duke of 
Bedford on 7 Sept., 1905. This tablet 
does not seem to have been included in the 
' Indication of Houses,' so it may be as well 
to record in ' N. & Q.' the fact of its erection. 

ST. EDITH (10 S. vi. 29, 70). There are 
21 churches dedicated in this name : 8 in 
Lincolnshire, 3 in Warwickshire, and 10 in 
other counties ; but it is now impossible 
to say which of the three St. Ediths was 
intended in any particular dedication. See 
'Calendar of the Anglican Church Illustrated,' 
1851, p. 226. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

St. Edith's day is 16 September, and the 
23rd would be the last day of her octave. 
Her life, told at considerable length, will be 
found in the ' Acta Sanctorum.' 


The will referred to in my query is that of 
Thomas Wace, " Rector Ecclesiae de Bar- 
sham " (Suffolk), who desired to be buried 
in the chancel of that church. It is dated 
the " feast of St. Edith A.D. 1450," and was 
proved in the Consistory Court at Norwich 
(Regester Aleyn, fol. 54) on 23 September, 
1450. The will itself is printed in full 
among " the Rectors " in my paper entitled 
' Some Notes on Barsham juxta Beccles ' 
in The Genealogist for July, and will shortly 
be on sale in pamphlet form for the benefit 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 4, im 

of the restoration fund of Barsham Church 
which was recently considerably damage( 
by lightning. 

In addition to the replies printed 
* N. & Q.' many have been sent to me direct 
and to all the writers I return thanks. 

It would be interesting to know if Wac 
was a Wiltshire man; the name is uncommon 
He was rector of Barsham from 1424 to 1450 

(Mrs.) F. H. SUCKLING. 
Highwood, Romsey, Hampshire. 


(10 S. vi. 29, 57, 73.) MR. SWYNNERTOIS 
will find both the words and the tune o 
this song in ' The Song Book ' (" Golden 
Treasury Series "), edited by John Hullah 
1892, p. 105, song Ixxx. Should MR 
SWYNNERTON not be able to refer to thi 
book, or to get the song from one of the 
music shops, I will send him a copy of the 
words and tune, if he will send me his address 

Inner Temple. 

The version that I learned from our 
nursemaid in North - West Lincolnshire 
c. 1840, was 
O dear, what can the matter be ? 

(Thrice, with varieties of intonation) 
Johnny's so long at the fair. 
He promised to buy me, he promised to buy me, 
He promised to buy me a bunch of blue ribbons 

To tie up my bonny brown hair. 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

[MR. C. HALL CROUCH also thanked for reply.] 

LITERARY PASTIMES (10 S. vi. 28, 75) 

The line wanted by MR. BRESLAR is pre- 
sumably this : 
Te tero, Roma, manu nuda. Date tela, latete 

iV.i::t7:te).- ma - ma - nu - nu ' da - da - te - te 

The " Latin couplet " quoted at the 
beginning is indeed, in the form there given 
a highly singular curiosity. The line 
Otto tenet mulum ; madidam mappam tenet Anna, 
is an example of a dactylic hexameter that 
i be read in both directions both literally 
d verbally. It is sometimes written as 
)tto tenet mappam madidam mappam tenet Otto 
i which case the reverse reading yields 
exactly the same result as the forward 

T p give samples of the various kinds of 
Latin verses elaborated by perverse in 
genuity would take up an enLSTSSo^ 
of room, but a few references may be of use 

%? ?Pi ^ eS ''i X - Uj J ' S -^er's 
I'oetice, n. 30 ; Reusner's 

graphia ' (second ed., Frankfort, 1602), 
Part II. pp. 172 sqq. ; Lucian M tiller's 
' De Re Metrica.' See also Burton's- 
' Anatomy of Melancholy,' II. ii. iv., not 
far from the end : " Palindroma Epigram- 
raata....have in like sort done" (vol. iL 
Shilleto's ed., p. 112). 

Hotel Wiltcher, Brussels. 

(10 S. iv. 9, 132, 238, 496 ; v. 54, 96, 177 ; 
vi. 78). I should like to add to my reply 
at the last reference that a black-and-white 
reproduction (oblong, not oval) of the 
game of cricket near White Conduit House 
in 1787 will be found facing p. 52 of ' Annals 
of Cricket by W. W. Read (Sampson Low 
& Co., 1896). This half-crown book has- 
many illustrations, which should be studied 
by all interested in the history and develop- 
ment of the game. Very little of the repro- 
duction of the portion of a screen showing- 
matches played by the Hambledon Club is 
legible. The screen is, or was in 1896, in 
the possession of Capt. Dacres Butler, of 
Bury Lodge, Hambledon (p. 42). 


TADPOLE (10 S. vi. 29, 77)." Kail-ladle " 
is a name given to the tadpole by children 
in some parts of Scotland. Manifestly 
suggested by the shape of the creature, this 
appellation is not inappropriate, and it is 
quite intelligible. In the latest edition of 
Jamieson's ' Scottish Dictionary ' " laidlick " 
is entered as the equivalent term used 
in Banff shire. If " paddy - leddle " were 
3hanged into the form " pade " or " paddock 
adle," its family features would be revealed. 
In its actual dress it seems to be somewhat 
disguised. THOMAS BAYNE. 

BURNEY FAMILY (10 S. v. 510 ; vi. 56). 
!f J. A. N. will send his address to me at 
iluenore, Clarence Grove, Weston-super- 
Mare, where I am staying, and inform me 
vhv he wants the information, I will 
endeavour to give the best in my power. 

PLEDGE IN A BUMPER (10 S. vi. 7). DR. 
MURRAY'S query is of great interest to me. 
.n old times and, I believe, even in the 
)resent the practice was, or is, on the 
oast of " The Visitors " being proposed, as 
ollows. Each gentleman, as the "loving; 
up" was passed round, stood up, and,, 
aking a sip, passed the cup to the gentle- 
man on his left, while the gentleman on his 
ight also stood up, to guard against the 
hance that some treacherous assassin or 

10 s. vi. AUG. 4, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

enemy might, while his^f neighbour was 
engaged, plunge a dagger into his back. 

I used, many years ago, to get cards for 
many City and other dinners, and have 
witnessed and of course obeyed the 

National Liberal Club. 

(10 S. v. 349, 391, 473 ; vi. 37). In con- 
firmation of the reply by K. P. D. E. I send 
the following extract from Geikie's 'Life of 
Sir R. Murchison ' (i. 215) : 

" In the French revolution of 1848, when Louis 
Philippe fled from Par-is and was hid in a cottage 
on the south bank of the Seine, opposite to Havre, 
Featherstonhaugh, then British consul at Havre, 
managed to get the family of ' Mr. Smith ' over by 
night, and popped them into a British steam 
packet. Even in this act the consul was the geo- 
logist, for he passed off the ex-king as his uncle 
William Smith, the father of English geology." 


Messrs. Banks and Turner's ' Guide to 
Seaford,' published about 1882, has on p. 42 
the following : 

" Louis Philippe, King of the French, landed and 
stayed here [ISewhaven] on his abdication of the 
throne in 1848. His Majesty took rooms at the 
* Bridge ' Hotel, the principal inn in the town. It 
is said the king was amused at finding the name of 
the landlady the very English one of ' Smith ' 
was the same he had adopted pro tern." 

This paragraph appears in all the succeeding 
editions I have. 

' The Grey Guide ' to Seaford and New- 
haven, 1896, p. 99, says the king landed from 
a fishing smack. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

" PLACE " (10 S. v. 267, 316, 333, 353, 371, 
412, 435, 475). A combination which, I 
think, has not been noted in this discussion, 
seems to be worth recording. The extract 
which follows, copied from the 1713 edition 
of Wycherley's ' Works,' p. 148, occurs in 
Act II. sc. i. of ' The Country Wife ' : 

Mr*. Pinchirife. Indeed be not angry with her 
Bud, she will tell me nothing of the Town, though 
I ask her a thousand times a day. 

Pinchirife. Then you are very inquisitive to know, 
I find. 

Mr*. Pinchirife. Not I indeed, Dear, I hate 
London ; our Placehouse in the Country is worth a 
thousand of 't, wou'd I were there again." 

Boston, U.S.A. 

For a seventeenth-century instance see 
Chancery Proceedings (Record Office) before 
17 14, Hamilton, 392-23, ZinzanaZ's Alexander 
v. Zinzan al's Alexander (November, 1677). 
The defendant alludes to a grant by Sir 
Peter Vanlore the younger, in May, 14 Chas.L, 

of copyhold lands, &c., called " the Place,"" 
in the tithing of Calcott (parish of Tilehurst,. 
Berks). F. S. SNELL. 

MACAULAY ON THE THAMES (10 S. v.f489 ^. 
vi. 16). Many thanks to Mr. J. A. J.. 
JERROLD. One more example how carelessly 
writers will quote, or printers print, or proof- 
correctors correct ! The quotation as I gave 
it, puzzled but believing, is on p. 287 of 
H. Craik's ' English Prose Selections,' vol. v. 
(Nineteenth Century). Now I hope some 
will find interest in the following parallel : 

" that beautiful valley, through which the 

Thames, not yet defiled by the precincts of a great 
capital, nor rising and falling with the flow and ebb 
of the sea, rolls tinder woods of beech round the 
gentle hills of Berkshire." Macaulay, 'Hist, of 
England,' chap. ix. (about two-thirds of the way 
through), 1848. 

"In one of those beautiful valleys, through which 
the Thames (not yet polluted by the tide, the 
scouring of cities, or even the minor defilement of 
the sandy streams of Surrey) rolls a clear flood 
through flowery meadows, under the shade of old 
beech woods and the smooth mossy greensward of 

the chalk hills "Peacock, 'Crotchet Castle, 5 

chap. i. (init.), 1831. 

H. K. ST. J. S. 

GIBBON, CH. LVI. NOTE 81 : 'Aerr/ooTreAe/cvs 
(10 S. iv. 167, 272, 370). At the last refer- 
ence M. GENNADIUS gives (p. 372) a quota- 
tion from the writings of Marbodus, and 
mentions " a quaint old French version " 
of the poems as appearing in Migne's ' Patro- 
logia.' Presumably it is that which is given 
in ' Venerabilis Hildeberti .... Opera .... 
Accesserunt Marbodi Redonensis Episcopi,, 
ipsius Hildeberti supparis Opuscula,' edited 
by Antoine Beaugendre, Paris, 1708. The- 
French version of 'De Ceraunio ' is as follows:: 

Ceraunus est mult bele piere. 

Si chet o fuildre mult est chere. 

Ki chastement la portera, 

La fuildre mal ne li fera. 

U est ne perira maisun 

De fuildre ne desturbuilun. 

Batailles veint en plait est bone. 

Bons sunges bels esues done. 

Dous culurs a mais ke un poie. 

Teint ac ? stal eteint ablpe. 

En Germanic la prent loin. 

Laltre resemble papirun. 

Ne fou ne flame ele ne orient. 

Cette piere de spanie vient. 

28, col. 1662. 

It appears to be a free translation of parts 
of the Latin. The French versions of these- 
poems ' De Gemmis ' are spoken of in the- 
prefatory matter (cols. 1635-6) as specimens- 
of the French idiom of the eleventh or twelfth 
century. Perhaps some one will give a- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 4, uoe. 

literal translation into English or modern 
French, and explain some of the words 
"*' desturbuilun," " veint en plait," " esues,' 

According to the edition of Marbodus 
from which I am quoting, the lines following 
the fifth line of the Latin poem (i.e., after 
"*' fulmine tactos ") are : 

Iste lapis tantum reperiri posse putatur ; 

Unde Ceraunius est grseco sermone vocatus : 

.and then as given by M. GENNADIUS, except 
that " ferictur " should, of course, be 

The following lines complete the poem 
.i.e., after " assuerit lapis ille " : 
Sed neque navigio per flumen vel mare vectus, 
Turbine mergetur, vel fulmine percutietur. 
Ad causas etiam vincendaque prcelia prodest, 
Et dulces somnos, et dulcia somnia prsestat. 
Huic binfe dantur species, totidemque colores. 
Crystallo similem Germania mittere fertur, 
Caeruleo tamen infectum, rutiloque colore. 
Mittit et Hispanus, regione manens Lusitana, 
Flammas spernentem, similemque colore Pyropo. 
Marbodus, Marbodaeus, or Marboldus 
flourished, according to the reckoning of 
'Trithemius, 1060 (see above-mentioned pre- 
fatory matter). ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

"ANSER, APIS, VITTJLUS," &c. (9 S. xii 
506). A correspondent asked for the source 
of a Latin line to be found in Howell's 
* Letters ' (ii. 2) : 

Anser, apis, vitulus, populos et regna gubernant. 

In ' Aenigmatographia siue Sylloge ynig- 
matum et Griphorum Conuiuialium, ex 
varns Auctoribus collectorum,' second ed. 
by Nicholas Reusner (Frankfort, 1602), on 
TM- 237-48 is a series of ' ^nigmata ' by 
Hadrianus Junius. No. xxx. (' Syngra- 
phum ), ten lines in length, begins 
Anser, apis, vitulis [*], rerum potiuntur, et orbis. 
I have no copy of Hadrianus Junius's poems 
to which to refer. 

The line by itself has rather the appear- 
ance of a mediaeval proverb. 


u LUMPKIN " dO S. vi. 7). In 
a heavy, awkward person is called a 
Lmmucken " "Lubber," says Prof. Skeat, 
is allied to "lump," Middle English lompe, 
umpe,& block, stump, or piece 'hewn off a 
og. Lob, "lubber," "looby," " lob- 

d?,n ' -T? termS f contem Pt ior heavy, 
dull-minded persons ; and Shakespeare his 

aaal^i #,< ^."iSssS:- 

amg us of Gray's " Lubberkin "' ? 
Lammacken " is also applied to a fall \ 

" 'A cum lummaken down stairs from top 
to bottom " (Edward Moor, ' Suffolk Words 
and Phrases,' 1823). 

This would of course in no way invalidate 
W. C. B.'s conjecture that Goldsmith's 
Tony Lumpkin was suggested by an Anthony 
Lumpkin in the flesh at Scarborough. 


For notes on several Tony and other 
Lumpkins, Lumkins, and Lumkings see 
8 S. iv. 388, 515 ; and cf. 4 S. ii. 274 ; 5 S. 
ix. 286, 415 ; x. 17, 38. 


[MR. A. F. ROBBINS also refers to Anthony 
Lumpkins at 4 S. ii. 274 ; 5 S. x. 17.] 

289, 355, 437). At the first reference I 
pointed out that none of Sander's bishops- 
nominate was in point of fact such at Queen 
Mary's death, except Maurice Clenock ; and 
that is so. However, by the time Sander 
wrote his report it had been suggested to 
the Holy See to translate Nicholas Heath, 
Archbishop of York, to Canterbury ; Thos. 
Watson, Bishop of Lincoln, to York ; and 
Cuthbert Scott, Bishop of Chester, to Dur- 
ham ; and to make John Boxall Bishop of 
Winchester, Gilbert Burnford Bishop of 
Lichfield, and William Taylor Bishop of 
Carlisle (Phillips, ' Extinction of the Ancient 
Hierarchy,' pp. 229-30). Now the last two 
names occur in Sander's list of bishops- 
nominate. That makes it look at first sight 
as though John Danister was John Boxall ; 
but John Boxall never managed to escape 
to Louvain, and was in the Tower when 
Sander wrote. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

DEVON PROVINCIALISMS (10 S. v. 490 ; vi. 
33). May I add yet another explanation of 
Pillum ? Many years ago, at Exeter Assizes, 
a witness had been describing something 
that had happened on the high road, and, 
being pressed for further details, replied, 
" I couldn' see no more 'n what I 've a said, 
because the pillum did vlee so." " Pillum ? " 
exclaimed his lordship to the examining 
counsel ; " why, what is pillum ?" " Really, 
my lord, I don't know." Then to the 
witness : " Tell his lordship what you mean 
by pillum." Now few things are more 
juzzling to a son of the soil than to be 
)idden to give a description or definition of 
some very common object. The witness 
reddened, and hummed and ha-a-ed. " Come, 
come," urged the counsel ; " tell his lordship 
what pillum is." " Oh Lard, m' Lard. 
Why, every one do knaw what pillum is." 
' But, my good man," his lordship said, 

10 s. vi. AUG. 4, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


41 1 don't know what pillum is, and I must 
-ask you to explain to me." At last, after 
much botheration, the witness, as one 
fairly at bay, gasped out : " Look'ee here, 
m' Lard. Sir, you do know what muck is, 
don't 'ee ? " " Yes, his lordship replied ; 
'"" I think I know what muck is." " Well, 
then," jerked out the witness, much relieved, 
" when muck do drowy, that there 's 
pillum.'" LOBUC. 

ENGLISH SPELLING (10 S. v. 148, 198, 
232). I am unable to find the book men- 
tioned at the last reference under J. M. D. 
Meiklejohn's name in any catalogue. But I 
find ' The Spelling List, being 10,000 Difficult 
Words, with an Introduction by J. M. D. 
Meiklejohn,' 1889. The Introduction is 
delightfully scholarly and amusing, and the 
writer seems to say reform is hopeless, and 
.indeed it is, being against the interest of 
those who teach, and more especially of 
those who print. Both would have to take 
.great trouble at loss of pecuniary profit. 


" MOTHER, or DEAD DOGS " (10 S. v. 509 ; 
^vi. 32). Surely the antithesis to this phrase, 
If not exactly the converse, which MR. 
JDuNCAN is looking for, is Macaulay's 

Oh, Tiber ! father Tiber ! 

To whom the Romans pray, 

A Roman's life, a Roman's arms, 

Take thou in charge this day. 

Or, if our beautiful Thames needs any 
defence against the pessimist, there is 

Oh ! could I flow like thee, and make thy stream 
My great example, as it is my theme. 


"POUR" (10 S. v. 261, 329, 392, 435). 
H. K. ST. J. S. at 10 S. v. 331 asks rimes for 
jour. I may quote : 

The sable score of fingers .four 
Remained on that beam impressed. 

Scott, ' The Eve of St. John.' 
J. G. HANDS, Librarian. 
Public Library, Victoria, B.C. 

CATTE STREET (10 S. vi. 49). The name 
'Cattegat should be deleted from the list 
given by MR. LOFTIE. It does not mean 
the " narrow way," but rather the " ship 
passage." Kati is an Old Norse word for 
a kind of small boat or ship. In mediaeval 
Latin it appears as catta (see Du Cange), 
and in English as catt (see the ' N.E.D.'). 

The word may come from cut, which is 
'" a genuine Celtic word " (Skeat, ' Ety- 
anological Diet.'). 

The word cutty is used in Wiltshire for a 
wren, and probably comes from the Welsh 
cwtan, cwta, " short, bob tailed." 

Prof. Rhys alludes to the " cutty black 
sow " as still used in Wales to frighten 
children, and he translates the Welsh verse 
repeated when running away from the 
November bonfires thus : " May the black 
sow without a tail seize the hindmost ! " 
He also translates y Gota, " the cutty one," 
as a woman who can become a hare and run 
away (Rhys, ' Celtic Folk-lore '). 

J. S. M. 

470). May not this proverb have been 
adapted from Ecclesiasticus xl. 32 ? It 
reads in the Vulgate : "In ore imprudentis 
condulcabitur inopia, et in ventre ejus ignis 

The same idea is expressed in Revelation 
x. 9 : " Accipe librum et devore ilium ; et 
faciet amaricari ventrem tuum, sed in ore 
tuo erit dulce tanquam mel." 


409, 455). Canbury House appears on ' A 
Survey of London, made in the Year 1745,' 
reprinted some years ago by Mason & Payne, 
map publishers, 41, Cornhill (perhaps now 
represented by William Henry Payne & Co., 
35, Walbrook, E.C.). Its situation appears 
to be represented now by Canonbury Place, 
Canonbury Park, and Alwyne Square. 

On the aforesaid map the spelling is 

JOHN HOY (10 S. vi. 9). Serle's Coffee- 
House stood at the corner of Serle and 
Portugal Streets, Lincoln's Inn Fields. It 
was probably a resort of Addison, for in 
Spectator No. 49 he says : 

' I do not know that I meet in any of my walks 
objects which move both my spleen and my laughter 
so effectually as those young fellows, at the Grecian, 
Squire's, and Serle's, and all other Coffee-houses 
adjacent to the law, who rise early for no other 
purpose but to publish their laziness." 

Serle's was also a resort of Mark Akenside, 
the poet. Dyce printed a letter from Aken- 
side, addressed " Mr. Dyson, at Serle's 
Coffee-House, Lincoln's Inn." This was 
Jeremiah Dyson, the poet's friend and patron 
(Wheatley's ' Cunningham '). 

The old-fashioned door-posts of Serle's 
were preserved in the stationer's shop on 
the site of the coffee-house in 1885. 

The second edition of ' Barnaby's Journal,' 
1716, was printed for S. Illidge, under Searle's 
Gate, Lincoln's Inn, New Square. 



Serle died in 1690, intestate, much in 
debt, and his lands heavily mortgaged. 
" The arms of Serle with those of the Inn 
are over the gateway of Lincoln's Inn in 
Carey Street " (Wheatley). Carey Street 
still exists, being out of the way of both the 
Courts of Justice and the Kingsway improve- 
ments. But I could find no remnant, a 
few years ago, either of Serle's Coffee-House 
or the stationer's door-post. 


If TIVEBTON will send his address to me, 
some particulars of the Hoy family shall be 
sent to him direct, they being too long for 
insertion in ' N. & Q.' E. C. DAVEY. 

Athenaeum, Bath. 

FLAGS (10 S. v. 469 ; vi. 12). The book 
referred to, though full of information of 
great interest, must be consulted with the 
caution that is necessary for all the numerous 
publications I have seen on flags. For 
example, the Union flag (fig. 97) is inaccurate, 
and so are many of the others. This is no 
doubt due to the difficulty of getting the 
colours in their proper places. I think a 
simple black-and-white line of the flags, 
with the colour written on the portion it 
should be on, should be given. The official 
dimensions of the flags should always be 
stated. Notwithstanding all that has been 
written about our national flag of late years, 
I doubt if one Englishman in a hundred 
could tell when the various flags we have 
are rightly displayed or when they are upside 
down. RALPH ' THOMAS. 

"DIGNITY OF MAN" (10 S. vi. 9). 
W. M. T. may find a hint as to the use of 
this expression in 'Paradise Lost,' iv. 618-19: 
Man hath his daily work of body or mind 
Appointed, which declares his dignity, 
in distinction from the brutes, who 

All day long 
Rove idle, unemployed. 

C. W. B. 

STONE (10 S. v. 168, 213, 272). I take the 
following from the eleventh edition of 
4 Illustrations of Masonry,' by William 
Preston (London, G. Wilkie, 1804) : 

; In M573 the foundation stone* of this mag- 
nificent cathedral designed by deputy Wren, was 
Uud in BolemD form by the King, attended by Grand 
Master Rivers, his architects and craftsmen, in the 

"* The mallet with which the King levelled this 
foundation stone was delivered by Sir Christopher 
VV ren to the old Lodge of St. Paul, now the Lodge 
of Antiquity, where it is still preserved as a great 

presence of the nobility and gentry, the Lord Mayor 
and aldermen, the bishops and clergy, &c. During 
the whole time this structure was building, Mr. 
Wren acted as master of the work and surveyor,, 
and was ably assisted by his wardens, Mr. Edward 

Strong and his son Divine service was performed 

in the choir of this cathedral for the first time on 
the thanksgiving day for the peace of Ryswick^. 
Dec. 2, 1697 ; the last stone on the top of the lantern 
was laid by Mr. Christopher Wren, the son of the- 
architect, in 1710." 

Any one interested in this subject will 
find a splendid description of St. Paul's- 
Cathedral in the work above mentioned 
and in " Sir Christopher Wren and his Times^ 
with Sketches and Anecdotes of the Most 
Distinguished Personages in the Seventeenth. 
Century. With Portrait of Wren. 1852. 
By J. Elmes." 

Baltimore House, Bradford. 

vi. 46). I should like to amplify MR.. 
PLATT'S note on this. His remarks as to- 
the Zulu hai'kona are correct, except that 
the native pronunciation in the last twenty 
years has dropped the aspirate, which for- 
merly was very audible. In the corrupt 
" kitchen-Zulu " which is current among 
white folk throughout South Africa, and 
which should more properly be called 
" pigeon-Zulu," ikona is used vulgarly as a 
negation. A " boy " asks for work ; the- 
reply is ikona sabenza (no work) ; or an 
appeal is made for money, with the answer 
ikona mali (no money). Should you tell 
your house-boy to cook you some potatoes,, 
and he finds that there are none left, he will 
tell you in pigeon-Zulu amazambaan ikona. 
It will therefore be seen that the Anglo-Zulu 
colloquial use of the word is generally that of 
a simple negative. FRANK SCHLOESSER. 

15, Grosvenor Road, Westminster. 

Most people who have visited South Africa 
know that this corrupted word is used there- 
in the sense of " I don't know." MR. PLATT 
considers it is derived from the Zulu hai'kona, 
i.e., " not a bit of it." But in Gibb's ' Zulu 
Vocabulary and Phrase Book' (1897), a 
copy of which I procured in Zululand a few 
years ago, the native word representing 
" not a bit of it " is given as imihlola, whilst 
" Not it ! Don't you wish it ! " is interpreted; 
pinda. HARRY HEMS. 

WATLING STREET (10 S. vi. 29). The- 
author's name of ' The Twelve Churches *" 
is not given on the title-page, but the work 
is stated to be by the author of ' The Red! 
Rose.' There is a copy in the British Museum* 

ID s. vi. AUG. 4, 1906.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


HALF-MARRIED (10 S. vi. 28). The rubric 
.runs thus : " The man shall give unto the 
woman a ring leaving the same upon the book 
with the accustomed duty to the priest and 
clerk." It is clear to my mind that the man 
did not pay the fee, and so the priest would 
not proceed further. I believe that " but 
one half " of the fee signifies the fee for the 
publication of the banns of marriage. So 
many dirty tricks even now are played, 
that I regret that this rubic is not observed. 
In one parish I know, people, when request- 
ing their banns to be published, had to pay 
the marriage fees, as so many defrauded the 
vicar, who used (for he is dead now) to 
return the fees if the marriage did not 
take place, deducting the fee for banns. I 
have always maintained that a fee for 
certificate of publication of banns is illegal ; 
I cannot find any book of church law which 
legalizes it. The fee for the certificate of 
the publication of banns at a superintendent 
registrar's office is, I am told, Is. Surely 
the clergy should not charge more than that, 
unless it can be proved that a fee for certifi- 
cate of publication of banns in our parish 
churches is legal. M.A.OxoN. 

" ROSE OF JERICHO " (10 S. v. 229, 272, 
430, 515). In 'The British Herbal,' by 

.John Hill, M.D., 1756, p. 272, the rose of 
Jericho is described as the " Thlaspi fruti- 
cosum parvum floribus albo virentibus," 

.and a note states that Caspar Bauhin calls 
it " Thlaspi rosa Hierachuntea vulgo dicta," 

-others " Rosa Hierachontea." It is figured 
on plate 39. The author says : 

"It is a native of the East, and flowers in July. 
After this the leaves fall off, and the stalks bend 
inwards till their tops meet ; and the whole plant 
then forms a round lump of the bigness of a man's 
fist, and of a woody substance. In this state it is 
brought over frequently as a curiosity, and, if laid 
into a basin of warm water, it will expand the 
branches, and spread itself out as it grew at first." 
-P. 272. 

James Donn in his ' Hortus Cantabrigi- 
ensis,' 1809, p. 154, gives the rose of Jericho 
.as Anastatica hierochuntica, its native soil 
. as the Levant, and the year of its first culti- 
vation as 1658. This is followed by Loudon 
(' Hortus Britannicus,' 1830, p. 260), but he 
; spells the specific name hierochuntina, and 
; states that it was introduced from the Levant 
in 1597. On the other hand, the ' Encyclo- 
paedia of Gardening,' by T. W. Sanders 
1895, p. 356, gives the generic name of the 
Resurrection plant as Selaginella, its year 
of introduction as 1860, while the Levant 
is not named as one of its native soils. 

The rose of Jericho, or rose of the Virgin, 
ranked among old botanists as a Thlaspi, 
Linnseus rechristening the genus Anastatica. 
There are two species of the genus distin- 
guished by Linnaeus Anastatica hiero- 
chuntina and Anastatica syriaca. 

If for no other reason, the real rose of 
Jericho (A. h.) is interesting for its folk-lore. 
It is said that this cruciferous annual herb 
first bloomed at the Nativity, and that it 
remains in flower from Christmas till Easter. 
Others say that it sprang up wherever the 
Virgin Mary alighted during the journey to 
Egypt (see Johnson's 'Universal Cyclopaedia,' 
vol. vii. p. 185, and ' Encyclopaedic Dic- 
tionary,' sub 'Anastatica'). 

In Egypt it was (and perhaps is) believed 
that if the plant ,was " put in holy water 
and placed in the chamber of a parturient 
woman, the labour would advance as the 
rose expanded, and a successful event be 
ensured " (Gent. Mag., vol. Ixi. pt. i. p. 203). 

For further information I would refer 
your correspondent to The Gentleman's 
Magazine, vol. Ixi. pt. i. pp. 25, 104, 132, and 
202, particularly the last reference, where an 
interesting history of the plant is given, with 
quotations from seventeenth-century writers. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

v. 329). I think the Welds of Willey are 
represented in blood by the Wolryche- 
Whitmores of Dudmaston Hall. Sir John 
Weld the younger, of Willey, Kt., had with 
other issue (whose descendants, if any, I 
cannot trace) a son George Weld, and a 
daughter Ann; the latter married Richard 
Whitmore, of Slaughter, co. Gloucester, Esq. 

George Weld, of Willey, was Deputy- 
Lieutenant of the Tower of London 15 
Charles II., and died 14 Sept., 1701 ; will 
proved P.C.C. 2 June, 1702 ; he married 
(supplement dated 1 Oct., 1670) Mary, 
daughter of Sir Peter Pyndar, of Edenshaw, 
Bart., and had issue five sons and three 
daughters. Of these only two appear to 
have married, viz., Elizabeth, who married 
Sir Thomas Wolryche, of Dudmaston, Kt. 
and Bart., and George Weld, whose daugh- 
ter and heiress Elizabeth married Brook 
Forester, Esq. But there was a third son, 
Thomas Weld, a lieutenant-colonel in the 
army, who succeeded to the Dudmaston 
estate on the death of his sister Lady 
Wolryche in 1765, and who died without 
issue in 1774. 

On Col. Thomas Weld's death the Dud- 
maston estate passed to William Whitmore, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 4, woe. 

a great-grandson of Richard Whitmore and 
Ann Weld (named above). He died in 
1816, having had fourteen children, many 
of whom left issue (see Burke's ' Landed 
Gentry '). It would seem that the de- 
scendants of this William Whitmore now 
represent the Welds in blood. The Foresters 
possess the Willey estates under the will of 
George Forester, of Willey, who died in 1811, 
but they are not lineally descended from 
the Welds of Willey. 

I have copies of the original pedigrees at 
Willey, and numerous abstracts ot wills, 
settlements, monumental inscriptions, register 
extracts, &c., of the Welds, and shall be glad 
to give your correspondent B. W. any further 


Oxon Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 


The Three Addition* to Daniel. By W. H. Daub- 

ney, B.D. (Cambridge, Deighton, Bell & Co.) 
MR. DAUBNEY'S volume of annotations on the 
supplementary portions of the Book of Daniel 
found only in the Greek version is one more evi- 
dence of the marked revival of interest in the 
study of the Apocrypha which has arisen in recent 
years. These are the Son 
Children (often called the 
of Susannah (quoted as Scrpu 
tullian, and Origen), and Bel and the Dragon. 
Mi. Daubney's notes, which are both philological 
and exegetical, show reading and industry, and 
In- gathers his cues from all quarters. Curiously 
enough, in referring to Daniel as playing the role of 
judge in the Susannah episode, he overlooks the 
Shakespearian allusion "A Daniel come to judg- 
ment!' ('Merchant of Venice,' IV. i.). He does 

not seem to be aware of the ingenious explanation 
that has been given of the "iron comb," which 
Daniel inserted in the deadly bolus that he ad- 

ministered to the Dragon. It is a mere misunder- 
standing of a detail in the mythological encounter 
between Bel and Tiamat. Indeed, this Haggadah 
is susceptible of much more illustration from Baby- 
lonian sources than the writer attempts to furnish. 
I here is a wrong reference given for the passage 
from Tertullian quoted on p. 8. For 'De Cult. 
F'i-ni..'i. 13, read ' De Habitu Muliebri,' cap. iii. 
In the same passage pertinent is a misprint for 
pertvwt. An index of subjects, in addition to that 
(it names, is to be desired. 

A /irotriiiin/TM.*,,*' Hook. Selected and arranged 

by Aim- M. \\ arlmrton. (Bell & Sons.) 
'I'll is elegant little volume, beautifully printed and 
rubricated, contains a capital selection of thoughts 
from Browning. By special arrangement with 
Mem. Smith & Elder, the copyright works are 
laid under contribution. It is with only a faint 
.su-estion of malice we ask, Where are the other 
eleven volumes? 

The Pocket Dickens. By Alfred H. Hyatt. (Chatto> 

& Windus.) 

To the beautiful and dainty pocket volumes of 
Messrs. Chatto & Windus has been added a ' Pocket 
Dickens,' which forms one of the best of a pleasant 

Harold?* Town and its Vicinity. (Homeland Asso- 

IN the " Homeland Handbooks" appears a volume- 
dealing with Harold's Town, Waltham, Ches- 
hunt, and High Beech. It is an excellent guide to, 
an attractive district, including portions of Epping. 
Forest, together with its fringe. 

Kiiit/'* Lynn with its Surroundings. By W. A.. 

Dutt. (King's Lynn, Thew & Son ; London,, 

Homeland Association. ) 

THE Homeland Association has also published, 
a useful and well-written handbook to King's Lynn,, 
including an Ordnance map and other customary 
accompaniments of the sensible guides issued by: 
the Association. 

Summer Holidays. By Percy Lindley. (30, Fleet 


THIS familiar annual for such it has become 
appears in a marvellously attractive guise, with 
beautiful coloured illustrations. A more attractive 
guide to the Eastern Counties can scarcely be 
expected or desired. 

The Hampstead Garner. Compiled by A. M. C_ 

(Elliot Stock.) 

WITH a preface by Mr. Clement Shorter we have a 
series of poetic extracts written by those sometime 
resident at Hampstead. These include Shelley,. 
Keats, Steele, Blake, Rogers, Mrs. Barbauld, 
Joanna Baillie, Leigh Hunt, Crabbe, Johnson, and 
many others. Not particularly appropriate to the 
days they are supposed to illustrate are the extracts,. 
but they are readable for their own sake. 

Lyra Britannica : a Book of Verse for Schools,. 

Selected and arranged by Ernest Pertwee. 2 vols.. 

(Routledge & Sons.) 

THIS book answers its purpose, and constitutes a 
satisfactory "speaker" for the use of schools and 
students. It is, indeed, a popular anthology. The 
one thing that puzzles us about it is the division 
into elementary and advanced. What, for instance,, 
can be the sense of including as elementary Mrs. 
Browning's "What was he doing, the great God 
Pan?" and as advanced Thackeray's "In tattered 
old^ slippers that toast at the bars," or Garrick's- 
" Ye Warwickshire lads and ye lasses " ? 

English History in Verse. Edited by Ernest 

Pertwee. (Routledge & Sons.) 
THIS book also is intended for the young, and is a 
fine collection of poems illustrating English history. 
The selection is excellent, though we should like a 
patriotic poem or two of W. E. Henley. 

MR. G. S. LA YARD writes from Bull's Cliff, Felix- 
stowe : " Having been commissioned to write the 
life of Shirley Brooks, will you allow me to ask 
through your columns for letters, reminiscences, 
and any other information which may help to make 
the book as complete as possible ? I need hardly 
say that the greatest care will be taken of any 
documents or pictures placed at my disposal." 

10 s. vi. AUG. 4, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


IT is not the fault of Mr. Thomas Baker if 
students of divinity are not well supplied. On 
21 July we noticed Catalogue 496, and to-day we 
have K"o. 497. Among the items we note the Works 
of Thomas Aquinas, 34 vols., 4to, half-calf, 1871, 
137. 1,3*. ; 'The Jewish Encyclopedia,' 12 vols., 
ll/. 11*. ; ' Chrysostomi Opera Omnia,' 1718, 
13 vols., folio, calf, 47. 4*.; 'Richard Hurrell 
Froude's Remains,' Rivington, 1838, 4 vols., 21. 15*.; 
and Neale's " Eastern Church,' 4 vols., 51. 5*. 

Mr. B. H. Blackwell, of Oxford, sends List CXI., 
containing only 600 items out of his stock of 100,000 
volumes, and principally devoted to English litera- 
ture. We find ' Johnsoniana,' 1836, 2L 2*. ; Rogers's 
' Poems ' and ' Italy,' 2 vols., purple morocco, 21. 10*. ; 
* Roxburgh Ballads,' edited by Ebsworth, 20*. ; 
' Poems on Affairs of State, Cromwell to Abdication 
of James II.,' 1699. 8*. 6<7. ; and the Waverley 
Novels, 25 vols., 1875, 21. 10*. 

Mr. Richard Cameron, of Edinburgh, has in 
Catalogue 211 Drummond's 'Ancient Scottish 
Weapons,' 1881, 35*.; Birkbeck Hill's 'Footsteps of 
Dr. Johnson in Scotland,' 30*.; Kay's 'Portraits of 
Edinburgh Characters,' 1837, 97. 10*.; an autograph 
letter of Burns, 6/. 6*.; ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
eighth edition, 30*. ; and Watson's ' Collection of 
Comic and Serious Scots Poems,' original edition, 
1713, 37. 15*. By far the larger portion of the 
catalogue relates to Scotland. Under Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and Fife collectors will find much of 
interest. Under Fine Arts is a set of plates illus- 
trating Scott ; the 13 folio volumes are to be had 
for the low price of 37. 3*. Another set of 
5 volumes, illustrating Burns, is priced 32*. 

Mr. Goad, of Bath, has in Catalogue 5 Burton's 
'Arabian Nights,' with the addition of 200 etchings 
on Japanese vellum, 17 guineas ; ' Le Morte d' Arthur,' 
with Beardsley's designs, 37. ; and ' The Vampyre : 
a Tale,' 1819, 21. A note states that copies of the 
last are rare, and that "it is difficult to know who 

wrote this work Many believe that Byron and 

Shelley had a hand in it. Polidori published it as 
if Byron had actually written it." A set of Dickens's 
Christmas Books, all first editions, 1843-8, is 57. 5*. ; 
Morley's " Men of Letters," complete set, 39 vols., 
21. 5*. ; k Ritual of the Altar,' edited by the Rev. 
Orby Shipley, 1878, 3/. ; Shelley's Works, Moxon, 
1839, 21. 2*. ; and The Yellow Bool', 13 vols, 1894-7, 
37. 7*. 6d. Mr. Goad has also a Clearance List and 
one of Bargains in Books. 

Mr. James H. Inger, of Derby, has a pair of 
mezzotints, including portraits of Beckford and 
John Wilkes, in the original frames, 1769, price 57. ; 

4to, 1877, 21. 10*. 

Mr. Alexander W. Macphail, of Edinburgh, opens 
his list with a great war picture, ' The First in the 
Trenches,' by John Hassall, an incident in the late 
South African war, size 74 in. by 47 in., 757. The 
picture was exhibited at Earl's Court, and has been 
engraved. Another item is a statuette of Napoleon 
in bronze, 47. 10*. There are several paintings, 
etchings, and autograph letters, the writers of the 
last including Dr. John Brown and Chalmers. 
Under Art are Stillman's 'Venus and Apollo in 
Painting,' 1897, 75*. ; and a water-colour by Blair of 
the Canon gate witl\ Highland regiment marching 

Holyrood, 47. 4*. A copy of the book published 
to celebrate the Tercentenary of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, containing portraits, etched by Hole, is 
28*. 6rf. ; and Keltic s ' Clans, Tartans, and Regi- 
ments of the Highlands,' 21*. There are a number 
of items under Jacobite, including tracts, historical 
apers, &c. The catalogue closes with some re- 

Messrs. W. N. Pitcher&Co., of Manchester, have 
Ainsworth's 'Lancashire Witches,' 1854, illustrated 
by Gilbert, \L 1*. ; Curtis's ' Republican Party in 
America,' 14*. ; Goode's ' Game Fishes of the United 
States,' plates by Kilbourne. 1879, 31. 3*. ; Balzac's ; 
Novels, edited by Saintsbury, 40 vols., 21. 10s. ;: 
Gilfillan's ' Poets,' 48 vols., 3/. as. ; CarLyle, 30 vols., 
half-calf, 97. 5*. ; a complete set of The Century Guild 
Hobby Hore, 7 vols., 1886-93, 31. 18*. ; Emerson,. 
12 vols., 1903, half-calf, 37. 3*. ; Green's 'Short His- 
tory,' 4 vols., half -vellum, 31. 3*. ; Kinglake's- 
'Crimea,' 8 vols., 37. 18*. ; Mather's ' Modern Paint- 
ing,' 3 vols., 47. ; the first reissue of Punch, 47. ;: 
Farmer's 'Slang Dictionary,' 7 vols., 51. ; and Steven- 
son's Works, 30 vols., half-calf, Riviere, 127. 15*. 
There is a fine tall copy of Tasso, first edition of 
Fairfax's translation, 1600, 107. 10*. Other items 
include Inman's 'Ancient Faiths,' 21. 8*. ; and Har- 
riet Martineau's ' Political Economy,' 1834, 9 vols., 
12*. The latter book, at the suggestion of the Earl 
of Durham, the Duchess of Kent read with her 
daughter the Princess Victoria. 

Mr. H. Seers has in List 75 some curious books, 
old engravings, and autograph letters. Among 

General items we note a copy of the 'Annesley 
'rial,' 1744, 8s. Qd. The plaintiff had been kid- 
napped when a boy, and sent to Delaware ; he 
escaped to Jamaica, and was sent to England by 
Admiral Vernon. His career forms the subject of 
Charles Reade's 'The Wandering Heir.' RutterV 
' Fonthill Abbey,' 1823, is 12*. M. ; ' Ballads illus- 
trating the Great Frost, 1683,' 5*. ; Timbs's ' Curiosi- 
ties of London,' 14*. ; The Illustrated London 
Standard, 4 vols., 1895-7, 37.3*. ; Langdale's 'Memoirs 
of Mrs. Fitzherbert,' 15*. ; ' Houdin, the Conjuror,' 
by Manning, 7*. 6d. ; and Low's ' English Catalogue, 
1835-63,' 14*. 6d. Under France is a collection of 
l>lates of female beauty by French artists, 21. 7s. 6d. 

Mr. A. Russell Smith's Catalogue 52 contains over 
700 items, most of which have some special interest. 
We note a rare and curious edition of Thomas 
A'Kempis, with the signatures marked at the top 
of the first leaf of each sheet, 1487, 121. An early 
specimen of Liverpool printing is 'Apollo's Cabinet,' 
1757, 3/. 15*. Bacon's ' History of Life and Death,' 
1638, is 6/. 6*. This copy contains the engraved 
title, frequently wanting in consequence of the 
portrait being sought by collectors. The first 
edition of ' Hudibras ' is 187. ; and the third edition 
of Bunyan's ' Mr. Badman,' 1696, 47. 10*. The latter 
is exceedingly rare, being the first edition with 
woodcuts. The first edition of W. Crashaw's 
' Newes from Italy of a Second Moses,' 1608, is 
Of. 6*. A note to ' Cypher Writing,' 1772, 21*., states . 
that the work is by Philip Thicknesse, and that a 
relative of the author named Blencqwe was the 
first person to hold a Government appointment as a 
decipherer. Under Elizabethan Tracts is the Went- 
worth tract, bound with another of Huguenot in- 
terest, 127. 12*. There is a valuable heraldic manu- 
script, containing 542 large coats of arms, beautifully 
coloured, of barons from the Conquest to the third 
year of James I. (circa 1610), 247. The extremely 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. A. 4, im. 

rare original edition of La Fontaine, 2 vols., 12mo, 
.a fine tall copy, 1883, is priced 127 12k Under 
London is a black-letter broadside of lobo, of. o*. 
This contains notices of nearly all the civic institu- 
tions. Ralph Agas's map, text by Overall, 18/4, is 
25* We can note only a few more. The first edition 
of Ray's ' Proverbs,' 1670, is 17. 15*. This contains 
many pro verbs omitted in subsequent editions. 
* Russian Costumes and Street Cries,' St. Petersburg, 
1825, is 37. ,3*. ; Nash's ' Hospital for Incurable 
Fooles,' Sir Francis Freeling's copy, 1600, 67. b* ; 
and Isaac Watts's ' Lives of Eminent Persons, lo8J, 
.57. 15*. The last contains some of the 'Spiritual 
Songs' in MS. The handwriting resembles that of 
Dr Watts. It will be remembered that the first 
edition of the ' Hymns,' 1707, sold at Sotheby's for 
1407 Two modern items are the original edition of 
Dickens's 'Village Coquettes,' Bentley, 1836, bound 
by Zaehnsdorf with the counterfeit reprint, 87. 15*. ; 
and 'Playing Cards from the Collection of Lady 
Charlotte Schreiber,' 3 vols., imperial folio, 479plates, 
1892-3, 7/. 7*. 

Arabian jNignts, 101. ; rvings Australia, AO../, 
11 10* ; ' The Anatomy of Melancholy,' sixth 
edition, 1652, 21. 15*.; Chetham Society, 168 vols., 
1840-1904, 247.; the first issue of the first part of 
Drayton's ' Poly-olbion,' 1612, 57. 10*.; and Poole's 
* English Parnassus,' 1677, If. 10*. Under South Sea 
Bubble is ' Het Groote Tafereel der Dwaasheid,' 
containing 81 curious copperplates caricaturing in 
a most scurrilous manner Law, Madame Law, 
.James III., the Pretender, and other projectors of 
the Mississippi scheme; also the scarce set of cari- 
cature l>layinjr cards, 1720, 21. 15*. Under Wales is 
a set of the Powys-Land Club's ' Collections,' 1868- 
1898, 187. 10*. Works on Africa include Leo's 
* Geographical Historic,' with the scarce map, 1600, 
37. 12*. W. Other items include Cobbett's Political 
Jtwixter, 1802-35, IO/.; Qentkman'* Magazine, 1731- 
1853, 121. 12*.; Payne Collier's 'English Dramatic 
Poetry,' 3 vols., 31. &s.; Hazlitt's 'Early English 
Bibliography,' 6V. 6*. ; Lady Jackson's Historical 
Memoirs, first editions, 8 vols., 1880-90, 57. 10*.; 
.and Pinkerton's 'Voyages,' 1808-14, 51. 5*. Under 
Trials are those of Admiral Gambier and Sir Home 

Popham, 1807-10, 5*. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp sends us three catalogues. 
That from his London address contains the memoir 
of Laurence Oliphant, 1891, 21*. Interest in Oli- 
phant has been revived by the announcement of 
the death of Thomas Lake Harris, who had such an 
influence over him. Soon after this memoir was 
published Harris announced that he had discovered 
the secret of immortality by the inspiration of 
"the Divine Breath." Harris died on the 23rd of 
March last, but his death has been kept secret by 
liis followers until now. Mr. Cuming Waltei-s in 
The. Athtntt'iini for July 28th describes him as " one 
of the most extraordinary mystics of modern times." 
( )t her items include Blake's New Testament prints, 
64 plates, 25*. A collection of engravings in two 
volumes, lettered "France," atlas folio, is 267. 10*. 
Book-plates from the collection of the late Julian 
Marshall include 67 of the Russell family, 47. 4* 
20 of the Harcourt, 21. 15*. ; 90 of the Smith, 4/. 15*. ; 
<S3 of the Palmer. 47. 16*. ; and John Murray and 
Alexander Macmillan, 5*. each. A set of Cambridge 
Munificentia Regia plates, 8 varieties, is 51. 5*. ; and 
43 Cambridge Inquest plates, 1628-1784, 47. 4*. 

Mr. Thorp's second catalogue, from his new pre- 
mises at Guildford, opens with the first issue of 
Laud's Prayer Book for the use of the Church in 
Scotland, 91. 9*. 'The Encyclopedia Britannica,' 
ninth (Times] edition, 1875-89, 25 vols. 4to, half- 
morocco (originally issued at 54/. ) is 67. 6*. ; Finden's 
' Portraits,' Hogarth, 1849, 3/. 15*. ; and a collection 
of rare tracts, 1603-59, 4/. 4*. 

Mr. Thorp's Reading catalogue has for those 
interested in the "Holy War "of the unstamped 
press a copy of ' The Untaxed Almanac ' published 
by Carlile in 1832, for which he was tried and found 
guilty at the Old Bailey in the January of that 
year. Other items include fresh crisp copies of the 
following sections of Lysons's ' Magna Britannica.' 
all extra - illustrated : 'Berkshire,' 1813, 21. 10*.; 
'Bedfordshire,' 1813, 31. 3*.: 'Buckingham,' 1813, 
30*.; 'Cambridge,' 1810, 21. 2*.; 'Cheshire,' 1810, 
31. 10*.; 'Cornwall,' 1814, 21. 5*.; 'Cumberland,' 
1816, I/. 16*. ; and ' Devonshire,' 1822, 21. 5*. 

36*.; Hazlitt's ' Proverbial Phrases,' only 350 copies 
printed, 1869, 16*. (one on books is given : " A 
wicked book is the wickeder, because it cannot 
repent"); Collins's ' Peerage,' 9 vols., best edition, 

1812, 31. 5*. ; and first edition of 'Maud,' 21*. 

Mr. George Winter has the ' Souvenir Album of 
Queen Victoria's Visit to the American Exhibi- 
tion in London,' 1887, 15*. ; ' American Railroad 
Scenery, Omaha to the Golden Gate,' 60 photographs, 
15*. ; Book of British Ballads,' edited by S. C. 
Hall, 1842-44, 18*. Qd. ; a volume printed for the 
Society of Pantagruelists, 1888, ' The Chronicle of 
Clemendy,' 10*. 6</. ; the first edition of ' The Storm,' 
by Defoe, 1704, I/. 1*. ; Etchings after Claude Lor- 
raine, Boydell, 1777, I/. 10*. ; Feret's ' Fulham, Old 
and New,' 18*. Qd. ; Forbes's ' Oriental Memoirs,' 

1813, 21. 15*. ; and Hamertori's 'Landscape,' I/. 8*., 
and ' The Saone,' 15*. (one of 25 special copies). 
Under French Military Achievements is D'Haudri- 
court's collection of 'Tableaux pittoresques graves 
par d'habiles Artistes,' Paris, 1807, If. 2*. 6f/. ; and 
under Napoleon III. and his Times is an extensive 
collection of tracts, Paris, Geneva, &c., 1859-73, 
21. 2*. (from the library of the late Sir William 
Fraser). Under Scotland will be found Chapbook 
Literature, Peerage Claims, and first editions of 
Scott. Under Cruikshank is Grimm's ' Stories,' 
2 vols., 47. 10*. 

Mr. D. S. Wrycroft, of St. Neots, has two short 
lists (Nos. 7 and 8) of general books at moderate 
prices. Carlyle's ' Essays,' 4 vols., 1857, may be had 
for 5*.; Sonnenschein's 'Best Books,' 6*. ; Stewart's 
' Highlanders of Scotland,' 1825, 15*. ; Clinch's 
' Bloomsbury ' and ' Marylebone,' 5*. each ; and ' The 
Theatre of God's Judgments,' by Thomas Beard, 
Cromwell's schoolmaster, 4to, calf, 1631, 15*. ; with 
other old divinity works. 

to (K0msp0ttfonts. 

T. S. M. (" Goyle, a watercourse "). The deri- 
vation of this dialect word is explained at 10 S. iii. 
475 by PKOF. SKEAT and other correspondents. 

FLORENCIO DE UHAGON. Noted ante, pp. 46, 51. 

ERRATUM. Ant,e, p. 67, col. 1, 1. 5 from foot, for 
" imp'petun' " ' 

io s. VL AUG. 4, 1906.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 




Contents .-General, including Periodicals The Near 
East, Turkey, Asia Minor Africa Egypt Arabia Persia 
and Afghanistan British India, Burma and Ceylon- 
Australia, New Zealand, &c. Supplement. 

Also a ROUGH LIST of some Second-hand Books on the 
Languages and Literature of Asia, Africa, Turkey, including 
.some Books on Biblical Literature. 

Stnt gratia on application to 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. do s. vi. A. 4, im 


THE GREAT REVOLT OF 1831. By C. Oman, M.A. 

With 2 Maps, 8vo, cloth, Ss. Qd. net. 

THE CANADIAN WAR OF 1812. By C. P. Lucas, C.B. 

8vo, cloth, with 8 Maps, 12s. Qd. net. 



and brought up to date by R. S. STUBBS, B. A. Crown 8vo, cloth, 5s. 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. n, 


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10 s. vi. AUG. 11, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 137. 

NOTES : Capt. Orindlay, 101 Shakespeare's Plays : Facts 
and Figures, 102 Magdalen College School and the 
'D.N.B.,' 104 Land lying "towards the sun" Caco- 
phony in Titles Eliana : "The Salutation and Cat" 
"Quarterstaff," 106 Fortune Playhouse L. Cox, 107. 

QUERIES : Perkin Warbeck, 107 Lord Chancellor West- 
bury Duchess of Newcastle's Allegories George Almar, 
Playwright Authors of Quotations Wanted Raleigh, 
108 Serpent bound to the Cross St. Welcome Hert- 
fordshire Lord Lieutenants James Hosking : Elizabeth 
Vinnicombe "Crosse cop' " " Mon droit"=Right Hand 
Waken 1 eld Apparition "Newgateers" Robert Dud- 
ley, the "Noble Impe "Wheel-Tracks at Naseby, 109 
Tan Hill Fair Worshipful Company of Chancellors- 
Volunteer Movement, 1798-1805 Waugh Family' Thau- 
maturgia ' Galbraith Wilberforce University, 110. 

REPLIES : Virgil, ' .Eneid,' I. 462, 110" Sunken Land 
of Bus" "Plum": Jack Homer, 111 "Plum"=Raisin 

Burney Family Strode's Regiment Pennefather : 
Origin of the Name, 112 Bullim : its Locality West's 
Picture of the Death of Wolfe Looping the Loop 
"Cymru": its Derivation " Cere Panis," 113 Anglican 
Clergyman Pincushion Sweet Scott's 'Guy Mannering' 
and ' Antiquary 'St. Peter's in Chepe : St. John Zachary 
" Mininin," a Shell Tom Thumb's First Appearance in 
London, 114 Catte Street Snakes in South Africa Sir 
Thomas More sainted by a Bask William Dyer : Rebecca 
Russell Fielding's 'Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon,' 1755 

Cherry in Place -Names "Red Lion," Henley -on - 
Thames Palm Sunday and Hill-Climbing : Church Ales, 
115 Col. Charles Godfrey Sea-Urchin " O dear, what 
can the matter be?" St. Edith, 116 Clement's Inn Sun- 
dial Death-Birds Inscription at Constance Chingford 
Church, 117 " Pearl " St. Charles Borromeo, 118. 

NOTES OX BOOKS : 'The English Hymnal' ' Relics of 
the Puritan Martyrs, 1593 ' ' Northern Notes and Queries ' 
' Home Counties Magazine ' Reviews and Magazines. 


I FIND no account of Robert Melville 
Xjrrindlay in any of the dictionaries. Lowndes, 
by Bohn, simply gives the title of the splendid 
book he published. Allibone knows nothing 
about him, nor is he in Mr. Boase's ' Modern 
English Biography.' I do not even find his 
name in such a special book as ' Men whom 
India has Known,' by J. J. Higginbotham, 
1874, or the latest work (reviewed at 10 S. 
v. 59), a ' Dictionary of Indian Biography,' 
by C. E. Buckland, 1906. Yet Grindlay 
; seems to be worthy of a place in the roll of 
those who have done some good work. He 
is remarkable for three things : First, for 
having been an accomplished artist, though 
a soldier by profession. Secondly, for having 
published a magnificent work, containing in Bombay and Ceylon, many of the 
pictures by himself giving representations 
of places, events, and things long since gone 
or altered. Thirdly, for living to the very 
respectable age of ninety-one. 

Besides this, he was founder of the London 
banking firm which still bears his name, but 
in which there has been no Grindlay since 
he retired. 

It appears from the records of the Honour- 
able East India Company, which are pre- 
served at the India Office, that he was the 
son of John and Elizabeth Grindlay, being 
Dorn 23 October, and christened at St. Mary 
Le Bone (then a village near London) on 
17 November, 1786. His father was a 
merchant in the City. The son was nomi- 
nated cadet for the H.E.I.C.S. by E. Parry, 
Esq., in 1802, and sailed for India in the 
Prince of Wales in 1803. He became 
ieutenant in 1804 ; captain Bombay Native 
Infantry, 22 December, 1817 ; and retired 
on half -pay (5s. a day) 20 December, 1820. 

On 20 July, 1821, he married Maria 
Susannah, elder daughter of John William 
"ommerell, of Hanwell Park, Middlesex, 
and Strood Park, Sussex. She died at Nice, 
and was buried there in 1862.* 

Grindlay 's knowledge of India made him 
think that an agency to help those who went 
there and those who returned would be 
useful in London. Accordingly, in the 
' Post Office Directory ' for 1831 we find his 
name as an " agent for passengers to India, 
16, Cornhill." The agency was a success, 
and the firm he founded now has a European 
and colonial in addition to its Indian repu- 

In 1838 the firm became Grindlay, 
Christian & Matthews, and in that year 
they describe themselves as " East India 
army agents." In 1844 the names are 
reduced to the shorter " Grindlay & Co.," 
though the name of Matthews has kept its 
place as one of the firm to the present day. 
There have generally been several partners. 
The common-sense, business signature of 
" Grindlay & Co." instead of the three 
names will be apparent to those who have 
to sign their names thousands of times. 

Grindlay published a most beautifully 
illustrated book, which was issued in parts. 
In every copy that I have seen the covers 
and titles to the parts hav.e been destroyed 
by the binder, according to the ancient (and 
even modern) custom. The title of this 
book is : 

"Scenery, Costumes, and Architecture, chiefly 011 
the Western side of India, by Capt. Robert Melville 
(xi-indlay, member of the Royal Asiatic Society and 
the Society of Arts. London, Ackermann, 1826-30." 
In folio, without pagination. 

He says the subjects collected in this work 
form a small part of the drawings made by 
him while in the service of the H.E.I.C., 
and that " the various appointments which 

* See ' The Genealogy of the Family of Bosanquet,' 
by Louisa Clara (Bosanquet) Meyer, 1877. Jacob 
Bosanquet was a director of the H.E.I.C. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. n, 1900, 

he successively held, afforded him peculiar 
advantages in collecting materials." 

I have lately looked at the copy at the 
British Museum, and the two copies at the 
India Office, all coloured, and looking as 
brilliant, I imagine, as when painted. The 
first illustration by Grindlay is from a 
picture he made in 1811. There are others 
by various Royal Academicians, as Daniell, 
Westall, Clarkson Stanfield, and D. Roberts. 

Allibone attributes to him " Sculptures in 
the Cave Temples of Ellora, 1830, folio." 
I have not been able to find this book 
mentioned in any catalogue, so I am rather 
puzzled to know how Allibone got his infor- 

In the present day it seems astonishing 
that it should have been necessary to move 
heaven and earth to get a regular steam- 
boat service to India. That it was, however, 
necessary to do so is shown by the following 
pamphlet, which ran through three editions 
the same year. The price was half-a-crown : 

" A View of the Present State of the Question as 
to Steam Communication with India : with a map 
and an appendix containing the petitions to Parlia- 
ment. By Capt. Melville Grindlay, East India 
army agent, and London agent to the Steam Com- 
mittees of Calcutta and Madras. Third edition. 
London, Smith, Elder & Co., 1837." With an 
octavo map of India. 

" Grindlay & Co.'s Overland Circular : 
Hints for Travellers to India. London, 
Smith, Elder & Co., 1847," is attributed to 
Capt. Grindlay in ' The English Catalogue,' 
but this is not inconsistent with the title 
of the pamphlet, which says it is " compiled 
by Grindlay & Co." An article could with- 
out difficulty be written on the vast changes 
that have taken place since its publication. 
The ' Overland Circular ' has a list of 
Grindlay & Co.'s subscribers (22 pages), 
dated 1 June, 1847 ; and on p. 5 The Home 
News for India is mentioned, though it did 
not appear until six months after ! 

There was also published a " Map of 
India, arranged under the direction of Capt. 
R. M. Grindlay by J. Wyld, 1842." Another 
edition, 1852. 

Capt. Grindlay retired (for a second time !) 
in or about 1846, when he was fifty, and 
took up his permanent residence at Nice 
for the sake of his health. I have lately seen 
a photo portrait of him when about eighty. 

A pension was given him by the firm, 
which was no doubt settled on the supposi- 
tion that he would reach the usual three 
score years and ten ; but he paid his firm 
out by living, as I have already said, to the 
great age of ninety-one. He died at Nice 
on 9 December, 1877. 


Quietly, without notice, but with the 
regret of many, this publication, which 
existed during nearly the whole of the 
momentous reign of Queen Victoria, ceased 
to appear (see 10 S. v. 71). 

On 7 January, 1847, the firm issued the 
first number of The Home News : a Summary 
of European Intelligence for India and the 
Colonies. To No. 2 the following was added : 
" with which is incorporated The London 
Mail." An admirably expressed exposition 
of the reasons for its appearing is given on 
p. 24 of the first number. 

For fifty years this weekly newspaper 
fulfilled the mission for which it was intended 
in a straightforward, honest, and business- 
like manner. The editors, of course under 
the instructions of the firm, were scrupulous 
not to exaggerate, and were non-political 
so far as possible. 

For several years it was a loss, but 
eventually paid its way. It did not cease 
on account of age, as the last number was 
better than the first, but because the objects 
for which it was started were supplied in 
other and quicker ways. In the valedictory 
address, .written with the spirit of frankness- 
which characterized this publication through- 
out its career, the subscribers were told that 
The Home News had done its work, and that 
what with ocean cables, penny postage, 
quick transit, and fresh enterprises, it was 
no longer required ; so with No. 2370, on 
30 December, 1898, it ceased. 

It is evident from their announcement in 
the first number that the firm then fulfilled 
most of the objects for which " Civil Service 
Stores " are now carried on. They supplied 
everything required for an Indian outfit,, 
which, in fact, means all that an Englishman 
requires in the general way, and more than 
that, as he does not require many things 
in England that he needs if he goes to India. 

From the announcement in the last number 
it appears that the firm now give their chief 
attention to the banking and looking after 
the comfort of their particular customers. 
They can well look back with pride on the 
straightforward way in which their paper 
was carried on for so many years. 



THE following notes are compiled from, 
the text of the Cambridge (1891-3) and. 
Globe (1900) editions. 

There are 37 plays. 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, i906.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The first play is ' The Tempest.' 

The middle play is ' The Life of King 
Henry V.' 

The last play is * Pericles.' 

All the plays have five acts. 

There are four plays with a Prologue : 
' The Life of King Henry V.,' ' The Famous 
History of the Life of King Henry VIII.,' 
' Troilus and Cressida,' and ' Romeo and 

There are two plays with an Induction : 
' The Taming of the Shrew ' and ' The 
Second Part of King Henry IV.' 

There are six plays with an Epilogue : 
'The Tempest,' 'As You Like It,' 'All's 
Well that Ends Well,' ' The Second Part of 
King Henry IV.,' 'The Life of King Henry V.,' 
and ' The Famous History of the Life of King 
Henry VIII.' 

There are four plays with a chorus : ' The 
Winter's Tale,' ' The Life of King Henry V.,' 
' Romeo and Juliet,' and ' Pericles.' 

The plays contain 106,007 lines,* 814,780 
words, 3,307,656 letters. 

The longest play is ' Hamlet, Prince of 
Denmark,' which contains 3,930 lines,* 
29,492 words, 120,050 letters. 

The shortest play is ' The Comedy of 
Errors,' which contains 1,777 lines,* 14,438 
words, 57,514 letters. 

The play having the greatest number of 
scenes is ' Antony and Cleopatra,' which 
contains 42 scenes. 

No play has fewer than 9 scenes, and this 
is the total number of the scenes in two plays : 
' Love's Labour 's Lost ' and 'A Midsummer 
Night's Dream.' 

The plays contain 185 acts. 

The middle act is Act III. of ' The Life 
of King Henry V.' 

The act having the greatest number of 
scenes is Act IV. of ' Antony and Cleopatra,' 
which contains 15 scenes. 

There are 13 acts having only one scene, 
exclusive of Act V. of ' The Tempest,' which 
consists of one scene and an Epilogue. 

The act having the greatest number of 
lines is Act V. of ' Love's Labour 's Lost,' 
which contains 1,106 lines.* 

The act having the greatest number of 
words is Act IV. of ' The Winter's Tale,' 
which contains 8, 554, words. 

The act having the greatest number of 
letters is Act V .of ' Love's Labour 's Lost,' 
which contains 38,638 letters. 

Act IV. of ' The Winter's Tale ' (which 

* The asterisk indicates in each case that the 
reference is to the Globe edition. 

has the greatest number of words) contains 
34,508 letters. 

The shortest act is Act III. of * Love's 
Labour 's Lost,' which contains 207 lines,* 
1,508 words, 5,998 letters. 

There are 771 scenes, including the 
Prologues, Inductions, Epilogues, and 
Choruses as scenes. 

The middle scene is sc. i. Act I. of ' The 
Third Part of King Henry VI.' 

The longest scene is sc. ii. Act V. of ' Love's 
Labour 's Lost,' which contains 942 lines*, 
7,197 words, 33,92.0 letters. 

No scene has fewer than four lines, and 
this is the total number of lines in three 
scenes : sc. iv. Act V. of ' The Merry Wives 
of Windsor,' sc. ix. Act III. of ' Antony and 
Cleopatra,' and sc. xi. Act IV. of ' Antony 
and Cleopatra.' 

The scene having the fewest number of 
words is sc. ix. Act III. of ' Antony and 
Cleopatra,' which contains 30 words. 

The scene having the fewest number of 
letters is sc. ix. Act III. of ' Antony and 
Cleopatra,' which contains 121 letters. 

The middle line is line 43,* sc. v. Act II. 
of ' The First Part of King Henry VI.' 

The middle words are the fourth and fifth 
words of line 17, sc. iv. Act III. of ' The First 
Part of King Henry VI.' 

The middle letters are the twenty-seventh 
and twenty-eighth letters of line 27, sc. ii. 
Act IV. of ' The First Part of King Henry VI. ' 

The plays contain 1,277 characters with 
speaking parts. 

Of these characters 157 are female. 

The play having the greatest number of 
characters is ' The Second Part of King 
Henry VI.,' which contains 63 characters. 

The play having the fewest number of 
characters is ' The Two Gentlemen of Verona/ 
which contains 17 characters. 

The act having the greatest number of 
characters is Act V. of ' Coriolanus,' which 
contains 29 characters. 

The act having the fewest number of 
characters is Act III. of ' Love's Labour's 
Lost,' which contains 4 characters. 

The scene having the greatest number of 
characters is sc. iii. Act V. of ' The Tragedy 
of King Richard III.,' which contains 21 

There are 1 1 scenes, exclusive of Prologues, 
&c., in which there is only one character. 

There are 488 characters who appear in 
only one scene. 

There are at least 237 characters men- 
tioned in the dramatis personce or stage 
directions to the plays respectively to whom 
no speaking part is given. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. A. 11,1908. 

The play liaving the greatest number o 
female characters is * The Winter's Tale ; 
which contains 8 female characters. 

No play has fewer than 2 female characters 
and this is the total number of the femal 
characters in : two plays : ' The First Par 
of King Henry IV.' and * Julius Caesar.' 

(I have never seen in print a correct Inde? 
to the characters in Shakespeare's plays. ) 

The longest " part " is that of Hamlet 
\\hich consists of 1,564 lines,* 11,610 words 
47,194 letters. 

The shortest " part " is that of tlie 
" Thieves," which consists of one word o 
five letters, line 85,* sc. ii. Act II. of ' Th< 
First Part of King Henry IV.' 

The longest speech in metre is that o: 
Biron, Act IV. sc. iii. 11. 289-365 of ' Love's 
Labour 's Lost,' which consists of 77 lines 
589 words, 2,507 letters. 

The speech of Falstaff, Act IV. sc. iii, 
11. 92-136* of 'The Second Part of King 
Henry IV.,' has the greatest number of 
lines *(45*) in a speech in prose, and this 
speech also contains the greatest number of 
letters (1,625) in a speech in prose : it con- 
tains 378 words. Launce's speech, Act IV. 
:sc. iv. 11. 1-43* of ' The Two Gentlemen of 
Verona,' has the greatest number of words 
(401) in a speech in prose : it contains 
43 lines* and 1,488 letters. 

The longest word is the fifth word in 

line 44,* sc. i. Act V. of ' Love's Labour 's 


r>, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, N.W. 

THE 'D.N.B.' 

<See 10 S. iv. 21, 101, 182, 244, 364 ; v. 22 
122, 284, 362; vi. 2.) 

I CONTINUE my notes from John Harmar 
or Harmer. 

Dr. Philip Hayes (1738-97), Professor of 
Music at Oxford. Second son of next, whom 
he succeeded both as Professor and as 
organist at Magdalen : also organist at 
\. \\ College and St. John's College; en- 
joyed reputation of possessing largest person 
and most unsociable tempe, 1 in Kimland ; 
his portrait at the age of twenty, in Oxon 
Music School, to \\hich lu> presented a 
number of portraits and busts. Succeeded 
At Magdalen l>y Walter Yicary. The por- 
trait in (',.11,--,- copied from original in water 
colours I iy .1. Roberts, of Oxford. 

Dr. William Hayes the elder (1706-77), 
Professor of Music at Oxford. Organist at 
Worcester Cathedral 1731 ; at Magdalen 

from 1734 until death, succeeding Thomas 
Hetcht ; a great admirer of Handel. A bust, 
and portrait by John Cornish, in Music 
School, of which a reduced copy is in College. 
William Hayes the younger (1742-90), 
Minor Canon of Worcester, and afterwards 
of St. Paul's Cathedral. Third son of last ; 
chorister, as were also his younger son Philip 
in 1791, his first cousin Charles Millard in 
1761, and the latter 's grandson. James E. 
Millard, Master of M.C.S. 

George Hickes (1642-1715), Xonjurin^ 
Bishop of Thetford. At Restoration moved 
from St. John's College to Magdalen, and 
became a " poor scholar " ; chaplain to 
Charles II. ; Dean of Worcester ; in 1713 
" only remaining Catholic bishop " of 
English Church, assisted by two Scot- 
tish bishops, consecrated Samuel Hawes, 
Nathaniel Spinckes, and Jeremy Collier. 

William Hine (1687-1730), organist of 

loucester Cathedral, 1712 until death, and 
composer. Chorister of Magdalen 1694 ; 
William Hayes the elder was a Gloucester 
chorister under him ; his portrait in Oxon 
Music School. 

John Holte (fl. 1495), grammarian. 
Fellow ; Usher of M.C.S. 1494-5 (between 
Ashe and John Ho well) ; author of first 
Latin grammar printed in England, entitled 
Lac Puerorum : M. holti Mylke for Chyldren 
(printed by Wynkyn de Worde, c. 1MO), 
dedicated to Cardinal Morton. 

Henry Holyoake (1657-1731), Head Master 
of Rugby School. Chorister, and one of the 
'outed " College Chaplains restored in 1688 ; 
aised Rugby School (which lie ruled as 
thirteenth Master from 1688 until death) 
Tom insignificance, and was the first to 
3ngage assistant masters, but treated his 
pupil Edward Cave, projector of Tin- (,'cntlc- 
mari's Magazine, with uiideserveii severity: 
Cave, being charged with robbing Miss 
T udith Holyoake's henroost and other 
lisdemeanours, was eventually driven from 
he School. Holyoake delighted to write 
ris surname as De Sacra Querea. He 
>equeathed money to Magdalen Library. 
md portraits of his father and grandfather 
since lost) to Rugby School; the latter. 
JYancis H., the lexicographer, of Queen's 
College, taught a school at Oxford some 
ime after 1585. See W. H. I). Rouse's 
History of Rugby School,' pp. 88-101. 

Arthur Homer (1758-1806). author of 
Bibliographia Americana.' Chorister 1 7<;r>- 
772 (omitted by * D.N.B.'), then at Ru^by ; 
Vllow of Magdalen ; Rector of Standlake. 
)xoii. His younger brother Charles a 
horister 1772-9, joined Dr. Priestley's 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, i90G.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


congregation at Birmingham, and died a 

Ezekiel Hopkins (1634-90), Bishop of 
Derry. Chorister (from Merchant Taylors 
School) ; Usher of M.C.S. (succeeding his 
fellow-chorister John Hooke, and preceding 
James Carkesse, 10 S. v. 285) 1655-6 ; 
chaplain to Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 
Lord Robartes, whose daughter became his 
second wife ; Bishop of Raphoe ; left 
Ireland at Revolution. 

Nicholas Horsman (fl. 1689), divine. 
Chorister 1653-4 (omitted by 'D.N.B.'); 
Fellow of C.C.C. ; published ' The Spiritual 
Bee ' ; became distracted. 

Sir Robert Howard (1626-98), dramatist. 
May possibly have been at M.C.S., for 
Wood ('Athense,' iv. 594) says he "was a 
nobleman for a time of Magd. Coll. under 
tuition of Dr. Edward Drope, as he himself 
used frequently to say (yet he occurs not 
matriculated), which, I presume, was about 
1641 " ; rescued Wilmot at Cropredy Bridge 
and knighted 1644 ; author of ' The Com- 
mittee,' &c. ; opposed use of rime in drama ; 
Dryden's brother-in-law. The greater poet's 
grandfather, Sir Erasmus Dryden, Bt., of 
Ashby Canons, was a Demy of 1571. 

Laurence Humphrey or Humfrey (1527 ?- 
1590), President of Magdalen. At M.C.S. 
under Harley ; Regius Professor of Divinity; 
cited for refusing to wear vestments, but 
afterwards conformed ; when, on her visit 
in 1566, lie, vested in his doctor's scarlet, 
kissed the Queen's hand, Elizabeth said, 
" Methinks this gown and habit becomes you 
very w r ell, and I marvel you are so straight- 
laced on this point but I come not now to 
chide " ; Dean of Gloucester ; of Win- 
chester ; Vice-Chancellor ; published Latin 
life of Bishop Jewel, &c. ; his portrait in 
M.C.S. similar to that in possession of Regius 
Professor of Divinity ; three of his sons 

Henry Hurst (1629-90), Nonconformist 
divine.' D.N.B.' says he entered Merchant 
Taylors' School Oct., 1644, and became batler 
of Magdalen Hall about 1645 ; he was 
certainly chorister of Magdalen 1643-7 ; 
submitted to Parliamentary visitors and 
made Probationary Fellow of Merton 1649 ; 
preached at conventicles after Restoration. 

Thomas Kingsmill (fl. 1605), Regius Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew. Demy 1558, and, if 
Wood ('Ath.,' i. 758) is correct in saying 
he " became a student in this University in 
1555, or thereabouts," possibly at M.C.S. ; 
became mad for a time about 1579, and his 
duties as professor discharged by deputies, 

one of whom was Richard Hooker ; obliged 
to resign 1591. 

Henry Knollys (d. 1583), esquire of the 
body to Queen Elizabeth. At M.C.S. ; 
eldest son of Sir Francis K. (q.v. in ' D.N.B.') 
and Catherine Carey, the Queen's first cousin. 

James Lamb (1599-1664), Orientalist. 
Prebendary of Westminster after Restora- 
tion ; bequeathed books to Abbey Library, 
and MSS. to Bodleian. 

Thomas William Lancaster (1787-1859), 
Bampton Lecturer. Acted as Usher of 
M.C.S., with little success, 1840-49 (succeed- 
ing George Grantham, and preceding William. 
Jonathan Sawell, sometime chorister). 

Henry Langley (1611-79), Puritan divine. 
Chorister ; in 1646 one of seven Presby- 
terian ministers chosen to " prepare the 
way " for the reformation of the University ; 
intruded Master of Pembroke (his own 
College) 1647-60 ; Canon of Ch. Ch. ; Mer- 
curius Pragmaticus says he is 

"of a very tender stripling conscience, like the rest 
of his Brethren, that can stretch to hold the 
Revenues of the Rectory of Newington, beyond 
South warke, the Mastership of Pembroke College, 
and of this Canon's place, for the better edification 
of his righteous Family, with belly-Timber, and 
other appurtenances of Reformation. 

Edward Lapworth (1574-1636), physician 
and Latin poet. Master of M.C.S. 1598-1610- 
(between John Felling and Lawrence Snel- 
ling, the latter one of the witnesses against 
Laud at his trial) ; first Sedleian Reader in 
Natural Philosophy ; Linacre Physic Lec- 
turer. Some notes of his extant as to a 
hild with two heads born at Oxford in 1633. 

Edward Lee (1482 ?-1544), Archbishop of 
York. Demy in 1495 (which 'D.N.B.' 
omits) ; Fellow ; opposed to party of new 
earning and Erasmus ; sent on various- 
embassies ; successor to Wolsey in see of 

William Lily (1468 ?-1522), grammarian. 
Godson of Grocyn ; in Wood (' Athense,' 
. 32) it is considered possible that he 
' studied in Oxford two years previous to- 
becoming dependent member of Magd." 
n 1486, and Report of R. Commissioners 
'or Public Schools Enquiry Commission of 
1866 boldly attributes Lily to M.C.S. ; made 
a pilgrimage to Jerusalem ; studied Latin 
and Greek in Italy ; first High Master of 
St. Paul's School ; Wolsey wrote prefatory 
3pistle to his ' Syntaxis.' His son George 
was a Commoner in 1528, whereon Wood : 
' Magdalen was seldom or never without 
a Lilye (understand me not that it bears 
three lilyes for its arms) from the first founda- 
tion thereof to the latter end of Queen 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. n, woe. 

Elizabeth." A Robert Lyllie, Demy in 
1542, aged fifteen, succeeded John Boldern 
as Usher of M.C.S. until 1553, Fellow ; 
William Lylly was Demy 1544, aged twelve 
and Edmund Lillye of Magdalen became 
Master of Balliol 1580, Archdeacon of Wilts 
and chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, who 
rebuked him for his long sermons. 

John Longland (1473-1547), Bishop o 
Lincoln. Demy 1493 ; Principal Magdalen 
Hall ; Dean of Sarum ; Canon of Windsor 
Chancellor of Oxon University. 

John Lyly (1554 ?-1606), dramatist and 
author of ' Euphues.' In 1569 became a 
student of Magdalen, but did not matriculate 
until Oct., 1571, when described as seven- 
teen ; championed cause of bishops in Mar- 
Prelate controversy in pamphlet ' Pappe 
with an Hatchet ' ; plagiarized and parodied 
by Shakespeare. A. R. BAYLEY. 

St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

(To be continued.) 

Robert de Salcey's charter to St. John's 
Hospital, Nottingham (1222-35), grants to 
the brethren two bovates of land at Stanton- 
on-the-Wolds, Notts, " to wit, those which 
William the son of Godric held, which were 
of my demesne, lying towards the sun " 
(see * Records of the Borough of Notting- 
ham,' i. 18). Until recently I took the 
description to signify land situate in the 
southern portion of the manor or township 
named. An incidental remark heard during 
a holiday in Mid-Lincolnshire, however, 
led me to make inquiries that served to put 
a new complexion on the matter. I found 
that, at the present day, land sloping down- 
ward towards the south is commonly de- 
scribed as lying to, or towards, the sun, 
which is regarded as very much in its favour 
Land lying "away from the sun" (i.e. 
facing the north) is ordinarily reputed to 

be " n M g i2 d '" XT A. STAPLETON. 

Io8, Noel Street, Nottingham. 

CACOPHONY IN TITLES. A good deal has 
been written of late upon the subject of 
book-names ; but I have not come across 
any comments treating thereof from the 
point of view of their discordance. Yet one 
can scarcely fail to note the singular laxity 
iisplayed by writers in this respect. It must 
certainly be a matter of surprise with 
many how what ought to be considered 
ne l 6 ecSd ntary "^ "* Uterature is so of ten 
IF Here are just a few offenders, taken at 
random from various lists at my elbow: 

* A Tramp Camp,' ' The New Humanity,' 

* Deceivers Ever,' ' A Royal Rascal,' ' Din- 
kinbar.' And what shall we say of ' The 
Master Builder,' and * Hedda Gabler ' 
from such a practised hand as the late 
Henrik Ibsen ? I am tempted to quote 
' The Earl and the Girl ' as an unhappy 
example of dramatic selection calculated to 
set one's teeth on edge with a vengeance. 

Doubtless the diligent searcher of shelves, 
catalogues, or playbills could multiply 
instances which might add weight to this 
friendly hint of mine to follow the paths of 
euphony in the matter of titles. 


Junior Athenaeum Club. 

[We fail to detect cacophony in some of our 
correspondent's instances. It is a matter which 
falls largely under the heading "De gustibus," and 
so not to be settled by discussion.] 

The following advertisement from The 
Daily Advertiser, 24 Nov., 1744, is of some 
interest : 

' Clement Davis, who kept the Cat in Rose Street, 
Newgate Market, for the better accommodation of 
his customers, has now removd the Cat to the 
tiouse formerly the Salutation Tavern, next door 
tmt one in the same street, with a Passage into 
Newgate Street, where he hopes his friends and 
nistomers will continue their favours, which shall 
}e gratefully acknowledged by their humble servant 
n lement Davis." 


39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

[For Lamb's connexion with the "Salutation" 
Tavern see the articles by MR. J. A. RUTTEB (9 S. 
v. 315) and MR. THOMAS HUTCHINSOX (10 S. i. 61, 

" QUARTERSTAFF." The only explanation 

of this term which, as far as I am aware, has 

>een given, is that of Dr. Johnson, viz., that 

t points to the method of holding the staff, 

one hand being in the middle, and the other 

lalf-way from the end. But this is quite 

unlikely, inasmuch as the hands were 

lipped from place to place for convenience 

n striking or thrusting or in defence. Is it 

not probable that the " quarterstaff " was 

o called because it was not a rough cudgel 

ut out of a tree, but formed and fashioned 

out of a piece of " quartering " or quartered 

wood, oak or ash ? 

" Quarter " or " quartering " is still 
ipplied to an upright post in building. In 
his district, too, a " quarter- whipstick " 
s current, meaning a better sort of whip- 
tick, made out of a piece of quartered ash, 
nd fashioned for the most part by the carter 
imself, after his own fancy, that he may 
ot have " a cow's tail tied on a mop-stick." 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The transition from " quarter- whipstick " 
or " quarter-stick " (sometimes used) to 
** quarterstaff " is easy ; indeed, the terms 
are synonymous. In the North " balk- 
staff " was used for " quarterstaff " ; and 
this points to its material and shape, not 
to the way of holding it. 


Stoulton Vicarage, Worcester. 

[The 'N.E.D.' says : " The exact sense of quarter 
is not clear : quot. 1589 suggests that the staff may 
have been made from a tree of a certain size cleft 
in four ; cf. Quarter-cleft B. 1." The quotation is 
from R. Harvey's 'Plaine Percevall': "Plodding 
through Aldersgate, all armed as I was, with a 
quarter Ashe staffe on my shoulder." Much on the 
quarterstaff will be found at 8 S. vii. 347, 413 : viii. 
33, 172, 273, 471.] 

advertisement appeared in The Kingdom's 
Intelligencer for 18 March, 1660/61 : 

" The Fortune Playhouse, situate between White 
Cross Street and Goulding Lane, in the parish of 
St. Giles, Cripplegate, with the grouna thereto 
belonging, is to be let to build upon, where twenty- 
three tenements may be erected, with gardens ; and 
a street may be cut through for the better accom- 
modation of the building. Enquire of Mr. Jenkins, 
a scrivener in Black-Fryars." 
This advertisement is briefly mentioned by 
Cunningham, but its exact wording may 
interest your readers. 


LEONARD Cox. At 10 S. ii. 65 I published 
an extract from an old chronicle to show 
that Cox was in Hungary in 1520 and 1522. 
I have found a few more data shedding light 
upon his movements on the Continent. My 
source is Casimir Morawski's ' History of 
Cracow University,' written in Polish, and 
translated into French by P. Rongier (Paris, 
1900-5), vol. iii. pp. 119, 120. 

According to this authority, when Leonard 
Cox arrived in Poland he was already " a 
made man " and had acquired some fame. 
On the occasion of his " inscription " he 
*' pronounced " on 6 Dec., 1518, a long 
harangue " De laudibus celeberrimas Cracov. 
Academise." It is doubtful, however, 
whether he had the required degrees to 
qualify him for being received among the 
ordinary professors according to the 
' D.N.B.' he was not incorporated as B.A. 
at the English university till 1529-30 but 
the influence of Decius and of some other 
dignitaries helped him out of this difficulty. 
In 1518 and 1519 he expounded Livy, 
Quintilian, and the letters of St. Jerome 
at Cracow ; in 1525 and 1526, Cicero, 
Virgil, and Quintilian. During the latter 
year he was mixed up in a suit before 

the rectorial tribunal. The poet Erasmus 
Licorianus accused him of having posted 
on the college gates a defamatory libel 
against him, and of having held him up to 
ridicule in his public lectures. Little is 
known of the affair except that Cox screened 
himself behind Krzycki, the Bishop of 
Przemysl, who, he alleged, encouraged him 
in these " sarcasms " (Acta Rectoralia 
No. 2869). 

" Apres s'etre produit a 1'universite," 
Cox blossomed out as an " adolescentise 
formator," and became the " mentor " of 
young Andrew Zebrzydowski. He spent 
the year 1527 in Paris in the company of the 
future bishop, and died, it appears, in Eng- 
land in 1549. According to the ' D.N.B.,' 
however, he flourished in 1572, and " must 
have died in 1599 " a centenarian if all 
the above dates are correct. L. L. K. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

PEKKIN WARBECK. Some curious scraps 
of local history are contained in a book pub- 
lished at Exeter in 1877, entitled ' Gleanings 
from the Municipal and Cathedral Records 
relative to the History of the City of Exeter. 
By W. Cotton, Esq., F.S.A., and the Ven. 
Henry Woollcombe, Archdeacon of Barn- 
staple." A chapter is devoted to Per kin 
Warbeck, who had been married by James 
of Scotland to Lady Katherine Gordon 
(reputed to be the most beautiful woman 
of her time), and who, in September, 1497, 
landed in Cornwall, quickly raised a force 
of some 3,000 Cornishmen, marched to 
Exeter, and made an attack on the city, 
but was driven off after one of its gates had 
been burnt. Perkin fled to sanctuary in 
the monastery of Beaulieu, in the New 
Forest, but, according to a letter from King 
Henry VII. , (which is stated to be preserved 
in the archives of the city of Waterford), was 
persuaded to throw himself on the royal 
mercy, and accordingly came to Henry at 
Taunton, and was brought by him as 
prisoner to Exeter. And here comes the 
point which I should be glad if any of your 
readers could elucidate. At pp. 38-41 of 
the ' Gleanings ' is a description of a par- 
ticularly dramatic scene, in which, in the 
Cathedral Close of Exeter, Perkin is made to 
confess his imposture not only to the King 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. n, 1900: 

and to the Cornish rebels (with halters roun 
their necks), but also to his wife (whom h 
had left at St. Michael's Mount, but whom 
Henry had sent for), who had previously 
believed in him implicitly. The ' Gleanings 
give the speech of King Henry, the confes 
sion of Perkin, and the tirade in whic] 
Lady Katherine, suddenly turning upon he 
husband, loads him with reproaches fo 
having deceived her. The actual words ar< 
quoted (just as if a shorthand writer ha( 
been present), though it is noticeable tha 
the language seems to belong to a much 
later age than the fifteenth century. 

What I want to discover is the authority 
for all this. None is stated in the ' Glean 
ings,' and the Town Clerk informs me tha- 
Mr. Stuart A. Moore, who calendared th< 
municipal and cathedral records, can give 
no clue to it, and believes the story to be 
apocryphal. It does not agree with Bacon's 
history, according to which Perkin was 
never brought into the King's presence at 
Exeter, " though the King, to satisfy his 
curiosity, saw him sometimes out of a window 
or in a passage." But it may be noted that 
Bacon's account is in various respects 
incorrect. It is worth observing that Ford, 
the " Devon Dramatist," in his play oi 
' Perkin Warbeck ' makes Lady Katherine 
believe in her husband to the end, and there 
is a fine passage in which, on his execution, 
she vows eternal fidelity to his memory. 
(She afterwards married three husbands 
in succession, so the strength of her vow 
was somewhat watered.) One cannot help 
thinking that if the story, as told in the 
Gleanings,' had been current in Ford's 
day, he would have seized on such a striking 
situation as that of a wife who learns for 
the first time, in such circumstances as 
those described, that her husband is no 
king, nor she a queen. But if the whole 
scene is an invention, who is the fabulist ? 
-Not a respectable antiquary like Cotton ; 
certainly not a solemn archdeacon like 
Woollcombe. Indeed, it is doubtful whether 
either of these had sufficient imagination. 
In Ins History of Exeter ' so distinguished 
an authority as Prof. Freeman describes 
Gleanings ' as " of the highest value." 
ban any one solve the puzzle ? 

-', Bering ( rescent, Kxeter. 

glad to know where some verses parodying 

um" S fl 6 n 1US J 1 8 ' Lici > ^ 
Wes?hnrv ad f dr l sse d to Lord Chancellor 
'burv, are to be found, and by whom 

they were written. I do not think that I 
ever saw them in print. Certainly they- 
were given to me viva voce, and I committed 
them to memory. This must have been at 
some time between 1855 and 1863. I can. 
remember only a few stanzas : 

You will live wisest, Westbury, by neither 
Always promoting nephews and relations, 
Nor by too closely, for the sake of Slingsby, 
Pressing poor Edmonds. 

Golden mediocrity is official virtue ; 
Honourable Slingsby has it in perfection, 
So has the Registrar, Honoura.ble Richard , 
Recently kicked out. 

But a Lord Chancellor has a public bosom, 

Always prepared for any sort of business ; 

Why shirk a job since all your predecessors 

Have done the same thing ? 

Of the last stanza a fragment only rests- 
in my memory : 

try to steer your course with 

Rather less steam on. 

T. B. 

In ' The Cavalier and his Lady,' a book 
of selections from the works of the Duke 
and Duchess of Newcastle, I find some sixty 
pages devoted to ' Allegories, Essays, and 
Aphorisms.' I wonder if you, or any of 
your readers, will be so kind as to tell me in 
which of the Duchess's books these first 
appeared, and when that book was published, 

99, Warrender Park Road, Edinburgh. 

Any particulars of him, with date of death, 
will oblige. He was for many years con- 
nected with the minor theatres and at the 
East-End. R. W. 

\. moth-eaten rag on a worm-eaten pole ; 
t does not look likely to stir a man s soul : 
Tis the deeds that were done 'neath the moth-eaten 


/Vhen the pole was a staff and the rag was a flag. 

A. B. 

'ye watched the actions of his daily life 
Vith all the eager malice of a foe, 
And nothing meets mine eyes but deeds of honour. 

RALEIGH. After Sir Walter Raleigh's 
rrest for treason he had to deliver up the 

>rants of offices he held, viz. (among others) : 
1 ) a patent for the sale of wanes throughout 

England ; (2) the Governorship of Jersey ; 

3) the Lieutenancy of Portland Castle ; 

4) the Rangership of Gillingham Forest ; 
nd (5) the Lord Wardenship of the Stan- 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


naries. What were the insignia of office that 
he required to restore in each case ? Where 
can a detailed account of the unsuccessful 
courtship of young Walter Raleigh be found ? 

A. S R. 

of binding a snake to a tree by means of a 
cord appears to be curious. There is a story 
in ' Gesta Romanorum ' relating to this 
procedure ; and at Middleton, near Picker- 
ing, Yorkshire, there is a fragment of a 
sculptured cross showing clearly a serpent 
tied to it. What is the meaning of this ? 

ST. WELCOME. Information wanted as to 

right hand have conquered France.' " The 
interpretation mon droit=my right hand is 
new to me. Authority fcr it will oblige. 


is supposed to walk in the grounds of Old 
Heath Hall, in the township of Wakefield. 
Can any folk-lorist tell me who she was, 
and why she appears ? F. E. M. W. 

" NEWGATEERS." I find this word in a 
letter from Thomas Ludwell, Secretary of 
Virginia, to Lord Arlington, Secretary of 
State to Charles II., dated 17 July, 1671 : 

of the Governor 

this saint, in whose honour there was a light and Council prohibiting the importation of New- 
m the church of Harrietsham, Kent, to gateers. The safety of this country depends upon 

which the parishioners gave the customary the continuance of it, so many insolent villanies 
bequests in their wills. having been committed by men of that sort, that 

A-R^T-TR -R TTQei3 , v greater numbers would hazard the peace of it." 
USSEY. Calendar of State Papers, Colonial : America and 
LORD LIEUTENANTS. West Indies,' 1669-74, p. 242. 
Can any of your readers kindly supply a Is the name commonly known ? 
list of the Lord Lieutenants of Hertfordshire ? I ALFRED F. ROBBINS. 

over the Beauchamp Chapel, part of the 
of St. Mary at Warwick, I was told 
by the verger who showed me round that 


No complete list seems ever to have been 
published. F. S. 

COMBE. Near Castle Dinas, in Cornwall, in 
an open field and apparently unconsecrated 

* e 

Ir P e 

ground, is a tombstone covering the remains wnose tomo 

of Mr. James Hosking, who died in *1823. ("Cached to the south wall of the chapel, 

He was evidently an eccentric man, as the a *d near the altar to quote the guide-book) 

inscription on the monument (presumably wa ^ Sa ld ^ ha ^ e be f n P ls ned bv ^ nu ^ se 

his own composition) would testify. He is 

said to have owned estates at Castle Dinas, was nu / nT 

which he sold to Lord Robartes. His wife ? 

was Elizabeth Vinnicombe, who was sister i- n . an ^ 

of the wife of the last St. Aubyn baronet of f^ester. 
the old creation. Any information regarding ' m 
the ancestry of James Hosking or Elizabeth 
Vinnicombe would be gratefully welcomed. 

Hobart, Tasmania. 

of his father, and that he 
I should much like to 
is any mention of these facts 
of Robert Dudley, Earl of 
cannot find any hint of them 
of him I have read. How 
did the tradition arise ? He is described in 
the inscription on the tomb as " a child of 
great parentage, but of farre greater hope." 

B. I. K. 

" CROSSE COP'." I shall be glad if any 
of your readers will explain the contraction 
in the following, taken from the inventories 
of church goods, temp. Edward VI., 1552, 
for Todmorden, in the parish of Rochdale, 
Lancashire : "A chales [chalice], one veste- 
ment, A crosse cop' & gyld." 

[Crosses were often made of copper.] 

Francis King's ' Classical and Foreign 
Quotations,' No. 530, I read : " Dieu et mon 
droit. God and my right hand .... Origin- I obliterated, 
ally referred to Richard I . . . . ' God and my | gateways, 

g Naseby a short time back I observed in 
some adjoining fields a number of wheel - 
My journey was from the direction 
irsh. Turning off the road leading 
to Hazelbeach, I noticed two sets of these 
wheel-tracks across fields at the entrance 
of which finger-posts pointed to Naseby. 
They were neither lanes nor footpaths. In 
some parts the wheel-tracks were well 
defined, being about a foot or so deep, and 
were overgrown and covered up with grass. 
In other places the wheel-ruts were almosfc 

The track led through several 
crossing another track which 



went at right angles to it. The wheel-tracks 
eventually led into a lane close to the 
Naseby obelisk. Is it reasonable to suppose 
that these tracks were made by either of 
the armies in the Civil War ? and are they 
referred to in any description of the battle ? 
Wheel-tracks, I understand, last very many 
years. One at Oxford is mentioned in the 
preface of Green's ' History ' as having been 
made by Fairfax's troops. G. H. W. 

TAN HILL FAIR. A fair is held annually 
on 6 August on Tan Hill, erroneously called 
St. Anne's Hill in the Ordnance Survey maps 
{6-inch, &c.), probably copied from older 
maps, such as Faden's (1810) and Green- 
wood's ( 1 820). Sir R. Colt Hoare in ' Ancient 
Wilts ' says : "In the oldest almanacs it is 
always called Tan Hill fair." 

I should like to know how far back Tan 
Hill Fair is mentioned in almanacs. An 
account of Tan Hill may be seen in Nature 
of 24 May last. T. S. M. 

The following item was printed, under the 
heading of ' London Corporate Economy, 
A.D. 1478,' in a London newspaper of 17 June: 
" A bill of fare for the Court of Assistants of the 
Worshipful Company of Chancellors in an ancient 
record is given as follows : 2 loins of veal and 2 
mutton pies, Is. 4d. ; 1 do. of beef, 4d. ; 1 doz 
pigeons and 1 doz. rabbits, M. ; 1 pig and 1 capon] 
l*i J 1 JP 00 ff and r 100 e i s > ls - OH 5 1 leg of mutton, 

WltSSfc ef ' U ** ; 18 da f strong ale ' 

A certain resemblance between the above 
and my note re ' Fifteenth-Century Banquet,' 
which appeared at 10 S. iv. 446, is distinctly 
traceable, the date, for instance, being pre- 
cisely the same ; but this is presumably 
accidental. Who, however, were the Chan- 
cellors' Company ? Outside of the above 

have never met with the name, and it 
certainly is not included in Stow's list. Can 
the original compiler of this "ancient 
record 'have evolved the company out of 
his own inner consciousness ? W. McM. 


there any prints of Volunteer uniforms other 
bhan those of Rowlandson, published 1798 ? 
The corps wanted is the S.B.G.V. (probably 
second, or South, Bethnal Green Volunteers) 
in existence 1803-5. ft. M. W 

^CKSHiRE.-Information is desired regarS- 
mg the above family, particularly as to the 

St^eTt Ton Wn V Wau *h, of Unchurch 

don - He was married twice: 

first, in 1781, at Christ Church, Newgate, to 

Isabella ; and secondly, in 1794, to 

Phoebe . Tradition has it that he was 

nearly related to the famous Dr. Alex. 
Waugh, minister of the Scots Secession 
Church, Wells Street, London, whose life is 
given in the ' D.N.B.' Any details will be 
much appreciated. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

' THAUMATURGIA.' Who was the author 
of ' Thaumaturgia, or Elucidations of the 
Marvellous,' by an Oxonian (London, E. 
Churton, 1835, pp. vii, 362) ? I call it a 
12mo, as that gives an idea of its size, 
but signature B is from 1 to 16. 


GALBRAITH. In a ' Pedigree of the Family 
of Steele Hawthorne, Esq.,' in my possession, 
his second son, James, an ensign in the llth 
Foot, appointed 29 June, 1782, has for wife 
Galbraith, the mother of his only son. 
I should be pleased to receive any informa- 
tion regarding this lady, her family, &c. The 
ensign's father is described as of Down- 
patrick, and married in 1755. 


conformist ministers and laymen have of 
recent years obtained honorary degrees 
from- these universities. Can any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' give me their histories ? 

Baltimore House, Bradford. 

VIRGIL, '.ENEID,' I. 462. 

(10 S. vi. 5.) 

PROF. TYRRELL'S paraphrase " even in- 
animate things weep for us " seems to imply 
that he takes " Sunt lacrimee rerum " to 
mean, " There are tears of things," i.e., 
tears are a property of things, or, roughly, 
are in things. This idea of the passage he 
first published, I believe, in his 'Latin Poetry ' 
1893. But great as is his authority, I must 
say that the old interpretation seems to me 
more natural which renders the passage 
" There are tears for things," like " lacrimas 
dilectae pelle Creusse " ('^neid,' ii. 784), 
which undoubtedly means " dismiss your 
tears for the loved Creusa," not " the tears 
of the loved Creusa." 

Conington in his prose translation gives 
"There are tears for human fortune, and 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


hearts that are touched by mortality," as 
his rendering of " Sunt lacrimae rerum." 
The repetition of the same idea in " human " 
and " mortality " will be noticed. I believe 
that these three immortal words have evaded 
the many efforts to translate them, precisely 
because Virgil, knowing that he had written 
a bold piece of Latin, paraphrased it by 
the rest of the line, precluding, by the use 
of " mortalia," the obvious rendering of 
" rerum." Thus the two words both mean 
" the human lot," the latter being coloured 
with sadness, and the whole line is a kind of 
hendiadys. I notice that the modern trans- 
lator -who best combines poetry and scholar- 
ship in his prose rendering, Prof. J. W. 
Mackail, merges the two clauses of the 
line in one sentence, which runs : " Here 
mortal estate touches the soul to tears." 
The context is, of course, definite, and the 
celebrated line is part of the speech of 
JEne&s on seeing on the walls of the strange 
city the history of Troy. Thus he says, 
by the old view, that there are tears for 
human fortunes, meaning the fortunes of 
his own people in suffering the long agony 
of Troy, and the cruelty of Achilles. If it 
were not for the hint supplied by " mor- 
talia," one would be inclined to take 
*' rerum " as equal to " rerum gestaram," 
" (our) exploits." Then " mortalia " would 
be the other side of the picture, " our losses." 
But " res " is a very indefinite word, of 
course, and may mean " objects," as, I 
suppose, Prof. Tyrrell proposes, or, again, 
" suffering," " misfortune," as Sellar and 
Lonsdale and Lee in prose render it, and 
Bowen in verse. " Mortalia " itself is a rare 
>rm of expression, occurring in Virgil, 
Eclogue ' viii. 35. 

It is odd that Tennyson has also a vague 
and celebrated line concerning tears, his 
Tears, idle tears. I know not what they mean. 
Matthew Arnold's charming poem on 
* Geist's Grave ' includes an acknowledged 
reference to Virgil : 

That liquid, melancholy eye, 
From whose pathetic, soul-fed springs 
Seem'd surging the Virgilian cry, 
The sense of tears in mortal things. 

Wordsworth in his ' Laodamia ' has : 

Yet tears to human suffering are due, 
a remark which has none of the vague charm 
of Virgil that charm which, as Newman 
suggests, made some consider him a prophet, 
and others a magician. NEL MEZZO. 

A somewhat similar idea to Virgil's 
" Sunt lacrymae rerum " may be found in 
Gerard de Xerval's ' Vers dores,' to which 

is prefixed the epigraph from Pythagoras 
" Eh quoi, tout est sensible ! " Addressing 
himself to a materialist, the author says : 
Respecte dans la bete un esprit agissant : 
Clmque fleur est une ame a la Nature eclose ; 
Un mystere d'amour dans le metal repose ; 
"Tout est sensible!" Et tout sur ton etre est 

Grains, dans le mur aveugle, un regard qui t'epie ? 

A la matiere merne un verbe est attache 

Ne la fais pas servir a quelque usage impie. 


" SUNKEN LAND OF Bus " (10 S. v. 509) 
is named after one of Sir Martin Frobisher's 
ships in his third voyage, 1578. The rela- 
tion of the pretended discovery, given by 
Hakluyt (' Voyages of the English Nation,' 
vol. iii. 1600, p. 93), runs thus : 

"The Busse of Bridgewater, as she came home- 
ward, to the Southeastward of Frieseland, dis- 
couered a great Island in the latitude of 57 degrees 
and an halfe, which was neuer yet found before, and 
sailed three dayes alongst the coast, the land seem- 
ing to be fruitfull, full of woods, and a champion 

John Barrow, in his ' Chronological 
History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions ' 
(Lond., 1818, p. 94), says that 
"a bank has recently been sounded upon, which 
has revived the idea of the Friesland or Zeno and 
the Busse of Bridgewater having been swallowed 
up by an earthquake." 

A full summary of the subject of the Land 
of Buss is given by Mr. Miller Christy as 
Appendix B to C. C. A. Gosch's * Danish 
Arctic Expeditions, 1605 to 1620,' Hakluyt 
Soc., Book I., 1897. See also 'The Annals 
of the Voyages of the Brothers Nicolo and 
Antonio Zeno ' by Fred. W. Lucas, Lond., 
1898. E. W. DAHLGREN. 

Royal Library, Stockholm. 

" PLUM " : JACK HORXER (10 S. vi. 67). 
DR. MURRAY asks if anything can be said 
as to the age of the nursery rime of * Little 
Jack Homer,' and states that the earliest 
reference to it that he has before him is dated 
1813. Local tradition connects the Horner 
family of Wells, near Frome, with the rune 
(though, so far as I know, without any reason), 
and the following information, taken from a 
paper read by Mr. Emanuel Green when the 
Somersetshire Archaeological Society visited 
Wells in August, 1884, supplies a clue that 
should take the rime back to a much earlier 
date. The story of Jack Horner took the 
form of a popular chapbook entitled ' The 
Pleasant History of Jack Horner. Con- 
taining the Witty Pranks he play'd from his 
Youth to his Riper Years. Being Pleasant 
for Winter Evenings.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. n, im 

The verses, occupying twenty pages, make 
no local allusion ; on the contrary, they 
begin : 

Jack Horner was a pretty lad, 
Near London he did dwell ; 
His father's heart he made full glad, 

His mother lov'd him well, 
And in the corner would he sit 
In Christmas holidays. 

When friends did together meet, 

To pass away the time, 
Little Jack he sure would eat 

His Christmas pie in rhyme. 

Then comes in the rime, and as the stor 
continues, Jack, in time, goes out to servic 
under a certain knight, plays a prank wit 
a miraculous basin, slays a terrible giant 
and finally marries the" knight's daughter 
The story is founded on a metrical ballad 
called ' The Basyn,' preserved to us in th 
Cambridge Library, in a manuscript of th 
fourteenth century, soon after the year 1300 
As with so many of these tales, the story o 
* The Basyn ' tells how a priest was detected 
with his paramour, the means being Jack' 
miraculous basin. The familiar nursery 
rime, however, is not part of this early tale 
although incorporated later in the chapbook 
story. But by translating this rime phonetic 
ally into Dutch, a much earlier origin is at 
once suggested (Somersetshire Archseologica 
Society's Proceedings, vol. xxx. part i. 59). 

J. COLES, Jun. 

[Further replies next week.] 

" PLUM " = RAISIN (10 S. vi. 67). Perhaps 
the following quotation from Juvenal, xiv 
270-1, may prove illustrative : 

< Mii gjuuU-s pinkie antiquse de litore Cretje 
.Passum et municipes Jovis advexisse lagenas? 
A note in Stockcr's ' Juvenal ' on 1. 454 
observes on p. 270 : 

" Rich raisin wine, a sort of Malmsey. Fay [i. e. , 
Thomas Farnaby, 1612] passum nominabant, ' 

uvjim diutius coctam legerent, eamque 
pasta essent a sole aduri." 


BURNEY FAMILY (10 S. v. 510 ; vi. 56, 92). 

-I am obliged to COL. JOHNSTON and F. V 
for their replies, but J think the former is in 
error in stating that Capt. James Burney, 
who died 30 Oct., 1884, was the son of Ch,rl* 

ney, D.D. (son of Dr. Chas. Burney 
author of the ' History of Music '), as the 
)rmer s only son was the Rev. Chas Parr 
Burney, born 1785, afterwards archdeacon 
successively of St. Albans and Colchester 
till his death, 1 Nov., 1864. My authority 
for stating that Capt. James Burney was a 
son of \\ilham Burney, LL.D., of Gosport 

is The Times obituary notice, 24 Nov., 1884. 
I have read the information given in vol. vii. 
p. 415 et seqq. of the ' D.N.B.,' but cannot 
find any reference therein to the Dr. Wm. 
Burney "in question. Possibly he represented 
another branch of this family. J. A. N. 

STROBE'S REGIMENT (10 S. vi. 70). 
William Strode, " second major " of the 
3rd Foot Guards, was appointed colonel 
of the 62nd or Royal American Regiment^on 
21 April, 1758, and was succeeded in that 
appointment by Valentine Jones on 15 Jan., 

In 1756, when the Earl of Loudon was 
colonel of the 62nd, the uniform of the regi- 
ment was " red, faced blue," but soon after- 
wards it was "red, faced yellowish buff, 
white lace, 2 blue and 1 straw-coloured 
stripe." This is important when examining 
portraits of its old officers. 

The regiment is now represented by the 
Duke of Edinburgh's Wiltshire Regiment ; 
its district is Devizes, and it is numbered 
the 62nd. 

In 1891 Carson of Dublin published 'The 
Springers : the 62nd Regiment.' This 
sobriquet is said to date from the unfortunate 
campaign under Burgoyne in North Ame- 
rica in 1777 (see Lawrence-Archer's ' British 

Army,' p. 434). 

W. S. 

(10 S. vi. 67). MR. D ALTON'S suggestion is 
ingenious, but there can be no doubt that 
this surname is simply the English word 
pennyfather, which from the thirteenth 
century till the end of the seventeenth 
occurs in innumerable English books and 
records in the sense of a miser or niggard. 
Lower quotes an old rime : 

The liberall doth spend his pelfe, 
The pennyfather wastes himself. 
Abundant illustrations of the use of the term 
standard authors will be found in both 
the ' N.E.D.' and ' Slang and its Analogues/ 

" Pennyfather " was a good old English 
;erm for a bad old English thing, a niggard, 
miser, and Mr. Bardsley cites instances of 
ts occurrence as a surname, both in Oxford- 
hire and Buckinghamshire, in 1273. It 
was then spelt Penifaclir and Penit'ader. 
Vhat is MR. D ALTON'S reason for holding 
:hat it "is undoubtedly Spanish " ? That 
t may be so manipulated as to make it 
uitable for the denizen of a chateau en 
Espagne is evident from his communication, 
some better proof of the new theory of 
ts origin is desirable. I have been given to 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, 1906.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


understand that the name is pronounced 
Penny feather : if so, somebody would seem 
to have regarded the penny as being a quill, 
instead of a coin. Halliwell (' Diet. Archaic 
and Provincial Words ') has examples of the 
use of " penny father." One of them, from 
Morgan's ' Phoenix Britannicus,' p. 30, 
might be quoted with reference to the " two- 
penny dam " which once claimed attention 
in ' N. & Q.' : 

Ranck peny-fathers scud, with their halfe hammes 
Shadowing their calves, to save their silver dammes. 


BULLIM : ITS LOCALITY (10 S. vi. 68). 
Bullum is in Mysore, situated about lat. 13 
N., above the Western Ghauts, composed of 
high hills and deep valleys, the ravines 
covered with jungle, and in many places by 
primaeval forests. Military roads were 
made through it by General Wellesley 
(Arthur, Duke of Wellington) in 1801-2, 
and in his dispatches from Mysore at this 
time are letters to Major Munro. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

GENERAL WOLFE (10 S. v. 409, 451, 518). 
According to Mackenzie's ' View of the 
County of Durham,' 1825, vol. ii. p. 482, the 
person represented as supporting the General 
is Mr. Robert Sanderson, who died at Ford, 
near Sunderland, on 7 August, 1807, aged 
eighty-five. The same authority states 
that he acted as an ordinary surgeon to 
the General at the battle, and that " he 
often boasted that he was the person who 
shot General Montcalm, the French com- 
mander at that place." These particulars 
were also reproduced by John Sykes in his 
* Local Records,' 1833, vol. i. p. 226. 

In face of the information given at the 
second reference it would be interesting to 
know whether it was Mr. Sanderson or Mr. 
Adair who acted as surgeon and supported 
the General. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

65, 176, 333, 416, 474 ; v. 13). In The 
Times of 14 March last, p. 3, col. 2, is a 
report of Stamirowski v. Barber an action 
for damages occasioned by negligence in a 
performance of " looping the loop " on a 
bicycle. The bicycle was " so constructed 
that it could not leave the loop in the 
course of its journey." Nevertheless, when 
at the highest position of the loop it ran 
backwards, and fell with the plaintiff to the 

stage, with the result that the girl's skull 
was fractured and she received other 
injuries. Damages, 250Z. 


364). In the above paper a short paragraph 
has dropped out of my remarks on "English 
and Welsh," thus rendering them unmeaning 
and irrelevant. In the original draught I 
went on as follows : 

"From the destruction of the defences of the 
Saxon Shore of Romanized Britain to this day, the 
victors have called their antagonists 'foreigners,' or 
Welshmen ; but the latter have never retorted by 
calling their Saxon foemen 'Allobroges,' a term of 
the same import, which (on the Cymro=Combrox 
theory) ought to have been the readiest ' Yoxi 're 
another' they could have used. But a term hav 
come down to us which is the exact equivalent of 
' Welshman ' in its English connotation, and that 
in the very district where our scanty historical 
records would make the use of it most siiggestive. 
After the subjection of the Romanized Britain, the 
task of resistance devolved on the glen-folk and the 
mountaineers of the West ; and it is in the Dorset 
dialect of the Isle of Purbeck that ' kimberlin '= 
'foreigner,' has been preserved (see ' E.D.D.,' n.v.), 
where the helpless Roman-Bryt had to look to the 
' barbarous ' Western levies for that defence which 
he himself could no longer organize." 

I venture to add a comment on Csesar, 
' B. G.,' ii. 29 : 

"[Aduatuci] ipsi erant ex Cimbris Teutonisque 
prognati, qui cum iter in provinciam nostram atque 
Italiam facerent, iis impedimentis quje secum agere 
ac portare non poterant citra flumen Rhenum 
depositis custodiam ex suis ac presidium sex millia 
hominum una reliquerunt." 

Now the most appropriate descriptive 
epithet of that presidium would be relictum 
in Latin. In Welsh ad=re- (adolygu, to 
review), and gadu, gadaw, or gadael 
= linquere ; aihwyt = yth adawyd, " wert 
left " ymgat=a'm gadaw, " will leave me ' r 
(Llywarch Hen's' elegy on Kynddylau) ; 
a adassant, " they left " (the oldest c. 1200 
Welsh copy of H. Dda's Laws ; see Evans's 
'Report on Welsh MSS.,' i. 359). The 
prefix ad, a favourite one in Welsh, was cer- 
tainly continental also ; thus the Cis- Alpine 
Addua or Adda resumes its identity after its 
temporary absorption in the Lago di Como. 
The Aduatuci, therefore, described them- 
selves, and were described by others, by a 
term which bore their history on its face. 

J. P. OWEN. 

"CERA PANIS" (10 S. v. 490). The fol- 
lowing is from Manley's ' Interpreter,' pub- 
lished 1672 : 

" ' Maineport ' is a small duty which, in some 
places, the Parishioners pay to the Rector of their 
Church, in recompence of certain Tythes. See 
' Waxshot.' Spelman in his Glossary saith, That 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. n, im 

Vicaria de Wragly (in Com. Lincoln) consistit in 
toto Altaragip et in Ceragio, vulgariter diet. Wax- 
shot; in panibus, vulgariter diet. Mainport ; et in 
incremento denariorum sancti Petri, vulgariter diet. 

"Waxshof or 'Waxcot,' Ceragium. This was 
anciently paid thrice a year towards the charge of 
Candles in Churches. Tributum quod in Ecclesiis 
pendebatur ad subministrationem cerae et Lumi- 
narium. Hac autem solutione multi se contendunt 
immunes esse a minoribus quibusdam decimis per- 
solvendis ejusdemq; generis sunt qu$e alias ' Cock 
and Wax,' alias 'Maineport' appellantur. Spel- 

"'Altarage,' 'Altaragium.' This word includes 
not only the offerings made upon the Altar, but also 
all the profit that arises to the Priest by reason of 
the Altar, Obventio Altaris ; as appears by an order 
made in the Terme of St. Michael, viz., in the 
Exchequer between Turner Vicar of West Haddon 
in Com. Northampton Andrews, whereby is de- 
clared that by Altaragium is meant Tythes of Wooll, 
Lamb, Colt, Calf, Pigs, Goslings, Chickens, Butter, 
Cheese, Hemp, Flax, Honey, Fruits, Herbs, and 
other such small Tythes, with offerings that shall 
be due in the Parish of West Haddon. And the 
like Case was for Norton in Northamptonshire, of a 
later date, Oblationes sive nummorum sive panum 
tali vel tali Altari, vel ex devotione vel ex con- 
suetudine, aut a Parochianis, aut ab extraiieis facte 
Altaragii nomine censebantur. Gloss, in Mat. 


John Maud was vicar of St. Mary's, Waltham- 
sto.w, Essex, 1689 and 1690, being succeeded 
in the latter year by Jac. Barker. His 
immediate predecessor was Isaac Wright. 
See my query on Vicars of Walthamstow 
at 9 S. iv. 148. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

PINCUSHION SWEET (10 S. vi. 50). The 
word " pincushion," used to signify a kind 
of sweetmeat, is at least sixty-five years old. 
1 well remember, as long ago as that, asking 
my father, when he went from home, to 
bring back with him some pincushions. 
Pincushions " was not a general term for 
sweet stuff" of various kinds, but was 
restricted to balls about the size of small 
marbles, strongly flavoured with pepper- 
mint. They were adorned by red or purple 
bands. K . R D F E f 

QUARY ' (10 S. vi. 65). The spelling of the 
word sybil " by Scott can hardly be called 
a slip ; for this spelling seems to have been 
general in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries and the early part of the nine- 
teenth. In a very old edition of Johnson's 
Dictionary,' where a line of Dryden is 
quoted, the word is spelt " sybil " ; also in 
an edition of The Spectator dated 1713 The 
paper which contains the word was written 

by Addison ; but I cannot at the present 
moment light upon it. I believe, however, 
that I once referred to it in ' N. & Q.' when 
the spelling of this word was discussed. In 
an edition of ' The Vicar of Wakefield,' 1784, 
I find in the tenth chapter the words " the 
tawney Sybill." In Chambaud's ' French 
Dictionary,' 1815, under the word Sibylle, 
the sentence " C'est une vieille Sibylle " is 
englished thus : " She is an old Sybil." 
And the French Sibyllin becomes in English 
Sybilline. . E. YARDLEY. 

[MK. YARDLEY'S memory is correct. He alluded 
to the Spectator spelling at 9 S. ix. 297. The other 
references to the discussion on Sibyl or Sybil are 
9 S. vii. 200, 317, 455.] 

(10 S. vi. 69). As regards St. John Zachary, 
the earliest extant register commences in 
1693 only, though many entries relating to 
the parish between 1670 and this date occur 
in the registers of SS. Anne and Agnes, to 
which parish St. John's was (ecclesiastically) 
united in the earlier year. No portion of 
the registers of either of these has been 
printed, but many notes from both will be 
given in my history of the united parishes, 
now in course of compilation. A list of 
the chief monuments in the old church of 
St. John appears in Stow's ' Survey ' (1893 
reissue of Morley's edition, p. 292) ; and 
additional notes of interments therein will 
be found in the late Deputy White's book 
on the old London churches.* 

The latter work also contains a section 

devoted to St. Peter, Westcheap (sic) ; and 

notices of the principal persons buried in this 

church are given by Stow (as above, p. 299). 


"MINININ," A SHELL (10 S. v. 449, 497 ; 
vi. 15, 77). I am afraid I have heard this 
word too often for MR. LITTLETON'S sugges- 
tion that it is minnie yin to be correct. I 
presume minnievin is a misprint for minnie 
yin. But that it may be derived from a 
minnie yin seems quite possible. 

1, Castlebar Road, Baling, W. 

LONDON (10 S. v. 385, 454 ; vi. 13, 76). 
The Miss Robinson mentioned on the play- 
bill could scarcely have been a pupil of Hannah 
More ; MR. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL was evi- 
dently thinking of " Perdita," Mrs. Mary 
Robinson, nee Darby. Hannah More was 

* ' The Churches and Chapels of Old London,' by 
J. G. White, privately printed, 1901 (a copy can be 
seen in the Guildhall Library). 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, 1906.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


not born until 1745, and could have taken 
few pupils in 1732. She is reported to have 
had Perdita for a pupil, but the latter evi- 
dently profited little by the example or 
precept of the foundress of the Religious Tract 

CATTE STREET (10 S. vi. 49, 95). The 
following local names illustrate the use of 
cat as an adjective : 

Oatford in Kent ; compare Romford in 

Cathay at Bristol ; compare Pithay (Rev. 
W. Hunt's ' Bristol,' p. 126, note). 

Catcote, Somerset. 

Catfield, Norfolk. 

Catmoor, Berkshire. 

Catton, Norfolk and Yorkshire. 

Cat wick, Yorkshire, 

Catworth, Huntingdon. 

It would be interesting to know how far 
the geographical features of these places 
answer to cat, narrow or small. 


473 ; vi. 10). Whether any boa-constrictor 
is powerful enough to lift a man off his horse 
I cannot say : until proof be given, my 
judgment must remain in suspense. It may 
not be amiss, however, to remark that I well 
remember in Mr. W. S. Mayo's novel 
entitled ' Kaloolah ; or, Journeyings to the 
Djebel Kumri,' though it is half a century 
since I read it, a powerful scene wherein a 
serpent saves the hero's life by clasping a 
lion and drawing him up into a tree. This 
is, of course, only fable, but it is probably 
founded on some narrative which the author 
regarded as truthful. K. P. D. E. 

IN 1666 (10 S. vi. 6). The * Life ' in question 
is that by Thomas Stapleton (1535-98). 
See his ' Tres Thomse ' (St. Thomas the 
Apostle, St. Thomas a Becket, and Sir 
Thomas More), Douay, 1588. Chap. xii. 
of More's life is headed ' Apophthegmata, 
sapienter et pie dicta Thomse Mori ' (I quote 
from the fourth volume of Stapleton's 'Opera 
Omnia,' Paris, 1620), and a little over half- 
way through the following is found : " Affir- 
mabat serio persuasissimum sibi esse quam 
plurimos in hac vita eo labore infernum 
mercari, cuius vel dimidio ccelum lucrati 
fuissent." Stapleton refers in the margin 
to 1. 2, c. 17, of the ' Libri de Consolatione in 
Adversis ' ( = ' A Dyalogue of Comfort 
against Tribulation '). The blunder of 
'* Inferni " is probably due to the word 
having been printed" infernu, but MR. 

DODGSON can hardly be serious in inviting 
assistance for " rectifying the letter of the 

Hotel Wiltcher, Brussels. 

S. v. 209). Although it is not an answer 
to the question re the Dyer family of Iltord, 
your correspondent may like to know of the 
following inscription, which I copied from 
Little Ilford churchyard in April, 1904 : 

" In Memory of | Mr. John Dyer | Late of East 
Ham Parish | who departed this life November | 
the 25th 1800 Aged 83 Years." 
It is on a head-stone attached to a brick 
mummy tomb in the south-west corner of 
the churchyard. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

LISBON,' 1755 (10 S. vi. 61). I am not a 
Fielding collector, but, after reading COL. 
PRIDEAUX'S paper, it has struck me that it 
may perhaps interest those who are if I make 
mention of a copy of the ' Voyage ' in my 
possession, which is a yet shorter version 
than that referred to by your correspondent. 
The title-page runs : " A | Journal | of a | 
Voyage to Lisbon j With a Fragment of 
| A Comment | on | Lord Bolingbroke's 
Essays | By the late \ Henry Fielding Esq. 
[Vignette.] Dublin: Printed by James 
Hoey at the Mercury in Skinner Row. 
MDCCLVI." The ' Journal ' runs from p. 33 
to p. 170 ; the ' Fragment ' from p. 171 to 
p. 190. The title-page (verso blank), Dedi- 
cation, Preface, and Introduction occupy 
32 pp. Mrs. Humphrys figures as the 
landlady. ST. SWITHIN. 

CHERRY IN PLACE-NAMES (10 S. vi. 69). 
In Domesday Cheriton is called Ceritone 
and Cerintone. According to Polwhele's 
' History of Devonshire,' 1797, vol. ii. p. 43, 
it is spelt in several old writings Cheorleton 
or Cherleton. As to its meaning, he says : 

Cheriton, as some interpret it, is the town 
of Chieur, who possessed lands in these parts 
in the Conqueror's days." 



i. 69). Possibly the address mentioned by 
MR. LATHAM was given by General Dumourier, 
who resided for some time in the vicinity of 
Henley. R- B. 


CHURCH ALES (10 S. vi. 70). The letter of 
Pope St. Gregory to which T. S. M. refers 
's to be found in Beda's ' Ecclesiastical 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 11,1908. 

History,' Book I. chap. xxx. Its date is 
in or about A.D. 601. It is evident, from 
what the Pope says, that the church ales 
were the successors of the heathen rites 
which had been in use aforetime. 

A paper on church ales, by the present 
writer, occurs in the Journal of the Royal 
Archaeological Institute, vol. xl. pp. 1-1 5.* 

COL. CHARLES GODFREY (10 S. vi. 49). 
In an account of the Dunch family of Little 
Wittenham, near Wallingford, in Noble's 
' Memoirs of the Protectoral House of Crom- 
well,' it is said that Edmund Dunch, Esq., 
" married Elizabeth, one of the two daughters of 
Col. Godfrey by Lady Arabella Churchill, sister to 
the great Duke of Marlborough, and died at White- 
hall much in years, and greatly respected. Their 
issue was four daughters." Vol. ii. 163. 

There is a long account of the genealogy and 
alliances of the Dunch family in the above- 
mentioned work. 

Henrietta Churchill, the other daughter, 
married Sir Henry Waldegrave, afterwards 
created Baron Waldegrave of Chewton. 
Her monument may yet be seen in the church 
of Navestock, in Essex, and on it the arms 
"Waldegrave impaling the royal arms 
ensigned with the baton sinister, the mark 
of bastardy." From them the present Earls 
Waldegrave descend. 


SEA-URCHIN (10 S. vi. 9, 73). I think 
more attention has been paid to fisher folk- 
lore than A. D. is aware of. Much has been 
recorded in various publications, especially 
in those of the Folk-lore Society ; and though 
I cannot remember that we have any English 
book wholly devoted to superstitions relating 
to seas and " all that in them is," I believe 
that Librairie Le Chevallier, Paris, has issued 
' Legendes, Croyances et Superstitions de la 
Mer.' I find from Rolland's ' Faune Popu- 
laire de la France ' that at Biarritz the 
echinus is called montre de mer, which is 
suggestive of some fancy concerning the 
Other French names, there given, 
are analogous to our own "urchin," and 
refer to the panoply of spines ; thev are 
oiirsin, hcrisson de mer, and clidtaigne de mer 
In Italian nccio di mare marks the same 
peculiarity. Flint echini are called phari- 
sees [i.e. fairies'] loaves in some parts of 
our own country. ST . SWITHIN. 


> S. vi. 29 57, 73, 92.) It delights me that 

tlus sweet old song should have attention. 

The tune was the first known to me, and with 

1R. CURRY I can say that it and the words 

learnt in childhood have ever lingered in my 
memory. Very possibly the charm is 
enhanced through connexion with the noble- 
and graceful tower of Ashford Church, Kent 
surely one of the comeliest in the kingdom. 
There are old chimes in that tower ; they 
were repaired and added to about twenty 
years since, and some at least of the old 
tunes having been preserved, the verger 
will tell any one that asks him the day and 
hour when " O dear, what can the matter 
be ? " has its turn. But the listener,, 
remembering that the mechanical bell- 
tune is old, will kindly make allowance for 
an occasional imperfect note, and excuse 
the very leisurely pace of the harmony. 

As MR. CURRY'S acquaintance with the 
song began in Northumberland, and mine- 
in Kent, it may be inferred that it is known 
all over England. W. L. RUTTON. 

ST. EDITH (10 S. vi. 29, 70, 91). In ' Fasti 
Monastici ^Evi Saxonici,' by -Walter de Gray 
Birch, London, 1873, the following informa- 
tion occurs : 

"Wilton or Ellandune, Wilts. Seculars, c. 773; 
Benedictine nunnery, under a prioress, 800 ; under 

an abbess, 871 Eadgitha, Edith, al. Editha 

Wilton, 984 (Abbess)." 

The ascribed date of the foundation of 
Pollesworth (Warwick) is given as " begin- 
ning of 9th century," and Editha appears 
as " Abbess." There was, apparently, an 
Abbess Eadgitha at Tamworth " end of 
9th century " ; also St. Edith at St. Mary's, 
Winchester, " temp. R. Eadgari." 

There was a public well at Bristol dedicated 
to St. Edith (Editha). It was situated in 
one of the most ancient parts of the town, 
and it is not at all improbable that it was 
in existence in the Saxon period. The street 
in which it existed was known as " Worschup 
Street, otherwise "Worschip," " Wors- 
chepe," and later as " Worschupful." In 
this street were the shambles, stalls for the 
sale of meat and fish, and a market-place ; 
William Worcestre, writing in the fifteenth 
century, refers to the street : " Vicus de 
Shamelys ab antique vocatus Worshyp 
Strete." There is, so far as I know, no 
mention of St. Edith's Well in any document 
later than the fifteenth century ;' but as the 
well was situated in that part^of Worschepe 
Street which abutted upon the " Vicus 
Defensorius," there is little doubt that this 
well or conduit represents the " fonte novo- 
de frestone noviter erecto et fundato de 
bonis Willelmi Canyngys," which was 
erected in the fifteenth century, and subse- 
quently became known as '" St. Peter's 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Pump." The beautiful little freestone 
sexagonal structure, known as " St. Peter's 
-Cross," which surmounted the well was 
obtained by Mr. Henry Hoare in or about 
the year 1768, at the time it was taken 
down for street improvement, and was 
re-erected by him in his grounds at Stour- 
liead, Wilts, where it may still be seen. 


CLEMENT'S INN SUNDIAL (10 S. vi. 30). 
"Under the heading of ' Cylindrical Dials,' 
in the late Mrs. Alfred Gatty's ' Book of 
Sundials ' (enlarged edition, 1900), we read : 
"The pedestal admits of great variety of treat- 
ment. Sometimes it is a kneeling figure supporting 
the dial with hands and head. Such a figure, 
usually spoken of as ' The Moor,' stood for many 
years in the Garden of Clement's Inn. Peter Cun- 
ningham, in his ' Handbook of London,' supposes it 
to have been brought from Italy by Lord Clare, 
but Mr. Timbs's account appears to be more correct. 
* There were, in the eighteenth century,' he says, 
''statuaries who made figures in lead, and whose 
yards lay between Piccadilly, Devonshire House, 
and Park Lane, and a favourite design of one of 
these men, John Van Nost, who came over with 
William III., was that of an African kneeling, with 
a sundial on his head : the last owner of this yard, 
John Cheere, died in 1787.' The date on this dial 
plate is 1781 : the designer, no doubt, inherited 
John Van Nost's traditions. The figure is of bronze, 
and was at one time painted black, when a wag 
stuck on it the following lines : 

In vain, poor sable son of woe, 

Thou seek'st the tender tear : 
From thee in vain with pangs they flow, 

For mercy dwells not here. 
From cannibals thou fledd'st in vain : 

Lawyers less quarter give ; 
The first won't eat you till you 're slain, 

The last will do 't alive. 

"At the sale of the property of Clement's Inn in 
1884, the dial was bought by Mr. William Holmes, 
.and presented to the Society of the Inner Temple, 
and it now stands in the gardens, on the terrace by 
the Thames Embankment." 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

-'(10 S. iv. 530; v. Ill, 158, 214). Vincent 
Bourne and Cowper should not be omitted 
in any reference to the English robin. Both 
.admired and liked the bird, and the one 
happily translated the other's ' Invitation 
to the 'Redbreast ' in a dainty lyric, of which 
-.this is the opening stanza : 

Sweet bird whom the winter constrains 

And seldom another it can 
To seek a retreat while he reigns 

In the well-sheltered dwellings of man, 
Who never can seem to intrude, 

Though in all places equally free, 
Come, oft as the season is rude, 

Thou art sure to be welcome to me. 

There is no hint of evil influence here. On 
the contrary, the spontaneous and warm 
proffer of hospitality is indicative of such 
direct interest and affection as moved Burns 
in his ' Winter Night,' when he wondered 
where each spring songster would cower its 
" chittering wing " and close its eye as it 
was buffeted by the storm. Cowper's 
expressive ' Epitaph on a Free but Tame 
Redbreast,' a favourite of Miss Sally Burdis, 
is also noteworthy : 

These are not dewdrops, these are tears, 
And tears by Sally shed, 

For absent Robin, who she fears, 
With too much cause, is dead. 


The allusion to the redbreast and to his 
charitable office in ' The Children in the 
Wood ' ought not to be omitted : 
No burial this pretty pair 

Of any man receives, 
Till Robin Redbreast piously 
Did cover them with leaves. 

The ballad is found in the ' Percy Reliques,' 
and is supposed by some to refer to 
Richard III. and his nephews, the infant 
princes murdered in the Tower. The ballad 
is highly eulogized by Addison in Spectator, 
No. 85, and a parallel passage quoted from 
Horace, though wood-pigeons in it are said 
to discharge the duty of the redbreast 
(Odes, III. iv.): t 

Me fabulosse Vulture in Appulo, 
Altricis extra limen Apulise, 
Ludo fatigatumque somno 

Fronde nova puerum palumbes 

Gray has the following beautiful allusion 
in a passage eliminated from his ' Elegy in a 
Country Churchyard ' : 
There scattered oft, the earliest of the year, 

By hands unseen, are show'rs of violets found ; 
The redbreast loves to build and warble there, 
And little footsteps lightly print the ground. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

There are several places called Bemau, 
the nearest one to Constance being in the 
Black Forest. Is not the meaning that 
E. C. C. and W. C. C. laid down the brass 
to the memory of a certain I. N. L. B. de 
Roll of Bernau ? J. B. WAINEWBIGHT. 

PARATUS " (10 S. vi. 69). The motto " Nun- 
quam non paratus " appears under the arms 
of Baron Derwent (Sir H. V.-B. Johnston), 
over those of Sir Fredk. John Wm. Johnston, 
Bt., of Westerhall, co. Dumfries, and under 
the arms of Sir H. A. W. Johnson, of Bath. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 11, im 

The family of Baron Derwent and that of 
Sir F. J. W. Johnston have a common 
ancestry in the extinct marquisate of Annan- 
dale. The motto was used also, up to a 
few years ago, by Blairlodge School, near 
Polmont, N.B. I have heard it spoken of 
as " the old Border motto." But the crest 
of the Johnstons is " a spur erect, rowel 
upwards, with wings elevated or, leather 
gu., buckle ppr." H. G. DANIELS. 

The motto is that of the Johnston family, 
but " the hand holding a battle-axe " seems 
to suggest Gibbs ; and I recollect there are 
several monuments of the latter family in 
this church. J. DE BERNIERE SMITH. 

If SOUTH AMERICAN cares to write to me, 
I may be able to give him some information. 

1 Blandford Villas, Queen's Road, 
Buckhurst Hill, Essex. 

MICHAEL also thanked for replies.] 

"PEARL": ITS ETYMON (10 S. v. 409, 
493). As etymologists'hesitate about accept- 
ing the derivation of this word from the 
assumed but unauthenticated Lat. pirula 
(from pirum), I would suggest its being a 
doublet of " beryl " (Lat. beryllus, Gr. 
/Sr/pvAAos). Prof. Skeat in his dictionary 
cites several early forms of the word, 
notably the O.H.G. perala, perla, berala, berla, 
quoting Diez. Though geologically beryl 
is found crystallized in the form of prisms, 
it frequently occurs in geodes and druses, 
in much the same way structurally as 
pearls do within the valves of the oyster ; 
while the transparent varieties of the gem 
go by the name of " aquamarine." Accord- 
ing to the 'N.E.D.,' berillus in Med. Lat. 
signified crystal, also an eyeglass or spectacles 
(cf. the " pebbles " of the optician) whence 
M.H.G. berille and Ger. brille, spectacles. 
Both substances being of great commercial 
value, this now familiar word may thus 
have had its origin in the artist's laboratory, 
as in the case of " adamant " and " diamond." 
To some minds, perhaps, an authenticated 
beryllus may be preferred to a hypothetical 
pirula. N. W. HILL. 


(10 S. vi. 68). Husenbeth, in 'Emblems of 
Saints ' (third edition, 1882), mentions that 
pictures of this Archbishop of Milan may be 
seen in the Louvre and in the Bologna 
Gallery. Husenbeth also quotes Le Brun, 
who has painted St. Charles kneeling before 
an altar, with a rope around his neck. 



The English Hymnal, ivith Tunes. The English 
Hymnal. Book of Common Prayer and English 
Hymnal. (Frowde.) 

IN 'The English Hymnal,' published in various 
forms, we have a work of exemplary catholicity 
and range. Though intended primarily for use in 
the Church of England and as a companion to the 
Book of Common Prayer, it is, as it claims to be, 
a collection of the best hymns in the English lan- 
guage, and gives the evangelical effusions of Wesley, 
Watts, Ken, Cowper and Toplady as well as the 
more recent liturgical compositions of F. W. Faber, 
Keble, and Canon Baring-Gould. A considerable 
portion of the contents is modern, and among those 
who are responsible for hymns are Tennyson, 
Kipling, and Mr. Bridges. Nothing equally full and 
admirable in contents, in classification, and in 
method was previously in existence, and the work 
may be held to enlarge the domain of hymnology. 
It is, moreover, remarkable in erudition as in other 
things. The musical department, which is under 
the control of Mr. Vaughan Williams, is no less 
commendable than the literary. The tunes some 
of which were composed expressly for the work 
are drawn from German, French, Italian, Spanish, 
Flemish, Dutch, Swiss, and other sources, as well 
as from English, and include Lutheran chorale 
tunes, German tunes of the eighteenth century by 
Bach and Freylinghausen, ecclesiastical melodies 
from the Paroissiens of Rouen and Angers, together 
with traditional melodies. From whatever point 
of view it is contemplated, the ' Hymnal ' creates 
an equally favourable impression, and its general 
adoption will lead to a great improvement in con- 
gregational worship. With the music the ' Hymnal ' 
constitutes a volume of close upon one thousand 
pages, of which index lists form a useful and an 
important part, greatly facilitating reference. The 
words are issued in various forms, one of which, in 
32mo, is published for twopence. The 'Hymnal' 
is issued with all the luxury of Oxford India paper 
and Clarendon Press type in connexion with various; 
editions of the Book of Common Prayer. Did space 
permit, we could with pleasure dilate upon this all- 
important contribution to hymnology. 

Relics of the Puritan Martyrs, 1593. Four Prin- 
cipall and Waiyhty Causes for Separation, by 
Henry Barrowe. A Pastoral Letter written from 
Prison, and Part of a Controversial Epistle, by 
John Greenwood. Edited from a Contemporary 
MS. by T. G. Crippen. (Congregational His- 
torical Society.) 

THIS pamphlet is one of the publications of the 
Congregational Historical Society, the first Trans- 
actions of which we noticed at 9 S. x. 159. We are 
glad to see with what energy Mr. Crippen makes 
search for MSS. having reference to the origin and 
history of Congregationalism. It is with evident 
delight that he writes that it was "a singular 
stroke of good fortune that enabled me, early in 
1905, to identify the then imprinted tracts now 
presented to the public, which are preserved in a 
contemporary handwriting in the Congregational 
Library." Of Barrow or Barrowe and Green- 
wood interesting biographies appear in the- 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' vols. iii. and 

10 s. vi. AUG. 11, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

xxiii., the former written by Dr. Grosart, and the 
latter by Mr. C. L. Kingsford. Barrow became a 
member of Gray's Inn in 1576, and lived a careless 
life about the Court ; but a sermon he heard so 
impressed him that, in Bacon's words, " he made a 
leap from a vain and libertine youth to a precise- 
ness in the highest degree, the strangeness of which 
made him very much spoken of." Forsaking the 
law, he gave himself up to the study of the Bible. 
He came to know Greenwood, and both were 
deeply impressed by the books of Robert Browne, 
the founder of the "Brownists." Greenwood was 
arrested on Sunday, the 19th of November, 1586, 
and Barrow went to visit him at the Clink, and 
was admitted, only to find that he too was arrested. 
There was no warrant, but it was done in obedience 
to the wish of Whitgift, the Primate. After ex- 
aminations before the High Commissioners and 
many delays, they were indicted at the Old Bailey 
on the 21st of March, 1592/3, under a statute of 
Queen Elizabeth which made it felony punishable 
by death to cause to be written or circulated any 
manner of book, letter, or writing "with a malicious 
intent." The prisoners protested against any charge 
of malicious intent ; but they were found guilty on 
the 30th of March, and taken to Tyburn, the 
journey being meant to terrify them into con- 
formity. They were returned to Newgate, but 
seven days later they were again sent_ to Tyburn, 
and were hanged on the 6th of April, 1593. 

Barrow was by far the stronger mind. Dr. Grosart 
contests Dr. Dexter's claim that Barrow was one of 
the main founders of Congregationalism, and con- 
siders it even "doubtful if cceteris paribun he 
objected to a national church, if only the supreme 
authority of Jesus Christ and Holy Scripture was 
unconditionally admitted." With the present pam- 
phlet before us we cannot but think that Dr. Dexter's 
view is the correct one, and we do this without 
holding a brief either way. Much that appears in 
these 'Four Causes for Separation ' must be regarded 
with regret by Churchmen and Nonconformists 
alike, and Mr. Crippen in his preface states "that 
it is perhaps needless to add that neither the editor 
nor the Congregational Historical Society would in 
these days endorse all the positions assumed by 
these old Puritan Worthies." Living in an in- 
tolerant age, they honestly regarded any rejection 
of what seemed to them to be truth as disloyalty 
to Christ. To the truth as they conceived it they 
were faithful unto death, find by laying down their 
lives did much to bring in a larger freedom than 
they either desired or were able to imagine." 

Northern Notes and Queries. Nos. 2 and 3. Edited 
by H. R. Leighton. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Dodds. ) 
OUR Northern contemporary fulfils the promise of 
its first number. The two parts before us are ex- 
cellent ; the contributors not only understand the 
subjects on which they discourse, but also have the 
faculty certainly an uncommon one of not using 
more words than are called for to express their 

Mr. Henry Penfold gives a most interesting paper 
on ' Some East Cumberland Corpse or Burial Roads. 
It is a curious subject, which calls for much wider 
investigation. We believe these old trackways 
exist in many widely separated parts of England. 
There is, as Mr. Penfold points out, an undoubted 
connexion between these old roads and the common 
belief that if a corpse, on the way to the grave, has 
traversed field or woodland, a public right of high- 

way has been created. He speaks of this notion as 
"at one time prevalent," as if it had now become a 
discredited piece of folk-lore. How this may be 
in Cumberland we do not know, but the belief is 
by no means extinct in a certain Eastern shire with 
which we are well acquainted. The origin of the 
belief is not difficult to account for. When nearly 
the whole of England was unenclosed, a funeral 
would naturally go the shortest safe pathway to 
the grave : no one would have either the power or 
the will to interfere with the mourners. When the 
lands were subjected to enclosure the case became 
different. Many of the old "ways " were not heeded 
by the commissioners who set out the new freeholds, 
partly from greed, arid partly from fear that, if they 
continued to exist, the authorities would from time 
to time insist on the ratepayers putting them into 
good order. From these reasons rural people have 
in many cases suffered no little injustice. Some- 
times, however, legal proceedings have been taken 
with success to maintain these old rights of way, 
and it was thought, riot without reason, that if 'it 
could be proved that burial processions had tra- 
versed the ground, it would go some way towards 
proving that a common-law right had existed afore- 
time. At Stapleton the custom still continues, and 
a belief is yet prevalent that if a funeral procession 
goes the wrong way another death in the family 
will soon occur. Numerous stories are current 
which are held to demonstrate this. 

There are many accounts of persons losing rings 
and finding them in the mouths or bodies of fish. 
One is quoted here from a manuscript of the seven- 
teenth century. A Newcastle merchant lost his 
ring at the bridge, and afterwards recovered it from 
the mouth of a fish served at his table ; as a con- 
sequence he bore three rings as his coat of arms. 
A good instance of folk-etymology is given from the 
same book. Morpeth means, we are told, murder- 
peth, on account of the many murders and robberies 
committed there and in the neighbourhood. 

The Home Counties Magazine. Edited by W. Paley 

Baildon. July. (Reynell & Son.) 
W T E have read with great pleasure Mr. Howard 
Hensman's paper on Stoke Pogis Gray's village, 
as he aptly calls it. Gray wrote little. All that he 
produced is powerful, but nothing is now popular 
except the ' Elegy,' if that, indeed, be an exception 
on account of its finding a place in verse-selections 
compiled mainly, we believe, for scholastic pur- 
poses. Mr. Hensman is pained by this neglect, and 
we share his unhappiness. It is sad to know that 
a really great poet should be well-nigh forgotten, 
while so many verse-makers, without one-tenth of 
his thought or sustained power over metre, are 
affectionately remembered. We cannot but think 
that the chief reason is that, as in the case of 
Milton, some amount of scholarship is required to 
enjoy him. Stoke Pogis was not his home; he 
lived, however, but a mile away. Fables have 
gathered round the ' Elegy ' : it is said to have been 
written in the churchyard on his mother's tomb, 
but this is a mere dream. The first edition of the 
poem saw the light in 1751, and Gray's mother did 
not die until the spring of 1753. It is cheering to- 
be told that the church of Stoke Pogis and its sur- 
roundings have undergone little change since the 
poet saw them. The ivy, as in Gray's time, still 
mantles the old tower, and the "moping owl" yet 
finds a home therein. It was heard last summer. 
The yew tree and the elms are still there. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rio s. vi. 

n, 1908 . 

* The Place- Names of North wood and the Dis 
trict,' by Mr. M. J. C. Meiklejohn, is the continua 
tion of a former article. The writer adheres to th 
old opinion that the surname Howard means hog 
ward ; the editor, however, suggests in a note tha 
he is in error. "Hogward" is, we believe, im 
possible. If Howard be not a Christian nam 
become hereditary, it may be a modification o 
Hayward, a manorial or parochial officer on whom 
the duty devolved of seeing that the hedges wer 
kept in good order, so that cattle could not stray. 

In a paper on parish history, compiled from post 
Reformation ecclesiastical records, we notice tha 
in 1613 a certain Joel Clarke, of Linsted, denouncec 
the ecclesiastical court of Canterbury to Giles King 
one of the apparitors, calling it a " scurvy court,' 
and saying "that there sat a sort of company o 
pickpockets, and a man shall find as much con 
.science at Gadds-hill as amongst them." This is 
curious : one would like to know whether Gadds 
hill had become proverbial, or whether it still hac 
a character for highway robbery. 

Mr. H. M. Cooke contributes a paper on ok 
pewter, which is illustrated with good photographs. 
To The Fortnightly Mr. Lewis Melvill sends an 
interesting, but not quite accurate article on Charles 
Lever. To say, as is said, that Lever paid a fare- 
well visit to Ireland in 1781, and died on 1 June in 
the following year, is a sli]> which involves an error 
of ninety years. In ascribing to Lever the ballad 
concerning the Sultan and the Pope, which Thacke- 
ray said he would rather have written than any one 
of his own compositions, a mistake in the penulti- 
mate line of the last verse spoils the rime. This is 
thus given : 

Whene'er my maiden kisses me, 

I '11 think that I the Sultan be ; 

And when my cheery glass I fill 

I '11 fancy then I am the Pope. 
The word "fill" in the third line should be tope 
Mr. Maurice Gerothwohl in 'Pierre Corneille : a 
Domestic Enigma,' offers a curious, but plausible 
suggestion concerning the dramatist. Completing 
his ' English Stage in the Eighteenth Century,' Mr 
H. B. Irving vindicates Garrick from the charges 
brought against him by Johnson, Foote, Smollett, 
Fitzgerald, Hiffernan, and others. Mr. Francis 
Gribble, writing on John Stuart Mill, dwells on 
the philosopher s intimacy with Mrs. Taylor. 

IN The Nineteenth Century Mr. David H Wilson 
writes eruditely upon the Illustre Theatre, as was 
called the first management of Moliere and the 
Bejarts. The subject is not familiar in this 
country Mr Karl Blind's ' Paris National Work- 
shops of 1848 contains, in addition to its other 
-claims upon attention, some pieces of autobiography 
Mr. B. Vance Palmer gives some interesting par- 
ticulars concerning 'The Australian Corroboree ' 
M PK 8 r a i ri u- e Lin<3 jSay has a curious article called 
' I he Watching of the Myrrh. ' The Sacred Fire of 
smel deserves to be read; and 'The Kaiser's 
ticulars supplies some strange par- 

Mallock, which appears in The National'* ' 

OOmTWlrfiH t,ha t&anftlnr, r*( T 

It is, however, inconclusive 

Picture Prices. , 

the works of some painters go both up and clo'wn 
As a rule, the demand for last-century pictures is 
not great. In some instances, as in that of Ee- 
the drop is immense. An article on the treatment 
of tuberculosis is interesting, though technical. 

To The Cornhill Count Alvise Zorzi supplies the 
first part of a notable account of Ruskin in Venice 
A strange and very impressive account of the 
S u f s A ian A l 1( ? n f ^ rance appears under the title 
of At Montmirail m 1814.' ^eing, as is stated 
the work of a young girl, the chronicle of doings is 
indeed remarkable. 'Old Miniatures' afford! in 
teresting and in some cases tragic, " Links with 
the Past. ' Mr. Stephen Gwynn contributes ' When 
the Herring Come In'; Mr. Thomas Hardy som 
'Memories of Church Restoration-; and Sir Sle 
ments Markham, Objects of Polar Discovery/ 

UNDER the care of Mr. A. H. Bullen The Gentle- 
man'* becomes an ideal antiquarian maaS 
Never, during its memorable and varied carte? his 
\t been so excellent. ' Capt. Coxon,' 'Wavsida 
Wisdom, 'Horace,' and ' Dr. Johnson and Oxford ' 
are admirable contributions. < Retrospective Re 
w , s . are . Capital. ' Theatrical Repertories of 
1662 gives information not all to be found n the 
'Roscius Anghcanus' of Downes, the pron^ter 
The whole is just what a work of its class ought to 
be, and-we repeat the assertion-ideal. 
SAMUEL COOPER is the subject of No. V i n Sir 

oothe F T S L S co . ntrib tio s to TheJto&jSSi 
upon the English miniature painters. Three co 
posite plates (of which one serves as front 
reproduce miniatures of Cromwell and peopleTSs 
ame from the royal collections and those at Wei 
>eck Devonshire House, and elsewhere. Prof 
L. J. Holmes continues to discuss Rembrandt as an 
etcher. Art m America has t 



atte ' Mm 

the mean 




L m/|ccvio in j ne \cirio 

compares the teaching of Tennyson in 'In Me' 
mo . r ^:_Y^ that * Mr. Austin" to 'The Door of 

_ ^jviituj. ui. ^o^esana U 
tisements and Business Letters 

r. usn n he D 

Humility.' The parallel is honouring to , the present 
Laureate. A curious lesson is taVht tne 
noisseur in Mr. W. Roberto's 'Ups and Downs S 

io;s. VI.TACG. n, 1906.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 




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CONTENTS.-No. 138. 

UOTES : " Camera Dianre," 121 Montaigne, Webster, 
and Marston : Dr. Donne and Webster, 122 Inscriptions 
at Lucerne, 124 Bishop Corbet's Poems .Sir Edward 
Harley and Parliament, 126 Grantham Cross R. B. 
Sheridan : Unprinted Verses Marriage in a Shift 
St. ^Vinif red and the Old Pretender, 127 Doggerel Book- 
Inscriptions, 128. 

QUERIES : Nine Men's Morris "Podike" " Lidgate" : 
" Leap-gate," 128 ' Ursino of Navarre' Authors of 
Quotations Wanted "G," Hard or Soft Girl sentenced 
to be burnt alive : Pressing to Death, 129 W. G. Webb, 
Engraver Desmond Daniel O'Connell's Speech at the 
Hill of Tara "Ecce, Tiberira !"" Touching wood" 
'The Ritualist's Progress 'Picture of a Lady and her 
Son, 1594 John Purnell, 130. 

REPLIES : Verify your References " Plum " : Jack 
Homer, 131 Pledge in a Bumper Beldornie Press 
"Rime" . "Rhyme" Phcebe Hessel and Fontenoy, 132 
"Swerve" Christian of Milntown Louis Philippe's 
Landing in England Eton Swishing Caparn Family of 
Newark and Lincoln Preseren, Slavonic Poet, 133 
Book Signatures White Family of Southwick, 134 
Heraldic Col. By, R.E. Robin Hood in French" Gula 
Augusti " " Ikona," South African Term, 135 Order of 
the Royal Oak American Emigrants John Faucher- 
reaud Grimke Gordon House, Kentish Town Maiden 
Road, Stratford " Breaking the flag "Cherry in Place- 
names, 136 Abbey or Priory Fleetwood Brass Gotham 
and the 'N.E.D.' "Pearl" : its Etymon, 137 "Up": 
its Barbarous Misuse " War" : its Pronunciation, 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Hakluytus Posthumus ' ' The 
Oxford Degree Ceremony' 'The Problem of Spelling 
Reform ' ' Middlesex ' ' The Quarterly Review ' ' The 
Scottish Historical Review.' 

^Notices to Correspondents. 


A FEW notices of this ancient mansion 
-will be found scattered in various histories 
-of London, but anything like a connected 
account has never come under my observa- 
tion. I communicate the following notes 
regarding it in the hope of eliciting further 

Maitland, in his * History of London,' 
1739, p. 385, writes: 

" A very spacious Royal Mansion, denominated 
'Camera Diaiue, was situate adjoining to Doctors 
'Commons on the South, and was so call'd from its 
being the Residence of Fair Rosamund the beloved 
mistress of that Prince [Henry II.], who, for her 
incomparable beauty, he call'd Diana." 

In the later editions of Maitland some of the 
details contained in the next extract are 
.also given. 

Jesse, in his gossiping but inaccurate book, 
'* London : its Celebrated Characters and 
Remarkable Places,' 1871, iii. 189, quotes 
Bishop Gibson in his edition of Camden's 
* Britannia,' in reference to the old legend 
that a temple of Diana anciently stood on 
the site of St. Paul's Cathedral : 

"'It is urged, that as for the tenements called 
Camera Dianse, they stood not so near the church 

as some would have us think, but on St. Paul's 
Wharf Hill, near Doctors' Commons ; and they 
seem to have taken their denomination from a 
spacious building, full of intricate turnings, wherein 
King Henry the Second, as he did at Woodstock, 
kept his heart's delight, whom he there called Fair 
Rosamond, and here Diana.' " 

Jesse adds, without giving his authority : 

" Some remains of these ' intricate turnings ' ex- 
isted as late as the reign of Elizabeth, as also of an 
underground passage leading from Baynard's Castle, 
by which communication it has been presumed that 
the King was accustomed to find his way to his 
Camera Diana?, or secret apartment of his'beloved 

Authentic records seem, however, to throw 
doubt On the statement that the " Camera 
Dianse " was ever a royal residence. Dr. 
Sparrow Simpson, in his ' Chapters in the 
History of Old St. Paul's,' 1881, p. 69, refers 
to the Rosamond story, but slurs it over, 
as if it threw some discredit on the neigh- 
bourhood of the Cathedral. However that 
may be, it is certain that the house had a 
close connexion with St. Paul's, and for a 
considerable time was the official residence 
of one of the cathedral dignitaries. 

Amongst the archives of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral is a charter by the vice-gerent of Arnold, 
Dean of St. Paul's, and the Chapter of that 
church, reciting that Master Richard de 
Neuport, Archdeacon of Middlesex, had 
offered his books to the church of St. Paul 
for the foundation of a chantry, and that 
the house in which he dwells, and especially 
the " camera " which is called " Rosa- 
munde," is affected by the noise of men and 
horses in the neighbouring street ; and 
granting to him licence to build on the space 
of ground which abuts on the king's high- 
way from the chapel of the said house 'as 
far as the wall of the cemetery of St. Bene- 
dict, and reaches back from the said chamber 
as far as a certain pear-tree and certain 
vines (vineolas), which are not to be included. 
After the death of the said Richard, the 
buildings are to remain to the church of St. 
Paul for the sustenance of his chantry and 
obit. This charter is dated 1309, and in 
1314 Richard de Neuport was appointed 
Dean of St. Paul's, and promoted in 1316 to 
the bishopric of London, a dignity which he 
held for the space of two years only (Ninth 
Report Hist. MSS. Comm., Part I. Appendix, 
col. 49 b). 

A hundred years after, in 1407-8, we find 
among the same records an assignment by 
the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's to 
Walter Cook, Canon and Stagiary of that 
church, of 100?., wherewith to build a house 
on their ground in Knightrider Street, pro- 
vided that he shall not make any windows 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. is, im. 

or openings to the prejudice of the in 
habitants of the house in which the said 
Walter resides, generally known as the 
"Hospitium Deane " (ibid., col. 5 a). 

On 10 June, 1452, is recorded a further 
assignment by the Dean and Chapter of 
St. Paul's to Master Thomas Lyseux, Canon 
Residentiary and Stagiary of that church, 
of their inn, called " Camera Diane, alias 
Segrave, situatum in parochia Sancti Bene- 
dict! versus Pawles warff." According to 
the usual lists, Thomas Lyseux was appointed 
Dean of St. Paul's in 1441, and died in 
1456, so this assignment is probably a con- 
firmation of a deed of earlier date. The 
appellation of "Segrave" was doubtless 
derived from Gilbert de Segrave, at one 
time Precentor of St. Paul's, and the prede- 
cessor of Richard de Neuport in the bishopric 
of London (ibid., col. 4 a). 

In 1480 another assignment was made by 
the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's to 
Richard 'Licchefeld, Canon Residentiary and 
Stagiary of that church, of a yearly rent of 
eight marks, issuing from a messuage with 
a garden adjoining, called " Camera Diane, 
formerly inhabited by John Bourghchier, 
Lord Berners, and now let to Sir John Clay, 
Knight, but which properly belongs to the 
said Richard Licchefeld, by reason of his 
residence in the church of St. Paul. Richard 
undertakes to pay to the Chamberlain of 
St. Paul's the accustomed rent of 26s. 
issuing from the premises, for the obit of 
Richard the younger (iuvenis) (ibid., col. 5 a). 
Richard Licchefeld or Lichfield was Rector of 
Stepney and also Archdeacon of Middlesex 
from 1476 to his death in February, 1496/7. 
Lord Berners was the fourth son of William 
Bourchier, Earl of Ewe, and the grand- 
father of the translator of Froissart. 

The * Camera Dianse " subsequently 
came into the possession of the Carey family, 
but under what circumstances I am unable 
to indicate. Sir John Carey, third Baron 
Hunsdon, in his will, dated 31 March and 
proved 16 April, 1617, left to his wife, 
"the Lady Mary, his messuage or ten't in parish 
of St. Bennett, Paul's Wharf, London, called or 
known by the name of the house or Chamber of 

mund." Charles Carey married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Whitbroke, by whom 
he had one daughter, Mary, born about 1624, 
still living in 1708 (ibid., iv. 134). 

Of the further fortunes of this historic 
house, round which a romantic legend had 
gathered in the course of time, I can find no 
record, nor is its exact position easy to 
define. All we know is that it lay to the 
south of Doctors' Commons, in Knightrider 
Street, and to the north of the churchyard 
of St. Benet's. In all probability the 
" Camera " shared the fate of its neighbour, 
Mountjoy House, the " common house " of 
the civilians and canonists, and was de- 
stroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. 


Dijana, otherwise called 
a,,,/ Genealojfut, iv. 132. 

Rosamund's." Herald 

Lady Hunsdon was the daughter of Leonard 
Hyde, of Hyde Hall and Throcking, co. 
Herts. She died in her house at Paul's 
Wharf, 4 April, 1627, and by her will, dated 
5 May, 1623, and proved 18 April, 1627, she 
left to her son, Charles Carey, " my house 
wherein I now dwell near Doctors Commons, 
London, commonly called Diana Roso- 



(See 10 S. iv. 41, 121, 201, 302; v. 301, 

382; vi. 22.) 

THE saying of Gonzago in ' The Fawn,* 
IV. i. 627-31, that "those that fortune 
cannot make virtuous, she commonly makes- 
rich," is copied from the ' Essays,' book iii. 
chap. viii. p. 476, col. 2 ; and the speech of 
Hercules, in V. i. of the same play, from 
lines 15-20, is almost literally from book ii. 
chap. xv. p. 315, col. 1. At the end of 
Hercules's speech Dondolo enters laughing r 

Hercuh*. Why dost laugh, fool, here's nobody 
with thee ? 

Dondofo. Why, therefore do I laugh, because 

there's nobody with me. LI. 27-9. 
Both Marston and Webster are very skilful 
in making use of pithy sayings of this kind, 
as I have shown. The story is told by Mon- 
taigne of Miso, 

one of the seven sages (a man of a Timonian dis- 
position and Democraticall humour) being de- 
manded whereat he laughed alone, he answered, 
because I laugh alone. Book iii. chap. viii. p. 474, 

Take another instance. When Hanno has- 
heard the tale of misfortune told by Car- 
thalon in Sophonisba,' I. ii., he tears his- 
hair in the extremity of his grief. 

Massintsaa. Old lord, spare thy hairs : 
What, dost thou think baldness will cure thy erief ?' 

LI. 136-7. 

Now, this saying is attributed by Montaigne 
to Bion of Borysthenes : 

And the philosopher Byon was very pleasant 
with the king, that for griefe tore his haire, when 
he said, Doth this man thinke, that baldnesse will 
isswage his griefe ? "Book i. chap. iv. p. 9, col. 1. 
Scores of such sayings are made use of by 
Webster, several of which are contained in. 

10 s. vi. AUG. is, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Sir Francis Bacon's 'Apophthegms,' and, 
what is rather strange, sometimes in Bacon's 
own special phrasing ; but they are brought 
into the plays so deftly that they almost 
defy detection. Here is one : 

Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, a great 
champion of the Papists, was wont to say of the 
Protestants who ground upon the Scripture, " That 
they were like posts, that bring truth in their letters, 
and lies in their mouths." Apophthegm 16. 

Brach. There are a number of thy coat resemble 
Your common post-boys. 

Mont. Ha! 

Brach. Your mercenary post-boys : 
Your letters carry truth, but 'tis your guise 
To fill your mouths with gross and impudent lies. 
' The White Devil,' 11. 1350-55, p. 22, col. 1. 

I do not say Webster is indebted to Bacon 
in this case, and only quote the saying to 
show how nicely it is wrought into the 
fabric of the play ; but other cases of corre- 
spondence could be cited which would 
clearly prove Webster a borrower from 

' Sophonisba ' is just as full of borrowings 
from Montaigne as * The Dutch Courtezan ' 
and ' The Fawn ' are ; but I do not think 
I ought to occupy more space than is neces- 
sary to prove that statement in outline. 
The philosophy of Act II. sc. i. from 1. 1 to 1. 86 
is derived in great part from the ' Essays,' 
book iii. chap. i. ; and Marston was attracted 
to this chapter by its story of Tiberius, who 
refused to countenance the assassination by 
poison of his arch-enemy Ariminius. Mar- 
ston makes Gelosso adopt a similar attitude 
towards the proposal of the Senate, who 
had decreed the same treacherous death 
for Massinissa. The closeness with which 
the play follows the essay renders it pro- 
bable that the incident in * Sophonisba ' 
was really suggested by Montaigne. To 
give a sample of the manner in which 
Marston copies, I will quote the following : 

Car, Nothing in Nature is unserviceable. 
No, not even inutility itself. LI. 56-7. 

Montaigne says, " There is nothing in nature 
unserviceable, no not inutility itself " 
(p. 402, col. 1). 

An obscure passage in ' Sophonisba ' is 
made clear by a reference to an essay in 
the early part of the book. For this infor- 
mation I am indebted to Mr. K. Deighton. 
It is a much better and more valuable 
parallel than any I have been able to bring 
to light : 

Massininiia. To doubt of what shall be, is wretched- 
ness : 

Desire, fear, and hope, receive no bond 
By whom, we in ourselves are never but beyond. 

I. ii. 82-4. 

What Marston means is explained by 
Montaigne, whom the playwright or his- 
printer bungled: 

We are never in our selves, but beyond. Feare,. 
desire, and hope, draw us ever towards that which 
is to come, and remove our sense and consideration 
from that which is, &c. Book i. chap. iii. p. 5,. 
col. 1. 

Thus far I have shown that both Webster 
and Marston borrowed hugely from Mon- 
taigne, and that it is incorrect to say that 
certain matter in * The White Devil ' wa& 
taken from * The Fawn.' I turn back ta 
Webster once more, and will try to show 
now that the probable date of 'The 
Duchess of Malfi ' is 1613, or about the 
time of the composition of * A Monumental 

In my articles on Sir Philip Sidney and 
Webster I argued that the many corre- 
spondences between ' A Monumental Column ' 
and ' The Duchess of Malfi ' pointed like a 
finger to one or nearly the same date for 
both. Not only do these two pieces 
constantly repeat each other's language and 
imagery, and borrow from the same authors, 
but they differ from 'The White Devil/ 
which must have preceded them, and from 
' The Devil's Law - Case,' which most 
assuredly followed them. In ' The White- 
Devil ' no trace of * The Arcadia ' is to be 
found, whereas distinct echoes and repeti- 
tions of matter in Sidney's book are to be 
found in all Webster's later work, including, 
his 'Monuments of Honour,' published in 
1624. On the other hand, this ' Arcadia T 
matter in the later work is to be found 
there in patches only ; it does not come in 
" huddle upon huddle," as I have shown it 
occurs in ' A Monumental Column ' and 
' The Duchess of Malfi.' The later repeti- 
tions of Sidney are the results of old notes, 
taken by Webster years previously ; and in 
one or two cases, as I proved, he has used 
his notes twice, and even three time over. 
On the strength of the extraordinary 
number of likenesses I had been able to 
find between the elegy and ' The Duchess 
of Malfi,' I advocated the known date of 
the former (1613) for the play as well. I 
was very cautious in my expression of that 
opinion, and did not tie myself down to it. 
When, however, I went back to Dr. Donne's 
work I speedily found that there was very 
strong warrant for the assumption that the 
poem and the play are close together 
in point of time. These two pieces of 
Webster's borrow from Dr. Donne's 'An 
Anatomy of the World,' from the ' First 
Anniversary ' as well as from the ' Funeral 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. is, im 

Elegy ' and the ' Second Anniversary.' Tha 
being so, the date of 'The Duchess o 
Malfi' must be about 1612, the date of th 
publication of the ' Anatomy ' in its entirety 
Donne's evidence is corroborated by othe 
work ot contemporary writers bearing fixec 
dates, but I reserve that information fo 
the present, because it throws light on the 
date of the composition of ' The White 
Devil,' which I cannot deal with now. Bu 
most certainly * A Monumental Column 
was late in the field, and followed Chapman's 
* Epicedium ; or, a Funeral Song,' printed 
almost before Prince Henry's body was cold 
Webster had read and been impressed by 
Chapman's elegy, and took certain hints 
from it for his own poem : and he evidently 
alludes to the ' Epicedium ' as well as to 
elegies written by others previous to the 
commencement of his own. (See 11. 259- 
268.) On 15 February, 1613, Chapman's 
'* The Masque of the Middle Temple ' was 
performed at Whitehall to celebrate the 
marriage of Princess Elizabeth. Chapman 
had to part with his manuscript hurriedly ; 
and this haste, as he informs us, caused 
some confusion in the presentation of the 
masque. Evidently Webster witnessed the 
performance, or saw it in print. 

Honour is so much respected and adored, that 
she hath a temple erected to her, like a goddess ; a 
virgin priest consecrated to her, which is Eunomia, 
or Law, since none xhaidd dare accew to honour but 

I '/nti/. And since to Honour none should dare 

But help'd /;// rirtiu** hand, &c. 

The Masque,' Chapman's 'Plays,' pp. 345, 348. 
Webster, after telling us that Prince Henry 
despised " all lans and ventoys of the court," 
or masques, such as that of Chapman, which 
was fresh in his mind, says : 
And as Marcellus did two temples rear 
To Honour and to Virtue, plac d so near 
Tlu-y kiss'd, yet none to Honour'.* </ot accex* 
Jjnf 1 1 ley that pass'd through Virtue 1 x; so, &c. 

A Monumental Column,' 11. 102-5. 
Chapman's ' Masque ' fixes the time before 
which Webstsr could not have begun to 
write his belated elegy. 

Webster's elegy is really a mosaic of bor- 
rowings from various writers ; and little, 
save its art, is Webster's own. 

The opening lines of the elegy are written 
in imitation of the 'Anatomy, First Ann.,' 
especially of 11. 67-78, which are echoed again 
in 1. 277, where Webster says, 

Whose beams shall break forth from thv hollow 

LI. 23-30 are copied almost without altera- 
tion from Ben Jonson's dedication to the 

same Prince Henry of his * Masque of 
Queens ' ; and one of these borrowed lines 
appears again in the same form in * The 
Duchess of Malfi,' III. ii. 299, in connexion 
with a passage from the ' Arcadia,' which 
is again only slightly altered in the elegy, 
11. 78-9, and paralleled once more in Appius 
and Virginia,' I. ii. 12-14. The ' Arcadia ' 
and Ben Jonson parallels are more fully 
dealt with in my Sidney -Webster papers. 

As Montaigne is responsible for many of 
the good things that appear in * The 
Duchess of Malfi,' it would be very sur- 
prising if we did not find a trace of the 
French philosopher in the elegy. And we 
are not disappointed. Montaigne says : 

They [Lucullus, Metellus, and Scipio] are de" 
ceased, and so is my father as fully as they ; and is 
as distant from me and life in eighteene yeeres as 
they were in sixteene hundred; whose memorie, 
amitie, and societie I notwithstanding omit not to 
continue, to embrace and converse withall, with a 
perfect and most lively union. Book iii. chap, ix 
p. 511, col. 1. 

Webster makes fine use of this sentiment : 
And though he died so late, he 's no more near 
To us than they that died three thousand year 
Before him ; only memory doth keep 
Their fame as fresh as his from death or sleep. 

LI. 120-23. 

Immediately following these lines is a 
reference to the long life enjoyed by the 
stag and the raven ; this comes from Donne's 

'Anatomy,' as other evidence will show: 

When stag, and raven, and the long-lived tree, 
Compared with man, died in niinority, &c. 

' Anatomy, First Ann.,' 11. 115-16. 
(To be concluded.) 

IN the English Cemetery, some 2| miles to 
he east of the town, are the following 
nscriptions (May, 1905): 

1. Elizabeth Symes, d. of the Rev. J. M. 
5ymes, Ballybegg, Wicklow, Ireland, ob. at 

.ucerne, 2 July, 1896. 

2. Charles Edward Stirling, Colonel Roval 
Artillery, ob. 8 Oct., 1895, a. 62. 

3. Margaret Leighton, ob. at Lucerne 
14 Sept., 1895, a. 60. 

4. Percy Nevile Wyatt, second s. of the 
ate G. Nevile Wyatt, Esq., of Lake House, 
Cheltenham, ob. 2 Nov., 1893. 

5. W. H. A. Willis Fleming, ob. 13 Nov. 
886, a. 32. 

6. Elizabeth, w. of James Kenyon, of 
Vccrmgton, Lanes, ob. at Seebourg, Lucerne 

July, 1896, a. 69. 

10 s. vi. AUG. is, 1906.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


7. Emilie Schuller, b. 26 July, 1867, 
drowned at Lucerne, 29 June, 1898. 

8. Herbert Hanson Derwent, of Middlesbro, 
England, drowned near Meggen, 29 June, 
1898, a. 21, in trying to save another. 

9. Frances Emma Glossop, b. 23 July, 
1823, ob. 28 Sept., 1899. 

10. Maria Brown, d. of William and Eliza- 
beth Brown, of West Derby, Liverpool, 
sister of W. C. Brown, of 1, Cromwell Crescent, 
S. Kensington, ob. at Lucerne, 20 Aug., 1900. 

11. A red granite tomb, of which the in- 
scription has entirely disappeared, except a 
text in metal letters. 

12. Fanny, wid. of Capt. J. W. Williams, 
R.N., of Dropmore House, Canterbury, ob. 
10 April, 1900, a. 86. 

13. Mabel Alice Bethell, b. 26 Feb., 1891, 
ob. 9 July, 1892. 

14. Margaret Anne Trafford, ob. 3 Sept., 
1901, a. 26. 

15. Henry Devenish Leigh, Fellow of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, ob. at Luzern, 
2 May, 1903, a. 39. 

16. Sarah Sykes, 1858-1901. 

17. John Henry Brown, ob. 29 May, 1903, 
eldest s. of the late John Brown, of Carlisle, 
England, b. 24 July, 1840. 

18. Michael Arthur Castle, ob. at Lucerne, 
9 Dec., 1885, a. 68. 

19. Lieut. -Col. Hill, served 21 years in 
H.M. 73rd Regiment. Killed by a fall on 
Mount Pilatus, bur. 29 May, 1885. 

20. Henry Sidebotham, chaplain of St. 
John's, Mentone, ob. at Lucerne, 2 June, 
1901, a. 62. 

21. Anne Jane Cannon, b. at Douglas, 
I. of Man, ob. at Lucerne, 20 April, 1859. 

22. John Caldecott, b. 21 Dec., 1824, ob. 
27 Aug., 1900. 

23. John Horsley Haslam, vicar of St. 
Saviour's, Denmark Park, ob. at Lucerne, 
27 Aug., 1904. 

24. Charles William Parker, of Merton, 
England, ob. 5 Sept., 1904. 

25. Edith Guest, of Barnsley, England, 

26. Henry W. Carson, B.D., T.C.D., vicar 
of Santry, co. Dublin, ob. at Lucerne, 1 Sept., 

27. Edward Doughty, b. at Wakefield, 
Yorks, 7 Dec., 1826, ob. at Lucerne, 19 July, 

28. Arthur Ruxton, b. in Dublin, 2 Dec., 
1807, ob. at Lucerne, 28 July, 1894. 

29. Mary Elizabeth Schobinger, w. of 
Joseph Anton Schobinger, Lucerne, and elder 
d. of the late William Cowan, LL.D., J.P., 
Linburn, Mid-Lothian, ob. 3 Feb., 1903, at 
Villa Musegg, Lucerne, a. 33. 

30. William A. Shade, the artist, b. 
19 Nov., 1848, ob. 26 Sept., 1890. 

31. Arthur Macnamara, barrister-at-law,. 
b. 24 April, 1861, ob. 16 Aug., 1890. Killed 
by a fall on the lower slopes of the Diissistock^ 

32. Mary Helena, d. of the Rev. John T. 
Barker, of Rushden Rectory, Northants,. 
ob. at Lucerne, 22 July, 1890, a. 23. 

33. Henry Bell, ob. 15 Aug., 1889. 

34. A wooden cross without inscription. 

35. Thomas Dunnill, of Dublin, a. 59. 
Accidentally drowned while crossing the* 
bridge in course of construction at Lucerne, 
19 July, 1870. Remains removed from the 
old town cemetery, 26 Sept., 1903. 

36. David Leckie, b. at Peebles, 24 July,. 
1820, ob. 3 May, 1889. 

37. George Thompson, ob. in Lucerne,. 

8 June, 1884. 

38. George, fifth s. of Sir William Stephen- 
son Clark, of York, b. 1828, ob. 28 Aug., 1903. 

39. William Henry Griffith, ob. at Lucerne,. 
17 July, 1887, a. 57. 

40. Rev. Henry F. Morrieson, ob. 1 Aug.,. 
1886, a. 34. 

41. William Mann Thomson, advocate,. 
Edinburgh, ob. suddenly on Mount Pilatus, 

9 Aug., 1868, a. 36. Erected by his w., Alice 
Caroline Thomson. 

42. Hon. Katherine Frances, w. of Sir 
John Joscelyn Coghill, Bt., b. 17 March,. 
1827, ob. 25 Aug., 1881. Also their s.,. 
Gerald Cramer Coghill, b. 26 Sept., 1854,. 
ob. 15 July, 1873. 

43. Anna Clara Shute, ob. 26 Oct., 1874,. 
a. 26. 

44. Annie Toldervy, ob. at Nice, January,. 

45. F. Le Breton Butler, Captain 1st West 
India Regt., ob. at Lucerne, 10 July, 1874, 
a. 34. 

46. Kate Marion Adelaide, d. of Alfred 
Austin, London, b. 1 Jan., 1884, ob. 14 Feb.,. 

47. John James Montgomery, ob. 22 Aug.,. 
1884, a. 52. 

48. Arthur Sibbald, sixth s. of James. 
Grieve, M.D., Dumfries, Scotland, ob. at 
Lucerne, 16 April, 1881, a. 21. 

49. Elizabeth Jessop, second d. of the late 
Rev. R. F. Jessop, of Marlfield, co Dublin, ob. 
at Lucerne, 8 Oct., 1880. 

50. Elizabeth Topham, ob. at Lucerne,. 
30 June, 1878, a. 73. 

51. Charlotte Frances Mona Hulton, fifth 
d. of the late Lieut. -Col. Henry Hulton, of 
Preston, Lanes, ob. at Andermatt, 21 June,, 
bur. here 27 June, 1878. 

52. Eliza Catherine Pakenham, relict of 
the Hon. and Rev. Henry Pakenham, late 

NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. VL AUG. is. 1906. 

Dean of St. Patrick's, 6b. 27 July, 1867, a. 73. 
Erected by her children. 

53. Agnes Joanna Keith, eldest d. of John 
.and Agnes Keith, b. at Aberdeen, 10 Nov., 
185[8?],o&. 5 Aug., 187[8?]. 

54. Florence Catherine Stephen, only d. 
of Oscar Leslie and Isabella Stephen, of 
Arthurlie Lodge, Burton-on-Trent, ob. 12 July, 

55! Charlotte White Western, third d. of 
Rear-Admiral Western, of Tattington Place, 
Ipswich, b. 10 Feb., 1810, ob. of fever at 
Lucerne, 28 Sept., 1865. 

56. Emma E. Tracey, ob. 13 Aug., 1881. 

57. Martha Elizabeth Neumann, w. of C. 
Neumann, and d. of the late B. Bullen, Esq., 
b. 6 May, 1833, ob. 12 Jan., 1894. 

58. Wilhelma von Roeder, b. in Berlin, 
6 Sept., 1880, ob. 4 Nov., 1891. 

59. Agnes Mary Spalding, b. at St. Andrews, 
Scotland, 29 June, 1847, ob. at Seelisberg, 
18 June, 1885. 

60. Charles Granet de la Rue, ob. at 
Schonwil, Meggen, 29 March, 1890. 

The two following are in the south arcade 
of the cemetery attached to the Hofkirche 
in Lucerne. They are in German. 

1. Gustav Arnold, of Altdorf and Luzerii, 
ob. 28 Sept., 1900. Sarah Agnes Arnold, 
nee Walmsley, ob. 3 March, 1884. 

2. Sarah Agnes Arnold, born in Lancaster, 
29 Aug., 1818, ob. in Luzern, 3 March, 1884. 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut. -Col. 

cently acquired what I believe to be the 
dedication copy of the first issue of the 
edition of 1647 of Corbet's poems. Every- 
body interested in the matter knows that 
some copies of this year end on p. 53, E 3, 
at the bottom of which the word " Finis 
appears, while others, after a blank (E 4), 
have sixteen leaves added, upon the last of 
which (p. 85, G 8) "Finis " is again printed. 
My book, which has not, I think, been 
hitherto described, ends with " Finis " on 
the verso of p. 50, sig. E. With the excep- 
tion of a slight alteration in the border of 
the title, the matter which is found in these 
three issues is from the same setting. Each 
of them contains an 'Epistle Dedicatory' 
from N. N. to Lady Teynham ; mine has, in 
addition, the following in manuscript : 


hauinge scene your Ladiship sometime 
-entertaine your selfe, with boockes of this kinde 
I thought the Vx>ldnesse would bee the more pardon- 
able, if your Patronadge, to these Verses, were 
presumed upon ; And (I thincke) I could not doe 
the dead Author more right then to dedicate his 

mmortale Poems to soe divine a Beautie, that to 
their perpetuitie will add such a luster as that, the 
Muses will thincke themselfes graced by beeinge at 
your Deuotion. and for this preferment to them, 

'hay will bee allwaies readie to mediate, tc my 

beemge Maddam 

Your Lad 8 most humble 

Couent Gar. J : Donne ' 

August 9 th 

It seems probable that the letters N. N. 
of the ' Epistle Dedicatory ' were intended 
to represent the endings of the names of the 
younger Donne (he was, it will be seen, an 
eccentric speller), and it is something to his 
credit that he was apparently Corbet's first 
editor. G. THORN-DRURY. 


At p. 472 of the last volume MR. F. H. 

RELTON wrote : 

"MR. BOSTOCK is quite correct in stating that 
Sir Edward Harley was baptized at Wigmore, 
21 Oct., 1624; but the statement given in the pedi- 
gree I compiled, that he was M.P. for co. Hereford 
in 1640, although, in view of MB. BOSTOCK'S state- 
ment, apparently incredible, is also accurate. Col- 
lins, 1741, iii., records that Sir Edward Harley was 
baptized in 1624, was knight of the shire for Here- 
ford in the last Parliament of Charles I., was 

wounded in battle 'The last Parliament ot 

Charles I.' evidently refers to the Long Parliament, 
which assembled in 1640 and was dissolved in 1660, 
Charles having been executed 30 Jan., 1649 ; and in 
Sharpe's ' Peerage,' ii., it is stated that ' Sir Edward 
Harley, born 1624, was M.P. co. Hereford, 1640.' 
Apparently in those days a man could be elected to 
a seat in Parliament before attaining the age ot 

Instances of members of Parliament at- 
taining high position and fame at a very 
early age are of course well known ; but 
MR. RELTON' s positive statement, which he 
rightly calls "apparently incredible," that 
Sir Edward Harley became M.P. in 1640 (at 
which time Harley was presumably sixteen 
years old), deserves a more careful exami- 
nation than MR. RELTON has given it. He 
cites two authorities in support of the state- 
men t Collins and Sharpe. Now Collins 
does not assert that Harley was M.P. in 
1640, but merely (according to MR. RELTON) 
that Harley " was knight of the shire for 
Hereford in the last Parliament of Charles I." 
The Long Parliament, assembled in 1640, 
was dismissed by Cromwell in 1653. Hence 
a member of the Loag Parliament may have 
been elected at any time between 1640 and 
1653. Collins, therefore, is placed out of 
court, for he does not assert the thing that 
MR. RELTON thinks he asserts. Sharpe does 
state that Harley " was M.P. co. Hereford, 
1640 " ; but is this statement correct ? The 

10 s. vi. AUG. is, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


following facts, easily ascertainable, prove 
that it is not correct. 

On 24 Oct,, 1640, Sir Robert Harley and 
Fitzwilliam " Coningesby " were returned to 
Parliament from co. Hereford. On 20 Nov., 
1641, " Humphry Coningesby" was returned 
to Parliament " vice Fitzwilliam Coningesby, 
<esq., expelled the House as a monopolist." 
The return of " Edward Harly, esq.," bears 
the date " 14," but is "torn and defaced," 
so that the month and year are unascer tain- 
able from the return ; but he was " elected 
vice Humphry Coningesby, esq., disabled to 
sit." (These facts are taken from ' Return, 
Members of Parliament,' 1878, Part I., 
p. 489, and ' Index to Part I.,' p. xliv.) From 
another source we know with certainty when 
Humphrey Coningsby was disabled. Under 
date of 11 Sept., 1646, the following passage 
will be found in the ' Journals of the House 
of Commons ' (iv. 667) : 

" Resolved, &c. That a Warrant shall issue forth, 
under Mr. Speaker's Hand, directed to the Clerk of 
the Crown in Chancery, to issue forth a Writ, for 
the new Election of a Knight of the Shire for the 
County of Hereford, in the place of Humfry 
Coningsby, Esquire, disabled by Judgment of the 
House, to sit as a Member thereof, during this 

From this passage it may be inferred that 
the date of Harley's return to Parliament 
was 14 Sept. (or Oct.), 1646. At all events, 
it could not have been before 11 Sept., 1646, 
at which time Harley was either twenty-two 
years of age or lacked it by but a few days. 

After ascertaining the above facts for 
myself , I looked into the notice of Sir Edward 
Harley in the 'D.N.B.,' and there found 
the correct statement that he became M.P. 

Boston, U.S. 

GRANTHAM CROSS. The report of a trial 
concerning the destruction of the ancient 
cross at Grantham, in 1780, is worthy of 
preservation in the pages of N. & Q.' In 
The Morning Post and Daily Advertiser of 
14 August, 1780, occurs the following: 

"At the Assizes for the County of Lincoln came 
on to be tried, by a special jury, an action between 
the Hon. John Manners, plaintiff, and Mr. John 
.Sstanser. the Alderman of the Corporation of Grant- 
ham, defendant, for pulling down the Market 
Cross, which has stood beyond memory in the 
Market-place at Grantham, and converting it to his 
own use. Mr. Manners claimed it as a parcel of the 
Manor of Grantham, and belonging to his markets, 
which his father, Lord William, had purchased of 
the Duke of Portland, to whom it had descended 
being the grandson of Count Bentinck, Earl of Port- 
land, who was the Grantee of William III. It 
Appears that this manor, two markets, and two 
iairs, with the tolls, had been anciently in jointure 

to several Queens of England, and was last in join- 
ture to Charles II. 's Queen, and the tolls had been 
constantly leased by the Crown, and the Portland 
family, to the Aldermen and Burgesses of Grant- 
ham, and was leased to them at the time of pulling 
down the Cross. The defendant set up his right to 
take it down, as being formerly granted to the 
Corporation, either by "rant of Charles I. or 
Charles II. , which gave them a market and three 
fairs, and having repaired it twelve years ago. 
The trial lasted ten hours, and the jury, after a 
short deliberation, found a verdict for the plaintiff, 
and 4(V. damages." 

Delaval House, Sunderland. 

The following lines and note I have copied 
from an old MS. scrapbook headed " S. G. 
5, Featherstone Buildings, January, 1816 " : 

True Happiness is not the Growth of Earth, 

The Soil is fruitless if you seek it there ; 
Tis an Exotic of Celestial Birth, 

And never blooms but in Celestial Air. 
Sweet plant of Paradise ! thy seeds are sown 

In here and there a breast of heavenly mould; 
It rises slow, and buds, but ne'er was known 
To blossom here : the climate is too cold. 

R. B. Sheridan. 

" Mrs. Birch of Stratford place gave this to Mrs. 
Smyth, who wrote it out for my Sister [Mrs. 
Edmeads]. It was understood never to have been 
'n print. S. G." 

If still unprinted, the lines may be worth 
preserving. D. J. 

MARRIAGE IN A SHIFT. There was at one 
time a notion that a man might marry 
a woman in financial difficulties without 
becoming liable for her debts, if the woman 
appeared at the ceremony in her shift only, 
and instances of this practice have been 
recorded in * N. & Q.' from time to time. I 
have always understood that this belief was 
confined to persons in humble positions in 
ife, but the following extract from the 
'Consultation Book" of Madapollam, one 
of the stations of the East India Company, 
shows that this was not the case : 

"Thursday, 16th May, 1678. Mrs. Margery 
?leetwood, the relict of Mr. Robert Fleetwood, 
deceased, was joined in matrimony with Mr. John 
rleathfield, Chirurgeon, of this Factory, whom he 
received in her shift." 

The bride was the widow of the late chief 
of the station. I take the above extract 

:rom the Rev. Frank Penny's ' The Church 

n Madras ' (London, 1904), p. 68. 

R. B. P. 

Amongst the Phillipps MSS. sold in April, 
1903, were some papers endorsed by Sir 
Thomas Burnet, the son of Bishop Burnet, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. is, MOL 

'* Papers sent me from the Bp. of Worcester 
on my 'New Proofs, &c.' " These papers 
by Dr. William Lloyd refer to the foolish 
belief, no doubt carefully encouraged for 
political reasons, that the son of James II, 
the " Old Pretender," as one side styled 
him ; James III., as he was declared to be 
by the other was a supposititious child. 
In the sale catalogue there is an extract 
from which a brief quotation may be made : 
"From 76 to 87 we heard of nothing but mis- 
carriages, but then it was resolved that a child 

must T>e had About this time it was given out 

by the Popish priest of Chester that the queen was 
with child of a son, and being asked how he knew 
it was a son, his answer was, because the King had 
pray'd to St. Winifred for a child and a son, and 
the Saint's rule was to grant all that was asked or 
nothing, and therefore, since it appeared that the 
queen was with child, they might surely conclude 
it to be a son." 

Some papers of Lloyd's on this so-called 
" warming-pan plot " are in the British 
Museum (Add. MSS. 32096, 33286). 

I do not remember any other reference to 
the supposed peculiarity of the saint or to 
her intercession being sought by James II. 

exactly to the same species as the riming 
warnings to book-borrowers discussed at 
9 S i. 366, 512 ; ii. 115, 376, yet to the same 
genus of inscriptions in books belong per- 
sonal memoranda and pious effusions in 
doggerel verse which are occasionally found 
in second-hand volumes, and which not un- 
frequently furnish valuable data for the 
genealogist and family historian. Of this 
class, though without any historic value, is 
the following MS. inscription in a copy of 
'Wesleyana,' an 18mo volume published in 
1825, the spelling of which is left in its 
original crudity and freedom from punc- 
tuation : 

Sarah Smeetpn is my name 

and inglancl is my natin 

DArhrouph was my dwelling place 

and ohrist is my salvation 

my old companions hear will be 

when I ham far away 

unless the lord doath vengeance seal 

and death steal them away 

this book my name shall ever have 

while I ham dead and in my grave 

When gready worms my body heat 

then you may read my' name compleat. 

Sarah Smeeton. 

It is just possible that Sarah Smeeton of 

Harborough is still in the land of the living ; 

but if so, the above youthful effusion of hers 

will no doubt have faded from her memory. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries,, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

NINE MEN'S MORRIS. Can any of your 
correspondents say what the exact rules are- 
for playing the game of nine men's morris, 
mentioned in ' Midsummer Night's Dream,' 
II. i. 98 (Globe) : 

The nine men's morris is filled up with mud ? 

The rules known to the writer are given 
in Strutt's ' Sports and Pastimes,' Brand's- 
4 Popular Antiquities,' and in * The English 
Dialect Dictionary.' There are, however,, 
other varieties of the game, and it is these- 
that are wanted. 

The game is also called "merelles,'* 
" mill," &c. A variety is known in India, 
and the Indian board has additional mark- 

At Stratford-on-Avon lately the lines of 
the game have been set out on the lawn 
of the Shakespeare Memorial, the markings 
being copied from an old board found in a 
cottage at Shottery. Some boards are with- 
out the diagonal lines at the corner, and 
this is the game now best known in War- 
wickshire. (Mrs.) FLOWER. 


[Several contribiitions on nine men's morris ap- 
peared at 8 S. xii. 28, 89, 173, 333.] 

" PODIKE." The Gentleman's Magazine 
for 1762, p. 237, has the following : " The- 
old podike, the defensive bank to the country 
of Marshland, in Norfolk, against foreign 
waters, was cut thro' by persons unknown." 

Where is, or was, " the old podike " ? Is 
the name still known ? What is its origin 
or derivation ? It has been suggested that 
it means a dike such as those by which the 
river Po, in its lower course through the 
plains of Lombardy, is confined within its- 
channel. But is there any historical evidence 
for this? J.*A. H. MURRAY. 


"LIDGATE": "LEAP -GATE." What, if 
any. was the difference between a "lyd- 
yate"and a "lyp-yate" in the Dartmoor 
district ? Among old field - names in the- 
Venville parish of South Tawton I find 
[Trans. Dev. Assoc., xxxv. 538] that of 
" Lidgate." W. Crossing in his * One Hun- 
dred Years on Dartmoor,' speaking of gates 
to keep cattle from straying, says : " These- 
are called * leap-yeats ' in the old survey."" 
In Risdon (p. 223) we read : " The correction 

10 s. vi. AUG. is, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the corn-ditches and leap yeats shall be 
in the court of Lidford." The ' N.E.D.' 
gives " Lidgate," " hlio^eat," "lydyate," 
&c., North, dial, "liggat," a swing-gate, a 
gate set up between meadow or pasture and 
ploughed land, or across the highway, to 
prevent cattle from straying. Halliwell has 
" lidgitts." Lines., gates set up at the end of 
villages and elsewhere, to prevent cattle 
from straying on arable lands. If I remem- 
ber aright, the word "lyp-gate" or "leap- 
gate " does not appear in the ' N.E.D.'; but 
I imagine that it might have some connexion 
with the term " deer -leap," which, in one of 
its significations (see 2 S. iii. 47, 99, 137 ; 
3 S. xii. 186), was a high bank so constructed 
that deer could leap down from a chase or 
forest into the park of a thus specially 
privileged manor, but could not leap back 
again. Page, in his ' Exploration of Dart- 
moor,' alluding to the river, remarks that 
the name " Lyd ' ' derives from the Celtic 
or Cornu-Celtic hlid, a covering ; and Thomas 
Wright in * Homes of Other Days,' after 
referring to the geat in the outer wall and 
the duru in the hall of a tun, says : 

"Another kind of door mentioned in the vocabu- 
laries was a h/id-yata, literally a gate with a lid or 
cover, which was, perhaps, however, a word merely 
invented to represent the Latin vulva, which is 
given as its equivalent." 

Whatever may have been the case as to 
entrances in or near buildings, it is highly 
improbable that a cattle-gate on a moor or 
highway would have been provided with a 
roof or shelter such as we find over lich-gates, 
where coffins were set down during the 
utterance of a prayer, at the entrance of 
churchyards. But I have wondered whether 
a "lidgate" might possibly have swung 
from a bar above, in such a way that cattle 
could push it open if of light material 
from one side, and not from the other, or 
have been raised and let down by means of 
pulleys, as I suppose was the case with those 
projecting window-shutters (evidently hinged 
at the top) that are represented in old illu- 
minations, &c. Are there any mediaeval 
drawings of lyd- or lyp -gates extant ? 


["Leap-gate" appears in the 'N.E.D.,' with the 
forms "hlypjeat," "Kp3et," " lyp}et," or " lypzet," 
and " leap-yea t." It is defined as " a low gate in a 
fence, which can be leaped by deer, while keeping 
sheep from straying."] 

* URSINO OF NAVARRE.' I should be glad 
to know the writer of the following 
brochure : 

" Ursino of Navarre ;J Legend of King Solomon | 
and the Hoopoos ; | Fables. | And ye that ben 

metriciens me excuse. | Chaucer. | [Woodcut of a 
Hoopoo.] | London : | W. N. Wright, Bookseller to 
the Queen, | 60, Pall Mall. | 1852." 8vo, pp. [iv.] 
+ 80. Issued in light buff paper wrappers. 

I am inclined to ascribe the authorship 
to James Robinson Planche, but beyond 
internal evidence, and the fact that Wright 
published 'The Pursuivant of Arms,' I 

have no proof. 



There is a day in spring 
When under all the earth the secret germs 
Begin to stir and glow before they bud. 

The Palace, Ripon. 

[The lines are from Miss Smedley's 'Story of 
Queen Isabel.' See SURGEON-GENERAL MUIR'S in- 
teresting reply at 9 S. ix. 57.] 

Where can I find the following lines ? 
'Tis only in the land of fairy dreams 
Such marble temples rise, bright in the gleams 
Of golden sunshine. Truth here now repeats 
What fancy oft has pictured forth in sleep. 


The East bowed low before the blast with silent 

deep disdain ; 
She heard the legions thunder past, then plunged 

in thought again. 

True, the white moon, like a lovely warder, 
Guards a fair tomb in a ruined aisle, 

Where the gentle minstrel of the Border 
Hath all Dryburgh for a burial pile. 

H. G. A. 

" G," HARD OR SOFT. Will any of your 
numerous philological readers explain the 
obvious anomalies in the pronunciation of 
the letter g shown by the following list ? 

Margaret (hard), margarine (soft), mar- 
guerite (hard), margin (soft), begin (hard), 
gin (soft), gate (hard), gulp (hard), gasp 
(hard), get (hard), gear (hard), gem (soft). 

The matter has much amused and 
astonished E. P. WOLFERSTAN. 


PRESSING TO DEATH. In the late Mr. 
Charles Neate's ' Considerations on the Pun- 
ishment of Death ' we are told that about 
the year 1770 (the precise date is not given) 
"a girl of fourteen years old or thereabouts was 
sentenced to be burnt alive for having, by the 
direction of her master, who was a maker of bad 
money, concealed in her bosom a farthing silvered 
over to look like a sixpence. She was not reprieved 
till the morning fixed^ for her execution, when the 
stake and faggots were actually ready; and the 
reprieve then was only obtained by the great ex- 
ertions of a benevolent and influential nobleman." 
P. 13. 
I am anxious to know where and when the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 s. vi. AUG. is, im. 

trial occurred. Can any one refer me to a 
contemporary account of the case ? 

In the same work it is stated that in 1735 
a man was pressed to death for " standing 
mute." Is this the most recent case of 
which we have any knowledge ? The name 
of the victim is desired, and the place where 
the punishment took place. 


Wickentree House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

W. G. WEBB, ENGRAVER. Can any reader 
assist me in tracing an engraver named 
W. G. Webb ? He was at 19, Cloth Fair, 
Smithfield, about 1843, but does not appear 
in Kelly's ' Directory ' for the next year. 
I have several prints with that address, 
and wish to trace what became of him. 


304, Essex Road, N. 

DESMOND. Will some one be so good as 
to tell me the meaning of the Irish Christian 
name Desmond ? G. T. DRAKE. 

HILL OF TARA. When in Ireland some 
months ago I met an old gentleman ninety- 
eight years of age who informed me that 
he knew the " Liberator " intimately. He 
said that when O'Connell was fighting for 
emancipation he arranged to deliver a great 
speech on the Hill of Tara. The English 
authorities, getting to know, sent over 
several special correspondents to take a 
careful note of all that O'Connell might say ; 
but, to the astonishment of the Govern- 
ment officials, the " Liberator " delivered 
every word of his speech in the Irish lan- 
guage, which the reporters of course did not 
understand, and they returned to England 
as wise as they were when they left it. 

Can any of your correspondents give me 
further information on this subject ? 


Seton Cottage, Great Yarmouth. 

"EccE TIBERIM ! " Has the origin of 
this exclamation known to every reader 
of Scott's 'Fair Maid of Perth 'been 
cleared up ? I have not been able to trace 
it further back than Pennant's 'Tour in 
Scotland.' j. p. OWEN. 

"TOUCHING WOOD." Can any reader 
explain the origin of "touching wood" 
after boasting of one's exemption from ill 
fortune ? a species of " absit omen" prac- 
tised m Shropshire and Cheshire, and pro- 
bably in many other parts of England. The 
procedure is of this kind : " I 'm thankful 

to say I never broke a bone, or even had 
a bad sprain in my life well, I 'd better 
touch wood " ; and a chair or table, or 
anything near that is wooden, is touched. 
Can the custom come from some lingering 
memory of the veneration attached to relics 
of the true Cross ? HELGA. 

twenty years ago I accidentally picked up a 
waste sheet of printed paper of sixteen 
pages, whereon appeared the first stanzas 
of a poem which appeared to bear the title 
of ' The Ritualist's Progress,' Part I. is 
headed ' Our New Vicar.' The first stanza 
runs : 

Our new-appointed vicar 
Is a most devoted man, 
And means to work the parish 

On a new and better plan ; 
He " fears we 've been neglected," 

And says, with aspect sage, 
That as regards church matters 
We're " quite behind the age." 

The poem is a clever skit, and I should 
very much like to obtain the names of 
author and publisher and the date. Can 
any of your readers help me ? 

Sydenham, S.E. 

On 17 Nov., 1859, the late Sir George 
Scharf, F.S.A., exhibited to the Society of 
Antiquaries a portrait of a lady and her 
son painted on thin panel. On her sleeve 
she had a jewel representing a dog crouching 
on a bridge, with the rays of the sun above. 
The picture was dated 1594. The lady 
held a pomander of silver filigree, and the 
boy a peg-top. Whom did these portraits 
represent ? and where are they now ? 



JOHN PURNELL married Dorcas Duckett, 
and had two sons, John and Thomas. John 
married about 1750 Isabella Whit by. She 
died in 1781, and was buried at Stoke 
Damarel. He died 1788. They had two 
children, Jane Isabella and John Solly 
Fratter. Thomas, the other son of John, 
was born 1753, married Priscilla Taylor in 
1773, and died in 1790. I have full details 
of his descendants, but I wish to trace his 
father and mother. The latter is said to 
have come from co. Carlow. So far as I 
can ascertain, this family of Purnell is not 
connected with the Purnells of Hancombe 
or Haverton, Gloucestershire. Please reply 
direct. R. STEWART-BROWN. 

5, Castle Street, Liverpool. 

10 s. vi. AUG. is, 1906.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(10 S. vi. 62.) 

HOWEVER " intolerable " it may seem to 
the sensitive erudition of MB. ALFRED F. 
ROBBINS, mistakes, I fear, will continue to 
occur in the best regulated literature. Those 
who make none, make nothing, people say. 
For myself, I freely confess I am often in 
fault, for which reason I rarely, except '* on 
compulsion," correct the errors committed 
by others. Nor should I notice MB,. ROB- 
BINS' s communication, had it not been sent 
to me by an anonymous correspondent, 
tastefully decorated with a blue pencil. 

To come to the matter in hand. Napoleon 
unquestionably used the aphorism I quote. 
Here is the authority : " Enfin, apres avoir 
r6pete de nouveau deux ou trois fois du 
sublime au ridicule il n'y a qu'un pas ;. . . . 
il demanda a partir " (' Histoire de 1'Am- 
bassade dans le Grand Duche de Varsovie,* 
by M. de Pradt, second edition, 1815, 
pp. 219-20). The Abbe de Pradt, the 
narrator, was the person to whom Napo- 
leon spoke ; and I think that Hazlitt, w 
later (1828-30) wrote a 'Life of Napoleon 
Buonaparte,' in which he translates the 
above sentence from De Pradt (iv. 56), had 
this form in mind, and not the shapeless and 
straggling utterance of Paine, which, more- 
over, is not his own, but had been said 
before by Fontenelle and Marmontel. MB. 
ROBBINS writes as if he had discovered the 
Paine quotation. He will be interested to 
hear that it is in at least three accessible 
handbooks which I have consulted, viz., Hain 
Friswell's ' Familiar Quotations,' 1866, p. 306 
{ where the Hazlitt form is also given to 
Talleyrand); Bartlett's 'FamiliarQuotations,' 
1901, 431 (where the Hazlitt form is called 
"'Napoleon's celebrated mot "); and King's 
* Classical and Foreign Quotations,' 1904, 78. 
I have also seen the Hazlitt form ascribed 
to the Abbe Sieyes. Ward only ('Diet, of 
Quotations,' 1893, p. 334) gives the passage 
from Paine itself. My own impression, in the 
absence of evidence to the contrary, is that 
in its current, compact, epigrammatic form, 
the aphorism belongs to Napoleon or Talley- 
rand, both of them expert wotf-makers, who 
may, of course, have found the raw material 
elsewhere. I doubt if they found it in Paine, 
and Paine certainly did not originate it. 

Here are the respective passages above 
referred to from Fontenelle and Marmontel : 
""L'on ne saurait mieux faire voir que le 

magnifique et le ridicule sont si voisins, 
qu'ils se touchent " Scarron is speaking of 
his Virgil travesty to Seneca (' (Euvres de 
Fontenelle,' 1825, iv. 32). Fontenelle died 
in 1757, and the ' Dialogues des Morts,' in 
which the above comes, dates from 1683. 
Marmontel says : " En general, le ridicule 
touche au sublime " (' GEuvres Complettes de 
M. Marmontel,' 1787, v. 188). Touche au here 
is precisely the " borders on " of Paine's 
second passage. 

In adding that these references have been 
verified, I will only say further that if 
it be " intolerable " that mistakes should 
occur, it is surely equally intolerable that 
charges of carelessness or ignorance should 
be made upon imperfect investigation. 

[Reply from MR. B. PIERPOINT next week.] 

" PLUM " : JACK HOBNEB (10 S. vi. 67, 
111). In the notes to his ' Nursery Rhymes 
of England' (Percy Society, No. xvii.) 
Halliwell reprinted the old " merriment " 
of ' Jack Homer ' from a copy in the Douce 
Collection in the Bodleian Library. The 
date of this copy is not given, but, from the 
diction of the ballad, I should be inclined 
to ascribe it to about the year 1680. The 
stanza from which the nursery rime is taken 
will be found on p. 166. 

I have a copy of the " merriment " in 
my own collection, the title of which is : 

"The Pleasant History of Jack Horner. Con- 
taining the witty Tricks and pleasant Pranks he 
play'd from his Youth to his riper Years ; pleasant 
and delightful both for Winter and Summer 
Recreation. London, Printed : And sold by J. 
Drewry, Bookseller in Derby." 

This copy is undated, but was probably 
printed about 1750. The " tricks and 
pranks " played by Jack Horner are familiar 
to all students of folk-lore. 

The satirical verses directed against 
Ambrose Phillips, which, under the title 
of ' Namby-Pamby,' were printed at the 
end of that curious pamphlet, " A Learned 
Dissertation on Dumpling, London, 1726,'* 
contain several old nursery rimes which 
were in vogue at that date. Among them 
are the following lines : 

Now he sings of Jacky Horner 
Sitting in the Chimney-Corner, 
Eating of a Christmas-Pie, 
Putting in his Thumb, Oh, fie ! 
No mention, however, is made of the plum- 
pudding. W. F. PBIDEAUX. 

IT Dr. Watts probably meant " prunes " 
when he spoke of the grocer's " plumbs." 
The distinction between " raisins " and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. is, UOB. 

'* plumbs " must have been clear to his logical 
mind. A plum without a stone is not unlike 
a grape. E. S. DODGSON. 

PLEDGE IN A BUMPER (10 S. vi. 7, 92). 
The old custom mentioned by MB. WOLFER- 
STAX has obtained from time immemorial 
at Queen's College, Oxford, on Founder's 
Day and other great occasions. The grace 
cup, of great antiquity, is made of a large 
polished horn standing on eagle's claws ; 
and the cover is formed in the shape of an 
eagle, no doubt in reference to the arms of 
the founder, Robert de Eglesfield, confessor 
to Queen Philippa. I am inclined to think 
that reference is made to this horn by 
Richard Braithwait, alias " Drunken Bar- 
naby." On the eagle lectern in Queen's 
College Chapel is engraved " Aquila Regina 
Avium, Avis Reginensium." 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

BELDORNIE PRESS (10 S. v. 269). Some 
information on this subject will be found in 
the Second Series of V N. & Q.' Before 
Utterson built Beldornie Tower, in Pelham 
Field, he resided at Buckland Grange, which 
before his time had been only a farm and 
was known as Ryde House (this latter name 
was transferred to a modern house built 
nearer to the sea by Mr. George Player for 
his own occupation ). 

The following is an extract from The 
Isle of Wight Observer at the time of Utter- 
son's death : 

"This distinguished antiquary, who built Bel- 
dornie, Ryde, where he for many years resided 
expired on the 14th July H852] at Brighton, in the 
/9th year of his age. The deceased gentleman was an 
uncompromising Tory of the old school, and a most 
implacable enemy to the system of ' retrenchment' 
which followed in the wake of the passing of the 
Reform Bill. He was one of the 'Six Clerks in 
Jiancery, a sinecure of great emolument which 
the Whigs abolished, pensioning off the then 
holders tor life ; and we believe Mr. Utterson was 
the last survivor of them. On the election of Mr. 
Dawes in 18ol on 1 ree Trade principles, Mr. Utter- 
8on took such umbrage that he removed from 
Kyde and shortly afterwards his exceedingly 
valuable hbrarv of antiquarian literature was 
hrought to the hammer. For several years Mr 
:erson kept up a private printing office, where 
many scarce works were reprinted, more par- 
ticularly those of the Elizabethan period. At 

tabiets toSS = J 

Kyde, I.W. 

ITlu'iv must be a mistake in the year MR 

ltKi.:sT..(-KK gives for Utterson's death. "The verv 

..N-r.;Mm article to which he refers appealed at 

i. 6, and was written by J. PAYNE COLLIER 

who began his note with the words " The late Mr 

Edward Vernon Utterson." The next week, how* 
ever, ' N. & Q.' contained a letter from MK. COLLIER, 
dated "Jan. 8, 1856," saying that he was "most 
happy to be informed " that Mr. Utterson was then 
alive and well. The * D.N.B.' article on Utterson 
states that he died at Brighton on 14 July, 1856 r 
and gives a list of his reprints at the Beldorme 

"RIME" v. "RHYME" (10 S. v. 469, 
514 ; vi. 52, 90). In the appendix to my 
edition of ' Lycidas ' (1874) I find a note 
referring to a letter from DR. F. J. FTJRNI- 
VALL in ' N. & Q.,' 29 Nov., 1873, citing a 
line from Daniel in 1595, " Railing* rhymes 
were sowed," as the earliest instance of 
this mode of spelling. I have also found- 
in the same poet's ' Musophilus ' " the 
sacred relics of whose rhyme " and " this- 
eloquence, these rhymes." But Gascoigne, 
a little earlier, has " these toyes in ryme " 
{rime}. In Donne (circ. 1610) we find. 
" if thou forget the rhyme," and in Carew 
(circ. 1620) " ballad rhime." Hence it 
seems that the spelling of this word with h 
was pretty well established before 1660. 


[The first line quoted is from Daniel's 'Civil 
Wars,' book ii., and was printed at 4 S. xii. 432. 
^ long reply from PROF. SKEAT on the spelling of 
rime appeared on the preceding page. Both articles 
are worthy of attentive consideration.] 

T copy the following sentence from No. 39- 
of The Spectator, a paper written by Addison- 
It is the original edition which is before me,, 
and has the date 14 April, 1711 : "I am 
therefore very much offended when I see a 
Play in Rhyme." I obseive that Addison 
in The Spectator almost always has " Rhyme,"" 
though he sometimes has " Rhime." A 
much older work is also before me, Sir 
Henry Savile's ' Translation of Tacitus/ 
fifth edition, 1622. But it was first pub- 
lished in 1581. I there read the following t 
" riming harmonic of words " 


I am sorry to say there is a misprint in: 
my last article ; but it is my fault. In the 
fifth line, for " modern English " read 
Middle English. I mean that the word 
was spelt rime both in Middle English and 
Tudor English. But it is rhyme in modern 
English. W. W. SKEAT. 

82). Phoebe's epitaph does not state that 
she fought in the 5th Regiment of Foot at 
Fontenoy. " She served for many years as. 
a Private Soldier in the Fifth Regiment of 
Foot in different parts of Europe, and in the 
year 1745 she fought under the command of 

10 s. vi. AUG. is, 1906.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of 

I am surprised that MB. SKRINE takes this 
as implying that she was in the 5th Foot at 
Fontenoy. So far as the evidence of the 
epitaph goes, she may have been in any 
regiment at Fontenoy. If the words carry 
any implication at all (which is doubtful), 
I would suggest that the expression " and 
she fought," instead of " and fought," 
rather implies that her fighting at Fontenoy 
was something distinct from her service in 
the 5th Foot. At any rate, we must not 
read into the epitaph something that is not 

[VEKITAS sends a reply to the same effect.] 

"SWERVE" (10 S. v. 426; vi. 55). In 
the note at the first reference the word 
*' swerve " is applied to the change in direc- 
tion in a baseball due to the peculiar twist 
imparted to it by the pitcher. 

In the United States the name for this 
phenomenon is curve, not " swerve." Per- 
haps the writer of the article in the Daily 
Mail misunderstood some American who 
tried to explain the phenomenon to him ; 
certainly curve is the technical term here, 
and " swerve " is never heard. The word 
even has transferred senses, as in the expres- 
sion, " He is on to your curves," i.e., he 
understands your manoeuvres, just as a good 
batsman understands (and can hit) the 
curved pitching of an opposing " nine." 

Of course a curve in baseball is the changed 
direction produced in a pitched ball's course 
because of its rotation about its axis, and is 
independent of the normal curve due to the 
forward motion of the ball and the action 
of gravity. A curve may be to either side 
(an in or out curve, as it is toward or away 
from a right-handed batter), or a " drop," 
where the ball strikes the ground before it 
would in a normal course. Some pitchers 
claim to use a "rise" also. The drop is 
analogous to the effect produced by the 
Lawford stroke in tennis. A. G. BAKER. 

Springfield, Mass. 

334). The Rev. Edward Christian, of this 
family, rector of Workington, co. Cumberland, 
on succeeding his kinsman in the estate of 
Docking, co. 'Norfolk, assumed in 1798 the 
name and arms of Hare : Gu., two bars, and 
a chief dancette or. He was descended from 
the Hares, Lords Coleraine in the Kingdom 
of Ireland ; and a slab covering their 
remains may yet be seen in the chancel of 
Docking Church. My old friend Canon 
Hare has been for many years vicar of 

Docking, and on the death (childless) of 
his eldest brother, Mr. Humphrey John Hare,. 
the estate of Docking was bequeathed to my 
friend's eldest son. Canon Hare can record. 
a ministry of more than fifty years, spent 
as curate and vicar in his native village. 

The Christians are descended in the female- 
line from John de Eglesfield, elder brother 
of Robert de Eglesfield, rector of Brough,. 
founder of Queen's College, Oxford, in 1340,. 
through their alliance with the Senhouse 
family, and consequently can claim collateral, 
descent from the founder, as of his kin. 


(10 S. v. 349, 391, 473;,vi. 37, 93). A. 
discussion as to the reasons which induced 
the King of the French to adopt the name 
of Smith on his arrival on these shores on 
2 March, 1848, seems to me as vain and un- 
profitable as speculations as to what songs- 
the sirens sang or the name which Achilles- 
assumed when hiding among women. The^ 
King had lived in England, and must have 
been aware that Smith was a common name- 
among the English. 

Thackeray's Pleaceman X makes the King 
summarize his adventures in the following; 
lines : 

I left my native ground, 

I left my kin and kith, 

I left my Royal crownd, 

Vich I couldn't travel vith, 
And without a pound came to English ground 
In the name of Mr. Smith. 


ETON SWISHING (10 S. v. 489 ; vi. 35). 
Numerous references to magazine articles,, 
&c., on Eton College occur in Cotgreave's- 
' Contents-Subject Index,' 1900, p. 211. 


5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

(10 S. v. 268). When at Newark in Septem- 
ber, 1901, I noticed three brass plates to the 
Caparn or Caparne family on the floor of the 
parish church. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

MR. PLATT will find allusions to the life- 
and work of Dr. Franz Preseren although, 
meagre in Dr. Carl Pecnik's little ' Lehr- 
buch der Slovenischen Sprache ' (Hartle- 
ben's series), p. 114. 

This representative of an overlooked and 
interesting language was born in 1800 in 
Vrba, Oberkrain, and died at Krainburg in 
1849, his career thus covering the romantic- 
period so fruitful for Russia. His life? 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. is, im 

seems to have been one of privation, and 
an unfortunate love affair added to his 
sorrows. The character of his poetry has 
won for him the title of the Slavonic Petrarch, 
and the key-note of life, in his own words, is 

In da ni mesta vrh zemlje, 

Kjer bi pozabil to gorje, 

which may be freely rendered 

Sorrow may ne'er forgotten be, 
From this on earth no place is free. 

Dr. Pecnik furnishes an extract (p. 123) 
from Preseren's ' Krsta pri Savici ' ( 'Baptism 
on the Savica '), containing the love episode 
of Crtomir and Bogomila, " as fair as the 
-celebrated Hero of Abydos was." 

The best-known Slovenic poet was Pre- 

seren's predecessor, Valentine Vodnik, whose 

political activities brought him into trouble 

a frequent fate of Slavonic men of letters. 


Streatham Common. 

BOOK SIGNATURES (10 S. v. 487). I was 
told, when a boy, that the absence of J, v, w, 
in the signatures of the sheets or sections of 
a book was because the early inventors of 
printing worked mostly in Latin, in which 
language the letters j, v, w, were not used. 
I give this for what it is worth, although the 
alleged absence of the v is not clear to me. 

The compositor's " upper " case, contain- 
ing capitals, &c., has, I believe, descended 
with little or no change from Caxton's day. 
The letters are still placed in alphabetical 
order, with the exception of J and U, which 
two letters are not in the regular order, but 
are located in two spare boxes, as if they 
were a later or an after use. 

No doubt MR. F. BOASE is aware that a 
book proper commenced with signature B 
<signature A being kept till the last for title, 
preface, contents, &c.) ; that when z was 
reached, the alphabet in doubled form (AA, 
BB, &c.) was continued ; and that some of 
our modern printers use figures in regular 
order (a much better plan than letters). 

Cromwell Avenue, Highgate, N. 

43, 64, 82). Upon reading MR. EVERITT'S 
first article, which came as an agreeable 
surprise to me, I took an early oppor- 
tunity of inspecting the register at Win- 
chester College. The place of origin 
thereby assigned to Thomas White, the 
scholar of 1508, is not Haverhill (as in Mr 
Jvirbys book), but " hauentt," which no 
<loubt means Havant. This scholar was 
admitted as Fellow of New College, Oxford 

on 5 Apiil, 1515. He took the degree of 
M.A., but resigned his fellowship in 1520,* 
upon his appointment as head master of 
Eton College. These details are from an 
old MS. book at Winchester College, marked 
" Liber Successionis et Dignitatis," which 
contains a list of the Fellows of New College 
down to 1640 with details copied from the 
register of that college. It describes the 
said Thomas White as " de villa Havant, 
com. South., dioc. Winton." 

He vacated his office at Eton in 1525 
(Lipscomb's ' Bucks,' iv. 495), and may, 
I think, be safely identified with the Thomas 
White, M.A., who was vicar of Heston 
(1529-50) and of Hampton - on - Thames 
(1532-41). In March, 1541, shortly before 
he had vacated Hampton, f the new deanery 
and chapter of Winchester Cathedral were 
constituted, and I venture to suggest that 
he was the Thomas White to whom the 
tenth prebendal stall was then given (Patent 
Roll, 32 Hen. VIII., p. 6, m. 6). I am aware 
that books which Mr. EVERITT has followed 
treat this prebendary as identical with 
Thomas White of Leckford (B.C.L. 1541 ; 
D.C.L. 1553), who became Warden of New 
College in 1553, and who obtained the fifth 
prebendal stall at Winchester in 1554. But 
that identification must be rejected ; for 
in June, 1551, Thomas White, one of the 
cathedral prebendaries, had lately died, 
and next month Leonard Bilson, M.A., was 
installed as his successor (Strype's ' Eccles. 
Mem.,' ii. 265, edition of 1822 ; Hardy's 
' Le Neve,' iii. 32). In describing the pre- 
bendary of 1541 as " Thomas White, LL.D.," 
Le Neve (iii. 32) or his editor departed from 
the terms of the letters patent, to which I 
have referred. There the members of the 
new chapter who were already doctors of 
theology or law are described as such, but 
the tenth prebendary appears as plain 
Thomas White humble degrees, such as 
that of M.A., being ignored, as in the case of 
John White (afterwards Bishop of Win- 
chester), who was given the twelfth stall. 

On 2 Feb., 1545/6, one Thomas White, 
clerk, compounded for the first fruits of the 
rectory of Bishopstoke, Hants ; and his 
sureties were Anthony Coope of Bedhampton, 
a gentleman whom MR. EVERITT has men- 
tioned, and Thomas Treder, shoemaker, of 

This may, of course, mean 1520/1. One Thomas 
White became M.A. in March, 1520/1. According 
M Foster and also to Boase, he was the Thomas 
White who in 1512 was Fellow of Oriel College. 
Was he not really our Thomas White of Havant ? 

t Robert Newman, his successor at Hampton, 
was appointed on 18 Sept., 1541 (Hennessy). 

10 s. vi. AUG. is, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


:St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, London. He 
apparently remained rector there until 
.shortly before 26 June, 1551, when John 
Bale compounded for the first fruits (Com- 
position Books at Record Office) ; and I 
infer from the date of Bale's composition 
that his predecessor was the prebendary of 
Winchester Cathedral who had then lately 
died. I observe that Foster in his 'Alumni 
Oxon.' identified the rector of Bishopstoke 
with Thomas White, the Warden of New 
College ; but it seems that Foster failed to 
discover the existence at Oxford of our 
Thomas White of Havant ; and this failure 
probably accounts also for Foster's sugges- 
tion that the vicar of Heston and Hampton 
was the Thomas White who in 1512 was 
Fellow of Oriel College. In Walcott's 
^Wykeham and his Colleges,' p. 395, the 
career of Thomas White of Havant is badly 
-confused with that of his namesake, the 
New College Warden. Cf. p. 348 of the 
same book. These questions of identifica- 
tion are thorny, and I shall welcome further 
light upon my own suggestions. The career 
of a head master of Eton ought not to prove 
incapable of being ascertained. H. C. 

HERALDIC (10 S. v. 190). "Gules, a 
cross clechee or." This coat, blazoned 
" Gules, a cross pometty, voided or," is 
-assigned by Papworth to the name of Brauns- 
ton. Is SADI correct in his description of 
the cross as " clechee " ? S. D. C. 

COL. BY, R.E. (10 S. v. 470). No life 
of Col. By has ever, so far as I know, been 
published. Col. R. H. Vetch, C.B., late 
R.E., wrote a short notice of his life in the 
* Dictionary of National Biography,' Sup- 
lement, vol. i. p. 364. The bibliography at 
the end of this notice is twenty-seven lines 
in length, and refers to all the principal 
authorities regarding his life and professional 
writings. B. R. WARD, Major R.E. 

Halifax, N.S. 

ROBIN HOOD IN FRENCH (10 S. v. 468; 
vi. 16). Baron Frangois Adolphe Loeve- 
Veimars was born in 1801, died in 1854, and 
wrote several works. See French bio- 
graphical dictionaries and the Catalogue of 
the British Museum. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

" GTTLA AUGUSTI " (10 S. v. 408, 499 ; vi. 
15, 72). Perhaps the following, from ' Con- 
gleton Past and Present,' by Robert Head, 
1887, may prove interesting as an illustra- 
tion. It is, however, merely an abstract, 

as the whole account is much too long for 
the limited space of ' N. & Q.' 

As we all know, the Wakes, instituted 
primarily as a religious festival, commemora- 
tive of the dedication of a church, degene- 
rated into licence, and the old Cheshire town 
formed no exception. The chapel dedicated 
to St. Peter was swept away, and in 1742 
the present structure, rectangular in form, 
was erected. The 1st of August was usually 
known as Lammas Day and sometimes as 
the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, or St. Peter 
in the Fetters. In 1752 the new style was 
adopted, and the calendar altered by twelve 
days, so that the Wakes commenced on the 
first Sunday after the of August, and 
on the 14th the second lesson at the morning 
service treats of the imprisonment and 
deliverance of St. Peter (Acts xii.). 

A custom used to obtain of sending round 
the town three men carrying leather belts, 
studded with spherical bells with rolling 
clappers, something like sheep bells. A 
large whole-page engraving represents (as I 
suppose) St. Peter having these chains hung 
round his neck. His feet are shod with 
sandals, and on his head is a close-fitting 
skull cap. The ancient leathers and bells 
are now preserved among the archives of 

This quaint old custom is also mentioned 
in The Cheshire Sheaf, vol. ii. p. 378, in an 
article contributed by Mr. John Wilson, 
LL.D., an eminent antiquary, and also 
town clerk of Congleton. It has, however, 
never been ascertained whether this old 
Congleton custom has been elsewhere ob- 
served. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

My old friend MR. H. D. GRISSELL, who 
has lately been knighted by the Pope, will 
probably think me very unerlightened if 
I propose that " Gula Augusti " means 
" August gluttony," as the second part of 
his letter suggests. Taken as a condescen- 
sion to the lower estate, it may be rendered 
" The August Feast." Gula means " glut- 
tony " to this day in Spain. 


vi. 46, 96). The camp-fire point of view 
may be of interest to MR. PLATT, and I may 
say that during a considerable time spent 
campaigning I gathered that the principal 
sense of the word was " none," " nothing," 
as ikawna marli (phonetic), no money. I 
remember Kipling's poem reaching us (in a 
daily paper, I think), and we always inter- 
preted " London Ikonas " as being a moving 



reference to our chronic state ot more or 
less happy destitution. Kif-ling commen- 
tators may make use of the sense appealing 
to them. F. M. H. K. 

449, 513). With regard to the query about 
the 'members ot this proposed order, it may 
be interesting to state that two of my 
ancestors, both in the ninth degree Robert 
Davies, armiger, of Gwysaney, eo. Flint, 
ard Sir Thomas Wilbraham, Bart, of 
Woodhey, co. Chester, were selected for 
the honour of knighthood. 

Bark Hill House, Whitchurch, Salop. 

Your correspondent is perhaps not aware 
that the British Museum a jthorities acquired 
last year a particularly interesting Star 
Chamber manuscript, entitled ' Attorney- 
General's Certificates, 1594-95,' folio. Like 
many other valaable original records, it had 
strayed from official custody into private 
hands, and narrowly escaped destruction 
in some waste paper. The companion 
volume, entitled ' Index and Orders of 
Starre Chamber,' a manuscript on 400 leaves, 
containing thousands of names cited within 
the dreaded tribunal, is in the writer's pos- 
session. It is possible that the decree 
books, mentioned by MR. GERALD FOTHER- 
GILL as lost, are merely lying unrecognized 
is some corner of the kindgom. 



367). John Fauchereau(d) Grimke was 
born 16 December, 1752, and died 9 August 
1819. He was a man of some note himself 
and had several distinguished children. Sec 
* Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Bio- 
graphy,' ii. 767, 768, and Catherine H 
Birney's ' The Grimke Sisters,' Boston, 1885 

Boston, U.S.A. 

v. 490 ; vi. 35). Gordon House is a large 
mansion, now divided into two separat 
dwelling-houses, in the Grove, Highgat 
Road, at the corner of Gordon House Road 
about a hundred yards above the Highgat 
Road station on the Midland Railway. Th 
Rev. Thomas Smith mentioned in the quer 
was the proprietor of a rather well-know 
school, Gordon House Academy, which i 
described at some length in Capt. Joh 
Henry Cooke's ' A Narrative of Events i 
the South of France and the Attack on Ne^ 

Jrleans in 1814 and 1815.' Cooke was a 
oy at the school. About the middle of 
he last century it was the temporary home 
f the College of Civil Engineering, after- 
'ards removed to Putney. Some notes on 
le history of the school appeared in The- 
"t. Pancras Guardian of 8 April, 1898, and 
May, 1902, afterwards reprinted in ' St.. 
3 ancras Notes and Queries,' pp. 50 and 195. 
am unable to explain the origin of the name. 

28). I was present at a meeting of th& 
vVoolwich District Antiquarian Society on 
Thursday, 15 November, 1900, when a paper 
vas read by Mr. A. Rhodes on ' Maiden Lane^ 
>ayford, and other Maidens,' which was- 
published in the proceedings of the Society 
n question. It is possible that among the- 
' other Maidens " alluded to some mention, 
f the road now asked about may be found. 
Catford, S.E. 

" BREAKING THE FLAG " (10 S. vi. 69). 
At sea the expression commonly used is not 
' break," but " break out." On board a 
racht it is customary to "set up " the jib- 
' in stops," i.e., rolled up and tied round 
vith spun yarns. When getting the anchor 
;,he skipper gives the word, " Break out the- 
ib " ; and a good pull on the sheet bursting 
:he stops, the sail is set in a moment. Simi- 
.arly, when starting yacht races, it is very 
usual to hoist the preparatory signal flag 
Better A, B, C, &c., of the code) " in a ball," 
i.e., rolled up and fastened by the halyard,, 
so that a single jerk makes it fly out. When 
the time is up the officer in charge gives the 
word, " Break out the signal." 

This meaning of the word " break " does 
not seem to be given in the ' N.E.D.' 

T. F. D. 

CHERRY IN PLACE-NAMES (10 S. vi. 69, 115).. 
With " Cherry " as the name both of a 
person and a fruit tree there eannot but be a 
little uncertainty as to its meaning as a place- 
name. A common root in Teutonic names, 
is the Gothic hari, Anglo-Saxon here, Old 
Norse her, army, simple forms of which,, 
says Ferguson in his ' Teutonic Name- 
System ' (1864), p. 231, are the English 
Hare, Harre, Harry, Harrow, Charie, and 
Cherry. Thus Cheriton might be the town 
of one named Cherry ; bat it is more pro- 
bably Cherry-Tree-Town, for there is a 
Cherry-Tree-Hill in the West Riding of 
York, four miles south-west of Sheffield. 
Cherry vale, Monaghan ; Cherry wood, near 

10 s. VL AUG. is, 1906.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Loughlinstown, S. Dublin ; Cherryhill, in 
Cork ; and Cherry trees, near Yetholm, 
E. Roxburgh, also are found. Cherry- 
bank, in Perthshire, is claimed by Mr. James 
B. Johnston, in his ' Pla3e-Names of Scot- 
land,' as occurring about 1350 as cheri, and 
as being from the O.E. ciris, German Kirsche. 
Isaac Taylor favours the fruit-tree origin 
when he says in his * Words and Places ' 

"'cherry' has passed through the alembic of two 
or three languages instead of one. The English 
word cherry, the German Kirsche, and the French, all come to us from the Greek, through the 
Latin, and inform us that this fruit was first intro- 
duced from Cerasus, now, probably, Kheresoun, a 
town on the Black Sea." 

Prof. Skeat (' Concise Diet.'), s.v. ' Cherry,' 
says : " Gk. Kcpacros, a cherry-tree ; usually 
said to come from Cerasos, in Pontus ; a 
rstory which Curtius doubts " (ed. 1884). 


There is an estate or holding (consisting 
now of two or three cottages, I am told) 
called St. Cherries, lying about half a mile 
south-west of Spreyton, between Spreyton 
and Fuidge. I have often wondered whether 
this name was a corruption of, or had any 
connexion with, that of St. Gyres (locally 
pronounced Cire-es), a parish about 15 miles 
(roughly speaking) eastward from there, 
-and about 2J miles from Exeter. 


ABBEY OR PRIORY (10 S. v. 327, 378, 417, 
457 ; vi. 73). MR. STEVENSON should see 
Dugdale's ' Monasticon,' vol. vi. (1), p. 473. 
Vol. vi. is strangely subdivided into three 
"volumes ; but on the binding of the British 
Museum Reading-Room copy they are 
numbered vi., vii., and viii. In the reply 
of mine to which MR. STEVENSON takes 
exception he will find I agree with him as to 
Lenton being a priory : it was one of the 
*' Greater " Priories, as T mentioned at the 

Willis's ' Mitred Abbies ' may also be 
consulted with advantage, as may Dom 
Gasquet's works on the period of Henry VIII. 
and his dealings with the monasteries, though 
one or two slips occur in his list. 

Though Newstead appears to be, in most 
references in Dugdale, quoted as a priory, 
still he refers to " Carta Regis Abbati 
de Novo Loco Com. Nott. Pasch. Rec. 
25 Ed. TIL," and gives the list of Abbots 
of Newstead. 

If it was not an abbey, it would be inter- 
esting to know who first christened it as 
such, and \vhen. Was it Lord Byron ? 


FLEETWOOD BRASS (10 S. vi. 88). Lips- 
comb, in his ' History of Buckinghamshire,' 
under ' Chalfont St. Giles,' says : 

"Within the communion rails is an altar tomb of 
dark - coloured marble, having, in front, three 
circular compartments, formerly decorated with 
coats of arms, one only (towards the east end) 
remaining, viz., Fleetwood impaling Spring. At 
the west end, the arms of Fleetwood singly." 

This is the tomb of Thomas Fleetwood 
referred to by your correspondent. The 
arms of Fleetwood are Party per pale 
nebulee az. and or, six martlets, three and 
three, counterchanged ; crest, a wolf trip- 
pant regardant or, vulned in the shoulder 
proper. The arms of Spring are Argent, 
on a chevron between three mascles gules, 
three cinquefoils or. 

If your correspondent finds that the arms 
on the monument are those of Fleetwood 
and Spring as described above, he will now 
have the correct tinctures. Should he 
desire further information, he will find 
pedigrees and particulars of the Fleetwood 
family in the before-mentioned ' History of 
Bucks,' and of the Spring family in ' The 
Visitation of Suffolk.' CHARLES DRURY. 

The arms of Fleetwood of Chalfont St. 
Giles are Per pale nebulee azure and or, 
six martlets, two, two, and two, counter- 
charged (Burke and Pap worth). 


GOTHAM AND THE 'N.E.D.' (10 S. vi. 84). 
Some of the earliest tales told to me, as to 
hundreds of other Derbyshire children, were 
of the doings of the wise men of Gotham, the 
Notts village. These w^re told, not read 
from books, and in this way had been handed 
down from generation to generation. The 
grandfathers of those who were boys with 
me had walked on Sundays to Gotham to see 
the " cuckoo bush," the pond from which 
the moonrakers " raked the moon," and the 
hill adown which the " wise men " sped 
their cheeses to Nottingham market. I 
knew the tales long before I read them in a 
brochure which was, I think, printed and 
published, with other such matter, by 
Richardsons of Derby. 

Work sop. 

"PEARL": ITS ETYMON (10 S. v. 409, 
493 : vi. 118). Since writing my remarks 
on the derivation of this word, ante, p. 118, 
I have found that my suggestion of its 
relationship to " beryl " was anticipated by 
no less an authority than Grimm (see Littre's 
dictionary), with whom the idea evidently 
originated. Littre's verdict is that its true 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. is, IDOL 

etymology is " tres-ineertain," but Grimm's 
name naturally should carry great weight 
with it. What, however, goes, I think, to 
strengthen my conjecture of the homology 
of the pearl's occurrence in marine shells 
with that of the beryl, when found in druses 
and geodes, is the fact that, as Kluge 
observes, the German word Perlmutter 
(mother of pearl), which is formed in the 
same way as Fr. mtre-perle and It. madre- 
pcrla, means literally " producer of pearls 
inside the mussel," or, according to my sup- 
position, of beryls : the double form thus 
being produced in much the same way as 
our ancestors gave birth to the modern 
collective "flour" by speaking of the best 
part of the meal of wheat as the flower of 
the miller's grist. 

The only meaning given by Du Cange for 
pirula, it should be noted, is the " tip of the 

I should state I have not so far been able 
to see ' N.E.D.,' P to Piper. N. W. HILL. 

ME. N. W. HILL'S suggestion that the word 
" pearl " might be merely a doublet of 
" beryl," notwithstanding their diverse signi- 
fication, appears to be worth considering, 
and apt to lead to the settlement of a much- 
contested derivation. The corresponding 
words in German, " Perle " and " Beryll," 
were already identified, and reduced to a 
probable common origin, thirty years ago 
by Weigand in his etymological dictionary 
('Deutsches Worterbuch,' 2 vols., Giessen, 
1873-6, v. ' Perle '). H. KREBS. 

v. 245). I wrote a protest against " the 
constant and meaningless addition of this 
word in everyday life " in 9 S. v. 121. I 
was much astonished to find MR. H. A. 
HARBEN at p. 195 took my observations to 
be in favour of " full up." I find I have 
very little to add to what I then said. 

" Up " is by no means the only word that 
is said uselessly by educated people. For 
example, they put " the " before illnesses, 
as the headache, the measles, the gout, &c. 
I doubt if " the " should precede any illness. 

It is not only with words of foreign origin 
that we use " up." For example, any one 
would say to the maid, "Wash up those 
tea-things." In fact, I doubt if any one 
would say, " I want you to wash those tea- 
things." " Polish up " and " mix up " 
are as common. I notice in passing (10 S. 
v. 406, col. 2, ]. 13 from foot) " to close up 
Dove Court." 

Lately a newspaper of great repute, refer- 

ring to the sand that had fallen in Napoli,. 
said that if rain came the " sand would 
choke all the drains " (not " choke up "). 
But another paper, also of great repute,. 
said it " may be expected to die down before- 
long." And in ' Victorian Chancellors,' 
by J. B. Atlay, 1906, vol. i. p. 367, "enmities 
died down and ceased " is used. 

In conversation I have lately heard the 
following expressions used by persons of 
some education : " progressed on," " checked 
off," " erected up," " educated up," " The- 
house is going to be painted down." I fancy 
that all these are getting commoner than 
they used to be. RALPH THOMAS. 

S. v. 228, 310). I would merely draw atten- 
tion to the strangeness of the fact that two- 
of the forms in which this word was pro- 
nounced in the time of Pope have certainly 
survived in the name D3laware. As applied 
to the American State and river, it is always- 
pronounced as in the rimed words cited by 
MR. FORREST-MORGAN " care," " despair," 
" bear," &c. ; while as borne by a member 
of the British peerage it follows the entirely 
modern form of enunciation, though written 
slightly different : De la Warr. Lord 
Delaware, it is needless to state, was the first 
Governor of the colony of Virginia in the- 
reign of James I. N. W. HILL. 



HaHnytn* Poxthumus ; or, Purchas Hi* , 

By Samuel Purchas, B.D. Vols. XIII. and XIV. 
(Glasgow, MacLehose & Sons.) 

THE present highly interesting instalment of Pur- 
chas's great work is principally occupied with 
Arctic discovery and the search then begun, and 
still continued, after a North- West passage. It 
opens briefly with the reported discovery of Green- 
land in 1553 by Sir Hugh Willoughbie, who the 
following year with his crew perished of starvation 
in Lapland. This disastrous voyage was, as is well 
known, undertaken at the instigation of Sebastian 
Cabot. Numerous voyages on behalf of the Mus- 
covy Company, with a view of finding a North- 
western passage to India and Cathay, are described 
by Thomas Edge, the captain. In 1611 whales were 
first killed on the coast of Greenland, six " Bis- 
kayners," expert men in whale-killing, having been* 
sent out for the purpose. After Edge was named 
Edge s Island, on the eastern portion of Greenland 
Three voyages into the North Sea by the Dutch 
under the direction of William Barents or Bernard, 
follow. The third of these describes a winter spent 
in Arctic regions in a wooden house, the materials 
for which were providentially washed up. The 
account of the sufferings from cold is very animated 
In their subsequent attempts at escape William 

10 s. vi. AUG. is, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Barents died. His journal was, however, continued 
by other hands. ' Discoverie of Siberia and the 
subjecting of the same to the Russes,' is from the 
Latin. Gourdon's two tracts concerning his voyage 
to Pechora were studied and used oy Milton. 
Chap, xviii. is occupied with the voyages and dis- 
coveries of Henry Hudson, after whom are named 
Hudson's Bay and the River Hudson, neither of 
which was, however, discovered by him. In this 
narrative is the romantic account of the conspiracy 
and death of Henry Greene. Hudson's own tragical 
fate when he was sent adrift by mutineers is of 
course known. The thirteenth volume ends with 
the tracts of Master George Barkley, merchant of 
London, and other miscellaneous, but deeply in- 
teresting records. 

Vol. xiv. opens with the voyages undertaken for 
Sir Thomas Smith and the " Muscovie Company" 
for the purpose of Northern discovery. Next comes 
a journal of the voyage to Greenland of Master 
William Baffin, whose name is immortalized in 
Baffin's Bay, and one in 1614 by R. Fotherbye, who 
records witnessing the phenomenon known as a 
Corpo Santo. An account of Russian history is 
compiled from the observations of English ambas- 
sadors and other travellers, the ambassadors in- 
cluding Sir Thomas Smith. A very gloomy state of 
affairs is depicted. The latter half of the volume 
is occupied with a description of the West Indies 
by Antonio de Herrera, the eminent Spanish ad- 
venturer. A large number of the maps of Hondius 
accompany the two volumes. Good progress is 
made with this noble and spirited undertaking, 
now within measurable reach of termination. 

The Oxford Degree Ceremony. By J. Wells. (Oxford, 

Clarendon Press.) 

THIS admirable little book is a worthy supplement 
to its author's previous work on Oxford, to the 
history of which it is itself a valuable addition. 
With its illustrations from the Chancellor's book 
circ. 1375, Loggan's 'Habitus Academicorum,' and 
other authoritative sources, it forms a pleasing 
souvenir of a picturesque and important ceremony, 
and it casts a flood of welcome light upon proceed- 
ings always recalled with pleasure. Much of the 
information is taken from Rashdall's important 
work on the universities of the Middle Ages. 

The Problem of Spelling Reform. By Prof. W. W. 

Skeat. (Frowde.) 

FROM the Proceedings of the British Academy, of 
which he is a Fellow, Prof. Skeat has reprinted 
this important lecture, read before the Academy 
on 2 May last. This can be read, as we have tested, 
with much pleasure, though a few unwarrantable 
caprices of spelling are all with which our author 
can concern himself. One of these is the intrusive 
c, once witnessed in ncituate, and still manifest in 
scent, scion, scissors, and scythe. Some pregnant 
remarks are made on the English pronunciation of 
Latin. A real spelling reform may possibly reach 
us from America. To Prof. Skeat the president of 
an Anierican university said, " In our universities 
English takes the first place." 

Middlesex. By John B. Firth. (Methuen & Co.) 
To the valuable series of " Little Guides" has now 
been added one to Middlesex. This has the same 
qualities of brevity and accuracy noticeable in other 
works belonging to the series. In some cases, 
indeed, as in that of Winchmore Hill, we should be 

glad of less rigorous compression. The illustrations 
from photographs, old prints, &c., are excellent 
many of them being full-page. There is also a, 
serviceable ma]). 

The Quarterly Review. July. (Murray.) 
MR. W. LEWIS JONES contributes a paper on the- 
legend of King Arthur as told by Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth. The chronicler was, we believe, not a mere 
writer of romance, though he must have narrated 
many things which he could not have believed had 
any foundation in fact. The Arthur, to our think- 
ing, is founded, at least in part, on older legends. 
Whether it be a mere creature of the imagina- 
tion, or a highly decorated presentation of some' 
Celtic hero who once had life, it is, in the present 
state of our knowledge, impossible to tell. Popular 
opinion at present seems to run in the direction of 
his belonging to the world of dreams only; we, 
however, regard this as needless scepticism. ' The 
Literature of Egotism' deals with certain book* 
which cannot be described as other than egotistic ; 
but the word does not necessarily imply censure, 
though, in our opinion, some of the works criticized 
deserve reproof of a more drastic nature than they 
receive here. 

' Northumberland ' is a picturesque and accurate: 
survey of the seven volumes on the history of that 
county which have appeared during recent years. 
We are especially attracted by the pages in which 
a sketch is given of the great work done by John 
Hodgson in illustration of the history of the North. 
Many years ago the younger Raine wrote a bio- 
graphy of Hodgson which we trust all who devote - 
themselves to topographical studies have not only 
read, but pondered over. We fear, however, it is 
scarcely known beyond the limits of old North- 
umbria. If so, this is a great misfortune, for it is no. 
little help towards removing the prejudice, still vigor- 
ous, which regards the antiquary and local historian- 
as of necessity a narrow-minded person. Hodgson, 
was nothing like this. For the time in which he 
lived he had a wide knowledge of several branches 
of physical science. He numbered Sir Humphry- 
Davy among his friends, and rendered efficient 
service in perfecting the safety-lamp. It would be 
impossible in a short notice such as this to mention 
even one-half of the important subjects the reviewer 
treats of, but the sketches of the Roman occupation 
and the feudal castles of a later time must not be 
passed over without a word of mention. We, how- 
ever, sadly miss sketches of the after time, such as 
would draw attention to the attitude of the North- 
umbrian people to the Reformation, the Caroline 
civil war, and the risings in favour of the exiled 
family of a later period. 

Mr. R. S. Rait writes on ' John Knox and the- 
Scottish Reformation ' in a thoughtful manner, and 
with an evident desire to communicate the truth,, 
but we cannot accept all his conclusions. Though 
he has succeeded in avoiding partisanship, he does., 
not shrink from using strong language. Of Knox's . 
'History' he says, "There is an amount of self- 
deception large enough to prevent its being 

quoted as a final authority in any instance where 
the reputation of Knox's friends or of his enemies 
is concerned ; and after pointing out that much the 
same may be said of Wycliffe, Clarendon, and 
Burnet, he says, " that Knox was the contemporary 
and friend of the most shameless historical liar 
that ever wrote on British soil George Buchanan.'* 
This is plain speaking. We hold no brief for the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. vi. AUG. is, 1906. 

great Scottish humanist, but are convinced that to 
award him the highest rank among those who have 
deliberately said the thing which is not is an error 
n proportion. The days are too near to give or 
sugo-est names, but we feel certain that more than 
onf man flourished during the nineteenth century 
who equalled, and probably surged, the author of 
the ' Detectio Man* Begin*' in those things which 
Mr. Rait and all other honest men regard as 

- r 

lop's 'Origins of the Irish Race' 
is a work of great research and learning, but until 
the subjects treated of have been more thoroughly 
investigated in their remote bearings it would be 
rash for us to venture on criticism. 

The Scottish Historical Review, July. (Glasgow, 

MacLehosefc Sons.) 
The Scottish Historical. Review maintains its high 

character for learning. The first article, on I he 
Connexion between Scotland and the Isle of Man, 
by Mr. Arthur W. Moore, is especially good. 1 he 
writer is Speaker of the House of Keys ; his His- 
tory of the Isle of Man' and his work on Manx 

.Surnames and Place-Names' are well known to 
historical students. Mr. Andrew Lang tells the 
story of the last hours of James V. under the title 

of 'The Cardinal and the King's Will.' It shows 
much research, but, as is too commonly the case 
with the problems of that disturbed time, the 
sequence ot events is by no means clear. 

Mr. James Coleville gives a graphic account of 
the diary of Sir Thomas Hope from 1633 to 1645. 
The original manuscript was printed some sixty 
years ago by the Bannatyne Club, but the work has 
hitherto received scant notice from those to whom 
it would have been most instructive. Sir Thomas 
Hope was a learned lawyer ; he read Hebrew, and 
' The Imitation of Christ ' (in the original Latin, we 
presume) was a favourite book of his. This is 
strange, for we must, we presume, regard him as a 
Puritan in religion. That he spoke the good old 
Scotch of his time is evident from many examples. 
This is to his credit, for many of the younger men 
of his day were parading an imitation-English by 
no means of lovely character. 

Miss M. SidgwicK has added to our knowledge by 
giving a letter from Major-General Drummond to 
the Earl of Bothes, which has hitherto slumbered 
among the Carte manuscripts in the Bodleian 
Library. Drummond had seen much service on the 
Royalist side, and was a prisoner after the " crown- 
ing mercy " of Worcester. When all was over in 
his own country he served under Dalziel in Russia, 
but came back to Britain shortly after the Restora- 
tion. He was soon appointed major-general in the 
Scottish army, and took the field with Dalziel 
against the Covenanters at the time of the Pentland 

'The Excavations at Newstead Fort,' by Mr, 
James Curie, ought to be of surpassing interest to 
the Southron as well as to his friends over the 
Border. The rubbish pits or wells (for in diggings 
on Boman sites it is not always easy to distinguish 
the one from the other) have given back to the 
world many objects of great interest. Iron, brass, 
and bronze relics have been recovered ; and the 
Samian ware, as it is called, retains the brightness 
of its glaze as when new. The most interesting 
object hitherto brought to light at Newstead is a 
brass helmet found in the spring of the presenl 
year. It lias on it an embossed, winged, nakec 

igure driving a chariot. A good engraving is given, 
t must, we think, have been part of the equipment 
of an officer. It is not likely that a common soldier 
would have worn a helmet so highly decorated. A 
lelmet much resembling this example has been 
xmnd at Nikopol, in Bulgaria, and is now preserved 
at Vienna. We are told that the ornamentation, 
though more elaborate, is of the same character. 
An engraving of the Bulgarian example, for pur- 
poses of comparison, is much to be desired. 

THE new volume of 'Book-Prices Current' (the 
;wentieth of the series) will be published by Mr. 
Elliot Stock immediately. The general and subject 
indexes have again been combined under one 
alphabet, and cover considerably more entries than 
usual. Some fifty high-class sales have occurred 
during the year and are fully reported. An increased 
number of editorial notes will appear in the volume, 
and it is hoped that these will add to its usefulness. 

We intuit ccdl special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

WE cannot undertake to advise correspondents 
as to the value of old books and other objects or as 
to the means of disposing of them. 

E. P. (" George Bidder, the Calculating Boy"). 
Born at Moreton Hampstead, on the borders of 
Dartmoor, in 1806. His father was a stonemason. 
See ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. v., and Proceeding* Imt. 
Civil Engineer*, Ivii. 294. 

C. S. WARD (" Bog Butter"). See the articles at 
pp. 308, 353, 416, 496 of the last volume. 

H. FEKNOW (" A flower which once In Paradise, 
fast by the tree of life "). Milton, ' Paradise Lost ' 
iii. 353-4. 

M. L. R. BRESLAR ("I counted two-and-seventy 
stenches "). You will find this in 'Cologne,' No. 64 
of Coleridge's epigrams in Dykes Campbell's edition 
(Macmillan, 1893). 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

10 s. vi. ACG. is, i906.i NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



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ao s. vi. AUG. 25, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 139. 

NOTES : Palmerston and the Poacher : Florence Night- 
ingale, 141 Lord Bonville of Chewton Burton's 'Ana- 
tomy of Melancholy,' 143 " Pulque " Coleridge : Un- 
known Epigram The Late Duke of Rutland, 145 Little 
Britain Pan ton Family " The Gallery " Heated 
Refrigerator-Cars, 146 Great Queen Street Bristol 
Maps "Terrify" Edward and Henry Irving, 147. 

'QUERIES: "Plump" in Voting "George Wilkins, the 
Poet " Matthew Arnold's ' Church of Brou ' Ernest 
Augustus Stephenson, 148 Authors of Quotations 
Wanted Election Sunday, Westminster School Robert 
Moffatt-Disraeli's Novels Frederick Ross Muscovy 
Company: Baltic Company " Stafford blue" French 
Assignats Roman Catholic Priests buried in London, 
149 " Searchers" Princely Titles in Germany Cloak in 
Wooing " Skrimshander " Mottram Hall "In the 
sweat of thy brow ''Godfrey of Bouillon, 150 Queen 
Philippa's Mottoes Bishop Fanshawe Middleton 
Clippingdale St. John the Baptist and Charing, Kent- 
Rome under Elagabalus Holy Trinity, New York 
St. Johns of Farley Chamberlayne, 151. 

REPLIES : "Place," 151 "O dear, what can the matter 
be?" Snakes in South Africa, 152 Chichele's Kin 
Manor Mesne, 153 Tournaments : Bayard's Green 
Dugdale's Trustworthiness Perkin Warbeck " Verify 
your references " West's Picture of the Death of General 
\Volfe _ Bathing-Machines, 154 Literary Allusions 
" Quarterstaff " Johnson's Poems Funeral Garlands 
Col. Charles Godfrey Cresset StonesPincushion Sweet, 
155 "Four Corners " Capt. Grindlay James Hosking : 
Elizabeth Vinnicombe Waugh Family Waketield Appa- 
rition Death-Birds in Scotland and Ireland, 156 
Tadpole Canbury House, Middlesex " Pannier Market" 
"Killing -meat" John Danister "Trowzers" - 
Cricket: Pictures and Engravings " Et tu, Brute!" 157 
John Hoy : Serle's Coffee-House, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Materialen zur Kunde der iilteren 
Englischen Dramas ' ' Bristol ' ' Edinburgh Review ' 
' Folk-Lore ' ' Intermediaire.' 


THE wayfarer pursuing the high road 
irom Romsey to Southampton who turns 
.aside to visit the little old-world church of 
North Baddesley, once a chapel of the 
Knights Hospitallers (whose Commandery 
nourished there from about 1215 to 1541), 
rarely fails to observe a conspicuous tomb- 
stone in the churchyard, and to question 
the bystander as to the meaning of the 
following inscription : 

Memory of 

Charles Smith, 

who suffered at Winchester 

on the 23rd of March, 1822, 

for resisting by firearms his apprehension 

by the gamekeeper 

of Lord Viscount Palmerston, 

when found in Hough Coppice, 

looking after what is called (lame. 

Aged 30 years. 
If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent 
perverting of judgment and justice in a province, 
marvel not at the matter : for he that is higher than 
the highest regardeth ; and there be higher than 
they (Ecclesiastes, chapter 5, verse 8). 

The story told at Baddesley by those 
whose parents were Smith's contemporaries 
is that he was son of what in old-time 
Hampshire parlance was known as a 
squatter" (dwellers on waste lands in 
mud cottages), but frequently " lay rough " 
(i.e., out of doors) in order to indulge in 
poaching. The chief scene of these depre- 
dations was the woods of Henry John 
Temple, third Viscount Palmerston, who had 
succeeded his father, the second viscount, 
as owner of the Broadlands estates, near 
Romsey, in 1802, and who was at that time 
Secretary of State for War, and afterwards 
the great Prime Minister. 

In the parish chest in Baddesley Church 
are preserved the authentic accounts of the 
poaching affray ending in Smith's trial and 
execution, together with copies of the 
original letters which passed between Lord 
Palmerston and the judge. According to 
the story therein told, 

"Smith was a notorious poacher, who lived almost 
entirely on his illegal profession. On the 22nd of 
November, 1820, and after dark, he, and another 
man named Pointer, went to a copse at Toothill 
after game. The discharge of his gun brought on 
the scene Robert Snelgrove, one of Lord Palmer- 
ston's under-keepers. Snelgrove had no gun with 
him. The two men ran away, and Snelgrove ran 
after them ; and when he came within four or five 
jrards of them, Smith turned round and deliberately 
fired at Snelgrove, lodging the whole charge in his 
thigh. The pursuit of course then stopped, and 
Smith disappeared from the county for nearly a 
twelvemonth. Snelgrove was laid up for many 
months, but did not die of the wound. " 

Shooting with intent to maim was at that 
time a capital offence ; indeed, when Queen 
Victoria came to the throne in 1837 there 
were very many offences other than murder 
punishable with death. Smith was eventually 
caught, tried at Winchester, and condemned. 
The following is a copy of Lord Palmerston's 
letter to the judge, dated 8 March, 1822 : 

MY LORD, I understand that Charles Smith, the 
man who shot at and wounded my gamekeeper, 
was yesterday convicted before your Lordship of 
the crime with which he was charged, and sentenced 
to suffer the punishment of death. The man most 
undoubtedly deserves the full extent of the punish- 
ment which the law most justly affixes to the offence 
which he has committed, and I am afraid the general 
character of the man, and his conduct upon the 
occasion and matter which brought him under the 
sentence of the law, afford no extenuating circum- 
stances upon which I could venture to found any 
application to your Lordship on his behalf. At the 
same time, although morally guilty of the full inten- 
sion to murder, yet still, by the fortunate issue of 
the event, he has been saved from the actual and 
complete perpetration, of that crime, and I there- 
fore venture to submit for your Lordship's con- 
sideration whether it would be possible to give him 
the benefit of this providential result without de- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io-s. vi. AUG. 25, loos. 

feating the ends of public justice, and whether, as 
the man who was the object, of his ferocious attack 
has fortunately escaped without even guttering anv 
permanent Wily disability, the apprehension, trial, 
conviction, and condemnation of Smith to death 
may not be sufficient, if not as a punishment to 
him at least as an example and warning to others, 
and whether, under all the circumstances, your 
Lordship might feel yourself at liberty to commute 
the forfeiture of life for permanent transportation. 
Whatever your Lordship's better judgment may 
lead you to determine upon this matter, I am per- 
suaded that you will at least pardon the liberty 
which I have taken in thus addressing you, and I 
have the honour to remain your Lordships most 
obedient and humble servant, PALMERSTON. 

The reply from Judge Burrough, addressed 
to Viscount Palmerston, was dated 10 March, 

1822 : 


MY LORD, Your Lordship's letter in favour of 
Charles Smith reached me here on my arrival 
yesterday. It would have afforded me the greatest 
pleasure could I, consistently with my duty to the 
public, have given your Lordship any hope of an 
interposition from me to prevent the sentence from 
being carried into execution. My rule is that where 
a man is convicted of a capital offence, attended 
with circumstances of wanton cruelty, never to 
extend favour to the convict. In this case the 
keeper had not used the least violence to Pointer, 
whom he overtook, and the prisoner, standing 
within four or five yards, fired wantonly at him, 
and lodged the whole charge in his thigh. The 
offence of wanton and cruel conduct to a keeper 
and assistants in discharge of their duty is become 
so frequent as to convince me of the necessity of 
attempting at least to put a stop to it. This cannot 
be done but by convincing men of this description 
that their only safety will be in abstaining from 
such conduct as was pursued by the prisoner. I 
am determined on this account to let the law take 
its course. I have given your Lordship the earliest 
intimation of my intention. I should have been 
much gratified in discovering any circumstance 
which would have afforded me any ground for 
yielding to your Lordship's wishes. 

I am, my Lord, your most obedient servant, 


Accordingly Smith suffered at Winchester, 
but the body was handed over to his family 
for burial at Baddesley, his victim, Robert 
Snelgrove, surviving to a ripe age. 

A further and less tragic interest, how- 
ever, attaches to this man, in that he was 
a son of " Shepherd Snelgrove," of Wellow, 
a personage not unknown in local lore as 
the owner of the sheepdog Captain, the 
" first patient " of Florence Nightingale, of 
Crimean fame, whose early home was at 
Embly, her father being squire of Wellow. 
The charming anecdote connecting this dog 
with the " Lady of the Lamp " was locally 
handed down by the vicar of the parish, 
who was an eyewitness of the pretty scene. 

As is well known, Florence was second 
daughter of Mr. W. E. Nightingale, and was 

born at Florence in 1820, just five years 
before her father's purchase, from the Heath- 
cote family, of beautiful Embly Park, some 
two and a half miles from Romsey on the- 
Salisbury road. Here Florence Nightingale's 
childhood and youth were passed, and here 
she endeared herself to the villagers of 
Wellow by many acts of kindness. 

In those days the same families tilled 
the soil from generation to generation,, 
among them the Snelgroves, who are still 
represented there. Of these was Robert 
the shepherd, at that time a lonely old man. 
living with his dog " Cap." One day, being 
with his sheep, he was accosted by the- 
squire, out on his rounds of inspection,, 
accompanied by his little daughter Florence. 
Now Captain, the sheepdog, was an especial 
favourite with the child, who at once missed 1 
him from his accustomed place, and, on 
inquiring the cause, was concerned to find 
that, owing to an obstinate bad foot, he- 
was to be put to death that very evening. 
Slipping away from her father, " Missie " 
hastened to the shepherd's cottage, where- 
she found the dog stretched on its brick 
floor with a badly swelled leg. She lit the- 
ready-laid fire, boiled the kettle, and bathed 
the dog's foot with her own handkerchief! 
until the swelling had decreased. While so 
engaged she was discovered by the vicar, 
who delighted to relate how she continued 
her ministrations, going daily to the cottage 
to tend the sheepdog until her first patient 
was restored whole to his delighted master and. 
to the sheepfold. The old shepherd has long 
gone to his rest in Wellow Churchyard, and 
the dog lies close outside in an adjacent field ~ 

Embly has passed from the Nightingales,, 
and the Temples no longer own Broadlands ;. 
and soon all who remember their tenure of 
those estates will also have gone down into* 
silence. But in order to preserve some 
record of the village folk who were so 
curiously associated with two of the greatest, 
names of South Hampshire, these notes 
have been jotted down from the words of 
old inhabitants. Among these not a few 
recall " Keeper Snelgrove," who lived and 
died in the quaint thatched cottage still 
standing by the side of the road from Bad- 
desley to Romsey. His son Harry survives 
in a picturesque and hale old age, full of 
the tales of a long past generation, and of 
the father whose manhood and old age 
were clouded by unavailing regrets for the- 
fate of Charles Smith, whose tragic end 1 
forms the theme of the curious inscription, 
in Baddesley Churchyard. 


10 s. vi. AUG. 25, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



THERE are some puzzling discrepancies in 
the genealogy of the family of Bonville or 
Bonvile, of Chewton, Somersetshire, in 
different works which I have consulted. 

As given in Collinson's ' History of Somer- 
setshire,' 1791, vol. ii. p. 170, it is : 

Sir Thomas Bonville married Margaret 
Meriet ; their son, 

Sir William Bonville, who died in his 
father's lifetime, left issue by Elizabeth, 
only daughter and heir of William, Lord 

William Bonville, Lord Harington, who 
died in the lifetime of his grandfather, and 
left issue by Catherine, daughter of Richard 
Neville, Earl of Salisbury, an only daughter, 

Cecily, married to Thomas Grey, Marquis 
of Dorset (whose granddaughter was the 
unfortunate Lady Jane Grey). 

In The Gentleman's Magazine, 1825, i. 
pp. 9-10 (reprinted in "The Gentleman's 
Magazine Library," 'English Topography,' 
part x., 1898, p. 277), the pedigree is : 

Sir William Bonville, of Chewton, Som., 
married Margaret Merriett. Their son, 

Sir William Bonville, had summons to 
Parliament by the title of Lord Bonville of 
Chewton, 1449, and was honoured with the 
order of the Garter. He married Elizabeth, 
sole daughter and heiress of William, Lord 
Harington, K.G., and had issue, 

William Bonvitte, Esq., who had issue, 

William Bonville, Lord Harington, slain 
at the battle of Wakefield, 1460, in the life- 
time of his grandfather, who was beheaded 
in February, 1461. 

According to Burke, ' Extinct Peerages,' 
1866, p. 59, the descent was as follows : 

Sir William Bonvile, summoned to Parlia- 
ment, 1449, as Lord Bonvile of Chuton, 
married Margaret Meriet, and had, besides 
a daughter, an only son, 

William, who died before his father, having 
married Elizabeth de Harrington, and leaving 
an only child, 

William, commonly called Lord Harring- 
ton, who married Lady Catherine Nevil, 
daughter of Richard, Earl of Salisbury, and 
had an only daughter, Cecily. 

On p. 264 of the same work Burke tells us 
that William, Lord Bonville (sic), married 
Elizabeth, only child of William, fifth 
Baron Harrington, K.G., and had a son, 

William Bonville, who, in her right, became 
Lord Harrington, d.v.p., leaving a daughter, 

Cecily, who married first Thos. Grey, first 
Marquess of Dorset, and secondly Henry 
Stafford, Earl of Wiltshire. 

The Duchess of Cleveland, who states that 
William was created Lord Bonvile of Chuton 
in 1469 (this date is of course an error),, 
writes in ' The Battle Abbey Roll, with some 
Account of the Norman Lineages,' 1889, 
vol. i. p. 81 : 

" Within the space of less than two months three 
generations of Bonviles the last heirs male of their 
lineage were swept away. His eldest son William 
had married the heiress of Lord Harrington, and 
was father of another William, who inherited his. 
mother's barony, and took to wife a daughter of the- 
Earl of Salisbury, Lady Catherine Nevill. Both 
son and grandson were slain before his eyes at the- 
battle of Wakefield on the last day of 1460, and in 
February following his own gray head fell on the- 

The first point to be cleared up is, Who- 
was the husband of Margaret Meriet ? If it 
was Lord Bonville, K.G., Collinson must be 
wrong in giving the name as Thomas, and, 
The Gentleman's Magazine must be wrong in. 
making the said husband followed by three 
generations of Williams. 

Who, again, was the husband of Elizabeth, 
de Harington ? Collinson says Sir William ; 
The Gent. Mag. says Lord Bonville of Chew- 
ton ( 1449), K.G. ; and Burke says it was th& 
son of this Lord Bonville. Burke, however ,. 
elsewhere (p. 264) gives the name as Wil- 
liam, Lord Bonville ; but in this case there- 
would have been two Lord Bonvilles (father 
and son) living at the same time, for it i 
clear that Lord Harington, the youngest of 
the three generations who died in 1460-61,. 
was the son of Elizabeth, and the grandson 
of Lord Bonville, K.G. 

The most probable explanation would 
seem to be that all three authorities are 
more or less in error that it was Lord 
Bonville (of 1449) who married Margaret 
Meriet before he was created a baron, and 
that his son Sir William married Elizabeth 
de Harington. Perhaps some of your readers 
oan throw light on the matter. 




(See 9 S. xi. 181, 222, 263, 322, 441 ; xii. 
2, 62, 162, 301, 362, 442 ; 10 S. i. 42, 163,, 
203, 282; ii. 124, 223, 442; iii. 203; iv. 25, 
523; v. 146.) 

THE following are a few additions to- 
earlier notes : 

Vol. i. (Shill.) p. 12, 1. 25; p. 2 (ed. 6), 
1. 19, "a Politician " (see 10 S. iii. 203). The 
volume of Mullach's * Fr. Philos. Grsec.' is 
the first. 

P. 12, n. 12; 2, n. p., 'Ep. Hip.' (9 S. xii. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 25, im 

363). Burton used the Latin translation by 
M. Fabius Calvus of Ravenna (cf. iii. 308, 
n. 4; 600, n. r. III. iii.-i. ii-)- The passage 
here quoted is on p. 704 (Rome, 1525), and 
runs: "seque uolucrum linguas, & uoces 
intelligere, & audire dicit." 

P. 13, 24; 2, 1. ult., "as long almost as 
Xenocrates in Athens " (10 S. ii. 442). The 
first edition, p. 3, 1. 25, has: "that I haue 
liu'd a silent, sedentary, solitary, priuate 
life, mihi & musis in the Vniversity this 
tuentie yeares, and more, penned vp most 
part in my study. And though by my pro- 
fession a Diuine, yet " Xenocrates does 

not appear till ed. 3 (p. 2, 43), " in the Vni- 
versitie as long almost as Xenocrates in 
Athens, ad senectam jere y to learne wisdome 
as hee did, penned vp. ..." 

P. 14, n. 4 ; 3, n. d., 'Phil. Stoic.' (9 S. xii. 
363). "Manductio" in my note should be 

P. 17, n. 9 ; 5, n. u. (10 S. iii. 203). It is 
curious that edd. 1 and 2 have " Scalas." 
Edd. 3-6 have " Salas." To 10 S. iv. 524 ; 
v. 146, add Henry Hutton (Dunhelmensis), 
"Follie's Anatomic: or Satyres and Satyricall 
Epigrams. With a Compendious History 
of Ixion's Wheele' (London, 1619). 

P. 19, 8 ; 6, 7, "so did Tully write " 

(9 S. xii. 364). The spurious ' Consolatio,' 
first published in 1583, is given with some 
editions of Cicero. It may be seen, e.g., in 
the 1594 (Lyons) issue of Lambinus's text 
and in Nobbe's edition. 

P. 31, n. 7; 13, n. q., " Non hie colonus. . ." 
(10 S. i. 42). The error by which the words 
*' Pet. Nannius not. in Hor." were placed 
in a separate note, with a reference mark 
attached to a different part of the text, 
started in the first edition. See ' The Con- 
clusion of the Author to the Reader ' (in 
which this part of ' D. to the R.' originally 
appeared), sign. Ddd verso. In his Intro- 
duction to Shilleto's edition (p. x) Mr. A. H. 
Bullen speaks of an " Apologetical Index," 
but Burton's own words are : " and to this 
end I haue annexed this Apologetical 
Appendix, to craue pardo for that which is 
amisse" (ed. 1. Ddd verso, 11. 3 sqq.). 

P. 42, 1; 19, 41, "accomodare se " 

(10 S. ii. 223). The ' Vitse Humanse Querela,' 
to which a reference was given, is No. xi. of 
the pieces that follow the 'Dial. Satyr. Cen- 
turia ' in the 1617 ed. of Andrea's ' Menippus.' 
They are referred to on the title-page in 
" Cum quibusdam aliis liberioribus." In the 
revised ed. of 1618 only the last two, xi. 
and xii., are retained. 

P. 43, 14; 20, 29, "Nulla ferant " 

(10 S. i. 282). The reading ferant occurs 

already in ed. 3 (p. 3, 17), the earliest edition 
in which the quotation is introduced. Car- 
dan, * De TJtilitate ex Adversis Capienda,' 
lib. iii. cap. x., about two-thirds through, 
cites the Latin version of the four lines (6s 

/xovos Tavrd TTOTC) in Olympiodorus (see 

' Anth. Pal.,' vol. iii. cap. iii. 47, notes, Paris, 
1890) : 

Qui solus vita, doctrina, moribus, ore, 

Admonuit cunctos et monumenta dedit. 
Ut virtute queant felicem ducere vitam. 
Nulla ferent talem'secla futura virum. 

P. 45, 20; 21, 43, " Christiani Crassiani " 
(10 S. i. 282). That Burton here drew from 
Budseus is confirmed by the fact that '* Ab 
uberibus sapientia[e] lactati csecutire non 
possunt" (45, n. 3; 21, n. a) comes from 
the same book of the ' De Asse ': " Nos in 
ueritatis contubernio nati, uberibus sapientise 
lactati, in gremio (ut ita dicam) doctrinse 
supernse educati sed deliciis secularibus 
coaliti et deprauati, ad solem conniuemus, 
oculos calligantes ad nebulas detorquentes, 
quas e terra inferneque exortas ipsi non 
ignoramus " (lib. v. over two- thirds through, 
p. 723, ed. 1551, Lyons); while " arx Mi- 
nervse " (45, 30; 22, 4) also occurs in book v. 
(about five-sixths through, p. 756) as well as 
in the ' Preefatio ' (about three - fourths 
through), and " sanctuarium sapientse " (40, 
22 ; 18, 45) is used on p. 753 (about seven- 
ninths through, lib. v.). 

P. 81, 26 and n. 7 ; 43, 15 and n. m, ' Lib. 
de sap.' (10 S. i. 282). See Cardan, ' De 
Sap.,' lib. ii. about one-sixteenth through, 
" Nam, ut recte Lactantius dixit, Ubi timor 
adest, sapientia adesse nequit." 

P. 87, 20 and n. 4 ; 4 6, 43 and n. e (wrongly 

printed as p. 43, n. c), ' As old Cato said " 

(10S. i. 203). Burton recollects the same 

passage in ' Philosophaster,' I. v. 4-6: 

Ducatus hie sane longe florentissimus, 
Ubique vi tails, et jjerennis salubritas, 
Et quod adverteridum Cato jubet, nitent accolse. 

P. 135, 9 and n. 4 ; 75, 6 and n. h, " Anti- 

cyrae " (9 S. xi. 181). Tarreus Hebus 

was a pseudonym of Caspar Barth. 

P. 136, 3; 75, 27, " A Sole exoriente. ..." 
(9 S. xii. 163). See Janus Douza's 'Poemata 
Pleraque Selecta ' (ed. P. Scriverius, Lugd. 
Bat., 1609), Carmina Varia,' lib. II. ii. 103. 
Douza has " Maeotidis." 

P. 156, 15; 6, 5, " quos lupiter perdit " 
(9 S. xi. 323). ' Democritus to the Reader ' 
is a mistake. It should be I. i. i. i 

P. 253, 8 ; 69, 3, I. ii. ii. i., Our Italians 
...." (9 S. xi. 222). Burton has again 
drawn from Lipsius. See 'Antiq. Lect.,' 
lib. iii. (under a quarter through), vol. i. 
p. 370 in the 16^5 ed. of his ' Op. Omii.' 

10 s. vi. AUG. 25, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"Ejusmodi caenas, inquit Carrio, Plautus 
Terrestres appellat. Horatius egregie, csenas 
sine sanguine, imitatione graeea, ut opinor. 
Apud Diphilum Parasitus auguria captans 

ex fumo colinae : " Lipsius here quotes 

from Diphilus ap Ath, vi. (236 c.). See also 
Erasm., 'Adagia' (ed. Grynaeus, 1629, p. 566, 
col. 1). EDWARD BENSLY. 

Hotel Wiltcher, Brussels. 

(To be continued.) 

" PULQUE " : ITS ORIGIN. Pulque, or 
wine made of the aloe, is the national 
beverage of Mexico. The etymology of this 
word has never been satisfactorily settled. 
In a former letter in these columns (9 S. ix. 
226) I brought together several attempts at 
a solution. Dr. Murray will soon have to 
deal with it, so I venture to reopen the 
subject, with fresh evidence and a new sug- 
gestion. I believe nobody has hitherto 
thought to ascribe pulque to the language of 
Cuba and Hayti. Yet this was the first 
American tongue with which the Spaniards 
became acquainted. They borrowed freely 
from it a list of a hundred loan-words from 
this source might easily be drawn up and 
nothing could be more natural than that 
they should carry some of these far afield 
when they began to explore the mainland. 
Pulque occurs in Spanish as early as 1535, 
in ' Oviedo ' (edition of 1851, iii. 536), in a 
context which first gave me the idea of its 
being Haytian. He speaks of " Axi, ques 
su pimiento, pulque, ques su vino, e todo lo 
que de aquella planta del maguey se coge." 
Of the three aboriginal terms here used, two 
are certainly Haytian ; why not the third ? 
There is another important point. In the 
older Spanish authors the spelling pulcre 
occurs besides pulque. I need give only one 
reference. Sahagun, whose book was written 
in 1540, though not published till 1829, 
speaks of the tradesmen " que venden miel 
y pulcre," who sell honey and pulcre (torn. iii. 
lib. x. cap. xx. p. 49). When I met with 
this passage I at once thought of another 
word which exhibits a similar fluctuation of 
ending, viz., mangle or mangue. This is the 
word from which the English mangrove ap- 
pears to be corrupted. " Pero este es otro 
cuento," as Kipling's Spanish translator has 
it, and all that concerns us now is that 
mangle or mangue is admittedly a Haytian 
term, and that it is of the same phonetic 
type as pulcre or pulque. In Ramos y 
Duarte's 'DiccionariodeMejicanismos,' 1895, 
pulque is derived from pucra, said to belong 
to the Cumanagoto language, and to mean 

" lo interior del cogollo," i.e., not the wine,, 
but the interior of the heart of the aloe,, 
from which it is made. This does not seem 
very probable, on account of the difference 
of sense, but in any case it can only support 
my theory, as the Cumanagoto belongs to- 
the same stock as the Cuban and Haytian 
dialects. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

paper entitled The Gazette of Fashion, edited 
by the notorious W. M. Westmacott, I have- 
found the following : 

"Cpleridge. The following impromptu by Mr~ 
Coleridge has never appeared in print. 

To a Lady who requested me to write a Poem 

11 pon *' Nothing" 

On Nothing, Fanny, shall I write? 
Shall not one charm of thine indite ? 

The muse is most unruly ; 
And vows to sing of what 's more free, 
More soft, more beautiful, than thee, 
And that is Nothing, truly." 

I have looked through Mr. Dykes Camp- 
bell's edition of Coleridge's ' Poetical Works,'* 
but do not find this epigram there ; so I 
conclude it was not known to him. It is a 
trifle, of course, but perhaps as well worth 
preserving as some of the other trifles of 
Coleridge's which Mr. Campbell collected. 

Let me, for the sake of exactness, state 
that the epigram is to be found on p. 14 of 
the above-mentioned periodical, its date^ 
being 22 Feb., 1822. 


1906). A collateral ancestor of this recently- 
deceased nobleman, better known as Lord 
John Manners, was Lord Robert Manners, 
the second son of the celebrated general the- 
Marquess of Granby, who died in 1770, and 
did not succeed to the dukedom. There is- 
a fine portrait of the marquess by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, representing him as wearing a 
uirass under his coat. He commanded the 
British cavalry at the battle of Minden in 
1759, called the Annus Mirabilis, as it wit- 
nessed also Wolfe's conquest of Quebec and 
Hawke's victory over Conflans. 

Lord Robert Manners fell in Admiral 
Rodney's action in the West Indies, em- 
balmed in the couplet : 

Bold Rodney made the French to rue 
The twelfth of April eighty-two. 
In the northern arm of the transept of 
Westminster Abbey is a large monument 
erected at the public expense) to the thre& 
captains who fell in this engagement : Capt. 
William Bayne, Capt. William Blair, and 
Capt. Lord Robert Manners. There was a. 


NOTES AND QUEKIES. do s. vi. AUG. 25, 

painting by Dance representing the last- 
named officer receiving his death-wound 
.and of this there was a fine engraving. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

LITTLE BRITAIN. Many will notice with 
regret the impending demolition of several 
houses on the east side of this interesting 
thoroughfare. Not only will one of the lasl 
traces of its former picturesque appearance 
be lost, but at the same time there will be 
obliterated a connecting link with the book- 
Belling era, the most interesting period in 
the history of this street. The age of the 
tenements I am unable to determine, but at 
least they predate the eighteenth century. 
Washington Irving's charming appreciation 
of this secluded bypath will soon be less 
appealing, from our inability to see how the 
place appeared to him. Already it is be- 
coming difficult to realize the local life even 
of his day : 

" It is a fragment of London as it was in its better 
days, with its antiquated folks and fashions. Here 
nourish in great preservation many of the holyday 
games and customs of yore. The inhabitants most 
religiously eat pan-cakes on Shrove Tuesday, hot 
cross buns on (lood Friday, and roast goose at 
Michaelmas ; they send love-letters on Valentine's 
day, burn the Pope on the Fifth of November, and 
kiss all the girls under the mistletoe at Christmas. 
Roast beef and plum pudding are also held in 
superstitious veneration, and port and sherry main- 
tain their grounds as the only true English wine ; 
all others being considered vile outlandish beve- 
rages."' Sketch-Book,' ii. 102. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

PANTON FAMILY. (See 9 S. xi. 447; xii. 
13.) The following half-dozen references 
to persons of this name may (somewhat late 
in the day, perhaps) prove acceptable to 

1. Edward, of London, " late Gentleman 
of the Horse to the Earl of Dorset," was with 
his master at York in 1642 ; was lieutenant 
to Col. Fielding at Edgehill ; married, at 
Abingdon, Judith, widow of Thomas White, 
of Fifield, Berks ; adhered to the Parliament 
from time of marriage ; took the Covenant 
in 1645, and compounded in 1650 (' Calendar 
of Proceedings of the Committe for com- 
pounding with Delinquents '). 

2. Thomas, also of London, compounded 
Tiot being sequestered, " for adhering to the 
King in both wars," in 1651 (ibid.). 

3. Thomas, gambler, youngest son of 
John, representative of an old Leicester 
family of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, died 1685, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey, wherein 

his widow, Dorothy, was also interred in 
1725, at the age of eighty-four. They had 
several children, the eldest of whom was a 
brigadier - general in 1722. Dorothy was 
residing in the Haymarket at the time of her 
death (' Diet. Nat. Biog.'). 

4. Henry, clergyman, curate of the United 
parishes of SS. Anne and Agnes and S. John 
Zachary, London, 1739-48 ; educated at 
St. Paul's School ; Campden Exhibitioner, 
1718 ; Perry Exhibitioner till 1725 ; B.A. 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1722 ; M.A. 
1735 (St. Paul's School Registers, &c.). I 
should myself be glad of further information 
concerning this gentleman. 

5. Paul, Welsh antiquary, born in the 
country in 1731 ; died in 1797 (' D.N.B.' as 

6. Thomas, sportsman, born 1731, was son 
of Thomas, " master of the king's running 
horses at Newmarket," and brother to Mary, 
who married the fourth Duke of Ancaster ; 
won the Derby, 1786 ; died 1808 (ibid.). 


While ' N.E.D.' includes * Press Gallery ' 
under the many forms of the word ' Gallery,' 
it does not make it clear that that portion 
of " a senatorial chamber " is often referred 
to specifically as " The Gallery." The quo- 
tation from the ' Parliamentary Debates * 
of 1817 given in illustration of the meaning 

The body of persons who occupy a public 
gallery in a senatorial chamber " obviously 
refers, not to the general body of visitors, 
but to the particular section representing 
the press, for a precisely similar phrase to 
that therein employed was used by The 
Morning Chronicle of 22 February, 1833, in 
its five-line summary of the actual " maiden 
speech " of Mr. Gladstone in the House of 
Commons : " Mr. Gladstone made a few 
remarks, which were not audible in the 

allery." And the limitation thus indicated 
has been, and is being, continued by the 
Gallery Lodge of Freemasons, No. 1928, 
instituted in 1881 from among journalists 
engaged in recording the proceedings of 
Parliament, ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

ind commerce are constantly adding to our 
anguage. The development of American 
railroading has given us a " hsated refrige- 
rator-car," equipped with portable stoves 
or with steam-pipes deriving their heat from 
-he locomotive. These cars, so equipped 
or use during cold weather, are of a standard 
type of construction, with walls which are 
impervious alike to heat and frost. They 

10 s. vi. AUG. 25, i906.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


3iave an ice-box or tank at each end, for use 
in the summer. There is a short period of 
i;he year when neither ice nor artificial heat 
is required ; hence these three expressions : 
" iced refrigerator-cars," " uniced refri- 
gerator-cars," " heated refrigerator-cars." 

This may remind some of your readers of 
Archbishop Trench's " white blackbird." 

E. F. McPiKE. 
'Chicago, U.S. 

FIELDS. (See 10 S. iii. 366, 433.) Clutter- 
buck's * Hertfordshire,' p. 308, has the fol- 
lowing note : 

" Rev. Thos. Francklin, D.D. [rector of Brasted], 
vicar of Ware in Hertfordshire, preacher at Great 
Queen Street Chapel, and lecturer at St. Paul's, 
Oovent Garden, died at his house in Great Queen 
Street, March 15, 1784. He was the translator of 
.several of the plays of Sophocles, and was the 
author of several tragedies, some of which were 
produced upon the stage. In a ' Dissertation on 
Ancient Tragedy ' he attacked Arthur Murphy, the 
Author of ' The Orphan of China,' who retaliated in 
.a poetical epistle attributed to Johnson, and the 
altercation was carried to such a pitch that Franck- 
lin had recourse to the law for protection and 
swore the peace against Murphy." 

See also Gent. Mag., liv. 238 and Ixvi. 446. 

Mr. Atlay, in his Introduction to * The 
Ingoldsby Legends,' 1903, says : 

" Canon Barham was elected to a Minor Canonry 
ii April, 1821, at St. Paul's Cathedral, and took up 
lis residence in Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn 
Tields In 1824 he was appointed priest in ordi- 
nary of His Majesty's Chapels, and was presented 
t the incumbency of St. Mary Magdalene and 
Sb. Gregory by St. Paul. This necessitated his 
rtmoval to the City, and he made his abode in a 
hjuse in St. Paul's Churchyard, adjoining the 
} trance to Doctors' Commons." 


BRISTOL MAPS. A few days ago I spent 
smie time in examining the old maps 
:hibited in the Bristol Museum. The 
legends thereon are of considerable interest, 
01 account of the various technical words 
relating to cartography which they contain. 
I Carefully copied several of them, and add 
a few notes on some of the terms used in 

Contrived. Speede's map of Gloucester- 
hre published in 1610 bears the following 
titje : " Glocestershire contriued into thirty - 
seuerall hundreds & those again 
foure principall de visions." A note on 
map also says : " You must note also 
the whole Shire is contrived into 33 
idredes." This use of the word " con- 
trivi " does not appear in the ' New English 
Dic^onary.' The nearest approach to it 
quotation from Archbishop Sancroft 

which speaks of a MS. " contriv'd into 
92 quires." 

Panorganon. " The Panorganon, Pr 6dL, 
for solving the usual Problems of the Terres- 
trial Globe," is advertised in Benjamin Bonn's 
Plan of Bristol dated 1773. 

Performed. Speede's map of Wiltshire 
dated 1610 is described as " Performed by 
lohn Speede." 

Platform (to lay in). The earliest plan of 
Bristol bears the following legend: "mea- 
sured & laid in Platforme, By me, W. 
Smith, at my being at Bristow the 30 & 
31 July, An Dni. 1568." 

Pricks. This word is used to signify dots 
in the inscription in Speede's map of Glou- 
cestershire above mentioned. The passage 
thus proceeds : "33 Hundredes all which 
are devided by certeyn pricks according to 
auntient custome and Records." The map 
shows them to be dots. 

Several other terms I find duly recorded 
in the ' N.E.D.,' viz. analemma, ichno- 
graphically, and groundplat. The foregoing 
may be worthy of a place in ' N. & Q.' 


" TERRIFY." I have recently met with 
the following uses of the verb to terrify : 

1. North Berks. Some old grass land had 
been given over to rabbits, and was in con- 
sequence quite ruined. An old native said 
to me, " Yes, sir ; the rabbits do terrify this 
here meadow." 

2. Suffolk. I met a gamekeeper coming 
out of a wood, where he had been feeding 
young pheasants. He was slapping his 
wrists and neck, and exclaimed, " These 
here gnats do terrify me." 

3. North Devon. A woman, being out of 
health, wished to give up laundry- work. Her 
friends, however, " terrified " her into keep- 
ing at it a little longer. Tn this case I am 
assured that nothing in the way of threats 
was said or implied ; the meaning was rather 
that gentle remonstrance, or persuasion, had 
been used to induce her to reconsider her 
determination. T. M. W. 

in 1825 published ' The Spirit of the Age,' 
'.n which he discusses and estimates his most 
eminent contemporaries. The work speedily 
ran into a second edition, into which some 
alterations were introduced. A fresh issue, 
with a new paper on Canning, was edited in 
1858 by the author's son ; and the fourth 
edition was published in 1886 under the super- 
vision of Mr. W. C. Hazlitt, the representa- 
tive of the essayist's name in the third gene- 
ration. In the work there are occasional 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 25, 

unsigned foot-notes, which are presumabl 
additions made by the author, while other 
subscribed " Ed." in the latest edition ma 
be taken to be the careiul and deliberat 
statements of Mr. W. C. Hazlitt. One ot th 
latter series of textual comments is so curiou 
and suggestive as to seem worthy of specia 
notice. Appended to the shrewd and pene 
trating article on Edward Irving, whos 
apostolic glory in London was beginning t 
be slightly tarnished in 1825, we find thi 
fresh and courageous incursion into th 
domain of penealogy : 

" Mr. Henry Irving the playwright is, I believe 
a descendant of this Scotish [*?'c] minister, anc 
enjoys at present the full sunshine of popularity 
like his predecessor. The latter fell as suddenly a 
he had risen. His eminence and celebrity were 
mere passing distemper and whim." 

" Playwright " is perhaps not exactly 
descriptive of the great artist whose com 
l.aratively premature loss we have recently 
had occasion to deplore, but probably it is 
to him that this somewhat sinister reference 
is made. If this assumption is right, then 
it is pleasant to be able to reflect that what 
seems to be implied in this editorial survey 
has not been fulfilled. The supposed de 
scendant singularly escaped the untowarc 
fate of his meteoric predecessor, and passec 
away in the full splendour of " his eminence 
and celebrity." If there was in 1886 among 
the posterity of Edward Irving a playwright 
enjoying " the full sunshine of popularity,' 
and named Mr. Henry Irving, it would be 
interesting to hear of his subsequent fortunes 

(Q writs. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
ormation on family matters of only private interest 
t" affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

"PLUMP" IN VOTING. We should be 
glad to get examples of the use of this verb 
before 1848, when it is used by Thacke- 
ray in ' The Book of Snobs,' ch. xxxv. 

friendship induces me to plump for 

;. Michaels. ' Is anything known as to the 

igm of this use ; and had it always the 
current sense, in reference to voting ? This 
does not seem to fit in clearly with any other 
use of plump. If, indeed, the word had been 
applied to giving all one's votes for a single 
candidate, the origin would be intelligible 
to form a mass or compact body " is 
a known sense ; but this was never done in 

Parliamentary voting. Was the word ever 
used in connexion with voting for candidates- 
for charities and the like, where a subscriber 
who has many votes may give them all to a 
single candidate ? It has also to be remem- 
bered that beside the verb plump meaning 
to mass or cluster, there is another plump- 
meaning to drop into water, to fall or come- 
down " plump " upon anything, from which 
the voting use may have arisen, if we only 
knew its early history. 


of ' N. & Q.' will remember that I endea- 
voured, ante, p. 41, to prove that George 
Wilkins, author of ' The Miseries of Inforst 
Marriage,' was also the author of ' A York- 
shire Tragedy.' Collier, in his ' Biblio- 
graphical Catalogue of the Rarest Books 
in the English Language,' asserts that there- 
were two authors of the name of George 
Wilkins, whom he supposes to be father and 
son. In support of his opinion he quotes- 
the following entry in the burial book of th& 
parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch : 

" 1603. George Wilkins, the Poet, was buried th* 
same day, 19 August, Halliwell Street." 
[t is certain that George Wilkins, the dra- 
matist, lived on to 1608, after which we lose 
all trace of him. There is no record whal- 
ever of any George Wilkins besides the authcr 
of ' The Miseries of Inforst Marriage.' Whfct 
must have happened, I believe, is thtt 
oilier misread the entry in the burial book,, 
substituting 1603 for the right date, 1603. 
[t is easy in old writing to make such a mis- 
take. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' tll 
me if my conjecture is right ? I dare sty- 
some reader may be able to obtain access to 
he register, and so set the question at res. 

All the dramas and prose tracts by Geoige- 
Wilkins which we know to have been acted 
or published were produced between 1636- 
or possibly 1605) and 1608, after which he 
s no more heard of. The natural infererce- 
s that he died in the latter year. 


Is there any foundation for the story in- 
Matthew Arnold's charming poem ' The- 
3hurch of Brou ' ? Was there ever a clurch 
uilt as described ? or is there any tradiion 
n the subject ? SAVOT. 

n my possession a miniature of a nan 
etween twenty and thirty years of age. Or* 
he back of the picture is written " E-nesfe 

10 s. vi. AUG. 25, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Augustus Stephenson, June 17th, 1822.' 
Can any reader tell me who he was and to 
what lamily of Stephenson he belonged 
Who were his parents ? and when did he 
die ? E. H. M. 


1. All at her work the village maiden sings, 
Nor, while she turns the giddy wheel around, 
Revolves the sad vicissitudes of things. 

2. In times of old, when time was young. 

3. Satan now is wiser than of yore. 

4. In ancient times the sacred plough employ'd 
The kings and awful fathers of mankind. 


[1. The lines are from Richard Gifford's ' Con 
templation,' and should run : 

She feels no biting pang the while she sings ; 
Nor, as she turns, &c. 

3. Pope, 'Moral Essays,' Ep. III., 'Of the Use of 
Riches,' 1. 351.] 

1. Uncouth forms in disarray, 
Words which time has thrown away. 

2. Castalia interdictus aqua, interdictus et igne 

S. W. 

The following Italian words are quoted by 
S. T. Coleridge in his ' Allegoric Vision ' : 
Qual ramicel a ramo, 
Tal da pensier pensiero 
In lui germogliava. 
.ence do they come ? A. M. T. 

" Bobby Lowe " (Lord Sherbrooke), in a 
speech during the discussion on Disraeli's 
Reform Bill, quoted the following lines : - 
And he thought with a smile of England awhile 
And the trick that her statesmen had taught her 
Of saving herself from the storm above 
By ducking her head under water. 

Km anxious to know where they occur. 


Who is the author of the following quo- 
tion ? 

One ye down the hatchway cast, 

The other looking up at the truck of the mast. 


The last Sunday in July is called by this 
name. I shall be glad of any particulars as 
to the why and wherefore. I have tried 
other sources of information, and failed to 
get what I want. J. I. VAN ELDER. 

Catford, S.E. 

ROBERT MOFFATT. Is anything known 
of R. Moffatt, who was employed in some 
capacity in connexion with the English 

embassy to Spain, and who apparently died 
at Madrid shortly before 3 Sept., 1565 (Cal. 
St. Papers Foreign, 1564/5, No. 1455) ? He 
had been interpreter to King Philip when 
in England. From his daughter's tomb 
at Yateley, Hants (see Collect. Top. et Her., 
vii. 240), he seems to have borne the arms 
of Moffatt or Moffett of Lauder and of 
Chipping Barnet, Herts. H. L. O. 

DISRAELI'S NOVELS. I am very anxious 
to possess a complete key to the originals 
of the characters in Disraeli's novels. Could 
you or any of your readers kindly tell me 
where I can obtain one ? M. M. L. 

[Keys to ' Endymion' will be found at 6 S. ii. 484; 
iii. 10,' 31, 95 (the first is reprinted at 8 S. iii. 482) ; 
to vols. i. and ii. of 'Vivian Grey' at 8 S. iii. 321, 
and to vols. iii.-v. at p. 322 ; to 'Coningsby ' at 8 S. 
iii. 363 ; and to ' Lothair' at 8 S. iii. 444 ; iv. 24.] 

FREDERICK Ross. During an excep- 
tionally busy literary life my late friend, 
Mr. F. Ross, author of 'The Castles and 
Abbeys of Yorkshire,' ' Celebrities of the 
Yorkshire Wolds,' &c., collected material 
for the most monumental history of York- 
shire ever attempted. He had hundreds of 
thousands of references pertaining to York- 
shire. The work, though announced for 
publication over thirty years ago, never 
appeared. Can any one tell me what has 
become of all this manuscript ? 


Will any of your readers inform me where 

o get an account of The Company of 
Merchant Adventurers to Muscovy and the 
Baltic or Russian Company ? R. M. 

[Much concerning them is contained in 'Hak- 

uytus Posthumus.' See ante, p. 138.] 

" STAFFORD BLUE." In ' The Towneley 
Plays' (E.E.T.S., 1897), 29/200, Noe's wife 
lays to him : 

Bot thou were wort hi be cled in Stafford blew ; 

ffor thou art alway adred 

'. should be glad of an explanation of 
he reference. H. P. L. 

FRENCH ASSIGNATS. I have in my pos- 
>ession three French assignats : 1, for "Cinq 
ivres," dated 10 Brumaire, 1790 ; 2, for 
' Cinquante sols," dated 1790 ; 3, for " Vingt 
inq sols," dated 4 Jan., 1792. Are they of 

LONDON. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' tell 
ne where Roman Catholic priests were 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 25, im. 

usually interred in London in the eighteenth 
century ? There were, of course, no dis- 
tinctive Roman Catholic burial - grounds ; 
and I do not think that any of the chapels 
had facilities for interments. Consequently, 
one would suppose that the priests were 
buried in the churchyards of the parishes in 
which they lived. If so, are there any grave- 
stones or monuments to Roman Catholic 
priests in London churchyards ? 

13, Westbourne Place, Clifton. 

" SEARCHERS." What was the function 
of such persons at seventeenth - century 
coroners' inquests ? MEDICULUS. 

the exact difference between Prinz von 
Bayern, Prinz zu Bayern, and Prinzessin in 
Bayern ? I understand that the last named 
belongs to a younger and ducal branch of the 
reigning royal family of Bavaria ; but how 
did these distinctions arise ? In English 
the last two grades are untranslatable by 
" at " and "in." Some German princes, 
again, bear the first two titles conjointly, 

thus : Prinz von und zu . 

N. W. HILL. 


CLOAK IN WOOING. --In Herrington 
O'Reilly's 'Fifty Years on the Trail.' which 
is a narrative of the life of John Y. Young, 
an American frontiersman, there is a de- 
scription of the manner in which the girls 
of the Sioux nation are wooed : 

" ' You must,' said Spotted Tail, ' go down to the 
stream at twilight, sit on the bank, and wait for 
my niece to come down. You will probably find 
other young men waiting for her, and probably on 
or two of them will jump up and throw theii 
blankets over her head and talk to her. You musi 
watch, and when you see the first sent away by her 
and the second, and perhaps also the third, you wil 
try your luck. I am inclined to think you wil 
succeed where others have failed. When you have 
thrown your blanket well over her head, and poppec 
your own beneath it, you can tell her all, and I wil 
answer for it she will listen. You can tell her voi 
love her, that you admire her, arid that if she wil 
marry you, you will give her every comfort anc 
necessary m fact, tell her all the nonsense youni 
n tell girls when they want to marry. You wi] 
go down to the stream, go through the same per 
lornmnce, repeat the same words, every evening fo 
ten evenings. At the end of that time you wi' 
return to me and report the result.' " 
I find also in Alexander Chodzko's ' Speci 
mens of Popular Persian Poetry,' p. 385, 
Turkman song, in which a lover says : 
" It often rains in our encampment ; our peot)l 


'o these words the following note is 
ppended : 

" Kapanek, a sort of cloak made of felt-cloth, 
without any seam. The allusion in this stanza is 
ot easily understood by European readers. In 
he encampment of the nomade tribes, foggy and 
ainy days are chosen for assignations. In such 
ases the lover wraps his sweetheart in the same 
loak. In the ' Iliad fog is recommended to thieves 
nd lovers, as the safest shelter." 

May I ask whether this mode of courtship 
s widespread ? 

I have read somewhere of a priest interrupt- 
ng the love-making between a young couple 
n Ireland. The girl was wearing a shawl 
>ver her head ; and the boy had drawn it 
)ver his own also, when the ecclesiastic, who 
hought ill of such free courtship, came on 
ad and lass, and separated them with force- 
ul words. E. I. S. 

" SKRIMSHANDER." What is the origin 

f this curious word, used to denote the 

bjects in wood or ivory carved by sailors 

during their long voyages ? No quotation 

s given for it in any English dictionary, so I 

append one from a modern novel (in Farmer 

and Henley's ' Slang and its Analogues ' a 

quotation is given for scrimshaw, which 

appears to be another form) : 

The bulkheads were hung with curios of every 
description spears of all shapes and sizes, fantastic- 
ooking bone-studded clubs, war harpoons, some 
twisted and bent, evidently the relics of bygone 
Battles, swords of sharks' teeth, ships' models in 
mottles, specimens of xkrimshander, rare shells and 
Japanese nitchkies in cabinets." 'Jack Derringer,' 
by Basil Lubbock, 1906, p. 171. 

JAS. PL ATT, Jun. 

MOTTRAM HALL. Can any correspondent 
say if there formerly existed a place called 
Mottram Hall in Cheshire, the seat of a 
family named Kenworthy ? If so, where was 
it situated ? T. DE L. HARDY. 

Mount Pleasant, Exeter. 

[Bartholomew's ' Gazetteer of the British Isles,' 
1887, states that Mottram Hall and Mottram Old 
Hall are seats in Mottram St. Andrew, a village 
2 miles north-west of Prestbury.] 


is the authority for this phrase ? The words 
of the Authorized Version are " In the sweat 
of thy face shalt thou eat bread " (Gen. iii. 
19). WM. H. PEET. 

GODFREY OF BOUILLON, the renowned 
Crusader, was the son of Eustace II. Count 
of Boulogne, by Ida, daughter of Godfrey, 
Duke of Lower Lorraine. Could any reader 
kindly tell me who were the parents of this 
Eustace II. ? I believe his father, Eustace, 

10 s. vi. AUG. 25, 1906.] NOTES AND .QUERIES. 


-Count of Boulogne, married twice, viz., 
<*oda, a sister of Edward the Confessor, and 
secondly Alisa of Louvain. Which of these 
wives was the mother of Eustace IT. ? 

W. L. KING. 
19, Porchester Gardens, W. 

wrude muche " and " Myn biddenye " were 
two mottoes used by Philippa, Queen of 
Edward Til. What is their history and 
meaning ? R. B. 


be grateful if any one can tell me how the 
first Bishop of Calcutta, son of the rector 
of Kedleston, Derbyshire, came to bear the 
name of Thomas Fanshawe Middleton. The 
life of the bishop by Le Bas does not explain 
this. H. C. FANSHAWE. 

Lansdowne, Sidmouth, Devon. 

CLIPPINGDALE. I should be grateful to 
the authorities who have written in ' N. & Q.' 
on the etymology of the word " clipping," 
if they will kindly throw light on the origin 
of my patronymic. The name was spelt, 
Setter for letter, in the days of Queen Eliza- 
beth as it is spelt now. My family is the 
only one of the name, and no relationship 
can be traced, in a genealogy extending over 
three centuries, with the larger family of 

36, Holland Park Avenue, W. 

KENT. The church of SS. Peter and Paul, 
Charing, Kent, was believed at one time to 
possess the block on which St. John Baptist 
was beheaded, presented to it by Richard I. 
on his return from the Crusade. The church 
was burnt in 1590, when all the wood-work 
was destroyed ; but presumably this block 
had disappeared before that date. It would, 
mo doubt, have been shown to Henry VII. 
and Henry VIII., when they visited Charing 
and stayed at the palace there. Can any 
of your readers give a clue to its history ? 
5, Burlington Gardens, Chiswick, W. 

volume, in English, is to be found, at much 
greater length than in Gibbon, a history of 
the Roman Empire for the period covered 
toy the reign of Elagabalus ? D. M. 


authentic list of names, &c., upon the tomb- 
stones in Trinity Churchyard, New York 

City, exist ? When there quite recently I 
noticed that the faces of many of the stones 
upon which these are inscribed have flaked 
off, and hence the names have become illegible. 
As many of these memorials relate to early 
English settlers, even a portion of them 
recorded in ' N. & Q.' would be valuable, 
if they are not already in print elsewhere. 


I observe ante, p. 48, a query as to the parent- 
age of Henry Paulett St. John, R.N. I have 
long desired to find a good pedigree of the 
St. Johns, who flourished at Farley Chamber- 
layne, near Romsey (Hampshire), for nearly 
three centuries. In the quaint old church 
there are several monuments to this 
family, notably a recumbent stone effigy 
of William St. John, dated 1600, and monu- 
ments to Oliver St. John, 1699 ; Francis 
Oliver St. John, 1700 ; the Rev. John St. 
John, once rector of the parish, 1786 ; and 
Sir Paulet St. John, 1780, and his wife, 
1791. Farley Mount is a very conspicuous 
object for miles round, with its pointed 
monument, about 30 ft. high, on the highest 
art of the downs, erected by Sir Paulet 
t. John, Bt., about 1795, to record the 
exploits of his favourite hunter, which 
leaped into a chalk pit 25 ft. deep without 
injury to horse or rider. I should be glad 
to know if the St. Johns are given in Berry's 
Hampshire pedigrees, and what became of 
the Farley line. F. H. S. 


" PLACE." 

(10 S. v. 267, 316, 333, 353, 371, 412, 435, 
475; vi. 93.) 

ONE famous " Place " is omitted in the 
numerous replies to this query, and it seems 
to deserve mention in case it should be over- 

Our national poet is so often cited in the 
' N.E.D.' that I may be forgiven for quoting 
him once more. Shakespeare's last residence 
at Str at ford-up on- A von, originally called the 
reat House, being the largest sixteenth- 
century dwelling in the town, was bought 
From the Underbill family in 1597 by the 
poet. After its renovation he rechristened 
it New Plac3, by which name the site is still 
known. It is referred to in the Stratford 
Chamberlain's accounts for the year 1614 
in this entry : " To one quart of Sack and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VL AUG. 25, im. 

one quart of Claret given to the Preacher 
at New Place." This thirsty individual was 
evidently a Puritan guest of Shakespeare's. 

" Place " appears to have often been used 
when a name was selected for our old country 
mansions. For instance, thc-ro are 

In Kent: Beckenham Place, "Charing 
Place, Eastwcll Place, Foot's Cray Place, 
*North Cray Place, Penshurst Place. 

In Gloucestershire : *Rodmarton Place. 

In Lanarkshire : Lee Place. 

In Surrey : *Addington Place, Horsley 
Place, Richmond Place, Thrale Place. 

In Hampshire : Blackbrook Place. 

In Sussex : *Brede Place. 

In North Wales: New Place, or Plas 
Newydd (the old home of the Ladies of 

Some of your readers residing in the various 
localities will be able to give useful dates. I 
have quoted enough to prove how widespread 
and ancient is the use of the term " Place " 
as applied to dwellings. The houses aster- 
isked are of considerable age. 




(10 S. vi. 29, 57, 73, 92, 116.) I have pos- 
session of documentary evidence proving 
that both words and music of this already 
popular song were printed in Edinburgh in 
1797, and also in The Vocal Magazine, 1799, 
vol. iii. Song LXX. It is in The Scots 
Musical Museum, vol. v. ; words in ' The 
British Lyre,' and in ' The Vocal Library,' 
1824. My dear old friend the late 
Wm. Chappell, F.S.A., had some distrust 
of Scottish claims, and no wonder ; but I 
strongly incline to the belief that " O dear, 
what can the matter be ? " words and music, 
originated north of the Tweed, where it was 
sung four years before the death of Robert 
Burns in 1796. It is by no means impossible 
that he was the author of it. The true date 
of James Johnson's Scots Musical Museum, 
vol. v., was 1797. In the Preface to it is 
printed the letter written by " R. Burns,' 
18 May, 1796. Music and three stanzas of 
** O dear, what can the matter be ? " are 
on p. 510, song numbered ccccxciv. The 
second stanza runs thus : 

He promis'd to buy me a pair of sleeve buttons, 
A pair of new garters that cost him but two pence 
He promis'd he 'd bring me a bunch of blue ribbons 

To tye up my bonny brown hair. 
Scottified passim as " Johnny 's sae lane at 
the Fair." 

As to the chimes of Ashford Church jolting 
over the notes distractingly, I forward^ a 

cutting for preservation from The Kentish 
Express and Ashford News of the llth inst. : 
"THE CHURCH CLOCK. A correspondent writes r 
'May I suggest, through your columns, that those 
who have the control of the parish church clock 
should arrange that it be silent from say midnight 
to six A.M.? Much needless suffering to invalids and 
inconvenience to other light sleepers is occasioned 
by its useless chiming and striking in the small 
hours. It is no joke to be roused at midnight and 
to hear the chimes striking, "0 dear! what can the 
matter be ? " ' 


Molash Priory, Ashford, Kent. 

I have not seen ' The British Lyre ; or, 
Muses' Repository,' the preface dated 5 Jan., 
1793, quod William Chappell in his ' Popular 
Music,' p. 732, where he gives the song with 
two stanzas and chorus. 

Now in The Scots Musical Museum, vol. v. 
No. 494, the following is the second of three- 
stanzas, not in Chappell's work : 
He promised to buy me a pair of sleeve buttons, 
A pair of new garters that cof t him but two pence ? 
He promised he 'd bring me a bunch of blue ribbons. 

To tye up my bonny brown hair. 
The question is, Is this stanza in ' The Lyre ' ? 
and if so, why did not Chappell quote it ? 
It will be observed that coft (bought) is not a 
word a modern English writer would have 
chosen, and is peculiarly Scottish. 

With reference to the verses and music- 
in The Scots Musical Museum, William Sten- 
house about 1820 made the remark that the 
song was copied "from a single sheet pub- 
lished by Messrs. Stewart & Co., musicsollers, 
South ^Bridge, Edinburgh, entitled the 
favourite duet of O dear," &c. I find the 
song, with the stanza as quoted, in the same- 
publishers' collection The Vocal Magazine, 
Edinburgh, C. Stewart & Co., vol. iii., 1799,. 
No. 70. J. DICK. 

West Jesmond, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

473 ; vi. 10, 115). MR. CLAYTON will find 
much trustworthy information on this subject 
in Catherine C. Hopley's ' Snakes : Curiosi- 
ties and Wonders of Serpent Life ' (1882). 

During my stay at the Cape I never heard! 
of an instance of the " boom slang " (Buce- 
phalus capensis), the sole representative in 
Cape Colony, I believe, of tree snakes, being 
venomous ; the two most dreaded species- 
there being the familiar yellow cobra and the 
puff-adder, both of which I saw, though 
never at close quarters. The mamba, from 
all accounts, is not arboreal, but some of the 
Indian tree snakes are known to be venomous,, 
though not all. 

The pythons of Bechuanaland, too, are- 

10 s. vi. AUG. 25, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in no case arboreal, and differ greatly in 
breadth of girth and in general habits from 
the Indian and South American varieties. 
They attain great length, however, and are 
able to swallow antelopes and even oxen, 
the horns of which are sometimes seen pro- 
truding through the reptile's sides or dangling 
from its mouth, until decomposition allows 
the beast's head to drop off. They do not, I 
believe, concern themselves with man. Two 
days before Dr. Jameson's column started 
on its memorable march from Pitsani and 
Maf eking in December, 1895, I encountered 
a monster of this genus on the banks of the 
Molapo, near Mafeking, its head being as 
big as a good-sized lamb, the body very 
supple and elastic, but not thicker than a 
woman's wrist. From the manner in which 
its body was laid out in convolutions among 
the bushes, and from the length of time it 
took in disappearing down a neighbouring 
ant bear's hole, I concluded it must have 
measured from 25 to 30 feet. I had been 
seated some little time on a rock, quietly 
puffing at a cigarette, with nothing in my 
hand but a small walkingcane, when I descried 
the creature's body in the bushes behind me, 
its head being turned in an opposite direction, 
where it was eagerly watching the move- 
ments of a little ichneumon or meerkat, that 
was disporting itself upon the veldt. While 
I was effecting a stealthy retreat, a rustling 
in the bushes apprised me of the fact that 
the ophidian had heard me ; and there- 
upon I had the satisfaction of seeing it make 
off, in great haste and perturbation, for its 
lair. My friends, on being told of my adven- 
ture, proposed going to the spot to dig the 
python oat and destroy it ; but the excite- 
ment consequent on the departure of the 
Jameson contingent soon drove all lesser 
matters out of our minds. 

My invariable experience with snakes in 
Africa has been that they only try to molest 
man when he attacks them or treads on 
their bodies unsuspectingly. 

N. W. HILL. 

CHICHELE'S KIN (10 S. v. 286, 454). 
Archozologia Canliana, vol. v. p. 116, con- 
tains extracts from the ' Family Chronicle ' 
of Richard Fogge, of Dane Court in Til- 
manstone (1607-80). One is as follows : 

"The Pedigree of Fogge of Dane Court from 
Chichley, ArchbP of Canterbury. To witness the 
Truth of this, vide the Pedigree of the Heraulds, 
etc., at a Chapter holden 31 July, 1627, with their 
Seal affixed, w'ch Pedigree is in the Custody of 
my worthy Cosen Edmund Powell, of Sandford in 
Oxon, Esq. This Pedigree was drawn by my 

Grandmother Anne Norwood for the Benefit of 
those of her Familie that intend to place their 
Children in All Souls College. 

Thomas Chichly of Higham=pAgnes Pyncheon. 

H. Chichley, Robert=pApuldrefield. W m Chich- 
ArchP. ley. 

S r Allan Chich=r=Isabell. 


Thomas Kempe of=pEmmeline, Dau r and 
Ollantigh. Coheir. 

Sir John Fogg, 

Marshall of 


S r W 

m =pEleanor, l)au r and Co- 
heir of Robert Browne,, 
Widow of S r Thos. Fogg.. 


Geo. Fogg of Repton, Esq.=f=Margaret. 


Richard Fogge of Dane Court. 

"To prove that y e Kempes of Ollantigh are de- 
scended^ from an Heir of Chichley I have set down 
an Inscription on y e Monument of the last S r Tho* 
Kempe in Wye Church, in the Chappel belon* to> 
the Family ; to satisfy y e Warden and Fellows of 
All Souls, who when they denied y e Heraulds r 
Pedigree said they would stand to ancient Records, 
and Monuments. 

" ' Sir Tho: Kempe of Olantigh Kn* Heir male of 
the Kempes of Olantigh by dame Emelyn dau r and 
Coheyr of S r Valentine Chich. by the Heir of S r 
Rob* Chicheley left his Heyre S r W m Kempe that 
by dame Eleanor Widdow of S r Tho" Fogge being 
y e Heir of Browne by an Heir of S r Tho 8 Arundel 
left his Heyr S r Tho s Kempe Kn 1 that by Dame 
Amie Dau r and coheyr of S r Tho 8 Moyle left his 
Heyr this last S r Tho s Kempe.' 

' S r Valentine Chich. in Kempe's Monument is in 
both Pedigrees of Dethick and Cam den and S r John 
Borough Allan Chiche." 



MANOR MESNE (10 S. vi. 68). Cowell's. 
'Interpreter,' 1701, has the following, of 
which Prof. Skeat's definition of " medium," 
" mean," is corroborative : 

" Mesii or Measn, Medium, may be deduced from 
the French Maisne, i. minor natu, and signifies him 
that is Lord of a Manner, and so hath Tenants 
holding of him ; yet himself holds of a Superior 
Lord, and therefore not absurdly drawn from the 
French Maitne, because his Tenure is inferior and 
minor to that of which he holds. Mexne also signifies 
a Writ, which lyeth where there is Lord, Meme, 
and Tenant ': The Tenant holdeth of the Mesne by 
the same services, whereby the Mesne holdeth of 
the Lord ; and the Tenant of the mewe is distrained 
by the superior Lord, for that his Service or Rent* 
which is due to the me*ne, Fitz., 'Nat. Brev., T 
fol. 135, 13 E. I. cap. 9." 



NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. vi. AUG. 25, im. 

-vi. 89). i n the beautiful county maps 
Torought out by John Cary, London, 1809, 
Bayard's Green is distinctly marked on the 
Toad from Bicester to Aynho, about five 
jniles from the former town in Oxfordshire. 

487). I should say that, like others, Dug- 
dale could not be relied on absolutely, either 
ior statements or engravings. We can see 
from old prints of Westminster Abbey and 
other buildings that the artists simply drew 
-the details from their imagination. In my 
* Swimming,' 1904, I have shown how un- 
trustworthy both authors and artists were 
(indexed under artists, thirty references). 

Things have not improved in the present 
day, for our illustrated journals are not at 
all particular. A friend of mine drew some 
-.sketches in Egypt of landing horses, &c., 
some years before the Boer war ; they were 
put in an illustrated paper during the Boer 
war as having been taken in South Africa, 
and as representing Boer war events. Some 
years ago, when a celebrated statesman 
was married, one paper showed his bride 
leaning on his right arm and another on his 
left, coming from the altar. 


PERKIN WARBECK (10 S. vi. 107). Dr. 
James Gairdner in ' D.N.B.,' lix. 293, says : 

" Henry went on to Exeter 'and despatched horse- 
men to St. Michael's Mount, where Warbeck had 
left his wife, to bring her to him ; after seeing her, 
and making her husband confess his imposture once 
more in her presence, Henry sent her with an escort 
to his queen, assuring her of his desire to treat her 
like a sister." 

Warbeck" this little cockatrice of a King," 
as Bacon calls him appears to have been 
clerk, or apprentice, or servant, to one 
Edward, a converted Jew and a godson of 
King Edward, who lived in London, and in 
this way the pretender came to be ac- 
quainted with the Court and doings of 
Edward IV. (see Bacon's 'History of the 
Reign of King Henry VI f.,' ed. Prof. J. R. 
Lumby, 1885, p. 271). 

A living poet has beautifully sung of 
Perkin : 

F f * i w{ ^ s not nia(le for wars an d strife 
And blood and slaughtering 

J was but a boy that loved his life, 
And I kad not the heart of a king. 

Oh ! why hath God dealt so hardly with me, 
That such a thing should be done, 
^ at boy should be born with a king's body 
And the heart of a weaver's son ? 


62, 131). Ought not the French saying 
(p. 63, col. 2) to be " Du sublime [not "De"J 
au ridicule," &c. ? ' The Cyclopaedia of 
Practical Quotations,' by J. K. Hoyt and 
Anna L. Ward, sixth ed., 1892, s.v. ' Style,' 
p. 407, after quoting Paine, says : " also 
attributed to Napoleon I. and Fontenelle." 

There is a story which is at all events ben 
trovato. Some gentlemen of various nation- 
alities were dining together. The Austrian 
spoke in high praise of England, and finished 
his eulogium by saying that England was a 
sublime country. The Frenchman in a 
great irritation said, " Vous savez, monsieur, 
qu'il n'y a qu'un pas entre le sublime et le 
ridicule." The Austrian bowed and replied, 
" Oui, monsieur, le pas de Calais." The wit 
may excuse the offence. Is the origin of 
this story known ? ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

GENERAL WOLFE (10 S. v. 409, 451, 518 ; vi. 
113). Particulars as to the only persons 
who were present at the death of Wolfe 
were given at 8 S. xii. 363. 

The following quotation is from Wright's 
' Life of Wolfe,' p. 603 : 

"West's picture does not represent the truth, 
and nothing can be more absurd than to call it his- 
torical What if no Indian warrior was there? 

Monckton, Barr, and other persons portrayed in 
the group around Wolfe were not on the spot. 
Monckton had been shot through the lung ; Barre 
had been blinded ; and Surgeon Adair, who is repre- 
sented in attendance, was then at Crown Point. 
West wished General Murray to figure in the 
picture ; but the honest Scot refused, saying, ' No, 
no ! I was not by ; I was leading the left.' " 

Wright says (p. 586) that an officer 
having proposed to send for a surgeon, Wolfe 
replied, "It is needless ; it is all over with 
me." W. S. 

BATHING-MACHINES (10 S. ii. 67, 130, 230). 
Reference is made in certain replies to 
what had appeared on this subject in the 
Seventh and Eighth Series : but ' N. & Q.' 
had to deal with this subject far anterior to 
either and in a specially interesting way. At 
2 S. vi. 163 (bearing date 28 August, 1858) 
appeared a contribution on ' Margate One 
Hundred and Twenty Years Ago,' which 
related how one Joseph Ames went to Margate 
in 173- (the last numeral being cut off in 
the volume to be referred to) and bought 
a copy of the second edition of Lewis's 
' History of the Isle of Tenet ' (4to, 1736), 
which, after putting in it a tew notes and 
drawings, and emblazoning some of the coats 
of arms, he gave to the Society of Anti- 
quaries. One of these notes describes how 

10 s. vi. AUG. 25, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


** at all times of the Tide the Machines or 
Bathing Waggons can drive a proper depth 
into the Sea for the accommodation of y e 
Bathers " ; and Ames added a sketch of 
JMargate Pier and Harbour, in which, very 
prominent in the foreground, is a drawing 
of a bathing-machine, which this correspon- 
dent of 'N. & Q.' believed to be probably the 
^earliest extant picture of one and that it 
would certainly seem to be, if drawn at any 
time before 1740. ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

LITERARY ALLUSIONS (10 S. vi. 29, 91). 
The third great Frenchwoman in Lander's 
verses must be Madame Boland. See what 
he says in the poem on her death, ' Last 
Fruit,' p. 383 : 

In the wide waste of blood-besprinkled earth, 
There was but one great soul, and that has fled. 

S. W. 

" QUARTERSTAFF " (10 S. vi. 106). May 
not the word " quarter " be a corruption 
from the Anglo-Saxon chwarau or chwareu'r ? 
One of the ancient British games in which 
the youth among the Gauls were exercised 
was "chwarau ffoun ddwybig, or playing with 
the two-end staff or spear." See Pelloutier, 
* Mem. des Celtes.' " Quarterstaff " would 
thus mean playing staff. 


JOHNSON'S POEMS (10 S. vi. 89). The 
lady in question was Bridget, third, daughter 
of Philip Bacon, of Ipswich (second son of 
Sir Nicholas Bacon, K.B., of Shrubland Hall, 
'Suffolk). She married first Edward Evers, 
of Ipswich, who left her at his death a con- 
.siderable fortune. She married secondly in 
October, 1737, Sir Cordell Firebrace, Bart., 
M.P. for the county of Suffolk ; and thirdly, 
in 1762, when she was sixty-three years of 
;age, William Campbell, of Lyston Hall, 
brother of John, fourth Duke of Argyll, and 
died in 1782. The lines by Johnson were 
written in 1738, when Lady Firebrace was 
thirty-nine ; and Croker says that probably 
he never saw her. They were obviously 
written to order, and in a letter from Johnson 
to Cave, his publisher, he writes : 

" The verses to Lady Firebrace may be had when 
;you please, for you know that such a subject neither 
deserves much thought nor requires it." 


FUNERAL GARLANDS (10 S. v. 427). A 
very interesting account of Abbot's Ann and 
its funeral garlands was published in the 
Hampshire Field Club Papers and Proceed- 
ings in 1898 by the editor, the Rev. G. W. 
Minns, LL.B., F.S.A., vicar of Weston, 
Southampton. The illustration (drawn by 

Miss Stevens) shows the glove hanging to 
the garland, thus inscribed : " Maud Mary 
Fennel, Died Dec. 8, 1892, aged 25 years." 
Mr. Minns says : 

"This curious and poetical custom prevailed 
elsewhere in Hampshire. Gilbert White, in his 
' Antiquities of Selborne,' describing the parish, 
says : ' I remember when its beams were hung with 
garlands in honour of young women in the parish 
reported to have died virgins, and recollect to have 
seen the clerk's wife cutting in white paper the 
resemblances of gloves and ribbons to be twisted 
into knots and roses to decorate these memorials of 
chastity.' He also tells us that in the church of the 
adjoining parish of Farringdon, where he officiated 
as curate for a quarter of a century, many garlands 
of this sort still remained. Such garlands were 
formerly to be seen in many churches in Derby- 
shire ; and in 1833 an inhabitant of Ilkeston records 
more than fifty of these mementoes hung over the 

piers In Shakespear's 'Hamlet' (Act V- sc - *) 

where the i>riests enter in funeral procession with 

the corpse of Ophelia, one says : 

She should in ground unsanctified have lodged 

Till the last trumpet ; for charitable prayers, 

Shards, flints, and pebbles should be thrown on her ! 

Yet here she is allowed her virgin crants, 

Her maiden strewments, and the bringing home 

Of bell and burial." 

That these garlands were originally com- 
posed of natural flowers we may fairly con- 
clude ; the use of artificial flowers, according 
to the REV. MACKENZIE WALCOTT (5 S. i. 12), 
did not take place till the commencement 
of the last century. F. H. SUCKLING. 

COL. CHARLES GODFREY (10 S. vi. 49, 116) 
had two daughters by Arabella Churchill, 
as stated by MR. PINK : the elder, Charlotte, 
married, 23 April, 1700, Hugh Boscawen, 
Warden of the Stannaries, who was created, 
9 July, 1720, Baron of Boscawen-Rose and 
Viscount Falmouth ; the younger, Eliza- 
beth, married Edmund Dunch. 

Arabella Churchill's daughter Henrietta, 
mentioned by MR. PICKFORD as having 
married Sir Henry Waldegrave, fourth 
baronet, was the elder of her daughters by 
King James II. F. DE H. L. 

CRESSET STONES (10 S. v. 308, 394; vi. 
50). At Romsey Abbey, in Hampshire, two 
curiously shaped ancient cressets or lamps 
were found when the church was restored. 
Very possibly they were used by the builders 
themselves, and built into the wall when 
done with. They still bear traces of the 
oil burnt therein. F. H. SUCKLING. 


PINCUSHION SWEET (10 S. vi. 50, 114). 
Thirty years ago poor children in Norfolk 
invariably spoke of all kinds of sweetmeats 
as " cushies " a corruption probably of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 25, im 

cushions. This latter term is still to be met 
with in sweet-shops, where a sweetmeat 
flavoured with peppermint, and usually red- 
and-white in colour, resembling a miniature 
cushion, has that appellation. A Norfolk 
clergyman tells me that the children in his 
parish " still speak of sweets as cushies, and 
pictures as gays, as their forbears did fifty 
years ago." FREDERICK T. HIBGAME. 

"FOUR CORNERS" (10 S. vi. 69). 'The 
Sports and Pastimes of the People of Eng- 
land,' by Joseph Strutt, edited by William 
Hone (London, Chatto & Windus, 1876), 
says at p. 367 (Bk. iii. chap. vii. sect, xi.) : 
" Is so called from four large pins which are 
placed singly at each angle of a square frame. The 
players stand at a distance, which may be varied 
by joint consent, and throw at the pins a large 
heavy bowl, which sometimes weighs six or eight 
pounds. The excellency of the game consists in 
beating them down by the fewest casts of the 

Sect. i. of the same book mentions " Car- 
reau," which, according to Cotgrave, was so 
called from a square stone which " is laid in 
level with, and at the end of, a bowling alley, 
and in the midst thereof an upright point set 
as the mark whereat they bowl " (ibid., 


CAPT. GRINDLAY (10 S. vi. 101). This 
reminds me of John Waghorn, the pioneer 
of the Overland Route to India. He made 
arrangements enabling one to send letters 
to India via Egypt by addressing them to 
his care at Alexandria, and leaving them, 
with a small fee, with Smith, Elder & Co., 
who were then stationers in Cornhill. From 
Alexandria they were carried over the 
desert to Suez in Waghorn's carts, and then 
by steamer to India. This, I think, would 
have been in 1820. Do any readers of 
' N. & Q.' know what became of John Wag- 
horn ? and did he receive any recognition 
of his valuable service ? P. V. R. 

[Waghorn's Christian name was Thomas. He 
died on 7- Jan., 1850. A statue to his memory was 
unveiled at Chatham by Lord Northbrook in 
August, 1888. See the life by Prof. Laughton in 
the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.'] 

COMBE (10 S. vi. 109). Elizabeth Vini- 
combe, who married Jas. Hosking, jun. at 
Ludgvan, 3 June, 1788, by licence, was 
probably a daughter of Martin Vinicombe 
(of Marazion) and Margaret Polgrean, who 
were married at St. Hilary, 26 Feb., 1767. 

Sir John St. Aubyn, fifth baronet, whose 
attachment to Juliana Vinicombe, and 
marriage to her, 4 July, 1822, at St. George's 

Hanover Square, after the birth of her chil- 
dren, are well known, resided at St. Michael's 
Mount, which was in the parish of St. Hilary. 
The only other Vinicombe marriages I 
know of in the West Country are those of 
Wm. Vennicomb and Mary Hoyl, 4 March, 
1699, at Gulval ; and John Bennatts (of 
Gulval) and Ann Vinnecombe, 31 Dec., 1738,. 
at Towednack. Vinnicombe was originally 
a Devonshire name. 


WICKSHIRE (10 S. vi. 110). It appears from 
Tait's ' Border Church Life ' (Kelso, Ruther- 
furd, 1891), ii. 250, that the Waugh family 
consisted of two sons and one daughter^ 
" Their elder son Thomas succeeded to the 
farm ; a daughter Elizabeth was married 
.... the youngest of the three was Alex- 

It is evident from the above quotation that 
William Waugh of Fenchurch Street was not 
a son of the East Gordon family. 


Your correspondent will find answers to- 
his questions in ' The Haunted Homes and 
Family Traditions of Great Britain,' by John* 
H. Ingram (third edition, 1886). Cf. Heatb 
Old Hall, pp. 477-81. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

(10 S. iv. 530 ; v. Ill, 158, 215 ; vi. 117). 
The ballad of ' The Children in the Wood * 
is printed in the ' Book of British Ballads," 
edited by S. C. Hall, issued about 1843, and 
said to be taken from an old copy in the- 
British Museum, entitled ' The Norfolk 
Gentleman's Last Will and Testament/ 
The ballad is illustrated after designs of 
J. R. Herbert, A.R.A., and one, on the first 
page, represents " the wicked uncle " giving 
his commands to the two murderers. On 
the lower part is a churchyard, with grave- 
stones, on one of which is inscribed : " Her& 
repose the remains of Thomas More, Gent., 
of Norfolk, aged 40 years ; also of Jane his 
Wife, who both passed from this life Anno- 
Dom. 1600. On whose souls may God have 
mercy. Amen." The scene is usually sup- 
posed to be laid in Norfolk. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

A tew days ago the cook of a Shropshire- 
hotel expressed her great concern because- 
a jackdaw had hopped into her bedroom in 
the early morning. She was sure that this: 
presaged a death in the house. She was far 

10 s. VL AUG. 25, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


more excited the following morning when the 
-.same bird, or one like it, repeated the action. 
She was, however, quite reassured when it 
became known that the former tenant of 
the house, an old lady, had died early in the 
morning of the day when the bird made its 
second appearance through the window. 

I cannot find any reference to the action 
of jackdaws with regard to illness and death. 
The cook is a woman past middle age, and, 
I believe, Shropshire born and bred. 


TADPOLE (10 S. vi. 29, 77, 92). Tt is 
perhaps worth noting that " pot-ladle " 
<p. 77) is an anagram "of " tadpole," the I 
being duplicated. Possibly this is only a 
coincidence. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

The common American equivalent for 
tadpole is " polliwog." This word (some- 
times written " polliwig " or "porwiggle") 
is said by Latham to be compounded of 
"" poll " (head, as in " tadpole ") and " wig " 
t(A.-S. wicga, insect, as in "earwig"); but 
Prof. Skeat prefers tor the latter " wiggle," 
to wag the head, which may be the better 

Wright's ' Dictionary of Obsolete and 
Provincial English ' gives pode and pot- 
ladle, the latter as an Eastern County term, 
and bullhead as a Cheshire one. 

N. W. HILL. 


409, 455 ; vi. 95). Tt may be noted that at 
the recent festivities held* at Castle Ashby, 
Northamptonshire, to celebrate the coming 
of age ot Lord Compton, eldest son ot the 
Marquis of Northampton, the Canonbury 
tenants presented his lordship on 8 August 
with an illuminated address and a picture 
of Canonbury Tower by Mr. H. Hughes- 
Stanton, R.I. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

"PANNIER MARKET" (10 S. v. 426). 
The pronunciation " panger " for pannier 
reminds me of " wilger " for ivilloiv, which a 
Dartmoor man, on my noticing it in his 
speech, corrected to " wilyer," remarking 
that some called it one, some the other. 


"KILLING-MEAT" (10 S. vi. 86). Tt is a 
common thing for many of the poorer people 
to send their children for " bits " to the 
butcher, not on killing days only, but at other 
times. The Derbyshire term for the offals 
liver, lights, sweetbreads is " fry," and 

killing days were called " fry-days," and 
these bits are known as beast's fry, sheep's 
fry, and pig's fry. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


289, 355, 437 ; vi. 94). Without being able 
to help MR. WAINEWRIGHT in his search, I 
may be allowed to suggest that Dr. Sander 
intended to convey the idea, not that Danister 
and others were bishops nominate, but were 
talked of as bishops. The words used by 
Sander in Catholic Record Society's vol. i. 
p. 22, are " qui ad episcopatus nomina- 
bantur." JOSEPH S. HANSOM. 

" TROWZERS " (10 S. vi. 86). The passages 
quoted Irom the second edition of ' The True 
Anti-Pamela ; or, Memoirs of Mr. James 
Parry,' 1742, appear in the first edition, 
1741, pp. 188, 189, except for " Evidence 
against me " instead of " Evidence against 

SA, Bickenhall Mansions, W. 

(10 S. iv. 9, 132, 238, 496 ; v. 54, 96, 177 ; 
vi. 78, 92). Allow me to refer those who are 
interested in this subject, to ' Forgotten 
Children's Books,' by Andrew W. Tuer, and 
to" Old-Fashioned Children's Books, brought 
together by the same hand." In them may 
be seen several illustrations of cricket as 
played in the first decade of the nineteenth 
century. The wickets seem to have con- 
sisted of two upright pieces of wood kept 
together by another piece laid across them, 
and the bat is more like a club than anything 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" ET TU, BRUTE ! " (10 S. v. 125, 214.) I 
should like to make two additions to this 
discussion one of fact and one of theory. 
The Didot edition of Suetonius, 1828 (repre- 
senting which manuscript I cannot say), 
has KOU <rv, TfKvov ; but in a foot-note the 
editor adds that some prefer KOL (TV e? e/cei'i/wi/. 
He does not say whether this is actually 
a MS. reading, admitted or contested, or only 
a suggested emendation ; but it seems to 
me, as I will show in a moment, very plausible 
on its face. I must respectfully differ from 
the opinion of Thomson and MR. CURRY, 
that Suetonius' s phrase attributed to Caesar 
is improbable because he would not have 
used Greek at such a time : on the contrary, 
the very improbability of it constitutes a 
probability of a high order which is not 
a paradox. Is it likely that Suetonius 
would have deliberately invented such an 
improbability as that the Roman Caesar 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 25, 190&. 

talked Greek in his dying exclamation of 
mental anguish ? This fact makes it almost 
SrTain that he merely set down a traditional 
story ; and the tradition itself is witness, 
if not to its own truth (as I think it is for 
the above reason), at least to Caesar s habitu- 
allv using Greek phrases. 

Now as to the exact phrase. If Caesar did 
use a Greek utterance at such a moment, it 
is not likely to have been one which he made 
up for the occasion one's mind would not 
work quickly enough in a foreign language 
for that but it would be a stock phrase 
which had become, in the present-day slang, 
a popular " gag " in Rome. It is not easy 
to see how KCU <rv, TCKVOV, could have become 
such : it has no meaning to fit it for miscel- 
laneous use. But KCU <rv eleKtivoiv "You're 
one of 'em too "has the very shape and 
tone of a foreign phrase which would be 
caught up and parroted on every occasion 
ad nauseam, first by the cultivated amateurs 
of Greek, and then by the analogues of the 
journalists and the precieuses ridicules of 
later times. It was probably taken from 
some popular Greek play, or still more likely 
from some Latin author's citation of that 
phrase in such a play. 


Hartford, Conn. 

vi. 9, 95). MR. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL states 
in his reply that Serle's Coffee-House stood 
at the corner of Serle and Portugal Streets, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Is this correct ? In 
'The Epicure's Almanack' (1815) the follow- 
ing appears at p. 170 : 

" Having crossed this area [Lincoln's Inn Fields, 

our readers may remark, that whenever we and 

they approach any of the inns of court, we in- 
variably find them fortified with superior houses oi 
entertainment, which stand like outworks to defend 
these citadels of jurisprudence. The fact is, that 
the law being a dry study, those gentlemen who 
profess it are instinctively addicted to the juice oi 
the grape, or rather they have a perpetual thirst for 

it The first house we enter at the close of this 

remark is Will's Coffee-House, at the corner of Serle 
St reet and Portugal Street, which is now kept by 
Mr. Green. It stands most invitingly, facing the 
passage that leads into Lincoln's Inn, New Square." 

The description of Serle's Coffee-House is as 
follows : 

"Almost directly facing Serle Street is Serle' 
Coffee-House and Tavern, kept by Mr. Hewit, whi 
takes constant care to have his larder we] 
replenished, and his stock pots temptingly fille< 
with excellent soup. The house and its accommo 
dations are of the first order and respectability." 




\faterialien zur Knnde de* fiUeren Enylixchew 
Drama*. Begruendet und herausgegeben von W.. 
Bang. Band XIII. The Queen ; or, the Excellency 
of her Hex. Nach der Quarto 1653 in Neudruck 
herausgegeben von W. Bang. 

Sand XIV. Victoria: a Latin Comedy. By Abra- 
ham Fraunce. Edited by G. C. Moore Smith. 
Jand XV. Erster Teil, A Concordance to the Works 
of Thomax Kyd. By Charles Crawford. (Louvain,. 
A. Uystpruyst; London, Nutt.) 
E have before now drawn attention to the 
[>lendid service rendered to Tudor literature by 
tie great University of Louvain under the direction/ 
f W. Bang, Professor of English Philology (see 

S. iii. 138). Three further contributions reach 
s from the same source. 

The first consists of a reprint, under the personal 
upervision of Prof. Bang, of the rare quarto of 1653 
f 'The Queen ; or, the Excellency of her Sex,' an 
nonymous tragi-comedy, concerning the authorship- 
,f which conjecture, so far as this country is con- 
erned, is at fault. In the ' History of Dramatic 
jiteratxire ' of the Master of Peterhouse the play is. 
inmentioned. Following, after his wont, the lead 

1 the ' Biographia Dramatica,' Halliwell (Phillipps)- 
alls it " this excellent old play," tells the circum- 
tances under which it came into the hands of 
he " editor," Alexander Gough, and repeats the 
nformation that a portion of the plot is taken 
rom Belief crest's ' Histoires Tragiques.' Mr. Fleay r 

even, hardy as he is, ventures on no suggestion of 
authorship, classes the work as anonymous, and 
jontents himself with an aspiration (now fulfilled)' 
;hat it should be reprinted. To whatever dramatist 
t is ascribed even to John Ford himself, as is?, 
mggested it cannot but do him credit. On the title- 
lage, which is reprinted in facsimile, it is called 
' an Excellent old Play, Found out by a Person of 
Honour, and given to the Publisher, Alexander 
Gough." The words " old play " suggest an author- 
ship anterior to that of Massinger, to whom, though 
tie had long been dead, seven plays were entered 
in the Stationers' Register in the year in question, 
1653, or his frequent associate Fletcher, the sharer 
of his grave. ' The Queen ' presents a picture of 
virtues to be expected in a Patient Grissell rather 
than in the occupant of a throne. Instead of 
beheading Alphonso, the leader of an unsuccessful 
rebellion against her authority, the Queen of 
Aragon pardons him, marries him, and raises him 
to the throne. These actions he repays with the 
most shameful ingratitude, and before long the 
somewhile queen is condemned to lose her head,, 
unless a champion appears to vindicate her honour. 
Uncomplainingly she bears this treatment, bowing 
herself in all respects to the will of the king, and 
regarding as her enemies those who dream of taking, 
up her cause. In the end her exemplary patience 
triumphs, and she is reunited to her spouse. The 
obligation to Belleforest is confined to the underplot, 
in which, in consequence of an oath taken to his 
mistress not to fight, whatever indignity is put upon 
him, a brave soldier allows himself to be treated as a 
coward. The reissue of this work is a decided boon. 
The heading to Act V., "A scassold," is surely due 
to the confusion between /'and long .s.s. 

' Victoria ' is the title bestowed upon a comedy of 

10 s. vi. AUG. 25, imj NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Abraham Fraunce the " sweet Master France" of 
Thomas Nashe, and according to George Peele, 
*' a peerless sweet translator of our time " now first 
printed by permission of Lord de 1'Isle and Dudley, 
from the original MS., still preserved at Penshurst. 
The work, with its dedication to the author's patron 
Philip Sidney, was written apparently before the 
author left Cambridge in 1583, and was probably 
(though of this there is no record), like many other 
Latin plays, acted at that university. As Prof. 
Moore Smith confesses, it is not a work of much 
intrinsic value. " It is inordinately long, its plot ia 
complicated and absurd, its characters [are] un- 
interesting, and though it is crammed with quota- 
tions and allusions, they are introduced with little 
point or humour, and only confirm our impression 
that Fraunce was a ' dull dog,' " or, as Ben Jonson 
in his conversations with Drummond of Hawthorn- 
den styled him, "a fool." As the Professor says, 
" Every academic play of the Elizabethan age may 
be said to have points of interest." Fraunce s 
relation to the Sidneys, Spenser, and others of the 
golden age adds to these. In the prefatory matter, 
and in the new light cast in this upon the life and 
works of Fraunce, lies what specially commends the 
work. The notes are chiefly valuable as supplying 
the source of quotations. It is curious, however, 
to find some illumination cast upon Rossetti's ' Sister 
Helen ' : 

Haec est imago fabricata ex cera virginea. 
Another passage yields a parallel to one in ' Samson 

Mr. Crawford's ' Concordance to the Works of 
Thomas Kyd,' is an outcome of those studies in 
Tudor literature with which our readers are happily 
familiar. Among the most defensible of Mr. Craw- 
ford's theories is the ascription to Thomas Kyd of 
the much-disputed authorship of ' Arden of Fever- 
sham. 1 In this view he had been anticipated by 
Mr. Fleay. To Mr. Crawford belongs, however, 
the collection of such evidence as commends Kyd's 
paternity to general acceptance. It has already 
been set before the public in a paper contributed by 
Mr. Crawford in 1903 to the 'Jahrbuch der 
Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft.' To support 
the views there maintained, and to place the general 
scholar in a position to test their accuracy, Mr. 
Crawford has, with characteristic thoroughness of 
workmanship, compiled a 'Concordance to the 
Works of Kyd,' recently edited by Mr. Boas, and 
has included among them 'Arden of Feversham,' 
the play in question. As the resemblance in text is 
most perceptible between 'Arden' and ' Soliman 
and Perseda,' and the pamphlet entitled 'The 
Murder of John Brewen,' the extracts from ' Arden ' 
are placed in immediate juxtaposition with the 
passages cited from those works.^ In some instances 
the plan answers admirably. For example, under 
' After' two lines follow one another from 'Arden' 
and from the pamphlet : 

Two years and more after the deed was done 
Two years after the murther was committed ; 

or, again, those from 'Soliman and Perseda,' and 
* Arden,' under ' Bridle ' : 

Bridle the fond intemperance of thy tongue. 

Fie, bitter knave, bridle thine envious tongue. 

This first instalment of the Concordance carries 
the alphabet as far as the close of the letter 
ff. As an appendix the completed work 
will include a concordance to Prof. Dowden's 

version of 'Hamlet' as printed in 'The Arden* 
Shakespeare,' and a further concordance to the 1605- 
quarto of the same play, reproducing the original 
spelling and punctuation. This is intended to- 
support the claims of Kyd to the authorship of the 
' Ur- Hamlet.' Work so elaborate and conscientious- 
reflects highest credit on Mr. Crawford and Prof. 
Bang. It is interesting to find that the former 
scholar is engaged on a concordance to the 1616 folios 
of Ben Jonson, the first instalment of a facsimile of 
which has already seen the light. 

Bristol : a Historical and Topographical Account of 
the City. By Alfred Harvey, M.B. (Methuen & 

To the interesting and important series of "Ancient 
Cities " of Messrs. Methuen has been added a work- 
manlike history of Bristol. Compiled from existing; 
and accessible works, the whole gives a capital 
account of what was long the second city of Eng- 
land. Of its ancient civil and ecclesiastical buildinga. 
some striking illustrations are supplied by Mr. 
E. H. New, whose brush is unequalled in such, 
work. The history, meanwhile, picturesque and 
varied, is told in exemplary fashion. Bristol had 
a sorry pre-eminence in connexion with the slave 
trade, which dates back to Norman times, and 
incurred in Stuart times the rebuke of Judge 
Jeffreys, who might be acquitted of any superfluous- 
squeamishness on such a subject. Against this, 
rebuke may be put its association with Sebastian 
Cabot and its behaviour during the wars of the 
Commonwealth. Its municipal history is also 
important, and it has a creditably long list of dis- 
tinguished citizens. To these full justice is done 
by Mr. Harvey in what, in its way, is a model work.. 

Edinburgh Review. July. (Longmans & Co.) 
' AN ILLUSTRIOUS CAVALIER ' treats of the life of 
the great Duke of Ormond in a most satisfactory 
manner. James Butler, the twelfth Earl and first 
Duke of Ormond, was one of the most prominent 
men during the great Civil War, and his influence 
did not come to an end when the Restoration was, 
brought about. He was loyal to the kings he served 
during his whole career ; and though it may be an 
exaggeration to speak of him as a man of genius, his. 
intellectual power was, without question, of a high 
order. Whether we regard him from the political 
or the moral point of view, his character was noble. 
Had he won great battles, he would be well remem- 
bered; but he worked for the royal cause under 
impossible conditions, therefore whatever fame he 
once had has become dim. Mere bygone politics, 
which in no way affect our present conditions of 
life, are interesting to but very few, and those few 
have until recent days been compelled to gather the 
facts of his life from Carte's accurate, but extremely 
dull biography. The publications of the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission, extending from 1881 to 
the present year, have remedied this. There is 
probably now little of interest regarding him to be 
discovered, unless something unexpected should 
come to light in one of the foreign record offices. 
The writer of the article has not only studied 
Carte's biography, but has also mastered the con- 
tents of the newly printed manuscripts, so we now 
have a picture of this great noble and honest man 
with which we shall have to be content until some 
student shall devote years of his life to a biography 
worthy of present conditions. The reviewer 
touches on the slaughters in Ireland of 1641, but 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. AUG. 25, 

Contributes no new knowledge. He says (and we 
Are in full agreement with him) that " the gravity 
and magnitude of these outrages have of late been 
.as absurdly minimized as they were at one time 
scandalously exaggerated." "V\e fear that the full 
truth will never be revealed ; but there is one point 
which deserves to be kept in memory. The Dutch, 
though ardent Protestants, were no friends of this 
country, yet they were so well assured that a 
terrible slaughter had occurred, that upwards of 
thirty thousand pounds was sent over by them for 
the relief of the sufferers who survived (Rushworth, 
*Hist. Col.,' vii. 963, 1231). 

The paper relating to Rene' Descartes is excep- 
tionally good; it is written without a shadow of 
prejudice for or against the philosophy which is 
known by his name. It seems evident that he never 
thought himself in conflict with the main points of 
the older scholasticism ; but his was a position which 
few moderns would undertake to defend. In the 
seventeenth century, as in much later days, men 
have often been despised who have devoted them- 
selves to what some are wont to consider useless 
knowledge. The elder brother of Descartes regarded 
him " as a disgrace to the family through his 
eccentric pursuit of learning." We have discarded 
many of the prejudices which acted as clogs on our 
ancestors, but he would be a most serene optimist 
who believed that we are yet emancipated from 
this most irritating evil. 

In 'Illuminism and the French Revolution' a 
picture is drawn of the many things which haunted 
the human mind in the years before the Revolution 
took political form. The wisest of the forerunners 
of that great cataclysm were in darkness or but 
foggy twilight until the old machine ceased to 
work. The follies of the Revolution, as dis- 
tinguished from its crimes, have, perhaps, been 
sufficiently dwelt upon ; but there are not many at 
the present day who realize the arrant nonsense 
which men and women believed and acted upon 
while all was yet quiet and serene. 

The papers on the novels of Mr. Marion Crawford, 
on Viterbo. and on Alfred de Musset are worthy of 
being read with care. 

THE current number of Folk-Lore contains an 
article on the back-footed beings which are well 
known in the mythology of many parts of the world, 
and the suggestion is made that such supernatural 
men and animals, though according to educated 
ideas in a crippled condition, are closely related to 
the ornithqmorphic spirits frequently mentioned in 
folk-tradition : " In some cases the deformity seems 
to point to an originally bird-like form, but in most 
cases it would appear to be an alternative for wings 
as a means ? of signifying the presence of bird-like 
characters, such as the power of swift disappear- 
ance. In Mr. Cook's collection of beliefs relating 
to the European sky-god under various aspects the 
Celtic deities and the gladsome other-world in 
Which they dwelt still occupy attention ; while Mr. 
A. W. Howitt deals with the much-discussed 
native tribes of South-East Australia. 

AMOxti the subjects lately noticed in the Infer- 
mMuure are the sensation of aerial flight during 
sleep, the right of giving house-room and protection 
to a criminal who entreats shelter, and the authen- 
ticity of the legend relating to the colours of the 
grenadiers of the Old Guard. More than one of 
these colours are said to have been reduced to 
ashes and swallowed in wine by the veterans on 

whom the white flag was forced in 1814. Several 
curious parodies of the 'Marseillaise 'are also given, 
two of them being^ of special interest to " the island 
race," since the hrst was composed in 1793 to stir 
up the population of the south-west of France 
against the English, and the second written some 
fifteen years ago to condemn "la domination 
anglaise ' in Egypt. Antiquaries will be interested 
in the account of a representation of the Redeemer 
still preserved in the Cathedral of Burgos. The 
chapel "del Santissimo Cristo " contains a Christ 
formed of the hide of some animal, which is flexible 
under the pressure of a finger. It is said to have 
come from the East, and to have been modelled by 
Nicodemus from the body of the Saviour when He 
was taken down from the cross ; but whence it was 
really derived is not stated. 

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BRUTUS ("Running the gauntlope"). Fielding's 
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^Notices to Correspondents. 


C. R. WELD in his entertaining ' History 
-of the Royal Society ' (i. 466-7) dwells with 
pardonable pride on its share in the progress 
of the science of electricity : " Almost every 
early electrical discovery of importance was 
made by its members, and is to be found 
recorded in the Philosophical Transactions." 
A large proportion of these papers contained 
the discoveries of Gray. 

The testimony of J. T. Desaguliers was 
that Gray had made " greater variety of 
electrical experiments than all the philo- 
sophers of this and the last age " (' Course 
of Experimental Philos.,' second ed., 1745, 
vol. i. p. 42). Du Fay records his obliga- 
tions to him as one who worked 
" on this subject with application and success, and 
to whom I acknowledge myself indebted for the 
Discoveries I have made as well as for those I may 
possibly make hereafter, since 'tis from his writing's 
that I took the resoluti 
this kind of experiments 
No. 431, p. 258, &c. 

Charles Hutton claims that he " estab- 
lished a new era in the history of electricity " 

that I took the resolution of applying myself to 
." Phil. Tranx.. xxxviii. 

('Mathemat. and Philos. Diet.,' 1796, i. 
420-21) ; and Thomas Thomson, while 
describing his experiments at length, allows 
his claim " in a great measure to have estab- 
lished the science of electricity upon a sure 
foundation, and to have constituted it, in 
some measure, what it is at this day [1812J " 
('Hist, of the Royal Soc.,' p. 431 et sea] 
Periods IIJ. and V. in Priestley's history of 
electricity are devoted to the experiments 
and discoveries of Gray. Such was the 
opinion of the eighteenth century. It is 
the contention of many scientific students 
at the present time that Gray's experiments 
carried the development of electricity further 
than has been obtained by those of a cele- 
brated Italian within recent years. Thomson 
adds : 

"It is remarkable that no biographical memoirs 
remain of a man to whom electricity lies under such 
obligations. From some observations made by 
Desaguhers it appears that his character was very- 
particular and by no means amiable." 

I have examined all his letters that I am 
acquainted with, and I cannot find any trace 
of such feelings. His reticence was probably 
the natural outcome of an enthusiastic 
student whose investigations had brought 
him no pecuniary reward, so that the last 
years of his life were passed as a poor 
srother of the Charterhouse. It is possible, 
however, to add a few facts to the very brief 
particulars of him already in print. 

Gray's papers in the Phil. Trans, should 
3e reprinted with annotations by some 
scientific experimenter. The list of them is 
as follows : 

1. Vol. xix. No. 221, June-Aug., 1696, pp. 280-87. 
Several microscopical observations and experiments 

2. 76. No. 223, Nov. -Dec., 1696, pp. 353-6. A 
urtner account of his water microscope. 

3. Ib. No. 228, May, 1697, pp. 539-42. -Makin^ 
water subservient to the viewing both near and 
distant objects, with the description of a natural 

effecting microscope. 

4. Ib. No. 235, Dec., 1697, pp. 787-90. -Relatin- 
ome experiments about making concave specula 
earlv of a parabolick figure. 

5. Vol. xx. No. 240, May, 1698, pp. 176-8. About 
way of measuring the height of the mercury in 
le barometer more exactly. 

6. Vol. xxi. No. 251, April, 1699, pp. 126-7 An 
bservatioii of some " parelii " seen at Canterbury 

26 Feb., 1698/9]. 

7. Vol. xxii. No. 262, March, 1700, p. 535. An 
nusual parhelion and halo. 

8. 76. No. 268, Jan 1700/1, pp. 762-4.-On the 
ossils of Reculver cliff, and a new way of drawino- 
he meridian line. 

9. Ib. No. 270, March and April, 1701, pp. 815-19 
n drawing the meridian line by the pole star and 
ndmg the hour by the same. 

10. Vol. xxiii. No. 288, Nov. and Dec. 1703 
p. 1502-4. Spots in the sun observed in June, 1703* 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. SEPT. i, 1906. 

11. Vol. xxv. No. 306, April-June, 1706, pp 2238-9.- 
Observations of the solar eclipse, May 1/12, 1/06 

:., 1720, pp. 104-7. 

ments concerning electricity. (Some were made at 
Otterien Place, near Channg, Kent, the house of 
his friend Granvill Wheler, and others at Norton 
Court, near Faversham, where another friend, John 

G uf 1 /?.' Nof422, pp. 227-30.-Concerning the elec- 
tricitv of water. 
15 75 No. 423, pp. 285-91. Further experiments 

7. Further experiments 
concerning electricity. 

17 Vol. xxxviii. p. 114. An account of an eclipse 
of the sun, 2 May, 1733, as observed by him at 

ix. No. 496, pp. 16-24.-E X periments 
and observations upon the light that is produced by 
communicating electrical attraction to animal or 
inanimate bodies, together with some of its most 
surprising effects. 

19. Ib. No. 439, pp. 166-70. Experiments relating 
to electricity. 

20. Ib. No. 441, p. 220. Concerning the revolu- 
tions which small pendulous bodies will, by elec- 
tricity, make round larger ones from west to east, 
as the planets do round the sun. 

Nine of his letters are among the Sloane 
MSS. at the British Museum, and twenty are 
with the archives of the Royal Society, and 
I have been allowed to examine both sets. 
They include the greater part of the com- 
munications printed in the Philosophical 
Transactions and some other documents. 
Nearly all of those between 1696 and 1711 
are dated from Canterbury, where his busi- 
ness was ; those beginning with 1731 (for 
there is a great gap in the correspondence) 
from the Charterhouse or from the houses 
of his friends in Kent. One (Sloane MS. 
4041, f . 83) is dated " from my chamber in 
Trinity Colledge in Cambridge, January 3, 
1707/8," and it gratifies me to think that he 
was probably there as the guest of Sir Isaac 

There was published in 1669 a posthu- 
mous tract by the distinguished antiquary 
William Somner, entitled ' Chartham News, 
or a brief relation of some strange bones 
there lately digged up in some grounds of 
Mr. John Somner's of Canterbury,' who was 
brother of the author as well as editor of 
the tract. This pamphlet must have come 
under the notice of Hans Sloane (no doubt 
at the instance of the Rev. Nicholas Battely, 
by whom it was reprinted in 1703), for it was 
republished in the Phil. Trans, xxii. No. 272, 
July, 1701, pp. 882-93, and Gray's letter 
to Sloane, which is dated 11 Dec., 1701 
(Sloane MS. 4038, f. 274), is in reply to some 
queries about it. He states that Mr. Alder- 

man Gray, the owner of the drawings of the 
bones, was his " own elder brother ; his- 
present wife was the wife of Mr. John 
Sommner's [sic] son, for whome he built the- 
house where those bones were dug up." 

Gray's last letter to Sloane (dated Canter- 
bury, July 31, 1711) is in Sloane MS. 4042, 
fol. 336. Tt records that for many years he 

"spent the far greatest part of my time that the 
avocations for a subsistance would permitt me in 

the studie of astronomy and had been at noe little 

charge for books, instruments and other materials." 

He was now in the forty-fifth year of his age, 
and thought it time to consider how he could! 

"a comfortable subsistance, being already soe in- 
firme as not to be able to follow my imploy without 
much more difficulty and pain than m former 
years, caused by a strain I received in my back 
some years agoe, which brought on me the Dolor 

He begged for Sloane's assistance in obtain- 
ing admission into the Charterhouse, so that 
he might be free from " those many and great 
interruptions I now meet with." With 
these clues as to his age and relationship 
some antiquary at Canterbury might find 
the entry of his baptism. After some years 
of delay the poor man's hopes were fulfilled. 
Through the kindness of the Rev. H. V. 
Le Bas, the chaplain of the Charterhouse, I 
am enabled to state that Gray was nominated 
as a poor brother " for ye Prince " of Wales 
at an assembly of the governors held 24 June, 

Gray's friends had endeavoured to help 
him in other ways. An attempt was made 
to obtain for him the post of assistant secre- 
tary to the Royal Society, but Brook Taylor's- 
efforts were in vain, for he writes from 
Bifrons on 3 July, 1713, to Dr. John Keill : 

"I am very much obliged to you for the great 
readiness you are pleased to shew, to assist Stephen 
Gray upon my account. He is a very fit person fer- 
tile service of the R.S., wherefore I thought to have 
recommended him very heartily ; but the poor man 
is so very bashful that I can by no means prevail 
upon him to think of that business, now it seems 
to be so near by the death of Hunt, he has such 
dreadful ai prehensions of the presence of so many 

A third batch 23 papers in all, ranging 
from 1699 to 1716 of Gray's letters is among 
the Flamsteed manuscripts at the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, in the volume 
called Baily 37, and by the kindness of the 
Astronomer Royal I have been enabled to 
examine them. They consist for the most 
part of the observations on the eclipses and 
sunspots which he sent to Flamsteed, but 
there are a few of general interest. He had. 

10 s. VL SEPT. i, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


borrowed, from the Royal Society the works 
of Galileo, and he obtained from Flamsteed 
(May-Aug., 1705) the loan of Christophorus 
Schemer's 'Rosa Ursina ' (1630), a volume 
on spots in the sun. Dr. Arbuthnot had 
applied to Flamsteed for information as to 
the character of Mrs. Bargrave and as to the 
details of the apparition of Mrs. Veal to her, 
and in response to Flamsteed's request, Gray 
sent him a long report on the matter (15 Nov., 
1705). This apparition formed the subject 
of one of Defoe's most popular tracts, and 
Gray's letter is worth printing in full. It 
would interest the Defoe enthusiasts as well 
as those engaged in psychical research. In 
another letter (6 Jan., 1706/7) Gray says that 
Derham had desired his assistance on the 
flight of sounds, and that he had begun to 
take note at Whitstable of the time taken 
for the report of the gun fired from the guard- 
ship at the Nore to reach there. His letter 
of 8 Sept., 1708, refers to his visit to Cam- 
bridge and its new observatory ; and. that of 
1 April, 1709, mentions Jurin as a friend 
and a young man in whom he had great 

The last years of Gray's life wore marked 
by warm appreciation of his scientific 
research. The Royal Society had a visit 
on 25 Nov. , 1731, from the Prince of Wales 
and the Duke ot Lorraine, and among the 
novelties which they witnessed were 
" electrical exparimc nts by Mr Gray, which 
succeeded notwithstanding the largeness 
of the company." They showed " the 
facility with which electricity passes through 
great lengths of conductors, and are remark- 
able as having been the first of this nature." 
The Copley Medal was awarded to him in 
1731 and again in 1732 (' Record of Royal 
Soc.,' second ed., 1901, p. 222). Gray was 
nominated as F.R.S. on 2 No\., 1732; 
and after his name had been before the 
Society, as was then the custom, at ten sub- 
sequent met tings, he was el cted on 25 Jan., 
1732/3, and admitted on 15 March. The 
form of nomination ran : 

Mr. Steven [xic\ Gray, well known by his many 
Curious Experiments and Observations, laid before 
this Society, is proposed a Candidate to be elected 
a Fellow thereof and recomended by us. 

MAKTIN FOLKES [President]. 

RICHARD GRAHAM [Fellow 1726-49]. 

TAYLOR WHITE [Fellow 1725-42]. 

Gray's last paper in the Phil. Trans. " was 
taken from his mouth by Cromwell Mortimer 
on 14 Feb., 1735/6, being the day before he 

The volume of ' Miscellanies in Prose and 
Verse by Anna Williams,' the friend of 

Dr. Johnson, contains (pp. 42-3) a poem of 
22 lines " on the death of Stephen Grey [sic],. 
F.R.S., the author of the present doctrine of 
electricity." It chronicles 

th' electrick flame, 

The flame which first, weak pupil of thy lore, 
I saw, condemn'd, alas ! to see no more; 

and in a prose foot-note she bears witness 
that " as she was assisting in his experiments- 
she was the first that observed and notified 
the emission of the electrical spark from a* 
human body." ^: i 

Gray died in the Charterhouse. The- 
following letter is in Sloane MS. 4058, f/123. 
It is typical of the time, and not without 
pathos as regards the writer and the subject : 

To Sir Hajos Sloane. 

Hon le Sir. It is my Lott to dwell in y e same^ 
staircase, in which the late Celebraated M r Gray did 
live and dye in the Charterhouse. I was an intimate- 
Acquaintance of His and He and I used to joyne 
together to gett such provision as Our poor Allow- 
ance would permitt us to buy, and soe did eat and. 
drink together upon Saturdays and Sundays when, 
poor M rs Archer came to buy it and dress it for us 
in My Room. After dinner M r Gray would smoke- 
2 or 3 pipes and give Me a great deal of Delight & 
Satisfaction in his very agreeable Conversation. 
The true Respect and value I had for Him has 
caused me to putt pen to paper and to attempt 
some small matter by way of remembrance of his 
great merits, which I most humbly hope You will 
condescend to peruse and I heartily pray It may 
not give offence but may be read by you according 
to your wonted Good and Beneficent Disposition.. 
If it may be Yo r Good Pleasure to bestow some 
small matter on a very poor, most unhappy and 
necessitous man in much distress and Affliction,, 
I shall have the greatest reason in y e world to be 
most truly, sincerely & heartily thankfull and" 
humbly desire I may have leave to subscribe myself 
Hon le Sir 

Yo r most Dutifull and 
Most Obedient Serv 1 


Unf ortunatt ly the "remembrance" is not 
among Sloane's papers. 

A lecture by Dr. Benjamin Ward Richard- 
son on the researches of Gray was delivered 
in the hall of the Charterhouse in February,, 
1874. It is reported in The Illustrated 
London News for ?1 Feb., p. 167, and a 
drawing by George Cruikshank of one of 
Gray's experiments is reproduced on p. 168. 

THE POST OFFICE, 1856-1906. 
A NOTE should be made that this is the- 
jubilee year of the division of London into- 
postal districts. It was in December, 1856, 
that Rowland Hill announced his intention 
to divide London and its environs into ten: 
districts, " each to be treated, in many 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. SEPT. i, im 

respects, as a separate town. Notice of 
this was delivered at every house in London, 
the circular containing instructions as to 
the initials to be used, and stating that 
4 'if the initial letters be thus regularly 
appended, the Department will be able to 
assort, with facility and correctness, the 
country letters, according to their respective 
districts, before they reach London in the 
morning. ' ' Each resident was also requested 
-to add the initials of his district to his address 
inside his letters, and, if in business, to 
insert them in his invoices or advertisements. 
' N. & Q.' from almost its commencement 
has had many notes and queries about the 
Post Office. A correspondent on the 4th of 
January, 1851, quotes Miss Martineau's 
story of the origin of the Penny Post from 
her ' History of England during the Thirty 
Years' Peace,' vol. ii. p. 425. In the follow- 
ing week, over the well-known initials 
C. W. D., appears a reply ; and on the 5th 
-of April, after a long article on ' Edmund 
Prideaux and the First Post Office,' the 
following extract is given from Rowland 
Hill's ' Post Office Reform ' : 

" Coleridge tells a story which shows how much 
the Post-Otiice is open to fraud, in consequence of 
the option as to pre-payment which now exists. 
The story is as follows : 

" ' One day, when I had not a shilling which I could 
spare, I was passing by a cottage not far from 
Keswick, where a letter-carrier was demanding a 
shilling for a letter, which the woman of the house 
appeared unwilling to pay, and at last declined to 
take. I paid the postage, and when the man was 
out of sight, she told me that the letter was from 
her son, who took that means of letting her know 
that he was well ; the letter was not to be paid for. 
It was then opened and found to be blank ! ' 

" This trick is so obvious a one that in all proba- 
bility it is extensively practised." 

On the 15th of October, 1870, the Editor 
makes a note of the introduction of postal 

On the 30th of May, 1874, thirty-four 
curious postal addresses of 1714 are given 
by MR. CHARLES JACKSON. Two of them 
were : 

" This, for Mr. Baradale, ye Merser, att ye seven 
-1,11 s and naked Boy on Ludgate Hill, London." 

"Tliis, for Mr. Clam-py, in Catherin street, next 
<lor to ye sine of ye Cherry Tree, in Common [-sic] 

Among other interesting notes is one on 
'The Posts in 1677,' contributed by MR. 
J. A. J. HOUSDEN on the 12th of February, 

In taking a glance back at the history 
of Penny Postage, "the child of Hill 
affection," it is curious to remember 
Ocker's article in The Quarterly for October, 

1839, on the second reading of the Postage 
Bill on the 22nd of the previous July. It 
"seems to us one of the most inconsiderate >jiunp* 
in the dark ever made by that very inconsiderate 

assembly On the whole, we feel that so far from 

the exclusive benefits to ' order, morals, and religion ' 
which Mr. Hill and the Committee put forward, 
there is at least as great a chance of the contrary 
mischief, and that the proposed Penny Post might 
perhaps be more justly characterized as 'Sedition 

made easy.' Prepayment by means of a stamp 

or stamped cover is universally admitted to be 
quite the reverse of convenient, foreign to the 
habits of the people, and likely, however slight 
the payment may be, to excite some dissatisfaction 
in the poorer classes, and occasion difficulties to all." 

It will be remembered that, preparatory 
to the adoption of the penny rate, a maximum 
inland rate of 4d. was begun on the 5th of 
December, 1839. This led to a great increasa 
in the number of letters : 33 per cent, in 
England and Wales, 51 in Scotland, and 
52 in Ireland. After the plan had been 
in operation a week it was decided to 
abolish the privilege of franking ; and 
on the 10th of January, 1840, Penny 
Postags was established. On the evening 
of that day at St. Martin's - le - Grand 
crowds pressed, scuffled, and fought to 
get first to the window to pay for their 
letters. Formerly, relates Sir Henry Cole, 
' one window sufficed. On this evening 
six windows, with two receivars at each, 
were bombarded by applicants." At last 
ight opsnings were made. " To the credit 
of the Post Office, not a single person lost 
th'3 post, and we learnt that on this evening 
upwards of 3,000 1 otters had been posted 
in St. Martin's-le-Grand betwsen five and 
six." The mob, delighted at the energy 
display ad by the officers, gave one chesr for 
the Post Office, and another for Rowland 
Hill. At the close of the day Hill had the 
satisfaction of knowing that 112,000 latters 
lad been dispatched from that office, of 
which all but 13,000 had been prepaid. 

Previous to the introduction of stamps 
Hill proposed the issue of penny stamped 
covers for letters ; they were to be of special 
paper, with lines of thread or silk stretched 
-hrough its substance as a preventive of 
brgery. Upon this Mr. Dilke requested Mr. 
Dickinson, the inventor, to manufacture so 
much of this threaded paper as would be 
sufficient for an entire issue of The Athenceum, 
and the number for April 28th, 1838, ap- 
peared with these blue threads inserted in 
.he substance of the paper. A copy is now 
before me, and the lines still remain per- 
ectly distinct. 

In May, 1840, the first issue of postage 
tamps took place. In ' N. & Q.' of the 

10 s. VL SEPT. i, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


13th of December, 1884, MB. ALGERNON 
GRAVES states that the commission to engrave 
the first postage stamp was originally given 
to Charles Heath ; but, as he feared his 
eyesight was not good enough for such fine 
work, he handed it over to his son Frederick. 
Mr. Graves was told that the pric3 agreed 
upon was 60Z. 

The jubilee of the first issue of postage 
stamps was celebrated on the 19th of May, 
1890, by a Philatelic Exhibition, which was 
opened in the Portman Rooms by the late 
Duke of Edinburgh. The exhibits included 
the famous book of curious addresses, which 
is one of the objects of interest to privileged 
visitors to the Post Office ; the pen-and-ink 
sketch for the penny stamp by Wyon ; and 
the first perforating machine, for which the 
inventor, Archer, was awarded 4,000. 


(To be concluded.) 

GILBERT BOURNE, though his name is not 
to be found in Mr. Kirby's ' Winchester 
Scholars,' matriculated as a scholar of New 
College between 1571 and 1574, being de- 
scribed as of the diocese of London and aged 
nineteen (Oxford Historical Society, xi. 53). 
He was nephew to Bishop Gilbert Bourne, 
and son of Richard Bourne, of Wyvelscombe, 
Somerset. He was evidently a Fellow at 
Bp. Home's visitation of the College in 1575/6 
(Rashdall and Rait, ' New Coll.,' p. 135). He 
probably gave up his Fellowship in conse- 
quence of the visitation, for on 13 September, 
1576, he, in company with two other Oxford 
men, Mr. Denn and Mr. Mathew, arrived at 
the English College, Douay. Mr. Denn is 
probably Henry Denn, M.A. 1567, Fellow 
of All Souls 1564. Mr. Mathew is either 
George Matthew, M.A. 1573, Fellow of 
Trinity 1573, or John Matthew, B.C.L. 1567, 
Fellow of New College 1560-73. Messrs. 
Denn and Mathew almost immediately 
returned to England, but Mr. Bourne did not 
leave till 19 March, 1578. He probably 
went to Orleans, where on 8 June, 1583, he 
took the degree of LL.D. Later in the same 
year he joined Sir Richard Shelley in Rome, 
where he was imprisoned by the Inquisition 
for three years, at the end of which he was 
liberated by Shelley's influence, and returned 
to England. He was admitted D.C.L. at 
Oxford 10 July, 1593. He died about 1595, 
and was buried in Wells Cathedral by the 
side of his late wife, Eleanor, daughter of 
Thomas Smith, of Mitcham, Surrey. Further 
particulars of this " Catholic loyal gentle- 
man," as Strype calls him, are to be found 

in Strype, ' Ann.,' iii. 1. 190-92, and Wood's-- 
' Fasti,' i. 264. Wood, in saying that he 
was Vicar-General to the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, is, I think, confusing him with Gilbert 
Bournford or Bur ford. 


copied the following lines from a MS. 
scrapbook dated 1816, in which it is said r 
" They are not in print in Lord Byron's- 
works " : 

Fam'd for their civil and domestic brawls, 
Lies heartless Henry next to headless Charles. 
Between them stands another sceptred thing ; 
It lives, it breathes, in all but name a king. 
In him the double tyrant starts to life : 
Charles to his people, Henry to his wife. 
Justice and Death have mixed their dust in vain 
Behold the royal Vampires live again. 
Ah ! what do tombs avail, if these disgorge 
The dust and blood of both to. form a George. 

Lord Byron. 

D. J. 

plies the following comment : 

These lines contain a few variants of "Another* 
Version" (first published 1903) of 'Windsor 
Poetics,' first published in ' Poetical Works,' Paris,. 
1819, vi. 125. The later version runs thus : 

On a Royal Visit to the Vaults. 
[On Cesar's Discovery of C. I. and H. 8 

in ye same Vault.] 

Famed for their civil and domestic quarrels 
See heartless Henry lies by headless Charles : 
Between them stands another sceptred thing, 
It lives, it reigns" aye, every inch a king." 
Charles to his people, Henry to his wife, 
In him the double tyrant starts to life ; 
Justice and Death have mixed their dust in vain 
The royal Vampires join and rise again. 
What now can tombs avail, since these disgorge 
The blood and dirt of both to mould a George. 

TL-rjXov atfj,nrt 7re</>vpa/xei/oi/, "Clay kneadect 
with blood," Suetonius in ' Tiberium/ cap. 57. See 
Byron's 'Poetical Works,' 1905, p. 1025.] 

Students may like to note other examples, 
of this loss of r : e.g., w(r)eccan = weccan,. 
to awake ; w(r}ixlan = ivixlan, to exchange ; 
cf. Ger. Wechsel. Similarly, in pointing out 
the identity of Ger. Wasen and Rasen 
(M.L.G. ?#rase) = turf, Prof. Kluge suggests. 
that there were Idg. roots both with and 
without r. H. P. L. 

lowing " gem," taken from a London second- 
hand bookseller's catalogue, is worth pre- 
serving : " Early Opera. C. Julii Csesaris. 
opera, very thk. post 8vo, 2s 6d, 1595." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. SEPT. i, woe. 

MANORIAL CUSTOMS. In lately going 
through some Court Rolls of the Manor of 
Rogerstown, co. Monmouth, I made a note 
of the following customs : 

"The lord to have all such swarms of bees as 
shall happen to be found in any hollow or any other 
tree, commonly called Byda, and all regal birds 
breeding, called Adar Bryttfis." 


3, Clarence Road, Kew Gardens. 

BENEFICE. In vol. iv. of the Kilkenny 
Archaeological Society's Journal I find the 
following statement : 

" When Cromwell was in Ireland he marched 
through Kilkenny, part of his forces being led by 
an officer called Redman. He laid siege to the old 
castle and took it. For his services Cromwell 
gave Redman the lands ; and Redman married his 
-daughter to the then vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale, and 
gave the lands as a grant for ever to the vicars of 
that parish, who have since held them." P. 235 

It is further stated in the above Journal 
that the officer in question was Col. Daniel 
Redman, and that one of his daughters 
married Lord Ikerrin, and another Sir John 
Meade ; but no mention is made of the 
Christian name of the Miss Redman who 
married the Kirkby Lonsdale vicar, or of 
the latter's surname. Being anxious to 
test the truth of the statement about the 
settlement of land in Kilkenny on an English 
incumbent and his successors, I wrote to 
the Rev, J. Llewelyn Davies, the present 
vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmorland, 
who has kindly sent me the following details : 

"It is true that a portion of the income of the 
vicar of this parish is derived from land in the 
county of Kilkenny. It is not tithe, but rent. I 
understood the land to have been left by Mr. Red- 
man. Irish land belonging to an English benefice 
is not, I believe, known in any other case. Our law 
will not deal with it. There are two bodies that 
can authorize the sale of Church land in England 
the Ecclesiastical Commission and the Board of 
Agriculture ; but they have no power as to land in 
Ireland. I have made all possible inquiries, and it 
seems that nothing short of an Act of Parliament 
can give a title for the sale of this land in Kilkenny 

is about three miles from Kilkenny town, and is 
named Ballinaboole. The vicar, the patron and 
the bishop are agreed in desiring to sell, but they 
cannot give a legal title." 

Col. Daniel Redman forwarded the Restora- 
jon and received a free pardon from 
Charles II., 25 April, 1661. He was also 
.given command of a troop of horse in Ire- 
^j 1 ' which he k<J P t for two years- At his 
death which occurred in 1675, he owned 
the estate of Ballylinch Castle, co. Kilkenny. 
Viscountess Ikerrin and Lady Meade are re- 
ferred to in Burke's Peerage ' as " daughters 
and coheirs of Col. Daniel Redman, of Ballv- 

satisfied of the authenticity of bailie in Ausone 
de Chancel's lines, ante, p. 82 ? 

On entre, on crie, 
Et c'est la vie ; 
On bailie, on sort, 
Et c'est la mort. 

Being away from home, I cannot say where 
I found them ; but as I remember them, 
crie takes the place of bdille, and gives what 
seems to me a neater reading, though neat- 
ness must, of course, give way to accuracy. 

WOODEN WATER-PIPES. These have fre- 
quently been mentioned and commented 
upon in previous numbers of ' N. & Q.' It 
may therefore be well to direct attention 
to the following passage, which occurs in 
* Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne,' 
vol. vii. p. 184 (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1906). 
It forms part of a letter to Hearne written 
by his father, 1 Nov., 1720 : 

" Mr. Van Sitthart of Shottesbrook is makeing 
a Cannall in the Warren, and Conveying the Water 
in Wooden Pipes from Stampwell spring in the 
Marsh, and another from a spring in Laurence 
Waltham down, at a Vast expence, but som think 
those two springs will not be Rank enough to feed 
it, but time will discover." 


TOUCH OR TOUCHE Some months ago a 
City man bearing the name Touch adver- 
tised that he had altered it to Touche. This 
he did, he stated, so that it should not be 
mispronounced, and because in the earliest 
Scots records it was most frequently written 
Touche. It is to be feared that what the 
gentleman desiderates will hardly be at- 
tained, and that the final e, will not operate 
as a regulation of the true pronunciation. 

Touch is an old Scottish place-name, and 
those who bear it for surname were con- 
sequently originally called De Touch. The 
accepted pronunciation locally in Scotland 
is Tooch (the ch as in " loch "). When it is 
met with in the records with a final e, the 
fact but demonstrates a bad old custom of 
both Scots and English scribes, who were 
seldom satisfied with their manuscripts until 
they had added an excrescent and absolutely 
meaningless letter to certain words and names. 
In the case of Touche, Smythe, Browne, 
Johnstone, &c., the final e is a mere ex- 
crescence. W. M. GRAHAM E ASTON. 

INDEXING. Tt is somewhat surprising in 
the present day, after all that has been 
written on this subject in England and 
America, to find an index made out on the 
system in vogue two hundred years ago. 
However, such is_the case with ' Joutel's 

10 s. vi. SEPT. i, i906.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Journal of La Salle's Last Voyage,' just issued 
from Albany, New York. It purports to be 
a " new edition, with. . . .introduction, anno- 
tations, and index by H. R. Styles." 

The following are a few of the entries 
from the 1906 index : 

A fine river. 

Arrival at Quebec. 

Indescretion [sic] of an ensign. 

Journey prosecuted. 

Kind reception. 

Lost Frenchman heard of. 

More mischief prevented. 

Persons that went with M. de la Sale. 

Seven set out for Canada. 

Six men killed. 

Two men killed. 

Thinking that this might be also a reprint 
of the index to the English edition of 1714, 
I looked at this ; but it is not. However, 
the original edition seems to have given the 
person who compiled the new one an idea 
of how to do an index. 

The whole has been more or less rearranged, 
new entries added, and old ones omitted, 
as the entry ' Women ' in the 1714 edition is 
left out, and the substance of it put under 
4 Indian.' I think the original index should 
have been reprinted as a curiosity, and a 
modern index added. The book is beauti- 
fully printed and got up. 


" SOGA." In The Athenceum of 21 April 
there is a review of Miss Lucy Toulmin 
Smith's new edition of Leland's '" Itinerary ' 
(part relating to Wales), with Dr. Gwenog- 
fryn Evans's topographical annotations. 
The reviewer says : " We doubt the accuracy 
of the note (p. 112) that * Soga ' is used in 
Welsh as an epithet towards old women." 

The note is correct ; yr hen soga bwdwr 
("the lazy old slut ") is good Carmarthen- 
shire Welsh: so is yr hen soga fach ("the 
young slut"), addressed to a slatternly 
young girl. So much from my own recol- 
lection ; now for the dictionary : " Socan or 
socas, a wallower ; socan eira [snow socan] 
or socas Iwyd, a fieldfare ; soeg, grains of malt, 
draff [in my recollection applied to a chewed 
quid of tobacco ] ; soegen, a swaggy female ; 
soga, wallowing, slovenly ; geneth soga, a 
slovenly girl" (T. Lewis's ' Welsh-Eng. Diet.,' 

On another remark of the reviewer's 
concerning some important fragments (138- 
140), " relating mainly to a number of 
ancient fortified sites in Carmarthenshire 

which have hitherto been generally 

overlooked by archaeologists," and have been 
omitted by Miss Toulmin Smith, I may 

say that those fragments are familiar 
to Carmarthenshire students. I myself 
quoted the greater part of them in a paper 
on Llynllech Owen which I contributed to 
The Western Mail some six or seven years 
ago in fact, they have been widely known 
for the last hundred years. Thus the Rev. 
J. Jones, in his * Letters from S. Wales ' 
(1804), writes (p. 205): "We directed our 
steps towards the source of these rivers, 
which is at Low Issa Cennen." After the 
wont of Welsh tourists, he ignores his 
authority, which is Leland's *' bo the Ven- 
draith Vaur and V. Vehan ryse in a pece of 
Caermardynshire caulled Lowe isse Kenen, 
that is to say, the lowe Quartars about the 
Kennen Ryver." Leland was apparently 
misled by a Welsh explanation of "Is 
cennen," i.e., Islaw C. ("below C."), where 
law means hand," and not " low." 

J. P. OWEN. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" OXE-AYE." In 1499 the Court Leet of 
Grantham soke, assembled at Denton, found 
that thirty -six years previously John Blewet, 
sen., of Harlaxton, had unjustly enclosed 
the tofts and " oxe-aye " in the Casthorpe 
field, which the tenants of Denton should 
have as common pasture, as belonging to 
the Abbot of Swynshed, and that his heir 
John kept it enclosed and occupied. The 
jury ordered the latter to lay the fences low ; 
not doing so, he was fined 61. the next year, 
and 10Z. the year following much the largest 
fines the Court is recorded to have inflicted 
(Court Rolls, Portf. 185, No. 39). 

Can any one tell the meaning of " oxe-aye " ? 
Was it a word ot common use, or special to 
Lincolnshire ? 

ALFRED WELBY, Lieut.-Col. 

[This meaning of ox-eye does not appear in the 
' k E. D.'] 

WASHINGTON MEDAL. I have a copper 
medal, 3 in. diameter, with bust in high 
relief on obverse, and, around, the legend, 
" General Washington. Inscribed to his 
memory by D. Eccleston Lancaster, 
MDCCCV.," and the name Webb at foot. 
Reverse, four circles with legend : 

" He laid the foundation of American Liberty 
in the xviii. Century | Innumerable millions yet 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. SKIT, i, ix 

unborn will venerate (lie memory ' <>f the liuui \vh 
obtained t licit- country's tVccdoui'." 

In tho small inner circle is the figure of 
Red Indian, and the legend, " The land wa 
ours." Information is asked respectin 
Mr. Lancaster and the numismatist Webb. 

KAIIIMIU:. There is a hamlet of this nam 
in Devonshire, near Ottery St. Mary. There 
is (or rather was) a common in Surrey 
between Esher and Cobham, called Fairmile 
T have been familiar with the latter plan 
from boyhood, and I believe the local notion 
of the origin of tho name was that it ireant a 
fair mile (i.e., about a mile) from Esher. Bu 
since I have noticed that Dr. Morris, in his 
'Etymology of Local Names,' explain: 
Fairford in Gloucestershire to signify sheep 
ford (the " Fair " being from the Scandi 
navian for sheep, and equivalent to Faroe 
in the Faroe Islands), the idea has occurrec 
to me whether "Fair," in Fairmile, may 
have a similar meaning, the " mile " imply- 
ing that the common was a mile in length 
The earliest mention T can find of the place 
is in Manning and Bray's ' History of Surrey, 
where we are told that in 1793 Mr. Page, 
then lord of the manor of Cobham, obtained 
an Act for the enclosure of a lar^e part of 
Fairmile Common. At present there are 
many houses and estates on it, and very 
little common is left. Can any of your 
readers throw some light on the point ? 
There are several villages in England called 
Fairfield, which would suit the " sheep " 
etymology, as would also Fairhaugh, in 
Northumberland. Fairlight, near Hastings, 
can hardly be so connected. Did it derive 
its name from the famous glen ? 

W. T. LYNN. 

21 April contains an interesting ' note and 
illustration of this old City square, which 
unfortunately is losing many of its eigh- 
teenth - century mansions. A great deal 
could be written on the history of this site ; 
in what has been recorded there is a fine 
confusion of data requiring adjustment. 
[win deal only with Devonshire House. 

Ihe writer of the note states : 

."The occupaiievof the Karls of Devonshire ter- 
minated . u.-in- the civil War about H>7<) |,,V|, and 
the great boiue was destined to be adapted toother 

used'T^i .'h^ei' 1 '-''' 1 ''' 1 ' 1 '' 11 ^ T1 "' l)larr w;is m f(irt 

This is a vrrlmtim <-x<vrpt from Thornburv 
and \Valford (ii. 103), and its obvious errors 
could readily havr l,,vn corrected by refer- 
ciico_to Cunningham, i. -Jiil. 

The Countess of Devonshire died there- 
in November, 1689, and the house was given 
up iti 1690. Mr. G. Holden Pike ('Ancient 
Mrctin<4-l louse,' Arc., ]>. T>) tfivrs 1(>;{8 as the 
probable date when the Dissenters first 
established their chapel there ; but although 
we are led to suppose they continued in, 
uninterrupted possession until it was rebuilt 
in 1829, and finally removed in 1870, there- 
are many doubts and a perplexing want 
of definite records. 

It cannot apparently be stated that Devon- 
shire House was actually owned by them or 
really used as a place of meeting before 1766, 
and for this reason. Until 1690 we have seen. 
it was in the possession of the Devonshire* 
family. Lloyd's Evening Post, 28 July, 1766, 
contains an advertisement announcing the/ 
impending sale by auction "of the remainder 
of the Lease, whereof 55 years are unexpired* 
of Devonshire House, being a capital 
mansion, situate in Devonshire Square, now 
in the occupation of Samuel Lloyd." 

The whole of the property is described in 
great detail, but I can give only a few par- 
ticulars here. On the ground floor there 
were an " elegant large Hall, and Stair-case, 
two Warehouses, Compting House," &c. 

"Near tho Front great door in the Square, is a 
landsonie Iron-failed KM trailer into a lar<j;e \Yino 
Vault, !)l) feet lony, 11 feet hi-h, and '_H feet broad, 
.ett at only -t)/. a year, tho' worth more, and the 
i round Kent- of t he whole is "(I/, a year ...... The yard 

s an Area of 78 feet by (it) feet, Part paved, and 
'art pitched, with a Colonado Screen to the 
Int ranee of the Hall, and a stack of three good dry 
Warehouses, 30 feet by 21 square." 

" Another area parted off with Iron Rails 
,nd planted with Trees, &c., 48 by 37 feet, 
,nd inclosed by a Brick Wall 18 feet high," 
lad on the left 

4 two lai'fie dry Warehouses '2,'{ feet, by '20, with 
Yane-l'ulleys, and which Sir Kandolph (\nipe used 
or Hemp and Pot-ashes, and has a Back Door into 

iravel Line." 

A number of pictures, bronzes, marble 
tatues, Italian cabinets, &c., fitted in the 
ooms, were included in the sale. 

Unless the wine vault " lett at only 20?. 
a year, tho' worth more," is intended, there- 
s no suggestion here of the house being used 
is a meeting-house for Dissenters. We aru 
herefore left to suppose they did not actu- 
,lly possess or meet at Devonshire House 
intil a date subsequent to 1766, although 
'j is possible an adjacent property had by 
ocal error been known by the same name. 

An opening on the south side of the square,. 

ll left vacant by the railway company, 
ndicates the position of the house ; and! 

travel Lane still exists to mark the southern 

10 s. vi. SEPT. i, IM06.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


limit of its gardens, courts, and yards 
Meeting-House Square and Ebenezer Squar 
are lost landmarks of its existence as 
Dissenters' chapel, but the exact date o 
the commencement of that era is still ope 
to debate. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

THE HOUSE OF GORDON.' It has alway 
been a mystery who wrote this rare genealog; 
published in 1754, and reprinted in Aber- 
deen in 1890. I have, however, discovere< 
in The Aberdeen Journal of 8 Jan., 1754 
an advertisement to the effect 

" that Capt. Andrew ( Jonlon, cadet of the family o 

HmiUy, intends to make out, a succinct history of th 

genealogy of t he ( Jonlons to be published b 

the Hrst of March next. As he is come to thi 
OOUntry for this purpose, he begs the favour of al 
the materials and intelligence the Gentlemen of th 
name can atl'onl him." 

As there is a sketch of the Counts of Gordon 
in the volume, I take it he is Count Andrew 
Gordon, mentioned there as " Adjutan 
General in the [sic] Bohemia under the com 
rnand of the marishal duke of Broglie, anc 
captain of horse." Had he any issue ' 
What is further known of this French brand 
of the Gordons ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

' CLIFFORD PRIORY.' Tf the query be nol 
too trivial, I would ask if any one remembers 
a story or novel of this or somewhat similar 
title which had currency between fifty and 
sixty years ago. Tt was older than ' Jane 
Eyre,' but resembled it (and perhaps other 
stories ot that and later time) in the nerve- 
straining incident of the explorationby a young 
girl of a mysterious, shut-up, and forbidden 
wing of an old country mansion. The girl is 
living with or visiting an old uncle, and the 
injunction is laid on her never to penetrate 
the forbidden wing ; but in course of time, 
impelled by curiosity, she transgresses the 
order and makes the exploration. I forget 
the course ot discovery, but remember that 
in traversing a murky corridor she arrives 
at a door to which is affixed the written notice: 
" In this room died Nicholas the butler of a 
raging fever." She enters, and finds, thickly 
covered with the dust of years, the bed of the 
defunct butler just as ho had tossed on it, 
his clothes and his shoes as he had cast them 
off. Finally, the young lady discovers a 
handsome chamber, on the stately bed of 
which lies the embalmed corpse, or possibly 
wax figure, of a young and beautiful woman, 
the lost wife of the old uncle, who had closed 
this death-chamber and the wing of the house 
containing it. 

The denouement and all else being for- 

gotten, I desire to discover the story, which 
once so vividlv impressed me. 


" WA.INING " BELLS. To wain bells would 
mean, I should have supposed, to carry them 
in a wain or cart, but I have come across 
entries in divers churchwardens' accounts 
where the context would almost seem to 
indicate that the word was used with the 
meaning " to weigh." Can any of your 
readers kindly adduce instances that might 
determine this point ? 


" HOSE " ON THE HEAD. The proverb 
" A Man is a Man still, if he hath but a 
Hose on his Head," is No. 48 in 'English 
Proverbs with Moral Reflexions,' by Oswald 
Dykes, second ed., 1 709. What does " hose" 
mean ? 

* A Supplementary English Glossary,' by 
T. L. O. Davies, quotes, s.v. ' Hose,' the 
proverb (omitting "still") from "Swift, 
Polite Conversation' (Conv. ii.)," and says 
that, the hose being meant for the feet or 
legs, perhaps " a man with V a hose on h's 
head' = a fool, one with the wrong side 
uppermost." This suggestion does not agree 
with the following passages from Dykes's 
1 Reflexion ' on the proverb, pp. 255-8 : 

"A Person of Learning, with a Hose on his Head, 
low-a-days, would look very odd, and ridiculous 
imong the Beans of the Town, when long Wigs and 
r alse Hair are so much in Fashion." 

" A Man is not to be undervalu'd and despis'd for 
lis Habit ; for we may sometimes chance to meet a 
)iogenes in Rags, and a Philosopher in mean 
\pparel, with his Stockins out at Heels, or the 
orlorn Hope of a Shirt on. Let his Coat be never 
o Thread-bare, lie 's a Man still." 

"Can any Thing be more entertaining in Conver- 
ation, than a Man of Sense, though he has not a 
ihoe to his Foot, nor a Hat to his Head.' 

" Adversity, Calumny, and Contempt, can never 
nman the noble Person in the Proverb.' 

"Whatever becomes of a Good Man here, with a 
*ose on his Head, tho' slighted into the Grave by 
^reat Men. he is sure yet hereafter to receive all the 
Benefits or a glorious Resurrection, and to be 
rown'd with Immortality." 

I have failed to find the proverb in the 
dition of Switt which I have searched, viz., 
Condon, Henry Washbourne, 1841 ; but in 
ol. ii. p. 349, col. 2 (i.e., in ' Polite Con- 
ersation,' Dialogue ii., not far from the 
nd), is "A Man's a man, if he has but a 
ose on his face." Perhaps this is an edi- 
orial emendation of the original. 

Perhaps " hose " means a knitted or 
'oven cap, or a stocking without a sole (see 
English Dialect Dictionary ') used as a cap. 

SA, Bickenhall Mansions, W. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vi. SEPT. i, 1906. 

KING VALOROSO. Sir Leslie Stephen, in 
* George Eliot ' (" English Men of Letters," 
new series), chap, viii., writes : ' ' We need 
not say.' observes the historian of King 
Valoroso, ' that blank verse is not argument.' " 
Who is King Valoroso ? Who is the his- 
torian ? On what occasion, or in what 
context, was the remark made ? 

A. E. A. 

PORTRAIT, c. 1790. I have an old portrait, 
painted by a good artist about 1790. The 
man holds in his hand a copy of " Thom- 
son's Seasons," and on the buttons of his 
coat are the three letters S. G. V. or L. G. V. 
The S is formed somewhat like L. There is 
also a royal crown over the three letters. Tt 
is not a portrait of Thomson, being much 
too late. I should like to know who it is ; 
and these letters may give a clue to the 
name. J. G. 

ARMS WANTED. I shall be much obliged 
if one of your correspondents will identify 
the following : 

1. On a silver paten : Ermine, a lion 
rampant ; on a canton the bloody hand of 
Ulster ; impaling Azure (?), a maunche or 
hanging sleeve. 

2. On a silver mug : Fesse engrailed 
between three birds (martlets or doves) 
azure (?) ; impaling On a bend three lions' 
heads between three birds (martlets or doves) 
Crest, arm erect, the hand holding a pistol. 
"ExdonoT. S. toG. S." 

St. Margaret s, Malvern. 

"QUENS" OR " KUENS." This is my 
own spelling, and the word is pronounced as 
if it had two syllables in Liverpool and 
throughout Lancashire, according to what 
1 have heard. A few days ago I was asked 
to mention any dictionary in which it 
was printed. On referring to ' Chambers's 
Twentieth Century Dictionary ' ( a volume 

have always on my desk), T find what 
ollows : Quin, Kwin, n. (prov.), a kind of 
scallop. Scallop, on the same authority, 
i said to be a bivalve having a sub-circular 
shell with sinuous radiating ridges." This is 
clearly a mistake, for quins is really a pro- 
vincial name for " periwinkles," and in 
V lume the latter word & thus 

"A small iinifaJi^ mollusc: a small <?hpllfiTi 
abundant between tide-marks on the rocks hoi Wl 

should be glad to have any information 
as to the derivation of the.word guin, and 

to learn if it is used in other counties. It is 
a curious fact that a pin is used to extract 
the fish from its shell. 


(10 S. i. 308, 350.) 

THIS is the theme of a prolix dissertation 
in a delightfully quaint little volume (calf, 
5? in. by 3 in.) now in my mother's posses- 
sion, described on the title-page as 

" The | Pilgrims Guide | From the Cradle to his 
Death-bed : | with I His Glorious Passage from 
thence to the I New- Jerusalem. | Represented to 
the Life | In a Delightful new Allegory | wherein 
the | Christian Traveller | Is more fully and plainly 
Directed than yet he hath been by any in the 
Right and | Nearest way to the Celestial Paradice. 

| To which is added the | Sick-Mans | Passing- 
Bell. | With no less than | Fifty Several Pleasant 
Treatises I besides (rarely if ever handled before) all 
of them | being distinctly useful, and will afford the 

| Reader extraordinary pleasure and delight in | the 
perusal if either profit or novelty will do it. | To 
these are annext, the Sighs and Groans | of a Dying 
Man. | By John Dunton, late Rector of Aston 
Clinton. | Illustrated with Eight curious Copper 
Plates. | They were Strangers and Pilgrims on 
earth, but they de- | sire a better Country, that is 
an heavenly. Heb. xi. 13. | London, Printed for 
John Dunton at the sign of the | Black Raven at 
the Corner of Princes-street, | near the Royal- 
Exchange, MDCLXXXIV." 

The last fourteen pages are devoted to a 
list of " Books | Printed for, and are to be | 
Sold by John Dunton at the Black | Raven 
in the Poultrey, over against | the Stocks- 
Market, London." This John Dunton is 
apparently not only publisher, but the editor, 
and elaborate expounder, of the posthumous 
works of the Rev. John, concerning which 
he remarks in ' The Epistle Dedicatory' : 

" Those two well known and useful Books bearing 
my father Dunton's Name (Entituled, ' The House 
of Weeping,' &c., and ' Dying Pastors last Legacy,' 
&c.), selling wonderfully beyond all expectation, 
have encouraged me now a Third time to reoblige 
the World (but in a more especial manner my 
beloved Countrymen, and you my Relations and 
intimate Friends,) by publishing another Treatise 
of his which you here see is entituled, ' The Sighs 
and Groans of a Dying man,' &c., which said 
treatise was fairly written out for the Press 
with my fathers own hands just before his Death. 

I intend out of hand to expose some more of his 

works to publick View : But many of them being 
written in short-hand (and nobody being able to 
read his characters but myself) they '1 take me up 
some little time to Transcribe them fair for the 

ID s. vi. SEPT. i, 1906.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The unconscious humour of the text is 
supported by that of the engravings for 
instance, one representing the interment o 
the Plague victims. ' ' Here, " in the author's 

'"you may see in what manner men with their Bells 
-and Carts with them full of dead bodies cryed 
VBring out your dead, Bring out your Dead ' ; wher 
Death did, as it were, ring the City's Passing-Bell 
an the year 1665. 

'Bring out your dead,' the horrid screech flyes 

Nor can a worse till the last Trumpet sound. 

Bring out your dead,' ye wretches that survive, 
JLi my yet within remain alive." 

But to conclude with an extract more to 
the point (p. 159) : 

' 'Hearing a Passing-hell, I wished and prayed too 
thai the sick man might have, through Christ, a 
.saievoyage to his long home ; afterwards I under- 
stooi that the party was dead some hours before : 
a D seems in sonie places of London, the tolling of 
the Bell, is but a preface of course to ring it out. 
Bells are better silent than thus telling lyes, what 
is this but giving a false Alarum to men's Devotions 
to nake them to be ready armed with their 
Praytrs ; for the assistance of such, who have 
already fought the good fight, yea, and gotten the 
Conqtest, not to say that mens Charity herein may 
be sujpected of superstition, in praying for the 


<10 108). Almar was an actor at the 
minor theatres, and in 1833 became lessee 
of Sader's Wells a position which I believe 
he did not retain very long. A description 
of his acting may be found in Dr. Westland 
Marstoris ' Our Recent Actors.' 

He Mas the author of a considerable 
number pf melodramas, of which the best 
known aie ' The Charcoal-Burner ' and ' The 
Rover's Jride,' which continued to be stock 
pieces foi many years. I believe his last 
productioi was ' Born with a Caul ' (a 
dramatizel version of ' David Copperfield '), 
acted at tie Strand Theatre in 1850. 

I have a letter of his to George Daniel 
purchased at the sale of Daniel's library 
at Sothebys in 1864 containing material 
for a memo*. In it he states that he was 
born at Mistey Thorn, on the banks of the 
Stour, in Ekex, in 1802, the son of an 
opulent mertaant who was ruined by the 
breaking up < the war ; that at the age of 
twenty-two, ^eing thrown upon his own 
resources, he \>as on the point of embarking 
for India to eiter a Government situation, 
but, paying a chance visit to the Coburg 
Theatre, conceded the idea of writing a 

play for that establishment ; and that, 
carrying his plan into execution, he obtained 
an acceptance of the piece and an engage- 
ment to play a small part therein. 

His account must be taken for what it is 
worth. I was told a good many years ago, 
by the late Mr. Foster, Record Keeper of 
the Probate Court, that in early life Almar 
was at one time a clerk in the Registry of 
the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. He 
apparently died in obscurity, and I do not 
think his death has ever been recorded in 
The Era or any other newspaper. 

If R. W. would like to have a copy of the 
letter I have referred to, I should be pleased 
to furnish it. WM. DOUGLAS. 

125, Helix Road, Brixton HiU. 

" PLUM " : JACK HORNER (10 S. vi. 67 
111, 131). The rime, in its original simple 
form, " Little Jack Homer sat in a corner," 
&c., must have been handed down by tra- 
dition, like all folk-lore tales, long before 
it was committed to writing. The ampli- 
fied version referred to, however, seems to 
have incorporated with it the legend of 
' Jack the Giant-Killer,' which is probably 
a tale of still greater antiquity. There can 
I think, be little doubt that the original 
of ' Jack the Giant-Killer ' is Corineus (a 
descendant of Antenor of Troy), who, 
according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, was 
the companion of Brutus (the great-grandson 
of JEneas) in his invasion of Britain. Geof- 
frey describes Corineus as " a modest man 
in matters of council, and of great courage 
and boldness, who, in an encounter with any 
person, even of gigantic stature, would imme- 
iiately overthrow him, as if he were a child." 
His favourite occupation, according to the 
chronicle, appears to have been the slaying 
of giants, with which the country then 
abounded, and many of his exploits bear a 
very striking resemblance to those of " Jack 
the Giant-Killer. " Moreover, Corineus 
settled in Cornwall, the great stronghold of 
the giants, of which he became king, and 
which is said to have derived its name from 

n. (Cornwall being originally Corinea 
according to Geoffrey), and it is always in 
this particular part of the country that the 
adventures of " Jack the Giant-Killer " 
are said to have taken place. Of course the 
account is largely (some would say entirely) 
mythical, and the derivations fanciful, but 
he tradition is certainly ancient. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

The legend of Little Jack Horner as told 
;o me in Somersetshire is as follows : At 
he time of the Dissolution the Abbot fo 


NOTES AND QUEEIES. [io s. vi. SEPT. i, 

Glastonbury wished to send some importan 
deeds to the brother of Queen Jane Seymour 
For safety he concealed them in a pie an 
entrusted it to one Jack Horner. Durin 
the transit Jack Horner pulled out the plum 
in the shape of the title-deeds of Mells Park 
where his descendant now resides. 


109). The meaning of the serpent boun 
to the cross is, in my opinion, synonymou 
with that ascribed to the crux ansata o 
Egypt, the caduceus of Thoth or Herme 
when encircled with one serpent, the lingo, 
in-yoni of the Hindoos, and such-like bisexua 
symbols of our old and forgotten faiths 
The serpent was as often typified feminin 
as masculine. To localize the idea would b 
futile ; it was (and is) world-spread. As tc 
the connexion of the serpent with the cross 
refer to the old crosses of Ireland ; nothhij 
was more conspicuous on them than th 
serpent. Henry O'Brien, ' Round Tower 
of Ireland,' 1898 ed., p. 361, says that al 
the crosses of the Tuath-de-danaans had 
snakes engraved upon them ; and on p. 502 
he states that the Milesian banners were dis 
tinguished by the serpent twisted round j 
rod. Faber, ' Pagan Idolatry,' 1816, vol. i 
p. 455, refers to Hu, the Arkite serpent goc 
of Britain, and he is described as moving 
round the huge stones of Caer-Sidi or Stone- 

Have we not the sun-god Hercules pluck- 
ing the golden apple from a tree around 
which the traditional serpent is coiled ? 
Figures 178, 179, and 180 in Lundy's ' Monu- 
mental Christianity ' (New York, 1876) 
depict this idea and the tree of knowledge 
or life, and Adam and Eve taking the for- 
bidden fruit. In all these the serpent is 
coiled round the tree. With the early 
Christians this tree was identified with the 
figure of the cross. Eusebius, cited by C. W. 
King, * Gnostic Remains,' 1864, p. 75, 
related that it was believed that the serpent,' 
unless injured by violence, never died natu- 
rally ; hence the Phoenicians named it the 
good genius. In our Gospels we have 
reference to the serpent being lifted up and to 
lfc s being typical of the Son of Man. So from 
a ^Christian standpoint the serpent bound to 
the cross is a faithful representation. 

It would necessitate a learned disquisition 
on tree and serpent worship to elucidate 
fully the symbolism of the subject ; but 
the following works, in addition to those I 
have cited, will materially aid the querist 
Godfrey Higgins's ' Anacalypsis,' Inman's 
Ancient Faiths,' &c., Forlong's ' Rivers of 

Life,' and a useful little book, 'The Non- 
Christian Cross ' (J. D. Parsons, 1896). 

36, Claremont Road, Highgate. 

S. iv. 307, 353, 432 ; v. 31, 132, 453). It 
is interesting to find that, under the title,. 
' Historical Painting,' there had already 
appeared in ' N. & Q.' (4 S. ii. 277) a very 
full^and able reply on this subject. It anti- 
cipates in several particulars the infor- 
mation given at the above references, end 
quotes in full a stanza from