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Notes and Queries, July 27, 1907, 





'When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 






Notes and Queries, July 27, 1907. 


DEC 15 1965 

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ao s. vii. JAN. 5, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 158. 

JfOTES : Fairy-haunted Kensington, 1 Lady Anne Hoi- 
bourne, 2 Dodsley's Famous Collection of Poetry, 3 
"First -Footing," A.D. 1907, 5 Cardinal Mezzofanti : 
Jeremiah Curtin King Alfonso's Marriage Guevara 
Inscriptions at Stenigot : " Potie " Warden, 6 Admiral 
Benbow's Death" Firgunanum " Christ's Hospital at 
Hertford" Churchyard Cough "Long Public Service, 7. 

QUERIES : " Unconscionable time dying "--" Thune ": 
" CEil-de-boeuf," French Slang Words T. Cayerley : Jean 
Cavalier Gamelshiel Castle, Haddingtonshire George 
Stepney Eleanor of Castile Rev. R. Bauthmel, 8 
Cantus Hibernici ' " Unbychid " H. S. Kemble 
'London and Neighbourhood,' 1750 ' Sea- Voyage of 
Aloysius' Romney's Ancestry Isle of Man and the 
Countess of Derby Doncaster: Image of the Blessed 
Virgin, 9 Authors of Quotations Wanted Boddington 
Family Officers of State in Scotland John Stivens 
Scott Illustrators, 10. 

.REPLIES : First Female Abolitionist, 10 St. Oswald: 
"Gescheibte Turm " Cowper, Lamb, or Hood? Mar- 
quise de la Fayette "Mony a pickle maks a mickle " 
"The Maghzen," 11 Authors of Quotations Wanted 
"Ito": "Itoland" "Forest of Oxtowe" Bibliqtheca Carlyle on Religion Myddelton Family, 12 
Illustrations of Shakespeare Andre George Eliot and 
Dickens St. George's Chapel Yard, Oxford Road Oscar 
Wilde Bibliography Richard Humphries, the Prize- 
fighter Monkeys stealing from a Pedlar, 13 Walton, 
Lancashire West Indian Military Records " Quap- 
ladde" "Poor Dog Tray," 14 March 25 as New Year's 
Day Ausone de Chancel, 15 A Knighthood of 1603 
Dole Cupboards, 16 Sante Fe", 17 Courtesy Titles, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Sheridan's Dramatic Works 
' Dod's Peerage ' ' Clergy Directory ' ' Literary Year- 
Book ' ' Whitaker's Almanack ' ' Whitaker's Peerage ' 
"Muses' Library." 
Obituary : Mr. Arthur Hall. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


IN choosing Kensington Gardens for the 
haunt of Peter Pan and his elfish companions, 
Mr. J. M. Barrie has followed the example 
of an early eighteenth-century poet, Thomas 
Tickell, who peopled the same district with 
a fairy host who 


On every hill, and danced in every shade. 
Tn Tickell's time Kensington Gardens was 
a fashionable resort, where, he tells us, 
The dames of Britain oft' in crowds repair, 
To gravel walks and unpolluted air ; 
Here, while the Town in damps and darkness lies, 
They breathe in sunshine and see azure skies. 
But charming as Kensington was to the 
beaux and belles of early Hanoverian days, 
the poet assures us that 
Far sweeter was it when its peopled ground 
With fairy domes and dazzling towers was crowned. 

In the dim past the seat of Oberon, the Elfin 
king, was situated here. Only fairies were 
admitted into the beautiful domain that 
surrounded his palace, except when some 
daring elf stole a mortal child from 

the matron's bed 
And left some sickly changeling in its stead. 

Thus it was that young Albion, a prince of 
Britain, came to the haunts of the fairies, 
was fostered by them, and grew to be tho 
wonder of the wood for height, and strength, 
and beauty : 

His lofty port his human birth confest ; 

A foot in height ! How stately did he show ! 

How look superior on the crowd below ! 
A fairy princess falls in love with him, and 
he returns her affection with equal warmth. 

Beneath a lofty tulip's ample shade 
they sigh their love into each other's ears, 
and plight their troth 

In words so melting that, compared with those, 
The nicest courtship of terrestrial beaux 
Would sound like compliments from country clowns 
To red-cheeked sweethearts in their homespun 

King Oberon, all unseen, watches their 
passionate love-making, and overhears their 
vows. He had cherished other views for 
Kenna's future, and is furious at what he 
has seen and heard. He decrees, as a 
punishment for the luckless pair, the im- 
mediate banishment of Albion from fairy- 
land and the speedy marriage of Kenna to 
another lover, Azuriel, whose large and fair 
domains stretched 

Where the skies high Holland House invades. 

We need not pursue the story further 
than to say that the death of Albion in 
battle is followed by the destruction of the 
fairy kingdom and the dispersal of the 
fairies. All except heart-broken Kenna 
seek a home elsewhere. She continued to 
haunt the grove where her mortal lover, 
trying to say, 

" Kenna, farewell ! " had sighed his soul away. 
Her faithful attachment to scenes endeared 
by the memory of a lost love has been 
rewarded by the bestowal of her name upon 
" the neighbouring town " of Kensington. 

Such in brief is Tickell's story, and, after 
the lapse of a hundred and eighty-four years, 
the fertile fancy of another imaginative 
writer has once more given to airy nothing 
a local habitation and a name. Kenna's 
home is again alive with fairies, and, aided 
by the fantastic pencil of Mr, Arthur Rack- 
ham, Mr. Barrie has conjured up for us a 
twentieth- century vision of the doings of 
the " little people " of Kensington, about 
whose loving and fighting Thomas Tickell 
tried to interest our ancestors in the days 
when George I. was king. 

Tickell may be safely classed among the 
forgotten poets, though he wrote a good 
deal, was the companion of Addison, and 
in one instance appeared as the rival of 
Pope. He was a North-Countryman, a 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 5, 1907. 

native of Bridekirk, in Cumberland, where 
he was born in 1686. He received the 
beginning of his education at Carlisle 
Grammar School, but from the commence- 
ment of his college career saw little of his 
native North. He mixed freely with the 
wits of his time, and contributed verses to 
The Guardian and The Spectator. His friend- 
ship with the Addison clique of politicians 
secured him an appointment of a lucrative 
character in Ireland Secretary to the Lords 
Justices which he held from 1725 until 
his death at Bath in 1740. His poetry is 
of the conventional eighteenth-century type, 
and if we did not remember that he was but 
aping his betters, we might well be filled 
with wonder at the fulsomeness of the 
flattery in which he sometimes indulged. 
He is not likely to have his work resuscitated, 
though a student of the period in which he 
lived can hardly afford to ignore him alto- 
gether. JOHN OXBEBBY. 


DUGDAIE, in his ' Hist, of Warw.' (1730), 
i. 346, mentions as being in Long Itchington 
Church a tablet near the pulpit referring to 
the above lady. He gives the inscription and 
arms thereon. T am inclined to think he 
was wrong in using the word " tablet," as 
there still exists in the church an achieve- 
ment and inscription, painted on canvas 
enclosed in a wooden frame, which corre- 
sponds in all other respects with his descrip- 
tion. For many years past (doubtless 
since 1860) this painting has hung at a point 
over the western or tower arch, from which 
it was quite impossible for any one to see 
its details. Last September it was brought 
down from its elevated position, and placed, 
with certain charity records, on the wall 
at the west end of the south aisle. Before 
it was rehung T examined it closely and as 
my reading of the arms somewhat differs 
(especially with regard to the tinctures) 
from Dugdole's, I submit it to * N. & Q.' 

At the foot of the canvas runs the follow- 
ing inscription : 

The truly Virtuous & Right Honorable the 
Lady Anne Holbourne one of ye Daughters 

& Coheires of ye Right Honoble S r Rob* Dudley 
K 1 Duke of ye Empire who bequethed 50 U per 

annum to 
M r Sam: Row minister of this Church & to his 

successors for 
ever also 50 n more to ye poore of this Parish. 

Above this is a femme shield containing 
the following arms : 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, Arg., on a fesse sa. 
three crescents or, in chief two choughs (?) 

rising of the second ; 2 and 3, Sa., three- 
lions passant in pale arg. ; impaling 

1. Or, a lion ramp, double-queued sa.,. 
langue gu. 

2. Gu., a cinquefoil erm. 

3. Or, two lions passant in pale sa. 

4. Arg., a cross patonce sa. 

5. Barry of six arg. and sa., in chief three 
torteaux ; a label of three points sa. 

6. Or, a maunch gu. 

7. Barry of twelve arg. and sa. ; an orle 
of martlets sa. 

8. Vairee arg. and gu. 

9. Gu., seven mascles conjoined or, 3, 3, 
and 1. 

10. Sa., three garbs or. 

11. Gu., a lion rampant within a bordure 
engrailed or. 

12. Gu., a fesse betw. six cross-crosslets or. 

13. Chequy or and sa., a chevron ermine. 

14. Gu., a chevron between ten crosses 
pattee arg. 

15. Gu., a lion passant guardant arg., 
crowned or. 

16. Or, a fesse between two chevrons sa. 

The inscription bears the marks of re- 
touching in several places, and the canvas 
has at one time been repaired ; but the 
achievement has not apparently been tam- 
pered with. The tinctures are therefore 
in some instances very hard to define, owing 
to the mellowing tendency of the dust of 
ages. On the sides and at the top and 
bottom of the frame are painted hour-glasses 
and skulls and crossbones. Lady Anne 
Holbourne was granddaughter to Eliza- 
beth's Dudley, the Earl of Leicester who 
figures conspicuously in history as the hus- 
band of the ill-fated Amy Robsart. He 
married secondly Douglas, daughter of 
William, Lord Howard of Effingham, by 
whom he had one son, Robert. This Robert 
married Alice, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Leigh, the issue being five children, of whom 
Anne was the youngest. She married Sir 
Richard Holbourne, Solicitor-General to 
Charles I. This and other parishes still 
benefit by the charitable bequests of Lady 
Anne Holbourne and her sister Lady 
Catherine Leveson, wife of Sir Richard 
Leveson, K.B. 

Banks's 'Dormant and Extinct Peerage' 
(iii. 266) states that Lady Anne Holbourne, 
who died in 1663, was buried in the church 
of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, London. I shall 
be glad if some London correspondent will 
kindly tell me if any tablet or monument 
dedicated to her memory still remains there. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

10 s. vii. JAN. 5, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(See 10 361, 402.) 


Pp. 3-21. On the prospect of peace. Addressed 
to the Lord Privy Seal, Dr. Robinson, then Bishop 
of Bristol. 
Gray (' Letters,' ed. Tovey, i. 182) says : 

" This is not only a state-poem (my ancient aver- 
sion), but a state-poem on the peace of Utrecht 

This is only a poor short-winded imitation of 
Addison, who had himself not above three or four 
notes in poetry, sweet enough indeed, like those of 
a German flute, but such as soon tire and satiate 
the ear with their frequent return. Tickell has 
added to this a great poverty of sense, and a string 
of transitions that hardly become a schoolboy. 
However, I forgive him for the sake of his ballad 
[' Colin and Lucy '], which I always thought the 
prettiest in the world." 

This poem ' On the Prospect of Peace ' 
was highly lauded, by both Pope and Addi- 
son. It went through six editions. 

22-6. To the Earl of Warwick, on the death of 
Mr. Addison. 

26-30. Colin and Lucy. 

30-33. On the prophecy of Kerens. Referring to 
the rebellion in 1715. 

34-6. To Sir Godfrey Kneller at his country seat 
Whitton. In Twickenham. 1722. 

36-7. On the death of the Earl of Cadogan. 

38-41. Ode to the Earl of Sunderland at Windsor. 
Published 1720. 

41-60. Kensington Garden. 

61-8. Epistle from a lady in England to a gentle- 
man at Avignon. 

The above are by Thomas Tickell (' D.N.B.'). 
The ' Epistle ' was published anonymously 
in 1717, and reached five editions. To the 
six lines beginning " To Rome then must 
the royal wand'rer go," and ending " The 
proffered purple and the hat may please," 
Horace Walpole in his copy wrote the com- 
ment : " This litter ally became the Lot of 
the last of the Family." Bramston says 
in his ' Art of Politics ' : 

The Jacobites rediculous opinion 

Is seen from Tickell's letter to Avignon. 

69-81. The female reign, an ode by Mr. [Samuel] 
Cobb.-' D.N.B.' 

Dr. Joseph Warton speaks of him (Nichols, 
' Lit. Anecdotes of the 18th Cent.,' vi. 170) 
as " author of a very fine ode in Dodsley's 
Miscellanies " ; again, " his ode in Dodsley 
is most excellent." 

82-104. Six town eclogues by the Right Hon. 
L. M. W. M. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 

1. Monday. Roxana [the Duchess of Roxburgh], 
or the drawing-room. Coquetilla is the Duchess of 

2. Tuesday. St. James's coffee house. Silliander 
[General Campbell] and Patch [Lord Hertford]. 
In 1. 3 H d is Howard. 

3. Wednesday. The tete a tete. Dancinda. 

4. Thursday. The bassette table. Smilinda [Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu] and Cardelia [Countess 
of Bristol]. 

This is printed by Anderson among Pope's 
works. Sharper is Lord Stair ; Ombrelia is 
Mrs. Hanbury ; Betty Loveit is Mrs. South-, 
well. Corticelli's is described by Walpole 
as " a fashionable Indian warehouse at the 
upper end of Suffolk Street, and a rendezvous 
of galantry." 

5. Friday. The Toilette. Lydia [Mrs. Coke, wife- 
of the Vice-Chamberlain]. 

This is printed by Anderson, with consider- 
able alterations, among Gay's works. Damon 
is Lord Berkeley. " Your wife " (two lines- 
afterwards) is Lady Louisa Lenox (sic). To 
1. 15, "side boxes," Walpole puts the note- 
" ladies at that time sat in the front-boxes,, 
men in the side," and adds the line " When 
bows the side box from its inmost rows " 
('Rape of the Lock'). 

6. Saturday. The Small-pox. Flavia [Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu]. 

Mirmillio (1. 71) is usually said to be Dr. 
Gibbons ; Walpole says that it is Sir Hans 
Sloane. Machaon (1. 77) is Garth. Horace 
Walpole's note is : 

"These eclogues Lady M. Wortley allowed me to- 
transcribe from a volume of her poems in MS. at 
Florence in 1740, and from my copy Dodsley printed 
them and the ' Epistle from A. Grey,' ' The Lover,' 
and the ' Epilogue ' ; and her Ladyship told me all 
the persons alluded to. Bp. Warburton has printed i 
the second eclogue as Pope's, who might correct or 
at least transcribe it ; but it [is evident] that all six 
are by the same hand and not like Pope." 
The words in brackets are much blurred. 
Gray (' Letters,' i. 187) wrote : 

" The town is an owl if it don't like Lady Mary, 
and I am surprised at it ; we here [Cambridge] are 
owls enough to think her eclogues very bad; but 
that I did not wonder at." 
The ' Epistle from Arthur Grey the footman 

to Mrs. [Griselda], afterwards Lady, 

Murray ' was subsequently suppressed. She 
died 6 June, 1759. 

105-7. The lover, a ballad, to Mr. [Richard] C 

Eldest son of Dr. Chandler, Bishop of 
Durham. He married Elizabeth, the only 
daughter of Lord James Cavendish, whose 
name he took by Act of Parliament in 1752. 

107. The lady's resolve, written extempore on a 

108. The gentleman's answer. 

108-11. An epistle to Lord B [Bathurst]. 

112-13. Epilogue to Mary, Queen of Scots [a tragedy 
begun by the Duke of Wharton], design'd to be 
spoken by Mrs. Oldfield. 

114-15. A receipt to cure the vapours, written to* 
Lady J [Irwin, daughter of the Earl of Carlisle]. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 5, 1907. 

The above are also by Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu. An account of Lady Irwin is 
printed in Walpole's 'Royal and Noble 
Authors,' ed. Park, v. 155-7. She wrote 
an answer to this " Receipt." Both pieces 
are printed in the ' Additions to the Works 
of Pope '(1776), i. 168-70. 

116-46. The Spleen, an epistle to Mr. C J [i.e., 
Cuthbert Jackson]. By Mr. Matthew Green of the 
Custom-house.' D.N.B.' 
Gray says (' Letters,' ed. Tovey, i. 183) : 

" All there is of M. Green here has been printed 
before ; there is a profusion of wit everywhere ; 
reading would have formed his judgment and 
harmonised his verse, for even his wood-notes often 
break out into strains of real poetry and music." 
Walpole says of ' The Spleen ' : 

" This is as original a poem as ever was written. 
It has the wit of Butler with the ease of Prior with- 
. out imitating either, and tho' so poetic all the 
images are taken from the streets of London." 
He fills up the blanks g 1 p s as " gospel 
propagators," and to " such was of late a 
corporation" adds "the Charitable Cor- 
poration." When Goldsmith asserted that 
: there was no poetry in his age, Dodsley 
appealed to his own collection as a refuta- 
tion, and particularly mentioned ' The 
. Spleen.' Johnson's comment on this was : 
" I think Dodsley gave up the question . . 
4 The Spleen ' is not poetry " (Boswell, 
11 Apl., 1776). To the account of Green in 
the ' D.N.B.' it may be added that two 
letters by him are in the Political State for 
July, 1740, pp. 85-9. 

146-7. An epigram on the Rev. Mr. Laurence 
Echard's and Bishop Gilbert Burnet's histories. 

147-9. The sparrow and diamond, a song. 

150-1. Jove and Semele. 

152-3. The seeker. 

153-7. On Barclay's apology for the Quakers. 
The above are also by Green, whose family 
were Quakers. He respected, but deserted, 
that creed. 

158-72. Pre-existence, a poem in imitation of 

Tt was published with a preface by J. B. 
in 1714, and reprinted in 1740 and 1800. 
Gray writes (' Letters,' i. 184) : 

"Dr. Evans [Abel Evans: see 'D.N.B.'] is a 
furious madman ; and pre-existence is nonsense in 
all her altitudes." 

172-80. Chiron to Achilles, a poem by Hildebrand 
Jacob, Esq.' D.N.B.' 

This was first published in 1732, and was 
included in liis collected works (1735), 
pp. 133-44. 

180-5. Know your self, by the late Dr. Arbuthnot. 
-' D.N.B.' 

Pub. anon, in 1734, with an advertisement 
that it hod been written several years 

before. This is the only manuscript of 
Arbuthnot in existence, and Mr. Aitken in 
his ' Life and Works of Arbuthnot,' pp. 436- 
442, has printed it, " first as it was published, 
and secondly, as it was originally written." 

186-99. London, a poem in imitation of the third 
satire of Juvenal. By Mr. Samuel Johnson. 

Writing to Horace Walpole, Gray says 
(' Letters,' i. 183) : 

" I am sorry to differ from you, but ' London ' is 
to me one of those few imitations that have all the 
ease and all the spirit of an original. The .same 
man's verses on the opening of Garrick's theatre 
are far from bad." 

To the words " whom pensions can incite 
To vote a patriot black, a courtier white," 
is the note by Walpl e : " This w d have 
suited Johnson himself latterly." H y's 
next page is Hervey's. 

200-2. Prologue spoken by Garrick, at the opening 
of the theatre in Drury Lane, 1747. By Samuel 

203-13. Of active and retired life, an epistle to 
H. C., Esq. [Henry Coventry]. By William Melmoth 
the Younger (' D.N.B.') ; first printed in the year 

214-19.^ Grongar Hill. By Mr. [John] Dyer. 

Dyer, says Gray (' Letters,' i. 183), " has 
more of poetry in his imagination than 
almost any of our number, but rough and 

220-41. The ruins of Rome, a poem. By the same. 

241-55. The school - mistress, a poem in imita- 
tion of Spenser. By William Shenstone, Esq. 

" Excellent in its kind and masterly," 
says Gray (' Letters,' i. 183). Shenstone 
(' Letters,' p. 174) complacently records 
under date of November, 1748, that he had 
borrowed " Dodsley's Miscellany of Lady 
Luxborough, in which are many good 

256-85. The art of politics, in imitation of Horace's 
Art of Poetry.' By the Reverend Mr. [James] 
Bramston. 'D.N.B/ 

L. 1, "Sir James " is Thornhill, Sir 
Robert is of course Sir Robert Walpole. 
" New Bond Street and a newer square," 
i.e. Cavendish Square. "Let Sir Paul 
resign," Methuen. " Gibber's opera from 
Johnny Gay's " : the opera is ' Love in a 
Riddle,' the other piece * The Beggar's 
Opera.' " Th' arch-bishop and the Master 
of the Rolls," Wake and Sir Joseph Jekyll. 
Wyndham is Sir William Wyndham ; * ' Lord 
William's dead and gone," Lord William 
Poulet. Bramstone's poem contains many 
pointed lines. 

10 s. vii. JAN. 5, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

What 's not destroy'd by Time's devouring hand ? 
Where 's Troy, and where 's the May-pole in the 


are very familiar to us. 
286-97. The man of taste. By the same. 
Sir Andrew is Sir Andrew Fount aine, 
*' The di'mond count," says Walpole, was 
*' a noted venturer, who was said to be going 
to marry the D ss of Buckingham, when he 
was detected and decamped." 

298-321. An essay on conversation. By Benjamin 
Stillingfleet. ' D.N.B.' 

This poem is addressed to William Wind- 
ham, of Felbrigg, near Cromer, Norfolk, to 
whom Stillingfleet had been tutor, and with 
whom he travelled abroad. More than 
once the author shows himself angry with 
Bentley in refusing Mm a fellowship at 
Trinity College. " B y " should be filled 
up as Bentley. " B-rm-n " is Burman ; 
" Ba-l-y " is Bailey. Dr. Doran says 
that Stillirigfleet's poem helped the social 
reform of Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Montagu. 
It "lays down some very excellent rules, 
that implicitly followed would make con- 
versation impossible." 

321-3. Ode to a lady on the death of Col. Charles 
Ross in the action at Fontenoy. Written May, 
174:,. By Mr. William Collins.' D.N.B.' 

324. Ode written in the same year. By the same. 

325-6. ^Ode to evening. By the same. 

327. Verses written on a blank leaf, by [George 
Granville] Lord Lansdowii ('D.N.B.') 'when he 
presented his works to the queen, 1732. 

328-9. Advice to a lady in autumn. 

This and the three next pieces are by 
Lord Chesterfield ('D.N.B.'). 

329-3(X On a lady's drinking the Bath waters. 
330. Verses written in a Lady's ' Sherlock upon 
331-2. Song. 

Fanny in 1. 1 is Lady Fanny Shirley. The 
Rev. R. S. Cobbett in his 'Memorials of 
Twickenham,' 1872, p. 69, expresses his 
belief that the song was written by Mr. 
Thomas Philips, a dramatic writer. An 
article by George Agar Ellis, afterwards 
Lord Dover, on ' Chesterfield and Fanny,' 
is in ' The Keepsake ' for 1831, pp. 1-15. 

An original poem by Lord Hervey, which 
was printed in a few copies of the first edition 
of this Miscellany, but then suppressed as 
too personal, is reproduced in The Gentle- 
man's Magazine for 1796, pt. i. 509. Cf. i&. 
pt. i. 530 ; pt. ii. preliminary page, and 
p. 740. 

The poem to the Earl of Warwick 
(pp. 22-6), that on the prophecy of Nereus 
(pp. 30-33), the following poems to p. 115 

inclusive, the prologue spoken by Garrick 
(pp. 200-2), and the poems from p. 321 
inclusive to the end of the volume, were 
not in the first volume of the first edition. 

The six ' Town Eclogues ' by Lady M. W. 
Montagu, ' The Lover,' and the other poems 
to p. 115 inclusive, and the prologue spoken 
by Mr.. Garrick (pp. 200-2) were in the third 
volume of that edition. 

* The Art of Cookery,' by Dr. King, and 
the following poems by him (vol. i. first 
edition, pp. 223-63), and ' The Apparition,' 
by Dr. Evans (ib. pp. 238-68, the paging 
being repeated), were afterwards omitted. 


THE poem written an entire century ago 
by the Hon. William Robert Spencer (1770- 
1834), as an ' Epitaph on the Year 1806,' 
needs no alteration beyond a single word 
to fit it as an echo to the present date. For 
it begins and ends thus, with touching 
appropriateness : 

5 Tis gone, with its thorns and its roses, 
With the dust of dead ages to mix ! 

Time's channel for ever encloses 
The year [Nine]teen Hundred and Six. 

[Tn'O Ntanzoff intervene,.] 

If thine was a gloom the completest 

That death's darkest cypress could throw,. 

Thine, too, was a garland the sweetest 
That life in full blossom could show. 

One hand gave the balmy corrector 
Of ills which the other had brewed 

One draught from thy chalice of nectar 
All taste of thy bitter subdued. 

'Tis gone with its thorns and its roses ! 

With mine tears more precious may mix 
To hallow this midnight which closes 

The year [Ninejteen Hundred and Six. 

Thus did our earlier and better " Bobby 
Spencer " prove himself a century ago to 
be a " First-Footer," as they would say in 
Scotland. For myself, an Englishman born, 
a Surrey native, and of Lambeth, Gray's 
Walk Road, my " first footing " in Scotland 
that I can remember is of the date 1828 or 
1829. Of this anon. 

It so happens that I can remember a long 
series of happy " First-Footings " in the 
" Land of Cakes," which I and my dear 
father before me (Joseph Ebsworth, 1788- 
1868) found to be brimming over with 
hospitality and true-heartedness, as was 
worthy of the country that gave birth to 
Robert Burns and to Walter Scott men 

NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. VIL JAN. 5, 1907. 

who deserve our love and gratitude for 
what they were in their own noble indi- 
viduality as well as for what they gave us as 
undying legacies in literature by their 
genius. Our reverence and admiration for 
them both is undimmed, and should remain 
so whilst life can last. But life is flitting 
away fast, and while I am still able let me 
try to furnish to dear ' N. & Q.,' that I have 
loved from its earliest days, some records 
ithat I hold in authentic autographs and 
memories connected with, e.g., William 
Hazlitt, Sir Henry Bishop, and others who 
have passed away into the silence. May a 
blessing rest at this New Year on all who 
love ' N. & Q.' ! 

The Priory, Ashford, Kent. 

(To be continued.) 

[We trust that our old friend MR. EBSWORTH will 
pardon the alterations made in the interesting com- 
munication he has sent us. His far too kind words 
about all connected with 'N. & Q.' are deeply 
.appreciated, but we feel that we must retain them 
for our own private perusal.] 

According to the Central News of 15 De- 
cember, Mr. Jeremiah Curtin, who translated 
' Quo Vadis ? ' from the Polish, has recently 
died at Bristol, Vermont. He is said to have 
known seventy languages. If this be correct, 
lie must have surpassed Cardinal Mezzofanti, 
who, according to ' The Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' spoke with considerable fluency 
some fifty or sixty languages of the most 
widely separated families. Byron, it will be 
remembered, called him the Briareus of 
iparts of speech, and a walking polyglot 
who ought to have existed at the time of 
-the Tower of Babel as universal interpreter. 
'The Countess of Blessington, who met 
Mezzofanti at Bologna, says : 

"Mezzofanti is said to be the master of no less 
n than forty languages. When, however, we referred 
to this subject he disclaimed it, and modestly said 
there was great exaggeration in the statement. 
But as he has never leit Italy and yet speaks Eng- 
lish correctly, I can imagine his proficiency in other 

Mezzofanti, it will be observed, disclaimed 
a knowledge of forty languages ; if Mr. 
Curtin knew seventy languages, Mezzo- 
:fanti ceases to be a name synonymous with 
Briareus in a linguistic sense. When I 
visited Bologna twenty years ago, I chanced, 
while passing the corner of the Via dell' 
Orso, to see some workmen pulling down a 
house. Tt was the house in which Mezzo- 
ianti resided while Professor of Oriental 

Languages in that city. Through the dust 
clouds I read the following inscription under 
a medallion, with a profile portrait of the 
learned cardinal : 

Heic Mezzofantus patrite stupor ortus et orbi 
Unus qvii linguas calluit omnigenas. 

Vicentii Mignani Honoriensis. 

It is curious to remember that Mezzofanti, 
who seems to belong to the eighteenth century, 
did not die until 1849. There is no mention 
of the inscription given above in any of the 
Guide-Books that I have seen. 


Edgbarrow, Crowthorne. 

speech of our gracious King read in Parlia- 
ment on 21 December, 1906, the date of the 
marriage of the King and Queen of Spain 
is given as " last June." So say the reports 
published in the London newspapers. The 
real date was, of course, 31 May. King 
Alfonso is altogether a May King ; and may 
he long succeed in making history a blessing 
to Spain and to England ! 

Correspondiente de la Real Academia 
de la Historia. 

" POTIE " WARDEN. A few months ago 
local newspapers chronicled the removal 
from the old church at Stenigot, Lincoln- 
shire (now closed), to a new church, of two 
alabaster monumental tablets, with kneeling 
figures, bearing the following inscriptions : 

" Heie lyeth ye bodie of Francis Viles De 
Guevaraa, naturale Spannyarde, borne in ye pro- 
vince of Biscay, who had to his first wife Devise 
Reade, daughter and hey re to John Reade, of 
Boston, in ye county of Lincoln, Esquire, by whome 
he had issue one daughter, Eliene, and after married 
Annie Egerton, daughter to John Egerton, of 
Willoughby, in ye county aforesaid, Esquire, by 
whome he had issue 5 sonnes, viz., John, Peregrine, 
Henry, William, George, and 5 daughters, viz., 
Anne, Susan, Cathrine, Elisabeth, and Fraunce, 
and died ye tenth of February 1592." 

" Here lyeth ye bodie of Sir John Grevara, 
Knight, sometimes the Potie Warden of the East 
Marches of England under the Right Honourable 
Peregrine, Lo : Willoughby, Baron of Willoughby, 
Beak, and Eagesby, sonne and Heire to Francis 
Grevara, Esquire, who maryed Anne, daughter of 
Robert Sanderson, of Saxeby, in the countie of 
Lincoln, Esquire, by whome he had issue 6 sonnes, 
viz., Frannces [x*'c], John, William, Thomas, Charles, 
and Robert, and 2 daughters, viz., Katherhie and 
Mary, and departed this life ye 6 th June, 1607." 

I have exactly copied these inscriptions 
as they appeared in print, and the variation 
in spelling of the surname will be noticed. 
I am curious, and shall be glad of information, 

10 s. vii. JAN. 5, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

.as to " Potie Warden of the East Marches " 
(query, " Potie "=petit, minor or assistant). 
Perhaps some of your readers will be good 
enough to afford it. W. B. H. 

joined is from ' Shropshire Notes and 
Queries,' Shrewsbury Chronicle, 29 Dec., 
1905 : 

" The Death of Admiral Benbow. A Song. 
'The following ditty has been taken down from the 
lips of ' Old Jones,' the celebrated Hawkstone 
guide, who lately sang it to a quaint old tune. Are 
the words and music preserved in any published 
collection of sea songs ? This version is traditional 
in the family of Jones, who have held the office of 
Hawkstone guide for several generations. The 
present ' Old Jones,' when a boy, learnt the song 
from his father, and these two lives would carry 
back the date to the early part of the last century ; 
and, perhaps, two other lives would cover the 
interval after the making of the song. 
Admiral Benbow. 

Come, all you seamen bold, 
Lend an ear lend an ear, 

For it 's of an admiral's fame, 

Brave old Benbow called by name, 

How he fought upon the main, 
You shall hear you shall hear. 

Brave Benbow he set sail, 

For to fight for to fight ; 
Brave Benbow he set sail, 
And the French they did turn tail 

In a fright in a fright. 

.Says Corvey unto Webb,* 

' I will run I will run 
For I value no disgrace, 
Nor the losing of my place, 
For my enemies I'll not face, 

Nor their guns nor their guns.' 

Brave Benbow lost one leg 

By a chain-shot by a chain-shot 

Brave Benbow lost one leg. 

* Oh, fight, my lads, I beg, 
It 's your lot it 's your lot ! ' 

* Come, doctor, dress my wounds !' 

Benbow cried Benbow cried ; 

* May the cradle now in haste 
On the quarter-deck be placed 
That my enemies I may face, 

Till I die-till I die. 3 

On Sunday morning soon, 

Benbow diedf Benbow died. 
What a shocking sight to see, 
Poor old Benbow carried away, 
He was buried at Kingston Church, 
There he lies there he lies !" 


" FIRGUNANUM." This is a word the 
solution of which I opine may be worth 
recording, on account of its peculiarity, and 
of its having cost me very much research to 

" * Kirkby unto Wade. They were shot or 
.board the Bristol, at Plymouth, 16th April, 1703." 
"+4th Nov., 1702." 

arrive at it. It was effected when I was 
almost au bout de mon latin, by a chance 
effort, and the kind aid of the late erudite 
President of the Royal Society of Anti- 
quaries of Ireland, Mr. John B. Garstin. 

" Firgunanum " is the valediction closing 
an ' Account of St. Patrick's Purgatory in 
Lough Derg, County Donegal, and of the 
Pilgrims' Business There,' which was pub- 
iished on 1 Aug., 1701, by the Ven. Arch- 
deacon Michael Hewetson (Armagh), and 
is the Irishism of Firgananaim, a curious 
compound of Greek, Latin, and Irish. It 
means ** A man without a name " (vir, man ; 
gan, without ; a, a ; naim, name). It occurs 
In the Latin form " Inominatus " in mediaeval 
inscriptions, doing duty as a Christian name, 
as, for example, in the Hacket one at 
Fethard, co. Tipperary. 

One might almost feel inclined to think 
that it could equally signify " anonymus," 
but it is not so, as the author had special 
reasons for using his own word, appropriate 
to his subject and the period when he wrote 

great accuracy and value of ' Chambers's 
Encyclopaedia ' make it desirable to point 
out a mistake occurring under ' Christ's 
Hospital,' vol. iii. p. 224, col. 1, where we 
read : 

" In 1863 the governors built a preparatory school 
at Hertford, where the children are trained till 
they are advanced enough to be transferred to the 
London school." 

The true date of the erection of the Hertford 
school is 1683, so that the mistake seems to 
have arisen from one of the most fruitful 
sources of printers' errors that of trans- 
position. W. T. LYNN. 

" CHURCHYARD COUGH." I can remember 
when a good deal used to be said about those 
troubled with a deep and hollow sounding 
cough, a cough which people called " a 
churchyard cough," or, as some put it, "a 
grave-opener cough." Now and then the 
term is to be heard, but far less frequently 
than was the case fifty years ago. Many of 
the old bits of speech are dying out, and 
this seems to be one of them. 



eighty-three Alderman John Banks, J.P., 
was on 9 November elected for the sixth 
time Mayor of his native town of Folkestone, 
having held his seat in the Corporation con- 
tinuously from 1 November, 1857. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 5, 1907. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
ormation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

any one tell me what is the original authority 
for the "unconscionable time dying" story 
of Charles IT. ? OSMUND AIRY. 

SLANG WORDS. In Farmer and Henley's 
* Slang and its Analogues,' sub voce 'Rhino,' 
thune or tune is given as a French slang name 
for money generally. This looks odd to 
me, as I have always heard thune applied 
specifically to the five-franc piece. Can any 
reader tell me which is the correct sense ? 
Is the origin of the term known ? Being 
argot, it is not in the ordinary dictionaries. 
Another French slang name for this coin is 
(zil-debvcuf, corresponding exactly to the 
English term bull's eye for a five - shilling 
piece, just as its Dutch slang name, dchter- 
wieler, corresponds to our hind coach wheel. 
I am collecting and comparing the popular 
names of coins in European languages. 


I am in possession of an oil painting super- 
scribed " Mr. Thomas Caverley, aged 100. 
J. Richardson pinxit." According to family 
traditions, the said Thomas Caverley was a 
French Huguenot refugee, whose original 
name was Cavalier, and his death is re- 
corded to have occurred in October, 1745, 
and the place of his burial to have been 
St. James's Church, Garlick Hill, in a 
private vault, of which no trace appears to 

Now J. Richardson, sen., died in May, 
1745, accord|ng to Rees's 'Cyclopaedia,' in 
which heiis stated to have had a paralytic 
stroke a short time before Presumedly, 
therefore, the portrait was by his son, J. 
Richardson, jun. Can that question be 
decided ? 

Again, was Thomas Caverley related to 
the well-known Jean Cavalier, a renowned 
leader of the French Huguenots, who held 
the appointment of Governor of Guernsey 
under the British Government ? Of him, 
I am informed, it is stated in a French bio- 
graphical dictionary that he was "ne en 
1629.... et mourut a Chelsea en Mai, 
1740," i.e , at the age of 111 ! Ts there an 
English biography of Jean Cavalier extant ? 

G. W. W. 

Can any of your readers favour me with 
information respecting the above castle ? 
I can find nothing about it except in ' The 
Picture of Scotland,' by Robert Chambers, 
vol. i., 1827, and this is legendary. I want 
to ascertain facts concerning the place, if 

Scotstown Hill, Glasgow. 

GEORGE STEPNEY. (See 2 S. xi. 225.) 
The ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' says of this diplomat : 

"Extensive collections of his correspondence are 
preserved in the British Museum and in the Public 
Record Office. Another large and important ool- 
lection is in the possession of the Earl of Maccles- 
field (Hist. MSS. Comm. 1st Hep. p. ix., app. 
pp. 34-40)." 

A bibliography of Stepney concludes the 
sketch in ' D.N.B.,' liv. 191. 

It appears that the Hist. MSS. Commission 
caused to be made, with the consent of the 
Earl of Macclesfield, copies of certain of the 
latter's manuscripts, and that these copies 
were deposited in the Public Record Office 
" among the semi-official documents com- 
monly called ' Transcripts.' " A * Calendar 
of the Papers of the Earl of Macclesfield' 
was also commenced and continued (perhaps 
completed) by the Hist. MSS. Commission 
(cf. 2nd Report, p. ix). Can any reader say 
if this calendar or the original letters from 
Stepney have been examined with a view to 
the recovery therefrom of new biographical 
material concerning Dr. Edmond Halley's 
two missions to Vienna (1702-3) ? 


1, Park Row, Chicago, U.S. 

Strickland speaks of the beautiful recumbent 
effigy on Queen Eleanor's tomb in West- 
minster Abbey as a likeness of the queen. 
Dean Stanley in his 'Memorials' asserts 
that it is not & portrait, but merely an ima- 
ginary type of beauty. This seems very 
unlikeH , and one would much rather believe 
that the striking and beautiful figure re* 
sembled the " chere reine." As a far-away 
descendant of the royal lady, J am deeply 
interested in the subject. Can any one 
enlighten me ? HELGA. 

REV. R. RATJTHMEL. A topographical 1 
work entitled ' Antiquitates Bremetona- 
censes ' was published in 1746 by the Rev. 
R. Rauthmel, and deals with the antiquities 
of Overborough. The author endeavours 
to show that a Roman road ran from Rib- 
Chester to Overborough. 

In 1741 a certain Richard Rauthmell had 
been for some fifteen years curate of White- 

10 s. vii. JAN. 5, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


well and of Grindleton. He says, in a letter 
published in Whitaker's ' Craven,' the 
original of which is at present in my care : 

" My 2 chapels are in the Alpes of the West 
Riding, and 1 have just now calculated it y* I 
have rid over the alpine mountains to attend and 
perforate Divine Service at Grindleton Chapel 
above 3,000 miles put all together ; and the whole 
yearly stipends put in one sum amount not above 
60 pounds." 

His weary rides over the alpine mountains 
would give him time to think of the Roman 
road in the near neighbourhood. 

Am I right in identifying the author of 
the above-named volume with my equestrian 
predecessor ? Some of your contributors 
may know more of the Rev. R. Rauthmel. 

Gridleton Vicarage, Clitheroe, Lanes. 

' CANTUS HIBERNICI.' Some eight years 
ago I purchased for a couple of shillings a 
volume entitled " Cantus Hibernici, Auctore 
Thoma Moore, Latine Redditi. Editio Nova. 
A Nicholao Lee Torre, Coll. Nov. apud 
Oxoniam, olim Socio. Leamington : Thomas 
Knibb. 1856." The volume, which is dedi- 
cated to the Marquess of Lansdowne, con- 
tains some 41 Latin renderings of Moore's 

* Irish Melodies,' and has an appendix of 
seven other Latin versions of the ' Melodies,' 
culled " by permission of the author," from 
the * Anthologia Oxoniensis,' the ' Arundines 
Cami,' and the ' Sabrinae Corolla ' ; the 
initials appended to each translation being 
R. R. W. L., G. B., W. B. J., and B. H. K. 
Can any possessor of the ' Arundines Cami ' 
or the ' Sabrinae Corolla ' tell me whom 
those initails represent ? Perhaps MB. PICK- 
FORD can oblige me. I may add that the 
versions are idiomatically and literally 
correct. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

" UNBYCHID." Twenty-seven years being 
a very long time in the history of etymological 
research, I may be excused for asking if 
anything further has come to light with 
regard to the above word, since the publica- 
tion of Prof. Skeat's edition of Chaucer's 

* Man of Lawe's Tale,' &c., by the Clarendon 
Press. I refer to the notes on " bicched 
bones," 4 Pardonere's Tale,' C. 656. " Un- 
bychid " occurs in ' The Towneley Plays ' 
(E.E.T.S.), 291-356, and is there glossed 
" disorderly (?)." H. P. L. 

descendants of this actor, the nephew of 
Mrs. Siddons, went on the stage ? I know 
of his daughter Agnes, who married Thomas 
Cooper, and became the mother of Mr. 

Frank Kemble Cooper and Mr. Cooper 
Cliffe. But the late Miss Alice Barnett 
of the Savoy also claimed descent from this 
Kemble. Was it through a daughter or a 
son ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

A pamphlet so named, and described as an 
* Essay on Summer Entertainments in the 
Neighbourhood of London,' occurred in the 
Comerford sale, lot 2261. It is catalogued 
as "unique," but this presumably refers 
to the fact that the copy was extra-illustrated. 
I have failed to trace another copy at the 
B.M. or in the catalogues of other topo- 
graphical libraries. References or further 
information will be welcome. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

with some such title is referred to in a 
German herbal published in 1546. Can 
any reader identify it ? L. L. K. 

ROMNEY'S ANCESTRY. George Romney, 
of Colby, Appleby (grandfather of the artist), 
left Colby in the Civil War, and went to 
Lancaster, and later to Dalton-in-Furness. 
He was sixty when he married, and the 
marriage cannot be found at Dalton, 
St. Lawrence's, Appleby, or Carlisle. Where 
was he married ? and what was his father's 
name ? Had Mary Abbott, of Kirkland, 
Romney's wife, relations called Collinson and 
Betham ? Where is Kirkland ? Was Ann 
Simpson, of Sladebank, Romney's mother, 
related to the Simpsons of Torrisholme, 
near Morecambe, and how ? Where is 
Sladebank ? And was her grandfather, 
Thomas Park, of Millwood, near Furnesa 
Abbey, High Constable of Furness 1642-7, 
related to Sir James Parke, afterwards 
Lord Wensleydale ? 

I shall be greatly obliged for any help. 
(Mrs.) L. BENNETT. 

6, Arthur Street East, B.C. 

DERBY. Will some reader inform me where 
I can find particulars of the surrender of 
the Isle of Man by the Countess of Derby 
to the Parliamentary forces in 1651 ? 


Union Club, Trafalgar Square, S.W. 

VIRGIN. It is believed that in one of the 
religious houses at Doncaster there was in 
former days a statue of the Blessed Virgin, 
deemed to be miraculous, which at some 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. JAN. 5, 1907. 

period during the Reformation was sent to 
London, and there burnt along with other 
objects of a like character. Can any one 
direct me to contemporary evidence for 
this statement, and say in what part of 
London the fire took place ? 

K. P. D. E. 

Give my youth, my faith, my sword, 

Choice of the heart's desire ! 
A short life in the saddle, Lord, 
Not long life by the fire. 

H. B. L. 

BODDINGTON FAMILY. InBurke's ' Landed 
Gentry ' a pedigree of this family gives the 
descent from Timothy Boddington, of Barton, 
co. Oxford. He had a son, John Bodding- 
ton, and other issue. John's son Thomas 
had a son John besides other three sons and 
three daughters ; John, the son of Thomas, 
also had junior issue, the names of whom 
are not given by Burke. Can any of your 
readers give me information of the junior 
issue in the above cases, or of any of their 
descendants ? 

There was a John Boddington at North 
Leigh, co. Oxford, about the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. Tradition speaks 
of him in those parts as being contractor 
for the maintenance of the roads. He was 
married twice. Any information regarding 
his parentage, his marriages, his birth, or his 
death, will be gratefully received. 


appear to be : 

1. Secretary for Scotland and Keeper of 
the Great Seal. 

2. Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. 

3. Lord Clerk Register. 

4. Lord Advocate. 

5. Lord Justice Clerk. 

Will some one conversant with the matter 
please say how it happens that while the 
Lord Justice Clerk is one of the officers of 
State, the Lord Justice General is not ? 


181, Morningside Road, Edinburgh. 

JOHN STIVENS, Surgeon-in- Ordinary to 
the Prince of Wales, died 2 August, 1737. 
Can any reader give me information about 
him ? W. A. MACNAUGHTON, M.D. 

Stonehaven, N.B. 

ticulars be found of the illustrations to Sir 
Walter Scott's works, such as the names of 
the artists, the number of illustrations by 
each, and the dates of the editions in which 
they first appeared ? E. N. G. 

(10 S. vi. 365, 470.) 

IN reference to MR. ALBERT MATTHEWS'S 
reply on the above subject, I am in a position 
:o throw a little light on the last paragraph 
n regard to women's anti-slavery societies 
n England. 

The last clause of the British and Foreign 
Anti-Slavery Society's Constitution, drawn 
up in 1839, runs : " That the committee do 
nvite and encourage the formation of 
adies' branch associations in furtherance 
of the objects of this society." But the 
formation of such ladies' associations was 
very far from being a new thing in 1839. 
Fn connexion with the previous Anti-Slavery 
Society, which existed before the Act of 
1833, a very large number of women's 
associations seems to have been formed. 
The volumes of the journal of that society, 
The Anti-Slavery Monthly Reporter (which 
was begun in 1825 by Zachary Macaulay, 
and ably edited by him until his death), 
are before me, and the first mention which 
I can find of a Women's Anti-Slavery Asso- 
ciation having been formed is of that 
started at Colchester in July, 1825; a 
similar one was formed at Calne (Wilts) 
in the following month. The subscription 
lists for 1826 show that the Clifton and 
Bristol Women's Association (to which 
MR. MATTHEWS refers) was in existence at 
that date. The lists of the folio wing -four 
years show that a great many women's 
associations were added, all over the country, 
during that time. 

At the World's Anti-Slavery Convention 
of 1840, as is well known, Mrs. Lucretia 
Mott and other ladies, who came over as 
delegates from the United States, were 
excluded, after long discussion, from taking 
part in the conference, on account of their 
sex. It was, however, announced in the 
Reporter published before that conference 
that the committee wished to " afford 
accomodation, as far as the room will permit, 
to their female friends, to whose exertions 
the cause of freedom is already so much 
indebted,"" and that tickets would be issued 
admitting ladies to the galleries and other 
spaces not necessarily occupied^by members. 
Hay don's large picture of the Convention 
(now in the National Portrait Gallery) shows 
that a number of women (most of them in 
Quaker bonnets) actually sat in the body of 
the hall. It seems probable, although I am 

10 s. VIL JAN. 5, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


;able to find only a few actual references to 
them, that from that date women's branch 
associations in connexion with the Anti- 
Slavery Society were constantly formed, in 
accordance with the provision above quoted 
from the constitution. 

l^jThere was some difference of opinion 
among the Anti-Slavery leaders about women 
'taking part in getting up petitions against 
slavery, and we learn from the * Life and 
Letters of Zachary Macaulay ' that Wilber- 
:force was opposed to " the interference of 
ladies " in such matters, while Macaulay 
rtook the other side, and Brougham warmly 
agreed with him. 

To sum up, we may infer that women 
:gave very valuable co-operation and help 
in the fight against slavery, but that the 
predominant feeling of the early Victorian 
period was opposed to their taking a public 
part in the agitation. TBAVEBS BUXTON. 

British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 
51, Denison House, Vauxhall Bridge Road, S. W. 

S. vi. 488). I should say Baedeker is right. 
Gescheibt often means " round " in German. 
There is a long article on gescheibt in this 
sense in Grimm's ' Deutsches Worterbuch ' 
(vol. iv., 1897). Among the examples given 
is the very one we want, viz., " Der ge- 
scheibte oder Schabenthurm bei Bozen, 
wegen seiner runden Form so genannt." 
This seems pretty conclusive. 


COWPEB, LAMB, OB HOOD ? (10 S. vi. 490.) 
There does not appear to be any evidence 
that the stanzas quoted by D. M. were found 
an any other handwriting than that of 
Charles Lamb ; and in the absence of such 
evidence they may be pretty confidently 
ascribed to the " matter of lie man," who 
was evidently thinking of a well-known 
habit of his own when, in a letter to Procter, 
he observed that " forgeries and false 
Gospels are not peculiar to the age following 
'the Apostles." 

The verses first appeared in Hone's 
'Table Book' for 1827 (vol. ii. No. 30) at 
!the head of a little article entitled ' Mrs. 
Gilpin riding to Edmonton,' which was 
embellished by an engraving, " probably 
from the poet's friend Romney," the origin 
of which was confided to the editor of ' The 
Table Book ' in a letter found by Mr. Lucas, 
along with the manuscript copy of the 
article, in the Rowf ant Library, and recently 
published in his edition erf Lamb's corre- 
spondence : 

"DearH., This is Hood's, done from the life, 
of Mary getting over a style here. Mary, out of a 
pleasant revenge, wants you to get it enyrarfd in 
'Table Book' to surprise H., who I know will be 

amused with you so doing If you do, send Hood 

the number, No. 2, Robert St., Adelphi, and keep 
the sketch for me." 

In the face of the above testimony. 
Lamb's subsequent unblushing ascription 
to Romney of the engraving lends weight 
to the supposition that the assertion that 
the lines were "in the handwriting of 
Cowper " was equally fictitious. 


MABQUISE DE LA FAYETTE (10 S. vi. 450). 
Marie Louise Julie, wife of the 4th Marquis 
of La Fayette, was the daughter of Joseph 
Yves Thibault Hyacinthe (de la Riviere), 
2nd Marquis of La Riviere, by his kins- 
woman Julie Louise, elder daughter 
and coheir of Charles Yves Thibault (de 
la Riviere), 3rd Count of Plaue, &c., G.C.S.L. 
Her mother died 7 Oct., 1753, aged 32 ; and 
as her brothers were born in 1741 and 1751 
respectively, and she herself was married 
22 May, 1754, it is probable that she was 
born about 1738. La Chenaye des Bois 
says of her (xiv. p. 642), " qui a ete pre- 
sentee le 28 Fevrier, 1762, par [her aunt] 
la Marquise de Lusignan." When she died 
I do not know, but your correspondent 
might ascertain by writing to M. le Marquis 
de Lasteyrie, La Grange, Courpalay, Seine 
et Marne, who is descended from a daughter 
of the 5th Marquis, and has inherited the 
La Fayette seat, La Grange. He under- 
stands English. RUVIGNY. 



vi. 388, 456). I imagine that " mickle " or 
" meickle " is not pronounced " muckle." 

Does not " mickle " or " meickle " usually 
indicate quantity, while " muckle " refers 
to size ? I think the words are, strictly 
speaking, different, and in, at least, parts of 
Scotland not used synonymously. 

Burns uses both words in his works : 
" The muckle devil blaw ye south," " An* 
to the muckle house repair," " 'S a muckle 
pity." Then with respect to " meickle," 
referring to quantity : " And shook baith 
meikle corn and beer," " Mickle wad aye 
hae mair " (proverb). 


Thornton Heath. 

"THE MAGHZEN" (10 S. vi. 467). MB. 
MAYHEW is quite right in taking this to be 
merely a variant of the Arabic word makhzan, 
pronounced approximately like our surname 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 5, 1907. 

Moxon. His definition " the Treasury " 
is, however, scarcely adequate, as besides 
the Treasurer it appears to include the Grand 
Vizier, the Ministers of Home and Foreign 
Affairs, &c. I should say that " the 
Maghzen " is to Morocco much what " the 
Porte " is to Turkey. In English the best 
equivalent would be " the Government " ; 
and just as we can speak of " the Govern- 
ment " with either a singular or plural verb, 
so we can say either " the Maghzen is " or 
"the Maghzen are." In Moroccan Arabic, 
as readers of Borrow will remember, a soldier 
or gendarme is called a makliazni, which is 
an adjective, meaning " governmental." 
There is a foot-note in Cunninghame Gra- 
ham's book ' Mogreb-el-Acksa ' (1898, p. 82) 
which may be quoted in this connexion : 

"A tall peaked fez in Morocco is the outward 
risible sign of a soldier or man of the Mahksen 
Government, from the Arabic word Mahksen, 
which is not used in other Arab-speaking countries 
in the sense of the Government, but simply as 
signifying a 'Store.'" 


vi. 469). The verses referring to " Mario's 
voice " occur in Owen Meredith's (Lord 
Lytton's) ' The Wanderer,' second edition, 
1859, p. 141. I quote the second and third 
stanzas : 

Of all the Operas that Verdi wrote, 
The best to my taste is the ' Trouvatore ' ; 

And Mario can soothe with a tenor note 
The souls in Purgatory. 

The moon on the tower slept soft as snow ; 

And who was not thrill'd in the strangest way 
As he heard him sing, while the gas burn'd low, 

"Non ti scordar di me" ? 

Wickentree House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

The quotation beginning " There is a 
sweetness in autumnal days " is from Sir 
Lewis Morris's * The Ode of Age.' This 
forms the ninth division of the volume 
entitled ' The Ode of Life,' which appeared 
in 1880, the poet at the time still writing 
anonymously, and describing himself as 
" Author of ' The Epic of Hades.' " See 
also the collected and acknowledged ' Works ' 
of 1891, p. 310. THOMAS BAYNE. 

[MR. J. B. WAINEWRIGHT also refers to Sir Lewis 
Morris. J 

"ITO": " ITOLAND " (10 S. vi. 461). 
It is very desirable to controvert MR. 
BRESLAR'S too enthusiastic laudation of 
Mr. Zangwill in particular and his scheme in 
general, lest the future student in referring 
to these pages should gain a false impression 
of their relative importance. It mustj^be 

placed on record that the whole movement 
is controlled, and solely supported by, the 
enthusiasts who would be the last to par- 
icipate in the migration and colony-found- 
ing, except for administrative purposes. 
It has barely been recognized by, and cer- 
tainly has not received support from, the 
thousands in Russia who are most anxious 
to emigrate ; and except the attempt to 
establish a colony in Uganda, nothing has 
been accomplished. The founding of centres, 
enrolment of members, and holding of 
periodical meetings for discussion, in various 
parts of the United Kingdom, are no 
measure of the success of the movement ;. 
and there is no actual and active assistance. 
The whole movement is, in my opinion, 
wrong in conception, and at fault in its 
organization and administration. 

, Hillmarton Road, N. 

FOREST OF OXTOWE " (10 S. vi. 450). 
This is Huckstow Forest, on the borders of 
Upper Heath, in the parish of Wortheiv 
partly in Montgomeryshire and partly in> 
Shropshire. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 


PROF. MOORE SMITH may like to know that 
in my copy of Dr. Farmer's catalogue (for- 
merly Dibdin's) the name of the purchaser 
of lots 7441 and *7441 is given as Harris. 

Killadoon, Celbridge. , 

CARLYLE ON RELIGION (10 S. vi. 470).- 
The following occurs in ' Latter-Day Pam- 
phlets,' No. VIII. , the theme of which is 
' Jesuitism ' : 

" Simple souls still clamour occasionally for what 
they call 'a new religion.' My friends, you will 
not get this new religion of yours ; I perceive you 
already have it, have always had it ! All that is 
true is your ' religion ' is it not ?" 

With this compare the discussion, under 
the heading ' Morrison Again,' of " Rituals, 
Liturgies," &c., in ' Past and Present/ 

III. xv. 


MYDDELTON FAMILY (10 S. vi. 428). 
Elizabeth and Anne Myddelton after their 
father Sir Hugh's death lived with their 
mother at Bush Hill Park, Edmonton. 
Elizabeth, who was baptized at St.Matthew's,. 
Friday Street, in October, 1608, married 
Wm. Grace, gent., of Edmonton. She 
made her will on 20 Oct., 1645, which was 
proved on 6 Feb. following, by which she 
left her New River share to her husband. 
Anne never married ; she was baptized at 

10 s. VIL JAN. , 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the same church as her sister on 13 May, 
1610. Her will, wherein she describes herself 
as spinster, was dated 23 Oct., 1635, and 
proved 9 March, 1635/6. She left her New 
River share to her sister Elizabeth, who gave 
it to her nephew John, younger son of their 
brother Sir William Myddelton, second 
baronet. W. M. MYDDELTON. 

St. Albaus. 

In the ' Notes of the Middleton Family,' 
by Mr. W. Buncombe Pink, it is stated that 
Elisabeth Middleton was unmarried in 1643, 
and that Anne died unmarried in 1635. 



vi. 422). In his most interesting and useful 
note on the above subject W. C. B., in the 
sixth paragraph from the end, writes : "In 

' S'too Him Bayes ' we find ' He crys 

out like king Harry in Shakespear, My 
conscience, My conscience !.' " and indicates 
that this is to be found in ' K. Hen. VIII.,' 
II. iv. 

The following are the references to con- 
science : 

This res] dte shook 

The bosom of my conscience. LI. 179-80. 
. Thus hulling in 

The wild sea of my conscience, I did steer 

Toward this remedy. LI. 197-9. 

I meant to rectify my conscience, which 

I then did feel full sick. LI. 201-2. 
None of the above quotations seems to be 
quite applicable. I venture to suggest 
that the passage referred to is to be found 
earlier in the play, Act II. ii. 143 : 

Conscience, Conscience ! 

O ! 'tis a tender place 


KEMPT (10 S. vi. 387). T would suggest that 
MR. McCoRD write to Mrs. Sarcelles Andre, 
Hurst Road, Horsham, for information re 
Major John Andre. The late Mr. Lewis 
Andre, F.S.A., a correspondent of ' N. & Q.,' 
died 9 Aug., 1901, at Horsham. He was a 
great-grandson of John Lewis Andre, uncle 
of the unfortunate major. See a note of 
mine at 9 S. viii. 216. 

5, Grove Villas, Wanstead. 

449). Why should George Eliot have been 
indebted to Dickens for the absurdity of 
Mr. Trumbull's remark ? Mrs. Malaprop is 
of long descent, and coincidence of thought 
among humourists must date from the Stone 
Age. Moreover, in the eighteenth century 

" chastity " was used to denote purity of 
style and the like, in cases where people- 
might now prefer " chasteness," and the 
habit lingered into the nineteenth. 


ROAD (10 S. vi. 469). This must surely be 
the old St. George's burial ground in the- 
Bayswater Road, near the Marble Arch. 

E. W. B. 

St. George's Chapel Yard, i.e., the grave- 
yard of St. George's Hanover Square, is in> 
the Bayswater Road, a little to the west of 
the Marble Arch. It contains the graves 
of several eminent persons. The mortuary 
chapel was recently beautifully restored and 
embellished at the expense of Mr. Russell' 
Gurney. S. D. C. 

266 ; v. 12, 133, 176, 238, 313, 355 ; vi. 296). 
In my Bibliography in Mr. Sherard's 
' Life of Oscar Wilde ' I expressed a doubt 
as to the genuineness of ' The Rise of His- 
torical Criticism.' I have, however, quite 
recently learned that the original manuscript 
of this work is in the possession of a collector 
in Philadelphia, and I have no longer any 
doubt as to the authenticity of this early 
essay of Wilde's. STUART MASON. 

Shelley House, Oxford. 

(10 S. vi. 388). An account of Richard 
Humphries (not Humphreys) is given in. 
' Pugilistica : being One Hundred and 
Forty-Four Years of the History of British 
Boxing,' by Henry Downes Miles (London,. 
Weldon & Co., no date : I bought my copy 
(new in 1 88 1 ), vol. i . p. 84 . He was popularly 
called " The Gentleman Boxer." " His 
manners were conciliatory, and he endea- 
voured through life to enact the gentleman.'* 
He " lived for many years after their 
[Humphries and Daniel Mendoza's] last 
contest [29 September, 1790], and died in 
respectable circumstances, his calling being 
that of a coal-merchant in the Adelphi, 
Strand." The dates of (presumably) his 
fighting time are 1784-90. 

A plate, " to face p. 75," represents the 
third fight between Mendoza and Humphries, 
referred to above, which took place at Don- 
caster. In the title of the plate Humphries 
is called George instead of Richard, ani 
obvious error. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

S. vi. 448). In a manuscript of the four- 
teenth century (MS. Reg. 10 E. IV.) a tra- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. VIL JAN. 5, 1907. 

veller is represented as taking his repose 
under a tree. In the cut, which is repro- 
duced in Wright's ' Domestic Manners and 
Sentiments of the Middle Ages,' 1862, p. 326, 
it is perhaps intended to be understood that 
the traveller is passing the night in a wood, 
while he is plundered by robbers, who are 
jokingly represented in the form of monkeys. 
While one is emptying his " male " or box, 
the other is carrying off his girdle, with the 
large pouch attached to it, in which, no 
doubt, says the author of that valuable work, 
the traveller carried his money, and perhaps 
'his eatables (p. 327). 


WALTON, LANCASHIRE (10 S. vi. 450). 
Walton-on-the-Hill is a church of pre- 
Norman foundation, built near the banks 
of the Mersey, and is the mother Church 
of the whole of the Liverpool district. 

Walton-le-Dale Church is also of ancient 
foundation. It stands on the banks of the 
Ribble, about two miles to the east of 

I see that in the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' the life is given of Thomas 
Warton, Professor of Poetry at Oxford 
(1688 [?]-1745). 

In Lancashire there is a village of Warton 
seven miles north of Lancaster ; another 
eight miles west of Preston. 


Birklands, Southport. 

:S. vi. 428, 476). MR. STAPLETON has not 
mistaken II (two) for 11 (eleven), as sur- 
mised by MR. COCKLE. The llth West 
India Regiment was formed in or about 
1795, and disbanded in 1802, after the Peace 
of Amiens. Prior to 1795 there were a num- 
ber of colonial corps of negroes serving in 
-the West Indies ; but although some of 
these were in the pay of the Home Govern- 
ment, the officers' names did not appear in 
'the ' Army List,' neither were their appoint- 
ments given in The London Gazette. In 1795 
'the mortality amongst the English troops 
then serving in the Antilles was so great 
that the Government of the day decided 
-to replace them, as far as possible, with 
natives, who could better stand the climate, 
and twdvz West India Regiments were 
iformed from the semi-official black corps 
between 1795 and 1800. At the Peace of 
Amiens the 9th, 10th, llth, and 12th West 
India Regiments were disbanded, leaving 
eight of these regiments, which served 
some abroad until after the general peace ; 
-then, between 1815 and 1825, six more regi- 

ments (the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th 
West India Regiments) were disbanded. 
A 3rd Regiment was again formed in 1840, 
and a 4th and a 5th West India Regiment 
after the Russian War ; but they were 
subsequently disbanded, the 1st and 2nd 
West India Regiments only remaining, and 
these form the 1st and 2nd Battalions of 
the present West India Regiment. The 
1st Battalion was originally the Carolina 
Black Corps ; subsequently Malcolm's 
Black Rangers, from Lieut. Malcolm, of the 
41st Regiment, who picked and trained the 
men from the old black corps in 1795, and 
on 2 May in that year they were drafted 
into Major-General Whyte's Regiment of 
Foot, the 1st West India Regiment. The 
2nd Battalion was originally one of the 
corps of negroes paid by the Imperial Govern- 
ment, and was known as the St. Vincent's 
Black Rangers. In 1797 it became the 2nd 
West India Regiment, Brigadier-General 
Myers being its colonel. 

I am indebted for most of these facts to 
the excellent summary of the history of the 
West India Regiment appearing in the 
* Records and Badges of the British Army,' 
by Mr. H. M. Chich ester, and Major Burges- 
Short, published by Clowes in 1895. Major 
Ellis wrote 'A History of the First West 
India Regiment,' which was published in 
1885 by Chapman & Hall, and is repeatedly 
referred to in ' Records and Badges.' 


" QUAPLADDE " (10 S. vi. 429). Does the 
phrase in which the word occurs allow It to 
be read as a place-name ? If so, it means 
Whaplode, in Lincolnshire. The Domesday 
spelling is Quappelode (see ' Murray's Hand- 
book for Lincolnshire,' 1890, p. '129), but 
the orthography varied during the Middle 
Ages. When the modern form succeeded 
in ousting other variants seems uncertain. 

M. P. 

MR. WILLIAMS does not mention where he 
has seen this word. It occurs in the form 
of Whaplode, Lincolnshire, and is spelt 
Cappelade in the well-known charter of 
Peterborough. I have hitherto failed to 
find any analogous word or name. 


The context in which this word appears 
is not quoted. If it be a place-name, it is 
probably one of the many spellings of Whap- 
lode, in Lincolnshire. ALFRED WELBY. 

(10 S. vi. 470, 494). I learned some fifty 
years ago the song ' Old Dog Tray,' of which 

10 s. vii. JAN. 5, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


MB. HEMS supplies the chorus. The song 
was very popular with the street boy of the 
i period, and the chorus was the subject ol 
much parody. I give the first and, I think, 
last verses : 

The morn of life is past, 

And evening conies at last ; 

It brings me a dream 

Of a once happy day, 

Of many forms I've seen, 

Upon the village green, 

Sporting with my old Dog Tray. 
Chorus Old Dog Tray 's ever faithful, &c. 

The forms I called my own 

Have vanished one by one ; 

The loved ones, the dear ones, 

Have all passed away. 

Their happy smiles are flown, 

Their gentle voices gone ; 

I 've nothing left but old Dog Tray. 
Chorus Old Dog Tray 's ever faithful, &c. 

A. W. 

vi. 368, 431, 471). Notwithstanding the 
opening words of 24 Geo. II., c. 23, " Whereas 
iihe legal supputation of the year of our 
Lord in .... England, according to which 
the year beginneth on the 25th day of 
March," I think it may be difficult to adduce 
any authority for the making of that day 
and month the beginning of the legal year. 
Coke (2 'Inst.,' fol. 675) says: "The day 
of the moneth, year of our Lord, and year 
of the king's reign, are the usual dates of 
deeda." In some ' Reports of Cases ' for 
the first three years of Charles I. there is a 
note to " Johnson's Case " : " Doderidge 
dit, * Que en volunts le ecclesiastical ley 
prist notice solement del Anno Dom. mes 
commun ley del Anno Regis.' " Both 
Pepys and Evelyn, in their respective 
diaries, constantly allude to 1 January as 
New Year's Day. All the above italics are 

AUSONE DE CHANCEL (10 S. vi. 166, 216, 
233, 335). At the last reference MR. 
LATHAM was somewhat sceptical as to the 
existence of a letter from Leon de Monte- 
na.eken, which I said at p. 234 had been 
printed in The Literary World. That paper 
used to appear weekly, but itis nowa monthly, 
and the number for December lies before me. 
After vainly turning over my papers, among 
which I thought I should find a copy of the 
Belgian poet's letter, I wrote to the Editor 
of The Literary World, who has, with great 
kindness, sent me an exact transcript of 
the original, which is of a much later date 
-than I had thought. It appeared with some 

slight omissions in the number for 3 June, 
1904, under the editorial title of ' The Real 
Thing.' I propose to give the very words 
of the letter, because MB. LATHAM said, " I 
should and so would other readers of 
'N. & Q.' like to read it." I hope our 
Editor will permit me to gratify such a 
laudable curiosity : 

Villa Leona, Sevilla, May 27, 1904. 
To the Editor of The Literary World. 
DEAR SIR, \Vhen in your number of the 
13th inst. you attributed a poem of mine to Alfred 
de Musset, I had no reason to complain, but, when 
in the following number, dated May 20th, you 
allow others to publish, as my poem, a piece which, 
although, at first sight, only slightly different, in 
my opinion is quite another thing, I must state that 
my verses were written as follows, and only thus : 
Peu de Chose et Presque Trop. 
La vie est vaine : 
Un peu d'amour, 
Un peu de haine 
Et puis bonjour ! 

La vie est breve : 
Un peu d'espoir, 
Un peu de reve 
Et puis bonsoir ! 

La vie est telle 
Que Dieu la fit ; 
Et, telle quelle, 
Elle sufiit ! 
My own English translation of same reads thus I 

Nought and Too Much. 
(To Mrs. Mary F. Johnston.) 
Life is but play : 
A throb, a tear ; 
A sob, a sneer 
And then good day ! 

Life is but jest : 
A dream, a doom ; 
A gleam, a gloom 
And then good rest ! 

Life is but such 
As wrought God's will ; 
'Tis nought, and still 
'Tis oft too much ! 

As to Dyer's quatrain in ' Grongar Hill,' n closer 
curious resemblance to it, than my poem, may, 
perhaps, be remarked in the following lines ot 

A little stout, a little ale, 
A sandwich sometimes stale 
Is all the critic, poor sinner, 
Gets between breakfast and dinner. 
I am, dear Sir, yours truly, 


I have noiw given the author's own text of 
the lines w th his English translation, which 
I had completely forgotten. Whether they 
may be called poetry, either in French or 
English, is a matter for each one's judgment ; 
but I am convinced that they have not a 
spark of the poetic fire that burns in every 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 3, 1907: 

word of the following passage, wliich treats 
of the same subject : 

Stop and consider ! Life is but a day ; 
A fragile dewdrop on its perilous way 
Prom a tree's summit ; a poor Indian's sleep 
While his boat hastens to the monstrous steep 
Of Montmorenci. Why so sad a moan ? 
Life is the rose's hope while yet unblown, 
The reading of an ever-changing tale ; 
The light uplifting of a maiden's veil ; 
A pigeon tumbling in clear summer air ; 
A laughing schoolboy without grief or care, 
Riding the springy branches of an elm. 


A KNIGHTHOOD OF 1603 (10 S. vi. 181, 257, 
474). At the last reference "the descend- 
ants of the knight of 1603 " are alluded to 
as if existing, wliich apparently is not the 
ease. The only recorded offspring of the 
said Sir German Pole (d. 1634) was a son and 
successor, German Pole, Esq., who married, 
17 Dec., 1650, Anne Newdigate, as stated, 
but d.s.p. 1683, having settled his estates 
upon his cousin and heir male Samuel Pole, 
Esq., from whom descends the present family 
of Chandos-Pole of Radbourne. Burke's 
' Landed Gentry ' shows this, and that the 
said Samuel Pole (d. 1731) had a daughter 
Millicent, who married, 1 May, 1711, Francis 

MR. STAPLETON, perhaps following the 
account of Newdigate of Arbury in Burke's 
* L. G./ speaks of " Millicent, daughter of 
German Pole, Esq., of Radbourne, co. 
Derby,"' which contradiction is doubtless 
an error. Francis Newdigate, son of the 
aforesaid Francis and Millicent, married 
his first cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Lieut. - 
General Edward Pole (third, son of the 
aforesaid Samuel), and d.s.p. ; his wife 
was not " daughter of German Pole, Esq.," 
as stated by MB. STAPLETON. 

Though the aforesaid Samuel Pole had a 
son and successor German Pole (d. 1765), 
who had an only son German, who d.v.p. 
unmarried, 1763, and two daughters, Anne 
and Mary, neither married a Newdigate. 

German Pole (d. 1765), of Radbourne, 
Esq., was. succeeded by his nephew, Col. 
Edward Sacheverell Pole, brother to Eliza- 
beth, who had married the younger (afore- 
said) Francis Newdigate. 


Pill House, Bishop's Tawton, Barnstaple. 

DOLE CUPBOARDS (10 S. vi. 429). The 
mediaeval cupboard was literally a cup- 
boardthat, in fact, which we understand 
to-day by a "sideboard." Sometimes it 
let down outwardly from a recess in the wall. 
Of this sort of cupboard there is said to be 

an example in the cells of the Carthusians 
at Florence, where a door, when opened, 
allows it to fall down outside the recess 
and form a table. (See 'The Diet, of 
Archit.,' vol. ii. p. 174; and Parker's 
' Glossary of Terms,' 1850, p. 156.) 

The dole cupboard was probably more 
especially an appurtenance of the monastery, 
since the dole (pain d'aumosne) in secular 
life was generally confined to the funerals 
of the rich, who would not consequently 
need a cupboard in constant use. At 
Lambeth thirty poor persons were relieved 
by an alms called the Dole, which was given 
three times a week, to ten persons at a 
time, alternately each person then receiv- 
ing upwards of two pounds of beef, a pitcher 
of broth, a half-quartern loaf, and twopence. 
Besides this dole, there were always, on the 
days it was given, at least thirty other 
pitchers, called " By-pitchers," brought by 
other neighbouring poor, who partook of 
the remaining broth, and the broken victuals 
at that time distributed. And so late at 
least as 1767 at Queen's College, Oxford, 
provisions were frequently distributed to 
the poor, at the door of the hall, under the 
denomination of a '' dole." (See 'Anglo- 
Norman Antiquities considered in a Tour 
through Part of Normandy,' by Dr. Ducarel 
(? 1767), p. 81. 

At the Benedictine abbey of Fecamp the 
monks were obliged, by the rules of the 
house, to give daily a large quantity of bread 
and meat to every poor person who applied 
for it, except between the first day of August 
and the first day of September, when the 
poor were supposed to be employed in the 

The funeral dole of the secular rich was 
known as the " dead dole," and was neces- 
sarily of only occasional distribution, a 
circumstance arguing, but only presumably, 
that dole cupboards were indispensable only 
where charity was administered in a fre- 
quent and regular way. They would thus 
afford accommodation for provisions such 
as bread, &c., additional to that of thebuttery. 
Dole beer, however, to judge from a passage 
in Ben Jonson's ' Alchemist ' (I. i.), was- 
kept in the buttery : 

I know you were one could keep 
The butt'ry hatch still lock'd, and save the chip- 
Sell the dole beer to aqua-vitae men. 


I have no knowledge on the subject, but 
imagine that dole cupboards would be cup- 
boards fixed up in churches to hold the 
bread loaves that were distributed as doles 

10 s. vii. JAN. 3, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


rafter the service. I rather think that 

have seen such a cupboard in use, but 
cannot remember where. J. T. F. 


Dole cupboards were used for keeping 
charity loaves. Two may be seen in 
St. Albans Abbey. A. S. LEWIS. 

Library, Constitutional Club. 

(10 S. vi. 310, 353, 394, 452). Faneuil Hal 
An Boston is not pronounced " Funnel,' 
as stated by MB. PLATT at the second refer 
'ence, except by a small and decreasing 
Temnant of the old families (Wendel 
Phillips used to roll it on his tongue witl 
great unction), and by those who adopt their 
hall-marks of tenacious special locutions for 
business or personal reasons. It never hac 
any excuse in the Faneuil family's own usage, 
that I know of, and " Fan-u-il " is now 
; almost universal. " Arkansaw " is the legal 
pronunciation, by enactment of the Arkansas 
legislature the r of course silent in Southern 
usage, and the sounds thus quite accurately 
representing the original and correct name 
of the "Akansa" tribe. " Arkanzas " is 
merely ridiculous, widely as it is used, being 
the pronunciation of French letters in English 
fashion, to give sounds they were never in- 
tended for. In French use they made 
" Ahkansaw," as they should. The English 
misuse is exactly like the comic pronuncia- 
tion of " Esquimaux " as " Eskwimawks " ; 
or the absurd ' Century Dictionary ' pro- 
nunciation of the Vancouver's Island dry- 
dock station, Esquimalt, as " Eskwimault," 
instead of the local " Squimo " it being, 
in fact, the same word as " Esquimaux," 
now universal in English as " Eskimo." 

The French of course used ou to represent 
the same sound as our w, and ch for our sh. 
In general the English form lias been sub- 
stituted in America, as Wabash (" Waw'- 
bash") for Ouabache ; but sometimes they 
exist peaceably side by side, as in Ouachita 
and Washita. Even here the English form 
gains ground. The misleading of the 
English tongue by the ch is shown in the 
occasional use of " Mitcliigan " instead of 
" Mishigan " for Michigan. Some thirteen 
years ago a writer in The Saturday Review 
sneered at the Americans as a people " who 
pronounce the name of their great city 
* She-cah-go ' " : I have never been able 
to guess what the writer would have us say 
perhaps " Tchic-a-go," sometimes heard 
on that side of the water. Of course She- 
cahgo or Shecawgo is correct. The difference 
betewen ah and aw in these names is not 

one between good and bad usage, either 
way, the good being often evenly divided. 

Incidentally, I was once severely taken 
to task by an Englishman for saying " Con- 
netticut." My trivial excuse that it was. 
correct, and there never had been any other 
pronunciation, was not admitted: "he in- 
sisted that it should be " Connecticut," as 
spelled. I might have cited Kotlierhithe 
and Cirencester, but a tu quoque is useless, 
The truth is, our forefathers had two things 
to do with the unpronounceable Indian 
guttural in " Quonnaghtekut " ; to write 
it and to pronounce it. Like sensible and 
illogical Englishmen, they did not allow 
one to interfere with the other. For the 
written form, they used the handiest avail- 
able guttural ; in pronunciation they dropped 
it altogether. But the former comes no 
nearer to the original sound than the latter. 

No single rule can be formulated for the 
acceptance of local pronunciations as final 
authorities ; they may represent a cultivated 
choice which finally determines usage, or 
mere ignorant, slovenly corruptions which 
carry no weight though in the latter case 
the inhabitants of course take all the more 
pride in them as part of their superior local 
knowledge, and scorn the " tenderfeet " 
proportionately for using more accurate 
ones. Of this sort are a great number of the 
local pronunciations of Spanish name* in 
the South West, many of which ar^ of the 
same " stripe " as " Iky on pad." Whether 
the current " Loss Angheless " will win out 
cannot, perhaps, yet be told; but " Naki- 
iosh " for Natchitoches has done so. More 
jastwardly, " Terry Hut " for Terre Haute, 
' Skinny Atlas " for Skaneateles, and the 
lot unheard " Porchmouth " for Ports- 
nouth, are of course only vulgarisms. 
k Glos-es-ter " and " Wors-es-ter," though 
sometimes used by anxiously pedantic 
people who fall into the slough on the other 
ide (the former actually sanctioned by a 
Boston city council and embodied in the 
lame of a street), are not common nor 
preading. (The curious form " Glockster " 
las been heard apparently an effort to 
>ronounce from the spelling, in conviction 
hat the clipped " Gloster " must be wrong.) 
3ut " -wich " is witch almost universally ; 
nor can I see why this restoration of his- 
orical form, through following the spelling. 
s not a good thing. It is curious that so 
nany of those who object to the " reformed w 
pelling as obliterating etymology should 
t the same time be full of scorn for " Nor- 
atch " and " Green-witch " in place of 
Xorridge " and " Grinidge," where th 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 5, 1907. 

English localism obliterates the etymology, 
and the American localism restores it. It 
would seem to indicate that the objection 
is really to something new rather than some- 
thing bad. I say this the more cheerfully 
as not a champion of the spelling movement. 

Hartford, Conn. 

S. vi. 209, 374, 472). In answer to GENEA- 
LOGIST I beg to say I have referred to my 
reply at p. 374, and at once saw the blunder 
which has occasioned his query. I fear 
I wrote hurriedly at the moment, and 
apologize. The context should of course 
run as follows: "The lady on remarriage 
should drop her first husband's name and 
title, and accept her second husband's 
position." To attempt to retain the first 
husband's courtesy title of " Honourable " 
with her second husband's surname added 
is the absurd innovation that I wish to 
inveigh against. I know, however, of two 
cases in, which it has been done one of 
which I 'alluded to in my previous reply. 
With peeresses and " dames " it is a different 
matter, but it is to courtesy titles that I 
particularly referred. CROSS-CROSSLET. 


The Dramatic Works of Richard Brinsley Sheridan. 

With an Introduction by Joseph Knight and 15 

Illustrations. (Frowde.) 

IT is pleasant to welcome in an Oxford edition the 
dramatic works of Sheridan. The special feature 
in the present handsome and convenient reprint 
consists of the illustrations, which are numerous 
and well selected. These comprise a fine portrait 
from a crayon drawing by John Russell, a second 
from Sir Joshua of Mrs. Sheridan as St. Cecilia, 
and a third of David Garrick. Actors in characters 
by Sheridan are T. Cooke as Carlos, Miss Chester as 
Lady Teazle, Mr. Terry as Sir Fretful Plagiary, Mr. 
Brown as Lord Foppington, Mrs. Siddons as Elvira, 
and Kemble as Rollo. Facsimilies of Sheridan's 
writing and one of a playbill announcing the fourth 
performance of ' The School for Scandal,' with 
views in Bath, Scarborough, and Seville, add to the 
attractions of a readable volume, which is further 
enriched by some valuable notes and a table of 
the principal dates in the life of the dramatist. 

s Peerage, Baronetcy, and Knightage of Great 
Britain and Ireland for 1907. (Whittaker & Co.) 

FOR practical purposes of reference Dod's work, 
with its admirably condensed and well-arranged 
contents, its shape at once handsome and con- 
venient, and its long - standing authority the 
present is its sixty-seventh year of publication is 
unsurpassed among works of its kind. Especially 
serviceable and easy of use is the portion devoted 

to the sons and daughters of peers bearing courtesy 
titles. As a guide, indeed, to the titled classes of 
to-day it distances in simplicity and facility of use 
all competitors. 

The Clergy Directory and Parish Guide. (J. S. 


THIS best and most trustworthy guide to the clergy 
reaches its thirty-seventh annual issue, and com- 
prises the changes in diocese effected by the recent 
Act of Parliament for the foundation of the new 
sees of Southwark and Birmingham. All the 
customary features are preserved, including an 
alphabetical list of the clergy, with dates, qualifica- 
tion, order, and appointment ; a list of parishes and 
parochial districts, giving diocese, population, &c. ;. 
the diocesan and cathedral establishments, the 
dignitaries of the Irish, Scottish, and colonial 
churches ; and a list of societies, charitable, educa- 
tional, and missionary, connected with the Estab- 
lished Church. 

The Literary Year- Book and Bookman's Director}/,. 

1907. ( Routledge & Sons. ) 

THE eleventh annual volume of this useful and 
happily named work appears with the beginning of 
the new year. In the variety of the subjects with 
which it deals it differs from and surpasses most 
kindred publications. It is now for the first time 
the organ for the publication of the returns for the 
public libraries, the work of which it undertakes 
with the assistance of the Council of the Library 
Association. In place of the 'Index to Current 
Literature' which was a feature in the two pre- 
vious issues is given a full bibliography of George 
Meredith, which constitutes a separate and con* 
eluding portion. 

An Almanack for the Year 1907. By Joseph 

Whitaker, F.S.A. (Whitaker & Sons.) 
AMONG the books of reference which are generally 
readiest to the hand and most frequently and re- 
muneratively consulted, 'Whitaker's Almanack 3 
holds, by universal consent, a conspicuous position.. 
Of it may almost be said, as of the great university 
don, that its foible is omniscience, and that, includ- 
ing the Supplement, it tells all concerning this and 
foreign countries that the ordinary man seeks to' 
know. Among novelties introduced into the 
present issue are treatises on army reform and the 
growth in London of travelling facilities, together 
with an epitomized account of the British military 

Whitaker's Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage, and 
Companionage for the Year 1907. (Whitaker & 

AMONG works of its class ' Whitaker's Peerage *' 
counts as the cheapest and not the least trust- 
worthy. The arrangement, which is alphabetical,, 
facilitates reference. 

"THE MUSES' LIBRARY" of Messrs. Routledge 
has been enriched with The Poem* of Thomax Love- 
Peacock, edited by Brimley Johnson. These in a 
complete form are first brought together and sym- 
pathetically introduced in this little volume, "the- 
size, price, and pictures of which are out of all pro- 
portion with its worth. To the same series have 
been added Roundell Palmer's (Lord Selborne's) 
Book of Praise and Thomson's Season* and Castle of 
Indolence, and other PoemK, in two volumes, form- 
ing together Thomson's complete poetical works. 

10 s. VIL JAN. 3, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


MB. ARTHUR HALL. The Times of Saturday last 
contained an announcement of the death on 27 De- 
cember of Mr. Arthur Hall, at the advanced age of 
eighty-three. He was for a considerable time in 
business in Paternoster Row, but retired about 
twenty years ago. He was a frequent contributor 
to 'N. & Q.' both under his own name and the 
initials A. H., as may be seen on reference to the 
long lists of his articles in the General Index to 
the Ninth Series. 


WE cannot begin our rambles among the old book 
stores without wishing our friends a prosperous 
new year. The past year has not been a bad one, 
and with the revival of trade we may look for yet 
better results. We are glad to know from a friend 
of large experience that early printed books and 
lirst editions of great writers continue to keep up 
in price. The early books of Tennyson are ex- 
amples of this, but those later than ' The Princess ' 
in 1847 were printed in such large editions that they 
are not likely to become scarce. We should much 
like to see the first editions of Macaulay's ' England' 
more sought after, and hope they will appreciate 
in price. 

Mr. B. H. Blackwell, of Oxford, sends us his 
Catalogue CXV. The larger portion is devoted to 
Philology, but the supplemental list should be 
looked at by all fond of choice bindings, for it 
contains a few of those for which the Oxford Press 
obtained the " Grand Prix " at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1900. 

Mr. Thomas Carver, of Hereford, has in his 
List 47 ' yEsop's Fables,' edited by L'Estrange, 25*. 
(contains book-plate of David Garrick) ; ' Dryden's 
Fables,' Bensley, 1797, K. 7*. 6d. ; Lubbock's Hun- 
dred Best Books, 11. 10*. ; Schoolcraft's ' Indian 
Tribes of the United States,' Philadelphia, 1851, 
21. 10*. ; first edition of ' Gulliver,' 1726, 31. &*. ; 
Edition de Luxe of Armstrong's ' Turner,' Agnew, 
1902, }0(. 10*. : another copy, ordinary edition, 5/. ; 
Maurice's ' Indian Antiquities,' 7 vols., 1794, 20*. ; 
and Hamilton's 'French Book-Plates,' 30s. In a 
long list under Hereford there is a choice set of 
Wathen's views of the Cathedral in ruins, 1786, 
51. 5*. These include the view of the west tower 
and front taken just before its fall, 17 April (Easter 
Monday), 1786. 

Messrs. Drayton & Sons send vis from Exeter 
Catalogue 183, which contains some beautiful works 
tinder Art. These include ' Chinese Hand-coloured 
Paintings,' 2 vols., folio, 1850,63*.; Hayley's 'Life 
of Romney,' 1809, 61. 6s.; Lord Ronald Gower's 
' Sir Thomas Lawrence,' 94*. 6d. ; and Mason's 
'Josephine,' Goupil, 30*. There are first editions 
of Ainsworth's 'Tower of London,' 50*., and 
' Windsor Castle,' 35*. ; of Jane Austen's ' North- 
anger Abbey,' and 'Persuasion,' 4 vols., 2. 15*. 
(wants one half - title page) ; and of ' Nicholas 
Nickleby,' 25*. Other items are the "Author's 
Favourite Edition" (48 vols.) of the Waverley 
Novels, 31. 15*.; and the "Memorial Edition" of 
Bewick, 52*. 6d. 

Mr. Francis Edwards's Catalogue 287 contains 
the Royal Asiatic Society's Journal, 38 vols., 18f.j 
Moxon's edition of Beaumont and Fletcher, 11 vols., 
9/. 9*. ; first editions of Charlotte Bronte's ' Pro- 
fessor,' 3 vols., 1857, 30*. ; 'Shirley,' 3 vols., 1849, 

30*.; and 'Villette,' 3 vols., 1853, 20*.; the original 
edition of Burton's ' Arabian Nights,' 16 vols., 30/.; 
' Corot and his Work,' by Hamel, 3/. (only twenty 
copies of this edition remain out of 200) ; Dickens's 
Christmas books, 5 vols., all first editions except 
the ' Carol,' 4/. 4*.; Harding's ' Biographical Mirror,' 
brilliant impressions of the portraits, 1795-1802,. 
14/. 10*. ; and The London Gazette, 1848 - 1900, 
222 vols., 30?. Under London we find Maitland 

8/.; Walter Pater's Works, first edition, 91.; and a 
complete set of The Portfolio, 1870-93, 24 vols., 12/. 
There is a rare book, the life of Roger Crab, ' The 
English Hermite, or Wonder of this Age.' He sold 
a considerable estate to give to the " Poore," show- 
ing his reasons from Scripture. He counted it a 
sin against " his body and soule to eate any sort of 
Flesh, Fish, or living creature." The book has a 
portrait, and contains 15 pages, small 4to, boards, . 
1655, 4/. 4*. 

Messrs. E. George & Sons' Catalogue 44 is devoted" 
to Natural History and kindred subjects. We find 
Westwood's ' Moths,' 3/. ; several early editions of 
Bewick's ' Quadrupeds ' ; Harvey's ' British Sea- 
weeds,' &. 15*.; Seebohm's ' British Birds,' 61. 10*.; 
Yarrell's ' Birds,' 4/. 4*., &c. 

Mr. George Gregory, of Bath, includes in his 
List 175 Alken's ' Military Occurrences,' 1820, 30/.; 
Mrs. Williamson's ' Book of Beauty,' 1896, 65*. ; 
Bryan's 'Painters,' 90*.; Time* edition of 'The 
Encyclopaedia Britannica,' with revolving book- 
case, 16?. ; Sloane's ' Life of Napoleon,' 4 vols., 
40*. ; and Punch 1841 - 1902, a choice set of the 
original issue, half-calf, 25/. Under Somerset is 
much of interest. There are reproductions of 
engravings by John Raphael Smith. 

Mr. William Hitchman, of Bristol, has in Cata- 
logue 43 Mortimer's ' Burial Mounds of East York- 
shire,' 21. 2*.; ' Bartolozzi,' by Andrew Tuer, 31. 3*.r 
Jasper's 'Birds of North America,' 31. 3*.; Walter 
Crane's ' Faerie Queene,' 31. 7*. 6d. ; Pooley's ' Old 
Stone Crosses of Somerset,' 25*.; Pugh's 'Cambria 
Depitca,' 1816, 4/. 10*. ; ' Rubens,' by Max Rooses, 
2 vols., 4to, 1904, 21. 10*.; and Howell and Cobbett's 
'State Trials,' 14Z. 14s. 

Mr. Edward Ho well's Liverpool Catalogue 156 
has in the original boards, uncut, ' Pictures repre- 
senting the Early Period of the French Revolution,' 
12 large portraits, imperial folio, Paris, 1803, 51. 5*. 
Under America we note Barnard's ' History of Eng- 
land,' folio, 1782, 3/. (the prints in fine condition, 
including Corriwallis's surrender to Washington), 
and a good sound copy of Esquemeling's ' History 
of the Buccaneers of America,' with 25 plates, in- 
cluding the rare portrait of Sir Henry Morgan 
London, 1699, 5/. 18*. John Marshall's 'Life of 
Washington,' 5vols.,4to, extra-illustrated, London, 
1824, is 20/. Under Bacon is Pickering's edition, 
17 vols., calf, 10/. 15*. ; also Pope's own copy of the 
'Advancement of Learning.' with the inscription 
on back of portrait, " The Lord Bacon's Advance- 
ment of Learning. Exlibris Alex. Pope. Ver. 3." 
Other items include Dorat's ' La Declamation 
Theatrale ' (this copy of a very rare book is superbly 
bound), Paris, 1766, 101.; Rogers's ' Poems,' Moxon, 
1838, 20^. (this is extra-illustrated with duplicate 
set of India proofs, and the binding probably cost 
357.) ; ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 14/. (" Times net 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. JAN. 5, 1907. 

price for this is 38/.") ; and a first edition of the 
* Greville Memoirs,' with the suppressed passages, 
If. 10*. There are long lists under Napoleon, 
French Revolution, and Lancashire. 

Mr. George P. Johnston, of Edinburgh, includes 
in his Catalogue 81 many interesting Scottish books. 
We note a few items : ' A List of the Adventures in 
the Bank of Scotland,' 1704 and various years to 
1778, also the proprietors in the stock in 1817, 63*. ; 
4 Poems by Drummond of Hawthoniden,' first issue, 
1656, 16/. ; Leightpn's ' Appeal to the Parliament, 
or Sion's Plea against the Prelacy,' 15*. No date is 
given. The author was the father of the Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, and for publishing this book he 
was whipped, pilloried, had his nose slit, ears cut 
off, was branded " S. S." (sower of sedition), fined 
10,000/., and sentenced to perpetual imprisonment. 
He was released in 1640 by the Long Parliament, 
but died insane not long after. There are a number 
of works under Witchcraft. Among general items 
are some of Pickering's beautiful "Diamond 
Classics," including Dante, Catullus, Cicero, &c. 

Herr Georg Lissa sends from Berlin his Cata- 
logue 42, mostly devoted to German literature, 
containing items iinder Afrika, Amerika, Faust, 
Goethe, Schiller, &c. Among French works is the 
4 Galerie Lithographiee ' of the Duke of Orleans. 

Mr. James Roche's Catalogue 151 has a volume 
containing interesting tracts, &c., one being 'The 
Case and Memoirs of the Rev. James Hackman and 
of his Acquaintance with Miss Martha Reay,' 
with portrait, II. 5*. M. ; The Monthly Mirror, 
11 vols., I/. 18*. 6rf. ; Clouet's 'Three Hundred 
French Portraits,' 2 vols., folio, 1875, 3/. 15*. ; 
Upham's ' History of Buddhism,' 1829, 31. 10*. ; 
'Dramatic Recollections,' by N. S. R., 13 plates of 
Macready, 2 parts folio, 1838-9 ("no reference to 
their publication in any biography "), I/. 10*. ; 
A'Beckett's 'Comic History of England,' 2 vols., 
and 'Comic History of Rome,' 1847, 31. 18*. 6d. ; 


SamuelButler,' 4 vols., royal 8vo, 1819-27, 31-. 18*. &/.; 
Daniell's ' Oriental Scenery,' 1812-16, '21. 5*. ; and a 
long list under India and the East. 

Messrs. Sotheran & Co.'s Price Current 668 is full 
of valuable items. We note a few : Bancroft's 
' Historical Works on Western American Origins,' 
39 vols., San Francisco, 1883-93, 19/. ; and the rare 
edition of Dante, 1477, 42/. (the fifteen leaves some- 
times found, containing the life by Boccaccio, are 
not in this copy). Another excessively rare book is 
the first edition of ' The Golden Legend,' printed 
wholly by Wynkyn de Worde, 1498 (title and some 
leaves missing), 75f. It has the very rare woodcut 
of the Annunciation and the Crucifixion. Match- 
less copies on large paper of Dibdin's ' Decameron,' 
. and 'Picturesque Tour,' first editions, 6 vols., 
brown morocco extra, 1817-23, are 70/.; a set of the 
Edinburgh to 1903 is 28/. ; complete set of Folk-lore 
Society's Publications, 40/.; a set of the Geographical 
Society's Journal and Publications, 32/. ; and Wai- 
pole's Works, best library editions, 1845-59, 35/. A 
very choice Shakespeare set in 23 vols., olive 
morocco by Lewis, 1791-1805, is 63/. This comprises 
the Samuel Johnson and George Steevens edition, 
15 vols., large paper (only 25 sets thus), Malone's 
' Supplement,' Ayscough's ' Index,' and Hardings' 
-* Shakespeare Illustrated.' Later books include 

the works of Borrow, 1843-62, 11 vols., III. 11*. ; 
Motley, 9 vols., 12^. 12*. ; Swinburne, 28 vols., 21 /. ; 
Tennyson, including 'Life,' 16/. 16*. ; Thackeray, 
24 vols., 15/. 15*.; and the'" Gadshill Edition" qf 
Dickens, 167. Ifts. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp's London Catalogue 25 con- 
tains some first editions of R. D. Blackmore's 
works ; a set of Balzac, " Japanese Vellum Edition," 
10 vols., 1897, 2/. 18*. ; a collection of old military 
broadsides, 1797, 31. ,3*. ; Shelley's Works, Moxon, 
1847, 3 vols., original green cloth, uncut, 2/. 10*. ; 
and a beautiful copy of Montaigne's k Essays,' 1613, 
panelled calf by Zaehnsdorf, 9/. 10*. 

Catalogue 5 from Mr. Thorp's Gilildford's house 
contains RafFaelle, 'Loggie nel Vaticano,' the 55 

Paris, 1811, 2 vols., royal folio, 3/. 3*.; Rowlandson's 
' Naples,' 1815, 31. 15s. : Finden's ' Portraits of the 
Court of Victoria,' Hogarth, 1849, 2 vols., folio, 
31. 15*. 

Mr. George Winter's Catalogue 44 opens with a 
collection of fifteen items of MS. and printed 
volumes in Arabic, Persian, and Hindustani. There 
are long lists under Angling and Art. In the 
latter we find Comte Athanase Raczynski's ' His- 
toire de 1'Art Moderne en Allemagne,' Paris, 1836, 
5/. 5*. ; Pietsch's 'Contemporary German Art,' 
37*. M-. ; and Solly's ' Life of David Cox,' 25*. The 
general list contains first editions of Swinburne 
and Lever. 

JIV muvt call special attention to the following 
notice* : 

Ox all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

WE cannot undertake to advise correspondents 
as to the value of old books and other objects or as 
to the means of disposing of them. 

SIGMA COUNT. Quite unsuitable for our columns. 

J. M. BULLOCH and M. J. D. COCKLE. For- 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which,, for any reason, we do not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

w s. vii. JAN. 5, 1907.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


(Continued from Second Advertisement Page). 



Contents .-General, including Periodicals The Near 
East, Turkey, Asia Minor Africa Egypt Arabia Persia 
-and Afghanistan British India, Burma and Ceylon 
Australia, New Zealand, &c. Supplement. 

Also a ROUGH LIST of some Second-hand Books on the 
Languages and Literature of Asia, Africa, Turkey, including 
rsome Books on Biblical Literature. 

Sent gratis on application to 

L U Z A C & CO., 

Foreign and Oriental Booksellers, 




Witchcraft in the \Vest Indies, by H. J. Bell Kirke's 
Twenty-Five Years in British Guiana Emma, Lady 
Hamilton, by J. T. H. Baily Morgan's Ancient 
Society, &c. 

Sole Agency for Sale of the Proceedings of this Society 
Lists of Prices and Parts free on application. Miscel- 
laneous Catalogue No. 286, 44 pp. 

Burma, Malay Archipelago, Japan, China, Persia, 
Central Asia, &c. MARCH, 1906. 100pp. 




PHLETS, and OLD BOOKS on many Subjects. 


CATALOGUES post free. 




Libraries Purchased. Distance no object 



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Catalogues published Monthly, and sent free upon \ 





300 Examples on 100 Plates. With Introduction and 
Notes by E. PHIPSOX. 1896. 4to (pub. 2,1. 2s. net), 
10*. 6d. 

DRAL. Drawn and Etched by JOS. HALFPENNY, 
1795. Preface by Canon EAINE. 1890. Folio 
(pub. 3J. 3s.), 25s. 

ELY. Illustrated in 55 Collotype Plates, with Descrip- 
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twice as quickly. Write to them. Their address is : 


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Choice Books. 
Rare Autographs & MSS. 

NOW READY, price 1a. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. JAN. 5, 1907. 

FEANCI8 EDWAEDS will be pleased to send, 
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Being Supplement No. 2 of AUSTRALASIAN CATALOGUE. 









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CONTENTS. No. 159. 
NOTES : Orwell Town and Haven, 21 "Shall Trelawny 
Die?" 23 King's 'Classical and Foreign Quotations,' 24 
-"Buskin" Pennell's 'Life of Leland ' Washington 
Pedigree, 25 Cambridge Booksellers and Printers The 
Scots Greys and Grey Horses Holed-Stone Folk-lore : 
" Night - hags " Parish Registers: Curious Entries, 26 

Major Hamill of Capri Edward IV. 's Wooing at 
Graf ton, 27. 

QUERIES : John Newbery's Grave Palimpsest Brass 
Inscriptions, 27 Goulton Brass Wordsworth's Primrose 
Mrs. Moore's ' Modern Pilgrim's Progress ' Godfery 
Vining Family, 28 "Posui Deum adjutorem meum" 
Be wickiana Towns unlucky for Kings "King Copin" : 
"St. Cpppin" Kennedy Family and Maryland "Bone 
Deus" in Epitaphs" Eslyngton" : Islington Jerusalem 
Court, Fleet Street Reynolds's Portraits of Miss Gre- 
ville, 29 Boundaries and Humorous Incidents Coslett 
'Army List,' 1642 Cambridge University Chancellor, 1842 

Queen Victoria of Spain : Name - Day Barbadoes : 
Barbydoys, 30. 

HEPLIES : 'The Christmas Boys,' 30 Bidding Prayer, 32 
Split Infinitive in Milton' The Canadian Girl 'Victor 
Hugo's Property in England The Admirable Crichton 
"Over fork: fork over" "Omne bonum Dei donum" 
Bell-Horses, 33 Localities Wanted Byron's ' Don Juan ' 
Musical Composers as Pianists ' Death and the Sinner,' 
34 Authors of Quotations Wanted St. Edith Roose- 
velt: its Pronunciation, 35 The Ainsty of York Cali- 
f ornian English : American Coin-Names, 36 Clippingdale 

T. Chippendale, Upholsterer, 37 "Searchers" 
Admiral Christ Epitaph Lady Arbella Johnson, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lang's 'Homer and his Age' 
'Popular Ballads of the Olden Time ' Reviews and 

Notices to Correspondents. 


" ORE WELL " is mentioned by Chaucer 
in the Prologue to his ' Canterbury Tales,' 
where the merchant expresses a wish that 

the see were kepte for any thinge 
Bytwyxe Myddelboroughe and Orewell. 

Prof. Skeat in his notes (v. 30) identifies 
Orewell with the river of that name, and 
adds that the spot was formerly known as 
the port of Orwell ; and he comes to the 
conclusion that the mention of Middelburg 
in Holland tends to prove that the Prologue 
was written not earlier than 1384 (? 1382) 
nor later than 1388, that is, at a time when 
the wool staple was temporarily located 
at that Dutch town, and not at Calais. 
Chaucer of course meant the haven, and not 
the river, and it has been a moot point among 
historians whether a town of Orwell has 
ever existed or not. Two contributions 
have appeared recently in The English 
Historical Review on this very much debated 

The first contributor, Mr. R. G. Marsden, 
in the 1906 January number of the Review, 
boldly J heads his article ' The Mythical 
'Town of Orwell,' and winds up with the 
following verdict : 

"The result of the evidence seems to be that, 
notwithstanding the occasional mention of a ' Villa 
de Orwell ' [in documents between 1229 and 1466], 
there never was a town of that name, but that 
Harwich town and harbour and Orwell haven, 
including its shores and the river up to Ipswich, 
were sometimes [sic] called Orwell." 

Mr. Marsden admits, however, that if no 
town of Orwell ever existed, the documents 
mentioning a " villa de Orwell " require 
explanation, which he furnishes forthwith. 
According to him, " there seems to have 
been a tendency amongst the scribes who 
drew up writs. . . .to invent a town where 
only a river or harbour existed." (It is 
very difficult to imagine how a harbour can 
exist without a town.) The "mayor of 
the town of Orwell," he thinks, is probably 
a mistake of the same kind. The similarity 
of old forms of the names of Harwich and 
Orwell may have also given rise to confusion. 
Consequently it is not surprising that Orwell, 
or one of its variants, should have been used 
for Harwich, and vice versa. Yet we are 
told that in four documents Orwell appears 
to be distinguished from Harwich or Ipswich, 
for those towns are mentioned as well as 

The four documents in question were duly 
dealt with in the October number of the 
Review by Mr. J. H. Wylie, who joins issue 
with Mr. Marsden, and maintains that 
Orwell cannot properly be called a mythical 
town. Two of the deeds mention Ipswich 
and Orwell, but not Harwich, and conse- 
quently do not help to any definite solution. 
The third, however, is an order to the bailiffs 
of certain towns to cause all owners and 
masters of ships to come to Erewell, in Suffolk 
(1326) ; upon the same occasion separate 
writs were issued to Harwich and Orwell. 
The fourth document (44 Edward III., 1370) 
refers to payments to some messengers for 
going to the mayor and bailiffs of Harwich, 
and to others for going on similar errands 
to Ipswich and Orwell. Besides these 
proofs, Mr. Wylie quotes from Rymer's 
' Feeder a ' a proclamation addressed in 
1387 to the bailiffs of the town of Orwell, 
and another on the same page to the bailiffs 
of Harwich. 

Proofs like the foregoing can be multiplied. 
Thus the ' Calendar of Patent Rolls of 
Edward II.' contains the following entries : 

1326, 16 Aug. Parliamentary writs ap- 
pointing four men in the ports and towns 
of Herewiz and elsewhere in the county of 
Essex, and three other men in Ipswich, 
Erewell, and Goseford, the last named being 
another " unknown " (i.e. mythical) town, 
according to Mr. Marsden. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAK 12, 1907. 

1325, 22 March.!* Writ of aid for one year 
mentioning the appointment, a few years 
before (14 Edward II.), of collectors in the 
towns and ports of Oreford, Goseford, 
Erewell, and Ipswich, all in the county of 

1326, 18 Feb. and 12 April. Commission 
of oyer and terminer in the suit against 
Adam Payne, of Arewell, Richard Love and 
Roger atte Hide, both of Harwich, and 
many other men, who have carried away 
a great fish called " cete " found in the 
manor of Walton, in Essex. Mr. Marsden 
mentions Payne, but not the other two men. 

A document dated 3 Sept., 1326, about 
the assembly of ships at Erewell, mentions 
also the port of Herewiz. 

1326, 10 Sept. Appointment of three 
men to select twelve ships in the towns of 
Harwich and Ipswich and their members, 
to be at Orfordnesse on a certain day to 
repel the enemy if they attempt a landing 
there while the fleet is assembled at Erewell. 

Mr. Karl Kunze in his ' Hanseakten aus 
England ' (Halle, 1891) has published some 
documents which bear upon our subject. 
They are as under : 

1314, 24 Sept. Patent Roll containing 
the king's order about a ship seized " in 
portu de Herwico." A similar order of 
same date about goods illegally seized in 
Orwell Haven. A similar order, dated 
20 Sept., 1314, about a ship seized in Har- 
wich harbour. 

1403. Complaints of certain merchants 
of Prussia about the illegal seizure of ships 
from " Danczik " laden with salt. " Navis 
est apud Orwell." 

1404. Complaint of the " consulatus " 
of Hamburg about the seizure of a ship by 
the brothers Thomas and John Rudde, 
who took her "in Norwelle," where they 
divided with others the cargo. The host of 
the said brothers "in Norwelle," whose 
name was Cogghendorp,* received as his 
share of the spoil 10 lasts of beer (" 10 laste 
cervisiarum "). We are told elsewhere in 
the same document that in those days 
" quelibet lasta [cervisie] comprehendit 12 
vasa et quelibet lasta taxata est in valorem 
8 nobl." 

The last two documents do not mention 
Harwich, and therefore do not help to any 
solution, but are of some interest apart from 
the present controversy. 

Mr. Wylie quotes also a document of 

* About 1378 a ship, whose master was Conrad 
Westfal, "veniens ad portum Orwell, quidam de 
Herewich, nomine Cockenthorp ipsam navem 
arrestavit" (' Hanserecesse,' vol. lii. p. 192). 

1355 mentioning a vicar of Orwell, but, the 
county not being mentioned, it is quite- 
possible that it refers to the place of the- 
same name which belonged to the diocese 
of Ely, and was situated in the county of 
Cambridge, where the Gilbertian canons 
had a monastery. g^> 

One of the proofs adduced by Mr. Marsden 
in support of his contention that the name 
of " Orwell " was occasionally used for 
" Harwich " is that we find sometimes the 
same ship described indifferently as " of 
Harwich " and " of Orwell," and ships 
owned in Harwich are called " of Orwell." 
He cites five examples, to test four of which 
would necessitate a visit to the Public 
Record Office. The fifth ship, named the 
Erasmus, is mentioned in one of the docu- 
ments quoted, but not in the other, amongst 
the ships of the Iceland fleet then recently 
returned to England. Moreover, the Eras- 
mus belonged to a period (i.e., Henry VIII.'s 
reign), when, as we shall presently see, the 
town of Orwell was no longer in existence. 
Two ships out of the other four belonged 
to a still more recent period, and therefore 
three out of the five ships prove nothing. 

It has already been pointed out by Mr. 
Wylie that Harwich is in the county of 
Essex. Orwell, on the other hand, is as a 
rule referred to in the documents as being in 
Suffolk ; but there are exceptions to this 
rule. Thus, e.g., a Patent Roll of 14 
Henry III. (1230) conveys an order to 
seize all " naves in portubus de Erewell et 
in aliis portubus comitatus Essexie invent as"; 
and the document is headed " De navibus 
in comitatu Essexie arrestandis." Old Silas 
Taylor, alias Domville, who wrote in 1676, 
also tells us that 

"the principal officers of his Majesty's Ordinance 
in the Tower of London do still (according to 
former precedents) continue the Writing of Land- 
guard-Fort in Essex." Sam. Dale's 'History of 
Harwich and Dovercourt' (London, 1730), p. 15. 

Some lines lower down, however, the same 
writer states that south-west of the fort 
" is the entrance into the Harbour," showing 
that, as regards the county in which Land- 
guard Fort was situated, he was at variance 
with the principal officers in the Tower. 

The order dated 18 Feb., 1351, to the col- 
lectors of the twopenny subsidy in the port 
of Orewell, as to how to deal with a certain 
ship driven by tempest into that port, does 
not state the county, and it is only the 
modern index that assigns the port to Essex 
(' Cal. of Close Rolls Edward III.'). 

On the other hand, some explanation is 
required what power the Sheriff of Essex 

10 s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

had to arrest a ship at Orwell, as mentioned 
in the order, dated 11 Feb., 1345, to 
" dearrest " the ship in question (ibidem, 
p. 549). 

Another ship was arrested by the same 
sheriff in the port of Harwich, also in 1345 
(ibidem, pp. 512 and 551). 

Again, in 1339 there was a fracas about a 
foreign ship in the port of Orewell, between 
some men from Great Yarmouth and the 
men of Herewicz, and the bailiffs of both 
places received instructions in this matter, 
but not those of Orewell. 

Both cases can be explained by the fact 
that Orwell Haven stretched right across 
to the Essex shore, although the town itself 
stood in Suffolk. Thus Silas Taylor quotes 
(p. 14) from " a deed with seals " of a grant 
of a messuage in Harwich " uno capite 
abut, [sic] super stratum ducentem usque 
ad portum Orwell," in 1 Edw. IV. (1461). 

Mr. Marsden himself mentions the case 
of a ship arrested " on the water at Orwell, 
in the county of Essex, a place adjacent to 
Ipswich." No date is given, and I must 
therefore refrain from all comment. 

As a matter of curiosity I may quote one 
or two data from the ' Hansisches Ur- 
kunden Buch,' edited by Karl Kunze (vol. vi., 
Leipzig, 1905, and vol. ix.) they are : "In 
villa Herwich super Norwell " (1427), 
" buten [outside] Norwelle in de Woes " 
(1432), and "Orwell Kaldewater " (1468). 
These occur in letters written by German 

In the same collection we find " in portu 
de Goseford by Baldresea in Suffolk " (1323). 

Another German, Johann Rover, dates 
his letter from " Herwycht in Norwelle " 
on St. John's Day, 1437 (' Hanserecesse,' 
vol. ii.). There are in the same volume 
several letters, some written " in dem schepe 
in der haven von Norwel " and others at 
" lebeswyk " (Ipswich) in 1436. 

As regards the evidence derived from old 
maps and charts, Mr. Marsden is quite right 
that no map shows distinctly an Orwell 
town. One, said to be of the thirteenth 
century (Cotton MS. Julius D. vii.), has the 
following names between Colchester and 
" sestuarium Orford " : " Hippell " (? Har- 
wich or Ipswich), Anwelle (Orwell), Angulus 
Anglie, and " Coleford " (? Goseford). There 
are no rivers or indentations of the coast 
shown, and the names are all on the land. 
I cannot, however, agree with Mr. Marsden 
on the point that all maps of the sixteenth 
century are so rude and imperfect that they 
afford no assistance. There are some 
exceptions, as, e.g., Cotton MSS. Augustus I. 

vol. i. 57 and 58, both undated, but un- 
questionably of the time of Henry VIII. ; 
and a third of the same series, dated 28 
Eenry VIII. (1537), which shows some 
fortifications projected by Henry Lee, on& 
on the Essex and the other on the Suffolk 
side of the entrance from the " Mayne Sea." 
All three plans are drawn to a large scale, 
and agree upon the point that Orwell Haven 
was in Henry VTII.'s time the name of the 
short estuary formed by the confluence of 
the two rivers called the Stour and the 
Orwell to-day, the former river being called 
" the creek going to Mannetre " on one, and 

the water to Mannetre " on the other 
chart, and the latter " the creek going to 
Ippswiche " on one, and " the water to 
Gipswiche " on the other chart. 

The same estuary is again clearly marked 
as " Orwell hauen " on Christofer Saxton's 
map of 1575, and also on Blaew's map of 
the county of Essex of about 1636. 

On the special chart in 'The Mariner's 
Mirrour,' by Luke Wagenaer, of Enkhuisen, 
however, the name of Orwell Haven occurs 
on the land, on the sea side of Landguard 
Point, and there is a small indentation of 
the coast. The author's ' Admonition to the 
Reader' is dated 1586, and the Preface of 
the English editor, Anthony Ashley, 1588. 

On Capt. Grenville Collins's chart, on the 
other hand, the name of Orwell Haven, 
though still on the land, is transferred to the 
harbour side of the Point, and is placed 
against the mouth of a creek. The date of 
this chart is 1686, and it is included in the 
second part of the captain's " Coasting 
Pilot," which was published in 1693. 

While on the subject of charts and maps, 
I may mention that on one Cotton MS. 
Landguard Point is named " Lunger Pointe," 
on another (No. 58) " Langer Point," and 
" The Poll Head " is shown as an island on 
the latter. On Saxton's map the name is 
" Langerston." I have read the statement 
that " maps of the date of 1700 showed 
Landguard Fort as detached from the main- 
land and considerably northward of its 
present site," but they, no doubt, showed 
the more ancient fort mentioned by Silas 
Taylor and Dale, and not the present 
structure. L. L. K. 

(To be continued.) 


IT is generally accepted that while 
" Hawker of Morwenstow " wrote the 
verses of this well-known Cornish song, 
the burden, 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907. 

And shall Trelawny die, and shall Trelawny die ? 
'Then thirty thousand Cornishmen will know the 
reason why, 

Is very much older, and is usually associatec 
with the arrest by James II. of Sir Jonathan 
Trelawny, Bishop of Bristol, one of " the 
Seven Bishops," in 1688. As sung at dinners 
of Cornishmen to-day whether held in or 
out of the " delectable Duchy " the number 
is accustomed to be given as twenty thou- 
sand ; but a curious piece of evidence has 
come to light which indicates that the idea 
of thirty thousand Cornishmen (the number 
adopted by Macaulay) being ready for some 
political fight or other was prevalent at the 
period of the Revolution. 

In Michaelmas Term of 1693 an informa- 
tion was exhibited in the Crown Office against 
Richard Edgecombe for speaking and pub- 
lishing divers dangerous and seditious words 
against the Government of William and 
Mary in the October of that year, he sayin 
that he would fight for King James am 
endeavour to restore him, and that thirty 
thousand men were ready. For this he was 
bound to appear at the next assizes for 
Cornwall in 1694, holden at Launceston ; 
and, being thoroughly frightened, he peti- 
tioned their Majesties, in February, 1694, 
for a stay of proceedings. The matter was 
referred to the Attorney-General for report ; 
and that law officer had before him not only 
Edgecombe's original allegation that the 
prosecution appeared to be malicious, of 
which there seems no evidence, but a 
certificate from the accused attesting his 
loyalty, and alleging that he was greatly 
distempered by drink at the time. This 
combination of pleas weighed with the 
Attorney-General, who recommended the 
issue of a warrant for a cessat processus 
(' Domestic State Papers, William and 
Mary, 1694-5,' pp. 26, 191) ; and thus a 
trial ^was prevented which must have thrown 
some light upon the Jacobite movement 
then seething in Cornwall. 

Who was this Richard Edgecombe, how- 
ever, is not obvious. He could scarcely 
have been Richard Edgcumbe, of Cotehele, 
1st Baron Mount Edgcumbe, and only son of 
Sir Richard Edgcumbe, of Cotehele and 
Mount Edgcumbe, one of Charles II.'s 
Knights of the Bath (made so previously to 
the coronation in order to attend that 
ceremony), who had sat for Launceston in 
the Pensionary Parliament, elected in 
1661, and had been returned for Cornwall 
in March, 1679, October, 1679, and 1681, 
dying in 1688. This Richard was baptized 
on 23 April, 1680, and therefore was no more I 

than fourteen at the time of the record I 
have quoted. But the Edgcumbe family 
in the county was a large and popular one, 
and among its members may well have been 
another Richard to make the alleged vaunt. 


[That thirty thousand was the number familiar 
in 1772 is shown in the article by COL. PKIDEAUX 
on ' The Trelawny Ballad ' at 10 S. i. 83.] 


(See 10 S. ii. 281, 351 ; iii. 447.) 
UNDER 1558, " Misericordia Domini inter 
pontem et fontem," Mr. King refers to the 
1636 (fifth) edition of Camden's ' Remaines,' 
where these words are ascribed to St. 
Augustine. The passage in the first edition 
(1605) is on p. 55 of ' Certaine Poemes,' 
&c., printed, with separate pagination, at 
the end of the book. The quotation, appa- 
rently, is not to be found in Augustine 
(see 8 S. viii. 518 ; ix. 258). 

Camden presumably made up the ' Re- 
maines ' from notes which, in some instances, 
may have been many years old ; but, apart 
from the question of priority in time, it is 
worth pointing to the following : 

" The mercy of God is never to be despayred of, 
put still to be expected, even inter pontem ef fontem, 
jiif/iil/rm ft (jladiuin" ' Diary of John Manningham, 
1602-3,' Camden Soc., 1868, p. 9. 

This seems to belong to the year 1602, and 
is among some brief notes of a sermon by a 
Mr. Phillips. 

The interesting thing is that the fuller 

'orm of the quotation in the ' Diary ' corre- 
sponds with that used by Robert Burton 

' Anatomy of Melancholy,' near the end of 
Part I., p. .277 in the first edition, 1621) : 
" Thus of their goods and bodies we can dispose, 

nit what shall become of their soules, God alone 

:an tell, his mercy may come inter pontem et fontem, 

nter yladium et iugulum." 

As to Mr. Phillips the editor of the 

Diary ' makes no suggestion, but one may 

conjecture that he was Edward Philips, 

' certaine Godly and learned " sermons of 

horn, delivered in St. Saviour's, Southwark, 

were taken down and afterwards published 
1605) by Henry Yelverton, the future 
fudge. See Foster's ' Alumni Oxon.,' 

70\. iii. p. 1156 (Edward Philipps), and 

Bliss's edition of Wood's ' Athenae Ox- 
nienses,' vol. i. col. 739 (Edward Philips, 

who died, says Wood, " as I guess, in. 1603, 

or thereabouts "). 

I have looked through the sermons, but 

10 s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

do not find that which Manningham heard. 
The quotation is still to trace. 


University College, Aberystwyth. 

When at Brighton lately I happened to 
take down from the Free Library reference 
shelves, freely open to readers, a book with 
which I am sorry to say I was not before 
acquainted, King's ' Classical and Foreign 

In the ' Quotations Index ' I observe one 
I have never been able to find in any other 
work " Spartam nactus es, hanc exorna." 
Mr. King tells us that the usual translation 
or interpretation of the Latin, " You have 
lighted on Sparta, (therefore) be an orna- 
ment to it," or more generally " You are 
by accident of birth a Spartan, so do your 
best to adorn your country," is wrong. 
The explanation is too long to quote (see 
pp. 332-3). 

Mr. King gives us anonymous quotations 
under the title of ' Adespota.' Now "anony- 
mous " is a cumbersome word enough, but 
I do not think much can be said in favour 
of such a word as " adespota." 

One translation I note seems to have 
the authority of a great name : " L' ami tie 
est 1' Amour sans ailes." This Lord Byron 
translated, we are told, " Friendship is 
Love without his wings." But this does 
not appear to me to be an exact translation. 
There is no " his " in the original ; and love 
here is quite as impersonal as friendship. 

The preface tells us of a most unfortunate 
suppression which has been made in this 
edition, namely, the omission of the mottoes 
of the English peerage, on the absurdly 
ridiculous objection of a correspondent that 
their insertion was " lordolatry." To this, 
Mr. King observes, he had no reply. Well, 
I should have given a pretty forcible reply. 
Many classical quotations and many of our 
most trenchant mottoes, the pride of the 
English, are consequently omitted. One of 
these is " Hoc age." Shortly translated, it 
means " do this," that is, attend to what 
you are about, or attend with all your 
might and main to the matter you have in 

" BUSKIN." Prof. Skeat has been lately 
proposing to the Philological Society an 
etymology for this extremely difficult word. 
He finds in Florio the word borzachini, 
buskins, and he sees no difficulty in deriving 
from this comparatively modern Italian 
word the Old French forms brousequin, 
brosequin, bousequin, and brodequin. He 

thinks it is quite easy to derive all the forms 
of buskin in Spanish, Dutch, and English 
from the Florio form borzachini. Is it 
possible to accept this account of the source 
of our word " buskin " ? It seems to me 
that such an etymology is impossible. How 
can the French forms be derived from the 
Italian form, when, so far as the evidence 
goes, the French forms are older than the 
Italian one by more than a century ? But 
let it be granted that the Italian borzacchini 
(as it should be spelt) is the original of all the 
buskin forms, it is impossible to find an ety- 
mology for the Italian word. Certainly, 
Prof. Skeat's etymology will not do. He 
explains borzacchino as a diminutive of 
It. borza, a form of borsa, a purse, Gr. ^vpcrtj^ 
a hide. But how can this be ? There is no 
diminutive suffix -cchino in Italian. Prof. 
Skeat has been thinking of the diminutive 
-ino ; but how is the ch- to be explained ? 
I am afraid the word cannot be explained 
as a word formed on Italian soil. It is far 
safer to explain it as a borrowing from one 
of the non-Ital an forms. These all point 
as Dozy suggests, to a Spanish source ; cp. 
Sp. borcegui, Pt. borzeguim. For the rela- 
tion of these old forms to the Arabic origin 
sherqi sheep's leather, I beg to refer the eager 
inquirer to the learned pages of Dozy. See 
his ' Glossaire des Mots Espagnols et Portu- 
guais derives de 1'Arabe ' (1869), s.v. ' Bor- 
cegui.' A. L. MAYHEW. 

Pennell's ' Life of Charles Godfrey Leland," 
1906, vol. i. p. 244, we are told that "he 
astounded the passing Magyar almost to tears- 
with an unexpected Bassama Teremtete." 
Mrs. Pennell seems to think this is a sort of 
national salutation. Lest any of her readers 
should be tempted to try experiments with 
passing Magyars, I feel bound to point out 
that it is a blasphemous oath, such as I am 
sure would never have soiled her pages if 
she had known its meaning. Readers of 
Borrow will remember the prominent part 
it plays in his ' Gypsies of Spain,' owing to- 
a theory he had that from it is derived the 
name Busne, given by the Spanish gipsies 
to all who are not of their race. Borrow 
calls it "a term exceedingly common 
amongst the lower orders of Magyars, to> 
their disgrace be it spoken." I have been 
in Budapest, and often heard it, but never 
from an educated Hungarian. 

JAS. PL ATT, Jun. 

weeks ago I saw in either The Daily Chronicle 
or The Daily Mirror a letter from a gentle- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907. 

asking whether a pedigree of Washing- 
ton existed. I shall be glad to communicate 
with the writer, as I possess the pedigree. 

3, Duke Street, Margate. 

The following list of booksellers and 
printers in the town of Cambridge during 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
will supplement the lists of provincial 
booksellers in the last two volumes of 
* N. & Q.' The date is in each case that of 
the proving of the will : 

Atkinson, Troylus, 1675. Bookseller, also church- 
warden of Great St. Marie. 

Atkinson, William, 1699. Son of above ; bookseller. 

Beechmore, Edward, 1689. Stationer. 

Boiedens, John, 1502. Stationer. 

Breynans, Peter, 1504. Stationer. 

Dickinson, William, 1718. Bookseller. 

Field, John, the elder, 1668. Citizen of London, 
stationer, and printer. 

Foakes, John, 1664. Printer. 

Graves, William, 1680. Stationer. 

Greene, Richard, 1699. Stationer. 

Hall, Edward, 1703. Bookseller. 

Leete, Robert, 1663. Printer. 

Moody, Henry, 1637. Stationer. 

Moody, Thomas, 1661. Bookseller. 

Milleson, John, 1670. Stationer. 

Morden, W T illiam, 1679. Bookseller. 

Nicholson, Anthony, the elder, 1667. Stationer. 

Porter, John, 1608. Stationer. 

.Scarlett, William, 1617. Stationer. 

-Skarlett, John, 1502. Stationer. 

Sought, John, 1553. Stationer. 

Spyryne, Nicholas, 1545. Stationer. 

Webster, Thomas, 1722. Bookseller. 

Worlech, William, 1631. Stationer. 

Wray, Henry, 1628. Stationer. 

H. R. 

In the descriptive letterpress to the series 
of sketches bearing on the past history of 
this distinguished corps, given in The Illus- 
trated London News of 22 December last, 
it is stated that " grey horses are not men- 
tioned until 1702." There is a letter still 
extant from Capt. Andrew Agnew, of the 
Royal Scots Dragoons, to his cousin Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Bart., Sheriff 
of Wigtownshire, dated 28 August, 1693, 
on the subject of the purchase for the writer 
of " a grey horse " (' The Agnews of Loch- 
.naw,' p. 453). CHARLES DALTON. 

HAGS." If I remember aright, ' N. & Q.' 
has on several occasions contained para- 
graphs regarding stones with natural or 
artificial holes in them being used for the 
purpose of warding off evil ; it may therefore 
.be well to draw attention to the fact that 

Mr. Worthington G. Smith has in The Pro- 
ceedings of the Society of Antiquaries for 
8 February, 1906, recorded that in some 
parts of South Bedfordshire it is still believed 
' ' that a suspended holed stone will prevent illness 
in cows, and prevent the entry of the 'night-hag,' 
a supernatural kind of witch, supposed to enter 
stables, take out a horse, ride it furiously all night, 
and just before daybreak, take it back to the 
stable, when the farmer, soon after, finds it badly 

Some of your readers will call to mind the 
scene in ' Marmion ' where young Henry 

The cost 

Had reckon'd with their Scottis host ; 
And as the charge he cast and paid, 
" 111 thou deserv'st thy hire," he said ; 
" Dost see, thou knave, my horse's plight ? 
Fairies have ridden him all the night, 
And left him in a foam ! " 

In Bedfordshire, it appears, night-hags 
supply the place of the Northern fairies with 
whom Sir Walter Scott was acquainted. 


The following are a few examples I have 
come across in my searches : 

Croydon. 1596. Dec. 7, Old Megg buried. 

1788. Mary Woodfield, al s Queen of Hell, from 
the College, buried 18 Feb. 

Ludgate, St. Martin's. 1615. Feb. 28 was buried 
an anotomy from the College of Physicians. 

Blackfriars, St. Anne's. 1580. William, foole to 
my Lady Jermingham, buried 21 March. 

1626/7. Feb. 9, Lady Luson's corpse carried away. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, St. John's. 1589. Edward 
Errington, the Towne Fooll, buried 23 August, 
died in the Peste. 

1636. Seven poore thinges out of the Warden 
close buried 1 Dec. 

Kirby Moorsicle, Yorks. The baptism of "Mr. 
Anchitel Grey" is entered through illiterate spell- 
ing, as '' Miss Ann Kettle Grey." 

Tarporley, Cheshire. 1626. Richard Welde, 
Papist and Excommunicate, 20 August, buried at 

Bishop Wearmouth, Durham. 1596. Feb. 8, A 
woman in the water buried. 

Escomb, Durham. 1676. Aug. 2, A linger wild 
was buried. 

Wiekham, Durham. 1649. May 4, A West 
Countryman buried. 

Hart, Durham. 1641. Feb. 12, Old Mother Mid- 
night of Elwick buried. 

Hawsted. 1589. The Funerall of the Right 
Worshipfull Sir William Drury, Knight, was 
executed 10 March. 

Salehurst, Sussex. 1683. Oct. 5, Bur d Peter 
Sparke, aged 120 odd years. 

Burnham, Bucks. 1570. Aug. 24, The Queen's 
Footman's Child Buried. 

1575. Nov. 3, The Queen's Launder buried. 

1584. Snow's wife buried 30 March. 

1586. May 9, Maude, the child of a Roague, 

1587/8. Jan. 4, A Runagate Wench Buried. 

10 s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Chesterton, Cambridge. 1570. Mother Corie 
was buried 21 Dec. 

Burham, Kent. Mr. Ward buried a man. (No 

Lamesley, Durham. -- 1678. Anne Marley, 
Wrapped in Sheepskins, buried. (No date.) 

Reading, St. Mary's. 1630. Jan. 10, Kathren 
Roose, apprehended for a wich, buried. 

Cheshunt. 1600. Feb. 7, Old Plod buried. 

1716. July 25, Old Half-head buried. 

Newington Butts. 1600. March (no day), A 
child of Adam Earth buried. 

Barnes. 1657. Oct. 16, Old Honesty, al 8 Juett's 
Wife, buried. 

Camberwell. 1687. June 2, Robert Hern and 
Elizabeth Bozwell, King and Queen of the Gipsies, 

Durham, St. Mary-le-Bow. 1722. Brain Pear- 
son, the Abbey dog whipper, buried 6 April. 

1732. James Graham, a felon, he was hanged y l 
anie morning just after Bapt. , 30 Aug. 

A. B. C. 

MAJOR HAMILL or CAPRI. Perhaps the 
following simple record of a brave Irish 
officer may be worth adding to the valuable 
collection of monumental inscriptions to 
Britons who have died abroad which have 
appeared in ' N. & Q.' I transcribed it in 
1879 from a white marble slab affixed to a 
high wall, forming one side of the piazza, 
at Anacapri, in which stands the church 
containing the curious Paradise pavement. 
I cannot say whether it still exists amidst 
the extraordinary transformations which 
that exquisite fairy isle has since undergone. 
Sir Hudson Lowe (of St. Helena fame) was 
in 1808 Governor of Capri, and Murat sent 
a force to attack the usual landing-places, 
and a secret one to the extreme west of 
the island, where the perpendicular rocks 
were considered inaccessible. However, the 
French climbed up them, and suddenly 
came upon Hamill and his astonished little 
Maltese guard. The latter they soon dis- 
posed of, but the gallant son of Erin scorned 
to yield or fly, and lost his life : 

" To the Memory of John Hamill, a native of the 
County Antrim in Ireland, and Major in His 
Brittanic Majesty's late Regiment of Malta, who 
fell while bravely resisting the French invasion of 
Anacapri, on 4th day of October 1808 ; and whose 
mortal remains are deposited near to this place. 
This tribute of affection and respect has been 
placed by his kinsman and namesake, October 3 d , 
1831. Requiescat in pace," 

D. J. 

At p. 110 of a recently published interesting 
little book, ' Oxfordshire,' by F. G. Brabant, 
Wychwood Forest in that county is said 
traditionally to have been the scene of the 
first meeting of Edward IV. with Elizabeth 
Widville, which ultimately resulted in his 

marriage with her. She was then the 
widow of Sir John Grey of Groby, who was 
killed at the battle of St. Albans in 1460. 
She was married to the king 1 May, 1464. 

But much more probably Grefton in 
Northamptonshire was the real place, and 
an ancient weather - beaten tree still in 
existence, and generally celled " The Queen's 
Oak," is said to have witnessed the wooing. 
Grafton Regis was for many years the home 
of the Widvilles, and what is more likely 
than that the first interview between 
Edward IV. and Elizabeth Grey or Widville, 
which ended in such an important result, 
took place near her old home ? 

It continued in subsequent years the pro- 
perty of the Crown until granted by Charles II. 
to his illegitimate son Lord Euston, after- 
wards created by him Duke of Grafton. 
There cannot be much doubt as to the 
locality. The romantic story of the " Wooing 
at Grafton " is well known. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

of your readers tell me where John New- 
bery, the publisher, who died in 1767, is 
buried ? Oliver Goldsmith wrote the follow- 
ing riddling epitaph upon him : 
What we say of a thing that has just come in 

And that which we do with the dead, 
Is the name of the honestest man in the nation : 

What more of a man can be said ? 
Is this epitaph upon Newbery's grave ? 


40, Bedford Street, Liverpool. 

autumn a monumental brass was dug up 
in the parish of Fivehead, co. Somerset, 
which is of considerable interest on both 
sides. The later face bears the effigy of a 
lady attired in early Elizabethan fashion. 
The inscription has not yet been recovered, 
but from the heraldry it appears that she 
was Jane, daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Walsh, Kt., of Cathanger, and wife of Lord 
Edward Seymour, of Berry Pomeroy, eldest 
surviving son of the Duke of Somerset, Lord 
Protector, by his first marriage. The 
length 'of the brass is 3 ft. 6 in. ; it is in six 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vii. JAN. 12, 1907. 

pieces. When T the^ underside had been 
cleaned, it was found that several brasses 
had been utilized to make up the size re- 
quired. The two upper pieces contain a 
transverse section of an ecclesiastic taken 
across the breast, the uplifted hands being 
hold together as in prayer. The figure must 
have been of gigantic size. This section is 
not large enough to show clearly the cha- 
racter of the attire ; it is traversed by several 
narrow fillets enclosing a pellet between a 
quatrefoil and a rosette alternately. The 
third piece contains a perpendicular section 
of tabernacle work enclosing a pair of small 
figures, either Apostles or prophets. On 
the outer margin are the words QVE FINO 
VIERNES in letters exactly resembling those 
on the brass of Abbot Thos. Delamere of 
St. Albans (v. illustration in H. Druitt's 
' Costume in Brasses,' p. 46). 

The small section engraved with the lady's 
toes bears on the reverse : "... .Gilbertus 
Thornbern nuper rector .... qui obiit un- 
decimo Maii. . . . MCCCCXXVIII . ..." 

1. What is the meaning of the first in- 
scription ? ^2. Of what parish was Gilbert 
TliornlxTn rector ? ' E. H. BATES. 

I'uckinglon Rectory, Ilminster. 

GOULTON BRASS. At 6 S. ii. 168 (28 Aug., 
1880) the following query appeared : 

"In the 'History of Cleveland,' by the Rev. J. 

Craves, written in I SOS, mention is made of a brass 
once in Kaeel.y ( Ihurch to the memory of Sir Lewis 
<ioullnii, uliieh brass, he says, was, at tin- 1 hue I hat 
lie \\ role, in tlu- possession of ( 'hristonher < Joidton, 
of Hlghthorn, near Easingwold. With Hie death of 
this Christopher Coulton, in |SI.">, that branch of 
I lie ( I on I ton family became e\t inet. He died with- 
out a will, and up to the present time I have been 
unalile to uct any informal ion concerning the brass 
spoken nf l.y M r. ( travel, ( 'an you assist me ill any 

way? .1. ( I oulton Constable." 

This query was apparently never answered, 
and I should like to repeat it, in the hope 
that some information may now be forth- 
coming, as since 1880 much has been written 
upon the subject of brasses, and there is 
hardly a county in England where brasses 
have not received more or less attention. 
In what county is Faceby ? 


Mobile, Ala., I'.S.A. 

| Kaeel.y j s in the North Riding of Yorkshire.] 

glad if you will bo good enough to explain 
to me the meaning of Wordsworth's lines : 

A primrose by the fixer's I. rim 
A yellow primrose was to him. 
And it was nothing more. 

I have had an argument as to what was 

meant by the lines, and shall be grateful if 
you will give their meaning. R. ELLIS. 

[The meaning is surely that the sight of a prim- 
rose to Peter suggested no thought did not affect 
him in any way. He simply saw that it was 
"yellow" (you misquoted your second line). 
Wordsworth has himself expressed his own feelings 
in such a case, as follows : 

To me the meanest flower that blows can give 
Thoughts t hat do often lie too deep for tears. 

Ode, ' Intimations of Immortality.' 
He says also in 'The Tables Turned' : 
One impulse from a, vernal wood 
May teadi you more of man, 
Of moral evil and of good, 
Than all the sages can. | 

GRESS.' In 1882 Mrs. Bloomfield Moore, 
of Philadelphia, privately printed a 12mo 
volume of 105 pages, which contains, with 
other things, ' A Chapter from the Modern 
Pilgrim's Progress.' This chapter is thus 
prefaced : 

"The proof -sheets of the following pages, in the 
year 1879, fell into the hands of one of the most 
brilliantly talented young authors in Kngland. The 
author of them had never heard anything of the 
young writer's family, but he had a widowed mother 
with six children, and after reading this chapter in 
the proof sheets, and finding much that was sugges- 
t i\ e of experiences in his own family, he tancied it. 
had Keen \\ritten to lay these experiences bare to 

the public lie went to John Morley, editor of 

Tin' /'nrtiiii/lif/// Review, and accused him of having 

written this chapter to expose him. His mind be- 
came more and more unsettled, and learning that/ 
the (real) author of ' The Modern Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress ' was to sail from Liverpool, Nov. 27, 1879, he 
told his family that this was an intimation he was 
In die on that day. At the hour on which the 
ocean steamer left the wharf he shot himself." 
Can any reader give me the name of this 
young man ? The intimate relation between 
Mrs. Moore and Browning will be recalled. 
The dedicatory poem of this volume is " To> 
my Friend Robert Browning." 



GODFERY. I shall be pleased if any of 
your readers can supply me with information 
respecting the ancestors, descendants, and 
birthplace of Michael Godfery, Deputy 
Governor of the Bank of England in 1695. 

2, Morton Crescent, Kx mouth. 

VINING FAMILY. Is it known whether 
Henry Vining, the father of Mrs. John Wood, 
was related to Frederick Vining and to 
James Vining ? What relation was William 
Vining (if any), the actor, to these Vinings ? 
The ' D.N.B.' notes that Frederick's daughter 
Fanny was Mrs. Gill ; but Davenport 

10 s. vii. JAN. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Adams's ' Dictionary of the Drama ' states 
that Fanny married E. L. Davenport, the 
American actor. Which statement is cor- 
rect ? or are both right ? 

118, Pall Mall. 

am anxious to know the origin of this legend, 
found on silver coins of Edward III. and 
many of his successors. It is usual, I think, 
to refer to Psalm liv. 4 ; but in the only 
Latin Bible at hand the wording of that 
text is " Ecce enim Deus adjuvat me," 
which is very different. 


BEWICKIANA. Would one of your readers 
who " knows his Bewick " kindly inform 
me where Henry Kingsley's references to 
Thomas Bewick's work are to be found ? 
One is quoted in Austin Dobson's ' Eigh- 
teenth-Century Vignettes ' on Bewick's tail- 
pieces. WHITE LINE. 

Edinburgh Review for last October an article 
on Christina, Queen of Sweden, contains the 
following passage : 

"Tin- enmnat ion, \\liirli occurred six years after 
Christina li;id taken I In- oat li as " Kinjj;' of Sweden, 
oii^lit to have taken place at Upsala ; In it as there 
was no accommodation for foreign envoys in that 
small town, it was effected at the capital, despite, 
the saying that toilers crowned at Stockholm 
reigned hut a short time." 

What other towns are supposed to be con- 
nected with the ill luck of monarchs ? 

G. W. 

" KING COPIN " : " ST. COPPIN." Who 
was this personage, mentioned in the 
Digby and Towneley Plays ? In the latter 
Caiaphas says to Jesus : 

KyiiK Copyn in oure game/ thus shall I indew the, 
IVor a fa tur. 

In the former " be sentt Coppyn " is used 
as a mild form of oath. H. P. L. 

I should be much obliged if any person having 
access to records of the settlement of Mary- 
land would kindly say whether the name 
of Fergus Kennedy (son of Hew Kennedy, 
of Bennane), is mentioned, and if so, whether 
his wife and children are also mentioned. 

C. M. K. 

" BONE DEUS " IN EPITAPHS. I shall be 
glad if any of your readers can supply other 
instances of the interjection " Bone Deus " 
(" Good God ") in a monumental inscription 
than that on a tablet in the church of 

Hollingborne, Kent, to the memory of 
Baldwin Duppa, 1737, and that on a tablet 
at Cuokfield, Sussex, to the memory of 
Daniel Walter, 1761. J. H. C. 

his * Diary ' records (' The Diary of Henry 
Machyn,' Camden Society, 1848, p. 63) : 

" ir>T>4. The xv. day of May Haknay prosses* 
syon to Powles ; and after cam sent Clements 
prossessyon ; and the Mayre and Althermen ; and 
ther wher goodly quersse syncing. 

" The xvj. day of May cam to Powlles Eslyngton 

" Eslyngton " is presumably Machyn' s 
phonetic rendering of Islington. Does it 
occur in this form elsewhere ? J. Gough 
Nichols, who edited the volume, does not 
attempt its identification, or include it in 
either form in the index. 

The " prossessyon " was that of Corpus 
Christi, although the day of celebration was 
24 May, when ther mony goodly pr(oss)ess- 
yons in mony parryches." For " quersse " 
read choirs not " quires," as the editor 
renders it. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

*), Hillmarton Road, N. 

Can any reader tell me where the above 
was situated ? John Willis published his 
' Art of Stenography ' in 1602. It was the 
first alphabetic system. Noble in his 
' Temple Bar Memorials ' speaks of a Jeru- 
salem "ordinary" in 1628. The Bagford 
Collection contains the following : 

"John Willis, K.I)., he put forth a Book he calls 
the Art of Stenographic, he saith it was the first 
I Hii'i | of thai, nature lie dwelt in Jerusalem Court in 
Illee) Street the 19 th Edition 1628." Lansdowne 
MS. SOS, f. 15. 

1021. "John Willis, B. of 1)., he put forth A 
Booke he calls ye Art of Stenography he saith y' 
was y first of that nature he dwelt in Jerusalem 
Court in net Street t, y 19 th Edition 1628." From 
Sloane MS. ss;>, t. iV>. 

Most Shakesperian commentators assert 
that the early quartos were produced from 
shorthand notes taken in the theatre at the 
time of representation. The ' D.N.B.' (art. 
John Willis) does not state where Jerusalem 
Court was. Arber quotes the Stationers' 
Register re John Willis. So far as can be 
ascertained, the only reference to where he 
dwelt " is in the above extracts. A diary 
(1607) in Willis's shorthand is in America ; 
and Trumbull has given an extract. 

45, Chancery Lane. 

VILLE. Northcote in his ' Life of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds,' published in 1816, mentions two 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907. 

portraits of Miss Greville and her brother 
as Cupid and Psyche, and states that one 
was then in the possession of Mr. C. Long, 
and the other in that of Mr. S. Rogers. 
Can any one inform me where these pictures 
are now ? H. W. 

Can any readers help me with curious places 
through which the boundary lines of parishes, 
counties, and even countries run, and with 
any humorous incidents which have been 
caused by them ? Mr. W. S. Gilbert, it 
will be remembered, made use of such a fact 
in * Engaged.' RUDOLPH DE CORDOVA. 

COSLETT. Can any reader help me to 
the derivation of this surname ? It is not 
uncommon in South-East Glamorgan. I can 
derive no assistance from books. 



* ARMY LIST,' 1642. There is a copy of 
the 1642 " Roundhead " Army List in the 
British Museum. Is it the same copy as 
that mentioned by MR. HAYES, 10 S. vi. 
342 ? The " Cavalier " Army List of 1642 
is also in the same library. 1 have not seen 
MR. HAYES'S communication in The Book- 
worm for 1891. M. J. D. COCKLE. 


1842. Would any of your readers who 
possess, or can obtain access to, a Cambridge 
University Calendar for 1843, inform me 
who was installed Chancellor in July, 1842 ? 
Family letters show me that a Chancellor 
was installed then. A post card addressed 
as below would be quite sufficient. 

W. K. W. CHAFY. 

Rous Lench Court, Evesham. 

In the papers of 24 December last it was 
mentioned that Queen Victoria of Spain 
had been present at a banquet on " her 
name-day." As she has abjured the faith 
in which she was born, it cannot have been 
her baptismal day as an infant ; nor is it 
the anniversary of her reception into the 
Roman Church. Is it the day of St. Vic- 
toria ? or in what way can it have been her 
" name-day " ? HELGA. 

logue of Ancient Deeds at the P.R.O. I 
notice (p. 66), 18 Ed. IV., mention of the 
manors of Little Carleton alias Barbydoys 
in Carleton (co. Cambridge). Is the asso- 
nance with Barbadoes merely accidental ? 

E. L.-W. 


(10 S. vi. 481.) 

THIS old mumming play, which MR. D. A. 
CHART finds surviving in the Isle of Wight, 
and which LADY RUSSELL states (10 S. v. 
155) is still rendered in Berkshire, is not by 
any means confined to the south of England. 
Five-and-twenty years ago a mangled 
version of it used to be performed in the 
villages of south-west Lancashire ; and it is 
still to be met with in Cumberland, and I 
believe in parts of rural Yorkshire. But in 
Cumberland at least there is this important 
difference : it is an Easter play, and is 
known as the " pace " or " peace egg "- 
this name, of course, being a corruption of 
the paschal egg. 

It is well known that the Easter custom 
of distributing eggs is much older than 
Christianity, and is really symbolical of 
creation or the re-creation of spring : a 
season celebrated in all times and all countries 
with ceremonies that, from once being of a 
religious character like midsummer and 
harvest time now survive only in the form 
of rollicking games and village mummeries. 
The Dionysian dramas of ancient Greece 
celebrated the same season, and were con- 
nected with the worship of the god of vege- 
tation or generation. 

One of the oldest of the old mystery plays 
of this country is that of ' St. George and the 
Dragon,' which was probably grafted on to 
some earlier village drama celebrating the 
coming of spring. Eastern characters were 
probably introduced in the days of the 
Crusades ; and in later times all sorts of 
heterogeneous characters Bonaparte, Nel- 
son, and the like have been added, accord- 
ing to taste and circumstances. 

I have three versions of this " Pace egg " 
play, which were written out for me by 
schoolchildren in Cumberland during 1895 i 
and considering that there is, so far as I 
know, no properly transcribed " book of 
the words," but that it is handed down from 
generation to generation by word of mouth, 
it is not a little remarkable to find how 
closely these Cumberland versions resemble 
that quoted by MR. CHART from the Isle of 

The dramatis personse are King (or St.) 
George ; the Black King of Morocco ; 
Molly Masket, his mother ; Bold Slasher 
(the Noble Captain of the Isle of Wight 
version, and probably another of the Seven 

10 s. vn. JAX. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


hampions of Christendom) ; a Doctor ; 
a Fool or Hunchback ; Lord Nelson ; and 
another who is sometimes described as a 
" jolly Jack Tar " and sometimes as " Paddy 
from Cork " (surely St. Patrick ?). 

The Hunchback, clearing a ring, speaks 
first : 

Stir up the fire and strike a light, 
Arid see our noble act to-night. 
If you don't believe a word I say, 
Step up, Great George, and lead the way. 
King George. In steps I, Great George ; 
'Great George it is my name. 
With my right hand and glittering sword 
I Ve won ten [or three] crowns of gold. 
'Twas I that fought the fiery dragon, 
And brought him down by slaughter ; 
And by those means I won the prize, 
The King of Egypt's daughter. 
Then enters the King of Morocco : 

In steps I, Prince of Paradine, 

The black Morocco king. 

With sword and buckler by my side 

I through the woods do ring. 

I 'm brave boys, 

And that 's what makes you good ; 

And through thy dearest body, George, 

I '11 draw thy precious blood. 

I mean what I say, arid tell no lies ; 

I '11 cut thee to pieces and make mince pies. 
To which King George replies : 
Mince pies hot and mince pies cold, 
I'll send thee to Blacksand before thou's three 

days old. 

They fight, and the black king is killed. 
Enter Molly Masket (not Father Christmas) : 

O George, George, what hast thou done ? 

Thou 's gone and slain my only son, 

My only son, my only heir, 

How canst thou see him bleeding there ? 
K. George. He challenged me to fight, 
And why should I deny ? 
I '11 cut his body in four parts, 
And make his buttons fly. 

A doctor is then called for, and a long dia- 
logue ensues between him and King George. 
He discourses of his travels 
from Hiptip to the Tallyantic [Atlantic] Ocean ; 
ninety degrees below the bottom; where I saw 
houses built of rounds of beef, slated with pan- 
cakes, &c. 

" Any further ? " inquires the King. 

Yes, from my grandmother's bed to the stairhead 
from the stairhead to the chairleg ; from the chair? 
leg to the corner cupboard, where I got so much 
bread and cheese, which makes me so fat and lusty 
as you see me now. 

K. George. I 'm not talking of fat. 

Doctor. Neither am I talking about lean. 

K. George. What are you talking about ? 

Doctor. What. I can cure. 

K. George. What can you cure ? 

Doctor. Ipsy-pipsey [epilepsy], palsy and the gout, 
Pains within and pains without. 
If there 's nineteen devils in this man, 
I 'm sure to bring twenty out. 

The black prince of Morocco is resuscitated, 
and the play proper comes to a premature 
end, the rest being mere jingle " The next 
to come in is Lord Nelson, you see, with a 
bunch of blue ribbons tied on to his knee," 
&c. ; and the Fool or Hunchback, as Chorus, 
winds up with the usual appeal : 

Ladies and gentlemen who sit by the fire, 

Put your hands in your pockets and show your 

desire ; 
Put your hands in your pockets and pull out your 


And give us a trifle : you '11 not be much worse. 
Here we all are, seven in a row, 
As jolly like fellows as ever you saw ; 
So mind what you're doing and see that all's 


If you give nowt, we '11 take nowt. 
Fare well and good night ! 


The title 'The Christmas Boys' for the 
mummers' play of * St. George ' is perhaps 
new to most of the contributors to ' N. & Q.'j 
but all will welcome ME,. CHART'S new 
version, if such it may be called, which is 
in many ways much like the old, though 
differing in the words in several places. 
The actors' dresses were of a most nonde- 
script kind, though all wore tall tapering 
head-dresses of cardboard. The King, the 
Prince, and St. George had plumes of two 
or three colours, and from their shoulders 
and waist were streamers of the like colours. 
Slasher's dress was more of the swash- 
buckler's order, and he had a seedy look all 
over. Their coats and trousers were deco- 
rated with patches of various sizes and 
colours ; they carried swords and belt- 
knives. The Doctor was somewhat more 
soberly dressed, and he carried a staff, and 
sometimes had a bottle slung at his waist. 
Usually there were three or four others 
common soldiers having long staves in 
their hands ; but each wore the same kind 
of hat, with streamers at the waist only. 
Their share in the performance was to march 
in with the actors, help in the finishing 
chorus, and march out ; but while the play 
went on they stood in line at the back. 

The way in which the play was presented 
varied very much. If the room was large 
enough, all the performers walked in with 
the Fool at the head. If the room was 
small, the Fool came first, saying : 

In comes I, who have never been before, 

With my merry actors at the door ; 

They can act, and dance, and sing ; 

With your consent they shall come in. 

Stir up the fire and make a light ; 

And see this noble act to-night. 

If you don't believe the words I say, 

Step in, St. George, and clear the way. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907. 

St. George. In comes I, St. George ; 
For old England have I won many bloody battles. 
I did in Egypt the Dragon slew, 
And manv people know that to be true. 
If you will search this world all round, 
You will never find another man to match my mind. 
Another version begins : 

I ope the door and enter in ; 

I hope your favour for to win. 

Whether I rise or whether I fall, 

I '11 do my best to please you all ; 

St. George is here, 

And swears that he '11 come in, 

And if he does 

I know he'll pinch my skin. 

The braggart Slasher in one of the Derby- 
shire versions I have heard boasts : 

My head is made of brass, 

My body 's made of steel, 

My hands are made of knuckle-bone, 

And I can make him feel. 

The only printed version I know is one 
issued in Manchester by Abel Heywood, in 
which the Fool comes first, saying : 
Room, room, brave gallants, gives us room to sport, 
For in this room we wish to have our court ; 
And here repeat to you our merry rhyme, 
For remember, good sirs, this is Easter-time. 

The finishing lines of several versions I 
have heard are very mixed. They are said 
either by Betsy Beelzebub or Devil Doubt. 
Betsy says : 

All ye ladies and gentlemen 
That sit round the fire, 
My box it would speak 
If it had but a tongue ; 

A little of your money would do us no wrong. 
Devil Doubt's ending is : 

Money I want, money I '11 have ; 

If you won't give me money, 

I '11 sweep you to the grave. 

The rough speech of the actors can hardly 
be reproduced. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


This play is, or was a few years ago, 
performed at Newland, in Gloucestershire. 

R. B R. 

South Shields. 

BIDDING PRAYER (10 S. vi. 448). The 
earliest Bidding Prayer of which I have 
knowledge is included in the late Canon 
Simmons's ' Lay-Folks Mass-Book,' issued 
by the E.E.T.S. It was heard at York 
before the Norman conquest, and it began 
with " Wutan we gebiddan," which the 
editor modernized into " Let us pray." 
Antexample dated 1405 opened with " De- 
precemur Deum Patrem omnipotentem," 
and had " Ye sail pray " at the head of most 
of its clauses. About fifty years later, 
' Derfrendes, ye sail make a speciall prayer," 

is recorded. There was also a version with 
"We shall"; and in 1509 "We shall" is 
printed in the ' Manuale secundum usum 
Matris Ecclesie Eboracensis ' (see pp. 62-80). 
At present it is the use of York that the 
preacher should say " Ye shall pray." The 
Bidding does not now run precisely like the 
version given by Canon Simmons in 1879 
(p. 320) ; and it has at one part been 
judiciously lengthened by remembrance of 
the officers and men of His Majesty's forces 
" in and around " the ancient city. 

There are three pitfalls for the unwary 
in the pulpit of York Minster, and it is 
astonishing to find how many strange, or 
perhaps I should say stranger, divines slip 
into one or more of them, without being at 
all aware of their misfortune. The faithful 
are commanded to pray for the Catholia 
Church, " especially for that branch of it 
to which we in this kingdom belong and 
herein for our Most Gracious Sovereign 
Lord, King Edward," and many others. 
Very frequently the reader interpolates a 
period after " herein " with startling effect. 
Occasionally, " this metropolitical Church " 
figures as "metropolitan" ; and once in a 
while somebody finds a stumbling-block in 
" William Dalrymple, Lord Archbishop of 
this Province," or makes mention of the 
Prince and Princes of Wales, instead of the 
Princess. The summons to pray for a 
blessing on seats of sound learning and 
religious education, the universities, colleges, 
and schools of the United Kingdom, " par- 
ticularly on the Grammar School attached 
to this Cathedral Church," has in it a sug- 
gestion of bathos, for drawing attention ta 
which I hope I may be forgiven. 


In ' Loss and Gain ; or, the Story of a 
Convert,' chap, ii., by Cardinal Newman, 
we read : 

"Sheffield said 'Now I must say the sermon 

itself, and not the least of all the prayer before it 
what do they call it?' 

" 'The Bidding Prayer,' said Reding. 

" ' Well, both sermon and prayer are often arrant 
fudge. I don't often go to University sermons, but 
I have gone often enough not to go again without 
compulsion. The last preacher I heard was from 
the country. Oh, it was wonderful ! He began at 
the pitch of his voice "Ye shall pray." What stuff ! 
"Ye shall pray" because old La timer or Jewell said 
" Ye shall praie," therefore we must not say " Let us 


Castle Pollard, Westmeath. 

In the * Apostolical Constitutions,' sup- 
posed to have been compiled during the 
second and third centuries, the prayer for 

10 s. vii. JAN. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Competentes begins, " Pray, ye candi- 
dates for baptism " ; and that for the 
penitents, " Pray, ye penitents." But the 
bidding prayer for the faithful, when the 
penitents have been dismissed, begins, 
" Let us pray," &c. : " Let us pray for the 
Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church from 
one end [of the earth] to the other, that the 
Lord would preserve and keep it firm and 
unshaken, as founded upon a rock, unto 
the end of the world." Vide ' Prosphonesis ' 
in Riddle's ' Christian Antiquities,' 1843, 
pp. 382, 400-6, and 612; also Smith's 
' Christian Antiquities,' 1880, s.v. ' Pros- 
phonesis,' pp. 1738-9. 


409, 473). I have made a careful reading 
of Milton's poetry for the purpose of observ- 
ing characteristics of diction, but my task did 
not result in the discovery of any example 
of this notorious form. I doubt its exist- 
ence in any of his works. Perhaps the in- 
quiry has arisen through confusion with 
regard to some popular poet of our own day. 

W. B. 

'THE CANADIAN GIRL' (10 S. vi. 448). 
No such books as 'The Canadian Girl' or 
' The Jew's Daughter ' are known to English 
bibliographers. I am not able to find either 
in our national library under the above titles. 


(10 S. vi. 488). The advice to a son as to 
getting money, and the quotation from 
Horace mentioned, remind one of a jingle 
which (?) once formed part of a popular 
song on getting rich quickly : 

Get money, my son, get money if you can, 
And don't lose time in getting it ; 
Get money, my son, get money how you can, 
But don't (jet "time" in getting it. 

R. S. B. 

MR. PEET may like to know that there 
was a copy (printed by Zileti in 1580) of 
the original challenge in Shrewsbury Public 
School in 1836. See T. F. Dibdin's ' Remi- 
niscences of a Literary Life,' London, 1836, 
8vo, p. 968. However, it may have been 
the private property of the head master, 
Archdeacon Butler, as Dibdin is too long- 
winded to be precise. J. CARTON. 
King's Inns Library, Dublin. 

"OVER FORK: FORK OVER" (10 S. vi. 
449). " Over, fork over," is the motto of 
the Cuninghame family, whose arms display 
a shake-fork sable on a field argent. Nisbet 

has the following as to the origin of the 
motto and arms : 

" Frederick Vanbassan, a Norwegian and a very 
confident genealogist, wrote a Manuscript (now in 
the Lawyers' Library) of the rise of some families 
with us, amongst whom is that of the Cunning- 
hams, whose first progenitor he calls Malcolm - 
the son of Friskine, who assisted Prince Malcolm 
(afterwards king, surnamed Canmore) to escape 
from Macbeth's tyranny; and being hotly pursued, 
by the usurper's men, was forced at a place to hide 
his master by forking straw or hay above him ; and 
after, upon that Prince's happy accession to the 
crown, he rewarded his preserver Malcolm with the 
thanedom of Cunningham, from which he and his 
posterity have their surname, and took this figure 
to represent the shakefork with which he forked 
hay or straw above the Prince, to perpetuate the 
happy deliverance their progenitor had the good 
fortune to give to their Prince. " ' Heraldry,' i. 192. 

The arms are probably those of Sir 
Thomas Montgomery Cuninghame (Arg., a 
shake-fork sa. ; in chief a crescent az. ), 
whose motto is " Over fork over." 

The following appears in Sir Bernard 
Burke's ' Peerage and Baronetage ' : 

"Van Bassen, in his 'History of the Kings of 
Scotland,' states that this family is descended from 
one Malcolm, son of Freskin, who, when Prince 
Malcolm fled from Macbeth towards England, after 
the murder of King Duncan, concealed the prince 
from his pursuers, by forking hay or straw over 
him ; and for this service King Malcolm, after his 
restoration, conferred the thanedom of Cuning- 
hame upon his preserver." 


Hilfield, Yateley, Hants. 

See ' A Short View of the Families of the 
Scottish Nobility,' by Mr. Salmon, 1759,, 


[T. F. D. and A. K. also thanked for replies.] 


448). See 1 Tim. iv. 4 and James i. 17. 


This is probably a contraction, in motto- 
form, of James i. 17 : " Omne datum, 
optimum et omne donum perfectum desur- 
sum est descendens a Patre." 


This motto, " Every good thing is from . 
God," is borne by the old family of Boughton, 
now represented by the Rouse-Boughtons, 
baronets, of Downton Hall, Ludlow, Salop. 
[MR. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL also refers to James.] 

BELL-HORSES (10 S. vi. 469). Perhaps a 
few words on this subject from one well 
acquainted with the Sussex border of Surrey 
may not be unacceptable to C. M. In the- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907. 

^fifties of last century most of the farm 
teams had bells. They hung on a metal 
frame fixed on the hames three or four 
bells on each horse. Their sound was cheer- 
ful, and very useful on unlighted roads and 
in narrow lanes. Bells went out of use in 
the sixties. 

As children we ran races, and we were 
started with the words, 

Bell-horses, bell-horses, what time of day ? 
One o'clock, two o'clock, three, and away ! 
At the last word we were off. 

Hilfield, Yateley. 

In parts of Kent bells are still carried on 
special occasions, as when the first load of 
hops is taken to the railway, or when on a 
journey beyond the immediate home dis- 
trict. The bells are in wooden boxes, open 
below, and fixed to the top points of the 
hames. Four, or five of the smaller ones, 
go to a box, and three horses are needed to 
carry a whole set of from thirteen to fifteen. 
They are the property of the waggoners 
(not of the farmers), and most of them are 
supposed to have been won in contests or 
given at some special time (such as com- 
pletion of twenty-five years' service for one 
master) in " the good old days." I am told 
that no new ones have been acquired for 
many years, which seems a pity, for I know 
nothing that sounds more charmingly rural 
than the bells of a fine team, walking over 
a firm road in the first crisp of autumn : 
as one may hear them around Brenchley, 
Horsmonden, Cranbrook, or the Faxleighs, 
.and even, sometimes, at Tonbridge. 

Hadlow, Kent. 

LOCALITIES WANTED (10 S. vi. 430). 

.All the houses mentioned in the query are 
"hospitals." Items 1 and 6 and probably 
12, are lazar-houses. Item 7 is a " poor 

I am afraid I cannot give any definite 
information. I suggest, however, that, 
with regard to item 2, as the Hospital of 
:St. Laurence is said in the Patent Roll to 
have been at Chippenham, Wilts, it may 
have occupied the site known as Monkton j 
there ; with regard to item 3, as the Knights j 
Hospitallers possessed lands at Chilcombe, 
Dorset, perhaps the " Hospital of St. John ' 
the Baptist at Clelecombe " was situate I 
there and belonged to them : with regard ! 
to item 5, as the Hospital of St. Mary, Hare- } 
ford, possessed lands at Stakeston, Yorks 
(i.e., presumably Staxton, near Willerby, [ 
.near Hull), Hareford is more likely to be j 

Hartford (Cheshire) than Harford (Devon) 
or Hereford or Hertford. With regard to 
items 6 and 8, according to Tanner's 
* Notitia Monastica ' there was a lazar- 
house about two miles from Oxborough, 
on the road to Cockley Cley before you came 
to Langwade Cross (I have been unable to 
verify the reference to Blomefield's ' Nor- 
folk ') ; and I would note that in the ' Cal. 
Papal Letters,' iv. 407, mention is made of 
the chapel of St. Mary the Virgin at Morselet, 
Langford, Norfolk. With regard to item 1, 
the lazar-house in question was at the end 
of a bridge. There are Beightons in Derby- 
shire and Norfolk, and, I believe, one near 
Sheffield existed ; and there is a Beyton in 
Suffolk. Has one of these places an ancient 

BYRON'S ' DON JUAN ' (10 S. vi. 369, 475). 
If I am not very much mistaken, the 
quotation marks are quite justified. The 
passage and incident is to be found, I believe, 
in the introduction or in the notes of one of 
the Waverley Novels. I have seen it during 
the last four or five years, but cannot just 
now find it again. WM. H. PEET. 

vi. 490). I can at once think of two great 
composers who did not, and could not, 
play the piano : Louis Spohr and Hector 

Je me souviens entre autres exemples, 
et bien typique celui-la, que Berlioz n'a 
jamais pu jouer sur le piano. Cf. ses 
' Memoires ' (Charpentier editeur), ou il 
raconte que, lors de sa tournee en Russie, 
il provoqua certains doutes touchant son 
identite, pour avoir declar6 son ignorance 
sur le piano. 

Au Conservatoire (Paris) Ton dit couram- 
ment d'un mauvais executant, " II joue 
comme un compositeur." 

En composant Berlioz s'aidait d'une 
flute. Dans les ' Memoires ' il cite d' autres 
compositeurs aussi inhabiles que lui. 

P. A. S. 

' DEATH AND THE SINNER ' (10 S. vi. 388, 
436, 473). At ST. SWITHIN'S request I have 
much pleasure in sending for the columns 
of ' N- & Q.' the following five verses of 
' Death and the Sinner,' which I have been 
successful in getting through a friend from 
the village of Ulsta, in the island of Yell. 
An elderly woman, also born in Yell, but 
now residing in Lerwick, informs me that 
many years ago an acquaintance wrote out 
from memory for her a copy which consisted 
of many verses. Unfortunately, the copy 

10 s. VIL JA*. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


^afterwards was lent, and was never returned. 
If I come across any further information 
relating to ' Death and the Sinner,' I shall 
certainly send it to ' N. & Q.' for the benefit 
of ST. SWITHIN or any other reader who may 
t>e interested in it : 

" Sinner ! I come by Heaven's decree, 
JMy warrant is to summon thee ; 
And whether thou'rt prepared or no, 
'This very night even thou must go." 

"'Ah, ghastly Death ! but thou look'st pale, 
And opest a door to heaven or hell ; 
Then wilt thou not with me forbear, 
And spare me yet another year ? 

O Death ! have mercy on my age, 
And spare me yet upon this stage ; 
For I am just a flower in bloom, 
And wilt thou cut me down so soon ? " 

" Youth or age I ne'er have spared, 
But if you look in yon churchyard 
You '11 see them there in hundreds lie, 
Whom I have made my lawful prey." 

" Death ! no mercy wilt thou show, 
But unto Jesus will I go, 
Who rose triumphant from the grave, 
A guilty wretch like me to save. 

4, Greenfield Place, Lerwick, Shetland. 

vi. 489). 

The maiden's delight, the chaperon's fear. 
1 regret not being able to give the reference 
asked for by SIR AFFABLE, and perhaps the 
generally accepted authorship at the time 
George Whyte-Melville and I used to meet 
In the Vale of White Horse may be considered 
too sketchy to warrant my having given the 
name of my friend as the author. 


With respect to the question raised by 
SIR AFFABLE and the editorial note thereon, 
I may say that the lines appear as follows 
in chap. ii. of Whyte-Melville's novel ' Good 
for Nothing ' : 

The damsel's delight and the chaperone's fear, 
He is voted a trump amongst men ; 

His father allows him two hundred a year, 

And he 'II lay you a thousand to ten. 
The novelist is moralizing on fast young 
men, and speaks of these lines as being 
" the modern satirist's description of a 
promising young man." Whyte-Melville 
would surely not refer to himself in this way, 
and I should consider it very improbable 
that he was their author. 


As to the author of the lines on clouds 
^tvith silver linings, I may say that the 
-quotation, though incorrectly given, comes 
irom ' Verses, Wise or Otherwise,' by Ellen 

Thorneycroft Fowler, first published in 
1 895, and reissued about a year ago by Messrs. 
Cassell & Co. The poem they are taken 
from is called The Wisdom of Folly.' 

As my wife is constantly receiving letters 
about these lines, and as they are printed 
(without name or acknowledgment) in at 
least one collection of verse, I may perhaps 
be allowed to quote the stanza in full : 
Though outwardly a gloomy shroud, 
The inner half of every cloud 

Is bright and shining : 
I therefore turn my clouds about, 
And always wear them inside out 

To show the lining. 

There is a parallel to MR. PICKFORD'S 
quotation in a South Indian proverb, pro- 
bably also North Indian : " The pagoda 
cat does not fear the gods." R. S. 

ST. EDITH (10 S. vi. 29, 70, 91, 116, 513). 
There need be no difficulty in consulting 
the metrical life of St. Edith. The legend 
has been reprinted since 1851. The title 
is " St. Editha, sive Chronicon Vilodunense, 
herausgegeben von C. Horstmann, Heil- 
bronn, 1883." The extracts quoted are 
obviously garbled and modernized. 

Our Anglo-Saxon heroes and saints are 
only known by name as recorded in vile 
and misleading spellings, due to the in- 
genuity of Norman scribes. St. " Editha " 
would not have recognized her own name 
in such an absurd form ; for her name was 
" Eadgyth," with long ea and long y, both 
parts being intelligible. Here ead meant 
" prosperity," and gyth probably meant 
" war." The suffix -gyth is extremely com- 
mon in the latter part of a name ; but the 
Normans ignored the g in such a position. 

vi. 368). President Roosevelt's name is 
pronounced in three syllables, accented on 
the first, where oo is like o long and the s 
has the sound of z, as in rose the e of the 
second syllable being very short and lightly 
touched, or nearly like the sound of u in but. 

M. C. L. 

New York. 

The name of the Dutch family from which 
the twenty-sixth President of the United 
States is descended was originally Rosevelt, 
or rather Van Rosevelt, and was so borne 
by Mijnheer Claes Martenzoon van Rosevelt, 
who emigrated from Holland to New Amster- 
dam about 1650. Later, for some reason 
that I am unable to ascertain, the surname 
was changed to Roosevelt and the patro- 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907. 

nymic " van " dropped. The pronunciation 
most frequently heard is " Rosevelt," but 
the editor of one of the principal papers here 
informs me that in higher circles it is better 
rendered as a word of three syllables, 
*' Roos-eh-velt," which approximates closely 
to its sound in present-day Dutch, i.e. 
Roosafelt. Other eminent men of the clan 
are Nicholas J. Roosevelt, the engineer who 
invented the steamboat paddle-wheel, and 
partner of the celebrated Robert Fulton ; 
and Robert Burnwell Roosevelt, author of 
* The Game Birds of America,' &c., an uncle 
of the President. N. W. HILL. 


THE AINSTY OF YORK (10 S. vi. 462, 511). 
The explanation of ainsty given by PROF. 
SKEAT at the latter reference is identical 
with that given by me in ' N. & Q.' on 1 1 July, 
1904, when I said (10 S. ii. 97) : 

" The word with which we have to do is A.-S. 
dnstlg, 0. N. eiiistigi, Norwegian einstig, a single or 
one-by-one path, like the Northern dialectal bridle- 
sty, a road wide enough for one horse or carriage." 

The reference to this note is given by 
looks it, and says : " The sense of Anstey, 
in Herts, is perfectly well known, and was 
explained two years ago in my ' Place- 
Names of Herts.' " The meaning of " The 
Ainsty of York " was, at any rate, explained 
by me at an earlier time. My explanation 
was founded on a passage which I quoted 
from the ' Hundred Rolls,' where the 
Aynesty of York is mentioned as having 
anciently been via regia. S. O. ADDY. 

NAMES (10 S. vi. 381). I have no personal 
knowledge of San Franciscan speech, and 
am not concerned to apologize for it ; but 
I may correct or supplement MR. DOUGLAS 
OWEN'S remarks on one or two matters of 

No doubt the colloquial application to a 
person of the adjective husky came about, 
as suggested, by transference from the name 
of the lusty sledge-dogs of the North, but 
the dog-name husky does not pertain merely 
to the leader of the team, as MR. OWEN 
supposes, though naturally the strongest 
and most capable dog is selected for this 
office ; it describes the breed. They are 
Eskimo dogs, Eskimos, shortened to Eskies, 
and corrupted to Huskies and they were 
so called in the early days of Hudson Bay 
Company travel. 

Again, referring to prices, MR. OWEN 
speaks of a " bit, an imaginary coin of 12| 
cents," adding, " If such a coin as a bit ever 

existed here, it is beyond the memory of the- 
elderly." This coin is not at all imaginary,, 
though it is no longer in circulation and wa& 
not of United States coinage. When it i& 
recalled that, practically, national coinage 
did not begin till 1795, and that the amount 
of its issue met the people's needs very 
inadequately for a long time, it will be under- 
stood why, during the first half of the last 
century, the Spanish-American coins that 
had been in use during colonial days were 
quite as abundant as the national coins,, 
and were considered legal tender. These 
were the dollar (once the " piece of eight ") 
and four smaller coins, representing its 
aliquot parts from one-half to one-sixteenth. 

The one representing one-eighth of a 
dollar, or 12J cents the real or so-called 
" Mexican shilling " was fully as familiar 
to my childhood as was the dime, and so, 
too, was the half-real, as a "sixpence," 
Some years ago, in examining letters left 
by a relative, I noticed that there were 
many, dated in the early forties, the postage 
of which was marked at 18| cents, an amount 
impossible to pay in national coins. 

This Mexican real was current everywhere 
at the value of 12^ cents, but it had different 
names in different States, the name usually 
marking its proportion of the value of the 
shilling of such State the money of account 
by which people continued to reckon long 
after the adoption of the decimal system. 
In New York, e.g., where eight shillings 
were counted to a dollar, it was a " shilling," 
but in Connecticut, whose shilling of account 
was 16f cents, it was " ninepence " ; while 
in Pennsylvania, with a shilling worth 
13^ cents, it was an " elevenpenny bit," 
shortened to levy ; and in Georgia, a " seven- 
penny bit," shortened to bit. The name 
bit was taken up by most of the Western 
and Southern States beyond the Mississippi 
as they were settled. In California, from 
special circumstances, the coin must have 
continued in circulation for some years after 
the San Francisco mint was opened in 1854, 
and, doubtless because it gives an easy way 
of reckoning, people still count by it. 

My reply is so long that I will defer till, 
some possible future time comment upon, 
part of the colloquialisms noted by MR. 
OWEN. M. C. L. 

New York City. 

MR. DOUGLAS OWEN is to be praised as a 
zealous collector of phrases curiously dis- 
tressing to the ordinary English native of 
these days, for in this mustering we catch 
the index-finger of Time. Yet when one 
recalls the Hon. J. R. Lowell's charming 

lo s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


chapter on pure Americanisms inserted by 
-way of introducing the subtilities of his 
immortal ' Biglow Papers ' these introduc- 
tory words a glittering array of examples, 
each example traced, with the complete 
searching patience of the real scholar of 
real genius, right to the mouths, so to speak, 
and to the printed writings in poetry and 
prose, of the Englishmen actually breathing 
English air in Queen Elizabeth's time or 
earlier truly a mortal cannot help tiring 
at moments of the ever-bewailing spirit in 
the matter of American expressions on the 
part of the latter-day Englishman. Surely 
the English-speaking Anglo-Saxon Yankee 
who first came to the eastern shores of 
America, wending his way by cart and 
stream to the Pacific, sprang direct from 
the loins of a sturdy gang of Englishers of 
that period, and surely the latter were un- 
adulterated Englishers, their English pure 
English. But may be, to guess from his 
two names, personal and patronymic, MR. 
OWEN here is a combination of Welsh and 
f3cot, and consequently, by reason of racial 
instinct, somewhat blind to inherited early 
Anglo- Saxonisms that take their root in 
ancient England. J. G. CUPPLES. 

Brookline, Massachusetts. 

I suggest for ticky, a name for the three- 
penny piece, an origin from " tizzy," and a 
reference to Skeat's dictionary under the 
words " tester," " testy," and " tetchy." 
I make the suggestion with an apology to 
Prof. Skeat, who does not consider that the 
last word has any connexion with the former 

CLIPPINGDALE (10 S. vi. 151, 237, 472). 
Samuel Dodd Clippingdale, M.R.C.S. in 
1834 (who I believe is still living), was the 
father of the original querist. DR. S. D. 
printed a very concise and well-certified 
family history of his people, who are re- 
markable as having been Middlesex folks 
continuously for three centuries, and for 
their long association with the Thames. 
Many of the family are buried in a vault 
at St. Matthias's, Poplar. 

6, Beechfield Road, Catforcl, S.E. 

CHIPPENDALE (10 S. vi. 447). Frederick 
Litchfield in his ' History of Furniture ' 
(1892) says : 

" Thomas Chippendale appears to have succeeded 
"his father a chairmaker and to have carried on a 
large and successful business in St. Martin's Lane, 

which was, at that time, an important art centre, 
and close to the newly founded Royal Academy." 

Chippendale published ' The Gentleman 
and Cabinet-Maker's Director,' the same 
authority adds, 

" not, as stated in the introduction to the Catalogue 
to the South Kensington Museum, in 1769, but some 
years previously, as is testified by a copy of the 
third edition of the work, which is in the writer's 
possession, and bears date 1762, the first edition 
having appeared in 1754 and the second in 1759." 
Part of the title-page of the third edition 
runs as follows : 

" Thomas Chippendale, Cabinet- Maker and Up- 
holster, in St. Martin's Lane, London. Printed 
tor the Author, and sold at his House in St. Martin's 
Lane ; also by T. Becket and P. A. de Hondt in the 
Strand. M.D.C.C.LXII." 

A cutting I possess from a recent issue of 
The Cabinet- Maker records : 

" Chippendale whose furniture now commands 
such extraordinary prices was originally an estate 
carpenter at Nostell Priory, near Wakefield, the 
residence of Lord and Lady St. Oswald. Noswell 
Priory is a comparatively modern mansion, so named 
as it stands upon the site of an ancient priory of 
Augustine canons. It contains some of Chippen- 
dale s best work." 

Mr. K. Warren Clouston in his ' Chippen- 
dale Period in English Furniture' (1897) 
remarks : 

"The Thomas Chippendale who is famous all the 
world over was born in Worcestershire, but beyond 
that nothing is known of his personal history." 
As MR. JOHN Hess correctly writes, the dates 
of his birth and death have not been ascer- 
tained, but " George Smith, Upholsterer to 
his Majesty," in 1826, alludes to him as the 
"elder Mr. Chippendale," and fixes the 
approximate date of his son and name- 
sake's death by stating that 

"Thomas Chippendale (lately deceased), though 
possessing great taste and ability as a draughtsman 
and designer, was known only to a few." 

The first edition of Chippendale's book 
was published at 31. IBs. 6d., and it con- 
tained 160 copperplate illustrations. It 
was dedicated to Prince William Henry, 
and the second to the Earl of Northumber- 
land. HARRY HEMS. 
Fair Park, Exeter. 

Chippendale dwelt at the sign of " The 
Chair "probably meaning the " Covered 
Chair." or " Sedan "in St. Martin's Lane, 
afterwards No. 60, long before 1806. In the 
advertisement, in 1756, of his second edition 
of 'The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's 
Director,' he desires "All Commissions for 
Household Furniture, or Drawing thereof, 
to be sent to the Cabinet and Upholstery 
Warehouse, at the Chair in St. Martin's 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JA*. 12, 1907. 

Lane," his colleague at that time being 
J. Rannie. These extensive premises were, 
when J. T. Smith wrote ' Nollekens and his 
Times ' (in 1828), occupied by a Mr. Stutely, 
builder. Smith prophesied the return of 
the public taste to Chippendale. (See ' The 
Story of Charing Cross,' 1906, pp. 178-9.) 


The following excerpta confirm and supple- 
ment MR. HEBB'S interesting note : 

From ' The New Complete Guide,' 1783, 
p. 213 : " Chippindale and Hage, Cabinet- 
makers, 60, St. Martin's Lane, near Long 

From ' The Universal British Directory,' 
1790, vol. i. p. 103 : " Chippendall [sic] and 
Co., Upholders, 60, St. Martin's Lane." 

To this date the name does not occur in 
Great Queen Street. 

From Johnstone's ' London Commercial 
Guide and Street Directory,' 1817 : " Thos. 
Chippendale, Upholder and Undertaker, 
57, Haymarket." " William Chippendale 
and Robert Chippendale, Jun., Solicitors, 
56, Great Queen Street." 

I cannot trace William Chippendale's 
connexion with the Royal Circus in either 
'Memoirs of J. Decastro,' 1824, or Cir- 
cusiana,' by J. C. Cross, 1809. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

"SEARCHERS" (10 S. vi. 150, 213). 
The modern designation would be " a jury 
of matrons " ; but the penultimate sen- 
tence of the following interesting old case, 
temp. Elizabeth, contains the word " search " 
in the sense of the query : 

" La Dame Willoughbies Case. Eu October anno 
38 Reginee mine Sir Francis Willoughby Chi valer 
morust sa feme enseint, sur que Percival Willoughby 
que avoit espouse 1'eigne file Sir Francis, et avoit 
convey a luy sur son marriage le greinder part des 
possessions del dit Sir Francis en default de issue 
male, attempt de suffer common recovery, sur que 
il entend que le remainder en use limit al primer 
fits del Sir Francis seroit barre, et issint Tissue en 
ventre sa mere disherit. La feme Sir Francis sua 
as Justices et as Seignors del Counsel d'estopper le 
proceeding del recovery, sur surmise que el fuit 
enseint, quel fuit grant ; sur que Percival fait 
suggestion en Chancery, que la dame affirm luy 
d'estre enseint, \ou el ne fuit, et per ceo el detain 
les evidences del terre, et auxi luy estop del re- 
covery, et per ceo il praya breve tie ventre inspi- 
ciendo, quel Termino Pasch, anno 39 Reginse fuit 
grant Vicounts London, sur que les Vicounts de 
London repair en person del suddain al meason la 
dame en Pauls Church-yard vers le Thames, et la ils 
amesne ove eux un inquest de femes, dont deux 
fuerunt midwives, et ils veignont en le Chamber la 
dame, et mistont a luy les femes jurus per eux 
devant iur searcher, trier, et vray dire s'el fuit 
enseint ; et les Viscounts et touts homes depart 

hors del Chamber, et les femes search la dame, et 
retorne lour verdict que el fuit enseint : per que les 
Vicounts font retorn del breve accordant." 
I have thought it well to extend the abbre- 
viated words, and I may say that a " re- 
covery " was an old mode of barring entails 
which was abolished by an Act of 1833. The 
writ for this inquest, it will be observed, is 
directed to the sheriffs. MISTLETOE. 

517). I am much obliged to W. C. B. for 
his reply to my query. I am also grateful 
for DR. FORSHAW'S notes respecting the 
epitaph. The reference from Mr. J. Potter 
Briscoe's ' Gleanings from God's Acre ' 
had, however, already appeared at 8 S. i. 
279. I may add that I made a pretty 
exhaustive search in Stepney Churchyard 
for the grave of Capt. John Dunch (ob. 1696) 
some twelve or fourteen years ago, but 
failed to find it, so I presume it is not now 
in evidence. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

In the churchyard of Malborough, near 
Kingsbridge, Devon, is a slight variant of 
the Selby epitaph, on a man, aged forty- 
seven, who died in 1803, as follows : 

Though boisterous winds and Neptune's waves 

Have tossed me to and Fro, 
Yet I at last by God's decree 

Am Anchored here below 
In hopes once more for to set sail 

With all our noble fleet, 
With trumpets sounding in the air, 

My General Christ to meet. 
In the churchyard of East Portlemouth,, 
also near Kingsbridge, is an epitaph of a 
similar character, on a man, aged eighty-one,, 
who died in 1819 : 

Tho' Boreas' blasts and Neptune's waves 

Have tos'd me too and fro, 
Yet I at last by God's decree 

Do harbour here below, 
When at an anchor I do ride 
With one I 'm glad to meet, 
Yet once again we must set sail 

To join our Saviour's fleet. 
Both places are very near the sea. 

A. J. DAVY. 

LADY ARBELLA JOHNSON (10 S. vi. 508). 
See 10 S. iv. 227, also the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' 
under Isaac Johnson, her husband, one of 
the founders of the State of Massachusetts. 
She was a descendant of George, Duke of 
Clarence ; and if MR. HUISH has any in- 
formation about her descendants, I should 
be grateful for a note of it. 

(Marquis de) RTJVIGNY. 


10 s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Homer and his Age. By Andrew Lang. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

THERE is no more polished and skilful fighter in the 
literary lists than Mr. Lang, and he easily makes 
fun of the extraordinary conclusions and assertions 
of the learned Teuton. But he lacks that thorough- 
ness which distinguishes the best German scholar- 
ship, and in this volume, as in some others he has 
written, he makes us regret that he has not gone 
deeper, and written all round the subject with the 
acuteness which he shows in his partial treatment. 
In 1893 his ' Homer and the Epic ' argued for the 
unity of Homer, and now he has returned to the 
charge in a shorter book. When we say that it 
contains but 326 pages of leisurely print, the expert 
will easily imagine that the treatment is far from 

Mr. Lang's thesis is that Homer, both in the 
' Iliad ' and ' Odyssey,' depicts the life of a single 
brief age of culture an age which " is sundered 
from the Mycenaean prime by the century or two in 
which changing ideas led to the superseding of 
burial by burning." Roughly, this date seems to 
the present reviewer correct for at any rate the 
core of the poem ; but that the whole of the ' Iliad ' 
and the ' Odyssey ' as we now know them is the work 
of that one age Mr. Lang has not persuaded us. He 
demolishes easily special points in theories which 
suppose different dates of composition for various 
parts of the poem, but he has, on his own view, to 
make admissions of later insertions. Thus we read 
on p. 124 that "it is a critical error to insist on 
taking Homer absolutely and always an pied de la 
lettre ; but with due deference to Mr. Lang, it 
seems to us that this is the very method by which 
he often confutes his adversaries. Of a line twice 
appearing in the ' Odyssey ' (xvi. 294 and xix. 13) 
he says (p. 193) that, because it disregards the dis- 
tinction iron for implements, bronze for weapons, 
" it must therefore be a very late addition ; it may be 
removed without injuring the sense of the passage 
in which it occurs." This seems to us a significant 
Argal for the other side, and the easy condition 
that the sense of the passage is not injured would 
allow of excisions of a wholesale character such 
excisions, indeed, as are made by those who suppose 
a core of narrative and a gradual addition to it, not 
necessarily contemporaneous. Here, in fact, we 
come upon a criterion of literary judgment in which 
technical scholars and men of letters may differ. It 
is all very well to say that Homer, a writer of one 
age, shows "unus color." That quality has been 
ascribed to our Authorized Bible, with some justifi- 
cation, we think, yet the version of James was a 
polishing by many hands of previous renderings 
which have very various sources. Would not many 
critics select the stories of Ali Baba and Aladdin 
as the most characteristic of the ' Arabian Nights ' ? 
Yet Mr. Lane-Poole has recently told us that these 
two tales ' ' occur in no manuscript or printed text 
of the collected tales." The professional Orientalist 
might discover this, but would the literary critic ? 

The most valuable part of the volume is that con- 
cerning the question of Homeric dress and armour, 
which Mr. Lang treats in detail and with great 
acuteness. He gives us, with that zeal for com- 
parative anthropology which distinguishes him, 

pictures of 'Algonquins under Shield,' an Algon- 
quin corslet and evidence of warlike accoutrements 
derived from early Greek vases. In the matter of 
dress we think date is very difficult to determine. 
Nothing shows survivals in culture more, apparently 
meaningless survivals of arrangements and words. 
The retention of such terms concerning obsolete 
things Mr. Lang admits on p. 204. The alternative 
is to omit another unfortunate line in the 'Odyssey,' 
whioh " does not apply to the state of things in the 
' Iliad,' while it contradicts the whole ' Odyssey,' 
in which swords and spears are always of bronze 
when their metal is mentioned." 

It will be seen that the best of theories have their 

On the human side of Agamemnon and Nestor, as 
characters drawn with skill (and possibly derived 
from real prototypes), Mr. Lang is admirable. He 
analyzes with gusto the boasts of Nestor and the 
frailties of Agamemnon. This is a point of view 
generally neglected by lovers of Greek grammar, 
who dote on the digamma and cannot see a jest. It 
has always struck us as a veracious touch that 
Achilles, in a rage with Agamemnon, should say 
that the monarch was the worse for drink. There is 
no reason to suppose that it was so, but the taunt 
is common now. 

On the linguistic side Mr. Lang has given us very 
little. He says, following Helbig, that Homer never 
mentions seals or signet rings, and he follows this 
up by asking: "How often are finger rings men- 
tioned in the whole mass of Attic tragic poetry ? 
We remember no example, and instances are 
certainly rare. Liddell and Scott give none. Yet 
the tragedians were, of course, familiar with rings 
and seals." We must protest that we expect 
a little more research than is implied in the mere 
consulting of Liddell and Scott ! Those venerable 
authorities are not aware that Agamemnon himself 
seals an inscribed tablet in the ' Iphigeneia in 
Aulis,' 38 ; in the same play Agamemnon instructs 
the old man to "keep the seal (impression in wax) 
on the tablet," 155. In the ' Hippolytus ' (864) 
Theseus breaks the seal, his own wife's gold signet 
(862), before reading Phaedra's indictment of Hippo- 
lytus. Deianeira sends Lichas with a token which 
her lord will "quickly recognize within the circle 
of this seal" ('Trachinige,' 615). 

We need hardly add that the book shows abundant 
humour and an exceptionally wide range of compari- 
son between ancient and modern times. It does 
not excel in arrangement or compression, but it will 
stimulate thoughtful students of the subject. 

Popular Ballads of the Olden Time. Selected and 
arranged by Frank Sidgwick. Third Series. 
(A. H. Bullen.) 

" I WADNA gi'e ae wheeple of a whaup (cry of a 
curlew) for a' the nichtingales in England " is the 
patriotic, but anonymous motto for the third volume 
of Mr. Sidgwick's 'Popular Ballads,' which deals 
with 'Ballads of Scottish Tradition and Romance.* 
As the contents of the volume include such master- 
pieces as ' The Hunting of the Cheviot ' (better 
known as 'Chevy Chase'), 'Johnie Armstrong,' 
' The Braes of Yarrow,' the modern ballad of 
' Kinmont Willie,' ' Sir Patrick Spence,' ' Bessie 
Bell and Mary Gray,' "Waly, waly, gin love be 
bonny," ' The Heir of Linne,' and many more of 
equal merit and celebrity, this outburst of Border 
enthusiasm may pass without protest. A noble 
collection of ballads is indeed given, and is said to- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 12, 1907. 

comprise in an appendix a ballad, ' The Jolly 
Juggler,' from a manuscript at Balliol College, 
which does not appear in the monumental collection 
of Prof. Child. In the latter are, however, ' The 
Jolly Beggar' and 'The Gaberlunzie Man,' at- 
tributed to James V., which have points of resem- 
blance. A map to illustrate the Border ballads 
extends from Edinburgh in the North to Durham 
and Brancepeth in the South. A proximate volume 
will consist of ballads dealing with Robin Hood. 

A POEM by Mr. Thomas Hardy, entitled ' New 
Year's Eve,' opens out The, Fortnightly for 1907. 
.Not very satisfactory is it as an explanation of 
Divine purpose in shaping the years. The second 
'part of Leo Tolstoy's 'On Shakespeare and the 
Drama' is as narrow and illogical as the first. We 
recognize in the later instalment, however, the note 
of personal vanity always to be expected in such 
utterances. The whole constitutes a painful lesson 
on human littleness. In ' The Tyranny of Clothes ' 
Mrs. John Lane is very humorous, but conveys in 
laughing some home truths. Mr. Francis Gribble 
gives a thoughtful paper upon Benjamin Constant 
and his relations with Madame de Stael. 'A Celtic 
Renaissance of the Past ' deals with Auguste 
Brizeux, the national poet of Brittany. Mr. P. G. 
Aflalo rhapsodizes about 'The Sportsman.' Mr. 
John F. Macdonald's article on 'French Life and 
the French Stage ' forms a further dissertation upon 
M. Alfred Capus. 

IN The Nineteenth Century M. Alfred Naquet, 
an Ancien Senateur and Ancien Depute", writes 
thoughtfully and well on ' Entente, English or 
German.' 'The Curse of Machinery,' by Mr. 
Reginald Newton Weekes, is a jeremiad something 
in the style of Ruskin. M. Basil de Selincourt 
writes on ' Giotto in Modern Life.' ' A Temperance 
Town ' deals with the absolutely unreal character 
of prohibition in an American town wherein the 
sale of liquor is prohibited by the State law. The 
whole atmosphere of public feeling is, we are told, 

harged with intense irritation, and an overwhelm- 
ing majority of the citizens are utterly opposed to 
1 the severity of the existing liquor laws. In ' Bees 

nd Blue Flowers ' the idea is confuted that flowers 
have become blue because blue is the favourite 
colour of bees. An important article is on ' Divorce 
in the United States.' An admirably scholarly 

Eaper is that by Mr. Herbert Paul on 'The 
nnuence of Catullus.' 

IN a very earnest number of The National Review 
appear a few articles of a non-political character. 
Prominent among these is ' Missing Chapters from 
"The Garden that I Love,"' by the author of the 
work so named. This gives some consoling obser- 
vations upon the fact that there .are few periods of 
the year in which the garden is totally denuded 
of flowers. In Miss K. Batlmrst's 'Some More 
Children's Essays ' we find a maiden of nine par- 
donably misquoting Burns. We fancy there has 
been in this a little assistance. The article is, how- 
ever, edifying. ' Notes on Hare-Hunting,' by Lady 
Gifford, shows little aversion from that species of 
so-called sport. Sir Rowland Blennerhassett has a 
^valuable article on ' The Hohenlohe Memoirs.' 

IN The. Cornhill appears ' Lord Beacon sfield's 
Portrait Gallery,' containing information a pro- 
table source of some of which is 'N. & Q.' Mr. 
Andrew Lang has a valuable paper on ' Border 
History vtraux Border Ballads.' An edifying article 

is by Prof. H. H. Turner on 'Greenwich Time,' 
and an erudite one is that of Dr. Andrew Wilson 
'About Opsonins.' An archaeological flavour 
attaches to Mr. Arthur C. Benson's 'An Old 
Parson's Day-book.' 

Holmes, is a sound and thoughtful piece of criti- 
cism in The Burlington, and is accompanied by 
many illustrations, one of which, 'The Storm,' 
forms a striking frontispiece. Three other plates 
are given, and have points of resemblance to the 
English School. ' Notes on Palma Vecchio,' oy Mr. 
Claude Phillips, are brilliantly illustrated. A re- 
markable landscape by Hokusai, one of ' Thir y-Six 
Views of Fuji,' affords a fine instance of printing in 
colour. An editorial article on ' The Architecture 
of our Public Buildings ' has also some capable 

MESSRS. BELL announce an abridgment of 
' Webster's International Dictionary,' to be issued 
under the title of ' Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.' 
This book is the largest and latest abridgment of 
the ' International,' and contains, in addition to a 
full vocabulory, several literary appendixes, in- 
cluding a 'Glossary of Scottish Words and Phrases'; 
a 'Dictionary of Classical Mythology'; vocabu- 
laries of rimes, proper names, &c., and quotations 
from foreign languages ; and ' Tables of Abbrevia- 
tions and Arbitrary Signs used in Writing and 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
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CONTENTS. No. 160. 

NOTES : Slavery in the United States, 41 Brasses at the 
Bodleian, 42 Chertsey Monumental Inscriptions, 43 
'Ham House,' by Mrs. Roundell, 44 "The Mahalla" 
Coleridge's ' Dejection ' Anglo - Indian ' Little Jack 
Homer' 'The Merchant's Magazine,' 45 "The Right' 
and "The Wrong" Howson's Case, 46 "The Old High 
lander" Carlisle: Carlyol, 47. 

QUERIES : Public Office = Police-Office Frederic the 
Great's MSS. 'The Sign of the Cleft,' 47 Philip 
Wright, c. 1759 Gentleman's Evening Dress French 
Revolution Andrew Jukes Duke of Kent's Chil- 
dren Papyrus and Parchment "A penny saved i 
two pence got" Lady Fanshawe's Memoirs, 48 Sir 
Richard Fanshawe's Portrait Authors of Quotations 
Wanted Brass Rubbings French Proverbs, 49 Brink- 
low Family Tristan and Isolde Cruikshank's Remarque 
Mrs. Mary Goodyer's Murder Aldworth of Berk 
shire, 50. 

REPLIES : "Thune" : " (Eil-de-boeuf," French Slang- 
Words, 50 "Firgunanum" ^Edric, Duke of Mercia 
Spelling Changes, 51 Folk-lore Origins Dorothy Vernon 
Legend "Set up my rest," 53 Three-Candle Folk-lore- 
Sir T. Davis, Lord Mayor A Knighthood of 1603, 54 
Fairy-haunted Kensington Bell Inscriptions at Siresa 
Macaulay's Letters to Randall Admiral Benbow's Death, 
55 Blake's Songs : Early Reprint Gamelshiel Castle, 
Haddingtonshire Bacchanals or Bag-o'-Nails Don- 
caster: Image of the Blessed Virgin, 56 Eleanor of 
Castile Cardinal Mezzofanti Monumental Inscriptions : 
St. Faith S.P.Q.R., 57 " Romeland" MacNamara 
Welsh A, 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' New English Dictionary ' Platt's 
'Last Ramble in the Classics.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


IN correcting one blunder (10 S. vi. 470) 
MB. ALBERT MATTHEWS falls into another 
much worse. So far from slavery legally 
ceasing on 1 Jan., 1863, the Emancipation 
Proclamation did not render it illegal on an 
inch of territory ; and had the war ended 
then, the very districts affected could have 
bought a new set of slaves from the others. 
It did not free even the existent slaves in 
the loyal States or those forcibly prevented 
from secession, nor (a significant fact) in the 
seceded portions actually conquered, but 
only in those io be conquered. It left nearly 
a million slaves without even the inferable 
promise of freedom. Why does MR. 
MATTHEWS suppose the Thirteenth Amend- 
ment to the Constitution, making slavery 
thenceforth illegal, was passed in 1865 if 
.there were no slaves to free ? Was this 
elaborate, tune - and - labour - wasting, and 
difficult machinery set at work to abolish 
what did not exist ? The fact is that there 
were then some quarter of a million un- 
-questioned slaves, and several hundred 
thousand more whose emancipation was 
irregular and doubtful ; and that while 
the Dred Scott decision stood unreversed 
in the Supreme Court, slavery was still the 

law of the land. The amendment 
passed to countervail that decision and 
make any revival of the institution impos- 
sible, as well as to free the still remaining 
slaves. The fugitive-slave laws were not 
abolished till 28 June, 1864 : a useless per- 
formance if there were no slaves to hunt 
down. A very brief summary of the main 
landmarks in the abolition of slavery may be 
permitted : 

6 Aug., 1861, all slaves employed against 
the National Government freed ; 13 March, 
1862, return of fugitive slaves by the army 
prohibited ; 26 March, gradual emancipa- 
tion after 4 July, 1863, voted by West 
Virginia (a war creation) ; 16 April, slavery 
in the District of Columbia (the Govern- 
ment's property) abolished ; 19 June, the 
same in the Territories (provisional States 
under Government control) ; 17 July, 
captured or fugitive slaves of all persons in 
rebellion freed ; 22 Sept., Lincoln's pre- 
liminary proclamation, threatening eman- 
cipation if the seceding States did not yield ; 
1 Jan, 1863, his great Emancipation Pro- 
clamation, freeing all slaves in rebellious 
territory thereafter conquered ; 24 June, 
gradual emancipation after 4 July, 1870, 
voted by Missouri ; 13 Feb., 1864, immediate 
emancipation voted by a convention of the 
part of Virginia held by the Federal Govern- 
ment ; 24 Feb., all negro soldiers emanci- 
pated; 28 June, fugitive-slave laws abolished ; 
13 Oct., abolition of slavery by Maryland's 
new constitution, secured by allowing 
soldiers in the field to vote ; 11 Jan., 1865, 
immediate emancipation voted by Missouri 
in a new State convention ; 3 March, wives 
and children of all negro soldiers emancipated. 
Local conventions in Tennessee, Arkansas, 
and Louisiana had also passed emancipation 
ordinances for their States, of dubious 
validity. This left the slaves in Kentucky 
and Delaware unaffected, and those in 
several other States of questionable status. 
The Thirteenth Amendment had already 
been passed by the Senate in 1864, but failed 
of a two-thirds vote in the House ; the latter 
body reversed its vote early in 1865, and 
the amendment was ratified by thirty- one 
States out of thirty-six, and went into 
force 18 Dec. FORREST MORGAN. 

Hartford, Conn. 

MR. MATTHEWS at 10 S. vi. 470 makes a 
blunder, both legal and historical, which 
should 'not be let pass in the pages of ' N. & Q.' 
He states that "slavery, which had previously 
been abolished in many of the States, ceased 
legally to exist throughout the United States 
on 1 Jan., 1863 or nearly 44 years ago." 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907. 

On 1 Jan., 1863, President Lincoln by 
his Emancipation Proclamation set free the 
slaves in Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except 
thirteen parishes), Mississippi, Alabama, 
Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North 
Carolina, and Virginia (except forty-eight 
counties). His proclamation did not destroy 
the institution of slavery, but simply set free 
the then slaves in those States, being the 
States and portions of States in rebellion. 
The slaves in the remaining slave territory 
Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, Missouri, the forty-eight counties of 
Virginia, and the thirteen parishes of 
Louisiana were still left in slavery, and 
the institution of slavery was not attempted 
to be destroyed in any of the States. 

The Congress the Senate on 8 April, 
1864, and the House of Representatives on 
31 Jan., 1865 proposed an amendment to 
the States, the first section of which is : 

" Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, ex- 
cept as a punishment for crime whereof the party 
shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in the 
United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

This amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States became a part of the Con- 
stitution on 18 Dec., 1865, when Secretary 
of State Seward announced that it had 
received the ratifications of the requisite 
number of States. 

By that amendment on 18 Dec., 1865, 
and not on 1 Jan., 1863 was slavery 
abolished throughout the United States, 
and the slaves who had not been set free by 
the Proclamation of Lincoln obtained their 

The error of MB. MATTHEWS is one that 
is held by many, and I deem that a clear 
statement of the facts will be interesting to 
your readers. Lincoln set free many slaves 
by the proclamation of 1863, but he made 
no attempt to abolish slavery. There were 
many legally held in slavery in the States 
after his proclamation, and even after his 
death ; for it was not till seven months 
after his death that on 18 Dec., 1865, 
slavery was abolished in the States which 
in 1861 still maintained the institution, 
and that the many remaining slaves were 
freed. JOHN G. EWING. 


THE late Rev. Herbert Haines, in his well- 
known ' Manual of Monumental Brasses ' , 
(1861), part ii. p. 232, under a list of brasses 
in " private possession, museums, &c.," 
states that in the Bodleian Library at 

Oxford there was (in the Gough Collection)- 
" A Rose, bearing an inscription c. 1410, 
from a brass formerly in St. Peter's Church, 
St. Albans," Herts. This rose is figured in 
Gough's ' Sepulchral Monuments,' vol. ii. 
part i. p, 335. Just when and how this 
brass got away from St. Peter's Church is not 
stated, or how it is supposed to have come 
into Gough's possession. It would seem to 
have passed into the hands of the Bodleian 
with the rest of " the Gough Collection," 
which, presumably, included other brasses 
taken from churches, as there are more 
brasses recorded by Haines as at the 

In vol. i. No. 2 (June, 1897) of The Oxford 
Journal of Monumental Brasses, at p. 80, 
appears a query from Mr. William Frampton 
Andrews, author of ' Memorial Brasses in 
Hertfordshire Churches,' as to the then 
whereabouts of this rose brass. Mr. Andrews 
there states that the brass in question was 
forthcoming at the Bodleian in 1864, but 
was not there at the date quoted. Replying 
to this query, Mr. P. Manning states in the 
following issue of the same paper (December 
1897), at pp. 124-5, that he had made 
inquiries of Mr. E. W. B. Nicholson, Bodley's 
Librarian, who stated that after careful 
search among all Gough's copper plates, 
he had been unable to discover this " rose." 
Search was also made among the copper 
plates in the Rawlinson Collection, with 
the same result. (There is no reason why 
a monumental brass should be classed with 
copper plates or kept with them.) Mr. 
Manning adds: "The oldest members of 
the Bodleian staff have no recollection of 
the rose." In the same communication 
Mr. Manning further states that the mutilated 
inscription to Sir John Wyngefeld, dated 
1389 (among those returned by Haines as 
at the Bodleian), was likewise not to be 
found. This is also figured by Gough. 

Now what can have become of these 
valuable treasures ? So far as I am aware, 
the above is the only time the query has 
been made in print, and I thought it of 
sufficient interest to archaeologists to repeat 
it in ' N. & Q.,' as the wider circulation and 
publication might possibly lead to the 
rediscovery of the missing brasses. This 
type of " rose " is all but unique, two only 
being known to Haines this, and one 

other, which he figures (Introd., p. 110) 

though there are examples of other uses of 
the rose on monumental brasses. 

It is surely worth some organized effort 
to recover or find these, and while it is bad 
enough that brasses should be taken from 

10 s. VIL JAN. 19, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


churches under any plea, it does seem in- 
conceivable that such things could possibly 
disappear from such custody as the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford, unless by deliberate 
theft, which, one would suppose, would be 
immediately detected, though it might not 
lead to the recovery' of the article purloined. 
I do not wish to be taken as casting the least 
imputation upon the authorities of this 
great library, but I believe the matter to 
be of enough importance to justify a thorough 
investigation, as far as it may now be possible. 
Is it not more than possible that these 
plates have accidentally become hidden or 
put away in some place to which they do not 
belong ? It is true that England possesses 
untold wealth in archaeological treasures 
denied to the New World ; and while all 
Americans are, by our English cousins, 
popularly credited with being especially 
desirous of procuring any of these, even 
at the sacrifice of personal honour and 
integrity, I think England does not realize 
the amazement with which Americans 
regard the apparent supineness and indiffer- 
ence of the English public to the loss of 
treasures which can never be replaced 
Something disappears, but unless it be of 
especial value or almost of national import- 
ance (like a Gainsborough portrait), its 
loss would not seem to provoke more than 
a few passing remarks, and the incident is 
relegated to oblivion, and so losses go on 
small perhaps in themselves, but in th( 
aggregate of inestimable value. 

So far as brasses are concerned, there 
would seem to be a decided opinion in Eng- 
land, among those interested in this subject, 
that any American would gladly barter his 
soul to possess one, no matter how obtained ; 
and I have in my possession a printed state- 
ment from England (which emanates from 
a source where certainly calmer judgment 
should have prevailed) to the effect that 
there is a regular market for such things 
here, and they readily command fabulous 
prices. May I, therefore, as one knowing 
whereof I write, be permitted to state that 
I am ignorant of any brass in this country, 
either in public or private possession, nor 
do I know of one ever having been offered 

ffort to get such restored to their original 
nomes. I could easily identify a brass, 
more especially if it belonged to the list of 
well-known " Lost Brasses " (alas that there 
should be such a list !), as I possess prac- 
tically everything of importance which has 
3een published on monumental brasses. 

Mobile, Ala., U.S.A. 


KNOWING how valuable inscriptions are to 
the genealogist, and how apt they are in the 
course of time to get removed or destroyed, 
I send copies of some that they may be 
preserved in the pages of ' N. & Q.' I may 
point out that Manning and Bray in their 
' History of Surrey,' published in 1814, 
i. 234, give copies of thirty-five inscriptions 
originally in the parish church. Most of the 
tablets and stones, however, from which 
these were taken were probably destroyed 
when the church was rebuilt in 1806; for 
although the church now contains thirty- 
three inscriptions, only twelve (Nos. 1, 4, 
5, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 17, 18, 26, and 28 of the 
present list) of those mentioned by Manning 
and Bray exist to-day. Two (Nos. 9 and 
27), however, of the remaining twenty-one, 
dated 1736, and 1805 respectively, must 
have existed in their time, but were appa- 
rently overlooked. 

1. In a vault near this place | Is deposited all that 
;vas mortal | of Pratt Mawbey, | son of Sir Joseph 
Vlawbey, Bar 4 , | of Botleys in this Parish, | By Dame 
Elizabeth his wife, | Daughter and Heiress of 

of Surrey, | whose am 
standing and Memory 
dowments of Infancy, 
;he most flattering Ho 
Comfort. | But the A 

able Disposition, | Under- 
Surpassed the Usual En- 
And afforded his Parents 
)es | of future Honour and 
mighty, | who knows and 

T> J_ T 1 -_ 1 

for sale 

and I am fairly confident that an 
curio dealer would look on one 

(if offered to him) somewhat dubiously, as 
he would be at a loss how to dispose of it, 
and at the most, it would not bring more 
than a few dollars. If any fellow-disciple 
of * N. & Q.' can tell me of any brasses in 
the United States, I shall welcome the 
i nf ormation, and I would certainly use every 

stay, | Nor snatch'd thee from thy Friends away, 
Thou shouldst have fill'd some nobler Place, | Th 


dispenses that which is Best, | and whose ways are 
unsearchable, | Removed him from this transitory 
Life | To the Enjoyment of eternal Felicity in 
another | On the 31st Day of October, 1770, | In the 
8 th Year of his Age. | Had Fate permitted longer 


Country's Ornament and Grace. | Receive^ ' thou 
dear departed Shade, | This Tribute to thy Mem'r 
Paid, | And may it while it speaks thy Fame | Te 
how we love revere thy Name. | Here also are 
deposited the Bodies of the following other children 
| of the said Parents : | Elizabeth Mawbey, who died 
September 6, 1761, aged 12 Days. | Onslow Mawbey, 
a son, who died December 20/1766, caged 6 months. | 
Sophia Mawbey, who died on April 16, 1775, in the 
4 th Year | of her Age. | Emma Mawbey, who died 
on April 2, 1785, | in the 10 th Year of her Age. 

Arms : Quarterly, 1 and 4, Or, a cross 
gules, fretty of the first between four eagles 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907. 

displayed sable, charged with a bezant or ; 
2 and 3, Sable, on a fesse argent, between 
three (? ) heads of the second, 2 and 1, 
three mullets of the first. 

2. And all wept and bewailed her : | But he said, 
weep not : | She is not dead, but sleepeth. | 
Luke, viii. 52. | Emily Mawbey, | Born the 27 th of 

-January, 1799. | Departed this Life the 24 th of 
March, 1819. 

3. Committed to the grave of his kindred, | in 
humble hope of God's mercy through Christ, | Here 
rests | the Mortal Body of Sir Joseph Mawbey,* 
Bart., | whose Spirit returned to the Lord who 
gave it | on the 27 th of August, 1817, | in the forty- 
fifth year of his age : | Here also rest | the Earthly 
Remains of I Dame Charlotte Caroline Maria, his 
Widow, | who died the llth of August, 1832, I aged 

.57 years; | and of Joseph their infant son | Watch 
therefore, for ye know not | What Hour your Lord 
. doth come. | Matt. c. 24, v. 42. 

4. Dame Elizabeth Mawbey, | wife of Sir Joseph 
Mawbey, Bar*, | of Bottleys in this parish, | After 
sustaining a long and painful Illness | with the 
greatest Fortitude and Resignation, I Died on the 
19 th Day of August, 1790, | In the 46 th Year of her 
Age. | " Why weep for me ? " (the blameless woman 

; said) j " We all must die, and I am not afraid : | No 
good to me affords or Sigh or Tear : | I've done no 
wrong, and therefore cannot fear ; | Good Works, 
and Truth, shall cheer Life's parting Scene, | For 
Virtue only makes the Mind Serene. | Yes, we 
must part ! The Conflict now is o'er \ And Husband, 
Children, Friends, in vain deplore ! | But ah ! blest 
Saint ! to all around impart | Thy settled Goodness, 
thy unerring Heart, | Which bade thee shine in 
ev ry state of Life, | As Daughter, Maiden, Parent, 
Friend, and Wife ! | Bade thee be pious : feelingly 
to grieve | For others' Wants, and silently relieve ! 
I Bade thee, with Fortitude supreme, sustain | The 
Waste of Sickness, and the Rack of Pain I So shall 
we obtain Heaven's blest Abode, | Nor dread the 
Presence of a righteous God ! " 

5. In a Vault in this Chancel | are deposited the 
Remains of 1 Sir Joseph Mawbey, Bar', | of Bottleys 
in this Parish. | He for many years, | as Chairman 
of the Sessions | and as Representative for the 
Borough of | Southwark and the County of Surrey, 

I served his county with | Honesty, Integrity, and 
Independence. | He died June 16 th , 1798, | in the 
. sixty-eighth year of his Age. | Multis Flebilis. 

Arms : Or, between a cross gules, fretty 
of the first, 4 eagles displayed sable, charged 
with a bezant or, impaling Sable, on a fesse 
argent, between three ( ? ) heads of the 
second, 2 and 1, three mullets of the first. 

6. Near this place lies Interr'd the Body of I M r8 
Jane Duncomb, wife of the Rev d | M r David Dun- 
comb, Ob* June 18 th 1 1732, JEt. 52. | Also the Rev. 
M r David Duncomb, M.A., Late Vicar of this 
Parish, Ob* Aug* y e 27, 1 1736, ^Et. 54. | Sum Fui 
et Ero. 

7. Here vnder resteth the Bodye of Edward | 
Carleton, Gent., late of this Towne, who | deceased 
the 26 th Day of November, A Dni | 1618, and in the 
54 yeare of his age. 

* He laid the foundation stone of the present 
church, 4 June, 1806. 

8. Lavrentio Tomsono, honesta Tomsonorum 
familia in agro | Northamptoniensi oriv'do, in 
Collegio Oxo'ii Magdale'ensi | edvcato : - 

llCH-J-V^ll^ KJVV/VACT^, J-VIAQOIC^, LtVUaCGy V^ ^1 lllOjliiCC I -1-tCll.lcC, 

Galliae nobilitato : dvodecim lingyarv' cognitione | 
instrycto, Theologie, Jvris civilis et mvnicipalis 
nostri | totivsq; literatvrse politioris scientia claro : 
ingenii | acvmine, dispvtandi svbtilitate, eloqvendi 
syavitate | et lepore, virtvte omni pietateq; in- 
signi, lingvse He | braicae pvblica Geneva profes- 
sione celebri : accurata | Novi Testamenti transla- 
tione notabili : in politicis apvd | Walsinghamvm, 
Elizabettse Reginse scribam principvvm | diu 
myltvmq; exercitato ; post cvjvs mortem vitse 
pri | vat vmbratilisqve, jvcv'ditate annos viginti 
continvos | Lalamise Middlesexite perfyncto; et 
septvagenario | placidissime religiosissimiq; de- 
fvncto qvarto calendas | Aprilis 1608. Vxor Jaiia, 
et Jana filia ex qvinqve | vna syperstes filiabvs, 
amoris ergo posverunt | et pietatis | . Vivunt qvi 
Domino morivntrr. 

Galway Cottage, Chertsey. 

(To be continued.) 

Having lately looked through the chapter 
on the children of the Duchess of Lauderdale 
in Mrs. Roundell's beautiful work on ' Ham 
House,' and having made considerable 
researches with regard to them and their 
history, I beg to point out some defects and 
omissions in the chapter. 

In the first place, the authoress says that 
they were all probably born at Helmingham. 
But two of them certainly were baptized 
at Great Fakenham, viz., Elizabeth, Lady 
Lome, on 26 July, 1659, and William 
Tolmach in February, 1662. The Countess 
of Dysart lived at Fakenham in order to 
bring up her children at Bury School. 

Secondly, Mrs. Roundell says that " the 
third son and youngest child was named 
William. He was in the navy, and died 
in the West Indies, whilst a youth." 

This is hardly correct. He was captain 
of H.M.S. the Jersey, captured after his 
death by the French, and lost on a rock by 
them ; and he died of yellow fever, probably 
on 25 May, 1691, so that he was twenty-eight 
or twenty-nine years of age. Mrs. Roundell 
seems quite unacquainted with the story of 
the duel in Paris in 1680 in which William 
Tolmach killed the Hon. William Carnegie, 
of which a full account, with documents 
detailing the trial, is given by Sir William 
Fraser in the history of the Carnegies. She 
also seems not to have examined the Lauder- 
dale MS. correspondence in the British 
Museum, in which are signatures of the 
Duchess ; nor the State papers on the trial 
and outlawry of William Tolmach, and the 
other State papers as to his trial in the West 

10 s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Indies for manslaughter, when he was 
branded on the hand, and yet within two 
years- had a commission and was made 
captain of the Jersey. 

Another point is that she says the date 
of the Duchess's death is not known. It is 
given, however, in Luttrell's ' Diary.' 


Osbaldwick Vicarage, York. 

" THE MAHALLA." " The troops of the 
Mahalla, after pillaging the place [Raisuli's 
stronghold], set it on fire." So we are told 
in a telegram to the Matin from Tangier, 
copied into The Morning Post (8 Jan.). A 
telegram from Morocco to Le Figaro (6 Jan.) 
says, " La mahalla a attaque Zinat." 

As the word mahalla is not to be found in 
French or English dictionaries, it may be 
of use to explain the meaning of this foreign 
technical term. It is an Arabic word mean- 
ing an army or a corps d'armee. 

The word mahalla is cognate with hilla, 
" gens quae aliquo loco subsistit tentoria." 
Both these Moorish words lingered on in 
Spanish, as we may see in Dozy's ' Glossaire,' 
pp. 54, 172. A. L. MAYHEW. 

TUATION. It is, I think, desirable that atten- 
tion should be drawn to a mispunctuation 
which has long disfigured a prominent 
passage in Coleridge's poem ' Dejection.' In 
the fifth stanza of the poem, which embodies 
its central thought, the question, 
What, and wherein it doth consist 

This beautiful and beauty-making power? 
(the power, that is, in the soul, through 
which alone nature appears beautiful) is 
answered in the following lines : 

Joy, virtuous Lady ! Joy, that ne'er was given, 
Save to the pure, and in their purest hour, 
Life, and Life's effluence, cloud at once and shower, 
Joy, Lady ! is the spirit and the power. 
Which wedding Nature to us gives in dower, 

A new Earth and new Heaven. 
The mispunctuation consists in the insertion 
of a comma at the end of the last line but 

The history of this comma is curious. 
' Dejection ' was first published in The Morn- 
ing Post for 4 Oct., 1802 ; and in this 
version the last two lines of the above 
passage have no stop, except a note of 
exclamation at the end. This punctuation 
was adhered to in all versions of the poem 
which received the author's personal super- 
vision. In 1834, however, Coleridge, being 
too ill to attend to the new edition of his 
poems, entrusted it to his nephew H. N. 

Coleridge ; and it is in this edition of 1834- 
that the comma first appears. Having 
been once adopted, it has continued to 
stand, I believe, in all subsequent editions, 
including that of 1905 by Mr. Dykes Camp- 
bell. So far as I know, the only modern 
version of the poem with the original punc- 
tuation occurs, not in an edition of Cole- 
ridge's poems, but in Ward's ' Selections 
from the English Poets.' 

The fact that the inserted comma gives an 
impossible sense to these lines (while it 
renders its original adoption a mystery) 
may explain why it has been ignored by 
readers to whom the meaning of the whole 
poem was never a matter of doubt. But 
for the sake of less fortunate students of 
the poem it would perhaps be well, not 
merely that the comma should be deleted, 
but that the passage should be fully punc- 
tuated. There are two ways of punctuating 
it, either of which is consistent with the true 
sense of the passage ; but one of them has 
obvious advantages over the other. We 
may either read 
Which, wedding Nature, to us gives in dower 

A new Earth and new Heaven, 
Which, wedding Nature to us, gives in dower 

A new Earth and new Heaven ; 
but of these two readings it is clearly the^ 
second which the rhythm and the metaphor 
alike demand. J. SHAWCROSS. 

The following linguistic curiosity seems 
worth preserving here. It is a macaronic 
version of ' Little Jack Horner,' partly in 
English, partly in Urdu, which has been 
found in use among ayahs and Anglo-Indian 
children. Folk-lorists may like to compare 
it with the Anglo-Chinese version in Leland's 
' Pigeon English Sing-song,' 1876. 

Chhota Jack Horner baitha in a corner 

Khata his Christmas pie ; 

Ungli pa daltFi, kishmish nikalta, 

Bulwa, "Kaisa accha larka ham hai." 


MAN'S TREASURY,' c. 1700. An apparently 
rather scarce book is " The Merchant's 
Magazine, or Trades Man's Treasury. Fifth 
Edition, corrected and improv'd by E, 
Hatton, Gent. London, 1707," small quarto, 
with a portrait of the author (by R. White), 
aged 32, dated 1696. The British Museum 
seems to have only the fourth edition, dated 

There are some curious bits of information 
in the book; for instance, concerning the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 s. vn. JAN. 19, 1907. 

law of brokers, it states : " Now the number 
of Brokers, and their Brokage are limitec 
by a statute made for 7 years from Michal. 
1700." The substance of this statute is 
given under eighteen heads. 

No. 4. The number of these brokers 
(including all sorts before mentioned, viz. 
exchange, trade, and stock brokers) are not 
to exceed 100. 

No. 11. Any broker taking above 10s 
per cent, for brokage shall forfeit 101. 

No. 12. All brokers legally sworn anc 
admitted according to this statute sha 
carry about them a silver medal, having on 
one side his Majesty's coat of arms, and on 
the reverse the arms of the City of London, 
with the name of such broker, who shall 
at the concluding of all bargains, contracts, 
and agreements by him made produce such 
medal, or shall forfeit 40,s. for every omission. 

No. 17 provides that " no person for 
buying or selling corn, cattel, or other 
provision or coal shall be esteemed a broker 
within the meaning of this Act." 

Chap. xiv. is a "Dictionary or Alpha- 
betical Explanation of most difficult Terms 
commonly used in Merchandize and Trade." 
Amongst these terms are the following : _ 

" Key, a place to land or ship off goods at. the 
number of which are settled by the Parliament or 
appointed by the king. Those at present belonging 
to the Port of London are Galley Key, Brewer's 
Key, Chester's Key, Wooll-Dock, Custom-House 

, , -, usom-ouse 

Key (except the stone stairs on the west side 
thereof), Porter's Key, Bear Key, Sab's Dock 
excludin ' ' 

, , mers ey excep e sars 

there), 5 Lyon Key, Hammon's Key, Botolph Wharfe, 
feaunt s Key (except the stairs on the east side) 
' Cock s Key, and Fresh Wharfe, besides other places 
tor landing fish, salt, and provision ; as Billings- 
gate, Bridge House in Southwark, &c." 

"Owler.They that carry sheep's wool or any 
prohibited goods in the night to the sea side in order 
to^ship off contrary to law." 

" Subhavtation. Selling confiscate goods under a 

' Encyclopaedic Dictionary ' explains that a 
spear, originally as a sign of booty gained 
in fight, was stuck in the ground at public 
auctions. Ben Jonson, ' Catiline,' ii. : " My 
lords, the senators are sold for slaves, their 
wives for bondwomen, and all their goods 
under the speare." 

" Wreck. The perishing of a ship and every 
person in it : What part is cast ashore belongs to 
the king, but if any creature in the ship escape, the 
goods are still the owner's, if claimed within a 12 
month and a day." 

" Piccage. Money paid at fairs or marts for 
breaking the ground to set up booths." 

" Colour strangers' goods is when a freeman or 
. denizen permits a foreigner to enter goods at the 

Custom House in his name, whereby the foreigner, 
who in many cases should pay double duty, by 
being entered in the name of a freeman, pays but 
single duty, against which there are many severe 

" Collibis. A money changer." 

" Frist. To sell goods at time or upon trust." 

"Garbling. Picking the worst from the best of 

" Murrage. Toll taken of every laden cart or 
horse toward the repair of the walls of a town or 

" Pesterable wares. Those that are troublesome 
and take up much room in a ship." 

"Stelionate. Deceit in merchandize." 

" Tally-man. One that sells all manner of hous- 
hold goods, linnen, woollen, &c., to be paid by so 
much a week, in which method he usually extorts 
a prodigious advantage from the buyer." 


Elmhurst, Oxton, Birkcnhead. 

Without entering into casuistry or meta- 
physics, I think a frequent colloquial usage 
of the expression " the wrong " is suffi- 
ciently striking to merit attention. There 
may be more than one right way of doing 
a thing, but in the case, say, of an address 
there is one right and possibly many wrong 
ones. If there are only two addresses in 
question, one is the right and the other the 
wrong address. When a parcel or letter 
has gone astray in a street, the usual ex- 
planation is that it has gone to " the wrong 
house," affording no clue to the fate of the 
errant consignment. A person walks '" the 
wrong way," perhaps one out of several 
wrong ways ; but this expression is correctly 
applied to the passage of a morsel of food 
or drink into the wrong channel in the throat. 
A visitor in search of a particular house, 
after wandering about, will say that he 
'' has been to the wrong house several times," 
.e., he has called once at several wrong 
nouses. (I am reminded of an old friend 
who once caught himself, as he said after- 
wards, " going up to bed in the wrong house," 
which he had entered with his key from the 
street in the belief that he had arrived home. ) 
' You will find yourself in the wrong shop " 
s a vague threat, recalling the expression 
' to have the wrong sow by the ear." 


HOWSON'S CASE. The following tran- 
script of Howson's case, Trinity, 4 Car. I. 
Com. Bane., is not only amusing, but, to a 

ertain extent, throws light on the relative 
powers of the High Commission Court and 
of a Common-Law Court : 

t "A Libel was against Howson, the Viccar of 
>turton in Nottinghamshire, in the High Com- 
nission Court at York. Because that he was not 

10 s. vii. JAN. 19, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


resident, but lived at Doncaster, and neglected to 
serve his cure; And that divers times he, when 
the High Court visited, spoke so lowd, that he was 
-offensive to many, and being reproved for that, he 
gave a scornfull answer ; And that there was one 
Wright in the Parish, who had a seat in the Church, 
and that the Vicar would spit in abundance in the 
seat, and that when Wright and his W T ife were 
there. And that afterwards he said with a common 
voice, ' That the Wife of Thomas Howson was as 
good as the Wife of Wright,' And that in his Sermon 
he made jests, and said, ' That Christ was laid in a 
Manger, because he had no money to take up a 
'Chamber, but that was the knavery of the Inne- 
keeper ' ; he being then in contention with an Inn- 
keeper in the Parish, and that in divine service he 
thrust open the door of Wright's seat, and said, 
' that he and his Wife would sit there,' in disturb- 
ance of divine service. And for that a prohibition 
was prayed and granted, for the High Commission 
cannot punish non-residency, nor breaking the seat 
in divine service : And the other were things for 
which he shall be bound to his good behaviour ; 
and the complaint ought to be to the Ordinary, &c." 


" THE OLD HIGHLANDER." It is assumed 
by the daily papers that " the last " to- 
bacconist's " Scotchman " is a rarity, if not 
unique. Fifty years ago one stood outside 
the door of every snuff-shop, so there must 
be many in existence. One still stood lately 
in Knightsbridge, opposite the barracks. 
They invariably displayed, not Highland, 
but Lowland Scots features in the clean- 
shaved face. T. O. H. 

CARLISLE : CARLYOL. In The Times of 
Wednesday the bishop's signature appears 
now to be a modified form of the British 
'Caer-luel. We have also had " Hervey 
Carlisle," and at least one Latin form in 

>the past. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

'CouRT. ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
d. 7, 1838, xviii. 249/2, says : 

" The Public Office in Bow Street was for some 
time the only place in the metropolis where a police 
magistrate sat regularly, without the jurisdiction 
of the city of London. Seven additional police- 
offices were established in 1792, by the Act 
32 Geo. III. cap. 53, and the Thames Police-Office 
in 1798." 

On referring to the Act of 1792, I find that 
the term used in it is not " Police-Office," 
but " Public Office." This title still remains 
ior the police-court in Birmingham. Let 

us hope it will be retained as an interesting 
historical monument. The name " police- 
office " seems to have been first used in 
1798, when "the Marine Police-Office, 
No. 259, Wapping New Stairs ' (called in 
the ' Encyclopaedia ' " the Thames Police- 
Office "), was established. In Colquhoun's 
' Commerce of the Thames,' 1800, we read, 
p. 161, in reference to Mr. John Harriott, of 
" his indefatigable attention to the public 
interest since he has presided (as resident 
magistrate) at the Marine Police-Office." 
After this, apparently before 1816, the other 
metropolitan " Public Offices " seem to have 
come to be called " Police-Offices " : a 
name which they still later exchanged for 
that of " Police-Court," the earliest refer- 
ence to which now before me is of 1858, 
though it then appears as the established 

Several details are yet wanting, and I 
shall be glad of answers to the following : 
1. When was the Bow Street " Public Office " 
established ? 2. Can a quotation for the 
name before 1792 be got ? 3. When was 
the Birmingham " Public Office " estab- 
lished ? 4. Can an early quotation for it 
be furnished ? 5. Does the name " Public 
Office " survive anywhere else for police- 
court ? 6. Can " police court " be found 
before 1858 ? 

I have to thank several correspondents 
for informing me directly of places where the 
name " police-office " is still applied to the 
police-court. J. A. H. MURRAY. 


[A quotation for "police-court" in 1842 was 
given by MB. GANDY at 10 S. yi. 494, where he 
suggested that it might be found in 3 & 4 Will IV., 
c. 46.] 

scripts of the poetical works of Frederic 
the Great and of his correspondence with 
Voltaire, Jordan, and D'Alembert, which 
are printed in the ' QEuvres Posthumes de 
Frederic II.,' Berlin, 1788, are said to have 
been in England since the end of the eigh- 
teenth century. I should be much obliged 
for information as to whether these manu- 
scripts are yet in existence, and where. 


Friedenau, Berlin. 

' THE SIGN OF THE CLEFT.' I shall be 
much obliged if any of your readers can 
inform me who is the author of the recita- 
tion entitled ' The Sign of the Cleft.' A 
reader at the Croydon Public Libraries 
informs me that he thinks it is by a J. 
Heart, but of this we are unable to obtain 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. JAN. 19, 1907. 

' confirmation. I am anxious to trace the 
collection in which the recitation can be 
found. L. STANLEY JAST, 

Chief Librarian. 
. Central Library, Town Hall, Croydon. 

PHILIP WRIGHT, c. 1759. I should be 
much obliged for any information that 
would enable me to ascertain who the 
parents were of a Philip Wright born 
circa 1759. He had a brother Robert, born 
circa 1764, and is believed to have been born 
in Nottinghamshire, and to have had two 
other brothers, named John and George. 

PERICE G. MAHONY, Cork Herald. 
Office of Arms, Dublin Castle. 

Dorothy Nevill in her very interesting book 
of ' Reminiscences ' has the following para- 
graph (chap. v. p. 56) : 

" Whilst on the subject of dress of a bygone day, 
I may mention that my brother always maintained 
that it was the first Lord Lytton who brought 
about the fashion of universal and unchanging 
black for gentlemen's evening dress. If my memory 
does not play me false, Pelham was always dressecl 
in clothes of that colour." 

I should be glad to have further evidence as 
to this far-reaching initiative which has 
brought men to " customary suits of solemn 
black." NEL MEZZO. 

FRENCH REVOLUTION. Having to prepare 
an essay on the French Revolution, I shall 
be glad to be recommended books on the 
subject. I know of the general authorities, 
Carlyle, Michelet, Burke, &c., but want more 
particularly secondary sources of information, 
such as novels, plays, miscellaneous writings, 
&c., either in French or English, bearing 
upon the social or historical aspect of the 
period. Please reply direct. 

3, Coleridge Street, Hove. 

[You may be interested in the account of French 
Revolution pottery at 10 S. iv. 228, 252, 292.] 

ANDREW JUKES. The author of ' Col- 
lections and Recollections,' in his Saturday 
contributions always interesting, and in 
certain respects unique to The Manchester 
Guardian, alluded, in an article on 22 Dec., 
1906, on ' More Autographs,' to " Andrew 
Jukes, the deepest and most influential 
Mystic whom the latter-day Church has 
seen." I have some recollection of the name 
of Andrew Jukes being associated in the 
press with that of General Gordon shortly 
after the death of the latter, and of a state- 
ment to the effect that the books of Jukes 
had greatly influenced Gordon. ' The Resti- 

tution of All Things ' is the title of one of 
his books. Perhaps some reader of ' N. & Q.*' 
could furnish particulars concerning Andrew 
Jukes : his name does not appear in the- 
' D.N.B.' Was he incumbent for some 
time of an Anglican church in Hull ? Is 
the estimate of Mr. G. W. E. Russell, the- 
writer of The Manchester Guardian article 
to which reference has been made, and a 
devout Churchman, generally accepted ? Did 
Jukes influence the Christian thought and 
life of General Gordon ? J. GRIGOR. 

105, Choumert Road, Peckham, S.E. 

Creevey Papers ' it is mentioned that the 
Duke of Kent had contracted an irregular 
union with a certain Madame St. Laurent, 
with whom he lived many years, and with 
whom he only broke off his connexion when^ 
on the death of the Princess Charlotte, it 
became expedient that the younger royal 
dukes should marry. In Lewis Melville's 
' First Gentleman of Europe ' it is stated 
he had twelve children by her. Is anything 
known of these children ? It seems strange 
that, while the offspring of William IV. and 
Mrs. Jordan should be ennobled, these 
should have been left in obscurity. 


ago I saw in the Revue des Questions His- 
tcriques a reference to a writer who, in the 
Jesuit fitudes, had been able to fix the date 
of (so far as I remember) the latest diploma 
on papyrus and the earliest on parchment 
that now exist. Can one of your readers 
kindly give me an exact reference to the 
article in the titudes ? Q. V. 


I remember a schoolfellow who endeavoured 
to prove to me the truth of this proverb, but 
I never saw it in print till I read it in a dis- 
patch of 1693, printed in C. R. Wilson's 
'Old Fort William' (1906, i. 12). Is it 
now of wide currency ? Q. V. 

[Quotations for "a penny saved is & penny got" 
are given in the ' N.E.I).,' *.r. ' Penny,' IV. 9 c.] 

one give me information respecting the 
present whereabouts of the MS. copy of 
Lady Fansh awe's memoirs and the other 
Fanshawe family papers mentioned by 
W. J. R. V. at 10 S. iii. 494 as being in his 
possession. The signature was that of 
Mr. W. J. Harvey, of 38, Tyrrell Road, 
Peckham Rye, who died suddenly last 
March ; and his brother informs me that 
no trace of these can be found, neither 

10 s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


were they among his effects. He may have 
entrusted the MSS. to some publisher for 
publication, or to some friend or archseo- 
logical society ; or he may have disposed of 
them. Any information leading to their 
discovery will be much appreciated, if sent 
to ' N. & Q.' or direct to me. 

132, Ebury Street, S.W. 

I am most anxious to trace a three-quarter 
portrait of Sir Richard Fanshawe, Bt., by 
Dobson. Sir Richard wears a blue satin 
dress with wide lace collar, and has a large 
greyhound. The picture was purchased in 
1877, from West Horsley, Surrey, from the 
descendants of Sir H. Nicolas, by Mr. W. J. 
Harvey, who, as mentioned above, died 
suddenly last March ; but no such portrait 
was found among his effects, though he 
had presented a photograph of it to the 
National Portrait Gallery. Should this 
meet the eye of the present owner, or of any 
one who knows the present whereabouts of 
the picture, I should be glad if he would 
kindly communicate with ' N. & Q.' or with 
me. E. J. FANSHAWE. 

132, Ebury Street, S.W. 

Mr. Marion Crawford's novel ' Saracinesca ' 
the writer puts into the mouth of Cardinal 
Antonelli the words " timidi nunquam 
statuerunt tropaeum. " I suspect that sta- 
tuerunt should be statuere, in which case the 
words would form the greater part of a good 
hexameter. In what Latin author do they 
occur ? A. A. B. 

" Beware lest it be the desire for change 
that draweth on the reformation, but rather 
let it be the necessity for reformation that 
draweth on the change." 

Crosby, Isle of Man. 

BRASS RUBBINGS. In the number of 
' N. & Q.' for 31 March, 1906, there appeared 
an advertisement addressed " To Collectors 
of Brass Rubbings," stating that " the 
magnificent collection of Brass Rubbings 
formed by the late Rev. J. R. Lunn " was 
for sale, and mentioning that the collection 
represented " 1,580 odd different brasses." 
In view of the great probability of future 
inquiries concerning them, it would be of 
much interest to know if a purchaser was 
found, and, if so, who it was ; and further, 
if the collection has been sold entire or been 
broken up. It would also be interesting 
if the vendor or purchaser would kindly 

furnish some particulars about the rubbinge 
themselves. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 


FRENCH PROVERBS. Je mets ici quelques 
details sous les yeux des lecteurs de ' N. & Q.' 
dans 1'espoir que par suite de leur pub- 
licite Ton reussira a retrouver un MS. 
precieux. Parmi les quelques ouvrages que 
je possede traitant des proverbes frangais 
il y a un exemplaire des ' Matinees senonoises, 
ou Proverbes fransois,' &c., par 1'abbe Tuet. 
Voici ce que dit 1'auteur d'une ' Petite 
Encyclopedic des Proverbes frangais ' (Hilaire 
Le Gai, c.-a-d., M. Gratet-Duplessis) a 
propos de cet ouvrage, publie en 1789 : 

" Get ouvrage de 1'abbe Tuet est certainement le 
meilleur travail que nous possedions, en francais, 
sur les proverbes. Le volume, dont je viens de 
donner le titre complet, ne contient que 500 pro- 
verbes expliques et commente's ; mais la suite existe 
en manuscrit, et toute disposee pour 1'impression. Je 
possede cette suite, qui est divisee en deux volumes, 
et qui pourrait, a 1 impression, fournir la matiere 
d'un gros in-octavo. Cette partie manuscrite est 
tout aussi soignee que la premiere et ne la depare- 
rait pas. II ne faudrait pas meme de grands 
travaux pour mettre 1'ouvrage entier en etat d 6tre 
publie avec succes aujourd'lnii. Quelques additions 
faites par un editeur instruit et intelligent suffi- 
raierit pour en faire un traite approfondi et presque 
definitif sur nos proverbes et sur nos locutions 

Eh bien, il m'est arrive de consulter le 
" Catalogue des livres en partie rares et 
precieux composant la bibliotheque de feu 
M. G.-Duplessis, ancien recteur de 1'aca- 
demie de Douai, dont la vente aura lieu le 
lundi, 18 fevrier, 1856, et jours suivants, a 
7 heures precises du soir, Rue des Bons- 
Enfants, 28, maison Silvestre," &c. A la 
p. 166 de ce catalogue il y a mention d'un 
exemplaire des ' Matinees Senonoises,' et 
1' article suivant est ainsi concu : 

"Les Matinees Senonoises (par 1' Abbe Tuet). 

Tomes II. et III., 2 vol. in-4, demi-rel . mar . vert. 

"Manusorit autographe et inedit. Ces deux 
volumes, entierement de la main de 1'abbe Tuet, 
etaient tout prets pour 1'impression. Cette suite 
est aussi soignee et encore plus interessante que le 
premier volume. L'abbe y a consigne une foule de 
remarques et d'anecdotes tres-curieuses ; il indique 
lui-meme les diverses epoques auxquelles il a mis 
son travail au net, et on trouve cette date a la fin 
de la table du troisieme volume : Fini le 16 juin, 
1795, ou le 28 prairial, an III. G. D." 

Pour ceux qui s'interessent a 1'etude des 
proverbes francais rien qu'a lire ces quelques 
lignes d'un catalogue fait venir 1'eau a la 
bouche. II est possible que quelqu'un ait 
achete ces volumes a la vente en question : 

Feut-on savoir qui en est le possesseur a 
heure qu'il est ? II ne serait pas difficile, 
je pense, avec une telle recommandation, de 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907. 

trouver un editeur, afin que cet ouvrage ne 
soit plus, s'il existe. J'espere que 
ces quelques lignes passeront sous les yeux 
de quelqu'un qui soit a meme de donner des 
renseignements concernant le sort de ces 
volumes precieux. EDWARD LATHAM. 

BRINKLOW FAMILY. Can any reader of 
* N. & Q.' furnish information about the 
Brinklow family ? Any data regarding 
ancestry, place of residence, or burial of 
those in England now or formerly, family 
records, and date of emigration to America 
will be greatly appreciated. In the latter 
part of the seventeenth century several 
members of this family settled in America, 
one of whom, John Brinckloe, became a 
member of Penn's council, 1690. 

The spelling of the name varies in Ame- 
rica Brinklow, Brinckle, Brinkley, and 
Brinckloe. M. C. SMITH. 

4109, Pine Street, Philadelphia, Penna. 

obliged if any of your readers can tell me 
as to the truth of the legend of Tristan and 
Isolde. Did they live in Cornwall ? Were 
they buried in the same tomb ? If so, 
where is the tomb ? L. E. 

inform me what George Cruikshank's 
remarque was ? Is it given on his cari- 
catures published by MacLean in the 1820-30 
period ? J. H. L. 

Manning's ' History of Surrey,' vol. i. p. 15, 
it is stated that Mary Goodyer, the owner 
of Guildford Castle site, was murdered by 
her grandson in 1748 or 1749. Can any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me where I can find 
an account of the murder or the murderer's 
name and fate ? E. B. TEMPEST. 

Coleby Hall, Lincoln. 

baptismal entry of Robert Aldworth, 1619- 
1620 ; record of marriage to Elizabeth 
(Browne, widow ?), c. 1644 ; also baptism 
of his children, Robert, Elizabeth, Joan, 
and Anne, before 1660, when he is found at 
Tubney, Berks, and son Thomas is baptized 
at Appleton, Berks. Wife Elizabeth buried 
1663. Acquires lands at Frilford and 
Marcham, Berks, from Francis Pigott, 
1679, &c. Buried at Appleton, Jan., 1698/9, 
M.I., " aged 79." Leaves lands in Abing- 
don, Sutton Courtney, Northmore, &c. 
Any information serving to identify the 
above Robert Aldworth welcome to 


Laverstock Vicarage, Salisbury. 

" THUNE " : 


(10 S. vii. 8.) 

THAT thune (or tune : its orthography, as 
in the case of a number of slang words, 
does not seem to be fixed) represents money 
generally, and a 5-franc piece in particular, 
seems pretty clear. As to its origin in the 
slang sense, none of the few slang diction- 
aries I have at hand seems to give an opinion. 
I gather, however, that tuner is an old French 
word meaning to beg ; that tune (derived 
from it) is, or was, used as meaning the prison 
of Bicetre, " c'est un prison de mendicite." 
Further, another dictionary gives the mean- 
ing of thune as alms (aumone) : roi des 
thunes, de la thune, king of the beggars. 
Another defines thune as piece : thune de 
cinq balles (balle=piece de 1 jr.), 5-franc 
piece ; thune de camelotte, piece d'etoffe. 
The transition, unless I am wrong, seems to 
be from to beg, alms, money, to a 5-franc 
piece. A 5-franc piece is also called a roue 
de devant, and a 2-franc piece a roue de 
derriere. Here is a list furnished by one 
slang dictionary : 

Bredoche, centime. Larante, piece de 2fr. 

Broque ,, Chatte, piece de 5fr. 

Rond, un sou. Bougie ,, 

Crocque, ,, Dringue ,, 

Doublin, deux sous. Thune ,, 

Mastoc, Frere Thunard, piece de 

Dardelle ,, 5fr. 

Crotte de pie, piece de Palet, piece de 5fr. 

50c. Demi-sigue, piece de lOfr. 

Belette, piece de 50c. Sigue, piece de 20t'r. 

Pepete ou pepette, piece Bouton ,, 

de 50c. Cercle, Mousseline, piece 

Grain, piece de 50c. d'argent. 

Listre ,, Blafard, piece blanche. 

Pastille Cig, cigue, ou cigale, 

Combrie, piece de Ifr. piece d'or. 
Bertelo ,, Cigne, Jaunet.* Bril- 

Blanc ,, lard, Maltaise, Maltaire, 

Liiive ,, Maltese, piece d'or. 

Veilleuse ,, Bouche 1'oeil, Disique, 

Cascaret, piece de 2fr. piece de monriaie. 

Probably the list could be easily extended. 
There is, of course, a large number of 
slang terms for money generally. 


Loredan Larchey in his ' Dictionnaire 
Historique d' Argot, dixieme edition,' 1888, 
gives the following : 

" Thune: Argent. V. Bille, Tune." 

" Bille, Billemonf, Billon : Monnaie. Billemonf 
et bille viennent de billon. 'L'argent au Temple 


10 s. vii. JAN. 19, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


est de la braise, on de la thune, ou de la bille' 

(Mornand). 'Nous attendions la sorgue pour 

faire du billon ' (Vidocq)." 

Sorgue or sorge means evening, night. 

" Time : Piece de cinq francs. ' J'allais dans les 
bureaux de placement avec une tune ' (Beauvillier). 
Abbrev. de thune." 

(Eil-de-bo3uf is not given. There is 

" (Eil : credit. Se trouve dans le Dictionnaire de 
Cartouche de Grandval (eel. de 1827). *.Jfl vous 
offre le vin blanc chez Toitot ; j'ai 1'ceil' (Chenu). 
* La mere Bricherie n'entend pas raillerie a' Particle 
du credit. Pluto t que de faire deux sous d'ceil, elle 
prefe'rerait,' &c. (Pr. d'Anglemont)." 
" (Eil (avoir I') : Avoir credit." 


MB. PLATT is correct in saying that thune, 
or tune, is a 5-franc piece. Other synonyms 
in argot are breme de fond, dardunne, roue 
de derriere, the first of which, bream, perhaps 
points to Fr. thon (Lat. thunnus), tunny, 
being the origin of thune. Compare Fr. 
argot br ernes, playing-cards, with " broads " 
in our current slang. Braise and peze (pese) 
are Fr. argot for money generally ; sigue, 
maltaise, bonnet jaune, for 20-franc pieces 
(thieves' slang) ; as also linve for franc, and 
patard, rotin, beogue (cf. Eng. " tack " in 
Farmer and Henley), for a sou. H. P. L. 

"FIBGUNANUM" (10 S. vii. 7). MB. 
HEWETSON must, I think, have misunder- 
stood the late President of the Royal Society 
of Antiquaries of Ireland, who certainly 
could not have told him that this word is 
*' the Irishism of Firgananaim," since the 
latter is itself (badly spelt) Irish, and 
Firgunanum only a rather more illiterate, 
or perhaps more phonetic, attempt to spell 
it. According to MB. HEWETSON, Firga- 
nanaim is " a curious compound of Greek, 
Latin, and Irish," viz., of " vir, man ; gan, 
without ; a, a ; naim, name." This ex- 
planation, by the way, seems rather to be 
" a curious compound " of Latin, Irish, and 
English (or Scotch) : where is the " Greek " ? 
But in truth there is neither Latin, Greek, 
nor English in it. As any Irish speaker 
would have told him, and saved him " very 
much research," fear gun ainm is simple 
everyday Irish for " a man without name " : 
fear, man ; gun, without ; ainm, name. 
The plural of fear is fir, and if the phrase 
were fir gun ainm, the meaning would be 
" men without name." J. A. H. M. 

This word is not a compound of Greek, 
Latin, and Irish. Nor can it be analyzed 
as equivalent to Lat. vir, man ; Irish gan, 
without ; Eng. a ; and Irish naim, name. 
The word stands for a genuine Irish phrase, 

which would be written in modern Irish 
fear gan ainm, a man without a name. In 
older Irish fear would be written fer ; fir is 
the genitive form. A. L. MAYHEW. 


TH. T. W. also thanked for reply.] 

VATICUS (10 S. vi. 469). In reply to A. S. B., 
it may be noted that Edric, or Eadric, 
Streona was Earl not Duke of Mercia in 
1007, not 1003 ; he married Egitha or 
Egytha not ^Edena daughter of Ethel- 
red II. ; he was slain by Canute on Christmas 
Day in 1017. 

Edric Sylvaticus, or " the Wilde," " whose 
descendants assumed the name of Wild," 
and were known to the early and later 
chroniclers almost indiscriminately as Wilds, 
Wylds, Wildes, Wyldes, Weldes, De Weldes, 
and Welds, may be shown to have been the 
son of Alfric, the brother of Eadric Streona, 
from the following excerpts (one reference 
out of many), which are also a reply to the 
other questions asked : 

1. "Eotempore extititquidamprsepotens minister 
Edricus, cognomento Silvaticus, filius Alfrici fratris 
Edrici Streone." ' Symeon of Durham,' vol. ii. 
p. 185, Roll Series. 

2. "At perfidus dux Edricus Streone gener regis 
(habuit enim in conjugio filiam ejus Egitham)," &c. 
Ibid., p. 141. 

3. "Ac in Nativitate Domini, cum esset Londonia?,. 
perfidum ducem Edricum in palatio jussit [Canute] 
occidere, quia timebat insidiis ab eo aliquando 
circumveniri sicut domini sui priqres Egelredus et 
Eadmundus frequenter circumventi sunt ; et corpus 
illius super murum civitatis projici ac insepultum 
pnecepit climitti." Ibid., p. 155. 

It may be of interest to A. S. B. to know 
that Edric " the Wild," or Sylvaticus, 
besides being the " great-nephew-in-law " 
of Ethelred II., was also a kinsman viz., 
a first cousin " twice removed " of King 
Harold II., whose sister Edith married King 
Edward the Confessor. Harold himself 
married the granddaughter of the far-famed 
Godiva, the wife of Leofric, an Earl of 

The sheriff referred to was known as 
either Wild or Weld. B. W. 

Fort Augustus. 

Burke's ' Commoners,' vol. iv. p. 334, 
under Lowndes of Hassall, gives the infor- 
mation which is asked for by A. S. B. 


SPELLING CHANGES (10 S. vi. 403, 450, 
493). With all deference to the valuable 
communications of PBOF. SKEAT, I think it 
would have been possible to point out, even at 
the risk of repetition, that the proposal was 



a standard English not an impossible 
everywhere phonetic English without 
branding the latter idea as one broached 
only " for the purpose of misleading and 
making mischief." I will not believe that 
any one would write in ' N. & Q.' with that 
intent or in that humour ; and did I think 
the imputation personal, I should repel it 
with a positive denial. Further, I think that, 
although these pages are devoted to the 
literary and studious, not many of these 
would represent the motive of the great 
majority of their practical and intelligent 
countrymen who, though their abilities 
have not been directed to the academic 
study of their language, have nevertheless 
a clear judgment as to the impracticability 
of the proposed spelling change as " the 
crass ignorance of an obstinate and indocile 
public." May not their vision be the clearer 
as unaffected by the enthusiasm begotten 
of study ? 

MB. STREET has ably and temperately 
demonstrated the obstacles against the 
establishment of a standard ; and as the 
strenuous and worthy American President 
appears to have deferred to public opinion, 
it seems likely that the standard will not 
be set up either at New York or London, 
but that the old language occasionally 
emended and enriched as heretofore will 
be suffered to pursue its rugged course, and 
that we may still enjoy its analysis. 
W. L. 

I have great sympathy with the simpli- 
fication of spelling, and particularly with the 
artistic appearance of print. I have given 
practical effect to some of the ideas I have 
on this subject in the course of the five 
hundred pages of my ' Swimming ' biblio- 
graphy. Dire was the prospect of lashings 
from the press which printers, publishers, 
and friends held out to me. But the press 
never took any notice of the spelling. It 
reviewed the book most favourably from 
an easy standpoint, but not from a biblio- 
graphical, educational, scholarly, or scientific 
point of view, as I had hoped. 

To get into the very simple alterations 
in spelling I made took my printers a very 
long time, during which period I had to 
fight them day by day. I insisted on the 
spelling being altered to mine, notwith- 
standing that I had to pay for all their 
mistakes. Often I made such marginal 
comments that I fully expected them to 
say, " Mr. Thomas, we are not accustomed 
to being spoken to in this manner, and we 
must request you to find another printer.'* 

But they did not : they kept their temper. 
If there was all this trouble with a few 
alterations, what would it be with many ? 

So far as I know, I am the only person 
who has dared to publish an English educa- 
tional book with any simplified spellings. 
But then I had not to earn my living. I am 
glad to see PROF. SKEAT'S admirable note& 
on spelling reform, for I fear that very few 
scholars whose opinions one would like to 
hear will speak. At all events, I observe 
that those who have advocated reforms 
take good care that they follow the old 
spellings in their books. 

Any sudden, wholesale change I believe 
to be impossible. But much might be done 
by degrees. Similar improvements have 
been made in music, but each has been 
objected to and fought step by step. Wilson 
in * A new dictionary of music ' (p. 264) 
says : " Every innovation tending to im- 
provement was stigmatised as immorality, 
sedition, and infidelity." This is much the 
position taken up by most of our present 
scholars, schoolmasters, and such-like inter- 
ested in education. From them no reforms 
will emanate, any more than national reforms 
emanate from rulers. 

Instead of simplification or reform, the 
modern tendency seems to take a backward 
step, as, for example, putting French 
endings we do not pronounce, or leaving 
out letters instead of keeping words in their 
original form, as " typist " (which should 
be pronounced " typ ist ") instead of 
" typeist." I have always known the word 
" wasteful," but lately I have seen the word 
" waste " so altered by the omission of the 
e that for some time I did not know what 
was meant by " wastrel." PROF. SKEAT 
says (vi. 450) : " If a German meets a new- 
English word, it may easily happen that its 
spelling affords no clue to the sound." 
" Wastrel " is an instance of an Englishman 
finding a word which affords no clue to the 
sound. I do not know whether to pro- 
nounce it " wastrel " (like " mass ") or like 

To go on with the present muddle, how- 
ever, is preferable to the tyranny of coercion. 
To be dictated to by an " Academy " would 
be the worst thing that could happen for 
the language. Such a body would probably 
begin by insisting on disfiguring our letters- 
with accents a brainless and practically 
useless expedient. These accents have been 
enforced in France, and, worse still,* in 
Spain, where, contrary to the opinions 11 of 
scholars, a sort of Inquisition compels^ all 
the printers to adopt some new accents ih& 

10 s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Spanish Academy has ordered. Any printer 
daring to disobey is put under the ban of 
the Inquisition. 

German scholars have told me the spelling 
authority orders a word to be spelt one way, 
and six months after changes its mind and 
directs it to be spelt in another way. 


FOLK-LORE ORIGINS (10 S. vi. 509). 
Perhaps some of the following works 
not, I think, published in connexion with 
the Folk-lore Society, will be found useful : 

R. Hunt's 'Popular Romances of the West of 
England,' 1881. 

' Guernsey Folk-lore,' from MSS. by the late Sir 
Edgar MacCulloch, Knt., F.S.A., ed. by Edith F. 

'Legends and Traditions of Huntingdonshire,' 
by H. B, Saunders, 1888. 

G. L. Gomme's ' Folk-lore Relics of Early Village 
Life,' 1883. 

W. C. Hazlitt's ' Tales and Legends of a National 
Origin or Widely Current in England from Early 
Times,' with introduction by W. C. Hazlitt, 1892. 

Lang's ' Myth, Ritual, and Religion ' ; and 
'Custom and Myth.' 

Wm. Bottrell's 'Stories and Folk-lore of West 
Cornwall,' 1870. 

Rev. F. G. Lee's 'Glimpses in the Twilight.' 

Brand's ' Popular Antiquities ' (Ellis). 

W. A. Craigie's ' Scandinavian Fork-lore : Illus- 
trations of the Traditional Beliefs of the Northern 
Peoples,' 1896. 

W. Wood's 'Tales and Traditions of the High 
Peak, Derbyshire.' 

S. 0. Addy's 'Household Tales.' 

J. Roby's ' Traditions of Lancashire.' 

R. J. King's ' Folk-lore of Devonshire.' 

H. Swainson Cowper's 'Hawkshead.' 

Rev. J. C. Atkinson's ' Forty Years in a Moor- 
land Parish,' 1891. 

Miss M. A. Courtney's 'Cornish Feasts and 

C. J. Billson's ' County Folk-lore : Leicestershire 
and Rutland.' 

T. F. Thiselton-Dyer's ' English Folk-lore.' 

R. J. King's ' Sketches, Studies, Descriptive and 
Historical ' (sacred trees, flowers, and dogs of folk- 
lore : great shrines of England), 1874. 

Frazer's ' Golden Bough.' 

J. Scoffern's ' Stray Leaves of Science and 

Journal of the Folk -Song Society. 

'Spectral Dogs' ("turnover" in The Globe, 

27 May, 1904). 

* Little Whitsun Tales,' Daily Mail, 1 June, 1903. 

' English Fairy Tales,' collected by Joseph Jacobs. 

'Spriggans' ("turnover" in The Globe. 24 June, 

'The Origins of Fairy Myth,' by Arthur J. 
Salmon, in The Bristol Times and Mirror, 16 Jan., 

Palmer Cox's ' The Brownies Abroad,' 1899. 

'Folk-lore of the West,' Pall Mall Gazette 

28 Dec., 1905. 

' Folk-lore of Shakespeare,' Leisure Hour, March 
Benjamin Taylor's ' Storyology.' 

W. A. Clouston's 'Popular Tales and Fictions:: 

TIT' J.' 1 TI .,4-^ rt ? 1 QttT 

their Migrations and Transformations,' 1887. 
J. Crawhall's ' Old Tayles Newlye Related.' 
'Popular Superstitions,' " Gent" OTna "' fl Mn.m 

Library," eel. by G. L. Gomme, F 
Wirt Sykes's 'British Goblins.' 

Gentleman's Magazine 

Charles Gould's ' Mythical Monsters ' (with illus- 

S. Baring-Gould's ' Origin of Religious Beliets 
and ' Curious Myths of the Middle Ages.' 

F. E. Hulme's ' Mythland,' 1886. 

Benjamin Thorpe's ' Northern Mythology.' 

Keightley's ' Fairy Mythology.' 


The following two works of T. F. Thiselton- 
Dyer, which I found in ' The English Cata- 
ogue,' may be serviceable among others : 
Church-Lore Gleanings' (1891); 'Ghost- 
World ' (1893). H. KREBS. 

321, 382, 432, 513). In 1845 a book was 
written by the Baroness de la Calabrella, 
entitled ' Evenings at Haddon Hall,' with 
vignette illustrations by George Cattermole. 
These vignettes have been transferred to 
' Tales of the Genii ' in " Bohn's Illustrated 
Library." The frontispiece in the original 
work depicted the garden front of Haddon. 

Newbourne Rectory. 

" SET TJP MY (HIS) REST " (10 S. vi. 509), 

Fully explained in Nares's ' Glossary.* 

From the game of primero, meaning to stand 
upon the cards you have in your hand, in 
the hope that they may win. In playing 
vingt-un a player is similarly said " to stand." 
It means then to be satisfied with, to rely 
upon as sufficient, to be content. Prior- 
uses it in a double sense, as a kind of pun. 
Nares gives fifteen examples. 


The meaning of the phrase " to set up 
one's rest " now obsolete, but fairly com- 
mon in the seventeenth century -is (1) to 
make up one's mind, to commit oneself 
unreservedly to a course ; (2) to pause for 
rest, to halt. 

In the first quotation from Pepys the 
diarist would appear to mean that he had 
made up his mind to be " somewhat scanter 
of his presence " at the plays he loved so 
well until Easter, or, as he adds in a praise- 
worthily self-denying mood, " if not Whit- 

In the second Pepys's meaning, when read 
with the context, seems to be that the accom- 
modating host, Mr. Povey, had committed 
himself unreservedly to the course of pro- 
viding his guests with whatever they might 
choose to ask for. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907. 

The phrase is used in a different sense 
from the above in the lines from Prior, and 
is there employed in its literal sense, 
that is to say, to pause for rest or to halt. 
(It will be remembered that Shakespeare 
uses it in a somewhat similar manner in 

'King Lear,' I. i. 125-6: "I thought 

to set my rest On her kind nursery," and 
in ' Romeo and Juliet,' V. iii. 109-10.) This 
view seems to be borne out in the subse- 
quent lines in ' A Better Answer ' : 

.So when I am weary'd with wandering all day ; 

To thee, my delight, in the evening I come ; 
No matter what beauties I saw in my way : 

They were but my visits, but thou art my home. 


Although the phrase sometimes diverged 
slightly from its original meaning, " to set 
up one's rest " certainly seems to have con- 
veyed the sense originally of "to make up 
one's mind." Launcelot, famished in the 
service of Shylock, " set up his rest to run 
away " (II. ii.). Beaumont and Fletcher, 
' Monsieur Thomas,' IV. ix. : 

Faith, sir, my rest is up, 

And what I now pull shall no more afflict me, 

Than if I played at span-counter. 
Middleton, ' Spanish Gypsy ' (IV. ii.) : 
" Could I set up my rest that he were lost." 


The phrase is Shakespeare's. Romeo says : 

O, here 

Will I set up my everlasting rest. 
.And surely he means that he will take his 
rest for ever, otherwise die. This inter- 
pretation is confirmed by the passages 
quoted from Pepys and Prior, for in them 
the phrase must mean " take my (or his) 
rest." Steevens says that it means " to 
be determined to any purpose " ; and no 
doubt it does mean this in Act IV. of 
* Romeo and Juliet ' : 

The County Paris hath set up his rest 

That you shall rest but little. 


As the perusal of Pepys' s ' Diary ' is to 
me a constantly renewed recreation, and I 
do not remember ever stumbling at the use 
of this phrase, I presume perhaps ignorantly 
its meaning has been sufficiently obvious 
to me. In the instance first quoted by 
T. M. W. does not the diarist record his 
intention to discontinue for a time going to 
plays ? Again, in the second quotation, 
Pepys infers that the entertainment pro- 
vided by his host was so bountiful that he 
is not likely to renew it for some little time 
to come. 

So Prior, with the usual poetic licence, 

describes the sun, at the close of day, dis- 
continuing for a time the labour of shining. 
I fancy that this sense of " rest " is not quite 
obsolete. T. M. W. has probably heard it 
said of an actor, temporarily out of an 
engagement, that he was " resting," and the 
term is constantly in use of other workers 
temporarily out of employment. 

4, Nelgarde Road, Catford, S.E. 

508). In the old days of candles as the 
ordinary way of lighting up a room it was 
considered to be unlucky for any one to 
bring a lighted candle into a room where two 
were already alight, and some one was sure 
to blow one of them out, just in the same 
way as a dash would be made at a table 
when a knife and fork lay crossed. When I 
was a boy folks used to see many things 
which gave them " freets " : such strange 
happenings as three candles moving about, 
death signs, beckoning fingers, and ghosts 
at certain corners standing with their heads 
under their arms all " sure an' sartin tokens 
o' summat gooin' ter happen." I knew of 
several Derbyshire villagers who were 
" gifted " in the way of reading " signs," 
and finding in commonplace things " omens " 
for good or bad. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


LONDON, 1677 (10 S. vi. 388, 431). It may 
interest COL. ARNOLL DAVIS to know that 
Sir Thomas Davis (spelt variously Davies, 
Davys, and Davy) bore for arms Or, a 
chevron between three mullets pierced sable. 
Crest : On a chapeau ppr. a demi-lion ram- 
pant or (Burke's ' General Armory '). 


A KNIGHTHOOD OF 1603 (10 S. vi. 181, 
257, 474 ; vii. 16). I should like to supple- 
ment my reply at the last reference by saying 
that it is important to note the difference 
between the information supplied by MR. 
HUGHES at 10 S. vi. 181, and that given in 
Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' as follows : 

" Sir German Pole, of Radbourne, bapt. 1573, a 
distinguished commander, who served against the 
Spanish Armada, and was made a Knight Banneret 
for his good services in Ireland, under the Lord 
Deputy Mountjoy, 1599." 

This statement, apparently founded upon 
the inscription on the knight's mural monu- 
ment in Radbourne Church alluded to 
by MR. HUGHES now appears in need of 

At the first and second references the 

10 s. vii. JAX. 19, loo?.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


name or pronunciation of German o 
Jarman was discussed. From its Latin 
form, Germanus became, with the French 
Germain, with the feminine Germaine, anc 
is identical with Jermyn, which became 
in England a surname written Germyn in 
' The Paston Letters,' i. 160. Can anj 
correspondent suggest the reason for its 
first use as a name in the family of Pole o 
Radbourne ? 

German de la Pole b. 1482 (?), d. 1552/3 
of Radbourne, Esq. (great-grandfather o 
the aforesaid knight), was the first so named 
and one of his daughters, Jane, married hei 
father's fourth cousin German Pole, of Wake 
bridge, co. Derby, Esq., who died in 1588 
-aged seventy-five, without surviving issue. 
Pill House, Bishop's Tawton, Barnstaple. 

AND THE DROOPING LILY (10 S. vii. 1). 
A notice of Tickell's poetry without reference 
to his ballad of ' Colin and Lucy ' is incom- 
plete. In it are well-known lines : 
I hear a voice you cannot hear 
Which says I must not stay: 
I see a form you cannot see 
Which beckons me away. 
In it also are the following lines : 
Oh J have you seen a lily pale 

When beating rains descend ? 
So drooped the slow-consuming maid, 

Her life now near the end. 
This is obviously the original of Lady Anne 
Lindsay's verse : 

She drooped like a lily beat down by the hail. 
But there are similar thoughts in classical 
and English poetry : ' Iliad,' book viii. 
11. 306-8 ; ' ^Eneid,' book ix. 11. 435-7 ; 
* Metamorphoses,' book x. 11. 190-95. Ovid 
seems to have been the first to mention the 
lily as the drooping flower. I subjoin a 
few English parallel passages : 

I hang the head 
As flowers with frost, or grass beat down with 

storms. ' Titus Andronicus.' 

Like a fair flower, surcharged with dew, she weeps. 

Milton, ' Samson Agonistes. 
As lilies, overcharged with rain, they bend 
'Their beauteous heads. 

Waller, 'To my Lord Admiral.' 
Keightley in his ' Fairy Mythology ' 
makes, I think, a somewhat foolish remark : 

"With the 'Kensington Gardens' of Tickell our 
fairy-poetry may be said to have terminated. Some 
attempts to revive it have been made in the present 
century. But vain are such efforts. The belief is 
gone. And, divested of it, such poetry can produce 
110 effect." 

The belief is not gone. A few years ago an 
Irish peasant who had lost his way was 

found dead 1 with his coat turned. He 
evidently thought that the fairies had 
misled him. Keightley's own book shows 
abundantly that there existed quite up to 
his time the belief in fairies amongst the 
lower orders. I do not think that it ever 
reached much higher. Shakspeare and 
Milton, though they wrote about fairies, 
did not believe in them. E. YARD LEY. 

465). MR. DODGSON'S first inscription re- 
calls the inscription on the Vatican Obelisk : 
" Ecce Crux Domini Fugite partes ad- 
verse Vicit Leo de tribu Juda," the last 
clause of which is a quotation from the 
Apocalypse (v. 5). This obelisk was ori- 
ginally brought from Heliopolis by Caligula, 
who set it up " inter duas metas " (i.e., in 
the middle of the spina) of the circus on 
the Vatican, which he built, and Nero 
finished. Near this obelisk St. Peter was 
martyred about 67 A.D. It remained 
in situ till it was removed by Sixtus V. to 
its present position. The inscription dates 
from this removal in 1586, on which occa- 
sion the round ball at the top which in the 
Middle Ages was, without any historical 
foundation, supposed to contain the ashes 
of Julius Caesar was replaced by the pre- 
sent cross, in which a relic of the True Cross 
is enclosed. JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 

S. vi. 507). These letters have not been 
added to any of the English editions of Sir 
G. O. Trevelyan's ' Life and Letters of Lord 
Macaulay.' " W. H. PEET. 

39, Paternoster How, E.G. 

The words of ' Admiral Benbow ' are inter- 
esting, showing several variations from those 
printed by Halliwell in ' Early Naval 
Ballads of England ' and also from those 
printed in Chappell's ' Popular Music of the 
31den Time.' The latter took his version, 
words and music, from a broadside pub- 
ished early in the eighteenth century ; it 
ncludes one more stanza than appears on 
D. 7, ante. 

Benbow, son of Col. John Benbow, of 
Shropshire, commenced his career as a 
ailor before the mast, and rose to the rank 
>f admiral. His portrait may be seen in 
Hampton Court Palace and in Shrewsbury- 

For a version of the words and tune of 
his song, with exhaustive notes and refer- 
nces, see the Journal of the Folk-Song 
iociety, vol. ii. part ix. p. 236. If the tune 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907: 

sung at Hawkstone was not printed with 
the words, I feel sure that the hon. secretary 
of the Folk-Song Society, Miss Lucy Broad- 
wood, 84, Carlisle Mansions, Victoria Street, 
Westminster, would be very glad to obtain 
a transcript of it. W. PERCY MERRICK. 

In ' The Horkey,' a ballad by Robert 
Bloomfield containing a mine of Suffolk 
provincialisms, occurs in the description of 
the harvest party at Farmer Cheerum's the 
following stanza : 

John sung ' Old Ben bow,' loud and strong. 

And I, ' The Constant Swain ' ; 
" Cheer up, my lads," was Simon's song, 

"We'll conquer them again." 
This may be the song mentioned by MR. 
SOUTHAM. Admiral Benbow died from the 
effect of his amputated leg at Kingston, in 
Jamaica, in 1702. Capts. Kirkby and Wade 
were shot on board the Bristol at Plymouth 
in 1703 for cowardice. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

REPRINT (10 S. vi. 421, 473, 511). The copy 
of Blake's ' Songs of Innocence and of Ex- 
perience ' which Messrs. Methuen will 
reproduce in their forthcoming issue is the 
one lately in the possession of Lord Crewe, 
which was sold in 1903 for 300Z. This is, 
presumably, the copy described by MR. 
SAMPSON in his invaluable edition of Blake's 
poems, as follows : 

"54 plates, each printed on a separate leaf. 
Foliated by Blake 1-54. Dated watermark 1818. 
Plates printed in brown. Delicately coloured, with 
wide wash borders." 

A collation of it is given in Table III. of the 
Bibliographical Preface of the above men- 
tioned work, pp. 82-3. 

The ' Songs ' in Messrs. Methuen's edition 
will form the second volume of ' William 
Blake ' under Mr. Laurence Binyon's editor- 
ship. The first volume, published last 
November, contained * The Illustrations of 
the Book of Job,' prefaced by a study of 
Blake, the man, the artist, and the poet. 


(10 S. vii. 8). Of this tower, which pro- 
bably was a strength of the Hepburns, 
nothing remains but the shattered east end 
of the keep, with walls 4 ft. 6 in. thick. 
M'Gibbon and Ross (' Castellated and 
Domestic Architecture,' vol. iii.) refer it 
tentatively to the sixteenth century, and it 
is one of an innumerable series of border 
peles which stand, or stood, in the valley of 
the Tweed. MR. GEMMELL should consult 

the indices to the"! ' Rotuli Scotiae ' and' 
' Inquisitiones,' sources of much direct 
information as to former owners of lands 
and houses in Scotland. 


427, 490). Though not of much importance, 
a slight error in replies given may be men- 
tioned. " The Bag of Nails " at Loughton,. 
in Essex, has ceased to exist as an inn, 
liaving been converted into a grocery store 
and post-office some years ago. 


VIRGIN (10 S. vii. 9). The image of the 
B.V.M. at Doncaster was an object of much 
veneration in Yorkshire. Thus William 
Ecopp, rector of Heslerton, by his will, 
1472, desires a pilgrimage to be made 
" Beatse Mariae de Doncastre " (' Test. 
Ebor.,' iii. 201) ; and in 1507 Dame Catherine 
Hastings bequeaths " to our Lady of Don- 
castre my tawny chamlett gown " (iv. 257). 
The image was probably in the chapel of 
Our Lady at the bridge-end (Hunter, ' South 
Yorkshire,' i. 19), where there was a cross 
with niches for three images. In 1518 a 
York tradesman required his wife to make 
a pilgrimage to " the roode of Dancastre 
at the brigge ende " (' Test. Ebor.,' iv. 202). 

Curious accounts of the burning of such 
figures at Smithfield, Chelsea, and elsewhere 
are in Wriothesley's ' Chronicle,' i. 74-5, 80, 
and in Crakanthorp's ' Defensio Ecclesise 
Anglicanse,' ed. 1847, p. 591 ; but that from 
Doncaster is not mentioned. W. C. B. 

See ' Letters and Papers Henry VIII.,' 
vol. xiii. i. 1054, 1177 ; ii. 860, 1280 (f. 5b). 
The image in question stood in the Carmelite- 
Church at Doncaster, and was removed by 
the Archbishop before 17 Nov., 1538. If 
it was removed to London, it was possibly 
burnt at Smithfield, as Latimer suggested 
it should be. Henry VIII., before his zeal 
for Protestantism had awakened, had kept 
a candle perpetually burning before Our 
Lady of Doncaster. 


One cannot answer as to the burning, 
but the first entry in the volume of Kenyon 
MSS., issued by the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission about 1904-5 deals with a 
reputed miracle at Doncaster, under date 
15 July, 1524, and gives " testimony by 
William Nicolson and others to a miracle 
worked upon them by which they escaped 
drowning " : " All the company. . . .did 
call and cry to Allmighti God and to our- 

10 s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


TBlessid Lady, whose ymage is honorde and 
worshept in the Whyte Freeres of Doncaster," 
&c. See further The Antiquary, February, 
1895, p. 64, ' A Miracle at Doncaster,' where 
a full account of what happened is given. 


[A. C. H. also thanked for reply.] 

vii. 8). The late Mr. William Burges, R.A., 
;says of this effigy : 

" On examining the statue we discover the same 
-conventionalities as we see in that of Henry III. 
Thus, the line of the lower eyelid is straight, the 
.alse of the nose are small (the nose in this instance 
is straight) ; there is not much drawing in the 
mouth, but the middle line goes down a little at 
either end, and the hair flows down the back in 
very strong wavy lines. Now Eleanor at the time 
of her death was over forty years of age, and had 
.had several children ; it is therefore most im- 
probable that this can be a portrait-statue, and, to 
a certain degree, we are the gainers; for however 
curious it would have been to have seen the real 
likenesses of Henry III. and of Eleanor, it is still 
more so to have the ideal beauty of one of the 
; great periods of art handed down to us in enduring 

Mr. W. J. Loftie's comment on this ('West- 
.minster Abbey,' 1890, p. 33) is as follows : 
" If the beautiful Eleanor of Castile was not like 
the marvellous figure on her tomb, she cannot at least 
have been very different. As to her father-in-law, 
Henry III., perhaps, as all contemporary accounts 
make him an ugly little man, with a squint, the 
portrait may be flattered ; but that it is more or 
less a portrait, however much idealized, would 
seem certain, if only because of the way in which 
the features answer to what we know was the 
character of the king." 

In this connexion it may be worth re- 
membering that Edward I. caused a con- 
ventional head to be placed upon his coins 
a type which persisted, with little change, 

.-from 1279 until 1504, when Henry VII. had 

.his own portrait in profile stamped upon his 


Of the other kings and queens in the Con- 
e's Chapel, Edward I. and Henry V. 
course have no effigies ; that of Ed- 
rdlll. " is remarkable as having connected 
with it the tradition that the features have 
been cast from a mould taken after death " ; 
that of his queen, Philippa, " is probably," 

-says Mr. Burges, " the first one in West- 
minster Abbey which has any claims to be 

'Considered a portrait " ; while that of 
Richard II. (with his first wife, Anne of 
Bohemia), was made in the king's lifetime, 
and may be compared both with his great 
portrait in the Abbey and with the earlier 
portrait of Richard and his three patron 
saints, kneeling before the Madonna and 

'Child, at Wilton. A. R. BAYLEY. 

(10 S. vii. 6). In November, 1899, 1 arrived 
at Burg im Spreewald, in order to pick up a 
little Wendish, which is well spoken there. 
I met in the inn Dr. G. J. J. Sauerwein, who 
had done much work for the British and 
Foreign Bible Society and for diverse 
libraries in Germany, where he was uni- 
versally known as " the German Mezzo- 
fanti." Himself descended from a long line 
of Lutheran pastors in the kingdom of 
Hanover, he introduced me to the Lutheran 
rector of Burg, who presented me with 
some books in the curious old Slavonic 
tongue in which I had heard him preach in a 
church which, like those of French Bask- 
land, has galleries for the men, while the 
women occupy the parterre. He persuaded 
me to prolong my stay there ; so that I was 
able to converse with him for two days. It 
was difficult, owing to his excessive modesty 
(which accounts for the fact that, out of his 
many publications, only five are recorded 
in the Catalogue of the British Museum), 
to find out how many languages he knew ; 
but they must have been more thanahundred, 
though he did not know them all equally 
well. He had even learned a certain amount 
of Heuskara, and in many letters encouraged 
me in my pursuit of that unjustly neglected 
language. When he died in Norway 
about two years ago, the newspapers of 
Christiania, where he passed some days 
withfme in 1903, published many accounts 
of him. He was buried in Kant's city of 
Konigsberg. EDWARD S. DODGSON. 

(10 S. vi. 225). With reference to W. E. B.'s 
query, the following may be of interest. 
The parish church of Overbury, Worcester- 
shire, is dedicated to St. Faith. In the 
' Register of Worcester Priory, A.D. 1240,' 
published by the Camden Society (pp. 76b 
and 77b), in an account of a dispute respect- 
ing the advowson of Berrow, it is stated that 
a certain Robert " recognovit et concessit 
Deo et ecclesiae Sanctse Fidis de Uverbir' 
prsedictam capellam de la Bereg." From 
this it would appear that the saint's name 
in Latin was of the third declension, the 
genitive case being " Fidis," and the nomi- 
native, presumably, " Fides." 


S.P.Q.R. (10 S. vi. 467). This legend, 
slightly altered to S.P.Q.A., is very much 
in evidence at Antwerp. A popular inter- 
pretation is the inhospitable sentiment, 
" Sortez, polisson ; quittez Anvers." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907. 

"HOMELAND" (10 S. vi. 389, 432). 
" Roomy " is in common use on Tyneside, 
and probably elsewhere, for " spacious," 
said of a room. It is said of garments also ; 
when trousers, say, are too large, they are 
described as " roomy." R. B B. 

South Shields. 


S. vi. 485). I have always thought that 
the meaning of this name was perfectly clear, 
and that, given that meaning, the pronuncia- 
tion with the stress on the syllable " ma " 
was quite obvious. The meaning is " Son 
of the sea." The syllable " na " is the 
feminine genitive singular of the definite 
article, and the word " mara " is the genitive 
singular of the feminine noun " muir," the 
sea. Compare the Welsh name Morgan = 
sea-begotten. H. T. W. 

WELSH A (10 S. vi. 429). Prof. Anwyl 
in his ' Welsh Grammar ' (Sonnenschein's 
" Parallel Grammar Series," 1898) says : 
" a represents the nom. and ace. of the Old 
Brythonic relative." For example, we have 
in normal order can y dyn, the man sings ; 
but in inverted order, where dyn (man) is to 
be emphasized, y dyn a gan, (it is) the man 
who sings. FBED. G. ACKEBLEY. 

Grindleton, Clitheroe. 


A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 
Vol. VI. LN (Mesne Misbirth). By Henry 
Bradley, Hon. M.A. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
UNDER, the enlightened charge of Dr. Henry 
Bradley a double section of the great dictionary 
arrives as a new year's gift to philology. In this 
the customary superiority over rival undertakings 
is manifested, 3,800 words against 2,459 being the 
disparity in the case of the most formidable com- 
petition ; while the number of illustrative quota- 
tions is 13,931, against no more in any other case 
than 1,414. In hmine we are fronted with proof 
of the encyclopaedic nature of the information now 
conveyed, the first word being meme, an altered 
spelling of Anglo-French meen, mean. In feudalism 
"mesne lord," a lord who holds an estate of a 
superior lord, is first employed by Selden, ' Titles 
of Honour,' in 1614. Thirty-nine years earlier is 
"mesne land," mesnalty; while "mesne process" 
is encountered in 1625. Adverbially=at a time 
intermediate between two other times, mesne occurs 
so early as 1439. Second comes an erudite article 
on meso-, the combining form of Greek fiiooq, 
middle, largely employed in scientific phraseology, 
chiefly anatomical, but sometimes, as in mesode, a 
term in Greek prosody, used in literature, or, as 
Mesopotamia, in geography. Mesquita, mesqnit, 
are curious forms for mosque, once common, but 

obsolete since the seventeenth century. New 
information is supplied under mess, a "dirty mess" 
being not an etymologically distinct word, but a 
natural, though very recent developement of the 
older senses. Messan, dog=a lapdog, is from the 
Irish. Under messer might perhaps have appeared, 
even with some form or protest, the modern use, 
occasional and affected, of the word in a phrase 
such as "Messer Ludovico" (for Messire). A 
curious and instructive article deals with the 
introduction into the New Testament of the word 
Messiah. Messuage is said to be "probably" a 
graphic corruption of "mesnage," though some 
difficulty is felt to stand in the way of this- 
etymology. Mesteque, the finest order of cochineal,, 
is considered of obscure origin. Our remarks on 
meso- apply also to meta-, though a misapprehension 
of the meaning of metaphysics is the subject of 
comment, and the senses in which meta- is used 
are more numerous than those of meso-. Camden 
speaks of metagrammatism in connexion with 
anagrammatism. The various forms of meta- 
morphose supply much curious information. Under 
metaphysical we find the original sense of the word,, 
its application, with a certain amount of reproach,, 
to ideas considered too subtle, too abstract, that 
which is more than physical, as when Macbeth 
speaks of " Fate and metaphysicall ayde," and 
Johnson's classification of Donne, Cowley, &c., as 
metaphysical poets. Sense 6 of mete, to apportion 
by measure, to allot praise, reward, &c., is un- 
common till the nineteenth century, but is now,, 
though only in literary use, the chief current sense.. 
Many excellent illustrations are furnished of the 
use of meteor. Under meter are given many 
nonce-words like Sydney Smith's "foolometre." 
Methinks is said to be now archaeological and 
poetical. This is doubtless true, though we 
seem to recall vaguely some instance of 
familiar use. The form -'history of the word is 
probably supplied for the first time. A capital 
account of method is provided, especially in regard 
to medicine ; while the application of the word to 
the followers of Wesley is finely shown. Under 
Methuselah the corruption " Methusalem," which 
survives, is said to be after Jerusalem. The change 
in meticulous from "timid" to "over-careful" is 
noteworthy. Of metre an account full and exact is 
given. Aii allusion in Milton and others to the 
" metropolitan toe" is justly said to be obscure. 
D'Avenant seems to have been the first to miscall 
London a " Metropolis." Mettle was originally the 
same word as metal. Of men' in various senses a 
full history is given, including the fact, not generally 
known, that the mews, stables, were built on the 
spot at Charing Cross where the royal hawks were 
formerly mewed. Evelyn whose ' Sculptura,' 
published in 1662, ascribed to Prince Rupert the 
invention of "Mezzo Tinto" is not the first to 
mention the term, which is encountered under 1660. 
MicUe has an interesting history. Microcosm, a 
little world, is of very early occurrence. Microscope 
is met with in 1656, and is used by Milton in 1671. 
Midden, a manure heap, is regarded as dialectal. 
Keats's use of mid-may in the ' Ode to a Nightingale ' 
might have been quoted. Mind, with its many 
meanings, is the subject of much learned comment. 
In mine, an excavation, the origin of the French 
word mine is doubtful. Concerning mine as a, 
possessive pronoun much valuable information is 
afforded. Mineral water is found so early as 1562. 
Miniature is first found, as might be expected, in 

10 s. VIL JAN. 19, 190?:] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Evelyn. Minikin has an interesting history. 
Under Minion, minister, &c., is much historical 
information. Minuet first occurs in Dryden. Minx, 
a pet dog, a pert girl, is of obscure origin. An 
article on the prefix mi*- deserves close study. 

A Last Ramble in the Classics. By Hugh E. P. 

Platt, M.A. (Oxford, Blackwell.) 
AT 10 S. iv. 238 we inserted a long review of Mr, 
Platt's previous volume, ' Byways in the Classics,' 
and we are glad to notice in his present classical 
"olla podrida" abundant evidence that he has 
profited by our comments and additions. In par- 
ticular, he has now added much of interest from 
Boswell's ' Johnson ' and Tennyson's ' Life ' by his 
son, which we mentioned as capital source's of 
classical quotation and comment. 

Mr. Platt talks of prosaic names derived from 
numerals, but we do not think that such names, 
where their meaning is not readily recognized i.e., 
generally are felt to be prosaic in modern times, 
as in the cases of Septimus Tennyson and Decima 
Moore. The Greeks and Latins, we doubt not, 
differed from us in their views of euphony and its 
opposite, and we do not think that Matthew Arnold 
is quite fair when he exclaims, in his ' Essay on the 
Function of Criticism,' at the touch of grossness 
in our race shown by " the natural growth amongst 
us of such hideous names as Higginbottom, Stiggins, 
Biigg ! In Ionia and Attica they were luckier in 
this respect than ' the best race in the world ' ; by 
the Ilissus there was no Wragg, poor thing ! 
There were probably equally ugly names in Greece ; 
but we do not realize their ugliness, nor did 
Matthew Arnold. 

Mr. Platt speaks of the doubt whether Lucan 
was a poet. He may be interested to know that 
Shelley preferred him to Virgil. To us he is little 
more than an inspired rhetorician, and his lapses 
in taste are hardly balanced by his fine praise of 

To the list of proverbial phrases might be added 
from the ' Cena Trimalchionis ' " Omnium tex- 
torum dicta" for "swearing like a trooper" or 
" a bargee," the weavers of Rome having, ap- 
parently, this evil pre-eminence. 

Some of the classical "mottoes" i.e., modern 
applications of classical lines and phrases seem 
to us rather far-fetched. This sort of thing de- 
generates into pedantry and boredom unless the 
point strikes one at once as apt. Mr. E. H. 
Blakeney has done well in applying the Homeric 
" devisers of the War Cry" to the Salvation Army, 
and we cannot resist mention of a Shakespearian 
allusion to the same energetic evangelists, which is, 
we believe, new. In ' 1 Henry IV.,' III. i., we find 
" 'Tis the next way to turn tailor or be red-breast 
teacher." What description could be more vivid? 
A pleasant form of jesting is the use of canine 
Latin by scholars. Thus we have heard of a note 
being thrown across at a meeting where two men 
were disagreeing with the line 

Non est multus amor perditus inter eos. 
The great Shilleto, when a boy, heard Dr. Butler 
(the grandfather of the author of ' Erewhon ') say, 
" If the men will let the boys have the boats, I will 
have them up before the magistrates." As these 
words fell gradually from the Doctor's lips, Shilleto 
wrote on a scrap of paper : 
Quando velint homines pueris eonducere cymbas, 
Ante magistratus Butler habebit eos. 

rlaving done so, he slid the paper on to Dr. Butler's 
desk. " Psha, boy, psha ! " was all the answer 
made him; "but," said Shilleto, "the Doctor 
folded the paper carefully up and put it in his 

This, with much other classical allusion, is taken 
: rom a neglected book, 'The Life and Letters of 
Samuel Butler,' by his brilliant grandson (Murray, 
1896). We give from memory Shilleto's epigram on 
jladstone, which we have never seen in print, 
though it has doubtless appeared somewhere : 

Unde mini lapidem peterem quo laetus eum cui 
Inditur a Iteto nomen et a lapide. 

Gray's ' Letters,' which should be read in the 
excellent edition of Mr. Duncan Tovey, afford, as 
might be expected, much insight into the delights 
of classical learning imbibed at leisure. In vol. ii., 
for instance, is a waggish perversion in a letter to 
Mason of 6 October, 1759 : " Your friend Dr. 
Plumptre has lately sat for his picture to Wilson. 
The motto, in large letters (the measure of which 
he himself proscribed), is, Non magna loquimur, 
sed vivimus," i.e., "We don't say much, but we 
hold good livings." 

The same volume quotes two references to 
Juvenal x. 41 by Walpole : " Servus curru portatur 
eodem," when Bob, formerly a waiter at White's, 
was returned for Parliament (p. 9) ; and p. 151 
offers the perversion : 

et .ibi Countess 
Ne placeat, ma'amselle curru portatur eodem. 

Mr. Platt invents an odd reason for the love of 
Horace in the English people, if, indeed, such love 
still exists. It seems fairly obvious that Horace 
represents to perfection the comfortable views of 
the man of the world to take the golden mean, be 
careful of the man and the occasion when you talk, 
not to overtax your digestion, &c. It is the very 
opposite of the doctrines of chivalry, which expect 
a man to seek danger for its own sake and do 
quixotic things. 

Trollope is fairly veracious in his detail, and we 
may therefore regard the following passage in the 
' Last Chronicle of Barset,' new " Library Edition " 
(i. 39), as a testimony to the present decay of in- 
terest and knowledge in Greek. Mr. Crawley, the 
scholar and parson, who is at his wits' end for 
enough to live on, "had translated into Greek 
irregular verse the very noble ballad of Lord Bate- 
man, maintaining the rhythm and the rhyme, and 
had repeated it with uncouth glee till his daughter 
knew it all by heart. And when there had come to 
him a five-pound note from some admiring maga- 
zine editor as the price of the same, still through 
the dean's hands, he had brightened up his heart, 
and had thought for an hour or two that even yet 
the world would smile on him." 

The modern magazine editor would certainly 
smile at such a misguided attempt to get money out 
of him. He does not bother about Greek, and if 
he had to do so, it is probable that he would employ 
some one to read it for him. Greek and Latin gods 
and heroes figure now chiefly in advertisements of 
soap and patent foods ! 

We end our notice, as on a former occasion, with 
an Oxford jest. It is recorded by the late Grant 
Duff, and is certainly ben trovato. When Arch- 
deacon Denison was standing for a fellowship at 
Oriel, his next neighbour, an elderly candidate for 
matriculation at the same college, said to him, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 19, 1907. 

" Would you oblige the father of a family by telling 
him whether aliquando is a preposition or the name 
of a heathen god ? " 

WE have received a timely announcement, in 
view of the forthcoming " Tercentenary Celebra- 
tions of the Founding of the Colony of Virginia by 
Opt. John Smith." Messrs. .MacLehose have in 
the press the works of Capt. John Smith, com- 
prising 'The General History of Virginia, New 
England, and the Summer Isles,' published in 1626 ; 
' The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations 
of Capt. John Smith,' his own account of his early 
life, published in 1630 ; and ' A Sea Grammar,' pub- 
'lished in 1627, a treatise on the ship of his time and 
the manner of sailing and lighting her. These 
extremely scarce works will be reprinted in the 
same style as the publishers' editions of ' Hakluyt ' 
and'Purchas His Pilgrimes.' The best thanks of 
the literary world are due to Messrs. MacLehose for 
their admirable enterprise in republishing famous 
works of travel. 


MESSRS. W. BROUGH & SONS, of Birmingham, 
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1845 11. 7*- 5 Burns, "Library Edition," 6 vols., 
41 4.1; Morris's ' British Birds,' 191. 19*. ; Mey rick's 
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Edinburgh Review, 1802-97, II. 7*. ; and a complete 
set erf Scott, "Abbotsford Edition," Cadell, 1842, 
18 vols., 20^. 

Mr. G. A. Poynder, of Reading, has in his Cata- 
lo<nie 42 the rare first edition of Fanny Burney's 
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1782 21. 18*. Qd. ; and Johnson's " English Poets," 
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t/ion iruiii K3UWG1. uj, " j*v. ^**~^*-*~, t sv. 
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Mr. Robert Wild, of Burnley, sends ITS his List 73. 
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CONTENTS. No. 161. 

NOTES : Orwell Town and Haven, 61 Magdalen College 
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New Place, 66" Wroth " Uncatalogued London Records 
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REPLIES : Bidding Prayer, 70 Roman Catholic Priests 
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about Souls Isle of Man and the Countess of Derby 
"Thistolow" 'Cantus Hibernici,' 73 Scott Illustrators 
Dorothy Paston or Bedingfield " King Copin "Towns 
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Grave Queen Victoria of Spain : Name-Day, 76 Pen- 
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Records Palimpsest Brass Inscriptions "Posui Deum 
adjutorem meum" Riming Deeds, 78 Reynolds's Por- 
traits of Miss G re ville Guevara Inscriptions: "Potie" 
Warden Romney's Ancestry, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : - ' The Plantagenet Roll of the 
Blood Royal' 'The Riot at Trinity College, 1611' 
Massee's ' Text- Book of Fungi.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(Concluded from p. 23.) 
As regards the situation of the port of 
Goseford, there is a document dated 1341, 
8 Aug., in which it is stated that a ship 
sailing from the port of Orwell to Colchester 
was driven by stress of weather into the port 
of Goseford (Cal. of Close Rolls, Edward III.). 
Mr. Marsden quotes from the old English 
sailing directions published by the Hakluyt 
Society, but the old German-Dutch ' Sea- 
Book,' edited by Karl Koppmann (Bremen, 
1876), has evidently escaped his notice, 
although the sailing directions given therein 
for the east coast of England from Flam- 
borough Head (Vlamberger hovede) to 
Dungeness are highly interesting both as 
regards Orwell and Goseford. According 
to the modern editor, the two known MSS. 
are both of the sixteenth century, but are 
copied, at least in parts, from older sources. 
In chap. xiv. par. 28 we are first of all 
told that " off Orwell lies an evil sand a 
German mile from the shore, and the sand 
does not come nearer than six or seven 
fathoms at low water," whatever that 
may mean. This evil sand is shown in 
Wagenaer's ' Mariner's Mirrour,' lying paral- 
lel to the coast, and stretching from Orford- 

nesse to opposite the Pole Head (now 
Landguard Point). The ' Sea-Book ' then 
mentions the great castle with many towers 
at Orford, and describes. Orfordnesse. 

In par. 29 we are told that " if you wish 
to sail with a heavy ship into Orwell, you 
must take half a tide, when there is enough 
depth to get over all sands." Inside and 
outside lies a shoal (in the entrance) between 
the shingle bank and the Red Cliff, which 
shoal dries at low water. The shingle bank 
lies on the east side, and is flat outside and 
deep inside. The mariner is further en- 
couraged not to be afraid of the shingle bank 
so long as he is in three fathoms of water 
(unde gy en suit de singele nicht schuwen 
umme dre vademe). 

Par. 30 next gives directions how to get 
into Orwell (which, as I should have men- 
tioned before, is always named Norwelle). 
The mariner is told to sail westward until he 
sees a large tree, which stands near Harwich 
(by norden Herwyk) over the water ; and 
at the north end (nortende) of Harwich 
stands a great, round, plump tower on the 
spit of land of the northern shore. When 
the tree and the tower are so close together 
that one can just see through between them, 
" then you are in the deepest channel." 

We may skip the next paragraph, which 
gives directions as to how to get out of 
Orwell, and proceed to par. 32, which states 
that if a ship arriving from the west wishes 
to get into Orwell, it has to sail along till 
you can see Goseford tower (Gla-evorder 
toren) west of Bawdsey Cliff (Baldersee 
Kleff). Full directions are then given for 
entering the harbour. 

Par. 33 finally describes another way of 
getting into Orwell. In this case one had 
to sail so far westward that Goseford tower 
(Glasevorder torne) could no longer be seen 
on the west side of the haven in the wood, 
and Orford had to be kept outside Bawdsey 
Cliff ; and one had to go west-south (westen 
suden) until one could see a large oak tree 
standing east of Ipswich (Syweswick), two 
English miles from Woodbridge (Walden- 
brugge). The tree was then to be brought 
to the west of the shingle bank (by westen 
de Singele). 

The sailing directions, I admit, are some- 
what difficult to understand without a con- 
temporary chart, but they prove beyond all 
doubt that Goseford tower was then still 
in existence and a good landmark for sailors, 
unless I am mistaken. 

Mr. Marsden further mentions the fact 
that there has long been a tradition among 
the Harwich people that there was once a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 26 , 1907, 

town on the West Rocks (called Cliff Foot 
Rocks on nineteenth-century charts). It is 
said that remains of buildings have been 
seen there and stones of buildings have 
been dredged up from the sea bottom. He 
has been told by a dredgerman that his 
informant has himself seen part of a church 
spire dredged up. But Mr. Marsden dis- 
misses all this as " fishermen's tales " that 
are common on the east coast, and probably 
have their origin in the fact that remains of 
the wholly or partially submerged towns 
of " Ravenspur " (Ravenser and Ravenser- 
Odd ?), Dunwich, &c., have been found, 
but surely not on the West Rocks at Harwich. 
He admits there is no doubt that Walton 
Naze once extended much further to sea 
than it does now ; it wastes daily, and so 
long ago as the fourteenth century parts of 
the lands of " the church of London " in 
that locality were described as consumpta 
per mare. If, however, by all this he means 
to imply that the West Rocks once formed 
part of the mainland, then the town which 
once stood there must also have been in the 
county of Essex and could not have been 
Orwell, as Morant asserts (' History of Essex,' 
p. 501), because the latter town belonged to 
Suffolk, unless it stood on an island, off 
Walton Naze. 

Mr. Hurwood, in a paper read in Novem- 
ber, 1860, before the Institution of Civil 
Engineers ' On the River Orwell and the 
Port of Ipswich,' referred to "an old map 
of England " from which " it appeared 
that the locality on which Landguard Fort 
now stood was originally an island, and that 
the harbour had formerly two entrances ; 
the northern entrance, it might be assumed, 
had been closed up by travelling shingle." 

Landguard Fort was built according to 
the same writer in the reign of James I., 
for the defence of the harbour, and by an old 
picture it appeared that its site was then 
the extremity of Landguard Point. 

Morant also suggests that the rivers Stour 
and Orwell formerly flowed into the sea 
under Bull's Cliff at Felixstowe, some dis- 
tance (2 miles) north of the present estuary; 
but I agree with Mr. Marsden this must 
have been a long time ago, probably not in 
historical times, and long before Orwell 

Samuel Dale (in 1730) refers to an old 
author who " sometime since affirmed " 
that the present entrance to Harwich harbour 
is artificial and of no old date, the old 
channel having been formerly on the other 
side of Landguard Fort, " which then stood 
in Essex." The old author in question was, 

no doubt, Edmund Gibson, the Bishop of 
London and editor of one of the English 
editions of Camden's ' Britannia,' whose 
theory Dale himself attacked in a letter 
dated February, 1703, and addressed to 
Edward Lhwyd, Keeper of the Ashmolean 
Repository in Oxford. It was published 
in vol. xxiv. of the Philosophical Transac- 
tions (concerning Harwich Cliff and the fossils 
found there). 

I quote below the passage from Silas 
Taylor's MS. which gave occasion to Dale 
to refer to his older contribution to the- 
literature of the subject : 

"It is generally believed that the S ton re did 
formerly in a streighter current (than now it doth), 
discharge itself into the sea about Hoasley-Bav 
under the highlands of Walton-Coleness and Felix- 
stow in the County of Suffolk, betwixt which 

and Landguard Fort are, as they are reputed 
certain remains of the old channel, which the 
neighbouring Inhabitants still call Flwlx, retaining 
at this day [1676] the tradition of the course of the 
water, and the entrance into this haven to have 
heretofore been by and through them ; and con- 
sequently below them (North- Kast) to have been 
that before mentioned Ostium Stoiiri" 

But Hollesley Bay is 1 1 miles from Land- 
guard Point, and therefore a good distance 
beyond Bull's Cliff and Felixstowe ; and 
owing to the presence of the high lands 
referred to by Taylor, the river could have 
never flowed into the sea so far north. 

Mr. Marsden's statement, however, that 
the harbour mouth has not materially 
changed its position for upwards of 400 
years, is equally incorrect. I have only 
to refer him to the Report of Capt. John 
Washington, R.N., published as Appendix A 
of the ' Report of the Commissioners upon 
the Subject of Harbours of Refuge ' in 1845, 
from which it will suffice to quote the follow- 
ing paragraph : 

" But while the sea has gained upon the land on 
the western [the Essex] side of the harbour [by 
having washed aAvay Beacon Cliff], the contrary has 
taken place on the eastern or (Suffolk side, where 
within the last 30 years Landguard Point has grown 
out 1,500 feet, thereby blocking up the chief en- 
brance into the harbour ; so that where in the year 
1804 was a channel seven fathoms deep at low water 
is now a shingle beach as many feet above high- 
water mark." 

This was in 1843. 

The progress, however, was subsequently 

hecked by the erection of a stone break- 
water, on the Essex side, run out from the 

bot of Beacon Cliff, and by the removal by- 
dredging of several shoals within Harwich 

larbour, the object of these works being to 
restore the scour of the tidal streams to the 
Landguard Point side of the entrance and 

10 s. VIL JAN. 26, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to create a broad fairway into the harbour. 

The shoals in question were the Gristle, 
Bone, Glutton, Cod, Altar Flat, and Altar 
Bank, all lying nearer to the Suffolk than the 
Essex side of Harwich harbour that is, of 
old Orwell Haven. 

When dredging these shoals, the engineers 
reported on 8 January, 1851 : 

" In the removal of the north end of the Glutton 
Shoal, a considerable number of short oak piles 
were met with, from four to five inches square, arid 
from three to live feet long, with pointed ends, and 
apparently connected together by wales [horizontal 
pieces] and ties. Their removal has been a difficult 
and expensive operation." 

The next reports mention that slow 
progress had been made owing to a con- 
siderable quantity of sandstone rock having 
been met at the Glutton Shoal, which might 
require blasting. 

On 6 July, 1853, the engineers report that in 
the Bone " Shoal a number of oak piles have 
been met with ; they are about five feet in 
length, and six to eight inches square, 
pointed at the lower ends." The sandstone 
rock on the Glutton had to be blasted. As 
regards the Bone Shoal, another report 
(17 Jan., 1853) states that " a considerable 
number of timber piles have been met with 
at a depth of about 12 feet below low water 
.... about 4 feet long and 5 ins. square, 
pointed at one end," as on the upper part 
of Glutton Shoal. 

All these quarterly reports were addressed 
to the Secretary of the Admiralty, and pub- 
lished as Parliamentary papers on ' Harbours 
of Refuge.' 

As regards Landguard Point the engineers' 
reports show that a long prevalence of 
easterly winds invariably caused the spit 
to extend in the direction of its length ; in 
one instance (first quarter of 1855) the in- 
crease was 100 feet in a south-easterly 
(? south-westerly) direction. The point w r as 
then " above high water for about 100 feet 
to the westward of the line of the two light- 
houses in one " which was supposed to 
guide vessels safely into the harbour. 
Between May, 1845, and October, 1856, 
there had been a total extension of 560 feet, 
or about 50 feet per annum ; and as the 
length of the point had increased, its width 
had diminished, and it was 70 feet less in 
1856 than in 1845. A report in 1853 men- 
tions the washing away of land on the sea 
side, especially near the Ordnance burial- 

A prevalence of westerly winds, on the 
other hand, had always checked the growth 
of the point. 

Mr. John B. Redman, in a foot-note to< 
a paper read before the Institution of Civil 
Engineers in January, 1864, reports that 
" the rate of progress still continues, the 
westerly tendency increasing." 

Researches in the muniment rooms of 
Harwich and Ipswich may perhaps throw 
further light on the question of the ancient 
history of Orwell. L. L. K. 


THE 'D.N.B.' 
(See 10 S. iv. 21, 101, 182, 244, 364 ; v. 22, 
122, 284, 362 ; vi. 2, 104, 203.) 

I CONTINUE my notes from Benjamin 
Rogers, the musician. 

Sir William Scroggs (1652 ?-95), lawyer. 
Son of Lord Chief Justice of same names ;. 
Chorister ; treasurer, Gray's Inn ; K.C. 

John Shepherd (1521 ?-fl. 1550), musician. 
Chorister of St. Paul's ; in 1542 appointed 
Instructor of Choristers and organist at 
Magdalen ; resigned next year, but resumed 
post in 1545 ; in 1547 paid 81. as teacher 
of boys for one year, and other sums for 
repairing organ, vestments, &c. ; then again 
resigned, but in 1548 supplied twelve music- 
books for 5s. ; Fellow 1549-51 ; probably 
then entered Edward VI. 's Chapel Royal ; 
in April, 1554, supplicates for degree of 
Mus.Doc.Oxon, but his petition apparently 
not granted ; reappears in Magd. records 
for 1555. Having dragged a boy " in chains " 
from Malmesbury to Oxford, probably for 
impressment as a chorister, and having 
represented himself on the journey as "the 
principal officer of the College after the 
President," the odium of his proceedings 
had fallen upon the Vice-President, where- 
fore he was " sharply admonished for his 
impudence " ; but the custom of pressing 
boys for service in the choir of the Chapel 
Royal existed as far back as the time of 
Richard III., and at Whitehall, out of eight 
choristers it was usual, after 1597, to send 
six at one time to be trained at Blackfriars 
Theatre ; but an order was made in 1626, 
while Dr. Nathaniel Giles (see 10 S. vi. 3) 
was Master in Song and Organist, to pacify 
the Puritans, 

"that none of the Choristers or Children of the 
Chappell, soe to be taken by force of this Com- 
mission, shalbe used or imployed as Comedians or 
Stage players, or to exercise or acte any Stage 
plaies, interludes, Comedies or Tragedies." 
Shepherd is classed by Morley among 
famous English composers. 

Thomas Sherley or Shirley (1638-78), 
physician in ordinary to Charles II. Lived 

NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. VIL JAN. 20, 1907. 

-with his father, Sir Thomas, in Magdalen 
-while Oxford was garrisoned by royal troops 
and went to M.C.S. ; obtained M.D. degree 
in France ; imprisoned by Commons for 
appealing to Upper House against a member 
(Sir John Fagge), whom they had declared 
exempt from lawsuits during session (1675). 
Fagge having been granted Sherley's paternal 
estate of Wiston during Civil War, Sherley 
died of disappointment at his ill success. 

Richard Sherry or Shirrye (1506 ?-56 ?), 
author. Demy 1522; Master of M.C.S. 
1534-40 (between Robertson and Goodall) 
wrote ' A Treatise of the Figures of Gram- 
mer and Rhetorike.' 

John Sibthorp (1758-96), botanist. At 
M.C.S. ; Radcliffe travelling Fellow ; suc- 
ceeded his father (Humphrey) as Sherardian 
Professor of Botany, Oxon, but returned 
to Continent ; visited Crete, Smyrna, Cyprus, 
Greece, &c. ; published ' Flora Oxoniensis ' ; 
endowed Chair of Rural Economy at Oxford. 
Bloxam (iii. 237) gives the following anec- 
dote of his elder brother while at M.C.S. : 

" About 1766 took place in the Schoolroom the 
mock trial of Gervase, third son of Dr. Sibthorp, con- 
victed of highway robbery and sentenced to be 
hanged from a hook in one of the pillars, who, but 
for the accidental arrival of the Master (Robert 
Bryne) and his cutting the cord just in time, would 
have died." 

John Smith or Smyth (1662-1717), dra- 
matist. Probably great-grandson of the 
genealogical antiquary of same names ; 
chorister 1676 ; Usher of M.C.S. (succeed- 
ing Richard Wright) 1689 until his death, 
when buried in College Chapel. 

Miles Smith (1618-71), secretary of Arch 
bishop Sheldon. A near kinsman of Bishop 
of Gloucester of same names ; chorister 
1634-41 ; B.C.L. ; produced a metrical 
version of the Psalms. 

Richard Smith or Smyth (1554-1638), 
father of book-collector and author of 
' Obituary ' of same names (q.v. * D.N.B.'). 
Demy ; grandson of Gentleman-Usher to 
Elizabeth of same names ; in Holy Orders. 

Thomas Smith (1638-1710), Nonjuring 
divine and scholar. Master of M C.S. ! 
(between Timothy Parker and John Curie) 
1663-6 ; Fellow, Vice-President, Bursar ; i 
went for three years to Constantinople (1668) j 
as Chaplain ; ejected from Magd. as anti- 
Papist (1688), but refused oaths to William 
and Mary ; librarian of Cottonian Library ; 
wrote learned works on the Turks ; nick- 
named " Rabbi Smith " ; left MSS. to Thos. 

Thomas Sparke (1548-1616), divine. 
Demy 1567 ; Fellow ; conforming Puritan 

of note ; Prebendary of Lincoln and rector 
of Bletchley ; attended Hampton Court 
Conference ; influenced by James I. His 
son William (1587-1641), Demy 1606 and 
Fellow, chaplain to Duke of Buckingham, 
succeeded him at Bletchley. 

John Stanbridge or Stanbrygge (1463- 
1510), grammarian. Of Winchester and 
New Coll., where Fellow ; Usher of M.C.S. 
and, upon John Anwykyll's death, Master 
1487-94 ; Master of Hospital of St. John 
at B anbury ; rector of Win wick and Pre- 
bendary of Lincoln ; wrote ' Vocabula,' 
' Vulgaria,' ' Accidentia,' &c. ; Andrew 
Scarbott was Master of M.C.S. between him 
and Wolsey. His brother, or near relative, 
Thomas Stanbridge, Master of M.C.S. 1517- 
1522 (succeeding Hayle or Halye) ; Master 
of Banbury Grammar School, where Sir 
Thomas Pope (1507 ?-59), founder of 
Trinity College, Oxon, was a scholar. 

John Stokesley (1475 ?-1539), Bishop of 
London. Fellow ; Usher of M.C.S. for 
one month in 1497 ; Vice-Pres dent, when 
rngaged in fierce dissensions with other 
Fellows, who accused him (inter a ia) of 
heresy, theft, adultery, and of christening 
a cat ; at the Bishop of Winchester's visita- 
tion the Fellows " in sign of unity all drank 
of a loving-cup together " ; Principal Magd. 
Hall ; Dean of Chapel Royal ; envoy to 
France ; tried to win over Italian univer- 
sities to Henry VIII. 's divorce ; condemned 
John Frith and other Protestants ; opposed 
translation of Bible into English ; resisted 
Cranmer's visitation ; incurred Cromwell's 
hostility. A portrait by Holbein at Windsor, 
and a copy of it, presented by Dr. Bloxam, 
at M.C.S. 

John Addington Symonds (1807-71), 
physician. Showed at M.C.S. " an aptitude 
:or classical studies and a strong bent 
towards literature " ; held several posts on 
staff of Bristol Hospital ; author ; father 
of critic and poet of same names. 

William Symonds or Simons (1556-1616 ?), 
divine. Master (Ludimagister) of M.C.S. 
1583-6 (between Nicholas Balguay and 
Paul Smith) ; in his time great com- 
plaints were made by some of the Fellows, 
both to the Chancellor of the University and 
to th' ir own visitor, respecting the condition 
of the School, it being asserted the Master 
was non-resident, and that the President 
(Humphrey) of the College had sold the 
appointment to him ; held many church 
preferments, and at one time resided in 
Virginia ; published theological works. 

Christopher Taylor (1615-86), Quaker 
schoolmaster. Chorister 1623 ; converted 

10 s. vii. JAN. 26, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

by George Fox, he started a school at Walt- 
ham Abbey 1670 ; followed William Penn 
to Pennsylvania ; published religious works ; 
brother of Thomas T. (q.v. ' D.N.B.'). 

John Thornborough (1551-1641), Bishop 
of Worcester. Demy 1569 ; at Oxford led 
a gay life, associating with Robert Pinkney 
of St. Mary Hall. " These two," says Wood 
(' Athenae,' ii. 99), 

" loved Simon Formari well, hut, being given much 
to pleasure, they would make him go to the Keeper 
of the Forest of Shotover for his hounds to go a- 
hunting from morning to night. They never studied, 
as Simon saith, nor gave themselves to their books, 
but spent their time in the fencing-schools, dancing- 
schools, in stealing dear and conies, in hunting the 
hare, and wooing girls. They went often to the 
house of Dr. Giles Lawrence (Regius Professor of 
Greek) at Cowley, to see his two fair daughters, 
Elizabeth and Martha, the first of whom Thorn- 
borough wooed, the other Pinkney, who at length 
married her, but Thornborough deceived the 

Chaplain to second Earl of Pembroke and 
to Queen Elizabeth ; Dean of York ; Bishop 
of Limerick ; of Bristol ; zealous against 
recusants and in raising forced loans. His 
younger brother Giles (1562-1637) Demy 
1576 ; Sub-dean of Sarum, &c. 

Henry John Todd (1763-1845), editor of 
Milton and author. Chorister 1771 ; libra- 
rian at Lambeth Palace and royal chaplain ; 
rector of Settrington ; Archdeacon of York ; 
edited Spenser ; wrote life of Cranmer ; 
presented his collection of books relating 
to Milton to the College ; his portrait in 
M.C.S. painted by Joseph Smith from a 
sketch taken in 1822. 

John Tombes (b. 1636. Chorister 1651, 
son of the Baptist divine of same names, 
who entering Magdalen Hall, aged fifteen, 
became a noted tutor there, and subsequently 
vicar of Leominster (q.v. 'D.N.B.'). 

Nathanael Tomkins (b. 1584). Chorister 
1596 ; Usher of M.C.S. 1606-10 (between 
Richard Newton and Mercadine Hunnis). 
Owes his inclusion in ' D.N.B.' in small print, 
at end of article on Thomas Tomkins the 
musician to Wood's confusion of the former 
with the latter in Fasti,' 799 ; a mistake 
found in Bloxam, i. 27, but corrected in ii. 47. 

Laurence Tomson (1539-1608), politician, 
author, and transcriber. Demy 1553 ; 
Fellow ; accompanied Sir Thomas Hoby to 
France ; M.P. for Weymouth, &c. ; tra- 
velled extensively and knew many languages; 
employed by Walsingham ; author of 
theological and commercial works. 

William Tyndale, alias Huchyns (d. 1536), 
translator of the Bible. Born probably 
between 1490 and 1495 ; " Foxe's phrase, 

* brought up from a child in the University,' 
seems to imply his matriculation at a very 
early age, and if so, almost certainly as a- 
scholar " of M.C.S. (v. Hamilton's ' Hertford 
Coll.,' 105) ; B.A. Magd. Hall 1512 ; it is 
extremely doubtful whether he was nomi- 
nated an original Canon of Cardinal College 
by Wolsey, who may have been his master 
at M.C.S. ; ordered by Wolsey to be seized 
at Worms ; escaped to Marburg ; approved 
for a time by Henry VIII. ; engaged in 
bitter controversy with Sir Thomas More ; 
Henry VIII. sought to kidnap him ; betrayed 
by Henry Phillips to imperial officers and 
arrested for heresy ; imprisoned at Vilvorde ;. 
strangled and burned at the stake, in spite 
of Cromwell's intercession. Hertford College 
(olim Magdalen Hall) possesses his portrait ; 
and a similar picture, but upon panel, 
belongs to the British and Foreign Bible* 
Society. A. R. BAYLEY. 

St. Margaret's, Great Malvern. 
(To be continued.) 


I HAVE before me an interleaved copy of 
the fourth volume of Granger's ' Biographi- 
cal History ' (second edition, 1775), ex- 
tensively annotated by James Caulfield,. 
the printseller. The greater number of 
his comments refer to the comparative 
scarcity of the prints, every one of which 
he has priced ; but some of his notes provide 
interesting side-lights on the printsellers 
and collectors of his day and their methods. 
Here are a few selected at random : 

"Sir Aston Cockain, 51. 5s. Qd. The print of 
Cockain is extremely rare. Sir William Musgrave,. 
who had been collecting portraits for many years, 
could never meet with one. Mr. Tighe had one, 
which sold at Richardson's for 51, 5s. Qd., but not 
before Richardson had copied it for his work." 

"Richard Head, 15s. Qd. Richard Head used to 
sell for 7*. 6d. , but the book from which it comes 
(' The English Rogue ') is now very scarce, and the- 
portrait seldom to be met with. I copied it for my 
' Remarkable Persons,' and permitted a young man 
to have several impressions taken off on old paper,, 
which he imposed on several persons for original 
prints, though he told me it was to put them before 
some copies of the work he had by him." 

" Jacob Bobart, 121. 12s. Qd. The print of Bobart 
sold in Musgrave's sale for 121. 12s. Qd. I had an 
opinion I should meet with some of this rare print 
at Oxford, where Burghers, the engraver, always 
resided, but was disappointed in my search. The 
family of Bobart are settled at Woodstock, and a 
place in Oxfordshire called Nettlebed, where a Mrs. 
Bobart, of the elder branch, has a considerable 
estate, and is reputed worth 800^. a year. His. 
brother, who was educated at the Charter House,. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 26, 1907. 

has likewise a good property, hut is uncommonly 
fond of horses, and to indulge this propensity has 
bought a share in some of the Oxford stages, one of 
which he constantly drives. I enquired of him if 
he had any prints of his ancestor, hut found he had 
not, though he said a brother who is a hosier at 
Woodstock has a very fine painting of him." 

Part of this biographical memorandum is 
given by Bray in his foot-note to Evelyn's 
'Diary,' 24 October, 1664 (vide the recent 
edition in 4 vols., ii. p. 171). A copy of the 
print was in the Sykes Sale, March, 1824, 
lot 849, bought by Grave for 61. 85. Qd. 

" Fran9ois Le Pipre, 15s. Of/. The mezzo tinto of Le 
Pipre is an anonymous print, and very little known 
to either printsellers or collectors. It is a small 
.quarto in the manner of Vaillaint's prints, and 
represents a rough-looking man without hat or cap, 
the collar of his shirt unbuttoned, and upon com- 
parison with Wai pole's print is known to be Le 
Pipre. Coram has bought 3 or 4 lately in sales, 
with many other prints in a lot for 2s. M. or 3*., 
though young Grave and many printsellers of note 
have oeen in the room at the time, but did not know 
this print. According to the impression, it will 
bring from 15-s. to 11. 1-s. Qd." 

"Louise, Dutchess of Portsmouth, 6/. 6*. Od. The 
plate of the Dutchess of Portsmouth by Baudet 
must be at Paris among the plates of Basan, though 
here the print is so rarely met with that it sells for 
.5 or 6 guineas. Paris is a place that has never been 
visited by any other than gentlemen collectors who 
know not how to seek after scarce prints Mr. Wai- 
pole and Ant" Storer only excepted, who certainly 
met with many of their most curious prints while in 

Jf these few excerpta from Caulfield's 
jottings are found of sufficient interest, 
I shall be pleased to give a further selection 
at a later date. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

is an amusing blunder in the January 
number of The Nineteenth Century. The 
Raja of Kapurthala, who contributes an 
interesting article on ' The Education of 
Indian Princes,' is described in the table 
of contents as " H.H. the Raja I. Rajgan 
of Kapurthala." This looks as if the printer 
thought Rajgan was a surname. Of course 
the proper way to write this title is Rdja-i- 
Rdjgdn. It means " King of Kings." The 
vowel i in Persian denotes the possessive 
case ; compare King Edward's title, Kaisar- 
i-Hind, which no one would dream of 
writing " Kaisar I. Hind." 


STATUES or THE GEORGES. Three of the 
four Georges have statues in London, which 
.are all impartially ignored in the list in the 
' Dictionary of Dates.' Those who fre- 
quently visit the great hive of learning in 

Great Russell Street, and all whose avoca- 
tions of any kind take them often to Blooms- 
bury, must be familiar with the sight of 
George I. on the top of St. George's Church ; 
but the old jokes about making the king 
the head of the steeple are forgotten, and 
probably few who look up at the statue know 
whose it is. The figure of George III. on 
horseback in Pall Mall is known to multitudes 
who pass that way. But I find that con- 
spicuous as is the equestrian statue of 
George IV. in Trafalgar Square (the horse's 
tail turned towards the National Gallery), 
many persons do not know it to be of that 
not exactly popular king. Perhaps this is 
partly because there is no name on it, 
which it seems to me every statue should 
have. It is by Chantrey, as I mentioned 
in 10 S. hi. 448. By a curious pleonasm, 
Marochetti's statue of Richard Coeur de 
Lion in Old Palace Yard is mentioned twice 
in the list in Haydn. W. T. LYNN. 


In Mr. Sidney Lee's ' Life of William 
Shakespeare ' a work which, in my opinion, 
should be universally studied we are told, 
on the authority of Halliwell-Phillipps, that 
New Place was purchased in 1675 by Sir 
Edward Walker, through whose daughter 
Barbara, wife of Sir John Clopton, it 
reverted to the Clopton family. In 1702 
(eighty-six years after Shakespeare's death) 
Sir John rebuilt it. On the death of Sir 
John's son, in 1752, it was bought by the 
Rev. Francis Gastrell, who died in 1768, 
having in 1759 demolished the " new 

I have just discovered that in the follow- 
ing year, namely, in July, 1760, a letter 
appeared in The London Magazine, written 
by a lady on a journey from Stratford-upon- 
Avon to her friend in Kent, from which 
the following is an extract : 

" There stood here till lately the house in which 
Shakespeare lived, and a mulberry tree of his 
planting ; the house was large, strong, and hand- 
some ; the tree so large that it would shade the 
grass-plat in your garden, which I think is more 
than 20 yards square, and supply the whole town 
with mulberries every year. As the curiosity of 
this house and tree brought much fame, and more 
company and profit, to the town, a certain man, on 
some disgust, has pulled the house down, so as not 
to leave one stone upon another, and cut down the 
tree, and piled it as a stack of fire-wood, to the 
great vexation, loss and disappointment of the in- 
habitants; however, an honest silversmith bought 
the whole stock of wood, and makes many odd 
things of this wood for the curious, some of which I 
hope to bring with me to town. I am," &c. 

to s. vii. JAN. 26, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


It will be seen that not only did the Rev. 
Francis Gastrell demolish " the new build- 
ing," but also that portion of the old building 
which existed in the time of Shakespeare. 
In fact, according to the evidence of this 
impartial traveller, the reverend gentleman 
did not leave one stone upon another ! 
This I did not realize ; I always thought that 
.some portions of the old building remained 

Edgbarrow, Crowthorne. 

" WROTH." Thus far lexicographers 
seem to ignore " wroth " in its substantival 
character, just as they do not lend their 
sanction to the practice of the lady novelist 
-who courageously uses " wrath " as an 
adjective. " Her Grace was very wrath " 
may not deserve recognition for its literary 
quality although, after all, " wrath " as 
thus used is not very far off the earlier 
adjectival spelling " wraith " but " my 
wroath " in ' Merchant of Venice,' II. ix. 
78, should not be absolutely ignored. It 
perhaps finds its place owing to exigencies 
of rime, a consideration which may also 
dispose of several corroborative examples 
in Hudibras.' In I. i. 900 Butler makes 
his hero observe, in deliberate discourse 
with Ralpho : 

In northern clime a val'rous knight 
I)id whilom kill his Bear in fight, 
And wound a Fiddler : we have both 
Of these the objects of our wroth, 
And equal fame and glory from 
Th 1 attempt, or victory to come. 

Again, in I. ii. 450 Colon and his horse recall 
the symmetry and the ineffable grace of the 
Oentaur : 

One spirit did inform them both, 
The self-same vigour, fury, wroth. 

In the same canto, 1. 737, the effect on 
Hudibras of Talgol's scathing deliverance is 
thus described : 

At this the knight grew high in wroth, 

And lifting hands and eyes up both, 

Three times he smote on stomach stout, 

From whence, at length, these words broke out. 

These repetitions, even if the rime is the 
same in every case, added to the Shake- 
spearean example, are not without signi- 
ficance as to the practice of the seventeenth 
century. THOMAS BAYNE. 

ested in the study of London topography 
may care to have their attention drawn to 
the fact that there are in the library of the 
Corporation of London a large number of 

old deeds relating to the City parishes to 
which no catalogue references exist. They 
consist of the major portion of those deeds 
which passed out of local custody into the 
hands of the City Parochial Foundation as 
a consequence of the passing of the City 
Parochial Charities Act some years ago, 
and which were afterwards transferred to the 
Guildhall as being no longer of substantial 
value, having lapsed. There are some 
hundreds (if not thousands) of the deeds, 
relating to every quarter of the City, and 
yielding much interesting topographical 
information. They date, generally speaking, 
from 1560 to 1760, though a few of earlier 
and later dates are included. Deeds relat- 
ing to the rebuilding of the City after the 
Fire are especially numerous. Many of 
them of various periods bear interesting 
autograph signatures of mayors and alder- 
men of renown (these generally appear on 
the backs, being included in the witnesses) ; 
while some few other celebrities' signatures 
also occur. 

The deeds appear to have been for some 
considerable time in the Guildhall, though 
it has not yet been found convenient to 
catalogue them. -A full index nominunt et 
locorum is, I believe, meditated, but its 
compilation is indefinitely postponed for 
various cogent reasons. If the committee 
could ultimately see their way to printing 
a descriptive catalogue on the lines of those 
issued by the authorities of the Record 
Office, a useful purpose would, in my 
humble opinion, be served, as the deeds 
cover a period for which no similar index 
(as regards any other collection) exists, so 
far as I am aware. 


" UMPIRE." An early use of the word 
" umpire " in its modern sense appears in 
William Langland's ' Vision of William 
concerning Piers the Plowman' (1332-99). 
passus \. 1. 34 : 
And named for him a noumpere that no debate 

nere ; 
For to try this chaffer betwixen them three. 


Alternative trade terms often baffle in- 
quirers, through not being recorded at the 
time of their introduction. I notice a firm 
of photographers in Bishopsgate Street are 
now describing themselves as " Shadow- 
catchers." A note of this in ' N. & Q.' 
now may perhaps save much speculation 
hereafter. G. YARROW BALDOCK. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAS. 20, 1907. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" MITIS." Recent English dictionaries 
have mitis-green, another name for Scheele's 
green, and mitis- casting, a process for in- 
creasing the fluidity of molten iron and 
steel by the addition of a small quantity of 
aluminium. The words Mitisgrun, Mitis- 
guss, are used in German, and are explained 
by Muret-Sanders as derived from the name 
of a Vienna manufacturer. It does not seem 
very likely (though of course it is not im- 
possible) that the name of the same person 
is contained in both these terms, as they 
belong to very different branches of tech- 
nology, and mitis-green occurs as early as 
1839, while mitis-casting is spoken of as a 
novelty in 1886. Can any authentic infor- 
mation be found respecting the origin of 
these terms ? HENRY BRADLEY. 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

" MOKE," A DONKEY. The earliest in- 
stance of this word known to me is in May- 
hew's ' London Labour and the London 
Poor,' 1851. Can any older example be 
found ? I have a recollection of having 
seen the word (spelt " mouk," and printed 
in inverted commas) in a letter or diary 
written by a lady at some English seaside 
resort, but whether the date was earlier or 
later than 1851 I do not remember. 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

" MULATTO." What is the etymology of 
this word ? There is no doubt that the word 
is derived from the Sp. or Port, mulato, and 
that the Eng. spelling is due to the It. form 
mulatto. The Port, mulato means one born 
of a negro and of a white woman or of a 
negress and of a white man ; the word at 
first meant a mule. Diez says that the 
original meaning of mulato was a young 
mule, the suffix -ato having a diminutive 
force and expressing youth. Dozy in his 
' Glossaire ' (p. 384) says, " Mulato est 
proprement un mot portugais, et dans cette 
langue il signifie, 1, mulet ; 2, figurement 
muldtre." From this it appears to be 
certain that mulatto is a derivative of Lat. 
mulus, a mule. The only thing that re- 

Suires explanation is the Port, suffix -ato. 
b is a pity that Diez has not given any 
examples of its use as a diminutive. Then, 
again, how can the suffix -ato be explained ? 

It cannot be from Lat. -atus, as this suffix 
becomes -ado in popular words in Portuguese. 
The intervocal t points to the loss of a Latin 
consonant. The etymology of Diez and 
Dozy is therefore not made out quite satis- 

Hence another explanation has been 
attempted. Engelmann derives mulato 
from an Arabic word muwallad (see Diez)~ 
But muwallad does not mean " one of mixed 
race." It means properly " adopted," and 
in Spain during the reign of the Omaiyades 
the Spaniards who had embraced the religion 
of Muhammad were so called. This is far 
away from the meaning of " mulatto." 
Besides this objection, the phonetic diffi- 
culties are insuperable. How could mulato 
possibly come from muwallad ? How can 
a Port, t be derived from an Arabic d ?' 
How can one explain the disappearance of 
the strongly stressed syllable in the Arabic 
word ? 

Doubtless ' N.E.D.' will derive " mulatto ' r 
from " mule," and will be able to give a 
satisfactory account of the difficult Port, 
suffix -ato. A. L. MAYHEW. 


SPRING. An attempt is being made to 
gather as complete a record of the alumni 
of the above school as it is now possible to 
make. Founded by Bernard Gilpin in 1574, 
it was for more than two centuries one of the 
principal centres of education in the north 
of England. The School Register includes 
the names of many eminent men ; for ex- 
ample, George Carleton, Bishop of Landaff ; 
Hugh Broughton, the Hebraist ; Henry 
Airey, Provost of Queen's College, Oxford ; 
Ralph Ironside, father of the Bishop of 
Bristol, and grandfather of the Bishop of 
Hereford of that name ; Robert Surtees, 
the historian ; and Robert Henry Allan,, 
the antiquary. 

Lists of, or notes relative to, scholars prior 
to 1860, when the existing Register com- 
mences, will be gladly welcomed by either 
the head master, Mr. F. L. Gaul, M.A., or 
myself. H. R. LEIGHTON. 

East Boldon, R.S.O., co. Durham. 

SUBSIDY ROLLS. Has any one attempted 
to arrive at an intelligible conclusion as. 
to the method employed by the assessors 
of mediaeval and Tudor subsidies ? How 
were the lands valued, and how were goods ? 
We are accustomed to regard these taxes 
as unjustifiably severe. To me they seem 
not only very light, but also levied in a 
singularly partial fashion. I will not speak 

10 8. VII. JAN. 26, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the earlier Edwardian levies, though 
much might be said about their eccentricity ; 
but I will confine myself to Tudor examples, 
because they are more easily checked by 
reference to the wills of persons taxed. 

When we hear of a tax of 4s. in the pound 
on land and 2s. Sd. on goods, we imagine 
something approximating to our own heavy 
imposts ; but when we find the land esti- 
mated at 6d. an acre rental, and the " goods " 
at a mere nominal value, which bears no 
relation whatever to the actual personalty 
of the owner, we are rather inclined to sigh 
for the long-lost generosity of the sixtenth- 
century assessor. How a man can leave 120Z. 
to his two daughters after devising free- 
hold estates to each of his sons, together 
with cattle, horses, farm implements, armour, 
and plate who has paid only on 51. of 
" goods," seems inconceivable. But this is 
not all. By some inscrutable system these 
subsidies seem to be so arranged that 
estates which pay their modest quota one 
year, frequently escape altogether the next, 
so that it is no uncommon thing to find a 
man's name on three or four Elizabethan 
rolls and absent on the rest ; while at the 
end comes an Inquisition post mortem 
solemnly declaring his estate at just twice 
the value he has been taxed for, and even 
then very low according to the charges he 
puts on it in his will. 

I should be very glad to learn whether my 
experience, gathered from a few counties and 
localities, is a general one, and whether 
any explanation other than the caprice of 
friendly assessors can be alleged for it. So 
far as lands are concerned, it seems evident 
that the " ancient rents " were accepted as 
the basis of taxation long after they had 
ceased to represent the lettable value of the 
property. Is it possible that the sum at 
which the goods are valued really means 
the estimated interest of a capital equal 
personal estate ? This was certainly 
t the earlier method of assessment. 

A. B. 
Victoria, British Columbia. 

WYBERTON, LINGS. I shall be glad to 
be referred to any papers dealing with the 
history of this church, and to any pictures 
of interior or exterior. I presume the 
fifteenth-century church is still standing. 

70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

is the name of a rocky island in the South 
Pacific, south of Macquarie Island. Can 
any one give a clue to the naming of this 


island ? A brother of my grandfather, 
Thomas Bishop or Bishopp, named Joseph 
or William or Hugh (both of them ran away 
from school in 1796-7 Thomas to Russia, 
and his brother to India), is understood in 
the family to have given his name to an 
island in the Pacific and to have perished 
there in missionary work. Both of the 
boys are believed to have been the sons of an 
officer in the Guards who was sent out to 
India to teach gunpowder-making at Fort 
St. George (Debrett, 1828, Zouche). 

Galenic, Truro. 

ROWE'S ' SHAKESPEARE.' I possess N. 
Rowe's first edition of Shakespeare : " Lon- 
don, Jacob Tonson, 1709," 6 vols., 8vo ; 
frontispiece, Shakespeare's bust on pedestal. 
The title-page says " adorned with cuts." 
The only plates in mine are in vol. vi., viz., 
one plate to each of the six doubtful plays. 
Will some one tell me if my copy is short 
in plates, and how many there should be ? 
The volumes show no sign of any plates 
being torn out. 

The seventh volume of poems, published 
in 1710, I do not possess. If the six plates 
to the doubtful plays are all there should be, 
my edition is perfect. JOHN TUDOR. 

74, Torquay Road, Newton Abbot. 

" BOSSING." What is the meaning of 
this word in the Cheshire proverb (cited by 
Ray, 'North-Country Words' [1674-91], 
s.v. ' Osse ') " Ossing comes to bossing " ? 

I find the saying in the fifteenth- century 
MS. Digby 52, If. 28, in the Bodleian, with 
a gloss : 

Ossyng comys to bossyng : 
Vulgus opinatur quod postmodum verificatur. 
But this does not seem to solve the difficulty. 

Q. V. 

have a reference to " an old ballad " : 
Sabina saw, but would not see ; 
Sabina heard, but would not hear. 
Can some kind soul complete the reference ? 

Who is the author of the following ? 

If more is needed to be known, 
Our Lord will teach thee that 
When thou shalt stand before His throne, 

Or sit as Mary sat. 

The lines are remembered as having been 
once quoted by Archbishop Whately in a 
sermon. KOM OMBO. 

reader of ' N. & Q.' tell of a portrait in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. JAN. 20, 1907. 

existence of Sir John Gibson, Governor of 
Portsmouth ? He was knighted by Queen 
Anne in 1705, and died in 1717. I have 
heard that one was disposed of a few years 
ago in the Gibson-Carmichael Sale. 

H. G. LONG. 
14, Marmion Road, Southsea. 

SUSSEX POLL-BOOKS. Gatfield refers to 
a " Poll-Book for the Sussex election, 
March, 1820. Chichester, 1820, 8vo." This 
is not to be found at the British Museum, 
la there any library where it can be seen ? 

121, Hither Green Lane, Lewisham. 

I have two parts of what I think is a some- 
what scarce publication dealing with this 
one-time rural village. It is of royal octavo 
size, about 10 J in. by 7 in., each part con- 
sisting of 24 pages, in a buff-coloured wrapper. 
The first one has printed on the outside 
cover : 

"Part I. Price One Shilling. The Illustrated 
History of Islington. By R. H. Littleton. Con- 
taining A Beautifully - Executed Engraving Of 
Canonbury Tower. December, 1850. London : 
Published, For the Proprietor, By D. Dodson, 10, 
Holywell-Street, Strand ; And to be had also of all 
respectable booksellers. Printed by B. R. Peake, 
Took's Court, Chancery-Lane. A Guarantee is 
given for the Completion of the Work." 
Pp. 2, 3, and 4 of wrapper are blank, and 
pp. 164 of the work itself are taken up with 
an "Introduction," unsigned and undated. 
P. 5 is headed with a woodcut entitled 
"Canonbury Tower 1811," and commences 
with " Section I. Antiquities : Canonbury 
House and Tower," which leaves off abruptly 
in the middle of a sentence on p. 24. 

Part II. has the same wording on the 
cover (which is also blank as to pp. 2, 3, and 
4), except that in the middle, in place of the 
announcement as to the view of Canonbury 
Tower, it states that it contains " Beauti- 
fully-Executed Engravings of Canonbury 
House & Old St. Mary's Church; also, a 
copy of the Will of Sir Richard Cloudesley," 
and the date " January 31 to February 28, 
L851." The first page is of course num- 
bered 25, and in the middle of this is a 
vignette woodcut view of Canonbury House, 
but with no title. P. 28 is headed " Canon- 
bury Tavern," and p. 31, " The Old Church 
of St. Mary," which has a vignette woodcut 
view of it, also with no title. The will of 
Sir Richard Cloudesley, or rather an extract 
from it, is given in letterpress (not in fac- 
simile, as might be supposed from the 
wording on the wrapper), and the account 
and the part too, ends with p. 48. 

Is this the publication referred to by 
Tomlins in his ' Perambulation of Islington,' 
published in 1858 ? In the " Advertise- 
ment " of this he states, after apologizing 
for the delay in completing his work (he had 
begun by issuing Part I. of his book in 1843, 
which, by the way, is distinctly different, 
both as to the letterpress and the position 
of the woodcuts, from his finished one), 
that the delay had been prejudicial to him- 
self, since his original information concern- 
ing the earlier facts had in the meantime 
" been appropriated, without the grace of 
acknowledgment by his immediate prede- 
cessor." Or did Tomlins refer to Lewis's 
little book ' Islington as It Was and as It Is,' 
published in 1854 ? Probably, I think, 
the latter. 

My object, however, is to endeavour to. 
ascertain whether . Littleton's ' History ' 
was ever completed, or whether more than 
two parts were published. From the dilatory 
dates I have given, perhaps Part III. never 
saw the light. Can any reader furnish any 
information about this tardy topographer ? 

7, Achilles Road, West End, N.W. 


(10 S. vi. 448 ; vii. 32). 

I HAVE been in the habit of hearing 
this prayer read before the sermon at St. 
Margaret's Church, Westminster (the official 
church of the House of Commons), during 
the Parliamentary session, since 1861, and 
the form there has always been " Let us 
pray for," &c. Alterations and additions 
have been made by the various rectors, 
but the opening has always remained the 
same. I think, but am not quite sure, that 
once at Oxford I heard the other form, 
" Ye shall pray for," &c. ; but as that is 
many years ago, I may be wrong in that 

Perhaps it may be of interest to put upon 
record in the columns of ' N. & Q.' the prayer 
as recited in St. Margaret's Church. It is 
as follows : 

" Let us pray for Christ's Holy Catholic Church, 
especially for that pure and apostolical branch of 
it established in these kingdoms ; and herein for 
our gracious Sovereign Lord, Edward, by the grace 
of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and of all British dominions beyond 
the seas, King, Emperor of India, Defender of the 
Faith, in all causes and over all persons within his 
dominions supreme ; for our gracious Queen, Alex- 

10 s. VIL JAN. 26, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


andra, George, Prince of Wales, and all the Royal 
Family ; for the Lords and others of His Majesty's 
most honourable Privy Council ; for the Great Coun- 
cil of the nation now assembled in Parliament ; for 
the nobility, gentry, and commonalty of this land ; 
for the magistrates, and others who are in authority, 
and herein especially for the Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Councillors of the City of Westminster ; that all in 
their several stations may labour to advance the 
glory of God, and the present and future welfare of 
mankind, remembering always that solemn account 
which they must one day give before the tribunal 
of God. But for the sake of all let us pray for the 
clergy, whether bishops, priests, or deacons, espe- 
cially for Randall, Lord Archbishop of this pro- 
vince, and Arthur Foley, Lord Bishop of this 
diocese, that they may shine like lights in the 
world, and adorn the doctrines of God our Saviour 
in all things. 

"And for a due supply of persons qualified to 
serve God in Church and State let us implore His 
especial blessing on all schools and seminaries of 
religions and useful learning, particularly upon our 
Universities ; that in these and all other places 
more immediately dedicated to God's honour and 
service whatsoever tends to the advancement of 
true religion and useful learning may for ever 
flourish and abound. 

" To these our prayers let us add our unfeigned 
praises for mercies already received ; for our crea- 
tion, preservation, and all the blessings of this life ; 
but. above all, for the inestimable love of God our 
heavenly Father in the redemption of the world by 
our Lord Jesus Christ; for the means of grace 
afforded us here, and for the hope of glory here- 
after. Finally, let us praise God, for all His 
servants departed this life in His faith and fear, 
beseeching Him to give us grace so to follow their 
good example that, this life ended, we may dwell 
with them in life everlasting, through Jesus Christ 
our Lord, in whose most perfect form of words we 
pray Our Father, which art in heaven," &c. 

The additions and alterations are in the 
amplification of the King's style and title, 
introduced by the present rector, Canon 
Hensley Henson, after His Majesty's acces- 
sion, when the royal style and titles were 
amended. It is a question, however, if 
the phrase " Defender of the Faith " ought 
not to go before " Emperor of India " 
rather than after it. When Westminster 
received its most recent charter of incor- 
poration, the words " City of " were added 
to the paragraph relating to the Mayor, 
&c. When the present Dean of Westminster 
(Rev. Dr. J. Armitage Robinson) was rector 
of St. Margaret's, in the section of the prayer 
relating to the Universities he used to invoke 
a special blessing upon his own particular 
college at Cambridge (Christ's College) ; 
but this was never done before, nor has it 
been continued by his successor. It may 
be mentioned that Canon Robert Eyton, 
when he came from Chelsea to Westminster, 
tried to abandon the use of this prayer 
altogether ; but several members of Parlia- 
ment and old members of the congregation 

objected to the omission, and after a few 
weeks it was resumed, conformably to ancient 
custom, and so it remains to the present 
time. For my own part, I may say that I 
greatly prefer the opening as used in our 
church to the one mentioned by the querist, 
as it appears to link the clergy and laity in 
making the various supplications in the 
prayer. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 


The 55th Canon of 1603 orders the use 
of the Bidding Prayer, and gives the form 
of it, which, as H. G. P. correctly surmises, 
commences, " Ye shall pray for," &c. ; and 
no alteration has ever been allowed by 
authority. It is therefore somewhat re- 
markable that at such a gathering as the 
recent Church Congress the form "Let us 
pray for," &c., should have been substituted, 
not only because it was irregular, but 
further because the latter form would imply 
ignorance of its structure and character. 
The Bidding Prayer is not in itself a 
prayer at all, but is an instruction to the 
congregation as to the things for which 
they should make their petitions at the 
time of public worship. It is further 
remarkable, seeing how almost entirely it 
has fallen into disuse, that it is the only 
form which may lawfully be used before 
the sermon. It is drawn up upon the lines 
of the pre-Reformation Bidding of the 
Bedes (prayers), as the prayer before the 
sermon was then termed, and, although 
admirable in form and matter, was 
originally framed with the intention of 
depriving the Puritans of the opportunity, 
which they frequently utilized, of making 
the prayer before the sermon an occasion 
of preaching sedition and disloyalty to 
the Church. In those days the preaching 
of sermons without any preparatory form 
of religious service was very customary, and 
the introductory prayer was frequently 
made the vehicle for violent attacks upon 
the settled order in Church and State. It 
was to check these abuses that the Bid- 
ding Prayer was drawn up. The Bidding 
Prayer is frequently used in parish churches, 
especially at such services as the Commemo- 
ration of Benefactors ; and only a few 
Sundays ago it was so used at my own 
parish church, where the preacher recited 
it in the proper form. Perhaps preachers 
who are unaccustomed to the prayer think, 
in using the form " Let us pray for," &c., 
they are conforming more nearly to the 
Prayer Book, where the exhortation is 
always " Let us pray," especially before 
such prayers as^that for the Church Militant, 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. vn. JAN. 26, 1007. 

where the preface is " Let us pray for 
the whole state of Christ's Church militam 
here in earth," the prayer following being 
in many of its features similar in character 
to the clauses of the Bidding Prayer. 

4, Nelgarde Road, Catford, S.E. 

The 55th Canon of the Constitutions anc 
Canons Ecclesiastical, 1603, gives the pre 
scribed form of the Bidding Prayer, now 
seldom used, except in cathedrals. Th 
title of Canon 55 is, " The form of a Prayer 
to be used by all Preachers before their 
Sermons " ; and it commences thus : 

"Before all sermons, lectures, and homilies, th_ 
preachers and ministers shall move the people to 
join with them in prayer, in this form, or to this 
effect: Ye shall pray for Christ's holy Catholi 
Church," &c. 

This bidding or exhortation names or refers 
to the king, the royal family, the Council, 
and all the dignitaries, officers, and authorities 
in Church and State ; and also the local 
diocesan, capitular, municipal, and edu- 
cational officers and institutions, often in a 
quaint and old-world phraseology. The 
local variations are sanctioned by the words 
" to this effect." The canon ends with the 
words " always concluding with the Lord's 
Prayer," and this direction is invariably 
observed. fc W. R. HOLLAND. 

LONDON (10 S. vi. 149, 218, 237). A corre- 
spondent very kindly answered my query 
in The Catholic Times, and from his reply 
I gather the following particulars. 

During the eighteenth century and the 
earher part of the nineteenth the greater 
number of Catholics were buried in the 
churchyard of Old St. Pancras. Lysons in 
his Environs of London,' vol. iii. p 351 
says : 

"The church and churchyard of Pancras have 
long been noted as a burial-place for such Roman 
Catholics as die in London and the vicinity, many 
persons of that persuasion have been bur ed at 
^diiigton but their numbers are small when 
compared with what are buried at Pancras, where 
almost every other tomb bears a cross and R IP 
.....1 have heard it assigned as a reason for the 

preference to Pancras that before the late con 

vulsions in France [the French Revolution] Masses 

S 6 1 T d A" a Church in the South of France dedl 

eated to the same saint for the souls of those 

interred at St. Pancras in England." 

Soon after the passing of the severe laws 

against Roman Catholics in the reign of 

izabeth. Catholics began to bury their 

dead in St. Pancras ; but of these little or 

record remains. The earliest is that of 

the Right Rev. Bonaventure Giffard, Bishop 
of Madaura and Vicar-Apostolic of the Lon- 
don District, 1734. Then follow the Rev. 
Robert Grant, President of the Scotch 
College, Douai, 29 March, 1784 ; the Right 
Rev. Caesar d' Anterroches, Bishop of Condom, 
France, 31 Jan., 1793 ; the Right Rev. 
Bishop of Coutance, 1798 ; and the Bishop of 
St. Pol de Leon, 1800. 

At the commencement of the nineteenth 
century occur the Bishop of Triguier, 1801 ; 
the Rev. Arthur O'Leary, O.S.F.C., the 
founder of St. Patrick's, Soho, and friend 
of Curran ; Father Nicholas Pisani, 1803 ; 
the Bishop of Noyon, 1804 ; the Archbishop 
of Narbonne, Dr. Arthur Dillon, 1806 ; and 
a large number of priests. Lysons says that 
" an average of about thirty of the " French 
clergy were buried annually." 

In Hammersmith Churchyard : Dr. James 
Talbot, Bishop of Birtha and Vicar-Apos- 
tolic of the London District. He was the 
fourth son of George, Earl of Shrewsbury, 
and was the last ecclesiastic to be tried for 
saying Mass under the penal laws. 

In St. Giles-in-the-Fields a large number 
of Catholics were buried, their gravestones 
being distinguished by the cross and R.I. P. 

In the old church of St. Mary, Horseferry 
Road, Westminster, the founder, a French 
emigre priest, was buried. 

St. George's Cathedral, Southwark, is 
the burial-place of the Rev. John Griffiths 
(1813), the Rev. John Rudford, the Rev. 
John White, and the Rev. Edward McStay ; 
and close to them Dr. James Danell, the 
second Bishop of Southwark, 1881. Pro- 
vost Doyle, who was the founder of the 
cathedral, also lies within its walls (1879). 

Beneath the church of the Holy Trinity, 
Parker's Row, Bermondsey, are interred the 
Rev. Peter Butler, the founder, and six 

In the rear of SS. Mary and Michael's 
hurch, Commercial Road, is a small 
cemetery in which are buried several of the 

There were also several private burial- 
grounds in different parts of London almost 
exclusively used by Catholics, but long 
since closed. Priests are said also to have 
aeen buried in the churchyards of St. James's, 
31erkenwell, St. Anne's, Soho, and St. 
Greorge's, Hanover Square ; but I have 
3een unable to search the registers of these 
Churches, so I cannot verify the statement. 

POST BOXES (10 S. vi. 389, 453, 475). 
Early post boxes, several of which remain, 

10 s. VIL JAN. 26, loo?.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


were frequently decorated with elaborate 
ornaments cornices, garlands of flowers in 
high relief, &c. At the cross-roads at Green- 
ford Green, near Harrow, is a post box of 
this description on the top of which are 
painted the points of the compass. I do 
not think that this style of decoration is 
very common. 

Old post boxes are usually taller and 
smaller in diameter than the modern variety. 

D.'s reply at the last reference is dis- 
appointing : he denies that the original 
"color" of post boxes was scarlet, but he 
does not say what " color " they were. 


vi. 507). Can the first words of these 
epitaphs, as quoted in their original, and 
translated by MR. DODGSON, " Here rest 
the souls," &c., not also be understoood in a 
metaphoric sense, viz., "Here rest the 
persons in their bodily remains " ? Re- 
member the Homeric usage of i^v^ou, like 
ai^pwTroc., for instance, ^vyat vro/XAat e(9avov, 
many souls perished. If Baskish arima is 
= Lat. anima, and believed to repose within 
the grave (compare the infernal region of 
the Hebrew Shgol and Greek Hades, the abode 
of departed souls or shades), its meaning may 
be further identified with the psyche of the 
Pauline Epistles, as the vital principle of 
man which is perishable, and distinguished 
from the pneuma of the New Testament, or 
the regenerated soul, raised to everlasting 
life by the Holy Spirit. H. KBEBS. 

DEBBY (10 S. vii. 9). In vol. xxvi. of the 
Manx Society's Publications (pp. 63-76) is 
an extract from Mercurius Politicus, No. 75, 
Nov. 6 to 13, 1651 ; and in pp. 77-81 are 
extracts from the * Journal of House of 
English Commons.' These give contem- 
porary details about the surrender of the 
Isle of Man to the Parliamentary forces. 
See also ' The Land of Home Rule,' by 
Spencer Walpole (pp. 144-60) ; and ' A 
History of the Isle of Man,' by A. W. 
Moore (pp. 265-80). EBNEST B. SAVAGE. 

S. Thomas', Douglas. 

The actual surrender was made by the 
commander of the insular forces, one Capt. 
William Christian, against whom treason or 
cowardice is alleged by more than one 
writer. Others think the act was done with 
the secret connivance of the Countess, 
which seems doubtful. In either case the 

Countess received a letter from her unlucky 
husband, James, seventh Earl of Derby,, 
written at Chester three days before his 
death by court martial, in which he advised 

Eight years only after the event this 
passage occurs in the * History of the World/ 
by D. Petavius, 1659, p. 514 : 

" Among the places that fell this year [1651] into 
the possession of Paliament was the Isle of Man r 
for reducing which three Foot Regiments were; 
shipped at Chester and Liverpool on the 16th of 
Oct., and although they were driven into Beau- 
maris by contrary winds on the 18th, yet, sailing 
from thence, on the 28th day of the same month 
they had assurance of an islander of landing in 
Man without any opposition, all being secured for 
their reception.' 

Christian was placed on trial for a number 
of offences, including treason, in September, 
1662, and condemned to be shot. Execu- 
tion took place on Hango Hill, Castletown, 
2 Jan., 1663. 

Particulars of the surrender will be found 
in the following works, in addition to- 
Petavius : 

Haining (S.), Hist. Sketch of the Isle of Man,, 
1822, p. 44. 

Thwaites (W.), Isle of Man, 1863, pp. 50 and 229. 

Bullock (H. A.), Hist, of the Isle of Man, 1816, 

History of the House of Stanley, Manchester, 

CluSoner,' Treatise of the Isle of Man, 1863. 
Cummings (J. S.), Hist, of the Isle of Man, 1848. 
Manx Society's Publications. 
Train, Hist, of the Isle of Man, 1845, 2 vols. 


also thanked for replies.] 

"THISTOLOW" (10 S. vi. 469). May 
easily be a blundered form of " fistula," 
often called " fistulow " by the unlearned. 

J. T. F. 

' CANTUS HIBEBNICI ' (10 S. vii. 9). 
Three of the four sets of initials about which 
MB. McGovEBN inquires occur in the follow- 
ing extract from " Anthologia Oxoniensis 
decerpsit Gulielmus Linwood, M.A.," Lond.,. 
1846, p. xiii : 

"G. B., Georgius Butler, M.A., Coll. Exon.. 

"W. B. J., Gulielmus Basil Jones, B.A. e Coll. 

"R. R. W. L., Radulphus R. Wheeler Lingen, 
B.A. Coll. Balliol, Socius." 

The other authors given in the list are 
the Marquis of Wellesley, Lord Grenville, 
John Ernest Bode, Osborne Gordon, the 
Hon. William Herbert, William Linwood, 
Charles Wordsworth (all Christ Church), 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 26, 1907. 

George Booth, Roundell Palmer, Goldwin 
Smith (all Magdalen Coll.), John Conington 
<University Coll.), Henry Holden, James 
Gylby Lonsdale, Edwin Palmer, James 
Biddell, Edward Walford (all Balliol Coll.). 

The only single initials are W. (for Wel- 
lesley), G. (for Grenville), and B. (for 

B H. K. represents Benjaminus Hall 
Kennedy, S.T.P., Coll. D. Johannis (see 
'Arundines Cami,' sixth edit., 1865). 


B. H. K., of ' Arundines Cami,' stands 
for Benjaminus Hall Kennedy, S.T.P., 
Scholse Salopiensis Archididascalus. My 
copy of ' Sabrinse Corolla ' (fourth edition) 
contains but one rendering of Moore by 
Kennedy, but includes selections from the 
poet's best-known work translated into 
Latin by Francis Kewley, John [?] Gylby 
Lonsdale, Charles Granville Gepp, Edwin 
Hamilton Gifford, Vanden Bempde John- 
stone, William George Clark, and George 
A. Chichester May. 

It is possible the G. B. of MB. MCGOVEBN'S 
book may be George Booth, Fellow of 
Magdalen, who also contributed several 
translations of Moore to the ' Anthologia 
Oxoniensis,' which are signed B. to dis- 
tinguish them from those of George Butler. 

Church Fields, Salisbury. 

SCOTT ILLUSTBATOBS (10 S. vii. 10). 

Sir David Wilkie was one of the first, if not 
the very first, to illustrate the Waverley 
Novels. Information on this head is 
to be obtained in Scott's * Journal,' 
and in Allan Cunningham's * Life of Sir 
David Wilkie.' Some reference is also made 
to the subject in the volume on Wilkie in 

The Makers of British Art." W. B. 

YOBK (10 S. vi. 509). MB. HANSOM'S query 
interests me, as Vicar of Osbaldwick. Ac- 
cording to my parish register, "Mrs 
Dorothy Paston, f ye Nunnery-w"t Mickle- 
gate Barre, York, buried Octob r y 1511. 
1734." Her will, proved at York same 
year, is registered as the will of Mrs. Dorothv 
Paston. The registers also record " Eliza- 
beth Tasker, Cook at y Nunnery out of 
Micklegate Bar, York, bur: 7 10* ; and 
Ann Mason, fro' r Nunnery, Mickle- 
gate Bar, York, B. 9 1>el 20 th , 1748 " 

The first entry seems to point to the name 

bong Paston, but the tradition of the convent 

sin favour of Bedingfield. Anyhow, the 

.burial of the three in this churchyard seems 

conclusive against the story of Mother 
Mary Ward's remains having been secretly 
removed. If this had taken place, it must 
have been in the reign of James II. At any 
other time it would have been impossible, 
and it is most unlikely that the first Superior 
of the Bar Convent, who died in York, 
would not have known of it, and, if she knew 
of it, would have wished to be buried near 
an empty grave. The inscription on Mary 
Ward's stone is : 

To loue the poore 

perse ver in the same 

Hue dy and Rise with 

them was all the ayme 

Mary Ward who 

Hailing lived 60 year 8 

and 8 days dyed the 

20 of Jan 1645. 

Mary Ward was niece to John and Chris- 
topher Wright, of Plowland, the conspirators- 

" KING COPIN " : " ST. COPPIN " (10 S. 
vii. 29). Copin is the early French dimi- 
nutive of Jacob, formed on the same lines 
as Colin for Nicholas. That it was once 
very common and thoroughly well under- 
stood here is clear from the numerous 
English surnames derived from it, such as 
Coppin, Coppen, Copping, Coppins, Cop- 
pens, &c. " St. Coppin " is no doubt 
merely a familiar name for St. James. 


29). Mr. P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton, F.S.A., 
President of the British Numismatic Society, 
in that Society's Journal, First Series, vol. ii. 
p. 27, says : 

"Mr. W. J. Andrew, F.S.A. (in ' A Numismatic 
History of the Reign of Henry I.,' p. 267), has 
shown that when the Normans settled in England 
they found that the Saxon name of Lincoln was 
pronounced Linceul, which meant in their own 
tongue ' the shroud of death,' and as Huntingdon 
tells us, although he does not give the reason, their 
kings refused to visit the city. As this was a 
serious loss to the citizens, the name was promptly 
changed to Nicol, though it gradually drifted hack 
to its old form. Surely it is more than a coinci- 
dence that Roger of Wendover should tell us of 
Oxford, that in consequence of the legend of 
St. Frideswide (which dated from about 727) ' the 
kings of England have always been afraid to enter 
that city, for it is said to be fatal to them, and they 
are unwilling to test the truth of it at their own 
peril.' This alone, in the superstitious days of 
King Alfred, would be reason enough to induce 
him to alter its old name of Ouseford, and thus 
break the letter, if not the spirit, of the fatal 
tradition. The change to Isisford (Isis=Latin for 
Ouse) is therefore reasonable; but within fifty 
years it became Oxford." 

Henry I.'s palace of Beaumont, where 

10 s. vii. JAN. 26, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Richard I. and, probably, John were born, 
lay outside the town walls. Henry III. 
defied the tradition by coming to worship 
at the shrine of St. Frideswide in 1264 
not long before the battle of Lewes. Charles I. 
who made Oxford his head-quarters for 
four years, cannot be called a fortunate 
monarch. A. R. BAYLEY. 

Lincoln, where the Royal Show is to be 
held this year, was considered to be unlucky 
for kings, for we read 

The first crowned head that enters Lincoln's walls, 
His reigu proves stormy, and his kingdom falls. 

This was proved true by Stephen, who was 
-captured there in the battle fought on 
Candlemas Day, 1141, and detained prisoner 
for a time. King John was also a frequent 
visitor to Lincoln, and his reign was stormy 
indeed. His son, Henry III., was crowned 
a second time at Wigford, then a suburb 
of Lincoln, but he did not wear his crown 
in the city, in which was fought the battle 
which drove the French from the kingdom, 
by the capture of the Dauphin and defeat 
of his followers. The battle was known 
as " Lewis " or Lincoln Fair. 

City View, Lincoln. 

'THE CHRISTMAS BOYS' (10 S. vi. 481 ; 
vii. 30). I have before me an acting edition 
of ' St. George ' as played in Cornwall, 
written by one of the performers early in 
the last century. I may say that our Cornish 
play seems always associated with Christmas. 
My copy gives only the names of the actors, 
not of the characters they represented. 

" H. Grossman " apparently represented 
St. George. He sends his page to France, 
where the French prince says George is 
" young and of tender years, not fit to come 
in his degree, and he will send him three 
tennis balls that with them he may learn to 
play." The whole scene appears founded 
on Shakespeare. Times and seasons are as 
mixed in the Cornish play as in all others. 
*' H. Grossman," a few minutes after the 
tennis-ball scene, starts off 
Here am I infernal bold 
Took six ships and lead [waylaid ?] the Spaniards' 


'Took share of their castles and port below 
Made the proud Spaniards look dismal and yellow 
But we was not daunted at all 
Until there come a ball and took us in the gall 
And Quebec fell from our hands. 

" The first broadside the French did fire they 
killed our Englishmen so free We killed ten 
thousand of the French, the rest of them they 
runned away. Oh ! as we march to the French 
gates with drums and tnimpets so merrily oh ! then 
loespoke the old king of France, lo ! he fell on his 

bended knee prince Henry I one of his gallant 
company. I soon forsook bold London Town, We 
went and took the Spanish Crown, The Spanish 
Crown we soon then won, And now we have snowed 
you all our fun." 

The text is corrupt. The hat is taken round 
at the close, with an invitation " to sub- 
scribe a little part to pay the doctor's fee." 

The incidents and phrases constantly 
recall those cited by MR. GORDON BROWN, 
with variations, of course, as "I will cut 
thy doublet full of eyelet holes and make 
thy buttons fly." The King of Egypt is 
father of St. George. 

In a version of ' The Peace Egg ; or, 
St. George's Annual Play for the Amusement 
of Youth ' ( J. Harkness, Preston, n.d. ), 
we have 

Here come I, Beelzebub, 

And over my shoulder I carry a club. 

I think myself a jolly old man, &c. 

In our Cornish version : 

Here comes I old Beelzebub 

Upon my shoulder I carry a club 

And in my hand a dripping (pan) 

And am not I a handsome good looking old man. 

The metre is extraordinary. In the 
Quebec passage above it is beyond my 
understanding altogether, as is also the 
meaning of part of the words. I have 
corrected the spelling, which would be 
unintelligible to any not acquainted with 
the Cornish accent. YGREC. 

Let me draw the attention of readers of 
' N. & Q.' to Thomas Hardy's ' Return of 
the Native,' which was written many years 
ago, and the scene of which is laid in Dorset- 
shire, a county where many primitive cus- 
toms yet linger. In it is a graphic descrip- 
tion of the visit of the " mummers " at 
Christmas to Mrs. Yeobright's farm-house, 
and the frontispiece depicts the scene, 
representing them arrayed in their streamers 
and ribbons. An aged aborigine, named 

Granfer Cantle " has been instructing 
them for some time previously as to their 
mode of acting, which, as he tells them, 
would not have done in his own early days. 
But the whole story is well worth perusal. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

(10 S. vii. 26). I should like to know the 
authority from which H. R. gives this list 
of Cambridge booksellers. " John Boieden-*, 
1502," is not, I suspect, a Cambridge 
bookseller (see E. G. Duff's ' Century of 
the English Book Trade,' p. 15 ; and 
H. R. Plomer's ' Wills of English Printers 
and Stationers,' p. 55). I had a copy of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. JAN. 26, IQOT. 

his will some time ago. He died in 1503, 
and his will was proved 30 March, 1503. 

Peter Breynans, 1504. His will is un- 
dated, but is supposed to be about 1504. 

John Skarlett, 1502. This date should 
be 1551. 

John Sought, 1553. Is the name correctly 
printed ? 

Nicholas Spyryne, 1545. This is Nicholas 

The wills of Breynans, Skarlett, and 
Spierinck are printed, with information of 
other earlier Cambridge booksellers, in 
G. J. Gray's ' Earlier Cambridge Stationers 
and Bookbinders and the First Cambridge 
Printer,' 1904 ; whilst R. Bowes's ' Bio- 
graphical Notes on the University Printers 
from the Commencement of Printing in 
Cambridge,' 1886, gives particulars of the 
printers. Any one working at this subject 
should consult these works, and also R. 
Bowes's ' Catalogue of Cambridge Books,' 
1894. G. J. GRAY. 

The Elms, Chesterton, Cambridge. 

JOHN NEWBERY' s GRAVE (10 S. vii. 27). 
I can inform MR. P. E. NEWBERRY that 
the grave of John Newbery, the publisher, 
is in the churchyard of the Berkshire village 
of Waltham St. Lawrence, his native parish. 
Goldsmith's punning epitaph was not placed 
on the tombstone. The following is the 
inscription on the gravestone : 

Here lieth the body of 

John Newbery, 

Of St. Paul's Churchyard, London, Bookseller 
Who died December 22 nd , 1767, 

Aged 54 years. 

Stay, passenger, and contemplate 

Virtues which arose on this spot ; 

Urbanity that adorned Society ; 

Knowledge that instructed it ; 

Sagacity that discerned, and 

Skill that introduced, 
The most powerful discovery 

In the annals of medicine ; 

Ihe humble Wisdom that taught 

And still teaches moral lessons 

To the rising generation. 


lhat a breast inspired with such virtues 
Is sunk in dust. 


That through Christ 
It is immortal. 

The reference to the "most powerful dis- 
covery in the annals of medicine " is to the 

James s Powders " which Newberv placed 
upon the market. 

N ;f^ e ry's daughter Marv and her hus- 
band Michael Power are buried in the same 
grave as John Newbery. 

An article on Newbery by the present 

writer appeared in The Maidenhead Adver- 
tiser on '21 November last. 

Littlewick Lodge, nr. Maidenhead, Berks. 

According to ' A Bookseller of the Last 
Century,' by Charles Welsh, 1885, p. 70, 
John Newbery was buried at Waltham 
St. Lawrence, near Twyford, Berks, with an 
epitaph by the Rev C. Hunter, author of 
the life of Christopher Smart. 


In a reprint of an article in The Chemist 
and Druggist of 25 July, 1896 a copy of 
which Mr. Lionel Newbery, of the firm of 
Francis Newbery & Sons, in Charterhouse 
Square, kindly gave me on an occasion when 
I was making certain inquires about the 
history of the firm the year in which John. 
Newbery died was 1776, not 1767. 


[Much information about Newbery and James's 

B'lls was contributed at 9 S. viii. 11 by MR. EDWARD 
ERON-ALLEN, who had then in his possession the 
original autograph account-book of F. Newbery as 
agent for James's fever powders and pills.] 

(10 S. vii. 30). Princess Ena of Battenberg, 
the consort of Spain's young king, is now 
officially known in that country by the titla 
of Queen Victoria. In the Nuevo Mundo 
(Madrid, 20 December) a portrait of her is 
given in an illustrated article, which supplies 
all the information required by HELGA. 
We are told that when the princess was 
received into the Catholic Church, she chose 
as her advocate (abogada), or patron saint, 
St. Victoria, Virgin and Martyr, whose feast 
is celebrated on 23 December, which is there- 
fore the Queen's name-day (fiesta onomdstica),. 
and has been duly honoured in her adopted 
country. It is the first of her baptismal 
names, which are Victoria Eugenie Julia 
Ena, by which last she was known before 
her marriage. Whilst she must have been 
greatly pleased when she was asked to 
assume the title of Queen Victoria of Spain, 
as she was thereby reminded of her illustrious 
grandmother, she was also pleasing the 
Spanish nation. It appears that St. Vic- 
toria's remains, though she was born in 
Italy and there received the crown of martyr- 
dom, are in Spain, in the town of Vinaroz, 
in the province of Castellon. " How did 
this come to pass ? " asks the writer, who 
lives in the same place. So long ago as 
1782, the then Bishop of Solsona, who was 
a native of Vinaroz, through an inter- 
mediary, requested Pius VT. to grant him 
one of the bodies of the saints in the cata- 

10 s. VIL JAN. 26, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


<3ombs, and chose that of St. Victoria, which 
lay in the cemetery of Lucina. A stone bore 
this inscription : " Vixit victoria annos xviii. 
menses x. dies xv. horas x." On 12 March, 
1782, the petition was granted, and the 
remains were placed in a handsome urn, 
together with the vase which had contained 
a portion of the martyr's blood. But it 
was not until 19 January, 1785, that the 
relics were embarked on the Tiber, whence 
they were carried to Genoa, and afterwards 
to Barcelona, where they arrived on 6 June, 
1785, and, a few days later, were deposited 
in the church of St., Augustine in the town 
of Vinaroz, where they have remained ever 

St. Victoria was born of patrician parents 
at Tibur, now Tivoli, a few miles from Rome. 
She had been promised in marriage to 
Eugenius, but, as he was a pagan, she re- 
fused to wed him ; whereupon she was 
denounced as a Christian, thrown into 
prison, and, refusing to adore the goddess 
Diana, she was stabbed through the heart 
by the executioner. Her death occurred 
in the third century of our era, in the time 
of the Emperor Decius, one of the cruellest 
persecutors of the Christians. 


The heading is, I think, incorrect, as 
H.M. immediately after her marriage an- 
nounced that she wished to be referred to 
as Queen Victoria Eugenie. I gather from 
HELGA'S query that the banquet took place 
on 23 December. On that day in the year 
250 St. Victoria of Tivoli, Virgin and Martyr, 
suffered death. Her life is told in verse 
,by St. Aldhelm. 

St. Eugenia of Rome was martyred on 
Christmas Day, 258, and she was formerly 
commemorated in some French dioceses 
instead of St. Anastasia at the second Mass 
on that day. Her feast is kept on 30 Decem- 
ber at the Church of the Holy Apostles, 
Rome, where the greater part of her relics 
are preserved. Some of them are said to 
have been taken to Spain in the eleventh 
century, and others are in France. 

Another St. Victoria (of Cordova) is men- 
tioned in the Roman ' Martyrology ' under 
17 November. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

Her Catholic Majesty, when she was con- 
ditionally baptized, only took in addition 
to her other names that of Mary, in honour 
-of Our Lady. The occasion, however, to 
which HELGA ref rs, when the Queen gave 
a reception in the palace, wa^ the feast of 
St. Victoria, Virgin and Martyr, com- 
memorated in the ;Roman ' Martyrology ' on 

23 December, and was therefore quite 
correctly described as her name day. 
St. Victoria's relics are venerated in Rome, 
according to a MS. in my collection, in the 
churches of S. Adriano, S. Ignazio, and Sant' 
Andrea at Quirinale. 


The answer to HELGA'S query is very 
simple. On 23 December the Church keeps 
the feast of St. Victoria, Virgin and Martyr, 
by which name the Queen of Spain was 
baptized. Hence it is most properly called 
her " name " day. It is not her birthday, 
or the day on which she was reconciled to 
the Catholic Church, as we know that cere- 
mony took place in the spring of last year. 
[MR. E. S. DODGSON also thanked for reply.] 

25). The oath in question is a comparatively 
mild version. Teremtette means " he has 
created it," and is the second word in the 
Hungarian Old Testament. I have seen 
the oath twice in print recently : in Glase- 
napp's 'Life of Richard Wagner ' (Leip- 
zig, 1904-5) and in the maestro's poems 
(' Gedichte von Richard Wagner,' Berlin, 
1905). It must have been in common use 
in Budapest in 1863, or the composer would 
not have picked it up. Of course, he knew 
as little about its meaning as Leland or Mrs. 

A stronger version of the oath is in use 
amongst the lowest order of the Magyars 
and their fellow-countrymen the Slovacks. 
A friend of mine has heard it among the 
Tatars in the Caucasus ; and according to 
Lexer's ' Mittelhochdeutsches Handwo 'ter- 
buch ' (s.v. ' Serten ') it is used in Germany 
also. Old Eberhart Windecke, in the fif- 
teenth century, complains that when he 
reminded Sigismund about a debt he owed 
to a Bruges merchant, for which the chro- 
nicler had become surety, the emperor 
became angry and used the stronger version 
of the oath (Dr. Wilhelm Altmann's edition, 
Berlin, 1893, p. 81). 

The equivalent of the first word of the 
Hungarian oath is very frequently used as an 
adjective by the lower class of English work- 
men. L. L. K. 

" PLUMP " IN VOTING (10 S. vi. 148, 212, 
276, 377). At the last reference M\JOR 
BUTTERWORTH quotes a literary extract 
showing the use of the word in 1807. I had 
previously sent direct to DR. MURRAY 
quotations from the Poll and Squib Book 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL JAN. 26, 1907. 

for the Liverpool election of the same year. 
But recently I have discovered that the word 
plump was used popularly as early as 17ol 
in the sense inquired for by DR. MURRAY. 
As these latter references, already com- 
municated to DR. MURRAY, could not, I 
imagine, be utilized in the 'Dictionary, 
I venture to ask you to give them shelter 
in the friendly covers of ' N. & Q.' 

The election of Liverpool of 1761 was 
between Sir Wm. Meredith, Bt., Sir Ellis 
Cunliffe, Bt., and Charles Pole, Esq. At 
this period the pottery trade in Liverpool 
was exceedingly vigorous, vast quantities 
being exported to the West Indies and 
America. According to the Poll Book of 
1761, no fewer than 102 potters gave 
plumpers to Sir William Meredith. 

In the election " literature " of the day 
occur these : 

The Potter's Sony. 

Ye true-hearted fellows, free plumpers and men, 
Independent in Britain, how great is your claim, &c. 
Regardless of great ones, we live uncontrolled ; 
We're potters and plumpers, we are not to be sold, 


But the chief interest to readers of * N. & Q.' 
will be found in the following extract from 
a pamphlet by Joseph Mayer, F.S.A., 
'History of the Art of Pottery in Liverpool': 

" There were made, to commemorate the victory 
gained by Sir William, cups called 'Plumper Mugs,' 
one of which was given to every burgess who voted 

on the winning side It is of the usual white 

earthenware, and on the front of it, within a rude 
border of ovals, are the words 
Sir William 



scratched in, and filled in with blue colour, whilst 
the clay was soft, and before it was fired." 

Thus the word has been transmitted to us 
in a material, certainly not perennius . cere, 
yet quite of sufficient substance to be handed 
down to be reproduced, as the author of the 
pamphlet has carefully done, to acquaint 
us that in 1761 plumper was in popular use 
and popularly understood in the sense 
inquired after by DR. MURRAY. J. H. K. 

1842 (10 S. vii. 30). Will you allow me 
to use your columns to thank the numerous 
writers of answers to my query about the 
Chancellor of Cambridge in 1842 ? They 
have told me exactly what I wanted to know. 
W. K. W. CHAFY. 

vi. 428, 476 ; vii. 14). I much regret 
having overlooked MR. M. J. D. COCKLE'S 
reply at the second reference to my query. 

I may say that my information was derived' 
from a printed document, with blanks filled 
n, deposing that 

"Edward Stapleton, Esgn., maketh oath that he 
had not between the 24th June, 1815, and 25th De- 
cember following any other place or employment of 
profit, civil or military, under His Majesty, besides- 
liis allowance of half-pay as a reduced Ensign in 
the llth late West India Regiment," &c. 
I must admit that the original document (no- 
longer in my possession) from which I made 
the preceding extract was much worn and 
partly illegible, so possibly MR. COCKLE'S. 
suggestion is in accordance with the facts. 
Will it help the matter if I mention the family 
tradition that the above-named Edward 
Stapleton (who died 90 years ago) was in 
a regiment of marines ? On retiring from 
service, he acquired a considerable fortune 
as a merchant in the West Indies, owning 
estates in Martinique and Antigua. He 
died in the latter island, but I have not 
been able to learn whether or not any 
memorial was erected. In his will, dated 
7 May, 1809, he refers to 

" my dear wife, Elizabeth Stapleton, whose maideiv 
name was Leak, and who was since the widow ot 
John Doyle, of Strawberry, in the Queen's County,. 
in the Kingdom of Ireland, and whom I inter- 
married in the Island of Martinique, in the West 

She is said to have been an officer's widow.. 

158, Noel Street, Nottingham. 

vii. 27). The words " que fino viernes " 
appear to be Castilian, meaning " who died 
Friday." Find, in the sense of " deceased," 
" ended life," is common in Spanish epitaphs.. 

vii. 29). See Psalm li. 9, Vulg. (Hi. 7, A.V.), 
" Ecce homo, qui non posuit Deum adiu- 
torem suum." EDWARD BENSLY. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

This legend, found upon English silver 
coins from 1360 to 1602, is generally con- 
sidered to be an adaptation of Psalm liv. 4,. 
"Ecce enim Deus adjuvat me," ("Behold, 
God is mine helper "). A. K. BAYLEY. 

RIMING DEEDS (10 S. vi. 466). May I 
point out that the Roger Burgoyne men- 
tioned must be a Roger Burgoyne of Whit- 
more, North Staffordshire ? I think (writ- 
ing from memory) he was constable of John 
of Gaunt's manor of Newcastle-under-Lyme, 
of which manor Whitmore is a member. 
Polton was also a North Staffordshire name. 

Any information concerning members of 

10 s. VIL JAN. 26, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

the Burgoyne family of Staffordshire during 
the Plantagenet era I should be grateful for. 
I know the publications of the Stafford 
(William Salt) Historical Society. 

Meran, Siid-Tirol. 

(10 S. vii. 29). The picture of Miss Frances 
Anne Greville and her brother, children of 
Fulke Greville, as Hebe and Cupid, is the 
property of the Earl of Crewe. Its history 
is fully described in Graves and Cronin's 
great work on Sir Joshua Reynolds. 


" POTIE " WARDEN (10 S. vii. 6)." Potie " 
= deputy. A good deal of information 
about John Guevara is to be found in vol. ii. 
of the ' Calendar of Border Papers.' 


ROMNEY'S ANCESTRY (10 S. vii. 9.) There 
are Kirklands in Mid- Cornwall, East and 
West Cumberland, West Dumfries, South 
Fife, Mid - Lancashire, Mid - Westmorland, 
South-East Wigtonshire, and Mid-Dumfries. 
See^Sharpe's ' Gazetteer.' 



The Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal. By the 
Marquis of Ruvigny and Raineval. (T. C. & E. C. 

CONSPICUOUS progress is made with the important 
genealogical task undertaken by the Marquis of 
Ruvigny and Raineval of supplying a list of those 
now living in whose veins the blood royal can be 
traced to Edward III. Three volumes devoted to the 
task have now appeared. The first (for which see 
10 S. i. 19) supplied a roll of the living descendants 
of Edward ly. and Henry VII. of England and 
James III. of Scotland; the second (see 10 S. iv. 
138), called the Clarence volume, gave the descen- 
dants of George, Duke of Clarence (" false, fleeting, 
perjured Clarence"); while the third, which now 
appears under the title of the Anne of Exeter 
volume, gives the descendants of Anne Plantagenet, 
Duchess of Exeter, sister of King Edward IV. and 
King Richard III., by her second husband, Sir 
Thomas St. Leger, K.G. From her first husband, 
Henry (Holland), second Duke of Exeter, whose 
body was washed up at Dover, she was divorced. 
The portraits of Anne of Exeter and her second 
husband, the common ancestors of the 25,052 living 
(or till very lately living) descendants mentioned 
in the volume, are given from the monumental brass 
in the Rutland Chapel, Windsor Castle, by way of 

The pla:i once more observed is that followed in 
the Clarence volume and in its predecessor the 

Tudor volume. Fifty-nine consecutive tables show 
the descent from Edward III. and Philippa of 
Hainault to the last century, the descendants of 
the persons last named being given in the body 
of the work. The second table begins with the 
marriages of Lady Anne Plantagenet, Duchess of 
Exeter. By the second marriage came the Lady 
Anne St. Leger, who, marrying Sir George Manners, 
twelfth Lord Ros, became mother of the first Earl 
of Rutland, the present male representative of 
whom is the eighth Duke of Rutland. Of his pre- 
decessor, the seventh Duke, long known as Lord 
John Manners, an admirable portrait is presented. 
Another portrait is that of Philip, third Lord De 
Lisle and Dudley, who (and not the Duke of 
Rutland) is the heir of line of the Lady Anne 
Plantagenet, Duchess of Exeter. For the first time 
since the death of this sister of two English kings, 
430 years ago, her blood is united with that of her 
brother King Edward's royal descendants in the 
grandchildren of his present Majesty, their High- 
nesses the Princesses Alexandra and Maud of Great 
Britain and Ireland, they being descended from 
Edward IV. through their mother, H.R.H. the 
Princess Royal, Duchess of Fife, and from Duchess 
Anne through their father, the Duke of Fife. 

The present volume completes, according to the 
Marquis de Ruvigny, the Roll of the descendants 
of Richard, Duke of York, whose claim to the 
throne led to the Wars of the Roses. Sum- 
marizing the volumes already published, we have a 
single pedigree containing the names of from twenty 
to thirty thousand living descendants of Richard,. 
Duke of York, and showing 128,031 separate lines 
of descent from him. All the crowned heads of 
Europe, with the exception of the Kings of Sweden 
and Servia and the Prince of Montenegro, are in- 
cluded in the Roll, as well as 371 peers, many of 
the higher nobility of European countries, and the 
old aristocracy of the Southern States of America.. 
To these facts the Marquis points with just pride.. 
A single volume will deal with the descendants 
of Isabel Plantagenet, wife of Henry (Bourchier), 
Count of Eu and Earl of Essex. 

In addition to the portraits already mentioned 
the illustrations include those of Richard Plan- 
tagenet, third Duke of York ; of Cecily, Duchess of 
York ; the tomb of Thomas, first Earl of Rutland ; 
Arthur, first Lord Capell, and his family; Lady 
Elizabeth Delme, nee Howard ; Mary Bedell, wife 
of Sir Thomas Leventhorpe ; Sir Edward Chester, 
of Royston ; Catherine, Countess of Dorchester; 
the Duke of Fife, K.G. ; H.R.H. the Princess 
Royal, Duchess of Fife; and T.H. the Princesses. 
Alexandra and Maud. 

The Riot at the Great Gate of Trinity College Feb- 
ruary, 1610-11. By J. W. Clark, 'M. A., F.S.A. 
(Cambridge, Deighton & Bell and Macmillan & 
Bowes; London, Bell & Sons.) 

THIS is the latest of the " octavo publications " of 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, which does not 
confine itself to local history, as the list of members 
and publications we receive at the same time shows. 
The membership has now reached 301, as compared 
with 274 last year. It is hoped to increase this 
total, as " the resources of the society are smaller 
than its needs, and can be enlarged in the ordinary 
course of things only by an increase in the member- 

There could be no better commendation for the 
average man of this academic body than the paper 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. JAN. 26, 1907. 

Jov the Registrary, the title of which heads this 
notice It represents history, erudition, and enter- 
tainment all in one. We have here, in fact, a lively 
account of a college "row" between Johns and 
Trinity nearly 300 years ago, with the depositions 
taken during the punitive proceedings which 

TB e <>ccasion of the riot was a play at Christmas 
time in the Hall of Trinity, and the pretext the 
difficulty of getting into that college and finding 
seats. Ill-feeling between the Trinity men and the 
Johnians is, however, regarded as the basis of the 
affair, two of the latter being especially unpopular. 
The " stagekeepers " mentioned are recognized by 
Mr Clark as stewards of the performance ; they 
carried links to give light on a winter's evening, and 
these they used as weapons of offence. Oxley, a 

Johnian, complained that "a stagekeeper hnkt 

him sore, striking him with the flame of his linke 
upon his hand ; and stroke at his face which lighted 
.on his breast." He also got a blow over the face 
with a club, which "made his face black and blue 
divers dayes after." A good deal of stone-throwing 
followed, and a self-elected champion of Trinity 
went through the long passage (which then con- 
tinued the Great Gate) into the street, and holding 
.a dagger by the point, shouted out in Homeric 
style : " Where be these Johnians ? Is there none 
-of the rogues will answer a man? Zounds, I will 
throw my dagger amongst them.',' The dagger, 
however, seems to have been hidden when the vice- 
Chancellor appeared to quell the riot, which broke 
out again as soon as he went into Trinity. 

The further operations ended in favour of John's, 
but cannot be exhibited here, as they depend on 
features of the buildings of Trinity not now in ex- 
istence. All is, however, made clear in the paper 
by a map of 1592. A porter of John's threw down 
the battlements of the garden wall at Trinity, for 
which feat he was ordered to be put into prison and 
then into the stocks. 

The interest of this splendid rag is obvious. 
Shakespeare himself may have heard of it. The B. A. 
of this time is mentioned without his Christian name 
with the addition of "Sir," which represents the 
Latin "Dominus" still familiar in the abbrevia- 
tion " Ds." at Cambridge. This recalls Sir Oliver 
Martext in 'As You Like It.' Jane Hall on oath 
swore that she heard two scholars say : ' ' Heer 
wilbe ould scuffling at this end of the town within 
these three or foure nights ; for we heare that ther 
ar stones prepared to fling from the towers." This 
popular use of "old" is that of a porter in 'Mac- 
beth,' II. iii. : "If a man were porter of Hell-gate, 
he should have old turning the key." 

A careful appendix collects what is known as to 
the academic career, profession, &c., of the persons 

A Text-Book of Fungi. By George Massee. (Duck- 
worth & Co.) 

Mu. M ASSKK is a recognized authority on his 
subject, which he has here treated with admirable 
thoroughness, supplying references to various 
scattered papers of importance to the expert. The 
book is not for the general reader, but for 
.students who are concerned with the morpho- 
logical, biological, and physiological sides of the 
subject. Any one who reads it carefully cannot 
fail to be struck with the ingenuity and patience 
which modern investigators have brought to bear on 
fungi. The author deals, inter alia, with their means 

of reproduction, their behaviour under theRontgeri 
and Becquerel rays, and interesting phenomena of 
parasitism (artificially induced) and luminosity. The 
last feature may account for some hitherto un- 
explained lights in wild places. 

The style of the book is indifferent. We cannot 
help regretting the uncouth words which technical 
science has produced, and which are enough to 
make a cultivated reader stare and gasp. The volume 
has abundant illustrations concerning what is now 
generally called the "life-history" of representa- 
tive fungi, and concludes with a lucid account of 
modern classification. The practical side of the 
subject is exhibited in an important chapter on 
' Legislation and Disease.' The author states that 
parasitic fungi are responsible for an annual loss 
which exceeds 150,000,000^. The potato blight is 
an old enemy of the cultivator ; maize smut is now 
common in Europe; and deleterious fungi pre- 
viously unknown to this country are being per- 
petually imported with seeds. Some of our readers 
may recall a recent order issued concerning the 
American gooseberry mildew, which has crossed the 
Atlantic, being introduced by some mysterious 
means to a new field of vigour. We think that it 
would be worth while to examine living plants at 
the port of entry for conspicuous diseases. Unfor- 
tunately, in many cases, e.g., in bulbs, the mycelium 
of the fungus is concealed from view. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
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slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

WE cannot undertake to advise correspondents 
as to the value of old books and other objects or as 
to the means of disposing of them. 

X. Y. Z. ("Snakes in Iceland or Ireland") See 
the quotation* at 8 S. i. 183. 

W. B. HELMER. Forwarded. 

ERRATUM. A nte, p. 47, col. 1, 1. 22 from foot for 
" Hervey " read Harvey. 


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communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

io s. vii. JAN. 26, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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CONTENTS. No. 162. 

NOTES : Westminster Changes, 81 Dodsley's Collection 
of Poetry, 8-2 "Llan, "84 Miltoniana George III. and 
" What" Habib Ullah Link with Charles I., 87. 

QUERIES : " Popjoy " " Portobello " ' Collection of 
Thoughts 'Sir Thomas Malory Rev. R. Grant Sted- 
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logy pictures at Teddington, 88 Edinburgh Stage 
Quadi and Marcomanni " Stedanese "Lame Dog Poem 
Sir Cosmo Gordon Sonnets by A. and F. Tennyson- 
Parry and Halley Families, 89 John Custis Lady Hatton 
' Lawyers in Love ' Sir John Barnard Adrian Gilbert 
Healing Springs, 90. 

REPLIES : Public Office=Police Office, 90 Brasses at 
the Bodleian Bidding Prayer "The Old Highlander," 
92 The Scots Greys " Eslyngton " " Over fork: fork 
over _ " ito " : " Itoland," 93 Elliott : Ponsonby 
Boundaries : Tommy - on - the - Bridge, 94 Coleridge's 
' Dejection ' Gentlemen's Evening Dress, 95 The Ainsty 
of York "The Mahalla " Rotary Bromide Process- 
Prof. Walter Baily Andrew Jukes, 96" A penny saved 
is two pence got "Anglo-Indian ' Little Jack Horner,' 97 J 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Besant's 'Mediaeval London' 
'Letters of Literary Men' Sismondi's 'Italian Repub- 
lics' Crawford's ' Collectanea.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


WILLIAM COBBETT found it needful in 
his day to speak of London as a " great wen," 
we can hardly think what he would call it 
in the present day ; but we may feel assured 
that that master of vigorous English would 
be at no loss for an expressive phrase to 
convey his impression. What would be 
his ideas about the changes already made 
and those still going on ? Westminster in the 
past year saw a good many changes, many 
of them, however, merely continuations of 
what had been previously begun. 

To start with the huge pile of buildings 
put up by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
primarily for their own offices, and for an 
investment at the corner of Millbank 
Street and Great College Street, it may be 
said that outwardly the building is complete, 
as is also the greater portion of the internal 
fitting. The Commissioners have entered 
their new offices, and have consequently let 
those which they occupied in Whitehall 
Place for so many years, and which of late 
they had found terribly cramped. Some of 
the other offices are also in use. The first 
door in Great College Street is numbered 3 
in that thoroughfare (why No. 1 has been 
overlooked is not clear), and gives access 

to the offices of Mr. W. D. Caroe and Mr. H. 
Passmore, the former gentleman being the 
architect to the Commissioners, and the 
designer of the building in which he now 
finds himself luxuriously housed. He, too 
has left the neighbourhood of Whitehall^ 
having vacated his office in Whitehall Yard' 
formerly occupied by Mr. Ewan Christian' 
a well-known architect of an earlier era! 
The next door is numbered 5, and leads to 
the offices of Messrs. Glutton, the well- 
known surveyors, who also have left White- 
hall Place, this arrangement being evidently 
for convenience. Round the corner in 
Little College Street there are two doors 
giving access to offices, No. 1 being occupied 
by Messrs. Smiths, Gore & Co., and No. 3 
by Messrs. Jennings, White & Foster, com- 
missioners for oaths. A portion of the 
roadway in Great College Street, and the 
whole of that in Little College Street, have 
been widened, but are not yet finished. In 
Millbank Street matters remain pretty much 
as at the close of 1905, except that all the 
wharves and other premises on the river- 
side are in a more deplorable and dilapidated 
condition as time goes on. Two houses 
have been demolished, and an addition 
erected for the Electric Generating Com- 
pany, which seems somewhat peculiar as 
all the tenants are virtually under notice to 
quit. In Church Street, nearly opposite, lead- 
ing from Millbank Street, to the east end of 
the church of St. John the Evangelist in 
Smith Square, some houses (about four or 
five) were at the end of the year being de- 
molished. They were of no particular 
merit, nearly all let out in tenements, but 
one of them had been the residence of several 
Westminster curates in the past. With 
these houses has been obliterated from the 
map of London Horse and Groom Yard, 
which at its Church Street end was only a' 
thoroughfare for pedestrians ; but at the 
other end in Wood Street it was much wider 
and contained some stables, warehouses' 
&c. I believe that the fiat has been issued 
for the demolition of the greater portion of 
Tufton Street and the whole of Marsham 
Street, in the interest of an exceedingly 
large scheme for the reconstitution of this 
part of St. John's parish ; but it is difficult 
to get any particulars, as the people are 
inclined to keep what information they 
have to themselves ; at the close of the year, 
however, nothing had been done. In Smith 
Square, North Street, and Romney Street 
there was no change from the previous year, 
but the immediate future is full of uncer- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907. 

The landjat the corner of Wood Street 
and Tufton Street was acquired at the 
beginning of the year by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, as its home in 
Delahay Street had been bought by the 
Government, it being within the scheme for 
housing some important departments. This 
house, which at the end of the year just 
closed was still in the Society's occupation, 
was purchased by the Government for 
27,OOOL, but up to that time no steps had been 
taken towards the erection of the " suitable 
home in which to live, or rather from which 
to extend to all parts of the world." It has 
also been written that 

"no one can accuse the Society, which kept its 
205th birthday last year, of having made undue 
haste to provide itself with a house, for it has lived 
for nearly 205 years, either in no house at all, or at 
best (during the last thirty years) in a house which 
it purchased, but which was not properly adapted 
for this work." 

A full description of the old house will be 
found in The Mission Field for February, 
1906. It is claimed that the site chosen 
for its new home will afford ample room 
for a building which will enable the work to 
be carried on in comfort, unhampered by 
lack of space, for many years to come. 

At the corner of Tufton Street and Great 
College Street is the home of the Society of 
St. John the Evangelist. The chapel (of 
which the foundation stone was laid by the 
Bishop of London on 20 July, 1904) has 
been completed, and was consecrated by the 
same prelate on 21 July last year. He was 
assisted at the ceremony by the Bishop 
of Springfield, Illinois. The service was 
strictly private, as so many persons wished 
to be present that all had to be refused 
the building being very small. Next to the 
chapel stands the new building, known as 
the Parish Institute of St. John's. It was 
opened for use in December, but what may 
be called its " official " opening has been 
delayed, I believe, in order that the Duke 
of Westminster may take part in it. The 
building may be suitable for the purpose for 
which it has been designed, but to most of 
the casual observers the massive pillars 
will, I fear, give it a heavy appearance. 
Such a building has been long wanted, and 
Archdeacon Wilberf orce is to be congratulated 
on having at last overcome the many diffi- 
culties by which its inception was beset. 
Its front covers one entrance to the now 
obliterated Black Dog Alley. 



(To le continued.) 


(See 10 S. vi. 361, 402 ; vii. 3.) 


Pp. 1-16. The progress of love, iri four eclogues. 

16-18. Soliloquy of a beauty in the country. 
Written at Eton school. 

19-25. Blenheim, written at the \\i\\\. of Oxford 
in 1727. 

25-30. To the reverend Dr. Ayscough at Oxford,. 
Britten from Paris in 1728. 


31-4. To Mr. Poyntz 
the congress of Soissons in 1728. Written at Paris. 

34-5. Verses to 

D.N.B.'), ambassador at 

under a picture of 

be written 
Mr. Poyntz. 

35-8. Epistle to Mr. Pope from Rome. 1730. 

38-41. To my lord [Hervey] in 1730, from 


41-6. Advice to a lady. 1731. 

46-7. Song written in 1732. 

Delia was Mary Greville, eldest daughter of 
the Hon. Algernon Greville, wife of Shuck- 
burgh Boughton, and mother of the eighth 
and ninth baronets of the family of Boughton. 
She was one of the bedchamber women to 
Queen Charlotte, died Cavendish Square, 
London, 1 March, 1786 (Gent. Mag., 1786, 
pt. i. 267). 

47-8. Song written in 1733. 

49-50. Damon and Delia, in imitation of Horace 
and Lydia, written in 1732. 

51-2. Ode in imitation of Pastor Fido, written 
abroad in 1729. 

52-4. Part of an elegy of Tibullus translated. 

55. Song written in 1732. 

56. [Lines] Written \at Mr. Pope's house at 
Twickenham, which heMiad lent to Mrs. G lie 
[Greville] in August, 1735. 

57. Epigram. 

57. [Lines] to Mr. West at Wickham in 1740. 

58-66. Set of poems addressed to Miss Lucy F 
[Miss Fortescue, afterwards his wife]. 

67-78. To the memory of the same lady, a monody. 

Gray (' Letters,' ed. Tovey, i. 172) asks 
Wharton : 

"Have you seen Lyttelton's Monody 911 his 
Wife's death ? there are parts of it too stiff and 
poetical ; but others truly tender and elegiac, as 
one would wish." 

79. Verses, part of an epitaph on the same lady. 
All the above are by George, first Lord 
Lyttelton ('D.N.B.'). Nichols says that 
the poem addressed to Ayscough (above, 
pp. 25-30), Lyttelton's tutor at Oxford and 
later Dean of Bristol, was by Anne, sister to 
Lord Lyttelton, who afterwards married the 
Dean. Ayscough d. 16 August, 1763. 

80-103. On the abuse of travelling, a canto in 
imitation of Spenser. 

Gray ('Letters,' ed. Tovey, i. 78), writing 
to Richard West, 1740, says : 

10 s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"Mr. Walpole and I have frequently wondered 
you should never mention a certain imitation of 
Spenser published last year by a namesake of yours 
with which we are all enraptured and enmarvailed." 

105-66. The institution of the order of the Garter, 
a dramatic poem. 

The last two poems are by Gilbert West 
('D.N.B.'). Walpole says that his mother 
was by her first marriage Lady Langham, 
and by her second marriage the wife of West, 
a clergyman. She was the eldest sister of 
Richard, Lord Cobham, who was so offended 
by her marrying a parson that he settled 
his estate on the issue of his second sister, 
afterwards Countess Temple. 

166-85. Epistle to Viscount Cornbury. By R. 
Nugent, afterwards Earl Nugent ('D.N.B.'). 
185-98. An epistle. 
198-205. An epistle to a lady. 

Walpole says that Aurelia was 

" Mrs. A. Pitt, sister 
maid of honour to Quee 

" Mrs. A. Pitt, sister of the great Lord Chatham, 
aid of honour to Queen Caroline, and privy purse 
to Augusta, Princess of Wales. Died in 1781." 

She was very clever, but eccentric, and 
swore a great deal. " Gentle Anna " was 
" Lady Albemarle, Lady Anna Lenox." 
The " peerless dame " was the Duchess of 
Norfolk, Mary Blount. " Altho' in - 
combine " was the " Countess of Cardigan, 
afterwards Duchess of Montagu." 

205-7. An epistle to Mr. Pope. 
207-10. Epistle to Pollio [Lord Chesterfield] from 
the Hills of Howth. 

S 's shape and R 's face refer to Lady 
Fanny Shirley and Sarah Cadogan, Duchess 
of Richmond. " To mock the works of 
Kent " alludes to the designer of modern 
gardening. " Poor with all a H t's store," 
i.e., Sir Gilbert Heathcote ('D.N.B.'). 

210-12. An ode to Wm. Pultney, Esq. Published 
anonymously in 1739. 

The opening stanza, " Remote from liberty 
and truth," &c., referring to Nugent's educa- 
tion as a Roman Catholic, and part of the 
seventh, " Though Cato liv'd though Tully 
spoke," are proverbial. Gray (' Letters',' 
i. 184) says, " Mr. Nugent sure did not write 
his own ode," and he was suspected of paying 
Mallet to write it. Walpole's comment on 
the last stanza, which relates to Pulteney 
and concludes with " shall tell the patriot's 
name," is, " Both the poet and the patriot 
turned courtiers." 

213-15. Ode to Lord Lonsdale. 

215-19. Three odes. 

220-28. Ode to mankind address'd to the Prince, 
with introduction to the Prince. 

228-30. Verses to Camilla. 

230-33. To Clarissa. 

This piece is stated in Gent. Mag., 1780 

3. 122, to be " a disgrace to this collection " ; 
it was, however, retained in the 1782 edition, 

234. An inscription on the tomb to his father and 
234-9. Epigrams. 

All the above are by Nugent. 

240-50. The danger of writing verse, by William 
Whitehead, esq. ('D.N.B.'). 

' A very good thing " (Shenstone, ' Letters,' 
p. 15). 

251-3. To the honourable [Charles Townshend r 

ane of his friends at Cambridge]. 

253-7. To Mr. Garrick. 

257-8. Nature to Dr. Hoadly, on his comedy of 
' The Suspicious Husband.' 

259-60. The youth and the philosopher, a fable. 

261-3. An ode to a gentleman, on his pitching a 
tent in his garden. 

263-5. On a message card in verse, sent by a lady. 

265-6. The je ne ncai quoy, a song. Also printed 
in The Museum, i. 131. 

The above are also by Whitehead. Gray 
(' Letters,' i. 184) says : 

"I like Mr. Whitehead's little poems, I mean 
the ode on a tent, the verses to Garrick, and par- 
ticularly those to Charles Townshend, better than 
anything I had seen before of him." 

266-9. Ode on a distant prospect of Eton college,, 
by Mr. Gray ('D.N.B.'). 

270-72. Ode [on the spring]. 

272-4. Ode on the death of a favourite cat (Horace 
Walpole's) drowned in a tub of gold fishes. 
The last two are also by Gray. These 
pieces were given to Dodsley by Walpole. 

274-9. Monody on the death of Queen Caroline, 
by Richard West, esq. ('D.N.B.'), son to the 
chancellor of Ireland. 

It was included in the collection at Walpole's 
request. Gray (' Letters,' ed. Tovey, i. 173) 
says this piece, " in spite of the subject," is 
excellent. Some of the lines in it con- 
tained the germs of Gray's own poetry. 

280-86. A pipe of tobacco in imitation of six 
several authors : I. Gibber. II. Ambrose Philips. 
III. Thomson. IV. Young. V. Pope. VI. Swift. 
By Isaac Hawkins Browne, but the sugges- 
tion of the poem was made by (Chancellor) 
John Hoadly, and No. II. was written by 
him (Gent. Mag., 1776, p. 165). 

287-9. Ode to the hon. C. Y. [Charles Yorkel. 

289-91. From C*elia to Chloe. 

291-3. On a fit of the gout. 

293. Horace, ode xiv. book i., imitated in 1746. 
The last four are also by Browne. 

294-300. The female right to literature, in a letter 
to a young lady from Florence [Miss Pratt, after- 
wards Lady Camden]. By Thomas Seward, Canon 
of LichfieloM' D.N.B.'). 

300. On Shakespear's monument at Stratford 
upon Avon. 

301. Song. 

302. Chiswick. The "potent lord" was Richard 
Boyle, Earl of Burlington. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907. 

302-6. The indifferent, from the Italian of Meta 
The last four are also by Seward. 

306-9. The triumph of indifference, being 

"j z n 4-**A KIT on nnlrTin'WTl 

same ode 


) 1* ^hehejS farewell' to his love ; beim 
the same ode, translated by Mr. Roderick. 
This was Richard Roderick, Fellow _o 
Magdalene College, Cambridge ('D.N.B.') 
He was son of Dr. Charles Roderick, Master 
of Magdalene College, and was educated on 
the foundation at Eton School (Horace 
Walpole's notes). 
312-18. Three Riddles. 
318-20. Horace, bk. iv. ode 13 imitated 
321. Sonnet imitated from the Spanish ot Lope 
de Vega, 'Menagiana,' torn. iv. p. 176. 
The last five pieces are also by Roderick 
The Sonnet is reproduced in Nichols's 
* Illustrations of Lit.,' i. 18. 

322-34. Thirteen Sonnets by Thomas Edward; 
[author of ' The Canons of Criticism ' (' D.N.B. )]. 
These sonnets, with many others, 45 in all, 
are to be found in the 1765 edition of that 
work. 1. To the Hon. Philip Yorke, the 
second line runs " of Hardwicke's titles and 
of Kent's estate." 2. To John Clerke. 3. 
To Francis Knollys. In 1. 6 the name is 
" Harrison's." 4. To Mr. Crusius [probably 
the Rev. Lewis Crusius, D.D., who d. 23 May, 
1775 (' Annual Reg.,' p. 209)1. 6. To John 
Revett. In 1. 13 the place is " Checquers." 
7. To Richard Owen Cambridge. 9. To the 
memory of Mrs. M. Paice. 10. To Lord 
Lyttelton. 11. On the death of Miss I. M., 
i.e., Miss Mason, niece of Edwards. 12. To 
Daniel Wray. 13. To the Right Hon. Mr. 
Onslow. The two nephews and heirs of 
Edwards were Joseph Paice and Nathaniel 
Mason (Nichols's ' Lit. Anecdotes,' ii. 199). 
The two sonnets of Edwards to Wr&y are 
quoted in Nichols's ' Illust. of Lit.,' i. 17. 

The second volume of the 1748 edition 
contains (pp. 305-30) ' An epistle from 
Florence,' ' The Beauties,' and ' The Epilogue 
to Tamerlane,' which in the 1766 ed. are in 
vol. iii. 

The poems addressed to Miss Lucy F 
(vol. ii. pp. 58-66 of the 1766 ed.), to the 
memory of the same lady (pp. 67-78), epi- 
taph on her (p. 79), and the contributions 
from * The Indifferent ' (p. 302) to the end 
of the volume are not, with the following 
exception, in vol. ii. or any other volume of 
the 1748 ed. The poem entitled 'The 
Triumph of Indifference ' in vol. ii. of the 
1766 ed. (pp. 306-9) is in vol. iii. of the 1748 
<ed. (pp. 212-15). W. P. COURTNEY. 

(To be continued.) 


(See 10 S. vi. 363.) 

IT is with the following statement in the 
' N.E.D.,' s.v. ' Land,' that I find myself 
unable to agree : 

"Cognate with Old -Celtic *Ianda, fern. (Irish 
land, Ian >i, enclosure; Welsh I fan, enclosure, church ; 
Cornish Ian ; Breton lann, heath), whence the 
F. lanae, heath, moor. The pre-Teut. *lotxUi- is 
not evidenced in the other Aryan langs., but an 
ablaut-variant *lendh- appears in Old-Slav, h-ilniu, 

heath, desert, and in M. Sw. linda, waste or 

fallow land." 

It is not with a theoretical Old-Celtic landa, 
but with a real Idnon, that Holder in his 
' Altcelt. Sprachschatz ' connects the Welsh 
llan, thereby bringing the Celtic term into 
relationship with Lat. planum and Gk. 7rAa. 
According to the ' N.E.D.,' Fr. lande comes 
from Bret, lanne ; but the French form 
betrays the origin of the final dental, which 
is clearly a Teutonic relic of the Visigothic 

Eower seated at Toulouse. That power has 
)ft hardly any trace in the Spanish language, 
although its sway lasted in Spain longer than 
it did in the south of France. It would pro- 
bably, therefore, be more correct to say that 
Fr. lande is an interruption of a chain of 
Celtic Ian and lanne names rather than a 
mere derivation of Bret, lanne. In some 
such way the Irish land is to be accounted 
for, even though it should be found " de- 
lined " with a dental stem in fairly old 
Irish. How easily Celtic Ian forms yield to 
Teutonic influence may be seen from the 
following example (which has the incidental 
advantage of bringing the W. " small 
enclosure " idea into line with the Breton 
use). Treftan is an old word which had 
Become obsolete when Owen Pughe com- 
3iled his dictionary. It has now regained 
currency through Daniel Owen's tale ' Y 
Dreflan,' wherein it is apparently treated as 
a diminutive of tref. But that was not the 
old meaning, for it was applied to a district 
containing a tref. In Mr. Edward Owen's 
nvaluable annotated transcript of Bromley's 
Survey of the lordship of Kidwelly in 1609 
published as an appendix to the Welsh 
L.and Commission's Report) I find (p. 21) : 

"There is also within the sayd comott [of 
Bcennen, wherein is also the Lan referred to in my 

revious paper] certayne circuite of Lands called 
Striveland, contayninge the parishe of Bettws, 
yinge betwene the river of Amon and the Lordship 
)f Gower, and bounded and disjoyned from Gower 
iy the brooke called Cathan, and a place called 
Jler castell [Lle'r Castell=Castle Place] over 

nd besyde the chefe rente goinge out of ye lands of 
Sir Wa[l]ter Rice, knight, which he hath within 
ye same parishe by discente from his ffather " 

10 s. vii. FKB. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Xow Striveland is simply an Anglicized form 
of W. Treflan Rhys, i.e., " Rhys's Treflan." 
The name has entirely vanished, or at any 
rate only appears in the farm-name Pen- 
iannau, and that of the little " bede-house " 
or '" baptistry " (if either is the origin of 
"Bettws") has quite displaced it. Lle'r 
Castell, however, still remains, and perhaps 
the earlier (Goidhelic) synonym cath (cathair, 
mod. Jr. cahir, W. caer) of that name sur- 
vives in the stream-name Cathan. In the 
O.S. maps similar names in the neighbour- 
hood are spelt caeth, " strait," " narrow," 
from captivus ; thus Waunglyncath is given 
as Waunglyncaeth (" narrow glen meadow "), 
although caeth is never pronounced cdth in 
the district, or indeed anywhere else in 
Wales, so far as I know. The real form, 
however, is evidenced by a farm-name 
Cathilas, close by, which can only mean 
the cath " of " or " on " the Dulas. The 
little glen of Glyncath is now known as 
Glynhir or Cwmllwchwr, that river sepa- 
rating the farms in question from the Ian 
which I described in the previous paper. 
Another farm adjoining Waunglyncath was 
once one of the two or three " manors " 
of the " Comote of Iskennen," namely, 
Myddynfych (written " Metheuuigh " in 
Bromley's Survey). Mr. Owen has ex- 
plained this as Myddfai ; but that place is 
far away from Llandybie, whereas Myd- 
dynfych is still one of the most important 
farms in the parish. Its name, by the way, 
is found also written Myddyfnych ; but as it 
includes a high round hill called Brynmawr, 
I am inclined to think that Mai-ddin-fych 
are the components. It is admirably situ- 
ated as one of the outposts of the Lan. 
Dinbych, in the forms Denbigh and Tenby, 
are familiar to every one. On the upper 
or north-western side of the same Lan is 
Garn-bica, and even a much rarer form of the 
second element, Glynpowys. The forms piga, 
pugu, pych, " peak," are found elsewhere ; 
but for powys we must go from Siluria to 
the Central Pyrenees (pic de pouys, &c), 
where, too, lanne, with its Latin equivalent 
plan, reappears south of the landes. Pouy- 
louby and Cathervielle, near Luchon, not to 
mention the " eyes " of the Garonne, seem 
strangely familiar forms to one born near 
Glynpowys, Cathilas, and Llwchwr's "Eye." 
I have already mentioned the curious name 
Y Pal at Carreg Cennen, which may be 
from Lat. palum, but is just as likely to be 
akin to the Pyrenean Pales or Pic de Burat, 
&c., and Celtic rather than Latin, just as the 
Pyrenean coume is. The numerous las 
stream-names in Llandybie and its neigh- 

bourhood Lash, Dulas, Gwenlais, Maries 
remind one irresistibly of the Louzon, Lys r 
Lastie, &c., of the Central Pyrenees. But 
within a few hours' brisk walk of my Lan 
there is a still more interesting stream-name, 
for it is unique in Wales. 

Mr. Tozer in his ' Lectures on the Geo- 
graphy of Greece ' speaks (p. 89) of 

"a group of names, Neda and Nedon in Messenia, 
and Nestus in Thrace, from a root nad, which does 
appear elsewhere in Greek, but is used for a river 
in Sanskrit, and signifies to ' roar.'" 
Now nad means a " bellowing " in Welsh,, 
and the corresponding verb nadu, to bellow 
or roar, is also in use ; while Neste is a 
generic name for mountain streams in the 
Central Pyrenees, with specific applications 
in particular localities. It is curious that 
even so far back as thirty years ago an 
eminent Oxford lecturer should have ignored 
not only the Pyrenees, but even Glamorgan- 
shire. It is to the river Nedd (pronounced 
to rime with "bathe"), in English Neath, 
that I refer. A river-name in Welsh is 
feminine, and if Nedd had a masculine form 
it would be Nudd (pronounced to rime 
with "breathe"). That form, too, is 
found in Welsh, but it means " thick 
white mist," not quite synonymous with 
the common word niwl ("fog"). Prof. 
Rhys in his ' Celt. Myth.' identifies Nudd 
with Lludd, with the Irish Nuada Argetlam 
("N. of the Silver Hand"), and with the 
Nodens, Nodons, or Nudens, the remains of 
whose temple have been found at Lydney,. 
" on the western bank of the Severn, in the 
territory of the ancient Silures." He ignores 
the W. common noun nudd and the Pyrenean 
Pic de Nethou, the highest point in the 
Pyrenees, and in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the other places mentioned in this 
paper. I am aware that the inscription 
supposed to attest the existence of the god 
dwelling on " 1' antique Olympe du dievt 
Nethon," as M. A. Joanne puts it in the first 
edition of his excellent ' Itineraire des 
Pyrenees,' has been proved not to do so ; 
but in the teeth of his own Silurian Nodens, 
I quite fail to see how a mistaken reading 
on an inscribed stone could have led Mr. 
Rhys to disbelieve the godship of the 
Pyrenean Nethon. The salient phenomena 
of the Pic de Nethou are the violent squalls 
of wind and the masses of white mist that 
they whirl around it. Everything that I 
have read on this subject leads me to the 
belief that the Silures migrated from the 
Spanish slopes of the Pyrenees in the second 
century B.C., travelling along the more 
central parts until they reached the com- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. VIL FEB. 2, 1007. 

modious harbourage at the north-western 
extremity of the Peninsula. The river Sil 
possibly still retains their name, and these 
mountaineers were doubtless piloted to the 
opposite shores of Britain by the seafaring 
Artabrians, who would tell them that they 
must now, owing to the Belgic settlements 
of the south-eastern parts of the island, 
sail further to the west than previous Penin- 
sular emigrants, and so they first touched 
land in the Scilly Islands, which still bear 
their name, just as, I would suggest, Annette 
Head does that of Nethon (or Aneto). 

" In a westerly direction the rapid tides surge 
and eddy among innumerable rocks, objects pic- 
turesque and pleasing to tourists wafted round 
them by a summer breeze, but as terrible when 
beheld white with foam and cataracts of raging 
water from the deck of some luckless vessel driving 
towards the land."' Murray's Handbook to Devon 
and Cornwall,' p. 475. 

I have already instanced the form pych. 
The two rocky eminences in Glamorganshire 
called Pen Pych and Pen Hydd ("Stag 
Head") have caused much controversy 
among local antiquaries. I need say no 
more about the former, but the latter may 
possibly have been Pen Nudd (Nudd's 

While putting these notes together, I have 
seen but only by a mere glance, unfor- 
tunately an interesting paper in the 
ArchcBologia Cambrensis on some prehistoric 
hearths found lately in South Wales. Two of 
these have been discovered close to Llwchwr's 
" Eye," two others on the farm of Gelli- 
Shiffor, and one at Garnbica. The first of 
these spots is on the north-eastern edge of 
my Lan, the second on the southern edge 
of it, and the third on the north-western 
edge. I venture to submit that they are 
" prehistoric " in a qualified sense only _ 
that they are, in fact, parts (inhabited out- 
posts, say) in a complete system of defence 
of a Celtic Ian or oppidum, of which we have 
a glimpse in Caesar, Tacitus, and Strabo 
One detail given by the last-named author 
is that they " hut themselves " (/caAvflo- 
Troioui/rai) therein, which may refer either 
to such structures as have been traced in 
the so-called "prehistoric hearths," or to 
such earth-pits as Leland says were to be 
found at the foot of the " Blake Mountayne," 
- m;ule with Hand large lykea Bowie at theHead'e, 
H-id narrow ,n th- Botum, overgrowen in the Swart 
with fine Grae, and be scatterd here and there 
about the Quarters where the Heade of Kennen 
River is that cummythe by Carre Kennen. And 
V Fe CyVe a Hunderth Me n sum 

I have never seen these pits, but I have 

always understood that they were to be 
found near the " Trap " pass of what I have 
called " my Lan " in this paper. I add, 
before passing on, that the river-name 
Llwchwr bears, I venture to suggest, that 
of the Pyrenean god Lixon (as Luchon does). 
Prof. Rhys, in dealing with Nuada 
Argetlam, says that he had lost his arm in 
a battle. It is a well-known fact that 
hundreds of the bravest heroes of pre- 
Christian Spain had their right hands cut 
off by the Romans. The very name of the 
Lusitanian hero Viriathus is found in early 
Welsh pedigrees in the parallel form 
Gwriad. That name and the exploits of 
him who bore it might well have been 
carried to their South Walian settlement 
by the emigrant Silures, there to give birth 
in process of time to the tales of the mythical 
Arthur and his Table Round. In that case 
Arthur's " twelve great battles " may be 
simply an echo of those of Viriathus, and 
the real cradle of the Arthurian legends may 
have been on the same chivalric ground as 
that of Roland and his paladins and that of 
the Cid. 

One word in conclusion as to my attitude 
towards Celtic mythology. I have never 
been able to appreciate the " solar myth " 
theory or any general formula of that kind. 
The Celts in their migrations carried their 
beliefs and superstitions with them, but 
sometimes perhaps, amid fresh woods and 
pastures new, they forgot them. But that 
these gods had a way of reclaiming the 
lapsed allegiance of their whilom devotees 
may be illustrated by a trivial incident that 
once happened to myself. One bright 
spring morning some years ago I was walking 
down Bond Street at a good pace. On 
passing a fishmonger's shop, I cast an admir- 
ing but casual glance at the salmon and trout 
that adorned the tradesman's deftly ar- 
ranged slab. Suddenly a subtle whiff 
assailed my nostrils, instantaneously in- 
vaded the mysterious avenues of memory, 
and brought up before my mental eye the 
picture of a little boy who had been working 
busily for over an hour at diverting the 
course of a babbling brook, and who was 
tossing out troutlets from the dried-up 
pools on to the grassy margin odoriferous 
with meadowsweet. I had grassed many 
a trout in many different circumstances 
since that far-off time, but one may 
easily realize that such a vivid re- 
minder would have been a very imperative 
" call " to a forgetful worshipper from the 
long-neglected mountain deity or river 
goddess of a long-left early home. Such a 

10 s. vii. FEB. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


<c call " as that could only affect, of course, 
an actual emigrant, but it might be effective 
in rooting an old belief, with its old names, 
in the alien soil. J. P. OWEN. 

MILTONIANA. It is perhaps worth while 
recording certain parallels to, if not actual 
sources of, the following passages in Milton. 
As far as I know, they have not been noticed 
before. ' Paradise Lost,' vi. 238 : 

Each on himself relied, 
As only in his arm the moment lay 
Of victory. 

Compare Xenophon, 'Hell,'ii. 4, 16: OVTM ^prj 
OTTWS CKacrros Ti? eavTw cnweicrercu T?S 

atrtcoraros wv. 
' Paradise Lost,' vi. 769 : 

And twenty thousand I their number heard 
Chariots of God. 

The Angel explains that he knew the exact 
number of the heavenly host, just as the 
messenger explains that he knew the exact 
number of the Persian ships at Salamis, 

us, ' Persae,' 340 : 
7e/)>7 Se, /cat yap ofou, )(iAias /*" 'I", K.T.A. 
' Paradise Lost,' xi. 399 : 

Mombaza and Quiloa and Melind, 
And Sofala, thought Ophir. 

While most of the place-names in this 
famous catalogue occur in Camoens, three 
of the above-quoted occur in one line 
(' Lusiads,' i. 54) : 

Quiloa, de Mombaca e de .Sofala. 
Did Milton know of Camoens's work ? 
Camoens does not identify Ophir with 
Sofala, but in x. 124 he mentions the belief 
(" alguns imaginaram ") that Ophir was 
situated in the Golden Chersonese, a place 
also mentioned in this pasasge of Milton. 

In ' Paradise Regained,' iv. 458, storms 
and convulsions of nature are said to be 
to the universe 

as inconsiderable 

And harmless, if not wholesome, as a sneeze 
To man's less universe. 

The germ of this idea is to be found in 
Lucretius, vi. 648 et sqq., where the poet, 
after having described various natural dis- 
turbances, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, 
&c., says : 

Numquis enim nostrum miratur, si quis in artus 

Accepit calido febrim feryore coortam 

Aut alium quern vis morbi per membra dolorem ? 


GEORGE III. AND " WHAT." (See 10 S. 
vi. 516.) My grandfather, who was born 
in 1764 and died in 1843, lived at Staines 
from November, 1799, to April, 1801. One 

day when walking near Windsor he saw a 
stout elderly gentleman on horseback. As 
he rode carelessly, the horse stumbled, and 
the rider was on the point of falling, when 
my grandfather ran to his assistance, and 
helped him to recover his seat. The gentle- 
man then said : " Thank you, thank you, 
thank you ! Who are you, who are you, 
who are you ? " But my grandfather had 
barely time to recognize that it was the king 
before he rode away, and he heard no more 
of it. W. C. B. 

In M.A.P. for 19 January there are some 
amusing lines commencing as follows : 

Hail ! Happy Habib Ullah, 
With your friend the cra/.y Mullah 
That reverend gent of " cullah," 
That spiritual Peer. 

One must not be too critical with humorous 
verse, but there are many readers who like 
to know the correct pronunciation of any 
name figuring prominently in the papers, 
so I venture to say that the above gives 
quite a wrong idea of the scansion of the 
name Habib Ullah. The stress should fall 
upon the last syllable of each of its two 
elements. Habib rimes with glebe or grebe ; 
Ullah rimes with Shah. The meaning of 
the name is " Beloved of God." 


I append an extract from The Derby Daily 
Telegraph of 17 January, which may be 
worthy of record in the always interesting 
pages of ' N. & Q.' : 

" An interesting Derbyshire ' Link with the past' 
is recalled by Mr. J. H. Sharpley, of Hatfield 
College, Doncaster, in a letter to The Sheffield Tele- 
graph. He says : ' In 1872, when a boy, 'staying at 
Hulland Ward, Derbyshire, I called on an old lady, 
Elizabeth Durose, then 97, widow of a farmer, who 
told me that her grandmother, when a girl, had 
known a man a distant relative who had wit- 
nessed the execution of Charles I. The old lady 
then took out of a corner cupboard an old prayer- 
book, bound in black leather, which was, I fancy, 
of the time of Queen Anne, for I remember it had a 
frontispiece picturing a parson in gown and bands, 
and wearing a long wig, saying prayers in a ' three- 
decker.' Opening it at the form of service for the 
30th January, she showed me a piece of coarse 
linen, of the colour of a dead leaf, which she said 
was a portion of a handkerchief which had been 
dipped in the King's blood, and was given to her 
grandmother by the above eye-witness. When it 
first passed into her possession it was nearly entire, 
but her children had played with it, and this was 
all that she had managed to preserve.' " 

Hulland Ward is a picturesque vil 
five miles from Ashbourne. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. FEB. 2, 1907. 


WK must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" POPJOY." In ' Sport and Travel,' by 
G. H. Kingsley (ed. 1900), 472 (dated 1853), 
I find " his stream in which he himself was 
wont to popjoy in a very aboriginal manner." 
And T. Hughes, * Tom Brown,' chap, ii., 
has " After a whole afternoon's popjoying 
they caught three or four small coarse fish." 
What is this verb popjoy ? Is it school slang 
or local dialect ? how is it made up ? and 
what does it exactly mean ? 



" PORTOBELLO." What is this game, and 
whence the name ? John Howard, ' State 
of the Prisons in England and Wales ' (1780), 
p. 206, has : 

" At my first visit [to the King's Bench Prison] 
there was a wine-club and a beer-club ; and one can 
scarcely ever enter the walls without seeing parties 
at skittles, missisippi, portobeUo, tennis, fives, &c." 
Also (ed. 1792) p. 13 : 

"Gaming in various forms is very frequent; 
cards, dice, skittles, missisippi and portohello, 
billiards, fives, tennis, &c." 

Information will oblige. 


early collection of poetical quotations is 
anonymous. Can any one supply the com- 
piler's name ? Its full title is as follows : 
" A Collection of the Most Natural and 
Sublime Thoughts, viz., Allusions, Similes, 
Descriptions, and Characters of Persons 
and Tilings, that are in the best English 
Poets. London, printed by S. Buckley, 
1707," 8vo, 482 pages, followed by ' A Dic- 
tionary of Rhymes,' pp. viii, 36. 

C. W. S. 

SIR THOMAS MALORY. In 1469 Thomas 
Glegg, of Gayton, was granted by Ed- 
ward IV. a general pardon for all offences 
committed by him in siding with the house 
of York. The pardon, which is enrolled 
on the Recognizance Rolls of Chester (No. 141, 
in. 9, 2), is of great length. Towards the end 
a proviso is inserted that it shall not extend 
to Humphry Nevyle, miles; "Thomas Malarie, 
miles ; Robert Marchall, late of Culneham 
Oxon, Esq. ; Hugo Mulle, late of London ; 
Gervase Clifton ; Wm. Verdon, late of Lon- 
don, " skryvener," and various Welshmen- or 
to any person by authority of any Parliament 

attainted for high treason, &c. ; or to the 
Mayor and Company of the Staple of Calais ; 
and many others. Is this not Sir Thomas 
Malory of ' Morte D'Arthur ' fame ? The 
period coincides, and the juxtaposition with 
Welshmen is significant. I cannot find, 
however, that he was ever concerned with 
the Wars of the Roses. R. S.-B. 

[Would a knight be described as "miles"? There 
were several families of the name of Malory ; see 
the ' D.N.B.'] 

REV. R. GRANT, DIED 1826. Can any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' give me information 
concerning the Rev. R. Grant ? He was 
born in 1744, usher of Westminster School 
1764-72, vicar of Blackuourton 1771, Wen- 
nington 1772, and Stanstead Mountfichet 
1782, where he died in 1826. I should be 
glad to know anything concerning either 
himself or his descendants. L. E. T. 

AXMOUTH. This house figures in the great 
Civil War. Who was the original owner of 
it ? A. R. BAYLEY. 

St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

the above ? A. R. BAYLEY. 

any of your readers tell me of the present 
whereabouts of a Bible printed in black- 
letter in 1613, containing the genealogy of 
the London and Hewit (?) families ? The 
Bible was last seen at Honiton, in Devon- 
shire, many years ago. 


40, Bedford Street, Liverpool. 

ence room of the Carnegie Free Library at 
Teddington have been placed eight alle- 
gorical life-size paintings which have just 
been restored and removed here from the 
walls of Elmfield House, one of the oldest 
buildings in the parish, where they had 
remained unobserved for years. The paint- 
ings bear names as follows : Silvia Samai, 
Silvia Edifica (?), Silvia Europea, Silvia 
^Eritrea, Silvia Agrippina, Silvia Persica, 
Silvia Frigia, and Silvia Tiburtina. Can 
any one tell to what personages these subjects, 
refer ? The name of the painter is not 
visible on any of the portraits, but the opinion 
expressed by most of the connoisseurs who 
have seen them is that they are the work 
of a Dutch or Flemish master. By whom 
they were placed in Elmfield House is not 
known ; but it is believed that they were 
there before Herzen, the Russian revolu- 

10 s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tionist, took up his residence there many 
years ago whilst an exile in England. The 
figures are richly draped, and each is 
bedecked with jewels in gold ornaments 
in one case with the addition of a garland of 
flowers on the head, as well as around the 
small medallion picture in the corner, repre- 
senting the Nativity and other episodes in 
the life and death of Christ. 


Wanted genealogical particulars of the 
connexion between families of Glover and 
Bland. In Dibdin's ' Annals of the Edin- 
burgh Stage ' it is stated that John Bland, 
of the Theatre Royal, was an ancestor of 
William Glover, the painter, whose father 
was Edmund Glover, son of the famous 
Mrs. Glover, and proprietor of Prince's 
Theatre, Glasgow, who died in 1860. John 
Bland was of an old Irish race, and before 
he took to the stage was a cornet of dragoons, 
carried the colours of his corps at Dettingen, 
was taken prisoner at Fontenoy, and served 
subsequently under Col. (afterwards General) 
Honeywood in repressing the Jacobite rising 
in 1745. He was for many years treasurer 
of the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh. Mrs. 
Glover's daughter married a John Bland, an 
actor, and both were at the Olympic, with 
Madame Vestris, about 1826. John Bland, 
the T.R.E. treasurer, died in 1806. The 
writer is most anxious to learn all about his 
descendants. J. F. FULLER. 

Brunswick Chambers, Dublin. 

[See the articles on John Bland at 9 S. xii. 207, 
277 ; and especially that by MR. W. J. LAWRENCE 
at 10 S. iv. 204.] 

"Marcus Antoninus obliged the vanquished 
Quad! and the Marcomanni to supply him with a 
large body of troops, which he sent into Britain." 
Is anything known as to where these troops 
were sent, or is there any account of the 
Quadi in later accounts of early Britain ? 
Is it known to what part of Spain a large 
portion of the tribe went when driven from 
the banks of the Danube ? L. D. 

[A full list of Gibbon's authorities will be found 
in Prof. Bury's edition of the great history.] 

" STEDANESE." In the Chertsey Car- 
tulary in the Public Record Office is a rental 
made 22 Sept., 1444, of lands at Fremley 
(If. 28b sqq.). On If. 29 are several instances 
of this word, e.g. : 

"Ricardus Bristowe [Custumarius] tenet unum 
Mesuagium et unani virgatam terre native unam 

purpresturam apud Brad more et unum Buticium 
pro ingre'ssu habendo in la lyecrof t. 

" Ricardus Eyre atte Mershe tenet unum mesua- 

gium et unam virgatam terre unum Croftum 

vocatum Southecrot'te et Axelane unum Buticium 

ibidem Et reddit inde de annuo Redditu cum 

certo Tallagio et j Stedanese. x. s. xj. d. q. 

"Willelmus at Mershe reddit cum certo 

Tallagio et Stedanec[io] ad iiijor terminos usuales 
ix. s. viij. d. q." 

I shall be glad to know the meaning~[of 
the English " stedanese " (Latinized " sted- 
anec[ium ?] "). Q. V. 

LAME DOG POEM. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' supply the name of the author and 
the remaining verses of this poem ? It 
begins : 

A long day's journey there lay before ; 
I crossed the meadow at breaking morn ; 
I saw the road by hill and moor ; 
Beyond the hills was my distant bourne. 


In 1824 Knight & Lacey published an 
octavo pamphlet (80 pp.) entitled " Life 
and Genius of Lord Byron, by Sir Cosmo 
Gordon." Who was this person ? I can 
find no " Sir " Cosmo of the period, either 
as knight or baronet. The pamphlet con- 
tains many blunders, such as the statement 
that Byron was born in Aberdeenshire. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

TENNYSON. ' Friendship's Offering ' for 
1832 (Smith, Elder & Co.) contains two 
sonnets (one by Alfred and the other by 
Frederick Tennyson) which I do not re- 
member to have seen before. The difference 
between the styles of the two brothers as 
exemplified in these two compositions is 
remarkable. Alfred's sonnet, which begins 

Me my own Fate to lasting sorrow doometh, 
reminds one of the * Ode to Claribel,' and is 
dull, pretentious, and insincere. Frederick's 
sonnet, on the other hand, addressed to 
Nature, is joyous, bird-like, and full of the 
zest of life, and winds up 

Sure thou art everlasting, and in thee 

There is a part of our eternity. 
Have these poems been reprinted ? 


of Sybilla Halley, widow of Edmund Halley, 
jun., surgeon R.N. (found recently by Mr. 
Ralph J. Beevor, of St. Albans), is dated 
1 May, 1771 ; proved 13 Nov., 1772 (P.C.C., 
Register Taverner, folio 406) ; and gives 
bequests to good friend Catherine Beaumont, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907. 

wife of John Beaumont, lighterman, of 
East Greenwich ; and to the testator's two 
granddaughters Sybilla Parry and Sarah 
Parry (the latter then under age). This 
document proves the (then) existence of 
descendants of Dr. E. Halley (1656-1742), 
and supports the theory printed at 9 S. xi. 
464. Sybilla Halley's will is made as of 
East Greenwich, Kent. Can any reader 
supply particulars of the Parry descendants, 
if any known ? EUGENE F. McPiKE. 
1, Park Row, Chicago, U.S. 

JOHN CUSTIS. Did the American family 
of Custis migrate from Nottinghamshire 
or the north part of Lincolnshire, somewhere 
in the neighbourhood of Gainsborough ? 
I possess a copy of " Lieut. -Colonel J. 
Lilburn Tryed and Cast ; or, His Case and 
Craft discovered .... Published by Authority. 
London, Printed by M. Simmons in Alders- 
gate-street, 1653." It contains on a fly- 
leaf at the beginning three signatures of a 
John Custis, written in a good and clear 
hand, which I have no doubt is that of its 
first owner. It may not be straying away 
from the subject to note that the above- 
mentioned work contains references to John 
Lilburne's riotous doings in the Isle of 
Axholme. The volume belonged to 
member of an old yeoman family whose 
ancestors may very possibly have taken 
part in the Isle of Axholme disturbances. 

Wickentree House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

VERONA.' This play is said to be founded 
on B. Yonge's translation of Montemayor's 
' Diana.' Yonge was at the Middle Temple, 
and dedicated an earlier work to Sir William 
Hatton. Can any one inform me whether 
the Lady Hatton who was Bacon's cousin, 
and whom he wanted to marry was the 
widow of this Sir William ? If not, what was 
the relationship ? AMBROSE T. PEYTON. 

47, Connaught .Street, W. 

'LAWYERS IN LOVE.' I should be glad 

to hear where I could obtain the book 

Lawyers in Love; or, Passages from the 

Life of a Chancery Barrister.' The author 

is unknown to me. D 

Sir John Barnard, Kt., the worthy and 

S^J^* L( J rd Mayor of L ndon in 1737-8 
(d. 1764), left one son, John (d. c. 1784) 
known as a collector of drawings of the old 
masters, the sale catalogue of which is in the 
British Museum. Was this family further 
extended ? 

Jane Barnard, the younger of Sir John's 
daughters, was married to the Hon. Henry 
Temple (d. 1740), and thus was grandmother 
of Henry John Temple, third Viscount 
Palmerston, the Prime Minister. 


ADRIAN GILBERT, of Wilton, Wilts, Esq. 
Consistory of Sarum. Inv. and account 
3 June, 1628. Was he related to Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert ? E. ALD WORTH. 

Laverstock Vicarage, Salisbury. 

THE SOUTH. It is a prevalent Welsh super- 
stition that every spring with healing pro- 
perties must have its outlet towards the 
south. See ' By-Gones,' 1893-4, pp. 23, 
258. Is this belief known in England, 
Scotland, Ireland, and Brittany or other 
parts of France ? 

The idea that holy wells should be visited 
at midsummer, which seems to be an allied 

superstition, is widely spread. 

I. G. 



(10 S. vii. 47.) 

As DR. MURRAY says, the Act of 1792, 
cited by ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica ' 
in 1838, authorizes the establishment of 
" seven several public offices," and nowhere 
speaks of them as police offices. As this 
statute also refers to " the public office in 
Bow Street," it would appear that the in- 
tention was to extend the term " public 
office," which was already well known in 
connexion with the Bow Street Office, to the 
new establishments. But this intention 
either never took effect or was soon departed 
from, as DR. MURRAY shows. I have not 
up to the present been able to ascertain 
whether there was any statutory authority 
for using " police office " instead of " public 
office," or whether this was merely popular. 
Unfortunately, no general index to the 
repealed statutes of this period is published. 
At any rate, by 1822 the Legislature recog- 
nized the custom, since the 3 Geo. IV. c. 55 
speaks of " police offices " and " the public 
office in Bow Street." This, it will be noted, 
is the same phraseology as that used by the 
writer of the article in ' The Encyclopaedia 
Britannica ' in 1838. Subsequent Acts 
down to 1839 also use these terms ; and to 
this latter year I think we can definitely 
fix the introduction of " police court," at 

10 s. vii. FEB. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


least so far as London is concerned. The 
Metropolitan Police Courts Act, 1839 
(2 & 3 Viet. c. 71) which, together with the 
Metropolitan Police Act of the same year, 
reorganized the police and magistracy of 
the metropolis enacts in section 1 that 

"the several police courts now established under 
the names of the public office in Bow Street and 
the police offices in the parishes of [enumerating 
them] shall be continued." 

In the remainder of the Act and in later 
Acts " police court " is regularly used. 

F. W. READ. 

I should like to point out that I gave a 
quotation for " police court " at 10 S. vi. 
433 from The Liverpool Journal of 1 Feb., 
1834. A. H. ABKLE. 

The following reference to statutes may 
be useful. No doubt in each case the expres- 
sion used in a statute for the first time was in 
more or less common use a few years before. 
I cannot find any Act establishing the Bow 
Street Office, nor can I beat MB. ABKLE' s 
date of 1834 for " police court," which DB. 
MUBBAY does not seem to have noticed. It 
will be seen that " police office " appears 
about 1800, " police constables " about 
1821, " police magistrates " about 1825, and 
" police men " about 1829 ; while " police 
court " does not seem to appear in a statute 
until 1839. When did " police " itself 
appear ? 

1792. 32 Geo. III. c. 53 provides for the 
establishment of seven " publick offices " 
in or near the parishes of St. Margaret, West- 
minster ; St. James, Westminster ; St. 
James, Clerkenwell ; St. Leonard, Shore- 
ditch ; St. Mary, Whitechapel ; St. Paul, 
Shadwell ; and St. Margaret's Hill, South- 
wark. Henceforth no fees to be taken, 
except at them, by any justice. This 
proviso was not to extend to "a certain 
Publick Office within the Liberty of West- 
minster known as The Publick Office in 
Bow Street." 

1800. 39 & 40 Geo. III. c. 87 established 
" the Thames Police Office," a public office 
" of the nature of the several offices com- 
monly called Police Offices," instituted under 
the Act of 1792. Constables are not yet 
called policemen, but " Thames Police 
Surveyors " were appointed. 

1802. 42 Geo. III. c. 76 refers to " the 
Thames Police Justices." 

1808. 48 Geo. III. c. 140 established the 
" Police District of Dublin Metropolis," with 
a " Chief Magistrate of the Police " and " a 
Head Office of the Police," with six public 

1811. 51 Geo. III. c. 119 refers to "the 
Chief Magistrate of the Public Office in 
Bow Street " and his officers and " patrole." 

1813. 53 Geo. HI. c. 72, whereby a sti- 
pendiary magistrate for Manchester and 
Salford was appointed, refers to the ad- 
ministration of " the police." 

1814. 54 Geo. III. c. 131, which appointed 
superintending magistrates in Ireland, &c., 
speaks of the insufficiency of " the -ordinary 

1821. In 1 & 2 Geo. IV. c. 118 the seven 
public offices established in 1792 are so 
called in the margin of the Act, but are 
called " police offices " in the text. A 
police office at St. Marylebone is substituted 
for that at Shadwell. The Bow Street 
Public Office is still so called. Thames 
" police constables " are mentioned. 

1824. 5 Geo. IV. c. 102 refers to " con- 
stables and peace officers." 

1825. 6 Geo. IV. c. 21 mentions in the 
margin " police magistrates." 

1829. 10 Geo. IV. c. 44 established a 
new " police office " for the metropolis, with 
a " metropolitan police district," a " police 
force," and a " police rate" and " police men" 
are now referred to. 

10 Geo. IV. c. 45 placed the horse and foot 
patrol of the public office at Bow Street 
under the new police office. 

1836. 6 Will. IV. c. 13 consolidated the 
laws of the " constabulary force" in Ireland. 

1839. 2 & 3 Viet. c. 47 speaks of magis- 
trates sitting at any " police court " in the 
Metropolitan Police District. Persons in 
custody were to be taken to the nearest 
" station house " by the constables whilst 
the police courts are shut. 

2 & 3 Viet. c. 71 deals with " the several 
police courts now established under the names 
of the public office in Bow Street and the 
police offices " elsewhere. R. S. B. 

According to Grant's ' Sketches in London,' 
published, as states the B.M. Catalogue, in 

" it is at least a century since the Bow Street Police 
Office was originally established for the purpose of 
administering justice. Until 1702, however, it was 
on a very different footing from what it has been 
since. Previous to that time, it was not established 
by Act of Parliament, but was simply an office used 
by the county magistrates." Pp. 193-4. 

In the same year that he died, 1754, 
Henry Fielding, the Bow Street magistrate 
and novelist, in his ' Journal of a Voyage 
to Lisbon,' notes that a predecessor of his 
" used to boast that he made one thousand 
pounds a year in his office " (Cunningham's 
' London,' s.v. Bow Street), so that it was at 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907. 

all events, in that year, still a private office 
of the magistrate. Grant says that in 1792 

" seven police offices were established by Act of 
Parliament in different parts of the metropolis. 
To each of these offices three magistrates were 
appointed, at a salary, respectively, of 400/. per 

So that it was, no doubt, in 1792 that the 
seats of the London magistracy first became 
known as public police offices. 

The Birmingham " public office " for the 
county magistrates was, according to James 
A. Sharp's ' Gazetteer,' not established until 
1806. See also Black's ' Guide to Warwick- 
shire,' 1879, pp. 21-2. 

So late as 1857, J. Ewing Ritchie, in his 
' Night Side of London,' still speaks of the 
Thames police office (p. 11) ; but in the same 
little work there is a chapter headed ' The 
Police Court ' (p. 200), and on p. 206 it is 
said of a prosecutor, " As Phil. Bird is in 


Deene, Tooting Bee Road, Streatham, S.W. 

The following is to be found in Stark's 
' Picture of Edinburgh,' third ed., 1823, 
p. 152 : 

"The old system of police having been found 
insufficient, an application was made to Parliament, 
in 180o, tor a police bill for the city. This bill 
received the sanction of the Legislature, and was 
begun to be acted upon, and a police court opened 
in Edinburgh, on the 15th of July, 1805. By this 
Statute a Court of Police was established, under 
the superintendence of a person with the title of 
Judge of Police. 

This quotation may perhaps be of use in 
reply to the query (10 S. vi. 369) as to when 
the name " police court " was first intro- 
duced, and whether it was by statute. 

W. S. 

The records of the Library and the 
memories of its staff afford no evidence that 
the rose and the mutilated inscription ever 
were m the Bodleian. Mr. Andrews's 
unnamed authority (of 1897) is only quoted 
as saying that he was able to find the rose 
on inquiry at Oxford in 1864. Haines is 
>rtainly explicit yet things have been 
stated in print to be at the Bodleian which 
were all the time in other collections. If we 
ever had these two brasses, they were 
apparently either stolen or else lent for 
>bmg to some antiquary who failed to 
return them. In either case the loss would 
antedate the twenty-four years or so for 
h my own memory serves and my own 
esponsibility holds good. They are cer- 
tainly not hidden, or out of place, anywhere 

in our premises, and I investigated the matter 
thoroughly many years ago. 

Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

BIDDING PRAYER (10 S. vi. 448 ; vii. 32, 
70). " Ye shall pray for " is the form which 
I used, and have heard used by others. 


An interesting book on this subject is 
' Forms of Bidding Prayer,' Oxford, John 
Henry Parker, 1840. The editor, H. O. A C. 
(Coxe ?), says, in the preface : 

"Much care has been taken to consult such 
works as were considered likely to illustrate either 
the early or later history of the forms in question ; 
such as, on the one hand, are Bingham, Sparrow, 
Le Strange, Hilliard, &c. ; on the other, Card. 
Bona, Durand, Martene, Ferrerino, Ussher, with 
other liturgical writers of authority." 


" THE OLD HIGHLANDER " (10 S. vii. 47). 
The following is from The Daily Graphic of 
19 January : 

The celebrated statue of the Highlander, which 
for over a hundred years has mounted guard over a 
tobacconist's shop in Tottenham Court Road, is 
not, after all, to leave the thoroughfare which he 
has helped to make famous. Wide publicity was 
recently given to the fact that the shop beside which 
the figure stood was to be demolished and that the 
Highlander was therefore for sale. So many offers 
were made to the owner of the statue that bidding 
ran into quite extraordinary figures. The old Scot's 
future is, however, quite decided now, as he has 
been secured by Messrs. Catesby and Sons, and will 
henceforth be seen at their ' Linoland ' in Totten- 
ham Court Road, not many yards from his old 

A picture of ' The Old Highlander ' accom- 
panies the letterpress. It is a pity that 
the figure should be taken to a shop which 
deals in furniture and linoleum, not tobacco 

In the High Street of Cheltenham, outside 
the shop of Mr. Wright, tobacconist, there 
is a wooden figure of a tall Highlander, in 
full costume. I do not know how long it 
has been there, but I remember it well more 
than fifty years ago, when I was a boy at 
school, and it looks exactly the same now 
as it did then. C. S. J. 

Speaking of the tobacconist's sign of a 
Highlander, T. O. H. sees the features of a 
Lowlander in the fact of these effigies being 
clean shaved ; but with the knowledge 
that, certainly as late as up to the fifties, 
all, high or low, shaved, his assumption 
cannot be correct. For pictorial evidence 
see portraits of Highlanders in Louis 

10 s. VIL FEB. 2, loo?.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Simond's most entertaining ' Journal of a 
Tour in Great Britain,' vol. i., 1817, drawn 
and etched by him. A Highlander, Low- 
lander, or indeed any but a Jew at the date 
these snuff - taking representations were 
made, wearing a beard, would be as great 
an anomaly as a moustache worn in pow- 
dered-wig days. HAROLD MALET, Col. 

S. vii. 26). I have not seen the article in 
The Illustrated London News, and do not 
know if mention is made in it of the grey 
uniform in which the regiment was clothed, 
as appears from official papers dated 1683. 

As regards the colour of the horses, I 
quote the following from Prof. John Walker's 
' Economical History of the Hebrides and 
Highlands of Scotland,' Edinburgh, 1808, 
vol. ii. p. 154 : 

" Near three centuries ago, a breed of grey horses 
was established in Clydesdale, by the Hamilton 
family. These were long held in great request. 
For a long time, no gentleman in the West thought 
himself well mounted, but on a grey horse. It was 
on the horses of this breed, that the old regimented 
corps of cavalry, the Scots Greys, was first 

w. s. 


29). MR. ALECK ABRAHAMS inquires 
whether the variant " Eslyngton " occurs 
elsewhere than in the ' Diary ' of Henry 
Machyn in 1554. I can give him an instance 
eighteen years earlier, therefore I do not think 
it can be attributed to Machyn's phonetic 
rendering only. To the best of my belief, 
I have come across it very much earlier, 
but am not quite sure. The letter which 
was sent from Ralph Broke to Lisle, dated 
21 March, 1536, was from " Eslyntoun, nr. 
London " (Gairdner's ' Letters and Papers,' 
vol. x. p. 206). 

36, Claremorit Road, Highgate. 

Thomas E. Tomlins in his ' Perambula- 
tion of Islington,' p. 2, refers to Islington as 
a vernacular corruption of Yseldon, 
" anciently pronounced and written Eysel- 
don," and he proceeds to deal with the 
derivation. Perhaps this early use of the 
initial E will account for the use of it by 
Henry Machyn. FRANK PENNY. 

" OVER FORK : FORK OVER" (10 S. vi. 449; 
vii. 33). " Over fork over " appears to be 
used as a motto by various branches of 
Cunninghams for instance, Sir Percy Cun- 
ynghame, Bt., creation 1702 of Milncraig, 
Ayrshire, whose arms are Argent, a shake 
fork between three fleurs-de-lis sable, and 

supporters : Dexter, a knight holding in 
his exterior hand a spear ; Sinister, a 
countryman, in his exterior hand a hay- 
fork. This family is a younger branch of 
the Earls of Glencairn. 

See also Dick-Cunningham, Bt., creation 
1677 and 1807 ; Cunninghame, Bt., crea- 
tion 1672 ; Fairlie-Cuninghame, Bt., creation 
1630 ; and the Marquis Conyngham, who, 
like the above-mentioned baronets, includes 
a shake-fork in his coat of arms and bears 
the motto " Over fork over." It is curious 
what a number of varieties in spelling there 
are of the family surname. 

The Cunninghames of Kilmaurs, Scotland, 
were founded by Warnebald, who settled 
in Cunningham as a vassal under Hugh 
Moreville, Constable of Scotland, in the 
twelfth century, and assumed the name 
of Cunninghame. The chief line of this 
ancient race, the Cunninghams, Earls of 
Glencairn, became extinct at the decease, 
in 1796, of John, fifteenth Earl of Glencairn, 
the friend and patron of Robert Burns, 
whose beautiful ' Lament ' has added new 
lustre to the name of Glencairn. 

The heir-generalship of this family is now 
vested in the Fergusson baronetcy, creation 
1703, of Kilkerran, Ayrshire. The third 
baronet claimed in 1796 the Earldom of 
Glencairn (created 1488) : the Lords decided 
that he had proved himself to be the heir- 
general to Alexander, Earl of Glencairn, 
who died 1670, but had not proved his 
right to the earldom. 

My maternal grandfather, the late Col. 
Sir John Laurie, R.A., eighth Baronet of 
Maxwelton, creation 1685 Nova Scotia, was 
considered to have a claim to the earldom ; 
and there was a transference of lands in 
Dumfriesshire from the Earl of Glencairn 
to the grandfather of the first Laurie 
baronet in the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, which territory to this day has not 
been alienated. 

Among the derivative branches of Kil- 
maurs, I may mention the Cunninghams 
of Glengarnock, Caddell, Polmaise, Drumqu- 
hassel, Ballindalloch, Aiket, Monkredding, 
Caprington, Lainshaw, Auchenharvie, Cun- 
ninghamhead, Craigends, Corshill, Carlung, 
and Montgrenan, who bore for arms Ar., a 
shake - fork sa. Crest, A unicorn's head, 
couped ar, maned and horned or. Sup- 
porters, two rabbits ppr. Motto, " Over 
fork over." F. W. R. GARNETT. 

Wellington Club, Grosvenor Place, S. W. 

" ITO " : " ITOLAND " (10 S. vi. 461 ; vii. 
12). In reply to MR. ABRAHAMS'S criticism, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907. 

I may say that my " enthusiastic laudation " 
of the Territorial Movement has received 
extraordinary confirmation within the last 
few days, in quarters and in a manner that 
must convince the most apathetic of the 
soundness of its principles and of the states- 
manship of the founder. Mr. Zangwill has 
received from a sympathizer the princely 
donation of 100,0002., and the great and 
noble house of Rothschild has handed to 
him 20,0002. for the purpose of setting on 
foot one invaluable branch of the great 
work, viz., emigration on a basis of self- 
dependence. Emigrants will pay their own 
passage money to their destinations, but 
will receive advice and guidance from Ito 
agents on landing. Hitherto, as I pointed 
out in my note, everything has been done 
for the emigrant, except rinding him : under 
those conditions there was an abundant 
supply, naturally the least desirable in a 
new country. Philanthropy was twice 
cursed : it cursed those who gave and those 
who received its doles. The age of Schnor- 
ring is dead. We mean to raise up a genera- 
tion of self-respecting, law-abiding citizens, 
making their own laws in their own way, 
in any land that will give us power under 
charter. It is time the world settled this 
miserable Jewish question by giving us what 
we want, and what, as men and women, 
we are entitled to, viz., the right of working 
out the spiritual salvation of our race in 
any way that seems best in our own eyes. 
That is our idea of Autonomy. I have 
been a Territorialist for years. 


ELLIOTT : PONSONBY, 1661 (10 S. v. 269). 
Having some information upon this 
Elliott family, I should be glad to hear from 
A. C. H. and to send such facts as may be 
useful. R. E. E. CHAMBERS. 

Pill House, Bishop's Tawton, Barnstaple. 

TOMMY-ON-THE-BRIDGE (10 S. vii. 30). 
On the first day of the year which has just 
begun there died here a Newcastle " cha- 
racter," known far and wide, even beyond 
the confines of this district, as " Tommy-on- 
the-Bridge." An ingenious plan with which 
he is credited for checkmating the police 
might serve to furnish MR. RUDOLPH DE 
CORDOVA with an illustration of parish- 
boundary humour, though, quite apart from 
this, I think his death is worth noting 
here, as he had become, if I may so phrase 
it, a recognized Newcastle institution- 
one of the sights of the city that the curious 
stranger must see before his stock of infor- 

mation on matters Novocastrian could be 
considered complete. Tommy had, indeed, 
attained such distinction as obtained for 
him the dignity of having his portrait 
printed on a post card and sold for twopence. 

For the purpose of soliciting alms, 
" Tommy-on-the-Bridge " took his stand 
every day, and in all sorts of weather, for 
well on towards half a century, near the 
middle of the Low Bridge, stretching across 
the Tyne from Newcastle to Gateshead. 
The old stone bridge, removed in 1867, that 
preceded the existing structure, had the 
line of division between the two towns 
indicated by a long narrow pavement stone 
running right across the footpath. To 
many generations of Tynesiders this was 
known as " the Bluestone," and it was here 
that Tommy first took up his station. He 
was blind, and usually wore a shabby over- 
coat reaching almost down to his heels, and 
a world too wide for him. His most striking 
peculiarity, however, was a continuous 
rocking and half-turning motion, caused by 
raising first one foot and then the other 
slightly from the ground, swaying his head 
in the meanwhile in unison with his body, 
and lightly but incessantly tapping his 
breast with the thumb of one hand. The 
latter action was doubtless due to a nervous 
affection, but the rocking movement is 
said to have been voluntary at first, and the 
explanation given of its origin is curious 
enough to be worth preserving, though 
exactly how much fact and how much fancy 
there is in this explanation I have no means 
of ascertaining. One thing, however, is 
certain. Tommy, when he was off the 
bridge, did not lift his feet alternately when 
standing, as he was accustomed to do on the 
bridge, and this I think we may take as one 
piece of evidence in favour of the account 
commonly believed in. 

The Bluestone, where Tommy-on-the- 
Bridge first took his stand in the early 
sixties of last century, marked, as has been 
said, the boundary line separating the towns 
of Newcastle and Gateshead. When he 
stood still, Tommy had a foot in each ; 
when he rocked and lifted his feet alter- 
nately, though the one foot was clearly 
enough in Newcastle or Gateshead, as the 
case might be, the other foot, being for the 
moment off the ground, could not be said 
to be in either place. Tommy therefore 
claimed, as a logical deduction from these 
premises, that as he was in neither place 
altogether, it must follow that he could not 
be said to be in either place, and was con- 
sequently outside the sphere of police inter- 

iu s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ierence. The idea was fanciful, and I should 
imagine unique ; but, whatever its origin 
whether deliberately entered upon or not 
the alternating movement, from long con- 
tinuance, became automatic when he took 
up his position at his accustomed place. 

When the old stone bridge above referrec 
to was demolished, the historic " blew-stone,' 
as it or one like it was termed by Grey 
in his ' Chorographia,' as far back as 1649, 
found an appropriate resting-place with 
the Newcastle Antiquaries. On the new 
bridge, however, Tommy took up his wonted 
position. In an ordinary way he stood 
without speaking, unless a passer-by ad- 
dressed him, when he was by no means 
slow in retort. But occasionally, when his 
takings were very scanty, he lost his temper 
and poured out a steady stream of profanity 
on a hard-hearted world. This brought 
him now and again into the clutches of the 
police, who, however, were extremely 
indulgent towards the old mendicant, so 
long as they could reasonably be indulgent, 
and usually gave him the opportunity, by 
the slowness of their approach, of seeking 
sanctuary at the other side of the boundary, 
where their authority ceased. 

By the death of Tommy-on-the-Bridge a 
familiar figure has passed out of the sight 
of Newcastle and Gateshead folks, and Tyne- 
siders, to whatever distant corner of the 
world they may have wandered, will feel 
the poorer for the knowledge that when they 
return home and recross the Tyne Bridge 
it will be to find that one of the old associa- 
tions that linked them with the days of 
their youth has vanished for ever. 


After the discovery of the Gunpowder 
Plot, Thomas Habington, of Hindlip in the 
county of Worcester, a well-known sym- 
pathizer with the Catholics, was apprehended 
and condemned to death, but, almost at 
the last moment, pardoned upon the con- 
dition that he should never, during the rest 
of his life, leave the county of Worcester. 
He was then 46 years old, and lived to be 87, 
and during that long period he devoted his 
whole time to the accumulation of notes 
for a history of Worcestershire, which have 
recently been edited by Mr. John Amphlett, 
and published by the Worcestershire His- 
torical Society. 'When he came to Tarde- 
bigge he found that the county boundary 
passed through the church in such a way 
that the nave only was in Worcestershire, 
and therefore, although he " streached his 

chayne to the vttermost leangthe," he could 
do no more than view the monuments in 
the chancel from a distance, for that part 
of the church was in Warwickshire. 

Gravelly Hill, Erdington. 
PUNCTUATION (10 S. vii. 45). The intrusive 
comma is omitted without editorial comment 
in the ' Poems of S. T. Coleridge ' which 
Messrs. Bell & Ualdy included in their 
Elzevir series of 1864. The late Mr. Thomas 
Ashe also rejected it in his Aldine Coleridge, 
published in two volumes in 1885. He 
punctuates thus : 

Joy, Lady ! is the spirit and the power, 
Which wedding Nature to us gives in dower 

A new Earth and new Heaven, c. 
In a foot-note he indicates that he has made 
the alteration simply from a sense of fitness. 
" We have," he says, " removed a confusing 
comma : ' Joy, wedding Nature, gives us 
in dower a new earth,' &c." This gloss 
accords with one of the readings suggested 
by MR. SHAWCROSS, but it seems less satis- 
factory than his alternative arrangement of 
the clause. This, by the placing of commas 
after "which" and "us" respectively, 
shows that through the agency of Joy a 
union is effected between Nature and the 
human spirit, and this appears to be the 
poet's meaning. THOMAS BAYNE. 

48). See chap. iv. of ' Pelham.' Lady 
Frances, writing to her son, after recom- 
mending the wearing of flannel waistcoats 
as " very good for the complexion," observes 
"Apropos of the complexion : I did not like the 
jlue coat you wore when I last saw you ; you look 
>est in black which is a great compliment, for 
>eople must be very distinguished in appearance m 
)rder to do so." 

In the ' Life of Lord Lytton,' his son, the 
first Earl, writes : 

"One at least of the changes which the book 
Pelham ' is referred to here] effected m matters 

>f dress has kept its ground to this day till then 

oats worn for evening dress were of different 
olours, brown, green, or blue, according to the 
ancy of the wearer ; and Lord Orford tells me 
hat the adoption of the now invariable black dates 
rom the publication of ' Pelham.' All the contem- 
>oraries of Pelham would appear to have been 
simultaneously possessed with the idea that they, 
were entitled to take to themselves the great com 
pliment paid by Lady Frances to her son. ' Life 
vol. ii., p. 195. 
' Pelham ' was published in 1827. 

Capt. Jesse,* who! met Brummell at Caen 
in 1832, describes the Beau as " standing 
to his Whig colours to the last " : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. FEB. 2, 1007. 

"His dress on the evening in question consisted 
nt a llue coat with a velvet collar, and the consular 
button,* a buff waistcoat, black trousers, and boots. 
It is difficult to imagine what could have reconciled 
him to adopt the two latter innovations upon 
r\ ruing costume, unless it were the usual apology 
for such degeneracy in modern taste, the altered 

proportions of his legs He was averse to strong 

contrasts in colours One evening he said, 'My 

(K-iir Jessse, 1 am sadly afraid you have been read- 
ing " Pelham " : but, excuse me, you look very much 
like a magpie. I was dressed in a black coat and 
trousers, and white waistcoat, and though I had 
never given that gentleman's adventures a second 
thought, I considered myself at least a grade aboA-ea 
magpie." 'Life of Beau Brummell,' 1854, chap. vii. 

The fashion of black must have come in 
very slowly ; for from various fashion-plates 
in my possession, blue, brown, and dark- 
green coats were common in the thirties, 
and not entirely unknown in the early 
years of the following decade. 


In the Daily Mail of 14 December, 1900, 
was an illustration of men's evening clothes 
as they were worn in 1801, showing that the 
decorated waistcoat and frilled shirt, such 
as it is desired in some quarters to revive 
to-day, were then in vogue. I have not 
verified the quotation, but in Chambers' s 
Journal for May, 1904, the adoption of 
black is said to have come about through 
a paragraph in Lytton's ' Pelham,' his 
second novel, which did not appear until 


THE AINSTY or YOBK (10 S. vi. 462, 511 ; 
vii. 36). It seems to me to be rather im- 
probable that a large tract of country con- 
taining 49,720 acres, and, nowadays, 
twenty parishes, should be named after a 
track only wide enough for the passage of 
one horse or carriage. Was Canon Taylor 
utterly wrong in his suggestion that Ainsty 
signified, as regarded York, its own pos- 
session, its peculiar ? See 8 S. i. 383. 


"THE MAHALLA" (10 S. vii. 45). MB. 
MAYHEW is not quite correct in ascribing to 
this the sense of army or army corps. It 
is the technical term for a column quartered 
on a rebellious city, with the object of 
" eating it up," and so reducing it to sub- 
mission. Mahalla is a well-known Arabic 
word, derived from the verb "to abide," 
and meaning a parish or other division of 'a 
city or town. The term is in constant use 
m Persia, India, Turkey, and other Moham- 
medan countries, and has been taken over 

HS ai)pointed British Consul at Caen 

as a loan-word by several European lan- 
guages. Thus in Greek we have yua^aAas^ 
a street or quarter ; in Roumanian mahald* 
ward, section, suburb ; in Servian and 
Croatian maliala, " Vorstadt oder Stadt- 
viertel," &c. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

I should like to confirm what L. L. K. 
says as to the excellence and convenience 
of copies made by competent operators in 
this process. Perhaps he will be so good 
as to let me know the name and address of 
a photographer who will do such work in 
the Public Record Office. 


70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

507). The Reference Department of the 
City of Birmingham Free Library does not 
possess an original copy of Dr. Baily's 
pamphlet on the baths at Newnham Regis,, 
but about twenty-five years ago there was 
added to its collection of Warwickshire 
books a carefully written transcript of it. 
The copy from which this transcript was 
made was dedicated " To the right honor- 
able Sr. Frauncis Walsinghm knight princi- 
pall secretarye to the quens most excellent 

Gravelly Hill, Erdington. 

ANDBEW JUKES (10 S. vii. 48). Mr. Jukes 
died at Woolwich, 4 July, 1901, aged 85. 
A list of his extremely thoughtful and sug- 
gestive works will be found in Crockford's 
' Clerical Directory ' for 1899 and 1900. 
They begin with a Hulsean prize essay on 
the interpretation of prophecy, in 1841,. 
and end with ' The Order and Connection 
of the Church's Teaching ' (notes on the 
Collects, Epistles, and Gospels the least 
striking of his works, so far as I know them)^ 
in 1893. He was B.A. of Trinity College,. 
Cambridge, was ordained deacon in 1842, 
and never proceeded to priest's orders, but 
after holding a curacy at Hull for a short 
time lived a studious and retired life. 


The Rev. Andrew Jukes was admitted to 
deacon's orders in 1842, and was licensed to 
the curacy of St. John's Church, Hull. My 
personal recollections of him are of what 
he was after he had become the pastor of an 
independent congregation in the town. In 
his public ministrations he continued to use- 
the prayers of the Church of England, but 
his teaching was akin to that of the Ply- 
mouth Brethren. The publication, in 1867,. 
of his book ' The Second Death and the 

10 s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Restitution of All Things ' gave rise to con- 
troversy which resulted in the break-up of 
the Hull congregation. Mr. Jukes removed 
to Highgate, and then obtained permission 
from the bishop to officiate in churches in 
the diocese of London ; but he received no 
permanent appointment in the Church of 
England. F. JABBATT. 

Andrew Jukes' s ' Letters,' together with 
a short biography by Herbert H. Jeaffreson, 
appeared in 1903 (Longmans). The Church 
Times and Guardian also had notices, I 
believe. WM. H. PEET. 

[MR. J. B. WAIXEVVRIGHT also thanked for reply.] 


(10 S. vii. 48). Like most of these wise old 
proverbs, this is probably, in some form or 
other, universal. In Germany there are 
three forms of it. " A penny saved is a 
penny gained " (" Ersparter Pfennig ist so 
gut wie erworbene ") ; "A penny saved is 
twopence got " (" Ein ersparter Pfennig ist 
zweimal verdient ") ; and " Penny is penny's 
brother " (" Pfennig ist Pfennigs Bruder "). 
In Spanish, " A penny spared is a penny 
saved" (" Quien come y dexa, dos veces 
pone la mesa"). In Dutch "A penny 
spared is better than a florin gained" 
(" Een stuiver gespaard is beter dan een 
gulden gewonnen "). In Danish, " A penny 
in time is as good as a dollar " (" En Skilling 
er i Tide saa god som en Daler "). In 
French, " Saving is getting " (" Qui epargne, 
sagne"). Similarly in German, "Saving 
is a greater art than gaining " (" Sparen ist 
grosser e kunst als erwerben"). Danish, 
'" Money saved is as good as money gained " 
(" Den Penge man sparer er saa god som 
den man avler"). Italian, "Money is 
money's brother " ("II danaro e fratello del 
danaro"). But money is no gain when it 
" advances meacocks " (" Deniers avancent 
les bediers "). English, " Penny and penny 
laid up will be many," and " Who will not 
keep a penny shall never have many " 
he who is prodigal of little can never have 
a great deal. J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

(10 S. vii. 45). As it is many years since 
I was stationed in India I feel some hesi- 
tancy in criticizing MB. PLATT'S Hindustani. 
All the same, I am inclined to think that one 
or two of the words are incorrectly given, 
though I do not remember having heard the 
lines he quotes. 

In the last line bulwci should, I fancy, read 
bold, the past tense of bolnd ; accha should 
certainly be spelt achcha ; and hai, although 

possibly it may have been given correctly 
to rime with pie in the second line, should 
probably be hain, to agree with ham, the 
plural of main (I). In India an Englishman 
invariably uses the plural form of the per- 
sonal pronoun when speaking of himself as 
in the verses, and the verb would be in agree- 


Medieval London. Vol. II. Ecclesiastical. By Sir 

Walter Besant. (A. & C. Black.) 
WHETHER the second volume of Sir Walter Besant's 
' Mediaeval London ' completes the work so far as 
that epoch is concerned, or whether a third volume 
is in contemplation, is a matter on which no definite 
information is supplied. So encyclopaedic is the 
work, and so ambitious is the scheme when looked 
at in its entirety, that the latter contingency may 
be regarded as conceivable, in which case there will 
be matter for thankfulness on the part of the 
reader, who can scarcely have too much of matter 
of the class. 

The earlier volume (for which see 10 S. v. 339) 
dealt with the historical and social aspects of 
mediaeval London, its first part being concerned 
with sovereigns from Henry II. to Richard III., 
while the second occupied itself with streets, build- 
ings, manners, customs, literature, and other social 
aspects. Like its predecessor, the present volume 
is in two, or rather three, parts, the latest, largest, 
and on the whole most important of which can 
alone be regarded as ecclesiastical. The govern- 
ment of London especially the Commune, the 
wards, the factions, and the City companies is 
treated of in the opening portion. For this section 
of his task Sir Walter has been indebted to the 
City records, concerning which he says that "no 
city in the world possesses a collection of archives 
so ancient and so complete as the collection at the 
Guildhall." Many of the most important of these 
are, under the competent charge of Dr. Sharpe, 
being rendered accessible by the Corporation. In 
the initial portion of his volume the author benefits 
largely by the labours of Mr. J. H. Round and 
Bishop Stubbs, and by the invaluable publications 
of Dr. Sharpe. The facts stand out that a com- 
mune was granted to London in 1191, and that two 
years later the Mayor of London first appears. On 
the influence of these institutions Sir Walter waxes 
eloquent, saying that they made the future develop- 
ment of London possible and natural, and adding 
that " a long succession of the wisest and most 
benevolent kings would never have done for London 
what London was thus enabled to do for herself." 
In 1215 the citizens obtained from King John the 
right to elect their own Mayor. " King Richard 
took no hostile proceedings against the Mayoralty. 
He never recognized it ; but he never tried to 
abolish it." 

At p. 127 the ecclesiasticalportion of the volume 
begins with a chapter on ' The Religious Life.' A 
singularly edifying chapter this is. It opens thus : 
"If churches and religious houses make up religion, 
then London of the thirteenth and fourteenth een- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907. 

turies surely attained the highest point ever reached 
n relSon. The Church was everywhere." As 
rnVht 1>e nferred from the perusal of Chaucer, 
t Tu7i e was no street but by the sight of a spire or a 
will reminded the citizen that the Church was with 
him always to rule his life. At her bidding the 
whole nation, from the king downwards, renounced 
meat for a fourth part of the whole year-a fact 
which as is said, "alone marks the enormous power 
of the Church." In the fourteenth century, when 
the population of London was not more than 
V>0 000 there were in London 126 parish churches. 
Sir Walter estimates roughly that with the parish 
churches and their property a full quarter of the 
city was occupied by the religious houses and the 
places they owned, and he opines that what the hoy 
Whittington heard at Highgate was not the chime 
of Bow Church alone it was the sound of the hells 
of all the churches and all the convents of London 

These extracts often in the very words of the 
book show how bright, animated, and picturesque 
is a book which is monumental in its scope. 
We have testified before, and will do so again, to 
the transcendent merits of a work which during its 
progress was its author's delight, and on its com- 
pletion will constitute his monument. The illustra- 
tions are once more a highly admirable and striking 
feature. Those to the opening portion are chosen 
with much taste, and are drawn frequently from 
recondite sources. 

Letter* of Literary Men. Vol. I. Sir Thomas More 
to Robert Burn*. Vol. II. Nineteenth Century. 
Arranged and edited by F. A. Mumby. (Rout- 
ledge & Sons.) 

Ix two volumes belonging to the valuable and 
attractive " London Library" we have here a repre- 
sentative collection of the best English letters, 
linking the period of Sir Thomas More and that of 
Tennyson and Ruskin. We say designedly "the 
best, though in the case of the contents of the 
first volume it is hard to say which of Walpole, 
<;ray. and Cowpe*vis. best. The first letter in this 
volume is a touching epistle to his daughter 
Margaret Roper, written with a coal by Sir 
Thomas More when a prisoner in the Tower. Very 
early come two letters from John Lyly the Euphuist, 
from the recently published edition of his plays by 
Mr. R. Warwick Bond. Spenser, Ascham, Raleigh, 
Sidney, Bacon, Beaumont, Jonson, Donne, are all 
included in the first section. In the second the 
age of Milton and Dryden appear, among others, 
Suckling, Walton, the Duchess of Newcastle, 
Cowley, and Congreve. The third section com- 
prises such known letter - writers as Swift, Pope, 
Lord Chesterfield, Gray, Walpole. Johnson, and 
( Joldsmith : and the fourth, Burke, Gibbon, 
Sheridan, Cowper, and Burns. 

Vol. ii. begins with Fanny Burney and her con- 
fidence-, concerning "Daddy" Crisp, and, after deal- 
ing with Blake, Scott, Wordsworth, and Coleridge, 
readies Lamb, the most delightful of letter- writers. 
By ron heads a part including the correspondence 
oi Moore, Shelley, Keats, Hazlitt, Hunt, Landor, 
and Beddoes. The Early Victorian Age begins with 
Macaulay, and passes through Thackeray and the 
Brownings to Dickens, Hood, and Carlyle. As the 
selection is confined to those no longer living, 
the last part is 'The Age of Tennyson,' and in- 
cludes Kinsley, Matthew Arnold, Rossetti, James 
Thomson, ft. L. Stevenson, and John Ruskin. The 

selection is on the whole well made, the idea of 
the work is happy, and the volumes may be opened 
at any point with the certainty of gratification. 

Hixtwy of the Italian RepiiMics in the Middle Ages. 
By J. C. L. Sismondi. Recast and supplemented 
by William Boulting. (Routledge & Sons. ) 
IN favour of the series to which this volume be- 
longs, and its claims upon the serious student and 
booklover, we have already spoken. Our commenda- 
tions are once more merited and bestowed. There 
is a class of worker to whom Sismondi's ' Italian 
Republics' constitutes an inestimable treasure. 
Here for a crown is the whole of a great history, 
never, so far as we are aware, at anything like 
so reasonable or satisfactory a price rendered 
accessible to the English reader. Its substance is 
moreover recast in the light of subsequent know- 
ledge, and is in some respects corrected, and in 
others brought up to date. Close study, such as 
the book in its present state demands, is not within 
general reach, and we ourselves, looking at the 
temptations the work puts forward, can but sigh 
for the leisure, which we know resignedly can never 
more be ours, to master and assimilate all its varied 
information. Youth is the time in which one reads 
and stores up knowledge. We can, then, but con- 
gratulate the fortunate youth in whom the love of 
learning burns on the fact that he has within his 
reach a work, at a nominal price, the full deglu- 
tition and enjoyment of which may furnish him 
with sustenance and pastime for the rest of the 
winter. Books such as the present are those pre- 
cisely which the hardworking student lacks. The 
production of such is a boon to the scholar. 

Collectanea. First Series. By Charles Crawford. 

(Stratford-ori-Avon, Shakespeare Head Press.) 
WE have here, with a dedication to Prof. Dowden, 
who is well aware of the value of the contents, a 
volume of singular interest to Shakespearian 
students generally, and to readers of 'N. Q.' in 
particular. This volume to be followed, it is to- 
be hoped, by many others consists of the investi- 
gations into the early drama of Mr. Charles Craw- 
ford. Of its contents with the exception of a 
single article on ' Arden of Feversham,' which 
appeared in the ' Jarhbuch der Deutschen Shake- 
speare-Gesellschaft,' 1903 all first saw the light in 
N. & Q.,' wherein they have already attracted the 
attention of our readers. As a proof of how much 
can be accomplished by the aid of parallels judi- 
ciously selected, they occupy a unique position in 
literature. By Mr. Crawford's aid the cruces of 
the Tudor drama are being solved, and light is cast 
upon the darkest of its mysteries. The four papers 
reprinted from our columns are those on (1) Richard 
Barnfield, Marlowe, and Shakespeare ; (2) Ben 
Jonson's method of composing verse ; (3) John 
Webster and Sir Philip Sidney; and (i) Edmund 
Spenser, ' Selimus,' and ' Locrine.' Quite irrefut- 
able are the conclusions of these separate essays, 
and their interest is enormous, absorbing. As 
revelations they are wonderful ; and the only ques- 
tion concerning them is, Whither do they tend ? 
In no other literature, surely, can similar resem- 
blances and obligations be traced. It is naturally 
impossible for us to quote afresh in our columns 
what first appeared therein. We can only con- 
gratulate ourselves upon being the earliest to intro- 
duce to the public matter so valuable and so 

10 s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


MR. THOMAS BAKER sends us his Catalogue 503. 
It is largely devoted to old and modern English and 
Foreign Theological Works. We note a complete 
set of the Henry Bradshaw Society, 30 vols., 18/. ; 
Martin Luther, Sammtliche Werke, and Exegetica 
Opera Latina curayit Elsperger, together 93 vols. 
in 73, 1826-57, half-morocco, 9/. 9*. ; Chrysostomi 
Opera Omnia, 13 vols., Paris, 1858, 11. 15s.; Walsh's 
' Vindication of the Loyal Formulary, or Irish 
Remonstrance so graciously received by His 
Majesty, A.D. 1661,' Dublin, 1674, 6^. 6*. ; Morland's 
'Evangelical Churches of Piedmont,' 1665, 4/. 4*.; 
Hook's 'Archbishops of Canterbury,' 11 vols., 
3J. 10*. ; set of the Publications of the Parker 
Society, 55 vols., 21.; and 'Tracts for the Times,' 
5 vols., 11. 18*. The general books include Reclus's 
' Universal Geography,' edited by Ravenstein and 
Keane, 19 vols., 6^. 6*. ; Finden's 'Byron Illustra- 
tions,' 24*. ; and Christopher Wren's ' Life and 
W r orks,' 326 - . 6d. There are interesting items under 

Mr. L. C. Braun's Catalogue 50 contains Ovid's 
' Metamorphoses,' with Picart's plates, 1732, 25*. ; 
' The Complete Angler,' first edition issued by 
Bagster, 1808, 30*.; ' Sir Joshua Reynolds's Life ' by 
Leslie and Tom Taylor, 45*. ; Montaigne, 1685-1711, 
20*.; Huish's 'Memoirs of George IV.,' 30*.; 
Dodoens's 'Historic of Plants,' 1595, 4/. 4*.; La 
Fontaine, 1685, 30*. ; and ' Cabinet des Fees,' 1785, 
4/. 10*. There are items under Early Editions, 
French and German Literature, Heraldry, Topo- 
graphy, &c. 

Mr. Walter V. Daniell sends Part 3 of his Cata- 
logue of Topographical Literature. This contains 
Hertford to Mqnmonth. We note a few items. 
Under Greenwich Hospital is ' The Painted 
Chamber', with Nelson lying in State,' 15*. Lan- 
cashire maps include a Panoramic View of Liver- 
pool, 11. 1*. ; and Manchester, the South- West 
Prospect, 1728, If. 1*. Under Leicestershire is a 
copy of Nichols with the plates in perfect condition, 
S/. 16s. Lincolnshire includes Thompson's 'Antiqui- 
ties of Boston,' 1856, 21. 15*.; and a choice collection 
of 153 engravings in portfolio, 21. 15*. Under 
Hampstead are some pretty water-colours ; and 
iTiider Highgate is the study that Coleridge occupied 
during his residence with Dr. Gillman, an interest- 
ing lithograph byG. Scharf, 18 in. by 14 in., showing 
his bookcase, pictures, &c., 10*. The next part of 
the Catalogue will be exclusively devoted to 

Mr. Bertram Dobell's Catalogue 147 includes 
books from the libraries of Dr. Garnett, Toole, 
Clement Scott, Charles Lever, and the Duke of 
Sutherland. There is a miniature portrait of 
Byron's executor Scrope Davies, with inscription 
on the back "Painted by Js. Holmes, 1816, for 
Lord Byron, Scrope Davies." It is in gold frame, 
I/. There are also original autograph MSS. of 
William Morris : ' Beowulf (first draft), 69 leaves, 
folio, half-morocco, 30/.; and 'Nupkins Awakened' 
(or ' The Tables Turned '), differing altogether from 
the printed copy, 211. The first edition of Whit- 
man s ' Leaves of Grass,' Brooklyn, New York, 
1855, is 30^. ; the scarce Library Edition of Shelley, 
edited by Buxton Forman, 8 vols., original blue 
cloth, 1876-80, 91. 9*.; Randolph's ' Poems,' first 
edition, Oxford, 1638, 1QI. ; and the first edition of 
' The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe,' W. 
Taylor, 1719, 121. 12*. Other items include the first 

edition of Sterne's 'Sentimental Journey,' 1768 r 
If. 10*.; eleven books and pamphlets printed by 
VV. J. Linton at the Appledore Press, 1882-95, 
4/. 4*.; first edition of Shelley's ' Six W T eeks' Tour,' 
uncut, Hookham & Oilier, 1817, 31. 3*. ; a collection 
of 176 Playbills made by Toole, 1753-66, 12/. ; and 
Carew's 'Poems,' a seventeenth-century MS., neatly 
written in the same hand, circa 1640, 10/. 10*. We 
have no further space, but almost each item in this 
catalogue has a history of its own. 

Mr. William Glaisher has a Catalogue of Popular 
Current Literature. 

Mr. William Hitchman's Bristol Catalogue 44 
contains a set of Lawrence & Bullen's "Italian 
Novelists," 9 vols., 10/. ; The Ancestor, 12 vols., 21. 
Howell and Cobbett's ' State Trials,' 1809 - 28, 
34 vols., 14/. 14*.; Petit's 'Cathedrals of England,' 
23 original drawings, 21. ; Morgan's ' Romano- 
British Mosaic Pavements,' describing the tessel- 
lated Pavements of England, county by county, 18*. ; 
'Warwick Castle to the Present Day,' by the 
Countess of Warwick, 13*. Qd. ; and Johnstone and 
Croall's ' Nature-printed British Seaweeds,' 210 
coloured plates by Bradbury, 1859-60, 4 vols. 
royal 8vo, 21. 2*. 

Messrs. George Juckes & Co., of Birmingham, 
have in their Catalogue 176 Edwards's 'Anecdotes 
of Painters,' 1808, 21. 18*. 6rf. ; Collins's 'Peerage ' 
9 vols., 1812, It. 15*.; 'Curiosities of Emblem 
Literature,' a scrapbook of drawings coloured by 

TiQTirl Q7 Qu * J^prT7^1/v^cor1ia T*i-f-o-riTirt<- J /TTZ, 

paintings of Cornwall coast scenery by W. Casley 
for sale. 

Mr. Alexander W. Macphail, of Edinburgh, 
includes in his Catalogue LXXXVIII. an interest- 
ing fifteenth-century manuscript, ' Scotus Pau- 
perum,' with letter inserted from the author dated 
10 May, 1486, large 8vo, morocco, 4/. 10*. ; Drum- 
mond's 'Ancient Scottish Weapons,' 11. 18*. ; 
'Antiquarian and Topographical Cabinet,' 1807-12, 
12 vols., 11 12*.; and 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
1861, 25*. There are a number of items under 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, and under Scott are a 
likeness in oil, 3/. 15*. ; and a copy of the statue by 
Greenshields, 18 in. by 12 in., It. 5*. There is a Ion'"- 
list of Trials. 

Mr. E. Menken's Book Circular 174 con- 
tains important items under Ancient Religions. 
Lovers of heraldry will be interested in Foster's 
' Marks and Ensigns of Honotir,' 3/. 3*. ; and 
Guigard's ' Armorial du Bibliophile,' 21. 15.y. 
Under Atlas occur the 'Atlas Historique,' 7 vols., 
folio, Amsterdam, 1739, &c., 51. 5*.; and the 
'Atlas Curieux,' Paris, 1705-17, 3/. 3*. Other items 
include Segar and Edmondson's ' Baronagium 
Genealogicum,' 1764-84, 5/. 18*.; Burton's 'Arabian 
Nights,' Benares, 1885, 15/. ; a copy of the first 
edition of the ' Chronicon Nurembergense,' 36/. ; 
Roach Smith's 'Collectanea Antiqua,' 1848-80,' 
7 vols., 51. 5*. ; and Mareschal's ' Les Faiences 
Anciennes et Modernes,' 2 vols., 3/. 3*. Genea- 
logists will be attracted by the entries under 
Foster, these including his ' Index to Printed 
Pedigrees,' 4 vols., unpublished, but ready for the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 2, 1907. 

r, IO/. 10.--. ; and 'Index to Heralds' Visita- 
tions and other MSS. in the British Museum,' 
unpublished. 20/. The Library Edition of Jesse's 
4 Historical Memoirs,' 30 vols., is 12f. 12*. ; Beltz's 
* Order of the Garter,' Pickering, 1841, 11. 5*. 6rf. ; 
and Pitt - Rivera's privately printed works on 
' Excavations and Antiquities? 7 vols., 6t. 10*. 
There is a long list under Family History. 

Messrs. Myers & Co.'s List 114 contains first 
edition of 'Northanger Abbey,' original boards, 
uncut, 1818, 11. Its. ; Edition de Luxe of Lever's 
Novels, polished calf by Zaehnsdorf, 31/. 10*.; 
Goupil's 'Royal Biographies,' Y!l. ; first edition of 
Rossetti's 'Poems' (one of twelve copies printed 
on hand-made paper), 1870, 5/. 5*. The original 
issue in 12 monthly parts of ' Old St. Paul's,' 1844, 
121. 12-s. "Murray's Family Library," 1830, &c., 
53 vols., 11. 10s.; Beaumont and Fletcher, edited by 
Dyce, 11 vols., 1843-6, 121.12*.-, ' The Century Dic- 
tionary,' 11. Dickens's 'Gems from the Spirit 
Mine,' 12mo, 1850, 15*. (this contains the 'Hymn of 
the Wiltshire Labourers,' specially written for the 
" League of Universal Brotherhood ") ; The Times 
'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 35 vols., 14/. 10*. (cost 
upwards of 60/.); Home's 'New Spirit of the Age,' 
with 40 portraits, 1844, 3/. 7*. Qfl. ; and a handsome 
Virgil, 3 vols., folio, Rome, 1763-5, 31. 10*. (the 
illustrations were specially engraved for the Duchess 
of Devonshire). Two specially interesting items 
are a copy of Leigh Hunt's ' The Town,' a presenta- 
tion copy " to Mary Shelley from her affectionate 
friend the author ; and from Charles Lamb's 
library, Mason's 'Believer's Pocket Companion,' 
1821, containing verses with Lamb's signature. 
The Catalogue has a long list under Ireland and 

Messrs. Pitcher & Co., of Manchester, have in 
their Catalogue 142, Billing's 'Baronial Antiquities,' 
1845-52, 51. 10*. ; John Doyle's ' Political Sketches,' 
McLean, 1829-48, 9 vols., imperial folio, GQt. (this 
copy has the full number of plates, 917) ; first 
edition of Campbell's 'Poetical Works,' 1837, 
3/. 3*. ; Bohn's extra volumes, 3/. 5*. ; The original 
Library Edition of Dickens, 1866, 30 vols., 14/. ; 
'The Dialect Dictionary,' 6 vols., 4to, 7/. ; ' Ex- 

g)sitor's Bible,' 49 vols., 8/. 8*.; first edition of 
amerton's ' Etching and Etchers,' 1868, 5/. 5*. ; 
Dodoens's 'A Nieuwe Herbal,' 1578, 6/. (last leaf 
of index wanting); Percy's 'Household Books,' 
Pickering, 1827-31, II. 5*.; Laing's 'Sagas of the 
Norse Kings,' 21. 10*. ; Millais's ' Game Birds ' 
<>/. 10*.; 'Picturesque Europe,' original edition, 
-V. T,.s ; large-paper copy of " The Temple Library," 
16 vols., (}/. Ik ; Hogarth's Works, edited by Austin 
Dobson, with portfolio of duplicate plates, 51. 5* 
Lilford s ' Birds,' very scarce, 52/. 10*. ; Hogg and 
Bulls 'Herefordshire Pomona,' I/. 15*.; Motley's 
Works, 11 vols., tree calf, by Riviere, 9/. ; and a 
complete set of the Cmttini dnlld Hobby Horse, 
31. 18*. There are interesting items under Scott 
and Scotland. 

Mr Albert Button , of Manchester, devotes his 
Catalogue 148 to the English Lakes and the Lake 
Poets It contains the Transactions of the Cum- 
ter^S^SS ^ es * mo ^ and Antiquarian Society, 
ISu-KKK) 20.; Beck's 'Furness Abbey,' 1844, 4/. 4* ; 
Whitaker's 'Parish of Clitheroe,' 21. 10*.; a series 
of water-colour drawings, 3/. 7*. M. ; and Scott's 
Border Antiquities,' 1814, If. 7*. 6V/. There are 
early guide-books ; and of course long lists under 
Wordsworth and Southey. 

Mr. Sutton has also a general catalogue, No. 149. 
We note JSradxhaw's Manchester Journal, 1841-8 
4 vols., 8*.; Household Words, 19 vols., I/. ].s. ; 
St. John Hope's 'Knights of the Garter,' 2/. 17*. (W.; 
a complete set of Punch to end of 1903, half- 
morocco, 22/. 10*. ; a collection of over a hundred 
Street Ballads, 11. ; and the Transact ion* of the 
Manchester Literary Club, 28 vols., 3/. 3*. There 
are many items under Lancashire. We would 
suggest to Mr. Sutton that his highly interesting 
catalogues would be far more enjoyable reading if 
printed on ordinary paper, instead of the highly 
glazed paper he now uses. 

Mr. Wilfrid M. Voynich's Short Catalogue 21 
contains 374 items, all more or less rare. We note 
first edition of Paracelsus, 1660, 21. 12*. Qd. Under 
Anthologies will be found a work unknown to 
bibliographers, Fanutius's ' Aureum prorsus Opuscu- 
lum de Comparationibus Poetarum ' (Virgil, Lucre- 
tius, Seneca, Horace, &c.), Bologna, 1533, '21. 2*. ; 
and Mirandula's ' Illustrium Poetarum Flores,' 
1598, 21. 2*. The editor of the latter is unknown. 
Under Bibles are three not in the Caxton Exhibi- 
tion. Under English Royal Binding is Charles L's 
copy of Baker's 'Chronicle of the Kings of Eng- 
land,' 1643, 71. 7*. Under Cookery is Wake's 'A 
Hermeticall Banquet' (on p. 35 Shakespeare's name 
is mentioned), 1652, 151. 15*. Under Dialling is 
Samuel Foster's ' Miscellanies,' 1659, "21. 10*. Foster 
was famous for inventing and improving many 
planetary instruments. Under Incunabula is 
Eusebius ' De Prseparatione Evangelica,' Jenson 
1470, 501. This is the first book printed by Jenson, 
and exhibits great beauty of typographical execu- 
tion. Among other items we find Shelton's trans- 
lation of ' Don Quixote,' 2 vols. in 1, 1672-5, 4J 4* 
According to Jarvis, this is the first English 
translation. The twenty-third edition of Defoe's 
' True-Born Englishman,' Dublin, 1733, is 7*. M. A 
note states that this edition is not to be found in 
Lowndes or Watt. The first edition appeared in 
1700, and "Defoe declares in 1705 that nine genuine 
and twelve pirated editions had been printed and 
80,000 copies sold in the streets." The third edition 
of Stowe, 1618, is 3Z. 3*.; and the rare first edition 
of Dr. Some's ' Godly Treatise, wherein are ex- 
amined and confuted many execrable fancies given 
out and holden partly by Henry Barrow and John 
Greenewood (see 10 S. vi. 118), 1589, 11. 16*. 

THE library of our old friend and contributor the 
Rev. J. Woodfall Ebsworth, announced to be sold 
by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson on the 13th inst. and 
following day, will be found to be rich in collections 
of old song-books and ballad literature, besides 
many interesting presentation copies. Mr. Ebs- 
worth has been a book-collector from early boy- 
hood. * 


J. G. C. His father was Scotch, and his mother 

CORRIGENDUM. Ante, p. 69, col. 2, 1. 22 from foot 
for "MS. Digby" read MS. Douce. 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

io s. vii. FEE. 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Advertisements held over for "want of space will be inserted next week. 



Contents .-General, including Periodicals The Near 
East, Turkey, Asia Minor Africa Egypt Arabia Persia 
and Afghanistan British India, Burma and Ceylon 
Australia, New Zealand, &c. Supplement. 

Also a ROUGH LIST of some Second-hand Books on the 
Languages and Literature of Asia, Africa, Turkey, including 
some Books on Biblical Literature. 

Sent gratis on application to 

L U Z A C & CO., 

Foreign and Oriental Booksellers, 




Witchcraft in the West Indies, by H. J. Bell Kirke's 
Twenty-Five Years in British Guiana Emma, Lady 
Hamilton, by J. T. H. Baily Morgan's Ancient 
Society, &c. 

Sole Agency for Sale of the Proceedings of this Society. 
Lists of Prices and Parts free on application. Miscel- 
laneous Catalogue No. 286, 44 pp. 

Burma, Malay Archipelago, Japan, China, Persia, 
Central Asia, &c. MARCH, 1906. 100 pp. 




PHLETS, and OLD BOOKS on many Subjects. 


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300 Examples on 100 Plates. With Introduction and 
Notes by E. PHIPSON. 1896. 4to (pub. 21. 2s. net), 
10s. 6d. 

DRAL. Drawn and Etched by JOS. HALFPENNY, 
1795. Preface by Canon RAINE. 1890. Folio 
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,Mi>. .lames Jardine). . 

in f,-av Lto Ci bv <4 inches), irith gat top and special 

1M ' ' 

ater-Culmn: n 
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Mr Clarence Rook's 'Switzerland' is no mere 
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l country, its people and their custom* > I . R ook t races t 



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OtMfBtMtraCfld after Water-Colours and S*via Dramnas 
bn the Japanese Artist Mr. YOSHIOM 
binding spccialla designed by the Artist, M>s net. 

\jnai/, lout . 

Mr Yoshio Markino is one more proof of the peculiar adaptability 
of his nation. 11- hu fcbwbed our Km-o K i.ii style but has enriched 
it with that peculiar sense of composition and the feeling for 
.tm.'-l'hen- which are the secrets of his nation mi,! seem beyond the 
reach of any other. The artist will further contribute an essay on 
4 London As I See It.' 

VENICE. By Beryl de Selincourt and 


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[March, 1907. 


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English readers naturally remember .lulie de Lespinasse as the 
original of Mrs. Humphry Ward's 'Lady Rose's Daughter.' 


M \RQUIS DE SECTOR. Authorized English Version. With 
Photogravure Frontispiece, from the only Authentic Portrait of 
Mademoiselle de Lespinasse, by CARMONTELLE. I^Svo. 

The4t)kwM t of*'juiie 9, 1906, says of the original edition of this 
hook- "The admirers of Mademoiselle de Lespinasse must rejoice 
that this fascinating woman should have won the affection of a 

^^ y Carmontelle now for the first time makes visible the 

face which contemporary opinion found "quite irresistible." 
urally remei ' 


lieintt an Account of the Primitive Inhabitants of Babylonia. 

I LEON \RD W. KING, M.A. F.S. A. F.K.G.S., Assistant in the 

"Department of Eavptian and Assyrian Antiquities at the British 

Museum. Demy 8*0, cloth, with Illustrations and Maps. -jox. 

Mr. King's knowledge of early Assyrian history is attested by a long 
list of publications. The present volume is based on materials 
collected during many years of research, largely among the ruing of 
ancient Assyria Much light has been thiown on this great but dim 
story during the last decade, chi.-rty thanks to the labours of Mr. 
King's department in the British Museum. 

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CONTENTS. No. 1&3. 

NOTES : Early British Names : their Interpretation, 101 
The Gages of Bentley, Framtielrt, Sussex, 102 Burton's 
' Anatomy of Melancholy,' 103 Pastoral Astronomy, 104 
" Mesteque " : its Etymology" Adespota "Watts and 
the Rose " Spartam nactus es, hanc exorna" "Carry- 
ing coals to Newcastle " Error in Ruffhead Falling 
Birdcage and 111 Luck, 105" Boz-pole " " To go to pot " 
Hornsey Wood House : Harringay House, 106. 

QUERIES : Poonah Painting ' Pop goes the Weasel' 
Addison and Col. Philip Dormer Newbolds of Derby- 
shire, 107 Latin Pronunciation in England " Haze" 
'Bibliotheca Staffordiensis,' 108 " Blue- water " " Ar- 
miger " : " Generosus," &c. Ward Surname " Kingsley's 
Stand "John Amcotts George Geoffry Wyatville, 109 
Antiquarian Society, Batley, Yorkshire Charles Reade's 
Greek Quotation Dubourdieu and England Families, 110. 

REPLIES: Bell -horses: Pack-horses, 110 Cardinal 
Mezzofanti "Mony a pickle maks a mickle," 112 Rom- 
ney's Ancestry A Knighthood of 1603, 113 Major Hamill 
of Capri "G" Hard or Soft Splitting Fields of Ice, 114 
' The Times,' 1692 Duke of Kent's Children Rev. R. 
Rauthmel " The Old Highlander "" Mitis "" Moke," 
a Donkey, 115 "Mulatto" Royal Kepier School, 
Houghton - le - Spring " Wroth " Admiral Benbow's 

speare,' 117 J. L. Toole, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' Society in the Country House' 
'Visitation of England and Wales '' Poems of Long- 
fellow ' ' Poems of Herrick ' ' A Dictionary of Political 
Phrases and Allusions ' " The World's Classics " 
Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Mona and cognate Names. Mona was the 
name of the isles of Anglesey and Man at 
the coming of the Romans. It goes back, 
therefore, to prehistoric time. We find the 
same element in other names, such as 
Monnow ; Menevia Juteorum (i.e., Menevia 
of the Goths), the ancient name of St. 
David's in South Wales ; Dumnonium, 
the ancient name of Devonshire, and mean- 
ing, as will presently appear, the region 
bounded on either side by water ; Clack- 
mannan, in Scotland ; Mannau Gododin, 
a name given in Welsh literature to what is 
now Haddingtonshire ; and besides these 
it occurs, in different modified forms, in a 
great many other geographical names, as 
I shall endeavour to show. 

Now, in regard to the meaning, it is to be 
observed that the name is always used as a 
river-name, or else to designate a portion 
of land adjacent to or surrounded by water 
whilst the instances in which it is so used 
are so numerous as to leave little doubt 
that the word signifies water. This being 
taken for granted, the next point is to 
ascertain in what language or languages 

he word is found with this meaning. The 
answer to this is that the nearest existing 
brm of a word with this meaning is the 
Norse word vand (water), the Scandinavian 
nasalized) form of the English word water, 
vat or vad being the root. Let us consider 
what modifications of this form of the word 
would be required to give the form found in 
Vtona, Man, and the other instances above 
nentioned. One would be the assimilating 
of the consonants nd into nn, which is very 
common in Celtic. Probably this modifica- 
tion of the word is to be seen in the name 
of Vannes, in Brittany, so called after the 
ancient Veneti, who dwelt on the coast, and 
of whose skill in navigation and commercial 
enterprise mention is made by Caesar. Next 
we know that original v passes frequently 
into m, thus giving the form of the word 
seen in Mona, Dumnonium (where du stands 
for the second numeral), Menevia, Clack- 
mannan, and the rest. As to the change of 
a into o in Mona, it is what is seen when 
man is pronounced as mon ; and in Welsh 
words borrowed from English it almost 
invariably takes place. And there is another 
modification which the root under considera- 
tion, vat or vad, might undergo, viz., by the 
m passing into n, which is also very common. 
In this form we meet frequently with it, as 
in the river-names Nith, Neath, Neathey, 
and Nen ; Namnates (?), ancient name of 
Nantes, in France ; Nantwich (Cheshire) ; 
Bradninch (Devonshire) ; Dinan (Brittany) ; 
Dinant (Belgium) ; in the word tri-nani, 
occurring in a Gaulish inscription ; in the 
Welsh word nant, which always means a 
place where the water collects ; and once 
more, in the name of the Celtic sea-god 
Nodens, to whom, in the Romano-British 
period, a temple was dedicated in what is 
now South Wales, and in the tribal names 
Novantes and Trinovantes (where the d or t 
of the root is changed into v ; cf. Latin 
medius and mefms), meaning, the former the 
tribe whose territory was defined by the 
Nith, and the latter the people of the three 
rivers, comparable as a geographical designa- 
tion with the Indian Penjaub. 

Lastly, the initial letter v of our root 
might be dropped, as happens in Greek and 
in Welsh and Norse words. Probably this 
modification is seen in the Welsh name 
Glan Adda, or Adda side, and the river- 
name Annan, in Scotland and elsewhere. 
These different modifications of an initial 
v or w (the digamma) may be seen by com- 
paring English personal pronoun we with 
Greek hemeis, Latin nos, and Greek oida 
with Latin vidi. And in passing I may 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. FEB. 9, 1007. 

point out that the change of v into n occurs 
in a sreat number of Latin and Greek words, 
asm nesos, island ; Nereids, water divinities ; 
nato, to swim; unda, wave; Neptunus, 
lord of the water. 

It appears, therefore, that the early 
British names Mona, Menevia, Novantes, 
Nith Neath, Xeathey, &c., are all from the 
root'vad or vat, and signify water ; and it 
would seem that they were brought into 
Britain by the settlers from Belgic Gaul, for 
one of the varieties still survives in Belgium 
in the name Dinant. J. PARRY. 

(To be continued.) 



JAMES GAGE, of Bentley, was one of the 
sons (probably the second son) of Sir John 
Gage, K.G. 

One James Gage married Anne, aged 
36 in 1555, daughter and coheir of Dorothy, 
wife of Sir Henry Owen, and sister and 
coheir of Thomas, Lord De la Warre (Cart- 
wricrht's ' Sussex,' ii. 29). I believe this to 
have been James Gage of Bentley, and the 
lady to have been his second wife. He 
seems to have married as his first wife 
Jane, daughter of James Delves, of Bent- 
ley, Sussex, and widow of John Bellingham, 
of Erington, Sussex (Nichols's * Leicester- 
shire,' iii. 149; Gage's ' Hengrave,' 231). 
He died 12 Jan., 1572/3, leaving one Uryth 
or Urth his widow, and four sons : (1) Ed- 
ward, (2) John, (3) James, (4) Robert (Sussex 
Rec. Soc., iii. 8). 

Edward, his heir, married Margaret, 
daughter of John (not William) Shelley, 
of Michelgrove (cf. 10 S. iv. 56). There is 
an odd divergence in the published accounts 
of their monument in Framfield Church, and 
perhaps some Sussex reader of ' N. & Q-' 
will give a full description of it. According 
to the Rev. H. R. Hoare (Sussex Arch. Coll., 
iv. 296-7), " behind him are three sons, 
behind her five daughters, above are their 
names." On the other hand, the Rev. E. 
Turner says (ibid., xxiii. 159) that the brass 
has " the figures of a man and a woman and 
of their six children upon it " ; and that the 
first half of the inscription runs : 

"Here lyeth the body of Edward Gage, Esq r , 
and Margaret his wife (daughter of Sir [-s/c] John 
Shelley, of Michelgrove), who had three sons and 
seven daughters, and died Anno D'ni 1595." 
The three sons and one of the daughters 
appear to have predeceased their father. 
The six surviving daughters, together with 
their mother, are given in the pedigree in 

Harl. Soc. Publ., liii. 9, to their father's 
cousin John, eldest son of Sir Edward Gage, 
K.B., of Firle ; and in Gage's ' Hengrave ' 
(p. 237) and in Burke's ' Peerage ' their 
mother is represented as wife of the said 
Sir Edward's fifth son Edward, and mother 
of his children John and Elizabeth. Brother 
Foley (' Records S.J.,' v. 78) supposes the 
tomb to be that of Edward Gage of Firle ! 

Of the six surviving daughters, (1) Mary 
married John Crispe, of Ore, Sussex. (2) 
Dorothy, whose name also occurs as Ruth, 
married Thomas Alcock (whom Berry,. 
' Sussex Genealogies,' 294, calls Alwick)* 
of Rampton, Cambs, who in April, 1593, 
had been about 32 weeks in the Marshalsea 
for recusancy (Strype, ' Ann.,' iv. 258). 
(3) Margaret married George Smyth, of the 
Bishopric of Durham. (4) Mildred married 
Augustine Belson, of Stokenchurch, Oxon,. 
a recusant (' Cal. S. P. Dom., 1598-1601, '*" 
p. 524), and surviving him died in 1624, 
aged 49, and was buried at Clapham, Sussex 
(Cartwright, ' Sussex,' ii. 85). (5) Philippa 
married Andrew Bendlowes, of Essex, also 
a recusant (' Cal. S. P.,' loc. cit.}. (6) Eliza- 
beth married Anthony Skinner, of Rowing- 
ton, Warwickshire, who received licence to 
go beyond the seas with his family on 12 Aug 
1606 (' Cal. S. P. Dom. Add., 1580-1625 ' 
p. 486). 

In 1576 Edward Gage was a magistrate 
of Sussex suspected of Popery (Strype, 
' Ann.,' II. ii. 22). He appeared before the 
Council 11 Aug., 1580, in accordance with 
some previous judgment, and on the 13th 
was committed to the Marshalsea (' P. C. A.,' 
N.S., xii. 150, 153). As one of the executors 
of the Earl of Southampton's will he was 
liberated on bail for a short time 20 June, 
1581, and his leave of absence was repeatedly 
extended (ibid., xiii. 93, 296, 376). He went 
back to the Marshalsea after June, 1582, 
and was there on the following 23rd of March' 
In September, 1586, he was at liberty, and 
entertained on the 8th a seminary priest, 
Nicholas Smith, afterwards a Jesuit, who- 
at this time was residing with Lady Copley 
at Galton.* The priest was arrested the 
next day, through the instrumentality of 
the apostate Anthony Tyrrell, and com- 
mitted to the Clink on 1 1 September, where 
he still was in the following July. Edward 
Gage followed him to the Clink on the 14th, 

'"'See Foley, 'Records S. J.,' vol. vii. pp. 719, 
1451. He was nephew of one Smythe. M.D., who 
is probably the Richard Smith, M.D.Oxon of 
Munk's 'R. Coll. of Phys.,' vol. i. p. 07. This Dr 
Smith was also uncle to the Bishop of Chalcedori 
('D.N.B.,' liii. 102). 

10 s. VIL FEB. o, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


but by the 23rd had been transferred to 
the Counter in Wood Street, whence he was 
discharged on bail on 17 November (Cath. 
Kec. Soc., ii. 258, 268, 269, 272, 277 ; ' Cal. 
S. P. Dom., 1581-90,' p. 352). In 1592 he 
was in the custody of Mr. Richard Shelley, 
but having been named an executor of the 
will of the first Viscount Montague, he was 
frequently released on bail (' P. C. A.,' N.S., 
xxiii. 329, xxiv. 17, 149 ; ' Cal. Cecil MSS.,' 
iv. 264). About this time two priests, Mr. 
Taylor and Mr. Croket (Ralph Crocket the 
martyr), with another whose name has not 
been recorded, were always resident at 
Bentley (' S. P. Dom. Eliz.,' ccxli. 35). 

Edward Gage's brother John and nephew 
Edward, of Wormley, Hertfordshire, were 
also recusants (' Cal. Cecil MSS.,' iv. 265 ; 
* Cal. S. P. Dom., 1598-160L' p. 524). On 
his uncle's death in 1595 the latter succeeded 
to Bentley. He married Clare, sister to 
Andrew Bendlowes above mentioned, and 
in 1606 was licensed with his family to go 
abroad in company with his cousin Eliza- 
beth Skinner and her husband. He died at 
Bentley, 19 Sept., 1628 (Cath. Rec. Soc., i. 


(See 9 S. xi. 181, 222, 263, 322, 441 ; xii. 

2, 62, 162, 301, 362, 442 ; 10 S. i. 42, 163, 

203, 282 ; ii. 124, 223, 442 ; iii. 203 ; iv. 

25, 523 ; v. 146 ; vi. 143.) 

THE following are a few more additions 
to earlier notes. 

L. 80 of ' The Argument of the Frontis- 
piece ' (9 S. xii. 2) in the third edition, where 
the lines first appear, is 

He will doe the same again. 

P. 14, 1. 1 (Shill.) ; 3, 1. 7 (ed. 6) (10 S. iv. 
524). The error by which " a " is inserted 
before " ; Member " does not occur earlier 
than ed. 6. 

P. 17, n. 9 ; 5, n. u, " Anatomie of 
poperie," &c. (10 S. iv. 524 ; v. 146 ; vi. 
144). Add Donne's ' An Anatomy of the 
World,' 1st ed., 1611 (see Grosart's ed. 
of D.'s ' Complete Poems,' " The Fuller 
Worthies' Library," vol. i. p. 102). The 
title of George Gascoigne's ' The Anatomye 
of a Louer ' (p. i of ' The Posies,' 1575, first 
printed on pp. 344-5 of the unauthorized 
' A Hundreth sundrie Flowres bounde vp 
in one small Poesie ' [1572]) has a more 
literal application. For " Dunhelmensis " 
at 10 S. vi. 144 read Dunelmensis. 

P. 20, 7 ; 6, 33 (10 S. iv. 525). For 1617 
read 1617-18. 

P. 21, 2; 7, 9 (10 S. iv. 525). Burton's- 
error in quoting as lovius's the words from 
Alciatus's epist. at the beginning of the 
1553 (Paris) ed. of the ' Historic ' ha^ a 
parallel on p. 183 of vol. ii. (329, ed. 6, II. 
iii. iii.), where 

dant perennes 
Stemmata non peritura Musse 

is quoted with the marg. ref. " Marullus." 
It is not by Marullus, but forms the conclu- 
sion of a poem in three alcaic stanzas headed 
' De Marullo, 5 12Sap/.oi/,' and signed F. 
Thorius Bellio (i.e., Francisciis Thorius, of 
Bailleul), which may be read in the edition of 
Marullus's poems printed at Paris in 1561, 
with a dedication to Thorius by Guilielmus 

P. 21, n. 15 ; 7, n. m (9 S. xii. 443). For 
" scripturient[i]um " read scripturientum. 

P. 29, 1. 6 and n. 1 ; 11, 1. 38 and n. d., 
" Nicholas Car " (9 S. xii. 62). Here again 
our author makes a similar error to that 
pointed out above. The words in the note 
are not Carr's, but belong to an extract from 
' Richardus Vernamus in Methodo Geo- 
graphica' printed by Thomas Hatcher on 
fol. 16 verso of his ed. of Carr's oration ' De 
Scriptorum Britannicorum | paucitate, et 
studiorum impedi- | mentis,' 1576 : 

"Hoc beneficio [i.e., the presence of Typoyraphi 
ernditi] carent Angli, qui si quid etiam lectu non 
indignum pepererint, cum paucos habeant Typo- 
graphos, et eos aut artis suaj prorsus inscios, aut 
qutestui magis et auaritiae quam literamni profectui 
studentes, cogimtur," &c. 

With " that so many flourishing wits are 
smothered in oblivion, ly dead and buried," 
may be compared a passage in Erasmus's 
' De Utilitate Colloquiorum ' : " Nisi in- 
numera felicissima ingenia per istos in- 
felicissime sepelirentur ac defoderentur viva " 
over one-third through the piece, p. 774 
in 1729 variorum ed. of the ' Colloquia.' 

P. 31, n. 6 and n. 7 ; 13, n. p. and n. q., 
" Pet. Nannius. . . . ' Non hie colonus,' " &c. 
(10 S. i. 42). The ref. to the original ed. is 
p. 133 of N.'s 2,vfj./jit.KTu>i> siue Miscel- | 
laneorum decas | vna ' (Louvain, 1548), 
dedicated to William Paget, Chancellor for 
the Duchv of Lancaster, afterwards Baron 
Paget of Beaudesert. 

P. 43, n. 3 ; 20, n. p., " Anaxagoras olim 
mens dictus ab antiquis." The rendering 
of Timon's lines given by Cobet is, I find, 
not that of Ambrogio Traversari (10 S. i. 
203), though his trans, of Diog. Laert. is a 
revision of A. T.'s. 

P. 43, n. 4 ; 20, n. q., " Regula nature ' r 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 9, 1907. 

<10 S. i. 163). The exact reference to Aver- 
roes is fol. 169 recto, col. 1,1. 11 from foot, 
vol. vi. (1550) of the Venice (" apud Juntas ") 
ed. of Aristotle in Latin with a Latin version 
of Averroes's commentaries ; * De Anima,' 
lib. iii. summa 1, cap. 2, 

"credo enim quod istehomo fuerit regula in natura, 
.& exemplar, quod natura inuenit ad demonstrandum 
vltimam i>erfectionem humanam in materijs. - 
Tom. vi. Part i. fol. 159 verso, 1. 6 of the 1562 ed. 

P. 43, 14 ; 20, 29, " Nulla ferant," &c. 
(10 S. i. 282 ; vi. 144). See Bessarion's 

* Aduersus calumniatorem Platonis,' lib. i. 
cap. iii., about four-ninths through, 1. 19 of 
fol. 21 verso in the Roman ed. of 1469 
.(Sweynheym & Pannartz) : 

" Quid autem greci senserint : inprimis ab ipso 
Aristotele licet intelligere. Hie cum in problema- 
tibus quereret : cur hi qui in philosophia uel 
poetica uel liberalibus disciplinis : uel etiam reipub. 
administratione claruerunt : melancholic! fuerint : 
postquam enumeratis plerisque antiquis ad iuniores 
descendit : Empedoclis : et Platonis Socratis 
exemplo usus est. Quin etiam preclaram orationem 
de laudibus Platonis conscripsit : ut Olympiodorus 
refert. Et in elegiis ad Eudemum hec de Platone 

Cecropis ad claras uenerat usque domos 

I)ulcis amicicie mox illi condidit aram 

Quern laudare nephas ora prophana foret 

Qui solus : uita : doctrina moribus : ore 

Admonuit cunctos : et monumenta dedit 

Vt uirtute queant felicem ducere uitam 

Nulla ferent talem secla futura uirum." 

Though Olympiodorus's scholia on the 

'Gorgias' were not printed until 1848, by 

Albert Jahn in Supplement-band xiv. (the 

lines are on p. 395) of the ' Neue Jahrbiicher 

fur Philologie und Padagogik ' (Leipzig, 

founded by J. C. Jahn), yet the seven Greek 

verses had been given by Menage in his 

* Observationes ' on Diogenes Laertius (lib. v. 
i. 12, 27), p. 116 in the ed. at the end of the 
London Diog. Laert. of 1664. Neither 
Menage, nor Bergk (' Poet. Lyr. Gr.,' ii., 
1882, p. 336), nor Heitz (' Fragmm. Aris- 
totelis,' p. 334), nor Jahn, nor Rose (' Aris- 
totelis qui ferebantur librorum Fragmenta,' 
1886, p. 421), mentions the occurrence in 
Bessarion of the Latin rendering. " The 
four lines " at 10 S. vi. 144, col. 2, 1. 5, should 
be the last four lines. EDWARD BENSLY. 

University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. 
(To be continued.) 

r * PASTORAL ASTRONOMY. While yet under 
the charm of ' Les Etoiles,' the narrative 
of a Provencal shepherd, given by Alphonse 
Daudet in ' Lettres de mon Moulin,' it 
occurs to me to ask whether British watchers 
of the " flocks by night " have stories of 
the stars resembling those which Daudet 

found in some ' Armana Proven^eau ' and 
put into the mouth of his hero. They were 
probably contributed to the almanac by 
Frederic Mistral, who embodies them in a 
conversation with a shepherd in the eleventh 
chapter of his ' Memoires et Recits.' It is 
hardly possible that our own pastors do not 
gaze upon the stars and speculate as to their 
nature and on the reason of their distribu- 
tion in the heavens. There is probably 
much folk-lore current in the fraternity 
which, as far as I know, and that is not very 
far, is still unrecorded. Here are the Pro- 
ven$al examples : 

"Juste au-dessus de nous, voila le Chemiii <lc, 
saint Jacques (la voie lactee). II va de France droit 
sur 1'Espagne. C'est saint Jacques de Galiee qui 
1'a trace pour montrer sa route au brave Charle- 
magne lorsqu'il faisait la guerre aux Sarrasins. 
Plus loin, vous avez le Char des dmes (la grande 
Ourse) avec ses quatre essieux resplendissants. Les 
trois Etoiles qui vont devant sont les Trois betes, 
et cette toute petite contre la troisieme c'est le 
Charretier. Voyez-vous tout autour cette pluie 
d'etoiles qui tombent ? ce sont les ames dont le bon 

Dieu ne veut pas chez lui Un pen plus bas, voici 

le Rateau ou les Trois rois (Orion). C'est ce qui 
nous sert d'horlpge, a nous autres. Rien qu'en les 
regardant, je sais maintenant qu'il est minuit passe. 
Un peu plus bas, toujours vers le midi, brille Jean 
de Milan, le flambeau des astres (Sirius). Sur cette 
etoile-la, voici ce que les bergers recontent. II 
parait qu'une nuit Jean de Milan avec les Trois 
rois et la Poussiniere (la Ple"iade) furent invites a 
la noce d'une etoile de leurs amies. La Poussiniere, 
plus pressee, partit, dit-on, la premiere, et prit le 
chemin haut. Regardez-la, la-haut, tout au fond 
du ciel. Les Trois rois couperent plus bas et la 
rattraperent, mais ce paresseux de Jean de Milan, 
qui avait dormi trop tard, resta tout a fait derriere, 
et furieux, pour les arreter leur jeta son baton. 
C'est pourquoi les Trois rois s'appellent aussi le 

Bdton de Jean de Milan Mais la plus belle de 

toutes les etoiles, maitresse, c'est la notre, c'est 
V Etoile du berger, qui nous eclaire a 1'aube, quand 
nous sortons le troupeau, et aussi le soir quand nous 
le rentrons. Nous la nommons encore Maguelonne, 
la belle Maguelonne qui court apres Pierre de 
Provence (Saturn) et se marie avec lui tous les sept 
ans." Pp. 60-62. 

Valuable notes on the Great and the Little 
Bear and on the Milky Way are stored in 
the first three volumes of Melusine. I 
gather there that while, perhaps, in most 
lands, " the seven stars " are regarded as a 
wain or other wheeled vehicle, in Vivarais 
they are looked upon as being a saucepan 
watched by the star which is to be seen 
near the end of the handle. When the 
saucepan boils this scullion will take it from 
the fire, and then the end of the world will 
come. In the United States the constella- 
tion is called the Dipper, i.e., the Ladle. 
I believe that our people speak of it as the 
Plough. ST. SWITHIN. 

10 s. VIL FEB. 9, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


review (ante, p. 58) of the last section of the 
' N.E.D.,' mesteque, a term applied to the 
finest cochineal, is said to be of obscure 
origin. I should like to suggest that it is 
merely a corrupt or hispanicized form of the 
tribal name Mixtec, familiar to readers of 
Prescott. In Rees's ' Cyclopaedia,' 1819, 
s.v. ' Cochineal,' there is a sentence which 
confirms this theory : 

" The cultivated cochineal, called also mcxtique 
from a Mexican province of that name, is the 
product of slow and progressive improvement in 
the breed of the wild cochineal." 

It will be perceived that the name of the 
province is not precisely stated. We may, 
I think, safely assume it to be Mixtecapan, 
the province of the Mixtecs, who were an 
Indian race allied to that remarkable people 
the Zapotecs, who have given to Mexico 
some of her greatest statesmen. 


note upon Mr. King's book says (ante, p. 25), 
with reference to the title given by Mr. King 
to his anonymous quotations: " I do not 
think much can be said in favour of ' Ades- 
pota.' " May I be allowed to say that I 
think a great deal may be said in its favour ? 
In various editions of the Greek ' Anthology ' 
aSecrTTOTOf literally, without master, owner- 
less is the proper term for a piece the author 
of which is unknown. The word is used 
by Plutarch in this sense. I cannot see why 

* Adespota ' should not be used in English 
in a literary sense, just as ' Anecdota ' and 

* Analecta ' are so used. A. L. MAYHEW. 

WATTS AND THE ROSE. Most of us when 
children were familiar with Watts' s ' Divine 
and Moral Songs,' and probably many will 
remember how infelicitously Capt. Cuttle 
(the author of the motto of ' N. & Q.') 
quoted the one on the sluggard in his delight 
at hearing again the voice of his old friend 
Sol Gills. I wish, however, to refer to the 
one relating to the rose, which begins : 

How fair is the rose ! what a beautiful flower ! 

The glory of April and May. 

With the first line all will agree ; the rose 
is undoubtedly the queen of flowers, and 
deserves all the praises which the poets 
have lavished upon it. But it is essentially, 
in this country, a summer flower : June is 
its principal month, and rarely is it to be 
seen out of doors earlier. 

Whilst speaking of the rose, I may perhaps 
be allowed to call attention to a singular error 
of etymology in Syme's ' English Botany ' 

(vol. iii. p. 203), where we are told not only 
that " rose " is derived from the Greek p68ov, 
but that that word means red. We have,, 
indeed, the Greek adjective pdSeo?, but that 
comes, like our word " rosy," from the rose, 
not the rose from it. W. T. LYNN. 

(See ante, p. 25.) The tracing of this quota- 
tion to its Greek source in a fragment of 
Euripides has been sufficiently shown in 
3 S. v. 260, 307, 444; but it had been 
observed earlier in a characteristic note by 
Archdeacon Wrangham in his edition of Dr, 
Thomas Zouch's 'Works,' 1820, vol. i. 
pp. xiii, xiv. I recorded at 10 S. vi. 486 its- 
use by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, and I have 
a memorandum that it occurs in the dedica- 
tion of Schrevelius's ' Juvenal.' It appears 
on the title-page of Chamberlayne's ' Present 
State,' 1684, the 'Whitaker's Almanack' 
of that time ; but it is perhaps most familiar 
to English readers by being quoted in Ed- 
mund Burke's ' Reflections on the Revolu- 
tion in France' (ed. Daly, 1841, p. 181), 
where he terms it " a rule of profound sense.'' 

W. C. B. 

EBBOB IN RTJFFHEAD. In Ruff head's ' Sta- 
tutes at Large,' 1769, vol. i. p. 516, the 
statute 9 Hen. V. s. i. c. 10 is headed " Keels- 
that carry Sea-Coals to Newcastle shall be 
measured and marked." Whether the 
phrase quoted above was in use or not in 
1769 I do not know, but Ruffhead's curious 
title did not state the effect of the Act 
correctly. He should have written at 
instead of " to." A customs due of 2d. 
was payable to the king on every chaldron 
sold to people not franchised in the port of 
the town of Newcastle-on-Tyne. The keels- 
by which the coals were carried from the 
land to ships in the port were assessed to a 
portage of 20 chaldrons each ; but larger 
ones had been built, with the result that the 
king was cheated of his dues. Hence the 
provisions for marking and measuring. 

R. S. B. 

[The late MR. F. ADAMS quoted at 8 S. ii. 484 an 
instance of the use of the proverb before 1614. See 
also 4 S. vi. 90 ; 5 S. xi. 486 ; 8 S. iii. 17, 136 ; 9 S. 
xi. 495.] 

Standard for 4 January contained the 
following : 

" While Mrs. Dunn, a lodging-house keeper, of 
Aldershot, was working in her wash-house on 
Boxing. Day, her caged blackbird fell down. She 
took it to be an omen of ill luck, and it so affected; 
her that she went all over the house to see if there 


NOTES AND QUERIES. uo s. VH. FEB. 9, 1907. 

\vas anything wrong. She discovered that about 
four pounds worth of clothes and jewellery had 
been stolen from her bedroom, and suspicion falling 
upon two of her lodgers who had left suddenly that 

day, the police were informed. The pair were 

charged at the Hants Quarter Sessions yesterday 
with the offence." 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

" BOZ-POLE." I do not find this word in 
any dictionary, but it is in the following 
paragraph, which appeared in The Weekly 
Journal, or British Gazetteer, for Saturday, 
18 January, 1718 : 

" Last Sunday, as the Lord Bishop of York went 
To preach at St. Anne's in Blackfryers, his Coach 
over-set behind Ludgate-Prison, occasioned by the 
Prisoners taking in their Boz-Pole, to make room ; 
and letting it fall betwixt the Coach arid the Coach- 
man, put his Grace into some surprize, but did no 
other Damage than that of breaking the Glasses, 
which made his Grace walk a-foot to the Church." 

That it should have been a " Boz " who 
called such striking public attention to the 
sufferings of the " poor prisoners " in the 
Fleet as to ensure their redress adds interest 
to this particular word. 


" To GO TO POT." This phrase appears 
to have meant, in some instances at least, 
" to go to prison " : 

" When great Rogues are in Authority, and have 
the Laws against Oppression and Robbery in their 
own Hands, little Thieves only go to Pot for't ; and 
inferior Pirates are punish'd with Death at the 
Gallows, while those of superior Orb, or first Rate 
Offenders, live safe and successful at the Helm of 
Government." ' English Proverbs with Moral Re- 
flexions,' by Oswald Dykes, 2nd ed., 1709, p. 36, 
' One Man had better steal a Horse, than another 
look over a Hedge.' 

"All ] (lotting against the Lives, or the Govern- 
ments of Princes, is but playing the Fool at the 
best. Plots for the most Part miscarry, and then 
the Plotters are sure to be soundly hamper'd, or to 
iio to Pot for their Pains in the Discovery."- ll>i<l.. 
l>. 142, in the reflexion on 'Harm watch, Harm 

Jamieson's ' Scottish Dictionary ' has " Pot, 
Pott, a pit ; a dungeon," and gives a quota- 
tion from Douglas's ' Virgil,' 108, 16, in 
which is the following : 

iK-ip in the sorout'ull grisle hellis pot. 


HOUSE : ^ HIGHGATE. As the object of 
4 N. & Q.' is to prevent the perpetuation of 
error as well as to record valuable items of 
knowledge, I beg leave to call attention to 
the following blunder in the Christmas 
Supplement of The Hornsey and Finsbury 
Park Journal, 14 Dec., 1906, so that when 

future references are made for the purposes 
of topographical information, searchers may 
not be confused or misled. The article, 
which is signed W. B., is headed ' Harringay 
Past and Present,' and a picture is repro- 
duced from a print published in 1809, with 
the following remarkable description and 
fanciful variants : 

" Harringy, Harringay, Harringee, Harringhee, 
Harnesey, Harnsey, Hornsey House. 

" This was a noted house of entertainment which 
stood towards Harringay, and near to the present 
lake in Finsbury Park." 

The latter part is correct. The picture 
represents old Hornsey Wood House, which 
had no more connexion with Harringay 
House than St. Paul's Cathedral has with 
the Alhambra in Leicester Square. The 
\ two places were entirely distinct. 

Harringay House stood at the back of the 
Green Lanes, on the eastern side of the rail- 
way, behind Hornsey Station and south of 
! Hornsey Church. It was built on the site 
| of a fine old Tudor mansion, pulled down 
about 1750, and Mr. Lloyd in his 'History 
of Highgate ' (which see) says it was the seat 
of the family of Cozens for 200 years. The 
property was (a portion of it, if not all) in 
that interest for nearly four centuries. 
Harringay House w r as rebuilt or renovated 
about 1793. It has never been known by 
any other name, and the nomenclature did 
not arise early enough for any variant of it 
to have been used. 

Hornsey Wood House was so called in 
1791 in the Burial Register of Hornsey. 
In 1764 the sign of the tavern was " The 
Horns " (see Wroth's ' London Pleasure 
Gardens,' 1896, p. 169). In 1735 it had a 
synonymous name to its ancient one of 1313, 
but it had nothing to do with " Harringy," 

In 1200 the present Harringay is spelt 
" Haringue " ; in 1231, " Harengheye " 
(Feet of Fines) ; and in 1244, '' Harengee " 
(Pat. Roll 28 Hen. III.). There are number- 
less other variants, but in no case have I 
found the double consonant used in any 
reliable document until 1402, and that was 
an exceptional instance. 

In ' The Story of Hornsey,' by R. O. 
Sherington, 1904, p. 16, it is said : "In 
earliest of all records the name is Haringhaia, 
an enclosure of the field of hares." I have 
frequently challenged this statement, which 
has not an iota of truth in it. 

Under the same initials W. B., those of the 
compiler of ' Harringay Past and Present,' 
were reproduced in The Hornsey Journal's 
Supplement, 10 Dec., 1904, two photographs 

io s. vii. FKB. 9, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


labelled ' South Grove, Highgate,' and 
' North Hill, Highgate.' Neither was cor- 
rect, as almost every inhabitant knew ; but 
unfortunately strangers do not, and the 
perpetuation of the error in the copy filed 
in the Newspaper Room of the British 
Museum is a misfortune. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

POONAH PAINTING. I want information 
about this. I can remember that there was 
something so called in vogue about 1856, 
but have quite forgotten what it was. I find 
the following references : 

1821, Exanrinf.r, p. 272 : "To Ladies. The Poonah 
taught in a superior style, Ladies instructed in the 
above Elegant Art, together with a variety of 
Fashionable and Ornamental Works." 

1829, 'The Young Lady's Book,' 469: "A piece 
of tracing-paper, of a peculiar manufacture, which 
is sold at the stationers' shops as Poonah-paper." 

1840, Thackeray, 'Paris Sketch-Book' (1869), 153: 
"" What are called ' mezzotints,' pencil drawings, 
'poonah-paintings,' and what not. 

1861, Sala, 'Twice Round the Clock,' 179: "An 
eight-day clock, two pairs of silver grape-scissors, a 
poonah-painted screen, a papier-mache workbox, an 
assortment of variegated floss-silk." 

1889, Anthonrf* Photographic Bulletin, II. 48 : "If 
the plate be a large one, it may be applied by using 
a strong hog-hair or poonah' brush charged with 

After all this, the word does not, so far as I 
see, occur in any dictionary, and is even 
-entirely missed by 'The' Encyclopedia 
Britannica ' and The Times Supplement. 
What were poonah painting and poonah 
paper ? What is a poonah brush ? Speedy 
information is desired. 


' POP GOES THE WEASEL.' I should be 
glad of any information as to the origin, 
history, and date of this phrase, as applied 
to a dance or otherwise. I can distinctly 
remember seeing, some time in .the fifties, 
in a provincial musicseller's catalogue, the 
advertisement " The new country dance 
' -PP goes the Weasel,' introduced by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria ; the new [some 
term I forget] ' La Napoleonienne,' intro- 
duced by her Imperial Majesty the Empress 
Eugenie." This was, I think, about the 
nd of 1854 or in 1855, but the tune was 
already by that time whistled or yelled 

about the streets, and it was the august 
patronage ascribed to it that fixed the 
advertisement in my mind. Was the phrase 
introduced with the dance, or had it any 
previous history ? Has any one a dated copy 
of the original dance music ? I shall be thank- 
ful for prompt answers, or indications where 
they can be seen in print. 


[Much has appeared in ' N. & Q/ on the song, 
which was printed in full at 10 S. iv. 209 by Mil. 
ADAIB FITZ-GERALD. L. L. K. printed in the same 
number some verses alluding to the Queen's patron- 
age of the dance. See also 10 S. iii. 491 ; iv. 5-t. ] 

In Addison's ' Campaign,' published 14 Dec., 
1704, are the following lines (309-14) : 

O Dormer, how can I behold thy fate. 

And not the wonders of thy youth relate ! 

How can I see the gay, the brave, the young, 

Fall in the cloud of war, and lie unsung ! 

In joys of conquest he resigns his breath, 

And, filled with England's glory, smiles in death. 
In the London Daily Courant, 21 Aug., 1704, 
is the following notice : 

"We have received a list of the English officers 

killed and wounded in the battle of Blenheim 

Of the Guards, Col. Philip Dormer, killed." 
What were Addison's relations with Dormer ? 
Of all the English officers who fell at Blen- 
heim, why should Col. Dormer alone be 
mentioned in ' The Campaign ' ? 

At 3 S. xii. 206 appears an inquiry con- 
cerning the history of Dormer's "youthful 
deeds." I cannot find that this inquiry 
was ever answered. Possibly a new genera- 
tion of readers may be able to throw some 
light on Dormer's career. 


Yale University, New Haven, Conn.. U.S.A. 

teenth and seventeenth centuries there 
| existed in the district south of Sheffield and 
north of Chesterfield many families of this 
name, of which a few later attained some 
local importance. I am especially inter- 
ested in the Newbolds of Newbold, parish of 
j Chesterfield, and the Newbolds of Hacken- 
| thorpe (Hackingthorpe), parish of Beighton, 
both in Derbyshire. These families are now, I 
| believe, extinct in that district. Much inf or- 
! mation relating to them and their descend- 
'. ants in America is already in my possession. 
I should like to receive more, and should 
also be glad to enter into communication 
with English descendants, if any yet survive. 
I should also be grateful for any informa- 
tion leading to the discovery of manor rolls, 
deeds, and other records relating to the 
manors of Newbold and Beighton, co. 
Derby, and Handsworth, co. York. I have 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 9, 1907. 

been able to discover no rolls of Beighton 
save the few preserved in the Record Office. 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

As to the head masters at their late Con- 
ference very wisely determined to adopt 
the continental pronunciation of Latin in 
English schools, the question is being dis- 
cussed whether Latin was ever in England 
pronounced in the continental way. Rash- 
dall (in hia ' Universities in the Middle 
Ages,' vol. ii. p. 594) states authoritatively 
that in the fifteenth century Englishmen 
then pronounced Latin in the continental 
way ; Dr. Caius is cited as an authority for 
the statement that the melancholy change 
took place in his time. It is incredible, 
indeed, that Erasmus should have found 
himself able to converse with such facility 
with the University authorities in England, 
had he not found that they spoke Latin in 
the same way as himself. Coryat in his 
' Crudities,' written at the end of the six- 
teenth century, laments the fact that he 
found himself unable to make himself under- 
stood when he spoke Latin in Italy, and sets 
forth explicitly the differences in the pro- 
nunciation of the two nations. This was 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century 
But Erasmus about 1500 talks freely witl 
More, Grocyn, Linacre, and Colet, and ii 
seems certain that Latin was the means o 
communication between them. Indeed 
Erasmus finds himself obliged to apologize 
to one of his Dutch correspondents for writ 
ing in Latin, alleging as an excuse hi 
imperfect acquaintance with his own Ian 
guage. Milton taught Elwood the Quaker t( 
pronounce Latin with the Italian pronuncia 
tion, saying that it was most important t 
learn this pronunciation in order to be abl 
to converse with foreigners. 

University, Liverpool. 

[Much on the subject has already appeared i 
' X. \ *}.' Siv 7 S. xi. 484; xii. 36, 149, 209, 295 
S S. vi. 14, 253, 489 ; 9 S. vii. 351, 449.] 

" HAZE." It is remarkable that th 
origin of haze, a mist, and of the adjectiv 
hazy, is wholly unknown. Dr. Murray show 
that the adjective actually occurs in Englis 
earlier than the substantive. His earlies 
quotation is dated 1625, the sentence being 
" The weather beeing thicke and hawse* 
the winde high." 

I have only just observed a remarkabl 
passage in the Bremen ' Worterbuch ' of 
1767, which seems to show that we certainly 

orrowed the word from Low German ; 
erhaps it was picked up by our sailors in a 
^erman port. In vol. ii. p. 601 of that 
emarkable work, we read that the word 
Hase means, in the first place, a hare ; and 
econdly, a stocking, like our English hose. 
lut there is a third sense, used only in the 
hrase " de Hase brouet," i.e., the " Hase ' 
rews. I translate the whole sentence, as 
j is material : 

"De Hase brouet, we say, when in summer, at 
ventide, a thick cloud suddenly spreads itself over 
he earth, that does not rise high above the earth, 
out looks, at a distance, like water A similar 
hick white cloud is also called Haze in English. 

This is surely a statement which requires 
examination. It is repeated, in similar 
terms, under the verb kronen, to brew, vol. i. 
p. 145. We there find : 

"De Hasebroiief is said of a certain cloud, that 
uddenly rises thickly on the surface of the earth. 
What I desire to know is whether the phrase 
s still current in Low German ; and if so, 
whether Hase means " a hare," or " a stock- 
ng," or anything else ; and how does a 
Hase brew ? WALTER W. SKEAT. 

through Mr. A. C. Lomax, printer, of Lich- 
field, I published the ' Bibliotheca Stafford- 
iensis ' in two sizes, viz., royal 4to and 
imperial 8vo. Since then, as opportunity 
has permitted, I have been collecting addi- 
tional matter, which it is proposed to issue in 
a supplementary volume, so as to complete 
to date. 

Remembering with pleasure and thankful- 
ness the assistance yourself and your corre- 
spondents gave whilst I was compiling the 
said work, I appeal once again that I may be 
permitted to avail myself of the pages of 
'X. & Q.' to make some inquiries, and to 
bespeak the help (which has hitherto been 
so cheerfully given) of your numerous con- 
tributors ; and I feel confident that I shall 
not appeal in vain. 

May I be permitted to state that copies 
of the ' Bibliotheca ' are in many libraries, 
and to beg that any one doing me the honour 
to reply will first look over the volume, so 
as to see its general scope ? 

Having made the above remarks, I will 
now outline my wants. 

1. Any information relative to any person 
born, sometime resident in, or taking title 
from any portion of Staffordshire. 

2. Bibliographical particulars relative to- 
any publication (no matter on what subject) 
made by such persons, additional to what 
is already in the book. 

10 s. vii. FEB. 9, loo?.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


3. Names and addresses of Staffordshire- 
born persons. 

4. Particulars of local newspapers, maga- 
zines, squibs, broadsides, or other transitory 
press issues, connected with the county 
and of the printings of the following or other 
local printers. 

The year after each name is only approxi- 
mate ; some of these printers were probably 
at work earlier, as they certainly were later 
in most cases. 


Adams, E.,Burton-on-Trent, 1844. 
Allbut, John & Son, Hanley, 1796. 
Thomas 1806. 

&Gibbs 1811-13. 

& Son 1838. 

Son&Hobson 1848. 
& Daniell 1853. 

Allen, Thos., Burslem, 1803. He was of Bank Top, 

Manchester, 1799. 
Amphlett, James, Hanley, 1817. 
Atkinson Bros. 1888. 

Bacon & Wilder, Uttoxeter, 1818. 
Bagguley, G. T., Newcastle, 1889. 
Baker, Richard, Tamworth, 1818. 
Bakewell & Adams, Uttoxeter, 1834. 

,, Burton-on-Trent, 1841. 
Bamforcl, Edward, Ashbourne. Anything on 

Staffordshire by him. 
Barford & Nevitt, Wolverhampton, 1852. 
Barker, George. Silverdale, 1863. 

John W., Wolverhampton, 1887. 
Alfred 1890. 

Basst'ord, Stephen, Bilston, 1818. 
Timothy 1834. 
Bate (?), Fenton, 1836. 

Hanley, 1841. 
Bayley, John, Newcastle, 1830. 
Thos. 1850. 

Beard, Joseph, Tamworth, 1834. 
Bebbington, James, Hanley, 1860. 
Beddows, John, Wolverhampton, 1850. 
Bell, George, Sheltori, 1840. 
Bellamy, R. R., Burton-on-Trent, 1854. 
Bentley & Wear, Shelton, 1823. 
Booth, Joshua, Wednesbury, 1818. 
Bourne, James, Bemersley, 1820. Anything printed 

at Bemersley, 1820-43. 
Bowering, Samuel, Burslem, 1850. 
Brassington, Thomas, Uttoxeter, 1&34. 
Bridgen, Joseph, Wolverhampton, 1833. 
Britten, C., Wednesbury, 1856. 
C. & W., Tipton, 1868. 
W. 1868. 

Broclehurst, F. S., Uttoxeter, 1850. 
Brougham, Mary, Burslem, 1834. 
Stephen 1820. 
Bullock, Samuel, Hanley, 1818. 

Please reply direct to R. SIMMS. 

27, Ironmarket, Newcastle, Staffs. 

" BLUE- WATER." This novel compound 
word, which is unknown to the ' N.E.D.,' 
has lately appeared in such phrases as 
" blue-water school," blue-water theories," 
posing invariably as an adjective in 
the odious modern . style which piles up 

substantives in that position. The word 
is, I believe, the invention of the last 
five years or so, and is due to some naval 
expert perhaps Capt. Mahan. It embodies, 
I understand, a theory of naval defence. 
What, then, does it imply ? As used at 
present, without a word of explanation, it 
is wholly unintelligible to the ordinary man, 
and ' N. & Q.' might get the name of its 
inventor before it is too late to recover it. 

A derivation from this technical use is a 
general reference like the following in the 
Introduction to Masefield's book ' A Sailor's 
Garland,' in which I notice : " One can find 
him [the poetic sailor] on blue- water ships 
at the present time." HIPPOCLIDES. 

shall be much obliged if any of your readers 
can inform me of the proper English equiva- 
lents for the following Latin descriptions, so 
often to be met with in old parish registers, 
&c., viz., armiger y eques auratus, miles, 
generosus, ingenuus. R. L. 

[The use of the terms armiger and <yeweroms- is 
discussed at 7 S. x. 383, 445 ; xi. 97, 173, by MB. 
ALBERT HARTSHORXE and others, but not the 
English equivalents of the words. SIR HERBERT 
MAXWELL stated at 7 S. x. 93 that miles describes a 
knight, a baronet being designated miles baronettus.] 

the origin of the common surname Ward ? 
I have always understood it to be a pure 
English name with its usual meaning of 
" guard." But Mr. Moore, in his newly 
published book of ' Manx Names,' says 
that it comes from Mac-an-Bhaird, " son of 
the poet " (the mac and the article dropped, 
and bh pronounced as v or w). This may or 
may not be the case with the Manx name, 
but I can hardly suppose that the English 
surname has any such origin. 


" KINGSLEY'S STAND." Can any reader 
of * N. & Q.' give me information as to the 
expression " Kingsley's Stand," as applied 
to the 20th Regiment ? Col. Kingsley was 
colonel of the regiment when it distinguished 
itself at the battle of Minden, 1 Aug., 1759. 


JOHN AMCOTTS was admitted to West- 
minster School July, 1727, aged eleven. 
I should be glad to ascertain his parentage 
and any particulars of his career. 

G. F. R. B. 

Sir Jeffry Wyatville, the architect, exhibited 
an architectural picture at the Royal 
Academy in 1832. Was he an architect or 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 9, 1007. 

an artist ? I should be glad to know the 
date of his death. G. F. R. B. 

SHIBE. The following occurs in the first 
volume of The Antiquary, April, 1880, p. 183 : 

"An Antiquarian Society has been established at 
Batley, Yorkshire. The preliminary meeting was 
presided over by Mr. Yates and Mr. W. H. Hick, 
by whom the meeting was called together." 

They made a statement showing that the 
parish was very rich in ancient relics. Have 
these, gentlemen, or has the Society itself, 
published matter which would be useful 
in a bibliography of Yorkshire ? 


SENECA. Many years ago I sent a query 
as to the authorship of the following quota- 
tion, but no reply appeared : KUI TOVTO 
//ey terras eort TC^I^S ayuQa TO, KO.KV.. 
(One accent only is given.) It appears in 
' Hard Cash,' by Charles Reade, chap, xli., 
where it is said to come from one of the 
Greek philosophers. 

In ' Seneca's Morals by Way of Abstract,' 
by Sir Roger L'Estrange, tenth ed., 1711, 
p. 273 (i.e., at the beginning of chap, xxiv., 
' Of a Happy Life '), is the following : 

" It is a Master-piece to draw Good out of Evil ; 
and by the help of Virtue to improve Misfortunes 
into Blessings." 

Can any correspondent give the author 
of the Greek saying, or a reference to any 
passage in Seneca which may be the original 
of the extract from L'Estrange ? 



Can F. F. C., who wrote on the Dubordieu 
family at 10 S. vi. 305, confirm or supple- 
ment the following imperfect genealogical 
tree ? 

Admiral Dubourdieu. 

John Dubourdieu (fl. 1696). 

Rev. Peter Dubourdieu, 
rector of Kirkby (something) in Yorkshire. 

Mr. Bolton, Boulton,=T=Miss Dubourdieu 
or Bowden 

Miss B(olton) ?=Thomas England 

of Hull. 

I spell the name as it is spelt on the title- 
page of a book I once had, but cannot find 
on the Theban Legion, by the Rev. John 
Dubourdieu, chaplain to the Duke of Schom 
ber ?- E. B. ENGLAND. 

High Wray, Ambleside. 


(10 S. vi. 469 ; vii. 33.) 

THE practice of affixing bells to some 
jortion of the neck - harness of horses 
attached to carts and waggons is one that 
las long been in use in this country, and is 
still continued in some districts. But the 
;erm " bell-horse " was, however, more 
generally applied to the leading animal of 
a string of pack-horses, to whose neck was 
suspended a single loud-sounding bell. The 
pack-animals were a special breed, and were 
iccustomed to carry heavy and bulky 
weights of goods of every description on a 
wooden framework called a crook (long and 
short) ; in packs, or in paniers ; or, when 
mployed by farmers for conveying manure 
bo the fields, in wooden or metal " pots," 
like large bandboxes, with hinged bottoms, 
for discharging their contents. In Japan 
a sack tied at the bottom was (is ?) sub- 
stituted for the latter. By untying the 
Loop, " the manure dropped on the spot 
where it was wanted. A similar arrange- 
ment was at one time in use in Scotland " 
(' Gleanings from Japan,' by W. G. Dickson, 
1889, 213-14). 

The bell-animal was not only the best 
animal in the troop, but, according to Mr. 
Chanter, " it was a common custom for any 
one wanting a good horse to go to our north 
country and buy the leader of a string of 
pack-horses " (Trans. Devon. Assoc., vi. 
190). The bell served two separate and 
distinct purposes, acting both as a guide 
to the rest of the troop, and as a warning to 
the approaching traveller. 

The number of animals in a team varied 
considerably, and although they followed 
independently of each other, and were not 
bound to their fellows by traces or bonds of 
any kind, they one after another, in single 
line, implicitly followed the leading horse, 
being guided solely by the sound of the 
bell which he wore, and which must have 
clanged at every step he took. This is 
well expressed in some lines on ' The Pack- 
Horse ' that appeared in one of the peri- 
odicals in the middle of the eighteenth 
century : 

Through tangled brakes and narrow paths they 

O'er pine-clad forests, or the dreary fell ; 
No trusty pack-horse ever lags behind. 

Led by the music of the deep-ton'd bell. 

A striking illustration of the guiding 
influence of the bell, even upon an extremely 

io s. VIL FEB. 9, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


long train of pack-animals, is thus recorded 
by J. K. Lord in ' The Naturalist in Van- 
couver Island,' &c. (1866) : 

" I have eighty-one mules and a bell-horse. To 
manage mules without a horse carrying a bell round 
its neck is perfectly impossible. The bell-horse is 
always ridden ahead, and wherever it goes the 
mules follow in single file." I. 248. 

To this he adds an interesting account of 
the method adopted in crossing a wide 
stream, when, if a canoe is obtainable, 
"the bell-horse, deprived of his bell, is towed by 
the canoe across the stream ; a packer, standing iii 
the canoe, keeps ringing the bell violently," 

when, after some hesitation, the mules 
" dash into -the water and swim towards the clang- 
ing bell On reaching the opposite side, when the 

horse's feet touch the ground, the man again drops 
astride, and rides it out, ringing the all-potent bell 
with all his might." 

Without a canoe the packer swims beside 
the animal, taking care to keep up the bell 
sound (i. 269-70). The team, according to 
its length, was under the care of one or more 
mounted men ; but when, as for farm 
purposes, the animals were few only, the 
man in charge seated himself on the top of 
one of the loads. In the latter cases the 
bell-horse may have been dispensed with. 

We have to bear in mind that, with the 
exception of the main roads between cities 
and towns, the majority of the public road- 
ways in England, as late as the commence- 
ment of the last century, consisted of un- 
paved, ill-kept, narrow lanes, which could 
not be traversed by wheeled carriages of 
any kind. These lanes were frequently 
identical with the ancient trackways : 
those of Dartmoor are characterized by 
Mr. R. Burnard as " narrow gullies dignified 
by the name of roads " (Trans. Dev. Assoc., 
xxxvii. 174). Travelling along them on 
horseback was attended with many dis- 
comforts, but the pedestrian had to suffer 
many additional difficulties and dangers. 
The condition of these lanes is noted by the 
Rev. J. Marriott in his ' Marriage is like a 
Devonshire Lane ' : 

In the first place, 'tis long, and when you are in it, 

It holds you as fast as a cage does a linnet ; 

For howe'er rough and dirty the road may be 

Drive forward you must, there is no turning round. 

For though 'tis so long, it is not very wide, 
For two are the most that together can ride ; 
And e'en then 'tis a chance but they get in a pother, 
And jostle and cross and run foul of each other. 

Then the banks are so high, to the left hand and 

That they shut up the beauties around them from 


From time immemorial, and until a recent 
period as late as 1840 in Shropshire the 
sole method of transporting goods all over 
England was by pack-horses or mules, 
except in the vicinity of carriage by water. 
(The same method is still practised in many 
mountainous districts on the Continent.) 
Numerous entries relating to pack-horses 
will be found in the Domesday Record. 
According to Mr. Markland, " the persons 
of young scholars " were frequently conveyed 
by pack-animals to the Universities from 
the north of England (Archceologia, xx. 460). 
In 1866 Sir J. Bowring remarked (Trans. 
Dev. Assoc., iii. 95) : 

"It is within my recollection that there were 
many roads leading to important places in this very 
county (Devon) which no wheel carriage could pass, 
and where everything was conveyed on the backs of 
pack-horses, stumbling over the broken stones, and 
sometimes buried in the deep mud." 

The disuse of pack-horses began when 
carts and waggons could be employed on 
the roads and unpaved roadways, both 
forms of conveying goods being frequently 
utilized by the same carrier, as shown in 
the following advertisement, transcribed 
from A. Brice's Exeter paper in 1727 : 

"George Gatehill, the Tauntoii Carrier to and 
from Exeter, who for several years past has 
practiced that employment with Pack Horses, not 
only continues such carriage, but now more coni- 

modiously and securely to serve hisMasters with 

Conveyance of Goods of larger Weight and Bulk, 
drives Waggons also.'' 

Long crooks were for the most part employed 
for holding the goods to be transported. 
These were secured one on either side of the 
back of the animal, and are thus fully 
described by Mr. Elworthy : 

"Long crooks consist of two long poles bent 

in a half circle of about eighteen inches in diameter, 
but with one end much longer than the other. A 
pair of these bent poles are kept about two feet 
apart and parallel to each other by five or more 
rungs. A frame so constructed forms one crook, 
and a pair of these pairs are slung on the pack- 
saddle pannier-wise. When in position the long 
ends of the crooks are iipright, and are at least 
three feet above the horse s back. Being over five 
feet asunder, a very large quantity of hay, straw, 
or corn can be loaded on a pack-horse." "West 
Somerset Word-Book,' 170. 

Short crooks, sometimes called " crabs," 
sufficed for barrels and for small heavy goods. 

The widespreading crooks, combined with 
the narrowness of the passage, will serve 
to show the danger to which a traveller, 
whether on foot or on horseback, would be 
subjected on encountering a gang of pack- 
horses in a narrow lane, especially at the 
close of the day ; and hence the importance 
of a warning of their approach being given 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 9, 1007. 

by the sound of the bell borne by the leading 
animal, so that a shelter of some kind might 
be sought without delay. C. Vancouver 
states : 

"The rapidity with which these animals descend 
the hills when not loaded, and the utter impossi- 
bility of passing loaded ones, require that the 
utmost caution should be used in keeping out of 
the way of the one, and exertion in keeping ahead 
of the other. A cross-way fork in the road or 
gateway is eagerly looked for as a retiring spot to 
the traveller, until the pursuing squadron, or 
heavily loaded brigade, may have passed by." 
'View of the Agriculture of Devon' (1808), 370-71. 

Even the narrow bridges erected to 
enable the pack-animals to cross streams 
without wetting their burdens not only 
have low parapets, to prevent the chance 
of the crooks coming into contact with the 
stonework ; but, especially in the case of 
the bridge being a long one, the projecting 

Eiers have their external walls carried up 
;vel with the parapet, so as to form recesses 
where the wayfarer may find a temporary 
refuge. A good example of this kind of 
bridge crosses the Wye a short distance from 
Bakewell, Derbyshire, and adjoining the 
main road on the way to Ashford. 

The children's jingle, " Bell-horses, bell- 
horses, what time of day," &c., is common to 
many counties. Curiously enough, it does 
not appear in that form in Halliwell's 
* Nursery Rhymes,' where the first line 
commences, " Good horses, bad horses," &c. 
" The Pack-Horse " as an inn sign was 
formerly more frequent than it is at the 
present day ; probably when wheeled 
carriages came into more general use it was 
Changed into that of "The Waggon and 
Horses." In Larwood and Hotten's ' His- 
tory of Signboards ' the " Bell and Horse," 
"Bell and Black Horse," and "Horse 
and Dorsiter " (dorsiter=a, pannier ; accord- 
ing to the ' E.D.D.' it should be dorser or 
dosser) are mentioned, but not " Bell- 
Horse," although there were probably 
many examples of the last named in the 
eighteenth and preceding centuries. A house 
bearing this sign formerly occupied a site 
on Kelsall Hill, half way between Chester 
and Xorthwich. It appears to have been 
the only "house of call " between those 
places. T. N. BEUSHFIELD, M.D. 

tSalterton, Devon. 

CARDINAL MEZZOFANTI (10 S. vii. 6, 57). 

If, as we are taught, an infant is one who 
cannot speak, a Mezzofanti may be supposed 
to justify his name if he can deliver himself 
in half the languages which are worthy of 
being known. 

In Murray's ' Yorkshire ' (p. 238) the Rev. 
J. Oxlee, rector of Molesworth, Hants, 
is said to have mastered 120 languages and 
dialects ; but what use he made of them all 
I do not know. He was a native of Guis- 
borough, who died in 1854, when, half-way 
between seventy and eighty, he was batten- 
ing on a benefice of 228Z. a year. 

Another polyglot gentleman resident in 
Yorkshire was but a bad second to Mr. 
Oxlee. This was Dr. Mawer, whose epitaph 
at Middleton Tyas is thus set down in 
Whitaker's ' Richmondshire ' (vol. i. p. 234) : 

"This Monument rescues from Oblivion the 
Remains of the Rev a John Mawer, D.D., late 
Vicar of this Parish, who died Nov. 18, 1763, 
aged 60 ; as also of Hannah Mawer, his Wife, who 
died Dec r 22 nd , 1766, aged 72, buried m this 
Chancel. They were persons of eminent Worth. 
The Doctor was descended from the Royal 1 amily 
of Mawer, and was inferior to none of his illustrious 
Ancestors in personal Merit, being the greatest 
Linguist this nation ever produced. He was able 
to speak and write twenty-two Languages, and 
particularly excelled in the Eastern Tongues, in 
which he proposed to His Royal Highness, Frederick 
Prince of Wales, to whom he was firmly attached, 
to propagate the Christian Religion in the Abissmiaii 
Empire. A great and noble Design, which was 
frustrated by the Death of that amiable Prince, to 
the great Mortification of this excellent Person, 
whose Merit, meeting no Reward in this World, 
will, it is to be hoped, receive it in the next Iron 
the Being which Justice only can influence. 

According to ' Reminiscences of an Old 
Bohemian ' (vol. ii. pp. 158, 159), Dr. Karl 
Tausenau, who strove to teach me German 
in the fifties, was only to be excelled by 
Mezzofanti ; but as to that, I think the Old 
Bohemian was misled by his enthusiasm. 
He wrote that Dr. Tausenau was 
" one of the best and soundest classical scholars of 
our time, no mean Orientalist, and a fluent accurate 

3>eaker of seven European languages German, 
zech, Italian, French, English, Magyar, and Dutcli 

to wit English he spoke with rare fluency. At a 

great international meeting held in London in 18ol 
he interpreted to the English section currente, 
lingud (it the expression may pass) the speeches 
made in five different languages ! a feat which 1 
never heard achieved before or since." 


vi. 388, 456; vii. 11). As " meikle " and 
"muckle" are simply variants, it is altogether 
futile to attempt the task of assigning them 
separate and distinctive functions. " Does 
not ' mickle ' or ' meickle,' " we are asked, 
" usually indicate quantity, while 'muckle' 
refers to size ? " " Meickle," as irrelevant, 
may be left out of the question, to which 
in its modified form a directly negative 
answer falls to be given. In translating 
'yEneid,' v. 150, Gavin Douglas uses the 

10 s. VIL FEB. 9, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


phrase " meikle hillis," having undoubtedly 
size, and not quantity, in his mind's eye ; 
and the same may be said of the " twa 
great mekle bord-claithis of dornik," duly 
specified in Thomson's ' Inventories and 
other Records of the Royal Wardrobe and 
Jewelhouse,' p. 150. Quantity or extent, 
on the other hand, is indicated by the use 
of " muckle " in Ramsay's proverb, " Little 
wit in the head makes muckle travel to the 
feet." With regard to Burns's practice, it 
is necessary to point out again, as was 
recently done in discussing another matter, 
that it is perilous to draw conclusions from 
a partial examination of facts. We are 
offered, for instance, the " meikle corn and 
beer " (sic) of ' Tarn o' Shanter ' to prove 
that the poet chooses " meikle " in pre- 
ference to " muckle " when he wishes to 
express quantity, and we are left to infer 
that he would not use the same form when 
speaking of size. This, however, is an 
entirely untenable assumption, as may be 
seen by reference to the " meikle stane " 
(also in ' Tarn o' Shanter ') " whare drucken 
Charlie brak's neck-bane." Then, besides 
" the muckle devil," " the muckle house," 
and " a muckle pity " (advanced in evidence 
of the contention that " muckle " is Burns's 
favourite epithet for size), we have " the 
meikle devil wi' a woodie " in the Elegy on 
Henderson, " the meikle black deil " in the 
Exciseman song, " the wee stools o'er the 
mickle " in the ' Address to the Toothache ' ; 
and so on. Everything, indeed, tends to 
show that standard Scottish authors, early 
and late, use these Variant forms indis- 
criminately, provincial practice and momen- 
tary predilection serving, no doubt, to some 
I extent to determine their particular choice. 

MR. JONAS may like to be reminded that 
the sections of the ' N.E.D.' dealing with 
both " pickle " and " mickle " are now 
issued. The latter (dated 1 Jan., 1907) 
treats " mickle " and " muckle " as the 
same word. Q. V. 

The forms " meikle," " miekle," " muckle," 
are one word. Lotfal pronunciation accounts 
for the different spellings. Regarding a 
usage of this kind Burns is not a reliable 
guide. His father was from the east coast, 
north of the Tay, where the dialect is very 
different from that of Ayrshire. When a 
countryman removes to a new county his 
dialect is the last thing he changes. If 
children are given him in his new abode, 
they are influenced by their father's dialect, 
sometimes to such an extent that in a com 

pany of school children one has only to> 
hear these " foreigners " speak a few words, 
and they are identified immediately. In 
one case the influence of a Border dialect 
was known to affect the speech and intona- 
tion of a family in another county to the 
third generation. " Muckle " is the form 
commonly heard where Norse influence is 
strong, but is not confined to these districts, 
and is met with in counties where " meikle " 
and " mickle " are heard. " Puckle " is- 
similarly related to " pickle " the latter 
being sometimes used by folk who aspire 
to a little " superiority," the former being 
the cherished mouthful of those who prider 
themselves on their contempt for all affecta- 
tion. Here is a verse by Alexander Logan r 
who was born in Edinburgh in 1833, and 
lived there most of his life : 

Weel, it disna matter mickle, 
Nannie soon will be this way ; 

She mair cannie wields the sickle, 
Still for a' that cuts maist hay. 
North of the Forth the last two words of 
the first line would generally be pronounced 
" maitter muckle." P. F. H. 

" The muckle Tarn ! " was a not un- 
common expression in the South of Scotland 
in the days of my youth, to indicate a well- 
meaning, but blundering man. W. S. 

As bearing upon the use of the word 
"mickle," I may mention that there are 
two adjacent villages near Derby called 
respectively " Mickleover " and " Little- 
over." H. T. W. 

ROMNEY'S ANCESTRY (10 S. vii. 9, 79) 
Kirkland is a township in the parish of 
Garstang, in Lancashire. In the church is 
a brass plate : 

"In memory of Henry Abbot, of Garstang, who- 
died 25 th March, 1671, in the 25 th year of his age, 
Henry Abbot dead 
This living song doth sing : 
' O'er hell I doe triumph ; 
! death, where is thy sting?'" 


A KNIGHTHOOD or 1603 (10 S. vi. 181, 
257, 474 ; vii. 16, 54). At the last reference 
but one MR. CHAMBERS courteously corrects 
what he says is an inaccuracy on my part. 
Having never personally looked into the 
genealogy of the Newdigate family, I have 
no intention nor desire to challenge MR. 
CHAMBERS' s corrections. As stated at the 
time, the information in question was com- 
municated to me (unasked) by a specialist 
whom I believed to be trustworthy, and 
whose statements scarcely seemed to call 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. F KB . o, 1907. 

for independent verification on my part. 
The occasion was a private monograph I 
compiled on Count Tallard's exile in Not- 
tingham 200 years ago, when that eminent 
Frenchman lodged with the head of the 
Nottingham Newdigates. 

l.->8. Xoel Street, Nottingham. 

MAJOR HAMILL OF CAPRI (10 S. vii. 27). 
This gallant Irishman was w r ounded at the 
battle of Maida, in Calabria, 4 July, 1806, 
in which the French under General Regnier 
were defeated by the British under Major- 
General Sir John Stuart. Major Hamill's 
" judicious conduct " in the field on a later 
occasion is noted by Lieut.-Col. Alexander 
Bryce, RE., in a dispatch dated 8 Sept., 

" G," HARD OR SOFT (10 S. vi. 129, 190, 
236). I lately found that in the family 
name Gifford the G was hard in Ullenhall, 
near Henley-in-Arden, Warwick, while it is 
oft, I believe, in Bishopswood, near Bre- 
wood, Staffs. T. NICKLIN. 

395, 454, 513; v. 31, 77). The following 
passage is from Sven Hedin's ' Through 
Asia,' 1898, vol. i. p. 160. It refers to Lake 
Kara-kid in the Pamirs, a saline sheet of 
water, with an area of 120 to 150 square 
miles : 

"We rode across the ice about three miles due 
west from the island, then stopped and set about 
sounding the depth of the western basin. The 
normal tension of the ice was of course the same in 

t Ve i ry i < l l L arter --v? u - r ridins over it; naturally dis- 
turbed the equilibrium, by increasing the downward 
pressure. As we moved along, every step the 
horses took accompanied by peculiar sounds. 
" moment there was a growling like the deep 
Lass notes ot an organ, the next it was as though 
somebody were thumping a big drum in the 'Hat 
below, the,, came a crash as though a railway- 
carnage door were being banged to ; then as though 
a tag round stone had been flung into the lake. 
I hese sounds were accompanied by alternate 
whistlings and winnings; whilst every now and 
a.a-n we seemed to hear far - off ^marine ex 
plosions. At every loud report the horses twitched 
their ears and started, whilst the men .inopdat 
<>MC another with superstitious SgtfSlSSSJi* I 
The Sarts believed that the sounds were caused by 

HK fishes kno,k,ng their heads against theiee? 

| t >e more inte ,*, Ki| .,i liz f winicML them 1 
that licie were no fish in Kara-Kul Then wli^n T 
asked //,,, what was the cause of the strange 
sounds we heard under the ice, and whaTw 

v <*od alone knows !)." 
^ The Morning Post, 31 Dec., 1906, an 
article on Winter Joyance ' speaks of the 
wide frozen waterways" of Canada 

under which a deep, mysterious booming 
it were the reverberating knell of a 
thousand-ton gun is heard now and again." 

In England, on the tidal Trent, the ice, 
fractured as it is forming by the up-rush of 
water from the Humber twice a day, finally 
freezes into a very rough surface, " like a 
lot of stone slabs chucked together any 
way." An old man bred up not far from 
the river informs me that he has more than 
once heard the thundering of the ice at East 
Butterwick when the thaw began after a 
severe " blast." M. P. 

Letters recently published in The Morning 
Post afford information illustrative of the 
words of Lowell and Wordsworth which 
were the subject of comment at the refer- 
ences given above. In a letter printed in 
the issue of The Morning Post for 3 January 
inquiry was made whether the writer of an 
article on the delights of a Canadian winter, 
which had appeared in a previous issue, 
could explain the " deep, mysterious boom- 
ing " described as being " heard now and 
again " coming from the frozen waterways. 
The Morning Post of 7 January contained 
the following replies, the first of which is 
from the pen of the writer of the article 
which gave occasion for the inquiry : 

SIR, The tremendous sound to which reference 
was made in ' Winter Joyance ' has never yet, so 
far as 1 know, been scientifically explained. I have 
heard it many times riot only on large ice-bound 
lakes in Canada, but also in England -c.r/., when 
skating at night in the early eighties on Holling- 
worth Lake, a big reservoir near Rochdale, in 
Lancashire, and on that occasion the noise was 
somewhat terrifying to the mind of a boy without 
previous experience of such portents. Li no single 
instance was a thaw imminent ; indeed, more often 
than not the frost was tightening its grip on the 
waters. In Canada the beginning of a "cold 
snap" is sometimes marked by this booming; the 
alteration in the volume of the covering of ice may 
cause the formation of a great crack (which may be 
miles long), and this "ice-quake" has its thunder. 
At other times, it may be, harmonic vibrations are 
set up by a rapid change in temperature and the 
sound is produced just as in the case of a sheet of 
iron when shaken. The theory of escaping gases is 
certainly not a good working hypothesis on which 
to base an explanation. The winter of Western 
Canada has other weird noises not easily explained ; 
for example, the "noise of a going in the sky" (to 
translate a Cree term), which is mentioned, by the 
way, in 'Lorna Doone,' and certainly does suggest 
the passing by of a company of ululating demons. 
I hope "Devon Prior" will succeed in obtaining a full 
and complete scientific explanation. Yours, &c., 

Jan. 5. E. B. OSBORN. 

SIR, In reply to a letter signed "Devon Prior." 
I write to say that when I was a girl and lived with 
my father in Canada he went every Sunday after- 
noon from Three Rivers across tlie St. Lawrence 
River for a service at a place called Nicolay, and I 

10 s. VIL FEB. 9, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


accompanied him in a canoe in summer and a sleig 
in winter. I shall never forget my first winte 
crossing of the river and my fear when the ic 
cracked, and boomed like "a thousand-ton gun 
indeed. I thought we must all go hopelessly to th 
bottom, but our old Canadian coachman smiled a 
my alarm, assuring us that there was anything bu 
a cause for fear, as such sounds were the stronges 
proof of the security of the ice and such prove 
to be the case. Why, I leave for explanation to th 
men of science, having only the power to give yo 
the fact, Yours, &c., R. S. M. 

Jan. f>. 

These letters are, I think, worthy o 
reproduction in ' N. & Q.' F. JARRATT. 

'THE TIMES,' 1962 (10 S. i. 470). Ther 
was an earlier squib of a similar kind, viz. 
in 1850, ' The Times Newspaper, as it ma 
be in 1950,' printed by John Such, of No. 1 
Norman Terrace, Wandsworth Road, in th< 
parish of Clapham, and published by hin 
at his office, 29, Budge Row, Watling Street 
sold by Newman & Co., 48, Watling Street, 
London. It covered four pages, and the 
price was 6d. The Parliamentary intelli 
gence includes reports from the House o 
Peeresses and the House of Ladies. The 
Court of Queen's Bench appears under tha - 
name ; but judge, counsel, and jiiry an 
clockwork automata. Some fun is mad< 
at the expense of old Henry Widdicombe. 

48). The Duke was at Halifax, Nova 
'Scotia, from May, 1794, till August, 1800 
Madame de St. Laurent living openly witl 
him ; but she certainly had no children at 
that time. Three members of the French 
Canadian family of De Salaberry owed 
everything to the friendship and patronage 
of Madame de St. Laurent, but in their 
letters to her and to their own family down 
to 1815 they make no reference to any 
children. But the Duke had children by 
Miss Green, Miss Gay, and other f air T but 
frail damsels, and Lewis Melville may have 
thought them the children of Madame de 
St. Laurent. M. N. G. 

The father of Constance Kent (Road 
Murder, 1860) was said to be a son of the 
late Duke of Kent. WM. H. PEET. 

REV. R. RAUTHMEL (10 S. vii. 8). The 
author of ' Antiquitates Bremetonacenses ' 
was the son of Arthur Rauthmel, husband- 
man, and was born at Lees, in Yorkshire. He 
took his B.A. degree at St. John's College, 
'Cambridge, in 1713, and was afterwards 
perpetual curate of Whitewell in Bowland. 
He was buried at Chipping (co. Lane.), 

15 May, 1743, and was at the time of his 
death still curate of Whitewell. 

The Rauthmell family was settled at 
Lees in the seventeenth century. 


" THE OLD HIGHLANDER " (10 S. vii. 47, 
92). COL. MALET thinks I " see the features 
of a Lowlander in the fact of these effigies 
being clean shaved." Not at all. I said 
that their clean-shaved faces had Lowland 
features. The type is that of such dis- 
tinguished Scots as Lord Chief Justice Sir 
Alexander Cockburn or General Andrew 
Wauchope and the type is easily detected 
on account of the absence of beard. 

T. O. H. 

" MITIS" (10 S. vii. 68). DR. BRADLEY 
is quite right in supposing that mitis-green 
and mitis- casting have no etymological 
connexion. The former is from Mitis, the 
name of the Vienna manufacturer who dis- 
covered it in 1814. The latter according 
to Brockhaus, ' Konversations - Lexikon,' 
Jubilee edition is from Latin mitis, " soft," 
no doubt on account of the fluidity which 
this process gives to the molten metal. 


" MOKE," A DONKEY (10 S. vii. 68). 
I remember an epic poem published in 1844 
called ' Duck-legged Dick had a Donkey,' 
in which the term in question appears 
several times ; author unknown ; publisher, 
J. Catnach, Moranouth Street, Seven Dials. 
Though not so long as Homer's ' Iliad,' it 
is too long for the columns of ' N. & Q.' 
One verse recorded the fact that " the 
moke was sent to the greenyard " during the 
period of its master's imprisonment for dis- 
orderly conduct, and died for want of the 
necessaries of life. The owner afterwards 
bought " A new mo ke and a hamper for 
17 bob and a kick " (17s. Qd.) ; but through 
deficiency of vision and means of locomotion 
' the new moke " " was as quiet as the one 
-hat was dead." Cum multis aliis. 


But a few days ago I read in 5 S. x., xi. 
>r xii. the paragraph sought by DR. BRADLEY 
'. have endeavoured to find my way back to 
t, but the quest has been unsuccessful. 


I can remember seeing, more than sixty 
ears ago perhaps in 1842 in a penny illus- 
rated paper, a rude engraving of a row in 
t. Giles's, called ' A General Strike.' One 
f the actors in it suggested having the 
^oke in court, as- he witnessed the whole of 
he business. " The magistrate, however, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. FKB. n, 1907. 

declined taking the evidence of the donkey" 
This fixes the use of the word ten years 
earlier than 1851. JOHN PICKFORD,^M.A. 
Xi'wboiirne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

li MULATTO " (10 S. vii. 68). If k this word 
is not a corrupt metathesis of muiudllad, or 
a mot savant from mulatus, can it be that 
the termination is the Baskish diminutive 
to, tto, cho, tcho, added to tnula ? The Basks 
have been so fond of taking Romance words 
into their vocabulary, and have had so 
much influence in the Spanish colonies, 
that such an origin does not seem impossible, 
though their own word for mule is mando. 
A half-caste may be said to be " adopted " 
into one of two races. E. S. DODGSON. 

SPRING (10 S. vii. 68). In a list of eminent 
scholars who were educated at Kepier 
School, given in Nicholas Carlisle's ' Gram- 
mar Schools in England and Wales,' are the 
names of Christopher Hunter, the distin- 
guished physician, concerning whom see 
Surtees's ' Durham ' and Nichols's ' Literary 
Anecdotes ' ; and William Romaine, the 
eminent divine and writer (see Rose's 
' Biog. Diet.'). 


"WROTH" (10 S. vii. 67). The note 
showing that Shakespeare and others used 
wroth as a substantive, and that wrath has 
been used as an adjective, is useful and much 
to the point. But it is, as usual, a question 
of chronology and dialect. Before 1500, 
I can find no such examples in the Midland 
dialect. On the contrary, the A.-S. wrath, 
adj., became, regularly, the M.E. wrooth or 
wroth, as used by Chaucer at least twenty 
times (I give the references in my Glossary). 
But the A.-S. wrceththe, sb., with long 03, 
became the M.E. wraththe, wratthe, wrathe, 
as in Chaucer, at least seven times ; and 
was accompanied by the verb ivratthen or 
wratben, to be angry, used by Chaucer at 
least five times. But, as time went on, 
confusion set in ; and that is why Shake- 
speare and Butler use the sb. in a form 
which, in Chaucer's time and dialect, would 
have been inadmissible. It is perhaps 
worth mention that in Barbour the adj. is 
wrath, and the sb. is wreth ; as also in 
Hampole's Psalter, which is likewise in the 
Northern dialect. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

55). The recent disastrous earthquake in 
Jamaica reminds me that it may not be 

out of place to record under this heading 
the inscription to the memory of Admiral 
Benbow which was placed over his grave 
in the church of St. Andrew, Kingston,. 
Jamaica. I copied it recently as follows- 
from The Leisure Hour of 17 Jan., 1863 : 
Here lyeth Interred the body 
of lohn Benbow Ksq r Admiral 
of the White a true pattern of 
English Courage who lost hys life 
in defence of hys Queene and 
Country November ye 4 th 1702 
in the 52 nd year of hys age 
by a wound in hys leg received 
in an engagement with 
Mons. Du Casse, being much 

Besides the above inscription the slab con- 
tains the crest and coat of arms of Admiral 
Benbow ; but of these I have no record. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

VINING FAMILY (10 S. vii. 28). William 
and Henry Vining were brothers of Frederick 
and James Vining. Fanny Vining married 
Charles Gill (manager of the Lynn, Ipswich,, 
and other theatres), who was very much 
her senior. On one occasion she acted at 
Windsor Castle under her married name.. 
She went to America in the fifties, and 
continued there. Gill died in this country 
in 1869. WM. DOUGLAS. 

125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 

vii. 69). There is no island so named in 
the Macquarie group. The rocks south of 
Macquarie Island (discovered 1811) are the 
Bishop and Clerk and the Judge and Clerk. 
If MR. MICHELL will consult the older charts 
of the Central Pacific, he will find in the 
Kingsmill group an island named after 
Capt. Charles Bishop, of the brig Nautilus,, 
who discovered this chain in 1799. The 
island subsequently received the names of 
Blaney and Sydenham ; its native name is 
Nanouti. There is also a Bishop's Rock 
in the Bonin group, N.W. Pacific, discovered 
by Capt. Bishop in 1796. 


WYBERTON, LINCS (10 S. vii. 69). Them 
is a valuable description of this church, with 
illustrations of the exterior and of the 
" handsome octagonal font," in * An Account 
of the Churches in the Division of Holland 
in the County of Lincoln,' with sixty-nine 
illustrations, Boston, 1843. The name was 
also spelt Wibertune ; see Lines N. & Q., 
vol. vii. (Jan., 1902-Oct., 1903), p. 106. 
Wyberton church bells are somewhat famous 

10 s. VIL FEB. o, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in that part of the county. The custom 
survives of tolling twelve strokes of the 
passing-bell for a man, nine for a woman, 
.and three for a child ; peals are rung on 
-Christmas morning, either at an early hour 
or later ; and the " Vestry Bell " (the treble 
or one of the small bells of the ring) is rung 
-as a summons to attend a vestry. See ' The 
Church Bells of the County and City of 
Lincoln,' by Thomas North, F.S.A., 1882, 
pp. 183, 221, 257. At p. 763 are given the 
inscriptions on the three bells. 

In the first volume of The Antiquary, 
April, 1880, p. 183, it is noted that 
" some interesting archaeological discoveries have 
been recently made at the church of Leodegar, in 
Wyberton, Lincolnshire, during the work of clear- 
ing preparatory to the restoration of the fabric, 
which is about to be carried out under the super- 
intendence of Mr. G. Gilbert Scott, F.S.A." 

Leodegarius (St. Leger), Bishop of Autun, 
.and martyr, was killed by Ebroin, Mayor 
of the Palace, in 678. His martyrdom is 
still commemorated in St. Leger's Wood, 
the scene of his death. See further Smith's 
' Christian Antiquities.' 


There is a short notice of St. Leodegar's, 
Wyberton, in ' Reports and Papers ' of 
Associated Architectural Societies, vol. x. 
p. 191. It was among the churches which 
the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society 
visited from Boston in 1870. Murray has 
-also an interesting paragraph concerning it 
in the ' Handbook for Lincolnshire,' p. 122. 


'(10 S. vii. 70). MB. E. E. NEWTON, in his 
interesting query about this fragmentary 
publication, refers to the little book by 
Samuel Lewis, jun., ' Islington as It Was and 
.as It Is,' published by John Henry Jackson 
(an old friend of my family's) at 21, Pater- 
noster Row, and Islington Green, in 1854. 
It may be useful to add that another writer, 
bearing the same patronymic as the author 
in question (one Thomas Lewis), wrote ' A 
Retrospect of the Moral and Religious 
State of Islington during the last Forty 
Years,' published by Ward & Co., 27, Pater- 
noster Row, and K. J. Ford, Islington, in 

The earliest reference to Islington I have 
met with is a broadside published in 1684, 
named ' A Morning Ramble ; or, Islington 
Wells Burlesqt,' printed in London by 
George Crown for an anonymous author. 

Amongst rare little books upon Islington 
I possess a reprint (by J. O. Halliwell, F.R.S. 

1861) of ' Islington Wells ; or, the Three- 
Denny Academy,' printed in London for 
E. Richardson, 1691 a very broad poem 
ndeed. I know of two others entitled 
respectively 'A Walk to Islington, with a 
Description of the New Tonbridge,' and 
sop from Islington,' both of which poems 
are dated 1699. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

S. vi. 306). In my note I was only able to 
suggest that a catalogue of this " collection 
of curiosities and rarities " had been pub- 
lished, but it is now possible to be more 
definite, as there was a copy in George 
Daniel's library. In Sotheby's catalogue 
of the sale (July, 1864) of that remarkable 
collection it occurs in lot 296 : 

"Catalogue of the Rarities to be seen at Adams's 
at the Royal Swan in the Kingsland Road, very 
scarce, 17o6. Catalogue of Rarities to be seen at 
Don Saltero's Coffee-House in Chelsea, n.d. Calf 
extra, g. e., in one vol. 8vo." 
The volume was bought by Bo one for 
10s. 6d. It would provide interesting 
reading if it were possible to trace its present 
whereabouts. That the original and the 
parody should be bound together was 
essential. Robins's sale catalogue of the 
" Classic Contents of Strawberry Hill " 
should be accompanied by a copy of Croker's 
' The Great Sale at Goosebery Hall with 
Puff atory Remarks.' ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

39, Hillmartoii Road, N. 

ROWE'S ' SHAKESPEARE ' (10 S. vii. 69). 

At first sight it is not, one is inclined to 
think, very probable that the only plays to 
be illustrated should be the six doubtful 
ones. That of itself, though not conclusive, 
lends some weight to the conjecture that 
MR. TUDOR'S copy is imperfect. A reference 
to Mr. Sidney Lee's biography of Shake- 
speare and Lowndes's * Bibliographical 
Manual ' does not throw much light on the 
subject, as in the former work there is no 
mention of there being any illustrations to 
Rowe's edition, and the latter merely states 
that it is " the first small edition and the 
first with plates." 

In his edition of Charles Lamb's works 
Mr. Lucas gives a reproduction of one of 
the plates from Rowe's ' Shakespeare ' 
('Troilus and Cressida '), to which Lamb 
alludes in his Elian essay ' My First Play.' 
Mr. Lucas, however, gives no indication as 
to the edition of the plays from which it was 

More conclusive evidence is perhaps to be 
found in a catalogue issued by Messrs. John 

NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. VIL FEB. 9, 1907. 

,v Fdward Bumpus last December, in which 
one of the items is Howe's edition of Shake- 
speare's works (7 vols., including the rare 
volume of the * Poems,' 1709-10). This is 
stated to contain "numerous plates, 
1 H^des the engraved frontispiece and vignette 
portrait, The six mentioned by MB. TUDOR 
would hardly come under that description, 
so that I ain afraid his copy must be an 
imperfect one, so far at least as the illus- 
trations are concerned. 


It is apparent that MR. TUDOR'S set of the 
1709 edition is very imperfect. The fact 
of a book showing no trace of the removal 
of leaves is a somewhat untrustworthy test 
of its completeness. It is very easy to 
remove plates or pages when rebinding, and 
occasionally books are actually imperfect 
when they first leave the publishers. The 
edition in question to be entire should 
exhibit a frontispiece portrait and a full-page 
plate before every play. Perfect sets can 
be consulted at the British Museum and at 
the Bodleian. Birmingham and Cambridge 
also possess sets. WM. JAGGARD. 

J. L. TOOLE (10 S. vi. 469). Possibly the 
following may be of some use : 

"It was at the Hay market Theatre on the 22ud 
of July. 1852, or rather on the 23rd of that month, 
that he [Toole J made his first essay as an actor, the 
u -casion being the benefit of the stage-manager Mr. 

Frederick Webster an evening's entertainment 

of extraordinary length 'The Merchant of 

Venice ' in four acts ; then a concert ; and next the 
comedy, in three acts, of 'Mind Your Own Busi- 
ness,' with the entire strength of the Haymarket 
Company; followed by * Keeley worried by Back- 
bone '; and at nearer one o'clock than twelve, 
Toolc, as Simmons, in * The Spitalfields Weaver,' 
must have made his first acquaintance with the 
London stage as a regular actor."' Representative 
Actors,' by W. Clark Russell, 1888, p. 423. 

Mr. Russell gives the above from " a 
correspondent," not named. It is not 
clear whether the correspondent speaks 
of Toole's first appearance as a regular 
actor at any theatre or at a London theatre 
If the MS. note quoted by MR. BULLOCK 
and the account given above are both true 
it is curious that Toole's first appearance o: 
all and his first London appearance as a 
professional actor should have both been 
on >; benefit " nights. 

In the obituary notice in The Times o 
31 July, 1906, is the following : 

" Mr. Toole, at the age of 20, appeared for on 
night at the Ipswich theatre, and joined a dramati 
club at the Walworth Institute. It was there tha 
he made the acquaintance of his firm friend anc 
admirer, Charles Dickens, who had heard of hi 

alent and had come to see him act It was 

tiortly after Dickens had first seen him at Walworth 
Mr. Toole took a holiday in Dublin, where 
Charles Dillon, the manager of the Queen's Theatre, 
ersuaded him to act Simmons in ' The Spital- 
elds Weaver.' What correspondence had passed 
etween Toole and Dillon before the choice of 
)ublin as a holiday-resort we are not told. At any 
ate, Mr. Toole's success was immediate, and from 
iiat moment he became a professional actor." 
if ter a few lines about his doings in Ireland 
md Scotland, The Times says : 

'In 1854 he made his first professional appearance 
London, at the St. James's Theatre, then under- 
lie management of Mrs. Seymour." 
The Dramatic Peerage,' by Erskine Reid 
and Herbert Compton, 1892, says (p. 218) 
hat Toole " made his appearance at the 

ld Theatre at Ipswich 1852." 




Society in the Country Hone. By T. H. S. Escott.. 

(Fisher Unwin. ) 

THIS is just the book to afford delight to the 
eaders of ' N. & Q.,' for Mr. Escott has in its pages 
)ondensed the social experience and observations 
)f a lifetime as well as the literary work of several 
ears. In his dedicatory preface to Major Molineux 
le states that, "whenever it has been chrono- 
ogically possible, the country houses mentioned 
ire confined to those with which I am personally 
acquainted. Describing, therefore, chiefly, so far 
as was possible, persons and places actually visited 
:>y me, as a native of the south-west of England, I 
lave naturally dwelt most on ground familiar from 
its earliest associations." Mr. Escott maintains 
that the country house only began to exist between 
bhe thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, the true 
founders being the franklins or squires, in whose 
homes there was food and talk to suit all tastes. 
" The men had their politics ; the ladies learned 
what were the latest novelties and vagaries in 
dress." At that time classes in the community were 
not separated from each other by the modern gulfs, 
and all persons of liberal calling or education were 
at least mutually as well known among themselves 
as members of a modern club. The franklin's 
hospitalities made him a power in the land, and he 
was far too wise a man to let them exceed his 
means. No one was welcomed with greater con- 
sideration than the doctor, and the guests would 
frequently receive from him remedial drugs, which 
he would produce from the recesses of his ample 
cloak. The length of the doctor's visit was not 
subject to restriction, but the ecclesiastic had to 
content himself with three days, lest he should be 
tempted to stay away too long from his spiritual 

In treating on ' The Fashionable South Downs ' 
Mr. Escott shows how prolific Stanmer has been 
in its social offspring : Brighton and the Pavilion 
were both its children. From these descended 
Bayham Abbey, Lamberhurst, and West Dean. It 
was on Sunday, the 7th of September, 1783, that the 

10 s. vii. FEB. 9, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

heir -apparent, induced by his Stanmer hosts, 
visited Brighthelmstone, and there was a great 
display of fireworks that night on the Steine, on the 
site HOW occupied by the Pavilion Parade and 
Prince's Street. In thre'e years the Pavilion was 
completed, and Brighton's royal patron at once 
heuan to "make things hum." Mr. Escott points 
out that the pedestrian competitions of the Stock 
Exchange are a revival of a Georgian fashion. The 
Regent set the pace for riding matches between the 
Old Steine and his London palace. " He himself 
rode the double journey in ten hours," and that feat 
was surpassed by an officer of the Light Dragoons, 
who "rode from Brighton to Westminster on the 
same horse in three hours and twenty minutes, 
stopping only at Reigate to take a glass of wine, 
pouring the rest of the bottle down his horse's 
throat." One of the amusements of the Prince was 
to bring down pigeons with rifle-ballets on the 
Steine. Although he occasionally missed his bird, he 
did " great execution among his neighbours' chimney 

In the account of Longleat we find that among 
the archives are hymns by Ken as yet unpublished. 
We have had so much about Ken in ' N. & Q.,' 
Dean Plumptre availing himself of our columns for 
information for his life of Ken, that our readers 
will be interested in the lines quoted by Mr. Escott, 
' An Anodyne for Pain ' : 

One day of pain improves me more 
Than years of ease could do before ; 
It is by pain God me instructs, 
And so to endless bliss conducts. 

Air. Escott' s book brings before us glimpses of 
most of the famous men and women who have been 
guests in the various houses mentioned. We learn 
that Dickens at Eridge one Saturday evening, 
walking with Millais and looking into the moat 
there, conceived the idea of ' The Mystery of 
Edwin Drood.' The younger Hood is said during 
twenty years to have exercised " a refining influ- 
ence upon all the departments of journalism in 
which he worked." Reference is made to Palmer- 
ston and his pathetic speech in the House of 
Commons on the death of Lord Herbert of Lea : 
" I had trusted that after I was gone he would lead 
the gentlemen of England." We have Douglas Cook, 
whom Walter Thornbury caricatured in his novel 
' Greatheart' : "A Napoleon of editors indeed, but, 
mercy on us ! what a temper ! " The Rev. R. S. 
Hawker scrupulously avoided in his conversation 
any approach to controversial topics, clerical or lay: 
" Directly there seemed a danger of such being 
broached, he would rise from his chair by the table 
at which he habitually sat, and, leading me to the 
window looking out upon the Atlantic, would say, 
' There you have my views ; as to my ideas, they 
are that, if the human eye could reach so far, you 
might see right away to Labrador.'" We have 
Carlyle "pointing out to Prince Jerome Napoleon 
the perfection of English naval construction," and 
winding up with the remark, "If one of our ships 
meets a Frenchman of her own size, she blows her 
into atoms." We have the nineteenth - century 
Thomas and William Longman, who were "the 
social princes of their guild : two more finished 
gentlemen were never seen at the covert side ; two 
more courteous and discriminating judges of writing 
never walked from Paternoster Row to the Athe- 
iiiuum Club." The Hertfordshire house of the 
latter Mr. Escott promises to visit in due course. 

The elder brother, outliving William by two years r 
continued his hospitality at Farnboroiigh till 1879. 
As is well known, the Empress Eugenie purchased 
the estate from Mr. T. Norton Longman, and "at 
the present time the palace built by an English 
publisher is therefore the monument of French 

It is curious to read that until long into the 
sixties "the press" for the peerage used to mean 
The Times, and that Mr. Markham Spofforth first 
discovered " the power of the penny newspaper." 

The few extracts we have had space to give show 
what a fund of information and amusement Miv 
Escott has provided for his readers, and we can 
well see that he has plenty more in reserve. 

Visitation of England and Wale*. Edited by 

Frederick Arthur Crisp. Vol. XIII. (Privately 

printed. ) 

THIS important work steadily increases in value.. 
The plan on which it is arranged is excellent, and 
is most conscientiously carried out. None of the 
genealogies goes back to remote times. The pedigrees 
given almost all of them begin in the eighteenth 
century, and are carried down to the present day. 
This is as it should be. The more remote lines of 
descent, if they exist, are comnionly accessible in 
other works of reference ; but it is most desirable 
for us to have in a tabulated form the recent 
evolution of contemporary families. If the old 
heralds, when they compiled their visitations, had 
been as careful as Mr. Crisp, much knowledge 
would have been preserved that is now lost beyond 

The volume before us contains minute details 
regarding the modern descent of six peers and three 
baronets with their relatives, in a much fuller form 
than is to be found elsewhere. These elaborate 
compilations must have been a work of immense 
labour, and so far as regards the families with 
whose history we are acquainted, we are sure that 
a high level of accuracy has been arrived at. 
Indeed, we have not come upon a single error, 
though instances might be pointed out where it 
seems to have been impossible to give full details. 

Future historians and genealogists, not only of 
this country, but of by far the greater part of the 
civilized world, cannot but be grateful to Mr. 
Crisp ; for the British race is now so widely 
scattered that without an elaborate compilation o'f 
this nature it would be virtually impossible to trace 
the origins of many who in after days may become 
noteworthy. As examples we may draw attention 
to the fact that in the volume before us the families 
of Vidler, Graham, Auden, and Spedding have 
colonial representatives. 

We are glad to find that the arms of the various 
families are given, and a note is furnished in each 
case relating to those which are on the register of 
the College of Arms. 

The pedigree of the present Earl Nelson is most 
interesting; we turned to it before reading any 
other part of the book. We are pretty sure that 
nothing so elaborate can be found elsewhere. The 
arms are given in a full-page engraving. They were 
granted at a time \vheii Avhat Aye may call the 
pictorial heraldry fashionable during a greater part 
of the eighteenth century had not become extinct ; 
consequently an augmentation was given which is 
in the worst possible taste. At the present time 
our heraldic authorities have happily become aware 
that a coat of arms is a symbol, not 'a picture. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL F KB . 9, 1907. 

7'0,,,,-s of LowfeJfow. Selected and with an Intro- 
duction by George Saintsbury. (T. C. & E. C. 

Poem^of HerricL Selected and with an Intro- 
duction by the Rev. Canon Beechmg, D.D. 
(Same publishers.) 

THOUGH announced as selections, these additions 
to Mr Oliphant Smeaton's series 1 he Golden 
Poets " are sufficiently comprehensive to be classed 
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CONTENTS.-No. 164. 

3JOTES : Was Charles Lamb of Jewish Extraction ? 121 
Thomas Seward Westminster Changes, 1906, 122 Peti- 
tion of the Prince of Monaco Oxford Graduates, 1675-84 
School Slang at Rossall, 125 Parish Bull and Boar 
.Blunder of a Translator of the Vulgate Tartar Legend 
of Alexander the Great " Impecuniosity "" Incon- 
siderative," 126 Sir Henry Wotton at Venice West 
Indian Hurricane Lore Stepney Court Eolls Benjamin 
Kennet, Vicar of Bradford, 127. 

QUERIES : " Moaler "Carlo Goldoni's Bicentenary, 127 
Hugh Miller of Virginia ' The Cornworthiad' ' Edin- 
burgh Review ' Attack on Oxford Dean Vaughan's Pupils 

Langtry Estate in Ireland Corrodies: " Liber ser- 
v i ens " Hickford's Room, Brewer Street The English 
Translator of Sallust The People's Charter : Political 
Song, 128 Picture of Lady in Red Wolston Sir George 
Howard, Field-Marshal "Life-Star" Folk-lore, 129 
Andrew Marvell Heenvliet and Lord Wotton's Daughter 
People to be Avoided or Cultivated, 130. 

SI EPLI ES : Scott Illustrators, 130 Edinburgh Stage: 
Bland : Glover : Jordan, 131 Sir John Barnard's De- 
scendants, 132 "Blue- water "'Collection of Thoughts' 
Cardinal Wiseman's Tomb Ruskin's Parents " The 
Mahalla " " The Maghzen," 133 Meaux Abbey Con- 
-Contraction Religious Houses of Sussex Orwell Town 
and Haven Healing Springs flowing towards the South, 
134" Bossing " St. George's Chapel Yard, Oxford Road, 
135 Pictures at Teddington "Popjoy" "Anon"- 
Californian English : American Coin-Names, 136 Dole 
Cupboards Genealogy in Dumas " Poor Dog Tray " 
"The Old Highlander" Monumental Inscriptions: 
St. Faith Jerusalem Court, Fleet Street, 137. 

:NOTES ON BOOKS : " The Stratford Town Shakespeare " 

Lodge's ' Rosalynde ' Maguire's ' Historic Links ' 
' Willing's Press Guide.' 

'Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



WHEREAS, says the Talmud, Ezekiel 
paints the life and pageantry of Courts 
with the gorgeousness of an awestruck 
countryman, Isaiah describes them with 
the air of a surfeited sightseer. Charles 
Lamb seems to embrace both aspects of 
those prophetical figures. When he talks of 
familiar themes, of his friends and relations, 
of theatres and actors, of South Sea House 
or of the old Benchers of the Inner Temple, 
he is on ground where Leigh Hunt or 
Hazlitt does not surpass him in sobriety and 
detachment. His aloofness is superb, and 
the soul of the Aryan shines resplendently 
in him. But when he launches into a 
dissertation on roast pig, or tackles the 
bewildering topic of Jews, he loses his 
habitual reserve, and seems to borrow the 
abandon, the warmth, and the energy of the 
Semite. Whether in fun or earnest no one 
knows for certain, but he lays to and 
'belabours the unhappy Israelites with the 

zeal of a fanatic, and extols the material 
joys of " crackling " with a savage gusto 
born of a newly appropriated taste. His 
apparent affection for sucking-pig displays 
the warmth of a virtuoso and the keenness 
of a proselyte. All this time he may be 
laughing up his sleeve at us. Those habits of 
mystification were carried to extraordinary 
lengths, till we never know whether he is not, 
after all, poking fun at us. 

Now, unless I am grossly misled, this unique 
divergence from his normal style and method 
can only be accounted for on the assumption 
of a mental twist due to Semitic in-breeding 
or cross-fertilization. Of an unhappy fer- 
ment within him Lamb was quite conscious, 
for he often alludes to it in the oddest of 
self-communings and in the most pathetic 
of self-questionings. Probably his worldly- 
wise brother (who knew all about it) might 
have enlightened him, had he thought fit 
(which he did not). 

I have already alluded to Lamb's ingrained 
love of mystification, which, if my deduc- 
tions are valid, we may fearlessly set down 
to hereditary influences and to ancestral 
instincts. So far, the family history ends 
in Lincoln, whence John Lamb came up to 
London to seek his fortune. Lamb's own 
account of his remarkable parent contains 
matter for lively speculation. He seems to 
have been a man of parts and of ability 
above the common run, with a heart as 
tender as a woman's. " He had the merriest 
quips and conceits, and was altogether as 
brimful of rogueries and inventions as you 
could desire." Such a man was not " born 
to serve his brethren," but became in course 
of time the major domo and the close friend 
of his employer Salt. His fidelity and devo- 
tion to Salt's interests were the outcome 
of gratitude for spontaneous acts of gene- 
rosity on the part of the famous old Bencher. 
Now gratitude is one of the root-traits of 
the Jewish race. However, if John Lamb 
knew all about the history of his family and 
of its wanderings, we may be sure the lad, on 
coming up to town, soon learnt the wisdom 
of reticence. Jews were not exactly popular 
idols. The country seethed from end to end 
with subdued hatred of them, and it flamed 
out violently when Henry Pelham in 1753 
brought in the detested Naturalization Bill. 
In his daily rambles about the City, John 
saw around him everywhere the odious 
" No Jews, no wooden shoes," chalked up 
on walls and hoardings by a howling and 
infuriated mob. Well, John's sympathies, 
we may be sure, were not with the tor- 
mentors of those hapless wanderers ; for 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. FEB. re, 1907. 

Charles Lamb has told us, " In the cause 
of the oppressed he never considered 
inequalities or calculated the number of his 
opponents." Furthermore, to judge from 
Lamb's portrait in the Guildhall and from 
De Quincey's not unfavourable criticism, it 
would appear that the founders of the family 
were originally Spanish Jews " Marranos " 
or crypto-Hebrews furtively practising the 
religion of their ancestors (after passing 
through the waters of baptism and swearing 
fealty to the Apostolic Church) until they 
were betrayed by the cupidity of spies, and 
compelled to fly for safety to Holland, 
whence, later in the seventeenth century, 
branches of the family migrated to Lincoln, 
where they settled down and intermarried 
with local non- Jewish elements. 

Within the limits at my disposal, I can 
only say briefly that there is nothing in 
Elia's writings, biographical and epistolary, 
which is a priori incompatible with my 
hypothesis. The tragedy of his life is the 
story of Israel retold. His letters in par- 
ticular are an inexhaustible mine where 
students of heredity will find ample subject- 
matter. Such unadulterated humour could 
only be beaten out on the anvil of profound 
human agony. Israel is the living embodiment 
of this. Despite its countless vicissitudes, 
Israel still retains the heart of its boyhood 
and the freshness of its youth. 


Percy House, South Hackney. 


A FEW details relating to Thomas Seward 
(see ante, p. 83) may be added to the notices 
in the ' D.N.B.' and in the volume of ' Ad- 
missions to the College of St. John the 
Evangelist, Cambridge,' Part III., ed. by 
R. F. Scott, 1903. 

He was a brother of the William Seward, 
gent., " companion in travel with the 
Reverend Mr. George Whitefield," who 
published in 1740 a journal of a voyage from 
Savannah to Philadelphia, and from Phila- 
delphia to England. It is stated in this 
journal (p. 82) that after Lord Charles 
Fitzroy's death Thomas Seward was chaplain 
to a man-of-war commanded by Lord 
Augustus Fitzroy, and that a benefice worth 
400Z. a year was given him by Lord Bur- 
lington. This was no doubt the rectory of 
Eyam, which is still in the gift of the Caven- 
dish family. 

It would appear from Dr. Johnson's 
letter to Taylor and from Gray's letter to 

Mason that in 1742, and again in 1755, he- 
desired to exchange this living for a chap- 
laincy on the establishment of the Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, then a Cavendish. 
(Johnson's ' Letters,' ed. Hill, i. 10 ; Gray's; 
' Letters,' ed. Tovey, i. 282). The centenary 
sermon which he preached in 1766 upon, the- 
plague at Eyam is referred to in William 
Seward's ' Anecdotes ' (1798 ed.), ii. 113 % . 

A stanza by Dr. Darwin, one line of which 
sets out that " by Seward's arm the mangled 
Beaumont bled," is quoted in Ernst Krause's 
'Life of Erasmus Darwin' (1887), p, 41. 
John Byrom on 13 April, 1737, " drank 
green tea " with him, and talked " about 
his correction upon ' Timon ' " ('Remains,' 
ii. pt. i. 104). A long letter from him to 
Sir William Bunbury, pointing out in the- 
name of Sir Thomas Hanmer some mistakes 
in Warburton's edition of Shakespeare, is; 
in Hanmer's ' Correspondence,' pp. 352-70. 

Seward's wife died on 31 July, 1780, 
aged 66. His second daughter died June' 
1764, aged 19, "on the eve of her nuptials." 
Mother and daughter were buried in the 
" lady-choir " of Lichfield Cathedral. Several: 
other daughters and one brother died in 
infancy (Gent. Mag., 1781, p. 624 ; 1809,. 
pt. i. 378). Seward wrote the poetical 
inscription on the temporary monument to 
Gilbert Walmesley (ib., 1785, pt. i. 166). 

When Green was made Bishop of Lincoln 
the claims of Seward, their common friend, 
to a prebendal stall in that cathedral were 
urged upon him by Bishop Newton. Green 
promised to keep them in mind, but said 
that he was " then engaged eleven deep." 
When fifteen years had passed the bishop 
offered Seward a stall, but he asked that he 
might waive his claim in favour of Hunter, 
his wife's nephew (Newton, ' Autobiog ' 
1782 ed., pp. 113-14). 

Anna Seward left to Sir Walter Scott a 
manuscript collection of her father's poems, . 
some of which were unpublished (' Poems : 
of Anna Seward,' i. p. iv, &c.). 


(See ante, p. 81.) 

THE Millbank end of Horseferry Road 
remains as in the previous year, and the 
changes likely to take place at the other end 
have not begun, though a portion of Broad- 
wood's pianoforte factory is now being 
utilized by the garage of the London Electro- 
bus Company. Nos. 69, 71, 73, and 75 in . 

10 s. VIL FKB. 16, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


this road old houses with long front 
gardens were demolished in May to make 
way for the head- quarters and drill hall of 
the Westminster Dragoons. The founda- 
tion stone was laid at the commencement 
of July, and has remained gaunt and 
grim, nothing more having been done. 
The Golden "Grain Bread Company went 
into liquidation during the year, and the 
extensive premises, 99 to 105, Horseferry 
Road, were closed. They were offered at 
auction, but did not secure a purchaser. 

Vincent Square, so long free from the 
builder's hand, has of late years become 
the centre of his handiwork. The two houses 
late in the occupation of Messrs. Budd and 
Allclmrch were demolished in March, and 
an important building for the use of the 
Westminster Technical Institute at once 
begun. This was hurried on at first, but for 
several months the works were at a stand- 
still, though it is stated that they will 
speedily be completed by the L.C.C. On 
the side of the square backing on to Vauxhall 
Bridge Road, at the corner of Alfred Street, 
a piece of ground imoccupied for many years 
is now being utilized for the erection of a 
hospital for the treatment of infantile 
disorders. It is to be known as the Infants' 
Hospital, the secretary being Mr. E. R. 
Jarratt, of 120, Victoria Street, S.W. The 
work is at present being carried on at 
Denning Road, Hampstead. The plot of 
ground between the square and Rochester 
Row had not, at the end of the year, found 
a purchaser, but rumour says that the Royal 
Horticultural Society finds the accommoda- 
tion of its recently erected hall not sufficient 
for its requirements, and has had some idea 
of buying this plot of ground ; but apparently 
nothing definite has been decided on, as 
the old tenants still remain in possession. 

In Greycoat Place a very heavy piece oJ 
building was begun on 5 March in the 
addition of four large rooms (one on each 
floor) to the warehouse belonging to the 
Army and Navy Co-operative Society 
and on 22 September the drapery depart 
ment commenced business in this, their 
reserve store. The new station of the 
Fire Brigade, also in Greycoat Place, was 
completed early in the year. Shortly after 
wards the old station in Howick Place was 
closed. The official opening of the ne\\ 
station took place on 22 May, and Fire ant 
Water (the organ of the brigade) for thai 
month contained a good illustration anc 
description of the building. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Vaux 
hall Bridge Road there were many change 

during the past year. First came the open- 
ng of the new bridge. 

This long-looked-f or event took place 
n 26 May. The structure has been much 
riticized, public opinion not being altogether 
av our able. The bridge has some pecu- 
iarities in design, notably the balustrades.. 
'.t is a useful structure, and appears to be 
,vell suited for its purpose. The electrifica- 
ion of the roadway began on 27 February, 
and proceeded with great rapidity, the first 
electric car being run along this route on 
Sunday, 5 August, Mr. John Burns, the 
D resident of the Local Government Board, . 
3eing a passenger. The work of preparing 
;he road was very arduous, particularly at 
;he junction with Edward Street, where 
:he gas mains, sewers, and other pipes 
required careful management. At the junc- 
tion with Francis Street and Tachbrook 
Street there was also some heavy work in 
connexion with lowering the crown of the 
King's Scholars' Pond Sewer, in order to 
obviate an awkward rise in the road. I 
would refer readers to The Westminster and 
Pimlico News of 23 March, 1906, where I 
published a short account of this old sewer. 
The building known as Hopkinson House, 
at the corner of Vauxhall Bridge Road and 
Edward Street, was completed early in the 
year, and occupied at once, but was officially 
opened by Sir John Wolfe Barry on 22 March, . 
and has already been declared to fill the want 
that was stated to exist at the time of the 
nception of the idea. An interesting 
account of the opening ceremony appeared 
in The Daily Graphic. A plot of land 
between Regency Street and Causton Street, 
from which many years ago the houses 
were removed, was further enlarged by the 
demolition of another house in Vauxhall 
Bridge Road. On the opposite side of the 
road, the building alluded to in last year's 
summary as being placed upon the site of a 
portion of Lane's Laundry, which in its turn 
succeeded Bass's Assembly Rooms, was com- 
pleted, and was forthwith occupied as show- 
rooms, garage, and depot for the Decauville 
motor-cars and for motor accesssories. 

About the middle of the year some ex- 
tensive repairs were found necessary at 
Holy Trinity Church, situated in Bessborough 
Gardens, justly spoken of as a " beautiful 
modern example of the Early Decorated 
style " ; and it may be mentioned as being 
one of the first ecclesiastical structures 
which we owe to the eminent architect the 
late Mr. J. L. Pearson, R.A. It was the 
gift of Archdeacon Bentinck, the prede- 
cessor of Dr. Christopher Wordsworth (after- 



wards Bishop of Lincoln) at Westminster 
\bbey The first stone was laid by Mrs. 
Bentinck in November, 1842, the consecra- 
tion taking place in 1852 There have 
been three incumbents : the Rev. C. F. 
Secretan; the Rev. W. Rayner Cosens, 
DD. ; and the present vicar, the Rev. 
George Miller, who has held the living for 
thirty-six years. Some of the stonework 
had so far decayed that an accident was 
feared, as many of the blocks were, by the 
acids of the atmosphere, much in the state 
of bars of salt. 

The buildings in Bulmga Street and 
Atterbury Street went on well, the Army 
Military College, in the latter thoroughfare, 
being in a forward state, while the Alexandra 
Military Nursing Home, in the former street, 
with another frontage to Earl Street, will 
soon be ready for opening. I find that the 
Army Hospital was officially opened on 
1 July, 1905, a fact I could not ascertain 
last year. The temporary bridge which 
did duty during the rebuilding of Vauxhall 
Bridge is to be removed ; but the end of the 
year did not witness the commencement 
of this work. 

In Regency Street about five or six years 
ago some alterations were begun, but lagged 
very much. Between Page Street and 
Vincent Street three large blocks of resi- 
dences named Norfolk, Probyn, and Jessel 
Houses, after the first three Mayors of the 
reconstituted City of Westminster were 
begun in 1901, and have been occupied for 
some time. At the corner of Page Street was 
formerly situated the Regent Music-Hail, 
one of the best-designed buildings devoted 
to public amusements. Its proprietor was 
Mr. Shedlock, a gentleman connected for 
many years with the old brewery firm of 
Joseph Carter, Wood & Son. The venture 
was not a success, the entertainments being, 
as a rule, much in advance of the day, as 
was the case with the Strand Music-Hall, 
the predecessor of the old Gaiety Theatre. 
The architect of the hall was Mr. Ridley, 
a well-known member of the Westminster 

During the year just closed the old West- 
minster Radical Club, at the corner of 
Chapter Street, was, with some other houses, 
demolished, and on the ground thus cleared 
some flats have been erected ; they are 
numbered 40 to 44 Regency Street, 2 to 16 
Chapter Street, 1 to 12 Frederick Street, 
and 27 to 42 Hide Place. On a portion of 
the land cleared, from the hall used by the 
Salvation Army to the corner of Causton 
Street, a large building is in progress for 

the Commissioners of the Metropolitan 

In Strutton Ground, on the west side, six 
houses 20 to 30, even numbers have 
been demolished, and the land is open for 
purchase by the highest bidder. On the 
opposite side, at the corner of Great Peter 
Street, a house (No. 51) reported to be a 
dangerous structure was summarily closed 
by police authority on Wednesday, 16 May, 
the people being then and there ejected ; 
almost immediately the house was demolished, 
and no building has yet been raised in its 
place. The new wing of the Greycoat 
Hospital, erected by the governors in order 
that the teaching staff might have increased 
accommodation, was duly completed, the 
formal opening taking place on Monday, 
22 October, when a large concourse of West- 
minster people was present. It is worthy of 
note that Mr. Clement Y. Sturge, L.C.C., 
generously gave some very beautiful carvings, 
which adorn the chimneypieces in the various 
classrooms, whereby the beauty of the build- 
ing is much enhanced. I think that this 
completes my summary of the changes in 
the parish of St. John the Evangelist for the 
past year. 

Those for St. Margaret's are not quite so 
numerous, but some of them are of con- 
siderable interest. First, as of right, come 
the extensive works completed, so far as 
the parish church is concerned, and in 
progress so far as relates to Westminster 
Abbey. The alterations in connexion with 
the latter structure are of much magnitude, 
and several years will elapse before the 
works in the north transept and north aisle 
are finished. The scheme for the venerable 
Abbey, which will occupy five years and 
cost 20,OOOZ. so said The People of 15 July 
last embraces part of the great north 
recessed portico, and the whole of the north 
transept. The stonework and beautiful 
rose window are much decayed and fretted 
the effect of time and London's highly 
charged chemical atmosphere, which is 
very detrimental to Bath stone. Many of 
the sensational stories now current are 
entirely devoid of foundation. 

The various works at St. Margaret's 
Church the rebuilding of the east wall, 
underpinning the south-east corner of the 
south aisle, and reloading the fine old 
east window were successfully accom- 
plished. The extended chancel was dedi- 
cated by the Bishop of London on the 
afternoon of Sunday, 15 July. The new 
reredos looked somewhat garish when first 
exposed to view, but since that time it has 

10 s. vii. FEB. 16, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


mellowed very considerably, and seems 
more in keeping with the sober aspect of 
the other portions of this famous old build- 
ing. The work thus brought to a successful 
issue was costly, but now, seen in its entirety, 
is a distinct gain from every point of view. 

To the dormitory of Westminster School, 
as may be seen from Great College Street, 
there has been added an additional story, 
to be devoted to the purpose, at least in part, 
of an isolation ward in case of infectious 
illnesses, though I hope that it may not be 
needed for this purpose. 



(To be concluded.} 

The following is a translation of the original 
inedited draft, in my possession, of a petition 
from the Prince of Monaco to the celebrated 
Carnot in 1794. The Prince and Princess 
were both imprisoned under the Terror. 
He survived ; she cut off her beautiful hair, 
refused to save her life by falsely pleading 
being enceinte, and died heroically. 

Petition to the National Convention. 

Citizens, An infirm old man, aged more than 
70 years, finds himself shut up for five months past 
in a house of arrest, where his health deteriorates, 
111 1 til he is in clanger of losing life ; this man, 
Citizens, who appeals now to your justice, and 
indeed the protection and assistance that the 
French Nation has so many times promised him, is 
Honore Camille Leonor Grimaldi, formerly Prince 
Sovereign of Monaco, an ancient ally of France, 
who has always manifested the most sincere and 
constant attachment for her, and who thought he 
had sufficiently proved^ it by the ' Memoir ' which 
lie addressed to the National Convention, 26 Fri- 
maire ; and to whom, finally, your Diplomatic 
Committee sent, in making, 11 Fri e , 1793, their 
Report upon the reunion that they had decreed of 
his country to the French Republic, and said that 
you would always give protection and a safeguard 
for all that could belong to him, in the character of 
a simple citizen. 

To the Memoir addressed to the National Con- 
vention, 26 Frimaire, which was sent back to its 
Committee of Public Safety and Health, Honore 
Grimaldi adds now the writing here subjoined ; he 
proves that from any point of view, the former 
Prince of Monaco cannot be considered as a suspect 
to the French Nation, nor arrested as such, when 
above all he has not gone out of Paris since the 
Revolution, and that he always believed in it, in 
such a manner as to drive away any suspicion. He 
is constrained, Citizens, to add the reason, that if 
there is a country in the world where the liberty of 
Honore Grimaldi ought to have been more scrupu- 
lously respected than another, it is in France, 
where he has preferred to dwell with more confi- 
dence than he had for any place, counting on living 
there in peace and tranquillity, under the safeguard 
and protection that the French Nation has guaran- 
teed to him, and that your Diplomatic Committee 

had passed and consolidated in the Report that 
they had made on it, 14 Fri., 1793. 

Honore Grimaldi demands, Citizens, that the 
writing annexed to the Petition here drawn up 
should be joined to the Memorial which he sent 
back to the National Convention, 26 Frimaire, 
and which it has returned to the Committee of 
Public Safety and Health ; and he prays you, in the 
name of the humanity and justice with which you 
are animated, to charge these two Committees to 
make a prompt Report upon that u-hich concerns 
htm, the object of his appeal. 

Honore Grimaldi ix rery *orry, prays you also, 
Citizens, to divert, for an inutant, the National 
Con cention from the important irork* which occupy 
it unceasingly, but if it will deiyn to observe that it 
is an old infirm man, an ally and dependent of the 
French Nation, who has not merited any reproach 
to make him apprehensive on his part, and who yet 
has been detained for nearly five months past, they 
irill^ not fail to find it very natural that he shouldf 
claim hi* liberty, and will take into consideration' 
the position in which he finds himself, and in re- 
ceiving favourably his appeal, the National Con- 
vention will prove to all Europe that it will be 
rather justice than force that it will consider in the 
appeals that other Allies may address to it. 

At Paris, 12 Pluviose. 

Note. It will seem proper to copy entire the 
article of the Report of the Citizen Carnot which 

.y concerned, concerns my person. 

The italicized words are crossed out in. 
the original. The words " to divert " in the 
second line of the last paragraph of the 
petition should have been crossed out. 

D. J. 

OXFORD GRADUATES, 1675-84. In the 
' Calendar of the Ormonde MSS.,' new series,. 
vol. iv., recently issued by the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission, there is a long 
series of letters from Ormonde as Chancellor, 
asking for various dispensations, &c., for 
more than 300 Oxford men. This list should 
be noted by all who are interested, for in 
many cases biographical facts are mentioned. 
The letters occupy pp. 599-641, and the 
names are indexed on pp. 710-13. 

fel( W. C. B. 

worth while to put on record in ' N. & Q.' 
the slang in use at Rossall in July, 1906 
school terminology so quickly changes. 

1. The following abbreviations were in 
vogue : Mu(seum), sani(torium), hos(pital), 
puni(shment school), compul(sory cricket, 
football, or hockey), enter(tainment). 

2. The last is on the borderline of the 
formations originated at Harrow, and since 
disseminated everywhere : brekker (= break- 
fast), Blacker (= Blackpool), collegger (= col- 
lection). Perhaps other formations like 
these, however, are dying out : " exhibigger" 
(exhibition) is dead. 

3. More distinctive are : scanty (a small 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. i<;, 1907. 

roll, by masters called a cob) ; Flood (Fleet- 
wood), biff (=to cane), stub (in one house 
"root "=kick), gut (=to guzzle), dak 
.(=doctor), clew (= to hit), blood ( = a pro- 
minent boy). 

4. Of the American type were : mystery 
bag (= rissole, or meatball), private tu(ition) 
with the guntz ( = punishment school in 

charge of a sergeant). 

5. Idioms used were : It 's rip ( = delight- 
ful), to stick it ( = endure, stand it), Is there 
a bully (crowd) at the tuck (shop) ? It 's on 
bell (nearly time for the bell to ring). 

T. N. 

PARISH BULL AND BOAR. The following 
is a sixteenth-century action for consequen- 
tial damage to parishioner Yelding, through 
the failure of parson Fay to observe the 
parish custom for the parson to keep the 
above animals : 

" Trinity 36 Eliz. rot. 948. Accion sur le case per 
Yelding yers Fay, et declare que le custome del 
parish fuit que le parson ad gara un Bull et un Boar 
pur Fincrease del cattle des inhabitants deins le 
parish : et montre que le def esteant parson et le pi' 
inhabitant, le def n'ad garde le Bull n'un Boar per 
4 ans ensemble al damage le pi'. Le def prise le 
custome per protestation, et le plea noil cntp\ Et 
adjudge sur demurrer pro quer', quia 1'accion gist." 


VULGATE. A curious blunder in the A.-S. 
translation of Exod. xv. 1 may occasion 
trouble to the student of ' Eadwine's 
Canterbury Psalter' (E.E.T.S.), wherein 
" equum et ascensorem " (Canticum Moysi, 
v. 1) are rendered " Emlice & aestigende." 
Emlice, for efenlice, points, of course, to the 
translator having read equum as cequum. 

H. P. L. 

GREAT. To vol. xxi. of the Transactions of 
the Society for the Study of Archaeology, 
&c., in connexion with Kazan University' 
Mr. N. Y. Sarkin contributes the following 
Kirghiz tradition of Alexander of Macedon 
'(Iskander Zu'1-karnein). The monarch had 
horns, the existence of which his subjects 
did not suspect. As Iskander feared that 
the rumour would conduce to his death, 
every barber was killed after completing 
his task on the prince. Gratification of 
every earthly wish was not enough to satisfy 
him, and having heard of the water of 
immortality lie sent two vizirs, Kidir and 
Elias, in quest of it. During their absence 
Iskander required the services of a barber, 
and on this occasion promised to spare the 
man's life if he could keep the secret. The 
barber did so for some time, but reticence 

became intolerable, so he whispered the secret 
into a well. The fishes heard, repeated it 
all over the steppe, and a herdsman watering 
his flocks learned it. The prince's time to 
die arrived, and when the emissaries returned 
with the water it was too late to save him. 
The vizirs Kidir and Elias became immortal, 
the former of whom wanders invisibly over 
the earth, seeking to aid good men, while 
the latter chiefly watches over cattle. Some 
Kirghiz believe that rain is the water of 
immortality, while the vizirs appear to 
correspond to " the Christian prophets " 
Elijah and Elisha.* 

While in the act of procuring the water 
Kidir and Elias noticed a stranger, and 
asked who he was and his business, remark- 
ing that he seemed to be a Mussulman 
(Eastern tradition says that Iskander \vas a 
Mussulman, a hard case to explain). The 
stranger reported that he was also a great 
prince whose every mortal wish had been 
fulfilled. Like Iskander, he desired im- 
mortality and quaffed of the spring. After 
a while his empire fell away, misfortunes 
came, and he went forth a wanderer over 
the world. Weary of earthly life, the 
stranger would have renounced both soul and 
body, were that possible ; but God did not 
permit it. Having fled the world, he had 
arrived at the spring again. 

Needless to say, we have the stories of 
the asinine ears of the foolish Midas of 
Phrygia and the Wandering Jew, occurring 
in a strange conglomeration of Greek, Sla- 
vonic, and Christian tradition, attached to 
the name of Alexander the Great. 

Streatham Common. 

" IMPECUNIOSITY." In the ' N.E.D.' the 
first use of this word is given in a letter from 
Sir Walter Scott to Mr. Morritt of Eokeby, 
dated 1818. In the Globe edition of Gold- 
smith, Prof. Masson, the editor, states in 
his introduction (p. xxii) that the w^ord was 
invented by Hiffernan, a contemporary of 
Goldsmith. W. E. WILSON. 

Ha wick. 

" INCONSIDERATIVE." The ' H.E.D.' con- 
tains only one quotation, and that of the 
year 1684, illustrating the use of the word 
" inconsiderative." In ' A Vindication of 
the Divines of the Church of England,' &c. 
(London, 1689), ascribed by the Catalogue 
of the British Museum to T. Bainbrigg (100, 
i. 3), one finds, p. 12, these words: "are 

* Cf. the shadowy thunder-deity Ilya Muromets. 
In one of Lermontov's Eastern tales Khaderiliaz 
designates St. George. 

io s. VIL FEB. 16, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


anconsiderative to Amazement, of the Prior 
Obligation they are under to their Religion." 

beautiful stained-glass window has been 
placed in the English Church at Venice to 
the memory of Sir Henry Wotton. (By 
.the by, is it not somewhat strange that we 
moderns always speak of the man by his 
baptismal name, while to those who knew 
him personally at Eton he was invariably 
" Sir Harry " ?) The window is due to 
Helen, Countess of Radnor, who thought of 
it, and who partially gave and partially 
collected the money. The quarterings of the 
Wotton coat are accurate ; but it may be as 
well to place upon record that the crest 
is inaccurate, unless Burke and other high 
authorities are to be ignored. The motto is 
also inaccurate, being copied from dear, 
unreliable Walton, instead of from Sir 
Henry's own seal, an impress of which is 
now in Somerset House. M. E. W. 

Jamaica they have this " hurricane " rime, 
which shows that from the end of June to 
October navigation sho*uld be suspended in 
view of storms. Nevertheless the worst 
hurricane I remember occurred in the first 
week of October, 1866. 

June, too soon ; 
July, stand by ; 
August, you must ; 
September, remember ; 
October all over. 


^ STEPNEY COURT ROLLS. I have recently 
bought a small book, ' The Customs, &c., of 
Stepney and Hackney Manors,' dated inside 
the cover 1736; but the customs refer to 
1617, and there are long lists of copyhold 
tenants, which would probably help many 
inquirers interested in those manors. I 
^wanted the name Warton or Wharton about 
1736-1761, of Schoolhouse Lane. Thomas 
Wentworth was the chief landlord in both 
places. A. C. H. 

In the library of Sion College is a copy of 
the following sermon : 

The Manifold Evidence of the Being of a God 
considered, &c. in a Sermon, Preached in the Parish 
Church of Bradford, on Sunday September 16th 
1744. By B. Kennet, M.A. Vicar of Bradford. 
Leeds. Printed by James Lister. l~4o. Small 
4to, 12 leaves ; text Hebrews xi. 6. 
This copy has the preacher's manuscript 
dedication to the Bishop of London (Ed- 

mund Gibson), who, twenty-six years before, 
got him, " an obscure person," a dispensation 
to be privately ordained by the Bishop of 
Oxford (John Potter, a native of Wakefield), 
" now " Archbishop of Canterbury ; dated 
Bradford in Yorkshire, 9 March, 1744/5. 

Benjamin Kennet's pedigree is set out in 
Joseph Hunter's 'Familiae Minorum Gen- 
tium,' ii. 520-21 . Mary Kennet, his third wife, 
and widow, made her will 8 Oct., 1753, being 
then of Wakefield. In it she mentions her 
late brother William Dawson, Walker Daw- 
son his son, and Catherine his daughter ; her 
own son Richard and her daughter Hannah, 
and her sister Mrs. Hannah Allott. The 
will was proved at York 2 Aug., 1754. 

On 16 Feb., 1807, by royal grant, Benjamin 
Kennet of Wakefield, Esq. son and heir of 
Benjamin Kennet of Manchester, merchant, 
who was the son of the above-mentioned 
vicar of Bradford by Mary Stockdale, his 
second wife was authorized to use the sur- 
name of Dawson in addition to that of 
Kennet ; and on the 26th of the same month 
he had a grant of arms, quarterly, Dawson 
and Kennet, with a crest for each. 

W. C. B. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" MOALER." What is (or was) a " moaler 
lamp " ? It is mentioned in 1843, in the 
report of an action brought against the 
Eastern Counties Railway Company. What 
is the origin of the word ? I should be glad 
of any other examples of its occurrence. 


Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

nexion with the celebration of the bicentenary 
of Carlo Goldoni's death, which is to take 
place in Venice towards the end of this 
month, I venture to draw attention to the 
fact that at the time of his death in Paris 
his private papers got lost, and that there is 
some ground for believing that they were 
conveyed to England and consigned to 
the repository of some private collection, as 
happened in the case of Rosalba Carriera's 
papers, now in the Laurentian Library, 
Florence. Perhaps one of your numerous 
readers will be able to give me some infor- 
mation as to the whereabouts of Goldoni's 
papers, now missing. G. A. S. 



much obliged for information as to t 
birthplace, parentage, whereabouts of re 
dence at time of death, age at death, 
burial-place, of Hugh Miller, merchant 
Greenscroft, Bristol parish, Virginia, lat 
of London, England, who died in Londo 
13 Feb., 1762. His will, recorded a 
Somerset House, gives no information o 
the above points, but mentions his Scottis 
cousins Freebairn, and relations in Virgin 
of his wife, Jane Boiling. He was o 
9 Sept., 1757, appointed first master 
Blandford Lodge of Freemasons in Virgini 
Charles Street, Somerset East, Cape Colony. 

hamist tell me where I may find a copy o 
' The Cornworthiad,' a poem commemoratin 
Mr. Barter, of Cornworthy, Devon, and h 
three notable sons, Charles of Sarsden 
Brudenell of Highclere, and Robert, Warde 
of Winchester. W T ICCAMICUS. 

FORD. In 1810 there appeared in Th 
Edinburgh Review a vehement attack o 
Oxford studies and on classical learning 
Of the three articles which contained i 
one was written by D. K. Sandford, wh 
afterwards recanted and expressed regret 
I shall be grateful to any one who can te 
me the authors of the other two. W._T. 

caster, and when Master of the Temple 
the late Dean of Llandaff took, gratuitously 
clerical pupils. I have always heard them 
spoken of as Vaughan's " doves." In the 
' Daily Mail Year-Book ' for this year I find 
on p. 93 that the present Archbishop o 
Canterbury is mentioned as having been one 
of his "lambs." Will one of the many 
former pupils who may see this inquiry tel 
me which name was usually applied to the 
men trained by the Dean ? 

The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

one kindly inform me where the estate in 
Ireland of Mr. Langtry (father-in-law of 
the well-known actress) was situated ? 
I wish also to know the name and area of 
the property adjoining it, which belonged 
until about 1855 to one John Burke. 


a copy of a grant of a corrody by an alien 
abbey. The grantee is to be the "liber 

serviens " of the abbot. What is the mean- 
ing of this term ? I shall be glad to be 
referred to printed copies of similar docu- 
ments, as there is an omission of some word 
or words in the list of articles to be yearly 
supplied by the abbey, which comparison of 
other grants ought to enable me to supply. 

Q. V. 

It is interesting to learn from The Musical! 
Times that this long-forgotten concert-room, 
is still in existence. For thirty-five years, 
during the middle of the eighteenth century,, 
it was a much-frequented and fashionable 
resort, but, as the neighbourhood changed 
and other halls were erected, it gradually 
sank into oblivion. The building now forms 
part of the premises of the Club Franais. 
Perhaps some reader of ' N. & Q.' wili 
contribute information as to its history. 

13, Westbourn Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

In Thomas Cogan's ' Haven of Health r 
(chap. 242, p. 287, ed. 1636) there is a curious 
reference to the mutilation " that Master 
Smith, a canon of Hereford, practised upon 
limself in the beginning of the raigne of the 
queene's majesty that now is." This imi- 
tator of Origen is stated in the margin to be- 
' the translator of Salust into English." 
This I take to be Simon Smith, who held 
the stall of Huntingdon in 1561, was arch- 
deacon in 1578, and died in 1606. Cogan's 
>ook first appeared in 1596, so that Queen 
Elizabeth is the monarch intended, and 
he came to the throne in 1558. But what 
s meant by the assertion that Smith was the 
ranslator of Sallust ? The early translators 
of the Latin historian were Alexander 
Barclay (1520), Thomas Heywood (1608), 
nd W. Crosse (1629). If the allusion is to- 
aluste du Bartas, our bibliographers seem 
o have missed this translation by " Master 
mith." WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

In the summer of 1838 there was launched 

le historic " People's Charter," which was; 
;o play so important a part in the political 
listory of this country during the next 

ecade ; and various accounts have ap- 
>eared of the origin of the name. The credit 
'or its creation has sometimes been given 
o O'Connell ; while, according to Charles 

ackay in his * Forty Years' Recollections ' 
vol. ii. p. 50), " the Charter derived its 

ame from the French Charter of 1830," 

lough, in point of fact, the French Charter 

10 s. vii. FEB. 16, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


dated from 1814, and it was its alleged viola 
tion in 1830 which precipitated the Revolu 
tion of July. But, apart from any recollec 
tion of Magna Carta or the Great Charter 
as a symbol of liberty, the word must have 
been familiar in a special sense to the older 
Radicals of that day. A full report was 
published by William Hone in 1820 of the 
proceedings at the inquest upon John Lees 
one of the victims of the Peterloo Massacre 
at Manchester on 16 August, 1819 ; and, ii 
the course of the cross-examination of one 
Robert Hall by Mr. Harmer, a solicitor 
engaged by the Radicals, there was this 
passage dealing with the witness's statement 
that he had seen carried in the procession a 
black flag with the word " Death " upon it : 

" Q. Why do you say that there was only 
'Death'? Was it not 'Death or Liberty'? 
A . I don't know whether it was ' Liberty or 
Death,' or 'Death or Liberty.' 

' ' Q. But was it one or the other ? A . Yes ; it 
was something of the kind. 

" Q. Have you not heard that celebrated national 

song, ' Or give us Death or Liberty,' which has been 

siing over and over again not only in the presence 

of our own Royal Family, but in the presence of 

nearly all the crowned heads of Europe ? 

Whilst happy in my native land, 

I boast my country's charter : 

these are the first two lines of the song. A. I never 
heard it, to my recollection. 

" Mr. Harmer. Every one knows that it is sung 
in the first companies among men of every political 
principle, with the greatest admiration." 
I should be much interested to know more 
of this political song. POLITICIAN. 

PICTURE or LADY IN RED. I shall be 
greatly obliged if you or one of your corre- 
spondents can give me some information 
relating to a certain picture which I believe 
is well known. It is a study of a woman 
with red hair and red draperies ; the whole 
tone of the picture is red, and it is entitled 
* Fiametta,' ' La Donna della Fiamma,' or 
a similar name. I think the painter is either 
Rossetti or Burne-Jones. What I want to 
know is the actual title, by whom the picture 
is painted, and in what collection it is to be 
found. I. R. 

[MB. F. G. STEPHENS kindly supplies the following 
comment : 

The work I. R. refers to is manifestly ' The 
Vision of Fiammetta,' which, painted in oil by 
Dante G. Rossetti in 1879, was No. 304 in the Royal 
Academy's Winter Exhibition of 1883, which com- 
prehended a very large proportion of the artist's 
output. It seems to have been begun in or before 
1877, but the later year witnessed its completion. 
Mrs. Stillman (born Spartali) sat for the head, and 
continued to do so till late in 1879. The completed 
example was exhibited, first at Manchester in 1882, 
and as No. 67 at the New Gallery in 1897. It is a 

three-quarters-length, life - size figure, dressed in 
deep rose red, standing facing the spectator, with a 
mystical flame about her head, and surrounded by 
a long branch of an apple-tree in full bloom, which, 
approaching us, she pushes aside. With her right 
hand she holds above her head a portion of the 
branch on which is perched a bird passionately 
singing and with its wings outspread. The subject 
is from a sonnet of Boccaccio s, a translation of 
which by Rossetti is inscribed on the frame of the 
picture. The artist dated his work 1878, but his 
correspondence published by his brother shows that 
Mrs. Stillman was still sitting to him in October, 
1879. ' The Vision of Fiammetta ' was, almost 
before it was finished, sold to the late Mr. William 
A. Turner, of Manchester, for 84W. Mr. Turner lent 
it to the Academy, and at the sale of his pictures in 
1888 it was bought for 1,207/. by the present owner, 
Mr. Charles Butler, who possesses other pictures 
by Rossetti. There is a photogravure of 'The 
Vision ' in Mr. Marillier's exhaustive ' Dante G. 
Rossetti,' 1899, p. 194. It is not to be confounded with 
another 'Fiammetta,' a head which was cut out, 
says Mr. W. M. Rossetti, from his brother's un- 
finished 'Kate the Queen' of 1850. J 

WOLSTON. Four boys of this name were 
at Westminster School in the first decade 
of the last century.: Alexander, Augustus, 
R. W., and T. Wolstan. Information con- 
cerning their parentage and career is desired. 

G. F. R. B. 

According to the ' D.N.B.' (xxviii. 17), this 
worthy was born about or in 1720, and 
obtained a commission in the 3rd Buffs in 
1725, rising to the lieutenant-colonelcy of 
that regiment 2 April, 1744. According 
to Foster's * Alumni Oxonienses,' Howard 
matriculated at Oxford from Ch. Ch. 23 June, 
1735, aged seventeen. I should be glad to 
obtain the place and exact date of his birth, 
as well as the dates of his early steps in the 
army. G. F. R. B. 

" LIFE-STAR " FOLK-LORE. The following 
incident has been related to me. In 1882 
the head of a titled family in the Midland 
counties lay dangerously ill, and his recovery 
was considered hopeless. My informant, 
who lived then, as he still does, in the parish 
where the family seat is situate, was driving 
one evening, with his wife, in the direction 
of the mansion, when they each of them 
saw a fiery meteor, described as a " fireball," 
travel swiftly towards them from the far 
sky, and, on arriving immediately above the 
Hall, appear to break into fragments. So 
much impressed were they that they called 
at the lodge and made inquiry ; but no 
idings had reached the lodge-keeper. The 
first thing heard the following morning was 
;hat the occupant of the mansion had died 
at an hour precisely coinciding with the 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. vn. FEE. ie, 1907. 

appearance above described. I then heard, 
for the first time, that the appearance of a 
person's " life-star " at the moment of his 
dissolution is reputed to be not very un- 
common, though, naturally, observations 
of such occurrences are not so frequent as 
those of others more popularly known as 
portents or accompaniments of death. Is 
the " life-star " known to any of your 
readers ? and, if so, is this instance of folk- 
lore confined to the Midlands, where I heard 
its narration ? W. B. H. 

ANDREW MARVELL. Can any one inter- 
ested in the history of the Marvells give me 
the following piece of information ? Andrew 
had three sisters, viz., Anne, Mary, and 
Elizabeth. Each of them married, and the 
names of their husbands are given by Mr. 
Birrell in his 'Andrew Marvell ' ("English 
Men of Letters "). But Andrew had also a 
stepsister, and of course a stepmother, his 
father having married a second time in 1638. 
Now, what was the surname of the step- 
sister, and did she marry ? if so, whom ? 
I do not find the name of either stepmother 
or stepdaughter given in Mr. Birrell's ' Life.' 

8, West Street, Ryde. 

DAUGHTER. Katherine, daughter of 
Thomas, Lord Wotton, married, as her 
second husband, the Dutch ambassador 
Heenvliet (1594-1660). As they could not 
have met before 1639, and as they were 
married by May, 1642, the date of their 
union is narrowed to some three years ; 
but in spite of the ' D.N.B.' I can obtain 
no actual proof of time or place. Possibly 
it may be found amongst the Rawlinson 
papers in the Bodleian, which deal largely 
with these people ; but they are not acces- 
sible to me. I shall be glad to learn the 
date and place of the marriage. 


36, Buckingham Gate, S.W. 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me where 
to find something like the following ? There 
are four kinds of people, three of which are 
to be avoided and the fourth cultivated : 
those who don't know that they don't know ; 
those who know that they don't know ; 
those who don't know that they know ; 
and those who know that they know. Of 
course these are not the exact words ; but 
they may be sufficient to identify the quota- 
tion. I have no clue myself to the author. 

(10 S. vii. 10, 74.) 

THE illustrators of Cadell's edition, 1829, 
are : 

'Waverley.' F. P. Stephanoff, E. Land- 
seer, A.R.A., G. S. Newton, A.R.A., James 

' Guy Mannering.' C. R. Leslie, R.A., 
William Kidd, Abraham Cooper, R.A. 

' Antiquary.' Clarkson Stanfield, Cooper, 
F. P. Stephanoff, E. Landseer. 

' Rob Roy.' Kidd, Leslie, A. E. Chalon, 
R.A., Cooper. 

' Old Mortality.' D. Wilkie, R.A., J. 
Burnet, Cooper. 

' Heart of Midlothian.' Burnet, Alex. 
Eraser, Kidd, J. Stephanoff. 

' Bride of Lammermoor.' F. P. Ste- 
phanoff, R. Farrier. 

I cannot find the last volume of ' The 
Bride of Lammermoor.' 

I give also the names of the illustrators 
of some of the volumes in the edition of 
Constable, and of Hurst & Robinson, 1823 ; 
but the edition before me is not complete : 

'Black Dwarf,' 'Old Mortality,' 'Bride 
of Lammermoor,' ' Legend of Montrose.' 
C. R. Leslie. 

' Ivanhoe.' T. Stothard, R.A. 

' Monastery.' W. Brockedon. 

' Abbot.' H. Howard, R.A., A. Cooper. 

' Pirate.' J. M. Wright, A. Nasmyth. 

' Fortunes of Nigel.' Cooper, Wright, 

' Peveril of the Peak.' Wright, Nasmyth. 

' Quentin Durward.' Wright, W. Brocke- 
don, Nasmyth. E. YARDLEY. 

Few novels have been more magnificently 
produced than the " Abbotsford " ' Waver- 
ley,' published in 12 vols., 1842-7, which, 
according to Cadell's ' Catalogue of the 
Various Editions of the Works of Sir Walter 
Scott ' (1847), now before me, contains 120 
steel engravings and 2,050 woodcuts. The 
list of illustrations prefixed to each volume 
gives the % names of the artists and engravers. 
The engravings on steel are particularly 
fine, consisting of landscapes after Clarkson 
Stanfield, Allom, and others, and a series of 
portraits (from Lodge) of historical per- 
sonages appearing in the novels, engraved 
by G. B. Shaw. Some of the woodcuts were 
afterwards published in Black's cheap 
editions of the Waverley Novels. The 
catalogue refers to two illustrated editions 
published previously : one in 48 vols., 8vo 

s. vii. FEB. 10, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1 829-33, with 96 engravings on steel ; and 
one in 25 vols., 8vo, with vignettes, 1841-3. 
Many of the succeeding editions of Scott 
which are illustrated owe their pictures to 
the " Abbotsford Edition," to which your 
correspondent is referred. 


The first illustrated edition of the Waverley 
Novels was that which appeared in 1829 
with 96 engravings. In a characteristic 
arid engaging preface to this issue, the author 
refers to the illustrations, and says that as 
his work has no longer the charm, of novelty, 
it may perhaps still secure a measure of 
attention through the assistance of art. 
After explaining that the designs with which 
the edition is embellished are by the most 
eminent among contemporary artists, he 
continues thus : 

"To my distinguished countryman, David Wilkie ; 
to EclwiiL Landseer, who has exercised his talents 
so much on Scottish subjects and scenery; to 
Messrs. Leslie and Newton, my thanks are due, 
from a friend as well as an author. Nor am I less 
obliged to Messrs. Cooper, Kidcl, and other artists 
of distinction to whom I am less personally known, 
for the ready zeal with which they have devoted 
their talents to the same purpose." 


I should like to mention a few works 
containing pictorial illustrations of the 
productions of the " Author of ' Waverley' ' 
in my little library, not bibliographically, 
but merely to draw attention to them. No 
doubt many besides myself have formed 
collections illustrative of the writings of 
one who, like Shakespeare, was for all time, 
writings which are a never -failing resource 
at every stage of our existence. 

The Society for the Promotion of Fine 
Arts in Scotland published the following, 
beginning in 1865 : ' Waverley,' ' Guy 
Mannering,' ' The Antiquary,' ' Rob Roy,' 
* Old Mortality,' ' The Heart of Midlothian,' 
' The Bride of Lammermoor,' ' The Legend 
of Montrose,' ' The Pirate,' ' Redgauntlet,' 
' St. Ronan's Well,' and ' The Fair Maid of 
Perth ' ( ' The Lady of the Lake ' forms the 
thirteenth volume). Each contains six 
illustrations, folio size, well engraved on 
steel (excepting ' Waverley,' which has 
eight engravings). They are all by Scottish 
artists of acknowledged reputation, though 
it must be admitted that they vary mate- 
rially. Each part has a different coloured 

' Landscape : Historical Illustrations,' two 
vols., 4to, were published by Fisher & Son, 
no date on title-page, but printed (1836) 
under the illustrations, which are very good, 

and by first-rate artists. Underneath is 
printed the title of the engraving in English 
and French, and in each novel are two 
comical illustrations by Cruikshank. This 
series has been reprinted. 

' Landscape Illustrations of the Works 
of Sir Walter Scott, both in Poetry and 
Prose,' has portraits of the female characters, 
dated 1832, by first-rate artists. Published 
by Chapman & Hall, small 8vo, 2s. Qd. each 
part, containing four illustrations. 

The ' Waverley Album,' containing fifty- 
one line engravings to illustrate the novels 
and tales of Sir Walter, was published in 
London for Charles Heath, no date, price 
one guinea. The illustrations are very 
good, particularly the little vignettes of 
places mentioned ; these are chiefly by 
De Wint. This is bound in crimson silk, 
and quite a drawing-room book. It ends 
with ' Quentin Durward.' 

But the palm for pictorial illustrations 
to the Waverley Novels must be awarded 
to those in what is called the " Favourite 
Edition," bound in red cloth with paper 
labels, the edition of our boyhood. The 
frontispieces and vignettes are by such 
famous artists as J. M. W. Turner, Constable, 
Sir David Wilkie, and Sir William Allan, 
who have caught the ideas of the author, 
and given expression to them in their art. 
There is an edition of these printed on 
tinted paper apart from the novels, proofs, 
as may be supposed, and of great rarity. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

JORDAN (10 S. vii. 89). This genealogical 
tangle is an interesting one ; but, as space 
in ' N. & Q.' is valuable, my endeavours to 
unravel it must be brief as possible. MR. 
W. J. LAWRENCE said at 10 S. iv. 204 that 
John Bland, of the Theatre Royal, Edin- 
burgh, has been accredited probably with 
the military achievements of General 
Humphry Bland, who may have been a 
relative, and who, according to ' D.N.B.,' 
was present at Dettingen and Fontenoy ; 
and further, that there is no proof that 
John Bland was as stated by Boaden 
uncle to Mrs. Jordan. 

There were two branches of the Bland 
family in Ireland : one of Derriquin Castle, 
o. Kerry, represented by Nathaniel Bland, 
LL.D., judge of the Prerogative Court in 
Dublin, and another of Blandsfort in Queen's 
ounty, represented by General Humphry 
Bland. The latter made the former trustee 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. FEB. ie, 1907. 

of his estate, from which relationship has 
been inferred, but not proved. Nicholas 
Carlisle wrote a history of the Blands in 
1826 ; and, from an original letter of his in 
my possession, it is clear that he got his 
information as to the Kerry branch from 
my maternal grandfather Francis Chris- 
topher Bland, of Derriquin, who may be 
presumed to have known about his own 
uncles. Judge Bland married twice. His 
first wife was Diana Kemeys, by whom he 
had a younger son, the Rev. James Bland 
(my great-grandfather, who inherited the 
estate), and an elder son, John, whom he 
disinherited because he gave up the army 
for the stage. The judge's second wife was 
Lucy Heaton, by whom he had (with several 
other sons and daughters) Francis, a com- 
missioned officer of a line regiment, who 
married Miss Philipps (daughter of a clergy- 
man), and was father of Mrs. Jordan. As 
to the truth of these statements there is no 
doubt whatever. John and Francis being 
half-brothers, Boaden was right in saying 
that John was Mrs. Jordan's uncle. But 
Judge Bland, finding that his son Francis 
had been married by a priest, without 
consent of parents, and that both husband 
and wife were under age, took proceedings, 
according to a law then in force in Ireland, 
to annul the marriage ; in this he succeeded, 
and Francis afterwards married a Miss 
Mahony as recorded in the pedigree. These 
facts are to be found in the Record Office, 
Dublin. Family pride, however, prevailed ; 
and, for obvious reasons, there is no mention 
of the frail Dora Jordan, or her mother, in 
Carlisle's book. But he states that this 
wild and eccentric John Bland had been a 
cornet of Bland's Dragoons before he took 
to the stage. These dragoons were those 
of General Humphry, who was probably, as 
I have said, a relative. They were both, 
therefore, at Dettingen and Fontenoy. 

The death of John Bland in Edinburgh, 
aged 87, is noticed in Walker's Hibernian 
Magazine in 1808, in which it is stated 

"he was descended from an ancient Irish family 
and was at one time a cornet of horse, and carried 
the colours of his regiment at the memorable battle 
ot Dettingen. 

The article goes on to say that he was 

" very eccentric in his manners and opinions and 
phraseology, as well as in everything he ate, drank, 
or wore ; but, with all his peculiarities, he was 
an honest man, a kind husband, an indulgent parent, 
and a steady friend." 

Incidentally it is mentioned that his wife's 

name was Nancy. As to his having served 
under Honeywood against the Jacobites in 
1745, I find (Gent. Mag., 1745, p. 625) that 
both Honeywood and General Bland were 
present at the engagement at Clifton, three 
miles from Penrith ; and if so, John Bland, 
as cornet, was present also. I find further 
(Gent. Mag., vol. xxxii. p. 93) that in 1752 
General Humphry Bland was appointed 
Governor of Edinburgh Castle and captain 
of the foot regiments quartered there. 
This was probably about the date when 
John Bland threw up his commission and 
took to the Edinburgh stage, with which 
he was so many years connected. His wife, 
Nancy, may have been an actress. What 
I am most anxious to do is to trace his 
descendants, some of whom, according to 
Dibdin's ' Annals of the Edinburgh Stage, 7 
were of the family of the celebrated actress 
Mrs. Glover. In The Ancestor, vol. viii. 
p. 52, Elizabeth Martha Bland, said to be a 
granddaughter of this John, is set down- 
as having married, when under age, Anthony 
Angelo in 1787. J. F. FULLER. 

Brunswick Chambers, Dublin. 

vii. 90). His only son, John Barnard, was 
one of the Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, and died un- 
married at St. James's, 13 July, 1773, 
leaving his sisters his coheirs (Gent. Mag.)* 
so that, as far as male issue is concerned, 
" this family was [not] further extended." 
Of these two sisters, (1) Sarah married in 
June, 1733, Sir Thomas Hankey, a well- 
known London banker (who died 3 July, 
1770), and died 15 March, 1762, leaving 
numerous descendants ; (2) Jane married 
(as his second wife), 12 Sept., 1738, the Hon. 
Henry Temple, son and heir apparent of 
the first Viscount Palmerston, which 
Henry died vita patris, at East Sheen, 
10 Aug., 1740, and was buried at Mortlake, 
Surrey. His widow, the said Jane, died 
there 28 Jan., 1789, leaving an only son, 
Henry, the second Viscount, who was 
father of the third and last Viscount (the 
celebrated Prime Minister) and of others. 
It may be mentioned that a good account 
of Alderman Barnard was given at 7 S. xii. 
197 (5 Sept., 1891) by the late J. J. STOCKEN, 
who, however, seems to have been ignorant 
of the parentage of the Alderman's wife, 
which had been asked. She was Jane 
(bapt. 15 March, 1687/8, at St. Dunstan's- 
n-the-East), sister of Sir Robert Godschall, 
sometime (1741-2) Lord Mayor of London, 
dau. of John Godschall, of East Sheen, 

10 s. vii. FEB. 16, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Surrey, by Bethia (married 27 Sept., 1681 
at Westminster Abbey), dau. and coheir o 
Nicholas Charleton, of St. Bennet's, Paul's 
Wharf (Col. Chester's ' Westminster Abbey 
Registers,' p. 10. note b, sub ' Godschall '), 
This Jane was buried at Mortlake, 1 Sept., 
1738, as " Dame Jane Barnard, Lady 
Mayoress of ye City of London." 

G. E. C. 

John Barnard died without issue, and left 
his realty and personalty to his nephew 
Thomas Hankey. See Gent. Mag., vol. Iv. 
pp. 64, 155. JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 

"BLUE-WATER" (10 S. vii. 109). The 
adjectival use of the ordinary sailor's de- 
scription of his " home " is older than Mahan, 
and is usually, though probably without 
truth, ascribed to the late Admiral P. 
Colomb. Capt. the Right Hon. Sir John 
Colomb, his brother, is pretty sure to know 
who first described in this fashion the 
opinions revived, from the " blue-water 
school " of the eighteenth century, in his 
own The Defence of Great and Greater 
Britain.' B. W. T. 

vii. 88). ' A Collection of the Most Natural 
and Sublime Thoughts,' London, 1707, 
octavo, is by Edward Bysshe. 

Library, Constitutional Club. 

389). The bodies of Cardinals Wiseman and 
Manning have been removed from Kensal 
Green, and reinterred in the crypt of West- 
minster Cathedral, so there is no longer any 
danger of the tomb of the former cardinal 
falling into decay, as it will presumably be 
re-erected over his remains in the crypt. 
I am told that an illustration of it appeared 
in The Catholic Magazine for 1865. 


RUSKIN'S PARENTS (10 S. vi. 506). I 

possess a book which belonged to Ruskin's 
father, and which has the words " Belonging 
to Mr. Ruskin " written by him inside the 
cover in pencil. It is an edition of 'Don 
Quixote ' in Spanish which was published 
by Edward Easton, of Salisbury, 1781 (see 
10 S. y. 242). The relative who gave it to 
me prior to his departure to America has 
placed in it the following note, which may 
interest some readers : 

"This copy of ' Don Quixote ' in 3 vols. came 
into my possession in 1853. In that year I began to 
learn fepanish, and John Ruskin sen., the author's 
lather, hearing this from my uncle, Dr. Grant of 

Richmond, sent me these volumes, with the pencil 
memorandum on the first volume, in his own hand- 
writing, that the book belonged to him. I looked 
upon them, therefore, as a loan, but shortly after- 
wards I received a message from him that I was to. 

consider the book as a gift from him Though 

the gift of the book was kindly meant, it was of no 
use to me, being written in the old orthography, 
and I had to buy a more modern copy for study. 

" My grandfather (maternal) Charles Grant was 
a lawyer and friend of John Ruskin (the father of 
the giver of this book, and grandfather of the 
aiithor), and drew his marriage settlement. The 
friendship continued between the families, and John 
Ruskin the merchant, with his wife and son (the 
author), visited my father and mother (nee Charlotte 
Grant) at our home in Scotland, the author being 
then a boy under twelve." 


Ha wick. 

"THE MAHALLA" (10 S. vii. 45, 96). 
The meaning of this word may be settled 
by reference to a book in which Dr. Weis- 
gerber, an Alsacian surgeon long resident 
at Casablanca, has given an account of a 
harka, or " punitive expedition," made by 
the Sultan of Morocco's army in 1898. This 
work, ' Trois Mois de Campagne au Maroc r 
(Paris, Leroux), is very interesting, as the 
author, whom I know personally, has had 
long experience of the country, and has 
explored much of it scientifically, giving 
some of his results in an appendix. 

After the army had " eaten up " several 
bribes it went into camp (m'halla) at Sokrat-el 
Djeja ; and the Grand Vizir, Si Ahmed ben- 
Mousa (who died in 1900), having fallen ill, 
Dr. Weisgerber was requested to go thither,, 
and, accompanying the expedition, to 
attend to the Vizir's health. Accordingly 
le left Casablanca, arrived at the m'halla, 
and accompanied the army until its triumphal 
irrival at Marrakech (whence " Morocco "), 
he ancient capital of the Almoravid caliphs., 
["he principal personages at the camp were 
she Vizir's brother, Si Sidi ben-Mousa, Kebir 
l-dsker, commander of the army, and Si 
El-Mahdi El-Mnebhi, Kebir el-m'halla, mar- 
hal of the camp = quartermaster-general. 
Thus dsker is an army (dskri, a soldier), and 
harka an expedition, a raid ; while m'halla is 
distinctly a camp. Sometimes m'halla may 
mean a camp on the move, in the early 
lense of " camp " as in " camp-follower." 

" THE MAGHZEN " (10 S. vi. 467 ; vii. 11). 
This word means the " Government " ; 
10 doubt its original sense was that of 
nagasin and " magazine." Dar el-makhzen 
s the royal Court, the palace of the Govern- 
nent. The country is divided, politically, 
or rather financially, into Bled el-makhzen, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn FKB. 10, 1907. 

the land of government (i.e., furnishing troops 
and paying taxes, when compelled), and 
Bled el-siba, the land of anarchy (i.e., refus- 
ing taxes) ; and the limit between these 
lands is very shifting. 


MEAUX ABBEY (10 S. vi. 248, 290, 354, 
397). There is a good antiquarian account 
of Meaux Abbey in ' Sutton-in-Holderness, 
the Manor, the Berewic, and the Village 
Community,' by the late Thomas Blashill, 
F.R.I.B.A., founded on a paper read before 
the British Archaeological Association on 
Sutton-in-Holderness and the monks of 

With regard to the pronunciation of Meaux, 
the author, who was a native of Sutton and 
may be allowed to judge, in a note on p. i 
of the preface, states that the place-name 
is pronounced Mewse. JOHN HEBB. 

CON- CONTRACTION (10 S. ii. 427 ; iii. Ill, 
152, 250, 335). Controversial aposiopesis 
is most aptly illustrated by HASTA VIBRANS 
at the last reference. I happened to look 
up the first edition (1626) of Bacon's ' Sylva,' 
and copy the whole of the paragraph in 
question : 

" It would be tried, how, and with what propor- 
tion of disaduantage, the Voice will be carried in an 
Jforne, which is a line Arched ; or in a Trumpet, 
which is a line Retorted ; or in some Pipe that were 

Your correspondent closed his quotation 
with the word " Arched." Any one who 
has seen the contraction for con- knows 
that it closely resembles the Arabic figure 9, 
and that " a line Retorted " is a phrase 
that expresses its shape with considerable 
accuracy. If it ever took the form of "an 
arched line," I shall be very grateful for a 
reference to the date and whereabouts of the 
document in which it occurs. Other students 
who have to struggle with MS. originals will 
doubtless be glad to know of a collection of 
facsimiles in which they may investigate this 
hitherto unheard-of phenomenon. Q. V. 

449). The Knights of St. John had hospitals 
at Poling and at Winchelsea. The Austin 
Friars were to be found at Rye ; the White 
Friars at Rye and at Sele (near Shoreham) ; 
the Black Friars at Arundel, Chichester 
and Winchelsea; and the Grey Friars at 
Chichester, Lewes, and Winchelsea. Box- 
grove Priory and Battle Abbey belonged to 
Benedictine monks, and the priories of 
Easebpurne and Rusper to Benedictine nuns 
The Cistercians were represented by Roberts - 

bridge Abbey, while the great Priory of 
St Pancras at Lewes was the first Cluniac 
house in England. The Premonstratensians 
(now represented by Storrington Priory) 
held the abbeys of Bayham and Dureford. 
Lastly, the Austin Canons had the priories 
of Hardham, Hastings, Michelham, Shul- 
brede, Tortington, and Warbleton. 


21, 61). I think L. L. K. will be interested 
in the three references to Orwell Haven that 
he will find in part i. of the Ninth Report 
of the Historical MSS. Commission. Q. V. 

THE SOUTH (10 S. vii. 90). In the prose 
Edda it is said that 

"on the southern edge of heaven is situated the 
most beautiful homestead in the celestial regions, 
brighter than the sun itself. It is called Gimli, and 
shall stand when both heaven and earth have 
passed away; and good and righteous men shall 
dwell therein for everlasting ages." 
It is thus spoken of in the ' Voluspa ' : 

A hall sees she standing 
Than the sun fairer, 
With its glittering gold roof 
Aloft in Cimli. 

All men of worth shall there abide, 
And bliss enjoy 
Through countless ages. 
And again : 

"Towards the south there is another heaven 
above this, called Aiidlang, and above this a third 
heaven, called Vidblain." 

This allocation, in the Northern mythology, 
of the highest heaven to the south, while 
one of the stems or roots in the Yggdrasil 
myth springs in the warm south over the 
Urdur-fountain, whose holy water is used 
to sprinkle Yggdrasil's ash, would seem to 
account in some degree for the direction of 
the course of springs southwards. This 
condition was necessary for the course of 
healing springs not only in Wales, however. 
North of the Tweed healing virtues were 
attributed to the water of a south-running 
stream. The patient had to go to the spot 
and drink the water and wash himself in it. 
Sometimes his shirt was taken by another, 
and, after being dipped in the south-running 
stream, was brought back and put wet 
upon him. Mr. Henderson in his ' Folk- 
lore of the Northern Counties ' mentions a 
Border amulet, known as the Black Penny, 
for long the property of a family at Hume- 
byers. It was larger than an ordinary 
penny, and was believed to be a Roman 
coin or medal. When brought into use it 
should have been dipped in a well, the water 

10 s. vii. FEB. 16, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of which ran towards the south (see J. M 
Mackinlay's ' Folk-lore of Scottish Loch 
.and Springs,' 1893, pp. 9 and 262). 


'" BOSSING " (10 S. vii. 69). The jingling 
proverb " Ossing conies to bossing " seem 
to mean effort leads to eminence, success 
or leadership. The old verb " to oss " ii 
still very often used in the vernacular o 
the Midlands, in the sense of to try, make an 
effort, or begin in earnest to do a thing 
I find in the Eng.-Lat. part of an old Latin 
dictionary (title-page and colophon missing 
but probably of the sixteenth century 
" to osse, paro, adorior, audeo." " Boss ' 
a,s a noun is often used in reference to th 
head of a business or undertaking. Work 
men commonly speak of their master as 
*' the boss." As a verb the word is fre 
quently used, colloquially or jocularly, in 
such phrases as " he bosses the concern, the 
job, or the show," applied to the person 
having the chief direction or control. 

The " boss " is the head of the house or 
the business, or the leader of a gang of 
-workers. There is no difficulty about 
" ossing comes to bossing " when it is known 
that "to oss " means to offer or try to do 
;a thing. I have often heard " Na then oss, 
-an' tha '11 boss sumtime." A man put to a 
new kind of work might look at it and say, 
" Ah '11 show willin' ; ah '11 oss anny way, 
;an' boss it," meaning that he would master 
the work he was set to do. " Oss " is one 
of the most-used dialect words in Yorkshire, 
Lancashire, Notts, and Derby, besides other 
Midland counties. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


See ' Bocin ' in Bradley's edition of 
Stratmann's dictionary and the quotation 
therein from Wyclif : " men ]>at boosen hor 
(their) brestis." The verb means to swell 
out, also to make to project ; the sense here 
is, perhaps, the being puffed up. Compare 
<$>vviov[jic.vo<s, Col. ii. 18. H. P. L. 

In Ray's 'Proverbs,' Bell, 1893, p. 46, 
the meaning is said to be the same with 
" Courting and wooing brings dallying and 
doing." " To osse " in the Cheshire dialect, 
is to aim at or intend to do (Bailey's ' Diet.,' 
1740) ; and " to boss " is to master, to 
accomplish, to manage, apparently an 
Anglicized form of the Dutch baas, as in 
" de vrouw is de baas." But it is an old 
English word, for several instances (one in 
the sixteenth century) are given in Farmer 
;and Henley's ' Slang and its Analogues.' 

A seventeenth-century example is there 
given as follows : " Here they had their 
first interview with the female boss or 
supercargo of the vessel " (1679, M. Philipse, 
' Early Voyages to New Netherlands,' 

Sioted by De Vere). See also the ' English 
ialect Dictionary,' by Dr. Joseph Wright. 


ROAD (10 S. vi. 469 ; vii. 13). The parish 
burial-ground of St. George's, Hanover 
Square, was laid out in the Bayswater Road 
in 1764. In or about 1893 the chapel was 
pulled down, and a new one built at the 
cost of the late Mrs. Russell Gurney (not 
Mr. Russell Gurney, as stated ante, pi 13). 
Its name is now the Chapel of the Ascension. 
On 26 April, 1894, at a consistory court 
held at St. Paul's Cathedral, a faculty was, 
on the application of the Rev. David 
Anderson and the churchwardens of St. 
George's, granted to lay out the burial- 
ground as a garden at an estimated cost of 
about 2,400Z. The time given for carrying 
out this " improvement " was five years, 
with leave to apply for extension of time. 
It was alleged that it would be necessary to 
remove over 2,000 tombstones. There were 
provisos for protecting the interests of five 
persons who appeared and for preserving 
~jhe tomb of Laurence Sterne. No tombs 
were to be removed where objection had 
aeen taken, so long as those tombs were 

ept in order (see Morning Post of 27 April, 

I visited the old chapel and graveyard soon 
after the " housebreakers " had begun their 
k vork. In the graveyard besides Sterne's 
/ombstone I found little of interest. Many 
>f the inscriptions had been more or less 
destroyed by time and weather. One monu- 
iient in the churchyard was interesting as a 
ecord of an early testamentary instruction 
or " cremation." It has been described 
n ' N. & Q.' ; see 7 S. xi. 150 ; xii. 385, 518. 
.t vanished in the course of the restoration, 
)r devastation. 

Sir Thomas Picton was buried here, but 
lis body was removed in 1859 to St. Paul's 
Cathedral ; also Mrs. Radcliffe, author of 
The Mysteries of Udolpho,' and J. T. Smith 
he engraver. 

In the chapel is the tablet in memory of 
Irs. Jane Molony (sometimes referred to as 

Lady O'Loony "), which gives her and 
.er husbands' (she was married three times) 
reat positions and noble connexions, adding 

she was hot, passionate, and tender, and a highly 
ccomplished lady, and a superb drawer in water 



colours which was much admired in the exhibition 
room at Somerset House some years past."' 
This tablet is on one of the walls in the chapel, 
but so high up as to be illegible from the 
floor. The full inscription is given in 
* Antiente Epitaphes ' by Thomas F. Raven- 
shaw, 1878, p. 184. As to Mrs. Molony's 
pictures I inquired in 1901 from Mr. Bernard 
Quaritch, in one of whose catalogues ap- 
peared a set of the Royal Academy cata- 
logues from the beginning to a (then) very 
recent date. I gave her successive names, 
viz., Shee, Stuart, Jackson, and Molony. 
The reply contained the following : 

"The pictures could not have been exhibited at 
the Royal Academy, as I cannot find any trace of 

Perhaps there were other exhibitions of 
pictures at Somerset House. 


[Mrs. Jane Malouy does not appear under any of 
her names in Mr. Graves's great dictionary of ex- 
hibitors at the Royal Academy.] 

These pictures are those of eight of the 
twelve Sibyls, often found decorating medi- 
seval churches, books of hours, and so on. 
As to the Sibyls generally, MR. LE WETT 
will find an account in ' The Penny Cyclo- 
paedia,' Smith's ' Diet, of Greek and Roman 
Biography and Mythology,' and ' The 
Encyclopaedic Diet.' under the word. The 
last named compiles its short note from 
the late Prof. Ramsay's dissertation, which 
may be read in his ' Selections from Ovid.' 
Among the authorities there given is 
Pausanias an author who should be read 
in Mr. Frazer's excellent, but expensive 
edition. Here are collected not only the 
loci classici of the ancient writers, but also 
the later folk-lore derived partly there- 
from and partly from the Sibyls of early 
Christian art. A good introduction to what 
I may call the Christian Sibyls will be found 
in the numerous notes on the Sibyl pictures 
at Cheyney Court, Herefordshire, in 4 S. v., 
and, if accessible, in Mr. \V. Marsh's ' Icono- 
graphy of the Sibyls.' 

The peculiarity of the Teddington pictures 
fceems to be the unusual generic name 
("Silvia" for "Sibylla"); the second 
name is, as usual, the local or geographical 
one, except No. 5 in MR. LE WETT'S list. 
This is most commonly called Sibylla 
Agrippa (or with one p only). The Tedding- 
ton variation is interesting, as it may 
possibly furnish a key to " Silvia." Rhea 
Silvia was the mother of Romulus and 
Remus, and was seventh in direct descenl 
from Agrippa, king of Alba Longa (see Livy 

I. iii., with Seeley's note). 

Were it not for 

the " Silvia," I should feel inclined to look 
on " Agrippina " as a truer form than the 
usual " Agrippa," and as preserving the 

German " by the figure 
freely used by classical 

symmetry of the series in its " local " nomen- 
clature, for " Agrippina " ( = Cologne) might 
well stand for " " 

Synecdoche, so 

versifiers. There was a real German pro- 
phetic maiden, Veleda, well known to the 
Roman world in the time of Tacitus ; while 
there are hardly any Sibyl traits in Rhea 
Silvia. If the inscriptions on the Tedding - 
ton pictures can be traced back to the- 
fifteenth century the form " Silvia " may 
perhaps have been the origin of " sylph." 
For No. 2 on the list I venture to suggest 

^thiopica (=^Egyptia) 

J. P. OWEN. 

Surely MR. LE WETT should read " Sibylla" 
for " Silvia," and then we at once have, 
easily recognizable, the titles of paintings of 
the Samian Sibyl, Erythrean Sibyl, Persian 
Sibyl, Phrygian Sibyl, and the Sibyl of 
Tivoli. Probably some one else can complete 

[Further replies next week.] 

* POPJOY " (10 S. vii. 88). Was not the- 
invention of this word probably suggested 
o the writer by " popinjay," sometimes- 
spelt " papejay," as if it had some associa- 
ion with the verb " to enjoy," hence tc 
disport oneself ? 


" Popjoy " is probably a nickname. In 
one of the early numbers of Bell's ' Gallery 
of Comicalities ' one Cockney sportsman asks- 
another angler, " Had a bite, Popjoy ? " 
An answer in the negative is returned. 


"ANON" (10 S. i. 246, 337 ; v. 274, 454, 496). 
Is not the use of this word in the following 
sentence as strange as that in Thackeray ? 

'Its driving would anon be like the driving of 
Jehu, the son of Nimshi. and anon like unto that 
of one who holds slack reigns in palsied hands.'' 
W. G. Edwards Rees, 'The Parson's Outlook '" 


(Longmans, 1900), p. 212. 
Rossall, Lanes. 

NAMES (10 S. vi. 381 ; vii. 36). The sug- 
gestion that ticky is derived from tizzy 
seems unlikely on account of the difference^ 
in sense. Ticky is threepence, tizzy is six- 
pence. In the Zulu language a threepenny 
piece is called tiki. I imagine that this is- 
their corruption of its English name, and 
that we borrowed it back from them as 

10 s. VIL FEB. 16, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


fticky. English coin-names are often curiously 
corrupted in the mouths of Asiatics and 
Africans. Some years ago, when I was a 
frequent visitor to the London opium-dens, 
I noticed that in the " pigeon English " 
spoken by the Chinese sixpence became 
siti peni. The word was in constant use, 
as it represented the quantity of opium 
generally called for. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

I was told in 1876, by a cousin of mine 
who had just returned from the Philadelphia 
Exhibition and a long tour in the United 
'States, that when a Red Indian wanted 
change, he placed a silver dollar on a wooden 
block and chopped it into eight pieces, each 
of which was called a bit. The Chinese 
laundryman, too, made out his washing bills 
in bits, and not in dollars and cents. I have 
seen a photograph of such a chopped-up 
silver dollar in an American illustrated 
magazine, but cannot give the reference. 
About " the piece of eight " in Queen 
Anne's proclamation of 1704, see an article 
on * The Spanish Dollar and the Colonial 
Shilling ' in The American Historical Review, 
July, 1898. L. L. K. 

DOLE CUPBOARDS (10 S. vi. 429 ; vii. 16). 
About forty years ago, after attending the 
morning service at St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
one of the senior choristers showed me what I 
presume would be called a dole cupboard. 
So far as I recollect, it was nothing more 
than wooden shelves fixed in a recess formed 
in a wall adjoining the church, and contained 
half-quartern loaves, intended for distribu- 
tion amongst certain poor of the parish. 


GENEALOGY iNpuMAS (10 S. ii. 427, 496). 
It may interest some of the readers of 
' N. & Q.' to know that in the English 
translation of ' Vingt Ans Apres ' published 
by J. M. Dent & Co. in 1903 (2 vols.) the 
point as to the parentage of the Vicomte de 
Bragelonne is clearly brought out (as it is 
in the French original) in chap. xxii. (vol. i. 
circa p. 250), " An Adventure of Marie 
Michon." Why in other translations, as 
stated at the second reference, the point is 
not made clear or is omitted, I am unable 
to imagine. EDWARD LATHAM. 

(10 S. vi. 470, 494 ; vii. 14). The amusing 
lines called ' The Cynotaph,' by Thomas 
Ingoldsby, First Series, vol. i. 105 et seq. 
ought not to be forgotten. The author 
declines a grave for " my poor dog Tray " 
in Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's, or a 

London cemetery, and concludes the poem 
by observing : 

Ay, here it shall be ! far, far from the view 
Of the noisy world and its maddening crew. 
Simple and few, 
Tender and true, 
The lines o'er his grave. They have, some of them, 

The advantage of being remarkably new. 

Affliction sore 
Long time he bore, 
Physicians were in vain ! 

Grown blind, alas ! he 'd 
Some Prussic Acid, 
And that put him out of his pain ! 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

A parody on ' Dog Tray ' was sung by the 
popular actor Robson in the burlesque of 
' Masaniello,' written by R. B. Brough, and 
first performed at the Olympic Theatre, 
2 July, 1857. The chorus ran : 
Old dog Tray had a plateful 
Of bones and potatoes one fine day, 
And inside the sav'ry mass hid 
Was a dose of prussic acid, 
Which made an end of old dog Tray. 

J. T. 

Gay makes the Shepherd, in the ' Intro- 
duction to the Fables,' 1. 41, say : 

My dog (the trustiest of his kind) 
With gratitude inflames my mind : 
I mark his true, his faithful way, 
And in my service copy Tray. 


[MR. JOHN T. PAGE also quotes some lines of the 
parody. The writer of this may have taken his 
"prussic acid ; ' from Ingoldsby.] 

"THE OLD HIGHLANDER" (10 S. vii. 47, 
92, 115). An interesting illustration by 
Hole, as a tail-piece to p. x of ' The Book of 
Old Edinburgh,' by Dunlop, 1886, shows 
an unshaven Highlander confronting a 
tobacconist's figure of a shaven Highlander. 
No date is assigned to the incident depicted. 
In the 1896 edition the illustration is on 
p. viii. W. S. 

(10 S. vi. 225 ; vii. 57). MR. GLYNN'S con- 
firmation of the genitive " Fidis " is most 
interesting, and tends to prove that the 
English rendering of the name is either a 
joke or a blunder. W. E. B. 

vii. 29). Probably this was a court (de- 
stroyed in the Great Fire) situated either 
within the precincts or in the immediate 



neighbourhood of the Inner or Middle 
Temple, and so named from the association 
of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem with 
the Temple Church. The court is not given 
in William Stow's little ' Stranger's Guide,' 
of about 1721, nor in Lockie's or Elmes's 
topographical dictionaries. Neither does 
it appear in Dodsley's * London and its 
Environs,' 1761. 

About the year 1742 another stenographer's 
advertisement appears in The Daily Ad- 
vertiser as follows, and it will be observed 
that the advertiser hung out his sign " over 
against the Middle Temple Gate " : 

J. Western, | (At the Hand-and-Pen, over-against 
the I Middle Temple Gate, in Fleet Street) | Con- 
tinues to teach any Gentleman or Lady | his New 
Method of Short-Hand, within Six Weeks ; they 
writing | at Home One Hour a Day, and coming or 
sending to him for | Instruction once in Two Days. 
He teaches Gentlemen, at a Distance, | by sending 
them Instructions from Time to Time ; and others 
who had I formerly learn'd the Methods of Mr. 
Shelton, Rich, Addy, Mason, | Byrom, <fcc. 

He also takes down Trials at Law, &c., and sells, 

1. His Short-Hand Grammar, (curiously engrav : d 
| and authoriz'd by his Majesty) which alone is 
sufficient to teach the | Art perfectly, as is attested, 
at the beginning of the Book, by about | twenty 
Gentlemen of the Clergy, Law, &c., formerly taught. 
Price | One Guinea and a Half, and Two Guineas 
on Royal Paper. 

If any Thing seems doubtful, he will explain it 



The Work* of William Shakespeare. Vols. VI., 
VIL, and VIII. (Stratford-on-Avon, the Shake- 
speare Head Press.) 

Tins most satisfactory and sumptuous edition of 
Shakespeare, to be known henceforward as " The 
Stratford Town Shakespeare," is on the verge of 
completion. Eight volumes out of ten are now 
before us : and vols. ix. and x., completing the 
edition, are in the hands of the binder. 

Vol. vi., which contains the Second and Third 
1'aits of 'King Henry VI.,' 'King Richard III.,' 
and 'King Henry VIII.,' and consequently finishes 
the plays founded on English history, has as frontis- 
piece a reproduction of R. EarlonVs mezzotint of 
the Jan sen portrait. Vol. vii. includes 'Troilus 
and Cressida,' ' Coriolanus,' 'Titus Andronicus,' 
and 'Romeo and Juliet,' and has for frontispiece 
the Davenant bust, copied (for the first time, as we 
believe) by permission from the Garrick Club. To 
the 'Troilus and Cressida' is prefixed a book- 
seller's preface which is given before some copies 
of the NiU9 quarto. Gifts of prophecy seem to 
have been in the possession of this worthy, who 
declares it to deserve such a labour of comment as 
well as the best comedy of Terence or Plautus, and 
adds : "Believe this, that when he is gone, and his 
comedies out of sale, you will scramble for them, 

and set up a new English inquisition." Four 
tragedies, comprising 'Timon of Athens,' 'Julius 
Csesar,' ' Macbeth,' and ' Hamlet, Prince of Den- 
mark,' constitute vol. viii., the frontispiece to which 
consists of the Felton portrait from the engraving 
by J. Cochran. 

The special merits of the edition are twofold. 
Considered as books, the eight volumes which have- 
now appeared are entitled to a foremost place. 
Type, paper, and other matters are a pleasure to> 
the signt and the touch, and there are no shelves 
to which the noble volumes do not form an adorn- 
ment. On what is their great merit we have once 
more to insist. This is a perfect text, undeh'led by 
comment and undisturbed by wild conjecture. The 
provision of this we are disposed to regard as Mr. 
Bullen's greatest boon to the drama he loves so 
much, and to the improvement and elucidation of 
which he has so largely contributed. A knowledge 
110 less exemplary and secure than he possesses is 
indispensable to the preparation of a text which,. 
so far as the cultivated man of letters is concerned,. 
is the best attainable in reposefulness and delight. 

A Novel by Thomas Lodge. (Rout- 
ledge & Sons.) 

UNDER this modern-soiinding title it is not at first 
easy to recognize the charming romance which sup- 
plied the basis of Shakespeare's 'As You Like It.' 
This work, in itself a classic, has been added to< 
" The Photogravure and Colour Series "of Messrs. 
Roiitledge, one of the most attractive and note- 
worthy features in which it immediately becomes. 
With eight photogravures and nine line illustra- 
tions in the text by Mr. Thomas Mayland, the 
volume, apart from its Shakespearian interest, is a 
delight. Concerning the extent of Shakespeare's 
obligations to Lodge there is no question. The 
melancholy and pensive Jaques ; Touchstone, the 
most carefully elaborated of Shakespearian clowns, 
and Audrey, the priceless hoyden, are Shakespeare's 
own introductions ; but the subordinate characters, 
such as Adam, as well as the essential, such as 
Rosalind, Celia, and their respective lovei-s, are 
recognizable under more or less changed names and 
aspects. All that is wanting is Shakespeare's love 
dialogue, the magic of which is unequalled. 

Historic Link*. By I). L. Maguire, L.L.A. (Sonnen- 

schein & Co.) 

Miss MAGUIRE has got hold of a good idea, and 
worked it out to excellent results in her "aids to 
the making of history." Topography is the natural 
handmaid to History, and better than anything 
else helps the student to realize, and even visualize 
what is otherwise a matter of faith. No one can 
visit a dismantled castle, ruined abbey, or any other 
hoary shrine with which our England is so richly 
studded, without feeling conscious of having his 
interest stimulated in events of the past. We want 
to know something of the mighty men of old who 
lived their lives and achieved their fame on these 
historic landmarks. 

The links which the writer selects to bind the 
present with the past are St. Albans, Repton as 
"the Home of St. Wystan," Hampton Court, the 
Tower of London, &c. With a graphic pen she suc- 
ceeds in reanimating the people who once thronged 
these memorable sites, and the young persons for 
whom she writes will insensibly imbibe a taste for 
architecture and antiquities as they surrender them- 
selves to the charm of her story. The exigencies of 

10 s. VIL FEB. 16, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a colloquial style have led to " Well !" "you see," 
and " you know " being interjected more than some 
reader's will like. "Pelasaunce" at the top ot 
p. 106 must not be taken for a sham antique, it 
being a mere misprint for pleaaaunee. " If it had 
windows it would 'Glazen Hall'" d>. 133) a sen- 
tence which demands that "be called" should be 
supplied from the previous sentence is too crabbedly 
condensed for the young person, or indeed for the 
old. The book is prettily illustrated. 

Williuff* Pre* fluvle and Advertiser's Directory 
and Handbook for 1907. (Willing. ) 
WITH undiminished authority, and equally direct 
appeal 'Willing's Press Guide' puts forth its 
thirty-fourth annual issue. A more trustworthy 
guide to the press is not to be hoped. 


THE month of February is evidently a busy one 
in the old-book trade, and' we hope that by the end 
of it the booksellers may be able to mark "sold ' 
against many of the items in their numerous 

Mr. Thomas Baker's List 506, devoted to Theo- 
logical Books, includes the library of an Irish priest. 
Among the items are Bucer's Scripta Anglic-ana, 
with portrait, stamped vellum, on oak boards, 
47. 10*.: Cienfuegos's ' Vita Abscondita,' 1728, folio, 
original calf, S/. 10*. ; Gallandus's 'Bibliotheca 
Greeco-Latina Veterum Patrum,' 14 vols., folio, a 
beautiful set bound in calf, 1765-88, 387.: the Roman 
Breviary, translated by the Marquis of Bute, 2 vols., 
1870. 67/6*.: Quetif et Echard's ' Scrii)tores Ordinis 
Prsedicatorum,' 1719, a fine copy, 137. 15*.; Mitta- 
relli et A. Costadoni 'Annales Camaldulensis 
Ordinis S. Benedict!,' 8 vols. (vol. ix. is missing), 
folio, vellum, 1775, &c., 3/. 15*. ; Parsons's 'Three 
Conversions of England,' 3/. 18s. : and Fabn 
Condones in Evangelia et Festa,' 37. 12*. There 
are lists under Duns Scotus. Newman, and Ireland. 
The contrasts in this catalogue are curious : the 
" Stonyhurst Manuals'' are followed bvStoughton's 
'History of Religion in England.' Mr. Baker has 
also a list of books wanted. 

Mr. Alfred Cooper, of Hammersmith, has in his 
Catalogue 86 a good general list of modern books, 
well arranged under the various headings of 
Biography, Travels, <fec. We note a few items: 
Freeman's 'Norman Conquest.' 7".: Murchison's 
'Geology of Russia in Europe.' 37. 15*. : .Towett's 
'Dialogues of Plato,' 4 vols., 27. 2*. : Ellis's 'Eng- 
lish Pronunciation,' 1869, I/. 5*. : Max Miiller's 
' Chips from a German Workshop,' 4 vols., II. 10*. ; 
and Coningt on's 'Virgil,' 11. There are a number 
of books on the blind and the deaf and dumb. 
Under Music we note Chorley's 'Music and 
Manners in France and Germany,' 3 vols., 1844, 8*. 
Mr. Francis Edwards' s Catalogue 288, a clearance 
list, contains many items under Africa, Asia Minor, 
Borneo, Egypt, Japan, &c. The last-named section 
includes the Transactions and Proceeding of the 
Japan Society. 1892-1901, 3/. 10*. : and Brinkley's 
'Japan and China,' 12 vols.. 1903-4. If. 1(K_ The 
general portion includes Spedding's 'Bacon, 7 vols., 
full calf. 3. 15*.; Ackermann's 'Cambridge,' 1810, 
I/ 2s Hobbes's Works, edited by Molesworth, 
16 vols., 1834-45, 37. 6*. : O'Hanlon's 'Lives of the 
Saints,' 9 vols.. 57.5*.; Kent Archaeological Society's 
Transactions, 1858-1905, 87. 15*-.; Lamb's Works, 

edited by Lucas, 7 vols., 17. 16*. ; Lyt ton's Novels, 
Edition de Luxe, 32 vols., 97. 9*. : Feasey's 'West- 
minster Abbey,' 27. 8*. : a set of The Portfolio, 107.; 
and Prescott's Works. 12 vols., new half-calf, 57. 10*. 
A complete set of Punch in the original cloth, 
1841-1904, 127 vols.. is 187. ; " The Sacred Books of 
the East," edited by Max Mtiller, vols. i. - xlix. 
207. ; and Scott's Works, Cadell's Edition, 90 vols., 
half green morocco. 15/. There are also conies of 
the 48- volume and the " Border " editions. Farmer 
and Henlev's 'Slang Dictionary' is priced at 47. 10*., 
and Howell's 'State Trials,' at 157. 

Mr. Edwards has also a short list of modern 
remainders. These include ' The Ingoldsbv Legends,'' 
4 vols.. If.: ' The Decameron.' translated by Rigg. 
Chalon's illustrations, If. 6*. ; ' Corot and his Work,' 
bv Hamel, 37. (only a few remain for sale), Lewis 
Morgan's 'Ancient Society,' 12*. fr/.; andWalpole's 
'Letters,' edited by Peter Cunningham, 9 vols.,. 

Mr. A. Fehrenbach, of Sheffield, includes in his 
Catalogue XL. The Journal of the ArcJweoloffical" 
Institute* 42 vols., 57. ; Bacon's 'Atlas,' 1905, 
If. 6*. Gff. ; 24 coloured plates of the lower orders 
of the Metropolis, 1820, 15*.; Guillim's 'Heraldry,' 
engravings hand-painted, 1638, 10*. ("the most 
correct edition," Lowndes) ; Hood's 'Poems,'' 
3 vols., Moxon, 1847-8. 17. 7*. : 'La Fontaine,' 

2 vols., roval 8vo, 1904. 21. 2*. : " Library of Anglo- 
Catholic Theology," 1841-67. 80 vols., 37.: Shelley's 
AVorks, Moxon, '3 vols.. 1847, II. 2*.; Worlidge's 
'Antique Gems,' 1823, If. 10*. Waring's ' Master- 
pieces of Industrial Art and Sculpture.' 1863 
3/. 10*. (cost 407.); and 'Old English Manners! 
1579-1618,' inedited tracts, "Roxburghe Library" 
1868, 10*. 6d, 

Messrs. Lupton Brothers, of Burnley, have in 
their List 91 Burton's 'Arabian Nights.' Benares, 
307. : the Architectural Society's ' Dictionary of 
Architecture,' 1853-92, 9/. 9*.;' The. Anr/Jo-Havon 
Review. 10 vols.. folio, 47.10*.; Britten's 'Archi- 
tectural Antimiities.' 1807-14, 37. 10*. ; Bewick, 
" Memorial Edition," Quaritch, 37. 3*. ; Ormerod s 
'Cheshire.' 37. 10*.; 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
147. 14*. (Tme*T>riee 34/.) ; Gillray's 'Caricatures' 
Bohn, 1849. 37. 10*.; Green's ''Short History/ 

3 vols.. 37. 15*.; Cussans's 'Hertfordshire,' 3 vols., 
folio, 57. 5*. ; and Lawrence & Bullen's " Italian 
Classics," 9 vols., III. 11*. There are first editions 
of Dickens, Lever, Foster's 'Stuarts' (11. 10*.); 
and Stirling-Maxwell's Works (47. 4*. ). 

Mr. A. Russell Smith's Catalogue 55 contains 
important historical MSS.. being the original rolls 
of expenses of the French Court. 1553-94. neatly 
written on 31 mrchment slii>s. each signed bv the 
Court official, folio, 11. 7*. Bibliography includes 
200 catalogues of sales at Sotheby's, 61. Nicolls's 
Honourable Artillery Company, 1616. is 77. 7* 
North's 'Fish and Fish-Ponds.' first edition. CurlV 
1713, 27. 13/.; John Quarles's 'God's Love and Man's 
Unworthiness,' 1651. 47. 10*.: and Stow's 'Annales ' 
folio, black-letter. 1631. 107. 10*. Mr. Smith tells 
u that the last is probably the best copy ever 
offered for sale of a book difficult to procure in a 
really fine state. A copy from the Sander-land 
Library of ^the ' Testamentum Novum Latinuni,' 
1520. is 5/. 5*.; Mores's ' Nomina et Insignia Gen- 
tilli,' 1749. 57. 5*.: a well-executed heraldic MS., 
Arms and Genealogies of the Barons from the 
Conquest to 1606, 542 coats of arms beautifully 
coloured, folio, circa 1610, 247.; Bacon's 'The 



Historie of Life and Death,' a very rare volume, 
1H38 67.6*.; Ralegh's 'Philip cle Oommines, 1614, 
4/l(K; and Hollar's ' Theatrum Mulierum,' 1643, 
07 There are some interesting homilies. 
" Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co.'s Price Current ,669 
contains Ampigollus's 'Liber Manualis, 1476, 
Sndwith other black-letter theologicalmcunabula 
in one volume, folio, morocco extra by DeCmerley, 
14/ - and the very rare first edition of Baxter s 
faints" EverlastingRest' 1650, 87 8.j (the earliest 
edition known to Lowndes was 16o3). There are 
sixty entries under Bible, and many of great rarity, 
including the Ashburnham copy of the Polyglott, 
1667-69 357. ; the Tyiidale and Coverdale edition, 
1537, 551.; and first edition of Cranmers Io40, 
iVV 10* The extremely rare Indulgence printed by 
Caxton, which Blades describes as No. 4 type, West- 
minster 1481, is 1951. " The Witchfinder's Charter." 
is the description of Sprenger and Kramers 
'Malleus Maleficarum,' c. 1486. This formed the 
great textbook on procedure in cases of witchcraft. 
Davison states that, " for the first time, trials were 
now 'legally' conducted, and armed with Pope 
Innocent's bull they traversed Germany, leaving 

behind them a track of blood and fire witches 

were no longer burned in twos and threes, but in 
scores and hundreds." Under John Merbeck, is the 
first English Concordance, 1550, 47. 4* .; and under 
Cardinal Newman is a set of his works, 30 vols., 
41 4* The Prayer Books include Queen Eliza- 
beth's 217 and Pickering's series of reprints, 
1844, 7 vols. , folio, vellum, 87. 8*. There are a great 
many more important items, but space will not 
admit of our giving them. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp's Reading Catalogue 171 con- 
tains Ashmole's 'Berkshire,' 1719, 107. 107. Hollands 
' Heroologia-Anglica,' 1620, 187. 18*; Lavater, 1810, 
,V 5.s- and the rare first edition of VV hite s Sel- 
borne,' 1789, 127. 12*. The first editions of Dickens 
include 'Oliver Twist' with the scarce "Fireside 
Keate," Bentley, 1838, 37. 10*. Under Drama are a 
number of prompt copies. Other items include 
'Encyclopedia Britannica,' half - morocco, Times 
office, 14/. Lists occur under London as well as 
-under Military. A copy of Pickering's beautiful 
miniature Milton is priced 5*. : and a collection of 
46 rare tracts, time of Cromwell, 47. 4*. 

Messrs. Henry Young Sons, of Liverpool, have 
in their Catalogue CCCLXXVII. a beautiful Bible 
on vellum, 1320, 45/. This is a fine specimen of 
the Bibles made for the private use of wealthy 
individuals during the fourteenth century, and 
comes from the Sutherland Collection. Bacon's 
'Henry VII.,' tall copy of the first edition, 1622, is 
!)/. )*. ; first edition of Camden's ' Anglica,' &c., in 
a very fine James I. binding, 1602, 217. ; and 
James I.'s copy of Camden's ' Britannia,' 1610, 
37. 3*. Under Costume is a souvenir of the Bal 
Costume given by Queen Victoria at Buckingham 
Palace, 12 May, 1842, 52 plates, hand coloured, 
with letterpress by Planche giving an account of 
the ball and names of the guests, 67. 6*. This copy 
belonged to the Duke of Sutherland. The first 
edition of Meyrick and Smith's ' Costume of the 
( )riginal Inhabitants of the British Islands to the 
Sixth Century,' 1815, is 47. 4*. Under Drama is a 
set of Inchbald, 42 vols., 12mo, 1809-11, 97. 9*. Other 
items include Fiiller's ' Church History,' the splen- 
did original edition, 1655, 67. 6*. ; large copy of 
Holinshed, 1586-7, 187. 18*. ; Herbert and Brayley's 
* Lambeth Palace,' largest paper, with the portraits 

painted by hand, folio, 1806, 47. 4*. ; and the first 
illustrated edition of Milton. 1688, 67. 6*. Under 
Psalms is the scarce edition of King James's trans- 
lation, 1637, 47. 4*. Under Navigation will be 
found Seller's 'Coasting Pilot,' about 1670, 87. 8*. 
Under Early Printing are many choice specimens. 
There is a long list under Liverpool Authors. 
Under Trials is ' Celebrated Trials and Remark- 
able Cases of Criminal Jurisprudence, 1413-1825,' 
57. 15*. 6(1. Borrow compiled this, and often refers 
to it in ' Lavengro ' and ' Romany Rye.' 

THE sale of the Rev. J. Woodfall Ebsworth's 
library has been postponed to Thursday week and 
following day. The catalogue issued by Messrs. 
Puttick & Simpson indicates how choice is the 


We must call special attention to the following 
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WE cannot undertake to advise correspondents 
as to the value of old books and other objects or as 
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H. P. L. ("Straight is the line of duty"). MR. 
EUOEXE TEESDALE stated^ at 6 S. viii. 219 that this 
verse was " written by William Maccall, author of 
' Elements of Individuality,' &c., and a personal 
friend of Thomas Carlyle." 

Hie ET UBIQUE ("I expect to pass through this 
world but once "). There is a long note on these 
words in ' Cassell's Book of Quotations,' p. 448, just 
compiled by Mr. W. Gurney Benham. See also 
8 S. xi. 118. 

CECIL CLARKE (" The hand that rocks the cradle "). 
" Recently " is a rather vagiie date. Miss Roberts's 
letter to the New York Critic was printed at 9 S. 
ii. 358 (29 Oct., 1898), and supplemented by a New 
York correspondent of ' N. & Q.' at 10 S. v. 273. 
" Book-stealing " will appear shortly. 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
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We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
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w s. vii. FEB. IB, 1907.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



5 and OA, ARGYLE STREET, and 27, GROVE 


In all classes of Literature on Sale ; classified in upwards 

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io s. VIL FEB. 2.3, 1907.] N'OTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTEXTS.-No. 165. 

NOTES : Iron in Homer, 141 Magdalen College School 
and the ' D.N.B.,' 142 Shakespeariana, 143 February 30 
Coleridge's Poem on Christmas Day, 146 Broken on 
the Wheel, 147. 

QUERIES : Isabel (Plantagenet), Countess of Essex and 
Eu, 147 Countess of Ponthieu 'The Kingdom's Intel- 
ligencer,' 1660-1663 Gladstoniana : " Glynnese" ' Pen- 
rose's Journal ' : Turtle-riding, 148 Slavery in England- 
Anne Plantagenet, Duchess of Exeter Authors of Quo- 
tations Wanted Latin Lines Flavian Monks Hatching 
Chickens with Artih'cial Heat Windmills in Sussex 
.John Law of Lauriston, 149 N. F. Zaba Chavasse 
Family, 150. 

REPLIES : Tristan and Isolde, 150 Poonah Painting- 
Pictures at Teddington, 152 Slavery in the United 
States: its Cessation " Thune ": "(Eil-de-bceuf," French 
Slang Words, 153 Ward Surname Calif ornian English: 
American Coin-names, 154 Rev. R. Grant' The History 
of Self-Defence ' Statues of the Georges, 155 West 
Indian Military Records Shakespeare's Residence New 
Pl ace Queen Victoria of Spain: Name-Day "Church- 
yard Cough," 156 Holed-Stone Folk-lore : "Night-hags" 
Marlborough Wheels Hornsey Wood House : Har- 
ringay House, 157 " Kingsley's Stand " Authors of 
Quotations Wanted Anagrams on Pius X." Shadow- 
catcher "=Photographer, 158 Sonnets by Alfred and 
Frederick Tennyson, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Cassell's Book of Quotations, 
Proverbs, and Household Words ' ' Birmingham and 
Midland Institute : Birmingham Archaeological Society 
Transactions ' ' The Quarterly Review ' ' Newspaper 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(See ante, p. 39.) 

I AM much obliged to the reviewer of my 
'* Homer and his Age ' for correcting my 
indolence in the hunt for mentions of rings 
and seals in the Greek tragedians. As to a 
certain passage which occurs twice in the 
' Odyssey,' he has not understood my 
.meaning. He says of me : 

" He demolishes easily special points in theories 
which suppose different dates of composition for 
various parts of the poem, but he has, on his own 
view, to make admissions of later insertions. Thus 
we read on p. 124 that ' it is a critical error to insisl 
on taking Homer absolutely and always ait, pied d< 
.la lettre '; but with due deference to Mr. Lang, it 
seems to us that this is the very method by which he 
often [-sic] confutes his adversaries. Of a line twice 
appearing in the 'Odyssey' (xvi. 294, and xix. 13 
he says (p. 193) that, because it disregards the dis 
tinction iron for implements, bronze for weapons 
* it must therefore be a very late addition ; it may 
be removed without injuring the sense of the 
passage in which it occurs.' This seems to us a 
significant Arf/al for the other side, arid the easy 
condition that the sense of the passage is not in 

ured would allow of excisions of a wholesale 
haracter such excisions, indeed, as are made by 
hose who suppose a core of narrative and a gradual 
iddition to it, not necessarily contemporaneous." 

Had the reviewer read the whole context 
of my passage some eight lines (pp. 192-3) 
he would have found that I am not 
positive when I say, " The line in the 
Odyssey ' must be a very late addition." 
[ offer an alternative explanation : "If, on 
}he other hand, the line be as old as the 
oldest part of the poem, the author for once 
^orgets his usual antiquarian precision." 
The line which reads like a proverbial 
saying can only have been made when iron 
was the usual metal for warlike weapons, 
[n the whole of the rest of the ' Odyssey ' 
oronze is the only metal for warlike gear. 
Therefore either the line is an addition, 
inserted late, in the full-blown Iron Age ; 
or, if it be as old as the rest of the epic, the 
poet, or the poets, elsewhere consistently 
sang, with archaeological precision, as if 
they were living in the age of bronze weapons. 
I have argued (pp. 1-6, and elsewhere) that 
no poets of early uncritical ages, nor even 
the classical poets of critical ages, have 
tried to be archaeological, or have succeeded 
in archaizing that the practice is modern. 
Thus the crux is, Did the early poets of the 
' Odyssey ' preserve archaeological precision 
except in a single line, or is the line a late 
addition ? The reader may choose between 
the alternatives. 

The reviewer, moreover, has not observed, 
apparently, my denial (p. 193, note 1) that 
the possibility of removing a line without in- 
juring the sense is a proof of interpolation. 
Critics are usually of that opinion when their 
theory can be served by excising a line. I 
never excise a line because it is adverse to 
my theory. Even in this case, though the 
line contradicts the whole uniform tenor of 
both epics as much so as a line in 'Beowulf 
would do which represented all weapons as of 
bronze I leave the question open. I do not 
understand what can be meant by mention 
of a reference, on my p. 204, to " another 
unfortunate line in the ' Odyssey.' " It is, 
of course, the same line, which is twice 
repeated with the rest of the speech in which 
it occurs, and my argument is the same in 
both cases. I do not (p. 204), as alleged, 
" admit the retention of such terms concern- 
ing obsolete things," namely, of " bronze " 
for weapons when bronze has become obsolete 
for weapons. I ask, // such terms are 
retained, what value can be ascribed to the 
evidence of the poets on points of culture ? 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. vn. FEB. 23, 1907. 

THE 'D.N.B.' 

(See 10 S. iv. 21, 101, 182, 244, 364 ; v. 22, 
122, 284, 362 ; vi. 2, 104, 203 ; vii. 63.) 
THJ: present instalment concludes my 

biographical notes, but I hope to add some 

remarks on more general topics connected 

with the School. 

Robert Francis Walker (1789-1854), divine 

and author. Chorister 1800-06. Bloxam 

(ii. 115) says of him : 

"The great Lord Nelson (upon his only visit to 
Oxford, during a long vacation, near the close of the 
eighteenth century), happening to hear him when 
chorister in the College chapel, spoke to him after 
the service in commendation ot his singing, and 
gave him halt'-a-guinea. The next day Lord Nelson 
visited the College School, and, seeing the same boy 
engaged in sketching the building, complimented 
him on his excellence in this respect, and gave him 
another mark of his approval." 

He became curate to the Provost of Oriel at 
Purleigh, and translated German Evan- 
gelical theology. Dr. Ellerton (of whom 
Jie was a favourite pupil) possessed a small 
full-length portrait of him (in his chorister's 
gown), which afterwards belonged to Dr. 

William of Waynflete or Wainfleet (1395?- 
1486), Bishop of Winchester, Lord High 
Chancellor of England, and founder of 
Magdalen College, Oxon. Elder son of 
Richard Patyn, Patten, or Patton, alias 
Barbour, of Wainfleet. The portrait in 
M.C.S. is a copy from one in the Royal 
Collection at Windsor ; a similar picture on 
panel in the President's lodgings is, perhaps, 
an earlier copy of the same original, or even 
a copy of that in the School ; the effigy in 
his magnificent chantry in Winchester 
Cathedral, made during his lifetime, repre- 
sents him as an elderly man ; he appears as 
M support to the cushion under the head of 
t he ettigy of his father upon the tomb erected 
l>y the Bishop in Wainfleet Church, now 
removed to Magdalen College Chapel ; a 
mitred head in a window of Thurburn's 
chantry (c. 1455) at Winchester College may 
represent him. His mitre, staff, and other 
relics valued at 2,OOOZ., were delivered up 
by the College in 1646 to a messenger of the 
House of Lords, and were sold to a goldsmith, 
an endeavour, after the Restoration, on the 
part of Magdalen to regain the relics, or 
recover compensation for their loss, being un- 
successful. The episcopal caligae, or stock- 
ings of crimson silk, embroidered with birds 
in gold and silver thread, and with flowers 
in coloured silks, as well as the sandals of 

crimson velvet, also elaborately decorated,, 
still remain in the possession of the College. 

Edward Welchman (1665-1739), theo- 
logian. Chorister 1679, matriculating the 
same year at Magd. Hall ; Fellow of Merton ;. 
Prebendary of St. David's ; of Lichfield, 
A son of his, who kept an inn at Stratford- 
on-Avon, used to boast that his father made 
the Thirty -Nine Articles Welchman having, 
in fact, published an annotated edition of 

Francis White (b. 1589 ?). Demy 1610 ; 
Master of M.C.S. (between Lawrence Snelling 
and Samuel Barnard) 1614-17 ; vicar of 
Ashbury 1622-31 ; is mentioned in Heylyn's 
' Diary ' as composer of one or more play& 
acted in the President's lodgings. 

William White (1604-78), divine. Master 
of M.C.S. (between John Allibond and 
Thos. Houghton) 1632-48, when ejected by 
Parliamentary Commissioners ; rector of 
Pusey and Appleton ; published works in 
Latin under name of ' ; Gulielmus Phalerius." 

Robert Whittington, Whytynton, or Whit- 
inton (fl. 1520), grammarian. Born pro- 
bably not much later than 1480, he was at 
M.C.S. under Stanbridge ; B.A. and laureate 
in grammar 1513, when he assumed title of 
" Protovates Angliae " ; nicknamed by his 
foes " Boss," in derisive allusion to a public 
" boss " or water-tap in the City of London,, 
originally set up by Lord Mayor Richard 
Whittington ; published five grammatical 
treatises and translations from Cicero and 
Seneca ; two of his works dedicated to 
Wolsey ; said to have been still alive in 
1530 ; William Lily a pupil of his ; Stan- 
bridge and Whittington authors of first 
Latin grammars which drove Donatus and 
Alexander de Villa Dei out of English school- 

Christopher Windebank (b. 1615), a son 
of Sir Francis (q.v.), may perhaps be added, 
having become Demy in 1630 ; lived after 
1635 at Madrid, where, being " a perfect 
Spaniard and an honest man," he was found 
useful as a guide and interpreter by English 

Sir Ralph Winwood (1563 ?-1617), diplo- 
matist and Secretary of State. Although 
he matriculated from St. John's Coll. Dec., 
1577, aged fourteen, he was Demy of Magd. 
1578-82 ; Fellow and Proctor ; ambassador 
to France ; agent to States- General of Hol- 
land ; Secretary of State for life ; led House 
of Commons ; largely responsible for 
Ralegh's release from the Tower in 1616; 
married (1603) Elizabeth Ball, Sir Thomas 
Bodley's stepdaughter. 

Thomas Wolsey (1475 ?-1530), Cardinal 

10 s. vn. FEB. 33, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and statesman. Always wrote his name 
" Wulcy " ; whether first admitted at 
Magdalen as chorister, servitor, Demy, or 
Commoner is not known ; B.A. at fifteen, 
he was called the " boy bachelor," as he 
himself told his gentleman usher, George 
Cavendish, who wrote his life. " I," he is 
made to say in Thos. Churchyard's ' Tragedy 
of Cardinal Wolsey,' 

of wit and judgement fine, 

Brought up at school, and proved a good divine : 
For which great gifts, degree of school I had 
And Bachelor was, and I a little lad. 

Master of M.C.S. for six months during 1498 
(between Andrew Scarbott and William 
Bothewood) ; Dean of Lincoln, Hereford, 
York, and St. Stephen's, Westminster ; 
Canon of Windsor ; accompanied Henry 
VIII. to " Field of the Cloth of Gold " ; 
Bishop of Tournay, of Lincoln ; Archbishop 
of York ; created Cardinal by Leo X. with 
title " St. Csecilia trans Tiberim," 1515 ; 
Lord High Chancellor : Papal Legate de 
Latere ; Bishop of Bath and Wells ; Abbot 
of St. Alban's ; founder of Cardinal College 
(eventually Christ Church), Oxford, and a 
college at Ipswich, his native place ; Bishop 
of Durham, of Winchester ; built palaces 
of Hampton Court and York Place (White- 
hall) ; died and buried at Leicester. John 
Skelton's ' Why Come Ye nat to Courte ? ' 
is a bitter satire on Wolsey so also in some 
measure are his poems ' Colyn Cloute ' and 
* Speake, Parrot,' in the latter of which he 
says, " Bo-ho [the King] doth bark well, 
but Hough-ho [Wolsey] he ruleth the ring." 
The portraits in Hall of Magd. Coll. and at 
M.C.S. are copies of the Holbein in Ch. Ch. 
Hall ; the full face is shown in a drawing 
preserved at Arras. Thomas Wynter, his 
son by one Lark's daughter, later Dean of 
Wells and Archdeacon of Cornwall, &c., was 
when a youth placed under the tuition of 
Maurice Byrchenshaw, Usher of M.C.S. in 
1513, subsequently Canon of Wells. The 
great tower at Magdalen is sometimes called 
" Wolsey 's Tower " ; but his only connexion 
with it seems to be that, as Bursar for a 
year or two during its erection (1499-1500), 
he would have to pay the builder's 

Richard Wooddeson the elder (1704-74), 
divine. Chorister 1712 ; Master of the Free 
School at Kingston 1733-72, among his 
pupils being Edward Lovibond, George 
Steevens, George Keate, Edward Gibbon, 
William Hayley, Francis Maseres, George 
Hardinge, and Gilbert Wakefield. His father, 
another Richard (1655-1726), chorister 1662 
was vicar of Findon, Sussex. His son, oJ 

;he same names, the Vinerian Professor, was 
Demy and Fellow. 

Edward Wotton (1492-1555), physician 
and naturalist. Son of Richard W., superior 
Bedel of Divinity in the University ; at 
VE.C.S. chorister and Demy ; Fellow ; first 
Reader in Greek at C.C.C. ; M.D. Padua 
and Oxon ; President College of Physicians ; 
3hysician to Duke of Norfolk and Margaret 
Pole, Countess of Salisbury ; said to have 
been first English physician to make a 
ystematic study of natural history. 

Thomas Yalden or Youlding (1670-1736), 
poet and divine. Son of John Y., some- 
bime page and groom of the chamber to- 
Prince Charles, a sufferer in his cause, and 
an exciseman in Oxford after the Restora- 
tion ; at M.C.S. while a chorister ; Demy ; 
Fellow, Lecturer on Moral Philosophy,. 
Bursar, Dean of Divinity ; friend of Addi- 
son and Sacheverell at College ; arrested 
during clamour raised about Atterbury's 
plot, but soon released ; his ' Hymn to- 
Darkness,' written in imitation of Cowley, 
highly esteemed by Dr. Johnson ; chaplain 
to Bridewell Hospital, where he was buried ; 
gave the College a full-length picture as a 
portrait of the founder. A. R. BAYLEY. 

St. Margaret's, Malvern. 


' KING- RICHARD III.,' IV. iv. 175, " HUM- 

Ditcher. What comfortable hour canst thou name 
That ever graced me in thy company ''. 

K. Richard. Faith, none, but Humphrey Hour, 

that call'd your grace 
To breakfast once forth of my company. 
Here no explanation in the smallest degree 
satisfactory has been offered of the words 
" Humphrey Hour." I believe we should 

Faith, none but, humph, the hour that, &c. 
Singer was the first to suggest that the 
allusion is to John xvi. 21 : "A woman 
when she is in travail hath sorrow, because 
her hour is come ; but as soon as she is 
delivered of the child, she remembereth no 
more the anguish, for joy that a man is born 
into the world " ; and this, it seems to me, 
gives a sure clue to the meaning of the 
passage. Grim, sardonic humour of the 
kind is exactly in Richard's way ; cp., e.g., 
his words to Anne, I. ii. 105 : 

Anne. 0, he was gentle, mild, and virtuous. 

Glouc. The fitter for the King of heaven, that 
hath him. 

" No hour of comfort, I grant you," says 
Richard, " ever came to you from me r 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. VIL FKB. 23, 1007. 

except, humph, the hour in which you were 
joyfully delivered of the burden of your 
womb at my birth." If, as so frequently, 
the definite article were written in the 
syncopated form " ye," the words " humph 
the " would easily pass into " Humphrey." 

K. D. 

' THE WINTER'S TALE,' I. ii. 171-85 : 
Leon. So stands this squire 

'Otficed with me : we two will walk, my lord, 
And leave you to your graver steps. Hermione, 
How thou lovest us show in our brother's welcome 
Let what is dear in Sicily be cheap : 
Next to thyself and my young rover, he 's 
Apparent to my heart. 

Her. If you would seek us, 

We are yours i' the garden : shall 's attend you 


[Exeunt Polixenes, Hermione, and Attendants, 

According to the Folio, Leontes states 
that he " will walk," but, on reading 
further, we find that he does not immediately 
do so. The reason for such a statement is 
usually seen in the necessity for clearing the 
stage, but the king should not leave the 
scene, as he is soon to engage in conversa- 
tion with Camillo. It is Polixenes and the 
queen who go, and from one of them the 

We two will walk, my lord, 
And leave you to your graver steps, 

would be apt to come. The two kings 
habitually address each other as " brother," 
but here we find in a supposed utterance 
of Leontes the queen's usual expression in 
addressing her husband, " my Lord," indi- 
cating that she is the speaker. If we are 
right in thinking that Hermione has just 
spoken to Leontes, his injunction to her, 
" How thou lovest us," &c., would hardly 
be prefaced with her name. The word 
" Hermione," appearing in the text after 
the queen's lines, may reasonably be under- 
stood as properly preceding them, thus 
correctly assigning the speech. The metrical 
requirements will also permit of the change : 

I'l-on. How thou 

Lovest us show in our brother's welcome. 

It is the poet's art to make the queen, in 
her innocence, say and do things which fan 
the flame of the king's jealously. In the 
use of " graver," whatever her meaning, the 
idea he takes is that his steps are indeed 
grave with apprehension, while hers are 
culpably gay. " Graver " is singularly in- 
appropriate as applied to the steps of the 
queen and Polixenes, and, if followed, would 
detract from " our brother's welcome." 
It would seem a sneer if spoken by Leontes, 
but it is his cue to be apparently hearty 
and sincere. " Your graver steps " does 

apply peculiarly to Leontes, and contains 
a hint of the contrast between Hermione's 
pleasant, careless occupation as entertainer, 
and the king's more serious thoughts, as 
indicated by his present mood (1. 147, " He 
something seems unsettled "). 

There is a bad mix-up in the Folio text 
of this same scene (11. 146-50), and I believe 
that a hitherto unsuspected disarrangement 
of speeches exists in the passage commented 
upon above. The queen's form of address, 
" my lord," when speaking to the king, is 
found in 11. 40, 61, 65, 87, also 150 and 172, 
in this scene, and elsewhere in the play. 


St. Louis. 

' JULIUS C-12SAR,' V. v. 73-5 : 

The elements 

So mix'd in him that Nature might stand up 
And say to all the world, " This was a man ! " 
Cf. Drayton's ' Idea,' xxi. : 

At whose deliberate and unusuall byrth, 
The heavens were said to counsell to retire, 
And in aspects of happinesse and mirth 
Breath'd him a spirit insatiatly t' aspire, 
That took no mixture of the ponderous earth, 
But all comprest of cleere ascending fire, 
So well made up, that such an one as he 
Jove in a man like Mortimer would be. 

New York. 

' MERCHANT OF VENICE,' II. ii. 80 (10 S. v. 
465 ; vi. 325). The earliest expression of the 
proverb is in ' Odyssey,' i. 215-16, where it 
is spoken, without malicious insinuation, 
in frank simplicity by the amiable Tele- 
machus. On this passage a scholiast quotes 
as from Euripides the two lines given by 
C. W. B. as Menander's. They may be 
found in Dindorf's ' Poet. Seen.' (1893), Eur., 
fragm. 883, or fragm. 1004 in Nauck's edition 
(Teubner ). Nauck says that Stobseus ( ' Flor. 
76, 7) attributes them erroneously to 
Menander. H. K. ST. J. S. 

* ALL 's WELL THAT ENDS WELL,' V. ii. : 

PURR." (10 S. vi. 323, 505). MR. N. W. 
HILL rejects my explanation of the word 
" purr " as = pig. His own suggestion, 
:hat it is shortened from " perfume," seems 
' o me absolutely hopeless. 

To begin with, a critic who interprets 
Shakspeare by dint of a wholly gratuitous 
and unsupported theory comes into court 
with a rope round his neck ; and in the 
present case he is met by the plentiful lack 
of evidence that in Queen Elizabeth's time 
men mangled their words and served them 
up in halves, as we are apt to do. 

But to come to interpretation of the 
mssage : 

10 s. vii. FEB. 23, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" Here is a purre of Fortunes, Sir, or of Fortunes 
cjit, that has falne into the Fishpond of her 

MR. HILL wishes us to understand that the 
Clown introduces Parolles as "an ' evil 
smell ' of Fortune's " ; and this interpreta- 
tion he holds to be simplicity itself. I fancy 
he will find few to agree with him. With all 
his bizarreries the Clown would scarcely 
talk thus. But MB. HILL does not seem to 
observe that what might be suitable if 
Fortune's cat alone were mentioned is 
entirely unsuitable for Fortune herself. 
This " purre of Fortunes " requires its own 
explanation. It must needs be somebody 
or something which belongs to Fortune : 
her property to play with, and now her butt, 
fallen into the fishpond of her displeasure. 
The " cat " is a mere afterthought : the 
pun was irresistible. 

But after all this I have an objection which 
I hold to be conclusive and fatal. Prof. 
Victor in his recent work on the pronuncia- 
tion of Shakespeare has shown that for him 
the syllables er. ir, ur, had each its own 
value, wholly distinct from the others :* 
whence it must follow that " purr " cannot 
possibly be the first syllable of per-fume. 

On the whole, I think that if MB. HILL 
must publish his unsupported theory, he 
would on all grounds have been better 
advised to omit his quotation of Horace. 

It may be well, for the sake of accuracy, 
to put it on record that " a species of wild 
pig " is not found in the Isle of Man. The 
mistake may have arisen from the Manx 
dictionary by Dr. Kelly, edited by the Rev. 
W. Gill, in which the Manx word " purr " 
is translated by " a wild mountain boar," 
which may mean a boar that had got loose 
into the mountains, or a boar (of probably a 
poor breed) at a mountain farm ; but we 
know nothing here of " wild pigs." 


St . Thomas, Douglas. 

'MERCHANT OF VENICE,' I. i. 29-36 (10 
S. vi. 504). A. E. A. quotes in one of his 
notes at the above reference Prof. Skeat's 
phrase ' Neglected Eng. Diet.' " Neglected " 
will apply also to ' N. & Q.' The late REV. 
DR. SPENCE offered at 9 S. v. 163 the same 
suggestion as that now brought forward by 
A. K. A. I did not reply to DR. SPENCE, 
who commented upon my previous note 
(9 S. v. 63), for the reason that the Furness 
quotation in that note seemed sufficient 
answer : " ' The meaning here,' says Claren- 

* See MR. MAYHEW'S note, 10 S. vi. 2S1. 

don, * is obscure, and the construction 
abrupt, if " this " refers to the spices and 
silks just mentioned.' " It would, of course, 
be impossible for " this " to refer to the 
merchandise without our understanding 
" worth " as referring to the speaker ; other- 
wise the import is that the merchandise is 
worth itself. Therefore neither DB. SPENCE 
nor A. E. A. has made a discovery. In 
addition to the " Clarendon " reason, it is 
hardly likely that a merchant would speak 
of himself as " worth nothing " in the event 
of one of his shipments having gone astray. 

St. Louis. 

* HENBY IV.,' PABT I., II. i. : " STUNG 
LIKE A TENCH " (10 S. vi. 504). Pliny the 
Elder tells us that fish are tormented by- 
fleas ; but in this dialogue Shakespeare is 
obviously burlesquing the vulgars' habit 
of irrelevant comparison, satirized by others 
as well. " Dank as a dog " shows this 
clearly enough. John Taylor the Water 
Poet tells of a person whose phrase of all 
work was " like a dog " that another 
" lied like a dog," &c. A venerable joke of 
my boyhood was of a woman who said she 
was " as weak as a horse, and had no more- 
appetite than a hog." FOBBEST MOBGAN. 

Hartford, Conn. 

See the note on this line in Dr. William J 
Rolfe's edition of the play, p. 157. 

N. W. HILL. 


It is usually supposed that we ought to- 
read, instead of " like a tench," " like a 
trout," which is, as is well known, covered 
with crimson spots : 

Swift trouts, diversified with crimson stains. 
Pope's 'Windsor Forest,' 145. 

The tench is covered with a 'slime supposed 
to be of a healing nature. 


' HENBY IV.,' PABT I., II. iv. 134 : 


(10 S. vi. 504). Theobald's emendation, 
adopted by MB. DAVEY, leaves the passage 
as unintelligible as before, and more in- 
coherent. If " butter " had been meant 
instead of " Titan," Shakespeare would have 
used " melts " in place of " melted " 
surely that phenomenon was not a past and 
unrecurring one ; and who is Titan, and why 
should he be dragged in by the heels, with 
nothing to do and no connexion with the 
melting ? Warburton's, usually adopted, 
is worse parenthesizing "pitiful-hearted 
Titan," and still leaving the butter to melt 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. FEB. -23, 1907. 

without relation to him ; besides making 
the pitiful-hearted object one thing and the 
melting one another, " which is absurd," 
as Euclid was wont to remark. And equally 
it leaves Titan not even a myth. The truth 
is the passage is meaningless under any 
theory yet suggested ; but one guess attains 
half-way to a rational solution, and I will 
complete it. If not the true one, at least it 
is one, and none other ever has been even 
that. The allusion must be to some classical 
story of a being who melted in the sun : who 
did so ? Only one person, Icarus or his 
wings did ; but Phaeton was sun-struck 
and dazed and burnt up. It is plain to me 
that " Titan " is a mishearing of " Phaeton," 
which Shakespeare wrote, and that Shake- 
speare himself either confounded Phaeton 
with Icarus, or used " melted " for the sake 
of the play on the resemblance between the 
sack running down Falstaff's fat jowl and 
the dripping of melting butter in the sun. 
It is true that when Phaeton kisses the butter, 
it is the latter that melts, not he ; but the 
conceit means simply " Did you never 
see Phaeton melting butter with his kisses, 
just as he too with his soft heart melted under 
the sun's warm confidences ? " 


'HAMLET,' I. ii. 131-2 (10 S. vi. 505). 
I much doubt whether Shakespeare, if he 
was aware of the quotation from the Apo- 
crypha as given by the querist, had the same 
in view in this instance. It seems far more 
probable that he was vaguely dreaming of 
the Sixth Commandment and its implications, 
as has been supposed. The word " canon 
is used again in ' King John,' II. i. 180, by 
the Lady Constance in allusion to the Second 
Commandment ; see Bishop Wordsworth's 
book ' Shakespeare's Knowledge of the Bible, 
1892, p. 149. N. W. HILL. 

FEBRUARY 30. In looking through a 
friend's collection of menus I found one 
dated February 30, 1904. I thought, 
naturally, that it was a printer's error, but 
found that I was mistaken and that the date 
was perfectly correct. It occurred in the 
following curious manner. The dinner was 
on board the Pacific Mail Company's ship 
Siberia, crossing the Pacific from Yokohama 
to San Francisco. A day was thus gained 
and happening as it did at the end o. 
February, 1904 (leap year), another day was 
added to the month. The date, therefore 
although unconventional, is quite legitimate 
This seems to me to be curious enough to b< 
putjon record. FRANK SCHLOESSER. 

15, Grosvenor Road, Westminster. 


n the late Mr. Dykes Campbell's edition of 

Coleridge's ' Poetical Works ' (Macmillaii, 

893, in one volume) there is a poem of two 

quatrains entitled ' Homeless.' It is marked 

as printed from MS. ; is assigned, with a 

query, to the year 1810 ; and is marked in 

;he index with an asterisk as *' now first 

Drinted, or first collected." This little poem 

was, however, printed eighty years ago. 

.n The Literary Magnet for January, 1827, 

. 71 there appears 

O, Christmas Day! O, happy day ! 

A foretaste from above, 
To him who hath a happy home. 

And love returned for love ! 
O, Christmas Day ! O, gloomy day ! 

The V>arb in Memory's dart. 
To him who walks alone through li t'e. 

The desolate in heart ! S. T. C. 

This is practically identical with Dykes 
"Campbell's version, except that he makes 
}he second verse a comment on the first. 
This he does by putting in brackets the words 
" On the above " between the two verses 
The title, however, is different. Mr. Ernest 
Hartley Coleridge has a paper in the new 
part of the Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Literature (Second Series, xxvii. pp. 69- 
122) on ' Coleridge, Wordsworth, and the 
American Botanist William Bartram.' In. 
this he mentions a copy of Bartram's 
Travels ' with the inscription : " S. T. 
Coleridge, Highgate, April, 1818." There 
are no marginalia, but 

"on the fly-leaf scrawled in pencil by a female 
hand, are these pathetic lines, which, slight as they 
are, can surely have been written by no other thaii 
S. T. C." 

Then follow the two verses already quoted, 
with the variant 

And love returned from love. 
The Literary Magnet is not mentioned 
in Haney's ' Coleridge Bibliography.' The 
editor must have been an admirer' of Cole- 
ridge, for he gives the ' Dialogue ' (" How 
seldom, friend ") in the number for July, 
1827, but without mentioning its previous 
appearance in The Morning Post in 1802 ; 
he gives in the same volume the ' Epi- 
gram ' ("Charles, grave or merry") from 
the same source ; he gives * A * Dialogue 
written on a blank page of Butler's Book of 
the Roman Catholic Church,' but quotes 
it from The Standard ; he quotes ' Youth 
and Age ' (" Verse, a breeze mid blossoms 
straying") from 'The Literary Souvenir,' 
and ' The Wanderings of Cain ' from ' The 

10 s. VIL FEB. 23, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


There may be other Coleridgeana in The 
Literary Magnet. I have not access to a 
complete set. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

[Mr. Dykes Campbell reads 

And love returned from love, 

and prints the first quatrain within quotation 

251, 314, 373, 455, 513 ; vii. 135, 196, 337.) 
The Colombo Observer, 10 March, 1905, 
.alluding to the death of Mr. C. S. Hadden, 
a Ceylon proprietor, records that at Magde- 
burg, which he went to in 1835 and left in 
1837, he saw a woman, convicted of murder- 
ing her mistress, suffer the penalty of being 
"" broken on the wheel," as far as the ideas 
of the day permitted. She was brought out 
to the place of execution, fastened tightly 
to a plank by straps round her neck and 
limbs, and in that operation either killed 
outright, or rendered unconscious by strang- 
ling. After that took place the horrible 
business of two strong executioners breaking 
her limbs with a heavy wheel. 

It is perhaps worth a note in ' N. & Q.' 
that one who witnessed this, a J.P. of Herts 
and Bucks, was recently among us, describ- 
ing the miserable scene. HANDFOKD. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

ESSEX AND Eu. The following is a further 
list of the descendants of the Countess of 
Essex, concerning whose issue (if any) I am 
seeking information (see 10 S. vi. 407, 508). 
The figures in parentheses are for my guid- 
ance alone. 

Paget - Berners (57). Eliz. Jane, da. of Hon. Sir 

Chas. P., m. 1845 Major Wm. B., R.H.A., and 

had a son Wm. Hugh. 
Paget-Crawley (57). Jane Frances Eliz. P., sister 

of above and widow (*./>.) of John Home, of 

Ihorley Lodge, Herts, m. 1851 Lieut. -Col. 

Philip Sambrook C. 
Graves-Cuthbert (63). Hon. Jane Anne G., m. 1829 

Capt. James W. C. 
Gravos-Davisbn (63). Hon. Caroline North G., m. 

1844 Maj.-Gen. Hugh Percy D. of Swarland 

Park, co. Northd. 
Irby-Holdsworth (64). Hon. Augusta Matilda I., 

in. 1853 the Rev. Wm. H. of Netting Hill, D.D. 
Hunt-Whalley-Mason (68). Jane H. of Boreatton, 

co. Salop, b. 1702; m. 1st Thos. W., 2ndly 

Jas. M., and had issue by 1st mar. ('Landed 

Gentry '). 

Hunt-Gordon (69). Frances^ H. of Boreatton, b. 

1705 ; m. Lewis G., d. 1775. 
Hunt- Adams (70). Sarah H. of Boreatton, b. 1710; 

m. Rev. Wm. A. of Cound, D.D., d. 1781); and 

had issue (' Landed Gentry'). 
Hardware-Oner (71). John H. of Jamaica (1789), 

d. 1793, leaving a da. Mary on, m. 1787 Robert 

G. of Jamaica (Ormerod's * Cheshire,' 1882, ii. 

p. 333). 
Hardware-Pierce (73). Jane H., b. 1703 ; m. 1'. 

of co. Glouc. and had issue Rev. P., D.D., 

rector of West Kirkby 1790 (ibid.). 
Hunt, Lloyd, and Birch (74). Eliz. and Letitia, 

das. of Rowland H. of Boreatton, d. 1700 ; m. 

Lloyd and Birch respectively. 

Foley-Howard (75). Penelope, da. of Paul F. of 

Prestwood, m. (? c. 1730) Francis H. of Litch- 

lield (Brydges's ' Collins,' vii. 498). 
Foley and Price (76). Capt. Thos. F., R.N., d. 

1770, leaving (with a 2nd da., Mrs. Whitmore 

of Apley) Thos., Charlotte Augusta, and Eli/.., 

wife of Hy. P. of Knighton. 
Foley (76). Thos. Philip, Rob. Ralph, and Mary 

Anne, bros. and sister to Maj.-Gen. Rich. Hy. 

F., d. 1824. 
Foley-Musgrave (76). Helen, da. of Gen. R.H.F., 

m. Musgrave, M.R.C.S., and had a son 

Reginald (Foster's ' Peerage,' 1880, p. 2(55). 
Foley- Whitmore (76). Rev. Hy. Thos. F., r. of 

Holt, co. Wore., and his sister Penelope, wife 

of Rev. Hy. W., r. of Stockton, co. Salop 

(? temp. 1780). 

Ashhurst-Harriot (77). Frances Eliz. A. of Water- 
stock, m. 1836 Thos. Geo. H. of Twickenham, 

and had issue. 
Ashhurst and Dorien (77). Jas. Hy., b. 1782 : Thos. 

Hy., b. 1784; and Grace, who m. 1796 Goo. D. 

and had issue, children of Sir Wm. Hy. A. 
Clerke-Willes (77). Diana Susanna C., sister to the 

7th Bart., d. 1778; m. Rev. E. W. of Newbold, 

co. Warwick. 
Ashhurst-Shutz (77). Dorothea, sister to Sir Wm. 

Hy. A., m. 1763 Spencer S. and had issue. 
Ashhurst- Warner (77). Eliz., aunt to above, m. 

1755 Rev. John W., D.D., and had issue. 
Cavendish (109). Fred, and Hy. C., the eminent 

chemist, sons of Lord Chas. C., M.P. 
Seymour-de Durfort (113). Georgina S., sister to 

above, m. Lewis, Count de Durfort, Ambassador 

at Venice. 
Seymour-Bailey (115). Mary S. of Redland Ct., 

co. Glouc., m. 30 Nov. 1758 John Bailey, of 

Moore-Campbell (117). Lucie Caroline M. (Drog- 

heda), d. 1852; m. Rev. John Jas. C., v. of 

Gt. Tew, and had a da. Eliz. Mary. 
Trench-Johnstone (117). Harriet T., d. 1840 ; m. as 

1st wife, 1832, Ven. Evans Johnstone, Archcl. 

of Ferns. 
Moore (118). Anne and Selena Maria M., yr. das. 

and cohs. of Ad. Sir John M., Bart., and sisters 

to Cath. Lady Bampfylde, d. 1823. 
Moore (120). Hon. Wm. M. of Ardee, M.P., d. 

1732, is stated by Burke to have m. Miss Cassan, 

sister of Stephen C. of Queen's Co. ; but Collins, 

ix. 28, and Archdall's 'Lodge,' ii. 112, say that 

he m. (articles 23 and 24 Mar.), 1717, Lucy, da. 

of Rev. Edward Parkinson, of Ardee, and sister 

to Rob. P., councillor-at-law. Which is correct? 

He had issue Hy. M., m. d. of Smyth, and 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn. FEB. 23, 1907. 

Moore (121). Hon. Capel M., M.P., 1>. 1693: m. 
Lady Mary O'Neill, wee Paulet, and liad issue a 
son "and 2 das. (Collins, ix. 29, and Lodge, 
ii. 112). 

Rochtorb (122).-Capt. Win. R., R.N., cadet of 
Roehfort, d. 1847, leaving 3 das. 

Butler-Dumaresque (123). Lady Eliz. Sophia B. 
(Lanesborough), m. 1828 Lt.-Col. Hy. D., d. 

Marley-Moore (123). Cath. M., m. Rev. Calvert 
FitzGerald M., of Twickenham. 

Butler-Bebbieg (123). Lady Charlotte B. (Lanes- 
borough), in. 1806 Geo. 1). 

Butler-Marescotti (123). Lady Sophia B. (Lanes- 
borough), m. 1787 Marquis Lewis Marescotti. 

Rochtort-Banvers (124). Frances R., m. (? c. 1860) 
Juland Banvers, and had issue. 

Rochfort-Rae (124). Cath., sister to Com. Geo. 
Rob. R., R.N. (m. 1814), m. Capt, John Rae, 
72nd Regt. 

Roehfort - Wilson and Button (124). Eliz. and 
Patience, das. of Arthur R,, LL.D., M.P. 
(b. 1711), m. Rich. Wilson and John Button 

Roehfort, Weeks, Boyly, Kilpatrick, and Grange 
(126).-Wm. R. of Clontarf, d. 1772; m. 1743 
and had issue Geo., eld. s. in 1772 : John, eld. s. 

in 1783; Win., Hy., Anne, m. '- Weeks; 

Biana, m. Boyly ; Henrietta, m. Kil- 
patrick ; Mary, m. Grange; and Judith 

(Burke's ' Extinct Peerage,' p. 456). 

Lyons, Nixon, Barry, and Garden (128). Hy. L. of 
River Lyons, King's Co., had issue Anne, m. 
John N.; Eliz., m. July, 1762, Rob. B., M.P. 
for Charleville ; and Hen., m. 1780 Rob. G. 

Moore (130). Hon. Wm. Hamilton M., m. Eliz., 
Bow. Ctss. of Meath, 'nee, Lennard, and had 
issue Eliz., b. 4 June [? 1688]. Lodge (ii. 112) 
and Collins (ix. 25) both have "4 June, 1668" ; 
but as her mother's first husband, the 3rd E. of 
Meath, d. 1684, this must be a misprint. 
Please reply direct. 

(Marquis de) RUVIGNY. 
Galway Cottage, Chertsey. 

Redland Court, co. Glouc., married secondly, 
5 Oct., 1775, Louise, Countess of Ponthieu 
of Normandy (see ' Landed Gentry '). Any 
information regarding her family, date of 
death, &c., would oblige. 

(Marquis de) RUVIGNY. 

Galway Cottage, Chertsey. 

1663. The Parliamentary Intelligencer be- 
came The Kingdom's Intelligencer on 31 Dec., 
1660, and continued till at least 24 Aug., 
1663. The British Museum Library Cata- 
logue states, " The journal was discontinued 
in August, 1663." The paper was reprinted 
at Edinburgh, and copies of this issue are 
known up to 23 July, 1663. Hugo Arnot, 
the historian of Edinburgh, says, however, 
that i; from the copies we have seen of this 
paper it subsisted at least seven years " ; 
and in an unprinted ' History of Scottish 
Printing ' left by Geo. Chalmers, the author 

of Caledonia,' ' Life of Ruddiman,' &c. r 
there occurs the notice of an issue dated 
September, 1664. A copy was in his pos- 
session. What authority has the British 
Museum Catalogue for stating that the journal 
ended in August, 1663 ? Are any issues 
known after that date ? W. J. C. 

met with a small 12mo volume of 112 pages, 
apparently published privately : " Contri- 
butions towards a Glossary of the Glynne 
Language. By a Student .... to which is 
added The Doubting Dowager, or a Tale of 
a House, an Epic Poem in One Canto. 
1851." It contains explanations of some 
125 words and phrases in what the author 
terms " Glynnese " language, of which he 
says, in a short preface, 

''the chief living authorities for its use are the 
Very Rev. the Bean of Windsor, the Hon. Lady 
Glynne, Sir Stephen Glynne, Mrs. W. E. Gladstone, 
and the Lady Lyttelton ; and of these the most 
leading appear to be the Bean and Mrs. Gladstone. !r 
Whoever was the author, he appears to- 
have been on a familiar footing at Hawarden 
and Hagley ; and though the work, which 
cannot have been altogether palatable to 
its subjects, is primarily concerned with the 
persons mentioned, there are several allu- 
sions to Mr. Gladstone and to idiosyncrasies 
attributed to him ; and also a four-page 
" Fragment of a Speech in the House of 
Commons by The Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, 
in which the whole Glynnese vocabulary is 
aired." The book has no publisher's name 
on the title. Is anything known as to the 
author and the occasion of publication ? 

W. B. H. 

Some time ago there was a good deal of 
discussion about being able to ride on a 
turtle in water. I came recently on this 
passage : 

"One fine moonlight night, as we were at this 
sport, Harry somewhat too impatient for the turtle 
to fix herself, she discovered him, and made at once 
back for the sea. Observing this, he ran and got 
astride on her back, grasping the forepart of her 
callipash. Seeing this, I ran too and got on behind, 
and Patty came and clung round my waist. Not- 
withstanding this, she was so large and strong that 
she scrabbled us fairly into the sea. Patty tumbled 
off backwards. I slid off on one side, and lost my 
hat ; but Harry stuck on her, till she sank him up 
to the chin, and then he left her." 
This, I think, whether fact or fiction, 
" takes the cake " for turtle-riding. Three 
on a turtle ! The extract is from a book 
in my possession, entitled " The Journal of 
Llewellin Penrose, a Seaman. A New 

10 s. vii. FEB. 23, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Edition," London, Taylor, 1825, 8vo, pp. 446 
I should have put the book down as a Welsl 
' Robinson Crusoe,' but it is dedicated bj 
the editor, John Eagles of Bristol, t( 
" Benjamin West, Esq.," the celebratec 
painter, by West's " kind permission," and 
because of his " intimate knowledge of th 
Author, and the circumstance of his having 
communicated to you many of the fact 
recorded in it." Eagles also asserts tha 
West knew Eagles's father, who in 18CK 
showed him ' Penrose's Journal,' and Wes 
said of several parts : "I know to be true 
I knew the man too, and, what is more 
extraordinary, had it not been for him I 
should never have been a painter." He 
then adds that he met him at Philadelphia 
On p. viii West says that the man's rea 
name was Williams, and he took that o 
Penrose from a great shipbuilder. Now 
Wornum mentions that West receivec 
instruction, when at Philadelphia, from a 
painter named Williams (' Imperial Die 
tionary of Universal Biography,' iii. 1327) 
and he refers to Gait's ' Life of West.' This 
seems to show that Penrose was not i 
Robinson Crusoe, but an Alexander Selkirk 
Perhaps some reader can prove whether the 
book is fictitious or not. If it is, it is an 
unwarrantable liberty to take with West's 
name, unless he himself was mistaken. 

D. J. 

[Halkett and Laing state that John Eagles was 
the author.] 

much obliged to any correspondent who 
would inform me as to the supposed number 
of slaves in this country about 1772, when 
Lord Mansfield's decision declared such 
servitude illegal. INQUIRES,. 

I am anxious to collect as much infor- 
mation as possible about this royal lady, my 
ancestress. She was born in 1439 at 
Fotheringhay ; married to Henry Holland, 
Duke of Exeter, whom, apparently, she 
divorced in 1472 (?) ; married secondly 
Sir Thomas St. Leger in 1473-4 ; had one 
daughter by her second marriage, Anne, who 
married George Manners, Lord Roos ; and 
died about 1479. The tomb of herself and 
her husband Sir Thomas St. Leger is, or 
was, in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. I find 
she had a daughter by her first marriage, who 
apparently died young. Was her husband the 
Thomas St. Leger executed by Richard III. 
for being concerned in an insurrection against 
the King in 1484 ? Are any particulars 

of Anne's divorce known ? Any details 
which can be given me, or directions where 
to find such details, I shall receive grate- 
fully. I have other royal descents, but the 
one through Anne is the last, and conse- 
quently the most interesting. HELGA. 


1. The tombs of Macleod and Maclean, of Maclean 

and Macleod, 

They stand in the wind and the rain, and the 
drift of the white sea shroud. 

2. He came on the Angel of Victory's wing, 

But the Angel of Death was awaiting the king. 

3. He died, as such a man should die, 
In the hot clasp of Victory. 

4. Et la bonne vieille de dire, 
Moitie larmes, moitie sourires, 
J'ai mon gars, soldat, comme toi. 


LATIN LINES. Whence are the following 
lines taken ? Apart from the authorship, 
there can be, I think, but little question as 
to the truth conveyed : 

Errata alterius quisques correxerit, ilium 
Plus satis invidise, gloria nulla manet. 


FLAVIAN MONKS. In the 'Romische Tage- 
biicher ' of Ferdinand Gregorovius (Stutt- 
gart, 1893), p. 124, and under date " Genez- 
zano, 13 August, 1861," the following entry 
occurs in a description of La Mentorella, in 
the Campagna : 

" Basilica und Kloster, wo Flavische Monche sich 
befinden, liegen auf dem riffartig herausspringenden 
Felsen in unoeschreiblich schoner Einsamkeit." 

Will some one please say what is meant 
by " Flavische Monche " ? I am told that 
the Italian translation has ftoridi for " Fla- 
vische." C. C. B. 

HEAT. In Thomas More's 'Utopia' (first 
printed in 1551) occurs the following : 

" They brynge vp a great multitude of pulleyne 
and that by a meruaylouse policye. For the hennes 
doe not sytte vpon the egges : but by keepynge 
x ,heym in a certayne equall heate they brynge lyi'e 
nto them and hatche theyrn." 

When was this idea first put in practice ? 
The incubator now in use is quite a modern 
nvention. HENRY FISHWICK. 

The Heights, Rochdale. 

WINDMILLS IN SUSSEX. Can any reader 
nform me if there are any returns by which 
he number of windmills in Sussex can 
)e ascertained ? P. M. 

newspaper cutting I find that some years 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 23, 1907. 

ago a collection of over 400 books relating 
to John Law of Lauriston, the famous 
financier, was sold by auction in London. 
I shall be greatly obliged if any one will 
kindly inform me when the sale took place 
and in whose rooms. JOHN A. FAIRLEY. 
3, Barnton Gardens, Davidson's Mains, Midlothian. 

N. F. ZABA. This Polish exile was living 
in Great Britain during part of the last 
century. Some of his writings are named 
in the British Museum Catalogue. I have, 
however, a work entitled ' N. F. Zaba's 
Method,' which is not in that Catalogue. It 
consists of a sheet of linen on which are 
printed a large number of black squares, 
on some of which are coloured marks ; and 
the whole is folded, and enclosed in a stiff 
pocket. The ' Method ' is quite unintelli- 
gible to me, and I should be glad to hear 
from any reader who has a copy and can 
explain the meaning. M. 

CHAVASSE FAMILY. I desire to find out if 
one Claude Chavasse came to England with 
Lord Derwentwater in the seventeenth 
century, and how to trace him afterwards. 

Also I want to find out if there is or was a 
cottage at Lichfield called the Frenchman's 
Cottage where a prisoner named Chavasse 
is said to have been kept. 


(10 S. vii. 50.) 

I CANNOT vouch for the veracity of the 
story as told by Sir Thomas Malory, of 
which L. E. is probably aware, but doubt- 
less there is a substratum of truth, and some 
scintilla of evidence in favour of such is, 
I think, to be found in some place-names 
of early Dublin, Phoenix Park, and Chapel- 
izod. Isolde was an Irish princess, and 
certainly gave her name to the last-named 

My first contention is that the story 
either originally emanated from Dublin, or 
was publicly accepted by its inhabitants as 
a well-authenticated fact. The following 
is from the 'Liber Albus,' the White Book 
of the City of Dublin : _ 

f a " d . commonalty of the city of 

p f f thei , r - bel ^ ed and faithful c lerk 
Picot, for his praiseworthy service* thp 
tower which is called Buoyant, situated upon the 
bank near Isolda's gate, together with all the land 
adjacent between the street, through which the 
passage is from the aforesaid Isolda's to wlr towards 

the church of St. Olave's, and extending from the 
street as far as the new wall towards the water of 
Auenlyf (Liffey)." 

Now the inference which one draws from 
this extract is that, though Butavant was 
an older tower, Isolda's was better known 
as a well-defined and popular landmark. 
These river towers, which formed part of the 
city walls, must have been one or two 
centuries old when this was written (1261), 
and they certainly carried their original 
names. Now not only have we an Isolda's 
Tower and Gate, but there was also Isoud's 
Lane. Further, Ysorde and Ysolt were 
used as female Christian names in early 
Dublin. These names would suggest that no 
story had such passionate interest for the 
citizens of Dublin in the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries as the great love romance 
of Isolde. That this hot interest is solely 
due to close local association is definitely 
proved by the fact that Tristan, who plays 
the major part in all the literature on the 
subject, is never once mentioned. Local 
traditions, possibly historic facts, are per- 
petuated in these place - names. Passing 
westwards to what is now the Phcenix 
Park, we find in ' The Record of the Riding 
of the Franchises of Dublin ' in 1603 : 

" They past over the water of the Canimocke, 
and went betwixte the arrable land called now the 
Leis of Kilmainham, and the meddowe under that, 
and soe directly westward to that parte of the 
meddowe that Iveth opposite upppn that parte of 
the hill called Kilmahennockes hill, and nowe the 
hill of Isold's font, which is a bowshot of the west 
syde of Isold's font, and west of Ellen Hoare's 
meddowe, over which font is a great hathorn tre 

and then tooke horse and rode east\yard over 

and by north Isold's font, and to the font itself e." 

Notice must be taken of the important 
fact that both hill and font were viewed as 
distinctive landmarks, and recognized as 
such by the city fathers, for they were used 
to mark the boundary of their civic juris- 
diction. This in itself goes to show that these 
were notable places of resort, and the rill 
or font or well was certainly regarded as 
the trysting-place of Isolde and Tristan. 

I have sought to locate the hill and font. 
From the various accounts they were north 
of the Liffey, and near Ellen Hoare's meadow, 
which was evidently between the hill and 
the highway. From the descriptions rather 
minutely detailed, the hill can be none other 
than what to-day is known as the Magazine 
Hill in the Phoenix Park, and the little rill 
at its base which, alas ! dribbles through 
thick mud and rotten vegetation had some 
connexion with the historic font. Traces 
of a good-sized pool are still to be noted, 

10 s. vii. FEB. 23, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and the age-blackened trunk of an ancient 
hawthorn still stands at its head. War- 
burton speaks in his history of Dublin of 
" Isolde's fort in the park." Some small 
fortress probably topped this hill, and the 
familiar name lingered on, even into the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Let 
us continue to proceed westwards, to the 
place where still her name alone perpetuates 
her ancient renown. Tradition states that 
the little chapel that gave the district its 
name was reared and endowed by Isoud in 
the year 519. This is, of course, beyond 
verification ; but the remains of an ante- 
Norman chapel not far away lend some colour 
at least to the antiquity of the district as an 
inhabited area. Isoud's chapel has entirely 
disappeared. For long it stood in a ruined 
condition, and some of the older inhabitants 
have vague recollections of it as a place of 
worship, and remember that a large section 
of the congregation were forced, through 
lack of room, to kneel outside. It stood a 
little distance from the present Protestant 
church. The name Chapelizod can be traced 
back in State documents to the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries. Stanihurst in 1577 
states, " There is a village hard by Dublin, 
called of the said la Beale, Chappel Isoud." 
Of late years the old square tower attached 
to the Protestant Church has become a sort 
of rallying-point for the growing cult of 
Isolde. It is said to have been erected in 
the sixteenth century ; probably the material 
was taken from an older building, and in 
this way the chain of association was pre- 
served. At least it must have stood for 
centuries in the vicinity of the little historical 
chapel. It has no rival in the village as an 
object of antiquarian interest, and should 
serve as a permanent memorial to the beau- 
tiful Gaelic princess, whose love and piety 
stood sponsors for the nomenclature of the 
district. The question suggests itself, When 
did Isolde build this little chapel ? Cer- 
tainly not before she left Ireland with 
Tristan for Cornwall. I have had to resort 
to pure conjecture for a satisfying solution. 
Malory tells us that King Mark tracked 
Tristan to the castle of Joyous Gard (which 
has been identified with Bamburgh Castle, 
sixteen miles south-east of Berwick), where 
he treacherously slew him ; and further 
we are told that " La Beale Isoud died 
swooning upon the cross of Sir Tristram, 
whereof was great pity." The chronicle 
does not convey that her death immediately 
followed that of her lover ; one may con- 
jecture that she returned home to Ireland, 
and, following the example of Guenever, 

entered a religious house. This would be 
the time she reared and endowed the chapel 
which has perpetuated her name in her native 
land. Dante, when visiting the lovers' 
quarters in Hell, recognized many an un- 
happy pair who on earth loved *' not wisely, 
but too well." He noticed Tristan there, 
but makes no mention of Isolde. Dante 
possibly was aware that she had expiated 
her sins by a life of severe penance and holy 
deeds, and that from the swoon of death, 
her eyes fixed on the symbol of divine love 
which belonged to her beloved Tristan, she 
finally passed to the Paradise of the Blessed. 

I have already encroached too much on 
the precious space of ' N. & Q.' Perhaps 
in a subsequent paper I may be allowed to 
tell something of the history and destruction 
of the interesting Isolde Tower that for 
centuries was part of the ancient walls of 
Dublin. W. A. HENDERSON. 


It was in Brittany not in the castle 
which the vanquished giant Beliagog had 
made for him, but in that of Queen Ysonde 
of the White Hand that Tristram died of 
his poisoned wound. But the fair Ysonde 
(Isolde) of Cornwall arrived too late in answer 
to her lover's summons : 

' Like a wearied child, she sobbed herself to sleep 
upon his breast. Neither did any disturb her 

more, for they knew how fast her slumber was 

King Mark sent and fetched their bodies to Corn- 
wall Together he laid them in a fair tomb within 

a chapel, tall, and rich in carven work ; and above 
he set a statue of the fair Ysonde, wrought skilfully 
in her very likeness as she lived. And from Sir 
Tristram's grave there grew an eglantine which 
twined about the statue, a marvel for all men to 
see ; and though three times they cut it down, it 
grew again, and ever wound its arms about the 
image of the fair Ysonde (Isolde)." 
See ' Sir Tristrem ' in Sir G. W. Cox's 
' Popular Romances of the Middle Ages,' 
1871, pp. 245-67 ; Wheeler's ' Noted Names 
in Fiction,' s.v. * Isolde ' and ' Tristram ' ; 
and Warton's ' History of English Poetry.' 
But in no instance is the place of burial 

Deene, Streatham, 8.W. 

Isolde was the wife of a fabulous King 
Mark of Cornwall, the uncle of Tristan or 
Tristram. Their history is related by 
Thomas the Rhymer and many others. 
According to Yonge, the original meaning 
of the name Tristram is said to have been 
" noise," " tumult " ; but from the influ- 
ence of Latin upon Welsh (!), it came to 
mean " sad." In ' Morte d' Arthur * it is 
explained as signifying " sorrowful birth," 
and is said to have been given to Tristram 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 23, 1907. 

by his mother, who died almost as soon as 
she had brought him into the world. 

R. S. B. 

POONAH PAINTING (10 S. vii. 107). Two 
well-remembered accessories of my golden 
age were a tubby little copy of ' The Boy's 
Own Book,' inherited from an earlier gene 
ration, and a smart, red-coated, gilt-edgec 
volume which offered itself as ' The Girl's 
Own Book.' and was, compared with th 
other, " as moonlight unto sunlight, anc 
as water unto wine." It was, however, o 
it that I thought when I saw DR. MURRAY'S 
question, for I believed that it conveyec 
the mystery of Poonah painting ; and 
having obtained the loan of the book from 
a working nursery, I am glad to find thai 
I was right. I have before me a copy of the 
fourteenth edition of ' The Girl's Own 
Book,' by Mrs. Child (author of ' The Mother's 
Book,' ' Frugal Housewife,' ' Mother's Story 
Book,' &c.), which was published by Willian 
Tegg & Co., Cheapside, in 1848. The direc- 
tions for Poonah painting are set forth on 
pp. 208-9. I read : 

" This style of painting requires nothing but care 
and neatness. The outline of whatever you wish to 
paint is drawn with the point of a needle on trans- 
parent paper, and then cut out with sharp scissors. 
No two parts of the bird, or flower, which touch 
each other, must be cut on the same piece of paper. 
Thus, on one bit of transparent paper, I cut the 
top and bottom petal of a rose ; on another piece I 
cut the leaves of the two opposite sides, &c. Some 
care is required in arranging the theorems, so that 
no two parts, touching each other, shall be used at 
the same time. It is a good plan to make a drawing 
on a piece of white paper, and mark all No. 1 upon 
the leaves you can cut on the first theorem, without 
having them meet at any point ; No. 2 on all you 
can cut in the same way on the second theorem, and 
so on. After all the parts are in readiness, lay your 
theorem upon your drawing-paper, take a stiff' brush 
of bristles, cut like those used in velvet colours, fill 
it with the colour you want, and put it on as dry as 
you possibly can, moving the brush round and round 
in circles, gently, until the leaf is coloured as deep 
as you wish. Where you wish to shade, rub a brush 
tilled with the dark colour you want carefully round 
and round the spot you wish to shade. Petal after 
petal, leaf after leaf, is done in this way, until the 
perfect flower is formed. No talent for drawing is 
necessary in this work ; for the figure is traced on 
transparent j>aper, and then the colours are rubbed 
over the holes in the same manner they paint canvass 
carpeta. In the choice of colours ' you must be 
guided by the pattern you copy. The light colour 
which ronns the groundwork is put on first, and the 
darker colours shaded on after it is quite dry. Green 
leaves should be first made bright yellow; then done 
over with bright green ; then shaded with indigo. 
A very brilliant set of colours in powder have been 
prepared for this kind of painting ; if these be used, 
they must be very faithfully ground with a bit of 
giaes, or smooth ivory. If the colours be put on 

wet, they will look very badly. The transparent 
paper can be prepared in the following manner : 
Cover a sheet of letter-paper with spirits of turpen- 
tine, and let it dry in the air ; then varnish one side 
with copal varnish ; when perfectly dry, turn it and 
varnish the other side." 

I hope the above description of Poonah- 
painting method may satisfy DR. MURRAY, 
but I should require something more lucid 
if I wished to practise the spurious art. The 
part about the paper is clear enough. As 
to the brushes, I fancy I once possessed 
some which I inherited with an old paint- 
box. They were round, flat ended, and 
perhaps from a quarter to half an inch in 
diameter. I think DR. MURRAY postdates 
the vogue of Poonah painting by about 
twenty years. It was not fashionable in 
1856. ST. SWITHIN. 

My recollection of Poonah painting as a 
boy is that it was a kind of stencilling. 
Poonah paper was a sheet of some rather 
thick, semi-transparent substance. Out of 
this were cut the shapes of leaves, petals of 
flowers, &c. The Poonah paper was laid 
on the paper to be ornamented, and colour 
applied to the cut-out spaces with a stiff 
brush cut flat at the end. The apertures 
were moved about till a perfect flower had 
been formed. SHERBORNE. 

Sherborne House, Northleach. 

Pigot & Co.'s 'Directory' for 1822-3 
under Cheltenham has " Stanton, Mrs., 
Indian poonah painter, 21, Bath Street." 

27, Northumberland Road, Sheffield. 


88, 136). These pictures represent Sibyls. 

Their names have suffered somewhat in 

the process of restoration or in that of 

transcription. " Silvia Samai " evidently 

= Sibylla Samia (the Samian Sibyl). " S. 

Edifica " I conjecture to be Sibylla Delfica 

Pelphica), the Sibyl of Delphi. (Have letters 

n " Samia" and " Delfica," and perhaps in 

some other names, been painted above the 

"ine, and thus led to error in copying ?) 

' Silvia Europea " might be Sibylla Euboica 

another name for the Sibyl of Cumse), 

unless Europea be here used to describe 

some Sibyl ordinarily known by another 

name (the Sibylla Cimmerica ?). " S. JEri- 

rea " is the Erythraean Sibyl. " S. Agrip- 

3ina " I do not recognize. Is she Sibylla 

^gyptia (although this latter has been 

dentified with S. Persica) ? The Persian, 

Phrygian, and Tiburtine Sibyls offer no 


The medallion picture representing the 

10 s. VIL FEB. 23, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Nativity refers to the legendary belief that 
the Sibyls prophesied the coining of Christ. 

The number of the Sibyls is variously 
given. Lactantius ('Inst.,' i. 6), quoting 
from a lost work of Varro, enumerates ten. 
Among well-known representations of the 
Sibyls in art may be mentioned Michael 
Angelo's on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 
Raphael's in the church of S. Maria della 
Pace (Rome), and those in the marble 
pavement of the Duomo at Sienna. 


University College, Aberystwyth. 

The paintings represent eight Sibyls. 
The epithets of locality attached to each of 
them should probably be (in the order of 
the query) as follows : Samia, Delphica, 
Cumsea, Erythraea, ^Egyptia, Persica, Phrygia 
(or Frigia), and Tiburtina. 


CESSATION (10 S. vii. 41). I am glad that 
my careless blunder in confusing Lincoln's 
Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 with 
the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States adopted in 1865 
has met with such prompt correction from 
MR. FORREST MORGAN of Hartford and 
MR. J. G. EWING of Chicago. 

Boston, Mass. 


SLANG WORDS (10 S. vii. 8, 50). Information 
gathered from slang dictionaries, Littre, 
and a Parisian friend enables me to state 
that thune or tune now belongs to what is 
called argot des malfaiteurs, that it is not a 
very well-known word, and that it actually 
means money in general rather than a five- 
franc piece. The last assertion is proved 
from the expression une thune, de cinq balles, 
that is, une piece de cinq francs. 

The origin of the term is not clear ; but 
may I suggest that it might come from the 
word time, derived from tun ? (" Tun, s.m. ! 
Nom donne dans le departement du Nord a j 
la craie glauconieuse," Littre.) It is true i 
that chalk and money do not seem nearly ! 
related ; but when we find that another i 
slang name for it in French is pldtre, we may j 
reasonably suppose that the whiteness of j 
chalk and plaster must have suggested ! 

As MR. PLATT is collecting popular names 
of coins, perhaps the following list of words 
will interest him. They all mean money j 
in French modern slang : Nerf de la guerre ; 
quibus ; beurre ; biscuit ; braise ; galette i 

(" avoir de la galette " ; " il n'a pas de 
galette ") ; os ; picaillons ; pognon and 
poignon ; radis ; rond. Among these braise 
and galette seem favourites. 

In conclusion, I will say that in older 
slang tune and tunebee were used for Bicetre 
(depot-de mendicite) ; that tuner meant to 
beg, and tuneur a beggar. But these are 
now marked as antiquated, and the same 
may be said of tune and wil-de-bceuf in the 
sense of a five-franc piece. 


" (Eil de b<ruf. Piece de cinq francs." 
'" Thune. Piece de cinq francs dans 1'argot des 
voleurs. On dit aussi Thime de cinq balle*. 
See ' Dictionnaire de la Langue Verte,' by 
Alfred Delvau, pp. 316 and 439 (Paris, 
C. Marpin et E. Flammarion, 1883). 

T. F. D. 

The ' Dictionnaire d' Argot, Fin de Siecle,' 
by Charles Virmaitre (Paris, 1894), states 
that tuner, to beg, is apocope of importuner, 
and that the word for the Prison de la Force, 
demolished in 1850, was tunobe, not tune ; 
other dictionaries give tune^on. It is pos- 
sible that the word for a five-franc piece is 
unconnected with the last two words. 
On p. 51, supra, read broque for beogue. 

H. P. L. 

May T add a few words to the list already 
given ? 

Piece d'or, bonnet jaunc, boutou, nap, ceil de 
perdrix, senaque, sigle, signe. 

Piece d'argent, sonnette. 

Piece de 5fr., gourdoche. 

Piece de 2fr., larantque. 

Piece de Ifr., point. 

Piece de 50 c., planchisseuse, petite pistole. 

Piece de 20 c., invalicle, lasque. 

Piece de 10 c.,Udv. 

Piece de 5 c., broque, dirling, petard, rotin. 

Centimes, bidoches. 


Thune is not in any way connected with 
Lat. thunnus, a tunny fish, as H. P. L. 
opines. In Victor Hugo's 'Notre Dame 
de Paris,' bk. ii. chap, vi., it is stated that 
the Roi de Thunes (Tunis) was the recognized 
head or king of the Parisian beggars, in 
company with the Duke of Egypt and the 
Emperor of Galilee, who held sway respect- 
ively over the gipsies and the Jews : hence, 
in the language of French thieves, thune, 
apparently derived from " Tunis " signifies 
" pieces," or money in general. Thune de 
cinq balles, or simply Thune, means a five- 
franc piece, as thune de camelotte does 
spurious money. Bille, from billon, base coin, 
is another rogues' word for money ; while 
billemont is their denomination for paper 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 23, 1907. 

money. See ' Argot and Slang,' by Albert 
Barrere (London, Whittaker, 1889). 

N. W. HILL. 

WARD SURNAME (10 S. vii. 109). What- 
ever be the origin of the Manx form, it is 
quite certain that, in most instances, Ward 
is native English. Bardsley rightly points 
out that the English name has really tivo 
origins, closely related. Thus in 1273 we 
meet with " Thomas le Warde," i.e., Thomas 
the guard, warder, or guardian, from the 
A.-S. iveard, a warder, so ancient that it 
occurs in ' Beowulf.' And secondly, also 
in 1273, we meet with a name of local or 
official origin, in the case of " Walter de la 
Warde," i.e. Walter of the guard, from the 
A.-S. weard, fern. sb. (genitive wearde), a 
ward, a watch, a guard. There can be no 
doubt as to these results. 


See 9 S. iii. 8, 72. The Gaelic Ward has 
nothing to do with the English Ward. The 
latter comes from two sources. In most 
ases it is an official name, having the mean- 
ing of watchman or guard. Sometimes, 
however, it is local, meaning at the place 
of the ward or guard. In early documents 
these two forms are kept distinct, the official 
name appearing as " le Ward," the terri- 
torial name as " de la Ward." 


This name, though scattered over a 
large part of England, is found in greatest 
number in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and 
in the Midland counties, especially those 
of Leicester and Rutland, Notts, Derby, 
Stafford, Warwick, Northampton, Cam- 
bridge, &c. It is infrequent in the four 
northernmost counties of England, and is 
similarly absent or relatively uncommon in 
the counties to the south of a line joining 
Bristol and London. The name signifies a 
ward or keeper, and we find it with this 
meaning in such compound names as Wood- 
ward, the old title of a forest-keeper * 
Milward, the keeper of a mill (probably 
some manorial or monastic mill), and Mil- 
man, the same ; Kenward, the dog-keeper, 
or more probably Kineward, the cow-keeper. 
Aylward, the ale-keeper; Durward, the 
porter or door-keeper ; Hayward, the keeper 
of a common herd of cattle belonging to 
some town ; while the extinct Doveward 

" An officer that walks with a forest-bill and 
takes cognizance of all offences committed, at the 
"rt swain-mote or court of attachments " (Bailey's 

was probably a keeper of the manorial 

The births, deaths, and marriages of 
persons bearing the surname of Ward 
registered in one year, viz., between 1 July, 
1837, and 30 June, 1838, both inclusive, 
were 985 births, 811 deaths, and 522 mar- 

In 1852 there were 187 traders bearing the 
surname of Ward, according to the * London 
Directory ' of that date. 


Library, Constitutional Club. 

My grandmother's maiden name (on the 
maternal side) was Ward. She belonged 
to the West Riding of Yorkshire branch. 
The Wards have intermarried w r ith my own 
family for generations ; indeed, my only 
sister's present name is Ward. Like MR. 
C. S. JERRAM, I have always been given to 
understand it represented " Guard," and 
this impression finds confirmation in the 
pages of ' The Norman People,' an anony- 
mous work published, in 1874, by H. S. 
King & Co., and dedicated by the author 
" To the memory of Percy, Viscount Strang- 
ford." Therein (pp. 440-1) we read : 

" Ward, from Gar. or Garde, near Corbeil, Isle of 
France. Ingelram de Warda occurs in Northants, 
1130, and Ralph de Gar, in Norfolk t. Henry II. 
(Blomefield, ix. 5). John de Warda of Norfolk 
occurs 1194 (R.C.R.). In 1286 and 1290 Stephen de 
Ware and Thomas de Ware are mentioned as hold- 
ing fiefs there (ibid., 359-360). From the latter 
descended, the Lords of Tottington, Pickenham, 
and Dudlington, of whom John Ward (14th cen- 
tury) acquired Kirkby - Beadon, and from him 
lineally descended the first Lord Ward and the 
Earls of Dudley. 

" The Viscounts Bangor descend from a branch 
seated in Yorkshire, where Robert de la Gar (12th 
century) gave lands to Selby Abbey (Burton, ' Mon. 
Ebor.,' 396), after which, Simon Warde held a 
Knight's fee in York, 1195 (Lib. Nig.), and, with 
William his son, gave lands to Esholt Priory 
(ibid., 139). Robert de la Warde was summoned 
by writ, as a baron, 1299. A branch settled in 
Ireland t. Elizabeth, from which descend the 
Viscounts Bangor." 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

NAMES (10 S. vi. 381 ; vii. 36, 136). I 
think MR. PENNY'S suggestion (ante, p. 37) 
that ticky is a corruption of tizzy, from tester 
Fr. teston, a very good one, though I doubt 
if it can be authenticated. I have never 
lieard the derivation of the word discussed, 
but from my knowledge of South Africa 
I am disposed to connect it with tick, Du. 
teek or tiek, a mite, of the family Acarina 
(Ixodidse). Diminutives, it may be ob- 

10 s. vii. FEB. 23, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


served, abound both in Dutch and in Cape 
Dutch. Those who have visited the 
country districts of the colony will be familiar 
with that noisome pest, the cattle tick, an 
elongated organism of shiny leaden hue 
considerably longer than the more circular 
bush tick which speedily attaches itself 
to the skins of horses and cattle when they 
run loose upon the veldt, and frequently 
ruins the udders of cows by eating away 
one or more of the teats. In size and 
general appearance it offers a certain resem- 
blance to the small threepenny bit, to which 
the lively imagination of the native Boe 
may, I can well believe, have compared it 
from the liability of the coin to get easil^ 
lost, and its being often hard to obtain a" 
change away from the larger towns wher 
coppers, by the by, are alone procurable 
This is, of course, only my conjecture ; bu 
perhaps some African correspondent o 
' N. & Q.' will be able to throw furthe 
light upon a matter that is of more than loca 
interest. X. W. HILL. 


BEV. R. GRANT (10 S. vii. 88). Some 
account of the Rev. Richard Grant will b 
found in Miss Mary G. Lupton's ' Historj 
of the Parish of Blackbourton,' printed bj 
the Oxfordshire Archaeological Society, 8vo 
Banbury, 1903, pp. 101-3. 


vi. 489). Might the author of this book 
have been Sir R. L'Estrange, who nourished 
at the same period, and was also a Carolist 
He too, in the first edition of ' An Accounl 
of the Growth of Knavery ' (London, 1678) 
p. 61, uses " President " in the sense oi 
precedent ; and this does not seem to have 
been a common mistake in English books 
at that period. 

On p. 6 of the ' Account ' he speaks of 
" Transprosing the First Painter." On 
p. 63, he asks, " How many Reverend 
Divines were poyson'd in Peter-House ? " 
and says : 

"I could give you the History of their Spiriting 
away several Persons of Honour for Slaves; their 
Sale of three, or four score Gentlemen to the 

Sir Roger, however, does not fill his book 
with so many theological arguments as one 
finds in ' The History of Self-Defence.' 


STATUES OF THE GEORGES (10 S. vii. 66). 

I do not think it can be said that all the 

statues mentioned by MR. LYNN are ignored 

by Haydn's 'Dictionary of Dates.' My 

edition (1889) refers to the statue of George 
III. in Cockspur Street, which I believe 
stands exactly at the junction of that street 
with Pall Mall.* 

Haydn also mentions a statue of George I. 
in Grosvenor Square. This was much 
mutilated on 11 March. 1727. A contem- 
porary account records the following injuries 
" the left leg torn off, the sword and 
truncheon broken off, the neck hacked as 
if designed to cut off the head, and a libel 
left at the place." Apparently the statue 
was eventually taken away, for Timbs, 
writing in 1855 ('Curiosities of London'), 
says : " The stone pedestal in the centre 
[of the square] once bore an equestrian 
statue of George I." Haydn would appear, 
therefore, to be somewhat out of date in 
recording it amongst " the chief public 
statues of London " in 1889. His reference 
to a statue of George III. at Somerset House 
is, I believe, perfectly correct. 

With respect to the statue of George IV. 
in Trafalgar Square, I may say that a 
trenchant and sarcastic notice thereon 
appeared in The Athenceum of 13 Jan., 1844 ; 
but in The Illustrated London News of 
24 Feb., 1844, a favourable notice was 
given, accompanied by an engraving of the 

There is, I believe, a statue of George II. 
in Golden Square. Dickens refers to it in 
the second chapter of ' Nicholas Nickleby ' 
as " the mournful statue, the guardian 
genius of a little wilderness of shrubs, in 
the centre of the square." Another statue 
of this monarch is in the Grand Square at 
Greenwich Hospital. It represents the king 
in the garb of a Roman Emperor, and on the 
pedestal is a Latin inscription. In 1748 a 
statue of George I. was set up in the centre 
of Leicester Square. Having suffered badly 
*rom neglect and mutilation, it eventually 
in 1874) gave place to the statue of Shake- 
peare which now graces the site. 

Long Itchington, \Yarwickshire. 

With reference to MR. LYNN'S observation 
hat " every statue should have a name," 

may relate that some time ago I was 
>assiiig (and of course inspecting) the very 
ne statue outside the Houses of Parliament, 
dien some strangers asked whose statue 
hat was. I said, " Richard I.," and passed 
n. Then I thought, Am I mistaken, or 
annot those people read ? So I returned, 

* An engraving of this statue with an account of 
s inauguration," appeared in The Mirror of 20 Aug., 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 23, 1007 

went carefully round the statue, and, 
greatly to my astonishment, found there was 
no inscription. 

This is no worse than the Oxford colleges, 
which are all without name, and tens of 
thousands of visitors have to be continually 
asking, " What is this college ? " In reply 
I have been told that it would vulgarize 
them to put up names. I can only say 
that if all the talent at Oxford can find no 
way of putting up the names artistically, 
theirs is a sorry case. I should suggest plain 
gold and plain letters, not any artistically 
involved " black letter," which takes so 
long to make out that one gives it up. 


vi. 428, 476; vii. 14, 78). The following 
extract from The Broad Arrow of 26 January 
may be of interest (' Promotion Prospects,' 
p. 94) :- 

"Among the officers who suffer peculiar hard- 
ships by reason of these unfortunate reductions 
may be instanced those of the West India Regi- 
ments, who have endured more of the ' ups and 
downs,' the expansions and reductions of military 
life than perhaps any other corps. Students of 
military history do not need to be reminded of the 
terrible mortality among the British troops serving 
in the West Indies at the end of the eighteenth 
century. In consequence of this excessive death 
rate, which shocked even the Ministers of those 
days, no fewer than twelve West India Regiments 
were raised about 1800, of which however, more 
Hcddano, four were reduced two years later, while 
the remainder served on until the final fall of the 
first Napoleon. Within the next ten years six more 
of the West India Regiments were disbanded, but 
in 1840 one was added to the two which survived, 
and two more w r ere raised some fifteen or sixteen 
years later. All these three had however dis- 
appeared from the 'Army List' by 1870, and for the 
next eighteen years the two regiments which re- 
mained were given what no doubt they needed in 
common with the Army of to-day a rest. Mr. 
Brodrick added a third battalion to what had by 
now come to be called the 1st and 2nd Battalions of 
the West India Regiment, but Mr. Brodrick's 
bantling was strangled almost at its birth." 


The 9th, 10th, llth, and 12th West India 
Regiments were raised in 1799, and dis- 
banded in 1803. Vide 'Army Lists' for 
those years. C. J. DURAND, Col. 

< J range Villa, Guernsey. 

(10 S. vii. 66). MR. EDGCUMBE is correct in 
thinking that some portions of Shakespeare's 
final residence remain. They consist of 
parts of the foundations, brought to light 
some time ago when a mass of debris was 
removed from the site. Carefully guarded 
by wire screens from the too-zealous souvenir 

grabber, they may now be seen by any 
Stratford-on-Avon pilgrim. MR. EDGCUMBE 
should consult J. O. Halliwell's ' Account of 
New Place,' 1864, folio, and Bellew's work 
on the same subject, ' Shakespeare's House 
at New Place,' 1863, 8vo ; and I would add 
that Mr. W. C. Hazlitt's 'Life of Shake- 
speare ' also deserves " universal study." 


(10 S. vii. 30, 76). Is MR. GRISSELL right in 
calling the Queen-Consort of His Catholic 
Majesty " Her Catholic Majesty " ? At any 
rate, he is wrong in saying that " when she- 
was conditionally baptized " she took only 
the additional name of Mary. She took 
the additional name of Christina also, in 
honour of the Queen Mother. Her full name- 
now is Victoria Eugenia Julia Ena Maria 
Christina, but the ' Almanach de Gotha ' 
drops " Julia Ena Maria." 


"CHURCHYARD COUGH" (10 S. vii. 7). 
This expression has long been familiar to me. 
I inherited a cough of this description from 
my venerable mother, who died the year 
before last, at the age of eighty-five. She 
was subject to a similar cough all her life. 
I remember the use of the term particularly 
well. As a young man I lodged in 1863 
with an old lady in Camberwell. Once, 
when I had been " barking " rather more 
than usual, I said, in reply to her remark 
of sympathy, " Oh ! I shall be all right 
when I get rid of this cough." " Ah ! " 
she said, gravely and with emphasis, " you 
will never lose that churchyard cough in 
this world." As a matter of absolute fact, 
that surmise (expressed nearly forty-four 
years ago) has, so far, proved correct, for I 
still suffer from the same weakness. The 
name only has changed. My doctor calls it 
" gout in the throat." HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

This expression is by no means dying out 
either in Northamptonshire or Warwickshire. 
It is still a hackneyed expression, and con- 
tinually used by all classes of society con- 
cerning persons who have bad colds accom- 
panied by a harsh, barking cough. I have 
known the term all my life, and besides the 
two counties named I have met with it in 
London and Essex in fact, it seems to be 
quite cosmopolitan. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

This term has been applied to the hollow 
cough which ends with a rattle of crepita- 

10 s. vii. FEB. 23, loo:.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tions. It is heard at the final stage of 
pulmonary consumption. MEDICULUS. 

HAGS " (10 S. vii. 26). The fairies plat the 
manes of horses, and make elf-locks in order 
to ride. Keightley in his ' Fairy Mythology,' 
speaking of the French fairies, says : 

'They are fond of mounting and galloping the 
horses ; their seat is on the neck, and they tie 
together locks of the mane to form stirrups." 
Mercutio in ' Romeo and Juliet ' says : 
This is that very Mab, 

That plats the manes of horses in the night ; 

And bakes the elf-locks in foul sluttish hairs, 

\Yhich, once untangled, much misfortune bodes. 
Mercutio also speaks of Mab as a hag, who is 
-the same as the nightmare. 

The night-hag, of whom Milton speaks 
in ' Paradise Lost,' is not one that rides 
horses. She is a spirit, supposed to hurt 
children, and may be identical with Lilith. 
Perhaps the riding fairy has been confounded 
-with her without reason. In popular tra- 
dition the fairies are sometimes confounded 
with witches or devils. E. YARDLEY. 

As a contribution to the folk-lore of night- 
hags, I may mention that I used to hear 
from my father of a woman in Hampshire 
-who was accustomed to hang a scythe over 
her children's bed. When asked the reason, 
she replied, " It's to keep the hags from 
riding the childer by nights." H. T. W. 

436). I think I can explain the point in 
question. A " malbrouk " or " malbrough " 
was a vehicle formerly in vogue in France 
;as a kind of stage coach, named, I suppose, 
in honour of the victor of Blenheim. It is 
this description of carriage, no doubt, that 
Mistral had in mind in the verses quoted by 
ST. SWITHIN. Larousse cites the following 
from Proudhon as descriptive of the " mal- 
brough' s " utility : " Expediteurs, destina- 
taires, tout le monde reviendra a la Malbrouk, 
a la putache ; s'il faut, on desertera la 
locomotive." N. W. HILL. 


HOUSE (10 S. vii. 106). In my 'Place- 
Names of Cambridgeshire' (1901) I explain 
at full length the origin of names ending in 
-ingay, and cannot repeat it all here. Briefly, 
they go back to A.-S. -inga-eg, where -inga 
is a genitive plural, and eg is the Mercian 
form of leg, an island, or place with streams 
round or near it. The -ar-, as in dark 
[clerk), goes back to A.-S. -er-. Moreover 
the^O. Mercian eg is constantly spelt as 

heye, haie, &c., by Norman scribes who were 
uncertain of their initial sounds. Hence the 
thirteenth-century Harengheye comes out 
as A.-S. Heringa-f~g, or " island of the 
Herings." Hering occurs as a personal 
name in the ' A.-S. Chronicle,' Laud MS., 
under the date 603. Hence many English 
place-names, such as Harrington, Harring- 
worth, Harringay, Herringfleet, Herrington, 
from the gen. pi. Heringa ; and Herringswell, 
from the gen. sing. Heringes. Observe that 
the name Hering actually goes back 
to the sixth century ; for Hering in the 
' Chronicle ' was grown up in 603. 


MR. MARRIOTT in his most interesting 
note refers to the identification of Hornsey 
Wood House in 1764 with "The Horns." 
The authority for this, as mentioned by 
Mr. Wroth (' London Pleasure Gardens,' 
p. 169), is ' Low-Life ; or, One Half of the 
World Knows not how the Other Half Live,' 
p. 46. Here is the passage : 

From Eight till Nine o'clock on .Sunday morning. 

The great Room at 'The Horns' at Hornsey- 

Wood, crowded with Men, Women, and Children, 
eating Rolls and Butter, and drinking of Tea, at an 
extravagant Price. 

There was a " Breakfasting-Hutt " near 
Sadler's Wells, but this was rather an early 
hour for so distant a resort. 

Mazzinghi ( ' History and Guide to London,' 
1792) provides a further variation of the 
name, identifying it, in the account " Of 
the most frequented Tea Gardens," as 
" Hornsey House." 

'The Picture of London,' 1803 (p. 369), 
gives its full title and a favourable notice : 
" Hornsey - Wood - House and Tea Gardens. A 
most interesting place, celebrated for the peculiar 
beauty of the wood adjoining. As no expense has 
been spared to render this an elegant house of 
accommodation, it stands first on the list of places 
of this description. Dinners provided for large 

The first work we turn to on matters 
relating to suburban London, ' The Ambu- 
lator,' does not identify the house by name. 
The first edition, 1774, says (p. 94) : 

" About a mile nearer this is a coppice of young 
trees, called Hornsey Wood, at the entrance of 
which is a public-house, to which great numbers of 
persons resort from the City. This house, being 
situated on the top of a hill, affords a delightful 
prospect of the neighbouring country." 

The eighth edition, 1796, reprints this, with 
a slight alteration more closely indicating 
its position as " in the footway from this 
village [Hornsey] to Highbury Barn at 
Islington." ALECK ABRAHAMS. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. vn FEB. 23, 1907. 

" KINGSLEY' s STAND " (10 S. vii. 109). 
This name is derived from the heroic conduct 
of Kingsley and his regiment at, and imme- 
diately after, the battle of Minden. Par- 
ticulars are given in Cannon's ' Historical 
Record of the 20th Regiment,' pp. 16-19, 
where it is stated that 

"the severe loss sustained by the regiment at the 
battle occasioned Prince Ferdinand to give direc- 
tions, on the 2nd of August, in general orders, that 
4 Kingsley's Regiment of the British line, from its 
severe loss, will cease to do duty'; but the sur- 
viving officers and soldiers were animated with zeal 
for the service, and a praiseworthy esprit de co/yw 
led them to solicit to be permitted to take every 
duty which came to their turn, and on the 4th of 
August, it was stated in general orders, 'Kingsley's 
Regiment, at its own request, will resume its portion 
of duty in the line.' " 

Kingsley was colonel of the regiment from 
1756 to" 1769. His portrait was painted by 

Reynolds. The regiment is now 
cashire Fusiliers. 

the Lan- 
W. S. 

I have always understood this expression 
to refer to the stand that Col. Kingsley 
made to keep his regiment in the fighting 
line after their distinguished services at the 
battle of Minden. The old 20th Regiment 
has now become the 1st Battalion of the Lan- 
cashire Fusiliers ; but when a separate entity 
its territorial title was that of the East 
Devon Regiment of Foot, and their nick- 
name that of the " Minden. Boys." I have 
notes of three books relating to this regi- 
ment, viz., the official ' Historical Record of 
the 20th or East Devonshire Regiment, 
1688-1848,' published by Parker in 1848 ; 
Lieut. Barlow's ' Orders, Memoirs, &c., 
connected with the 20th Regiment,' pub- 
lished in 1868 ; and ' The History of the 
20th Regiment,' by Lieut, and Quarter- 
master Smyth, published by Simpkin in 
1889. I cannot say at the moment whether 
any one of these refers especially to the 
expression at the head of this reply. 


For a description of the feats which gained 
the title of " Kingsley's Stand " see the 
Hon. J. W. Fortescue's ' History of the 
British Army,' 1899, vol. ii. pp. 485-97. 


vii. 49). In " Timidi nunquam statuerunt 
tn>].,eum" there is no need to substitute 
statuere for statuerunt, so as to make the words 
part of a hexameter. The Latin is the 
translation given in Erasmus's ' Adagia ' 
of a Greek proverb quoted by Plato in his 
' Critias ' (108c, 'AA/\a yap d^v/iowres aVSpes 
rpoTraiov ecrrv^crav). See p. 691, col. 2, 

of J. J. Grynseus's ed. of the ' Adagia ' 
(1629), under the main heading ' Timiditas.* 

Erasmus, it will be seen, before citing 
Plato's words, gives the quotation 

'AA.A,' 01 yap dOvfj-ovi'Tts av8pes ovirorf. 

'fpoTratov ecmjcravTo. 

At enim tropheeum nobile hand vnquam viri, 

Statuere pauidi, 

adding " Suidas ex Eupolide citat." The 
attribution to Eupolis is an error due to the 
fact that in the early editions of Suidas's- 
lexicon two entries have been run into one. 
See Gaisford's ed. of Suidas, vol. i. cols. 168-9. 
The w r ords, even in the form printed in 
Erasmus, are not a metrical success. 


[MR. R. PIERPOIXT also refers to Erasmus's 

ANAGRAMS ON Pius X. (10 S. i. 146, 253). 
The words " losephus Cardinalis Sarto," the 
official title of the Pope regnant before his 
election, yield the following anagrams, which 
are not out of place in the present state of 
France. It may be that MR. J. B. WAINE- 
WRIGHT, in whose reply " men " ought to be 
man, has seen others even more a propos. 

1. Ruinas fecisti ! Solda oras ! (Thou hast made 
ruins : thou beggest for full pay ! These words may 
also mean "Thy prayer is. Mend them!" i.e., the 
ruins, from the Low Latin verb *otdare.=i,o make 

L'. Stas Francis e uia doloris. (Thou stanclest up, 
from the road to sorrow, for the Francs. ) 

3. Ast Francis es doloris uia. (But thou art a way 
of grief for Frenchmen.) 

4. Is lesus al[i]t Francos radio. (This Jesus 
nourishes the French with a flash of light.) 

."). Francise suis sat doloris. (Enough grief for his 

people in France.) 
(5. Eius dolor a Francis satis. 

Frenchmen is siitticient.) 

7. Saluto Francos sine radiis. 
men without rods.) 


(His grief from the 

(I greet French- 

(10 S. vii. 67). A few years ago a photo- 
grapher named Cooper, if I remember 
rightly had premises on the east side of 
King William Street, London Bridge, and 
used to advertise by means of handbills 
distributed outside his place of business, 
These announcements were always headed : 
Of those for whom we fond emotions cherish 
Secure the shaclcnv, ere the substance perish. 


I remember that forty years ago it was 
Considered " funny " to call photographers 
' shadow-smashers " and " physog-makers." 
' Shadow-catchers " seems an improvement. 
The most-used term, however, was " like- 
iess-takers." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

10 s. VIL FEB. 23, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

TENNYSON (10 S. vii. 89). Alfred Tenny- 
son's sonnet " Me my own Fate to lasting 
sorrow doometh," was reproduced in 'Alfred 
Lord Tennyson : a Memoir by his Son,' 
1897, vol. i. p. 65. It is not included in any 
of the authorized editions of Tennyson's 
collected works. It was first privately 
reprinted by R. H. Shepherd in ' The New 
Timon and the Poets, with other Omitted 
Poems,' 1876, p. 9. 

I am sorry that I cannot give any infor- 
mation about Frederick Tennyson's sonnet. 


Alfred Tennyson's sonnet was repub- 
lished in ' Alfred, Lord Tennyson ' (vol. i. 
p. 67), under the title of ' Lasting Sorrow.' 
It may possibly also be found in the ' Sup- 
pressed Poems ' of Tennyson by Mr. J. C. 
Thomson, of Wimbledon, the editor of a 
* Bibliography of Tennyson,' as this gentle- 
man claims to have included all the un- 
collected poems prior to 1862. 



Book of Quotation*, Proverbs, and House- 
hold Word*. By W. Gurney Benham. (Cassell 

A PORTLY volume of twelve hundred and odd pages 
has been issued by Messrs. Cassell under the above 
title. The plan of the work is somewhat ambitious, 
as it contains not only a large collection of general 
quotations, but also more than 200 pages of Latin 
proverbs, phrases, &c., besides extracts from Greek, 
German, French, and other languages. Then, as if 
this were not sufficient for one volume, there is 
given an extensive collection of proverbs and mis- 
cellaneous waifs and strays, the whole followed by 
a complete verbal index of nearly 400 pages. There 
is matter enough here for at least three volumes, 
and it is probable that the compiler's weakness lies 
in his undertaking too much. The quotations are 
naturally much the same as those in other collec- 
tions, but embody considerable additions which 
should be useful. Mr. Benham makes the mistake 
of assigning ' Britain's Ida ' to both Spenser and 
Phineas Fletcher ; the quotations also from Bailey's 
' Festus ' need some definite reference to such a 
voluminous poem. It should be noted that the 
author acknowledges assistance from our own 
columns, which are full of the varied erudition of 
many scholars. 

The portion devoted to proverbs is the least satis- 
factory part of the work. Although, of course, it 
is seldom possible to give the author of a proverb, 
Ave think that in a collection of this kind the earliest 
known instance ought to be furnished. Mr. Benham 
appears to have incorporated Heywood's collection 
of 1546 and that of Ray, with many parallel 
passages from foreign sources, but with few refer- 
ences to any earlier work in which the proverbs 

j occur. Thus "A fool's bolt is soon shot" is givem 
I from Herbert ; but Heywood has the same words. 
A still earlier instance is "Sottes bolt is sone 
i-scohte" in the ' Proverbs of Alfred,' as published 
ooth by Wright and Halli well in 'Reliquiae An tiquse'' 
ind the Early English Text Society; while "Wim- 
mennes bolt is sone schote " appears in ' Sir Beues 
of Hamtoun,' also issued by the E.E.T.S. "A 
burnt child tire dredth " is given from Heywood,, 
with a reference to Chaucer ; but 

Brend child fur dredth, 

Quoth Hendyng, 
is among the proverbs of Hendyng printed in 
Wright and Halliwell. "If the mountain will not 
come to Mahomet, Mahomet will go to the mountain," 
is assigned to Ray's collection ; but Bacon has it in 
Essay xii. on ' Boldness.' Many other instances 
could be given. 

Among ' Household Words ' " The Republic of 
Letters " is given to Goldsmith ; but Fielding, in 
'Tom Jones, bk. xiv. chap, i., had used it before 
him. "Bag and baggage is quoted from Richard 
Huloet's 'Abecedarium Anglico - Latinum pro- 
Tyrunculis,' 1552 ; but earlier instances may be 
found in Berners's translation of Froissart, published 
in 1525. 

Still, if the work does not satisfy everybody, 
it will be much used, as the index is long and 

Birmingham and Midland, Institute: Birmingham 

Archaeological, Society Transaction*. No. 7. (Wai- 

sall, printed for subscribers only.) 
MB. J. A. Cossixs gives an account of what must 
have been a very interesting excursion. The first 
place at which the party stopped was Wootton 
Warwen, but on the way they passed near Henley, 
a hill on which fornierly stood one of the Montfort 
castles, which it is thought was destroyed some 
time during the Wars of the Roses. It is, however, 
almost certain that the hill had been entrenched! 
and fortified in days long before castles, as we- 
understand the term, were built in this country. 
The little church on the lower part of the hill is of 
the twelfth century. It is suggested that it also- 
was a work of the Montforts. The streets of 
Henley are wide, perhaps for the sake of holding 
markets. The fourteenth - century cross must, so> 
late as the beginning of the last century, have been 
a noteworthy object. Since then it has been shame- 
fully mutilated. Now the head has entirely gone ; 
and had it not been for the intervention of the 
Birmingham Institute, the shaft also would have 
probably perished. 

There is a fifteenth-century pulpit at Woottoa 
Warwen, which, as we see it in the engraving that 
is furnished, must have suffered little damage in 
the course of four centuries. Coughton Court was 
visited. The moat has been filled up, and much 
tasteless havoc was perpetrated about 1780; but 
the tower gateway yet remains, and is regarded as 
one of the noblest buildings of the kind in England. 

'The Hundreds of Warwickshire,' by Mr. B. 
Walker, is an elaborate paper, the result of great 
labour. The courts of some of the hundreds held 
for the recovery of small debts existed till quite 
modern days. Though interesting as survivals from 
remote times, they had become so subject to abuse 
that very few persons were sorry to be rid of them. 

Mr. John Humphreys has a paper on ' The 
Habingtons of Hindlip and The Gunpowder Plot/ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. VIL FEB. 23, 1907. 

Jt contains an engraving of Hindlip Hall, which 
was evidently a highly picturesque Tudor mansion. 
It was pulled down long ago. We are told by a 
writer who had seen it that it contained many 
hiding-places and secret passages. 

Mr. R. H. Murray's paper on the evolution ot 
church chancels will be found useful in many 
respects. The engravings showing the arrangement 
of the chancels during the Puritan ascendancy are 
important contributions to knowledge. The writer, 
who is evidently a humorous person, tells a story of 
a certain church in Gloucestershire where a stranger 
clergyman, on a certain occasion, was called upon 
to preach, and was asked by the churchwarden if 
he would deliver his discourse from the reading- 
desk, as a hen-turkey was sitting on her nest in the 
pulpit. A similar tale is current as to several of 
the churches in the fenlands of the East Coast, with 
the variation that a goose takes the place of the 
turkey. The story occurs in Arthur Young's 
* General View of the Agriculture of the County of 
Lincoln,' 1799, p. 437 ; but it is probably far older 
than his time. 

The Quarterly Review : January, 1907. (Murray.) 
' FOXHUNTING OLD AND NEW ' is an admirable 
paper. It is unsigned, but obviously written by 
some one who has had a manysided experience of 
the sport. He is not only conversant with Beck- 
ford's ' Thoughts on Hunting,' but also knows his 
Nimrod and Surtees, as well as many of the earlier 
and more recent sporting books. The writer gives 
what seems to be a complete catalogue of the ladies 
who own packs of hounds at this day, and it is 
highly satisfactory to note that all are reported to 
be well acquainted with the duties of the position. 
Lady Salisbury, who is spoken of as the most famous 
horsewoman of the eighteenth century, kept a pack 
of hounds at Hatfield, and was the first woman who 
was master of hounds. This we do not doubt is 
.strictly true, if we regard hunting from the sports- 
man's point of view only, but surely not otherwise. 
In far earlier times the Northern shires possessed 
women who kept dogs of various kinds for the 
purpose of killing foxes, which they regarded as 
noxious vermin which ate the lambs and pillaged 
the hen-roosts. Lady Salisbury's was a pack of 
dwarf hounds, and the uniform sky-blue. Scarlet 
had not then become the almost universal garb in 
the hunting field. It may be well to remember this, 
for we fear there are yet people who still hold to 
the fable that it has been the costume of the hunt- 
ing man since the days of William Rufus. It seems 
there are about 175 packs of hounds in our island. 
This means about 12,000 hounds, and the expen- 
diture is reckoned at half a million sterling, a sum 
which would have horrified the old - fashioned 

Mr. R. E. Prothero writes on ' The Growth of the 
Historical Novel.' We have been much interested 
in his paper, which shows wide reading ; but some 
of the books he mentions can hardly be included in 
the historical series. If they were, nearly all novels 
might find a place with them. We have read hardly 
one which does not indicate usually in a manner 
exaggerated more or less the manners of the times 
in which the writer flourished. 'The Gipsey Girl,' 
by Hannah Maria Jones, published in 1837, is, for 
example, worthless as literature, but as we 
imagine, unconsciously to the writer conveys 
instruction as to the manners of the time in which 
she lived. 

Prof. C. H. Herford's ' Ruskin and the Gothic 
Revival' goes back to an earlier time than that 
usually attributed to that movement. Did 
Gothic in truth ever wholly die out ? There is 
seventeenth-century Gothic at Oxford ; and we have 
seen chests of the same character, undoubtedly 
made by village carpenters, bearing dates of the 
early part of the eighteenth century. 

Miss Ida Taylor's article on the Hotel cle Rani- 
bouillet and that by Prof. Saintsbury entitled 
'Honore de Balzac arid M. Brunetiere' are both 
well worth reading. 

MESSRS. J. W. VICKERS & Co. have sent us their 
Xtwxpaper Gazetteer. This annual reference book 
of the press for the United Kingdom and the 
colonies is produced with its usual accuracy. The 
editor modestly states in his short introduction 
that "any suggestions which may be likely to lead 
to corrections and improvements will be gladly 
received and greatly valued." 

completed the printing of the magnificent " Strat- 
ford Town " Shakespeare, announces a second series 
of Mr. Charles Crawford's 'Collectanea.' This 
volume consists of articles showing the influence 
exercised by Montaigne on Webster and Marston, 
and the relations between the styles of Donne and 
Webster, illustrated by a number of parallel pas- 
sages. But the most interesting part is the study 
of the "Bacon-Shakespeare Question," to which 
Mr. Crawford has given six years' close attention. 
It consists of a serious refutation of Baconian 
arguments, proving that Bacon's supporters are ill 
acquainted not only with the mass of Elizabethan 
literature, but also with the work of Bacon himself. 

THE same Press will issue shortly 'A Cypress 
Grove,' by Drummond of Hawthornden. Mr. A. H. 
Bullen contributes a short introduction, and Fin- 
layson's mezzotint of Cornelius Johnson's portrait 
of Drummond is reproduced as frontispiece. To the 
students of the works of Sir Thomas Browne the 
finished prose of his Scottish precursor has a special 
interest. This interesting reprint will be issued on 
hand-made paper, tastefully printed and bound. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
ind address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
lor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

N. W. H. (Philadelphia). No charge is made 
:or insertion of any queries. For " So long " see 
9 S. vii. 129, 233, 297\ 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
:o " The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
ishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

10 s. vii. FEB. 23, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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CONTENTS. No. 166. 

NOTES : Westminster Changes, 1906. 161 A Scotch Gar- 
den of Eden, 162 Ell Family "Supawn" : its Origin, 
163 Matthias the Impostor The Authorship of 'Is it 
Shakespeare?' "Pull one's leg " Inscriptions at Bel- 
lagio, Italy, 164 Abraham Lincoln and European Poli- 
ticians" Conscientious objection " " Bothombar." 165 
H in Shropshire and Worcestershire Pancake Bell in 
'Newcastle Languages in Burma, 166 " Tobacco ": its 
Etymology" Possession nine points of the law," 167. 

<GUERIES : Mohammedanism in Japan, 167 Scott's 
' Black Dwarf Samuel Barnard Chesterfield and 
Wotton Portraits "Bat Beara way "--" Idle Dick 
Norton "Cathay Drum-Major : John Bibie Revett of 
Checkers, Bucks, 168 "What wants that knave that a 
,king should have ? "Pitch-Caps put on Human Heads 
and set on Fire Author of Quotation Wanted Sir H. 
'Campbell-Bannerman on Britain's Supremacy on the Sea 
Carte, the Historian Pretended Prince of Macedonia- 
Charles I. : his Physical Characteristics, 169 Napoleon's 
Carriage Musical Genius : is it Hereditary? 170. 

REPLIES : Latin Pronunciation in England, 170 Spelling 
Changes, 171 Authors of Quotations Wanted Duke of 
Kent's Children, 172 Post Boxes "Ito": "Itoland," 
173 Bell-Horses : Pack-Horses ' Lawyers in Love,' 174 
George Geoffry Wyatville " Set up my (his) rest" 
Heenvliet and Lord Wotton's Daughter ' Edinburgh 
Review' Attack on Oxford People to be Avoided or 
Cultivated, 175 Slavery in England Scott Illustrators- 
Charles Reade's Greek Quotation : Seneca, 176. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Collected Works of Henrik 
Ibsen ' ' Memoirs of the Verney Family during the Seven- 
teenth Century ' ' The Newspaper Press Directory ' 
' The Edinburgh Review.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See ante, pp. 81, 122.) 
THE Government Offices at the corner of 
Parliament Street and Great George Street 
went steadily forward during the year, but 
are still far from finished. The new building 
(virtually a part of New Scotland Yard) 
-on the Victoria Embankment is near ing 
completion, and will be occupied early this 
year. The building long known as the 
Whitehall Club, at the corner of Parliament 
'Street and Derby Street, was closed and 
sold, and has been for months in the hands 
of the builders, but no one seems to know 
.anything about its future. Threatened 
things and places last long, so Great 
George Street, long threatened with demoli- 
tion, still stands, although some of the 
offices have been vacated, and some of the 
houses in Delahay Street sold to the Govern- 

At Storey's Gate one of the " latest bits 
of familiar London of long ago " disappeared 
in May when improvement (?) " swept 
away the pair of gates leading into St. 
James's Park from Great George Street." 

These gates, which were very old, together 
with a quaint gate-keeper's box, were 
removed, as they were found to be a source 
of danger to the fast-travelling motor-car 
and carriages. A sketch of the roadway 
as altered and of the old gate-keeper ap- 
peared in The Daily Graphic of 23 May. 

In Broad Sanctuary the ground floor of 
the premises vacated by the National 
Society has been adapted as a showroom 
for the sale of the Reo Automobile. On the 
site of the Royal Aquarium, at the corner of 
Tothill Street and Princes Street, some work 
has been done in connexion with the founda- 
tions of the Wesleyan Church House to be 
erected here, but for about six months 
little or no progress has been made. At 
No. 1, Dean's Yard some alterations are 
proceeding. In Tothill Street, Caxton 
House was finished early in the year, and 
is now, at least in part, occupied as offices. 
Broadway House, of which a portion is in 
the same street a pile of business premises 
containing 5,500 feet superficial was sold 
by private treaty by Messrs. Trollope & 
Sons during the first week in August, but 
the price was not stated. At 8, Broad 
Sanctuary, a house interesting to West- 
minster people, as having been the residence 
of Mr. James Grose (at one time church- 
warden of St. Margaret's), has undergone 
alteration and enlargement, and is now 
occupied as offices by Messrs. J. Brown & 
Co., and Messrs. Thomas Firth & Sons. 

In Victoria Street the centre of the three 
entrances (No. 87) to Marlborough Mansions 
has been much improved by the erection 
of some elaborate granite-work, which has 
added to the important appearance of the 
building a feature which it sadly needed. 
The fehop at the corner of Artillery Row, 
lately held by Messrs. Robins, Snell & Co., 
and the one next door in Artillery Row 
numbered 91 in Victoria Street, just vacated 
by the City of Westminster Refreshment 
Company, are to be remodelled. In Great 
Chapel Street an extensive clearance has 
been made, really extending some distance 
into Dacre Street, upon which more flats 
are to be erected ; but at the close of the 
year there was very little to see, though 
the work had been in hand from March. 
In Palmer Street some shop-fronts have 
been put into the flats known as " The 
Albany," and the shops have since been 
occupied by a firm of dealers in antiques, 
a trade which seems to have found a per- 
manent abode in this locality. 

In Buckingham Gate (the part formerly 
James Street) the building known as " the 



house of many angles/ 1 which was originally 
erected for the St. Margaret's Workhouse, 
and subsequently named Wellington K 
in use bv the Government as quarters for 
married 'soldiers, was demolished, to give 
place to a new Wellington House, a pile of 
flats, and a residential hotel upon an im- 
proved plan, and at what are said to be ! 
enormous rents : but of this more anon. 
Xo. 171, Victoria Street, at the corner of 
Francis Street the building known as 
Victoria House, and intended at the forma- 
tion of this street to be a public-house 
is now being altered in many ways : but the 
work only began in the last quarter of the 
year, and will take some time to complete. 
In this street a few more of the ground-floor 
flats were converted into shops during the 
year, and still a few more are to be trans- 
formed. The last house in St. Margaret's 
parish on the north side approaching the 
station, and on the banks of King's Scholars' 
Pond sewer which crosses the street at this 
spot was the last one done. 

From Francis Street, opposite the rear of 
Westminster Cathedral, a new street, alluded 
to in my last year's review, called Still in gton 
Street why or wherefore no one seems to 
know has" been formed, and was opened 
about November. As before stated, the 
construction of this street has necessitated 
the removal of a number of small houses 
known as Buckingham Cottages, most of 
them disappearing between March and 
June. In the clearance at this spot were 
included the houses 22 to 34 Willow Street 
(even numbers), which were demolished in 
June ; but the vacant land is as yet unutilized. 
The street is in two parishes, the newly 
formed part being in St. Margaret's parish, 
while the portion which carries it on into 
Rochester Row is in St. John's parish, and 
was already in existence, and known as a 
portion of Buckingham Cottages. The street 
thus added to the map of London is one that 
does not seem likely to be of much use, as it 
virtually leads to no place of consequence. 

A portion of the extension of the London 
tramway system over Westminster Bridge 
and along" the Victoria Embankment is 
within the scope of this article, for St. 
- parish takes from the centre of 
the bridge to Horse Guards Avenue, and it 
must therefore be mentioned that the work 
was started as soon as the Parliamentary- 
session closed, and before the end of the year 
another step towards linking the lines north 
and south of the Thames had taken place. 

It may be thought worthy of notice that j 
a small "portion of the site of the Queen i 

Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham 
Palace is in St. Margaret's parish. W-"rk is 
going on there, but it is not possible t 
yet what progress has been made. So far 
as I can say. this exhausts the list of changes 
during 1906 : but many and extensive are 
those likely to take place during the year 
just opened. W. E. HARLAXD^OXLEY. 
-: minster. 

The last paragraph of the note on * V. 
minster Changes, 1906,' ante, p. 125, is not 
quite correct. College dormitory has been 
re-roofed owing to the timely discovery that- 
some of the old beams were utterly decayed, 
but no new story has been added. "*Saig: 
the College sanatorium, at the end which 
abuts on Great College Street, has been 
enlarged, and that must be the change to- 
which your correspondent refers. 



Ix an old album, such as was dear to the 
gentle sex in the early Victorian period, I 
came across ' Themus Mac-na Torshach's 
Idea of the Garden of Eden and the Origin 
of the First Dress worn by Man.' Thinking 
it may interest the readers of ' X. A 
I have copied it. It was signed by Mr. 
James Graeme, who was Laird of Garvock, 
in Perthshire. 

Ere the Laird cardit or the Lady sian 
In frags' skins their hale race ran. 

"Well," said Tortoise, "what would ye give for 
such bonny braes and birks and rivers as'are in the 
forrest of Athol. if they could be transferred to 
your wild count 

* An" are there nae bonny braes and birks in 
Badenoch? Ye "re joost as bad as our minister: 
but fat seed the man say ony mair about the 
matter, fan I tell 'im 111 prove" frae his ain bible, 
ony day he likes, that the Lios-mor, as we ca" the 
great garden in Gaelic, stood in its day joost far 
the Muir o ? Badenoch lys noo. an" in nae ither place ? 
Is no there an island in Loch Lhinne that bears the 
name o" the Lios-Mor to this blessed day ? Fan I tell 
you that, and that I hae seen the island mysel". fa 
can doubt my word?" 

" But. Mac, the Bible says the garden was planted 
eastward in Eden. 7 ' "Hoot! ay: but that disna 
say but the garden might be in Badenoch ! for Eden 
is a Gaelic word for a river, an' a'm shure there "s 
nae want q" them there : an ? as for its bein' east 
o'er, that is, when Adam planted the Liosmor, he 
sat in a bonny bothan on a orae in Lochaber an ? nae 
doot Itikit eastwar to Badenoch, an' saw a ? thing 
sproutin 7 and jrrowiiv atween 7 im an" the sun fan it 
cam rippliir o'er the braes frae Athol in the braw 
simmer mor: 

" But, Mac, the Bible further says, they took fig- 
leaves and made themselves aprons. You cannot 
say that figs ever grew in Badenoch." 

" Hout tout ! there "s naebody can tell fat grew 

io s. TIL MAP, H 2, 1907.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in Badenoch i' the days o" the Liosmor ; an" altho' 
nae tigs grow noo, there "s mony a bony [We] fiag 
runs vet /er the braes o" baith Badenoch and 
Lochaber. It was flags' skins, an' no fig blades, that 
they made claes o'. 'Fiag, ? I maun tell YOU. is 
Loehaber Gaelic for a deer to this day ; an' fan the 
auld man was gettin" his reproof for takin' an ai>ple 
frae the gudewife, a ; the beasties in Liosmor cam 
roon them, an' amang the rest twa bonnie raes ; an' 
fan the gudeman said, ' See how miserable we twa 
are left : there stands a' the bonnie beasties weel 
clade in their ain hair, an' here we stand shame- 
faced an" iiakit. Aweel 1 fan the twa raes heard 
that, they lap oute o' their skins, foo very love to 
their suffering' maister, as ony true clansman wad 
do to this day. Fan the gudeman saw this, he drew 
ae flag's skin on her namsel. an' the tither o'er the 
ndewife,: noo, let me tell ye. that were the first 

' By this account, Mac, our first parents spoke 

"An" fat ither had they to spake, tell me? Our 
minister says they spoke Hebrew, an' fat "s Hebrew 
but Gaelic, the warst o" Gaelic, let alane Welsh 
Gaelic ': " 

" He would require proof for this, Mac." 

" Proof, man ! disna your Bible say, * Cursed is 
the ground for Adam's sake,' an' that curse lies on 
Badenoch an' Lochaber to this day : for if there be 
in a' Scotland a mair blastit, poverty-stricken pairt 
than 'ither o' the twa, may Themus Mac-na Toishach's 
auld een never see it. " Let them contradic' me fa 

Grange Villa. Guernsey. 


(See 9 S. x. 487 ; xi. 77.) 
I HAVE received the following letter from 
the Rev. Henry Barber, a ~ \vell-known 
authority, who gives some interesting infor- 
mation about the name and family of Ell : 

DEAR SIR, I am in receipt of your letter 
forwarded through my publishers. It is no part of 
the scope of my work 'to give genealogical informa- 
tion, but I am 'always willing to trace a name to its 
earliest source. 

You will be pleased to know that, although 1 
have not met with the name before, I should say 
that it is of Xorman origin, and has been corrupted 
throughout the centuries. The author of ' The 
Norman People' (H. S. King & Co.. 1874) gives Ell. 
Elles. or Helles. from Helle or de Heille, from 
Heille, Beauvais. in Normandy, (rozelin de Heilles 
la"V.i. witnessed a charter of Henry I., King ol 

A branch settled in England 1066, and bore a benc 
azure or [on ?] a field sable, afterwards changed to a 
fesse. the tinctures remaining the same. The French 
line bore a bend fusilly. Theobald de Helles was 
living in the time of K. Stephen. His son gave. 
temp. Henry II., a tenement at Canterbury to the 
Hospitallers. In 13th cent. Bertram de Helles was 
Constable of Dover Castle. Thomas de Helles 
possessed Helles Court in Ash ttmp. Edw. I. Henry 
de Helles was M.P. for Kent temp. Edw. III. 
Gilbert. Viscount of Kent, 13-35, and his arms remain 
Azure, a bend argent. 

In the church of Ash the arms are Argent, a 
chevron sable, between three leopards' fa f 
being the foundation of the modern arms. 

The family was spread throughout Kent and 
Surrey, arid 'from it probably derived Sir M 
Hill, ancestor of the Marquises of Downshire. 

I do not think that Ell is a corruption of Hill,, 
though Hill may possibly be derived from Helles in 
some cases. Hill is, however, generally an English 
local name, a contraction of "at-hilL' I cannot 
find Ell or Helles in the Roll of Fines and Oblations 
of King John. It may be in the Hundred Rolls, 
but the records of the County of Kent might be 
searched with ad vant ... HENRY BARBER. 

In the ' Calendar of State Papers. Domestic, 
1633-4,' p. 10, we find " 1633, 37, IT. Certifi- 
cate of Thomas Ejll, the High Constable 

: ' ; but I have been unable to discover 
where he was High Constable. 

In ' Calendar of Border Papers : Vol. II. 
1595-1603,' at p. 797, will be found a letter 
from George Ell to Robin of Pichell, dated 
12 Sept., 1602. 

In vol. xxx. of Sussex Archaeological 
Collections, in a note on p. 141, there is 
reference to a suit in time of K. John 

' between the family of Helles and Manasser de 
Hastings concerning a earucate of laud near Faver- 
sham (abbreviatio Placitorum). The Grange was 
held to Henry HL in serjeanty by Manasser de H. 
(Hasted, iv. 236) ; and 10 Hen. ILL there was a fine 
levied between Gilbert de Helles and Robert de 
Hastings, of land in Gillingham. Ermine, three 
lozenges gules, was one of the coats of Helles." 

In Sussex Arch. Col., vol. v. p. 242, amongst 
names of priests in the Deanery of Hastings, 
appear- '* Thomas Helles." H. G. ELL. 

Christchurch. Xew Zealand. 

" SUPAWX ? " : ITS ORIGIN. This Ame- 
rican term for a kind of porridge has been 
in use from the earliest period. The French 
colonists wrote it soupane, the Dutch 
supaen. One is surprised to find it de- 
scribed in the ' Century Dictionary ' as 
* 4 probably connected with pone." This is 
a most inaccurate statement. The words 
pone and supawn are both of American 
Indian origin, but they are from entirely 
different roots. I need not go into the 
history of pone, as that is being dealt with 
by Dr. Murray. Supau-n is an Indian past 
participle, from a verb meaning to soften 
by water, boil soft. In the late Dr. Trum- 
bulFs ' Xatick Dictionary ' it is printed 
saupd-un. Strachey's Virginian vocabulary 
(circa 1615) includes it as " asapan, hasty 
pudding." The Abenaki form is given by 
the Frenchman Rasles as nteanbann, but in 
Laurent's more modern Abenaki vocabulary 
(1884) it appears as " nsobon, corn soup." 



people, the Americans are remarkably 
gullible in matters of religion. Among the 
impostors who have preyed upon them 
from time to time and then- name is legion 
one of the most singular was Robert Mat- 
thews, who had a colleague named Elijah 

Matthews was born about 1789, and 
Pierson probably a few years earlier. 
Matthews, a journeyman house-carpenter of 
Albany, N.Y., was carried away by the 
" revivalism " of Charles G. Finney, himself 
;an oddity. Shortly after this, he began to 
advocate teetotalism, and to denounce the 
impiety of shaving and of freemasonry. 
Pierson, a fervent Anabaptist, took to him- 
self authority to preach in New York in 
1830, and made an unsuccessful attempt to 
raise a dead woman to life. This precious 

?air came together in New York in May, 
832, and soon discovered their spiritual 
.affinity. Matthews, with some inconsistency 
declared himself to be Matthias the Apostle, 
ithe angel of Rev. xiv. 6, and also the Creator 
of all things. Pierson contented himself 
with the inferior, but respectable title of 
Elijah the Tishbite, otherwise John the 
Baptist. Matthews, managing to beguile a 
wealthy merchant, who became his banker, 
proceeded to adopt a costume which he 
.thought suitable to his pretensions : 

" He displayed fine cambric ruffles around his 
wrists and upon his bosom ; and to a rich silken 
scarf, interwoven with gold, were suspended 
twelve golden tassels, emblematical of the twelve 
tribes of Israel. His fine linen nightcaps were 
wrought with curious skill of needlework, with 
the names of the twelve Apostles embroidered 

Out of doors he wore 

""a black cap of japanned leather, in shape like an 
inverted cone, with a shade ; a frock coat, generally 
-of fine green cloth, lined with white or pink satin ; 
A vest, commonly of richly figured silk ; green or 

black pantaloons, sometimes with sandals with 

A black stock around his neck." 

He declared that he would build the New 
Jerusalem in the western part of New York 
State. It was to contain an immense and 
gorgeous temple. All the temple utensils 
were to be of gold and silver, marked with 
a lion. A manufacturer asked whether it 
was the British lion they wanted ; to which 
Matthews answered, " No ; for the British 
lion was a devil ; but he meant the Lion of 
the Tribe of Judah." 

In 1834 Pierson died, under circumstances 
which strongly suggested poisoning. Mat- 
thews was tried and acquitted. He was 
imprisoned, however, for three months for 

an assault with a horsewhip on his married 
daughter. The court, by Mr. Justice Ruggles, 
said : 

"We are satisfied that you are an impostor, and 
that you do not believe in your own doctrines. We 
advise you, therefore, when you come out of jail, to 
shave off your beard, lay aside your peculiar dress, 
and go to work like an honest man." 

These notes are taken from a work of 
some scarcity, W. L. Stone's ' Matthias and 
his Impostures,' New York, Harper, 1835. 

This anonymous book, regarded by many 
as the ablest presentation of the Baconian 
theory which has yet appeared, contains a 
dedication concluding with this subscription 
in red ink : 

So, Reviewers, save my Bacon, 

O let not Folly mar Delight : 
followed by this suggestion of a challenge : 

These my name and claini unriddle 

To all who set the Rubric right. 
The following seems to " set the Rubric 
right " : " Walter Begley, the discoverer 
of Milton's ' Nova Solyma.' " 


[This riddle was solved in The Athenwum when 
the book appeared.] 

" PULL ONE'S LEG." ' The Standard 
Dictionary ' explains this expression as 
(slang, U.S.) " to borrow money or obtain 
some favor from one by solicitation." It 
has a slightly different meaning in England, 
and is generally used to express an intention 
to deceive or hold up to ridicule. 

Before the invention of the long drop in 
executions the phrase had another meaning, 
it being used to express the action of the 
friends of a criminal, who pulled the legs 
of the condemned man to shorten his 
sufferings. In Hood's poem ' The Last 
Man ' the hangman, left alone in the world, 
contemplates suicide, but desists, saying : 

In vain my fancy begs, 
For there is not another soul alive 

In the world to pull my legs. 


the small cemetery for foreigners attached 
to the general cemetery, are the following 
inscriptions (May, 1905) : 

1. Agnes Elizabeth, w. of Althans Black- 
well, of Moseley, Birmingham, ob. at Bellagio, 
26 June, 1898, a. 51. 

2. Nellie, w. of Arthur Charles Parkinson, 
of London, after ten days of marriage, 
ob. 10 June, 1895, a. 25. 



3. Elmina Crabbe, of Glen Eyre, South- 
ampton, wid. of Col. Eyre John Crabbe, 
K.H., ob. at the Grande Bretagne Hotel, 
Bellagio, 12 Oct., 1888, a. 77. 

4. Clara Elizabeth, dau. of Edward and 
Mary Ann Pembroke, of Blackheath, ob. 
13 Ap., 1886, a. 18. 

5. Alice Caroline, dau. of Francis and 
Bridget Hobson, of Burnt Stones, Sheffield. 
(Date omitted by me.) 

6. Douglas Herbert, infant s. of Mar- 
guerite Wilhelmine Bunning, ob. 25 June, 
1890, a. 6 months. 

7. Sidney Herbert Brunner, of Winning- 
ton, Cheshire, a. 23, who lost his life in 
saving his elder brother from drowning, 
8 Sept., 1890, bur. 11 Sept. 

8. John Strachey Hare, ob. at Bellagio, 
24 Ap., 1893, a. 48. Erected by his wife. 

9. Catherine Chamberlain. The rest of 
the inscription could not be read on account 
of creepers and weeds covering the cross. 

10. Blanche Henrietta Johnes Pechell, 
of La Boissonade and Maresfield Park, 
Sussex, ob. 12 Ap., 189[0 or 8 ?1. 

There is another still smaller cemetery 
(locked) adjoining the English Church, a 
stone in the outside wall of which states 
that the land was bought by Mr. Richard 
Boswell Beddome, of London, as the burial- 
place of his son Thomas William Beddome, 
and given by him to the Commune of 
Bellagio as an English cemetery, January, 
1866. G. S. PARRY, Lieut.-Col. 

18, Hyde Gardens, Eastbourne. 

[For earlier lists of inscriptions on Britishers 
dying abroad see 10 S. i. 361, 442, 482; ii. 155; 
ii'i. 361, 433 ; v. 381 ; vi. 4, 124, 195, 302, 406, 446.] 

TICIANS. Mr. Bryce, in his Introduction 
to the " Everyman " edition of ' Speeches 
and Letters of Abraham Lincoln, 1832- 
1865,' emphasizes I think over-emphasizes 
as a perusal of that work will show the 
great American President's lack of education; 
and he observes : 

"He can have had only the faintest acquaint 

ance with European history' or with any branch oJ 
philosophy. The want of regular education was 
not made up for by the persons among whom his lol 
was cast. Till he was a grown man he never movec 
in any society from which he could learn those 
things with which the mind of an orator or a states 
man ought to be stored. Even after he had gainec 
some legal practice, there was for many years no 
one for him to mix with, except the petty prac 
titioners of a petty town, men nearly all of whon 
knew little more than he did himself. ' 

This criticism smacks of the old type o: 
belief concerning Lincoln, voiced in a letter 
of March, 1861, by so customarily sagacious 

a political thinker as Sir George Cornewair 
"".ewis, who wrote : 

"I have never been able, either in conversation 
)r by reading, to obtain an answer to the question. 
What will the North do if they beat the South .' 
To restore the old Union would be an absurdity. 
What other state of things does that village lawyer,. 
Lincoln, contemplate as the fruit of victory . 
t is not, however, borne out by Lincoln's 
sarlier addresses, while his later are very far 
from being the utterance of a mere petty 
practitioner " or " village lawyer." In his 
etter to Joshua F. Speed of 24 Aug., 1855,. 
'or instance, Lincoln observes : 

"When I was at Washington, I voted for the 
Wilmot Proviso forty times ; and I never^heard ot 
any one attempting to tinwhig me for that - 
a phrase which showed at least sufficient 
acquaintance with the by-ways of European 
politics as aptly to recall the story of the 
younger Pitt exclaiming to a friend concern- 
ing Fox during the debates on the Regency 
Bill of 1788, " I'll un-Whig the gentleman 
:or the rest of his life." 

It was, of course, by coincidence, and noi 
through reminiscence, that Lincoln in his 
address before the Washingtonian Temper- 
ance Society, at Springfield, Illinois, on 
22 Feb., 1842, remarked, " It is an old and 
a true maxim * that a drop of honey catches 
more flies than a gallon of gall,' " though, 
it was Sir Robert Walpole's expressed 
belief that more flies are caught by honey 
than by vinegar. To Walpole, as to Lincoln,- 
was given the opportunity of which each, 
availed himself to the full for safely carry- 
ing his country through a most perilous 
internal crisis; and each political genius 
was described as a country lout and a buffoon 
by the more cultured and less far-seeing: 
among their contemporary critics. 


' Life and Letters of Leslie Stephen ' (1906), 
p. 183, occurs the following sentence from a 
letter of Leslie Stephen under date 8 Nov. r 
1866 : "... .1 have a conscientious objec- 
tion to my present position." Possibly 
this may be the earliest use of the expression 
from which in later times we have " con- 
scientious objectors." H. W. U. 

" BOTHOMBAR." In Dyce's ' Skelton,' ii. 
31, in the poem entitled 'Why Come Ye 
Nat to Courte ? ' 1. 135, we find the form 
" Bothombar," respecting which Dyce says^r 
"I know not what place is meant here." 
The context says that the English have 
made a shameful truce with the Scotch, and 
have given up the war against them, " from 



Baumberow to Bothombar." The sense is, 
.throughout the northern district of England. 
" Baumberow " is, of course, Bamborough. 
The foot-note says that, in place of " Bothom- 
bar," other editions have " Bothambar." 
This gives the solution, for the latter form 
stands for " Botham Bar," i.e., Bootham 
Bar, in the city of York. 


DR. RANDOLPH at 9 S. viii. 283 inquired 
what ground there was for saying that some 
old Shropshire families drop their h's, and 
rather pride themselves on doing so. As 
he may not be a subscriber to Berrow's 
Worcester Journal, the following extract 
from that paper, dated 17 Nov., 1906, may 
interest him and your readers generally : 

" Mr. Stapleton Martin writes from Norton, 

Worcester: 'I have recently read a letter of 

F. 0. Morris, the naturalist, who died in 1893, 
written to the London Time* newspaper in June, 
1878, in which, after stating that he was afraid that 
the beautiful county of Worcester must be held to 
be the cunabula of the offences of omission and of 
commission against the letter h, he said that when 
he was at school at Bromsgrove the following lines-; 
ajmeared somewhere about that time in one of the 
Worcester papers : 

The Complaint of the letter H to the Inhabitants 

of Worcester. 

Whereas by you I have been driven 
From hope, from home, from house, from heaven, 
And placed by your most learn'd society 
In exile, anguish, and anxiety, 
I hereby ask full restitution, 
And beg you '11 mend your elocution. 

' To which the following rejoinder appeared in the 
next week's paper : 
Whereas we 've rescued you, ingrate, 
From hell, from horror, and from hate, 
From hedgebill, horsepond, and from halter, 
And consecrated you in altar, 
We think you need no restitution, 
And shall not mend our elocution. 
The writer added that he inclined to think that 
they had kept to their determination and had been 
as good as their word. There are now very few old 
(untitled) families in Worcestershire in existence, 
but people who have acquired a certain county 
status in it may be heard, at this clay, to drop the 
too-rough h, though hardly, I think, would [they] 
oare to boast that they did.' " 

9, Broughton Road, Thornton Heath. 
[MR. JONATHAN BOUCHIKR printed at 5 S. v. 64 
(22 Jan., 18/0) a similar 'Remonstrance from the 
Letter H to the Inhabitants of Shropshire,' with an 
4 Answer trom the Inhabitants of Shropshire ' The 
first two lines of the ' Remonstrance ' run : 
Whereas by you we have been driven 
From hearth and home, from hope and heaven, 
the second line being a decided improvement The 
-other variations are not important. At 9 S. vi. 85 

full particulars are given with respect to the 
original publication of Catherine Fanshawe's cele- 
brated lines 

'Twas whispered in heaven, 'twas muttered in hell; 
while at 7 S. vi. 110 is printed in full Horace May- 
hew's parody, beginning 

I dwells in the Herth, and I breathes in the Hair ; 
If you searches the Hocean, you '11 find that I 'm 
' there.] 

rather surprised, as a Londoner, to read in 
Brockett's ' Glossary of North - Country 
Words ' that on Shrove Tuesday "it is 
a general custom in the North to have 
pancakes served up." This custom is quoted 
by Dr. Murray in the ' N.E.D.,' but the 
custom is certainly not peculiar to the North. 
Brockett goes on to quote from Taylor the 
Water-Poet a record of a former custom in 
Newcastle on Shrove Tuesday, which may 
have been (let us hope was) only local : 

"When the clock strikes eleven, which (by the 
help of a knavish sexton) is commonly before nine, 
then there is a bell rung, called pancake bell, the 
sound whereof makes thousands of people dis- 
tracted and forgetful either of manners or 

W. T. LYNN. 


[For the Pancake Bell at various places see 10 S. 
iii. '223, 331, and the references appended to MR. 

Daily News of Calcutta, in its issue of 
7 January, under the heading ' The Land of 
Babel,' says that the Lieutenant-Governor 
of Burma has directed that the groups of 
languages shall be officially as follows : 

I. The Siyin, Tashon, Lai, Chinbok, and Chin me 
dialects of the Chin language, and the Chin language 
as spoken on the borders of Arakan Division, and 
the Thayetmyo, Minbu, and Henzada Districts. 

II. The Kami and Mro languages. 

III. The Chingpaw dialect of the Kachin lan- 

IV. The The Manipuri language. 

V. The Karenni, the Bre, the Padoung, and the 
Zayein languages. 

VI. The Taungthu language. 

VII. The Palaung, the Pale, and Riang (Yang 
Lam dialect) languages. 

VIII. The Wa language as spoken either in the 
State of Man"; Lun or in the State of Kentung. 

IX. The Lahu or Muhso and the Lisaw languages. 

X. The Atsi or Szi and the Maru languages. 

XI. The Siamese language. 

XII. The Malay language. 

The districts in or on the borders of which the 
several groups of languages above specified will be 
held to be spoken are : 

I. All districts in the Arakan Division, the Hen- 
zada, Thayetmyo, Pakokku, Minbu, and Upper 
Chindwin Districts, and the Chin Hills. 

II. The Northern Arakan and Akyab Districts. 



III. Upper Chindwin, Bhamo, Myitkyina, Katha, 
and Ruby Mines Districts, and the Northern Shan 

IV. Upper Chindwin District. 

V. The Southern Shan States. 

VI. The Toungoo,Thaton,and Amherst Districts, 
and the Southern Shan States. 

VII. The Ruby Mines District and the Southern 
;and Northern Shan States. 

VIII. The Southern and Northern Shan States. 

IX. The Ruby Mines, Bhamo, and Myitkyina 
Districts, and the Northern and Southern Shan 

X. The Bhamo and Myitkyina Districts. 

XI. Amherst, Tavoy, and Mergui Districts, and 
the Southern Shan States. 

XII. Mergui District. 

It is worth while recording the above list 
in ' N. & Q.', if it were only for the sake of 
having; it at hand when wanted. 

H. H. S. 

history of this word is not given in any dic- 
tionary. It is, of course, a matter of common 
knowledge that it was picked up by the 
Spaniards in the Antilles, and originally 
meant the pipe through which the Indians 
either smoked or snuffed the plant. An 
interesting article in The American Anthro- 
pologist, as far back as 1889 (vol. ii. p. 133), 
seems to have escaped the attention of our 
lexicographers. It is by Dr. A. Ernst, and 
he shows that in the Tupi language of Brazil 
taboca is still the name of these primitive 
Indian pipes. It will perhaps be asked 
what connexion there is, linguistically, 
between Brazil and Hayti. Having been 
engaged for many years looking up ety- 
mologies of American terms for the ' N.E.D.,' 
I am able to say that the Tupi language of 
Brazil and the Carib dialects of Guiana and 
the isles had a large vocabulary in common. 
'The explanation is, not that the languages 
-were cognate, but that the Caribs borrowed 
from their neighbours. Many zoological 
terms in English such as agouti, cabiai, 
coati, quata may have come to us from 
either Tupi or Carib. The same is true of 
many botanical terms such as karatas, 
moriche, tannia and to these we may safely 
a,dd the word tobacco. The two forms in 
which it has been preserved, Tupi taboca 
and Haytian tabdco, are both accented upon 
the middle syllable, and differ so slightly that 
we need feel no doubt as to their identity. 
We thus arrive at the valuable fact that 
tobacco is properly a Brazilian term, but early 
passed over into Guiana, and accompanied 
the Caribs in their voyages among the West 
Indian islands, where it took root, and was 
found by the followers of Columbus. 


In connexion with this quasi-legal maxim, 
I think the question was asked some time 
ago, " How many points has the law, and 
what are they ? " The question did not 
show much appreciation of the meaning of 
of the maxim ; but it may perhaps be 
answered according to its wisdom, by saying, 
" The law (like anything else) has just as 
many points as you choose to attribute to 
t for the purpose of stating a proportion. 
When you say (as most people do at present) 
that possession is nine points of the law, you 
suppose ' the law ' to have ten points ; but 
f you say, in accordance with earlier usage, 
;hat possession is eleven points of the law, 
you suppose ' the law ' to have twelve 
points ; while, if you say, as has also been 
said, that possession is ninety-nine points of 
the law, you suppose ' the law ' to have a 
hundred points." In other words, the 
question is not how many points " the law 
has, but what proportion of all the points 
possession is equal to. The actual purport 
of the maxim, of course, is that, in a dispute 
about property, possession is (or used to be, 
when the saying arose in the fifteenth 
century) so strong a point in favour of the 
possessor, that it might outweigh nine, or 
eleven, or ninety-nine points that might 
legally be pleaded in behalf of some one else. 
The historical illustration of the expression 
will be found in the next issue of the ' Dic- 
tionary,' in which ' Point ' will form one of 
the important articles. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may