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10 s. x. JULY 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. No. 236. 

NOTES : The Bombay Regiment, 1662-5, 1 Bonaparte on 
the Northumberland, 3 ' Englands Parnassus,' 1600, 4 
Gulston Collection of Prints Oxford Commemoration in 
1759, 6" Fair-copy "First Duke of Gordon's Birth, 7. 

QUERIES : Wotton House Prior and his Chloe David- 
son Clan, 7 Romans at York Goldsborough Family of 
Stapleford, Herts Johnsoniana Maps Gordons of 
Messina Burial-Ground of St. George's, Hanover Square, 
Bayswater Road Askew or Ayscough Family Henry 
Ellison Searle or Serle of Epping De St. Philibert, 8 
False Quantities Conscientious Scruples against War 
Round Oak Spring John of Gaunt's Arms "The 
lost tribe "=the Scotch Burney's ' History of Music '- 
Scotch Tour Title Wanted T. L. Peacock: "Skylight" 
and ' Twilight" Harvey's Birthplace "Femmer" 
Bletchingly Place, 9 "Lady Charlotte Gordon "" Pro- 
methean," 10. 

REPLIES : Snodgrass as a Surname, 10 The Treaty of 
Tilsit : Colin A. Mackenzie, 11 Dickens and the Lamp- 
lighter's Ladder " Idle "=Mischievous Archbishop 
Sands' 4 Her's," 12 Dunghill Proverb W. Heath, Artist 
" Making buttons ""Guide," its Derivation, 13 Hove 
Maghull Yates Hungarian Grammar "Angel" of an 
Inn, 14 " Stymie " at Golf Finnis Street Apples : their 
Names Proverb on Beating Unthank, 15 Clergy in 
Wigs Authors of Quotations Wanted Victorian Coin 
Caricature: 'Once I was Alive' Murder at Winnats, 16 
Holy Grail Latin Lines on Sleep St. Mary's Abbey, 
York, 17. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Scots Peerage The Shake- 
speare Apocrypha.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


THE writer is indebted to Mr. Salisbury 
of the Public Record Office for drawing his 
attention to the Pay Lists and Muster Rolls 
of the Bombay Regiment (Colonial Corre- 
spondence, East Indies, bundles 5 and 6). 
They have a special interest, as they record 
the levying, embarkation, and payment of 
the officers appointed to the four English 
companies of foot sent to Bombay, in the 
spring of 1662, to garrison that island, part 
of the dowry of Charles II. 's queen. These 
companies formed the nucleus of the corps 
Imown in the days of John Company as the 
1st Bombay European Regiment of Foot, 
which was, in 1863, brought into the British 
Line as the 103rd (Royal Bombay Fusiliers).* 
When the Territorial system was introduced 
into the British Army in 1881, the 103rd 
Foot became the 2nd Battalion Royal 
Dublin Fusiliers. 

* The ' Records ' of this corps were published 
about thirty years ago, but are most meagre as 
regards the formation and early history of the 
Bombay Regiment. 

The four new companies were commanded 
respectively by Sir Abraham Shipman, Kt., 
who had been appointed Governor of 
Bombay ; Col. John Hungerford ; Capt. 
John Shipman ; and. Capt. Charles Povey. 
Each company had a lieutenant, ensign, 
two sergeants, three corporals, two drummers 
and a hundred privates. From the MS. 
dated "London, Feb., 1661 [1661/2]," and 
headed " Monies disburst for his Maj ties 
Acc fc by mee Sir Abraham Shipman, Knt., 
for y e expedicon of y e following officers and 
soldiers for y e Island of Bombay in East 
India," it appears that each of the aforesaid 
captains received 100/. for levying one 
hundred men. John Shipman' s company 
was mustered on 2 Feb., 1661/2, when it 
consisted of only half its strength ; but at 
the second muster, on 7 March following, 
it was complete. Povey 's company was 
mustered on 4 Feb., 1661/2, being then at 
its full strength. The two remaining com- 
panies were mustered on 11 March. All 
four companies were paid their arrears on 
the last-named date, and at the same time 
received advance pay up to 6 April, when 
they embarked on board the Earl of Marl- 
borough's fleet for Bombay. From Sir A. 
Shipman' s well-kept accounts it appears 
that he, as Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief, received 21. per diem. Col. Hunger- 
ford got 12s. per diem* ; while the other 
two captains had 8s. a day each. Under 
date of 6 April, 1662, Sir A. Shipman gives 
this entry : 

" Paid to all y e officers tower months advance, 
commencing from 6th Aprill, at which tynie they 
went aboard shipp, till y e 27th July following." 

The pay per day was at this rate : lieutenant, 
4s. ; ensign, 3s. ; sergeant, Is. Qd. ; cor- 
poral, Is. ; drummer, Is. ; private, 9d. 
Sir A. Shipman' s subalterns were Lieut. 
Price and Ensign Thomas Fowlkes ; John 
Shipman' s were Lieut. John Cole and Ensign 
Squire ; Povey 's were Lieut. Forster and 
Ensign John Thome ; Hungerford' s were 
Lieut. Twyning and Ensign Garth. In 
addition to the four companies of infantry 
sent to Bombay, a small detail of artillery 
formed a part of each company. A surgeon, 
surgeon's mate, provost-marshal, store- 

* The amount is torn off in the MS., but as Col. 
Hungerford received 161. 12s. for 26 days' pay, it 
works out at 12*. per diem. This officer probably 
acted as lieutenant-colonel of the British garrison. 
He was third son of Sir Anthony Hungerford, by a 
second wife, and half-brother to Sir Edward Hun- 
gerford. Col. John Hungerford commanded the 
Royalist garrison at Farleigh Castle when it was 
besieged and taken in September, 1645. 



keeper, and gunsmith accompanied the 
expedition ; also a chaplain. 

The fleet arrived at Bombay on 18 Sept., 
1662,* but the Portuguese Governor " refused 
to surrender the island to a government 
and nation of heretics." Shipman was 
unable to take or hold Bombay. The troops 
were landed on the small island of Anjadiva, 
near Goa, and the fleet returned to England. 
Anjadiva proved particularly unhealthy, 
and within the space of two years nearly 
all the officers and one-third of the soldiers 
died. The chaplain paid the debt of nature 
on 23 Jan., 1663. Lieut. Twyning died 
on 14 April, 1663, and was succeeded by 
Ensign Fowlkes. Lieut. John Cole suc- 
cumbed 9 April, 1663 ; and Lieut. Price 
followed suit 3 June the same year. A few 
months later appears this entry in Sir A. 
Shipman' s accounts : 

"Paid my extraordinary charges at Goa anc? 
Busseene in soliciting his Maj ties affaires there for y e 
possession of Bombay amounts to 50Z." 

It would seem that Sir A. Shipman took 
a guard with him on this mission, as a sum 
of 6Z. is debited to the British Government 
on account of " a house burnt down by a 

Soon after his return from Goa, Shipman 
died on 6 April, 1664, and Humphrey 
Cookef succeeded him as Governor and 
commander of the troops. Under Cooke 
the negotiations for the surrender of 
Bombay were continued. In 1663 news 
had reached England of the hardships 
and privations to which the British troops 
under Shipman were exposed on the island 
of Anjadiva. An agreement was made, 
23 March, 1665, 

" between the Navy Commissioners and the East 
India Company for the hire of the African and 
St. George for the transport to Surat, or Fort 
St. George, of such of the King's forces as remain at 
Anjadiva [lately] under command of Sir A. Shipman, 
at 15 per head."J 

During the winter of 1664-5 the rem- 
nant of the four British companies, under 
Governor Cooke, took possession of Bombay. 

* In Dr. Harris's * Collection of Voyages ' the 
date of the Earl of Marlborough's voyage to the 
East Indies is wrongly given as 1663. 

f Erroneously called "Ensign Cooke" in the 
* Records of the Royal Bombay Fusiliers' (p. 4). 
He was named in Sir A. Shipman's commission, and 
built the first British fort at Bombay. Probably 
identical with Col. Humphrey Cooke appointed 

co - Glollcester ' hl 

'Gal. S. P. Dora.' 

The following entries appear in Cooke' & 
official correspondence : 

" By his most Excellent Majestye's espetiall 

"A Generall muster taken this 25th day of 
February, 1664/5 on Bombaim [sic], by the appoint- 
ment of Sir Geo. Oxenden, Knt., by Henry Gary, of 
all the soldiers, etc a other persons as this 'day 
appeared to bee actually in his Majestye's Service." 

Here follow the Muster Rolls of the four 
companies, in which the name of " Ensign 
John Thorne " appears as the sole effective 
officer of those who left England in April, 
1662. After the Muster Rolls is this- 
certificate : 

Mustered uppon Bombaim the day and yeare 
above written in the prementioned fower Com- 
panies, viz* the Worpp 11 Humphrey Cooke, 
Governor, one ensigne, fower serjants, six corporalls,. 
fower drums and ninety seven private sentries. 

[Signed] Henry Gary. Humphrey Cooke. 

John Thorne. 

In March, 1667, Charles II. ceded Bombay 
to the East India Company. Sir George 
Oxenden was appointed Governor and Com- 
mander-in- Chief in August following. The 
English officers and privates at Bombay, 
including the few gunners, were formally 
invited to enter the Company's service with 
the same rank and pay. The proposition 
was accepted by most of those concerned- 
It is interesting to know that the Bombay 
Regiment at its first raising, and for nearly 
a hundred years, had " sea-green facings " 
said to be the Braganza colours. 

Sir A. Shipman is noticed in an early 
number of ' N. & Q.' (1 S. vi. 419). The 
following additional facts may be of interest. 
He was a captain in Sir Nicholas Byron's 
regiment of foot in 1640, and his brother 
John was an ensign in the same corps. 
Capt. A. Shipman appears to have been 
knighted by Charles I. At the Restoration 
he petitioned Charles II. for the post of 
Armourer at the Tower of London, and 
referred to his services to the King and 
his father. On 26 Jan., 1661, Sir A. Ship- 
man was granted the reversionary interest 
in one lighthouse and beacon at Dungeness, 
Kent, with the contribution thereunto be- 
longing. He made his will 24 March, 1661/2, 
" being minded suddainely to undertake 
a voyage to East India." He left his share 
in the Dungeness lighthouse and beacon,. 
" with contribution thereunto belonging," 
to his son William Shipman, who is directed 
to pay 500?. to testator's daughter Elizabeth 
Shipman. The son and daughter were 
appointed executors. This will was not 
proved until 18 July, 1665 (P.C.C. 75 Hyde). 

10 s. x. JULY 4, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


THE story of Napoleon Bonaparte on 
board the Northumberland is a natural 
supplement to the story of his life on board 
the Bellerophon. It is a singular coincidence 
that some weeks before E. M.'s article ap- 
peared in ' N. & Q.' (ante, p. 321), and with- 
out any knowledge of that article or of the 
E. M. who wrote it, I, another E. M., should 
have written the following story of the con- 
tinuation of Napoleon's voyage, on the 
Northumberland, to his last resting-place. 

The story of the great Napoleon's voyage 
to St. Helena has been told in various ways 
and by different people, but never more 
intimately than by the English surgeon 
on board the Northumberland. Mr. Wil- 
liam Warden kept a record of the various 
conversations he had with Napoleon and 
his principal attendants, and of anecdotes 
connected with them : these he at once 
committed to a journal, and it was from 
its pages that the letters were composed 
which he wrote to a friend at home, evidently 
of his own profession. These letters were 
not written with a view to publication, 
but, yielding to the urgency of his friends, 
the author printed them about 1816. 

The work was well known at that period, 
but has long since been forgotten. It has 
sometimes been mentioned by Napoleonic 
writers, but never, so far as the present 
writer is aware, in any detail. It may 
therefore be safely assumed that if now 
known at all, it can only be to a very limited 
number of Napoleonic students. 

The letters are mostly headed "At Sea' 1 or 
" At St. Helena," but they bear no date. In 
the first letter the writer describes the great 
public excitement caused by the transfer 
of Napoleon from the Bellerophon to the 
Northumberland in Torbay, 5 Aug., 1815 : 

"There was a daily crowd of boats and other 
vessels filled with curious spectators (some of whom, 
it is confidently said, have come on purpose from 
remote parts of the country, and even from London) 
to snatch such a glimpse of him as could be caught at 
the distance they -were obliged to keep from the Bel- 
lerophon, on whose gangway he occasionally stood." 

On 3 Aug., 1815, the Northumberland 
arrived off Berry Head, Torbay. She was 
there joined by the Tonnant, accompanied 
by the Bellerophon, which had on board 
Napoleon Bonaparte. Count de las Cases, 
chamberlain to the ex-Emperor, came on 
board to arrange the requisite accommoda- 
tion for his master. " The Count," says Mr. 
Warden, " does not exceed five feet anc 

an inch in height, and appears to be fifty- 
years of age, of a meagre form and wrinkled 
orehead." His diminutive appearance did 
not fail to invite observation from various 
Beholders. The barge which conveyed 
STapoleon from the Bellerophon contained 
~~ ord Keith, Sir George Cockburn, and 
Marshal Bertrand, who had shared in all 
lis Imperial master's fortunes, and Generals 
Vtontholm and Gourgon, who had been, 
and still retained the titles of, his aides-de- 
camp. As the boat approached, the figure 
of Napoleon was readily distinguished from 
lis resemblance to the various prints dis- 
played in the windows of shops. 

"With a slow step Bonaparte mounted the 
gangway, and on feeling himself firm on the quarter- 
deck, he raised his hat when the guard presented 
arms and the drum rolled. The officers of the 
Northumberland, who were uncovered, stood con- 
siderably in advance. These he approached and 
saluted with an air of the most affable politeness. 

His dress was that of a general of French 

nfantry His face was pale, and his beard of an 

unshaven appearance. His forehead is thinly 
covered with dark hair, as well as the top of his- 
head, which is large, and has a singular flatness ;. 
what hair he has behind is bushy, and I could not 
discern the slightest mixture of white in it. His 
eyes, which are grey, are in continual motion, and 
lurry rapidly to the various objects around him. 
His teeth are regular and good ; his neck is short, 
but his shoulders of the finest proportion ; the rest 
of his figure, though a little blended with Dutch 
fatness, is of very handsome form." 

On returning on deck the Emperor engaged 
in conversation with Lord Lowther, Mr. 
Lyttelton, and Sir George Bingham for an 
hour before dinner. He complained of 
the severity with which he was treated 
in being consigned to pass his days on the 
rock of St. Helena. In a conversation the 
author had with Count Bertrand, the latter 
complained in very forcible terms of the 
needless cruelty of sending them to such a 
place ; he said that the Emperor had thrown 
himself on the mercy of England from a 
full and consoling confidence that he should 
there find a place of refuge : 

" It would have been no disgrace to England 
to have acknowledged Napoleon Bonaparte as a 
citizen. It might rather have been a subject of 
pride to England that the conqueror of almost all 
Europe but herself sought, in his adverse fortune, 
to pass the remainder of a life which forms so 
splendid an eppcha in the history of our age, in any 
retired spot of her domains which she might have 
allotted him." 

In the next chapter we are told that their 
illustrious guest displayed rather an eager 
appetite : he made a very hearty dinner, 
which he moistened with claret ; he was 
observed to select a mutton chop, which 
he contrived to dispose of without the aid 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JDLY 4, im 

of either knife or fork. He passed the 
evening on the quarter-deck, and chatted 
with easy pleasantry with those near him. 
Henever moved his hands from their habitual 
places in his dress, except to apply them 
to a snuff-box ; but he never offered a pinch 
to any one with whom he was conversing. 
He played at cards during the evening. 
He never omitted an opportunity of asking 

rstions. On one occasion he inquired 
ut a religious community in Scotland 
called Johnsonians ! a question which no 
one could answer ; the only probable solu- 
tion being that when he contemplated 
invading England he had the Hebrides 
in mind, and Johnson's * Tour to the 
Hebrides ' got mixed up in his mind as hav- 
ing relation to some religious community or 

As for Napoleon's invasion of England, 
our surgeon says that according to his recol- 
lection it was not generally considered 
practicable, but he gives his authority for 
the actual intention of carrying it out : 

" Bonaparte positively avers it. He says that he 
had 200,000 men on the coast of France opposite to 
England ; and that it was his determination to head 
them in person. The attempt he acknowledged to 
l>e very hazardous, and the issue equally doubtful. 
His mind, however, was bent on the enterprise, and 
every possible arrangement was made to give effect 
to its operations. It was hinted to him, however, 
that his flotilla was altogether insufficient, and that 
rsuch a ship as the Northumberland would run down 

fifty of them but he stated that his plan was to 

/rid the Channel of English men-of-war, and for that 
purpose he had directed Admiral Villeneuve, with 
the combined fleets of France and Spain, to sail 
apparently for Martinique, for the express purpose 
of distracting our naval force, by drawing after him 
.a large portion of, if not all, our best ships. Other 
/squadrons of observation would follow, and Eng- 
land might by these manoeuvres be left sufficiently 
defenceless for his purpose. Admiral Villeneuve 
was directed, on gaining a certain latitude, to take 
a, baffling course back to Europe, and, having eluded 
the vigilance of Nelson, to enter the English 
Channel. The flotilla would then have sallied forth 
from Ostend, Dunkirk, Boulogne, and the adjoining 

ports But Villeneuve was met on his return by 

Sir Robert Calder, and, having suffered a defeat, 
took refuge in Ferrol. From that harbour he was 
peremptorily ordered to sea, according to his 
original instructions ; but contrary to their most 
imperative and explicit intent, he steered his course 
for Cadiz. 'He might as well,' exclaimed Napo- 
leon, raising his voice, and increasing his im- 
petuosity ' he might as well have gone to the East 
Indies.' Two days after Villeneuve had quitted his 
anchorage before Cadiz a naval officer arrived there 
to supersede him. The glorious victory of Trafalgar 
soon followed, and the French admiral died a few 
-days after his arrival in France ; report says by his 
own hand." 


(To be concluded ) 

(See 10 S. ix. 341, 401.) 

WHENEVEB I have had occasion to 
examine works which consisted largely of 
prose I have 'noticed that, as an invari- 
able rule, Allot skipped translated sen- 
tences from old writers that were not 
dropped from the body of the text and 
printed separately ; but that if such sen- 
tences were accorded a distinct setting, he 
very often took note of them for his book. 
In ' Wits Miserie ' many verses from old 
poets are mingled with the prose, and 
Lodge has translated them in a form that 
made them fit for Allot' s purposes ; but 
none of these appears in * Englands Par- 
nassus,' whereas few of the pronounced 
verses were allowed to escape his notice. 
The discovery of this peculiarity resulted 
in lessening the labour of research, and it 
proved to me that Allot was a superficial 
reader, who was only anxious to collect 
certain material which did not involve much 
labour in its accumulation. Verse is verse, 
whether it be shown in the body of the text 
or separately ; and therefore if Ovid, or 
Lucan, or Virgil is good for quotation in 
one case, why ignore him in the other ? 
Because Allot did not see these things that 
is the answer ; he did not read the whole 
of a book, only its poetry, and when in a 
prominent setting. 

The last case of jumbling revealed by 
the pamphlet concerns a translation by 
Lodge from Horace, and two lines the 
end ones from some unnamed writer, 
who, however, will be discovered to be one 
of the poets who figure elsewhere in Allot' s 
book. For it is a very remarkable fact that, 
so far as the names of authors are concerned, 
4 Englands Parnassus ' is self-contained ; 
the only exceptions to this rule being, 

the subject later on, and finish at once with 
the mingled passages that concern * Wits 
Miserie ' : 

4 Words,' p. 366. 
If so the crow would feast him without prate, 
More meate hee should receive, lesse brawle and 


A foole hee is, that comes to preach and prate, 
When men with swords their right and wrong 

debate. No author named. 

If anybody wishes to find the first two 
lines of what follows, let him avoid * Hero 
and Leander* as he would the plague, 
charm Collier never so sweetly. The lines 

10 s. x. JULY 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

are not in any known part of Chapman, 
although Collier refers them to Chapman's 
continuation of Marlowe's poem, where he 
found the third one : 

4 Good Deeds,' p. 141. 

Good deeds, in case that they be evil placed, 
111 deeds are reckoned, and soone disgraced : 
That is a good deed that prevents a bad. 

(signed) G. Chapman. 

Allot next mingles Thomas Lodge's 
'Glaucus and Sylla,' 11. 29-30, with 
Spenser's ' Ruines of Time,' 11. 55-6 : 

' World,' p. 379. 
Take moysture from the sea, take colour from his 

Before the World devoyd of change thou finde. 

All that in this World is great or gay 

Doth, as a vapour, vanish and decay. 

(signed) Ed. Spencer. 

I can only find the last eight lines of the 
next quotation in Sylvester, in the ' Babylon,' 
11. 524-31, of Du Bartas : 

' Sleepe,' p. 319. 

A drowsie head to earth by dull desire 
Draws downe the soule, that should to heaven 


Writing these later lines, wearie well-nie 
Of sacred Pallas pleasing labour deare, 
Mine humble chin salute th oft my brest ; 
With an ambrosian deawe mine eies possest, 
By peece meale close ; all moving powers die still ; 
From my dull fingers drops my fainting quill : 
Downe in my sloath-bound bed again e 1 shrinke, 
And in darke Laethe all deepe cares I sinke. 

(signed) J. Syl. 

With Sylvester's fine rendering of Du 
Bartas' s charming lines, I end examples 
that have come under my notice of mixed 
passages in ' Englands Parnassus.' It is 
true that under 'Fortune,' p. 117, Collier 
thought he had found a similar case in con- 
nexion with a quotation from 'The Mirror 
for Magistrates ' ; but he was mistaken. 
He used a copy of the 1610 edition of the 
work, which omits the line that he dis- 
tinguishes from the rest of the passage. 
A glance at an earlier version of the ' Legend 
of Lord Irenglas' will show that Allot 
copied his original accurately. 

One result of the finding of these mixed 
passages is that, whereas at first my com- 
putation of the number of extracts in 
' Englands Parnassus ' gave a total of 2,330, 
that figure has had to be increased corre- 
spondingly with the errors as they have 
become known to me. What the real 
number will be when the quotations are all 
located is a matter for intelligent speculation. 

Allot' s book was excellently planned, 
but it was badly executed. His design was 
to display in a handy form the thoughts 
and opinions of poets of his own and the 

previous generation, and to invite com- 
parison between the literary achievements 
of English authors and their foreign rivals,, 
both ancient and modern ; and, as such a 
work would cover mudh of the domain of 
thought, he curtailed his extracts to a few 
lines, thus forming a dictionary of quota- 
tions that could be readily consulted. To- 
these short extracts he added longer ones 
containing descriptions of beauty as applied 
to form, place, and scenery ; and rounded 
off with examples showing the proper way 
of using tropes and other ornaments of 
speech. And it was part of his plan that 
underneath each of his quotations the 
signature of the author should be placed. 

To compile such a work as that required 
not only taste and judgment, but steadiness 
of purpose, and no mean clerical skill. A 
close examination of Allot' s extracts reveals 
the fact that they did not assume their 
present order until after much shifting 
about from place to place ; for not only do 
we find authors mingled indiscriminately, 
but quotations under the same headings 
and from the same works follow a different, 
order from their originals. On the other 
hand, it is easy to trace passages that Allot 
selected ; and when going systematically 
through a work little that he took is missed ;. 
and, moreover, one can clear up many of 
his errors at the same time, because on& 
gets to know the matter he would take ; 
and therefore, if it is not quoted under the 
right signature, it will almost surely be 
found under a wrong one, or stand as an 
unsigned entry, either alone or mingled 
with another passage. 

It seems to follow that he must have> 
used separate slips for each of his entries, 
and that he often forgot to write the- 
authors' names on them, and then trusted 
to luck for this information after he had 
arranged his extracts under their several 
divisions. And what seems to have proved 
his greatest trouble was the vicious practice 
of using the word " Idem " instead of the- 
author's name. This practice would appear 
to be right at the time of transcribing to one- 
who had not had the training of a scribe, 
because, as in the case of Sylvester or 
Spenser, who yielded so much material, 
it would seem irksome to write the name in- 
full on each slip, when " Idem " would, 
apparently answer the same purpose. But 
when it came to the time of distribution the 
folly of this course would be manifest,, 
because the slips would change their places,, 
and the " Idems " would indicate that the 
passages very often belonged to authors 



whose quotations preceded them ; and only 
by chance or a happy effort of memory 
could the mistakes be righted. I can offer 
no better explanation than this to account 
for Allot' s errors of attribution, which I 
purpose dealing with more fully now. This 
explanation also accounts for the mixed 
quotations which have already been dealt 
with, and it shifts part of the blame for 
them from Allot' s shoulders to those of his 

(To be continued.) 

Nichols in the fifth volume of his * Illustra- 
tions of the Literary History of the Eigh- 
teenth Century ' writes at some length on 
Joseph Gulston and his son the collector, 
who, it is said, dissipated a huge fortune 
and several estates in collecting books and 
prints, and in building. There is no appa- 
rent reason for Nichols's diffuseness on the 
family romance and misfortunes. Neither 
the father nor his extravagant son was a 
benefactor to the arts, and just where 
information is most wanted, Nichols is 
.annoyingly brief or inaccurate. It may be 
assumed that the collections which no money 
was spared to perfect would be worth careful 
Analysis and study ; but of the library 
virtually nothing is said, and the summary 
of the extraordinary assemblage of prints 
is at fault in many particulars. 

"In the spring of 1786 he determined to sell his 
isuperb collection of prints, having in vain made 
every effort to dispose of them to the Empress of 
Russia for the sum of twenty thousand pounds. 
The following is a correct account of them." 
The summary that follows is too long to 
give at length, but from it I extract : 

"Eighteen thousand foreign portraits, being a 
collection of Eminent Engravers of Every Country. 

"Twenty-three thousand five hundred portraits 
of the English series, placed according to Mr. 
Granger's 'Biographical History.' 

" The topographical collection of England, Ire- 
land, Scotland, and Wales, containing fourteen 
thousand five hundred prints ; together with the 
collection of the topographical books, several of 
them interleaved with MS. notes and additions by 
the authors. There are also all the copies that 
have been printed on large paper." 

This provides interesting reading, but 
was evidently written when the collection 
was still in its owner's possession. It is 
entirely at variance with what was actually 
offered at its dispersal. The sale began at 
6 o'clock on 16 Jan., 1786, and continued 
for thirty-seven succeeding evenings, Sun- 
days excepted. Instead of the careful 

lassification and bound collections, the 
prints were hopelessly mixed, topographical, 
early masters, English and foreign portraits, 
alternating, without the slightest attempt 
at arrangement of period, subject, or treat- 
ment. Here are some lots from the second 
night : 

28. Thirty political. 

29. Thirty mezzotintos. 

30. Twelve after Rubens and Vandyke. 

31. Seventeen Dutch etchings. 

32. Twelve portraits drawings. 

33. Twelve by Hogarth. 

45. One hundred and twenty-seven prints of 
Hollar, from Dugdale's ' Warwickshire,' &c. 

46. Four prints, mezzotintos of Sir Erasmus 
Smith and his Lady, by George White, rariss. 

47. Twelve by Nanteuil. 

48. Ten large views of Audley End by Win- 
stanley, rariss. 

Not only in mere numbers, but also in 
general excellence, this must always be 
considered the most important collection 
of prints ever offered for sale. The amount 
realized is an imperfect indication, the ex- 
tremely defective cataloguing, the huge 
numbers surfeiting the market, and the 
change of taste making all the differ- 
ence between the result of this sale and 
that obtained for Sir Mark Masterman 
Sykes's collection, which in 1824 realized 
18,309?. 9s. 6d. 

The Gulston Collection is rarely mentioned, 
although it was largely the origin of the 
Musgrave and Tyssen collections. The cata- 
logue is scarce, and affords no information 
It is certain that John Nichols, or the niece 
of Gulston' s daughter who provided much 
of his information, did not consult a copy ; 
and as he in this important matter failed, 
so has the writer of Gulston' s biography in 

the ' Varsity [sic] Souvenir of the Oxford 
Pageant of 1907' is an engraving of the 
Encaenia or Commemoration, representing 
the Sheldonian Theatre crowded at the 
inauguration of John Fane, Earl of West- 
moreland, on 5 July, 1759. This is repro- 
duced probably from a fine large engraving 
of the subject which is very scarce. There, 
are in it supposablymany portraits of Oxford 
celebrities of that period. The gentlemen 
are wearing wigs, the Chancellor one of 
extraordinary magnitude ; the ladies have 
hooped petticoats and large fans. The 
Chancellor, Lord Westmoreland, who had 
been a distinguished soldier, died in 1762-3. 

In ' Selecta Poemata Anglorum ' (1779) 
is a long poem in Latin hexameters entitled 

10 s. x. JULY 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

4 Dialogus inter Academicum et Rusticum,' 
recited in the Theatre at this inauguration. 
In it, as in many other classical productions 
of that date, the penultimate vowel of 
Academia is made short. This year 1759 
was styled from the great victories of the 
British arms " Annus Mirabilis." 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" FAIR-COPY." The earliest illustrative 
quotation for fair-copy in * H.E.D.' is of 
1840 as a verb and 1873 as a noun ; but the 
combination would seem to be of a decidedly 
anterior date to either. Mr. George Bernard 
Shaw, in the preface to his published play 
* The Devil's Disciple,' referring to General 
Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga, says : 

" The explanation of his defeat given in the play 
is founded on a passage quoted by De Fonblanque 
from Fitzmaurice's Life of Lord Shelburne as 
follows : ' Lord George Germain, having among 
other peculiarities a particular dislike to be put out 
of his way on any occasion, had arranged to call at 
his office on his way to the country to sign the 
dispatches ; but as those addressed to Howe had 
not been fair-copied, and he was not disposed to be 
balked of his projected visit to Kent, they were 
not signed then, and were forgotten on his return 
home.' " 

Sir George Trevelyan, in his lately pub- 
lished volume on 'The American Revolu- 
tion/ in doubting the truth of the story, 
employs the same word fair-copied : 

"It is stated that a letter, giving Sir William 
Howe positive and explicit orders to co-operate 
with Burgoyne, had been drafted in the English 
War Office at the end of March ; but that Germain 
went out of town before it was fair-copied, and 
forgot to sign and send it. To any one who has had 
charge of a public department with Permanent 
Secretaries, and Private Secretaries, to keep him in 
mind of his duties the story is unbelievable. It 
has its origin in a private memoir by Lord Shel- 
burne ; but Lord Shelburne, when jotting down 
reminiscences in the seclusion of his study, was no 
safe authority for anecdotes reflecting ' upon the 
public men of his own time." 

There should be no difficulty, therefore, 
in tracing the word beyond 1840. 


absence of a definite date it is usually said 
that the first Duke was " about ten years 
of age" when he succeeded his father in 
1653. As a matter of fact, his father and 
mother were married in October, 1644. 
But a much better test is afforded by the 
letter the Duke wrote to Lauderdale on 
4 July, 1664 (Add. MS. 23, 122, f. 80): 
" Now, my Lord, having allmost attined 
to the 14 year of my agge complit, I ame 
resolved to chose my curators for the better 

managing of my esteat." That would 
make 1650 his birth-year. 

118, Pall Mall. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

WOTTON HOUSE. The death of Mr. 
Evelyn of Wotton reminds me to revive a 
query which he could not answer. Who 
built Wotton ? D. 

PRIOR AND HIS CHLOE. Most people, 
I imagine, take their view of Prior and of 
his Chloe from Spence's ' Anecdotes ' and 
Johnson's * Lives.' I have, however, lately 
met with the following paragraph on the 
subject, in which a very different colour is 
given to the commonly-received opinion : 

" It was not Pope, however, that, of all the Queen 
Anne men, Wesley admired most, but rather Prior. 
He quotes him repeatedly in the ' Journal ' ; and 
when Samuel Johnson, in the newly issued * Lives 
of the Poets,' spoke in terms of depreciation both 
of Prior's character and of his verse, Wesley, then 
in his eightieth year, came to the defence of his 
favourite poet in a most spirited paper. Prior, he 
asserts, was not half so bad a man as his critics 
have painted him ; while, as to the Chloe of the 
charming lyrics, who had been represented as no 
better than she should be, Wesley declares, on the 
authority of his brother Samuel, who knew her well, 
that she was an estimable Miss Taylor of West- 
minster, who refused the advances of the poet 
while he was living, and spent hours weeping at 
his tomb after he was dead." From C. T. Win- 
chester's 'Life of Wesley.' 

One would be glad to have this account 
confirmed, especially as regards " Chloe." 
Surely such charming verses as Prior's were 
not inspired by a worthless woman. 

T. M. W. 

DAVIDSON CLAN. I should be greatly 
obliged to any of your readers who would 
give me information on the following points 
connected with the clan Davidson : 

1. The ancestry of Pillichattan Mor, 
the ancestor of Clann Dhai, Clann Mhurich, 

2. Any information concerning the dis- 
putes between the Davidsons and MacPher- 
sons, particularly as to which son of Pilli- 
chattan Mor, Dai Dubh was. 

3. Any information, or the names of any 
books or articles, about the Davidsons 
since 1386. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 4, im 

4. Was the blue falcon ever a cognizance 
of the Davidsons, as Scott says in ' The 
Fair Maid of Perth,' and does the eagle's head 
crest of Tulloch refer to that ? 

Replies should be addressed to me care of 
Mr. William Bryce, Bookseller, Edinburgh. 


ROMANS AT YORK. In Sir H. Drummond 
Wolff's ' Rambling Recollections,' the follow- 
ing passage occurs : 

" On my way to Scotland I was detained at York 
for two days in the height of summer. In the day- 
time the streets were perfectly empty, but in the 
evening the whole population turned out, and the 
town was almost impassable. This habit was one 
that I had only previously seen in Italy. Later, 
when travelling, I met a gentleman I think his 
name was Mr. Wallace who seemed to have a 
great deal of antiquarian knowledge. I told him 
what I had noticed in York, and he replied, ' The 
reason is that for more than forty years a Koman 
legion was quartered there. Since then the in- 
habitants of York all have Roman noses, while 
Yorkshiremen are generally inclined to be snub- 
nosed.' With me, he attributed the fact of the 
streets being crowded during the summer evenings 
to the same cause." 

It would be interesting to know (1) whether 
the Roman legion stationed at York was 
composed of Italians, (2) whether the 
citizens of York go out in the evening more 
than those of other towns, (3) whether their 
noses are more " Roman " than the average. 
From my own recollection I should answer 
the last two questions in the negative. 


HERTS. I shall be greatly obliged by any 
information concerning this family : they 
appear to have lived at Benwick Hall, 
Stapleford, in the seventeenth century. 

From Gatfield's 'Guide' it seems that a 
history of the Goldsborough family was in 
course of compilation some years ago. 
Was this ever completed ? 


Bengeo, Hertford. 

JOHNSONIANA. Authority is wanted for 
the following anecdote of Dr. Johnson. At 
the dinner-table the Doctor on one occasion 
took a mouthful of hot soup and imme- 
diately returned it to his plate, remarking 
to his neighbour, " A fool would have swal- 
lowed that." BAHAMIAN. 

MAPS. Where can I ascertain the 
dates of the earliest copies of the maps 
illustrating Strabo, Ptolemy, &c. ? Are 
any of the existing maps copied from ancient 
ones ? YGREC. 

narip Storico Blasonico ' of noble Italian 
families (1886) mentions Gordone di Messina. 
The family is said to have had a Scots origin 
and settled in Messina with the baronial 
itle of Camastra in 1702. What is known 
of it ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

engaged in some genealogical research, and 
[ am desirous of knowing whether any 
Drinted list of inscriptions on tombstones 
n this burial-ground has ever been pub- 
Dished, or whether any manuscript list is in 
existence. My inquiry refers more particu- 
larly to the early part of the nineteenth 
century. A. F. H. 

be greatly obliged by information, or sug- 
gestions as to the source of information, 
concerning the descendants of the family to 
which Anne Askew, the martyr, belonged. 
I have a special interest in the subject, 
having been always led to suppose that I 
am descended from that family. My great- 
grandfather married a Miss Askew in Cum- 
berland, and the Christian names Anne 
Askew are common among my relations. 

E. W. 

HENRY ELLISON. I should like to know 
something of this writer, some half a dozen 
of whose sonnets Leigh Hunt had the insight 
to include in his ' Book of the Sonnet/ 
which was published in 1867 by Sampson 
Low & Co. Neither Mr. Sharp nor Mr. 
Waddington thought Ellison deserving of 
inclusion in their several anthologies. 


Percy House, South Hackney. 

of your readers give me genealogical informa- 
tion regarding this Essex family, which 
apparently nourished in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, or refer me to any 
record, printed or otherwise, where I can 
find a pedigree ? SIGMA TAU. 

DE ST. PHILIBERT. I should be glad to 
receive some genealogical particulars as to 
Roger and Hugh de Sancto Philiberto, who 
were parties to a Fine (1 July, 1206) concern- 
ing land in Bray in Berkshire, in Welles in 
Norfolk, and in Tremerdred (Tremodred 
in Duloe) in Cornwall. On 8 May, 1244, 
Hugh was concerned with Robert Rastel 
in a Fine dealing with Lantonnan in Cornwall. 

10 s. x. JULY 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


FALSE QUANTITIES. Quite recently I 
was reading an article on famous false 
quantities made in speeches. I remember 
two instances : " Moritur et moriens, &c.' 
and " Sunt plura bona " at end of a hexa- 
meter. Can any one refer me to the article ? 

G. W. E. R. 

[Is it Mr. H. Paul's ' Decay of Classical Quotation 
(Nineteenth Century, April, 1896), or Bishop Welldon'* 
on * The Art of Classical Quotation ' in the same 
magazine for April, 1905 ? ' A Last Ramble in the 
Classics,' by H. 
from Martial ending in 

BURNEY'S * HISTORY OF Music. 1 Does 
any reader know the exact collation of Bur- 
ney's 'History of Music,' 1776-89, 4 vols, 
4to ? Apparently one volume was issued 
in 1776, and a second edition, with new plates, 
in 1788, when the other three volumes 
appeared. There is no list of plates in the 
1776 volume. FRANCIS P. MARCHANT. 
Streatham Common. 


by Lord Clarendon. 
Quantities on p. 153. 

U 9 J.7Vt/ . .ti. J-JitOU J.Vttll.1 ILJ1C 1J1 L'llO I _ f 

E. P. Platt (1906), gives the line any reader give me the title of a work pub- 
ing in "sunt plura bona "as quoted lished in 2 vols., 8vo, somewhere about 

See his short article on False 
See also 10 S. ix. 354, 512. 

1830 ? It was written by a lady, and 
described a tour made in Scotland. It 
was illustrated by herself. 


The following is the substance of the 

Constable's statement, respecting a distraint I T. L. PEACOCK : " SKYLIGHT " AND 
taken from John Paul, a member of the " TWILIGHT." In chap. v. of T. L. Pea- 
Society of Friends at Tavistock for refusing cock's ' Headlong Hall ' there occurs a 
to lend his waggon to convey military bag- glee beginning 

gage in consequence of his conscientious 
scruples against war : 


Six mahogany chairs ... \ 

One tea-urn V and sold for 5 7s. Od. 

One copper coal scuttle J 

Being about two-thirds of their value. 

Charges : 

Levy 03 

Man in possession 5 days .. 12 

Appraiser ... ... .. 02 

Advertising and publishing ale 10 
Duty to the Excise ... .. 05 

Magistrate's Clerk's fees 
Auctioneer's Commission 



4 2 
2 10 

3s. left with this account 
Tavistock, Devon, 23 May, 1837. - 
Can any reader give similar instances 
also the latest date on which a distraint 
has been enforced ? Has this law been 
repealed ? F. K. P. 

ROUND OAK SPRING. There is a sonnet 
to a place so called in Clare's ' Rural Muse/ 
p. 143. Can any one tell me the parish 
in which it is situated ? The preface is 

A heeltap ! a heeltap ! I never could bear it ! 
The first line of the second stanza is 

No Skylight ! No Twilight ! While Bacchus rules 
o'er us. 

What is the meaning, in this connexion, 
of the words " Skylight " and " Twilight " ? 

Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of 
the blood, was born 1 April, 1578, at Folke- 
stone, and a question has recently arisen 
as to the site of the house. The ' D.N.B.' 
states that he was born 

in a house which was in later times the posthouse 
of the town, and which still belongs to Caius Col- 
lege, Cambridge, to which Harvey bequeathed it." 

On the other hand, a local guide states that 
Harvey settled his paternal estate in Kent 
upon the College " meaning the Royal 
College of Physicians. 
Which is correct ? R. J. FYNMORE. 

" FEMMER." I shall be glad if some reader 
will give me the meaning and origin and 
spelling of a word pronounced " femmer," 
meaning rickety or frail. My mother, 

dated from Market Deeping, Northampton- who used many Scotch words, employed 



JOHN OF GAUNT' s ARMS. What were the 
arms (particularly the cadency mark), crest, 
and motto of the fourth son of Edward III. ? 



was the originator of this expression as 
applied to the Scotch ? L. S. 

am unable to find in a 

this one, which 

BLETCHINGLY PLACE. This house before 
it was pulled down, with the exception of 
the Gate House (Place Farm), in 1.680 
was occupied on at least one occasion by 
Anne of Cleves when she owned the manor. 
Does any description or engraving of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 4, im. 

house exist in its original state ? The 
foundations still to a large extent can be 
traced, and materials from it can be seen 
in the neighbouring walls and cottages. 

W. P. D. S. 

the real name of the author who wrote 
* The Mysteries of the Court of Denmark ' 
in 1863 ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

" PROMETHEAN." This is given in the 
American ' Century Dictionary ' as a name 
for " a small glass tube containing sulphuric 
acid, and surrounded by an inflammable 
mixture which it ignited on being pressed ; 
formerly used for affording a ready light." 
Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' give informa- 
tion about this device, or refer to any book 
in which it is described or spoken of ? 


(10 S. ix. 427.) 

IT is surprising that there should have 
been any doubt as to Snodgrass being a 
real name, as people bearing it are still 
to be found in Glasgow, Paisley, and other 
parts of Scotland. 

1. An account of the Snodgrass family of 
Cunninghamehead is given in Paters on' s 
* History of the Counties of Ayr and Wig- 
town,' iii. 209-10, which I will not repeat 
more than is necessary for the purpose of 
adding dates, &c. John, the first Snodgrs 
owner of Cunninghamehead, and builder 
of the house there, died 20 Oct., 1771. 
The eldest son Neil died 6 Oct., 1821, 
aged 81, his wife Marian having pre- 
deceased him 13 March, 1818. The second 
son William died at Irvine, 2 Nov., 1824, 
aged 83. The youngest son John became 
a lieutenant in the 82nd Regiment, 19 Dec., 
1778, and was drowned at sea soon after- 

Neil Snodgrass of Cunninghamehead had 
three sons and three daughters. His eldest 
son David took the name of Buchanan 
His second son John was a major in the 
H.E.I.C.S. The Major's only son William 
James married 18 Sept., 1845, at Dalchully 
House, Inverness-shire, Isabella Newman 
dau. of Henry Bousfield, Esq., late surgeon 
Bengal N.I. The Major's eldest daughter 
Marion Elphinstone Coates was marriec 
at St. George's, Bloomsbury, 13 Sept. 

849, to Theophilus Thompson, eldest 

on of Thomas Thompson, of Poundisford 

Park, Pitminster, Somerset. The Major's 

econd daughter Eliza Ann died at Edinburgh 

unmarried, 30 Nov., 1862. Capt. James 

Snodgrass, Neil's third son, died at Tabriz, 

Persia, in October, 1814. The date of the 

marriage of Christina Snodgrass to Lieut. - 

Col. Reid was 21 July, 1806. 

2. So far as I know, no account has been 
given of the Snodgrass family of Paisley. 
John Snodgrass, Sheriff-Clerk of Renfrew- 
shire, died 24 May, 1785. Hew Snodgrass, 
W.S., died at Newton, near Paisley, 31 April, 
1807. Neil Snodgrass, late of Paisley, 
died in Jamaica, 14 May, 1818. I suspect 
that this was the cotton manufacturer 
of this name who on 24 July, 1807, married 
at Johnstone, Agnes, e.dau. of Mr. Robert 
Hodgart, merchant. Hew Snodgrass of 
Morant Bay died at Port Royal, Jamaica, 
24 Oct., 1819. Lieut. Wm. Snodgrass, 
Late of the 24th Regiment of Foot, died 
at Govan, 4 Dec., 1820. John Snodgrass, 
W.S., died at Paisley, 7 March, 1822. 

The Rev. John Snodgrass, D.D., a Presby- 
terian minister of Paisley, married Janet, 
eldest sister of General Sir Kenneth Mac- 
kenzie Douglas (a lady ignored by Burke), 
and died at Saltcoats,. 19 June, 1797. She 
died at Eagleton, Williams' River, N.S.W., 
30 July, 1852, aged 90. Their son Kenneth 
is the "leader of a Portuguese regiment" 
mentioned at 9 S. x. 72. There is no evi- 
dence to connect him with Gabriel Snodgrass, 
the shipbuilder of Chatham, or with an earlier 
Gabriel Snodgrass who was principal sur- 
veyor to the H.E.I.C. in the middle of tho 
eighteenth century. Major Kenneth Snod- 
grass was in command of the 1st Battalion 
of the 1 3th Portuguese Regiment at the siege 
of San Sebastian, and was slightly wounded 
on 17 July, 1813, when the fortified convent 
of San Bartolome and an adjoining work 
on a steep hill were carried by assault. 
On 31 Aug. the town itself was taken 
after some very hard fighting. Sir Thomas 
Graham wrote : 

" The advance of the 1st Batt. 13th Reg. under 
Major Snodgrass, over the open beach and across 

the river was made in the handsomest style under 

a very severe fire of grape. Major Snodgrass 
attacked and finally carried the small breach on the 
right of the great one." 

The Duke of Wellington also wrote : 

" All reports concur in praise of the detachment 
from the 10th Portuguese Brigade under Major 
Snodgrass, which crossed the river Urumea, and 
stormed the breach on the right under all the fire 
which could be directed on them from the castle 

10 s. x. JULY 4, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


For this he was made Lieutenant-Colonel 
and given the command of the 1st Ca9adores 
He was slightly wounded 11 Dec., 1813 
'and severely wounded in attacking the 
heights above Orthes. He was made C.B, 
4 June, 1815, and died on the Hunter River 
N.S.W., 14 Oct., 1853. 

His son John was born in Portugal in 
May, 1815. He became Major of the 96th 
Regiment 15 June, 1815. He married 
23 Feb., 1843, at St. Luke's, Chelsea, Rachel 
only dau. of his great-uncle Sir K. M 
Douglas, and died at the Curragh, 27 Jan. 
1856. She died 15 Jan., 1877. 

Kenneth John Mackenzie Snodgrass, son 
of Peter Snodgrass, M.L.A. of Melbourne, 
was probably related to this family. He 
became a Winchester Commoner in the 
autumn of 1858. Is anything further 
known of him ? ^ ... 4 ^ '.J, J 

3. John James Snodgrass, captain 91st 
Foot, received the brevet ranks of major 
and lieutenant-colonel on 13 Nov., 1826, 
and 28 Dec., 1826, respectively. He became 
major 94th Foot, 3 Aug., 1830 ; lieutenant- 
colonel unattached, 28 June, 1833 ; and 
D.Q.M.G. to the troops in Nova Scotia and 
its dependencies, 12 Sept., 1834. He married 
3 Nov., 1823, Maria Macdonald, e.dau. of 
General Sir Archibald Campbell, Bt., G.C.B. 
Their son Archibald Campbell Snodgrass 
was born at Government House, Fredericton, 
New Brunswick, in the spring of 1832. He 
became captain 38th Regiment 29 Dec., 
1854, and major 17 July, 1855, having acted 
as A.D.C. to his uncle Major-General Sir 
John Campbell, Bt., at the unsuccessful 
attack on the Redan, 18 June, 1855. He 
died at Milbank, near Southampton, 26 Nov., 
1863. MJN^ 

4. Thomas Snodgrass, Esq., F.R.S., 
formerly of the Madras Civil Service, died 
at 10, Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, 28 Aug., 
1834. The Gentleman's Magazine^Tecords 

" returning from India many years ago with a large 
fortune, he fitted up a house in Chesterfield-st., 
with extraordinary splendour, but never received 
company in it more than once. He has left the sum 
of 175,000/. to the daughter of a widow lady named 
Russell, residing in Beaumont-st., Mary-le-bone : 
entirely because her father was kind to him when 
he first went to India." 


Dickens did not require to go beyond 
the City of London to come across the name 
of Snodgrass. In the Seamen's Hospital, 
Greenwich, there is a clock presented to 
that society by a Thomas Snodgrass who 

was a benefactor and member of committee 
of the Hospital. His name is inscribed 
on the clock. I understand he resided in 
Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, and died about 
1834. The Secretary* of the Hospital wrote 
to me some time ago, asking if I could give 
him any information about this Thomas 
Snodgrass ; but I could not, nor have I 
been able to trace any of his connexions. 
If any of your readers can supply me with 
information about him, I shall be much 

I have in my possession the last will and 
testament of a William Snodgrass of the 
parish of Christchurch, London, dated 
5 Feb., 1775, who appears to have had two 
brothers, James and John ; but whether 
they were relations of Thomas Snodgrass 
or not I do not know. I should also like 
to have some information about Gabriel 
Snodgrass, shipbuilder of Chatham, men- 
tioned in ' N. & Q.' of 26 July, 1902. 

The name Snodgrass has been fairly 
common in Renfrewshire for four hundred 
years, as the local records show. The Ren- 
frewshire Poll Tax Roll of 1695 gives 36 
persons of the name. An Adam Snodgrass 
was one of the Friars Preachers and a Baillie 
of Ayr in 1372. ' W. G. SNODGRASS. 

Riversdale, Kilmacolm, Renfrewshire. 

This name had appeared in well-known 
fiction some time before the publication of 
' Pickwick,' for the Rev. Charles Snodgrass 
figures frequently in ' The Ayrshire Lega- 
tees,' published anonymously in 1821 by- 
John Gait. NEL MEZZO. 

Perhaps this name was, or is, not so vastly 
uncommon. There was certainly a cadet 
at the R.M. Academy, Woolwich, in 1861-2, 
bearing that patronymic. H. P. L. 

Exeter's Finance Clerk is Mr. Sidney 
Herbert Snodgrass ; and a cousin of my 
own, resident in Brighton, bears the same 
surname. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

MACKENZIE (10 S. viii. 469, 510 ; ix. 31, 96, 
135, 154, 171, 237). The writer of a very 
able article in The Quarterly Review on 
' Recent Napoleonic Literature ' (April, 
1908, see p. 425 to p. 431) refers to the 
British Agent at Tilsit, and remarks that 
the subject has " called forth a spirited 
;ontroversy in Notes and Queries" and he 
joints out that the statement of Dr. Rose 
and of a correspondent in * N. & Q.' that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 4, im 

Mackenzie left Tilsit or Memel on 26 June 
for Loridon with Leveson-Gower's dispatch 
is incorrect. The writer in The Quarterly 
Review further points out that although the 
correspondent referred to and Dr. Rose differ 
as to the date of Mackenzie's arrival in 
London, they approximately agree as to the 
date of his departure. " We venture to 
think," says the writer, " they are both 
wrong as to when he (Mackenzie) started." 

He then gives his reason for this opinion, 
which I think it is desirable to record in 
* N. & Q.' as completing the controversy. 
In the * Stafford House Letters,' edited by 
Lord Ronald Gower, there is a letter written 
from " Memel on July 3rd, 1807," by Lord 
Gower to his mother, which concludes as 
follows : 

" A Mr. Mackenzie who came with Lord Gran- 
ville will take this. He was to have been with the 
army to send information from thence, but as un- 
fortunately he can be no longer useful he is going 

The writer of the article says that the words 
quoted are " the most important " in the 
letter, and he adds that : 

" From this it seems that Dr. Rose was mistaken 
when he wrote that Mackenzie left for London 
immediately after June 25," 

which was the day on which the Emperors 
met on the raft. HARRY B. POLAND. 

Inner Temple. 

(10 S. ix. 389, 430, 471). I remember seeing 
a lamplighter carrying the ladder to light 
his lamps, in 1882, at Burnham (Somerset). 
He assured my father that he could do his 
work quicker in that way than with the 

Amersham, Bucks. 

The rime quoted at the second reference 
by MR. RATCLIFFE as sung in the North 
resembles to some extent one which the 
children of country villages in the Isle of 
Wight sing in their counting-out, games. 
If it is unknown elsewhere, it may be worthy 
of preservation in your pages. It runs 
thus : 

Keeper, peeper, chimney-sweeper, 
Had a wife and couldn t keep her. 
Had another, couldn't love her. 
OUT spells "out." 

Y. T. 

" IDLE "= MISCHIEVOUS (10 S. ix. 350). 
Had it not always this meaning, to a 
greater or less extent ? " Idle " certainly 
does not mean the same as " lazy." One 
is an active quality, the others a passive. 

There is a well-known tale (in Aikin's 
* Evenings at Home,' I think it is) of an 
idle boy and a lazy boy. The former will 
not do the work set him, but will do every- 
thing else that comes to hand, good, bad, 
or indifferent. The latter simply does 
nothing. The active mental condition of 
the former will, indeed, inevitably lead, 
sooner or later, to some mischievous diver- 
sion, unless the mind is constantly engaged 
in more profitable employment ; so that 
the terms may be considered virtually 
synonymous, or at least inseparable. This 
sequence is well illustrated by Dr. Watts' s 
well-known lines : 

For Satan finds some mischief still 
For idle hands to do. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

May not Dr. Watts's lines be accountable 
for the difference ? URLLAD. 

ARCHBISHOP SANDS (10 S. ix. 289, 357).- 
Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., the historian of 
Hawkshead, Lancashire, writes : 

" And but a few days ago we found it stated in a 
new edition of Black's 'Guide' that Archbishop 
Sandys was born here. He was, however, born at 
Esthwaite Hall."' Hawkshead, its History,' &c., 
1899, p. 23, foot-note. 

Hawkshead Hall and Esthwaite Hall are 
quite a mile apart. This is mentioned lest 
the former be taken as, say, the centre of 
a village, which it is not. S. L. PETTY. 

In the north transept of Southwell 
Minster is an alabaster effigy of Edwin 
Sandys, Archbishop of York. The effigy 
is of interest as it represents the Archbishop 
vested in alb and chasuble, although the 
date of his death is July, 1588, thirty years 
after Queen Elizabeth's accession. Not- 
tinghamshire, in which Southwell is situated, 
formed part of the diocese of York from the 
seventh century to 1840 (' Southwell Minster,' 
pamphlet, 6 pp., Chesterfield : Edmunds, 
reprint from Derbyshire Times of 12 Jan./ 

About twenty years since, when I visited 
Southwell Minster, the effigy was in the 
position above described. 


"HER's" (10 S. ix. 406). I have re- 
marked with surprise that in * The Pocket 
Service-Book,' printed at the University 
Press, Oxford, " her's " is so rendered 
in the Lectionary (see Job xxxix. 16), and 
that " your's " disfigures many a page : 
we have, e.g., " my spirit and your's " 

10 s. x. JULY 4, 



(1 Cor. xv,i. 18) and "not your's, but you" 
(2 Cor. xii. 14). 

In * The Book of Lessons,' which is due 
to the Cambridge University Press, the 
blunder is not made, for blunder I take 
it to be, having been nourished in that belief; 
but I find that people of education often 
write " Your's truly " or " Sincerely your's," 
and so, to my thinking, spoil a creditable 
letter. ST. SWITHIN. 

DUNGHILL PROVERB (10 S. ix. 227, 413)' 
Some twenty-seven years ago dunghills 
were commonly to be seen in front of the 
houses in the streets of the villages round 
Morat in Switzerland. At times they were 
neatly, almost artistically arranged, and 
my impression is that a plaitwork of braided 
straw formed a border to them in such cases ; 
but frequently they were mere " muck- 

In the kingdom of Wurttemberg I also 
observed dunghills before the doors in 
parishes near Tubingen. 

Probably most English villages were in 
a similar condition early in the nineteenth 
century. A lady who was born in 1823 
once told me that dunghills used to lie " all 
along the way" through a certain village 
when she first remembered it. But she 
did not speak of the place as in any way 
exceptional ; others were as bad. M. P. 

With reference to the saying, " Where 
there's muck there's money," " muck " 
does not, of necessity, mean manure. So 
long as I can remember, it has in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire generally meant dirt. 

The expression is often used as a sort of 
philosophical retort in Sheffield, when atten- 
tion is drawn, by a visitor, to a particularly 
dirty-looking manufactory where " spoon- 
buffing " is carried on, for instance. " What 
a dreadful place ! " the stranger may ob- 
serve. Such a remark meets with an instant 
response, which, rendered in the recognized 
dialect of the district, reads : " Ah, my lad, 
but tha' knows where there 's muck there 's 
money ! " This, of course, implies that 
although the particular trade may be a 
dirty one, it is a money-making one. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

W. HEATH, ARTIST (10 S. ix. 385, 473). 
I am glad to see MR. HERBERT CLAYTON'S 
note about the Heaths, a family of artists. 
I only wish he could have given a few more 
details and dates. 

If what he says is correct that most of 
the early artists were etchers, then I can 

only say that they were very inferior etchers, 
spoiling all the fine work of the paper drawing 
by their inexpert and clumsy etching. 
This I judge by the print would not only 
be from the biting in,* but the want of skill 
in drawing on the metal, which before 1840 
was always copper. After about that date 
or 1850 it was nearly always zinc. I am 
referring to the prints for the juvenile 

There is no doubt, I believe, that when 
wood engraving came in the artists did not 
engrave the drawings they made on the 
wood. Is there a book in which these 
matters are discussed ? Jameson published 
hundreds of juvenile theatre prints, and on 
some the names of artist and etcher are 
stated. I will quote the following inscrip- 
tion on one in full, as it has other interest : 

"Theatrical characters N 3. Mr. Laurent as 
Rolla in the celebrated spectacle of Cora, as per- 
formed at The Royal Circus. Founded on the first 
part of Kotzebue y s .Death of Rolla, recently per- 
formed under the title of Pizarro, published by 
J. H. Jameson, 13, Dukes Court, Bow Street, 
Covent Garden." 

There is no date, but the water-mark is 
1810. It is drawn by J. F. Roberts, and 
etched by C. Tomkins. 

At the Truman sale of prints at Sotheby's 
Mr. Sabin bought for stock about twenty of 
Jameson's theatrical portraits for eleven 
guineas ; they had notes by George Cruik- 
shank stating whether or no he was the 
artist. RALPH THOMAS. 

"MAKING BUTTONS " (10 S. ix. 467). This 
phrase occurs in Middlemen's ' The Spanish 
Gipsy' (Act IV. sc. iii.), where Sancho 
exclaims, " O Soto, I make buttons ! ' ' 
meaning, apparently, " I am in a dreadful 
funk." Halliwell, in his 'Dictionary of 
Archaic and Provincial Words,' quotes 
from Florio, ed. 1611, pp. 209, 276, his 
tail makes buttons, i.e., he is in great fear. 


" GUIDE," ITS DERIVATION (10 S. ix. 171, 
494). Surely we are entitled to some better 
explanation of guide than the statement 
that it is from the " German weisen, to- 
show." How did the German s pass into 
d? The 'H.E.D.' (or 'N.E.D.') gives 
the correct solution. The E. guide is merely 
borrowed from the French guider ; and 
the French guider begins with a gu, which 
regularly represents a Teutonic w. Guider 
represents a derivative from a Teutonic 
base wit-, which is preserved with sufficient 
clearness in the Old Saxon verb witan, to 
pay heed to. The idea of " seeing to " 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY *, im 

led to that of "to watch over, to direct, 
to guide." The Middle-English witen had 
a similar sense, as in the Ancren Riwle, 
p. 14 : " The vif wittes, thet witeth the 
heorte alse wakemeii," the five senses, 
which watch over the heart like watchmen. 

The allusion to the German weisen must, 
of course, be taken to mean that this German 
word is a more deflected form, ultimately 
deducible from the same Indo-Germanic 
root *weid. 

The question asked at p. 171 was quite 
different, viz., Is the E. guide derived from 
a word spelt akid, presumably Arabic, as 
is calmly asserted in a translation of the 
Moallakat ? Of course not ; but you can 
never cure an Englishman who is staggered 
by an accidental resemblance between an 
English and Eastern word of rushing, blindly 
enough, to a rash conclusion. 


HOVE (10 S. ix. 450). Hove is a parish 
of equal antiquity with Brighton, being 
mentioned in Domesday Book as Hov, 
and deriving from a Saxon word meaning 
" low-lying." The name Cliftonville was 
coined by the builders in the fifties for a 
few new streets to the east of the old village 
of Hove, but well within the parish boun- 
daries. So to talk about " the Cliftonville 
end of Brighton being called Hove " is 
absurd. The old name disappeared for 
all but parochial purposes from the fifties 
to the eighties, West Brighton coming into 
favour, but was restored when incorporation 
came, the Post Office and railway company 
joining hands with the municipality to give 
the new borough a separate existence from 
Brighton in name as well as fact. I thought 
and hoped the objectionable Cliftonville 
was obsolete. PEKCEVAL LUCAS. 

A. C. T. asks for " information as to how 
the Cliftonville end of Brighton came to be 
called Hove." A more pertinent inquiry 
would have been how a portion of the parish 
of Hove came to be called Cliftonville. 
Hove was a manor at the time of the Con- 
quest, and has been a parish, at any rate, 
since the beginning of the thirteenth century, 
and probably before, whereas Cliftonville 
is a modern monstrosity in nomenclature. 
If what A. C. T. wants is an account of the 
origin of the modern borough of Hove, 
perhaps the following facts may be of 
service to him. In 1830 the east portion 
of the parish of Hove, adjoining Brighton, 
having been built over, was placed under the 
government of a new body called " The 

Brunswick Square and Terrace Commis- 
sioners." In 1858 Hove village, having 
begun to grow, was placed under a body 
called " The West Hove Commissioners." 
In 1874 the two bodies were amalgamated 
to form " The Hove Commissioners." Their 
jurisdiction was extended to the adjoining 
parish of Aldrington 26 Sept., 1893. In 
1894 the Commissioners were abolished 
and an Urban District Council formed. 
The town continued to be governed under 
the Local Government Board till 1898, when 
it was incorporated by Royal Charter dated 
8 August, and is now governed by a mayor, 
ten aldermen, and thirty councillors. The 
population of the borough of Hove in 1904 
was 39,305. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

This place derives its name from the fact 
of its having first constituted the endowment 
of Hova Ecclesia and Hova Villa, two 
prebends in the cathedral church of Chiches- 

MAGHULL YATES (10 S. ix. 469). It is 
not improbable that the Stipendiary Magis- 
trate for the Manchester County Division, 
J. M. Yates, Esq., K.C., might be able to 
supply ALTER EGO with the information 
he seeks. MISTLETOE. 

HUNGARIAN GRAMMAR (10 S. ix. 489). 
In addition to Singer's ' Grammar ' (Triibner, 
1882), the ' Ungarische Sprachlehre ' in the 
" Gyakorlati Beszelgetesekkel " series of 
Rozsnyai Karoly of Budapest, Muzeum- 
koriit 15, might be found useful. It costs 
60 filler. M. 

The best is still Csink's. It has long been 
out of print, but any capable second-hand 
bookseller should be able to procure a copy. ^ 

jL. L. K. J 

" ANGEL" OF AN INN (10 S. ix. 488). -Is 
it not possible that either of the two following 
explanations will meet the query ? The 
room may have been the second floor, 
outside of which the sign of an angel was 
suspended, or it may have been one in which 
there was an open bed without bedposts, 
known as an " angel-bed." 


Was not this a common name for one 
of the reception-rooms in inns in olden days ? 
So Hostess Quickly speaks of her " Dolphin- 
chamber," and Cherry, in the 'Beaux Strata- 
gem,' cries : " Chamberlain, shew the Lyon 
and the Rose." It would be interesting 
to know whether all such rooms were called 

10 s. x. JULY 4, 



after existing taverns, or whether taverns 
subsequently took their names from th< 
rooms. BLADUD. 

If MR, E. V. LUCAS will head the " angel ' 
with a capital I think he will agree with 
me that this was the name of one of the 
sitting-rooms at " Holly-Tree Inn." I re- 
member being at inns where the rooms 
were called after county families. Ai 
Stratford-upon-Avon you may sleep in 
"" As You Like It " or have "The Midsummer 
Night's Dream." ST. S WITHIN. 

[We notice that "the Angel" is so printed, with 
.a capital letter, in the "National Edition" o* 

"STYMIE" AT GOLF (10 S. ix. 370, 414 
492). It is not the dissyllable " stymie " 
but " styme," which is a. monosyllabic 
-word, that Jamieson defines as " a particle," 
" a glimpse," and so forth. What he says 
of the term is fully substantiated by apposite 
illustrations from standard works, and it 
accords with the Scottish practice of the 
present day. We all know what it is not 
to be able to see a styme, but it is only those 
of us who are golfers that understand what 
is denoted by a stymie. Burns thus cha- 
racteristically illustrates the familiar word 
in the closing stanza of his * Epistle to 
John Goldie in Kilmarnock ' : 

I 've seen me daez't upon a time, 

I scarce could wink or see a styme ; 

Just ae hauf-mutchkin does me prime 
(Ought less is little), 

Then back I rattle on the rhyme, 

As gleg 's a whittle. 

Ebenezer Picken, a native of Paisley, 
in his 'Miscellaneous Poems' of 1813, 
seems to use the term in the sense of " a 
moment." Describing in ' The Visit ; or, 
Crispin in the Dumps,' the literary adven- 
tures of a shoemaker, he writes : 
Weel, to flame as an Author our Snab was sae bent, 
He ne'er blirm'd a styme till he gat it in prent ; 
that is, he ceased not for a moment, or, 
perhaps, he never hesitated in the slightest 
degree. The word seems to be a direct 
relative of A.-S. stima, a gleam, brightness. 

FINNIS STREET (10 S. ix. 486). Col. 
Finnis was killed during the office of his 
brother, Alderman Thos. Quested Finnis, 
as Lord Mayor of London. A memorial 
tablet to the colonel was placed in the 
church of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East : 

" By the inhabitants of this Parish as a testimony 
to the worth of a brave Soldier and a sincere 
Christian, as a token of sympathy with his bereaved 

family, and a mark of respect and regard for his 
only surviving brother, the Right Hon. Thomas 
Quested Finnis, Lord Mayor of the City of London 
in the year 1857 and Alderman of the Ward of 


APPLES : THEIR NAMES (10 S. viii. 429 ; 
ix. 297, 314, 495). In the Appendix to 
the Forty-Third Report of the Deputy- 
Keeper of Public Records, issued in 1882, 
there is a list of seventeen sorts of English 
apples which had been sent as being the 
best to Marshal Wrangel in Sweden in the 
year 1663. This list I met with amongst the 
correspondence of the marshal of the castle 
of Skokloster, when examining the MSS. 
there preserved in 1881. W. D. MACRAY. 

PROVERB ON BEATING (10 S. ix. 170, 298). 
' The Woman, Spaniel, and Walnut Tree ' 
has such a vogue that it is well to point 
out that John Taylor, the " Water-Poet," 
should have been quoted as the author 
in the dictionary referred to in the editorial 
note. Another far earlier song runs : 

Ther wer 3 wold be betyn, 3 wold be betyn ther 

A myll, a stoke fysche, and a woman. 

H. P. L. 

UNTHANK (10 S. ix. 351,492). DR. MILNE, 
who mentions a solitary instance of this 
name in Moray, suggests that it may apply 
to " some far-removed place " (presumably 
a mountain, or some cliffs by the sea) where 
newly weaned lambs would be out of the 

learing of their mothers. The only instance 
I have heard of is in Norwich, where there 

s an Unthanks Road, leading, I presume, 
to some place of this name. This, I think, 
would hardly correspond to Dr. Milne's 
description, as Norfolk is notoriously the 

lattest county in England, and Norwich 
"s near its centre, and a considerable distance 

rom the sea. J. FOSTER PALMER. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

There are " Unthanks " at Intwood Hall, 
Norwich, still, and an Unthank Road in 
Norwich. Hie ET UBIQUE. 

I remember coming into contact with 

ome people of this name in Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne some fifty years ago. Last Trinity 

unday the Bishop of Ripon ordained the 

Rev. R. A. Unthank, and licensed him to 

he curacy of Carleton-in- Craven, Skipton. 

suppose the name is not uncommon. 

According to Mr. Bardsley (' Diet, of 

English and Welsh Surnames ' ) there is one 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. JULY 4, iw. 

township in Cumberland and another in 
Northumberland which may have been 
the source of Unthank and Onthank families. 
In this he follows Lower (' Patronymica 
Britannica'). . . ST. SWITHIN. 

CLERGY IN WIGS (10 S. viii. 149, 214 ; 
ix. 497). In T. P.'s Weekly of 19 June, 
1908, review of ' One City and Many Men,' 
Sir Algernon West states 

" that in the early days of Her Majesty's reign peers 
drove down to the House of Lords in full dress, 
with their orders and ribbons, and bishops wore 
episcopal wigs, Bishop Blomfield, who died in 1857, 
being the last to do so." 

At the reference in ' N. & Q.' last given 
Lady Dorothy Nevill says that " Bishops 
Bagot and Blomfield had been the first 
to lay aside " their wigs. 


Is Lady Dorothy right ? J. T. quotes 
her on "Bishop Monk" as wearing his 
wig in 1848. Mr. Monk, M.P., told me 
his father was the last bishop to wear the 
wig, but named a date in the reign of 
William IV. D. 

ix. 328, 393, 455). The march for 'I'm 
Ninety-Five ' was written by Mr. Miller, 
bandmaster of the 1st battalion Rifle 
Brigade, at Malta in 1842. It was used 
on the line of march in the Kaffir war of 
1846 and 1851, and at Fort Beaufort in 
1852 was adopted as the regimental quick- 
step, which before was the march from ' Der 
Freischutyz.' H.M. Queen Victoria approved 
of it in 1856, and fourteen years later it 
was adopted by the 95th Foot. 

H. A. ST. J. M. 
(late Rifle Brigade). 

The four lines at 10 S. ix. 488, beginning 
Non ego me methodo astringam serviliter ulla, 
are, as was suggested, by Cowley. The 
reference is * Plantarum ' lib. i. 29. Hybleae 
in the second line of the quotation shoulc 
be Hyblaeae. The phrase " generandi gloria 
mellis " is borrowed from 1. 205 of the 
fourth Georgic. In the English translation 
of Cowley' s ' Six Books df Plants,' by N. 
Tate, Mrs. A. Behn, and others, the present 
passage is thus rendered by J. O. : 
, My self to slavish Method I '11 not tye, 

But, like the Bee, where-e'er I please, will flie ; 
' Where I the glorious hopes of Honey see, 
Or the free Wing of Fancy carries me. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

VICTORIAN COIN (10 S. ix. 209, 497). 
It would be interesting to know whether 
the Deputy-Master of the Mint was called 
to account for omitting the usual F.D. from 
the coinage, thereby obtruding his own. 
private views as a Roman Catholic in his- 
capacity of public official. J. T. F. 


This coin appears to be a 50-cent. piece- 
of Canada. It is very common, and down 
to the year 1901 there had been struck 
1,408,036 pieces. The first year of issue- 
was 1870. Of late years it has been manu- 
factured at Heat on' s Mint, Birmingham 
(for the Government), and then a small H 
appears on the reverse die under the ribbon, 
which joins the two maple branches. 


Leamington Spa. 

10 S. ix. 427). Mr. Dobell, of Charing Cross- 
[load, has a copy of this, upon which ha& 
Deen written in pencil, " Mr. Baskerville." 
This name can, I think, be made out of the- 
.etters forming the monogram. 


MURDER AT WINNATS (10 S. ix. 449). 
Rhodes's ' Peak Scenery,' 1824, says of the- 
victims, " They were strangers in the coun- 
try, and circumstances induced the sup- 
position that they were on a matrimonial 
excursion to the north." This writer, 
however, regards the whole story as apocry- 
phal. Croston's ' On Foot through the- 
Peak,' 1868, says : 

"Who the victims were, and whence they came,. 

has never been satisfactorily established Peak 

Forest, distant about three miles from the scene of 
the murder, was extra-parochial at the period, and 
was used as a Gretna Green." 

The fullest reference to this event is pro- 
bably to be found in ' Tales and Traditions 
of the High Peak,' by William Wood (no 
date, but published 1862), where 'Allan 
and Clara ; or, the Murder in the Winnats,' 
occupies twenty-four octavo pages. From 
this the following summary is taken : in 
April, 1758, the two fugitives appeared 
at " The Royal Oak Inn," Stoney Middleton, 
and left the next morning on horseback, 
asking the way to Castleton, en route for 
Peak Forest, here stated as eight miles 
distant. The murder took place in a barn, 
into which the victims had been forced, 
and booty, 200Z. in money, with other valua- 
ables was secured by the five murderers, 
four of whom afterwards died by accident 
or suicide, the fifth making a confession 

10 s. x. JULY 4, 1908.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


on his deathbed. Wood insists that ample 
corroboration of the truth of the legend 
existed, and says that no inquiry was ever 
made after the two unfortunate lovers. His 
ipsa verba as to their identity are, 

" who the victims were, and whence they came, is 
not satisfactorily known : Clara was supposed to 
be an English nobleman's daughter, and Allan, a 
^gentleman from the south of England." 

W. B. H. 

In ' The Ballads and Songs of Derbyshire ' 
((Derby, Bemrose & Sons, 1867), byLlewellynn 
.Jewitt, is ' Henry and Clara,' a Peak ballad 
on the murder at Winnats. The couple 
were returning from their marriage at the 
chapel of Peak Forest, a runaway marriage 
in 1758 or 1768. They were on horseback, 
and fell benighted on reaching " The 
Winnats." Five miners set upon them, 
dragged them into a barn, and robbed and 
murdered them. What the murderers did with 
the bodies is not stated ; their horses were 
found wandering later on, and were taken 
to Chatsworth Park, and ran there as waifs ; 
nor were they ever claimed. It is said that 
-the saddles are still preserved at Chats- 
worth. The ballad ' Henry and Clara ' 
-was written by the Rev. Arthur George 
Jewitt, brother of the compiler of ' Derby- 
shire Ballads.' It begins, 

Christians, to my tragic ditty 
Deign to lend a patient ear ; 

If your breasts e'er heav'd with pity 
Now prepare to shed a tear. 

It is written in the dear old style, and runs 
to thirty verses. It was first printed in the 
-author's ' Wanderings of Memory,' 1815, 
and at the time, I believe, when the Jewitt 
family resided at Dumeld, near Derby. 
It was by no means an uncommon thing 
ior a ballad-monger to come to the villages, 
with a sheaf of ditties over his arm, and sing 
or recite local pieces told in simple verse. 
I am not sure, but think that ' Henry and 
Clara ' was dealt with in the * Notes and 
Queries ' columns of The Derbyshire Times 
upwards of thirty years ago. I do not 
think that the full names of the murdered 
couple were then given. 

Work sop. 

HOLY GRAIL (10 S. ix. 465). I think that 
1 must have left a few words out of my 
communication on this sub j ect. The legends 
concerning the Holy Grail vary, and I should 
have written : " According to one legend 
it (the Holy Grail) was made from a diar 
mond," &c. Tennyson follows that legend 
which makes the Grail the cup from which 

the Saviour drank at the Last Supper. 
But the vessel which received the Saviour's 
blood probably would be something different 
from a cup. The Grail was said also to be 
a dish which was used at the Last Supper, 
and afterwards received the blood at the 
Cross. But I do not know that this fits 
much better with the description of its 
splendid appearance and many miraculous 
qualities. The diamond, or emerald, that 
fell from the crown of Satan, fashioned by 
angels into the vessel which received the 
Holy Blood, would make the best Grail. 
Satan, when he was contending with an 
archangel, would be of enormous size. 
" His stature reached the sky," as Milton 
said of him. And the diamond, or emerald, 
would be correspondingly large. 


The etymology is fully discussed, in fact at 
great length, in my Preface to ' Joseph of 
Arimathie,' published for the Early English 
Text Society, and it is given briefly in my 
* Concise Etymological Dictionary.' It is 
from the O.Fr. greal, representing the Late 
Latin gradate. The latter is a " voiced " 
form of *cratale, a derivative of crater, a 
bowl. See Diez and others. 


LATIN LINES ON SLEEP (10 S. ix. 390). 
The English version of these lines is given 
in a slightly different form from that quoted 
by C. K. in Beeton's ' Great Book of Poetry,' 
where it is attributed to Dr. Wolcot. Bee- 
ton's collection has, of course, no critical 
value, but it may be worth while to quote 
the lines as there given : 

Come, gentle sleep ! attend thy votary's prayer, 
And, though death's image, to my couch repair ; 
How sweet, though lifeless, yet with life to lie, 
And, without dying, how sweet to die ! 

C. C. B. 

I have these lines written in a common- 
place book, with a note that they were a 
composition of Thomas Warton to be placed 
under a statue of Somnus in the garden of 
Harris the philologist, and had been trans- 
lated by Peter Pindar. The source of this 
information is not given ; possibly it is 
Wolcot' s version that is quoted by your 
correspondent. R. L. MORETON. 

ST. MARY'S ABBEY, YORK (10 S. ix. 
38% 496). We are much indebted to MR. 
MAeMiCHAEL for his note on the earlier 
or monastic use of the terms " prebend," 
" prebendary," &c., which I had overlooked 
{p. 388). We may refer to Ducange as well 



as to Smith's * Diet. Christ. Antiq.' This 
earlier use is not mentioned in the 'H.E.D.,' 
but I have made a note of it for the supple- 
ment, and am glad to know what my old 
friend Canon Raine meant. 

J. T. F. 


The. Scots Peerage. Edited by Sir James Balfour 

Paul. Vol. V. (Edinburgh, David Douglas.) 
THE Scots Peerage has broken the back of the 
heavy task on which it started four years ago, for 
the fifth volume, starting with Lord Innermeath, 
takes us down to the amazing tangle of the Earldom of 
Mar. It treats of thirty-one different peerages and 
twenty-one families, namely Boyd, Campbell (Irvine 
and London), Erskine (Kellie and Mar), Falconer, 
Gordon (Ken mure), Hay, Ingram, Keith, Ker 
(Jedburgh and Lothian), Kinnaird, Lennox, Leslie 
(Leven and Lindores), Livingston (Kilsyth and 
Linlithgow), Lyle, Macdonald, Macdonell, Mac- 
lellan, Maitland, Morgan-Grenville, Seton, and 
Stewart (Innermeath, Lennox and Mar). The work 
has been done by fifteen different authors, the 
editor himself supplying six of the articles. The 
co-operative method is the only practicable one in 
dealing quickly with genealogical work on such a 
scale, and yet it is full of difficulties. Except 
under the eye of a dominant editor, such a book is 
apt to differ in scope and texture. On the other 
hand, that dominance may banish the personal 
touch which makes G. E. C. a delight ; and it is, 
moreover, apt to create disaffection, for the family 
historian tends to become so obsessed as to permit 
no meddling with his method. Sir James Balfour 
Paul is not a hard taskmaster, but we believe it is 
an open secret that even he has had to jettison some 
of the contributions ; and he might with advantage 
have insisted on greater uniformity in those 
published. It is not only that different writers 
have a different method, but the same writer some- 
times varies. For example, Mr. A. Francis Steuart 
in treating Steuart, Duke of Lennox, gives as many 
as twelve reference notes to a page, whereas Mr. 
F. J. Grant describes Lennox, Duke of Lennox, 
without a single reference. Again Mr. Grant says 
that Lord Alexander Gordon-Lennox " had issue " 
without stating that issue as Mr. Cosmo Gordon- 
Lennox, the well-known player and playwright, who 
married Miss Marie Tempest. On the other hand, 
he works out the descendants of George Lindsay 
(1691-1764) through the female line to a great-great- 
great grandson named Rudd, born as recently as 
July 13, 1906, although he .does not give the issue of 
Lady Muriel Watkins, the daughter of the present 
Lord Lindsay. Some of the descents are not a bit 
more illuminative than those given in Burke. For 
example Mr. Grant might at least have taken the 
trouble to refer to the ' D.N.B.' for that remarkable 
young man the Hon. Ion Keith-Falconer (1856-87), 
who was not only an Arabic scholar of note, but the 
writer on shorthand in the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica,' and the first to cycle from John o' Groats to 
Land's End. Precisely the same thing occurs with 
living people. The annual peerages are very 
inhuman in this respect, chronicling only dull 
official facts. The ' Scots Peerage ' gets ahead of 

Burke by telling us that Lord Kinnaird is a banker, 
but it might have given a line to his great interest 
in football; and under Kinnoull it would be 
interesting to state that Mr. Claude Hay is a stock 
broker as well as M.P. ; even our little friend 
Whitaker goes that length. The omission cannot 
be on the ground that trade is inadmissible, for in 
the same article we learn that Charles, son of the 
second Earl of Kinnoull had a monopoly for the 
manufacture of glass. 

Among the most satisfying articles in this volume 
are Mr. Macmath's accounts of Kenmure, although 
he might have given us a reference to Conolly's 
curious ' Romance of the Ranks ' in his note on the 
claimants for the peerage; Mr. Macphail's long 
account of the Earls of Lauderdale ; the Martinis 
de Ruvi guy's description of the Earls of Kil- 
marnock ; and the Rev. John Anderson's learned 
disquisition on the Celtic Earls of Lennox and the 
Earls of Mar, though he cannily declines to express 
an opinion on the rival claims which roused the 
righteous indignation of Lord Crawford. 

Among the intruders in this volume are the 
Ingrams, for whom the Viscounty of Irvine was 
created why, it is not clear. They began with a 
tallow chandler of London, who married a haber- 
dasher (why are these facts interesting in the 
sixteenth century when omitted in the twentieth ?), 
but found it so difficult to maintain their line that 
the third viscount, who died in 1702, was succeeded 
in turn by five of his nine sons, and then by his 
grandson, the ninth and last viscount, who left only 
five daughters. It is a curious comment on the 
point of view of another day that one of these left 
a goodly estate to her husband's illegitimate son, 
who founded a well-known military family. 
Improvements might be effected in the ' Scots 
Peerage,' but if it is not definitive it forms a good 
framework for the great masses of material that 
have come to light since Douglas's day. 

The Shakespeare Apocrypha: being a _ Collection of 
Fourteen Plays which have been ascribed to Shake- 
speare. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and 
Bibliography, by C. F. Tucker Brooke, B.Litt. 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

THIS excellent edition, tastefully bound in limp 
cloth, will at once take standard rank as a satis- 
factory issue of the doubtful Shakespearian plays. 
A text founded on careful examination of the 
originals by a competent scholar has been needed 
for years, and such the present editor provides. 
His ample knowledge alike of native and foreign 
criticism in books and fugitive publications will be 
realized by all who read his compact and judicious 
introduction. Notes on the text are printed at 
the bottom of the page, and there are a few 
explanatory notes at the end which are dis- 
tinguished by their practical brevity. 

We read that " the collation of the early editions 
has been done twice to secure accuracy, and the 
proof-sheets revised by the original quartos. Par- 
ticular care has been taken to verify readings which 
are in opposition to those recorded by other modern 

We add that every five lines is numbered at the 
side throughout the scenes, an important practical 
aid to reference which is sometimes forgotten. To- 
keep within the limits of some 450 pages a small 
type has had to be used, but the merits of the 
edition will, we hope, ensure another issue, perhaps 
in three volumes or more, in which larger print can 

10 s. x. JULY 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


be used. Unequal as all the plays are in execution, 
they contain, taken together, a body of fine poetry, 
which no lover of our literature can afford to miss. 
Confronted with a lyric like "Roses, their sharp 
spines being gone," we may say that, if this is not 
Shakespeare's, it is worthy of him. 

There are thirteen facsimiles of title-pages re- 
printed. The play which lacks such adornment, 
'Sir Thomas More,' is not the least interesting. It 
was first printed in 1844, and is here re-edited from 
the Harleiaii MS. 7368 in the British Museum. 
Lines 1 172, in Act II. so. iv., have been attributed 
with the greatest confidence to Shakespeare, nor 
can we, in view of their wonderful quality, be 
astonished at the suggestion, which is very different 
from the wild imaginings of many scholars concern- 
ing these ' Apocrypha. Dyce first transcribed this 
play from the MS., and since it has now crumbled 
away or become indecipherable, a number of words 
and lines have to be taken on his authority alone. 
The MS. is in several hands, and one of these has 
been assigned to Shakespeare himself, but we view 
what some would regard as satisfactory evidence on 
such points with the gravest suspicion. A note 
by Mr. Spedding on the question in 'N. & Q.' 
(p. xlviii) is referred to as "4 'N. & Q.,' x. 227." 
Here 4 means " 4 th Series." We cannot go into the 
details of the disputed authorship set forth in the 
introduction, but we are pleased to see recognition 
of the admirable work of our contributor Mr. 
Charles Crawford, and of a veteran in the field of 
Shakespearian scholarship, Mr. P. A. Daniel. Mr. 
Brooke usually writes well and clearly, but we must 
protest against such a phrase as " her really revolt- 
ing wishy-washiness," used of Emilia in * The Two 
Noble Kinsmen.' We presume that the absence of 
" Valingford" from the list of characters in ' Faire 
Em ' is a slip on the part either of the MS. or the 


THE number of Catalogues we received during 
June was exceptionally large, but those dated July 
already go far beyond them. 

Divinity takes the lead in Mr. Baker's List 527, 
which contains a copy of Gallandus's ' Bibliotheca 
Graeco-Latina Veterum Patrum,' Venetiis, 1765-88, 
14 vols., folio, a beautiful set, whole bound in 
calf, 381. ; a set of the ' Library of Anglo-Catholic 
Theology,' 88 vols., half -morocco, 81. 8s. ; Paz's 
' Opera Spiritualia,' 1623, 3 vols., folio, calf, 81. 10s. ; 
the first 10 vols. of Pezius's ' Bibliotheca Ascetica 
Antiquo - Nova,' 12mo, vellum, very rare, 9Z. 10s. 
(the two missing vols. contain Nicolai de Argentina 
on the Canticles) ; and the Wy cliff e Bible, Oxford, 
1850, 4 vols., imp. 4to, 4. There is a fine clean 
specimen of the great London Polyglott, 8 vols., 
folio, in the original rough calf as published, 
including Castell's ' Lexicon/ 1657-69, 161. 16s. 

Mr. Richard Cameron's Edinburgh Catalogue 222 
is, like all his lists, full of works of Scottish interest. 
We note the first Edinburgh edition of Burns, 1787 
new calf, 3?. 15s. ; the Complete Works, 6 vols. 
large paper, 1877, 21. 18s. ; and Walker's mezzo 
tint after the Nasmyth portrait, 21. 2s. Views o 
Edinburgh include Grant's and Drummond's. Under 
Hogg is an amusing autograph letter, Edinburgh 
April 23rd, 1815, referring to a forthcoming cele 
bration of Shakespeare, 1L 15s. There are a num 
ber of Scotch trials, works on Scottish songs and 
ballads, &c. 

Mr. Fred. Cleaver's Bath Catalogue 6 contains- 
Titsingh's ' Illustrations of Japan,' Ackermann, 
1822, 21. 17s. 6d. ; a copy of the " Fireside" Dickens, 
23 vols., cloth, as new, 41s.; Reid's 'Concordance 
to Burns,' 9s. ; and a collection, ' Mr. Mathews at 
Home,' &c., and 'The Theatrical Olio,' the five 
works in one volume, 21. 5s. 

Mr. Bertram Dobell has in his Catalogue 164 a 
good tall copy of the first edition of 'Robinson 
Crusoe' (it contains the two leaves of advertise- 
ments at end) ; also first edition of * The Farther 
Adventures,' 1719. The two vols. are bound in 
evant by Riviere, 1001. Under Coleridge is a set 
}f the original numbers of The Friend, I/. 12.$. 
Among other first editions are 'The Reliques of 
father Prout,' 1836, 2 vols., original cloth, 21. 5s. - r 
?rynne's ' Player's Scourge,' 1633, 6/. 6s. ; Leigh 
aunt's ' Men, Women, and Books,' 1847, 11. Is. ; col- 
ected edition of Lamb's Works, Oilier, 1818, 2vols. r 
2mo, boards, 4?. 4s. ; also works of Tennyson r 
Swinburne, and Thackeray. 

Mr. Dobell's previous Catalogue, which reached 
us too late for notice among June lists, contains the 
irst edition of ' Killing noe Murder,' 11. 12s. This was 
printed clandestinely, and is said to have struck 
such a terror into the mind of Cromwell as to ren- 
der the concluding part of his life miserable. The 
rare edition of 1624 of Bacon's ' Essaies,' 12mo, calf, 
is 81. 8s. ; and first editions of all the volumes of 
' Tristram Shandy ' (vols. i. and ii. without any im- 
print), 9 vols., 1760-67, 13J. 13s. Milton's first 
pamphlet, ' Church Discipline,' 1641, bound in 
morocco by Riviere, is 317. Masson says of the 
close of this, "It is a passage of prose poetry 
to which I have found nothing comparable as yet in 
the whole range of English literature." Another 
rare item is the first edition of Hakluyt, 1589, 42/. 

Messrs. Drayton & Sons' Exeter Catalogue 193"- 
contains works under India, Ireland, Medical,. 
Natural History, &c. The general portion includes 
Fox-Davies's ' Heraldry,' 1905, 4Z. 15s. ; Turner's 
' Liber Studiorum,' 2 vols., large oblong 4to, 4. 4s. ; 
Alken's Sporting Prints (42), 3J. 10s.; and Sarah 
Austin's 'Story without an End,' large paper, 
1868, 21. 2s. 

Messrs. Dray ton's Catalogue 194 is devoted to 
Theology. A copy of Hastings's ' Dictionary of 
the Bible' is priced 4Z. 18s. ; Smith and Wace's 
' Christian Biography,' 3J. 3s. ; the first series 
of the ' Contemporary Pulpit,' 11 vols., 15s. ; andl 
'Preachers' Homiletical Commentary,' 32 vols., 
New York, 1892-6, 4Z. 18s. There are lists under 
Kingsley, Lightfoot, Pusey, Vaughan, Westcott,. 
and others. 

Mr. H. G. Gadney's Oxford Catalogue XXI. is a 
small one of recent purchases. ' Encyclopaedia of 
the Laws of England,' edited by Renton, with in- 
troduction by .Pollock, 12 vols., 1897-8, is 51. 10s.; Mrs. 
Jameson's 'History of Our Lord,' first edition, 
2 vols., 11. 4.s.; Lord Leighton's ' Life and Work,' by 
Mrs. Barrington, 2 vols., royal 8vo, 1906, 11. 10s.; 
and Zeller's Works, 9 vols., 3/. 15s. Mr. Gadney 
has also a Short Clearance Catalogue of Theological 

Mr, William Hitchman's Bristol Catalogue 62 
contains Burton's ' Arabian Nights,' 17 vols., 147. 14s.; 
and the " Mermaid " Series of Best Plays of the 
Old Dramatists, 10 vols., 11. Other items include 
' Dutch Painters,' by Max Rooses, 12s. 6d.; Lang's 
'Prince Charles Edward,' 11. Is.; 'Autobiography 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 4, im 

of a Stage Coachman,' by Cross, 21. 7s. 6d.; Sir 
Thomas Browne's Works, 3 vols., 15s. ; Hender- 
son's ' Mary,Queen of Scots,' 10s. Qd. ; and Osmund 
Airy's 'Charles II.,' II. 1*. 

Mr. W. M. Murphy of Liverpool opens his Cata- 
logue 137 with 24 vols. of The New England Genea- 
logical Register, 1877-1900, 121. 12s. (there are some 
numbers wanting in 1897 and 1898) There is a 
beautiful set of 'The Antiquarian Cabinet,' 1807-12, 
31. 10s. Under Architecture is Sharpe's * Parallels,' 

2 vols., royal folio, 1848, 61. 6s. Dickens items in- 
clude the original parts of 'Bleak House' (two 
parts want the covers), II. 10s.; also 'Copperfield 
(some wrappers wanting), 21. 15s. There is in addi- 
tion a set of the Christmas Books, 5 vols., 1843-8, 
II 10s. Under Thackeray is the Biographical Edition, 
13 vols., new half -calf, 4J. 4s. There are lists under 
Ireland, Lancashire, Manchester, &c. 

Messrs. W. N. Pitcher & Co.'s Manchester Cata- 
logue 159 contains the Library Edition of Freeman's 
' Norman Conquest,' Oxford, 6 vols., very scarce, 
61. 10s.; Gilfillan's 'British Poets,' 48 vols., 31. 3s.; 
'The Century Dictionary,' 6 vols., folio, half- 
morocco, 01. 10s. ; Gillray, from the original plates, 

3 vols., 61. ; La Fontaine, Amsterdam, 1767, 2 vols., 


impressions, 6 vols., folio, half- vellum, 1841-8, 61. 6s.; 
Lawrence, by Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower, fine- 
paper edition, 4to, 31. 10s.; David Cox, memoir by 
Solly, 1873, M. 10s. ; Cruikshank's 49 drawings pre- 
pared to illustrate an intended Autobiography, 
II. 5s. ; Du Maurier's ' Society Pictures,' from Punch, 
1,000 plates, 2 vols., royal 4to, 12s. ; and Waring's 
' Masterpieces of Industrial Art,' 3 vols. , folio, whole 
morocco, 1863 (cost 401.), 31. 3s. Under Facetiae we 
find a reminiscence of 1854, * The Legend of Vilikins 
and his Dinah,' illustrated by Thomson, 2s. 6d. 

The list of Tracts, Pamphlets, and Broadsides 
issued by Mr. A. Russell Smith in his Sixty-Second 
Catalogue is such as Macau'lay would have de- 
lighted in ; they range from 1510 to 1808. We can 
purchase for 5s. ' The Mournfull Cryes of many 
Thousand Poore Tradesmen,' who in 1650 were 
" ready to Famish through Decay of Trade." A 
unique Waltonian document is the printed will 
of John Donne the Yonger, 1662, in which he leaves 
his father's MSS. to Izaak Walton ; the price for 
this is 51. 5s. There is the rejoinder of Luther to 
the ' Assertion of the Seven Sacraments,' Wittem- 
berg, 1522, 61. 6s. We find a ' Search after Claret,' 
1691, II. Is. This mentions all the important taverns 
throughout London visited. Under Lady Hamilton 
is a collection of tracts by Dr. James Graham, of 
the Temple of Health, Adelphi and Pall Mall. The 
Catalogue contains 1,400 items, and they are all 
well arranged chronologically. 

Messrs. Sotheran send their last two Prices 
Current, Nos. 683 and 684. The former contains 
a number of Ackermann's publications, first and 
early editions, important works under Americana, 
Architecture, and Fine Bindings. In a long list 
under Cruikshank occurs in its original boards 
' The Humourist,' Robins, 351. There are first 
editions of Dickens, and French illustrated books 
of the eighteenth century. Under " A Wonderful 
Alice " is a large-paper copy of Rackham's edition of 
* Alice in Wonderland,' extended to 4 vols. by the 
addition of 324 extra illustrations, bound in blue 

levant, 1908, 841. There is one of the rarest produc- 
tions of Franklin's press, Cicero's ' Cato Major,' 
Philadelphia, 1744, a tall copy, in the original half- 
sheep, 581. Under Shelley is the original first issue 
of ' St. Irvyne,' a perfect copy, wholly uncut, 
Stockdale, 1811, 65(., Space does not permit us to 
quote further ; this is only an indication of the 
many choice items. At the end of the Catalogue 
are a number of letters addressed to Mrs. Lynn 
Linton, and it is believed that they are all un- 
published, including a series of 47 from Landor, 
1857-60. These are full of affection ; he likens his 
own case to that of King Lear, and seems to have 
considered Mrs. Linton as his Cordelia. "Nothing 
on earth is so precious to me as your affection." In 
many he bewails his enforced exile, and pathetically 
refers to the loss of his home, his pictures, and 
specially his books ; he mentions the Brownings, 
his 'Dry Sticks,' &c., and says: "lam in rags, I 
have not laid out 40 shillings on clothing in 4 years." 
There are eighteen long letters of Swinburne's. 
Herbert Spencer writes : " I do not think you are 
altogether a good Grundyometer, for you are not in 
sufficient sympathy witn Mrs. Grundy." Besides 
the Lynn Linton letters there are autographs of 
Byron, Burns, and others. Under Burns is the 
original MS. of 'The Twa Herds,' 3 pages, folio, 

Price Current 684 contains the most complete set 
yet offered for sale of Gould's natural history works, 
including the ' Birds of Paradise,' by Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe. The price of the 50 vols. is 630(. This 
item naturally eclipses the remaining entries, but 
there are many other noteworthy lots. 

The Catalogue of Mr. Albert Sutton of Man- 
chester contains a set of the Chetham Society's Pub- 
lications, 1840-1906, 24*. ; ' The English Emersons,' 
18 sheet pedigrees, 1898, 12s. Qd. ; St. John Hope's 
' Stall - Plates of the Knights of the Garter,' 
21. 17s. 6d. ; Shaw's 'Manchester, Old and New,' 
3 vols., II. Is.; Hartshorne's 'Old English Glasses,' 
folio, 21. ; a complete set of Punch, 1841-1905, 221. 10s. ; 
Baines's ' Lancaster,' 2 vols., 4to., 1868, II. Is. ; and 
Bamford's ' Life of a Radical,' 2 vols., 5s. There are 
works relating to Lancashire. We would suggest 
to Mr. Sutton the desirability of numbering his 

WE congratulate Dr. J. A. H. Murray on the 
well-deserved knighthood which is one of the 
features of the King's Birthday honours. Such 
awards can, in the view of the scholar, add little 
to the unique distinction comprised in the three 
letters 'N.E.D.,' but it is pleasant to see that the 
fount of honour does not now entirely in political 
and commercial grooves. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

io s. x. JULY 4, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(Continued from Second Advertisement Page.) 


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A Comprehensive List of 

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BOOKS, including a Portion of the LIBRARY 
of the late Prof. F. W. MAITLAND, in the press. 

TIONS, in 4to and 8vo, half-calf and numbers. . 121. 128. 

THE SACRIST ROLLS OF ELY, 1291-1350. Edited by 
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NOTES : Edward Sharpham and Robert Hayman, 21 
Inscriptions at Florence, 24 The Strand Hotel, 26 'Old 
Mother Hubbard ' : its Author Rushlights " The Upper 
Thames," 27. 

QUERIES : Sir George Somers, 1554-1610 Windle Family 
Authors of Quotations Wanted Anonymous Works- 
Mason of Stapleton, Gloucestershire, 28 Col. Mompesson 
Dickens on " Half -Baptized " Coxe of Clent and Swyn- 
ford, co. Worcester Early Law Terms Basset, Engle- 
field, Basevil, and Anvers " Whiff," a Boat" Thurcet," 
29 Mrs. Bremar's Ladies' School, Blackheath Hill "The 
Protector's Head," Inn Sign Milton and Christ's College, 
Cambridge "Meschianza" "Cock-foster" Peter 
Quivel, Bishop of Exeter Vigo Bay, 1702-19 Stuffed 
Chine, 30. 

REPLIES : Nonconformist Burial -Grounds and Grave- 
stones, 31 Surrey Gardens, 32 " Sabariticke " Wilkes's 
4 Essay on Woman ' Plaxtol Hair becoming suddenly 
White through Fear, 33 VVhite Cock v. the Devil, 34 
Cornish and Other Apparitions Hippocrates Legend 
Books by the Ton "Abracadabra," 35 Creole Folk-lore : 
Stepping across a Child " Jirgah "Cambridge Early 
Lists: Sir Richard Cope Scottish University Arms 
41 Vizt." Queen Anne's Fifty Churches, 36 " Entente 
Cordiale" Askwith or Asquith Secret Passages, 37 
"The Crooked Billet" "What you but see when you 
haven't a gun" Hon. Mrs. Gordon's Suicide Holbein 
Subjects Ben Jonson's Name: its Spelling William 
Winstanley's Birthplace Nursery Rime, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' English Local Government' 
Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



THE ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
contains a short account of the life of 
Edward Sharpham of the Middle Temple, 
based on the Middle Temple records and 
particulars obtained from his plays ' The 
Fleire,' " by Edward Sharpham," 1607, 
and ' Cupids Whirligig * (dedication signed 
" E. S.") of the same year. But the ' Dic- 
tionary ' gives neither the date of Sharp- 
ham's birth nor that of his death, being 
content to say " fl. 1607 " ; and it does not 
identify " Colehaiiger," his Devonshire home. 

Having been fortunate enough to find 
'Sharpham' s will at Somerset House (wrongly 
Indexed under the name "Sharpman"), 
and having been thus enabled to make 
further researches, I am in a position to 
add a good deal to the general knowledge 
of Sharpham' s life. 

Among the Admissions to the Middle 
Temple we have, under date " 1594, 9 Oct.," 
that of " Mr. Edward, third son of Richard 
Sharpham, late of Colehanger, Devon, gent., 
deceased." Edward Sharpham's will led 

me to find that Colehanger was a manor 
in the parish of East Allington, near Kings- 
bridge a fact, indeed, already stated in 
Lysons's * Magna Britannia : Devonshire,' 
Part II. p. 6, and in Hutchinson's ' Notable 
Middle Templars' (1902), p. 222. By the 
help of the Rector of East Allington, the 
Rev. J. J. Mallock, I then obtained various 
entries from the parish register relating 
to his family, in particular that of Edward 
Sharpham's baptism. These are as follows : 

1576. The xxvj th of July was baptized Edward 

of M r Richard 
Marye his wyffe. 

Sharpham the sonne 

Richard Sharpham & 

1579. The x of May was baptized Susanna Sharp- 
ham the daughter of M r Richard Sharpham and 
Mary his wyfe. 

1581. The xxix th day of August M r Richard 
Sharpham was buryed. 

From the * Visitations of Devon ' (Vivian), 
1895, p. 484, I learnt that " Mary, dau. of 
and widow of Sharpham," was 

married on 2 Oct., 1582, at Cornworthy, 
to Alexander Hexte of Staverton, third son 
of John Hexte of Kingston. Alexander 
Hexte had previously married Mary, daughter 

of Ellacott of Exeter, the marriage 

licence being dated 27 June, 1580, Exeter. 
Mr. Hext, as will be seen, after his marriage 
to Mary Sharpham, apparently came to 
reside at East Allington. Accordingly the 
following East Allington entries become 
of interest : 

1583/4. The xix th of January was baptized George 
Hext the sonne of M p Alexander Hext and Mary 
his wyfe. 

1585/6. The vij th of March was baptized John 
Hext and Peter the sonnes of M r Alexander Hext 
and M rs Mary his wyfe. 

1586. The xx th of June John Hext the sonne of 
M r Alexander and Mary his wyfe was buryed. 

1586. The vi th of July Peter Hext the sonne of 
Alexander Hext and M Mary his wyt'e was 

1588. The xiiii of July M r Alexander Hext was 

As has been stated, Edward Sharpham 
was admitted to the Middle Temple on 
9 Oct., 1594. We have no record of his 
being called to the Bar. We hear that he 
was fined 20s. for absence at Christmas, 
1595, and again 20s. on 21 May, 1596, 
" for absence and being out of commons 
in Lent and during Mr. Johnsons Reading " ; 
and after this no more till 1607. 

It has occurred to me, however, that we 
may with some probability attribute to 
Edward Sharpham the authorship of the 
interesting tract of the "coney-catching" 
class called ' The Discoverie of the Knights 
of the Post,' by " E. S.," which appeared 
in 1597. The tract shows a minute acauaint- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY n, iocs. 

ance with the lives and characters of a 
number of professional false-swearers as 
well as of the details of legal proced.ure, 
such as could only have been obtained 
by some one who had constantly attended 
law courts. Further, the revelations about 
these shady characters are represented as 
being made on a walk from London to 
Exeter, and we have the various stages, 
(Hounslow, Basingstoke, Andover, Salisbury, 
Shaftesbury, Exeter), the inns to which 
the travellers went, and the sights they 
saw. This is just the road Edward Sharp- 
ham must have known best. So I venture 
to think he was the author of the tract. 

In 1607 appeared the two plays 'The 
Fleire,' by Edward Sharpham, and ' Cupids 
Whirligig' (dedication signed " E. S."), 
which, as was seen by Malone, is also un- 
doubtedly Sharpham' s. The latter play is 
dedicated by its author to " his much 
honoured, beloued, respected and judiciall 
friend Maister Robert Hayman." The 
* D.N.B.' does not point out, as it might 
have done, that this Robert Hayman is, 
with little doubt, the Devonian Robert 
Hayman who was an early colonist of New- 
foundland and Guiana, and who published 
in 1628 ' Quodlibets,' a collection of poems 
partly original, partly translations of the 
Latin epigrams of John Owen. The dedica- 
tion to Hayman contains the tantalizing 
words, " Since our trauailes I have been 
pregnant with desire to bring forth some- 
thing whereunto you may be witnesse." 
It would seem from this that, at some date 
before this, Hayman, who was born with 
the roving spirit, had had Sharpham, his 
fellow-Devonian and fellow-lawyer, as his 
Companion. This fact, and the terms in 
which Sharpham here addresses Hayman, 
are a sign that there was something good 
in Sharpham, even though Ben Jonson told 
Drummond " that Sharpham, Day, Dicker, 
were all rogues" ; for no one can read 
Hayman' s writings without recognizing in 
him a goo,d, brave, and lovable man. 

'The Fleire' was republished in 1610, 
1615, and 1631; 'Cupids Whirligig' in 
1611, 1616, arid 1630 ; but no further works 
issued from the author's pen. The reason 
for this became clear on the discovery of 
Sharpham' s will. He had died in 1608. 
The document is of sufficient interest to 
print in full. It is calendared " Winde- 
banck, 46 " : 

"In the name of God amen. The twoe and 
twentithe dale of A prill one thowsand sixe hun- 
dred and eighte and in the yeares of the Raigne 
of oure sovereign Lorde James by the grace of god 

kinge of England Scotland ffraunce and Ireland* 
defendo* of the faithe &c. (that is to saie of Eng- 
land ffrau'ce and Ireland the sixth and of Scot- 
land the one and fourtithe) I Edwarde Sharphann 
of Allington in the countie of Devon gent 
beinge sicke in bodye but of good and perfect 
memorie lawde and praise be therfore given vnto- 
allmightye god doe make and ordeine this my 
last will and testament in manner & fourmfr 
followinge (that is to saie) ffirste and principallie I 
give and commende my soule into the handes of 
allmightye god my Creator and Maker trusting^ 
& moste assuredlye beleevinge in his mercye that 
throughe the merritts deathe and passion of hi* 
only sonne my Savio' and Redeemer Jhesus- 
Christe I have and shall have full and free- 
Remission of all my synnes and after this; 
tfansitorie lief ended everlastinge ioye in the- 
Kingdome of Heaven w ch nevir shall nave ende^ 
Amen. Item I give and bequeethe my bodie to 
the earthe of whence it came to be buried in a. 
Christian buriall at the discrec'on of my executor 
and Overseers hereafter named. Item I geve- 
devise and bequeathe vnto William Gay ton of 
Westm r in the countie of Midd Taylo 1 " all and 
singuler my Apparell goods Chattells debts som'es 
of money due and oweinge vnto me by any person or 
persons whatsoeu' by special tye com posic'on or other- 
wise. Item I doe geve devise and bequeathe vnto- 
my Broth 1 George Heckste my damosin coloured 
Cloake lyned throughe w th blacke velvett & my 
Rapier beinge hatched w th silver and a gyrdle and 
Hangers trymmed w th silver belonginge to the same 
Item I give devise and bequeathe vnto my Cosyn 
Bridgitt ffortescue my Cheyne of small pearle and 
my goulde Ringe w th the diamond therm Item I 
give devise and bequeathe vnto my Brother in lawe 
Richard Goteham my rydinge Clothe cloake and 
one Gyrdle and Hanger of Leather playne & vn- 
wrougnte And I give devise and bequeathe vnto* 
my Cosynne William Langworthie my pale Carna- 
tion silke Stockings. And of this my last will and! 
testament I make nominate and appointe my 
well beloued the sayde William Gayton my full& 
and whole Executor And I make and ordeine- 
Robert Browne of Westm r in the said Countie 
of Midd. Notary publicque and Thomas Rowpe 
of Milton in the County of Devon gent. Oversews 
of the same desyringe them to see the Execuc'on 
thereof performed And I vtterlie revoke adni- 
hilate and make voide all and everye other former 
Wills Testaments Legacies and bequests in any 
wise by me heretofore made In wittnes whereof I 
have to this my last will and testament conteyninge- 
twoe sheetes of paper severallie putte my hande- 
and sealle the daie and yeare firste of all written. 

The marke of Edwarde Sharpham Signed sealled 
published and declared by the saide Edwarde- 
Sharpeham to be his last will and testam* in the- 
presence of John Owen Rob'te Browne No'* publique- 
Robert Askewe. 

Probatum fuit Testamentu' suprascript apud 

London cora' Magro Willmo Birde legum d'tore- 

Nono die mensis Maij Anno millesimo sex- 

centesimo octavo Juramento Willm' Gayton Ex- 
ecu toris " 

I add a few notes on this will. 

1. It appears that Sharpham had little- 
to leave beyond his clothes ; and as his 
chief heir was a tailor, I conclude that even 
his clothes had not all been paid for. 

10 a x. JULY 11, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

2. I may remark that a love of clothes 
is shown in Sharpham's plays : twice in 
* The Fleire ' he describes a cloak as " lined 
through" or "throughout." 

3. He is still bound to Devonshire. He 
describes himself as "of Allington," and 
his legatees and overseers are chiefly of that 

4. He makes no mention of his mother 
nor of elder brothers who were perhaps 
dead but leaves legacies to his half-brother 
George Hext and his brother-in-law (perhaps 
the husband of his sister Susanna) Richard 
Goteham. A George Hexte was Alderman 
of Dunheved (Launceston) in 1620 ('Visita- 
tions of Cornwall,' Harl. Soc., ix. 281). 

5. Another legatee is " my Cosyn Bridgitt 
ffortescue." Perhaps Bridget Fortescue 
was the daughter of Roger Fortescue by 
Mary, daughter of R. Northleigh and pre- 
viously wife in succession to John Leigh 
and to Martyn Hext, younger brother of 
Sharpham's stepfather Alexander Hext 
('Visitations of Devon,' ed. Vivian, 1896, 
pp. 200, 484). She seems to have lived at 
East Allington, as the registers of that 
parish record her burial : " 1619, Bridget 
Fortescue was buried 1 November." Pos- 
sibly a little romance attaches to the legacy 
of the chain and diamond ring. 

6. The Langwbrthys were a well-known 
Devonshire family, and there were some 
at East Allington. 

7. There are monuments to the Rowpe 
or Roope family in the church of South 
Milton (Lysons, p. 341). See also * Visita- 
tion of Devon, 1620,' under ' Roupe.' 

8. One of the witnesses to the will is 
John Owen. I imagine he may be the 
epigrammatist whose work was translated 
by Sharpham's friend Robert Hayman. 

It was clear from the fact of Sharpham 
having " made his mark" instead of signing 
his name that he was very ill when the wil 
was executed on 22 April, 1608 ; and as it 
was proved on 9 May following, it was clear 
that he had died in the interval. 1 Bui 
where ? From the fact that a notary o 
Westminster witnessed the will I concluded 
that Sharpham died in Westminster. A 
visit to St. Margaret's Church confirmee 
my conjecture. In the register of burial 
of that church, under the date " April 23 ' 
the day after the will had been made 
was the name " Edward Sharpham " written 
in the large characters accorded in ol< 
registers to persons of superior station 
He must have died that day or the 
before, and his remains, if they have no 

een disturbed, must now bo lying in St. 
Margaret's Churchyard. 

There is no probability in Hunter's sug- 
estion that " Ed. Snarphell," whose verses 
To my beloued Master lohn Davies' are- 
refixed to Davies' s ' Humours Heau'n on 

Earth' (1605) was Edward Sharpham,- 
nd another suggestion that Sharpham 

wrote the ' Vision upon this his Minerva r 
signed " E. S.") in Peacham's 'Minerva 
Britanna,' 1612, is disproved by the now 

ascertained fact that Sharpham had then 
>een dead four years. 


I add a few lines on Robert Hayman,. 
upplementary to the life of him given in 
he ' D.N.B.' He was matriculated at 
Oxford from Exeter College on 15 Oct. r 
590, as " Hayman, Robert : Devon, pleb. 
. 11." He must have been born, therefore, 
>etween 15 Oct., 1578, and 15 Oct., 1579. 
Neither his father's name nor that of his 
Birthplace is known. I hoped I had found 
a clue in four lines of Hayman' s charming 
3oem * Of the Great and Famous, euer to- 
:>ee honoured Knight, Sir Francis Drake, 
and of my little-little Selfe' (' Quodlibets, r 
Book IV. No. 7) : 

This man when I was little, I did meete. 
As he was walking vp Totnes long Street, 
He ask'd me whose I was ? I answer'd him. 
He ask'd me if his good friend were within ? 

Nicholas Hayman, merchant, represented 
Totness borough" in the Parliament of 
15 Oct., 1586 to 23 March, 1586/7. His 
name does not appear on the roll of the- 
Parliament of 12 Nov., 1588 to 29 March, 
1589; but "Nicholas Hayman" (probably 
the same) represented Dartmouth, Clifton, 
and Hardness in the Parliament of 19 Feb., 
1592/3 to 10 April, 1593. Here, one might 
suppose, was Robert's father. But the 
Vicar of Totnes, the Rev. T. H. Elliott, 
who has searched the registers from 157(> 
to 1586, tells me that the name of Robert 
Hayman is not to be found, though the 
baptisms of five children of Nicholas Hay- 
man are recorded between 6 Nov., 1579, 
and 16 April, 1586. Possibly Robert Hay- 
man was born and baptized at the end of 
1578, before Nicholas settled at Totnes. 
Or he may have been not Nicholas's son, 
but his nephew, and have been merely visit- 
ing his uncle when he met the great Drake. 
Possibly the Dartmouth registers would 
throw light on Robert Hayman' s birth. 

With the help, however, of Mr. E. Win- 
deatt of Bridgetown, Totnes, and the Rev. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. (io s. x. JULY 11, im 

J. E. Binney of the Close, Exeter, I have 
fjscertained the date of Robert Hayman's 
marriage. Vivian's ' Visitations of Devon,' 
Tinder the Spicer family, mentions " Grace 
Spicer, bap. 12 November, 1579, at St. 
llartin's, Exeter ; married 21st May, 1604, 
to Robert Hayman, at St. Petrock's, Exeter." 
The register of St. Martin's in recording 
Grace Spicer' s baptism calls her " the 
daughter of Thomas Spicer." The Rev. W. 
David, vicar of St. Petrock's, tells me that 
the register of the marriage has ' Robert 
Haymon" (not " Hayman "). This, however, 
is immaterial. The ' Quodlibets ' show 
i-hat their author had an aunt " Mrs. 
Eliz. Spicer of Exceter," and make it 
virtually certain that he is the Robert 
Hayman whose marriage is recorded in the 
* Visitations.' As neither the ' Quodlibets ' 
Tior Robert Hayman's most interesting wilJ 
-{mentioned in the 'D.N.B.') makes any 
reference to wife or child, we may perhaps 
conclude that there was no issue of the 
marriage, and that Mrs. Hayman had died 
before ho settled in Newfoundland. In New- 
ioundland Hayman was settled at " Harbor- 
Grace" as Governor of the little colony there. 
Was the settlement (now one of the chief 
towns of Newfoundland) named after Hay- 
man's lost wife ? 

The ' D.N.B.' biographer seems to have 
been unaware of an interesting paper by 
Robert Hayman contained in Egerton 
MS. 2541, which is wrongly dated 1630, 
but was written before Buckingham's assas- 
sination (23 Aug., 1628). It is a last plea 
for royal support of the Newfoundland 
colonists. Perhaps Buckingham's death led 
Hayman to lose all hope in this direction, 
and to turn his mind to a fresh attempt 
:in Guiana. My attention was drawn to the 
paper by a reference in Prowse's ' History 
.of Newfoundland.' G. C. MOORE SMITH. 

The University, Sheffield. 

(See 10 S. ix. 224, 344, 443.) 

THE following inscriptions complete those 
: in the South- West Section of the old Pro- 
testant cemetery : 

181. Agnes Cameron, w. of Alexander Mackin- 
tosh of Teaninich, Ross, Scotland, b. 28 March, 
1844 ; ob. 1 Ap., 1874. 

182. Catharine Straith, wid. of Lieut.-Col. Robert 
Macdonald, C.B.,of 1st Royal Scots and 35th Regt, 
.06. 3 Ap.,1874. 

183. Timothy Haskard, 40 yrs. resident in 
Florence, of). 25 March, 1874, a. 66. 

184. Hiram Powers, ob. 27 June, 1873, a. 68. 

185. Joseph Watson, of Gateshead-on-Tyne, ob. 

24 June, 1873, a. 33. 

186. Edward Willie, youngest child of Dr. Young, 
ob. 16 May, 1877, a. 5. 

187. Manning Kennard, b. in Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, 13 Aug., 1813 ; ob. 21 Dec., 1873. 

188. Sarah Minturn Grinnell Watts, d. of Ridley 
and Sarah Minturn Watts, b. 10 July, 1854; ob. 

25 March, 1873. 

189. Rev. Wm. Boyd, M.A., minister of Mains 
and Strathmartine, Forfarsh., b. 30 Oct., 1840; ob. 
2 Ap., 1873. 

190. James Drummond Griffith, ob. 29 Dec., 1872, 

a. 43. 

191. Emma Roe, w. of Wm. Lachlan Shearwood, 

b. 20 March, 1829, in Glasgow ; ob. 16 June, 1871. 
Removed, July 5, to Highgate Cemetery, London. 

192. Anna Maria Cecilia, d. of Bentink Walter 
and the Hon. A. M. Yelverton. The only child of 
her mother, and she was a widow. Ob. 16 Ap., 
1846, a. 13. 

193. Bentink Yelverton and his w., the Hon. 
Anna Bingham. No date or other inscription. 

194. Maria Letitia Zaida Ffrench, d. of John, Lord 
Clanmorris, wid. of R. Ffrench, Esq., of Rahasane, 
co. Galway, ob. 28 Oct., 1832, in the oloom of youth 
and beauty. 

195. Charles John Proby, for some time H.B.M.'s 
Vice-Consul in Florence, ob. 4 Jan., 1868, a. 52. 

196. Theodosise Trollope | T. Adolphi Trollope 
conjugis | quod mortale fuit | hicjacet. | Obitumejus 
fleverunt omnes | quantum autem fieri meruit | vir 
eheu superstes | scit solus. | Josefi Garrow, Arm. 
filia | apud Torquay iiiagro Devon Anglorum nata | 
Florentiae | nonum agens lustrum | ad plures abiit j 
13 die mensis Aprilis, A.D. 1865. 

197. Richard Bratton Adair, late Captain R. 
British Artillery, ob. 27 Dec., 1863, a. 43. 

198. Capt. James Johnston McCleverty, C.B., 
R.N., 06. 1 March, 1863, a. 52. 

199. Joseph Garrow, Arm., of Braddon, Devon, 
b. in India, 1789 ; ob. 1857. 

200. * , brother to the Earl of Shannon. 

201. The Hon. Lieut. -Col. Gerald de Courcy, 4th s. 
of the Right Hon. John de Courcy, 26th Lord Baron 
Kingsale, and Susannah his w., ob. 20 Oct., 1848. 

202. William Augustus Napier Kellett, late Lieut. 
72nd Highlanders, only s. of Capt. M. Napier 
Kellett, of Renfrewshire, ob. May, 18(5)3, a. 27. 

203. Robert Napier Kellett, late Capt. Royal 
Highlanders, and nephew of Sir Rich. Kellett, Bt. , 
ob. Nov., 18(5)3, a. (?). 

204. Jemima, only d. of the late James Hunter, 
Esq., of Renfrewshire, and wid. of the late Capt. 
Napier Kellett, ob. 5 Sept., 1854, a. 50. 

205. Augusta Jane, w. of Capt. J. H. Robley, ob. 
28 Nov., 1868. 

206. Orazia Augusta Robley, b. in Aldershot ; ob. 
5 Oct., 1850, a. 24, after 21 months' marriage with 
Col. Filippo Borghesi. 

207. E. B. B., ob. 1861. No other inscription. 

208. Fanny Waugh Hunt, w. of Holman Hunt, 06. 
20 Dec., 1866, in the first year of her marriage. 

209. The Hon. Elizabeth Carlyon de Courcy, d. of 
John Bishop, Esq., w. of the Hon. Lieut.-Col. 

erald de Courcy, ob. 15 Jan., 1855. 

210. Caroline Buffar Cracklow, only d. of David 
and Mary Ann Cracklow, of Peckham, ob. 29 Aug., 
1857, a. 25. 

211. Thomas Browne, Esq., of London, b. at Hull 
ob. 22 Feb., 1858, a. 71. 

10 s. x. JULY ii, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

212. Edmund Wm. Elton, 4th s. of the late Sir 
Charles A. Elton, Bt., b. 14 Dec., 1822; ob. 2 Dec., 

213. Henry Yeames, ob. at Baden-Baden, 13 Sept., 
1865, a. 71. 

214. Margaret Ann Reynolds, ob. 25 June, 1870. 

215. Eliza, 2nd d. of the late Simeon Thos. Bull, 
architect, of Holies St., London, and of Gordon 
House, Kentish Town, Midd., 06. 7 June, 1858, 
a. 29. 

216. Eleanor Augusta Tulk. No date. 

217. *Georgiana, w. of the Rev. John , ob. 

3 Ap., 18(34?), a. 40. 

218. Elizabeth, relictof Major-General Sir Lorenzo 
Moore, C.B., K.C.H., ob. 7 Dec., 1849, a. 70. 

219. Marv Spencer Stanhope, b. 9 Nov., 1859 : ob. 
23 Feb., 1867. 

220. Maria Dorothea, w. of Rich. Jaffray, Esq., 
of Kingswells, Aberdeenshire, ob. 20 Jan., 1859, 
a. 73. 

221. John James, s. of Andrew Smith Duncan, 
Esq., b. at Bath; ob. at Florence, 16 May, 1861, 

a. 15 yrs. 7 mths. 

222. John Fombelle, Esq., late of the E.I.Co.'s 
Bengal Civil Service, retired after a service of 
34 yrs., ob. 24 Nov., 1849, a. 87. 

223. Helen Florence, only ch. of Charles and 
Helen Oldham, b. at Rome, 20 Nov., 1844; ob. 

6 Nov., 1845. 

224. Helen, d. of the late Sir James Colquhoun, 
of Luss, Bt., w. of John Page Reade, Esq., of 
Stutton, Suff., ob. 17 Oct., 1S52. 

225. Fanny, for 23 yrs. w. of Wm. Wingfield 
Bonnin, C.E., of Buckingham St., Strand, ob. 
31 Oct.. 1867, a. 48. 

226. Pauline. No other inscription. 

227. Brevet-Major Charles Gregorie, late Capt. 
13th Light Dragoons, ob. 16 Oct., 1858, a. 67. 

228. Rev. Geo. Brickdall (C)rossman, ob. 27 Feb., 
1854, a. 62. 

229. Julia Eliza, youngest d. of William and Mary 
Ann Lowe, ob. 8 June, 1855, a. 13. 

230. Henry Dunn, ob. 6 Feb., 1856, a. 34. 

231. Samuel Lowe, ob. 20 Ap., 1877, a. 81. 

232. Louisa Florence, inf. d. of Wm. and Hen- 
rietta Lowe, b. 22 Sept., 1857; ob. 17 Aug., 1858. 

233. Henry Blackmore Low, 3rd s. of the late 
John Low, Esq., of Spring House, co. Tipperary, 

b. 21 March, 1833; ob. 7 March, 1846. Erected by 
his mother. 

234. Luttie, s. of Antonio and Emma Arrighi, b. 

4 Jan., 1873, in Delaware, Ohio ; ob. 12 Nov., 1874. 

235. Hugh Macdonnell, Esq., ob. June, 18(41 ?). 

236. Joseph Anthony Pouget, 30 yrs. in the 
E.I.Co.'s service, ob. 25 July, 1833, a. 7(7?), leaving 
a widow and one son. 

237. The Hon. Frances Tolley, relict of the late 
Major - General Henry Dunbar Tolley, C.B., b. 
12 Jan., 1796 ; ob. 12 Dec., 1853. 

238. Harriet, d. of Christopher B. and Elizabeth 
Ludlow, b. in New York, 1811 ; ob. 1860. 

239. Dr. Delisser, ob. 4 May, 1844, a. 48. Adelaide 
Delisser, ob. 18 July, 1845, a. 13. Ellis Wm. De- 
lisser, ob. 14 July, 1845, a. 19. 

240. Geraldine Hathorn, 5th d. of M. H. Perceval, 
Esq., b. at Quebec, 25 Sept., 1822 ; ob. 15 May, 1849. 
Erected by her mother, Anne Mary Perceval. 

241. Simon Halliday Johnstone, eldest s. of Wm. 
Gracie Johnstone, of Garrock, ob. 9 Feb., 1837. 

242. Louise Catherine Adelaide, w. of Geo. B. 
Cumberland, Capt. 42nd Royal Highlanders, ob. 

7 Dec, 1842, a. 26. 

243. Montagu, ob. I Jan., 1842, a. 8 mths. ; Emily, 
ob. I Ap., 1842, a. 16 ; children of Sir Charles and 
Lady Wake, of Courteen Hall, Northamptonshire. 

244. Emily Wake, ob. 1 Ap., 1842, a. 16. Erected 
by her parents, Charles and Charlotte Wake. 

'245. Grenville Temple, Bart., ob. 18 Feb., 1829, 

a. 61. Placed by his children. 

246. Sophia Ann, eldest d. of Capt. J. T. Coffin, 
R.N., ob. at Siena, 13 Sept., 1849, a. 14. 

247. Anne Harris, ob. 3 Ap., 1830. 

248. Capt. James Chute, 54th Regt., ob. 24 Nov., 
1876, a. 37. Erected by his widow, Eleanor Chute. 

The most westerly row of the S. W. Section : 

249. John Nesbitt Maxwell, Esq., M.D., A.M., 
Trin. Coll. Dublin, and F.R.C.S., Ireland, the last 
surviving member of the family of the late Robert 
Maxwell, Esq., of Clonleigh, co. Donegal, and 
Sumner Hill, Dublin, ob. 14 Feb., 1874, a. 67. Also 
his w., Susannah Fullerton Maxwell, ob. 19 Oct., 
1876, a. 68. 

250. Lillie, only ch. of Wm. S. and F. E. Nye, of 
Marietta, Ohio, ob. 15 Jan., 1873, a. 21. 

251. Ida Augusta Roeneke. born Jackson, b. in 
London, 27 Dec., 1851 ; ob. 6 Jan., 1874. 

252. Annie Woodhouse, d. of Lionel Read Place, 
Esq.. ob. 3 Dec., 1873, a. 27. 

253. Isabella Blagden, b. 30 June, 1816 ; ob. 20 Jan., 

254. Maria, widow of Carlo Ernesto Susanni, 
youngest d. of Wm. Lister, Esq., M.D, b. 8 Dec., 
1806 : ob. 8 Jan., 1874. 

255. Anna Maria, widow of Inman Horner, of 
Virginia, d. of the late JosephPeace, of Philadelphia, 

b. at Charleston, S.C., 2 Jan, 1799 ; ob. 16 June, 

256. Adrian Edward Somerset Marryat, late- 
officer of the Rifle Brigade, ob. 25 Feb., 187(3?), a. 
28. Arms : Barry of six, on a canton a fleur-de-lis, 
impaling Quarterly, 1 and 4, three fleurs-de-lis ; 
2 and 3, three leopards in pale. 

257. Robert Nicholson, Esq., b. 6 Nov., 1814; ob. 
10 Dec., 1872. 

258. Charlotte Emilia, d. of the Rev. H. W.. 
Plumptree, Rector of Eastwood, Notts, b. 24 March, 
1843; oft. 22 Nov.. 1872. 

259. Susan M. Dalton, b. in Boston, 25 Ap, 1833 r 
ob. 6 Dec., 1875. 

260. Sir David Dumbreck, K.C.B., b. in 
Aberdeenshire, 1805, Inspector-General of Army 
Hospitals, and Hon. Physician to the Queen. Present 
at Alma, Balaklava, and Inkerman, and at the siege- 
of Sevastopol, for which he received the Crimean 
medal and four clasps, the Turkish medal, and' 
knighthood of the Order of the Mejidie, ob. 
24 Jan., 1876. Erected by his widow. 

261. Jane Miller, nte. Dickson, widow of Wm.. 
Coiiway Gordon, late of H.M.91st Regt., b. 18 Sept. 
1824. ob. 27 Jan, 1876. 

262. Elizabeth Anne, d. of the late Rev. Henry 
Morice, Vicar of Ashwell, Herts, Canon of Lincoln, 
ob. 27 May, 1876, a. 61. 

263. The Rev. Henry Greene, ob. 5 Ap, 1876, a. 68. 

264. Margaret Hoyle. w. of James Thompson, of 
Bradford, Yorks, b. 19 Sept, 1819, ob. 24 May, 1876.. 

265. Hugh Williams Jones, b. 8 Aug., 1843, ob. 
27 Nov., 1876. 

266. L.V.I, b. in Devonshire, ob. 14 Dec., 1876. 
Erected by the mother. 

267. Mary Beatrice, d. of James and Helenr 
McLeod, b. at Montreal, Can., 7 May, 1867, ob, 
13 Jan., 1877. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JDLY n, im. 

From the path on the west side at a lower level : 

268. Henry Howell, of Birmingham, drowned at 
San Vicenzo, 30 May, 1875, a. 52. 

269. Helen, d. of Joseph and Elizabeth Schofield, 
ob. 30 May, 1875. 

270. Cornelia Amory Goddard Loririg, of Boston, 
Mass., b. 27 Sept., 1810; ob. 15 May, 1875. 

271. Ina, d. of Ross Saulter and Mary Holden, 
ob. 19 May, 1875, a. 18. 

272. Richard Gibbons, Captain 60th Royal Rifles, 
2nd s. of the late Sir John Gibbons, Bart., of Stan- 
well Place, Midd., b. 27 Ap., 1807 ; 06. 26 Ap., 1875. 

273. Louisa, widow of David Olyphant King, ob. 
18 Dec., 1874. 

274. Frederica, youngest d. of the late Rev. James 
Williams, A.M., of Pendley Manor, Herts, b. at 
Tring Park, Herts, 27 Feb., 1857 ; ob. 27 Jan., 1875. 

275. Harwick, eldest s. of Richard Doncaster, 
Esq., of Middlethorpe, Newark, Notts, late Captain 
in H.B.M.'s Royal Body-Guard, ob. 7 Jan., 1875, 
A. 37. 

276. Wm. Fawcett, of Mossgill House, West- 
morland, ob. 17 Dec., 1874, a. 75. 

277. Harriet, 2nd d. of John Croft Brooke and 
Mary his w., of Ansthorpe Lodge, Yorks, b. 18 Jan., 
1830; ob. 28 Nov., 1874. 

278. Elizabeth Collins Hanchett, relict of Capt. 
M. Hanchett, R.N., d. of the Rev. C. Rigbye 
Collins, of Bath, Somt., and of Sidmouth, Devon, 
ob. 23 Aug., 1874. 

279. Henry Dorr Child, b. 1821, in Boston, U.S.A., 
ob. 1874. Erected by Addison Child. 

280. William, youngest s. of the late George 
Washington Tremlett, of Bristol, ob. 28 Ap., 1874, 
.a. 24. 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut.-Col. 
18, Hyde Gardens, Eastbourne. 

(To be, continued.) 

THE STRAND HOTEL. There is an in- 
teresting revival of an old name in the 
impending erection on the site of Exeter 
Hall of a huge hotel which the prospectus 
announces as "The New Strand Hotel." The 
name is associated with an earlier under- 
taking, much on the same lines, but situated 
immediately east of St. Mary-le- Strand, 
a site almost entirely absorbed into the 
widened Strand. The Strand Hotel Com- 
pany (capital 100,000?.), having purchased 
;a lease of the site of Lyon's Inn, sold in 
December, 1862, the building material, 
&c., of this and the adjoining property. 
tSee ' Some Account of the Parish of St. 
Clement Danes,' by John Diprose, i. 180, 
ii. 153 ; 'Walks and Talks about London,' 
by Timbs, pp. 1-7. The information in 
"Old-Time Aldwych, the Kingsway,' &c., 
l>y " Charles Gordon," is only a repetition 
of Diprose' s data.) 

The clearance involved by this and subse- 
quent purchases to 22 March, 1864, included 
the told " Dog Tavern," and the total area 
provided was for a southern block having 
frontages of 68ft. in the Strand and 68ft. 

10 in. to Holywell Street ; and a northern 
block having frontages of 191ft. 6 in. to 
Wych Street, 13 ft. 2 in. to Newcastle Street, 
and 180 ft. to Holywell Street. The build- 
ings planned for these sites included 24 shop 
properties and a huge public hall, 145ft. 
by 67 ft., having communication in the 
basement with the Strand frontage. Above 
the shops and hall, the hotel a superstruc- 
ture of four floors would provide nearly 
300 rooms. There is a copy of the prospectus 
in the Guildhall Library. 

The scheme for several reasons did not 
succeed. The hall and its connecting sub- 
way, the shops, and the mezzanine floor 
were built, but not completed when building 
operations ceased : 

" The buildings, exposed to the elements, com- 
menced to decay; massive walls, lofty pillars 
reaching to the roof, across which are giant girders 
of mighty weight and size, are all mouldering to 
a state of ruin. The site of Lyon's Inn is still 
the seat of desolation and decay." Diprose, i. 182. 

Except for the completion of the shops, 
the first important utilization of the site 
was the building in 1868 of the Globe 
Theatre. It was opened on 28 November 
under the management of Mr. Sefton Parry. 
Almost immediately afterwards part of the 
huge cellar or excavation that was intended 
for the public hall was fitted as a theatre, 
and on 29 Oct., 1870, the Opera Comique 
was opened with * Les Pres Saint Gervais,' 
by Sardou, performed by the company 
from the Theatre Dejazet. 

The subsequent history of these two 
theatres need not be detailed. Neither 
was of importance, although at both several 
memorable successes were attained ; but 
the Globe was too small, and the Opera 
Comique too much handicapped by position. 
Its front entrance for stalls and balcony 
was in the Strand, whence the mirror-lined 
tunnel led to the auditorium. Access to 
the gallery was obtained from Wych Street ; 
and all those behind the footlights found 
their way thither through a narrow doorway 
in Newcastle Street. When the final clear- 
ance came, and these theatres, with all their 
neighbourhood, fell under the Holborn 
to Strand Improvement, the building 
material of the Opera Comique was sold in 
55 lots on 31 Jan., 1901, and that of the 
Globe on 12 May, 1903. 

The shop property was generally success- 
ful after 1870. With the Holywell Street 
frontage of the southern block Messrs. 
W. & A. Denny were associated until the 
end. Journalism was represented in the 
Strand front by* 1 The^ London Reader and 

10 s. x. JULY ii, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


England ; but the Wych Street side, subject 
to many vicissitudes, was at different times 
used as a pantechnicon, cheap lodging- 
house, and offices under the title of St. 
Mary's Chambers. 

Although the improvement is now com- 
plete, and it only requires new buildings 
to efface entirely all recollection of the old, 
it is still possible to see recumbent on the 
declivities of the island site two brick piers 
with stuccoed rustic ornamentation, which 
may be authoritatively identified as relics 
of that ill-judged scheme the Strand Hotel. 

There are 37 editions of this old nursery 
rime in the British Museum Library, 
ranging from the second in 1806 to 1892, 
and including two translations in 1860 [?] 
one into Danish, and the other into Dutch. 
There is also a sequel by W. F., which is 
a copy of the style in every respect. In a 
recently published book we get the author's 
name from a copy of the first edition, which 
is of sufficient interest to be chronicled 
in 'N. & Q.' At Kitley, Yealmpton, co. 
Devon, the seat of the Bastard family, is 
a small volume, about four inches square, 
illustrated with little woodcuts. Inside the 
book is this note : 

" Original Presentation Copy of ' Mother Hub- 
"bard,' written at Kitley by Sarah Catherine Martin, 
and dedicated to John Pollexfen Bastard, M.P. 
Mother Hubbard was, as is believed, the house- 
keeper at Kitley at that time." 
Then follows the dedication : 

" To J. [P.] B. Esq. M.P. County of at whose 

suggestion and at whose House these Notable 
Sketches were designed, this V^ ume i g with all 
suitable deference Dedicated by his Humble Servant, 
S. C. M. Published 1 June 1805." Warner's 
* History of Yealmpton,' p. 94. 

The initial P. does not occur in the second 
edition, consequently I have placed it in 
brackets. It is possible the skit was under- 
stood by the members of the family at the 
time, though the meaning is now lost. 

The dedication of the sequel is as follows : 

" To P. A. County of at whose suggestion these 

Notable Sketches were designed : This Volume is 
with all suitable deference Dedicated by her most 
Immble Servant, W. F." 

The text and illustrations are quite equal 
to the original. AYEAHR. 

RUSHLIGHTS. An old man living at 
Horley in the beginning of this century 
remembered the " cast-iron " dish in use 
for holding the grease through which rushes 
were drawn " a dozen times backwards 
pnd forwards." It rested on what he called 

" bran-dogs." I have a rough sketch of 
this, drawn from his description. Con- 
firmative of this, Aubrey, in 1673, says that 
at Ockley in Surrey '"the people draw peeled 
rushes through melted grease, which yields 
a sufficient light for ordinary use, is very 
cheap and useful, and burns long." These 
rushlights were fixed in stands made for 
the purpose, some of which were high, to 
stand in the ground, and some low, on the 
table. These stands had an iron part 
something like a pair of pliers, and the 
rush was shifted forward from time to time 
as it burnt down in the two closing parts 
that held it (see Cobbett's 'Cottage Eco- 
nomy'). Cobbett was "bred and brought 
up mostly by rushlight," and he did not find 
that he saw less clearly than other people. 
The rush-holder was in some parts known 
as " Tom Candlestick," an upright pole, 
&c., with pincers at its head to hold candles 
(Hodgson MS., quoted in Heslop's ' North- 
umberland Glossary ' ; see also examples 
in the City Museum, Guildhall). 

Decayed labourers, women and children 
used to gather the rushes late in summer. 
As soon as they were cut they were flung 
into water and kept there ; otherwise they 
would dry and shrink, and the peel would 
not run, that is, the bark could not be 
stripped from the pith. Of this bark, how- 
ever, one small strip was left to hold the 
Eith together. When peeled, they must be 
leached on grass and take the dew for some 
nights, after which they were dried in the 
sun (see Southey's ' Commonplace Book,' 
2nd series, p. 350). Rushlights were known 
to the Romans (vide Fosbroke's 'Encyclo- 
paedia of Antiquities,' vol. i. p. 229 ; and 
Pliny, xvi. 37). 


"THE UPPER THAMES." It may be 
worth noting that under the new division 
of the river between the Port of London 
authority and a new Board for " the Upper 
Thames," the latter term will mean the 
river above Teddington. Formerly the Port 
of London used to extend to Staines, and 
the law of the Thames in several matters 
as, for example, fishery and the towing- 
path is and will continue different below 
Staines from what it is above. Once upon 
a time, however, there were two bodies of 
rulers, afterwards brought together in the 
Conservancy ; and the Upper Thames Navi- 
gation meant the river above a much higher 
point than Staines itself, probably not 
always the same point at one time Reading. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rio s. x. JULY n, im 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

SIB GEORGE SOMERS, 1554-1610. On the 
25th of this month, the 299th anniversary 
of the shipwreck which brought about the 
colonization of the Bermudas, a handsome 
memorial brass, by Singers of Frome, will 
be unveiled in the historic church of White- 
church Canonicorum, Dorset, where the 
gallant sailor Sir George Somers was buried 
in July, 1611. The funds for its erection 
have been collected by General Sir H. Le 
Guay Geary, K.C.B., ex-Governor of Ber- 
mudas, the Rev. H. Stubbs, and the Rev. 
A. Welch, the last being the present Vicar 
of Whitechurch. The Bermudians con- 
template a Somers pageant for the approach- 
ing tercentenary. 

Somers is essentially a Dorset worthy. 
He was M.P. for Lyme Regis in 1603-4, 
and Mayor of that town in 1605. His heart 
was buried in the Bermudas, but his nephew 
Matthew Somers brought his body home, 
and the entry of its burial is clearly recorded 
in the Whitechurch registers. In all pro- 
bability he was interred below the chantry 
which belonged to his manor house of 
Bearne or Berne, and is now used as a vestry. 
A great portion of Somers' s abode is still 
in existence, although the front is modern- 
ized. Besides the Whitechurch property, 
he left three messuages in Lyme Regis and 
the manor of Upwey, " alias Waybay 
House." His estate was bequeathed to 
Matthew Somers, although a cousin Nicholas 
Somers was stated heir-at-law. There are 
portraits of Somers and his wife in existence, 
painted by Vansomer. 

I am anxious (1) to discover whether 
Sir George Somers married once or twice, 
as the name of his wife is stated to be 
Joanna, whereas on the portrait she is 
described as Winifred ; (2) to be able to 
identify clearly the manor of Up way, " alias 
Weybay [sic] House " ; (3) to learn some 
details of Rose, daughter of Sir George 
Somers, and of her marriage to a member 
of the Bellamy family, as the Somers 
portraits are still in possession of their 
descendants or kinsmen ; and (4) to ascer- 
tain if any descendants of Matthew or 
Nicholas Somers are in existence. (5) If 
Sir George Somers married twice, it would 
be interesting to know whether his daughter 
was the child of Joanna or Winifred Somers. 

Any other particulars of the Dorset family 
of Somers and its connexion with the 
Bellamys would be gratefully received. 

The Knapp, Bradpole, Bridport. 

WINDLE FAMILY. Can any of your 
readers give me information about the- 
Windle family at the end of the eighteenth 
century ? I believe they came originally 
from Lancashire, and used for arms Azure, 
a lion rampant argent ; crest, a demi-lion,. 
in the dexter paw a shield ; and they quar- 
tered Maxwell of Monreith. Replies may 
be sent to me direct. MRS. SAINTHILL. 

East Worlington, N. Devon. 


Guests of the ages, at To-morrow's door 
Why shrink we ? The long track behind us lies ; 
The lamps gleam and the music throbs before, 
Bidding us enter ; and I count him wise 
Who loves so well man's noble memories, 
He needs must love man's nobler hopes yet more. 

Where can I find the line (referring to 
onion in a salad) 

And, half detected, animate the whole? 


ANONYMOUS WORKS. Who was the- 
author of the following book ? 

" Animadversions upon a Letter and Paper, first 
sent to his Highness by certain gentlemen and 
others in Wales : And since printed, and published 
to the world by some of the Subscribers. By one 
whose desire and endeavor is to preserve peace and 
safety, by removing offence arid enmity. Printed 
in the year 1656." 

It is a small quarto of (iv)-f 104 pp. 

A. B. C. 

" Marriage Rites, Customs, and Ceremonies of 
the Nations of the Universe." Signed A. H. 1824. 

F. G. H. 

Wanted information of the ancestors of 
Dr. Joseph Mason of the parish of Staple- 
ton, Gloucestershire, born 1711, died 
28 Sept., 1779. He married three times,, 
his third wife being Sarah Collins, b. 1709. 
He owned much property in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bristol, and was a great philan- 
thropist. Arms used by him : lion rampant 
gules. Is there any mention of him in 
the Rev. Francis Bromby's ' Hist. Norfolk,' 
William Mason of Necton Hall bearing the- 
same crest ? No information required of 
the descendants of the above Dr. Mason. 

What arms were borne by Robert Mason, 
Lord of the Manor of Tedstone Delamere,. 

io s. x. JULY ii, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Herefordshire, b. 1621, d. April, 1684, mar- 
ried Hester ? George Mason, supposed 

son of above, of Allensmore Manor, d. 1720, 
married Dorothy Crump, daughter of Sir 
Richard Crump. P. M. M. C. 

COL. MOMPESSON. Could you tell me 
anything about Col. John Mompesson, of 
the King's or 8th Regiment of Foot, and 
I Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight ? 
He died 3 Oct., 1768, aged 46, and was 
buried in Weaverham Church. A tablet to 
his memory was erected by Jenny Gambier 
and Frances Oliver, his only surviving 
daughters. I should be glad to know 
whether any representatives of this family 
are living, and also whether they are con- 
nected with the well-known Mompesson 
Vicar of Eyam. FRANCIS LONG. 

Weaverham Vicarage, Northwich. 

Old Curiosity Shop,' ch. xlvii., the single 
gentleman asks Mrs. Nubbles about her 
children, " Are they christened ? " and 
receives the answer, " Only half -baptized 
as yet, sir," whereupon he says, "I'm god- 
father to both of 'em." WTiat does this 
mean ? Does it refer to a private baptism 
in contrast to the reception into the Church 
afterwards ? Of this, I think, there has 
been no other indication. 


Sibson Rectory, Atherstone. 

WORCESTER. I wish to learn the connexion 
between Coxe of Clent and Swynford, 
and Thomas Cox of Crowle, eldest son of 
Thomas Cocks of Bishops Cleeve, who died 
1601. He married Elizabeth Holland 
(Lancashire), and left ten sons and three 
daughters. The sons appear to have owned 
properties in various parts of Worcester- 
shire and Herefordshire. Thomas Coxe 
of Clent married Elizabeth, dau. of 

Rotton(?), co. Warwick. John Coxe, his 
eldest son, born Feb., 1578, d. 1644, married 
Dorothy, dau. of John Nash of Rushock, 
co. Worcester. Their son John Coxe married 
Elizabeth, dau. of John Vernon, Rector of 
Hanbury, Cheshire, and died 1705, aged 
seventy-five. They were both buried in 
Clent Church, and there is a monument 
to their memory. Their eldest son John 
was living in 1750. Whom did he marry 
Mary Dickings ? His sister Susannah mar- 
ried Edward Ingram of Clifton-on-Teme, 
co. Worcester, and a son Joseph, a barrister, 
bapt. March, 1677, d. 1737, is buried in 

Wstated also the date of marriage of Mary, 
dau. of William Amphlett of Clent, to 
William Cox of Claines, a grandson of 
Thomas Cocks of Claines. A reference is 
made in the pedigree of Bague of Brettell 
and Swynford to Thomas Cocks, but I 
cannot find it. 

The name Coxe is so differently spelt in 
apparent branches of the same family, it is 
difficult to connect from one generation to 
another. The family of Cocks are said to 
have migrated from Kent temp. Henry VIII., 
when they were of some importance. Would 
this be Cocks Hall, near Sandgate ? 

P. M. M. C. 

EARLY LAW TERMS. In going through 
the earlier Feet of Fines one meets with 
plaintiff, deforciant, impedient, tenant, 
claimant, querent, &c., as descriptive of the 
legal relationship of the parties concerned 
in the lawsuit. From the use of any par- 
ticular one of these terms can any inference 
be drawn as to (1) the exact family relation- 
ship of the parties (father, son, parties 
contracting marriage), (2) the character of 
the case (friendly or otherwise), (3) the nature 
of this action at law, t.e., whether a matter 
of dower, sale, pure gift, a younger son's 
portion, a son's allowance during the life 
of his father, a grant for limited term, &c. ? 

ANVERS. I should be glad to know what 
relationship existed between Robert de 
Anvers and Muriel his wife on the one 
hand, and either Gilbert de Basevil or Alan 
Basset on the other. 

I should also be glad to know the exact 
relationship between William de Englefield 
and any of the above. These people were 
parties to Fines in 1241 in the counties of 
Cornwall, Oxon, and Sussex. 


" WHIFF," A BOAT. Where can one find a 
description of a small boat (sort of canoe) 
called a whiff, said to have been first made 
and used upon the Thames ? As the name 
of a boat, " whiff " does not occur in Prof. 
Wright's 'English Dialect Dictionary'; at 
least I. failed to see it recorded in this sense, 
both in the main work and in the Supple- 
ment. H. KREBS. 

" THURCET." Gilbert White in his ' Anti- 
quities of Selborne ' (Letter vii.) tells us that 
the Prior of Selborne " challenged the right 
of pillory, thurcet, and furcas, and every 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 11, im 

manorial privilege." What is the meaning 
of " thurcet " ? In Letter xxvi. the word 
in the same context is spelt " thurset." 
Is it a misprint for thew, an old law term, 
which is rendered in the * Promptorium ' by 
" collistrigium " ? A. L. MAYHEW. 


HEATH HILL. I have a silver medal, dated 
1794, presented to Mile. Owen. On the 
obverse is a lady, representing Minerva, 
pointing out to a young girl a temple at the 
top of a steepish hill. Does any one know 
anything of that school ? E. O. 

I once read an old novel ; the title I cannot 
remember, but the time in which the cha- 
racters nourished was the middle of the 
seventeenth century. An inn is mentioned 
therein whose sign was " The Protector's 
Head." Are any such signs known to have 
been in existence during the rule of Oliver 
Cromwell ? ASTARTE. 

BRIDGE. I have read somewhere that 
Milton was "vomited" out of his college. 
Can any one give me the reference ? 


The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

" MESCHIANZA." In a biography of ' Re- 
becca Franks,' by Max J. Kohler, A.M., LL.B., 
New York, 1894, the following passage 
occurs : 

"The 'Meechianza was a gorgeous fete given to 
General Howe before his departure from Phila- 
delphia in 1778, and at which Major Andre was a 
presiding genius." 

Whatsis the origin of the word " Mes- 
chianza" ? ISRAEL SOLOMONS. 

" COCK-FOSTER." The Athenceum of 
30 May, p. 663, has some interesting refer- 
ences to " cockpit." 

* N.E.D.,' in connexion with the word 
cocker," has " one who breeds or trains 
game-cocks"; " d. fig. to foster, indulge 
(an appetite, idea, hope, evil, &c.)" ; also 
' N.E.D.' has " Cock-master. One who 
rears game-cocks." Holden's 'Directory,' 
dated 1805, has London, " West farmer 
and cock-foster, Endfield-chace." Does the 
word " cock-foster " appear in any glossary ? 

his Report on the MSS. of the Bishop of 
Exeter published last year (' Report on MSS. 
in Various Collections/ vol. iv. p. '18, Hist. 

MSS. Comm.) Mr. R. L. Poole refers to an 
appropriation by Bishop Peter of Exeter 
of the church of Wydecombe to the Dean 
and Chapter, dated 3 Feb., 1283/4 ; and 
in a note states, regarding the bishop's 
surname, that " the spelling in the Register 
[f. xxv.) is unmistakably Quinel." 

In the same gentleman's Report on the 
MSS. of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter 
(ibid., p. 50) mention is made of a grant of 
about the year 1160, by Probushomo son 
of Segar, to two saddlers, Richard and 
William, of land in St. Martin's Street, one 
of the witnesses being Alfred Quinel, con- 
cerning whose name a note is appended 
stating that " both here and in No. 49 the 
name is clearly Quinel, not Quiuel," No. 49 
being the record of a grant dated 12 March, 
1263, by John of Henleg' to Richard de 
Boscoarso (probably Brentwood), of a shop 
" in magno vico Exonie," and a tenement 
between that shop and the wall by which 
the churchyard of St. Peter is enclosed, 
and which extends from the chapel of SS. 
Simon and Jude westward to the house 
of John Quinel, chaplain of St. Peter the 
Little, eastward (ibid., 69). 

As regards the two latter persons, their 
name may or may not have been Quinel, 
as Mr. Poole reads it ; but with regard to 
Bishop Peter, his name has for many years 
been written Quivel, Quivil, or Quivell, 
as in Jenkins's 'Hist. Exeter,' ed. 2 (1841), 
p. 249. Seeing how difficult it usually is 
to distinguish a written u from an n in early 
MSS., those interested in the Devonshire 
diocese would doubtless be glad of some 
information as to the nature of the distinc- 
tion in the case under consideration which 
enables Mr. Poole to state with absolute 
certainty that the familiar Quivil is to give 
place to the unfamiliar Quinel. 


VIGO BAY, 1702-19. Can any one inform 
me as to the best authorities to consult with 
regard to the English regiments engaged, 
and their lists of killed and wounded, at the 
actions at Vigo Bay, viz., in 1702, under 
Sir George Rooke, and in 1719, under, I 
think, General Stanhope ? R. M. 

STTJFFED CHINE. In which of the English 
counties is the comestible known as " stuffed 
chine" prepared? Is it restricted to the 
shires, where the Danes settled in great 
numbers ? A Leicestershire lady tells me 
that it and frumerty are eaten at sheep- 
shearing suppers in Leicestershire, or were 
while old customs were kept up. N. U. 

10 s. x. JULY ii, 1.908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(10 S. ix. 188, 333, 297, 336, 434.) 

MR. S. L. PETTY' s inquiry as to names 
appearing on Quaker gravestones may be 
answered by the following extract from 
4 The Diaries of Edward Pease,' by Sir 
Alfred E. Pease, Bart. (London, 1907), 
p. 27 : 

"Vaults are rare n Friends' families. Tomb- 
stones have comparatively recently been permitted, 
and no epitaphs are allowed, nor are the grave- 
atones permitted to be ornamental. In all Quaker 
graveyards they are of a uniform plain type. At 
first only a flat stone on the grave was allowed, 
with names and dates. Now headstones of a simple 
pattern have been permitted." 

In the early history of the Society some 
laxity appears to have crept in, for we read 
in J. W. Steel's ' Historical Sketch of the 
Society of Friends in Newcastle and Gates- 
head 1 (London, 1899), p. 40, that in 1703 
" the many gravestones that Shields Friends 
have in their burying-ground " caused 
concern, and their removal was ordered 
" with consent of parties concerned." The 
writer adds that the Shields Friends did 
not wish to remove them, but said they 
would discontinue the practice of putting 
them up. 

At the Yearly Meeting in 1825 liberty was 
granted to the Friends in Newcastle and dis- 
trict to have gravestones 20 in. by 30 in. 
and 6 in. thick. But not a single Quaker 
family in Newcastle made use of it, and 
their burying-ground, containing over 400 
bodies, remains plain and unencumbered. 
Since it was closed, however, the various 
town cemeteries have been utilized, and in 
them Friends have erected tombstones as 
it pleased them. RICHARD WELFOBD. 

The following extracts from -a work rarely 

seen by others than those who are members 

of the Society of Friends i.e., 'The Book of 

Christian Discipline ' may be of interest : 


"4. This Meeting, after serious and deliberate 
consideration of the subject, is of the judgment, 
that our religious Society has a sound Christian 
testimony to bear against the erection of monu- 
ments, as well as against all inscriptions of a 
eulogistic character, over the graves of their de- 
ceased friends. Nevertheless, it is of the opinion 
that it is no violation of such testimony to place 
over or beside a grave a plain stone, the inscription 
on which is confined to a simple record of the name, 
age, and date of the decease of the individual 

interred. The object in this instance is simply to 
define the position of the grave, with a view to the 
satisfaction of surviving relatives, and the pre- 
venting of its premature reopening. 

"Friends are therefore left at liberty to adopt the 
use of such stones in any of our burial-grounds ; it 
being distinctly understood that, in all cases, they 
are to be put down under the direction of the 
Monthly Meeting ; so that in each particular burial- 
ground, such a uniformity may be preserved as may 
effectually guard against any distinction being 
made in that place between the rich and the poor. 
1850, 1861, 1883." 


I have met with many headstones with 
merely the initials and date of the person 
buried, but until I made a visit to the 
republic of Andorra in the Pyrenees, between 
France and Spain, I never saw any burial- 
grounds without tombstones to mark a 
person's place of burial. There were no 
tombstones or inscriptions ; the burial- 
grounds were enclosed near the churches. 

Whatever MR. S. L. PETTY may have 
observed to the contrary in Quaker burial- 
grounds in the North, here at Exeter the 
fifty-six modest headstones marking the 
graves of members of that particular sect, 
still in existence in their graveyard, are all 
inscribed, although, as a rule, briefly. A 
fair tablet in the porch of the chapel records : 

"The first Meeting House of the Society of 
Friends in Exeter stood here from 1690 to 1852, 
when it was sold. A second, built by the Society 
on Friar's Walk in 1835, was also sold in 1869. This 
site was afterwards repurchased, and the present 
structure was erected in 1876." 
Framed in an upper room, known as the 
library, is an interesting old print repre- 
senting the original structure, whilst in its 
foreground are seen several members of 
the community, male and female, wearing 
their particular form of dress. Although, 
as the tablet explains, the Friends disposed 
of their place of worship in 1852, and cer- 
tainly for the succeeding twenty-four years 
held services elsewhere, the old burial-ground 
has always been sacredly preserved, and an 
inspection of the more than half a hundred 
headstones it contains quite upsets A. N. Q.'s 
impression, as well as MR. J. BAVTNGTON 
JONES'S statement (at 10 S. ix. 233) that 
the Society of Friends did not allow memo- 
rial stones until 1851. Nor was any atten- 
tion (at least here in Exeter) paid to a rule 
laid down in that year specifying that "plain 
York or Portland stones, not exceeding 
3 ft. in length and 2 ft. in breadth, were 
to be laid flat and uniformly on the middle 
of the graves." In the first place, I know 



of no memorial stone at all in any burial- 
ground in the West Country made of York 
stone, and, secondly, all those in the Exeter 
Quaker cemetery stand perpendicular, with 
their bases deeply sunk in the ground. The 
oldest dated memorial here is a large stone, 
upon which may be read : 

"Thomas Sanders of this City, merchant, de- 
parted this life the 2nd day of the 2nd month 
(called February), 1763. And, at his pressing Re- 
quest, the remains of his Wife, Sarah, the daughter 
of Michael Lee Dicker and of Alice his Wife, were 
removed from the Family Cave in this Burial - 
Ground and deposited here by the side of her 
Husband. Also the body of Sarah Maria Sanders, 
daughter of Thomas and Sarah Sanders, who de- 
parted this life the 17th of May, 1777." 

Two other memorials simply possess 
initials, one " A. L. R.," the second (a 
very ancient Dartmoor granite headstone) 
" M. G." A few others possess the initial 
letters with a date beneath. These read 
respectively : " W. I. 1779," " I. W. 1781," 
"I. W. 1783," "I. C. 1785," and " J. A. 
1871." Yet another is inscribed, " S m Wil- 
liams, 1799," whilst five other stones to 
as many different members of the Williams 
family but bearing rather fuller details 
stand close by. 

The Quaker body, like the Jews, are not 
much in evidence in Exeter. The most 
modern stone that appears to have beetn 
erected in this sweetly pretty God's acre is 
lettered : 

"Ann Priscilla, Wife of Robert Dymond, died 
28th of 4th month, 1864, aged 62. Robert Dymond, 
died 4th of 9th month, 1866, aged 68. Emma Anne 
Dymond, daughter of the above, died 18th of 4th 
month, 1905, aged 65. Francis Williams Dymond. 
Born 19th of llth month, 1825, died 9th' of 9th 
month, 1907." 

In immediate proximity to this upright 
stone are five others, all inscribed to the 
memory of various members of the same 

It is worthy of record that Emma A. 
Dymond and Francis W. Dymond both 
beloved, as I can personally testify, by all 
who knew them passed away after the time 
when burials in this city's graveyards were 
prohibited. To overcome the difficulty of 
interment, therefore, they were, in succes- 
sion, cremated at Woking, and their ashes 
afterwards deposited in the grave in question. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

SURREY GARDENS (10 S. ix. 490). MR. 
JODE will find a good deal of valuable 
information relating to these gardens in 
Mr. Warwick Wroth's * Cremorne and the 

Later London Gardens,' 1907, pp. 83-92. 
It may be noted that the exact date of the 
opening of the gardens, which is not given 
by Mr. Wroth, was 13 August, 1831. The 
old Zoological Gardens were sold in 1856, 
and were reopened in the July of that year, 
the adjective " Zoological " being dropped, 
and the property becoming known simply 
as " The Royal Surrey Gardens." A mag- 
nificent music hall was built in the grounds, 
which was called " The Royal Surrey Music 
Hall"; but this edifice was burnt down 
on Tuesday, 11 June, 1861. A portion of 
the roof was under repair, and it was sup- 
posed that the plumbers had left a portable 
firepan burning while they went to dinner. 
This misfortune proved the death-blow of 
the gardens. They were " opened again," 
to borrow the words of E. L. Blanchard in 
The Era Almanac for 1871, p. 4, 

"in 1862 with a picture of the City and Bay of 
Naples, and a variety of miscellaneous amuse- 
ments, but the place had lost its popularity, and 
soon after its grounds were more advantageously 
occupied as the temporary hospital of St. Thomas." 

When the hospital buildings were completed 
on their present site in 1871, the gardens 
reverted to their former uses ; but they 
merely dragged on a lingering existence, 
and the property was sold for building 
purposes in 1877. In March, 1878, a boxing 
entertainment was given in the theatre, 
and very shortly afterwards the house- 
breakers were set to work, and the grounds 
were covered over with streets built in the 
style which is familiar to the traveller who 
enters London by one of its southern 
portals. W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

These Gardens were first opened as a 
pleasure resort, under the title of the Surrey 
Zoological Gardens, on 13 August, 1831, by 
Mr. Edward Cross, who brought a menagerie 
there from Exeter. On 15 July, 1856, the 
large Music Hall was opened in the grounds. 
It cost 18,000?. and held 13,000 persons. A 
grand concert was conducted by Jullien, 
who produced * The Messiah,' among the 
soloists being Clara Novello, Miss Dolby, 
Sims Reeves, and other eminent vocalists. 
On the 19th of the following October there 
was a false alarm of fire while Spurgeon 
was preaching at this hall, seven persons 
being killed and upwards of fifty injured. 
The Guards were feasted in this hall on 
25 August, 1856, on their return from the 
Crimea. On 11 June, 1861, it was burnt 
down, but speedily rebuilt ; and in the 
following year it was utilized for the recep- 
tion of patients from St. Thomas's Hospital. 

io s. x. JULY ii, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The Gardens were, I think, finally closed 
some time in 1877, for on 6 February, 1878, 
the ground was purchased by Messrs. Sutton 
& Dudley for building purposes under the 
auspices of the Newington Vestry. 


See The Mirror, vol. xviii. (origin of the 
Gardens) and vol. xix. p. 2 (i.e., 1831 and 
1832). Mr. Wroth in his ' London Pleasure 
Gardens,' 1896, gives the dates of the 
Gardens' existence as being from 1831 to 


" SABABITICKE " (10 S. ix. 488). May 
not this be the poet's orthography for 
Sybaritic ? A stomach conceived as a 
Sybaritic sea is, presumably, an uncommonly 
luxurious receptacle, or, as the delineator 
himself observes, " a grand confounder of 
demulcing meate." The self-indulgent 
owner of such an abyss is thus typically de- 
lineated in ' The Faerie Queene,' I. iv. 21 : 
His belly was upblowne with luxury, 
And eke with fatnesse swollen were his eyne ; 
And like a Crane his necke was long and fyne 
With which he swallowed up excessive feast, 
For want whereof poore people oft did pyne. 


From the sense of the passage quoted by 
MB. BRADLEY, the inference seems plausible 
that " Sybariticke " may be intended. 

W. B. 

May not this be a misspelling or misprint 
for " Sybariticke "=Gr. 2v/2apiT/Kos ? 


[Other correspondents suggest the same.] 

442, 492). Those who care to pursue this 
subject will find a good deal of information 
concerning the author a much- debated 
point at 2 S. iv. 21 ; v. 72. 


PLAXTOL (10 S. ix. 430, 477). There is 
no doubt that " Plaxtol," the name of the 
Kentish village near Sevenoaks, is identical 
with the Kentish dialect word " playstool," 
which is very common throughout Kent 
for a public recreation ground, as may be 
seen in ' E.D.D.' (s.v. ' Play,' sb. 8). What 
is the common origin of these words " Plax- 
tol " and " playstool " ? In Selborne in 
Hampshire the village recreation ground 
was originally called " the Playstow," which 
form makes the etymology quite plain. 
An account of the word is given in Gilbert 
White's 'Antiquities of Selborne,' Letter X. 

(ed. E. Blyth, p. 348), from which it appears 
that in the year 1271 Sir Adam Gurdon, 
in conjunction with his wife Constantia r 
granted to the prior and convent of Sel- 
borne all his right and claim to a certain 
place called " La Pleystow," in the village 
aforesaid, " in liberam, puram, et perpetuam 
elemosinam." White goes on to tell us that 
"this Pleystow (locus ludorum) is a level area, 
near the church of about 44 yards by 36, and is- 
known now by the name of ' the Plestor.' It con- 
tinues still, as it was in old times, to be the scene 
of recreation for the youths and children of the 
neighbourhood ; and impresses an idea on the mind 
that this village, even in Saxon times, could not be 
the most abject of places, when the inhabitants 
thought proper to assign so spacious a spot for the 
sports and amusements of its young people." 

The Old English form of pleystow is plegstow T 
a word which occurs frequently in vocabu- 
laries in the sense of a place for play, and 
as a rendering for gymnasium, amphi- 
theatrum, palaestra. For the final I in the 
name " Plaxtol " compare " Bristol," the- 
representative of the ' Old English Chronicle' 
form Bricgstow. The x may be explained 
as due to assimilation, gs becoming ks r 
represented by x. The O.E. plegstow sur- 
vives in " Plaistow," a word which appears- 
in * The Clergy List ' as a place-name in 
Essex, Kent, and Sussex. The word is not- 
now known in Benenden, Kent, as was- 
stated at the last reference. 



THBOUGH FEAB (10 S. ix. 445). 

" When the Duke of Alva was in Brussels, about 
the beginning of the tumults in the Netherlands, 
he had sate down before Hulst in Flanders, and 
ther was a Provost Marshall in his Army, who was 
a favourit of his ; and this Provost had put som to- 
death by secret commission from the Duke : Ther 
was one Captain Bolea in the Army, who was an 
intimate frend of the Provosts, and one Evening: 
late, he went to the said Captains Tent, ana 
brought with him a Confessor, and an Executioner,, 
as it was his custom ; He told the Captain, that h& 
was come to execut his Excellencies Commission, 
and Martiall Law upon him ; the Captain started- 
up suddenly, his Hair standing at an end, and 
being struck with amazement, ask'd him wherin 
had he offended the Duke ; the Provost answer'd. 
Sir I com not to expostulat the busines with you r 
but to execut my Commission, therfore I pray pre- 
pare yourself, for ther's your Ghostly Father and 
Executioner ; so he tell on his knees before ther 
Priest, and having don, the Hangman going to put 
the Halter about his Neck, the Provost threw it 
away, and breaking into laughter, told him, ther 
was no such thing, and that he had don this to try 
his courage, how he could bear the terrour of death, 
the Captain look'd ghastly upon him, and said, 
then Sir get you out of my Tent, for you have don' 
me a very ill office; The next morning the said 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY n, iocs. 

Captain Bolea, though a young man of about thirty, 
had his Hair all turn'd gray, to the admiration of 
a,ll the World, and of the Duke of Alva himself, 
who question'd him about it, but he would confesse 
nothing." Ho wel's 'Epistolae Ho-Elianse,' Letter 
xxviii., to Mr. R. L. Marchant. 

I quote from the edition of 1645, sec. 4, 
pp. 38-9. The sequel to the story is in- 
teresting, but the passage is too long to 

I have also just come across the following 
passage in * Cameos from English History,' 
by the author of ' The Heir of Redclyffe,' 
Sixth Series, p. 54 : 

"One of those who were moulded by it [the 
preaching of Fran?ois de Sales] was a young widow, 
Jeanne Francpise de Chantal. She was the daughter 
of Benique Fremyot, the President of the Parlia- 
ment of Dijon, a good old man, and so staunch 
both to loyalty and Catholicism, that the tidings 
that the Huguenot Henri IV. had become king 
caused him such distress as to turn half his hair 
white in one night." 


Thirty years ago the adjutant of an English 
yeomanry cavalry regiment was a gallant 
officer who had been in the Indian Mutiny, 
and whose hair had suddenly become white 
through intense anxiety for his wife, who 
was placed in a position of great peril. 
This happily passed, and the united pair 
survived for a lengthened period to tell 
the tale. I do not pledge myself to "a 
single night," but in the above instance 
the hair grew white in some short period 
closely approximate. W. B. H. 

In ' The Life of "Lord" George Sanger,' 
1908, p. 56, there is an account of a well- 
known actor named Clark, with luxuriant 
brown curls, taking to his bed for a week 
from fright, and when next he appeared 
Among his friends his hair was as white 
as driven snow. Clark was attended by a 
doctor. There cannot be any doubt about 
the truth of Mr. Sanger' s statement. Clark 
appears to have been a strong but super- 
stitious man. When writing my volume 
' At the Sign of the Barber's Pole,' I came 
across several instances of the hair turning 
suddenly white through fright, but the one 
indicated by Mr. Sanger is far better than 
.any other I have read. 

Hull Royal Institution. 

Physiological science affirms that it is 
a physical impossibility for the hair to turn 
suddenly white. Pathology, even, has no 
theory by which to account for it. Kaposi, 
of Vienna, says that " neither a single hair, 
nor all the hairs together, can turn grey 

otherwise than gradually : they cannot be- 
come grey suddenly." He mentions, how- 
ever, one case reported by Dr. Landois ; 
and Pfaff, who has experimentally turned 
hairs white by chlorine, believes it possible 
that a fluid having a very rapidly cauterizing 
or bleaching action may be secreted by 
the skin under the influence of intense 
mental action. " Who shall decide when 
doctors disagree ? " Meanwhile the his- 
torical instances are numerous : Marie An- 
toinette, on the night following the discovery 
of the king at Varennes ; Sir Thomas More, 
after his sentence ; King Lewis of Bavaria, 
when he had condemned his wife to death ; 
shipwrecked people ; and many others. 
Byron could hardly be expected to hold out 
against such an array of evidence. Indeed, 
in his day the possibility would hardly have 
been denied by any but skin specialists, and 
even they were, presumably, not more 
unanimous than they are now, a hundred 
years later. J. FOSTER PALMER. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

[MR. M. L. R. BRESLAR also refers to Howel.] 

WHITE COCK v. THE DEVIL (10 S. ix. 486). 
The pure white cock as a potent factor 
in rebutting the approaches of Satan is 
one of the features of British folk-lore. 
He is not only the ornament, but the 
efficient protector of the premises to which 
he is attached ; he is a delight to look upon, 
and his opportune crowing steadily averts 
disaster. An apposite illustration of the 
legendary services one of his class rendered 
aforetime was till quite recently associated 
with the seaboard of Fif eshire. It is averred 
that a sailing craft, awaiting cargo, was 
once lying off shore directly opposite a 
large farm on a headland, and that twice 
at midnight those keeping watch noticed 
that a meteor, manifestly descending upon 
the farmer's stacks, was instantly deflected 
and carried into indefinite space when the 
white cock crew. The curiosity of these 
observant mariners having been keenly 
aroused by the repetition of such a notable 
incident, they somewhat heartlessly resolved 
to verify the conclusion to which they had 
been inferentially driven. To trace an 
effect to its undoubted cause is one of the 
distinctive glories of humanity, and the 
process may have appropriate illustration, 
even in the speculative enterprise of those 
whose business it is to convey potatoes 
in a coasting sloop. Thus it came about 
that, after a hard bargain with the reluctant 
farmer presently destined, no doubt, to 
suffer repentance and poignant remorse 

10 s. x. JULY ii, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the faithful chanticleer was removed from 
his sphere of high duty and placed on board 
the ill-omened vessel. At the usual hour 
the following night, it is almost unnecessary 
to add, the meteor floated downwards as 
before ; and, as these was no protesting 
voice to drive the evil thing afar, it descended 
into the stackyard and straightway con- 
sumed it to ashes. THOMAS BAYNE. 

S. ix. 325, 392). It may be worth putting 
on record, in these days of vanishing folk- 
tales, that in my youth in North Antrim 
rsuch tales as Mr. Drew's were often told. 
'There was, however, this difference, that the 
strange creature seen in certain carefully 
avoided spots was not, like the Cornish 
monster, passing on its way, but rolling in 
.agony on the ground. 

I recall one field off the high road to 
Coleraine, which certainly contained some- 
thing sinister, for our horses could never pass 
it without shying, and we were generally 
^driven by a roundabout way to avoid it. 
I have often, when riding alone, seen my 
liorse's ears pricked, and known him to shy, 
when I, despising the terrors of Irish ser- 
vants, rode past the haunted field. Every 
horse in the stable, whether drawing a heavy 
load or light cart, was equally terrified, 
.and more than once I have known them to 

The account we were always given was 
that they could see by daylight what men 
-could only see by night, namely, a great, 
Tough, dark animal with burning eyes, 
rolling over and over on the grass. It was 
believed to be a soul in torment, but I never 
Tieard any legend as to why that small and 
uninteresting field was the scene of its agony. 
One might fancy that horses, being very sen- 
rsitive as to the presence of a dead member 
of their own species, may have been conscious 
of one buried there. But as the same signs 
of distress were shown by all our horses, 
and those of our neighbours, for many years, 
this explanation does not fit the case. 

Another North Antrim tale bears on this 
"form of apparition. I was told by a very 
respectable young woman that she and her 
widowed mother started very early one 
^summer morning to help to stack peat in 
a bog some miles from their home a very 
poor one. They sat down to rest and eat 
their oaten bread on the turf dyke that 
bordered a lonely mountain road. As they 
sat they heard behind them a horrible growl- 
ing noise and a rushing sound, and before 
they could move a great animal rolled over 

the dyke behind them, almost touching 
them, and sending out a fiery heat as it 
rolled across the road and into a field 
beyond, where iii plunged about as if in 
torture, showing its burning eyes as it 
writhed about. Believing it to be a soul 
in torment, whose sins were too terrible 
for the ordinary punishment, they/ prayed 
for it as soon as they recovered from their 
fright, the memory of which never left 
them. They were told it was always to 
be seen there, and had done some odious 
crime " in the auld ancient^ days " that 
rendered it " past praying for." 

I may add that the date of these appear- 
ances was in the seventies, and that people 
now living can vouch for them. Y. TJ 

[Reply from W. P. CA. next week.] 

HIPPOCRATES LEGEND (10 S. ix. 408). 
There would seem to be some connexion 
between this legend and a passage in the 
thirteenth of the spurious epistles of Hippo- 
crates, where Hippocrates, who has been 
called to Abdera to attend Democritus, 
begs his friend Dionysius to keep an eye 
on his wife during his absence, not that 
he has any special reason to suspect her, 
but because women always want watching. 
Rabelais refers to this in bk. iii. chap. 32. 

BOOKS BY THE TON (10 S. ix. 286). I 
can beat this easily. In 1906 I purchased 
the library of a Mechanics' Institute (some 
three tons eleven hundredweight) for 3?. 10s. 
The majority of the books were in cellars 
adjoining the boilers of the heating appa- 
ratus. The dirt of years, and damp owing 
to railway carriage in open trucks, did not 
improve the temper of those who spent 
weary hours sorting the good from the baa. 
I have selected about a hundred for my 
library, and the rest have been given away 
or sold in ton lots. HERBERT SOUTHAM. 


" ABRACADABRA " (10 S. ix. 467). The 
annotator of Butler's 'Hudibras' (Bonn, 
1859, vol. ii. p. 223, note) says : 

" The word abracadabra for fevers is as old as 
Sammonicus. Haut haut hista pista vista -were 
recommended for a sprain by Cato ; and Homer 
relates that the sons of Autolycus stopped tne 
bleeding of Ulysses' wound by a charm. Soothing 
medicines are still called carminatives, from the 
Latin carmen, a magic formula." 
Melton, in his ' Astrologaster,' p. 45, gives 
a catalogue of many superstitious ceremonies, 
&c., the second of which is " that toothaches, 
agues, cramps, and fevers, and many other 
diseases may be healed by mumbling a few 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY n, im. 

strange words over the head of the deceased." 
On the subject of amulets, including abraca- 
dabra, much information, says Brand 
('Popular Antiquities'), may be obtained 
from an academical dissertation published 
in 1710 at Halle, in Saxony, by Mart. 
Fr. Blumles. Abracadabra is curiously 
illustrated on p. 19, accompanied by two 
or three etymologies of the word. 


[H. P. L. next week.] 

A CHILD (10 S. ix. 227, 338, 494). In other 
days I have myself frequently lifted a con- 
veniently elastic limb over the head of a 
junior, following the achievement with the 
disconcerting assurance that the victim's 
further development in stature was ex- 
tremely improbable. So far as memory 
records, no importance whatever was at- 
tached to the ceremony, but it is interesting 
to note that the tradition, superstition, 
or whatever it may be called, thus lingered 
in St. Andrews and the neighbourhood 
well into the second half of the nineteenth 
century. In all likelihood it exists and 
pleasantly exercises the rising generation 
at the present moment. 


"JIRGAH" (10 S. ix. 427, 472). The 
newspapers seem to have made this word a 
naturalized British subject, but it should 
be spelt jargah, not jirgah. The Pathans 
and Yaghistanis, when conducting a discus- 
sion, are accustomed to sit round in a circle, 
whence they derive the name, which MR. 
JAMES PLATT correctly states to be Persian. 
It is sometimes applied to a drove of deer 
standing in a ring. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

COPE (10 S. ix. 350, 414). On referring to 
Burke' s 'Peerage' I find that the Rev. 
Sir Richard Cope died on 6 November, 
1806, and not, as stated by MRS. J. H. 
COPE, in 1805. In ' Graduati Canta- 
brigienses, 1659-1823,' p. 114, is the 
following : " Cope, Ri. . . . j Clar. I A.B. 
1743. A.M. 1747. S.T.P. 1765." 


465). Allow me to correct the statement 
that the University of Glasgow obtained a 
grant of arms after 1 888. What was granted 
was not a grant of arms, but warrant to 
the Lyon Clerk to matriculate in the Public 
Register of all arms and bearings in Scotland, 
in the name of the University of Glasgow 

certain ensigns armorial borne by the Uni- 
versity for many years prior to the passing; 
of the Act of Parliament 1672, cap. 47.. 
See the Matriculation of 14 June, 1900. 

Coundon, Coventry. 

"ViZT." (10 S. ix. 405). If it be true- 
bhat we go on from precedent to precedent,, 
lere is one for the above contraction, which 
an OUTRAGED SCHOLAR finds so irritating. 
The document which follows is, at the same- 
time, a good and interesting specimen of a 
nuncupative will : 

" Memorandum that Phillipp Davy, yeoman, late- 
of Grimston in the Countie of Dorsett, deceased, 

being sicke in body on a day happening shortlie^ 

after Xpmas Anno D'ni 1636 or neere thereabout did 
utter and declare his mind and will by word of 
mouth as followeth or to the very like in effect,. 
viz fc , speaking unto his two natural! sonnes Robert 
and John Davye and to John Fors his sorine in law** 
then w th him, Heere you are come and looke for my 
goodes, and heere I shall leave it amongest you, 
take it and part it amongest you, If you cannot, 
agree uppon parting of it then take it and give it- 
to popre folks for me. Witnesses then present, 

viz' Jesper Dennis his marke, Anne Dennis her 


On 10 June, 1637, issued a commission 
to Margarie Stroud and Cecilie Force, the- 
natural and lawful daughters, to administer 
the goods, &c. (Prerogative Court of Can- 
terbury, Register Goare, fo. 94). 


50, Beecroft Road, Brockley, S.E. 

429). The Act of 9 Anne, ch. 1, provided 
for the building of fifty- two " new churches- 
in or near the populous cities of London 
and Westminster and the suburbs thereof." 
These were all to be erected between the- 
years 1716 and 1724. As a matter of fact r 
only some fifteen churches were erected 
or restored, although the time limit wa& 
extended. These were : St. Alphege, Green- 
wich ; St. Anne, Limehouse ; Christ Church r 
Spitalfields ; St. George-in-the-East ; St. 
Mary, Stratford - le - Bow (restored) ; St. 
James, Bermondsey ; St. John, Horsley- 
down ; St. John, Westminster ; St. George,. 
Bloomsbury ; St. George, Queen's Square ; 
St. George, Hanover Square ; St. Martin- 
in-the-Fields ; St. Luke, Old Street ; St. 
Mary-le-Strand ; St. Mary, Woolnoth. The- 
tower of St. Michael, Cornhill, was also 

I think some confusion often exists be- 
tween the fifty churches actually built by 
Wren and the fifty contemplated by the- 
Act of Queen Anne. 

10 s. x. JULY ii, IMS.]; NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The latest promulgation of this error 
occurs in an article in the June issue of 
The Bookman. From an article on Daniel 
De Foe, by George Sampson, I take the 
following sentence : > 

" Poor benefices bless the flourishing fund called 
<J,ueen Anne's Bounty, and in her reign fifty new 
-churches were built in London alone. You may tell 
.them by their surpassing ugliness." 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

Nothing like this number was ever com- 
pleted by the Commissioners. Maitland, 
writing in 1756, ' History of London,' i. 509, 
says : " Hitherto there are only ten of the 
said churches built upon new foundations." 
These, I believe, were St. Anne's, Limehouse ; 
St. George - in - the - East ; St. George's, 
Bloomsbury ; St. George's, Queen's Square ; 
'St. George's, Hanover Square ; St. John's, 
Westminster ; St. John's, Horsleydown ; 
St. Luke's, Old Street ; St. Matthew's, 
Bethnal Green ; and St. Mary-le-Strand. 

" ENTENTE CORDIALE " (10 S. viii. 168 ; 
ax. 194, 338, 418, 472). I have at my elbow 
.a medal, upon one side of which these words 
ire inscribed : " Definitive treaty of peace 
*ind amity between Great Britain and France 
signed at Paris May 30, 1814." 

The other shows a female draped figure 
tiolding in her right and left hands respec- 
tively an olive branch and a horn of plenty, 
encircled by the quotation, " On earth peace, 
good will to men." CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 


'The following references to the Asquith 
,nd Ayscough pedigrees, some of which 
Tiave already been noted in my ' Bibliography 
of Yorkshire,' appearing in Yorkshire Notes 
and Queries, may be found of some use. 

For the pedigrees of Askwith of Barrowby 
<Lincs.), see Harl. MS. 1487, fo. 148; of 
Askwith of Newstead, ibid., 1394, fo. 148 ; 
1415, fo. 9b; 1420, fo. 108b ; 1487, 
fo. 148 ; of Askwith of Osgodby (? N. 
Riding, Yorks), ibid., 1487, fo. 150b. Ask- 
with coat of arms, Harl. MS. 1394, p. 344. 
Askwith of York, vide W. Paver's ' Pedigrees 
of the Families of the City of York,' p. 8 ; 
and Foster's 'Visitation of Yorkshire,' 211, 
487. Pedigree of Ayscough of York, Wm. 
Dugdale's ' Visitation of the Co. of Yorks ' 
(vol. xxxvi. 1859, Surtees Soc.), pp. 147, 153 ; 
see also Chr. Clarkson's ' History of Rich- 
mond,' 1821, p. 252 ; W. Paver's ' Pedi- 
grees,' 1842, p. 10 ; Harl. Soc., iv. 77 ; ^vii. 

37, 38 ; viii. 59 ; Foster's * Lincolnshire 
Pedigrees,' 27, 29, 30 ; Surtees' s ' Durham,' 
iii. 227, 318; Thornton's 'Nottingham- 
shire, ii. 253 ; The Genealogist, iii. 342-5 ; v. 
189; Fisher's 'History of Masham,' 297; 
Hasted' s ' Kent ' (.' Hund. of Blackheath,' 
by H. H. Drake), xv. ; Foster's ' Visitations 
of Cumberland and Westmoreland,' 3. 
Pedigree of Ayscough of Skewsby (N. Riding, 
Yorks), Dugdale's ' Visitation of the Co. of 
Yorks ' (Surtees Soc., vol. xxxvi., 1859), 
pp. 342-4. 

Ayscough pedigree : 

" The Genealogie or Descendent Pedegre of the 
Ascoughs, sometime Lordes of the Maners of 
Dalbon, Norrys, Newsam, Burstall, Thornton, 
Barcloste, New bye, &c., in the Couritie of Yprke, 
and nowe of Southe Kelsey, in the Couritie of 
Lincolne, <fcc., drawn up by and in the autograph of 
William Segar, Garter, with arms emblazoned and 
in trick." XVII cent. 

This is a roll nine feet in length. 

Deene, Streatham. 

It may be as well to add that the Norse 
vi$, mentioned at this reference, not merely 
means " wood," but is the actual equivalent 
of the A.-S. widu, late A.-S. wudu, Mod. E. 
wood. It occurs again in Beckwith ; and in 
Widkirk, the old name of Woodkirk in York- 
shire. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

SECRET PASSAGES (10 S. ix. 490). Exeter 
is honeycombed with ancient subterranean 
passages. Some of them possess outlets 
beyond the city walls, at points where it 
would probably have been possible to commu- 
nicate secretly, unobserved by an invading 
army, with the beleaguered inhabitants. 
One of these, about a mile long, leads direct 
from Lion's Holt to the Bishop's Palace. 

Some fifteen years ago it was suggested 
these underground ways should be opened 
out, as an additional attraction for visitors 
of an antiquarian turn; but nothing came 
of the proposition. I remember then being 
one of a party who explored a passage 
which has an entrance near to Bampfylde 
House, the old city residence of the Bamp- 
fylde family an ideal Tudor building, still 
in an excellent state of preservation. From 
there we made our way under the High 
Street and London Inn Square to an outlet 
in Longbrooke Street, the latter some little 
distance outside the line of the old walls. 
In some parts we were able to walk upright, 
in others only to crawl upon hands and knees. 
These Exeter passages run in various direc- 
tions, but are not continuous or connected. 
From time to time they have been built 

NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. JULY n, im. 

into, and hence the direct course of many of 
them is blocked by the foundations of more 
modern erections. Only a few days ago 
(during the week ending June 20th) one was 
thus broken into by men carrying out exten- 
sions at the Post Office. HARRY HEMS. 
Fair Park, Exeter. 

"THE CROOKED BILLET" (10 S.ix. 190, 452). 
I am interested in H. G. P.'s communica- 
tion at the latter reference from the fact 
that I remember a similar crooked stick 
in use. A man used to call periodically 
at my father's house in Northamptonshire 
in my childhood's days, selling hosiery,, 
worsted, &c. He carried his wares in two 
bundles, which were suspended from his 
shoulder, one in front and one behind, by 
means of a crooked stick. This stick, which 
was a formidable piece of wood, had probably 
been bent by some means into the required 
shape, and was always an object of great 
interest to me. JOHN T. PAGE. 

I remember that when a wood had been 
cleared of timber, men were set to work 
" stubbing." Scores of the roots taken out 
were " crooked billets " so called by the 
stubbers, and for weeks afterwards crooked 
billets were burnt on every cottage fire. 

There was a pedlar who regularly came 
round, his wares in a couple of baskets 
slung over his shoulder by a crooked 
billet. A sandstone hawker Soft Sam we 
called him brought round his stones slung 
on the backs of two donkeys, crooked billets 
being used to support the rough shelves 
upon which the sandstones were piled on 
the flanks of each donkey. 

When suitable crooked billets, naturally 
made, were not to be had, wood was boiled 
in iron pots until soft enough : then the 
"bents" were made, tied in position, 
and hung up to dry until the crooks were 


A GUN" (10 S. ix. 108, 217, 493). Here 
&u=only. The word is frequently used 
in that sense on this- side of the Atlantic, 
e.g., " If I could but get that I should be 
happy.'"' ST. SWITHIN. 

449). The Hon. Mrs. Gordon who died 
at 39, Somerset Street, Portman Square, 
on 29 May, 1813, was Catherine, only sister 
of the second Earl of Portsmouth, and widow 
of the Hon. Lockhart Gordon, third son of 
the third Earl of Aboyne. By this, his 

second marriage, the Hon. Lockhart Gordort 
had seven children, of whom two sons and. 
two daughters came of age. Which of 
the two daughters, Caroline or Catherine,, 
was it who was married to J. C. Williams, 

HOLBEIN SUBJECTS (10 S. ix. 449, 497). 
See ' D.N.B.,' xi. 33, for Margaret Clement. 

(10 S. ix. 329, 431). I regret that at the 
second reference I inadvertently make Ben 
Jonson tell Drummond that his father, 
instead of his grandfather, " came from Car- 
lisle." This is the statement given in * Ben 
Jonson' s Conversations with William Drum- 
mond of Hawthornden,' chap. xiii. : 

"His Grandfather came from Carlisle, and, he 
thought, from Aimandale to it : he served King 
Henry 8, and was a gentleman. His Father 
losed all his estate under Queen Marie, having, 
been cast in prisson and forfaitted ; at last turn'd 
Minister : so he was a minister's son." 

Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe (1781-1851), 
a Border man with special knowledge, thus 
comments on this passage : 

" If Ben's grandfather went, as Jonson supposed, 
from Annandale to Carlisle, which lies very near it r 
he must have pronounced and written, if ne could 
write, his name Johnstpne. I believe there never 
was a Johnson heard of in Annandale or its vicinity ? 
but it was the nest of the Johnstones ; the lairds 
of the Lochwood, ancestors of the Marquises of 
Annandale, were the chiefs of Wamphray, !Sowdean r 
Lockerbie, Gretna, &c. I have examined as many 
of their pedigrees as I possess, in order to ascertain 
if Benjamin were ever a family name among them, 
but have not found it in Annandale." 
See Cunningham's edition of Gifford's ' Jon- 
son,' iii. 481. THOMAS BAYNE. 

(10 S. ix. 469). Henry Winstanley, cele- 
brated from his lamentable fate in the light- 
house erected by himself on the Eddystone^ 
Rock, was a descendant from an ancient 
family etablished at Walden (now Saffron 
Walden), of which William, although origin- 
ally a barber, was probably a member, and 
it is equally probable that he was born there. 
Be this as it may, Quendon is in the parish 
of Saffron Walden, so that in any case he- 
may be said to have claimed the latter as- 
his birthplace. 


NURSERY RIME (10 S. ix. 408, 478). Is 
there any reference to the cadaver represented 
on tombs with worms crawling in and out ? 

J. T. F. 


10 s. x. JULY ii, im]] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


English Local Government : the Manor and the 

Borough. By Sidney and Beatrice Webb. 2 vols. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

MB. WEBB and his accomplished wife here continue 
the subject of English Local Government, on which 
they have already given us a volume regarding the 
parish and the county. The monumental quality 
of that section of the work was fully recognized by 
those best competent to judge, and now the authors 
have given us another two parts of their history, 
which are entitled to equal praise. To Teutonic 
powers of research, duly testified in the abundant 
foot-notes, they add an enthusiasm and an instinct 
for the orderly arrangement of facts which make a 
book of the first rank. Their work is one of which 
the historians of any country might be proud. It 
will be a revelation to the expert in its wealth 
of detail, and it clears up many of the puzzling 
points which are, to use a scientific term, " sur- 
vivals in culture," and surprise us in later history 
and even in the world of to-day. Every library of 
any pretensions must possess the book, and we 
hope that there will be many to read it. 

The Courts of various hundreds, Forest Courts, 
the Court of the Manor, and the Prevalence and De- 
cay of the Lord's Court, are all considered, with many 
curious details. Then come the Manorial Borough, 
the City and Borough of Westminster, the Boroughs 
of Wales, the administration of Municipal autho- 
rities and Close Corporations, and the progress of 
decay and reform that led to the Municipal Cor- 
porations Act which followed the Parliamentary 
struggles in the thirties of the nineteenth century, 
and which is fairly described as " the Municipal 

One of the most interesting chapters is that 
devoted in vol. ii. to ' The City of London,' though 
it is to be noticed that many other noteworthy 
centres in diverse parts of the kingdom are also 
examined with a thoroughness which is rare in this 
sort of volume. 

It is pointed out that for the first time we have a 
history of the constitutional development of the 
City of London, and the mass of materials to be 
consulted is certainly formidable enough to frighten 
any but the most determined and enthusiastic 
student. The City, even in 1689 a very crowded 
and busy district, has a curiously anomalous his- 
tory, and briefly defined for purposes of self-govern- 
ment as a resident democracy of ratepayers, it has 
kept its own ways and privileges to a remarkable 
extent, not, however, so remarkable when one con- 
siders that the power of the purse was always 
behind it in days when the world of finance was 
nothing like so stable as it is to-day. We select a 
few things out of the mass of details laid before us 
in the text and the notes to show the interest of 
the subject. The Corporation of the City did not 
include within its jurisdiction the residence of the 
king or the offices of his ministers; so, "actually 
adjoining the seat of government, it could yet shut 
its gates against the king and his officers." The 
freedom of the City, belonging to most householders 
from 1689 to 1835, prevented a man from being seized 
by the pressgang for service in the Navy. The 
twenty-six little police forces of the City, not being 
under a general control, were in many cases incom- 

petent, yet the wards claimed that people of their 
jwn choosing and locality were likely to do best. 
The ward beadle was gorgeously dressed, but would 
do no active service ; and the ancient bellman who- 
once called the hours confined his rounds in 1811 to 
a night or two before Christmas, with a view to a 
Christmas-box. The Court of Common Council was- 
a very powerful body, proud of its views, especially 
when they represented popular feeling against 
Parliament. The Councillors feasted at great 
expense on the slightest excuse, and jobbery of 
offices was unusually prevalent, the Standing 
Orders being suspended with the greatest freedom 
For one applicant after another. There is much, as 
might be expected, concerning the "Lord Mayor." 
This title was not in use before 1540, though 
York had its Lord Mayor as early as 1389." In 
the eighteenth century the head of the City was 
supposed not to leave it for a single day, and 
had to ask leave in 1731 to " go sometimes for a day 
or two to my house in Middlesex." The general 
verdict of the writers is that the Corporation of the 
City of London from 1689 to 1835 tell below the 
Municipal Corporations of other large centres in 
energy and efficiency. The neglect to supply proper 
docks or look after the safety of property on the- 
river is one clear instance of want of thought and 
enterprise. The Guildhall Library was not opened! 
to the public till 1873, and the City of London 
School, based on an old endowment, was not 
established until 1835. 

IN The. Cornhill for July Mr. H. W. Lucy begins- 
a series of recollections, ' Sixty Years in the 
Wilderness,' which are full of interest and humour. 
In the sixties Mr. Lucy worked very hard as a, 
journalist, starting with two papers in Shrews- 
bury, the Chronicle and the Observer. He learnt 
shorthand laboriously, and "pegged away, making: 
applications " whenever he saw an advertisement. 
His reminiscences should be useful to those aspi- 
rants who think themselves qualified to write with- 
out any practice. In * Francis Thompson's Cricket 
Verses ' Mr. E. V. Lucas opens up an unexpected 
side of the mystical poet. Feeble in physique and 
general health, and himself unable to play, he yet 
glorified cricket in unforgettable style, and his 
verses deserve to be added to all anthologies of 
the subject. Mr. MacHugh on ' The Winning of 
Canada ' writes of history which is little known, 
but ought to be familiar to all Englishmen. Lady 
Robert Cecil reviews * The Man-Eaters of Tsavo,' 
a noteworthy book ; and C. J. D. has a neat set of 
verses ' At Christie's.' ' The Electric Theory of 
Matter ' is a posthumous article by W. A. Shen- 
stone, who has done much to popularize science in 
The Cornhill. * Hampden and Hampden's Country/ 
by Mr. Marcus Dimsdale, is almost entirely con- 
cerned with the patriot's history ; more about the 
country would have been pleasing. We cannot 
conceive a writer who has been on Little Hampden 
Common, for instance, refusing a word or two to- 
its charm. 

IN The Nineteenth Century the Bishop of Burnley 
has a short but trenchant article on ' The Present 
Stage of Church Reform.' He points out that 
Convocation and the so-called " Representative 
Church Council" are both very unsatisfactory 
bodies. Prof. Barnes follows with some remarks 
on * The Lambeth Conference and the " Athanasian 
Creed"' which will meet, we think, with general 
sympathy. The " omission of the rubric requiring 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 11, 

its public recitation" is suggested. 'A French 
View of Bernard Shaw,' by M. Augustin Hamon, 
is a little dull, and M. Hamon quotes from himself 
rather unnecessarily. One of the maxims thus pre- 
sented is no more than a commonplace. Lady 
Lovat's 'Women and the Suffrage' quotes from 
Shakespeare, Plato, and Gladstone. The last is 
inane ; the first two are seen in pretty passages ; 
but the whole article is not so much convincing as 
sentimental. Nor are all its statements trust- 
worthy. In * Apollo and Dionysus in English ' Dr. 
Emil Reich convokes an assembly of wise Greeks, 
and makes them talk on modern England. The 
result is striking, and the views put Forward are 
well worth reading. Sir Harry H. Johnston 
has an important article on ' The Empire and 
Anthropology,' which deserves the widest con- 
sideration. The advance of this new science in 
company with ethnology is one of the most hopeful 
movements of to-day. 

M. YVES GUYOT opens The Fortnightly with a 
revised lecture .concerning ' The Influence of 
English Thought on the French Mind,' a subject to 
which increasing attention is being paid. The 
writer's English might have been improved by a 
candid friend, but his points are well made, and he 
does not indulge in idle rhetoric. Mr. H. C. 
Minchin in his ' Glimpses of Dr. Thomas Fuller ' 
irritates us by dragging in quotations of no 
particular aptitude. There is little new in this 
paper. Mr. J. A. R. Marriott in ' The Mistress of 
Great Tew ' writes much better, but is not precisely 
a Matthew Arnold. Some such gifts as Arnold's 
are needed to give glow and colour to familiar 
history. ' The Restoration of the Unionist Party,' 
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CONTENTS.-No. 238. 

NOTES :-Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens, 41 Vowel- 
Shortening in English, 43 Dr. Johnson's Ancestors and 
Connexions, 44 Fee Bowls Hornsey : Highgate and 
Arabella Stuart, 46 Leamington-on-Sea " Votes for 
Women," 47. 

QUERIES : King's Silver: Lincoln College, 47 Manor 
Identification in Divers Counties" Charming-Bells " for 
Bird-catching Old Tunes Steering-WheelE. Thayer, 
48 'Sweet Nan of Hampton Green' 'The National 
Journal,' 1746 Titles conferred by Cromwell Hartley 
Coleridge" Dandy affair," 1816 : " Bats' Club Dinner " 
Gilbert Imlay's ' Emigrants ' Steele and Addison Union 
Light Dragoons, 1780, 49 Capt. Charles Gill, R.N. 
" Tanner "=Sixpence Benedict Arnold, 50. 

REPLIES :' Kitty Fisher's Jig' : 'Yankee Doodle,' 50- 
Queen Caroline Cornish and other Apparitions, 51 
Snodgrass as a Surname Cap of Liberty St. John Bap- 
tist's Eve : Midsummer, 52 Hippocrates Legend Canning 
Portraits" Sabariticke "Portfolio Society Fig Trees : 
Maturing Meat, 53 " Abracadabra "" Promethean " 
The Nose Celestial Edwards of Halifax H. C. Wise, 54 
Authors of Quotations Wanted" Angel " of an Inn, 55 
Sir T. Browne : Quotation Swedenborg's Memorial 
Tablet Man in the Almanac " Paffer " Gibbet as 
Landmark, 56 Parish Dinners George Monoux Roger 
North's Life of his Brother Burials at Nice : Capt. James 
King Cheapside Cross : its Bibliography Burial-Ground 
of St. George's, Hanover Square, Bayswater Road Bur- 
ney's ' History of Music 'The Pied Finer in Ispahan, 57 
The ' D.N.B.' : Additions and Corrections, 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' Annals of Cambridge ' ' Shake 
spearean Representation: its Laws and Limits' 'The 
Edinburgh Review.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


THE question of relationship or non-rela- 
tionship between Hyde Park and Kensing- 
ton Gardens is still open and undecided 
the question, that is, Was the ground now 
covered by the Gardens in the main severed 
from Hyde Park, or was it originally separate 
and distinct ? The answer varies : some- 
times it favours the severance, sometimes 
the original distinction. The writers on 
the subject may have been satisfied with 
their conclusions, but readers are left per- 

Lysons (1796), writing nearest the period 
when the Gardens were laid out, says in 
his ' Environs ' (iii. 184) : 

" Kensington Gardens were originally only 26 

acres. Queen Anne added 30 acres but the 

principal addition was made by the late Queen 
[Caroline], who took in near 300 acres of Hyde 

Faulkner in his 'Kensington' (1820) re- 
peated this. 

On the other hand, the now current 
authorized Guide tells us : 

"The modern so-called 'Kensington Gardens.' 
are identified with the original domain of old 
Nottingham House, increased by the addition of 
some hundred acres or more taken from Hyde 

Here is variance. We gather from the 
earlier version that the old mansion had 
no land attached to it beyond its immediate 
precinct. From the later and current 
account we learn that the mansion had 
" a domain" identical with the Kensington 
Gardens of to-day. Which of these views 
is right ? I hold that both are inaccurate, 
though the elder be nearer the truth ; and 
it is because I venture to think there is a 
ready and positive solution of the question 
that I beg the Editor to allow me to recast, 
clearly and concisely, my argument made 
elsewhere a few years since,* in order that 
it may have further circulation in ' N. & Q.,' 
and perhaps eliciting response, affirmative 
or negative, may tend to the settlement 
of the matter. 

The solution appears to me to lie in the 
answer to the question, What was the 
former, and what is the present acreage of 
Hyde Park ? The former acreage is ob- 
tained indubitably from the document in 
the Record Office entitled ' Particulars of 
Sale of Crown Lands, 1652 : Hyde Park, 
Parcel of the Possessions of Charles Stuart, 
late King of England.' These ' Particu,- 
lars ' have considerable interest. The Park 
was sold in five divisions. The names given 
to them indicate their positions ; their boun- 
daries are precisely defined ; their contents 
in wood, water-pools, &c. are specified ; 
the computed areas, and the value of each 
division, are stated. A special survey had 
been made, and as it bears every evidence 
of precision, the sum of the five areas 
621*83 acres cannot be doubted. It seems 
extraordinary that this document has been 
overlooked when the question before us 
has been discussed. Faulkner copies it, 
yet does not apply it in its reference to the 
Park and Gardens. No plan accompanies 
the * Particulars,' as might be expected. 
But having the boundaries, positions, and 
areas clearly stated, I have, with the article 
above referred to, ventured to construct a 
plan, on which the divisions are conjecturally 
Laid down within the outlines obtained from 
the Ordnance map. 

The present area of the Park (including 
the water- area of the Serpentine) is about 

* 'The Making of Kensington Gardens,' Home 
bounties Magazine (1904) , vi. 145, 222. 



368 acres* and that of 1652 having been 
621 acres, it is evident that there has been 
a loss of 253 acres. Where are those acres ? 
The Park is a quadrilateral enclosure. Three 
of its sides have remained virtually unaltered 
since 16'52. The northern boundary, now 
as then, is the Uxbridge Road in the 
' Particulars ' termed " the Great Road 
to Acton" ; the southern boundary has 
always been " Knightsbridge Highway and 
Brentford Road" ; Park Lane, formerly 
Tyburn Lane though perhaps not so called 
in 1652, as here it is merely " the Way 
leading from Brentford Road to Acton 
Road" forms the unaltered eastern boun- 
dary ; while the fourth or western boundary, 
now coinciding with that of Kensington 
Gardens, is more than half a mile east of 
the former limit a limit in the ' Par- 
ticulars ' described as " the ground lying 
near the Gravel Pits " and " the house 
and ground usually taken to belong to 
Mr. Finch of Kensington." The fact is 
that to-day, traversing the Park westward 
from Park Lane, we cannot find the 621 
acres of 1652 until we have crossed Kensing- 
ton Gardens and have almost arrived at 
Wren's handsome Orangery ; and in our 
walk we shall have undoubtedly crossed 
the 253 lost acres of Hyde Park now in- 
corporated with Kensington Gardens. 

Further proof that the Gardens have in 
the main been made from the Park is scarcely 
necessary, yet the naming and definition 
of the five sale- divisions are so interesting 
as well as corroborative, that they may 
here have place. 

Against Park Lane (or Tyburn Lane) 
abutted two divisions : the Banqueting 
House Division, occupying the north-west 
angle of the Park (and apparently so called 
from an old royal hunting and feasting 
house, or perhaps a place of refreshment for 
visitors to " the Ring") and the Old Lodge 
Division, containing the gate-keeper's lodge 
at " Park Corner." After the Banqueting 
House Division had stretched its length 
along the Uxbridge Road as its northern 
boundary, it was succeeded by the Middle 
Division, which extended along the same 
road until it reached " Bayard's Watering," 
the spring or pond from which the Bays- 

* The area is obtained from the Ordnance map, 
but as the desired total is not afforded, it has to be 
arrived at by a somewhat complicated addition of 
Hyde Park portions noted in the several parishes, 
together with the water-areas of the Serpentine, 
also parochially divided. Professional practice, 
however, enables me to compute or verify this and 
all other areas now adduced. 

water district has its name. Here we pause- 
to note that the ground sold was already 
well within the present limits of Kensington 
Grardens, and at the point where the West- 
bourne stream crossed the Uxbridge Road 
and entered the Park. But although within 
the Kensington Gardens of to-day, we have 
yet to trace westward another former division 
of Hyde Park, and a good half-mile to 
go before reaching its old demarcation. 
And, again, the name " Gravel Pit Division " 
well denotes its situation : it extended along^ 
the Uxbridge Road until it touched the- 
verge of the now obsolete, though not for- 
gotten district, " Kensington Gravel Pits." 
A plan to which I shall presently refer 
shows, if I mistake not, the most easterly 
of the pits : its edge is close to and parallel 
with the Park ditch, beyond which further 
excavation was doubtless prohibited. Here 
we reach an important point in the demon- 
stration : the western boundary of the 
Gravel Pit Division is defined as " the ground 
lying near the Gravel Pits, and part of 
Finch's ground," i.e., the division was. 
partly bordered on the west by Mr. Finch's 
property, and partly by the gravel pits, 
which lay to the north of Mr. Finch's ground, 
between it and the Uxbridge Road. 

The fifth and last division, lying south 
of the two just noticed, was the " Kensington 
Division." It was much the largest, and 
its name was appropriate, as it stretched 
along " the highway leading from Knights- 
bridge through Kensington Town." So we- 
have Hyde Park at Kensington, and the 
western boundary is again significant, viz., 
" part of the house and ground taken to 
belong to Mr. Finch of Kensington." This,, 
I think, must mean that the house of Mr. 
Finch, in later years Earl of Nottingham,, 
was closely approached ; and this evidence, 
added to that of its former capacity, seems 
to me convincingly to determine the old 
limits of Hyde Park. 

In regard to the actual demarcation of 
limit between the Park and the Finch pro- 
perty we have information. It was by a 
ditch, probably an ancient fosse, for wood 
and trees grew on its banks. When " the 
King had his own again," and the sale of 
the Park had been quashed (the purchase 
money returned ?), Charles II. granted 
the old ditch, and ten feet width of the 
Park beyond, to Sir Heneage Finch, gentle- 
man and baronet, now His Majesty's 
Solicitor-General. The descriptive words of 
the grant (dated 25 March, 1662) are : 

" That ditch or fence which divides Hide Park 
from the lands of Sr. Heneage Finch, and the wood 

10 s. x. JULY is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and trees there growing, and ten foot in breadth 
and 150 Rods [825 yards, or nearly half a mile] in 
length of y e soil of y e said Park lying beyond y c said 
ditch, beginning from y e South highway leading to 
Kensington and crossing forwards towards y e North 
highway leading to Acton. And His Majesty doth 
hereby dispark the same." Docquets, Chas. II. 
1662-'3, vol. xxi. No. 47. 

The ditch, the subject of the grant and 
Letters Patent, thus described as overgrown 
with brushwood and bordered by trees, 
appears to have been ancient and important. 
We might imagine it to have been not only 
the demarcation between Hyde Park and 
the Finch property, but even the western 
limit of the manor,* were it not that the 
Abbey parish of St. Margaret still stretched 
a short distance westward. This piece 
of land (between the ditch and the Ken- 
sington boundary), in form quadrilateral, 
is not more than 350 yards wide on 
the average, but more than half a mile 
long between Kensington High Street on 
the south and the Uxbridge Road on the 
north. The area is about 67 acres; but 
the " quadrilateral " towards its northern 
end is crossed by an irregular parish boun- 
dary, which cuts off about 18 acres along 
the Uxbridge Road, 14 acres being in Pad- 
dington, and 4 in Kensington ; the gravel 
pits were formerly here. The remaining 
49 acres or say in round numbers 50 acres 
contained the Finch Mansion, and appear 
to have constituted the Finch property 
at this place. The history of this land is 
vague, and it has even been suggested that 
the manor house of Neyte, the situation of 
which was doubtful, may have preceded 
on the same site the house of Finch, which 
became the nucleus of Kensington Palace. 
The conjecture was reasonable and pleasant. 
The 50 acres would have represented the 
small manor, and the Abbot in his lodge 
here at the western extremity of his estate 
would have looked over adjoining Hyde 

* Knightsbridge not Hyde. Hyde Manor (a 
division of the original great manor of Eia, as were 
also Neyte and Eybury) is considered to have had 
its western limit at the Westbourne stream, now 
merged in the Serpentine, and beyond Hyde 
was Knightsbridge. Thus Hyde Park, extending 
westward beyond Hyde Manor, was partly in 
Knightsbridge. And Knightsbridge (in the parish 
of St. Margaret, Westminster) adjoining on 
the north Westbourne (in the parish of Pad- 
dington), these two formed a later so-called 
" manor " of the Abbey, as that of " Knightsbridge 
with Westbourne," the fact of their union being 
evidence of their juxtaposition. Such appears to 
me the most probable solution of this part of the 
perplexing and variously stated problem of the 
Abbey manors. Davis in ' Memorials of Knights- 
bridge ' (p. 12) has it so. 

and his distant manors beyond, not requiring 
for his seclusion any special demesne or 
park pertaining to this house. But further 
study has shown me that Neyte lay else- 
where, and it is my hope to make that manor 
the subject of a future note. The 50 acres 
of St. Margaret's bordering on Kensington, 
and eventually the total 67 acres of th& 
" quadrilateral," were bought by King- 
William, and the purchase papers are much 
desired for our further information. 


(To be continued.) 


IN my ' Primer of English Etymology ' I 
give the rule that " when the length of a 
word is augmented, a long vowel is very apt 
to be shortened by the accentual stress 
falling upon it." An easy example occurs in 
the case of such a word as the verb to daze. 
Here the a is certainly long, or, strictly 
speaking, is a diphthong. But if we add 
a tail to it, the derivative is dazzle, with a 
short a. 

The point to which I would draw par- 
ticular attention is the extraordinary abund- 
ance of examples. We have quite a large 
number of monosyllables containing a long 
vowel, which are attended by related dis- 
syllables that contain a short one. As this is 
a point which I have never seen sufficiently 
illustrated, I venture to present some 
examples, the number of which can no doubt 
be increased. Surely the law ought to be 
better known than it is. It is in ignorance 
of this law that some people argue for pro- 
nouncing primer with the same i as in prime ; 
if they recognised that our language has 
phonetic laws, they would certainly say 
primmer. But most people know nothing of 
sound-laws, and jump at conclusions on 
insufficient grounds. 

Examples : Bake, baxter ; ball (a dance), ballad ; 
ball (a sphere), ballot ; bar, barrier ; bate, batter ; 
bile, bilious ; blow, blossom ; bole, bulwark ; boom, 
bumpkin ; brake (a fern), bracken ; breech, breeches ; 
brief, brevity. 

Cane, cannon ; car, carriage ; case (a circum- 
stance), casual; cave, cavity; child, children; 
clear, claret; coal, collier ; coal, collie (i.e., acoal-y 
dog) ; code, codicil; cone, conic; crane, cranberry; 
creed, credit ; croup, crupper. 

Dame, damsel; daze, dazzle; deign, dignity; 
dine, dinner; dool (sorrow), dolour; doze, dizzy; 
duke, duchess. 

Old, elder ; ere, early. 

Feast, festive; file (a thin line), filament; fine 
(delicate), finish; flame, flambeau; float, flotsam 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY is, im. 

flower, flourish ; foal, filly; food, fodder ; fore, fore- 
head ; fur, furrier. 

Game, gammon ; gloze, glossary ; good, gospel ; 
goose, gosling ; grade, gradual ; grain, granite ; 
green, Greenwich ; gold, guilder. 

Hale (to haul), halyard : hare, harrier ; hear, 
hearken ; heave, heavy ; heir, heritage ; hind (as in 
" hind-leg"), hinder ; hole, hollow ; house, husband 
(huswife, hustings). 

Joke, jocular. 

Keel, kelson; know, knowledge (which rimes 
with "college"). 

Lace, latchet; late, latter; life, living; lime 
<tree), linden ; line, linear ; lithe, lissom ; lyre, 

Mall (a hammer), mallet ; mead, meadow ; mere, 
mermaid ; mile, milfoil ; mime, mimic ; mode, 
model ; muse (verb), muzzle. 

Niece, nephew ; nose, nostril. 

Oil, olive ; out, utter (utmost). 

Pale, pallid ; pale, palisade ; pane, panel ; paste, 
patty ; peace, pacify ; pipe, pipkin ; plate, platter ; 
please, pleasure; poke, pocket; post, posture; 
prate, prattle ; prime, primer ; pain, punish. 

Quake, quagmire. 

Rail (to scold), rally ; rate, ratify ; read, riddle ; 
ride, ready ; rite, ritual ; room, rummage ; row, 

Saint, samphire ; sane, sanity ; sate, satisfy ; 
sauce, sausage ; school, scholar ; scoop, scupper ; 
scribe, scribble ; seam, sempstress ; seat, settle ; 
shade, shadow ; sheep, shepherd ; shield, sheldrake ; 
shire, sheriff; shoot, shuttle; sign, signal (signet).; 
sire, sirrah ; site, situate ; soup, supper ; sour, 
sorrel : south, Sussex ; Spain, spaniel ; spice, 
special ; spine, spinet ; spout, sputter ; steer, 
starboard ; state, statue ; stone, staniel, sty, 

Throat, throttle ; tone, tonic ; touse, tussle ; trope, 

Vale, valley ; vain, vanity ; vase, vascular ; veal, 
vellum ; vine, vineyard. 

Wade, waddle ; waist, waistcoat ; white, Whit- 
sunday (whitleather) ; wild, wilderness ; wine, wim- 
Tserry ; wind (verb), windlass ; wife, woman. 

Zeal, zealous. 

There are probably many more ; but these 
may suffice to show how common it is to 
find shorter vowels in longer words. 

The same law prevails even when the 
primary word is of more than one syllable. 

Examples : Audacious, audacity ; Bible, biblio- 
graphy ; crisis, critical ; fable, fabulous ; female, 
feminine ; grateful, gratitude ; holy, hollyhock 
{holiday) ; Michael, Michaelmas ; sacred, sacrifice, 

And even when both words are mono- 
syllabic, the longer form often has a short- 
ened vowel. 

Examples : Broad, breadth; clean, cleanse; 
cleave, cleft ; deep, depth ; flow, flood ; thief, theft ; 
weal, wealth ; writhe, wrist. And many others. 

It is easy to remember the general idea, 
viz., the longer the word, the shorter the 
vowel. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


(See 10 S. viii. 281, 382, 462 ; ix. 43, 144, 
302, 423.) 

The Rev. John Batteridge Pearson (con- 
tinued). The Rev. George Pearson, the 
eldest son, had issue by Catherine Humber- 
ston, his wife, seven sons and five daughters : 

1. George Falconer Pearson, of Downton, 
New Radnor, J.P. co. Radnor, late Colonel 
Madras Staff Corps. He was born in 1826, 
and married, in 1864, as his first wife, 
Caroline, daughter of the Hon. James 
Augustus Erskine, and niece of the twelfth 
Earl of Kellie. She died in 1865, and Col. 
Pearson married, in 1870, as his second wife, 
Emma, daughter of the Hon. J. Colvin, 
late Lieutenant-Governor N.W.P., India, by 
whom he has issue. To Col. Pearson has 
descended a portrait of Capt. Jervis Henry 
Porter, R.N., Dr. Johnson's eldest stepson, 
which hangs in Castle Camps Rectory, 
whither it was moved on the death of old 
Mrs. Pearson in 1856. The portrait, which 
is full size, represents a middle-aged man in 
naval uniform. The late George Richmond, 
A.R.A., who saw it, expressed the opinion 
that it was by one of Hogarth's pupils. 
Col. Pearson also owns the portraits of Mrs. 
Johnson the Doctor's " Tetty " and Lucy 
Porter, as a child, which, however, both 
hang at Nantlys, St. Asaph, the residence 
of his younger brother Philip (see 4). Of 
the former of these portraits Mrs. Piozzi 
wrote : " The picture I found of her at 
Litchfield was very pretty, and her daughter, 
Mrs. Lucy Porter, said it was like." 

2. Charles Pearson, born 1831, of the 
Indian Civil Service. 

3. John Batteridge Pearson, born 1832, 
Rector of Whitestone, Exeter, since 1883. 
He is M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and D.D. ; a Fellow of Emmanuel ; was 
Bell's University Scholar in 1854 ; and has 
made some contributions to literature. 

4. Philip Pennant Pearson, born 5 August, 
1834. Thomas Pennant, the traveller, 
who, as I have already explained, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of James Falconer, 
R.N., and aunt of Mrs. John Batteridge 
Pearson, left by her a son David Pennant, 
who died in 1841, leaving his Bodfari and 
other Pennant estates, in the event of his 
granddaughter Louisa dying without issue, 
to Philip Pennant Pearson, the grandson 
of his first cousin. Louisa, who was the 
only child of David Pennant the younger 

10 s. x. JULY is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(who predeceased his father in 1835, having 
married firstly, in 1822, Lady Caroline 
Spencer-Churchill, only daughter of George, 
fifth Duke of Marlborough, who died in 
1824 ; and secondly, Lady Emma Brude- 
nell, daughter of Robert, sixth Earl of 
Cardigan, who died in 1847), became, in 
1846, the first wife of Rudolph William 
Basil, Viscount Feilding, afterwards eighth 
Earl of Denbigh, but died without issue 
in 1853, when the Pennant estates passed, 
under her grandfather's will, to Philip 
Pennant Pearson, who assumed the surname 
of Pennant in 1860. Mr. Philip Pennant 
Pennant, M.A., J.P., D.L., who lives at 
Nantlys, Bodfari, near St. Asaph, was 
High Sheriff of Flintshire in 1862 : he is 
Chairman of Quarter Sessions, and High 
Constable of Flint Castle. In 1862 he 
married Mary Frances, daughter of the 
Rev. Edward Bankes, of Soughton Hall, 
Flintshire, Canon of Gloucester, by whom 
he has issue. 

5. James Falconer Pearson, born 1836, 
died 1853. 

6. Thomas Hall Pearson, born 1841, died 

7. Edward Lynch Pearson, born 1845, 
Rector of Castle Camps, Cambridgeshire, 
since 1879. He is an M.A. of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and married Sarah 
Matilda St. Quintin. 

1. Catherine Hester Pearson, born 1827. 

2. Frances Elizabeth Pearson, born 1829. 

3. Anne Pearson, born 1839, died 1860. 

4. Adelaide Sophia Pearson, born 1843. 
In 1883 she became the second wife of John 
Scott Bankes (1826-94), J.P., D.L., of 
Soughton Hall, half-brother of her brother 
Philip's wife. 

5. Henrietta Georgina Pearson, born 1847, 
died 1848. 

Mr. Pennant possesses another interesting 
Johnsonian relic, of which he gives me the 
following description : 

" The book which contains two prayers written by 
Dr. Johnson is entitled 'Forms of Prayer proper to 
be used Before, At, and After the Receiving of the 
Holy Sacrament. Published by W. Ginger, near 
the King's School, Westminster, 1768.' With it is 
bound up ' The Service of the Holy Communion.' 
In the beginning there is written, in, I think, Dr. 
Johnson's handwriting : ' This Book given to Mrs. 
Lucy Porter by Dr. Johnson 1782.' There is also a 
note, in, I think, my grandmother's writing, to the 
effect that these two prayers are contained in his 
' Prayers and Meditations,' published by the Rev. 
G. Strahan, 1785, p. 206." 

The two prayers alluded to are, of course, 
in the Doctor's own handwriting. 

The Rev. J. B. Pearson inherited from 
Lucy Porter what his obituary notice in 
The Gentleman's Magazine describes as 
" Sir Joshua Reynolds's best portrait of Dr. John- 
son, at perhaps not above 45 years old, in an atti- 
tude of deep thought, hands lifted breast high, and 
the fingers half-spread in a particular manner, and 
uncloathed neck. 

This portrait, which has been often repro- 
duced, Mr. Pennant tells me, 
"now hangs in Stafford House. The story, as I 
have always heard it, runs thus. At my grand- 
father's death, his widow was left with seven 
children from seventeen years old downwards. 
Lord Stafford, when hunting in her neighbourhood, 
would always call, and at length, after many 
refusals, persuaded her that, for the sake of the 
education of her children, she ought to sell this 
picture, which at length she did. It is interesting 
to know that, after the divorce of the portraits of 
Dr. and Mrs. Johnson, the two hung again side by 
side, for some months, at the National Portrait 
Exhibition in 1867, Miss Lucy Porter also being one 
of the party." 

" Lord Stafford " must have been the 
second Marquess of Stafford, created first 
Duke of Sutherland in 1833, the great- 
grandfather of the present owner of Stafford 

The obituary notice also states that Mr. 
Pearson inherited from Lucy Porter a por- 
trait of " Joseph Porter senior, by Hogarth, 
esteemed to be the best portrait produced 
by that excellent Artist," quoting from 
Nichols's ' Leicestershire.' This portrait 
is not in the possession of any of Mr. 
Pearson's descendants. Mr. Pennant has 
made inquiries, and feels quite satisfied 
that it must have been purchased from 
his grandmother by Lord Stafford when 
he acquired Reynolds's portrait of Dr. 
Johnson. Mr. Pennant hopes to settle 
this point definitely later on. There is 
an engraving of the portrait in an inter- 
leaved copy of Harwood'a 'Liehfield' at 
the Bodleian Library. Mr. F. G. Shirreff, 
assistant librarian there, kindly tells me 
that it 

" represents a rather stout man seated at a table 1 
folding a letter ; he is wearing a wig, plain coat, 
and embroidered waistcoat. The inscription (en- 
graved) is ' Joseph Porter, Esq r , of Mortlake, From 
a Drawing taken from the Original Picture in 1807. 

Published. 1809.' And above ' Hogarth pinx*. 

T. Cook sculp'.'" 

Since my last article was printed I have- 
discovered rather striking proof of my con- 
tention that it was not William Falconer, 
M.D., of Bath, who called on Dr. Johnson 
in 1782. The Rev. Richard Warner, in his- 
Literary Recollections,' 1830 (vol. ii. p. 70) 
recalls a discussion that took place at a 
dinner-party many years before, at William 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY is, im 

^Falconer's house, regarding Johnson's con- 
versational powers : 

" Dr. Falconer expressed no great esteem of them ; 
.and no envy at those who had had the opportunity 
(which never occurred to himself) of listening to 

The words I have italicized settle this point 

Dr. Johnson's Successors at Bolt Court. 
In the early days of ' N. &. Q.' one B. B. 
contributed a valuable note on Johnson's 
residence in Bolt Court, in which he stated 
(IS. v. 233): 

" After the Doctor's death the Rev. Stockdale, 
-of the Church of England, occupied the house ; 
next to him it was tenanted by a Rev. Moir, (I 
believe) a Presbyterian; next, by one Copley, an 
old tailor," 

whose family was the last to occupy it as a 

In The Gentleman's Magazine for 1788, 
pt. i. pp. 537-8, I stumbled across a review 
of ' Gleanings, or Fugitive Pieces,' by the 
Rev. John Moir, M. A., a native of Scotland, 
which thus concludes : 

" Mr. M.'s whole dependance is on the lectureship 
of St. Dionis Backchurch, Fenchurch Street, and 
his publications, for the support of a sickly wife 
.and numerous increasing family, who are all with 
him in the house inhabited by the late Dr. S. John- 
son in Bolt Court, which Mr. M. took with the 
hope of letting it out in lodgings." 

It does not appear from the review that 
Mr. Moir, as a literary man, was a worthy 
successor to the great Doctor. 

" The Rev. - - Stockdale, of the Church 
of England," stated to have been Johnson's 
immediate successor at Bolt Court, was, I 
presume, the Rev. Percival Stockdale (1736- 
1811), a miscellaneous writer of whom some 
account is given in the ' D.N.B.' He was 
intimate with Johnson, and in a volume of 
memoirs related some anecdotes of him ; 
and we are told that he " lodged both in 
Johnson's Court and in Bolt Court " (Bos- 
well's 'Johnson,' ed. Birkbeck Hill, vol. ii. 
p. 113, foot-note). 


Park Corner, Blundellsands, near Liverpool. 

(To be continued.) 

FEE BOWLS. An interesting bowl, used 
for the reception of fees by Samuel Martin 
throughout his career at the Bar (1830-50), 
has recently been presented to this Inn by 
his grandson, the Hon. Malcolm Martin 
Macnaghten. Samuel Martin was a son-in- 
law of Sir Frederick Pollock, Lord Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer, and he himself 
became a Baron of the Exchequer in Novem- 

ber, 1850. He gave this bowl to his brother- 
in-law Charles Edward Pollock, who also 
became a Baron of the Exchequer, being 
also at the time of his appointment a Bencher 
of the Inner Temple ; and from him Mr. 
Macnaghten received it. 

As the use of these " fee bowls " in the 
past by members of the Bar appears only 
bo be within the recollection of some very 
senior members of the profession, the 
following extracts from a letter by Mr. 
George F. Pollock will, I think, be of interest 
and worthy of preservation in ' N. & Q.' 

Mr. George Pollock was called to the Bar 
in 1843, and appointed a Master of the Court 
of Exchequer 1851, and Queen's Remem- 
brancer 1886, from which post he retired 
in 1901 (after fifty years' service as Master). 
Mr. Pollock writes : 

" I can give you some information. Bowls were 
formerly in general use. In times past cheques 
were not in such general use as now, and fees were 
commonly paid in cash with brief delivered, 
especially small ones. When Sir James Scarlett 
(afterwards Lord Abinger) became Lord Chief 
Baron in 1834, my father, then at the Bar, succeeded 
him in his chambers at 1, King's Bench Walk, and 
took over the furniture and other small articles, 
including the bowl in which his clerk had received 
fees, and which was used by mv father's clerk for 
the same purpose. I was already at the Bar when 
my father became Chief Baron in 1844, and I then 
became possessed of the bowl and used it. At the 
time when I became a Master the taxing fee was 
paid in cash when the bill of costs was taxed, and 
was so paid till the introduction of stamps years 
afterwards, so I then used the bowl to receive fees 
for bills taxed by me." 

Mr. George Pollock was born in 1821, 
and has not only a wonderful recollection 
of the Courts and legal procedure of bygone 
days, but is still, happily, able to recount 
to this generation the noble traditions of 
his great profession. He is one of the last 
if not the last living who heard Scarlett 
address a jury. 


Inner Temple Library. 

STUART. I recently purchased two photo- 
graphs labelled ' Hornsey in 1750 ' and a 
postcard described as ' Arundel House, 
Highgate, where Arabella Stuart escaped 
from.' The first two I will dispose of 
briefly. Both were photographed from 
Cassell's ' Old and New London,' vol. v. 
pp. 43 and 264 respectively : ' Jenny's 
Whim Bridge, 1750,' and ' Farm in the 
Regent's Park.' Comment is unnecessary. 

The post card requires some notice. I 
have more than once in the local papers 
refuted the story about Arabella Stuart, 

10 s. x. JULY is, 



but apparently with no effect, for it is still 
repeated. Perhaps the following remarks 

m r> i & Q may carr y conviction. 

.Frickett, 'Hist, of Highgate,' 1842, p. 75, 
says : 

'li Ari i nd ^ House traditionally said to have been 
the Bank at Highgate the place of imprison- 
ment of the Lady Arabella Stuart in 1611." 

W. S. Gibson, the writer of the prize 
essay on Highgate, 1842, p. 58 : 

" The site of Lord Arundel's house has not been 
discovered Mr. Coniers had a house at High- 

*V at V;r lfc o was from this house that the Lady 
Arabella Stuart escaped." 

J. H. Lloyd, 'Hist, of Highgate,' 1888, 
follows Prickett with additional matter ; 
on p. 231 he admits the house to have been 
Sir William Bond's, and on p. 233 makes 
Lady Arabella stay at Highgate thirteen 

What are the facts ? 

John Norden, ' Speculum Britannia?,' 
1593, says: " Cornewalleys, Esq., hath a 
laire house at Highgate." 

John Arundel of Lanherne addresses his 
letter from Highgate, dated 16 Oct., 1599, 
to Secretary Cecil (Cal. State Papers Dom.). 

John Povey, Esq. (will proved 1599, 
P.C.C. 92 Kidd), citizen and embroiderer 
of London, and Fellow of Barnard's Inn, 
bequeathed his house at Highgate in which 
he lived to his "natural" daughter Kathe- 
rine Bond. This lady was the wife of 
William Bond, citizen and haberdasher of 
London, afterwards Sir William. 

Now it is morally certain these three 
bouses were all different. It is proved 
beyond doubt (see authorities quoted in 
Lloyd's ' History') that the house at which 
Lady Arabella stayed was Sir William 

On 21 March, 1611, the Bishop of Durham 
writes to Salisbury: "Arrival of Lady 
Arabella at Barnet," &c. The Bishop also 
writes to the Council : " After six days' 
stay at Highgate, Lady Arabella travelled 
thither, but was very ill on the journey," 
Ac. (Cal. State Papers Dom.). 

I could make a shrewd conjecture as to 
the approximate site of this house of Sir 
William Bond's, but, as I am not guessing, 
will leave the facts to speak for themselves. 

36, Claremont Road, Highgate. 

LEAMINGTON-ON-SEA. One has heard of 
the American in England who was afraid 
of walking over the edge of the island. He 
is probably now on the staff of The Globe, 
and has been taking a morning header in 
the Atlantic from some vantage ground in 

Warwickshire. We are told by The Globe, 
2 June, 1908 :- 

" The Regent Hotel at Leamington Spa, as a pod 
centre for Shakespeare's country, offers an excellent 
seaside resort. It has^arge garage and stables, and 
ample accommodation for motorists. The roads in 
the surrounding country are good." 


" VOTES FOB WOMEN." No politics, 
please, Mr. Editor. But the following 
anticipatory lines are so appropriate and 
so quotable that it is a pity not to repro- 
duce them : 

For though we cannot boast of equal force, 
Yet at some weapons men have still the worse. 
Why should not then we women act alone ? 

Oh, would the higher powers be kind to us, 
And grant us to set up a female house ! 

John Dryden's Epilogue to ' Secret Love,' 
1672, ed. Robert Bell, iii. 207. 

The " house " was a playhouse, not a 
Parliament house. W. C. B. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

Will some reader kindly throw light on the 
following entries found in the accounts of 
the Bursars of Lincoln College under the 
years 1525 and 1528 ? In 1525, " payde 
to the kyng when our church dore of long 
Combe was sealed up for the kings silver, 
IQd. "; and in the accounts of 1528, "for 
oure 3 churches, the Kyng's silver, 9s. 4d., 
viz. Long Combe, Halhalowys, and Sanct 
Michael." It may be added that the church 
of Long Combe, which lay within the ancient 
demesne of Woodstock Manor, was previous 
to 1478 in the possession of Eynsham Abbey. 
In that year it was given to Lincoln College, 
together with the church of Twyford in 
Bucks, by Bishop Rotherham of Lincoln 
just before he became Archbishop of York. 
These two impropriated churches formed 
a portion of the increased endowments with 
which Rotherham ref ounded Lincoln College. 
St. Michael at the North Gate and All 
Saints', both in Oxford itself, formed part 
of the original foundation by Richard 
Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, in 1417. All 
four churches were served by resident 
chaplains appointed by the Rector of the 

Vicar of Long Combe, Oxon. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY is, 

COUNTIES. The Devon and Cornwall Record 
Society are publishing the Feet of Fines for 
the counties of Cornwall and Devon. In 
the series of Fines in Divers Counties in the 
reign of Henry III. (to be published in the 
next issue) the following free tenements and 
manors are to be met with. I am anxious 
to identify these places and to give the 
modern equivalents for them as foot-notes. 
I should be glad also to receive hints as to 
where I could find information about the 
parties concerned in the Fines. The county, 
the place needing identification, the parties 
concerned, and the date of the Fine are 
given herewith. 

Dorset (Ywer). Countess of Kent v. John de 
Burgo, 1247. 

Kent (Cleyndon). St. Amando v. Almeric 
de St. A., 1239. 

Gloucester (La Wyke de Cerney). Ditto. 

Norfolk (Burgh). Countess of Kent v. John de 
Burgo, 1247. 

Norfolk (Causton). Ditto. 

Norfolk (Newton). Ditto. 

Stafford (Erleye). Ditto. 

Somerset (Camel). Ditto. 

Somerset (Cherleton). Ditto. 

Somerset (Hengstregge). Ditto. 

Somerset (Tottebere). Isabella de Percy v. Adam 
de Gay, 1243. 

Suffolk (Exinges). William de St. A. v. Almeric 
de St. Amando, 1239. 

Suffolk (Westhal). Countess of Kent v. John de 
Burgo, 1247. 

Suffolk (Suther ton). Ditto. 

Suffolk (Terrington). Ditto. 

Sussex (Babinton). Wm. de Englefield v. Alan 
Basset, 1235. 

Sussex (Gretham). Wm. de Englefield v. Gilbert 
de Basevil, 1236. 

Warwick (Cumpton). Countess of Kent ?. John 
de Burgo, 1247. 

Wilts (Cortington). Prior of Farleye v. Beginald 
de Boterell, 1259. 

Oxford (Northbrok). Isabella Percy v. Adam de 
Gay, 1243. 

Oxford (Lachebrok). Abbot of Grestong v. Peter 
Fitz Oger, 1250. 

Replies direct would oblige. 


88, Horton Grange Road, Bradford. 

I have recently obtained a set of what are 
here known as " charming-bells." The set 
consists of three small bells affixed to a 
wooden frame, to which a handle is attached. 
The pastime of "charming" birds, for 
which these bells were used, differed essen- 
tially from " bird-batting" or " bat-fowling," 
inasmuch as no nets were required. The 
operators, three or four in a company 
(and several companies might be at work 
in the same coppice at the same time), 

entered the wood or coppice where the birds 
were roosting, bearing lanterns and keeping 
up an incessant ringing with the bells. The 
modus operandi somewhat recalls the strata- 
gem of Gideon, for the birds chiefly 
thrushes, blackbirds, fieldfares, redwings, 
(locally "windles"), and starlings (smaller 
birds being disregarded) terrified by the 
noise, and dazed by the lantern glare, 
suffered themselves to be taken by the 
hand, or, if roosting aloft, as was the case 
on still nights, to be knocked down with 
the poles which the lads carried. A dark 
night with no moon was, I am informed, 
essential to success. 

This method of taking birds was very 
common in this neighbourhood until some- 
fifty or sixty years ago, when, owing to the 
increase of game preservation, it seems to 
have died out, and only elderly folk know 
anything about it. The sets of bells have 
been broken up, and the bells in many cases 
adapted to other uses. I imagine that sets- 
are now very rarely to be met with. 

I should much like to know whether 
"charming" birds was practised in other 
parts of England, and whether the sport is 
mentioned in old writers. W. F. ROSE. 

Hutton Rectory, Weston-super-Mare. 

OLD TUNES. Is there any known meaning 
to the name of " Money Musk " or " Moni- 
musk " ? What is its provenance ? 

In Miles' s song in ' Fryar Bacon ' the 
fiddlers are made to play ' The Winning of 
Bullen ' and ' Upsy Frees.' I suppose the 
former refers to the taking of Boulogne 
under Henry VIII. The latter sounds 
tantalizingly Dutch : of what phrase, if 
any, is it a corruption ? 

Hartford, Conn. 

STEERING-WHEEL. About what date did 
the steering-wheel supplant the long tiller 
aboard ship ? When the change was made, 
was the barrel (?) horizontal, as to-day, or 
vertical, like a capstan ? All the works 
I have consulted (and they are many) care- 
fully avoid these particulars. C. E. D. 
Dublin, New Hampshire. 

E. THAYER. I am trying to trace an 
ancestor named Ephraim Thayer, born 
July, 1727, in Norton, Mass., who went to 
England, entered the British Navy, and 
rose to some degree of distinction. Accord- 
ing to a Thayer family memorial, " He was 
promoted from grade to grade, until he was- 
appointed Admiral of his Majesty's fleets." 
He is said to have lived to an advanced age* 
possibly until 1814. 

10 s. x. JULY is, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Is there in British records, naval or other, 
any account of such a man ? I am sceptical 
regarding his rank, but, whatever his 
position, I desire to ascertain when and 
where he died, and, incidentally, any other 
facts relating to his personal history. 

J. H. REED. 
7, Hervey Street, Brockton, Mass. 

I have a nice hand-coloured print bearing 
this title. "Nan" is seated on a bank 
under the shade of a tree, her "swain" 
seated on her left, piping upon a flute after 
the manner so often shown in old prints. 
The dresses of both Nan and her swain 
show resplendent colours. The print is 
shorn of margin except at the foot. It is 
dated 15 July, 1803, and was issued by Valen- 
tine Bernada and Cermenati, London, and 
at North Row, Boston. Is anything known 
about * Sweet Nan of Hampton Green ' ? 


' THE NATIONAL JOURNAL,' 1746. George 
Gordon of the Middle Temple was arrested 
on a charge of admitting a treasonable 
article into his paper, The National Journal, 
or The Country Gazette (No. 35), which was 
printed by John Purser at Red Lion 
Court, Fleet Street (S.P. George II. Dom., 
Bundle 84). Was he the George Gordon 
who wrote * The Annals of Europe ' in six 
volumes (1739-43) ? What is further 
known of the aforesaid prosecution ? 


118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

any one tell us where we can see a list of the 
titles given by the Protector ? That he 
made several baronets and knights we are 
aware ; and we have heard it stated that 
.he also created some one a Howard, we 
think a peer, quite independently of those 
whom he summoned to his new House of 
Lords. We are anxious to know whether 
this was so, and, in case the statement be 
correct, where the form of the writ used on 
the occasion may be seen. N. M. & A. 

HARTLEY COLERIDGE. Can any of your 
readers tell me of any periodical or periodicals 
in addition to Blackwood's Magazine, The 
London Magazine, The Winter's Wreath, 
and The Janus, in which contributions from 
the pen of Hartley, either in prose or verse 
(essays, letters, sonnets, stanzas, &c.), are 
to be found ? If not, can any one suggest 
periodicals of a like nature, or small and 
ephemeral publications, to which Hartley 

Coleridge would be likely to contribute ? 
Hartley's chief period of contribution to 
periodicals seems to have ranged from 1820 
to 1832, but he may have contributed 
essays and verses to various magazines any 
time up to his death in 1849. There is a 
posthumous edition of his works, but the 
names of the periodicals in which the essays 
or verses first appeared are not stated. 

J. B. 

DINNER." Can any one give explanations 
of the following quotations from a letter of 
May, 1816 ? 

1. " The Dandy affair is a very, very bad one, get 
out of it how they will. I hate the idea of Alvanley 
being tarnished, because he is wanted. As to 
Brummell, tempus abire est" 

2. "Who wrote the account of the Rats' Club 
dinner ? It is inimitable." 

J. F. B. 

one tell me where I can get or see a complete 
edition of * The Emigrants,' a novel in 3 vols. 
by Gilbert Imlay (Mary Wollstonecraft's 
first husband), published in 1793 by A. 
Hamilton, Holborn ? The copy in the 
British Museum has only the first volume. 

CA. J. 

in his ' English Humourists ' : 

" Could not some painter give an interview be- 
tween the gallant Captain of Lucar's, with his hat 
cocked, and his lace, and his face, too, a trifle 
tarnished with drink, and that poet, that philo- 
sopher, pale, proud, and poor, his friend and 
monitor of schooldays, of all days?" 

Has any painter ever ventured to stake his 
reputation on such an " interview " ? There 
is a woodcut in Thackeray's volume beneath 
the words : 

" Cannot one fancy Joseph Addison's calm smile 
and cold grey eyes following Dick for an instant, 
as he struts down the Mall to dine with the guard 
at St. James's, before he turns, with his sober pace 
and threadbare suit, to walk back to his lodgings 
up the two pair of stairs ?" 

But it is only a woodcut. 

J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

been asked to ascertain the history of a 
large damask tablecloth, in the centre of 
which is a soldier on horseback. Above 
appear the words " Union Light Dragoons " ; 
and below, " Formed September 12th, 1780." 
Who were these dragoons ? Was the table- 
cloth for ordinary mess use, or for a special 
occasion ? B. S. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY is, im 

CAPT. CHARLES GILL, R.N. I shall be 
glad to learn the parentage and services 
of Capt. Gill, R.N., who was of Sandgate 
from 1829 until about 1838. 



" TANNER " = SIXPENCE. According to 
Mr. Wheat ley (' London Past and Present '), 
J. Sigismund Tanner, Chief Engineer to the 
Mint, died in Edwards Street, Portman 
Square, in 1773. 

Was it from this official that the sixpence 
acquired its slang name of a " tanner " ? 


BENEDICT ARNOLD. -His son was in the 
6th Light Horse in India. What became 
of him ? A. C. H. 




(10 S. ix. 50, 98, 197, 236, 337, 471.) 

PROBABLY few words in the language have 
excited greater interest than " Yankee," 
since for one hundred and forty-three years 
people have been writing about it ; yet we 
know as little about its origin now as did 
the Scotchman who first commented upon 
it in 1765. Hence new facts about either 
Yankee or Yankee Doodle are always 
welcome ; but they must be facts, and not 
guesses or erroneous statements. DR. GRAT- 
TAN FLOOD'S communication at the last 
reference invites the following remarks. 

1. " The air itself," says DR. FLOOD, " is 
genuinely Irish, and was known in Ireland 
in 1750 as ' All the Way to Galway.' " 
(a) What proof has DR. FLOOD that the air 
of ' Yankee Doodle ' and the air of ' All the 
Way to Galway ' are identical ? (6) If they 
are identical, what proof has DR. FLOOD that 
' All the Way to Galway ' is " genuinely 
Irish," or that it was known in Ireland in 
1750 ? 

2. " It," continues DR. FLOOD, referring 
to the air of ' All the Way to Galway,' 
" apparently drifted over to England about 
1755, in which year Dr. Shuckburgh adapted 
the words of ' Yankee Doodle ' to it." Dr. 
Richard Shuckburgh, who died at Schenec- 
tady (New York) on 16 Aug., 1773, was not 
in England in 1755, but in America, where 
for several years he was a surgeon in the 
British Army first in the Four Independent 
Companies at New York, later in the 17th 

Regiment of Foot. The story about Dr. 
Shuckburgh having written the words of 
4 Yankee Doodle ' did not originate until 
or after 1815, was not printed until about 
1820 (the exact date has never been dis- 
covered), and, while perhaps true, is with- 
out one iota of proof in its support. 

3. "It caught on at once in America," 
writes DR. FLOOD, " and was introduced into 
a comic opera, ' The Disappointment,' by 
Andrew Barton at Philadelphia, in April, 
1767, and published by Samuel Taylor." 
A period of twelve years is not the present 
writer's idea of " at once." But, as stated 
above, there is no proof that ' Yankee 
Doodle ' was known in this country in 1755, 
for the 1767 comic opera contains the 
earliest known allusion to ' Yankee Doodle ' 
under that name. This play was probably 
not written by Andrew Barton, and was 
certainly not published by Samuel Taylor. 
The title is in part as follows : 

" The Disappointment : Or, The Force of Credu- 
lity. A New American Comic-Opera, Of Two Acts. 

By Andrew Barton, Esq New York : Printed in 

the Year, M,DCC,LXVII." 

The opera was advertised in The Pennsyl- 
vania Chronicle of 13 April, 1767 (i. 47), 
to be performed " At the New Theatre in 
Southwark," Philadelphia, on 20 April ; 
but in The Pennsylvania Gazette of 16 April 
(p. 3) it was announced as withdrawn 
because, "as it contains personal Reflec- 
tions," it " is unfit for the Stage." A copy 
of the opera owned by the Library Company 
of Philadelphia has written in ink on the 
title-page the words, " by Col. Thomas 
Forrest of Germantown. S." Who " S." 
was, I do not know ; but John F. Watson, 
the historian of Philadelphia, stated in 
1830 (' Annals of Philadelphia,' p. 232) that 
" Mr. Forrest wrote a very humorous play 
(which I have seen printed)." There can 
be no doubt that Watson alluded to ' The 
Disappointment.' The opera was adver- 
tised in The Pennsylvania Chronicle of 
13 April, 1767 (i. 48), as " Just Published, 
and to be sold at Samuel Taylor's, Book- 
Binder, at the Corner of Market and Water 
Streets, price One Shilling and Sixpence." 
Hence Samuel Taylor was merely the 
Philadelphia bookseller, not the New York 

4. " The references," remarks DR. FLOOD, 
" to ' Kitty Fisher ' and to ' Macaroni ' fix 
the date of the song as between 1755 and 
1760." DR. FLOOD has here confused two 
totally distinct things the ' Yankee Doodle' 
song and the nursery rime beginning " Lucy 
Locket lost her pocket, Kitty Fisher found 

10 s. x. JULY is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


it." No version of ' Yankee Doodle ' 
known in this country contains a reference 
to Kitty Fisher. As for the nursery rime, 
the earliest allusion to it known to the 
present writer is under date of 1832. 
Whether the Kitty Fisher of the nursery 
rime has anything to do with " the cele- 
brated Miss Kitty Fisher," as she was called, 
who married John Norris, jun., is uncertain. 
While at the present time a version of 
' Yankee Doodle ' sung in this country 
contains the word " macaroni," yet this 
version is modern, and was unknown previous 
to 1800. Hence " the references to ' Kitty 
Fisher' and to 'Macaroni'" do not fix 
" the date of the song as between 1755 and 
1760," because no version of ' Yankee 
Doodle ' contains a reference to Kitty Fisher, 
and no version of ' Yankee Doodle ' before 
1800 contains a reference to " macaroni." 
Much nonsense has been written about " the 
original ' Yankee Doodle ' song." If there 
ever was such a song, it cannot be too 
strongly insisted upon that the words are 
absolutely and utterly lost. The present 
writer has searched every conceivable source 
of information, including many American 
and London newspapers from 1754 to 1780, 
and has found no words until about 1790. 

5. Speaking of ' Fisher's Jig,' DR. FLOOD 
says that " the jig, even under its adapted 
title of ' Yankee Doodle,' was known in 
1756." When and where was it known 
under that name, or under any other name, 
in 1756 ? The earliest known allusion to 
* Yankee Doodle ' under that name is in 
the 1767 comic opera mentioned above. 
Nor has any one yet produced proof that 
the air was known under any name previous 

Boston, U.S. 

QUEEN CAROLINE (10 S. ix. 449, 495). 
MR. MORETON might have looked up the 
authorities before attempting to reawaken 
ridicule of a great and good man. If he 
had read either Adolphus's ' Trial of Her 
Majesty Caroline, Queen Consort of Great 
Britain,' or Huish's ' Trial at large of Her 
Majesty Caroline Amelia Elizabeth, Queen 
of Great Britain, in the House of Lords, 
printed verbatim from the authenticated 
Journals of the House of Peers,' he would 
have seen that Denman's peroration was 
in these words : 

" who, not in a case like this, where innocence is 
manifest, but where guilt was detected and vice 
revealed, said, ' If no accuser can come forward to 
condemn thee, neither do I condemn thee ; go, and 
sin no more ' " 

surely a vastly different sentence from that 
quoted on the authority of Sir William 
Fraser's volume. 

That Denman himself regretted his refer- 
ence to the woman taken in adultery is 
clear from an extract from his own personal 
narrative given in Arnould's * Memoir.' 
Therein he says : 

" I hope that [my speech] was of some use to the 
Queen, though the unfortunate turn that was, not 
quite unjustly, given to the parable of the woman 
taken in adultery has given me some of the bitterest 
moments of my life. Not that the subject was 
unfit to be touched, for it could not fail to have 
some effect on persons possessing religious feelings ; 
but it ought not to have formed the concluding 
sentence, and might have been more guardedly 
introduced, and more dextrously softened off. It 
came into my head after ten hours' speaking, at 
four, when the house had uniformly adjourned 
with the utmost punctuality, and at a moment 
when the feelings of that assembly were wrought 
up to the very highest pitch. These circumstances 
account in some degree for an indiscretion which 
nothing can fully justify." 

Let me quote one other passage from 
Sir Joseph Arnould's ' Memoir of Lord 
Denman ' (vol. i. p. 155) : 

" In reply to the suggestion that though all par- 
ticular mention of the Queen's name was omitted 
from the Liturgy, she might yet be considered as 
being comprised in the general prayer for the royal 
family, he said, in a tone of the deepest and most 
solemn pathos, that ' if Her Majesty was included 
in any general prayer, it was the prayer for all that 
are desolate and oppressed.' " 


ix. 325, 392 ; x. 35). Samuel Drew, re- 
ferred to in the first note, edited the ' His- 
tory of Cornwall ' by Fortescue Hitchins. 
In the second volume of that, in more senses 
than one, ponderous work, on pp. 549 et seq., 
is the following story. I have condensed 
it by the omission of unnecessary words. 

"A ghost made its appearance in this parish 
[South Petherwinl. It was said to have been seen 
by a son of Mr. Bligh, by his father and mother, 
and by the Rev. John Ruddle. The relation given 
by Mr. Ruddle is in substance as follows : Young 
Mr. Bligh, a lad of no common attainments, be- 
came, on a sudden, pensive and melancholy. He 
was induced, after some time, to inform his brother 
that in a field he was invariably met by an appa- 
rition of a woman whom he knew while living, and 
who had been dead about eight years. Ridicule, 
threats, and persuasions were used in vain to in- 
duce him to dismiss these absurd ideas. Mr. Ruddle 
was sent for, to whom the lad communicated the 
time, manner, and frequency of this appearance. 
The apparition, he said, appeared in female attire, 
met him two or three times, glided hastily by him, 
but never spoke. At length the appearance be- 
came more frequent, but always in the same field. 
He often spoke to it, but could never get any reply. 
He forsook the field and went to school and re- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. JULY is, iocs. 

turned through a lane, in which place it always 
met him. Unable to disbelieve his senses, he pre- 
vailed upon Mr. Ruddle to accompany him to the 
place. * I arose,' says this clergyman, * the next 
morning, and went with him. We went into the 
field, and had not gone a third part before the 
spectrum, in the shape of a woman, passed by. I 
was a little surprised, and though I had taken up 
a firm resolution to speak to it, I had not the 

" On the 27th July, 1665, I went to the haunted 
field by myself, and then the spectre appeared to 
me. It appeared to move swifter than before. I 
had not time to speak to it. The parents, the 
son, and myself being in the chamber where I 
lay, I proposed our going altogether to the place 
the next morning. We nad not gone more than 
half the field before the ghost made its appearance, 
and moved with such rapidity that by the time we 
had gone six or seven steps it had passed by. I ran 
after it, with the young man. We saw it pass over 
the stile. I stepped upon the hedge at one place, 
and the young man at another, but we could discern 
nothing; whereas the swiftest horse in England 
could not have conveyed himself out of sight in 
that short time. A spaniel dog, which had followed 
the company unregarded, barked and ran away, as 
the spectrum passed by. The motion of the spectrum 
was not gradation or by steps, but by a kind of 
gliding, as children upon ice, which punctually [sic] 
answers the description the ancients give of these 
Lemurea. This evidence clearly convinced, but 
withal strangely affrighted, the old gentleman and 
his wife. They well knew this woman, Dorothy 
Durant, and now plainly saw her features in this 
apparition. The next morning I went by myself 
and walked for about an hour, in meditation and 

frayer, in the field adjoining. Soon after five, 
stepped into the haunted field, and had not 
gone above thirty or forty paces before the ghost 
appeared. I spoke to it in short sentences, with a 
loud voice. It approached me but slowly, and when 
I came near, it moved not. I spoke again, arid it 
answered in a voice neither audible nor very 
intelligible. I was not terrified, and therefore 
persisted until it spoke again and gave me satisfac- 
tion ; but the work could not be finished at this 
time. Whereupon the same evening it met me 
again near the same place, and after a few words on 
each side it quietly vanished, and neither doth 
appear now, nor ever will more to any man's 
disturbance. The discourse in the morning lasted 
about a quarter of an hour. These things are true, 
and until I can be persuaded that my senses all 
deceive me, and by that persuasion deprive myself 
of the strongest inducement to believe the Christian 
religion, I must and will assert that the things 
contained in this paper are true. I know full well 
with what difficulty relations of so uncommon a 
nature obtain belief. Through the ignorance of 
men in our age in this peculiar and mysterious 
part of philosophy and religion, namely, the com- 
munication between spirits and men, not one 
scholar in ten thousand knows anything about 
it. This ignorance breeds fear and abhorrence 
of that which might be of incomparable benefit to 

"On this strange relation, the editor [of the said 
history says he] forbears to make any comment." 


W. P. CA. 

SNODGBASS AS A SUBNAME (10 S. ix. 427 ; 
x. 10). Is the following tale known ? There 
was a Collector of the name of Snodgrass 
in the interior of Madras Presidency, under 
the Company. He was rumoured to be 
living like a prince, and never to produce any 
accounts. A Special Commissioner was 
sent to inquire. It was found that all the 
accounts were kept at an old temple on an 
island in a lake. The Commissioner rowed 
out to the temple with his host the Collector, 
and all the books were put into a barge, 
which straightway sank in deep water. An 
unfavourable report, and dismissal without 
a pension, were the result. Mr. Snodgrass 
came home, sat down outside the India 
Office, and swept the crossing. A crowd 
assembled, and there was trouble. To 
get rid of him, he was given a pension. He 
instantly drove down in his four-in-hand, 
left a card with his compliments for the 
Directors, bowed, and drove away. After all 
this he sat on a hospital or fund committee 
with Dickens. S. I. 

In the July Catalogue (275A) of Mr. 
Henry Gray (Goldsmiths' Estate, East 
Acton, W.), is the following : 

" Snodgrass (Major J. J.), Narrative of the 
Burmese War, detailing the Operations of Maj.-Gen. 
Sir Arch. Campbell's Army, from its Landing at 
Rangoon in May, 1824, to 1826. Map and illustra- 
tions, 8vo, bds., uncut, 1827, 8s." 


Thomas Snodgrass, Chesterfield Street, 
was one of the members of the East India 
Company, qualified with two votes at the 
election 11 April, 1821. I have an earlier 
list of the members (1805), but no one 
of that name appears in it. R. Me. 

CAP OF LIBERTY (10 S. ix. 507). See 
several of the best-known presentments of 
Wilkes. " Wilkes and Liberty," long before 
" the French Revolution," made both the 
British factions habitual users of the Cap 
of Liberty, with which, indeed, the Tories 
sometimes adorned the Devil. D. 

CORPUS CHBISTI (10 S. ix. 481). Much in- 
formation on this subject may be found 
in ' Popular Antiquities of Great Britain,* 
by W. Carew Hazlitt, vol. i. ' The Calendar,' 
pp. 169-87. The fine ballads * The Eve 
of St. John,' by Sir Walter Scott, and 
' Song for the Morning of St. John the 
Baptist's Day,' in Lockhart's ' Spanish 
Ballads,' should not be forgotten. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

10 s. x. JULY is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


HIPPOCRATES LEGEND (10 S. ix. 408 ; 
x. 35). Is there any connexion, between 
the legend referred to in the poem of Paul 
de Bellviure and that of ' The Daughter of 
Hippocrates,' told by Leigh Hunt in his 
essay bearing that title ? C. C. B. 

CANNING PORTRAITS (10 S. ix. 448). 
There is a Hoppner portrait of Canning at 
Eton. Lawrence's fine whole-length belongs 
to Sir Robert Peel, and is on view at Graves' s 
Galleries until the 25th inst. See also the 
new * Catalogue of Engraved British Por- 
traits ' in the British Museum. 


" SABARITICKE " (10 S. ix. 488 ; x. 33). 
A multitude of correspondents have sent 
to me the obvious, but, I think, untenable 
suggestion that the word is a misspelling 
or a misprint for " Sybaritic." It does not 
seem to me that "Sybaritic sea" would 
have any point. The only conjecture 
that has occurred to me is that the reference 
may be to " the gulf of Sabara " (KOA.TTOS 
Sa/fopaico?), the coasts of which, according 
to Ptolemy, ' Geog.,' vii. 2, 4, were in- 
habited by cannibals. But if this be the 
right explanation, it is hardly likely that 
Hutton can be referring directly to Ptolemy's 
text, and it would be of interest to ascertain 
what was his immediate source. 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

PORTFOLIO SOCIETY (10 S. ix. 510). 
As a member, from its commencement, 
of the " long-defunct Portfolio Society," 
about which MR. BRESLAR is inquiring, 
let me assure him that as long as I was 
connected with it which was till late in 
1861 it had nothing to do with " the 
reform of certain legal abuses," but was 
composed mostly of young people devoted 
to literature and art. Besides Jean Ingelow, 
there were certainly two other poetess- 
members, Isa Craig and Adelaide Anne 
Procter, who, like Chibiabos, was the 
sweetest singer of all. Among Miss Procter's 
4 Legends and Lyrics ' are several short 
pieces which were read at the Portfolio 
meetings ' Too Late,' ' Returned " Mis- 
sing," ! ' My Will,' ' Rest,' ' The Tyrant 
and the Captive,' ' Expectation,' and * A 
Contrast ' being of the number. 
^ The Society had its birth in Blandford 
Square at the house of Mr. Benjamin Smith, 
sometime M.P. for Norwich. He had three 
daughters liberally endowed with good looks 
and intellectual gifts, the eldest being Bar- 
bara, afterwards Madame Bodichon, a clever 

amateur artist, one of the founders of 
Girton College, and the inspirer of the 
Married Women's Property Act. The 
youngest sister, my contemporary and 
intimate friend, Annie Leigh Smith, was the 
originator of the Portfolio Society and 
the chooser of its name. A subject some 
well-known saying, a phrase, or even a 
single word, to be illustrated by poem, 
very brief essay, or oil or water-colour 
sketch would be proposed, the result 
being shown at our next " merry meeting." 
As a rule, the poems were read, and always 
admirably, by one of the other sex, often 
George Mac Donald, whose forte was elocu- 
tion ; and a Portfolio held the sketches, 
which, after the reading, were turned over 
and criticized, our votes deciding which 
picture merited the prize. Then followed 
the distribution of the sketches ; and I still 
possess and value a clever humorous drawing 
of the canny Jack and the two-headed 
giant supping together, done by the son 
of the well-known author of the ' Thesaurus.' 

Sonning, Golder's Green, N. W. 

389). As to Carica papaya, " the juice of 
the fruit or the macerated leaves, if rubbed 
on animal flesh, make it very tender. It is 
best to roll the meat and leaves together 
for a few hours" ('New Cy. Amer. Flori- 
culture,' ii. 246). This property was 
known before America was discovered, 
and so Hughes, in ' Hy. Barbadoes,' 1750, 
says : "If this unripe fruit when unpeeled 
is boiled with the toughest old salt meat, it 
will soon make it soft and tender." Heat 
is not necessary, for the digestive activity is 
quite as potent cold as hot. So W.I. 
natives have always hung fowls and joints 
in the growing trees (but for this state- 
ment no authority can now be produced, 
my notes on papaw, pineapple, and similar 
vegetable ferments being now inaccessible). 
"The milky juice of the papaw can be 
imagined as quite akin to the gastric or 
pancreatic juice of the animal organism" 
('United States Dispensatory,' 1907, p. 1603, 
where details are given which would be 
almost incredible were they not in this 
handbook of the apothecaries). There is a 
variety quercifolia, which is hardy, and 
whose " large halberd-shaped leaves contain 
a larger percentage of papaine, now used 
in medicine in preference to pepsin " (' New 
Cy. Am. Floriculture,' ii. 246), which may 
be what is referred to in the article cited 
in the query. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY is, 

The papaw being Carica papaya, while 
Ficus carica is the common fig, I had sup- 
posed that similarity of name had caused 
confusion ; but it now appears that Bouchut 
in 1880 found the milky juice of the fig tree 
to contain a digestive ferment similar to 
that of the papaw, and that Landerer 
(American Journal of Pharmacy, xxxiii. 215 
found that the unripe fig contains an irritant 
juice which inflames the skin, and may even 
disorganize it. Examination of Poole's 
"* Index of Periodicals ' (especially under 
Papaw, Digests, and Ferments) will pro- 
bably give any further references required. 


Boston, U.S. 

"ABRACADABRA" (10 S. ix. 467; x. 35). 
The first two syllables remind one of, and 
may be akin to, the somewhat obscure word 
abra, occurring six times in Wright-Wiilcker's 
* Vocabularies,' from ^Elfric's glossary to 
the fifteenth century, as the Latin equivalent 
of " bower-maid." For the Greek see 
Liddell and Scott ; for the Latin, Du Cange. 
The word has been lately brought before 
students by the editress of * Emare ' 
{E.E.T.S., xcix.) in a learned note on the 
name, " Abro," of a handmaid in 1. 57, 
almost certainly identical with the word of 
the glossaries. The note mentions that 
Sophocles in his lexicon gives a Chaldean 
equivalent to "A/3pa, which is of interest 
as regards the notice at the first reference 

H. P. L. 

"PROMETHEAN" (10 S. x. 10). In the 
course of nearly fifty years' experience in 
the drug and allied trades I have never 
heard ^of, much less seen, a fire-lighter 
answering to the description quoted by 
DR. MURRAY. Indeed, an apparatus of 
the kind would be extremely dangerous : 
sulphuric acid is hardly a thing to be played 
with or carried about familiarly. Perhaps 
the dictionary-maker had the German pipe- 
lighter in mind ; this, however, is known 
not as a " promethean," but simply as what 
I have called it. It may be bought at 
Gamage's for eightpence halfpenny, and 
though it is not apparently in very common 
use, it is exceedingly convenient for smokers. 
The fire is generated by means of platinum 
.and methylic alcohol. 

A " promethean," however, is a very 
different thing. It consists of a stoppered 
bottle with a piece of asbestos attached 
to the stopper. The bottle contains spirit 
of wine, and the asbestos, when saturated 
with this, may be used for lighting a pipe 
or candle from another flame. It is in 

fact a substitute for a spill, nothing more, 
with the advantage that the asbestos, 
being non-inflammable, will last for ever. 
Prometheus, it should be remembered, 
was not a fire-maker, but only a fire-bringer. 

C. C. B. 

The late Sir Frederick Pollock tells us 
in his ' Personal Remembrances ' (vol. i. 
p. Ill) that when he was a barrister on 
circuit in 1838 he carried about with him 
cigar-lighters, which he proceeds to describe 
a small globule of glass containing a strong 
acid was enclosed in a twisted paper match, 
charged with chlorate of potass, and they 
were ignited by crushing the end of the 
match. They served their purpose well 
enough, but were expensive, and were soon 
superseded by the friction matches now in 
universal use. T. W. B. 

THE NOSE CELESTIAL (10 S. ix. 406). 
Some years ago I was told that it was well 
known that the Chinese find the smell of a 
white man as offensive as the white man 
finds that of the negro, or even worse. 

What do the negro himself and the red 
man think of the pale-face in this respect ? 
As " the family Hominidae contains but one 
genus, Homo, and probably but one species, 
H. sapiens," it is curious that scents which 
are so distinctive and so repellent should 

It is said that any horse which is not 
accustomed to asses is disturbed when it 
first scents one of them ; but these animals 
do not readily mate together, as the different 
races of men are in the habit of doing. With 
them the objectionable odour may be a 
warning which teaches them that the 
creature producing it is of alien breed, a 
stranger who ought to remain a stranger. 

S. R. 

EDWARDS OF HALIFAX (10 S. ix. 510). 
A paragraph on James Edwards of Halifax 
and his bindings will be found in ' Biblio- 
graphica,' vol. ii. p. 405, published by 
Messrs. Kegan Paul & Co. in 1896. 


H. C. WISE (10 S. ix. 510). According 
to " Members of Parliament, Part II., 
ordered, by the House of Commons, to be 
printed 1 March, 1878" (Parliamentary 
Paper 69-i), Henry Christopher Wise, Esq., 
was on 24 July, 1865, elected for Warwick 
bounty (Southern Division), his colleague 
Deing Sir Charles Mordaunt, Bt. He was 
re-elected on 21 Nov., 1868, for the same 
onstituency, his colleague being John 

10 s. x. JULY is, 



Hardy, Esq. (Pp. 470, 486). This is the 
only H. C. Wise whose name appears in the 
indexes, which are Parliamentary Paper 
180-iii of 1879. This includes the Parlia- 
ments of Great Britain, 1705-96, and those 
of the United Kingdom, 1801-85, and Scot- 
land and Ireland. 

There are Ayshford Wise, Totnes Borough, 
9 Oct., 1812, (p. 259) ; John Ayshford Wise, 
of Clayton Hall, co. Stafford, elected for 
Stafford Borough 8 July, 1852, and 28 March, 
1857, and (presumably the same) 30 April, 
1859 (pp. 421, 437, 453). These pages refer 
to Parliamentary Paper 69-i. 

Thomas Wyse, jun., of the Manor of 
St. John's, county of the City of Waterford, 
was elected for Tipperary County 21 Aug., 
1830, and again 12 May, 1831 (then described 
as "of the Manor of St. John, in the city 
of Waterford"); also Thomas Wyse, jun. 
<no address given), was elected for Waterford 
ity 17 Jan., 1835 ; also Thomas Wyse 
(not called junior), of the Manor of St. John's, 
was elected for Waterford City 7 Aug., 1837 ; 
re-elected 6 Sept., 1839, after appointment 
as one of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Treasury ; Thomas Wyse (no address given) 
was elected for Waterford City 12 July, 
1841 (pp. 327, 339, 363, 378, 396). 

Maurice Wise (not Wyse) of Waterford 
was elected to the Parliament of Ireland for 
Waterford City January, 1559 (p. 634). 

No Wise or Wyse other than those which 
I have given appears in these Indexes. 


Henry Christopher Wise was M.P. for 
"South Warwickshire 1865-74, and certainly 
not " about 1826." He was of Woodcote, 
co. Warwick, and died 15 Jan., 1883. His 
mother was a daughter of Sir Stanier Porten, 
and his second wife was a daughter of Sir 
Edward Cromwell Disbrowe. 

Ayshford Wise was M.P. for Totnes 1812- 
1818, and died 12 June, 1847, and his son 
John Ayshford Wise, of Clayton Hall, co. 
'Stafford, was M.P. for Stafford 1852-60, 
and died 9 Sept., 1870. 


[F. DE H. L. also thanked for reply.] 

ix. 328, 393, 455 ; x. 16). If ST. SWITHIN'S 
memory is not playing him false at the 
penultimate reference, the question as to 
the authorship of "I'm ninety-five " be- 
comes more complicated. I remember it 
very well in the sixties, sung by Harry 
Clifton, whose name appears in the British 
Museum Catalogue to several popular 

" motto " songs of that period, such as 
' Paddle your own Canoe,' but not the one 
in question. The tune was a favourite 
march past till 1878* when the territorial 
system was regulated, each regiment being 
supplied by the War Office with one ; then 
the Rifle Brigade, being the old 95th, had 
this for its own. AYEAHR. 

With reference to MR. BLISS'S quotations 
(10 S. ix. 370, 455), it is curious that the 
sources of two other Latin mottoes under 
engravings (quoted by MR. R. HORTON 
SMITH at 9 S. xii. 148) have not yet been 
identified in ' N. & Q.' The former of these, 
Quadrijugis per inane Venus subvecta columbis 
bears some resemblance to the opening line 
of MR. BLISS'S second quotation, 

Quadrijugis evectus equis sol aureus exit. 
Considering the enormous bulk of neo-Latin 
verse, many times exceeding that of all 
extant classical poetry, it would be hard 
to prove that these lines are not extracted 
from some larger pieces ; but one is tempted 
to surmise that they were written ad hoc. 

If they were composed for the engravings, 
a consideration of the date and place of 
the latter might lead to a clue. 


University College, Aberystwyth. 

The first quotation by MR. MORETON at 
10 S. ix. 488, 
With equal good nature, good grace, and good 


As the devil gave apples, Sam Rogers gives books, 
is referred to in ' The Maclise Portrait 
Gallery,' edited by William Bates, 1874, 
as " the bitter couplet attributed to Tom 
Moore." If this be correct, it implies no 
excess of gratitude on the part of Moore, 
for the same volume says of Rogers, " It 
was he who helped Moore in his Bermudan 
difficulties." The alternative possibility is 
that the authorship preceded the obligation, 
in which case Rogers was very forgiving. 

W. B. H. 

"ANGEL" OF AN INN (10 S. ix. 488; 
x. 14). This refers undoubtedly to a room 
in an inn. In the old dramatists there are 
frequent references to rooms in an inn 
having names such as the above. 

In ' Lady Alimony,' Act IV. sc. ii. (Haz- 
litt's 'Dodsley,' vol. xiv. p. 342), we have 
four mentioned : 

" Quick, quick, more attendants in the Unicorn. 
There goes none to the Antwerp. The Lion and 
the Roebuck have not one." 


Waltham Abbey, Essex. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY is, im 

The context shows that the "Angel" 
at the Holly Tree was a sitting-room. In 
1898 I slept in a bedroom, the name of which 
appeared on my bill next morning as 
" Paradise," at an hotel near the Cotswolds, 
in Gloucestershire. W. B. H. 

A gentleman who was born in 1793, and 
has been long dead, told me that when he 
was a young man it was often the custom 
in the better class of inns to give names 
instead of numbers to the bedrooms. I 
think, but am not sure, that he said this 
was the case at Liverpool. 

K. P. D. E. 
[MB. W. DOUGLAS also thanked for reply.] 

ix. 484). It is perhaps worth noticing 
that in the puzzling questions suggested 
by Sir Thomas Browne, we have a reference 
to Suetonius, ' Tiberius,' chap. Ixx. That 
author there tells us that Tiberius used to 
put questions to grammarians such as 
these : " Who was Hecuba's mother ? 
What name did Achilles assume among the 
virgins ? What was it that the Sirens 
used to sing ? " J. WILLCOCK. 


S. ix. 468). It is understood that this 
tablet will be replaced in the building 
about to be erected in the West-End of 
London by means of the proceeds of the 
sale of the old building in Prince's Square, 
supplemented by a grant of 12,000?. made 
by the Swedish Government. If that 
arrangement fails, the hospitality of the 
Swedenborg Society's house, No. 1, Blooms- 
bury Street, or of any of the " Sweden- 
borgian " places of worship in London, 
would, doubtless, be extended to the derelict 
monument. The erection of this tablet 

" took place on Tuesday the 8 th of December, 1857, 
in the presence of the Rev. Mr. Carlson, the 
Minister of the Church, the Rev. Mr. Bruce of 
Cross Street, and two or three other members of 
the Church." 

I copy these words from a " Letter to the 
Editor " describing the tablet, and narrating 
the inception and completion of the scheme 
for its erection, which appeared illustrated 
by a picture of the tablet in The Monthly 
Observer for January, 1858. The description 
includes the statement that " on the corbe] 
moulding at the bottom is carved in reliej 
Swedenborg' s Shield of Nobility." The 
article is signed by " Jas. S. Hodson,' 
whose firm, Hodson & Son, were the pub- 
lishers of, inter alia,, the magazine in ques- 

ion. The writer leaves it to be inferred 
;hat he was responsible for the erection, 
rat in parenthesis notes that the cost was 
defrayed " out of the fund at my disposal." 

The fullest available account of the theft 
and replacement of Swedenborg' s skull is- 
contained in Dr. R. L. Tafel's ' Documents- 
concerning Swedenborg,' 2 vols. in 3, London, 
1875-7, vol. ii. pp. 1202-8. A letter dated 
1 April, 1823, and signed " Philalethes," 
which appeared in The Morning Herald? 
giving an authoritative contemporary state- 
ment of the facts, was reprinted in T. P.'s 
Weekly for 11 Oct., 1907. 


169, Grove Lane, S.E. 

MAN IN THE ALMANAC (10 S. ix. 408, 475). 
In further illustration of what has been 
said on this subject may be quoted the 
following from Congreve's ' Double Dealer,' 
Act V. sc. xxi. : 

Brisk. Madam, you have eclips'd me quite, let 
me perish I can't answer that. 

Lady Froth. No matter. Hark 'ee, shall you and 
[ make an almanac together ? 

Brisk. With all my soul. Your Ladyship has 
made me the man in 't already, I 'm so full of the 
wounds which you have given. 


Lee in the Epistle Dedicatory to his- 
' Caesar Borgia ' says : " Ev'ry daring Poet 
that comes forth, must expect to be like 
the Almanack Hero, all over wounds." He 
also has a reference to the figure in * The 
Princess of Cleve,' ed. 1734, p. 86. 


" PAFFER " (10 S. ix. 326). Perhaps this, 
is the German word P/affe, a contemptuous- 
nickname for a priest. The German piff-paff? 
like the English " slap-bang," is used to 
denote a sudden noise, such as the report 
of fire-arms. Longfellow's " wonderful piff 
and paff " may imply that the chant of the 
monks was as noisy as a feu de joie, and as 
unmeaning as one fired without reason. 

M. N. G. 

GIBBET AS LANDMABK (10 S. ix. 371, 438). 
The gibbet-post is about a mile from the 
village of Congers tone in Leicestershire, on 
a road called after it Gibbet-Post Lane. I 
have heard that the son of the murderer 
lived in a cottage opposite to it for some 
years. I was also told on good authority 
that some of the young bloods of a neigh- 
bouring county family had shot at the 
skeleton in the evening while it was still 
hanging there. LAWRENCE PHILLIPS. 

Sibson Rectory, Atherstone* 

10 s. x. JULY is, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


PARISH DINNERS (10 S. ix. 306). This 
note can be supplemented from ' The 
Medieval Records of the City Church 
St. Mary at Hill ' (E.E.T.S. No. 125). A 
useful criterion of the prices is that during 
the years mentioned (1509-11) the regular 
day's pay of an artisan "and his man" 
(masons, tilers, daubers, &c.) was Is. Id., 
viz., 9d. and 4d., or 8M and 4K : 

" A Soper to and for the Arbetryng be- 

twene the parissh and about J>e belles : for 

Motton, a shulder, iijd. ; Conys, vd. ; iiij chekyns, 
vjd. ; a Capon, xxrf. ; brede, ale, wyne and IJeer, 
xxjd. Sum ma totallis, iiijs. vijd." 

Another : 

"Paid for Mr. and Mr. dyner in Mr. 

Aldreman's place : for a pyke, xxijd. ; for a lowle 
of fressh samon, xxijrf. ; for iij playse, xijrf. ; 
oysters, jd. ; brede, ale, wyne, and perys, xixrf. 
Summa, vjs. iiijd." 

Another : 

"Paid for a pyke, ijs. viijd. ; for ij Solys, iiije?. ; 
for halff a syde salt fyssh, iijd. ; for Rochis, iiijd. ; 
oysters, jd. ; for buttur, jd. ; for a pye of quinsis, 
vjd. ; for brede, ale, wyne, erbys, & a syde of lynge 
and flownders, nottes, fyre, & sawce, ijs. vjd. ; for 
the cokes labur, iiijd. Summa, vijs. jd." 
I add, under date 1529 : 

" Paid for ij lampreys for Mr. parson, xxrf. ; paid 
for wyne for our lady alter Mas for the hole yere, 
l>at is to say, for iiij galons of Malmesey, vs. iiijd., 
and for ij quartes of Redwyne, vd. Summa, vs. ixd." 

H. P. L. 

GEORGE MONOUX (10 S. viii. 10, 90, 133, 
214, 434, 496; ix. 431). Burke's 'Extinct 
Baronetage,' 2nd ed., p. 363, has the follow- 
ing : 

" George Monnoux, esq r , who was eight years old 
30 th Henry VIII. He married the Hon. Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of John, second Lord Mordaunt." 

A foot-note states : 

" This gentleman had granted to him by Harvey, 
Clarencieux, 10 th June, 1561, by the designation of 
George Monrioux of Walthamstow, nephew and 
heir of Sir George Monnoux, Knt., a confirmation 
of the coat of his said uncle, which was granted 
by Wriothesley, Garter, and Benoite, Clarencieux." 
A reference to the grant of confirmation 
to the nephew might settle the question. 

(10 S. ix. 201). MR. ALMACK'S interesting 
communication locates the whereabouts 
of the extensive collection of documents 
concerning Lord Keeper North, Baron Guil- 
ford. These ten volumes must be those 
which were sold by Leigh Sotheby on 6 Feb., 
1838, the catalogue description occupying 
two pages. They then formed (lot 600) 
part of the library of the Rev. Edward 

Roger North, and it may be assumed that 
they had not previously been out of the 
possession of the North family. The suc- 
cessive ownership of Uie ten volumes since 
the sale in 1838 is doubtless easily traced : 
I rather think that they were in one of the 
Phillipps dispersals, but as my set of these 
catalogues is in the binder's hands I cannot 
verify this at the present moment. 


(10 S. ix. 449). According to ' D.N.B.,' 
xxxi. 136, " there is a tablet to his memory 
in Clitheroe Church." HARMATOPEGOS. 

(10 S. ix. 445). An account of this appeared 
in the Supplement to The Gentleman's 
Magazine, 1764. WILLIAM GILBERT. 


Last year I had occasion to visit this 
place, and learnt from the attendant at 
the renovated chapel that note of the in- 
scriptions was made at the time of trans- 
forming the ground for public use as a 
garden. The memoranda (in the attend- 
ant's keeping, though at the moment 
not at hand) had not then been written 
out in precise order ; possibly this may 
have since been done, as the record is valu- 
able. Many interments, however, having 
been in the vault under the chapel, record 
of these can only be found in the parish 
registers, which, as regards burials, have 
not, I think, yet been printed. 


Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, Third 
Series, vol. v. pp. 149 and 162, contains 
a list of inscriptions in the above-named 
burial-ground. PERCEVAL LUCAS. 

BURNEY'S ' HISTORY OF Music ' (10 S. x. 
9). The first volume issued in 1776 has 
* A List and Description of the Plates to 
Vol. I.' ; the list is paged 517 to 522, the 
end of the volume. 


348). I doubt whether it can be inferred 
from the false Orientalism of M. Gueulette 
that any story about the Pied Piper has 
existed in Ispahan. He wrote when imita- 
tions of the ' Arabian Nights ' were popular ; 
and he takes his stories from any source. 
In one of his books he borrows from Stra- 
parola, and, so far as I can remember, the 
chief alteration that he makes is in changing 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY is, 

Straparola's Satyr into a blue Centaur. 
Many years ago, in trying to get through the 
' Cabinet des Fees,' I read much of the 
works of M. Gueulette. He seemed to me 
to be a poor writer. E. YABDLEY. 

TIONS (10 S. ix. 182, 231, 272, 313, 372, 
410, 473, 516). Plait, Sir Hugh. His will 
is proved in the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury in 1608, and, as he is shown to be alive 
2 July, 1608, he must have died in that year. 
He was baptized 3 May, 1552, at St. James's, 
Garlickhithe, and knighted 22 May, 1605, 
being then " of London." G. E. C. 



Annals of Cambridge. By Charles Henry Cooper, 
F.S.A. Vol. V. 1850-56. Edited by John 
William Cooper, LL.D. (Cambridge, University 

THIS handsome volume will be welcomed by all 
lovers of Cambridge. It is a careful and studious 
collection of details concerning a period which is 
now little known, and which offers some interesting 
differences from the Academic life of to-day. The 
book is, indeed, an essential aid to that historian of 
Cambridge in the nineteenth century who will, we 
hope, appear some day. Many formal details given 
may appear tedious, but there are few pages that 
do not throw some valuable light on the Univer- 
sity, particularly in its relations to the town. 
There are but few prominent survivors of the fifties 
still with us ; the venerable Master of Clare is, 
however, still occupying the position he attained in 
1856. It was in 1851 that King's College relinquished 
their privilege of exemption from University 

' Additions and Corrections ' to previous volumes, 
and an admirable Index to the whole work, occupy 
pp. 244 to 656. All this is close print, and the mere 
consideration of the space occupied will suggest the 
industry and research which have gone to enrich 
this part of the record. The two Coopers, father 
and son, must have laboured incessantly, and col- 
lected and annotated with a zeal equalled in our 
time by only one or two enthusiastic specialists. 

The new matter is full of entertainment and 
interest. There is much concerning commands by, 
and appeals to, royalty. The University sent an 
appeal to their Chancellor, asking that Hobson 
might use a four-wheeled waggon in spite of the 
King's proclamation that "any common carrier" 
should not " travel upon the common highways 
with any wain, cart, or carriage having above two 
wheels.' 5 Some letters by a member of the Univer- 
sity whose name is not known give an interesting 
view of Charles I. at Childerley and Newmarket in 
1647. A token of the size of half-a-crown was struck 
in 1799, having a figure of Hobson on horseback. 
A whole monograph might be made out of the 
history of Sturoridge Fair, which was proclaimed 
as a " Scarlet Day " as late as the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and was the occasion of many disputes as to 

the theatrical performances. Some sets of verses 
are included, the meaning of which is now beyond 
recall. The Latin concerning Dr. Gostlin (1626) is- 
clearly miswritten, for we can hardly believe that 
it was so faulty in scansion as the MS. transcriber 
has made it. In the same year Mr. Mead of Christ's 
College secured a small book out of the maw of a 
codfish, "almost turned into a gelly," and "with a 
tender lifting with my knife" separated some of the- 
pages, and found a treatise of 'Preparation to the 
Crosse ' of Henry VIII.'s day. Distinguished mem- 
bers of the University had their death in earlier 
times celebrated by a collection of verses. In the 
case of Bacon, though an ex-Chancellor, the Univer- 
sity did not sanction such public honours. But a 
number of Cambridge scholars, the majority from 
Trinity College, were rightly impressed by Bacon's- 
greatness, and their collection of poetry "bore all the- 
exterior marks of an academical effusion, except 
that it was not headed by the Vice-Chancellor, and 
that it was printed in London instead of Cam- 

We have selected but one or two points from this 
remarkable book, but they are sufficient to show it* 
wide scope and interest. 

Shakespearean Representation : its Laws and Limits* 

By Percy Fitzgerald. (Elliot Stock.) 
WE took up this book expecting to find a discussion 
of the old Globe Theatre and limitations of the- 
actual stage used by Shakespeare a subject which 
has been amply discussed, and generally in an arid 
fashion. Here we have no heavy archaeology, but 
various views of the modern staging of the poet,, 
and criticisms of acting which are both lively and 
full of practical points worth considering. Mr.. 
Fitzgerald writes in a diffuse style which shows 
carelessness, leads to bathos, and rather spoils our 

Eleasure. We think that he is largely justified in 
is criticism of details, though some of the remark s. 
on illusion dp not commend themselves to us. We 
are well satisfied, for instance, with the modern 
arrangements of ghosts, apparitions, &c., on the- 
stage, and think that they are an advance on earlier 
methods. Such, at any rate 2 was the opinion of a 
critic of unexampled experience concerning the- 

The attempt to equalize the characters of any- 
given piece, and "thus present a perfect all-round 
performance, as is found in German theatres," is 
one which the author does well to commend to- 
public notice. The sad distortion of the figure- 
which the actor-manager happens to play is notorious 
in England. He dwarfs the other characters, and 
occupies so much time that they have to hurry 
through their parts. Some day we shall go to the 
theatre and time his speeches and grand pauses 
with a stop-watch, which might produce surprising, 

The question of music to Shakespeare is difficult,, 
but it seems a little hard that Mr. 1 itzgerald should 
object to a conductor as "a link with the prosy 
outer world." He praises justly Mendelssohn's; 
music to ' A Midsummer Night's Dream,' but " he- 
carinot conceive of an overture to ' Hamlet.' " The- 
play should, he thinks, begin without " such noisy 
heralding." But human nature, being what it is, 
requires to be attuned to the occasion. An overture- 
by Beethoven would aid us to appreciate the high 
and troubled theme of 'Hamlet*; some portion- 
even of the ' Eroica ' or the c Minor Symphony 
would give us great pleasure as a prelude. 

10 s. x. JULY is, i9oa] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The present state of our stage justifies in the 
main, as we have said, the criticisms of this volume, 
but its author demands too much is so concerned 
with ideals as to be in a mood of dissatisfaction 
with everything. It would be regrettable if this 
led readers to put the book down, recalling ' Can- 
dide ' : " Quel grand genie que ce Pococurante ! rien 
ne lui peut plaire." 

We promise ourselves the pleasure of going over 
Mr. Fitzgerald's book again at leisure, and adding 
it to our store of select volumes on a subject of 
constant study. 

The, Edinburgh Review. April. (Longmans & Co.) 
' FENELON 's FLOCK ' is a paper that deserves careful 
attention. Few are well acquainted with the reli- 
gious movements that agitated France during the 
reign of Louis XIV. Of the needless wars he waged 
and the religious persecutions in which he indulged 
much has been written ; but the mysticism of 
Madame Guyon and Fenelon is not attractive to 
most English folk; so it is commonly passed by 
without study, or even without a thought. When 
dwelt upon at all, these typical French thinkers are 
usually compared with the dreamers of the Middle 
Ages. This notion, though plausible enough, is a 
mistake. The Renaissance had so deeply affected 
the whole thought of France that it was impossible 
for the idealism of those days to model itself 
on the mysticism of the Middle Ages. The Arch- 
bishop of Cambrai was a noble and a courtier, while 
his predecessors were for the most part far removed 
from the influences which acted on his life. Of 
Madame Guyon the writer speaks with admirable 
justice ; weak as she may have been, there can be 
110 doubt that her powers of thought, strange as 
were their results, were highly trained. " We must 
never forget," the writer points out, "that her 
mind's eye perceived existence on two planes. 
Above reached eternity, simultaneous, infinite ; 
below, the world of Life and Time, where things 
act in succession." Such double consciousness exists 
in only the few, and for them it is a gift fraught 
with danger, from the great difficulty of keeping 
the two spheres apart. Fenelon was much admired 
in England, and his 'Telemaque' was used as a 
schoolbook a hundred years ago. This, we fully 
believe, was on account of its power and intrinsic 
reasonableness ; but at the time there were those 
who persuaded themselves that it was because he 
had had a conflict with Bossuet and the Roman 

The paper on Anna Maria Schiirmann, whom the 
writer speaks of as a Dutch bluestocking and a 
Quaker of the seventeenth century, is an interesting 
sketch of a linguist of extraordinary power and 
compass, and a many-sided artist of great ability, 
whose works are still treasured by collectors. All 
her life she appears to have been a devout Pro- 
testant, but it was not till after middle age that she 
became an ardent devotee. This, it would appear, 
arose from her admiration of a religious teacher 
named Labadie, who in early life had been a priest 
in the Roman Communion. The body he founded 
was highly unpopular with Lutherans and Calvinists 
alike. It is to be deplored that before her death 
she destroyed many of her literary and artistic 

'Ugliness in Fiction' is not only a powerful 
article, but also one calculated to be of service to 
literature, as it exposes the offensive side of several 
popular novels of recent date. 


MR. THOMAS BAKER'S Catalogue 528 contains some 
rare items. Among these we find Walsh's ' Vindi- 
cation of the Irish Remonstrance,' 1674, 61. 6s. 
Another work of Irish interest is Beling's * Vindi- 
ciarum Catholicorum Hibernise, Libri II. 1641 ad 
1649,' Paris, 1650, both parts, full red morocco, 
21. 15s. Among general works are 'Biographie 
Universelle,' 52 vols., 1811, 21. 18,9. ; Max Rooses's- 
' Dutch Painters,' 12*. 6d. ; Finden's ' Illustrations- 
to Byron,' 3 vols., Murray, 1833, II. Is.; Moliere r 
translated by Waller, II. 5s. ; Sharp's ' Church 
Windows,' 2 vols., 16s. ; Skeat's 'Dictionary,' 4to r 
11. 2s. : Smith's ' Dictionary of Christian Biography/ 
4 vols., 4/. 4.9. ; and Ware's ' Antiquities of Ireland/ 
Dublin, 1764, folio, calf, 11. 8s. Under Wales is- 
' The Myvyriaii Archaiology,' by Owen Jones, Wil- 
liams, and Pughe, 1870, 11. 15s. There is a collec- 
tion of Italian poets, Dante, Arioato, Tasso, and 
Petrarch, 11 vols., half-vellum, full gilt, 11. 10*. 

Mr. P. M. Barnard, of Tunbridge Wells, issues- 
two Catalogues (Nos. 22 and 24) simultaneously. 
Catalogue 23, Alpine, &c., is to be delivered shortly. 
No. 22 is devoted to Foreign Literature, and con- 
tains items under French, Italian, Spanish, and 
Scandinavian. There is a fine set under Beranger, 
10 vols. in 9, half-morocco, 1860, 31. This is made 
up of ' Correspondance,' 4 vols., ' (Euvres anciennes/ 
(53 steel illustrations), 'Musique des Chansons,' &c. 
Under Com mines is his history of Louis XL and 
Charles VIII., with excellent impressions of the 
plates, 4 vols., 4to, 1747, 51. 15s. There is a special 
vellum copy (with bookplate of the Earl of 
Sheffield) of ' La Constitution Frangaise, preseiiteV 
au Roi le 3 Septembre, 1791,' red morocco, 101. 10?. 
Under Boccaccio is the rare and finely printed 
edition of the ' Laberiuto di Amore,' 1487, four 
missing leaves being supplied in loose MS., 61. 15,9. 
In the Spanish section are the four books of 
* Amadis de Gaula,' folio, Venice, 1533, 11. Under 
Carranza is the ' Libro de Hieronimo de Caranca,' 
31. 3s. This is a rare book, and Mr. Barnard 
tells us it is difficult to get accurate information 
about it. Cervantes referred in laudatory terms to- 
ft in his 'Galatea,' VI., 292. There is also a fine 
copy of the 1780 ' Don Quixote,' 4 vols., large 4to, 
11. Is. A copy of Ticknor's ' Spanish Literature,' 
3 vols., half -calf, uncut, is priced 11. 16s. It is the 
first edition, 1849. 

We are sorry we cannot spare for Catalogue 24 
the space it merits : it is devoted to Bookbindings, 
many of them of the choicest. There are English, 
Scotch, French, German, and Italian bindings, 
including books bound for Louis XIV., XV., XVI., 
and XVI1L, Charles X., and Anne of Austria. 
Mr. Barnard generously offers to supply rubbings 
of bindings on receipt of stamp. 

Mr. Andrew Baxendine's Edinburgh Catalogue 111 
contains a good list under Burns, including Reid's 
' Concordance,' 7s. 6d. The words of the Concord- 
ance number 11,400, while the quotations exceed 
52,000. Under Cowper is Wright's edition of the 
' Correspondence,' 4 vols., 11. 5s., and Southey's ; 
edition, 8 vols., 12s. 6d. There is the Oxford De 
Foe, 20 vols., a handsome set in half-morocco, 9/. 9-9,. 
Under Scott we find Napier's ' Homes and Haunts,' 
very scarce, 21. 10.9. 6ri, also the Novels, 25 vols., 
new, 21. 2,9. This edition was published by 
A. & C. Black in 1901. A copy of Prof. Knight's 
' Wordsworth,' 12 vols., cloth, hew, is M. 4s. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. JULY is, im 

Mr. George P. Johnston's Edinburgh Catalogue 
86, contains much of Scottish interest, including 
Drummond's 'Highland Targets' and 'Mediaeval 
Triumphs and Processions,' 21. 2s.; his 'Market 
Crosses,' II. 4s. ; * Book of Common Prayer for the 
Use of the Church of Scotland,' 1712, If. 15*. ; and 
Bureh Records Society, 14 vols., 4to, 21. 2s. There 
is an extremely rare work, 'History of the late 

crimson levant, 4J. 4*. There are lists under 
Theatre, Drama, &c., and Modern Poetry. A 
curious book is 'A Short History of Prime 
Ministers,' 1733. Fourteen shillings will purchase 
the information that " there never yet was a Prime 
Minister in Great Britain, but either broke his own 
neck, or his master's, or both, unless he saved his 
own by sacrificing his master's." This list is given: 

Dy'd by the halter 3 

Ditto by the axe 10 

By sturdy beggars 3 

Untimely by private hands 2 

Jn Imprisonment 4 

In exile 4 

Dy'd penitent ... ... 1 

Saved by sacrificing their master 4 

Sum total of prime ministers 31 

Murray's Nottingham Book Company's Cata- 
logue 72 contains The Connoisseur , Vols. I.-X., 21. 5s. ; 
4 Edward VII.'s Prayer Book,' Essex Press, 31. 17s. 6d. 
(only 400 printed) ; Illustrated London News, 1850-89, 
51. 5s. Johnson's edition of the Poets, 68 vols., calf, 
2Z. 2s.; and " Ancient Classics for English Readers," 
Blackwood, II. Is. There is a first edition of the 
'Seven Lamps,' 1849, 21. 10*. Under London is 
Burgess's 'Bits of Old Chelsea,' 21. "is. 6d.; and 
under Medical is Raynalde's ' The Birth of Man- 
kynde,' a good copy of this rare work, 1565, 51. 5s. 
A tine specimen of German binding, a Book of 
Homilies, with brass mountings of embossed figures 
of Moses and Christ, is 51. 5s. There are lists under 
French Literature, Dictionaries, &c. 

Mr. G. A. Poynder's Reading Catalogue 47 con- 
tains works under Africa, Agriculture, and America, 
the last comprising Shebbeare's ' Letters to the 
People of England,' 8vo, contemporary half-calf, 
1756, 31. 3s. For writing the seventh letter, which 
was seized and suppressed, the author was tried 
and sentenced to the pillory. The botany of Ireland 
is represented by 16 vols. containing many hundreds 
of dried specimens, 101. 10s. A curious book is 
Reynolds's ' The Triumphes of God's Revenge,' the 
illustrations including breaking on the wheel, 1635, 
21. 2s. There are a number of items under Juvenile. 
General works include Granger's ' Biographical 
History,' 6 vols., uncut, 1824, 4:1. 4*. This edition 
contains 400 additional lines. Jesse Foot's ' Life 
of Murphy,' 4to, old polished russia, 1811, is 4J. 15s., 
and Tract 90. 5s. 6d. Waverley Novels include the 
large-paper Border Edition, 121. 12s. ; Black's 1854 
48- vol. edition, 101. 10s. ; and the 31- vol. edition, 
Cadell, 1843, 31. 3s. There is a handsome set of 
Thackeray, 22 vols., 8vo, half-calf, Smith & Elder, 
121. 12*. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp's London List 34 contains 
under Charles I. the first edition of ' Eikon Basilike,' 
1648, 51. 5s. ; and ' Reliquiae Sacrre Carolines,' 1651, 
4. 4s. Alken's ' Symptoms of being Amused,, 

McLean, 1822, is 4Z. 4s. ; Portfolio Monographs, 
12 vols., 4. 4*.; Ashmole's 'Institutions/ folio, 
1672, 21. 15s. ; first edition of Elizabeth Barrett's 
'Poems,' 2 vols., 1844, 11.16s. ; also of Browning, 
11 vols., 4Z. 10s. ; first and early editions of Byron, 
7 vols., 21. 18*.; Burney's 'Camilla,' 5 vols., first 
edition, 1796, 31. 15s.; Tennent's 'Ceylon,' 21. 5s. ; 
Orme's ' Military and Naval Anecdotes,' royal folio, 
very rare, 1819, 101. 10s. ; Dibdin's 'Bibliomania,' 
1811, 121. 12s. ; Nicholson's ' Wars,' 1816, folio, . 4s. ; 
Gillray, atlas folio, 1847, 4Z. 15s. ; and The Ideal, 
Vol. 1. Part L, 1903, 31. 3s. (published at 101. 10s,, 
all out). Under Islington is Nelson's 'History,' 
1788, 61. 6s. ; and under Italy is Barbault's ' Monu- 
ments de Rome,' 3 vols., atlas folio, brilliant im- 
pressions of the plates, half-calf , uncut, Rome, 1761, 
51. 10s. There is a remarkable work on Scandinavia, 
'Olai Magni Historia,' 1567, 4J. 4s. Under Rye 
House Plot is a collection of State Trials, 61. 10s. ; 
and under Scott a collection of first and early 
editions, 77 vols., half -calf, 121. 10s. Shakespeare 
items include Valpy's edition, Boydell's plates, 
15 vols., uncut, 31. 18s. Under Defoe is the first 
edition of Crusoe's ' Farther Adventures,' 22. 10s. 
The first edition of Tennyson's 'Poems,' 2 vols., 
Moxon, 1842, is priced 21. 10s. 6d. There is much of 
interest under Music. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp's Guildford Catalogue 14 is 
devoted almost entirely to works on Birds, Insects, 
Shells, and Flowers, in which most of the well- 
known authors appear. Just at the end we note 
among general entries a collection of rare Tracts by 
Selden, Dryden, and others, 1675-91, 7/. 7s. Under 
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NOTES : Hazlittiana, 61 Shakespeariana, 63 Bonaparte 
on the Northumberland, 64 Sydney Dobell and his 
Edinburgh Friends The "Deedler": "Deedling" 66 
Widow Maurice, Printer, 67. 

QUERIES : Don Saltero's Tavern, Chelsea Comte d'An- 
traigues Silvretta Mountains, 67 Anne Walton's Epi- 
taph in Worcester Cathedral" Chautauqua " Melampus 
and the Saint Gladstone's Last Moments Authors of 
Quotations Wanted Medal of Charles I. Mill at Gos- 
port, Hants, 68 Family Arms Voltaire on Love Castle- 
man Family Clement Family C. Barron, 19, Pall Mall 
Capt. Cook's Voyages Farrington, Clockmaker Snail- 
eating and Gipsies, 69 Blackman=Fairway Whittier 
One-Tree Hill, Greenwich, 70 

REPLIES : Constables and Lieutenants of the Tower of 
London, 70 The National Flag Milton and Christ's 
College, Cambridge Plaxtol "Thurcet" Book Margins, 
72 Field-Glasses in 1650 Round Oak Spring Chalk 
Farm, formerly Chalcot Farm Latin Pronunciation 
Johnsoniana De St. Philibert Anonymous Works 
" Rise," Active Verb, 73 Giles Heron Brass as a Sur- 
name Auchors of Quotations Wanted, 74" Femmer " 
Single Tooth Hair becoming suddenly White through 
Tear, 75-T. L. Peacock : " Skylight " and "Twilight" 
Vernon of Hodnet John Zephaniah Holwell " Pro- 
methean "Nursery Rime Rushlights, 76 Maps Prior 
and his Chloe Victorian Coin" The Crooked Billet," 77 
Chalice Inscription, 1645 Clergy in Wigs Stuffed Chine 
Waldock Family" Pink Saucer "Surrey Gardens, 78. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: ' Nunburnholme ' ' Catalogue of 
the Library of Charles Darwin ' ' Documents relating to 
the Office of the Revels ' ' Satiro-Mastix ' ' Poetical 
Works of Keats.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See 10 S. ix. 101, 177, 292.) 


" PRAY are the Winterslow estates en- 
tailed ? "Lamb to Hazlitt, 2 Oct., 1811. 

(a) In his ' Memoirs of William Hazlitt ' 
Hr. W. Carew Hazlitt refers to Lieut. John 
Stoddart, R.N., as "a retired and dis- 
appointed navy man, who had inherited 
or acquired (I hardly know which) a small 
property near Salisbury, at a village called 
Winterslow." In the course of time Lieut. 
Stoddart died, and was buried, according 
to the register of St. Martin's Church, Salis- 
bury, on 20 July, 1803. On 1 May, 1808, 
ihis daughter Sarah became the wife of 
William Hazlitt. Referring to the event, 
iMr. Carew Hazlitt writes : 

"Mrs. Hazlitt's property at Winterslow, which 
Tiad been left to her by her father, with a rever- 
sionary interest in what he bequeathed to Mrs. 
Stoddard for her life, was settled upon herself at 
lier brother's instigation, and much to my grand- 
father's annoyance. There was about 120J. a year 

Mr. Birrell, in his * William Hazlitt,' gives 
further currency to this statement as to her 
income and its source. " Miss Stoddart," 
he says, 

"was not romantic, but determined to be married, 
though with a settlement upon herself and her 
issue of her cottages at Winterslow, which pro- 
duced the annual sum of 12W." 

The first time I visited Winterslow, it 
occurred to me that if Sarah Hazlitt ever 
enjoyed an income of 120Z. from cottages 
there, her father must have bequeathed 
to her every cottage in the village. But 
on investigation I could find no trace 
of any such extensive Stoddart property 

(6) That Sarah Stoddart, at the time of 
her marriage, had a perfect right to secure 
to her own use what property she possessed, 
no one will gainsay. Being, however, in- 
terested in the problems of heredity, I felt a 
desire to ascertain, if possible, whether the 
closefistedness which ever characterized her 
in monetary transactions was a matter of 
transmission or of acquirement. She seems 
to have been called Widow Blackacre, after 
Wycherley's " perverse, bustling, masculine, 
pettifogging, and litigious " creation ; and 
Mary Lamb once wrote to her of a certain 
Jewish bargain with a lover. Then what 
a contemptible document is that later 
diary of hers when in Scotland during the 
divorce proceedings ! " I met him [Hazlitt] 
by the way : he gave me 10." " 1 wanted 
more money." " He would let me have 
the money as he could get it " ; and so on 
ad nauseam. Then came Hazlitt' s second 
marriage and his continental honeymoon. 
But Sarah, the divorced, was in Paris when 
Hazlitt arrived there, and she wanted 
money from him and got it. 

(c) In the Salisbury city accounts for 
1808 there is an entry that " Mr. Hazlett " 
had paid his year's rent of 151. 15 s. for a 
garden in St. Ann Street. 

The foregoing items marked (a), (6), 
and (c), are set down in such manner be- 
cause, although but loosely connected and 
without apparent sequence, they all seemed 
to me to point to one document for elucida- 
tion, viz., the will of Lieut. Stoddart. A 
copy of this was secured forthwith ; and it 
runs as follows : 

I John Stoddart of the City of New Sarum in th 
County of Wilts a Lieutenant in His Majesty's 
Navy being in good health and of sound and perfect 
mind memory and understanding (praised be God) 
but considering the uncertainty of tnis life do make 
publish and declare this to be my last Will and 
Testament in manner following (that is to say) 



First I give and bequeath to my dearest wife Sarah 
Stoddart twenty two pounds per annum to be paid 
at half yearly payments on the two most usual days 
of payment which shall happen after my decease 
which sum of twenty two pounds with the pension 
of thirty pounds per annum which will be allowed 
to her from Government as my widow will enable 
her to live in a handsome and comfortable manner 
the said sum of twenty two pounds I direct to be 
paid out of the rents profits and issues of the houses 
and Tanyard given to me by my grandfather Thomas 
Stoddart [1] Also I give to my said wife (during 
the term of her natural life) my present dwelling- 
house and pleasure garden [2] on condition it is 
kept in its present form and state together with 
whatever part of the furniture of the house she may 
chuse to make use of Item I give to my beloved 
son John Stoddart and his heirs for ever all that 
my house outhouses stables and Tanyard situate 
lying and being in Saint Ann's Street in the City of 
New Sarum aforesaid [3] but subject to the before 
mentioned bequest to his mother Also I give to my 
said son John Stoddart the Lease from the Revd. 
John Cleevey of my house stables and garden in 
Cathereine Street in the City of New Sarum afore- 
said [4] Also I give and bequeath to him all my 
property in the short annuities And I give and 
bequeath unto William Benson Earle Esquire of the 
Close of New Sarum and unto my said son John 
Stoddart In trust and to the use and benefit of my 
dearly beloved daughter Sarah Stoddart until she 
shall have attained the age of twenty five years or 
until she shall marry with their consent and 
approbation before that time all that house malt- 
house garden and premises which I purchased of 
Mr John Willis for the term of his natural life [51 
but it is my direction that the insurance which I 
have made on the life of the said Mr. Willis shall 
be duly kept up yearly and paid for out of the rents 
of the said premises if occupied if not occupied then 
to be paid out of any other part of her income so 
that she may be entitled to and receive the four 
hundred pounds assured by that policy Also I give 
and bequeath unto the said William Benson Earle 
Esquire and John Stoddart In trust as aforesaid 
for my daughter Sarah Stoddart all my property in 
the five per cent Bank Annuities and also all sums 
of money due to me Bonds Notes or other securities 
for money I give unto them In trust as aforesaid 
Also I give and bequeath unto the said William 
Benson Earle and John Stoddart In trust as afore- 
said the small house outhouse and garden late in 
the occupation of Mr. Henry Sutton [6] and after 
the decease of my wife I give the remainder of the 
land and houses which I purchased of Mr. Lowdell 
[7] unto them In trust as aforesaid for the sole use 
and benefit of my said daughter Sarah Stoddart 
Also I give unto them the unexpired term of the 
Lease of my garden in Bugmore held under the 
Corporation of New Sarum [8] for the use of my said 
daughter And my Will is that if either of my 
children John or Sarah Stoddart shall die before 
they attain the age of twenty five years then that 
child's part or legacy shall go to the survivor And 
all the rest and residue of my money and other 
effects not hereby otherwise disposed of after 
payment of my just debts and funeral expenses I 
do' here by direct to be equally divided between my 
son and daughter John and Sarah Stoddart And 
lastly I do make and appoint the said William 
Benson Earle Esquire and my said son John 
Stoddart Executors In trust of this my Will 

hereby revoking all former Wills by me made In 
Witness whereof I have to this my Will set my 
hand and seal the second day of January in the 
thirty fifth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord 
George the Third by the Grace of God of Great 
Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the 
Faith and so forth and in the year of our Lord one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety five. Jno 
Stoddart [L. S.]. Signed sealed published and 
declared by the said John Stoddart the Testator to> 
be his last Will and Testament in the presence of 
us who have hereunto subscribed our names as 
witnesses in the presence of the said Testator and 
of each other John Goodfellow Senr John Good- 
fellow Junr. 

(a) In this will there is no mention of any 
Winterslow possessions. The properties- 
marked 1 and 3 (the figures are mine for 
facility of reference) are identical ; 2 and 7 
are another property, also situate in Salis- 
bury, as is item 4. I am led to conclude- 
that 5 is also in St. Ann Street, Salisbury ; 
whilst 6 is clearly the house in the same- 
street, then let at 4Z. 10s. per annum, which 
Hazlitt suggested that Sarah Stoddart 
should sell to help to provide funds with 
which to start their new life. Hazlitt' s 
share of the provision was to be a simple- 
affair " and I will borrow 100Z." Two 
grey-brick buildings now stand on the site 
of this cottage and the house which in 1826 
was let by Dr. Stoddart to Dr. Thomas at 
28Z. per annum. (This Stoddart house, by 
the way, was a residence of some interest. 
A drawing of it now before me shows it to 
have been in those days a fairly important 
house, with a bay-window on the first floor.. 
This gave light to a large banqueting-hall 
having an arched ceiling. Entering the 
house from the street, one had to descend 
two steps.) 

The garden (8) is also in Salisbury. 

I am afraid the Winterslow cottager 
worth 120Z. a year will have to be ignored 
by future biographers of Hazlitt. 

(b) I gather from this will that Sarah 
Stoddart' s meanness in money matters was 
inherited from her father, who, we find, 
left his widow 22Z. per annum, which with 
her Government pension of 30?. provided 
her with 1Z. a week a sum which the Lieu- 
tenant considered would " enable her to- 
live in a handsome and comfortable manner," 
after paying for all repairs to the house 
and defraying the expenses incident to the 
upkeep of the pleasure garden, which had 
to be " kept in its present form and state." 
Although his widow was to have for her life- 
time " whatever part of the furniture she 
may chuse to make use of," Sarah had evi- 
dent intentions on some of it, otherwise 
Mary Lamb would have had no occasion. 

10 s. x. JULY 25, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to write to her : "I am afraid you can bring 
but few things away from your own house." 

I think this will has caused me jto.i pity 
Hazlitt more than ever. 

(c) The lease of the Bugmore garden (No. 8 
in the will) was, I find, the one under which 
"Mr. Hazlett" paid 151. 1 5s. rent for the 
year 1808. In 1602 the garden was let to 
a certain John Batt, and was described 
as " a part of the Ditch or Trench called 
the Towne Ditch ; great Bugmore on the 
South, the Grey Friar's wall on the West, 
part of little Bugmore on the East." This 
garden was " improved" some years later, 
for in 1648 Christopher Batt's rent was 
10s., and he was assessed on an extra 
4L " for improvement of ye same." On 
5 Sept., 1707, the lease was transferred to 
Thomas Stoddart, the tanner. (The ^tod- 
darts were Salisbury tanners for generations, 
and St. Ann Street, where they lived, was 
known as Tanner Street.) In 1774 Mary 
Stoddart obtained a renewal for 31 years 
of the lease of the "garden or orchard" 
in question, the length of which from north 
to south was 348 ft., " the breadth at the 
north end" 105ft. 4 in., and at the south 
end 92ft. In 1805 the executors of John 
Stoddart were replaced by Mary Stoddart,* 
who in 1806-7 paid 151. 15s. rent under 
a new lease of 21 years. In 1808 ' Mr. 
Hazlett" paid a like sum. In 1821 the 
garden was leased to Edward Baker for 
40 years at a similar rental. 



TIONAL NOTES. I. ii. 38-40 : "I will, 
out of thine own confession, learn to 
begin thy health ; but, whilst I live, 
forget to drink after thee " (see context). 
This passage is explained by one in Florio's 
Montaigne, 'Essays,' Book I. ch. xl. (1603): 
" Another upon the gibbet calling for 
drinke, and the hangman drinking first 
said, hee would not drinke after him for 
feare hee should take the pox of him." The 
passage following in Montaigne is illustrative 
of another part of the play. 

I. iii. 30 : 

The baby beats the nurse, and quite athwart 
Goes all decorum. 

* The accounts are evidently in error. The entry 
should show, I think, that the executors of Johr 
Stoddart replaced the Mary Stoddart whose lease 
of 1774 expired in 1805. 

This refers, Steevens says, to "an ancient 
?rint, entitled ' The World turned upside- 
lown,' where an infant is thus employed " ; 
Dut he gives no authority in my edition. 
Compare Nashe's Introduction to ' Mena- 
phon' in Grosart's 'Greene,' vi. 15: "It 
s no meruaile if every ale-house vaunt the 
table of the world turned upside down : 
since the childe beats his father, & the 
asse whippes his master." 

III. i. 261-3 : " Your brother saved, your 
lonour untainted, the poor Mariana advan- 
taged, and the corrupt deputy scaled." 
Steevens suggests " thrown into confusion" ;: 
others, "weighed (and found wanting)." 
[ explain it by the old use of scale (Northern), 
scatter, disperse, with an easy transitional 
sense. The earliest use I quote is from 
Laneham's ' Letter,' 1575. Here is an 
earlier and a better one from Golding,. 
Ovid* (1565), II. 215-16: 
Even so the Waine for want of weight it erst was 

wont to beare, 
Did hoyse aloft and scayle and reele, as though it 

empty were. 

The sense in Golding is that of lightness,, 
of chaff, of an unballasted ship found worth- 
s. Both stand in need of the ' New 
English Dictionary's ' history of the usages, 

III. ii. 134-6 : " Sir, I was an inward of 
his. A shy fellow was the Duke ; and I 
believe I know the cause of his withdrawing." 
V. i. 337 : " And was the Duke a flesh- 
monger, a fool, and a coward, as you then 
reported him to be ? " In a note to the 
latter passage (Arden ed., p. 137) I have- 
said : 

"Lucio's accusations against the Duke, though 
very definite on the score of lechery (III. ii. 120 
et. seq.), and of foolishness or incapacity (Ill.ii. 143), 
do not include that of cowardice, at least ob- 
viously. But what did Lucio mean when he said, 

'A shy fellow '? Perhaps this was a hidden 

reference to his timidity." 

Shy, in the sense of physically afraid, is- 

used by Golding, * Ovid,' xii. 341 : 

He seeke too Nessus (who for feare of wounding 

seemed shye), 
Sayd : fly not. 
And again xv. 577-9 : 
My horses setting up theyr eares and snorting. 

wexed shye, 
And beeing greatly flayghted with the monster in 

theyr eye 

Turned downe to see. 

Shy is seldom met with in Elizabethan 
writers, and seems to have had the strong 
sense of frightened, afraid, in its early use, 
as it still has in the verb. Shakespeare 
uses it only in this play. 


NOTES AND QUEEIES. [io s. x. JULY 25, 

V. i. 179 : " Neither maid, widow, nor 
wife." This is in Peele's ' Olde Wives Tale ' 
(Roiitledge's ' Dyce,' 451a) : 
And never none shall break this little glass, 
But she that's neither wife, widow, nor maid. 

V. i. 321-3 : 

the strong statutes 

Stand like the forfeits in a barber's shop, 
As much in mock as mark. 

For my explanation of this passage I must 
refer to the note in Appendix (Arden ed.). 
I had nowhere been able to meet any 
confirmation of the " table of forfeiture " 
said to be placed upon a barber's walls. 
See Nares, Steevens, Johnson, Warburton, 
and * New English Dictionary.' However, 
I have since found a passage that tends 
to render my note nugatory. It is in 
'Plaine Percevall' (1842 reprint, p. 19), 
circa 1589, by Richard Harvey probably : 

" Speake a blooddy word in a Barber's shop, you 
make a forfet : and good reason too, Cap him, 
sirra, if he pay it not. Speak a broad word or use 
a grosse tearme amongst huntsmen in chaze, you 
shall be leasht for your labor : as one that dis- 
graceth a gentleman's pastime and game." 

This passage calls for two notes. Dr. 
Kenrick's forged rules (Nares) contain no 
reference to the fault or its punishment, 
so that he cannot have known this reference 
to build upon. And its non-inclusion at 
''forfeits" in ' N.E.D.' is unfortunate, 
since the book had been read on account 
of the quotation of the passage at the verb 
" to cap," explained on this one reference 
" to arrest." This signification does not 
commend itself to me unless it has other 
support. The legal meaning is far-fetched, 
and unlikely, if not impossible. The punish- 
ment was some rough game of bashing the 
offender on the head with his own cap and 
those of the assembly, familiar to school- 
boys. Or else he may have been compelled 
to wear a special fool's cap or cap of for- 
feiture kept for the purpose. 

V. i. 359 : " Lucio [to the Duke disguised 

as a friar]. Why, you bald-pated, lying 

rascal, you must be hooded, must you ? . . . . 
show your sheep-biting face, and be hanged 

an hour! Will't not off? [Pulls off 

the friar's hood, and discovers the Duke]." 
Sheep-biter was applied to a sheep-stealer 
or hence to any thievish person, and 
primarily, perhaps, to a sheep-stealing cur. 
Hence to a skulking thief. See my note 
at passage (Arden ed., p. 138). That sense 
is quite incongruous here. And so it is 
in Shakespeare's only other use in ' Twelfth 
Night,' II. v. 6, where Sir Toby says of 
Malvolio : " Wouldst thou not be glad to 

have the niggardly, rascally sheep-biter 
come by some notable shame?" The 
notes only emphasize the difficulty and lack 
of explanation. Malvolio " was a kind 
of Puritan" (II. iii. 144), and that gives 
the clue. In Nashe's ' An Almond for a 
Parrot' (1589) there is a similar use: 
"There is not a Presician in England that 
hath abused arte or mistaken a metaphor 
but I have his name in blacke and white, 
What say you to that zealous sheepebyter 
of your owne edition in Cambridge, that 
saide," &c. It was a term of abuse with 
the Martinists. The true pastors were 
the shepherds, but the Puritans were the 
sheep-biters. It is as likely as not to be 
original in Nashe in this sense, though 
found earlier as a thief. It is in the sense 
of a puritanical sneer that Lucio uses it 
to the supposed friar. 



(Concluded from p. 4.) ; 

IT had been conjectured by many of the 
newspapers that Bonaparte, whose personal 
courage had never been questioned, would 
play the coward at last, and put an end to 
his own life rather than suffer the disgrace 
of being sent a captive to St. Helena. The 
matter came to his ears, and he said : " No, 
no ; I have not enough of the Roman in 
me to destroy myself." He reasoned for 
some time on the subject of suicide, and 
concluded with this decisive opinion : 

' Suicide is a crime the most revolting to my 
leelings ; nor does any reason present itself to my 
understanding by which it can be justified. It 
certainly originates in that species of fear which we 
denominate cowardice. For what claims can that 
man have to courage who trembles at the frowns 
of Fortune? True heroism consists in becoming 
superior to the ills of life in whatever shape they 
may challenge to the combat." 

The great man seldom suffered a day 
to pass without making particular inquiry 
respecting the health of the crew and the 
nature of such diseases as then prevailed 
among them, with the particular mode of 
treatment. The complaints, according to 
our good surgeon, required a free use of 
the lancet. Napoleon, however, seemed 
bo entertain a very strong prejudice against 
bleeding, which, remembering the satire 
of Lesage, he called the Sangrado practice. 
He urged the propriety of sparing the pre- 
cious fluid, but the surgeon maintained 
the doctrine of the good effects of the practice 

10 s. x. JULY 25, 



which Bonaparte had so forcibly reprobated 
and ridiculed. " A Frenchman," the Em- 
peror exclaimed, " would never submit 
to the discipline of the Spanish doctor" ; 
but he no longer argued against it. On 
meeting Mr. Warden he would apply his 
fingers to the bend of the opposite arm, 
and ask : " Well, how many have you bled 
to-day ? " Nor did he fail to exclaim, 
when any of his own people were indisposed, 
" O, bleed him, bleed him ! To the powerful 
lancet with him, that's the infallible 

On the Sabbath day, after the performance 
of divine service, some conversation on the 
subject of the Emperor's religious faith 
had taken place with him and some of the 
principal persons of his suite. It was, how- 
ever, not deemed necessary to communicate 
anything further than that his opinions 
were generally of the most liberal and 
tolerant character. He wished it to be 

" that his profession of the faith of Mahomet and 
avowed devotion to the Crescent in Egypt was a 
mere act of policy, to serve the purpose of the 
moment. This fact appeared to be asserted with 
particular energy, from the knowledge possessed by 
the party communicating it of the abhorrence 
which Bonaparte's having declared himself a 
Mussulman excited in England." 

It was on a Sunday at the Admiral's 
table that Bonaparte catechized the chaplain 
in a curious and unexpected manner. 
[ give some of the Emperor's questions. 
It is not necessary to quote the answers 
given by the chaplain, who was well qualified 
to reply to questions respecting the faith 
of a far more profound nature. 

" How many sacraments does the Church of 
England acknowledge ? " 

" Does the Church of England consider marriage 
as a sacrament ? " 

" What are the tenets of the Church of 

" How often is the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper administered ? " 

" Do all communicants drink out of the same 
cup ? " 

** Is the bread made use of in the sacrament 
common bread ? " 

" Supposing that wine could not be procured, 
would any other liquid be allowed as its sub- 

" Do the bishops frequently preach ? " 
' Do they wear the mitre ? " 

" Have not the bishops a seat in the House of 
Peers ? " 

There are many more questions of a 
similar import, but these are sufficient to 
show the nature of Bonaparte's inquiries. 

On another occasion the author gives a 
further description of the ^ex-Emperor : 

J< He has an uncommon face : large, full, and 
pale, but not sickly. In conversation the muscles 
suffer little or no exertion ; with the exception of 
those in the immediate vicinity of the mouth, the 
whole seems fixed anft the forehead perfectly 

smooth However earnestly Napoleon may be m 

conversation, he discovers no distortion of features- 

He sometimes smiles, but I believe he never 

laughs The interesting children on board, who- 

amuse everybody, do not attract his attention. 

" Once indeed, when Bertrand was in conver- 
sation with his master, the Count's little girl 
intruded upon it with a story which all her father 
prohibitions could not silence. On this occasion 
Napoleon took her by the hand, heard out her little 
tale, and at the conclusion kissed her. But this- 
very uncommon attention was probably paid to the 
child as the only mode of getting rid of her which 
might not have been painful to the father." 

As for Napoleon at cards and at chess, 
there is the following : 

" I have observed that at cards our extraordinary 
man plays rather a careless game, and loses his- 
money with great good humour. Nay, he is 
frequently inaccurate in reckoning his points, &c. T 
but as often, most assuredly, to his loss as his gain, 
At chess, indeed, which is a scientific game, 
independent of fortune, and considered as being 
connected with a leading branch of military tactics, 
he may not possess the same indifference. However 
that may be, I shrewdly suspect that Montholm, 
when he plays with him, takes care to be the 

The excitement in the interesting little 
colony of St. Helena on the arrival of their 
extraordinary guest may be easily imagined. 
Bonaparte did not leave his cabin for a full 
hour after the ship had anchored in the 

" When the deck oecame clear he made his- 
appearance and ascended the poop ladder, from 
which he could see every gun that bristles at the 
mouth of the James Valley, in the centre of which 

the town of that name is situate While he stood 

there I watched his countenance with the most 
observant attention, and it betrayed no particular 
sensation. He looked, as any other man would 
have looked, at a place which he beheld for the 
first time." 

It may be remarked that in the course 
of his narrative our worthy surgeon some- 
times speaks of Napoleon as the General, 
sometimes as the ex-Emperor, and occasion- 
ally as the Emperor. He didjiot disembark 
till the 17th of August after sunset, much 
to the chagrin of the expectant inhabitants, 
who had retired to their homes. His first 
residence on the island was The Briars, the 
residence of Mr. Balcombe, where he re- 
mained till Longwood could be completed 
for him. The worthy doctor had many 
interesting interviews and conversations 
with Napoleon on the island before he finally 
left him. These may form the subject of 
another article. E. MAHSTON. 



As the only son of the late William 
Warden, author of ' Letters from St. Helena,' 
I need not say how pleased I am to read 
-what MB. E. MARSTON kindly says upon 
this subject. He seems to me to be per- 
fectly right, except that the letters in ques- 
tion were written to my mother, then Miss 
Elizabeth Hutt of Appley Towers, Ryde. 
Several of them are now in our possession, 
postmarked " St. Helena." We also have 
my father's journal, which is written upon 
Government paper supplied to the ships 
in the Navy, so there can be no doubt of 
the authenticity and genuineness of the 
book. It had a very large circulation 
when first published by Ackermann in 1816, 
but has now, as MR. MARSTON says, dropped 
out of memory ; the contents, however, 
have been largely used for concocted stories 
.about Napoleon by both French and English 
writers. One instance I will give. In a 
French book called ' Le Cabinet Noir ' 
pp. 160 to 256 are an exact copy, through 
a French version, of part of my father's 
book. This book purports to be " translated 
from the original documents and manu- 
scripts " by C. H. F. Blackith, and was 
published by Longmans & Co. in 1887. 

I shall be glad to give MR. MARSTON such 
information as I can. We have also some 
curious relics of Napoleon among others, 
the gold buckles out of his knee-breeches, 
which in parting Napoleon took out and 
gave to my father in response to his request 
for some small personal memento. He had 
previously received a magnificent set of 
ivory chessmen as a present. 


FRIENDS. The intimation by Mr. Bertram 
D obeli that he has undertaken to write 
a memoir of Sydney D obeli will perhaps 
revive interest in the work of the poet, and 
elicit, it is hoped, hitherto unpublished 
facts concerning the author of ' Balder ' 
and some of his contemporaries and friends. 
Sydney D obeli was one of a distinguished 
group of men of letters, consisting, among 
others, of the author of ' A Life Drama,' 
Gerald Massey, Hugh Miller, and Prof. 
Aytoun, all resident in Edinburgh in the 
mid fifties of last century. During his three 
years' sojourn in the Scottish capital Sydney 
Dobell assisted Smith in procuring the 
Secretaryship of the University, and jointly 
with Alexander Smith he published when 
in Edinburgh ' Sonnets on the War.' In- 
cidents of the Crimean campaign and of 

the Indian Mutiny also formed the theme, 
fifty odd years ago, of a number of poems 
by Gerald Massey. Possibly all those 
named above foregathered at Craigcrook, 
the hospitable home, west from Edinburgh 
two or three miles, of John Hunter, to whom 
Dr. Walter C. Smith dedicated ' The Bishop's 
Walk,' his first volume in verse ; and it is 
not improbable that in his poem ' Craig- 
crook Castle ' Gerald Massey makes allusion 
to Dobell " our poet, Rubens " and other 
members of the group. Was Sydney Dobell, 
one wonders, familiar with Patrick Proctor 
Alexander, friend of Alexander Smith, and 
the editor as well as writer of the memoir 
in * Last Leaves ' ? The author of a clever 
burlesque of Carlyle, of an able criticism 
of J. S. Mill's ' Freedom of the Will,' of a 
volume entitled ' Moral Causation,' and a 
brochure on Spiritualism, P. P. Alexander 
is nevertheless absent from the ' D.N.B.' 
He contributed the article ' Golf ' to the 
ninth edition of * The Ency. Brit.,' and, 
curiously, his name appears in the recently 
issued Times handbook ' 2,000 Men of the 
Day' ! 

Thoroughly Bohemian in temperament 
and habits, Alexander had numerous friends 
in the literary circles of Glasgow and Edin- 
burgh, and besides producing the works 
mentioned, he contributed verse at intervals 
to Fraser's Magazine The Glasgow Citizen, 
and other periodicals. As in the case of 
Dobell, Massey, and Smith, war was both 
the stimulus and subject of some of Alex- 
ander's most characteristic poems. He 
died in 1886, and it has been the regret of 
his friends that no memoir of " Pat Alex- 
ander," as he was familiarly called, has been 
published. The now rare little volume, 
edited by Thomas Spencer Baynes and 
Emeritus Professor Lewis Campbell 'Alma 
Mater's Mirror St. Andrews, 1887,' con- 
tains a tributary sketch of Alexander from 
the pen of the Rev. W. W. Tulloch. D.D. 


105, Choumert Road, Peckham. 

The Manchester Guardian of 13 April is a 
most interesting communication on " deed- 
ling " by Mr. Bertram Smith, " deedling " 
being, he considers, a lost art, and the 
"deedler" himself obsolete. The " deed- 
ler," however, is not quite obsolete, nor the 
art quite lost, though seldom put into prac- 
tice. The "deedling" is done by the 
mouth, the lips somewhat apart, and the 
tip of the tongue on the roof of the mouth. 
Mr. Bertram Smith says that " deedling was 
the outcome of an absolute poverty of 

10 s. x. JULY 25, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


musical resources " ; that it is not " sing- 
ing " nor " humming " ; that it is " probably 
the most primitive form of producing 
melodious sounds " ; and that it is the 
indefinite production of " deedle-deedle- 
deedle-dee." To these words the " deedler " 
"deedled" a tune, quick for dancing, slow 
for other purposes. Now and then a 
woman may be seen " deedling " to a child 
on her knee. In all the instances I have 
noticed, she had the tips of the child's fingers 
in her hands, and the " deedle " has been 

Deedle deedle deedle dee, 
Deedle deedle deedle dee, 
Deedle deedle deedle dee, 
Deedle deedle dido, 

her arms and body moving in rhythm. 

Two musical cronies come together, and 
begin to chat about old and new music. 
One asks the other how such and such an 
air goes ; in reply the other " deedles " 
it over, and mutual musical satisfaction 

It is over fifty-five years since I heard 
a " deedler " deedle for dancing at a village 
wedding party in the heart of Derbyshire, 
and this was the first and last time I knew 
"deedling" done for purposes of dancing. 
The fiddler of the village had trapped his 
fingering fingers the day before, and could 
not play upon his instrument. But Blind 
Stephen was a man of resource, and offered 
to " deedle " some " dancings." He was 
a big man ; he stood on a slightly raised 
platform at the end of a barn, and began to 
deedle a dance tune. As he warmed to the 
work, his arms, body, and legs took part 
in the deedling, and the couples spun round 
and about almost as well as if the music was 
a crowder's. Another man put more life 
in it by standing beside Blind Stephen, 
snapping his fingers as an accompaniment, 
his arms, body, and legs " going like smoke " 
in time with the deedling ; and now and 
then he twirled on his feet, bringing them 
down with a stamp. My mother afterwards 
told me that deedling tunes was common 
when fiddlers were not available in the 
villages when she was a girl not quite a 
hundred years ago. 

Then "deedling" was practised by chil- 
dren in the course of their games, and though 
it was not known as " deedling," they would 
say, " Sumbdy deedle a bit ! " And the 
words of the deedling, as far as I can 
reme mber, were : 

Deedle, deedle, deedle day ; 
Deedle, deedle, deedle, di ; 
Deedle, deedle, deedle, do ; 
An' we '11 say nowt about it. 

What it all meant I am sure the children 
did not know ; but their deedling was a 
remnant of a lost qrt in the days when 
musical instruments were in many villages 
unknown. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


curious name or rather conjunction of 
names as printer in ' The Cypress Wreath,' 
by Mrs. Cornwell Baron Wilson, published 
by Smith, Elder & Co., Cornhill, 1828. 
" Veuve " So-and-so is not an uncommon 
business title in France, but the analogous 
title in this country must be unusual. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

the ' Book of the Words of the Chelsea 
Historical Pageant,' on p. 113, a scene is 
described in " The Garden behind the Coffee- 
House of Mr. Salter in Danvers Street," 
and on the map at the end of the book 
" Salter's Coffee-House " is marked as 
occupying a portion of the site of Sir Thomas 
More's house. I remember perfectly well, 
in the early sixties, a house in the centre 
of Cheyne Walk which, by its ground-floor 
windows and unenclosed and paved forecourt 
showed that it had been in a very different 
occupation from the adjoining houses, 
and I was always under the impression that 
this was Don Saltero's. Both Faulkner 
and Walford confirm this. Has anything 
been recently discovered to throw doubt 
on this generally accepted belief ? or is it 
merely " pageant " history ? 


5, Burlington Gardens, Chiswick. 

COMTE D'ANTRAIGTJES. I should be glad 
of any particulars of the career of the Comte 
d'Antraigues who was murdered at Barnes 
in July, 1812. According to * The Annual 
Register,' the Comte had eminently distin- 
guished himself in European politics. 

R. A. A. L. 

tell me of any literature dealing with this 
group of mountains in the Lower Engadine, 
more especially as regards the native guides ? 

H. O. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. po s. x. JULY 25, iocs. 

CATHEDRAL. The epitaph to the first wife 
of Izaak Walton is set out in various edition 
of ' The Complete Angler ' thus : 
Ex terris 


M. S. 
Here lyeth, &c. 

In the edition by Nicolas it is set out 
thus : 

Ex Terris 
M. S. 

In Mr. Marston's edition the words " Ex 
terris " are above a Maltese cross, while 
below it are the letters M. and S. 

In Dean Plumptre's ' Life of Thomas 
Ken ' it is set out as in the first example 
I have given. His note suggests that the 
letters signify " Diis Manibus " or " Divse 
Memoriae Sacrum." 

The inscription to be seen to-day in the 
Cathedral is the same as the one set out 
in Mr. Marston's book, though no stops 
are to be found after the letters M and S. 

Can any of your readers inform me when 
the cross was substituted for the letter D, 
and give any new suggestion as to the 
meaning of the three letters ? 

The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

" CHAUTAUQUA." The Times of 13 July 
says : 

"We have received from the Fabian Society the 
prospectus of a 'summer school,' or educational 
and recreative gathering on the analogy of the 
American Chatauqua ' system, to be held this year 
at Llanbedr. 

Why is an American summer gathering 
for educational and recreative purposes 
called a " Chatauqua " ? 


[The Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle 
was an association founded for home reading and 
study by Bishop J.H. Vincent, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, m 1878. It was an outgrowth 
ot summer assemblies in Chautauqua Lake, and so 
successful that it gave a name to similar meetings.] 

one tell me who " Melampus and the Saint " 
are, referred to on p. 6 of ' The Roadmender,' 
by Michael Fairless ? 


met with the following passage as a quota- 
tion, without its source being mentioned : 

" the faith of such a one as Gladstone, who in 

the very face of death could raise his right hand 
and declare (so an eyewitness relates) in solemn 
tones, as of one giving testimony which might not 

again be repeated, * My faith is strong ! my faith is 
strong " ; who in the last farewells could speak, as 
the same witness testifies, ever with unfaltering 
confidence not merely of the reality of life after 
death, but of the certainty that those who are 
parted in tears would meet hereafter in another 
and better world." 

I shall be glad to learn from what book 
the extract comes, and also the name of 
the eye-witness indicated. H. H. T. C. 

any one tell me where the following lines 
by Browning are to be found ? 

" Here and here did England help me : how can I 

help England ? "say, 
Whoso turns as I, this evening, turn to God to 

praise and pray. 


[' Home-Thoughts, from the Sea,' vol. i. p. 273, 
Smith & Elder, 1896.] 

In that new world which is the old. 

[Tennyson, ' The Day Dream,' 1. 168.] 

Who when she died, like Flora fair, 
Did make the Commonwealth her heir. 


We shall see them, 

We shall know them, 
In the fullness of the time, 
In the glorious new creation, 
In the everlasting clime. 

H. H. T. C. 

MEDAL OF CHARLES I. I have a very 

beautiful gold (or gilt) medal that has come 

to me by the death of a relative. I know 

nothing about it, but I should think it must 

e of some historical value. It represents 

! harles I. in armour and with a crown on his 

lead, as any one can see, apart from the 
inscription of his royal titles which sur- 
rounds the figure. It has a little ring 
attached to it, and was hung from a ribbon, 

] presume. On the back are ' ' Honi soit,' ' &c. , 
a crown, and arms. If you could give me any 

nformation concerning it in your valuable 
and interesting paper, I should be greatly 
obliged. ART. 

some time been trying to locate the spot 
where this mill once stood, but without 
uccess. Old maps of the district give other 
mills, but not this particular one. From 
notes in a local paper, about a twelvemonth 
igo, on Gosport, I learn that during the 
iege of Gosport in 1642 a shot from the 
parliamentarian army passed through the 

10 s. x. JULY 25, 



church tower, and also the mill, taking in 
its flight a portion of bedclothes from the 
bed from which the miller had not long risen. 
In all probability the mill was situated on 
what was then Gosport Common, close to 
the Haslar Causeway and Bridge leading 
to the Royal Naval Hospital. About the 
year 1800 arches were built, connecting the 
ramparts which enclosed the town. One 
of these adjoined the Causeway, and if I 
surmise rightly, the mill was pulled down 
when the arch was erected. Mr. James Paul, 
the last owner, worked the mill from about 
1785 onwards ; he was buried in Holy 
Trinity Churchyard, Gosport, in 1883. 
Information locating the spot would be 
appreciated. F. K. P. 

FAMILY ARMS. I possess an old oak 
carving representing a bear (?) supporting 
a shield, upon which are the following arms 
(coloured) : Barry of eight or and gules ; 
upon the last ten roses of the first, 4, 3, 2, 
and 1, impaling Or, three annulets gules. 
Can one of your readers assign these arms ? 
The impalement is perhaps Hutton, as I 
have a book-plate of this family showing a 
precisely similar coat to the sinister half 
of my carving. WILLIAM GILBERT. 

8, Prospect Road, Walthamstow. 

VOLTAIRE ON LOVE. Voltaire wrote this 
elegant distich to be placed beneath a 
figure of Love : 

Qui que tu sois, voici ton maitre 

II 1'est, le fut, ou le doit etre. 

I wish to know whether the same thought 
had previously appeared in a classical dress. 

(died 13 Aug., 1801) left his property to his 
natural daughter (' Scots Peerage,' iv. 553). 
Was she Elizabeth, wife of Henry Castleman 
" of the Drawing-Room of the Tower, 
London" ? What is known of the Castle- 
man family ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

CLEMENT FAMILY. The above came from 
Cosham, Alton, and Steep, Hants, and 
Steyning, Sussex. Can any one tell me 
who were the parents and grandparents 
of John Albeck Clement, Colonel R.A., who 
married Margaret Le Maistre ? He died 
1838, aged 56. His baptismal register is also 
wanted. I have the marriage of William 
Clement of Steyning, 17 May, 1638, and 
Anne Greenfield. The former is supposed 
to be the great-great-great-grandfather of 
Col. Clement, and I want to fill in the gap 

in the pedigree between these two. Any 
information on the Clements will be most 

There is a picture of a Clement, 

M.F.H. Sussex, 1700. His Christian and 
parents' names are wanted. Please reply 
direct. E. H. M. 

The Cottage, Westhope, Craven Arms, Salop. 

C. BARRON, 19, PALL MALL. A small 
earthenware pot in my possession is thus 
inscribed. Can any reader inform me as to 
when Barron was at this address ? The 
'D.N.B.' has a notice of a Hugh Barren, 
died 1791, pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 
son of an apothecary in Soho. Was he 
any relation to C. Barron ? I shall be 
obliged by any reference as to when he 
flourished. H. S. 

CAPT. COOK'S VOYAGES. I have some 
references to an edition of Capt. Cook's 
vogages which I wish to verify, but cannot 
find the book in the Bodleian. It is an 
edition dated 1790, and runs to at least 
five volumes probably more with con- 
tinuous pagination. The references I have 
are to vol. iv. p. 1575, and vol. v. p. 1836. 

I am inclined to think the edition does 
not consist solely of Capt. Cook's voyages, 
but is probably some collection. If any of 
your readers can tell me where it is to be 
found, I shall be duly grateful. Please reply 
direct. F. R. RAY. 

Treverbyn, Fyfield Road, Oxford. 

give me any information about Farrington, 
a clockmaker ? I have a fine specimen of 
a seven-day grandfather clock in mahogany 
case, of simple, but very beautiful design. 
The clock face has three dials and three 
single hands : one, full size, for minutes, 
and two within that for seconds and hours. 
On the brass frameplate of the works, 
which are extremely well made, is the in- 
scription " Farrington, Febr. 1832." 


[See the source of information already mentioned 
by us, Britten's * Old Clocks and their Makers.'] 

Raymond has stated in an article that the 
ordinary garden snail (Helix aspersa) is 
eaten at the present day in Bristol as a 
delicacy. I should like to know if snail- 
eating is still practised in any part of Eng- 
land. Snails roasted on hot embers were 
formerly very popular with gipsies. Do 
gipsies still use them as an article of diet ? 
C. H. R. PEACH. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 25, im 

BLACKMAN== FAIRWAY. John Blackman 
of Whitstable married about 1740 Anne 
Fairway of Whitstable, who is said to be 
connected with the Fairways of London, 
stated to be merchants trading with the 
East in the eighteenth century. John 
Blackman' s father (Christian name unknown) 
went to China at the end of the seventeenth 
century or early in the eighteenth, and 
brought back a large collection of porcelain. 

Could any of your readers furnish me with 
particulars as to the Blackman and Fairway 
families ? Especially I wish to know (1) 
the Christian name, parentage, and birth- 
place of John Blackman' s father ; (2) if 
he was connected with the firm of Fairway ; 
(3) whether Anne Fairway was a member 
of the family of Fairway of London ; (4) 
lastly, who possesses the porcelain. Most 
of this passed out of the direct line at the 
death of Charles Blackman, son of the 
above-mentioned John Blackman ; while 
some of it is reported to have been given 
to a certain Dr. Romsey of Amersham, 
Bucks, by the Rev. Charles Blackman, 
grandson of John. A. M. BLACKMAN. 

WHITTIER. I find in Marshall's ' Genea- 
logist's Guide,' 4th ed. : " Whittier, 1882, 
large sheet Genealogy of W. family." Will 
any reader kindly tell me where I can see 
the above ? W. H. WHITEAR. 


reader give me information regarding the 
tree that stood upon this hill ? I have in 
my possession two prints of Peter Tilleman's 
picture treating on this subject : one dated 
1746, published according to Act of Parlia- 
ment, sculp. Canot ; the other dated 1774, 
published by John Boydell, sculp. J. Wood. 
The hill is depicted in both cases, but no 
tree upon it. I have an oil painting of One- 
Tree Hill showing a huge tree with heavy 
branches, forming the most important object 
in the picture. With this exception, it is 
almost identical with the print of 1746 with 
regard to the groups of figures and general 
view. In Mr. A. D. Webster's book on 
Greenwich Park I read that a tree was blown 
down in August, 1848 ; but as the tree does 
not appear in the print of 1746 or 1774, 
it seems impossible that a tree of such 
magnitude could have grown in about 
seventy years. 

Was a tree known to exist on this hill 
previous to 1746, from which it took its 
name ? and is there any record of its de- 
struction ? A. W. GOULD. 

Staverton, Briar Walk, Putney, S.W. 


(10 S. ix. 61, 161, 243, 390, 490.) 

I OWE apologies to MR. RUTTON, which 
I render with very sincere regret for the 

1. I overlooked the correct date of Sir 
T. Fairfax's appointment (1647), as given 
at the end of 10 S. ix. 243, and (very foolishly) 
misunderstood the date (1648) as given 
at the top of p. 244 to refer to his original 
assumption of office. In this date MR. 
RUTTON and I am (and were) agreed. 

2. MR. RUTTON is quite right in the date 
(February, 1784) of Lord G. H. Lennox's 
appointment. I have the date quite cor- 
rectly in my own MS. list. Unfortunately, I 
referred to my annotated copy of ' Haydn's 
Book of Dignities ' (ed. Ockerby), which 
was at the moment easier of access, in which 
I thought I had entered all the necessary 
corrections. In this book the date is given 
as 1783 simply, and I had added " Feb. 10 " 
without altering the year a most repre- 
hensible oversight, of which I am fully 

By the way, Ockerby 's ' Haydn ' is too 
generally accepted as a safe guide ; not a 
few writers in the ' D.N.B.' have thought 
it unnecessary to go behind this authority 
for a date or fact in the succession of public 
officials. Some of the lists are accurate, 
but there are others (notably those of the 
Secretaries of State as allocated to Northern 
and Southern departments respectively) of 
very little value. 

3. In plunging in medias res with the 
assertion that " MR. RUTTON' s lists are open 
to criticism," I omitted to express (as I 
now do most fully) my sense of the value 
of his collection, for which he deserves the 
thanks of all who take interest in such 
matters. In helping to make that collection 
more perfect and accurate, I hope I am doing 
no disservice either to him or to the readers 
of ' N. & Q.' 

Most of the remaining corrections are 
admitted by MR. RUTTON ; on others he 
keeps an open mind, asking for further 
information, which I proceed to give him. 

4. It is quite true that there is a variant 
to the spelling of Barkstead, though that 
is the more usual and, I believe, the more 
correct form. Orthographical variations are 
common in seventeenth-century names, 
e.g., Hide and Hyde, Monck and Monk. 

10 s. x. JULY 25, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


By the way, why does MB. RUTTON adhere 
to the certainly incorrect form " Penning- 
ton " ? 

5. It is true (as MR. BUTTON says) that 
G. E. C. dates Lord Alington's death as 
February, 1684, but in his Corrigenda 
(vol. viii. p. 268) he has corrected it to 
1684/5. A contemporary notice of his 
death is found under date 1 Feb., 1684/5 
in Luttrell (vol. i. p. 326). 

6. If I wrote " half a century later " 
in speaking of the Earldom of Dartmouth, 
it was a pure slip of the pen for " a quarter 
of a century." Anyhow, MB. RUTTON 
admits his own error in designating the 
Constable as Earl. I do not know what is 
the " good company " in which he errs here. 

7. Cadogan was appointed Lieutenant in 
December, 1706. I believe (but have not 
the means now of verifying my reference) 
that the date of the Privy Seal appointing 
him is 30 Dec., 1706. The intended appoint- 
ment is announced in The Daily Courant 
of 17 Dec., 1706, and is referred to as pro- 
bable by Luttrell under date 23 Nov. in 
that year (vol. vi. p. 110). Churchill, 
his predecessor, was transferred to the 
Governorship of Guernsey (Privy Seal 

21 Dec., 1706). In Chamberlain's ' Anglise 
Notitia ' for 1707 (p. 655) the list of ' Officers 
of the Tower Garrison ' is headed by " Briga- 
dier-Gen. Cadogan, esq. [sic], Lieutenant." 
I hope that MB. RUTTON will now be satisfied 
that when I ventured to correct him on this 
date and that of Lord Alington's death, 
I knew what I was writing about. 

8. I am afraid I was technically wrong 
in saying that Compton was gazetted in 1713. 
His appointment is announced in No. 2762 
of The Postboy (24 Jan., 1712/13), and 
Oldmixon in his ' History of England ' 
(vol. ii. p. 512) states that on 12 Dec., 1712, 
General Cadogan was " turned out of all 
his employments " which I thought was 
matter of common knowledge (except for 
the exact date) to all persons conversant 
with the party history of Anne's reign, 
which probably Lord de Ros was not. The 
announcement of Cadogan' s removal from 
the Lieutenancy is also given in ' The 
Political State of Great Britain ' for January, 
1712/13 (vol. v. p. 62) ; and in vol. viii. 
(p. 372) of the same series, under date 

22 Oct., 1714, it is recorded that "his 
Majesty had been pleased to continue the 
Earl of Northampton in the post of Con- 
stable of the Tower of London, and Hatton 
Compton, Esq., in that of Lieutenant of 
the said Tower." I hope I have satisfied 
MB. RUTTON on this point also. 

9. Col. King. I admit at once that I 
have no official record of the Christian name 
of the Col. King who was Lieutenant of 
the Tower in 1689. 6ut I am fairly familiar 
with Dalton's ' Army Lists,' though I have 
not a copy at hand, and I think that a refer- 
ence to them will show that there was no 
other Col. King at that time ; but if there 
was, even then it is an almost certain in- 
ference that the Lieutenant of the Tower 
was identical with Col. Thomas King 
(brother of Dr. John King, Master of the 
Charterhouse), who was Deputy-Governor 
of Sheerness from 1690 till his death in 1725, 
and sat as M.P. for Queenborough 1696- 
1708 and 1710-22. I hope MB. RUTTON will 
agree with me on this point too, although 
the direct evidence is not so irresistible as 
in the other cases. 

MB. RUTTON thinks I am hard on the 
' D.N.B.' in saying that it should have 
known better than to give currency to the 
legend about the knighting of Penington 
and other Aldermen by the Speaker. The 
'D.N.B.' is a publication of (from the 
nature of the case) quite exceptional prestige, 
and hence each writer in it should have 
taken exceptional care to ascertain the 
correctness of the supposed facts and dates 
which he or she recorded. I am sorry to 
confess that in my long-delayed ' Aldermen 
of London ' (now about to appear) I accepted 
the authority of the ' D.N.B.' for the error 
as to Penington' s knighthood, the part of 
the book in which I reproduced it having 
been printed off some years ago, before I had 
discovered the blunder, though I have, of 
course, corrected it in later pages. ^ The 
' D.N.B.' is singularly unfortunate in its 
article on Penington. In the headline a 
different year is assigned for Penington' s 
death from that in the body of the article : 
in order to make them tally, a " correction " 
has been made in the ' Errata ' volume ; 
but unfortunately it is the true, and not 
the erroneous, date that has been altered. 

With regard to the date of Penington' s 
appointment (1643), MB. RUTTON is, as 
he is justified in being, satisfied with the 
authority of Whitelock. I believe I may 
be wrong, as I am unable to verify my 
impression at this moment that I took 
my date, direct from the Journals of the 
House of Commons. As to Penington' s 
knighthood, it is strange that no one (includ- 
ing myself, until a few years since, although 
I have long been familiar with the City 
records) had noticed that Penington is 
nowhere styled " Sir Isaac " or " knight " 
in any contemporary authority. It is an 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 25, im. 

illustration how one writer follows another 
blindly, without testing his statements. 
There is a remarkable instance of this, 
where such authorities as Bishop Stubbs 
and Mr. Horace Round have gone wrong, 
in the matter of the Grocer-Aldermen of 
Richard II. 's reign, which I examined at 
length in The English Historical Review for 
July, 1907. A similar case is that of 
Canning's first constituency, which is almost 
invariably wrongly given. Copies of a 
little pamphlet (printed for private circula- 
tion) dealing with this point are to be seen 
in the British Museum and Bodleian Lib- 
raries. ALFRED B. BEAVEN, M.A. 

THE NATIONAL FLAG (10 S. ix. 502). The 
following report from the proceedings of the 
House of Lords of Tuesday, the 15th inst., 
confirms the statement of the official letter 
I received from the Home Office, dated the 
19th of June, that " the Union Jack is to be 
regarded as the National Flag, and may be 
used generally by British subjects on land," 
as well as the further intimation I received, 
also official, that the Royal Standard, being 
the personal flag of the Sovereign, cannot be 
flown except with His Majesty's permission. 
It is good to know that this question, so 
long agitated, is now finally settled : 

" Earl Howe asked the Government, with a view 
to removing any possible doubt that might exist on 
the subject, whether it was a fact that the full 
Union Jack might be flown on land by every citizen 
in the Empire, as well as on the Government offices 
and public buildings. 

" The Earl of Crewe : There has existed in the 
public mind a curious confusion as to what flags 
may be flown and what may not be flown. At one 
time it seemed to be believed that the Royal 
Standard could be flown anywhere and by anybody. 
That, however, we now know is not the case. It 
was formally announced that the Royal Standard 
is the personal flag of the Sovereign, and cannot be 
flown without His Majesty's permission, and that 
is only granted when the King and Queen are 
present. Of course, a very different state of things 
applies with regard to the Union Jack. I think it 
may fairly be stated that the Union Jack should be 
regarded as the National Flag, and it may un- 
doubtedly be flown on land by all His Majesty's 


[For earlier communications on the subject see 
10 S. ix. 128, 154, 174, 255, 292, 396, 514.] 

BRIDGE (10 S. x. 30). In 1642 Milton pub- 
lished ' Animadversions upon the Remon- 
strant's Defence against Smectymnuus,' 
which evoked a severe and extremely per- 
sonal diatribe from an anonymous critic. 
This straightway prompted the poet to the 

production of an elaborate reply, which he 
entitled ' An Apology against a Pamphlet 
call'd a Modest Confutation of the Animad- 
versions upon the Remonstrant against 
Smectymnuus.' Having pointed out that 
his critic spends the first part of his attack 
" not in confuting, but in a reasonlesse 
defaming of the book," the apologist pro- 
ceeds to consider the grievous personalities 
in the indictment. He holds that his assail- 
ant knows nothing of him further than 
" his owne conjecture," and presently he 
writes as follows : 

"I must be thought, if this libeller (for now he 
shewes him self e to be so) can finde belief e, after 
an inordinat and riotous youth spent at the Uni- 
versity, to have bin at length vomited out thence. 
For which commodious lye, that he may be 
incourag'd in the trade another time, I thank him ; 
for it hath given me an apt occasion to acknow- 
ledge publickly with all gratefull minde, that 
more then ordinary favour and respect which I 
found above any of my equals at the hands of those 
courteous and learned men, the Fellowes of that 
Colledge wherein I spent some yeares : who at my 
parting, after I had taken two degrees, as the 
manner is, signifi'd many waves, how much better 
it would content them that I would stay ; as by 
many Letters full of kindnesse and loving respect, 
both before that time and long after, I was assur'd 
of their singular good affection towards me." 


In the second edition of ' The Life of John 
Milton,' by Dr. Charles Symmons, it is said 
on p. 57 that " a son of Bishop Hall is sup- 
posed to have been the immediate advancer 
of the charge." JOHN T. CURRY. 

[MB. HOLDEN MAcMiCHAEL also thanked for 

PLAXTOL (10 S. ix. 430, 477; x. 33). 
The original of Adam de Gurdon's charter 
cited by White is in Magdalen College, 
Oxford, from which it appears that the 
" place " given by him to the Priory of 
Selborne was not for a recreation ground, 
but in order that the convent might there 
hold the market which they had by the 
gifts of King Henry III., and might build 
houses and shops upon it. See the 'Calendar 
of Charters relating to Selborne,' printed 
by the Hampshire Record Society in 1891, 
p. 64. W. D. MACRAY. 

"THURCET" (10 S. x. 29). I do not think 
that any such word is to be found in any of 
the Selborne charters preserved in Magdalen 
College. W. D. MACRAY. 

BOOK MARGINS (10 S. ix. 285). I quite 
agree with C. C. B.'s remarks as to the futility 
of giving a wider outer margin at the expense 

.10 S. X. JULY 25, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the inner one. But is your correspondent 
justified in singling out the " large, stiffly 
bound " volumes of Lord Acton's ' Gam- 
bridge Modern History ' as a case in point ? 
Bulky the volumes undoubtedly are ; some 
may think the inner margin somewhat 
too narrow ; but surely " stiffly bound " 
they are not, and this is where the pernicious 
effects of narrow inner margins principally 
show themselves. Each one of the volumes 
that I have yet received, issued in its strong 
dark blue buckram covers, lies open in one 
hand in a way that few volumes of an equally 
bulky nature do. Tot homines quot senten- 
tice. J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

Antigua, W.I. 

FIELD-GLASSES IN 1650 (10 S. vi. 188). 
MB. JAMES WATSON under this heading 
refers to Galileo's invention of the telescope 
in 1609. I should like to draw his attention 
to Burton's note on the ivory tube mentioned 
in the tale of ' Prince Ahmad and the Peri 
Band ' : 

"The origin of the lens and its applied use to the 
telescope and the microscope 'are lost' (as the 
Castle guides of Edinburgh say) 'in the gloom of 
antiquity.' Well -ground glasses have been dis- 
covered amongst the finds in Egypt and Assyria ; 
indeed, much of the finer work of the primeval 
artist could not have been done without such aid. 
In Europe the ' spy-glass ' appears first in the ' Opus 
Majus ' of the learned Roger Bacon (circa A.D. 1270) ; 
and his ' optic tube' (whence his saying, * All things 
are known by perspective ') chiefly contributed to 
make his widespread fame as a wizard. The tele- 
scope was popularized by Galileo, who, as mostly 
happens, carried off and still keeps amongst the 
vulgar all the honours of the invention." 

I take this note at second hand from p. 57 
of Groome's * Gypsy Folk-Tales,' a very 
valuable book. ALEX RUSSELL. 

Stromness, Orkney. 

ROUND OAK SPRING (10 S. x. 9). Round 
oak is described in James A. Sharp's ' Gazet 
teer of the British Islands,' 1852, vol. ii 
p. 509, as being eight miles south-west o: 
Reading, S. Berks. 


N.W. (10 S. ix. 251, 338, 377). Chalk and 
cliffs are closely associated, but it is mere 
coincidence that one named Cliff shoulc 
have held " Chalk Farm." John Slannyng' 
of Hampstead, Middlesex, in his will, datec 
1558, left to his "kinsman" Henry Cliff 
his lease of Chalcotte, six oxen and six 
kyne, a feather bed, and covering sheets 

Chalkhill as a place-name in Kingsbury 
occurs about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, Thomas Frowyk (of Kentish origin 

eing of this place (Early Proceedings in 
hancery, bundle 65, No. 126). As a per- 
onal name it is found at Kingsbury and 
Villesden much earlier. Ralf Chalkhill of 
Hendon is mentioned in a deed 19 Henry VI. 
see printed ' Catalogue of Early Deeds 
t the Record Office'). In this case it 
eems that the family gave name to the 
>lace, having derived their surname from 
heir place of origin perhaps Kent or 

In 1556 Chalk Farm was " Chawcoot's 
Farm " (Hist. MSS. Com., Fifteenth Report, 
Ap. II. p. 259). H. W. U. 

LATIN PRONUNCIATION (10 S. ix. 81, 131, 
75, 251, 314, 351, 510). Though you have 
losed this discussion, please allow me to 
ay that M. HAULTMONT is right, and I was 

wrong, in thinking that the " restored " 
Denunciation proposes for Latin a the sound 
>f our vowel in " fat." The examples given 
or it are the second syllable of " footpath " 

and the first of " aha " ; that is, shorter 
'orms of the a in "father." Whether it 
rtdll be possible to make boys thus distinguish 
Between longer and shorter forms of the 

same vowel-sound may be questioned ; but 

such is the proposal, not as stated in my 

previous letter (10 S. ix. 354). 


JOHNSONIANA (10 S. x. 8). The suggestion 
that Dr. Johnson was in the habit of reject- 
ing whatever failed to please his palate is 
supported by Madame D'Arblay in a letter 
to Mrs. Thrale dated 16 Aug., 1785 : " Dr. 
Johnson," she says, " swallows nothing 
but what he likes" ('Madame D'Arblay' s 
Diary,' ed. Dobson, 1904, i. 443). 

M. H. I. LETTS. 

* DE ST. PHILIBERT (10 S. x. 8). MR. 
ROWE will find a pedigree of this family 
and much information concerning it in the 
pages of Charles Kerry's ' History of the 
Hundred of Bray (Berks),' published in 
1861. R. B. 


ANONYMOUS WORKS (10 S. x. 28). 
' Marriage Rites, Customs, and Ceremonies 
of the Nations of the Universe ' was written 
by Lady Augusta Hamilton. The first 
edition was 1 822. AYE AHR. 

[W. C. B. also thanked for reply.] 

" RISE," ACTIVE VERB (10 S. ix. 427). 
In my view, " rose " was an accidental 
strong conjugating of the verb to " raise," 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. JULY 25, im 

by the speaker. In this connexion, however, 
conjugating that offends against modern 
canons is often sound (Middle) English, e.g., 
the invariable " slep " for " slept " of the 
Southern labourer (cf. * Genesis and Exodus,' 
1. 1941), and " catched " for "caught" 
("cachid" in Wiclif ). H. P. L. 

GILES HERON (10 S. ix. 469). He was the 
son of Sir John Heron of Wanstead, and is 
referred to in the ' Story of Wanstead Park,' 
by O. S. Dawson, which, after mentioning 
that the manor passed from Sir Ralph 
Hastings to Sir John Heron, states : 

"His son Sir Giles Heron, who married the 
daughter of the worthy but hapless Sir Thomas 
More, was, in the reign of Henry VIII., attainted 
of treason, because he would not acknowledge the 
king's supremacy as the head of the Church, arid 
his estates were seized by the Crown, and this 
manor was granted to Robert, Lord Rich." 

G. H. W. 

See Mr. Joseph Gillow's * Bibliographical 
Dictionary of the English Catholics,' iii. 281. 

BRASS AS A SURNAME (10 S. viii. 350 ; 
ix. 358). I wish to thank the correspondents 
at the latter reference, and also DR. S. D. 
CLIPPINGDALE, who replied to me privately, 
for their information. It may only be 
coincidence, but it may, on the other hand, 
be a point in favour of the Breton deriva- 
tion, that the Brasses here are noted for 
their height and their length of limb. 


Stromness, Orkney. 

ix. 488). For the saying " Les beaux esprits 
se rencontrent," which forms the first half 
of MR. MORETON'S third quotation, Mr. 
King ('Classical and Foreign Quotations') 
refers to Quitard, ' Diet, des Proverbes.' 
It is not noticed in the 20th ed. of ' Geflu- 
gelte Worte.' But it is useful to remember 
that in earlier editions of Biichmann's 
work the test of what constitutes a " winged 
word " was often more leniently applied, 
and several articles were included which 
were afterwards struck out. In the 10th ed. 
(1877), for example, the author writes 
(p. 123) that the earliest allusion to the 
above saying that he has found is in a German 
author, Andreas Gryphius (ob. 1664), in 
whose ' Horribilicribrifax,' Act V. sc. vii., 
Daradidatumdarides says : " Les beaux 
esprits lernen einander durch dergleichen 
rencontre erkennen." Buchmann adds that 
Voltaire employs the expression in a letter 
to Thieriot of 30 June, 1760. Both Buch- 

mann and Mr. King quote " Great wits 
jump " from ' Tristram Shandy,' vol. iii. 
cap. ix. (orig. ed.). EDWARD BENSLY. 

The line about which MR. WEBB inquires, 
ante, p. 28, 

And half detected, animate the whole, 
is with " detected " substituted for " sus- 
pected " in Sydney Smith's recipe for 
salad dressing; see " A Memoir of the Rev. 
Sydney Smith, by his daughter Lady 
Holland," 3rd ed., 1855, vol. i. p. 426 
(chap. xi.). 

Considering the wretched salad dressings 
so general in England, it should be worth 
reprinting in full : 

To make this condiment, your poet begs 

The pounded yellow of two hard-boil'd eggs ; _ 

Two Doil'd potatoes, pass'd through kitchen sieve, 

Smoothness and softness to the salad give. 

Let onion atoms lurk within the bowl, 

And, half -suspected, animate the whole. 

Of mordant mustard add a single spoon, 

Distrust the condiment that bites so soon ; 

But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault, 

To add a double quantity of salt ; 

Four times the spoon with oil from Lucca brown, 

And twice with vinegar procured from town ; 

And lastly, o'er the flavoured compound toss 

A magic soupgon of anchovy sauce. 

Oh, green and glorious ! Oh, herbaceous treat ! 

'Twould tempt the dying anchorite to eat : 

Back to the world he 'd turn his fleeting soul ; 

And plunge his fingers in the salad-bowl ! 

Serenely full, the epicure would say, 

Fate cannot harm me, I have dined to-day. 

Concerning this recipe Smith says : 

" I was not aware how much it had contributed 

to my reputation, till I met Lady at Bowood, 

who begged to be introduced to me, saying, she had 
so long wished to know me. I was of course highly 
flattered, till she added, ' For, Mr. Smith, I have 
heard so much of your recipe for salads, that I was 
most anxious to obtain it trom you.' Such and so 
various are the sources of fame." Ibid., p. 425. 

Apparently " brown " at the end of the 
eleventh line should be " crown." 

W. H. Wills, in ' Poets' Wit and Humour,' 
1861, in his reprint of the recipe (p. 234), 
omits the couplet beginning " Four times." 
He gives " too " instead of " so " in the 
eighth line, and " soup-spoon " instead of 
" soupon " in the fourteenth line. Both 
of these corrections appear to be reasonable. 

The line referring to an onion in salad 
is to be found in Sydney Smith's ' Recipe 
for a Winter Salad,' where it reads 

And, scarce suspected, animate the whole. 

The ' Recipe ' is not to be found in the 
' Works of Sydney Smith,' published by 
Longmans in 1854 ; but I have extracted 
it from p. 137 of the appendix to ' The Art 

10 s. x. JULY 25, 



of Dining,' published anonymously in 1852 
by John Murray (is the author A. Hay ward 
A.C. ?) : 

Two large potatoes, passed through kitchen sieve, 

Unwonted softness to the salad give. 

Of mordant mustard add a single spoon ; 

Distrust the condiment which bites so soon ; 

But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault 

To add a double quantity of salt. 

Three times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown, 

And once with vinegar procured from town. 

The flavour needs it, and your poet begs, 

The pounded yellow of two well-boiled eggs. 

Let onion atoms lurk within the bowl, 

And, scarce suspected, animate the whole ; 

And lastly, on the flavoured compound toss 

A magic tea spoon of anchovy sauce. 

Then though green turtle fail, though venison's 


And ham and turkey are not boiled enough, 
Serenely full the epicure may say, 
Fate cannot harm me I have dined to-day ! 


L. A. W. 

I ' The Art of Dining ' is by Abraham Hay ward. 
Many other correspondents are thanked for 

" FEMMER " (10 S. x. 9). This is a dialect 
word used chiefly in the North of England, 
and meaning " weak, frail, slender, slightly 
made, used both of persons and things." 
So writes Prof. Wright in the 'English 
Dialect Dictionary,' published in six volumes, 
1896-1905. The range of the word is 
through Northumberland, Durham, Cumber- 
land, Yorkshire, and Lancashire. Prof. 
Wright finds the same word in the Swedish 
dialect, meaning active, light ; in Norwegian 
dialect as fim, quick ; in Old Norse as fimr, 
nimble. From it, he adds, come " femmer- 
some," adj., stiff, not supple, "femoral" and 
^femmerous," adj., slender, slight, frail, used 
in North Yorkshire and Lancashire. In 
1 Northumberland Words ' Mr. R. O. Heslop 
defines " femmer " as " weak, slight, frail, 
cranky, tender." I do not find the word 
in Jamieson's ' Scottish Dictionary.' 


Femmer " is in use here as opposed to 
strong, though I think it is not applied to 
persons, but to objects. A chair is said to 
be " femmer " when it is rickety or cheaply 
put together. I was not aware the word 
was in use in Scotland. R. B R. 

South Shields. 

SINGLE TOOTH (10 S. ix. 326). It may be 
interesting, as bearing upon the story of 
Pyrrhus (which Prof. Mahaffy takes to mean 
only that his teeth were very close-set), 

to mention that several members in two 
generations of a certain Connecticut family 
had no teeth proper. <. The gums were re- 
placed by an undivided ring of tooth sub- 
stance, prolonged upward to the height 
of ordinary teeth, and were used in all 
respects as such. FORREST MORGAN. 

Hartford, Conn. 


THROUGH FEAR (10 S. ix. 445 ; x. 33). 
MR. PEET quotes an instance, from ' Cameos 
from English History,' in which the hair of 
a good Catholic is turned white on hearing 
that Henry of Navarre had become king. 
As a pendant to this it may be recalled that 
Henry himself asserted that on hearing 
of the Edict of Nemours (18 July, 1585), by 
which it was enacted that all Huguenots 
had either to go to Mass or leave the king- 
dom within six months, his moustaches 
suddenly turned white on that side of his 
face which was supported by his hand. 
See 'Memoirs of Sully/ vol. i. p. 114, note 
(London, Wm. Miller, 1810) ; also Motley's 
'United Netherlands,' vol. i. p. 132 (John 
Murray, 1868). T. F. D. 

"Among others whose acquaintance Montaigne 
made in the bath-room [at Plombieres] was Seigneur 
d' Andelot, formerly in the service of Charles V . and 
governor for him of St. Queiitin. One side of his 
beard and one eyebrow were white ; and he related 
that this change came to him in an instant one day 
as he was sitting at home, with his head leaning on 
his hand, in profound grief at the loss of a brother, 
executed by the Duke of Alba as accomplice of 
Counts Egmont and Home. When he looked up 
and uncovered the part which he had clutched in his 
agony, the people present thought that flour had 
been sprinkled over him." Bay le St. John, * Mon- 
taigne the Essayist,' vol. ii. p. 137. 

A. O. V. P. 

Dr. Guy in his ' Forensic Medicine,' 1844, 
writes thus : 

'The effect of sudden and violent emotion in 
producing a change in the colour of the hair is well 
known. The same change has also been produced 
by disease, as in the following; case, related by Dr. 
Gfordon Smith. A lady, ' when about the age of 
thirteen, went to bed one night, and about three in 
bhe morning was conscious of a sensation like faint- 
ing. She got up early, and found that the whole of 
ler hair had become grey.' " 

This change was not confined to the hair 
of the head. E. YARDLEY. 

It should be noted that this subject has 
on more than one occasion been previously 
dealt with in ' N. & Q.' See 5 S. i. 444 ; 
6 S. vi. 85, 134, 329 ; vii. 37 ; viii. 97 ; ix. 
378 ; 7 S. ii. 6, 93, 150, 238, 298, 404, 412, 
518 ; iii. 95 ; iv. 195, 415 ; vii. 344. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. JULY 25, im 

The references given in the reply at 
7 S. iv. 415 are incorrect, so far as they apply 
to 6 S. ix., the references given for this 
volume referring, in fact, to 7 S. ii. 


"TWILIGHT " (10 S. x. 9). These words are 
expressive of the " no heeltap " school of 
hospitality which prevailed at Headlong 
Hall, and at the other country mansions 
where Peacock's novels take us. Mr. Head- 
long would not allow his guests to see " sky- 
light " through an emptied glass, or " twi- 
light " through a half -emptied glass " car 
de bien boire oncques ne fust faitard." 


Surely "No Skylight! No Twilight!" 
is merely equivalent to " No Daylight ! " 

May I suggest that the words " No Sky- 
light ! No Twilight ! " are intended to mean 
that Bacchanalian orgies should not take 
place in daylight, whether full or twilight, 
but at night, with drawn curtains and arti- 
ficial light ? UBLLAD. 

VEBNON OF HODNET (10 S. ix. 168, 491). 
The names of the husband of Frances Vernon 
(seventh child of John Vernon in the list 
given at the latter reference) should read 
Sir Anthony Sherley, and not Sir Arthur 
Shirley. He was the well-known traveller 
and diplomatist. (He was inter alia the 
last ambassador from the German Emperor 
to Morocco till within the last few years.) 
The marriage was an unhappy one, and 
there was no issue of it. 

The then existing branches of the Shirley 
family were distinguished from each other 
by the various spellings of the name. 
The main branch (Warwickshire and Derby) 
used Shirley ; while Sherley was the 
spelling of the Wiston (Sussex) family, 
and Shurley that of the one of Isfield 
(also in Sussex). 

As to the question whether John Vernon 
was a knight or not, he is certainly so de- 
scribed by so good an authority as the late 
Mr. Evelyn Philip Shirley, both in the 
Stemmata Shirleiana ' and in ' The Sherley 
Brothers ' (published for the Roxburghe 
Club, 1848). C. S. HABBIS. 

370, 455, 518). Holwell took command of 
Fort William, Calcutta, on Drake's desertion 
of the citadel. He survived the horrors of 
the " Black Hole " ; but MB. MONTAGUE 

EDWABDS is not quite correct in stating 
n his query that a monument was erected 
:o Holwell in 1902 on the site of the tragedy. 
3n the restoration of the settlement to the 
English, Holwell with others erected a 
monument near the fort, upon the face 
of which were inscribed particulars of the 
event and the names of the victims of the 
N"awab's cruelty Holwell' s name being 
included. This monument disappeared 
many years ago ; but Lord Cur z on during 
his Viceroyalty erected, at his own expense, 
a replica (or nearly so) of it, which again 
records the name of Holwell and those of 
his fellow-sufferers. There is a fine con- 
temporary oil painting here, in the Victoria 
Hall collection, of Holwell engaged in inspect- 
ing the erection of the original monument. 

The story of Holwell and his heroism at 
the time of the siege of Calcutta may be 
fo.und in. Mr. H. E. A. Cotton's 'Calcutta 
Old and New,' the Rev. W. K. Firminger's 
handbook on Calcutta, and the earlier parts 
of Bengal : Past and Present, the magazine 
of the Calcutta Historical Society. 



"PBOMETHEAN" (10 S. x. 10, 54). Did 
the Drury Lane lamplighter of 1812 carry 
one of the articles ? It will be remembered 
that James Smith's inimitable parody of 
Crabbe's style opens : 

'Tis sweet to view, from half -past five to six, 
Our long wax-candles, with short cotton wicks, 

Touch'd by the lamplighter's Promethean art, 
Start into light, and make the lighter start. 

But it is more likely that this is only a 

poetical allusion to the son of lapetus. 


NUBSEBY RIME (10 S. ix. 408, 478 ; x, 
38). The lines of Monk Lewis may be re- 
membered. I think that allusion has not 
been made to them in this discussion. I 
may, however, have overlooked them. 
The worms they crept in, and the worms they crept 

out ; 
And wriggled his eyeballs and temples about. 

* Alonzo the Brave and the Fair Imogene. 

RUSHLIGHTS (10 S. x. 27). These are still 
specially made in small quantities for 
plumbers, who use them in their business, 
several of them being tied together to- 
make a torch. Prof. V. B. Lewes, of the 
Royal Naval College, Greenwich, told me 
he had great difficulty in obtaining speci- 
mens for one of his lectures on chemistry. 
I asked a friend of mine, the last of a family 

10 s. x. JULY 25, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that had been engaged in soap- and candle- 
making for two centuries, and he sent 
a bundle to the professor. He also told 
me that the industry, very small as it was, 
was disappearing, as plumbers now used 
spirit lamps instead of the rushlight torches. 


I have about twenty holders of different 
shapes, sizes, and stands some with candle 
holders attached, and some for hanging up 
all collected in Shropshire and Mont- 
gomeryshire. I saw a few weeks ago at 
Knighton an iron rushlight pan in which 
the fat was melted ; and I have a rushlight 
properly made, which was manufactured 
for a friend of mine about three years ago. 


MAPS (10 S. x. 8). Perhaps a reference to 

* The Geography of Ptolemy Elucidated,' 
by Thomas Glazebrook Rylands, printed 
for the author by Ponsonby & Weldrick 
at the University Press, Dublin, 1893, may 
be of some use to YGREC. The book 
contains no bibliography of Ptolemy's 

* Geography,' but in his preface the author 
says (pp. v, vi) : 

" So far as could be made out, we have no editio 
princeps worthy of the name. It was in the course 
of this study (i.e., of nearly every printed edition, 
and not a few of the manuscripts, in the libraries 
at home and abroad, including the Vatican), after 
examining the two manuscript issues of Nicolaus 
de Donis, and the edition of 1482, that the con- 
clusion was reached as to its value It is not 

suggested that any one edition is a safe guide alone ; 
but that, of all that have been examined, the 
edition 1482 is, on the whole, the one which is most 

A foot-note on p. vi says : 

" So far as I am aware, no edition of the ' Geo- 
graphy ' has hitherto been printed in England, while 
more than seventy have been issued on the Con- 
tinent. I have good reason to believe that a photo- 
lithographic fac-simile of this Donis volume is likely 
to be pu Wished." 

Mr. Rylands died some years ago. Pro- 
bably his son Mr. W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A., 
formerly Secretary of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology, or Mr. W. R. Scott of Trinity 
College, Dublin, who helped Mr. Rylands 
in the production of his book, the latter 
being the editor, could give YGREC much 
information as to the early copies of the 
Ptolemy maps. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

The 33rd c Bulletin Annuel ' of the 
Societe Jersiaise, issued this month (July) 
to members, pp. 319 to 381, would prove of 
great assistance to YGREC. 


PRIOR AND HIS CHLOE (10 S. x. 7). 
If Chloe were respectable, the parallel 
between her and Lydia would not be good ; 
for Lydia certainly was*not respectable. 
And let us like Horace and Lydia agree. 
If Prior wrote charming verses on Chloe, 
Horace wrote verses ten times more charm- 
ing on Lydia, Barine, Nesera, and other 
disreputable ladies. It is possible that 
Prior knew an estimable Miss Taylor, but 
he did not do her much honour if he iden- 
tified her with Chloe. The whole poem 
seems to me to admit only of one interpre- 
tation. One of Prior's poems to Chloe 
(for she is mentioned by name in it), called 
'A Lover's Anger,' concludes with these 
lines : 

So saying, she careless her bosom displayed ; 
That seat of delight I with wonder surveyed, 
And forgot every word I designed to have said. 
She softened her lover's anger in the same 
way in which Phryne obtained her acquittal. 
Those verses would never have been written 
on a'modest woman. E. YARDLEY. 

VICTORIAN COIN (10 S. ix. 209, 497 ; 
x. 16). The coin as described in the query 
differs both as to obverse and reverse from 
the " Godless " or " Graceless Florin," 
of which I have one before me as I write. 

In the latter both D.G. and F.D. are 
omitted. The inscription on the obverse 
is simply " Victoria Regina, 1849." On 
the reverse are four shields placed crosswise 
bearing the arms of England (twice) and 
Scotland and Ireland, encircled by the 
POUND. This, I believe, was intended as 
a first step towards decimalizing the coinage. 
The coin was issued under the Mastership 
of Richard Lalor Sheil, who was a Roman 
Catholic, and was Master of the Mint 1846-50 
(see 'D.N.B.'). Whether he was dismissed 
on account of the coin or not I do not know, 
but in the year following its issue he was 
appointed Minister at Florence, and died 
in 1851. 

See also Dr. Brewer's ' Reader's Hand- 
book,' s.v. ' Godless Florin.' 


"THE CROOKED BILLET" (10 S. ix. 190, 
452 ; x. 38). Instead of the traces being 
attached directly to a harrow the old-time 
wooden one they are attached to what is 
called a " billet," the equivalent of what 
is more generally known as a " swingle- 
tree." To assist in preventing this from 
hitting the horse's heels it was often curved, 
and as such is known as a " crooked billet." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. JULY 25, iocs. 

Such, according to local idea, is the deriva- 
tion of the name of an inn called "The 
Crooked Billet," which stood a century ago 
in the parish of Ash by Wrotham, Kent, 
on the road between Fawkham Green and 
Kingsdown. Some eighty years ago, how- 
ever, it had ceased to exist as an inn and 
had been converted into a couple of cottages. 
A woman who lived in one of them as she 
would say, " This parish is her native " 
remembers seeing there many tubs and 
barrels and other things, which were locally 
reputed to be part of the stock-in-trade of 
smugglers and their associates and abettors. 
Since then it has been all pulled down, and 
on the site now stand a farm - house and 
cottages. The name still lingers in that 
of the farm, which is called the Billet Farm, 
and in that of the hill road close by, leading 
up to " the vineyard field " in Ash, which 
is called the Billet Hill. 


470). The Romans are said to have brought 
the vine to the shores of the Lake of Geneva, 
and among their settlements there were 
Lustriacum and Collium, now represented 
by the large villages of Lutry and Cully, 
round which excellent wine is still grown. 
The neighbourhood possesses a very ancient 
guild of vine-dressers known as " FAbbaye 
des Vignerons," the headquarters of which 
are at Vevey. It is possible that this guild 
may have had its headquarters at Lutry 
in the seventeenth century, and that this 
" chalice " may have belonged to it. The 
existence of an abbey at Lutry in 1645 is, 
of course, out of the question. The Bishop 
of Lausanne was forced to fly to Fribourg 
in 1536, and from that date down to the 
beginning of the nineteenth century Catho- 
licism was proscribed in Vaud. 


CLERGY IN WIGS (10 S. viii. 149, 214; 
ix. 497 ; x. 16). I can remember seeing 
Archbishop Sumner preach in a wig, in a 
church in or near Eaton Square, in 1853 or 
1854. JAMES CULL. 

Junior Athenseum Club. 

The Standard of 6 Aug., 1901, states that 
at the marriage of the Princess Royal with 
Prince Frederick William of Prussia, which 
took place in the Chapel Royal on 25 Jan., 
1858, Dr. Sumner, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who performed the ceremony, wore 
for the last time the once essential wig. 


Errwood Hall, Buxton. 

STUFFED CHINE (10 S. x. 30). This 
delicacy is still prepared in North Lincoln- 
shire. The chine is first salted and hung 
like bacon. When it is to be cooked, 
incisions are made parallel with its sides- 
and down to the bone, but not quite to the 
ends, or it would fall in pieces. The gashes 
are filled with chopped herbs sage, onion r 
thyme, marjoram, columbine, primrose, 
and perhaps other herbs. The chine is 
then tightly wrapped in a cloth, and gently 
boiled or steamed for some hours, after 
which it is eaten cold at breakfast, farm- 
house tea, or supper. J. T. F. 
Winterton, Doncaster. 

I have frequently eaten both stuffed chine 
and frumenty in South Notts, but neither 
of them, so far as I know, was considered 
peculiarly appropriate to sheepshearing 
feasts. Frumenty we ate mostly at Michael- 
mas, and I know a Yorkshire firm of corn 
merchants and millers who still present 
their best customers with a small bag of 
new wheat at that season, ostensibly for 
the purpose of making it. Stuffed chine 
was a delicacy for winter or early spring. 

C. C. B. 

I met with stuffed chine fifty years ago 
at South Kyme, Lincolnshire. 


WALDOCK FAMILY (10 S. ix. 508). 
Edmondson's ' Complete Body of Heraldry y 
(1780) gives Or, an " etoile " radiated sable, 
but makes no mention of the original grant ; 
hence MR. ELL may assume they were regis- 
tered at the College of Arms long before 
Edmondson's day. 


Burke' s ' General Armory ' gives the 
arms of Waldock as Or, an estoile radiated 
sable. H. J. B. CLEMENTS. 

Killadoon, Cellbridge. 

[COM. LING, also refers to Burke.] 

"PINK SAUCER" (10 S. ix. 486). I 
remember this well as an article in common 
use in the " sixties " of last century, when 
the saucers were sold, if I am not mistaken, 
at fourpence or fivepence each. They, in 
common with a good many other popular 
dye-stuffs, were driven out of use by the 
ubiquitous Judson. C. C. B. 

SURREY GARDENS (10 S. ix. 490; x. 32). 
In the British Museum there are eight 
volumes of programmes, tickets, &c., from 
the opening to the burning in 1861. 


10 s. x. JULY 25, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Nunburnholme : its History and Antiquities. By the 
Rev. M. C. F. Morris. (York, John Sampson ; 
London, Henry Frowde.) 

NUNBURNHOLME is not a noteworthy place among 
the villages of Yorkshire, but those who read 
Mr. Morris's account thereof will, we are sure, give 
his work a high place among the local histories of 
Northern England. The little town, as the 
inhabitants fondly, and with complete accuracy, 
call it, stands on the western edge of the East 
Riding Wolds, at the point where they meet' "the 
far-stretching Vale of York." 

The introductory chapter deals with the geology 
of the district ; then we are introduced to Neolithic 
man, of whose burial mounds and implements we 
have a good account. What language these remote 
predecessors of ours spoke is unknown, and will 
most likely remain so, but it is not improbable 
that there were several tongues struggling for the 
mastery, for the skulls that have been found in the 
barrows unmistakably indicate more than one line 
of descent, some being long and narrow, others 
broad and round, the latter seemingly belonging to 
the stronger race, while intermediate types, indi- 
cating racial crossing, form the greater number. 
This blending of races probably occurred before 
the tribes settled on the Yorkshire Wolds, and it 
may well be before they arrived in any part of what 
we now call England. 

Hardly anything is known of Nunburnholme 
before the Norman Conquest. Its history begins, in 
fact, with the Domesday survey (1086), though we 
are justified in assuming that it was inhabited at a 
far earlier period. 

Mr. Morris gives an interesting sketch of the 
early history of the manor. Early manorial history 
is in many cases very difficult to elucidate. 
We cannot, therefore, take upon ourselves the 
responsibility of contradicting him, but the state- 
ment "that the early grouping of parishes fol- 
lowed manorial lines is, we think, far top wide. 
It seems certain that in many parts of the kingdom 
the parish was an earlier division than the manor. 
In a county which adjoins Yorkshire we know a 
parish within the boundaries of which were two 
complete manors and parts at least of two others. 
It is well to remark that though knowledge has 
increased in recent days, the term "manor," as 
used in pre-Norman days, is by no means free from 
difficulty. Mr. Morris has made out a satisfactory 
list of the Lords of Nunburnholme from Forne, 
who may have held it previous to the Norman 
time. He may have been, and probably was, 
ancestor of the Greystockes, who held it for many 
generations ; afterwards it passed to the Dacres and 
Howards, then by sale in 1765 to the Duke of 
Devonshire. In 1847 it was again sold to George 
Hudson, "the Railway King"; and when mis- 
fortunes fell upon that rash speculator it passed to 
Albert Denison, first Lord Londesborough, by 
whose representative it is still held. The only 
doubtful points in this long list are between 1086 
and 1209. 

The church is an interesting fabric which has not 
suffered much from restoration. The evils it under- 
went were mainly at the time of the Reformation 

and from the utter neglect which fell upon it in the 
eighteenth century. Now all has been done to pre- 
serve what is left and make it suitable for worship. 
The dedication was originally that of All Hallows, 
as is proved by ancient wills ; but in later time it 
became known as St. Jamfes's, under which title 
it appears in Ecton's ' Thesaurus ' and Bacon's 
'Liber Regis.' 

In the churchyard are the remains of an early 
cross which were found in a ruinous porch. Mr. 
Morris reproduces a description of this interesting 
relic written by the expert hand of Romilly Allen. 
Though it is in fair preservation, it seems impos- 
sible to interpret the meaning of the greater part 
of the sculptures. 

The Benedictine convent of St. Mary can never 
have been a house of much importance. It fell 
with the lesser monasteries. Its founder has not 
been identified. The author thinks that it may 
have been one of the ancestors of the house of 

There is a very good comment on the dialect of 
the Nunburnholme neighbourhood, which would 
make a profitable study for those who still treat 
with contempt the folk-speech of their forefathers, 

Catalogue of the Library of Charles Darwin, now in 
the Botany School, Cambridge. Compiled by 
H. W. Rutherford, of the University Library. 
With an Introduction by Francis Darwin. (Cam- 
bridge, University Press.) 

THE frequency and rapidity with which the libraries 
of the illustrious dead are sold ("dispersed" is, we- 
believe, an expressive trade term) is distressing. 
Occasionally, however, a famous collection such as 
that of the late Lord Acton remains intact and in 
good hands. This book records the transfer of ih& 
whole of Darwin's library by his distinguished son, 
Mr. Francis Darwin, to the Botany School of 
Cambridge for the use of the University an 
admirable bequest which will be always available- 
for reference. 

The Introduction supplies several interesting 
details of Darwin's books. He hardly ever had a 
book bound, and the sixth edition of Lyell's- 
4 Elements,' which he found too heavy to be read 
with comfort, he converted into two volumes by 
cutting it in half. This short way with bulky 
tomes might be brought with advantage to the 
notice of some publishers who are responsible for 
heavy single volumes. The hands of the present 
reviewer, for instance, have been before now 
benumbed by the effort of holding Strasburger's 
' Textbook of Botany 'an admirable volume, but 
not a light one in any sense of the word. Much of 
Darwin s reading was in German, and he had his 
difficulties with that scientific tongue. There are- 
numerous pencil annotations by him. Patrick 
Matthew's book on ' Naval Timber and Arbori- 
culture,' 1831, was first introduced to Darwin by 
long extracts published in The Gardeners' Chronicle 
of 7 April, 1860, by the author. As regards this, 
book we read the following pronouncement here : 
"Matthew claimed quite justly that he put 
forward the theory of Natural Selection long before- 
' The Origin of Species ' was published. It is 
certainly surprising to find in a book dated 1831 the 
expression ' natural process of selection among- 

It is pointed out that Darwin's library is well 
placed in the Botany School, since it was a Professor 
of Botany at Cambridge, Henslow, who "determined 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x JDLY 25, im. 

his career as a naturalist." Further, Cambridge is 
not only Darwin's own University, but was also 
that of his grandfather Erasmus, who formed a 
botanic garden, published ' The Loves of the Plants,' 
and was concerned with questions of evolution. 

Documents relating to the Office, of the Revels in the 
Time of Queen Elizabeth. Edited, with Notes 
and Indexes, by Albert Feuillerat. (Nutt.) 

Satiro-Mastix. By T. Dekker. Herausgegeben nach 
den Drucken von 1602 von Dr. Hans Scherer. 
(Same publisher.) 

THE bulky Revels volume is Vol. XXL of the 
series of " Materialien zur Kunde des alteren 
Englischen Dramas," which, under the spirited 
direction of Prof. Bang, has done much to clear up 
the difficulties and exhibit the texts of a most 
important period of the English stage. Prof. 
Feuillerat, who writes in excellent English, has 
given us a masterly piece of editing which ought to 
be in every library of any pretensions. He has 
devoted infinite care to the printing of the text ; 
his notes show his ample knowledge of the work 
of English scholars, and he gives us besides a 
glossarial index, an index of proper names, and 
a subject index. The notes are testimonies to 
the editor's erudition, and contest, it seems to us, 
with success, some of the conclusions of Mr. 
E. K. Chambers in his 'Tudor Revels.' The repu- 
tation of Collier is further reduced, but Cunning- 
ham is found to be an accurate editor of the Revels. 
The identity of the plays mentioned is sometimes 
uncertain. It is ingeniously suggested, we notice, 
that one called ' The Painful Phillgrimage ' (sic) 
may be ' Everyman,' as these two words occur in 
the course of the play. The meticulous care which 
is shown in printing the text is revealed in several 
notes as to uncertain words. 

Altogether, our only regret is that a work of such 
value did not receive cloth binding in the first 
instance as a matter of course. But we must not 
ask too much of a series which would be impossible 
without generous and unremunerative labour on 
the part of the devoted band which the Professor 
of English Philology at Lou vain inspires to study. 

The contribution to the " Materialien " which 
precedes the ' Documents relating to the Revels ' is 
Dekker's ' Satiro-Mastix,' edited by Dr. Hans 
Scherer, who provides German notes to the play. 
While these are reasonable and ingenious, they 
might, we think, give a few more explanations, 
instead of referring to the places where such 
explanations can be found. "Poesies for rings," 
for instance, is at once cleared up for the English 
reader if he is referred to the more familiar form in 
this connexion, "posies." 

The Poetical Works of Keats. Edited, with an 
Introduction and Textual Notes, by H. Buxton 
Forman, C.B. (Frowde, Oxford University Press.) 
THE heading at the top of the title-page, " Oxford 
Edition," will lead the judicious reader to expect 
good and thorough work, and he will not be dis- 
appointed when he comes to examine Mr. Forman's 
latest issue concerning a poet on whom he has 
specialized for years. The introduction is substan- 
tially that supplied by the editor to a larger issue, 
also published by the Clarendon Press, in 1906, and 
it tells with lucidity the somewhat complicated 
history of the sources of Keats's text. It happens 
that these sources are more numerous than usual, 

and the text is further complicated by the casual 
handwriting of the poet. Various readings are 
printed at the bottom of the pages, and Mr. Forman 
may be trusted to reproduce these correctly, for 
there is no greater master than he of the small de- 
tails which often escape even a careful editor or 

It is interesting to note that Keats has been 
credited with, or suspected of, the authorship of 
verses now proved to be by Mrs. Tighe, Laman 
Blanchard, B. W. Procter, and Massinger. We 
fully agree with Mr. Forman in scouting the claims 
of the ' Song ' beginning 

Stay, ruby-breasted warbler, stay ! 
It is written in George Keats's hand, and seems 
unworthy of John Keats at any period. 

The comparatively small amount of Keats's out- 
put allows of large type in a single-volume edition. 
We envy the rising generation who can procure 
such good text, editing, and binding as this for a 
sum which would hardly have purchased an inferior 
edition some years since. We hope that Keats's 
fame as a classic arid an exemplar will be spread 
much further than it reaches at present, and must 
gently protest at the phrase "important lyric" 
used by Mr. Forman concerning the Nightingale 
Ode. The MS. of the Ode is, as Mr. Forman has, 
indeed, said just above, " important " or " very 
important." The Ode itself is not less than im- 
mortal, and it is surely as well to say so in these 
days, when many versifiers as well as readers regard 
their favourite hymnal collections as the best 
models, and are deaf to the masters of poetry, such 
as Keats and Coleridge. 

The copy sent to us has a Bright red cover. Some 
of the earlier " Oxford " issues were, we think, clad 
in blue. Perhaps both colours are available at any 
rate, we certainly prefer blue for poets. Did not 
Keats write a sonnet on that colour, too ? 


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CONTENTS. No. 240. 

NOTES : Bibliographical Technical Terms, 81 Genera 
Wade and his Roads, 83' Englands Parnassus,' 1600, 84 
"Cardinal" of St. Paul's Greene's ' Menaphon,' 85 
The Old Omnibuses Wych Street Recovery from Hang 
ing" Scaramouch "Marathon Runners, 86. 

QUERIES : Johnsonians, a Religious Sect Malone 
Family Roses as Badges : Where Borne Seize Quartiers 
"Bnccado" Rev. Wm. Veitch, 87 Crows "crying 
against the rain" John Hickes, M.P. for Fowey 1701-8 
Tiger Folk-lore and Pope Baptistery Font, Florence 
' ' Merry England" The King's Old Bargehouse " Tenths ' 
and "Fifteenths," 88 Johnson's 'Tropical Climates' 
'Pleasure digging his own Grave' Swimming Bath 
Swimming Stays Jacob Philadelphia" House of waran 
tyse" Townley Estates Lord Robert Gordon of the 
Scots Greys Chrystal Magna : Maylor Grange Budgee, 
a Kind of Ape" Cire perdue process," 89. 

REPLIES : Dickens on " half -baptized "The Bonassus 
Wilkes's 'Essay on Woman,' 90 Deville " Whiff," a 
Boat St. Andrew's Cross, 91 George Henley of Bradley, 
Hants, 92 Rushlights W. Heath, Artist Old Tunes 
Hornsey : Highgate and Arabella Stuart, 93 Queen 
Caroline "Cock-foster" Edwards of Halifax " Charm- 
ing-Bells" for Bird -catching, 94 "Angel" of an Inn- 
Henry Ellison Wolston, 95 Wine used at Holy Com- 
munionVillage Mazes Sir Menasseh Massey Lopez, Bt. 
Fig Trees : Maturing Meat Samuel Richardson, 96 
" Meschianza" Our Oldest Military Officer The Swedish 
Church, Prince's Square, St. George's-in-the-East Telling 
the Bees Early Law Terms, 97 Benedict Arnold- 
Steering- Wheel Willow-Pattern China : Story Inscribed 
Vigo Bay, 1702-19" Votes for Women "Fee Bowls, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS:-' Coleridge's Literary Criticism' 
' The Sacred Poets of the Nineteenth Century'' Evesham 
and the Neighbourhood.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


BETWEEN the years 1847 and 1854 the 
celebrated French bibliographer Querard 
finished the publication of his most original 
work ' Les Supercheries litteraires devoilees.' 
In that for the first time he used what may 
be called technical bibliographical words, 
to distinguish the kind of fictitious name 
an author had used. Some were plain 
pseudonyms, but others contained the 
letters of the real name, though disguised, 
and it was possible to indicate the kind 
of pseudo-name by one technical word, in- 
stead of a phrase. Thus d'Erquar is an ana- 
gram of Querard. The word " anagram," 
signifying that the letters have been arbi- 
trarily inverted, has been in use for hundreds 
of years ; and thereore it comes natural 
to apply it to a pseudonym so composed. 

Again, if a person were told that an 
author had written a book under the name 
of Werdna Retnyw, and that it was a 
pseudonym, no idea would be formed as 
to the real name of the author. Allibone 
calls Retnyw an anagram, which it is not 

strictly ; but it brings us nearer than 
" pseudonym." The word " ananym," used 
for it in the ' Handbook of Fictitious Names,' 
was too new for him td adopt. " Ananym " 
at once tells those acquainted with the 
technical words that Werdna Retnyw is 
the author's name, Andrew Wynter, written 

The kind of pseudonym is expressed 
by one word instead of several. Thus with 
hundreds of names much repetition is 

Although nine of these technical words 
are included in ' The Oxford English Dic- 
tionary ' (so far as published), Littre's 
' Dictionnaire de la Langue fran9aise ' 
recognizes only three. 

In a book in imitation of Querard' s 
' Supercheries,' modestly described as ' 'Essai 
d'un Dictionnaire des Ouvrages anonymes 
et pseudonymes publics en Belgique, par un 
membre de la Societe des Bibliophiles 
beiges," Bruxelles, 1863, the author, Jules 
De Le Court, says : 

" Je me suis abstenu de ces distinctions si nom- 
breuses et parfois si subtiles de Querard, telles que 
pseudonyme, pplyonyme, andronyme ...... qui a mon 

avis sont parfaitement inu tiles." 

Jules De Le Court was born in 1835, 
so that he was only twenty-eight when 
he began publishing his ' Essai,' which is 
a pseudonymous book, with the author's 
real name ! The only indication to its 
author is the initialism J. D. to the preface, 
but on the back of the half-title the author 
has signed " Jules De Le Court " to each 
of the hundred copies. At the end is a 
page (548) not printed until 1866 ; on this 
his name is in print. His name is second 
as one of the editors of Koninck's ' Biblio- 
graphie nationale (Beige),' and in the 
third volume (1897) he is described as 

president de chambre a la Cour d'appel 
de Bruxelles." 

I mentioned the * Essai ' in my c Hand- 

ok of Fictitious Names,' p. xi. I did 

:hen, and do still, consider that these 
technical terms are sometimes useful in 
separating the pseudonym from the real 
name, and in several other cases. 

But Querard began a second edition of 

he * Supercheries,' and on the title he says 

t will include authors who have hidden 

hemselves under anagrams, asteronyms, 

jryptonyms, &c., though in this second 

edition he does not use either of these terms, 

nor any of the others except pseudonym 

and " nom de religion." Unfortunately 

-his second edition is only a fragment inter- 

upted by Querard's death. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. A i, isos 

Observing that these technical words 
used by Querard had never been collected, 
a learned Belgian doctor of medicine and 
writer, Claude Charles Pierquin de Gem- 
bloux (1798-187- ?), made a list of them, 
which Querard published in his magazine 
Le Querard (p. 154) in 1855. 

Pierquin says he compiled his list from 
the ' Supercheries,' and he quotes Comte 
Daru, who said, " Si vous n'inventez rien, 
creez des mots nouveaux." This he says 
Querard did in creating these technical 
words ; but besides this Pierquin credits 
him with introducing the English word 
" retrospective " to the French in 1832 
(see 10 S. viii. 206). 

When I published * A Notice of the Life 
of J. M. Querard ' in 1867, I printed a 
translation or adaptation of Pierquin' s 
list, with additions. Probably no notice 
would have been taken of my list had I 
not been seized with the idea of writing 
an English book on pseudonyms. This 
work appeared in 1868, and was the first 
of its kind in the English language ; it 
is the one already mentioned, the * Hand- 
book of Fictitious Names.' In it I made 
use of many of these terms to designate 
the kind of pseudonym. Thus after " A 
bird at Bromsgrove " I put " ironym " ; 
after " One who is but an attorney " I put 
" enigmatic phraseonym," and so on. 

Pierquin dwells on the need for technical 
words in justification of Querard' s use of 
them. Querard had very few technical 
terms at first ; it is not until the fourth 
volume that we find those nice distinctions 
on which De Le Court remarks. 

Lately Mr. W. P. Courtney, the author 
of ' A Register of National Bibliography,' 
informed me he proposed to reprint my list 
in a work he was writing about English 
anonymous and pseudonymous literature* ; 
and he asked me if I could supply English 
examples where lacking in my list. I set 
to work, but soon found that the list of 
terms required re-editing that it would 
be archaic and an anachronism simply 
to reprint it as it is,- with errors committed 
by Querard, by Pierquin, and myself, 
and (worse still) without correcting those 
who reprinted my list. Forty years had 
made a great difference. The result is 
that I have recompiled the present list 
from the various books I cite. 

* The present article was written about a year 
ago. Mr. Courtney has since informed me that his 
book is in the press, and will be published at the 
end of the year (1908). 

One of Querard' s mistakes if indeed' 
it was a mistake was giving the word 
" polyonym " as " pplynym," until he 
came to ' Societe litteraire de jolies femmes.*" 
When next he uses the word it is as " polyo- 
nym," for ' Vrais Catholiques franais.' 
Querard' s mistake is remarkable because- 
in 1846 he published a ' Dictionnaire des 
Ouvrages polyonymes et anonymes.' 

However, Pierquin has " polynym," and 
thus I was misled and those who copied 
me. If I had known Greek, I should have- 
no doubt corrected it ; and if Pierquin 
had known English, he would not have 
translated " A. Known " as " un inconnu." 

My list was first reprinted by John Power 
[b. 1820 d. 1872) in his ' Handybook about 
Books ' in 1870. For years before, and 
while that book was going through the- 
press, Power was ill, and quite unfit to do- 
the work he had undertaken. He told me- 
hie had sent me proofs, but they never- 
reached me. Luckily, he acknowledged 
the source of the words ; if he had not,, 
the subsequent copyists would all have- 
adopted the list as their original, and I 
should have been ignored, as the information 
in my ' Handbook ' always has been : in 
a great measure due to a periodical stealing 
my information and printing it without 
acknowledgment . 

In 1882 a book called ' Authorship and! 
Publication [with] bibliographical appen- 
dix ' was published by Wyman & Sons,, 
the well-known printers. The first portion 
of the appendix, treating of ' Anonymous; 
Books and how to describe them,' says : 

" The following vocabulary, compiled from various- 
more or less accessible sources, may be useful to 
authors who wish to define correctly any degree- 
of anonymity [read pseudonymity] in authorship. 
It is also of practical utility, in suggesting the 
multii'arious devices by which the personality of an 
author may be concealed or disguised." 
The " various sources " consist of one,, 
namely, the list in my Querard,. from which 
it is copied. Messrs. Wyman, the publishers, 
and printers of the book, were no doubt 
unaware of this piece of plagiarism. 

Next it was a pleasure to find that several 1 
of the words were included in one of the 
most authentic and satisfactorily executed 
works ever published, * The Oxford English 
Dictionary,' edited in chief by Dr. Sir 
J. A. H. Murray, 1885 (still in progress). 

Being unable to invent anything, I have 
unwittingly followed Comte Daru's advice.. 
I have suggested the word "anonyma"r: 
first in * N. & Q.' on 2 May, 1896 (8 S. ix.. 
342). Two of the words introduced to 
the English language through my list 

10 s. x. AUG. i, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

" anonym " and " antonym " have been 
found useful. It remains to be seen if 
" anonyma " will be, too. 

Lastly, in 1891 some of the terms are 
inserted in the glossary (see p. 183) to the 
second edition of Mr. W. T. Rogers' s in- 
teresting book * A Manual of Bibliography,' 
with the initials R. T. appended. 

But several terms were used by Querard 
besides those I give, as " auteur suppose," 
" editeur apocryphe," &c. 

In the ' Handbook ' I do the same, as I 
use " disguised author," " fictitious name," 
" German pseudonym," " impostor," " lite- 
rary name," " name of religious order," 
as Ignatius (see the ' Handbook,' pp. 60 
and 61). 

Considering the trouble he was always 
in, we need not be surprised that Querard 
does not use his technical words with strictly 
the same meaning. Thus in the following 
entry, " L.P.G.F.D.L.C.D.J., auteur deguise 
[le pere Georges Fournier, de la compagnie 
de Jesus]," vol. iii., 1850, p. 156, " disguised 
author " is correct, but I should call it 
simply an initialism. 

It may have been observed that I have 
never used the words nom de plume. I have 
always considered them bad, as being 
neither French nor English, but a mongrel 
English coinage by a person ignorant of 
French. Nor have I ever used nom de 
guerre as equivalent to pseudonym (see 10 S. 
viii. 248, 556). I do not object to "pen 
name," though I have never used those 

The French examples included in the list 
to follow are all taken from ' Les Supercheries 
litteraires devoilees.' The English examples 
are from the * Handbook of Fictitious 
Names.' The others I have collected in 
the course of the years I have had the subject 
in mind. 

For some of the technical words it will 
be observed I have found no French exam- 
ples, and for others, no English. 


(To be continued.) 


(See 3 S. ii. 192 ; 5 S. iii. 369 ; iv. 55 ; 
9 S. i. 129, 209, 253, 334, 376 ; ii. 13.) 

CAN the delicious couplet 

If you 'd seen these roads before they were made, 
You'd lift up your hands and bless General Wade, 

be traced in print further back than James 
Pettit Andrews's ' Anecdotes ' of 1789 ? 

Much confusion exists as to the Highland 
roads made by Wade, even the Ordnance 
maps not being free from inaccuracy. Thus 
I find lettered " General Wade's Military 
Road " the road from Dulsie Bridge to 
Fort George (one-inch map No. 84), the- 
road from Fort Augustus to Bernera (Nos. 72, 
73), and the road south from Fort William 
via the Devil's Staircase (No. 53) ; while 
as a matter of fact all these roads were con- 
structed after Wade's death in 1748. 

The Highland roads made prior to the 
Act of 1862, which transferred the super- 
intendence of roads and bridges to the 
Commissioners of Supply, fall into three- 
groups : 

A. General Wade's Roads, also styled 
the " Old Military Roads," constructed 
between 1725 and 1733 : about 250 miles 
in all. 

B. The " New Military Roads," con- 
structed between 1744 and 1770 : about 
800 miles in all. 

C. The " Parliamentary Roads," con- 
structed by the Commissioners under the 
Highland Roads and Bridges Act of 1803 : 
about 930 miles. 

The principal roads falling under the 
first two heads are as follows : 

Crieff, via Amulree and Aberfeldy, to Dalnacar- 

Dunkeld, via Blair, to Dalnacardoch. 

Dalnacardoch to Dalwhinnie. 

Dalwhinnie, via Corryarrick, to Fort Augustus. 

Dalwhinnie, via Ruthven, Moy, and Faillie, to 

Inverness, via Stratherrick and Fort Augustus, 
to Fort William. 


Dumbarton, via "Rest and be thankful" and 
Inverary, to Tyndrum. 

Stirling, via Tyndrum, King's House, and the 
Devil's Staircase, to Fort William. 

Blairgowrie, via the Spital of Glenshee, Braemar,, 
Corgarn, and Dulsie Bridge, to Fort George. 

Fettercairn, via Cairn a Mount, through Strath- 
bogie, to Fochabers. 

Fort Augustus, via Aonach and Ratagan, to- 

Contin to Poolewe. 

Portions of these early roads now definitely 
abandoned to the heather are : 

The Pass of Corryarrick (traversed by Prince 
Charlie, 28 Aug., 1745). 

The Devil's Staircase. 

Moy to Faillie (traversed by Prince Charlie, 
18 Feb., 1746). 

Fort Augustus to Aonach (traversed by Dr. John- 
son, 31 Aug., 1773). 

The authoritative source of information 
on the subject of Highland roads is the- 
forty-nine Reports (1804-43) of the Com- 



missioners under the Act of 1803. An 
Appendix to the Sixth Report (1814) sup 
plies a ' Statement of the Origin, Extent 
and Repair of Roads in the Highlands 
including the Military Roads.' 

University Library, Aberdeen. 

(See 10 S. ix. 341, 401 ; x. 4.) 

I HAVE said that c Englands Parnassus, 
so far as authors' names are concerned, i 
self-contained ; and that outside these 
authors one will search in vain for any o 
Allot' s quotations. This statement, how 
ever, needs an explanation, which, at firs 
sight, seems like a contradiction, but ii 
really not so. When Allot read a boot 
which contained contributions from severa 
authors, he did not always stop to ascertain 
exactly whom he was quoting, but very 
often assigned his extracts to the author ir 
the book whose name was most familiar to 
him. This habit of Allot's is responsible 
for a great number of errors of assignment 
that are to be met with in ' Englands 
Parnassus ' ; and the editor was so careless 
that one finds him sometimes giving quota- 
tions from the same poem to more than one 
author. Cases such as these are to be 
found in works like ' Tottel's Miscellany, 

* The Mirror for Magistrates,' and the 
collection of elegies, entitled ' Astrophel,' 
on the death of Sir Philip Sidney. The 
quotations from the elegies, except those 
from Matthew Roydon's poem, are set 
down by Allot as being written by Spenser, 
although one elegy is the work of Sidney's 
own sister. When passages are cited from 

* The Mirror for Magistrates,' Allot either 
gives no authors' names, but simply the 
title of the work, or else he fathers them on 
Lord Sackville and John Higgins, mention- 
ing Dolman only once, and crossing the 
names of Higgins and Sackville. And as 
regards ' Tottel's Miscellany ' the utmost 
confusion prevails, Allot sometimes agreeing 
to stand by Tottel, and sometimes being 
against him, although he never once 
mentions Tottel. His sole authority for 
names in these cases was Tottel's book, as 
is proved by the passages themselves, which 
always follow the ' Miscellany,' and there- 
fore differ from other versions of the same 
poems to be found in other collections. 
Hence errors of this kind do not affect the 
statement I have made ; they only indicate 
Allot's carelessness, and warn us to expect 

to find other men's work, whose names 
are absent from ' Englands Parnassus,' 
given to writers, in the same collections of 
poems, whom Allot has favoured with 

Allot quotes two passages from Lodowick 
Brysket's elegy on Sidney, both of which 
he puts above the signature of Spenser : 

* Destinie,' p. 72. 
No humble speech, nor mone, may move the fixed 


Of Destinie or death : such is the will that paints 
The earth with colours fresh, the darkish skies 

with store 
Of starry light. 

4 Of Tempests,' p. 421. 

On Neptune war was made by Aeolus arid his traine, 
Who, letting loose the winds, tost and tormented 

the ayre, 

So that, on every coast, men shipwracke did abide, 
Or els were swallowed up in open sea with waves ; 
And such as came to shore, were beaten with 


Brysket's poem is entitled * The Mourning 
Muse of Thestylis ' ; and this title, as well 
as the declaration in the concluding stanzas 
of the preceding elegy, should have been 
sufficient to warn Allot that Spenser was 
not its author. The same remarks apply to 
The Doleful Lay of Clorinda,' by Sidney's 
sister, from which two lines are adduced 
under ' Heaven.' These were traced to the 
buntess of Pembroke by Collier, and 
therefore I shall leave them unquoted, it 
Deing my purpose to deal only with pas- 
sages which have not previously been traced, 
or about which remark is necessary. 

Matthew Roydon seems to have been a 
particular friend of Allot s, who corroborates 
}he statement of Thomas Nashe, in his 
Preface to Robert Greene's * Menaphon,' that 
.he ' Friends Passion for his Astrophill ' 
;vas written by Roydon. Altogether eleven 
passages are put above Roydon's signature 
n ' Englands Parnassus,' nine of these, 
raced by Collier, being from the elegy, and 
he other two being found by me in the 
>de which Roydon wrote in praise of Thomas 
Vatson's ' Ekatompathia ': 
'Labour,' p. 190. 

Industry, well cherisht to his face, 

n sun-shine walkes, in spight of sower disgrace. 

'Vertue,'p. 343. 
""hat growes apace, that Vertue helps t' aspire. 

I infer that Roydon and Allot were 
riends, not only because Allot was ac- 
uainted with the fact that Roydon wrote 
elegy on Sidney, but also because 
toy don's is one of the very rare cases of an 
uthor's work being rightly assigned to him 

10 s. x. A, i, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


throughout ' Englands Parnassus.' If Allot 
had not had a special thought for Roydon, 
he chances are that he would have given 
the lines from the ode to Watson, as he 
gave " Content's " poem to the Earl of 
Oxford, and as he has given Brysket's 
poem and the poem of the Countess of 
Pembroke to Edmund Spenser. 

Tottel did not know how to assign the 
greater number of the poems in his ' Mis- 
cellany,' and therefore he put all doubtful 
ones under the heading of " Uncertain 
Authors." But it is known that Church- 
yard, Thomas Lord Vaux, John Heywood, 
Edward Somerset, and Sir Francis Bryan 
were amongst the contributors to the col- 
lection, although only two poems have been 
traced to Lord Vaux, one to John Heywood, 
and another, probably, to Edward Somerset. 
The question now arises, How does Allot 
assist us in determining the authorship of 
unassigned poems in Tottel ? What are his 
credentials ? We shall see. 

There are eighteen passages in ' Englands 
Parnassus ' that have been traced to 
' Tottel's Miscellany,' fifteen of these being 
found by Collier and three by myself, the 
latter proving to be of such interest as to 
demand some notice later on. Of these 
eighteen passages, Allot assigns ten to the 
Earl of Surrey, five to Sir Thomas Wyatt, 
one to George Chapman, one to " S. T. B.," 
and one to " T. W." In addition to these, 
Allot signs Surrey's name to a quotation of 
five lines which Collier found in Spencer's 
* Faerie Queene.' On examination, it is 
found that only one of Surrey's signatures 
is rightly placed, and two of Wyatt' s ; 
that four quotations from Wyatt, one from 
Grimald, and four from "Uncertain Authors " 
have been wrongly credited to Surrey ; and 
that we must go to Grimald for one of the 
supposed Wyatt entries, and to " Uncertain 
Authors " for the other two. 

It is absolutely certain that Allot obtained 
his quotations from ' Tottel's Miscellany,' 
and from the second edition of the work, 
which was published 31 July, 1557 ; why, 
then, does he toss Tottel's signatures about 
in this manner ? Am I rash when I say 
that here, as elsewhere, he did not trouble 
to consult the editor of the book he was 
reading, but dashed names down that came 
most readily to his memory, caring only to 
remember that such names were signed 
to poems in other parts of the volume ? 
Did Allot have better means of knowing 
the authors than Tottel had ? It seems 
necessary to ask these questions, because 
t has been thought that Allot's authority 

is of some value in connexion with the Tottel 
poems. Well, I will endeavour to show 
once more that Allot is a treacherous guide, 
and that all his doubtful signatures should 
be ignored unless corroborated by other 
and more certain authority. 


(To be continued.) 

course of his address at the memorial service 
for the late Rev. W. H. Milman, at St. Augus- 
tine's, Old Change, the Archdeacon of 
London made, says The Guardian of 1 July, 
"an interesting reference to the office of Senior 
Cardinal which Mr. Milman held as a member of 
the College of Minor Canons. The Archdeacon 
said : * The office of Cardinal, which he and one 
other Minor Canon held in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
was unique in this country. In an ancient docu- 
ment we read that ** the Church of St. Paul had 
before the time of the Conqueror two Cardinals, 
which office still continues. They are chosen by 
the Dean and Chapter out of the number of the 
twelve petty Canons, and are called Cardinales 
Chori (the hinges of the choir). Not any Cathedral 
Church in England hath Cardinals beside this, nor 
are any beyond seas found to be dignified with this 
title, saving the Churches of Rome, Ravenna, 
Aquileia, Milan, Pisa, and Benevent in Italy, and 
Compostella in Spain." The name has sometimes 
been thought to refer to the four corners of the 
altar, but as in St. Paul's they have reference to the 
choir, the probable meaning is the former. Their 
ducy was to catechise the choristers, to note those 
absent from the choir (a duty now performed by 
the Dean's verger), while to the Junior Cardinal 
fell the office of visiting the sick in the College of 
Minor Canons and administering to them the 
Sacraments. The name of Cardinal cannot be found 
in any writer earlier than Gregory the Great, who 
died in 604. With the growth of the supremacy of 
the Roman Church there came a tendency to con- 
fine the office to the chiefs of the Papal Court, and 
in other Sees, as at St. Paul's, it gradually dropped 
into desuetude.'" 
It may be well to store this in * N. & Q.' 


GREENE'S * MENAPHON.' In Fleay's 'Bio- 
graphical Chronology of the English Drama ' 
(London, 1891) it is stated in the article 
on Greene : 

"My hypothesis as to the identification of 

Melicert with Lyly, Menaphon with Marlow, 

and Pleusidippus with Greene is too conjectural to 
claim further notice here ; but I think that Moron, 
lately deceased, is surely Tarleton " ; 

while in the account of Kyd it is said": 
" Menaphon is Marlow, and Melicert most 
likely Greene himself." ^ 

Pleusidippus can hardly have been in - 
tended for Greene, though from his youth 
that character might perhaps stand for 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io 8. x. AUG. i, im 

Shakespeare, who entered the dramatic 
field after Marlowe and Greene ; but the 
common view among critics is, I believe, 
that Doron represents Shakespeare. Fleay, 
on the contrary, holds that Doron is un- 
questionably Kyd. Perhaps some reader 
of * N. & Q.' who is personally acquainted 
ivith Mr. Fleay will be so good as to point 
out to that gentleman the above discrepancy. 

N. W. HILL. 
New York. 

THE OLD OMNIBUSES. In the early 
forties, before the beneficent appearance 
of ' N. & Q.,' the London omnibuses were 
constructed with thirteen inside seats and 
on the " knifeboard " two on each side 
of the driver, accommodating seventeen 
passengers in all. The thirteenth inside 
seat was at the end, facing the door. This 
will explain an expression in the following 
lines from Punch of that period : 

The empty omnibuses crawl 

As slowly as they can, 
In hope the sixpence to enthral 

Of some belated man. 
.But when they're full, "thirteen and four," 

They cut along like fun, 
Because they won't get any more 

Until their work is done. 
Then choose the fullest in the rank ; 

Wedge in as best you may ; 
Arid you perhaps may reach the Bank 

Before the close of day. 


WYCH STREET. What must be considered 
the last interesting fragment of this familiar 
street was removed from the island site 
in the Strand during last month. For some 
years in fact, since the new thoroughfares 
were completed there could be seen pro- 
truding above the mounds of rubbish near 
St. Clement Danes the remains of the timber - 
and-brick gabled houses, one of which was 
by suggestion associated with Jack Shep- 
pard. They were so constantly photo- 
graphed and depicted that they became 
to the world at large familiar as typical 
specimens of Old London. Their date it 
would be difficult to ascertain, but probably 
they came into existence much about the 
same time as their neighbours in Butchers' 
Row. It will be recalled that Beaumont 
House, where the Due de Sully (then 
Marquis de Rosny) lodged, bore the date 
1581 ; therefore 1580-1600 may be accepted 
as a sufficiently close attribution of date 
for these houses. The windows had been 
remodelled early in the eighteenth century, 
and the shop-fronts were modern and un- 
interesting. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

Magazine, under date of 3 Sept., 1736, says : 

"It is remarkable, that Vernham and Harding, 
two Malefactors, being executed this Day at Bristol, 
after they were cut down, Vernham was perceiv'd 
to have Life in him when put in the Coffin ; and 
some Lightermen and others having carried him to 
a House, a Surgeon, whom they sent for, immediately 
opened a Vein, which so recover'd his Senses, that 
he had the Use of Speech, sat upright, rubbed his 
Knees, shook Hands with divers Persons he knew, 
and in all Appearance a perfect Recovery was 
expected. But notwithstanding this, he died about 
11 o'Clock in great Agony, his Bowels being very much 
convulsed, as appear'd by his rolling from one Side 
to the other. It is remarkable also, that Harding 
came to Life again, and was carried to Bridewell, 
and the next Day to Newgate ; where Abundance 
of People visit him and give him Money, who are 
very inquisitive whether he remembers the Manner 
of his Execution : to which he says, he only can 
remember his being at the Gallows, and knows 
nothing of Vernham's being with him." 
This is a remarkable instance of recovery. 


" SCARAMOUCH." It may, perhaps, be 
serviceable to the editors of the ' H.E.D.,' 
and also welcome to the forthcoming 
new edition of Brachet's ' French Etymo- 
logical Dictionary ' (which Dr. Oolsner is 
preparing for the Delegates of the Clarendon 
Press) concerning the corresponding French 
term " Scaramouche," to record its anti- 
quity. As Prof. Skeat has clearly shown 
in his standard ' Etymological English Dic- 
tionary,' Scaramouch, as a borrowed word, 
is derived from the proper name of a famous 
Italian buffoon Scaramuccio, who died in 1694. 
But, strange to say, the very same noun can be 
traced and recognized, as an Indo-European 
cognate, already in Old Slavonic. For we 
find in the Old Russian ' Nestor Chronicle,' 
A.D. 1068 (ed. Fr. Miklosich, Vindobona, 
1860, ch. Ixiii. p. 105, 1. 38), Skomrach 
(=Skomor6ch or, by metathesis, = Skoro- 
m6ch) used to denote a buffoon or mounte- 
bank, a scaramouch. H. KREBS. 

MARATHON RUNNERS. The recent so- 
called Olympic races have led some to look 
up ancient Greek history again, but appa- 
rently not with much care. The story about 
the soldier running with the news of the 
victory at Marathon to Athens, and expiring 
when he had announced it, is not mentioned 
by Herodotus, and is probably apocryphal. 
It is taken from Plutarch's treatise ' De 
Gloria Atheniensium,' and is given on the 
authority of Heracleides of Pontus. But 
the name of the runner is said to have been 

10 s. x. AUG. i, 1908. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The name of the fleet courier who was 
sent before the battle to ask the assistance 
of the Spartans is sometimes given as 
Pheidippides, but the more probable read- 
ing is Pheilippides, also the name of an 
Athenian comic poet in later times. 

W. T. LYNN. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

leon at St. Helena 

"wished to have his curiosity gratified respecting a 
religious community in Scotland called Johnsonians, 
who, he understood, were a very active sect in that 
part of Britain." 

Can any one tell me anything about this 
sect ? The word " Johnsonian " is applied 
in the ' New English ' and the ' Century ' 
dictionaries only in association with Dr. 

[MR. W. E. A. AXON gave at 9 S. iii. 284 a long 
extract from a hook published in 1811 describing 
this sect.] 

MALONE FAMILY. I want information 
concerning Richard Malone, who was born 
in or about 1777, and died in 1836. As 
far as I can find out, he was a well-educated 
man, a member of the Masonic order, and 
served in the Army either in the Peninsula 
or at Waterloo. 

I want to know particularly where he was 
born, or if he was in any way related to 
Richard Malone, Lord Sunderlin, who be- 
longed to Baronston, co. Westmeath (born 
1738, died 1816), brother of Edmund 
Malone, the author. What makes it seem 
likely that he was related to them is the 
Christian name Richard. The present pos- 
sessor of Lord Sunderlin' s estates is Mr. 
John Richard Malone, a descendant of an 
elder brother of an uncle of Lord Sunderlin' s. 
Was the next of kin of Lord Sunderlin 
advertised for ? S. W. M. 

As Master of Design for the late Gloucester- 
shire Historical Pageant, I was not quite 
satisfied with the popular idea that real 
roses were worn on the helmets of the 
Yorkists and Lancastrians as badges of 
their party on the field of battle. The im- 
probability of their being able to obtain 

these flowers at all seasons must be against 
such a theory. However, in deference to 
the opinion of others, I allowed them to 
be used. Perhaps jbhe subject may be 
worthy of discussion, and some of your 
readers may be able to give valuable in- 
formation. My own idea is that the rose, 
whether red or white, was worn as a badge 
upon a collar, not on the surcoat, pennon, 
or helmet. The monumental effigies of 
Yorkist and Lancastrian knights have no 
such badge on pennon or surcoat. The 
private arms of the knight alone appear 
upon them. There are several examples 
of the Yorkist collar of suns and roses 
represented as worn around the neck by 
knights and noblemen. The sun in its 
splendour combined with the white rose 
was adopted by Edward IV. after the battle 
of Mortimer's Cross, and of course the sun 
device dates back to Cressy. The Lancas- 
trian collar with the double SS is also 
sculptured on the effigies of military men 
of the latter party. 

In the little illumination of the battle of 
Tewkesbury which formed the vignette of 
the letter sent by Edward IV. to the Duke 
of Burgundy, the rose appears on small 
banners, but no roses are seen on helmets 
or surcoats. SYDNEY HERBERT. 

Carlton Lodge, Cheltenham. 

SEIZE QUARTIERS. I am writing an 
article on ' Seize Quartiers and Ascending 
Pedigrees ' for a series in course of publica- 
tion, and should be very glad of references 
to English pedigrees of this class, both in 
printed works and in accessible MSS. I know 
of the ' Seize Quartiers of the Kings and 
Queens of England,' and the ' 4,096 Quar- 
tiers of King Edward VII.' in The Genealogist. 
Please reply direct. PERCEVAL LUCAS. 

188, Marylebone Road, N.W. 

[Articles on seize and quarterings will be found 
in 5 S. ii., vii. ; 6 S. vi., vii., viii., ix.] 

" BUCCADO." I find the following in a 
writer at the end of the seventeenth century : 

"He wonder'd at our strictness, since on their 
Fasting-Days they were allowed a Buccado of 
Sweetmeats and a Glass of Wine before Noon." 
What is a " buccado " ? I cannot find 
it in the * N.E.D.' EMERITUS. 

REV. WM. VEITCH. Dr. M'Crie in his 
' Memoirs of Veitch,' &c., refers in a note 
to a genealogical tree of the Veitch family. 
Can any of your readers tell me where this 
document is to be found ? I understand 
that Dr. M'Crie' s papers were dispersed 
after his death. Veitch, it will be remem- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. i, im 

bered, was a prominent Scotch politician 
in the seventeenth century, and was involvec 
in the Rye House Plot and in Monmouth' 
and Argyll's schemes. J. WILLCOCK. 



Is there a piece of folk-lore to the effec 
that crows keep off the rain, or at leas 
endeavour to do so, by their cries ? Miss 
Silberrad refers to this belief in one of her 
books, and has some verses about it : 

The carrion crow, that loathsome beast 

That cries against the rain, 
Both for his hue and for the rest 

The devil resembleth plain. 
And as with guns we kill the crow 

For spoiling our relief, 
Our ghostly foe let us o'erthrow 

With gunshot of belief. 

Is this simply a misunderstanding of the 
word " against," or was there such a belief ? 
Shakespeare in ' As You Like It ' says 
" as clamorous as a parrot against rain.' 
What is the meaning here of " against " ? 

Wan borough, Guildford. 

He was of Trevethick, Cornwall ; matricu- 
lated at Exeter College, Oxford, 7 May, 
1675, aged sixteen ; and was called to the 
bar of the Middle Temple, 1685, as "son 
of Thomas Hickes of St. Eve, Cornwall, 
gent." I shall be obliged by further 
information respecting him. 

W. D. PINK. 

over the leaves of a remote volume of The 
Zoologist (First Series, vol. vi. p. 2123) I 
encountered the following interesting folk- 
lore record : 

"The Sumatrans believe that the tigers are 
endowed with the spirits of the departed dead. 
Indeed, so strong is this belief that the very men- 
tion of a tiger inspires the natives Math awe. They 
say that in some remote unvisited parts of the 
island there is a beautiful spot where the king of 
the tigers holds his court, and where a large com- 
munity of animals exists, their dwellings being 
thatched with women's hair. Thither every tiger 
on the island is said, at intervals, to repair, in order 
to give an account of himself and his proceedings." 

The late Mortimer Collins in his c Pen 
Sketches by a Vanished Hand,' edited by 
Tom Taylor in 1879, makes the following 
record of a visit to Stanton Harcourt : 

"There is a wonderful old kitchen connected 
with the ruined manor house, with enormously 
thick walls, and openings in the roof for the smoke 
to escape. Pope describes the country people as 
believing that 'the witches kept their Sabbath 
there, and once a year the devil treats them with 

infernal venison, a toasted tiger stuffed with ten- 
penny nails." Vol. i. p. 88. 

In asking where Pope said this I know I 
am showing great ignorance. I hope the 
Editor and his readers will forgive me. 


writing to Burne- Jones in 1871, said : 

" Yesterday, at midday, came to me from Flo- 
rence two of the corner stones, uprights, of the 
font that Dante broke, and an angel between 
St. Mark and Luke from the middle of it. The 
two uprights are each two angels kneeling and 
blowing of trumpets. He could have broken a 
trumpet or wing merely by leaning against them." 
'Memoirs of Edward JBurne- Jones,' vol. ii. p. 22. 
How was it that Florence allowed these 
treasures to go from her, and where are they 
now ? ST. SWITHIN. 

" MERRY ENGLAND." I should like to 
repeat the question asked by E. E. R. in 
1856, and never yet answered : When was 
the expression " Merry England " first 
used ? It has been pointed out to me in 
' A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hood ' (Fytte 7, 
verse 8 ; Fytte 8, verse 20). 

Can any earlier instance of the phrase 
be cited, or any evidence of its being a 
common expression before last century ? 

W. M. D. 

[Much has been learnt about English literature 
since 1856. The ' N.E.D.' dates the ' Lytell Geste ' 
c. 1510, but supplies far earlier instances of "Merry 
England," viz., " First conqueror of meri ingland 
from the 'Cursor Mundi' (1300-1400), and "The 
crown of mery England " from ' The Siege of Calais * 
1436). Spenser's line in 'The Faerie Queene," 
I. x. 61, 

Saint George of mery England, the signe of victoree, 
shows that the phrase was popular long before the 
nineteenth century.] 

one kindly tell me of a painting, other than 
;hose to be found at the British Museum 
or Guildhall, and earlier than 1680 (the 
more ancient the better), of (a) " The King's 
Old Bargehouse," on the Surrey -side, and 
b) a royal State barge ? 

An article of mine with the above title; 
he first part of which has appeared in the 
Tuly number of The Home Counties Maga- 
ine, is to be continued in the next number 
>r two, and I should be very glad to find a 
more satisfactory illustration for it than the 
'race Collection of prints has yielded. 


s meant by " two tenths and two fifteenths," 
an expression which frequently occurs in 

io s. x. AUG. i, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


vol. iv. of ' The Political History of England,' 
by Prof. Oman ? For instance, on p. 430 
is : " The Commons, apparently with some 
enthusiasm, voted the liberal grant of two 
tenths and two fifteenths." MAY. 

[Tenths and fifteenths were taxes of those amounts 
formerly imposed on personal property, and granted 
from time to time to the King by Parliament. 
Blackstone's ' Commentaries ' defines them as tem- 
porary aids.] 

any one give me information about the 
author of a work referred to as " Johnson 
on ' The Influence of Tropical Climates on 
European Constitutions ' " ? I cannot find 
this Johnson in the ' D.N.B.' 


I shall be much obliged for information 
as to the engraving referred to under this 
name in Mrs. Gaskell's ' Moorland Cottage,' 
and said to be by a German artist. Who 
was he ? and where is the picture to be 

1, Melrose Terrace, Liscard, Cheshire. 

Is not the following a very early mention, 
if not the earliest, of a swimming bath ? 

This Day is open'd 
At the Bagnio in Lemon-Street, Goodman's Fields. 

The Pleasure or Swimming Bath, which is more 
than forty-three Feet in length, it will be kept 
warm and fresh every Day, and is Convenient to 
swim or learn to swim in. There are Waiters 
attend daily to teach or assist Gentlemen in the 
said Swimming Bath if requir'd. There is also a 
good Cold Bath. 

Subscribers may have the Use of both for a 
Guinea. Daily Advertiser, 28 May, 1742. 

And what description could be applied 
to " Swimming Stays," as in this advertise- 
ment ? 

In the Great Exchange lately built in Rosemary 
Lane, near the Minories, there are now near a 
hundred Shops open'd, where all manner of Ap- 
parel, Table and Bed Linnen, new and second- 
hand, are sold cheaper than any other Place in 
London ; also ready Money given for all manner of 
cast-off Cloaths. 

Note, Swimming-Stays are made by the above 
Exchange-Keeper to the utmost Perfection. Ibid., 
18 May. 

Deene, Streatham. 

delphia was born and baptized in Phila- 
delphia, and was probably of Hebrew 
parentage. He was a conjuror and ad- 
venturer. He gave performances in Eng- 

land about 1757, and lived with Henry 
Frederick, Duke of Cumberland. Are there 
any references to him in contemporary 
newspapers or books ?* 

91, Portsdown Eoad, Maida Vale. 

" HOUSE OF WARANTYSE." The above, 
in 'The Macro Plays' (E.E.T.S.), 35/216, 
represents, from the context, " the house of 
Judas " in Acts ix. 11 of the A.V. What is 
the meaning of the expression, and whence 
was its idea drawn ? I fail to find a parallel 
in other Mystery plays. More fully, the 
words are : 

In a certayn house of warantyse. 

H. P. L. 

TOWNLEY ESTATES. Would some one 
kindly give me information concerning these 
estates ? Is there not some tale of a missing 
heir ? Could you tell me the name of the 
latter ? B. WILMOT. 

10, St. Lawrence Road, Ladbroke Grove, W. 

GREYS. In 1741 an Army List (MS., 
Record Office) states that "Lord Robert 
Gordon " got a commission in the Scots 
Greys. Who was he ? No such lord 
appears in any Peerage. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Can any of your readers give me information 
as to the whereabouts of two residences, 
named respectively Chrystal Magna and 
Maylor Grange ? Chrystal Magna is be- 
lieved to be somewhere in the vicinity 
of Delamere Forest ; but I should like to 
know if this is correct. 


BUDGEE, A KIND OF APE. A writer of 
the end of the seventeenth century, referring 
to Madagascar, describes " a sort of Jack- 
anape they call a Budgee, the handsomest 
I ever saw." I cannot find the word 
" budgee " in any account of the island 
accessible to me. What is the origin of the 
word ? EMERITUS. 

" CIRE PERDUE PROCESS." Can any corre- 
spondent give me the date and title of a 
paper on this process which was written 
by Sir John Lumley, Ambassador to Italy ? 
He afterwards assumed the name of Savile, 
and was the first Baron Savile. I think it 
was published as a consular report. 

J. F. R. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. i, 


(10 S. x. 29.) 

I HAVE met with this expression on 
several occasions in family Bibles. The 
definition of " half -baptize " in the 'N.E.D.' 
is : "To baptize privately or without full 
rites, as a child in danger of death." The 
earliest quotation given is : "1836, Dickens, 
* Sk. Boz,' ii., ' He got out of bed to half- 
baptize a washerwoman's child in a slop- 
basin.' ' 

From the entries in the family Bible of 
the late Admiral Sir John Marshall, of 
Elstree in Hertfordshire, it appears that all 
his children were in the first place half- 
baptized. I give one instance : 

" Frances Orris Marshall, born June 24, 1817, was 
half-baptized by the Rev. Caleb Lomax, Vicar of 
Aldenham, County of Herts, on the 14th day of 
February, 1818, which is registered in the Church 
Books of the said Parish." 

From a subsequent entry in the Bible it 
appears that Frances Orris Marshall and 
one of her sisters were christened in 1820. 

I remember seeing an entry in another 
family Bible, but unfortunately I have no 
note of it, where a child was described as 
being half-baptized and subsequently re- 
ceived into the Church. 

From the above it will be seen that, 
although the earliest quotation in the 
'N.E.D.' is 1836, the expression was in 
vogue before that date. 


Errwood Hall, Buxton. 

In J. L. Chester's ' Westminster Abbey 
Registers,' p. 89, is the entry : 

" 1778, June 27, Rebecca, daughter of Anselm and 
Rebecca Bayly : born June 23rd, and half-baptized 
June 27th. Fully baptized April 29th, 1779." 

u. v. w. 

" Half -baptized " was one of Dickens' s 
many stock phrases. It occurs not only 
in ' The Old Curiosity Shop,' chap, xlvii., 
but also in ' Sketches by Boz,' chap, ii., 
in ' Pickwick,' chap, xiii., in ' Oliver Twist,' 
chap, ii., and in ' Bleak House,' chap, xi., 
where the " half -baptizing of Alexander 
James Piper " was " on accounts of not 
being expected to live." It was a name 
for the private baptism of children who 
seemed unlikely to survive their birth many 
hours, and as no sponsors were then required, 
the single gentleman could still promise 
to be a godfather. The Book of Common 

Prayer anticipated the mistrust betrayed 
by the term " half -baptized " in declaring : 

Let them not doubt but that the child 
so baptized is lawfully and sufficiently 
baptized, and ought not to be baptized 

In some places " christened " and " bap- 
tized " are wrongly used with the same 
distinction. W. C. B. 

Meaning privately baptized, this expres- 
sion also occurs in * Oliver Twist,' chap, ii., 
and, with a different connotation, in ' Pick- 
wick,' chap. xiii. See Davies's ' Supple- 
mentary English Glossary,' s.v. For the 
' Pickwick 'instance, compare ' Half -Baked ' 
and ' Half-Saved ' in Halliwell's Dictionary. 

H. P. L. 

I was a little chap of five when I went 
through the rite of baptism, being told that 
I had only been " half-done " previously ; 
that is, I had only been registered in the 
ordinary way. There was a batch of us 


from different families. 


[MB. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL also thanked for 

THE BONASSUS (10 S. ix. 365, 451). A 
short time ago I read in an English news- 
paper of a curious animal on show in London 
at one of the big exhibitions there. I cannot 
lay my hand on the paper now, but, if my 
memory serves, its name was a compound 
of a word I now forget and " lupus." Per- 
haps one of your readers can give the full 
title, with other particulars, of an animal 
of 1908 as fully entitled to fame as the 
Bonassus. W. COBFIELD. 


442, 492 ; x. 33). MB. PICKFOBD'S refer- 
ences are not quite complete : they should 
be 2 S. iv. 1, 21, 41 ; v. 77 (not 72). The 
articles were written by Mr. C. W. Dilke, 
and were reprinted in ' Papers of a Critic,' 
ii. 264-79. And while on the subject of 
that invaluable book, which is indispensable 
to the student of the literature of the eigh- 
teenth century, may I mention a grave 
defect, which to a considerable extent mars 
its usefulness ? It possesses an index only 
to the persons named in Sir Charles Dilke' s 
memoir of his grandfather. Being packed 
full of accurate, if recondite information, 
it is a work that peculiarly needs a general 
index. If Sir Charles Dilke would consent 
to the work being done by subscription, 

10 s. x. AUG. i, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


I feel sure it could be easily accomplished. 
Every time I take down the book from my 
shelves, where it has long occupied an 
honoured place, I feel the want of this time- 
saver. A few shillings from every possessor 
of the volumes would be all that is required. 

DEVILLE (10 S. ix. 450). I think Deville 
was not only a delineator of character 
from handwriting, but also a phrenologist. 
I recollect a verse in an old recitation, ' A 
Woman of Mind,' which referred to him as 
under : 

My wife is a woman of mind, 

And Deville, who examined her bumps, 
Vowed that never were found in a woman 

Such large intellectual lumps. 
Ideality big as an egg 

With casuality great was combined ; 
He charged me ten shillings, and said, 

" Sir, your wife is a woman of mind." 


" WHIFF," A BOAT (10 S. x. 29). This is 
described in ' The Century Dictionary ' as 
follows : 

" At Oxford and other places on the Thames, a 
light kind of outrigger boat. It is timber-built 
throughout, thus differing from a skiff, which is a 
racing boat, usually of cedar, and covered with 
canvas for some distance at the bow and stern." 
* Encyc. Diet." 

" ' The whiff is a vessel which recommends itself 

to few save the ambitious fisherman It combines 

the disadvantages of a dingey and a skiff, with the 
excellences of neither.' 'Dickens's Diet. Oxford,' 
p. 19." 



At Oxford thirty years ago a clinker-built 
single-sculling boat, with outriggers and un- 
covered ends, was known as a " whiff." 
The name was introduced to distinguish 
these boats from " skiffs," or racing shells, 
and was supposed to be a portmanteau com- 
bination of " wherry " and " skiff." 


thanked for replies.] 

ST. ANDREW'S CROSS (10 S. viii. 507; 
ix. 32, 114). MARY OVERY inquires as to 
the difference between the St. Andrew's 
cross in the arms of the See of Rochester, 
which is " red on white," as the querist 
terms it, and the St. Andrew's cross of 
Scotland, which is " white on blue," and 
asks, Which is the older ? 

The proper heraldic answer to the first 
part of the question would, of course, be 
that the St. Andrew's cross, or saltire, in 

the arms of the See of Rochester, is of a 
different colour or " tincture " as is also 
the " field " so as to distinguish it from 
its parent, the St. Andrew's cross proper, 
or banner of Scotland, Azure, a saltire 
argent, the Cathedral being dedicated to 
the patron saint of Scotland. The arms 
of Rochester do but represent the St. 
Andrew's cross in shape, i.e., a saltire ; 
but your correspondent does not mention 
that there is another difference in the arms 
of the See of Rochester which would make 
the necessary distinction, apart from the 
alteration of the tinctures, namely, that 
on the centre of the saltire is an escallop 
shell or. From this your correspondent 
will, I think, easily gather which is the 
older. But let me give some heraldic 
authorities (such as I have at my command 
here) on the subject that may help your 

Boutell (' Heraldry, Historical and Popu- 
lar,' 1864 : see pp. 27, 126) merely describes 
what this " cross " is, but gives no account 
of its origin, and contents himself with 
stating in his chapter (xxi.) on ' Official and 
Corporate Heraldry ' (p. 359) that the arms 
of the See of Rochester are Argent, on a 
saltire gules an escallop shell or. 

The late Dr. Woodward gives fuller infor- 
mation in his * Heraldry, British and Foreign' 
(ed. 1896), and in vol. i. p. 153 he states, 
in speaking of the saltire as a charge or 
ordinary : 

"The tradition that , the apostle St. Andrew 
suffered martyrdom upon a cross of that shape led 
to the prevalence of the saltire as a heraldic charge 
in countries where St. Andrew is a popular saint, 
and more particularly in Scotland, where the 
adoption of St. Andrew as the national patron goes 
back to a date before the introduction of armorial 

And in vol. ii. p. 308 Dr. Woodward speaks 
of it as " the banner of St. Andrew of 

In the same learned writer's ' Ecclesias- 
tical Heraldry' (1894), at p. 227, appears 
the following account of the foundation 
of the See of St. Andrews : 

" The see of St. Andrews is said to have originated 
with the introduction of Christianity into this 
country, and the legend relates that some relics of 
the saint were brought from his grave at Patrae by 
a Greek monk. The ship which bore them being 
driven ashore near the site of the present city, the 
Pictish chief of the district founded a church under 
the invocation of the Apostle, and St. Andrew thus 
became the patron saint of the Picts, while the 
saltire cross, which was the instrument of his mar- 
tyrdom, became the badge of the realm." 

In the same volume (p. 186) Dr. Wood- 
ward gives the arms of the See of Rochester, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. i, i9oe. 

Argent, on a saltire gules an escallop shel 
or, and shows a well-drawn illustration o] 
it in its proper heraldic tinctures (plate xxiv. 
fig. 3). He says : 

"The cross of St. Andrew in these arms alludes 
to the dedication of the Cathedral to that saint. 
The escallop may possibly refer to the oyster 
fisheries of the diocese. (The early seals of the 
Priory bear the effigy of St. Andrew on the cross. 
Vid. Brit. Mus. Cat., Nos. 3919, 3920.)" 

And on p. 383, in his chapter (Part II. 
chap. v. ) on the * Arms of Abbeys and other 
Religious Houses of Great Britain,' he 
gives as those of Rochester Abbey, Arg., 
a saltire gules ; the escallop shell thus 
marking the only difference between the 
See and the Abbey. 

A short time ago I was reading in the 
Times (Weekly Edition) Supplement for 
28 February Lord Rosebery's very interest- 
ing and amusing address to the children of 
the Edinburgh Board schools on the occa- 
sion of his presentation to them, at the 
instance of the Victoria League, of some 
fifty flags or " Union Jacks," in the course 
of which his lordship showed as delightful 
an acquaintance with heraldry as he possesses 
with history. As his remarks are apt to 
my present subject, I hope that I may 
be allowed to make one or two extracts from 
his speech. 

Unfurling one of the flags, and pointing 
to it, Lord Rosebery said : 

" Do you understand what this flag represents? 

A great many grown-up people do not We begin 

with the Scottish flag. (Loud cheers.) The Scottish 
flag was a blue ground with a white St. Andrew's 
cross on it." 

And after describing in humorous terms 
the effect upon the National Flag of the 
union, first of Scotland, and then of Ireland 
in other words, the origin of the present 
" Union Jack " he proceeded : 

" How did we come to have a St. Andrew's cross 
in Scotland ? Well, that is more than I can tell 
you. (Laughter.) in old days, in the Middle Ages, 
countries used to like to have a saint under whose 
special protection they placed themselves, and 
somewhere between 700 and 800, the learned people 
tell us, Scotland chose St. Andrew. Why they 
chose St. Andrew I cannot tell you. St. Andrew, 
as we know, was a fisherman, and perhaps the great 
fishing industry made them want a fisherman as 
their saint. Anyhow, they took St. Andrew, and I 
rather think Russia took St. Andrew too, so we 
shall never come to blows with Russia on that 
point ; and somewhere in the north of Italy, where 
he has got moved by some mysterious process, I have 
seen the tomb of St. Andrew." 

Lord Rosebery is, no doubt, quite right 
as to Russia, whose patron saint is St. 
Andrew, and whose naval flag is white, 
charged with the saltire, St. Andrew's 

cross. But I wonder where is the place 

" in the north of Italy " in which he states 
that he has seen " the tomb of St. Andrew." 
Dr. Woodward, indeed, speaks of some of 
the saint's relics having been removed from 
Patrae (or Patras, in Achaia, where he is 
said to have been crucified on a " saltire ") 
and having formed the subject of shipwreck 
near the site of the present city of St. 
Andrews. Other authorities state that the 
relics were removed to Constantinople. 
Perhaps some of your readers may be able 
to supply information on this point. 

But Rochester is not alone amongst 
English sees in having its cathedral dedicated 
to St. Andrew. The Cathedral of Wells is 
so dedicated ; the earliest arms borne for the 
See of Wells, before its junction with Bath, 
were probably those of its patron saint 
the saltire only. See the remarks of Dr. 
Woodward in his ' Ecclesiastical Heraldry/ 
pp. 176 and 497 (Appendix), on this point. 

St. Andrew has many followers also 
amongst the Scottish and Colonial sees, 
particularly those of the latter whose early 
settlers were Scottish. Amongst the former 
I may mention Edinburgh and Dunblane ; 
and amongst the latter, Caledonia (British 
Columbia), Waiapu (New Zealand), and, 
as we may well expect in such a Scottish 
province as Otago (New Zealand), Dunedin 
(in which St. Andrew is represented as 
holding his cross before him) ; whilst in 
South Africa the Sees of Bloemfontein and 
Maritzburg (taken from the original diocese 
of Natal) bear distinct references to St. 
Andrew. I fancy that I can also trace some 
such origin in the arms of the Oriental See 
of Travancore. Of course all these bear 
iheir due " differences." 

Dr. Woodward's beautifully illustrated 
chapter on the arms of Colonial Sees (Part II. 
chap, ii.) will well repay perusal. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

Antigua, W. I. 

(10 S. ix. 141, 470, 496). In the Rev. F. 
Browne's ' Collections of Somerset Wills,' 
6 vols., printed by Crisp, there are given in 
vol. i. pp. 14, 15, vol. iv. 128-9, and vol. v. 26, 
several Henley wills. They are,of course, only 
abstracts, and other interesting information 
may very likely be gathered from the wills 
themselves. The references at Somerset 
House, which I shall be very pleased to 
send to MRS. SUCKLING or MR. OLIVER if 
they cannot readily refer to this collection, 
are given by Mr. Browne. 

Is not Blackborough (p. 143, col. 1) a 
mistake for Black Bourton, where the 

10 s. x. AUG. i, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hungerfords lived ? Hutchins's ' Dorset,' 
vol. iii. p. 742, says Sir Robert Henley 
married Mary Hungerford. MBS. SUCKLING 

f'ves Catherine. In a Hungerford pedigree 
compiled from various sources, Mary 
married Samuel Hele, and Catherine married 
Sir Edward Stradling ; but of course they 
may have had more than one husband 

As regards MB. OLIVEB'S remarks on 
Robert Henley, one of the Six Clerks in 
Chancery, on p. 470, he was in that office from 
1618 to 1632, when I suppose he died. He 
could be the eldest son of Henry, brother 
of Andrew Henley of Taunton. I shall 
be very glad to have more definite informa- 
tion respecting this Robert. He is not 
mentioned in Henry's will, dated 1638, which 
would tend to prove the above identity. 

E. A. FBY. 
124, Chancery Lane. 

RUSHLIGHTS (10 S. x. 27, 76). Rushlights 
were used in the remoter parts of Sussex 
down to the year 1845 or thereabouts, 
and I have been told by a person who saw 
them in use that they gave a very good light. 
The holders were of many shapes and 
patterns, the chief divisions being those in 
which the nippers held the rush simply by 
the weight of the knob or candle-holder, 
and those actuated by a spring. Some were 
contrived to hold several rushes at once, 
mahogany or oak stands with branches, 
and a pair of nippers to each branch. The 
*' cresset " or iron vessel for boiling the fat 
and dipping the dried rush (or sedge) in is 
very difficult to get. As a collector of Sussex 
ironwork, I have several varieties of holders ; 
but I have not yet been able to secure a 
cresset. E. E. STBEET. 


W. HEATH, ARTIST (10 S. ix. 385, 473; 
x. 13). I quite agree with MB. RALPH 
THOMAS that the English etchers of early 
Victorian days were, in the main, sadly 
wanting. I do not, however, fancy that 
a noted artist would, carelessly, permit 
his sketches to be murdered by a mechanical 
botch ; while with regard to the small fry, 
who had little option, the money value of 
the drawings, both to designer and publisher, 
would be far too small to allow of two persons 
being employed on a print. Instances, 
truly, have not been wanting where collabora- 
tion was expedient. In 1847 William Dickes 
etched some of John Gilbert's sketches ; 
and in 1850 my father, Benjamin Clayton, 
helped Sala to etch the ' Great Exhibition 
wot is to Be ' and ' No Popery,' while G. A. S. 

assisted him with the ' Idleness of All 
Nations ' ; but such arrangements should 
be uncommon, save between father and son, 
or brothers. t 

MB. THOMAS will find much information 
anent wood-drawing in W. A. Chatto and J. 
Jackson's ' Treatise on Wood Engraving, 
Historical and Practical,' and W. J. Linton's 
illustrated ' History of Wood Engraving ' ; 
probably, however, he has already seen the 

I am afraid I cannot recall any interesting 
matters concerning the Heath family, except 
that Horace is said to have lost an eye in a 
scrummage with Australian larrikins. He 
was a very poor artist. 


39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

OLD TUNES (10 S. x. 48). Mpnimusk is 
a property in Aberdeenshire, situated on 
the river Don, and is the seat of Sir 
Arthur Grant, Bart. Many old Scotch 
tunes, especially dances, are derived from 
place-names. T. F. D. 

In old literature " upsy Frees " was a 
well-known phrase for being drunk, the 
same as " upsee-Dutch," " Frees " or 
" Frise " being used for Dutch. Op-zee is 
supposed to be Dutch for " over sea " = our 
" half seas over." See Nares's ' Glossary,' 
s.v. ' Upsee Dutch.' 

Waltham Abbey. 

" Upsy Frees " is of frequent occurrence, 
and is explained at length in Dean Nares's 
' Glossary ' ; also in Brewer's ' Dictionary 
of Phrase and Fable ' and in Halliwell's 
'Dictionary.' H. P. L. 

[MR. HOLDEN MAcMiCHAEL also thanked for 


STUABT (10 S. x. 46). My sister, Mrs. 
Edward Lummis, when at school at Channing 
House, The Bank, Highgate, heard of a 
tradition in connexion with Lady Arabella 
and that house. Channing House, I believe, 
consists of two houses, one old, one new. 
The tradition was connected with the older 
one. I am not certain, but I believe one 
was built on the site of Arundel House or 
was rebuilt from it. MB. COLYEB MABBIOTT 
tells us he feels quite sure that the house in 
which Lady Arabella stayed her six days 
at Highgate was the house of Sir William 
Bond, and that he can make a shrewd con- 
jecture as to the approximate site of this 
house. Could MB. MABBIOTT tell us what 



[10 S. X. AUG. 1, 1908. 

he thinks of the claims of Channing House ? 
Is this really on the site of Arundel House 
or of Sir William Bond's house ? Can they 
all be on the same site ? Perhaps the 
trustees of Channing House could tell us 
something by a reference to their trust 

46, Maryborough Avenue, Hull. 

QUEEN CAROLINE (10 S. ix. 449, 495 ; x. 
51). MB. DENMAN is unduly severe. I 
wished to give some authority in answering 
the query, and the only account of the 
charity-children story I remembered was 
that given in Fraser's ' Words on Welling- 
ton,' on the authority of Lord Redesdale. 
As the query stood, I considered that the 
extract from Fraser was a sufficient answer, 
although I could not add at whose instiga- 
tion it was that charity children were sent 
to insult the Queen. I have read one of the 
books named by MB. DENMAN, Huish's 
* Trial of Queen Caroline ' ; and I now 
wish I had added the final paragraphs of 
Lord Denman's speech. MB. DENMAN, 
I hope, will acquit me of any intention to 
" reawaken ridicule of a great and good 
man." R. L. MOBETON. 

" COCK-FOSTEB " (10 S. x. 30). I think 
that the question is based upon an error in 
the compilation of Holden's ' Triennial 
Directory,' 1805-6-7. The entry is as 
quoted by H. J. B. : " West farmer and 
cock-foster, Enfield Chace." I would sug- 
gest, however, that by some confusion the 
designation of a farm-house, West Farm, 
has been printed as a surname and the 
village in which the house was and is 
situated, Cockfosters (or, as sometimes it 
appears in old maps, Cock-Fosters), has been 
appended as a further description to the 
supposititious " West, farmer." 

The village of Cockfosters is on the high 
road from Southgate to Potter's Bar, and 
is on the borders of what was Enfield Chase. 
A house in the village is still known (or was 
until very lately) as West Farm, and it 
stands on the site of a farm-house that 
was there at least 85 years ago so an aunt 
of mine, who was born at Cockfosters in 
1817, tells me. 

I cannot find any instance of the term 
" cock-foster " with reference to cock- 
fighting, and do not think that there is 
such a word, apart from the name of the 
village above mentioned. 

According to Elaine's ' Encyclopaedia 
of Rural Sports,' p. 1208 (London, 1840), 
the term used to designate the breeder 
and trainer of cocks for fighting purposes 

was " cock feeder.' Blaine quotes John- 
son's ' Sportsman's Dictionary,' art. Cock 
Feeder,' as follows : 

" A cock feeder is a person whose occupation it 
is to collect, handle, and feed a pen of cocks, and to 
fight such main or match as may be made or agreed 
on by those who deposit the battle money." 

My great-grandfather John Ray of 
Finchley was a breeder and trainer of 
fighting cocks, but my aunt has no recollec- 
tion of his being known as a " cock-foster." 
One of my earliest recollections is that of 
playing with some of the silver or steel 
spurs that my great-grandfather used to 
fasten on the legs of the cocks. 


EDWABDS OF HALIFAX (10 S. ix. 510 ; 
x. 54). This was William Edwards, who 
in 1784 established his sons James and John 
in Pall Mall as " Edwards & Sons." A long 
account of the family appears in Gent. Mag., 
1816 (vol. Ixxxvi. p. 180), giving details 
of the important sales of libraries and 
valuable books passing through the firm's 
hands. Reference is made to the purchase 
of the famous Bedford Missal by Mr. James 
Edwards for 215 guineas, and its subsequent 
sale to the Marquis of Blandfordfor 687Z. 15s. 
The sale of the Edwards Library in 1815 is 
referred to in Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxv. part i. 
pp. 135, 254, 349. R. S. B. 

(10 S. x. 48). Although nets were not 
necessarily used with charming-bells, yet 
the pastime seems to have been nothing 
more than an amateur variation of " low- 
belling." Lowbelling consisted in persons 
going out at night with a light and bell 
("low"=a flame or light, as in the old 
North- Country word " lily-low," a comfort- 
less blaze*), by the light and noise of which 
the lowbellers procured the stupefied birds 
as they sat either on the ground or in the 
branches of trees, and either by means of 
a net or without. See Dugdale's ' War- 
wickshire ' (where, however, the custom is 
associated with the use of the net), p. 4. 

" The day being shut in, the air mild, without 
moonshine, take a low-bell, which must have a deep 
and hollow sound, for it' it be shrill it is stark 
naught." ' Gentleman's Recreation,' 'Fowling,' 
p. 39, 8vo, quoted in Nares's ' Glossary,' 1888, p. 529. 

* Or is "low" from the Dutch loeijen, to low or 
bellow like oxen ? A low-bell, of which I imagine 
I possess an example, was a bell varying in size, 
hung about the neck of sheep and cattle ; but mine 
is large, exactly like the ancient monastery bell. 

10 s. x. AUG. i, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" ANGEL " OF AN INN (10 S. ix. 488 ; x. 
14, 55). Probably the best-known passage 
in literature where a room in an inn is called 
the " Angel " is to be found in ' She Stoops 
to Conquer,' Act III. Miss Hardcastle, in 
reply to her maid, who doubts her being 
able to personate a barmaid successfully, 
here says : 

" Never fear me. I think I have got the true bar 
cant. Did your honour call? Attend the Lion 
there. Pipes and tobacco for the Angel. The 
Lamb ha.s been outrageous this half -hour." 

T. F. D. 

[MR. R. L. MORETON also refers to * She Stoops 
to Conqiier.'] 

HENRY ELLISON (10 S. x. 8) has already 
been the subject of some notice in ' N. & Q.' 
See 2 S. xi. 248 ; 5 S. vii. 508 ; viii. 51 ; 
7 S. xii. 268, 333. He was born 12 Aug., 
1811, and was the third son of Richard 
Ellison, Esq., M.P. for Lincoln, Recorder of 
Lincoln, Lieut. -Col. Royal N. Lincoln 
Militia, of Sudbroke Holme, Lincolnshire ; 
Hampton, Middlesex ; Bagolt, Flintshire ; 
and 26, Great George Street, Westminster, 
who died 7 July, 1827, aged 73. Like his 
elder brothers Richard and John, he was 
educated at Westminster and Christ Church, 
being admitted to the school 7 Oct., 1824, 
and matriculating at Oxford 23 Oct., 1828. 
He published ' Madmoments, or First Verse- 
attempts by a Bornnatural,' at Malta in 
1833, having been admitted a student of 
Lincoln's Inn on 22 January in that year. A 
second edition of ' Madmoments ' was pub- 
lished in London in 2 vols. in 1839. In his 
Preface (as Dr. John Brown points out, 'Horse 
Subsecivae,' " The Universal Library " ed., 
p. 168) he explains the title " Bornnatural " 
as meaning " one who inherits the natural 
sentiments and tastes to which he was 
born, still artunsullied and customfree " ; 
but it may also have a reference to the fact 
that the register of St. George's, Hanover 
Square, under date 14 Dec., 1814, contains 
this entry : 

" Richard Ellison, Esq., of Hampton, co. Midd x 
and Jane Maxwell (now Ellison) of this parish (the 
parties having been heretofore married to each 
other), remarried in this church by license." 

In 1839 a book of Ellison's called ' Touches 
on the Harp of Nature ' was published in 
London, where in 1844 appeared " The 
Poetry of Real Life. A new edition. First 
Series." Did a second series appear in 1850 ? 
In 1874 or 1875 he published in London, 
under the pseudonym Henry Brown, 'Stones 
from the Quarry ; or, Moods of Mind.' 


My friend MR. PAGE has kindly drawn 
my attention to an error of mine in my 
query. He reminds me that three of 
Ellison's sonnets are included in Sharp's 
' Sonnets of this Century.' When I penned 
my question, I could not find Sharp's book. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

Mr. D. M. Main, in his fine ' Treasury of 
English Sonnets,' 1880, printed one of 
Henry Ellison's sonnets ' The Dayseye ' 
from his eccentrically entitled ' Mad- 
moments, or First Verseattempts by a 
Bornnatural.' Ellison being then still living, 
Mr. Main wrote : 

" Why is the ' Harp of Nature ' silent? It must 
have yet many strings 

Untouched that God intended Man to hear. 

Mr. Ellison's little books, especially the earliest 

are now among bibliographical rarities ; yet, as the 
beloved author of 'Rab and his Friends' said of 
them many years ago, notwithstanding the eccen- 
tricities and whimsicalities with which they abound, 
they are 'as full of poetry as is an " impassioned 
grape" of its noble liquor.' " 


Mr. Sharp, in his note on Ellison, says : 

"I am glad to be able to give these three very 

fairly representative sonnets. Other fine examples 

will be found in Mr. Main's ' CCC. English 

Sonnets.' " 

In Mr. D. M. Main's edition of 1886 I find 
only ' The Daisy ' ascribed to Ellison, whose 
dates are given as 1810 ?-1880. 


Mr. Miles devotes thirty-eight pages of 
the tenth volume of ' The Poets and the 
Poetry of the Century ' to Ellison a good 
deal more, I venture to think, than he de- 
serves, even in such a collection. 

C. C. B. 

See Westminster Review for April, 1875. 

C. D. 

WOLSTON (10 S. vii. 129). Augustus 
became an attorney in 1817, and practised 
at 8, Furnival's Inn, E.C., down to 1861. 

Thomas was a son of John Wolston, Esq., 
of Tornewton House, Torbryan, Devon 
(who died at Tornewton House 18 Aug., 
1833, aged 82), and Catherine his wife (who 
died at the residence of the Rev. Christopher 
Wolston, M.A., Torbryan Rectory, 6 Dec., 
1844, also aged 82). A good account of 
the Rev. Thomas Wolston will be found in 
Venn's ' Gonville and Caius College,' ii. 165, 
to which I would merely add that his wife, 
Mary Anne, died at Exeter 14 Jan., 1853. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. i, im. 

The Rev. Charles Wolston, LL.B., became 
Rector of Torbryan on the death of the 
Rev. Christopher in 1863, and patron on the 
death of the Rev. Thomas in 1885, and died 

ix. 90, 212, 432). A broadside in the 
British Museum, dated 1713, describes a 
quarrel between one of the churchwardens 
of Woolwich, Kent, and the lecturer. The 
churchwarden apparently was a wine-mer- 
chant or tavern-keeper, and one detail 
refers to the threat of the lecturer to purchase 
the Communion wine elsewhere than from 
the churchwarden. The reference is ' The 
Case of Mr. Samuel Fletcher,' &c. 


From the evidence adduced at the last 
reference, it would appear that it was cus- 
tomary in the sixteenth century to celebrate 
this rite by the use of claret wine, in place 
of port as now, in the case of English and 
American Protestant Churches. In Ger- 
many, in the Lutheran Church, I am told, 
the sacramental element at the present day 
is not red in colour, but yellow presumably 
sherry. Is anything known with regard 
to the adoption of these varying customs 
as to when and by whom the several 
ecclesiastical orders concerning them were 
carried out ? N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

VILLAGE MAZES (10 S. ix. 388, 475). 
Mr. J. E. Smith, the author of ' St. John the 
Evangelist, Westminster, Parochial Me- 
morials,' p. 304, tells us that 
"Tothill Fields were at one time ' Tuttle-m-the- 
Maze,' from there having been formerly a maze 
here ; it is shown in Hollar's view." 
This view, Mr. Wheatley states in ' London, 
Past and Present,' 1891, vol. iii. p. 387, is 
one of Tothill Fields, and he goes on to say 
that the maze was made anew in 1672, quot- 
ing as his authority the ' Churchwardens' 
Accounts of St. Margaret, Westminster.' The 
making anew would appear to be an error, 
for I have before me two printed extracts 
from the said accounts ; but the question 
of making anew is not alluded to. Mr. 
Smith suggests that it was then renovated. 
The extract under date 1672 reads : 

"Item, to Mr. William Brewer, for making a 
maze in Tuttleffields, 2 0." 

Aubrey, the naturalist and antiquary (1626- 
1697), thus speaks of it : 

" There is a Maze at this day in Tuttle Fields 
Westminster, and much frequented in the summer 
time on fair afternoons." 

These particulars, although hardly bearing 
upon the query as set forth by MB. F. G. 
WALKEB, may yet be of some interest to him 
or others. W. E. HABLAND-OXLEY. 


On the green behind the castle at Saffron 
Walden a singular work is mentioned by 
Stukeley, which is called the Maze, and 
which he supposed to be a British Cursus, 
or place of exercise for the soldiery. About 
half a mile from this castle, on the western 
side, are the remains of an ancient encamp- 
ment, of an oblong form, called Pell-Ditches 
or Repel-Ditches. 


ix. 508). I have read the query of MB. 
SOLOMONS with keen interest, and unhesi- 
tatingly dismiss the story of Menasseh's 
'* death-bed repentance " as a fiction. Even 
MB. SOLOMONS seems to have had his doubts 
of the veracity of it. I take it for granted 
Menasseh was given Christian burial. With- 
out seeking to defend the members of the 
ancient Hebrew congregation in Plymouth, 
I feel sure that had Menasseh sent to 
them for a Rabbi to read the " Viddoo " or 
" Confession " with him, not one, but every 
member of the " Kabronim," or Burial 
Society of the town, would have been 
religiously bound to go to him. I base this 
statement upon many celebrated dicta in 
the Talmud. M. L. R. BBESLAB. 

389 ; x. 53). ROCKINGHAM'S reply to my 
query is interesting, but not quite to the 
point. That the juice of the papaw, if 
rubbed on meat, will make it tender is fairly 
well known ; and possibly the juice of 
unripe figs may have a similar effect. I 
wished, however, to know if a piece of meat 
could be made tender by being hung up 
in the branches of a fig tree, as was asserted 
in the article referred to in my query. 
ROCKINGHAM says that W.I natives " have 
always hung fowls and joints in the growing 
[papaw] trees," but adds that for this state- 
ment " no authority can now be produced. '* 
This leaves the matter pretty much as it was. 

T. F. D. 

SAMUEL RICHABDSON (10 S. ix. 510). 
The family of the novelist was, I believe, 
in no way connected with that of the 
Richardsons of Findon ; but if there was 
any relationship, A. C. H. could doubtless 
trace it by reference to the pedigree of the 
latter family, which is to be found both in 

10 s. x. AUG. i, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Dallaway's ' History of West Sussex ' (ii. 30) 
and in Berry's ' Sussex Genealogy ' (p. 49). 

The arms of Richardson of Findon were : 
Sa., on a chief arg. three lions' heads erased 
out of the field. Crest : Out of a mural 
crown or, a dexter arm, in armour, couped 
at the elbow, brandishing a falchion arg., 
the gripe vert, pommel and hilt or. 

Robertsbridge, Sussex. 

" MESCHIANZA " (10 S. x. 30). A full 
account of the fete given to General Howe 
before his departure from Philadelphia will 
be found in Trevelyan's ' American Revolu- 
tion,' part iii. pp. 309-12 (Longmans & 
Co., 1907). The author says there that 
*' Meschianza " is an Italian word, meaning 
a medley ; and the entertainment in 
question certainly deserved the title. The 
festivity took place on 18 May, 1778, and 
began with a grand regatta. This was 
followed by a tournament, at which two 
Queens of Beauty (one English and one 
American) presided, and six knights arrayed 
in crimson and white challenged and con- 
tended with six dressed in black and 
orange. In the evening there was a ball, 
with supper for twelve hundred guests, 
while outside there was a grand display of 
fireworks, rockets, &c. The historian con- 
cludes the account with the dry remark 
that " this was the last gunpowder which 
General Howe saw fired in America." 

T. F. D. 

This word is apparently the Italian 
mischianza, a medley. In vol. ii. of ' The 
New Foundling Hospital for Wit ' (new ed., 
1784), pp. 138-9, is a poem of 42 lines with 
this heading : 

" The following verses were intended to have been 
spoken at the Mischianza, Philadelphia, addressed 
to General Howe on his leaving the army ; but the 
General would not permit them to be spoken." 
It will be seen that this is the same fete to 
which the passage in the query refers. 

[CAPT. C. S. HARRIS also thanked for reply.] 

389 ; ii. 17). The Globe of 15 July inci- 
dentally supplies an answer to the original 
query by stating that 

"Col. John Bower, of Droxford, Hants, whose 
name is a household word among the last generation 
of English Army officers as the inventor of the 
idea of mounted infantry, reaches the ripe age of 
99 years to-day, having been born at Kincaldrum 
on July 15, 1809. A representative of The Globe 

called upon him yesterday afternoon * When I 

was at school,' he said, ' they wanted me to study 

for the Bar, but I preferred a cadetship in the 
Indian Army, and, having obtained it, set sail on 
the Clydesdale in December, 1825. We went via 
the Cape, and our vessel arrived at Madras in 
June, 1826.' He proceeded to say that he served in 
the 28th Madras Native Infantry for 15 years, and 
was afterwards given a staff appointment, subse- 
quently going to the Cape in connection with the 
development of that colony's industries for the 
purpose of supplying the Indian troops. He retired 
in 1853. ' I have lived under five sovereigns, and 
served under four,' added Col. Bower." 


ST. GEORGE'S-IN-THE-EAST (10 S. ix. 369, 
416). I have not been able to trace any 
separate history of this building, and the 
books on London topography are exceed- 
ingly brief in their references to it, it being 
apparently thought that the fact that 
Emanuel Swedenborg reposed within its 
walls was all that rendered it noteworthy ; 
but to those who know their London this 
is not so. The Daily Graphic of 31 March 
and 8 April contained .illustrations referring 
to it. The first was an interior view of the 
building and the memorial to the famous 
Swede ; . the second was a representation 
of the service on the previous day over 
the remains, prior to the removal of the 
coffin to Sweden. 

It has been proposed to demolish the 
church, so it may therefore be well to place 
upon record in the columns of * N. & Q.' 
that this " exceptional property " was offered 
for sale by Messrs. Ellis & Son early in June, 
and, notwithstanding that it is freehold, 
"was passed" at 4,900?., as reported in 
The Daily Telegraph of 15 June. 


TELLING THE BEES (10 S. viii. 329 ; ix. 
433). In many parts of Germany, e.g. 
in Thuringia, not only the bees, but also 
all the other animals belonging to a house- 
hold, the quadrupeds kept in stables, and 
the birds in their cages, are told if a death 
occurs in a family ; even the flowers are 
shaken for the same purpose. This shows 
that the custom does not originate from a 
belief in some divine nature of the bees 
or in their connexion with the gods. 


EARLY LAW TERMS (10 S. x. 29). 
Devorciant " = the divorcing party, in 
contradistinction to the divorcee. " Im- 
pedient" = an intervener, who interposed 
in a divorce suit in defence of his own 
interests. " Tenant " = tenant in frank- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. A, i, i9oa 

marriage, or one who held lands or tene- 
ments by virtue of a gift thereof made to 
him upon marriage between him and his 
wife (see Cowel's 'Interpreter'). " Claim- 
ant " = ? one who made a challenge of 
interest, as he who was entitled to enter 
into lands or tenements of which another 
was seised in fee or in tail. " Querent " = 
complainant, whose action as querens was 
known as querela, whence our words " quar- 
rel " and " querulous." 


BENEDICT ARNOLD (10 S. x. 50). 
A. C. H. will find information concerning 
General Arnold's eight sons in 

' Genealogy of the Family of Arnold.' By J. W. 
Dean, H. T. Drowne, and E. Hubbard. Boston, 
U.S.A., 1879. Clapp & Son, 564, Washington Street. 

The New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register, October, 1879. 

' The Life of Col. Pownoll Phipps.' By the late 
Rev. P. W. Phipps. London, 1894. (Privately 
printed, but perhaps in the British Museum 

R. B. 


The following extract from the ' D.N.B.' 
under the heading of Benedict Arnold, will 
perhaps give A. C. H. some of the informa- 
tion he requires : 

"All his four sons [by his second wife] entered 
the British service, and one, James Robertson 
Arnold, an officer of engineers, rose to the rank of 
lieutenant-general. Descendants of his third son 
George still exist in England. He had had three 
sons by his first marriage, whose posterity survive 
in Canada and the United States." 

Dr. Richard Garnett was the writer of the 
article. RONALD DIXON. 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

STEERING-WHEEL (10 S. x. 48). On board 
the steam packet which made a daily trip 
down the Trent and the Humber from 
Gainsborough to Hull, the long tiller 
ceased to be used about 1848-50, and the 
steering-wheel took its place. The name 
of the vessel was, I think, the Columbine, 
but of this I am not sure. COM. LINC. 

SCRIBED (10 S. ix. 210, 437). I can re- 
member about thirty years back going to a 
German Reed entertainment at St. George's 
Hall, London, where a piece was produced 
which, if I recollect correctly, was called 
' Old China.' It opened with a scene in 
which a man was shown as having purchased 
an old china teapot with the " willow 
pattern " on it. He is quite in love with 
this, and shortly falls asleep and dreams 

the legend, which is all portrayed afterwards 
on the stage ; and I remember that it was 
one of the most realistic pieces of stage- 
management I have ever seen. I think 
some one dressed as a Chinaman sang a 
song commencing with the words : 

This is the teapot, the teapot of my sire, 
and the air was that of 

This is the sabre, the sabre of my sire. 
I am almost certain that Mr. Corney Grain 
and Miss Kate Bishop took the principal 

My grandmother, who died some twenty- 
five years ago at an advanced age, used to 
tell us a story of the " willow-pattern "" 
plate which was very similar to that acted 
in London. I understand that this willow 
pattern was one of the earliest patterns 
manufactured at Caughley, and, no doubt r 
at its first appearance every one would want 
to know the reason of the design,, and the 
general version must have been a variant 
of the original story as known in England 
or the invention of some one interested in 


VIGO BAY, 1702-19 (10 S. x. 30). An 
account of the expedition against Cadiz 
in 1702 under Sir George Rooke, which 
ultimately attacked Vigo, will be found in 
Clowes's ' The Royal Navy/ vol. ii. p. 377. 
This authority states that when the com- 
bined fleets left the Channel they had on 
board 9,663 English and about 4,000 Dutch 
troops. No details, however, are given. 

The troops at Vigo in 1719 were under 
Lord Cobham, and consisted of the following 
regiments : one battalion from each regi- 
ment of Guards, and the 3rd, 19th, 24th, 
28th, 33rd, 34th, and 37th Foot. See For- 
tescue's ' History of the British Army,' 
vol. ii. p. 10, note (Macmillan & Co., 1899). 

T. F. D. 

" VOTES FOB WOMEN " (10 S. x. 47). 
In ' The Merry Wives of Windsor,' II. i. 29, 
Mistress Page also appropriately says : 
" Why, I '11 exhibit a bill in the Parliament 
for the putting down of men." 


FEE BOWLS (10 S. x. 46). I was with 
my mother sixty years ago when she went 
to a lawyer's often at Derby to receive some 
money. It was paid to her from a bowl 
or as we called it " bason " which stood on 
the office table. This is one of my very- 
earliest remembrances. 


10 s. x. AUG. i, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Coleridge's Literary Criticism. With an Introduc- 
tion by J. W. Mackail. (Frowde.) 
WE are not much in favour of selections and 
snippets, such as this volume provides from the 
'Biographia Literaria,' 'Table Talk,' 'Literary 
Remains,' and ' Anima Poetse ' of Coleridge. When 
we have said this, however, we are bound to add 
that the selection is made with the fastidious and 
delicate taste which marks the Oxford Professor of 
Poetry, and gives a good idea of Coleridge's wonder- 
ful powers as a critic. The Professor warns us that 
many of the extracts may not be expressed in 
Coleridge's own words, being scraps from note- 
books, diaries, and reported lectures. The expert 
will further remark that some of the ideas which 
here figure as Coleridge's were ingeniously con- 
veyed oy that indefatigable talker and reader 
from other writers. What is undoubtedly his 
own is sufficient to establish the reputation of 
any critic. This the Introduction explains, adding 
a passage on Coleridge's poetry which awards 
praise that would have startled an earlier genera- 
tion, but with which we are entirely in accord. 
The best of Coleridge, alike in prose and verse, 
is inimitable, and the reader will find here 
much of the first order on Wordsworth and 

The Sacred Poets of the Nineteenth Century. 
Edward Hayes Plumptre to Selvn/n Image. Edited 
by A. H. Miles. (Routledge & Sons.) 
THIS is a reissue of a collection first published in 
1891, in which the biographical and bibliographical 
matter is brought up to date, and various revisions 
have been made as the result of criticism. At the 
end of the little book is a list of the twelve volumes 
of the "Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Cen 
tury," the last two being devoted to * Sacred 
Poetry.' The volume now before us is the last of 
the series. Mr. Miles is painstaking, and his col- 
lection presents a good deal of excellent verse in a 
convenient form, though we cannot say that he 
shows any particular talent for literary criticism. 
Under a general heading at the end, somewhat 
strangely entitled 'Ac Etiam,' are gathered a 
number of authors whose work " calls for less 
extended representation." 

Evesham and the Neighbourhood, by the late 
William Smith Vol. XXV. of the "Homeland 
Handbooks" (Homeland Association) has reached 
a second edition, and has been revised by Mr 
E. A. B. Barnard. It now forms a very capable 
guide to a district of exceptional interest. We are 
pleased to see a map on the scale of half an inch to 
the mile, which covers a large tract of country, from 
Worcester and Great Malvern in the west to Strat- 
ford, Shipston, and the Chipping Norton district in 
the east. This map will be a real aid to cyclists 
who have tours here suggested for them. We 
note further that geology and botany are not 
neglected, and that the inform ationori early history 
has been strengthened. Mr. E. H. New's illustra 
tions in themselves are enough to attract th 
ordinary tourist, and the photographs supplied are 
well chosen. 


MESSRS. BROWNE & BROWNE'S Newcastle Cata- 
ogue 92 contains the fist edition of ' Gulliver/ 

2 vols., with the separate pagination to each part,. 

very scarce, Benj. Motte, 1726, 20/.; the first folio- 
English edition of 'Don Quixote,' 1652, 4/. 4s.; a 
arge-paper set of "Books about Books," 6 vols., 
lalf -vellum, 11. 10s.; Cruikshank's ' Comic Almanac,! 

1835-53, 10/.; De Morgan's 'Budget of Paradoxes,' 

with the author's additions from The Athenaeum,. 

21. 10s.; Dibdin's 'Decameron' and other works,. 

1 vols., full russia, 1817-22, 211. ; Mrs. Jameson's 
'Social and Legendary Art,' 'Legends of the 

Monastic Orders and 01 the Madonna, first editions,, 
4 vols., 4to, half blue calf by Riviere, 61.; the third' 
edition of Montaigne, 1632, 8/. ; and a copy of 

Bruce's ' Roman Wall,' half-morocco, uncut, third 
and best edition, 1867, 51. There are items under 
Newcastle and Naval. 

Mr. Walter V. Daniell sends Part VII. of his 
valuable Catalogue of Topographical Literature. 
This completes Stafford, and reaches to the begin- 
ning of Yorkshire. The catalogue now numbers 
over nine thousand items. 

Mr. Henry Davey's Catalogue 10 con tains - 
numerous American items. Under Dickens is 
' The Christmas Carol,' with coloured plates, 1844,. 
for the low price of 3s. Other works include - 
Granger's 'Biographical History,' 7 vols., 1806, 
8s. 6d.; Hazlitt's 'Eloquence of the British Senate," 

2 vols.. 1812, 4.9. 6d.; Hobbes of Malmesbury's 
'Tracts,' 1681, 5s. 6d.; and first edition of Hood's 

' Up the Rhine,' 1840, 3s. Items under London, > 
include Evelyn's ' Fumif ugium ' and Grant's ' Ob- 
servations,' bound in one volume, 1661-1701, If. 15s. 
Mr. Francis Edwards sends Part V. of his valu- 
able Military Catalogue. This takes in campaigns 
in India and the East. We find Ferishta's ' Ma- 
homedan Power in India to 1612,' 4 vols., 1829,. 
scarce, 4/. 10s.; Price's 'Retrospect,' 4 vols., 4to,. 
1811-21, 31. 5s.; Elliot's 'History,' 8 vols., 41.; and 
'Memoirs of the Emperor Baber,' 4to, 1826, 51. 
Then we have Portuguese conquests in Asia, 
followed by the French and English struggle for 
India ; the'Rohilla War, 1773-4; the first Mahratta 
War, 1778-81; the three Mysore Wars, 1780-99; 
and the British conquest of Ceylon. Among the- 
works in the last-named section is Daniell's 
' Scenery,' oblong folio, 1808, 61. 10s. The Goorka 
War : Nepal, 1814-16, includes Eraser's magnificent 
work, ' views in the Himala Mountains,' 1820, 51. 
By stages we come to the Mutiny, with a host 
of well-known books; then various expeditions, 
bringing us to the Chitral campaign of 1895. A 
section is devoted to Russian conquests in Asia,, 
another to English wars with China, and a third to- 
the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5. 

Mr. Edwards has also a short list of New Re- 
mainders. We note Ingle by 's ' Shakespeare's Cen- 
tury of Prayse, 1591-1693,' and the Supplement 
edited by Dr. Furnivall, 18s.; Harrison's 'England 
in Shakespere's Youth,' 11. (also edited by Dr. 
Furnivall) ; and Stubbes's ' Anatomy of the Abuses 
in England in Shakespere's Youth,' 15s. 

Mr. John Hitchman's Birmingham List 469 con- 

j.Acioijiv*oiino jLuunMM) o/. JLUO. , rjovei J.IUVBIS, 

33 vols., tree calf, 9/. 9s. ; Dickens, original dated 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. i, im 

Library Edition, 30 vols., green cloth, 1874, &c., 
1W. 10s.; Motley, 9 vols., whole calf, 9J. 12s. Qd. ; 
Ruskin's Modern Painters,' 1857-60, Ql. 6*. ; Field- 
ing's Works, 16 vols., in art linen, 51. 5s. ; and the 
Edinburgh Edition of Lockhart's 'Life of Scott,' 
10 vols., blue linen, 31. 10s. Among art works are 
Rogers 1 s 'Old Masters,' 2 vols., imperial folio, large- 
paper copy, 1778, 31. 15s. ; Rowlandson's ' Dance of 
Death,' first edition, 2 vols., royal 8vo, 1815-16, 
1QI. 10*.; also his 'Naples,' 1815, 41. 4s. There is 
an interesting work on ' Old Scottish Communion 
Plate,' by the Rev. Thos. Burns, II. 10s. 

Mr. Alexander W. Macphail's Edinburgh List 
XCV. contains a choice copy of Boydell's ' Illustra- 
tions of Shakespeare,' 1802, 41. 4s. ; and under 
Edinburgh a collection of works from the library of 
the late Richard Clark. There are lists under 
Heraldry and Trials, and much of Scottish interest. 
Among portraits are a contemporary painting in oil 
of the author of ' Hudibras,' in frame, 11. 7s. ; and a 
framed proof impression of Walter Scott, II. Is. 
A set of Thackeray, with Life by his daughter, 
13 vols., half -calf, is 51. 5s. ; and Turgenieff's Novels, 
16 vols., cloth, Edition de Luxe, 31. 10s. 

Messrs. Myers & Co. send two Catalogues, Nos. 
131 and 132. The former is devoted to Engraved 
Portraits, and includes many scarce items. No. 132 
contains books from the library of the late Sir 
James Robertson, including a collection of Foulis 
Press publications, 1741-94, 120 vols., bound in full 
morocco, super-extra, 7(K. There is the rare first 
edition of Massinger's * The Emperour of the East,' 
a fine copy, morocco, by Riviere, 1632, 9. 9s. ; 
also a unique copy of Boydell's ' Thames,' 5 vols., 
folio, full crimson morocco, 1794-6, SQL ; and a 
wood copy of Shaw's * Staffordshire,' large paper, 
2 vols., folio, 1798-1801, 2W. Under Pope is the first 
issue of ' The Temple of Fame,' 1715, Ql. 10s. ; under 
Wycherley, the first edition of ' The Plain Dealer,' 
1677, 21. 12s. Qd. ; and under Gladstone the first 
edition of his ' Studies on Homer,' 31. 3s. A set 
of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 26 vols. in 21, 
half- vellum, is 131. 10s. ; and Thackeray's copy of 

* The Historical Register,' 1714-38, with his crest, 
8?. 8s. There are views of Essex, Kent, and 

Messrs. W. & B. Norton's Cheltenham Cata- 
logue II. New Series is a small selection from their 
large stock. We note Doyle's 'Baronage,' 3 vols., 
11. 15s.; and Billings and Hill Burton's 'Baronial 
and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland,' 1845-52, 
4 vols., 4to, scarce, 31. Under London we find 
Strype's edition of Stow, 2 vols., folio, 1720, 31. 5s. ; 
Birch and Latham's 'London Churches,' 21. 10s.; 
and Thornbury and Walford's ' Old and New 
London,' 8 vols., 4to, II. 15s. 

Mr. C. Richardson's Manchester Catalogue 55, 
Part I. contains a general list running from A to F. 
Among a number of items relating to Africa is 
Angas s ' Kaffirs Illustrated,' 30 large coloured 

Slates, royal folio, 1849, 121. 10s. Much space is 
evoted to America. We find Jeffreys's * History of 
the French Dominions,' 1760, scarce, 121. 10s. ; 

* New England judged by the Spirit of the Lord,' in 
two parts (relating to the sufferings of " the people 
call'd Quakers "), printed in 1702-3, 41. 10s. ; and 
Cam den Hotten's list o f emi grants, &c., 1874, U. 12s. Qd. 
Under Caricature is Champfleury's ' Caricature sous 
la Re*publique, 1'Empire, et la Restauration,' 7 vols., 
U. 5s. Works on Costume include Planche", Racinet, 
Fairholt, and other well-known writers. Dickens 

items comprise the first edition of ' Grimaldi,' 
Bentley, 1838, 51. 10s. ; and Kitton's ' By Pen and 
Pencil,' 51. Under Ferrier is the first edition of 
'Destiny,' Edinburgh, 1831, in original boards, 
11. 15s. A copy of Nicolas's * Orders of Knighthood,' 
with the various orders illustrated in. oil by Baxter, 
4 vols., royal 4to, half -calf, 1842, is priced 41. 4s. 

Messrs. James Rimell & Son's Catalogue 212 is 
devoted to Engravings. Under Reynolds is an im- 
portant collection of 148, all lightly mounted in an 
imperial folio scrapbook, 73?. 10s. It was formed 
about sixty years ago from impressions taken off 
the original coppers. Under America are portraits 
of Franklin, General Gates .(a coloured mezzotint, 
201.), General Putnam, George Washington (on 
horseback, 30/.), and others. There are long lists 
under Caricatures, Naval, Military, Napoleon, and 

Mr. Albert Sutton's Manchester Catalogue 162 
contains much under Africa and America, the latter 
comprising a work from the library of Penn, with 
his book-plate and pencil notes. This, a collection 
of the writings of the Fathers edited by Francis 
Rons, and published in London in 1650, is priced at 
7/. 10s. Works under Heraldry include Dugdale's 
'Ensigns of Honour,' 1682, 10s. Qd. This copy 
contains manuscript additions by Holland Egerton, 
also his fine old book-plate. Under George Her- 
bert is the first edition of ' The Temple,' 1633, 
257. ; and under Milton the first edition in which 
'Paradise Lost' was divided into twelve parts, 
S. Simmons, 1674, calf, 15s. Other items include 
' The Antiquarian Repertory,' 4 vols., royal 4to, 
1807-9, 21. 10s.; Britton and Brayley's 'Beauties of 
England and Wales,' 1801-23, 31. 3s.; S. C. Hall's 
'Baronial Halls,' folio, 11. 10s.; Harleian Society, 
vols. xiii.-xxxvi., 1878-93, 121.; and ' Paston Letters,' 
21. There are a number of portraits, and a valuable 
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CONTENTS.-No. 241. 

NOTES: Changes at the Guildhall, 101 "Haze": "Hazy," 
102 Dodsley's Collection of Poetry, 103 The late Sir 
W. B. Cremer John Shakespeare, Biomaker, 104 
McDonald and McPike Families " Everglade " : its 
Derivation, 105 Naval Volunteers in 1795 " Hame-Bein " 
First Dublin Printer" Cremitt" Money, 106 Z : Name 
of the Letter, 107. 

QUERIES : Roman Inscription at Baveno Pope's Shake- 
speare Quarto The Grand Khaibar, 107 Barbara Villiers 
Hulbert's Providence Press, Shrewsbury St. Martha 
Authors of Quotations Wanted Tarentine, a Herb 
"Bocca Mortis" "Hastle," 108 Balzac and Heine- 
Samuel Foote, Comedian "Minister" in Early Charters 
Joseph Bonaparte in England Death after Lying- 
Picture with Game and Elephant Dog Names, 109 
Attorney-General to the Queen Fleet Prison, 110. 

REPLIES: Don Saltero's Tavern, Chelsea, 110 Thomas 
Castle Vowel-shortening Hove, 111 " Stymie " at Golf 
Hungarian Grammar Titles conferred by Cromwell- 
Peter Quivel, Bishop of Exeter, 112 Snodgrass as a 
Surname Place-Names in -ox Authors of Quotations 
Wanted, 113 C. Barren, Pall Mall Oxford Commemo- 
ration in 1759 'D.N.B.' Additions, 114 Sir Menasseh 
Lopez ' Yankee Doodle' Coxe of Clent and Swynford, 
115 Abbotsley, St. Neot's John of Gaunt's Arms ' Old 
Mother Hubbard,' 116 Cornish Apparitions Irish Rebel- 
lion of 1798 Harvey's Birthplace King's Silver, 117 
Hartley Coleridge" T' Wife Bazaar "Constables of the 
Tower Mill at Gosport Man in the Almanac Dolls in 
Magic, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : The Seven against Thebes,' edited 
by Prof. Tucker Beviews and Magazines. 

Notices'to Correspondents. 


THE old Council Chamber, which has 
recently been demolished, was of consider- 
able interest from the many presentations, 
which make up so large a part in the civic 
history, that took place within its walls. 
It saw as honoured recipients of the City 
freedom Nelson, Rodney, Hood, Duncan, 
Howe, William Pitt, Wellington, Brougham, 
and many others, until in 1884 it was super- 
seded by the present Council Chamber. 

A well-designed apartment, erected by 
George Dance in 1776, it very soon received 
suitable decorations in pictures, statues, 
and busts, of some interest, but frequently 
of uncertain merit. Alderman John Boy- 
dell the printseller was the greatest bene- 
factor in this direction. At his expense 
the four angles under the cupola were orna- 
mented by J. F. Rigaud, R.A., with frescoes 
representing Providence ; Innocence, or In- 
fancy and Youth; Wisdom; and Happiness. 

" Unfortunately, these paintings never dried 
perfectly, and turned black. They exist no longer ; 
but prints of them have been published by Messrs. 
Boy dell & Co., dedicated to their Majesties." ' A 
Brief Account of the Guildhall,' J. B. Nichols, 
1819, p. 39. 

Rigaud, who painted to be engraved, pro- 
vided some of the canvases for Boy dell's 

' Shakspeare Gallery,' 1810. The Alder- 
man's other gifts to the decoration of the 
Council Chamber are too numerous to 
mention ; he took every care they should 
be adequately appreciated, and a " fully 
descriptive " guide was published. Phillips 
in ' The Picture of London for 1803 ' (p. 103) 
says : 

" In the Common Council Chamber is a capital 
collection of paintings, presented to the City of 
London by the public-spirited Alderman Boydell, 
to whose exertions, during a space of fifty years, 
the public are in a great manner indebted for the 
state of perfection which the fine arts have attained 
in this country, Among them is Mr. Copley's 
celebrated picture of the siege of Gibraltar. These 
fine pictures may be seen by application to any of 
the servants belonging to Guildhall, of whom, or of 
Alderman Boydell, may be had a book fully 
describing each of their subjects." 

In the guide, prepared by Boydell, he 
writes : 

"It may be a matter of wonder to some what 
inducement I could have to present the City of 
London with so many expensive pictures. The 
principal reasons that influenced me were these : 
First, to show my respect to the Corporation and 
my fellow-citizens. Secondly, to give pleasure to 
the public, and foreigners in general. Thirdly, to 
be of service to the artists, by showing their works 
to the greatest advantage; and, fourthly, for the 
mere purpose of pleasing myself." 

Great was the public, or at least the 
civic, esteem of these " expensive " pictures, 
and the munificent donor was eulogized by 
Miss Tomlins in nine four-line stanzas, 
of which the following are examples : 

In Greece, when Art Wealth's fostering power 

Wise o'er the rest the great Pericles shone ; 
His liberal hand, with patriot glory fired, 

Gave life to brass, and breathing words to stone. 

In arts unequall'd, yet in virtuous fame, 
Not e'eri to Athens' name shall Briton bow ; 

Hers be the poet's wreath, the patriot's flame, 
Since what Pericles was is Boydell now. 

Not to Boydell alone was the old Council 
Chamber indebted for its decorations. The 
really fine canvas by Copley instead of 
being, as Phillips suggests, one of his gifts, 
was bought by the Corporation for 1,543?. 6s. 
(' An Account of the Monuments and Pic- 
tures in the Guildhall,' by Josiah Temple, 
1849). The portraits of Queen Caroline 
and the Princess Charlotte by Lonsdale 
were presented by the Queen in 1820. The 
portrait of Queen Victoria by Hayter was 
presented by her late Majesty in 1839. The 
statue of George III. by Chantrey cost 
the Corporation in 1815 3,089?. 9s. 5d. The 
portrait of John Boydell was a commission 
to Sir William Beechey, R.A., for 200 guineas. 
Some of these works of art have been trans- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUG. s, im 

ferred to the Art Gallery or other parts 
of the building. 

The portraits of the judges who settled 
the claims of property owners after the 
Great Fire, that were on the walls of the old 
Council Chamber until its demolition, are 
of some interest. These twenty-three full- 
length canvases representing the judges in 
their robes, their arms painted on the frames, 
were commissioned of Michael Wright 
"in testimony of the City's gratitude in having 
settled (without expense of lawsuit) the properties 
of the citizens after the fire in 1666, pursuant to an 
Act of Parliament for establishing a court of judica- 
ture for that purpose." Nichols, p. 32. 
They cost 60Z. each, and were hung in the 
Guildhall about 1671. About 1816 they 
were removed to make room for the monu- 
mental memorials ; and soon after 1823 
they were divided between the Courts of 
Queen's Bench and Common Pleas. They 
are now scattered throughout the building, 
six being in the lobby of the Lord Mayor's 

The City Press of 22 February and The 
Daily Graphic of 7 April had illustrations 
and brief notes on this fine old chamber, 
the loss of which is generally regretted. 
This and other changes that have been made 
are apparently prompted more by a super- 
fluity of means than actual necessity. It 
is a complaint made by users of the Library 
that its equipment is subordinated to the 
needs of the receptions, &c., for which it 
is too frequently required. 


" HAZE " : " HAZY." 
(See 10 S. vii. 108, 213, 273.) 

No addition is made at these references 
to the material collected by Sir J. Murray 
exemplifying the use of this word in English. 
For convenience I subjoin the early evidence : 

1706, Phillips (eel. Kersey) : " Haze, a Rime, a 
thick Fog." 

1721, Bailey, : "A Hase, a thick Fog or Rime." 

1755, Johnson: "Haze, fog; mist." 

1795, Burke, 'Regie Peace,' iv., 'Wks.,'IX. 4: 
"To trust ourselves to. the haze and mist and 
doubtful lights of that changeable week." 

I would point out that the first literary 
use of the word is in a book printed exactly 
a century ago from the MS. of an intimate 
of the third lexicographer. Lexicographers 
have a sheeplike quality ; and Bailey ob- 
viously stole from Phillips with guileful 
inversion of his words ; and it is well known 
that the foundation of Johnson's * Dic- 
tionary ' was an interleaved copy of Bailey, 

The " neglected English dictionary," as 
Prof. Skeat truly calls it, says that haze 
is " not known till nearly a century after 
Hazy, a., so that it may be a back formation 
from that word." The line of reasoning 
by which a dictionary-maker would arrive 
at that conclusion may be illustrated. 
In the Salon of 1882 Frank Scheidecker 
exhibited a picture of a tramcar in a thick 
mist, which he entitled * Un Brouillard a 
Neuilly.' E. Bernard in his illustrated 
catalogue (' Le Salon') kindly translates 
this : ' A foggy to Neuilly.' Now it is 
obvious to a person with even a slight 
knowledge of English that this phrase is 
impossible, and ought to be emended. 
" Foggy " is a noun, either substantive 
or adjective. Most nouns ending in y are 
adjective : this is especially the case where 
the y follows a doubled letter. Ergo 
fog" is the substantive, and "foggy" 
the correlative adjective. 

It is all natural enough. The dictionary- 
maker, brought up on the classics, finds the 
word " hazy " in the strange jargon of men 
of the sea ; and assumes a noun " haze " 
from which it springs. What, then, is the 
evidence as to " hazy " ? 

At 9 S. vi. 87 I gave a quotation from 
Capt. Wyatt's ' Narrative of Sir Robert 
Dudley's Voyage to the West Indies, 1594-5 * 
(ed. 1900, p. 40) : " And withall the weather 
provinge hasey and wett .... the companie 
went on shore to make readie their victuall." 
It is to be observed that " hazy " appears, 
in the earliest instance given in 'N.E.D.,'* 
in the form hawsey and that " heysey 
weather " is fully defined in the context 
of the quotation from Ligon, which may 
reasonably be dated 1 653 : 

" Before we came neere this Hand, we perceiv'd a, 
kind of weather, which is neither raine nor mist, 
and continued with us sometimes four or five dayea 
together, which the seamen call a Heysey weather, 
and rises to such a height, as though the sunne- 
shine out bright, yet we cannot see his body, till 
nine a clock in the morning, nor after three in the 
afternoone. And we see the skie over our heads 
cleare : a close and very unhealthull [sic] weather, 
and no pleasure at all in it." 'Barbadoes' (1657), 

Among the material for the ' New English- 
Dictionary ' (vainly searched on my behalf 
by Sir J. Murray's kindness) lies a quotation 
from one of the earlier logs in Hakluyt, 
in which " hawsey " appears clearly as a 
substantive, preceded by the indefinite 

* 1625, ' Impeachm. Dk. Buckhm.' (Camden), 9 : 
"The weather beeing thicke and hawsey. the 
winde highe and in our teethe, wee were forced 
backe into Plymouthe." 

10 s. x. AUG. s, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


article. It will no doubt reappear in time 
to be included in the Supplement : possibly 
ear\ier, as I have an impression that I 
mar ked it as an instance also of some word 
beginning with t. If one of your readers 
incline to treat Hakluyt with such close 
and acute examination as MB. DORMER 
(9 S. xi. 142, 163) gave to the ' Paston 
Letters,' he will find this, along with many 
other desirable additions to the ' N.E.D.' 

But what is the meaning of " hawsey " ? 
I venture to suggest it is merely the 
Scottish and Northern " haw," " of a dull 
leaden hue" (' N.E.D.') + " sey," the Scot- 
tish and Northern form of " sea." Henryson 
in the Testament of Cresseid ' writes (257) 
of the lady Cynthia that she was 

Of colour blak, buskit with hornis twa, 
And in the nicht sho liste best appeir, 
Haw as the leid, of colour na-thing cleir. 
Douglas in 1513 describes ('^Eneis,' 
VI. [1553] 118) how Charon, 

His wattry hewit bote, haw as the se, 
Towart thame turnis, and addressis he, 
And gan approch, vnto the bra in haist. 

It is perhaps hardly too bold to surmise 
that at this time the word " hawsey " was 
already used attributively or as a quasi- 
adjective. The third book of the ' ^Eneid ' 
(62-5) describes the funeral rites of Poly- 
dorus : 

Instauramus Polydoro funus, et ingens 
Aggeritur tumulo tellus ; stant manibus arse 
Cseruleis msestse vittis atraque cupresso, 
Et circum Iliades crinem de more solutse. 

Reference to the * Thesaurus Linguae Latinse ' 
under cceruleus will exhibit, not only a great 
number of instances in which that word 
means " dark," but also a note by Servius* 
on this very passage, enforcing the same 
idea. Douglas translates : 

Syne, in ramembrance of the sawlis went, 
The dolorus altaris fast by war vpstent, 
Crownyt with garlandis al of haw sey hewis, 
And with the blaiknit cypres dedly bewis. 
Gale's MSS. 0.3.12, of about 1525 : Banna- 

tyne Club edition (1839), i. 129. 
The Elphynstoun MS., written before 
1527, and edited by John Small ('The 
Poetical Works of Gavin Douglas,' 4 vols., 
1874) reads " haw see hewis." Possibly 
the custodians of these MSS. would have 
the great kindness to ascertain whether 
haw sey " is in fact written as one word 
or as two. 

It seems improbable that the Low German 
hase in the sense of mist should be represented 
by the English haze. I should look for it 

* " Veteres sane cseruleura nigrum accipiebant in 

rather in the Northern and Eastern " haar," 
which, so far as shown by the N.E.D./ 
appears first in the preface to Dugdale's 
' History of Embanking,' published in 1662 : 
" The air being. . . .cloudy, gross, and full of 
rotten harrs." Q. V. 


(See 10 S. vi. 361, 402 ; vii. 3, 82, 284, 404, 
442 ; viii. 124, 183, 384, 442 ; ix. 3, 184, 
323, 463.) 

464) was the author of "A Collection of 
Songs with their Recitatives and Sym- 
phonies for the German Flute, Violins, &c., 
with a Thoroughbass for the Harpsichord, 
set to Musick by Mr. Pixell," which was 
published at Birmingham from Baskerville's 
type in 1759. Shenstone subscribed for 
six sets, and the musical setting of the piece 
entitled ' The Invitation to the Redbreast r 
was inscribed to him. 

A second collection, entitled " Odes, 
Cantatas, Songs, &c., Divine, Moral, Enter- 
taining, set to music by Mr. Pixell : Opera 
Seconda," was printed at Birmingham in 

John Nourse wrote in 1741 a poem entitled 
' Ut Pictura Poesis,' which is printed in 
vol. v. pp. 93-5. 

Nourse was the eldest son of John Nourse, 
gentleman, of Lower Weston in the parish 
of Weston-sub-Penyard, Herefordshire, who 
married in 1721 Elizabeth, the only daughter 
of William Gregory of Hill House, Woolhope. 
He was baptized in January, 1722, and 
matriculated from Balliol College, Oxford, 
on 10 Oct., 1739, when aged seventeen. 
He was elected Fellow of All Souls College, 
Oxford, in 1743, and took the degree of 
B.C.L. in 1751. He was buried at Weston- 
sub-Penyard on 18 Sept., 1751. He being 
a bachelor, the family estate passed to his 
next brother. A pedigree of the family 
is in W. H. Cooke's continuation of Dun- 
cumb's * Herefordshire,' iii. 213. The dates 
of baptism and burial have been given to 
me by the Rev. Edward Burchett Hawk- 
shaw, Rector of the parish. 

Verses on " Malvern Spa, 1757, inscribed 
to Dr. Wall," which are inserted in vol. v. 
pp. 84-7, were the composition of the Rev. 
John Perry, another of Shenstone's friends, 
and were sent through him. Dodsley wrote 
on 11 Jan., 1757, to Perry that he had 
collected " near forty pounds in consequence 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. A, s, im. 

of his advertisement," and he thankee 

Shenstone on 11 April for sending him this 

poem (B.M. Add. MS. 28959). 

Perry was the son of Daniel Perry o 

Pattingham, co. Stafford, where he was 
He matriculated from 
Oxford, on 14 Nov. 

about 1713. 
Pembroke College 

1731, aged eighteen, and a year later Shen 
stone entered it. He took the degree o: 
B.A. in 1736, and in 1737 was inducted to 
the vicarage of Clent, then in the county o] 
Worcester, but now in that of Stafford 
He died, being still the vicar of that parish 
on 14 Sept., 1780, and was buried there. 
On his appointment to the living he married 
Agnes Margareta, daughter of Walter Little- 
ton of Lichfield, and a connexion of the 
Talbot family. They had eleven children, 
one of whom, Littleton Perry, succeeded 
to the living, but did not enjoy a good 
reputation as a parish clergyman. A con- 
temporary account calls the Rev. John Perry 
""Christian, scholar, poet, and divine" (Amph- 
lett, 'Clent,' pp. 147-60; Simms, 'Bibliotheca 
Staffs,' p. 357 ; Foster, ' Alumni Oxon.'). 

The Rev. Charles Parrott contributed 
poems to vol. iv. 296-302, and vi. 135-8. 
The first set was sent through Shenstone. 
The last piece, ' Ode to Cupid on Valentine's 
Day,' is reprinted in Dr. John Aikin's 
' Vocal Poetry,' pp. 105-6. 

The Rev. Henry Parrott, his father, a 
member of the Huntingdonshire branch of 
the family of Perrot or Parrott, belonged 
to Holywell in Hampshire, and married 
Catharine or Arabella Halford, daughter 
of Sir William Halford. Charles was bap- 
tized at St. Alphage, London, on 23 Sept., 
1713 ; became scholar at Winchester College, 
.as founder's kin through his mother, in 1728, 
and matriculated from New College, Oxford, 
on 25 Oct., 1732, when his age was given 
as eighteen. He was a Fellow from 1732 
to 1757, and took the degree of B.C.L. 
on 16 April, 1740. 

Parrott was instituted to the vicarage 
of Heckfield, Hants, on 21 Jan., 1752/3, 
and resigned it in 1757 for the rectory of 
Saham Tony in Norfolk, both of them being 
in the gift of New College. On the death in 
1764 of his relative the Rev. John Gary or 
Carey, Rector of Wootton, near Woodstock, 
he came into the possession of considerable 
property. He married Maria, daughter of 
Robert Francis of Norwich, and died on 
12 Feb., 1787. A memorial tablet in Latin 
to him is in the chancel of Saham Tony 
Church. It gives his age as seventy- two. 
He left no issue. 

Parrott was possessed of ample means 
and was very charitable in disposition. 
He restored the eastern portion of Saham 
Tony Church ; rebuilt the parsonage house, 
which had almost fallen to pieces through 
age ; adorned its gardens ; and left to the 
living certain land, the possession of which 
would be useful to his successors. His will 
was dated in 1785. Under it he gave 2,0007. 
for the purchase of land for the Warden of 
New College, 1,300Z. for the benefit of 
widows in the almshouse at Marshfield, 
and 2,711Z. 9s. Id. India annuities to provide 
for a schoolmaster and the education and 
apprenticing of twelve poor boys at Wootton. 
The last sum was bequeathed " agreeable 
to the late Mrs. Carey's wishes." 

He was the author of two papers in The 
World : No. 38, in ridicule of an expensive 
taste in furniture ; and No. 74, on the 
night life of London, with the ' Ode to 
Night ' which is reproduced in Dodsley. 
(Kirby, ' Winchester Scholars ' ; Barnwell, 
' Perrot Notes,' p. 130 ; information from the 
Rev. Hastings Rashdall of New College, 
the Rev. F. R. Marriott of Wootton, and 
Mr. D. Edgar Rodwell of 100, Philbeach 

Gardens, S.W.). 


The Daily Telegraph of 23 July there is a 
Diographical notice of this gentleman, in 
which the following paragraph occurs : 

" He was born in Fareham, Hampshire, and, it is 
jelieved, was, as the name indicates, of German, or 
Alsatian descent." 

Whether the name indicates a foreign 
descent or not, and apart from any special 
knowledge which the writer may have 
jossessed, it may be said to be doubtful 
f the late member of Parliament was of 
uch recent foreign extraction as this para- 
graph seems to suggest. 

The name Cremer, even if it has a re- 
notely foreign origin, has surely been 
laturalized by some hundreds of years of 
ise. For instance, a manorial family of 
that name, bearing the alias of Skryme, 
was seated at Snettisham in Norfolk before 
1600, and members of it owned considerable 
land in that neighbourhood. John Cremer, 
alias Skryme, died in 1611, leaving a large 

family of sons. 
2, Essex Court, Temple. 

mutilated document headed " The Seuerall 
acquittances of the tradesmen artificers .... 
necessaries for his Highnes' seruice and 
Journay into Spain .... thousand and four- 

10 s. x. AUG. s, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


teene pounds eleauen shillings and .... tres 
of priuie seale and Schedule thereunto 
annexed, bearing. ..." occurs (among a list 
of twenty-five tradesmen whose bills 
amounted in all to 9,014Z.) the entry : 
" John Shakespeare, Bitmaker, 261. 13s." 
The largest amount was that of John Shepley 
" Imbroderer," 1,979Z. 12s. 2d. A discount 
of about 5 per cent was in most cases 
deducted from every account, and the 
" acquittance " (the signature of each of 
the recipients) was affixed in the last column 
of the document as an acknowledgment of 
the receipt of the amount. It would have 
been interesting to find that of John Shake- 
speare, but that and many others are 

The document is evidently a waif derived 
from the mass of Exchequer papers stored 
about 1790 in a vault in Somerset House, 
rejected as valueless by the ignorant chief 
clerk in the Comptroller's Office, and sold to 
a waste-paper dealer at 31. per ton. The 
collectors of those days who got wind of the 
transaction rescued, I believe, many valuable 
papers from destruction ; but after the fatal 
blunder was bruited about and had become 
a public scandal, means were actually taken 
to destroy the value of the remnant by 
systematically tearing off portions of each 
as they were taken from the heap, and to 
this atrocious treatment must, I am con- 
fident, be laid the stripping-off of one corner 
of the leaves of the present document, in 
which the autograph signature of John 
Shakespeare, among many others, was 

The warrant of Privy Seal was dated 
23 March, 1623, but the goods must, it 
would seem, have been ordered by Charles 
and Buckingham, unknown to James, for 
some considerable time before 17 February, 
when " Tom and John Smith " set off on 
their romantic journey from Newhall. 


[A paper giving many quotations from accounts 
of John Shakespeare, bitmaker, appeared in The 
Athenceum of 16 May last, from the pen of Mrs. 
C. C. Stopes, the well-known Shakespearian autho- 


10 S. ii. 467.) In the ' Index to Prerogative 
Wills of Ireland, 1536-1810,' by Sir Arthur 
Vicars, F.S.A. (Dublin, 1897), occur these 
three items : 

P. 302, 1790, McDonald, Edmond. 

P. 308, 1790, M'Peake, Neale, the elder, 
Ardnagross, co. Antrim. 

P. 377, 1801, Pike, Wright, Dublin city, 

The surname McPike appears several 
times (circa 1780) in the series entitled 
' Pennsylvania Archives,' and a list of 
those references was printed in The Celtic 
Monthly, Glasgow (1906), vol. xiv. p. 170. 
Efforts to trace that patronymic to the Old 
World, however, have been unsuccessful ; 
but a letter dated 3 May, 1907, from Mr. 
Edward McPike of Mako Point, Awhitu, 
Auckland, New Zealand, addressed to me, 
contains these remarks : 

" My father's name was James McPike. He died 

two years ago I have often heard my father say 

that he never heard of any McPikes but his rela- 
tions My father came to New Zealand from 

Belfast, Ireland, about sixty years ago." 

It is to be supposed, therefore, that from 
the records of Belfast one might recover 
some genealogical facts pertaining to the- 
McPike family before 1847, and possibly 
before 1772, which is the date of greater 
interest to me. I should be glad to have 
the address of a local historian in Belfast. 

The name McPike or McPeake, with allied 
spellings thereof, has also been discussed 
somewhat in Scottish Notes and Queries, 
Aberdeen, Second Series, vols. vi. and vii. 

1, Park Row, Chicago. 

cerning this word the ' N.E.D. remarks : 
" The formation is irregular, and the in- 
tended etymological sense uncertain ; per- 
haps ' ever ' was used to mean intermin- 
able ' " ; while the ' Century Dictionary ' 
has no suggestion whatever to offer as to its 
derivation. It is specifically applied to a 
wide expanse of marshland, the Everglades- 
of Southern Florida, efforts to reclaim which 
for cultivation are, it is said, about to be 

The 'N.E.D.' gives in full the history of 
" glade," an open space in a forest, which 
it connects with Swed. gladas, the setting of 
the sun ; with Eng. glad, probably from 
Germ, glatt, smooth ; and with M.E. glode, 
a place free from brushwood. It is the 
prefix " ever " that is the stumbling-block. 
Recollecting Grimm's derivation of Germ. 
Aberglaube, superstition, from a previously 
existing word Ueberglaube by modification, 
I lately suggested in the New York Evening 
Post, in reply to a question on the subject, 
that in " everglade " the initial vowel had 
been modified from overglade, the sense of 
the prefix evidently denoting extension, 
as in " overgrowth," and in the Elizabethan 
verbs " to oversnow " and " to overgrass." 
The following quotation from Spenser's 
' Shepheard's Calendar ' seems to confirm 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. s, MOB. 

this etymology, which so far has passed 

unchallenged : 

For theyjbene like foule wagmoires [quagmires] 


That if thy galage [galosh] once sticketh fast, 
The more to wind it out thou doest swinck [strive], 
Thou mought ay deeper and deeper sinck. 

N. W. HILL. 
New York. 

dress issued by the Commissioners in 1795, 
calling on seamen to join the King's fleet, 
is hung up in the Municipal Buildings at 
Boston, Lincolnshire ; but as it is fast 
becoming illegible, I subjoin a copy, in order 
that this interesting document of the past 
may not be lost. 

Jolly tars are our men. 

British guineas, 
Complete cloathing, 
French prize money, 


Promotion by merit. 

Wanted for the Port of Boston in the County of 
Lincoln a number of spirited young men to serve 
their King and Country in His Majesty's Fleets. 

During the War only. 

Such brave fellows, whose hearts glow with 
ardour to protect this their happy country from 
invasion by the French or any other Foreign enemy 
and gain to themselves immortal honour, will be 
entitled to the following large bounties on entering 
into His Majesty's Sea Service, viz. : 

If an able seaman, including the King's bounty, 
31 L. 5s. 

If an ordinary seaman, including ditto, 23L. 10s. 

If an able-bodied landman, including ditto, 
17L. 5s. 

Over and above which the Corporation of Boston 
and the merchants and shipowners of that Port, as 
a further encouragement, will present the gallant 
volunteers with jackets, trousers, shirts, hat, and 
silk handkerchiefs fit for that noble character. 

Brave and generous British Tar, 
Repair immediately to Henry Parker at the 
Golden Lion, High Street, Boston. 
By order. 

John Waite, 

Clerk to the Commissioners. 
April 6, 1795. 

God Save the King. 

I, lieutenant James Symons, of His Majesty's 
Royal Navy, regulating officer on the impress 
service at Boston, in pursuance of orders from the 
Admiralty Board, do hereby pledge myself not to 
impress, molest, or anywise disturb any person 
coming to this port for the purpose of entering as a 
Volunteer in the sea service, or in departing from 
hence in case such person cannot agree with the 
Commissioners for the bounty. 

Witness my hand. 

James Symons. 

G. S. B. 

" HAME-REIN." At the foot of a hill 
leading from Blackrock, near Brighton, 
to Rottingdean is a board with the inscrip- 
tion : " Please slacken hame-rein on going 
uphill." Hame, I learn from the dictionary, 
is " the curved piece of wood or metal by 
which the traces and body-harness of a 
horse are attached to the collar " ; but 
hame-rein is new to me, and I do not find 
it in the ' N.E.D.' JOHN HEBB. 

Irish Times of 27 June I notice a report of a 
paper read on the previous Monday, at a 
general meeting of the Royal Irish Academy, 
by Mr. E. R. M'C. Dix. I do not know if the 
subject of his discourse has been already 
discussed in the press : 

" Humphrey Powell, the first Dublin printer. 

came over to Dublin about 1550. He was aided 

by a small grant from the Government of the time. 
Very little of his printing is now extant nothing 
but a folio edition of the Book of Common Prayer, 
two proclamations, and a little pamphlet entitled 
' Brief Articles of Religion.' The type he used con- 
sisted almost entirely of black letters, with some 
italic types. Powell had been a member of the 
London Company of Stationers, and before he came 
to Ireland he printed in London. Nothing is known 
of his death or of .what became of him." 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

"CREMITT" MONEY. (See 8 S. ix. 348, 397 ; 
x. 264 ; 9 S. v. 254.) At the second of 
these references J. T. F. seems to expect 
that " cremitt " will receive some further 
elucidation. I think it does so in ' Some 
Early Civic Wills of York,' a paper read by 
Mr. R. Beilby Cooke before the Yorkshire 
Architectural Society, and printed in ' Asso- 
ciated Societies' Reports and Papers,' 
vol. xxviii. part 2, pp. 827-71. 

In 1385 John de Gysburne bequeaths to 
the " Anacorite " of Bolton six and eight- 
pence : 

" Item Anacorite de Hundegate & anac. de Lay- 
thorpbrig et anac. de Bissophyll quadrag. solid, 
p' equales porciones inter easdem dividend. Item 
lego les Cremetes hospital' Sci Lepnardi Ebor decem 
libras argent, inter eosdem equaliter dividend." 

John de Gysburne' s widow in 1407 leaves 
40s. " paup'ibz infirmaria hospital' Sci Leo- 

Again, Robert de Howm (1396) devoted 
100 marks to the brothers of St. Leonard's 
Hospital, on the condition of an annual 
celebration of his obit ; he left every sister 
of the said hospital 6s. 8d., and to each 
cremate thereof 20d. ; besides which he 
remembered every anchorite and recluse in 
the city of York. Among the legacies of 

10 s. x. AUG. s, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Thomas de Howom (sic) in 1406 was, " Item 
lego cuilibet lecto domus Infirmarie hospital' 
Sci Leonard! Ebor Id." 

I think it is almost certain that a 
" cremitt " was not a hermit. Was it an 
invalid or a bed ? ST. SWITHIN. 

Z : NAME OF THE LETTER. This letter, 
called zed in England, is almost uniformly 
called zee in the United States, and I think 
this nomenclature is of long standing. 
The curious name izzard does not seem to be 
more than two centuries old : see the 
'N.E.D.' which notes that Dr. Johnson 
(1755) gives "zed, more commonly izzard 
or uzzard, that is s hard" One may perhaps 
put a query after the derivation. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to alfax their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

time ago (10 S. ix. 352) I drew attention to 
an altar-slab bearing a Roman inscription 
which was inserted in the wall of a shed 
attached to the church of San Stefano at 
Pallanza on Lago Maggiore. Another very 
ancient slab has been built into the north 
wall of the parish church in the neighbouring 
town of Baveno. The inscription is quite 
illegible, but the following lines, which 
purport to be a copy, have been incised upon 
a larger stone, which has been inserted in 
the wall beneath the original : 






On the domed ceiling of the porch the follow- 
ing lines, which seem to be an explanatory 
gloss on the inscription, have been painted 
in ordinary Roman script : 

Historise Cultor quisquis es 
Crede Templum hocce 

A Trophimo 

Ti. Claudij Caesaris Augusti 
Germanic. Serv. Darinidiano 

Memoriae Conditum, 

Anno Christi LXXVIII. 

Baveni antiquitatem demiratua 

Eius Incolas Reverere. 

Trophimus, a slave or freedman of the 
Emperor Claudius, is supposed to have 
founded the temple on the site of which the 
church of Baveno popularly regarded as 
the oldest on Lago Maggiore was sub- 
sequently built. The emperor died in 
A.D. 54, and if the date which is recorded 
in the later inscription, and for which no 
authority is given, is correct, the temple 
must have been built twenty-four years 
after his death. The first line of the Latin 
inscription should doubtless read TROPHIMO, 
but I am puzzled with regard to the dedi- 
cation, which in the slab appears as " Darise 
et Dianse," and in the gloss as " Darinidiano." 
Perhaps PROF. BENSLY, or some other of 
the learned correspondents of * N. & Q.' 
can help me in the matter. 

The Lake of Como (Lacus Larius) is 
closely associated with the elder and the 
younger Pliny. I should be glad to learn 
if there is any reference in classical literature 
to a connexion between Lago Maggiore 
(Lacus Verbanus) and the princes of the 
Claudian line. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

the Preface to his edition of the ' Works of 
Shakespeare.' 1725, when speaking of the 
Quartos and First Folio, says that 
" the additions of trifling and bombast passages are 
in this edition [First Folio] far more numerous. For 
whatever had been added, since those Quartos, by 
the actors, or had stolen from their mouths into the 
written parts, were from thence conveyed into the 
printed text, and all stand charged upon the 

author And / have seen one in particular (which 

seems to have belonged to the playhouse, by having 
the parts divided into lines, and the actors' names 
in the margin) where several of those very passages 
were added in a written hand, which are since to 
be found in the Folio." Pp. xvi, xvii. 

Has this " one in particular " Quarto seen 
by Pope been identified ? If so, which and 
where is it ? F. J. FURNIVALL. 

THE GRAND KHAIBAR. I am particularly 
anxious to obtain some information as to 
the origin of the name, and the status of 
the society, convivial or otherwise, so 
designated. I have a very elaborate in- 
vitation card, designed and etched by George 
Bickham, by which, in 174-, a member is 
invited to meet " the rest of the Brethren." 
At the top three robed male figures hold a 
wreath in front of a tree, to the branches 
of which a harp is suspended. There is a 
medallion on either side, on one of which 
is a palm tree with the word " Khaibar." 
Below two females are pouring libations 
into a large cup supported by Cupids. In 
1726 George Roberts published an ' L Ode to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. s, im 

the Grand Khaibar ' (9 pp. folio), throwing 
ridicule on the Freemasons and their lodges. 
The last verse runs thus : 

The Craftsmen's Honours Treasures are 

Of Fairies, lost as soon as shown. 

Let the Grand Khaibar, happier far, 

Improve and shine by being known. 

You who in Friendship dear delight, 

Tuneful in Chorus all unite 

T'immortalize the Khaibarite. 

The Knapp, Bradpole, Bridport. 

LAND. In the Women's Section of the 
Franco-British Exhibition, Enclosure II., 
and No. 55 in the Catalogue, is a portrait 
described as " Barbara Villiers, Duchess of 
Cleveland, 1641-1709, daughter of 2nd 
Viscount Grandison. After Sir Peter Lely." 
This portrait is so unlike any other of this 
celebrated character that it may well be 
asked if the sweet, chaste-looking lady de- 
picted in this picture can really be the 
notorious Lady Castlemaine. As this pic- 
ture is stated to be a copy, where is now the 
original by Sir Peter Lely ? I pause for a 

BURY. Can any correspondent inform me 
which numbers of The Salopian Magazine 
included prints from the worn plates (with 
altered titles) of Rye House and Pans- 
hanger which appeared the former in 
January, 1805 ; the latter in December, 
1809 in The European Magazine ? 


Bengeo Lodge, Hertford. 

ST. MARTHA. The usual attributes of 
this saint are a holy-water vessel and an 
asperge ; but Mrs. Jameson points out that 
in the character of patroness of female 
discretion and good housekeeping, 
" she is often represented with a skimmer or ladle 
in her hand, or a large bunch of keys is attached to 
her girdle. For example, in a beautiful old German 
altarpiece attributed to Albert Diirer,* she is stand- 
ing in a magnificent dress, a jewelled turban, and 
holding a well-known implement of cookery in her 
hand. In a missal of Henry VIII. f she is repre- 
sented with the same utensil, and her name is 
inscribed beneath." 'Sacred and Legendary Art,' 
vol. i. pp. 382, 383. 

This account leaves something to be 
desired. What is the implement or utensil ? 
Is it a saucepan, a frying-pan, colander, 
rolling-pin, grater, or what ? I have had 
my eye on St. Martha for some time, but 
have not noted her with any such accessory. 


Queen's Gal." f " Bodleian MSS. Oxford.' 

knew the references for the following some 
twenty-five years ago, but have quite for- 
gotten them now : 

1. " Attend when thou canst the funerals of thy 

2. "Away with the fonts in our churches." 

I fancy some bishop (Bull ?) was credited 
with the latter, in sarcastic allusion to the 
private baptism of infants. 

If readers can help me to trace these, I 
shall be very grateful. 

G. H. R. FLETCHER. LL.D., Vicar. 

Brenzett, New Romney, Kent. 

Who was the author of " Sufficit huic 
tumulus cui non suffecerat orbis," and to 
whom does it relate ? K. P. D. E. 

Ampliat eetatis spatium sibi vir bonus : hoc est 

Vivere bis, vita posse priore frui. 
Aristotle has a similar sentiment in ' Ethics,* 

[Martial, x. 23, 5. See King's 'Classical arid 
Foreign Quotations,' 1904, No. 1814.] 

The following lines 

Then Old Age and Experience, hand in hand, 
Lead him to Death, and make him understand, 
After a search so painful and so long, 
That all his life he has been in the wrong, 
are quoted from an English poet by Goethe 
in his ' Autobiography ' and by Schopen- 
hauer. Who was the author ? 


['Cassell's Book of Quotations' states that they 
occur in the Earl of Rochester's ' Satire against 

TARENTINE, A HERB. What vegetable 
is referred to in the following from a writer 
on India at the end of the seventeenth 
century ? 

" Herbs for SaladingarePurslain, Sorrel, Lettice, 
Parsley, Tarentine." 

" BOCCA MORTIS." In the same writer 
I find : 

" Wherefore to ogle a Lady in a Balcony (if a 
Person of Quality) it is revenged with a Bocca 
What is a " Bocca Mortis " ? 

" HASTLE." Here is a third difficulty : 
" The Palaces of the Potentates are built mostly 
after this manner : Towards the street appears little 
or no Frontispiece, more than the Porch, which 
makes a square stately Building, arched at top, 
under which is a stately Balcony, open on every 
side, over the Hastle, which compasses neat Apart- 
I cannot find " hastle " in the ' N.E.D.' 


10 s. x. AUG. s, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Reading once more, in the " Everyman 
Library," a translation of Balzac's novel of 
' The Chouans,' I came across a saying : 
" Men are like medlars, you know they 
ripen best in straw." This evidently struck 
Balzac, as he repeats it later. The references 
are on p. 140 and p. 172, and both in the 
enormously long section (the book has no 
chapters) entitled * A Notion of Fouche's.' 

Heine in the first volume of his ' Reise- 
bilder,' ' Ideen,' chap, xiv., has a passage 
comparing the luxuries Horace got from 
Maecenas in his day, whereas " our Mae- 
cenases have quite different ideas : they 
think authors and medlars do best, when 
they have lain in straw for some time." 

Balzac's book ' Les Chouans,' in its 
original form * Le dernier Chouan,' first 
appeared, says Prof. Saintsbury, in 1829, 
but " its subsequent form, with the actual 
title, threw the composition back to August, 
1827." Heine's book bears the date 1826 ; 
so the two are pretty near together in date. 
Did one author copy from the other, and 
did both use a phrase due to some anonymous 
wit in Parisian circles ? I lay no stress 
on the coincidence, for I have known cases 
in which two living writers evolved an 
elaborate saying or curious piece of phrasing 
at the same time, and independently of 
each other. But in this case there may be 
an earlier proverbial French source which 
some reader of the French ' N. & Q.,' 
IS Intermtdiaire, might be able to supply. 


readers clear up a genealogical point for me ? 
I want to know precisely how Samuel Foote, 
who was born, 1720, at Truro, and was 
(I believe third) son of Samuel Foote, M.P. 
for Tiverton (floruit 1679-1754), was related 
to the Rev. Francis Hender Foote, who 
purchased Charlton Place, near Canterbury, 
in 1765. Francis Hender Foote was first a 
barrister, and was son of Francis Foote, Esq., 
of Veryan, Cornwall. 

Charlton Place (or Park, as it has long 
been called) was my home in boyhood, 
and a large, incongruous wing was then 
traditionally said to have been built by 
Foote the comedian for his theatricals. We 
used the large room for a drawing-room. 

Foote's father married Eleanor Dineley 
of Charlton House near here, who brought 
him a considerable fortune. My own pro- 
perty adjoins the old Dineley estate, and 
there is a tradition that Foote which one ? 
was born in the Manor House of Sheriff's 

Lench, which now belongs to me. It seems 
to me that the two Foote families the 
Veryan one and the Truro one, both Cornish 
must be one and the* same. I want to know 
the certainties. My father gave up Charlton 
Park in Kent in 1854 or 1855, and died in 
1873 ; and the Manor House at Sheriff's 
Lench was not added to my family estate 
here till later in that year, and I find it 
difficult to ascertain the verity of the tradi- 
tions and the genealogical points. Answers 
direct would be esteemed. 

(Rev. Dr.) W. K. W. CHAFY. 
Rons Lench Court, Rou8 Leiioh, Evesham. 

What is the exact meaning of " Minister " 
when appended to the names of witnesses 
in royal Anglo-Saxon charters ? Does it 
mean that those using it were officials of 
State or Court, or that they held rank as 
thanes ? and were not necessarily in the 
retinue of the royal grantor ? J. H. R. 

TENHAM PARK. Where did Joseph Bona- 
parte reside during the time that he lived 
in England ? He was here from 1832 to 
1837, and again from 1839 to 1841. The, 
Examiner of 15 Oct., 1837, mentions his 
residence at that date as " Brettenham 
Park." Where was this ? F. H. C. 

[Brettenham Park is in the parish of Brettenham, 
West Suffolk.] 

DEATH AFTER LYING. In the recently 
published volume of essays called ' Anglican 
Liberalism ' (Williams & Norgate) occurs 
this passage on p. 37 : 

" In one of our county towns the Market Cross 
records an event which took place in the middle of 
the eighteenth century the death of a market 
woman immediately after she had told a lie in the 
course of her trading, and had called upon God to 
strike her dead if she had not told the truth." 

Can any one supply the name of the town, 

Sibson Rectory, Atherstone. 

[The town is Devizes.] 

Has a picture representing a man seated, 
surrounded by game, with an elephant in 
the background, been engraved ? It is 
believed to be the portrait of the Regent's 
friend Sir Alexander Grant of Dalvey. 

M. F. H. 

DOG NAMES. In Mr. Stallybrass's trans- 
lation of Grimm's ' Deutsche Mythologie ' 
(1880, vol. i. p. 7) there is a note in which 
it is suggested that the names of heathen 
deities were given to dogs, after the North 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. A. , im 

had become Christian, " by way of degrada- 
tion," and several examples are supplied. 
Has further research confirmed this surmise ? 

N. M. & A. 

Laurence Hyde, an uncle of the Earl of 
Clarendon's, is said to have been Attorney- 
General to the Queen of James I. What is 
meant by this ? What duties were con- 
nected with this office ? When was it 
abolished ? J. WILLCOCK. 


FLEET PRISON. Is there any book con- 
taining a history of this in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries ? The documents 
at the Record Office do not seem to go so far 
back. R. S. B. 

(10 S. x. 67.) 

RECENT research has shown that the 
place of the original coffee-house of " Don " 
Saltero was as indicated in the ' Book of the 
Chelsea Historical Pageant,' though the 
later tavern, of which the curiosities were 
sold in 1799, stood in Cheyne Walk, as MB. 
TAVENOB-PEBBY says. Mr. Randall Davies, 
F.S.A., has gone thoroughly into the matter ; 
but as he is in America at present, I am 
unable to give the authorities. The greatest 
care was taken with the presentation of 
local history in the Pageant, the general 
effect being borne in mind, and this gives 
the * Pageant Book ' a more than passing 
value. J. HENBY QUINN, 

Hon. Sec. Historical Committee, 
Chelsea Pageant. 

Chelsea, S.W. 

This certainly must be " pageant history," 
and one may hope that the occasion presented 
for the use of such an expression will prove 
an exception to the rule in future pageants. 
Danvers Street extends from 78, Cheyne 
Walk, to 26, Paulton's Square, whereas 
No. 18, Cheyne Walk, the site of Don Sal- 
tero' s, was on the eastern side of that historic 
" Walk " It was rebuilt in 1867, and be- 
came the residence of the Hon. Victoria 
Grosvenor. There is a photographic illus- 
tration of the picturesque spot, as it was 
when a tavern, in Reginald Blunt's * Illus- 
trated Handbook of Chelsea,' 1900, p. 109. 
It was, however, maintained as a public- 
house so late as 1870, becoming a private 
dwelling later. 

Felix Calvert, the eminent brewer, shot 
himself in Don Saltero's Coffee-House, 
15 April, 1802. Benjamin Franklin was 
among its distinguished visitors, and he 
relates in his * Autobiography ' his long 
swim from Chelsea to Blackfriars. Both 
" The White Horse " in Church Street (still 
standing, although robbed of its village 
aspect in rebuilding), and Don Saltero's 
were frequented by Sir Richard Steele. 
A * Catalogue of the Rarities at Don Sal- 
tero's Coffee-House in Chelsea ' was pub- 
lished in 1740, and is now very scarce. 

An address in rime by Don Saltero, dated 
from the " Chelsea Knackatory," appeared 
in The Weekly Journal of 23 June, 1723. 
The version given in ' Old and New London ' 
will be found, if compared with the original, 
to contain no fewer than sixty-two typo- 
graphical errors, including punctuation. 
No reference is assigned to it, but it is 
obviously copied from the ensuing : 

We cannot refuse the following whimsical 
Epistle concerning the Rarities at Salter's Coffee- 
house at Chelsea, but as we have not yet seen them, 
we shall defer giving any other Account to our 
Readers, but refer them to the Letter ; however we 
order Don Saltero to attend us in his Knackatory 
next Wednesday, at One in the Afternoon, for our 
better Information. 

Fifty Years since to Chelsea great, 

From Bodman on the Irish Main, 
I strol'd, with Maggots in my Pate, 

Where, much improv'd they still remain. 
Through various Employ I 've past ; 

A Scraper, Vertuos'-Projector, 
Tooth-Drawer, Trimmer, and, a(t)last, 

I 'm now a Gimcrack Whim Collector. 
Monsters of all Sorts, here are seen, 

Strange Things in Nature as they grew so, 
Some Relicks of the Sheba Queen, 

And Fragments of the fam'd Bob Cruso. 
Knick-knacks too dangle round the Wall, 

Some in Glass-Cases, some on Shelf ; 
But what 's the rarest Sight of all, 

Your humble Servant shews himself. 
On this my chiefest Hope depends, 

Now, if you will the Cause espouse, 
In Journals pray direct your Friends 

To my Museum Coffee-House. 

And in requital for the timely Favour, 

I '11 gratis, Bleed, draw Teeth, and be your Shaver ; 

Nay, that your Pate may with my Noddle tally, 

And you shine bright as I do, marry shall ye, 

Freely consult my Revelation Molly ; 

Nor shall one jealous Thought create a Huff, 

For she has taught me Manners long enough. 

Chelsea Knackatory. 

To be "maggot-headed" or to have "mag- 
gots in the pate," as in the first verse, 
expressed whimsicality to have a " bee 
in the bonnet " or "a spider in the ceiling." 

10 s. x. AUG. s, 



Fletcher in 'The Spanish Curate,' IV. v., 
in 1622, speaks of a man as a " maggot- 
pate." For other seventeenth-century in- 
stances see the ' N.E.D.' Swift in his 
Introduction to ' The Tale of a Tub ' says : 
" The two principal qualifications of a 
fanatic preacher are, his inward light, and 
his head full of maggots " ; and Tennyson 
has (' Maud,' xxvii. 3) 
To tickle the maggot born in an empty head, 
And wheedle a world that loves him not. 

The marriage of Frederick, the eldest son 
of George II., was celebrated at Don Sal- 
tero's in the following manner : 

" Among the Rejoicings upon the Prince of 
Wales's Nuptials, those of the Gentlemen of the 
Club at Salter's Coffee-house in Chelsea were most 
extraordinary ; for as soon as the Ceremony was 
perform'd in St. James's Chapel, they began to fire 
trom a Horse-Boat, moored in the Middle of the 
Thames for that Purpose, a great Number of Sky 
and Water-Rockets were likewise play'd off, which 
the Gentlemen, at an elegant Supper, attended with 
Musick, drank the Healths of the King and Queen, 
the illustrious Bride and Bridegroom, a numerous 
Issue, the Royal Family, &c., the great Guns tiring 
at each Health, 'accompanied by Huzzas from the 
Populace, to whom plenty of Strong Beer was 
given." St. James's Evening Post, 29 April, 1736. 

Deene, Streatham. 

[DR. G. F. BLANDFORD also refers to Mr. Reginald 
Blunt's book.] 

THOMAS CASTLE (10 S. ix. 409). Messrs. 
Britten and Boulger in their ' Biographical 
Index of British and Irish Botanists,' 1893, 
p. 32, say : " Born Kent, c. 1804 d. 
Brighton (?), 1838." If Mr. Britten has 
learnt any further particulars, he would 
possibly reply if a request was addressed 
to him at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
Botanical Department. But the * Index ' 
is so good that it should be better known. 


VOWEL-SHORTENING (10 S. x. 43). The 
rule so ingeniously laid down by PROF. 
SKEAT is not peculiar to English, for it 
rests on physiology, and is the consequence 
of the law of mechanics which is called in 
French " le principe de la moindre action." 

When a word generally a monosyllable 
is lengthened by the addition of a suffix, 
there is a tendency to minimize the labour 
of the voice, and to weaken the exertion 
at the very beginning of the word. 

The English examples given by the Pro- 
fessor are most edifying, especially to 
foreigners ; for when one speaks a foreign 
language, there is a tendency to pronounce 
the same syllable in the same way ; and even 

uneducated (or would-be educated) natives, 
at least in France, sometimes make this 
mistake in words that are not in common 
use, and are not familiar to the speaker 
by an unconscious tradition. 

PROF. SKEAT rightly says : " The longer 
the word, the shorter the vowel." Here 
are some French instances of this law, in 
which long vowels are shortened by the 
addition of a suffix : 

Grace, gracieux ; matelas, matelasser. 

Pot, potee ; rabot, raboter ; lot, loti ; sabot, 

Degel, degele (generally pronounced deg'le) ; 
rappel, rappe!6 (rapp'te). 

And I may bring into this series : 

Breche, ebrech^ ; meche, e"meche. 
If we extend the question further, I might 
observe that the change of a vowel into a 
weaker one may be due to a similar cause : 
faner, fenaison ; fcwre, je ferai. 

On the contrary, monosyllables with a 
short vowel when they are used as proclitics, 
i.e., when they cease to be really mono- 
syllabic, lengthen the vowel when they are 
used emphatically and by themselves ; 
for instance, the possessive pronouns notre, 
votre : C'est n&tre maison, " This is our 
house " ; but Cette maison est notre, " This 
house is ours " ; Nous y avons mis du notre, 
" We contributed to it from our own means 
(or our own money)." H. GAIDOZ. 

22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. 

PROF. SKEAT' s list of words is interesting : 
valuable, I think, chiefly because of its 
etymological cues ; for very few decently 
educated people would fail to shorten the 
vowel instinctively in every word of more 
than one syllable from " baxter " even unto 
" zealous." I am a little surprised that 
nothing was said of " page " and "pageant," 
as the latter is now much in the air, and 
people of learning are to be heard speaking 
of " pageant." I am aware that PROF. 
SKEAT has discoursed in The Academy of 
" pageant " ; but his valuable remarks 
would have borne repetition in ' N. & Q.' 


[Reply from SIR HERBERT MAXWELL next week.] 

HOVE (10 S. ix. 450 ; x. 14). I trust I 
may be allowed, in the interests of scholar- 
ship, to protest against the invention of 
non-existent words dignified by the name of 
"Anglo-Saxon." What would be thought 
of a writer who said that hov was a Latin 
word meaning "low-lying," or that stima 
was a Latin word meaning " brightness " 
It would be criminal to utter such inventions 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. s, im. 

and to call them Latin ; but to utter them 
as " Anglo-Saxon " is thought to be meri- 

I find, ante, p. 14, the statement that 
" Hov [is] deriving from a Saxon word 
meaning low-lying " ; and on the very next 
page, under ' Stymie,' that there is an 
" A.-S. stima, a gleam, brightness." 

I wonder whether the authors of these 
remarkable statements can give their refer- 
ences, or justify their assertions. 


In default of information as to the mys- 
terious Saxon word meaning "low-lying" 
(in a physical sense) that has any resem- 
blance to Hove, it may be permitted to 
suggest the precise A.-S. equivalent hof, 
given as enclosure, dwelling, temple. The 
word seems to have died out after the Con- 
quest, excepting its occurrence in Gower as 
" ho ve-daunce "= Court- dance, though this 
is probably borrowed from the M.H. German 
hove-tanz. H. P. L. 

" STYMIE " AT GOLF (10 S. ix. 370, 414, 
492 ; x. 15). With regard to the concluding 
paragraph at the last reference it was pre- 
cisely because my Anglo-Saxon dictionary 
(Sweet's) contained no such word as stima, 
gleam, or anything like it, that I penned 
the query at the first reference, in order to 
obtain, inferentially, the etymon of stime 
in the ' Cursor Mundi ' quotation. The 
latter is the only reference I could find 
calculated to throw any light on the golf 
word. H. P. L. 

HUNGARIAN GRAMMAR (10 S. ix. 489 ; 
x. 14). Triibner published an excellent 
sketch of the language in his " Simplified 
Grammar Series." Messrs. Williams & Nor- 
gate may still supply it. 

To any one able to read German I can 
recommend a series " Kunst der Poly- 
glottie," published by Hartleben of Vienna. 
These grammars are excellent for conversa- 
tional purposes. ' Ungarisch,' by F. Gorg, 
would cost about two shillings. 

Grindleton, Clitheroe. 

x. 49). A list of these will be found in vol. ii. 
of Noble's ' Memoirs of the Protectorate 
House of Cromwell.' For an exhaustive 
list of Cromwell's " Other House " or 
" House of Lords " see G. E. C.'s ' Complete 
Peerage,' vol. ii. pp. 84-9. For full particu- 
lars of Cromwellian baronets see G. E. C.'s 
* Complete Baronetage,' vol. iii. pp. 3 to 9. 

The knights made by both the Protectors, 
Oliver and Richard, are enumerated in 
Dr. W. A. Shaw's 'Knights of England/ 
vol. ii. pp. 223-4. W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newton-le- Willows. 

The MS. Journal of the Protectorate 
House of Lords, in possession of the late 
Sir Richard Tangye, was published this 
year for the first time in " The House of 
Lords' Manuscripts, Vol. IV. (New Series)," 
which can be obtained from H.M. Stationery 
Office for 2s. 9dL This contains the lists 
of the different peers attending the meetings 
of Cromwell's House of Lords, with mention 
also of the various offices held by them. 

R. B. 


There is a list of many of these persona 
(with armorial bearings) in Sir J. Prest- 
wich's ' Respublica,' 1787, at pp. 149 et seqq. 


x. 30). It is pleasant to find my old friend 
MR. JAMES DALLAS (for many years an 
honoured citizen of Exeter) protesting 
against Mr. R. L. Poole's spelling of this 
bishop's name. I have looked over a score 
of creditable authorities, and do not find 
any of them rendering it Quinel. The Rev. 
George Oliver, D.D., in his ' Lives of the 
Bishops of Exeter ' (1861), remarks : 

" Peter Quivil was the son of Peter and Helewisa 
Quivil of Exeter." 

Prebendary F. C. Hingeston Randolph, 
in his reproduction of ' The Register of Peter 
Quivil (A.D. 1280-91),' published in 1889, 
says in the preface : 

" Peter Quivil, our thirteenth Bishop, like his 
two immediate predecessors, was a native of 

Exeter He was instituted to the remote 

country parish of St. Mullion The date of his 

institution is unknown, but tie resigned the benefice 
in 1262, and John Quivel doubtless his kinsman 
succeeded him." 

In a foot-note the author adds : 

"The name does not occur elsewhere in the 
Registers, and it should be noted that it is there 
spelt ' Quivel.' Was not this, rather than ' Quivil,' 
the true spelling ? " 

Harking back to the same learned cleric's 
rendering of Bishop Bronescombe's Register 
(A.D. 1257-80), we find the following entry : 

" Rectors of St. Mullion (Sancti Melani in 
Kerier, MS.), Master P(eter) Quivel, on whose 
resignation John Quivel, priest, was inst. 7 July, 
1262, on the presentation of Sir Philip Basset." 

Archdeacon Freeman, in his ' Architec- 
tural History of Exeter Cathedral' (1873), 
invariably renders the Bishop's patronymic 

10 s. x. AUG. s, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


*' Quivil," and, speaking of his great work 
in transforming the Norman nave into a 
Decorated one, says : 

" So entire was the metamorphosis that it won 
for him the title of ' Founder of the New Cathe- 
dral,' which the ' Exeter Chronicle ' fifteenth cen- 
tury) has given him (A.D. M.CC.LXXXVIII. ' Fundata 
est hsec nova ecclesia a venerabili patre Petro hujus 
Eccl. Episcopo '). He was in reality ' Fundator 
novis opens' (Fabric Roll, 1308). 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

SNODGRASS AS A SURNAME (10 S. ix. 427 ; 
x. 10, 52). The story of Thomas Snodgrass 
of the Madras Service is partially told in 
Baillie's ' History of the Oriental Club,' 
and at greater length by Sir Charles Lawson 
in his 'Memories of Madras.' It has never 
really been substantiated by reference to 
the minute-books of the Directors of the 
East India Company. Most probably it 
underwent embellishment during the time 
it was being handed down verbally in the 
Club. After his retirement Mr. Snodgrass 
spent a considerable portion of his time 
in managing charities connected with the 
mercantile marine. His portrait hangs in 
the office of the Marine Society in Bishops- 
gate Street, and is reproduced in the 
Memories of Madras.' FRANK PENNY. 

Snodgrass was the name of one of Beau 
Brummell's butts : 

" A gentleman who suffered by his pranks was a 
Mr. Snodgrass, I believe an F.R.S., and very fond 
of scientific pursuits ; probably the reason [?J why 
he was singled out by Brummell as a fit and proper 
object for his fun. Accompanied by several friends, 
he once knocked up this philosopher at three o'clock 
on a fine frosty morning; and when, under the im- 
pression of his house being on fire, he protruded his 
body en chemise, and his head in a nightcap, from 
the window, the Beau put the following very 
interesting question to him : ' Pray, sir, is your 
name Snodgrass?' ' Yes, sir,' said he, very anxiously, 
'my name is Snodgrass.' 'Snodgrass Snodgrass,' 
repeated Brummell, 'a very odd name that, upon 
my soul ; a very odd name indeed ! But, sir, is your 
name really Snodgrass ? ' Here the philosopher, 
with the thermometer below freezing-point, natur- 
ally got into a towering passion, and threatened to 
call the watch ; whereupon Brummell walked off 
with 'Good morning to you, Mr. Snodgrass.'" 
Jesse, 'The Life of George Brummell,' 1854, p. 60. 


'The Office Window,' Daily Chronicle, 
5 April, 1907, contained the following : 

11 There is no doubt that Charles Dickens when 
in Bath on a reporting exploit picked up the name 
of Snodgrass, as he did so much else, immediately 
afterwards introduced into the pages of ' Pickwick,' 
writes a correspondent. Alexander Snodgrass was 
mine host of The Raven,' in Quiet Street, from 
1826 (if not earlier) until about 1832, when he moved 

to 'The Caledonian' Tavern in Trim Street. There 
he died in May, 1853, and was laid to his rest in 
that famous little burial-ground on the heights of 
Lansdown. In the same graveyard lie Elizabeth 
Snodgrass, d. 1850, and Robert Snodgrass who 

In the 1805 Army List Kenneth Snodgrass 
appears in the list of lieutenants of the 
52nd Foot, the immediate senior being 
Lieut. Wm. Rowan, who (see 9 S. x. 72) 
married a sister of Mr. Spong, who is believed 
to have suggested the character of Wardle. 

Mrs. Snodgrass (referred to ante, p. 11) 
and her brothers,' Lynedoch and Donald 
Douglas, were often in this neighbourhood, 
their father having married a Hythe lady, 
Miss Rachel Andrews. 


In the British Museum Catalogue there 
are 17 entries to 12 authors of this name. 
The earliest is John Snodgrass, D.D., theo- 
logical pamphlets published at Paisley from 
1770 to 1796. The next is Gabriel Snod- 
grass, in a letter to the Directors of the East 
India Company in 1797. Then comes one 
with the Christian names of John James, 
on the Burmese War in 1827. An American 
preacher, William S., comes next, 1830-40. 
A Scottish miller, John Snodgrass of Glas- 
gow, follows in 1860 with a work on co-opera- 
tion. John S., the translator of Heine, is 
next, 1879-82. Wm. Snodgrass published 
some medical works between 1893 and 1899 ; 
while the latest are reprints of papers, &c., 
in American scientific journals, 18991902. 


[CAPT. C. S. HARRIS also refers to Sir C. Lawson's 

PLACE-NAMES IN -ox (10 S. ix. 508). 
I know of one case in which an ending 
in -ox is derived from a surname ending 
in -ock's ; but it does not follow that this 
case governs all such endings. The names 
mentioned in the query include three which 
seem to make it probable that they are 
derived in this way, e.g., Craddox, i.e., 
Craddock's (sc. tenement). 


ix. 229). The passage sent by AYEAHR, 
" Prefaces to books are like signs to public- 
houses : they are intended to give one an 
idea of the kind of entertainment to be found 
within," inevitably recalls the first chapter 
(Book I.) of * Tom Jones ' : 

" As we do not disdain to borrow wit or wisdom 
from any man who is capable of lending us either, 
we have condescended to take a hint from these 
honest victuallers, and shall prefix not only a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. s, 

general bill of fare to our whole entertainment, but 
shall likewise give the reader particular bills to 
every course which is to be served up in this and 
the ensuing volumes." 

Perhaps some writer has condescended to 
take a hint from Fielding. Unfortunately 
no date or reference is added in the query. 

The lines sought by H. H. T. C. (ante, 
p. 68), 
We shall see them, we shall know them, in the 

fullness of the time, 

In the glorious new creation, in the everlasting 

are, with the slight change of " I " to " we," 
the first two lines of a piece of mine entitled 
' The Holy Catholic Church,' and will be 
found on p. 209 of my ' Lyra Christi,' pub- 
lished by Houlston & Sons, or on p. 35 of 
'Cassell's Illustrated Book of Sacred Poems/ 
edited by the late Rev. R. H. Baynes. 

21, Sydney Buildings, Bath. 

C. BARRON, 19, PALL MALL (10 S. x. 69). 
In the course of inquiries in connexion with 
a history of Pall Mall and the Haymarket 
about a year ago, I ascertained that C. Barren 
was the founder of the old business of 
" Italian warehousemen and wine-mer- 
chants " carried on to the present day under 
the style of A. Cobbett & Son, 18 and 19, 
Pall Mall. Barren, before this, was a partner 
in the extremely old Italian warehouse 
in the Haymarket of Messrs. Barto Valle. 
An old shopbill of Cobbett's (Mr. Cobbett 
was related, if distantly, to William Cobbett, 
the political writer) shows that the firm was 
known as A. Cobbett & Son so far back as 
1846, about which time, or a little before, 
Barron appears to have established the 
" warehouse." J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

x. 6). The Latin- verse writers of the 
eighteenth century who made the penulti- 
mate vowel of Academia short had the 
authority of Claudian (' De Cons. Mall. 
Theod.,' 94 : "In Latium spretis Academia 
migrat Athenis " ) and of Apollonius Sidonius. 

TIONS (10 S. ix. 182, 231, 272, 313, 372, 410, 
473, 516 ; x. 58). Ballard, John. Dr. Venn 
in his ' History of Gonville and Cams 
College,' i. 66, writes : 

"Ballard, John: of Wratting ('Tollewratting'), 
Suffolk : son of William Ballard, mediocris fortunw. 
School, Elmdon, three years. Age 17. Admitted 
pensioner, Jan. 18, 1569/70. Tutor and surety, 

Dr. Edwards, fellow. Assigned the fourth lower 
cubicle. B.A. (King's), 1574-5. Doubtless the 
seminary priest executed for complicity in Babing- 
ton's plot; as he is described as a Cambridge 
graduate on his arrival at Douay College, Nov. 27, 

Dean, William. Dr. Venn (op. cit., i. 94)' 
writes as follows, the passages within 
brackets being my own additions, mainly 
on the authority of vols. ii. and v. of the 
Catholic Record Society : 

" Deane, William : son of Thomas Deane, medio- 
cris fortunee. Born at Grassington [in the parish of 
Linton in Craven], Yorkshire. Schools, Leeds and 
Clitheroe? ('Cletherall'), Lancashire, four years. 
At Magdalene College two years. Age 20. Admitted 
pensioner minor, tertii ordinis, Nov. 4, 1577. 
Assigned a cubicle with his surety, Mr. R. 
Draper, M, A., fellow. Probably [almost certainly] 
the seminary priest and martyr, described as of 
[Linton in Craven,] Yorkshire, [and son of a tenant 
of Richard Norton, who lost all his lands for his 
share in the rebellion of 1569], [and, after serving 
the cure of Monk -Fry stone as a Protestant minister, 
was reconciled to the Church by Thomas Alfield in 
May or June, 1581, and arrived at the English 
College at Rheims from Douay July 9, 1581, and 
was ordained priest Dec. 21, 1581. ] Sent to Eng- 
land Jan. 25, 1581/2. [Arrested in London after he 
had said some six or seven Masses there. Com- 
mitted to Newgate Feb. 21, 1581/2. Indicted with 
four other priests Feb. 5, 1583/4 ; in the Clink 
April 8, 1584.] Banished [Jan. 21, 1584/5, with 
nineteen other priests and one layman, being 
shipped at the Tower Wharf on board the Mary 
Martin of Colchester. Landed at Boulogne Feb. 2. 
Returned to Rheims. Started for England again 
Nov. 21, 1585.] [Apprehended and committed to 
the Gatehouse before March, 1587/8.] Tried and 
condemned Aug. 22, 1588, as a priest ordained 
abroad [and coming into, or remaining in, the 
kingdom contrary to the provisions of 27 Eliz. c. 2.] 
Executed at Mile End, Aug. 28, 1588. ' Vir morum 
gravitate et doctrina conspicuus.'" 

Finglow, John. Dr. Venn (op. cit., i. 76) 
writes : 

" Fingley, John : matriculated sizar, Dec. 1573. 
Born at Barnby, Yorkshire. Afterwards a seminary 
priest and martyr. Admitted at Douay College, 
Feb. 13, 1579/80. Ordained sub-deacon Feb. 21, 
1580/1 ; and priest at Rheims by the Bp. of Chalons, 
March 25, 1581. Sent to England Ap. 24, 1581, 
about the same time as Ed. Osburne. Apprehended 
and committed to York gaol ; tried there ; and 
hanged and quartered Aug. 8, 1586. He appears to 
have resided three years or more in college, and his 
real character seems to have been at once suspected 
by the fellows. He was at first sizar to Hugh Cressy, 
and afterwards appointed butler by Dr. Legge, 
an office usually held by a scholar. He was the 
subject of violent complaints against the master by 
the anti-Romish party in college. * That the said 
Finglye was made butler* by the master without 

* Dr. Venn adds this note : " The butler was a 
college officer who ranked with the scholars, and 
should have been appointed, like them, by the 
master and fellows together." 

10 s. x. AUG. s, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


consent of the fellows that the common rumou 

was that he did labour to pervert youth secretly.... 
came very seldom or never to prayer or sermon 

could not be drawn unto them by warning an 

correction often used by this deponent (H. Paman) 

was not sent away by the master, but that, hi 

lewd dealing being detected, he ran away.' ' Ther 
was very much speech of a man reported to be sai 
by Fingley in the master's great chamber, and tha 
he was by some suspected to be a priest ' (Lansd. 33 
There is a reference to him as ' a priest of God, pu 
into a low prison, into a deep and darksome dun 
geoii ' at York (v. Foley, iii. 251 ; and the ' D.N.B. 
For more see Caian, vol. v." 

Holfby, Richard. It appears from Dr 
Venn (op. cit., i. 75) that Holtby was a 
Northallerton School four years, and 
Christ's College two years, before he wa 
admitted a pensioner at Caius College 
Aug. 19, 1573, aged 20. 


ix. 508 ; x. 96). MB. SOLOMONS makes a 
mistake in stating that Mordecai Rodrigues 
Lopes became a Christian in 1802 with his 
son Manasseh, the future baronet. He diec 
a Jew in March, 1796, and his burial is 
recorded in the registers of the Spanish 
and Portuguese Congregation at Bevis 
Marks as having taken place on " Domingo 
26 Adar Reson 6556 " ; his wife Rebecca 
Pereira is buried next him, having died 
in May, 1795. Their two daughters Rachel, 
widow of Isaac Pereira (d. 1825), and Esther, 
wife of Abraham Franco (d. 1795) are 
buried near them in the same Carreira. 

Picciotto in his ' Sketches of Anglo- Jewish 
History,' p. 304, mentioning the defection 
of the Lopes family in 1802, makes this same 
error regarding the elder Lopes. 

Ralph Franco, who in 1831 succeeded his 
uncle and became the second baronet, was 
baptized at Shipbourne Church, near Ton- 
bridge, 17 May, 1801. 

Possibly in his last days the same yearning 
came over Sir Manasseh Lopes as in the case 
of Sampson Gideon, who, after living apart 
from his people for many years, left a request 
that he should be buried with them at Mile 

Ightham Mote, near Sevenoaks. 

DOODLE' (10 S. ix. 50, 98, 197, 236, 337, 
471 ; x. 50). MB. ALBEBT MATTHEWS 
apparently confounds the words with the 
tune of ' Yankee Doodle.' My immediate 
concern was with the tune or melody, and 
I have absolutely no interest in the origin 
of the verses. For proof of the identity of 

* This appears to be a misprint for J. Paman. 

' Yankee Doodle ' with ' All the Way to 
Galway' I refer MB. MATTHEWS to The 
Dolphin (Philadelphia) for August, 1905, 
in which I print both airs, which are prac- 
tically identical. The Irish characteristics 
in the oldest printed setting of the air are 

2. I am not aware that Dr. Richard 
Shuckburgh was in America in 1755. If 
he went over with General Abercrombie, 
he cannot have reached America till June, 
1756. Hence I would conclude that the 
adaptation of the song was not prior to 
1756, though possibly 1755 may be the 
correct date. 

3. MB. MATTHEWS makes a point of my 
putting " published " for " sold by." He 
admits that * The Disappointment ' was 
printed in 1767, and so agrees with me. 
The name of the author is printed " Andrew 
Barton," and as against MB. MATTHEWS, 
who says that the play was " probably not 
written" by Barton, but by Col. Thomas 
Forrest, I can quote an excellent authority, 
Mr. O. G. Sonneck, of the Library of Con- 
gress. Mr. Sonneck says : " The arguments 
in favour of Forrest's authorship are not 
at all convincing, and I advise librarians 
to enter the libretto under Barton." 

4. I repeat my statement that ' Kitty 
Fisher's Jig,' with the " Macaroni " refer- 
ence, was likely between 1755 and 1760, 
when Macaronis were in vogue. 

5. If MB. MATTHEWS is of a musical turn, 
iet him compare ' Yankee Doodle ' with 
' All the Way to Galway.' He will find 
the latter tune printed in 'The Complete 
Petrie Collection,' ii. No. 849. So convinced 
was I of the identity of both tunes that I 
stated without question the Irish origin of 

Yankee Doodle ' in my ' History of Irish 
Music,' p. 247. W. H. GBATTAN FLOOD. 


29). In Burke's ' Extinct and Dormant 

Baronetcies,' 1844, p. 121, Cocks of Dum- 

laton, baronet (cr. 1661, extinct 1765), 

s described as " a branch of the family of 

^ocks Hall in Kent." Your correspondent 

. M. M. C. inquires if this Hall is near 

Sandgate. I have failed to discover it. 

Hasted (vol. x. p. 81) gives an account 
f a Michael Cox of f ilmanstone, 8 Hen. VII., 
rhose son Thomas was " Customer of Sand- 
rich " at the latter end of Henry VIII. 's 
eign. His arms were Sable, on a chevron 
rgent, a mullet sable, for difference, between 
tiree attires of a stag, pinned to the scalps, 
rg ent. At p. 45 of the same volume _we 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. A, s, im. 

are informed that Thomas married Alice, 
coheiress of Roger Lychfeld. This Thomas 
died 1559, and his heirs alienated the pro- 
perty to Richard Fogge, eldest son of George 
Fogge of Brabourne. 

A Thomas Cockes was one of the com- 
missioners at the building of Sandgate 
Castle, 1539-40, the other being Reginald 
Scott, Esq. George Fogge was in 1545 
Deputy of the Castle. R. J. FYNMOBE. 

29). Here is a list of the incumbents of 
Abbotsley (St. Margaret) from 1225 to 1901 
in the Transactions of the Cambridgeshire 
and Huntingdonshire Archaeological Society, 
1907, vol. ii. part ii. pp. 158-60, contributed 
by the Rev. W. M. Noble, editor of the 


JOHN OF GATJNT'S ARMS (10 S. x. 9). 1. 
Privy seal before the marriage with Con- 
stance of Castile (1371) : 

"A shield of arms, couch e", quarterly, 1 and 4, 
France ; 2 and 3, England : over all in chief a label 
of three points ermine. Crest on a helmet and 
short mantling diapered, on a chapeau a lion 
statant guardant, crowned, charged on the neck 
with a label of three points ermine, the tail hang- 
ing down. Supporters, two falcons, each standing 
on a padlock and essaying to open the same : the 
background replenished with sprigs of foliage : 
within a carved Gothic quatrefoil, ornamented 
along the inner edge with small quatrefoils : sur- 
rounded with the legend : ' S : p'uat : joh'is : ducis : 
Lancastr' : comit : richemond' : derb : line : leyc : 
senescalle : angl.' " 

2. From 1371 to 1388 the Duke bore on 
his privy seal the royal arms of Castile and 
Leon quarterly, impaling the royal arms of 
France and England quarterly, with a 
difference. They are described : 

"Armorial bearings not on a shield. Per pale 
dexter, quarterly, 1 and 4, Castile ; 2 and 3, Leon 
sinister, quarterly, 1 and 4, France (ancient) ; 2 and 
3, England, with a label of three points ermine 
The first and fourth quarters of each impalemen 
raised, and the second and third countersunk 
within a carved border ornamented with cinque 

3. After 1388 the Duke continued t 
bear the royal arms of Castile and Leon 
impaling those of France and England 
but he moved the Spanish quarterings iron 
dexter to sinister. 

4. The Great Seal of Castile and Leon. 
Unlike the other monarchs of Europe, th 
Kings of Castile and Leon did not use th 
ordinary wax seals ; instruments issuin 
from their chanceries, like those of the Papac 

nd Empire, bore a metal " bulla." But 
ohn of Gaunt impressed wax with a silver 
eal in the manner common to the other 
oyal chanceries. 

5. The Great Seal of the County Palatine 
fter February, 1377. The arms of the-: 
)uchy of Lancaster were : 

" Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or ; I 
label of three (sometimes of five) points azure, 
larged with fleurs-de-lis of the second." 

ee Mr. S. Armitage-Smith's ' John of 
2aunt ' (1904), pp. 456-8. 


The marriage of this John of Gaunt with! 
Constance, a natural daughter of Peter 
lie Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, gave- 
im, on the death of his father-in-law, a- 
laim to the throne of Castile and Leon ; 
nd although his claim was not successful,. "Ii 
.e adopted as his arms, on a castle or a shield 
rgent, charged with a lion rampant gules, j 
he arms of Leon, still an important division 
>f Spain. And in the cloisters at Canterbury 
nay be seen a boss exhibiting the above- 
leraldic charges in reference to this claim. 
/Vould not his cadency mark be the usual 
ne appertaining to a fourth son, i.e., a 
nartlet, or swallow without beak or feet ? ' 


[The attention of U. V. W. is directed to MR. 
SAYLEY'S reply above.] 

10 S. x. 27). There have been several 
nquiries regarding this nursery rime in j 
; N. & Q.' ; see 2 S. ix. 244 ; 6 S. x. 468 ;. 
xi. 234; 7 S. x. 187, 354; xi. 312, 417; 
S. ii. 107 ; but nothing very satisfactory 
las been elicited. The first stanza is un- 
doubtedly traditional ; Miss Martin may 
have written some of the others, but I am 
disposed to think that her share in the work 
was confined to making sketches for the- 
illustrations. Mr. John Pollexfen Bastard 
was M.P. for Devonshire from 1784 to his 
death on 4 April, 1816, and was perhaps- 
the best-known Devonian of his time. 
There is a memoir of him in the ' D.N.B.* 
He married on 2 July, 1809, Judith Anne, 
third daughter of Sir Henry Martin, first j 
baronet of Lockynge, co. Berks, and sister i 
of the celebrated admiral Sir Thomas Byam ; 
Martin, G.C.B. Mrs. Bastard survived her I 
husband more than thirty years, dying in| 
1848. Sarah Catherine Martin was the-i 
second daughter of Sir Henry, and it is I 
this lady who illustrated the poem, which < 
is believed to have been a political squib,. ; 
though nobody knows against whom it-j 
was directed. She died unmarried in 1826, 

10 s. x. AUG. s, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


I have a copy of the sequel, of which the 
| dedication is correctly given by AYEAHR. 

The title, which I give below, shows that it 
i was not a privately printed issue, but was 
| published for sale by the most noted juvenile 

bookseller of the day : 

"A | Sequel | to | The Comic Adventures, | of 
| Old Mother Hubbard, | and | her Dog, | By | 
another Hand, j London. | Published Feb? I 8t 1807, 
by J- Harris, Juvenile Librarv, I corner of St. Paul's 
Church Yard. | and C. Knight, Windsor." 

In my copy, which is coloured, the text 
and illustrations are engraved on copper. 

With regard to the " Old Mother Hubbard" 

' tradition which was utilized by Spenser, 

attention may be invited to Prof. J. W. 

Hales' s very interesting article in The 

| Athenceum for 24 .Feb., 1883 (No. 2887, 

p. 248), which suggests that the story may 

be derived from the legend of the dog-saint 

Hubert. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

ix. 325, 392 ; x. 35, 51). The full story of 

;| the South Petherwin or, more correctly, 
the Botathen ghost, summarized at the 
last reference by W. P. CA., the authorship 

I of which has been commonly, but erroneously 
attributed to Defoe, was related by me at 
8 S. viii. 221, 349. ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

S. ix. 510). As the fate of Crotty was that 
of hundreds in 1798, I fear that, unless some 
more definite data be given, Y. T. has a 
difficult task before him. Crotty may have 
been one of those " chiefs " referred to in the 
autobiographical sketch of General F. R. 
Chesney quoted in his ' Life ' (8vo, London, 
1893), p. 44, who were 

"" taken by the patrols in the vicinity of Newry, 
and executed in the presence of all the troops. 
They were offered pardon on condition of giving 
some intelligence required by Government, which 
they declined, and died too bravely for such a 

If Crotty by any action or misfortune was 

distinguished above his fellows, it is singular 

that he is not mentioned by Maxwell, who 

was a native of those parts, and vividly 

! remembered many of the incidents of the 

\ rebellion, the above executions amongst 


Capt. Chesney 's MS. Autobiography, now 

in the British Museum, makes no mention 

of Crotty ; nor does his name occur in Mad- 

| den, Teeling, or McSkimmin, the three prin- 

\ cipal authorities for the " Rising in the 


As the Mourne Infantry under Capt. 
Chesney as far as I can ascertain served 

only in parts of Down and Louth, this 
narrows the scope of inquiry, and I would 
suggest that Y. T. should consult, if he can, 
the files of Gordon's Newry Chronicle of 
that date. JOHN S. CRONE. 

Kensal Lodge, N.W. 

John Aubrey, who was at Harvey's funeral, 
says : 

" William Harvey, M.D., natus at Folkestone in 
Kent : borne at the house which is now the post- 
house, a faire stone-built house, which he gave to 
Caius College in Cambridge, with some lands there : 
vide his will. His brother Eliab would have given 
any money or exchange for it, because 'twas his 
father's arid they all borne there ; but the Doctor 
(truly) thought his memory would better be pre- 
served this way, for his brother has left noble 
seates, and about 3000 li. per annum, at least. 

"Hemsted in Essex towards AudeleyEnd: ibi 
sepultus D r Harvey." 

Aubrey mentions his white marble statue " in 
the Library at the Physitians' Colledge," 
and continues : 

"D r Harvey added (or was very bountifull in 
contributing to) a noble building of Roman archi- 
tecture (of rustique worke, with Corinthian 
pillasters) at the Physitians' College aforesaid, viz. 
a great parlour (or 'a kind of Convocation-house') 
for theFellowes to meet in, belowe ; and a library, 

above All these remembrances and building was 

destroyed by the generall fire." 

See Mr. Andrew Clark's edition of Aubrey's 
' Brief Lives,' 1898, i. 295-7. 


x. 47). " King's silver " was a payment 
made to the king for liberty to compromise 
the fictitious and amicable suit which ended 
in a Fine (or Final Concord), and established 
the title of a purchaser or donee of property. 
This was a common method of conveying 
lands, and was also used for effecting 
transfers, by gift or sale, of advowsons 
and Church property. The " King's Silver 
Books " for certain years exist at the 
Record Office, but some are not now legible. 
From these, or, if they are not available, 
from the Feet of Fines, or the Books of 
Entries of Fines, for Oxfordshire it may be 
possible to get a record of the actual trans- 
actions in respect of which the sums referred 
to were payable for the churches of Lincoln 
College. R. S. B. 

The royal borough of Woodstock contained 
the parish of Long Combe, and from the fact of 
the manor and honour of the former having 
continued in the Crown until the reign of 
Queen Anne, all Fines were necessarily 
payable to the Clerk of the King's Silver, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. s, 

an officer belonging to the Court of Common 

*' to whom every Fine is brought, after it hath been 
with the Gustos Brevium [i.e., the principal clerk o 
the Common Pleas], and by whom the effect of th 
Writ of Covenant is entred in a Paper-Book, anc 
according to that Note, all the Fines of that Terrr 
are also recorded in the Rolls of the Court, and hi 
Entry is in this Form : He putteth the Shire oye 
the Margin, and then saith : ' A.B. Dat Domin< 
Regi dimidium Marcse ' (or more according to the 
value) ' pro licentia Concordandi C. cum C.D. pro 
talibus terris in tali villa, et habet Chirographum 
per pacem admissum,' &c." 

King's silver itself is described by Cowe 
in his ' Interpreter,' 1701, as being 

"properly that Money due to the King in th( 
Court of Common Pleas pro licentia concordandi, 
in respect of a License then granted to any Man for 
passing a Fine." Vol. vi. fol. 39 and 43. 


HARTLEY COLERIDGE (10 S. x. 49). Two 
poems by Hartley Coleridge a song and a 
sonnet are to be found in ' The Gem 
for 1829, edited by Thomas Hood. The 
song is the familiar one beginning " She 
is not fair to outward view." The opening 
lines of the sonnet run thus : 

It must be so my infant love must find 
In my own breast a cradle and a grave. 

Both contributions were included by Der- 
went Coleridge in his edition of his brother's 
poems, published in 1851. It is quite 
possible that an exhaustive search through 
the various annuals which appeared during 
Hartley Coleridge's literary activity might 
result in the discovery of more verses. 


"T WIFE BAZAAR" (10 S. ix. 207, 416). 
-There is an article of some length on wife- 
selling in the Daily Mail of 1 March, 1899. 
It is quoted, along with extracts from other 
newspapers, by Prof. Knapp in the notes 
to his edition of ' The Romany Rye,' p. 384. 

Stromness, Orkney. 

TOWER OF LONDON (10 S. ix. 61, 161, 243, 
390, 490; x. 70). I thank MR. BEAVEN 
for his courteous admission, and for his 
amendments, which, so far as supported 
by evidence, tend to the completeness of 
the catalogue. I have little to add. 
' D.N.B.' has " Penington or Pennington." 
I do not know where the name is found 
with one n (possibly an autograph ?), for 
in ' Cal. S. P. Dom.,' Heylin's ' Help,' 
Whitelock, Overall's Index to ' Remem- 
brancia,' and all else at hand I find two n's. 

My error " Earl of Dartmouth " was the 
result of oversight. I now find that my 
only " good company " is Stow's ' Survey,* 
Strype's ed., Book I. p. 77. 

I am satisfied as to Col. Thomas King. 

MILL AT GOSPORT, HANTS (10 S. x. 68). 
Your correspondent might find assistance 
in locating this mill from the (apparently) 
accurate description of the immediate 
neighbourhood, in or before 1854, contained 
in Besant and Rice's ' By Celia's Arbour,* : 
which I have just re-read with enjoyment. 
By which of the writers the scene is described 
I know not ; but it is evidently drawn from 
personal and (I may call it) affectionate 
recollection and intimacy. W. C. J. 

MAN IN THE ALMANAC (10 S. ix. 408, 475 ; 
x. 56). An interesting instance of the use 
of this expression occurs in Johnson's 
account of Capt. Edward England, ' History 
of the Pirates,' vol. i. p. 123 (London, 
T. Woodward, 1726). In narrating Capt. 
Mackra's adventures on board England's 
ship, after the fight at the island of Juanna 
the author says : 

"A Fellow with a terrible Pair of Whiskers, and 
a Wooden Leg, being stuck round with Pistols, like 
bhe Man in the Almanack with Darts, comes swear- 
ing and vapouring upon the Quarter-Deck, and 
Asks in a Damning Manner, which was Captain 

The story is the more interesting in that 
:he one-legged pirate, as pointed out in a 
recently published book on ' The Malabar 
Pirates,' is undoubtedly the prototype 
of Stevenson's John Silver in ' Treasure 
[sland.' That worthy, it will be remem- 
bered, had served " first with England, 
then with Flint." He had moreover sailed 
n the Cassandra (the ship taken from 
Capt. Mackra), and had been at the taking 
of the Viceroy of the Indies (i.e., of Goa), 
who was captured in a Portuguese ship of 
70 guns which the pirates found dismasted 
.t the island of Mascarine, near Mauritius. 
This was one of the most famous prizes 
n the annals of piracy, it being asserted by 
"ohnson that there was on board, " in the 
ingle article of Diamonds, to the value of 
Between three and four millions of Dollars." 

T. F. D. 

DOLLS IN MAGIC (10 S. ix. 168). The 
Tactice of employing images of wax, or 
ometimes of clay, with pins, needles, or 
horns stuck into them, for the purpose of 
ausing the death of a person supposed to 
e an enemy, is one of the commonest 

10 s. x. AUG. s, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


criminal acts recorded of magicians. The 
Duchess of Gloucester's endeavour to kill 
Henry VI., whether the story be true or 
false, has found a place in history. We are 
told also that the life of Pope Urban VI. 
was attempted in a similar manner. The 
earliest instance, however, that occurs to 
me is Egyptian. There was a plot to kill 
Rameses III. in this way. The practice 
is heard of at Inverness in the earlier part 
of the eighteenth century ; and I have been 
informed that similar acts of perfidy were 
practised at a much later time among the 
North American Indians. 

I shall be glad to learn of any having been 
discovered in Great Britain during the last 
century. K. P. D. E. 

So far as an ordinary reader can say, 
Elworthy's ' Evil Eye ' is the authority. 
There may be in ' The Golden Bough,' 
2nd ed., or in Leland's ' Etruscan Roman 
Remains,' 1892, something ; but the subject 
is really sympathetic magic. The index to 
* The Golden Bough ' shows nothing. 



The Seven against Thebes of ^Eschylus. Edited by 
T. G. Tucker, Litt.D. (Cambridge, University 

PROF. TUCKER'S edition of 'The Seven against 
Thebes' appears in the form we associate with 
Jebb's 'Sophocles': Greek text on one page, 
English prose translation on the facing page, and 
below first critical and then textual notes. It is 
the best possible arrangement for study, and Prof. 
Tucker's work is of a quality which deserves 
the compliment of ranking with the best Cambridge 
scholarship. He follows, we are glad to find, the 
tendency to believe in the Medicean MS. which is 
the chief source of ^Eschylean text, and explain it 
where possible, instead of indulging in wildly 
ingenious conjecture. He dissents in the Intro- 
duction from Wecklein, and in the matter of 
" Geschmack " mentioned he will win the suffrages 
of most scholars. He has that cultivation and 
sense of poetry without which high degrees are 
often gained, but which is necessary to control the 
sense of assurance gained by the expert. He 
has, of course, a great advantage in being able 
to consult the excellent work on the play of 

g-evious scholars, such as Dr. Arthur Sidgwick and 
r. Verrall. His own contributions to the subject 
show a wide range of erudition, and good judgment. 
We are at once surprised and pleased to see a 
special annotated section at the end devoted to the 
Scholia of the Medicean. From their mistakes as 
well as their correct conclusions much may be 
learnt, as from Servius on Virgil. The presence of 
English parallels a page of which from Dr. Leeper 
is also added in an Appendix is satisfactory, 
though there is less danger than there was in the 

days of Paley of forgetting that ^Eschylus is a poet 
as well as a difficult Greek author. As the Preface 
says regarding the edition, " Its object is the con- 
scientious interpretation of the ' Septem ' as a work 
of dramatic art and a monument of Greek litera- 
ture. To this aim all else is subordinate." 

This is an excellent aim, and the notes are 
sufficient as regards matters of language and usage. 
We wish, however, that there was a list of 
a.7ra Xeyofjitva at the end a list we have made 
invariably in our own studies of all the Greek 

The editor's treatment of the text may be exhibited 
in the speech of Eteocles in which he says (1. 257) : 
" I vow to the country's guardian gods, whether 
they watch the fields or keep eye upon the mast, 
Aip/c^s TC TTT^ycus, ov8' air* 'Itr^vov Aeyco, 
that if good befall and the realm be saved, men 
shall steep the hearths of the gods in blood of 
sheep," &c. The second half of the line we have 
left in Greek has been often emended. The read- 
ing now given varies only from the MS. by changing 
3 Ia-fiTf]vov into J Icr/>i^vov, following Abresch, and 
means " nor do I rule Ismenus out," i.e., "I vow to- 
Dirce's streams, and Ismenus no less." This seems 
to us quite satisfactory, and far superior, at any rate,, 
to xvSar ^Io-/Avov Aeyw (Weil's Teubner text), 
v'SarL r' 'Icr/jwyi/ov Aeyto (Sidgwick, "Oxford 
Classical Text"), and various wilder conjectures. 
Prof. Tucker himself once conjectured Aoirrpa T' 
5 Io-//,ej/ov, as he notes, but has now 110 doubt of the 
true correction. Dr. Verrall's Boeotian form, 
is also very near the MS., but unexampled in Greek 
literature. In 1. 265 TroAe/Aiwv eo-0>7//,aTa is the 
subject of a valuable note, pointing out that in 
ancient days the raiment of the foe was a valuable 
part of the spoil, and that the very word " robe " 
means booty. Cf. German Haub, and A.-S. redf= 
clothing, spoil, plunder, as Prof. Skeat says in his 
Dictionary. We think that Prof. Tucker has fairly 
established a claim in these and other passages for 
a consideration of his views. 

The English translation is spirited and abounds 
in picturesque touches, as befits the occasion. Our 
only comment here is that the sentences are occa- 
sionally more broken up than is necessary, with 
the result of something like paraphrase instead of 

IN The Cornhill Magazine Mr. W. E. Norris has 
an amusing short story 'The Missing Links,' a 
comedy of marriage engagements. Mr. H. W. 
Lucy's continuation of his 'Sixty Years in the 
Wilderness ' is full of interest, and shows the spirit 
and firmness with which he encountered various 
set-backs in his career. The article has many 
pleasant touches. Miss Virginia Stephen reviews: 
4 A Week in the White House with Theodore 
Roosevelt,' indicating the virtues which have 
endeared the President to the American People. 
He is " an alert machine, efficient in all its parts,"" 
possessed of a remarkable sympathy, and his very 
limitations are those which appeal to the ordinary 
man. Mr. Bernard Capes has an amusing article on 
' Bad Relations.' He makes pretty play with the 
old contention that no person could have been 
exactly what he was in real life or fiction with any 
other name than his own. The mother-in-law is a 
byword for discord, but the slander is much older 
than Mr. Capes seems to imagine. He explains that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. s, 

"the real bad relation, good people, is as you 
might have known long ago if you had not wilfully 
courted your own obsession the, uncle." In 

* England's Neglect of Mathematics ' Prof. G. H. 
Bryan refers to applications of mathematics which 
usually go by other names, He talks of the Cam- 
bridge Wranglers ; but when he suggests that the 
success of Kelvin shows the efficiency of the old 
Tripos, he must know that he is overstating things 
in a way which will not deceive the expert. ' Old 
Deeside : its Songs aud Stories,' is an admirable 
last article by the late A. I. Shand, the notice of 
whom by the editor of The, Cornhill might have 
been longer. Mr. C. S. Buxton tells the story of 
' Ruskin College' at Oxford, an institution which 
would be more attractive if it produced less of the 
priggish element. 

The Nineteenth Century this month is an excep- 
tionally interesting number, and has several articles 
well worth perusal. Sir Edward Sullivan has an 
ingenious defence of Shakespeare's mistakes in 
geography, showing that the waterways of Lom- 
bardy were much used, and that Bohemia had a 
seacoast. Miss Rose Bradley has a pretty travel 
article on * The Month of Mary,' as the Basques, 
like other Roman Catholics, call May. Mr. H. H. 
Statharn, one of the most accomplished critics of 
our day, has an outspoken paper on ' Art at the 
Franco-British Exhibition.' ' The Chase of the 
Wild Red Deer on Exmoor,' which begins this 
week, is the subject of an ingenious apologia by 
Mr. R. A. Sanders. Mrs. Frederic Harrison is just 
beginning to be interesting on the Bastille when 
the article stops. What can be said in six pages or 
soon such a subject? ' Wordsworth, Coleridge, and 
the Spy,' by Mr. A. J. Eagleston, is an amusing 
piece oi' literary history. When the two poets were 
in Somerset, they spoke of a spy, whose existence 
has been doubted. His existence is now proved by 
official documents in the Home Office records. It 
was not the presence of Thelwall, a notorious 
democrat, that led to suspicion, but it was actually 
supposed that the Wordsworths were French, and 
spies. Sir F. C. Burnand has in ' Un Peu de Pick- 
wick a la Francaise' an amusing and instructive 
.account of a truncated portion of ' Pickwick ' as 
rendered in the Journal pour Tons. 

IN The Fortnightly the best article is one on 

* David Masson ' by Mr. R. S. Rait, a well-informed 
personal tribute. 'Sweated Industries,' by Mr. 
G. R. Askwith, is important, as coming from a most 
competent authority. He considers that as mini- 
mum wages exist on all sides, and in some measure 
in nearly every trade, the difficulties alleged con- 
cerning their establishment are overrated. Prof. 
Churton Collins's address on 'The Literary In- 
debtedness of England to France ' is a counterpart 
to M. Yves Guyot's address published last month. 
We notice that the Professor uses without inverted 
commas the phrase " the White City," invented, we 
believe, by the Daily Mail for the Franco-British 
Exhibition. Mrs. Billington-Greig writes an able 
.article on ' The Sex- disability and Adult Suffrage.' 
Mr. T. H. S. Escott gossips agreeably on ' Court and 
Crowd at Exeter Hall,' incidentally suggesting that 
" Brooks of Sheffield " in ' David Copperfield ' was 
a reminiscence of a Brooks who in 1822 promoted 
the idea of " an unsectarian building for religious 
and scientific societies." A striking short story by 
Tourgu^nieff, ' The Dog,' concludes the number, 
and reads well in the version of Margaret Gough. 

The Burlington Magazine opens with an important 
editorial article on ' The Preservation of Ancient 
Buildings.' We hope that the Royal Commission 
announced to report on the subject will suggest 
something definite. It is absurd that a Government 
grant in aid of inspectors should be denied when 
public money is freely spent on less desirable 
objects. A Chief Inspector ought to be appointed 
at a reasonable salary, who would give his time and 
talents to the care of ancient monuments, and come 
down heavily on owners and local authorities who 
neglected their duties. Mr. Cecil H. Smith has an 
interesting article on a supposed 'Bronze Bust of 
Commodus,' found in the Tioer, and now belonging 
to Mr. George Salting. Not many people will re- 
cognize, unless they know history, Marcus Aurelius 
as " the author of the ' Reflections.' " The original 
title is awkward for English, but surely it would be 
best to adopt that in common use, viz., ' Medita- 
tions.' The article is admirable alike in its con- 
noisseurship and historical setting. Mr. Roger Fry 
has an amply illustrated article on ' English Illu- 
minated Manuscripts at the Burlington Fine- Arts 
Club,' a splendid show which deserves the best of 
critical recognition. Mr. G. F. Hill has a good 
article, also illustrated, on the medallist Lysippus ; 
while Prof. Holmes writes on ' Some Constable 
Puzzles' which have been illuminated by Mr. 
Algernon Graves's invaluable work on the British 
Institution. The Notes this month include the 
newly discovered name of Pisariello, which is 
Antonio Pisano not Vittore, as was gathered from 
Vasari. The cracks in the ceiling of the Sistine 
Chapel were, it is pointed out by Sir Hubert von 
Herkomer in ' My School and My Gospel,' in some 
cases painted by Michelangelo ! It is suggested 
that he did this to persuade the Pope that he was 
blundering with his material. Mr. A. H. Maude is 
not satisfied with this explanation, and thinks the 
trick was a mere caprice on Michelangelo's part. 
Under 'Art in America' Prof. Holmes notices 
Rembrandt's portrait of himself (1658) and three 
pictures by Van Dyck. These four pictures are re- 
produced, and, being all splendid examples of two 
masters, are acquisitions calculated to make any 
collector envious. 

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CONTENTS. No. 242. 

NOTES : Spenser Allusions Toothache, 121 London 
Statues and Memorials, 122 Victoria Statue, Lancaster 
Gloucestershire Poll-Books, 124 Gascoigne and Euripides 
Robert Johnson's ' World ' " Hovelling" David Pole : 
David Powell, 125 Loten's Museum Shacklewell Lane- 
King's ' Classical Quotations 'England's Wooden Walls : 
Navarino Flagship, 126 Bream's Buildings: the Name, 

.QUERIES : Seventeenth-Century Quotations, 127 Warren 
Hastings's Son Stanley's Mission to Paris, 1761 Throat- 
cutting at Public Executions Dr. Isaac Basire's Portrait 
French Anonymous Biographies Widkirk : ' The Wake- 
field Mysteries,' 128 Friday Street St. Margaret's Hos- 
pital or Green Coat School Authors of Quotations Wanted 
'Intellect and Valour of Great Britain' St. Ken elm's 
at Ware Reynolds on an Equestrian Statue, 129 Dean 
Cookes 'Epulum Parasiticum ' Accession and Corona- 
tion Coins Zoffany Siege of Danzig H. Hopper, 
Modeller, 130. 

KEPLIES : The National Flag, 130 Vowel-shortening 
Salarino, Salanio, and Salerio French Words in Scotch, 
132 Romans at York' ' Sabariticke "Medal of Charles I. 
Holy Grail Snail-eating and Gipsies Defoe : the 
Devil's Chapel Prior and his Chloe, 134 "Angel" of an 
Inn Tiger Folk-lore and Pope St. Andrew's Cross- 
Rushlights Dickens on "Half- Baptized, "135 Brass as a 
Surname Johnson's 'Tropical Climates 'Crows "crying 
Against the rain," 136 "Buccado" Budgee, a Kind of 
Ape "Sinews of War "Counting bringing Ill-Luck 
Henry Ellison, 137 The Bonassus Old Tunes Wine used 
at Holy Communion T. L. Peacock: "Skylight" and 
"Twilight "Swimming Bath, 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Ideal of a Gentleman ' ' The 
National Review.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


THAT learned lover of the noble Spenser, 
Dr. Gollancz, hopes that some day, as the 
Chaucer and Shakspere allusions have been 
collected and edited, a like service may be 
done for Spenser. In editing the ' Shake- 
ispeare Allusion Book ' (to appear two 
:months hence) for Chatto & Windus's 
" Shakespeare Library " I have come across 
-a number of fairly early references to the 
.gentle exile of Kilcoman, and for the benefit 
of that future Spenserian labourer beg a 
little space to record them. 

1. * Archseologicae Attice,' by Francis Rous, 1637, 
p. 86. 

2. ' Valentinian,' by the Earl of Rochester, 1696, 
p. 128. 

3. * Caroloiades,' by Hon. Ed. Howard, 1689, 
sig. A 4. 

4. The British Princes,' by Hon. Ed. Howard, 
1669, A 5 b, A 6. 

5. Epigrams,' by R. Heath, 1650, p. 48. 

6. ' Maggots,' by Sam. Wesley, 1685, pp. 30, 32. 

7. ' Poems collected by N. Tate ' (1685), ' Pastoral,' 
by Mr. Adams, 1683, p. 45. See also p. 91. 

8. ' Chorus Poetarum,' 1674. 

9. Jane Barker's Poems,' 1688, poem by " Phi- 

10. Another in the same volume, pt. ii., by 
J. Whitehall, p. 39. 

11. ' The Humours and Conversations of the 
Town.' 1693, pp. 81, 82, 83, 84. 

12. 'Poems on Aftairs of State,' 1703, vol. ii. 
pp. 235, 274. (Dates of poems earlier than 1703). 

13. De Re Poetica,' by Sir Thos. Pope Blount, 
1694, PI x 52, 114, 136, 137, 213-16. 

14. 'Run and a Great Cast,' by Thos. Freeman, 
1614, epig. 64. 

15. * Letters and Verses to William and Lady 
Cavendish, Duke and Duchess of Newcastle,' 1678, 
p. 160. 

16. ' Arraignement of the Whole Creature,' &c., 
by R.Henderson, 1631, p. 186. 

17. ' Virgidimiarum,' by Joseph Hall, 1599 
(Grosart's edition), p. 11. See Grosart's Intro- 

18. * De Arte Graphica,' by Dryden, 1695, p. 108. 

19. ' Poems,' by Matthew Prior, 1709, p. 272. 

The future collector will also find a goodly 
number of Spenser allusions in the ' Chaucer 
Allusions,' now nearing completion, edited 
by Miss Spurgeon for the Chaucer Society, 
and in the ' Shakespeare Allusion Book.' 
Perhaps some other ' N. & Q.' men, like 
MB. G. THORN - DBUBY, whose Shakspere 
references have been of great help to me, 
will record the Spenser allusions they happen 
to notice. JOHN MUNBO. 


(See5S. xi. 88,515.) 

SKILLED operators, using fine instruments 
and anaesthetics, have done much to 
diminish this ill that flesh is heir to. But 
in the days before dentists, toothache was 
terrible, as is evident from what has been 
said of it. Apostles are reputed to have 
suffered much : St. Peter's toothache was 
cured by Christ (5 S. viii. 144 ; 10 S. ii. 259) ; 
and according to some commentators it 
was St. Paul's thorn in the flesh (Woodhead, 
Allestree, and Walker, * Paraph. St. Paul,' 
1675, p. 163). 

On one of the Early English capitals in 
Wells Cathedral is a huge carving of the 
contorted face of a man, probably a bishop, 
who with one hand is pulling away his 
cheek from his gums, as if making way for 
the insertion of the forceps. It is locally 
known as " the man with the toothache." 

The appeal to St. Apollonia, the patron 
saint of the teeth, is noticed by Stillingfleet 
(' Idolatry in the Church of Rome,' ed. 2, 
1672, p. 131) ; and Mr. Ford reports that 
in his time prayer was still made to her in 
Spain (' Gatherings from Spain,' 1846, 
p. 259). Much about her is in ' N. & Q.' 
(2 S. i. 213, 323, 340 ; 3 S. vi. 178 ; 5 S. 
viii. 144, 292 ; 6 S. i. 126). Pascal is said 
to have worked a cure for himself by 
mathematics ( ? authority). Certainly human 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUG. is, im 

remedies seem to have been unavailing. Sir 
Kenelm Digby gives only one receipt, and 
that not on his own testimony : 

"One that had the tooth-ach in great extremity, 
and had tried many medicines in vain, took a little 
cotton and imbibed it with Lucatella's balsam, and 
so put it into the hollow tooth." 

A second application worked a permanent 
cure (' Receipts in Physic,' ed. 2, 1677, p. 23). 
For this balsam see The Yorksh. Archceol. 
Journ., vii. 57. 

Butler ridicules the quacks who " scare 
with rhimes the tooth-ache" ('Hudibras,' 
pt. ii. canto hi. 289), on which see Grey's 
note, quoting Ben Jonson's tooth-drawer, 
who " calls out bitter teeth at a twitch, 
commands them out of any man's head 
upon the point of his poignard, tickles 
them forth with his riding-rod, and draws 
teeth a horseback in full speed" ('Pan's 
Anniversary,' 1625, ' Works,' ed. Cornwall, 
1838, p. 643) ; and a passage from John 
Taylor's ' Figure Flinger ' : " With two 
words, and three leaves of four-leav'd grass, 
he makes the toothache stay, repass, or pass." 
' N. & Q.' has recorded much folk-lore on 
this subject. 

Shakespeare says " he that sleeps feels 
not the toothache" (' Cymbeline,' V. iv.) ; 
and in ' Much Ado about Nothing,' III. ii., 
when Benedick says he has the toothache, 
Pedro replies " draw it," and Claudio adds 
that it "is but a humour, or a worm," 
alluding to the idea that it was caused by 
a worm at the root of the tooth. 

Christopher Ness declares that toothache 
is a direct warning of death, and that it 
makes us compassionate with our fellow- 
sufferers " under that dolorous distemper " 
('History and Mystery,' 1690, i. 195, 402). 
Burns in his ' Address to the Toothache ' 
says that sympathy, so helpful in other 
complaints, is of no use in this, " the 
hell of all diseases," and begs the devil to 
give all Scotland's foes " a towmond's 

Southey counts among those who do 
not desire the " everlasting now " " those 
who have the toothache, or who are having 
a tooth drawn ".('The Doctor,' ed. 1848, 
p. 63). De Quincey, who was led to opium- 
eating by " that terrific curse," has an 
interesting note to show that we should 
be more horrified by toothache but for its 
enormous diffusion and its immunity from 
danger (' Works,' ed. 1862, i. 4). 

Poems and essays have been written by 
literary men upon the gout, and there are, 
of course, countless professional treatises 
on dentistry ; but I have met with only one 

on toothache which can be called literary r 
' The Toothache, imagined by Horace- 
Mayhew, and realised by George Cruik- 
shank,' 43 coloured and folded plates,. 
12mo, David Bogue, 1849. 

Tooth-extraction, gold and other stopping,, 
and artificial teeth were all known at an 
early date ; see the evidence at 1 S. x. 242,. 
355, 510 ; xi. 51, 264, 316, 512 ; 2 S. xii. 417,. 
481 ; 3 S. ix. 420 ; 5 S. xi. 448, 497 ; xiu 
296 ; 6 S. vii. 17. There is a curious allusion 
in ' A Second Edition of the New Almanack 
for the Year 1656 ' : " He might have gone- 
to one or two of our London teeth-chandlers,. 
& have taken whole bushels of this bone- 
seed " (p. 9). John Watts, operator,. 
Raquet Court, Fleet Street, advertises 
in Riders' ' British Merlin,' 1709, that he 
supplies artificial teeth, " set in so well as- 
to eat with them, not to be discovered from, 
natural, nor to be taken out at night." 

W. C. B. 

(See 10 S. ix. 1, 102, 282, 363, 481.) 

86. Statue of Thomas Guy, Guy's Hos- 
pital. The munificent founder of the hos- 
pital died in 1724, and was buried in the 
hospital chapel. Over his grave a marble- 
statue was placed in 1779 at a cost of 1,OOOZ. 
The outdoor statue stands in the centre^ 
of the quadrangle opposite the main entrance- 
gates. It was placed in position in 1734. 

87. Crosby Obelisk, Blackfriars Road. 
Erected in 1771 to the memory of Brass- 
Crosby, Esq., Lord Mayor of London. Its- 
removal was discussed in 1904. 

88. Statues of (a) Sir Robert Clayton, 
and (b) Edward VI., St. Thomas's Hospital. 
The old hospital in Southwark was pulled 
down and the present buildings erected in 
1870-71. These statues were then re-erected 
in their present positions, (a) According to 
the Latin inscription thereon, this statue^ 
was erected in Sir R. Clayton's lifetime by 
the Governors, A.D. MDCCI., and by them 
beautified A.D. MDCCXIV. (6) This statue- 
" was erected at the expense of Charles 
Joyce, Esquire, in the year MDCCXXXVII." 

89. Memorial Fountain to a Dog, Batter- 
sea. Erected in the Recreation Ground at 
a cost of 130Z., subscribed by members of 
the International Anti- Vivisection Council. 
It was unveiled on 15 Sept., 1906, and is, 
as the inscription sets forth, " In memory 
of the brown terrier dog done to death in 
the laboratories of University College in 
February, 1903, after having endured vivi- 

10 s. x. AUG. 15, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


section extending over more than two Sites have also been selected for statues 
months, and having been handed over from (a) of Sir Henry Irving, north of the National 
one vivisector to another until death came Portrait Gallery, Charing Cross Road ; 
to his release." (6) of Sir Wilfrid Lawson, in the Victoria 

90. Statue of Lord Strathnairn, Knights- Embankment Gardens. The new " Paul's- 
bridge. I am unable to supply the exact Cross " will also be dominated by a colossal 
date of the erection of this spirited eques- bronze statue of St. Paul. 

trian statue by the late E. Onslow Ford. I shall be very grateful if readers will 

91. Tate Memorial, Brixton. This me- kindly supply missing dates of inaugura- 
morial consists of a bronze bust on a pedestal tion or unveiling. As far as I know, I 
of the late Sir Henry Tate. It stands in have supplied them wherever I possess 
the library garden, and was unveiled by them. The names of any statues or me- 
Mr. Evan Spicer, 11 Oct., 1905. morials I may have missed will also be 

92. Statue of Henry Fawcett, Vauxhall acceptable. I should welcome particu- 
Park. The site of the house long occupied lars concerning the fate of the following 
by the late Rt. Hon. Henry Fawcett is in- statues, which once existed in the places 
eluded in the open space known as Vauxhall named : 

Park. Here was set up in 1893 a terra- George I., Grosvenor Square. 

cotta statue of the blind statesman, the gift Charles II., Soho Square. 

of Sir Henry Doulton. George III., Berkeley Square. 

93. Carabiniers' Memorial, Chelsea Em- Duke of Cumberland, Cavendish Square 
bankment. This commemorates the officers (see 9 S. ii. 528). 

and men of the 6th Dragoon Guards who Duke of Marlborough, Marlborough 

fell in South Africa. Unveiled by Lord Square (see 7 S. x. 214). 

Roberts, 23 June, 1906. Duke of Wellington, Tower Green. 

94. Statue of Thomas Carlyle, Chelsea Concerning the George IV. statue at 
Embankment. This stands not far from Battle Bridge see 7 S. ix. 508; x. 58, 131, 
the house in which Carlyle died, 24, Cheyne 213. 

Row. It was unveiled by Prof. Tyndall, Does the statue of (?) Alfred the Great 
26 Oct., 1882. On the front of the house still stand in Trinity Square, Southwark (see 
itself is a marble medallion of Carlyle, the 8 S. viii. 85, 230), and that of Lord Eldon 
gift of the Carlyle Society. It was inaugu- at Wandsworth Road Schools ? 
rated on the fifth anniversary of his death, The statue of Henry Peto which I saw in 
5 Feb., 1886. Furnival's Inn in 1890 has, I understand,, 

95. Rossetti Memorial Fountain, Chelsea been broken up, being simply a plaster 
Embankment. Erected opposite the house cast. 

which Rossetti rented from 1863 until his i s the statue of Robert Aske still to be 
death at Birchington in 1882. Unveiled see n at Hoxton ? and that of James Hulbert 
by Mr. Holman Hunt, 14 July, 1887. at Newington ? 

96. Statue of Sir Hans Sloane, Chelsea The statues of Edward VI. and Sir John 
Physic Garden. Erected by the Apothe- Moore from Christ's Hospital are, I believe, 
caries' Society at a cost of 280Z., about the removed to Horsham. 

year 1737. Is the statue of William III. presented 

97. Bust of Sir Joseph Paxton, Crystal b the Kaiser yet placed ? The King ap- 
Palace. This tremendous creation some prove d a site near Kensington Palace last 
8 or 9 ft. high, the work of Mr. F. W. Wood- February. 

ington, was set up on the Terrace in 1869, Ligts of the London statu es, &c., appear 
and removed thence to the Parade in 1899. in H dn > s Dictionary of Dates' ; Timbs's 
Perhaps however, it is too far out to be Curiosities of London > . < Murray's Guide 
classified under London statues. to London'; Bohn's 'Pictorial Hand- 

Since the MS. of this list was prepared book of London ' ; 'The Picture of Lon- 
there have been erected (a) a memorial don ; The Citizens Pocket Chronicle'; 
to Dr. Barnardo at the Girls' Home, Barking- ( Dickens s Dictionary of London ; Hart 
side, unveiled by the Duchess of Albany on Guide to the Sights of London, &c. 
19 June ; (6) a colossal bronze statue of See also The Mirror, 15 Sept., 1838 ; 
Queen Alexandra in the grounds of the Illustrated London News, 19 July, 1862 ; 
London Hospital, Whitechapel Road, un- andPoM Mall Gazette, 22 May, 1882. 
veiled by the Earl of Crewe, Colonial JOHN T. PAGE. 

Secretary, 10 July. I Lon S Itchington, Warwickshire. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 15, im 

The statue of Bishop Heber in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London, is behind the altar. A 
replica of it occupies a prominent position 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta, whither 
it was removed from St. John's Church, 

The London statue of Lord Napier of 
Magdala near the Duke of York's Column 
is a replica of the Calcutta statue at Prinsep's 


Calcutta Historical Society. 

gestion by COM. EBOR. (10 S. ix. 284) that 
MR. PAGE'S labours on statues or memorials 
should be made to include the whole of 
-Great Britain and Ireland is very good, 
.and in this direction I subjoin an abstract of 
the description I recently prepared, for a 
;small guide to our town, of the very hand- 
some statue of Queen Victoria just given 
by Lord Ashton to Lancaster. It is un- 
doubtedly the finest in the provinces. It 
stands in Dalton Square, facing the new 
Town Hall, also the gift of Lord Ashton to 
his native town. 

The statue and pedestal are 36 ft. 7 in. 
high. The bronze figure of the Queen, 
which stands on a Furness limestone base, 
is 12 ft. high. Underneath are four bronze 
lions. The panels contain more than life-size 
figures of Victorian celebrities. The corner 
figures represent Truth, Freedom, Justice, 
and Wisdom. On the sides are the arms 
of Lord Ashton and the borough. 

The statue is the masterpiece so far of 
Mr. Herbert Hampton. He is a man of great 
promise, and has exhibited in the Royal 
Academy and elsewhere. 


other Poll-Books see 10 S. vii. 349, 415 ; viii. 
76, 177, 453, 477.) The following list of 
Gloucestershire Poll-Books is compiled from 
copies in the Gloucester Public Library and 
irom the ' Manual of Gloucestershire Litera- 
ture,' 3 vols., 1895-6. Unless stated other- 
wise, the lists were printed locally and in the 
year of election. Notes of Poll-Books for 
other elections in Gloucestershire will be 

1776, May 6 to 17. Two editions. Gloucester and 

1811, Jan. 28 to Feb. 7. Gloucester. 

1832, December [21J. Gloucester, 1833. 
1834, August 11-12. Gloucester. 
1854, January 12. Gloucester. 

Contested elections in 1832, 1847, 1852, 1867, 1868. 
None known. 

1741, May 26. London. 
1816, October 1-8. Two editions. 
1818, June 16-23. Two editions, 1818 and 1826. 
1830, July 30 August 4. Two editions. 

1832, December 10-11. 1833. 

1833, April 8-9. 
1835, January 6-7. 

1837, July 25. 

1838, May 22. 
1841, June 30. 

1852, JulyS. 

1853, Januarys. 
1857, March 28. 
1859, April 30. 
1862, February 26. 
1865, July 12. 


1722, March 28 April 3. 
1734, May 14-24. Two editions, London and 


1739, November 28 December 12. 
1754, April 17 May 1. Three editions. 
1774, October 7 November 3. Three editions. 
1781, January 31 February 24. 
1784, April 3 May 8. 
1812, October 6-16. Bristol, 1818. 

1830, July 30 August 5. 

1832, December 12-13. Two editions. 1833. 

1835, January 7-9. 

1837, July 24. Two editions. 

1841, June 29. 

1847, July 30. Bristol, 1848. 
1852, July 9. Bristol, 1853. 


1768, March 23-29. 
1790, June 16-18. 
1802, July 5-7. Tetbury. 
1812, October 6-12. 

1848, May 24. 
1852, [July 7]. 

1857, [March 28]. Two editions. 
1859, [April 30]. 
1865, [July 12]. 
1868, [November 17]. 


1831, May 2-3. 

1832, December 11-12. 
1837, July 25. 

1852, July 8. 


1847, July 30. Two editions. 

1848, June 29. 
1848, September 4. 
1852, July 9. 

1855, July 14. 

1856, May 8. 
1859, April 30. 
1865, July 12. 

1868, [November 17]. 


1832, December 11-12. Stroud, 1833. 
1841, June 30. Two editions. 
1852, July 7. 
1868, [November 19]. 

Public Library, Gloucester. 

10 s. x. AUG. 15, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


duction to a reprint of Greene's ' Pandosto ' 
(" Shakespeare Library," Chatto & Windus, 
1907) Mr. P. G. Thomas repeats the state- 
ment made, I believe, in the first place 
by Warton, afterwards by Collier, and lately 
by Mr. Courthope that Gascoigne in his 
' Jocasta ' adapted the * Phcenissae ' of 
Euripides. As J. A. Symonds pointed out 
in his ' Shakespeare's Predecessors,' Gas- 
coigne was not adapting the Greek dramatist 
in this play, but translating Ludovico Dolce, 
whose ' Giocasta ' (* Teatro Antico Italiano,' 
vol. vi.) was published in 1549. Any one 
who is sufficiently interested in these matters 
can compare the two plays, as they are 
printed side by side in a scholarly edition 
by Prof. Cunliffe (Heath's " Belles-Lettres 
Series," 1906). FRANCIS WOOLLETT. 

graphical work of Robert Johnson is a scarce 
book, and is interesting because it is of the 
time of Shakespeare (by one of whose pub- 
lishers it was issued), because it contains 
early descriptions of the East and of America, 
and because it has been of some use to the 
'New English Dictionary.' It is a translation 
from the Italian of ' Le Relationi Univer- 
sal!,' by Giovanni Botero, and received 
some attention at 3 S. iv. 110. 

The first edition was : 

(A) The Travellers Breviat, or An historicall de- 
scription of the most famous kingdomes in the 
World : Relating their scituations, mariners, 
customes, ciuill gouernment, and other memor- 
able matters. Translated into English. Im- 
printed at London by Edm. Bollifant, for lohn 
laggard. 1601. 

Small 4to, ending on p. 179 ; the dedication 
to Edward, Earl of Worcester, signed 
" Robert lohnson." 

(C) Historicall Description of the most famous 

Kingdomes and Commonweales in the Worlde, 
translated into Englishe, with an addition of 
the relation of Saxony, Geneva, Hungary, and 
Spaine. London, John Jaggard, 1603. Sm. 4to. 

For a copy of this Mr. Quaritch asked three 
guineas some years ago. 

(D) Relations, Of the Most Famovs Kingdoms and 
Common-weales thorovgh the World. Discours- 
ing of their Scituations, Manners, Customes, 
Strengthes and Pollicies. Translated into 
English and enlarged, with an Addition of the 
estates of Saxony, Geneua, Hungary, and the 
East Indies, in any Language neuer before 
imprinted. London, Printed for lohn laggard, 
dwelling in Fleetstreet, at the Hand and Starre, 
betweene the two Temple gates, 1608. 

Small 4to, B to p ; pagination begins on 
Q, 113, and ends on p. 330. The dedication 
is signed " R. I." 

(E.) A later edition of D, "enlarged 
according to moderne Observation." Lon- 
don, John Jaggard, 1616, sm. 4to. For this 
Quaritch asked fifty shillings. 

But between A and C there was another 
edition, which has hitherto escaped notice : 

(B) The Worlde, or An historicall description of 
the most famous kingdohies and common- weales- 
therein. Relating their scituations, manners,, 
customes, ciuill gouernment, and other memor- 
able matters. Translated into English, and 
inlarged. Imprinted at London by Edm, 
Bollifant, for lohn laggard. 1601. 
Small 4to, 2 leaves + pp. 1-222 ; dedication 
signed " I. R." 

The dedication to Edward, Earl of Wor- 
cester (for whom see 'D.N.B.,' liii. 231), 
is identical in A, B, and D. The change 
of title from 'The Travellers Breviat' to 
' The Worlde,' and the transposing of the 
initials from " R. I." to " I. R." were- 
doubtless publisher's tricks. I have not 
seen C and E. W. C. B. 

" HOVELLING." Before the Select Com- 
mittee on Cinque Port Pilots, sitting on 
27 June, 1833, Edward Darby, managing 
clerk to a firm of ship agents, who had 
resided at Deal all his life, was questioned 
as to the deplorable condition of the boatmen 
there. He was asked (Minutes of Evidence 
in ' Parl. Pap., Eng., 1833,' vii. 534) : 

"Q. 29. Have you lost any other branch of 
employ ? What we term hovelling is not so good 
as it was ; that arises from the introduction of 
chain cables instead of hemp cables. 

"30. What is hovelling ? Supplying ships with 
anchors and cables, and such things as that. 

" 31. And that is not so brisk a trade as it was ? 
Certainly not. 

"32. To what do you attribute the change ? The 
introduction of chain cables principally, to the 
exclusion of hemp." 

The context clearly differentiates the trade 
of " hovelling " from smuggling. It seems- 
worth while to ask for this to be recorded 
in view of the article on the word in 'N.E.D.' 

Q. V. 

Fellow of All Souls, resigned in 1553 ('Ar- 
chives of All Souls College, Oxford,' p. 379). 
He was clearly the David Pole of ' D.N.B.,' 
xlvi. 20. 

One David Powell, M.A., Fellow of Oriel 
(not mentioned in Foster's ' Alumni Oxoni- 
enses '), was ordained sub-deacon in New 
College Chapel on 18 Feb., 1553 (Frere's 
' Marian Reaction,' p. 215). One David 
Powell was admitted to the vicarage of 
Kenton, Devon, 4 Aug., 1554, and succeeded 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUG. 15, im 

30 May, 1562 (Oliver's ' Ecclesiastical Anti- 
quities,' i. 18). A' prebendary of Salisbury 
of this name is mentioned by Dr. Sander 
as deprived at Queen Elizabeth's accession 
<Gee's ' Elizabethan Clergy,' p. 227). 

The 'D.N.B.,' xlvi. 238, and Foster's 
4 Alumni Oxonienses ' make the " Welsh 
antiquary," who married about 1572, be- 
come a Fellow of All Souls in 1573. The 
person who was elected Fellow of All Souls 
in 1573, and graduated M.A. 6 July, 1576, 
was another David Powell, one of the sons 
of Howell ap James of Pant-glas. He be- 
came Rector of Llanwetherine in Monmouth- 
shire in 1578. By 8 February he had 
arrived at Paris with two other " Welsh 
priests," William Morgan and Thomas 
Pryse, both of Brecknockshire, with a view 
of going to Rheims and becoming priests 
and scholars of the seminary (' Cal. S.P. 
For. 1581-2,' p. 486). However, in point 
of fact none of them did go on to Rheims. 
David Powell returned to Llanwetherine, 
married, and died 11 Aug., 1621, in posses- 
sion of the living, in which he was succeeded 
by his son Valentine, born about 1591 
{Bradney's ' Monmouthshire,' pp. 264, 272). 

LOTEN'S MUSEUM. I think the following 
from The Eastern Morning News of 22 July 
is worthy of a place in ' N. & Q.' For many 
years the museum was to be seen in Mr. 
Loten' s lovely cottage at Easington, Holder- 
ness, East Yorkshire, and proved a great 
attraction to all sorts and conditions of 
people. It has been described in several 
popular English and American magazines. 

" SALE OF MR. LOTEN'S MUSEUM. There was an 
unique auction sale in Hull yesterday, the stuffed 
birds and objects made from fish bones, &c., form- 
ing Loten's Museum, and the cottage at Easington, 
being offered for sale at the Ormonde Club. The 
exhibits have been on view at the club for some 
time. They are all the work of the late Mr. Loten, 
who had a genius for turning anything and every- 
thing into something artistic. From old postage 
stamps he made a beautiful plaque, and from fish 
"bones he made a very pretty spray. There are 
several floral sprays in the exhibition, and one has 
been made entirely of red onion peel. Mr. Loten 
-was also highly successful at taxidermy. The series 
included several cases of robins, in which the birds 
were made to appear as if attending a wedding, 
with the procession and festivities. In another an 
owl was digging a grave, and in a larger case several 
l>irds were represented taking part in a funeral 
procession, carrying a tiny coffin on their backs. 
The collection comprised over 150 cases. The 
cottage at Easington, in which they had been 
housed, was included in the sale. Mr. T. G. Hart, 
Withernsea, was the auctioneer, and he explained 
that few if any auctioneers had ever offered a lot 
that could more truthfully be described as unique. 

The late Mr. Loten had shown great care, patience, 
and perseverance in carrying out the work, and a 
great love and knowledge of art. All the birds 
were stuffed true to nature. There was a large 
attendance. Bidding commenced at 200/., and at 
35W. the lot was sold to Mr. Clifford Charlton, 83, 
Heaton Road, Newcastle." 

Mr. Loten was pleasant and unassuming 
in his manners, and was much respected 
by his neighbours and those who came in 
contact with him. It is to be regretted that 
his mind gave way and that he died in a 
local asylum. WILLIAM ANDREWS. 

SHACKLEWELL LANE. This rural tho- 
roughfare (dear to all lovers of Elia) has 
recently been the object of what I cannot 
regard as "an improvement." On the 
south side of it, starting from Norfolk Road, 
there stood a row of old elms (about half a 
dozen or so), between which there were 
several seats on which we may well believe 
Elia had often sat down. These have been 
uprooted and a wider roadway made for 
which there was no real necessity. Unless 
the trees were dangerous to wayfarers 
(and, as far as my judgment goes, they 
did not seem so), I cannot see why the 
place should have been shorn of its natural 
beauty. M. L. R. BBESLAB. 

TIONS.' (See 10 S. ii. 281, 351 ; iii. 447 ; 
vii. 24 ; ix. 107, 284, 333.) No. 3052 (among 
the ' Adespota ' ) 

Hinc venti dociles resono se carcere solvunt, 
Et cantum accepta pro libertate rependunt. 

This epigram on an organ is by Jean Bap- 
tiste de Santeul (1630-97). See 'Joan. 
Baptistse Santolii. . . .Opera Poetica,' Paris, 
1695, p. 318. The distich, which is headed 
' Pour 1'Orgue,' begins Hie. The author is 
described on his title-page as " Poetarum 
hujus seculi princeps." 

It will be seen from No. 256 in Mr. King's 
book that the motto " Castigat ridendo 
mores," afterwards adopted by the Opera 
Comique, is said to have been composed 
by Santeul. EDWARD BENSLY. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

FLAGSHIP. At 10 S. vi. 306 MR. HIBGAME 
placed upon record some particulars of 
Mr. John Stainer, reputed to be the " only 
known survivor of the battle of Navarino," 
of whom The Daily Graphic on 20 Oct., 
1906, gave a portrait. In connexion with 
this notable engagement it may be recorded 
that the old two-decker Asia was on 5 May 
last towed away from Portsmouth to be 

10 s. x. AUG. 15, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


broken up in the Thames. She had long 
been out of service, but will be remembered 
as having been the flagship at the battle 
of Navarino. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 

wondered whether there has ever been 
anything in ' N. & Q.' on the origin of the 
name Bream's Buildings. I fancy it may 
have been after Arnold Breams, who built 
the Dover Custom-House in the reign of 
Charles I. and who had offices in London. 


[Numerous references to articles on Bream's 
Buildings appear in the General Indexes to the 
Eighth and Ninth Series.! 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
(a order that answers may be sent to them direct. 


I SHALL feel obliged for any reference to 
or explanation of the following passages 
in a writer of the close of the seventeenth 
century : 

1. Though we seem nearer the Heavens, yet our 
Bodies here are more Earthy, and the Mind wants 
that active Fire that always mounts, as it' it were 
extinguished by its Antiparistasis. What is Anti- 
paristasis ? 

2. Non minor est virtus quam quserere parta 

3. Fluctum enim totius Barbarise ferre urbs una 
non poterat. 

4. Of the Pyrrhic dance : Hsec Celebratio non 
oranino dissimilis ei generi exerceri solita h Juve- 
iiibus armatis Lacedemoniae cum Patris Achillis 
rogum celebraret. 

5. Quod Reges Indorum protinus aureis 
Orbibus includunt, et vina liquantia potant, 
Actum nee morbos tuti sentire feruntur, 
Nee quae inter mensas occulta hausere venena. 

6. Nil gravius nil improbius quam fcemina vivit. 
Of. Homer, < Odyssey,' xi. 427. 

7. Et certamen habent laethi, quae viva sequatur 

Conjugium : pudor est non licuisse mori. 
Ardent victrices et flammae pectora praebent, 
Imponuntque suis ora perusta viris. 

8. Romse, Lutetise ac Venetiae Nemo quicquid 

9. Snakes are generated out of Human'Brains 
putrefying. Where does Pliny state this ? 

10. Like the Scythian Ateas, who. hearing one 
sweetly modulating on an Ismean Pipe, swore that 
lie had rather hear the neighing of an Horse, or the 
Clangor of Horns or Trumpets. 

11. Esse prsestantem aliquam aeternamque Na- 
turam, et earn suspiciendam adorandamque, homi- 
num genus cardoque rerum Caelestium cogit con- 
fiteri. Where does Cicero say this? 

12. JSstivo nunquam conspectus Sydere Glaucus. 

13. Nutrit ubi implumes peregrina Ciconia foetus, 

Ad nidos abies consita primo [sic] fuit. 

14. Sic Angustiis a nob\s devictis ad Augusta 

15. Hie penes Persas Magus est qui sidera novit, 
Qui scit herbarum vires cultumque deorum, 
Persepoli facit ista Magos sapientia triplex. 

16. Atque illi primum sperare salutem 
Sic Ausi, afflictis melius confidere rebus. 

17. Who was Petrus Angelina, and where, in his 
" 5 lib. Cyneget.," does he write thus : 

Quos India pascit Onagros, 
Jam primum niveo corpus candore teguntur, 
Infecti Assyrio circum caput omne colore 
Cseruleis oculis, unoque in fronte superbi 
Cornu ? 

18. Said to be from the same : 

At sonitu ingenti putrem quatit ungula campum 
Cornua, venantem quoties fugiere : suisque 
Temporibus stant longae Aures, turn Corpora Cervo 
Exsuperant ; nee Lana nitet non albo [sic] colore, 
Mixta Nigro ; ceu cum Nubes densantur opacae 
Et totum eripiunt oculis ccelumque diemque. 
Nigraque per medios decurrit toenia lumbos 
Linda, quam clunes tractim comitantur ad imos, 
Utraque distinguens niveo sua tergora ductu. 

19. Who wrote these " facetious verses " ? 
Ergo ubi lapsa jacent sua quisque sub arbore pomas 
Accedunt Lo3ti, seque in sua terga volutant, 
Donee fixa rubis hserentia mala supremis 
Exportent : implentque penum liventibus uvis ; 
Quorum acinis quoties sentes onerantur acutae 
Perjucunda sui prcebent spectacula nobis, 
Quippe humeros tecti sic ingrediuntur, ut ipsa 

Ire putes totos avulsos vite racemos. 
Ah ! tibi ne cupidos sensus tarn tangat habendi, 
Tantus amor furem ut tentes arcere jocosum, 
Atque oculos durus jucundo avertere Ludo 
Eripere, et natis dulcem expectantibus escam ? 

20. Where does Ovid write thus ? 

Cum modo Frigoribus premitur, modo solvitur 

Tempore non certo, corpora Languor habet. 

21. Queis tentant et arantes arenas 
Littoris Assyrii viatores. 

22. Quintus Curtius says of Persia : Regio non 
alia in tota Asia salubrior habetur, temperatum 
Coelum ; hinc perpetuum jugum opacum et um- 
brosum, quod JEstas laevat ; illinc Mare adjunctum 
quod modico tepore terras fovet. Where? 



Siccitas humores facit (jualitate sicciores. 

24. Salus Civium in Legibus consistit. 

25. Justitia una alias virtutes continet omnes. 

26. Livy writes (where ?) : Continuus aspectus 
minus verendos magnos homines facit. 

27. Ubi honor non est, ubi Cupiditas gloriae ease 
non potest. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. is, im 


28. Titulo digriatus eqnestri 
Virtutem titulis titulos virtutibus ornans. 

29. Lernseam vere subolem 
Pragmaticorum, qui lites ex litibus serunt 
Mortalibus immortaliter. 

Lites fuge 
Macrum arbitrium Judicio potius est. 

31. Per Mare et per Terras, per quod tegit omnu 


32. Pectoris et cordis pariter proprieque mouile 
Ornatus. Colli sunt torques, auris in aures, 
Annulus est marmum, sicut armillse brachio 

Atque periscelides exornant crura puellge. 

33. Quotidie viro nubit, 
Nupsitque hodie, 
Nubit mox noctu. 

34. Turpis libido (scilicet) potens venere 
Luxuria viotrix, orbis irnmensas opes, 
Jampridem avaris manibus ut perdat, rapit 

Seneca. Where ? 

35. Prima Salutantes atque altera continet hora. 

36. Hoc iter manifesto rotse vestigia cernes. 

37. Where does Claudian write thus ? 

In caelo nunquam spectatam impune Cometam 


reader inform me when George Hastings 
died, and where he was buried ? Sydney C. 
Grier states that he was sent home in 1761 
under the care of Sir Francis (then Mr.) 
Sykes, and Mr. Austen Leigh in his life of 
Jane Austen says (speaking from family 
tradition) that the boy was entrusted to the 
care of the Rev. George Austen for his 
education, and that he died young of a 
putrid sore throat. I should be glad of 
some confirmation of these facts. 

R. A. A. L. 


any reader of < N. & Q.' confer a favour 
on the undersigned by pointing out where 
information can be obtained as to the 
members of the staff of Mr. Hans Stanley's 
mission to Paris in 1761 especially as to 
those who were with Mr. Stanley in Paris 
in August, 1761 ? Mr. Stanley left England 
on 24 May. Thomas Pownall, previously 
Governor of Massachusetts, afterwards M.P., 
did not go with him, but it is thought that 
he may have been sent by Mr. Pitt at the 
end of June or beginning of July to join 
Mr. Stanley in Paris. There is a strong 
presumption to this effect, but proof is 
sought for, such as would be given by the 
pay-sheets of the mission or mention of 
Pownall's having been with it. 

15, St. John's Park, Blacklieath, S.E. 

Was this common ? I do not recollect 
seeing it elsewhere than in the ' Brut ' or 
' Chronicles of England,' the completion 
of whose text is now in the press for the- 
Early English Text Society. Chap. 240, 
p. 342, says that Sir Robert Tresilian, the- 
Justice ; Sir Nicholas Brembre, knight and: 
citizen of London ; Sir John Salisbury,, 
knight, of the King's household ; Usk r 
Serjeant-of-Arms (author of ' The Testa- 
ment of Love ' ) ; and many more people, 
were judged, for treason, "to be drawn 
from the Tower of London through the 
City, and so forth to Tyburn ; and there 
to be hanged, and there their throats to be cut ,- 
and thus they were served, and died." 


be glad if ' N. & Q.' could aid me in a search 
which is being made for some portrait of 
the Rev. Dr. Isaac Basire, Prebendary of 
Durham, Archdeacon of Northumberland, 
and chaplain to both Charles I. and II. 
In his will, dated 1676, he left his pictures 
(including his own, his wife's, and Bishop 
Morton's portraits) to Mary Nelson, wife 
of Prebendary Nelson of Carlisle. Neither 
this portrait nor any print of it can be found 
as yet, and it may be presumed that the 
Rev. W. Darnell, Rector of Stanhope in 
1831, who published the correspondence of 
Basire, had no knowledge of any likeness, 
as the book lacks a portrait. 

Egglescliffe Rectory, co. Durham. 

the autumn of 1866 Lady Herbert published 
an English translation of the lives of Mile, 
de Gallard Terraube and of the Mere Devos 

as well as of the Abbe Bougaud's life of 
St. Monica), under the title of ' Three 
Phases of Christian Love.' The translator 
was unacquainted with the names of the 
respective writers of the first two memoirs. 
"}an some of the readers of ' N. & Q.' supply 

his information ? R. B. 


PROF. SKEAT repeats, ante, p. 37, a state- 
ment which he made in The Athenceum of 
2 Dec., 1893, that Widkirk is the old name 
>f Woodkirk in Yorkshire. In writing on 
he subject of ' The Wakefield Mysteries ' 
or ' Towneley Plays ' ) in Anglia, xii. 509-24, 
stated that I could find no trace of the 
ormer pronunciation, though the following 
pellings had been discovered in various 

10 s. x. AUG. is, 



documents: Wudechirche (1202), Wode- 
kirk (1293), Wodkirk (1379), Wodkyrc (1379), 
Woodkirk (1490, &c.), Wodkyrke (1546), 
Woodkirke (1595), and Woodchurch (1623, 
1642, 1716, 1756, 1765, &c.). The present 
pronunciation is Woodkirk or Woodchurch ; 
and Widkirk is quite unknown. 

Can PROF. SKEAT supply any evidence in 
support of his assertion that Widkirk is the 
old name of Woodkirk ? The question is 
important, for the reason that, in default 
of such evidence, all the arguments used to 
prove that ' The Wakefield Mysteries ' were 
acted at Woodkirk fall to the ground, and 
this is the view held by Ten Brink, Symonds, 
Prof. A. W. Ward, J. P. Collier, Prof. Hohl- 
feld, Dr. Davidson, Mr. A. W. Pollard, and 
others. Douce was the first to imagine 
that 'The Wakefield Mysteries' did not 
belong to Wakefield, stating in 1814 that 
the manuscript was " supposed to have 
formerly belonged to the Abbey of Widkirk, 
near Wakefield." In 1822 he relinquished 
this view, and named *' the Abbey of 
Whalley in Lancashire " as the original 
home of the manuscript. 

There never was any " Abbey of Widkirk " 
near Wakefield, but there was a Cell of 
Augustinian Canons at Woodkirk, and so 
the theory was started that Widkirk was 
the old name of Woodkirk, and that the 
plays were acted there. A mere guess on 
the part of Douce, which he himself aban- 
doned, has thus been sufficient to cause 
numerous critics and editors to ignore the 
plain references to Wakefield in the manu- 
script, and to adopt a theory which seems 
to me quite untenable, being opposed to 
documentary evidence, local circumstances, 
and the analogy supplied by the other great 
cycles of Mysteries belonging to York, 
Chester, and Coventry, which were certainly 
not acted in an obscure and inconvenient 
village four miles away from the city where 
there was every reason that they should be 


FRIDAY STREET. This is the name of 
several hamlets in Surrey. What is its 
origin ? HIPPO GLIDES. 

quently asked as to my knowledge of this 
old Westminster charity school, and more 
especially as to pictures of it. I have never 
seen an engraving of it, but that is, of course, 
not to say that there is none in existence. 
I shall be glad to know if any have been met 
with, and the names of books in which they 

may occur, as well as any other particulars. 
This old school seems to have had but 
scanty notice at the hands of writers on 
Westminster matters, and the difficulty 
in the way of getting particulars is very 
great. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 


Bacon has a passage which begins : 

"The idols of the market-place are the most 
troublesome of all those, namely, which have en- 
twined themselves round the understanding from 
the associations of words and names." 
Where in his works (say Stebbing's edition) 
can I find it ? T. X. S. 

1. Yet who would stop, or fear to advance, 
Though home and shelter he had none, 
With such a sky to lead him on ? 

2. Jowk, and let the jow gae by. 

3. The French have taste in all they do, 

Which we are quite without ; 
For Nature, which to them gave ga&t, 
To us gave only gout. 

Stromness, Orkney. 

SNo. 3 is by Thomas, Lord Erskine. Davenport 
ams in his 'English Epigrams' (Routledge) 
gives the following anonymous reply : 
Condemn not in such haste, 
To letters four appealing ; 
Their goiit is only taste, 
The English "gout" is feeling.] 

BRITAIN.' I shall be glad if any of your 
readers will tell me if it is possible to obtain 
the key of the above print, published in the 
sixties. A written copy from the key 
would suffice. A. J. STURGES. 

25, High Street, Guildford. 

ST. KENELM'S AT WARE. I have two 
prints on the same sheet, each about 4 in. 
diameter : under the left is * Mr. Kensett's 
Glass house at Ware ' ; under the right, 
' St. Kenelms-at-Ware.' I should be much 
obliged if some correspondent could inform 
me where this chapel was situated, and the 
name of the book place, date, and size 
in which the print appeared. The prints 
do not refer to Ware, Herts. 


Bengeo Lodge, Hertford. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds in his discourse to the 
students of the Royal Academy, 11 Dec., 
1780, stated that " in this town may be 
seen an equestrian statue in a modern dress 
which may be sufficient to deter future artists 
from any such attempt." To what statue 
did he allude ? G. F. R. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. is, IMS. 

DEAN COOKES wafe a King's scholar at 
Westminster School in 1740, when he was 
aged fourteen. He was a native of West- 
minster, and his father's Christian name 
was Edward. Can any correspondent of 

* N. & Q.' kindly furnish me with further 
information concerning him ? 

G. F. R. B. 

grateful for further information as to an 
opuscule in my library bearing this title, 
and with the imprint " Norimbergae, Anno 
M.DC.LXV." It bears the stamp of the 
Bibliotheca Heberiana, and a pencil note, 
possibly in Heber's MS. : " As rare as it 
is curious not mentioned in Fournier or 

* Dictionnaire Bibliographique.' " There are 
further notes in a French handwriting. 

12, Seymour Street, W. 

MEDALS. I have recently been given a set 
of coins which I am told were issued in 1902 
in connexion with King Edward's accession, 
namely, 51., 21., II., and 10s. in gold ; 5s., 
2s. Qd., 2s., Is., Qd., d., 3d., 2d., and Id. 
in silver ; and Id., $d., and %d. in copper. 

1. Were these the only coins issued in 
connexion with the King's accession ? 

2. Were any medals struck, and, if so, 
what medals, in connexion with the King's 

3. Were there any (i.; coins or (ii.) medals 
issued or struck, and, if so, what coins or 
medals, at the time of Queen Victoria's 
(a) Jubilee or (b) Diamond Jubilee ? 


ZOFFANY. I am anxious to discover if 
there are any portraits of Zoffany (the 
artist who painted David Garrick many 
times), if so, where they can be seen ; also 
if he ever painted a portrait of himself. 

(Mrs.) E. SELWYN. 

[The National Portrait Gallery contains a por- 
trait painted by himself in 1761. The ' D.N.B.' 
states that St. Peter in the altarpiece of ' The Last 
Supper' which Zoffany presented to St. George's 
Church, Old Brentford, is a likeness of himself.] 

DANZIG : ITS SIEGE IN 1813. Where can 
I find a good account, either in English 
or French, of the siege of Danzig in 1813 ? 

T. F. D. 

H. HOPPER, MODELLER. I shall be glad 
if any one can tell me if this man was of any 
note, as I have two plaster busts with the 
following on the back : " H. Hopper. 
London. October, 1814." These busts 

stand about two feet high, are very 
well done, and represent the Duke of 
Wellington and Lord Hill. 

Innellari, Shrewsbury. 


(10 S. ix. 502 ; x. 72.) 

MR. ST. JOHN HOPE'S interesting reprint 
of his article on the Union Flag has just 
been handed to me. Having, by many- 
efforts, .'* pegged away " for years at this 
subject, contributing, amongst other things, 
articles to The Genealogical Magazine and 
later a chapter in ' The Art of Heraldry,' 
by Mr. Fox-Davies, I should much value 
the admission into your columns of a few 
remarks, confining myself entirely to the 
consideration of the relative proportions 
of the various charges borne upon our 

Ever since 1801 certain details connected 
with the flag have been the subject of 
repeated and adverse criticisms, and these 
are sure to continue, so long as some at 
least of these details remain unaltered. 
MR. ST. JOHN HOPE, after quoting PROF. 
SKEAT and Mr. Green, F.S.A., offers us a 
decidedly clever and most ingenious alter- 
native verbal blazon to that given by the 
College authorities in the Order in Council. 
The long-criticized phrase " the latter 
fimbriated of the second " is neatly dealt 
with by MR. HOPE'S word " dimidiated." 
Nevertheless, since the Crown leaves to the 
College of Heralds the duty of officially 
arranging all details, such as verbally 
blazoning, illustrating, and registering all 
grants, in its own fashion, I cannot but 
think that the " official description " should 
be deemed good enough, without further 
demur. In the case under discussion the 
authorities of the College appended a sketch 
(avowedly a rough sketch) to their verbal 
blazon of the Flag, and this sketch (now 
virtually effaced, but replaced by a clearer 
drawing) might well suffice to explain the 
limited way in which the term " fimbriated" 
was intended to be employed in connexion 
with the St. Patrick's saltire. Yet, be 
this as it may, the whole difficulty has arisen 
not out of the official blazon at all, but 
out of the action of some person or persons 
no longer traceable, who seem to have 
supplied the Admiralty as the body to 
whom was delegated the power of seeing 

10 s. x. AUG. is, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Flag rightly flown with a table of 
proportions, guided by which the flag- 
makers sewed together the actual bunting. 
This is known as the Admiralty pattern. 
In this pattern lies all the pother. Ho\r 
this is so I shall try to show. 

Heraldry has its distinct rules. A cross 
is one-third, and a saltire is one-fifth, of 
the shield's or flag's width. A fimbriation, 
in English heraldry, has no actual proportion 
assigned to it : it is regarded simply as a 
narrow edging, and is generally introduced 
to keep tincture off tincture. Again, all 
charges of the same kind, appearing on a 
shield or flag, are of the same size unless, 
as on Norman-shaped shields, these charges 
must necessarily be smaller at the base than 
at the chief. Finally, an exception to the 
exact proportions of ordinaries and sub- 
ordinaries is made when a field is crowded 
with them. In this case they are somewhat 

Judged by these rules, the Admiralty 
pattern contains two very bad blunders, 
and a third hardly less excusable. Take 
the cross of St. George and its fimbriations. 
Years ago, nigh upon forty, a French visitor 
to the Britannia, being known as an enthusi- 
astic lover of heraldry, was asked to describe 
the Union Flag to the cadets. He is said 
to have spoken after this wise : " You will 
see in the centre of your magnificent flag 
(alas that so it is !) the white cross of 
St. Denis of France surmounted by the 
red cross of St. George, to show how you did 
win the battle of Trafalgar." The fimbria- 
tion of the St. George is so unnecessarily 
wide that, to a student of heraldry not 
previously warned, it does seem as if the 
proper blazon should be, " Cross argent, 
with a cross gules superinduced." This is 
the first blunder. 

The second is, if possible, a less excusable 
mistake, and certainly one giving rise to 
considerable irritation. I refer to the 
treatment of the saltires. The heralds tell 
us they are to be counterchanged. An 
essential principle of counterchanging is 
that the charges counterchanged are equally 
treated. That this was the intention of 
the College is plainly declared by reference 
to the sketch which accompanies the verbal 
blazon. Rough though it be (I mean, 
drawn without exact measurement), the 
saltire of St. Patrick is there shown as 
equal in width to that of St. Andrew. And 
why not ? Surely Pat is as well set up as 
Sandy any day of the week. It was the 
unknown authors of the Admiralty pattern 
who chose to take St. Patrick's fimbriations 

off the field of the saltire, and not off the 
Flag's field. Blunder number two ! 

Lastly, what reason was there for making 
the sub-ordinary (the fimbriation) absurdly 
wide round the St. George, and ridiculously 
narrow in the case of St. Patrick ? 
Gratuitous ignoring, ^this, of rules for yet 
a third time. 

Please extend your indulgence a little 
further. The Admiralty pattern does show 
some acquaintance with the rules above 
noted, for the St. George, plus its fimbria- 
tions, is one-third the Flag's width, and the 
two saltires, plus the St. Patrick's fimbria- 
tion, are one-fifth. All the more reason 
why the rules should have been uniformly 
closely observed. If it were impossible 
to build up a flag under recognized rules, 
then one might be contented to approve 
the Admiralty pattern ; but such is not the 
case. I have had many flags made by a 
well-known London firm, both for my own 
use and the use of friends and of public 
institutions ; and these flags have invariably 
been admired, and are free from the un- 
necessary blunders so long complained of as 
stereotyped by the Admiralty. Surely there 
is no occasion to stand on one's dignity and 
refuse to correct an error. The Admiralty are 
not heralds, nor are they flag-makers, they 
represent our first line of defence, our handy 
men. And as to the College of Heralds, 
they have been sinned against, not sinning, 
and so they might well come to the Flag's 

' N. & Q.' has already issued a capital 
coloured drawing of the Admiralty pattern. 
I subjoin the proportions of another flag, 
which are heraldically correct : 
Flag, 7i ft. by 15ft. 

St. George 21 in. 1 qni n nr 1 

Two fimbriations, each 4i in. 9 / l 
St. Andrew and St. Patrick, "^ 

each6|in 13i } 18 in., or . 

St. Patrick, fimbriation ... 4| J 

If 4iin. be deemed too narrow, and so 
tending to over-accentuate the red in the 
Flag, it is easy to increase the fimbriations 
and diminish the cross, e.g. : 

Three fimbriations, 5 in. each. 
St. George, 20 in. 
St. Andrew, 13 in. 

I am only a country parson, unknown 
and uninfluential, so I trust that ' N. & Q.' 
will come to the help of the Flag. 


In connexion with the matters put upon 
record by MB. JOHN C. FBANCIS concerning 
the National Flag, it may be well for 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 15, iooe. 

4 N. & Q.' to contaifi a reference to what 
the Daily Mail of 30 July calls a " peculiar 
incident " that took place at Dover. The 
paragraph is headed ' The Royal Standard.' 
It states that 

"a peculiar incident occurred in connexion with 
the visit of the Duchess of Albany to the Dover 
Pageant yesterday. The Royal Standard having 
been run up at the hotel where her Royal Highness 
lunched, an Admiralty official called and ordered 
that it should be hauled down, informing the 
management that an order had been issued that the 
Royal Standard is only to be flown when the King 
is personally present. The Royal Standard was 
therefore hauled down and replaced by the Union 

We have here, apparently, a strong indica- 
tion that the reply of the Earl of Crewe in 
the House of Lords stated the case most 
thoroughly, and makes it easy for loyal 
citizens to do what is right and in accord- 
ance with law. 


VOWEL-SHORTENING (10 S. x. 43, 111). 
Like the Player-Queen, PROF. SKEAT " doth 
protest too much, methinks." He accuses 
us of ignorance of the law of vowel- 
shortening because we pronounce primer with 
the * as in prime. " If," says he, " they 
recognized that our language has phonetic 
laws, they would certainly say primmer." 
Well, I am afraid I come under the ban, 
because I recognize no more obligation to 
say primmer than I do to say finner, timly, 
lonly, makker, ladder, &c., instead of finer, 
timely, lonely, maker, loader, &c. In fact, 
I think it would be as easy to make as long 
a list of lengthened forms in which the long 
vowel is not shortened as PROF. SKEAT has 
given of those in which it is so. He tells 
us now that it is a " law " that shortens 
these vowels ; apparently it was not so 
when his ' Primmer ' was written, for in 
that he only observes that " a long vowel 
is very apt to be shortened by the accentual 
stress falling upon it." It seems uncritical 
to apply the term " law " to a tendency 
which fails to take effect in such a large 
percentage of cases. 


ix. 22, 113, 236, 315, 515). I am obliged 
to MR. WILMSHTJRST for his ingenious com- 
mentary, but greatly fear he missed the 
humour of my reply. I repeat that " Sala " 
never was a Jewish name, albeit ST. SWITHIN 
has been kind enough to assert the contrary. 
My own fancy tends to " Sheleach," Hebrew 

for chief or headman. These personages 
were invariably the bankers of their poorer 
brethren, and had large funds at their 
disposal for lending at interest. How 
Shakespeare got hold of the name Sheleach 
is a puzzle quite as hard to explain as 
ST. SWITHIN'S " Sala." If it could be shown 
that many Venetian Jews were " basket 
makers," then the name " Sala " would 
be a derivative of Sal= basket. 


369, 450). One must not omit Francisque 
Michel's ' Les ^cossais en France, les 
Frangais en Ecosse,' especially the second 
volume. Both are admirable, however, 
and not least as indicating in the notes 
sources where fuller material may be found. 
On the point of the presence of French 
words in Scotch of to-day, Francisque 
Michel has the credit of having dealt with 
the subject more fully and systematically 
than any one else. His ' Critical Inquiry 
into the Scottish Language, with the View 
of illustrating the Rise and Progress of 
Civilisation in Scotland ' (Blackwood, 1882), 
is a storehouse of French words, many of 
them still in common use in Scotland, and 
classified in a way that no one else has ever 
attempted. Michel was much less at home 
in the philology of Scotch words than in, 
say, that of the Basque provinces, and he 
has been rather sharply (often, rightly 
enough) assailed for many of his derivations ; 
but that notwithstanding, his ' Inquiry ' 
stands as really a dictionary, more or less 
exhaustive, of French words in Scotch. 

Perhaps accurate scholarship on the 
subject is best represented in Prof. Gregory 
Smith's 'Specimens of Middle Scots' 
(Blackwood, 1902) ; see also the articles 
on the same subject in the new volume of 
' The Cambridge History of English Lite- 
rature.' Prof. Gregory Smith traces the 
sources of the language more scientifically 
than had previously been done, but seems 
to ascribe too much influence to literature. 
There must have been a great deal of living 
ordinary intercourse at work before there 
could be the universal use of such common 
words as "dresser" (meaning a kind of side- 
board, common in Scotch households), Fr. 
dressoir ; " kickshaws," Fr. quelque chose ; 
'gean" (wild cherry), Fr. guigne ; "backet" 
ash-box), Fr. baquet ; " cadis " (tufts of 
woollen waste), Fr. cadis (" caddie " also, 
now almost as widely known again as when 
applied to the " porters," or watchmen of 
Old Edinburgh) ; " fent " (opening in a 

10 s. x. AUG. 15, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


sleeve or skirt), Fr. fente; "mitten" (a glove 
without fingers), Fr. mitaine ; " bowie " 
(cask), Fr. buie ; " Provost," Fr. (Provost) 
Prevot ; and hundreds of other words 
scarcely less familiar. 

Place- or street-names were a class of 
words that Francisque Michel left untouched, 
but there, too, the French influence survives 
in Scotland. Many old Scotch towns have 
streets bearing " Row " as part of the name, 
Fr. Rue ; thus in Aberdeen two of our very 
oldest streets are the Ship-Row and the 
Guest- (Ghaist) Row. Again, we have no 

wharves in Scotland ; they are all quays 

Fr. quai. More interesting than either is 
the name " vennel," for a small, narrow, 
winding street. Perth, the ancient capital, 
has the Cow Vennel, the Fleshers' Vennel, 
the Guard Vennel, and the Meal Vennel ; 
Ayr has them ; Dumfries and others of the 
older towns as well. As far north as Hugh 
Miller's birthplace, Cromarty, there is 
still the Big Vennel. Aberdeen had one, 
the most wretched of the " slum " pro- 
perties of its later years, till it was cleared 
away in 1841. This is the French la 
venelle, a small by-street, which has been used 
in France and Scotland continuously for 
centuries to signify the same thing. This, 
too, is interesting about the name that 
for many years in Scotland it has also had 
a generic significance. One may still hear 
a Scotch housewife, who wishes to speak 
contemptuously of a place, describe it as 
" a vennel of a place," when otherwise, 
limited to the Teutonic, she might speak of 
a pigsty. There is no space to speak of a 
more general class of place-names, but I like 
to make a special note of one when I come 
across it, viz., " Cunninghar Hill." I know 
of one near Dunrobin, another at Alloa, a 
third at Aberdeen. There must be many 
more. It is the Old French coniniere, 
a rabbit warren, which, however, may 
have come to us only indirectly from the 

One more example may be permitted 
from this city. The title of the civic 
dignitary next in order to the Provost 
as everywhere in Scotland is the " Baillie." 
And this curious thing is to be noted that 
in Aberdeen alone is the old French double I 
retained in the title. Everywhere else 
even in official documents received here 
from people who might be presumed to 
know it is " Bailie." I was interested 
in noting the other day a very apt example 
too long to quote in Anatole France's 
new ' Vie de Jeanne d'Arc,' of the use of 
the Old French title, where the document 

spoke of the cruel zeal of the " Bailli " at 
the execution of the damsel, in throwing 
her ashes into the Seine. 

Public Library, Aberdeen. 

The Scottish word " unco " does not 
come from the Latin unquam through 
French one or onques, but is a direct repre- 
sentative of the English " uncouth." It 
is variously used as an adjective, an adverb, 
and a substantive. " Nae safe wading in 
unco waters " is one of the Scottish proverbs 
in Ramsay's collection, " unco " in its 

Eosition clearly meaning unknown or un- 
miiliar. In ' Guy Mannering,' chap. xiiL 
the old maidservant told the Colonel that 
" the Laird was something better. . . .and r 
as the day was fine for the time o' year, they 
had carried him in his easy chair up to the 
green before the auld castle, to be out of the 
way of this unco spectacle." Burns has 
many examples of the word both as adjective 
and adverb, his ' Address to the Unco Guid y 
and Tarn o' Shanter's " getting fou and unco 
happy " adequately illustrating its signi- 
ficance in the latter capacity. In the fifth 
stanza of ' The Cotter's Saturday Night * 
we have the substantive use exemplified 
in the line, 

Each tells the uncos that he sees or hears. 
" The uncos," of course, are the things that 
have just come under notice, the news of the 
country-side. THOMAS BAYNE. 

It is not clear what is suggested as the 
French equivalent of " mutch." The latter 
is short of the first syllable of Fr. aumusse 
(late Lat. almucia), which = probably, the 
Arabic al (the), approaching more nearly 
the cognate Ger. Mutze. For transference 
of meaning compare the allied words cap 
and cape. 

A superficial resemblance between O. Fr. 
oncques and " unco " is no justification for 
attempting to equate an adverb with an 
adjective, one from Latin and the other pure 
English. H. P. L. 

A list of twenty-five French words in 
Scotch is given at p. 49 of Scott Dalgleish's 
' Higher-Grade English,' a well - known 
school-book. ALEX. RUSSELL. 

Stromness, Orkney. 

G. M. T. will find a fairly comprehensive 
list of such words in Max O'Rell's * Friend 
MacDonald' (Bristol, Arrowsmith), pp. 131- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 15, im 

ROMANS AT YORK (10 S. x. 8). It has 
been conjectured that the Ninth Legion, 
which had formed part of the Roman ex- 
peditionary force in 43 A.D., and which had 
been nearly annihilated eighteen years later 
in the insurrection of Boudicca (Boadicea), 
was moved to York about the year 80, when 
that place became a principal military 
station in the governorship of Agricola. 
About 120 A.D. this legion disappears. It 
is usually supposed that it must have 
suffered very heavy losses during Hadrian's 
British wars, and that the survivors may 
have been incorporated in the legion which 
took its place. It is presumably the Ninth 
Legion to which Sir H. Drummond Wolff's 
antiquary referred. A few inscriptions men- 
tioning soldiers of the same, and many 
tiles bearing its stamp, have been found at 

But the legion that had the longest con- 
nexion with York was the Sixth (Victrix), 
which apparently succeeded to the quarters 
of the Ninth. Its presence there is men- 
tioned by Ptolemy and the Antonine Itine- 
rary. The ' Notitia Dignitatum ' (beginning 
of fifth century) notes a " prsefectus Le- 
gionis Sextse " at York. Several inscrip- 
tions mentioning this legion and many 
legionary tiles have been discovered (see 
* Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum,' vol. vii. ; 
' Ephemeris Epigraphica,' vols. iii. and vii. ; 
Pfitzner, ' Geschichte der romischen Kaiser- 
legionen von Augustus bis Hadrianus'). 

But apparently as early as the reign of 
Vespasian Italy ceased to supply recruits 
for the legions (see Prof. Purser's ' Exercitus ' 
in Smith's ' Diet, of Antiquities,' vol. i. 
p. 806, and Mommsen's article in Hermes 
there referred to). EDWARD BENSLY. 

" SABARITICKE " (10 S. ix. 488; x. 33, 
53). From the days of Dr. Johnson the 
task of a lexicographer has generally been 
regarded as one identified with patience and 
long-suffering. Among his woes are unsuit- 
able suggestions. DR. BRADLEY admittedly 
knows his business ; at the same time it 
may be averred that the allusion to the "Gulf 
of Sabara " is unlikely, Gr. 2a/3apaKos 
not corresponding to the English form 
" Sabariticke." And as to " Sybaritic sea " 
not having " any point," the fact is surely 
the opposite. Gluttony is implied in the 
passage quoted, not mere savage craving. 

W. B. 

MEDAL OF CHARLES I. (10 S. x. 68). To 
judge from the presence of the ring for 
attaching the medal to the person, this is 
probably a " badge " medal, which was 

furnished with a ring for suspension, par- 
tisans of each side wearing such a medal 
to signify their political sympathies. 
" When," says Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole in 
his ' Coins and Medals,' 1892 (p. 257), 
" we reflect that these pieces were once worn 
by the actors in that memorable drama, 
they can hardly fail to awaken a peculiarly 
pathetic interest." See further pp. 258-9. 


HOLY GRAIL (10 S. ix. 465 ; x. 17). On 
the alleged recent discovery of the Holy 
Grail at Glastonbury see The Academy, 
vol. Ixxii. pp. 739, 740 ; and on the subject 
of the Grail legends generally see Mr. 
Arthur Machen's papers in the same volume 
at pp. 797, 823, 844. 


Snails are now carefully hunted for in 
the hedges, and eaten as an article of food, 
in the neighbourhood of Swindon, Wilts. 
They were considered very valuable made 
into a broth in cases of weakness after 
illness, and even prescribed by a doctor for 
children after scarlet fever some fifty years 

Helix aspersa is the sort used here, the 
well-known " Roman snail " not being 
found in this neighbourhood. T. S. M. 


187, 255, 331). Humphrey Kynaston, one 
of the Kynastons of Myddle, was outlawed 
in 1491, and lived in a cave at Nesscliffe. 
There are many traditions concerning him, 
and, like other heroes of mediaeval times, 
he is said to have sold himself to the devil. 
Gregory in ' The Shropshire Gazetteer,' 
published by him in 1842, says : 

"The Chapel, which was in the Diocese of 
Coventry and Lichfield, the Deanery of Salop, and 
Archdeaconry of Salop, is dilapidated, and a school 
now occupies its place. Upon the front of the 
publick school is the following singular inscrip- 
tion : 

God protect the public good, 

A school erected where a chapel stood." 

It will be noticed that the first line of the 
above differs from that given by MR. PICK- 
FORD. A friend of mine, living in the 
district, sends me the inscription, which is : 
God prosper and prolong this public good : 
A school erected where a chapel stood. 1753. 

PRIOR AND HIS CHLOE (10 S. x. 7, 77). 
MR. YARD LEY'S condemnation of Chloe does 
not seem very convincing. I have known 

10 s. x. AUG. is, 1908. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the poem ( ' A Better Answer ' ) for forty 
years, and have never thought of it as bear- 
ing the interpretation which MB. YABDLEY 
gives it. On the contrary, I have always 
thought that the graceful and charming 
compliments it contains might have been 
addressed to any lady in the land. 

Does MB. YABDLEY remember the style 
of dress of ladies indeed, of women of all 
ranks in Prior's day ? ' A Lover's Anger ' 
may be considered a harmless jeu d* esprit 
when this is borne in mind. 

However, my query was meant to be 
Ts there any evidence that Miss Taylor was 
Prior's real Chloe ? the Chloe of so many 
of his poems being more or less an imaginary 
person. T. M. W. 

" ANGEL " OF AN INN (10 S. ix. 488 ; x. 
14, 55, 95). The host of "The Garter" 
{' Merry Wives of Windsor,' IV. v.) says of 
Palstaff : " There 's his chamber, his house, 
his castle, his standing-bed and truckle- 
"bed ; 'tis painted about with the story of 
the Prodigal, fresh and new." So painted 
it would naturally be known as the Prodigal 
Room or the Prodigal, more especially if 
other rooms had a similar decoration of 
their own. Doubtless the hostel-name of 
the rooms called the Angel, the Lion, the 
Lamb, and so forth is thus explained. It 
was before the days of wall-paper ! Alike 
in churches, as we know, and in domestic 
dwellings, this form of mural decoration was 
'destined to disappear under whitewash. 


88). ASTABTE will find the description of 
Stanton Harcourt to which he refers in an 
undated letter of Pope's to the Duke of 
Buckingham (probably written in the 
summer of 1718). The quotation as given 
from Mortimer Collins' s ' Pen Sketches ' is 
not literally accurate. The whole passage 
referring to the kitchen runs : 

" The kitchen is built in form of the Rotunda, 
Ireing one vast vault to the top of the house ; where 
one aperture serves to let out the smoke and let in 
the light. By the blackness oE the walls, the 
circular fires, vast cauldrons, yawning mouths of 
ovens and furnaces, you would think it either the 
forge of Vulcan, the cave of Polypheme, or the 
temple of Moloch. The horror of this place has 
made such an impression on the country people, 
that they believe the Witches keep their Sabbath 
liere, and that once a year the Devil treats them 
with infernal venison, a roasted tiger stuff'd with 
tenpemiy nails." 


[Ms. E. YAKDLEY also quotes Pope's letter.] 

ST. ANDBEW'S CBOSS (10 S. viii. 507 ; ix. 
32, 114 ; x. 91). St. Andrew's tomb is not 
" in the north of Italy," but at Amalfi, 
in the south of Italy, where he is much 
venerated. Baedeker says the body is 
said to have been there since the thirteenth 
century, when it wfcs brought from Con- 
stantinople. " The relics, from which an 
oily matter (manna di Sanf Andrea) of 
miraculous power is said to exude, attract 
numerous devotees." The tomb is in a 
crypt under the high altar, and is readily 
shown in return for small buona mano. 


The tomb of a " Sant' Andrea di Scozia," 
probably one of the Columban apostles of 
the Apennines, is in the church of a small 
village near Florence I believe Ponte a 
Mensola. This is probably the saint re- 
ferred to by Lord Rosebery. Q. V. 
[Reply from MR. A. R. BAYLEY next week.] 

RUSHLIGHTS (10 S. x. 27, 76, 93). In my 
communication on p. 93 I should have 
written grisset instead of " cresset," and 
should have stated that a common name 
for these implements is " rush-boat." This 
is not in the ' E.D.D.' They were either 
cast or made of two iron plates rivetted 
together. They are of a half-moon shape, 
and generally have three legs. 


I can remember rushlights being in use 
in a farm-house in the neighbourhood of 
Holt, Norfolk, in 1870 ; and at about the 
same date I can recall seeing one burning 
in a perforated iron shade in a sick-room in 

About twenty years ago I discovered the 
apparatus for making rushlights in an old 
farmhouse in Virginia, and learned that 
it had been in full use " before the War," 
but that rushlights were now used only 
" by a few old-fashioned darkies." 


x. 29, 90). The private baptism of an infant 
in danger of death is still practised in the 
Down Country, and in the majority of cases, 
if the 'child survives, the full ceremony 
follows in church. MB. RATCLIFFE'S sug- 
gestion that half -baptism means registration 
is new to me. But I have heard civil 
marriage (i.e., by the registrar) spoken of as 
half-marriage, and the belief still exists in 
the isolated hill-district of Berkshire that 
such marriage is not legally binding after a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 15, iocs. 

BRASS AS A SURNAME (10 S. viii. 350 ; ix. 
358 ; x. 74). This is by no means an un- 
common surname. In ' The Clergy List ' 
the names occur of the Rev. Henry Brass 
and the Rev. John Brass ; the latter I know 

To refer to a work of fiction, ' The Old 
Curiosity Shop,' who can forget Sampson 
Brass of Bevis Marks and his sister Sally 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

x. 89). The well-known work entitled 
* The Influence of Tropical Climates on 
European Constitutions ' was first published 
in 1813, and the author was James Johnson, 
M.D., a physician whose name will be found 
in the ' Dictionary of National Biography.' 
A sixth edition of this book was published 
in 1841, with many additions, by the late 
Sir James Ranald Martin. Johnson died 
in 1845 and the seventh edition in 1855 
had become practically a new book under 
the editorship of Martin. The title was 
enlarged as follows : 

" The Influence of Tropical Climates on European 
Constitutions, including Practical Observations on 
the Nature and Treatment of the Diseases of Euro- 
peans on their Return from Tropical Climates." 

A second edition of Martin's work appeared 
in 1861 as 

" The Influence of Tropical Climates in producing 
the Acute Endemic Diseases of Europeans, in- 
cluding Practical Observations on the Nature and 
Treatment of their Chronic Sequelre under the 
Influence of the Climate of Europe." 

Martin died in 1874, and his name is also 
included in the ' D.N.B.' 


The author of the book (1812) was James 
Johnson, M.D. (1777-1845). In 1798 he 
was appointed surgeon's mate in the Navy ; 
and in 1800, as surgeon to the Cynthia 
sloop of war, he accompanied the expedition 
to Egypt. He was placed on half-pay in 
1814, and settled in general practice at 
Portsmouth, whence he removed to London. 
He was the author of several books besides 
the one MR. SHORTER mentions, and the 
editor of The Medico -Chirurgical Journal 
(see ' Men of the Reign,' edited by Thomas 
Humphry Ward, Routledge, 1885). 

[MR. A. R. BAYLEY also thanked for reply. ] 


(10 S. x. 88). The verses in Miss Silberrad's 
book are a quotation from George Gas- 
coigne's ' Good Morrow,' written about 

1572, and " against," as used by the old 
poet, means " before," referring to the- 
proverb that the crow forebodes rain by 
chattering. Of course, the same thing is 
said about parrots and other birds, Ovid 
in his Elegies, Book II. No. IV., and Festus 
Avienus, in his ' Prognostics,' varying the 
reference by mentioning the jackdaw. 
Shakespeare calls this faculty in man, bird, 
and beast, of being conscious beforehand 
of ensuing danger, change, or storms to- 
come, " a divine instinct." 


In Virgil the " villainous " or " good-for- 
nothing " raven invites the rain : 

Turn cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce. 
with which Conington compares Lucretius,, 
v. 1084 ff : 

Cornicum ut saecla vetusta 

Corvorumque greges, nbi aquam dicuntur et imbri 
Poscere, et interdum ventos aurasque vocare. 

Pliny (' Hist. Nat.,' xviii. 363) says : 
" Cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangored 
dabunt perfundentesque sese, sed maxime cornix 
ardea [not cornix] in mediis harenis tristis." 


Virgil in his first Georgic has the line 
Turn cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce ; 
and this Dryden has translated 

The crow, with clamorous cries, the showe 

Horace, in the seventeenth ode of the third 
book, has written thus : 

Cras fpliis neirms 
Multis et alga litus inutili 
Demissa tempestas ab Euro 

Sternet aquae nisi fallit augur, 
Annosa cornix. 


Numerous quotations for the belief that 
crows foretell rain can be found in Richard 
Inwards's 'Weather Lore' (London, 1898> 
and elsewhere. L. L. K. 

The raven's croak against rain is one- 
signifying his unhappiness : 

" Ravens and crows, when they do make a hoarse r 
hollow, and sorrowful noise, as if they sobbed, it 
presages foul weather approaching. Crows flocking 
together in great companies, or calling early in the 
morning with a full and clear voice, or at any time 
of the day gaping against the sun, forshe\vs hot and 
dry weather ; but if at the brink of ponds they do- 
wet their heads, or stalk into the water, or cry 
much towards the evening, are signs of rain."- 
Willsford's ' Nature's Secrets,' p. 133, quoted ina 
Brand's ' Antiquities ' (Bohn, 1855, vol. iii. p. 212). 


10 s. x. AUG. 15, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Both the carrion crow and the rook are 
popularly supposed to foretell the coming 
of rain, not only by an unusual hoarseness 
in their note, but by a peculiar sliding move- 
ment in their flight. With regard to the 
latter, see Dr. Jenner's well-known weather- 
lore verses, quoted in Chambers's * Book of 
Days.' C. C. B. 

" Against " in the sense of " before " is 
used habitually in this district, where one 
constantly hears such expressions as " I '11 
get it done agen' night," or " They did 
ought to be put in agen' the fall " (planted 
just before autumn). 

The disturbing effect of impending rain 
on the nervous organization of many crea- 
tures besides crows and parrots is very 
noticeable, as exemplified in the well- 
known lines : 

Loud quack the ducks, the peacocks cry, 
The distant hills are seeming nigh. 
How restless are the snorting swine ! 
The busy flies disturb the kine. 

Church Fields, Salisbury. 

[H. I. B. and MR. R. WELFORD thanked for replies.] 

"BUCCADO" (10 S. x. 87). This is pro- 
bably only an alternative spelling of the 
Spanish " bocado " (Italian boccata), meaning 
& " mouthful " or " morsel." As it has 
never been naturalized to the extent, e.g., 
of bonne-bouche, one could hardly expect 
to find it even in the ' N.E.D.' (Bonne- 
bouche, with its meaning, is given in so 
small a dictionary as Nut-tail's.) 


In Spanish bocado means a mouthful. 
The plural bocados means slices of quinces, 
apples, &c., made up into conserves (F. 
Corona Bustamente's ' Sp. and Eng. Dic- 
tionary,' 1882). U. V. W. 

[Many other correspondents agree that it is 

BUDGEE, A KIND OF APE (10 S. x. 89). 
Can this be the creature mentioned in 
* Robert Drury's Journal in Madagascar ' 
(" Adventure Series," 1890) ? " I saw a 
great many different kinds of monkeys, 
baboons, and virjees," &c. The editor, the 
late Capt. Oliver, in a foot-note quotes the 
following from Ogilby (in 1666, from 
De Flacourt's description of the island) : 

" Monkies or Baboons are of several sorts A 

third, and the most common, called Varii (Virgis), 
are gray and long nosed with great shaggy tails. 
These may be tamed without difficulty if taken 

In the index we find : " Virjees or Varii, 
a species of lemur." As the letters b and v 
are easily interchangeable, " budgee " may 
stand for " virjee." 

In Madagascar and the adjacent islands 
it is not an uncommon sight to see a black 
man or a French soklier walk about with a 
creature with a long bushy tail a kind of 
lemur, and not a true ape sitting on his 
shoulder. They are very tame and most 
affectionate when young, but get quarrel- 
some and bad-tempered with old age. We 
brought several of them with us to Mar- 
seilles on the French steamer. The local 
name of the animal is " mac " ; and when 
I first saw one, I was told that it was not a 
monkey, nor even a macaco, but a " mac." 

L. L. K. 

Would not this be an ape or " jackanapes " 
(i.e., a monkey) possessing a furry coat 
suggestive of budge, the dressed fur or wool 
of either the lamb or young kid, a not un- 
common characteristic of some species of 
the Simiadse ? 


"SINEWS OF WAR" (10 S. ix. 470). In. 
Sir Henry Savile's translation of Tacitus' s 
' Histories,' the first edition of which ap- 
peared in 1581, the words in Book II. 
chap. 84, 

" Sed nihil seque fatigabat quam pecuniarum con- 
quisitio : eos esse belli civilis neryos dictitans 
Mucianus non ius aut verum in cognitionibus, scd 
solum magnitudinem opum spectabat," 

are rendered : 

" but the greatest difficulty was to get money : which 
Mutianus affirming to bee the sinewes of ciuill warre, 
respected not law or equity in iudgemerits, but 
onely what way to procure masses of money." 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

108). A friend of mine received an illus- 
tration of this superstition when visiting 
the Standing Stones at Callernish, in the 
Lewis. He asked a peasant boy how many 
stones there were in the monument, but was 
told that no one knew, for it was unlucky 
to count them. The lad looked as if he 
expected the ground to open when my 
friend replied that he had just counted them, 
and knew the exact number. 


Stromness, Orkney. 

HENRY ELLISON (10 S. x. 8, 95). I am 
under a great debt to the several contribu- 
tors who have helped me to rescue from 
oblivion one of the literary glories of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUG. is, im. 

Mid- Victorian era. I have not yet been 
able to look into Main or Miles ; but there 
is quite enough in the old numbers of 
* N. & Q.' to provide me with an answer 
to C. C. B., who seems to doubt Ellison's 
claims to poetic laurels. A contributor at 
5 S. viii. 51 alludes to Ellison's influence 
on Morris, Mr. Swinburne, and Tennyson, 
and says The Athenceum of 1844 favourably 
reviews his ' Poetry of Real Life,' praises 
its many beauties and merits, and refers 
to him as " the coming poet." Any one 
who has read his sonnet " A music 
yet unknown " must be caught by its 
melody and sweetness. 


THE BONASSTJS (10 S. ix. 365, 451 ; x. 90). 
Many years ago I read a little collection 
of stories and sketches by George Augustus 
Sala, but, I think, published anonymously. 
Among the sketches was one of an ima- 
ginative, picturesque penny-a-liner " letting 
himself go," with a resulting phrase which 
has stuck in my head ever since : " The 
stately bonassus stalked from [or through] 
the underwood." CHARLES HIGHAM. 

OLD TUNES (10 S. x. 48, 93). Mony- 
musk (not " Money Musk " nor " Moni- 
musk ") is a parish and estate in Aberdeen- 
shire, which gave the name to a dance tune 
much in vogue in that region a quarter of a 
century ago (and probably yet). The com- 
poser may have been a Monymusk man, or 
may have dedicated it to the laird. How 
its fame reached Hartford, Conn., is a 
puzzle. R. 

ix. 90, 212, 432 ; x. 96). Would this not 
be the kind grown in the country, where there 
is any viniculture ? In Hungary it is the 
common white table wine that is used for the 
purpose. L. L. K. 

"TWILIGHT" (10 S. x. 9, 76). Has MB. 
MOBETON any authority for the explanation 
which he gives ? and if so, will he be good 
enough to cite it ? I suggest that " no 
skylight " means no light at the top of the 
glass, i.e., fill to the brim ; and that " no 
twilight " means no "half light in the glass, 
i.e., drink to the dreps. But these are mere 
conjectures. M. G. D. 

SWIMMING BATH (10 S. x. 89). Lake 
Allen's ' History of Portsmouth,' 1817, says : 

" In the year 1754 was built by subscription a 
ommodious Bathing-house, situated near the mouth 

of Portsmouth Harbour, close to the run of the 
tide, which plentifully supplies four baths of 
different depths of water ; two of them are large 
enough to swim in. In this Bathing-house are like- 
wise not baths, and two good dressing-rooms : one 
for ladies, the other for gentlemen ; and every other 
necessary accommodation." 

The square close by, where the Fish Market 
is still held, is known as Bath Square, and 
a .narrow passage leading from the square* 
to Broad Street as Bathing Lane. 

F. K. P. 


The, Ideal of a Gentleman ; or, a Mirror for Gentle- 
folks. By A. Smythe Palmer, D.D. (Routledge- 
& Sons.) 

DR. SMYTHE PALMER'S selection of passages in 
prose and verse from the earliest times recalls a 
question often debated, What is a gentleman ? and 
popular in the press, since it affords ample occasion 
for debate, ana little for exact definition. Turning 
to the 'New English Dictionary,' which is as- 
remarkable for its analysis of meanings as for its 
wealth of examples, we find that a gentleman is 
"a person of distinction without precise definition 
of rank," " a man in whom gentle birth is accom- 
panied by appropriate qualities and behaviour ; 
hence, in general, a man of chivalrous instincts and 
fine feelings," and " a man of superior position in 
society, or having the habits of life indicative of 
this ; often one whose means enable him to live in 
easy circumstances without engaging in trade, a 
man of money and leisure." These definitions 
virtually exhaust the Dictionary's sub-headings,, 
apart from heraldic and other special usages,, 
such as "gentleman in waiting," and satirical 
references. But, admirable and thoughtful as they 
are, they leave unexpressed, though doubtless they 
imply, the first idea of a gentleman that will come 
to many minds the idea that some standard of 
education (which goes along with a moral standard)' 
is implied. We get this at once in German, where 
we find the gentleman described as " der gebildete- 
Mann," the man of culture. The Greek kalokaga- 
thos implies a similar qualification. In our own 
day, except in a very small portion of London 
society, birth and breeding have alike given way to- 
the advances of the plutocrat, who may, so far as 
heraldry goes, rank above the plain gentleman, yet 
remains obviously below him in such elementary 
points as speech and manners at table. The 
advance of the princes of trade, copiously be- 
sprinkled with the fount of honour, is one of the 
features of our time. We may quote here one of 
the few passages which are in our own common- 
place books, and do not figure in Dr. Smythe 
Palmer's collection: "Mrs. Burney heard Dr. 
Johnson say, ' An English merchant is anew species 
of gentleman ' " (Boswell's * Life of Johnson,' ed^ 
Hill, i. 491). Our present heraldry, Boswell remarks, 
" is suited to the times in which it had its origin. 
It is chiefly founded upon ferocious merit, upon 
military excellence." He goes on to ask why " the 
spirited hazards of trade and commerce" should 

10 s. x. AUG. 15, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


not be entitled to the same nattering distinctions. 
This suggestion is then scorned as specious, and 
unworthy of refutation, as " a gentleman is a 
gentleman." It is to be feared that Boswell had 
the pride of the landed proprietor, yet perhaps 
admired with envy the money of the Thrale whom 
he regarded as an inferior. Boswell would certainly 
be surprised and shocked at the glorification of 
trade and commerce in our own day. Already in 
the days of * Bleak House ' Dickens had noted (end 
of chap, xxxv.) that titles were not customarily 
conferred "on men distinguished for peaceful 
services, however good or great ; unless occasionally, 
when they consisted of the accumulation of some 
very large amount of money." 

The classical tongues, which Goethe hoped would 
ever remain the characteristic of the higher cultiva- 
tion, are getting out of fashion, and the combina- 
tion " a scholar and a gentleman " is not now often 
heard. But there are plenty of books which supply 
extracts of the wisdom of the world concerning 
right thinking and acting. None of these can com- 
pare in range and exhaustiveness with our author's 
admirable collection. He is a scholar of ample 
erudition, and his book was first thought of some 
twenty years ago. It began as an Anthology, and 
now it has, as he says, " turned into something like 
a cyclopaedia of Gentlehood." There are no fewer 
than 522 pages, which include a capital index ; and 
the fourteen chapters have such headings as 4 The 
Historical Idea of a Gentleman,' * The Herald's 
Gentleman,' 'Ancestry,' 'Wealth and Work,' 
' Manners and Good Breeding,' ' The Poets' Gentle- 
man,' ' Gentlemen of other Nations,' and ' Ironical 
and Abusive Acceptation of " Gentleman." ' All 
the pages are close packed with passages of the 
most varied character, ranging, as the Foreword 
says, from an Egyptian moralist of B.C. 3300 to Mr. 
William Watson ; and the frontispiece is, most 
suitably, a unique portrait of that ideal gentleman, 
Sir Philip Sidney. We are pleased to see many of 
our favourite passages from Tennyson, Ruskin, 
Walter Scott, Newman, Wordsworth, and a host of 
other great men. An important and unusual addi- 
tion to a book of this sort is the collection of ex- 
cerpts from journalism The Spectator, Quarterly, 
Saturday Review, Times, Standard. &c. which 
would form an anthology of themselves, and often 
supply illuminating matter. The volume is, in fact, 
a symphony in which minds ancient and modern 
play with subtle modulations of phrase and key the 
themes of the whole. No one could read it straight 
off, but it supplies endless matter for reflection and 
edification. We owe to Dr. Symthe Palmer himself 
some original passages, and translations of classical 
authors. Exact references are almost always sup- 
plied, and pains are taken to indicate the context 
where passages as they stand are not clear. 

Any additions or suggestions that we make are 
rather such as are dictated by our own fancy and 
reading than by a sense that anything of moment 
is wanting. Further references to Greek and Latin 
would have made the book too bulky for a single 
volume, but we note that good citizenship has 
recently, and wisely, been put forward as one of 
the essentials of perfect manhood, and thus there is 
a return to Aristotle's conception of the man who is 
rtXat'wc ffirovSalof. Without some self-imposed idea 
of useful industry the man of great wealth, who 
need network, becomes the dangerous and freakish 
millionaire. We find two quotations from Horace. 
Ruskin, in a passage from his diaries, only avail- 

able, we think, since this book was written 
('Works,' Library Edition, vol. xxxiii. p. xxiii), 
has: "Horace's definition of a gentleman: 'Est 
animus tibi : sunt mores et lingua, fidesque.' I've 
learned this to-day, quite one of the most exhaustive 
verses in the world." 

The "Nil admirari" of Horace is, as our late 
Editor used to remark* one of the chief boasts of 
those gentlemen who move in the social world. 
This stoical demeanour has its obvious defects and 
virtues. The latter might have been exhibited in 
the prose of Marcus Aurelius or the melancholy 
wisdom of Amiel. 

From our own columns (7 S. xii. 514) is gathered 
the story of an inebriated diner expelled from 
The Cock Tavern by a waiter, who on his return 
to the room " said with emphasis, ' He's a perfec' 
gentleman ' ; adding, after a pause, as if to explain 
how he arrived at so decided a conclusion ' he give 
me 'alf-a-crown.' " Many amusing manifestations of 
the same confidence by the lower orders are quoted. 
We remember a definition, supplied, we think, by 
Mr. G. R. Sims, that "a gentleman is a person who 
can be seen in a clean collar without remark." The 
merits of good dress and cleanliness are not omitted 
here, but there is nothing on the gentleman fop 
quite so pungent as Tennyson's satire on Lytton, 
not now printed in his works, but sent to Punch 
(28 February, 1846) by John Forster. One verse 
runs : 

What profits now to understand 
The merits of a spotless shirt 
A dapper boot a little hand 
If half the little soul is dirt ? 

We recall in this connexion the conflict between 
Cloten and Guiderius in 'Cymbeline' (IV. ii.). 
Cloten demands submission on the strength of his 
obvious rank and superior appearance : 
do. Thou villain base, 

Knows't me not by my clothes ? 
Gui. No, nor thy tailor, rascal ; 

Who is thy grandfather : he made those clothes, 

Which, as it seems, make thee. 

Dr. Smythe Palmer gives, as might be expected, 
many excellent passages concerning the Christian 
gentleman. Our own commonplace books remind 
us that without faith high ideals have been 
enunciated. From the sections entitled 'We 
Scholars ' and ' What is Noble ' in Nietzsche's 
' Beyond Good and Evil ' it may be gathered that 
the 'idea of the Superman does not exclude enviable 

The book is admirably printed, and we have not 
detected any misprints. The passage of Ruskin 
quoted on p. 296 appears in a shorter form, with 
somewhat different punctuation, on p. 355. But 
that does not matter. In the words of the Greek 
proverb we may say, Ate r\ rptf ra jcaAd. Such 
repeated attention is deserved by this collection of 
the world's best thoughts on the subject of the best 

The National Review is as lively as usual in its 
remarks on current politics. Mr. H. W. Wilson 
has an 'Appreciation' of Lord Charles Beresford, 
and Mr. J. S. Arkwright, M.P., writes on 'The 
Parliamentary Breakdown,' remarking that the 
hopeless overloading of the Party programme is 
known to everybody. This is an accusation 
brought, we think, against most Governments by 
the Opposition. An "old-time admirer" has been 
discovered who talks of " the biggest muddle that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. A DG . is, 

Westminster has ever seen." In ' A Niece of 
Halifax ' Lord Hylton introduces some interesting 
correspondence of the early eighteenth century. 
An important, sober, and well-reasoned article is 
that by Mr. Reginald A. Bray on ' The Burden of 
the Family.' Sir Oliver Lodge makes an appeal 
for fresh resources to carry on the work of the 
University of Birmingham. Mr. W. T. R. Preston 
in ' Fair Play for Japan ' goes over a good deal of 
familiar ground, but rightly emphasizes the strik- 
ing qualities which promise continued success to 
the latest " arrival " as a Great Power. The most 
interesting article to us is a protest concerning 
' The Well of English Defiled,' by Academicus, 
dealing with the deterioration of English style and 
the praise of the bizarre. While we cordially en- 
dorse the writer's main views, we are amazed at 
some of his examples. He says that " one 
of the marks of a good style is the ease with 
which it lends itself to translation into another 
tongue," and proceeds to give an English version of 
Tacitus of all writers in the world ! In our 
opinion there never has been, and never will be, a 
thoroughly adequate English translation of that 
brilliant author, for the very reason that he strained 
Latin, already a brief language, to a point at which 
brevity and obscurity meet. The translation by 
Jowett of the Funeral Oration of Pericles is 
-elegant, but not satisfactory as a rendering of the 
Creek. Newman and Addison, with whom the 
article concludes as exemplars, are beautifully 
lucid, and devoid of the eccentricities which tease 
us in much modern prose. 


MESSRS. S. DRAYTON & Sons' Exeter Cata- 
logue 195, contains a good assortment of books at 
moderate prices under Africa, America, Art, and 
London. The last includes ' London Labour and 
the London Poor,' 4 vols., 15s. ; and ' Old and New 
London,' 6 vols., 4to, 15s. General items comprise 
McCarthy's ' History of Our Own Times,' 5 vols., 
II. 7s. 6cl. ; Thackeray's Works, 26 vols., II. 15*. ; 
Major's edition of ' The Complete Angler ' and the 
4 Lives,' 2 vols., russia, 3. 3*. ; and the Clarendon 
Press facsimile of the First Folio Shakespeare, 6/. 6-9. 
' The Faerie Queene,' edited by Wise, Kelmscott 
Press, 6 vols., 4to, new as published, is priced 
31. 10s. Only 1,000 copies were printed, and the 
work is now out of print. 

Catalogue 168 of Leo Liepmannssohn of Berlin 
deals with almanacs, calendars, &c., Daniel Chodo- 
wiecki, selected German authors, musical settings 
of German poetry, and portraits. In all these 
sections there is much of interest. The Germans 
seem in the early nineteenth century to have had, 
like ourselves, "Forget-me-not " albums and table 
books for ladies. We notice in the section of 
German Literature two translations of Butler's 
4 Hudibras,' 20m. and 8m. 50 ; Tieck's version of 
* Don Quixote' with Dore's illustrations, 2 vols., 
8m. ; several rare editions of Goethe ; a first edition 
of Heine's 'Buch der Lieder,' 80m. ; also of his 
' De I'Allemagne,' 2 vols., Paris, 20m. ; and 117 
numbers of the Augsburg Attgemeine Ztitung 
(1831-49), containing Heine's contributions from 
Paris, 400m. There are items under Shakespeare 
concerning translations by A. W. Schlegel and 
J. H. Voss. A set of Wagner's ' Gesammelte 
Schriften und Dichtungen,' 10 vols., can be had 
for 45m. 

Messrs. E. Parsons & Sons have in their Cata- 
logue 262, under Americana, a MS. of 22 pages, 
folio, from the collection of Admiral Ommanney, 
including eleven original sepia drawings, being 
views of towns and harbours, 1754 and 1756, 
60 guineas. Under Ackermann is the ' Repository 
of Arts,' vols. i. xx. in 10 vols., roy. 8vo, HI. 14s. ; 
under Alken, ' The National Sports of Great- 
Britain,' original issue, 60 guineas ; under Boydell, 
' The History of the Thames, 13J. 13s. ; arid under 
Blake, * The Book of Job,' 181. 18s., and illustrations 
to Young's ' Night Thoughts,' 91. 9s. Other items 
include the sixth edition of 'The Anatomy of 
Melancholy,' 1651, 6/. 6s. ; Darly's ' Comic Prints,' 
1776, HI. 14s. ; Martin's ' History of Oriental 
Carpets before 1800,' 281. ; Chatelain and Roberts's 
' Views of London,' 1750, 71. 10s. ; Constable's 
' Landscape Scenery,' 30 guineas ; * Stafford Gal- 
lery,' largest paper, 36. ; and' ' The Wallace Collec- 
tion,' Goupil, 35^. The Catalogue is indeed rich in 
fine-art works. Etchings include Edwards's ' Inns,' 
7 guineas. Under French engravings is an impor- 
tant collection, ' Illustrations de 1'Art du XVIII. 


vols., 4to, half red morocco extra, 

50 guineas. There are interesting items under 
Boucher, Greuze, Lawrence, and Ward, besides a 
series of water-colours of the Isle of Wight, &c., by 
Sand by. The valuable works on Military Costume 
include Ackermann's and Fores's ' Yeomanry,' 
1844-7, 1501. 

Mr. Robert Wild's Burnley Catalogue 75 is a 
general list of books at very low ]jrices. 

A REVISED EDITION of ' House Mottoes and 
Inscriptions Old and New,' by Miss S. F. A. Caul- 
feild, is to be published immediately by Mr. Elliot 
Stock. It contains a collection of mottoes taken 
from houses in many lands and ages, with informa- 
tion on the use of such inscriptions among different 
peoples. The volume is illustrated from photo- 


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WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
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munication " Duplicate." 

F. K. P. ("Peerless Pool"). This was opened as 
a swimming bath by Kemp in 1743. For its history 
see 9 S. iv. 128, 197,' 271. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 107, col. 2, 1. 12, for "TROPHIMO" 
read TROPHIMVS. P. 116, col. 1, 1. 13, for "Here" 
read There. 

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NOTES : British Provincial Book-Trade, 1641-67, 141 
Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens, 142 Waterloo : 
Letter by Vivian, 145 Mr. Stanley Weyman's The Wild 
Geese ' Thackeray's Historical Novels : Two Errors 
"Wale": "Forewale": "Afterwale" "Sweet Lavender," 
146 John Murray IL Dr. Johnson : Flora Macdonald 

QUERIES: Olympic Games in England -Queen Eliza- 
beth's Household -"Cadey," 147 Tennyson : 'The Poet' 
Tintagel : its Pronunciation Susannah Oakes of Ash- 
borne Clerical Interments Charles Skyrme Henry 
Bickerton Hyde Hatch Gray of Denne Hill, Kent, 148 
Dead Animals exposed on Trees and Walls Woollen 
Goods from France Roberts Family T. H. Hearsey 
Matthew Arnold on Pigeons William Crowmer : Watts 
Family of Sussex " Parthenopseus Hereticus," 149 
Simpson Family Spanish Works in Borrow John-a-Duck 
Michaelmas Day : its Date American Notions : Place- 
Names as Possessives, 150. 

REPLIES : Nonconformist Burial-Grounds, 150-Wolston 
-Comte d'Antraigues -Proverb on Beating, 152 "Scara- 
mouch" The Old Omnibuses The Double-Headed Eagle, 
153 Rushlights The Swedish Church, St. George's-in-the- 
East, 154 St. Andrew's Cross Stuffed Chine Maps, 155 

Hove Hornsey : Highgate and Arabella Stuart 
" Abracadabra"" The Protector's Head," Inn Sign, 156 
Deville "The Cross " Sign Death after Lying Paulitian 
Language, 157 Widow Maurice, Printer "Pink Saucer" 
Ben Jonson's Name " Everglade " : its Derivation 
Alexandrian Library at Milan Anonymous Works 
Clergy in Wigs "Making buttons "=Fidgeting Vivan- 
dieres, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-' The Oxford English Dictionary ' 

Plumptre's Translation of Sophocles ' Henslowe's 

Notices to Correspondents. 



MB. HENRY R. PLOMER has added to his 
previous good offices for bibliography an 
excellent piece of work in * A Dictionary of 
the Booksellers and Printers who were at 
work in England from 1641 to 1667,' which 
has been issued by the Bibliographical 
Society. It throws some light upon the 
obscure history of such printing, publishing, 
and bookselling as existed outside of London 
in the period with which it deals. I have 
gone through it, and in the following memo- 
randum have indexed the names of the 
book-traders in the various towns, of course 
excluding London. The number of printers, 
outside of the metropolis and the University 
towns, was very small, and many in this 
list are not printers, but only retailers of 
books. Occasionally, however, the book- 
seller is found to have established himself 
in a small and somewhat remote locality. 
For the sake of completeness I have indexed 
the Scotch and Irish towns, though it is 

not entirely accurate to speak of Edinburgh 

and Dublin in connexion with provincial 


ABERDEEN. Brown (James), 1650-61. 

Forbes (John), 1656-1704. 

Melvil (David), 1622-43. 

Raban (Edward), 1622-49. 

Straughan (David ? pseud.), 1659. 
AYLESBURY. Dagnall (Stephen), 1650-51. 
BIRMINGHAM. Simmons (Thomas), 1652. 
BRISTOL. Ballard (William), 1651-3. 

Harsell (Richard), 1643. 

Moone or Moon (Richard), 1661-3. 

Moore (Susanna), 1667. 

Teage, 1662-3. 

Thomas (Michael), 1664-7. 

Wall (Thomas), 1660. 
CAMBRIDGE. Armstrong (William ?), 1647. 

Buck (John), 1625-68. 

Buck (Thomas), 1625-70. 

Field (John), 1655-68. 

Graves (William), 1631-(?) 65. 

Ireland (Richard), 1634-52. 

Legate (John), 1588-1620 (father and son) 

Milleson (John), 1642. 

Morden (William), 1652-79. 

Nealand (William), 1655-60. 

Nicholson (Anthony), 1648-52. 

Nicholson (Robert), 1662-73. 

Ridley (Benjamin), 1647. 

Smith (Nathaniel), 1647. 

Story (Edward), 1653-74. 
CANTERBURY. Fenner, 1663. 
CARLISLE. Scott (Richard), 1656-9. 
CHESTER. Bod veil or Bodiell (Peter), 1664-70. 

Minshew or Minshall (William), 1655. 

Thorpe (William), 1664. 
COLCHESTER. Hall (William), 1663. 

Warwick (William), ? 1663. 
CORK. Pienne (Peter de), 1644-54. 

Smith (William), 1657-90. 
DORCHESTER. Churchill (William), 1659-88. 
DOVER. Barley (Richard), 1654. 

York (Simon), 1654. 
DUBLIN. Dancer (Samuel), 1662-8. 

Hughes (Robert), 1648-51. 

Leach (John), 1666. 

DURHAM. Hutchinson (William), 1655. 
EDINBURGH. Anderson (Andrew), 1653-7, 1661-76. 

Anderson (George), 1637-8. 

Heirs of, 1649-53. 

Brown or Broun (Robert), 1649-85. 

Bryson (Robert), 1637-45. 

Heirs of, 1640. 

Bryson (R. and J.), 1641. 

Crombie (Robert), 1645. 

Glen (James), 1656-87. 

Gray (James), 1647. 

Harrower (James), 1600(?)-54. 

Hart (Samuel), 1621-43. 

Hart (Widow), 1621-42. 

Hill (John), 1652. 

Lawson (Thomas), 1645. 

Lindesay (James), 1643-9. 

Lithgow (Gideon), 1645-62. 

Miller (James), 1665-72. 

Mond (Duncan), c. 1650. 

Paterson (William), 1662. 

Raban (Edward), 1620. 

Ramsay (Patrick), c. 1660-80. 

Swintoun (George), 1649-67. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 22, IMS. 

EDINBURGH. Threiplbnd (John), 1639-45. 

Trench (David), 1662-71. 

Tyler (Evan), 1633-50. 

Veridicus (Th.), 1650. 

Wilson (Andro), 1641-54. 

Wilson (Patrick), 1643. 

Young (Robert), 1632-8. 
EXETER. Brocas (Abisha), 1655-74. 

Hunt (Thomas), 1640-48. 
GLASGOW. Anderson (Andrew), 1657-61. 

Anderson (George), 1638-48. 

Heirs of, 1648. 

Falconer (John), 1659-62. 

Morison (John), 1659-62. 

Neill (John), 1642-5. 

Paterson (Michael), 1662. 

Sanders (James), 1625-42. 

Sanders (Robert), 1661-96. 

Sandersonne (Robert), 1654. 
GLOUCESTER. Jordan (Tobias), 1644-64. 
IPSWICH. Weekly (William), 1657-9. 
KENDAL. Harrison (Miles), 1660. 
KIDDERMINSTER. Simmons (Nevill), 1655-81. 
KILKENNY. Bourke (Thomas), 1643-8. 

Smith (William), 1649. 
LEICESTER. Lincoln (Stephen), 1663. 

Ward (Francis), 1661-3. 
LEITH. Tyler (Evan), 1651-2. 
MANCHESTER. Hayward (Bernard), 1643. 

Shelmerdine (Ralph), 1661-3. 

Smith (Thomas), 1643-9. 

[MARKET] HARBOROUGH. Tomson (Will), 1655. 
NEWCASTLE - UPON -TYNE.Bulkley, Bulkeley, or 
Buckley (Stephen), 1646-52, 1659-62. 

London (William), 1653-60. 

NORWICH. Franklin or Francklin (William), 1646- 

Martin (Edward), 1646. 

Oliver (William), 1663. 
NOTTINGHAM. Barker (Christopher), 1643, Royalist 

travelling press. 
OXFORD. Adams (John), 1610-71 (?). 

Benington (Edward), 1647. 

Blagrave (Robert), 1656-62. 

Bowman (Francis), 1634-40. 

Bowman (Thomas), 1664. 

Cripps (Henry), 1620-40. 

Curteyne (Alice), 1651. 

Curteyne (Amos), 1665. 

Curteyn (Henry), 1625-51. 

Forrest (John), 1660-69. 

Godwin or Goodwin (Joseph), 1637-67. 

Hall (Henry), 1642-79 (?). 

Hall (William), 1656-72. 

Harris (John), 1647, Royalist travelling press. 

Hills (Henry), 1647. 

Lichfield or Litchfield (Leonard), 1635-57- 

Lichtield (Leonard), junr., 1657. 

Lichfield (Anne), 1657. 

Oxlad (Francis), 1667. 

Pocock (Samuel), 1662. 

Royston (Richard), 1629-86. 

Thorn (Edmund), 1652-63. 

Turner (William , 1624-43. 

Webb (William), 1629-52. 

West (G.), c. 1650-95. 

Wilmot (John), 1637-65. 

Young (Robert), 1640. 
ST. ANDREWS. Dradoun (George), 1654. 

Drennane (John), 1645. 

Raban (Edward), 1620-22. 
SALISBURY. Courtney (John), 1650-64. 

SHREWSBURY. Barker (Christopher), 1643, Royalist 
travelling press. 

Watkis, 1663. 

STAFFORD. Felton (John), 1658. 
STOURBRIDGE Malpas (Joan), 1661. 
TAUNTON. Rosseter (Edward), 1658. 

Treagle (George), 1646-53. 
TOTNES. Teage, 1662-3. 
WARRINGTON. Tonge (John), 1653. 
WATERFORD. Bourke (Thomas), 1643-8. 

Pienne (Peter de), 1652. 

niel), 1653. 

WINCHESTER. Taylor or Tay lour (William), 1663. 
WORCESTER. Ash (Francis), 1644-51. 

Jones ( ? ), 1663. 

Rea (Francis), 1651-63. 
YARMOUTH. Tutchein (Robert), 1661. 
YORK. Barker (Christopher), 1643, Royalist travel- 
ling press. 

Brocklebank (Ralph), 1647. 

Bulklev, Bulkeley, or Buckley (Stephen). 
1642-6,1662-80. ' 

Coupleston (Richard), 1661. 

Foster (Mark), 1642. 

Foster (Richard), 1659. 

Lambert (Richard), 1660-8. 

Mawborne or Mawburne (Francis), 1662-6. 

Rowlandson (Thomas), 1664. 

Wayte (Thomas), 1653-95. 

The materials are gradually accumulating 
for a history of the book-trade in this- 
country, and when it is written not the least 
interesting sections will be those devoted 
to the spread of literature and the rise of 
typography in Birmingham, Manchester, 
&c., in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 



(Concluded from p. 43.) 

SIB HENEAGE FINCH, Bt., the Solicitor- 
General, who had been enabled by grant of 
Charles II. to annex to his property the 
old boundary ditch of Hyde Park, and a 
narrow slip of the Park alongside, was the 
second of his family seated here, he having; 
bought the place from his younger brother, 
Sir John Finch, M.D.* He obliterated the- 
old ditch, and newly defined his land by 
building a brick wall eight feet high. This 
is learnt from another grant, two years later 
(1664), to James Hamilton, the Park Ranger, 
and John Birch, Auditor of Excise, of a large- 
piece of the Park, fifty acres more or less,, 
for the making of an orchard. The ground 

* Faulkner, 'Kensington,' p. 330, and 'D.N.B/ 
How acquired by Sir John is not learnt. Faulkner 
(p. 407) names as previous owners or occupiers Sir 
Henry Rich, Sir William (? Walter) Cope, and 
Sir George Coppin. 

io s. x. AUG. 22, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


was " at the further end of the said Park, 
extending from Kensington highway to 
Uxbridge way," and it was " bounded on 
the west by the landof Sir Heneage Finch." 
Further, the orchard was to be enclosed, 
" where not already enclosed with the late 
wall made by Sir Heneage Finch," by a brick 
wall eight feet high above the ground, which 
it may fairly be assumed was the height of 
the Finch wall ;* it was taken down, I think, 
by George I. 

In 1689 the delicate Dutch King, Wil- 
liam III., seeking purer air and better rest 
than was to be had at Whitehall, bought 
the Finch mansion and the land pertaining 
from Daniel Finch, second Earl of Notting- 
ham, son of the first Earl, the above Sir 
Heneage. As the purchase papers are not 
found, we are ignorant of the particulars. 
The land probably included the 50 acres 
above calculated, and the whole " quadri- 
lateral " of 67 acres appears to have been 
afterwards gradually acquired by the King 
or by Queen Anne. The old house was 
then transformed, and how much of it was 
left on the north side is now difficult to 
trace. Adjoining the lower portion (old, or 
in harmony with the old building) of the 
south front rose, under the hands of Wren, 
a singularly disproportionate but stately 
building, destined to contain royal galleries 
and apartments. And besides extensive 
building, much was done in the way of 
gardening, for both William and Mary loved 
the pursuit. In the first edition of Kip's 
engraving, though the picture was made in 
Queen Anne's, time, is probably seen the 
southern expanse as laid out in the King's 
Dutch style, f 

Queen Anne is also credited with the 
love of gardening, and under the guidance 
of the famous Mr. Wise did much both at 
Kensington and Windsor. Indeed, garden- 
ing was the rage then and during the cen- 
tury; and as gardeners differed like other 
professionals, we find in the later edition 
of the engraving above mentioned that the 
gardens in front of the Palace had beer 
considerably altered ; the Dutch design 
" stuffed thick with box " (Switzer), had been 
exterminated by Wise, whose superior 
achievement was destined to be swept awaj 
by Bridgeman, under Queen Caroline 
Bowack (1705) on Queen Anne's gardens if 

* See State Papers, Domestic, 23 April, 1664, and 
Patent Rolls, 12 April, 1666. At the latter date th 
grant was renewed in almost similar terms, but th 
orchard scheme does not seem to have been carriec 

t Brit. Mus. K. xxviii. 10, d. 2 and e. 1. 

>ften quoted, though mainly as evidence 
o their small extent. He admires " the 
loble collection of foreign plants, and the 
fine neat greens which make it pleasant all 
,he year " ; and he is charmed with the 
rugal disposal of the space, " the whole, 
vith the house, not be^ng above 26 acres." 
That area, however, seems to refer only to 
:he pleasure-grounds close to the house, 
'or he then adds : " Her Majesty has been 
pleased lately to plant near 30 acres more 
towards the north, separated from the rest 
)y a stately greenhouse, not yet finished," 
an interesting reference to Wren's handsome 
greenhouse or orangery. The Queen and 
Mr. Wise in the north ground got among 
;he old gravel-pits, and worked wonders 
in the contrivance of woody " wildernesses," 
and especially in the transformation of a 
great gravel-pit too large to be obliterated 
3y filling up into a spacious sunken 
pleasance. This, in its day quite a famous 
achievement, even won the admiration of 
the sedate and polished Mr. Joseph Addison, 
expressed in The Spectator, No. 477.* 

But Queen Anne did not restrict her 
operations to the space which King William 
had bought. She crossed the wall built by 
Sir Heneage Finch, and took from Hyde 
Park a large piece of ground to form a pad- 
dock for " fine deer from Windsor and ante- 
lopes." " The Paddock," at first perhaps 
a comparatively small enclosure, seems to 
have become the name for the whole exten- 
sion of ground down to the West Bourne, 
which stream, when dammed up, widened, 
and shaped, was called " the Canal." It is 
evident from Kip's engraving that the Broad 
Walk was made by the Queen, but from the 
accounts which exist the full extent of the 
work done cannot be clearly gathered ; the 
Canal, however, has mention. And the 
fact is clear that if encroachment were made 
on Hyde Park, it as well as the Palace 
Gardens being royal property, Queen Anne 
was the first sovereign to encroach. A 
Report of 1713 in the Treasury Papers stated 
that " the Paddock joining to the Gardens 
was taken from Hyde Park in 1705 " ; and 
in the same year the Ranger claimed com- 

?ensation for loss of herbage of " near 
00 acres of ground enclosed from the Park 
by Kensington." 

It is curious that George I., the chief 

appropriator of Hyde Park for the purpose 
of forming his Kensington Palace domain, 
should generally have escaped the indict- 

* The outline of the converted gravel-pit is yet 
easily traced in the pasture-field beyond the present 
west limit of Kensington Gardens. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 22, im. 

merit. Faulkner 'omits reference to the 
part taken in the work by the first king 
from Hanover ; and although Dr. Doran 
in 1877 referred to it, and the consequent 
public outcry (' London in Jacobite Times,' 
ii. 14), it has remained unnoticed. It ap- 
pears that the King, having finished the 
eastern addition to the Palace, turned his 
attention to his gardens. We find from 
the Surveyor's estimate of 5 May, 1726, 
that " His Majesty had ordered the Paddock 
in Hyde Park to be inclosed with a brick 
wall nine feet high," and we have a lengthy 
statement of " the new works in the Paddock 
in Hyde Park" executed between Septem- 
ber, 1726, and June, 1727 (Treasury Papers). 
The first item in this account is the taking 
down of old brickwork in the Paddock, 
probably the Finch wall, with perhaps others 
built by Queen Anne ; and that the new 
wall, above referred to, was intended to 
complete the enclosure of the area now 
covered by the Gardens, may be seen in a 
' Plan of Hyde Park as it was in 1725 ' in 
the Grace Collection. Here " His Majesties 
New Gardens " come down to the Canal 
(now the Long Water), and the fence crosses 
the dam (where is now the bridge) on to 
Buck Barn Hill. The statement mentioned 
above tells us a good deal about the work 
and its cost, but does not locate it so clearly 
as we desire. There is the excavation of the 
Great Basin (now called the Round Pond), 
and the making of the Canal was a heavy 
work. Trees and their planting form a very 
interesting subject : 22,000 of all kinds 
may be reckoned in the account. Elm, 
oak, chestnut (of both kinds), walnut, 
beech, lime, evergreen oak, almond, fir, 
and lesser ornamental trees and shrubs were 
in abundance. George I. died before the 
completion of the Gardens, and the work 
was continued into the reign of his successor. 
The amount of the statement was 25,856Z., 
the main portion of which was for work 
" pursuant to orders of his late Majesty 
King George I.," and but 1,203Z. pursuant 
to orders of King George II. 

The Plan of 1725 above noticed does not 
show the completed enclosure of the Gardens 
upon Buck Barn Hill, their north-eastern 
limit, probably because not there finished ; 
but perhaps the space was wanted for 
the title of the plan. In the remaining 
two years of George I. the ha-ha fence, the 
surprising invention of Bridgeman a wall 
perhaps nine feet high, of which the coped 
top only was seen above the ground 
surface, the remainder forming one side 
of a deep fosse beyond may have been 

built ; but more probably as Faulkner 
shows it should be attributed to the 
gardening period of Queen Caroline, the 
able consort of George II. This Queen 
found the whole extent of the Gardens in 
an incompleted state, and from the accounts 
preserved it seems that the completion occu- 
pied at least four years of George's reign. As 
to the area taken from Hyde Park, however, 
I think the full encroachment had been 
rounded off by his father. Caroline never- 
theless had a fine field for invention and 
disposal, with the ability of Bridgeman 
at her service. The maze of flower-beds 
on the south front of the Palace, which had 
been the delight of poor Queen Anne, was 
swept away by Caroline. Greater import- 
ance seems then to have been given to the 
Broad Walk by doubling the ranks of elms. 
Thames water was brought to the Great 
Basin, first filled in the midsummer of 1728 ; 
and the " Queen's Temple," designed by 
Kent, was made to overlook the Serpentine.* 
These thirty acres of water, joining the 
Long Water of ten acres, and made where 
the West Bourne had wandered through a 
marsh, formed the Queen's chief achieve- 
ment, quite apart from the Gardens. And 
her Majesty, though acquitted in the matter 
of the Park aggression, had her own imperial 
conception of projects and expenditure. 
Not only Kensington Gardens, but the entire 
remainder of Hyde Park, were to form the 
exclusive pleasure domain of a new palace 
to rise at its centre (Read's Weekly Journal, 
26 Sept., 1730 ; The Old Whig, 26 June, 
1735). The Queen, however, had the dis- 
cretion which prevented too great an ad- 
vance ; she listened to the warning of her 
minister, whose reply, on an occasion when 
he was consulted as to cost, was : " Madam, 
it might cost three crowns " (Dr. Doran, 
' Lives of the Queens of England of the 
House of Hanover,' 1875, i. 380). 

On completion of the Gardens an accurate 
survey was made of the entire royal domain. 
The plan existsf ; it is without date, but 
from its features I gather that it preceded 
by a few years Rocque's better-known 
plan of 1736. Every parcel is numbered, 
and its advantage over Rocque's plan is 
the accompaniment of a table giving the 
name or disposal of each parcel (in this a 
very interesting record), and 1 its area. The 
total area is 297a. 2r. 38p., say 297*75 acres. 
Now, it has been shown that Hyde Park, 

* The Temple yet exists, transformed into 
gardener's lodge. 
t Brit. Mus. K. xxviii. 10, d. 1. 

10 s. x. AUG. 22, 



which formerly contained 621-83 acres, 
and has to-day but about 368 acres, has lost 
about 253 acres, these lost acres having 
certainly been transferred to Kensington 
Gardens. Of the 253, about 22 represent 
the long triangular slip taken in 1872 to 
enclose the Albert Memorial, and to form an 
entrance to the Gardens at the Alexandra 
Gate of the Park. Thus of the above 
297-75 acres of the Palace domain (c. 1728), 
231 acres had then been taken from Hyde 
Park, and the remainder, 66 '75 acres, may 
fairly be considered as the original area of 
the Palace estate. That area, it will be 
observed, coincides with my calculated area 
of the estate as comprised in the " quadri- 
lateral " portion of land containing the 
Palace, viz., 67 acres* and I think it may 
be allowed that this coincidence of figures 
supports my conclusion, which, to resume, 
is : That Hyde Park reached so near to 
Kensington Palace as to be within a few 
yards of the east end of the Orangery until 
the sovereigns diminished it by extending 
their gardens ; whereby it comes about that 
Kensington Gardens, as we have them, 
consist, for the most part, of ground taken 
from Hyde Park, and not of any other 
pre-existing domain or park. 



NEAR Bodmin Road Station stands the 
stately mansion of Glynn, the residence of 
the old Cornish family of Vivian. Sir 
Hussey Vivian, grandfather to the present 
owner, was in Bonaparte's days reputed to 
be one of the foremost cavalry leaders in 
Europe. He is immortalized by Henry 
Sewell Stokes in the lines : 

One greater still, whose star grew dim, 
Saw through the battle's lurid glare 
How Vivian, when the trumpet blew, 
Led the last charge at Waterloo. 

A copy of a letter written by this gallant 
soldier a few days after the battle, addressed 
to his old Cornish friend Mr. W. Pendarves, 
appeared in The Western Morning News 
for 19 June last. As I understand it has 
not been published before, it may be worth 
preservation in the columns of ' N. & Q.' 
It reads as follows : 

MY DEAR EDWARD, I did not write you, not 
because I had no time, but because I had nothing 

* Of the " quadrilateral," about 30 acres were, 
by an Act of 1841, severed to be let on lease for 
building " Kensington Palace Gardens," &c. About 
seven acres of the severed portion remain in the 
field noticed as exhibiting traces of Queen Anne's 
gravel-pit garden. 

to write about, for, in truth, the six weeks prior to 
our friend Napoleon's beating up our quarters were 
passed in indolence and ease. Not so the last eight 
days- they afforded plenty to write about, and but 
ittle time to write in. 

If you were in Cornwall, I should refer you to a 
etter which my father will receive for a full, true 
that is, not many lies in it)u and particular account 
of the battle of the 18th, and the affairs which pre- 
ceded it. As it is, I will as shortly as possible 
relate them. 

We had heard prior to the 15th that Bonaparte 
had been collecting his men near Mauberge, and 
was himself about to leave Paris to attack us, and 
Lord Wellington had felt persuaded he would do 
so ; but what reason he had to change his opinion I 
know not, but certain it is that on the 16th, at a 
ball at the Duchess of Richmond's, we were all 
surprised to find that the French were pressing on 
in great force upon Birche and Nivelles. We all 
[eft the ball and returned to our quarters, and the 
Following morning at five o'clock marched upon 
Enghien, Braine le Comte, and Nivelles, from thence 
to Quatre Bras, where we came too late to join in 
a very severe affair, in which a very small part of 
our army had been engaged, for, to tell the honest 
truth, our great general had committed a sad 
blunder in riot having before collected hisforce. On 
the 17th, owing to the Prussians having been beaten 
on our left and retreated, we were obliged to do 
the same to Mont St. Jean, near Waterloo, where 
we occupied a position, and no very strong one 
either. Our retreat was considerably pressed by the 
enemy's cavalry, who gave us a pretty good specimen 
of their boldness ; they played the d 1 with my 
old regiment, the 7th, which is not in my brigade. 
They did not press me much. I covered the retreat 
of the left column. We had the most tremendous 
rain I ever beheld, and were soaked to the skin, 
without anything to change, and the canopy of 
heaven for our covering ; no very comfortable com- 
mencement of a campaign which was to take us 
almost without a blow to Paris. On the morning 
of the 18th, about eleven o'clock, our advanced 
posts were driven in, and we saw the enemy's 
column advancing to attack us. 

The firing soon began, and about one o'clock one 
of the most desperate attacks I ever witnessed was 
made on the centre and left centre of our line ; this 
was defeated, and repeated twice, the armies con- 
stantly mixed actually with each other, and the 
French always covering each attack by the most 
tremendous cannonade you can possibly imagine. 
With respect to the particular situation in which 
my brigade was placed, it did not suffer much until 
towards the last attack ; the ground on the left did 
not admit of the cavalry advancing, and I, being on 
the left of all, consequently suffered only from the 
cannonade. About six o'clock, however, I learnt 
that the cavalry in the centre had suffered dread- 
fully, and the Prussians about that time having 
formed to my left, I took upon myself to move off 
from our left, and halted directly to the centre of 
our line, where I arrived most opportunely at the 
instant that Bonaparte was making his last and 
most desperate effort. And never did I witness 
anything so terrific : the ground actually covered 
with dead and dying, cannon shot and shells flying 
thicker than I ever heard musquetry, and our 
troops some of them giving, away [sic]. 

In this state of affairs I wheeled my brigade into 
lina close (within ten yards) in the rear of our 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 22, im. 

infantry, and prepared to charge the instant they 
had retreated through my intervals (the three 
squadron officers were wounded at this instant). 
This, however, gave them confidence, and the 
brigades that were literally running away halted 
on our cheering them and again began firing. The 
enemy on their part began to waver. The Duke 
observed it, and ordered the infantry to advance. 
I immediately wheeled the brigade by half-squad- 
rons to the right and in column over the dead and 
dying, trotted round the right of our infantry, 
passed the French infantry, and formed lines of 
regiments on the first half-squadrons. With the 
10th I charged a body of French Cuirassiers and 
Lancers infinitely superior to them, and completely 
routed them. I then went to the 18th, and charged 
a second body that was supporting a square of 
Imperial Guards, and the 18th not only defeated 
them, but took 14 pieces of cannon that had been 
firing grape at us during our movement. I then, 
with the 10th, having reformed them, charged a 
square of infantry, Imperial Guards, the men of 
which we cut down in the ranks, and here the last 
shot was fired from this moment all was deroute. 
Whether the Duke will do my brigade justice or 
riot I know not ; but Bonaparte has given them 
their due in his account. We are the cavalry that 
he alludes to when at the end he says (" at eight 
o'clock," &c.) ; and the colonel of the 3rd Chasseurs, 
who lodged the night before last in the house I 
occupied last night, told the proprietor "that two 
regiments of British Hussars decided the affair." 
The 3rd Regiment 1st Hussars I kept in reserve. 

Of course our loss was severe ; all those returned 
missing are since ascertained to have been killed. 
I never saw such a day, nor any one else. I expect 
and hope that every soldier will wear a medal with 
" Mont St. Jean " on it. I would rather do so than 
be adorned by the brightest star that any potentate 
could bestow on me. 

My best regards to Mrs. S. Yours most trulv, 

R. H. V. 

1st P.S. Havre, 26th June, on the road to Paris. 

2nd P. S. 28th June, near Pont St. Maxance. All 

(The last P.S. outside the envelope.) 

Outside : To Wynne Pendarves, Esqre., 

No. 11, Queen Anne-street, London. 
R. H. V. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

GEESE.' In his latest novel, ' The Wild 
Geese,' Mr. Stanley Weyman introduces a 
character called O' Sullivan Og. On p. 12 
we are told : " The girl vented her anger 
on Og." Mr. Weyman appears to use Og 
as a surname, whereas it only means 
" junior," and therefore cannot be detached 
from the name to which it belongs. This 
error should be corrected in the next edition. 
The passage should read : " The girl vented 
her anger on O' Sullivan." Og is a very com- 
mon suffix to Irish names. The o, by the 
way, is pronounced long, hence some write 
Ogue and others Oge. JAS. PLATT, Jun 

ERRORS. 1. ' The History of Henry Es- 
mond,' Book III. chap. iv. : 

" And she spread out her beautiful arms, as if 
indeed she could fly off like the pretty 'Gowrie,' 
whom the man in the story is enamoured of. * And 
what will your Peter Wilkins say to your flight ? ' " 
The events and conversation take place 
before 1714. Paltock's story of ' Peter 
Wilkins ' appeared in 1751. 

2. 'The Warringtons,' vol. ii. chap, iv., 
George Warrington's narrative of his escape 
from captivity : 

" Now the leaves were beginning to be tinted 

with the magnificent hues of our autumn As we 

advanced the woods became redder and redder. 

The frost nipped sharply of nights At this time 

of year the hunters who live in the mountains get 
their sugar from the maples." 

Any one dwelling in the United States or in 
Canada is aware that early spring (March) 
is the maple-sugar season. No sap flows 
in the autumn. PAUL T. LAFLEUR. 

McGill University, Montreal. 

" WALE " : " FOREWALE " : " AFTER- 
WALE." Some time ago in a London 
saddler's account I saw the item " new 
forewales to harness collars." On inquiring 
what this meant, I was told by one of the 
workmen that the rolls or ridges of a horse- 
collar between which the hames He are 
called respectively the forewale and the 
afterwale, it being explained to me that the 
forewale was so called because it was put on 
first in the making, and the afterwale was 
put on later. It is, however, pretty obvious 
that this explanation is incorrect, and that 
the words " fore " and " after " are used of 
position, as in the nautical sense of the 
words. This meaning of the word " wale " 
is not given in Webster or in ' The Century 
English Dictionary,' nor is " forewale " or 
" afterwale " given in the ' KE.D.' The 
word " wale," however, is given in the 
' E.D.D.,' as meaning the " forefront of a 
horse's collar," from Forby's ' Vocabulary 
of East Anglia.' The word " wale " as 
applied to the rolls of a horse's collar is of 
course identical in origin with the same 
word in its ordinary significations. 


" SWEET LAVENDER." So much has been 
written of late as to the disappearance of 
the vendors of this fragrant plant that one 
is glad to be able to chronicle quite a 
pleasant invasion of them recently in the 
salubrious suburb of Hampstead. Men 
women, and children perambulated its 
streets with their bunches, chanting the 

10 s. x. AUG. 22, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


while the melodious refrain, " Buy my sweet 
lavender." Supplies were drawn from a 
cart filled with sheaves enough, it might 
have been imagined, to scent all the ward- 
robes in the neighbourhood. It is to be 
hoped that the visitors found, with depleted 
stock, good financial return for their efforts. 
There was a " chickweed and groundsel " 
merchant about as well. CECIL CLARKE. 

JOHN MURRAY II. A few days since, I 
was talking to a lady of eighty-five, who 
referred to David Christie Murray's ' Recol- 
lections ' ; and I had the privilege of dis- 
abusing her mind of the impression that he 
was a scion of Albemarle Street. She then 
told me that in about 1838 her mother sent 
her from some distant part of London to 
Murray's to buy a copy of Mrs. Rundell's 
cookery book. When she got there, she 
found she had forgotten the name of the 
oracle, and with becoming diffidence con- 
fided the fact to an old gentleman in knee- 
breeches and woollen stockings, who ad- 
vanced from somewhere in the background 
to serve her. She tried to explain the 
domestic need, and was greatly relieved 
when her interlocutor declared : " Oh ! 
my child, you want Mrs. Rundell." The 
memory of the kindly courtesy of Mr. 
Murray (as she believes) remains pleasantly 
with my friend to this day, and I could see 
that she had been much interested in per- 
suading herself that David Christie Murray, 
of whom she knew nothing, was one of the 
great publisher's descendants. 


The Lady's Realm of October, 1897 (vol. ii. 
p. 671), is an article called * The Real Flora 
Macdonald,' by Margaret Macalister William- 
son. Allan Macdonald of Kingsburgh, who 
married Flora Macdonald, was the authoress's 
great-great-grand-uncle (p. 672). Near the 
end of the article is the following : 

"I shall finish by giving one or two anecdotes 
culled from the same long-lived individuals [i.e., 
certain grand-aunts and grand-uncles]. 

"When Dr. Johnson made his tour to the 
Hebrides with Boswell he was hospitably enter- 
tained at Corry by my great-great-grandmother, 
Kingsburgh's daughter Anne, who was first married 
to Macalister of Strathaird, Isle of Skye, and 
secondly to Mackinnon of Corry. At dinner one 
day Mrs. Mackinnon said to Dr. Johnson, ' Sir, how 
do you like the Scotch broth ? ' He politely replied, 
4 Madam, it is fit for pigs.' She quietly rejoined, 
' Will you allow me, sir, to give you another plate- 
ful ? ' This anecdote is not recorded by his admirer 

" Mrs. Mackinnon's daughter, Margaret Mac- 
alister, then a young bride of sixteen, having 

just married Dr. Macdonald of Gillen, took a bet 
with some sprightly young ladies that she would 
sit on Dr. Johnson's knee in the drawing-room and 
kiss him. These young ladies had dared her to do 
it, saying he was too ugly for any woman to kiss. 
This anecdote in recorded by Boswell." 

It may be worth adding that the 
authoress says (p. 673) that many interesting 
facts about Flora Macdonald, told by 
Colina Nicholson, whose grandmother was 
maid to Flora Macdonald, and whose aunt 
lived to be a hundred and four years of age, 
" will appear in Mademoiselle de Bo vet's 
forthcoming book, ' En ^cosse.' ' " Colina 
still [1897] lives in Portree.". 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

be interesting, in connexion with the British 
Olympiad just celebrated, to know some- 
thing more of the sporting event which 
seems to have been mainly dog-racing 
thus described in a letter of 30 April, 1679, 
from Col. Edward Cooke in London to the 
Duke of Ormond, Viceroy of Ireland, in 
Dublin : 

" As for Thursday, I have little to say of State 
affairs, the Votes speaking for the House of Com- 
mons, and the Lords not sitting. Yet that I may 
not leave an absolute blank on that day, I presume 
to give your Grace an account of Hampton Court 
Olympic, where the King honoured the pastimes 
with his presence, and thousands followed his ex- 
ample, so that the breadth of the paddock course 
was fain to be divided with stakes and ropes." 
Historical MSS. Commission, 'Ormonde MSS.,' 
New Series, vol. v. p. 75. 


PRIVY COUNCIL. Is there any existing 
record of the names of the officers of Queen 
Elizabeth's Household, with the dates of 
their appointment ? 

I also wish to obtain a list of the members 
of the Privy Council under Henry VIII., 
and Elizabeth, with the dates when sworn. 

F. B. 

" CADEY." What is the origin of this 
word as applied to a hat ? It duly appears 
in Farmer's ' Slang Dictionary ' with a 
reference to Wai ford's Antiquarian. The 
year is not given, but on p. 251, vol. xi., 
1887, of The Antiquarian Magazine, edited 
by the late Edward Walford, it is stated : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 22, 

" Cadey is a hat, arid the derivation entirely 
unknown." A foot-note gives a quotation 
from an old music-hall song : 

Sixpence I gave for my cadey, 
And a penny I gave for my stick. 
The date and title of this song would be a 
help. The word is in slang use hereabouts, 
and only recently appeared in print in The 
Birmingham Daily Mail. A friend tells me 
he heard it commonly in Australia in 1892. 
I presume it emanated from Cockneydom. 
Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 


The poet in a golden clime was born, 

With golden stars above ; 
Dower'd with the hate of hate, the scorn of scorn, 

The love of love. 

What is the meaning of the last two lines ? 
I have heard them differently interpreted 
as meaning that the poet hates hate, 
scorns scorn, and loves love ; and again, 
that he is dowered with the quintessence 
of all these qualities. C. C. B. 

["The poet hates hate, and scorns scorn. 'My 
father denounced hate and scorn as if they were 
" the sins against the Holy Ghost." ' ' Lord Tenny- 
son's note in the "Eversley" 'Tennyson,' vol. i. 
p. 345, which is, we presume, authoritative.] 


feel obliged for information as to the right 
pronunciation of Tintagel in Cornwall. 
Should it be Tintagel or Tintagel short or 
long ? T. H. SHERIDAN. 

[The meaning of the name, but not its pronuncia- 
tion, was discussed at 8 S. i. 434 ; 9 S. ix. 194, 276. j 

a stipple print of an old lady sitting in a 
library, and underneath is engraved 
" Susannah Oakes, keeper of the Circulating 
Library at Ashborne in the County of 
Derby." Is anything further known of 
Susannah Oakes ? There is in pencil on the 
print the date 1750. A. 

grateful for information as to the respective 
resting-places of the following Church of 
England clergymen : 

Richard Cluet, D.D., Archdeacon of 
Middlesex, Vicar of Fulham, Rector of 
SS. Anne and Agnes, Aldersgate, &c. ; 
died in reduced circumstances, having been 
ejected from all his preferments by the 
Parliamentary party, c. 1651. 

Samuel Freeman, S.T.P., Dean of Peter- 
borough, successively Rector of SS. Anne 
and Agnes and of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 
&c. ; died 14 Oct., 1707. 

Brooke Heckstall, LL.B., Rector of SS. 
Anne and Agnes, &c., previously " of Bow 
Church, Cheapside " ; died 5 April, 1780. 

John Hutchins, M.A., Rector of SS. Anne 
and Agnes, &c. ; " died abroad," 28 Dec., 

CHARLES SKYRME, a native of Pembroke- 
shire, and the son of one John Skyrme r 
became a King's scholar at Westminster 
School in 1740, aged fourteen. Particulars 
of his career and the date of his death are 
wanted. G. F. R. B. 

HENRY BICKERTON was admitted a King's 
scholar at Westminster School in 1739, 
at the age of fourteen. He was a native of 
Shropshire, and his father's name was also 
Henry. Any information concerning him 
would oblige. G. F. R. B. 

HYDE HATCH was admitted a King's 
scholar at Westminster School in 1728, at 
the age of fourteen. I should be glad to 
ascertain particulars of his career and the 
date of his death. G. F. R. B. 

any of your readers give me particulars of 
descent of this family ? They came from 
Scotland, purchased this estate in Kingston 
parish, on the Dover road, early in the eigh- 
teenth century, and sold it in 1774. The 
first of Denne Hill was Mr. James Gray, 
created 5 March, 1707, a Nova Scotia 
baronet. He married Hester Dodd, and 
had two sons Sir James Gray, died unm., 
January, 1773, and his younger brother 
General Sir George Gray, died February 
same year. Did the latter marry and have 
issue ? If not, who were his next of kin ? 
Among the sons of Patrick, Lord Gray, in 
Scotland, who died in 1608, Andrew, the 
fifth son, is specially singled out as being 
the grandfather of Sir James Gray, of 
Denne Hill in East Kent, K.B., ambassador 
to Spain, &c., and of his younger brother, 
General Sir George Gray. That the latter 
were descended from Andrew Gray I have 
not the least doubt, but he (Andrew) was 
certainly a little further removed than 
grandfather possibly great - great - grand- 
father. For clearness the pedigree may be 
stated thus : Andrew Gray of Bullion, fifth 
son, died 1603. Andrew's second son Wil- 
liam died 1661. The latter's eldest son James- 
died before 24 Aug., 1694. His eldest son, 
Mr. James Gray of Bullion afterwards, I 
think, Sir James Gray of Denne Hill, parish 
of Kingston was born about 1649, died 
before 26 June, 1744. His widow (a lady 

io s. x. AUG. 22, 



about forty years his junior) survived till 
1788, aged 97, and with her two sons above 
mentioned is, I understand, buried at Ken- 
sington, where there may be a memorial 
stone. Possibly there is one at Kingston 
also. Perhaps some of your correspondents 
will oblige by inserting a reply in 'N. & Q.' 

Blackness Avenue, Dundee. 

WALLS. It is well known that the Teutonic 
races, and as I believe the Celtic also, were 
in the habit of hanging up sacrificial beasts 
on trees (Grimm, ' Teutonic Mythology,' 
trans. Stallybrass, i. 47, 77, 78). It is also 
the custom at the present day for game- 
keepers to nail up such creatures as are held 
to be destructive to the animals it is their 
duty to protect. Thus they gibbet cats, 
stoats, and birds of prey on prominent trees 
and the walls of buildings stables and 
barns are favourite places. How old the 
latter custom may be I do not know, but 
should be glad of references to it as existing 
in the eighteenth century or earlier, as I 
think it not impossible that it may have 
been handed down from the days of heathen- 
ism. The motive gamekeepers assign for 
it nowadays is that the dead creatures by 
their presence testify to their masters that 
their work is being carried on with due 

The bodies of moles, when taken out of 
traps, are subjected to a parallel fate. They 
are hung on the branches of the willow. 
I have seen scores of them thus exhibited on 
the low lands beside the Trent, but never, 
so far as I can remember, on any other tree. 

the prohibition of the importation of woollen 
goods ever formally withdrawn by Act of 
Parliament ? and, if so, when ? By the 
Commercial Treaty of 1786, France could 
export here under a 10 per cent import 
duty. That treaty expired on war breaking 
out in 1793. Afterwards prohibitive import 
duties were levied for many years ; but 
I can find no evidence of formal withdrawal 
of prohibition against importation. 

T. X. S. 

ROBERTS FAMILY. Information wanted 
about place of origin and descent of William 
Lewis Roberts (captain 2nd Ceylon Regiment) 
born 1771. He is described as the son of 
E. Lewis Roberts and Mary Ensor, his wife, 
who belonged to the Willencote branch of 
the Ensor family. Capt. Roberts had 

several brothers, mostly in the army ; 
William was a captain in the R.A. The 
family arms were Per pale arg. and gu., 
a lion ramp. sa. Crest, an antelope's head 
erased per fesse or and gu. These are 
identical, I notice, with those confirmed to 
Sir Wm. Roberts of Sutton Chainell, Leics., 
in 1614. Capt. Roberts married Nancy 
Hamilton Lever, who is supposed to have 
been descended in the fourth degree from 
the third Duke of Hamilton, through Lord 
Basil Hamilton. Please reply direct. 

Fenchurch House, E.C. 

THOMAS HARRY HEARSEY (? 1752-1812 ?). 
He was in the service of some Indian 
prince. Any clue to his ancestors will 
oblige. A. C. H. 

is the meaning of the following words in 
Arnold's essay on ' The Function of Criti- 
cism ' ? Speaking of the attack on Bishop 
Colenso, and the excuse made for him that 
he was after all in search of truth, he con- 
cludes ironically : "Be silent, therefore ; 
or rather, speak, speak as loud as ever you 
can, and go into ecstasies over the eight 
hundred and odd pigeons." 


Sibson Rectory, Atherstone. 

SUSSEX. ' Notes on the Church of St. John 
Baptist, Aldenham,' by K. F. Gibbs, 
contains the following : 

"The most beautiful monuments in the church 
are the recumbent effigies of the wife and daughter- 
in-law of William Crowmer, sometime Lord Mayor 
of London. The dress of the ladies is said to be of 
the end of the fourteenth century, but Crowmer 
was not Lord Mayor till the year in which Henry V. 

came to the throne William Crowmer was a 

contemporary of the well-known 4 Dick ' Whit- 

tington and Crowmer himself held the office a 

second time in 1423 A.D." 

I should be much obliged to any one who 

could tell me anything of the family of 

Crowmer, and from what source to obtain 

the tinctures and the names of the bearers 

of the various arms placed upon the above 


I should also like any particulars with 
regard to the family of Watts in Sussex 
before 1800. H. WHISTLER. 

Battle, Sussex. 

known of this writer, whose name was 
William Gordon, and who published a 
pamphlet, ' Popery against Christianity,' 
in 1719 ? I am acquainted with Wodrow's 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 22, 

curious sketch of nun (' Analecta,' iii. 85). 
Was he a " stickit " priest ? In the preface 
to his pamphlet he says he was educated at 
Douai, and was made a father confessor 
in 1714, while in Italy. I cannot, however, 
recognize him in Father Forbes-Leith's 
* Scots Colleges.' J. M. BULLOCH. 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

reader give me information respecting 
William Simpson, Rector of St. George' s- 
in-the-East, 1729 to 1764 ? Is there any 
biography of him ? 

Is anything known of William Simson, a 
cabinet-maker of St. George's-in-the-East 
about 1800 ? His son John was apprenticed 
to John Browning, 25, Prince's Square, 
Ratcliff Highway, in 1800, and obtained 
the freedom of the City in 1815. 


Llysfaen, Wilbraham Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy 

one say if the following, all quoted by 
Borrow in ' The Zincali,' have ever been 
reprinted, or, if not, if they are at all easy 
of access ? 

1. Don Juan de Quinones (1632). 

2. Martin del Rio, ' Tractatus de Magia ' (after 

3; J. M., ' Historia de los Gitanos,' Barcelona 

Stromness, Orkney. 

JOHN-A-DUCK. The following phrase 
occurs in Scott's ' Ivanhoe,' chap. xxvi. : 
" I am like John-a-Duck's mare, that will 
let no man mount her but John-a-Duck." 
What is the full tradition concerning 
John-a-Duck, and from what part of the 
country does the phrase spring ? 

[Asked at 9 S. iii. 90, but without eliciting a reply.] 

' The Annotated Book of Common Prayer,' 
says that " there were anciently two days 
dedicated to St. Michael, May 8th and 
September 29th." But he gives no reason 
for the selection of either of these days. 
Can any of your readers suggest a probable 
reason ? The second is the only one now 
observed in the Western Church ; but in the 
Eastern 8 November" is St. Michael's Day. 

W. T. LYNN. 


POSSESSIVES. Mr. Francis Miltoun, who 
has done numerous books, chiefly about 
foreign cathedrals, and whose English 

strikes the mere Englishman as strange, 
says in ' Cathedrals and Churches of the 
Rhine ' (p. 253) : 

" Tom Hood, a supposed humourist, but in reality 
a sad soul, wailed over Cologne's cathedral when he 
saw it in the early years of the nineteenth century, 
and called it 'a broken promise to God.' " 

There is evidently much to be learnt from 
the Americans. I have always thought 
that Hood was undoubtedly a humourist, 
but nobody who has read his poems should 
need to be told, even once, that he also 
plumbed the very depths of sadness. 

" Cologne's cathedral " is hard for English 
tongues to utter. Can anybody tell why 
it has become so common for newspapers 
to write about, say, Ipswich's Town-Hall, 
Selby's Abbey, and so forth, instead of 
using place-names as adjectives after the 
fashion of our forefathers ? 




(10 S. ix. 188, 233, 297, 336, 434; x. 31.) 

As reference has been made to Quaker 
gravestones, perhaps a few notes concerning 
a visit I paid to the Friends' Burial-Ground 
at Barking (the last resting-place of the 
great prison reformer Mrs. Fry) in April, 
1892, may be of interest. 

In the main street of Barking, about five 
minutes' walk northwards from the church, 
stands the little Friends' Meeting-House. 
A somewhat high wall separates it from the 
road. Just opposite, on the west side of 
the way, is the burial-ground. It is almost 
square, and is surrounded by a brick wall 
about 10 ft. high. On the inner side the 
wall is almost completely fringed with trees 
and shrubs. Admission to the enclosure 
is gained by a doorway in the wall. The 
ground is divided into two unequal portions 
by a path which runs westward from the 
entrance, and deviates towards the south. 
About half the space has been used for 
burials, the stones which mark the graves 
being uniform in shape and about 2 ft. in 
height. They simply record the name, year 
of death, and age. The surface of the 
ground is quite even, no mounds being 
raised over the graves. The inscriptions 
on most of the stones face the east ; but 
those referring to the Buxton, Gurney, 
and Fry families are, all but one, an excep- 
tion to this rule, being set southwards. 

10 s. x. AUG. 22, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


They occupy a central position close unde 
the north wall. Taking them in orde: 
from west to east, I copied the inscriptions 
as follows : 

1. Samuel Gurney, died 1856, aged 69. 
Elizabeth Gurney, died 1855, aged 70. 

2. Joseph Fry, died 1861, aged 84. 

Elizabeth, wife of Joseph Fry, died 1845, aged 

3. Elizabeth Fry, died 1844, aged 65. 
Gurney Reynolds, died 1844, aged 12. 

4. Elizabeth Reynolds, died 1830, aged 4 months. 

5. Elizabeth Fry, died 1815, aged 4f. 

6. Susannah Buxton, died 1811, aged 7 months. 

7. Lucy Fry, died 1869, aged 46. 

The last (No. 7) faces eastward. 

The oldest stone in the enclosure is that 
of Mr. Wm. Mead, the donor of the ground. 
It stands in a central position, close beside 
the path, and is the only memorial not of a 
uniform type, being taller and containing 
more particulars than the others. It is 
thus inscribed verb, et lit. : 

Here Lyeth y e Body 
EsQ r who depart 4 
this Life the 3 d day 
of April ANNO D* 1 
1713, in y- 86 th year 

of His Age 

died the 9 th of June 1714 
in her [sic] 71 st Year of her Age. 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

The Friends' Burial-Ground attached to 
Drapers' Almshouses near Margate, founded 
by Michael Yoakley in 1708, has been used 
for interments since 1769. There are only 
seven memorial stones in the burial area, 
and they are flat on the ground. The 
following is a list of them, with their sizes 
in inches : 

Christiana Ivens | died | 1 st month 24 | 1857 | 

Helen Lucy Knight I aged 17 y" I died I 3 rd of 
8 th mo. 1867. 22 by 30 in. 

Thomas Marten | died 1 26 th of 1 st mo. 1869 | in 
his 21 st year. 22 by 33 in. 

Frederick James Knight | died | 12 th of 1 st month 
1870 | aged 19 years. 22 by 30 in. 

Edward Marsh | died 20 th of 1 st mon th 1884 | aged 
72 years. 24 by &3 in. 

Mary Sholl [ died 10 th day of 5 th month | 1884 | 
aged 77 years. 24 by 33 in. 

Ellen Marsh | died | the 20 th day of 11 th month 
1887 | aged 76 years. 24 by 33 in. ' 


* This refers to " Mrs. Newgate Fry," as she was 
affectionately called by Hannah More. She died at 
Ramsgate, 12 Oct., 1845. 

t Mrs. Fry's " little Betsey," who died 23 Nov. 

MR. HARRY HEMS' s notes on the memorial 
stones in the Quakers' Cemetery, Exeter, 
throw new and interesting light on the 
question of Nonconformist burial-grounds, 
but I am not quite satisfied that they upset 
my statement that the Society of Friends 
did not allow memorial stones until 1851. 
My information was taken from the manu- 
script minute-book of the Dover Preparative 
Meeting of the Society of Friends, which 
covers a period from 1818 to 1867 ; and the 
document from which I quoted was the 
following report : 

To the Monthly Meeting. 

We your Committee appointed to consider the 
best mode of carrying into effect the minute of the 
Yearly Meeting of 1850, on the subject of grave- 
stones, would suggest that parties applying to the 
Monthly Meeting be allowed to place on the graves 
of their deceased Friends a plain flat Yorkshire or 
Portland stone, laid horizontally, and measuring 
3 ft. in length, by 2 ft. in breadth and 3 inches in 
thickness, on which may be inscribed the name and 
age of the individual interred, with the date of 
decease, the said stone to be laid, for uniformity, 
on the centre of the grave, and nearly on a level 
with the surface of the ground. Your Committee 
would recommend that no departure from this 
regulation, nor anything whatever of a distinctive 
character between one grave and another, be in 
any instance allowed by the Monthly Meeting, and 
that in all cases the expenses connected with the 
procuring and laying down such stones be defrayed 
by the parties applying for them. 

Dover, 8, 9 mo., 1851. On behalf of the Com- 

On the report is written this note : 

4th minute of Monthly Meeting held at Dover 

10th of 9th month, 1851. 

The Committee appointed to consider of the best 
mode of carrying out the minute of the Yearly 
Meeting of 1850, on the subject of gravestones, 
nought in the following report, to which the 
Meeting agrees, and directs that a copy of the 
minute and report be sent to each Preparative 
Meeting, and that the same be strictly observed in 
11 cases. WM. DREWETT, Clerk. 

The foregoing is evidence that the Yearly 
Meeting of the Society of Friends in 1850 
made an order respecting gravestones, 
and that the Monthly Meeting at Dover, 
September, 1851, received and adopted a 
report making provision for the use of grave- 
stones. It is also a fact that, although 

here had been a Friends' burial-place 
under the Town Wall at Dover from the 
seventeenth century to the nineteenth, 

here were no gravestones there ; nor were 

here any in the Friends' burial-ground 
attached to their Meeting-House in Queen 
Street, built in 1802, until after the date 

f the above report, and the stones which 
are there now are in accordance with that 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 22, im 

With regard to the Exeter memorial 
stones, I would make two observations. 
(1) The Quakers at Exeter may have acted 
irregularly. Some such irregular practices 
must have existed, to meet which the order 
of the General Yearly Meeting of 1850 was 
made. (2) The stones at Exeter might have 
been erected at a much later date than the 
year inscribed upon them. I know that 
to be the case with regard to several me- 
morial stones of the date of the seventeenth 
century now existing in the General Baptists' 
burial-ground at Dover. 


In an out-of-the-way corner in Hull there 
is a little-known Quaker burial-ground. 
When I saw it, forty years ago, it contained, 
I think, three gravestones. One was in- 
scribed : 

Here lyeth the body of Eliz* the wife of Ant 
Wells of Kingston vpou Hull merch* who departed 
this life the 28th day of the 6th month 1676. 

The others were dated 1841-51. 

W. C. B. 

The following passage from chap, cvl- 
of George Sorrow's 'Wild Wales' (1862) 
corroborates facts already brought forward : 

" Singularly enough, the people at the very first 
house at which I inquired about the Quakers' Yard 
[near Merthyr Tydvil] were entrusted with the care 
of it. On my expressing a wish to see it a young 
woman took down a key, and said that if I would 
follow her she would show it me. The Quakers' 
burying-place is situated on a little peninsula or 
tongue of land, having a brook on its eastern and 
northern sides, and on its western the Taf. It is a 
little oblong yard, with low walls, partly overhung 
with ivy. The entrance is a porch to the south. 
The Quakers are no friends to tombstones, and the 
only visible evidence that this was a place of burial 
was a single flagstone, with a half obliterated 
inscription which with some difficulty I deciphered, 
and was as follows : 

To the Memory of Thomas Edmunds 
Who died April the ninth 1802 aged 60 


And of Mary Edmunds 
Who died January the fourth 1810 aged 70." 


Berck Plage, France. 

WOLSTON (10 S. vii. 129; x. 95). From 
my family memoranda I find that Christo- 
pher Woolston married Catherine, second 
daughter of Roger Prideaux by his (second) 
wife Catherine, daughter of William Ilbert 
of Bowringsleigh and his wife Bridget, third 
daughter of Sir William Courtenay of 
Powderham Castle, and sister of the first 
Viscount Courtenay. They had issue six 
sons and two daughters, namely, (1) 

Christopher, (2) Augustus, (3) Arthur, (4 
Thomas, (5) Richard, (6) Catherine, (7) 
Augusta, and (8) Alexander. Thomas and 
Richard were married, but I do not know 
the names of their wives. Although the 
spelling of the surname slightly differs from 
that employed by G. F. R. B. and MB. 
JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT, I am disposed to 
think that Christopher, the husband of 
Catherine Prideaux, may have been a 
brother or near relation of John Wolston of 
Tornewton House, and I should be glad to 
be favoured with further particulars about 
the family. According to my notes, Chris- 
topher Woolston died in 1832, and his wife 
Catherine, who was born on 10 June, 1762, 
died in 1840, and was buried at Torbryan. 
Her father, Roger Prideaux, was a younger 
brother of my great-great-grandfather. He 
was born at Kingswear, 8 Oct., 1722, and 
died at Kingsbridge in January, 1798. 
His wife, Catherine Ilbert, was born 12 Feb., 
1737/8, and her marriage licence was dated 
31 March, 1759. W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

This ambitious politician was born in 1755. 
His * Memoires sur les tats generaux ' 
(1788) was one of the first sparks of the 
Revolution. A year later, as a deputy, he 
changed his views, upholding hereditary 
privilege and the king's veto. After 1790 
he was diplomatically engaged in St. Peters- 
burg, Vienna, and 'Dresden. He acquired 
great influence with Canning, and was 
murdered, with his wife, 22 July, 1812, by 
an Italian servant at Barnes. For further 
details see ' Un Agent secret ' (L. Pingaud, 

There is a column and a half regarding 
this nobleman in Robinet's ' Dictionnaire 
historique et biographique de la Revolution 
et de I'Empire.' J. R. FITZGERALD. 

For the career of Emmanuel Louis Henri 
de Launay, Comte d'Antraigues, see 

* Nouvelle Biographie generate,' ii. 866 ; 
' Biographie moderne,' i. 52 ; and (under 

* Entraigues ' ) ' Biographie universelle,' xiii. 

An account of his murder will be found 
in 'The Environs of London,' by James 
Thome, F.S.A., 1876, Part I. pp. 27-8. 


LADY RUSSELL also thanked for replies.] 

PROVERB ON BEATING (10 S. ix. 170, 298 ; 
x . 15). in an epigram attributed to Zeve- 
cotius by Nicolas Mercier, * De Conscribendo 

10 s. x. AUG. 22, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Epigrammate,' p. 166, a different turn is 
given to this proverb* a woman being 
omitted from the list of things that are the 
better for a beating, and a bell and a 
sluggard added to it : 
Nux, asinus, campana, piger, si verbera cessent 

Hie cubat, ilia silet, hip stat, & ilia manet. 
Nux, asinus, campana, piger, si verbera eogant, 

Hie studet, ilia sonat, hie it, & ilia cadit. 


"SCARAMOUCH" (10 S. x. 86). If DR. 
KREBS had taken the precaution to in- 
vestigate the history of the Italian scara- 
muccia I am quite sure he would not have 
ventured to identify the Italian word, 
together with its English equivalent " scara- 
mouch," with a Church Slavonic word for 
buffoon, existing in the eleventh century. 
It would have been well if he had gone to 
such an obvious source of information as 
Florio's Italian dictionary. He would have 
found in Florio (ed. 1688) the following 
information : 

" Scaramuccia, Scaramugia, Scaramuzza, a skir- 
mish, a fight ; also the name of a jester or a fool in 
Italian comedies." 

" Scaramucciare to skirmish, or, to play the 

Scaramuccio or fool on the stage." 
From this it will be evident that the It. 
scaramuccia meant first a skirmish, and 
secondly the name of a jester ; and that, 
consequently, it is impossible to connect 
a word meaning in Italian primarily a 
" skirmish " with a Church Slavonic word of 
the eleventh century meaning a "buffoon." 

There is no doubt that scaramuccia is 
the source of the French word escarmouche, 
which is rendered " skirmish " by Cotgrave. 
Much interesting information about the 
word " scaramouch " and its connexion 
with Italian comedy may be found in the 
' Stanford Dictionary.' Harlequins and 
scaramouches are very frequently men- 
tioned together. It is probable that It. 
scaramuccia is of German origin. Etymo- 
logists generally connect the word with Old 
High German skirmen, to fence (whence O.F. 
escrimir). Of course the -uccia is the com- 
mon Italian suffix. A. L. MAYHEW. 

DR. KREBS (or his authority Prof. Skeat) 
is in error in stating that Scaramuccio was 
the proper name of the Italian comedian 
he was something better than a mere buffoon 
who died in 1694. The proper name of 
this player was Tiberio Fiorelli. He was 
familiarly known as Scaramuccio from the 
stock character he impersonated. 



THE OLD OMNIBUSES (10 S. x. 86). 
The value of MR. R. H. THORNTON'S note is 
lessened by the incorrect use of the term 
" knifeboard " for the front seats by the 
driver. I remember the thirteenth seat 
inside, facing the dopr, but I do not think 
it was found in all omnibuses ; it certainly 
remained in some after it was abolished in 
others. The two seats on each side of the 
driver continued with the original " knife- 
board " on the roof, and also with its 
improved form, and were not superseded 
until " garden seats " were introduced, 
and the staircase to these seats caused the 
doors to be abolished. MR. THORNTON does 
not give any dates, but it would be useful 
to have these for the various changes. I am 
sorry that I cannot supply them. 


MR. THORNTON is in error in calling the 
box seats on each side of the driver the 
" knifeboard," which was, of course, the 
back-to-back seat running along the centre 
of the roof. I have seen an illustration 
showing two or three men, overflows from 
the box seats, squatting on the curved roof. 
This practice may have suggested the later 
provision of the " knifeboard " seats. 

H. P. L. 

350). Did not the two-headed eagle sym- 
bolize the union of the Eastern Roman 
Empire under Nicephorus, and the Western 
under Charlemagne ? Not that it did not 
exist before as an imperial emblem, since 
it is said to be traceable to the great empires 
of the Tigris and Euphrates Valley, of 
Babylon and Assyria. Found on Hittite 
monuments of Cappadocia, it is thought 
to have passed by way of the Turkoman 
provinces, by means of the Crusaders, to 
Europe in the fourteenth century. If so, 
it could not have become the badge of the 
Easterlings, or merchants of the Hanseatic 
League, until that period. But the Hanse 
Association existed long before the four- 
teenth century, being known in the reign 
of Ethelred as the " Emperor's Men," which 
would be somewhere between 840 and 877, 
in the reign of Charles I. (le Chauve). 

A stone carving of the double-headed 
eagle, one head of which had been restored, 
and which bore the date 1669 and initials 
E. (or L.)R.M., was presented about February, 
1892, by Mr. M. Pope, F.S.A., to the City 
Museum, where it may now be seen. This 
would appear almost certainly to represent 
the two eagles described by Pennant (1790, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 s. x. AUG. 22, im 

p. 307) as being next to the waterside. 
Pennant, however, describes them as " two 
eagles, with imperial crowns round their 
necks, placed on two columns." Also there 
is an aquatint in the Grace Collection 
(British Museum), portf. vi. 292, of the old 
steelyard in Thames Street, as it appeared 
from the river front in 1798. Here again 
two eagles are represented, one each side 
of the water-gate. This division of the in- 
separable may, however, have been of a 
merely conventional character. At all 
events, it is remarkable that in an account 
of the steelyard and the Hanseatic League 
in The Home Friend ( ' Ancient London ' ), 
No. xiii. p. 472, there is an illustration which 
certainly seems to represent what remains 
of the relic presented to the Corporation 
Museum by Mr. Pope, who, I think, was a 
famous Q.C. as well as antiquary. 


Information respecting this device will 
be found in Lane-Poole's ' Coins of the 
Urtuki Turkumans ' in ' Numismata Orien- 
talia' (1878), p. 21. He there refers to 
coins of Atabegs of Sinjar, and rulers of 
Keyfa and Amid, on which it occurs, these 
coins being in the British Museum (' Cata- 
logue of Oriental Coins,' vol. iii.). Their 
dates are circa 1190 and 1220. He states 
that the double-headed eagle was the 
armorial badge of the city of Amid, and also 
refers to the occurrence of the device at 
Euyuk and near Boghaz-Keui, mentioned in 
the article in Blackwood this year. See also 
Archaeological Journal, vol. xvii. p. 145. 

It appears from W. B. Stevenson's 
* Crusaders in the East,' p. 266, that the 
ruler of Sinjar was with Saladin before Acre 
till November, 1190; and it may perhaps 
be suggested that coins of this ruler, or 
seals belonging to him or others, and bearing 
the device, were brought home by Crusaders, 
and introduced the two-headed eagle as an 
armorial bearing into Europe. L. W. H. 

ASTARTE may be interested in the follow- 
ing quotation from Comte d'Alviella's ' Les 
Symboles ' in connexion with his query 
about the double-headed eagle : 

"M. de Longperier fait observer que si Ton 
pratique une section dans la tige de certaines 
fougeres, Pleris aquilina, on obtient une image 
assez exacte de 1'aigle a deux tetes. Or, la fougere 
se nomme en grec Pteris, comme la province on se 
rencontrent les bas-reliefs d'Euiuk. Le savant 
archeologue se demandait si ce ne serait pas cette 
similitude qui aurait fait choisir 1'aigle a deux 
tetes comme symbole de la Pterie. Mais on sait 
aujourd'hui que les bas-reliefs en question sont fort 
anterieurs a 1'entree en scene des Grecs dans cette 

partie du moude, et il est probable que les Grecs 
avaient nomme la fougere avant de connaitre la 

The curious figure here described as a 
" double-headed eagle " was, when I was a 
child, called " Bang Charles in the oak," for 
neither the pattern in the root section of 
this fern, nor the significance of its name, 
Pteris aquilina (two-winged eagle), had been 
recognized. T. S. M. 

RUSHLIGHTS (10 S. x. 27, 76, 93, 135). 
It may be of interest to note that rushlights 
were on sale and in use, to my knowledge, in 
Bedfordshire at a very much later date than 
1845 (ante, p. 93). They were in use cer- 
tainly thirty years later than that, and I 
believe even more recently still. They were 
made at St. Albans, and an inquiry ad- 
dressed to Messrs. Joseph Wiles & Sons, 
tallow chandlers of St. Albans, would be 
likely to result in definite information as to 
the latest date up to which they were made. 

ST. GEORGE'S-IN-THE-EAST (10 S. ix. 369, 
416 ; x. 97). MR. HARLAND-OXLEY says 
that he has been unable to find any separate 
history of this church. In the ' Remi- 
niscences ' of the late pastor, Johannes 
Palmer, who retired in 1903, some account 
is given of the Swedish Church and con- 
gregation in London, and reference is made 
to ' Notes ' concerning the same by G. W. 
Carlson, an earlier minister, published at 
Stockholm in 1852. Both accounts are in 
Swedish, and therefore not readily accessible. 
We learn that privilege to establish a Swedish 
Church, according to the Lutheran faith, 
was first obtained as early as 1673 ; but, 
the Swedes not being numerous enough at 
the time, the privilege was acted upon by 
the German Lutherans, with whom, for a 
while, such Swedes as understood the 
German language worshipped. They joined 
with the Danes, however, when the latter 
built their church in Wellclose Square, 
about 1696. Some years later, ill-feeling, 
threatening war, having arisen between 
the two nations, the Swedes withdrew from 
church-fellowship. A private house in Rat- 
cliff Highway was rented until means were 
found for the erection of a church of their 
own in 1728. 

Of the Danes' Church (which is not now 
standing) we find some account in the Rev. 
Daniel Ly sons' s ' Environs of London ' 
(1795). Its architect was Caius Gabriel 
Gibber, Statuary to Frederic, King of 
Denmark (and afterwards to Charles II. 

10 s. x. AUG. 22, 1908. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and William III. of England), and father o 
Colley Gibber. There are fine engravings 
both of the exterior and interior, in the 
Guildhall Library (' Plans and Prints o 
Southwark, &c.,' Shadwell section). It i 
described as " a small, ordinary church ' 
in Palmer's ' Reminiscences ' ; but the 
engravings show it to have been a some 
what imposing building, sumptuous in its 
interior arrangements. 

2, Mount Pleasant, Belfast. 

ST. ANDREW'S CROSS (10 S. viii. 507 ; ix 
32, 114; x. 91, 135). The body of St 
Andrew is said to have reposed in the 
crypt of his cathedral at Amalfi, in Southern 
Italy, since the thirteenth century. The 
head, however, with those of SS. Peter anc 
Paul, lies under the high altar of St. Peter's 
in Rome. During the pontificate of Pius II. 
(^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini), 1458-64, the 
head of St. Andrew was brought to Rome. 
It had been worshipped for centuries at 
Patras ; but when the Turks invaded the 
Morea, the Despot fled with the precious 
relic to Ancona. It was then conveyed 
for safety to the strong fortress of Narni ; 
and, when Piccinino's forces were dispersed, 
was brought in stately procession to the 
Eternal City. It was intended that the 
heads of SS. Peter and Paul should go forth 
to meet that of their brother Apostle ; 
but they could not be moved, owing to the 
vast mass of gold and iron which enshrined 
and protected them. The Pope, his Car- 
dinals, and the whole population of Rome 
thronged forth to the Meadows near the 
Milvian Bridge. The relic rested that day 
on the altar of S. Maria del Popolo, and was 
then conveyed through the rejoicing city 
to St. Peter's. Leaving Rome by the Porta 
del Popolo on the left, you see the round 
church of St. Andrew ; and a little further 
on the right the chapel in honour of St. 
Andrew's head, where Pius II. met the 
procession bearing the relic. 

See Dean Milman's * History of Latin 
Christianity ' (1864), ix. 87. 


STUFFED CHINE (10 S. x. 30, 78). This 
delicacy is always largely in vogue during 
Wake Week here. Our church is dedicated 
to the Holy Trinity, and Trinity Week 
and Wake Week are synonymous. In 
nearly every house one enters during the 
time specified a stuffed chine in cut is stand- 
ing on the sideboard, ready for the imme- 
diate use of any callers or visitors. It is 
usually accompanied by a currant pudding 

made with thin layers of bread and fruit, 
with the usual accompaniment of eggs, 
milk, sugar, suet, peel, &c. This is known 
as Wake pudding. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

MAPS (10 S. x. 8, 77). We have no con- 
temporary maps illustrating Strabo and 
Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus), and they 
have only come down to us through copies 
made by Greek monks between 600 and 900 
A.D., by Arabs in the Islamic Renascence, 
by Latin monks and pilgrims, by Venetian 
and Catalan sailors, and by Flemish or 
German geographers. Sir Harry Johnston 
in ' The Nile Quest,' 1903, gives a repro- 
duction of the course of the Nile according 
to Ptolemy, "from the oldest version of 
Ptolemy's map in existence, about 930 A.D., 
preserved in Mount Athos Monastery." 
I do not know whether a facsimile of the 
whole of this map has been published ; 
but information as to this, and on the sub- 
ject generally, might be obtained from the 
Librarian of the Royal Geographical Society, 
1, Savile Row, W. A photographic repro- 
duction of a Greek MS. of Ptolemy's ' Geo- 
graphy ' of about 1200-1210 A.D. was 
published at Paris in 1867 (see Quaritch's 
Catalogue, May, 1899). Many editions of 
this work have been printed in Greek, Latin, 
Italian, and French ; but, curiously, it 
does not appear to have ever been trans- 
lated into English. These contain copies 
of the maps, with in some cases modifications 
due to later discoveries. 

Reconstructed reproductions of the maps 
of Homer, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, and 
other classical geographers have been fre- 
quently published, as, for instance, in Keith 
Johnston's * Classical Atlas,' and I can give 
a number of references to these, if desired. 
[n the Imperial Library of Vienna is still 
preserved a fine specimen of a painted 
tinerary of 230 A.D., known as the Peutinger 
Table (see ' History of Maritime and Inland 
Discovery ' in " Lardner's Cabinet Cyclo- 
aaedia," i. 1830, p. 155). A facsimile of 
in interesting conception of the world by a 
Christian monk known as " Cosmas Indico- 
leustes," of about the year 530, is given in 
is * Topographia Christiana,' translated 
md edited by J. W. McCrindle, and pub- 
ished by the Hakluyt Society in 1897. As 
o early mediaeval maps, see C. Raymond 
Beazley's ' Dawn of Modern Geography,' 

vols., 1897-1906, in which facsimiles of 
everal are given. 

But for the earliest map of all, as for the 
eginnings of so much else, we must go to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUO. 22, im 

Egypt. Prof. G. Maspero in ' The Struggle 
of the Nations,' 1896, p. 367, reproduces a 
fragment of a map of the gold-mines of 
Nubia, of about the time of Seti II., a king 
of the Nineteenth Dynasty, who reigned 
about 1214-1209 B.C., according to Prof. 
Petrie. This map is on papyrus, and 
Maspero describes it as the oldest map in 
the world. It is reproduced from Chabas, 
' Les Inscriptions des Mines d'Or,' plate ii. 
Perhaps some, however, would give the 
palm for antiquity to the Chaldsean map 
of the world, of which Maspero gives a 
reproduction (* The Dawn of Civilization,' 
1894, p. 775) from Zeitschrift fur Assyrio- 
logie, iv. 369. 


HOVE (10 S. ix. 450; x. 14, 111). The 
true pronunciation of this name is an im- 
portant factor in determining its meaning. 
Nowadays " Hove " rimes with " cove " ; 
but thirty or forty years ago old people in 
Brighton, of which town I am a native, 
pronounced the word in rime with " move " 
and " prove." In the sixteenth-century 
drawing depicting the burning of Brighthelm- 
stone by the French, in the Cotton MS. 
Augustus I. i. 18, we find " Hoove Churche " 
written : cf. the reproduction of this draw- 
ing which illustrates Dr. James Gairdner's 
paper in R. Hist. Soc. Trans., Third Series, 
vol. i., 1907 (frontispiece). " Hoove," then, 
postulates an A.-S. hdf, and that means a 
palace, a dwelling, a house. 


30, Albany Road, Stroud Green, N. 


STUART (10 S. x. 46, 93). In Lloyd's 
' History of Highgate ' (referred to in MR. 
MARRIOTT'S note) it is stated that Arundel 
House stood on the site now occupied by 
Charming House, Bletchworth House, and 
intervening houses, on " The Bank " on 
Highgate Hill. The last remaining wing 
of the house was, says Lloyd, pulled down 
in 1825. A modern house bearing the name 
Arundel House now occupies part of this 
site, and is next door to Bletchworth House. 
Lloyd gives a picture of part of the old 
Arundel House, from which, I presume, 
the view on the post cards MR. MARRIOTT 
speaks of was copied ; but these, I am told, 
are at present out of print, and I have not 
been able to obtain one in the neighbourhood. 
Lloyd shows clearly (as MR. MARRIOTT 
says) that it was in Sir William Bond's 
house that Arabella Stuart stayed, and MR. 
MARRIOTT now proves that our historian 
was mistaken in supposing this to have 

been Arundel House. But why will not 
MR. MARRIOTT give the reasons for his con- 
jecture as to the site of the latter, and so 
help (as possibly he might do) in its iden- 
tification ? C. C. B. 

"ABRACADABRA" (10 S. ix. 467; x. 35,. 
54). The new ' Thesaurus Linguae Latinse " 
contents itself with quoting the origin for 
this word suggested by Buecheler : " Ficta 
videtur tinnula interpolatione abecedari." 

Another derivation, offered by the late 
Dr. C. W. King, will be found in 'The 
Stanford Dictionary of Anglicised Words- 
and Phrases,' edited by Dr. C. A. M. FennelL 

Bad Wildungen. 

It may not be irrelevant to quote the 
well-known lines in Prior's ' Solomon/ 
ii. 356-63 : 

Another nymph, amongst the many fair 
That made my softer hours their solemn care, 
Before the rest affected still to stand, 
And watched my eye, preventing my command. 
Abra she so was called did soonest haste 
To grace my presence ; Abra went the last : 
Abra was ready ere I called her name ; 
And, though I called another, Abra came, 

In Exodus ii. 5 the Septuagint hag TYJV 
a/3pav for "her maid" (A.V.) or "her 
handmaid" (R.V.). 



S. x. 30). Intelligent Puritan New England, 
from its beginnings republican to the core, 
acquired, let us say, in many a green lane 
and sombre manor house throughout Puritan 
Old England, must have had in town and 
country numerous eating and drinking 
houses familiarly commemorating, as it 
were, its profound esteem and hearty affec- 
tion for the immortal Cromwell. The best- 
known tavern recalling his name was " The- 
O. Cromwell Head Inn," which stood on 
School Street in Boston from 1705 to 1800. 
Cherished by the collector, a rare morsel of 
early American copperplate printing is the 
Paul Revere engraved bill-head, executed 
before the Revolution, for the proprietor 
of the inn, Joseph Brackett, who was proud 
of having had as his guests George Wash- 
ington in 1756 and the Marquis Chastellux 
in 1782. A facsimile of this rarity appears- 
in Goss's * Paul Revere,' with hand-coloured 
plates, 2 vols., royal 8vo, Boston, 189L 
See, too, Drake's ' Boston Taverns,' also 
his ' Old Landmarks of Boston.' The 
Whig of the period would quench his thirst 
here, butjmot the Tory, the latter, usually, in 

10 s. x. AUG. 22, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


patriotic " old-country " touch with the 
Royal Governor of the Province. Says 
Drake, the clearest of local Boston anti- 
quaries (and their number is legion) : " The 
sign of this hostelry was the effigy of the 
Lord Protector Cromwell, and, it is said, 
hung so low that all who passed were com- 
pelled to make an involuntary reverence." 

The continuing New England admiration 
for Oliver Cromwell as a statesman of the 
front rank was not lost on Thomas Carlyle, 
for, in order that his unmatched collection 
of Cromwell printings should not come under 
the auctioneer's baton, or any of its volumes 
get scattered, he, long before his death, 
presented the whole to Harvard University, 
accompanied by a curious epistle, pathetic- 
ally humble indeed, printed entire, I fancy, 
in one of the back volumes of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society's Proceedings. 

Brookline, Mass. 

DEVILLE (10 S. ix. 450; x. 91). I have 
a dim recollection of reading, or hearing 
about a man named Deville who earned a 
certain reputation as a lecturer or demon- 
strator in connexion with phrenology some- 
where in the forties of last century. In that 
reminiscence I am helped by Robert (other- 
wise "Satan") Montgomery, who in one 
of his satires, ' The Age Reviewed,' girds at 
Gall and Spurzheim in some slashing lines. 
He pictures Gall as scratching his pate in 
bed and feeling some outward lumps, which 
he assumed to be organs of his inward brain, 
and resolved to have some plaster heads 
to show them plainly. Then 
Spread the mapp'd out skulls thro' Scotia's towns, 
And Glasgow sawnies bump'd their dirty crowns ; 
Then foggy Spurzheim croak'd in bungling tomes, 
Till gaping Scotland hugg'd her crack-brain'd 

monies ! 

Last Combe, the printing gobbernowl for all, 
In half a thousand pages grubb'd for Gall ; 
And found a deputy in smug Deville, 
With unwash'd nands to fumble and to feel. 



BUNS" (10 S. ix. 345, 436). The custom 
of marking with a cross was not confined 
to articles of food, such as buns, &c., but was 
.also in some instances extended to drink, 
e.g. beer. 

My father, when a surveying officer of 
Inland Revenue stationed at Wednesbury, 
had in his station an operative brewer who 
carried out this custom. When I saw my 
father recently, I inquired as to this man ; 
but my father was unable to give precise 

details of the practice. He believed, how- 
ever, that it was somewhat as follows. 

Barm was added to the wort while running 
into the fermenting vessel. Fermentation 
would begin in the course of a short time 
after the vessel was^filled, a slight creamy 
" head " then making its appearance. The 
brewer thereupon ladled out a teacupful 
of the wort and spilt it on the floor, after 
which he marked a large cross on the yeasty 
" head " of wort. 

It is, I believe, more than a dozen years 
since this brewer was transferred from my 
father's station to one adjoining, but in the 
eight or nine years previous to this transfer 
I frequently heard my father speak about 
this custom, as he was frequently annoyed 
because the brewer grumbled at him for 
disturbing his cross when sampling the wort 
to ascertain the specific gravity. 

The old brewer, I believe, could give no 
reason for this practice of his, though he was 
asked for one more than once. 

I have never heard of any other brewer 
following the same custom, nor of any good 
explanation being given, though it is pro- 
bably a survival from the days of the old 
monkish brewers. E. GANDY. 

Inland Revenue, Aberayron. 

The ordinary cross on a bun is X or -f , 
depending on the way the bun is held and 
looked at ; but it could not be so when the 
mark was ]. The second I mentioned had 
a double shaft and double crosspiece, and 
was made, I should say, by an instrument 
of tin or iron, the four pieces joined together, 
perhaps, by solder. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


DEATH AFTER LYING (10 S. x. 109). 
The town, as stated in the editorial note, is 
Devizes. The date of the occurrence is 
1753, when Ruth Pierce of Potterne, a 
neighbouring village, was accused in the 
market of not having paid her share of the 
cost of a sack of wheat. She wished she 
might drop down dead if she had not, and 
thereupon fell dead with the money con- 
cealed in her hand. CHARLES GILLMAN. 

Church Fields, Salisbury. 

PAULITIAN LANGUAGE (10 S. ix. 167). 
L. L. K. has whetted my curiosity to know 
more of this tongue. Is it Armenian, Greek, 
or Bulgarian ? Can it by any chance throw 
any light on Romani ? It is generally 
conceded that a confusion did at one time 
exist between the 'Aro-iyKai/o*, or Gypsies, 
and the J AOiyyavot, a branch of the 
Paulicians. ALEX. RUSSELL. 

Stromness, Orkney. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUG. 22, im 

" Widow " affixed to traders' names in con- 
nexion with various vocations appears in 
the Sheffield ' Directory ' dated 1787, which 

"Allen, Widow, lantern light & comb maker, 
Scargill Croft." 

"Beet, Widow, & Sons, cutlers, Broad-lane." 

" Cosins, Widow, vigo button maker, Park." 

"Cross, Widow, cut glass manufacturer, Far- 

"Ludlam, Widow, & Sons, cutlers, Burgess- 

" Ward, Widow, scissorsmith & victualler, Bur- 


27, Northumberland Road, Sheffield. 

"PINK SAUCER" (10 S. ix. 486; x. 78). 
In the early sixties, before the Civil War, 
we used to send thousands of pink saucers 
to America. I always understood they were 
used for dyeing purposes, and sent in this 
form to evade a duty. They were supplied 
by Reeves & Sons, Cheapside. 


Stoke Newington. 

(10 S. ix. 329, 431; x. 38). In 'William 
Allingham : a Diary ' (London, 1907) I find 
(p. 252) Carlyle quoted as having said 
(6 Sept., 1876) : " Ben is sensible and able 
rather prosaic." Again : 

" Ben Jonsqn had quite recognisably an Annan- 
dale face. His father was an Aimandale man, who 
spelt his name Johnson. He moved to Carlisle, 
where Ben was born." 

T. M. W. 

There is a Ben Jonson's Road, Stepney, 
branching off the Burdett Road. I cannot 
trace any connexion between the poet and 
the place, yet I suspect there must be some. 
If there is not, perhaps some reader will 
explain how the road came to be so desig- 
nated. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

x. 105). It appears simpler to compare this 
word with the place-names Everleigh and 
Eversley, of which the first half (not " pre- 
fix") is well known to represent the A.-S. 
eo/or, wild boar, cognate with mod. Ger. Eber. 

H. P. L. 

ix. 188). The title of Christopher Giarda's 
work was wrongly given. It should be 
' Liberalium disciplinarum icones [not comes, 
which makes no sense] symbolicse Biblio- 
thecse Alexandrinse.' The Bibliotheca Alex- 
andrina was not the Ambrosian Library, 

but the library of a college of the order to 
which Giarda belonged, the " Congregatio 
Cler. Reg. S. Pauli." This can be seen by 
looking at Giarda's treatise and at the history 
of the Ambrosian Library that precedes it 
in Grsevius's * Thesaurus.' 

Bad Wildungen. 

ANONYMOUS WORKS (10 S. x. 28, 73). 
Was ' Marriage Rites ' published anony- 
mously ? My copy, dated 1822, has on the 
itle-page " by Lady Augusta Hamilton." 
The preface is signed "A. H., Charenton, 
1822," and this would appear, therefore, 
to be the first edition. Perhaps the author- 
ship was dropped from the title-page of the 
1824 edition mentioned by F. G. H. The 
copy in my possession has on the title-page 
the signature " Augus 8 B. Hamilton," 
probably a relative of the author. 


CLERGY IN WIGS (10 S. viii. 149, 214; 
ix. 497 ; x. 16, 78). It would be more 
correct to say " episcopal wigs," as in 
former times nearly all the clergy wore wigs. 
The Bishops' wigs were in the form of a 
horseshoe, and Archbishop Sumner, when 
Bishop of Chester, wore one when he con- 
firmed me in 1847. It was about that time 
sometimes worn, and as often laid aside. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Archbishop Sumner, wearing a wig r 
confirmed me in April, 1856, in Canterbury 
Cathedral. He was staying at the Deanery, 
where I saw him without it. The same 
afternoon I saw him in it again, in his 
carriage. W. K. W. CHAFY. 

ix. 467; x. 13). This strange expression for 
sudden apprehension or misgiving, as well 
as for " fidgeting," occurs in ' Pierce' s Super- 
erogation,' 1593 (Gabriel Harvey's ' Works/ 
ii. 238): "Thy witt already maketh but- 

VIVANDIERES (10 S. ix. 171, 313, 418). 
An interesting little article on ' Women 
Soldiers of the French Army ' appeared 
in No. 31 of Cassell's New Penny Magazine, 
dated 27 May, 1899 (vol. iii. p. 268). 


[Several correspondents have sent us references 
to the " vivandiere" in fiction, especially in Ouida's 
novel ' Under Two Flags ' ; but these are not to 
the point, as a reference to the original query will 

10 s. x. AUG. 22, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




The Oxford English Dictionary. (Vol. VIII.) 

Reserve Ribaldously. Edited by W. A. Craigie. 

(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

THIS double section contains no fewer than 2,763 
entries of words or combinations of words. The 
number of quotations is 15,983, as compared with 
1,835 in * The Century Dictionary,' its nearest rival 
in the matter of fullness. Latin and Romance 
words form, as might be expected, the bulk of the 
section, words in re and retro being numerous. 
Words beginning with rh (separately prepared by 
Mr. C. T. Onions) are mostly of Greek origin, and 
classical influence, prevalent in the sixteenth 
century, has, it is stated, affected the spelling of 
" rime," preserved in our columns, though generally 
the modern press has " rhyme." 

After a careful study of the pages before us, 
which begin rather oddly in the middle of an 
article, we are able to congratulate Dr. Craigie 
heartily on the results of his labours. We have 
been struck many times by the skilful analysis of 
shades of meaning in words apparently simple; 
here are, for instance, admirably thorough articles 
on 'Reserve' (verb), 'Resign,' 'Resolve' (verb), 
* Rest' (verb and noun), and ' Retire.' 

In the matter of quotations this section is very 
satisfactory more so, we think, than others 
recently issued. That they are numerous and show 
a wonderful ransre is now taken for granted by all 
students of the ' Dictionary ' ; but on this occasion 
they are, for the most part, interesting in them- 
selves, and representative of the best English 
thought and writing. Such additions as we offer 
are not, we think, of much importance, though we 
presume that they are preferable to the vague 
laudation of the average reviewer, who does not 
descend to details. Two main principles guide us, 
as we have explained before, in the suggestion of 
new quotations. We think it wise that the 
authority for a word should, where possible, be 
derived, not from journalism, but from an author of 
good standing ; and, furthermore, that poets as 
well as prose writers should be represented, for it 
is the poet who, as Horace says, gives a word a new 
setting and a new reputation, so that some vocables 
which have generally kept low company are raised 
to a good standing, or, accused of being prosy, can 
boast of some of the starlike quality which the 
magic of poetry gives to language. 

Being in touch with modern science, we also make 
a few suggestions in that line, but our technical 
writers, inventors, chemists, botanists, &c., can 
seldom be the pride of the lexicographer. They 
disregard the feelings of the learned, and invent 
strange verbs and hybrid forms with degraded 
facility. We should not ourselves admit as English 
at all such words as " reservoired" and the verb to 
" resume" which are included here. 

Various words derived from L. resider and resld&re 
respectively are well distinguished. " Reside "= 
residence is used only by Brathwait in the seven- 
teenth century. " Resiance," " resiancy," and 
"resiant" are all obsolete. A better modern 
quotation for "resignation" (acquiescence) than 
that given is " I must in silent resignation leave all 
of you," Ruskin, 'Realistic Schools of Painting' 
No. I. 20 (1883). In our steps " we automatically 

adjust the muscular resistance needful for each 
occasion," writes Nisbet in 'The Insanity of 
Genius' (1891), a quotation which may add to the 
scientific completeness of the article on the word 
italicized. Literary "resources" are commonly 
talked of by the modern reviewer. There is one 
quotation of this kind <from Green's ' Short His- 
tory.' Froude's essay on the book of Job in his 
' Short Studies' (1853) supplies another, for on p. 3 
he refers to " all the resources of modern scholar- 
ship." " Respect " (noun) is a long and very careful 
article. A passage from belles-lettres for its use as 
"deferential regard or esteem" is lacking in the 
niiieteeth century. Perhaps one is not needed, still 
we please ourselves by recalling that Uncle Joseph's 
lecture on '"Education: its Aims, Objects, Pur- 
poses, and Desirability,' gained him the respect of 
the shallow-minded," as we learn from p. 3 of 
Stevenson's extravaganza ' The Wrong Box. There 
is, we think, a scientific use of "response," as 
shown in the title of a recent book by J. C. JBose, 
'Response in the Living and Non-Living.' The 
actors use of "resting" for unemployed might 
have been noticed. " Restive " is at first sight a 
curious word. Of animals it now generally means 
inclined to move, unable to stand still, a sense it 
has apparently acquired from the meanings "re- 
fusing to go forward ; stubbornly standing still." 
" Restorationism " is an odd word, and indicates 
the " doctrine that all men will ultimately be re- 
stored to a state of happiness in the future life.'" 

Under " restrain "=keep back from something 
desired, we should quote from Dryden's Prologue 
to 'Troilus and Cressida' the following pungent 
couplet : 

These oafs should be restrained, during their lives, 
From pen and ink, as madmen are from knives. 

For " resurrection " (at the Last Day) in nineteenth- 
century usage we find two theological quotations 
only. Froude, dealing with a celebrated text in 
the book of Job, says in his essay in ' Short Studies r 
quoted above : "If there is any doctrine of a resur- 
rection here, it is a resurrection precisely not of 
the body, but of the spirit." "Resurrection man " 
and " resurrectionary " are both quoted from 
Dickens; and the literary "resurrectionist" "in 
the grave-yards of deceased books," as Whipple, 
the American essayist, puts it in the quotation 
from his ' Essays and Reviews,' is not forgotten. 
No poetical quotation is given for "reticence." 
Tennyson has " such fine reserve and noble reti- 
cence" near the end of 'Geraint and Enid.' 
"Reverential" was one of the many adjectives 
which adorned the vari-coloured style of our late 
editor, e.g., " a not very brilliant nor reverential 
parody of Othello's speech in farewell to his occu- 
pation," J. Knight, 'David Garrick,' p. 109. From 
the same book might have been easily procured an 
example of a "revival" of a play, which is only 
noted from journalism, e.g., chap. vii. p. 110, "On 
the revival of 'King Henry V.,' given for the first 
time at Drury Lane, Garrick contented himself 
with the part of Prologue and Chorus." " Reve- 
rent" and " reverently" were favourite words with 
Ruskin, e.g., " The most reverently acceptant 
account of those days," ' Pleasures of Faith,' sec- 
tion 47. Tennyson has " To pine in that reverse of 
doom," 'In Memoriam,' LXXII. ; he has also in 
' Will Waterproof,' 1. 159, "I sit, my empty glass 
reversed," and no poetical usage is quoted for these 
two words in the senses indicated. To "review" 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 22, im 

in the literary sense is first used, apparently, by 
Johnson in a letter to Mrs. Thrale of 12 Nov., 1781. 
"Reviewal" has, we think, gone out of fashion. 
"Reviewer" and "reviewing are illustrated by 
many excellent quotations, the latter ending with 
the melancholy statement from The. Idler of Sep- 
tember, 1894, " ' Reviewing' work is too badly paid 
for any reasonable being to think of making it either 
an art or a business." Fortunately, there are still a 
few people who regard the study of literature as 
something other than a means of making money. 
" Revolve "= ponder is classical in origin, as in 
Virgil, * JSneid,' ii. 101 : " Sed quid ego hsec autem 
nequicquam ingrata revolvo." Here to De Quincey 
and Arctic Kane in the nineteenth century we 
should add Tennyson's "Sir Bedivere, revolving 
many memories," in 'Morte D' Arthur,' 1. 27U. 
Darwin in his * Climbing Plants,' chap. v. p. 203 
(Popular Edition, 1906), supplies a quotation of 
authority for a use of "revolving" which is hardly 
like any of those given: "Their revolving move- 
ment is often accelerated or retarded in travelling 
to or from the light." It would have been easy to 
add literary allusions to "rheumatism"; still we 
have an excellent reference to ' Adam Bede,' 
chap, xviii., "On wet Sundays, or whenever he 
had a touch of rheumatism, he [Mr. Peyser's father] 
used to read the three first chapters of Genesis. 
Johnson (Boswell's ' Life,' ed. Hill, ii. 361) at the 
age of sixty-six gave Bennet Langton a recipe 
"for the rheumatism." The dialectic form " rheu- 
matiz," though differently spelt, occurs in the 
rustic talk of ' Tom Brown's Schooldays,' chap. iii. : 
"There's only one thing, as I knows on, as 
'11 cure old folk like you and I o' th' rhu- 
matiz." Ruskin's " in melodious theology and 
beautifully rythmic and pathetic meditation," 
' Pleasures of Faith,' II. (1884), is a better quota- 
tion than that given for the later use of the 
word we italicize. The use of " rial," a variant 
of "real" or " roial "= befitting a king, is amply 
testified to in early English for some three 
centuries. The same page of the 'Dictionary' 
gives us "rib" used for wife by Fielding, Sterne, 
Lamb, Byron, and Borrow. This is a good ex- 
ample of the way in which the * Dictionary ' traces 
the course of a vigorous piece of vernacular in 
writers of distinction. 

The Tragedies of Sophoclts. Translated with a 
Biographical Essay by E. H. Plumptre. (Rout- 
ledge & Sons.) 

THIS recent addition to "The New Universal 
Library" shows the enterprise of its promoters. 
The idea of an English Sophocles at a shilling would 
have seemed hopeless of attainment a few years 
since. Now, however, readers can have more than 
one translation at that price. Plumptre was a 
good scholar, and his essay on the poet is valuable. 
His renderings are generally lucid, though they 
somewhat lack poetic style ; and they are in 
accuracy much in advance of the earlier translators. 
The reader who peruses this little book will get at 
least some idea of the structure and purport of the 
plays of Sophocles, and see in ' (Edipus at Colonus ' 
a resemblance to 'King Lear.' The verse of 
Sophocles, like that of Virgil, is charged with a 
multitude of graces and subtleties that must evade 
the translator. In one direction, however, Plumptre 
gets the better of his rivals, in that he does not 
attempt rime in the choruses. Matthew Arnold 
showed what could be done in that way, and we 

much prefer the simplicity of such a passage as this 
from the '(Edipus at Colonus' to the smooth 
inanities introduced by the necessities of rime : 

Happiest beyond compare 

Never to taste of life ; 

Happiest in order next, 

Being born, with quickest speed 

Thither again to turn 
From whence we came. 

While youth is with us still, 

Bringing its follies light, 

What sorrow stays away ? 

And, closing life's long course, 
There comes the last and worst, 
An age of stubborn mood, 
Friendless and hard of speech, 
Where met in union strange, 
Evils with evils dwell. 

Henslowe's Diary. Edited by Walter W. Greg. 

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CONTENTS.-No. 244. 

NOTES :- Jean Paul in English, 161 Napoleon's Arrival 
at St. Helena, 162 Shakespeariana, 164-Cheshire the 
Hangman Regimental Marches of the British Army, 167, 

QUERIES : Sheriffs and Aldermen of London, 167 
Pharmacopoeia Buxton Calligraphy : F. Billieul and 
Chambon Corbet = Valletort Norman-French Deed 
temp. Edward III. John Chamberlin Ruthwell Cross 
Dumfriesshire Authors of Quotations Wanted Hoppne 
and Sir Thomas Frankland's Daughters, 168 Rugge or 
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bishop of Dover Christopher Thomson Llechylched, 
Anglesey" Buff," 170. 

REPLIES : Attorney-General to the Queen, 170 Old 
English Dramatists Toothache, 171 Oxgate Manor, 
Willesden St. Margaret's Hospital, Westminster Jacob 
Philadelphia Edward Sharpham, 172 One-Tree Hill, 
Greenwich " Cardinal " of St. Paul's Authors of Quota- 
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as Badges Harvey's Birthplace John of Gaunt's Arms, 
174 Inferior Clergy : " Sir " Vowel-shortening, 175 
Salarino, Salanio, a.nd Salerio Initial Letters instead of 
Words, 176 "Pearl" Widkirk: 'The Wakefleld Mys- 
teries '' Epulum Parasiticum,' 177 Swimming Bath: 
William Kemp" Entente Cordiale " St. Martha, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Hill Burton's 'Book-Hunter'' The 
Edinburgh Review.' 

OBITUARY : Mr. Frederic Norgate. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


WHITING in 1830, Thomas Carlyle said : 
" It is some six years since the name of 
* Jean Paul Friedrich Richter ' was first 
printed with English types." This is not 
strictly accurate, for De Quincey wrote of 
Hichter in 1821. 

I have just come across an even earlier 
effort to make Jean Paul familiar to English 
readers, and as it is in an out-of-the-way 
publication, the circumstance is worth 
noting. The Salopian Magazine, printed 
at Shrewsbury by Charles Hulbert, who 
was also its editor, contained in the number 
for January, 1816, a partial translation of 
one of Jean Paul's famous ' Dreams.' It 
is worth quoting, that it may be compared 
with the complete and magnificent transla- 
tion published by Carlyle in 1830 : 


(From the German of Jean Paul Richter.) 
Translated by a Correspondent. 

The design of this fiction, says the Author, will 
be a sufficient apology for the boldness of it. If 
my heart were ever so wretched, so lost to all feel- 

ing, that the sentiments which affirm the existence 
of a God might be annihilated : I would again read 
the pages; I should be deeply affected by them, 
and again find my salvation and my faith. There 
are some who deny the existence of Deity, with as 
much indifference as others admit it ; and some 
have believed it during twenty years, who have 
not till the twenty-first discovered the awful 
minute, in which they have found, with ravish- 
ment and delight, the rich portion of that belief 
the vivifying heat of that fountain of Naptha. 

When, in our childhood, we are told that towards 
midnight, at the hour when sleep has nearly over- 
powered us, our dreams become more dreadful ; 
the dead awake and perform the pious orgies of the 
living, in the deserted temples of the Most High. 
Dead affright us because of the dead. When dark- 
ness and obscurity approach, we turn our eyes from 
the church and its dismal windows ; the terrors of 
infancy, still greater than its pleasures, take wing 
and fly around us during the uncertain night of the 
drowsy soul. Oh ! let us enjoy our dreams, even 
the most gloomy ; they are yet more agreeable than 
our actual existence. Do not quench these sparks ; 
their scintillations lead us back to that age, when 
the untroubled streams of life, still reflected back 
the Heavens in their calm and cloudless purity. 

One fine summer evening, I lay me down on the 
summit of a hill, and fell asleep. I dreamed that I 
awoke at midnight in a cemetry ; the clock heavily 
tolled twelve ; the graves were half open, and the 
massive doors of the Church, agitated by an in- 
visible hand, opened and shut with a great noise. 
I saw the ghastly shadows flit with velocity upon 
the walls though projected by no earthly substance. 
Other livid spectres arose in the air, and the infants 
alone reposed in their coffins. 

There was in Heaven, as it were a greyish, heavy, 
suffocating cloud, bound and pressed into long 
plaits by a gigantic phantom. Above I heard the 
distant fall or the avalanche, and under my feet 
the beginning of a great earthquake. The temple 
rocked to its foundations and the air was rentjby 
the discordant sounds of horror. Some glimmering 
lamps threw a pale light around ; I felt myself 
unged forward, even by terror, to seek an asylum 
in the sacred edifice ; two flaming basilisks guarded 
its dreadful entrance. 

I advanced among the crowd of unknown shades, 
upon whom the seal of other years was imprinted ; 
all of them pressed round the ruined altar, and 
their breasts alone respired and were violently 
agitated; one of them, who had but been shortlj 
interred, remained in his shroud ; there was yet no 
palpitation in his bosom, and a happy dream caused 
a smile on his livid countenance ; but at the ap- 
proach of an earthly being he awoke, ceased to 
smile, and opened with a painful effort his stiffened 
eyelids ; the place of the eye was void, and that of 
:he heart was marked by a deep wound. He raised 
lis hands to pray, joined them together ; but his 
arms lengthened, separated themselves from the 
jody, and the clasped hand fell to the ground. 

In the midst of the roof. of the church, was the 
dial of Eternity ; there were neither index nor 
igures to it ; but a human finger, black as night, 
;urned slowly round,' and the dead were compelled 
;o read the time thereon. Then I saw descend from 
the high place upon the altar, a radiant and 
najestic figure, which bore the marks of ceaseless 
sorrow; the dead cried out, "Oh, Jesus, is there 
no God ?" He answered, " There is no God ! " All 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUG. 29, im 

the spectres began to tremble violently, and Christ 
continued thus : " I have travelled over worlds, I 
have gone beyond the Sun, and there is no God 
even there; I descended to the last limits of 
creation: I looked into the abyss, and cried 
I only heard the rain which fell by drops 
into its dark bosom ; the eternal tempest of 
chaos alone answered me. Then raising my 
eyes towards the vault of Heaven, I found 
only a trackless void, dark and unfathomable. 
Eternity reposed on Chaos, gnawed it, and even 
devoured itself slowly. Redouble your bitter cries : 
let the piercing shrieks make the shadows disperse 
and vanish : IT is DONE." 

The spectres vanished as the white vapour con- 
densed by the cold, the church was deserted ; when 
suddenly I beheld the most fearful spectacle. 

The dead infants, which were awakened in their 
turn, came and prostrated themselves before the 
majestic figure upon the altar, and said, "Jesus, 
have we not a Father?" and he answered them, 
with a torrent of tears, "We are Orphans, we are 
orphans we have no father ! " At these awful 
words, the temple and the children were swallowed 
up in the abyss, and the whole edifice of the world 
shook in its immensity before me. S. Y. 

In a foot-note S. Y. says : 

" J. P. Richter is a great favourite with the 
German public. He possesses an astonishing 
erudition ; is endowed with a very lively imagina- 
tion, and in his writings displays great purity of 
imagination ; but he is destitute of taste. His 
style is rather unnatural, frequently obscure, and 
in general very heavy. His writings, however, 
contain passages worthy of the most eminent author 
passages in the spirit of the great Shakespear, 
and others in the manner of the sentimental 

This article in The Salopian Magazine 
precedes both Carlyle and De Quincey, but 
there may be still earlier samples of Jean 
Paul in English. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 



I CONTINUE the story of Napoleon as 
given by Mr. Warden (see ante, pp. 1, 64). 

A few days after Napoleon had settled 
at The Briars Mr. Warden paid him a com- 
plimentary visit, and found him reclining 
on a sofa, apparently incommoded by the 
heat ; he had been, he said, amusing himself 
with a walk in the garden, but he found it 
necessary to shelter- himself from the sun. 
He appeared to be in very good spirits. 
After some general questions respecting 
the restrictions on visiting him, he said : 

" ' I find there is a considerable force on the island : 
full as many as the produce of the place is capable 
of maintaining. What could induce your Govern- 
ment to send out the 53rd Regiment ? There was 
surely a sufficient force before for my security ; but 
this is the way that you English people get rid of 

your money.' To this I did not hesitate to reply : 
When a measure is once resolved on, you, General, 
will acknowledge it to be the best P9licy to employ 
all the means that may secure its being carried into- 
effect.' You may think that I hazarded his dis- 
pleasure by my answer, but the manner in which 
ne received it convinced me that he was better 
pleased with my frankness than if I had hammered 

out a compliment I now took my leave and 

strolled down with Count Bertrand to dinner." 

It was some time afterwards that the 
surgeon paid a second visit to The Briars 
to dine with Mr. Balcombe. He accidentally 
took a path which led to the gardens, and 
at the angle formed by two paths he met 
Napoleon clattering down among the rocks 
in his heavy military boots. 

" He accosted me with an apparent mixture of 
satisfaction and surprise, and reproached me in 
terms of great civility for my long absence. There 
was a rough deal board placed as a seat between 
two stones, on which, after having brushed away 
the dust with his hands, he sat himself down, and 
desired me to take my place beside him. Las Cases 
soon joined us. While I was gazing with some 
astonishment on the barren wonders of the scene 
around me, 'Well,' said Napoleon with a smile, 
'what say you to it? and can you think that your 
countrymen have treated me kindly ? ' I had but 
one answer to such a question, and that was by 

giving no answer at all His conversation was on 

this occasion, as on all others when I have been 
with him, easy, good-humoured, and familiar, 

without the least taint of his former greatness 

On my mentioning the activity of the Admiral in 
superintending the repairs at Lo'ngwood, he replied, 
' Your Admiral knows, I doubt riot, in what time a 
ship may be got ready, but as an architect I think 
his calculations will fail.' I maintained, however, 
that whether it was upon land or sea Sir George 
Cockburn was of a character that would ensure 
success in whatever he may be called upon to 
undertake. He then inquired after those gentlemen 
whose names he endeavoured to recollect, and 
expressed a wish to see them as they passed ; ' if,' 
said he, ' they will be contented to visit me as you 
do now, in the fields, as my present residence is not 
calculated to receive company.' Napoleon fre- 
quently makes one of Mr. Balcombe's family 
parties, where he is neither troublesome nor 
intrusive, but conducts himself with the manners of 
a gentleman, and a lively demeanour that promotes 
the general vivacity of the domestic circle. 

On Napoleon's removal to Longwood, as 
he had complained of the intrusion of 
visitors at The Briars, it was ordered that 
no one should be permitted to visit the 
former without a passport from the Admiral 
or the Governor. The illness of General 
Gourgon caused the surgeon to pass much 
of his time at Longwood, as the Emperor's 
surgeon, O'Meara, was desirous that they 
should be together during the treatment. 
On one of these occasions he received from 
Napoleon an invitation to dinner. He was- 
obliged to present himself in his riding 
equipments, and in these he made his entry. 

10 s. x. AUG. 29, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


General Montholm, in full dress, received 
him in the ante-room. 

"General Montholm whispered in my ear that I 
was to take my seat at table between the Emperor 
and the Grand Marshal. I had Napoleon on my 
right, and the Marshal on my left, and there was a 
vacant chair that had the air of ceremonious empti- 
ness as a reserved seat for Maria Louisa. A bottle 
of claret and a decanter of water were placed by 
each plate ; but there was no drinking to each other 
at dinner ; and if you did not help yourself during 
the time it lasted, the opportunity would be lost, 
as the wine vanished with the eatables. The service 
of porcelain far exceeds in beauty whatever of that 
kind I have beheld. The silver plate is massive, 
and decorated with eagles in curious abundance ; 
the gold service appeared with the dessert. The 
entertainment lasted about an hour, and so frequent 
were the questions of my host that, from the per- 
plexity I suffered in conjuring up answers to them, 
I scarce knew what I ate or what I drank. I will 
endeavour to give you a general specimen of his 
convivial inquiries. 

"Napoleon asked: 'Have you visited General 
Gourgon ? ' ' Yes, General. I came to Longwood 
for that purpose.' ' How have you found 
him? "Extremely ill.' ' What is his disorder?' 
' Dysentery.' ' Where is its seat?' 'In the 
intestines.' ' What has been the cause ? ' ' Heat 
of climate on a constitution peculiarly predis- 
posed Had he been bled in the first instance, 

it is probable that the disease would have been less 
violent.' 'What remedy is now proposed?' 'It 
will be necessary to have recourse to mercury.' 
' That is a bad medicine ? ' ' Experience has taught 
me the contrary.' 'Did Hippocrates use it?' 'I 
believe not.'' Yet he is considered as among the 
first physicians. Does not Nature endeavour to 
expel morbific matter, and may not the present 
painful struggles be an effort of Nature to rid her- 
self of what is obnoxious ? ' 'I have been taught to 
assist Nature.' ' Could you not do so without 
having recourse to this dangerous mineral ? ' ' Ex- 
perience has taught me that mercury is infallible.' 
J t Then go on with your mercury.' " 

The General's disorder assumed a very 
dangerous appearance, and the symptoms 
seemed to indicate a fatal termination ; 
his spirits were so sunk that he refused to 
take the only medicine that promised the 
least chance of relief. 

" ' What ridiculous behaviour is this,' said Napo- 
leon to him, ' and what are these silly fears of your 

own creation ? How often have you faced Death 

in the field of battle without the least sensation of 
fear ! and now you are resolved to yield to his 
power. What a childish obstinacy ! Play the fool 
no longer, I beg of you, but submit to the remedies 
with cheerfulness.' This reproach softened the 
patient's obstinacy; he became submissive to the 
regimen prescribed, and recovered." 

Some six weeks elapsed before Mr. Warden 
again visited Longwood. Las Cases met 
him, and said that his master had expressed 
surprise at his absence. "We have not 
seen you since your resuscitation of General 
Gourgon. I wish very much to consult 
you about the health of my son." This 

led Mr. Warden to obtain a passport, and 
his interviews and conversations with Napo- 
leon were frequent. On one occasion, having 
been invited to breakfast, he says : 

" On entering the room I observed the back of a 
sofa turned towards me, and on advancing I saw 
Napoleon lying at full length on it. The moment 
his eye met mine he exclaimed in English, in a tone 
of good-humoured vivacity, 'Ah, Warden, how do 
you do?' He stretched out his hand, saying, 'I 
have got a fever.' I immediately applied my hand 
to the wrist, and observing both from the regularity 
of the pulsation and the jocular expression of his 
countenance that he was exercising a little of his 
pleasantry, I expressed my wish that his health 
may always remain the same. ' I certainly enjoy/ 
he said, 'a very good state of health, which I 
attribute to a rigorous observance of regimen. My 
appetite is such that I feel as if I could eat at any 
time of the day ; but I am regular in my meals, and 
always leave off eating with an appetite ; besides, 
as you know, I never drink strong wines.' " 

The conversation was prolonged, and 
branched off into a variety of subjects. 
He asked the doctor if he remembered the 
history of Capt. Wright. He answered, 
" Perfectly well ; and it is a prevalent 
opinion in England that you ordered him 
to be murdered in the Temple." Napoleon 
emphatically denied this, and concluded a 
long speech by most solemnly asserting 
that Capt. Wright died in the Temple, by 
his own hand, as described in the Moniteur, 
and at a much earlier period than has 
generally been believed. His assertion, he- 
said, was founded on documents which he 
had examined. 

Now, to the surgeon's utter astonishment, 
he turned to the subject of the Duke d'En- 
ghien's death. He became very animated. 
He began as follows : 

" At this eventful period of my life I had suc- 
ceeded in restoring order and tranquillity to a king- 
dom torn asunder by faction and deluged in blood. 
That nation had placed me at their head. I came 
riot as your Cromwell did, or your third Richard. 
No such thing. I found a crown in the kennel : I 
cleansed it from its filth, and placed it on my 

He referred to a plot against him, the 
object of which, he said, was to destroy him. 

" It emanated from the capital of your country, 
with the Count d'Artois at the head of it. To the 
west he sent the Duke de Berri, and to the east the 

Duke d'Enghien The moment was big with evil, 

and I felt myself on a tottering eminence, and I 
resolved to hurl the thunder back on the Bourbons, 
even in the metropolis of the British Empire." 
He went on to say that the Duke d'Enghien 
was accessory to the confederacy, and al- 
though the resident of a neutral territory, 
the urgency of the case, his own safety, 
and the public tranquillity, justified the 
proceeding. He accordingly ordered the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUG. 29, im. 

Duke to be seized and tried, found guilty, 
:and sentenced to be shot. The sentence 
-was immediately executed. " And," said he, 

"the same fate would have followed had it been 
Louis the Eighteenth, for I again declare that I found 
it necessary to roll the thunder back on the metro- 
polis of England, as from thence, with the Count 
d'Artois at their head, did the assassins assail me." 

Mr. Warden replied that he did not believe 
that any person would be found in England 
who would attempt to justify the precipitate 
manner in which the young prince was 
seized, tried, sentenced, and shot. The 
Emperor replied that he was justified in his 
-own mind ; at the same time he solemnly 
.affirmed that no message or letter from the 
Duke reached him after the sentence of 
death had been passed. 

Talleyrand, however, was said to be in 
possession of a letter from the royal prisoner 
.addressed to Napoleon. Mr. Warden saw 
.a copy of this letter in the hands of Las 
Cases. The object of the letter was to beg 
the writer's life. In it he stated that in his 
opinion the Bourbon dynasty was terminated, 
that the crown was no longer in his view, 
and he requested to be allowed to live and 
devote his life and services to France, 
merely as a native of it. Talleyrand took 
care not to deliver it till the hand that wrote 
it was unnerved by death. 

The remainder of the volume is made up 
of various interesting conversations with 
Napoleon, mainly on the subject of health 
.and disease, until the departure of our 
surgeon from the island. 

The Newcastle and Orontes were seen 
from the heights of St. Helena on the morn- 
ing of June 19th, and Warden's delight 
could not easily be expressed. He bent 
his steps to Long wood, where he arrived 
about ten in the morning, and Napoleon 
requested him to breakfast with him. 

"On my appearing he said, 'You are come to 
take leave of us ? ' 'I am come up, General, with 
that intention.' ' You will breakfast, then,' point- 
ing to a chair. ' Have you had letters from your 
friends?' ' No, sir, the ships cannot reach the bay 
before evening.' 'Is the Admiral known?' 'Yes, 
he is Admiral Malcom.' ' Are you glad to return 
to England ? ' ' Very glad indeed.' " 
A long conversation followed on various 
subjects, mostly with reference to what 
the English press had said about Napoleon. 
'This was the last visit Warden paid to 
the Emperor, and when he took leave of 
him, Napoleon rose from his chair and said : 
" I wish you health and happiness, and a 
safe voyage to your country, where I hope 
you will find your friends in health and ready 
to receive you." EDWARD MARSTON. 


' 2 HENRY IV.,' I. ii. 45." Falstaff. 
And if a man is through with them in 
honest taking-up, then they must stand 
upon security." A. Schmidt in his ' Shake- 
speare Lexicon' explains this passage, 
s.v. " through," as follows : " if a man does 
his utmost in borrowing, or rather if a man 
condescends to borrow, in an honourable 
manner." But these are two different 
explanations in one breath, and the rather 
shows the commentator's embarrassment. 
Deighton, in his edition of the play, has : 
" through, i.e. thorough .(which Pope sub- 
stituted), downright, not standing upon 
petty economies"; but I fail to see how a 
borrower can be economical, pettily or other- 
wise. G. KRUEGER. 

GENTLE." In illustration of Juliet's ex- 

O, for a falconer's voice 
.To lure this tassel-gentle back again ! 

there may be quoted the entry in the records 
of the dissolved Corporation of Orford 
(Suffolk) under date 27 Jan., 1606, noting 
that a " tassell jentle " of Sir Anthony 
Felton, Kt., had been lost on 14 January, 
and been cried by the Crier (Historical MSS. 
Commission, ' Report on MSS. in Various 
Collections,' vol. iv. p. 267). 


' MACBETH,' II. iii. 5. I see, in the foot- 
note on this passage in the ' Cambridge 
Shakespeare,' that an anonymous critic 
has suggested that we should read " Come 
in, farmer," instead of " Come in time," 
and, as this is the style in which Shakespeare 
makes the Porter address the next two 
comers to hell-gate, saying to the equivo- 
cator, " Come in, equivocator," and to the 
tailor, " Come in, tailor," we should certainly 
have expected him to say to the farmer also, 
"Come in, farmer" ; but to suppose that 
a transcriber, who had no difficulty whatever 
in setting down the very common word 
farmer" on its first occurrence in the 
text, should, on its reappearance imme- 
diately afterwards, have made such a blunder 
as to set down " time" in lieu of it, would 
be to draw too largely on the reader's 
redulity. I conclude, then, that the ori- 
ginal reading was not " farmer," but some 
other word less common, which the tran- 
scriber failed to recognize, and for which 
he substituted " time," the nearest word 
known to him that agreed with the ductus 

10 s. x. AUG. 29, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Uterarum. What was that word ? I con- 
ceive that Shakespeare, instead of repeating 
" farmer," made use of a word which was 
equivalent to it ; that word was " yeoman," 
commonly spelt " yeman." The y was 
turned upside down, or otherwise badly 
formed, so as to look like t, and " teman " 
was much more likely to be taken for 
"time" (Anglo-Saxon tima) than for "ye- 
man," " yeoman," which I contend that 
Shakspeare wrote. PHILIP PEERING. 

7, Lyridhurst Road, Exeter. 

1 HAMLET,' I. ii. 150 : " A BEAST, THAT 
Raleigh uses the phrase " discourse of 
reason," but he also uses it in the precise 
terms of Hamlet (' History of the World/ 
Part I. Book II. chap. iv. sect, viii.) : 

"It is true, that all the creatures of God were 
directed by some kind of unwritten Law; the 
Angels intuitively ; Men, by Reason ; Beasts by 
sense and instinct, without discourse," &c. 

New York. 

4 ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA,' I. iii. 6-12 : 

Char. Madam, me thinkes if you did loue him 


You do not hold the method, to enforce 
The like from him. 

Clto. What should I do, I do not? 

Cfi. In each thing giue him way, crosse him in 

Clto. Thou teachest like a foole : the way to lose 

Char. Tempt him not so too farre. I wish for- 
bear e, 
In time we hate that which we often feare. 

The ' New Variorum Edition ' gives the 
following comment on " wish forbeare " : 

"Staunton, 'That is, I commend forbearance.' 
Keightley ('Exp.' 311), '"Wish" here signifies 
recommend, advise. I think we should read " wish 
you" [so reads Keightley's text], as it is always 
followed by its object when used in this sense.' 
John Hunter, 'Forbear is my wish. The verb 
" forbear" is here in the imperative mood.' Deigh- 
ton, 'An elliptical expression for " I should like to 
see you forbear to try him so far." ' To the fore- 
going may be added : Chase (Arden edition), 
' Prithee, forbear. Nicholson needlessly proposes 
th& wish or your ivish.' " 

Furness, in referring to the comment 
which he quotes, says : " The paraphrases 
just given are all of them obvious, but none 
of them supplies the strength which the 
weak expression ' I wish, forbear,' lacks." 
He thinks that Nicholson's conjecture, 
" the wish forbear," " is plausible, and is 
certainly stronger than the weak ' I wish.' 
It is better than his alternative conjecture, 
' your wish, forbear.' " While concluding 
that ** weakness is, however, no sufficient 

ground for disturbing the text," Furness:- 
goes on record as not being satisfied with 
the Folio text in the following words : "It 
is this weakness, this childishness, almost 
infantile, which renders the words suspicious,, 
so it seems to me." 

My belief that the text is corrupt receives 
confirmation from the foregoing. This is 
doubtless another of the many instances 
where the compositor made a mistake 
through a mishearing. On p. viii of the 
preface Dr. Furness gives a list of errors 
in the present play due to the practice of" 
reading the copy aloud to the compositor,, 
the admitted errors being some seventeen 
in number. The context calls for something 
different from "I wish" or the meaning 
assigned to it. " Tempt him not BO too 
far " and " In time we hate that which we 
often fear" indicate something very dis- 
agreeable, which Charmian cautions her 
mistress to avoid. Instead of "I wish r 
forbear," read " shrewish, forbear " " for- 
bear to be shrewish." The line reads- 
smoothly with the proposed change when 
we consider the necessary pause and the- 
fact that " far " is a long syllable. 


St. Louis. 

' CYMBELLNE,' III. iii. 29-35 : 

Haply this life is best, 
It quiet life be best ; sweeter to you 
That have a sharper known ; well corresponding" 
With your stiff age : but unto us it is 
A cell of ignorance ; travelling a-bed ; 
A prison for a debtor, that not dares 
To stride a limit. 

There are several notes on this passage,. 
Howe changed " travailing " to " travelling" 
which may or may not change the sense ; 
Pope made the correction "for" in place 
of " or." But the phrase which I find 
obscure seems to have elicited no comment. 

What "travelling a-bed" means I can 
form no idea. It has been suggested, that 
with the original spelling, " travailing," 
it might be equivalent to suffering in bed,, 
but this hardly seems satisfactory. ~~t| 

Tentatively I suggest this reading, follow- 
ing the punctuation of the First Folio : 

Haply this life is best, 
(If quiet life be best) sweeter to you 
That have a sharper known, well corresponding 
With your stiff age ; but unto us it is 
A cell of ignorance : travelling forbid, [it is] 
A prison for a debtor, that dares not 
To stride a limit. 

The young princes, forbidden to travel,, 
were in the position of a debtor who is not- 
permitted to cross certain bounds. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 29, im 

If any explanation of the present reading 
can be offered, I shall be glad to know of it. 

Wallingford, Pennsylvania. 

GENTLE LARK" (10 S. v. 465; ix. 505). 
There is surely no reason whatever why 
Shakespeare should not have called the 
lark " gentle " if he felt disposed to do so. 
Perhaps the bird is not essentially more 
entitled to the epithet than other denizens 
of the grove and the field ; but by com- 
parison with persistent marauders like the 
thrush and the blackbird and certain finches, 
and with such a pugnacious rascal as cock 
robin, it is conspicuous in gentleness and 
charm. To the Ettrick Shepherd, a man 
used to the open air and a capable and 
discriminating observer, the lark seemed 
" blithesome and cumberless," the latter 
term (of which lexicographers are shy) 
indicating the poet's conviction that the 
winsome songster is not cumbersome or 
troublesome, but noticeably gentle. It 
does no harm, as some of its fellows do, 
in the meadows or the cornfields within 
which it constructs and cherishes its ' ' watery 
nest " ; and when it rises in its tuneful 
flight towards heaven's gate, its graceful 
and fascinating movement is gentleness 
itself. Shelley gave adequate expression, 
once for all, to the floating and running 
of this wonderful ascent when he said that 
the lark, in compassing its tour, was " like 
an unbodied joy whose race is just begun." 
Sweetness, uplifting rapture, infinite gentle- 
ness, are all suggested by the terms of this 
appropriate description. Moreover, the bird 
is deservedly called gentle because of its 
apparent nobility of nature and conduct. 
Like Chaucer's very perfect gentle knight, 
at is the embodiment of fidelity and un- 
swerving devotion to the call of duty. 
Jeremy Taylor perceived this when he 
utilized the ardent persistence of the 
warbler as an incentive to those who were 
disposed to be hopeless regarding the efficacy 
of prayer. THOMAS BAYNE. 

I think we must rest content that the 
metre is good and the word " gentle " 
euphonious, without pressing any special 
meaning into it. Venus and Adonis ' is 
one of the poet's earlier works, and we 
can hardly expect to find here that concen- 
tration of thought and purpose which is 
evident at a later period. Something must 
be ^allowed for development, training, ex- 
perience. If the early works are to be con- 
sidered perfect in all their parts, what are 

we to expect of the later ones ? The diction 
of the earlier works is admittedly more 
elaborate in relation to thought than that 
of the later. As Prof. Dowden says : 

" In the earliest plays the language is sometimes 
as it were a dress put upon the thought a dress 
ornamented with superfluous care ; the idea is at 
times hardly sufficient to fill out the language in 
which it is put," &c. 

Later, as the brain developes, experience 
accumulates, and judgment ripens ; the 
process is reversed, and the thought is in 
excess of the diction. Here, indeed, we 
may look for a special meaning in every 
word, and ideas unexpressed, or only hinted 
at, by words ; but hardly in so early a poem as 
* Venus and Adonis.' J. FOSTER PALMER. 
8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

" Gentle " is here predicated of the lark, 
I think, on account of that bird's vocal 
skill : it was the rippling, resonant, and 
sustained notes of his song that roused 
Venus from her depression, and restored her 
to the realities of life. This seems, at any 
rate, to have been the view of Shelley in his 
immortal ode. 

The epithet is certainly used advisedly by 
Shakespeare, and is no mere sounding brass 
or tinkling cymbal, as Lucis would have us 
believe. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

* MACBETH,' III. iv. 105 : " IF TREMBLING 
I INHABIT " (10 S. ix. 263, 506). The reading 
of the First Folio and of most modern 
editions is "If trembling I inhabit then," 
with the comma after " then." The mean- 
ing suggested by MR. TOM JONES would 
require a different punctuation, thus : "If, 
trembling, I inhabit, then," &c. ; but it 
appears to me strained and artificial, and the 
alteration unnecessary. I could never see 
the difficulty in the passage which induced 
Pope and Theobald to substitute " inhibit " 
(which seems to me nonsense), and some one 
else " inherit," which is not much better. 
In the first place, " trembling " is not an 
adjective, but a noun. If parallels are re- 
quired, I would refer to Falstaff's " a kind of 
sleeping in the blood, a whoreson tingling.''' 
" Inhabit," too, is used as a transitive 
verb, in its ordinary meaning, to " live in." 
If we may be said to " live in fear," we may, 
with equal correctness, be said to " live 
in trembling," when the latter word is used 
as a noun. " If trembling I inhabit then " 
is simply " If I still live in fear (or trembling) 
then (i.e., when Ban quo has dared him to 
the desert with his sword), protest me | 
The baby of a girl." J. FOSTER PALMER. 

10 s. x. AUG. 29, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(10 S. x. 63). In Scotland the word scaling 
is used for the departure of the congregation 
after divine service, i.e., " the kirk skailing," 
" the bairns skailing from school." 


246.) In contemporary accounts this indi- 
vidual is sometimes called John and some- 
times Thomas, but the latter name seems to 
occur more frequently. Apparently, he 
began to be employed as assistant execu- 
tioner about 1814. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

ARMY. The following short list may lead to 
the compilation of a full one. I do not 
vouch for its correctness. 

3rd Dragoon Guards. ' God bless the Prince of 

Scots Greys.' The Garb of Old Gaul.' 

5th Lancers (Royal Welsh) ' The Harp that onoo 

through Tara's Hall.' 

6th Dragoons (Enniskillens). ' St. Patrick's Day.' 
8th Hussars (Royal Irish). Ditto. 
10th Hussars (Prince of Wales's). ' God bless the 

Prince of Wales.' 
12th Lancers (ditto). Ditto. 

Scots Guards. ' Highland Laddie.' 
Grenadier Guards.' The British Grenadiers.' 

Lothian Regiment (Royal Scots). * Dumbarton's 


Liverpool Regiment. ' Here's to the Maiden.' 
Norfolk Regiment. ' Rule, Britannia.' 
Lincolnshire Regiment. ' The Lincolnshire 


"Suffolk Regiment. ' Speed the Plough.' 
West Yorkshire Regiment. 'Calra.' 
Royal Irish Regiment. 'Garry Owen.' 
Royal Welch Fusiliers. 'March of the Men of 


South Wales Borderers. Ditto. 
King's Own Scottish Borderers. ' Blue Bonnets 

over the Border.' 
East Surrey Regiment. 'A Southerly Wind and a 

Cloudy Sky/ 

Border Regiment.' D' ye ken John Peel ?' 
Welsh Regiment. ' Ap Shenkin.' 
Derbyshire Regiment. ' The Young May Moon.' 
King's Royal Rifles. ' The Huntsmen's Chorus.' 
Connaught Rangers. ' St. Patrick's Day.' 
Rifle Brigade. -'I'm Ninety-Five' (see 10 S. ix, 


Hoyal Artillery. 'The British Grenadiers.' 
Royal Engineers. Ditto. 
Royal Marines. ' Hearts of Oak,' and ' Rule 

Hoyal Marine Artillery. 'A Life on the Ooean 

Naval Brigade. Ditto. 

^*The South Lancashire Regiment and other 
Prince of Wales's regiments play ' God bless 

he Prince of Wales.' The North Stafford- 
hires are an exception, having a march 
>f which I know the air, but not the name. 
All the Highland regiments play ' Highland 
Caddie ' (save the Cameronians, who use 
Twas within a Mile of Edinburgh Town ' ) ; 
and all the Fusiliers march to ' The British 
Grenadiers.' P. LTTCAS. 

[Messrs. Boosey publish as No. 138 of their 
' Cavendish Music Books " ' Regimental Marches 
>f Infantry,' containing 58 marches arranged for the 
piano, with the names of the regiments using them. 
STo. 48 is the King's Royal Rifles, and the march 
nven is as in MR. LUCAS'S list, the ' Huntsmen's 
Chorus ' ; but we are informed that this has been 
recently replaced by ' Lutzow's Wild Hunt.' Corre- 
spondents are invited to supplement (not repeat) 
\Iessrs. Boosey's list.] 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

SHERIFFS OF LONDON. I am wanting the 
dates of death of the following Sheriffs, 
and should be much obliged to any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' who would kindly supply in 
any case the actual date of death, a reference 
to the will, or the place of burial. The date 
is that of the year of office. 

James Phillips, 1653-4. 

Tempest Milner, 1656-7. 

Sir Charles Doe, 1664 5. 

Dannet Forth, 1670-71. 

Samuel Shute, 1681-2. 

Sir John Sweetapple and Sir William Cole, 

Sir Edward Wills, 1695-6. 

Sir John Torriano, 1754-5. 

James Dandridge and Alexander Master, 1758-9. 

Benjamin Cole, 1782-3. 

John Blackball, 1799-1800. 

Joseph Leigh and John Reay, 1814-15. 

Robert Kirby, 1816-17. 

John Roberts and Lawrence Gwynne, LL.D., 

George Appleton Wallis, 1853-4. 

Frederick Keats, 1856-7. 

Hugh Jones, 1862-3. 


wanting the date of death of three Aldermen 
who were not Sheriffs : 

Sir Thomas Griffiths (Aldersgate). 

William Mart (Vintry). 

William Ivatt (Langbourn). 
These held office as Aldermen in 1687. 




NOTES AND QUEEIES. [io s. x. AUG. 29, im 

PHARMACOPOEIA. I wish for particulars 
of an incomplete pharmacopoeia. Date, 
probably middle of last century. Size, 
12mo. Has more than 214 pp. English 
translation follows Latin, word for word, 
e.g., " Recipe take quatuor four uncias 
ounces Strobilorum of the Strobiles Humuli 
of the Hop," &c. 


Medical Society, University of Manchester. 

BUXTON. A quotation from an old 
writer about the antiquities of Buxton (spelt 
Buckstone) appeared in one of the newspapers 
on or about the 8th of August. I should be 
much obliged if any one could give me the 
reference. PEAKMAN. 

BON. These artists are severally given as 
the engravers of two of the pages in an old 
copy-book, the matter of the copies being 
in Italian. I shall be glad to learn its date 
and any particulars of these engravers. 


CORBET =VALLETORT. In Boase's ' Col- 
lectanea Cornubiensia,' p. 1130, is given a 
pedigree of the Valletorts. This says that 
Peter Corbet married Isabel or Beatrice 
de Valletort. I should like to know what 
are the authorities for this statement. 
Who was Isabella, the wife of Thomas 
Corbet ? Both of them were living in 1262. 

WARD III. Amongst many old family 
deeds in my possession of the time of 
Henry II., Henry III., Edward III., 
Richard II., &c., is one of 5 Edw. III. (1331). 
It is written in old Norman French, and 
there occur words for which I seek transla- 
tion : 

1. " Le Wast du Roi." 

2. " Feste de la Goule." 

3. " Ensuivant apres la fesannees de 

Can any one help me to a reading of the 
words in italics ? CHARLES SPURWAY. 

Spur way, Devon. 

[The ' N.E.D.' gives gula Augusti, Lammas Day, 
1 August, as the eqiiivalent of the Old French 
goule. Many communications on gula Augusti will 
be found at 10 S. v. 408, 499 ; vi. 15, 72, 135 ; vii. 257, 
313, 394 ; viii. 35.] 

SOAR. Can any one tell me to what branch 
of the Chamberlin family John Chamberlin 
(1741-1815) belonged ? He lived at Red 

Hill, Ratcliffe-on-Soar, Notts, and owned 
land at Sutton Bonington and also in 
Leicestershire. He married Ann Hopkins, 
daughter of Thomas Hopkins, gent., of Long 
Eaton, co. Derby, 18 April, 1766, and was 
High Sheriff for Notts in 1789. The late- 
Ellice Hopkins was his great-granddaughter. 
She died in 1904, aged 69. For arms John 
Chamberlin used for his seal the ancient 
coat of the Chamberlins : Gules, within 
an orle of eight mullets an inescutcheon 
argent. His great-grandfather Hugh Cham- 
berlin died at Red Hill, Ratcliffe-on-Soar, 
in 1709, aged 70. 

Little Bourton, near Banbury. 


late Mr. J. Romilly Allen exhibited on 7 Dec. 
1887, to the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion four photographs of this cross, and 
promised a paper on the relic thereafter. 
Was this ever published ? if so, where ? 
I cannot trace it in the Journal. 


Where can I find the ballad beginning 
Upon the hills of Breedon 
My love and I were sat. 


I shall be grateful to any reader who will 
tell me the writer of the following lines : 
Whom have I known that I remember best? 
Whom do I feel that I most truly loved? 
Who fixed his image never to be moved 
From the clasp'd cabinet of my brain and breast r 

F. C. J. 

DAUGHTERS. There is a well-known paint- 
ing by Hoppner called ' The Daughters of 
Sir Thomas Frankland,' although it is 
spoken of frequently as ' The Sisters.' 
Sir Thomas Frankland was an admiral 
who married in 1743, and became the father 
of nineteen children, twelve sons and seven 
daughters. There seems to be considerable 
doubt as to which two of the seven girls, 
were painted and engraved, for there is a 
famous mezzotint by William Ward of this, 
picture. Has any light been let in lately 
on this dark subject, and can any one now 
say which of these young ladies figure in 
this picture ? One of the daughters of 
the gallant old admiral, Mary, became the- 
wife of the celebrated Sir Boyle Roche. 



10 s. x. AUG. 29, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ancient family was originally seated at 
Rudge Hall, near Pattishall, co. Stafford, 
and also at Seisdon. 

It is recorded in Blomefield's ' Norfolk,' 
xi. 35, that 

"William de Bugg was father of William, under 
age in 56 Hen. III. (1272) ; and Robert Rugge and 
Isabell his wife conveyed the manor of Pickeford 
in Shropshire to Sir Nicholas Burnel, Kt., in 
49 Ed. III. (1376)." 

It is added that the younger branch, as it is 
called, came into Norfolk, Nicholas Rugg, 
second son of John Rugg of Rugg, seating 
himself in that county in 49 Ed. III. 

It would seem as if the pedigree of the 
Ruggs or Rugges of Norfolk might read thus : 
William de Rugg. 

William, under age 56 Hen. III. 
John Rugg of Rugg. 

? 1st son, Robert = Isabell 2nd son, Nicholas, 
Fines Salop, 49 Ed. III., settled in Norfolk 

No. 57). 49 Ed. III. 

I am endeavouring to show the connexion, 
which undoubtedly existed, between the 
Ruggs or Rugges of Norfolk and the Rugges 
of Seisdon (or Seysdon), apparently, accord- 
ing to Blomefield, the elder branch. 

The first mention I have found of the 
latter is in Shaw's ' Staffordshire,' where 
John de Rugge is recorded as of Seysdon, 
co. Staffs, living there 4 Ed. III. (1330). 
May he have been an elder son of William 
de Rugg, and brother to William under age 
56 Hen. III. (1272) ? 

In Harl. Soc. xxxii. 228 ' Visitation of 
Norfolk, 1563, 1589, and 1613 'there is a 
pedigree of Repps (als. Rugg or Rugge, 
Blomefield's ' Norfolk,' xi. 35) commencing 
with " Robert Repps, descended of a 
younger brother of Rugg of Salop, lived 
2 Ed. III." (1328). 

May not 2 Ed. III. (1328) have been an 
error for 2 Ed. IV. (1462) ? The great- 
great-grandson of Robert Repps, William 
Rugg, was Bishop of Norwich 28 Hen. VIII. 
(1536), which, if the former date were 
correct, would give the extraordinary in- 
terval of 208 years between Robert and his 

If Robert Repps lived 2 Ed. IV., he would 
appear to be identical with Robert Rugge 
living 2 Ed. IV., great-great-grandson of 
Nicholas above given, the descendants of, 
and arms borne by, this Robert being 
identical with those of Robert Repps, alias 
Rugg (see Harl. Soc. xxxii. 228 and Blome- 
field's ' Norfolk,' xi. 35). 

Sir William Molyneux, Kt. (who took 
two standards from the Scotch with his own 
hands at the battle of Flodden, and won the 
Earl of Huntly's arms, and died 1548), 
married temp. Hen. VII. Jane, only 
daughter and heir of Sir Richard Rugge, 
Kt., by his wife Margaret Moreton. Is 
anything known of the pedigree of this Sir 
Richard Rugge ? He may have been a 
Rudge of Rudge, co. Salop, as the arms of 
that family appear on a monument in the 
parish church of Pattenham, co. Stafford, 
where Jane lies buried. 

I shall be most grateful for any assistance 
readers of ' N. & Q.' can render me. Com- 
munications direct will greatly oblige. 

9, Broughton Road, Thornton Heath. 

Who was the anonymous author of this 
poem " in ten flights," published by William 
Freeman, 102, Fleet Street, 1861 ? The 
principal poem occupies 210 pages, twenty- 
four minor poems making the volume up 
to a total of 299 pages. W. B. H. 

" VEBGEL." This Spanish word may 
mean either a garden or an orchard. Has 
it any connexion with the French for 
orchard, verger ? This, according to Littre", 
is derived ultimately from the Latin viridis, 
green. The first mention he gives of verger 
is from La Fontaine. Comtesse Genlis 
speaks of " le verger de Charles V.," which 
was situated on the site of the present Jardin 
des Plantes in Paris. W. T. LYNN. 



An interesting game, which I have in years 
past often seen children playing in a ring, 
had no name except " As the Farmer.' 
As usual, the players were mostly little girls 
boys beyond five or six years " shunt," 
as they say, such things. They formed 
a ring, and " went through motions " in 
accordance with the words, partly delivered 
in a sing-song sort of way : 

As the farmer sows his seed, 

So he stands and takes his heed ; 

So he stands and claps his hands, 

Then turns him round to view the land. 
As they sing the motion of sowing seed is 
shown by swinging both hands right and 
left ; then the players stand hand in hand ; 
their hands are clapped ; next each child 
turns round to view the land ; and finally 
they join hands and romp madly round, 
singing the words over again. 

It is now many years since I saw children 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. x. AUG. 29, 

engaged in this pastime, and longer still 
since I romped round with them. I am not 
quite sure if I rightly remember the words, 
and shall be glad to know if anywhere 
children still engage in " As the farmer sows 
his seed." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


of confirmation by King Canute to the 
monastery at Exeter, Lyfing, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, signs as a witness thus : 
" Ego Lyvynge Dovernensis Basilice 
Primus," &c. Was it customary for the 
early archbishops to describe themselves 
as of Dover ? and if so, for what reason 
did they do it ? GREGORY GRUSELIER. 

acolyte at Chester in June, 1557, and subse- 
quently received Anglican orders. On 19 
March, 1569, he was instituted to the living 
of Winwick in Lancashire, on the presenta- 
tion of the Queen ; and according to Baines's 
' Lancashire ' (iii. 622), the next incumbent 
was John Coldwell, instituted 7 Jan., 1575, 
on the death of the last. This, however, 
must be a mistake. There can be no doubt 
that it was he, now described as of London 
diocese, who was at the English College 
at Douay in 1576, and left 30 April for 
Louvain, whence he proceeded to England, 
and, as it would seem, revisited Lancashire. 
On 27 March, 1577, he returned to Douay, 
and was ordained priest on Holy Saturday, 
6 April, at Cambrai by the Archbishop 
Mgr. Louis de Berlaymont, leaving on the 
following 24th for Louvain, on the way to 

These visits to the Continent became 
known, and in consequence the Earl o: 
Derby arrested the ex-parson of Winwicfe 
in the summer of 1578 as a suspected Papist 
and put him into gaol. By command o: 
the Privy Council, dated 23 August, he 
was sent to London by the end of September 
and on or about the 3rd of November waf 
committed to the Marshalsea. Thence 
towards the end of December, 1580, he was 
removed to the Tower, where he was racke< 
on 3 Jan., 1581 ('Douay Diaries' passim 
' P.C.A.,' N.S., x. 309, 370 ; Simpson' 
'Campion,' 1896, ed., pp. 261, 267). Wit! 
nineteen other priests and a layman he wa 
put on board the Mary Martin of Colcheste 
at Tower Wharf on 21 Jan., 1585, and on 
2 February was landed at Boulogne (Holins 
bed's ' Chronicle,' iv. 554-6). Two year 
later he was in Paris (Strype, ' Ann.,' Ill 
ii. 599). Is anything further known of him 

tiing known of the dedication of the old 
hurch of the parish of Llechylched, near 
Sryngwran, Anglesey, which was pulled 
.own in 1842 ? 

2. Is there any published account of 
xcavations undertaken in the immediate 
leighbourhood by the late Mr. Richard 
Bennett of Liverpool among some of the 
lut circles there. 

3. What evidence is there to show that 
he ancient paved road that passed through 
he parish is of Roman origin. 

4. Was there a saint of the name of 
^ylched; or is the parish named after a 
itone circle ? 

5. Has the well near the site of the old 
jhurch any traditional name or legend ? 

Grindleton, Clitheroe. 

" BUFF." This word in the plural 
"bums") is used in Dunbar's * Twa 
Maryit Wemen and the Wedo ' (line 186). 
The earliest reference in the ' N.E.D.' is 
of the next century, and none of the defini- 
:ions make me quite sure that they fit. 
Will PROF. SKEAT or some one else explain 
its meaning ? FORREST MORGAN. 

Hartford, Conn. 


(10 S. x. 110.) 

IN the * Encyclopaedia of the Laws of 
England,' 2nd ed., vol. i. p. 626, title, 'The 
Attorney-General of the Queen Consort,' 
is the following : 

" The Queen Consort is in law a public person 
exempt and distinct from the King. She may sue 
and be sued without the King being joined ; but 
she has an Attorney-General in whose name she 
sues and is sued. This privilege does not extend to 
a Queen Dowager." 

The s following references may also be 
useful : 

" The Queen Consort is a subject, though privi- 
leged in certain ways She has her separate 

officers and legal advisers." Alison's 'Law and 
Custom of the Constitution,' vol. ii., ' The Crown,' 
p. 255. 

"Queen Consort. She has separate courts 

and officers distinct from the King's, not only in 
matters of ceremony, but even of law ; and her 
Attorney and Solicitor General are entitled to a 
place within the Bar of His Majesty's Courts 
together with the King's Counsel." Wharton's 
' Law Lexicon,' 1902. 

10 s. x. AUG. 29, iocs.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" With the King's Counsel rank the Queen Con- 
sort's Attorney-General and Solicitor-General." 
'The Laws of England' (Lord Halsbury), vol. ii., 
* Barristers,' 'Precedence.' 

When Caroline, the Princess of Wales, 
became Queen in 1820, she appointed 
Brougham her Attorney-General and Den- 
man her Solicitor-General. I do not know 
whether Adelaide, the Queen Consort of 
William IV., appointed an Attorney-General. 
Her Majesty Queen Alexandra has not ap- 
pointed an Attorney-General. She could, 
however, appoint one at any time if she 
should think it desirable to do so. 


Inner Temple. 

I do not know that the office has ever 
been formally abolished : it is probably 
open to Queen Alexandra to appoint an 
Attorney-General if she desires to do 
so. Previous queens consort, up to Queen 
Adelaide inclusive, have employed such an 
officer. The following is perhaps not a 
complete list for the period it covers, but 
may be useful as far as it goes : 

To Queen Catherine (of Braganza). 
Hon. William Montagu. 
Sir James Butler. 

To Queen Maria (of Modena). 
1685. Hon. Roger North. 

To Queen Mary II. 
1689. Thomas Trevor. 

To Queen Caroline (of Anspach). 
1729. Hon. John Verney. 

To Queen Charlotte. 
1761. Richard Hussey. 
1770. John Morton. 
1782. Charles Ambler. 
1794. George Hardinge. 
1816. John Vaughan. 

To Queen Caroline (of Brunswick'). 
1820. Henry Brougham. 

To Queen Adelaide. 
1830. William Home. 
1830. John Williams. 
1832. William Taddy. 
1845. Henry A. Merewether. 


I regret to say that I find that some of 
the emendations and suggestions on the 
text of Elizabethan dramatists which I con- 
tributed to the above reference had been 
previously made by others four by Prof. 
J. Le Gay Brereton of Sydney in Englische 
Studien, xxxiii. 231 ; The Modern Lan- 
guage Review, Oct., 1907, and Anglia, 
Beibldtter, xvii. 122 ; and one (that on 
' James IV.,' I. ii.) by Prof. Churton Collins 
in his edition of Greene. 


TOOTHACHE (10 S. x. 121). W. C. B.'s 
note on toothache is well worthy of attention. 
It is an interesting, though an acutely pain- 
ful subject. The teeth now decay at a much 
earlier period of life than they did in former 
days. I have made many inquiries as to 
the reason of this change in human habits, 
but have learnt nothing of a satisfactory 
nature. Here is an example, however, 
of the fact which may be useful, though lack- 
ing interpretation. 

About a quarter of a century ago a drain 
was made across the north part of Bottesford 
Churchyard, wherein there had been no 
interments for a long period probably 
never since the Reformation. About thirty 
skulls were dug up during the process. By 
far the greater part of these possessed perfect 
sets of teeth. There was one remarkably 
small skull, in which, though every tooth 
was in its place, and every one of them 
sound, they were all very much worn, as 
if the food eaten for long years had been 
of a hard quality. I and others who exa- 
mined it came to the conclusion that it 
had belonged to a very old woman. 

Till comparatively recent times it has been 
the custom in this county, and I believe 
elsewhere, for blacksmiths to draw teeth. 
I have known more than one who did this, 
and have heard of several others ; indeed, 
I should not be surprised to discover that 
the custom is not yet quite extinct in the 
rural districts. For a long period profes- 
sional tooth-drawers have been well known 
in cities and towns, but it was not until 
travelling became swift and easy that they 
seem to have penetrated the rural districts. 
The following passage appears to prove 
that tooth-drawers by profession were in 
the habit of wearing scarves decorated with 
human teeth : 

" The appointed hour for the operation being 
come, there was a great concourse of those Licen- 
tiates, who are distinguish'd from other Doctors 
by shoulder-belts inlaid with the Spoils of the 
humane Gums." ' Account of the Last Distemper 
of Tom Whig, Esq.,' 1710, Part I. p. 14. 

In Jean Baptiste Thiers's ' Traite des 
Superstitions qui regardent les Sacremens,' 
4th ed., 1777, there are many instances of 
toothache folk-lore. I have noted the follow- 
ing : vol. i. 326, 329, 340, 361 ; iii. 19. 

In Lancashire a fragment of a gibbet- 
post was considered a cure for toothache. 
See H. S. Cowper, ' Parish Registers of 
Hawkshead,' p. Ixxxvii. A charm for tooth- 
ache, of which I do not possess a copy, occurs 
in Cornish Notes and Queries, 1906, p. 203. 

W ickentree House, Kirton-in-Lindsey, Lines. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 29, im 

403). The subjoined pedigree shows the 
heirs of Frideswide Cheney at the time of 
Sir Thomas's death. The survivors who 
became entitled to the lands held by him 
in right of his wife were Anna Crowmer 
(J of $) Anna Kemp ($ of ), Alice Kemp 
(1 of i)> Frances Cheney (), and Thomas 
Parratt (). But a partition of the rever- 
sionary interests had been made on 8 March, 
3 Edward VI. (1549), whereby the sole 
interest in Oxgate Manor appears to have 
become vested in Anne, afterwards mother 
of Thomas Parratt. This manor, held of 

Master Braband, clerk, Prebendary of Ox- 
gate and Willesden, in socage, at the rent 
of \l. per annum, was worth, beyond reprises, 
131. 6s. 8d. It had formerly been held 
by Bartholomew Willesden, and after by 
Thomas Willesden, his son. 

The above information is derived from a 
contemporary office copy of Sir Thomas 
Cheney's Inq. P.M., and the pedigree also is 
based entirely on the same document, 
which is in our possession. Hennessy, 

E. 42, gives the Prebendary as John Bra- 
ant, cl., who died 1564 ; will 21 Coade. 

Frideswide, dau. and h. of=pThomas Cheney, 
Sir Thos. Frowyke, Kt., &c., 

d. before 1528-9. d. 18 Dec., 1558. 

20 March, 
3 Edw. VI. 

pThomas Kemp, 
living 1558. 

Frances, ^Nicholas Crispe, 
b. living 1558. 

2 Sept., 

pJohn Parratt. 
living 1558. 

Margaret, =i 
25 Oct., 

=William Crowmer, 
living 1558. 



Thomas Parratt, 
b. 1553. 

Anna, b. Oct., 1557. 

The old house was photographed by Mr. 
Stiles of Kensington High Street. Mr. 
Stiles is no longer on the same site, but I 
think he transferred his business not far 
away. It is unnecessary to tell MB. HABLAND- 
OXLEY that there is a brief account of the 
Green Coat Hospital and of Dacre's Alms- 
houses, or Emmanuel Hospital in West- 
minster (but to note the reference may be 
useful), in Cunningham's ' London ' and 
in Wheatley's ' London.' The Green Coat 
School was merged in the United West- 
minster (Endowed) Schools, under schemes 
issued in 1873 and 1878. See also The 
Daily Telegraph, 2 Sept., 1890, a long article 
on Emmanuel Hospital ; and The Pall Mall 
Magazine, April, 1895, ' The Green Coat 


JACOB PHILADELPHIA (10 S. x. 89). His 
fame had reached Hungary in the sixties, 
where as a boy I heard many of his tricks 
described by a young manservant in our 
college, who had served in Italy as a soldier. 
He called him " Philadelphi." One of the 
tricks was that he left his head in a barber's 
shop and called for it later on, as he had no 
time to wait. L. L. K. 

MOOBE SMITH states that Sharpham's 
remains, " if they have not been disturbed, 
must now be lying in St. Margaret's Church- 
yard." It must be observed that there is 
no record in the burial register, or elsewhere 
at the church, as to the position in the ground 
where the interment took place. Few, if 
any, changes are noted as having taken place 
here until the formation of the Underground 
(District) Railway, when a considerable 
slice of the burial-ground, at the north-west 
corner, was cleared of human remains (which 
were reinterred at Woking Cemetery), and 
the ground thrown into the public highway. 
If Sharpham should have been laid to rest 
at this spot, it is probable nay, almost 
certain that his remains (if any then 
existed) were disturbed with the others.fc^Jj 

There is a plan of the churchyard, with a 
list of all inscriptions then legible, made at 
the time of the improvements therein (see 
10 S. i. 23, 62), 1881-3. I have searched 
through these, and cannot find a trace of 
the name ; and besides, if there had been 
a stone originally, the probability is that it 
would have been broken and removed, for 
it must be remembered that for about 
two centuries and three-quarters there had 
been a public way for traffic across the 

10 s. x. AUG. 39, 1908.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


churchyard from and to various points, the 
majority of the stones lying flat on the 
ground, and so subject to a great deal of 
wear and tear. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 


70). Although not, perhaps, so named at 
the time when Le Notre, the famous French 
architect and ornamental gardener, laid 
out Greenwich Park in the days of the second 
Charles and it of course possibly existed 
before Le Notre " viewed the landscape 
o'er " yet the presumption is reasonable 
enough that the " One Tree " existed long 
before James I. walled round the 188 acres 
then constituting the royal demesne. The 
tree, if I mistake not, from MR. GOULD'S 
description, was too old to have been planted 

85). A list of the successive holders of 
the office of " Senior Cardinal, or Second 
Minor Canon," also of that of " Junior 
Cardinal, or Third Minor Canon," is given 
in Hennessy's * Novum Repertorium.' Each 
list commences with the year 1309, and 
comprises over thirty names to c. 1880 ; 
the succession is complete from temp. 
Elizabeth only. In the fifteenth century 
the two posts appear to have been held 
conjointly on several occasions. 

Perhaps the most celebrated cleric named 
in either list is Richard Harris Barham, 
author of * The Ingoldsby Legends,' who 
held the office of Senior Cardinal from 1833 
till his death in 1845. 


It is in allusion to this dignity that the 
artist has introduced the Cardinal's hat 
on the title-page of ' The Ingoldsby Legends,' 
Barham having been one of the Cardinals 
of St. Paul's. R. B. 


vii. 228). 

Vir bonus es doctus prudens ast hand tibi spiro. 
MR. SHAWCROSS does not refer to any source 
for this line in his recent edition of Cole- 
ridge's * Biographia Literaria and ^Esthetical 
Essays ' (2 vols., Clarendon Press, 1908). 
The words " Non tibi spiro " form the head- 
ing of one of Joachim Camerarius's Emblems 
(' Symbola et Emblemata,' Cent. i. 93), 
the pig and marjoram. 

In Coleridge's text (chap, xii.) the words 
" Haud tibi spiro " are distinguished from 
the rest of the line by being in italics. The 

context ("To such a mind I would as 
courteously as possible convey the hint r 
that for him the chapter was not written ") 
shows that these words are used in the same 
sense as the motto of Camerarius's emblem. 

At 10 S. vii. 309, Ao. 12, the reference was- 
asked for where Cicero says : " You may 
trust him, for he is a frugal man." There 
are two passages in the ' Tusculan Disputa- 
tions ' from which this sentiment may be- 
deduced (not that " frugal " can be accepted 
as an adequate rendering of frugi) : 

"Reliquas etiam virtutes frugalitas continet.'' 
III. 8, 16. 

"Quod nisi eo nomine virtutes continerentur 
nunquam ita pervulgatum illud esset ut iam pro- 
verbii locum obtineret, hominem frugi omnia recte 
facere." IV. 16, 36. 


Bad Wildungen. 

The phrase inquired after by K. P. D. E. r 
ante, p. 108, " Sufficit huic tumulus cui non 
suffecerat orbis," is given in Cassell's ' Book 
of Quotations ' as an epitaph on Alexander 
the Great, but no author is mentioned. 
Whoever wrote it must have had in his- 
mind these lines of Juvenal (x. 168-73) : 
Unus Pellseo juveni non sufficit orbis : 
^stuat infelix angusto limite mundi, 
Ut Gyarse clausus scopulis paryaque Seripho. 
Cum tameii a figulis munitam intraverit urbem, 
Sarcophagq contentus erit, Mors sola fatetur, 
Quantula sint hominum corpuscula. 


Juvenal in his tenth satire has the 
same thought, and has used much the same- 
language. Shakspeare has hit on the same 
idea in ' Henry IV.' Prince Henry says of 
the dead Hotspur : 

When that this body did contain a spirit, 
A kingdom for it was too small a bound ; 
Bub now two paces of the vilest earth 
Is room enough. 


T. X. S. will find " The idols of the market- 
place," &c. (ante, p. 129), in the ' Novum 
Organum,' Book I. lix. I have at hand 
only Johnson's translation (Bell & Daldy y 
1859). F. JARRATT. 

The first of MR. RUSSELL'S quotations,. 
ante, p. 129, 

Yet who would stop, or fear to advance, 
is from the first stanza of Wordsworth's 
' Stepping Westward.' The prefatory note 
says that the poem was the result of an 
incident while he was walking " by the side- 
of Loch Katrine, one fine evening after 
sunset." W. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 29, 

I do not think it possible to trace the 
authorship of " Jowk, and let the jow gae 
by." It is a Scottish proverb ; the mean- 
ing is Duck to avoid a blow or push. 
A free translation would be " Bend to the 
storm," or, as Jamieson in his ' Scottish 
Dictionary ' puts it, " Yield to any present 
evil by making the best of it." Ramsay in 
his ' Scottish Proverbs ' gives the proverb 
thus : " Jouk, and let the jaw gae o'er " ; 
and in Ross's ' Helenore ' we have the 
couplet : 

Sae we had better jook, until the jaw 
Gang o'er our heads, than stand afor't and fa'. 

Primrose House, Wood Green, Wednesbury. 

: also thanked for replies.] 

vii. 366, 430; viii. 37, 114, 290). Although 
MR. ALFRED BOWDITCH gives at the last 
reference a most interesting list from the 
' Catalogue of Satirical Prints and Drawings 
in the British Museum,' it must be remem- 
ibered that all these were not in common 
use. Many of them were merely the titles 
of particular caricatures. I append a fresh 
series, which should not be omitted from a 
new edition of Mr. Frey's volume : 

Single Speech Hamilton. William Gerard 

The Tiger. Edward, Baron Thurlow. 

Starvation Dundas. Henry, 1st Viscount Mel- 

Blue Hanger. William, 3rd Baron Coleraine. 

Hellgate. Richard, 7th Earl of Barrymore. 

Cripplegate. Henry, 8th Earl of Barrymore. 

Newgate. Rev. Augustus Barry. 

Nosey. Admiral Sir Thomas Pye. 

Tom of Ten Thousand. Admiral Thomas Smith. 

Conversation Cooke. William Cooke, the bar- 

Bumper John. John Forbes of Culloden. 

Capability Brown. Launcelot Brown. 

Black Will and Oronooko. William, 3rd Vis- 
count Chetwynd. 

Athenian Stuart. James Stuart. 

Lord Torpedo. George, Marquis of Cholmondeley. 

Pea-green Hayne. Hayne. 

Billingsgate. Lady Caroline Barry. 

Maid of Bath. Elizabeth Linley, afterwards Mrs. 
.Brinsley Sheridan. 

Beauty of Buttermere. Mary Robinson. 


x. 87). The actual flower, if it was worn 
-at all by York and Lancaster partisans, 
must, of course, have been so employed as a 
device in summer time only, and it would 
appear to be very doubtful whether it was 
.general even then, considering the delicacy 
of the flower after being plucked, apart from, 
occasionally, its comparative scarceness. 

The question is twofold : upon what part 
of the person was the badge worn ? and 
what was the material of which it was made ? 
That it was not worn on the crested helm 
of knighthood and nobility, unless excep- 
tionally, is almost certain ; neither was it 
worn on the armour-covering surcoat, which 
was adorned with the family arms, this 
surcoat being peculiar to those who wore 
body armour. I do not know how far your 
more learned correspondents will agree, 
but one is of opinion that the badge was 
worked in some textile material on the neck 
or the breast of the common soldier. In 
Fairholt's ' Dictionary of Terms in Art ' 
there is an illustration of a mediaeval badge 
of bronze, the shield being beautifully 
enamelled ; and it is described in a note 
as being " one of the kind anciently worn 
by retainers in royal and noble families " 
(vide 'Badges'). 

The type of the embroidered rose may 
perhaps be sought in the English gold coin, 
the rose or rose-noble, struck in 1344, under 
Edward III., and so called because it had a 
rose, the badge later of the rival houses. 


HABVEY'S BIBTHPLACE (10 S. x. 9, 117). 
Messrs. Seager & Co. of Folkestone, as re- 
corded in The Folkestone Herald of 30 May 
last, have received the following letter from 
the Master of Caius College : 

The Lodge, Gonville and Caius College, 

Cambridge, 21 May, 1908. 

DEAR SIRS, Dr. Moore, in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography,' states that William Harvey 
left property to this College. But there is no 
foundation for this statement. I fear we have no 
information which would help in the identification 
of the house in which Harvey was born. 
I am, dear Sirs, yours faithfully, 

E. S. ROBERTS, Master. 
Messrs. Seager & Co. 

DB. CLIPPINGDALE kindly sent me direct 
the information that Aubrey was the 
authority that the house and property at 
Folkestone were left to Caius College ; the 
extract ante, p. 117, says "vide his will." 
I hope some correspondent may kindly 
refer to Harvey's will, which has, I under- 
stand, been published. 


JOHN OF GAUNT' s ABMS (10 S. x. 9, 116). 
MB. BAYLEY'S very full reply is interesting 
and valuable, but it does not answer one 
of the points in my note, which happened 
not to be printed. That point is, Was 
John of Gaunt 's treatment of these arms 
of pretension usual, or not ? 

10 s. x. AUG. 29, 



With reference to MB. MACMICHAEL' 
remark about the martlet, may I sugges 
a grave doubt whether the marks of cadenc 
used by ordinary armigerous persons wer 
(except the label) used by princes of th 
blood royal ? U. V. W. 

"SiR" (10 S. ix. 286, 454). Miss LEGA 
WEEKES says that she has met conflictin 
statements as to the use of the prefi 
" Sir " in this connexion, and asks for som 
.authoritative information on the point. 

Whilst not being, perhaps, very " author 
tative," the following note may be of servic 
to her. 

In a foot-note to p. 7 of the Preface t 
the late Mr. J. E. Nightingale's ' Chum 
Plate of the County of Dorset ' (a work ir 
which I had the honour of assisting), under 
taken at the request of Dr. Wordsworth 
the present Bishop of Salisbury and pub 
lished in 1889, the author states that th 
term "Sir" was formerly applied to th 
inferior clergy as well as to knights. Anc 
he points out that at Cambridge and Dublin 
the designation is still applied to Bachelor 
of Arts. Quoting from Fuller's ' Churcl 
History,' he continues : 

" Such priests as have the addition of ' Sir ' befor 
their Christian names were men not graduated ii 
the university ; being in orders, but not in degree , 
whilst others entitled 'Masters' had commencet 
in the arts." 

Mr. Nightingale gives an illustration of this 
taken from the inventory of the churcl 
possessions of the parish of Woolland, a 
small parish in Dorset, in which occurs 
" Sir John Whyt, curate." This inventory 
formed one of those taken by the Commis- 
sioners appointed in 1552 (6 Edward VI.) 
of the church goods of the different parishes 
of the county of Dorset a series now pre- 
served in the Public Record Office, and con- 
tained in a very long roll, written on both 

Mr. Nightingale expressed a wish that 
some day a reprint of the whole of this 
MS. might be made, containing as it does 
the names of the then officiating clergy as 
well as some of the representative parish- 
ioners. That desire has now been fulfilled 
by the hand of the Rev. W. M. Barnes, 
Rector of Winterbourne Monkton, near 
Dorchester (and only son, I believe, of the 
"Dorset poet," William Barnes), who gives 
the complete list in vol. xxvi. of the Dorset 
Field Club Proceedings (1905). In this list 
frequently occurs the prefix of " Sir " to 
the names of the local clergy. In corre- 

sponding on this subject, Mr. Barnes, in a 
recent letter to myself, writes : 

"In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the 
beneficed clergy were addressed as * Sir.' I think 
they had the status of knights, as the bishops had 
that of barons." 

Not having the above-mentioned volume 
before me now, I am unable to say, or to 
test by reference to any other authority 
that might throw light on the subject, 
whether this prefix is applied to the beneficed 
clergy in a parish " the persons charged 
with the cure of souls " or to a " curate " 
in the modern sense of " a deputy or assistant 
to the incumbent," as mentioned by Miss 

Antigua, W.I. 

VOWEL-SHORTENING (10 S. x. 43, 111, 132). 
I think that vowel-shortening in English 
is regulated by " law " to a greater extent 
than is usually supposed. Of course the 
vowel in such words as maker, loader, is 
preserved, because the connexion with the 
verbs make and load is so extremely obvious, 
and vowel-shortening would obscure . the 
sense. So, too, finer is the comparative 
of fine, to which it stands in a very different 
relation from finial. Timely is a mere com- 
pound, with very direct reference to time ; 
and the same is true of most words ending 
in -ly. Still, even here it is possible to find 
" shortening " in a very old compound, 
as, for example, in early, which is connected 
(not obviously) with ere. 

If primer is used as the comparative of 
prime, or as a verbal agent derived from 
the verb to prime, the i must needs be long, 
owing to the closeness of the connexion 
to be indicated. But when primer is a sub- 
stantive the case is very different. It is 
then the representative of the Mid. E. 
primere, Old French primere, Latin pri- 
mdrium ; and the i was, in these forms, 
quite unstressed, with a strong tendency 
;o shortness. I believe that it was actually 
short ; and that, when the accent was thrown 
back upon the first syllable, it remained 
hort still. We shall see how the * N.E.D.' 
reats this word ; I am willing to abide 
>y its decision. 

What I have called the "law" should 
ather perhaps have been called a " ten- 
Lency " ; but it is a natural process, due 
o the fact that we pronounce words as if 
ach one had an independent entity, except 

n it is necessary for the sense to call 
xpress attention to the primitive, as in the 
ase of load-er. Ease of utterance is the 
rst consideration ; and etymology may 
ot come in at all. It is not every one who 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. x. AUG. 29, 

knows that rudder is a direct agential deriva- 
tive from the verb to row. 

What I have already said about vowel- 
shortening is by no means complete ; there 
is much more behind. The derivatives 
frequently react on the primitives, with 
surprising results. Thus we have, for 
example, to account for the fact that the 
oo in food is long, whilst that in blood is 
short. They have evidently been differently 
treated, and their whole history must be 
considered. In the case of food, the A.-S. 
foda was dissyllabic ; and so was the early 
M.E. fo-de, where fo- was an open syllable. 
The later food was hence regularly derived ; 
and there was no tendency to shortening, 
because food had no immediate derivatives. 
The only real derivative was fodor, i.e., 
the modern fodder, with shortened o. The 
derived verb to feed had a mutated vowel 
from the first. 

But blood (A.-S. blod) had the deriva- 
tive blood-ed, as in hot-blooded, cold-blooded ; 
and there was a verb to blood as well as a 
verb to bleed, the former having blooded for 
its past participle. Besides this, there was 
the highly important adjective bloody, in 
such common use that there is perhaps no 
other so familiar to the lower orders among 
our speakers. Hence it was that the ten- 
dency to shortening had its due effect ; and 
we all know the result. 

As I could give a considerable number of 
similar examples, I think there is a good 
deal more in the tendency which I have 
indicated than my opponents are willing to 
admit. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

The shortening of vowel-sounds on the 
lengthening of words is the constant rule 
in Welsh, and it is very interesting to see 
from PROF. SKEAT'S article how common 
it is in English. For Welsh cf. djn, man, 
pi. djnion ; gwrdig, woman, pi. gwrdgedd. 
There are instances of the rule in inflexions ; 
for instances in composition cf. un, one ; 
ton, note, with unddn, monotonous. The 
rule is, I believe, invariable. H. I. B. 

ix. 22, 113, 236, 315, 515; x. 132). I am 
quite sure that MR. M. L. R. BRESLAR 
does not mean anything discourteous, but 
it is not easy to see what he does mean 
when he says that " ST. S WITHIN has been 
kind enough to assert the contrary " of MR. 
BRESLAR'S own declaration that Sala never 
was a Jewish name. I hardly understand 
how MR. BRESLAR can be better informed 
than M. Lionti, in whom M. Ulysse Robert, 
author of * Les Signes d'Infamie au Moyen 

Age,' places much trust. Speaking of the 
badge imposed upon Venetian Jews, M.. 
Robert says : 

" II y a des dispenses particulieres ; nous en 
trouvons une en faveur de Moi'se Rap, me"decin, en 
recompense des services rendus par lui a la Repub- 
lique de Venise ; une autre en faveur des families de- 
Samuel et Elie Sala de 1392, est cite"e par M. Lionti." 
P. 82. 


As favouring the adoption of the spelling 
Solanio, instead of Salanio (see 10 S. ix. 315), 
from Sp. solano, I would instance Shake- 
speare's apparent coining of the name 
Borachio in ' Much Ado about Nothing ' 
from Sp. borracho, drunk, passionate. Solano- 
too, it should be noted, is still current in 
Spanish both as prsenomen and cognomen. 

In the Furness ' Variorum Edition " 
(notes to list of dramatis personae) it is 
shown that Shillock not Sallock, as MR. 
BRESLAR wills it was a common generic 
name in the sixteenth century, probably 
corrupted from the Italian Scialac or 
Scialacca. What I meant to convey as 
to the proposed derivation from Shiloh, wa& 
that it was inconceivable that such a con- 
sideration could have entered into the poet's 
calculations at a time when the study of 
etymology was in its infancy. It is of 
course possible that " Shiloh " 'is the primi- 
tive Jewish source of the name (see 1 S. i. 
184). ^ N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

(10 S. ix. 126, 174). May I take occasion 
to protest against the objectionable and. 
growing practice of using the initials K.B. 
to denote a Knight Bachelor ? Before the- 
division of the Order of the Bath into- 
classes in 1815, these initials invariably de- 
noted a Knight of the Bath, and much con- 
fusion is likely to arise in the future from 
the use of the same initials for a Knight 
Bachelor, whose rank is properly and con- 
veniently described by the abbreviation 
" Knt." HARBEN. 

We have become inured to such abbre-