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Notes and Qu&ries, July 25, 1908. 


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10 s. ix. JAN. 4, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. No. 210. 

NOTES : London Statues and Memorials, 1 The Indian 
Mutiny, 1857-1907, 2 Dodsley's Famous Collection of 
Poetry, 3 Christinas Notes The London Library Earl 
Howe's Shakespeare Quartos and Folios, 4 " Whipping 
the cat" Thomas Blore at Middleton Races, 5 Origin 
of the Gordon Tartan Polar Exploration "Conrade 
Freeman " in 1554 " Nigh hand " in the ' N. E.D.,' 6. 

"QUERIES : Hoppner's Untraced Portraits, 7 General 
Bonrke Allusions in 'Lady of the Lake ' Authors of 
Novels Wanted Chantry at Northiam T. Cooke, O.S. B. 
Meswinde the Fair Pictures of London Chapels 
Wanted, 8 Nicolas Pike Dorman and Hohart Families 
John Shakespeare, 1732 Gainsborough's Portraits of 
Miss Coghlan, of Bath Du Maurier and Shirley Brooks 
"The Philobiblion" Glover's 'Kentish Monuments' 
Shakespeare's Bones, 9 Cremation in 1769 Hamilton 
Place, Hyde Park Dr. John Elliot Koman Death 
Duties Abraham Lincoln and Wycliffe Bible, 10. 

REPLIES :' Childe Harold' The Carnwath Pedigree, 10 
'Le Terze Rime di Dante, 1502'' Hackney," 11 -Eglia 
in Lincolnshire' Rinordine,' Irish Song Hodson of the 
Indian Mutiny Sir Edmund Peirce 'The Farmer's 
Audit' "Gordon Case" and Clement XL, 12 Authors 
of Quotations Wanted Richard Sands, Equestrian- 
Horace in 1-atin and English Verse Matthew Unwin 
Highways Repaired, 13 William Hogsftesh London 
Remains 'The Progress of Madness 'Sabbath changed 
At the Exodus, 14 Neither my eye nor my elbow" 
" Spellicans," 15 Laws of Gravity and the Ancient 
Greeks, 16 Brittany Idolatrous Folk-lore Sovereigns 
and Half - Sovereigns Inscriptions at Naples, 17 
St. Bartholomew the Great, 18. 

HOTES ON BOOKS :-Manor Court Rolls in Private 
Hands Whitaker's Almanack and Peerage' A Wreath 
of Christmas Carols.' 

Booksellers' New Year Catalogues. 

-Notices to Correspondents. 



I THINK it is pretty generally admitted 
that no accurate list of the statues and 
memorials which have been placed from 
time to time in the public streets, squares, 
and other convenient places of London is 
at present in existence. For some years 
past I have been collecting information 
on this subject, and I now venture to send 
to ' N. & Q.' what may perhaps form the 
nucleus of such a list, in the hope that other 
hands will assist in completing it. Owing 
to exigencies of space, I must fain be content 
with recording only the barest particulars. 
In making my survey I shall endeavour 
to proceed in as direct a course as possible 
from east to west. 

1. Martyrs' Memorial, Stratford. Erected 
on ground at the west end of St. John's 
-Church by public subscription in 1879. 

2. Gurney Memorial. Erected by sub- 
scription in Stratford Broadway. Unveiled 
by John Davis, Esq., J.P., of Cranbrook 
Park, 30 Sept., 1861. 

3. Statue of Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, 
Bow. Erected by Mr. Theodore Bryant. 
Unveiled by Lord Carlingford, 9 Aug., 1882. 

4. Bryant & May Memorial Fountain. 
Erected by public subscription outside 
Bow Railway Station in commemoration 
of the defeat of Mr. Lowe's proposed tax 
on matches. Unveiled by the Lord Mayor 
of London, 5 Oct., 1872. 

5. Statue of Richard Green. Erected 
by subscriptions from friends in front of 
the Public Baths and Washhouses, Poplar. 
Unveiled 11 May, 1866. 

6. Statue of Robert Milligan. Erected 
at the expense of the Company near the 
principal land entrance of the West India 

7. Victoria Fountain. Erected by 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts in Victoria Park 
at a cost of 5,000. Inaugurated in the 
presence of 10,000 spectators, 28 June, 

8. Statue of Dr. Isaac Watts, Abney 
Park Cemetery. Placed in " Dr. Watts's 
Walk," near the site of old Abney House, 
in which he died 25 Nov., 1748. Erected 
by public subscription in 1845. 

9. Statue of Sir Hugh Myddelton, Islington 
Green. Presented by Sir S. Morton Peto. 
Inaugurated July, 1862. 

10. Drinking Fountain, Bishopsgate. 
Erected close by Bishopsgate Church at 
the cost of Mr. Charles Gilpin, M.P. Opened 
to the public by Mr. Hopwood, 11 July, 

11. Statue of John Wesley, City Road. 
Erected in front of the City Road Chapel 
by the " children of Methodism." Unveiled 
on the centenary of Wesley's death, 2 March, 

12. Statue of Sir Rowland Hill. Erected 
by subscription near S.E. corner of Royal 
Exchange in 1882. Enough money was 
collected not only to defray the cost of this 
statue and to place a bust near Rowland 
Hill's grave in Westminster Abbey, but also 
to contribute 14.000Z. towards a fund for 
aged and distressed Post Office officials. 

13. Statue of George Peabody. Erected 
opposite N.E. corner of Royal Exchange 
in 1869. 

14. Drinking Fountain, Royal Exchange. 
Erected in centre of open space in front 
of the Exchange, at a cost of 300Z. Dedi- 
cated to the public use by the donor, Mr. 
Samuel Gurney, M.P., 26 July, 1861. 

15. Statue of the Duke of Wellington. 
Erected by the citizens of London west 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 s. ix. JAN. 4, im 

of the Royal Exchange. Unveiled on the 
anniversary of Waterloo, 18 June, 1844. 

16. The Monument, Fish Street Hill. 
Erected at a cost of 13.700J., 1671-7. 

17. Statue of William IV. Erected in 
King William Street in 1844. 

18. London Stone. A relic of London]s 
early days. After various vicissitudes it 
was placed in its present position against 
the south wall of St. Swithin's Church, 
Cannon Street, in 1798. 

19. Memorial Fountain, Guildhall Yard. 
Erected in 1866 to commemorate the bene- 
factors of the parishes of St. Lawrence, 
Jewry, and St. Mary Magdalen, Milk 
Street, at the exj ense of the joint parishes. 

20. Heminge and Condell Memorial, St. 
Mary's Churchyard, Aldermanbury. 
Erected to John Heminge and Henry Con- 
dell, friends of Shakespeare, who brought 
out the first collective edition of his works. 
Presented by Mr. Chas. Clement Walker 
of Lilleshall, and unveiled by the Lord 
Mayor, 15 July, 1896. 

21. Statue of John Milton, Fore Street, 
Cripplegate. Erected in front of Cripple- 
gate Church, the burial-place of Milton. 
Presented by Mr. J. J. Baddeley, Deputy 
Alderman of Cripplegate Ward, and unveiled 
by Lady Alice Egerton, 2 Nov., 1904. 

22. Statue of Sir Robert Peel, Cheapside. 
Unveiled 21 July, 1855. 

23. Statue of Queen Anne, opposite the 
west front of St. Paul's Cathedral. The 
original statue was erected in 1712, and, 
having become defaced, was removed in 
1885. In the following year the present 
replica was placed in position. See 8 S. i. 
492; v. 148, 272; 10 S. viii. 271. 

24. Boy and Panyer, Panyer Alley. See 
8 S. i. 371, 463 ; 10 S. iv. 186." 

25. Martyrs' Memorial, Smithfield. 
Placed in one of the arched recesses of the 
external wall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 
Erected under the auspices of the Protestant 
Alliance. Unveiled by the Earl of Shaftes- 
bury, March, 1870. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 
(To be continued.) 

THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1857-1907. 

MONDAY, December 23rd, 1907, will be 
ever memorable in the annals of our Press 
as being the day on which Lord Burnham, 
the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph, 

provided a Christmas dinner, in the Albert 
Hall, for the surviving veterans of the 
Indian Mutiny. The idea was a happy 
one, and most happily was it carried out. 
Not a veteran able to be present was absent, 
while those too feeble to attend, or even 
across the seas, were not forgotten. The 
event has been so fully reported that only 
a brief note is necessary for the future 

Bail Roberts the Lieut. Roberts of the 
Mutiny days presided, and after reference 
to Havelock, to Outram, the Bayard of 
India, and many others, made special men- 
tion of 

"Henry Lawrence, the statesman, and John 
Nicholson, the soldier both respected and looked 
up to by the natives in a way that few sahibs have 
been looked up to and respected. Though only 
35 years of age when he died, Nicholson had made 
a name for himself on the North-West frontier of 
India which is remembered to this day. He was 
actually worshipped by a sect who called themselves 
'Nicholseynes.' 'This,' continued Lord Roberts, 
' never astonished me, for of all the men I have 
served under for some of whom I had a great 
admiration none of them impressed me in the same 
way as Nicholson.' " 

In reference to Henry Lawrence, Lord 
Roberts spoke of the asylums founded in 
his name, 

" in the hills of India for the education of British 

soldiers serving in that country it was he who, 

fourteen years before the Mutiny broke out, 
predicted what would occur if we neglected to take 
the most ordinary precautions. It is not too much 
to say of Henry Lawrence that, but for his influence 
over the natives, which prevented the Sepoys at and 
about Luckuow mutinying until he had time to 
make the Residency fairly secure, and for his fore- 
sight in storing it with a vast amount of supplies, 
not one of the 3,000 men, women, and children who 
sought shelter within that place towards the end of 
May, or of the 2,000 more men of Outram and Have- 
lock's force who joined the original garrison there on 
September 25th, could have been saved. They must 
all have perished either by starvation or by falling 
into the hands of the enemy. But for Henry 
Lawrence there would have been no ' Defence of 
Lucknow,' and no ' Relief of Lucknow ' to com- 
memorate to-day." 

It is pleasing to note Lord Roberta's, 
high testimony to the policy of Lord 
Canning. He had been but a little more 
than a year in the country, 

' but he proved himself worthy of the high position, 
for which he had been selected. His calmness 
during great excitement prevented panic becoming 
serious, and his policy of mercy at a time when a. 
thirst for vengeance, created by the atrocities 
perpetrated at Cawnpore and elsewhere, was not 
unnaturally very acute, did much to heal the feeling 
of racial animosity which existed." 
Readers of ' N. & Q.' may remember how 
grateful Lord Canning was to The Athencewn 

10 s. ix. JAN. 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

for standing up for him at the time of the 
attacks on " Clemency Canning." The 
Athenaeum never gave in to the outcry (9 S. 
xi. 65). 

At the dinner the services of the Naval 
Brigade and its gallant commander, Sir 
William Peel, were not forgotten. The loose 
clothing of the sailors gave them a great 
advantage over the soldiers, and enabled 
them to undergo more hardships. The 
tight belt worn by the European troops 
occasioned much discomfort, and after long 
marches the pressure against the side 
frequently caused a serious wound that 

A poem by Gerald Massey which appeared 
in The Athenceum of the 12th of June, 1858, 
rendered tribute to ' Sir Robert's Sailor Son,' 
closing with the following lines : 

Our old Norse Fathers speak in you, 

Speak with their strange sea-charm, 
That sets our hearts a- beating to 

The music of the storm. 
There comes a Spirit from the deep, 

The salt wind waves its wings, 
That rouses from its Inland sleep 

The blood of the old Sea Kings. 

Nearly 600 survivors of the Mutiny were 
present at the banquet, while about 700 
hampers were sent to those too infirm to 

The Daily Telegraph of the 28th of 
December calls attention to the fact that 
behind the festival, 

"glorious and inspiring as it was, there was a 
shadow known only to the organizers, but realized 
by every member of the Committee, by every officer, 
by Lord Roberts above all, with indignation and 
with grief." 

Many of the men " that we cheered and 
honoured and loved " had come from the 
workhouse, to return there to spend their 

" Already forgotten, once mere they think, as they 
were forgotten for many and many a year before, 
they are in the workhouse, and there they will 
remain, if nothing be done, until a pauper's portion 

ends in a paupers grave They nave conquered 

for us. Yet they have lost their freedom and the 
status of self-respecting manhood. They have been 
struck from the roll of citizenship. They are social 
captives within the workhouse walls, and never, 
never can our honour be repurchased until their 
liberty is redeemed." 

A telegram from Lahore states that the 
10th Bengal Lancers (2nd Hodson's Horse) 
celebrated the jubilee. The regiment, 
including the British officers, led by Col. 
Cowper, marched past and saluted its own 
native retired veterans, including Sepoys. 


(See 10 S. vi. 361, 402 ; vii. 3, 82, 284, 404 r 
442 ; viii. 124, 183, 384, 442.) 

THE following letter to Dodsley, which 
is now in Addit. MS. Br. Museum 30262 
f. 70, is from John Hoadly. It relates to the 
pieces furnished by him for this collection. 
They will be found in vol. v. pp. 244-96 r 
arranged in the order that Hoadly sug- 
gested. Mr. Taylor's verses on ' The Drop- 
sical Man ' were included in vol. vi. The 
pieces of George Stubbs do not seem to have 
been inserted. 

First, with Regard to my own Things, I know of 
no Property, either Mr. Russell y e Printer, or his 
Brother (as I was toldy e Gentleman was who applied 
to me for the Copy) has in y e Translation of y" 
Muscipula. I only permitted him to print it, as. 
Mr. H. [Holdsworth] had spoken of it so handsomely 
in a Letter & approved of it more than of any 
other Translation, tho' I think I collected six upon, 
that Occasion before I sat down to work upon it. 
Whether you will preface ;it with any Thing to 
that Effect, you are to judge. I think it W 1 not be 

The verses under Mr. H B [Hogarth's] Prints have 
been much admir'd by y c best Judges ; out being put 
under y e Plates in detach'd Pieces were never 
thoroughly understood as one compleat Poem. The 
References to y e Plates may be plac'd either at y e 
bottom of y" Page, or on y e sides. 

At y e end of them I have given You a List of y* 
Rest in y" Order in which I w d have them plac'd 
& number'd them accordingly. They are plac'd 
in that Order & will be easily understood at one 

Mr. Bercnger has been with me this last Week 
& has tempted me against my opinion to send you 
a few most excellent Copies of Mr. Straight, 
particularly one to Me when I was a Youngster at 
y e Temple, design'd for the study of y e Law; & 
another upon y e Change of my Resolution to That 
of y" Gospel. Both These are as good in their kind 
as can be writt & I w d have You begin my Piece? 
with them as they are number'd ; tho' I may expos 
myself a little by my Letter to Him on the delay 01 
his Promise. 

The Bird of Passage is better as a Poem than 
a Ballad & I desire it May be inserted & in that 

The Epil. & Prol. that follow have been so often 
copied out & lik'd that I was easily persuaded to 
add them to the Number The Epitaph you may 
do as you will with. 

I send you also y" best of a greater Number of 
Epigrams from Martial, address d to M r Harris of 
Salisbury. Whether you print 'em all, or whatever 
Number of them, let em begin & end with Those to 
M r Harris. I wpu'd beg that no Names be printed 
at length, only initial Letters. 

You mention'd to me M r Taylor's Copy of Verses 
on the Dropsical Man, but as y e Joke is old & too 
tediously told, I chose to omit that & have sent you 
some much better particularly y' two first full of 

NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. JAN. 4, im 

Wit fi true Humour. The Rest are excellent ii 
their way, particularly No' 22, 23, 24, 25 which I 
M under you cou'd put a Negative upon. 

If you can ixwsibly make Room for y e whole Col 
lection as they stand I sh" 1 be glad, as y Authors 
WIT*.- my particular Friends & I shoud be wel 
supported on each Side The Others which You 
returned into my Hands are either not so worthy 
-of Publication or improper So Soon after my poor 
Brother's Death : else You slid be wellcome to 

You may add M r ff* [Harris's] Fragment oj 
Chaucer after M r Taylor's Pieces and I hoi>e y e 
whole will answer to You both in Reputation and 

If hereafter you may think of another Volume I 
may supply You with Some Curiosities ; as, A few 
of I/ Hervey Kiujlixh Pieces of Tony Alsop, quite 
unknown of George Stubbs of &c., &c. 

I am, Sir, 
Your very humble Servant, 


S Maries, Ocf 18, 1757. 

I take this opportunity of stating that 
my annotation on vol. vi. 138-42 (10 S. viii. 
384) contains an inaccuracy. The line 

Blame as thou mayest the Papist's erring creed 
is not in the poem of Sneyd Davies. 


(To be continued.) 

CHRISTMAS NOTES. The following passage 
from the Rev. C. W. King's ' Gnostics and 
their Remains, Ancient and Mediaeval,' may 
interest some of your readers at the present 
season. The work has not been so widely 
read as it ought to have been, so I imagine 
the fragment quoted will be encountered 
for the first time by many of those who 
delight in the pages of ' N. & Q.' : 

" The ancient festival held on the 25th day of 
December in honour of the ' birthday of the 
Invincible One,' and celebrated by the great games 

of the circus was afterwards transferred to the 

commemoration of the birth of Christ, the precise 
day of which many of the Fathers confess was then 
unknown. Thus Chrysostom (Horn. 31) quotes the 
.above direction of the kalendar, and rightly under- 
stands it as referring to the birthday of the 
Invincible Mithras, adding : ' On this day also the 
birthday of Christ was lately fixed at Rome, in 
order that whilst the heathen were busied with their 
profane ceremonies, the Christians might perform 
their holy rites undisturbed.' Again he exclaims : 
' But they call this day the birthday of the Invincible 
One ; who is so invincible as the Lord that overthrew 

.iincl vanquished Death?' He is the Sun of 

Righteousness of whom Malachi saith : * Upon you 
fearful ones the Sun of Righteousness shall arise 
with healing in his wings.' And Leo the Great 
-{Serm. II. on the birth of the Lord) blames those 
Christians who gave offence to the weaker souls 
through the shameful persuasion of some by 
whom this festival of ours is reverenced not so 

much on account of Christ's birth as on that of the 
' rising of the new sun, to use their own words.' "- 
P. 50. 

The late Mr. P. G. Hamerton, in his very 
interesting ' Round my House,' tells his 
readers that the French peasant believes 
" that the cattle talk together on Christmas night, 
at the time of the midnight Mass ; but curiosity as 
to what the cattle may say is repressed as dangerous, 
there being a legend that a farmer who hid himself 
in the cowhouse to listen heard the prediction of 
his own speedy demise, which took place accord- 
ingly in a few days. Thousands of peasants believe 
this just as firmly as they believe things in the 
ordinary course of nature.' P. 254. 

There is much Christmas folk-lore in Jean 
Baptiste Thiers's ' Traite des Superstitions 
qui regardent les Sacremens,' but I do not 
remember whether the above is recorded 

In ' The Life of Mary Howitt ' we have 
an interesting account of the introduction 
of the Christmas tree into this country. " Our 
practical knowledge of the Christmas tree," 
we are told, 

" was gained in this first winter in Heidelberg. 
Universal as the custom now is, I beljeve the 
earliest knowledge which the English public had of 
it was through Coleridge in his ' Bipgraphia Lite- 
raria.' It had, at the time I am writing of 1840 
teen introduced into Manchester by some of the 
German merchants established there. Our Queen 
and Prince Albert likewise celebrated the festival, 
with its beautiful old German customs. Thus the 
fashion spread until now even our asylums, schools, 
and workhouses have, through friends and bene- 
factors, each its Christmas tree." Vol. i. p. 298. 


[For Christmas trees in England see 7 S. vi. 484 ; 
vii. 247, 311 ; x. 504; xi. 93 ; xii. 492.] 

THE LONDON LIBRARY. I wish to point 
out to every author that he can confer a 
*reat boon upon his fellows by forwarding 
\ copy of each of his publications to the 
London Library in St. James's Square. 
This he can do without pecuniary loss, as 
the publisher always allows him a number 
of free copies of his works. The London 
Library cannot purchase every new book, 
and thus there are gaps in its shelves which 
nconvenience the student. Even if he takes 
a selfish point, of view, the author will be 
amply repaid by following my advice, for 
lis work may bo quoted by writers who 
otherwise might not have the opportunity 
of reading him. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 
Fox Oak, Hersham, Surrey. 


AND FOLIOS. A note should be made of 

he sale at Sotheby's on Saturday, Decem- 

aer 21st, of Earl Howe's Quartos and Folios. 

A placard in the auction-room announced 

10 s. ix. JAX. 4, 


that the twenty-eight quartos had been sold 
privately en bloc, but the purchaser (the secret 
of whose name is well retained, Mr. Tom 
Hodge being both deaf and dumb when 
asked to reveal it) had instructed the auc- 
tioneers to offer, on his account, fourteen 
of these to public auction. The following 
particulars are taken from The Daily Tele- 
graph of December 23rd : 

"The first quarto submitted was the foart" 
edition (1611) of ' Hamlet,' no copy of which has 
apparently been at auction since the 337. specimen 
iu the Tite sale, 1874. After a longish duel, Mr. 
Sotheran had the call on Mr. Quaritch at 4007. As 
it turned out, this result formed a precedent for 
the fate of thirteen out of the fourteen quartos, Mr. 
Sotheran only once being defeated. The single ex- 
ception was in the case of the 1631 ' Love's Labour's 
Lost,' the second edition of the quarto, a copy of 
which brought half a guinea in the Heber sale. The 
Howe specimen now realized 2017. (Quaritch). The 
other quartos falling to Mr. Sotheran were 'Ham- 
let' (1637), 607.; 'Henry IV., Part I.' (1632), 66/. ; 
'Henry V.' (1608), 1047.; 'Henry VI., Parts II. 
and III.' (1619), 1207.; 'King John' (1622), 60/. ; 
'Richard III.' (1629), 1157 ; ditto (1634), 687.; 'Merry 
Wives of Windsor' (1619), 1607.; 'Pericles' (1619), 
657.; 'Romeo and Juliet' (1637), 407. ; and 'Romeo 
and Juliet' (1599), 1657. The Perkins copy of the 
last made 1647. in 1889. 

" The part of the sale was then reached which, to 
be accurate, could be described a.s the only part in 
possession of Earl Howe on the day of sale. Seven 
examples of ' doubtful ' plays ensued, but there was 
an absence of that enthusiasm which urged Mr. 
Jackson to give 1,2107. on June 1 for the very rare 
1592 quarto 'Arden of Faversham.' The uncommon 
and little-known 1602 'Cromwell' became Mr. 
Quaritch's at 2227., and the 1613 edition of the same 
chronicle of ' Thomas, Lord Cromwell,' at 407. The 
1595 'Locrine' 'of Shakespeare's among the sins 
of his youth,' according to Hazlitt, next realized 
1207. (Quaritch), a copy having fetched 99 guineas in 
the Daniel sale, 1864, and 457. in the Tite sale, 1874. 
The rest were: 'Oldcastle' (1600), 577. (Pickering) 
'ThePuritaine' (1607), 727. (Quaritch); 'The Two 
Noble Kinsmen,' 627. (ditto) ; and ' The Yorkshire 
Tragedie' (1619), 717. (Leighton) 

"The First Folio, measuring 13 in. by 8^in., or 
in. less in width than the 3,6007. Locker- Lampson 
copy in the Van Antwerp sale, and in. wider than 
the 2,4007. Buckley specimen, was welcomed as a 
remarkable survivor of the 1623 edition in its 
natural state. After the opening at 5007. there was 
a general contest, in which Mr. Edwards, Mr. 
Quaritch, and Mr. Robson were conspicuous, the 
first named winning at 2,0257. Mr. Robson after- 
wards found consolation in obtaining the excellent 
Third Folio at 5257., the perfect Langham example 
of this fetching, it may be recalled, 1,5507. in the 
Buckley dispersal." 


"WHIPPING THE CAT." In an interesting 
article upon ' The Village Tailor ' in a recent 
number of The Globe mention was made of 
" flogcat " as applied to a travelling tailor, 
because he could flog a cat from where he 

sat when it stole the milk. This, Miv 
Edward Lovett of Croydon stated Ia1er r 
is not the explanation, nor does he think 
that the term applies in any way to the- 
animal. Many years ago he obtained from 
Ross-shire an iron pinesplit holder, or 
"poor man" a very primitive lighting 
appliance which, he was informed, was 
used by a tailor " to whip the cat round the 
country." After much inquiry, Mr. Lovett 
found that this was the term applied to the 
system, once in vogue, by which a tailor 
would put up at a farmhouse in order to 
makes clothes for the farmer and his sons,. 
&c. The tailor found everything, even to 
his light-holding apparatus ; but was fed 
by the farmer, by arrangement of course. 
He would, when bis work was done, mova 
on to the next farm, taking all his " traps " 
with him. 

On referring to Farmer's ' Slang and it* 
Analogues ' I find that " whipping the cat " 
was not confined to tailors, but that the 
practice was more or less common to all 
trades : 

"1870. Judd, 'Margaret,' iii. Mr. Hart made 
shoes, a trade he prosecuted in an itinerating 
nianner from house to house, ' whipping the cat,' as- 
it was termed. 

" 1871. De Vere, 'Americanisms,' 648. ' Whip- 
ping the cat ' : an old English phrase, used only 
by tailors and carpenters, has maintained its- 
existence in New England, Pennsylvania, and a 
few other States, where it denotes the annual visit 

of a tailor to repair the clothes of a household 

The introduction of large manufacturing establish- 
ments, low-priced ready-made clothing, and the 
advent of the sewing-machine, have now nearly 
made an end to this itinerant (.ccupation. The 
term cattchipper and catwhipping were often face- 
tiously, and sometimes very irrevently, applied to 
other itinerant professions : even ' Schoolmasters ' 
there were no 'teachers,' much less 'educators/ 
in those benighted days were called cat-irhippers, 
when they boarded, as was quite usual, in turns- 
with the parents of their scholars. Itinerating 
preachers also were, by the initiated, included in 
this category." 

Mr. Lovett also states : 

"In some parts of Norway and Sweden an old 
tinder-box is called a (English) cat's candle ; while 
a certain form of ' need fire ' in some of the Swiss- 
valleys is called (English) 'the cat draws the devil.' 
In Gloucestershire, about thirty years ago, after 
the women on the farms had planted the field benns, 
they had a tea called a ' whip cat.' This has nothing 
to do with the game of ' tip-cat,' nor do [sic] either 
refer to that feline animal we all love so much." 

[See also 9 S. x. 205, 298, 455 ; xi. 276, 353.1 

1781. Thomas Blore, the antiquary and 
topographer, was a Derbyshire man, born 
in 1764, of whom there is an account in the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 4, im. 

* D.N.B.,' v. 238. One of his acquaintances 
in early life was Thomas Ince, of Wirks- 
worth, who was educated at the Manchester 
Orammar School ; see Smith, ' Reg. Manch. 
Sch.,' 1868, ii. 97 ; Hunter, ' Fam. Min. Gen., 
iii. 1172. To him at Manchester Blore 
wrote a letter, 16 Sept., 1781, in which he 
gave the following description of the races 
At Middleton, near Wirksworth : 

" As you say there were good races at Eccles I 
will give you a short account of Middleton races. 
On the first day (Monday) three horses started. 
Kendall's blood mare, Hatter Wood's bay horse, 
And a mare from Chesterfield ; the last was run so 
very hard that after the race was over it fell down 
twice ; the people assembled about it were not able 
to raise it from the last fall, and it died on the spot. 
On Wednesday three horses started, a mare from 
Calton, Hatter Wood's grey mare, and another (I 
don't know where the other came from). Hatter 
Wood's won the fourth heat, and the Calton mare 
the two last heats ; indeed, the Wednesday race 
was a very good one in my opinion. Hatter Wood 
rode his own horse the first heat on Wednesday, 
but was too heavy, and was advised to let another 
person ride it the last heats." From a copy among 
Mr. Inoe's papers. 

W. C. B. 

know it is considered impious in certain 
quarters to regard tartans as not being 
primaeval, but the Gordon tartan is 
probably not older than 1793, and was 
probably first used to clothe the Northern 
Fencibles, raised by the fourth Duke of 
Cordon in that year. The Duke applied 
to William Forsyth, a merchant in Huntly. 
According to a letter (never before published) 
which Forsyth wrote on 15 April, 1793 (it is 
now in Gordon Castle), his Grace was 
" desirous to have patterns of the 42nd 
Regiment [which his son, the Marquis of 
Huntly, entered in 1791] plaids with a small 
yellow stripe properly placed." Forsyth 
sent the Duke's factor three patterns of the 
42nd plaid, 

"all having yellow stripes. From these, I hope his 

Grace will fix on some of the three When the 

plaids are wove, the yellow stripes will be square 
and regular. I imagine the yellow stripes will 
appear very lively." 

From a letter of Forsyth 's dated 22 April 
it appears that on 20 April the Duke chose 
" pattern No. 2, that's to say, same with 
the 42nd Regiment with the alteration of 
the yellow stripe properly placed." 

118, Pall Mall. 

POLAR EXPLORATION. Nansen in 1895 
reached a point further to the north than any 
of his predecessors in Arctic exploration a 

latitude, in fact, of 86 13'. But in the 
course of the Duke of Abruzzi's famous 
expedition to the north of Spitzbergen in 
1899, Capt. Cagni with a sledging party 
reached in 1900 a latitude of 86 33', at a 
place to the north of Rudolf Land. In 
vol. xxxi. of ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
p. 808, the position is given by a misprint 
as 84 33', though the figures are correct in 
the map which accompanies the article 
(' Polar Regions ') on p. 809. 

W. T. LYNN. 

IN 1554. In Mr. Robert Lemon's t ' Cata- 
logue of Broadsides in the Library of the 
Society of Antiquaries ' No. 36A is 

" a praier to be said of all trewe Christians 

Imprynted at Grenewych by Conrade Freeman, in 
the month of May, 1554. With the most gracious 
licence and privilege of God Allmighty, Kyng of 
Heaven and Erth." 

Mr. Lemon adds : 

" This is printed in German type, and was no 
doubt part of a small book, as it bears the printer's 
signature K ii ; and was probably printed aoroad." 

The conjecture is accurate. It is the last 
leaf of "A faythfull Admonycion of a 
certen trew pastor and prophet," of which 
I gave some account at 10 S. iii. 484. It is 
attributed to the press of Froschauer of 
Zurich, and is a translation by some English 
exile of Luther's ' Warnunge an seinen 
lieben Deudschen ' (1546). 

There is a copy of this rare and curious 
book in the John Rylands Library at Man- 
chester. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

" NIGH HAND " IN THE ' N.E.D.' Some 
of the quotations given in illustration of 
this phrase seem wrongly placed. Thus, 
under definition 2 " almost, nearly " 
the following occur : " He said he could tell 
me of something that he dared say would 
go nigh hand to make me well " (' Un- 
fortunate Sensibility,' ii. 70), and " He 
came nigh-hand fainting, doctor, when he 
heard the cry " (Stevenson, ' Treas. Isl.,' 
xvi.). Surely this should be under the first 
definition " near " ? And ought not 
" nigh hand," when used in the second 
sense, to have the hyphen ? It is so printed 
in many of the quotations given. The 
' N.E.D.' is not a dialect dictionary, but I 
should have thought some notice would be 
taken of so common a localism as the use 
of " nigh hand " (nigh'd in Leicestershire) 
in the sense of probably, or surely. 

C. C. B. 

10 s. ix. JAN. 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 


THE following is a list somewhat lengthy, 
I regret to say of portraits by John 
Hoppner, R.A., about which I am anxious 
to have particulars for an exhaustive mono- 
graph on this artist, now being prepared 
for the printer. The portraits have been 
traced to a certain point, from which all 
records of their existence have, apparently, 
ceased. It is certain that all, or nearly all, 
are still in existence ; and where the 
identities of the various personages are 
clear, application has been made for infor- 
mation to the heads of the respective 
families, but, so far as those in the following 
list are concerned, without result. Family 
portraits, however, have an erratic habit of 
moving about. They are often left or given 
to remote relatives, and even to friends not 
connected with the family, and so the 
tracing of them from one owner to another 
becomes, after the lapse of 50 or 100 years, 
a very difficult process, involving a terrible 
expenditure of time, temper, and postage 
stamps. In several instances the famliy 
ceased to exist with the death of Hoppner's 
sitter, leaving no tangible trace which 
could be followed up as a clue to the sub- 
sequent owner or owners of such pictures as 
were in the possession of the deceased at the 
time of his or her death. 

In some few cases the identities of tha 
personages in the following list are a matter 
of doubt, and this doubt would be at once 
removed if the portrait could be traced. As 
the Hoppner monograph, which has been in 
hand for several years, is to be exhaustive, 
I am naturally anxious to reduce con- 
siderably my list of untraced portraits ; 
and as this end is most likely to be attained 
through the medium of ' N. & Q.,' I trust 
that the Editor will forgive the length of my 
list, which is as follows : 

Arbuthnot, Rt. Hon. Charles. British Institution, 


Bailey, Miss. R.A. 1784. 
Banks, Miss. Hoppner sale, 1823. 
Barrow, Thomas. Engraved by himself. 
Barry, Lady. Hoppner sale. 
Belgrave, Lord, Mr. Grosvenor, and Mr. Heathcote. 

Hoppner sale. 

Best, Mr. Serjeant. Hoppner sale. 
Bolingbroke, Viscount. Copied in enamel by H. P. 


Boyd,Mrs. R.A. 1787. 

Buckingham and Chandos, Mary, Duchess of. At 

Stowe, 1838. 

Burt, Mrs. > Hoppner sale. 
Capel, Lady Caroline. R.A. 1794. 
Carey, Bishop Wm. Hoppner sale. 
Cavendish, Lord G. AtConishead Priory in 1822. 
Cholmondeley, Marquess of. At Cholmondeley 

Castle, 1827. 

Clare, Anne, Countess of. R.A. 1798. 
Cowper, Lord. Hoppner sale (perhaps an error for 

Lady Cowper). 

Craven, Keppel, & Berkeley. ' Creevey Papers.' 
Crouch, Mrs. Painted circa 1787. 
Darlington, Earl of. Hoppner sale. 
Davison, Col. H. P. & Major W. British Institution, 


Dick, Dr. Hoppner sale. 
Essex, Countess of. R.A. 1809. 
Eyre, Mr. Hoppner sale. 
Fauconbridge, Countess. Hoppner sale. 
Ford, Mrs. Hoppner sale. 
Harris, Miss. Hoppner sale. 
Heber, Rev. Reginald. Leeds Ex., 1868. 
Humphrey, Sellender (wife of the engraver). 
Keniston, Mrs. Hoppner sale. 
Kirigsman, Miss. Hoppner sale. 
Lade, Lady. Hoppner sale. 
Langford, Dr. Hoppner sale. 
Lewisham, Lord. R.A. 1783. 
Lewisham, Lady. R.A. 1783. 
Lilford, Lord. Hoppner sale. 
Lloyd, Capt. Richard. R.A. 1786. 
Longworthy, Mrs. Hoppner sale. 
Loraine, Lady. Hoppner sale (perhaps an error for 

Lord Loraine). 
Mills, Mr. Hoppner sale. 
Milner, Lady. Hoppner sale. 
Monck, Lady E. Hoppner sale. 
Monson, Hoi). Miss. Hoppner sale. 
Morris, Mr. R.A. 1797. 
Morris, Miss. R.A. 1797. 
Niel, Sir John [?]. Hoppner sale. 
Ogle, Mrs. Hoppner sale. 
Orange, H. S. H. Prince of. R.A. 1800. 
Orde, Lady. Hoppner sale. 
Paget, Lord [Anglesey]. R.A. 1798. 
Paget, Lady. R.A. 1796. 
Petersham, Lord. Hoppner sale. 
Ponsonby, Lady. Hoppner sale. 
Porter, Capt. R.A. 1789. 
Ricketts, Mrs. Hoppner sale. 
Roxburghe, John, Duke of. R.A. 1788. 
Russell, Lady William. Hoppner sale, 
Shaw, Lady. Hoppner sale. 
Simpson, Mrs. Bridgeman. Hoppner sale. 
Sitwell, Mrs. Hoppner sale. 
Smyth, John Henry. Leeds Ex., 1868. 
Spedding, Mrs. Hoppner sale. 
Stanhope, Lady Hester L. Grafton Gallery, 1894. 
Stevenson, Miss. Hoppner sale. 
Sutherland, Eizabeth, Countess of. R.A. 1799. 
Thurlow, Lord. Hoppner sale. 
Tolfrey, Mrs. R.A. 1788. 
Uxbridge, Henry, Lord. R.A. 1797. 
Windham, Percy. Hoppner sale. 
Worcester, Marquis of. Hoppner sale. 
Yonge, Lady. R.A. 1795. 

Replies may be sent to me direct. 

47, Lansdowne Gardens, Clapham, S.W. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. JAN. 4, im 

GENERAL BOURKE. The names of some 
of the celebrated generals who followed the 
Emperor Napoleon I. in the " carnpagne 
d'ltalie " are carved on the inside of the 
Arc de Triomphe at Paris. Among them 
appears fourth on the scroll the name of 
General Bourke. Can any of your corre- 
spondents give me information as to his 
career, who he was, and to what branch 
of the Bourke family he belonged ? 

3, Stratford Place, W. 

' The Lady of the Lake,' i. 26, Scott says : 

Where Ellen's hand had taught to twine 
The ivy and Ida-an vine. 

What plant does he mean by it ? 

At the same time may I ask why in i. 12 
the foxglove and nightshade are called 
Emblems of punishment and pride ? 


were the authors of the following novels ? 
They were probably issued 1850-53. 

1. Lorenzo Benoni. 

_. Passages in the Life of an Italian. 

3. The Heart of John Middleton. 


[1. By Giovanni Ruffini, published at Edinburgh 
in 1853, according to Halkett and Laing.J 

CHANTRY AT NORTHIAM. I should be glad 
of information respecting a paper in the 
Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. xxiii. It 
is headed ' Crown Presentations to Livings,' 
and amongst other details is given " Chantry 
of the Chapel in the King's Manor, Northiam 
(Ihamme), 4 Ed. III., John de Sunting and 
four other chantry priests." At the Record 
Office I can find no trace of a chantry or 
priests belonging thereto, either in Henry 
VIII. 's or Edward VI. 's list of suppressed 
chantries. A. L. F. 

THOMAS COOKE, O.S.B., was one of the 
witnesses to the will of Jane Wayte, one of 
the nuns of the suppressed Abbey of St 
Mary. Winchester (Gasquet, 'Henry VIII 
and the English Monasteries' 1906 ed 
p. 452). One Thomas Cook, monk aged 
about seventy, was in the Marshalsea in 
1579 (Strype, Ann.' II. ii. 660). If these 
are one (as seems likely) was he not the 
Thomas Coke who entered Winchester 
College from Donhead, St. Andrew Wilts 
in 1526. aged twelve ? 


MESWINDE THE FAIR. In Robert Burton's 
'Anatomy of Melancholy' (12th ed., 1821 
Part. III. sec. ii. fnem. 4, subs. 1) we read 
what follows : 

"They will be still singing amorous songs and 
ditties (if vong especially), and cannot abstain,, 
though it DC when they go to, or should be at 
church. We have a pretty story to this purpose in 
Westmonasteriensis, an old writer of ours (if you. 
will believe it) an. Dom. 1012. at Colewiz in 
Saxony ; on Christmas*eve, a company of yong men 
and maids, whilst the priest was at mass in the 
church, were singing catches and love songs in the 
church-yard ; he sent to them to make less noise, 
but they sung on still ; and if you will, you shall 
have the very song it self : 

Equitabat homo per sylvam frondosam, 

Ducebatque secum Meswinden formosam, 
Quid stamus, cur non imus? 

A fellow rid by the green wood side, 

And fair Meswinde was his bride, 

Why stand we so, and do not go? 
This they sung ; he chaft ; till at length, impatient 
as he was, he prayed to St. Magnus, patron of the 
church, that they might all three sing and dance, 
till that time twelve month, and so they did, with- 
out meat and drink, wearisomness or giving over, 
till at yeares end they ceased singing, ana were 
absolved by Herebertus, archbishop of Colen." 

In a note he quotes these words from 
Matthew of Westminster's ' Flores His- 
toria?,' fol. 298 : 

"Per totum annum cantarunt, pluvia super illos 
non cecidit ; non frigus, non calor, non sitis, neo 
lassitudo illos affecit, &c. 

This book carries us as far as the year 1307. 
In 1303 the ' Handlynge Synne ' was written 
by Robert Mannyng (Ten Brink's ' Early 
English Literature,' p. 299), who apparently 
quotes the lines as given by Burton's 
authority, according to a reviewer in The 
Athenceum of 7 December last (p. 720), who- 
says : 

" Miss Clara Thomson writes well on the ' Le- 
gendaries and Chroniclers of Later Transition 
English,' though the lines she quotes from the 
' Handlynge Synne ' are not ' a snatch of song,' but 
ordinary translation of a Latin version of a Saxon 
song. We prefer the old form : 

Equitabat Bovo per silvam frondosam, 
Ducebat sibi Merswynden formosam, 
Quid stamus, cur non eamus ? " 

Where is this version, older than that given 
by Matthew of Westminster, to be found f 
And is anything known about Bovo and 
Meswinde the Fair ? JOHN T. CURRY. 

Can any of your readers experience teachea 
that if they can they will furnish me with, 
or direct me to, pictures of the exterior and 
interior of three old London chapels, all 
demolished, viz., in Maidenhead Court, Great 
Eastcheap (Wilson's Dissenting Churches/ 

10 s. ix. JAN. 4, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

1808, vol. i. p. 457), Friars Street, Black- 
friar-; (id., vol. ii. p. 165), and York Street, 
St. James's Square (Mr. Dasent's ' History 
of St. James's Square,' 1895, p. 146) ? 

169, Grove Lane, Camberwell, S.E. 

NICOLAS PIKE, the U.S. Consul at Port 
Louis, Mauritius, in his ' Sub-Tropical 
Rambles,' published in 1873, stated in the 
Preface that " in a second volume, nearly 
completed," he purposed treating more fully 
on the fauna and flora of Mauritius, and 
that a full description of the " very beautiful 
bird the Aphanapteryx imperialist would 
also be given in a future volume. That 
volume, I surmise, has never appeared. Is 
the author still alive ? and, if not what 
has become of his MSS. ? L. L. K. 

mation is sought relative to the family of 
Dorman, which settled in Ireland during 
the seventeenth century. A branch of the 
family is known to have been living in 
co. Cork in 1698 ; but earlier information is 
desired. The name may be of French origin : 
and as some of the property formerly owned 
by the family is known as Picardy, it sug- 
gests the probability of its being a branch of 
the De Dorman family of Picardy. 

Samuel Hobart resided near Banagher, 
and married a Miss Seymour of co. Galway 
in the latter part of the eighteenth century. 
Samuel Hobart or his immediate relatives 
held considerable property in King's Cpunty ; 
and one relative, Major Hobart, owned 
property in co. Cork and also, it is believed, 
in Bath. Any information will be gratefully 
received by RICHARD H. DORMAN. 

Tullymore Park, Armagh. 

JOHN SHAKESPEARE, OB. 1732. Is any- 
thing known of this man and his family ? 
He lies buried in Layston Churchyard, 
Herts, and his epitaph states that he was 
citizen and Founder of London, and died 

Mr. Layard in his lately published ' Life 
and Letters of Shirley Brooks,' gives at 
p. 351 a rebus letter from Du Maurier to 
Brooks, the third line of which he leaves 
to his reader's ingenuity, as he confesses he 
cannot decipher it himself. I think the 
second half of the line means evidently 
"but expect one." Can anybody say what 

the first half means ? 

A. A. M. 

4 THE PHILOBIBLION.' This was " a 
monthly bibliographical journal, containing 
critical notices of, and extracts from, rare, 
curious, and valuable old books." It was 
published by Geo. P. Philes & Co., 51, 
Nassau Street, New York, the first number 
appearing in December, 1861. The British 
Museum copy contains only 16 numbers ; 

were any more published ? 

C. D. 

17 Dec., 1732, aged 60. A son, Henry 
Mond Shakespeare, citizen and Loriner, of 
London, who died 3 March, 1784, aged 67, 
is interred in the same grave. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

COGHLAN, OF BATH. Who are the possessors 
of these paintings ? They were engraved 
in mezzotint, respectively in 1770 and 1772, 
by John Raphael Smith. The subject died 
in 1772 (Musgrave's 'Obituary'). Can any 
reader say to what family Miss Coghlan 

belonged ? 


cording to Lowndes, Robert Glover was, 
besides being Somerset Herald, the author 
of an ' Ordinary of Arms ' which formed 
vol. i. of Edmondson's ' Heraldry,' pub- 
lished in 1780, and was also responsible for 
Thomas Milles's "Catalogue of Honor.... 
an admirable and judicious work," published 
in 1610. 

Philipott in his ' Villare Cantianum,' 
1659, p. 110, speaks of a demolished altar- 
tomb of the Vaughan family in Votes-Grey 
(Foots Cray) Church as being entire when seen 
by Mr. Robert Glover and described in his 
4 Collection of Kentish Monuments.' 

I shall be extremely obliged if any one 
can tell me whether this work was ever 
published, and if so, where I can see a copy, 
or whether it remains in manuscript. 

As the elder Philipott was connected with 
the Heralds' College, and Glover was 
Somerset Herald, it is more than likely that 
one of the officials of that establishment 
could tell us something of it. It ought to 
be a valuable work for Kentish historians 
and genealogists, filling a gap between 
Lambard and Weever, and might with 
advantage be published by subscription if 
the MS. could be found. 

Lowndes is silent on the subject, and 
James Russell Smith, so far as I can see, 
does not even mention the name in his 
4 Bibliotheca Cantiana.' WM. NORMAN. 

your readers inform me whether the tomb 
of Shakspeare was ever opened ? Some 
time ago Mr. James Hare published in a 
Birmingham paper an account of a remark-; 
able visit he made to the .vault in Holy 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 4, im 

Trinity. He said that he went to Stratford 
with a friend, and, " on visiting the poet's 
tomb, found the vault adjoining it open, 
probably for the reception of a body." 
Who is Mr. Hare ? and what are we to 
think of his communication ? 

Albany, N.Y. 

CREMATION IN 1769. In 'The Annual 
Register ' for 1769, under the date of 
26 September, p. 133, appears the following : 

" Last night the will ot Mrs. Pratt, a widow lady, 
who died at her house in George Street, Hanover 
Square, was punctually fulfilled by the burning of 
her body to ashes in her grave in the new burying- 
ground adjoining to Tyburn turnpike." 

Are other cases of the kind in the eighteenth 
century recorded ? Is anything known of 
Mrs. Pratt ? D. M. R. 

be obliged if some one could tell me the 
approximate date when this thoroughfare 
was first named Hamilton Place. Was it 
a thoroughfare in 1815 ? 


DR. JOHN ELLIOT. Can any one give 
me particulars regarding Dr. John Elliot, 
who was executed at Edinburgh on 9 March, 
1694 ? For what crime did he suffer ? A 
pamphlet issued at that period gives no 
particulars. W. E. WILSON. 

Ha wick. 

mon in his ' History of Hertfordshire,' 1728, 
p. 186, states (under Chisfield) : 

" The Clerk of this Church must not be forgot. 
The harmless old man stood by whilst I was taking 
this Inscription, and with a great deal of concern 
asked me, ' If there was any Tax upon dead folks 
coming up, I was so diligent to take their names ? ' 
Which at last is not so extravagant a Thought, 
since the Roman Emperors raised money that way.'' 
To what Roman law does Salmon refer ? 


On p. 176 of 'The Recollections of Abraham 
Lincoln,' by Ward H. Lamon, edited by 
Dorothy Lamon, Chicago (McClurg, 1895), 
is this : 

"In the preface to the old Wycliffe Bible 
Pmu-A' .- 13 2*[c] is the following declaration: 

.his ttible is for the government of the people, 
by the people, and for the people,' which language 
is identicaf with that employed by Mr. Lincoln in his 
Gettysburg speech. 

Will some reader of 'N. & Q.' having 
access to a copy of the Bible in question, 
verify the quotation ? DEWITT MILLER. 

New York City. 

(10 S. viii. 430, 495.) 

I DID not see DR. KRTJEGER'S letter when 
it appeared. Surely there is not much 
obscurity in the expression " washed them 
power." If, applied to present-day events, 
ane were to say that the Ocean had " washed 
power to the Japanese, and defeat to the 
Russians," no one could misunderstand his 

I am surprised, however, to see the vener- 
able misprint " thy waters wasted them " 
cropping up again. I thought it had been 
laid to rest for ever, but, like the equally 
venerable inaccurate saying, " Now Barabbas 
was a publisher," it reappears from time to 
time, in spite of successive refutations. 

" Thy waters wasted them " was a 
printer's errox. Byron himself detected 
it, and wrote to my grandfather, " That is 
not me. Consult the MS. always " ; and the 
MS. leaves no room for doubt. 

If any one wishes for more information, 
I would advise him to consult 1 S. iv. 223, 
278, 324, 508 ; ix. 481 ; x. 314 ; 434 ; and 
the correspondence in. The Times, 3-12 Jan., 

The question is fully dealt with in my 
new edition of Byron in thirteen vols., which 
may be accepted as an authority on all such 
points. JOHN MURRAY. 

[MB. MURRAY'S valuable communication is con- 
clusive as to the correctness of DR. KRUEGER'S 
quotation, and shows that ' N. & Q.' has long taken 
an interest in Byron. His letter also renders it 
unnecessary to print contributions from several 
other correspondents, who mention various editions 
in which the two readings occur. MR. T. BAYNE 
points out that the right reading is found in 
Murray's "Pearl Edition" of 1867; but "wasted 
them "had appeared in Murray's editions of 1831 
and 1855 (10 S. viii. 495).] 

445, 492). With reference to the interesting 
communication by F. DE H. L. as to the 
descent of the Dalzells of Glenae, I should 
be much obliged if he would be good enough 
to give his authority for the statement that 
the Hon. John Dalzell (or Sir John Dalzell, 
as he was really a knight), the son of the 
first Earl of Carnwath, and grandfather of 
Sir John Dalzell, the second Baronet of 
Glenae, died 24 Feb., 1689, a few week* 
only before his grandson. As the marriage 
contract of the Earl of Carnwath and Mar- 
garet Crichton, daughter of Sir Robert 

10 s. ix. JAN. 4, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Crichton of Cluny, is dated 28 March, 1580, 
it is unlikely that the second son in a family 
of eight did not die till 109 years after his 
father's marriage. I am aware this is the 
date given in ' The Complete Baronetage,' 
but it wants verification. There was a 
ratification by Parliament on 23 Dec., 
1669, of a charter to Sir John Dalzell of 
Glenae, Kt., and his son Robert Dalzell, 
" now designated Sir Robert Dalzell of 
Glenae." From Sir Robert being so desig- 
nated, it would rather appear that his 
father had died previous to the date last 
mentioned, but after 8 March, 1666, the 
date of the charter ratified by Parliament. 

J. B. P. 

1502 (10 S. viii. 427). Some information 
may be got from Mrs. Bury Palliser's ' His- 
toric Devices, Badges, and War-Cries,' 1870, 
p. 142: 

"Gonzaga, Lucretia. This device of a white 
stag, with a necklace, under the shade of a laurel- 
tree. Her motto, Wessun mi tocchi, ' Let no one 
touch me,' was suggested by the sonnet of Petrarch, 
allegorical of his devotion to Laura : 
Una Candida cerva sopra 1' erba 
Verde m' apparve con due corna d' oro 
Fra due riviere all' ombra d' un alloro, 
Levando '1 sole alia stagione acerba. 
Petrarch then describes the necklace 

Nessun mi tocchi, al bel collo d' intorno 
Scritto avea di diamanti e di topazi, 
Libera farmi al mio Cexare parve. 

The white stag is the emblem of purity so is the 
laurel tree (Daphne) ; and the shade of the laurel is 
also the emblem of safety, the lightning never 
striking this tree. The topaz indicates purity, and 
also the diamond, as it yields neither to fire nor 
iron. Lucretia was left early a widow ; her hus- 
band was many years a prisoner. By her device 
she meant to convey her intention of preserving her 
fame unsullied." 

I have taken the quotations direct from 
" Le Rime di Messer Francesco Petrarca 
publicate da A. Buttura," Parigi, 1820 ; 
vol. ii. p. 74, ' In Vita di Laura,' Sonetto 157, 
as Mrs. Palliser (who does not give the 
reference) has made many errors in copying, 
e.g., " rivere," " Topati," " Casare," for 
riviere, topazi, Cesare. 

Reference may also be made to p. 108 of 
her book : 

"Charles VI. , ' Le Bien Servi,' took for device a 
flying stag, with a collar of gold round its neck, and 
the motto, Ccesar hoc mihi doiiavit, 'This Caesar 
gave to me.' Juvenal des Ursins relates that the 
King, when hunting in the forest of Senlis, found a 
stag wearing a chain of copper gilt round its neck. 
The stag was taken alive, and on the collar was the 
above inscription. From that time the King 
adopted the flying stag, and bore two of them as 

supporters to his arms, having previously used two 
angels. Froissart gives a different account of the 
origin of this device." 

Then follows an extract from Froissart, 
which I find is from chap. 406. The King, 
when at Senlis, dreamt that he had cast off 
a pilgrim falcon after some herons, and that 
he could not follow up on horseback because 
he came to a wood. Then he continued on 
foot till he came to a heath. Here a white 
hart with two wings appeared, and carried 
him over the trees. The falcon was re- 
covered, and the hart carried the King back 
to the heath, where it vanished. The King 
on his expedition to Flanders took a flying 
hart for his device. Froissart in this account 
makes no mention of Caesar. 

The device is given among the medals of 
Charles VI. in 'La France Metal lique/ par 
Jacques de Bie, Paris, 1634, plate 35. The 
description is given on p. 117 of the 'Ex- 
plication.' A winged stag with a golden 
crown on its neck, having on its back a 
mantle strewed over with fleur-de-lis, is 
following a falcon. The motto is " Sequar 
et assequar," the date 1381. 

Lucretia de Gonzagua (sic) appears 
according to Jer. Collier's ' Dictionary, 
Supplement, 2nd ed., 1727, to have lived 
in the earlier half of the sixteenth century. 
Her husband John Paul Manfrone was 
imprisoned by the Duke of Ferrara, and died 
in prison. Reference is made to Bayle, 
' Diction. Histor.' ROBEKT PIERPOINT. 

"HACKNEY" (10 S. viii. 465). PROF. 
SKEAT maintains that the word " hackney," 
in the sense of an ordinary riding-horse, 
is identical with Hackney, the name of the 
place in the north of London. The sole 
argument brought forward for this etymology 
is that these two words have a common 
spelling in Middle English. But surely 
identity of form is no proof that two words 
are identical, unless their identity can be 
established by some historical evidence. 
For instance, there are four words spelt 
" sound " in English, two of English and 
two of French origin, and each one abso- 
lutely unconnected with the other. Why 
should not " hackney " the horse be quite 
distinct from Hackney the village ? No 
scrap of historical evidence has ever been 
brought forward to connect these two words 
with one another. Has any one ever heard 
of a Hackney breed of horses ? ' N.E.D.' 
shows that this word for a horse was in 
common use at an early period in France, 
Holland, Portugal, Spain, and Italy. No 
etymologist who has dealt with this word 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAX. 4, was. 

in its French, Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish 
or Italian forms has ever, so far as I know 
connected it with Hackney, or imagined 
that it was of English origin. Dr. Murray 
says " its ulterior derivation is Mill un 
known." This was said about ten years 
ago, and I think that we must still allo\v 
this to be the case in the complete absence 
of any historical evidence which may throw 
light upon the matter. A. L. MAYHEW. 

LANGSTBOHER (10 S. viii. 490). I shouk 
think that this was the place now callec 
Eagle. In Domesday it appears as Aclei 
Aycle, and Akeley. The church is now under 
the invocation of All Saints. The Templars 
had a commandery here. ST. SWITHIN. 

Eglia is doubtless Eagle in Lincolnshire. 

William Langstrother was Preceptor o: 
the Preceptory of Eagle about 1454. For 
list of Preceptors see ' Lincoln,' Victoria 
County History, vol. ii. p. 211. 


' RINORDINE,' IRISH SONG (10 S. viii. 468 
5 18). I have frequently heard in the rura 
districts of Ulster this popular ballad, the 
locale of which is co. Tyrone, sung to the 
air given in Graves's ' Irish Songbook,' 
as late as the seventies, and no doubt it 
. was carried to America by emigrants. It 
was known as ' The Mountains High,' and 
the hero's name was spelt Reynardine. 
Dr. Sigerson of Dublin, the author of the 
modern version, admittedly founded it 
on a fragment of the folk ballad, but was 
unable to obtain any information relating 
to the hero or his time. In my opinion, 
it refers, like so many other Ulster ballads, 
poems, and stories, to an attachment formed 
by a member of an English or Scottish 
"planter's" family for one of the offspring 
of the original Celtic owners in the early 
seventeenth century. These latter being the 
original Tories, and frequently outlawed, 
would require " concealment " from the 
edict of the judges, and probably the castle 
in the forest was as figurative as Allen-a- 
dale's hall " the blue vault of heaven with 
its crescent so pale." JOHN S. CRONE. 
[Reply from MR. HERBERT HUGHES next week.] 


viii. 348, 414). Recently I was nourishing 
Hodson's sabre, nearly to the detriment 
of the furniture of the Rev. J. M. Glubb, 
vicar of Gerrard's Cross, to whom the sabre 
belongs. A British cavalry officer's sabre 

of the ordinary type, it was presented by 
Hodson to a brother officer, Col. Glubb, 
the present owner's father. Mr. Glubb 
also possesses a short knife with which one 
of the Shazadaghs severed the hands arid 
feet of many English children. No. 21 
of Day's ' Lithographs of the Indian Mutiny * 
(from drawings by Capt. Atkinson), published 
in 1859, represents the death of the Shaza- 
daghs. Hodson is depicted mounted, and 
pointing a carbine at one of his prisoners. 


SIR EDMUND PEIRCE, KT. (10 S. viii. 490). 
He died intestate, and presumably a 
widower, as his relict would either have 
administered to his effects or renounced 
her right of doing so. Administration, 
in which he is described as " Doctor of Laws, 
of the parish of St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, 
London," was granted, 17 Aug., 1677, in 
the P.C.C., to Gilbert Peirce, his son. 

G. E. C. 

' THE FARMER'S AUDIT ' (10 S. viii. 488). 
The selected verse is an inaccurate quotation 
from Cowper's poem ' The Yearly Distress ; 
or. Tithing Time at Stock, in Essex.' The 
poem consisting of 17 stanzas, of which 
this is the fourteenth is desciibed as 
" addressed to a Country Clergyman, com- 
plaining of the disagreeableness of the day 
anmially appointed for receiving the Dues 
at the Parsonage." 

The correct reading of the stanza quoted 
is as follows : 

One talks of mildew and of frost, 

And one of storms of hail, 
And one of pigs that he lias lost 

By maggots at the tail. 

The first line of the poem is " Come, ponder 
well, for 'tis no jest." See Grimshawe's 
edition (5th, I860) of Cowper's works, 
p. 594. C. LAWRENCE FORD. 


and W. T. are thanked for similar replies.] 

10 S. viii. 450). Gordon was John Gordon, 
Bishop of Galloway. He had gone to 
France to James II., and ministered as a 
jishop for some time, but was received into 
he Roman Communion at Rome in 1703. 
Bather James Forbes says in a letter to 
nother Jacobite exile, Edward Meredith, 
dated at Rome 23 March, 1703 : " Owr 
quondam Bishoppe is to-morrow to mak 
abjuration " (Rawlinson MS. D 21, 

10 s. ix. JAN. 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


fol. 26, Bodleian Library). An account 
of Gordon and notice of the inquiry into 
the validity of his Orders is in the ' D.N.B.' 

John Gordon, consecrated Bishop of 
Galloway, 4 Feb., 1688, by John Patterson, 
Archbishop of Glasgow, went into exile 
with James IT. On 17 April, 1704, Cle- 
ment XI. decreed : 

" loannes Clemens Gordon ex integro et 

absolute ordinetur ad omnes ordines etiam sacros 
et prsecipue presbyteratus, et quatenns nun fuerit 
confirmatps, prius sacramentum confirmationis 


viii. 488). MR. WATTS asks for a reference 
to the expression "moonless stars" in 
Tennyson. .1 have no doubt he means 
"moonless Mars." Until 1877 that planet 
was supposed to have no moons ; and in 
' The Palace of Art ' Tennyson wrote a 
stanza (afterwards withdrawn because he 
thought the poem too long) which begins : 

She saw the snowy poles of moonless Mars. 
In the memoir of Tennyson by his son we 
are told that he changed this, after the dis- 
covery of the satellites of Mars, to 

She saw the snowy poles and moons of Mars. 
Reference should be made to a veiy interest- 
ing and exhaustive article on ' Astronomy 
in Tennyson,' by Mr. Whitmell, F.R.A.S., 
in the journal of the Leeds Astronomical 
Society, No. 14. W. T. LYNN. 


(10 S. viii. 446). This man was better 
known in England as an air-walker than as 
an equestrian. He first performed his feat 
of walking on a slab of polished marble, 
head downwards, at Drury Lane Theatre, 
8 March, 1853. It may be doubtful whether 
this man was the real Richard Sands, as 
in Mayhew's ' London Labour and the 
London Poor,' 1861, iii. 103, the strong man 
says to his interviewer : 

' The chap that came over here wasn't the real 
Sands. The fact is well known to the profession 
that Sands killed himself on his benefit night in 
America. After walking on the marble slab in the 
circus, somebody bet him he couldn't do it on any 
ceiling ; and he for a wager went to a town-hall and 
done it, and the ceiling gave way, and he fell and 
brokers neck. The chap that came over here was 
Sands's attendant, and he took the name and the 
boots, and came over as Prof. Sands." 
There is a view of Sands walking head 
downwards in The Illustrated London News 
2 April, 1853, p. 253. FREDERIC BOASE. 

(10 S. viii. 388). Many years ago there 
appeared in Punch, translations of two at 
least of the ' Anacreontea,' each English lin& 
rhyming with the Greek line of which ifc 
was the equivalent ; for example : 

Aeyowiv at -ywat/ccs' 

What seems the girls to strike is : 


Dear Punch, you r re a very old crony ; 


If I'm bibulous after dinin'. 
I have an impression that I have seen 
them reprinted. If not by the same hand. 
they appear to belong at any rate to the 
same school as the demi-translation of 
Horace's second Epodo. One's thoughts 
turn to Trinity College, Dublin. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

469). The ' Dictionnaire de Geogiaphie. . . . 
a 1'Usage du Libraire,' on the authority 
of Dr. Cotton's ' Supplement,' states that 
printing was not introduced into Birming- 
ham till 1716. The first book issued was 
a sermon by the Rev. J. Southall ; the 
second, " A loyal Oration by J. Parkinso 
Head Master of the Free School," a quarto 
printed by Matthew Unwin in 1717. 

L. L. K. 

HIGHWAYS REPAIRED (10 S. viii. 464). 
The Church was always forward in urging 
people to do their duty in matters of this- 
kind. Thus in mediaeval wills, which were 
mostly made by ecclesiastics, bequests for 
the repair of roads and bridges are quite 
usual. Many such occur in the volumes 
issued by the Surtees Society. Moreover, 
in the early " bidding prayers " such be- 
quests are counted pious, and the givers 
worthy of remembrance : " Yee shale praye 
. . . .for men and women which briggeis 
or. way makyth or mendith " (Surt. Soc.,. 
Ixiii. 224*). 

In some of the manors belonging to the 
Archbishop of York in right of his see, h& 
allowed out of his woods " boughs for 
mending the highwavs " (Yorksh. Arch. 
Jour., vii. 55). W. C. B. 

In the ' History of the Parish of Bromley 
St. Leonard, Middlesex,' 1862, the author r 
James Dunstan, Vestry Clerk, says (p. 31) 
that the Lady Prioress and the nuns of the 
Priory of St. Leonard, 

" being also the she-lords of the manor, were 
bound to keep the highways in repair : and to aid 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 4, im 

them in that, Richard Gosselyn, citizen and 
Ironmonger of London, by his will (without date, 

but about 1375) bequeathed to the nuns ten 

marks for ' mendynge the highways of Bromley, 
reckonynge from the house of Stephen Myller 
(usque ad Domum Monicdium), unto the house of 
the nuns ' : and he could not leave it to any other 
body corporate, for there was no other in the parish, 
there being at that time no churchwardens, 
overseers, or surveyors." 


WILLIAM HOGSFLESH (10 S. viii. 28, 334, 
394). In the register of baptisms of All 
Saints' Church, Hertford, are the following 
entries : 

13 Novr., 1814. George, son of William and Ann 

21 July, 1816. Sarah, daughter of William and 
Ann Hogsflesh. 

8 Nov., 1818. Henry Holman, son of William and 
Ann Hogsflesh. 

27 Aug., 1820. Alfred, son of William and Ann 

In the register of burials of the same 
church : 

5 Dec., 1819. Sarah, daughter of William and 
Ann Hogsflesh. 

17 June, 1857. William Hogsflesh. 
In a Poll-Book of the Parliamentary 
election for the borough of Hertford for 
1839 appears the name of William Hogsflesh 
as a voter, and also in another Poll-Book 
for 1857. 

I remember William Hogsflesh, who was 
a baker, living in Castle Street, Hertford, 
when I was a lad ; but I do not think there 
are any of the name now in this town. 


If MR. HEBB'S suggestion at the last refer- 
ence be true, that this name comes to us 
from Germany, I think the actual source 
may be Hauptfleisch. I knew a German of 
this name in 1898 at Kimberley not a 
butcher, however, but the secretary of the 
Bond election committee. I believe he is 
since dead. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

LONDON REMAINS (10 S. viii. 226 271 
337, 392, 476). When the old Queen's 
Bench Prison was demolished a few years 
ago, J. W. Hobbs, the contractor, whose 
name was associated with the " Liberator " 
crash, removed the stonework of one of 
the principal gateways to Croydon, and set 
it up against a wall of his workshops, with 
a suitable inscription, and it doubtless 
remains there to this day. 

A large number of the stones of old West- 
minster Bridge were purchased by William 

Goldsmith, the wine merchant of Parlia- 
ment Street, whose name was familiar to 
Londoners fifty years ago in connexion with 
" Goldsmith's Yarmouth ales." He used 
the stones to build a boundary wall and 
gate-piers to Norbury Lodge, near Croydon, 
in which he then resided. This house 
afterwards passed into the possession of 
the J. W. Hobbs mentioned above. 

Burlington Gardens, Chiswick. 

490). The full title of this booklet, issued in 
two parts, is 

" The Progress of Madness ; or, The Irishman 
Insane. A Poem. Part I. By T. Houston. And 
written on a parallel case with that of Robson, the 
reputed Lunatic, who was confined two Months and 
two Days in a Madhouse near Newcastle. Hand 
irnpune quidzm. [Copperplate Vignette of two men 
seizing a third ; carriage in waiting ; madhouse in 
the distance.] Newcastle : Printed by Vint and 
Anderson, in the Side; and sold by them and all 
the Booksellers. MUCCCII. Price Sixpence." 12mo, 

Part II., with same title-page, omitting 
the vignette, but adding " The Squire's 
Expedition ; or, the Guinea Hen, a New 
Song by the same Author," was issued later 
the same year at the same price, by the same 
publishers, 12mo, 24 pp. 

Ho\iston, a brassfounder, of Irish origin, 
but domiciled in Newcastle, published 
several other satirical brochures. One of 
them is entitled 

"Newcastle Sportsmen: or a Race to Hell! 
Between three noted Characters of the present day, 
viz., A Hipocritical and Debauched Clergyman, A 
Cruel Military Man and a Religious Corn Dealer, A 
Monopolizer of Provisions and a Starver of the 
Poor ; with a Postscript. Likewise a Love Elegy 
with Three Odes ; Intended as Hints to such as will 
take them. By his learned Friend, Cuthbert 
Cudgel, Esq. Newcastle : J. Mitchell, 1800." 12mo, 



If the poem asked for is that beginning 
" Stay, gaoler ! stay, and hear my woe ! " 
it is by M. G. Lewis, and will be found in 
Bell's ' Standard Elocutionist.' 


[Miss B. M. RICHARDS also refers to "Monk" 

viii. 490). There is no mention in Exod. xii. 2 
or thereabout of interference with the Sab- 
bath or any other day. The order was with 
regard to the month which was to be ac- 
counted the head of the year. Bishop 
Christopher Wordsworth would certainly 

10 s. ix. JAN. 4, 



have referred in his commentary on the 
passage to a change of the kind mentioned 
by Q. V., if any such had been instituted. 
He merely remarks (' Holy Bible with 
Notes and Introductions ') that the altera- 
tion in the beginning of the year foreshadows 
our cyfcatpta in Christ ; and he cites Bishop 
Pearson, who compares this change with 
what took place after the Resurrection, 
when the day of rest was transferred by the 
Church from the seventh to the first day of 
the week. ST. SWITHIN. 

In this query Q. V. seems to have misunder- 
stood the sense of Exod. xii. 2. At the 
time of the Exodus, the month of deliverance 
was ordered to be kept as the first month 
of the year, i.e., of the ecclesiastical year. 
That month was then, called Abib, but after 
the Captivity was named Nisan. On the 
fifteenth day of it the paschal lamb was 
sacrificed, and the Passover feast continued 
until the twenty-first. The civil year, 
however, began, as before, at the opposite 
season of the year, with the month Tishri, 
and does so still, the year 5668 of the Jewish 
era, for instance, beginning in 1907 on the 
9th of September, and the year 5669 on 
the 26th of that month in 1908, correspond- 
ing in each case to the 1st of Tishri in the 
Jewish calendar. That month, the seventh 
in their ecclesiastical calendar, was formerly 
called Ethanim (1 Kings viii. 2). 

The incidence of the weekly Sabbath was 
never changed. W. T. LYNN. 


Dr. Hessey, in his Bampton Lectures 
((I860) on 'Sunday,' has sketched . various 
doctrines about the Sabbath ; but a student 
of the subject should not fail to consult 
Ewald's 'Antiquities of Israel' (Solly's 
translation, 1876), or to learn what materials 
have been collected bearing on the subject 
since the comparative study of religions 
was undertaken. For the best statement 
and defence of the view that a change of 
day was made at the period of the Exodus 
the querist is referred to a sermon preached 
at Cambridge in 1833, by Dr. S. Lee, Regius 
Professor of Hebrew, 

"shewing that the primitive Sabbath-Day of the 
patriarchs was modified to suit the circumstances 
of the egress from Egypt ; and that it resumed its 
original universality and day of observance under 
the Christian Dispensation." 
Valuable notes were added to the sermon 
when it was prepared for publication ; and 
when a second edition was published in 
1834, the notes were supplemented by 
a reply to criticism. F. JARRATT. 

Goodleigh Rectory, Barnstaple. 

(10 S. viii. 7, 137, 254). The "outlandish 
proverb " quoted at the last reference is 
probably the origin of the popular saying ; 
and it is an exact translation of a proverb 
still current in the outlandish parts whence 
I write : " Mau d'uei se garis erne lou 

In another form of the proverb, " Quau 
a mau is uei, se li frete 'me lou couide " 
(" Who has pain in the eyes, let him rub 
them with the elbow"), the meaning is 
obviously that the evil will only be aggra- 
vated by rubbing ; while the advice, taken 
literally, is so unsatisfactory as to have given 
rise to the saying. This was perhaps origin- 
ally " You might as well try to cure a sore 
eye by rubbing it with your elbow." 


" SPELLICANS " (10 S. viii. 449). Most 
books of games, I fancy, contain a description 
of " Spellicans." In Routledge's ' Every 
Boy's Book,' London, 1868, p. 86, the 
amusement is thus explained : 

" Spelicans are made of thin pieces of ivory cut 
into different forms, some being like spears, others 
saws, bearded hooks, &c. ; of some of the patterns 
there are duplicates, whilst of others only one. 
Each pattern nas a value assigned to it, the lowest 
being five and the highest forty. The numbers do 
not run in regular succession, as five, six, seven, 
eight, but irregularly, as five, sixteen, twenty-five. 
Hooks, made of bone, are used as pointers. 

" The game is played as follows : One player 
should take up all the spelicans in a bundle, and 
holding them at a little height from the table, let 
them fall down in a confused heap on it ; each 
player must then try alternately to take away a 
spelican from the heap without moving any of the 
others, and this it is generally very easy to accom- 
plish at the first, for the top ones are mostly uncon- 
nected with the rest ; but as the players proceed 
it requires some tact to jerk them out, with the 
help of the hook, made pointed for that purpose. 
The player who, at the entire removal of the heap, 
has the greatest number of spelicans, wins the 
game. Should any of the spelicans while being 
removed shake the others, they must be put back 
into the heap again. It is usual in some places, 
instead of each player removing a spelican alter- 
nately, for one to continue lifting up the spelicans 
until he happens to shake one, when another player 
takes his turn until he in like manner fails, when 
another tries his fortune ; and so the game continues 
until the spelicans are withdrawn." 



There lies before me a little box^about 
five inches long, which is labelled " Bone 
Spellicans." The contents poor relations 
of MR. RATCLIFFE'S specimens are thin, 
flat, pointed strips of bone, differenced by 
indentations and finials of varied form, and 


X< )TES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAX. 4, im 

having numbers incised upon one side. 
The game is to drop them promiscuously 
into a heap, and for two antagonists to take 
turns in trying which of them can extricate 
the most pieces without moving any but 
those chosen for attack. When A makes 
a shake, B sets to work and operates until 
he too is guilty of causing a stir. Tn the 
end, the player who has been the more for- 
tunate accounts himself winner, either from 
the number of the spellicans he holds, or 
from the sum of the figures which they bear. 
The game requires a steady hand, a quick 
eye, and no small amount of patience. 
Twenty- three spellicans and parts of two 
hooks are left to me. Tliree of the strips 
have the number XXXV. ST. SWITHIN. 

I remember seeing this game in use for 
evening amusement at the house of a friend 
about 1868. The spellicans were made of 
some hard wood, and were all flat, being 
of about the texture of an ordinary official 
post card. They were, like MB. RATCLIFFE'S 
specimens, about four inches long, of different 
shapes, and curiously carved. I do not know 
the exact number of them. Perhaps the 
word " game " applied to spellicans is some- 
what of a misnomer. I know we boys soon 
tired of it as a trial of skill, and voted it 
" slow " and " tame." JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

I have seen round ivory " spillikins," 
as I was taught to call them in my boyish 
days, but those that I remember using were 
flat, very thin slips of boxwood, carved 
fantastically and numbered. The game 
consisted of throwing them down in a mixec 
heap on the table, and the players then pro- 
ceeded alternately to remove them one 
by one, with the help of a special hook pro- 
vided for the purpose. My impression is 
that there were two dozen spillikins in a 
set and two hooks. E. E. STREET. 


I have several specimens of the game of 
spellicans. One in a round carved ivory 
box contains nearly 50 spellicans ; besides 
the numerals, 16 have painted Japanese 
ornaments. Two others in flat boxes contain 
26 spellicans each, with rules. I should 
be very pleased to lend MB. RATCLIFFE 
a copy of the rules, if he would promise to 

The Croft, Southover, Lewes. 

The game of spellicans or spillikins is 
known in Holland as " knibbelspel." The 
object of the game is, with the piece in hand, 

to remove a spellican clear of the heap 
without in any way disturbing the others, 
[f a player succeeds, he has further attempts ; 
jut the smallest movement, or even vibra- 
;ion, of any other piece than the one he is 
:rying to secure, passes the turn on to the 
next player. I have never seen the game 
played in England, and do not know if it is 
played even abroad at the present time. 


I remember spellicans being in use from 
sixty to seventy years ago. We used, at 
school, to- cut them out of sticks or spills. 
There were many sold in the Lowther 

[We have ourselves frequently played the game 
in youth, but we cannot recommend it, as it leads- 
to endless disputes as to whether slight movement 
has occurred or not. Several other correspondents 
are thanked for replies, which have been forwarded 
to the querist.] 

GREEKS (10 S. viii. 210, 394). The passage 
of Plutarch is not in the ' De Placitis 
Philosophorum ' (which is no symposium), 
but in the ' De Facie in Orbe Luiise,' 
924 A-C. Pharnaces having stated the 
doctrine of his sect (the Stoics) that the 
earth is in the centre of the universe and 
held in position by the tendency of all 
heavy bodies to that point, an attempt is- 
made by his opponent to demonstrate the 
absurdity of this theory by showing,, 
among other inferences which might be 
drawn from it, that if heavy masses of 
metal weighing many tons (/zi'oYwi's 
XiAioT<-Aai'Toi><;) were dropped down a hole 
perforating the earth, they would remain 
suspended at the centre ; and that if a man 
could take up his stand at the very centre of 
the earth, his head and his feet would both 
be uppermost. Lucretius ridicules the Stoic- 
view ati. 1052 sqq. of his 'De Rerum Natura,' 
where Munro remarks : 

" Had Epicurus, while retaining his conceptions 
of infinite space and matter and innumerable worlds 
and systems, seen fit to adopt this stoical doctrine 
of things tending to a centre, and so to make his 
atoms rush from all sides of space alike towards 
a centre, he might have anticipated the doctrine of 

universal gravity But Lucretius is right in 

rejecting the absurd reasons which the stoics gave 
for things pressing to the centre of one finite world, 
in the midst of infinite void, and he well exposes; 

here their inconsistency in making some things 

seek, others fly from the centre." 

As Munro observes, the Peripatetics and 
some others held a similar doctrine to that 
of the Stoics. EDWARD BENSLY. 

Univ. Coll., Aberystwyth. 

10 s. ix. JAN. 4, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


viii. 409). I- think it may be reasonably 
assumed that the process of replacing the 
old name was as follows : the uneducated 
Bretons observed that people who were 
better taught spoke of La Venus de Quini- 
pilly and then took up the fashion, especially 
when conversing with those of a rank above 
them. It is not improbable that they still 
use the Celtic or pre-Celtic name of the 
monument when they speak of it among 
their equals. This is perhaps Er Groach 
Houard, the old Woman of Couarde : see 
Baring-Gould's ' A Book of Brittany,' p. 27. 


Much light is thrown on the subject in 
Miln's ' Fouilles faites >x Carnac,' 1877, 
p. 161 : 

" The superposition ot' constructions of so different 
-a nature on the Mont St. Michel is the very history 
-of Brittany, where at every point you meet with 
iraces of three periods, confused together in the 
minds of the people, viz., the period of the Stone 
Monuments (Celtic), the period of the Roman 
Domination, and the Christian period. The earn 
or tumulus waa- erected on the hill ; then came 
Roman constructions ; and, lastly, the Christian 
church and cross, which now crowns the summit of 
the tumulus." 

In the same book are drawings of the 
statuettes of Venus Genetrix and of Venus 
Anadyomene found at the Bossenno mounds. 
The Rev. S. Baring-Gould gives a curious 
story of the digging up at Keranna, the 
oaer or camp of Anna (the Celtic Mother 
God), of one of these dies matres, of which 
so many have been found near Carnac : 
" The Carmelites heard of the image, and 
determined on exploiting this discovery : 
they organized a cult of the image," calling 
it St. Anne. This was in 1627. The figure 
was destroyed in 1790. T. S. M. 

THEIR WEIGHTS AND DATES (10 S. viii. 251). 
I may be allowed to answer my own 
query. I have obtained the following 
information from the Deputy Master of 
the Mint : 

"The brass discs referred to represent the least 
current weights of the sovereign (5 dwts. 2^ grns.) 
and of the half-sovereign (2 dwts. 13J grim.) as 
established by Proclamation of 6 February, 1821, 
-and unchanged to this dav. 

" The figures given by Tate are those of previous 
Proclamations dated 1 July and 10 October, 1817, 
oxcept that the weight of the half-sovereign is 
-stated incorrectly, and should be 2 dwts. 13^ grns. 
The date of the Order in Coiincil authorizing the 
lirst issue of sovereigns was .31 May, 1817 (not 1816, 
as P. Kelly's 'Cambist* says). Half-sovereigns 
were first issued in the same year, the Order in 
Council being dated 10th October, 1817. 

"It maybe added that the standard, weight of 
the sovereign from its first issue has been 5 dwts. 
3^H grns., and that of the half-sovereigns 2 dwts. 
l&JHi$ grns." 

In reply to a letter in which I said that 
Kelly gave 1816 as the date of minting, not 
of issuing, sovereigns, I have received the 
following : 

"The new coinage Act was passed in 1816, and 
this may have misled Kelly, but our records are 
quite clear that sovereigns and half-sovereigns were 
minted in 1817, and not in 1816. This department 
acts only under Order in Council, and has no autho- 
rity to commence a coinage until such instrument 
is passed." 

It will be seen that the extra allowance 
for wear of the half-sovereign has always 
been J grain, i.e., that two half-sovereigns 
have always been and are current when, 
being equal to each other, they weigh 
together grain less than the minimum 
weight of one sovereign ; and that the 
1821 Proclamation decreased the current 
weights of the sovereign and half-sovereign 
by J grain and J grain respectively. The 
standard weight of the half-sovereign, 
as it comes from the Mint, is of course 
exactly equal to half of a sovereign. 


161, 242, 362, 423). Perhaps no name 
in the list of those buried in this necropolis 
is more fiesh in my recollection than that 
of Alexander Disney (No. 404), recorded 
as born in Dublin in 1803, and dead in 
Naples in 1883. 

I knew him well ; he was a fine gentle- 
man of the old school, often to be seen 
sunning himself in the Villa, or public 
promenade of Naples, scrupulously attired 
in a garb of pronounced mustard-coloured 
hue. Impoverished by Hibernian reckless- 
ness, he lived in Naples from 1869 until, 
I suppose, his death in 1883. 

He was commonly reputed to have been 
an Irish master of hounds, and his portly 
figure and swelling mien betokened some 
reminder (shall I add remainder ?) of his 
ruined greatness. He was a portrait in 
purple as to visage, just stepped out from 
Charles Lever's picture gallery of Irish 
eccentrics. Simple-minded, and of imper- 
turbable good nature, he was a favourite 
among young people, and I was pleased 
about a year ago to recall to his friend Miss 
Agnes Clerke (the writer on astronomy, 
lately lost to the science in London) how 
we had all met him at her mother's " apart- 
ment " in Naples in 1870, and the delight 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 4, im 

and laughter his clumsy gambols caused 
among his fair partners in an attempted 

A notable incident during his Neapolitan 
career still excites my risible faculties. 
Careless of the cost, the free-handed Disney 
boldly resolved on entertaining a miscel- 
laneous collection of human curios with 
whom he was only very slightly acquainted. 
The selection comprised an incongruous 
and unhomogeneous agglomeration of ladies 
of doubtful title, commingled with others 
of a tinsel character, partly chosen by his 
Italian friends from theatrical circles. I 
was invited, but declined to participate 
in this revel. When I asked him later how 
his party had prospered, he frankly acknow- 
ledged that it had totally failed. He com- 
plained sadly of the peculiar want of appre- 
ciation displayed by his guests in enjoying 
his mixture of false and genuine feminine 
ingredients. His venture to introduce in- 
discriminately representatives of different 
classes to each other doomed him to dis- 
appointment. Nothing abashed, he tried 
the experiment again ; but determined 
not to repeat his former error, or split on 
the same rock, he left his equally immiscible 
company to their own resources entirely, 
so that before midnight his reception 
hall was deserted and empty. After this 
he vanished from my view : and I heard 
of him no more until I saw his name in 
COL. PARRY'S list of burials in the Naples 

No. 382 in the same list tells of the inter- 
ment in 1872 of Mary Somerville and after- 
wards of that of her two daughters, Martha 
and Mary. As all Englishmen know, Mrs. 
Somerville was a celebrity before my time 
(1869 to 1876) at Naples, and lived on the 
Chiaja. Doubtless her example may have 
led the late Miss Clerke to prosecute her 
studies in the same intricate field of science 
(astronomy), as they were both resident 
in Naples contemporaneously. Her two 
daughters and companions (who died in 
1875 and 1879) devoted much of their 
leisure time to yachting round and about 
the lovely Bay of Naples. 


8, Stevenage Road, Fulham, S.W. 

(10 S. viii. 427). Several mediaeval bosses 
from London buildings are preserved 
(mostly unassigned as to whence they came) 
in the Guildhall Museum. See the ' Catalogue 
of Antiquities ' in the Museum, pp. 136, 
209, 215, 250, 251. 




The Manorial Society'* Monoyraph*. Li*t* of 
Manor Court Rollis in Private Hands. Part I. 

THIS first instalment of the new Manorial Society's 
work, by Mr. Alfred L. Hardy, shows how wide a, 
field of research is open to inquirers. We con- 
gratulate the Society on making an excellent start. 
Good resolutions and reports as to what ought to 
be done have preceded, but it needs personal 
energy to translate such intentions into perform- 
ance, as the new body has now done. The Intro- 
duction gives details as to the sparse literature of 
the subject, and is, we believe, from the pen of Mr. 
Charles Greenwood, who has taken the opportunity 
to put students on the right lines to make use of 
Mr. Hardy's List. This List is wider than the title 
implies, for it deals with records in the possession 
of corporate bodies as well as private j>ersons or 
stewards of the manors. Few will, we think, 
suspect the extent of the sources here revealed tx> 
the local historian and antiquary. We give a few 

The Court Rolls of Pollyfant, Cornwall, extend! 
from 1662 to the present day ; those of EastMersea,. 
Essex, from 1.383 to 1895. Those of Thornbury reach 
from 1386 to 1458, and from 1671 to the present 
time. The Rolls of the intervening period are 
believed to be in existence somewhere, and the 
Society would be glad to hear of them. In the 
manor of Birling, Kent, the forfeit of a heriot of 
the best live beast is claimed upon the death of a 
tenant. In many cases local notes as to changes of 
spelling or merging of two parishes in one are of 
interest. We hope the records may be used for help 
in the compilation of that index of English place- 
names which is one of the most obvious needs of 
scholarship to-day. 

Societies are started on little provocation, but the 
wonder is that the present association did not come 
into existence long ago. It would have rejoiced the 
heart of Prof. Maitland, that brilliant student of 
mediaeval lore. Others are working on his lines,, 
and it is to be hoped that the cultivated section of 
the public will increasingly realize the pleasure and 
profit of such investigations. For ourselves, the 
wonderful permanence of the elements of English 
social systems is a fascinating subject. It has a local 
as well as a national side, and in these days, when 
the ownership of land is so widely canvassed, the 
least lords of manors can do is to acquaint themselves- 
with their rights, privileges, and duties. 

Any information respecting Court Rolls will be 
gratefully received by Mr. Greenwood, who is the 
Registrar of the Society, at 1, Mitre Court Buildings, 
Temple, E.G. The Deputy Registrar is Mr. Hardy, 
the cai>able compiler of the List before us. 

Whitaker'a Almanack, 190S. (12, Warwick Lane.) 

WE should be lost on the first day of the new year 
without our ' Whitaker,' and daily is it by our side 
until the year closes and the new volume takes its- 
place. The editor this year makes an addition, and 
although it occupies only eight pages, it will be- 
found of great value. It is ' The English Citizen's 
Diary,' for the use of Parish Councils, Town Clerks, 
Registrars, and citizens generally, and shows the 

10 s. ix. JAN. 4, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


days when certain official duties are to be per- 
formed, and when Inland Revenue Licences expire. 
The special articles and summaries include 'Geo- 
graphical Progress,' by Edward Heawood ; 'British 
Military Policy in 1908,' by P. R. Coles ; ' Employers' 
Liability,' by W. Schooling; and ' The Cost of Old- 
Age Pensions,' by H. H. Bassett. In the last is 
shown the cost of a non-discriminating universal 
old-age pension scheme, of which Mr. Charles Booth 
is the principal advocate. The age fixed by him is 
sixty-five, and the pension proposed 5s. weekly, no 
contribution being required from the pensioner. 
" The total number of persons of sixty-five years of 
age at the present time is estimated at 2,116,000, so 
that the initial outlay would be 27,508, 0001., apart 
from the cost of administration. This amount would 
be equivalent to a poll-tax of about 12s. 6d. per head 
on uie total estimated population (1907) of the 
United Kingdom. The cost of pensions granted 
universally to persons of seventy years and upwards 
would amount to 16,302,000, the estimated numbers 
of that age being 1,254,000." We, with all our 
fellow-citizens, wish ' Whitaker ' many happy new 

EQUALLY useful in its way is Whitaker's Peerage. 
The volume still grows, and, as the editor remarks, 
" bids fair to continue to do so, if the present high 
rate of new creations is to proceed. Our list records 
72 new Knights Bachelor in place of less than half 
that number who are deceased, whilst the 235 new 
Companions represent an even greater disproportion. 
The Royal Victorian Order has received some 
90 additions, irrespective of the hosts of Honorary 
Knights and Commanders and Members abroad. 
The addresses of London clubs, long felt to be an 
omission, have been supplied. A vast amount of 
time has been expended upon ' Historic Peerage ' 
and the ' Historic Baronetage,' and the editor in this 
has to acknowledge the kind assistance of Mr. A. P. 
Burke, "and also several valuable notes from the 
ever-courteous Mr. Cokayn3," whose initials are 
familiar to readers of ' N. & Q.' 

ALL lovers of Christmas carols should possess 
themselves of A Wreath of Christmas Carols and 
Poems, chosen by our well-known contributor 
Mr. William Andrews, and published by Mr. Tutin 
of Hull, who has already rendered good service by 
the publication of many other delightful booklets 
as good as thev are cheap. This ' Wreath,' well 
printed on excellent paper, can be had for the small 
sum of threepence. 

Mr. Andrews has made his selection with 
judgment and taste, and in his brief preface reminds 
us that the earliest carol we possess is in Norman- 
French, and dates back to the thirteenth centurv, 
the manuscript being in the British Museum. In 
1521 was issued, from the press of Wynkyn de 
Worde, the first printed collection of carols. 
The opening carol in the present selection, 
"Lordlings listen to our lay," is said to be the 
earliest English example ; and among the latest is 
included Charles Mackay's ' Under the Holly 
Bough,' and in the whole collection we can find no 
sweeter lines than these : 

Ye who have scorned each other, 
Or injured friend or brother, 

In the fast-fading year, 
Ye who by word or deed 
Have made a kind heart bleed, 

Come gather here. 

Let sinned against and sinning 
Forget their strife's beginning, 

And join in friendship now ; 
Be link no longer broken, 
Be sweet forgiveness spoken, 

Under the holly bough. 

MR. HENRY FROWDE will during January add to 
"The World's Classics" 'Cowper's Letters,' selected 
and introduced by Mr. E. V. Lucas ; Jane Austen's 
' Emma,' with an Introduction by the same ; 
Marlowe's ' Faustus ' and the first part of Goethe's 
' Faust' in Anster's translation, with an Introduc- 
tion by Dr. A. W. Ward ; Reynolds's ' Discourses,' 
with an Introduction by Mr. Austin Dobson; 
Vol. II. of Robert Browning's 'Poems'; and the 
final issues of the complete works of Burke, which 
occupy six volumes. 


THE New Year having opened, booklovers will 
begin to search for fresh treasures to add to their 
prized collections. We notice below some of the 
opportunities afforded to them. 

Mr. William Downing, of Birmingham, begins his 
Catalogue 469 with a copy of Sir Walter Scott's 
Works (101. 10s.), presented by him to Lady Charlotte 
Scott on her marriage. It contains his letter to 
Cadell, dated 14th June, 1822, asking him to cause 
the volumes "to be carefully packed up and 
separately wrapt in paper and sent to Right Hon. 
Lady Charlotte Scott, care of Right Hon. Lord 
Montagu, Clarendon Hotel, Bond Street, by the 
steamboat or mailcoach. They are a wedding 
present to my young friend." This is followed by 
another valuable item, being one of the gems from 
the Earl of Sheffield's library : Ogilby's Works, 
7vols., folio, old russia. 1670-75, 20/. There is a, 
beautiful set of Walpole's Letters, Cunningham's 
edition, 9 vols., tree marbled calf, 1906, 11. Is. A 
fifteenth century complete Salisbury Missal, with 
20 miniatures in gold and colours, square 12mo, 
crimson velvet, is 81. 8s. ; and a curious and rare 
book, Braun and Hogenberg's 'Civitates Orbis 
Terrarum,' 5 vols., folio, 1572-1600, 11. 10s. ; other 
entries include a fine copy of Baskerville's ' Ariosto,' 
1773, 61. 6s. ; The "Authentic" Dickens, 81. 8s. ; 
a set of Motley, 9 vols., half morocco, 11. 12s. 6d. ; 
and an original issue of Punch, 1845-65, 6/. 6s. There 
are sets of Thackeray; much of interest will be 
found under Napoleon ; and under Nelson and 
Lady Hamilton are his letters (with some from his 
father), to Lady Hamilton, rare, 1814, 21. 2s. 

Messrs. S. Drayton & Sons send from Exeter two 
Catalogues. The first, No. 189, contains The United 
Service Magazine, 1843-66, 4. 4s. ; Muther's ' Modern 
Painting,' 3 vols., royal 8vo, 21. 15s. ; Laird Clowes's 
' Royal Navy,' 7 vols., 4to, cloth, 57. 10s. ; Collinson's 
' Somerset,' 3 vols., 4to, Bath, 1791, 61. 15s. : and 
Allen's 'Great Cathedrals,' Boston, U.S.A., 2 vols., 
large folio, II. 15s. Under Bunyan is the first edition 
of 'The Acceptable Sacrifice,' Geo. Larkin, 1689, 
12mo, original calf binding, 4/. 4s. ' The Faerie 
Queene,' edited by Wise, is 3. 10s. ; and a set of 
Blackwood, 1817-1902, 61. 10s. 

Messrs. Drayton's Catalogue 190 is devoted to 
Theology, and includes the works of Trench, 
Baring-Gould, Keble, Maurice, Stanley, and others. 

Mr. Francis Edwards's Catalogue 295, has under 
Africa, The Mafeking Mail, published during the 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 4, im 

siege, 49 numbers, Nov. 3, 1899, to May 23, 1900, 
one vol.. folio, 31. 15t. Under America, are Abbot 
and Smith's ' Natural History of Lepidopterous 
Insects of Georgia,' 2 vols., folio, red mor.icco, 1797, 
1(V. 10*. ; and Gould's ' Humming Birds,' 6 vols., 
full red morocco, 1861-87, 581. Under Art we find 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle's ' Painting in Italy,' &c. 
10 vols.,22/. 10-*. : and Paintings at Buckingham 
Palace and Windsor Castle, 10/. 1ft*. Works on 
Australia includes Angas's ' South Australia Illus- 
trated,' 1847, 127. Under Ceylon is Daniell's 
' Picturesque Illustrations,' 1808, 67. 10s. ; and under 
Coins, Stanley Lane Poole's 'Catalogue of Oriental 
Coins in the British Museum,' 12 vols., 221. There is 
A choice item under Cruikshank, being Thackeray's 
essay in The Westminster Review, June 1840, inlaid 
to 4to size and extra illustrated, 2 vols., with 
.-specially printed titles, tree calf by Tout, 1840, 251. 
"There are two notable items from the library of 
W. C. Macready ; Blair's ' Lectures on Rhetoric and 
Belles-Lettres, with autograph notes, 4 vols., 1814, 
-57. 10* ; and ' Reynard the Fox,' a presentation 
copy from Mrs. Carlyle to Catherine Macready, 
Longmans. 1845, 91. 12*. 6rf. Much of interest occurs 
under Military, Napoleon, Trials, &c. ; and under 
Nattes is a collection of 581 original drawings, 
illustrating a tour in the Pyrenees, Switzerland, 
France, and Italy, 1820-22, 5 vols., 4to, 105*. 

Messrs. William George's Sons, of Bristol, have 
in their Catalogue 303 Hartshorne's 'Old English 
Glasses,' II. !&*. ; ' The Paston Letters,' 6 vols., 21. ; 
And Seebohm and Sharpe's ' Thrushes,' 2 vols., lolio, 
half-morocco, III. lls. There are lists under Africa, 
America, and Asia. Ceramics includes Chaffers's 

4 Keramic Gallery,' 2 vols., imperial 8vo, 67. 6*.; and 
Delange and Bornemann's 'Palissy,' royal folio, 
half-morocco, 11. 15*. A set of Coleridge, 12 vols., 
in Moxon's cloth, 1847-53, is SI. 18*. There are a 
number of works on India and Japan; and attention 
is drawn to a special catalogue of ' Orientalia,j 
which can be had on request. Under Scott is the 
"Abbotsford Edition," 51. 5s.; under Sporting, 
Cross's 'Autobiography of a Stage-Coachman,' 
4/. 4s. ; and under R. L. Stevenson, the first 
edition of ' Travels with a Donkey in the 
Cevennes,' 4. 10*. 

Mr. John Hitchman, of Birmingham, has in his 
List 460 a line set of Ruskin's ' Modern Painters ' 
and ' Stones of Venice,' first editions, 8 vols, half- 
morocco, 19/. lO* 1 . ; another set of ' Modern Painters,' 

5 vols , tree calf, III. lls. ; a complete set to 1905 of 
the Bibliographical Society's Publications, 151. ; 
' Burne-Jones, by Malcolm Bell, SI. Ss. ; a complete 
set of Jesse's Historical Memoirs, 3 vols., cloth, 
101. 10*. ; Spenser, Payne Collier's edition, 5 vols., 
SI. 3*. ; and Carlyle. 34 vols., original cloth, uncut, 
16V. 16*. Under Charles I. are Fea's ' Memoirs,' 
31., limited to 500 copies, and Skelton's work, 
royal 4to, Goupil, 1898, 2/. 7*. 6V/. ; while under 
Rossetti is Manllier's ' Life,' 21. 2s. 

Mr. Alexander VV. Macphail, of Edinburgh, very 
properly opens his List XCII. with Jameson's 
' Dictionary of the Scottish Language,' 5 vols., 
SI. 18*. 6rf. This is followed by a choice selection of 
standard authors in handsome bindings. We note, 
De Quincey, 14 vols., 31. 3*. ; George Eliot, 8 vols., 
31. 3*. ; Green's ' English People,' 8 vols., 41. 7*. 6rf. ; 
Gibbon, 8 vols., U. 15*. ; Ruskin's ' Stones of Venice,' 
3 vols, royal 8vo, spotless condition, 1858, 41. 4*. ; 
Hogarth, Austin Dobson's edition, 4/. 10*. : and 
Thackeray, 13 vols., 57. 5s. There is a beautiful set 

of TurgeniefFs Novels, SI. 10*. A copy of the 
famous authority on Tartans, ' Vestiarium Scoti- 
cum,' is 11. 7*. There are many works under 
Jacobite, Highlands, Borders, &c. 

Mr. W. M. Murphy, of Liverpool, sends his Cata- 
logue 131, containing a complete set of Lytton's 

1851-09, 21. ; 'Stafford Gallery,' II. 5,*.; 'Turner 
Gallery,' 21. 15*.; and Stillman s ' Venus and Apollo 
iu Painting and Sculpture,' 21. 2*. Under Bewick 
will be found ' Select Fables,' first edition, royal 
8vo, a fine fresh copy, SI. 10*. Cheshire works in- 
clude Ormerod and Sulley's ' Birkenhead.' Under 
Coloured Plates is a copy of ' John Mytton,' scarce, 
1837, 10Y. A list under Dickens includes the " Bio- 
graphical Edition," 19 vols., half calf extra, 57. 5s. 
Drama comprises Doran's 'Their Majesties' Ser- 
vants,' II. 15*,; Joseph Knight's ' Theatrical Notes,' 
5v. 6rf. ; and Payne Collier's ' Dramatic Poetry,' 
II. Ss. Under Fashion Plates is London's ' Ladies' 
Companion,' 1850-65, SI. Ss.; and under Gilbert's 
Illustrations, the Staunton ' Skakesneare,' II. 2*. 6rf. 
The three series of the 'Greville Memoirs,' first 
editions, with the passages afterwards suppressed, 
8 vols., original cloth, uncut, 1874-87, are 51. 15s. 
Under Planche" is the scarce ' Cyclopaedia ot Cos- 
tume,' 2 vols., 4to, 67. 6s. 

Jiattas ta (Eomspantonts. 

We must call special attention to the folloicing 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
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10 s. ix. JAX. 11, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 211. 

3f OTES : ' Dictionary of National Biography : Epitome,' 
21 Salarino, Salanio, and Salerio, 22 The Mystery of 
Hannah Lightfoot, 24 The "Lord "Mayor of London- 
Abraham Lincoln and Tom Taylor, 26 Wille, the French 
Engraver Epitaph at Hunsdon Coleridge on the Origin 
of 'Christabel 'Milton's Bible" Billycock," 27. 

QUER1ES: Burnham Society, Somerset Sobieski Family 
Dedications of Churches Alexanders of Ireland and 
Scotland : Suirdale, 28 Authors of Quotations Wanted 
Chiswick High Road and George III. Lamb's ' My 
(treat- Aunt's Manuscript' Proclamation of Winter- 
Pragmatism " Tye " Rev. John Byng Edward and 
Henry Bulwer Most-Used English Words Mrs. 
Aberdein : Papyruseuin Suffolk Street Riot, 1735 
" Vin gris" Scotch Privateering, 30 Sir Henry Docwra, 

REPLIES : The Treaty of Tilsit and Colin Mackenzie, 
31 St. Andrew's Cross, 32 'Rinordine,' Irish Song 
Anns on Punchbowl German Translation "Saluta- 
tion " Tavern, Billingsgate Wordsworth and Browning, 
S3 Authors of Quotations Wanted Legless Spirits, 34 
Men ef Family as Parish Clerks Early Eighteenth- 
Century Queries Beulah Spa, Upper Norwood 
^Ordinaries of Newgate Scottish Proverb, 35 "Pot- 
gallery"" Gtenara Archbisho_p Blackburn " Liggers," 
36 " Stiam Abraham " Latin Quotations Chasseurs 
Britanniques Pre - Reformation Parsonages Camel 
Bibliography The Lambs in Great Russell Street, 37 
Public Speaking in Shakespeare's Day, 38. 

TVOTES ON BOOKS : England during the Reign of 
Victoria ' Heine's Book of Songs ' Reviews and 

INotices to Correspondents. 


IN using this volume from time to time 

I have noted a number of errors and 

omissions deserving attention, and now 
ppend a first list of over a hundred. 

Agar (Benjamin), fl. 1643, editor of ' King James his 

Apophthegmes...,' 1643. See Lowndes, p. 1182. 
a Greene (George), outlaw and companion of Robin 

Alley (Jerome), author of ' The Widowed Queen,' 

Dublin, 1777 ; ' Vindiciae Christians:,' 1826. 
Antrobus (Benjamin), author of ' Buds and 

Blossoms of Piety...,' 1691. 
Barber (John), Lord Mayor of London. His ' Life,' 

published in 1741. 
Barnes (Rev. Albert), Biblical commentator, author 

of ' Notes on the Old and New Testaments,' 

1852-3, 17 vols. ; ' Scenes and Incidents in Lite of 

St. Paul,' 1869 ; ' Way of Salvation,' 1855. 
Barnes (Juliana). 'D. N. B.' says "See Berners." 

Barnes is correct. See 10 S. v. 352. 
Bertram. ' D. N. B.' says " See Ratramnus." But 

there is no reference under that heading. 
Blight (J. T.). author of 'Ancient Crosses of 

Cornwall, 1 1856; 'Week at Land's End,' 1861; 

' Churches of West Cornwall,' 1885. 
^rinsley the elder (John). 'D. N. B.' rays f . 1663. 

Should be 1603. 

Budgen (L. M.), author of 'Episodes of Insect Life.' 

Bullinger (Henry), voluminous writer of the 16th 
Century. See Lowndes, pp. 309-10. 

Butler (Samuel), satirist. ' D. N. B.' says " son of 
a Worcestershire farmer." Written in a con- 
temporary hand on the title of a copy of 
' Hudibras,' 1663-4, sold at auction in 1897, was 
this inscription: "By N. S. Butler, Natural 
Son to ye D[uke] of Ormonde." 

Careless (John), author of 'Old English Squire,' 

Charleville (Lady), editor of Lord Charleville's 
translation of ' La Pucelle,' 1796-7, which was 
immediately suppressed and destroyed by a 

Charleville (Lord), translator of Voltaire's 'La 
Pucelle.' First published posthumously in 

Chetwynde or Chetwinde (Philip), publisher of 
third edition of Shakespeare's works, 1663-4. 

Clanvowe (Sir T.), author of 'The Floure and the 

Cobbett (William). ' D.N.B.' says "essayist, 
politician, and agriculturist." To these de- 
signations could be added "bookseller and 

Cooke (James) of Warwick, "practitioner in Physiok 
and chirurgery." Fl. 1636-76, author of 'Melli- 
ficium Chirurgise, or Marrow of Chirurgery, 

Craig, J. D. (George), author of ' Specimen 
Epigrammatum Jacobo Primum Brit. Reai 
dicatum. 1624.' 

Creichton (Capt. John), fl. 1731 (?).in which year his 
memoirs were published by Dean Swift. 

Decker (Paul), architectural writer, author of 
'Chinese Architecture,' and 'Gothic Archi- 
tecture Decorated,' 1759. 

Delaine (Walter). Appointed by Henry VIII. to 
superintend publication of all versions of the 
Scriptures. Described by himself as " Regise 
Majestatis Anglicanse Biblioscopus." 

Denham (Sir John), poet. 'D.N.B.' says: "His 
' Cooper's Hill,' 1642, is the earliest example 
of strictly descriptive poetry in English." 
This would appear to ignore the claims of 
Michael Drayton's ' Polyolbion,' 1622, which 
the ' D.N.B.' itself describes as "a long poetic 
topography of England." 

Doughty (Aiglen), humorous and satirical writer, 
author of ' Benjamin D ' : ' The Coming K ' ; 
' Dizzi-Ben-Dizzi,' 1878; 'Edward VII..' 1876; 
' Jon Dunn,' 1874 : ' King Bertie ' ; ' The Fijiad,' 
1874; 'TheSiliad,' 1873. 

Drummond (Henry), author of ' Histories of Noble 
British Families,' 1842-9, 2 vols. 

Elvin (Charles Norton), author of 'Handbook of 
the Orders of Chivalry,' 1893 ; ' Dictionary of 
Heraldry,' 1889, &c. 

Freake (J.), translator of H. C. Aerippa's ' Three 
Books of Occult Philosophy,' 1651. 

Gibson (Anthony), editor of " A Woman's Woorth 
defended against all the men in the World, 
proving them to be more perfect, excellent, 
and absolute in all virtxious actions than any 
man of what qualitie soever. Written by one 
that has heard much, seene much, but knowes 
a great deal more," 1599. 

Good all, Bp. (Baptist), author of ' The Tryall of 
Travell,' 1630. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. L io s. ix. JAN. n, im. 

Greig (John), co-author of ' History of Cathedral 

Churches,' 1814-19, and other Works. 
Grimeston or Grimstone (Edward), author of 
' Historic of the Netherlands,' 1608 ; ' Low 
Country Commonwealth,' 1609; 'Counsellor of 
Estate, 11 1634; 'Estates and Empires of the 
World,' 1615 ; ' History of the Serrail and Court 
of the Grand Seigneur,' 1635 ; and other 
Hall (John), poet. 'D. N. B.' says: "His Works 

include ' Poems,' 1647." Should be 1646. 
Heath (William), humorous artist. Illustrated 
the ' Commonplace Book of Literary Curio- 
sities,' 1825, and other works [pseud. " Dr. 

Hill (G.), editor of ' Odes of Mathias Casimir,' 1646. 
Holland (Samuel), author of ' Romancio-Mastrix, 

or a Romance on Romances,' 1660. 
Hooper, (Richard), M.A., vicar of Upton, Berks. 
Edited Chapman's 'Homer,' 1888-97, 4 vols. ; 
Drayton's works, 1876, 2 vols. 
Horlock (R. W.), author (under the'pseudonym of 

" Scrutator ") of several sporting works. 
Hornby ( Hugh Frederick), merchant and benefactor 
of Liverpool, d. 1901, to which city he be- 
queathed a richly bound collection of rare books, 
and 10,000?, wherewith to erect a suitable 
library building to contain them. 
Jaggard (Dorothy), widow of Isaac Jaggard, printer 
and publisher. Continued her husband's busi- 
ness for some time after his death in 1626. 
Jaggard (Elizabeth), publisher, widow of John 
Jaggard. Continued her husband's business 
after his death in 1623. Issued Bacon's essays 
and other works. 

Jaggard (Isaac), eldest son of William Jaggard, d. 
1626, printer and publisher. Issued the first 
edition of Shakespeare's works (owing to his 
father's untimely death), the first English trans- 
lation of Boccaccio's ' Decameron,' 1620, and 
other well-known books. Printed for Thomas 
Pavier the first edition of Shakespeare's ' King 
Henry VI. : Parts II.-III.' 

Jaggard (John), Tudor-Stuart publisher, d. 1623. 
Established at the " Hand and Star " between 
the Temple Gates, Fleet Street. Succeeded to 
the celebrated business developed by Richard 
Tottell, the law publisher. Issued several of 
the earlier editions of Bacon's essays and other 
famous books. 

Jaggard (William), d. 1623, author, printer, and 
publisher. Printed many famous books, includ- 
ing the first edition of Shakespeare's works 
(dying on the eve of its publication) ; Shake- 
speare's ' Passionate Pilgrim,' 1599 ; the first 
English cyclopaedia ; the first English Biblical 
dictionary ; the first extensive English ' Natural 
History,' &c. For bibliography of the Jaggard 
Press see Athenceum, 1902-3, and 'Shakespeare's 
Piiblishers,' by W. Jaggard, 1907. Official 
printer to the "honourable Citty of London" 
and to the playhouses. 

Jephson (Henry), M.D., a celebrated physician 
settled at Leamington, Warwickshire, early in 
nineteenth century, who did much to promote 
the welfare and prosperity of that beautiful 
health resort. A mausoleum is erected to his 
memory there, in the public gardens named 
after him. 

Keith (Sir William), author of ' History of Vir- 
ginia,' 1738. 

Lennard (Samson), genealogist. Read "or Leonard/ 
Lewkenor (Sir Edward), d. 1619 (?), Sheriff of 

Lewkenor (Sir Lewis), translator of ' The Resolved 

Gentleman,' by the Chevalier Delibere, 1594. 
Linton (Anthony), author of ' Newes of the Art of 

Navigation and of the mightie Empire of 

Cataia, together with the Straits of Anian/ 

Long (J.), author and traveller. Wrote 'Voyage* 

and Travels ,'1791. 

Longstaffe (W. H. D.), author of a 'History of 

Darlington,' 1854; 'House of Clervaux,' 1852, 

Leveling (J. or M.), author of ' Latin and English 

Poems,' 1741. 
Lovell (John), editor of The Liverpool Mercury and 

bibliophile, d. 1890, author of ' Literary Papers/ 

1894 (issued posthumously), and ' The Land 

Question,' undated. 
Marlow (Jeremiah), author of ' Book of Cyphers, 


Marot (D.), architect to William III. 
Mason (John), M.A., author of 'TheTurke,' 1610; 

' Mule-Asses the Turke,' 1632; and 'The School 

Moderator,' 1648. 

Mennes (Sir John), admiral. Add " or Mennis." 
Men ton (L.), author of ' Money masters all Things,' 

pub. at York, 1696. 

MexDorough (Earls of). See Savile. This cross- 
reference is omitted. 
Middleton (J. J.), author of 'Grecian Remains, 

Morant (A. W.), co-author of ' Dictionary of Coats 

of Arms, or Ordinary of British Armorials/ 

Munday (Anthony), poet. Add "author of 'Briefe 

Chronicle ,' 1611." 

Newhouse (C. B.), author of 'Coaching Scenes,' 

' Sketches on the Road,' and ' Scenes on th& 

Noble (James Ashcroft), of Liverpool, essayist,. 

author of ' Pelican Papers,' 1873 ; Verses of a 

Prose Writer,' 1877. 
Oldmayne (Timothy), rector of Denham, Suffolk,. 

author of 'God's Rebuke ,' 1619; 'Life's 

Brevitie and Death's Debilitie,' 1636, and other 

Oldys (Francis), author of ' Life of Thomas Paine *" 

[the atheist]. 


(To be contimied.) 


THE question of the raison d'etre of three 
of the personages in ' The Merchant of 
Venice ' has for some time attracted me. I 
have tried to discern their individuality and 
to call each by his name, but I am not able 
to plume myself upon my success. Where- 
fore Salarino, Salanio, and Salerio ? If one- 
found Smith, Smythe, and Smythies in a 
modern comedy, one would expect that 
something vital to the plot depended on 
nominal resemblance that, for instance, 
Smythe became by error Smith's uncle's 

10 s. ix. JAN. 11, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

heir, or that Smythies found himself in peril 
of being married to Smythe's expectant 

But nothing analogous to that occurs in 
the progress of ' The Merchant of Venice.' 
Salarino, Salanio, and Salerio might have 
been aspirants for Portia's hand, and have 
been allowed to mix themselves up in the 
matter of the caskets ; but Shakespeare 
usually confined himself to twins as in 
' The Comedy of Errors ' and in ' Twelfth 
Night ' when he wished for a case of mis- 
taken identity, and we have no evidence that 
he ever had recourse to triplets. I am afraid 
we shall have to wait until his ' Divrnall ' 
or ' Thought-Book ' is discovered in some 
village in New England to get any hint of 
the reason why there was less plot-pro- 
moting difference between the three than 
" 'twixt Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee." 

I have, perhaps, been more fortunate 
in my endeavour to discover the character- 
istics of Salarino, Salanio, and Salerio, or, 
at any rate, those of the two former, for 
my feeling with regard to Salerio is that 
he was a mere clerical error ; but of that 
more anon. The outset (I. i.) leads me to 
the conclusion that Shakespeare endowed 
Salarino with a richer imagination than he 
gave to Salanio, and then used him as the 
vehicle of many a choice phrase. He 
begins with a fine outburst of poetry in 
a speech designed to give solace to depressed 
Antonio, and in the midst of it is inter- 
rupted by the ordinary being Salanio 
ordinary as anybody talking in blank verse 
could be allowed to be who carefully 
points out how a mere commonplace man 
would deport himself in like anxiety. He 
is just a good foil for Salarino ; and perhaps 
that is one reason why the Master made 
him. Salarino goes on to accuse Antonio 
of being in love, and gives evidence of 
being a student of human nature, after the 
fashion of the poet who inspired him. It 
strikes me that Salanio was not altogether 
sorry when his eloquent friend was brought 
to a period by the entrance of Bassanio 
and the rest. I have not space in which 
to quote the pregnant passages on which 
I rely ; interested readers, if such there be, 
will refer to them for themselves. 

In II. iv., when Salarino would forward 
the design of Lorenzo with regard to the 
masque, Salanio sagely opines that it is 
better " not undertook " : poetry feels but 
the charm of the diversion ; prose is struck 
by its imprudence, and, maybe, its iniquity. 
He seems to go with Salarino to prepare 
for the diversion, but he does not turn up 

at the rendezvous, the pent-house in II. vi., 
where Salarino is again stirred to fluent 
speech by Gratiano's text that lovers ever 
run before the clock. Gratiano follows in 
the same strain, " only more so," until 
stopped by the coming of Lorenzo, 
whereon the listener, unsatiated, remarks, 
" More of this anon." Gratiano and 
Salarino have the air of being mutual 

Salarino and Salanio, again together 
in II. viii., talk of the flight of Jessica, 
and Salanio distinguishes himself by 
giving an interesting realistic description 
the sort of thing he could and would 
do admirably of the agony of Shy- 
lock. They speak of Antonio, and 
Salarino sketches with tender grace 
the parting between the merchant and 
Bassanio. When the Jew appears (III. i.) 
and accuses them of knowing of his 
daughter's flight, Salarino nimbly replies, 
" That's certain : I, for my part, knew the 
tailor that made the wings she flew withal " ; 
while Salanio, with his heavier touch, im- 
presses natural history : " Shylock, for his 
own part, knew the bird was fledged ; and 
then it is the complexion of them all to 
leave the dam." Both of the men, like all 
good Christians of their age, were fierce 
against the Jews ; yet, if they ever were 
outside the magic pages in which they now 
live, it is not unlikely that they had Hebrew 
blood coursing in their veins. I say this 
because Sala was a name borne by Venetian 
Jews in the fourteenth century, and of that 
Salarino and Salanio may well have been 
diminutives. After III. i. Salanio vanishes, 
and Salarino makes but a brief appearance 
in III. iii. This, however, gives him the 
chance of dubbing Shylock " the most 
impenetrable cur that ever kept with 
men." " Impenetrable cur " is choice ! 

A messenger from Venice to Belmont is 
introduced in III. ii., and him Gratiano 
recognizes as "my old Venetian friend 
Salerio," the first time we see the gentleman 
so called. He bears a letter from Antonio, 
and what I chiefly note of him is that he 
is capable of word-play, and is not burdened 
with the wholly unnecessary delicacy of 
feeling which would keep him from reviling 
Shylock in the presence of Jessica. In the 
trial scene (IV. i.) he acts as a kind of 
usher, amateur and not official ; and that is 
all, we meet him no more. One wonders 
why the poet made him, if indeed he ever 
did make him, and Salerio be not our 
familiar friend Salanio (absent from the side 
of Salarino just when he might be on the 

NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. JAN. n, im 

mission to Belmont), misnamed by some 
error of the scribe who drew up the table 
of dramatis personal in ' The Merchant of 
Venice.' The list was not supplied until 
the issue of the Third Quarto, and the 
^spelling of Salarino and Salanio seemed to 
be the sport of caprice in various editions 
of the play, though I am bound to add that 
Salerio is said to be rendered " consistently 
in all the old copies.' All that I can retort 
is that steady persistence in error is not 
Tincommon. It appeared to Mr. Charles 
Knight that not only is there " no necessity 
for introducing a new character, Salerio . .but 
that the dramatic propriety is violated by the 
introduction"; and he calls the messenger 
Solanio, to identify him with the gentleman 
whom we know as Salanio, whose name he 
always spells with o. The promoters of the 
" Cambridge Edition " of the play stick to 
Salerio, and frankly confess that, tried by 
Mr. Knight's standard, " Shakespeare's 
violations of dramatic propriety are frequent 
indeed, and it is no part of an editor's duty 
to corect them." 

And, gentles, there I leave the matter. 



(See 10 S. viii. 321, 402, 483.) 

THERE are many legends about the chil- 
dren which the "Fair Quaker" is said to 
have borne to George III., but none of them 
-seem plausible. Some time since I received 
the following particulars founded upon a 
family tradition : 

"Samuel Lightfoot, merchant of London, who 
was born in 1760, was the son of Hannah Lightfoot 
by the King. He was created Sir Samuel by Par- 
liament, and received fifty thousand pounds from 
Government for suppressing the past. He often 
stated that he was the rightful King of England. 
He married Sophia Fowler, heiress, of Bath and 

If he was as outspoken as he is repre- 
sented, ".Sir" Samuel does not appear to 
have earned his money, and the Parlia- 
mentary knighthood also was ill-deserved. 
The individual indicated was buried in 
Islington Churchyard, for his daughters, 
Jane Josepha Innes and Elizabeth Lucy 
Frye (whose names were given to me as 
those of two of his children), lie in the same 
grave ; but none of the other facts appear to 
be correct. His true history seems to have 
been as follows. 

Samuel Lightfoot was born in April, 
1760. On the 8th of April, 1771, he was 
admitted to Christ's Hospital, London, 
and was discharged on the 10th of April, 
1775, by his father Samuel Lightfoot, who 
was then living near the Red Lion at Hoxton. 
His mother's name was Catalina, or Carolina. 
He appears to have been married twice : 

( 1 ) Mary Anne , by whom he had several 

children, and among these a daughcer born 
on the 15th of May, 1788 ; (2) Lucy Brown, 
of Islington, who became his wife on the 
7th of November, 1789. He died on the 
8th of April, 1798, aged thirty-eight, and 
was buried in Islington Churchyard, where 
his vault may be seen. A note of mine 
(where it was found I regret to say I have 
forgotten) states that " his uncle was a gold- 
lace maker to the royal family, hence comes 
the crest a stag." His father was Samuel 
Lightfoot, a wharfinger of Thames Street, 
and a Quaker, who is said to have married 
a Dutch lady (Catalina ?), and to have been 
turned out of the Society. According to 
the Islington parish register a Catalina 
Lightfoot, aged seventy-two, was buried 
on the 18th of -November, 1799; but in the 
last will and testament of Samuel Lightfoot, 
jun. (dated 3 July, 1797), at Somerset- 
House, his mother's name is spelt Carolina. 
His father appears to have been a first cousin 
of the famous Hannah Lightfoot, and thus 
there is no truth in the legend of his royal 

Unluckily, I have been unable to find a 
confirmation of the statement that he 
married Sophia Fowler, heiress, of Bath ; 
but in a copy of the ' History of St. Mary's, 
Islington,' by John Nelson, 1811, there is 
an interleaved account (June, 1843) of the 
pulling down of Fisher House, which belonged 
to the Fowlers, so that family evidently 
lived in the parish. These details may 
appear foreign to the present inquiry, but 
owing to the fact that some of the descend- 
ants of this particular Samuel Lightfoot 
have entertained the idea that the famous 
Hannah was their ancestress, I have given 
in full all the particulars about him that I 
have been able to discover. For this same 
reason it will be useful to show the Lightfoot 
pedigree, drawn up from the registers of 
St. Mary's, Islington, and of the Society of 
Friends and the pages of The Gentleman's 
Magazine. Possibly some of the surviving 
members of the family will be able to offer 
further details. 


(To be continued.) 

10 s. ix. JAX. 11, im] NOTES AND QUP]RIES. 




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NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAX. 11, im 

(See 10 S. viii. 268, 496.) 

THE question as to the origin of this 
title has been so often discussed that I have 
long looked upon it as decided for all 
reasonable beings. MB. BEAVEN (no mean 
authority on such matters) and I are 
agreed that the Mayor of London has only 
a prescriptive right to the prefix " Lord " 
unlike the Mayors of Dublin and other 
places. The charter of Edward III. (1354) 
permitting the Serjeants of the City to bear 
gold or silver maces, with the royal arms or 
otherwise, is commonly supposed to have 
incidentally conferred; the title of " Lord 
Mayor," and indeed was so reported in the 
City's statement to the Royal Commission 
of 1893 (p. 7). 

Here are a few of my notes on the subject 
that I have ready at hand. 

I find that in the reign of Edward IV. the 
Mayor for the time is recorded both as 
" Mayor " (tout simple) and as the " honour- 
able lord the Maire "(Journal 7, fos. 144 b, 
146 b, 174, 181 b, 201 b, 212) ; also as "my 
lord the Maire " (Journal 7, fo. 199 b). 

It is not until 1504 that I find " my lorde 
Mayre" (Repertory 1, fo. 155 b), although 
there may be possibly an earlier instance 
(if there be one, it matters little). Monoux, 
on his election, is recorded as " electe to be 
Maire," and when in office as "my lord 
Maire" (Repertory 2, fos. 196 b, 207 b). 

See also 'N. &"Q.,' 12 March, 1887 (7 S. 
iii. 207) and The Times, 13 and 19 Nov., 

Town Clerk's Office, Guildhall. 

This subject has previously been dealt 
with ; see 5 S. v. 119 ; 7 S. iii. 207 ; 9 S. ii. 
308, 437 ; and 10 S. viii. 496, which last 
<being by the Rev. A. B. BEAVEN, one of 
the most competent authorities on civic 
matters) is the only one that is entirely 
satisfactory, and may be taken as proving 
that the prefix of " Lord " " was not in 
general and accepted use much, if at all, 
before 1520 possibly not until several 
years later." The writer quotes Mr. 
St. John Hope's statement that it was 
"' after 1540 the use of the term Lord 
Mayor becomes general." I have quoted 
thus freely from MB. BEAVEN'S valuable 
article, inasmuch as it occurs under the 
heading of ' Sir George Monoux,' such 
heading being no guide as to its dealing 
with the matter now in question. . 

Of all the various theories as to the origin 
of the prefix ' Lord," the most prevalent 
is that, inasmuch as on 15 June, 1354, King 
Edward III. confirmed the City charter and 
gave permission to the Mayor of London to 
have gold and silver maces carried before 
him, this charter led to the assumption of 
the prefix " Lord " by the then Mayor, 
generally (but erroneously) stated ^to have 
been Thomas Legge, and his successors. 
There is, however, nothing whatever to 
support this conjecture. An account, by 
J. J. Stocken, of this Thomas Legge (who 
was not slain, as generally stated, in Wat 
Tyler's rebellion in 1381, but who died in 
1357) is in Phillimore's London and Middlesex 
Note-Book (1892). The Mayor in June, 
1354, was Francis, as Legge was not elected 
till the October following. " The old notion 
that it was an honour conferred upon Sir 
William Walworth [in 1381], for his conduct 
in the Wat Tyler incident, has been long 
exploded" (9 S. ii. 308). 

The conjecture (9 S. ii. 437-8) that Sir 
Nicholas Le Brembre, 1377, " seems to have 
been the first Mayor to assume to himself 
the title of Lord, but that prefix was ac- 
corded without question to his successor, 
Sir John Philpot, 1378, and has been re- 
cognized ever since," is certainly untenable ; 
so also, practically (even, if haply the ety- 
mology will stand), is that in the interesting 
extract from ' A Brief Chronicle of Successe 
of Times' (London, 1611, p. 575), stating 
that in 1189 King Richard I. 
" appointed a supreame Officer above the rest by the 
name of Maior, which worde was borrowed from 
the Hsebrew word Mar, and signifieth Dominus, 

Lord but called Maire, as the French did their 

Maires of the Pallace. Thus was the chief e 
Governor called lord Maire or Maior, because they 
understood not that the epethite Maire or Maior 
implyed no lesse then lord without any other 
additions, yet thus was it given for a larger augmen- 
tation of Honor," 

G. E. C. 

As reference has been made in Mr. Layard's 
recently published volume, ' A Great 
" Punch " Editor,' to the celebrated lines on 
the death of Abraham Lincoln which ap- 
peared in Punch on 6 May, 1865, I should 
like, as the only son of Tom Taylor, to put 
on record in ' N. & Q.' that these lines were 
written by my father. In confirmation of 
this I may add that our family possesses a 
volume containing the appreciative thanks 
of the U.S. Government of the day for my 
father's poem on the death of the great 

Gayles, Friston, Eastbourne. 

10 s. ix. JAN. 11, 1908.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


NATIONALITY. In a life of the wife and 
model of Greuze in the current number 
of Le Mercure de France, Wille, the great 
engraver, and gay friend of Diderot, is 
treated as "un Anglais." Wille was a 
Hessian, as were his father and his friend 
Schmidt, and it is hard to say how any 
one who is acquainted with the life of 
Paris just before the Revolution can think 
him English. Wille' s letters to his German 
friends are well known. D. 

EPITAPH AT HUNSDON. While recording 
tl e inscriptions in the churchyard at Huns- 
don this autumn I met with the following : 
Thomas King, died AprilI24, 1735, aged 89. 

Here lies Tom King, old I)ad of Fame, 

Who knew his Gun and eke his Game. 

The fact whereof both Balls and Luton, 

Now can fully prove ye truth on. 

He lov'd his Bottle & his friend, 

Which he enjoy'd unto his End. 

He dy'd Belov'd, alas poor Tom, 

Behold at last his sable Tomb. 
Balls is the seat of the Townshend family, 
about five miles from Hunsdon. 


BEL.' Mr. E. H. Coleridge, the poet's 
grandson, in his recent edition of S. T. 
Coleridge's ' Christabel ' says : 

"There is one source for 'Christabel' which 
should be noted for what it is worth. Whilst 
Coleridge was 'preparing' 'Christabel,' he read 
and minutely studied Lewis's ' Castle Spectre.' 
His copy, which he must have bought at Shrews- 
bury, is dated January 20, 1798, and a few days 
later (Tuesday ("January 23], 1798) he forwarded a 
detailed criticism of the play to Wordsworth, in 
which he compared his own genius with that of a 
writer whom he duly appreciated, but by no means 
rated in accordance with the general." 
Then follows the criticism. 

Apropos of this it may be noted that the 
poet, in ' Table Talk and Omniana,' Ashe, 
1884, refers to certain lines in the ' Hymn 
to St. Teresa,' from ' Carmen Deo Nostro,' 
by Richard Crashaw, in the course of which 
he says : 

"They were ever present to my mind whilst 
writing the second pirt of ' Christabel ' ; if, indeed, 
by some subtle process of the mind, they did not 
suggest the first thought of the whole poem." 

See ' Crashaw's English Poems,' ed. by J. R. 

MILTON'S BIBLE. The subjoined extract 
from The Daily News of 12 December last 
will perhaps be of sufficient interest for these 
columns : 

" A New York telegram recalls that in 1901 there 
was sold at Sotheby's a copy of the 'Breeches' 

Bible which originally belonged to John Milton, 
ind contained what purported to be his signature. 
The purchaser was Mr. Herbert Dodd, a member 
of the well-known firm of American publishers 
Dodd, Mead & Co., who, after retaining the book 
in his possession for some time, disposed of it to a 
wealthy amateur, Mr. Buckler, Secretary to the 
American Legation in Madrid. Recently Mr. 
Buckler had the Bible put up to auction, and it fell 
to the bid of Mr. Alfred J. Barton, a well-known 
expert, for the sum of 1,225 dollars. Now Mr. 
Barton, as the result of close investigation and 
comparison, declares that the alleged writing is not 
genuine, and as the book was guaranteed as such 
the purchaser has returned it to its previous owner. 
Central News. 

"A Cambridge correspondent telegraphs : Mr. 
Aldis Wright, of Trinity College, Cambridge, says 
he was consulted about the Bible, and after referring 
to ' Sutherby's Ramblings ' in the elucidation of the 
autograph of Milton he pronounced it to be that of 
Major John Milton, who was an officer in the City 
of London trained bands, and not that of the poet, 
who was blind at the date of this signature. 
Elizabeth Milton, the third wife of the poet, had 
signed her name on the title-page." 

As with my recent note re Bunyan 
(inserted at 10 S. viii. 468), I take the 
opportunity of pointing out that I have not 
as yet been favoured with a reply to my 
genealogical query concerning a relative of 
Milton's appearing at 10 S. vii. 329. 


"BILLYCOCK." I am not aware if atten- 
tion has ever been directed to the conjectural 
origin assigned to this word in the 'H.E.D.' 
In a recent lecture on ' Hats ' I referred to 
its supposed corruption from bully-cock, and 
suggested that it was simply " a little man's 
hat," in contradistinction to the grown man's 
hat, the " chimney-pot." Both conjectures 
appear to be wrong. It was first worn, and 
is stated on good authority to have been 
invented, by the father of the present Earl 
of Leicester, the popularly known " Billy 
Coke," who represented the county of 
Norfolk in Parliament for many years. He 
used to wear it in the hunting-field, and, 
with a subsequent characteristic emendation, 
it was called after him. 


Sedgeford Hall. 

Mrs. Stirling in her recent biography of 
Coke of Norfolk, first Earl of Leicester of 
Holkham, ascribes the invention of the 
bowler hat to Coke's nephew William Coke, 

" decided that a hat, said to have been originally 
designed by Wm. Bowler, a hatter in the Borough, 
would answer his requirements. He therefore 
ordered Lock, in St. James's Street, to make him 
one after this pattern, and the fashion thus started 
was afterwards universally adopted." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. n, 

The Evening Standard of 17 December 
last, in a review of Mrs. Stirling's book, 
states that there is still a well-known hatter 
in St. James's Street who charges you in 
his bills " To one Coke hat." 

This derivation is doubtful : it is pro- 
bable that the name originated from the 
resemblance of the hat to an inverted bowl, 
in the same manner that the pot-hat is so 
called from its being shaped like a chimney- 

The 'N.E.D.' under 'Billycock' explains 
that this is 

"apparently the same as bully-cocked, used 1721, 
probably meaning ' cocked after the fashion of the 
mtttita ' or hectoring blades of the period." 

The word appears to have been in use 
before Coke of Norfolk was born. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

correspondent furnish notes on the origin, 
history, and membership of this society ? 
I have before me a pamphlet entitled : 

" The Pre-existence of Souls and Universal 
Restitution considered as Scripture Doctrines : 
extracted from the Minutes and Correspondence of 
Burnham Society, in the County or Somerset. 
Taunton, 1798," pp. 58. 

The editor informs us that the Rev. Sir 
George Stonhouse, Bart., who had written 
largely in favour of universal restitution 
from 1761 to his death in 1793, had left 
the copyright of his works to the President 
of the Burnham Society ; so the Society 
proposed to re-issue them by subscription. 
For the last twenty years of his life Ston- 
house resided at East Brent, near Burnham. 
There is evidence that these Universalists 
sprang from the Calvinistic side of the 
Evangelical movement ; but we read that 
the Rev. John Wesley " was in the habit 
of preaching in the Society's rooms." 

Are there any other publications of the 
Society ? And who was the President ? 



SOBIESKI FAMILY. In 'The King over 
the Water,' by A. Shield and Andrew Lang, 
there is, naturally, some space devoted to 
the family of Princess Clementina Sobieska. 
I am anxious to know if the account is 

quite correct. It is stated that her grand- 
mother "Marysienka," the widow of King 
John Sobieski, was " a Frenchwoman, Marie- 
de la Grange-Arquien, niece of the Duke de- 
Bethune." I thought that it was the 
Marquis de B6thune who married 
Marysienka's sister ; but was there another 
intermarriage ? Then, again, we are told : 

" Her son James Sobieski had been twice married. 
By his first wife, a Polish lady, he had one daughter 
Casimire, now [1713] aged eighteen. By his second 
wife Hedwige, daughter of the Duke of Bavaria- 

Neuburg he had two daughters, Marie Caroline 

and Marie Clementina." 

The account in ' Das jetzt lebende- 
Europa ' (1716) gives to Prince Jamea 
Sobieski only one wife, Hedwig Elizabetha 
Amalia of Pfalz (Bavaria-Neuburg), born 
18 July, 1673, and married 25 March, 
1691 ; and names their eldest living child 
as Maria Casimira. De la Chenaye Desbois- 
et Badier's ' Dictionnaire de la Noblesse ' 
also gives Casimire Sobieska the same 
parentage. Was she therefore a full sister 
or a half-sister of the wife of the "King 
over the Water" ? 


79, Great King Street, Edinburgh. 

any of your readers tell me of any publica- 
tion giving a list of the dedications of all 
sacred buildings in England, whether still 
standing or in ruins ? An interesting point 
of prehistoric archaeology has arisen in con- 
nexion with ancient chapels. 


The Grove-, East Woodhay, Newbury. 

[THK REV. DR. Co?: has kindly supplied the 
following information : 

"There is no such book published as that which MR. 
CRAWFORD desires ; but a full list of parish-church 
dedications is given in Miss Arnpld-Forster's 3 vols. 
of 'Studies in Church Dedications,' published by 
Skeffington in 1899. The authorities, however, that 
are cited for the dedications are almost exclusively 
mere Diocesan Calendars, and hence there are 
many mistakes, for several of these Calendars per- 
sist in perpetuating blunders. Mediaeval wills, 
chartularies, and episcopal registers are the chief 
sources that require searching. The larger maps of 
the Ordnance Survey profess to mark church, 
chapel, and even ruined church and chapel dedi- 
cations : but in some counties the usual blunders 
are repeated, as those in charge of certain parts of 
the survey did not go to the right people for 

SuiRDALE. 1. Can any of your readers give- 
me information as to the connexion between 
the Irish Alexanders of Maryville and Cale- 
don and the Scotch Alexanders, created 
Earls of Stirling ? Burke suggests a common 

10 s. ix. JAN. 11, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ancestor in the grandfather of the first Ear 
of Stirling, but I cannot find any basis for 

2. Why is the eldest son of the Earl oi 
Donoughmore called Viscount Suirdale ? 
Has any such title ever been created ? or is 
it merely a fancy name taking origin from 
the fact that the river Suir runs through 
the Knocklofty property ? H. B. R. 

[2. 'Whitaker's Peerage,' s.v. Donoughmore, says : 
" The title ' Vise. Suirdale,' borne by courtesy by 
the heir apparent, originated, according to Mr. 
Cokayne, in some confusion as to the precise 
title bestowed in 1797, which was strictly 'Vise. 
Donoughmore of Knocklotty,' and not of Suir- 
dale. "j 

Source of the following quotations is sought : 

1. When with society he 's in the lurch, 

He starts a tiger, and then goes to church. 

2. Search the universe from Pole to Pole, 

You'll find self-interest rules the whole. 

These passages are not apparently in Pope, 
Swift, Churchill, or Johnson's translations of 

Land o' carefu' cannie bodies, 
Foes to a' ungodly fun ; 
Land that sums up man's whole duties- 
Heaven, the deil, and Number One ! 

Can any reader give the other verses and 
the author of them ? B. 


1. Ye shepherds, tell me, have you seen 

My Flora pass this way ? 
In form and feature Beauty's queen, 
In pastoral array ! 

2. When I left thy shores, O Naxos, 

Not a tear in sorrow fell ; 
Not one sigh or faltering accent 

Marked my bosom's struggling swell. 

Often supposed to be by Byron. Is it cor- 
rectly attributed ? 

3. We that are held of you in narrow chains, 
Sought for our beauty, through our folly raised, 

One moment to a narrow eminence, 
To drop in dreary nothingness amazed. 

S. C. H. 

On the north side of the Chiswick High 
Road, a little to the east of Gunnersbury 
Lane, stands a small, isolated brick building 
one story high, now used as a store, which 
bears on the front a cast-iron plate having 
on it the crown and broad arrow and the 
initials E. R. Local tradition says it was 
built to serve as the shelter for a guard 
sent from Hounslow Barracks to protect 
George III. whenever he was passing from 

Kew Palace to London by the high road 
through Turnham Green. Do any of your 
readers know anything of the history of the 
building ? J. TAVENOR PERRY. 

5, Burlington Gardens, Chiswick. 

Coleridge, in one of his letters to Daniel 
Stuart, written in January, 1800, says : 

"If you want matter, Lamb has got plenty of 
'My Great- Aunt's Manuscript.' I would advise 
you, by all means, to make it an article in The 
Moiiiing Pout." 

Did this appear ? It is not included by 
that title in the collected editions. 



ing appeared in The Daily News of Monday, 
2 December last : 

" According to ancient custom, winter was 
proclaimed at Colchester after the stroke of 
midnight on Saturday by the town crier in the 
Words : 

Cold December hath come in, 
Poor people's backs are clothed thin ; 
The trees are bare, the birds are mute, 
A pot and toast would very well suit. 

God save the King." 

Is the custom known elsewhere ? and how 
long can it be traced at Colchester ? 

A. F. R. 

PRAGMATISM. The word Pragmatism 
appears susceptible of many meanings not 
satisfactorily solved by dictionaries. A 
history of the word and its meaning would 
be interesting just now, since it is exciting 
attention by its use as " a new name for 
someoldways of thinking." See Prof. William 
James's new book. E. M. W. 

[The answer is fortunately to be found in the 
section of the 'N.E.D.' issued on New Year's Day. 
The earliest illustrative quotation for the philo- 
sophical sense is from 1898. In this Prof. James 
states that the word was first used in this sense by 
C. S. Peirce in the early seventies in lectures at 
Cambridge, Mass.] 

"TYE." Can you tell me the meaning of 
the word " tye " ? Is it where people were 
' tied " up at the whipping- post and put in 
the stocks ? On Alpheton Tye here there was 
a whipping-post. H. H. BARTRUM. 


REV. JOHN BYNG. I am anxious to 
discover the parentage of the Rev. John 
Byng, Unitarian minister of Tarn worth, 
Staffs, from 1768 to 1821. He was born in 
1747, educated at the Daventry Academy, 
and died at Tamworth in 1827. He 
married in 1770 Charlotte Harding, a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. n, im. 

granddaughter of the cousin of Thomas Guy, 
the founder of Guy's Hospital. Please 
reply direct. W. BALFOUR STEWAKT. 

13, Caroline Place, Birkenhead. 

number of Le Mercure de France for the 1st 
of January one of many letters from Hor- 
tense Allart to Sainte-Beuve describes her 
life with " Bulwer " in London while he sat 
in Parliament. In another she quotes 
' Edward Bulwer (frere d'Henry) " : " There 
are two things in the world : human nature, 
and French nature." Why did she explain 
the writer as " frere d'Henry " ? The editor 
of the letters in his foot-notes always writes 
" Bulwer," and intends the novelist. Henry 
sat in Parliament later ; but in Hortense 
Allart's day he was known as a " tin-soldier" 
and a diplomatist. The lady had children 
by many fathers, and may not have been 
truthful. E. A. H. 

reader furnish me with a reference to, or a 
list of, about two thousand words which 
are the most used in ordinary, everyday 
English ? 

I should be most grateful for any replies 
sent to me at this address. 


Woodland Grove, Torquay. 

was this lady ? and what was Papyruseum ? 
In 1818 a short exhibition of the latter was 
given in Stoakes' Rooms, Church Street, 
Liverpool, the attention of the nobility and 
gentry being drawn to " the elegant and truly 
unique productions of the late Mrs. Aberdein, 
known by the name of Papyruseum," 
"These extraordinary works of art consist," 
the advertisement states, 

" Of upwards of 130 Figures of Persons of Different 
Nations, including Several Public Characters, repre- 
senting their peculiar expressions of Countenance, 
Customs and Costumes ; also correct Models of 
Architecture, Statuary, Landscapes, and a great 
Variety of Flowers, &c., faithfully coloured from 
nature, the whole most curiously constructed in 

An adequate description of these tasteful 
and ingenious specimens was said to be 
impossible ; they had ^to be seen to be 
properly appreciated, when they would, 
undoubtedly, afford pleasure and satisfaction 
to the most fastidious admirer of the fine 
arts. The exhibition was made for the sole 
benefit of Mrs. Aberdein's only child, a girl 
of twelve years. Admission one shilling 
from 10 to dusk, descriptive catalogues at 
Is. and 6d. each. R. S. B. 

SUFFOLK STREET RIOT, 1735. The fol- 
lowing is an extract from a letter from 
Henige Legge to the Earl of Dartmouth, 
23 Feb., 1735, which is amongst the Dart- 
mouth MSS. (Historical MSS. Committee 
Report). Can any one inform me whether 
there is extant any copy of the copperplate 
engraving mentioned ? 

" The Suffolk Street Riot has made much noise, 
but is now pretty well blown over. The persons 
present were Lord Middlesex, Lord John Murray, 
Lord Boyne, Lord Harcourt, Sewallis Shirley. Sir 
James Grey, Mr. Strode, and Mr. Denny ; and there 
is now a copperplate of the Company in that style, 
which Lora Dartmouth may like to have amongst 
his collection at Blackheath." 

(Rev.) H. L. L. DENNY. 

6, Wilton Terrace, Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin. 

" VIN GRIS." I have been lately in 
Lorraine, and have been regaled on wine 
almost the colour of red ink and water, 
which goes nevertheless under the name 
of mn gris. Can anybody on thL side the 
Channel say why it is thus entitled ? 
I hardly think the reason is generally known 
on the other. In ' Sur les grandes Routes 
de France ' M. Valabregue tells how he 
tried to solve the question at Liverdun : 

"On boit. & table, le vin gris de Lorraine, vin de 
couleur claire, plutot rosee, un peu apre, un peu 
doux, quidonne une agr^able sensationde fraicheur. 

'"Ce vin gris,' me dit mon voisin, 'vous le re- 
trouverez sur toutes les tables en Lorraine ; c'est 
une vieille habitude pour tout le monde d'en avoir 
sa provision.' 

"'Etpourquoi lui donnez-vous cette e"pithete de 
vin gris qu'il ne merite pas, puis qu'il est rose ? ' 

" 'Oh ! n'y faites pas attention : remarquez seule- 
ment comme il est clair. Voyez son coloris : il est 
plutot blanc que rouge. Quant au gout de terroir 
qu'il possedej on Pobtient, ainsi que la coloration, 
en envoyant immediatement les grappes au pressoir. 
On ne les laisse point fermenter dans les cuves. 
C'est la meme operation qu'on tait subir au raisin 
pour produire le vin de Champagne.' " P. 118. 

Is it possible that the wine is not gris = grey, 
but gris = tipsy, by which I mean in some 
special state of fermentation ? 


SCOTCH PRIVATEERING. Will any of your 
readers be kind enough to refer me to any 
authorities which I may consult in relation 
to some privateering operations carried 
on from Scotland in 1672 ? In that year 
the Bruce, a frigate sent out by the Duke 
of Rothes, the Earl of Lauderdale, and 
others, captured two Danish timber-laden 
vessels named the Palm Tree and the 
Patience. A lawsuit was the result, the 
course of which is described in a pamphlet 
in the Brit. Mus. Library. CAPER. 

10 s. ix. JAN. 11, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


SIR HENRY DOCWRA. Where can I find 
an account of Sir Henry Docwra's expedi- 
tion to Ireland about 1596, with men under 
his command enlisted for service against the 
rebels ? There were two other men of his 
surname Robert Docwra, Constable of 
Carrickfergus Castle, co. Antrim, 39 Ed- 
ward III. ; and John Dockeray or Docwra 
(as it was then indifferently spelt), 14 Ed- 
ward IV. They were said to own property 
in Westmorland. Was Sir Henry one of 
their descendants, or in any way related to 
them ? Is there any list of those who 
took part with him in the expedition to 


(10 S. viii. 469, 510.) 

THE story which the Rev. E. C. MACKENZIE 
relates in his interesting reply is, I feel sure, 
quite untrustworthy. He says the story, 
so far as he knows, " has never appeared in 
print." So we now have it in print for the 
first time after the lapse of over a hundred 
years. Is not the story on the face of it 
unreliable ? I think this can be easily 
shown to be the case, but I will first give 
Ireland's account of the interview in his 
4 Life of Napoleon' (iii. 61), published by 
him in 1827. It must be borne in mind 
that he had good opportunities of getting 
information from French sources, as his 
preface shows. This book is scarce. 

" Napoleon, attended by the Grand Duke of Berg, 
Prince of Neufchatel, Marshal Bessieres, Duroc 
and Caulaincourt, proceeded to the banks of the 
Nietnen, and went on board the vessel which was 
to transport them to the raft, while the Emperor 
Alexander, with the Grand Duke Constantino, 
General Bennigsen, Ouwaroff, Prince Labanoff [sic], 
and his first adjutant, General Count Libben [sic], 
put off from the opposite banks. The two vessels 
reached the raft at the same moment. The Emperors 
embraced on leaving the vessels and entered the 
pavilion prepared for them. Their conference 
lasted about two hours, and when it closed, the 
attendants of the two potentates were admitted. 
Both Emperors then returned to their vessels, 
when a second interview took place the following 
day, upon a little island in the Niemen, at which 
the King of Prussia was also present." 

Now for Sloane's account ('Life of Napo- 
leon,' iii. 37). After describing the pavilion 
on the raft and the meeting of the Em- 
perors there, he states that " the staff, at a 

respectful distance, could catch nothing of 
what was said." 

These accounts, if correct, entirely demo- 
lish the story now published for the first 
time. Fancy that each of the emperors was to 
be accompanied by a single guard " who did 
not know French." So that it seems to have 
been contemplated that these guards might 
hear what was said ; but although they 
might possibly hear, they were to be men 
who could not understand, and therefore 
Napoleon was to be attended by a German 
grenadier (an insult to the French troops) and 
Alexander a Cossack ! But further, the Cos- 
sack who was " chosen " for such an honour- 
able post would no doubt be a good man. 
Mackenzie in some way found out " the 
chosen soldier," and set to work to corrupt 
him, " by means of gold and liquor." 

Now we come to the first transformation 
scene. In some secret place Mackenzie had 
to put on the uniform, and by a singular 
coincidence the Cossack's uniform fitted 
him coat, boots, cap, &c. The story does 
not relate whether the Cossack put on 
Mackenzie's clothes, or whether other 
clothes were got for him. The next 
difficulty is how it came about that no 
one noticed that the face of Mackenzie 
was not the face of any Cossack known 
to the other soldiers, This Cossack, envied 
by the other soldiers, must have been 
seen by scores of them, and directly he 
came off the raft his comrades must have 
been anxious to hear his account of the 
two Emperors. Hundreds of persons were 
watching the raft. Then comes the further 
difficulty of the second tranformation scene, 
by which Mackenzie had to get rid of his 
uniform and to get clear off, and the 
Cossack had to get back into his uniform. 
The time is not unimportant. The armistice 
after Friedland was signed on the 22nd of 
June, and the meeting on the raft was on 
the 25th (by some writers incorrectly stated 
to be on the 24th). 

Who can believe such a story as this ? 
"Credo quia impossibile est." Moreover, 
Canning's conduct after he got the informa- 
tion of the meeting of the Emperors shows 
that he could not have been informed that 
Mackenzie had " thus overheard the bargain 
by which the Danish fleet was to be annexed 
by the Franco-Russian combination." 

Mackenzie must indeed have been a brave 
man, for if he had been discovered by 
Napoleon his life would not have been 
worth half an hour's purchase. Then for 
this wonderful achievement, which en- 
abled the Government to save the country 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. n, im 

Tom a great peril, what was Mackenzie's 
eward ? Nothing special seems to have 
>een done for him. 

Stapleton's account of the interview in 
George Canning and his Times ' is equally 
imusing. He states at (p. 125) that " an 
ndividual was concealed behind a curtain 
>f the tent, and was a secret witness of 
ihat most curious conversation," &c. It is 
lue, however, to Stapleton to say that the 
aft had curtains, as appears in the picture 
eferred to by me ! The boldness of this 
statement without any proof is charming. 

Will the REV. E. C. MACKENZIE kindly 
jive a reference to The Times containing 
;he obituary of C. A. Mackenzie ? Before 
writing my former reply I examined a file 
Df The Times for the week after his death, 
yhich was advertised in that journal, and 
ilso examined the 'D.N.B.,' and could 
ind nothing about him. 

No one would think for a moment of call- 
ng in question the perfect good faith of 
;he REV. E. C. MACKENZIE, but stories like 
;his, handed down from one person to 
mother over a series of years, are generally 
worthless. Moreover, I should not wish to 
lepreciate the services of Mackenzie, for, 
snowing Russian and French, he no doubt 
picked up at Tilsit important information, 
md at once duly reported it. 


Inner Temple. 

With regard to the REV. E. C. MACKENZIE'S 
nteresting communication as to how 
banning got the news from Tilsit, did Colin 
Vlackenzie transmit the story of the disguise 
Dersonally to the son of his cousin, and not 
n any private memoirs of his life ? It might 
ilso be of interest to know whether the story 
,vas told by Mackenzie in his latter years, or 
,vas one that he often referred to in private 
conversation while still in his prime. 

It is strange that Canning, even after 
laving seen the report and heard Mackenzie 
personally on the peace conference, still 
teems to have been very much in the 
lark, and made strenuous attempts to 
ind out the contents of the secret para- 
graphs. Unless the two emperors spoke in 
i vague manner only as to coming plans, it 
.oems hardly possible to call Canning's 
ittempts to obtain definite news about 
,he secret treaty anything else than a huge 
riece of bluff, most successfully accom- 
plished. So far it appears that Canning 
mew only that a secret treaty had been 
nade, but the contents were unknown to 
lim, even when he died. He guessed and 

guessed rightly what the contents would 
be, and acted at once, playing a bold game 
on a mere supposition. 

One would think that a little more than 

the uniform of a Cossack would have been 

required by Mackenzie, viz., a beard ; and 

: his features (possibly very Scottish), and 

j whole bearing might very easily have caught 

1 the eagle eye of Napoleon. The latter 

! would no doubt at once have noticed that 

; the Cossack was straining his ear to follow 

! the conversation, unless Mackenzie was a 

master in remaining still at a distance and 

possessed good hearing. 

It seems most likely that some help was 
rendered by a superior Russian officer, with 
or without the knowledge of the Czar,* 
writhout any one in the Russian army 
knowing about the disguised Cossack, and 
with plenty of time given for the transforma- 
tion of the bodyguard chosen for the floating 
pavilion into Mackenzie in disguise. 

Had Mackenzie been pledged to Canning 
or to some Russian to preserve strict silence ? 
This would perhaps account for the story 
not being mentioned in any of the statements 
and reports during the autumn of 1807, nor 
in any later accounts, Mackenzie's mouth 
being sealed, even after his having left the 
diplomatic service, to his friends' as well as 
the world generally, with the exception of 
his nearest relatives, on whose confidence he 
could rely. Or was Mackenzie a man of 
taciturn habits, little given to mixing in 
society, and shunning the world ? 

[* The opinion of the best- informed.] 

ST. ANDREW'S CROSS (10 S. viii. 507). 
The arms of the see of Rochester do not 
contain the cross of St. Andrew, but include 
the heraldic ordinary called a saltire, viz., 
Argent, a saltire gules. St. Andrew's cross 
is the same ordinary, but must always be 
argent upon azure, for the reason explained 
by Nisbet as follows : 

" It has been anciently used by the Scots for their 
ensign, upon as well grounded a tradition for its 
appearing in the air as other nations have for their 
crosses coming down from heaven. Our historians 
are not wanting to tell us that Achaius, King 
of the Scots, and Hungus, King of the Picts, 
having joined forces to oppose Athelstan, King 
of the Saxons, superior to them in force, 
they addressed themselves to God and their 
patron St. Andrew ; and, as a token that 
they were heard, the white saltier cross, upon 
which St. Andrew suffered martyrdom, appeared 
in the blue firmament. Which so animated the 
Scots and Picts that they defeated the Saxons and 
killed King Athelstan in East Lothian ; which 
place to this day is known by the name of Athel- 

10 s. ix. JAN. 11, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Stanford, corruptly pronounced Elshinfoal. After 
the victory, the two confederate kings, out of a 
sense of singular mercy, went in procession to the 
church of St. Andrew's (where his arm was said to 
be kept as a relic) to thank God and the Apostle 
for the victory, purposing that they and their suc- 
cessors should, in all time coming, use on their 
ensigns the cross of St. Andrew. How well the 
Picts performed I know not, being overcome and 
expelled afterwards by the Scots ; but it has been 
the constant practice of our kings to carry a white 
saltier cross on a blue banner." ' Heraldry,' i. 131. 

All of which let any dangerous sceptic 
call in question at his peril, seeing that the 
azure field of St. Andrew forms the basis of 
the Union flag. It is to be regretted that 
flag-makers use, not a heraldic azure, but 
navy blue, which shows almost black against 
the sky, thus obscuring the celestial origin 
of the ensign. HERBERT MAXWELL. 

' RINORDINE,' IRISH SONG (10 S. viii. 468, 
518 ; ix. 12). In the summer of 1904, when 
I was on a holiday in Donegal, an old 
woman of Kilmacrenan sang me what was 
evidently a fragment of this ballad. She 
was nearly eighty years of age, and could 
remember only four lines : 

If by chance you look for me, 
Perhaps you 11 not me find, 
For I'll be in my castle : 
Inquire for Reynardine. 

The melody to which she sang these words 
is very quaint and beautiful more beautiful 
even than the one given in Mr. Graves's book, 
of which it is a variant. I asked her what 
these words meant, and she said that " Rey- 
nardine is the name of a faery in Ireland that 
turns into the shape of a fox." The tune is 
certainly very spirituelle. 


Irish Literary Society, London, W. 

ARMS ON PUNCHBOWL (10 S. viii. 488). 
The arms on the " punchbowl of Lowestoft 
ware" are the same as those on a well- 
known service of Chinese porcelain, one of 
the plates of which is exhibited in the 
Franks Collection at the British Museum 
and another, in the possession of Mr. F. A. 
Crisp, is described in his ' Armorial China : 
a Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain with Coats 
of Arms,' 1907. The latter had previously 
been excellently illustrated in colour by 
Mr. W. Griggs in his 'Armorial China,' 1887. 

The former is described by Sir Wollaston 
Franks in his Catalogue (p. 195) : 

" Plate. Chinese porcelain, painted in colours, 
with gilding ; in the centre, a large coat of arms, 
viz., Sab., three escallops in pale arg., Biss, im- 
paling Az., three griffins' heads erased arg. (Bill?); 
mannings and crest, two snakes embowed ; motto 
sis FJKLIX BIS; border of black diaper with plain 

or gold grounds, interrupted by six medallions 
enclosing alternately flowers and butterflies. 
Diam. 8$ hi- 1413." 

I would hazard a suggestion that this- 
punchbowl might also be really an example 
of Chinese porcelain, painted to order in 
China, like the plates just mentioned. 


(10 S. viii. 509). It seems worth notice that 
Longfellow himself, in his ' Hyperion,' 
Bk. III. chap, vi., distinctly disowns the 
translation referred to. He says : 

"I shall not give you a bald translation of my 
own, because I have laid up in my memory another,, 
which, though not very literal, equals the original 
in beauty." 

I once published a translation of Uhland's 
poems ; but this was later (in 1864). I men- 
tioned in the Preface that " a translation of 
nearly all Uhland's poems by Alexander 
Platt was published at Leipzig in 1848." 
Whether the version sought is Platt's or not,. 
I am unable to say. Perhaps not ; but the 
early date of his publication makes it just 
possible. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

(10 S. vii. 429, 510; viii. 52). Through the 
kindness of Mr. Borrajo, City Librarian, I 
have been enabled to discover the site of 
this ancient tavera. That gentleman has. 
shown it plainly marked upon Rocque's 
map of London (1746). The space is also 
clearly shown, without the name, on Ogilby'a 
map of London (1677). Mr. Borrajo states 
that he has found a notice of the tavern 
as early as 1509. 

The position was exactly midway between 
St. Mary-at-Hill and Love Lane, facing the 
middle of the present Billingsgate Market, 
and appears to be now occupied by the 
Post Office, and another building, thereto- 
adjoining, on the west side. 


466). One would like to think MR. BAYNE'S- 
reading of the sonnet " It is a beauteous- 
evening " the correct one, but is it certain 
that by " the Mighty Being " Wordsworth 
meant anything more than the sea ? MR. 
C. LAWRENCE FORD, at 9 S. iv. 342, says : 

" Wordsworth is speaking of the sea only (called 
' Monstrum ' in ' ^Eneid,' y. 849) ; but perhaps it 
is not irrelevant to mention that there seems to- 
have been an old notion or belief, in which even 
Kepler shared, that the whole globe was 'an 
enormous living animal,' with ' alternations of 
deeping and waking ' (see Brewster's ' Martyrs of 
Science,' 1841, p. 261)." 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. n, im 

I cannot think that Wordsworth *.o regarded 
the world, nor, apparently, does MR. FORD. 
It was a spiritual presence that the poet 
found in external nature ; and even if he 
was speaking " of the sea only " in this 
passage, it is certain that its voice would 
convey to him " authentic tidings of in- 
visible things." Are we justified in sup- 
poing anything more than that ? 

C. C. B. 

Notwithstanding the reference to the Deity 
in the last line of this exquisite sonnet, 
it is quite clear to me that by "the mighty 
Being " in the sixth line Wordsworth does 
not mean God, but refers to the sea, just 
mentioned. Let us look at the sonnet 
as a whole : 

It is a beauteous evening.'calm and free, 

The holy time is quiet as a Nun 

Breathless with adoration ; the broad sun 

Is sinking down in its tranquillity ; 

The gentleness of heaven broods o'er the Sea : 

Listen ! the mighty Being is awake, 

And doth with his eternal motion make 

A sound like thunder everlastingly. 

Dear Child ! dear Girl ! that walkest with me here, 

If thou appear untouched by solemn thought, 

Thy nature is not therefore less divine : 

Thou liest in Abraham's bosom all the year ; 

And worship'st at the Temple's inner shrine, 

Ood being with thee when we know it not. 

If there could be any doubt as to " the 

sequence of thought," it would be set at 

rest by the two various readings of 1836 

{see Knight's ' Wordsworth,' ed. 1882, 

vol. ii. p. 292) : 

Air sleeps, from strife or stir the clouds are free, 
But list ! the mighty Being is awake. 

The "transi'ion" is not, as MR. BAYNE 
feuppoees, " from the contemplation of the 
peaceful scene to the thought of the omni- 
present Deity," but from the sleeping air, 
the stirless clouds, the general quiet, and 
the tranquil sunset, to the contrast afforded 
by the sea, personified as a living being. 
It is gentle as the sky, but it does not sleep 
it is awake, as you find, if you listen, 
by the low rumbling sound of its ever-moving 

The presence of Deity ie recognized, but 
not as MR. BAYNE thinks. There is no 
such abrupt and startling transition as his 
interpretation reads into the poem. The 
" solemn thought " by which the poet 
is " touched " is there throughout, from 
the first line to the last. 

The sonnet, we are told, is " the concise 
expression of an isolated poetic thought," 
or " the complete development of a single 
motive " (see Sharp's Introduction "to 
* Sonnets of this Century '). This isolated 

thought, this single motive, seems to me 
to be found, as usual, in the close ; as it is, 
for instance, in the magnificent sonnet by 
Blanco White. The aj parent indifference 
of the child is but the natural result of its 
greater nearness to, and greater familiarity 
with, that Deity whose presence in Nature 
the adult recognizes with an uttered emotion. 
If I am right in my view, the ingenious 
parallel or contrast drawn by MR. BAYNE 
between this sonnet and Browning's familiar 

God 's in His heaven 

All 's right with the world, 
is therefore absolutely without foundation. 

I may add that in nearly all the editions 
of the poem that I have consulted the pro- 
noun " his " in the seventh line is without 
the capital, as MR. BAYNE himself has given 


iii. 88) : - 

1. Heu : vitam perdidi, operose nihil agendo. 
These words have a death-bed ring, and 
recall the remark, which according to Bayle 
was not made by the dying Grotius " multa 
agendo nihil egi " (see MR. LATHAM'S article 
at 9 S. xi. 162). 

They are an echo of Seneca, ' De brevi- 
tate Vitae,' xiii. 1 : 

"Persequi singulos longum est, quorum aut 
latrunculi aut pila, aut excoquendi in sole corporis 
cura, comumpxere vitam...... N am de illis nemo 

dubitabit, Quin operose nihil agant, qui literarum 
inutilium studiis detinentur" ; 
and would be an appropriate saying, 
whether real or fictitious, for some gram- 
marian who had spent a lifetime in " set- 
tling Hoti's business." 

A brief reference to the place where the 
querist has encountered the quotation 
might possibly be of help in tracing it. 


Univ. Coll., Aberystwyth. 

SPIRITS (10 S. viii. 168, 277). MR. PLATT 
will find that Japanese pictures of ghosts 
invariably make them legless. In Hazlitt's 
' Faiths and Folk-lore,' 1905, there is a 
frontispiece which represents evil spirits 
in a quasi-Japanese style, but one of them 
has legs and feet wholly displayed. Every 
one here in this- town, on looking thereat, 
never fails to declare it as astonishing a 
rarity as a white raven or a filly's horn, 
so deeply inwrought in their mind is the 
notion of spectres appearing constantly 
without feet. 

10 s. ix. JAN. 11, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


According to a Chinese encyclopaedia 
of Buddhist matters, Tua-Shih's ' Fah-yuen- 
<3hu-lin,' A.D. 668, torn, liii., in the Indian 
legend of Nagirdjuna's conversion all 
spiritual beings are said to leave no foot- 
prints, whereas a man, however adept in 
the magic of making himself invisible, 
leaves them necessarily. Whether borrowed 
from this or sprung from their own originality, 
it is very probable that the Japanese once 
entertained the selfsame superstition, which 
resulted in their now well-nigh ineradicable 
belief that all ghosts lack lower limbs. Cf. 
9 S. vi. 225, col. 1. 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

viii. 448, 516). In 1555 John Carmichael 
of that ilk was parish clerk of Carmichael, 
and John Somerville, second son of Hugh, 
fifth Lord Somerville, was parish clerk of 
Quothquan, both in the county of Lanark 
(Pitcairn's ' Criminal Trials,' i. 383). 

G. W. C. 

The parish clerkship is often held by 
gentlemen. Mr. Atheist an Riley, who is 
also the squire, is, I believe, the parish clerk 
of St. Petroc Minor, Cornwall. The office 
was often held by those preparing for Holy 
Orders, as is done in this parish. It is to 
be remembered that the parish clerk has 
always had the privilege of reading the 
Epistle at the Holy Communion ; and it 
is required by Canon 91 that he shall be 
a man of some education. See Atchley, 
'The Parish Clerk,' 1903, and Legg, 'The 
Clerk's Book of 1549 ' (Henry Bradshaw 
Society), 1903. LA WHENCE PHILLIPS. 

Sibson Rectory, Leicestershire. 

(10 S. viii. 369, 436.). 2. La Bruyere (' Les 
Caracteres ' ), describing not the French 
people, but the Court of Louis XIV., has 
a long citation where the few lines quoted 
are included. It is to be found in the 
chapter ' De la Cour,' exactly at the begin- 
ning of the fourth part. L. P. 


11. Cadaroque (now spelt Cadaroc) is 
a station on the Canadan Pacific Railway, 
about 35 miles south of the town of London, 
in the province of Ontario. It marks the 
site of a temporary fort set up by the French 
settlers as a protection against the incursions 
of the Indians at the beginning of the last 

It is to be regretted that these forts have 
not been better preserved. Fort Gharry, 

an extensive walled encampment, the original 
settlement of the thriving city of Winnipeg 
(Manitoba), and the only relic of antiquity 
it possessed, has been destroyed, with the 
exception of the gateway, which still remains 
to remind the traveller of the perilous times 
experienced by the first settlers in Canada. 


viii. 508). I remember visiting these gardens 
about the year 1845; and they were open 
till 1850, but how much later I cannot say. 
It seems worth while to record that we then 
pronounced spa as spaw, according to the 
spelling in Johnson. 


This fashionable resort was formed about 
1836 or 1838, and certainly survived, though 
it could not be said to be nourishing, 
in the year 1854, for in ' The Pictorial 
Handbook of London' for that year the 
rustic buildings surrounding the lawn are, 
with the entire place, there described as 
being " all now more or less decayed and 
neglected." Spa Road, Spa Hill, and an hotel 
commemorate the Spa's departed glory. The 
late Mr. Spurgeon's residence, Westwood, 
Beulah Hill, it is well known, occupied the 
site of the twenty acres forming the grounds, 
or, at all events, part of the property was 
so occupied. Then it appears to have become 
known as The Lawns, and was in July, 1904, 
offered for sale, with what result I cannot 
say. See The Daily Telegraph for 19 Jan. 
and 4 July, 1904. 


454 ; viii. 10, 278). The Rev. James 
Guthrie, who succeeded Mr. Purney, and 
was Ordinary of Newgate at the time of the 
execution of Catherine Hayes (Thackeray's 
" Catherine ") on 9 May, 1726, held office 
until 1733 (at least), for he officiated at the 
hanging of Sarah Malcolm on 7 March, 1733. 

The Rev. John Taylor, who appears to 
have immediately preceded the Rev. Stephen 
Roe, was Ordinary in 1750. 

Can any one fill up the gap between 
Guthrie and Taylor ? In my note at 10 S. 
vii. 409 there is a slip. I wrote (col. 1, 1. 4) 
" Henry " instead of James Hackman. 


SCOTTISH PROVERB (10 S. viii. 470). If 
W. S. will turn to Proverbs xii. 27, he will 
find an earlier quotation. A. W. S. 

COCK also refer to Proverbs. ] 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. JAN. n, im 

" POT-GALLEBY " (10 S. vii. 388, 431 ; viii. 
72, 254, 312, 493, 517). A careful con- 
deration of the details of these galleries 
ven at 10 S. viii. 312 by MB. DOUGLAS 
WEN has led me to the conclusion that they 
ere really landing-stages for passengers 
ighting from boats, and for the loading and 
nloading of cargo. The list shows that 
ley were an ordinary adjunct to land along 
10 river, whether it belonged to factories, 
rickyards, stair-steps, or private property. 

therefore think it likely that the word 
pot-gallery " is nothing but " boat-gallery " 
i disguise a solution which would ap- 
irentfy meet the requirements of the case, 
ich landing-stages being naturally regarded 
y the municipality in the light of encroach- 
lents on the river, and liable to special 
rarges and permits. 

The mutation of 6 into p is not a normal 
ne, as Prof. Skeat remarks (see 'Etymo- 
>gical Dictionary,' s.v. ' Purse ') ; but it is 
ot perhaps so uncommon in the English 
-nguage as philologists have hitherto sup- 
osed. It is a change that may easily have 
suited, as in the present case, from the 
svkward attempts of foreigners to pronounce 
nglish. Thus the Chinaman has turned 

business " into " pidgin " or " pigeon " ; 
nd " Bologna sausage " has become 
polony." But the best illustration of the 
ifficulty I know of is to be found in 
Henry V.,' III., where Capt. Fluellen the 
Welshman remarks, " I assure you there is 
sry excellent services committed at the 
ridge," and on another occasion adds, as a 
iving clause, " when there is more petter 
pportunity to pe required." So also Sir 
[ugh Evans in ' The Merry Wives of Wind- 
>r ' : "I will peat the door for Master 

I would add, for the benefit of those who 
ish to pursue the matter further, that an 
ccellent idea of the Southwark river-front 
b the end of the seventieth century may be 
pt by reading the last chapter of Victor 
Hugo's ' L'Homme qui rit,' in which the 
rincipal actors in the novel are made to 
nbark on a vessel lying alongside the river 
; one of these galleries, or something verv 
<e them. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

GLENABA ( 10 S. viii. 449). Glenara means 
ie glen of the sheiling, or, as one might 
>y, the sheltered glen ; but the particular 
ie in Campbell's poem has no existence 
Dart from the poem, which is founded 
i the well-known story of Lachlan Maclean 

Duart's differences with his wife, Lady 

Elizabeth Campbell, a daughter of Archi- 
bald, second Earl of Argyll. He is said to 
have placed her, about 1527, on a rock out 
from Duart, still known as the Lady's Rock, 
covered at high water, from which, however, 
she was rescued, and to have given her a 
sham funeral, followed by the tragic end of 
Maclean at the hands of Sir John Campbell, 
the lady's brother. 

Joanna Baillie's tragedy of ' The Family 
Legend ' is also founded upon it. 


415). There is a portrait of him in the 
Archbishop's palace at Bishopthorpe, and 
a reproduction of it forms an accept- 
able illustration in the late Canon J. R. 
Keble'a ' History of the Parish and Manor - 
House of Bishopthorpe.' Some particulars 
of Blackburn's life are referred to, and 
pains taken to refute certain scandals con- 
cerning it. Legend says that Dick Turpin 
was at one time his Grace's butler at least 
so states the lamented author to whom I 
have referred. ST. SWITHIN. 

If your correspondent will refer to 4 S. ix. 
180, 226, 289, 396, he will find a great deal 
of information concerning this prelate and 
the curious stories concerning him. 

In a note on the last lines of Byron's 
' Corsair,' published in 1822, 

He left a corsair's name to other times, 
Linked with one virtue, and a thousand crimes, 

the anecdote that the Archbishop was once 
a buccaneer is mentioned as apocryphal. 
Newbonrne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" LIGGEBS," c. 1474 (10 S. viii. 449). 
Those who consult the ' N.E.D.' should be 
respectfully urged to use more care. Most 
old words have many forms of spelling, and 
cross-references are often inserted by way 
of guide. Thus, under ' Ligger,' we are 
directed, first of all, to turn to ' Ledger/ 
where is given all that can be desired. 

W. C. B. 

A " ligger" is the same as a " coucher," viz., 
any large book suited better for lying on a 
desk than for carrying about ; sometimes a 
large account-book, cartulary, or the like, 
frequently a great Breviary for use in church, 
as distinct from a " portas," or small one, 
carried by a " book-bosom priest." See 
4 Ledger ' in ' N.E.D.,' and its synonym 
'Ligger.' J. T. F. 


10 s. ix. JA*. 11, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The book MR. T. W. WILLIAMS inquires 
about is a large copy of the Breviary, and 
he will find references in the ' N.E.D.' under 
' Ledger,' including one from a Somerset 
House will ; but his example is seven years 
earlier than the earliest given. 


[H. P. L., ST. SWITHIN, and MR. J. B. WAIXE- 
\VBIGHT also thanked for replies. ] 

" SHAM ABRAHAM " (10 S. vii. 469 ; viii. 
293, 395, 477). Readers of ' N. & Q.' ate 
beholden to MR. E. RIMBAULT DIBDIN for 
his reply at the last reference. I should, 
however, like to say that what I quoted 
(viii. 293) was taken verbatim from the 
songbook which I referred to. It is always 
possible that a song or poem may have 
alterations or additions made either by the 
author or by some one else. Alterations 
and additions are interesting ; therefore I 
offer the whole stanza, of which I gave only 
-the first two lines : 

'The French say they're coming, but sure they are 


I know what they want, if they do land ; 
"We '11 make their ears ring in defence of our king, 
Our country, and Abraham Newland : 
Oh Abraham Newland ! 
Darling Abraham Newland ! 
,No tri-colour'd elf, nor the devil himself, 
Shall e'er rob us of Abraham Newland. 

' The Songster's Favourite Companion,' 
London, not dated, p. 11. 

LATIN QUOTATIONS (10 S. i. 188, 297, 
437; ii. 110, 276). 38. " Partus aureus " 
,(' Pedantius,' ed. G. C. Moore Smith, 1. 2506, 
" Optime, sic enim eris ingenij nostri partus 
aureus"). The source of the phrase is 
Pseudo-Cicero ' Ad Octavianum,' 6 : 

" Ego patres conscriptos ad parricidium induxi, 
-ego reni publicam fefelli, ego ipsum senatum sibi 
manus adferre coegi, cum te lunonium puerum et 
matris tine partum aureum esse dixi." Pt. III. 
vol. ii. p. 563 of C. F. W. Miiller's ed. of Cicero ; 
vol. vi. p. 289 of Tyrrell and Purser's ed. of the 
correspondence of Cic. 
Cf. " Aureolus partus matris," quoted in 
Prof. Moore Smith's note (p. 148) from an 
-epitaph on Walter, Earl of Essex (ob. 1576). 

Univ. Coll., Aberystwyth. 

Originally a portion of the Prince of 
Conde's Army of Emigrants. Embodied 
as a Rifle Regiment in May, 1801, under 
the command of Col. John Ramsay. Most 
of the officers were foreigners. During the 
war in the Peninsula the regiment was 
recruited from the prisoners of war and 

French deserters. When first brought on 
to the British establishment the regiment 
onsisted of eleven companies. Disbanded 
in 1815. See Sewell's ' Extinct Regiments 
of the British Army.' M. J. D. COCKLE. 

viii. 109, 314, 414). The rectory at As- 
penden, near Buntingford, is a pre-Reforma- 
bion building. The late rector, the Rev. 
A. P. Sanderson, was of opinion that it 
dated from about 1500, but it is probably 
much older. It has a timber frame of oak 
on which are oak laths, covered with strong 
plaster, and it is as pound to-day as when 
it was built. W. B. GERISH. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

CAMEL BIBLIOGRAPHY (10 S. viii. 289). 

1. Watt (G.), The Camel. 1887. 

2. Rayment (Vet. -Major G. J. R.), Camels on 
Field Service. [Official.] Simla, 1896. 

3. Maxwell (Col. H. H.), Camel Guns. Woolwich, 

4. Burn (Major D. B.), Notes on Transport and on 
Camel Corps. 1887. 

5. Some Account of the Organization, Equipment, 
&c., of the Imperial Service Camel Corps, Bikanir. 
/. U.S.I.I., xxvii. 161-6. 

6. Regimental Transport : Infantry : Short In- 
structions for saddling and loading Pack Mules and 
Camels. (Issued with Army Orders, dated 1st Janu- 
ary, 1889.) London, 1889, 8vo. 

7- Green (General Sir G. W.), The Organization 
and Employment of Camel Corps in Warfare. 
R.U.S.I.J., xxix.521-37. 



The following might be added to the 
authorities already cited : 

Gilchrist, A Practical Treatise on the Treatment 
of the Diseases of the Elephant, Camel, and Horned 
Cattle. With instructions for preserving their 
efficiency, also a description of the medicines used 
in the treatment of their diseases and a general 
outline of their anatomy. 


(10 S. viii. 421). Charles and Mary Laml 
occupied the upper part of No. 20, Russel 
Street, Covent Garden, one door west 01 
Bow Street, from 1817 to 1823. Lamb ir 
a letter refers to the house as being " nexi 
to the corner " ; and Mary Lamb in anothei 
letter speaks of having a view of Drurj 
Lane Theatre in the front, and of Covem 
Garden Theatre from the back windows 
The house at the corner of Bow Street 
which is sometimes referred to as Lamb's 
has no windows at the rear, the room; 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. n, im 

being lighted from the front and flank of 
the house, and the numbers in the street 
areas they stand in Horwood's map (1819), 
in which every house is numbered. 


(10 S. viii. 130, 415). T have had experience 
of a Reading Club wherein a play is cast 
among the members, and is read aloud by 
them as quickly as may be without undue 
despatch. Some stage directions are also 
read ; and in ' Henry VIII.' " Orpheus with 
his lute " is sung, though, as in compensa- 
tion, some of the Christening rubric is left 
out. Under such conditions ' Romeo and 
Juliet ' takes not less than two hours 
twenty minutes, and ' Henry VIII.,' two 
hours fifteen minutes. I do not think that 
either play could be decently acted in two 
hours, whether in Shakespeare's day or in 
our own. " Two hours " fitted his metre 
better than " two hours and three quarters:" 
" hence the wonder grew." 


It seems almost incredible that any of 
Shakespeare's plays can have been acted 
in two hours, even if no intervals were 
allowed for scene-shifting. If five minutes' 
interval was allowed between the acts, and 
two minutes' between the scenes, the time 
would be reduced to one hour or less. A 
play of 3,000 lines would contain, roughly, 
25,000 words, which, even if the scene- 
shifting and intervals were reduced to a 
quarter of an hour, would have to be gone 
through in about 105 minutes, at the rate 
of 238 words a minute. It is well known 
that, as at present constituted, the human 
mind cannot, on an average, assimilate 
ideas conveyed to the brain through the 
organ of hearing at the rate of more than 
100 words a minute. If the actors really 
spoke at this rapid rate, it would go far 
to explain the contemporary lack of appre- 
ciation of Shakespeare's plays, and the con- 
temptuous remarks of Pepys in his diary. 
If 'Othello' was "a mean thing" and 
' Macbeth ' only " a pretty good play," it 
must surely have been through some defect 
in imparting their meaning to the audiences ; 
and this defect might well be that of 
excessive rapidity of utterance. Even in 
drawing-room Shakespeare circles, in which 
there is no interval whatever between the 
acts or scenes, it is impossible to get through 
any play in two hours. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 


The Political History of England. Vol. XII. The 
History of England during the Reign of Victoria 
(1S37-1901). By Sidney Low and Lloyd C. Sanders. 
(Longmans & Co.) 

WE have heard it urged, and with much plausibility, 
that the history one should first learn is that of the 
hundred years preceding one's own time. The 
period of the present volume certainly deserves the 
attention of the ordinary reader, ana our common 
experience is that, whether young or old, unless he 
is a professed historian, he knows very little about 
it. If he has had a classical education, he knows 
more of Caesar than Wellington, and of Marius 
than Lord Melbourne. It is with great satisfaction, 
then, that we find the present volume written by 
a pair so well fitted for their task ; no better 
hands could, in our opinion, have been chosen, 
for both have ample experience as journalists, a 
good style, and a wide knowledge of the subject- 
matter which makes for sound judgment. The 
excellent Bibliography at the end of the volume 
shows the many sources of information open to the 
reader, but for ordinary purposes he may rest 
satisfied with a perusal of this book, though 
he should be warned that the inner history of 
some events is not yet known, and can only be 
the subject of surmise. The whole is highly com- 
pressed, but not devoid of vivid and epigrammatic- 
touches, and might well become a handbook of the 
period, being sufficiently " documented " by refer- 
ences at the bottom of the page to sources. The 
Index is good, but not perfect. The first notable 
name which we chanced to look for is not included. 

The compression to which we have alluded some- 
what spoils the flow of the narrative, but room has 
been found for occasional pungent remarks, as that 
of Macaulay in 1838 that the Radicals were reduced 
to " Grote and his wife," and for questions of 
interest to readers of ' N. & Q.' such as the use of 
the word "Conservative," which " had been used by 
Canning, at a city dinner, as far back as 1824, and 
was not, as is often said, first applied to Tories by 
Croker in The Quarterly Review in January, 1830. 
Macaulay in July, 1832, in his review of Dumont's 
' Mirabeau,' referred to it as a new cant word." 

The writers had not the advantage, we presume, 
of consulting the edition of the Queen's letters just 
published ; but, as a matter of fact, a good many of 
the revelations in those volumes are not new, e.g.. 
Sir Theodore Martin's ' Life of the Prince Consort 
is quoted for evidence as to Palmerston's conflict 
with the Queen concerning the modification of dis- 
patches. We note the unusual, but, we believe, 
correct conclusion that Mr. Balfour was not a 
regular member of the celebrated Fourth Party, in 
spite of the Vanity Fair cartoon which includes 
him among them, and which is reproduced in Mr. 
Winston Churchill's ' Life' of his father. 

Beaconsfield's death is the occasion for an able 
summary of his influence, pointing out that his 
Imperial phase obliterated earlier memories : 

" His personal character, too, had risen in the 
general esteem as his years drew out ; even his 
political opponents respected his courage, his pene- 
trating judgment, his dignified firmness. Under- 

10 s. ix. JAN. 11, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


lying the theatricality that still clung to him it was 
felt there was something large and genuine, some- 
thing that touched the nobler chords of public life. 
Thus he lived to be an idol, and died to become a 
tradition, for almost half his countrymen ; and the 
anniversary of his death came to be kept as a kind 
of saint's day by ardent Conservatives. 

There is, perhaps, some political bias in the fact 
that no similar summary is given of the personality 
of Gladstone, who, however, outlived his oest period 
of activity. 

Dealing with politics as outsiders, we cannot ex- 
pect to be able to criticize the mass of detail here 
presented. We are more at home in the chapter 
concerning 'Literature and Social Development.' 
Here science and Darwin are rightly put in the 
front of the summary. We do not rank Tennyson's 
blank verse in the ' Idylls of the King ' so high as 
our authors do. There is, however, felicity in the 
general appreciation of poets. Under this head 
Matthew Arnold is, of course, mentioned, but we 
find no adequate notice of his prose criticism. 

We are of opinion that Dickens's style improved 
with years, and that in this respect, ' Our Mutual 
Friend' (1865) is much superior to ' David Copper- 
field' (1850) ; and we can hardly endorse the state- 
ment as to the relative value of his style and 
Thackeray's. Henry Kingsley is put above his 
brother Charles "for originality and power." We 
are pleased to see a recognition of Thirlwall's 
' History of Greece,' a book which has been unduly 
obscured by Grote's great work. As the vogue of 
' Essays and Reviews ' is mentioned earlier in the 
volume, we think atleasta line mierht have been given 
to ' Lux Mundi,' with a hint as to the preponderance 
of the Higher Criticism among scholars. A good 
many modern novelists, we may add, reach fully as 
high a standard as Mrs. Lynn Linton. She, how- 
ever, is mentioned as one or a group, and it is clear 
that conciseness is responsible for some omissions 
and some levelling of values which would hardly 
have occurred if the authors had had more space at 
their disposal. There is one new science that we 
think deserved a word or two, that of folk-lore and 
anthropology, which has led to the careful study of 
backward races, and incidentally to a wonderful 
broadeniiig of ideas concerning religion in its various 
forms. The century ended with a repudiation, 
among the majority, of materialistic views which 
in earlier days seemed alone to possess a secure 
foundation. The somewhat unnecessarily dis- 
cordant views of Imperialists and Social Reformers 
are neatly indicated in the final paragraphs of this 
interesting book. 

Heine's Boole of Songs. Translated by J. Todhunter. 

(Oxford, University Press.) 

THIS is a good specimen of the "Oxford Library of 
Translations." Dr. Todhunter has been well known 
for many years as a poet of talent, and pro- 
bably appreciates the difficulties of his task as well 
as any man. The present reviewer has made some 
attempts in the same field with indifferent results, 
and recognizes that Dr. Todhunter has come as 
near success as can be hoped, which is much nearer 
than the average translator. The Preface shows 
how well he has understood his author. We 
endorse its statements entirely, except that we 
should emphasize the folk or ballad side of Heine's 
muse, which allows him to employ vernacular and 
homely expressions in a way which would be fatal 
to the ordinary bard. W. E. Henley, with his dis- 

regard of conventionality, is in some ways the most 
Heinesque of modern poets. The use of inversion 
is the way out of many difficulties, but it is a way 
which seldom pleases us. It destroys the sense of 
naturalness and the tripping, easy rhythm which 
are Heine's. Many of the renderings here are well 
worth quoting, but we can find space for only one 
poem, which will be familiar to most readers of 
Heine : 

My pretty fishermaiden, 
Come row thy skiff to land, 

Come hither and sit beside me, 
We '11 gossip hand in hand. 

Make of my heart thy pillow, 

And be not so shy with me ; 
Less coy art thou, daily trusting 

Thyself to that wild sea ! 

My heart, just like the ocean, 
Hath storm and ebb and flow, 

And many a pearl of beauty, 
Sleeping the waves below. 

On the whole, Dr. Todhunter shows remarkable- 
ingenuity in meeting the various difficulties of 
vocabulary and rime. We hope his book will reach 
a second edition, and that he will then repair an 
indiscretion we have dwelt on many times the 
absence of an index of first lines. Poets can hardly, 
we suppose, be expected to attend to such practical 
matters; but publishers ought to assist them, 
especially in a matter which concerns the re-read- 
ing of their best work. 

The Fortnightly Review begins the new year with 
an excellent number. Dr. A. R. Wallace's paper 
on ' Evolution and Character ' is one of the most 
striking contributions to the science of man that 
we have read for some time. An address by 
Tolstoy, ' Love One Another,' follows. Dr. Beattie 
Crozier enters in ' A Challenge to Socialism ' on a 
friendly duel with Mr. Blatchford. Mr. Walter 
Jerrold in 'Titmarsh and the "Dixonary"' deals 
with words he has found in Thackeray's writings 
which are not included in "an admirably repre- 
sentative modern dictionary, 'The Encyclopaedic.' " 
It is an interesting collection, but some of the 
words are obviously slang, and would appear only 
in a dictionary devoted to slang. It might have 
been pointed out that " diffiigient snows and "I 
have militated in former times, not without glory," 
are direct references to definite lines of Horace. A 
reviewer in our own columns mentioned some while 
back Thackeray's verb " to accolade," which is not 
in the ' N.E.D. Mr. Francis Gribble has a pleasing 
article on Whittier, a poet not so well known in 
England as he should oe ; and Mr. Escott deals 
rather sketchily with ' Lever and his Friends,' but 
is entertaining. 

The National Review, as usual, thunders against 
the machinations of Germany and the Government. 
There is a lively sketch of Mr. Lloyd-George, by 
Mr. J. A. Lovat Fraser ; and Mr. J. L. Garvin says 
trenchant things about Free Trade papers, and 
explains away the present commercial prosperity 
with which the nation is credited. The Bishop of 
Carlisle is moderate and sensible concerning ' Canon 
Law and the Deceased Wife's Sister's Marriage Act.' 
There is ' A Plea for a Forth and Clyde Ship Canal' ; 
Miss Evelyn Underbill replies to Lady Robert Cecil 
effectively concerning ' The Cant of Unconvention- 
ality ' ; and Mr. A. M. Low is striking, as usual, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. n, im 

concerning ' American Affairs.' The most interest- 
ing article, however, in the number is Sir Rowland 
Blennerhassett's on ' The Foreign Policy of Queen 
Victoria,' and the occasions on which that wise and 
astute sovereign went wrong. 

The Nineteenth Century leads off with ' Politics 
in Transition,' by one of the ablest of younger 
Liberals, Mr. C. F. G. Masterman, M.P. This 
paper is the best of the many on current questions 
in Parliament with which The Nineteenth is this 
month somewhat choked. We wish that there 
was less political writing, and one article a month 
-on a book worth reading and not necessarily new. 
Mr. Oswald Crawford writes on Portugal ; an ex- 
prisoner, who uses the objectionable word " peno- 
logist," replies, not very convincingly, to Sir Alfred 
Wills on ' Criminals and Crime ' ; Miss Una Biroh 
makes an interesting article out of ' The Comte de 
Saint-Germain ' ; and Carmen Sylva in ' On Earth 
Peace ! ' suggests suitable reflections for the 
season. Dr. G. C. Williamson's new information 
concerning Jean Petitot, the enamel-worker of 
Geneva, is hardly of sufficient interest for the 
general public. Miss S. K. Phelps has a sentimental 
little dialogue, 'The Fairy Prince'; and Lord 
Curzon prints his Birmingham address of last De- 
cember on ' The True Imperialism.' It is full of 
fine rhetoric, but does not contain much that is 
novel. He thinks that the sovereign of the Empire 
should visit its outlying parts from time to time, and 
that an Imperial Council, apart from the Govern- 
ment in power, is a necessity. 

IN The Cornhill Mr. A. F. Wallis's verse on ' A 
Christmas Tea Party' shows talent, but is not 
sufficiently clear in expression. Mr. Ian Malcolm 
has a bright article on ' Edward Lear.' whose gift 
for nonsense is well exhibited. Lady Robert Cecil 
writes on 'A Walking Gentleman, which is an 
excellent novel by Mr. James Prior. Prof. James 
Sully gives ' Reminiscences of the Sunday Tramps ' 
who used to walk under Leslie Stephen's guidance. 
The article is interesting, but might, it seems to us, 
have been brighter. Perhaps the Professor was 
more interested in metaphysics than in good talk. 
At any rate, he has told us much that will attract 
the casual reader. But how all this transference of 
private social affairs into journalistic talk would 
have surprised an earlier generation who kept such 
things to themselves ! Mr. G. M. Trevelyan writes 
-on ' The War-Journals of " Garibaldi's English- 
man," ' J. W. Peard ; and Mr. A. C. Benson interests 
us in ' Kelmscott and William Morris.' 

The Burlington Magazine has this month a liberal 
.supply of illustrations of recent acquisitions from 
the famous Kami Collection, including two masterly 
Rembrandts and two fine examples of Frank Hals, 
the merits of which are explained in a way that all 
can understand. There is a further article on the 
decoration of the Palace of Westminster ; and 
Mr. Lionel Gust begins ' Notes on Pictures in the 
Royal Collections ' with the ' Great Piece ' by 
Van Dyck, i.e., the family group of Charles I. with 
his wife and two eldest children at Windsor. He 
makes out that it was executed by the painter in 
1632 for Charles I. Lawrence's portrait of Mrs. 
Allnutt, and Raeburn's of Mrs. Kenneth Murchison, 
are both reproduced, and both pictures of singular 
distinction. The Musee des Beaux-Arts at Buda- 
pest is fortunate in possessing the latter. Nothing, 
however, in the number exceeds in beauty or 

interest the version of Myron's Statue of the Disk- 
thrower found near Ostia, and the Niobid found in 
the Gardens of Sallust. The former is of great 
importance, because the Lancellotti example of the 
' Discobolus,' the best version, is jealously guarded, 
and not open to reproduction. The statue of the 
Niobid is a wonderful piece of action and grace, and 
ascribed to the fifth century B.C. 

WE welcome the New Year's issue of The Scottish 
Historical Review (Glasgow, MacLehose), \vhich 
maintains an admirable standard of interest and 
research. There is that perpetual subject of romance 
and inquiry, Mary, Queen of Scots, who occupies 
two articles, by Mr. Thomas Duncan and Mr. 
T. F. Henderson, the latter dealing in lively con- 
troversy with Mr. Lang's view of the "Casket 
Letters." Prof. C. S. Terry edits ' Allan Cameron's 
Narrative, February -April, 1716,' which affords 
valuable insight into the last phase of the '15. 
Other articles treat of the Market Cross of Aber- 
deen ; Henry Ker of Graden ; ' The Green Island,' 
a traditional and enchanted spot to the north of 
Scotland, which may well be Greenland ; and ' The 
Bishops of Glasgow, 1316-1446,' with fine engravings 
of episcopal seals. There are several reviews of 
an expert character, and notes and comments. 

MESSRS. JACK of Edinburgh propose to reprint in 
facsimile a series of old Tudor plaVs, including also 
other printed pieces and rare MSS. This will be 
the first systematic and serious attempt to reprint 
pre-Shakespearian literature in facsimile. These 
treasures are for the most part unique, and 
enshrined in public collections like the British 
Museum or the Bodleian. The editor of the series 
is Mr. John S. Farmer, who invites communications 
from scholars regarding rare books and MSS., which 
would be acceptable, if reproduced. 

THE business carried on by Mr. Elliot Stock for 
many years in Paternoster Row has now been 
disposed of to Mr. Robert Scott. Mr. Stock will 
stifl take part in the management of the business, 
and the members of the staff will be unchanged. 

ta (Eomspontonts. 

We must call special attention to the fdloinng 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

T. S. NORTON (" The hand that rocks the cradle "). 
Written by William Ross Wallace. See 9 S. ii. 
358 ; 10 S. iv. 447 ; v. 273. 

MAJOR CROWE. Forwarded. 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C- 

10 s. ix. JAN. 11, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



THIS WEEK'S ATHEN^UM contains Articles on 










LAST WEEK'S ATHENAEUM contains Articles on 



NEW NOVELS : The Explorer ; Children's Children ; The Love Story of Giraldus ; Phantom 
Figures ; The Heart's Banishment ; the Progress of Hugh Rendal ; The Master Beast. 


OUR LIBRARY TABLE : Lord Wantage ; Shakspeare's Sonnets ; Adonis, Attis, Osiris ; The 
Literary Man's Bible ; Sir Gawain and the Lady of Lys ; British Freewomen ; The National 
Edition of Dickens ; The Eversley Tennyson ; The Blackmailers ; The Liberal Year-Book ; 
Manor Court Rolls in Private Hands ; The Pocket Ruskin ; Almanach Hachette ; The Greyfriars. 



SCIENCE : A Bird Collector's Medley ; Anthropological Notes ; Attis and Christ ; Societies ; 

Meetings Next Week ; Gossip. 
FINE ARTS : Eugene Delacroix ; The Nature Poems of George Meredith ; The American Pilgrim's 

Way in England ; the Collector's Manual ; The Annual of the British School at Athens ; The 

Landscape Painters' Exhibition ; Gossip ; Exhibitions. 
MUSIC : Gossip ; Performances Next Week. 
DRAMA : Arms and the Man ; The Babes in the Wood ; Aladdin ; Robinson Crusoe. 

NEXT WEEK'S ATHENvEUM will contain Reviews of 





Athenaeum Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. And of all Newsagents. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. n, im 
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CONTENTS. No. 212. 

NOTES : The Barony of Carnousie, 41 Wentworth Day, 
Fifth-Monarchy Man, 42 Dr. Johnson's Ancestors, 43 
New Year Beacon Mince Pie and Pluin Pudding- 
Richard Swiveller : Disraeli, 46 Index of Place- Names 
Mivart's, now Claridge's Friar Tuck in the Patent Rolls 
Lady Coventry Mobbed Origin of Diabolo London 
Poor 'temp. Elizabeth Nathaniel Bacon, 47 "Postli- 
minious," 48. 

OUERIES : Name-Puzzle in Early Spenser Fanshawe : 
Coleman : Blount Raine Island Burne-Jones's ' Heart 
of the Rose,' 48 Fielding's Grave Paston Family- 
Authors of Quotations Wanted Bob Derry's, 49 
French Wills Browning Vicomte de Creniail ' British 
Biography of the Eighteenth Century ' Lyndhurst's 
Marriage Act Calendar Rimes' Kitty Fisher's Jig ' 
Snuff-Mill Estate, Homerton, 50 Scots Guards : Colours 
' Letters from Belgium,' 51. 

BEPLIES : Christmas Notes, 51 Hackney Du Maurier 
and Shirley Brooks General Bourke, 52 Peroun 
Clergyman with Battledore Seventeenth-Century In- 
ventories 59, Fleet Street Hoppner's Portraits- 
Glover's 'Kentish Monuments,' 53 Meswinde Dorman 
and Hobart ' Va'.ley of a Hundred Fires ' " Passe- 
menterie "Churchwardens' Accounts, 54 Beauch&mp 
Charles L's Book-) " Bacon " " TenntS " ' Robin Hood 
and Bishop of Hereford,' 55 Literary Allusions Bulwer 
'Farmer's Audit ' Mediaeval Churchyards, 56 Mother- 
hood late in Life Pre-Reformation Tabernacle News- 
papers in 1818, 57 Littlecote House Sir H. Docwra 
Hail, or H4yil, 58 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Sir G. O. Trevelyan's ' American 
Revolution' George III. as Man and Monarch ' The 
Story of a Beautiful Duchess.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


IN the county of Banff, parish of Forglen, 
.about four miles west of Turriff, in Aber- 
deenshire, lies the estate of Carnousie. 

On it, besides two mansions of a later 
date, there stands an interesting sixteenth- 
century dwelling which is known as " the 
Old House " or Castle. In 1538 James V. 
granted permission to the then owner of 
Carnousie, Sir Walter Ogilvy, to erect a 
castle on this property ; and in a deed dated 
1583 it is referred to as having been " newly 
constructed " by his son, Walter Ogilvy, 
who, at that time being laird, sold the estate 
to his brother George Ogilvy. This family 
held the lands for about a hundred years. 
On the roof of the building is still to be seen 
the Ogilvy crest, a lion rampant holding 
between the paws a plumb-rule, erect ; and 
in one of the rooms is a small wall-cup- 
board, the door of which bears carved upon 
it a monogram composed of the letters 
S. L. O. In the annals of the church of 
Banff it is recorded that in 1680 the old 
gilded chalice was made into two cups, 
" the arms of the anonymous donour " 
being re-engraved thereon. These were the 

arms of Ogilvy of Carnousie : Arg., a cross 
engrailed sa. between, in the first and fourth 
quarters, a lion passant guardant gu., 
crowned or, and in the second and third 
three crescents gu. 

I have from the Scottish records, charters, 
deeds, &c., collected some details of the 
various holders of this estate, which may 
be worth preserving in ' N. & Q.' 

1178-1211. Firstly, with regard to the 
parish : by a charter William the Lion 
gave to the Monastery of Aberbrothock 
(Arbroath) the land of Forglen (terrain de 
Forglint) ; and from various charters and 
deeds extending over 185 years it is possible 
to trace the possession of this property 
to various owners. Thus briefly, then in 
1315 it was assigned by the Abbot to Malcolm 
de Monymusk; in 1388 John Fraser held it; 
in 1411 he resigned it to the Abbot; in 
1457 by a letter of inquisition it seems that 
Alexander Irwyn of Drum, being under age, 
held it under the guardianship of the 
Abbot ; in 1481 he did homage for the lands 
to the Abbot, one of the witnesses being 
John Ogilvy ; in 1483 Alexander Irwyn in a 
charter refers to Forglen and the advowson 
of the church ; in 1494 Alex. Irwyn makes 
an inquisition of the lands ; and in 1499 and 
1500 the lands are confirmed to Alex. 
Irwyn (son of the previous) ; and to his wife 
Jonete Allerdes. 

1286-9. The earliest reference to Car- 
nousie is in a charter for the founding of the 
Chapel of St. Meninius on the Deveron. 
It is to the effect that Symon, Thane of 
Aberchirder, granted yearly four marks 
of silver from the mill of Carnousie (Car- 
noussexth). This St. Meninius is probably 
the same as St. Monanus, Archdeacon and 
Confessor in Scotland, whose feast falls 
1 March, being the eve of St. Marnan, the 
tutelar saint of the church of Aberchirder. 

1358/9. In the reign of David II. one 
William of Fotheringham was Sheriff of 
Banff. The sheriffs were the immediate 
receivers of the royal revenues, and had the 
duty of assessing the rents of Crown lands. 
This sheriff's account, rendered at Dundee 
18 March, 1358/9, is preserved among the 
Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. In it, after 
mentioning the rents of various estates, he 
refers to Carnousie in these words : ' ' nothing 
hitherto from the two Carnousies, because 
they are in the hand of the Countess of 
Wigton, by the King's grant " (" nihil hie 
de duabus Carnousys, quia in manu comtisse 
de Wygton, ex concessione regis "). In the 
same account Netherdale is assessed at 
3Z. 6s. 8d., and the rent of the brewery of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAX. is, im. 

Inverkeitliny is stated to be 6s. 8d. Who 
was this Countess of Wigton ? 

1369. By a charter of David II. to Sir 
Richard Comyn (Edinburgh, 15 Sept., 
1369), it is clear that one John Burnard, the 
King's Macer (" Claviger noster"), held Car- 
nousie previous to Sir Richard's tenancy. In 
the Exchequer Rolls, vol. ii., under date 
1372, there is a record of the payment of 
26s. 8d. to this John Burnard as King's 
Macer. In Scotland the mace-bearer had 
to see that the sentences of the courts of 
justice were carried into effect.. 

Sir Richard, of the Scoto-Norman family 
of Comyn, was eighth in descent from 
Robert de Comyn, Earl of Northumberland, 
who was killed at the battle of Alnwick in 
1093, and he was the great-grandson of 
John, called " the Red Comyn," who died 
about 1273. Sir Richard's father, Thomas 
Comyn, having a bitter feud with the 
family of Shaw, killed its representative, 
James Shaw, and was in turn murdered by 
the latter's son, whilst sleeping in a place 
called to this day Lagna Cuminach in 
Rothiemurchus, Inverness. This son of 
James Shaw was named Corfiachlach. Sir 
Richard took a deadly revenge on the 
Shaws for his father's murder, making great 
havoc among them with fire and sword. 
He was a special favourite of David II., 
being described in the charters as " our 
beloved and faithful " (" dilectus et fidelis 
noster "), and on 6 Jan., 1367, the King 
gave him all the lands of Dumphail (de 
Develly), with the office of Royal Ranger of 
the forest of Darnaway, in Moray. In 1368 
he was at the Court of Edward III. negotiat- 
ing affairs of State, and on his return in this 
year or the next David gave him the annual 
rent of ten marks sterling arising from the 
lands of the two Carnousies, previously held 
by John Burnard, mentioned above. The 
Comyn arms were Az., three garbs or. 
The present representative of this family 
is Gordon-Gumming, Bart., of Altyre and 
Gordonstown, co. Elgin. 

The grant of Carnousie then fell to James 
Fraser. In an inquisition made in 1369 
by Alexander, Bishop of Moray, for the 
foundation of the Chapel of St. Meninius, 
he rates the property in the neighbourhood 
thus : Netherdale at 13s. 4d., owner James 
Mautaland ; Petyndrek at 13s. 4d., owner 
John Biset ; and the two Carnousies at 
26s. 8d., owner James Fraser, laird of 
Fertendrach (Frendraucht, Aberdeenshire ?). 

1395. Again it appears by a charter of 
Robert III., 1395, that at this date the 
Frasers were still possessors of Carnousie. 

1421. Murdoch, Duke of Albany * and 
Governor of Scotland (at Stirling, 28 Jan.,. 
1421), gave to his kinsman James Dunbar 
the lands of Frendraucht and Auchinbo in. 
Aberdeenshire and Carnousie and Cluny in 
Banff. These estates are spoken of as. 
having belonged hereditarily to the said 
James. If he had no heirs of his body, they 
were to descend to his uncle, Thomas Dunbar,. 
Earl of Moray. James's father was Alex- 
ander of " Frenderet," younger brother of 
Thomas. On the death of his uncle without 
male issue James became fifth Earl of 
Moray. His first wife was Isabel, daughter 
of Sir Walter Innes of Innes, and his son 
by this marriage was Sir Alexander Dunbar 
of Westfield, who was the next owner of 
Carnousie. CHB. WATSON. 

(To be continued.) 


JOHN CANNE, the separatist, one of the? 
strange products of the seventeenth century 
(for whom see ' D.N.B.,' viii. 411), towards, 
the end of his life became a Fifth-Monarchy 
man ; and on 1 April, 1658, he was in the 
pulpit " in Swan Alley in Coleman street, 
a publick place where Saints have met 
many years " (' D.N.B.,' erroneously gives' 
" 2 " April). Venner, whose first plot 
was discovered in April, 1657, used the 
same place (' D.N.B.,' Iviii. 212). The 
marshal of the City with several officers, 
came in, seized Canne and seven others, 
and lodged them in the Counter. Chief 
of the seven was Wentworth Day. Next day 
they were brought before the Mayor, who r 
as they refused to be bailed, sent them back 
to the Counter until the next sessions. On 
22 April, Day was brought before " Judge 
Newdegate " (Richard Newdigate, ' D.N.B. ; 
Foss) at the Old Bailey. The charge against 
him was of having declared Oliver Cromwell 
to be a " jugler " and a traitor, and the 
present Government to be not of God. He 
refused to plead, but quoted Scripture, 
and a book " lately written " by Mr. Prynne r 
"printed in this year 1658." This book 
was ' Demophilos, or the Assertor of the 
People's Liberty,' 4to, pp. 64, 1656, which 
does not appear in the late Mr. John Bruce's- 
list, Camd. Soc., N.S. xviii. 112. Newdigate 
said his defence was " bibble-babble." 
The next day, Friday, he was put to the 
bar again, and made an appeal to Alderman 
(Robert) Titchbourn ('D.N.B.'), who was 
on the bench. " His third and last trialL 

Executed 25 May, 1425. 

ic s. ix. JA.V. is, imi NOTES AND QUERIES. 


v/as on the seventh day," i.e., the next day, 
Saturday, before Chief Justice John Glynne 
('D.N.B.'; Foss) and Recorder Lislebone 
Long (' D.N.B.'). Day objected to Glynne 
sitting in judgment, because he had been 
impeached as a traitor at St. Albans, 
14 June, 1647, by Sir Thomas Fairfax and 
the army. Moreover he offered " twelve 
witnesses to prove Oliver Cromwell a jugler " 
" Master Jesse, Mr. Lanfeere, Eman. 
Middleton, Captain Palmer, Captain Sher- 
man, Nr. Nash, Mr. Johns, George Barrot, 
and several others." " But the Recorder 
presently pronounceth sentence against 
him " : a fine of 500Z., and twelve months' 
imprisonment, with security for good be- 
haviour on its termination. Day says he 
is not a Quaker ; but he kept his hat on 
in court, and the Quakers' way of naming 
the months and the days of the week is 
used in the printed ' Narrative,' in which 
he is once mentioned as " Cornet Day " 
(" A Narrative. . . .Sufferings of John Canne, 
Wentworth Day .... also of the Arraign- 
ment of Wentworth Day. .. .Published 
by a Friend to the Prisoners, and the 
Good Old Cause they suffered for. 
London, Printed in the Year 1658," sm. 4to, 
8 leaves). 

I can identify Wentworth Day. He was 
a Yorkshireman, of a family of that name 
at South Elmsall in the parish of South 
Kirkby, which was doubly connected Avith 
the Wentworths, the chief residents there. 
John Day married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Wentworth ; and on 30 Nov., 
1631, Thomas Day, gent., married Mary, 
daughter of another Thomas Wentworth, 
nephew of Elizabeth (Hunter, ' South York- 
shire,' ii. 456). Unfortunately, I do not 
know Wentworth Day's parentage. He 
had a brother Robert, of Stubs Walden, 
yeoman, and another, Francis. Wentwoi'th 
Day of North Elmsall married Barbara 
Loxley, 1643 ; he was buried in 1662, she 
in 1693. Their children were John, 1643 ; 
Thomas, 1648 ; Elizabeth, 1645 (bur. 1647) ; 
and Ann, 1656 (all at South Kirkby). 
John Blaides, of Hull, shipwright, in his 
will, dated 20 Oct., 1654, proved 6 Jan., 
1654/5, mentions his own sister Barbara 
Day, and states that Wentworth Day of 
North Elmsall owes him 60J., on bond. 
When John Canne was in Amsterdam he 
borrowed money from some merchants 
in Hull and Leeds, but was not ready in 
repaying it. Canne himself was afterwards 
in Hull, and had not long left it when he 
was apprehended in Coleman Street. 

W. C. B. 


(See 10 S. viii. 281, 382, 462.) 

Dr. Joseph Ford. A deed kindly lent to 
me by Mr. Bickley is of interest as relating' 
to Dr. Johnson's eldest maternal uncle, the 
father of " Parson " Ford. By this deed, 
dated 26 Jan., 1693/4, Henry Grove, of 
Ludley, Salop, gent., and Henry Haden, 
of Hadon Hill, parish of Rowley Regis r 
Staffs., gent., sell to Joseph Ford, of Stour- 
bridge, Wore., gent., some six and a half 
acres of land in Huntingtree Field, Hales- 
owen, Salop. This land, it appears, had 
been mortgaged on 4 Oct., 1690, by the said 
Henry Grove, to Jane, now wife of the said 
Joseph Ford, by the name of Jane Hickman, 
of Stourbridge, Wore., widow. An endorse- 
ment shows that possession of the land was- 
given to Joseph Ford on 6 Feb., 1693/4, 
one of the witnesses being Samuel Ford. 
Samuel was one of Joseph Ford's younger 
brothers, then aged only twenty-one : his- 
signature on this document is larger and 
more laboured than that to his letter to- 
William Priest in 1731, which I reproduced 
in my book (p. 154). Gregory Hickman, 
first husband of Jane, died at the end of 
March, 1690 ; her first child by Joseph 
Ford was baptized 2 Sept., 1691. These 
dates fix the time of her second marriage 
as about the end of 1690. A note on the 
deed tells us that the land in question was 
sold by Ford and his wife to Elizabeth 
Higgirs, the mother of Elizabeth Sanders, 
wife of Samuel Sanders, and comprised in 
some deed of 4 Sept., 1718. Samuel 
Saunders (sic) owned land adjacent to that 
purchased by Joseph Ford ; as also did 
George Darby, Sir Charles Lyttelton, Bart., 
Richard Higgins, and Thomas Grove. 

Mr. W. P. Gibbons, J.P., of Ruiton House, 
near Dudley, whose researches into Midland 
genealogy aided me in the compilation of 
my book, has also kindly lent me a deed 
of considerable interest relating to Dr. 
Joseph Ford. This is an indenture, dated 
17 Oct., 1707, made between the Right Hon. 
John, Lord Somers, Baron of Evesham, of the 
first part ; Katherine Somers, of the city 
of Worcester, widow, of the second part ; 
William Middlemore, of Haslewell, parish 
of King's Norton, co. Wore., esq., nephew 
and heir of George Middlemore, late of 
Haslewell, esq., deceased, of the third part ; 
and Joseph Ford, of Stourbridge, co. Wore., 
gent., Samuel Ford, of the parish of Pack- 
wood, co. Warwick, gent., and Nathaniel 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. is, 

Ford, of Sutton Coldfield, co. Warwick, 
mercer, of the fourth part. Lord Somers 
was, of course, the celebrated Lord Chan- 
cellor, and Katherine Somers was his mothei ; 
while Samuel and Nathaniel Ford were the 
younger brothers of Joseph. The deed 
relates to the sale by Lord Somers of his 
interest in certain property at King's Norton 
to Joseph Ford, for the sum of 1,1412. 17s. 6d., 
together with another sum of 2691. 10s. due 
on the property to Katherine Somers. The 
property had formerly belonged to George 
Middlemore, who sold it to William Gulston, 
of the Inner Temple, esq., by indenture dated 
2 Feb., 1691-2, for a term of 1,000 years, 
at a peppercorn rent, for the sum of 1,0502., 
subject to a proviso of redemption upon 
payment of 1,1 551. By an instrument dated 
29 Dec., 1692, William Gulston acknow- 
ledged himself to have acted in this matter 
only in trust for Lord Somers. The principal 
sum of 1,050?. remained unpaid, and by 
indenture dated 17 Oct., 1705, William 
Gulston transferred his interest in the estate 
to Lord Somers for the sum of five shillings. 
William Middlemore, by indenture dated 
8 Oct., 1702, boirowed a sum of 250/. from 
Katherine Somers on the security of the 
property, chargeable against it with interest 
at the rate of 5 per cent., which made the 
sum due to her. on the purchase by Joseph 
Ford, up to 2692. 10s. The purchase-money 
of 1,050?., which also remained unpaid, had 
increased with interest to 1,1412. 17s. Qd. 

In my book I was not able to give the 
signature either of Joseph or Nathaniel 
Ford, so I reproduce here the signatures of 
the three brothers to this deed : 

Joseph Ford's seal bears a shield, with 
helmet and mantling: Arms, (? Gules) 

two bends vair, a canton (? or). Crest, a 
talbot (?) passant. These arms are ascribed 
by Burke to Ford, but no locality is given ; 
and I am unable to say whether Joseph 
Ford had any right to use them. Probably 
he merely adopted the coat of some family 
to which he was not related ; but I shall be 
glad to know to which Ford family these 
arms rightfully belong. 

Samuel and Nathaniel Ford use the 
same seal, bearing crest, on wreath, a lion 
sejant guardant (sable), holding a lozenge 
vair. This is the crest assigned by Burke 
and Papworth to Goodwin of London and 
Lincolnshire ; and the arms of that family 
(Or, a lion passant guardant sable, on a 
chief gules three lozenges vair) appear on 
the seal attached to the signature of William 
Middlemore on this same deed. Mr. Paley 
Baildon, F.S.A., who has examined these 
seals for me, suggests that the Goodwin 
seals may have been supplied by the attorney. 
"Parson" Ford. The Rev. Walter A. 
Jones, Rector of Pedmore, near Stourbridge, 
has made a small discovery of interest. 
Visiting Lichfield with his choir in July last, 
he saw my book at the birthplace, and 
finding in it (p. 148) evidence that Johnson 
probably visited Pedmore in the autumn of 
1725, to stay with his cousin Cornelius Ford, 
who was then living there, he examined the 
registers and parish books of Pedmore on 
his return. In the churchwardens' books 
he found the following entry, which was not 
easily decipherable, but has been kindly 
copied for me by Mr. Wickham King, of 
Hagley : 

Mar. 29 

Ester Munday Tho. Porter up his accts. being 

Churchwarden & they amounted to y e sum of 


he has rec d by levey 


He remaines in stock 12 

Then Mr. Jo. Patchet being overseer of y e poor of 
p r he gave up his acct. 

His Disbursm 1 " are 14 1 

Rec d by Levy 
Rem" in Stock 

14 3 


rri y 1 ? l j \ s - g ed by y ' J>arishe That y e Clmsc 
Iho. Underbill Churchwarden for y e year ensuing 
& George Southwell overseer of y e Poore. 


Now the year of this entry is obliterated, 
os I have indicated, but the preceding 
mmuto is dated 26 Sept., 1724. The next 

10 s. ix. JAN. is, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

entry, Mr. Wickham King says, is a grant 
of a levy to George Southwell, " Ap. 4, 
1725 6 [sic]," followed by a meeting on 
11 April, 1726, when George Southwell gives 
up his account, and " Then Thomas Under- 
hill, being Churchwarden for the last yeare, 
and he gave up his account as follows," &c. 

It is therefore abundantly clear that the 
date should be 29 March, 1725. That the 
second signature is that of Cornelius Ford, 
the notorious " Parson," can scarcely be 
questioned, as I showed (p. 159) that at the 
time of his marriage, in June of the preceding 
year, to Judith Crowley, he was living at 
Pedmore ; that he was still there on 12 Dec., 
1724 (p. 276) ; and that even as late as 
1730, the year before his death, he was 
described as then or late of Pedmore (p. 165). 
In my book I was unable to give the signa- 
ture of the Doctor's brilliant but erratic 
cousin, so think it well worth while to 
reproduce this one here : 

Thomas Philpott, who signs first, succeeded 
George Southall as Rector of Pedmore in 
1725. Cornelius Ford and John Pearpoint 
evidently signed only as parishioners attend- 
ing the vestry meeting. This evidence of 
Cornelius Ford's participation, while yet a 
layman, in parochial affairs, is of special 
interest, as occurring not many months before 
Johnson s visit to him, a visit on which the 
boy's precocious abilities impressed the man, 
and the man's sane judgment, knowledge 
of the world, and brilliant conversation made 
a lifelong impression on the boy's mind. I 
ventured to cast some ridicule (p. 168) upon 
Hawkins's thankful surprise that Johnson's 
having " been a witness to the profligacy 
of his cousin Ford" had left his religious 
beliefs unscathed, showing that on this 
occasion probably the only one on which 
they met Cornelius was living in a quiet 
country parish, with an elderly new-made 
bride of Quaker parentage, and, as a matter 
of fact, had not yet taken Holy Orders. 
This entry, though a small basis for argu- 
ment, will not weaken my belief that John- 
son had no personal knowledge of his 
cousin's loose habits, which at this date 
were probably far from being matured. 

Judith Crowley, who no doubt presided 
over her husband's household during John- 
son's visit, was one of the children of 
Ambrose Crowley, of Stourbridge, who by 
his will, in 1713, had nominated Joseph Ford, 

the " Parson's " father, as one of his exe- 
cutors. Judith's half-brother, Sir Ambrose 
Crowley (1658-1713), was the " Sir Arthur 
de Bradly " satirized by Steele in The 
Taller, and is said to have been Addison's- 
Jack Anvil, alias Sir John Enville, of The 
Spectator. In my account of Sir Ambrose 
(pp. 169-70) I overlooked several references- 
to him in ' N. & Q.,' the more important of 
which are at 4 S. ii. 159, 233, and 9 S. iii. 
155. At the second of these references 
G. W. M. no doubt the late Dr. Marshall, 
York Herald states that the family of 
Sir Ambrose became extinct, in the male 
line, on the death of his grandson John 
Crowley. son of John Crowley, of Barking. 
The elder John's daughter, Elizabeth 
Crowley, granddaughter of Sir Ambrose, 
married John, second Earl of Ashbxirnham, 
in 1756.* This is of special interest, for 
George, third Earl of Ashburnham, son of 
Elizabeth Crowley, was the grandfather of 
Algernon Charles Swinburne, who can thus 
claim ancestors with Johnsonian con- 
nexions, as well as a Quaker descent of which 
Puritans do not find evidence in his poetry, 
At the last reference are some genealogical 
notes on Sir Ambrose by the veteran G. E. C, 
In the outline I gave of the Lloyd family 
(p. 151) I mentioned that Mary Crowley, 
a sister of Mrs. " Parson " Ford, and half- 
sister of Sir Ambrose, married Sampson- 
Lloyd, progenitor of the celebrated family 
of Birmingham bankers. Her daughter, 
Olivia Lloyd, was one of Johnson's early 
loves, while her grandson, Sampson Lloyd, 
was he with whom Dr. Johnson had an 
altercation on the subject of Barclay's 
' Apology.' This Sampson Lloyd was brother 
of Charles Lloyd the philanthropist, whose 
son Charles Lloyd is better remembered 
as the friend of Lamb and Coleridge than, 
for his poetry. I might have added that 
Isabella Lloyd, a niece of Charles Lloyd 
the poet, married Henry Russell the com- 

* Writing to the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 
on 12 Feb., 1756, Horace Walpole remarks : " My 
Lord Ashburnham does not keep a fast ; he is going 
to marry one of the plump Crawleys : they call 
him the noble lord upon the woolsack " (' Walpole s- 
Letters,' ed. Mrs. Paget Toynbee, vol. iii. p. 396). 
Mrs. Toynbee, in a foot-note, describes the lady as. 
" Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of Ambrose 
Crawley, Alderman of London." This is a slip 
which we can well forgive in so admirably zealous 
an editor as Mrs. Toynbee. In G. E. C.'s ' Complete 
Peerage ' Lady Ashburnham is described correctly 
as "Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of John 
Crowley, of Barking, Suffolk (who was only son and 
heir of Sir Ambrose Crowley, Alderman of London), 
by Theodosia, daughter of the Rev. Joseph Gas- 
coyne, D.D., Rector of Eufield, Middlesex." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. JAN. is, iocs 

S>ser, and has a well-known son in William 
ark Russell, the popular writer of sea 

I also overlooked the fact that Sir John 
Hynde Cotton, who married Lettice, the 
second daughter of Sir Ambrose Crowley, 
is treated of in the ' D.N.B.' Succeeding 
his father as fourth baronet, he became 
one of the leaders of Ihe Jacobite party, 
and was M.P. successively for Cambridge 
and Marlborough. As he was nephew by 
marriage to " Parson " Ford, it is interesting 
to learn (hat 
" good living was also among his pleasures. It was 
an age of hard drinking ; but Cotton was credited 
with the power of consuming as much wine as any 
man in England." 

He was indeed a man after the " Parson's " 
own heart. His son, Sir John Hynde 
Cotton, fifth baronet, married a first cousin, 
Anne, daughter of Humphrey Parsons, M.P., 
twice Lord Mayor of London, by Sarah, 
third daughter of Sir Ambrose Crowley, 
and was father of Admiral Sir Charles Cotton, 
whose son, Sir St. Vincent Cotton, a cele- 
brated gambler, dissipated the family for- 
tunes, and for many years drove the Brighton 

It is worth noting that administration of 
the estate of one Cornelius Ford, who died 
a bachelor in the East Indies, was granted 
in P.C.C., on 22 June, 1670, to Edward 
Pratt, the principal creditor ; but there is 
no evidence to connect him with Dr. John- 
son's kinsfolk.* 

Park Corner, Blundellsands, near Liveri>ool. 

(To be continued.) 

The suggested connexion between Dr. 
Samuel Johnson and Dr. Nathaniel John- 
ston of Pontefract is unlikely, as the latter's 
surname was Johnston, not " Johnson." A 
IHxiigree of his family was, I think, pub- 
lished by the Harleian Society, wherein he 
is stated to have been descended from a 
branch of the Johnstons of Esby, in Arman- 
do- F. A. JOHNSTON. 

The name of the Yorkshire antiquary 
mentioned on p. 464 was Johnston, not 
" Johnson," and he was of Scottish descent : 
see ' D.N.B.,' xxx. 67. W. C. B. 

" And as Dr. Johnson had an uncle and at least 
one cousin named Nathaniel Ford, I may mention 
that there was a Nathaniel Ford, captain in the 
service of the Hon. the LnitedEast India Company 
At Bengal, who died a bachelor, administration of 
his estate being granted in P.CC. on 22 Dec., 1774 
to John Ford, his brother, Elizabeth Ford, widow' 
nia mother, having renounced. 

those curious in the history of beacons per- 
haps the subjoined cutting from The Globe of 
the 2nd inst. will be interesting. We are told 
that Rockingham Forest in Northampton- 
shire was formerly one of the largest in the 
kingdom, and is described in the reign of 
Edward I. as being 30 miles long by 8 miles 
broad. Rockingham, 9 miles from Ketter- 
ing, is situated in the midst of the forest. 

" AN ANCIENT CUSTOM. Welclon Church, near 
Kettering, has a singular tower on which a lantern 
was lighted on Tuesday night in accordance with a 
custom maintained on New Year's Eve for several 
generations. The tower has a plain pinnacle at each 
corner, and in the middle a cupola or lantern, 
covered with lead, surmounted by a vane. The 
lantern itself is 15 ft. high, octagon in shape, each 
side being glazed. From the dome of the interior 
of the lantern hangs a curious wooden chandelier, 
fashioned to hold eight candles, while from the 
eight sides of the lantern are sixteen branched 
candlesticks, quaintly made of wood. The lantern 
was lighted on dark nights to guide wayfarers 
through the dense Rockingham Forest, which was 
then open." 


the Christmas season once more passes away, 
let me pour my complaint into the sym- 
pathetic bosom of ' N. & Q.' According to 
my experience, mince pies now contain no 
minced meat whatever, and plum puddings 
no plums. In addition to the pasty part, 
they both consist of little more than 
currants and lemon peel. Cannot the con- 
fectioners be persuaded to return to some 
good old receipts ? W. C. B. 

side-light on the character of Richard 
Swiveller, " the Perpetual Grand Master 
of the Glorious Apollers," is worthy of 
record, and as regards the immortal Dick 
" may the wing of friendship never moult 
a feather." In my possession is a little 
songbook called 'The Apollo,' published 
1808, Albion Press, printed for James 
Cundee, Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row, London. 
At the head of every page of this book is a 
toast or sentiment, not, indeed, worthy of 
R. S., but very much in his line; thus, 
" May avarice lose its purse, and benevolence 
find it," and to the memory of Nelson, " how 
lie beat the French without arms." When 
R. S. was not "passing the rosy," there is 
lit tie doubt that he was perusing this book 
sf songs and sentiments, and qualifying for 
his position as a " Glorious Apoller." 

On the title-page of this book, written 
with a flourishing quill, is the name of 
George Potticary (apothecary, I suppose). 

10 s. ix. JAN. is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

In the late seventies, when dining with this 
Mr. Potticary, then the old rector of Girton 
(should now be Girltown), he told me that 
m his earlier years he kept a school at Black- 
heath, and that his most distinguished pupil 
was Disraeli. Years after he had retired 
from the cares of school, he chanced to be 
at a party when Disraeli was present. The 
Prime Minister at once remembered and 
greeted him, and before the gathering broke 
up his secretary came, as a messenger from 
his chief, to know about Mr. Potticary's 
circumstances in life, and whether anything 
could be done for him. The reply was that 
fortunately he was himself in comfort, but 
that a college friend, a clergyman in every 
way worthy, was in great straits. So Mr. 
Disraeli found a living for Mr. Potticary's 

INDEX OF PLACE-NAMES. In the review 
of the Manorial Society's first monograph 
(ante p. 18), reference is made to the need of 
an index of place-names. An excellent 
index of place-names, compiled by surveyors 
of taxes some years ago, was published by 
the Board of Inland Revenue for their official 
use. This would supply much of the infor- 
mation needed, or serve as basis for the 
compilation desired. J. B. S. 

The Morning Post for 30 December last there 
is an interesting article (p. 7) entitled 

* Centenary of a Famous Hotel. ' The writer 
seems to know nothing of either the first or 
second proprietor. Notices of both Mivart 
and Claridge will be found in Boase's 

* Modern English Biography.' 


The following entry appears in the 
'Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1429-1436,' 
p. 10: 

" Pardon to Robert Stafford, late of Lyndefeld, 
co. Sussex, chaplain, or Robert Stafford of Lynde- 
feld, chaplain, alia* ' Frere Tuk,' for not appearing 
before the King to answer Richard Wakehurst 
touching a plea of trespass ; or before Henry V. to 
answer that king touching divers trespasses whereof 
he, the said Robert, was indicted." 

T. C. 

JacobLarwood's ' Story of the London Parks' 
does not give the name of the person who 
encouraged the mob to insult Maria, Countess 
of Coventry, and Lady Waldegrave as they 
were walking in St. James's Park on 
Sunday, 17 June, 1759. The Daily Adver- 

tiser is quoted to show that his name was 
Joseph Vivian. Three other newspapers 
which I have consulted (Public Advertiser, 
Gazetteer, and London Chronicle) suppress 
this information, or give merely the initials 

DIABOLO : ITS ORIGIN. M. Henry Maret, 
in his daily article ' Garnet d'un Sauvage ' 
in Le Journal, attributes the discovery of 
the game to Lieut. Cameron, who when 
journeying from Zanzibar to Benguela was 
detained near Lake Tanganyika by a native 
chief. He relates : 

" Sometimes a slave of Djoumah would amuse us 
by his dexterity. With two sticks about a foot 
long connected by a string of a certain length, he 
spun a piece of wood cut m the shape of an hour- 
glass, throwing it before and behind him, pitching it 
up into the air like a cricket-ball, and catching it 
again, while it continued to spin." 


following is a transcript in full of Lans- 
downe MS. 66, vol. 78 : 

" List of poore householders in the several wards 
wanting relief, 1 I)ec., 1598: Aldersgate, 241; 
Algate, 132 ; Bassieshaw, 50 ; Breadstreete, 8% ; 
Bishopsgate, 447 ; Billingsgate, 48 ; Bridge, 32 ; 
Broadstreete, 177; Candlewickstreete, 114; Castle- 
baynard, 216 ; Cheap, 29 ; Colmanstreet, 117 ; 
[Cordwainer*], 53 ; Cornhill, 35 ; Cripplegate, 466 ; 
Dowgate, 80 ; Farringdon within, 232 ; Faringdon 
without, 831 ; Limestreet, 18 ; Langborn, 72 ; 
Portsoken, 218 ; Queenhithe, 64 ; Tower, 237 ; 
Vintry, 100 ; Wallbrook, 60. Total, 4,152. 


NATHANIEL BACON, 1593-1660. May I 
call attention to a singular and annoying 
error in the ' Index and Epitome ' to the 
' D.N.B.' ? Sir Nicholas Bacon had by 
his first wife, Jane Fernley, three sons 
Nicholas (died 1624), Nathaniel (died 1622), 
and Edward (died 1618). All three of these 
sons are noticed by Mr. Sidney Lee at the 
end of his sketch of their father (vol. ii. 
p. 371). Nicholas and Edward are, as they 
should be, separately entered in the ' Index 
and Epitome.' But Nathaniel is omitted 
altogether from the ' Index and Epitome ' ; 
and in that volume Nathaniel Bacon (1593- 
1660), who was the son of the above-men- 
tioned Edward, and hence a grandson of 
Sir Nicholas, is described as " puritan ; 
half-brother of Francis Bacon and son of 
Sir Nicholas Bacon." In short, the uncle 
and nephew have been confused. 

In the notice of Nathaniel Bacon the 

* Here the MS. has decayed in a fold. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAK. is, IQOS. 

nephew it is stated that he died in 1660 
but the exact date is not given. Can any 
of your readers supply this ? 

Boston. U.S.A. 

" PosTUMiNiotrs." This adjective, which 
properly has reference to the legal term 
f-ogtliminium, is used in a curious way by 
F. Plowden. His ' Historical Review o: 
the State of Ireland,' published in 1803 
has appended to it a Postliminious pre- 
face," dated 1804. Which is rather like a 
bull. There is also a blunder in numbering 
the last two chapters vii. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

copy of the collected edition of Spenser's 
works of 1617 in my possession is the follow- 
ing inscription on one of the fly-leaves : 

"Cupisne scire cujus ipse sum liber meumve 
heruni ? \ idere nonien iflius tibi licet quod ille 
8criiserit sua manu sub his lambicis : lege et scies, 
Hero sciensque redde mee precor meo." 

Below this is another inscription in what 
appears to be the same handwriting : 
amore summo ") 
more Optimo 

ore tideli J- ama Deum 
re orani 
e corde J 

Can any one suggest the name of the 
owner, whose pride in his own ingenuity 
must have exceeded his anxiety to get back 
his book ? The writing is old possibly con- 
temporaneous with the publication of the 
Throughout 'The Shepheard's Calen- 
dar there are numerous marginal corrections 
of printers' errors in a handwriting which 
appears to be the same as that of the inscrip- 
tion above quoted. H. WARD BOYS. 

Mrs. Charlotte Coleman made a copy of 
the Memoirs ' of Lady Fanshawe in 1766 
and gave to the grandfather of Col H' 
\\alrond a picture of Lady Fanshawe and 
her daughter Mary, described on the back 
of it as a work of Teniers, which Lady Fan- 
shawe declared in her will a picture of her 

fcLSTV 5 he ? b left to AIrs - Maria Massing- 
berd (wife of Francis Burrell Massingberd 
Esq., and daughter of Thomas Fanshawe 

of Parsloes, deceased in 1758) " the pictures 
of Sir Richard Fanshawe and his Lady." 
These pictures are no longer in the possession 
of the Massingberd family, and the fact 
of the bequest was unknown to it ; nor did 
the pictures pass back into the possession of 
the Fanshawes of Parsloes. Mrs. Cole- 
man's will was proved on 6 Sept., 1778 r 
the writing of two unattested codicils being 
sworn to by Miss Isabella Chauncy (who 
assisted her to copy the memoirs) and 
Miss Elizabeth Lawrence, both residing 
in the parish of St. Clement Danes. Nothing 
precisely definite can be traced regarding 
Mrs. Coleman, even her residence not being 
stated in her will ; and I should be very 
grateful for any information regarding her. 
In the Introduction to the 1829-30 edition 
of the ' Memoirs ' she is spoken of as Miss 
Coleman, and as great-granddaughter of 
Lady Fanshawe. But the above witnesses 
refer to her as a widow. Lady Fanshawe's 
daughter Anne is said to have married 
a Mr. Ryder, and her daughter is noticed 
in the Introduction as Anne Lawrence. 
Possibly, therefore, Mrs. Coleman's maiden 
name was Lawrence, and Elizabeth Law- 
rence was a near relation though she does 
not assert this in her deposition. I have 
not been able so far to trace the Ryder 
or Lawrence pedigree required. 

2. The portrait given as that of Sir 
Richard Fanshawe in Harding's Biographical 
Mirror (1795) is said in that publication 
to be taken from a picture in the possession 
of - - Blount, Esq. Lady Fanshawe's 
daughter Elizabeth married in 1684 one 
Christopher Blount, said in his marriage 
licence to be of the Middle Temple, in the 
records of which, however, his name cannot 
traced. The owner of the picture would 
seem to have belonged to the family of 
Christopher Blount ; but I have not been 
ible to trace him or it. Can any one kindly 
elp me in this matter ? 

72, Philbeach Gardens, Earl's Court, S.W. 

RAINE ISLAND. Can any one inform me 
of the origin of the name of the above, 
which lies about one hundred miles south- 
east of Cape York, Queensland ? 

The Downes, Bideford, N. Devon. 


!an any one inform me as to the present 

whereabouts of Sir E. Burne- Jones's ' Heart 

>f the Rose,' or give me a detailed descrip- 

ion of the colour-scheme of the picture ? 

V. T. 

10 s. ix. JAX. is, 



FIELDING'S GRAVE. What is the correct 
quotation relative to Henry Fielding's 
grave ? The sense runs something lik 
this : 

Beneath the green Estrellas trees 
Sleeps midst the alien Portuguese. 

By whom is it written ? L. A. W. 


[MR. JAMES HOOPER quoted at 8 S. iv. 164, a Latin 
inscription written by the Abbe Correa de Serra foi 
Fielding's tomb, but, owing to ecclesiastical opposi 
tion, not placed upon it. MR. J. T. PAGE, printec 
at p. 314 of the same volume the two Latin inscrip 
tions that actually appear on the tomb.l 

PASTON FAMILY. Nicholas Paston was 
Rector of King Swinford, co. Stafford 
1603-21. In the latter year he was buriec 
there. He married Joyce Maunsell, who 
was living 1612. 

John Paston, brother of Nicholas, was 
living at King Swinford, 2 March, 1621, anc 
died 1636. They had a brother William 
living at Hales Owen, 1607. 

Edward Paston, son of John, was baptized 
30 Nov., 161 7. He was Vicar of Hales Owen, 
Salop, 1653-60 being ejected by the West- 
minster Assembly. He died 1697. 

John Paston, son of Edward, was Rector 
of Welford-on-Avon, co. Gloucester, 1679-89, 
when he died. He married Elizabeth 
Rawlins, fourth child, eldest daughter, and 
ultimate coheiress of Samuel Rawlins, of 
Marston Sicca, co. Gloucester, gentleman, 
brother of Thomas Rawlins, Serjeant -at- Law, 
of Dorsington Manor, co. Gloucester. 

The Paston arms, as engraved on a silver 
tankard dated 1564, at one time the property 
of John Paston, or of his son Samuel (who 
married Anne Mary Rawlins, only daughter 
of Edmund Rawlins, of Pophills House, 
Salford Priors, co. Warwick, son of William 
Rawlins, of Salford Priors, brother of 
Samuel and Thomas), are identical with the 
arms of the family of Paston of Norfolk and 
Horton Manor, Gloucestershire. The shield 
on the tankard represents the following coats : 
Paston, six fleurs-de-lis in pile. 3, 2, and 1 ; 
a chief indented impaling, Rawlins, three 
swords barways, their points towards the 
sinister point of the escutcheon. 

John Paston, Esq. of Norfolk, and 
Margaret Mauteby his wife, had a younger 
son, William, born 1459. 

A William Paston lived in the neighbour- 
hood of Birmingham, and his will was 
proved 3 March, 1522. He left three sons, 
Roger, George, and John under age. He 
left money to the church of Hales Owen. 
A George Paston was Vicar of St. Mary's 

Lichfield, 1594, and probably Rector of 
King Swinford, 1622-6. 

I seek certified authentic documentary 
evidence of the family relationship which 
existed between John Paston, Esq., husband 
of Margaret Mauteby, and Nicholas Paston, 
who died 1621 ; John Paston his brother, 
who died 1636 ; William Paston their brother, 
living 1 607 ; Edward Paston, son of John, 
who died 1697; or John Paston, son of 
Edward, who died 1689. 


Welford House, Weston-super-Mare. 

Bishop Watson's ' Autobiography/ published 
in 1816, occur the following Latin quotations, 
unverified : " Obstipo capite atque ex por- 
recto labello," and " Hoc est vivere bis vita 
posse priori frui." Whence do they come ? 

[1. The first two words, " Obstipo capite," are in 
Horace, ' Sat.,' II. v. 92, and Persius, 3, 80. 
2. Martial, ' Epigrams,' X. xxiii. 7 : 
Ampliat aetatis spatium sibi vir bonus. Hoc est 
Vivere bis vita posse priore frui.] 

Disce ut semper victurus, 
Vive ut eras moriturus. 

This was quoted by the Prussian general 
Radowitz ; but from where ? W. T. L. 

I want the author of some lines which 
seem to me familiar, but may be original 
and modern. There are three stanzas. The 
first begins : 

I know, as my life grows older, 

And mine eyes have clearer sight, 
That, under each rank wrong, somewhere 

There lies the root of right. 
The last stanza ends : 

And I know, when my soul speeds onwards 

In its grand eternal quest, 
I shall say, as I look back earthwards, 

Whatever is, is best. 


The Earl of Carnarvon in his ' Portugal 
and Gallicia,' 1836, vol. i. p. 44, writing of 
wasps, quotes a line where they are spoken 
of as 

That light militia of the lower sky. 
Where is it to be found ? ASTARTE. 

BOB DERRY'S. There is an account of 
ihis disreputable place of resort in 'The 
Adventures of a Speculist ; or, a Journey 
.hrough London, by George Alexander Ste- 
rens, 2 vols., London, 1788, vol. ii. pp. 51-5. 
}an any reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me where I 
hall find other descriptions? There is no 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. JAN. is, 

reference in * London Past and Present,' and 
I have looked in vain through the nine 
General Indices of ' N. & Q.' 

Fox Oak, Hersham, Surrey. 

FRENCH WILLS. A London workman 
informs me that his aunt married a French- 
man, who died in Paris in 1873, leaving 
valuable property there. We wrote to the 
Paris authorities, asking if this nephew 
might have a copy of the will ; but the 
reply is, " Pieciser 1'objet de votre requete." 
Can any one learned in the customs of 
France assist us in any way ? 


VIMMERCATO." In the Fifth Book of 
' Sordello ' occurs this passage : 

Hark from the wild harangue 
Of Vimmercato, to the carroch's clang 
Yonder ! The League, or trick of turning Strength 
Against Pernicious Strength, is safe at length. 

The inference evidently is that a wild 
harangue by some one led up to the forma- 
tion of the Lombard League in the twelfth 
century. Browning is known to have had 
exceptional acquaintance with the byways 
of Italian history, and this may refer to 
some incident not given in the standard 
historical books. I cannot identify it 
out of Sismondi's Italian Republics.' Sis- 
mondi, indeed, mentions that the Emperor 
Frederick attempted to assemble a Diet at 
Paviain September, 1167, and "harangued 
the assembly with great vehemence " ; it is 
possible that this might be what Browning 
referred to, though there is no mention of 
Vimmercato, which is some thirty miles 
from Pavia. Moreover, the Lombard League 
had been already formed in the spring of 
the same year. Can any one with a special 
knowledge of Italian history explain 
Browning s reference ? H. H. STATHAM. 

VicoMTE DE CREMAIL. Any biographic 
or bibliographic detail would be most 
welcome regarding the seventeenth-century 
French wit and poet the Comte or Vicomte 
Cr6mail Several anthologies and the 
Btandard Brunet have been searched in 
vain. Charles Cotton gives him as the 
author of a translated piece. L. L G 



ThMt- l of a book entitled 

The British Biography of the Eighteenth 
Century,' said to be published by Long 
mans ? I am referred to a memoir therefn 

on Sir Charles Malet, reported to have 
appeared in 1813-14. Mr. Longman has 
no knowledge of the book. 

Radnor House, near Sandgate. 

Lyndhurst's Marriage Act, 1835, was passed 
in order to legitimatize the marriage of a 
nobleman with his deceased wife's sister. 
Who was this nobleman ? W. H. A. 

CALENDAR RIMES. I should like to know 
if any of your readers have heard the follow- 
ing doggerel rimes, which were repeated 
to me by a friend of mine many years ago. 
The lines are intended to help any one to 
find the date and day of the week for any 
month in any year, the dominical or Sunday 
letter of that year being known. Here are 
the lines : 

At Dover dwells 
George Brown, Esquire, 
Good Christian friend, 
And David Fryar. 

The method of obtaining the desired 
information is as follows. There are twelve 
words in the rimes. Each word is for a 
month in the year, the first being for Janu- 
ary, the second for February, &c. To 
find the day of the month and week, take 
the dominical letter for the year and the 
initial letter of the word for the month, 
which will be found by counting backward 
or forward from the dominical letter. This 
gives the first day in the month. 

Example. To find on what day of the 
week 10 April falls in 1909. The dominical 
letter is C, and the word George represents 
April. Counting forward from Sunday =C, 
Thursday will be G, the initial of George, 
and 1 April, 1909. Consequently 10 April 
that year will fall on Saturday. 

I hope I have made the explanation 
clear, and should like to know if you can 
tell me the writer of these rimes. 


Dippen Hall Cottage, Farnham. 

' KITTY FISHER'S JIG.' I have seen a 
reference somewhere to a tune with this 
title. Can any one tell me if it exists, and 
where I shall find it ? 


derivation of this place-name is apparently 
obvious, but I am seeking identification of 
the ownership and date of the mill. The 
freehold estate was sold in 1849, but " the 

Sarticulars" (Tyssen Library, G47) do not 
eal at sufficient length with its history. 

10 s. ix. JAN. is, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


There is no identification of the mill in 
Starling's map published in 1831. 


greatly obliged if any one could inform me 
what became of the colours of the Scots 
Guards which were carried at the battle of 
Talavera, 27 July, 1809. One was carried 
by my father, and was shot through, he also 
being woundad by the same bullet, which is 
in my possession. The Scots Guards at that 
date were called 3rd Guards. 


Drum more House, Bournemouth. 

Henry Digby in his ' Compitum,' vol. i. 
p. 48 (1848), quotes "The amiable writer 
of ' Letters from Belgium ' " as describing 
little children dressed as representatives 
of angels at a Corpus Christi festival in a 
village in Flanders. Can any one tell me 
who was the author of the book referred 
to, and what is its full title ? 


(10 S. ix. 4.) 

THE interesting article by COM. EBOR 
recalls memories of sixty years ago, when 
Christmastime was the occasion for many 
observances, the meaning of which was never 
thought of by the happy children taking 
part in them, but on which much light has 
been thrown by the folk-lore literature of 
modern days. 

Sixty years ago in Wales a great yule 
log was always brought in and burnt at 
Christmas, in front of which apples sus- 
pended by a string were roasted, falling 
eventually into bowls of milk, and as recently 
as the year 1855 it was the custom, on the 
banks of the Si eg in Westphalia, to keep a 
block slowly smouldering, intended to last 
the whole year from Christmas to Christmas, 
when its remains were strewn on the fields 
to ensure their fertility. 

The horse's head with its clapping jaws 
and white sheet, called Mari Llwyd in Wales 
and the Wooset in Wiltshire, about which 
many tales are told and many verses sung, 
came to the door as regularly as did the 
carol-sineers, This may be an echo of 
Odin's horse of the Icelandic and Norse 
Sagas. " Heathenism seems to have prac- 

tised all sorts of magic by cutting off horses' 
heads and sticking them up," and one reads 
of the heads of horses put on stables in the 
fifteenth century to scare away hobgoblins ; 
of gables of houses decorated with them ; 
and of the figureheads of ships thus de- 
signed, to strike terror in their enemies. 
Gregory the Great in a letter to Queen 
Brunehilde exhorted her to stop the practice 
of exposing heads of animals sacrificed. 

" Pulgain " or " Plygain " was regularly 
observed in Wales, people coming in the 
dark with candles, at 6 o'clock on Christmas 
morning, to the early celebration of the 
Communion, after which they sang carols 
at the house. 

On New Year's Day crowds of children 
from the country round came to wish us a 
" Happy New Year," carrying an apple on 
three sticks decorated with holly and strings 
of raisins, &c., vieing with each other who 
could make the prettiest or most elaborate 
arrangement ; and to each child a flat 
cake of bread and piece of meat were 
given. This custom is also described 
in Mistral's charming ' Memoires et Recits,' 
as occurring in Provence, when " une 
couple de pains longs et de miches re- 
bondies " were given by his good father 
to every one coming to salute them on New 
Year's morning. 

The New Year's Day custom of the apple 
on three legs is described in Wirt Sykes's 
' British Goblins ' as of great antiquity, 
and he gives the following interpretation 
of it : 

" The Christian symbolism is supposed to relate 
to the offering of the Wise Men, but the old custom 
dates from the time of the solar myths ; the three 
sticks equal the three rays of the sun, being the 
mystic name of God. The apple represents the sun, 
the evergreens perennial life, the grains of wheat 
the spears of evil spirits of darkness with which 
the sun fights through the winter, or Avagddu 

Hamerton's story of the cattle talking 
together on Christmas Eve is paralleled in 
Wiltshire by the belief that the bees on that 
night murmur loudly in their hives to salute 
the Newborn Kine; ; although, as my in- 
formant told me, she had never heard them. 

Mistral, quoted above, gives an account 
of his going out, when a child, to meet the 
three Kings at Christmas, with offerings of 
" galettes pour les Rois," " des figues seches 
pour les pages, du foinpour les chameaux ; " 
when at sunset 

"un triomphe de couleurs splendides embrassait la 
zone du couchant, de gros lambeaux de pourpre 
flamboyaient etd'or et de rubis une demi-couronne 
dardant un cercle de longs rayons du ciel illuminant 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. is, IMS. 

ITiorizon ' Les Rois, lea Rois, voyez leur couronne 

voyez lours manteaux ! voyez leurs drapeaux 

mais oil out passii lea Rois?' 'Derriere la mon- 

tagne.' " 

And he ends his delightful reminiscences : 

"Qui me rendra le delice, le Iwnheur ideal do 
mon ame ignorante, quand telle qu'une fleur elle 

s'ou vrait toute neuve aux chansons quemamere 

me chantait en douce langue de Provence ; re"- 

cits, legendea et croyances de notre race provencale 
ciui bercerent mon jeune age de reves et de poeaie 
emue ? " 

Before these old customs are quite for- 
gotten it may be well to record them as 
remembered by one who was a child sixty 
years ago. T. S. M. 

HACKNEY (10 S. viii. 465 ; ix. 11). I fear 
I have been quite misunderstood. It is now 
alleged that no etymologist who has dealt 

with this word has imagined that it was 

of English origin." 

This is incorrect ; for one would naturally 
consult such famous works as those of Diez, 
Scheler, and Littrd*. Diez derives the 
shortened form appearing as Ital. haca, 
O. Span, /oca, O. Fr. haque, all from the 
E. hack ; and adds that this is confirmed by 
the fact that the longer forms are all derived 
from the E. hack-ney, which he wrongly 
takes to be a compound of that form. How- 
ever, there is his statement that the word is 
of English origin. Scheler says the same, 
viz., that all the continental forms are of 
English or Dutch origin. Littr6 simply says : 
" de 1'angl. hackney ;" and likewise calls it 
an English compound. Korting says the 
same, but is not so sure that it is a 
compound. Thus the statement that 
hackney has never been looked upon as 
being a word of English origin is contra- 
dicted point-blank by the evidence of Diez, 
Scheler, Littre, and Korting just the men 
to whom one would naturally first turn. 

It is true that Hatzfeld, the latest writer, 
calmly declares*, without a scrap of evidence, 
that the English word is derived from the 
French; yet his earliest instance of the 
French form is of the fourteenth century. I 
have effectively disposed of this argument 
by showing that the word was latinized in 
England as early as 1292. It is precisely 
this new piece of evidence which makes a 
great deal of difference. Cf. " Walterus de 
Hakeneye " in 1308 (' Liber Custumarum ' 
p. 120). 

It is true that there is no proof that words 
are identical because they are spelt alike, for 
English abounds with homonyms. But 
surely such a form as the Mid. Eng. hakeney 

is quite exceptional ; so entirely exceptional, 
in my experience, that theie is really ajvery 
strong presumption as to its identity with 
the place-name " Hakeney." Most homo- 
nyms are monosyllabic, or of quite simple 
form. I remain of opinion that your readers 
are indebted to me for a much older 
quotation than any hitherto adduced. Surely 
this is of some value. 

The A. F. hakenai, in Wright's ' Political 
Songs,' p. 297, refers to the year 1294. 

As to the place-name, I take it to represent 
an A.-S. Hacan leg, "an isolated piece of land 
owned by one named Haca." Hacan 
pundfald is in Kemble's list. As to its 
suitability for pasturing horses, there is 
a railway station now called Hackney Downs ; 
and London Fields are not far off. 

Fitzstephen tells us that "on the north 
side [of London] are fields for pasture " ; and 
he has a long description of the horse-racing 
in Smithfield, to which people of all ranks 
resorted, as well as for the express purpose 
of buying London horses, which wore of 
great variety and value. All of which, as 
it seems to me, goes to show that Hackney 
was just the place whence horses might be 
expected to come. Fitzstephen's emphatic 
eulogy of London products is far too long to 
quote. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

ix. 9). In response to A. A. M.'s linquiry 
concerning the meaning of the third line 
of Du Maurier's rebus letter given in my 
' Life and Letters of Shirley Brooks,' I give 
him what appears to me the most likely out 
of the numerous solutions sent to me (one 
post alone brought me seven ! ). I think 
the translation is " a long letter to-day, but 
expect one." The crux is of course the 
figure 2 in front of an awning. This should, 
I think, be transliterated " two-dais," the 
last word being pronounced in the French 
way, Du Maurier being a Frenchman. When 
first my daughter suggested this solution, 
I objected that a dais was a platform, and 
not an awning ; but I looked it up and found 
that she was right, and that it means either 
the one or the other. G. S. LAYARD. 

GENERAL BOURKE (10 S. ix. 8). John 
Charles Raymond Bourke, General of Divi- 
sion, was son of Capt. Richard Bourke, 
EC.S.L., an Irish Officer in Lally's Regiment 
in the French service, by his wife Marie 
Jacquette St. John, and was born at Lorient, 
Morbihan, 12 Aug., 1772. He was created 
a Baron of the Empire by letters patent 
16 Jan., 1808, and received a grant of land 

10 s. ix. JAN. is, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in Westphalia 1 7 March following. Promoted 
General of Division 25 Aug., 1813, he was 
afterwards styled Count Bourke, but was 
never so created. He successfully defended 
Charlemont against the Prussians in 1815. 
After the Restoration Louis XVIII. made 
him a K.C.S.L. and a G.C.L.H., and on 
9 Oct., 1823, an hereditary peer. He died 
unmarried at the Chateau de Kervergent, 
29 Aug., 1847, when his honours became 
extinct. These particulars are taken from 
a little work I am preparing on Britons who 
have received foreign titles and orders. If 
your correspondent requires further informa- 
tion as to this family, I might be able to 
obtain some if he cares to write to me. 


PEROUN (10 S. viii. 270, 330, 438). It 
may perhaps be worth adding that the 
original of the Slav national air ' Hej 
Slovane,' well rendered in verse by MB. F. 
P. MARCHANT at the last reference, is not 
in Slovenian (a Serbo-Croatian dialect 
which has its centre in Carniola or Krain, 
with the capital Ljubljana or Laibach), but 
in Slovak, i.e., a Cech dialect, spoken in the 
north-western part of Hungary by more 
than two millions of people. The author of 
the song was Sam. Tomasik, who died in 
1887. Owing to violent oppression by the 
Magyar or Hungarian Government, Slovak 
literature has recently suffered, the Slovak 
literary society Matica Slovenska, founded 
in 1863, having been prohibited in 1874, and 
the national schools having been closed. 

In Polish the old Slavic name of Peroun 
is still preserved in the corresponding 
Piorun, i.e., thunder and lightning, as well 
as the derivative Piorunnik, thunderer. 
Thursday was called in Polabian, or Old 
Polish, Periind&n, probably after Old German 
Donarestag, Old Norse Thorsdagr, Anglo- 
Saxon Thunresdseg. H. K. 

Is it from this Slavonic god that the gipsy 
name Perun, used by F. H. Groome in 
' Kriegspiel,' is derived ? 


Stromness, Orkney. 

PULPIT (10 S. viii. 450). The time referred 
to, as suggested by LORENZO, is that of the 
later Stuarts ; but the tale is told, not of an 
English, but of a foreign clergyman 
Lassenius, who was chaplain to the Danish 
Court. The moral he drew, after effectually 
awaking his congregation by his behaviour, 
was to this effect : " When I tell you sacred 

and important truths, you^are not ashamed 
to go to sleep ; but when" I play the fool, 
you are all eye and ear." Of course the 
tale, like most tales, especially those 
relating to the clergy, may have been told 
of other preachers. 

The corresponding English tale of this 
period is referred to Dr. Robert South, 
chaplain to Lord Clarendon, who, when 
preaching before Charles II., called out in 
a loud voice to Lauderdale, and requested 
him not to wake the King by snoring so 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

(10 S. viii. 389). 'A Catalogue of most of 
the Memorable Tombs, Grave-stones, Plates, 
Eschocheons, or Achievements in the demo- 
lisht, or yet extant Churches in London, 
from St. Katharine's, beyond the Tower, 
to Temple Bar, the Out Parishes being 
Included,' Lond., 1668, 4to, occurs in 'A 
List of the Principal Books, &c., that have 
been published in Illustration of the Anti- 
quities, History, Topography, and other 
Subjects treated of in Allen's 'London,' 
1828, vol. iv. p. 550. 


FLEET STREET, No. 59 (10 S. viii. 441). 
Mr. Hilton Price in his ' Signs of Old Fleet 
Street to the End of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury ' (Archceol. Journ., Dec., 1895), p. 366 
says that No. 60 was the " Tycho Brahe's 
Head," and that there, in 1767, George 
Adams sold " New Globes elegantly mounted, 
and a great choice of Mathematical, Optical, 
Philosophical, and Electrical Instruments." 
Would not this be the mathematical instru- 
ment maker alluded to by MR. ABRAHAMS ? 

ix. 7). Not long since a picture dealer in 
Watergate Row, Chester, had for sale a fine 
portrait, gallery size, of Lord Thurlow, 
which may be the one sought for. 

At the Stratford - on - Avon Memorial 
Picture Gallery is an attractive portrait of 
Sarah Kemble (Mrs. Siddons), marked on 
back as by Gainsborough in a contemporary 
hand, but commonly thought to be 
Hoppner's work. WILLIAM JAGGARD. 

ix. 9). I have searched in vain for Glover's 
' Kentish Monuments' (inquired about by 
MR. WM. NORMAN), supposing it to be a 
work out of print ; but, as MR. NORMAN 
suggests, I now believe that it never was 


NOTES AND QUKRI KS. [io s. ix. JAX. is, im 

printed. Mr. Thompson Cooper, F.S.A., 
in an article in the 'D.N.B. on Robert 
Glover, says: 

" No work of his was printed in his lifetime, but 

ne left an enormous quantity of MS. Collections, 

which have been utilized, often with scanty 

acknowledgement, by subsequent writers, who have 

thus gained credit due to him." 

The same writer adds : 

" He iii.n ! a collection of inscriptions on the 
funeral monuments in Kent." 

Certainly, if the manuscript could be 
found, it would be well worth publishing. 

MESWINDE THE FAIR (10 S. ix. 8). The 
only work done on this subject seems to be 
by Herr Schroder of Marburg, who read a 
paper on it at the Forty-Third Congress of 
German Philologists and Teachers, if, indeed, 
he did more than collect the notes from 
English chroniclers, which seems doubtful 
from the abstract. The paper itself does 
not appear to have been published. The 
version is that printed in modern editions 
of the Chronicles e.g., Rolls edition of 
Matthew of Westminster, i. 531, with the 
xception of " eamus," for which the re- 
viewer had probably some MS. authority. 


ix. 9). Your correspondent will be inter- 
ested to learn that Prof. Jorga of the 
Bucharest University claims a Rumanian 
origin for the Dormans, and that, according 
to him, a member of that family emigrated 
from Wallachia to England in the four- 
teenth or fifteenth century. The professor 
quotes Rymcr's ' Foedera ' as his authority; 
but I have not yet been able to discover the 
chapter and verse for his statement. I have 
come across the name in old Provencal 
history. L L K v 

it was by Mrs. Elmsley, of Maaslongh 
Castle, Glasbury, Brecon. Neither Mrs. 
Stretton nor Mra. Elmsley has published a 
book under her own name. 

' The Valley ' and ' Margaret and her 
Bridesmaids ' are still ascribed to Mrs. Marsh 
(without Christian name) in our National 
Library Catalogue ; but there is no doubt 
that J. C. Stretton is the right name of the 
authoress, who had nothing in common 
with "Hesba Stretton," who first wrote in 
1866, as that is a pseudonym adopted by 
Miss Hannah Smith. As Mrs. Stretton 
never put her name to her books, no 
confusion could arise by Miss Smith adopt- 
ing the name, which no doubt she did in 
entire ignorance of its being that of the 
authoress of 'The Queen of the County.' 

There is an " appreciation " of Mrs. 
Stretton in 'Women Novelists' (1897) by 
C. M. Yonge, from which I find that Julia 
Cecilia Collinson was born 25 Nov., 1812, 
and married, at nineteen, to Walter de 
Wilton, who died 1852, in which year she 
published her first book, ' The Lonely 
Island.' In 1858 she married Richard 
William Stretton. He died in 1868, and 
she died 17 July, 1878. 


"PASSEMENTERIE" (10 S. viii. 448). 
I am not sure that I know what " passe- 
menterie " is, but I think it is akin to 'gimp, 
and I imagine that " a hundred passemen- 
terie " may mean so many devices made of 
wire enclosed in a casing of silken threads, 
or of thread or cord sufficiently strong to 
be twisted into shape without metallic 
support. " Two doz. abeill pasmenterie " 
were perhaps twenty-four bits of trimming, 
more or less, in the form of bees (dbeilles). 
They may have been for badges. 



HUNDRED FIRES' (10 S. viii. 149, 253, 

3). It is quite common for anonymous 

>r pseudonymous works to be attributed to 
several persons, and many instances will be 
found in the ' Handbook of Fictitious Names' 
and the volumes of 'N. & Q.' In 18721 was 
informed from three different sources that 
this novel was by "Miss J. C. Stretton " 
meaning, ]. presume, Mrs. Julia Cecilia 

>tretton. One of these notes was written on 
the paper of Messrs. Hurst & Blackett, the 
publishers of the book, with their printed 

From a totally different source I was told 

269). 1705-6. " Triming money "= ? money 
expended either in dress or for attendance 
of a barber preparatory to some local or civic 
function : " O let me dress up those 
untrimmed locks" ('Tancr. and Gism.,' 
Old Play, ii. 224, Nares). 

1716-7. "Stew"=a stove for heating 
water, especially for the bath. When the 
ordinance was made (5 Henry V., 1417) 
for the abolition of Stews in the City of 
London, this household arrangement was 
somewhat superfluously specified as being 
exempt (see Riley's 'Memorials of London 
and London Life,' 1868, p. 648). A "stew" 
was also " a place to keep fish alive in for 
present use." 

10 s. ix. JAX. is, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

1748-9. "Peoches" ? a skin eruption. 
Petechice, says Nath. Bailey ('Diet.,' 1740), 
are spots on the skin like flea-bites which 
come out in some fevers. " Petechial 
fever " = spotted fever, ib. 

1750-5. "Padle" = ? a paddle-staff, a 
long staff with an iron spike at the end, 
used by mole-catchers (ib.). Elisha Coles 
says also in his Latin-English diet., 1755, 
that a paddle is a staff. 


1735-6. "An eye and a droback " is 
probably "an eye and a drawback," 
meaning " an eye and hook "or " an eye 
and bolt." A bolt is sometimes called a 
drawback in West Cornwall. 

1748-9. "Fixing the Tstemate " surely 
means " fixing the estimate " (for a rate). 


viii. 307, 471). Of late I have seldom seen 
* X. & Q.' a misfortune soon to cease to be 
and so have missed reading some of the 
notes on thic subject. 

To at least one student of history and 
genealogy, it would be interesting to know 
if the Robert, Count of Mortain, who died 
in 1090, and from whom Robert Fitz Ivo 
rented his lands, was the lesser-known and 
worthier of the half-brothers of Duke 
William of Normandy, the other being the 
too notorious Odo, who came over to help 
him to win the English crown. Robert 
de Mortain presumably the ancestor of 
many of the bearers of the modern name 
of Morton was said to have been a wise 
counsellor to the conqueror, and to have 
been rewarded by the gift of large estates 
in the south-west of England. It is a rather 
curious fact that at the battle of Senlac 
there were three brothers on each side ; 
also that the three Englishmen, Harold, 
Gyrth, and Leofwine, all perished, while 
the three Normans, William, Robert, and 
Odo, all survived. The six men figure in 
the famous Bayeux tapestry. 


CHARLES I.'s BOOKS (10 S. viii. 449). As 
to the book of plays and other books read 
by Charles I., at Carisbrooke, a clue may 
perhaps be found in the references given by 
Masson in his ' Life of Milton,' iii. 588, 
relating to the captivity at Carisbrooke. 
Here, however, Masson scarcely gives any 
particulars ; but on p. 515 he mentions 
several books as favourites of the King in 
his earlier captivity at Holmby, and gives 

other references. Among these books are 
Shakespeare's plays ; and this statement is 
confirmed by Milton's ungrammatical remark 
in his ' Eikonoklastes,' chap. I. 


"BACON" (10 S. viii. 310, 396). This 
word occurs (quasi-Latin) in the Pipe Roll of 
11 Henry II. j 1164-5, in the account of the 
Sheriffs of London and Middlesex (ed. 1887, 
p. 31) :- 

"Pro D. Baconibus missis ad Oxenefordiam, xl/i 
Et pro cc. lanceis missis ad Regem, xxxiiis. et iiiid. 
Et pro conducendis predictis baconibus. et lanceis 
et D. picoisiis. de Lundoniis ad Oxenefordiam per 
aquam, xviii.s'." 

There are frequent later entries, as, for 
example, in the Pipe Roll of 18 Henry II., 
1171-2, in Robert Troite's account (ed. 1894, 
p. 69) of the ferm of Carlisle. He credits 
himself with payments: 

" Pro cc. summis Auene Missis in Hiberniam, c#. 
Et pro cc. Baconibus, xvli. et xiiis. et iiiif/. Et pro 
LX. Securibus, xxviis. et vid." 

Q. V. 

" TENNE " : " SANGUINE " : " ER- 
MINITES " (10 S. viii. 368). The following 
extracts from Woodward, ' Heraldry, British 
and Foreign,' 1896, may be of some use to 

"Sanguine, a lion rampant argent, is the coat 
attributed to Wymbishin Harl. M.S. 6829, p. 57." 
Vol. i. p. 67. 

Then follows the example already given 
by PEAN, viz., Clayhill. 

Of tenne only a foreign example is given. 

Of erminites Woodward says : 

" I only know of one example : Glover is said to 
bear Sable, a fess erminites between three crescents 
argent." Vol. i. p. 77. 


HEREFORD ' (10 S. viii. 449). This is one 
of the Robin Hood ballads, and to find the 
author would, I think, be a matter of some 
difficulty. Ritson refers to it thus : 

"This excellent ballad, given from the common 
edition of Aldermary Church-yard (compared with 
the York copy), is supposed to be modern : the 
story, however, seems alluded to in the ballad of 
'Renowned Robin Hood.' The full title is 'The 
Bishop of Hereford's Entertainment by Robin Hood 
and Little John, &c., in merry Barnsdale.' Ritson s 
' Collection of all the Ancient Poems, Songs, and 
Ballads now extant relative to Robin Hood,' 1795. 

The ballad will also be found in * The 
Robin Hood Garlands and Ballads,' by 
J. W. Gutch and F. W. Fairholt,, vol. ii. 
p. 277 (London, John Russell Smith, 1850). 

T. F. D. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. is, im. 

LITEBABY ALLUSIONS (10 S. viii. 410, 
312). Jem the Penman's name wasSaward, 
not Saward. There is a memoir of him 
in Boase's ' Modern English Biography,' 
vol. iii. p. 428, and index, col. 1608. He 
was transported for life in 1857, when he was 
58, but Mr. Boase was unable to find the date 
of his death. RALPH THOMAS. 

30). Hortense Allart was the younger 
daughter of a translator of English novels, 
sister to Sophie Gay. The elder daughter 
was a portrait painter : the younger a 
novelist, little known till she published her 
' Enchantements,' signed "Prudence." The 
scandal thus produced leaves the impression 
that E. A. H. is not far wrong in his sugges- 
tion that she knew less of the Bulwers than 
she told Sainte-Beuve. D. 

' THE FARMER'S AUDIT ' (10 S. viii. 488 ; ix. 
12). When Cowper wrote, 

One talks of mildew and of frost, 

And one of storms of hall. 
And one of pigs that he has lost 

By maggots at the tail, 

he surely must have meant sheep, although 
he put pigs, for pigs never die by maggots 
at the tail. ALFRED SYDNEY LEWIS. 

Library, Constitutional Club, W.C. 

[PROF. SILVAXUS P. THOMPSON also thanked for 

(10 S. viii. 390, 452). Two mediaeval " in- 
fants' tombstones," both apparently designed 
for twins, are described and figured in Gent. 
Mag., April, 1865. I have seen mediaeval 
oxitdoor tombs in various churchyards, e.g., 
Thrapstone, Northants, Lavenham, Suffolk, 
and the very remarkable one at Loversall, 
Yorks, described and figured in the Durham 
Arch. Trans., vol. v. p. ciii. The above are 
all the examples that I can recollect at 
present, but there are many in Bloxam's 
' Gothic Architecture,' 1882, vol. iii. chap, iv., 
including the one at Loversall. It is quite 
a mistake to suppose that " stone memorials 
were not in use in the Middle Ages." 

Bones disturbed in interments were some- 
times collected in a pit or in a charnel- 
house, but often simply redeposited in the 
ground, the surface of which has conse- 
quently risen considerably in all ancient 
churchyards, so that trenches have had to 
be made all round the walls of some churches 
to keep them dry. Successive generations 
have brought much lime into the church- 
yards, in their bones, but have, as a rule, 

carried nothing out. How long the bones last y 
as such, in the ground, depends on the nature 
of the soil ; but the lime of which they con- 
sist to the extent of about 65 per cent, is in- 
destructible, and therefore each interment in 
the long run adds to the amount of the soil. 
The lime has all come into the bones of the- 
departed through their food, into which it 
has come from the earth. And thus are the 
living the carriers of " earth to earth." 

J. T. F. 

Plain wooden crosses may be seen to this 
day in many churchyards in Norway, and 
specimens are figured in ' The Land of the 
Midnight Sun,' by Du Chaillu. 

Some few years ago many upright posts 
with a board between them, on which the 
epitaph was painted, might have been seen 
in the churchyard of Bushey, Herts. A 
smaller fee was charged for them than for a 
stone, and they needed frequent repainting. 
They were placed lengthwise on the graves ; 
and as they gradually became dilapidated, 
the people used to help themselves to the 
wood for firing, as a pathway ran through 
the churchyard. They were called " post and 

Bushey is no great distance from Willes- 
den, where the simple inscription on one 
" Jack Sheppard," restored and repainted 
by Mr. W. Harrison Ainsworth, existed, and 
was engraved in vignette form, in the novel 
by him. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

What is MR. WALTER SCARGILL'S autho- 
rity for stating that " a plank. ... in Willes- 
den Churchyard, inscribed ' Jack Sheppard, r 
. . . .was restored and repainted by Harrison- 
Ainsworth sixty years ago"? The myth 
that Jack Sheppard is buried in Willesden 
Churchyard takes a long time to dispel. No 
such wooden tombstone (to use an Irishism) 
ever existed there, and consequently it could 
not have been restored by the novelist. I 
think the ' D.N.B.' states that Sheppard 
was buried in St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. An 
aged native of Willesden once, when pointing 
out to mo the site of the " Cage," told me 
that when he was a boy, he and other 
equally mischievous youths used to gull 
inquirers by pointing out a particular grave 
as that of the notorious prison-breaker, and 
gleefully pocket the resultant coppers 
another case of demand and supply. But in 
the columns of * N. & Q.' one always looks- 
for and expects to find facts. 


Kensal Lodge, Willesden. 

w s. ix. JAN. is, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


449). The advanced ages at which women 
are often asserted to have given birth to a 
child generally fail, like alleged centenarians, 
on application of the test of strict evidence 
of the mother's date of birth ; and without 
such evidence no record of this nature is 

In life assurance business there occur 
contingent interests in the subjects of 
market values, which depend upon the 
birth or absence of issue, and where, 
accordingly, adequate proof of age is 
requisite. The only cases, thus duly 
authenticated, in the history of these 
transactions are as follows : once where a 
birth occurred at the mother's age of 54 
or 55; another at age 56; one at 51; and 
another close upon 52. 

An actuarial investigation into the 
experience of British peerage families 
showed that the period of child-bearing 
might be accepted as terminating at age 50. 

Late Pres. Institute of Actuaries. 

MEDICULUS will find the best account of 
such cases in Taylor's ' Medical Juris- 
prudence.' In one case the mother had 
reached the remarkable age of 70 years. 


Dr. Andrew F. Currier in a note on 
p. 449 of vol. ii. of Hamilton and Godkin's 
* System of Legal Medicine ' states : 

" The writer has been informed of a case which 
was known to one of his associates (Dr. G. W. 
JSmallwood), in which delivery of a living child took 
place when the mother was 60 years of age, fourteen 
yeais after the menopause was supposed to have 


MEDICULUS has doubtless noted the 
Biblical instances of Sarah and Elizabeth. 

Newspaper paragraphs and magazine 
extracts do not constitute very good evi- 
dence ; something more certain is desirable, 
and the case quoted is open to doubt 
because of its rarity. 

Cornelia, of the family of the Scipios, 
bore a son at 60 years of age. Delamotte 
quotes the case of a maid, aged 51, who 
became a mother, she having never married 
from the dread of having children. 

3 Mar., 1766. " Sarah, the bastard dan. of Sarah 
Smallwood of Eaton, widow aged about 50 years, 
was baptized." Bletchley Register 

The late Dr. James Palfrey (obstetric 
consultant) used in his lectures to mention 
the case of a surgeon's wife who had her 
first child at the age of 56 years. 

Dr. Prattinton writes (MS. in Society 
of Antiquaries) : 

" The country about Fladbury (Worcester) is 
remarkable for its fertility, a quality which the 
women there are said to possess in a degree and at 
a period of life scarce elsewhere known, it being 
no uncommon circumstance, as I am informed, for 
women to bear children when advanced to near the 
age of 60." 


Bletchley, co. Bucks. 

viii. 507). I quote from 'English Church 
Furniture,' by Dr. J. C. Cox and Mr. Alfred 
Harvey, M.B. (1907), p. 44: 

" Various blunders have been made, and often 
repeated, with regard to supposed survivals of pyx 
tabernacles in English churches. The two com- 
monly cited examples, at Milton Abbas, Dorset, 
and at Tewkesbury Abbey, where there are beauti- 
fully carved small wooden cases (the former of 
which is surmounted by delicate pinnacled work), 
prove, on careful examination, to be receptacles for 
a ring or chime of small sanctus bells affixed to a 

The Milton example is figured on p. 97 of 
the Revs. T. Perkins and H. Pentin's ' Me- 
morials of Old Dorset ' (1907), where it 
seems to be accepted as a former "tabernacle 
for reserving the Eucharist." 


CIRCULATION (10 S. viii. 446). R. S. B. 
appears to be correct as to the number of 
daily papers published in this year ; but he 
is, I think, one short as to those published 
on three days of the week only. The latter 
were eight in number, namely, The General 
Evening Post, Paternoster Row ; The 
St. James's Chronicle, Bridge Street ; The 
English Chronicle and Whitehall E'vening 
Post, Catherine Street ; and The Commercial 
Chronicle, Crane Court. These were pub- 
lished on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and 
Saturdays. On Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays appeared The London Chronicle, 
Crane Court, Fleet Street ; The London 
Packet, Warwick Square ; Lloyd's Evening 
Post, Snow Hill ; and The Evening Mail, 

A list of the eight daily morning papers 
and the six daily evening papers ; the chief 
fourteen Sunday papers ; five Sunday and 
Monday; two Monday; one Tuesday find 
Friday ; one Tuesday and Saturday ; four 
Wednesday ; one Thursday ; and three Fri- 
day papers, will be found in the ' Picture of 
London' for 1818, pp. 302-4. The Hue and 
Cry (Police Gazette), 240, Strand, appeared 
every third week ; and The Racing Calendar, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t io s. ix. JAN. is, 


MR. P. M. BARNARD, of Tuubridge Wells, has ir 
his Catalogue 19, a number of occult and old scien 
tih'c works. We note under Rosicrucian Andreas' 
' Mythologise,' Strasburg, 1619, and three othe 
scarce books, 21. 2s. Under George Withers is a 
warning to Europe in reference to prophecies o 
Bishop Usher, George Withers, and others, whicl 
*' seem now near fulfilling," " with some account o 
five suns which were seen at once," London, 1734, 
8s. 6rf. Other items include the scarce first Englisl 
edition of Pascal's ' The Mvsterie of Jesuitisme, 
vellum, 31. 3s.; Rossetti's 'Poems,' containing the 
first edition of ' The Bride's Prelude,' 1881, II. 1*. 
Selden's 'Dominion of the Sea,' folio, 1652, 16*., 
and his ' Titles of Honor,' 1672, 9,*. Qd.; first edition 
of 'Yarrow Revisited,' with John Peace's book- 
plate, II. Is.; and Young's ' Night Thoughts,' 1797, 
l. 10s. (6 leaves apparently wanting, but do not 
affect the text). 

Mr. James G. Commin, of Exeter, has in his 
Catalogue 238 a list under Alpine, which of course 
includes Whymper and other well-known names. 
Under Armorial Families is Fox-Davies's 'Complete 
Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage,' 1895, 11. 15s. 
(published at 61. 6-*.); and under Book-plates will 
be found Burke's Irish examples, 1894, M. 5s. 
Among words on Cornwall is Polwhele's ' History,' 

7 vols. in 2, 4to, half calf, rare, 1803-8, 61. 10s. 
^Vorks under Devon include Oliver's ' Monasticon,' 
with the rare additional supplement and index, 
Exeter, 1846-89, II. 17*. 6d., and Polwhele's 'His- 
tory,' 3 vols. in 1, folio, Exeter, 1793, uncut, 11. Is. 
(3 plates wanting). Among other works are Doran's 
* Their Majesties' Servants,' 3 vols., imperial 8vo, 
1888, 21. 12*. 6d.; Redfern's 'Historic Gloves and 
Shoes,' 18s. 6d.; Collingwood's ' Life of Ruskin,' 
11. 15$.; Ritson's ' Songs and Ballads,' large paper, 
11. 15s.; Burnet's 'History of his Own Time,' 6 vols., 
calf gilt, Oxford, 1833, 21. 12s. 6d.; and Clarendon's 
''Rebellion,' Oxford, 1826, 8 vols., full calf, 11. 15s. 

Messrs. W. Heffer & Sons, of Cambridge, devote 
their Thirty-Fourth Catalogue to Persian Manu- 
scripts in the Private Library of Shamsul Ulama 
Sayyid Ali Bilgrami of Hyderabad. They are 
offered for sale in two divisions : 160 as a whole 
for 6001., and nine separately at the prices affixed 
to each. The earliest dated MS. belongs to the 
year 1439. Among those for sale separately is the 
Koran, beautifully written, date probably 1606, 
~25l.; also one in miniature, illuminated throughout, 
1653, 151. Another of the nine MSS. contains the 
collected works of Sa'di of Shiraz fines Nasta'liq, 
gold border throughout, dated 1638, 151. There is 
also the well - known compendium of Moham- 
medan ethics, 'Akhlaq i Jalali,' fine clear amiz, 
17th century, 11. 

Mr. J. Jacobs's List 31 contains Harrisse's 
' Discovery of North America,' 1892, 67. Under 
India is a fine series of Native drawings, comprising 
Rajahs, conjurers, doctors, &c., 101. 10s. Under 
Drawings is Lady Dalmeny's ' The Spanish Ladies' 
Love,' 51. 5s. ; and under Arabia a volume of poems 
bound in old silk, 17th century, 51. 5s. There is a 
choice set of Kinglake's ' Invasion of the Crimea,' 

8 vols., 51. 5s. : while an extra-illustrated copy of 
Clarendon's 'Rebellion,' 11 vols., is 4/. 10s. There 
are works on Coins. Under Coloured Plates is 
' The Tour of Dr. Syntax,' second edition, tall copy. 


Mr. Charles J. Sawyer's List 4 contains an 
original manuscript copy of Alciate's 'Life and 
Emblems,' I/. 10s. Under Hatton Personalia is 
Joseph Hatton's own copy of his 'Journalistic 
London,' illustrated with views and portraits, the 
249 pp. extended by interleaving, and a irreat mass 
of autograph letters inserted, royal 8vo, morocco 

flit, 1882, 17/. 17s. There is also his copy of 
rving's 'Impressions of America,' and this, like 
the previous item, contains autograph letters, 1884, 
19/. 19s. There is also a collection of Mrs. Craigie's 
personal copies of her published works, each having 
her book-plate, 22 vols., 4/. 12s. 6d. A collection of 
books formerly belonging to Mr. Ranger Gull (Guy 
1 home) includes Balzac's ' Scenes of Parisian Life,' 
translated by Sedgwick, Edition de Luxe, 1897, 
4/. 2s. 6d. : and a number of Oscar Wilde's works, 
besides a portrait in water colours. There are 
choice works under Art, including the Earl of 
Radnor's copy of ' Le Muse"e Francais,' the original 
edition, in rosewood case, Paris, 1805, 201. ; and the 
original edition of ' Liber Veritatis,' 3 vols., folio 
very scarce, Boydell, 1777, 61. A rich collection of 
works on costume comprises Racinet, Lante, 
French theatrical costume, also costume under both 
Empires. Court Memoirs include a MS. transla- 
tion of the French privately printed edition (1802) 
of the ' Secret History of the Court of the Empress 
Catherine,' 255 4to pages, I/. Is. ; and ' The History 
of the Marchioness de Pompadour,' 3 vols., con- 
temporary calf gilt, 1759, 51. 10s. There are 
'irst editions of Dickens, Thackeray, and George 
Eliot. A fine copy of La Fontaine, Eisen's illus- 
trations, 1884, is 57. 10s. ; and the first edition of 
Lamb's 'Dramatic Poets,' 1808, 12/. An interest- 
ng item at the back of the catalogue is the accor- 
iion made for Grimaldi, and used by him at Old 
Sadler's Wells, in perfect preservation, in rosewood 
box, 101. 10s. 

Mr. D. Webster, of Leeds, puts as the first item 
jf his Catalogue a beautiful specimen of fore-edge 
tainting. The book is Fawkes's 'Chronology of 
.he History of Modern Europe,' York, 1810, and 
this was his own copy, richly bound. The painting 
s a view of Farnley Hall, the present seat of the 
fawkes family, and the book is priced 201. The 
general items include ' The Encyclopaedic Dictionary,' 

vols., as new, 11. Is. 6d.; a number of G. P. R. 
Barnes's works, first editions ; Lysons's ' Environs 
if London,' 6 vols., 4to, 1792-1811, 21. 5s.; Hugh 
Miller's Works, 13 vols., 11.; and Moliere, trans- 
ated by Waller. 8 vols., 11. 5s. Under French 
Involution are copies of the Bulletin dn Tribunal 
"rimind Rerdutionnaire, 158 numbers, bound in 
vols., 4to, boards, 1792-3, 51. 5s. 

to Cornspontonts. 

J. D. B. ("Gordon and Pope Clement XL"). 
Anticipated ante, p. 12. 

CORRIGENDA. Ante, p. 6, col. 2, 1. 11 from foot, 
or "this" read these. P. 13, 1. 13, for "contirma- 
x)s " read confirmatus. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
ommunications which, for any reason, we dp not 
riut, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

10 s. ix. JAN. is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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NOTES : Constables and Lieutenants of the Tower, 61 
Coleridge Items, 63 Bible in Weekly Numbers, 64 
Marlowe's ' Dr. Faustus ' Rainsford of Salleen Thomas 
Dyche, Schoolmaster Betley Register Egham Register 
Tyrie Family, 65 "Port arms" Birds as Architects 
"Murkattos": " Capaps " Shutters, 66 "Mush": 
" Mush-faker " " Tottenham is turned French " Lattice 
Tongs Spelling Reform ' Esmond ': Slip of the Pen, 

QUERIES : Stansted Press Passenger Elevators, 67 
Winston Shakespeare Portrait "Sorrow's crown of 
sorrows "Cold Harbour Lane Oxford : its name "Go 
the way of all flesh " " Bilbocatch "Parkinson Family, 
68 Colleton Family of Devonshire ' The Town' "Fide 
sed cui vide "Hume's Ancestry Anglo-Dutxjh Family of 
May " Jerusalem " Coffee-House Goethe on Shake- 
speare Sir Samuel Marshall Castle Rising" Father of 
his Country" School and College Tokens " Revert," 

REPLIES : Norman Court, 71 Longfellow Unroofed 
Railway Carriages, 72 Mince Pie and Plum Pudding- 
Roman Death Duties, 73 Queen Mary in Edinburgh 
Castle, 74 Rotherhithe London Queries Two Popular 
Refrains' Memoirs of a Young Lady of Quality,' 75 Sir 
Henry Docwra Cremation in 1769, 76 Burnham Society, 
Somerset Meswinde the Fair Scott Illustrators 
"Crown" Hotel, St. Martin's Court Authors of Quota- 
tions "Tye," 77 Lady Coventry Mobbed German 
Translation, 78. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' A Book of Greek Verse ' Snorter's 
'Immortal Memories ''The Literature of Roguery' 
' Beechen Grove Baptist Church ' ' Literary Year- Book ' 
'The Writing of English.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE catalogue of the Constables and 
lieutenants which follows is based on 
Bayley's enumeration of them in his excel- 
lent ' History and Antiquities of the Tower,' 
published in 1825. As officially one of the 
custodians of the national records, then 
amassed at the Tower, he had the advan- 
tage of free access to them, and it is evident 
that he applied much careful industry to 
the task of extracting from the documents 
the names of the past two chief officers. 
Little having been done at that time to- 
wards classification and indexing, the work 
was doubtless exceedingly laborious. Eighty- 
three years have elapsed, and in that space 
much has been effected in the forming of 
" royal road " to the contents of the 
records by the progressive compilation and 
printing of several series of Calendars with 
liberal abstracts of the documents ; and 
for the preservation, arrangement, inspec- 
tion, and transcribing of these a specially 
designed building has been erected. 

With such advantages, much revision 
and amplification of English history, in the 
action of which the Tower of London con- 
stantly figures, has been accomplished ; and 
from both sources, the records and his- 
torical works I have endeavoured to draw 
up a complete catalogue of the chief 
officers, which, presented in tabular form, 
may, I hope, not be without its use. 
Many of these Constables and Lieutenants 
have historical importance, and all had 
distinction from their office, if not from 
positions otherwise held. Biographical 
accounts of them would constitute a con- 
siderable work, but no more is now 
attempted than a correct enrolment, with 
occasional notes when explanation seems 

My idea had been to range the Con- 
stables and their contemporary Lieutenants 
in parallel columns ; but finding that a 
regular succession of lieutenants does not 
date earlier than the reign of Henry VIII., 
I have been unable to follow the proposed 
arrangement until that reign is reached. 
Bayley names but four lieutenants in the 
pre-Tudor period. John Gough Nichols, 
the distinguished archaeologist, contributed 
in 1858 to the Transactions of the London 
and Middlesex Archaeological Society (i. 225) 
a valuable article in regard to the lieu- 
tenants, and said that " their tenure of 
office was originally but temporary, during 
the absence of the Constable, at whose 
pleasure they were placed and removed." 
He further remarked on the greatly 
augmented importance of the second 
officers after the accession of the Tudors, 
when they became appointed by patent 
of the sovereign, the Constable's office 
sometimes even remaining vacant. 
Nichols discovered a few pre-Tudor 
Lieutenants, others have been found by 
myself, and all of them are named 
collectively at the termination of the list 
of Constables prior to the reign of 
Henry VIII. ; subsequently my plan of 
contemporary officers in parallel columns 
is carried out. 

To Bayley's enumeration of the 
Constables little amendment has been 
required. His references to documents I 
have not thought necessary to repeat, as 
his work is easily within reach ; but these 
I have carefully verified, and in my notes 
which follow the catalogue have indicated 
any alterations required. The date of 
appointment is noted when found, but 
during the earlier reigns it is seldom 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 25, im. 

Reg. William I., William II., Henry I., Stephen. 

Geoffrey de Mandeville. (1) 
William de Mandeville. 

1140. Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, slain 
1144. (2) 

1153. Richard de Lucie, Chief Justiciary. 

Reg. Henry II. 

1154. Richard de Lucie (continued), d. 1179. (3) 
Garnerius (or Gamier) de Isenei. 

Reg. Richard I. 

1189. William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, Chan- 
cellor and Regent, d. 1197. 
1189. William Puintellus, Sub-Constable. 
1 191. Walter of Coutances, Archbishop of Rouen. 
1194. Roger Fitz Renf red. 

1198. Geoffrey Fitz Piers (or Fitz Peter), Chief 


Reg. John. 

1199. Geoffrey Fitz Piers (continued). Created Earl 

of Essex 1199, d. 1213. 
1205. Roger de la Dune. 
1213, Oct. 14. Geoffrey Fitz Piers, son of above, 

alias Mandeville, Earl of Essex, d. 1216. 

1213, Nov. 4. William, Archdeacon of Huntingdon. 

1214, Eustace de Greinville. 

1215, June. Stephen Langton, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, d. 1228. 

1216, June. The Tower occupied by Prince Louis 

of France. 

Reg. Henry III. 
Walter de Verdun. 
Stephen de Segrave. 
Hugh de Wyndlesore. 
John de Boville and Thomas de Blumvill or 

Blundeville, Bishop of Norwich, 1226. 

(Probably together.) 
Henry Fitz Aucher. 
Ralph de Gatel. 
July 17. Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, 

d. 1243. 

Ralph de Ralegh, Sub-Constable. 
W[illiam] de St. Edmund. 
Hugh Giffard. 

Mar. 21. Goeffrey de Craucumb. 
Apr. 13. Hugh Giffard (again). 
Walter de Gray, Archbishop of York, and 

Bertram de Crioyl or Criolle (jointly). 
Peter de Vallibus. 
June 24. John de Plessetis. 
Peter le Blund. 

Sept. 13. Aymon Thorimbergh. 
Imbert Pugeys. 
Hugh Bigod, Chief Justiciary. 
Richard de Culwurth. 
May. Sir John Mansel (" Maunsel"). (4) 
Richard de Tilbury. 
Hugh le Despenser, Chief Justiciary, killed at 

Evesham, 4 Aug, 1265. 
Roger de Leyburn. 
15 Oct. Hugh Fitz Otho. 
26 Nov. John Walerand and John de la 

Lynde (jointly). 

June 25. Alan la Zouehe, d. 1269. 
Apr. 2. Thomas de Ippegrave. 
July 17. Stephen de Eddeville. 
Hugh Fitz Otho (again). 







Reg. Edward I. 

1272. Walter Giffard, Archbishop of York. 

1273. Dec. 18. John de Burgh. 

1274. Philip Basset. 

1275. Anthony de Bee, Bishop of Durham. 1283,. 

d, 1311. 

1280, June 2. Richard de Waldegrave, Sub- 

1283. Ralph de Dacre. 

1285, Sept. 10. Ralph de Sandwich. 

1289, Fel3. 1. Ralph Berners. 

1289, July. Ralph de Sandwich (again). 

Reg. Edward II. 

1307. Ralph de Sandwich (continued). 

1308, March. John de Crumbwell, Baron. 
1321. Roger de Synnerton. 

1323, Feb. 3. Stephen de Segrave. 

1323. Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, murdered' 

15 Oct., 1326. 

1323, Nov. 28. John de Weston. (5) 
1326, Nov. 17. John de Gisors and Richard de 

Betoigne (jointly). 

1326, Dec. 18. Thomas, Baron Wake. 

Reg. Edward III. 

1327. Thomas, Baron Wake (continued). 

1327, Mar. 11. John, Baron Crombwell. 

1328, June 12. William, Baron la Zouche, of 

Mortimer (? Deputy-Constable). 

1329, John, Baron Crumbwell, Crombwell, or 

Cromwell (again), d. 1335. 
1335, Oct. 15. Nicholas de la Beche. (6) 
1341. Robert de Dalton. 

1346, March 12. John, Baron Darcy (of Knaith), 

d. 1347. 

1347, June 7. John, Baron Darcy, son of above. 

d. 1356. 

1355. Bartholomew, Baron Burghersh, d. Aug., 1355. 
1355. Robert, Baron Morley, d. 1360. 
1361. Richard de la Vache. 

Alan de Buxhill (Buxhall or Buxhull). 

Reg. Richard II. 

1377. Alan de Buxhill (continued). 
1381, Dec. 8. Sir Thomas Murrieux. 
1387, May 9. Thomas (Holland), Earl of Kent, 
d. 1397. 

1391, July. Sir Thomas Morreux (? sou of above), 

probably Deputy. 

1392, Jan. 27. Edward (Plantagenet), Earl of Rut- 


1397, Sept. 21. Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmore- 

1397, Oct. 30. Edward (Plantagenet), Duke of Albe- 
marle and Earl of Rutland (again). 

1399. Sir Thomas de Rempston. 

(1) Geoffrey de Mandeville or Magnavilla 
is held by Dugdale and others to have been 
made the first Constable by the Conqueror ; 
and they state that the office, as hereditary, 
was occupied in succession by his son and 

(2) No mention is found of a Constable 
between 1144 and 1153, when the Tower 
was in the hands of King Stephen. 

(3) Richard de Lucie became Chief Jus- 
ticiarv and Constable of the Tower in 1153.. 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


As a faithful and valued servant of Henry II. 
he retained the first office during twenty-five 
years of that king's reign, and therefore 
probably the second. The only other Con- 
stable found named is Garnerius ( = Gamier) 
de Isenei, who may have been appointed 
after the death of Lucie in 1179. 

1224. Pandulf, the Pope's Legate (shown 
in ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' to have been mis- 
takenly identified with Cardinal Pandulf 
Masca of earlier time), is by Bayley named 
with the Constables of the Tower, c. 1224. 
But although the Legate exercised extra- 
ordinary power and influence in the troublous 
reign of John and the first ten years of 
Henry III., and was Bishop of Norwich 
from (?) 1215 to 1226, when he died, 
there are but slight grounds for assuming 
that he filled the office of Constable of the 

(4) Sir John Mansel, Treasurer of York, 
appears to have had temporary command 
of the Tower, for the King, during his con- 
tention with the Barons. (See ' Chron. and 
Mem. Gt. Brit., &c., Hen. III. : Trokelowe 
Chron.,' p. 9.) 

(5) John de Weston is omitted by Bayley. 
(See at Public Record Office, Constables' 
Accounts, Tower of London, Ed. I. Henry 
VI. Bundle 561 (slips), and ' Cal. Patent 
Rolls, 1327-30.') 

(6) Nicholas de la Beche succeeded Crumb- 
well in 1335, although William de Montacute 
(afterwards Earl of Salisbury), entered in 
Bayley's list, had shortly before a rever- 
sionary grant of the office. 


(To be continued.) 



ON the publication of ' Poems on Various 
Subjects,' in 1796, Lamb wrote to Cole- 
ridge : 

"I have read all your Rel. Musings with un- 
interrupted feelings of profound admiration. You 
may safely rest your fame on it," 

adding : 

" In reading your Rs. Musings I felt a transient 
superiority over you : I have seen Priestly. I love 
to see his name repeated in your writings. I love 
and honor him almost profanely." 

In the following year, in " Poems | 
by | S. T. Coleridge | Second Edition | 
To which are now added | Poems | By 
Charles Lamb' | and Charles Lloyd," | 

reappeared the ' Religious Musings,' with 
the lines : 

To Milton's trump 
The high Groves of the renovated Earth 
Unbosom their glad echoes : inly hush'd 
Adoring Newton his serener eye 
Raises to heaven : and he of mortal kind 
Wisest, he* first who mark'd the ideal tribes 
Up the fine fibres thro' the sentient brain. 
Lo ! Priestley there. Patriot, and Saint, and Sage, 
Him, full of years, from his lov'd native land 
Statesmen blood-stain'd and Priests idolatrous 
By dark lies mad'ning the blind multitude 
Drove with vain hate. Calm, pitying he retir'd, 
And mus'd expectant on these promis'd years, 
O Years ! the olest preeminence of Saints ! 

To the student of Coleridge, acquainted 
with Lamb's critical faculty, and knowing 
how he read and reread this poem, it must 
seem strange that the indeterminate ending 
of the lines, 

and he of mortal kind 

Wisest, he first who mark'd the_ ideal tribes 
Up the fine fibres thro' the sentient brain, 

should have escaped notice. Coleridge,, 
however, subsequently discovered the flaw,, 
and decided also that three " years " in six 
lines were just one too many. In his own 
copy of this second edition of ' Poems,' 
now before me, he has added and altered,, 
and the passage now stands : 

and he of mortal kind 
Wisest, he first who mark'd the ideal tribes 
Up the fine fibres thro' the sentient brain 
Roll aubtiy-9urffinff. Pressing on hit steps, 
Lo ! Priestley there, Patriot, and Saint, and Sage, 
Him, full of days, &c. 

The words italicized are in Coleridge's- 
autograph ; but I cannot find that this 
revision was known to any of his editors 
from Derwent and Sara Coleridge to Dykes 


Some time in the middle of the seventeenth 
century a certain benevolent " William 
Blake, of Covent-Garden, Woollen Draper, 
at the end of Maiden-Lane, in Bedford- 
Street, at the Sign of the Golden-Boy" 
such was his own designation 

" being well informed that there is a Pious, Good,. 

Commendable Work for maintaining near forty 

Poor, or Fatherless Children, Born all at, or near 

Highgate, Hornsey, or Hamstead," 

appealed to several charitable ladies to 

" engage or promise " their assistance 

" if the said Boys are decently Cloathed in Blew,. 

lined with Yellow ; constantly fed all alike with 

good and wholsom l)iet; taught to Read, Write, 

and Cast Accompts, and so put out to Trades, in> 

order to Live another day." 

* David Hartley. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 25, 

That his efforts were successful might be 
gathered from his publication of a little 
volume, without date, of 294 pp., entitled 
' Silver Drops, Or. Serious Things,' " Written 
by William Blake, House-keeper to the 
Ladies Charity-School." 

The illustrations in this volume, from 
"the butterflies to Father Time with his 
scythe and hour-glass, might be mistaken 
easily for the work of the other William 
Blake. I recollect showing the book, some 
years ago, to an acknowledged authority 
on our later song-smith and designer, 
-whose works he had edited with consider- 
able success ; and he was so puzzled 
over the matter that, having " slept on 
it," he sought at our breakfast - table 
the next morning permission to take 
the book back with him to London for 
further examination. One of the illus- 
trations is a plain line-drawing of the 
Highgate school, on the site of which was 
afterwards built the house occupied by 
the Gillmans, with whom Coleridge lived 
and died. My copy of the book was once 
the property of Gillman, and beneath his 
signature on the fly-leaf Coleridge has 
written : 

This is a very odd and very interesting Book. 
The whimsical Omnium Gatherum of the unlearned 
writer & [word indecipherable] of whatever he had 
been reading, poured out on each and every occa- 
sion, with the deep feeling of Reverence for the 
Rank & Station of those to whom he pleads, 
elevated by the evident sense of the Duty of so 
feeling, blended with the religious earnestness with 
which he enforces their duties on them, and the 
simplicity & single-heartedness over all give this 
old Book, for me, a sort of charm. I often dip into 
it ; and never without being amused. 

24 Dec 1 1829. S. T. COLERIDGE. 

Grove, Highgate. 


Two other volumes worthy of notice 
flank my ' Silver Drops ' in the book- 
case. One is the production damned by 
De Quincey as "a thing deader than 
a door-nail," to wit, Gillman's ' Life of 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge,' vol. i., " which 
is waiting vainly, and for thousands of 
years is doomed to wait, for its sister 
volume, namely volume second." But I 
would not be without it ; for it once 
rested in the Rydal Mount library, and 
it bears the autograph of William Words- 

The other is the copy of the first edition 
of ' Sibylline Leaves ' which Coleridge gave 
to his friend J. H . B. Williams. 



LONG before the establishment of the 
Bible Society many editions of the Scrip- 
tures appeared in weekly numbers, often 
supplied with notes or commentary, 
probably added for fear of trenching on the 
legal monopoly of the authorized printers. 

The Grub Street Journal of 20 May, 1736, 
contains the following curious strictures on 
this topic : 

A Censure on the Weekly Publications of the 

BIBLE by Piece-meal. 

Amongst all the licentious Practices, by which 
this Nation is distinguished, at this Time, from all 
the Nations in the World ; nothing can equal that 
audacious Liberty, which some have lately assumed 
in printing the sacred Oracles of God, without any 
Authority, or Privilege. What Care do our Laws 
take to preserve the Records of the Kingdom from 
Interpolations or Corruptions ? Nay, it is a capital 
Offence, to alter one Syllable in any Record or 
Writing that concerns our Estates. But those 
Writings, that were given by Inspiration of the 
Holy Ghost, that point out to us the Paths of 
eternal Salvation, are exposed to the Mercy of a 
8ett of Pirates, who have no other End, but tilthy 
Lucre, in their Weekly Publications of them. For 
we plainly see, or what little Efficacy an 
Injunction out of Chancery (the only Remedy in 
such Cases) is, to restrain any one from printing 
The Holy Bible? Is it credible, that a Christian 
Nation, that boasts of having the purest 
Religion in the World, should have no Laws 
to punish so atrocious an Attempt, as 
publishing the sacred Books, the Fountains of 
Truth, with Corruptions, and Imperfections ; but 
should suffer them to be mangled, retailed, and 
parcelled out, amongst the People, like any ordinary 
History or Romance ? So great was the Vigilance 
of the Jews, to prevent any _Alteration in the Books 
of the Old Testament, wnich were committed to 
the Care of the Priests and Levites, that they not 
only numbered the Words, but even the Letters. 
Whereas in this Christian Country, any Reprobate 
may assume the Privilege of printing the sacred 
Records, without Control ; ana with such Altera- 
tions as may be agreeable to his Humour or 
Caprice : So that as the Laws stand at this Time, 
the Scriptures may be altered and adulterated at 
Pleasure, and with a Sort of cum privilegip. 
Accordingly we find the Arms with G. R. at top in 
the Frontispiece of one of these pirated Editions of 
the Bible. And tho' these Editions are corrupt 
Copies of the Old and New Testament, yet one of 
them is call'd The History of the Bible, or The 
Family Companion, &c. From which false Title, a 
Stranger would no Doubt, conclude, that it was 
dangerous to print the Word of God in England 
without Disguise. And in order to carry on the 
Fraud with more Success, and to impose upon the 
Ignorant, the Editor of one of these Works has 
the Assurance to make Use of a fictitious Author 
For his Annotations, which he tells us are written 
by S. Smith, D.D. tho' it is well known, they are 
only collected from the Works of many learned 
Divines ; and this Doctor of Divinity was never 
heard of before. But the Editor thought the Name 

10 s. ix. JAX. 25, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of a Doctor of Divinity, real or imaginary, of no 
small Weight towards insnaring the Populace. 
But, what is really diverting, this imaginary Divine 
is not only indebted for his Annotations to his 
Neighbours, but even for his Peruke, which is 
taken from a Print of Rapin's by the Dexterity of 
the Engraver. So that the Word of God is ushered 
into the World with Forgery and Imposture. 

A. B. 

This essay is quoted in The London Maga- 
zine for 1736. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

MARLOWE'S ' DR. FAUSTUS.' In sc. iii. 

occurs : " Princeps Belzebub et Demo- 

gorgon propitiamus vos, ut appareat et 
surgat Mephistophilis quod tumeraris." 
The last word is considered by Dr. A. W. 
Ward as hopelessly corrupt. Prof. Gollancz 
adopts Schroer's correction, " quid tu 
moraris ? " but this interjected question in 
the midst of the magical formula is 
awkward. If spoken at all, one would 
expect it to be in English. Mitford con- 
jectured " quod numen est aeris." I would 
suggest "quod tueamur." If "tueamur" 
were written " tueaur," with a long stroke 
above the ea to indicate the m, an ignorant 
reader might read the m in the wrong 
place (under the influence of " tumeo," 
&c.), and with a little additional misreading 
produce " tumeraris." 


The University, Sheffield. 

LEVESON-GOWER, who inquired about this 
family at 8 S. xii. 187, may be glad to hear 
of a pedigree-chart recently presented to the 
Northampton Library, by which it appears 
that Marcus and Edward Rainsford were 
sons of Sir Mark, Lord Mayor of Dublin in 
1 702. The Mayor is said to have been a son 
of William Rainsford, to whom considerable 
estates were granted by Cromwell. 


GILES, CRIPPLEGATE. (See 10 S. vii. 307.) 

In " A Guide to the English Tongue by 

T. Dyche, School-Master, Stratford-Bow. 
Derby : printed by and for Henry Mozley, 
Brook-Street. 1817," is a portrait of the 
author wearing gown, bands, and full- 
bottomed wig. It is but a poor thing. 
On p. iv is an address " To the Worthy 
Members and Promoters of the Society, 
united for the Clothing and Tuition of an 
Hundred poor Boys, in the Parish of St. 
Giles, Cripplegate." In it Dyche speaks of 
"the generous legacy of 200/., left you by Mr. 
Thomas Moore, wherewith you were enabled to 
purchase a piece of ground ; the plentiful con 

;ributions you have procured for erecting the- 
Charity School and Dwelling-House for the master 
and mistress ; with that extraordinary addition of 
l,500/. from the Honourable the Lady Eleanor 
Elollis for the endowment of your Girls'-School." 

The address is dated " From Dean-Street, 
n Fetter-Lane, Oct. 27, 1709." It mentions 
" the former edition of this Guide to our 
Mother Tongue." 

The Derby edition is described as " Cor- 
ected, enlarged, and improved " pro- 
bably a reprint of the 1709 edition. 


BETLEY REGISTER. I found the follow- 
ng curious entries in this register : 

1657- "Roben Hud and Tobey dean born m 
Suting Time, and Sara dean his born in Cowcumber 
time, Joseph Dean his a very Sober Young man and 
nind the Farming Bisnis. So that His father dotea 
Sim more than Alibis Riches And says that he wil 
jy him Alitel horse he shall Ride Ana up on dobeu 

1713. " Bate Johnson his the j 
the sculmaster I" The paresh of 

iresh Clarck, And 
>etley In the Eyare- 


EGHAM REGISTER. The following from 
the register of this parish seems worthy 
of record in the pages of ' N. & Q.' : 

A.D. 1694." These are to certifie those home it 
may concern that James Home and Ruth Sturrap- 
was married hear in the p'sh Church of Egham in- 
the County of Surrey with common prayer book 
betwixt ten and a leven of the clock third of July 
in the year 1694 to this I have sett my hand my 
mr. Thos. Rightson minister being from home 
Ralp Prior Parish Clerk of the Parish Church of 

The entry is not in its proper place in the 
register, but upon a fly-leaf at the end, 
and is undoubtedly the writing of Ralph 

[It does not follow, we presume, that the clerk 
performed the service: probably some outside 
minister was employed.] 

TYRIE FAMILY. The following extracts- 
from a letter printed (not in full) in The 
Orcadian, 9 Nov., 1907, may be of interest 
to genealogists. The letter was written by 
the great-granddaughter of the Rev. James 
Tyrie, who resides at Niagara Falls, in- 
reply to an article in the above newspaper 
which had given some account of Tyrie : 

" The Rev. James Tyrie was the son of Sir David 
Tvrie of Dunnideer, near Trisch. Aberdeensnire. 
The Tyries were descended from Walter Tyrie, son 
of the Lady Egidia Stuart, daughter of "alter 
Stuart, Earl of Athole, who was a son of King 
Robert II. and uncle of James I. of Scotland. 
There were three branches of the said faniily 
Drumkilbo, Neigle. Perthshire: Dunnideer. Biichaii, 
Aberdeenshire; and Lunan, Forfarshire... 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAX. 25, im 

the early Tyries was the Chancellor of Malcolm 

Canmore's reign Several Tyries were magistrates 

of Perth. John Tyrie was Sheriff Depute of Perth, 
1456 ; another John Tyrie was a writer in Perth, 
1475, and the next fifty years was provost of the 
Collegiate Church of Methven, from 1488 to 1523. 
Another Sir David Tyrie and his successors were 
^assigned the chaplaincy of St. Barbaru, Methven. 
They were to celebrate perpetually divine service 
in said chapel for the salvation of the soul of 
James the Fourth, and for the soul of James the 
Fifth, present King of Scots ; also for the salvation 
cf the souls of all the faithful dead. Nearer our 
own time there was a John Tyrie of Dunnideer, 
a Jesuit, and a friend of Colin Campbell, brother 

to Campbell of Lochnell [Lochiel?] Tyrie and 

Campbell were together in Rome from 1735 to 1738. 
Tyrie subsequently came to Paris, and then to Edin- 
burgh. He joined the Prince as soon as he heard of 
his landing in Scotland ; followed him into England, 
and left him only after the battle of Culloden, where 
he received two wounds on the head from a sabre 
and got off with difficulty. He lay concealed for 
many months, during which time his house and 
hooks at Buochlie, in Glenlivet, were burned by 
the English soldiers. He died about 1755. Still 
another of my kin, James Tyrie, a son of Tyrie of 
Dunnideer, is said to have been born at Drumkilbo 
in 1543. He was a distinguished scholar, and was 
Professor of Philosophy and Divinity in the Jesuit 
College at Paris. Under name of George Thompson, 
he wrote a brief but learned treatise ' De Anti- 
<juitate Ecclesise Bibliothecae.' This treatise 
exasperated John Knox to publish an answer. 
Tyrie's rejoinder is pronounced to be masterly and 
argumentative. There are a few copies of the book 
still in existence, and they are rare and valuable. 
A copy was sold at Heber's sale, 10th April, 1835. 
Another copy of the pamphlet was sold several 
years ago at the late Dr. Laing's sale, and was 

"bought by Mr. Ellis at the price of 11 5* The 

Rev. James Tyrie was sent to the Scots College, 
Rome, with his tutor, and was educated for the 

priesthood abjured the Catholic faith at Elgin 

nefore sixteen ministers, and shortly after was 
given the charge of the parish of Cross and Burness 
{Sanday, Orkney]. [He] married Helen Traill, 
daughter of David Traill of Elsness and Elizabeth 
his wife, who was a daughter of Rev. Thos. Baikie 
nd Elizabeth Fea of Clestron." 

Stromness, Orkney. 


" POBT ARMS." In the latest issue of 
the ' Oxford English Dictionary ' some 
interesting quotations are given in illustra- 
tion of the word of command "Port arms," 
which was a continuation of the posture in 
the exercise of the pike. 

How did it get the name " port " ? In 
Firth's 'Cromwell's Army,' p. 393, the 
following quotation from Elton's ' Compleat 
Body of the Art Military,' 1650, is to be 
found : 

" The use of the postures of the pike The use 

of Porting was invented for the ease of the Reare 
half-Files, upon a Charge ; for the Front half-Files 
are only for to charge ; the Rear half-files in the 
meantime are to port. It is likewise very usefu 11 

at such times when the Souldiers are marching 
through a Gate, or Sally-Port ; from whence I 
conceive it doth derive its name portiny." 

For mention of the "port" of the pike 
see also the second edition of ' Military 
Discipline,' 1689, pp. 14, 22. 

The ' Complete Drill Serjeant,' second 
edition, 1798, p. 14, has a coloured print of 
a soldier in the posture " Port arms." 

W. S. 

Newmarket, Cambs, many modern red-tiled 
villas and cottages have recently sprung 
up, shaped after the old-fashioned pattern, 
with projecting eaves upon trusses or 
corbels, which form numerous small open 
compartments, each of six or eight inches 
in width. The swallow family, quick to 
perceive the advantages of such cosy nooks, 
has quite altered the architectural effect 
of these eaves. One new building near the 
station possesses about two hundred of 
these small spaces, almost all tenanted 
recently by vigorous families of martins. 

The nests so formed on the smaller cot- 
tages can be easily reached from the ground 
by a tall youth, and it is good to find that 
the birds had no reason to regret their 
confidence or temerity in choosing such 
exposed situations. WM. JAGGARD. 

" MURKATTOS " : " CAPAPS." Recently, 
while reading an old number of The Sporting 
Magazine, I noted, in an article dealing with 
the birds and beasts of Ceylon, two words 
which, I think, are not recorded by dic- 
tionaries. As they may be of some interest 
to those learned in Anglo-Indian words 
and phrases, I transcribe the passages : 

" And there are vast varieties of birds ; those 
called murkattoif by the Portuguese often steal 
young chickens." 

"Variety of fish, as capaps, plaice, crabs," &c. 
Sporting Magazine, vol. viii. p. 46 (April, 1796). 

W. J. P. 

SHUTTERS. If a Londoner, who had 
been absent from his city for forty years, 
were to return to it now one of the most 
characteristic changes would be evident to 
him in the appearance of the shops on 
Sunday. I can remember the dreary look 
of the Strand, Fleet Street, Cheapside, 
Holborn, &c., when, almost without ex- 
ception, all the shops were closed with 
heavy outside shutters, fastened by an 
iron bar. Readers of Dickens's ' Christmas 
Carol ' are familiar with his description of 
old Fezziwig's shutters. The jewellers, I 
think, were Ihe first to make an innova- 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tion by substituting iron gratings. In 
private houses, only those windows which 
opened immediately upon the footway had 
outside shutters as a rule ; but these, too, 
have now mostly gone. For the information 
of a later generation something should be 
tated of the date and origin of the change. 
Better watching and better lighting doubt- 
less contributed much. W. C. B. 

" MUSH " : " MUSH-FAKER." With many 
an umbrella is "a mush." The travelling 
mender of umbrellas is "a mush-faker." 
The umbrella is " a mush " because of the 
mushroom-like shape of the article. I do 
not think "mush" and " mush- faker " 
are very old terms, though " faker " = a 
mender, is much older. 


[Both words are recorded, with quotations, in 
Farmer and Henley's ' Slang. and its Analogues.'] 

$ S. xi. 185, 333.) At the latter reference 
we quoted virtually all that is known of 
the history of this phrase from Mr. Hazlitt's 
' Proverbial Phrases,' 1869. Supplement- 
ing that quotation, the following, from 
Norfolk to Cromwell, on 5 Aug., 1536, may 
be interesting : 

" It is further written to me that a bruit doth 
run that I should be in the Tower of London. When 
I shall deserve to be there Totynham shall turn 
French."' Cal. Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII.,' 
vol. ii. No. 233. 

F. M. H. K. 

LATTICE TONGS. Readers of ' N. & Q.' 
are well acquainted with " dog-whippers " 
and their office or duties, but the following 
deserves mention : 

" In some of the churches in Wales, a pair of 
tongs of this sort was formerly an appendage at the 
clerk's desk, and used to catch and drag stray dogs 
out by the leg." Gamble, 'Essay on Signalling, 
p. 120, note. 

The author (in 179-) is describing a system 
of telegraphing, and trying to show that 
electricity is not suitable for such a purpose. 


SPELLING REFORM. With reference to 
the recent spelling reform controversy in 
the pages of ' N. & Q.' and elsewhere, ii 
and when the proposals of the Simplified 
Spelling Board are ever generally adoptee 
in this country, some future historian may 
want to know when and where they began 
to be used. The credit, if such it be, seems 
to belong to two Wallsend journals, the 
Herald and the Guardian. An editorial 

notice appeared therein recently announc- 
.ng the adoption of most, if not all, of the 
300 new spellings in forthcoming numbers. 
Englishmen admire pluck and initiative in 
a well-meant cause, and their manifesta- 
tion in Wallsend is entitled to recognition. 

E. L. P. 

introduction to ' Esmond ' Thackeray speaks 
of a river's feeding and throwing out tribu- 
taries, instead of receiving them : 

' What ! does a stream rush put of a mountain 
free and pure, to roll through fair pastures, to feed 
and throw out bright tributaries, and to end in a 
village gutter ? " 

I do not know if attention has been 
drawn to this before. J. WILLCOCK. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them dyect. 

STANSTED PRESS. Can any reader of 
N. & Q.' furnish information as to this 
press and its founder ? I have a small 
volume of poems, the title-page of which 
reads as follows : " Poems. [Device.] Stan- 
eted: Imprinted at the Private Press, 
MDCCCXXII." It contains some eight poems, 
the first title being ' Borodino,' a poem 
"Composed on the Plains of Borodino, 
18th March, 1818," and the next, 'The 
Grave of Howard,' " Written on the Plains 
of Cherson, May, 1818." 

There is apparently no copy in the Bnti 
Museum Catalogue. A binder's ticket on a 
fly-leaf, "Bound by Jacques, Chichester, 
may serve to connect Stansted with the 
place of that name in Sussex. 


Boston, U.S.A. 

recently stopping at Fifth Avenue Hotel, 
New York, I noticed in one of the passenger 
elevators a tablet upon which was recorded 
the following : 

"In this space was erected and operated in 1859 
Tuft's vertical screw railway, the first passenger 
elevator ever built." 

This is interesting to note, as it was at 
this famous hotel that, in 1860, King 
Edward VII. (then Prince of Wales) was 
entertained. Is there any record in England 
or America of the use of elevators for pas- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. JAN. 25, im 

sengers prior to the above date ? or is 
the claim made correct ? 

South Webster Groves, Missouri. 

[The origin of the passenger lift has already been 
discussed in ' N. & Q.' One constructed for Maria 
Theresa was described at 7 S. x. 85 ; another re- 
corded by Charles Greville in 1830 at Genoa is 
referred to at 8 S. x. 412 ; while at 8 S. xi. 154 MR. 
ST. CLAIK BADDELEY quotes Seneca to show that 
lifts were used in the Coliseum. MR. BADDELEY'S 
communication is immediately followed by a quota- 
tion from The Builderloi 10 Sept., 1859, describing 
the construction of the lift concerning which our 
American correspondent now inquires. Other com- 
munications on early lifts will be found at 8 S. x. 
465 and 9 S. vi. 313.] 

In the forty -third volume of the ' Shake- 
speare Jahrbuch ' is reproduced " the newly 
discovered Shakespeare portrait, the Win- 
ston Shakespeare of 1588." Neither the 
circumstances connected with this portrait 
nor its features seem to me to give it any 
claim to be regarded as authentic ; and if 
that is so, it was uncritical in the highest 
degree on the part of the editor of the 
journal above named to present it to its 
readers without any qualification, such as 
" alleged." What is the opinion of English 
experts on this point ? and what are the 
latest publications concerning it ? 



commonly believed that Tennyson's well- 
known lines in ' Locksley Hall ' were 
borrowed from Dante. I find the same 
idea in Boethius's ' Consolations of 
Philosophy ' a work which was a great 
favourite of Dante's : presumably the 
Florentine poet drew his inspiration there- 
from. Where did Boethius find it ? He 
does not appear to me to say anything 
strikingly original. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

[The references to Dante and Boethius and the 
earlier history of the thought will be found fully 
expounded in Prof. Churton Collins's admirable 
' Illustrations of Tennyson,' pp. 62-3. He refers to 
Pindar, 'Pythian,' iv. 510-12, and Thucydides, 
ii. 44.J 

COLD HARBOUR LANE. I should be glad 
of information as to what was a Cold 
Harbour. I remember to have read that it 
means a roofless building for the use of 
travellers in the time of the Knights 
Hospitallers. The lane so called is in the 
parish of Nursling, near Southampton, and 
is in the vicinity of the old Roman road 
that crossed the river Test at Nursling. 

It is marked Cold Harbour Lane in the 
ordnance maps. F. H. SUCKLING. 


[We cannot reopen the discussion of this dis- 
puted question on which much will be found in the; 
earlier series of 'N. & Q.' See especially 8 S. xii. 
482 ; 9 S. i. 17, 50, 73, 373, 457 ; viii. 376.] 

OXFORD : ITS NAME. I recently saw a 
reference to the "false etymology" in- 
volved in the derivation of the name Oxford 
from ox -\-jord. I should like to know (1) 
on what grounds this derivation is (now) 
discredited ; and (2) what is the derivation 
substituted for it, and what are the argu- 
ments in support of it. P. T. C. 

[This, like Cold Harbour, has been exhaustively 
discussed already in ' N. & Q.' See 9 S. iii. 44, 309 r 
389 ; iv. 70, 130, 382, 479 ; v. 69, 249, 517 ; vi. 108,. 
193, 312.] 


comes this phrase ? I have searched Biblical 
concordances, but cannot find it. It must 
be ancient, as I note a Latin form of it,. 
" Viam universse carnis ingresso," in a papal 
letter of 1198. ALEX. RUSSELL, M. A. 

Stromness, Orkney. 

[The English form is iu Webster's 'Westward 
Hoe,' II. ii. : " I saw him now going the way of all 
flesh." The words in the A.V. rendering of Joshua's- 
dying exhortation to the children of Israel (Josh, 
xxiii. 14) are : " Behold, this day I am going the 
way of all the earth."] 

" BILBOCATCH." Will somebody kindly 
inform me as to the nature of this game ? 
On p. 156 of 'Jane Austen: her Homes, 
and her Friends ' (by Constance Hill, pub- 
lished 1904) the noted authoress writes (in 
1808) : 

"We do not want amusement: bilbocatch, at 
which George is indefatigable ; spillikins ; conun- 
drums and cards keep us well employed," &c. 


[" Bilbocatch " is cup-and-ball. See the ' N.E.D." 
under ' Bilboquet,' where this quotation from Jane 
Austen appears, with earlier ones from Horace 
Walpole and Maria Edgeworth. There is a special 
note on the etymology of the name.] 

PARKINSON FAMILY. I am collecting 
material for a history of the Parkinsons, 
and shall be pleased to receive pedigrees 
and historical notices of families, with 
honours conferred on members thereof, also 
biographical sketches of individuals of the 

Some time in the seventeenth century r 
probably early, a Matthew Parkinson settled 
on the lands of Ballygally, in the parish of 
Inch, co. Down ; from him are descended 
the present families residing there. I shall 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


feel indebted to any readers of ' N. & Q. 
who will assist me in the identification o 
this person. The following summary o 
traditions gathered from his descendants 
may prove helpful. He is supposed to have 
come from Cumberland or Westmorlanc 
and to have been offered the estate o 
Finnebrogue, now in the possession of Mr 
Percival Maxwell ; but thinking the under- 
taking too great for him, he took insteac 
the lands of Ballygally. He is said to have 
married a Weir (Vere) of Scotland, who hac 
a brother " Lord " Mayor of York. I am 
at present engaged on a pedigree of this 
family, and trust some of your readers maj 
be able to make clear the above. Please 
reply direct. JOHN PARKINSON. 

Kilwinning, N.B. 

Vivian's ' Visitations of Devon,' p. 218, and 
in Colby's ' Visitations of Devon ' (Harleian 
Society), p. 66, the arms of Colleton are 
given as Or, three bucks' heads couped 
proper. Colby also adds a Ridgway 

Foster, in his ' Baronetage ' for 1882, 
p. 133, states, " Arms not recorded " ; and 
goes on to say that the coat used is that 
of Ridgway. In the latter statement Foster 
is clearly in error, for the arms of Ridgway 
are Argent, on a chevron gules, between 
three peacocks' heads erased azure, ducally 
gorged or, as many trefoils slipped of the 
last. These arms of Ridgway are quartered 
by Colleton, the first Colleton marrying the 
daughter and heiress of Ridgway, according 
to the Harleian Society's 'Visitation of 
Devon ' ; and see also Ridgeway in Burke's 
' General Armory.' More recently, Debrett 
and Fox-Davies, following Foster, deny to 
Colleton the right to bear arms. 

But is not the Colleton family rightfully 
entitled to arms ? In the Harl. MS. 1163, 
which is the original Visitation of Devon, 
there is the Colleton pedigree at fo. 58 b, 
and no arms are mentioned ; but this is no 
proof, for there are very few arms tricked 
or blazoned in this MS. 

Harl. MS. 1477 contains the ' Arms of 
Baronets, 1611-1679,' and here on fo. 76b 
is a painting of 'the arms of Colleton (Or, 
three bucks' heads couped proper), and over 
it is written : " John Colleton of the Citty of 
London, esq: created Baronet ffeb: the 18 th , 

There is this further proof of their right 
to arms. In 1663 Charles II. granted the 
vast tract called Carolina to eight Lords 
Proprietors. These were the great Earl of 

Clarendon; George Monk, Duke of Albe- 
marle ; William, Lord Craven ; Anthony, 
Lord Ashley ; Sir John Colleton ; John, 
Lord Berkeley ; Sir George Carteret ; and 
Sir William Berkeley. These eight Lords 
Proprietors had a common seal, on the 
reverse of which are their eight shields of 
arms. The Colleton arms are the three 
bucks' heads, surmounted by a baronet's 
helmet, and mantling, without any crest. 
Is it likely that Sir John Colleton would 
have dared to place these arms on this 
common seal, had he not been rightfully 
entitled to bear arms ? This seal is figured 
in Harper's Monthly Magazine for 1901, 
p. 543. 

There is another curious mistake made by 
Foster. He places the Colleton baronetcy 
in ' Chaos,' at the end of his book, grounding 
it upon a statement, evidently erroneous, 
in Burke's ' Peerage and Baronetage,' that 
"the sixth Baronet is said to have married 
2 Dec., 1788, and his son, the seventh 
Baronet to have been born 22 Dec., 1783." 
Fox-Davies, following Foster, places this 
amongst doubtful baronetcies. 

I have before me a pedigree of Colleton, 
drawn up by Townsend, Rouge Dragon 
Pursuivant, in 1833, in which it is stated 
that the sixth Baronet was married at 
St. Pancras, on 3 Dec, 1778 (not 2 Dec., 
1788, as Foster), to Susanna Nixon ; and the 
seventh Baronet was born 22 Dec., 1783. 
Foster's placing this baronetcy in ' Chaos ' 
was therefore unwarranted ; a little research 
would have shown him that the marriage- 
date 1788 given by Burke, was merely a 
printer's error for 1778. W. G. D. F. 

' THE TOWN.' Apparently very little is 
known respecting this periodical, which 
was presumably issued monthly, beginning 
6 April, 1810. There is a singular omission 
of its name from the lists and chronicles 
contained in the works dealing with the 
listory of the periodical press. To such 
a writer as Alexander Andrews ('The 
Sistory of British Journalism ') it must 
lave been an unsolved riddle, probably 
dismissed as a volume of essays with a 
false suggestion of having been issued in 
5arts. But this would not be an accurate 
udgment on its character. Although 
without any indication of numbers, date 
of publication, editor, printer, price, or 
-idvertisement, the "make-up " of its pages, 
and above all the fact that each number 
n the volume before me bears the red 
lalfpenny tax stamp, are determining 
>vidences. The size (7f in. by 5 m.) 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 25, im 

provides six leaves to a part, the signa- 
tures being B to AB, with S repeated, and 
J and V omitted, in 312 pages. The set 
in the Hope Collection at the Bodleian 
has only 15 numbers. Neither the 
inauguratory address ' To the Public ' nor 
any of its pages assist the identification of 
the editor, Timothy Tickler " ; but perhaps 
this has been ascertained. At p. 310, the 
last number, it is announced that a new 
series is about to be begun as The Town, or 
Weekly Spectator, 

" containing essays from the pen of the editor, 

author of the Essays after the manner of Goldsmith 
published in The European Magazine." 
The office of the new paper was at 
16, Piazza, Co vent Garden ; but evidently it 
had no actual existence. 

The character of the contributions to The 
Town may be epitomized as dramatic 
criticism, essays, morals and " satyrical 
verse." It is the identification of some of 
its writers I am seeking, and any informa- 
tions or suggestion will be esteemed. 


39, Hillmarton Road, N. 


" Ars Nova Argutiarum Autore R. P. 

Jacobo Masenio Editio Secunda Colo- 
nise Agrippinse," 1660 (p. 151), is the follow- 
ing, near the end of cap. vi. : 
" Sic elegantissim& Bahusius. 

Non omnibus, nee nemini 

Fide, sed cui vide. 
Quod ex primo oppositorum, et ultimo allusionum 
fonte argutiam habet cum veritate parcemiali con- 

"Fide sed cui vide" appeared 10 S. i. 
87, 154, 255, as a motto on swords and as 
a motto of certain families. 

Who was Bahusius ? and what was his 

of your readers throw light upon the ancestry 
of Joseph Hume, the eminent politician ? 
I am aware that he was " of humble parent- 
age," but the surname of Hume is scarcely 
ignoble. "W. F. C. 

William May, for many years Consul-Genera 
for the Netherlands in London, was 14 May, 
1882, created by King William III. Jonkheer 
May. His sons afterwards returned to 
England and resumed their British nation- 
ality. Can any of your correspondents give 
me particulars concerning them, or their 
addresses if they are still living ? 



NQ all know how merchants in the eigh- 
eenth century made a rendezvous of a 
coffee-house named " Lloyd's," but there 
was another (an opposition) named " The 
Jerusalem," at Cornhill. Can any one tell 
me the proprietor of that, say, 1780 to 
1790? W. YOUNG. 

[Much information relating to the "Jerusalem" 
Doffee-House (but not the particulars asked for) will 
be found at 6 S. i. 62 ; 8 S. i. 258, 323.] 

reader oblige me with a reference to the 
statement by Goethe " that he could not be 
persuaded that the writer of ' Hamlet : 
would return to a village like Stratford 
after living in London" ? 


Tate Library, Brixton. 

give me the names of the father and mother, 
or any details of the family, of Sir Samuel 
Marshall, R.N., who died in 1795 ? His 
daughter Edith became Lady Barrington. 

White's Club, St. James Street, S.W. 

CASTLE RISING. This was one of the 
pocket boroughs disfranchised in 1832. 
Sir Robert Walpole succeeded his father as 
member for Castle Rising in 1700, so it was 
probably a family possession. Nowadays it 
i a rural parish with a population of 356, 
who are three and a half miles from the 
nearest post office. Can any reader explain 
why this place ever returned two members to 
the House of Commons ? The Castle itself 
is a fine specimen of feudal architecture. 
Had this something to do with a former 
importance? or was the district ever 
populous ? G. D. S. 

by whom was this title first applied to 
George Washington ? POLITICIAN. 

anything been published about these ? Are 
any of them still in use ? I have before 
me a specimen of brass, 26 millimetres in 
diameter, and bearing the legend "Orsett 
College, Essex ; est d 1804." L. L. K. 

"REVEBT." " The bridegroom elect has 
only lately reverted (to use Disraeli's graceful 
phrase) to the Roman communion " (Daily 
Chronicle, 25 Sept., 1903). Can any reader 
give the reference to Disraeli's use of the 
word, or to any other instance of it ? 

Old Ashmolean Building, Broad Street, Oxford. 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, 





(10 S. viii. 345, 415, 474.) 

NORMAN COURT, or, as it appears to have 
been originally called, " Norman's Court," 
doubtless derived its name from a family 
who were lords of the manor of West 
Tytherley in the fourteenth century. Of 
this family was Roger Norman, a wealthy 
merchant and shipowner, Mayor of South- 
ampton in 1328 and 1330, and M.P. for that 
borough in 1328, 1331-2, and 1338-9. At 
his death in March, 1349, he was found to 
have been seised of the manor of West 
Tytherley, besides other lands in Hants, 
Essex, and Suffolk ; his grandson, Giles 
Norman, then aged five years, was his heir. 
Giles died in 1362, without issue, and the 
estates were divided between his three female 
cousins : Christian, the wife of William 
Chamberlain ; Julian, the wife of Richard 
Cavendish ; and Beatrix, the wife of John de 

In the following century the Whitehead 
family is found in possession of the manor, 
but whether it came to them by inheritance, 
marriage, or purchase, I cannot say. John 
Whitehead, son of Robert Whitehead of 
Tytherley, was Sheriff of Hants in 1479. 
He died in September, 1486, and by an 
inquisition taken after his death was found 
to have been seised of "the Manor of 
Tyderley, worth 8 marks, held of John 
Barentyne, by fealty and the rent of a rose 
at midsummer," and also of the manors of 
Okeley, Estthrop, Deane, Weston Braybef, 
and Hylle, all in Hants. His son Maurice, 
aged 26 and more, was his heir. According 
to the pedigree of the family given by 
Berry in his ' Hampshire Genealogies,' his 
wife Catherine was daughter and heiress 
of Thomas Tame, and also heiress of 
the families of Conway, Hamlyn, and 

Maurice Whitehead died in March, 1497. 
His son George Whitehead, who died in 
1520, refers in his will to his " manor 
place of Tytherly " ; his wife, who was 
a niece of Archbishop Warham, was to 
have the use of it for her life. The earliest 
mention of the name of the house appears to 
be in 1612, when Richard Whitehead was 
admitted a student to the Inner Temple, as 
' ' son and heir of Sir Henry Whitehead, 
Knt., of Norman's Court, Hants." 

Sir Henry, who was knighted in 1603, was 
Sheriff of Hants in 1610 ; M.P. for South- 
ampton 1 625 ; for Winchester 1 626 ; and 
for Stockbridge 1628-9. His second wife 
was Constance, sister of Sir Daniel Norton 
of Southwick ; a very close friendship 
appears to have existed between these two 
families. Richard Whitehead, the Inner 
Temple student, was born in 1595, and 
became, during the Civil War, a colonel in 
the Parliamentary army. He was M.P. for 
Lymington 1628-9, and for Hants from 1640 
until he was secluded in 1648. In 1643 he 
was one of the chief members of the com- 
mittee appointed by the Earl of Essex for 
the Government of Portsmouth a com- 
mittee said to have been dominated by Lady 
Honor Norton, widow of Sir Daniel and 
mother of Col. " Dick " Norton of South- 

Col. Whitehead appears to have been a 
selfish and cruel man, for Mercurius Aulictis 
in August, 1643, states that he " starved two 
prisoners to death [at] Portsmouth, refusing 
their bodies the service or attendance of 
friends at their funeral." He is also reported 
to have said that " cruelty to Cavaliers was 
acceptable work to God," and that he need 
not fear even if the King should prevail, for 
that he had secured his lands, had sufficient 
to maintain him, and had taken care to have 
a friend at Court who had promised to save 
his life (Godwin's ' Civil War in Hants,' 
p. 62). 

By his wife Margery, daughter of John 
Culliford of Purbeck, Dorset, he had four 
sons and eight daughters. Henry (b. 1629), 
the eldest son, succeeded to Norman Court. 
Ho married Sarah, eldest daughter of Col. 
Richard Norton, and in 1667 was Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel in his father-in-law's Regi- 
ment of Foot ; the regiment was disbanded 
after the Treaty of Breda. He was M.P. for 
Portsmouth in 1660 ; and for Stockbridge 
from 1679 until his death in July, 1684. 
His eldest son Richard married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Anthony Keck, one of the 
Commissioners of the Great Seal, the issue 
being three children, Richard, Henry and 
Mary. Mary married in 1717 Alexander 
Thistlethwayte of Compton Valence, Dorset. 
Henry died without issue in 1721. Richard, 
the eldest son, was the last of the White- 
heads of Norman Court. In December, 
1732, on the death of his cousin Richard 
Norton (whose extraordinary will is referred 
to at 10 S. vii. 332), he claimed the Norton 
estates as heir-at-law ; but his own death 
occurred in December, 1733, before the case 
had been decided. As ho died without issue, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAX. 25, im 

the manor of West Tythorley, with the old 
manor house of Norman Court, which had 
been in the possession of his ancestors for 
well over 250 years, passed to his nephew 
Francis Thistlethwayte, who eventually also 
recovered the Southwick estates of the 

The present mansion at Tytherley is 
said to have been erected on the site of 
the ancient manor house by Robert Thistle- 
thwayte (brother and heir of Francis) 
about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Thomas Thistlethwayte, grandson of Robert, 
was Sheriff of Hants in 1806, and in Novem- 
ber of that year was elected M.P. for the 
county. There were four candidates, and 
the expenses of the election were so immense 
that Norman Court had to be sold, the 
Thistlethwaytes afterwards residing wholly 
at Southwick Priory. 

Norman Court was purchased by 
Mr. Charles Wall, whose son Charles Baring 
Wall was residing there in 1821. On his 
death in 1853 it passed to his first cousin 
Thomas Baring, and after his death in 1873 
to the late William Charles Baring. 

With respect to the nameless portraits 
discovered by MBS. SUCKLING it would be 
interesting if they prove to be members of 
the Whitehead or Norton families. One can 
hardly imagine either of the stern old 
Puritan colonels with " hair curled and 
falling to the shoulders, a point lace tie, and 
a lace ruffle " ; but it seems just possible 
they may be portraits of their children, 
Henry Whitehead and his wife Sarah Norton. 
If these portraits were left behind, as being 
of little value, by the Thistlethwaytes on 
leaving Norman Court, it may be they 
have better portraits of the same indi- 
viduals at Southwick. 

High Street, Portsmouth. 

LONGFELLOW (10 S. viii. 501). My friend 
MR. JOHN T. PAGE has reminded me that I 
have overlooked the excellent bibliography 
of Longfellow, by Mr. J. P. Anderson of the 
British Museum, which was appended to 
Prof. Eric Robertson's life of the poet in the 
" Great Writers Series," and which contains 
the works mentioned by me. The American 
correspondent to whom I applied for in- 
formation on this point probably meant that 
no official bibliography, similar to the fine 
books which have recently been devoted to 
Lowell, Hawthorne, and Holmes, had yet 
appeared. Mr. Anderson's list of Long- 
f ellow's writings is perhaps more in the j 

nature of a catalogue than of a bibliography, 
in the modern sense of the word. 

As regards ' The Waif,' I have discovered 
an entry in Mr. Charles E. Goodspeed of 
Boston's fascinating Christmas catalogue 
which seems to dispose finally of the state- 
ment in the Rowfant Library catalogue that 
only one edition of this work was printed. 
In a copy of the first edition of ' The Spanish 
Student,' 1843, is 

" inserted a most interesting document, in the 
hand of Owen, the publisher, and signed by Long- 
"Cambridge, Jan'y 4, 1844. Received of John 

I Owen two hundred and fifty dollars by his note 
and cash in full for cash part of copyright of 1st 

j and 2d Editions of The Waif, the 6th ed. of Sp. 
Student, the 8th ed. of Ballads, etc., and the 10th 
ed. of Voices of the Night. 

As the Proem ' to the collection is dated 
" December, 1844," I am inclined to think 
that the date of the document should be 

j January 4, 1845, a not unnatural mistake 
for people to make at the beginning of a 
new year. Proof, at any rate, is afforded 
that two separate editions of the book 
existed when Longfellow signed the receipt. 

Another bibliographical item in the same 
catalogue which possesses some interest is 
the following document signed by Long- 
fellow, which is inserted in a copy of the 
first edition of ' The Belfry of Bruges, and 
other Poems,' 1846 : 

" To Messrs. Metcalf & Co. Please print for 
Mr. Owen, 1000 copies of Belfry of Bruges and other 
Poems. Henry W. Longfellow, Cambridge, June 6, 

Mr. Goodspeed's copy is in the original 
illuminated paper wrappers, on which is the 
date 1845, showing, apparently, that the 
wrappers must have been prepared some 
time before the book was printed. 


I possess a bibliography of the poet, 
published by William Evarts Benjamin, 
744, Broadway, New York, dated 1885. It 
gives ' The Waif ' as published by John 
Owen, Cambridge, 1845, 16mo, pp. xiv-1-144. 

UNROOFED CARRIAGES (10 S. viii. 167, 234, 
292, 357, 414, 473). On 27 Aug., 1849, I 
travelled third class from London to Amber- 
gate, and I am certain that the carriage 
was without a roof, at all events on that 
portion of the journey which was per- 
formed on the London and North-Western 
line. My recollection is not quite clear as 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, 


to the seating arrangements, but I believe 
that the middle of the carriage was clear, 
there being only a seat round the sides 
and ends. The Railway Act, 1844 (7 and 8 
Viet. cap. 85), is of considerable import- 
ance, as it gave third-class passengers a 
statutory position, and was the origin of 
the " Parliamentary " train. Section 6 
provided that companies should run at 
least one third-class train each way on 
every day of the week except Sunday, the 
fare not to exceed one penny per mile, 
and the average speed, including stoppages, 
to be not less than twelve miles an hour. 
These trains were bound to set down and 
take up passengers at every station, and 
the carriages were to be " provided with 
seats and protected from the weather in a 
manner satisfactory to the Board of Trade." 
Section 7 enacts that companies shall be 
liable to a fine of twenty pounds per day 
for refusal or neglect to comply with the 
provisions of the Act ; whilst section 8 
gives large powers to the Board of Trade 
to dispense with some of the conditions 
contained in section 6, in return for more 
frequent trains or higher speed. These 
powers were probably largely exercised, or 
it i would have been impossible for com- 
panies to use open carriages for many 
years subsequent to the passing of the Act, 
which came into operation on 1 Nov., 1844. 

A very important return was issued in 
1845 (No. 419), in compliance with an order 
of the House of Commons dated 26 February 
of that year, giving full particulars and 
dimensions of the third-class carriages which 
had been approved or recommended by 
the Board of Trade. The return includes 
nineteen sheets of drawings of railway 
carriages to a uniform scale, showing side 
elevation, end elevation, and plan. 
Collectors of railway literature should make 
a point of acquiring a copy of this return, 
which, I am informed, is still in print. 
The price is five shillings, and it may be 
obtained from Messrs. Eyre & Spottiswoode, 
East Harding Street, Fetter Lane, E.G. 
There is also another return ordered by 
the House of Commons on 6 Feb., 1845 
(No. 19), giving particulars of the names 
of companies which have complied with 
the requirements of section 6 of the Act 
of 1844. The price of this is one halfpenny. 
There appeared in The Morning Post of 
7 and 9 Nov., 1895, two articles with the 
title, 'The Third-Class Passenger,' which 
contained much valuable information. 

An amusing article in The Illustrated 
London News of 7 Dec., 1844, p. 360 (with 

sketches by Kenny Meadows), entitled 
' Speculations on the Railways,' contains the 
following passage : 

"The rattling pig-pens upon wheels misnamed 
third-class eamcyu (before the late alterations), 
were despicable affairs with the wonderful proi>erty 
of always meeting the rain in whatever quarter 
the wind might be mowing." 

The use of the words " the late altera- 
tions " would appear to show that the 
Railway Act had already begun to produce 
an effect. R. B. P. 

The late Mr. James Paul, writing under 
the pseudonym of " The Old Portsmouth 
Native " in the Hants Notes and Queries 
(1883) re Isambard K. Brunei's inventions, 
refers to the six miles of atmospheric railway 
from Croydon to Forest Hill, which were 
completed and satisfactorily at work for 
some months about 1850. By the Act passed 
in 1846 for the Portsea District Railway, it 
was left to the option of the proprietors to 
work it either as a locomotive or atmospheric 
railway. The writer mentioned that the 
latter travelled most rapidly, and also that 
he travelled by Brunei's invention, riding in 
an open carriage that he might get a sight 
of the working ; but he found it best to lie 
down in the carriage for shelter from the 
breeze caused by its rapid movement, 
although there was not the least wind. The 
fact is also mentioned that there was a sixty- 
feet model at the Polytechnic, on which a 
person could travel. F. K. P. 

ix. 46). The pathetic appeal of W. C. B. 
caused me to look for the recipes of that 
great period of English cookery, the Com- 
monwealth. The cooks of the Protectorate 
had known the Court of Charles I., and lived 
on to practise their art under Charles II. The 
best cookery book of the Restoration seems 
to show that puddings were not in fashion, 
and that plum pudding itself was not worthy 
of mention in the English country-gentle- 
man's establishment. Mince pies, on the 
I other hand, were of eight or ten different 
kinds, and the " currants and lemon peel,' 
I put in their proper place by W. C. B., 
figure only as subordinate to the meat, 
" barbaries," and other mixed ingredients. 


ROMAN DEATH DUTIES (10 S. ix. 10). 
A legacy duty of five per cent, (vicesima 
hereditatium et kgatorum), paid by Roman 
citizens only, was in force under the Empire. 
It is usually said to have been established 
by a Lex Julia of Augustus in 6 A.D. as a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. J AS . 25, uoa 

main source of supply to the military 
treasury ; but it has been maintained that 
the tax was probably older. There was 
exemption in the case of near relatives and 
of sums under a certain amount. Allevia- 
tions were introduced by Nerva and Trajan. 
The rate was raised to 10 p.c. by Caracalla, 
and reduced to five by his successor. The 
duty had ceased to exist before the time of 
the Emperor Justinian. See Smith's ' Diet, 
of Greek and Roman Antiquities ' under 
* vicesima ' ; and Prof. Bury's 'History of 
the Roman Empire (27 B.C. 180 A.D),' 
chap. v. 7 ; chap, xxiii. 3 ; chap. xxiv. 

MB. GERISH will find the answer to his 
query in Gibbon's ' Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire,' vol. i. chap. vi. pp. 67, 68. 
In the index see under " Taxes, account of 
those instituted under Augustus." 


CASTLE (10 S. viii. 249, 333, 492). I fail to 
see how MONKBARNS proves any connexion 
between Mary, Queen of Scots, and the 
child whose body was found in the wall of 
Edinburgh Castle. Until he advances more 
definite evidence I submit that it is not 
yet conclusively established that Mary, 
Queen of Scots, left no descendants. The 
rumour that Mary had a stillborn child, and 
that a soldier's son was substituted for the 
dead prince, is on a par with the rumour 
that Cecil had murdered the Prince of 
Scotland, or caused him to be done away 
with. The finding of a child's body would 
be just as good proof in the one case as in 
the other ; yet no one seriously believes that 
canard. In such a small garrison as then 
occupied Edinburgh Castle it is extremely 
improbable that two women the Queen 
and a soldier's wife would be brought to 
bed at the same time, and delivered of their 
children with such precision that the 
soldier's son could be substituted for the 
stillborn child of Mary. Then, again, would 
not parental affection on the part of the 
soldier and his wife necessitate negotiations 
probably protracted ? In the case of Mary, 
Queen of Scots, great officers of State 
anxiously awaited news of the birth and 
presentation of Scotland's heir in the 
corridor or adjoining apartments, so that it 
would be virtually impossible to substitute 
& soldier's son for the child of the Queen. 

Another point is this : James VI. is said 
to have borne on his breast a " blood 
mark," alleged to have been caused through 
the horror of his pregnant mother at 

seeing Riccio struck before her eyes. Now 
there is a letter written on the day of the 
Prince's birth regarding this blood mark 
on the newty born child as a portent of 
evil. When James VI. died, a rumour 
was rife that he carried to the grave a 
blood mark on his breast. At the moment 
I can recover only one of the references 
to this mark ('Spanish State Papers,' IV. 
85) ; but I know that others exist. Further, 
the murder of Riccio was not effected in 
the presence of Mary. What really 
happened if we credit the original 
records was that Riccio, seeing the armed 
men enter, divined their mission, and 
caught hold of the Queen's dress, imploring 
her protection. Darnley resented this, 
and putting his arm round the Queen's 
waist swung her round out of danger, and 
held her fast. The ruffian band drew 
their daggers and struck at Riccio to 
compel him to let go his hold upon the 
Queen's dress. But it was at the head 
of the staircase in the adjoining room 
that they stabbed and dispatched him. 
Mary herself alleged that through their 
violence she and her unborn child were in 
grave danger, and as that child bore the 
imprint of his mother's horror, so did 
James VI. carry the like mark to his 
grave. Surely this is one more proof of 
the base, unchivalrous calumnies circulated 
about this unfortunate Queen. D. M. R. 

Speculations regarding the parentage of 
James VI. and I. are as fascinating as they 
are futile. Was he the son of Mary and 
King Henry (Darnley), of Mary and Rizzio ? 
or was he a mere changeling without a drop 
of Stewart blood in his veins ? Certainly 
the English Stuarts exhibited many traits 
of character in common with their supposed 
Scottish ancestors. Again, Mary was no 
weakling, and she lived in a hardy age ; 
but, if it be granted that James was her 
son, does not his horror at the sight of 
naked steel reflect the Queen's state of mind 
at Rizzio's murder, although outwardly she 
showed little or nothing of it ? One 
imagines the son of a professional soldier 
would be less susceptible to the symbolism 
of a drawn sword. Were James no Stewart, 
then not only would his male line have no 
hereditary right to the throne, but also the 
houses of Hanover and Saxe-Coburg not 
to mention the Bavarian princess would 
have reigned and be reigning over these 
realms in defiance of genealogy. 

It is strange to think that, in any case, 
those sticklers for divine right the Stewart 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, 



kings were of illegitimate origin. Robert III., 
eldest son of Robert II., the first of the line 
to ascend the Scottish throne, by Elizabeth 
Mure, was born before their marriage, for 
which a dispensation was granted in Decem- 
ber, 1347, by Pope Clement VI. Has not 
Mr. R. B. Cunninghame Graham said some- 
where that, if Robert III. were illegitimate, 
he himself on paper is Robert III. of Scots ? 
I am waiting for some ingenious person 
to suggest that James VI. and I. was really 
son of John Knox by his second wife Mar- 
garet Stewart, daughter of Lord Ochiltree, 
and kinswoman to the Queen. James and 
Knox have several points in common ; and 
the dates do not conflict, for Knox married 
early in 1564, and James was born on 
19 June, 1566. A. R. BAYLEY. 

Why, if Mary's baby died, should another 
be substituted for it ? She might have had 
other children. 

In England, France, and Germany im- 
mature and adult skeletons are sometimes 
found concealed in old buildings. For 
example, the skeleton of a child was found 
in a wall of the Old Hall at Northorpe, in 
North Lincolnshire, in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. To judge by what now remains of the 
building, it dates from about 1500, but the 
part in which the bones were found was 
probably somewhat older. 

Such burial in the fabric of buildings is 
supposed by German folk-lorists to be a 
modified survival of the heathen practice of 
immuring a living being in an important 
edifice : 

" According to Hanselmann, the use of corpses 
points to au intermediate state [between using a 
living person and an empty coffin] ; for instance, 
the little coffin, filled with children's bones, which 
was found some years ago in the foundation of the 
church at Barbeke, a building of the fifteenth cen- 
tury Wuttke mentions that when the Elizabeth 

Bridge was built at Halle in 1841, the people 
believed that a child would be needed to wall up ; 
and the saying goes with regard to the railway 
bridge in Goltschthal that a child is walled into it. ' 
See Ploss, 'Das Kind in Brauch und Sitte der 
Viilker,' i. 82, 101. 

M. P. 

ROTHERHITHE (10 S. viii. 166, 316, 374, 
514). I think MB. EDWABD SMITH may 
take it that Stow was correct in stating 
that the later Queenhithe was the ancient 
^Ethered's (Edred's) Hythe. Were I among 
my books, I should have no difficulty in 
bringing forward corroborative evidence 
upon this point ; but being abroad, I 
prefer to wait until I can " verify my 

I cannot see that MB. SMITH'S citations 
tend to prove that there were two places 
called Edred's Hithe, one on either side of 
the river. With regard to 1, I think that 
the orthographical diversities in the two 
charters of 898 and 899 are probably 
susceptible of some explanation, and wish 
that PROF. SKEAT could be induced to 
favour the readers of ' N. & Q.' with his 
view of them. 

With respect to 2, 3, 4, and 5, in which the 
name appears as Retherhithe, this spelling 
supports the suggestion which I originally 
made, and which was confirmed by PBOF. 
SKEAT. It lends no colour to the theory 
that Rotherhithe=^Ethered's Hy,the. 

As an old soldier who was studying 
fortification in the fifties, I venture to 
think that Queenhithe would have been a 
suitable place of defence for the Forum 
or Cheap, and the ecclesiastical buildings 
round St. Paul's, which in the time of 
Alfred were the only important parts of 
the City. Looking to the breadth of the 
river at Rotherhithe, and the nature of 
the projectiles at the disposal of the 
Anglo-Saxons, I consider that a fort or 
earthwork opposite the Tower (which, by 
the way, had no existence in Alfred's 
day), would have been of very little use in 
repelling the attack of an invader directed 
against the northern side of the Thames. 
Moreover, I greatly doubt whether ^Ethered's 
jurisdiction as Governor of London extended 
to the south of theThames, though Southwark 
may have possibly been included within it. 
This is an interesting historical problem 
which awaits solution. 

Grand Hotel, Locarno. 

TEENTH CENTURY (10 S. viii. 388, 474). 
It was surely Pope, not Dryden, who 
addressed to " egregkms Moore " the stanzas 
referred to by MB. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

T. M. W. 

Two POPULAR REFBAINS (10 S. viii. 327, 
435). According to King's 'Classical and 
Foreign Quotations,' p. 191, "Malbrook 
s'en va-t-en guerre," &c., refers not to the 
great Duke of Marlborough, but to Charles, 
3rd Duke, and his abortive expedition 
against Cherbourg in 1758. W. A. V. 

(10 S. viii. 450). If MR. MILES has not yet 
ascertained the name of the author of this 
work, I would suggest that he examines 
The Monthly Review for the year 1750, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 25, im 

where possibly he may find a criticism of 
the book. It has escaped my memory 
whether The Critical Review was published 
at this period. If it was, he might search 
its pages also. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

SIR HENRY DOCWRA (10 S. ix. 31, 58). 
Much information respecting Sir Henry 
Docwra's Lough Foyle expedition appears 
in the Calendars of State Papers, Ireland, 
set 9, vols. H, I, and J ; and set 10, vols. A 
and B. In Collins's ' Letters and Memo- 
rials of State,' vol. ii., he is also incidentally 
mentioned. One of the letters therein, from 
Rowland Whyte to Sir Robert Sydney, dated 
30 April, 1600, says : 

^"Sir Harry Dockray is gon at last towards 
Knockfargus. Sir Mat. Morgan, Capt. Jo. Sidney, 
Capt. William Sidney, were appointed by the Lord 
Mountjoy for La Foile, and came to Chester to 
furnish themselves of things necessary for that 
service, and are gon with Sir Harry away." 

It is stated in Carte's ' Life of Duke of 
Ormond ' : 

" Sir John Vaughan came to Ireland 1599 under 
Sir Henry Dockwra ; was governor of Londonderry 
from 1611 to his death 164& Was son of another 
Sir John Vaughan, knighted by Rob' Earl of Essex, 
L.D., July 30, 1599." 

Capt. Henry Vaughan of Buncrana, who 
had a grant of the manor of Moyre, co. 
Donegal, in 1610, is supposed to have been 
brother of the first -named Sir John. 
There was also a Capt. James Vaughan of 
Greencastle, whose son John was born in 
Derry, 29 Sept., 1636, and married Miss 
Florinda Gage. All these were probably 
related to Lady Docwra, she being Anne, 
daughter of Francis Vaughan of Sutton- 
upon-Derwent, Yorks, descended from John 
Vaughan of Porthamell, co. Brecknock. 

Closely associated with Sir Henry Docwra 
about the time of this expedition were Sir 
Basil Brooke, Sir Thomas Docwra, Sir George 
Paulett, Sir Ralph Bingley, Capt. Chamber- 
lain, Capt. John Kingsmill, Capt. Harte, 
Capt. William Wilson, Capt. John Pikeman, 
and John Wray. 

I have been informed that Sir Henry was 
the second son of Thomas Docwra of Put- 
teridgebury, Herts, by his wife Jane, dau. 
and coheir of Sir William Periam, Lord 
Chief Justice of England. 


67, Douglas Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 

I remember seeing at the Royal College of 
Physicians a MS. sheet of accounts written 
by Sir Henry Docwra which gave the number 
of men under his charge and the cost of 
provisioning them for a month, but there 

was no list of the names of those accom- 
panying him. W. R. B. PRIDE AUX. 
Reform Club. 

His mother's name was Dorothy, and she- 
was living in February, 1592, at Shoreditch 
(CaJ. S.P. Dom. 1591-4,' 193). Now 
Dorothy, dau. of John, Lord Hussey, mar- 
ried Edmund Dockwray (Dugdale's ' Baron- 
age,' ii. 310, as corrected Coll. Top. et Geneal. r 
ii. 192), who was a gentleman of Berkshire 
(Strype's ' Parker,' iii. 121). If these are 
the first Lord Dockwra's parents, as seems 
not unlikely, the following from Strype's 
' Ann.,' III. i. 406, under 1584, will probably 
refer to him : " Mr. Dockwray's son, of 
Chamber-house in Berkshire, was arraigned 
for stealing a portmanton, with 84Z. in the 
same ; taken out of an inn in London. But 
he was acquitted. ' ' The form ' ' portmanton ' ' 
is not recognized in ' The Century Dic- 

As to Wm. St. George, one of Sir Henry's- 
companions who met his death in Ireland, 
see Coll. Top. et Geneal., vi. 97. 


CREMATION IN 1769 (10S. ix. 10). Before 
the secularization of the cemetery of 
St. George's, Hanover Square, in the 
Bayswater Road, I transcribed the follow- 
ing inscription, which I found on a large 
kind of choragic monument close to the 
door of the chapel : 

Honoretta Pratt. 

Honourable John Pratt, Treasurer of Ireland. 

Brookes of York. 

20 September, 1769 1 

This monument was renewed by her kinsman 

And on the reverse side : 

This worthy woman, believing that the Vapours ! 
arising from Graves in the Churchyards of 
populous citys | may prove harmful to the 
inhabitants, and resolving J to extend to future 
times as far as she was able | that Charity and 
Benevolence which distinguished | her thro' life, 
ordered that her body should be burnt | in 
hope that others would follow the example : a- 
thing | too hastily censured by those who did 
not inquire her motives. 

Honoretta Pratt was the daughter and 
eventual heir of Sir John Brookes, Bart., 
of York, and wife of John Pratt, of London 
and of Dublin, Esq., Treasurer of Ireland. 
Their daughter Mary, born in 1706, married 
in 1722 Sir George Savile of Thornhill and 
Rufford, 7th Baronet. M.P. He died 1743. 

The slabs of the above-mentioned monu- 
ment will probably be still found lying on 
the ground under the wall furthest from the 
chapel attached to the burial-ground ; but 
the inscription, which was in a decayed 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


state when I copied it, is by now, in all 
probability, completely obliterated. 


28). The founder, if not the president, of 
this, one of the earliest friendly societies in 
the kingdom, was Mr. Richard Locke, sur- 
veyor of the parish. He published 'The 
History of Burnham Society,' Bristol, 1774, 
containing its rules " for the assistance of 
poor persons when sick or old." These are 
reprinted in ' Neate's Illustrated Burnham,' 
edited by Joseph R. Churchill, B.A., 1903. 
natus Bruehamiensis. 

Streatham, S.W. 

MESWINDE THE FAIR (10 S. ix. 8, 54). 
A comparison of the early editions of the 
* Flores Historic' (1567, 1570, 1601) shows 
that Burton used the editio princeps of 
1567 in which the story in question begins 
on p. 298 ("fol. 298" of Burton's margin). 
Burton has followed the version of the song 
-given on p. 299, col. 1, 1. 10, except that 
he divides it into lines, and quotes 
" Ducebatque secum " instead of " ducebat 

In Luard's critical edition of the ' Flores * 
(Rolls Series) the text of the song (vol. i. 
p. 531) is: 

Equitabat Bovo per silvam frondosam, 
ducebat sibi Merswyndeu t'ormosam ; 
quid stanms, cur non inius ? 

The editor points out (vol. i. Introd., 
p. xxxvi) that the story was taken by the 
compiler from Matthew Paris, who had it 
from William of Malmesbury, but that the 
words of the song are an addition given by 
one authority only (the Merton MS. at 
Eton). He is unable to indicate the source 
from which they are taken. 

Matthseus Westmonasteriensis appears to 
be a mediaeval Mrs. Harris, the ' Flores ' 
having been "partly compiled and partly 
composed by various writers at St. Albans 
nd Westminster " (see Luard's intro- 
ductions and Matthew Westminster in the 

In the text of the 'Anatomy ' from which 
MR. CURRY has copied, there is an error 
where Burton is made to say " that they 
might all three sing and dance." As we 
have heard just above of " a company 
of young men and maids," there must have 
been at least two maids with two men 
" to give a hand to each." As a matter of 
fact, the 'Flores' (1567 ed.) give twelve 
men and three women. "Three" (in 

Burton) should of course be there. The 
misprint first appeared in the fifth edition 

t ' There are several particulars in the 
pretty story " which Burton does not give 
us. The priest's daughter was among the 
dancers. She with two others expired when 
the twelve months' end brought release from 
the curse. The rest, one is not surprised to 
learn, slept for three days and nights. 

The reference to Burton should be 
Partition III. sect. ii. memb. 3, subs. 1, or 
strictly the subsection should be omitted, 
as the member is not subdivided. The error 
of numbering the member as 4 is due to a 
blunder of ed. 6 (1651-2), which has been 
largely copied in subsequent editions (see 9 
S. xii. 63, col. 1).* Shilleto's edition numbers 
the member correctly. 


University Coll., Aberystwyth. 

SCOTT ILLUSTRATORS (10 S. vii. 10, 74, 
130, 176). The three letters of James 
Skene referred to in my reply at the last 
reference are printed at length, with a few 
explanatory notes, in Chambers'a Journal 
for November (part 119), p. 733. 


39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

ST. MARTIN'S LANE (10 S. viii. 430). Your 
correspondent A. C. H. will no doubt find 
the name of the landlord of this hotel in the 
rate-books of the parish of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields at the Town Hall of that parish, 
if they are still in existence. C. MASON. 
29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

ix. 29) : 

Ye shepherds, tell me, have you seen 

My Flora pass this way ? 

are the words of an old glee, which I heard 
sung some sixty years ago. I possess a copy. 
The title-page has upon it : 

" The Wreath. A Pastoral Glee for three Voices, 
composed by I. Mazzinghi. London ; printed by 
(Moulding, D'Almaine, Potter & Co., 20, Soho 
Square ; and to be had at 7, Westmorland Street, 
There is no date. WALTEB W. SKEAT. 

"TYE" (10 S. ix. 29). The answer is to 
be found in that carefully neglected book, 
the ' English Dialect Dictionary.' That work 
gives five spellings of' it, mentions five 

*In making the note at this reference I was 
unfortunately unable to speak from an exhaustive 
knowledge of the various eaitions. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. JAN. 25, im 

counties, gives four examples and the ety- 
mology, and actually lefers to ' N . & Q.' 
itself, which it quotes thrice ! 

I have often expressed the wish that corre- 
spondents, when asking questions, would 
kindly refrain from guessing at the etymology 
of a word which they admit that they do 
not understand. Why should the unfor- 
tunate responder be put to needless trouble ? 
Of course the guess is entirely wrong : the 
word tye is wholly innocent of dealing with 
whipping - posts. The ' E.D.D.' refers us, 
correctly, to the A.-S. teah, a bond, an en- 
closure. It sometimes meant a croft, or 
small field, because it was enclosed, at one 
time or other, with a fence or " tie." 

Toller's ' A.-S. Diet.' has A.-S. teah in a 
third sense, that of a coffer or casket. This, 
if it be the same word, has been affected in 
sense by the Late Latin teca, the same as 
tkeca, Gk. OrjK-r), whence the O. French and 
M.E. teye, a coffer, from a different root. 

From the A.-S. teah was made, with muta- 
tion of the vowel-sound, the verb figan, 
Mod. E. tie, verb, to bind ; and the vowel of 
this verb has given the forms tye and tie to 
the modern sb. The A.-S. tun-tlh occurs in 
Birch, ' Cart. Saxon.,' i. 455 ; and tig-wella in 
the same, iii. 223 ; neither of which is in the 
A.-S. dictionary. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

In a document which I have seen relating 
to one of the Sheriffs during the Lord 
Mayoralty of Alderman Birch, originator of 
" Birch's," the pastry-cook's so well known 
in the City, mention is made of fees for 
whipping a malefactor behind the cart-tail 
to the "Hop and Tye " Inn, Old Brompton, 
which is now called the " Hoop and Toy " 
a perversion of the original name. The 
present public-house stands at the junction 
of Old Brompton Road, Cromwell Place, 
and another road, close to South Kensington 
Station. I have always understood that 
" tye " meant a piece of land where three 
roads met. F. W. R. GARNETT. 

Wellington Club, Grosvenor Place, S.W. 

" Tye " is evidently a form or abbreviated 
spelling of " tigh," a close or enclosure, a 
croft, a word which, when Cowel wrote his 
' Interpreter,' was still used in Kent in that 
sense (v. ed. 1701 ; also E. Phillips's ' Diet.', 

(10 S. ix. 47). Owing to an error, I 
have stated that Jacob Larwood's ' Story 
of the London Parks ' does not give the 
name of the person who insulted Lady 
Coventry, whereas it should have been stated 

that his name was given in full. See ' The 
Story of the London Parks,' published by 
J. C. Hotten, ii. 198-9. 


(10 S. viii. 509; ix. 33). The translation of 
Uhland's ballad, 

Many a year is in its grave, 
is by Sarah Austin. Mangan also did one r 
but it does not compare with hers. 



A Bool: of Greek Verse. By Walter Headlamv 

(Cambridge, University Press.) 
MR. HEADLAM'S translations are of the highest 
rank, and his book is of exceptional interest in two 
ways. He translates both from and into Greek* 
and in an introduction he explains with admirable 
lucidity and taste the principles which have guided 
him in the exercise of a charming, if somewhat 
neglected art. We thus see the way in which 
a master has attained his powers after long study, 
and we have an opportunity of realizing the close- 
ness of thought and feeling which often exists 
between ancient Greek and modern languages. A 
classical scholar ought also to be a good English 
scholar, but the combination is rare, and in this 
book we have affinities pointed out which will 
surprise and delight the man of cultivation. Heine's 
lyrics are obviously like Greek epigrams, but Mr. 
Headlam was the first man to pulblish such read- 
ings of the German in 1904. The present reviewer 
had made similar attempts some ten years before, 
but not worthy of publication, and has also pointed 
out the affinity of Ruskin to Plato, which he 
believes to be more innate than the result of con- 
scious study by the English master of prose. On 
the use of the word " untranslatable " Mr. Headlam 
has an interesting passage, and he wisely avoids 
passages un-Greek in feeling, which are often set 
by tutors, and result in brilliances which would 
floor the cleverest of Athenians in an age when 
literary understanding reached probably the highest 
level in the world. Greek choruses are, we believe, 
beyond the modern translator, who has to amplify 
and weaken his renderings. Thtis, amid much that 
is admirable, the opening of the version here of the 
second chorus in the ' Antigone,' 

There are marvellous wonders many 
Wherever this world we scan, 

Yet among them nowhere any 

So great a marvel as man, 
is weak and diffuse. 

A pleasant feature of the volume is the inclusion 
of Campbell's version of 'Hybrias the Cretan,' 
which survives as a popular song to-day, the 
original being, perhaps, of the seventh century B.C. 
It is an admirably spirited piece of work, a survival 
of the fittest, and, by an accident, does not figure 
in the Index. Notes at the end display a wealth of 
classical learning which is closely concerned with 
real life. Thus it is noted that " the hue of pallor, 
white in Northerners, and ashy in the negro, is in 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, 



olive complexions yellowish or greenish. Here 
Elizabethan English, with its " green sickness, 
affords a parallel, and the jealousy of love, which 
may well be the sentiment of Sappho s poem 
referred to, is in English tradition yellow or green. 
The special felicity of Mr. Headlam's versions is 
their effective brevity. He is no slave of the 
" verbum verbo " rule, and he makes occasional 
modifications or omissions of adjectives -which are 
fully justified by the spirit of the languages con- 
cerned Some years since he published a hook ot 
English renderings from Meleager, of which he now 
speaks with undue deprecation, and he has the 
knowledge and command of idiom which produce 
the best translator. Knowledge alone leads to mere 
repetition of familiar Greek phrases, which are 
often worried into new settings and secure plenty 
of marks in examinations. The mature scholar 
writes what he thinks a Greek would have written 
is helped, but not bound, by the reminiscence ot 
a line of ^schylus or Sophocles in rendering, say, 

Shakespeare. *.!. r< i 

Though his iambics are excellent, it is in Greek 
hexameters that Mr. Headlam specially excels, a 
form of verse which few classical scholars have 
practised. We give his version of the Odi et 
amo" of Catullus ! 

T' Zpapai re. TroOev, < 

Tracr^w ; f 

QVK 018' c38e 8 > X {I>V ^ a Ka ' aX vv / iVOS< 

There are many more translations which deserve 
quotation, and we commend the choice of English 
metres throughout. Incidentally Mr. Headlam s 
work can be compared with that of other well- 
known scholars, and he has stated his reasons tor 
disapproving the popular version of Callimachuss 
epigram on Heraclitus by the author of lomca. 
Meleager's exquisite tributes to Hehodore have been 
often englished. We wonder how long it will be 
before an English publisher gives us a full text of 
the 'Greek Anthology,' and we have sometimes 
thought that a syndicate of those who Joye Greek 
might produce it propms sumptibus. Stadtni 
is we believe, proceeding slowly with one in 
Germany, but we have still to rely on the excellent, 
but now somewhat antiquated commentary ( 

Ja Mr bS Headlam's book has given us great pleasure 
It is compact of "literature and delight, to use a 
happy phrase of our late editor, and shows, amid 
the changes of times schools and 'a* 10 ;.* 
persistence of essential elements in that highest 
form of human expression which is called poetry. 

Immortal Memories. By Clement Shorter. (Hodder 

& Stoughton). 

MR. SHORTER, in a modest preface, tells us that 
these ' Immortal Memories' are addresses deli vere 
"at the request of various literary societies and 
commemorative committees They amused me to 
write, and they apparently interested the audie ces 
for which they were primarily intended. 
Sto his brother journalists that they are not for 
them "to read, nor for the judicious man of letters. 
He prefers to think that " they are intended solelv 
for those whom Hazlitt styled 'sensible P~g* 
" The most sensible people to be met w ith ir . 

we like his book and have spent an enjoyable 
evening over its contents, and we feel sure that 
others will do the same and be glad to have on their 
shelves these bright essays. 

The first is oh Dr. Johnson, in which Mr. Shorter 
maintains that ' Rasselas,' ' The Lives of the Poets,' 
and the ' Prayers and Meditations ' make it clear 
that Johnson still holds his place as one of our 
greatest writers ; and he asks : " What novelist of 
our time would not give much to have so splendid 
a public recognition as was provided when Lord 
Beaconsfield, then Mr. Disraeli, after the Abyssinian 
Expedition, pictured in the House of Commons 
' the elephants of Asia dragging the artillery of 
Europe over the mountains of Rasselas ' ? " 

The next essay is on Cowper, about whom, it will 
be remembered, we had some articles at the time of 
the centenary celebration. Mr. Shorter claims for 
the poet that " he anticipated Wordsworth alike as 
a lover of nature, as one \vho had more than a 
superficial affection for it the superficial affection 
of Thomson and Gray," and as a lover of animal life. 
The third essay is on George Borrow, and the 
fourth on Crabbe, of whom Mr. Shorter truly 
says that he " has been the least read for the 
past sixty or seventy years of all the authors 
who have claims to be considered classics." 
Mr. Shorter refers to Scott's request in his last 
illness, " Read me some amusing thing read me a 
bit of Crabbe " ; and we all remember his comment, 
" Capital excellent very good." It will also be 
recalled how Fox on his death-bed requested that 
the pathetic story of Phoebe Dawson should be read 
to him ; "it was?' we are told, "the last piece of 
poetry that soothed his dying ear." 

The other addresses are on the literary associa- 
tions of East Anglia, Dr. Johnson's Ancestry, and 
Ferdinand Lassalle. Mr. Shorter has bestowed 
care on the collection of his facts, and the 
affection with which he evidently regards the 
"Immortals" adds much to the charm of this 
well-printed volume. 

The Literature of Roguery. By Frank Wadleigh 

Chandler. 2 vols. (Constable & Co.) 
PROF. CHANDLER has come with adequate prepara- 
tion to this study of roguery in literature, since he 
has already written a treatise on the picaresque 
novel in Spain. The odd tendency of modern 
American research to ally itself to Teutonic schools 
is shown in this book. Prof. Chandler has dug 
like any Dryasdust, but fortunately his style is 
limpid and direct, and not crabbed and crooked. 
He is full of authorities ; and not the least valuable 
part of his work consists of his copious bibliography 
and his admirable index. From the point of view 
of literary criticism there is something to be desired 
in his accounts of various books and tendencies ; 1 
we could not have been presented with a more 
conscientious and elaborate monograph. His reftdug 
has been wide so wide as to astonish one. He has 
even gone to the length of keeping himself aw rowrow/ 
with modern pictures of some lesser literary cha- 
mcters. He W pages on the developments of 
'Raffles,' and a chanter on 'Sherlock Holmes. In 
this some may well see alack of l^rspectu e , 
Prof. Chandler would probably retort that he is not 
necessarily dealing with literature as such, but 
treating of literary material. Names which will 
be unknown to letters in a few years Wf hj"; 
but it is possible that they have their place as con- 
nectives. Prof. Chandler, in short, ranks on the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. JAN. 25, 

sociological side of literature, like the Germans 
One can hardly conceive of a measured English 
treatise dealing with this miscellaneous jungle so 
dispassionately. The book, which is one of a valu- 
able series, will, however, remain valuable, as a 
mine to delve in for future reference. 

Beechen Grove Baptist Church, Watford: Memo- 
rial* of Two Hundred Years and More. By the 
Rev. James Stuart. (Kingsgale Press.) 
MR. STUART in this modest volume of under two 
hundred pages contributes a useful addition to the 
history of the Free Churches. He has discovered 
that there were Baptists in Watford as far back as 
1669, and traces the present church to the Baptist 
church in Horselydown in 1649. Its successor was 
known as Carter Lane, the predecessor of new Park 
Street and the Metropolitan Tabernacle. Occa- 
sional preachers at the old Watford church were 
Spilsbury, Hansard Knollys, and Reach, the last of 
wlhom suffered in the pillory. "He was the first 
minister who introduced, or reintroduced, the 
practice of congregational singing. The custom had 
been generally discarded, as its observance would 
have played into the hands of the informers by re- 
vealing the ' Separatist ' meeting-places. So accus- 
tomed had our ancestors become to the habit of 
' songless worship ' that Keach and those who 
.agreed with him were regarded as innovators." 
Keach first obtained consent to the practice of 
singing at the close of the Lord's Supper ; later 
it was extended to thanksgiving days, and after 
many years to every Lord's day, but only when 
prayer and sermon had been concluded. The pre- 
judice against singing during service lasted until 
the early part of the nineteenth century, and at 
-one church members who objected to singing would 
walk into the chapel yard and there remain until 
the hymn was finished, returning then to their 

We should like to see more such histories as Mr. 
Stuart has given. We already have had an his- 
torical account of Dob Lane Chapel. Failsworth, 
by Mr. Gordon. Humphrey Barnet was minister 
there in 1642, and not only himself signed the 
protestation prepared by Pym, Hampden, Falk- 
land, and Selden, but also his chapel reeve, con- 
stables, and the members of his flock. A far more 
.ambitious volume is Godfrey and Ward's history of 
the Friar Lane Baptist Church, Nottingham, a 
handsome royal 8vo volume beautifully illustrated 
with portraits and views. This church is asso- 
ciated with Carey and the founding of the Baptist 
Missionary Society. We should much like to see 
a Baptist Historical Society on the lines of that 
established by the Congregationalists, to which Dr. 
Crippen so ably contributes. There must be stores 
of material at the Baptist Church House, notably 
among the presentations made by the late Dr. Angus 
irom his library. 

The Literary Year-Book for 1908 (Routledge) has, 
as we noticed last year, a special value for all who 
are concerned with public libraries and their work, 
and deals once more with a great variety of sub- 
jects. The 'Directory of Authors' is useful, but 
has hardly been subjected to sufficient supervision 
by a practised hand. No doubt, in some cases 
even in the present age authors are too idle, or 
modest, to supply the requisite information ; but 
there are other signs that this list has not been 
revised with due care. About the new list derived 

therefrom of writers divided into special sections 
we are doubtful. It may aid some inquirers after 
special knowledge, but it is no adequate guide to 
the scholarship of this country. That many of the 
eminent whose names we miss would have no time 
to assist editors is possible, but their books entitle 
them to a place in a representative volume, unless 
its purpose is mainly journalistic. The omission, 
for instance, of Prof. Dill's name in any list of 
writers on Roman History, and of Prof. W. R. 
Morfill's under Russian History, is serious. Under 
Japanese History one name only is given, though 
books on that subject have of late been numerous. 
A heading called 'Introspection' contains six 
names. Mr. Chesterton is, it appears, a humourist, 
but not a journalist. The list of cheap reprints is 
useful, and shows the wonderful opportunities 
afforded by modern enterprise. There are, for 
example, several entries under ^schylus and 

The Writing of English. By P. J. Hartog, with the 
Assistance of Mrs. Amy H. Langdon. (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press.) 

THIS is a remarkable little book, worthy of the 
attention of all educational authorities. Mr. Hartog 
points out that the French boy can write French, 
but the English boy cannot write English. Indeed, 
he brings forward abundant evident of the slovenly 
way in which a young English clerk writes, or 
attempts to write, a business letter. He contends, 
we think with justice, that the average English 
teaching of English is, in many ways, absurd. 
Examples are given of the improved methods 
which he has himself tried with success, and which 
are largely founded on study of French models. It 
is shown that boys are interested in the discussion 
and criticism of their own essays, even without the 
aid of marks. 

The book is not only practical, but also enter- 
taining in its insight into the faculties of the young. 
The notes on the arrangement of matter, choice of 
detail for insertion, and style in general are all 
interesting, and would be enlightening to many 
purveyors of "journalese." With the list of 
English writers to be followed as models of style 
we are in hearty agreement. 

to Corrfspon&ntts. 

We must call special attention to the following 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WB cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

R. V. NANSON (" Like some poor, nigh-related 
guest"). Coleridge, 'Youth and Age.' 

F. W. ("Jeremy Taylor"). The first edition of 
the ' Holy Living 1 appeared in 1650, and the first 
of ' Holy Dying ' in 1651. The ' D.N.B.' says of the 
latter : " Two issues with different title-page same 

CORRIGENDA 10 S. viii. 204, col. 2, 1. 22, for 
"voifread vort. P. 517, col. 2, 1. 22 from foot, 
for "nomismata" read numismata. 

10 s. ix. JAN. 25, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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io s. ix. FEB. i, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 214. 

NOTES : Latin Pronunciation, 81 ' Dictionary of 
National Biography: Epitome,' 83 "The Bookseller,' 
1858-1906, 85. Dickensiana : Railway Lights Cardinal 
Erskine " Death-Hunters " : "Death Money," 87. 

QUERIES :-" Prize ": its History, 87 "The Spiritual 
Quixote' and Smollett The Icknield Way "Bulge- 
warium " " Quires, and Places where they Sing," 88 G. 
Auld : London Booksellers Stationing Relics Medal of 
1555 Arnold and Rhodes Families Dockwra=Brockett 
Commonwealth Laws, 89 Gainsborough on Portrait 
Painting Piccini's ' La Schiava ' Dobb Park Castle- 
Wine used at Holy Communion" Fusil "Old Pewter- 
Edward Death, 90 Achesons of Ayrshire, 91. 

BEPLIES : Provengal Folk-Songs ' ' Hackney," 91 
"The Philobiblion,' 92 Wordsworth and Browning 
"Billycock," 93 Hamilton Place " Bidaxe," a Farm 
Tool" Cloisterer "Calendar Rimes, 94 Mince Pie and 
Plum Pudding Lyndhurst's Marriage Act, 95 "Nigh 
hand" The Treaty of Tilsit: Colin A. Mackenzie- 
Motherhood late in Life College H^raldique de France, 
36 Polly Kennedy: Polly Jones Pre-Reformation 
Tabernacle Chantry at Northiam, 97 'Kitty Fisher's 
Jig '' British Biography' of the Eighteenth Century- 
Alexanders of Ireland Sir Richard Weston, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' Archseologia JEliana ' Burke's 
Peerage Lodge's Peerage 'The Reliquary ' ' The 
Clergy Directory.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


A PAPER entitled ' Regulations for 
"Secondary Schools ' has been recently issued 
by the Board of Education (Circular 555, 
Wyman & Sons, price Id.), in which rules 
are given for the pronunciation of Latin. 
The recommendations, or one might almost 
say the commands, of the Board are based 

"'the scheme of reformed pronunciation adopted 
by the Classical Association, and approved by the 
Philological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge, the 
Head Masters' Conference, the Incorporated Asso- 
ciation of Head Masters, and the Assistant Masters' 

and it is hoped that the rules, which are 
subjoined, " will be in general use not later 
than the beginning of next school year," 
' of course among the junior classes or lower 
forms as a commencement. On p. 2 we read, 
not without amusement, that 

"the Board have to point put that if, as seems 
likely, a standard pronunciation becomes within a 
few years practically universal, those who have not 
become used to it at school will be placed at some 
disadvantage. It is therefore very desirable that, 
even at the cost of some temporary additional 

effort, they should become accustomed to the use of 

while stm learning 

This is what is called a hysteron-proteron, 
or rather, as logicians say, a petitio prin- 
ciptt, which has been defined as " the fallacy 
of begging the question a taking for granted 
in argument of that which has yet to be 
proved." If any meaning can be extracted 
from this confused phraseology, it is this : 
a standard pronunciation will probably 
become universal in a few years' time ; let 
it therefore be adopted at once ! 

What does this big word " universal " 
mean ? Is it confined to Great Britain 
and Ireland ? or does it include in its proper 
signification the countries of Europe, such 
as Germany, France, and Italy, not to speak 
of the United States of America, over all 
of which the British Board of Education 
has no more control than the man in the 
moon ? I take it that this ukase is meant 
to apply only to English secondary schools: 
and as regards the pronunciation of the 
Latin vowels, and, with some reservation, 
of the diphthongs, I should gladly welcome 
its reception. These for centuries we have 
pronounced in our own insular fashion, and 
have gone against the European custom 
in such a way that those of our own nation 
who were well acquainted with Latin have 
had much ado to make themselves under- 
stood on the Continent. Strype tells us, 
in his ' Life of the Learned Sir Thomas 
Smith,' who attempted the reformation 
of Greek pronunciation, that, 

" being abroad, he took notice of the different ways 
of speaking Latin ; which, although he did not 
like, especially the French, who sounded Latin very 
corruptly, yet he conformed himself to their manner 
of speech. And when he came into Italy, he fol- 
lowed them there in pronouncing sonie letters 
different from our way ; as when he came home he 
returned to speak as his countreymen did." Ed. 
London, 1698, p. 20. 

Vigneul-Marville, in his ' Melanges d'His- 
toire et de Litte"rature,' from which Isaac 
D' Israeli has borrowed much without 
acknowledgment in his ' Curiosities of Litera- 
ture,' writes thus : 

"La prononciation des Anglois n'est pas moins 
dure que leur langage : mais ils sont insuportables 
quana ils prononcent le Latin. Le savant Hubert 
Languetdans les Lettres Latines qu'il tut 
Philippum SydncRum, jeune Seigneur Anglois, lui 
recommande sur tout d'apprendre dans les Colleges 
d'Allemagne, oil il e"tudioit alors, a bien prononcer le 
Latin, les Anglois ayant ce de"faut d'affecter dans 
leur langue meme une tres-me'chante prononciation. 
L'usage de la Langue Francoise et de la Langue 
Italienne, sert un peu a les redresser, comme cela 
se remarnue dans ceux qui out demeuriu quelque 
terns en France et en Itahe." Ed. 1702, vol. i. p. 29 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. FEB. i, 

When in Italy, more than forty years 
ago, I was told by those who knew that John 
Henry Newman, afterwards Cardinal, could 
scarcely be understood when speaking in 
Latin on account of his pronunciation of the 
vowels. It will, therefore, be a great gain 
if the sounding of these letters which pre- 
vails throughout Europe should be adopted 
in England, which is the chief exception. In 
Ireland the Catholic clergy have always 
adhered to the continental system ; and 
in Scotland, before the days of George 
Buchanan, and even up to our own time, 
the same pronunciation has been, and is 
still, followed, as I am informed. The words 
that Sir Walter Scott puts into the mouth 
of James I., in the ninth chapter of ' The 
Fortunes of Nigel,' are as true now as when 
they were supposed to be uttered. " We 
keep," says the King, 

"the genuine and Roman pronunciation, like other 
learned nations on the Continent, sae that we hold 
communing with any scholar in the universe, who 
can but speak the Latin tongue ; whereas ye, our 
learned subjects in England, nave introduced into 
your universities, otherwise most learned, a fashion 
of pronouncing like unto the 'nippit foot and 
clippit foot' or the bride in the fairy tale, whilk 
manner of speech (take it not amiss that I be round 
with you) can be understood by no nation on earth 
saving yourselves; whereby Latin, quoad Anglos, 
ceaseth to be comnttmu lingua, the general drago- 
man, or interpreter, between all the wise men of 
the earth." 

As regards the diphthongs,! doubt whether 
" oe (poena)=o+e, nearly as oi in boil, 
not as ea in Dean, nor as ay in plat/," will be 
universally received, but I do not object to 

But it is a very different matter when we 
come to the consonants. We are told that 
" c, g, t, s, are always hard," which means 
that we must henceforth pronounce . them 
hard, and that, if the same system of pro- 
nouncing Latin is to become universal, all 
other nations will in time do likewise, ne 
Scotis guidem exceptis, nee ne excipiendis. 
This is the subject I wish especially to bring 
before the readers of ' N. & Q.,' not only 
over the Border, but on the Continent. It 
seems impossible to believe that Italians, 
Frenchmen, Germans, or Spaniards, not to 
mention others, will ever try to tune their 
throats to such a sound as this. If we take 
the first letter c, which must always be hard 
according to the new ukase, what are we 
to say about such a word as " Cicero " ? 
"It is generally admitted," writes Hove- 
lacque (' The Science of Language,' trans- 
lated by Keane, London, 1877, p. 221), 

"that before the vowels a, o, u, and before con- 
sonants, the Latin c has the same sound as k ; but 

what was the pronunciation before e and i ? Did 
it sound like ch, as in Italy, or like ts, as in Ger- 
many, or like s, as in France [and England] ''. Did 
the Latins say Chichero, Tsitsero, or Sisero ? " 

Then, because the Goths turned " career " 
into karkara, for an example, and the Latins 
represented by c the Greek K, he concludes 
that the former was sounded hard " down 
to the sixth or even seventh century of our 
era." I am not inclined to accept the 
Goths as my teachers in pronunciation, 
nor am I willing to believe that the Greeks 
sounded their kappa hard before the 
vowels e and i. " On sait les disputes et 
les haines soulevees a propos de la pronon- 
ciation reelle de lalettre[A;," says Alphonse 
Karr (' Voyage autour de mon Jardin,' 
Lettre xxix.). It comes to this that the 
learned are no more certain about the sound 
of the Latin c before e and i than they are 
about the sound of the Greek K before the 
same vowels. Plutarch and Longinus, it 
is true, call the Roman orator KiKtpwv, but 
as they do not use the same Latin spelling, 
for they add a letter, I do not see how they 
help us in this matter of pronunciation of his- 

Cicero's grandfather, or one of his ances- 
tors, was famed for his skill in cultivating 
a certain kind of vegetable, called deer, 
which we shall have to pronounce kiker, if 
we adopt the new rules : 

" Those great names also. Fabius, Lentulus, 
Cicero, Piso, Stolo, are no more in our tongue then 
Bean-man, LentilL Chich -pease, Pescod - man, 
Braunch ; for as Plinie saith, these names were 
first appropriated to them, for skill in sowing those 
graines. Camden's ' Remaines,' 1614, p. 153. 

I do not care to know how the Goths pro- 
nounced the word ; but as the Italians 
call it cece, the French chiche, and we our- 
selves in Camden's time chich, now generally 
spelt chick, I see no reason for turning 
Cicero into Kikero. It is not the old story 
of Mumpsimus and Sumpsimus, so well told 
by Camden (p. 286) : 

"The same King Henry, finding fault with tho- 
disagreement of Preachers, would often say : some 
are too stiffe in their old Mumpsimus, and other 
too busie and curious in their new Sumpsimus. 
Happely borrowing these phrases from that which 
Master Pace his Secretarie reporteth in his book 
' De Fructu Doctrinae,' of an olde Priest in that age, 
which alwaies read in his Portasse, Mumpsimus r 
Domine, for Sumpsimus : whereof when ne was 
admonished, he said that hee now had vsed Mump- 
simus for thirtie yeares, and would not leaue his 
olde Mumpsimus for their new Sumpsimus." 

For fifty years and more I have known the 
Roman orator and philosopher as Sisero in 
English and Chichero in Latin, for I prefer 
the Italian pronunciation ; but Kikero- 

10 s. ix. FEB. i, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


neither in the one tongue nor the other shall 
I ever use, on account of its cacophony, and 
I feel sure that I shall be in good company, 
not only here, but in educated Europe. 

As regards the letter g, I shall still continue 
to give it the soft sound before e and i, 
though the Germans, when I heard them 
talking Latin many years ago, used to say 
log-ica, and the Spaniards give it their gut- 
tural aspirate, which they learnt from their 
Arabian, and not from their Roman con- 

Neither shall I always sound s hard, as in 
our word sit ; nor do I believe that Mr. 
W. N. Bruce, whose signature is affixed 
to the document I have mentioned, can 
furnish convincing reasons for adopting 
such a pronunciation in, for example, rosa. 
On this point I commend to his notice that 
fine book, Peile's ' Introduction to Greek 
and Latin Etymology,' third edition, 1875, 
p. 352. 

The letter t must henceforth, we are told, 
be sounded hard ever and always. Take 
such words as avaritia and justitia ; it is 
not conceivable that the letter should retain 
its hard sound when between two i's, the 
latter being followed by another vowel. 
We are told (apud Smith's ' Latin Diction- 
ary,' sub voce, or rather litera, T), that Isi- 
dorus at the beginning of the seventh cen- 
tury of our era is the first who mentions the 
soft pronunciation, which has been prevalent 
ever since ; but we need little acquaintance 
with phonetics to feel sure that it must have 
been in vogue long before the date given. 

I do not object nor dbyect to the rule that 
i consonantal, that is /, " e.g., jacip, should 
be sounded as y in you, not as j in /am," 
because I favour the Italian pronunciation 
of Latin ; but I do not think it will meet 
with European acceptance, for jam, and 
yam, and ham (Spanish), good things in 
their way, will for many a day suggest them- 
selves in Horace's ode beginning, 

Jam satis terris nivis atque dirae (I. 2). 

The last rule on which I wish to speak is 
this : " U (V), e.g., volo, [must be sounded] 
practically as w in we, not as v in very." 
Hoc volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas, 
says the Board of Education in the words 
of Juvenal (Sat. vi. 222), which it would 
sound thus : 

Oc wolo, sic yoobao, sit pro rat-iona woloontas. 
If such a rule were forced upon our secondary 
schools, it is to be feared that we should 
have a multitude of young people as con- 
fused as Sam Weller, or Veller, was about 
the sound of v and w. 

As an example of the new pronunciation, 
let us take the following line from Lucretius 
(i. 272) : 

Prinkipio, wentee wiss werberat inkita pontoom. 
I cannot believe that the Romans of the 
Augustan age, or any other, gave such a 
sound to the verse 

Principle, venti vis verberat incita pontum. 

For a last specimen I give these words, 
which few will recognize as spelt : Waynee, 
weedee, weekee. Some listeners might fancy 
this to be a sample of the dead Volapiik 
(" world-speech, vol, shortened from English 
world ; puk, for English speak ! " Cham- 
bers's ' Twentieth-Century Dictionary ' ), or 
of the moribund or moriturus Esperanto ; 
so great will be their astonishment when 
they are told that these uncouth sounds- 
stand for Caesar's laconic dispatch : " Veni, 
vidi, vici." 

The attempt to restore the correct pro- 
nunciation of a language which was in it 
prime some nineteen hundred years ago i 
doomed to failure for many and obvious- 
reasons. It will be well, however, if we 
conform to European usage in sounding the 
vowels. As regards the consonants, I do 
not think any nation (except, perhaps, our 
own) will pronounce c or g or v according 
to the rules of the Board of Education. 

Personally I should like to see the pro- 
nunciation used by the Italians when speak- 
ing Latin universally adopted : first, because 
they are the immediate descendants of the 
Romans, and, secondly, because their chief 
city has been for so many centuries the seat 
of the Papacy, whose official language has 
always been, and is still now, Latin, and 
has, therefore, never died. 


[The pronunciation of Latin has been much dis- 
cussed already in ' N. & Q.' ; see, for instance, 7 S. 
xi. 484 ; xii. 36, 149, 209, 295 ; 8 S. vi. 146, 253, 489 - r 
vii. 436 ; 9 S. vii. 146, 351, 449.] 


(See ante, p. 21.) 

I NOW conclude my first list of omiseions- 
from this standard work : 
Pasquin (Anthony), pseud. See Williams (John), 

1761-1818. Cross-reference omitted. 
Peck (W.), topographical historian, author of 

' Topog. Account of the Isle of Axholme, 

1815, and 'Topog. History of Bawtry and 

Thorne,' 1813-14. 
Perry (Hugh), author of ' Sir Gyles Goose Cappe ; 

a Comedy,' 1636. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. i, 

Peterson (Joan), " Witch." Hung at Tyburn, 
1652 (?). 

Pittilloch (Robert), advocate, and author of 
' Hammer of Persecution under the Government 
of Oliver Cromwell,' 1659; 'Settling of the 
Scottish Judicatories,' 1659; and 'Oppression 
under Colour of the Law...,' 1689. 

Pory (John), traveller. Add " translator of the 
' Historic of Leo Africanus,' 1600." 

Priestley (Joseph), author of ' Historical Account 
of Navigable Rivers, Canals, and of Railways,' 

Primrose or Primerose (David), author of ' Scotland's 
Complaint,' 1625, and ' Scotland's Welcome,' 

Prince (John), 1643-1723. For " Damnonii " read 
" Danmonii." 

Rawstorne (Lawrence), author of ' Gamonia,' 1837- 

Rid (Samuel), author of ' Art of Jugling,' 1614. 

Robinson (Jane), author of ' Whitefriars,' 1843; 
'Whitehall,' 1845; 'Gold Worshippers,' 1851; 
' Westminster Abbey.' 1854 ; ' Caesar Borgia,' 
1856 ; ' Owen Tudor/ 1857 ; ' Dorothy Fire- 
brace ' 1864; ' Madeleine Graham,' 1865; ' Maid 
of Orleans,' undated. 

Ronalds (A.), author of ' The Fly Fisher's Ento- 
mology, 1836 ; several later editions. 

Saker (Edward), 1838 [not 1831]-1883, actor-manager. 
Buried in St. James's Cemetery, Liverpool. 

Salmon (Nathanael). Read Nathaniel. 

Savile (John), author of ' Here 's a Health....,' 1682, 
now known as 'God save the King.' 

Scott (William Henry), pseud, of Lawrence (John), 
q.v. Cross-reference omitted. 

Selden (John), jurist. Add "editor of Drayton's 
' Polyolbion.' " 

Seymour (Richard), author of ' Compleat Gamester,' 
1709, reprinted 1725. 

Sharpe (E.), author of ' Britaine's Busse, or Com- 
putation of a Herring Fishing Ship,' 1615. 

Shaw (Simeon), author of ' History of the Stafford- 
shire Potteries,' 1829. 

Smith (Charles Loraine), author of 'The Fox 
Chase,' 1813, &c. 

Smith (Henry), stationer and law printer, fl. 1540. 
Son-in-law and executor of Robert Redman, 
printer. Believed to be founder of the famous 
law publishing business which lasted nearly four 
centuries upon the same premises, between the 
Temple Gates, Fleet Street, passing successively 
through the hands of Richard Tottell, John 
Jaggard, and others. Still continued to-day 

Smith (John), author of 'Catalogue Raisonne" ,' 


Smith (Samuel), author of ' Herring Busse Trade,' 
1641, &c. 

Steele (David), author of ' Shipmaster's Assistant,' 
1803 ; ' Elements of Rigging Seamanship in 
Naval Tactics,' 1794 ; ' Atlantic and West 
Indian Navigation,' 1804. 

Stockdale (Frederick Wilton Litchfield), artist and 
author of ' Etchings of Kent,' 1810, &c. 

^Strong (Nathaniel), author of ' England's Perfect 
Schoolmaster,' 1686. 

Sturgess (J.), Saec. XIX., artist, chiefly sporting 

Thornhill (R. B.), author of ' Shooting Directory,' 

1804, &c. 

: Thornton (A.), author of 'Adventures of a Post 
Captain,' 1817 ; ' Don Juan,' 1821, &c. 

Timmins (Samuel), Birmingham alderman, Shake- 
spearian editor, founder of the Birmingham 
Shakespeare Library, Warwickshire historian, 
and bibliophile. His Baskerville Collection 
sold in London by auction in 1899. 

Truman (Edwin), surgeon, bibliophile, and authority 
on Cruikshankiana. His extensive collection 
of books and prints sold at auction in 1906. 

Vaughan (William), 1577-1641. Read Vaughan (Sir 

Verstegen (Richard). Read Verstegan. 

Warburton (R. E. Egerton), 1804-91. Published 
' Hunting Songs,' 1846 ; read 1834. 

Wharton (Grace), pen-name of Mrs. Katherine 
Thomson (iiee Byerley), d. 1862, authoress of 
' Life of Ralegh,' 1830 ; ' Life of Sarah, Duchess 
of Marlborough,' 1838 ; and ' Memoirs of the 
Jacobites,' 1845-6. Collaborated with her son 
" Philip " in producing ' Queens of Society,' 
1860, and ' Wits and Beaux of Society,' 1860. 

Wharton (Philip), pseudonym of John Cockburn 
Thomson. See preceding entry. 

Whitchcot (Capt. Thomas), author of ' Plantagenet's 
Tragicall Story,' 1649. 

Whittington (Robert), fl. 1519, grammarian. Add 
" and Poet Laureate." 

Wilkinson (Robert), editor and publisher of 
'Lbndina Illustrata,' 1811, &c. 

Williamson (Thomas), author of ' The Sword of the 
Spirit...,' 1613. 

Williamson (Capt. Thomas), author of ' Oriental 
Field Sports,' 1807. &c. 

Willis (R.), author of ' Mount Tabor,' 1&39. 

Willox (Sir John Archibald), b. Edin. 1842, 
d. 16 June, 1905. Editor and principal pro- 
prietor of The Liverpool Courier, M.P. for 

Wilson (Lea), author of ' Account of Editions of 
Bibles and Testaments,' 1845. 

Wilson (T.), author of ' Childe's Trade,' 1645. 

Wilson ( W.),authorof 'ThePost-ChaiseCompanion,' 

Winkles (H. L. B.),authorof 'Cathedral Churches...,' 

Wood (John George), author of ' Principal Rivers 
of Wales,' 1813. 

Worde (Wynkyn de), printer and stationer. 
' D.N.B._ says : " His real name Jan van Wyn- 
kyn" [sic]. This particular biography was 
written by Mr. E. Gordon Duff, the best living 
authority on our early printers, but that sen- 
tence was inserted, without his authority or 
knowledge, by the editor. See Mr. Duffs 
' Westminster and London Printers,' 1906, 
p. 131. 

Wright (J.), translator of Martial's 'Sales Epi- 
grammatum ,' 1663. 

Wright (Major), translator of Bp. J. P. Camus's 
' Loving Enemie,' 1650, and also of his ' Nature's 
Paradox,' 1652. 

Wylde (Zachary), author of ' The English Master of 
Defence,' 1711. 

Yarrell (William), "'History of British Birds' 
1843." Read 1839. 


MB. JAGGAKD' s suggestion for additions 
and corrections to the ' D.N.B.' is excellent, 
but requires to be executed with caution. 
Thus the last entry in his first list of omissions 
" Oldys (Francis), author of ' Life of 

10 s. ix. FEB. i, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Thomas Paine ' [the atheist] " contains 
two mistakes. Firstly, Paine was not an 
atheist, but a theist. Secondly, " Francis 
Oldys " was not a real person, but the pen- 
name assumed by an opponent whose so- 
called ' Life ' is an attack on Paine. The 
book is believed to be an early production 
of George Chalmers, afterwards well known 
as an antiquary. He is said to have been 
paid by Lord Hawkesbury, afterwards Lord 
Liverpool, 500Z. for writing it. These data 
about " Francis Oldys " are duly recorded 
in the 'D.N.B.' 


To MR. JAG CARD'S list of errors may be 
added one in the account of Sir Henry 
Mildmay, master of the Jewel House, where 
it is stated he was a claimant for the Barony 
of FitzWalter. He was not in the line of 
descent from the Radcliff es, and the claimant 
was a cousin, Sir Henry Mildmay of Wood- 
ham Walters and Moulsham, who, according 
to the autobiography of Sir John Bramston, 
" could not prevail because he was a prisoner 
in the Fleet for debt." 

H. A. ST. J. M. 

'THE BOOKSELLER; i858-i9os. i 

FOUNDED by Joseph Whitaker in January, 
1858, The Bookseller has from its first 
number been a success. Mr. George Herbert 
Whitaker, who is its present editor (his 
brother Cuthbert Wilfrid taking under his 
special care the world-famed "Whitaker"), 
has celebrated the Jubilee of The Bookseller 
by giving in the number for January 24th 
a history of its origin and a short record of 
publishing firms during the fifty years. 

In a brief biographical account of hi: 
father Mr. Whitaker states that he was born 
on the 4th of May, 1820. At fourteen he 
was apprenticed to the bookbinding firm oi 
Barritt & Co., and showed such a specia 
capacity for business that he was soon 
placed as an assistant in their Bible establish- 
ment in Fleet Street. At the end of his 
apprenticeship he went to Oxford to John 
Henry Parker, who was so impressed by his 
capabilities that he entrusted him with the 
formation and entire management of his 
London house at 377, Strand, where Whitaker 
originated the first penny Church magazine 
The Penny Post. On leaving Parker 
he started business in Pall Mall as a rehgiou 
publisher and bookseller, removing in 185* 
to 310, Strand, where, with the assistanc 
of Thomas Delf, he issued The Artist. Th 

business was not a success, and a composi- 
tion with creditors became inevitable. The 
Court cleared him of debt ; but that was not 
sufficient for Whitaker his name must be 
without stain ; and as soon as his position 
allowed he paid the old debts in full, and 
his son tells us that " among his most 
herished possessions are very handsome 
etters from some of the most prominent 
lublishers and others in acknowledgment." 

In 1856 Whitaker became editor of The 
rentlemarfs Magazine, and it was as " Syl- 
/anus Urban " 

' that he was brought more particularly to realize- 
he many shortcomings of the trade lists then in 
xistence, and first thought of producing a really 
fficient and independent organ which should prove 
tself indispensable to the trade. It was thus that 
he idea of The Bookseller originated." 

Its appearance marked a new era in journal- 
sm, as it was the pioneer of the present 
arge class of trade journals. Whitaker, 
writing in 1888, says : 

"One of the reasons of the success of The Book- 
-eller was the hearty manner in which I conducted 
t. I threw myself into the work, and, for a long 
time, did nothing else. It never reached my ideal -, 
n fact, the work just adapted itself to the require- 
ments of the trade, and I was wise enough to let it 
go its own way, and not force any of my hobbies 
into its pages." 

Whitaker wrote not a word too much as 
to the reason of his success. I frequently 
saw him at the time he started the new 
venture. When I have been with my father 
in Paternoster Row, he would come up to us 
and tell my father, for whom he had always 
the warmest friendship, how well the pub- 
lishers supported the new periodical. Tnost 
who remember Whitaker will call to mind 
how full of energy he was, and how charm 
ing was his personality. 

To Whitaker was due the idea of raising 
the Relief Fund for Paris booksellers m 
1871 Sampson Low heartily encouraged 
the idea, and The Bookseller and The 
Publishers' Circular worked ^,1? ' 
its accomplishment. On the 6th of Feb- 
ruary, 1871, at a meeting of the trade at 
Stationers' Hall, at which Thomas Longman 
presided, John Miles was appointed treasurer, 
with Edward Marston as secretary. Moi 
than 5007. was subscribed in the room, and 
the sum ultimately raised was l,400f. 

the Jubilee number is devote 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. i, im 

Lord Campbell, Grote, and Dean Milman 
were appointed arbitrators. William Long- 
man " frankly admitted that the objects in 
view could not be obtained without co- 
ercion." The decision, as is well known, 
was unfavourable, Lord Campbell stating 

" such regulations seem prima facie to be inde- 
fensible, and contrary to the freedom which ought 
to prevail in commercial transactions. Although 
the owner of property may put what price he pleases 
upon it when selling it, the condition that the pur- 
chaser, after the property has been transferred to 
him and he has paid the purchase-money, shall not 
resell it under a certain price, derogates from the 
rights of ownership which, as purchaser, he has 

The Booksellers' Association was perforce 
dissolved, and " for some forty years the 
application of coercion to deal with ad- 
mittedly unfair competition was ruled out 
of court " ; . for although Whi taker in The 
Bookseller made frequent strong comments 
on the evils of the underselling system and 
the advertising of new books for sale at 
considerably below the published price, no 
definite general attempt to deal with the 
question was made until March, 1890, when 
Mr. Frederick Macmillan's letter appeared in 
The Bookseller in which he definitely pro- 
posed the establishment of the now well- 
known net system. Later Mr. C. J. Long- 
man suggested the abolition of any fixed 
retail price, thus leaving the bookseller to 
fix his own in the same way as retailers in 
ordinary commodities do, the publishers 
acting merely as wholesale dealers. I re- 
member that my father many years ago 
suggested this plan ; but Mr. Longman's 
proposal failed to find any support. On 
the 21st of April, 1896, the Publishers' 
Association was inaugurated, Mr. C. J. 
Longman becoming its first President ; 
and at the annual meeting on the 23rd of 
March, 1899, the net-system agreement as 
now understood, on being moved by Mr. 
John Murray, was adopted unanimously. 

The second editor of The Bookseller was 
J. Vernon Whitaker. His father, finding 
the labour and responsibility of editing 
both the ' Almanack ' and The Bookseller too 
great, recalled his son from America, and 
entrusted him with the editorship of The 
Bookseller under his own supervision. Vernon 
Whitaker had gone to America at the in- 
stance of the late G. W. Childs, then pro- 
prietor of The Philadelphia Public Ledger, 
in order that he might undertake the editor- 
ship of The American Literary Gazette. This 
he did until Childs disposed of it to the 
proprietors of The New York Publishers' 

Weekly, who incorporated it with their 
journal, Vernon Whitaker being appointed 
sub-editor of the Public Ledger. 

Under his editorship, the influence and 
prestige of The Bookseller were fully 
maintained. He took the keenest interest in 
all trade matters, and the successful agita- 
tion against the projected increase in rail- 
way rates was entirely due to his initiative. 
Mr. H. O. Arnold-Forster undertook the 
conduct of the matter before the Board of 
Trade, the outcome being all to the ad- 
vantage of the booksellers. Vernon 
Whitaker also took an active part in the 
negotiations which resulted in the estab- 
lishment of the London Booksellers' Society 
(now the Associated Booksellers of Great 
Britain and Ireland). Unfortunately, his 
health broke down. In the autumn of 
1894 a voyage to the Cape was tried ; but 
this failed to benefit him, and he died on the 
15th of January, 1895, at the early age of 
fifty. His premature death was a great 
loss to the bookselling world, for he was 
always first and foremost in movements 
likely to be helpful to it, while his goodness 
of heart made him ever ready with acts of 

The sixth division in the Jubilee number 
is devoted to a history of Trade Dinners, 
beginning with the Trade Sale Dinner. 
Till 1754 they were mostly held at "The 
Queen's Head " in Paternoster Row, after- 
wards at " The Queen's Arms " in St. Paul's 
Churchyard, and from about 1790 at " The 
London Coffee-House," Ludgate Hill. From 
about 1830 "The Albion was generally 
chosen. At Thomas Osborne's sale in 1743 
the company were regaled with " Turkies 
and Chines, Hams and Chickens, Apple Pies, 
&c., and a glass of very good wine." When 
the Trade Sale Dinners ceased,* the directors 
of the Booksellers' Provident Institution 
initiated an annual dinner ; but although 
very successful it has not been followed up. 
During the last three or four years, however, 
the practice has arisen for the Associated 
Booksellers to hold their annual meeting in 
some important centre, and a dinner has 
been a prominent item in the arrangements. 
The Bookseller suggests the desirability of 
holding every other year a combined dinner, 
at which both publishers and booksellers 
should be represented. 


(To be concluded.) 

* An interesting article on 'Booksellers' Trade 
Dinner Sales.' by Mr. Joseph Shaylor, appeared in 
the Fortnightly Review last December. 

io s. ix. FEB. i, 




* Our Mutual Friend,' at the end of Book the 
Third, chap, ix., I read the following con- 
cerning Rokesmith and Bella Wilfer : 

" The railway, at this point, knowingly shutting 
a green eye and opening a red one, they had to run 
for it." 

The chapter ends : 

" Something to this purpose surely mingled with 
the blast of the train as it cleared the stations, all 
knowingly shutting up their green eyes, and opening 
their red ones when they prepared to let the proper 
lady pass." 

This reversal of the usual method of 
signal lighting seems to be a mistake, unless 
the customs of railways have changed 
radically since early days. This, like the 
recent notes about Capt. Cuttle, shows that 
the wonderful master of detail occasionally 
went wrong. J. BUTCHER DANIELS. 

account of this Scots worthy, who has not 
found a place in the ' D.N.B.,' is to be seen 
in Dr. W. Maziere Brady's ' Anglo-Roman 
Papers' (Alex. Gardner, 1890). The Car- 
dinal composed his own epitaph, which is 
to be read on the slab of granite above his 
tomb in the Pantheon at Paris, and on a 
circle of whitish marble under the cupola 
of his titular church of Santa Maria in 
Campitelli at Rome. This gives the date 
of his birth as 13 Feb., 1743. However, 
his father died on 18 Jan., 1740 ; he himself 
entered the Scots College, Rome, 27 May, 
1748, aged nine, and a medical certificate 
dated 30 Dec., 1809, speaks of him as aged 
seventy-one. There can therefore be little 
doubt that Dr. Brady is right in giving his 
birthday as 13 Feb., 1739. He died on the 
20th (not the 19th) of March, 1811. Douglas's 

* Peerage of Scotland ' (2nd ed., vol. ii. p. 21), 
The Gentleman's Magazine (vol. Ixxxi. pt. i. 
p. 493), and the ' Nouvelle Biographic 
Generate' (vol. xvi. p. 318) give the year of 
his birth as 1753. Douglas says that Erskine 
was " patronized by the Pretender " ; he 
should have said " by Henry, Cardinal 
Duke of York.' ' What is Douglas' s authority 
for the statement that " King George III. 
was graciously pleased to bestow on him a 
pension of 200?. a year " ? Douglas also 
says: "He was sent to England by the 
Pope in 1792, but not recognized by 
Ministers in a public capacity, though he 
was presented at Court as a private gentle- 
man." This is not quite accurate. He 
landed at Margate 13 Nov., 1793. When 
he went to Court, he was admitted to St. 
James's Palace by the courtyard reserved 
for the diplomatic circle, and was accus- 

tomed to take his place as the last of the 
diplomatic body, in such wise as to leave 
it in doubt whether he were last of that body 
or first in the general circle. When he left 
England in December, 1801, he was de- 
scribed in his passport, signed by Thomas, 
Lord Pelham, as " Monsignor Erskine, late 
Legate from His Holiness at this Court." 

The great increase of late years in the 
number of insurance agents, whose work 
chiefly lies amongst the poorest, has fur- 
nished at least a couple of new phrases, which 
are perhaps worth recording in ' N. & Q.' 
The agents are called by their clients " death- 
hunters," and the money which comes at 
death is called " death money." This is 
the case hereabout, and probably in many 
other districts. THOS. RATCXTFFE. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" PRIZE " : ITS HISTORY. The word prize, 
meaning the symbol or reward of victory 
in the ancient games, in athletic contests, 
tournaments, and fighting, has been in use 
(in the forms pris, prys, prise, price, an I 
prize) from the earliest period of Middle 
English. It appears in ' Cursor Mundi,' 
and is used by Wyclif and all later 
translators of the Bible. As meaning that 
which is gained in a lottery, it has been 
the regular term, at least, since 1567. 
But as the prcemium gained by a competi- 
tion at college, academy, or school, it 
appears to be of later introduction. In 
Grant's ' History of the Burgh Schools of 
Scotland ' (1876) the author says : 

" The oldest notice of competition for school 
prizes, found in our records, dates from the latter 
part of the 16th century, and occurs in a programme 
of studies drawn up for the Grammar bchool of 

But he does not give this programme, 
nor even state in what language Scots, 
English, or Latin it was drawn up ; and 
it may be suspected that the word actually 
used was prcemium or premium, the 
ordinary term for a school prize down to 
the eighteenth century. But that prize 
also was familiar in this sense is shown 
by its transferred use in the Scotch 
Paraphrases (of 1745 or earlier), "-To take 
the punishment or prize from his unerring 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tio s. ix. FEB. i, im 

hand." We have received, however, very 
few examples before 1800, the best being 
one of 1793, 'A Discourse delivered [by 
B. West] to the Students of the Royal 
Academy at the Distribution of Prizes,' 
which shows that the term in this sense 
was then in full accepted use. Examples 
before 1800 will be thankfully received. 

The use of prize in connexion with 
agricultural and horticultural shows, exhibi- 
tions of industry, pigeon-shows, baby-shows, 
beauty-shows, missing-word competitions, 
and the like, appears to be of still later 
origin: we have actually no example as 
yet before 1845, which is, of course, absurd. 
We shall be thankful for earlier instances ; 
and correspondents are specially begged to 
remember that it is the word, not the 
thing (unless this guides to a use of the 
word), that is wanted. 



SMOLLETT. In 1798 the well-known Dutch 
authoress Elizabeth Wolff published a 
translation of Richard Graves's 'The 
Spiritual Quixote ' ; but on the title-page of 
this translation the English original is 
attributed to Smollett. In the article on 
Graves in the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' no mention is made of 
Smollett's name ever having been associated 
with Graves's anonymous novel. Perhaps 
one of your readers will tell me from what 
source the Dutch translator may have drawn 
her false information. A. J. BARNOUW. 

The Hague. 

THE ICKNIELD WAY. I am anxious to 
obtain a list, as complete as may be, of all 
references to the Icknield Way which occur 
in any works, deeds, &c., prior to 1500. 
These allusions will be found to fall into 
three classes : 

1. Descriptions of the four basilical roads. 

2. References to events happening on or 
near the road. 

3. Mention of the road in local documents 
and deeds. 

The spelling of the name varies consider- 
ably, and the word may be found, I believe, 
in the following forms : Ikenild, Hickenild, 
Rickenild, Bickenild, and Kikenild (though 
I have not found this last form), and other 
forms having a similar phonetic value. 

I have already the following references : 

1. 'Ancient Laws and Institutes of England' 
(Rec.), i. 447, 478-9. 
Henry of Huntingdon (Rolls), i. 12. 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, iii. 5. 

Roger de Hoveden (Rolls), ii. 223. 

Robert of Gloucester (Rolls), i. 12-13 ; ii. 791-2. 

Higden, ' Polychronicon ' (Rolls), ii. 44-6. 

Do., Trevisa's trans., ii. 45-7. 
' Eulogium Historiarum ' (Rolls), ii. 145-6. 

2. ' Abingdon Chronicle' (Rolls), i. 14. 

3. Kemble, 'Codex Diplomaticus,' Nos. mliii. r 
mcxxix., mclxxii., mlxxx., dlxxviii., mcclxxiii.,. 

Close Rolls, Edw. III., viii. 584. 

Patent Rolls, Edw. II., ii. 332. 
Do., Edw. III., i. 20. 

' Catalogue of Ancient Deeds,' passim. 

'Chron. Prior, de Dunstable' (Hearne's ed.) r 
ii. 708. 

Dugdale's ' Monasticon,' vi. 239. 

B.M. Add. MS. 25306 (printed in Mem. Arch. 
Inst., Norwich volume, p. 21). 

Magd. Coll. Oxon. MS. (v. Macray, ' Notes from 
the Muniments,' &c., p. 131). 

' Cartulary of St. Frideswide's,' ii. 338. 

I should feel very grateful to any of your 
readers who could enable me to add to this 

I am also anxious to obtain the exact 
reference to Leland's mention of the Way ; 
I cannot find it in the ' Itinerary,' nor is it 
mentioned in the index to the ' Collectanea.' 
Further, I desire to find Stukeley's descrip- 
tion of the Way from Streatley " under the 
name of Westridge, by Hampstead, Hermit- 
age, and the long lane, towards Newbury." 
The passage I have quoted is from the 
Bishop of Cloyne's account of the road 
given in Lysons's ' Magna Britannia,' i. 202 ; 
but I have been unable, so far, to find the 
original from which he was quoting. Please 
reply direct. HAROLD PEAKE. 

Westbrook House, Newbury, Berks. 

" BULGEWARIUM." According to the 
statutes or acts of convocation of South- 
well Minster, of the year 1248, bad language 
on the part of the vicars choral or chap- 
lains, outside the church, was to be punished 
by discipline in chapter, or by a fine of 12d., 
or by wearing in the Sunday procession 
" vetus bulgewarium in collo suo secundum 
antiquam consuetudinem ecclesie," What 
can the second word mean ? I have asked 
several competent friends, who are equally 
puzzled with myself. Perhaps the most 
likely " shot " that has so far been made 
is that it was a big candlestick. 


Longton Avenue, Sydenham. 

SING." In the present Prayer Book of the 
Church of England a rubric placed after the 
third Collect both of Morning and Evening 
Prayer, authorizes the interpolation of an 
"anthem " between the third Collect and the 
reading of the " Five following prayers " or 

10 s. ix. FEB. i, 



of j the Litany. This governs the place of 
the anthem in either morning or evening 
service ; but I am desirous of asking some of 
your readers who are learned in liturgical 

1. When was the rubric first inserted in 
the Prayer Book ? It was absent from 
Queen Elizabeth's book, where the services 
ended with the third Collect. 

2. What was then the technical meaning 
of the word " quire " ? 

3. What was then understood and intended 
by "places where they sing" ? 

4. Was the word "sing" in this rubric 
intended to mean the same as in that 
directing the Psalms to be either " said or 
sung " ? W. S. B. H. 

PUBLISHERS. 1 shall be grateful if any one 
can tell me the approximate date of a tract 
printed by G. Auld, Greville Street, for 
Williams & Smith, Stationers' Court. It is 
not registered at Stationers' Hall. 

Is there any book which will give such 
information, i.e., when London booksellers 
and publishers were carrying on their busi- 
ness ? F. JESSEL. 

STATIONING RELICS. I should be glad of 
an explanation of the following entries in 
the accounts of the Wardens of the Store 
of St. Michael, Archangel, the titular saint 
of Chagford parish church : 

"1501. pd for stationing of the ecclesiastica 

reliquary at the house of Thomas Favell, 12rf." 

" 1502. pd. I2d. to John Wekys for stationing of 
the reliquary of the church." 


MEDAL OF 1555. For many years I have 
had in my possession a square silver 
memorial medal dated 1555. On one side 
it represents the Resurrection ; on the 
other is a lamb with a flag of victory, 
and in very ancient German characters 
" Christus ist das Lemel Gottes das der 
Welt-sint tregt." I wish to find out why 
and for what purpose the medal was struck, 
and the history of it. Has it any great 
value ? A. C. T. HARTWIG. 

Blyth, South Australia. 

notes of the Arnold family left by Governor 
Benedict Arnold of Rhode Island, grand- 
father of General Benedict Arnold, I gather 
the following : 

" Memo, per me, Benedict Arnold. We came 
from Providence with our family to dwell at 
Newport in R.I., the 19th of November, 1651. My 

Father (William Arnold) and Mother and his family 
set sail from Dartmouth in Old England May 1st, 
and arrived iii New England June 24th, 1635. We 
came to Providence to dwell the 20th of April. 

I should be greatly obliged if any one 
could throw light upon the emigration of 
the above William Arnold, and give the 
name of the vessel in which he sailed from 
Dartmouth at the above date. 

In the pedigree of Arnold, as published in 
The New England Register, vol. xxxiii. a 
discrepancy is said to exist between the 

Sadigree here printed and the original in the 
ritish Museum as copied by the late 
Benjamin Greene Arnold, Esq., of New 
York City, in that at the beginning of the 
pedigree Arnholt ap Arnholt Vychan (i.e., 
Jun.) should be preceded by Arnholt ap 
Arnholt, married Csecelia. Can any one 
add further information in regard to this 
particular point, which is supposed to 
embody the origin of the name " Arnold " ? 
Possibly some descendant of the Arnold 
family living in England may have sufficient 
interest in the matter to explain. 

Joanna Arnold, daughter of William 
Arnold and his wife Christian Peak, was 
born 27 Feb., 1617, in England, and became 
the wife of Zachary Rhodes, the founder of 
the Rhodes family of Rhode Island. This 
family is said to derive its origin from one 
Guilhelmus de Rode of Rode, Palatinate of 
Chester, temp. William the Conqueror, from 
whom the various families of Rhodes, with 
their slightly varied heraldry, are descended. 
I hope to learn the opinions of readers of 
' N & Q.' on the above-quoted origin of the 
Rhodes family. SIGMA DELTA. 

New York. 

Church, Cambs, are the remains of a brass 
to these two. Cole says : 

" This monument by the arms was designed for 
Roger Dockwra, who married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward Brockett of Brockett Hall [Herts]." 

What would be the date ? Was this 
Dockwra kin to the prior Dockwra de- 
scribed in the ' D.N.B.' ? 

Tadlow Vicarage, Royston, Herts. 

COMMONWEALTH LAWS. In the registers 
of Walton-on-the-Hill, Surrey, the following 
sentence occurs at the top of a page among 
the baptisms : " The New Act began Octob. 
29th 1653." Does this refer to the law 
passed on 24 Aug., 1653, requiring the 
registration of births instead of baptisms, 
and ordering marriages to be solemnized by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. i, im. 

justices of the peace and no other mode 
allowed to be valid ? and if so, was the law 
enforced and in operation for any length 
of time ? W. P. D. STEBBING. 

Gainsborough is reported in The Times of 
30 April, 1793, as having said "Portraits 
bring more shillings than Landscapes." 
Where and when was the expression used ? 


PICCINI'S ' LASCHIAVA.' The comic opera 
' La Schiava,' by NiccolaPiccini, thecomposer 
of the famous ' La Buona Figliuola, was 
frequently performed at the King's Theatre 
in the Haymarket during 1768. Can any 
one give me the date of its first representa- 
tion, and also particulars of its plot ? 
Piccini, of course, enjoyed a European 
reputation, and an account of him finds a 
place in ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
His English contemporaries usually spell 
his first name Niccoli. 


Fox Oak, Hersham. 

DOBB PARK CASTLE. Can any of your 

readers tell me where I can find an authentic 

account of Dobb Park Castle or Dob's Park 

Lodge, the ruins of which are to be seen not 

far from Otley, in Yorkshire, and about a 

mile from the Old Pack - Horse Bridge 

crossing the river Washburn ? The district 

immediately surrounding the ruin for some 

distance is called Dob's Park. The local 

tradition is that the house was a hunting 

lodge built in the reign of Henry V., and 

destroyed by Cromwell's soldiers. In some 

book, the title of which I forget, I saw it 

some years ago mentioned in a list of haunted 

houses. The ghost was said to appear in the 

shape of a large dog. Are there any old 

chronicles of the district in which reference 

is made to the house or its ruins ? 

E. D. 

recently appeared in the church magazine 
of the parish of Epworth, Lincolnshire, 
some very interesting extracts from the 
parish registers, from the time of the Rev. 
Samuel Wesley downwards. In the num- 
bers for October and November the extracts 
related mainly to the Communions anc 
collections for the poor ; and by a com- 
parison of the various items some strange 
facts come out as to the quantity of wine 
drunk by each communicant. Thus in 
1744-5 thirty-nine quarts appear to have 

been used at the Communions, in addition 
to six bottles given for some unspecified 
purpose to Mr. Romley, the curate-in- 
charge; and in 1746-7 thirty-three quarts. 
Adding together the number of communi- 
cants at each celebration, and dividing the 
amount of wine by the total, we get what 
the rector's churchwarden (who contributes 
the extracts) well calls the "surprising" 
result that an ounce and a half, or, in other 
words, three-quarters of a wineglassful, of 
wine must on an average have been 
consumed by each communicant that is, 
if the wine was actually drunk at the 
Communions. I have a recollection, how- 
ever, of a custom of never keeping any 
wine in an opened bottle from one Com- 
munion to another, but giving it to the 
sick poor. Was this a general custom ? 
If so, it would account for the large 
quantity of wine consumed at Epworth. 
Moreover, the "quarts" were probably 
only reputed quarts, which would, of course, 
reduce the quantity considerably. Furthe 
light on the subject would be interesting. 

C. C. B. 

1 bearing 

in the 



this heraldic 
an elongated 

lozenge : understood to have been originally 
a representation of a spindle covered with 
;ow," is derived in ' N. E. D.' from a 
' popular Latin *fuselltis, dim. of fusus, 
pindle." On the Pipe Roll 29 Edw. I. 
1301), m. 43, is an account of expenses in 
;he making of a windmill, inter alias : 

la vnamola vna clauona vno ligno ad postern 

molendini xxxiij. splentis. coggis. rungis. oordis. 
vno axe ferrea ad fusil. Clxij ulnis canabi ad vela, 
gumphis vertinellis et clauis emptis." 

From this it seems probable that, like the 
mill-rind and other bearings, the heraldic 
'usil represented part of a mill, rather than 
an apparatus for winding tow. Perhaps 
some reader will tell us the current name. 

Q. V. 

OLD PEWTER. I lately came across two 
old pewter plates, stamped with the silver 
hall-mark of 1705-6, viz., figure of Brit- 
annia , lion's head erased, date letter, and 
maker's mark. A friend tells me he has 
a pewter pot stamped in a similar way. 
I shall be obliged if any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
can tell me how, or why, pewter articles 
came to be hall-marked. T. F. D. 

Edward Death, son of 

Henry Death of 

St. Martin's, Stamford Baron, was admitted 
to Gray's Inn on 2 Feb., 1630-1, and 

10 s. ix. FEB. i, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


proved his father's will (P.C.C.) on 3 May, 
1640. Can any one supply other informa- 
tion about Edward Death, particularly the 
date of his death or of the probate of his 

ACHESONS or AYRSHIRE. Can any one 
give me information about the Achesons of 
Beith, in Ayrshire ? One of them, Guy, 
migrated to Ireland in 1679. References to 
works on the town of Beith or on Ayrshire 
would be esteemed. 



(10 S. viii. 488.) 

IT is not likely that Victor Hugo would 
have appreciated Provencal poetry ; he 
appears to have been as ignorant of that 
language as he was of English after many 
years' residence in the Channel Islands. 
' L'Homme qui rit ' contains some monu- 
mental instances of his shameless ignorance, 
not only of English, but also of various 
other departments of knowledge into which 
he ventured. Fond of parading his extensive 
but superficial knowledge, he "bluffed" 
what he did not know. 

ProvenQal books of poetry have a face-to- 
face French translation, without which 
they would not be sold out of the South. 
The two races, Gallo-Roman and Gallo- 
Frank, are somewhat alien in feeling, much 
as Irish and English ; and recent events 
show the divergence. The surroundings of 
the former, in the low country at least, have 
made them a light-hearted folk ready to 
burst into song, and the Beneissenfo Feli- 
brenco took place among peasants or sons 
of peasants, not among Court poets or 

The love of nature and of the fields ; the 
glory of the corn, the olive, and the vine 
ripening in the land of the sun ; the love 
of beauty, whether in nature or in woman 
all 'these have inspired the Provenca 
peasant, and he sings of them. The "granc 
poete fransais " so splendidly boomed cuts 
a poor figure beside the Burns class o 
Proven9al poets, though these sing only o 
hedges and haymaking, and the girls wh( 
help the haymakers, in 

nostro lengo mespresado, 

Car canton quo p6r vautre, o pastre e g6nt di mas 
So sings Mistral (Mireio) in words whicl 
every shepherd can understand and love 

! ulture is here not the privilege of a middle 
lass ; the. peasant has a keen idea of beauty 
ind the language in which it is sung, and his 
ulture owes nothing to the school. For 
he Southern tongue is banned from schools 
nder the Republic much as Polish is 
canned from the schools of Eastern Prussia, 
md every official effort is made to enforce 
he use of French only. Yet, though the 
people may seem to conform though they 
nay speak of their mother - tongue as 
' patois," and drop it in the hearing of 
trangers -under this surface of conformity 
he ancient tongue of the troubadours 
ives and grows among ten millions of people. 
?he paean, the " pagan suckled in a creed 
outworn," has glimpses of the ideal ; he 
worships " lou grand souleu de la Prou- 
reno," and has nearly the same supersti- 
ions as the Greek peasant of old or of 

" Voules pas que cantesson," as Mistral's 
arter says; and even the carter's songs 
do not always show poverty of sentiment. 
A short time ago, reading the poems (pub- 
ished by subscription) of Laforet, a carter 
}lying on the road between Aries and 
St. Gilles, I could not help contrasting the 
songs of his humble home, and of the children 
;hat brighten it, with the poems of Victor 
Sugo on his grandchildren, and on the 
royal children of whose birth and baptism 
sang in his early days as a Court poet, 
now carefully forgotten. And when, a 
tew weeks later, I heard this carter recite 
a couple of his own poems, in perfect lan- 
guage, with admirable delivery, I thought 
again of Victor Hugo and of our own Burns 
and also of the dearth of such peasant- 
poets either in Northern France or in Eng- 


"HACKNEY" (10 S. viii. 465 ; ix. 11, 52). 

jf it took us English some centuries to 

get from " hackney " to " hack " by familiar 
usage, as is the case, it is difficult to explain 
the shortened forms found in O. Span., 
O. Port., O. Fr. as given by Diez, unless, as 
he suggests, " hackney " is a compound 
word. Further, the O. Fr. diminutive haquet, 
with its Sicilian and Picardy cognates 
acchettu and haguettc, points to the prevalence 
of the shortened O. Fr. form haque or hague. 
Perhaps this aspect of the case may present 
itself as worthy of consideration to others 
than myself. H. P. L. 

If PROF. SKEAT will look again at the 
account cited by him, he will see that the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FKB. i, im 

payment of ninepence was " pro hackeneio " 
(with a c) ; and if he will look at p. 15, he 
will find a charge "pro locagio ij. haque- 
norum." I am afraid that this somewhat 
detracts from the force of his argument. 

Q. V. 

There is more to be said than what I have 
said already. We have to account for the 
fact that the word is treated as a feminine 
sb. in French (and consequently in other 
Romance languages), whereas it was mascu- 
line in the Anglo-Latin form hakeneius and 
in the Anglo-French un hakenay ( ' Statutes 
of the Realm,' i. 288, A.D. 1340). The 
reason for the masculine form is that 
hakeneius is adjectival, meaning "of or 
belonging to Hackney," whereas in the 
French form the place-name itself was 
adopted, the latter being latinized as a 
feminine substantive because the suffix -ey 
was originally feminine. 

This we learn from an early mention of 
Hackney in 1199, where the Latin text has 
" in Hakeneia" (' Rotuli Curiae Regis,' ed. 
Sir F. Palgrave, vol. i. p. 216). The spelling 
Hakeney remained unchanged as late as 
1401 ; see ' Acts of Privy Council,' ed. 
Nicolas, vol. i. p. 145. 

The very fact that the Anglo-Latin form 
was adjectival conclusively proves tha 
the adjective was formed upon som 
substantive ; and my point is that thi 
particular substantive was the place-name. 
At 7 S. x. 323 it is said that the earlies 
mention of Hackney was in 1253 ; in the 
same volume, p. 387, this is altered to 1233 
But it occurs in 1199 (as above); and 
though not in Domesday Book, it is ob 
viously of A.-S. origin. Compare Hakeford 
the old spelling of Hackford in the Inqui- 
sitiones post Mortem ; and note that the 
A.-S. Haca still survives as Hake in the 
| Clergy List ' for 1908. Littre's error was 
in dividing the word as hake-ney, whereas 

the author 
elements : 

statement, which perhaps 
made up out of traditional 

it is really Haken-ey. Hack is nothing but 
short for hackney, not known till 1700 ; and 
the O.F. haque is an independent abbrevia- 
tion of haquenee, of which no instance is 
given older than 1457. The notion in Diez 
that the F. haquenee is derived from the E. 
hack shows a total disregard of chronology. 
The M.E. hakeney meant " a Hackney 
horse," the word horse being suppressed. 
We learn from the 'N.E.D.' that, just after 
1500, the compound hackney-horse began to 
appear, as if people were beginning to 
consider that a more correct form. In the 
' History of London ' by W. Maitland (6rst 
edition in 1760) we "find the following 

" The village of Hackney being anciently cele- 
brated for the numerous seats of the nobility and 
gentry it contained, this occasioned a great resort 
thither of all ranks from the city of London, 
whereby so great a number of horses were daily 
hired in the city on that account, that at length all 
horses to be lett [sic] received the common appella- 
tion of Hackney horses." 

This extraordinary view directs the horses' 
heads towards Hackney, instead of allowing 
their tails to leave it behind. It is just 
preposterous. But it shows clearly enough 
that the connexion of the horse with the 
place was long ago a traditional belief. 


'THE PHILOBIBLION' (10 S. ix. 9). Two 
volumes of this journal, at least, appeared, 
for I have a copy. In a notice in the 
concluding number of vol. i., the publishers 

" Considering the extremely unpropitious time in 
which The Philobiblion was announced, and issued, 
the publishers take great pleasure in stating that 
its success has been sufficient to satisfy their 
expectations, and to warrant its further continuance. 
The Philobiblion, therefore, will be continued 
another year." 

Twelve numbers, extending to 288 pp., 
completed the first volume. Another twelve 
numbers completed vol. ii., composed of 
290 pp. The last number (No. 24) is dated 
December, 1863, and contains a table of 
contents of Nos. 13 to 24 inclusive, and an 
index to the volume. The publication is of 
considerable interest, and some of the 
articles of exceptional value. I do not 
know whether the journal was continued 
beyond the two volumes I have mentioned. 


This delightful periodical, full of interest- 
ing matter and bibliographical data, lasted 
from December, 1861, to December, 1863, 
so that there are altogether 24 numbers. It 
would be an advantage to know who were 
the band of booklovers who produced this 
remarkable magazine. They had a wide 
knowledge of books and a liking for the 
Neo-Platonic literature as interpreted by 
Thomas Taylor. There is a fine copy in the 
Thomas Greenwood Library for Librarians 
at Manchester. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

No. i. of this journal is dated " December, 
861," and eleven succeeding numbers were 

mblished at regular 
xii. thus bearing 

monthly intervals, 
date " November, 

10 s. ix. FEB. i, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1862." In December, 1862, the publication 
was suspended. No. xiii. is dated " January, 
1863," and the remaining numbers appeared 
every month without interruption, No. xxiv. 
bearing date "December, 1863." The 
twenty-four numbers were issued in two 
volumes at the close of their respective 
years, Dec., 1861 Nov., 1862, and Jan. 
Dec., 1863. Nos. i.-xiv. were published by 
"Geo.^P. Philes & Co., 51, Nassau St., New 
York " ; on Nos. xv.-xxiv. the address of 
the publishers appears as " 64, Nassau St., 
New York," while No. xxiv. alone bears the 
additional address of " London : Triibner & 
Co., Paternoster Row." On the title-page of 
No. xxiv. appears a foursquare portrait of 
Erasmus, up the left side, along the top, and 
down the right side of which appear the 
following words : " Statimque ut pecuniam 
accepero Grsecos primum auctores, | deinde 

vestes emam. Eras. Epist." 


The copy of The Philobiblion in this 

library is in two volumes, and consists of 

Nos. 1 to 24. It was a somewhat notable 

publication, and is printed upon India paper. 


Tate Library, Brixton. 

also thanked for replies.] 

466 ; ix. 33). I think too much is often 
made of supposed resemblances in modes 
of expression ; at any rate, ME. BAYNE has 
not made good his claim in this particular 
instance. Wordsworth has been vilipended 
somewhat for his supposed pantheistic 
leanings : I have never been able to make 
out on what grounds, though, and if the 
fine sonnet quoted by MR. LAWRENCE FORD 
is one of the alleged proofs, I think there is 
not much evidence of it to be found there. 
" The Mighty Being," as I read it, refers 
to the sea, as MR. FORD says, and is clearly 
traceable in the lines 

With his eternal motion make 

A sound like thunder everlastingly. 

Wordsworth, always a close transcriber of 
nature, has caught the life and mind of 
the sea and fixed its immutable aspects 
unerringly. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

The octave of Wordsworth's sonnet 
culminates in the thought of " eternal 
motion," which comes from the contem- 
plation of prevalent calm. The time is 
" quiet as a Nun breathless with adoration," 
and a tranquil sunset is in progress, the 
great orb visibly and solemnly " sinking 

down." Thus the eternal motion illustrated 
in one grand expression of mysterious power 
is recognized and described, and then the 
eye turns and finds that " the gentleness of 
heaven broods o'er the Sea." Here there is 
nothing to suggest the force of individual 
virility in the expanse of waters, which on 
the other hand lies passive as it does when 
it prompts the poet elsewhere to delineate 

This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon, 
Motion, no doubt, there is, and it is easy to 
perceive it and to suggest its complementary 
relation to the other example of unwearied 
constancy revealed by the setting sun. 
Then the general impression is gathered up 
in the fervent exclamation : 

Listen ! the mighty Being is awake, 
And doth with nis eternal motion make 
A sound like thunder everlastingly. 

It is only the exceptional listener, he that 
has ears to hear, who can catch the signifi- 
cance of this cosmical wonder, and realize 
the harmony which intimately informs the 
whole creation. To such a privileged 
auditor, however with " a mind sustained 
by recognitions of transcendent power," 
as the poet says in one place the glorious 
strains inevitably come, imparting their 
solemn and uplifting message as with a 
voice of thunder. His best opportunities 
fall to him in solitary places, and his hearing 
is substantially aided by silence at once 
deep and undisturbed. It is then that he 
finds in Nature the lesson she is specially 
qualified and designed to convey, and 
perceives that her features and her forces 
are tokens of sweet and perfect order and 
beauty. Thus do responsive spirits awaken 
at the call and challenge which they should 
ignore at their peril, joyfully recognizing 
" a mastery " (as Wordsworth himself 
phrases it) to which they at once yield 
reverent attention. The devoted attitude 
of such rare and enraptured observers sug- 
gests to the poet a striking comparison in 
one of the notable passages of ' The Prelude.' 
They are, he exclaims, 

Like angels stopped upon the way by sound 
Of harmony from Heaven's remotest spheres. 

"BILLYCOCK" (10 S. ix. 27). I think 
billycocks were introduced some time during 
the forties of last century at least I do not 
recollect them earlier than that. They must 
not be confounded with " bowlers," or 
melons, as the French call them, of which I 
believe the polite name was originally " deer- 
stalker-hats." A billycock in the beginning 
was of black felt shaped after the fashion of a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. i, im 

pudding basin, soft as the pudding, and sur- 
rounded by unstiffened brims, which were 
slightly curved upwards, and of not incon- 
siderable width. ST. SWITHIN. 

Dr. Brewer in his 'Phrase and Fable' 
says that in his time the old-established 
hatters in the West End still called them 
Coke hats. But there is a striking absence 
of any reference to the year in which William 
Coke " decided that a hat said to have been 
originally designed by Wm. Bowler, a hatter 
in the Borough, would answer his require- 
ments." If we knew this, perhaps the 
existence at the time of a Mr. Bowler, hatter 
in Southwark, could be verified. It is also 
" stated on good authority " to have been 
invented by the father of the present Earl 
of Leicester, tha popularly known " Billy 
Coke " ; but who is this "good authority " ? 


Pepys in his diary for 3 June, 1667, 
writes : 

" I waited in the Treasury-chamber an hour or 
two, where we saw the County Receivers and 
Accountants for money come to attend ; and one of 
them, a brisk young fellow, with his hat cocked like 
a fool behind, as the present fashion among the 
blades is, committed to the Serjeant." 

The Rev. Mynors Bright in a note on this 
entry explains : 

"It was called the Monmouth cock, which, 
according to The Spectator, No. 129, was still worn 
in the west of England by country squires in 1711." 


10). Hamilton Place was built in 1805, 
on the site of Hamilton Street, which was 
called after Col. James Hamilton, Ranger of 
Hyde Park in the reign of Charles II. An 
entry from the Works Accounts of the Crown 
for 1693-94, quoted by Wheatley, shows 
that the few houses constituting the cul-de- 
sac known as Hamilton Street must have 
existed before 1693. The street remained 
an impasse until 19 June, 1871, and as such 
Wheatley speaks of it so late as 1870, in 
his ' Round about Piccadilly.' In 1871 
the end was opened into Park Lane, in order 
to relieve the traffic which rendered the 
Piccadilly end of Park Lane almost impass- 
able. This necessitated the pulling down 
of the east side (' London Past and Present '). 

In 1814 the great Duke of Wellington 
lived in Hamilton Place (at No. 4), and 
there he received the deputation of the 
Commons and the thanks of the nation for 
his services in the Peninsular War ; and in 

the same house was collected the valuable 
Grenville Library, of 20,000 volumes, 
which was bequeathed by the celebrated 
bibliophile the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville 
to the British Museum. A fine print of 
Hamilton Place, as it existed in 1802, may 
be seen in the Guildhall Library. 

It may be of interest to note that, of the 
seven houses of which Hamilton Place at 
present consists, five are occupied by Jewish 
social magnates. 


thanked for replies.! 

" BIDAXE," A FARM TOOL (10 S. viii. 251). 
Reference to Wright's ' English Dialect 
Dictionarj' ' will explain this term. Beataxe 
means in the dialects of Somerset, Devon, 
and Cornwall a pick or mattock for cutting 
turf ; it is also written " biddix " and 
" biddicks." Beat, the first part of the 
compound, is an old English word in use in 
Staffordshire, Oxfordshire, and Dorset, 
besides the above-named counties, signifying 
sod, or turf cut for burning ; and is merely 
the early spelling of our modern English 
" peat." This word, as Prof. Skeat shows 
in his ' Dictionary,' has no affinity with the 
verb " to strike," but is derived from A.-S. 
betan, to mend or replenish a fire, hence 
"fuel." N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

"CLOISTERER" (10 S. viii. 467). In the 
charge quoted at the above reference the 
word obviously means what we should now 
call choir-nuns, i.e., all the members of the 
community other than the lay sisters. I am 
surprised that the ' N.E.D.' takes no account 
of the word " choir-nun." 


CALENDAR RIMES (10 S. ix. 50). A very 
old story. For " friend " read " Finch " ; 
and then the lines will be found in Long- 
fellow's prose tale entitled ' Kavanagh,' 
chap, xxvii. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

The lines appear in the following form 
in the article ' Chronology ' in Gregory's 
' Dictionary of Arts and Sciences,' pub- 
lished in 1807 : 

At Dover Dwell George Brown, Esquire, 
Good Christopher Finch, and David Frier. 

The writer gives no hint as to whether they 
are original or taken from some other source. 
The ' Epitome of D.N.B.' under George 
Gregory (1754-1808) mentions the 'Dic- 
tionary of Arts and Sciences ' as having 
been published in 1808. It is in two volumes. 

10 s. ix. FEB. i, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


both of which bear the date 1807 on the 
title-page. JOHN T. KEMP. 

" George Brown " must be a near rela- 
tion of John Brown, for he still " goes 
marching on." He was in the service of 
' N. & Q.' as early as 3 S. ix. 469, and went 
through many campaigns, e.g., 5 S. i. 58, 
179 ; "? S. xii. 244, 353 ; 8 S. ii. 129, 168, 438, 
492. He has earned his discharge. 

W. C. B. 

thanked for replies.] 

46, 73). W. C. B. has been unfortunate in 
his experiences. Rare indeed must be the 
mincemeat or the Christmas pudding that is 
not founded on chopped suet ; and what 
are "plums " if not the currants and raisins 
which contribute to the flavour and the 
indigestibility of our Yuletide dainties ? 
Long years ago in Lincolnshire my grand- 
mother used to say that mincemeat, partly 
composed of flesh, porcine and internal, but 
I know not exactly what, resulted in minch 
pies ; whereas mince pies had beef suet as 
the sole animal contributary to their 
contents. ST. SWITHIN. 

I am with W. C. B. in his complaint about 
these Christmas-season dainties as made 
generally nowadays. My grandmothers and 
my mother made them in the old-fashioned 
Derbyshire style, and of later years though 
some changes in the method appear 
most of those I have partaken of up 
to the present are the concoction of an 
old lady " Darby shire born and Darby- 
shire bred." I well remember how, with 
a plate of cold plum pudding on my 
lap, it was possible, like " Little Jack 
Horner," to " put in my thumb, and pull 
out a plum " a large Valentia raisin, cooked 
to the size of a damson -plum, neither 
chopped nor shredded. Chopped fruits and 
peels were used, bub whole raisins were put 
in, so that, perhaps, plums might be pulled 

I find on making inquiry that in the plum 
puddings I have tasted in recent years there 
were raisins (two kinds), currants, figs, dates, 
lemon and citron peels, all chopped fine; and 
that in the mixture, with flour and suet, of 
ton to fourteen pounds, twenty-four fresh 
eggs were worked. Some, I am told, work 
in carrots to give colour, sugar and treacle 
providing the " sweetenin'." The whole- 
plum times are over, when boys and girls 
used to find pleasure in picking out the 
"stones" of the raisins, "flirting" them 

away with the finger and thumb just in the 
way apple pips are treated so as to ensure 
plums in puddings another day. 

Mince pies, besides the pastry portion, 
were a mixture of two or three kinds of 
boiled meats, raisins, currants, peels, apples, 
all chopped fine, sugar, honey, well worked 
together with cowslip wine the real 
home-made wine. This mixture constituted 
the "meat" with which the crusts were 
filled. It was a mixture that would keep 
for more than a year, and improve in 
flavour. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


Surely W. C. B. must have been most 
unfortunate in his choice of a confectioner. 
It would be hard luck indeed to have to 
submit to a plum pudding without any 
plums in it. I certainly have never come 
across such a fraud yet. May it be long ere 
I set my eyes upon him ! I am particularly 
fond of raisins, and cannot even imagine 
a Christmas pudding without them. They 
are undoubtedly conspicuous objects in all 
the receipts compounded annually in this 
part of the world. I invariably, too, 
find plums in my mince pies ; but the meat 
is mostly lacking. I have tasted them 
with minced beef amongst the ingredients, 
but certainly prefer them without it. There 
is a mince pie known in Northamptonshire 
as a " sweet-pie " or a " light-pie." It is 
often made at a pig-killing, and consists of 
the pig's lights boiled and chopped fine, to 
which are added plums, currants, chopped 
apples, sugar, and spice. This is fairly 
edible, but not, in my opinion, to be 
compared to the Christmas mince pie of the 
present day. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchiugton, Warwickshire. 

50). In 1814 Henry, Duke of Beaufort, 
married Georgiana Frederica, daughter of 
the Hon. Henry Fitzroy: she died 11 May, 

1821, and his grace married secondly, in 

1822, Emily Frances, his first wife's half- 
sister, she being the daughter of Charles 
Culling Smith by the widow of Henry Fitz- 
roy. Lord Lyndhurst's Act was not passed 
specially to apply to this marriage, though 
it is probable it had its influence, 
marriage, though not void, was voidable by 
sentence of an ecclesiastical court pro- 
nounced during the lifetime of both parties ; 
and the Act provided that marriages be- 
tween persons within the prohibited degrees 
of affinity which were solemnized before 
31 Aug., 1835, were not to be annulled for 
that cause, but that all such marriages (in- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. i, im 

eluding those within similar degrees of con- 
sanguinity) solemnized after that date were 
to be absolutely void. J. B. P. 

. Henry Somerset, seventh Duke of 
Beaufort (1792-1853), married secondly, 
on 29 June, 1822, Emily Frances, daughter 
of Charles Culling Smith. She was his first 
wife's half-sister, both ladies being daughters 
of Anne, sister of the great Duke of Welling- 
ton. This marriage, being within the " pro- 
hibited degrees of affinity," was voidable by 
sentence of the Ecclesiastical Court. No 
such sentence was passed, and the voidability 
was annulled by the Act of 1835, from which 
date, however, all such marriages were 
declared to be absolutely void. Such 
marriages were legalized by the Act of 1907. 

"NiGH HAND" IN THE 'N.E.D.' (10 S. 
ix. 6). I should certainly not hyphen " nigh 
hand." The hyphen serves no purpose, 
unless it is intended to inform an ignorant 
reader that the words are to be pronounced 
as one. If so, why not spell it at once 
" nighhand " ? The ordinary reader does 
not care about the origin of the words, and 
the scholar knows. RALPH THOMAS. 

" Nigh hand " hereabout is used in various 
ways. " Gain-hand " runs it closely in some 
meanings. Some pronounce the compound 
ni'-nd, and it is used incases where someone 
barely escapes an accident. It also is used 
for "near " or "close by." 



I regret that in my former note I 
inadvertently wrote nigh'd for nigh'nd. 
I have seen this localism printed nynd, 
but it is undoubtedly a contraction of 
" nigh hand," for sometimes one hears it 
spoken as " nigh' and," with a strong accent 
on the first word. Usually, however, it is 
heard as nigh'nd. C. C. B. 

MACKENZIE (10 S. viii. 469, 510; ix. 31). 
The obituary notice of Colin Mackenzie 
appeared in The Times on 26 Nov., 1851, 
p. 6. I am not aware that he left any 
memoirs or diary. 

Though it is 100 years since the event, 
one thing is absolutely certain. Mackenzie 
himself gave the story of the interview as 
I related it. Unfortunately, no king's 
counsel can cross-examine him now. What 
reward he received for his most plucky feat 
I do not know. It is, however, a well- 

known fact that secret services of this kind 
are usually paid for out of secret-service 1 
funds, and not publicly acknowledged. If 
the suggestion of MR. W. R. PRIOR is correct, 
that a Russian officer aided Mackenzie, this 
quite accounts for the secrecy observed 
afterwards. E. C. MACKENZIE. 

449 ; ix. 57). A Virginian clergyman (the 
Rev. A. B. Tizzard, of Chesterfield County) 
records the case of a negro woman in 1868 
giving birth to a child in her fifty-first year, 
she never having had a child previously. 
This is an almost unique instance of the 
birth of a child to a pure-blooded negress 
at such an advanced age. A medical man 
who has spent over forty years in the " black 
belt " of the U.S.A. states that he has never 
known a black woman to have a child after 
the age of forty-five. I can, however, recall 
several instances of children being born to 
women of mixed blood (half negro and half 
white) who had attained that age, though 
I am told this, too, is extremely unusual. 

A case is cited in Norwich, England 
(' Strange Occurrences and Remarkable 
Events,' no date), of 

"a woman named Martha Neal, who remained 
unwed till she had attained the great age of sixty- 
one, and who eight months after her marriage at 
that age had a female child, very strong and well- 
formed, who lived to extreme old age." 


To the instances of women bearing 
children when past the age of fifty may be 
added that of the mother of the Rev. 
Richard Cecil. In the memoir of the latter 
by the Rev. Josiah Pratt the following 
passage occurs : 

" Mr. C. was born after his Mother was fifty years 

i old, and after an interval of ten years had elapsed 
since the birth of her preceding child. It is worthy 
of remark that, during her travail with this child 
of her old age, her heart was overwhelmed with 

' sorrow. Her years, and other circumstances not 
necessary to be here mentioned, raised in her mind 
the most terrific apprehensions. Yet this child was. 
the comfort and the honour of her latter days ! " 


viii. 368, 392, 438). Surely the Canadian 
College of Arms, of which Viscount Forsyth 
de Fronsac is " Herald-Marshall," is but a 
private institution, and in no sense official. 
I thought that it was recognized that only 
one French Canadian title had survived to 
the present day, viz., that of Baron de- 
Longueuil. So ' Debrett ' says. Q. 

10 s. ix. FEB. i, 1908.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


vii. 344). My statement that " there is 
nothing dubious about the well - known 
mezzotint of Miss Kennedy by T. Watson 
after Reynolds " appears to be somewhat 
premature. According to Bromley's ' Cata- 
logue,' p. 439, the portrait represents 
"Polly (?) Jones, alias Kennedy," and thus, 
even in the year 1793, there was some 
doubt about her real name. A further 
attempt to identify the picture was made 
in the ' Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds,' by 
Leslie and Taylor, i. 394-8, where the lady 
is called Polly Kennedy, and a picturesque 
description is given of her successful en- 
deavours to save her two brothers from the 
gallows. This work, however, is not always 
accurate in these matters ; and after examin- 
ing a great many contemporary accounts of 
the case of Mathew and Patrick Kennedy, I 
have discovered that the name of the sister 
who struggled so bravely to obtain their 
pardon was not Polly (or rather Mary), but 
Catherine. Thus, if the well known engrav- 
ing by Thomas Watson after Reynolds of 
the lady in the Eastern dress, and holding 
a handkerchief in her right hand, is really a 
portrait of the heroine who interceded for 
her brothers, its inscription should read 
" Miss Kitty Kennedy." 

Still, it is not at all certain that it does 
represent this lady. About that period 
there were several Miss Kennedys among 
the frail sisterhood. It will be remembered 
that in 1763 Lord Pembroke gave a list of 
courtesans to Casanova in which there were 
three women of this name (' Memoires de 
Jacques Casanova,' Bruxelles, 1871, v. 445). 
Moreover, Reynolds painted the picture in 
question for Sir Charles Bunbury, and I 
have failed to discover any evidence for 
the presumption that he was a cher ami 
of Kitty Kennedy. Among her admirers 
were Lord Robert Spencer, John St. John, 
Lord Fife, and Lord Suffolk ; but I have 
never seen her name mentioned in connexion 
with Bunbury. 

There was another famous courtesan 
named Polly Kennedy, who lived in 
Great Russell Street, and who, after being 
before the public for a space of ten or 
twelve years, reached the height of her 
fame about 1772. She had been the mistress 
of Ned Shuter, and was renowned for her 
avarice. As Reynolds' s picture appears to 
represent a fully matured woman, who 
may at least have reached the age of 
thirty, it is quite possible that it is a portrait 
of this Polly Kennedy. Still, it would be 
rash to insist upon the conjecture until 

it is certain that in 1770 she helped to 
console Sir Charles Bunbury for the loss 
of his faithless Lady Sarah. The only 
thing of which we can be sure is that if 
it really does represent a lady who bore 
the name of Polly Kennedy, it is not a 
portrait of the woman who saved the lives 
of her two brothers. 

I have nothing to add to my remarks 
about Polly Jones. She was a distinct 
personality from either of the Miss Kennedys 
whom I have mentioned, and because of 
her connexion with Lord Bolingbroke, and 
her loves and quarrels with the King's 
brother, Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumber- 
land, was quite as celebrated as either of 
those ladies. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

viii. 507 ; ix. 57). A writer in an antiquarian 
journal claims that the portable tabernacle 
was certainly in use in this country in the 
fifteenth century. If so, I have been unable 
to find it referred to in any inventory of 
church goods so far. The siispensio in the 
form of a dove was probably in use in most, 
if not all, conventual churches before the 
sixteenth century ; and where that was 
not used, the reserved sacrament was pre- 
sumably kep in the aumbry. A writer 
in The Westminster Cathedral Chronicle, 
vol. ii. No. 1, says : 

' The portable tabernacle placed on the altar- 
is known to have been in use in some parts of 
France in the fifteenth century ; but it was obvi- 
ously wanting in security, and in 1457 the Bishop 
of Grenoble ordered the reserve in his diocese to be 
henceforth kept in an aumbry to be formed in the 
wall of the apse." 

The same writer says further that " in Ger- 
many and some other European countries 
a number of ancient aumbries still serve 
their original purpose." It would be inter- 
esting to know how many of these aumbries 
are still in existence in Pre-Reformation 
Churches, and what tradition remains as to 
their former use. 


reference to the ' Crown Presentations to 
Livings ' printed in the Sussex Archaeological 
Collections, vol. xxi. (not xxiii.), may I point 
out that the " Chantry of the Chapel in the 
King's manor " refers to Maresfield, and not 
to Northiam ? 

The compiler of the list of Crown pre- 
sentations was at fault in identifying 
" Ihamme " as Northiam, for the latter 
place was known at that period as " Nord- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. FEB. i, im 

It is difficult now to identify "Ihamme," 
but it is presumably in the parish of 
Icklesham. A good deal of information will 
be found in Cooper's ' History of Winchel- 
sea,' London, 1850. THEODOBE CRAIB. 

' KITTY FISHER'S JIG' (10 S. ix. 50). 
From S. J. Adair Fitzgerald's ' Stories of 
Famous Songs,' pp. 114-17, 1 copy the follow- 
ing : 

"In the Illustrated LondonNews for February 16th 
and March 1st, 1856, it is authoritatively stated that 
' Yankee Doodle ' was based upon ' Kitty Fisher's 
Jig.' This jig is to be found in Walsh's ' Collection 
of Dances,' published in 1745, and is there associated 
with the well-known nursery rhyme : 
Lucy Locket lost her pocket, 

Kitty Fisher found it, 
Not a penny was there in 't, 

Only binding round it. 

' Fisher's Jig,' besides being in Walsh's ' Dances, 
reappears in Thomson & Sons' ' Twenty - Four 
Country Dances,' 1760, and again in 1773. A meri- 
torious version of the song was written by one 
J. S. Fessenden, ' Original Poems,' 1804, but there 
are forty-eight stanzas. Indeed, to go into the 
subject fully a volume would be required to be 


TEENTH CENTURY (10 S. ix. 50). Corre- 
spondents requiring information upon pre- 
Victorian literature would often save time 
and trouble by first consulting Lowndes's 
' Manual ' or my Indices to ' B.P.C.' Appa- 
rently, on p. 275 of Lowndes appears the 
book above sought for : 

"British Biography from Wickliffto the Pre- 
sent Time, 1766-73. [Edited by Joseph Towers.] 
10 vols., 8vo. Afterwards reprinted by a syndicate, 
including T. Longman." 

Other most useful works for that particular 
century are as follow : 

Bayle (Peter), 'Critical and Historical Dictionary.' 
1734-7, 5 vols., folio. 

'Biographia Britannica,' 1778-93, 7 vols., folio. 

Chalmers, ' General Biographical Dictionary,' 1812- 
1817, 32 vols., 8vo. 

Noorthouck (John), 'Historical and Classical Dic- 
tionary,' 1776, 2 vols., 8vo. 

Doubtless these may all be seen at any good 
public library possessing a capable librarian. 


SUIRDALE (10 S. ix. 28). I happen to have 
some documents which concern the ancestors 
of the Donoughmores, and relate the way 
in which Knocklofty passed into their 
possession. If H. B. R. will send me his 
private address, I will endeavour to find 
them and forward them for his perusal next 

July. The house where they are stored 
is let till that date. 

(Miss) K. BATHURST. 
Dromenagh, Freshwater Bay, I. of W. 

(10 S. viii. 509). The following is a copy of 
the patent granted "de anno sexto Caroli 
Regis " (Part 10, n. 2) : 

" Soap. R. xvij die Decembris icon Rob'to Carver, 
Georgio Gage, Will'o Russell mil., Thome Russell,. 
Thome Hicks, Andre Palmer, Edw' Stradling et 
Ric'o Weston, mil., priviledge to make hard 
soape and softe soape, Soape Ashes or Potashes, 
w th the materialls of this Kingdome p' termino- 
xiiij. Annos." 



ArchtKologia JEliana ; or, Miscellaneous Tract* 
relating to Antiquity. Published by the Society 
of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Third 
Series, Vol. III. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Andrew 
Reid & Co.) 

THIS issue of the Archceologia sEliana is a treasure- 
house of historic information. It does not contain 
a single article that is poor of its kind, and some 
are of a high degree of excellence. The authorities, 
who are responsible by no means confine them- 
selves to the remote past, but give at times solid 
information on what may be called a remote present,, 
when art and archaeology are intimately connected 
therewith. Mr. Richard Welford's interesting paper 
on the three Richardsons is a case in point. 

Mr. Welford has also contributed what must 
have been a work of great labour, an essay on ' The 
Typography of Newcastle from 1639 to 1800.' It 
contains in the first place biographical information 
concerning all the Newcastle printers who have- 
practised their art between the above dates, and a 
list, so far as is known, of all the books issued by 
them. We cannot assume that this catalogue i* 
absolutely complete, but are not able to point out a 
single omission, although we think there must be 
some, even among the books properly so called, for 
we know well how often pamphlets which relate- 
to some passing excitement, even in these days, 
perish utterly. When we call to mind those- 
issues of the printers that are not properly books, 
such as ballads, broadsides, and chapbooks, we feel 
that the whole stock cannot yet nave been gar- 
nered. A great work has, however, been accom- 
plished, and we have no doubt noM' that a 
foundation has not only been laid, but the structure 
also rendered almost complete the little that 
has escaped discovery will be registered as time 
goes on. 

On the 1st of January, 1747, The Newcastle General 
Magazine, appeared, and was continued to the end 
of 1760. The prospectus is here reprinted. It is 
an instructive document, showing as it does how 
different were the lives of our forefathers, so far as 
things literary were concerned, from our own. We 
are told, for example, that the London magazines- 
did not arrive at their destination " at soonest 

.10 s. ix. FEB. 1,1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


before the 13th and frequently the 20th Days of the 
succeeding Month for which they are published, and 
the carriers from the Northern Counties and North 
Britain not coming to this town till the week after 
their Arrival here, it frequently happens that great 
numbers of Country Readers never see anv of these 
Pamphlets till near a Month after their Publication, 
by which delay some Parts of their Contents are 
quite stale, and the rest less acceptable." The first 
printing-press known to have been established at 
Newcastle was that of Robert Baker, the King's 
printer. On 29 May, 1639, Charles I. arrived at 
Newcastle on his lamentable career towards Scot- 
land, and Baker arrived about the same time Mr. ! 
Welford thinks a day or two earlier. He at once 
printed a royal proclamation for distribution. ! 
There must have been, one would think, a large j 
issue, but only one copy is now known to be in : 
existence : it is to be seen in the Public Record ! 

Mr. Bradshaw's paper on ' The Black Death in 
the Palatinate of Durham' is, so far as we are 
aware, the first investigation relating to that 
terrible scourge as it affected the extreme north of 
England. The information is compiled almost 
solely from evidence furnished by contemporary 
manuscripts. The plague entered the Palatinate 
in or about July, 1349. By what route it made its 
way is uncertain. The natural course for it to take 
would be by the great highways, and in that case 
the people of Darlington or Stockton would have 
been the first victims ; but Mr. Bradshaw, doubt- 
less with good reason, thinks it " entered by the 
sea, either at Sunderland or Hartlepool, probably 
the former." Durham seems to have suffered quite 
as much as the rest of England. Ws trust that the 
author will find time to give a fuller account than 
we have now before us. The unrivalled series of 
records preserved at Durham must furnish many 
details such as we may look for in vain elsewhere. 

' North-Country Arms of the Sixteenth Century,' 
from a manuscript formerly in the collection of 
' Sir Thomas Phillipps, edited by Mr. C. H. Blair, is 
a valuable contribution to Northern heraldry. The 
date of the manuscript cannot be definitely arrived 
at. We conjecture that it was produced somewhat 
early in the reign of Henry VIII. The notes given 
are perhaps sometimes too short, but are of great 
value so far as they go. As is natural, the armorial j 
insignia of Henry, fifth Earl of Northumberland, > 
are more elaborately treated than those of lesser j 
men. Crests are given in some cases. We find ' 
them in the case of Bellingham, Tunstall, FitzHugh, | 
Conyers, and Dacre ; but they do not occur in many 
other families, of which Norton, Darcy, Grey, ] 
Heron, and Lilburne may be quoted as examples. 
The shield of Ogle quarters Bertram of Bothal, Or, 
an orle azure, the same as Baliol, with a difference 
of tincture. Is this a mark of blood-kinship, which 
was really the case, or merely of feudal tenure? 
The Bertrams of Elswick, Northumberland, who 
suffered much for their royalism under the Common- 
wealth, bore the same arms ; but their descent from 
the Bothal race has, we believe, never been satis- 
factorily demonstrated. 

THE seventieth edition of the Peerage and 
Baronetage by Sir Bernard Burke and his son 
Mr. Ashworth P. Burke, and published by Messrs. 
Harrison & Sons, has reached us. It is impossible 
hero to go into the details of the information 
contained in this monumental volume, and the 
public will trust the learned authors of the work for 

its general accuracy. However, we may note that 
after a short inspection we discovered that the title 
and lineage of Baron Davey remain in the volume, 
although he died early last year and his title became 
extinct. The armorial bearings also are not 
reproduced with the same clearness as heretofore, 
many of them being apparently from very rough 
woodcuts. Examples of what we mean may be 
seen in the arms of Dundas of Amis ton, Clifford 
of Flaxbourne, Broadbent, Brocklebank, and 
Alexander of Dublin. By the way the last- 
mentioned baronet seems to have completely 
changed his crest of late, and to have abandoned 
that borne by the Caledon branch of his family and 
the extinct Earls of Stirling. The volume contains 
notices of two extinct Reid baronetcies. Why are 
not these relegated to Mr. Ashworth Burke' 
excellent work devoted to extinct honours ? 

The whole is well indexed, and wears, as usual, 
its lordly dress of scarlet and gold ; but we doubt 
if the binding will stand the strain of such a huge 
mass of paper. As time goes on, peers multiply, 
and lineages grow longer, and since 1897 the pages 
have increased in number from 1,838 to 2,486. We 
suggest that it would be wise to make two volumes 
of the work, as is done in the case of the ' Landed 

Lodye's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage for 
1908, published by Kelly's Directories, is this year 
edited by Sir Arthur E. Vicars, Ulster King at 
Arms, whose name is a guarantee for sound and 
efficient work in all heraldic matters. This is the 
seventy-seventh issue of Lodge, a handsome volume 
with many advantages. It includes the work called 
till 1902 ' Foster's Peerage,' from that well-known 
genealogist. In this issue the editor has given 
special attention to coat armour, and many new 
blocks have been drawn for the illustrations which 
have been a valuable and special feature of Lodge 
for years. The editor issues i caveat regarding the 
bearing by some baronets of arms which are not 
legally recorded. The issue of Knights is specially 
included, and we have pleasure in stating that 
close scrutiny of details has shown remarkable 
accuracy. An interesting section deals with 
'Peerages which have become Dormant, Ex- 
tinct, or Abeyant since 1878,' and includes many 
notable names, such as those of Beaconsfield, Bowen, 
Brampton, and Leighton. One pleasing feature of 
the volume is that the advertisements are quite 
distinct from the text. In too many annuals of 
to-day this is not so. Altogether, this comely 
volume, in its coat of red and gold, is a worthy record 
of the " sommiteV of to-day. 

THE January issue of The Reliquary, now under 
the editorship of Dr. Cox, is a strong number. 
'The Rubens Tapestries at Bramshill' 'The 
Ancient Capital of Findland,' and ' Some Interest- 
ing Essex Brasses ' are all well-illustrated articles 
of merit. There are some capable signed and un- 
signed reviews of books ; and a summary of recent 
literature of a kind likely to attract readers of 
The Rdiqiiary promises to be a very useful feature. 
This month, as is natural with a novelty, the proofs 
have escaped their due amount of correction. 
' Items and Comments' covers a wide field with 
success, and is piquant as well as informative. 

The Clergy Directory for 1908 (J. S. Phillips) is ft 
valuable record which will also serve as a K " 61 "*} 
book of reference to parishes. It is well and 
accurately printed. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. i, 


MR, THOMAS BAKER'S Catalogue 520 contains 
choice sets under Chrysostom, the Henry Brad- 
shaw Society, Suarez, &c. A magnificent copy of 
Philo-Judaeus, 2 vols., royal folio, from the library 
of the Duke of Sutherland, is 101. 10.s. In addition to 
the usual divinity to be found in Mr. Baker's cata- 
logues, there are in this many general items, in- 
cluding ' The Irving Shakespeare,' 21. 2s. ; Morris's 
' British Birds,' 4. 5s. ; the ' New English Dic- 
tionary,' vols. i.-iii., 31. 10s. ; Miss Bradley s ' Annals 
of Westminster Abbey,' \l. \s. ; Keats, Buxtpn 
Forman's edition, 4 vols., royal 8vo, 21. ; and ' Pic- 
turesque Palestine,' edited by Sir Charles Wilson, 
11. 10s. 

We have received from Messrs. J. J. Leighton 
the thirteenth part of their valuable Catalogue of 
Early Printed Books and Manuscripts. The oeau- 
ti fully executed illustrations many of them the 
size of the originals add much to the value of this 
carefully compiled list, which, although it reaches 
only to Chr-, already numbers over seven thousand 
five hundred items. To whatever page we turn, 
we find rarities and first editions. We note just a 
few of the principal contents. First of all, under 
Candidus Appianus, come the ' Historia Romdna ' 
And 'De Bellis Civilibus,' Ratdolt, 1477. A note 
abates that these are "two of the finest specimens 
of early typography ever done, with most artistic 
borders ana initials, the earliest books so decorated." 
Redgrave is quoted as saying, "To my mind there 
Are few printed books of any age which can be com- 
pared with the Appian of 1477." The price is 267. 
Many notable entries occur under Chronicles. The 
isecond edition of 'Bergomensis Supplementum 
Chronicarum,' 1485, is SI. 3s. ; and the rare edition 
of 1490, 101. 10s. Another scarce item is the first 
edition of both volumes of Froissart (the title of 
vol. i. missing), London, Pynson, 1523-5, 24. Hig- 
den's ' Policrouicon,' Westminster, Wynkyn de 
Worde, 1495, is 90/. This contains the earliest 
example of music printed in England, and it was 
reproduced in ' Facsimiles of Early Printed Books 
in the British Museum,' 1897. There is another 
copy of Hidden, the 1527 edition, a very fine and 
perfect original example, 701. Dibdin says the title- 
page is "perhaps the most magnificent of which the 
early annals of English printing can boast." Among 
French Chronicles is a MS. of the fifteenth century, 
' L'Histoire du Monde,' 35 large painted and illu- 
minated miniatures, 901. Under Catherine of Alex- 
andria is 'La Deuota Rapresentatione di Santa 
Catherina.' The Sacra Kappresentazione, which 
corresponds to the French mystere and the English 
miracle play, acquired a special development in 
Florence, all the narratives of the Old and New 
Testament and the legends of the saints being 
adapted. This one is dated Firenze, 1554, and is 
357. ' Mer des Histoires' is the first edition of the 
French version of the 'Rudimenta Noviciorum.' 
It is stated to be one of the finest books ever 
printed in France, and bears the imprint of "Paris, 
Pierre le Rouge pour Vincent Commin, 1488," 80/. 
<a copy sold in 1901 for 3051. by public auction). 
There are also Carthusian Missals, and a number of 
fine specimens of bindings, English. French, Ger- 
man, Italian, and Netherlands. We are glad to 
see that efforts are being made to interest people in 
the subject of old bindings. On Thursday, Janu- 
ary 23rd, Mr. Cyril Davenport gave a lecture at 

Brighton on ' Royal English Bookbindings,' illus- 
trated by beautiful lantern-slides taken and coloured 
by himself. 

Mr. W. M. Murphy sends from Liverpool his 
Catalogue 132, which opens with the Times re- 
print of Punch, 91. 9*. (issued at 201. net), and 
Lubbock's ' Hundred Best Books,' 51. Other works 
include Blagdon's 'India,' 1805, 5/. 5s. (the first 
edition, and containing 68 coloured engravings) ; 
two copies of the Edition de Luxe of Stauiiton's 
' Shakespeare ' in 15 vols. (one in original cloth, 
51. 5s. ; the second, bound in tree calf, 101. 10s.) ; 
Nash's ' Mansions,' 4 vols. in 1, folio, morocco extra, 
4/. 4s. ; Sandford's ' Genealogical History of the 
Kings of England,' first edition, 1677, 4/. 10s. : 
Scott's 'Border Antiquities,' 2 vols., large 4to, 
contemporary morocco extra, first edition, 1813, 
11. 15s.; a set of Surtees's sporting novels, 6 vols., 
half-morocco, 4. 15s. ; and Jameson's ' Legends of 
the Madonna,' first edition, 1852, 11. 5s. Under 
Dickens are first editions, and Overs's ' Evenings 
of a Working-Man,' with Dickens's preface, 1844, 
18s. There are items under Occult ; and a collec- 
tion of pamphlets relating to Queen Caroline, 
Byron. &c., 1816-24, &. 8s. A printed list of these 
will be forwarded on application to Mr. Murphy. 

THERE is in preparation a series of notes to the 
' Calendar of Cambridge Wills, 1501-1765,' recently 
published, giving abstracts from the same. The 
work will be issued in 4to, only 75 copies being 
printed, all numbered. The work is dedicated by 
special permission to the Right Hon. Sir J. Gorell 

to Comspontonts. 

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Being Histories of the Anchorites, Recluses, Coenobites, Monks, 
and Ascetic Fathers of the Deserts of Egypt between A.D. CCL. 
and A.D. CCOO. circiter. 

Compiled by ATHANASIUS, Archbishop of Alexandria ; PALLADIUS, Bishop of Helenopolis ;. 
SAINT JEROME, and others. Now Translated out of the Syriac, with Notes and Introduction, 
by ERNEST A. WALLIS BUDGE, M.A. Litt.D. D.Litt., Keeper of the Assyrian and 
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These volumes will for the first time make available for the general English reader the famous- 
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works of the greatest intrinsic value as a record of manners and of the social dispensations of the 
Eremites and Ascetics of the Egyptian Desert, even apart from their equally strong religious and 
historical interest as a light upon early Alexandrian Christianity. 

Globe. " Will delight all lovers of the Oriental who are fortunate enough to obtain these volumes. 
The translations are prefaced by an explanatory introduction at once learned and interesting, and just 
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10 s. ix. FEB. s, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 215. 

Keats, Cortes, and Balboa Seventeenth-Century Travel- 
ling " Humming Ale" Perry : the Beverage, 107. 

QUERIES : Fabian Society Vanden-Bempde Family 
" What you but see when you haven't a gun "Counting 
bringing Ill-Luck Rogers on a Highland Fortress Rings 
on Houses Col. Conyers Darcye's Regiment St. Austin's 
Church : Archbishop Whitgif t, 108 'That Reminds Me ' 
-'The Watch at the Sepulchre ' " Truckee " Powlett 
of Sombourn Canals in Naval Warfare 'The Dandy's 
Ball ' Paravicini of Nottingham, 109 'Hartly House, 
Calcutta ' : Allusions" Petits Chevaux,"a Game Capt. 
Joseph Wiargins Charlton Thruppe Yale University Seal 
Mayo of Poulshot, 110 Hull Railway Report, 111. 

^REPLIES : The Winston Shakespeare Portrait Mrs. Julia 
Stretton, 111 Vicomte de Cre'mail Coleridge on ' Christa- 
bel,' 112 Raine Island Salarino, Salanio, and Salerio 
Cold Harbour Lane Authors Wanted Nonjurors : Rev. 
Benjamin Way, 113 Index of Place-Names The Perreau 
Brothers and Mrs. Rudd St. Andrew's Cross Name- 
Puzzle in Early Spenser The Minor Inns of Court^- 
"Ecrivez les injures," 114 "Spellicans" "Parsley 
Peel "Joseph Hume's Ancestry ' Esmond ' : Slip of the 
Pen "Father of his Country " Rotherhithe, 115 Sir 
Henry Docwra Casanova in England " Port arms" 
Ijife in Bombay Giffords of King Somborne, 116 Crema- 
tion in 1769 Wentworth Day Mince Pie and Plum 
Pudding, 117 Crowe Family Two Old Proverbs Origin 
of the Gordon Tartan Motherhood late in Life, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-The Oxford Dictionary' The King 
over the Water 'Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



WILLIAM HAZLITT is at length coming into 
his own. He once wrote of authors that 
" we pay them easily with contempt while 
living, and with an epitaph when dead." 
To some extent this was true in his own 
case ; but Gifford probably has forgotten 
his hatred of Hazlitt by this time, and the 
personalities of BlackwoocTs have long lost 
their sting so far as Hazlitt is concerned. 
He is no longer considered with contempt ; 
and even his original epitaph of forty-one 
lines has been replaced by one of few and 
suitable words. 

Some day, from out the group of Hazlitt 
students, will come one with a life of his 
hero which shall be just yet sympathetic, 
appreciative but reasonable, in which we 
shall see the man freed from the cobwebs 
of misrepresentation and half-truths, his 
individuality clearly defined, and the results 
of his ill-health and consequent peevishness 
treated with tact and discrimination. Even 
his susceptibility to the charms of the 
opposite sex shall have due consideration, 

and the question of temperament and cir- 
cumstances shall not be forgotten. And all 
through this satisfying estimate of William 
Hazlitt, to which we look forward, shall 
run like a golden thread the remembrance 
of Lamb's confession : 

" I should belie my own conscience if I said less 
than that I think W. H[azlitt] to be, in his natural 
and healthy state, one of the wisest and finest 

spirits breathing I think I shall go to my grave 

without finding, or expecting to find, such another 

Meanwhile, some trifling errors current 
in the world of letters might be corrected. 
For instance, there is the story of Hazlitt' s 
infatuation for the heiress of Norman Court, 
which may be briefly stated. Before his 
marriage to Sarah Stoddart, of Salisbury, 
and his consequent settlement in the neigh- 
bouring village of Winterslow in 1808, 
Hazlitt had made the acquaintance of the 
Hon. Charles Windham, the owner of 
Norman Court, near Winterslow, where he 
lived with his only daughter, the heiress 
to the estate, with whom Hazlitt fell in love. 
Such a connexion was not looked upon with 
favour by the lady's friends, and Miss Wind- 
ham was afterwards married to Charles 
Baring Wall, M.P., who thus became 
possessed of the Norman Court property. 
With such a story is connected a certain 
kindness (?) mentioned by Hazlitt' s son in 
1836. It appears that Charles Baring Wall, 
when he heard that Hazlitt, having parted 
from his wife, was staying at Winterslow 
Hutt, offered him " a home at Norman 
Court, unrestricted and unintruded upon." 

It is generally considered that Hazlitt's 
fine apostrophe to the woods of Tuderley 
contains direct reference to his Norman 
Court romance. The passage, to be found 
in the ' Table-Talk ' essay ' On the Past and 
Future,' written in 1820, is as follows : 

" Ye woods that crown the clear lone brow of 
Norman Court, why do I revisit ye so oft, and feel 
a soothing consciousness of your presence, but that 
your high tops waving in the wind recall to me the 
hours and years that are for ever fled, that ye renew 
in ceaseless murmurs the story of long-cherished 
hopes and bitter disappointment, that in your soli- 
tudes and tangled wilds I can wander and lose 
myself as I wander on and am lost in the solitude 
of my own heart ; and that as your rustling branches 
give the loud blast to the waste below borne on 
the thought of other years, I can look dow n with 
patient anguish at the cheerless desolation w hich I 
Feel within ! Without that face pale as the prim- 
rose, with hyacinthine looks, for ever shunning and 
for ever haunting me, mocking my waking thoughts 
as in a dream, without that smile which my heart 
could never turn to scorn, without those eyes, dark 
with their own lustre, still bent on mine, and draw- 
ing the soul into their liquid mazes like a sea of 
love, without that name trembling in fancy's ear, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rio s. ix. FEB. s, im 

without that form gliding before me like Oread or 
Dryad in fabled groves, what should I do, how pass 
away the listless leaden-footed hours ? Then wave, 
wave on, ye woods of Tuderley, and lift your high 
tops in the air ; my sighs and vows uttered by your 
mystic voice breathe into me my former being, and 
enable me to bear the thing I am ! " 

Pulsating as this passage is with wild 
lament, considered dispassionately it resolves 
itself into nothing other than the poetic 
outpouring of a sensitive mind revelling 
in an englamoured past. One need not 
necessarily read into it any specific Miss 

Now, Hazlitt we know to have been 
foolish enough in at least one of his love- 
affairs, but I cannot think of him as so 
entirely destitute of manliness as to have 
wandered, " mooning about," in the woods 
of Norman Court, playing the part of a 
disconsolate lover under the very eyes not 
only of the object of his affection, but also 
of the successful suitor of her own social 
rank to whom she was wedded. And it 
seems improbable that the husband of the 
woman loved by Hazlitt should have 
proffered the rejected lover a share of the 
home of himself and his wife. 

As I grew to question the story, I sought 
for evidence for or against. First, I looked 
for the record of the Windham ownership 
of Norman Court, to get at the approximate 
date of Hazlitt' s infatuation, and the fol- 
lowing is what I found : 

In 1700 the estate of Norman Court was 
the property of Richard Whithed, whose 
daughter Mary married Alexander Thistle- 
thwayte (b. 1686, d. 1728). 

In 1733 Richard Whithed, son of the 
above-named Richard, died, and the estate 
passed to his nephew, Francis Thistle- 
thwayte (b. 1719, d. 1751), who assumed 
the name of Whithed. 

His successor was his brother the Rev. 
Robert Thistlethwayte, D.D. (b. 1720, 
d. 1767), of Norman Court, Hants, and 
Conduit Street, London. 

On his death, his son Robert Thistle- 
thwayte (b. 1755, d. 1803) succeeded to the 

Next came Thomas Thistlethwayte, son 
of the last named, who, in 1807, sold the 
property to Charles Wall (b. 1756, d. 1815), 
whose wife was Harriet (b. 1768, d. 1838), 
eldest daughter of Sir Francis Baring, Bart. 

Charles Wall was succeeded by his only 
child, Charles Baring Wall (b. 1795), who 
died, unmarried, in 1853, the estate then 

Eassing into the possession of the family of 
is mother, the Barings. 
The occupation of Norman Court since 

1853 is a matter of modern history, and 
unnecessary to record here in connexion 
with Hazlitt, who died in 1830. 

Thus, as readers will see, the story as 
we have it of Hazlitt' s Norman Court love- 
affair fails for the following reasons : 

1. No Windham, with an only daughter as. 
heiress, ever possessed Norman Court. 

2. Charles Baring Wall not only did not 
marry Miss Windham, the heiress of Norman 
Court, but lived and (as a matter of course > 
died unmarried. 

3. Instead of acquiring Norman Court 
through marriage, Charles Baring Wall 
inherited it from his father. 

To any one determined to weave some 
Hazlitt romance round Norman Court and its- 
Tuderley woods the following data are 
offered : 

In October, 1803, when Robert Thistle- 
thwayte of Norman Court died, he left an 
only daughter, Elizabeth, then eighteen 
years of age, who died unmarried in 1837. 
In this same October, 1803, Hazlitt was 
in his twenty-sixth year and an itinerant 
portrait - painter, having returned nine 
months previously from Paris and his art 
studies in the Louvre. 

In September, 1803, Mary Lamb advised 
Sarah Stoddart of Salisbury (afterwards 
Hazlitt' s wife) to " drop all correspondence 
with William " (Hazlitt). 

In 1807 the Thistlethwaytes sold Norman 
Court, and in May, 1808, Hazlitt, having 
married Sarah Stoddart, settled at Winters- 
low, within sight of the " waving " woods 
of Norman Court. 

From the autumn of 1818 to the end of 
his life, Hazlitt, when he needed rest, used 
to take up his abode at the " Pheasant " Inn, 
Winterslow Hutt, where he wrote some of 
his best essays. J. ROGERS REES. 

(See ante, p. 1.) 

26. Wilkes and Waithman Obelisks, Lud- 
gate Circus. The former commemorates 
John Wilkes, Lord Mayor of London in 
1775 ; and the latter was erected to the 
memory of Alderman Waithman on 25 June,. 

27. Statues on Holborn Viaduct. Each 
of the four external abutment piers of the 
Viaduct supports a block of polished granite 
continued up so as to form a pedestal. On 
each of these is a bronze statue, which thus 
appears to be surmounting the parapet of 
the bridge. They represent (a) Fine Art,. 

10 s. ix. FEB. s, 



(b) Science, (c) Agriculture, (d) Commerce. 
At each of the four angles of the bridge are 
stone staircases surmounted by lofty build- 
ings, and in a niche facing the roadway on 
each of these buildings stands a stone statue. 
These represent (S.W.) FitzAlwyne, first 
Lord Mayor of London ; (S.E.) Sir Thos. 
Gresham; (N.W.) Sir Wm. Walworth ; 
(X.E.) Sir Hugh Myddelton. The Holborn 
Viaduct was built in 1867. and opened for 
foot passengers on 14 Oct. It was inau- 
gurated by Oueen Victoria on 6 Nov., 1869. 

28. Statue of Prince Albert, Holborn 
Circus. This equestrian statue, which cost 
2,0007., was presented to the City of London 
by Mr. Charles Oppenheim. Unveiled 9 Jan. 

29. Statue of Queen Elizabeth, St. Dun- 
stan's-in- the- West, Fleet Street. This statue 
formerly occupied a niche on the western 
side of Lud Gate. On the removal of the 
gate in 1760 the statue was presented to 
Alderman Sir Francis Gosling, who six 
years afterwards caused it to be placed at 
the east end of the church of St. Dunstan. 
In December, 1829, the old church was 
demolished, and the materials sold by 
auction. The statue of Queen Elizabeth 
realized 167. 10s., and in May, 1839, was 
again set up in the church precincts. It 
now occupies a niche above the doorway 
of the parochial schools, east of the principal 
entrance to the church. 

30. Temple Bar Memorial, Fleet Street. 
This marks the site of Temple Bar, the last 
of the old City gates. It cost about 11,550?., 
and was inaugurated by Prince Leopold on 
8 Nov., 1880. Temple Bar was demolished 
in 1878-9, and in June, 1887, the materials 
were presented by the Corporation to Sir 
Henry Meux, who caused them to be erected 
in the following year at the entrance to 
Theobalds Park, Cheshunt, Herts. 

31. Statue of Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, 
Strand. This statue stands at the junction 
of Aldwych with the Strand, on the west 
side of St. Clement Danes Church. It 
was unveiled by Mr. John Morley, in the 
absence through illness of Earl Spencer, on 
4 Nov., 1905. 

32. Eleanor Cross, Charing Cross Railway 
Station. The original cross was destroyed 
by order of the Long Parliament in 1647. 
The present structure was erected at the 
expense of the South-Eastern Railway 
Company in 1865, and purports to be in al 
possible respects a replica of the cross 
erected by Edward I. near the spot some 
550 years previously. 

33. Statue of Charles I., Charing Cross. 

The story of this statue is too well known 
require recapitulation. It was cast in 
.633, and after a period of vicissitude was 
rected in its present position in 1678. The 
iriginal plinth of Portland stone was re- 
moved in 1856, and a slightly higher one of 
granite inserted. Both as a work of art 
and as an historical relic this is one of the 
most notable statues in London. 

34. Nelson Column, Trafalgar Square. 
Irected in 1840-43 at a cost of nearly 

40,0007. The money was found partly by 
subscriptions and partly by a Government 
subsidy. The statue was raised to the 
ummit on 3 and 4 Nov., 1843. Landseer's 
'our colossal lions were not placed in position 
at the base of the column until 1868. 

35. Statues of (a) Sir Henry Havelock, 
6) Sir Chas. Napier, (c) George IV., and 
d) General Gordon, Trafalgar Square. 

a) Erected by public subscription in 1861. 

b) Erected by public subscription in 1857. 

c) Cost 9,000 guineas, provided by a Parlia- 
mentary grant. Originally intended for the 
summit of the Marble Arch. Allocated to 
its present position in 1844 (see 10 S. iii. 448 ; 
vii. 66). (d) Erected in 1888. 

36. The Fountains, Trafalgar Square. 
These were an afterthought to the original 
plan of the square. They were opened 
to the public on 5 April, 1845. 

37. Statue of George III., Cockspur 
Street. Erected by public subscription at 
a cost of 4,0007. Unveiled by the Duke of 
Cumberland, as proxy for King William IV.,. 
3 Aug., 1836. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 
(To be continued.) 

'THE BOOKSELLER,' 1858-1908. 
(Concluded from p. 86.) 

THE Jubilee number contains an article 
on ' Some of the Great Houses,' Simpkin, 
Marshall & Co. heading the list. The 
business was founded by Mr. Benjamin 
Crosby, who was the first of the London 
booksellers to travel for orders. In 1814, 
owing to ill -health, he was forced to retire, 
and disposed of the business to his two 
assistants, Simpkin and Marshall. His 
nephew, Mark Lockwood, remained with 
the new firm, becoming a partner in 1835. 
Six years previous to this Mr. J. Miles had 
joined when Simpkin retired. Marshall also 
retired in 1854. In 1889 a change took place 
in the firm, two other great wholesale dis 
tributing houses being broughtin Hamilton, 
Adams & Co. and W. Kent & Co. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 8) ices. 

In 1724 Thomas Longman founded the 
well-known house that bears his name. 
The firm of Rivington, which was founded 
in 1711, was incorporated with Longmans 
in 1890, so that the latter is now the oldest 
house in the trade ; and its address, 39, 
Paternoster Row, is the same as when it 
started. The present Thomas Longman is 
the fifth Thomas Longman. It was his 
father who personally edited the ' Illus- 
trated New Testament ' ; and it was during 
his partnership that Macaulay received 
from the firm the historic cheque of 20.000Z., 
on account of the profits of his famous 
1 History.' In 1863 the firm acquired the 
copyrights of J. W. Parker, Son & Bourn, 
of 445, Strand, including Fraser's Magazine. 
In 1890 the business was incorporated as 
an unlimited company, of which the partners 
at that time are now the directors. 

The publishing house of John Murray 
is the next to be recorded. At Albemarle 
Street the fourth John Murray with his 
brother Hallam now reigns, and there is 
a fifth John Murray in the firm. 

The fourth house noticed is that of Smith, 
Elder & Co. This firm, formerly of 65, 
Cornhill, were originally Indian and colonial 
agents with a small publishing department. 
George Murray Smith, son of the senior 
partner, entered the firm in 1842 at the age 
of eighteen, and was at once placed in 
charge of the publishing business. His 
first book was R. H. Home's ' New Spirit 
of the Age.' In 1846 his father died and 
Mr. Elder retired, so young George Smith 
had entire control, aided by his able literary 
reader W. Smith Williams. The works of 
Thackeray, the Brontes, and Mrs. Gaskell 
were published by him ; and on the 1st of 
January, 1860, The Cornhill was launched 
under Thackeray's editorship. Other 
authors include George Eliot, the Brownings, 
Matthew Arnold, and Anthony Trollope, 
not to mention those more recent. But, 
beyond all these, the nation owes to George 
Murray Smith a debt of gratitude for his 
patriotism in publishing at his own expense 
the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
completed in June, 1900. He died on the 
6th of April, 1901. The present principals 
are Mr. Reginald John Smith, K.C., and 
Mr. Alexander Murray Smith. 

The Macmillan firm is also the subject 
of a short notice. When Daniel, who with 
his brother Alexander founded the firm, 
died in 1857, Judge Thomas Hughes was 
asked to write a memoir of him, and in it 
a. history of the firm appeared. Their first 
popular success was Kingsley's ' Westward 

Ho ' in 1855, followed by ' Tom Brown's 
School Days' in 1857. The "Globe" 
Shakespeare appeared in 1866, when 80,000 
copies were sold almost immediately. 
In 1875 Green's ' Short History ' was 

In 1898 the well-known house of Richard 
Bentley & Son was taken over by Messrs. 
Macmillan. As yet, no account of that 
interesting firm has been written, although 
I have often urged my friend Mr. Richard 
Bentley to give to the public some of the 
many literary treasures he possesses in his 
house at Upton. His father, George 
Bentley, will be remembered as one of 
the kindliest and most courteous of men, 
a perfect gentleman in manners as well as 
in heart. He did not enter the Burlington 
Street firm till 1870, and became head of it 
on the death of his father in the following 
year. In 1884 he took his son into partner- 
ship, and on him, owing to the delicate state 
of his father's health, devolved the active 
management. George Bentley died on the 
28th of May, 1895, and although twelve 
years have passed, his memory is still as 
sweet as the June roses he loved so well, 
and he will be gratefully remembered for 
his noble, unselfish character and blame- 
less life. He was a frequent contributor to 
" that invaluable little paper ' N. & Q.' " 

A sketch of the Blackwoods is also given 
in The Bookseller, a full history having been 
already published ; and an account of 
George Bell & Sons, founded in 1838. George 
Bell was the first publisher of ' N. & Q.,' 
and his son, Mr. Edward Bell regards as a 
choice treasure a set handsomely bound. 
Mr. Daldy joined the firm in 1864, and 
the well-known " Libraries " of Mr. Bohn 
were purchased for 35,0007. In 1867 the 
firm removed to Bohn's old premises in 
York Street, Covent Garden. In July, 1873, 
Mr. Daldy retired. George Bell died in 
December, 1 890, and his two sons are now the 
principals, Mr. Edward Bell being the 
present President of the Publishers' Associa- 
tion. In 1904 the business was removed to 
its new premises, York House. 

Messrs. Chatto & Windus gave 20,0007. 
for the remaining portion of Bohn's stock. 
The founder of the firm was John Camden 
Hotten, who acquired his knowledge of 
the book trade from Petheram of Holborn, 
a man of remarkably quiet and gentle 
manners, full of the courtesy of the old 
school ; he never adopted the frock coat, 
but wore a dress (or body) coat. Hotten 
was a wonderful contrast to him, full of 
push and go. No doubt his visit to 

10 s. ix. FEB. s, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIP:S. 


America, where he remained for several years, 
was responsible for this. As The Bookseller 
states : 

"He possessed remarkable skill in feeling the 
pulse of the book market ; every public event or 
topic of public interest found him prepared with 
the appropriate brochure. He paid special attention 
to introducing to English readers the best and 
newest in American literature ; and he was bold 
enough to become Swinburne's publisher when 
another house stopped the sale of his works." 
Mr. Andrew Chatto, the present senior 
partner, is the son of the great authority 
on wood engraving ; and associated with 
him are Mr. Percy Spalding, his son, and 
Mr. Philip H. Lee Warner. 

Three eminent booksellers have biographi- 
cal notice in the Jubilee record. Henry 
George Bohn, whose father was a book- 
binder in 1795 in Soho, picked up in 1816 
some book bargains on the Continent, and 
started as a bookseller. The business 
rapidly grew, and after being in Henrietta 
Street for a time, he went in 1831 to York 
Street, Co vent Garden, where he remained 
until, on his retirement, the premises were 
taken by Messrs. George Bell & Sons. In 
1845 he began his famous " Libraries." His 
stock of books was enormous, and his 
catalogue, published at a guinea, and 
compiled by Mr. Charles Edmonds, was 
regarded with wonder at the time of its 
issue. He was a frequent caller on my 
father at Wellington Street, arid during the 
agitation for the repeal of the paper duties 
an agitation to which Bohn was strongly 
opposed they would be in the House of 
Commons at the same time, returning home 
in a cab together, my father chaffing him 
as to the success of his opposition. During 
my father's last illness Bohn showed much 
kindness, and often came to me to ask about 
him, all old differences being forgotten. 
Bohn died at Twickenham on the 22nd of 
August, 1884, aged eighty-eight. 

Bernard Quaritch was an assistant of 
Bonn's. He set up for himself in a small 
way at 1 6, Castle Street, Leicester Square ; 
the house has recently been added to 
vanished London. In 1860 he removed to 
Piccadilly. He soon became known as the 
purchaser of rare and famous books. At 
the Hamilton Sale he bought to the extent 
of 40,0007. The Bookseller article states 
that, although " sometimes rough and 
uncourteous to outsiders, he was much liked 
by those who knew him better. I can testify 
as to his kindness in lending his treasures 
to those with whom he knew they would 
be safe. A friend of mine asked him about 
a scarce book he wanted for reference. 

Quaritch at once lent it to him, although it? 
value was 400/. As a publisher he did little, 
but he will be long remembered as having 
published the first edition of FitzGerald's 
Omar Khayyam.' He worked to the 
last, and died on the 17th of December, 
1900, being succeeded in the business by 
his son, who is as enterprising in his pur- 
chases as his father was. At the com- 
mencement of last year the business was 
removed to Graf ton Street, the fine premises 
looking down to St. James's Palace. 

The third firm of booksellers noticed is 
that of Sotherans, founded by Thomas- 
Sotheran. In 1841 he took into partner- 
ship his son Henry whose great energy 
rapidly increased the business. In 1856 Mr. 
George Willis (at that time one of the 
largest booksellers in London, his windows, 
full of literary treasures, under the Piazza 
at Covent Garden, attracted many literary 
loungers) joined Sotheran's, thus putting a 
stop to the great competition between the 
two firms, which had run up price 1 * of choice 
books tremendously at auction sales. 
Henry Sotheran, who ultimately bought 
Willis out, died in 1905, and now his son 
Henry Cecil Sotheran is the sole proprietor. 
It will be remembered that it was through 
the firm of Sotherans that Mrs. Rylands 
(whose death is just announced) purchased 
the Al thorp Library in 1892 for something 
over 200,0007., Messrs. Sotheby acting as 
agents for Earl Spencer (9 S. iv. 326), and 
the late J. Arnold Green representing Mrs. 

Section VIII. of the Jubilee number is 
devoted to trade changes during the fifty 
years. On June 3rd, 1858, Edward Moxon, 
the poets' publisher, died, and the name 
no longer exists as that of a separate firm. 
Edinburgh knows Adam & Charles Black 
no more, and the firm now occupies the 
former Soho Bazaar in Soho Square. Black- 
woods remain true to Edinburgh, but have 
a branch in Paternoster Row. Chamberses 
do the same, and it is pleasant to record 
that, notwithstanding its long life of over 
seventy-five years (the first number was 
issued on the 4th of February, 1832), 
Chambers' s Journal, under the able editor- 
ship of the grandson of Dr. Robert Chambers, 
is as vigorous and prosperous as ever. 

Jackson & Walford, whose premises were 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, published among 
their books Hepworth Dixon's ' London 
Prisons.' In 1868 the business was trans- 
ferred to Hodder & Stoughton, and is now 
carried on at Warwick Square. The firm 
are the publishers of The. British Weekly 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. s, im 

of The Bookman, so successfully estab- 
lished by Dr. Robertson Nicoll. 

The Oxford Press in 1858 published 
through Parkers of Oxford, but in 1863 
the agency was transferred to Macmillans. 
This arrangement terminated in 1880, and 
now the whole of the publications of the 
Press are issued under the direction of Mr. 
Henry Frowde, who was appointed manager 
in 1874. 

That most successful publisher Nicholas 
Triibner was in 1858 in business in Pater- 
noster Row, moving later to Ludgate Hill. 
He died in 1884, leaving a large fortune, 
the result of his own indomitable exertions. 
He was in 1858 one of the most energetic 
men in the Row, and in summer, in his suit 
of white or brown holland, he formed a 
complete contrast to his brother publishers, 
clothed in their usual sombre colours. 

Many other changes are recorded, but 
space does not admit of reference to them. 
A facsimile in miniature of the first number 
of The Bookseller accompanies the Jubilee 
issue ; it is beautifully printed, and the 
small type is perfectly clear. It contains 
complete lists of works recently issued by 
one hundred and twenty-nine publishers. 
Among trade changes it announces that 
*" Mr. Edward Lacey, who some years ago 
retired from his old-established business 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, has found a life 
of leisure so irksome that he has returned 
to London and recommenced business on 
Ludgate Hill." It is announced from 
America that trade is recovering from the 
panic, and that several houses have resumed 
payment. Sampson Low, jun., who had 
been deputed by. the London trade to repre- 
sent its interests in New York, had returned, 
" having accomplished his mission in a most 
satisfactory manner " ; and his report 
showed that " none of the consignors would 
-sustain any loss." First on the obituary 
list comes Mark Lockwood, senior partner 
in the Simpkin & Marshall firm. He was a 
man of great judgment as to the real 
merits of a book, and his opinion of a new 
"work had considerable weight with other 
purchasers. He worked early and late, 
and long after the Row was deserted his 
solitary lamp might be seen shining upon 
the trees opposite to the windows of the 
room now occupied by his grandson, Mr. 
Crosby Lockwood. 

In addition to The Bookseller, Whitaker 
projected in 1874 the ' Reference Catalogue 
of Current Literature,' now issued every 
three or four years in two huge volumes. 
The index to the 1906 edition extends to 

over 900 pages, and contains more than 
160,000 references. 

The portraits in the number are excellent, 
and include Joseph Whitaker, his son 
Vernon, William Longman (1813-77), H. G. 
Bohn, Henry Sotheran, that sturdy veteran 
Mr. Edward Marston, and my father. There 
is a slight mistake in the article on ' The 
Abolition of the Taxes on Knowledge.' 
The advertisement duty was never sixpence. 
Mr. Gladstone would have reduced the tax 
from one and sixpence to sixpence, but 
my father's strong opposition to this 
was successful, and the tax was entirely 

In 1868 Whitaker founded the most 
famous of his publications, ' Whitaker' s 
Almanack,' which has made Whitaker a 
world- wide name. He lived to see all his pro- 
jects fully successful, and as The Athenaeum 
stated in its obituary notice, in addition to 
the spirit of enterprise he manifested in 
business affairs, he was in his own home a 
quiet, painstaking student, and was de- 
servedly elected a Fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries. His large library, exceeding 
20,000 volumes, included a selection of 
antiquarian literature, and he possessed 
choice copies of a good many rare editions. 
He died on the 15th of May, 1895, at his 
house, White Lodge, Enfield, four months to 
the day after the death of his son Vernon ; 
and on the following Saturday, in accordance 
with his special wish, the funeral took place 
from the office of The Bookseller, his body 
being laid to rest in Norwood Cemetery. 
All who knew him cherish his memory, 
feeling that never was there a more true 
and faithful friend than Joseph Whitaker. 
Punch paid tribute to him on the 25th of 
May : 

Gone ! His praises to rehearse 

Might engage a friendly verse. 

Time, for whom he did so much, 

Surely dealt with gentle touch 

With this man of lucky star. 


Millions now would feel the lack 

Of the wondrous Almanack. 

* * * * * 

One might say of our lost brother, 
Death, ere thou hast slain another, 
Good and useful as was he, 
" Time shall throw his dart at thee." 
I am sure that all our readers will join 
with me in hearty congratulations to George 
Herbert Whitaker, the editor of The Book- 
seller, and to Cuthbert Wilfrid Whitaker, 
editor of the ' Almanack,' on this anni- 
versary. Their next celebration will be the 
Jubilee in ten years' time of 'Whitaker.' 

10 s. ix. FEB. s, 1908.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ALCESTEB. The following interesting item 
may be noted from a report, in The Bir- 
mingham Daily Post of 15 January, of the 
annual Court Leet and Court Baron of the 
Marquis of Hertford, hold at the Town Hall, 
Alcester, on the previous day : 

" Mr. W. G. Facer (high bailiff) presented his 
Accounts for the past year, showing that on the 
town account there was an adverse balance of 
14J. 6s. Id. That was accounted for, to a large 
extent, by the erection of boards in the Town Hall 
with the names of past bailiffs inscribed thereon. 
After considerable trouble he had found that the 
first Court Leet was held in Alcester in 1299, when 
Roger was the bailiff; and it appeared that who- 
ever was elected to the office from that date on to 
1530 bore the same title. In 1530, he found, the 
high bailiff was Thomas Shakespeare, and an ex- 
amination of his will showed that there was no 
doubt that he was an uncle of the immortal bard." 

A. F. R. 

[MR. JOHN T. PAGE sends a cutting on the 
subject from The Leamington Spa Courier of 
17 January.] 

QUOTATIONS.' (See 10 S. ii. 281, 351 ; iii. 
447 ; vii. 24.) Among the ' Adespota' given 
in Mr. King's book is " Breve gaudium " 
<No. 3024). 

The unknown author of the ' Octavia ' 
printed in editions of Seneca's Tragedies 
has (11. 198-200) : 

Et hanc levis fallaxque destituet deus 
Volucer Cupido. Bit licet forma eminens, 
Opibus superba ; gaudium capiet breve, 

TJniv. Coll. Aberystwyth. 

from Keats' s sonnet ' On first looking into 
Chapman's Homer ' is given in ' Cassell's 
Book of Quotations,' p. 181 ; and although 
an error at the end of it has been already 
pointed out (having been noticed by a 
greater poet), it may be worth while to 
refer to it here. The passage runs thus : 

Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes 
He stared at the Pacific and all his men 

Looked at each other with a wild surmise 

Silent, upon a peak in Darien. 
Palgrave, in his ' Golden Treasury of 
Songs and Lyrics ' (notes), tells us that 
Tennyson had pointed out to him that 
Balboa was really the person referred to ; 
and, indeed, Vasco Nunez de Balboa ob- 
tained the first sight of the Pacific from a 
peak in Darien on 25 Sept., 1513, about 
five years before the first expedition of 
Cortes to Mexico. De Selincourt, in his 
edition of Keats, remarks in a note (p. 399) 
that the poet " either consciously or un- 

consciously transferred the story to Cortez, 
whose portrait by Titian had mucli im- 
pressed him"; and he gives reasons for 
thinking that the poem must have been 
written early in 1815, when Keats was in 
the twentieth year of his age, and about 
five years after he had left the Rev. John 
Clarke's school at Enfield, in the library of 
which was Robertson's ' History of America,' 
where he would find an account of Balboa 
and his first gaining a view of the mighty 
western ocean. About four years after- 
wards he was cruelly put to death by the 
order of Davila, the new Governor. 

W. T. LYNN. 

In an old vellum-covered commonplace 
book of the early seventeenth century, which 
has just come into my possession, I find the 
following curious memorandum : 

Account of the Expenses of Joseph Higginson's 
Journey from London to St. Germer, in France : 
To Cash given him by Mr. Beunet for his 

passage oversea 220 

To Dinner and Coach Hire 024 

To Fifteen Days' keep at sea at 2*. per day 1 10 
To Expenses at Dunkirk and from thence 

to Calais 13 10 

To Cash and other Expenses furnished by 

Mr. Seauvage to him at Calais ... 290 

6 17 2 

Received the contents hereof in full. E. Eastham. 

" HUMMING ALE." " Humming ale " is 
nearly a thing of the past, and the phrase is 
hardly ever heard. I can remember when 
the call for ale in an ale-house was for 
"humming," and "none of your small 
beer." I once heard one of my father's 
men, after taking a horn of home-brewed, 
say, " Well, that's a hummer, and no mis- 
take," and he put his ear to the partly filled 
can, fresh from the barrel, to hear the 
"humming." Ale is an ancient beverage. 
I wonder how long the word " humming " 
has been applied to the drink. 



[The 'N.E.D.' gives quotations for "humming 
stuff" (1675) and " humming punch " (Fielding, 

Richard de Luci, in his account of the 
ferm of Windsor (Pipe Roll 21 Henry II. 
vol. ix. m. 2 [1897], 137), credits himself 
with 6s. 8d. paid "in Custamento vini & 
Pirati & Licere." Q- V. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. s, iw. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

FABIAN SOCIETY. What is the origin of 
this society's title ? I conclude that it is 
from the Roman general, but am not sure, 
and think I have heard other explanations. 


[By the courtesy of the Secretary of the Society 
we are able to quote the motto on Fabian Tract 
No. 7, ' Capital and Land,' sixth edition, revised, 
which reads as follows : 

" For the right moment you must wait, as Fabius 
did most patiently when warring against Hannibal, 
though many censured his delays ; but when the 
time comes you must strike hard, as Fabius did, or 
your waiting will be in vain, and fruitless."] 

glad of any genealogical information about 
this family. John Vanden-Bempde, of Pall 
Mall, Middlesex, and of Hackness Hall, co. 
York, had an only daughter and heiress 
Charlotte Van Lore, who married first the 
Marquess of Annandale, and secondly Lieut.- 
Col. John Johnstone (killed at Carthagena 
in 1743). 

Whom did John Vanden-Bempde marry ? 
In Betham's 'Baronetage,' iv. 303-4, his 
wife is called Temperance, daughter of John 
Packer ; whilst in the ' Stemmata Chiche- 
leana,' No. 468, she is said to be a daughter 
of one Judge Burton, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Berkeley of Spetchley, 
co. Worcester. When did he die, and where 
was he buried ? 

Charlotte's elder son assumed the name 
and arms of Vanden-Bempde by Act of Par- 
liament in 1793, and was ancestor of Lord 
Derwent. W. G. D. FLETCHER, F.S.A. 

Oxon Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 

HAVEN'T A GUN." A very common saying 
hereabout is " What you but see when you 
haven't a gun." It is brought in when a 
tale is being told in which the teller lost an 
opportunity through lacking the where- 
withal for taking advantage of it. Is it 
used elsewhere in this or any corresponding 


[We have heard this or something like it in many 
parts of England.] 

parts of Europe the ancient belief survives 
that to number things exactly brings mis- 

fortune probably by giving the wizard- 
world accurate information. What forms 
of this superstition are yet to be found in 
the British Islands 1 

The French have a proverb to the effect 
that " counted sheep are eaten by the wolf," 
but our " Don't count your chickens before 
they are hatched " has a different sig- 

The ancient Romans believed that to 
reckon things too accurately was unwise ; 
and the captains of David's host must have 
been of the same mind, for, though his word 
prevailed against theirs, Joab and the rest 
of them were against numbering the people. 

P. W. G. M. 

What is the name of the " shattered for- 
tress" mentioned by Rogers in 1. 41 of his 
poem ' Written in the Highlands of Scot- 
land, 1812 ' ? Are any ruins of it still 
left ? ALEX. RUSSELL, M.A. 

Strorimess, Orkney. 

RINGS ON HOUSES. In Cambridge and 
the near neighbourhood there are thirteen 
houses with iron rings arranged beneath the 
eaves, firmly fixed to the roof-plate. The 
houses are mostly of the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; and the rings, so far as I can gather, 
are intended to be used to pull upon with 
ropes and firehooks in case of fire. Are these 
rings local, or found in other places ? and la- 
there any evidence, besides tradition, as to 
their use ? GEORGE WHERRY. 

5, St. Peter's Terrace, Cambridge. 

1660. I have what purports to be a 
commission on parchment, dated 5 Nov., 
1660, in the twelfth year of the reign of 
Charles II. from Thomas, Lord Fauconberge, 
Baron of Yarome, Viscount Henknowle, 
Lord Lieutenant of his Majesty's County 
Palatine of Durham, and of the North 
Riding of the county of York, to John 
Smith, as ensign to Capt. Ralph Atkinson's 
company of foot, in Col. Conyers Darcye's 
Regiment, under "my "command as Lord 
Lieutenant of the North Riding of the 
county of York. Can any one give me 
information about the regiment ? Hitherto 
my searches have been unsuccessful. 


GIFT. Having occasion to refer to the 
records of the above church, in which it is 
stated that a stone in the chancel had an 
incription relative to the body of George 

10 s. ix. FEB. s, 



Whitgift, Esq., " one of the natural brothers 
of Archbishop Whitgift," who, it is said 
"deceased in 1611," I am curious to know 
who was his mother. In the Archbishop's 
statutes of his most charitable erection anc 
endowment of the Hospital of the Holy 
Trinity at Croydon, he calls this George 
Whitgift his brother ; and elsewhere, if ] 
remember aright, he speaks of him as his 

From the inscription on the stone above 
referred to, it would appear that the Arch- 
bishop had more than one illegitimate 

Perhaps one of your readers will be able 
to supply me with the information desired. 
Thornton Heath. 

'THAT REMINDS ME.' In or about 1870 
a work was projected by J. C. Hotten, the 
publisher, under this title (of which the 
printed prospectus lies before me). Was it 
ever issued ? Although partly of the same 
nature, it must not be confused with the 
excellent volume of stories published, with 
the same title, by Sir Edward Russell some 
twenty years later. WILLIAM JAGGAKD. 

you kindly help me to trace a poem, ' The 
Watch at the Sepulchre ? It begins : 

From East to West I've marched beneath the 

I had it some time ago in manuscript, but 
lent it to a friend ; and, like the umbrella or 
book, it was not returned. A. WBAGG. 

"TRUCKEE." In a poem entitled 'The 
Red Thread of Honour,' by Sir F. H. Doyle 
(1810-88), there occur these lines : 

Then flashed at once, on each wild clan, dismay, 

Lord of their wild Tritckee. 

I am unable to find the moaning of 
" Truckee " in any available reference book, 
consequently the meaning of the passage is 
obscure. Could any of your readers explain ? 

F. N. 

Sheriff for Hampshire in 1783 was William 
Powlett Powlett of Sombourn, near Stock- 
bridge. To which branch of the family did 
he belong ? and did he marry a Miss Probyn 
of Newland, Glos. ? G. BBIGSTOCKE. 

reader of ' N. & Q.,' able to assist me, be so 
kind as to mention for my information and 
reference any cases in which important 
belligerent use has, in history, been made of 

canals ? There are also, I believe, several 
cases in which warships have been hauled 
overland, which I should be glad to be put 
in a position to look up. 

9, Wilbraham Place, S.W. 

* THE DANDY'S BALL.' When I was a 
child, my grandmother used to lend me, 
amongst other books she kept specially for 
children, one with the above title, which 
was a great favourite with me and my 
contemporaries. It was a thin paper book 
with delightful coloured illustrations, 
published, I think, by Messrs. Darton ; but 
who was the author of the story which 
was in verse I know not. It began : 

Dr. Pillblister and Betsy his sister 

Determined on giving a treat, 

So their cards they sent out 

For a party and rout 

At their house in Great Cavendish Street. 

The last time I remember it was in 1848, 
when my grandmother died. I imagine it 
was, with many other delightful old books 
she had, given or thrown away. I wonder if 
any of your readers can recall the book, or 
bell me if it has ever been republished. I 
believe a copy of it was exhibited some time 
during thesixties amongst other "toy books " 
at the South Kensington Museum. I would 
gladly secure a copy of it if I could, if only 
[or the sake of showing my grandchildren 
what was then thought an amusing skit on 
manners and fashion in very early Victorian 
days. E. D. 

[THE REV. JOHN PICKFOBD stated at 10 S. iii. 16 
;hat ' The Dandy's Ball ' was included (but without 
author's name) in A. W. Tuer's 'Old-Fashioned 
Children's Books,' published in 1900.] 

egisters of the parish of St. Mary, Notting- 
lam, contain the two following entries : 

18 March, 1727/8. Berceni, wife of M r George 

26 March, 1735. M r George Paravicini. 

These representatives of an ancient 

talian family are, I believe, the only ones 

whose names figure in the annals of 

Nottingham. Though the foregoing entries 

ail to support the assumption, the local 

,radition is that Mr. George Paravicini was 

i count. He built a row of houses, yet 

tanding, known during the eighteenth 

jentury as Paravicini's Row, but now 

orming one side of Count Street. His 

ousiness in Nottingham remained unknown 

until recently, when there turned up a 

hance reference, in a document of 1724, 

o "Mr. Paravicini's Glasshouse." This, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. s, im. 

the first Nottingham 
situate at one end of 

that line. 

glassworks, was 
Paravicini's Row, 

and gave name to " Old Glasshouse Lane," 
the present Southwell Road. The building 
of the factory (shown on old views of the 
town) and the contiguous row of property 
seems to indicate that George Paravicini 
was a man of some means, and the 
assumption is that he came to Nottingham 
purposely to found the business. But no 
memorial is known to have been erected 
to his memory, so possibly he died in 
humble circumstances. Nothing beyond 
his name appears to be on record locally, Musgraye 
for which reason I venture to ask if any Thorpe, 
reader can supply information from other 
sources as to who George Paravicini of 
Nottingham actually was, and whence he 
came. A. STAPLE-TON. 

158, Noel Street, Nottingham. 

SIONS. Can any of your readers assist m.e 
with particulars as to Revel's machine 
and " Mrs. Southgate's beautiful lawns at 
Chertsey" ? 

Also, who are the authors of the following 
quotations ? 

1. Whose nice discernment, Virgil-like, is such 

Never to say too little or too much. 

2. Not of themselves the gay beauties can please. 

We only can taste when the heart is at ease. 

All four allusions occur in ' Hartly House, 
Calcutta,' a novel of eighteenth-century life 
in Bengal, published in 1789. 


186, Adelaide Road, South Hampstead, N.W. 

and by whom was this game invented ? 
According to The Greenock Advertiser of 
August, 1818, Mr. John Allan, of Penicuik, 
had constructed 

"a curious machine which impels two horses round 
a circle. The horses and riders have the exact 
attitude, and apparently all the animated emula- 
tion of a well-coritestea horse-race, and have this 
necessary characteristic that even the maker of the 
machine cannot tell which of the horses will gain. 
To the curious in horse - racing the invention is 
peculiarly interesting, as in bad weather they can 
enjoy the pleasures of a good horse-race with com- 
fort at their firesides. With a little more trouble, 
it might occasionally be converted to a fox hunt by 
affixing the necessary appendages of huntsmen and 

Joseph Wiggins, F.R.G.S.,' by Henry 
Johnson was recently published by John 
Murray of Albermarle Street. Can any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me where Wiggins 
was buried, and also give the inscription 
on his monument ? 


CHABLTON THRUPPE. I want information 
regardingthe parentage of CharltonThruppe, 
who died in October, 1748, and is mentioned 
in the obituaries of both The Gentleman: s and 
The London Magazine, and in that of 
with the addition of " See 
He married Elizabeth, daughter 
of the Hon. and Rev. Robert Booth, Dean 
of Bristol 1708, and sister of Nathaniel 
Booth, fourth and last Lord Delamere of 



R. S. B. 

notable explorer was born at Norwich, 
3 Sept., 1832, and died 13 Sept., 1905. 
A biography ' The Life and Voyages of 

INSCRIPTIONS. Looking over The Musical 
Times for September, 1902, I found a repro- 
duction of the seal of Yale University, con- 
taining the words " Urim and Thummim " 
in the original square Hebrew lettering. 
What I should like to know is whether 
Yale has turned out more distinguished 
Hebraists and theologians than any other 
American seat of learning, and whether 
there are any other foundations not 
specifically Jewish in composition, in this 
or any other country, having a seal of 
which Hebrew forms an important ornament 
and distinguishing feature. 


known of the parentage of the Rev. William 
Mayo, Vicar of Romsey, Hampshire, from 
1690 to 1727 ? On the tablet to his memory 
in Romsey Abbey it is stated that he was 
' ' of Poulshot, Wilts.' ' He married Elizabeth, 
sister and coheiress of Roger Gollop of 
Stanbridge, and by her (who was buried at 
Romsey 27 Dec., 1722, aged fifty-six) left a 
son, John Mayo, buried at Romsey, 16 Nov., 

In the Visitation of Wiltshire, 1623, is the 
marriage of Thomas Mompesson of Gorton 
(Wilts) to Joan, daughter of Edward Mayoe 
of Fun thill. Joan's grandson George Mom- 
pesson signed his name to his pedigree in 
1623, and at that time had a. son and heir 
aged five. A Rev. Daniel Mayo was Rector 
of Michelmersh, near Romsey, from 1759 to 
1768. Also, in the charity reports for 
Poulshot in 1733 is a donation of 201. from 
Daniel Mayo ; and on 24 Nov., 1829, the 
Rev. Charles Mayo (apparently Vicar of 
Huish^ left 100Z. in charity to the parish of 

io s. ix. FEB. 8> 



Beeching-Stoke, Wilts. These clerics do not 
appear in the Oxford or Cambridge records. 
A Mr. William Mayo was married at 
Fontmell Magna on 24 May, 1784, to Miss 
Hannah Still of Compton (see Winchester 
and Salisbury Journal, May, 1784). 

F. H. S. 
rughwood, Komsey. 

your readers kindly tell me where I can 
consult a report of the Hull and Selby Rail- 
way presented to the meeting of shareholders 
for 1841 ? WILLIAM ANDREWS. 

Hull Royal Institution. 

(10 S. ix. 68.) 

DR. KRTJEGER'S protest against the in- 
clusion of this portrait in the ' Shakespeare 
Jahrbuch' is well founded. Last year the 
English and American papers were flooded 
with paragraphs and reproductions of this 
portrait, emanating from an imaginative 
North-Country journalist, stating that this 
portrait had been " discovered " and guaran- 
teed by me, as well as by Messrs. Christie, 
Manson & Woods, as a portrait of Shake- 
speare, and that that firm had estimated 
its value at 4,000/. In reply to an inquiry 
of mine, Messrs. Christie disclaimed all 
knowledge of the picture. 

The facts are these. Learning that years 
ago the portrait had been sent to the 
National Portrait Gallery, and to the 
Shakespeare Memorial at Stratford, I begged 
the owners to send me a photograph of it, 
on the receipt of which, in response to their 
inquiry, I expressed the opinion that, as 
far as I could judge from a photograph, 
the picture seemed to belong to the time, 
i.e., about the year 1600. On that slender 
basis the whole story was built up by the 
paragraphist, who doubtless calculated that 
when he had planted his fiction the inevitable 
contradiction would come too late to inter- 
fere with his enterprise. I have since seen 
the picture, and affirm that although it 
is an interesting one (the head far better 
drawn and painted than the doublet), 
I see no reason for imagining that it repre- 
sents Shakespeare. Much importance has 
been attached to the fact that the initials 
" W. S." are on the back ; but the present 
owner tells me that she remembers her 

father cutting them on many years ago 
m order to record the fact that some people 
thought it might be a portrait of the poet. 
During the last twenty years the picture 
has been submitted to the National Portrait 
Gallery no fewer than four times by the 
owners or their friends. I may add that 
a short article by me on this subject ap- 
peared in the May number (1907) of 
Putnam's Monthly Magazine. I shall tell 
the whole story in the exhaustive volume 
on the portraits of Shakespeare on which I 
am now engaged. M. H. SPIELMANN. 

21, Cadogan Gardens, S.W. 

(10 S. viii. 149, 253, 313; ix. 54). Since 
the appearance of the reply at the last refer- 
ence but one, sent by the HON. KATHLEEN 
WARD, I have received a letter from her 
in answer to a request for information con- 
cerning Mrs. Stretton. Enclosed in her 
letter was one from Miss R. H. Beddoes 
of Hesterworth, Aston-on-Clun, a lady 
somewhat distantly related to Mrs. Stretton, 
and a great-niece of Maria Edgeworth. I 
have also received a letter from Capt. 
Walter de Winton of Maesllwch Castle, 
Glasbury, grandson of Mrs. Stretton. 

This lady was one of the large family 
of the Rev. John Collinson : his portrait 
and that of his wife are drawn in ' The Valley 
of a Hundred Fires.' She married first 
Walter de Winton of Maesllwch Castle, and 
was the mother of Sir Francis de Winton. 
Her second husband was Major Richard (?) 
Stretton. Admiral Collinson of The Haven, 
Baling, was her brother. 

Her Christian name was Julia. It appears 
to be improbable that she had also the name 
of " Cecilia," as given at the last reference 
by MR. RALPH THOMAS, as Miss WARD in 
her letter to me says : "I have called there 
[i.e., The Haven] on Miss Cecilia Collinson 
(now dead), a younger sister of Mrs. Stret- 
ton's " ; see also her reply (viii. 313). 

One of Mrs. Stretton' s sisters married 
Archdeacon de Winton, a cousin of Mrs. 
Stretton' s first husband. One of her books 
was ' The Queen of the County,' in which 
(so Miss Beddoes believes) the authoress 
was the heroine. Her grandson tells me 
that " in her young days she was beautiful, 
and all her life an exceptionally ^charming 
woman." Miss Beddoes says : " She was 
a very beautiful woman." 

There appear to be some slight errors, 
in MR. THOMAS'S interesting reply (ante, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. FEB. s, im 

654). Maaslough should, I think, be 
aesllwch. Possibly it was spelt anglice 
phonetically by many people in former 
days. As I have pointed out, Julia is more 
probable than Julia Cecilia. Walter de 
Wilton should be Walter de Winton. I am 
not certain about Major Stretton's Christian 
name. Capt. de Winton believes that it 
was Richard, but does not suggest Richard 

MR. THOMAS is mistaken in saying that 
Hesba Stretton (i.e., Hannah Smith) first 
wrote in 1866. According to the table of 
" contents " in ' The Nine Christmas Num- 
bers of " All the Year Round" ' (no date, 
but published 1870 at the latest), and accord- 
ing to the edition of the said Christmas 
numbers published in 1907, Hesba Stretton 
wrote ' The Ghost in the Clock Room ' 
in ' The Haunted House,' 1859, and 'Another 
Past Lodger relates Certain Passages to 
her Husband ' in ' Mrs. Lirriper's Legacy,' 
1864 ; and ' Not to be taken for Granted ' 
in ' Dr. Marigold's Prescriptions,' 1865, 
as well as ' No. 4 Branch Line, the Travelling 
Post Office,' in ' Mugby Junction,' 1866. 

Mrs. Elmsley, who was not the authoress 
of ' The Valley of a Hundred Fires,' was pro- 
bably not of Maesllwch Castle. 

The object of my query at the first refer- 
ence was to get at the name of the writer 
of ' His Portmanteau ' and ' His Hat Box ' 
in ' Somebody's Luggage ' ascribed to " The 
Authoress of ' The Valley of a Hundred 
Fires.' " It is strange that neither in the 
reprint of ' The Nine Christmas Numbers 
of " All the Year Round," ' 1870 (or about), 
nor in the new edition of last year, is the 
name of the authoress (Mrs. Stretton) 
made known ; and that in neither republica- 
tion is the pseudonym " Hesba Stretton " 
identified as Hannah Smith. The identifica- 
tion is to be found in Allibone and the 
' London Library Catalogue.' Halkett and 
Laing's ' Dictionary ' calls her Sarah Smith. 

VICOMTE DE CREMAIL (10 S. ix. 50). 
The query probably refers to Adrien de 
Montluc, Comte de Cramail (or Caraman or 
Carmaing), one of the wits of the Court of 
Louis XIII., born 1571, died 1646 (I cannot 
at present verify the dates). He was the 
grandson of the famous soldier and memoir- 
writer Blaise de Montluc. He married 
Jeanne de Foix, daughter of a Comte de 
Cramail, and thus acquired this title. He 
also became Prince de Chabannais, in suc- 
cession to a grand-uncle of that title. A 
favourite of Henry IV., he spent twelve 

years in the Bastille in the next reign for 
intrigues against Richelieu. A Gascon by 
family and in wit, he lived much at 
Toulouse, near to Foix, of which he was 
governor. Germain de Lafaille, author of 
' Annals of the Town of Toulouse,' says of 
him incidentally, in a biographical notice 
of the Toulousan poet Goudelin : 

" The Count of Carmaing withdrew from Court 
to reside in this town, about which most of his 
property was situated, besides his governorship of 
Foix. He was one of the most accomplished 
noblemen in the realm ; he had infinite wit and 
much learning, together with extreme politeness. 
As he was passionately fond of the society of 
literary men, his house was the meeting-place for 
all men of learning and wit : amongst these was 
Goudelin, whom the Count honoured with particular 
friendship, which lasted all his life. I have heard 
say that during his imprisonment in the Bastille, 
whither he was sent under the ministry of Cardinal 
Richelieu, he often amused himself by reading the 
poet's verses and explaining them to M. de 
Bassompierre [the Marshal, a fellow-prisoner], 
who enjoyed them greatly." 

The biographical letter in which this 
passage occurs is prefixed to most of the 
later editions of Goudelin' s ' Ramelet 
Moundi ' (' Sertum Tolosanum,' 'Bouquet 
Toulousain '). I have the Amsterdam 
edition of 1700 containing it. The excellent 
edition of Toulouse, 1887, also contains a 
reproduction of the frontispiece of the first 
edition, Toulouse, 1617. In this plate the 
arms of Montluc appear : 1 and 4, a fox 
(apparently) rampant ; 2 and 3, a globe. 
I may mention that the word "Moundi " = 
Toulousain, is derived from Raymond, 
the name of the Counts of Toulouse. 
The "lengo d'O " dialect of the city and 
its district is still "la lengo Moundino " ; 
Goudelin s works were written in it, and the 
first two of the four ' Floureto ' wore 
dedicated to "magnific, gran ede tout brabe 
seignou, Adrian de Monluc," his titles 
following at length. Montluc wrote the 
' Comedie des Proverbes,' 1618; 'Jeux de 
I'lnconnu,' 1630 (a collection of quips and 
smart sayings) ; also ' Pensees d'un Solitaire.' 


TABEL ' (10 S. ix. 27). It would appear as 
though MR. BAILEY -KEMPLING were under 
the impression that Mr. E. H. Coleridge had 
omitted all mention of the poet's reference 
to the influence of Crashaw's 'Hymn to 
St. Theresa ' when the second part of 
' Christabel ' was written. If so, I would 
direct his attention to the following extract 
from p. 18 of Mr. Coleridge's edition of the 
poem, which was published last year under 

10 s. ix. FEB. s, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the authority of the Council of the Royal 
Society of Literature, and which is, I pre- 
sume, the edition to which MB. BAILEY- 
KEMPLING refers : 

" Lastly, Coleridge's somewhat mysterious admis- 
sion or explanation that Crawshaw's 'verses on 
St. Theresa (Since 'tis not to be had at home, she '1 
travel to a martyrdome,' &c.) were ever present to 
my mind whilst writing the second part of " Chris- 
tabel" if, indeed, by some subtle process of the 
mind, they did not suggest the first thought of the 
entire poem,' acquires some force and meaning if 
lines 319-22, ' For she doth smile, and she doth weep, 
Like a youthful hermitess, Beauteous in a wilder- 
ness,' &c., may be assigned to the second division 
of the poem (see Allsop's ' Letters and Conversa- 
tions,' 1836, i. 195-6)." 

The late J. Dykes Campbell also refers to 
Coleridge's statement in his Notes to his 
edition of the ' Poetical Works,' 1893. 

If Coleridge were in any way indebted to 
Crashaw's poem, it would seem to be more 
to the " beautiful delicacies of language and 
metre" than to the subject, between which 
and that of ' Christ abel ' it is difficult to 
trace any resemblance. 


RAINE ISLAND (10 S. ix. 48) was named 
after Capt. Raine of the ship " Surry," 
who in that vessel made several voyages 
to and from Australia early in the last 
century. On one of his homeward voyages 
(by way of China) he sailed through Torres 
Straits (November and December, 1814), 
entering the dangerous labyrinth of reefs 
by what was afterwards, and is still, known 
as the " Raine Island Passage." 



ix. 22). Whatever ST. SWITHIN writes about 
is always most fascinating. I am more than 
ordinarily interested in the contribution to 
the literature of the ' Merchant ' ; yet I have 
my doubts regarding the correctness of the 
statement that " Sala was a name borne by 
Venetian Jews in the fourteenth century." 
I hope ST. SWITHIN will favour us with the 
grounds of this belief, because we shall then 
have at last discovered where Shakespeare 
got the cryptic name of Shylock, which is 
obviously a corruption of "Sallock" or 
" little Sala" whatever that may mean. 

COLD HARBOUR LANE (10 S. ix. 68). 
I hope I may be forgiven, notwithstanding 
the editorial protest, for recurring to this 
subject. I read the previous discussion 
with much interest, and some time after- 
wards came across a valuable piece of evi- 

dence on the subject, not (I believe) pre- 
viously referred to. I intended to have 
sent it to ' N. & Q.,' but I " put it off." 
My idea on reading it was that it took the 
question out of the category of the disputed. 
If it has, in fact, not been already referred 
to, I think at any rate it should be added 
to the list. It will be found indexed in 
Isaac Taylor's ' Words and Places,' 1863. 

ix. 49). " Ex porrecto labello " in MR. 
PICKFORD'S first quotation should be ex- 
porrecto labello. The words are taken from 
Persius, iii. 82. 

I doubt whether a definite author could 
be assigned to 

Disce ut semper victurus, 
Vive ut eras moriturus, 

about which W. T. L. inquires. The 
maxim of the second line in particular is a 
commonplace of extremely frequent occur- 
rence. Very many examples of the same 
thought in varying forms lie gathered in 
that great seventeenth-century treasure- 
house, Gataker's ' Commentary on Marcus 
Antoninus' (vii. 29, and ii. 5, ii. 11, iii. 12). 

Instances are Seneca, Ep. I. xii. 8, " Sic 
ordinandus est dies omnis, tamquam cogat 
agmen." Musonius, ap. Stobaeum, i. 83, 
QVK ecrn Trjv cvf(TTr)Kvia.v rjfitpav /caXws jSttovai 
fir) irpodeptvov avrrjv cos i<r\n.Triv /Jidxrcu. 
Jerome, in Mat. xxiv., " Sic quotidie 
vivamus, quasi die illo iudicandi simus." 

The antithetical form of the, couplet 

Ut moriens semper vivas : 
semper vive ut moriturus, 

quoted from a monument in S. Pietro, 
Bologna, by Nathan Chytraeus, ' Variorum in 
Europa Itinerum Deliciae ' (ed. 3, 1606, 
p. 189). Compare also John Owen's epi- 
taph on an atheist (Ep. i. 28) : 

Mortuus est quasi victurus post funera non sit : 
Sic vixit tamquam non moriturus erat. 

The words about which ASTARTE seeks in- 
formation are from Pope's ' Rape of the- 
Lock,' i. 41-2 : 

Know then, unnumber'd Spirits round thee fly, 

The light Militia of the lower sky. 


University College, Aberystwyth. 
[MR. E. YARDLEY also thanked for reply on Persius.J 

viii. 229, 277, 297, 414). ' N. & Q.' is 
nothing or rather the facts stated in it 
are nothing if not accurate. I know 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. s, im 

rsomething of Bridport and of the Way 
family still in existence in its neighbourhood, 
namely, at Bradpole ; but I have never 
yet heard that that ancient borough was 
in Devon, as stated by MR. ARKLE at the 
penultimate reference. There have been 
several attempts of late years to filch Lyme 
Regis away from Dorset in order to swell 
the list of Devonian watering-places, which, 
as this town is situated close to the great 
landslip of the thirties, might not be sup- 
posed to be so difficult a task ; but I do 
think that the capital of West Dorset, some 
nine miles to the east, might be allowed to 
be spared the horrors of another such a 

I have heard it stated that the distin- 
guished Australian lawyer Chief Justice 
Way came of the same old Dorset stock. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 
Antigua, W.I. 

INDEX OF PLACE-NAMES (10 S. ix. 47). 
I shall be much obliged if J. B. S. will state 
the exact title of the index published by 
the Board of Inland Revenue, and where 
it can be procured. Is it fuller than the 
' Postal Guide ' or than the table in ' The 
Clergy List ' ? H. N. ELLACOMBE. 

The information given by J. B. S. being 
somewhat indefinite, it may be permissible 
to point out the ' Index to the Population 
Tables of England and Wales' (part of the 
report of each census), which contains an 
alphabetical list of all parishes and named 
districts in South Britain. The published 
price is not excessive (that for 1891, C. 7216, 
was Is. Qd.) ; and the book may often be 
obtained second-hand. Q. V. 

{10 S. viii. 361). In The Carlton Magazine, 
vol. iii. p. 669, January, 1794, there is the 
following paragraph : 

" Mrs. Rudd of Perreau memory ! whose adven- 
tures have so often been the subject of publick 
curiosity, seems fated to end her career in New- 
gate. She is now absolutely living in that wretched 
prison with a man whose appearance bespeaks 
misery in the extreme ! He is confined on the 
debtor's side, and she seldom stirs out of the place 
in which they sleep." 

This paragraph probably was copied from 
one of the newspapers. 


ST. ANDREW'S CROSS (10 S. viii. 507 ; 
ix. 32). MARY OVERY seems to think 
that the saltire in the arms of Rochester 
is directly related to that in the Scottish 
flag. Indirectly, it no doubt is ; but the 

direct reference for both is to the labarum 
of Constantino, so generally taken in the 
West as the ensign of Christianity. In 
some form or other, as simple saltire or as 
cross keys or crosiers, it is borne by a 
majority of the episcopal cities ; and in their 
flags by Scotland, Ireland, Burgundy, and 
Russia. As to the colours, those of Scotland 
were fixed by the alliance with France, just 
as those of Burgundy were by the alliance 
with England, and those of Ireland, at a 
much later date, by her connexion with 
England. Of what St. Patrick had to do 
with it I have no explanation to offer. 


ix. 48). I should conjecture the name of 
the author of the puzzle to be Lovegood, 
or Lovegod ( Ama Deum). The letter e, 
which is common to the preceding words, 
may be his initial. The introductory note 
should be printed as five (rather faulty) 
iambic senarii. H. E. D. BLAKISTON. 

428). Although not dealing with Admission 
Registers, the special object of my search, 
the following, transcribed from one of 
Thorpe's Catalogues of MSS. (circa 1834), 
is of interest : 

" Middlesex. Gray's Inn, together with Staples 
Inn and Barnard's Inn, London. Collection of 
documents relating to those three Societies, partly 
distinct and partly general, as the two latter are 
the Inns of Chancery belonging to the former, the 
greater portion on parchment, consisting of Returns 
to the Poll-Money as raised by Acts of Parliament 
in the reigns of William, Mary, and Queen Anne ; 
appointments of Preachers to Gray's Inn ; accounts 
01 the rents, assessments, and certificates ; amounts 
of Batchelors fees ; Land Tax Subsidies, &c. In all 
upwards of twenty documents, the whole original 
and authentic, signed and sealed by the persons 
appointed, curious and interesting collections, 
31. 13s. oU, 1698-1702." 

This is just the kind of "lot" that would 
have been bought by Sir Thomas Phillipps 
of Middle Hill or Sir C. G. Young ; but I 
cannot trace that it passed into the possession 
of either. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

" ECRIVEZ LES INJURES," &C. (10 S. viii. 

489). I, too, well remember, as a maxim 
occurring in a French Reader, " Ecrivoz 
les injures sur le sable, mais [or ef\ les bien- 
faits sur le marbre " ; but I do not know 
whether it is a quotation from any French 

There are current proverbial expressions 
of a reverse character, and possibly this 
may have been written as a sort of contra- 
dictory precept. Examples of these may 

10 s. ix. FEB. s, 1908.] NQTES AND QUERIES. 


be seen m Bartlett (p. 43, ed. 1889) and in 
Benham's 'Book of Quotations' (Cassell 
1907), pp. 185, 205, 206, and 809. 


"SPELLICANS" (10 S. viii. 449; ix. 15). 
In Stirling's 'Annals of the Artists of 
Spain,' Vol. ii. chap, xiii., mention is made 
of Maria Louisa, first queen of Charles II. 
of Spain, " playing with him for hours to- 
gether at Spilikens." She died in 1689, 
after having been little more than two 
years in Spain. 

Castle Pollard, Westmeath. 

None of ^ the answers have given another 
name, i.e. " jack-straws," because the game 
used to be played in farm-houses with 
straws. It is also called push-pin. 

We recently got a set of " Russian spilli- 
kins." They are small models of the 
samovar, &c., with three hooks to the 
set, extremely difficult to get up. 

Alsager, Cheshire. 

I am obliged for the replies printed, 
also for those forwarded from the office 
of 'N. & Q.' It is curious that so little 
is known about " spellicans " in some 
parts. I had shown mine to people likely 
to know, also to dealers long in the trade, 
without result. The dealers' opinion, as 
well as the opinion of others, was that they 
were used as hairpins, when hair-building 
was of a much more elaborate nature than 
now is the case. In The Illustrated London 
News of 28 December last, p. 946, are de- 
picted^ some " twenty centuries old knick- 
nacks," and in the toilet section are hairpins 
which are singularly like the " spellicans " 
under notice. Of the spellicans I have, 
one only is hook-shaped ; another is shaped 
like a bow. The highest number is xxx, 
of which there are two shaped alike. 


"PARSLEY PEEL" (10 S. viii. 508). 
Some account of this will be found in 
Baines's ' History of the Cotton Manu- 
facture in Great Britain ' (n.d.). 

Printed calicoes were in use long before 
Peel's time. R. S. B. 

Hume's father was master of a coasting 
vessel that sailed from Montrose, where the 
future politician was born in 1777. The 
skipper would appear to have had but in- 

different success as the result of his traffic 
for we learn that after his death the widow 
had to fight strenuously for the support 
of her large family. " She kept," it is said, 
a little stall in the market-place, for the 
sale of brown ware, cheap delf, and other 
articles of 'crockery,' as such goods are 
called in Scotland." It may be added that 
there are other Humes in the country than 
those that connect directly or collaterally 
with the noble house of Home. See Ander- 
son's ' Scottish Nation,' vol. ii. 


'ESMOND' : SLIP OF THE PEN (10 S. ix. 
67). Surely this is not dear old Thackeray's 
slip, but MR. WILLCOCK'S own. He must 
have read hastily, and rushed into print 
still more hastily. Thackeray was asking 
a question, much as if he were to say, " Does 
a river run up a hill ? " 


70). As an appellation popularly conferred 
upon Washington, it has, I think, been 
found impossible to trace its first application 
to him. It was applied to Marius the Roman 
who, B.C. 102 and 101, won signal victories 
over the Northern barbarians. Marius, 
however, declined the distinction, and it 
was afterwards given to Cicero on the sup- 
pression of the conspiracy of Catiline. It 
was bestowed upon several of the Caesars 
(among whom were Julius Caesar and the 
Emperor Augustus), but often undeservedly; 
upon Cosmo de' Medici ; and upon Prince 
William of Orange by the Dutch (1533-84), 
who called him " Vader des Vaderlands " 
(see preface to Putnam's ' William the Silent, 
Prince of Orange,' 1895). When the cele- 
brated Genoese naval commander delivered 
Genoa from the oppression of the French 
yoke, he was, in 1528, honoured by the 
Senate with the title of the " father and 
saviour of his country," which is, I believe, 
inscribed on the base of his statue in the 
city of Genoa. Washington was also called 
by his enemies the " stepfather of his 

ROTHERHITHE (10 S. viii. 166, 316, 374, 
514 ; ix. 75). As far as I can understand, 
we are referred to the two charters printed 
by Birch as Nos. 577 and 578. But what 
have these to do with Rotherhithe, except 
by way of blunder ? In the former and 
better copy there is a mention of "jEtheredes 
hyd " ; and there is a title, which I take 
to be a mere endorsement such as is .often 
made in a later hand by some ignorant 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. F KB . 8 , 

person, spolt " Retheres liide." It is of no 
value, and cannot be right ; for the emphasis 
in the former name was on the " JEth- " ; 
and emphasized syllables remain. 

The other charter, No. 578, reads " Athe- 
redys hythe," with a comma of division 
(says the editor) after the at, and an ex- 
punction of the h. That is to say, the scribe 
first of all copied " ^Etheredes " as " Athe- 
redys," merely changing the JE to A, and 
eioy; and after that he (or more likely some 
one else) divided it as "At heredys," and 
then, by expuncting h, produced " At 
eredys." Neither of them has " Edred," 
which is Stowe's spelling with reference to 
Queen Hithe. This later charter is marked 
" Retherhithe," turning the older "hide" 
into " hithe." The correction to " hythe " 
in the charter itself is doubtless right, 
because a hithe seems to be described ; but 
it is a far cry from " ^Etheh*edes," as it 
should be, to " Rother." I cannot accept 

SIR HENRY DOCWRA (10 S. ix. 31, 58, 76). 
He was, as stated by MR. DOWLING, the 
second son of Thomas Docwra of Putteridge, 
Herts, by his first wife, Jane, daughter and 
coheir of Sir William Periam, Lord Chief 
Baron (see ' Visitation of Cambridge,' p. 45, 
comp. with that of Herts, p. 49, Harl. Soc. 
vols.). He was knighted at the Azores by 
the Earl of Essex, 7 Oct., 1597 ; created 
Baron Dockwra of Culmore, co. Derry, in 
the Irish peerage, 15 May, 1621 ; and died 
18 April, 1631 (G.E.C.'s 'Complete Peerage '). 
Henry Docwra, son of Edmund and Dorothy, 
was probably a cousin. 

I find no trace of a Sir Thomas Docwra, 
Kt. ; but Theodore, son of Henry, Lord 
Dockwra, was knighted in Ireland by Lord 
Falkland, 1 Jan., 1622/3 (Shaw's ' Knights of 
England'). He succeeded his father in the 
peerage, which became extinct at his death. 

W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newton-le- Willows. 

CASANOVA IN ENGLAND (10 S. viii. 443, 
491). In the reference to "la proxenete 
Wals," quoted by MR. PIERPOINT in his 
interesting article, it appears to me highly 
probable that Casanova has made another 
mistake in nomenclature. The only person 
whose name is at all similar is Mother Welch 
with whose identity students of the perioc 
will be familiar. If pronounced Walch 
as it is sometimes spelt, it would not be 
strange that a foreigner should write i 
"Wals." This famous "abbess" had a 
" nunnery " in Cleveland Row, St. James's 

*nd she flourished at the time of Casanova's 
/isit to England, which, of course, took 
place in 1763. HORACE BLEAOKXEY. 

PORT ARMS " (10 S. ix. 66). In reply to 
W. S., may I suggest that it seems unneces- 

>ary to adopt Elton's quaint and cha- 

acteristic etymology for this expression ? 

The word, at that time, was good English, 

lither for the verb " to carry " or for the 
substantive " carriage " (you remember 

Hilton's " His port was more than human"); 
and, as most of our military expressions 

vere derived from the Norman or French, 

ts origin seems to me quite clear. 


LIFE IN BOMBAY (10 S. viii. 508). An 
unmarried native of Liverpool, who recently 
esided for some years in Bombay, onco 
;old me, in the course of conversation, 
that the cost of living there was much below 
the English standard, caste for caste. Corn- 
Dared with his earlier mode and expense, 
ne found that a guinea per week, including: 
;he services of a male servant, provided 
'or him comparative affluence there. 

With regard to work, he found it advisable 
to rise very early, and get through most 
of the day's toil before breakfast, on account 
of the heat. WM. JAGGARD. 


(10 S. viii. 489). Sir Henry Gifford(d. 1592-3) 
of King Somborne, by his wife Susan, 
daughter of Henry Brouncker of Earlstoke, 
Wilts, and widow of Robert Halswell(d. 1570) 
of Halswell, Somerset (she was sister of Sir 
Henry Brouncker, Lord President of Munster, 
father of William, Viscount Brouncker), had 
issue William, who d.s.p., 1597 ; Richard, 
of whom presently ; Henry, buried at 
Romsey 2 Dec., 1643 ; John ; Anne, 
married, 1, Sir John Portman (d. 1612), 
Bart ; 2, Edward, Popham (d. 1640-41) of 
Huntworth, and died in 1637 ; Dorothy ; 
Catherine ; Bridget, wife of Sir Hercules 
Paulet ; and Elizabeth. 

Richard succeeded to King Somborne on 
the death of his brother William in 1597 ; 
he was knighted in 1603, and died c. 1647. 
He married his first cousin Winifred, 
daughter of Sir Henry Wallop, and had 
issue Richard; Henry, born about 1611; 
Winifred ; Anne ; and Susannah (b. 1605 ; 
d. 1628), wife of John St. John (d. 1627) of 
Farley Chamberlayne. Richard, the eldest 
son, died about January, 1662 ; his children 
were: 1, Richard, who died in 1679, 
leaving an only daughter, Jane ; 2, Gabriel ; 

10 s. ix. FEB. s, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and, 3, Button Gifford of Hursley and 
Wooley Green. ' MRS. SUCKLING at the above 
reference deals with Button Gifford' s first 
wife and her daughter. His second wife 
was " Mrs. Elizabeth Hunt," to whom he 
was married at Popham on 31 Oct., 1695, 
and by whom he had issue Elizabeth (b. 1698; 
d. 1770) ; Richard (b. 1702 ; d. 1769) ; 
and Frances (b. 1705 ; d. 1772). Button 
Gifford died 16 Oct., 1722, aged 66, and 
was buried at Farley Chamberlayne. On 
his tomb is a shield with the arms of Gifford 
(Arg., ten torteaux, 4, 3, 2, and 1) impaling 
Hunt (On a bend cotised, between two water 
bougets, three leopards' heads). 

High Street, Portsmouth. 

(10 S. ix. 10, 76). The earliest record I 
find of Honoretta Pratt, whose cremation in 
1769 has been referred to by MR. A. F. G. 
LEVESON-GOWER, is among the Prerogative 
Grants, Ireland, and appears as a licence 
of marriage between John Pratt, parish of 
St. Peter's, Bublin, arm., and Honor Brooke 
of the same parish, directed to the minister 
of St. Peter's Church, 8 June, 1705. Their 
daughter Mary, who married Sir George 
Savile, was mother of Sir George Savile, 
8th Baronet, F.R.S., to whom Thomas 
Sheridan, A.M., dedicated his ' Life of 
Swift,' published first in Bublin in 1785. 
This Sir George, last of his line, died 10 Jan., 
1784, while that work was still in the press. 
In a postscript to the dedication, which 
proclaims him as the compeer of Swift in 
incorruptible integrity, inviolable truth, 
and steadiness in friendship, Sheridan dis- 
interestedly *' Consecrates to the memory 
of the dead, that tribute of praise, so justly 
due to the living." A relation of Sheridan's, 
Thomas Brooke, M.B., of Charles Street, 
St. James's Square, Westminster, who 
died 18 Oct., 1781, mentions in his will an 
annuity of 200/. which he enjoyed from the 
Earl of Scarborough and Sir George Savile. 
This Br. Brooke, who was a cousin of Henry 
Brooke, author of 'The Fool of Quality,' 
was in 1767 Censor, or examiner for licen- 
tiates, to the College of Physicians (London), 
and held also the appointment of physician 
to St. Luke's Hospital for indigent lunatics. 

Although the inscription upon the monu- 
ment of Honoretta Pratt has been read as 
referring to " ... .Brookes of York," that, 
name, if properly cut, should have appeared 
as Brooke (of EHenthorpe). 

The distinguishing characteristic mani- 
fested in common by Honoretta Pratt, Sir 

George Savile, and Br. Thomas Brooke 
was undoubtedly an unusual consideration 
for the well-being of others ; and the purport 
of this act of cremation was quite in keeping 
with the tenor of the life of an exceptionally 
benevolent woman. J. N. BOWLING, 

67, Douglas Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 

(10 S. ix. 42). Harleian MS. 1532 (Mundy's 
copy of the Visitations of Berkshire in 1566 
and 1623) gives the pedigree of one who was 
evidently another Wentworth Bay. He 
was son of William Bay of Ockwells in Bray 
(died 1628) and Ellen his wife, dau. of Paul 
Wentworth of Burnham ( " Burnham Abbay,' ' 
Addit. MS. 14,314). The grandfather of 
this Wentworth Bay was William Bay, 
Bishop of Winchester (1529-97). 

In George E. Bay's ' Bescendants of 
Robert Bay, Pioneer' (Northampton, Mass., 
1848), the above-named Wentworth Bay is 
said to have been 

" perhaps identical with Wentworth Day of Boston, 
received into the church 12 Sept., 1640, 'with prefix 
of respect.' Was perhaps the surgeon at Cam- 
bridge 1652. Had dau. Elizabeth, died aged seven, 
and a son Wentworth, bap. 13 Aug. 1643." 

It is just as well, perhaps, that these different 
people of the same names should be dis- 

William, the eldest brother of Wentworth 
Bay of the Berkshire Visitation, given as 
aged twenty-four in 1623, is said to have 
been a Parliamentarian, and killed at 
Edgehill 23 Oct., 1642. 


50, Beecroft Road, Brockley, S.E. 

46, 73, 95). ' Hudibras ' (1663-4) contains 
many allusions to the dishes of the Common- 
wealth, and mince pies are not omitted 
(Part I. 227) : 

Quarrel with minc'd pies, and disparage 
Their best and dearest friend, plum porridge." 

A note in my copy, extracted perhaps 
From Br. Grey and Mr. Thyer, observes : 

'The religion of the Presbyterians of those times 
consisted principally in an opposition to the Church 
of England, and in quarrelling with the most inno- 
cent customs then in use, as the eating Christmas 
pies and plum porridge at Christmas, which they 
reputed sinful." 

The learned Br. Parr said, " Call it 
Christmas pie, madam, not minced pie, 
which is puritanical.' ' The immortal Homer 
was also eating a " Christmas pie " ; and 
' the man in the south," we are informed, 
" burnt his mouth with eating cold, plum 
porridge.". JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. s, 

CROWE FAMILY (10 S. viii. 509). 
Chauncy, vol. i., 'Historical Antiquities 
of Herts,' under Sheephall parish, states 
that Nich Taverner died in 1492, and that 
his son John married for his second wife 

Ann, daughter of Crow of Bilney, in 

Norfolk. Christian name is not given. 

John Crow was Vicar of Ashwell, Herts, 
in the seventeenth century. M. A. 

Two OLD PROVERBS (10 S. vii. 407, 457 ; 
viii. 55, 136, 215). Will M. P. kindly either 
give the pages of IS Intermediaire alluded 
to at the second reference or mention the 
correct numbers ? I have consulted the 
indices of the volumes named without finding 

the phrase in 

question, " Toujours (des) 


j x> g). The Gordon tartan is most certainly 

modern, and dates only from 1793, as MR. 
BULLOCH suggests. A good many years ago 
I pointed this out when I wrote about the 
raising of Fencible Regiments in the North. 
Advertisements in the local press and con- 
temporary correspondence of that time 
enabled me to prove that these regiments 
were all raised by a species of conscription 
and with the aid of substantial bounties. 
For instance, William Tod, the Duke of 
Gordon's factor, sent a circular letter to 
Highland gentlemen requesting their assist- 
ance in finding men for the Gordon High- 
landers ; and he offered bounties ranging 
from sixteen to twenty-two guineas to each 
recruit. Particularly tall and handsome 
recruits could command a guinea or two 
extra. The Tod correspondence effectually 
disposed of the absurd canard that the 
Duchess of Gordon raised the regiment 
" with a shilling and a kiss." The Gordon 
tartan was first used by the 92nd Regiment. 
The Duke's family often wore the same 
tartan with this variation, that the ducal 
pattern had three yellow stripes instead of 
one ; and Tod's letters prove that this was 
one of the designs submitted in 1793 for 
the Duke's approval. D. M. R. (2). 

449 ; ix. 57, 96). The following passage 
bearing on this subject occurs in Southey's 
' Commonplace Book,' Fourth Series : 

" A MS. note in a copy of the coll. of verses on 
the Cotswold games, in the possession of Mr 
Octavius Gilchrist, says : ' Dr. John Dover 
born in the sixty-second year of his mother's age, as 
his own daughter now living (1747) attests, who is 
wife to Mr. Cordwell, the city carpenter.' "P. 398. 


A New English Dictionary on Historical Principle.* 
Polyaenous to Premious. (Vol. VII.) Edited by 
Dr. J. A. H. Murray. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
THE great Dictionary continues to make very steady 
and satisfactory advance. The section before us 
contains 3,245 main words, and 4,701 in all, and 
includes several things which have been the subject 
of discussion in our own columns. We understood 
that the meaning of "pot-gallery" had been 
ascertained, but a note now explains that "the 
suggestion that it was the outside gallery or balcony 
of a pot-house overhanging the river (see ' N. & Q.,' 
31 Aug., 1907, p. 172) appears to be set aside by the 
recorded dimensions of some ' pot-galleries ': see the 

While admiring, as every one must, the wonderful 
collection of quotations supplied, we must express 
our surprise, as once before, at the apparent neglect 
of Tennyson, a supreme stylist whose use of words 
sometimes fills an obvious gap, and in other cases 
has greater claims, we think, to inclusion than the 
coinage of lesser authors. The words available in. 
Brightwell's ' Concordance to Tennyson,' which does 
not cover the whole works, might at any rate be 
considered. In the present section we should have 
included " A land of hops and poppy-mingled corn " 
(' Aylmer's Field', 31) ; and for " popular " =approved 
by the people, "For these are the new dark ages, 
you see, of the popular press " (' The Ancient Sage, 
XVI. 2), or "And you, old popular Horace, 
you the wise Adviser of the nine-years-ponder'd 
lay " (' Poets and their Biographies,' 5). We 
note also " Porch-pillars on the lion resting " 
('The Daisy' 55), one of the many compounds in 
which Tennyson revels. We are glad to see that 
Tennyson's " Where Freedom broadens slowly 
down | From precedent to precedent," is quoted, to 
which we may append the note in the new 
" Eversley " Tennyson (vol. i. p. 382): "has been 
requently misprinted 'broadens slowly.' My father 
never, if he could help it, put two s's together, 
and the original MS. stood as it stands now. The 
correct order is given in the standard one-volume 
edition of Tennysonpublished by Messrs. Macmillan. 
Pomona might easily have been found in poetry of 
the last century ; e.y., we recall in Keats's 
Endymion ' (II. 444). 

taste these juicy pears, 
Sent me by sad Vertumnus, when his fears. 
Were high about Pomona ; 
and Browning's quaint 

What porridge had John Keats ? 
would have enlivened a rather dull esculent, which, 
however, is well illustrated from Scott s 'Old 

Mortality ' in the Scotch form of " parritch." 
Dickens is quoted for " pounce," but a more aggres- 
sive use of the word is well given in ' Our Mutual 
Friend' (Book III. chap. iv.). Mrs. Wilfer on the 
celebrated anniversary dinner says : "It is not the 
day, Lavinia, on which I will allow a child of mine 
to pounce upon me. I be<j nay, command ! that 
you will not pounce." "Praepostor" is an example 
of an article which has the best possible quotations. 
Words of general usage and no particular distinc- 
tion we cannot expect searchers to record from 
authors of classic rank. Still, it seems worth 

10 s. ix. FEB. s, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

while to mention examples of such words from our 
own collections derived from the majestic prose of 
Gibbon. Thus, "Along the shores of the Persian 

gulf the Icthtjoghayi, or fish-eaters, continued to 

wander in quest ot their precarious foed " (' Decline 
and Fall,' chap. 1.); "The teachers of ancient 
knowledge, who are still extant, had perused and 
compared the writings of their predecessors" (ib. 
chap, li.) ; and (of Mahomet) " the apostle was a 
mortal, like ourselves, and, according to his own 
prediction, he has experienced the common fate of 
niortality ' (ib. chap. 1.). In days when the language 
is rapidly degenerating, examples from the best 
authors are of importance, ana it will be readily 
understood, we hope, that we are gilding gold 
already refined in making a few possible improve- 
ments in such additions as the foregoing. The work 
of the Dictionary is so thorough and remarkable 
all round that the editors may well regard a few 
extra examples as " wasteful and ridiculous 

This section teems with matter of interest for 
everybody. The poly- compounds are a little dull, 
but once out of them we come on such words as 
"pomp," "pool," "poor," "poop," "popinjay," 
"port," "post," and "potato," which supply abun- 
dant instruction and, by the way, entertainment. 
Regarding "potato" the 'Journals' of the Royal 
Society of 1663 and 1693 afford remarkable quota- 
tions. "Small potatoes "=" no great things," is 
illustrated from Coleridge as well as the United 
States. Slang is not despised by the ' Dictionary,' 
as is shown by the quotations given for "pot- 
boiler" and "pot-hunter." "Powder" and "power" 
have long articles. "Pragmatism" introduces the 
philosophy of which Mr. 1 . C. S. Schiller is so strong 
an advocate. The compounds of pre- occupy many 
pages. "Premier" for the first minister of the 
Crown is taken back to 1726. 

The King over the Water. By A. Shield and 

Andrew Lang. (Longmans & Co.) 
JAMES III., as the Jacobites called him the 
Pretender, as he was nicknamed by the Whigs- 
was not only unfortunate in his life, but also 
unhappy in the treatment he has received alike 
from political essayists and the writers of romance. 
Something may, perhaps, be said in extenuation 
of the narrow-minded violence of the political 
partisans on both sides, living as they did with the 
shadow of civil war hanging over them ; hut a large 
amount of charity is required to forgive those who 
still accept the prurient gossip of those far-off days 
when a Stewart restoration was by no means an 
improbable event. 

Mr. Andrew Lang points out in his interesting 
preface that Thackeray in ' Esmond ' has accepted 
many of the baseless fables of the Whigs, and has 
treated James hardly and untruly in consequence. 
Thackeray was a weaver of romance, not a student 
of history, and in consequence of this limitation 
it is much to be regretted that he should have 
introduced real men into prominent situations in 
his pages. All extant evidence seems to prove 
that James was an upright man, untainted with 
a profligacy like that of the days ot his uncle 
Charles II., or with the still more open violation 
of the decencies of life which surrounded him 
during the years he abode in France. He was a 
conscientious Roman Catholic, and we have evi- 
dence that cannot be gainsaid that, even tor the 
sake of winning back the throne of Great Britain, 

he would never have deserted what he believed to 
uf , trutn - Few men na . v e been so rigorously 
truthful, and it was impossible to doubt his word 
when he pledged himself, if restored, to grant reli- 
gious liberty not only to the Established Churches 
ot England and Scotland, but their Nonconformist 
brethren also. That he believed in the divine right 
of kings, or, as it is more accurate to say, of here- 
ditary monarchy, we may accept as certain, for he 
did not realize that this doctrine is one of the many 
dreams haunting our ancestors which were in a 
;reat measure due to the Renaissance. 

Mr. Andrew Lang evidently has a great respect 
-we might almost say an affectionate admiration 
for one who worked so untiringly and suffered so 
much for what he believed to be the duty which 
God had laid upon him. He tells us that James's 
"was a religious nature; his heart was set on a 
crown not of this world ; his birth and traditions 
were the worst of his misfortunes. Reasonable- 
ness, self-control, a sad lucidity, and in his own 
words ' a nice regard for truth and prudence ' were 
his leading characteristics." 

This work might perhaps never have been written 
had it not been for Mr. Lang, who induced Miss 
Alice Shield to devote several years to the study 
of "the Pretender's" life in printed and manu- 
script sources. He tells us tnat "most of the 
research, and almost all the writing, have been " 
hers, and that his part has been mainly that of 
supervision and concentration. We have read the 
volume with an amount of care with which 
reviewers are rarely credited, and have been well 
repaid. Few living historians are Miss Shield's 
equals with regard to the style in which she 
presents her facts and clothes her reasoning, and 
assuredly in one respect we have no one who is her 
superior, for she has avoided the smallest trace of 
partisanship. She undoubtedly holds that James 
was ruled oy conscience, and nad a faculty (often 
almost wanting in men of far greater intellect) of 
rapidly distinguishing between right and wrong ; 
but we find no means of discovering what her con- 
victions may be as to the wisdom or folly of what 
many of our forefathers were wont to call " the 
Glorious Revolution." This is an advance beyond 
those who, not content with chronicling what hap- 
pened, so far as they could see it, and snowing how 
it has modified the times that came after, have 
persisted in treating their own personal convictions, 
derived from other sources, as if they were a part 
of the material on which it was their vocation to 

The Nineteenth Ctntury has this month several 
articles which deserve close reading. We do not 
think that Mr. H. W. Hoare's paper on ' The 
Impotence of Socialism ' is particularly good ; but 
Mr. J. G. Hutchinson's " workman's view " on the 
question, 'Can the Working Classes Save?' is 
eminently sensible and well written, tainting to a 
drink bill of 1 10.000,00$. a year, which is said to be 
the workman's share, and which might go to secure 
better food, clothing, and housing. Mr. H. H. 
Statham on 'The Morality of Snaksneare' has 
a most interesting subject, but too complicated for 
brief treatment. Much of the article consists of 
assertions that the words of this or that character 
are Shakespeare's own opinions assertions with 
which we frequently disagree. To ai>eak of 
" Falstaff babbling of green fields (I believe in the 
existing reading), seems to us odd. Mr. A. S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. s, im 

Herbert finds in ' The Fairy Mythology of Europe ' 
memories of diminutive Finns ; but ne spoils nis 
striking article by some wild derivations which 
would surprise modern experts in language. Lady 
Paget has some delightful reminiscences of her child- 
hood. Dr. Emil Reich's 'History and Character' 
does not strike us as important. Mr. Hugh Childers 
reviews in vivid style the murder of Thynne in 1682 
by tools of Count Carl Konigsmarck. Mr. H. C. 
Corrance's ' Vindication of Modernism ' would be 
more effective if it were written in a simpler style. 
Two more articles are noteworthy. Mr. J. H. 
Barnes speaks some plain truths about the present 
stage and its failure. The actor is at fault, he thinks, 
because he spends so much time on social amenities, 
a taste fostered by personal journalism. Secondly, 
he does not go in for romantic or broad acting; 
and, thirdly, he despises and ignores tradition. 
Finally, the " free list "at the theatres is a scandal. 
Prof. Churton Collins commends the foundation of 
schools of journalism at the newer universities, 
especially at Birmingham. He censures not a whit 
too strongly the degradation of modern journalism. 
But we venture to doubt whether any school, how- 
ever comprehensive, will suggest the necessity of 
good taste, with its attendant reticence, and an 
ideal, the two chief things needed, though it 
may reduce illiteracy of the more glaring kind. 
The Professor's language in regard to Oxford 
and Cambridge we take leave to regard as over- 

THERK is very little of literary interest in The 
Fortnightly, except a pleasant article on Madame 
de Rambouillet and her salon by Mrs. M. C. Birch- 
enough. In other ways, however, the number is 
full of interest. Dr. William Wallace in 'A 
Political Sidelight' makes some remarks well 
worth the attention of the average reader, who, 
he states, is losing his interest in politics. Mr. 
Blatchford makes an able answer to Dr. Crozier's 
challenge concerning Socialism. Mr. A. E. Keeton 
has ' A Plea for the British Composer,' which is 
useful as mentioning some of our younger com- 
posers who deserve notice ; but much of his paper 
seems to us wild in its conclusions and compari- 
sons. 'The Dramatic Chaos,' by Mr. H. M. Paull, 
discusses the case between the music-halls and the 
theatres concerning "sketches," and the Censor. 
' The Smoke Problem in Large Cities,' by Mr. 
J. B. C. Kershaw, is a practical paper, which 
suggests that the Hamburg Preventive Society is 
Ahead of that in London. 'Foreign Affairs: a 
Chronique,' is interesting as usual. 

The National Review contains several political 
Articles of its usual trenchant variety, and ' Episodes 
of the Month ' is good reading. An Actor dwells 
on ' Some Deficiencies of the Stage,' which is now 
receiving plenty of advice and censure. Mr. 
Maurice Baring, reviewing ' Sarah Bernhardt's 
Memoirs,' regards Phedre and Hamlet as her best 
characters ; we can endorse the first part of this 
verdict only. 'American Affairs,' by Mr. A. M. 
Low, is much more interesting than ' The Future of 
the United States,' by Mr. J. J. Hill, President of 
tlie Great Northern "Railway, U.S.A. Lieut.-Col. 
Leetham does a real service in ' Our Military 
Historian,' by pointing out the admirable quality of 
Mr. J. W.Fortescue's ' History of the British Army,' 
now in progress, though he should not be so vague 
about the book and its author's name. It is a work 
which deserves classic rank. Miss Eva M. Martin 

has some blank verse on the feelings of the blind 
which shows power, and maintains, on the whole, 
a high level of expression. 

IN The Cornhill Mr. G. W. E. Russell writes on 
' The Queen and the Whigs,' a subject he treats 
with the assurance of the expert. Mr. W. P. 
Reeves writes effectively concerning ' The All Red 
Route.' Mr. Noyes has a poem on ' The Lights of 
Home ' ; and Virginia Stephen reviews the book of 
the month, which is the memoirs of Sarah Bern- 
hard t. Her criticism is striking, but not free from 
needless preciosity of style. Mr. A. W. Pollard is 
at his best in dealing with ' Indexes,' being one of 
the most attractive and learned writers we have 
concerning all matters of bibliography. ' Fisher- 
men's Sorrows,' by Mr. F. G. Aflalo, deals with 
some of the handicaps of a waning industry. The 
article duly mentions the attempt to introduce 
dogfish as an article of food, and suggests that they 
should be used to feed the poor in the slums during 
the winter months. These small sharks have in- 
creased marvellously, and something must be done 
to keep them down. It is interesting to notice that 
the conditions on which a good catch of herrings 
depends are the subject of a recent Parliamentary 
Paper. In the series ' At Large,' Mr. A. C. Benson 
deals with 'The Dramatic Sense,' which is "an 
overwhelming sense of personal significance." Mr. 
Benson here touches ground less trite than he has 
in some of his previous articles, and his summary is 
both penetrating and well written. The danger for 
the prophet of complacency is, as he points out, 
great. He is apt, as Leslie Stephen said, "to be 
a bit of a humbug, and at any rate a cause of 
humbug in others." This is our quotation : Mr. 
Benson does not say or quote anything so incisive. 

The Burlington Magazine has a brief editorial 
article on M. Camille Groult and Berlin. Mr. 
Claude Phillips brings to notice some admirable 
examples of Reynolds's art in ' The Walker-Heneage 
Family.' A well-illustrated article shows the fine 
quality of 'The Dublin Gallery of Modern Art,' 
which owes much to the generosity of Mr. Hugh 
Lane. Mr. Lionel Gust continues his notes on ' The 
Great Piece ' by Van Dyck. Mr. Campbell Dodgson 
describes a beautiful alphabet by Hans Weiditz, 
which is reproduced ; and Mr. Herbert Cook writes 
on Pacheco, the master of Velasquez. Two pictures 
from the Ashburtou collections are among the other 
illustrations in an excellent number, full of interest. 
We are pleased to notice that The Burlington always 
keeps an eye on art in America. 

to C0rrrsjj0ni)ntt5. 

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CONTENTS. No. 216. 

NOTES : Tennysoniana : Cleopatra, 121 Mystery of 
Hannah Lightfoot, 122 Errors, Typographical and 
Otherwise, 123 Disraeli's Abyssinian Speech Shake- 
speare's Unnoted Compliment to Elizabeth Sze"chenyi : 
its Pronunciation, 125 " Molusio," a Ghost- Word The 
" Hazel " in Politics Soup-Kitchens " Tammany " : 
Origin of the Name Glosses of Middle English Initial 
Letters instead of Words, 126 Ouseley Family London 
Signs : " Guy, Earl of Warwick "John James, Architect 
Early Book Auctions, 127. 

<JUERIES : Fulton the Inventor Brandenburgh House 
Sale Authors Wanted Fannings of co. Clare White 
Ensign Burial-Places of Eminent Engineers, 128 Tower 
of London Chateaubriand on the French Character- 
Admiral John Bazely "The Midwife Toad "Cavaliers 
with Prince Rupert ' Lang o' Lea,' Irish Song " The 
Weed" Churchwardens appointed by Mayors, 129 
French Regiments in English Pay Bostock Coat of 
Arms Genealogical " The Clayton Arms" "Willy 
Water," 130. 

REPLIES: Latin Pronunciation "Camelian," 131 
"Cut his stick" 'Lady of the Lake': Allusions, 132 
Proclamation of Winter Coleridge Items, 133 Secret 
Languages" Vin gris " Fielding's Grave Vocabulary 
of Peasant "Fide sed cui vide," 134 " Anon "The 
Treaty of Tilsit, 135 " Prize " Wareham, Dorset 
G. Auld : London Booksellers and Publishers, 137. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Mrs. Stones on Shakespeare's 
Warwickshire Contemporaries ' The Hewsons of Finuge.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


IN ' A Dream of Fair Women ' Tennyson 
has the following description of Cleopatra : 

I turning saw, throned on a flowery rise, 
One sitting on a crimson scarf unroll'd ; 

A Queen, with swarthy cheeks and bold black eyes, 
Brow-bound with burning gold. 

This passage certainly suggests to the 
ordinary man that Cleopatra was of gipsy 
complexion, and Peacock rebukes Tennyson 
for the slip in ' Gryll Grange,' chap, xxiii. 
Dr. Opimian asks, quoting the stanza above : 
" What do you suppose these lines repre- 
sent ? " Mr. Macborrowdale replies : " I 
should take it to be a description of the 
Queen of Bambo." Dr. Opimian goes on : 

" Yet thus one of our most popular poets de- 
scribes Cleopatra : and one of our most popular 
artists has illustrated the description by a portrait 
of a hideous grinning Aethiop. Moore led the way 
to this perversion by demonstrating that the 
Egyptian women must have been beautiful, because 
"they were ' the countrywomen of Cleopatra.' Here 
we have a sort of counter-demonstration that Cleo- 
patra must have been a fright because she was the 
countrywoman of the Egyptians. But Cleopatra 
was a Greek, the daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, and 
a lady of Pontus. The Ptolemies were Greeks, and 
whoever will look at their genealogy, their coins, 
and their medals, will see how carefully they kept 

their pure Greek blood uncontaminated by African 
intermixture. Think of this description and this 
picture applied to one who Dio says and all 
antiquity confirms him was ' the most super- 
latively beautiful of women, splendid to see, and 
delightful to hear.' For she was eminently accom- 
plished : she spoke many languages with grace and 
tacihty. Her mind was as wonderful as her per- 
sonal beauty. There is not a shadow of intellectual 
expression in that horrible portrait." 

Here is a similar criticism from A Last 
Ramble in the Classics,' by Hugh E. P Platt 
(1906), p. 121: 

"Before dismissing coloured ladies, I would 
observe thatjffawthorne in^Transformation' praises 

i. T 8Cul Ptor, f r representing Cleopatra 
With full Nubian lips and other characteristics of the 
Egyptian physiognomy.' It would be equally reason- 
able to represent General Washington with the 
features of a Chickahominy Indian." 

' Gryll Grange' was written in 1861, and 
now at last, in 1908, in the " Eversley " 
edition of Tennyson, with the poet's own 
notes, in course of publication by Messrs. 
Macmillan, we get Peacock's correction 
corrected. ' Poems,' vol. i. p. 378, contains 
the note : 

" 'A queen with swarthy cheeks and bold black 
eyes.' I was thinking of Shakespeare's Cleopatra : 

Think of me 

That am with Phoebus' amorous pinches black. 
' Antony and Cleopatra,' I. v. 28. 
Millais has made a mulatto of her in his illustra- 
tion. I know perfectly well that she was a Greek. 
'Swarthy' merely means sunburnt. I should not 
have spolcen of her breast as ' polished silver ' if I 
had not known her as a white woman. Read ' sun- 
burnt ' if you like it better." 

There is no doubt about Millais" s illustra- 
tion : it may be seen between p. 64 and 
p. 65 of the reprint of " Poems by Alfred, 
Lord Tennyson, illustrated by Rossetti, 
Millais, W. Holman Hunt," which was 
edited by Mr. Joseph Pennell, and published 
by Messrs. Fremantle & Co. in 1901. The 
later reference which Tennyson mentions 
is : 

With that she tore her robe apart, and half 
The polished argent of her breast to sight 
Laid bare. 

The silvery effect might be that of light 
apart from colour, as in Millais's illustration, 
and I do not think that Tennyson's 
explanation is very convincing. After all, 
few poets have been learned in history, or 
in details of classical scholarship, as Peacock 
was. But Tennyson was steeped in 
Shakespeare, and Shakespeare (' Romeo and 
Juliet," II. iv.) makes Mercutio speak of 
" Dido, a dowdy ; Cleopatra, a gipsy." In 
Antony and Cleopatra ' the obvious hyper- 
bole of " with amorous pinches black " 
would hardly be suitable for reproduction in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FKB. is, im 

a description of Cleopatra's face as 
" swarthy." Philo in Act I. sc. i. clearly 
speaks of Cleopatra as dark. Antony's eyes 
now bend, now turn, 

The office and devotion of their view 

Upon a taict/ front ; 
and his captain's heart 

is become the bellows and the fan 

To cool a yipxy'n lust. 

Tennyson's whole passage, which is of 
some length, is written with evident reference 
to Shakespeare, and he may well have 
followed his loved exemplar in making 
Cleopatra " a gipsy." 

I do not think there is any importance 
to be attached to Tennyson's " I know," 
as implying information gained later, instead 
of " I knew," in the note cited above, for 
it represents the casual tone of easy con- 
versation in which the comments are largely 
couched. But it is noteworthy that Ten- 
nyson wrote ' A Dream of Fair Women ' 
in 1832, and altered the text with more 
elaborate care than in almost any of his 
works. This being so, would he not have 
corrected a misleading description of one 
of his chief heroines, if he had known that 
it gave a false impression ? Chaucer wrote, 
as Prof. Churton Collins points out, a 
' Legend of Good Women,' and Cleopatra 
is the only heroine common to the two 
poems. But the reference by Chaucer to 

She was as fair as is the rose in May, 
is not decisive as to complexion, and looks 
like a commonplace. HIPPOCUDES. 


(See 10 S. viii. 321, 402, 483 ; ix. 24.) 

AN assertion has been made twice in tho 
pages of ' N. & Q..' to the effect that a 
daughter of Hannah Lightfoot married 
James Dalton, a medical officer in the ser- 
vice of the E.I.C. (1 S. x. 430; 2 S. i. 322). 
Such a clue is worth following, for it is seldom 
that the subject yields a clear and definite 
statement. With the help of the records 
of the War Office, and the Military General 
Order volumes at Madras, it is easy to trace 
the history of Dr. Dalton. 

James Dalton was appointed one of the 
E.I.C.'s assistant surgeons at Fort St. 
George on 12 May, 1791, and his indenture 
is dated 31 June. John Stuart and Lieut. - 
Col. Robt. Stewart, both of Hampstead, 
were his sureties. He arrived at Madras on 
8 Aug. of the same year. He became surgeon 

on 14 May, 1800, and superintending surgeon 
on 13 Dec., 1814. He left Madras on the 
Moira on 1 Feb., 1823, and died at Car- 
marthen in Wales on 16 Sept. following. 
On his tombstone in St. Peter's Churchyard 
he is described as " James Dalton, Esq., of 
Bangalore in the East Indies"; and the 
register of his burial runs as follows: " James. 
Dalton, surgeon, Madras Army abode, 
Priory Street Buried 23 Sept., 1823 age 
54 years." The inscription on his grave 
gives the information that his wife Catherine 
Augusta died at Madras on the 5th of March, 
1813. This is confirmed by an extract from 
Maiden's ' List of Burials in St. Mary's 
Cemetery at Madras,' compiled from the 
registers of St. Mary's Church, which records- 
the death, on the 6th of March, 1813, of a. 
Mrs. Dalton, whose maiden name was 
Catherina Augusta Ritso. The ' Madras 
Almanac ' for 1814 describes her as " the 
lady of James Dalton of the Medical Estab- 

This Catherina Augusta Ritso, therefore,, 
is the person who is alleged to have been 
the daughter of Hannah Lightfoot. It 
would be well if we could discover 
the identity of the correspondent who* 
made this statement in the columns of 
'N. & Q.' on 25 Nov., 1854, under the 
signature E. D., for he appears to have had 
special knowledge, and gave the names of 
all the children of James Dalton and Cathe- 
rine Ritso correctly, as a reference to the last 
will and testament of their father indicates. 

Fortunately, there are two interesting' 
allusions to a person of the name of Ritso- 
in the ' Cornwallis Correspondence ' : 

Lord Cornwallis to Lord Sydney, 15 Aug., 1787. 
Banks of the Ganges. " Lord Ailesbury has greatly 
distressed me by sending out a Mr. Ritso recom- 
mended by the Queen, out I have too much at 
stake. I cannot desert the only system that can 
save the country even for sacred Majesty." I. 273. 

Lord Cornwallis to Lord Sydney, 7 Jan., 1788. 
Calcutta. " I told you how much Lord Ailesbury 
had distressed me by sending out Mr. Ritso. He 
is now writing in the Secretary's Office for 200 or 
250 rupees a month, and I do not see the pro- 
bability of giving him anything better without 
deserving to be impeached." I. 310. 

It is instructive to compare this corre- 
spondence with a letter written in India by 
Lord Wellesley to Lord William Bentinck 
in May, 1805, and published in The Madras 
Mail, 1 March, 1906. In this letter Lord 
Wellesley recommends Dalton to Bentinck,. 
and says that his A.D.C. Capt. Ritso tells 
him his brother-in-law Dalton is a very 
good fellow, and anxious to get on, adding 
that Capt. Ritso was recommended to him- 

10 s. ix. FEB. 15, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


self by Lord Lake because he had done well 
in the Mahratta wars. 

Although the connexion between Dal ton's 
brother-in-law Capt. Ritso and Lord Corn- 
wallis's clerk is not evident, yet they must 
have been kinsmen (if not indeed identical), 
and one must wonder what was Queen 
Charlotte's motive in recommending the 
latter to the Governor-General. Possibly, 
if he had been related in any way to a former 
mistress of the King she would not have 
given him her patronage. It is merely the 
suggestion that a daughter of Hannah 
Lightfoot bore the name of Ritso that 
leads one to seek for the reason of the 
Queen's solicitude. 

However, there is another explanation of 
the parentage of Catherine Augusta Ritso. 
In Burke' s ' General Armory,' under the 
name of Prytherch, Augusta Ritso, the 
wife of James Dalton, is said to have been 
a daughter of Henry Frederick, Duke of 
Cumberland, a younger brother of George III. 
(' N. & Q.,' 3 S. xi. 342). Certainly this is 
a more plausible tradition than the other. 
The inscription on the Dalton tombstone 
in Carmarthen Churchyard states that Mrs. 
Dalton was thirty-two years of age at the 
.time of her death, and if this record is to be 
trusted it is impossible that she was the 
daughter of the Fair Quakeress and the King. 
If the inscription is correct, she was born 
in 1781, at which date Hannah Lightfoot 
was fifty-one years old ; and besides the 
improbability that she should have given 
birth to a child at such an age, it is safe to 
conclude that if George III. had been the 
father of an illegitimate child at this ad- 
vanced period of his reign, the fact would 
have been generally known. Unfortunately 
the inscription on the grave is somewhat 
illegible, and it is difficult to decide whether 
the numeral should be thirty-two or fifty- 
two. So far I have been unable to obtain 
any more information on the subject, and 
have failed also to ascertain the date of 
James Dal ton's marriage. Probably it took 
place c. 1806-9, and must have been 
solemnized in India, for Dr. Dalton never 
left that country from the year 1791 till 
the year 1823. If the dates which I have 
mentioned can be discovered, the vexed 
question as to whether Catherine Ritso was 
the daughter of Hannah Lightfoot will prob- 
ably be solved. 

The Dal tons had two sons and Iwo 
daughters, the names of whom were first 
disclosed by the well-informed correspondent 
of ' N. & Q ,' 1 S. x. 430, referred to above. 
In their father's will at Somerset House 

(dated 1 Sept., 1823) their names appear 
as Henry Hawkins, Charlotte, and Caro- 
line, with the addition of the cognomen 
Augustus or Augusta, generally applied to 
royal illegitimates. The elder son, Henry 
Augustus, became an officer in the RoyaF 
or 1st Foot Regiment. In the Army 
Lists from 1828 to 1832 the name of Henry 
Augustus Dalton appears regularly; and since 
it is absent from the list for 1833, it is clear 
that he died or retired about that year. 
He was gazetted ensign 1 March, 1827, and 
lieutenant 8 Feb., 1831. So far I have 
found no particulars about Hawkins Dalton, 
said to have been an officer of the Royal 
Navy, nor of his sister Charlotte. All the- 
three elder children are alleged by E. Dr 
to have died soon after their father. In 
Burke' s ' Landed Gentry ' (ed. 1857), ii. 984 r 
Caroline Georgina Catherine, the younger 
daughter of James Dalton of Bangalore,. 
East Indies, is said to have married on 18 
Feb., 1826, Daniel Prytherch, of Abergole, 
Carmarthen, by whom she had a numerous 

Unluckily, I have discovered no living 
representatives of this family, and thus have 
been unable to ascertain whether there is. 
any tradition respecting the parentage of 
Mrs. James Dalton. Both Mr. Stedman 
Thomas, Bellevue House, and Mr. Howell 
Ho well, Pontcarreg Cottage, Carmarthen,, 
who are versed in local lore, have most 
kindly answered many inquiries, but can 
throw no light on the subject. The question) 
is important, as it seems the only clue, in 
conjunction with the Axford-Bartlett law- 
suit, which might prove of value in the 
search for information relating to Hannah 
Lightfoot's later history. For this reason, 
I have stated all the facts as I have found 
them, and I trust that the details may 
prove useful to any one who cares to under- 
take the problem. It is not improbable 
that the identity of Capt. Ritso and his 
sister Mrs. Dalton will be discovered. Who 
were their parents ? No doubt the records 
of the India Office, or perhaps the published 
papers of Lord Wellesley, will yield som 
information. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

(To be continued.) 


ERRORS of the press, whether due ta 
hurried manuscript on the part of the 
author, or to inattention on the part of 
the compositor or proof - reader, are often 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 15, im 

amusing, sometimes heart-breaking. Tech- 
nical words make trouble, and foreign lan- 
guages are pitfalls, but the plainest English 
words are often misread. 

" Camelian " for carnelian has already 
been noticed in ' N. & Q.,' and a reason 
therefor suggested. Here are a few blunders 
which I have met in a not very extensive 

In the American edition of ' Cicero de 
Senectute,' published by the Macmillans, 
.among the notes at p. 162, moriendi is 
transformed into " monendi " ; apparently 
the result of the editor failing to put a dot 
on the i when writing his copy. The printer 
read ri as n, just as the other type-setter 
read rn as m. 

In like manner, on a theatre programme, 
Anna Karenina was transliterated into 
" Anna Karemna." 

In the vocabulary attached to an excellent 
:school edition of Caesar's ' Gallic War,' 
percontatio is defined " injury." Of course 
the editor wrote inquiry, but, the com- 
positor made a blunder. This mistake was 
corrected in a second edition. The two 
words in hurried manuscript are not unlike. 

In a newspaper of worldwide reputation 
-and boasted circulation, a new steamship was 
described as having " turn-screws." The 
compositor so read the manuscript, but the 
reporter undoubtedly wrote twin-screws. 

In a cheap edition of Swinburne the poem 
'* Anima Anceps ' is headed and indexed as 
' Anami Anceps. 1 Stupidity this, no more. 

In the first edition of that well-known 
book ' Gates Ajar ' appears the phrase 
" cold and hard as sleet." which seemed all 
right for New England winter weather ; but 
in a presentation copy Mrs. Ward, in her 
own handwriting, corrected " sleet " to 
steel, and as steel the word appears in sub- 
sequent editions. In that case the com- 
positor might have excuse, considering the 
-angular style of manuscript he had to deal 
with, and the surroundings. Perhaps the 
writer forgot to cross the t, for her book 
was written before the type-writer came 
into vogue. 

In a pleasant book describing a motor 
trip on the Continent the printer makes 
the author say " toupee," when toupie was 
meant. It is " toupee " in text, but "toupie" 
in the errata. 

A few years ago there appeared in Punch 
one of those lovely cartoons by Du Maurier 
showing a sitting-room interior with a 
young man and a young woman, evi- 
dently not relatives, and two children. 
The children were explaining their presence, 

for the legend read, " Mamma sent us to 
play forfeits." A week later Punch printed 
the correct version, " Mamma sent us to play 
propriety." The compositor, who had to 
contend with Du Maurier's handwriting, 
might well be excused, when he had so few 
words to read, and no context to guide ; 
but the proof-reader ought to have detected 
the want of continuity [relevancy ?]. 

Minuscule manuscripts of the classics 
are full of opportunities for blundering, 
or editing. In Sallust, ' Catilina,' cap. 1., 
occurs the word vicis, so printed in Anthon. 
The editor notes that the term is used 
in the sense of via," and he translates as 
" the streets." But " vicis " and " vias " 
in the compressed characters of those 
Middle Age MSS. are nearly indistinguish- 
able. Either word makes sense, and the 
meaning is the same, although editors differ 
as to what the author intended. 

There are other slips for which the proof- 
reader and copy -boy may be held jointly 
responsible. In the Introduction to Bonn's 
Greek Testament, at p. x, we read that 
the earlier editors " were unprovided with 
the works of many of the Greek Fathers .... 
from whom the most valuable subsidiary 
information could have been, and as [sic] 
since been derived." 

In " Little Dorrit,' chap, xviii. book i., we 
are told, " Young John was small of stature, 
with rather weak legs and very weak light 
air." This may be accidental, because 
in another edition " air " has become 
" hair." 

In chap. xxvi. of ' Great Expectations ' 
one may read : " Years afterwards, I made 
a dreadful likeness of that woman, by 
causing a face that had no other natural 
resemblance to it than it derived from 
flowing air, to pass behind a bowl of flaming 
spirits in a dark room." Subsequent in- 
spection of Dickens' s MS. shows that he 
wrote " hair," but that between copy- 
holder and proof-reader the h was dropped. 
A few years ago some one wrote of this in a 
magazine, and printed the page of Dickens' s 
MS. in facsimile. Dickens certainly intended 
to write sense, but accidents will happen, 
and types in stick, galley, or form are un- 
certain and tricky. 

A newspaper of enormous circulation 
printed an account of society doings in 
France, and the word soixante was divided 
and maltreated into the senseless combina- 
tion " soix auto." Perhaps the compositor 
had " automobile " in mind. 

In a ' History of the United States,' 
printed by the Macmillans, occurs a passage 

10 s. ix. FEB. 15, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

saying that one cause for the failure of 
slavery to hold its ground in the Northern 
States was " typographical." A strange 
renson truly, until we realize that the author 
wrote " topographical," and that the printer 

The same blunder occurs in an essay by 
Capt. Mahan, in a book issued by a famous 
Boston house. 

In a book printed in London two or three 
years ago, dealing with the question of sea- 
power, the author discusses the movements 
of the English and French fleets in the 
time of Trafalgar, refers to the anxiety of 
the Admiralty for news of Nelson, and tells 
how a fishing smack put into Portsmouth 
and reported having seen Nelson's fleet 
" steaming ' ' south-east. The author wrote 
steering in all probability, but the word 
was printed " steaming." The compositor 
did not pay attention to context, the proof- 
reader ought to have detected such a 
grievous error, and the author should have 
carefully conned the revise. 

All of which simply proves a thesis I have 
heretofore put forth, that the most annoying 
errors of the press are those that make sense, 
of a kind. JOHN E. NORCBOSS. 

Brooklyn, U.S. 

following quotation is made in the review 
of Mr. Clement Shorter' s ' Immortal 
Memories,' ante, p. 79 : 

" What novelist of our time would not give much 
to have so splendid a public recognition as was 
provided when Lord Beaconsfield, then Mr. Disraeli, 
after the Abyssinian Expedition, pictured in the 
House of Commons ' the elephants of Asia dragging 
the artillery of Europe over the mountains of 
Rasselas ' ? " 

I had the good fortune to be present when 
Mr. Disraeli, as Leader of the House of 
Commons, proposed the vote of national 
thanks to Sir Robert Napier and his officers 
and men, and unless my memory greatly 
deceives me, while reference was made to 
the elephants of Asia and the artillery of 
Europe, the actual words of the orator were 
that the British army had " planted the 
standard of St. George upon the mountains 
of Rasselas." 

In these days of universal education it 
is perhaps needless to point out that the 
route taken by the British troops was many 
miles distant from the " mountains of 
Rasselas," and that in the splendour of his 
rhetoric the orator sacrificed the interests 
of accuracy. Johnson might have written 
a philosophical story, but he would never 

have been the author of ' Rasselas ' if he- 
had not previously translated Father Lobe's 
book on Abyssinia. The mountain in John- 
son's mind was Amba Geshen, on which the- 
younger members of the Abyssinian royal 
family were confined, and which is situated 
in the province of Amhara. The fort of 
Magdala, at the capture of which I was 1 
present, is in the Wollo Galla country. A 
map will show that the two Ambas, or table- 
mountains, are at a considerable distance 
from each other. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Grand Hotel, Locarno. 

TO ELIZABETH. I always felt that when 
Shakspere makes Bassanio speak to Portia, 
in 'The Merchant,' III. ii. 179-80, of the 
effect on its hearers of " some Oration fairely 
spoke By a beloued Prince," he meant to' 
pay a compliment to the beauty and grace 
of Elizabeth's reading and speaking of her 
formal speeches to the public, just as many 
writers praised Queen Victoria's like quali- 
ties. But I never came across any con- 
temporary evidence of the fact till some 
two years ago, I think, when The West- 
minster Gazette printed (on a p. 2, col. 3)' 
an extract from a volume of the Historical' 
MSS. Commission which described the charm 
of a speech by Queen Elizabeth. I un- 
luckily lost the copy of the paper, and now 
ask some more careful ' N. & Q.' man than 
myself, who may have noted the passage,, 
to reprint it for us in 'N. & Q.' Bassanio's- 
lines are, from Quarto 1, sign. F3 : 
Madame, you have bereft me of all words, 
Onely my mood speakes to you in my veines, 
And there is such confusion in my powers, 
As after some Oration finely spoke 
By a beloued Prince, there doth appeare 
Among the buzzing pleased multitude, 
Where euery something being blent together, 
Turnes to a wilde of nothing, saue of ioy 
Exprest, and not exprest : but when this ring 
Parts from thistinger, then parts life from hence,. 
then be bold to say Bassanio is dead. 



Apropos of the Vender bilt wedding, I notice 
that none of our works of reference gives 
the correct pronunciation of the famous 
historical name Sz^chenyi. It should be 
called " Say-chen-ye," with stress upon the 
say, and the ch soft, as in the word "church." 
In English works of reference such, for 
instance, as Webster's dictionary eupple- 
men t the ch is marked hard, and the name 
is treated as if it were German, than which 
nothing could be more offensive to a 
patriotic Magyar. There are several Hun- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. FKB. 15, i9os. 

Sarian names in which our biographical 
ictionaries make the same mistake of treat- 
ing the palatal ch as guttural. Take, for 
example, Zach, the name of a celebrated 
astronomer. Our authorities mark it as 
" Tsak," whereas Zdch, like Forgdch and 
some other names with the same termination, 
rimes with the English word " arch." 


"MoLusio," A GHOST-WORD. I regret 
to say that in my edition of the Durham 
Account Rolls (Surtees Soc., vols. 99, 100, 
103), pp. 150, 151 bis, I have given the 
erroneous reading " molusione " for in- 
duaione, supposing it to mean mulching or 
manuring. It looks so like "molusione" 
in the MSS. that no other reading ever 
occurred to me until Mr. Bradley pointed it 
out, though the context ought at once to 
have suggested the right word. In the 
Index, under ' Manuring,' thereff. 150, 151*, 
should be erased, as also the entries under 
' Molusio ' in both Index and Glossary. 

J. T. F. 

of the blackthorn in Irish encounters has 
often been noted, particularly in novels ; 
but the following extract from The Times of 
16 January indicates that the hazel-twig 
is henceforth to take the traditional place 
of the older-fashioned shillelagh : 

" At a meeting of the South Longford executive 
of the United Irish League, on Sunday, Mr. J. P. 
Farrell, M.P., who was re-elected cha'irman, said 
that much had been said about giving Mr. Birrell 
& chance, and about stopping cattle-driving at 
present. For his part he would advocate giving 
Mr. Birrell a chance, but that chance would want 
to mature rapidly, for if they had left the ' hazel ' 
Aside it was only with the object of seasoning it 
better, to be prepared, if not treated rightly, for 

further developments Mr. Philips, M.P., said 

that he also agreed that Mr. Birrell should get a 
chance, but if he neglected to fulfil his promises, the 
hazel would be put in force again more strongly 
than ever." 


SOUP - KITCHENS. The following para- 
graph from The Craftsman of 17 Feb., 1798 
(p. 3 col. 2), contains an early reference to 
soup-kitchens : 

"The public kitchen in St. George's Fields (late 
the Dog and Duck) opened on Thursday last for the 
sale of good meat soup to the poor, wherever 
resident, at one penny per quart ; and its utility 
cannot be better manifested than by stating the 
increased quantity sold. On Thursday 480 quarts, 
on Friday 960, and on Saturday nearly 1,300. The 
managers of this institution are entitled to the 
warmest thanks of every benevolent mind, three or 
tnore of whom attend by rotation every day to 
direct and assist in the distribution of this nourish- 

ing food, a great deal of which is fetched at a 
distance of two or three miles, and their example 
has already been the means of establishing similar 
Institutions in Clerkenwell, Spitalfields, &c., and, 
such, it is hoped, will become general in the metro- 
polis and its vicinity." 

I suppose the word " soup-kitchen " came 
into use at a later period, as it does not 
occur here. R. B. P. 

Mr. H. W. Lucy says in his ' Dollar Notes ' 
in The Cornhitt Magazine, 1907, p. 769 : 

" The name of Tammany is familiar throughout 
Great Britain. But for most of us, its birth, like 
that of Jeames, is ' wropt in mystry.' By diligent 
inquiry I discovered that when the Pilgrim Fathers 
landed on the other side they found in possession 
of the Delaware Indians some desirable land. 
William Penn bought it from a chief whom the 
tribe revered by the name of Tammany, which 
being translated means ' The Affable.' More than a 
century ago a political organization founded in 
New York made the Delaware's name its own. 
To this day Tammany observes some of the 
aboriginal ritual, and boasts a governing council of 


of some historical interest to note examples 
of an Englishman, Robert of Brunne 
(Handlyng Synne), in 1303, glossing native 
with Romance words : yearn desire ; hue 
colour ; dree suffer ; were save ; note 
(use) service ; dere, vb. disease ; wright 
carpenter. He also glosses a few Romance 
words with others of the same origin : dais 
table ; assise manner ; croket chaplet ; 
" cuntek " debate. 

Of course, the above Romance words were 
then of no new introduction ; but occasion- 
ally an author will, on using such a word 
for the first time, explain it in the body of 
the text. Thus one of the earliest occur- 
rences of "desire" in English is where the 
author of ' Hali Meidenhad ' writes : ' ' |>enne 
wile l>e king wilni. . . . : e king of alle 
kinges desire. ..." H. P. L. 

I venture to suggest that the practice of 
using initial letters instead of words is 
becoming more and more inconvenient. 

I notice in a reply about St. George's 
Chapel Yard (10 S. viii. 371) that "M.I." 
appears, apparently for " monumental in- 
scriptions." It may be that it is a more or 
less acknowledged abbreviation. It remains, 
however, that " M.I." has for some years 
stood for " Mounted Infantry." 

In these pages we have ' N. & Q.,' ' H.E.D.,' 
'N.E.D.,' 'E.D.D.,' 'D.N.B.' There are 

10 s. ix. FEB. is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


societies which expect to be recognized at 
once by such abbreviations as S.P.G 
R.S.P.C.A., N.S.P.C.C., P.S.A., Y.M.C.A., 
Y.W.C.A., I.O.P., and R.B.A. There are 
the virtually unavoidable abbreviations 
after men's names, though they are some 
times indefinite, e.g., R.A. for Royal Acada- 
mician or Royal Artillery. 

We already want an English ' Siglarium,' 
which would explain to us and to future 
generations such things as that 'H.E.D.,' 
' N.E.D.,' and ' O.E.D.,' though they look 
different, mean the same thing. 

Some years ago I listened to an extempore 
prayer in which there was the following : 
'" O Lord, grant thy blessing to the 

Though not germane to the question, it is 
interesting to note that one correspondent's 
anonymous signature consists of no fewer 
than eight initial letters, s.v. V. 


[The reasons for the adoption of abbreviations are 
that they save time or space, and are generally easy 
to understand. Mr. Howard Collins gives a large 
number in his 'Author and Printer,' but confines 
M.I. to Mounted Infantry. M.I. is, however, often 
used by genealogists for Monumental Inscription.] 

OUSELEY FAMILY. I, as a collateral, 
am deeply interested in the Ouseley family, 
the last eminent representative of which 
was the late Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley, 
Musical Doctor of Oxford. I have some 
family notes of a branch that in the eigh- 
teenth century lived at Dunmore, in co. 
Galway, and came from Limerick. They 
were conected with my ancestors. I cannot 
find any of the name of Ouseley now in 
Ireland, although once familiar enough 
there ; and in England the name seems also, 
so far as my observation and research go, 
to have almost died out. They were a 
remarkable family, the Ouseleys. Two of 
them were celebrated Persian scholars ; and 
the Rev. Gideon Ouseley was an intimate 
friend of Wesley's, and a preacher of his 
tenets in Ireland. RICHARD J. KELLY. 
10, Mountjoy Square, Dublin. 

WICK." This familiar stone bas-relief, let 
into the wall at the west corner of Warwick 
Lane, bears an inscription, ' Restored 1817. 
J. Deakes, Archt." Amongst a number of 
valuable topographical memoranda made 
by Sir Henry Ellis I find the following : 

" The house at the corner of Warwick Lane, 
against which the bas-relief of the Earl of Warwick 
was placed, to designate it as the site of the ancient 
residence of the Beauchamps and Nevilles, was 
taken down in the month of February, 1817. 

Another bas-relief, similar to the former for I 
think it is not the same has been inserted in the 
wall of the new edifice. I should think the house 
pulled down was not older than the time of 
Charles II." 

Mr. Philip Norman (' London Signs and 
Inscriptions,' p. 12) in referring to this sign 
adds : 

"At the beginning of this century the house to 
which the statuette belonged was occupied by a 
Mr. Parry ; an inscription over the door stated that 
it had been a tobacconist's shop since 1660, no doubt 

Ellis' s note, it will be seen, confirms this 
supposed rebuilding. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

Page Turner's house at Blackheath (John 
James architect), said to have been copied 
from Houghton, and illustrated in ' Vitruviua 
Bfitannicus,' 1767 (vol. iv. pi. Iviii.-lxiv.), 
was demolished in 1789 by Albemarle Cator, 
the lord of the manor. The following curious 
account of the disposal of the fittings of the 
house is given by John Britton in his ' Tun- 
bridge Wells and Calverley,' p. 59 : 

" One of the houses on Mount Ephraim, adjoin- 
ing the Tunbridge-ware factory, formerly belonged 
to Judge Jeffries, a man who has rendered his 
name infamous in the annals of history by the 
cruelty and injustice he manifested in presiding at 
the trial of King Charles I. The house was after- 
wards the property of Sir Richard Heron, Bart., 
who greatly enlarged and improved it, by applying 
many doors, floors, chimney-pieces, &c., to it, which 
he had purchased from Sir Gregory's Page Turner's 
once splendid mansion on Blackheath." 

When this ludicrous mistake as to Judge 
Jeffreys was discovered, Britton endeavoured 
to suppress the pamphlet (it is little more 
than a pamphlet advertising some building 
land at Mount Ephraim) in which the mis- 
take occurred. In this he was unsuccessful, 
copies appearing occasionally in booksellers' 
catalogues, and there is a copy in the Brighton 
Corporation Library. 

It does not appear that Jeffreys resided at 
Tunbridge Wells. JOHN HEBB. 

95, 103, 171, 211, 411, 436; 6 S. ii. 417.) 
The following extract from Hearne's 
' Remarks and Recollections ' (vol. viii. 
1722-5, p. 44) is worth putting on record, 
as it gives the precise date of the second 
book auction in England : 

" The first Catalogue of Books sold by Auction 
was the Library of Dr. Seaman ; the second was 
that of the Revd. Mr. Thomas Kidner, A.M., Rector 
of Hitchin in Hartfordshire, beginning Febr. 6, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. is, loos. 

Information about Dr. Seaman will be 
found at the references given above, and 
see also Dibdin's ' Bibliomania.' Thomas 
Kidner was M.A. from Magdalen College, 
Oxford ; Vicar of Hitchin 1 648-62, and of 
Higham Gobion, Beds. He died 31 Aug., 
1676 ('Foster.' 'Alum. Oxon.'). 


Reform Club. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

FULTON THE INVENTOR. My father, the 
Rev. Robert Fulton Crary, is the eldest 
grandson of Robert Fulton, the inventor, 
and I am now engaged in a compilation 
of such manuscripts and letters written 
by Fulton as are by inheritance in our 

I shall be very grateful for any information 
in regard to original letters from or to 
Robert Fulton, and original manuscripts 
or paintings produced by him during his 
several years' residence in England. 

Were the following essays, now in our 
possession, ever published in England ? 

Thoughts on Free Trade, with Reasons why 
Foreign Posses sions, and All Duties on Importations, 
are Injurious to ^ ations. 

An Open Letter addressed 'To the Friends of 
Mankind ' on the Advantages of Free Trade and the 
Benefits of Internal Propagation. 

Letters from Robert Fulton to the Right Honour- 
able the Earl of Stanhope. These were intended 
for the press, and Lord Stanhope was asked in an 
accompanying note to forward them for publication. 
The volume now in preparation, to be 
entitled ' Life and Letters of Robert Fulton,' 
will be produced by the Century Company 
of New York. 

A due acknowledgment of present owner- 
ship and of courtesy of use will accompany 
each reproduction. It is hoped that the 
collection, already of noteworthy value, 
may prove of international interest. 

Matteawan, New York. 

one direct me to a copy of the catalogue of 
the sale of Queen Caroline's goods ? I have 
two large pictures bought by my grandfather 
at the sale ; they are by Marlow, the well- 
known painter of architectural subjects, 
and we have always supposed that they were 
the two mentioned in a biography as his 

masterpieces. They are there called the* 
two seats of the Pope. One is the usual 
view of St. Peter's at Rome ; the other, 
of a castle-crowned hill overlooking a lake 
or river. This is not Avignon, and not even 
the late Edward Lear could tell us what i* 
the place represented. 

The late Lord Carnarvon told me that a 
smaller replica of this picture that he had 
at Portman Square was, he thought, of a. 
place on the Arno ; but he was evidently 
not at all sure of it. I have sometimes 
wondered if it might be Castel Gandolfo r 
a country seat of the Pope. If a sale cata- 
logue is in existence, no doubt there would 
be some description. 


Castle Hill, Guildford. 

any one tell me the author of the following: 
lines ? 

If looking back for one short year should make thy 

Christmas sad, 
For nineteen hundred years look back and Christ 

shall make thee glad. 


And thine oaken galley, Haco, 

That sailed with kingly pride, 
Came shorn and shattered, Haco, 

Through the foaming Pentland tide. 

Stromness, Orkney. 

FANNINGS or co. CLARE. Who were the- 
Fannings of co. Clare ? I do not find the 
name in Marshall's ' Genealogist's Guide.' 
There is a picture of the two Miss Fannings. 
in the present Old Masters' Exhibition 
at Burlington House. W. ROBERTS. 

WHITE ENSIGN. Can any one tell me> 
if it is incorrect to fly the white ensign on 
a church tower ? If so, what is the proper 
flag to fly ? Please give reasons and authori- 
ties. C. L. 
Carlton Club. 

Information is sought as to place of inter- 
ment of 

1. George Robert Stephenson (ob. 1905 : 
exact date ?). 

2. John Frederick Bateman (ob. 10 June,. 

3. William Henry Barlow (ob. 12 Nov.,. 

4. Sir John Coode (ob. 2 March, 1892). 
Please reply direct. 


10 s. ix. FEB. is, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


TOWER OF LONDON. Can you tell me 
if any work containing documents from 
the old records of the Tower of London 
has been published, and, if so, where the 
work is to be found ? R. D. 

RACTER. From which 

of Chateaubriand's 

work is the following] definition of the 
French character taken : "A present dans 
les cieux, 1'instant d'apres dans I'abime ? 
It reminds one (though not necessarily a 
reminiscence) of Goethe's well-known sen- 
tence expressing the conflict of Clarchen's 
loving heart in ' Egmont,' Act III. (a drama 
first printed in 1787). " Himmolhoch 
jauchzend-zum Tode betriibt." 


glad of any information as to the family 
or ancestry of John Bazely, Admiral R.N., 
who was born at Dover in 1740, and 
died in 1809. There is some account of 
him, with a portrait, in The Naval Chronicle, 
vol. xiv., for 1805. He took out a grant 
of arms, 6 Aug., 1784, to himself and the 
descendants of his grandfather, James 
Bazely of Dover, gentleman, deceased 
(College of Arms, Grants, XV. 353). He 
had two sons : John Bazely, who became 
an admiral, and Henry Bazely, who was 
a captain R.N., both of whom left issue. 
The Admiral's grandson Thomas Tyssen 
Bazely was a well-known Oxford man, 
Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose, and after- 
wards Rector of Poplar. His great- 
grandson Henry Casson Barnes Bazely 
(1842-83) was well known to Oxford men 
a quarter of a century ago as a theological 
coach and a constant preacher at the 
Martyrs' Memorial. In the grant of arms 
above referred to it is stated that the 
Admiral and " his ancestors have resided 
fpr many generations in the county of 
Kent." Any genealogical particulars 
relating to the family of Bazely of Kent 
will be gratefully received. 

Oxon Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 

" THE MIDWIFE TOAD." Adjectives flung 
about at random or affixed without due 
skill are simply nauseous ; but an adjective 
aptly applied, how good is it ! I wonder 
what the toad has done to be counted among 
the sisterhood of Sarah Gamp. Thus writes 
the author of ' Letters from Catalonia,' 
vol. ii. p. 774 : 

" To-night I went out into the country, to be 
alone with Spain. I stood in the silence of a garden 

with only the stars above me. The bee was fast 
asleep in her silent hive, and the earth, robbed of 
her furnace light that warms her, faced the 
desolation of the void. The midwife toad uttered 
that curious bell-like note which sounds so 
unearthly that it might well appertain to another 

Can the author have indited " midnight," 
and have suffered a misprint ? 


PRINCE MAURICE. After the failure of the 
royal cause, these princes commanded a 
fleet in the King's interest, and afterwards 
in that of his son (Charles II.). They were 
for over two years in Holland, and after- 
wards sailed to the West Indies. Can you 
tell me where to find a list of the Cavaliers 
who accompanied the princes during this 
period, and also of those who were at St. 
Germains with the Prince of Wales, after- 
wards Charles II. ? A. C. WILLIS. 

LANG o' LEA,' IRISH SONG. The first 
verse is : 

When I took my departure from Dublin sweet 

town, sir, 

For England's old coast, the seas I did plough, 
And four weary days I was tossed up and down, sir, 
Like a quid of chewed hay in the mouth of a cow. 
Now afraid off the deck in the ocean to slip, sir, 
[ clung like a cat fast hold for to keep. 
Around that big post that grows out of the ship, sir. 
3h, sure I ne'er thought more to sing ' Lang o' Lea.' 

There are three more, and the last is : 
Sere 's long life to the moon for a fine honest crature 
Chat serves us for lamplight each night in the dark, 
*Vhen the sun only shines in the day which by 


"feeds no light at all, as you all may remark. 
But as for the moon by my sowl I 11 be bound, sir, 
It would save the whole nation a great many pounds 
To subscribe for to light us up all the year round, 

Or may I ne'er sing more of ' Lang o' Lea.' 

Can any one tell me the author or history 
of this song, which was often sung in my 
family during the early half of last century ? 
The tune was an odd lilting measure. 

F. F. K. 

" THE WEED "=TOBACCO. Can any of 
your readers kindly inform me when this 
phrase was first used ? J. WILI.COCK. 


The following passage in a note in The 
Western Morning News concerning some 
ancient privileges of certain Cornish towns 
reminds me that some time since I saw 
references to similar abnormal modes of 
appointment in the cases of Liskeard and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [id s. ix. FEB. is, im 

Bideford, though I am unable at present 
to refer to the printed records respecting 
them. Of Lostwithiel The Western Morning 
News of January 9 said : 

" Another privilege of the Mayors of Lostwithiel 
is that of appointing (as representative of the whole 
people) the people's warden at the parish church, 
and this right has been firmly held By all Mayors, 
whether Conformist or Nonconformist." 

I find I have a note, made at the time 
of the last Easter vestries, that at Liskeard 
the second warden is known as the "Mayor's 
Warden," while at Bideford one warden is 
chosen by the lord of the manor. 

I should like to know how these varia- 
tions from the canonical or customary 
methods of election came about, and if 
other instances can be cited. 

W. S. B. H. 

I should be greatly obliged if any corre- 
spondent could give me historical notes 
concerning the emigres or French royalist 
troops in English pay at the time of the 
French Revolution. 

The following is a list of these regiments 
which I find in Messrs. Lienhart and 
Humbert's book 'Les Uniformes de FArmee 
francaise,' Leipzig, M. Ruhl editeur, 1906, 
vol. v. : 

1. Infantry (regiments, battalions, or 
legions). Dudresnay ; 1'Hervilly or Royal 
Louis, d' Hector or Royal Marine ; La Chatre 
or Loyal Emigrant ; Beon ; Perigord ; 
Rohan ; Salm : Damas ; Bethisy ; Loyal or 
Laval-Montmorency ; Mortemart ; Viomenil; 
Castries ; Autichamp ; Broglie ; Houd ; 
Waldstein ; Latour or Royal Liegeois ; Loyal 
Emigrant or Royal Emigrant ; Loningen. 

Corps styled " chasseurs " or Sharp- 
shooters. Hompesch ; Hardy ; York ; 

2. Cavalry (regiments or troops). Some 
of these troops seem to have been attached 

BOSTOCK COAT OF ARMS. Can any reader 
inform me as to the coat of arms of the 
family of Bostock ? The ' Genealogical 
Guide ' gives several references to the 
family, but I have none of these works by 
me. To save time, an answer addressed 
to me direct would greatly oblige. 


Fort Augustus, Scotland. 

GENEALOGICAL. I desire any information 
about the following families : 

1. Lee of Christchurch, Surrey. 

2. Davison of St. Mary's in Carlisle. 

3. Bacon of Cyfartha. 

4. Sprott of the Marsh, Salop. 

5. Burfoot of Withingham, Kent. 

6. Turner of Erith. (Mrs.) COPE. 
Sulhamstead, nr. Reading. 

" THE CLAYTON ARMS." There is a 
public-house in Clayton Road, off West- 
minster Bridge Road, on the right from the 
bridge, bearing this sign. Can any one 
say whether these arms, undisplayed, are 
those of the famous Sir Robert Clayton, 
Lord Mayer of London 1680, who as Alder- 
man (?) founded the " Old City of London 
Workhouse," the first of its kind in the 
City ? There are engraved glass folding 
doors exhibiting what appears to be a Mayor 
of the time in his robes, bearing the City 
sword. Had Clayton a suburban residence 
lere, upon the grounds of which Clayton 
Street was built ? The only mention of 
the house in Dr. Montgomery's ' History 
of Kennington' (1889, p. 172) is that with 
regard to the body of a man found drowned 
in Kennington Creek, which was carried 
to " The Clayton Arms " in Clayton Street. 
The tavern still bears a nice old-fashioned 
aspect, but O the departed ie ne sais guoi ! 
The arms of Sir Robert Clayton were Argent, 
a cross sable between four pellets. Crest. 

to the infantry corps of the same name.. 
Hussars. Damas ; Beon ; Hompesch 

Choiseul ; Rohan No. 1 ; Rohan No. 2 

Salm ; York. 
British Uhlans. 

3. Artillery (regiments or batteries^. 
Rothalier or Royal Artillery ; Horse Artillery 
attached to the Rohan Hussars ; Horse 
Artillery attached to the Choiseul Hussars ; 
Horse Artillery attached to the Salm 

4. Engineers. Officers attached to the 
Quiberon corps ; Pioneers. 

Has any book been published on the 

La Vallee, Chateau Renard, Loiret, France. 

a leopard's gamb erased and erect ar., grasp- 
ing a pellet. Mottoes, " Virtus in actione 
consistit " and " Quid leone fortius." These 
arms, however, are nowhere in evidence 
outside the house. 


" WILLY WATER." A man, after drinking 
a lot of ale, said of it, " It 's nobbut 'willy 
water,' and not worth drinking." He ex- 
plained to me that it was without head, 
body, or tail. He spoke as if " willy water " 
was a term for poor ale-drink, and had 
evidently been accustomed to use the term. 
Where may I find a reference to " Willy 
water " ? " THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


io s. ix. FEB. is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(10 S. ix. 81.) 

THESE are days of progress ; and really it 
is high time that we should move with the 
age and accept a decent pronunciation of 
Latin. Our long refusal to do so and our 
absurd prejudices render us the laughing- 
stock of intelligent foreigners. 

We are told that " the countries of Europe 
and the United States of America " are 
places " over which the British Board of 
Education has no more control than the 
man in the moon." Unfortunately, the 
converse is also the case ; and though 
scholars in foreign countries and the United 
States have already adopted what is ab- 
surdly called " the reformed " pronuncia- 
tion, meaning thereby the pronunciation 
long ago accepted by all the leading teachers 
of philology, we still pretend to shut our 
eyes to all proved results, and wish to set 
up the ridiculous standard that every man 
shall please himself. 

Of course every philologist and every 
serious student of phonology accept such 
fundamental necessities as the use of the 
English sound of w for the Latin v, and the 
English sound of k for the Latin c before all 
vowels. Until these postulates are accepted, 
there is no possibility of explaining the 
phonology of the Romance languages, or of 
Celtic, or of Anglo-Saxon, or of Old High 
German ; or, indeed, of any language that 
has accepted the use of the Latin characters. 

Very elementary investigations will suffice 
for any one who is open to conviction ; but 
no argument whatever has the slightest 
chance with one who has preconceived 
ideas of his own. 

As to the w-sound of u, we may notice, 
in the first place, that the symbol v is 
mostly modern ; the Latin verbum was 
written as uerbum in most mediaeval MSS., 
precisely because u had remained as a 
symbol from the early days before the Latin 
u acquired the v-sound. The Latin uerbum, 
by the way, is cognate with the English 
word ,' and it is most interesting to find that 
English happens to be, at the present day, 
almost the only language which retains 
the original Indo-Germanic w. Even with 
our present pronunciation we still sound 
the Latin u as w in the word suauis, which 
is cognate with the English sweet. But the 
most interesting examples are the English 
words wall, wine, and wick (a town), borrowed 

from the Latin uallum, uinum, and uicus at 
so early a date that the Latin u had its old 

Welsh liked to prefix g to this Latin u ; 
hence the Welsh for uallum is gwal ; the 
Welsh for uinum is gwin ; and the Welsh 
for uigilia is gwyl. 

As to the fc-sound for c, of course the c 
was borrowed from Latin to indicate the 
fc-sound, before all vowels, both in Celtic 
and Anglo-Saxon. To this day, ci (pro- 
nounced key) is the Welsh for " dog " ; 
and Anglo-Saxon scribes, for several hundred 
years, went on writing " Cent " under the 
impression that one of our counties was 
called Kent. 

That c was hard before e and i is shown 
by so common a Latin word as ce-cidi. For 
this past tense was formed by reduplication ; 
and the sound reduplicated was the k- 
sound in cadere. No one (even if prejudiced) 
can believe that the Romans said sadere. 
As to Germany, see p. 83 of Brugmann's 
' Grundriss,' 2nd ed., 1897 : " C war auch 
vor e- und i-Vocalen bis ins 5. Jahrh. n. 
Chr. fc-Laut." And this was eleven years 
ago ! And in Prof. Wright's translation of 
Brugmann's first edition, printed in 1888, 
at p. 26 we find : " The c, in monuments 
written in Latin characters, must always 
be pronounced as fc." And this was twenty 
years ago ! Are we to stick in the mud for 
ever ? 

The truth is that the teaching to boys 
of the English pronunciation of Latin has 
become an insufferable nuisance. When 
I begin to teach students Anglo-Saxon 
grammar, I now have to waste the first hour 
in teaching them how Latin was pronounced, 
not by the English of the present day, but 
by the English of the days of Alfred and 
by the Romans themselves. 


"CAMELIAN" (10 S. viii. 306, 394, 493). 
If an additional remark may be allowed 
I should like to say that if ST. SWITHIN 
had seen worn as many carneltan rings 
as I have seen (their colour, by the way, 
was a much deeper red than " flesh-colour 
implies), and had heard the ordinary New 
England pronunciation of the word in 
familiar speech, with its " unproducible 
slid r," as Kipling calls it cornelian, as 
nearly as may be easily become " came- 
lian" in less instructed parlance, he would 
not have questioned the meaning of the 
word. And if he had ever known the 
secluded village life of the era of many of 
Miss Wilkins's New England stories, he 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. F EB . is, 

would have understood that " Aunt Com 
fort " could not have tolerated the wearin 
of any ring counterfeiting gold. 

I have not made Aunt Comfort's acquaint 
ance except in ST. S WITHIN' s quotations 
but her name and her speech place her 
end I have known many of her kin. She 
could no more have favoured a mock gok 
ornament than could Miss Matty, of pleasan 
Cranford memory. Miss Matty had longings 
for a picturesque turban that were thwartet 
by Mary Smith's prosaic common sense 
about suitability ; but can one imagine 
her desiring an imitation adornment ? So 
in Aunt Comfort's eyes carnelian was ad 
missible because it was " real," though 
cheap ; while her estimate in the same 
adjective of "a real gold ring " was noi 
meant to contrast it with a sham, but in 
tended to emphasize its considerable value 
as everybody about her would understand. 

As I knew the address of Miss Wilkins, 
now Mrs. Freeman, I wrote to her after 
reading ST. S WITHIN' s last communication, 
asking her to settle the point ; but my 
letter was unfortunately timed, for she 
had gone to friends in New England, where, 
as I now learn, she is ill. 

Will ST. SWITHIN permit me to ask, 
with all respect and courtesy, whether his 
recollection of the word heard in childhood 
may be, perhaps, not quite like the real 
word ? It is a common experience to find 
childish memories differing from the real 
occurrences, and the remembrance of a 
sound, forgotten for years until revived by 
chance association, seems specially liable 
to such perversion. But if he is confident 
of the identification, it must follow either 
that the nurse stumbled upon a word not 
having the meaning she gave to it, or that 
ST. SWITHIN alone recalls a name elsewhere 
forgotten, for I am sure that no New England 
woman ever wore a " camelian " ring with 
the belief that it resembled a gold one. 

M. C. L. 

New York. 

[See ante, p. 124.] j 

"Cur HIS STICK " = " HOOKED IT" (10 
S. viii. 348). " To take his hook " and " to 
hook it" are common forms of speech in 
Lincolnshire. There is a story, which I 
believe to be true, that a good many years 
ago, when some prisoners were being tried 
at Lincoln Assizes for a riot at Crowle Wharf , 
in the Isle of Axholme, one of the witnesses 
gave evidence that a prisoner, who had been 
a prominent actor in the affray, said to him, 
" I've done my do noo ; I shall tak my hook 

an' go ower Owese into Yerksheer." At 
this point the judge intervened, asking what 
hook was meant, as no such implement 
had been mentioned in the previous evidence. 


S. ix. 8). There has been on two occasions- 
a discussion in your pages as to what plant 
Sir Walter Scott meant by the " Idaean 
vine," but no safe solution of the difficulty 
seems to have been reached (see 4 S. i. 
277, 303, 379 ; 5 S. ii. 365, 497). Dr. 
Hooker and Mr. William Howell believed it 
to be the V actinium vitis Idcea. The 
V. vitis Idcea, we are told, is a low-growing 
plant ; but what the Lady of the Lake 
trained over her portico must have been a 
climber. ASTAETE. 

It is uncertain what Scott meant by 
" Idaean vine." It is usually said that the 
red whortleberry, of which the scientific 
name is Vaccinium vitis Id<za, is intended, 
but this is not a climbing plant. 

The foxglove, on account of its gaudy 
colours, suggests pride, and the (deadly) 
nightshade, being poisonous, suggests punish- 
ment ; but the reference is slightly far- 
fetched. A. GARDINER. 

"Idaean" because, Mount Ida being the 
seat of the worship of Cybele (or the earth, 
as the source of all blessings), probably the 
vine was cultivated on its fruitful slopes, 
especially since the worship of the *' Mother 
of the Gods " was of " a wild and enthusi- 
astic character." Paris was the " Idaean 

One of the favourite plants whose juices 
;he witches infused into the baleful draughts 
prepared for their enemies was the moon- 
ihade or " deadly " nightshade. Lord 
Verulam, says Brand, tells us that the oint- 
ment that witches use is reported to be 
made, among other ingredients, of henbane, 
lemlock, mandrake, and nightshade ('Anti- 
quities,' ed. Ellis, 1855, vol. iii. p. 9). The 
oxglove also holds a deadly poison in its 
xquisite caplike cups, and Henderson in 
lis ' Folk-lore of the Northern Counties * 
ays that it was in high favour with the 
vitches, who used to decorate their fingers 
with its largest bells, thence called " witches' 
himbles." However, it is, on the other 
and, associated with the fairies or the 
good people," bearing in Cheshire the 
retty name of " fairy petticoats." It 
as also many other folk-names suggested 
y both the digital and bell-like formation 

10 s. ix. FEB. 15, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the cups. See further ' Flowers and 
Flower-Lore,' by the Rev. H. Friend, 1884. 


The grape might possibly be an " Idaean 
vine" from its association with Ganymede, 
whom Ovid calls Id&us puer ; but that 
supposition is hardly tenable for a Northern 
latitude. May not Ellen's " Idaean vine " 
perhaps be the myrtle, called a " vine " 
by poetic licence, since it was used for 
wreaths, and because the rime required it ? 
The myrtle was sacred to Aphrodite, who 
was one of the contestants designated by 
Spenser as " th' Ideean ladies," whose 
disagreement was settled in her favour on 
Mount Ida (' F. Q.,' II. vii. 54). The 
" twining " was, of course, only of the 
imagined vine. To the couplet 

Nightshade and foxglove side by side, 
Emblems of punishment and pride, 

I have a note (carelessly left uncredited) 
that when asked what this meant, Sir Walter 
answered to the effect that " poets were 
apt to write many things that had no par- 
ticular meaning." Still, it is possible to 
get at some meaning. The nightshade 
was a deadly herb used by witches in their 
harmful philtres. A ' Nomenclator ' of 1585 
calls it " banewoort " ; and under its old 
English name of " dwale," the ' Promp- 
torium ' gives as one synonym Morella 
mortifera. Keats in the 'Ode on Melancholy' 
called it the " ruby grape of Proserpine." 
So, poetically, it may easily be the " emblem 
of punishment." 

The foxglove is in some places " the 
fairies' gloves " ; in French it is named 
" gantilee " and " gants de Notre Dame," 
and in several ways has a sufficient touch 
of aristocratic association to make " emblem 
of pride " not too inapt a posy for it. 

M. C. L. 

New York. 

29). In the ' Statistical Account of Scot- 
land ' (xii. 459) the minister of Kirkmichael, 
in Banffshire, tells us that the appearance 
of the first three days of winter is observed 
in verses thus translated from the Gaelic : 
" Dark, lurid, and stormy, the first three 
days of winter ; whoever would despair of 
the cattle, I would not till summer." See 
Brand's 'Antiquities' (Bohn, 1853), vol. i. 

COLERIDGE ITEMS (10 S. ix. 63). In his 
note concerning Lamb's epistolary criticisms 
of the 'Religious Musings' of 1796 MR. 

ROGERS REES gives a partial, and therefore 
possibly misleading, account of the early 
textual history of the poem. Had he 
looked at the editio princeps, MR. REES 
would have found there the very line 
(1. 394, p. 165, ' Poems,' 1796) which he 
italicizes as an autograph addition found 
in the poet's own copy of ed. 1797. In 
fact, the line in question is not, as MR. 
REES would seem to imply, an addition 
made subsequently to 28 Oct., 1797 the 
date on which the second edition of tha 
' Poems ' was published but is part and 
parcel of the editio princeps of 1796. 

Again, Lamb's criticisms deal with this- 
text of 1796, in which the line occurs, 
and where, consequently, the lines quoted 
by MR. REES, 

and he of mortal kind 

Wisest, he first who mark'd the ideal tribes 
Up the fine fibres thro' the sentient brain, 

have not an " indeterminate ending." 

To explain the reference in Lamb's second 
observation printed in his note MR. REES 
should hdrve quoted 11. 395-8 of the text 
of 1796 : 

Lo ! Priestley there, Patriot, and Saint, and Sage, 
Whom that my fleshly eye hath never seen 
A childish pang of impotent regret 
Hath thrill'd my heart. 

The volume edited by the late J. Dykes 
Campbell, with preface and notes by W. 
Hale White, and published by Messrs. 
Archibald Constable & Co. in 1899, entitled 
' Coleridge's Poems : a Facsimile Repro- 
duction of the Proofs and MSS. of some 
of the Poems,' supplies ample proof that 
the early textual history of the ' Religious 
Musings,' including that of MR. REES'S 
supposed new line, was known to Dykes 
Campbell ; and a glance at Pickering's 
1877 edition of the ' Poems,' vol. i. pp. 88- 
109, will show that the same was known 
to the late R. H. Shepherd. 

Coleridge's proposed substitution of days 
for years (1. 378, ed. 1797), reported by MR. 
REES, does not appear in the text of 1803, 
nor, so far as I . now, in any subsequent 
edition. R. A. POTTS. 

MR. REES has, I think, too hastily assumed 
that Lamb's critical faculty was at fault 
in his having overlooked, as he concludes, 
the indeterminate ending of the lines refer- 
ring to David Hartley in Coleridge's ' Re- 
ligious Musings.' As a matter of fact, 
the first edition of ' Poems on Various 
Subjects ' contains just those emendations 
which MR. REES has discovered in Cole- 
ridge's autograph in the second edition. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no 8. ix. FEB. is, im 

except that " Up the fine fibres thro' the 
sentient brain " runs " Down the fine fibre 
jrom the sentient brain." Here is the 
reading : 

and he of mortal kind 

Wisest, he first who niark'd the ideal tribes 
Down the fine fibres from the sentient brain, 
Roll subtly-surging. Pressing on his steps, 
Lo ! Priestley there, Patriot, and Saint, and Sage. 

The omission from the second edition o^ 
the line beginning "Roll subtly-surging'' 
was in all probability due to a printer's 

In the third edition of the ' Poems,' 
which was seen through the press by Lamb, 
and published in 1803, the missing words 
reappear, though slightly changed, " Pass 
in fine surges " being substituted for " Roll 
subtly -surging.' ' 

That Lamb should not have noticed 
Coleridge's inaccuracy in mental physiology 
is not matter for surprise, for years later, 
he confessed to his readers, in The London 
Magazine, that " in everything that relates 
to science he was a whole Encyclopaedia 
behind the rest of the world." 


SECRET LANGUAGES (10 S. viii. 190). 
If MR. CURTIS wishes references to Shelta, 
the latest are Nos. 1 and 2 of the new series 
of the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society. 

Stromness, Orkney. 

"ViN GRIS" (10 S. ix. 30). According 
to the dictionaries of Landais and Chambaud, 
" vin gris" means " vin fort paillet," which 
means wine with very little colour or very 
pale. Sherry is not white, although it is, 
or used to be, called " white wine " ; 
neither is " white port " white. Chambaud, 
s.v. ' Gris,' gives " Gris tanne, Gris de 
Minime, Puke colour " ; " Verd-de gris, 
verdegrease" ; " Cassonade grise, Brown 

Pliny speaks of black wine, e.g., ' Hist. 
Nat.,' xxiii. 24, about the middle of the 

The dark-red wine of Cyprus is called 
mavro, i.e., black (wine). I have before me 
a letter of some years ago, written by a 
Greek Cypriot in English, advising me of 
the dispatch of " two casks of black wine 
of Messrs. Ch. Haggipavlu." 


' Vin gris " is pale wine (" fort paillet "), 
i.e., not highly coloured. But if such a wine 
is of a more intoxicating character than 
other wines, which does not seem likely, it 

would evidently be susceptible of the inter- 
pretation " tipsy wine," since etre gris, un 
pen gris, mean to be tipsy. 


FIELDING'S GRAVE (10 S. ix. 49). The 
lines are from Mr. Austin Dobson's poem 
on Henry Fielding. A friend has kindly 
looked up for me the exact reference, p. 312 
in the 1897 edition of the collected poems, 
the full quotation is 

That 'neath the green Estrella trees, 

No artist merely, but a Man, 

Wrought on our noblest island-plan, 

Sleeps with the alien Portuguese. 

It is worth one's while to turn to the passage 
two-thirds through the seventh chapter 
of Mr. Dobson's ' Fielding ' in the " English 
Men of Letters " beginning with the words 
" He was buried on the hillside." 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

VOCABULARY OF PEASANT (10 S. viii. 506). 
Max Miiller often made very sweeping 
statements without troubling to prove them. 
Thus he ridiculed the natural view that the 
imitation of sounds must have played an 
important part in the formation of language 
by the name of " Bauwautheorie " ; but 
of course it has not lost one iota of its truth 
for all my learned countryman's banter. 
I quite agree with MR. PERCY MAYLAM'S 
opinion. The vocabulary of the farmer 
and th^ handicraftsman is, as far as their 
trades are concerned, bewilderingly rich ; 
it is only ignorance which makes the so- 
called well-educated think it poor. 


ix. 70). The writer's name should be 
Bauhusius. Bernardus Bauhusius (Bauhuis) 
was a Jesuit (born at Antwerp, 1575 ; d. 1619). 

Gin fidendum. 
Nee omnibus, nee nemini : 

Fide, sed cui, vide, 

is No. 48 of Lib. I. of his ' Epigrammata ' 
(p. 18 of the 1634 edition of ' Bernardi 
Bavhvsii et Baldvini Cabillavi e Soc. Jesv 
Epigrammata ' and ' Caroli Malapertii ex 
eadem Soc. Poemata ' ). Nineteen of Bau- 
husius' s epigrams are given in the second 
part of Nicolas Mercier's ' De Conscribendo 
Epigrammate ' (Paris, 1653). The most 
extraordinary things in Bauhusius are the 
two hexameters (Ep. ii. 74, 75) of the class 
called Proteus (see J. C. Scaliger, ' Poetice,' 
ii. cap. 30). The words in the first of these, 
addressed to the Virgin Mary, 

Tot tibi sunt dotes, Virgo, quot sidera caelo, 

10 s. ix. FEB. is, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


could, according to their author, be arranged 
in 1,022 ways without impairing the sense 
or metre ; while of the second line or poem 

Rex, Dux, Sol, Lex, Lux, Fons, Spes, Pax, Mons 
Petra, Christus, 

he asserted hat no fewer than 3,628,800 
varieties could be formed. Erycius Pute- 
anus (Henri Dupuy) actually published 
a book containing the 1,022 varieties ol 
the former line (' Eryci Pvteani Pietatis 
Thavmata in Bernardi Bavhvsi e Societate 
Jesv Protevm Parthenivm. . . . , Antv., 1617); 
but it was left for a mathematician to stretch 
the number to 3,376. 

Employment of this kind is a cheery 
remedy proposed by Burton for gentlemen 
disposed to melancholy : 

" And rather then do nothing, vary a verse a 
thousand waies with Putean, so torturing his wits, 
or as Rainnerus of Luneburge, 2,150 times in his 
' Proteus Poeticus,' or Scaliger, Chrysolithus, 
Gleppisius, and others have in like sort done." 
' Anatomy of Melancholy,' II. ii. iv. pp. 285-6, 
6th ed., 1651. 

It would indeed be a case of kill or cure. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

A short account of Bernardus Bauhusius 
is given in Foppens's ' Bibliotheca Belgica ' 
(1739), i. 134. He was a Jesuit priest of 
Antwerp, and was noted especially for his 
memory. He was much admired as a 
preacher at St. Michael's, Louvain, and 
elsewhere. He died at Antwerp in the 
houss of his Order, November, 1619. His 
epigrams were very popular in the seven- 
teenth century. Issuing from the Plantin 
press in 1615, they reached a second edition 
in 1619. The Bodleian has a copy printed 
at Antwerp in 1634. My own copy has the 
imprint Ingolstadii, 1678. In this edition 
the five books of epigrams fill 128 pages 8vo. 
The epigram quoted by MR. PIERPOINT is 
in Book I. on p. 19. Perhaps the one next 
before it is still better : 


Dicendi ars magna est, major, mihi crede, Tacendi : 
Mille Loqui docuere artes, sed nulla Tacere. 

Bernard Bauhusius had a brother Gilbert, 
a Carthusian professed at Louvain, the 
author of a tract in the vernacular, * De 
Perfectione Religiosa.' C. DEEDES. 

See the ' Biographie Universelle ' for an 
account of Bahusius or Bauhuis. 


"ANON " (10 S. i. 246, 337 ; v. 274, 454, 
496 ; vii. 136). Thackeray, in using this 
particle with a past reference in the sense 

of " erewhile " or "a little ago," has 
the support of Sir Walter Scott in at 
least one instance. This is in the striking 
interview between Louis XI. and Oliver 
Dain, reported with characteristic vigour 
and impressiveness in the twelfth chapter 
of ' Quentin Durward.' The point under 
discussion is the future of the youthful and 
fair Countess of Croye, whose fortunes the 
wily tonsor at % one stage darkly hints that 
one like himself might fitly share. Pre- 
sently the King indicates his preference for 
the Wild Boar of Ardennes, which draws 
from his astute interlocutor the assertion 
that, " saving in a little outward show of 
gallantry, Tristan, the Provost-Marshal, 
were the more proper bridegroom of the 
two." This gives Louis an opportunity 
which he at once sternly utilizes. " Anon," 
says he, " thou didst propose Master Oliver 
the barber ; but friend Oliver and Gossip 
Tristan, though excellent men in the way 
of counsel and execution, are not the 
stuff that men make Counts of." Scott, 
as well as Thackeray, knew the correct 
meaning and application of " Anon," and 
it is curiously interesting to find him 
placing it as he does in this passage. 


MACKENZIE (10 S. viii. 469, 510 ; ix. 31, 96). 
Illness has prevented my replying to SIR 
HARRY B. POLAND'S communications at the 
second and third references. 

The story which the REV. E. C. MAC- 
KENZIE relates has frequently been heard of 
before, but has never been sufficiently in- 

Dr. Holland Rose no doubt went to con- 
iderable trouble to verify the story, but 
came to the conclusion that it had better 
not enter into the realms of serious history, 
and that the capture of the Danish fleet 
must be ascribed to deeper reasons. 

Alison, on the other hand, repeatedly 
states in his ' History of the French Revolu- 
tion ' that the secret was undoubtedly 
obtained at an early date by the British 
Grovernment, and certainly the King's 
Speech of 21 Jan., 1808, which he quotes, 
?ives clear indications that the Cabinet were 
n possession of information of vital import- 
ance. In the fourth edition, vol. vi. p. 334, 
le says the secret was obtained through 
he Count d'Antraigues, the noted secret 
agent. This, however, is quite wrong, as this 
person was in England at the time of the 
.reaty, having left Russia in disgrace. The 
quotations in Alison appear in chaps, xlvii. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. FEB. 15, im 

and xlviii. I see the same mistake occurs 
in ' Memoires d'un Homme d'Etat' (ix. 

But to return to the Mackenzie story. 
Dr. Holland Rose has given in his article 
in The Historical Review, October, 1901, the 
full text of Mackenzie's letter to his chief 
Lord Leveson Gower, our ambassador to 
the Russian Court. It is dated 23 June, 
1807, from Thuload, and mentions amongst 
other things that his reception by General 
Bennigsen " was at once courteous and kind," 
and that he received a general invitation to 
dinner. The General was just then nursing 
his anger at being slighted by his Emperor 
following the failure at Friedland, and was 
also in fear of being superseded. 

Who was this Bennigsen ? One of the 
conspirators in the murder of his own 
Emperor Paul, if not the actual perpetrator. 
Was he a man of such clean morals that 
he would refuse to assist an English secret 
agent to try to gain access to the raft to 
overhear the conversation ? Furthermore, 
Bennigsen had served for five years in the 
armies of George II., and some old feeling 
for England might have prompted him to 
assist a Government under which he once 
served as an officer. Now from all accounts, 
Bennigsen himself was on the raft. What 
was easier ? By Bennigsen's very presence 
on the raft, Mackenzie would be sure to 
be so placed as to overhear everything. 

With reference to the ridicule which SIR 
HARRY POLAND heaps on the story of 
changing into the uniform of a Cossack, 
I beg to call his attention to ' Life of Sir 
Robert Wilson,' vol. ii. p. 304, where he 
will see that this well-known officer changed 
into the uniform of a Cossack, and, in 
company with Mr. Mildmay, visited the 
whole French camp under the very eyes of 
Napoleon and the whole of his staff, without 
being recognized. We have generals living 
now who have frequently deceived the 
enemy by suitable disguises in Egypt, the 
Soudan, and in India. 

As to the clothes fitting Mackenzie, I 
humbly suggest that no secret-service agent 
could ever have entered into a more perilous 
adventure and not taken every possible 
precaution against being detected. Neither 
can it be assumed that after nearly two 
years of warfare, closing at this period with 
virtually a " sauve qui peut," soldiers 
could have been found at an hour's notice 
with their full review equipment and un- 
tarnished uniforms. No, however critical 
Napoleon might have been, he could not 

have detected the mistakes, if any, in the 
Cossack's uniform, when, according to 
Bourrienne, his own French troops during 
that campaign were dressed in a motley of 
remarkable uniforms, of different patterns, 
shades, and shapes. SIR HARHY POLAND 
investigates the story with a legal mind - r 
but why does he leave circumstantial evi- 
dence out of the case ? 

The letter I refer to is dated 23 June - r 
the treaty is on the 25th ; Mackenzie leave* 
that same evening for Memel, and next day 
for London, with a dispatch from Leveson 
Gower to Canning. He reaches London on. 
23 July, and three days later the order is 
given to the fleet. Dr. Rose himself says 
that there is good reason for supposing that 
the interview Canning had with Mackenzie 
precipitated matters. 

Besides all these striking dates, one must 
also look at the reasons for sending Mac- 
kenzie. Why send him to Canning if only 
to report some rumours ? The evidence 
which Mackenzie possessed was much too 
precious to place in a letter, with all the 
chances of that letter being lost or stolen. 

Furthermore, Mackenzie was one of Lord 
Hutchinson's Secret Mission party, of which 
Sir Robert Wilson and Mildmay formed part. 
As to the reward, no one has ever heard of the 
publication of any distribution of rewards 
to the secret service. Of one thing I am 
certain, and that is that Mackenzie died a- 
wealthy man. 

As SIR HARRY POLAND doubts this 
Mackenzie being the one referred to as 
present at the Morlaix Conference, I quote 
in full the obituary notice from ' The Annual 
Register' of 1851 : 

" 2nd Nov., 1851. Hyde Park Place, W., aged 73, 
Colin Alexander Mackenzie was sent over in 18l6 
to Morlaix to negotiate an exchange of prisoners 
with Napoleon ; the mission failed. After the 
pe_ace he presided for several years over the com- 
mission for the investigation of British claims on 
the French Government, and shortly after the 
closing of that office in 1828 was sent to Portugal to- 
adjust some political differences. He has bequeathed 
funds to found a museum at Dingwall, N.B., in 
which his valuable pictures and works of art 
and a considerable portion of his library will be 

Lastly, I must mention that Mr. Oscar 
Browning in Hist. Rev., Jan., 1902, says 
that some years ago General R. Mackenzie, 
R.A., told him that it was a tradition in the 
family that his grandfather had brought to 
the British Government the news of the 
secret articles of the treaty. He said that 
the family, being somewhat ashamed of the 
transaction, had always kept it a secret, 

10 s. ix. FEB. 15, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and that he was now telling a stranger for 
the first time. 

Miss Disbrowe, in her book ' Old Days of 
Diplomacy ' attributes the finding out of 
the secret to the English knight, meaning, 
no doubt, Sir Robert Wilson, who was on 
the spot. 

. I am also told that a book printed in 
Berlin in the early thirties had an account 
of the affair ; but I have never been able to 
put my hand on it. 

-Nothing but cold facts can make up this 
story ; nothing but letters and memoirs 
can help to build it up. Bennigsen, we are 
told, left memoirs, not to be opened till 
fifty years after his death. That period has 
long since elapsed. Can those memoirs be 
traced ? Would our Foreign Office permit 
an inspection of the papers referring to 
1807 ? The truth might then be revealed, 
and Mackenzie's story authenticated. 

W. H. COOK. 

Orchard House, Hampton-on-Thames. 

" PRIZE " : ITS HISTORY (10 S. ix. 87). 
On 4 June, 1793, a musical entertainment 
was produced at Sadler's Wells Theatre, 
entitled ' The Prize of Industry,' the adver- 
tisement describing it as 

"Taken from a Fete given in Oxfordshire for the 
encouragement of industry amongst the Villagers ; 
and introducing the Spinning for the Prize Medal." 

The word " prize " does not occur in the 
words of the entertainment, but is found 
only in the title (' Sadler's Wells Collec- 
tions,' ii. 167, 140-3). 

In the same year there was a farce in two 
acts produced called ' The Prize ; or, 
2, 5, 3, 8,' of a totally different character, 
which may be gathered from the title. 
The copy in the British Museum gives no 
indication as to time or place of production ; 
there is no author's name, but the music 
was by Storace. The lines to the final 
air and chorus are as follows : 

The changeling's fate we 've set to view, 
Our own qepends alone on you ; 
To-night, if we your smiles obtain, 
We draw the Prize we sought to gain. 

With anxious hearts we look about 
To see if Prize or Blank come out ; 
More vain of you than fortune kind, 
Since you can see, and she is blind. 

There was a pamphlet published in 1796, 
by Chandler, with a long title of ' Verses 
.... to the Prince of Wales,' to which the 
following advertisement is prefixed : 

" His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales Having 
been graciously pleased to signify his Intention of 
giving annually Prizes of Gold and Silver Medals, 
for Composition and Elocution, to the Scholars and 

Commoners of Winchester College, the following 
verses were by them addressed to his Royal 


Cowper's 'Tirocinium' supplies, I think, 
such an example as DR. MURRAY requires, 
in the lines 

Boys, once on fire with that contentious zeal, 
Feel all the rage that female rivals feel ; 
The prize of beauty in a woman's eyes 
Not brighter than in theirs the scholar's prize. 

The dedication of the poem, " To the Rev. 

William Cawthorne Unwin," is dated 1784. 


WAREHAM, DORSET (10 S. viii. 209). 
May I supplement the editorial note at 
the above reference by referring your corre- 
spondent, MRS. FRANCES PALMER, to the 
principal or standard authority on Dorset 
topography, namely, Hutching' s ' History 
of Dorset,' where at p. 87 of vol. i. of the 
third and last edition she will find an account 
of the priory near St. Mary's Church. 

In an account of the wails and earthworks 
at p. 94 they are stated to have been 

"thrown up by the Danes about 876, when they 
fixed their quarters there for a year, and were 
attacked by King Alfred." 

The only reference to a chapel of St. 
Thomas a Becket in St. Mary's Church 
is contained in a short statement at p. 113 

"in a will, 1404, mention is made of a chapel of 
Thomas a Becket in this church ; but it is uncertain 
to which chapel it referred." 

It would seem from a former reference 
that there were two chapels in St. Mary's, 
one over the other. J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 
Antigua, W.I. 

PUBLISHERS (10 S. ix. 89). Mr. Thomas 
Smith was a bookseller in Stationers' Court 
in 1800. He was the founder, editor, and 
publisher of The Evangelist Magazine. See 
Timperley's ' Dictionary of Printers and 
Printing,' p. 805, 8vo, London, 1839. This 
book is most useful, as it has an exhaustive 
index of names of printers, booksellers, 
and publishers mentioned in the body of 
the volume. Mr. H. G. Bohn issued a new 
edition in 1842 under the title of ' The 
Encyclopaedia of Literary and Typographical 
Anecdote,' in which details were, I believe, 
brought up to date. 

I find various publications of a religious 
character " Printed for T. Williams, Sta- 
tioners' Court," in Bent's ' List of New 
Publications,' August, 1802. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 15, im. 

Some time ago I commenced a list of 
printers, publishers, and booksellers with a 
view to publication, but have had to lay 
it aside for a time, owing to its exacting 
nature and pressure of other work. The 
MS., however, at present contains over 
twenty thousand entries. G. Auld's name, 
so spelt, does not occur in my list ; but there 
are several spelt Allde or Aide, of which 
it may be a variation. I have records of 

Allde (John), printer, " at the Long Shop adioyn- 
ing unto Saint Mildred's Church in the Pultrie" 
(Poultry). 1560. 

Allde (Edward), printer, 1570-1626, at same 

Allde (Elizabeth), printer and publisher, 1630-33. 

Allde (G.), printer, 1620. (The Christian initial 
may be a misprint.) 

Allde (widow of John), publisher, 1590. 

Judging by the details given, I should 
think the tract belongs to the eighteenth 
century or later, as partnerships were ex- 
tremely rare before then. If your corre- 
spondent will send me the tract for inspection, 
I can probably give him the date approxi- 
mately. WM. JAGGARD. 

139, Canning Street, Liverpool. 


Shakespeare's Warwickshire Contemporaries. By 
C. C. Stopes. (Stratford-upon-Avon, Shakespeare 
Head Press.) 

WE have had a great deal of inferential biography 
in modern times concerning Shakespeare, founded 
generally on a fresh twist given to familiar and 
overworked facts. Mrs. Stopes's work, as befits a 
book proceeding from the new press which pro- 
duced recently the fine and scholarly ' Stratford 
Town Shakespeare,' is full of important and original 
matter, founded on vigorous and unceasing study of 
those MS. records which the ordinary writer has 
neither the knowledge nor the patience to investi- 
gate, the search through dreary tracts of registers 
often yielding nothing of moment. The present 
volume may fairly claim to be a new book, the edition 
on which it is founded having been long inacces- 
sible, and improved by many corrections and addi- 
tions. There is, for instance, a new chapter on 
Drayton. Others are concerned with three members 
of the Lucy family : Dr. John Hall, Shakespeare's 
son-in-law ; ' The Cloptons,' ' The Throckmortons,' 
' The Clergy of Stratford,' and ' The Schoolmasters.' 
George Quiney, who married Judith Shakespeare, 
was both schoolmaster and assistant minister in 
1620. Dr. Hall treated him and spoke of him as 
" of a good wit, expert in tongues, and very 
learned." The Rev. John Marshall, of Bishopton, 
had a library, which sufficiently disproves the 
statement of Halliwell-Phillipps that Stratford was 
a " bookless neighbourhood " ; but perhaps the 
most remarkable fact brought out by Mrs. Stopes 
as to the educational standards of the district is 
that the schoolmaster of Stratford Grammar School 
had by charter 20/. a year : 

"It was also arranged that he should be allowed 
to receive another twenty pounds if he could get 
it. Now, as the ordinary head masters of the time, 
such as the master of Eton, had only ten pounds a 
year, we may assume Stratford was regarded by 
' clerks ' as a prize, and that it could always com- 
mand the l)est men. This must not be forgotten in 
the estimation of the possibilities of Shakespeare's 
education, usually so scornfully made light of by 
his traducers." 

Mrs. Stopes conjectures that Thomas Jenkins, 
master abou 1577, was unpopular on account of a 
strong Welsh accent, which may have been repro- 
duced in the character of " Sir Hugh Evans." This 
seems to iis conjecture on a very slender basis. 
There appear to have been abundant quarrels about 
the schoolmasters, but their ability is clearly 

Dr. Hall's cases of patients he attended to are 
preserved, and offer some curious information. 
Nothing is, however, said of the case which would 
have interested us most Shakespeare's death after 
the drinking bout alleged to have taken place by 
a later gossip. Mrs. Stopes thinks that Dray ton, 
who was of the party, was possibly '' labouring of a 
tertian," which Dr. Hall relieved, he records, by 
" Syrup of Violets." 

Bartholomew Griffin, who died in 1602, and was- 
buried at Coventry, had one of his sonnets repro- 
duced, with alteration, in ' The Passionate Pilgrim, 1 " 
and ascribed to Shakespeare. Mrs. Stppes has in The 
Athena'um pointed out the difficulties attached to 
the great poet's biography and connexions on 
account of the existence of other William Shake- 
speares, of whom she has discovered about a score. 

There are few books of this sort M'hich do not 
refer to our own columns, and we find (p. 179) the 
interesting suggestion that the Mr. Boles who 
would have had Dr. Hall's MSS. left to him if he 
had been present, was possibly the eccentric rector 
of Whitnash, near Stratford, who wrote epitaphs, 
and set his own up in the church while he was; 
living. This fact is from 5th S. vii. 287, a reference- 
of which Mrs. Stopes omits the volume. The- 
epitaph itself was printed in ' N. & Q.' so long ago- 
as 1856 (2 S. i. 429). 

In dealing with the Lucy family and the supposed 
satire of Sir Thomas in the character of Justice 
Shallow various points are suggested which may 
niodify the current view of Shakespearians. Only 
in the Folio of 1623 does the allusion to the coat of 
arms occur. It is unknown to the Quarto editions 
of 1602 and 1619. Sir Thomas died in 1600. "Can 
we imagine," says our author, " Shakespeare base 
enoxigh to wait to take his revenge until after a man 
was dead?" Lucy's deer park was in Worcester- 
shire, not in the neighbourhood of Stratford. 
There is much nioreon the point, which Mrs. Stopes 
has developed in the Fortnightly for February, 1903. 

There are many other details full of suggestion 
for the student of our greatest poet. This book, in 
fact, does the important service of showing us what 
sort of men his contemporaries and neighbours 
were, and under what conditions they lived. Wo 
hope it will lead to further discoveries. It is, at 
any rate, indispensable to all serious students of 

The He.ip*ons of Fintige, Kerry, Ireland, of ffoi/nJ 
Descent, by John Hewetson, is a pamphlet which is 
further described as an excerpt from the ' Memoirs 
of the House of Hewetson or Hewson of Ireland.' 

10 s. ix. FEB. is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The family is certainly one of exceptional interest, 
for its members were prominent in many ways : 
they have good looks and good works to their 
credit, and scholarship, which we regard as of more 
value than royal descent. 

The account opens with the ' Blazon of Arms and 
Livery,' and various members of the stock are then 
recorded, including " Whiteboy Hewetson," who 
was so named from suppressing the Whiteboy 
insurrection in the eighteenth centiiry. Mr. Hewet- 
son, the family genealogist, is his great-grandson. 
E. John Hewson of the Kerry branch of the family 
was known as the " Rich Foreigner," having come 
from the next county of Limerick about 1730. The 
Rev. Robert Hewetson (1764-1827) was chaplain on 
board H.M.S. Neptune, a Trafalgar ship. Maurice 
Hewson, born 1786, supplied Marryat with the 
materials for ' Peter Simple,' being captured twice 
by the French, and coniined in a fortress for five 
years. William Hewetson, also born 1786, chart- 
ered at his own expense a vessel to bring a cargo of 
Indian corn to Ireland during the Irish potato 
famine of 1847, and was offered a knighthood, 
which he declined. 


HERR MARTIN* BRESLAUER, of Unter den Linden 
in Berlin, sends us ' Doeumente friihen deutschen 
Lebens : Erste Reihe : Das deutsche Lied, geist- 
lich u. weltlich, bis zum 18 ten Jahrhundert,' a cata- 
logue published at 8 marks. It is well worth the 
money, for it is a valuable work of reference with 
no fewer than four indexes, ample bibliographical 
information, and illustrations of many of the prin- 
cipal title-pages. The publisher explains in a pre- 
face that Karl Biltz (1830-1901), whose portrait is 
the frontispiece, was a specialist in the hymnology 
of the Reformation and allied subjects. His col- 
lection, with many additions, is the subject of this 
catalogue, in which the rare, curious, and his- 
torically interesting records of the faith of past 
days are laid before us. We obtain quite a little 
history of Luther's literary activities. His ' Opera- 
tiones' (1519-21), of which only one other copy is 
known, in the Royal Library of Berlin, are priced 
at 2.000m.; his 'Geystliche Lieder,' 1566, 225m.; 
and his renderings of single Psalms are all valuable. 
Ulrich von Hutten's ' Complaint over the Lutheran 
Burning at Mentz,' 1520, costs 130m. The Wittem- 
berg song-book by Johannes Walther (1551) costs 
1,250m., for 9nly four other examples of it are 
known, of which two alone are perfect. There is, 
as might be expected, matter to interest English 
students in these pages. There is a unique account 
of 1526, relating the descent of a knight, " Thomas 
moir," on the Alderman and Society of the Hansa 
League in London. They were brought before 
Wolsey, their books were seized, and they had to 
swear that they were not followers of Luther. 
There are two attacks by Henry VIII., " the most 
unconquered King of England, France, and Ire- 
land," on Luther : in 1522 controverting his views 
of the Babylonian Captivity, 40m. : and in 1523, an 
' Assertio Septem Sacramentorum ' " contra Luther- 
anam perfidiam," 110m. 

Mr. Richard Cameron sends from Edinburgh his 
Catalogue 220, containing, as usual, many items of 
Scottish interest. A complete set of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
1851-1906, is 8/. 10s. ; and those who desire to com- 

.mre prices of books in 1862 with present ones can 
obtain Willis & Sotheran's 'Catalogue of Fifty 
Thousand Volumes ' for 3s. 6d. 

Mr. Bertram Dobell's Catalogue 160 contains a- 
small collection of early printed books, and bound 
volumes of modern pamphlets and excerpts from 
reviews. The subjects include Madame Blavatsky, 
Bradlaugh, Buddhism, chapbooks, copyright, Glad- 
stone, Holyoake, Hone, Rossetti, trials, &c. In the 
excellent miscellaneous section will be found the 
poems of the Bronte sisters, first edition, morocco 
extra by Bedford, Smith & Elder, 1846, 21. Is. Gd. ; 
and Crabbe's Works, 8 vols., 1834, presentation copy 
to Moore from John Murray, 10.*. 6d. Among first 
editions are Byron ; Thackeray ; Leigh Hunt's ' The 
Town,' 1848, 15s.; Sterne's 'Sermons,' 7 vols., 12mo, 
calf, 11. Is. ; Swinburne's ' French Republic,' 1870, 
10s. 6d. ; and Burns's ' Letters to Clarinda,' 1802, 
crimson morocco, 31. 3s. Meyrick and Skelton's 
' Ancient Armour,' 2 vols., folio, 1830, is 21. 2s. 
There are several collections of autograph letters 
and signatures, including those or Gladstone, 
Hallam, Macaulay, O'Connell, Palmerston, Peel, 
and others. An album containing thirteen curious 
old engravings of the gardens at Chantilly, sixty- 
eight other engravings (including portraits of Talma 
and Madame Pasta), and autograpn letters of Pasta, 
Malibran, and others, is 31. 3s. 

Mr. Henry J. Glaisher sends a Supplementary 
Catalogue of Remainders. Thefirst price given in the 
few items we have space to quote is the published 
price, the second the reduced price : ' Life of 
Samuel Butler, D.D.,' 2 vols., 11. 4s. and 4s.; Fitz- 
gerald's ' Life of Dickens,' 11. Is. and 6s. ; Gust's- 
Annals of the Wars, 1700-1815,' 9 vols., 21. 5s. and 
8.s.; Dockrell's ' Atlas of Dermatology,' 21. 10s. and 
9s.; Guiney's ' Life of Hurrell Froude,' 10s. 6d. and 
2s. &/.; Dean Stephens's 'Life of Freeman,' 17s. 6d- 
and 4s. 6(1.; 'Gladstone's Speeches, 1888-91,' 10s. 6rf. 
and 2s. ; Saville Kent's ' The Great Barrier Reef of 
Australia,' 4. 4s. and 11. Is. 6d.; Ingram's 'Mar- 
lowe and his Associates,' 12s. 6d. and 3s.; McCar- 
thy's ' Story of Gladstone's Life,' Is. (xl. and 2s. Qd. ; 
his 'Reminiscences,' If. 4s. and 6s.; and his 'Story 
of an Irishman,' 12s. and 3s. 

From Goad's Book Stores, Bath, we receive Cata- 
logxie 8. The first item is an extra-illustrated copy 
of Henry Reeve's ' Memoirs,' edited by Laughton, 
2 vols. enlarged to 4, 151. 15s. There are items under 
Wales, books in Welsh, and a general list of 
modern books. 

Messrs. George T. Juckes & Co., of Birmingham, 
open their List 186 with an extra-illustrated copy 
of the original edition of Burton's ' Arabian Nights,' 
together with the ' Supplemental Nights,' 16 vols., 
and a folio volume containing plates oy Letchford, 
Benares, 1885-6, 50^. There is a subscriber's copy 
of J. G. Millaiss 'Mammals of Great Britain and 
Ireland,' 3 vols., 4to, cloth. 1906, 121. 12s. Under 
Telemaque is the beautiful Amsterdam edition, 
1734, with a fine portrait of Fenelon, 4. 4s. 

The ' Hand-Katalog der neueren deutschen 
Literatur' sent to us by Mr. W. Muller (16, Grape 
Street, New Oxford Street), is a model of careful 
arrangement and of that thoroughness which 
distinguishes our German neighbours. Headings 
and subdivisions make the work of reference easy, 
and there is a good index of subjects at the end. 
Thus the ' Lexicons ' have more than forty separate 
headings. We find without any difficulty 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 15, im. 

-particulars of a book which a correspondent says 
Iris publishers were unable to secure. The books 
are usually in solid bindings the details of which 
are explained by a convenient system of abbrevia- 
tions. We intend to keep this catalogue for 
permanent reference as a nandy survey of the 
-extensive field of modern German literature. There 
is a special section devoted to ' English,' mentioning 
several aids to a study in which the Germans have 
distinguished themselves. The scientific sections 
are particularly to be commended for their careful 

Mr. A. Russell Smith's List 60 contains under 
Americana ' Sir Francis Drake Revived,' being the 
first collected edition of Drake's voyages, 1652, 
101. 10s. ; and Paine's ' Common Sense addressed to 
the Inhabitants of America,' Philadelphia, 1776, 15s. 
Under Ancient Ballads is Dr. Stubbs's subscrip- 
tion copy of the book, printed for the Philobiblon 
Society, (of ' Ballads and Broadsides published in 
England in the Sixteenth Century ' (only 50 copies 
printed), 1867, 4. 4s. Under Bibliography is a 
series of 200 catalogues of Sotheby's sales, 1882- 
1906 (among them those of Ouvry, Payne Collier, 
Hamilton Palace, the Ashburnham, &c.), 51. A 
copy of Drayton's poems, in the original calf. 1630, 
is priced 11. 10s. There is a collection of Eliza- 
bethan poets, 1552-98, 121. 12s. Under Honourable 
Artillery Company isNicolls's 'London's Artillery,' 
1616, 11. Is. (the author was part writer of the 
J Mirror for Magistrates '). Among several items 
under James I. are the ' Workes,' edited by 
Montagu, Bishop of Winchester, with portraits 
of James and Charles, 1616, 8/. 8s. A note states 
that the verses beneath the portrait have been 
ascribed to Shakespeare, and they may have been 
issued prior to the work. A very rare book is 
Lloyd's ' The Pilgrimage of Princes,' first edition, 
black letter, 1573, 81. 8s. Only one other fine and 
perfect copy, now in the British Museum, has 
occurred. A curious volume is ' Les Ordon- 
nances,' giving an account of Old French feudal 
customs and prices, 1538, unknown to Brunet, 
67. 6s. Under Scaramouche is ' The Pleasant and 
Comical History of the Life,' by Angelo Constaii- 
tine, translated by A. R., 1696, .% 151. (this, it 
would seem, is the only copy of the English version 
which has occurred for sale). We have just noted 
these few items from Mr. Russell Smith's Cata- 
logue, which is full of rarities. 

Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co.'s Price Current 
679 contains under Africa, Earth's 'Travels,' 5 large 
vqls., 1857-8, 21. 17s. 6d. ; Butler's 'South Africa,' 
with 15 plates finely coloured, very scarce, royal 4to, 
Ackermann, 1841, 51. 15s. (contains examples of the 
big game of Cape Colony, now all exterminated) ; 
and Campbell's 'Travels,' 2 vols., 1822. 31. 5s. 
Works on Egypt include Burckhardt, 5 vols., 4to, 
tree calf, 1819-30, 9/. 10s. ; and also some of Lady 
Meux's publications. The catalogue is rich in 
Bibliography, and the 250 items contain most of the 
well-known names. Brunet's ' Manuel,' fifth edition, 
6 vols., olive morocco, is 101. 10s. ; and a magnificent 
set of Dibdin, 101. Among works by Dr. Copinger 
is his ' First Half-Century of the Latin Bible,' 
51. 5s. There are many priced sale catalogues, two 
notable ones being those of Payne, the bookseller, 
April, 1878, extra-illustrated, 81. 8s., and Perkins, 
the brewer, 1873, also extra-illustrated. 111. lls. 
The 865 lots in the latter realized 26,OW., and 
included two copies of the Mazarin Bible. There 

are a large number of important naval and military 
items, including ' Bulletins from the London 
Gazette,' 1812-84, 116 vols., 12mo, 101. 10s.; and 
another series, 1803-63, 72 vols., 8/. 8*. Under Boer 
War is a collection of newspaper cuttings, 7 vols., 
imperial 4to (including 2 vols. of illustrations), 
4Z. 10s. There are a number of books purchased 
from the executors of the late Richard Cannon, 
including his 'Historical Records of the Life 
Guards, 1660-1835,' 31. 3s. ; 'The Blues, 1661-1834,' 
31. lls.Qd. ;and thehistoryof these regiments, together 
with those of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 
7th Dragoons, 9 vols. bound in 3, 1839, 157. 15s. 
There are a number of Cannon's histories of infantry 
regiments. All these works, as is well known, are 
illustrated with costume plates ; the costume plates 
are also to be had separately. Other entries are 
,The Official German Records of the Franco-German 
War, 1870-71 ' ; ' The Martial Achievements of Great 
Britain and her Allies, 1799-1815,' 53 hand-coloured 
engravings by Heath, 1815, 121. 12s. ; an extensive 
collection of printed excerpts from old newspapers, 
with coloured plates, 29 vols., folio, 211. 10s. A 
collection of Russian Revolutionary papers from 
over 400 Russian newspapers, November, 1905, to 
March, 1906, unbound as issued, is 40/. They 
contain political caricatures of a startling character, 
and were suppressed at once. 

Messrs. Henry Young & Sons of Liverpool have in 
their list CCCLXXXyfll. the Kelmscott ' Chaucer,' 
601. ; the original edition of Sowerby's ' Botany,' 
36 vols. 1790-1814, 301. ; Pine's ' Spanish Armada,' 
extra-illustrated, 181. 18s. : Turner's ' Views of the 
Southern Coast,' firstedition, large paper, 1826, 211. ; 
the large original edition of Mezeray s ' Histoire de 
France,' with all the cancels, 1643-51, 51. 15s. 6rf. ; 
Pausanias, editio princeps, levant morocco, fine tall 
copy, Venice, 1516, 1 01. 10s. ; and Homer's Works, 
Greek text, with commentary, also in Greek, by 
Eustatius, Archbisho p of Thessalonica, first edition, 
4 vols., 1542-50, 181.18s. There are sets of Altieri, 
Herodotus, Lucretius, Xenophon, &c., general 
literature, and old prints of the Bartolozzi School. 

to (Komspontonts. 

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notices : 

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WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
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R. P. ("Horseshoe Superstition"). Shall have 

CORRIGENDUM. Ante, p. 107, col. 2, last line, for 
" Licere," read Sicere. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
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NOTES : George Henley of Bradley, 141 Dr. Johnson's 
Ancestors, 144 The Evil Eye in Italy, 145 The Cotswold 
Games, 146 Kite- Flying in the East International Copy- 
right" Prior "=Senior Origin of London Streets, 147. 

QUERIES: "Privet" Leap Year County Royal De- 
scents, 148 Authors Wanted Bet tes or Bettiss Bremond 
and Verdelin Families Cirencester Town Hall Duke of 
Gloucester and Benjamin Bathurst Liverpool Library- 
Goodwin Sands : Lomea Island, 149" Water-suchy " 
"Dame So-and-So the Rush-Strewer " Ave Maria Lane 
Sir Henry Hatsell Embroidery Pictures Dartmouth 
House, 150 ' Capitulaire du St. Se"pulcre ' Breedon 
Family, 151. 

REPLIES : "Father of his Country," 151 ' Dictionary of 
National Biography : Epitome,' 152 Taxes in England, 
1 53-^Horsesho_e Superstition : Holly Lodge The Treaty 
of Tilsit White Ensign Dickensiana: Railway Light 
" Tammany " " Sol's Arms," 154 Sir Samuel Marshall- 
Early Eighteenth-Century Queries Peroun, 155 Old 
Pewter Carlyle's 'French Revolution,' 157 Common- 
wealth Laws Two Popular Refrains Burne-Jcnes's 
1 Heart of the Rose,' 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Ancient Crosses and Holy 
Wells of Lancashire ' ' Gleanings after Time'' Innocent 
the Great' 'The Quarterly Review '' Ralegbana ' 
' L'Interme'diaire.' 

.Notices to Correspondents. 


AT 7 S. ix. 468 there is the following : 

" In Lord Henley's ' Life of Robert Henley, Earl 
of Northington and Lord Chancellor,' no reference 
is made to the relationship of George Henley to the 
Chancellor, though the latter apparently inherited 
his property at Bradley. Jane, widow of George 
Henley, buried at Northington, in which parish 
was the residence of Lord Northington. Is any- 
thing known of the descent of the above George 
Henley ? Eldest daughter, Mary, married Mr. 
Lovell, a London merchant. She died in 1749." 

The burial of George Henley is given 
from the Northington registers in the 
appendix to the Rev. W. L. W. Eyre's 
' Brief History of the Parishes of Swarraton 
and Northington ' (Winchester, Warren, 
1890) : " George Henley of Bradley, gentle- 
man, died at Bradley Sept. 30." He was 
brought to Northington, and was buried 
in the chancel there on Monday, 5 Oct., 
1696. The burial of "Jane Henley of 
Bradley " occurs on 24 March, 1716. The 
will of " George Hendley of Bradley, 
Hants," is in the P.C.C. (96 Payne), proved 
}>y Joseph Henley 14 May, 1697. There 
is no date given, and it merely mention 
wife Jane, sons Joseph and John Henley, 
and kinsman Antony Henley. 

It is possible that the George in question 
is identical with " my son George " in the 
wilt of Andrew Henley of Taunton, proved 
14 Jan., 1630/31. Moreover, in the Visita- 
tion of London for 1633, " George Henley, 
Merchant of London,'-' is shown to be 
" second sonne of Andrew of Taunton," 
and younger brother to " Robert Henley 
of Henley in county Somerset, who hath 
the office in the King's Bench." George 
is there given as husband of Mary, daughter 
of William Price, Esq., of London, and 
father of George (aged six), John " second 
sonne," Elizabeth, and Dorothy. Sir 
Robert Henley (who had a house at Brams- 
hill, Hampshire) was buried in London 
on 20 Feb., 1655/6, at the age of 65 ; and 
his son, Sir Robert Henley, is said by Mr. 
Eyre to have purchased Northington in 
1692. Is it possible that George of London 
remarried Jane, and removed to Bradley, 
to die there at the age of 77, and to be 
buried at Northington in 1696 in the vicinity 
of his nephew's estate ? 

There was a Joseph Henley, a gunner 
in Mortes Bulwark in 1684. 

As to the Lovells, in view of the Henley 
connexions, there are two marriages in their 
pedigree (Visitation of Dorset) that are 
interesting, namely, those of Cecilie Lovell, 
who married William Webb of Bradford, 
Wilts, and Mary Lovell, who married 
Andrew Chettle. In the will of Andrew 
Henley of Taunton mention is made of his 
daughter " Margery Chettle." 

The will of Robert Henley, of the King's 
Bench, was proved in London on 20 April, 
1656 (P.C.C. Berkeley 129). Therein he 
desires his body to be buried in the church 
of the Middle Temple ; enumerates his 
manors, &c., in Dorset and Kent, his house 
at Temple Bar, and that at Bramshill, 
co. Southampton ; and makes John May- 
nard, serjeant-at-law (his brother-in-law), 
his overseer. Burke' s ' Extinct Baronetage ' 
says that 

"Sir Robert married first to Mrs. Rivett, by whom 
he had a son, ancestor of the Henleys of the Grange 
in Hampshire [?], and married secondly to Anne, 
second daughter of John Eldred of Great Saxham 
in Suffolk, by whom he had three sons, Andrew, 
John, and Robert." 

In Gage's ' History of Tengoe Hundred ' 
there is a long account of the Eldreds, by 
which it appears that Ann's mother was 
Maria Rivett of Rishangles, and that Anne 
was baptized at St. Michael's Bassishaw, 
London, on 25 Feb., 1595. Sir Robert there- 
fore had three wives. Who was the last ? 

Andrew Henley, as his eldest, son, in- 
herited Bramshill, and, for sending a large 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FKB. 2-2, 

sum of money to Charles II. in exile, was 
created a baronet in June, 1 660. He married 
twice : first, Mary, daughter of Sir John 
Gayer, Kt., of London ; and secondly 
Constance Bromfield, widow of Middle- 
ton. His will, proved in London 14 June, 
1675, appoints his "dear brother" Robert 
Henley executor, and alludes to property 
which the testator inherited from his 
deceased brother John Henley. The will 
also mentions a farm and manor of Langdon 
in co. Dorset, and the farm of Crawley 
in Hampshire, the last being devised to 
testator's son Andrew. A daughter Catherine, 
under age, is referred to, and she it was 
who afterwards married Carleton Whitlock. 

The Henley baronetcy now devolved 
on Andrew's eldest son, Robert, who was 
M.P. for Andover in 1679, and who died 
unmarried, 20,000?. in debt, in 1680. He 
was succeeded by his next brother Sir 
Andrew, third Baronet, who, by his marriage 
with Sarah Ball of Yeatley (her will proved 
4 Sept., 1725, P.C.C.), left a daughter 
named Andrea and a son Robert. According 
to Burke, this Sir Robert, fourth and last 
Baronet, died s.p. in poor circumstances; but 
his end is somewhat more dramatically 
described in the log of the fireship Eleanor, 
which he was commanding in 1739 : 

" Moored in Port Royal Harbour, February 9th, 
1739-40. Sir Robert Henley, Bart., the commander, 
departed this life ashore at Port Royal. Hoisted 
our colours half mast. Sunday, Feb. 10th. The 
corps of Sir Robert Henley passing by, the ship 
fired 20 i-minute guns as the boats were carrying 
him to the place of interment. Monday, Feb. llth. 
This day Capt. Charles Colby succeeded Sir Robert 
Henley, Bart., in command of this ship." 

So ended the Henley baronets. 

Of those of Northington the Rev. W. L. W. 
Eyre in his ' Brief History ' (p. 28) says : 

^" In the memoir of Robert Henley, Earl of 
Northington, by his grandson, it is said that ' he 
acquired the fine estate of the Grange in Hamp- 
shire, which, when afterwards in the possession of 
his grandson, the Lord Keeper, Horace Walpple 
speaks of in his letters with admiration. The 
house was built for Sir Robert Henley by Inigo 

Jones' there are several discrepancies not quite 

easy to reconcile ; for instance, it is almost certain 
that Robert Henley the younger acquired the 
Grange. His father, Sir Robert Henley, Master of 
the King's Bench, in his will makes no mention of 

this Grange property We are not aware, after 

close inquiry, that any portion of the estate 

was purchased until 1662 Inigo Jones, the 

architect, dying in 1652, adds a further difficulty 
about the acceptance of the commonly received 
opinion of the date of the mansion and the 

acquisition of the estate We may be allowed 

to doubt if Inigo Jones was the architect of 
'the considerable mansion' of Horace Walpole's 

Is it, however, possible that Jones's pupil 
and successor, John Webb, designed th& 
Grange between 1662 and his death in 1692 ? 

The mention of the name of Inigo Jonea 
in connexion with the Henley family serves 
as an introduction to the subject of the 
real import of these memoranda, namely 
the discovery (possibly by the help of a 
reader of ' N. & Q.) of the identity of the 
original of a portrait. It is of a young man 
in armour, in a wig, is signed " Phillipe 
Coders fecit 1709, Maestricht," and is- 
said to represent Capt. Richard Henley,, 
who served in the Dutch wars, and married 
before 1710 Sarah Suckling of Norfolk. 
This portrait was once in the possession 
of the " Suffolk historian " the Rev. Alfred 
Inigo Suckling, and by him was catalogued 
as ' Col. Henley, uncle of Susanna Webb." 
She was the wife of his grandfather, Robert 
Suckling of Woodton Hall, Norfolk, and 
died in 1803. In ' N. & Q.' for 3 July, 1897 
(8 S. xii. 6) it is said that Alfred Inigo 
Suckling was " descended from the cele- 
brated architect Inigo Jones." Other bio- 
graphers more correctly describe him as 
" the representative of Inigo Jones." 

According to the ' D.N.B.,' Jones died 
unmarried on 21 June, 1652, at Somerset 
House, and " was buried by the side of his- 
father and mother in the church of St. 
Benet's. His father was a clothworker 
of Paul's Walk, and died in 1596." Inigo- 
Jones by his will (proved P.C.C. 1652) 
left money to " Richard Gammon, who 
married Elizabeth Jones my kinswoman " ; 
to " Mary Wagstaff my kinswoman ; and 
I ordain John Webb of the pairish of St. 
Martin' s-in-the-Fields, who married Anne 
Jones my kinswoman, sole executor." He 
names " the five children of my executor 
by the said Anne Webb." Marriage licences 
were granted for " Elizabeth Jones, spinster, 
aged 26, daughter of William Jones, late 
of St. Mary's, Woolnoth, Vintner, deceased, 
and Richard Gammon of Aisford, Kent, 
aged 26 ; to take place at St. Gregory's,. 
London, 24 April, 1633" ; and for "Henry 
Waggstaffe of St. S within' s, London, Mer- 
chant Taylor, and Margaret Jones, spinster,. 
at St. Dunstan's, 5 January, 1624/5." 

In Wilson's ' History of Merchant Taylors' 
School ' (vol. ii. p. 755), under John Webb^ 
it is said : 

" He was particularly qualified for his editorial 
office [ Jones s papers], having on quitting school 
been instructed by Jones himself." 

Webb was the author of several works,. 
and " no mean proficient in the Italian 

10 s. ix. FEB. 22, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Wood's ' Athense ' (vol. iv. p. 754) says : 
" Webb was born in Little Britain, London, and 
educated in grammaticals in Merchants Taylor's, 
and lived afterwards with Inigo Jones, who in- 
structed him " 

Walpole in his ' Anecdotes of Painting ' 
says that 

" Webb was a scholar of Inigo Jones, and built the 
seat of Lord Mountford at Horseheath, and also 
Amesbury in Wiltshire, from designs of his master ; 
and the portico of the Vine in Hampshire for 
Chaloner Chute." 

Webb died 24 Oct., 1692, at his seat 
at Butleigh in Somersetshire, and was 
buried in the church there. He was suc- 
ceeded in his estates by his eldest son, 
James, and appears to have given the papers 
and drawings of Inigo Jones to his son 
William Webb, whose " widow," says Peter 
Cunningham, " sold them." 

James Web j was of Clirist Church, 
Oxford, where he matriculated 9 Dec., 
1659, as " son of John Webb of Butleigh." 
Ralph Webb, son of James (of Butleigh), 
matriculated July, 1705. He was, says 
Foster, Rector of Tubney, Berks, in 1724 ; 
Vicar of Berkeley, Glos., 1728-9 ; and 
Rector of Aston Tirrel, Bucks, until his 
death in 1733. In the pedigree of the 
Henley family of Leigh (Somerset) it is 
stated that Catherine, sister of Antony 
Henley of the Grange in Hampshire, married 
Ralph, son of James Webb, of Butleigh. 
In the ' Historical Register ' for 1730 (vol. xv. 
p. 22) will be found : " Died February 25th 
[1730] Mrs. Webb, wife of a clergyman in 
Hampshire, and sister of Antony Henley 
of the Grange in the same county." 

Sir Robert Henley, who built the Grange, 
died in London on 15 Dec., 1692, and was 
buried at Northington on the 29th of the 
same month (two months after John Webb, 
and four years before George Henley of 
Bradley). By his first wife Sir Robert 
Henley was father of a son Antony, born 
1666, and a daughter Catherine, born 1669 
(if not of other children). This wife was 
Catherine, one of the twelve children of 
Sir Antony Hungerford of Blackborough, 
where she was baptized 11 June, 1642. 
Sir Robert's daughter Catherine was licensed 
to marry, on 5 April, 1688, as " Mrs. Cathe- 
rine Henley of the Grange, county Southamp- 
ton, spinster, aged about 19, with the consent 
of her father," to " Henry Cornish of St. 
Lawrence Jewery, London, factor, bachelor, 
aged about 24." Henry Henley of Leigh, 
great-grandson of Henry (of same place), 
elder brother of Andrew of Taunton, married 
Sarah, daughter of Henry Cornish, Sheriff 
of London, who was executed on a false 

charge of high treason by order of King 
James II. ('Notes and Queries,' Norfolk 
Chronicle, see No. 368, 1905). 

For his second wife, in 1674, Sir Robert 
Henley went into Somerset, marrying at 
Wootton Glanville Barbara, daughter of 
John Every. By that lady (who survived 
until 1724, when she was buried at Wootton 
on 2 April) Sir Robert had a numerous 
family, of whom John and Robert succeeded 
each other in the possession of the Wootton 
estates, as heirs of their uncle John Every, 
who died in 1679. 

The long " will of Sir Robert Henley, of 
the Grange, county Southants," was proved 
in London (P.C.C. 9 Coker) on 4 Jan., 1692. 
He left to his " second son Henry Henley,'* 
six houses in North Row, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, with remainder to Anthony Henley,, 
his eldest son and his heirs ; remainder to 
John Henley, his third son ; remainder 
to his own heirs male ; remainder to hi* 
three daughters Katherine, Williamasa, 
and Mary, and to their heirs. To his son 
Henry his term yet to come of Wordleham 
Park in East Wordleham, co. Southampton. 
By deed of settlement dated 4 Dec.,. 
30 Charles II., he settled the manors of 
Shadsdons and Medstead, and by two 
indentures of lease, 16 and 17 Feb.,. 
35 Charles II., the farms of Reorden, &c., 
on the issue " of my now wife, with re- 
mainder as above." (Unfortunately, he- 
does not enumerate these children.) 

The question now arises, Who was. 
Susanna Webb, " the representative of 
Inigo Jones," and niece of Capt. Richard 
Henley ? She was married to Robert 
Suckling, at Brook in Norfolk, on 5 June, 
1765, and is said to have been daughter 
of William Webb (gentleman) of London. 
She had three cousins, the Misses Drew,. 
whose portraits yet survive. (Were they 
Drew of Honiton ?) Also, who was Richard 
Henley ? Was he whole brother of Antony ?' 
or was he a younger son of Barbara Every ? 
If the latter, he had for sisters Willemasa, 
wife of Sir Theodore Janssen, and Mary, 
wife of John Rogers of Blackford, Devon.. 
At all events, he served for two years in 
Major-General Murray's Regiment in Holland 
as ensign, and he probably joined between 
1695 and 1697, as his name does not appear 
in the list for 1694, when the regiment was- 
raised. On 12 April, 1706, he was appointed 
captain in Col. Roger Townshend s newly 
raised regiment of foot, which embarked 
for Flanders in 1708. He was possibly 
present at the battle of Malplaquet on 
11 Sept., 1709. At that time there was also- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. FEB. 22, im 

in the Low Countries Philip Honywood, 
who in 1715 raised the regiment known 
.as " Hony wood's Dragoons," now the 
llth Hussars. Apparently, both were at 
Maestricht in 1709, where they sat for 
companion portraits to Phillipe Coders, 
-who signed and dated each picture. It is 
supposed that there were duplicate copies 
of both, for the replica of Henley's portrait 
(which descended through his widow to 
Alfred Inigo Suckling, as already said) 
was purchased not long ago at the sale of 
the Honywood possessions at Mark Hall, 
Essex, together with its companion portrait 
of Philip Honywood himself. In all proba- 
bility Henley's portrait of Honywood lies 
hidden away, its identity forgotten, in some 
East Anglian bedroom as "a gentleman 
unknown." In the same Dutch wars with 
Richard Henley were the brothers John 
and Shelton Suckling, of whom the former 
died colonel of Hony wood's Dragoons. 
Of Henley we find no more after 1712, 
when his regiment was disbanded, and he 
was placed on half-pay. His widow died 
At Norwich at the age of 90, leaving two 
unmarried daughters to hand on the portrait 
of " Col. Henley, the uncle of Susanna 
Webb," who was the representative of Inigo 
Jones. F. H. SUCKLING. 


(See 10 S. viii. 281, 382, 462; ix. 43.) 

The Chambers Family. In my pedigree 
of Dr. Johnson's maternal ancestry I showed 
that his second cousin, Thomas Jesson 
(1697-1766), of West Bromwich, grandson 
of his mother's aunt Mary Ford, wife of 
George Jesson, was married in 1726 to Mary, 
-daughter of Timothy Chambers, of King's 
Norton, and sister, as I pointed out (p. 138), 
of the Rev. Richard Chambers, M.A., 
Rector of Naunton Beauchamp and Canon 
of Hereford, who preceded Johnson at 
Pembroke by some sixteen years. From 
the late Mr. H. Sydney Grazebrook's account 
of the Dudley family (William Salt Archaeo- 
logical Society, Staffordshire Collections, vol. ix. 
p. 140, and vol. x. p. 177) I learn that this 
Rev. Richard Chambers married in 1746 
Mary, only daughter of Jacob Smith and 
sister of William Smith, who in 1737 married 
the Hon. Anne Lea, eldest sister and coheir 
of Ferdinando Dudley-Lea, fifteenth Lord 
Dudley. The Rev. Richard and Mary 
Chambers had a son, also Richard Chambers, 

of Whitbourne Court, Herefordshire, who 
was High Sheriff of that county in 1793. 
Jane Chambers, who married Dr. Johnson's 
uncle Samuel Ford at King's Norton in 
1707, was no doubt a member of the same 
family. It is also quite possible that the 
Doctor's " dear old friend " Catherine 
Chambers (1709 ?-1767), from 1724 a devoted 
servant in the Lichfield household, came of 
the same stock. In her will, of which I 
printed an abstract (p. 242), she left 51. 
apiece to her sisters Ann Simpson and 
Sarah Hall, and also to Lucy Charnock and 
Catherine Chambers Charnock, daughters of 
Thomas and Catherine Charnock, Lucy 
Porter scooping up the residue of her estate. 

Elizabeth Herne. In my chapter dealing 
with Dr. Johnson's aunt Phoebe Ford, wife 
of John Harrison, and with her descendants, 
I showed (p. 179) that Elizabeth Herne, 
the lunatic cousin whom the Doctor helped 
to support, and to whom, by the codicil to 
his will, he bequeathed a legacy of lOOf., 
was the elder of the two daughters of 
Benjamin Herne, of Ban well, near Axbridge, 
in Somerset, by Phoebe his wife, daughter of 
John and Phoebe Harrison. The Vicar of 
Banwell, the Rev. Charles S. Taylor, F.S.A., 
being a contributor to ' N. & Q.,' I ventured 
to write and ask him if he could supply 
any information about the Herne family. Mr. 
Taylor kindly tells me that there is no stone 
bearing the "name in the churchyard, and 
that he has searched the register of baptisms 
from 1727 to 1747 without finding the name 
Herne at all ; it is certain, therefore, that 
Benjamin Herne's daughters were not 
baptized at Banwell. As Mr. Taylor suggests, 
the registers of Axbridge might throw some 
light on the family. 

The Whites of Lichfield. In my account 
of the White family (pp. 245-6) I stated that 
Thomas White, a Proctor of the Ecclesiastical 
Court of Lichfield, cousin and executor to 
Anna Seward, had a son Thomas, as well 
as one daughter, living in 1806. This son, 
the Rev. Thomas Henry White, M.A., 
married, in 1834, Christina, daughter of 
Robert Thomson, J.P., of Camphill, Renfrew, 
but died without issue in 1849. The 
daughter, it appears, was Mary White, who 
married Christina's brother Robert Thomson, 
J.P., the younger, of Camphill.* Her elder 
and only "surviving son is the present Col. 
Sir Robert T. White-Thomson, K.C.B., of 
Broomford Manor, Exbourne, N. Devon. 

* After Robert Thomson's death, in 1833, she 
married, for her second husband, Sir T. Noel 
Harris, K.C.H., and died in 1860. 

10 s. ix. FEB. 22, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Sir Robert, of whose interesting connexions 
I was unfortunately not aware until after 
the completion of my work, tells me that 
his Devon home " is full of the old furniture, 
books, and pictures which were accumulated 
by my great-uncle (the Rev. Henry White, 
Vicar of Chebsey and Sacrist of Lichfield 
Cathedral) and grandfather, with whom we 
lived, after my father's early death in 1833, 
until 1838, when he too died, and we came 
South." It is interesting to think that Sir 
Robert, who was five years old when his great- 
uncle died in 1836, is separated only by one 
life from the Lichfield of Johnson's day. 
It was to the Rev. Henry White that the 
Doctor confided the fact of his penance in 
the market-place of Uttoxeter ; and, accord- 
ing to Miss Seward, the Doctor alluded to 
him as " the rising strength of Lichfield." 
He and his brother Thomas White were 
grandsons of the Rev. John Hunter, ever 
to be remembered as Johnson's schoolmaster 
at Lichfield, and of his second wife Lucy 
Porter, sister of Harry Porter, the first 
husband of Johnson's adored "Tetty"; 
while Anna Seward was a granddaughter 
of Hunter and of his first wife, Miss Norton 
of Warwick. 

" As residuary legatee and first cousin of 
Anna Seward," writes Sir Robert, 
" my grandfather Thomas White inherited her por- 
trait and that of her sister, by Kettle; Mrs. 
Seward's, 1755, by Pickering ; and last, not least, 
Canon Seward, by Wright of Derby : these are all 
here in excellent preservation ; also a miniature of 
Anna, by Miers, left in her curious will to my 

Anna's sister was the " young and lovely " 
Sarah Seward, whose death in 1764, soon 
after her betrothal to the Doctor's middle- 
aged stepson, Joseph Porter of Leghorn, 
must invest any portrait of her with a 
romantic interest. A diamond ring, also 
bequeathed by Anna Seward to Sir Robert's 
grandmother, is now worn by Lady White- 


Park Corner, Blundellsands, near Liverpool. 

(To be continued.) 


IT is not, perhaps, generally known in 
England how strong the belief in the evil 
eye still is in modern Italy, and, to speak 
more particularly of Rome, there are few 
of the upper classes, and certainly scarcely 
any of the middle and lower, who do not 
believe in its power in some way or other. 
Amulets are almost universally worn. The 

commonest is the horn, a pointed piece of 
coral, silver, or mother o' pearl, which, 
on the approach of any one supposed to 
have a malign influence, is taken in the 
hand and pointed towards him to ward 
off the danger. This is more generally 
worn by men on the watchchain. 

The women have large bunches of charms,, 
to the number of thirteen, this being the 
unlucky number, and the one to which the- 
evil eye objects, and so likely to keep off 
its influence. The charms consist of some 
of the following : a dwarf, cock, horn, frog,, 
acorn, half-moon, horse (sometimes with 
St. George, a bishop, or St. Donate), a 
hand (with forefinger and little finger ex- 
tended, called " mano cornuta"; clenched 
hand, "mano fico"), cross, heart, anchor 
(generally including the number 13 itself). 
Babies wear a small tuft of wolf's hair,, 
so called, to preserve them from savage 
animals ; they also have the tooth of an 
animal set in silver or a silver imitation 
of a tooth to help them in teething. One 
of these silver teeth was bought in the 
Campo dei Fiori a few weeks ago by the 
writer, the stall - keeper explaining that 
if hung round the neck of a baby it would 
keep it from all trouble in teething. Most 
of the horses have on their harness a horn 
or a half-moon, sometimes a hand the 
mules being covered with nets edged with 
bright-coloured ball fringe made of wool. 
All these are to divert the attention of the 
evil eye from the beast itself. The country 
carts all have a small cow's or goat's horn 
slung between the axles, besides the lamp 
of the old Roman shape which always- 
hangs there. 

The horn is a very favourite charm. One 
sees it on coffee and iced-drink stalls, some- 
times painted green and tied up with 
ribbons in fruit and vegetable stalls and 
shops, and on the baskets and trays of 
itinerant sellers, also in the weekly market 
in the Campo dei Fiori, as well as bits of 
bright-coloured ribbon, straw, and strips of 
paper, which they tie at the tops of the 
tents, so that their fluttering may attract 
the evil eye from themselves and their 
goods. One has to find out all these little 
particulars by constant and careful observa- 
tion, it being exceedingly difficult to get 
any information from the people themselves. 
They consider it unlucky to talk of the 
evil eye, especially to a foreigner : they 
will not answer any questions, but turn 
the subject, and pretend not to understand. 
They do not like their children, admired, 
nor will they give their names, as they 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 22, im 

are afraid harm may come in this way ; 
they much prefer being told they are ugly 
or look ill, on the same kind of principle 
as we in England " touch wood " when 
any one tells us how well we look. 

In Naples and the district round, though 
the belief is quite as strong, and charms of 
all kinds abound in the shops, only the 
horses and mutes wear anything visible 
as a rule, these animals having most 
fantastic devices to keep them from evil, 
which, by the way, their owners think 
much more necassary than treating them 
kindly. If the Neapolitans wear charms 
and there is very little doubt that they do 
they carefully conceal them, probably 
believing that the malign influence is less 
likely to attack them if their amulet is 
hidden from its view. The peasants in 
the Abruzzi district still believe in snake- 
charmers, and employ these men to ensure 
them against snake bites, as well as to 
cure those who are bitten. An old man 
I have known for many years told me he 
was perfectly safe, and that the snake- 
charmer had brought a small live snake, 
placed it round his wrist, and said some 
sort of incantation, after which he had 
to pay a small sum and was secure for life. 
There is also the church of S. Domenico 
in that neighbourhood, where those who 
have been bitten go to be cured. A yearly 
festival in honour of the " Serpe " is held 
there. In Umbria the belief is even more 
curious, and very little altered since the old 
Etruscan times. Prof. Belucci, of Perugia, 
who has written a most interesting book 
on the subject, and has a very fine collection 
of objects, believes that the oldest form 
was a meteoric stone, which by degrees 
was shaped and enclosed in a silver case 
or frame and worn round the neck. Some 
of the stones in his collection have stars 
and spots, of special virtue owing to the 
uncertain number, which the evil eye must 
count before it can touch the wearer ; also 
bags of sand and grain for the same reason. 
White or milky stones are worn by nursing 
mothers to assist in producing milk, because 
of their similarity in colour ; and a child 
who was taken to be baptized during last 
summer was found to be wearing round 
its neck many of these objects, showing 
a most curious combination of paganism 
and Christianity, in that, though the parents 
brought the child to baptism, they still 
thought it needed the old pagan amulets 
to protect it. Evidently it will be long 
before the belief in the power of the evil 
eve dies out in Italy. 

It is not possible here to give more 
than a passing glance at the many varieties 
of this curious superstition, but enough 
has been said to show the traveller visiting 
Italy that the various fanciful ornaments 
he sees, and perhaps wonders at, are all 
intended for a special purpose, and that 
many of them are remnants of the remotest 
antiquity so old, indeed, that it is only 
possible to guess at their original meaning, 
of which probably their wearers have not 
the faintest idea. R. E. ASHBY. 


THE COTSWOLD GAMES. I have noticed 
an inaccuracy and an omission in the 
' Victoria History of Gloucestershire ' to 
which attention should be drawn. 

Under the heading ' Athletics,' sub-head- 
ing ' Cotteswold Games,' it is stated that 
" these games took place annually until 
1644," and that " an endeavour was made 
to revive the games in the time of Charles II., 
but their vitality was gone, and the revival 
was brief." 

Now, so far from the revival being brief, 
it lasted uninterruptedly for nearly 200 
years. And the games had to the last 
so much vitality in them that the only way 
of putting an end to them was by obtaining 
an Act of Parliament for the enclosure of 
Dovers Hill. They had no doubt through 
facilities of railway travelling deteriorated 
in character. They had become an annual 
holiday for the riff-raff of Birmingham, 
the effects of which were disastrous to the 
morality of Weston-Subedge. It was to 
cure this evil that the Inclosures Act (13 and 
14 Viet. c. 8) was obtained at the instance 
of the late Canon Bourne, the then Vicar 
of Weston-Subedge, in 1850. There are two 
early nineteenth-century programmes of the 
sports in the Gloucester Public Library, and 
an interesting account of the way in which 
they were carried on in 1826 may be read 
in The Mirror, vol. viii. pp. 331-2, 354-5. 
When the place which these games occupy 
in literature is recalled the notice of them 
in the ' Victoria History ' appears very 
inadequate. Has the writer of the article 
ever heard of ' Annalia Dubrensia ' ? Surely 
it should have been at least mentioned. 
Much interesting information about it and 
the games is given by Wood in his ' Athenae 
Oxonienses ' ; by Caulfield in ' Portraits 
and Memoirs of Remarkable Characters ' ; 
in Chambers' s ' Book of Days ' ; and in the 
Introductions to the two modern reprints 
of the 'Annalia' one by Grosart (1877), 
and the other by Vyoyan (1878). Mr. 

10 s. ix. FEB. 22, 1908.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Edmund Gosse thought these games worthy j his " paper falcon " or " paper owl," often 

of his pen 
Studies,' pp 

his ' Seventeenth Century 
91-110) ; and Mr. C. R. 

Ashbee has added much to our knowledge 
of them in their latter days in ' The Last 
Records of a Cotswold Community : being 
the Weston Subedge Field Account Book 
for the Final Twenty-Six Years of the 
Famous Cotswold Games, hitherto unpub- 
lished, and now edited with a Study on the 
Old-Time Sports of Campden and the Village 
Community of Weston,' printed at the 
Essex House Press in 1904. 

Painswick House. 

tensive work descriptive of travels in Western 
China (ed. Imperial Russian Geographical 
Society, 1907), vol. iii. p. 242 et seq., the 
explorer G. E. Grum-Grzhimailo contributes 
some interesting notes on this custom. Here 
is one Chinese legend of its origin : 

"One time, about 2,000' years ago, enemies 
invaded China and besieged an important frontier 
town, where lay General Han-sin with his army. 
In extremity, and desirous of acquainting the 
E mperor w i th the precarious position o f the garrison, 
he conceived the idea of launching into the air paper 
kites of different sizes and shapes. The kites were 
noticed, the enemy driven off, and the city set free. 
In commemoration of this happy event, it is 
supposed to have been ordered, on the ninth day of 
the ninth moon, to celebrate this day annually by 
flying a paper kite." 

Here is a different legend from the eastern 
provinces of China : 

" Once a certain wise man predicted to a certain 
Chinaman that on the ninth day of the ninth moon 
his house would be visited by a great misfortune. 
Endeavouring to avoid this, the Chinaman fled with 
all his family into the mountains on the eve of the 
fatal day. He remained safe and sound, but wher 
he returned home he found that all his domestic 
cattle had perished from some unknown cause 
From that time, on this fatal day, the Chinese o: 
these provinces remove with their families anc 
spend it at a distance flying kites, to which they 
ascribe the mysterious power of taking with then 
into the air all the woes and misfortunes of men 
If, after the string is cut, the kite vanishes out o 
sight into the sky, this means that the family i 
preserved for the year from all mischance ; if i 
falls to the ground, this does not much matter, a 
it is supposed that with the kite all the misfortune 
menacing the family are shattered to pieces agains 
the ground. Beata, rimplicitas ! " 

The " ninth day of the ninth moon, 7 
however, is not universally observed. In 
Hong-kong kites are flown earlier tha 
elsewhere in China. The Coreans attac 
pieces of inflammable paper to the tail o 

the kite for the purpose of consuming th 
string, and if the kite vanishes, all wishe 
are to be fulfilled. In Japan every boy ha 

shaped like a carp, the Japanese symbol of 
energy and power. Adults endeavour to 
make the strings of their kites cut those 
of others, a sport not unknown in China, 
"he king and officials of Siam possess 
aagnificent kites, flown on certain days after 
unset with much ceremony. The custom 
s popular all over the Pacific ; and in Aus- 
ralia religious hymns are sung on these 
ccasions. It is supposed that kite-flying 
pread to Australia, as well as to China, 
apan, and Corea, from the Malay Archi- 

Poor Mr. Dick, haunted by King Charles's 
tead, was a true Eastern in his symbolic 
adoration of kite-flying. 


ANCE. It may be worth recording (if not 
already in the pages of ' N. & Q.' ) that the 
zreat Florentine edition of the Pandects 
In officina Laurentii Torrentini ducalis 
Cypographi. 1553") was published "Cum 
Summi Pontificis, Caroli V. Imperatoris, 
Henrici II. Gallorum Regis, Eduardi VI. 
Angliae Regis. Cosmi Medicis Ducis Floren- 
,aie II. Priuilegio." 

Edward's patent is dated 18 April, 1551, 
and was for a period of seven years. The 
mpal, imperial, and French privileges were 
ill for ten years. Q. V. 

1 PRIOR " = SENIOR. The Morning Post 
of New Year's Day contained the follow- 

" Messrs. Antony Gibbs and Sons announce that 
they have admitted into partnership the Hon. 
Gerald Gibbs, son of their prior, Lord Aldenham. 

I presume " prior " means senior, but I 
take it that in the paragraph it signifies 

late senior." I do not know the English 
usage, but to me as a Scotsman this tech- 
nical use of " prior " is new. W. G. B. 


Graunt, in his ' Observations upon the Bills 
of Mortality,' 4to, Lond., 1662, p. 55, writes : 

"Of the ninety-seven families within the Walls the 
increase is not very discernible, but when [?] Great 
Houses formerly belonging to Noblemen before 
they built others near White-hall, have been turned 
into Tenements, upon which accompt Alhallows on 
the Wall is encreased by the conversion of the 
Marquess of Winchester's House, lately the Spanish 
Ambassador's, into a New Street, the like of Alder- 
man Freeman and La Motte near the Exchange, 
the like of the Earl of Arundell's in Lothbury, the 
like of the Bishop of London's Palace, the Dean of 
Paul's, and the Lord Rivers House, now in hand, 

1 .. 2.1 T\..l. ~>.r. xlrtnn n *-.*! SxtVkdl^a ll Ottfr*f m* O " 

as also of the Duke's place and others heretofore.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 22, im. 

There are several interesting identifica- 
tions to be made from this passage. Great 
Winchester Street's derivation from Win- 
chester House is common knowledge, but 
less familiar is Freeman's Yard or Freeman's 
Court, Cornhill, from Alderman Freeman's 
house. This court disappeared in the 
clearance made for the Royal Exchange, 
opened 1844. London House Yard, St. 
Paul's Churchyard, marks the site of the 
Bishop of London's palace, which was pulled 
down and built into tenements about 1650 
(vide Cunningham's ' London,' first edition, 
p. 300). Duke's Place and its origin is 
quite familiar. The streets and buildings 
covering the sites of the other houses I 
cannot at present identify. 

39, Hillmarton Road, N. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" PRIVET." On 8 June, 1256, Thomas 
de Gimises (alias Gymises) granted to 
Richard son of Andrew and Richard son 
of Alan (Ancient Deed [P.R.O.] A. 8635) 
the common belonging to the frank tenement 
they held of him 

"In omnibus mariscis qui pertinent ad villam 
de Farlingetone [Farlington, Hants] excepto 
maresco [c] qui vocatur benny et excepto parco et 
excepto cooperto de preuet et Crof ta que fuit Rogeri 
le Lung que est contra portam curie. 

It is tempting to render " cooperto de 
preuet " as " covert of privet," but there is a 
difficulty in the fact that privet as the name 
of a shrub is not yet known in English before 
Turner's ' Names of Herbs,' 1548 ; while in 
French and mediaeval Latin it is not known 
at all. If this is an instance, it is of course 
a very early and hence important one. But 
it has also been suggested to be, like ' ' benny" 
in the preceding clause, a proper name ; 
and this, though not on the face of it likely, 
is no doubt possible. Can any one who 
knows Farlington tell us whether any such 
name as Prevet survives there, and (inci- 
dentally, though not important to this 
inquiry) whether anything representing 
" benny " or the " croft " still exists. 

I may add that a synonym of privet, 
viz., prim-print, also appears with it in 
Turner's 'Names of Herbs,' and that 
shortened forms of this, primp and prim, 
are still in dialect use. Of none of these has 

any satisfactory etymology been suggested,, 
especially as to the syllable -print or -rint. 

LEAP YEAR. I should be grateful to any 
of your readers who could give me a definite 
answer to the following query, which I have- 
asked many people, but without getting 
any dffinite information on the point. 
When did the intercalated day cease to be 
" bissextile," and become instead '" Bis- 
Prid. Cal. Mart." ? 

In former times the twenty-fourth day of 
February was duplicated, but still the last 
day of February was the twenty-eighth. 
In later times the bissextile disappeared, 
and the " Prid. Cal." was duplicated. 

The question is, When and why did this 
change take place ? Although I can get 
no satisfactory solution from any one, it 
does strike me that there is one way of finding 
an approximate date for the change, and 
that is that as 29 February is dedicated to 
St. Romanus, there must be a specific period 
at which he first appropriates this day every 
fourth year to his honour. 

The whole subject is important, because- 
the dates of all events between 24 and 28 
February must be a day earlier or a day 
later, according as the earlier or later 
reckoning is used in each leap year. 

EDWARD J. L. SCOTT, D.Litt.Oxon. 
Muniments Room, Westminster Abbey. 

for one of Mr. C. A. Bernau's forthcoming 
handbooks on ' Some Special Studies in 
Genealogy' a chapter on 'How to Trace a 
Descent from Royalty.' I want to give in 
this chapter as complete a list as possible- 
of printed works containing royal descents 
arranged under the several counties. I da 
not mean royal descents of single individuals- 
or families, as in Foster's and Burke' s- 
genealogical books ; but I refer to county 
books which give the royal descent of a 
number of families belonging to those par- 
ticular counties. 

The following is a list of those known ta 
me : 

Cornwall. Vivian's 'Visitations of Cornwall, 
pp. 106, 315, 488, 527, 588, &c. Maclean's ' Trigg; 

Devon. Vivian's ' Visitations of Devon,' pp. 63, 
106, 194, 244, 747, &c. 

Derbyshire. Jewitt's Reliquary, vols. xxi.-xxiv. 
(various sheet pedigrees). 

Leicestershire. Fletcher's ' Leicestershire Pedi- 
grees and Royal Descents,' 1886. 

Shropshire. Shropshire Archaeological Society's 
Transaction* : for 1882 ('Persons connected with 
Shropshire whose Descendants can claim Legiti- 
mate Descent from Edward L, Edward III., or 

10 s. ix. FEB. 22, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Henry VII. , and a few from Henry III.') ; for 1903 
(' Descendants of Hotspur and Lionel of Antwerp ') 
for 1904 ('Descendants of Henry VII.'}; for 1908 
(' Notes on Shropshire Royal Descents '). 

I shall be grateful for any additions to 
this list. There must be similar collections 
for other counties, that are not at present 
known to me. The Leicestershire volume 
above mentioned is, I believe, the only 
published one that gives a royal descent to 
every family, as well as the paternal pedigree. 
Please reply direct. 


Oxon Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 

The well-known lines 

O for a bopke and a shadie nooke, 
Eyther in-a-doors or oute, &c., 

which I quote as they appear in a loca 
library catalogue, are, I suppose, anony- 
mous, but I shall be glad to know their date 
They do not appear in any of the half-dozen 
dictionaries of quotations I have consulted. 

C. C. B. 

1. O fairer than the fairest flow'r, 

Yet colder than the coldest stone ; 
heart that changes every hour, 
And changes but to break my own. 

2. Love taught me shame, and shame, with love at 

Soon taught the sweet civilities of life. 

(Quoted in Locker's ' My Confidences.') 

3. An open foe may prove a curse, 
But a pretended friend is worse. 


Whence the following stanza, which seems 
as if it came from Capt. Morris ? 

There's many a lad I knew is dead, 

And many a lass grown old ; 
And as the lesson strikes my head, 

My weary heart grows cold. 


Take your courage in both hands. 


I should be glad if any of your readers 
would tell me where I can find the following 
quotation, which has been attributed to the 
first Lord Lytton : 

Honour to him who, self-complete if low, 
Carves to the grave one pathway all his own. 

I am told the following lines are from 
Coleridge, but I have not been able to trace 
them : 

O brothers ! speak of possibilities, 

And do not break into those wild extremes. 

Bedlington, Northumberland. 

BETTES OR BETTISS. Will some of your 
readers kindly tell me the history ancient 
or modern of the family of Bettes of Hamp- 
shire, whose crest, I am told, is a bull's 
head out of a coronet ? 

Have Betteshanger in Kent, Bette<?combe 
in Dorset, and Bettisfield in Flintshire 
any connexion with the above name of 
Bettes ? 

I should also bo glad to know the deriva- 
tion of the name Bettes or Bettiss. 


1, Paradise Row, Chester. 

want information regarding the families of 
Bremond (or Bermond) and Verdelin. I 
hear that Bermondsey owes its name to 
a member of the former stock. R. D. 

somewhere that the Town Hall of Ciren- 
cester forms part of a church in that place. 
I should be glad to have some information 
on the subject, or to know where a detailed 
account can bo found. S. O. ADDY. 

3, Westbourne Road, Sheffield. 

BATHURST. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
tell me where is the picture of ' The Duke 
of Gloucester attended by Mr. Benjamin 
Bathurst ' ? Who painted it ? It was 
engraved by Smith. The British Museum 
has no record of it. 


Dromeuagh, Freshwater Bay, I. of W. 

Library (Lyceum) celebrates its 150th anni- 
versary on 1 May this year, having been 
founded on 1 May, 1758. It is claimed on 
its behalf that it is the oldest " circulating 
library " or the oldest " proprietary circu- 
lating library " in Europe. Can either or 
both claims be upheld ? 

Liverpool Library, Lyceum, Bold Street. 

Byng Gattie's 'Memorials of the Goodwin 
Sands,' chap, ii., it is related that the 
Goodwin Sands are believed to have been 
at one time an island, known as Lomea, 
which formed part of the possessions of 
Earl Goodwin. We are told that some 
early writers, describing the Kentish coast, 
distinctly mention three islands, viz., 
Tanatus (Thanet), Rutupise (Richborough), 
and "Infera Insula " (Lomea). Who are 
,he writers (presumably Roman) that refer 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 22, un. 

to the island of Lomea ? Does the name 
occur in Domesday Book ? As the storm 
which destroyed the island is said to have 
occurred in 1099 a year subsequent to 
the compilation of Domesday ought there 
not to be some mention of this island ? 
When are the Goodwin Sands first mentioned 
in English history ? G. H. W. 

" WATER-STTCHY." In the final note on 
'The Silent Woman' in Gifford's 'Works 
of Ben Jonson,' edited by Col. Cunningham, 
the following is suggested by the thought 
of Dry den's slight treatment of the Coll egiates 
in his criticism of the play : 

"They merited more of his care Their absurd 

pretensions to literature are advanced with such 
serious mockery, ridiculed with such natural and 
racy dexterity, and exposed with such sarcastic and 
overwhelming contempt, that though we hear of 
some combination of this kind about the period of 
' The Silent Woman's' appearance, no traces of them 
as here drawn are afterwards discoverable. ' They 
vanished, at the crowing of the cock.' Our days 
have witnessed an attempt to revive the Collegiates 
but this was a water-suchy club, merely ridiculous ; 
and so unsubstantial as not to require the clarion of 
the cock, but to ' melt into thin air ' at the twittering 
of the wren." 

It is not difficult to conclude what " water- 
suchy " denotes, but it would be interesting 
to have some account of the term and to 
learn whether or not it has ever had more 
than casual value. Is the Delia Cruscan 
School, perchance, the ridiculous club to 
which the epithet is applied ? " Club " 
seems too small a name for this imposing 
combination, while the " twittering of the 
wren " is hardly a sufficient description of 
Gifford's effective strains. 


I can find nothing informing about rush- 
strewing, and should be glad to know 
whether it is possible that loose rushes could 
have been strewed upon the floor at a period 
when very long dresses were worn by the 
women. How could they dance in a kind 
of stable ? Straw matting suggests itself 
as a possible explanation. I hope readers 
of ' N. & Q.' will oblige me with a little 
information. E. CAREW. 

AVE MARIA LANE. The widening of the 
narrow end of this thoroughfare was com- 
pleted last December by the rebuilding of 
the premises at both corners on Ludgate 
Hill. The two old houses demolished were 
not, so far as I have been able to ascertain 
of any particular interest. The shop at the 
east corner had been for many generations 
an old-fashioned pastry-cook and confec 

ioner's, with a more than local celebrity for 
' damson cheese." 

Its opposite neighbour had even a longer 

association with one trade. Early in the 

nineteenth century, as 16, Ludgate Street, 

t was occupied by a haberdasher and hosier, 

and the succeeding tenants have always 

arried on these trades, the last being Mr. 

Jeorge Kent. There is an interesting sug- 
gestion in the association of this name and 
trade with this locality. Mr. P. C. Rushen 
in The Home Counties Magazine (No. 37, 
p. 73) quotes a deed of partnership dated 
29 Sept., 1729, between George Kent of 
Ludgate Hill and John Chaplyn, to trade 
as mercers and haberdashers at " The 
Wheatsheaf and Crown " at the north side 
of Ludgate Hill. 

The widening involved the clearance of a 
peculiar fragment of earlier London. Imme- 
diately in the rear of the hosier's shop, and 
evidently forming part of the frontage of its 
neighbour until Messrs. Simpkin & Mar- 
shall's warehouse was rebuilt, were three 
stone columns connected by narrow stone 
arches. Their style suggested 1790 as an 
approximate date of erection ; but the 
identity of the building evidently one of 
some importance I have not ascertained. 

The City Press of 28 December last pro- 
vides a note and two illustrations of the 
entrance to Ave Maria Lane before and after 
the improvement. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

SIR HENRY HATSELL, Baron of the 
Exchequer, 1697-1702, is stated by Foss 
to have been son of Capt. Henry Hatsell, 
of Saltram, near Plymouth. Le Neve 
(' Pedigrees of Knights,' p. 460) says that 
he was eldest son of Laurence Hatsell of 
Dorset, a London scrivener. Which of these 
authorities is correct ? And what was the 
parentage of Capt. Henry Hatsell ? He 
was Commissioner of the Navy at Plymouth 
under the Commonwealth, and an active 
M.P. W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newton-le-Willows. 

informed by a collector of these that the 
painted silk faces on these pictures were 
" almost always " painted by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, who made a speciality of the work. 
Is there the slightest foundation for this 
statement ? EDWARD HERON- ALLEN. 

GATE. I shall be glad of any information 
as to the history of this house. It is said 
to have been for a time the residence of 
Nelson and Lady Hamilton, and later of a 

10 s. ix. FEB. 22, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


German ambassador to this country. The 
Cockpit Stairs adjoin. The house is evi- 
dently very old, and contains some excellent 
oak panelling. CHARLES H. RIGG. 

Junior Athenaeum Club, W. 

any of your readers know anything about 
the ' Capitulaire du St. Spulcre ' by De la 
Ville Le Roulf ? R. D. 

BREEDON FAMILY. Will any of your 
readers inform me where I can obtain 
information regarding this family ? Sir (?) 
Joseph Breedon, silversmith in the City 
of London, is supposed to have died in the 
early part of the nineteenth century. 


(10 S. ix. 70, 115.) 

IN February, 1904, the present writer 
compiled a paper on ' Some Sobriquets 
applied to Washington,' which was printed 
in the Publications of the Colonial Society of 
Massachusetts, viii. 275-87. From this paper 
are quoted the following remarks : 

" Having thus traced the history of Fabius as 
applied to Washington during the last twenty-four 
years of his life (1775-1799), let us now turn to the 
designation of the Father of his Country. It is, of 
course, needless to point out that as a title of 
respect the word ' father ' has been employed among 
the English for centuries. The Fathers of the 
Church were alhided to in the fourteenth century. 
In 1591 Shakspere made a serving-man speak of the 
Duke of Gloucester, uncle of Henry VL, as 'a 
Father of the Common-weale.' In 1700 Dryclen 
called Chaucer ' the father of English poetry. In 
1705 Thomas Hearne referred to Sir Robert Clayton, 
Alderman and Lord Mayor of London, as ' the 
Father of y ' City.' (See the ' N. E. D. ') 

" Turning to this country, it is possible to present 
some fresh citations. About 1684 we read of ' The 
Venerable remains of M r Roger Williams, the 
Father of Providence, the Founder of the Colony, 
and of Liberty of Conscience' ('Early Records 
of Providence, viii. 17). On 2 December, 1731, 
Governor Belcher thus addressed the Massa- 
chusetts House of Representatives : 

" ' As I abhor every thing that carries the Face 
of blind Obedience, so do I the least appearance of 
want of Duty to a Prince who upon the highest 
Reason may challenge to be stiled, The Father of 
his Country. Thus happy is the whole English 
World, in his present Majesty' ('Massachusetts 
House Journals, p. 2). 

"In 1764 Governor Hutchinson wrote that 'In 
the beginning of 1649 (March) died Mr. Winthrop, 
the father of the country' ('History of Massa- 
chusetts,' i. 151). 

" That Belcher should have called George the 

Second the Father of his Country, is not surprising. 
It is not without interest to note, however, that 
shortly before the outbreak of the American 
Revolution not dissimilar language was applied to 
George the Third. In a Petition to the King for 
the removal of Governor Bernard, drawn up 
30 June, 1768, the members of the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives thus expressed them- 
selves : 

" ' On the whole, Sir, We will Consider his most 
Sacred Majesty under God, as our King, our best 
Protector and common Father ; and shall ever bear 
him true and faithful Allegiance' ('Massachusetts 
House Journals,' p. 93). 

'* It is seen, then, that as a title of respect Father 
was well known to the American colonists. It was 
to be expected, therefore, that in due time the 
designation of the Father of his Country would be 
applied to Washington. The circumstances under 
which the sobriquet was, so far as I am aware, first 
eniployed, are of interest. The Annapolis Conven- 
tion ot 1786 having proved abortive, it was a grave 
question with Washington whether he ought to 
attend the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. Writing 
to David Humphreys, 26 December, 1786, he said : 

'"That the federal government is nearly if not 
quite at a stand, none will deny. The first question 
then is, shall it be annihilated or supported? If 
the latter, the proposed convention is an object 
of the first magnitude, and should be sustained 
by all the friends of the present constitution ' 
(' Writings,' ed. Ford, xi. 101). 

" In March, 1787, he again wrote to several 
persons asking their opinions as to whether he 
should attend. Among these was Henry Knox, 
and on 19 March, 1787, Knox wrote a reply in 
which he said : 

'"As you have thought proper, my dear Sir, lo 
request my opinion respecting your attendance at 
the convention, I shall give it with the utmost 
sincerity and frankness. I imagine that your own 
satisfaction, or chagrin, and that of your friends, 
will depend entirely on the result of the convention. 
For I take it for granted that, however reluctantly 
you may acquiesce, you will be constrained to 
accept of the president's chair. Hence the pro- 
ceedings of the convention will more immediately 
be appropriated to you than to any other person. 
Were the convention to propose only amendments 
and patchwork to the present defective confedera- 
tion, your reputation would in a degree suffer. But 
were an energetic and judicious system to be pro- 
posed with your signature, it would be a circum- 
stance highly honourable to your fame in the judg- 
ment of the present and future ages, and doubly 
entitle you to the glorious republican epithet. The 
Father of your Country ' (' Writings of Wash- 
ington,' xi. 123, note). 

" The Philadelphia Convention having drawn up 
our present Constitution, and that having been 
ratified by the requisite number of States, Wash- 
ington was elected President in January, 1789, and 
soon after set out from Mount Vernon for his 
inauguration at New York. In the Pennsylvania 
Packet of 21 April, 1789, appeared the following :- 

" ' Yesterday His Excellency the President of the 

United States arrived in this city His Excellency 

rode in front of the procession, on horseback, 
politely bowing to the spectators who filled the 
doors, windows, and streets while he passed. The 
bells were rung, and a feu-de-joy was fired as he 
moved down Market and Second streets, to the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 22, im. 

City-Tavern. The joy of our whole city upon this 
august spectacle, cannot easily be described. Every 
countenance seemed to say, Long, long live George 
Washington, the Father of the People ! ' 

" In the same paper of 24 April, 1789, we are told 

" ' Our beloved Magistrate delights to shew, upon 
all occasions, that he is a man and instead of 
assuming the pomp of master, acts as if he con- 
sidered himself the father the friend and servant 
of the people.' 

"Arrived at New York, Washington -was in- 
augurated President on the thirtieth of April. In 
an account of the celebration of the following Inde- 
pendence Day, dated New York, 4 July, 1789, we 
read : 

"'Our common Father and Deliverer, to whose 

Erudence, wisdom and valour we owe our Peace, 
iberty and Safety, now leads and directs in the 
grand councils of the nation for their preservation. 

: This aroused us to action, to deliberation, to 

decision and now we celebrate an independent 
Government an original Constitution ! an inde- 
pendent Legislature, at the head of which we this 
day celebrate The Father of his Country We cele- 
brate Washington ! We celebrate an Independent 
Empire ! ' (Pennsylvania Packet, 9 July, 1789)." 

Boston, U.S.A. 


The title " otec vlasti " was popularly 
conferred on the Roman Emperor Charles IV. 
(King Charles I. of Bohemia), 1346-78. 
(This could not be predicated of his adventur- 
ous father John of Luxemburg, whose knight- 
errantries impoverished his kingdom, who 
preferred the gaiety of Paris and neglected 
his capital Prague, and who is remembered 
in English history as the blind king who fell 
before our swords at Crecy.) Charles was 
the founder of the Novo Mesto (new town) 
of Prague, and beautified and extended the 
older portions of the town. He modelled 
the University of Prague after that of Paris, 
and erected the Emmaus monastery and 
other churches. The vigorous Reformers 
who preceded Jan Hus were countenanced 
by this liberal monarch, whose name is 
preserved in the famous bridge Karluv Most 
(Karlsbriicke) and the Carolinum buildings 
of the University. 

Count Liitzow records King Charles's 
address to the Estates before the foundation 
of his University (' Story of Prague,' p. 17) : 
"One of our greatest endeavours is that Bohemia 
our kingdom, for which we feel greater affection 
than for any of our other lands, should through our 
action be adorned by a great number of learned 
men: thus will the faithful inhabitants of that 
kingdom, who incessantly thirst for the fruits of 
learning, be no longer obliged to beg for foreign 

Such a sovereign well merits the title of 
" father of his country." 

Streatham Common. 

EPITOME, 1908' (10 S. ix. 21, 83). I have 
pleasure in agreeing with MR. W. E. A. 
AXON that " MR. JAGGARD'S suggestion for 
additions and corrections to the ' D.N.B.' 
is excellent, but requires to be executed with 

It is desirable in the first place that we 
should agree upon some common basis of 
action. The memoirs of living men were 
not included in the ' D.N.B.,' and the 
' Epitome ' of 1903 contains only a summary 
of the memoirs included in the volumes 
which came to an end some time previously. 
When MR. JAGGARD heads his second 
article with the words, " I now conclude my 
first list of omissions from this standard 
work," and includes therein the name of 
Sir J. A. Willox, who died in 1905, it is 
difficult to understand how such an instance 
as that could be designated an " omission." 
The same remark, I think, applies to the 
name of my acquaintance Samuel Timmins. 
Would it not be as well for us to confine 
our omissions to the names of those worthies 
who died before the date of the completion 
of the ' D.N.B.' ? No others can properly 
come under that title. 

The first name which MR. JAGGARD gives 
in his second list is " Pasquin (Anthony), 
pseud. See Williams (John\ 1761-1818. 
Cross-reference omitted." But can this be 
considered an omission ? The scheme of the 
' D.N.B.' did not include cross-references 
for the thousands of anonymous and pseu- 
donymous works mentioned in its pages. 
Information about pseudonyms must be 
searched for in the volumes occupied with 
their identification the volumes, for in- 
stance, of Mr. Ralph Thomas and of Messrs. 
Halkett and Laing. Had cross-references 
been given to the innumerable volumes which 
are mentioned in its pages as having been 
published anonymously or pseudonymously, 
the amount of the printed matter and the 
loss of the patriotic publisher would have 
been much greater, and the labours of other 
bibliographers would have been trespassed 

The warning of MR. AXON again crosses 
my mind. The first list of omissions in- 
cluded the name of Mr. John Thomas Blight, 
but that historian of the crosses of Cornwall 
is still alive. His name, therefore, is not 
an " omission." The name of the author 

of ' The Coming K ' was given as 

Doughty, but the proper spelling of it is 

Dowty, and when the ' D.N.B.' ceased he 

was still alive. He, too, is not an omission. 

The second list includes the name of 

10 S. IX. FEB. 22, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERNS. 


Richard Seymour, author of ' Compleat 
Gamester.' But was there such a person ? 
Was he not the creation of some fraudulent 
bookseller, invented to cover the labour 
of some garreteer of the period ? I am 
afraid, too, that very little, if anything, is 
known about several other names inserted 
in these lists. 

For myself, I have been a student of bio- 
graphy for forty years, and am painfully 
conscious of the inevitable defects and 
omissions of the ' D.N.B.' By all means let 
us point them out. But the work must be 
done, as MR. AXON states, with caution and, 
I may add, with exactness. 


The Rev. Albert Barnes would have no 
place in the 'D.N.B.,' as he was an Ame- 
rican clergyman, born 1 Dec., 1798, in Rome, 
New York, and from 1830 to 1867 pastor of 
the First Presbyterian Church in Phila- 
delphia, in which city he died 24 Dec., 1870. 

M. C. L. 
New York. 

MR. JAGGARD includes in his list the name 
of John Savile, adding some particulars. 
The correct name is Jeremiah Savile, who is 
in the ' Dictionary ' and ' Epitome.' Not 
one of MR. JAGGARD' s statements concerning 
him is correct. H. DAVEY. 

Two important omissions may be added 
to MR. JAGGARD' s list. There is no mention 
in the ' Epitome ' of Governor Eyre, of fame 
as an Australian explorer, and afterwards 
as Governor of Jamaica ; nor of Dorothy, 
the sister of William Wordsworth. 

T. M. W. 

MR. JAGGARD'S comprehensive list must 
make us all wish that we had taken notes 
in the same manner of the omissions of the 
' D.N.B.' Here are a few names that might 
be added to a new edition : 

Alley, the well-known barrister, fl. 1800-24. 

William, 2nd Baron Alvanley (1789-1849), the 
famous wit. 

John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford, unjustly 
executed, (?) 1640. 

John Ayliffe, forger, ob. 1759. 

Thomas Bradshaw, Secretary at War Office. A 
friend of the Duke of Grafton, satirized by 
" Junius." 

Nicholas Byrne, editor of The Morning Pout 
c. 1825. 

Anne Cargill, nee Adcock, ob. 1783, actress. 

Lady Mary Coke, ob. 1811, daughter of the 
2nd Duke of Argyll, and authoress of the valuable 
' Lette_rs and Journal.' 

Laetitia Darby, Lady Lade, ob. 1825, a notorious 
lady in the latter part of the eighteenth century. 

John Donnellan, ob. 1781, M.C. at the Pantheon, 

Sir John Lade (1759-1838), friend of George IV. 

William Page, highwayman, hanged 1758. 

Joseph Wilfred Parkins, Sheriff of London 1819,. 
one of the most notorious characters in his day. 

William Parsons, highwayman, hanged 1751. 

Charles Peace, housebreaker, hanged 1880. 

Daniel and Robert Perreau (1733-75), forgers. 

Margaret Caroline Rudd, adventuress, fl. 1770-90. 

John Scanlan, murderer, hanged 1820. ' The 
Colleen Bawn ' is founded on his story. 

Sir Alexander Thomson (1744-1817), judge. 

Abraham Thornton, acquitted of murder 1817. 

- Thwaites, proprietor of The Morning Herald 
c. 1824. 

John Villette, Ordinary of Newgate, ob. 1799. 
No doubt readers of ' N. & Q.' will be able- 
to supply enough well-known names to fill 
another volume. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

Here are two more errors. 

P. 207, under Carpenter, Alfred John r 
for " liberal M.P. for Reigate 1885 and 
North Bristol 1886," read candidate. 

P. 1265, under Sullivan, Alexander M., 
for " home rule party under Brett 1870,' r 
read Butt. JOHN S. CRONE. 

S. viii. 283, 430). I am obliged to Miss 
ETHEL LEGA-WEEKES for her suggestive 
reply about the Fifteenths. Blackstone 
does not help one very much. If by the 
new assessment of 8 Edward III. the practical 
result was reached of turning the personal 
property tax of Tenths and Fifteenths into a 
fixed local rate, which netted the Crown 
70,000^., that is interesting so far as it goes ; 
but it does not tell us how the local rate was 
assessed, nor has it any bearing on the Sub- 
sidy assessments of the later period. 
Blackstone himself shows that these were 
as trivial, compared with the real values, 
as the former. 

It is very difficult to understand by what 
process a tax on chattels was converted into- 
a fixed sum raised by every parish, and 
apportioned pro rata by the churchwardens. 
Certainly more light ought to be thrown 
upon this interesting subject. I cannot find 
in the statutes or elsewhere any reference 
to 8 Edward III. No doubt the fact is as 
Blackstone states, and its result is seen in the 
fresh experiments of the nature of a gradu- 
ated poll-tax of Richard II. As soon as 
the earlier method had become inelastic,, 
other supplementary systems were needed 
to keep pace with the growth of the country. 
I suppose the terrible visitations of the plague 
in the middle of Edward's reign made it 
impracticable and unadvisable to do this 
sooner. The real reason for the unpopularity 
of the poll-tax was not its severity, but the- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 22, im 

fact that the labourers were enjoying high 
wages, independence, and unfamiliarity 
with taxation. 

Meanwhile our local historians should be 
warned against quoting Subsidy returns 
without qualification, as though they really 
expressed the values of property. When we 
find a man like Harrison of Leeds, who 
shortly after bequeaths a relatively great 
fortune, assessed on 61. as the total of his 
personalty, and no thin.; in lands, it should 
be enough to make us cautious in ether cases. 

I did not mean to infer, by my reference 
to the wealthy Tudor taxpayers of Wakefield, 
that their families had become extinct before 
tb.3 Elizabethan Visitations. On the con- 
trary, though I must confess I knew nothing 
further about them until MR. MATTHEW 
PEACOCK kindly provided his reply, I rather 
wished my inference to incline the other way. 
To any one familiar with contemporary 
documents the truth is frequently, as in this 
case, apparent that heraldic Visitations 
are very capricious records, and that many 
men of substance and esteem are ignored. 

A. B. 

LODGE, HIGHGATE (10 S. viii. 210). In a 
letter which I have had from Mr. Burdett- 
Coutts is the following : 

"Yes, the two horseshoes are in their old place 
above and below the front door of Holly Lodge." 

THE TREATY or TILSIT (10 S. viii. 469, 
510; ix. 31, 96, 135). In reply to MR. 
W. H. COOK, there are no such papers in 
the Foreign Office. The tradition of that 
office has long been that the information 
came from the Emperor Alexander. 

T. T. O. 

[Replies from COL. PHIPPS and SIR HARRY 
POLAND next week.] 

WHITE ENSIGN (10 S. ix. 128). This is 
the flag of the royal navy. The reply to 
C. L. is, Yes, it is incorrect. The right flag 
for a church is the National or Union flag, 
as flown on the Victoria Tower, the Home 
Office, and elsewhere. D. 

[More replies next week.] 


ix. 87). It is probable that Dickens made 
-a mistake in the extracts given from ' Our 
Mutual Friend ' ; but that a red light did 
not always mean a warning to stop is shown 
by the rules of the Liverpool and Manchester 
Company issued in 1832. A continual line 
of police communication was kept up at an 
expense of 2,250Z. per annum. 

" Their directions to the engineer are given by 
signal. When a train approaches within a certain 
distance of a station, the policeman presents him- 
self, and signifies a clear road, by assuming an erect 
posture with his arm outstretched ; should he take 
the position of ' stand at ease,' the engineer is aware 
that some obstruction exists. When a passenger is 
waiting at a station a red flag is hoisted oy day, and 
a swinging light exhibited at night. In travelling 
in the dark, the last carriage of every train carries 
a revolving lamp, one side of which is red and the 
other blue. As long as the train is in motion, the 
red light presents itself to whatever follows ; but at 
the instant of stopping, the blue light is turned out- 
ward : the engineer or the next train instantly sees 
this change, and is enabled, by checking the velocity 
of his engine, to avoid a collision that would be 
tremendous. The fire of the engine is sufficient to 
give warning to the policeman, or to any object upon 
the road, of the approach of a train." 

The above is quoted from ' A Treatise upon 
Elemental Locomotion,' by Alexander Gor- 

(10 S. ix. 126). See review in Athenceum 
of the last of Sir George Trevelyan's volumes 
on the American war, in which there is a 
full account of Tammany at Philadelphia 
(not New York). The Athenceum reviewer 
adds that it is to King Tammany that Penn, 
encouraged by King Alfred, is handing the 
scroll in the centre of Barry's finest group 
in the room of the Royal Society of Arts. 

T. O. 

" SOL'S ARMS " (10 S. viii. 49). It would 
seem beyond doubt that the sign of " The 
Sol's Arms " is a variant of the sun, or the 
sun in splendour, from the arms of the 
Distillers' Company, just as the distillatory 
in the same arms has furnished the sign of 
" The Still," and the Indian or wild man 
that of " The Green Man," who, as one 
of the supporters of the Distillers' arms, 
symbolized the herbs used by the distillers. 
Similarly " The Three Tuns " are from the 
Brewers' arms or from the Vintners', and 
appear accordingly as they appertained 
originally to either an ale-house or a wine- 
tavern probably to the latter rather than 
the former. 

One is under the impression, until better 
informed, that " The Queen of Bohemia " 
tavern was not identical with " The Sol' s 
Arms," since Christopher Brown in his 
' Tavern Anecdotes ' says that the form er 
was once part of the Queen of Bohemia's 
palace in Wych Street. This palace was 
Craven House, and before that Drury H ouse 
stood there, the site of both being occupied 
afterwards by the Olvmpic Theatre. But 
" The Sol's Arms," afterwards " The S hake- 
speare's Head," was some distance from 

10 s. ix. FEB. 22, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Olympic, and only a few doors from, 
or at all events very near, " The Rising 
Sun," which I remember as standing at the 
south-east corner of Wych Street before 
Kingsway began to take shape. " Near 
the bottom of Wych Street," says the author 
of ' The Epicure's Almanack,' 

"is the famous ' Sol's Arms and Shakespeare Chop- 
house.' There is always a tempting bill of fare and 
a larder to match. The house is much frequented 
by the society whose badge of distinction forms part 
of the sign, and by many theatrical gentlemen." 

From this it may perhaps be deduced that 
the " Jerusalem Sols " at the " Bohemia " 
were an offshoot of the original Sols at 
*' The Sol's Arms." It is remarkable, in 
connexion with Mark Lemon's brief tenure 
of the latter tavern, that in 1815, as ' The 
Epicure's Almanack ' further informs us, 

"Mr. Rees, the proprietor, for many years trod 
the comic walk at Covent Garden Theatre, and is 
still celebrated for giving imitations of most per- 
formers of the old school. Mr. Rees is no niggard 
of his humour, and frequently entertains his guests 
with a specimen of his mimetic powers." 

'The Shakespeare's Head." says Charles 
Gordon (Mr. John Ashton) in his ' Old-Time 
Aldwych,' 1903, p. 246, had " a plaster 
bust of the poet over the door." See further 
Spielmann's ' History of " Punch " ' and 
the Rev. John Richardson's ' Recollections 
of the Last Half-Century.' 

Is not " The Sol's Arms " at No. 65, 
Hampstead Road, N.W., immortalized in 
Dickens' s ' Bleak House ' ? The Sols' 
Society appears to have been, or to have 
T)ecome, a kind of Freemasons' clique ; but 
"what the " Jerusalem Sols " were, unless 
a branch of the original society formed 
of Hebrew Solomons, I cannot say. Burn 
in a note to No. 988 of the Beaufoy tokens 
says that a recruit who emerged for the first 
time from his native village and was billeted 
at " The Sun " (i.e. the sun in rays, or 
"splendour"), wrote home describing the 
sign as " the mon's face set around of 
skivers," alluding to the materialistically 
represented rays. 


[MR. G. E. WEAKE also quotes from 'The Epi- 
cure's Almanack.'] 

SLR SAMUEL MARSHALL (10 S. ix. 70). 
Capt. Sir Samuel Marshall, Kt., R.N., who 
became Deputy Comptroller of the Royal 
Navy in 1794 at a salary of 800i'., and died 
at his house in Holies Street, Cavendish 
Square, on 2 October, 1795, aged 55, was, 
I believe, a son of Capt. Samuel Marshall, 
R.N. (some account of whom will bo found 
in Charnock's ' Biographia Navalis,' vol. vi. 

p. 51), who died at Gosport in April, 1768> 
having been stationed there for thirty years- 
Sir Samuel married Elizabeth, second 
daughter of Sir Edward Worsley of Gat- 
combe, Isle of Wight, Kt. (who died 14 Aug., 
1762, aged 46), and Elizabeth his wife (who 
died 25 May, 1774), daughter of Sir John 
Miller of Froyle, Hants. His daughter 
Elizabeth Margaret, born 19 Sept., 1767, 
was married at St. George's, Hanover 
Square, on 12 April, 1785, to the Rev. 
George William Auriol Hay Drummond, 
fifth son of the Most Rev. the Hon. Robert 
Hay Drummond, Archbishop of York, and 
nephew of Thomas, eighth Earl of Kinnoul, 
and died on 15 Feb., 1799. Another 
daughter, Edith Mary, was married at the 
same church on 8 July, 1789, to Fitzwilliam 
Barrington, Esq., of Swainston, Isle of 
Wight, afterwards tenth and last Baronet, 
and died at Exeter in 1845. When was 
Sir Samuel knighted ? 


(10 S. viii. 369, 436 ; ix. 35). MR. HEBB 
at the last reference gives " Cadaroc " as the 
probable modern name of Cadaroque. 
" Cadaroc," which he says is 35 miles south 
of the " town " of London, Ont., is a mistake 
for Caradoc (named after the Welsh king), 
a township (English equivalent, parish) 
near London, Ont. (By the way, MR. 
HEBB'S life would hardly be safe if he were 
to go there after calling that flourishing 
city a town.) By Cadaroque the querist 
undoubtedly is inquiring for Cataraqui, 
the fort which Count Frontenac, Governor 
of New France, built in 1673, on the bank 
and near the mouth of the river of that 
name, where it empties into Lake Ontario, 
near Kingston. The purpose of the fort 
was to prevent the encroachments of the 
Iroquois. The present-day Cataraqui is a 
village of about 300 people. 


Legislative Library, Toronto. 

[MR. FORREST MORGAN also refers to Cataraqui.] 

PEROUN (10 S. viii. 270, 330, 438 ; ix. 
53). Sakharof wrote in 1844 (' Skazanie 
Russkago Naroda'): "The descriptions 
of the Slavo-Russ gods given by our mytho- 
graphers have been composed from incredible 
antitheses." The theogony of the Slavo- 
Russ, in representation of the elements, 
natural phenomena, and many of the forms 
of animate and inanimate nature, has 
included a very large number of aerial 
spirits. The Archimandrite Gizel .of Kief 
(1674), unmindful of what had been written 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. F 22, was. 

in the so-called ' Nestor Chronicle,' evolved 
eight spirits in addition to the recognized 
harmonious septet of the spheres. He 
indulged in those creations through reliance 
on Cremer, on the uneducated but ennobled 
Italian Guagnini of Poland, and on Striy- 
kofski, adopting strange gods who had never 
served the Slavo-Russi. Popoff, Chulkoff, 
Glinka, and Kaisaroff multiplied the number 
from their imaginations, and on the baseless 
authorities of previous writers, to 51, 50, 
56, and 57 respectively. Those and many 
other earlier and later writers assembled 
a large number of gods, spirits, and sprites 
from the whole Slavonian world, russifying 
them as they collected them from the 
different folk-lores. Lithuanians, Estho- 
nians, Wends, Danes, all contributed to 
the endowment of the Slavo-Russi. Even 
Perun's moustache of gold was converted 
into a deity, ou-s-zlat perverted into " Us- 

For fabulous descriptions of Perun see 
Michael Frencelli (1638), and Samuel Gros- 
ser' s ' Lausitzische Merkwiirdichkeiten,' 
where ten plates are given. Pogodin has 
many illustrations of Slavo-Russ antiquities, 
but no picture of Perun, whom, as well 
as Volos or Veles, he derived from Scandi- 
navia. Oleg and his Varangians, also Igor 
later, swore at Byzant by Perun and Veles ; 
and Igor, returning triumphant from Byzant, 
laid his arms, shields, and gold at the feet, 
so to say, of the idols at Kief, while the 
" Christians," according to the chronicle, 
"flocked to the churches (?) " (A.D. 944). 
Karamzin wrote that the Slavs worshipped 
Perun from the sixth century, but he quoted 
no authority, nor could he have found one. 
Perun does not appear to have been really 
worshipped, nor reverenced as a god, nor 
propitiated after any particular demonstra- 
tion of his supposed power ; he was held 
in horror as a devouring fiend, liberally 
fed with men, women, and children at the 
caprice of ruthless mobs, victims being 
chosen by lot. No reason is given in the 
records for those bestial rites. 

The descriptions which have been com- 
monly given of Perun are not in agreement 
with the only record of that idol's figure 
which is to be found in Slavo-Russ annals. 
With the exception of the most modern 
Russian writers, all have drawn their pic- 
tures of Perun from pure imagination, and 
their name is legion. In the 'Annals of 
Kief and in those of Novgorod the idol 
Perun is described simply as of wood : a 
head of silver, and a moustache not a beard 
of gold. There is no mention of iron 

legs, no allusion to any stone in his make ; 
nothing about carbuncles, &c., nothing 
about hands or of anything in them. The^ 
idol floated when hurled into the water, 
which it could not have done had it been 
weighted with iron, silver, and gold. Some 
of the idols were of stone, as may be inferred 
from the chronicles ; but Perun was certainly 
a painted wooden image (see Solovief, vol. i. 
p. 356, note 248, and p. 184). When being^ 
dragged at a horse's tail, the idol was 
prodded* with staves, not whipped, and 1 
twelve men were ranged along the Dnieper 
to push the floating monster from the bank 
in its course until it reached the rapids. In 
Novgorod, the ' Annals ' say the Archbishop 
loakim (A.D. 993) destroyed the altars (tre- 
bischa,^ pi.), and caused the idol Perun to be- 
hacked, and then dragged with ropes, beaten 
with staves, and cast into the sluggish Vol- 
khof . A certain villager of Pidba, near Nov- 
gorod, taking earthen pots to market in his 
boat, seeing the idol against the bank, pushed 
it off, saying : " Thou hast gorged and 
drunk thy fill ; now therefore, Perunushko,. 
float thou away from this nether world." 

Dahl in his ' Tolkovyi Slovar ' reiterated 
the fanciful word-picturing of Perun, and,. 
I am persuaded, gave an erroneous, if at all 
popular, interpretation. I have failed to 
find in the Russ Slavonic that peret had the 
sense of "to strike," and it was Karamzin 
who brought in the washerwoman's " dolly." 
The ' Church Slavonic Dictionary ' of the 
Imperial Academy does not admit of that 
sense of the verb peret, and if Karamzin 
really discovered it, it has been irrecoverably 
lost since. Lomonosof was, I believe, the- 
first to employ the word peruni (pi.) for 
lightning shafts, as a poetical licence. 
Tatischef adopted it, and he repeated the 
fables of previous writers' fantasies. 

In the Finnish there is Perkele in com- 
bination with Satana, which Finns hear 
with a shock ; Perk-jarvi, and a village 
called Pergolova, near St. Petersburg. 
There may possibly be even yet found a 
Finn-Ugrian derivation for Perun, Pergun,. 
Perkun ; ukon tuli and ukkonen, for lightning 
and for thunder, may help to locate the idol 
in a country occupied by a Sarmatian race 
giving name to an idol from Riigen or Goth- 
land before the advent of the Slav ; and the 
Slavs have always been proverbially imita- 
tive. In the Lett tongue thunder is per- 

* Teti jeslem : the 'Novgorod Annals' have biti- 

t The ' Novgorod Annals ' mention kumiri f 

10 s. ix. FEB. 22, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In 1812 a certain Herr Etter presented 
the Historical Society of Moscow with an 
engraving of Perun, a marvellous work. 
(Vol. i. Transactions of that society). 


20, Clarence Street, Penzance. 

OLD PEWTER (10 S. ix. 90). Pewter 
.articles never were hall-marked in the 
proper sense of the term, but many pieces 
(especially of the eighteenth century) are 
found bearing marks so nearly resembling 
the hall-marks on silver plate as to be 
easily mistaken at first sight for silver 
pieces. This resemblance was, it is to be 
ieared, deliberate and intentional and 
designed to attract a purchaser who would 
not object to his plates and vessels being 
mistaken for silver by his friends. But 
It must not be supposed that this quasi- 
counterfeiting by unscrupulous craftsmen 
was ever countenanced, or even winked 
at, by the authorities of the Guild of Pew- 
terers. This worshipful company instituted 
and prescribed for its members the use of 
certain marks (which may be called hall- 
marks inasmuch as they were recorded in 
Pewter ers' Hall), and the makers' marks 
adopted by the members were also recorded 
there, certainly from a period as early as 
the reign of Charles I., in the manner in use 
at Goldsmiths' Hall in the last quarter of 
the seventeenth century ; that is to say, 
they were struck with a die upon sheets 
of copper which were preserved in the 
Hall. From time to time some degree of 
friction between the two guilds was pro- 
duced by the close similarity of marks on 
pewter articles to those in use at Goldsmiths' 
Hall, and on one occasion at least the Cor- 
poration authorities of the City of London 
were constrained to intervene. 


viii. 428). I should say that nobody can 
give an authoritative answer to T. F.'s 
queries. Even if Carlyle himself knew 
precisely what he meant to convey, is there 
one among us who can vouch for the exact 
significance of his phrases ? It is likely, 
as your American correspondent suggests, 
that the alliteration of " shirt or shift " had 
charm for the Sage's ear ; and it appears 
to me highly probable that he intended to 
make his readers see that patriots of both 
sexes, when deft and nimble, rose hastily 
from bed and set inferior candles and 
miserable oil lamps a-burning. " Shirt ' 
is synecdochical for man, " shift " for 
-woman ; the fact of the lattsr article of 

lothing being used as a robe de nuit may be 
taken as a note of poverty or of class : it 
was in keeping with the illuminating powers 
that were available. The ' E.D.D.' defines 
ihift as being " a woman's under-garment ; 
a chemise " ; and the term is alive in the 
talk of Yorkshire, Lancashire, and many 
other parts of England. I know of two 
elderly ladies (one daughter of a viscount, 
the other of an earl) who have been heard to 
say " shift " when a social inferior would 
have spoken of " chemise." " Shift " has 
another synonym in " smock " ; but that 
word is also applied to an overall garment 
for men, now seldom seen, cousin of the 
French artisan's blouse, which seems to be 
likewise obsolescent. I feel as if by " shirts 
and smocks " Carlyle intended to refer to the 
outer coverings of the prisoners, without 
any special indication of the sex of the 

There is a fashion in the naming of 
apparel, and we may easily wrong our 
gentility by being before or behind the day. 
Camden (' Remaines,' p. 211) quotes a 
writer who speaks of the " ridiculous name, 
Gown." When I was young, servants wore 
gowns, ladies dresses, and children frocks. 
Now, if children wear frocks of which I am 
not sure their mothers have them too, and 
gowns no less ; while I dare say that dresses 
flaunt it in the servants' hall. 


Why should it be supposed that " shift " 
in the passage referred to has any other than 
its obvious meaning ? Carlyle did not 
write primarily for Americans. He was, 
like Dr. Parker, " a rude barbarian from 
the North " ; and in our Northern Counties, 
at any rate, this word is still in common use 
as the name of the garment it indicates. I 
once heard the late Peter Mackenzie, an 
eccentric Yorkshire preacher, apologize in a 
public lecture for his plainness of speech. 
Some of his ministerial brethren had, he 
said, told him that he ought to " clothe his 
ideas a little more " ; " but," he added, 
" I can't ; they 're out of my mouth before 
I can get so much as a shift on them." 
" Smock," in the same sense, is, so far as 
my experience goes, virtually extinct in 
England. I remember hearing a maid- 
servant declare, some years since, that she 
was " fair smock-ravelled " with work ; 
but it was clear on questioning her that she 
had no notion what the expression implied. 
This was in Lincolnshire. C. C. B. 

Formerly the term " shift " was in com- 
mon use in Cornwall for a woman's garment ; 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 22, im 

and in the description of a woman in extreme 
poverty the expression, " She hasn't a shift 
to her back," may still be heard there. 

St. Day. 

" Shift " was, and I dare say is, a word in 
common use here for a woman's undergar- 
ment. I have also heard " shimmy." 

R. B R. 

South Shields. 

COMMONWEALTH LAWS (10 S. ix. 89). 
See 8 S. xii. 246, 338. JOHN T. PAGE. 

S'EN VA-T-EN GUERRE" (10 S. viii. 327, 
435 ; ix. 75). In the third volume (num- 
bered by three stars) of " Chants et Chansons 
populaires de la France. Nouvelle edition 
. . . .Librairie Gamier freres, 1848," the 
first song is ' Mort et Convoi de 1' invincible 
Malbrough.' Preceding it is a notice by 
P. L. Jacob, Bibliophile (Paul Lacroix, 
I believe). He says that ' Malbrough ' was 
composed after the battle of Malplaquet, 
in 1709, and not after the death of John 
Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, in 1722, 
Jacob cites " the ancient legend in prose 
which accompanies the song, in which it is 
said that Malbrough was killed at the battle 
of Malplaquet." He says that the Duke 
of Marlborough in this battle almost shared 
the fate of five of his lieutenant-generals, 
who were killed in the melee, and that a 
report of his death having been spread 
about, some waggish songster made this 
song as his funeral oration at Le Quesnoy 
on the evening of the battle, adding that 
the Duke's name was the terror and the 
admiration of the soldier. The song was 
preserved by tradition only in some pro- 
vinces, brought there probably by the 
soldiers of Villars and Boufflers, till in 1791 
Madame Poitrine, the peasant nurse of 
the Dauphin, used to sing it by the royal 
cradle. The Queen, the King, the Court, 
and the servants at Versailles sang it. 
It spread all over France, and became 
popular in England. Beaumarchais in his 
' Mariage de Figaro ' made Cherubin sing 
the air of ' Malbrough,' substituting for the 
old refrain " Mironton ton ton, mirontaine," 
this verse : " Que mon coeur, que mon coeur 
a de peine ! " In London a French gentle- 
man, wanting his driver to take him to 
Marlborough Street, and having forgotten 
the name, sang the air of ' Malbrough,' 
and the driver understood what he wanted. 
In France the name was given to fashions, 
dress materials, styles of hairdressing, &c. 
It was painted on screens and on fans, 

embroidered on tapestry and furniture,. 
&c. Nothing but the fall of the Bastille 
could stifle the echo of the song. 

Later Napoleon, notwithstanding his anti- 
pathy to music, used to sing it with a loud 
voice whenever he mounted his horse at 
the beginning of a campaign. 

Jacob is inclined to believe with De- 
Chateaubriand that the air was probably 
sung by the Crusaders of Godfrey de Bouillon 
under the walls of Jerusalem. He says- 
that " the Arabs still sing it, saying that 
their ancestors learned it at the battle of 
Massoure [? Mansurah, 5 April, 1250], %r 
where the Sire de Joinville's companions 
in arms repeated it as they clashed their 
shields and raised the national cry of 
" Montjoie Saint-Denis." The spelling of 
the name in the song and its title is " Mal- 
brough." Jacob uses that spelling when 
referring to it, though when naming the 
Duke or the street he has " Marlborough." 
The book to which I refer gives the air 
arranged for two voices and for one, as well 
as four humorous illustrations beautifully 
drawn and engraved. 


Here is a scrap which is very much at 
the service of MR. W. E. WILSON. It is 
from Elson's ' Shakespeare in Music' (p. 233):: 

"Many of the ballads which are well known in 
England to-day have an antiquity scarcely inferior 

to one cited above. ' For He's a Jolly Good 

Fellow," for example (known in America as 'We 
Won't Go Home till Morning'), can be traced 
through the French 'Marlbrooke' to the old 
crusader 'Mambron,' and its melody was heard in 
Palestine in the twelfth century. Oddly enough, the 
tune took root in the East, and can be heard to-day 
in many an Oriental city. The fellaheen of Egypt 
claim the tune as their own, and so it is if eight 
centuries of possession can make it so." 
Egypt and many other Orient lands have 
had unnumbered chances of learning the 
tune of ' For He 's a Jolly Good Fellow ' 
since the twelfth century. 

Last autumn, when I was at Epinal,. 
I bought some sheets of the famous images 
cT Epinal. One was illustrative of " Marl- 
borough s'en va-t-en euerre," and is worthy 
of being treasured. I may say that I am 
not musical enough to know how the verses 
of the French song would go with the 
rollicking tune to which we sing in honour 
of our heroes. ST. SWITHIN. 

(10 S. ix. 48). This painting belongs to 
Mr. William Connal, and now hangs in his. 
house, 23, Berkeley Square, W. 



10 8. IX. FEB. 22, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



The Ancient Crosses and Holy Wells of Lancashire. 

By Henry Taylor, F.S.A. (Sherratt & Hughes.) 
THIS handsome volume brings together results 
gathered by laborious research on a subject which 
has never before been competently treated, and 
which daily grows more obscure as traditions die 
out, and the advance of trade, which has little 
reverence for old memorials, destroys the relics 
left to us. Mr. Taylor founds his book on papers 
written for the Lancashire and Cheshire Anti- 
quarian Society, and his keenness has led him to 
include notes on the holy wells, monastic institu- 
tions, and pre-Reformation churches and chapels 
of the county. Various camps and barrows are also 
indicated, and it is shown how the courses of rivers 
and their tributaries were utilized to create strong- 
holds which now form the nucleus of flourishing 
towns. The chartularies of Cockersand and other 
abbeys are employed to verify the dates of crosses 
and the dedication of holy wells. Last, but not 
least, the book is lightened by a savour of the folk- 
lore which still clings, in spite of Board schools and 
a material age, to revered objects. Much of this 
is of great value and interest, and we commend the 
scheme and scope of the volume to other local 
historians as a model of its kind. 

The maps are i strong point of the book. A 
general one of Lancashire forms the frontispiece, 
and the hundreds of Leyland, Blackburn, West 
Derby, Amounderness, Lonsdale, and Salford all 
have their maps on a generous scale, which figure 
in detail the objects with which the book is con- 
cerned. Knowing as we do the vagaries of the 
Ordnance Survey concerning local details, we can 
well conceive that the making of these maps alone 
was a considerable work. 

There are also abundant illustrations of the 
crosses themselves in situ, and the beautiful sculp- 
tured work of interlacing ornament on the oldest, 
which archaeologists generally refer to a Greek 
source. This, like the runes, is still much disputed, 
but Mr. Taylor's book gives ample references for 
further study in the works of the late Romilly 
Allen and other authorities. That the deface- 
ment of crosses proceeds apace is clear from the 
older extant drawings of them ; one well has 
been spoilt by the change in drainage due to the 
formation of the Manchester Ship Canal ; and 
new buildings have often, in the case of market 
crosses, caused removal to another site, or actual 

There is much reference, naturally, to place-names, 
in the study of which the author's brother, the late 
Isaac Taylor, was a pioneer. The pound, tho 
stocks, and the rogues whipping-post reveal the 
jurisdiction of older times. A glance at a modern 
map of Roman Catholics in England will show that 
Lancashire is specially peopled with adherents of 
that faith, and the ceremonial lighting of fires 
on All Hallows E'en for the relief of souls in 
purgatory is noted as prevalent not so long 
since at Weston and many parts of the Fylde a 
practice which has left its mark in such names as 
Purgatory Farm. St. Helen is the favourite saint 
of well-worshippers, but Robin Hood and other 
pagan associations turn up. Crosses, like wells, are 
doubtless, in many cases, pre-Christian, and one can 

now acknowledge without fear of rebuke that 
Christianity adopted the elements of existing 
worship to its own purposes. 

Our own columns have dealt frequently with 
various sides of Mr. Taylor's book, and some of 
those who realize its value and interest, will, we 
hope, be spurred on to gather and publish the history 
and folk-lore of the place in which they live. In 
the reviewer's parish, local tradition, thought to 
be of little worth, established an important 
connexion between English and Continental relics 
of immemorial age. Not every one has the leisure 
and keenness, or the knowledge, to carry out such 
investigations, but all intelligent persons ought at 
least to take an interest in them. 

Gleanings after Time: Chapters in Social and 
Domestic History. Edited by G. L. Apperson, 
I.S.O. With 29 Illustrations. (Elliot Stock.) 
THE editor of The Antiquary has here collected, 
mainly from the earlier volumes of that repository 
of ancient lore, a series of papers illustrating social 
history, i.e., the workaday and domestic side of old 
English life. The result is a volume of exceptional 
value, which at once diverts and instructs us, and 
which would supply many a valuable hint to the 
romancer who deals with early times. We have a 
view of thirteenth-century etiquette, of witchcraft 
in the sixteenth century, the Elizabethan school- 
boy, funeral baked meats, some early breach of 
promise cases, and stocking clocks. The last 
article, by the editor, shows that the luxury of 
clocks on stockings is several hundreds of years 
old. The origin of the word "clocks" is lost in 
obscurity, but it appears that moralists of old 
objected to luxurious embroidery on silk hose. 
"Gold clocks were familiar adornments in 1634,"" 
and also in the eighteenth century. Defoe accuses 
the servant of copying her mistress's finery in this, 
and other ways. 

We hope that further extracts will be published 1 
on this and other subjects, for there must be in the 
long series of The Antiquary an infinite store of 
valuable and amusing articles which are well worth 
reproduction. This volume has as 'Prologue' a 
charming poem by Mr. Austin Dobson, with the 
refrain : 

We are the gleaners after Time ! 

Innocent the Great. By C. H. C. Pirie-Gordon. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

POPE INNOCENT III., as far as we can remember, 
has not hitherto had a monograph devoted to him 
in English. Mr. Pirie-Gordon, in his essay on his 
life and times, claims to have made adequate use 
for the first time of two MSS. preserved in the 
Vatican, the Regesta Innocentii and the Codex 
Ottoboniana IV., which is believed to date from 
the early part of the thirteenth century; but he 
has not failed to consult M. Luchaire's volumes on 
the subject. 

The author, though writing as a strong "ponti- 
fician," has sufficient candour and modernity to 
reject with something of scorn the "incredible 
relics " of mediaeval superstition, and the gross 
profligacy which marked some of Innocent's mitred 
contemporaries. At the same time he tries to palliate, 
as far as he may, the " appalling cruelties which 
Innocent inflicted on the unfortunate Albigenses, 
while frankly admitting that " England's humilia- 
tion under John is a fine example of the Roman 
Pontiffs fallibility in temporal affairs." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 22, im 

We cannot truly say that the author has succeeded 
in producing a life-like portrait of his hero, or in 
setting the stage of his milieu with any effective 
realism of details. It is a painstaking hut bald 
narrative that he sets before us, and his style is not 
one on which we can congratulate him. Finding 
the English language insufficient for his purpose, 
.he constantly enriches it with cumbrous and 
unnecessary neologisms, like " diplarchy " (p. 6), 
*' extraspective " (p. 16), " cardinalature " (p. 17), 
" sanctispiritual " and " unconclavial " (p. 18), 
* 'pre tensed - imperial" (p. 39), " tolutiloquent " 
(p. 61), " banausically - minded" (p. 64), and 
" Sebastocracy " (p. 68). Another innovation which 
we would deprecate, though Mr. Pirie-Gordon takes 
credit to himself for introducing it, is "assigning 
capital letters to the Pontifical pronouns." 

The Quarterly Review : January. (John Murray.) 
MR. T. STURGE MOORE contributes a thoughtful 
paper on Blake, who is considered both as a poet 
.and a painter. When we analyze this careful 
psychological study we cannot but contrast it with 
much that has been \vritten concerning Blake in 
previous days by persons who had little conception 
of the highly complex intellect with which they 
were dealing. 

An unsigned paper devoted to the poetry of Mr. 
Alfred Austin is indicative of careful study. The 
notice is on the whole favourable, but it is by no 
means entirely so. 

' Nineteenth-Century Spain ' furnishes much food 
for thought. The subject is, however, so complex 
that many of those who know Spain thoroughly, 
.and are for other reasons among the best able to 
judge, will find many points of difference as well as 
of agreement. 

Dr. Johnson's 'Lives of the Poets' is a far more 
popular book at the present time than we should 
nave anticipated, considering its violent political 
partisanship. Prof. Churton Collins evidently 
thinks more highly of it than we do as a whole, 
though we admit that there are many parts wherein 
.a high degree of excellence is reached. Even when 
it was new many admirers of Johnson were dis- 
tressed by the lengths to which he carried a partisan- 
ship unworthy of him. He is at his best when he 
deals with bards of an undoubtedly minor order, 
some of whom the Duke of Buckingham, for 
example are now commonly thought to have no 
claim even to the lowest rank of poetry. Here 
we must differ from the multitude. There are 
noble lines in the derided Buckingham : 

A faultless monster which the world ne'er saw 
is undoubtedly one which has clung to the memory 
of many who are unaware of its authorship or 
environment. If they knew whence it came, they 
might be induced to examine further, and their 
.search would not be utterly unrewarded. 

Mr. H. W. C. Davis writes extremely well on 
* The English Borough.' Nothing, indeed, could be 
much better in the existing state of knowledge. 

Sir C. Eliot's paper on the religions which at 
present flourish in Japan gives instruction of a 
useful kind, but it is not easy at all times to pierce 
through the vagueness which enshrouds them. 
This is in no degree a fault of the writer, but springs 
from the fact that in many cases it is impossible to 
express Far Eastern thoughts in Western speech. 

Prof. Bosanquet's ' Greek Temples and Early 
Religion,' and Mr. Warwick Bonds 'Ariosto' are, 
for widely differing reasons, well worthy of study. 

DR. BRUSHFIEL.D has sent us part viii. of his 
Raleghana, which concern the execution of Sir 
Walter and some of the events that followed it. 
Illustrations and facsimiles, and notes of the few 
memorials to Ralegh in England, are included ; 
ind we are pleased to see a mention of Millais's 
Beautiful picture which shows the youthful Ralegh 
listening to a seaman's tales on the beach of Budleigh 
Salterton. Dr. Brushfield's series of articles, of 
which this is the last, constitutes a remarkably 
interesting record in detail, and we would gladly 
see them brought together in book form, or at any 
rate between two covers. He has the satisfaction 
at least of knowing that he is widely referred to as 
an authority on a great Englishman. We have also 
received a second edition of the author's 'Biblio- 
graphy of Sir Walter Ralegh' (J. G. Conimin, 
Exeter), with revised notes a book showing the 
widest knowledge and industry. 

AMONG the subjects which come under notice in 
the later numbers of L'Intermediaire are Benedic- 
tine Freemasons, human fat as a medicinal remedy, 
the custom of using weather-vanes in the shape of 
cocks on steeples, and saints both as curers and 
iuflicters of diseases. It appears that the edition 
of Rabelais by Louis Janet (1823) contains some 
curious notes on " les saints medecins-specialistes, 
pu au contraire donneurs de maladies." For 
instance, " On y voit que sainte Genevieve enyoyait 

la pluie que saint Grelichon engrossait les 

femmes ; que certains bienheureux yeillaient sur 
les animaux." The relations of Marie Antoinette 
and Fersen are discussed, and a question is asked 
about the black "rabat" worn by the French 
clergy, which is said to have been assumed as 
mourning for Louis le Grand. The ossuaries of 
Brittany are also mentioned ; and a correspondent 
states in connexion with them that in Spain 
the coffins of the recently dead are placed in long 
horizontal niches, then closed by a marble slab, 
and taken out after a certain time to be put into 
the ground. The royal family has a special 
putridero, well known to travellers. This still 
existing custom may be connected with the 
mediaeval practice of immuring bodies a practice 
which seems to have been fairly general in Western 
Europe, where skeletons are yet sometimes dis- 
covered in ancient buildings. 

to <E0msp0tt0fnts. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WK cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

CORRIGENDUM. Ante, p. 138, col. 1, 1. 12 from 
bottom, Judith Shakespeare's husband was not 
George Quiney, but his brother Thomas. 


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prepared to SUBMIT KSTIMATES for all kinds of BOOK, NEWS, 
and PERIODICAL PRINTING.-13. Bream'i Buildings. Chancery 
Lane. E.C. 

STICKPHAST PASTE is miles better than Gum 
for sticking in Scraps, joining Papers, Ac. 3d., 6d. and 1. with 
strong, useful Brush (not a Toy). Send two stamps to cover postage 
for a sample Bottle, including Brush. Factory, Supir Loaf Court, 
Leadenrmll Street, E.C. Of all Stationers. Stickphast Paste sticks. 

10 8. IX. FEB. 29, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




ZNOTES : Constables of the Tower of London, 161 West- 
minster Changes in 1907, 163 Halley and Pyke Fami- 
lies, 166 Paulitian Language Book-plate Verses St. 
Anthony's Fire Formation of Clouds, 167 Old Record 
Office Monumental Inscriptions, 168. 

OUERIES : Dolls in Magic Vernon of Hodnet Authors 
Wanted-8th West India Regiment, 168' The History of 
King's Place' Hampton Court and Hampton Tusser's 
' Husbandry," 1848" Main " : its Early Meaning Speech 
after Removal of Tongue Burial-Places of Judges- 
Doomsday Bell at Jerusalem, 169 "Roundhead "Mrs. 
Mahon, the "Bird of Paradise" 'English Minstrelsy' 
Marriage Notices from ' The Gentleman's Magazine ' 
' History of Parish Registers ' Proverb on Beating- 
Battle of the Boyne Army List, 170 Vivandieres Anna 
Reward's Portraits Luminous Owls Chamberlain of 
Skipton Harrow Lands Derivation of " Guide," 171. 

UEPLIES : The Treaty of Tilsit. 171 Father Paul Sarpi's 
Portraits -Two Old Proverbs, 172" Fusil "'The Philo- 
biblion ' Mediaeval Churchyards : Jack Sheppard's 
Burial-Place, 173 Collar for Reprieved Criminal White 
Ensign Initial Letters instead of Words, 174 Authors 
Wanted Stansted Press Fannings of co. Clare Latin 
(Pronunciation, 175 Dobb Park Castle Capt. Joseph 
- -- - - 177 John 

oipliinent to Elizabeth" Water-suchy "Col. Darcye's 
Regiment Hull Railway Report Armorel as a 
Christian Name "The Clayton Arms," 178. 

"NOTES ON BOOKS : Stebbing on the Poets 'The 
Oxford Book of French Verse'' A Cotteswold Manor' 
' Memorials of Old Dorset.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See ante, p. 61.) 

I CONTINUE the catalogue from the end 
of the reign of Richard II. : 


Reg. Henry IV. 
1399 Oct. 7. Sir Thomas de Rempston, drowned at 

London Bridge, 31 Oct., 1406. 
1406, Nov. 1. Edward (Plantagenet), again, now 

Duke of York, slain at Agincourt, 1415. 

Reg. Henry V. 
1413. John Dabrichecourt. 
1413. Robert de Morley. 
1415, Nov. 26. Sir William Bourchier, Earl of Eu 

(or Ewe), 1419, d. 1420. 
1420, July 12. Sir Roger Aston. 
1420, Aug. 20. John (Holland), Earlof Huntingdon. 

Reg. Henry VI. 

1422. John (Holland), Earl of Huntingdon (con- 
tinued), created Duke of Exeter 1443. 
Appointed Constable for life, with re- 
mainder to his son Henry. D. 5 Aug., 144/. 

1447. James (Fienes), Baron Say and Sele (during 
minority of Henry, Duke of Exeter), mur- 
. dered by Jack Cade's mob, 4 July, 1450. 

1451, June 27. Henry (Holland), Duke of Exeter. 
Attained 4 Nov., 1461. Found dead in 
the sea, 1473. 

1460, Sept. 25. William Bourchier, eldest son of 

Henry, Viscount Bourchier, Earl of En in 
Normandy, and Earl of Essex, 1461. (7) 

Reg. Edward IV. 

1461, March 4. William Bourchier (continued), d. 

c. 1470 v. p. 
1461, Dec. 2. John (Tiptoft, or Tibetot) Earl of 

Worcester, executed by Lancastrians, 

18 Oct., 1470. 

1470. John (Sutton), Baron Dudley, d. 1487. (8) 
(?) Thomas (Grey), Marquis of Dorset. 

Reg. Edward V. 
1483, April 9. Thomas (Grey), Marquis of Dorset. 

Reg. Richard III. 

1483, July 17. Sir Robert Brackenbury, killed at 
Bosworth Field, 22 Aug., 1485. 

Reg. Henry VII. 
1485, Sept. 22. John (de Vere), Earl of Oxford. 


The office was only occasionally filled 
prior to the reign of Henry VIII. (See my 
introductory remarks, ante, p. 61.) 

Reg. Edward I. 
Giles de Oudenarde, Lieutenant to Anthony, Bishop 

of Durham. 

John de Blakebroke, Lieutenant to Ralph de Sand- 

Reg. Edward II. 
Ralph Bavant, Lieutenant to John de Crumbwell. 

Reg. Edward III. 
John Winwike, Lieutenant, 1342. 
Thomas Rous, Lieutenant to John, Baron Darcy, 


Thomas de Stapleford, Lieutenant to snme, 1349. 
John Sawtrey, Lieutenant to same, 1350. 

Reg. Richard II. 

William Lye, Lieutenant to Thomas, Earl of Kent 

Reg. Henry IV. 
Henry Mulso, Lieutenant. 
Simon Camp, Lieutenant, 1410. 

Reg. Henry V. 

Sir Roger Aston, Lieutenant to Sir William Bour- 
chier, and afterwards Constable. 

Reg. Henry VT. 

William Yerd, Lieutenant to John, Earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, 1423. 

Robert Scot, Lieutenant to same. 

Philip Dymmok, Lieutenant to same, 1430. 

John Chauncey, Lieutenant to Henry, Duke of 
Exeter, 1452. 

Rejr. Henry VII. 
Sir John Digby. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. FKB. 29, im 


Reg. Henry VIII. 


1509, Ap. 22. John, Earl of Oxford, d. 1513. 
1513, Mar. 15. Sir Thomas Lovell, d. 1524 
1524, May 28. Sir William Kingston, d. 1540. (13) 
1540, Oct. 9. Sir John Gage. 

1509, Ap. 22. SirRichd.Cholmondeley, d. 1522. (9> 

1525. Sir Edmund Walsingham, d. 1549. (10) 

1542. Sir Anthony Kny vet. (11) 

1546, Sept. 28. Sir Walter Stonor. (12) 

Reg. Edward VI. 

1547, Jan. 28. Sir John Gage was Constable 
throughout this reign, but in May, 1553, 
Sir James Croft was made Deputy Con- 
stable, and so continued until the King's 


1547, Jan. 28, Sir Walter Stonor, d. 1550. 
1547. Sir John Markham. (14) 

1551, Sept. 29. Sir Arthur Darcy. (15) 

1552, Oct. 31. Sir Edward Warner. 

Reg. Mary I. 

1553, July 7. Edward, Baron Clinton, appointed 

by the Grey party. 
1553, Aug. 3. Sir John Gage again, d. 1556. 

[For Sir Edward Braye see (18).] 
1557, Jan. 31. Sir Robert Oxenbridge. 

1553. July 6. Sir Edward Warner. 

1558, Nov. 17. Sir Robert Oxenbridge, d. 1574. 
See (19). 

No other Constable was appointed by the Queen 
until February. 1601, when Thomas, Lord Howard 
of Walden (Earl of Suffolk, 1603) was made 

(7) William Bourchier, not ranged by 
Bayley as Constable, is shown to have been 
so by Sir James Ramsay (who calls him 
" Viscount Bourchier," one of his father's 
titles) in his ' Lancaster and York ' (ii. 230, 
note, and 270). 

(8) John (Sutton), Baron Dudley, probably 
became Constable in 1470, although in the 
State Papers he is not found so named until 
1473. The author above cited shows (from 
the Tellers' Rolls, 22 Edw. IV.) that he held 
office at Michaelmas, 1482. 

Richard, Baron Dacre, and John, Baron 
Howard afterwards Duke of Norfolk 
are in Bayley' s enumeration of Constables ; 
but although they had reversions of the 
office, it does not appear that they succeeded 
to it. 

(9) Cholmondeley died as Lieutenant, 
but the date is not on his tomb in the chapel. 
His will was proved 24 March, 1522. 

(10) Walsingham is said to have been 
Lieutenant twenty-two years, but the 
period seems rather overstated. 

Sir William Sidney is the next Lieutenant 
named by Bayley, but without reference. 
He was Steward to Edward VI. when Prince 
(Burnet, ' Hist. Reformation ' ), but there 
appears to be no mention of him as Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower. 

(11) Kny vet. (or Knevett) appears in 
' Acts of the Council ' to have held the office 

1553, July 28. Sir John Brydges, created Baron 

Chandos, 1554, d. 1557. (16) 

1554, June. Thomas Brydges, brother of above. (17) 
1556, Jan. Sir Robert Oxenbridge, appointed 

Constable 31 Jan., 1557. (19) 

Reg. Elizabeth. 

1558, Nov. 17. Lieutenancy vacant. 
1558, Dec. 3. Sir Edward Warner. (20) 

1563, Aug. Sir Richard Blount, d. 1564. (21) 

1564, Aug. 20. Sir Francis Jobson. 
1570. Sir Owen Hopton, d. 1591. (22) 
1590, July 6. Sir Michael Blount. (23) 

1595, Nov. Sir Drue Drury. 

1596, Sir Richard Berkeley. (24) 

1597, June. Sir John Peyton, 

in 1542, and to have been removed 28 Sept.,. 

(12) Stonor (or Stoner). Pedigree in 
Lipscomb's ' Bucks,' iv. 609, and ' Acts- 
of the Council.' J. G. Nichols found that 
he was removed before Lady Day, 1547. 
He died 8 Aug., 1550. 

(13) Kingston had charge of the unfor- 
tunate Queen Anne Boleyn during her im- 
prisonment and at her execution, 19 May,. 

(14) Markham appears to have been 
appointed early in the reign of Edward VI., 
but the date is not found. He was ordered' 
to receive as assistants Sir Edward Peckham 
and Leonard Chamberlain at the time the 
Protector Somerset was committed to the 
Tower, 6 Oct., 1549. His undivided au- 
thority was resumed on the release of Somer- 
set, but he was removed in Sept., 1551, for 
leniency shown to the Duke after his re- 
committal. Markham died in 1564. 

Leonard Chamberlain (knighted at the- 
coronation of Queen Mary) was not Lieu- 
tenant, as shown by Bayley. As above said, 
he was temporarily associated with Mark- 
ham, and afterwards with the succeeding 
Lieutenant, Darcy. 

(15) Darcy was appointed 29 Sept., 1551, 
and on 22 Jan., 1552,^attended Somerset 
to the block. 

(16) Brydges, Lord Chandos, had charge 

10 s. ix. FEB. 29, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the Princess Elizabeth in the Tower 
previous to 19 May, 1554, when she was 
removed to Woodstock in charge of Sir 
Henry Bedingfield, who by Bayley is 
erroneously classed as Lieutenant. 

(17) Thomas Brydges, who had previously 
been assistant to his brother Lord Chandos 
(and in that capacity had conducted poor 
Lady Jane Grey to the scaffold), became 
Lieutenant in June, 1554 (' Acts of the 
Council ' and ' Chron. of Queen Jane,' 
Camden Soc.). 

(18) Sir Edward Braye (generally, but 
erroneously, given the name of his brother, 
Sir Edmund, Lord Braye, who had died 
in 1539) had a reversion of the office of 
Constable after Sir John Gage. But Queen 
Mary, . , 

" in consideration of his age, was pleased to spare 
his attendance in the Tower, yet nevertheless was 
contented that he should have his fee, with such 
deductions to the Lieutenant and Porter as had 
been heretofore accustomed "('Acts of the Council,' 
3 May, 1556, and Manning and Bray's ' Surrey,' 
i. 517 and 523). 

(19) Oxenbridge, previously Lieutenant, 
as made Constable by Queen Mary, 

31 Jan., 1557, N.S. (A copy of the warrant 
is found following papers referring to repairs 
in the Tower, ' State Papers, Domestic, 
Elizabeth,' vol. iii. 46 : reference to it is 
omitted in the Calendar.) At later dates 
in Mary's reign he is referred to as Constable 
and on the accession of Elizabeth, Sir Thomas 
Garden and Sir Edward Warner were 
pointed to take charge of the Tower jointly 
with him (J. G. Nichols, quoting Kempe' 
' Loseley MSS.,' p. 173). The date of his 
ceasing to be Constable is not found, but i 
must have been previous to his taking 
the office of Sheriff of Sussex in 1561. 

Sir Thomas Carden (or Cawarden), founc 
by J. G. Nichols to have been Master o 
the Revels and Storekeeper of the Roya 
Tents and Pavilions, though associated 
in the charge of the Tower as above shown 
was not Lieutenant, as ranked by Bayley. 

(20) Warner, who had been Lieutenan 
in the reigns of Edward VI. and Mary, 
assumed to have been reappointed on th 
occasion related above, as he is afterward 
referred to as Lieutenant. In August, 156J 
he was dismissed for allowing his prisoner 
Lady Katharine Grey and her husband 
the Earl of Hertford, to meet. 

(21) Sir Richard Blount died 11 Aug 
1564, apparently in the Tower, as his monu 
ment is in the chapel. 

(22) Hopton's date of appointment is 
wanting. Before coming to the Towe 
he had charge of the Queen's cousin an 

risoner, Lady Katharine Grey, who died 
t his manor house, Cockfield Hall, Yoxford,. 
uffolk, 27 Jan., 1568, N.S. Error is preva- 
ent as to this incident. Hopton vacated 
tie Lieutenancy in July, 1590, and died 
in Sept., 1591, probably at the Wentworth 
manor house, Stepney (where resided his 
.aughter, Lady Wentworth), as he wa& 
ried in St. Dunstan's, Stepney. 

(23) Sir Michael Blount, son of above 
iir Richard (21), was dismissed by the 

Queen for " lewd behaviour," Nov., 1595. 

(24) Berkeley died in 1604. See ' Lives- 
the Berkeleys,' by Smyth (a contemporary 

of the Lieutenant), ed. Sir J. Maclean, i. 264. 

(To be concluded.) 



To all those who, like myself, have lived 
n and among the old streets of Westminster 
there are many elements of sadness as one 
by one they are seen to depart. Some of 
bhe vanished spots were of considerable 
interest, while of others it may be said 
that they were at best of a very questionable- 
reputation ; but whether they were of good 
or bad repute, something of sadness passes- 
through us as we know them no more. 

The big scheme of the London County 
Council in St. John's parish is still going 
forward, albeit not very quickly, so far as 
the casual eye looks upon it. On the water- 
side portion of Millbank Street Nos. 37 and 
39 will shortly be pulled down ; also Nos. 
41 and 43, known as " Prince's Wharf," 
lately in the occupation of Mr. Walter 
Barton, corn merchant and forage con- 
tractor, his sale took place on Thursday,. 
16 October, and the premises were at 
once vacated. Nos. 53, 55, and 57 bear 
the sale marks, apparently ready for 
demolition ; while Nos. 59, 65, and 67 have 
been pulled down, as has No. 71 (next to 
Lambeth Bridge), a shop and dwelling- 
house for many years in the occupation of 
Mr. Holloway, a saddler and harness maker. 
Three of the wharves are still in use, viz., 
Horseferry Wharf, No. 69 ; Vine Wharf, 
No. 63 ; and the one in the occupation of 
the Chartered Gas Light and Coke Company, 
No. 21. The private house attached to 
the last is also still used. It is a somewhat 
quaint structure, having a projecting 1 bay 
in its lower story, and I am informed 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 29, im 

there are some good moulded ceilings ; but 
as to this I am not able to vouch. No. 3 
Millbank Street is still occupied by Mr. G 
Taverner Miller, a good and much-respectec 
parish man. At the close of the year there 
was only one residence on the other side 
of the street, between Wood Street anc 
Horseferry Road, that being the licensee 
premises known as " The Jolly Miller ' 
at the corner of Church Street, in the occu- 
pation of Mr. F. A. Sherras ; but there 
was a notice posted up that it would be 
closed on and after 27 Jan., 1908. 

The other portion of this great scheme 
that having Smith Square for its centre 
also lagged during 1907. Very little ha 
been done. The few houses left standing 
on the north side of the square and in North 
Street have been painted and decorated, 
and notices put up that they are to be let 
on short tenancies, so that for a season, 
at least, these houses of good old brick 
of a bygone era are left to us. 

The syndicate formed to deal with the 
land on the west of the square, extending 
from Tufton and Marsham Streets back to 
Laundry Yard, has remained quiet, and 
inquiries failed to get any response from 
the tenants upon the subject ; meanwhile 
that portion of Tufton Street between 
Romney Street and Wood Street can claim 
the bad pre-eminence of being the most 
deplorable-looking street in Westminster. 
In this street was situated the St. John's 
Infant and Sunday School, " erected and 
supported by voluntary subscriptions for 
girls and infants, 1834." This is now closed, 
but it has much interest for me, as for some 
years long ago my father was one of the 
teachers on Sunday, the adjoining class 
being taken by Mr. (afterwards Sir) William 
Page Wood, who later became Lord Hather- 
ley and Lord Chancellor, and to whose 
memory there is a stained-glass window 
in St. Margaret's Church, where there is 
also one to the memory of his wife, both of 
them having many friends in these two 

In Tufton Street (that portion once known 
as Bowling Street), at the corner of Wood 
Street, the Prince of Wales laid, on Saturday, 
27 April, the foundation stone of the new 
-offices of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, their old 
-offices in Delahay Street having been 
acquired by the Government. The building 
is from the designs of Sir William Emerson, 
and is a very picturesque structure of 
granite and red brick, standing on land 
bought freehold from the Ecclesiastical 

Commissioners. The end of the year saw 
the building well-nigh completed, so far 
as the exterior is concerned, and an early 
opening is looked for. Further along, 
nearer Dean's Yard, and next to the home 
of the Society of St. John the Evangelist 
(the community popularly known as the 
Cowley Fathers), is the parish institute of 
St. John's parish. The " official " opening 
ceremony was performed by the Rector, 
Archdeacon Wilberforce, on Saturday, 
9 February, and an account appeared in 
The Times of 12 February. The ground 
was granted by the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners, and the building, designed by Mr. 
Edwin Lutyens, cost 7,OOOZ., provided mainly 
by friends of the Archdeacon, the Duke of 
Westminster being among the number. 
It is in what may be called the " basilica " 
style of architecture, and is somewhat 
heavy and not very interesting in detail. 
The south-eastern corner of the building 
of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners has been 
named Millbank House a name in the best 
possible taste, as it is one that ought to be, 
and I hope will be, preserved for Londoners 
of the future. 

The changes at Horseferry Road are few. 
The ground is being rapidly cleared, so that 
probably 1908 will witness an improvement 
between Carpenter Street and the river. 
The premises lately in the occupancy of 
the Golden Grain Bread Company were 
offered at auction by Messrs. D. Burnett 
& Son on 16 July, but no sale was effected. 
At the corner of Elverton Street a drill hall 
and head-quarters for the Westminster 
Dragoons I.Y. are being erected. A delay 
of many months took place after the laying 
of the foundation stone, the contractor 
not beginning operations until the first 
week in January, 1907, so that the end of the 
year saw the work still going on. It is 
jood-looking building of red brick ant 
stone, there being five shops facing Hor 
'erry Road ; but there is yet much wort 
to be done. 

Vincent Square for years saw no change- 
aut lately the builders have been busj 
lere. Next to the Horticultural Hall, a 
auilding to be used by the Westminster 
School of Art, has been slowly proceeded 
with ; the works left in abeyance at the 
end of 1906 were resumed in January, 1907, 
and the close of the year saw them still 
?oing on ; but it was hoped that the ap- 
proaching session would be begun in the 
xew building, and if this be so, it will pro- 
mbly have a bright future in store for it, 
as the well-lighted classrooms are admirably 

10 s. ix. FEB. 29, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


arranged. The work of the Infants' Hos- 
pital, carried on for some time at Hampstead, 
has now been removed to Vincent Square, 
where its new home is situated. A very 
picturesque building, fitted with all the 
latest improvements, has been erected, the 
foundation stone having been laid on 
2 May last. Its construction went on 
with commendable rapidity, so that on 
Wednesday, 20 November, the Duchess of 
Albany was enabled to declare it open. 
The hospital has been built and equipped 
by Mr. Robert Mond, but will require about 
3,000?. per annum to maintain it in a state 
of efficiency. There is accommodation for 
50 infants. In The Nursing Mirror of I 
think October last there appeared a very 
interesting account of the work carried 
on by the hospital while at Hampstead, 
and incidentally of the new building now 

On the land at the corner of Strutton 
Ground and Great Peter Street, where a 
house was demolished as a dangerous struc- 
ture (see 10 S. vii. 124), a house with a shop 
has been erected, being completed about 
the middle of the year. In Strutton Ground, 
on the west side, four shops have been erected 
on the ground cleared, as stated also at the 
above reference, but as yet they are un- 
occupied. In Regency Street the building 
reported to be for the accommodation 
of married men of the Metropolitan Police 
was completed about April last ; but up 
to the end of the year it was not in use, 
and another block of buildings for a similar 
purpose is being erected close by. On the 
opposite side of the street, at the corner 
of Frederick Street, and continued round 
into Chapter Street, the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners have been erecting a block of 
dwellings, presumably for the working 
classes. They are three stories in height, 
and are light in appearance. It is very 
nearly time that a move was made in this 
direction, for a vast number of vacant plots 
of ground are to be met with in the two 
parishes of St. John and St. Margaret. 
Probably it would have been better if the 
Commissioners had put up houses of a 
similar character to those erected by them 
in Upper Garden and Rampayne Streets, not 
far off. 

The buildings of the Royal Army Medical 
College, situated in Grosvenor Road, on 
one side facing the river and on the other 
the Gallery of British Art or Tate Gallery, 
which have been erected by the Government 
at a cost of 80,000?., were almost finished 
as the year closed. The Grosvenor Road 

frontage is considered extremely fine, and 
altogether it is a handsome structure, the 
lower portion being of grey granite, and 
the upper part of brick with stone dressing. 
The roof is supported by Ionic columns 
and entablatures resting on the massive 
granite portico base, over which appears 
the royal monogram. There are two blocks, 
one being devoted to residential purposes 
and accommodating some eighty students, 
while the other contains the laboratory 
and museum. This college will doubtless 
become a centre for the study of scientific 
research and tropical medicine. The 
Alexandra Military Nursing Home in 
Bulinga and Earl Streets was completed 
and opened without ceremony about the 
end of July. 

The temporary bridge used during the 
construction of the new Vauxhall Bridge 
was removed during the year. The building 
erected upon the site of Bass's Assembly 
Rooms has been enlarged by the addition 
of the house next door, long the private 
residence of a Mr. Roe. This is to be de- 
voted to extra workshops, &c., in connexion 
with the depot of the Decauville and 
Nagant-Hobson motors, of which H. M, 
Hobson, Ltd., are the agents ; but this 
alteration was not completed when the year 
closed. On ground cleared some time ago, 
at the corner of Vauxhall Bridge Road and 
Edward Street, is being erected a building 
to be occupied by Messrs. Cole & Co., printers, 
of 57 and 65, Tachbrook Street. The works 
were begun in November. 

The old hospital of the Grenadier Guards 
in Rochester Row, erected in 1860, was 
vacated in September, and in the following 
month alterations were begun to adapt the 
building as a warehouse or store place for 
the authorities of the Army Clothing Stores. 
The work seems to be of a heavy character, 
and not likely to be completed for some 
time. It is regretted that the centre tower 
has been demolished. The empty house 
next door, once known as " The Gloucester 
Arms," and then occupied by Mr. A. Woolger 
may come down, but it has not been touched 
as yet. 

A very small portion of Victoria Street 
is in St. John's parish, and at the corner 
of that thoroughfare and Artillery Row (by 
an error this site was in last year's notes 
said to be in St. Margaret's parish, but this 
is not so) alterations for a branch of Messrs. 
Barclay's Bank were started in January, 
and the premises opened at the June quarter, 
the building being a distinct gain to this 
corner by its plain and substantial work. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 29, im 

This, I think, completes the changes 
taking place in St. John's parish during 
1907. There are rumours of a great many 
in the near future, but as yet they are merely 
talked about, and so beyond the scope of 
notice here. 



(To be concluded.) 

(See 10 S. vii. 263 ; viii. 44.) 

IT now seems doubtful if any complete 
manuscript record of Dr. Halley's family 
history is in existence, for an Oxford corre- 
spondent writes as follows : 

" from Shirburn Castle and the Radcliffe 

Observatory. In each case, unfortunately, they 
say that their Halley MSS. refer only to scientific 
matters, and have no infornation in them of a 
genealogical nature. The horoscope [of Halley, by 
John Aubrey] also, which I have looked at, gives 
nothing of any use, save just the date of his birth. 

" Dr. Halley's commonplace-book is included 

says there is no information in the Halley MSS., 

as I particularly mentioned it when writing 

"Among the Aubrey MSS. are two volumes of his 
correspondence, which is arranged alphabetically, 
and I find one letter from Dr. Halley to Aubrey, 
but no more. It is written from Oxford, dated 
16 Nov., 1679, and is not very long. It is chiefly 
about astrological books, &c., and contains nothing 
about his family." 

A copy of the letter last cited is in Egerton 
MS. 2331, fo. 186, British Museum, and a 
transcript thereof was kindly sent to the 
present writer by Mr. R. J. Beevor, M.A., 
who examined also Egerton MS. 2334 c. 2 
and Addit. MS. 4222 f. 177, the latter from 
the Birch Library. The Halley portion 
consists of extracts from letters written by 
Dr. Halley and a list of contributions by 
him to various publications. 

A gentleman in Oxford very courteously 
states, with respect to the correspondence 
of Dr. Arthur Charlett (see 10 S. vi. 408), 
that " the ' house ' mentioned by Halley 
was a residence in New College Lane, left 
to the Savilian Professor by Mr. Wallis." 

Mr. Beevor has found also, at the Public 
Record Office, amongst " Huntingdonshire 
fines," one " inter Humfred Halley, sen., 
<et Jas. Cawthorne," in Alconbury, Weston, 
1663, which probably marks the earliest 
acquisition of land in Alconbury by Dr. 
Halley's paternal grandfather, Humphrey 
Halley the elder, whose will was proved in 
1672 (see 10 S. vii. 263-4). There seems to 
be no record in the parish of Alconbury 
of the latter' s burial, but of a namesake 

there is this entry : " Humphrey Halley, 
Gent., buried at Alconbury, May 26th, 
1676." Amongst the most important dis- 
coveries made in this connexion is that 
" Katherine Halley, wife of Humphrey, 
was buried at Alconbury, Sept. 12, 1668." 
She was probably (though not necessarily) 
identical with Katherine Mewce, who 
married Humphrey Hawley or Hally of 
London (see 10 S. vii. 263). 

Whether or not Dr. Halley's grandfather 
was identical with the Humphrey Halley 
who was tax-gatherer of Huntingdon (see 
10 S. vi. 69), and with the Humphrey Hally 
or Hawley who married Katherine Mewce, 
remains an open question. 

The rent-book of the City of London, 
1648-9, Brit. Mus., Addit, MS. 35,849 
(which affords internal evidence of a comple- 
mentary volume, perhaps in the Guildhall 
Library), contains several interesting items : 

" Dec. 18. Rec'd of Mr. Edmond Pike for J at 
Mich., 1648, 21. 5s. 

" May 24, 1648. Rec'd of Mr. Humphrey Halley 
for J at Mich., 1648, OOR 07*. 06rf. 

" May 22, 1649. Rec'd of Mr. Humphrey Hawley 
for half a year, Lady Day, 1649, 5/. 10s. Orf. 

"Nov. 3, 1649. Rec'd of Mr. Humphrey Halley 
for half a year, Mich., 1649, 51. 10s. Orf. 

" Pd. to the Cittie tenants sommes allowed them 
for that the cittie lands were assessed for 12 months 
for the Lord Generall's Army, ending the 25th Mar., 

" To Mr. Humphrey Hawley, II. 2s. Od. 

" Pd. to severall of the Cittie tenants for 3 mouths' 
assessment for the Lord Generall's Army ended at 
Midsummer, 1649, also for three months ended at 
Mich., 1649: 

" Mr. Humphrey Halley, 16s. 06rf." 

It is known that Dr. Halley's grandfather 
had leased some lands from the City of 
London, for he mentions this fact in his 
will. The two spellings ("Halley" and 
" Hawley") given above are worthy of note. 
However, some confusion is caused by the 
item following : 

" Marriage licences granted by the Bishop of 
London : July 3, 1626, Humphrey Hawley of Stepney, 
Middlesex, blacksmith, and Mary Cordwell, of 
same, widow of John Cordwell; at St. Faith's, 
London." (Cf. Harl. Soc., vol. xxvi. p. 171.) 

A reader of ' N. & Q.' at Slough kindly 
sends this interesting fact : 

" The tombstone of Halley the astronomer (with 
some reference thereon to wife and children), was 
moved for security, in 1854, to Greenwich, Kent. It 
is let into the wall of Greenwich Observatory, in an 
upright position." 

The inscription on Halley's tomb at Lee 
is printed verbatim in ' Biog. Brit.,' vol. iv. 
p. 2517, London, 1757; and the subsequent 
death of his younger surviving daughter, 
Mrs. C. Price, in 1765, is mentioned at 

10 s. ix. FEB. 29, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


9'S. xi. 496 ; xii. 135. The writer has no 
longer any adequate reason to believe that 
Prof. S. P. Rigaud and Sir David Brewster 
may have had some knowledge of a manu- 
script record of the birth of Halley' s children, 
as intimated at 9 S. xii. 126. The language 
used by those eminent scholars is susceptible 
of another explanation, which may perhaps 
be given later, with the Editor's permission. 
The construction of a pedigree of Dr. 
Halley, therefore, seems to form a subject 
of strictly original research. To Derbyshire, 
according to John Aubrey, belongs the dis- 
tinction of the family's origin, and, indeed, 
there are twenty-one entries of Halley wills 
or administrations in the published ' Calen- 
dars of Wills and Administrations .... 
Lichfield, 1516-1652,' London, British 
Record Society, 1892. 

As Francis Halley, jun., died without 
male issue (will proved 5 Aug., 1718, by 
William Pyke ; Commissary Court of 
London), the surname Halley, in the male 
line, seems to have become extinct upon 
the decease of the astronomer himself in 
1742, or extinct at least in those branches 
of the family most closely related to the 
latter, whose son. Surgeon Halley, died 
circa 1740, without a male heir, and perhaps 

To the generous collaboration of Mr. 
R. J. Beevor of St. Albans a considerable 
portion of the above data is due. 


1, Park Row, Chicago, U.S. 

"'Bible House Papers," No. IV. (p. 45), 
mentions that he received as a present, at a 
meeting of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, a printed copy (Budapest, 1899) 
of a Gospel of John in the Paulitian lan- 
guage, spoken in a portion of Hungary. 
On p. 21 the name is printed " Paulityan." 
Another venerable member of the Bible 
Society has obligingly sent me a copy of 
a letter published in the Pesther Lloyd of 
7 July, 1900, from the pen of Dr. Andrew 
Moody, the Scottish pastor in the Hungarian 
capital, who explains that the so-called 
Bulgarians at Old-Besnyoe (county of 
Torontal), Bolgar-Telep, and Vinga speak 
a dialect which considerably differs from the 
Bulgarian. They call themselves " Paulit- 
shans " or " Palityans " (the ty is to be pro- 
nounced like the ti in the French word pitie), 
and are said to be an offshoot of the Paulitians 
settled in and near Philippopolis, who in 
turn are held to be descendants of the old 

Paulicians, the well-known sect in early 
Church history. Cf., e.g., the article 
' Paulicianer ' in vol. xv. of Albert Hauck's 
'Realencyclopaedie fur protestantische Theo- 
logie' (Leipsic, 1904). 

The Gospel of John mentioned by Dr. 
Cust was printed at the expense of the 
Scottish Bible Society, and the language into 
which it has been translated, by a member 
of the staff in the Municipal Archives in 
Temesvar, in Hungary, is declared to be 
identical with that spoken by the people 
at Philippopolis. About the latter folks 
we have Alexandre Lombard's statement 
that, according to an American missionary 
in Sofia, there existed, in 1868, at least 
2,000 Paulician families at Philippopolis and 
its environs. His book, ' Pauliciens, Bul- 
gares, et Bons-Hommes en 1' Orient et en 
1' Occident, Etude sur quelques Sectes du 
Moyen Age' (Geneve, 1879), is extremely 
interesting, but has to be used with great 
circumspection. L. L. K. 

BOOK-PLATE VERSES. The following 
quaint book-plate, which I have just come 
across in a folio copy of Fox's ' Journal,' 
has interested me : 

James Smith, 

of Aylesbury, in the County 

of Bucks. 

His Book, 17 
Thou Finder Kind, 
Have this in Mind, 

For unto thee it's known. 
Within thy Heart, 
Who e're thou ar't. 
Each Man would have his own. 


ST. ANTHONY'S FIRE. Here is a quaint 
belief from Carlow which I have just heard 
from a native of that county. It seems to 
bo worth record and discussion : 

" Any person of the name of Keogh should cut 
their finger slightly, and just touch the affected 
part of the patient with the blood." 
This cure is not unlike the old English cure 
for the king's evil. Possibly the Keoghs 
are believed to be of royal descent. 

W. H. MACKESY, Lieut. -General. 

FORMATION OF CLOUDS. The final sen- 
tence of SIR HERBERT MAXWELL'S reply at 
9 S. xii. 134 contains a statement which is 
contrary to the facts as given by authori- 
tative geographers. I may be allowed to 
quote Mackinder, ' Britain and the British 
Seas,' p. 163 : 

" The leeward side of mountains is drier than the 
windward side, for the air which has passed over a 

NOTKS AND QUKRIK-v [io s. ix. F*, 29, 

ridge, having shed much moisture on the upward 
slope, is compressed and slightly warmed on the 
downward slope. This dryiiess to leeward of the 
heights has been termed their rain-shadow. In 
Britain, where so much of the rainfall is due to 
cyclonic influences, even the leeward slopes receive 
abundant moisture; yet the rain-shadows to east- 
ward and north-eastward of the hills are distinctly 
indicated upon the map. They are evident in the 
form of areas of smaller precipitation to the east of 
Dartmoor and of Wales, and in the neighbourhood 
of Dublin ; but the most conspicuous is on the east 
coast of Scotland, and especially in Buchan and in 
the Straths of Dee, Don, and Spey, which lie under 
the lee of the Grampians, the highest and most 
massively continuous of the British uplands." 

See also p. 174 of the same work. 

Other parts of the world show the same 
phenomenon, e.g., on the Western Ghats 
the heaviest rainfall is on the seaward side. 
Col. Holdich in his ' India ' gives the figures 
of 120 inches for the Ghats, " whilst a few 
miles only beyond the highest ranges of the 
Ghats it [the rainfall] may fall to 20 or 
30 inches." Sis. HEBBEBT'S statement, if 
true at all, can apply only to a very narrow 
and comparatively low range of hills. 

Strom ness, Orkney. 

OLD RECOBD OFFICE. As all readers of 
' N. & Q.' are aware, our national records 
were formerly housed in various localities 
in London, one place being the Tower of 
London. Having occasion to consult a 
volume of Chamberlayne's ' Angliae Notitia ' 
for the year 1677, 1 came across the following 
regulation, which may be of interest : 

"The same is to be kept open, and constantly 
attended for all Resorters thereto, from the hours 
of seven to eleven of the Clock in the morning, and 
from one till five in the afternoon, every day of the 
Week, except in the months of December, January, 
and February, and in them, from eight till eleven 
in the morning, and from one to four in the after- 
noon, except on Holy-days, Publick Fasting, and 
Thanksgiving Days, and Times of great Pestilence." 
Tenth Edition, Part II. p. 210. 
So there was no Saturday half-holiday, but 
a fairly ample luncheon time. AYEAHB. 

former note on misleading stones (10 S. vi 
225) I can now add the foundation stone of 
the Cowley Fathers' new house in Great 
College Street, Westminster, which tells the 
astonished reader that it was laid by COSMAS 


M. A.D. MDCMIIII. This is, of course, a con- 
fusion between the two forms MDCCCCIIH 
and MCMTV. 

I have not yet looked in St. Paul's to see 
if the mistake on Bishop Creigh ton's monu- 
ment has been corrected. W. E. B. 


W must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest- 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

DOLLS IN MAGIC. I have recently heard 
that, not so very long ago, it was the custom 
in Somerset, when a man had a deep grudge 
against, or serious enmity towards, another, 
to procure a wax doll, stick it over with 
pins, and then place it in the chimney. 
As the wax doll melted away, so the victim, 
who was supposed to be represented by the- 
doll, was thought to waste away and die. 
The pins were intended to give pain also 
to the said vicitm. If the pain was to be- 
lingering, care was taken not to place the 
pins in a vital part of the body. Of course, 
this is identical in general intention with 
the use of the " corp creagh " a figure 
made of clay, which was placed in a running 
stream, thus bringing about the wasting 

My Somerset friend informs me that the 
old man who knew all about this use of the 
wax doll has only just died, thus severing; 
an interesting link with the past. 

I shall be glad if any readers of ' N. & Q.' 
will record any similar modern instances, 
that may have come under their notice. 

41, Outram Road, Croydon. 

[' N. & Q.' has had much on the subject. The 
General Indexes should be consulted under ' Folk- 

VEBNON OF HODNET. Can any of your 
readers tell me the dates of the births and 
deaths of the family of Sir John Vernon 
of Hodnet, who married the sister of the 
Earl of Essex in Elizabeth's time ? 


I am anxious to trace the two following: 
quotations : 

1. Whose nice discernment, Virgil-like is such 
Never to say too little or too much. 

2. Born just to bloom and fade. 

D H. 

I right in believing that this regiment was 
raised by Lieut.-Col. John Drew, of the 
45th Regiment, apparently the brother 
of three other officers in the 45th, sons of 
George Purdon Drew of Hyde Park, Dublin,, 
a member of the Drews of Drewscourt ? 
The notorious Cochrane Johnstone was 

10 s. ix. FEB. 29, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


colonel of the 8th W.I.B., which mutinied 
at Prince Rupert's, Dominica, 9 April, 
1802, and was disembodied in the following 
September. There seems to be no history 
of the regiment. J. M. BULLOCH. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Mr. H. S. Ashbee at pp. 319-21 of ' Index 
Librorum Prohibitorum ' describes the follow- 
ing work : 

" Nocturnal Revels ; or, the History of King's 

Place and other Modern Nunneries With the 

Portraits of the most Celebrated Demireps and 

Courtesans of this Period In Two Vols 

2nd ed London. Printed for M. Goadby. Pater- 
noster Row. 1779." 

The book has been translated into French 

"Les Se"rails de Londres ; ou, les Amusemens 

Nocturnes A Paris, chez Barba, Libraire, Palais 


I am anxious to purchase a copy of either 
of these works, or in return for the loan of 
one of them I shall be glad to supply the key, 
which Mr. Ashbee tells us would be valuable 
to a student of the period. If any book 
seller can help me, I shall be much obliged. 
Fox Oak, Hersham, Surrey. 

any of your readers refer me to books dealing 
with Hampton Court, and more particularly 
Old Hampton, where there are traces of an 
old priory ? 

Is there any mention of this priory in 
the Domesday Book or in any ecclesiastical 
records ? W. H. C. 


[We presume that our correspondent knows Mr. 
Ernest Law's volume on Hampton Court.] 

TUSSER'S ' HUSBANDRY,' 1848. Who, 
under the initials H.M.W., edited 

"Some of the Five Hundred Points of Good 

Husbandry once set forth by Thomas Tusser, 

Gentleman, now newly corrected and edited, and 
heartily commended to all true lovers of country 
life and honest thrift, by H. M. W. Oxford, John 
Henry Parker, 1848 " ? 

It is a neat 16mo volume, containing the 
bulk of Tusser' s ' Five Hundred Points,' 
first published in 1557. W. B. H. 

of your readers inform me whether main is 
a Saxon or Celtic name for a castle ? The 
reason for this inquiry is that in the deed 
of gift by King Edgar of the manor of 
Crondal to the old monastery at Winchester 
in A.D. 976 " the Main Dike " is enumerated 
among the various boundaries of the manor. 

There is a narrow valley on the present 
boundary of the manor known as Castle 
Bottom, which fits in well with the other 
boundaries recited in the deed ; and if these 
two names are identical in meaning, it would 
be a further link in the identity of these 
ancient bounds, which have been a puzzle 
to many. G. HOLT STILWELL. 

The Pines, Windlesham, Surrey. 

Is this possible ? I am dealing with a local 
story, packed with horrors, which gives 
an account of such a seemingly miraculous 
occurrence, set forth in much detail. It is 
entitled : 

" The Horrible Murther of a Young Boy of three 
years of age, whose sister had her tongue cut out : 
and how it pleased God to reveale the offenders by 
giving speech to the tongueless childe. Which 
offenders were executed at Hartford, the 4 of 
August, 1606. London. Printed by Ed. Allde for 
William Firebrand, and are to be solde at his shop 
in the Popes Head Alley over against the taverne 
doore. 1606." 4to. 

Are there any other instances recorded 
of similar cases of recovery of speech ? 


Bishop's Stortford. 

is sought as to the place of interment of 
the following judges : 

1. Sir Montague Edward Smith (ob. 
3 May, 1891). 

2. Sir Richard Couch (ob. 29 Nov., 1905). 

3. Lord Hobhouse (ob. 6 Dec., 1904). 

4. Edward Strathearn, Lord Gordon of 
Drumearn (ob. 21 Aug., 1879). 

5. William, Lord Watson (ob. 14 Sept., 

6. Sir Wm. Milbourne James (ob. 7 June, 

7. Sir George Mellish (ob. 15 June, 1877). 

8. Henry Charles Lopes, Lord Ludlow 
(ob. 25 Dec., 1899). 

9. Sir Charles Hall (ob. 12 Dec., 1883). 

10. Sir Wm. Robert Grove (ob. 1 Aug., 

Please reply direct. 


any reader enlighten me as to a mediaeval 
allusion to a great bell (campana) at, or near, 
Jerusalem, " the centre of the earth," which 
when it tolls is audible to all the earth, and 
announcas Doomsday ? It would appear to 
be a substitute for " the last Trump." . 

34, Priory Road, West Hampstead, N.W. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 29, im 

" ROUNDHEAD." What is the earliest 
employment of this as a political term ? 
' The Century Dictionary ' gives a quotation 
from Cowley's prologue to ' The Guardian ' : 
But our Scene's London now ; and by the rout 
We perish, if the Roundheads be about, 

and this, according to the ' D.N.B.' was 
" hastily put together " in 1641, but not 
printed until 1650, and was rewritten as 
'The Cutter of Coleman Street' in 1658. 
When was the preface first given ? and is 
there any such early authenticated instance 
" Roundhead " as 

as 1641 for the name 
applied to party use ? 

I am writing a monograph on this famous 
lady, and have collected a great deal of 
material about her ; but although I know 
when she was born and when she was 
married, I have not yet ascertained the 
date of her death. The last reference that I 
have found speaks of her, c. 1808, living in 
the Isle of Man " under the protection of a 
Hibernian refugee." I shall be obliged if 
any antiquary in Manxland can verify this 
statement. Mrs. Mahon was the daughter 
of James Tilson ; and his brother John 
Tilson lived at Watlington Park, Oxon. 
From him the family of Tilson-Carter is 
descended. I shall be obliged if a surviving 
member of this family can give me any 
information. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

Fox Oak, Hersham, Surrey. 

shall be grateful for, information relative 
to a book of which the essential parts oi 
the title-page are as under . 

" English Minstrelsy I being | a selection of fugi 
tive poetry | from the | best English authors | with 
some | original pieces | hitherto unpublished. 
Edinburgh. | Printed for John Ballantyne & Co. 

The work is in two volumes, very beauti- 
fully printed in small octavo or duodecimo 
form. The second volume contains three 
poems by Sir Walter Scott, each of which 
is marked with an asterisk and described 
as " original " ; this distinction, I presume, 
means appearing for the first time in this 

The volumes also contain poems, the 
originality of which is indicated in the 
same way, by Southey, Reginald Heber, 
Rogers, and other poets of the early nine- 
teenth century. 

Was this work produced under the editor- 
ship, or at the instigation, of Sir Walter 
Scott ? or is it known who is responsible 
for it ? I can find no mention of it in 

Lockhart's ' Life of Scott,' nor in the pam- 
phlets issued by the Ballantynes in reply 
to what they call " Lockhart's misstate- 
ments " relative to their publishing business. 

L. A. W. 

MAN'S MAGAZINE,' &c. The Fourth Part 
of the late Mr. Joseph Foster's ' Collectanea 
Genealogica,' published in 1881, contained 
the first and only instalment half the A's 
of ' The Marriages of the Nobility and Gentry, 
alphabetically arranged, from 1655 to 1880.' 
The scheme was to transcribe and publish 
the " matches " from the Westminster 
Abbey Registers, The Historical Register, 
The GentlemarCs Magazine, and The Times, 
Miss Ada Gardner being responsible for the 
second and third sources. If a complete 
transcription was made, can any one say 
where this valuable collection now is ? It 
was not included in the catalogue of Mr. 
Foster's books and manuscripts issued by 
the dealer who bought his library. 


188, Marylebone Road, N.W. 

ENGLAND.' In 1862 Mr. John Southerden 
Burn published the second edition of this 
book, and on p. 146, in a foot-note, is the 
following : 

" The author has a MS. vol. containing account 
of all these chapels, viz., St. James's, Duke's Place ; 
Trinity, Minories ; Lamb's Chapel, Harfield ; and 
Lincoln's Inn ; and of some thousands of marriages 
performed in them. To the Index of this volume 
he is always happy to refer for genealogical pur- 

Can any of your readers kindly inform 
me where the representatives of Mr. Burn 
now reside, or who has possession of this 
valuable book ? A. W. G. 

Constitutional Club. 

PROVERB ON BEATING. There is a proverb 
about three things being the better for 
beating : a woman, a spaniel, and I forget 
the third. Will some one give the proverb 
and its origin ? Lucis. 

[The lines are printed in the 'Dictionary of 
Quotations (English),' by P. H. Dalbiac, as : 
A woman, a spaniel, and a walnut-tree, 
The more you beat them, the better they be. 
" Chas. Taylor " is said to be the author, but he is 
not included in the ' Index of Authors ' at the end 
of the book. ] 

I am informed that there is an Army List 
published containing the names of officers 
and others who fought on the side of 

10 s. ix. FEB. 29, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


William III. in this battle. Can you or any 
of your readers favour me with the title, 
date, &c., of this book ? 


VIVANDIERES. In which of the conti- 
nental armies was the " vivandiere " known ? 
Am I right in thinking that they were to 
be found in the Prussian army ? < * f\ M*S 

About what date, and in what army, did 
the vivandiere first appear ? 


possession are the portraits of the "Swan of 
Lichfield," painted respectively by Romney 

The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

LUMINOUS OWLS. The Times has pub- 
lished several accounts of " luminous owls " 
having been seen in England. The following 
description comes from Western Canada, 
showing that luminous birds are also seen 
there : 

" The muffled cry of the snow owl ' in his 
phosphorescent plumage ' is among the sounds of 
which the forest is full in the winter time." The 
Times, 7 January. 

The name of the English owl in question 
is Str-ix flammea. Can any one give a reason 
for the choice of the specific name, which 
seems to allude to light or flame ? 

T. S. M. 

reader of ' N. & Q.' state the name and 
parentage of the husband of Judith, daughter 
of Thomas Chamberlain of Skipton, whose 
marriage took place during the period 1700- 
1714 ? J. H. S. 

HARROW LANDS. I should be glad if any 
one could let me read, or give me a copy of, 
indentures of lease and release to Hy. Young 
of lands in Harrow. The lease is dated 
15 Nov., 1825. I would return it when 
read. T. HERNE. 

56, Erskine Street, City Road, Manchester. 

* H.E.D.' and Skeat give this word as 
Teutonic, but coming to us through the 
Romance languages. At p. 65, 1. 16 of their 
translation of the ' Moallakat,' W. S. anc 
Lady Blunt have " akid, whence our 
European word ' guide.' " Is there any- 
thing to be said for this derivation ? 


Stromness, Orkney. 


(10 S. viii. 469, 510 ; ix. 31, 96, 135, 154.) 

MR. W. H. COOK'S reply (ante, p. 135) 
seems to call for some answer from me. 
He says : 

"Now by all accounts, Bennigseu himself was 
on the raft. What was easier? By Bennigsen's 
very presence on the raft Mackenzie would be sure 
to be so placed as to overhear everything." 

This is certainly an amazing statement. The 
story told by the REV. E. C. MACKENZIE is 
bhat the arrangement was that, when the 
Emperors met on the raft, each was to be 
accompanied by a single guard. But sup- 
posing the staffs of the Emperors were also 
on the raft, is it not idle to suppose that 
Bennigsen could have so placed the Cossack 
as to enable him " to overhear everything," 
without attracting the notice of the other 
members of the staffs ? about ten in all. 

MR. COOK states : 

" Mr. Oscar Browning in Hist. Rev., Jan., 1902, 
says that some years ago General R. Mackenzie, 
R.A., told him that it was a tradition in the family 
that his grandfather had brought to the British 
Government the news of the secret articles of the 

It is important to see what the exact account 
which Mr. Oscar Browning gives of this 
matter is. The following is at p. 110 : 

" Some years ago General R. Mackenzie, R.A.. 
told me that his grandfather had disguised himself 
as a workman, and obtained employment in arrang- 
ing the raft for the interview. He had managed to 
get enclosed in some portion of the raft, and had 
cut himself out with an axe which he kept in his 
hands, immediately the interview was over. 
General Mackenzie said that his family, being 
somewhat ashamed of the transaction, had always 
kept it secret, and that he was now telling a 

stranger for the first time That Mackenzie shut 

himself up in the woodwork of the raft, and cut bis 
way out with an axe, may be an exaggeration ; but 
I do not see why he should not have been suffi- 
ciently near the Emperor's pavilion disguised as a 
workman to hear what passed. The conversation 
between the sovereigns was probably in French, 
and they would not have paid much regard to a 
native workman, who would naturally speak 
nothing but Lithuanian, even if they had seen him. 
We are told there were six windows to the 
pavilion, and some of them may have been open. 
I think it quite as likely that Mackenzie overheard 
the conversation on the raft itself as that he 
derived his information from Bennigsen, who was 
probably not a sharer of Napoleon's secrets." 

I think Mr. Oscar Browning is mistaken 
in saying that the raft had windows, as it 
was not a house-boat, but an open raft, as 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. ix. FEB. 29, im 

shown in the picture to which I have before 

But what do the REV. E. C. MACKENZIE 
and MR. COOK say to this account of General 
R. Mackenzie, R.A. ? Which of the three 
stories are we to believe Mackenzie dis- 
guised as a Cossack, Mackenzie disguised 
as a workman, or Stapleton's story of the 
man concealed behind the curtain ? 

I should like to invite attention to what 
Dr. Holland Rose says on this subject in 
The Historical Review of October, 1901, 
pp. 712, 714, and 718. 

I may say, by the way, that Sir Robert 
Wilson's being able to wander about a 
camp disguised as a Cossack is a very differ- 
ent thing from a man so disguised being 
able to get on to the raft and to remain there 
for two hours, listening to the secret con- 
versation of the Emperors. 

Reviewing the whole case, I submit that 
there is no trustworthy evidence, circum- 
stantial or otherwise, to prove that Mac- 
kenzie was on the raft and heard any of the 
conversation between the Emperors. I 
further submit, as a matter of common sense, 
that the Emperors were not so careless as to 
allow, while discussing the momentous 
questions they had met to discuss, one 
single word of their conversation to be heard 
by any one. HARRY B. POLAND. 

I suggest that your correspondents are 
wasting time in imagining that the English 
Government got news of the Treaty of 
Tilsit from any one on the raft on which the 
Emperors met who is not mentioned amongst 
the high officials, Russian and French, 
present there. That any one could be con- 
cealed on the raft, or could get there as, say, 
an orderly, without the knowledge of the 
Russians, is absurd ; and, putting aside 
practical difficulties, it would have been 
much simpler and less dangerous to give 
the spy the information later than to take 
the risk of bringing him on the raft. It is 
virtually certain there were no orderlies ; 
but, if Alexander had taken one, he would 
have seen that it was one he knew. MR. 
COOK says that Wilson was not recognized 
in the French camp ; but Wilson gloried in 
having been recognized as an Englishman 
by the French, who would see that the 
English and Russians remained friends. 
The important point, however, is that the 
Russians at once recognized Wilson, as 
they would have done as a stranger any one 
trying to get on the raft. Once the inter- 
view of the Emperors was over, then, on 
shore, would come the writing, and the 

opportunity of learning the secret. The 
English had a very good secret service (as 
they probably have now, all unknown to 
Paget, M.P.), and in all probability they 
got a hint from some Russian well-wisher. 
They may have bought the information 
from either side, for the French offices, 
at least in Paris, seem not to have been above 
suspicion in such matters. But the raft 
was not the place where any English spy was. 
R. PHIPPS, Col. late R.A. 

201). In his interesting note upon this 
subject MR. L. PEARS ALL SMITH referred to 
the portrait of Sarpi in the Bodleian Library, 
and found it " corresponded exactly to 
Wotton's description of the picture he pre- 
sented to Dr. Collins the black frame" 
(which, however, it may be noted, Wotton 
distinctly says he did not send from Italy), 
" the mark of wounds on the face and the 
title of Wotton's invention." " Most pro- 
bably," continued MR. PEARSALL SMITH, 
this portrait " was presented by Wotton 
himself, who made several other gifts to the 
Bodleian." See also MR. PEARSALL SMITH'S 
' Sir Henry Wotton, Life and Letters,' ii. 
App. III. p. 479. 

This point can be definitely settled. The 
Register of Donations and Benefactions to the 
Bodleian, begun by the founder himself, 
which always lies on the Librarian's table 
in the Library, contains under the year 1675 
the following record : 

"Johannes Lamphire Med. Doctor, Aulae 
Cervinse Principalis Dignissimus, et Historices 
Praelector. Cambdenianus, pro sua in Matrem 
Academiam lienevolentia ea quae inferiiis re- 
censentur Bibliothecae Publics Bodleianse Dono 
dedit : viz. Pauli Sarpii Veneti Servitae Picturam 
talem quam Originalem seu Archetypon vocamus." 

Dr. Lampshire was a man of affairs rather 
than a scholar : a justice of the peace and a 
practising physician, he was active in pro- 
moting improvements in the city, in the 
making of roads, and in draining the town 
ditch. He had, however, a study ful of 
books, and left some MSS. to the Library; 
and in 1681 he reprinted in a thin little volume 
of tracts Wotton's ' Plausus et Vota,' first 
published in 1633. In this slight fact lies 
the only link I can find between Lampshire 
and Wotton or Wotton's friends. 


Mansel House, Oxford. 

Two OLD PROVERBS (10 S. vii. 407, 457; 
viii. 55, 136, 215; ix. 118). Let MR. ABRA- 
HAMS consult the indexes of L" Intermediaire, 

10 s. ix. FEB. 29, 1908.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


vols. xxxiii., xxxiv., and possibly xxxv., 
under the heading ' La Reine ! . . . .Toujours 
la Reine ! ' The references given in my 
scrapbook are xxxiii. 124 and xxxiv. 258 ; 
but unfortunately that to the page of a 
later communication, in which IS Illustration 
is quoted, is missing. 

It surprises me to hear that there is no 
cross-reference under ' Toujours des perdrix.' 

M. P. 

" FUSIL " (10 S. ix. 90). I think that the 
quotation shows this term to have been 
applied not only to the " spindle covered 
with tow," but also to the upright shaft 
of a mill, whereby the motion is carried 
from the vertical sails or water-wheel to the 
horizontal millstones. Such a shaft requires 
an iron shoe of conical form (axis) to spin 
round in a socket at the bottom, as well as a 
similar arrangement at the top. Or it may 
be made entirely of iron, and itself be called 
the axis of the fusil, or spindle, including 
under the latter term the horizontal cogged 
wheel of which the spindle proper is the 
axis. I do not know whether the upright 
shaft be now called fusil or spindle, but have 
little doubt that it was. It can hardly 
mean anything else in the quotation. I do 
not understand clauona. " Vertinellis " 
ought to be Vertiuellis." " Vartiwells " are 
the " eyes " at the " business ends " of the 
" bands " that work on the gumphi or crooks 
of doors and gates. See ' E.D.D.' or Pea- 
cock's ' Glossary.' J. T. F. 


'THE PHILOBIBLION' (10 S. ix. 9, 92). 
With reference to the account of this 
periodical given by MR. POTTS, I think 
it ought to be noted that the title-page 
with the portrait of Erasmus, to which he 
alludes, is at the beginning of all the twenty- 
four parts in my copy of the book, with a 
table of contents for each part on the other 
side of the leaf. 

There is also a difference in the text of 
the title-pages of the two volumes. Vol. I. 

" The | Philobiblion | a [ monthly catalogue | and 
| literary journal." 
Vol. II. : 

" The | Philobiblion | a monthly bibliographical 
journal containing critical notices of, and extracts 
from, rare, curious ] and valuable old books." 

I think it will be found that No. 24 in 
MR. POTTS' s copy has the title-page intendec 
for the whole vol. ii. His description 
tallies exactly with that in my copy. 

It appears to me that probably the pub 

ishers were short of a title-page for No. 24, 
as they have utilized the older form which 
was in use for vol. i., though the table of 

ontents on the other side of the leaf shows 
that it was issued with No. 24. 


The publishers of The Philobiblion were 
eorge P. Philes & Co., 51, Nassau Street, 
New York. In November, 1867, the " Co." 
of the firm was named Habirshaw. In 
February, 1868, Philes went to Europe 
jO purchase books for the firm, and remained 
in Europe until October following. On his 
return to New York he found that Habir- 
shaw had sold out the entire partnership 
property to his grandmother for 1,000 
dollars. The sale included about 100 
volumes of rare and curious books which 
were the private property of Philes. Philes 
sued Habirshaw for the value of these one 
hundred volumes. The jury after a trial 
of two days' duration rendered a verdict 
for Philes for 1,512 dollars 50 cents. 

Bennett Building, New York City. 

390, 452 ; ix. 56). In answer to MR. CRONE, 
I may say that when I was at Christ's 
Hospital in 1840 the junior classical master 
took away from a boy a copy of ' Jack 
Sheppard,' which- he was reading instead of 
his lesson, and uttered the following review 
of that popular work: "It is a nasty, 
dirty, beastly, low, vulgar, blackguard 
book." Of course this criticism made it 
the most popular book known in our school, 
and every boy wanted to borrow it. I took 
an early opportunity of reading it. It is, 
certainly only excelled by Carlyle's ' Ma- 
homet.' And when I left the school in 1844 
I took a pilgrimage to Jack Sheppard' s 
"Mecca" called Willesden, and saw the 
memorial, as I described at the penultimate 
reference. I saw it again in 1850, after it 
had been repainted. 


With regard to Jack Sheppard, Mr. 
Wheatley in ' London Past and Present/ 
1891, ii. 478, says, quoting The Times , 
18 Oct., 1866, that in digging up the old 
churchyard of St. Martin's- in- the-Fields for 
the enlargement of the National Gallery, 
the workmen found the coffin containing 
the remains of George Heriot, and placed 
next to it that of the notorious thief and 
prison-breaker Jack Sheppard. Cunningham 
in his ' Handbook of London ' merely notes 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tio s. ix. FEB. 29, im 

that Sheppard was buried in St. Martin's 
Churchyard, having died in 1724. 


viii. 507). Alexander Stewart and three 
others were, at Perth on 5 Dec., 1701, 
convicted of theft before the Commissioners 
of Justiciary, and, by verdict of the inquest, 
returned guilty of death, but the Commis- 
sioners altered that punishment to perpetual 
servitude. Stewart was accordingly given 
to Sir John Erskine (then spelt Areskine) 
of Alva, Stirlingshire, for work in his silver 
mines there. A brass collar was made for 
his neck, setting forth the crime and sen- 
tence. It was dredged up from the bed of 
the Forth near Alva about the beginning 
of last century, and is now in the Museum 
of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries. The 
inscription on it is virtually that quoted 
by E. P. L. ; but how there came to be two 
collars I cannot explain. 

It was within the power of the Court 
at that time and it was frequently done, 
if they thought the circumstances called 
for it to mitigate a death sentence to one 
of imprisonment during their pleasure, or 
until the prisoner " be put to libertie by 
ordour of law and justice " ; and also, out 
of their tender mercy, to qualify it by labour, 
as being " less hurtful to health, and more 
to the relief of the public charge of keeping 
him, and as tending to the recovery of indus- 
trious habits." J. L. ANDERSON. 


WHITE ENSIGN (10 S. ix. 128, 154). 
* Yacht and Boat Sailing,' by Dixon Kemp, 
9th ed., 1900, p. 553, states : " The juris- 
diction of the Admiralty only extends to 
flags flown afloat, and any ensign or flag 
can be hoisted on flagstaff s on shore." Since 
this was written, the Royal Standard has 
been restricted to His Majesty's own personal 

I can quote no authority when C. L. 
further asks, " What is the proper flag to 
fly " on a church tower ? Can it be proper, 
or even appropriate, to fly any flag on a 
church tower ? F. HOWARD COLLINS. 


The question of the proper use of flags 
has frequently been raised in ' N. & Q.' 
See, for example, 10 S. iii. 448 and the 
earlier references there cited, and 10 S. v. 
469 ; vi. 12, 96 ; and for the flags used by 
diplomatic and consular officers see the 
' Foreign Office List.' I am not aware of 
any regulation concerned with the proper 

use of flags on land in the United Kingdom ; 
but as the White, Blue, and Red Ensigns 
are sea-flags, and as the White Ensign, 
when flown on land, signifies a coast-guard 
station or a building used for purposes con- 
nected with the royal navy or the Royal 
Yacht Squadron, it cannot be correct to 
fly it on a church tower. In the opinion of 
many well qualified to judge, the Union 
flag may be flown on land (in the United 
Kingdom, at any rate) by any of His 
Majesty's subjects. If this view be correct, 
there can be no objection to flying the 
Union flag on churches throughout this 
country. There is also something to be 
said for the use, in the Established Churches 
of England and Scotland, of the flags of 
St. George and St. Andrew respectively. 


The proper flag to fly on a church tower 
is one with white ground and red St. George's 
Cross only. The White Ensign is the 
Admiralty flag, and can be flown only by 
the royal navy, the monarch, and members 
of the Royal Yacht Squadron. 


The White Ensign is the special flag of 
the British navy : it is " by very special 
privilege allowed to be flown by the Royal 
Yacht Squadron." and is out of its element 
on a church tower. The Union flag is the 
proper flag to fly, unless bunting with some 
ecclesiastical blazon be hoisted there instead. 
Some of this information, and a great deal 
more beside, may be found by C. L. in 
Hulme's ' The Flags of the World : their 
History, Blazonry, and Associations ' (Frede- 
rick Warne & Co.). ST. SWTTHIN. 

(10 S. ix. 126). I am delighted to see MR. 
PIERPOINT'S protest. The increase of the 
use of initials in place of words is becoming 
an intolerable nuisance, and it has been 
jokingly said that presently the English 
language will be nothing but initials and 
slang. I for one never attempt to puzzle 
out the meaning of initials, and I trust 
that our literature is not going to be injured 
by their misuse. I was present at a meeting 
recently when a clergyman advocated 
the claims of the S.P.G., the R.T.S., the 
S.P.C.K., the N.S.P.C.C., and the B.S. In 
fact, his entire^speech formed a series of 
conundrums. A. N. Q. 

There are a number of books that give 
abbreviations, but how to become ac- 
quainted with not only these, but all other 
such guides, is a^question. One way is to 

10 s. ix. FEB. 29, 



refer to the list of books in the Reading- 
Room of the National Library, a new edition 
of which is in active preparation, and is 
anxiously expected. 

The most extensive and cheapest is the 
' Pocket Remembrancer ' by Mr. G. F. 
Barwick. the learned Superintendent of 
the Reading-Room, in which there should 
toe a copy, but there is not. Perhaps if 
the author were not the Superintendent, 
the ' Pocket Remembrancer ' would have 
toeen in the room several years ago. 

This little book for the pocket I always 
travel with one like the author himself, 
will yield to none in answering the questions 
in history and biography which are con- 
stantly cropping up. RALPH THOMAS. 

vii. 448). 

A certain old lady in Babylon bred, &c. 
It appears that I was correct in my surmise 
as to ' The Ingoldsby Legends ' being the 
source of these lines. They occur about the 
middle of ' The Bagman's Dog,' First Series, 
p. 325 (1855 ed.). R. L. MORETON. 

The lines at 10 S. viii. 450, 

What will ye with them, earthly men, 
To mate your three-score years and ten ? 
Toil rather, suffer and be free, 
Betwixt the green earth and the sea, 

are from William Morris's ' Life and Death of 
Jason,' Bk. XIV, 265-8, where they are part 
of Orpheus' answer to the Sirens' song. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

STANSTED PRESS (10 S. ix. 67). There is 
a copy of the volume of poems mentioned 
by Mr. E. P. MERRITT in the Local Collec- 
tion of the Brighton Public Library. The 
title-page is exactly the same, but there are 
some twelve other poems in this copy, which 
are prefixed to the eight comprising MR. 
MERRITT' s copy. The author of these poems 
is the Rev. Lewis Way, who purchased the 
Stansted estate in Sussex in 1805, and 
continued in possession there until his death 
in 1840. Inside the Brighton Public Library 
copy is a manuscript note in Latin to the 
effect that this volume was given to Eliza- 
beth and Joseph D'Arcy by Lewis Way, the 
author, and dated, " Stansted Park, Sussex, 
4 Sep. 1822"; probably this was written 
by Lewis Way himself. As Lewis Way was 
proprietor of Stansted during the time this 
press was in existence, and as one of the 
poems, ' On visiting Charlotte's Grave,' 
mentions Stoughton Church, which is close 
to j-Stansted, it is very probabb that the 

press was established at Stansted in Sussex. 
But unfortunately, among the several thou- 
sand books relating to Sussex contained in 
the Brighton Public Library, I can find no 
mention of a printing press at Stansted. 
There ere brief biographical details of Lewis 
Way in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' vol. Ix., and in Wolffs ' Travels and 
Adventures,' 1860 edition, vol. i. pp. 127 
et seq. See also 5 S. xi. 453 ; 7 S. i. 87, 137. 

220, Queen's Park Road, Brighton. 

FANNINGS OF co. CLARE (10 S. ix. 128). 
Could the two Miss Fannings have been 
daughters of Dominick Fanning of Limerick, 
who married SI any, daughter and coheiress 
of Daniel McNamara of Ayle, co. Clare ? 
Mrs. Fanning survived her husband, and 
on or about 27 June, 1718, sold part of her 
property in co. Clare to my ancestor James 
Molony of Kiltanon and of Cragg, co. Clare. 

According to ' The Norman People ' 
(1874), the family of Fanning (also Fannin 
and Fannon) came from Fainent or Faineant, 
in Normandy. HARBY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

LATIN PRONUNCIATION (10 S. ix. 81, 131). 
What period of the Latin tongue is to be 
adopted as giving the standard pronuncia- 
tion ? In teaching English we do not try 
to find out how Chaucer pronounced it, 
and teach that ; and the pronunciation 
of the Augustan age of English literature 
differed considerably from our own. Surely 
a time occurred in Latin when 6 and v 
became interchangeable, as in modern 
Spanish, and a Roman could not distinguish 
between " bibe ut vivas " and " vive ut 
bibas." During the Nika riots the mob 
called oat, " Justiniane, tu bincas," not 
wincas. Anyhow, when I pronounce the 
name of the Latin town Reate as I was 
taught to 'do at school, I shall feel quite 
up to date, as the modern Italians pronounce 
it the same way (Rieti), only they have been 
obliged to change all the vowels to get the 
sound. SHERBORNE. 

The fact that MR. CURRY does not like 
the method of pronouncing Latin which 
the most learned experts, after exhaustive 
researches, believe to be nearest to that of 
the Romans themselves in the classical 
period, is surely not sufficient reason for 
rejecting it. 

No one doubts that the Italian method 
is more melodious, but, besides the fact 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 29, im. 

that it is considerably more difficult, at 
least for English speakers, it cannot possibly 
have been the true pronunciation at any 
time during which Latin was still a living 
language. Even to this day. for instance, 
in the plural of some words of which the 
root ends in c or g, these are hard before 
a small vowel, as vacche from vacca, lurujhi, 
from lungo, so that those who hold MR. 
CURRY'S views must maintain that, though 
soft in Latin, they became hard in Italian, 
which is contrary to all analogy. The 
change, indeed, from a k- sound to a ch- 
sound is not peculiar to Latin ; we have 
the same phenomenon in our child from the 
A.-S. did (kild). Then why do objectors 
continue to harp on the word Cicero, which 
to an Italian sounds just as uncouth when 
pronounced Sisero sis to us does Kikero ? 
Why not instance Cilicia, which no one 
would venture to maintain was not sounded 
Kilikia ? The c in Latin geographical 
names in England is still hard, as Icknield 
from Iceni, or even becomes ch, as Choller- 
ford from Cilurnum. To a German our 
pronunciation of what he calls qvi, qvcc, 
qvod, is just as disagreeable as waynee, 
weedec, weekee, to us, the fact being that 
it is so simply because it is unfamiliar. 

All languages tend to become softer and 
more mellifluous as they grow older. In 
German the rough guttural ch is gradually 
acquiring the sound of sh, in Greek and 
Spanish of h ; while in English the process 
is apparent even in a single lifetime. By 
all means, therefore, let the Italian method 
be adopted for singing ; but for serious 
study something more scientific should be 
aimed at. Indeed, only the system proposed 
reconciles Latin orthography with that 
of Greek and Hebrew, or renders it even 
consistent with itself. Nothing but the 
most weighty reasons, we may rest assured, 
would have induced classical scholars to 
recommend a pronunciation which in so 
many points offends our insular customs 
and prejudices. 


9, Tithing, Worcester. 

POBB PARK CASTLE (10 S. ix. 90) was 
originally a large and imposing structure 
of the early Tudor period, situated in the 
wild and romantic Wharfedale Valley, of 
which it is a striking feature. All that 
remains of this ancient abode is a small, 
uninhabitable portion, which has long been 
only a picturesque ruin. Shaw, the his- 
torian of this part of Yorkshire, makes but 
brief mention of its existence in 1310, and 

remarks that " a court was once held in it, 
called Dog Court," long after its dilapida- 
tion. History seems to supply no record 
of the occupants of this mysterious house, 
a peculiarity of which was that its interior 
was only accessible by means of a winding: 
staircase in the tower, at the rear. At the 
Foot of these stairs was a secret entrance tc* 
dark subterranean passages and a dungeon, 
from which such unearthly cries and sounds 
were said to issue, at certain periods, that 
none dared venture to approach it or explore 
its mysteries. The entrance is now blocked 

Local tradition has it that this tower was 
haunted by a terrible spectre in the form of 
an immense black hound, far larger than any 
mastiff, and that this fearful apparition 
possessed a human voice. The legend of 
the " Black Dog of Dobb Castle " is fully 
related in Ingram' s ' Haunted Homes of 
~reat Britain.' The larger part of the edifice 
was destroyed by Cromwell's soldiers. 


In ' Cary's New Map of England and 
Wales,' &c., published 11 June, 1794, in 
map 50 and in the index, the name is " Dog 
Park." The green space in the map repre- 
sents roughly about 1,300 acres. 


[MR. PIERPOINT also refers to Mr. Ingram's book r 
as does MR. J. T. PAGE.] 

In answer to the first part of MR. HIE- 
GAME'S query, I may say that Wiggins 
was buried in Bishopwearmouth Cemetery,. 
Sunderland, as stated on p. 351 of my 
biography of the captain. 

With regard to the second part of the 
query, no monument has been erected. 
It is hoped that some of the captain's 
admirers in Norwich, his birthplace, and 
in Sunderland, the town of his adoption, 
as well as others who appreciate his merits 
and labours at their true worth, may unite 
in erecting a suitable memorial. Russia 
sent a cross of Siberian jasper for Sir Robert 
Morier's grave at Northwood, to com- 
memorate the Ambassador's efforts in sup- 
port of Wiggins's project for opening up 
Siberia to British commerce. England 
should not neglect the opportunity of 
commemorating the enterprise and self- 
denying courage of the humble seaman 
who devoted some thirty years of his life 
to the pursuit of a great object. 


10 s. ix. FKB. 29, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"HACKNEY" (10 S. viii. 465 ; ix. 11, 52, 
91). Prolonged experience of the " nor- 
malizing " habits of transcribers and editors 
has made me somewhat distrustful of printed 
texts. In cases where verification by MSS. 
is possible, it should be resorted to. 

" Hackneys " appear to be mentioned 
three times in the document of 1292-3 
Ace. Exch. (K.R.) Bundle 353, No. 4 to 
which PROF. SKEAT has referred. As pointed 
out by its editor, Joseph Burtt (Introd., 
p. x, note); " membranes one and three 
are written in a decidedly foreign hand." 
In this hand, whether of the Low Countries 
or Italy, the first two of the following in- 
stances, the earliest known, are written. The 
later English scribe may have misunderstood 
the contraction, and misrepresented the 

(a) " Pro hack* ferente tunicam nocturnam et 
res alias Johannis de Berewiko usque Gedewourde. 

(b) " Pro expensis Gilkini armatoris misside 
Lochtbprch Londonias propter uestes Thome 
Henrici et Johannis Paschales, negociando et 
redeundo cum locacionehack.* " 

(c) " Item pro locagio ij haquenf portantium 
dictum hernesium de Londoniis vsque croindone et 
de Croindone vsque Uoiiestaple et de Donestaple 
iterum Londonias cum expensis ij. garcionum 
philippide Schirborne per xiiij dies. xs. vjd." 

The instances quoted by Du Cange are 
as follows : 

" 1373, Pat. Roll 47 Edw. III. pt. ii. m. 29, 

Damnus vicecomitibus maioribus [&c.] in man- 

datis quod vobis hakeneios, cariagia, victualia 

et alia necessaria pro ductione filiorum predictorum 
[Caroli de Bloys] in hac parte, pro denariis nostris 
inde soluendis, habere faciant." 

" 1376, Pat. Roll 50 Edw. III. pt. ii. m. 11, 

Concessimus Fratri Willelmo Sy warde Conf essori 

nostro, pro sustentacione sua et vnius socii sui, ac 
hominuni suorum, sibiin hospicio nostro deseruien- 
cium, et quatuor equorum et vnius hakenetti, tres 
solidos per diem." 

I am indebted to a friend for verifying 
the quotation marked (6). 


HAZLITTIANA ( 10 S. ix. 101 ). I am inclined 
to think that MR. REES is in error in his 
suggestion that Sarah Stoddart's lover 
" William," referred to in Mary Lamb's 
letter dated September, 1803, was Hazlitt. 
In a foot-note in his ' Mary and Charles 
Lamb,' Hazlitt's grandson, Mr. W. C. 
Hazlitt, who was the first to publish Mary 
Lamb's letters, makes the statement that 

* In each case the word ends with the k, whose 
prolonged lower tail is struck through with an 
oblique line, similar to that in the ordinary contrac- 
tion for the termination "-orum." 

t The n has a contraction-bar above it. 

" William " was " not William Hazlitt, but 
another and earlier William." Mary Lamb 
frequently mentions the name in her corre- 
spondence with Sarah Stoddart between the 
above-mentioned date and the early part 
of 1806. The references are as follow, 
and have been copied from Mr. Hazlitt's 
book with Mr. Lucas's amended dates, 
which are to be preferred : 

"[Late July, 1804.] The forsaken, forgotten 
William, of English-partridge memory, I have still 
a hankering after." 

"[Sept. 18, 1805.] I want to know if you have 
seen William, and if there is any prospect in future 

" [Early November, 1805. J Has the partridge 
season opened any communication between you and 
William as I allow you to be imprudent till I see 
you, I shall quite expect to hear you have invited 
him to taste his own birds." 

" [Friday ? Feb. 21, 1806.] Do not allow yourself 
to see, or in any way renew your acquaintance with, 
William, nor do not do any other silly thing of that 

After this date the name drops altogether 
out of the correspondence. In the following 
letter, written on 2 June, 1806, Hazlitt's 
name occurs for the first time. Judging 
from the manner in which reference is made 
to it, one is probably justified in inferring 
that when the letter was written Sarah 
Stoddart was unacquainted with the man 
who was later to become her husband : 

" William Hazlitt, the brother of him you know, 
is in town. I believe you have heard us say we 
like him." 

In all the subsequent letters up to the 
time of Sarah Stoddart's marriage on 1 May, 
1808, Hazlitt is referred to as such or as 
" Mr." Hazlitt a change in nomenclature 
which would hardly have been adopted, it is 
conjectured, if he and the earlier " William " 
had been one and the same person. 


I trust it may not be considered out of 
plac3 for me to ask, under this heading, for 
information concerning William Hazlitt's 
gravestone. I have been somewhat startled 
by reading the following words in the first 
paragraph of MR. ROGERS REES'S notes : 

" Even his [Hazlitt's] original epitaph of forty-one 
lines has been replaced by one of few and suitable 

I presume I am to infer from this statement 
that the stone to the memory of Hazlitt 
which stood on the right-hand side of the 
west entrance to the church of St. Anne, 
Soho, has been removed, and that another 
memorial now marks the spot of his sepul- 
ture. If I am correct in this inference, 
might I ask some kind friend to supply a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. ix. FEB. 29, im 

copy of the present inscription ? I well 
remember paying a special visit to Soho in 
August, 1892, and laboriously copying the 
" forty-one lines " from Hazlitt's gravestone, 
and I am not a little curious to see the pur- 
port of the " few and suitable words " with 
which they have been replaced. 

[We are sending the epitaph to MR. PAGE.] 

JOHN SHAKESPEARE, OB. 1732 (10 S. ix. 
9). MK. W. B. GERISH asks for further 
information concerning John Shakespeare 
of Layston. 

I do not know if there was any relationship, 
but a Thomas Shakespeare of the town of 
Hertford died in 1626, leaving a widow 
Lucy ; and a Luke Shakespear of Layston, 
co. Herts, fishmonger, made his will 7 May, 
1707. His wife was Joyce, and he had a 
sister and two brothers. These are men- 
tioned in my ' Shakespeare's Family,' p. 137, 
where I also note the two entries to which 
ME. GERISH calls attention. 


" PRIZE " : ITS HISTORY (10 S. ix. 87, 
137). The following, from The Original 
Ipswich Journal, Saturday, 6 May, 1775, 
supplies an earlier instance of prize than 
those quoted at the latter reference : 

Bury St. Edmund's. 

This is to acquaint the curious in Flowers 
That there will be a shew of Tulips on Friday the 
12th day of this instant May, at John By fora's at 
the Vine Inn, opposite the Market Cross. 

The Flowers to be upon the stage by Twelve 

The winning Flower to be entitled to a Piece of 
Plate of one Guinea value. The second Best flower 
to have Five Shillings in money. And to prevent 
disputes by borrowing Flowers which of late hath 
been most shamefully done to the discouragement 
of all true Florists, therefore every person's flower 
shall be his own actual property and of his own 
blowing, or they will not be entitled to either of 
the prizes. 

Dinner at Two o'clock. 

All Gentlemen Florists, &c., that will oblige the 
society with their company, will be gratefully 
acknowledged by their most numble servant, 

John Byford. 

Mr. Wm. D