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Notas and Queries, July 31, 1909. 


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Notes and Queries, July 31, 1909. 

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10 S. XL JAN. 2. 1909.] X< )TKS AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 262. 

"NOTES :-Sir John Pollard, the Speaker, 1 The Long- 
mans, 2' Englands Parnassus,' 4 Genealogical Circu- 
lating Library Orkney Hoginanay Song. 5 Latin 
Epitaphs Befana : Epiphany All Hallows K'en : Tokens 
Bristol and the Slave Trade. 6 Cock Ale "Oocoa- 
nutti " Laneuage Dickens, Pickwick, and Bristol The 
Muffin Martyr -Sneezing Superstition, 7 

QUERIES: George Milton. Scrivener Dickens's Bastille 
Prisoner Dickens's "Knife-Box" Aerial Navigation 
Fire Engines Surnames ending in -nell Yorkshire 
Hunting Incident, 8 Heraldry Lord Melbourne and 
Baldock Sir H. Walker : Boyne Man-of-War Sulham- 
wtead Rectory Dunstable Authors of Quotations 
Wanted The Never Never Land, 9' Village Blacksmith ' 
'Parodied Cuthbert Shields Travelling under Hadrian- 
Bride and Bridegroom at Church " Master Pipe Maker" 
Capt. Rutherford at Trafalgar "Brokenselde" Ships 
renamed after the Restoration Gower, a Kentish 
Hamlet, 10. 

REPLIES: Mediterranean, 10 "Psychological Moment" 
William Blackborough, Milton s Relative Queen Eliza- 
beth's Day "Old King Ccle," 13 Authors of Quotations 
Wanted The ' Promptorium 'Italian Genealogy, 14 
Tolsey at Gloucester Billy Butler the Hunting Parson 
Caroline as a Masculine Name "Cardinal " of St. Paul's, 
15 Mitred Abbots and Priors Le Blon Mezzos in Four 
Colours Bishop Sampson of Lichfleld Bell Customs at 
Sibson Joanna Southcott's Celestial Passports 93, Pall 
Mall, 16 Samuel Foote, Comedian Rattlesnake Colonel 
Military Bank-Note : Fort Montague Parcel Post in 
"1790, 17 Henry Halli well 'Lights in Lyrics 'Manor 
House c. 1300 Truss-Fail Harris, Silver-Buckle Maker 
Fleet Prison. 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Oxford Thackeray 'Swift's 
Prose Works. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


IT cannot be said that all difficulty as 
fco the identity of this knight has been 
removed. Manning in his ' Lives of the 
Speakers ' makes no attempt to specify 
his parentage ; and the writer of the in- 
teresting article upon him in the ' Diet. Nat. 
Biog.,' while correctly stating that he was 
second son of Walter Pollard of Plymouth 
by Avice, daughter of Richard Pollard, 
of Way, Devon, seems also to be of opinion 
though doubtfully that he was the Sir 
John Pollard knighted on 2 Oct., 1553. 
Now while it is certain that a person of these 
names was among the Coronation knights 
of Queen Mary, it is equally clear that he 
could not have been the man who was after- 
wards Speaker. Not only is the latter 
an " armiger " in the whole of his returns 
to Parliament between 1553 and 1555, but 
in the Journals of the House of Commons, 
at his election to the Chair in both 1553 
and 1555, he is styled " John Pollard, esq re ." 
An examination, however, of his will puts 
this right. This is dated 2 Aug., 4 and 5 

Philip and Mary, and in it he is described 
as " Sir John Pollard, Knight," with a 
marginal note " Serjeant-at-law." 

" To my wief 500 sheep of the best that shall be 
going at Newnham. Clyfton, or Baldry ; also house- 
hold staff at Newnham Courtney, and farm stock, 
j and 100/. worth of plate, and 1001. money. The 
| parsonage to Newnham Court to my brother 
Anthony, and plate that was Sir William Barran- 
tyne's. To my brother Anthony Pollard all my 
books and farm stock, 2W. of plate, and 20/. in 
money. Legacy to Joan Charlton. My Kinsman 
Sir James Pollard, present parson of Newnhara, 
57. to pray for me his masses. To my brother-in- 
law John Studham 4(W. To my mother 51. A 
sermon to be preached by a Catholic Doctor or 
Bachelor of Divinity, 10*. Sir John Williams, 
Knight. Lord Williams of Thame." 

This is followed by another will, made 
a few months earlier, but obviously ratified 
and confirmed by, and to be taken as part 
of, the above-mentioned later document : 

"The last will and testament of one John Pollard, 
esq., made the first day of. May, 4 and 5 Philip and 

" To William Jenkins, my servant, an annuity 
out of Newnham Court. To my wife, ray manor of 
Newnham Court. To my brother Anthony Pollard. 
William Pollard, son of Sir Richard Pollard, 
Knight, deceased. Phyllyp, daughter of William 
Sheldon, esq., wife of the said Anthony. Tene- 
ments in the City of London and in Kingston-upon- 
Thames, co. Surrey, in right of my wife, being one 
of the daughters of Richard [? Gray], late of London, 

Both wills were proved 13 Oct., 1557, by 
Anthony Pollard and Ralph Feme. 

From these two wills it is evident that the 
ex-Speaker received knighthood between 
5 May and 2 Aug., 1557 ; and as he was 
buried 25 Aug., 1557, his enjoyment of the 
knightly dignity was but brief. He died 
s.p., though, as we gather from his will, 
he left a wife, who, if one of the daughters 
of Richard Gray of London, may have 
been the " Dame Mary Pollerd, al 8 Norris, 
widow," to whose estate, on 21 Dec., 1608, 
administration was granted to Thomas 
Grey, her next of kin. This last suggestion 
requires support, fifty years being a lengthy 
time for a wife to survive her husband. 

The heir of the Speaker was his brother 
Anthony, who, as " Anthony Pollard of 
Little Baldon," made his will 20 Dec., 
18 Elizabeth : 

" To repair of highways in Newnam Courtney 
and Sanford, co. Oxford, 101. To marriage portion 
of ten poor maids, 10/., 20-s. apiece. To prisoners 
in gaol at Oxford, 20. To John Grene my servant, 
10/.~ [and several like sums! To John Shakespeare 
mv servant, 101. and a black coat. To Symon 
Alleine my servant, 101. , and a black gown. Leonard 
Wilmote, 6V. lSs.4d. John Prince, Thomas Mosden, 
Robert Mair, 4/. each. Gregory Teroll, Sf. 6. 8d, 
Alia fferis, 51. if in my house at my death. To Eliza- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JA *. 2, 1909: 

beth Wynterfall, 5?. on day of her marriage. To 
every of the children of Alice Tonkis and Johan 
Chafleton, my sisters, which shall be alive at my 
decease, 51., to be paid within four years. To my 
cousin Thomas Ayshe all my books, apparel, &c. 
To my cousin William Pollard, son of Sir Richard 
Pollard, a gelding, or 5/. to buy him one. Residue 
to my well-beloved wife Phillipp Pollard, who is 
sole exor." 

Proved in London 26 Aug., 1577, by Phillippe, 
relict and exor. This lady was daughter 
of William Sheldon of Beslye, co. Worcester, 
and survived her husband many years, 
dying 23 Dec., 1606, aged seventy-four. 
According to the ' Visitation of Oxfordshire ' 
(Harl. Soc.), Sir John and Anthony had 
three sisters : Alice, wife of T. Tonkes ; 
Jane, married to Robert Charlton ; and 

Margaret, wife of Scudamore. As 

will be seen, the two elder are named in 
Anthony's will. The M.I. to Anthony at 
Newnham styles him the third son of Walter 
Pollard of Plymouth. The other older son 
may have been the " Sir " James Pollard, 
parson of Newnham, named in the Speaker's 

There is nothing in the will of either the 
Speaker or his brother to indicate their 
kinship with the better-known line of the 
Pollards of Way, Devon. Both Sir John 
and Anthony mention their " cousin Wil- 
liam Pollard, son to Sir Richard Pollard, 
deceased." This Sir Richard was the head 
of the line of Way, but the " cousinship " 
may have been solely a maternal kinship, 
through the Speaker's mother Avice, who 
was daughter of Anthony Pollard of Way, 
and aunt of Sir Richard. So far as appears, 
the male line of the Speaker's family ended 
with his brother Anthony. 

The Pollards of Way, while tracing back 
to the fourteenth century, were brought 
first into prominence, and their future 
greatness established, by Sir Lewis Pollard, 
Justice of the Common Pleas 1511 to 1526. 
In all notices of him a serious mistake is 
made as to the year of his death. Foss 
states that he retired from the Bench in 
1526, but lived until 1540 ; and these dates 
have been adopted in ' Diet. Nat. Bipg.' 
The will of " Sir Lewes Pollard, militis, 
Justice of the King's Bench " [sic], is dated 
4 Nov., 16 Hen. VIII., and was proved 
2 Nov., 1526 ; so that it is evident that he 
retired from his judicial duties only through 
death. He was the founder of several lines 
of the Pollard family. Both the ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog.' and Foss state that he had no 
fewer than eleven sons and eleven daughters, 
four of his sons being knighted. This large 
family wants confirmation ; possibly many 

of them died very young. The Pollard 
pedigree in Vivian's ' Visitations of Devon * 
(the fullest account of the Pollards of Way 
of which I have knowledge) gives to the 
judge six sons and five daughters ; while 
in his will he mentions four sons only. 
There is little doubt that the Sir John 
Pollard knighted in 1553, and mistaken for 
the Speaker, was one of the sons of Sir Lewis. 
I shall be glad if further light can be 
thrown upon the somewhat complicated 
Pollard lines, especially upon that repre- 
sented by the Speaker's father Walter 
Pollard of Plymouth. Also, who was the 
Richard Pollard who took so active a part 
in the suppression of the monasteries ? 

W. D. PINK. 
Lowton, Newton-le-Willows. 


THE following events of interest in the 
history of the house of Longman, which 
appeared in the extra number of Notes on 
Books published by the firm on the 8th of 
December last, deserve, I think, a permanent 
record in ' N. & Q.' : 


In the Reign of George I. 

1724 The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle, . 
Esq., published. 

In the Reign of George II. 
1757 Johnson's English Dictionary published. 

In the Reign of George III. 

1788 Mr. Longman wrote to Mr. Charles Went- 
worth Dilke, desiring his support to & 
periodical paper to be called The Time*. 

1798 'Lyrical Ballads' by Coleridge and Words- 

worth published. 

1799 Acquired Lindley Murray's copyrights. 

1800 Coleridge's Translation of Schiller's 

4 Wallenstein ' published. 

1802 Edinburgh Review fcranded. 

1805 Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel ' published. 
Southey's ' Madoc ' published. 

1809 Byron's 'English Bards and Scotch Re- 
viewers' declined. 

1814 Wordsworth's 'Excursion' published. 

1817 Moore's 'LallaRookh' published. 

In the Reign of George IV. 
1825 Macaulay's first contribution to The Edin- 
burgh Review. 
1829 Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia started. 

In the Reign of William IV. 
1837 Booksellers' Provident Institution founded. . 
Publishers' Circular founded by Mr. William , 

In the Reign of Victoria. 
1839 Macaulay's 'England,' Vol. L, published. 

1842 Macaulay's ' Lays ' published. 

1843 Macaulay's ' Essays ' published. 

10 s. XL JA>. 2, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

1849 Second-Hand Book Department given up. 
18ol Travellers' Library started. 
1852 Roget's ' Thesaurus ' published. 

1860 Gas tirst used at Paternoster Row. 

1861 ' Essays and Reviews' published. 

House damaged by fire, and old buildings 

1862 Colenso's ' Pentateuch ' published. 

1863 New building finished. 

Absorbed Parker's business. 
Alpine Journal started. 
1866 Macaulay's Complete Works published. 

1870 Beaconsfield's ' Lothair ' published. 

1871 Langs 'Ballads and Lyrics of Old France' 


1874 ' Supernatural Religion ' published. 

1875 American Agency opened. 

1876 Trevelyan's ' Lite ot Macaulay ' published. 
1878 Lecky's ' England,' Vols. I. and il., published. 

1882 Longman's Magazine founded. 

1883 Gave up Retail Department. 

1885 Badminton Library, first volume published. 
Stevenson's 'Child's Garden of Verses' 

18S6 English Historical Review founded. 

1887 The " Ship " Binding Works opened. 

1888 The Silver Library, tirst volume published. 

1889 Lang's Fairy Tale Series, first volume 


1890 Absorbed Rivington's business. 

1891 Longmans' Cricket Club started. 

1894 Electric light first used. 

1895 Badminton Magazine founded. 
Bombay House opened. 

' The Golliwogg ' born. 

1896 Acquired William Morris's Works. 

1899 Oxford Library of Practical Theology started. 

In the Reign of Edward VII. 
1902 Handbooks for the Clergy started. 
Indian Education founded. 

1905 Political History of England started. 

1906 Calcutta Branch opened. 

1907 Longmans' Cricket Club revived. 

1908 The Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland, 



Compiled by William Henry Peet. 

1724 T. Longman (I.) 

(.Born 1699, died 1755.) 

1725 J. Osborn & T. Longman. 

(J. Osborn, born , died 1734, T. Long- 
man's father-in-law.) 

1734 T. Longman. 

1746 T. Longman & Co. , f 

(Thomas Longman, Thomas Shewell.) Mj; 
authority for this detail is the Stationers 
Company's Register. Transfers of shares 
were always registered, and these give 
names of partners. 

174" T. Longman. 

1754 T. & T. Longman. TT . 

(Founder and nephew, Thos. Longman il.) 

1755 M. & T. Lonsjman. , 

(M. was for Mary, born -, died 17BB, 
widow of Thos. Longman I. The partner- 
ship was between her and her husbands 
nephew Thomas Longman II.) 
1755 T. Longman (II.). 

(Born 1731, died 1797.) 

1795 T. N. Longman (III.). 

(Born 1771, died 1842.) 
1799 T. N. Longman & 0. Rees. 

(Owen Rees, born 1770, died 1837.) 
.804 Longman, Hurst, Rees & Orme. 

(Thomas Hurst, born 1775, retired 1825, died 

1847 ; Cosmo Orme, born , became partner 

1804, retired 1841, died 1859.) 
1811 Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown. 

(Thomas Brown, born 1778, became partner 

1811 ; retired 1859, died 1869.) 
1823 Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green. 

(Bevis E. Green, born 1794, became jjartner 

1824, retired 1865, died 1869.) 
1825 Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green. 
1832 Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & 'Long- 

(*T. Longman IV., born 1804, became partner 

1832. died 1879.) 
1838 Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & 'Longmans. 

(*T. Longman IV., and William Longman, 

born 1813, became partner 1839, died 1877.) 
1841 Longman,*15rown, Green & Longmans. 
1856 Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Roberts. 

(The first " Longman " is only a figurehead 

from 1842 to 1859. Thomas Roberts, born 

1810, became partner 1856, died 1865.) 
1859 Longman, Green, Longman & Roberts. 
1862 Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green. 
1865 Longmans. Green, Reader & Dyer. 

(Thomas Reader, born 1818, became partner 

1865, retired 1889, died 1905. Robert^ Dyer, 

born 1817, became partner 186o, died 1 
1889 Longmans, Green & Co. 

Since the founding of the firm it has 
never been without a Thomas Longman, 
and the present is the fifth bearing that name. 
When one considers the freedom with which 
theological questions are now discussed, 
it is strange to remember what offence was 
given to some friends of the firm by the 
publication of 'Essays and Reviews in 

1861. As to Colenso's ' Pentateuch 

1862, all the blame fell on the Bishop. 
Looking at the record of the chief events 

in the history of the Longman firm, I can 
imagine none which it regards with greatei 
pleasure than its association with Macaulay, 
which was vividly recalled to public remem- 
brance by the affectionate terms in whicl 
his nephew Sir George Trevelyan referred 
to it at the recent Booksellers' Dinner as 
"an old family connexion, as prolonged as any 
recorded in literary history -a connexion ^ nem 
clouded by suspicion, never disturbed by even t 
shadow of a misunderstanding. It began m tne 
vear 1842, sixty-six years ago, when Lord Macaulay s 
^ookswere published; indeed, it may be said to 
bSfbSS in 1825, when the Essay on Milton was 

sent to TheEdinbitrgh Review Macaulay has left 

much to me. and to those who are coming after - - 
but he has feft us hardly anything of * 
than the close bond of friendship, auc 
vice" which has already. united us for two ^genera- 
tions to a certain house in Paternoster Row. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io 8. XL JA*. 2, 1909. 


<See 10 S. ix. 341, 401 ; x. 4, 84, 182, 262, 
362, 444.) 

ONLY once throughout his book does' 1 Allot 
quote his authority for a passage, and then 
in reference to lines copied from Thomas 
Hudson's ' Judith ' : 

' 111 Companie,' p. 519. 

Like as the remain upright, &c., 

(signed) Th. Hudson, fol. 452. 

I will now supply references for passages 

that remain unidentified in Collier's edition 

of ' Englands Parnassus,' omitting those 

which have been traced by others than 

myself. As much space would be occupied 

if I quoted in full, I will content myself by 

siting first lines or parts of lines, with the 

signatures given by Allot. When the latter 

are wrong, I will say so. 

' Ambition,' p. 5. 
! fa tall is the ascent unto a crowne. 

' Civil Wars,' B. II. st. 59, only in ed. 1595, 
' (signed) S. Daniell. 

'Art,' p. 11. 
Art hath an enemy cald ignorance. 

'E. M. out of his H.,' Act I., Stage, (signed) 
B. Johnson. 

'Avarice,' p. 14. 
Regard of worldly mucke doth fowly blend. 

'Faerie Queene,' II. vii. 10, (signed) Ed. 

' Beautie,' p. 17. 
O how can Bewtie maister the most strong. 

'Faerie Queene,' I. iii. 6, (signed) Idem, viz., 

Collier refers to ' Robert, Duke of Nor- 
mandy,' for the following, but he guessed 
wrongly : 

'Banishment,' p. 25. 
No Banishment can be to him assignde. 

'Epist., Suffolk to Q. Margaret,' (signed) 
M. Dray ton. 

' Blisse,' p. 26. 
These dayes example hath deep written here. 

' Faerie Queene,' I. viii. 44 (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

' Children,' p. 34. 
This patterne, good or ill, our Children get. 

' Arcadia ' (Grosart, ' Poems,' ii. 218), (signed) 
Idem, viz., Sir P. Sidney. 

' Chaunge,' p. 35. 

The ever chaunging course of things. 

'Cleopatra,' 11. 555-6 (Grosart), (signed) 
S. Daniell. 

' Chaunce,' p. 37. 
True it is, if fortune light by Chaunce. 

'Flowers' [" Audaces fortuna juvat "], (signed) 
G. Gascoigne. 

Collier is wrong again, his reference for 
the next passage being to his old friend 
"* Mortimeriados ' : 

' Counsaile,' p. 38. 
A kingdomes greatnesse hardly can he sway. 

'Epist, Rich. II. to Q. Isabel, (signed) M. Dr. 

' Conscience,' p. 41. 
The feare of Conscience entretn yron walles. 

'Epist., Lady J. Grey to Dudley, (signed ) M. 

' Craft,' &c., p. 44. 

Craft, wrapt still in many comberments. 

' Musophilus,' 11. 913-14, (signed) S. Daniell. 

' Content,' p. 47. 

Inconstant change such tickle turnes hath lent. 
Thos. Lodge's ' Marius and Sylla,' V. i. (No 
author named.) 

' Courage,' p. 48. 

-To Courage great, &c. 

J Faerie Queene,' V. v. 38, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

Where is no Courage, there is no ruth nor mone. 
'Faerie Queene,' VI. vii. 18, (signed) Idem, 
viz., Spenser. 

Good hart in ill, doth th' evill, &c. 

' Faerie Queene,' V. x. 22, (signed) Idem, viz. 

' Courage,' p. 49. 
Might, wanting measure, moveth surquedrie. 

' Faerie Queene,' III. x. 2, (signed) Ed. 

Valour mixt with feare, &c. 

' Civil Wars,' III. 46, (signed) Idem, viz. 
S. Daniel. 

' Courts,' p. 50. 

This is ever proper unto Courts. 

' Comp. of Rosamond,' 11. 564-5, (signed) 
S. Daniell. 

' Courts,' p. 52. 
The wanton luxurie of Court. 

' Cleopatra,' 11. 1241-2, (signed) S. Daniell. 

' Danger,' p. 57. 

Danger hath honour, great designes their fame. 
' Delia,' Son. 35, (signed) S. Dan. 

* Danger,' p. 58. 
Daunger's the chiefest joy to happinesse. 

' Mass, at Paris,' Dyce, p. 228, col. 2, (signed) 

Ch. Marlowe. 
The Daunger hid, the place unknowne, &c. 

' Faerie Queene,' I. i. 12, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

A thousand perills lie in close awaite. 

' Muiopotmos,' 11. 221-4, (signed) Idem, viz. 

'Death, 'p. 61. 

All earthly things be borne. 

Sackville's 'Ind., Mirror for Mag.,' st. 8, 
(signed) I.H.M. of Magist. 
' Death,' p. 63. 
All is but lost, that living, &c. 

' Faerie Queene,' I. x. 41, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 
Happie, thrice happie. who so lost his breath. 

Dolman's ' Lord Hastings,' st. 94, ' Mir. for 
Mag.' (Author not named.) 
' Death,' p. 65. 
Death is to him, that wretched lite, &c. 

'Faerie Queene,' IV. vii. 11, (signed) Ed. 

' Delay,' p. 66. 

Oft things done, perhaps, do lesse annoy, &c. 

'Civil Wars,' V. 84, (signed) S. Daniell.' 

Delaie, in close awaite. 

'Faerie Queene,' IV. x. 14, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

Times Delay new hope of helpe, &c. 

'M. Hubberd's Tale, 1. 327, (signed) Idem, viz., 

10 s. XL JAN. 2, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

' Desire,' p. 69. 
Things much retain'd, do make us, &e. 

' Epist., Edward IV. to Jane Shore,' (signed) 
Idem, viz., Dray ton. 

' Dispaire,' p. 74. 
Farre greater folly is it, &c. 

' Legend of Cbrdilla,' st, 48, (signed) I. H., ' Mir. 
of M.' 

' Envie,' p. 84. 
The other held a snake. &c. 

' Faerie Queene,' V. xii. 30-31, (signed) Idem, 
viz., Spenser. 

' Envie,' p. 86. 

Envy barboureth most, &c. 

' Arcadia ' [Grosart, ' Poems,' iii. 36], (signed) 

S. Ph. Sidney. 
Fell Envies cloud still dimmeth, &c. 

'Faerie Queene,' V. xii. 27, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

Correct Collier, who refers the following to 
" M. Drayton's ' Mortimeriados,' 1596 " : 

1 Error,' p. 88. 

Errors are no errors, <fcc. 

' Civil Wars,' iii. 18 (only in ed. 1595), (signed) 

S. Daniell. 
To heare good counsell Error never loves. 

'Fig for Momus,' Sat. i. (signed) D. Lodge. 

' Faith,' p. 91. 
Adde Faith unto your force, &c. 

' Faerie Queene,' I. i. 19 (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

' Fame,' p. 93. 
Fame with golden wings, &c. 

'Ruines of Time,' 11. 421-4, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 
'Fate,' p. 102. 

The F_ates can make, &c. 

' Faerie Queene,' III. iii. 25, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

Indeed the Fates are firme. 

' Faerie Queene,' III. iii. 25, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

' Feare,' p. 105. 

In vaine with terror is he fortified. 
' Civil Wars,' i. 54, (signed) S. D. 


(To be continued.) 

For some time past I have thought it would 
be a great convenience to amateur genea- 
logists, especially those residing in country 
places, if a Genealogical Circulating Library 
could be established. 

There must be plenty of persons interested 
in this science who have already a large 
collection of heraldic and genealogical works 
now lying idle on their shelves, that they 
could easily lend, at a small charge, the 
borrower paying postage each way. The 
borrower might leave a deposit with the 
owner, according to the value of the books 
he proposed to borrow, which would be 
returned to him, less the charge for reading 
and amount of postages incurred, when he 
had finished borrowing. 

I, for one, should be very glad to avail 
myself of some such system. I have more 

than once contemplated starting such a 
library myself, but, as I may remove from 
here on selling my house, I cannot establish 
a library until in a more permanent residence.. 
I hope, however, to do it later. 

If genealogists interested in a certain 
district or county were willing to lend their 
books, or certain of them, on some such 
terms as I have suggested, they might com- 
bine to compile a compound advertisement 
giving the names and addresses of owners 
of books for each district or county. This 
would make the cost of advertisement small 
for each member, and the advertisement 
itself would be a useful directory to all 
genealogists requiring any book on a par- 
ticular district in which they might be 

A library comprising books for the whole 
of England and Wales would be within the 
means of very few, but numbers of amateurs 
could give mutual help by lending each 
other the works connected with a particular 

I shall be glad to hear suggestions from 
any of your correspondents regarding this 
matter. E. DWELLY. 

Ardmor, Herne Bav. 

Hogmanay song I took down from the lips 
of a girl here in January last. It is doggerel 
in parts, but I give it as I heard it : 

This is good New Year's evening night, 

We 've all come here to claim our right, 

Dance before our Lady, 

Dance before Prince Albert's sight, 

We sing our song so clearly. 

Prince Albert, he is not at home, 

He is to the greenwood gone, 

Courting a lady and bringing her home, 

And that 's* before our Lady, 

And that 's before Prince Albert s sight, 

We sing our song so clearly. 

Get up, old wife, and shake your feathers ; 

Dinna think that we are beggars ; 

We are children come from home, 

Seeking our Hogmanay. 

That's before Prince Albert's sight, 

And that 's before a lady. 

Gie 's the lass wi' bonnie broon hair. 

Or we '11 knock yer door upon the floor ; 

That 's before Prince Albert 's sight, 

That "s before a lady. 

The children go round the table, 

With their pockets full of money 

And their barrels full of beer. 

Do you wish'to remind us A nappy ^ew \ ear . 

Me feet's cold, me shaes are thin : 

Gie me a halfpenny, an' let me rin. 

Strom ness. 

* A bow. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. -2, 1009. 

LATEST EPITAPHS. On a tombstone dated 
TT^June, 1691, set up in Old Ballaugh Church- 
yard, Isle of Man, by Patrick Phillips to the 
memory of his wife Eleanor Garrat, there is 
the following epitaph : 

Mors, quam dura 
Tristiaque sunt tua jura ! 

And on another stone in the same place : 
Mors mea vita mihi ! 



"On the eve of the Twelfth Day, the Creature 

Jthe children] anticipate a midnight visit from a 

frightful old woman, called the Befana (an obvious 
corruption of Epifania, the Epifany), for whom 

vthey always take care to leave some portion of their 
supper, lest she should eat them up ; and when 
they go to bed, they suspend upon the back of a 
chair a stocking, to receive her expected gifts. This 

-receptacle is always found in the morning to con- 

' ; tain some sweet things, or other welcome presents 
provided by the mother or the nurse. There is 

.here a dressed-up wooden figure of La Befana, 
sufficiently hideous, the bugbear of all naughty 
girls and boys." 'Rome in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury.' iii. 205, quoted in Alexander Keith, ' Signs of 

-the Times,' ed. 4, 1833, ii. 238. 

W. C. B. 

and death warnings run in some families, 
and I believe will so run in spite of every- 
thing. I know several old Derbyshire 
families the better sort of working house- 
holds who still firmly believe in tokens and 
warnings of death, and some members are 
constantly receiving such, though they are 
by no means on the look-out for them. 
Here ia an instance. 

A member of a household was lying ill 
in Sheffield eight or nine years ago. He 
was the head of the family, and with him 
were some of his nearest relations, his wife 
-and the rest of the family being at their 
home some miles away. One night the 
weights inside the case of a grandfather 
clock in their house fell to the bottom of the 
case with a great clatter. The faces of the 
wife and children grew blank, and " a great 
iear fell upon them." The next day a 
message came to say that the husband had 
died at the same time as the clock- weights 
fell. The clock remains with the weights 
at the bottom of the case, and I do not 
know if any member of the family will 
dare to set the old clock going again. 

An old lady, dead now more than a score 
of years, was born on All Hallows Eve, on 
the stroke of midnight, and according 
i;o the " middif " and other good bodies, 
would be able in future years to have 

certain knowledge of coming events, more 
especially in connexion with the members 
of her own family; and as she came to woman- 
hood, she developed the faculty of foretelling 
things in some degree. She could read the 
fortunes of folks in their faces as well as by 
the lines in their hands or the twirling of 
tea-grounds in the teacup. She was too 
good a woman for any one to insinuate that 
she had dealings with any evil thing, and 
she was, in her simple way, " a wise woman " 
in her native village. Regularly, when her 
birthnight came round, she was perturbed 
in mind and body, and, as folks who knew 
said, " the spirit was on her." At Christmas 
teas and little night parties she told the 
young people's fortunes to amuse them. 
At times she would look mother-like into 
the face of a young lass, and say : " Now, 
my dear, be careful ; be a good lass, and you 
will have a happy life." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

years ago I picked up at a sale of old metal 
in Liverpool a very fine bell, unfortunately 
badly cracked. It is of the shape and design 
of a large ship's bell, and bears the following 
inscription in relief : " The gift of Thomas 
Jones of Bristol to Grandy Robin John of 
Old Town, Old Callabar. 1770." The 
letter d, where it occurs in the inscription, 
has been cut or filed away. 

I made some inquiries with a view to 
ascertaining the history of this bell, and 
through the kindness of the late Mr. John 
Latimer of Bristol, author of ' The History of 
the Society of Merchant Adventurers of the 
City of Bristol' (1903), I found that in 
1770 one Thomas Jones, doubtless the donor 
of the bell, had for some years been a member 
of the Society, whilst a much older member, 
William Jones, probably his father, was 
elected Master in that very year. Owing 
to the loss by fire, in 1831, of the Custom 
House records, Mr. Latimer could not give 
me any further information. From another 
source, however, I learnt that " Thomas 
Jones, Merchant, Barton Street, Bristol," 
appears in Matthews's ' Directory of Bristol,' 

Grandy [Grandee] Robin John was one 
of the leading men of Old Town, Old 
Calabar, in 1770. Robin John was a sort 
of family name, and it is difficult to say to 
which of the family the bell was presented. 
According to a note on p. 533 of Gomer 
Williams' s ' Liverpool Privateers and Slave 
Trade,' the leading people were the King, the 
Duke, Ephraim Robin John, Robin John 

10 s. XL JAN. 2, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Tom Robin, Orrock Robin John, &c. We 
hear, in addition, of Grandy Ephrairn Robin 
John, Grandy King George, and also of 
" old Robin John," father of the former. 
Mr. Gomer Williams prints on p. 541 a 
letter, dated in 1773, to Mr. Thomas Jones 
from the captain of one of his slave ships, 
relating to the identity of some members 
of the Robin John family. There is also 
A letter from Grandy King George to a 
Liverpool shipowner asking, amongst other 
things, for bells, and that his name should 
be put on everything sent for him. 

There was at this time great rivalry 
between Bristol and Liverpool in con- 
nexion with the slave trade, and every 
effort was being made by the merchants of 
the former port to retain the lucrative trade, 
much of which was passing to their rivals. 
The supply of slaves was to a large extent 
dependent on the goodwill of the chiefs at 
Old Calabar, and it may safely be con- 
jectured that the bell was given by the 
Bristol slave-trader for the purpose ot 
influencing Grandy Robin John to continue 
dealing with him. 

The deletion of the letter d is curious, and 
ie probably due to negro superstition that 
the letter might bring bad luck. Or it 
might have been done to bring the words 
into conformity with negro pronunciation. 

R. S. B. 


" Cock ale is made by bruising an old Cock (the 
older the better), bones and all, with 3 Ibs. of 
rasins, mace, cloves, &c., and stirring it thoroughly 
with 2 quarts of Sack, digesting it for 9 days in 
10 gallons of ale, and then bottling off and leaving 
it the same time to ripen as other Ale." 

A correspondent contributes this to 
Country Life of 12 December last, and says 
he quotes from 'The First Letter-Book 
of the East India Company,' 1600 to 1619. 
Surely the " old cock " was not thus treated 
with feathers and all complete. 



mysterious language is quite unknown to 
philologists, although often spoken of by 
travellers returned from India. Mr. Thomas 
Atkins is very fond of referring to it. After 
exhaustive investigation I have traced it 
to the neighbourhood of Bombay. It 
appears to be a popular term for the Konkani 
language. The first n in Konkani is silent, 
the name being sounded Kokani, as it were 
" Cocoa-ni," so the temptation to add a 
syllable was irresistible. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

TAVERN," BRISTOL. During a recent visit 
to Bath I discovered in the City Reference 
Library several transcripts of local parish 
registers, evidently copied and presented 
to that institution by the Rev. C. W. Shickle, 
Master of St. John's Hospital. In these 
several notes of interest to Dickens lovers 
are to be found. 

In St. Michael's register, under date 
14 Sept., 1766, the marriage occurs of 
Richard Fisher, bachelor, of Monckton- 
Combe, and Ann Pickwick, spinster. 

Later, on 17 Aug., 1775, Eleazar Pickwick, 
bachelor, and Susanna Combs, spinster, were 
married, the witnesses on that auspicious 
occasion being Moses_ Pickwick and Frances 

The name of Wintles frequently occurs, 
but no Winkles. 

It is not a far cry from Bath to Bristol, 
an ancient city still possessing several fine 
old inns reminiscent of coaching days, 
although, I believe, " The Bush " of famous 
memory has passed into the shades, and 
become, as the epitaphs have it, " though 
lost to sight, to memory dear." In the 
' Bristol and Bath Directory ' for 1787 we 
find a few words of advertisement that make 
it live again : 

Bush Tavern in Corn Street, 


John Weekes, Proprietor. 
To London, A Balloon Coach, with a 
Guard, every Afternoon, at 
Half after 2 o'Clock. 
To Bath, A Mail Coach, every Morning 
at 8 and 9 o Clock. 

East Boldon, Durham. 

THE MUFFIN MARTYR. He was referred 
to in the 'Notes on Books' column of 
' N. & Q.,' 10 S. x. 478, and has before faced 
the music of our band. I was pleased to 
discover that the gentleman has an analogue 
in Eastern story. In ' Folk-lore of the Holy 
Land,' p. 314, a note explains Bakldweh as 
being " a kind of mince-pie pastry covered 
with syrup of sugar," and goes on to say : 

" A story is told of an Arab who, when threatened 
with immediate death if he took any more of it, 
coolly commended his family to the protection ot the 
would-be murderer, who stood over him with a 
drawn sword and took another mouthful. I 
Note 48, ' Tales told in Palestine.')" 


Reader I have been glancing at the editor 
remarks in a note: "Sneezing was some- 
times regarded as ominous of evil, some- 



times of good. ' Dextram sternuit approba- 
tionem.' " 

Among Jews sneezing has always been 
regarded (at the appropriate moment, of 
course) as propitious. Sometimes when a 
baby indulges in that physical exercise, 
the mother will say, almost unconsciously, 
" Gebencht " ("Be blessed"), as if she 
feared harm to her offspring, and desired 
to propitiate the Fates in advance by 
maternal benedictions. Jews say, " See, he 
sneezes on it": a note of confirmation 
always. M. L. B. BRESLAR. 

[For other expressions used when a person sneezes 
see 8 S. xi. 186, 314, 4?2, 516 ; 9 S. ii. 55.] 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

recently finished transcribing the Ilfracombe 
parish register, and I found that the portion 
1566-1602 was a copy of an older register 
made by a writer who describes himself 
as G. Milton, scrivener. I should be glad 
to know whether this George was any relation 
of John Milton, scrivener, of Bread Street, 
the father of the poet. The register records 
the marriage of George Milton to Alice 
Hertsell on 22 Jan., 1600 ; the baptism of 
his son George, 19 May, 1601 ; the burial 
of his wife, 10 Feb., 1602 ; and his marriage 
to " Richorde " Allen, 5 Aug., 1602. 

Milton would seem to have left the parish 
soon after this, as the name does not occur 
again in the register and the entries therein 
are in another hand. The writing is very 
good, and the first page tastefully illuminated 
in green and black. 


accuracy with which Dickens was able to 
invent and depict characters and incidents 
is often noticed. A book just published 
gives another illustration. In 'Romances 
of the Revolution,' from the French of 
G. Lenotre, by F. Lees, is mention of a case 
singularly analogous to that of the old prisoner 
of the Bastille, so pathetically drawn in 
' The Tale of Two Cities.' 

The Marquis de Saint P in 1787, for 
some fancied slight upon the Queen, was 
imprisoned in a tnaison de sante. During the 
Terror his relatives left France without being 

able to help him. On their return they had 
either forgotten him, or thought him dead. 
He continued quietly in prison, reading 
and writing. In 1837, when over seventy, 
he was accidentally brought to remembrance 
and released. He was in good health, and 
proposed dedicating to Louis XVI. an essay 
he had composed in prison. Could this be 
the prototype of Dickens's interesting cha- 
racter, heard of by him during one of his 
visits to Paris ? D. J. 

DICKENS'S " KNIFE-BOX." Where does 
Dickens describe the antiquated knife-box 
in some such words as these : "all angles 

and fluting now happily obsolete." 


AERIAL NAVIGATION. I possess an eigh- 
teenth-century French engraving (aquafort) 
representing a " poisson aerostatique " in 
mid-air, driven by Dom Joseph Patinho, 
who on the 10th March, 1784, navigated it 
from Plazentia, in the mountains of Spain,, 
to Coria, situated on the " Riviere d'Arra- 
gon," covering the distance of twelve 
leagues. This information is conveyed by an 
inscription on the lower margin of my print, 
which was engraved in Paris by J. Chereau 
in 1784. 

What foundation of fact is there for 
this aerial flight ? 


FIRE ENGINES. I wish to consult a cata- 
logue of an exhibition of fire engines held in 
London six or seven years ago. i Where- 
should I be likely to see one ? I have tried 
at the British Museum, and at the different 
libraries at South Kensington. Unfortu- 
nately, I cannot remember where the ex- 
hibition was held. There was on show a 
large number of out-of-date engines from 
the provinces. W. D. SWEETING. 


[We think the exhibition was at Earl's Court.] 

reader explain the meaning of -nell at the 
end of surnames, as Dartnell, Bonell, &c. ? 
Was it used as a diminutive ? If so, can 
any one give an instance ? W. H. S. 

following cutting is from The Yorkshire 
Herald of 30 January last : 

"The old custom of honouring the kill by drink- 
ing fox-flavoured liquor was (says a correspondent) 
revived in a Yorkshire pack this week. After the 
huntsmen had broken up the fox a number of foot 
followers rescued a portion of the carcase of the fox 
and hurried to the little inn near at hand. Here 

10 s. XL JAN. 2, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

they had a huge jug filled with beer, and into this 
they put the hams of the fox, afterwards drinking 
the vulpine mixture, stirring their glasses with the 
pads of a fox, and proposing reynard's health in a 
peculiar doggerel which was at one time regularly 
employed. One old Nimrod even ate a part of the 
fox, and the whole scene was one remarkable in the 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' supply the 
words of the doggerel in which wishes for 
the welfare of the fox were embodied, and 
give a clue to the hunt in which the rite 
above mentioned was observed ? 


HERALDRY. I know a shield of arms, 
in glass, apparently old, in a church window, 
and shall be glad to know whose it is. It 
consists of France ancient and England, 
quarterly, impaling Quarterly, 1 and 4, Or, 
an eagle displayed sable (or vert ?) ; 2 and 3, 
Gules, a lion rampant arg. The impaled 
coats may conceivably be Monthermer and 
Mowbray, but, if so, I cannot trace the 
alliance represented by the shield. 

U. V. W. 

should be glad to have some information 
as to the member of the Baldock family 
referred to in ' Lord Melbourne's Papers,' 
edited by Lloyd C. Sanders. On p. 524 
the Hon. Mrs. Norton, writing to Lord 
Melbourne on a variety of subjects, mentions 
some projected improvements, about which 
she accuses his lordship of disturbing himself 
unnecessarily, and then goes on to say : 
" I merely repeat the observations of others 
when I talk of Baldock and his triumphal 
entries." G. YARROW BALDOCK. 

I possess a memoir written by Lieut. -Col. 
Samuel Gledhill of Macartney's Regiment, 
which he raised at Newcastle, and com- 
manded at the siege of Douay in 1710, when 
it was cut to pieces by a sortie. In this 
memoir mention is made of the man-of-war 
Boyne commanded by Sir H. Walker. Can 
any of your correspondents kindly inform me 
where I can find an account of the Boyne 
and of Sir H. Walker ? The date is before 
1700. W. H. CHIPPINDALL, Col. 

5, Linden Road, Bedford. 

site of Sulhamstead Rectory, Berkshire, 
was moved from one end of the village 
to the other. Where can I find any docu- 
ments on the subject ? 

18, Harrington Court, 8.W. 

DUNSTABLE. The writer would be obliged 
if any correspondent could give the name 
of the author of the following : 

" Dunne's Originals ; containing a sort of real, 
traditional, and conjectural History of the Anti- 
quities of Dunstable, and its vicinity." 

Five parts of from 16 to 24 pages each were 
published in 1821-2 : " Sold by W. Nicholls, 
Ikenild-row, West-street, Dunstable." The 
printer was R. Dowson, Nottingham. 

C. W. S. 

Lady Rosalind Northcote, in her charming 
book on Devon, p. 141, quotes two rough 
but spirited stanzas from a ballad entitled 
' Farewell to Kingsbridge.' She does not 
name the author, or say where the whole 
ballad may be found. I give the first 
stanza : 
On the ninth day of November, at the dawning in 

the sky, 
Ere we sailed away to New York we at anchor here 

did lie ; 
O'er the meadows fair of Kingsbridge then the mist 

was lying grey ; 
We were bound against the rebels in the horth 


Who wrote the lines ? M. N. G. 

Yet this is sure : the Iqveliests tar 
That clustered with its peers we see, 

Only because from us so far 
Doth near its fellows seem to be. 

The allusion is doubtless to the Plough, 
part of Ursa Major, because five of the seven 
stars composing it have about the same 
amount and direction of proper motion. 

W. T. L. 

I have a vague recollection of some lines 
of Heine's as follows : 

But now, alas, too late ! 

Thy warm and tender glances fall on my heart 
Like sunlight on a grave. 
Can any of your readers tell me where I 
may find the poem containing these lines ? 
Broadway, New York. 

468 a Canadian correspondent incidentally 
observes : " My duties frequently call me 
into the Never Never Country " ; and later 
he says he is " leaving for the long trail to 
the North." 

I think many will be surprised to learn 
that some far northern section of Canada has 
received this designation. Hitherto the 
only " Never Never Land " known to most 
of us is the vast expanse of seemingly 
illimitable plains in Northern Queensland. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 2, im 

To be " out on the Never Never " is a bit 
of [ Australian bush slang. A book descrip- 
tive of this part of Australia was published 
by Sampson Low & Co. in 1884 under the 
title of ' The Never Never Land.' It would 
be interesting to know something definite 
about the Canadian " Never Never Country," 
and whether the phrase is in common use 
among Canadians as descriptive of that 
portion of their Dominion. J. F. HOGAN. 
Royal Colonial Institute, 

Northumberland Avenue. 

remember reading a very witty parody of 
' The Village Blacksmith ' some years ago 
in a paper or review, but forget where. 
Can a reader of ' N. & Q.' say where it may 
be found ? It is not in a recently published 
' Book of Parodies.' 


CUTHBERT SHIELDS. Can any reader give 
information concerning Cuthbert Shields, 
whom I have seen described as a " great 
Oriental scholar," said to have been " wor- 
shipped as a god by the Druses " ? He 
was further known under the name of 
" Robert Laing." What books did he 

2A, Rue de Berlin, Brussels. 
[Shields was a Fellow of Corpus College, Oxford.] 

would it have taken, in the reign of Hadrian, 
for a traveller, with every facility afforded 
him, to reach Britain from Rome ? 


Can some one tell me the origin of the custom 
for the bride-elect not to see the bridegroom- 
elect on the day of the wedding until she 
meets him in the church ? 


tobacco-box is engraved 
Mr. C*F 

Joseph Funge Shipwright 

and Master pipe maker 

of Woolwich in 


The date of the box is 1692. 

Was there such an official at Woolwich ! 
20, Berkeley Square. 

shall be glad to be referred to any work 
bearing upon the battle of Trafalgar where 
the part taken by H.M.S. Swiftsure is re- 
corded, and mention of Capt. Wm. Gordon 

Rutherford, C.B., is made. The captain 
died 14 Jan., 1818, and is (with his wife) 
buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. Any 
information will be acceptable. 

230, Navarino Mansions, Dalston, N.E. 

" BROKENSELDE." " Le Brokenselde 7\m 
West Chepe by Milk Street is said to have 
been in 1332 a tavern, and it is mentioned 
in Henry Rede's will, 1420 (' Calendar of 
Wills,' quoted in Topog. Record, vol. iv. 
p. 35). 

What was a Brokenselde ? 


Has any list come down to us of the ships 
whose names were changed after that event ? 
The Naseby became the Royal Charles, 
and there were several other changes follow- 
ing the return of Charles II. 

K. P. D. E. 

a hamlet called Gower in Eastry parish (in 
Sandwich), Kent. How did the hamlet 
get this name ? What is its derivation ? 

Ferndale Lodge, Tunbridge Wells. 

(10 S. x. 308, 351, 376, 456, 495.) 

ONE of the contributors to this lengthy 
discussion, after drawing my attention to 
it, inquired whether the points still in doubt 
could be elucidated by some one acquainted 
with Modern and Mediaeval Greek. I ad- 
mitted that Classic Greek alone, stopping 
short, as it does, at about the third century 
A.D., helps but little toward the solution of 
such apparent linguistic riddles. 

Perhaps I may state at the outset that 
'Ao-wpt (in Smith's ' Diet, of Ancient Geo- 
graphy ' ) does not stand for any known 
Greek word, but is evidently a misprint 
for "Ao-Trpjj. This is the more or less collo- 
quial Mediaeval and Modern Greek adjective 
for Aew6s= white. Ducange and others 
after him are inclined to seek its derivation 
in the Latin asper, because a diminutive 
Turkish coin, the third of a para, is known 
among Greeks as aa-n-pov* (being " white " 

* Cf. Littre's French Diet.: "Blanc ancienne- 
ment, petite monnaie de cinq deniers. Mettre 
quelqu'un au blanc, le ruiner, lui gagner tout 
son argent." 

10 s. XL JAN. 2 , 1909.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


by reason of its coating of tin), and hence 
afnrpa (n. pi.), substantively, means money 
generally : e\ei TroAAo, aorrpa=he is rich. 
It was therefore not a far cry to associate 
ao-Trpa -with asperi nummi. But, as Coray 
has shown, when the Romans spoke of these, 
they referred, not to tin-coated or silver 
coins, but to the newly minted, which of 
course are crisp, and rougher to the touch 
than such as have been in circulation for 
some time. With his characteristic acumen, 
therefore, Coray traced acnrpos to ao-jriAos 
^spotless, immaculate), and by syncope 
ao-7rAos, the change of A into p being very 
common in later Greek. So much for the 

With regard to the geographical point, 
" Ao-Trpr; ^aAacrcra is an exact rendering of 
Ak Denghiz, the Turkish designation (which 
occurs also as Bahri-Eliaz and Adalar-Arassi) 
of that part of the Mediterranean which, 
lying outside the Dardanelles, and between 
the shores of Greece, Asia Minor, and Egypt, 
is studded with the innumerable Greek 
islands, those of the ^gaean being included. 
It was evidently so named by the Turks in 
contradistinction to the sea which is situated 
on the other side of the narrows, and which 
they called the Black Sea (Kara Denghiz 
also Bahri-Eswed), owing to its sudden 
and violent storms, and principally, I should 
say, to the dense fogs which pervade it. 
From the Turks, the Russians also have so 
christened it, Czarne More ; and among 
our Greek mariners it is usually known as 
M.avpr) 0aAao-o-o. But the ancient appella- 
tion Eveivos Ilovros (or Euetvov IltAayos, 
Mare Euxenum) is still in use in our literary 
style. Strabo (vii. pp. 298, 300 who uses 
also the designation IleAayos novTiKoV, 
i. p. 21, &c.), citing Apollodorus and other 
earlier authors, states that it was originally 
known as *Aevos, " the inhospitable," 
owing to its dangerous navigation, and to 
the barbarous and cannibal habits of the 
surrounding tribes ; but that after Greek 
colonies were established and commerce 
flourished, it was renamed the " hospitable 
sea." So says also the Scholiast of Apol- 
lonius Rhodius (ii. 550). Schynanus (734) 
terms it "A^evos. Herodotus, however, who 
speaks at length of the Euxine, makes no 
allusion to such later modification of its 
name ; while Pindar refers to it both as 
"A^eifos ('Pyth,' iv. 203) and as 
IleAayos (' Nem.,' iv. 49). I am 
therefore inclined to think that the Black 
Sea being really "Aevos ab antique, such as 

it proves to this day in the experience of 
all mariners, the Greeks had recourse to 
that system of euphemism whereby they 
sought to propitiate dreaded powers and 
avert unfavourable omens, and gave it 
what we may consider the coaxing name 
of Evivos. So also Evjuei/i'Ses, the Furies, 
and ev<avvfj.os f the left hand. 

To return now to the Mediterranean, the 
first to employ this name, as the distinctive 
geographical designation of a particular 
sea, was Isidorus (' Origines,' xiii. 16, p. 181), 
who wrote in the seventh century. Before 
him Solinus makes use of it, but rather in 
the sense of a general description of land- 
locked seas, mediterranea maria (c. 18) ; 
for he still refers to the Mediterranean 
specially as nostrum mare (c. 23, 13). This 
and Mare Internum, or Intestinum, were the 
designations usual with Roman writers ; 
while the Greeks knew the Mediterranean 
as ecrw daXa.(rcra, fj evrbs flaAacro-a, ?/ eiros 
' 0aAao-<ra, i] Ka$' 

?}/xas 0aAcuro-a. The term /teaoycuos was used 
by the Ancient Greeks in the sense of 
interior, inland, or midland country 
(cf. rj /xo-oy'a. Thuc. i. 100, 120 ; 
Demosth. 326, 9), exactly as the 
Latin loca mediterranea, and, indeed, 
the English "mediterranean" (adj.) when 
applied to the central parts of a country 
as distinct from the sea-coast, or to rivers 
which end without reaching the sea, or to 
the inhabitants of an inland region, But 
the designation of the sea in question as 
Mroycios is of quite later times : when it 
first came into use with us I cannot state 
with any precision. Certain it is that we 
have now no other name for that sea*- 
"Ao-7rp77 0aAao-o-a being a mere rendering of the 
Turkish term, to be heard sometimes among 
the sailors in those waters, which, as I have 
already said, are not to be considered as 
confined strictly to the JSgaean Sea the so- 
called Archipelago. 

This barbarous, but universally accepted 
term is one of the most curious examples 
of the distortion and transformation of the 
geographical nomenclature in the Levant, 
consequent upon the irruptions in those 
parts of swarms of Venetian adventurers, 

* Our geographical manuals speak of a 
0aAao-o-a when they refer to the White Sea in the 
Arctic Ocean, the Mydoye More of the Russians. 
It is this sea, no doubt, that Queen Victoria had in 
her mind when (as your corresi>ondent D., x. .*7b, 
points out) she playfully deprecated the proposal of 
the Turks in 1853 that the operations of the Bntish 
fleet should not include the Black hea. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 2, im. 

Genoese pirates, and that expedition o: 
bandits humorously known as the "Fourth 
Crusade." Such distortions are the result 
partly of what is known as " popular ety- 
mology," and partly of that self-concedec 
licence whereby more or less illiterate 
mariners rechristen in a fanciful manner 
the places they visit. In the present instance 
the Italian name Arcipelago (in English 
texts of the sixth and seventh centuries 
Archipelagus and Archipelage) has given 
rise to all kinds of fantastic etymologies. 
It is thought by some to be a corruption 
of "Ayiov IleAayos, a name supposed to be 
given by Greeks to the sea near the holy 
Mount Athos. Others consider it a com- 
pound of arco and pelago, because the arches 
of the monasteries perched on that mountain 
can be seen from the sea ! More reasonable 
appears the derivation from ap^r) and TreAayos, 
as signifying the sea of the kingdom. 
D'Anville (' Analyse de la carte des cotes 
de la Grece,' Paris, 1757) disposes of the 
question in a more off-hand manner : 

"Le nom d'Arehipel n'est qu'une alteration rlu 
veritable, et ne vient point, eomme on pourroit le 
croire, d'une qualification superieure a 1'egard de 
quelque autre mer." 

His countrymen who edited the ' Grand 
Dictionnaire Larousse ' and the ' Grande 
Encyclopedie ' either ignore the difficulty, 
or squarely affirm that Archipel is the 
Ancient Greek name itself. 

The term occurs (apparently for the first 
time) in a treaty between the Emperor 
Michael Palseologus and the Venetians, 
dated 30 June, 1268 : " Item', quod pertinet 
ad insulas de Arcipelago." It is then met 
with in Villani (c. 1345). But in a Venetian 
State paper of 1419 the mediaeval designa- 
tion is adhered to, " Ducatus Egeopelagi," 
this being a rendering of the Greek 
AtyatoTreAayos, for Aiyatov HeAayos (Mare 
-^Egseum). IleAayos in Greek signifies the 
high sea, the main, as distinct from the sea 
in general, and is further specialized when 
preceded by an epithet denoting the adjacent 
country, e.g., Mvprwoi/ IleAayos, Kp^TiKOf 
IleAayos, &c. ; as also in the case of TTOVTOS, 
e.<7-, 'I/<apios IIoi'Tos. Opr;i/cios HOVTOS. 

Now, as regards the Italian prefix arci (Fr. 
archi, Eng. arch), we are led, by analogy 
in language, to discern in it the difference 
which struck the early Venetian navigators, 
between the narrow lagoons and shallow 
ponds of their own island-home and the 
comparatively vast expanse and depth 
of the seas which separate the even more 

numerous island-habitations of the Greeks- 
of the ^gean. Thus Arcipelago can only 
have been a hybrid compound of a Greek 
sea-term, and an italianized Greek prefix 
(apx' from ap^os, chief, leader) signifying 
superiority, priority, pre-eminence. It was- 
exactly in this manner that the Italians had 
already in use the word Arciduca ; and 
successively added to their language arci- 
poeta, arciconsolo, arcifondatore, arcifanfano' 
(braggart), arcivero, arcibenissimo, &c. So- 
also in French archicamerier, architresorier f 
archichapelain, archiviole, archimagie, and 
the more recent archipedant, archimilionaire t 
&c. Of like formation are the English 
expressions arch-traitor, arch-enemy, and 
even arch alone, signifying chief, as in Shake- 
speare, " My worthy arch and enemy." 
The first steps to these formations were the 
words in Western languages taken imme- 
diately from the Greek, such as architect? 
archangel, archdeacon, archiater, archetype, 
&c. Arcipelago, therefore, with the Vene- 
tians originally signified the greater of 
the sheets of water which they had in mind 
when referring to it. 

Now, as this sea is studded with islands,, 
renowned for their number and beauty 
above those of any other sea, the word Archi- 
pelago soon came to be applied, by an 
extension of meaning, to any expanse of 
water studded with numerous islands, and, 
indeed, to any group of islands. But this- 
was never the meaning of Aiyatoi/ IleAayos, 
and therefore I am all the more sorry to- 
confess that some half-learned, slovenly, or 
slavish Modern Greek writers betray their 
ignorance, or their carelessness, by making 
use of such a grotesque word as ' Ap^i TreAayos 
in the place of Alyaiov IleAayos, or, in respect 
to a group of islands, instead of IIoAwijo-os, 
or N?jo"o7reAayos. 

But that Arcipelago is a mere corruption 
of the Greek AL-/OLOV ITeAayos is an impossible- 
supposition, on the face of it. Not that the 
Venetians were incapable of even that 
normity. They have left firmly rooted in 
Western languages such linguistic tours de 
orce as Negroponte from EvptTros. They 
heard the Greeks journeying there say : 
(et')'s r^N "Eypurov (vernacular for E-upiTrov) ; 
and there is a bridge (ponte) over the narrow 
strait. By a similar process they trans- 
formed Mount Hymettus into Monte Matto* 
the " mad mountain," thus associating the 
sound of its Greek name with the physical 
characteristic of Hymettus the sudden 
storms that come from over it. 

10 s. XL JAN. 2, urn] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

But it would require a whole book to give 
even a brief account of the transformation 
of geographical nomenclature in Greece 
brought about by foreign conquest. 


488). I have a dim notion that this phrase 
was first used by Bismarck, towards the 
end of his career, and soon transplanted into 
English journalese. I have always under- 
stood it to mean that a thing is said or done 
just when it fits in with some prevailing 
idea of the moment. " Happy thought ! " 
conveys the same meaning in fewer letters. 

G. W. E. R. 

I believe this phrase is French in origin, 
and that it has been discussed recently in 
the Intermediaire. But the last table generale 
that I have is of 1897, and shows only two 
entries (xv. 199, 304 [1882]) under this head. 

Q. V. 

RELATIVE (10 S. x. 488). William Black- 
borough and John Milton, father of the 
poet, married two ladies who were first 

Richard Jefferye of East Hanningfield, 
Essex, had a daughter Hester, who married 
William Blackborow by licence at St. Peter's, 
Cornhill, on Tuesday, 19 Feb., 1618/19. 

Paul Jefferye of St Swithin's, London, 
Merchant Taylor, brother of Richard Jefferye, 
had a daughter Sarah, who married John 
Milton, father of the poet, in 1 600. 

MR. McMuRRAY will find particulars in 
Milton notes published in The Athenceum of 
13 March, 1880, and subsequent numbers. 

(10 S. x. 381, 431, 477). The Amicable 
Society of Blues, the oldest of the Old Boys' 
Associations connected with Christ's Hos- 
pital, also observes the date of the accession 
of " that bright Occidental Star, Queen 
Elizabeth of most happy memory," as she 
was called by the translators of the Au- 
thorized Version in their address to King 
James I. 

The Society claims to have been originated 
in connexion with a meeting for thanksgiving 
and festivity held by former scholars of 
Christ's Hospital on 15 Sept., 1629. The 
thanksgiving was in Christ Church, Newgate 
Street ; the festivity in the Great Hall of 
the Hospital. 

Under his will, dated in August, 1663, 
Thomas Barnes, citizen and Haberdasher 

of London, left money (inter alia) for a 
sermon to be preached in Christ Church 
yearly on 17 November, and for a dinner 
on that day for those Governors of the Hos- 
pital who had been at the hearing of the 

The sermon is still preached, but the 
dinner has been discontinued since the old 
order of things at the Hospital yielded place 
to the new ; but the Amicable Society, as 
the repository of the old traditions of the 
house, unwilling to let die the festive observ- 
ance of the day, resolved in 1896 to dine 
together annually on their own account, and 
at their own expense, on Queen Elizabeth's 
and Barnes's Day. 

The many good deeds of Barnes are on 
record in the chronicles both of Christ's 
Hospital and of the Society. 

A. W. LOCKHART, F.R.Hist.S. 
Hon. Sec. Amicable Society of Blues. 

Christ's Hospital, Horsham. 

To the instances of bell-ringing on Queen 
Elizabeth's Day may be added an ex- 
tract from the churchwardens' accounts at 
Repton : 

" Geven to the Rynggars of the coronation day, 
iix. iiijd." Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological 
and Natural History Society, I. 30. 
At p. 34 is a reference to Archbishop Grin- 
dal's form of prayer with thanksgiving to be 
used on the day. AYEAHR. 

" OLD KING COLE " (10 S. x. 510). Miss 
MOOYAART is not learned in ' King Cole,' 
or she would not describe " the final verse " 
of an immortal poem that has no end. A 
great Lord Justice, now retired, was famed, 
in the year preceding his brilliant mathe- 
matical degree as Senior Wrangler, for 
having sung without mistake, except that 
wilful error which confuses the prayer of 
the parson with the oaths of the sailor, 
more verses of ' King Cole ' by far than the 
highest amount previously attained. There 
is no limit except the ingenuity of invention 
and the perfection of memory bestowed 
by nature on the singer. The trades 
omitted by Miss MOOYAART are ^ the most 
interesting, except indeed those " fiddlers " 
(pronounced " fiddl-ee-ers ") who stand first. 
Next to these favourites are the " Drumm- 
ee-ers " and the coachmen ; the parsons 
and the sailors being a little high-flavoured 
for general society, although in no way truly 
shocking. As for the music, there is but 
one tune. It is chiefly on one note : almost 
entirely on two ; and to write it down in 
notation (such as perhaps Gounod alone 
could have accomplished) would hardly, 


1 .however perfectly the task were executed, 
; give the truth, for the charm of ' Old King 
Cole ' depends entirely like the beauty of 
great hymns upon the pauses. The com- 
plicated chorus quoted by Miss MOOYAART 
lacks the simplicity dear to admirers of the 
legendary song. D. 

x. 247). 

To possess one's soul. 

Are the following lines relevant ? 

And see all sights from pole to pole, 

And glance, and nod, and bustle by, 
And never once possess our soul 

Before we die. 
Matthew Arnold, ' A Southern Night,' st. 18. 


I am glad to see the French version of 
" 'Tis Love, 'tis love," &c., referred to (10 S. 
x. 368, 497), as I think this must be the 
original. As far as I can remember its 
burden from hearing it in the sixties, it 
was something as follows, but I cannot be 
sure that this is correct : 

C'est 1'Amour, 1'Amour, 1' Amour, 
Qui fait le moiide se tourner, 
Lt chaque jour, a son tour, 
Le monde se tourne & 1'Amour. 

The tune was the same as that used for the 
English version, and the accent in singing, 
was, of course, always on the second syllable 

of " Amour." J. FOSTER PALMER. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

'Tis Love, 'tis Love, that makes the world go round. 
Surely this is quoted in ' Alice,' either in 
Wonderland, or through the Looking -Glass. 

G. W. E. R. 

The lines sought by K. P. D. E. (10 S. x. 

Two men look out through the same bars : 
One sees the mud, and one the stars, 

occur in a little book called ' A Cluster of 
<Juiet Thoughts,' published by the Religious 

'Tract Society. They were written by the 
Rev. Frederick Langbridge, a clergyman of 
the Irish Episcopal Church, residing, I believe, 
at Limerick. W. S R. 

THE ' PROMPTORIUM ' (10 S. x. 488). 

The E.E.T.S. has lately issued this volume 
(No. CII. of its Extra Series), edited by 
the Rev. A. L. Mayhew, and published, as 
usual, by Messrs. Kegan Paul & Co. It is 
not a reprint of Way's edition, the text 
being from the Sylkestede MS. of Winchester 
"Cathedral, with about two hundred pages 
-ofjvaluable philological notes by the editor. 

H. P. L. 

The Periodical for September, 1908, 
p. 268, has the following note : 

" Mr. Frowde has become joint publisher to the 
Early English Text Society, which is including in 
its extra series 'The Promptorium Parvulorum,' 
the first English-Latin Dictionary, c. 1440 A.D., 
edited from the manuscript in the Chapter Library 
at Winchester, with introduction, notes, and glos- 
saries, by A. L. Mayhew, M.A." 

The December issue notes the publication 
of the book by the Oxford Press at a guinea 
net. It will be seen that a different manu- 
script has been selected for editing, the 
Camden Society's issue having been edited 
from the Harleian MSS., with readings 
from other MSS. ROLAND AUSTIN. 

Gloucester Public Library. 

[MB. W. R. B. PBIDEAUX and Q. V. also thanked 
for replies.] 

ITALIAN GENEALOGY (10 S. x. 449). 
There is no Italian equivalent to Burke 
or Debrett in the sense of being exhaustive 
as regards all existing titles. An ' Annuario 
della Nobilta Italiana ' has been published 
annually at Pisa since 1879 ; and there is 
Count Litta's ' Celebri Famiglie Italiane,' 
11 vols., Milan and Turin, 1819-99, the 
Second Series of which (Turin, 1902) is now 
in progress. RUVIGNY. 

There is a little book published year 
by year called ' Annuario della Nobilta 
Italiana,' Bari, Direzione del Oiornale 
Araldico e dell' ' Annuario della Nobilta 
Italiana,' Via Piccinni, 115. The issue of 
1893, which I have before me, was the fif- 
teenth. I bought it at Hoepli's in Milan 
in 1893, price, I think, 10 lire or about. 
Fronting the title-page is a portrait of the 
founder of the book, viz., Comm. G. B. di 
Crollalanza, who died at Pisa 8 March, 1892. 
His son Goffredo di Crollalanza, with the 
same address at Bari, was responsible for 
the 1893 ' Annuario.' 

There is not much of old genealogy in the 
book, but probably the direttore could give 
the information asked for. 


For Neapolitan aristocracy consult C. 
Padiglione's ' La Nobilta Napoletana,' 
Napoli, 1880, also ' Discorsi delle Famiglie 
Nobili del Regno di Napoli,' by Carlo de 
Sellis, 4 vols., Napoli, 1654-1701. Both the 
foregoing are to be found in the B.M. 

For a tolerably full bibliography of books 
and manuscripts on Neapolitan families 
see Gatfield's ' Guide to Heraldry andJGenea- 
logy,' 1892, pp. 595-6. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

10 s. XL JA*. 2, 1909.] X< )TES AND QUERIES. 


An alphabetical catalogue of some prin- 
cipal families in Naples will be found at 
p. 624 of the second edition of ' Royal 
Genealogies ; or, The Genealogical Tables 
of Emperors, Kings, and Princes from Adam 
.to these Times,' by James Anderson, D.D., 
London, 1738. The catalogue has references 
to tables in the same work giving pedigrees 
of some of the families. 

Genealogical accounts and pedigrees of 
some Neapolitan families will also be found 
in ' Genealogiae in Italia,' by Jacob William 
Imhoff, Amsterdam, 1710. 

{MR. W. ROBERTS also refers to the ' Annuario.'] 

In the Transactions of the Bristol and Glouces- 
tershire Archaeological Society, vol. xix. 
pp. 142-58, will be found an excellent 
saccount of the Gloucester Tolsey by Mr. 
M. H. Medland, illustrated by photographs 
a.nd drawings. An account of the remains 
of All Saints' Church is also given, with 
olrawings. The Gloucester Journal of 13 Aug. 
.nd 15 Oct., 1892, gives an interesting 
^account of the Tolsey. ROLAND AUSTIN. 

Public Library, Gloucester. 

In Lewis's ' Topographical Dictionary ' 
it is stated that the Tolsey stands " on the 
site of a church dedicated to All Saints," at 
the angle formed by Westgate and South- 
gate Streets, and that it was erected for the 
transaction of the municipal affairs of the 
city in pursuance of an Act of Parliament 
passed in 23 George II. 

Dr. James Dugdale in his ' British Tra- 
veller ' says that " Tholsey is an appellation 
supposed to have been derived from the 
toll which was received in it, by the lords of 
the manor, from the fairs and market." 
The building had at that time (i.e., the 
beginning of last century) been altered 
" since its erection, about the latter end of 
the reign of George II." 

[MR. HARRY HEMS also refers to Lewis.] 

<10 S. x. 310, 395, 453). As this worthy's 
ancestry appears to be unknown I give a 
few facts. 

A certain Capt. Tho. Butler of the Island 
of Nevis, planter, in his will, dated 2 Dec., 
1687, proved 17 Oct., 1688 (P.C.C. 134 Ent.), 
names his four sons William, Duke, 
Thomas, and James ; also four daughters, 
but no other relative. Thomas, the third 
son, a colonel of Militia and merchant, acted 
for many years as Agent in London for his 

native island, and in his will, dated at 
Camber well, 27 July, 1739, proved 4 June, 
1744 (138 Anstis), names (besides four daus.) 
his four sons : 

1. Thomas, who m. and had a dau. Susan, 
a minor in 1739. 

2. John, of Nevis, merchant (dead 1772), 
who m. Frances, dau. and coh. of Francis 
Saunders, planter (pre-nuptial settlement 
dated 29 Jan., 1746), and had an only 
s. and h. Thomas, of Greenwich in 1772. 

3. James, d. 1770, aged 48, M.I. at Okeford 
Fitzpain, Dorset (284 Trevor). 

4. Rev. Duke, Rector of Okeford Fitzpain, 
who was father of Billie Butler and others. 

The arms on the Dorset monument are : 
Or, a chief indented sa., three covered cups 
of the first. 

There were many Butlers in the West 
Indies, and Major Wm. Butler, Speaker of 
Nevis in 1697, was not apparently related 
to Capt. Thos. Butler of 1687. 


There is a small mural tablet on the south 
wall of Frampton Church, Dorset, bearing 
the following inscription : 
In memory 

the Rev d William Butler, LL.B. 

Vicar of Frampton, 

who departed this life 

August 13, 1843, 


450). Col. Caroline Scott entered the service 
of the Hon. East India Company after the 
rendition of Fort St. George by the French, 
1 749. He belonged to H.M.'s 29th Regiment, 
and was A.D.C. to H.R.H. the Duke of 
Cumberland. He was specially employed 
by the Company as a military engineer 
to strengthen and complete the defence 
works of the fort. His Christian name has 
frequently been noticed, but always with 
an expression of surprise, as if it were un- 
usual. FRANK PENNY. 

" CARDINAL" or ST. PAUL'S (10 S. x. 85, 
173, 235, 273). A deed of 1393 on the Hus- 
ting Rolls of London (R. 122, memb. 7, dors. 
53) makes mention of Martin Elys and John 
Lynton as " cardinals " of the cathedral. 
Neither of these clerics is named by Hennessy 
in his succession of the cardinals before 
alluded to. He, however, includes Elys 
in his list of unplaced minor canons, and tells 
us that he was Rector of St. Faith's and Vicar 


NOTES AND QU KKIKS. [io s. XL JAN. 2, 1909. 

of St. Giles, Cripplegate ; while Lynton 
is doubtless one with the John de Lynton 
who was Chamberlain and Minor Canon of 
St. Paul's, and Rector of St. Dunstan-in-the- 
East and of St. Vedast, Foster Lane, &c., 
about the same period. 


410, 455). In ' Rites of Durham,' ch. xxv., 
we read that Robert Berrington of Walworth, 
Prior 1374-91, first obtained the use of the 
mitre with the crutch or staff. The primary 
authorities for this are William de Chambre 
in ' Scriptores Tres,' 136, and documents 
there referred to. J. T. F. 


R. B. has omitted Chertsey. The abbots, 
though mitred and having large possessions, 
do not appear to have been called to sit in 
Parliament, although some histories say so. 


x. 450). Surely MR. HAYES is wrong in 
suggesting that these are printed in red, 
blue, green, and yellow. The fact is that 
Le Blon, alone of the colour-printers of 
the eighteenth century, recognized that 
with the three primary colours any tints 
could be produced. The green in the plates 
mentioned is without doubt composed of the 
blue and yellow impressions. MR. HAYES 
asks further " what the discoveries of the 
last three hundred years amounted to." 
I think he must recognize that in the applica- 
tion of photography to illustration, and in 
its combination with the modern scientific 
three-colour process, a degree of accuracy 
is obtained which is far beyond anything 
that could have been produced in the eigh- 
teenth century. 

I may add that a full and accurate account 
of Le B Ion's work may be found in No. 2 
of a series of articles entitled ' Some Notes 
on the History of Printing in Colours,' which 
appeared in The British and Colonial Printer 
for 2 July, 1903. R. A. PEDDIE. 

St. Bride Foundation, Bride Lane, E.G. 

429). Though I cannot tell MR. PIGOTT 
the parentage of the Bishop, I would suggest 
that his birthplace was at or near Patting- 
ham, co. Staff., for his brother William mar- 
ried at that place, 28 July, 1577, Joane, 
daughter of Walter Northwood, and widow 
of Thomas Hardwycke, to whom she was 
married in 1533. Both these were of Patting- 

(10 S. x. 430). The evening Angelus or 
Curfew bell was rung at Baldock from March 
to October at 8 P.M., but at Hitchin it was 
rung at the same time from September 
to March. Both these, and that at Sibson, 
are probably survivals of pre-Reformation 
days when the canonical hours were observed, 
the bells being rung by clerics in minor 
orders. The alteration to an earlier hour 
on Saturdays may be a later innovation for 
some special local reason. 

The Matins bell was rung at 7 A.M. at 
Much Hadham, St. Stephens, St. Albans, 
Tring, and Watford ; while not fewer than 
thirty-three churches in Herts had the bell 
rung one hour later. Mr. North (' Church 
Bells of Hertfordshire,' 1886) suggests that 
this 8 o'clock " Sermon bell " (as it is locally 
known) originated in the days of Elizabeth, 
when for a time many churches were served 
by " Readers," who were strictly forbidden 
to preach, and this early bell announced 
a sermon by a priest licensed by the bishop 
of the diocese. 

It seems more probable that it is a survival 
of days when the morning service was held 
at an earlier hour. Our forefathers were 
more robust, and to a man who habitually 
rose at 4 or 5 A.M. the Church's service at 
the hours named was quite fit and proper. 


Bishop's Stortford. 

PORTS (10 S. x. 405). In Devon Notes and' 
Queries, October, 1903, p. 241, I believe 
there is an account of one of these passports 
which was then in existence. I have not 
the book by me, so cannot give any details. 

PALL MALL, No. 93 (10 S. x. 425). The- 
sale of William Upcott's library and collec- 
tions was conducted by Messrs. Sotheby at 
" the rooms of Messrs. Evans, 106, New 
Bond Street," not 93, Pall Mall. Had not 
Evans left the latter address before 1846 ? 
The sale was transferred to Messrs. Sotheby 
because they had been specifically named 
by Upcott in his will, dated 25 Aug., 1832 : 

"The rest of my printed books, hooks of prints, 
and cabinets of coins and medals I desire may be 
publicly sold by auction by Messrs. Sotheby & bons 
in Wellington Street." 

There was excellent reason for this in- 
struction. During 1819-20, when he was 
assistant to R. H. Evans, then at 26, Pall 
Mall, his diary constantly refers to the 
supposed hardships he suffered and the bad 
business principles of his employer. This- 

10 s. XL JAN. 2, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


bitterness evidently lasted until his death, 
although he was under some obligation to 
Evans when he obtained a position at the 
London Institution. 

R. H. Evans came to 93, Pall Mall between 
1821 and 1822, and was there until 1839 
or a few years later. The ' Street Directory' 
of 1817 (Johnstone's) gives " G. Wagner & 
Co., hat manufacturers," as the then occu- 

455). MR. ROBERTS states that Samuel 
Foote, the dramatist, was buried in the 
Cloisters of Westminster Abbey in 1777. 
* The Annual Register ' for 1777 makes the 
same statement, but in Ireland's ' History 
of Kent,' referring to St. Mary's Dover, the 
author says : 

" Amongst the numerous monumental records is 
an inscription, painted on a black board, placed at 
a great height, near the east end of the middle aisle 
of this church, in memory of the British Aristo- 
phanes. Samuel Foote, who died at * The Ship 
Tavern ' in this town, on his way to France 
(whither he was going for the recovery of his 
health), and was here buried." 

The above was published in 1829. The 
black board with its inscription is not now 
in St. Mary's Church, having probably been 
removed in the rebuilding of 1843 ; but at 
the west end of the south aisle, affixed in 
the wall, is a large plain stone with this 
inscription : 

Sacred to the memory of Samuel Foote, Esq., 

who had a tear for a friend, 
and a hand and heart ever ready 

to relieve distress. 

He departed this life Oct. 21, 1777 (on his journey 
to France), at the Ship Inn, Dover, aged 55 years. 
This inscription was placed here by his affectionate 
friend Mr. William Jewell. 

The wall in which this stone is fixed was 
erected at the rebuilding of 1843. 


<10 S. x. 189). The expression "a Rattle- 
snake Colonel " is singular, and the present 
writer is unable to suggest its meaning or 
origin. Though MR. MALLESON fails to 
mention where Mrs. Browne met Col. 
" Crisop," yet a guess may be hazarded as 
to his identity. He was doubtless Col. 
Thomas Cresap, who, born in Yorkshire, 
emigrated before 1737 to America, became 
a noted man, was a friend of Washington, 
and died at the advanced age of 106. There 
are constant allusions to him during the 
war with the French that took place while 
Mrs. Browne was in America. He was 

the father of Capt. Michael Cresap, who, 
as alleged (probably unjustly) by Jefferson, 
murdered the celebrated Indian chief Logan. 
A sketch of Col. Thomas Cresap will be 
found in Brantz Mayer's ; Tah-gah-jute ; 
or, Logan and Capt. Michael Cresap ' (1851), 
pp. 15-22. ALBERT MATTHEWS. 

Boston, U.S. 

(10 S. x. 389, 437). At Knaresborough 
there is a curious dwelling excavated in the 
rock at the top of a cliff ; it is more than 
a century old. The front wall is embattled, 
and the place has long been known as Fort 

believe that at one time souvenir 
tickets were given to those who paid for 
admission. Probably your correspondent's 
" note " is one of these tickets. G. 

PARCEL POST IN 1790 (10 S. x. 450). 
It is evident from quotations in the 'N.E.D.' 
that formerly there was a parcel post in 
existence early in the eighteenth century. 
The passage in 'The Adventuress ' is "Jack 
Spavin bolted an old apple-woman into 
the parcel-post at Cripplegate," and the 
context shows it was the act of a reckless 
horseman, who in his wild career frightened 
an old woman, and caused her to seek shelter 
in an enclosed place, here called a " parcel- 

Under " post," 5, the ' N.E.D.' gives a 
quotation from Chamberlayne's ' Present 
State of England,' iii. (ed. 22), 444, in 1707 : 

"There is establish'd another Post, called the 

Penny-Post, whereby any Letter or Parcel 

is conveyed to, and from Parts not con- 
veniently served by the General-Post." 

Then under " parcel," 7, there is a quotation 
from The London Gazette in 1715 : 

" The General Penny - Post - Office where 

Letters and Parcels will be taken in as usual." 

These two quotations show that there was 
an office for the reception of letters and 
parcels, and it is possible that the two 
branches were distinct, and that the old 
woman bolted into an office at Cripplegate 
to get out of the way of the " road-hog " 
of that period. AYEAHR. 

A parcel post was established in London 
as far back as April, 1680, but was dis- 
continued in 1765. (The first use of post- 
marks was made also in 1680 by Dockwra.) 
For further details consult Joyce's ' History 
of the Post Office from its Establishment 
down to 1836' (London, 1893), chaps, v. 
and xL K. B. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. po s, XL JAN. 2, 1009. 

Do not the words quoted by M., " bolted 
an old apple-woman into the parcel-post," 

' D.N.B.,' to which I am myself referred).. 
The work is constantly quoted by compilers 

_ A i p ft -- J.J.v^ Vi *v AU' vv/J..ft.K7i/Mi*...i/.L y \_t u.*_r vv^vt. *_/ y x/vsj3L.|^jLJ.v/.l. o 1 

refer to a post for parcels-some form of , of i aw . bo oks among others, by J. J. S.. 

*T.^-vw4-^w'n */-iC*4- V I I \t -Ho T -T^-r-vv-n^n-J OT-T^*T- r>/-\ir-*T -win 1 * CTT > T ^-4 l 

Wharton in his Law Lexicon,, and Cowei 
in his ' Interpreter.' 

porter's rest ? The flat-topped street corner 
posts were, I always understood, used as 
parcel rests, hence " parcel post." 


HENRY HALLIWELL, B.D. (10 S. x. 426). 
My friend COL. FISHWICK will find, if he 
refers to ' D.N.B.,' that this scholar is duly 
recorded in that work. C. W. SUTTON. 

'LIGHTS IN LYRICS' (10 S. x. 430). 
Our firm published this book some fifty 
years ago, but we cannot now trace the 
author's name. J. D. POTTER. 

145, Minories, E. 

MANOR HOUSE c. 1300 (10 S. x. 450). 
One of these, Upton Court, Bucks, is de- 
scribed by the Rev. P. W. Phipps (in his 
^History of Upton-curn-Chalvey,' p. 11) 
in the following words : " Few more pic- 
turesque buildings exist in England, and 
its roof is the admiration of artists." It has 
also been described by Jesse, G. A. Sala, 
and more recently by Mr. J. J. Hissey. 

R. B. 


Mr. S. O. Addy in his ' Evolution of the 
English House,' 1898, specifies two manor 
houses of about this period, viz., a house at 
Charney Basset, near Wantage, Berkshire 
(p. 146), and Padley Hall, near Hathersage, 
Derbyshire (pp. 135-46). W. B. GERISH. 

Bishop's Stortt'ord. 

TRUSS-FAIL (10 S. x. 490). This was a 
kind of leapfrog. In Nares's ' Glossary ' 
Halliwell and Wright quote from Cleveland 

Or do the Juncto leap at truss-a-fail ? 

H. P. L. 

449). FOOTGEAR should apply to the Secre- 
tary of the Association of Royal Warrant- 

FLEET PRISON (10 S. x. 110, 258, 478). 
If Q. V. will visit the Manuscript Department 
of the British Museum, he will find there the 
original work of " Fleta " among the Cot- 
tonian MSS. (Julius B. viii.), Of course, 
in the words of Q. V., " there ain't no sich 
person " now ; but that his identity is 
concealed under the name of " Fleta " is 
unquestioned. Under this name the Latin 
textbook of English law is supposed to have 
been projected by one of the corrupt judges 
whom Edward I. imprisoned (cf. the 



The Oxford Thackeray* With Illustrations. Edited' 

by George Saintsbury. Vols. VII. -XVII. (Oxford 

University Press.) 

SINCE onr notice of the first six volumes of this* 
edition (ante, p. 259), two more batches of books 
have appeared, which complete the whole issue of 
seventeen volumes. Readers can now secure at a 
moderate cost an edition which is well" printed, 
well edited, and exceptionally well provided with 
illustrations, and abundance of those pictures which 
Thackeray threw off in his inimitable style. All 
the volumes are priced at two shillings net, though 
in older days publishers would have had no' 
hesitation in charging more for, say, 'The 
Virginians ' and ' The Newcomes,' which both run 
to over 1,000 pages of Introduction, Text, and 
Appendix. The last feature is one of special 
interest,, for it gives us the passages which 
Thackeray thought it well to reject in his latest 
revision. Among the illustrations must be men- 
tioned the charming initial letters with which 
Thackeray adorned his chapters. Many artists^ 
have tried their hand on Becky Sharp, but none has- 
come up to Thackeray, who is seen here as his owm 
best illustrator, though Dicky Doyle is his equal ini 
' The Newcomes,' and reigns unsurpassable in ' The 
Rose and the Ring.' 

Prof. Saintsbury's introductions are full of know- 
ledge and enthusiasm tor his author. He seems to us to 
spend too much time and energy in refuting opinions 
and views which are not seriously regarded, and he 
often adopts an exaggerated strain, which pro- 
vokes combat. We wish, too, that he would write 
more intelligibly for the average reader ; we should' 
prefer to see in plain English such a sentence as 
this: "But variations 'from the blue bed to the 
brown' like 'infantile' for 'infantine' are liardly- 

It is right that an admirer should edit a great 
author, even if he is apt to strike, rather than 
listen to, detractors. The sort of knock-down blow 
which indicates that if any one disapproves of 
such-and-such a work, he knows nothing about it, 
and should not be heeded, is a handicap to proper 
criticism, and is occasionally to be discovered here. 
But as a whole the Professor is admirable in his- 
appreciations, especially of the big novels, which 
are the eternal delights of the world of men and the 
world of letters alike. He is singularly unacademic 
in hi* use of slang, and of daring and unusual' 
words, such as "triplicity " and "triumfeminate " r 
but he achieves a pungency of expression which, 
perhaps, justifies his boldness. Such things are- 
imderstandable, but the wit which depends on 
references to funny stories and allusions which 
are dragged into their context is unnecessary. 
When he writes in a straightforward and un- 
adorned style abouti Becky Sharp or Ethel New- 

10 s. xi. JAN. 2, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


come, he' pleases us best, and \ve want no further 
critic to enlighten us as to their real significance. 

There are some parts of Thackeray's work which 
show obvious deficiencies in point of view, or even 
distortions of fact. On referring to the Introduc- 
tion to 'The Four Georges' and 'The English 
Humourists,' we find a recognition of their faults, 
and a suggestion that there is more than a sufficient 
balance to credit. We agree ; but we cannot re- 
gard truth as "rather a minor" matter in any 
historical presentment, such as 'The Four Georges.' 

The Professor refers to 'IS. & Q.' in his Intro- 
duction to 'The Virginians.' That same book con- 
tains, as was pointed out in our columns, a 
reference to the First Series of ' N. & Q.,' which 
was also one of Thackeray's sources for ' Denis 
Duval.' In fact, in almost every blue or grey 
volume of our recent Series which we have taken 
up. we have found references to the author of 
' Vanity Fair ' which any commentator would gain 
by consulting. The present edition is not, of course, 
an annotated text, but the editor has dealt with 
many points of textual interest. He must, we think, 
regret the conclusion of a labour which has evi- 
dently given him delight, but he can assure himself 
that he has added much to the pleasure with which 
a crowd of readers will welcome this admirable 
edition. It has an excellent index to every separate 
item of verse and prose, and a remarkable col- 
lection of portraits of Thackeray. 

The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift. Edited by 

Temple Scott. Vol. XII. (Bell & Sons. ) 
THIS volume completes the edition of Swift's prose 
works, and " the publishers," in their prefatory 
note, " hope that the value of the contents may 
compensate in some measure for the delay in its 
appearance." Their hope is fully justified by the 
excellence of this final volume. Indeed, the whole 
set of volumes constitutes an admirably equipped 
text of Swift, and will secure the permanent regard 
of readers for years to come. It is sad to think of 
the death of Sir Frederick Falkiner, who con- 
tributes here an able 'Essay on the Portraits of 
Swift,' and also of his gifted son C. Litton Falkiner, 
who was engaged on an edition of Swift's corre- 
spondence to form a companion to the 'Prose 
Works.' " It is hoped that this work may now be 
carried out by his friend and executor, Mr. F. 
Elrington Ball." 

This volume contains, besides the essay on the 
question of various presentments of Swift, another 
on 'The Relations between Swift and Stella,' by 
Dean Bernard, who holds that the two were 
married. All the available evidence is produced, 
and ingeniously worked up ; but it is not of a 
character to make us certain one way or the other. 
No one can live in the world to manhood without 
having ample evidence of the extraordinary 
confidence with which mendacious gossip is 

Two more parts of this volume are of exceptional 
importance a 'Bibliography of the Writings of 
Swift,' compiled by Mr. W. Spencer Jackson, and 
a thorough index to the whole twelve volumes by 
Miss Constance Jacob. No bibliography on such a 
scale has been attempted before, though Mr. 
Jackson had the advantage of using Dr. S. Lane- 
Poole's considerable notes in that way published in 
1884. We have tested the index, and found it of a 
character which deserves special commendation. 
It is a real aid to the busy student. 


MR. RICHARD CAMERON'S Edinburgh Catalogue 
224 contains Kay's ' Portraits,' 2 vols., 4to, morocco, 
81. 10-9. ; Craig's ' Ground-Plan of the Proposed New 
Town of Edinburgh,' 1768, 3s. 6d.; a water-colour 
of the Canongate Tolbooth, 1ft*. 6rf.; one of Lady 
Stair's house (now Lord Rosebery's), 15s.; and 
Bruce Home's ' Old Edinburgh Houses,' 54 plates, . 
imperial 4to, 1907, 11. 5s. Under Glasgow is Bald- 
win Brown's Glasgow School of Painters,' 1908, 
5/. 5*. There is a cheap copy of the Maclise Portrait 
Gallery, 9s. Qd.: and a set of old copperplates of 
the Kings of Scotland and Mary, 1680, 11. 15s. 
Under Scott are Henderson's edition of 'The 
Minstrelsy of *he Scottish Border,' 4 vols., 11. Is.; : 
and a portrait after Sir Watson Gordon, 22 in. by 
18in., framed, 18.?. 6d. Under Scottish Folk-lore is 
'Ancient Scottish Tales,' by Peter Buchan, now 
first printed, with introduction by Fairley, 1908, 
10. 6d. 

Mr. Bertram Dobell's Catalogue 168 contains 
books from the libraries of Augustus and Augustus - 
J. C. Hare. An album of water-colours and sketches 
is 31. 5s. ; and an album of photographic portraits 
and views, 21. 2s. Under Drama is Rockstro's 
' Memoir of Jenny Lind,' presentation copy from 
Otto Goldschmidt, 21. 5s. There are three manuscript 
volumes relating to the family of Edward Stanley, 
Bishop of Norwich. The first contains ' A Parent's - 
Notes Year by Year,' in which there is much about 
the Dean of Westminster when a child : this is priced ' 
4/. 4. There are also two volumes of manuscript 
poems by him and his brother Owen. We wonder 
if the writing of the future Dean is as mystical as it 
became later. The Dean, at the instance of H. F. 
Turle, who succeeded Dr. Doran as editor of 
' N. & Q.,' took our printing staff over the Abbey, 
and entertained them to tea in the Jerusalem 
Chamber. In expre_ssing the pleasure he felt at 
receiving them, he said the compositors and readers 
of The Athenceum and ' N. & Q. were the only ones 
who deciphered his writing, and had not to fill the 
proofs sent to him with queries. The general portion 
includes Milton's pamphlet on ' Church Discipline,' 
281. ; 'The Doctrine of Divorce,' 10*. 6d. ; and 'The - 
Tenure of Kings and Magistrates,' 81. 10-s. (all first 
editions) ; Paltock's ' Peter Wilkins,' first edition, . 
1751, 51. 5s.; first edition of Morris's 'Guenevere,' 
1858, 2/. 2s. ; and Shelley's ' Alastor,' 1816, 207. , and 
' The Cenci,' 1819, 28/. (both first editions). There 
are first editions of Ruskin and Thackeray, and a 
number of items about Scotland, including laws and ' 
tracts. The catalogue closes with a list of pam- 

Mr. Francis Edwards sends us Part VIII. of his 
valuable Military Catalogue, perhaps the most 
complete that has ever been issued. The items 
amount to close upon seven thousand, and the last, 
' In Morocco with General d'Amade,' by Reginald 
Rankin, Times War Correspondent, brings it to the 
present year. In this last part there are pamphlets 
on the Volunteers and on national defence, 1852-71. 
A section is devoted to British Regimental Re- 
cords ; and under Napoleon is Arnault's ' Vie 
Politique et Militaire de Napoleon,' illustrated 
after designs by French artists. The compiler of 
the catalogue, Mr. Edward A. Petherick, at the 
desire of Mr. Edwards, has written a short intro- 
duction. Mr. Petherick tells us that it is " pro- 
bably the last catalogue I shall have the oppor- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL J AS . 2, im 

tunity of compiling for him, for .1 am returning to 
Australia, the ' Sunny South,' after a long period 
of years spent in London." Mr. Petherick explains 
that " the arrangement of the titles is chronological, 
save in the biographical sections, which are in 
alphabetical order." Mr. Petherick, we are sure, 
carries with him good wishes from the readers 
of 'N. & Q.,' to many of whom he is well known. 

Mr. Edwards also sends a short Remainder 
Catalogue. We note 'The Horn Expedition to 
Central Australia.' 4 vols., 4to, for 11. 15.s. ; 'Hafiz,' 
by Bicknell, Triibner, 1875, 18.*. (only 40 copies pub- 
lished at 21. 2s.); Alldridge's 'Sherbro and its 
Hinterland,' 6>'. (the most curious chapters are 
those dealing with the secret societies of the 
natives) ; and the best edition of thePaston Letters, 
'6 vols., 21. (in the sixth volume is a full index). 
Mr. Edwards gives special prominence to the 
Edition de Luxe of Meredith's Works, and offers 
the 32 vols. for 151. (each set numbered and signed 
by the author's son). 

Messrs. W. Heffer & Sons, of Cambridge, in their 
List 45 have The Oxford and Cambridge Magazine 
for 1856, extremely rare, containing contributions 
by Rossetti, Morris, Burne-Jones, Madox Brown, 
and others, blue levant by Riviere, 111. A collection 
of 120 pamphlets on Political Economy, 6 vols., 
1792-1817, is 3. 3s. There are lists under Folk-lore, 
Occult, Orientalia, and Indian Languages. The 
1602 edition of Chaucer is priced 61. 10*. General 
works include many handsomely bound, suitable 
for presents, such as ' Charles II.,' by Osmund Airy, 
4to, 4Z. ; Jane Austen, 5 vols., 1903, 11. 12s. ; Kings- 
ley, 6 vols., 21. 5s. ; Lytton, 25 vols., Philadelphia, 
1877, 47. Is. 6d. ; and Green's ' Short History,' 
4 vols., 4J. 

Messrs. Lupton Brothers of Burnley have in their 

Catalogue 101 the Thornton Edition of the Bronte 
novels, 12 vols., half-morocco, 41. 4*. ; 'The Cam- 
bridge Modern History,' 12 vols., 11. 10*. ; Cross's 
'Autobiography of a Stage Coachman,' 2 vols., 51. 5s. ; 
the National Dickens, 40 vols., 211. : the Core Bible, 
4. 4*. ; ' Hogarth,' by Austin Dobson, 4. 10s. ; and 
Kinglake's 'Crimea,' 8 vols., 4. 10.*. There is a fine 
copy of Millais's ' Mammals of Great Britain,' 3 vols. , 
121. 12s. Under Queen Elizabeth is the scarce 
Edition de Luxe of the work by Creighton, 151. 15*. ; 
and under Ruskin is the Library Edition, 38 vols., 
331. The Catalogue contains a number of the 

Camden Society publications 

The ' Catalogue d'une Collection importante de 
Portraits anciens,' published byM. Godefroy Mayer 
of 41, Rue Blanche, Paris, is worth the attention of 
the many who have an interest in French prints. 
There is an excellent alphabetical index of all the 
names cited, and the various items are arranged 
under the names of the engravers, beginning with 
P. M. Alix (1762-1817), and ending with Jean 
Ziarnko, a Polish engraver of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. ' Ecole Anglaise ' and other headings offer 
several items concerning the eminent in England 
and the United States. There is, for instance, a 
fine engraving of Col. Tarleton, Commander-in- 
Chief of the British forces in Virginia, with his 
foot on a cannon. This is one of the many excellent 
illustrations which add to the value of the Cata- 

Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co.'s Price Current 

688 is, as usual, full of interest, thanks to the 

valuable notes to many of the items appended by 

its editor, Mr. Henry Cecil Sotheran. There is a 
complete set of Bentley, 271. ; also a fine set of the 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' 66 vols., -with 
revolving case, 35^. A beautiful copy of Browning, 
17 vols., half blue levant, is 9/. 9s. ; and a fine set of 
Burton's Voyages and Travels, chiefly first editions, 
new half-calf, 29 vols., 22/. 10s. There is what is 
well described as a sumptuous set of Byron, 
Murray's Library Edition, including Moore's 
' Life,' extra-illustrated with 40 portraits and 
495 views, 10 thick vols., 4to, in 12. large paper, 
three-quarter levant, 1830-39, 60/. Carlyle items 
include the Library Edition, 131. 130. ; The 
Centenary Edition, 131. ; and ' Shooting Niagara,' 
original wrapper, 10s. Qd. Works on costume 
include Racinet, 121. 12*., and Planche, 11. 7s. 
There are many valuable Dickens items, among 
them a set of 38 vols., all first editions, calf gilt, 
1837-79, 48/. Andrew Lang's Gadshill Edition, 
221. 10s. ; ' Pickwick,' original parts, 121. 12* ; and 
twenty-four etchings to 'Oliver Twist,' royal 4to, 
6/. 10s. There are beautiful sets of Galleries 
National, Historique, Louvre, Munich, and Musee 
Francais. A charming set of Gardening Lore, 
37 vols., 1856-1907, is2R Swinburne items include 
the collected edition, 13 vols., large paper, half- 
levant, 1904-8, 201. The Edition de Luxe of George 
Meredith, half- levant by Riviere, 32 vols., is 501. 
Messrs. Sotheran issue with this Catalogue a list of 

' THE HOODENIXG HORSE,' an investigation of an 
East Kent Christmas Custom, is being printed 
privately by Mr. Percy Maylam, of 32, Watling 
Street, Canterbury. The custom of a group of men 
going round at Christmas with a horse's head 
crudely carved in wood, known as the "hoodening 
horse," is still practised in Thanet and a few other 
places in East Kent. The writer has been engaged 
for several years in getting together information on 
the subject, and the result of his research will be 
embodied in the forthcoming work. 

to (Komspontonts. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

COL. NOKKIS. Forwarded. 

H. S. BRANDRETH (" Revenons i nos moutons "). 
From the fifteenth century ' La Farce de Maistre 
Pierre Patelin,' sc. xix. 1. 1291. Mr. Francis King, 
in his valuable ' Classical and Foreign Quotations,' 
3rd ed., p. 303, has a long explanatory note on the 


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OF MILTON'S MINOR POEMS, preserved in the Library of Trinity 
ColWe Cambridge. With Preface and Notes, by W. ALOIS 
WRIGHT. Folio, privately printed, 1899, in cloth box, 318. 6d.; or 
half -bound, roxburghe style, 21. 2s. 

%* Only a few copies left. 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 2, im 




RARE EDITIONS of MILTON, and including the FIRST FOUR 



PART III. (Completing) IN THE PRESS. 


The following example of the Great "Bible Was "Bishop Gott's copy. The copy 
of the self-same issue in Lord Amherst's Library (Wormed, front cover broken, 
some leaves mended, and lackiny the engraved title-page to the New Testament) 
sold for 405 on the 3rd "Dec., 1908. 


BYBLE (The) IN ENGLYSHE, that is to saye the content of all the holy scripture 
both of y e olde and NEWE TESTAMENT truly translated after the veryte of the HEBRUE 
AND GREKE TEXTES, by y' dylygent studye of dyuerse excellent learned the men 
expert in forsayde tongues, 3BlaCfc %CttCr, double columns, 62 lines to the full 
column, fine woodcut title by Holbein, other woodcut titles, woodcut illustrations (within 
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CONTENTS. No. 263. 

NOTES : John Owen the Epigrammatist, 21 Manor of 
Neyte, '22 Inscriptions in Jerusalem, 25 Baltimore and 
"Old Mortality" Patersons, 25 The Brill, Somers Town 
A Poem attributed to Bonefons Curious Heriots, 26. 

QUERIES :" The Wooset" "Christmas pig" Lascar 
Jargon Nym and " Humour " " Proxegeand Senage " 
Mrs. Oliphant's ' Neighbours on the Green ' Pierrepoint's 
Refuge, St. James's Street, 27 ' Plato Redivivus ' 
Oarlick : Onions for purifying Water Isinglass used in 
Windows Coningsby : Ferby Edward Barnard George 
Prior, Watchmaker, 28 " Clasket "Authors Wanted 
Richard Thompson, Surgeon R.N. Village Names 
Feminine Cross at Higham-on-the-Hill Button Seaman, 
City Comptroller Thomas Haggerston Arnott Britten 
Chantrey and Oliver, Miniaturists, 29. 

REPLIES : Phillis Wheatley and her Poems, 30 Speakers 
of the House of Commons The Tyburn, 31 The Curious 
House, Greenwich Authors of Quotations Wanted 
Hawkins Family and Arms Adrian Scrope, 32 
"Comether" New Zealand Fossil Shells Ernisius : a 
Proper Name Philip Stubbs, 33 Edward Young, Author 
of 'Night Thoughts' "Waney" Timber, 34 Bandy Leg 
Walk Shoreditch Family The Guard Aloft, 35 
41 Shibboleth "Charles Crocker, Poet, 36 Scottish -is 
and -es in Proper Names Lord Beaconsfleld and the 
Primrose, 37 E. F. Holt Gainsborough's Wife Isabella 
Lickbarrow ' Love a-la-Mode ' Roman Law, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lady Priestley's ' Story of a Life- 
time ' Reviews and Magazines. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


IN his ' History of Warwick School ' Mr. 
A. F. Leach bestows several pages (124 seqq.) 
on the master whom he not unnaturally 
describes as " the most distinguished person 
who ever held that office," John Owen 
the epigrammatist. We are told that Owen 
was thirteen years of age in 1577, when he 
was given a scholarship at Winchester, so 
that he must have been born in 1564 or 
1563.* His birth has usually been assigned 
to about 1560. It is of interest to learn 
that "" the education at Winchester was 
largely devoted to the production of Latin 
epigrams," and that Owen's head master 
during the last two years of his time at 
school, Hugh Lloyd, had himself been under 
the Latin epigrammatist Christopher John- 
son. One is surprised, however, to find 
Mr. Leach describing Archbishop Williams 
as Owen's uncle (p. 133), a statement in 
support of which no evidence is offered. 
The term cognatus, it is true, is applied by 
Owen both to Williams and to Williams's 
cousin Owen Gwyn, Master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge (see Ep. iii. 166, iv. 89, 
x. 45, and 10 S. ii. 146, where I showed that 
there was an error in the ' D.N.B.') ; but 

Mr. Leach's inference is supported by the pedi- 
i by Mr H. R. Hughes in Y Cymmrodor, xvi. 

177, to which Mr. J. H. Davies has kindly directed 

my attention. 


the^ Lord Keeper, whom Owen addresses 
as " ingeniose iuvenis," was his " nephew's " 
junior by eighteen years or so. 

Some of Mr. Leach's remarks on Owen's 
epigrams call for correction or supplement. 
When quoting from Camden's ' Annals ' 
the lines written to honour Sir Francis 
Drake by Owen while still a scholar at 
Winchester, Mr. Leach omits to state that 
the lines which Camden gives (p. 327, 
ed. 1639) as two separate compositions 
appear in Owen (ii. 39) as a single epigram, 
the couplet " Plus ultra," &c., which precedes 
in Camden, being attached to the end of 
the quatrain. Further, the sixth line ;_ is 
quoted by Mr. Leach as 

Atque polus de te discet uterque loqui 
So it appears in Owen, but Camden (loc. cit.) 

Sol nescit comitis non memor esse sui. 
Some discrepancy may be due to the fact 
that Mr. Leach cites from Gent's English 
translation of the ' Annales.' 

Again, Mr. Leach says that Camden 
" quotes a number of them, headed by those 
of Owen." But besides the lines claimed 
by Owen, Camden gives only a single 

1*1*1 *-" * 


Mr. Leach writes that Queen Elizabeth's 
visit to Drake's ship at Deptford was in 
November, 1580. It was in April, 1581. 
The words " where its carkasse is yet to be 
seen," quoted from the third edition of 
Gent's translation as evidence, apparently, 
that the ship was there in 1685, are, after 
all, a translation of Camden's own words 
" ubi ejus cadaver adhuc cernitur." 
In mentioning Owen's famous lines, 
An Petrus fuerit Roniae, sub judice lis est 

Simonem Romse nemo fuisse negat, 
it might have been added that a similar 
idea is found in an epigram of Euricius 
Cordus (i. 79, ed. 1517 ; i. 62, ed. 1520): 
Prima Simon Petrus fidei fundamina iecit 

Christicolasque novus dux fuit inter oves. 
At superas postquam Petrus migravit in arces, 

Hoc subiit solus niunus ubique Simon, 
Hei mihi, quam tenuis grex est pastore sub illo, 
Quam gracili rarum tergore vellus habet ! 

At 10 S. ix. 284 a close resemblance was 
pointed out between another epigram of 
Cordus and one of Owen. Such resemblances 
are not unfrequent in modern Latin verse, 
and may at times be no more than unde- 
signed coincidences, the same theme being 
common to more than one writer. Other 
epigrammatists were indebted in turn to 

* His closest imitator was H. Harder. See ' Deli- 
tise Poetarum Danorum ' (1693), vol. ii. 



Bernhard Bauhusius's 

Omnia si laudas mea, Branti, caecus amore os : 
Omnia si culpas, csecus es invidia (ii. 26) 

at once recalls Owen, i. 2 : 
Qui legis ista, tuam rej)rehendo, si mea laudaa 

Omnia, stultitiam ; si nihil invidiam. 
The second of Cabillavus's ' Epigram- 
mata Selecta,' 

Nox cfc Dies. 

Mille oculos gerit ilia, Cyclops hie errat : at uno 
Plus oculo hio cernit ; luscus an Argus erit ? 

resembles Owen, i. 82 : 

Sit; nox centoeulo quamvis oculatior Argo ; 
Plus uno cernit lumine lusca dies. 

Owen's lines on Sir Philip Sidney (ii. 29), 

Qui scribenda facit, scribitve legenda beatus, &c., 
are singled out by Mr. Leach as worthy of 
their subject. It should not be forgotten 
that for thought and expression Owen is 
here largely indebted to the younger Pliny 
(Ep. vi. 16, 3). The metre is not beyond 

Unless the reader is alert in recognizing 
Owen's countless reminiscences of other 
authors, the epigrams are not likely to be 
properly appreciated. In i. 6, 3-4 (addressed 
to Thomas Neville, son of the poet's 

Qui puerum laudat, Spem, non reni laudat in illo, 
Non spes ingenium, Res probat ipsa tuum, 

we have plainly a recollection of the words 
of Cicero quoted by Servius on '^En.,' vii. 
877, " causa difficilis laudare puerum, non 
enim res laudanda sed spes est." Misled 
by the faulty punctuation that appears in 
some editions, Owen's German translator, 
Valentine Lobern, 1653, has here written 

After recording the inscription on Owen's 
monument in Old St. Paul's, 
Parva tibi statua est, quia parva statura, supellex 
Parva, c. 

Mr. Leach observes that Owen would not 
have tolerated parva statura from a fifth- 
form boy. This criticism argues a want of 
acquaintance with the history of Latin 
versification. The rule about not retaining 
a short vowel before sc, sp, st, however 
familiar to the modern schoolboy, was 
neglected by Owen. Heinous false quan- 
tities can be collected from him, and what 
was Owen's practice was the practice of 
other versifiers of his day. To see what a 
Student of Christ Church was then capable 
of, one need only turn to the Latin verses 
prefixed by Burton to the third and following 
editions of his ' Melancholy.' 

University College, Aberystwyth. 


(Concluded from 10 S. x. 463.) 

THE first part of this note had in view 
the original great manor of Eia with its three 
reputed divisions, Neyte, Eybury, and Hyde, 
and treated specially of the situation of 
Neyte Manor House ; the second part was 
devoted to the history of the Manor House r 
and in this, the third part, I would refer to 
the limits of the three divisions or manors, 
noting also the particulars gathered in rela- 
tion to Eybury and Hyde. 

The site of Neyte Manor House being, 
as I hope, no longer questionable, we have 
now to inquire as to the land attached which 
constituted the manor in the broad sense 
of the term. I will answer at once that, 
as the result of study, my finding is that 
although there were some fields attached to 
the house in the time of the abbots, and cer- 
tainly a considerable extent of land when, 
after the suppression of the monastery,. 
Neyte became a tenanted farm, this land 
did not lie in or make the manor. In fact, 
the manor of Neyte, so called, simply lay 
in the words of the Abbot's grant or 
surrender, and the Act which embodies it 
" within the compass of the moat," an- 
area perhaps of two acres. Housings, build- 
ings, yards, gardens, orchards, fishing, &c.,. 
were contained within the enclosure ; 
but no lands beyond are indicated as per- 
taining to the manor. I am aware that this 
conclusion as to the very limited extent of 
Neyte manor will appear heterodox in view 
of the prevalent conception of its having been 
a substantial division of the original great 
manor of Eia ; but I hope to prove it. 

The grant proceeds to specify " over 
against the same site" a close called "the 
Twenty Acres," and a meadow called 
" Abbot's Meadow," with a piece of ground 
called Cawsey Hall (properly Haw, i.e. Cause- 
way Haw), in all thirteen acres. These 
certainly adjoined and were attached to the 
manor house. But the next item was far 
from it, arid far eastward of the Eye brook, 
the east boundary of Eia, viz., " a meadow 
next the Horseferry over against Lambeth." 
Then follow indefinitely "thirty-two acres of 
arable land in divers places," meadow in 
Thames Mede, and land near the Eye ; 
these might have gone with Neyte, but they 
are items in a promiscuous list, which goes 
on to include land in Charing Cross Field, 
" The Lamb " in King Street, Westminster, 
the advowson of the church at Chelsea, and 
the manor and church advowson of Totyng- 

10 s. XL JAN. 9, 1909. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

ton (=Teddington, v. Newcourt's ' Reper- 
torium'). Next we have the manor of 
Hyde with demesne lands and tenements, 
the manor of Eybury with lands, and after 
much peregrination, sometimes near Neyte, 
sometimes remote, the list terminates with 
three closes at East Greenwich !* It is im- 
possible in this list to distinguish parcels that 
might have constituted a manor of Neyte. 

But it is true that there are several 
mentions of Neyte as a manor in the reign 
of Edward II. That king, as has been 
shown, had Neyte in 1320, and possibly 
earlier, as a cattle depot. The bailiff re- 
siding there designated it in his accounts 
as the King's manor ; in 1325, however, 
the King gave an acknowledgment that it 
was by the will of the Abbot and Convent 
that he held " the manors of Eybury and 
Neyte " ; here the two are conjoined, the 
cattle-sheds probably being at Neyte, the 
manor house ; the pasturage in Eybury, 
the containing manor. The status is also 
evident in another writing preserved, viz., 
the release, in the first year of Edward III., 
of " the manor of Eybury (Neyte House 
certainly contained), which his father had 
held of the Abbot." Also it will be noticed 
that at the time of the release it was " at 
Eybury " that were found 60 cows, 500 
sheep, and a pigeon-house, although nomin- 
ally the depot had been at Neyte. f 

The ultimate and perhaps clearest proof that 
Neyte manor was no more than a moated 
enclosure in Eybury lies in a document 
at the Record Office found for me by Mr. 
Salisbury (whose valuable assistance ] 
cannot sufficiently acknowledge), .viz., a 
lease of the manor of Eybury, dated 10 
Henry VIII. (1519), and granted by Abbot 
John (Islip) to Richard Whash. By this 
lease were excluded " the close called le 
Twenty Acres, lying opposite the manor 
of Neyte on the south, and the Abbot's 
Meadow on the east side of same, with a 
pasture called Cawseyhau." The term was 
32 years, the annual payment 21Z. ; fue" 
was to be cut and carried from woods on 
the banks of the Thames ; six loads of hay 
to be reaped and carried into the manor 
of le Neyte ; and the tenant had also the 
obligation of transporting the goods of the 
Abbot from this manor house to any other. 

* For all this, "in recompence and consideration 
thereof," the King granted the Priory of Hurlej 
in Berkshire and the possessions thereof. 

t 'Cartulary of Westminster Abbey,' Samue 
Bentley, 1836 (Brit, Mus. 7709 bb. 34). 

Record Office, "K.R. Conventual Leases, 
No. 53. 

Now here the very fields which lay imme- 
liately beyond the moated enclosure of 
Veyte are shown to be part of the manor 
if Eybury, and thus surely it is proved that 
he manor of Neyte lay only " within the 
:ompass of the moat." 

Further, the plan of 1614 containing 
' Nete House " is endorsed " the manor 
>f Eybury," and that of 1675 showing the 
-.ame is entitled " the Lordship of Eburie." 
This, perplexing as it was under the con- 
eption of Neyte as a manor with lands, 
3 now understood. The " manoir del 
!seyt," for which, as we saw, John of Gaunt 
jesought the Abbot as temporary residence 
'or himself and household, was simply the 
moated manor house of the estate. 

After the suppression of the monastery, 
when Neyte had become the " moated 
grange " of a tenant farmer, he had probably 
;hose fields always attached to it, and 
moreover 108 acres of Lammas land ; this 
was in 1592, the circumstance presently to have 
'urther reference. The plan of 1723 which 
nas had our attention designates " the 
Twenty Acres " as " the Balywick of Neat," 
and it and the other fields excluded in the 
lease of 1519 were not yet absorbed in the 
Grosvenor estate, but were in the possession 
of Mr. Stanley. This bailiwick may perhaps 
imply a subordinate division of the manor 
of Eybury, but whether formed before or 
after the Grosvenor acquisition of 1676 is 
uncertain. In later plans the bailiwick 
is given a greater extension, and as cultiva- 
tion advanced Neyte, like Bayswater, or 
better, like Pimlico its supplanter, from a 
small nucleus spread, as the " Neat House 
Gardens," over the area which naturally 
presents itself as the Neyte manor or baili- 
wick. That area lies between the Willow 
Walk (now Warwick Street, Pimlico) and 
the Thames, with the Eye or Aye brook 
(now commemorated in Tachbrook [=T' aye- 
brook] Street) on the east, and on the west 
a certain dyke which in the plan of 1723 
seems to limit the bailiwick of Neat, and is 
now covered by the Brighton Railway. 

Concerning Eybury the words of the Act 
are : 

"The manor of Eybury with all the lands, 

meadows, pastures, rents, and services and two 

closes late parcel of the farm of Longmore, which 
manor of Eybury with the said two closes were in 
the tenure and occupation of Richard Whasshe "- 

doubtless the tenant who got the lease seven- 
teen years earlier. We hear again of the 
farm in 1592, then said to contain 430 acres 
a good large farm, but far short of the 
acreage of the manor. The tenant is again 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL J A >-. , 1009. 

Richard Whasshe, probably son of the above, 
and complaint was made of him to Lord 
Burghley, High Steward of the Queen's 
manors of Westminster, that he had sublet, 
and allowed to be enclosed, land that had 
been common at Lammastide. Like com- 
plaint was at the same time made in respect 
of 108 acres at " the Neat," in the tenancy 
of Linde and Turner.* Here it may be 
said that the extent of Eia south of the 
Knightsbridge Road being, as I calculate, 
608 acres, if Ebury Farm contained 430 
acres, there remained 178 acres which then 
or later may have formed the bailiwick of 
Neat. Now it so happens that this measure- 
ment 178 acres corresponds remarkably 
well with the area which, as above indicated, 
appears naturally to form the division of 
Neyte or Neat. 

In 1676 Eybury, or the larger portion 
of it, passed to the Grosvenor family by 
the marriage of Sir Richard Grosvenor, 
a young Cheshire baronet, with Mary the 
child heiress she was but eleven years old 
of Alexander Davis, who had died owner 
of Eybury Farm in 1665. The plan of 
1675, which has been noticed, shows that 
then Edward Boynton was tenant, and we 
are puzzled in reading that the " proprie- 
tress " was " Mrs. Mary Dammison," who, 
if " Dammison " be not a mistake for Davis, 
may have had the lease. The house was of 
considerable size, if we may credit the little 
roughly sketched elevation of " Lordship 
House," which, indeed, appears to be of 
three stories ; farm-buildings were grouped 
around ; there were gardens and a large 
orchard. This farmstead lay along the 
" Road from Chelsy to Goring House," 
then standing where is now Buckingham 
Palace. In the plan of 1723 the place ia 
marked as " The Manor of Ebury " ; on 
Rocque's map of 1746 the name is " Avery 
Farm," possibly a Frenchman's mistake ; 
but both forms, Ebury and Avery, are yet 
found on the spot. In Bowles's map of 
1787 a row of houses occupies the site ; 
in Horwood's fine map of 1795 the Chelsea 
Road has become " Belgrave Place," thus 
indicating the spread of London, while 
*' Avery Farm Row " is a memento of passing 
rurality. Gradually the Chelsea Waterworks 
became developed, and the Canal was 
made to terminate in a large basin where 
is now Victoria Railway Station ; for later 
inventions have hustled aside older ones, 
.and the Brighton Railway has superseded 
the watercourse later known as the Grosvenor 

Stow's ' Survey,' Strype's ed., Book VI. 78. 

Canal, a remnant of which, however, yet 
keeps its course alongside the iron way. 
And " Jenny's Whim Bridge," the frail 
timber structure which had carried the by- 
road between Neyt Manor House and Ebury 
Farm, has given place to the ponderous iron 
Ebury Bridge, now spanning both railway 
and canal. Pimlico, here on either side, 
does not invite residence ; yet in summer- 
time, at least, the green foliage of young 
trees planted round the vicarage and schools 
of St. Michael's, Chester Square, which now 
cover the site of Ebury Farm, relieves the 
sterility of noisy commercial streets ; Ebury 
Square, of small size, close by, also affords 
shady seats to toilers ; and Avery Farm 
Row yet recalls the past. 

The site of Ebury Farm is assured, but 
who will define the limits of Ebury manor 
if a division of the original Eia ?* The 
great manor, if the assumption be correct 
that it extended northward to the Oxford 
Road, had the extent, according to my 
computation on the map, of 1,090 acres. 
This area was intersected by the Knights- 
bridge or Brentford Road, 482 acres lying 
north and 608 south. The southern moiety 
was certainly the manor of Ebury, enclosing 
the moated manor house of Neyte. The 
northern moiety contained the manor of 
Hyde, and the question arises, Was it all 
Hyde ? It is the existence of Hyde which 
makes it difficult to accept the judgment of 
Sir Henry Ellis that Eybury was Eia. It 
does not seem that topographers have ever 
much troubled themselves about the limits 
of Hyde, and people generally have been 
content to consider the manor identical 
with Hyde Park as far westward as the 
Westbourne stream, now merged in the 
Serpentine ; while as for the area between 
Park Lane and the former course of the 
Tyburn stream, the hazy impression is 
perhaps that it too is Ebury, inasmuch as 
the Grosvenor estate lies though not with- 
out interruption both south and north 
of the intersecting road. I must leave the 
question open, merely remarking that 
manors are not prone to cross main roads, 
and that the shape of Ebury manor is 
decidedly awkward on the map if it takes 
in Berkeley and Grosvenor Squares. Park 
Lane was, as the name indicates, a mere 

* I would here correct the date 1102 (10 S. x. 321) 
as that of Mandeville's grant of Ese or Eia to the 
Abbey. It was taken from Davis, who seems to 
have misinterpreted Widmore. The grant made in 
the time of Abbot Gilbert Crispin was confirmed 
by the Conqueror; therefore the date fell during 
the interval 1085-7. 

10 S. XL JAN. 9, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

lane when Hyde manor was formed, the old 
course of Watling Street being then pre- 
historic, and probably known only to the 

Of Hyde as a manor the terms of the 
Act are : 

" The site, soil, circuit, and procincts of the 
manor of Hyde, with all the demesne lands, tene- 
ments, rents, meadows, and pastures of the said 
manor, with all other profits and commodities to 
the same pertaining, now in the tenure of one John 

The usual term " messuage " is not here 
(nor is it with the Eybury terms), the tenant's 
dwelling being implied in the tenements. 
The one manor house was that of Neyte, 
the lodge of the Abbot, lord of all Eia, 
whether or not divided into the lesser manors 
of Neyte, Eybury, and Hyde. 



THE following epitaphs and inscriptions 
were copied by me during a visit to Jerusalem 
in March of last year. They are on monu- 
ments in the British and German Protestant 
Cemetery, situated on Mount Sion, to reach 
which you pass through the garden of 
the Bishop Gobat Schools, beyond the 
Jaffa gate. The cemetery appears to be 
in the charge of the Church Missionary Society. 
Though now outside the walls, it was for- 
merly within the wall which enclosed Sion 
and Ophel. In the garden I saw the founda- 
tion of the great corner tower, and some 
remarkable Roman baths cut out of the rock. 
Many white stone Roman tesserae I saw on 
the ground also evidenced Roman occupa- 

Nos. 1-4 are near the wall between the 
cemetery and the garden, on the right of the 
gateway : 

1. Ernest Gordon | Farquharson | Captain R.E. i 
Fell asleep in Jesus | On Easter Tuesday, April 1st, 
1902. i Aged 32. | In siire and certain hope. 

2. In loving memory of | Douglas 1 Carnegie 
Brown ' Who [sic] God took j to Himself 17th May, 
1904. | Aged 5 months. 

3. [Chi-Rho monogram.] ] Alice Blyth | Ob. 
Feb. xxvii. M.DCCCXV. 

4. In loving memory | Of [ Mary Maria Jacombs | 
Of Birmingham, England, | Who came as Mission- 
ary I to Syria in 1863. ! And entered into rest | In 
the Mount of Olives I May 18, 1902. [ Aged 64 years. | 
With Christ | Which is far better. 

5. In deeply | Loving Memory of | Helen Attlee | 
Who | After a peculiarly | happy Christian life | in 
England <fc_[as C.M.S. Missionary | from 1890 ' 

Ascended | From the Mt. of Olives 
Christ | Dec. 22, 1898. ! Sorely missed 

to be ] With 
Till the great 

reunion | By her sorrowing Father | & many Euro- 
pean & | Native Friends. On the other side are 
these texts in Arabic : John xii. 32, 1 Tim. i. 15. 

6. Here lie | The remains of \ John C. Whiting j 
Mass. | Horatio G. Spofford, | &c. 

7. In memory of Ebenezer Johnstone Barton 
of the Bengal Civil Service ] Born at Ecclefechan 
Dumfriesshire 20th March, 1839. | Died at Jeru- 
salem j 2nd December 1895. | He was engaged | For 
many years | In the judicial and | Executive Depart- 
ments J Of the , British Government j In India. Or 
a granite column supporting an urn. 

8. In memory of I James R. Patterson | Boston,. 
Mass. U.S.A. I Died | November 30th, 1897. | Aged 
39 Years. In the central square, on the right hand. 

9. In | Memory of | Elizabeth | Wife of Rev. | 
Simmonds Attlee, M.A. ! Worn out by long years 
of I Unselfish loving labour j The last and happiest I 
Of which was spent On the Mount of Olives j She 
entered into rest Feb. 4, 1892. | In her 59th year. ! 
Blessed they rest and j their works do follow 
them. ! She liath been a succourer ] Of many | We 
rejoice in hope j Of the glory of God. On a stone 
cross on a pedestal. 

10. In | Loving Memory of I J. N. Coral Who 
fell asleep ' In the Lord I On July 22nd, 1891. | Aged 
59 years | For 30 years Missionary I To the Jews in 
this City | Blessed are ye that sow : Beside all 
waters. [On the back is this inscription :] In 
Loving Memory of i Selma Coral | Born Dec. 21st, 
1847. i Died May 9th, 1894. This monument is a- 
marble angel on a stone pedestal. 

11. Sacred to the Memory i Of our beloved ' 
Emma. On a flat stone within a border. 

12. In i Loving Memory ! Of | Peter Bercheim i 
Born Sept. 2, 1844. i Died Oct. 24, 1885. i Lord. 
Thou hast been [ Our dwelling place I In all 
generations, j Before the mountains ! Were brought 
forth i Even from everlasting to 1 Everlasting Thou 
art God. | Psalm xc. 1, 2. On a headstone within a 

13. In 1 Loving Memory \ Of \ Martha | Wife of 
Peter Bercheim j Born Sept. 8, 1848. i Died Feb. 5, 
1888. | Till He come. ; 1 Cor. xi. 26. On a headstone 
within a border. 

14. In loving memory of | Eliza I Daughter of the 
late | Wm. Jeaffreson, F.R.C.S. 1 Who died at the 

| Deaconesses' House in Jerusalem i May 23, 1890. 
Aged 57. ! In sure and certain hope 1 Of a blessed 
resurrection. On a stone cross within a border. 

15. Dorothy Forster | The beloved wife | of | 
Frank T. Ellis i Jerusalem I Died April 14th, 1891 | 
Aged 26 years. They that be wise shall shine as [ 
The brightness of the firmament | And they that 
turn many ! To righteousness as the stars i For ever 
and ever. Daniel xii. 3. On a stone cross within a 


(To be continued.) 

PATERSONS. (See 4 S. vi. 70, 187, 207, 243, 
290, 354 ; vii. 60, 218, 264 ; 5 S. ii. 97).- 
After considerable discussion in ' N. & Q. r 
a number of years ago, it was pointed out 
by DR. RAMAGE, in an indirect reference 
to the will of William Patterson, father of 
Elizabeth (Patterson) Bonaparte, that this 
William Patterson had no direct connexion 
with John Paterson. son of " Old Mortality/' 
who went to Baltimore in 1774 or 1776. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 9, im 

In view of this discussion and of assertions 
made in a recent issue of The Nineteenth 
Century, it may be well to place a portion 
of the will upon record. It is dated 20 Aug., 
1827 : 

"My family were of the Episcopal Church, the 
established religion of Ireland, in which I was born 
and brought up with great care and attention ; and 
from the religious impressions which I there re- 
ceived, I am, under the guidance of a divine provi- 
dence, indebted for my future conduct and success 
in life. My father was a farmer in the country, 
with a large family. His name was William. My 
mother's name was Elizabeth (her maiden name 
was Peoples). They were both descended from a 
mixture of English and Scotch families who had 
settled in Ireland after the conquest of that country. 
I was born on the first day of November, Old Style, 
in the year seventeen hundred and fifty-two, at the 
place called Fanat [now Fanad, about 12 miles from 
Londonderry], in the county of Donegal, Ireland, 
and was sent by my family at the early age of four- 
teen years to Philadelphia, for the purpose of being 
brought up to mercantile pursuits, where I arrived 
in the month of April, 17ti6." 

Thus William Patterson's father was 
William (not John) ; his " family were of the 
Episcopal Church " (not Presbyterian) ; 
and his father's connexion with Scotch 
Patterson was through a family which " had 
settled in Ireland after the Conquest." 


Brown University, Providence, R.L. 

THE BRILL, SOMERS TOWN. It is a little 
surprising that no one seems to have sug- 
gested what appears to be the obvious deriva- 
tion of this London place-name. Stukeley 
in his ' Itinerarium ' traces the name to 
Burgh Hill. He thought that he found 
here a camp of Julius Caesar. But from 
Burgh Hill we should get Brill (as in the name 
of a place in Bucks), not The Brill. From 
Walford's ' Old and New London ' we learn 
that some one, presumably in despair, has 
suggested that the name was given to a 
tavern here by a lover of the fish, the brill. 
A correspondent at 5 S. ix. 146 suggested 
that the name came from the ship " The 
Brill " which brought over William III. 
The correspondent was " getting warm," 
.as^the children say in the game of seeking 
a hidden object : why did he not get a little 
nearer ? The ship was named after a town 
of Holland, known officially as Brielle, the 
popular name being Den Briel, always in 
English The Brill. The town is but little 
known to-day, but it made a great noise 
in the world three hundred years ago. Its 
capture by " the Beggars of the Sea " in 
1572 was the first important incident in the 
struggle between Holland and Spain a 
.struggle in which Elizabeth took part. In 
1585 Flushing and The Brill were made over 

to England as security for the cost of an 
auxiliary force furnished by England. "The 
cautionary towns " remained in English 
possession for more than thirty years, being 
restored to the States-General by James 1. 
in 1616 (Rymer, xv. 801-2; xvi. 786-7). 
We may with great probability look to thia 
connexion, lasting so long, for the origin 
of the London place-name. In what way ? 
Some one who had held office at The Brill 
during the English occupation may have built 
in the London suburb a house to which he 
gave the name as a reminder of an episode 
in his life. The tavern shown in a print 
of the last quarter of the eighteenth century 
might be of Elizabethan date. When houses 
came to be built here they may have taken 
from the house or tavern the names of 
Brill Place, Brill Row, Brill Terrace, after- 
wards known, collectively, as The Brill. 

This is, of course, mere conjecture, but 
it may indicate the direction in which to 
look for the solution of a curious problem 
in the topography of London. 


A literary problem which I brought forward 
in ' N. & Q.' as long ago as 1900 (9 S. vi. 244) 
lias lately received solution elsewhere. In 
The American Journal of Philology, No. 114 
(April June, 1908), Mr. Kirby Flower 
Smith contributes an article ' On the Source 
of Ben Jonson's Song, " Still to be Neat," 
and finally elucidates the question of origin. 
The Latin poem is in the ' Anthologia 
Latina ' ; the MS. in which it has survived 
is the Codex Vossianus (Q. 86, Ley den). 
It was first published by Joseph Scaliger in 
' Publii Virgilii Maronis Appendix,' Lyons, 
Roville, 1572, p. 208. From this, or from 
Pithou's ' Epigrammata et Poemata Vetera,' 
Paris, 1590, or from the versions printed 
in the appendix to some early editions of 
Petronius, Jonson took it. The author is 
unknown. Readers of ' N. & Q.' who are 
interested in the question should consult 
Mr. Smith's exhaustive and scholarly article. 

CURIOUS HERIOTS. In the Court Rolls of 
Curry Rivell, Somerset, 1348-9, the following 
heriots frequently occur : half a horse, 
half an ox, and three parts of a cow. I 
presume the explanation is that the tenement 
had been divided, and that each tenant was 
liable for his portion of the ancient due, 
which would be rendered by a money pay- 
ment. There also occurs as heriot two acres 
of corn, which I think is unusual. 


10 S. XL JAN. 9, 1909.] X< )TES AND QUERIES. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" THE WOOSET." In ' Christmas Notes ' 
(10 S. ix. 51) mention is made of "the 
horse's head with its clapping jaws and white 
sheet, called Mari Llwyd in Wales and the 
Wooset in Wiltshire." 

I should be glad of further information 
regarding the Wooset, or reference to any 
description. I am about to go to press 
with a booklet on the Kent Christmas 
custom " The Hoodening Horse," which 
ig of a like nature ; but I am anxious also 
briefly to describe any similar custom. I 
am acquainted with " Mari Llwyd," but 
the Wooset is unknown to me. 


" CHRISTMAS PIG." In how many English 
counties are " Christmas pigs " baked ? 
What kind of pastry is used for shaping 
the pigs, and what ingredients form the 
" filling " ? 

I learn that in North Lincolnshire the 
best kind of " Christmas pig " is made of 
pork-pie crust filled with pork-pie meat, 
duly seasoned ; but " mince-pie pigs " are 
also often seen. The pigs are usually sup- 
posed " to please the children," but they may 
be manufactured for older people, as "a 
bit of fun." 

Are they ever known in these days as 
" Yule pigs," which was probably their old 
name ? M. P. 

LASCAR JARGON. Some time ago I was 
shown a book of phrases in the Lascar 
jargon, used by Oriental sailors. I have 
forgotten the title, and shall be glad if any 
one can supply it, or the author's name, or 
other particulars by which I can trace it. 

I fear the vocabulary of the British officer 
is mainly objurgatory. I have heard him 
say, sarcastically, to the " little brown 
brother," " Tumhari joru bhej do," i.e., 
" Give your wife the job to do," also " Tum- 
hara bap jilgaya hai," i.e., " Your father 
was burnt," which was an insult, being 
addressed to a Mohammedan, since it implied 
that he was a Hindu ! JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

NYM AND " HUMOUR." I am timid about 
asking a question which I dare say the 
'H.E.D.,' the 'E.D.D.,' the 'D.N.B.,' or 
the best edition of Chaucer might enable 

me to answer for myself ; but this is Clirist- 
tnastide, and I will indulge in the luxury 
of getting somebody else to work for me. 
What is the jocosity involved in Nym's 

onstant use of the word " humour " in 
The Merry Wives of Windsor ' ? I am 
not sure that there is more than one of his 
speeches from which the word is absent, 
and sometimes it comes in twice or more. 
When he last opens his mouth he provokes 

"rom Mr. Page the comment : " ' The 

lumour of it,' quoth a' ! Here 's a fellow 

'rights English out of his wits." 
Shakespeare himself was rather fond of 

rumour in its many senses, and some of 
them seem to have originated about his 

ime. ST. SWTTHIN. 

dix XXXI. to Dugdale's ' History of St. 
Paul's Cathedral in London' (1658, fo. 271) 
is headed ' The state of the londes of the 
Churche,' and is expressed to be extracted 
" from the aforesaid paper Register." Pre- 
vious references do not give any press- mark 
for the Register in question ; nor is there 
sufficient evidence that it is identical with 
any of the Registers reported on in Part I. 
of the Ninth Report of the Royal Commission 
on Historical MSS. 

The first among the " certain and ordi- 
nary " yearly outgoings set down at the foot 
of the " state " is " Proxege and Senage, 
xxxiiis. vjd." 

I shall be very grateful if some one who 
knows the Cathedral records will tell me 
the date of this account, and give the true 
reading. The printed text abounds in 
forms which are obviously impossible^ in 
the English of any period. Q. "V . 

GREEN.' I should be glad of information 
as to the persons indicated in the nine 
tales forming this volume. It is inscribed 
to General George Chesney and Mr. R. H. 
Hutton, " who at the time these stories were 
written gave distinction to the Green." 


STREET. At the foot of the lamp-post 
standing in the refuge between the two 
corners of the top of St. James's Street 
the above title is cast on the iron. I am 
not certain about the spelling of the name. 
It may be " Pierrepont." It was hidden 
by the surrounding asphalt some years ago. 
If I remember rightly, the present lamp-post 
was new about ten years ago. The mscnp- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 9, im. 

tion was a reproduction of what appeared 
on the former one. Who was this Pierre- 
point or Pierrepont, and why was the refuge 
called after him ? ROBERT PIEBPOINT. 

' PLATO REDIVIVTJS.' 1. Who is supposed 
to have been the writer of the history of the 
Civil War whom Mr. Henry Neville mentions 
in the above work (Dialogue II., near the 
end) as one who " was engaged both in 
councils and arms for the Parliament's 
side " ? He was dead in 1681, his executors 
being then unwilling to publish the history 
until a longer time had elapsed from the 
events which it treated. 

2. Who is referred to as a very considerable 

" both for birth, parts, and estate, who, peing a 
member of the Parliament that was called in 1640, 
continued all the war with them, and by his wisdom 
and eloquence (which were both very great) pro- 
moted very much their affairs " (end of 
Dialogue III.) ? 

He afterwards refused all public office, 
and declined to give any advice in public 
matters. Can he be identified with any 
leading reformer of 1640-50 ? 

72, Philbeach Gardens, S.W. 

I find in a writer at the end of the seven- 
teenth century the following : " Garlick 
indeed with us is called the Countryman's 
Treacle." Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
refer me to the original use of this expression, 
or to the use of onions as a means for purify- 
ing water so foul as to be undrinkable. 


at the close of the seventeenth century refers 
to the use of isinglass in windows, in place 
of glass, in Western India. I cannot find 
in the ordinary books of reference any account 
of such use of this material. Can any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' help me ? EMEBITUS. 

CONINGSBY : FEBBY. Can any one throw 
light upon the relationship between these 
families ? Sir Humphry Coningsby, Justice 
K.B., married (1) Alice Fer(e)by, the mother 
of his children ; (2) Anne, daughter and 
heiress of Sir Christopher Moresby, and 
widow of (? James) Pickering, died 5 Oct., 
1523, Inq. P.M. 17 Hen. VIII. ; (3) Isabel, 
parentage not known. In the Herts Visita- 
tion pedigree (Harl. Soc. vol. xxii. p. 45) 
his first wife is described only as " daughter 
and heiress of . . . .Fereby " ; elsewhere (e.g., 
Robinson, ' Mansions of Herefordshire,' 

p. 148) her father is described as " of co. 
Lincoln." The arms quartered by the 
Coningsbys for Fereby were Sable, a fesse 
ermine between three goats' heads erased 
argent, which are those of the Ferbys of 
Paul's Cray Hill, and suggest that the first 
wife was of Kent. Thomas Fereby, who 
was joined with Humphry Coningsby in a 
fine of lands, &c., in Rugge in 1501-2, and 
with Humphry Coningsby and Anne his 
wife in a fine of lands, &c., in Aldenham, 
in 1507 (Brigg, ' Herts Genealogist,' vol. L 
pp. 6, 9), probably belonged to the Paul's 
Cray family, which was connected with 
Aldenham by the marriage, in an earlier 
generation, of John Penn of that place 
with Alice, daughter of John Ferby of Paul's 

The Ferby pedigree in the Kent Visitation 
of 1619 (Harl. Soc. vol. xlii. p. 161) makes 
Elizabeth, wife of a Thomas Ferby of Paul's 

Cray, daughter of " Conesby, justiciarn 

in banco." This seems to be an error, as 
there is no trace of such a daughter in the 
long will of Sir Humphry Coningsby, proved 
P.C.C. (29 Hogan) 1535, or in the Coningsby 
pedigrees : it probably represents an in- 
accurate tradition of the real relationship 
between the two families. CANTIANTTS. 

EDWABD BABNABD. He was head master 
of Eton 1754-64, when he became Provost. 
The ' D.N.B.' does not mention his marriage, 
which is thus entered in the parish registers 
of Richmond, Surrey : 

"1760. Edward Barnard, D.D., a bachelor, of 
Eton, Bucks, and Susanna Haggatt, spin r , ot 
Richmond: licence, by Thos. Barnard, Minister. 
Witnesses N. Haggatt, El. Parish." 
In the "Allegation" his age is given as 
forty-three, and hers as twenty-two. 

Was the officiating minister the same 
Thomas Barnard who was consecrated 
Bishop of KiUaloe and Kilfenora in 1780- 
(vide' D.N.B.') ? 

ALBERT A. BABKAS, Librarian. 


John Bankes, in a note in the 'Narrative 
of the Life and Adventures of Giovanni 
Finati,' London, 1830, vol. ii. p. 385, writes 
that " throughout the East no watch is in 
any esteem that has not the name of George 
Prior upon it, though no such maker now 
exists in reality." Where and when did 
this George Prior carry on business 1 and 
had he any special repute as a watchmaker 
at home ? Why were his watches in such 
esteem in the East ? 


10 s. XL JAN. 9, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

" CLASKET." I should be grateful for 
information concerning the origin of the 
word '' Clasket " as used in Clasketgate, 
a thoroughfare of Lincoln. The gate-house 
which formerly stood there was, it is thought, 
of Norman origin, and it was in the Clasket 
Gate-House that some of the Knights 
Templars were imprisoned. LTNDIMP. 


1. One smile can glorify a day, 

One word true hope impart, 
The least disciple need not say 
There are no alms to give away 

If love be in the heart. 

2. O Christ, how beautiful Thou art ! 
Mine eye is overcome with light : 
'Tis we are dead, not Thou. 

A. J. DAVY. 

I shall feel greatly obliged for information 
relative to the career of this naval officer, 
particularly the place and date of his death. 
He was living circa 1780-1800. Perhaps 
possessors of old Navy Lists will kindly 
help. Were there any contemporary 
Thompsons with the same Christian name 
in the Navy ? F. N. C. 

villages of the same name lie near together 
they are frequently distinguished by the 
suffix Magna or Parva. Why the feminine 
gender ? The Latin vicus and pagus are 
masculine. Is the reference to urbs, which 
is feminine ? T. M. W. 


time of publication we had given to us 
The Leicestershire Architectural Society's 
Journal, vol. ix. part i., because it contained 
an account of a wooden cross that had been 
found buried under a mound in a field at 
Higham-on-the-Hill in that county. The 
tenant of the farm was desirous of moving 
this hillock to fill up a pit in another part 
of the farm. He was therefore requested 
by the rector to observe with care anything 
of interest that might be found during the 
work. He was careful to do so, and soon 
reported that he had found in the centre 
of the earthwork two pieces of wood in the 
form of a cross the longer measuring about 
18 ft., the cross-piece about 2 ft. shorter. 
Both were believed to be oak. They 
were much decayed. The cross-piece, it 
would seem, had not been fastened to the 
stem, but merely laid across it. The stem 
was pierced with three oblong openings, 
and there were also two in the cross-piece. 

It was lying east and west, which seems 
to indicate, but not to prove with absolute 
certainty, that it was buried in Christian 
times. Careful search was made for any 
trace of metal, but nothing of the kind was 
found. The mound was 8 ft. high, and about 
60ft., in diameter. The tenant and others 
were of opinion that it was not composed of 
the same kind of soil as the other part of the 

It would be very interesting to discover, 
if possible, the object for which this cross 
was made and why it was buried. Is it 
likely that it may be a survival from pre- 
Christian times ? This, in our opinion, 
is extremely improbable. Can it be a 
Christian cross of very early time, buried 
in a heathen mound for the purpose of recon- 
ciling it to the faith ? or may it be a cross 
perhaps deemed miraculous which was 
hidden in the hill to preserve it from destruc- 
tion when the ornaments and other trea- 
sures were removed from the churches in 
the reigns of Edward VI. and Elizabeth ? 
Each of these interpretations has been sug- 
gested, but no one of them is, to our minds, 
entirely satisfactory. N. M. & A. 

Button Seaman purchased on 11 June, 1740, 
for 4,000?., the office of Comptroller of the 
City of London. By his wife Elizabeth 
he had an only son, Button, of the Inner 
Temple and Rotherby Hall, Leicestershire. 
I desire to ascertain the maiden name of 
the Comptroller's wife. She was buried 
at Rotherby on 3 April, 1786. 



be glad if any readers of ' N. & Q.' can give 
me information concerning the family of 
Thomas Arnott of Sunderland, whose son 
Thomas Haggerston Arnott was appren- 
ticed to a master mariner in 1819. Thomas 
Arnott, sen., is believed to have married 
a member of the ancient Burham family of 

Haggerston. GEO V W - J* 11 ^' 

Junior Constitutional Club, Piccadilly, W. 

BRITTEN. What was the situation of this 
East London burial-ground ? MEDICULUS. 

Is anything known of two miniature por- 
trait-artists, Chantrey and Oliver, about 
1790-1800 ? Oliver probably contmu 
further into the nineteenth century. Both 
were in London; but Oliver came of a 
Shropshire family. E. M. BEECHEY. 

Milverton, Somerset. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 9, im 


(10 S. x. 385.) 

WHILE the notice of Phillis Wheatley 
in The Knickerbocker, referred to by MB. 
THORNTON, may be correct in its general 
outlines, it is incorrect in its details. Thus 
it was not "in 1770," but on 18 Aug., 1771, 
that Phillis " was baptized and received 
into the church " (H. A. Hill's ' History of 
the Old South Church,' ii. 102). And MB. 
THOBNTON is much astray in stating that 
the editio princeps of her poems is that pub- 
lished by J. James at Philadelphia in 1787. 

" Proposals For Printing by Subscription, A 
Collection of Poems, wrote at several times, and 
upon various occasions, by Phillis, a Negro Girl, 
from the Strength of her own Genius, it being but 
& few Years since she came to this Town an 
uncultivated Barbarian from Africa." 

were printed in The Censor (a Boston maga- 
zine) of 29 Feb., 1772. This edition was 
aparently never published. On 8 May, 
1773, Phillis sailed from Boston to London, 
and reached Boston again on 13 September. 
Her efforts to publish her poems, unsuccessful 
in Boston in 1772, met with success in London 
in 1773 ; and no doubt the editio princeps 
of her collected poems is 

" Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. 
By Phillis Wheatley, Negro Servant to Mr. John 
Wheatley, of Boston, in New England. London : 
Printed for A. Bell, Bookseller, Aldgate ; and sold 
Messrs Cox and Berry, King-Street, Boston. 

This contained an engraved portrait of 
Phillis, " Published according to Act of 
Parliament, Sepf 1 st 1773 by Arch d Bell, 
Bookseller N 8 near the Saracens Head 
Aldgate." Phillis took with her to London 
a " Letter sent by the Author's Master to 
the Publisher," and an attestation of the 
authenticity of the poems signed by some 
of the best-known men then living in Boston, 
including Governor Hutchinson, Lieut. - 
Governor Oliver, John Hancock (afterwards 
Governor), James Bowdoin (afterwards 
Governor), and seven clergymen. The 
former was printed in ' Some Account of 
Phillis, a Learned Negro Girl,' in The 
Gentleman's Magazine for May, 1773 (xliii. 
226) ; the latter was placed on exhibition 
by the London bookseller ; and both were 
printed in the ' Poems.' A review of the 
Poems ' appeared in The London Magazine 
for September, 1773 (xlii. 456). 

The London edition was advertised for 
sale by Cox & Berry in The Boston Gazette 

of 24 Jan., 1774, and was reprinted in Phila- 
delphia by J. Crukshank in 1786 ; so that 
the Philadelphia edition of 1787, called 
by MB. THOBNTON the editio princeps, was 
at least the third edition. Meanwhile, 
however, the publication of another work 
was contemplated in 1779. The Evening 
Post (Boston) of 30 Oct., 1779, contained 

"Proposals, For Printing, By Subscription, A 
Volume of Poems and Letters, On Various Subjects, 
Dedicated to the Right Honourable Benjamin 
Franklin, Esq. ; One of the Ambassadors of the 
United States, at the Court of France, By Phillis 

This work, which was to contain thirty- 
three poems and thirteen letters, apparently 
never saw the light. 

But while the 1773 edition was the editio 
princeps of her collected poems, single 
poems had been published before, and were 
published after, that date. ' An Elegiac 
Poem, sacred to the memory of the Rev. 
George Whitefield,' was separately printed 
(in two or more editions) in 1770, and was 
included in the Rev. Ebenezer Pemberton's 
' Heaven the Residence of the Saints,' a 
sermon on the same topic, reprinted at 
London in 1771 ; ' Farewell to America, 
To Mrs. S. W.' (no doubt her mistress, Mrs. 
Wheatley), was printed in The Boston Post- 
Boy of 10 May, 1773 ; a letter and a poem 
addressed to Washington were printed in 
The Pennsylvania Magazine for April, 1776 
(ii. 193) ; ' An Elegy, sacred to the Memory 
of that great Divine, the Reverend and 
Learned Dr. Samuel Cooper,' was printed 
in 1784 ; while ' Liberty and Peace, a Poem,' 
was also printed in 1784, the year of Phillis's 
death. Nor was this all. A portion of a 
letter addressed to the Rev. Samson Occom, 
the Indian, was printed, "as a Specimen 
of her Ingenuity," in The Boston Evening 
Post of 24 March, 1774 ; the publication 
of thirteen letters was contemplated in 
1779 ; and seven letters (written between 
1772 and 1779) were printed by the late 
Charles Deane one of the most learned of 
Massachusetts historians in the Proceedings 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society for 
November, 1863 (vii. 267-78). The originals 
of five of the last letters are now owned 
by that society, and I have just examined 

Hence for fifteen years from 1770 to 
1784 Phillis was in the eye of the public ; 
and in the newspapers and magazines of 
Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, I find 
her alluded to (between 1772 and 1784) as 
"the extraordinary poetical Genius," "the 
extraordinary Poet," " the extraordinary 

10 s. XL JAN. 9, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Xegro Poet (or poetess)," " the surpris- 
ing African poetess," " the famous Phillis 
Wheatley," &c., not to mention " her cele- 
brated miscellaneous poems." In the face 
of this absolutely overwhelming mass of 
contemporary evidence in favour of the 
authenticity of the poems, MB. THOBNTON 
raises for the first time (so far as the pre- 
sent writer is aware) the question of their 
genuineness, and asserts that " the internal 
evidence stamps them as a literary fraud." 
"Is it credible," he asks, " except to a 
* Judseus Apella,' that a full-blooded negro 
child, in less than twelve years, could acquire 
such a knack of versifying, and so much 
classical knowledge, and classical instinct 
too, as is here displayed ? " This argument, 
like that of the so-called Baconians, fails 
to carry conviction. ALBEBT MATTHEWS. 
Boston, U.S. 

(10 S. x. 489). G. H. S. will find a complete 
list of Speakers of the House of Commons 
" from the earliest authentic records of 
Parliament " (1260) at pp. 247-51 of 
Haydn's ' Book of Dignities,' continued 
to the present tune (1890) by Horace 
Ockerby, published by W. H. Allen. This 
list gives, besides the dates of the tenure 
of office, the constituency by which each 
Speaker was returned to the House of 

The list given in Haydn ends in 1886 with 
the election, for the third time, of Mr. A. W. 
{now Viscount) Peel. It can be completed 
to date by the addition of the names of 
Viscount Selby (Mr. William Court Gully, 
M.P. for Carlisle 1886 to 1905), Speaker 
1895 to 1905, and of the Right Hon. James 
William Lowther, M.P. for the Penrith 
division of Cumberland, elected Speaker in 
June, 1905, whose impartiality, dignity, 
and sense of humour make everybody who 
is under his sway hope that he may establish 
a record for the long duration in his person 
of the exalted office which he fills. 

L. A. W. 


A list of Speakers of the House of Com- 
mons, with dates of appointment, appears 
under ' Speaker, The,' in ' The Dictionary 
of English History,' edited by Sidney J. 
Low and F. S. Pulling, and published by 
Cassell & Co. in 1889. For other infor- 
mation respecting the holders of the office 
G. H. S. could not do better than consult 
the ' D.N.B.' JOHN COLES, Jun. 


G. H. S. will find a list of the Speakers from 
1660 on p. 159 of ' Whitaker's Almanack ' 
for 1909. F. HOWABD COLLINS. 

Haydn's ' Dictionary of Dates ' gives a 
list of the Speakers of the House of Commons 
since 1789. This work also states that 
Peter de Montford was the first Speaker, 
45 Henry III., and gives other information. 

I would recommend to the notice of 
G. H. S. a work entitled ' Parliament, Past 
and Present,' by Arnold Wright and Philip 
Smith, which I have often found very 
useful. It was published only a year or so 
ago by Messrs. Hutchinson & Co. In it 
will be found much interesting matter on the 
subject asked about. The index is full, and 
in it is given a list of over sixty holders of 
this office, besides references to many pages 
of the book where things connected with the 
Speakership are mentioned. 



THE TYBUBN (10 S. x. 341, 430, 494). I 
have refrained from saying anything on 
this subject hitherto, on account of its 
difficulty. I was also wholly puzzled to 
imagine how the proposed derivation from 
the A.-S. tweo- could be sustained. There 
are two fatal objections to this. 'The first 
is that the w would not be lost ; and 
secondly, even if it could be, it would give 
a modern Teeburn, and not Tyburn at all. 

The last article says that "the elision 
of the letter w in tweo presents no^ difficulty, 
because " two is pronounced too." But the 
cases are not parallel : the w in tw (or other 
combinations) is never lost unless the sour 
of o or u follows. But the sound of eo had 
nothing of the nature of an o or u about it. 
This is why the old form Twiford remains 
Twiford still ; it never became Tiford, nor i 
ever likely to pass into such a form, 
explained more than a hundred instances ot 
the loss of w in the Cambridge Phil. hoc. 
Trans., vol. v. part 5. 

If one is reduced to guessing, it would 
easy to suggest that, after all, Tyburn might 
be derived from Tye and Burn, on the same 
principle that beef-eater was found, after all, 
to be derived from beef and eater. A.tye 11 
the regular Essex, Suffolk, Kent, and Sussex 
word for a croft or enclosure, and is ever 
applied to an extensive common pasture 
or common; see the 'English Dialect 
Dictionary.' The etymology is simple 
enough, viz., from the verb to tie, A.-& 
tlgan and it must be remembered that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 9, im 

tlgan was itself derived (with the usual 
vowel-mutation) from the sb. teag-, nom. 
teah, a tie, band, also an enclosure or pad- 
dock ; which was itself derived from teah, the 
second grade of the root-verb teohan, which 
is cognate with the G. Ziehen and the well- 
known Lat. ducere. Indeed, the sb. teah 
sometimes appears as tlh, with the mutated 
vowel, as is clearly shown in Bosworth and 
Toller's ' Dictionary.' Toller quotes from 
Thorpe's ' Diplomatarium,' p. 467, the 
following : " clausulam quam Angli dicunt 
teage, que pertinet ad predictam mansionem." 
And I have myself noticed the compound 
tlg-wella, i.e. Tye-well, in a list of boundaries, 
in Birch's ' Cart. Saxon.,' iii. 223. Cf. cet 
Tlgan, i.e. at Tye (Thorpe, ' Dipl.,' pp. 507, 
523), with reference to Essex. 


In the eighteenth-century Catholic regis- 
ters of Crondon Park, Essex, to appear in 
the Catholic Record Society's sixth volume, 
there are some varied spellings of a place- 
name which the Rev. W. H. Cologan, the 
priest at Stock, says may be Margaretting 
or Margaretting-Tye, the word tye being 
equivalent to " common " locally. 


No one has as yet mentioned that a place 
called Ty"burn near Micklegate Bar, whence 
" York o'erlooked the town of York " after 
the battle of Wakefield, was the spot of 
execution in former times. Here was 
hanged the famous Dick Turpin, whose irons 
are yet preserved at York Castle. 

What the derivation of the name may be, 
or how it was assigned at York, I cannot say ; 
but I remember that an old friend of mine 
erroneously supposed it to be the place of 
execution of Adam Sedbergh, Sedbar, or 
Sedbury, who suffered in 1537 for his share 
in the Pilgrimage of Grace. This idea was 
effectually disproved by the carving in the 
Tower of London which the abbot left by 
way of epitaph before suffering capital 
punishment at the well-known Tyburn near 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

x. 469). Where was this house situated ? 
To one who has known the town for many 
years, and studied its history, the query is 
a puzzler. A friend of mine, Mr. Smithers, 
whose name is not unknown to the pages of 
' N. & Q.,' and whose knowledge of Green- 
wich extends back to the forties, agrees with 
me in saying that there must be some mis- 
take as to the locality. The description 

does not tally with any known house, 
especially a residence of the few mayors who 
have worn the robes of Greenwich. 


x. 510). Is this the passage that Lucis 
wishes to find ? 

What dire offence from am'rous causes springs, 
What mighty contests rise from trivial things, 
I sing. 

Pope, ' The Rape of the Lock,' Canto I. 1-3. 

Erasmus in his ' Adagia ' under ' Originis * 
has " Ex minimis initiis maxima." 


Is Lucis perhaps thinking of the first 
line of Pope's ' Rape of the Lock ' ? 

What dire offence from am'rous causes springs 
a line which Tennyson hated. T. M. W. 

Compare Claudian ' In Rufinum,' ii. 49 : 
Ehen, quam brevibus pereunt ingentia fatis. 
[Other correspondents also refer to Pope. ] 

389, 472). If your correspondents will 
refer to Burke' s ' Colonial Gentry ' under the 
heading Smith of Kyogle or Gordon Brook, 
I forget which, they will find some authentic 
information on the Hawkins family. Of 
the members of this family there are still 
extant some letters of the dates of Mr. 
Serjeant Hawkins, besides a pastel portrait 
believed to be of the Serjeant. 


ADRIAN SCROPE (10 S. x. 469), the Regi- 
cide, who was executed at Charing Cross, 
17 Oct., 1660, was most certainly not buried 
22 years later at " Sonning, Herts " (if such 
a place exists) ; neither does the name occur 
in the copious extracts from the registers 
of Sonning, Berks, in Col. Chester's collec- 
tion. The name Adrian was a very common 
one in the family. " Adrian, son of Raphe 
Scroope, Gent.," was bap. 21 Sept., 1589, at 
Ruscombe, Berks. Sir Adrian Scrope of 
Cockerington, co. Lincoln, who died 10 Dec., 
1623, a brother of the said Raphe, was father 
of Adrian Scrope, living 1642, the father of 
another Adrian Scrope, born shortly after 
1622. The above-named Sir Adrian Scrope 
was, by his son Sir Gervase Scrope, grand- 
father of another Sir Adrian Scrope, K.B., 
who died in or shortly before Sept., 1667. 
Moreover, there was an Adrian Scrope, of 
Hambleden, Bucks, died 1577 (uncle to Sir 
Adrian Scrope first mentioned), who, by 

10 s. XL -TAX. 9, 1909.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 

his son Robert Scrope, was father of Adrian 
Scrope the Regicide, first above-named, who 
Avas bapt. 12 Jan., 1600/1, atLewknor, Oxon. 
See an elaborate pedigree in Foster's 
' Pedigrees of Yorkshire Families,' vol. iii. 
1874, and Maddison's ' Lincolnshire Pedi- 
grees ' (Harl. Soc., vol. Iii.). See also 9 S. v. 
495 and vi. 54. G. E. C. 

The Adrian Scrope referred to by the 
querist was perhaps Sir Adrian Scrope, 
made a K.C.B. by Charles II. at his Corona- 
tion in 1661. W. B. GERISH. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

. [MB. A. R. BAYLEY also thanked for reply.] 

"COMETHER" (10 S. x. 469). German 
Kummet is a (borrowed) Slavonic form of the 
corresponding Teutonic word which we 
know as " hame," " hames " : the form is 
by no means universal in German dialects, 
and is not known to have spread. A native 
origin for " comether " is surely less forced 
and more forcible. H. P. L. 

489). The shells referred to by MB. JAMES 
PL ATT are by no means fossil. The " eyes " 
are, as he states, the opercula of a kind of 
shellfish commonly met with on the sea- 
shore in many parts of New Zealand, and 
in my schooldays I often cut them off and 
collected them. A larger kind is imported 
from the more tropical Pacific Islands. I do 
not remember to have seen fossil " eyes," 
but they are occasionally washed up on 
the beach, when the green has usually 
changed to a tawny yellow. 


This title rather reminds one of Mr. 
Punch's picture in which the governess was 
reproving her pupil for speaking of black- 
beetles, " as they were not beetles and not 
black." Similarly the operculum or " eye- 
stone " referred to does not come from 
(though it may easily find its way to) New 
Zealand, is certainly not a shell, and I doubt 
its being a fossil. I had a largish number 
of them brought to me years ago by a sailor 
brother who had been to the South Sea 
islands Viti Levu or Levuka, notably 
My recollection (possibly at fault) is that 
he had gathered the eye-stones himself 
quite likely he caught the shellfish as he die 
other curious fish, in the coral pools. Thai 
the operculum is not a fossil is, I think 
pretty obvious from its appearance : on 
one side white and shell-like, on the other 
brightly coloured, polished, and unscratched 

388, 471). MR. TRICE MARTIN'S note seems 
onclusive as to the fact that there is a 
name Ernisius. Unless my memory de- 
ceives me, it is in Wright's ' Courthand * 
hat the suggestion is made (under query) 
;hat Ernest is the equivalent of Ernisius ; 
;here seems now a general agreement that 
;his is incorrect, and the translation will 
doubtless not appear in succeeding Patent 
Roll Calendars. 

The particular Nevill was certainly 
Eervey. The REV. EDMUND NEVILL sends 
me the following from Salisbury Charters, 
XCIX. Lib. Evid. C. 479, A.D. 1215 : "Hugo 
Crassus filius Hervei de Nevill." This is 
the man called Hervesius in the Durinton 
Rolls. His descendant is called Ervisiu 
in the Quo Warranto Rolls, No. 4, and with- 
out absolute evidence I cannot believe there 
was more than the one name in this family. 

MR. ELLIS' s list is not evidence, as I under- 
stand his instances to be taken from the 
printed charters, &c. The same remark 
applies to the Domesday instance of Erneis. 
It seems probable, in the face of MR. MAR- 
TIN'S exact evidence, that there was a name 
Erneis, and that MR. ELLIS' s examples 
are correctly so given ; but the late instances 
are to my mind a little suspicious, and sugges- 
tive of the Elizabethan herald. 

" Ernisius " has a good start, but I think 
what I have said shows that in all cases 
the name requires careful authentication. 
The suggested connexion with Anjou seems 
possible. Perhaps some French authority 
can help us to the root and modern form of 
the name. RALPH NEVILL, F.S.A. 

Castle Hill, Guildford. 

The Erneys were an ancient Chester 
family in the twelfth, thirteenth, and four- 
teenth centuries, and married into the family 
of Norris of Speke (Lanes). The name occurs 
as Hernisius in charters, and as Erney, 
Herneys, and Ernay. See vols. ii. and x. 
(N.S.) Chester Arch. Soc. ; vol. ii. Hist. 
Soc. of Lanes and Cheshire ; and Cal. of 
Cheshire Recog. Rolls. R. S. B. 

TOMY OF ABUSES' (10 S. x. 308). MR. 
BELLE WES' s query is very similar to one of 
mine (5 S. vii. 87, 495) thirty years ago. 
So far as I know, not much fresh light has 
been thrown on Stubbs's life in the interval. 
I was specially anxious to learn if the par- 
ticulars of his life, "which had hitherto 
escaped notice, but were worth preserving," 
promised in 1849 by Mr. James Purcell 
Reardon in the old ' Shakespeare Society 

NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL JAN. 9, 1909. 

Papers,' vol. iv. had ever been published. 
This I have been unable to ascertain. Dr. 
Furnivall in his Forewords to his edition of 
' The Anatomy ' discusses the question of 
the author's family, and discredits Wood's 
account. But it seems difficult to get over 
the fact that Philip Stubbs, vintner, of St. 
Andrew's Undershaf t, evidently believed that 
he was of the same family, and apparently 
told Wood so ; and the latter may possibly 
have used the word " descendant " loosely 
in the sense of " relative." There are two 
Philips in the pedigree of the Kentish family 
(Archceologia Cantiana, vol. xviii. 209) before 
the vintner's time, but neither looks like the 

In 1879 I chanced on a bond, dated 
July, 1586, executed by " Philip Stubbes 
of Benefield in Northampton, generosus," 
to " William Stubbes, of Ratcliffe in 
Middlesex, generosus " ; it relates to a 
messuage in Congleton, Cheshire, which 
Philip grants to William for ever. The 
author in 'The Anatomy' (Part I.) 
speaks of knowing a man " for a dozen or 
sixteene yeares togither " in Congleton, 
and this may furnish a possible link between 
the two names. The late Bishop Stubbs 
made some searches in the Congleton records, 
but found nothing to the point. None has 
been made at Benefield, so far as I am aware. 
As to any relationship between John 
Stubbs, " Scseva," author of ' A Discoverie 
of a Gaping Gulf,' &c., and the author of 
* The Anatomy,' it is significant that in 1719 
Dr. Wolf ran Stubbs, grandson of " Scseva," 
by his will left the reversion of his three 
manors in Norfolk to the Rev. Philip Stubbs, 
then Rector of St. James, Garlickhithe, 
London, who was the eldest surviving son 
of Philip Stubbs the vintner. Had there 
been no relationship between the families, 
it is difficult to account for the testator's 
making this disposition of his estate. But 
what the connexion was is now unknown. 

Dan by, Ballyshannon 

THOUGHTS' (10 S. x. 490). The Rev. John 
Mitford, who wrote the memoir attached to 
the ' Poetical Works of Edward Young,' 
2 vols., 1896 (Aldine series), says (p. x) : 
" On the 23rd April, 1714, he took his degree 
of Bachelor of Civil Law, and his Doctor's 
degree on the 10th of June, 1719." He 
makes no mention of the LL.D. degree having 
been conferred on Young. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

In a memoir prefixed to my copy of the 
above work it is stated that Young was in 
1708 nominated to a law-fellowship at All 
Souls, and that in 1714 "he took his degree 
of Bachelor of Civil Law, and his Doctor's 
Degree on 10 June, 1719." On the title- 
page, however, he is styled LL.D. No doubt 
considerable laxity obtained in the use of 
the two styles. H. P. L. 

According to the memoir of Dr. Young 
prefixed to an edition of his ' Night Thoughts' 
printed in 1807, he possessed both degrees. 
On the title-page, and at the beginning 
of the memoir, he is described as LL.D., and 
further on in the latter it is stated that he 
took the degree of B.C.L. in 1714, and 
D.C.L. in 1719. 

Dr. James Dugdale in his ' British Tra- 
veller ' (who was LL.D. himself) gives the 
whole of Young's epitaph in Latin, beginning 
"M. S. Optimi parentes Edwardi Young, 


[MB. A. R. BAYLKY also thanked for reply.] 

" WANEY " TIMBER (10 S. x. 490). Waney 
simply means " defective," from the sb. wane, 
" diminution." When the moon is on the 
wane, it might have been called wany, 
though this use is not actually recorded. 

The word is duly explained in the right 
book, viz., in the 'English Dialect Diction- 
ary,' vol. vi. p. 377. It is only applied 
to wood or timber, and expresses a certain 
kind of deficiency. The explanation is 
given thus : 

" Wane, a natural unevenness of the edges of 
boards. Hence waney, (1) tapering, irregular, 
having an imperfect edge, gen. used of wood ; (2) of 
wood ; having the grain separated by the violence 
of the wind, partially unsound." 
Six illustrative examples are given, which 
should be considered. 

I lately met with an example of " wany " 
bundles of faggots, i.e., bundles in which 
several of the sticks were deficient in length, 
so that the ends were uneven, instead of 
being flush. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

The word " timber " is in the query used 
in the narrow sense of logs or baulks : 
" waney timber " is that which is only 
partially squared, and has consequently 
rounded corners which are arcs of the 
original rough circumference of the tree. 

The term " shake " indicates a crack 
proceeding from the centre of the tree. 


In the timber trade the definition "waney" 
implies not quite square in section, i.e. 
minus the corners. Some round logs have 

10 s. XL JAX. 9, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


their four outside slabs sawn off, but instead 
of sufficient wood being removed to render 
them a true square, a portion of the original 
tree is seen at each corner. That is waney 

A waney plank or board has a natural 
splay upon one or both edges, hence it is 
wider on one face than upon the other. 
' ; Plank " and " board " are not synony- 
mous terms. To be correctly defined, the 
former must be over If in. thick, and not 
less than 10 in. wide. A " board " is 
smaller less than 2 in. thick, and more 
than 5 in. wide. HARRY HEJIS. 

When a timber intended to be square is 
sawn out from a round log that is too small, 
the result is a timber with a wane at each 
corner. Engineers specify, for instance, 
that railway sleepers must be perfectly 
square, except a wane of one inch at the two 
corners of one of the broad sides. 

L. L. K. 

'The word will be found in Cassell's 
' Encyclopaedic Dictionary.' The date of 
this volume is 1889. Q. V. 

[Other correspondents also thanked for replies.] 

BANDY LEG WALK (10 S. x. 390, 438). 
The following instance is earlier than those 
given at the second reference : 

' Bandy leg walk, in Maid lane, Southwork, near 
Gravel lane." 'A jNew View of London,' 1708 (by 
Hatton), p. 4. 

In the same book (p. 34) is the following : 

" Gravel lane in Southwork, betn the Upper 
ground (near the Falcon Stairs) Nly,and Dirty lane 
by St. George's fields Sly, and from P. C. [St. Paul's 
Cathedral) Sd, 800 Yds.'" 

In Mason and Payne's reprint of a map 
called ' A Survey of London, made in the 
Year 1745,' Bandy Leg Walk extends 
further south than does the present Guilford 
Street, i.e., as far as Mint Street. 

Is the suggestion too fanciful that Bandy 
Leg Lane was so called because it and that 
part of Gravel Lane south of Maid Lane 
(Maiden Lane in the 1745 map) are shaped 
like a pair of bandy legs, or that Bandy Leg 
Lane alone took its name from its bent 
shape ? At their north ends they are about 
165 yards apart ; at Duke Street (now, I 
think, Union Street) about 350 ; and at their 
south ends they approach each other pretty 
closely, their curves being about equal. 

Strype's edition of Stow's ' Survey,' vol. ii. 
. 28 (6th ed.), under the heading of 
t. Saviour's, South wark, describes Maiden 

Lane as beginning at Deadman's Place, and 
running westward into Gravel Lane, which 
begins at the Falcon and runs " northwards " 
(rectiiis southward) into St. George's Fields. 
In this Maiden Lane, it goes on to state, is 
Fountain Alley, falling into Castle Street ; 
and " more towards Gravel-lane is Bandy- 
leg-walk, a large Thoroughfare into the 
Park amongst Gardens, passing through 
Queen-street into Bennet's-rents." 

If I am not mistaken, this Walk is also 
described in a' little volume in the Grenville 
Library at the B.M. (No. 15,947) entitled 
' A New View of London ; or, An Ample 
Account of that City,' printed for R. Chis- 
well and others in 1703. 


In ' Catholic London a Century Ago,' by 
Canon Bernard Ward (1905), this thorough- 
fare is thus referred to : 

" This mission [St. George's Fields] was first 
begun in 1798, in the room of a house in an alley 
close to the Borough known by the curious name of 
Bandy Leg Walk, where Little Guilford Street 
now is ; this was commonly known as the Borough 
Chapel." P. 110. 


This street is mentioned as one of twenty- 
nine principal thoroughfares contained in 
Bridge Ward Without, in Don ^ Manoel 
Gonzales's account of London in his ' Voyage 
to Great Britain,' and first printed in the 
Harleian collection in 1745. The account 
seems mainly to relate to a period before 
1724. Stoney Street, Deadman's Place, 
Gravel Lane, Dirty Lane, Crucifix Lane, 
Five-Foot Lane, and Long Lane are some 
of the other streets mentioned. 

W. P. D. S. 

SHOREDITCH FAMILY (10 S. x. 369, 455). 
Some useful matter anent this old Middlesex 
family may be found in vol. i. of the Calen- 
dar of Husting Wills,' and also in the several 
volumes of Letter-Books, edited by Dr. 
Sharpe, and published by the Corporation 
of London. W. D. PINK. 

THE GUARD ALOFT (10 S. x. 487). It is a 
pleasure to have the opportunity of supple- 
menting ST. S WITHIN' s note concerning the 
discomforts and hardships suffered by the 
guards of passenger trains sixty years ago. 
Those men were originally perched outside 
a quota of carriages on every train, in order 
to assist in keeping a look-out, and to apply 
the hand-brakes if anything went wrong, 
either on their own responsibility, or on 
receiving instructions, conveyed by a code 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 9, 1909. 

of whistles from the enginemen. Most 
companies supplied them with a pilot cloak 
and goggles, as they ran serious risks of 
being blinded by the sparks and pieces of 
coke emitted by the engine fiery particles 
which also constantly set fire to the pas T 
sengers' luggage carried on the roofs of the 

The next refinement was to provide 
brake-vans for storing the luggage, and to 
make the guard ride inside. In order that 
he might still keep a look-out along the top 
of the train, the roof of those vans was 
furnished with a raised glass-hutch. At the 
time of writing, the fusion of the London and 
North- Western and North London Railways 
is announced. An interesting feature of 
the North London trains consists of the 
retention of the raised guard's look-outs 
of olden days, which are seldom to be met 
with now on any other railway. The Great 
Western was one of the first railway com- 
panies (if not the first) to introduce regular 
brake-vans. In October, 1847, however, 
in consequence of the great speed of the 
broad-gauge express trains, the directors 
considered an additional precaution necessary, 
so an iron box was provided at the end of the 
engine tender for a " travelling carriage 
porter," whose duty was to keep a steady 
and vigilant look-out on both sides and 
along the top of the train, so that in case of 
any accident to any of the carriages, or of 
any signal from the guards or passengers, 
or any apparently sufficient cause that 
might come to his observation, he could 
at once communicate with the engineman, 
and, if necessary, stop the train. 

Of course, the lot of the " travelling 
porter," seated in a snug shelter, with his 
back to the engine, and deriving a certain 
amount of warmth from the proximity of 
the engine, was far happier than that of the 
" guard aloft." 

The narrow-gauge exponents, however, 
at once claimed this innovation on the part of 
the Great Western Railway as a confession 
of weakness regarding the safety of the 
broad-gauge trains, while they refused to 
own that the " Man in the Iron Coffin," as 
they nicknamed him, was better protected 
than the wretched guard perched on the 
top of the carriage on the narrow-gauge 

The " travelling porters," who were picked 
men, and who received 25s. a week, were 
not withdrawn until many years later, when 
an efficient system of communication between 
the guards and the enginemen had been 
evolved. The beautiful models of broad 

jauge locomotives to be seen at the principal 
Jreat Western stations, where they are 
smployed to collect money for railway 
Charities, are invariably equipped with the 
ran sentry-box at the end of the tender. 


On freight trains in the United States it is 
a regular custom for guards to be stationed, 
on the roofs of covered luggage wagons ; but. 
although I have seen them perched in that 
apparently perilous position hundreds of 
imes, I have never noticed any wearing masks 
or goggles such as ST. SWITHIN mentions. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

"SHIBBOLETH" (10 S. x. 408). Another 
listorical instance is the legend that some 
authors on Frisian history attach to the 
defeat of the army of William IV., Count of 
Holland, Sealand, Hengau, &c., near Sta- 
voren (1345). The Frisians, aware of the- 
difficulty a Hollander had in speaking their 
language, compelled all who were escaping 
to pronounce their own sentence by speaking 
.he following lines : 

Butter, bry, yn greane tchease 
Hwa that net sizze kan 
Is nin uprjuchte Fries. 

That test had promptly the desired effect. 


CHARLES CROCKER, POET (10 S. x. 489). 
According to the autobiographical details 
in the preface to the first edition of his- 
poems, Charles Crocker was born in Chi- 
chester on 22 June, 1797. I have been told 
that his parents were then living in the 
street called Little London, in the parish 
of St. Andrew. He was educated, he says, 
at the Grey Coat School, of which there is 
now no trace, but of which Hay ( ' Hist, of 
Chichester,' p. 392) says : " There is also a 
charity school, for cloathing and educating 
twenty-two poor boys, whose uniform is 
grey ; and twenty-two poor girls in blue." 

Crocker was apprenticed to a shoemaker, 
and worked as such for many years. He 
was for a time employed by Mason, the 
printer and publisher. In 1845 he was 
appointed sexton of the Cathedral, and 
subsequently received in addition the office 
of Bishop's verger, a capacity in which I 
knew him well. He was twice married. His 
daughter by his first wife married a green- 
grocer named Benford, who subsequently 
settled down as a publican at Compton. By 
his second wife he had a daughter Mary, who 
died unmarried, and a son Charles W. 

to s. XL JAN. 9, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Crocker, whom I also knew well. This son, 
who was a botanist, had been employed at 
Kew ; but, his health breaking down, he 
came back to Chichester, and succeeded his 
father as sexton of the Cathedral. He was, 
I think, consumptive, and he died in 1868. 
I do not remember much about his family, 
but know that he had a daughter who 
married her cousin Benford, son of the 
elder daughter, mentioned above. They are 
living in London now. 

Of course Crocker's poems are of varying 
merit, and many different opinions have 
been passed on them. It has always been 
reported that Southey declared that ' The 
"Sonnet to the British Oak ' contained 
one of the finest ideas in such poetry, viz., 
that the Druids worshipped the oak from 
a prophetic knowledge of the part it was 
to play in the making of British naval 
supremacy. I do not know whether F. K. P. 
is speaking sarcastically when he calls 
Crocker of equal merit with " the Silkworm 
Hay ley " of Peter Pindar. The poem 
alluded to, 'The Ode to Kingley Vale,' 
whatever its merits, has had what I consider 
a disastrous effect upon the nomenclature 
of that wonderfully beautiful coombe of the 
South Downs. Up to the publication of 
that poem it was always known as "Kingley 
Bottom," but after that it was considered 
more genteel to adopt the poet's name. The 
fact that it was not a vale or valley at all, 
and that it was a true Sussex " bottom," 
had no effect whatever, and now only a few 
know the place by its true name. The first 
edition of Crocker's collected poems was 
published in 1830, the second in 1834, and 
the last in 1860, one year before his death. 


In the Sussex Collection of the Brighton 
Public Library is a volume of Crocker's 
poems, entitled ' The Vale of Obscurity, the 
Lavant, and other Poems,' Chichester, 1830. 

In February, 1861, the spire of Chichester 
Cathedral fell, and Mark Antony Lower's 
' Worthies of Sussex,' 1865, says that " the 
fall of Chichester spire killed but one man, 
and that man was Charles Crocker." He 
died on 6 Oct., 1861, at Chichester, and was 
buried in the Subdeanery Churchyard of 
that city. The two books I have quoted 
may be seen in the Reference Department 
here. A. CECIL PIPER. 

Brighton Public Library. 


<10 S. x. 486). Regarding the name Forbes 

a word may be added to what is said at the 

' above reference. In Scotland it used to 

be generally pronounced as a word of two 
syllables, after the manner illustrated by 
Scott when alluding as follows (in the intro- 
duction to ' Marmion,' Canto IV.) to the 
death of Sir William Forbes, the biographer 
of Beattie who wrote ' The Minstrel ' : 
Scarce had lamented Forbes paid 
The tribute to the Minstrel's shade ; 
The tale of friendship scarce was told 
Ere the narrator's heart was cold. 

In certain districts of the country this was 
the only pronunciation heard till well into 
the second half of the nineteenth century. 
Schoolmates of my own, afterwards dis- 
tinguished in the army and in commerce, 
were all " For-bes " to their fellows, and are 
still such when reference is made to them. 
One of my teachers an engaging humorist 
of curiously diversified interests was fond 
of contributing conundrums as well as other 
matter to the local newspaper, and some- 
times tried the effects of his ingenuity in 
the classroom before committing himself 
to the press. One experiment he placed on 
the blackboard was this : " Capt. BBBB 
went with his CCCC to dig pot oooooooo." 
He chuckled deliciously when no pupil 
ventured to interpret the mystery, and he 
found it necessary to explain that it meant 
" Capt. Forbes went with his forces to dig 
potatoes." This was in the sixties, when 
one would not have risked sounding the 
profundity of a pedagogue. Since then 
it has become fashionable with the upper 
and educated classes to make Forbes mono- 
syllabic. I have friends now who would 
keenly resent the older method of pro 
nouncing their name. THOMAS BAYNE. 

(10 S. x. 486). In 7 S. v. 146 there is another 
reference to Lord Beaconsfield's novels and 
the primrose, namely, that in ' Lothair ' it is 
said that this flower makes a capital salad. 

Lady Dorothy NevilPs book of reminis- 
cences p. 210, deals with the subject, and 
her ladyship admits that she had not heard 
Disraeli express any partiality for the 
primrose, and goes on to relate : 

" As a matter of fact, I believe that Queen 
Victoria at the proper season sent Lord Beacons- 
field primroses from the slopes at Windsor, and it 
is probable that, having expressed to some one his 
warm appreciation of those flowers, it was in 
consequence assumed that the great statesman had 
a strong partiality for the primrose." 
This to some extent confirms the story told 
at 7 S. v. 146 as to the flower being the 
favourite, not of Lord Beaconsfield, but of 
the Prince Consort, and that when the Queen 
wrote the superscription " His favourite 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 9, im 

flower " on the wreath sent on the occasion 
of Lord Beaconsneld's funeral, Her Majesty 
had in mind her own great loss. 


[G. W. E. R. also thanked for reply.] 

E. F. HOLT, PAINTER (10 S. x. 489). 
In 1907, when looking through some old 
prints and paintings, I came across a painting 
dated July, 1857. I bought it, and still 
possess it. On examining it I saw as 
follows in the corner of the painting : 
"Misleading. E. F. Holt. July, 1857. 
3 Slone Str., S.W." 

The picture shows a young girl standing 
by her father's side, listening to what he 
has to say, while the father is laughing at 
her. C. GRANT. 

19, Blackfriars Road, S.E. 

[Mr. Algernon Graves in his ' Royal Academy of 
Arts ' gives Holt's address as 34, Sloane Street 
when he exhibited at the R.A. in 1855, but as 
1. Alma Road, Croydon, for the picture shown in 
1857. Perhaps the address and date on our corre- 
spondent's picture are somewhat indistinct.! 

GAINSBOROUGH'S WIFE (10 S. x. 509). 
Has J. G. referred to Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse's 
article in the ' D.N.B.,' xx. 362 ? 


She wrote " A Lament on the Death of 
H.R.H. Princess Charlotte Augusta. To 
which is added Alfred, a Vision," Liverpool, 
printed by Harris's Widow & Brothers, 
and published in 1818 at 2s. Qd. R. S. B. 

' LOVE-A-LA-MODE ' (10 S. x. 490). 
This is described in ' The Poetical Register,' 
1723, as having been " writ by a person of 
honour, and acted with applause." D. E. 
Baker, in his ' Biographia Dramatica,' 
observes that 

" it might possibly be known who this writer was, 
by tracing back the alliances of the Colbrand 
family, as the first of three recommendatory copies 
of verses prefixed to this play is subscribed R. Col- 
brand, Baronet, and directed to his honoured 
brother the author, who by the letters signed to the 
preface appears to have been his brother-in-law, or 
half -brother. ''Vol. ii. p. 194. 


ROMAN LAW (10 S. x. 469). See the 
' Institutes ' of L Justinian, Lib. I. cap. i. 3 : 
" Juris praecepta sunt hsec : honeste vivere, 
alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere " ; 
and the references to Cicero and others 
given under " Suum cuique " in Biichmann's 
' Gefliigelte Worte.' EDWARD BENSLY. 


The Story of a Lifetime. By Lady Priestley. 


LADY PRIESTLEY originally wrote her ' Story ' for 
her children only, and for five years it remained 
among books printed for private circulation. She 
has now been persuaded to issue the work for the 
public, and we cordially congratulate her on having 
done so, although we can well understand her 
hesitation in placing so much that must be almost 
sacred to her in the hands of an outside world, for 
this story reveals her home life with all its joys 
and sorrows, and that home was from first to last 
an abode of peace and love, the only sorrows 
that came to it being those caused by sickness and 

Lady Priestley wrote this book in the solitude of 
her library, " a refuge in time of trouble, a retreat 
after a full and active life, a sanctuary." She is a 
daughter of Robert Chambers, and some reminis- 
cences of him are given. It is difficult to recognize 
the staid Robert Chambers as we knew him in the 
early sixties with the accounts he wrote to his wife 
of the goings-on in which he took part in December, 
1847, at Fingask, in the house of his friends the 
Thrieplands : 

" We carry on very merrily. Last night there 
was ' High jinks ' of the most extraordinary cha- 
racter. What would you think of a whole night of 
singing, dancing, and capering in all sorts of dresses, 
ending at about one in the morning with three or 
four of them, including Lord M., roarine out the 
chorus of ' It 's no use knocking at the door ' at the 

top of their voices? The whole made good the 

saying that men are only overgrown laddies, or, as 
Dryderi puts it, ' Men are but children of a larger 
growth.' This morning I don't know how we are 
all to face each other. There was a locking of the 
doors at last to make the ladies submit to an 
accolade before escaping, but they picked Lord 
Charles's pocket of the key of the back door and 
stole away." 

It was shortly before this that ' The Vestiges of 
Creation ' " fell like a bomb among the Darwinites 
of the future." Great was the mystery as to its 
author, and many precautions were taken that his 
identity should not be known ; but there was no 
doubt about it in literary circles, and at an early 
period it was well known to ourselves. 

Lady Priestley's first school had for its master 
Dr. Graham. Boys and girls were taught together, 
being divided by a screen " not so tall that we 
could not tilt ourselves up to see the boys getting; 
' palmies.' " One of the boys in the school was 
William Playfair. Dancing lessons the young girl 
took at home ; the dancing master " wore tights, 
played the fiddle as he danced, and rejoiced in a 
green wig from which we could never take our 
eyes." About this time (January, 1839) De Quincey 
spent many Sundays at her father's house, but 
" had to rush back to get into Sanctuary before 
twelve o'clock, after which hour he could be 

There were "delightful" Edinburgh days when 
"we girls gave the balls, and our mother the 
dinner-parties." One of these was "purely and 
simply a Scotch dinner" in honour of George 
Outram, editor of The Glasgow Herald. It is to be 

10 s. XL JAX. 9, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

hoped that the guests did not suffer from indigestion, 
for the dinner consisted of hotch-potch, cockie 
leekie, crabbit heads, salmon scollops, haggis, and 
poor man o' mutton. Occasionally evenings were 
diversified by the advent of Sir Edward Bulwer 
Lytton, who would try experiments on the girls in 
electro-biology. Prof. Simpson would sometimes 
come with him, and would try the effects of chloro- 
form upon the girls, and " would have half-a-dozen 
of us lying about in various stages of sleep." 
Private theatricals also afforded a favourite amuse- 
ment, and at Dr. Simpson's in ' The Babes in the 
Wood ' the host and Lyon Playfair were the babes, 
the prologue beingwritten by Alexander Smith, and 
the epilogue by Sydney Dobell. 

On the 17th of April, 1856 V Eliza Chambers, the 
author, was married to William Priestley, who 
had been Prof. Simpson's assistant. As a student 
he had taken the Senate Medal as well as the 
Simpson Gold Medal and Balfour's Prize for Botany. 
Both Irasband and wife were innocent of all worldly 
affairs, but "never felt oppressed with the sense of 
poverty." Priestley had saved something out of his 
salary, and had just received 501. for his share in 
editing Simpson's works. " That formed our ready 
cash, and our sole capital was 1,000^. promised by 
my'father to start us in life." 

Of their early struggles and first brilliant success 
we leave Lady Priestley to tell. Her friends 
included many of the well-known names of the 
second half of the nineteenth century, her uncle, 
Henry Wills, being assistant editor of All the Year 
Hound. There is much about Dickens. We can 
well understand Lady Priestley's great affection for 
Wills, for we always found him full of kindness, and 
aspirants to literary fame were sure of his sympathy 
and advice. He had previously been assistant 
editor of The, Daily Ne>r*, and was on the first staff 
of Punch. Another intimate friend was Thackeray, 
and we have an account of his reconciliation with 
Dickens at the Athenaeum Club in the autumn of 
186;?. On the 24th of December of, the same year 
Lady Priestley was invited to meet him to dine at 
the Benzons'. " There was one guest missing; his 
place at the table had been laid, it was now 
removed ; that guest Thackeray was lying dead 
in the pretty red house he had built for himself 
within a stone's throw of the festivities in which he 
was expected to take part." The illustrations 
include portraits of Lady Priestley and her father 
and mother, sketches by Dicky Doyle, and a sketch 
of a dog by Millais. 

The. Fortnightly Renew for January includes an 
article on ' The late Empress of China ' by Dr. E. J. 
Dillon, who ehows that she had many good points. 
She is compared as a political reformer with Glad- 
stone. Mr. A. Maurice Low writes interestingly 
on 'The Future of Parties in America.' 'The 
Opposition in the Commons' is not so crushing as 
the article on the old Tory gang in last month's 
National Re-inew, tut it is hardly flattering. Com- 
plaint is made of recent negligence to attend Par- 
liament in several cases. Mr. W. T. Stead has some 
startling stories to tell of communications which he 
heads with the title ' How I know that the Dead 
Return.' Mr. Masefield writes on Defoe in a rather 
elaborate and unnatural style, and some of his 
general statements are not, we think, defensible. 
Miss Jane E. Harrison on : The Divine Right of 
Kings' is not concerned with theories of the 
Jesuits, as one might suppose, but deals with the 

theories of Dr. Frazer in his ' Lectures on the Early 
History of the Kingship' and ' Adonis, Attis, and 
Osiris. This is a highly interesting article. Mr 
Fllson Young s account of ' The New Poetry ' of 
Mr. John Davidson should also not be missed. 

The Nineteenth Century has secured the Earl of 
krroll. Lord Ribblesdale, Lord Stanley of Alderlev 
and the Comtesse de Franqueville to write on 
politics and education ; while Lady Paget publishes 
a reminiscence of ' Court and Society at Berlin in 
the Fifties.' 'The Waste of Infant Life,' by Dr 

!i G L K - an ^ C l ayt n ' is an im D or tant article ; 
and Mr. \V . C. D. Whetham's ' Inheritance and 
Sociology is lucid and interesting. Prof. Simon 
Newcomb does not believe in ' Modern Occultism ' 
under which heading he also deals briefly with the 
work of the Psychical Society, and phantoms of the 
living. He suggests strikingly the many possible 
causes of error in such transactions. Mr. Herbert 
Paul deals with Milton in his usual attractive style 
Mr. Lewis Melville's article on 'The Centenary 
of Edgar Allan Poe ' is largely a recapitulation of 
material now familiar to most lovers of letters. 

The Cornhill begins with 'A New Year's Ron- 
deau' by Mr. Austin Dobson, which is elegant as 
usual with him. Mr. Lucy continues his remi- 
niscences, which are always heavily drawn on 
without delay by the daily papers a tribute to 
their interest. C. L. G. has some amusing ' Stanzas 
addressed to the Hon. Charles Parsons, F.R S ' 
They are, perhaps, a little too elaborate, though 
often ingenious. Two personal papers, 'Charles 
Eliot Norton,' by Mr. Frederic Harrison, and 
'John Thadeus Delane,' by the Dean ot Canterbury 
are both good reading, though the latter somewhat 
overdoes the praise of virtues which are generally 
regarded as needing no comment in the English 
gentleman. Delane used " his rare powers for 
public ends and for the good of his country." no 
doubt ; but he also used them for the good of his 
paper and the support of popular clamour. This 
may be seen in ' Crimean Papers,' a lucid account 
of the difficulties which the Duke of Newcastle and 
Lord Panmure were both inadequate to meet by 
Sir Herbert Maxwell. This article, excellent in 
judgment, is the best thing in the number. Miss 
Jane Findlater, herself a novelist, deals with ' The 
Novels of Fogazzaro'; and Dr. W. H. Fitchett 
with 'The Man who discovered Australia.' 

The Burlington Magazine opens with ' A Retro- 
spect' concerning its fortunes, which is full of 
sound sense and criticism. It is matter for great 
congratulation that the magazine is firmly estab- 
lished, for it stands alone in its knowledge, in- 
dependence, and resolute refusal of the second-rate. 
The question of ' Reorganization at South Kensing- 
ton ' is further considered. The frontispiece is a 
reproduction of Whistjer's striking picture 'The 
Coast of Brittany,' which serves to illustrate an 
article on ' Whistler and Modern Painting ' by Prof. 
C. J. Holmes. Another illustration is a portrait of 
Luther as "Junker Jorg," by Lucas Cranach, in 
the King's collection at Windsor, which is cou 
sidered by Mr. Lionel Cust. ' Eight Italian Medals ' 
from the British Museum, by Mr. G. F. Hill, are 
of a quality well deserving reproduction. Probably, 
however, the most interesting article in the number 
is the appreciation of Charles Eliot Norton by Mr. 
Henry James, who excels in such portraiture. In 
the section on ' Art in America ' the pictures of 
Mr. E. C. Tarbell are noteworthy. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 9, im 


MR. HENRY DAVY has in his Catalogue 13 an uncut 
copy of the first edition of 'Festus,' Pickering, 
1839, 2/. 10s.; Henderson's 'My Life as an Angler,' 
green levant, super-extra, 1879, 11. 5s. ; ' Catalogue 
of the Works of Art exhibited at Ironmonger's 
Hall,' 1861, 2 vols., royal 4to, 21. 2s. (the object of 
the exhibition was to show the progress made in 
production of iron from the earliest period) ; and 
White's ' Selborne,' with Augustus Hare's book- 
plate, 1813, II. In. There is a handsome set of Field- 
ing, 16 vols., uncut, 1903, 31. 5s. Under Kent we 
note Woolnoth's 'Canterbury Cathedral,' blue 
morocco extra, 1816, II. 2*. 6fZ. Under Topography is 
' Magna Britannia,' 6 vols., 4to, calf, 1720, 21. 2s. 

Messrs. Ellis's Winter Catalogue 123 contains 
choice books and manuscripts, including a beavitif ul 
Book of Hours of the fifteenth century, containing 
.55 exquisite miniatures, each leaf with a varied 
design, 21(M. An exceptionally good and perfect 
copy of the Third Folio Shakespeare is 420Z. Other 
rarities include the first edition of 'Hudibras,' 
3 vols., morocco extra, by Riviere, 251.; the best 
edition, folio, black-letter, of ' The Ship of Fools,' 
-28?.; and first editions of Cowper's Poems, 2 vols., 
1782-5, 18/. 18.s. (the first volume contains the 
suppressed preface written by John Newton, of 
which very few examples exist). A copy of the 
1529 Dante is priced I.V.; Drayton's Poems, a fine 
tall copy in original calf, 15/. 15s.; Southey's copy 
<with his autograph) of the first edition of Killi- 
grew's 'Comedies,' 1664, 181. 18s.; second edition 
of Montaigne, with the scarce portrait of Florip, 
1613, morocco extra, IO/. 10s.; and the large folio 
editioprinceps of the 'Nuremberg Chronicle,' 1493, 
351. Under Occult Sciences, Medicine, &c., are 350 
items. We note Gilbert's ' De Magnete,' the first 
great book on physics published in England, first 
edition, extremely rare, 1600, 21/. Dryden wrote of 
Oilbert : "Gilbert shall live till loadstones cease 
to draw." Topsell's 'Historic of Foure-Footed 
Beastes,' 1607, and ' The Historic of Serpents,' 1608, 
2 vols. in 1, folio, are 161. 16s. Works on Witch- 
craft include Scot's 'Discovery,' 1651, very scarce, 
blue morocco extra, 11. 10s.; and Herbals include 
Turner's, all first editions, fine copies, 4 vols. in 1, 
iolio, black letter, 1561, 661. 

Mr. F. Marcham, successor to the late James 
Coleman of Tottenham, sends Part I. of the first 
volume of 'The Antiquaries' list of Middlesex 
Deeds and other Documents.' Under Chelsea are 
several in which the name of Charles Cheyne 
appears ; and under Clerkenwell is a lease of book- 
trade interest, dated the 20th of August, 1798, and 
naming Robin Allen, Richard Hughes the elder, 
Richard Hughes the younger, Patrick Kirkman, 
Chas. Humphrey Lackington and Thomas Hasker 
of Finsbury Square, booksellers, and George Ross, 
50, Finsbury Square. 

Messrs. B. & J. F. Meehan of Bath have in their 
Catalogue 65 Fergusson's 'Architecture,' 3 vols., 
1862-7, 21. 10s. ; and Meyrick's ' Ancient Arms and 
Armour,' 3 vols., 4to, as new, 10?. 10s. Under Bath 
is a long list which includes Nattes's ' Bath Illus- 
trated.' coloured plates, royal folio, red morocco, 
1806, 151. 15s. ; Malton's ' Views,' 1779-88, II. Is. ; 
Meehan's ' Famous Houses,' 1901, II. 10s. ; and 
Wood's ' Beau Nash,' author's original copy, never 
published in book form, ready for publication, half- 
calf, 51. 5s. In a list of works by the Rev, Richard 

Graves, Rector of Claverton, we find ' The Spiritual 
Quixote,' 3 vols., calf, 1774, 11. 7*. 6d. There are 
lists under Johnson and Piozzi. Under Romney is 
the Edition de Luxe by Ward and Roberts, 51. 10s. ; 
under Rowlandson, ' The Comforts of Bath,' Wal- 
ker's issue, 1857, 31. 3s. ; and under Somerset, 
Gaskell's ' Leaders, Social and Political,' 150 por- 
traits, 21. 10s. A complete set of Tracts for the 
Times includes Tract 90, 5 vols., full calf, 1840, 
I/. 5s. 

Messrs. Parker & Son of Oxford have in their 
Catalogue V. the large-paper 4to edition of Cole- 
ridge and Prothero's 'Byron,' 13 vols., 11. ; the 
hand-made paper edition of the ' English Dialect 
Dictionary, 18 parts, 101. 10s. ; Edition de Luxe of 
Tennyson, including ' Life,' 12 vols., 1898-9, 51. 10s. ; 
and a set of Defoe, 20 vols., Oxford, 1840-1, half- 
calf, 8/. Oxford items include ' University Cos- 
tumes,' coloured plates, 6s. 6d. ; Ingram 's ' Me- 
morials,' 3 vols., 1837, 11. Is. ; Loggan's 'Oxonia 
Illustrata,' folio, calf, a tall, clean copy, 1675, 
101. 10s. ; Mozley's ' Reminiscences,' 6s. ; Moffat's 
' Old Oxford Plate,' 4to, 21. 10s.; and 'Our Memories: 
Shadows of Old Oxford,' 1893, 4to, vellum, inlaid 
with blue calf, 8/. 10s. Under Pepys is Wheatley's 
edition, 10 vols., 4/. 4s. : and under Romney is Ward 
and Roberts's Edition de Luxe (limited to 350 
copies), 2 vols., 4to, 4^. 15s. A set of Crisp and 
Howard's ' Visitations of England and Wales,' 
14 vols., 1893-1904, is priced 16/. (privately printed 
and limited to 500 copies) ; and "Sacred Books of 
the East," edited by Max Muller, 49 vols., 16/. We 
should like to persuade Messrs. Parker to alter the 
colour of the cover of their catalogue, or else to 
print no items upon it. Their present method puts 
a great strain upon the eyes. 


We must call -special attention to the following 
notice.* : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
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10 s. XL JAN. 16, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 264. 

NOTES : Ben Jonson's 'The Case is Altered,' 41 A Seven- 
teenth-Century Woman Surgeon, 42 Unpublished Songs 
by T. L. Peacock, 43 Seaquake and Earthquake, 44 
" Miramoline " Irish Curses Houses of Historic Interest 
Saltfleetby Irish Custom on Christmas Eve, 45 'The 
Bride of Lammennoor 'Gibbon" Pictures," 46. 

QUERIES : " St. Anthony of Vienne Blue Coat School 
Costume Vincent Alsop Ruckolt House 'The Young 
Lawyer's Recreation,' 47 Charter of Henry II. St. 
Mary's, Shrewsbury Jack Cade's Chimney Wellington 
Trousers Harriet Wainewright Mrs. Gordon Sir 
B. Fletcher, 48 " Grzymala " " Knights without noses " 
Authors Wanted Arcruleacon Stubbs Bullingdon Club 
Broken Cross, Westminster " Fernandes in Dukes 
Place" American Genealogies "Spanish Strapps" 
Chamber-Horse for Exercise C. FitzGeffrey, 49 Rev. Mr. 
Power" Great Unpaid " " Pudworm," 50. 

KEPLIES : The Longmans, 50 First English Bishop to 
Marry, 51 Milton : Portrait as a Boy, 52 "He which 
drinketh well "Man in the Moon in 1590 Names terrible 
to Children Sir John Sydenham, 53 Omar Khayyam 
Bibliography "Psychological moment," 54 Cuthbert 
Shields "Mamamouchi" King Charles the Martyr 
Guernsey Lily Army Lists, 55 Authors Wanted Samuel 
,Foote " Old King Cole" Fire Engines, 56 "Teenick 1 

Benedictine, 57 - " Brokenselde " El-Serujah The 

'Tenth Wave Yew Trees by Act of Parliament, 58. 

7*OTES : ON BOOKS : Bufler's Characters Crabbe's Poetry 
Baptist Historical Society 'National Review.' 

.Booksellers' Catalogues. 


THIS play was printed in quarto, appa- 
rently for the first time, in 1609, and the 
only contemporary allusion to it that has 
hitherto been found occurs in Thomas 
Nashe's ' Lenten Stuff e,' printed in 1599, 
and written, as the author tells us, " in the 
latter ende of Autumne," 1598. After 
giving his readers a discourse on princes 
and their parasites, Nashe asks them what 
fault they can find with it ; 

" la it riot right of the merry coblers cutte in that 
witty Play of ' the Case is altered ' ? " 

Nashe's ' Works,' iii. 220, ed. R. B. M c Kerrow. 

The " merry cobler " is, of course, Juniper, 
.and ' The Case is Altered ' is what Nashe 
describes it as being, a " witty Play.' 

In 1598 Meres's 'Wits' Treasurie ' was 
published, and in that famous book the 
author describes Anthony Munday as being 
" our best plotter." This compliment to 
Munday raised Jonson's ire, and hence 
we find Anthony appearing in ' The Case 
is Altered ' as Antonio Balladino, only to 
be held up to scorn and ridicule, and Meres's 
phrase turned against the " city-poet " 
with crushing effect : 

Onion you are in print already tor the best 

plotter. I. i. 95-6, Hart's ed. 

When was this part of the scene written ? 

Internal evidence and the evidence of 
Nashe point to ' The Case is Altered ' as 
being earlier than any other of Jonson's 
published dramas, including the first draft 
of ' Every Man in his Humour,' which, 
Jonson tells us, was acted for the first time 
in 1598. When Nashe refers his readers 
to the "merry cobler," he does so in familiar 
terms, as if the play were known to all. 
How is it, then, that this play, which Nashe 
had seen acted in or before the autumn 
of 1598, is able to quote frcan Meres's book, 
which was not entered through the Sta- 
tioners' Registers until 7 September of the 
same year ? The answer is that that part 
of the scene in which Antonio Balladino 
is exhibited on the stage was revised or 
interpolated between the time that Nashe 
saw the play acted and the publication of 
the quarto in 1609. As soon as Jonson 
has done with Antonio in the scene and given 
him his quietus, the latter disappears from 
the play altogether. There is nothing 
whatever in the quotation from ' Wits' 
Treasurie ' to debar us from concluding 
that ' The Case is Altered ' is Jonson's 
first play among the dramas now included 
in his works. 

In 1600 Bodenham's ' Belvedere ; or 
The Garden of the Muses,' was put into 
circulation. This neglected book consists 
of between three and four thousand quota- 
tions from contemporary and earlier poets, 
but nobody has troubled to identify them in 
a systematic manner. It is a most interest- 
ing volume, full of suggestion, and, as regards 
' The Case is Altered,' of prime importance 
in relation to the play. 

We gather from Bodenham's Preface and 
the Conclusion, but especially from a sonnet 
addressed to Bodenham by the compiler 
of the work, who signs himself "A. M.," 
that these quotations were brought together 
by Bodenham as the results of his reading, 
and handed over to " A. M." to form from 
them a kind of dictionary of quotations, the 
plan of the book being "A. M.'s." A list of 
the names of the authors from whose works 
quotations were made is supplied by Boden- 
ham, but the reader is left to find out for 
himself from whom and where the quota- 
tions come, although, very probably, before 
" A. M." dealt with them, each quotation 
had appended to it the author's name, and 
perhaps the name of the piece from which it 
was taken. The list is both inaccurate and 
misleading, for I find that certain authors 
who are named are not represented in 
' Belvedere,' and others, of established repu- 
tation, are but very sparingly quoted from ; 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. i6, 1909. 

and, moreover, as showing how untrust- 
worthy the list is, quotations appear in the 
book from many poets and dramatists whose 
names are not mentioned, although the list 
is stated to be complete. Shakespeare heads 
the list of authors, as regards the number of 
passages copied from a single writer ; and he 
is closely followed by Samuel Daniel. Lodge, 
Spenser, and Drayton figure largely in the 
book ; and Marlowe, Kyd, Chapman, R. 
Greene, Joshua Sylvester, and the anony- 
mous play of ' Edward III.' are very well 
represented. Altogether I have been able 
to trace about 1,250 quotations in Boden- 
ham's book, from about forty authors, not 
including passages that were copied by 
Bodenham from manuscripts in the Har- 
leian and similar collections, some of 
which remained unpublished and inedited 
until the present century ; and hardly 
one in fifty of these passages is correctly 

Who is " A. M." ? Everybody is agreed 
that these initials belong to Anthony 
Munday. ' Belvedere ' quotes several times 
from ' The Case is Altered ' : would Anthony 
Munday, who had control of Bodenham's 
quotations, go out of his way to favour 
the writer who had lampooned him so 
unmercifully in this very play ? We 
may conclude that he would not ; con- 
sequently, we are permitted to assume that 
when Munday admitted into ' Belvedere ' 
quotations from ' The Case is Altered,' 
that play did not exhibit him in its first 
scene, as it does in the quarto of 1609. 
This conclusion bears out what I have said 

The following are the passages quoted from 
Jonson's play, and it will be seen that three 
out of the four have been tampered with to 
make them fit in with the design of ' Belve- 
dere,' which limits quotations to one or 
two lines at most, and then only when they 
contain " ten syllables " to the verse. To 
obtain his results as we see them now, 
" A. M." had to treat Bodenham's quotations 
as Procrustes treated unwary travellers : 
he lengthened or shortened them to fit the 
beds he had provided for them. 

' Of Covetousness,' &c., p. 128. 
Gold that makes all men false, is true itself. 
Should be : 

O, wondrous pelf ! 

That which makes all men false, is triie it self 
Act II. sc. i. 11. 30-31, Hart. 

' Of Nobilitie,' p. 67. 
He is not noble, but most basely bred, 
That ransacks tombes, and doth deface the dead. 

Should be : 

It may be nature fashioned this affection, 
Both in the child and her : but he 's ill-bred 
That ransacks tombs, and doth deface the dead. 

II. i. 44-6. 

'Of Covetousness,' &c., p. 128. 
The more we spare, the more we hope to gain. 
Should be : 

The more we spare, my child, the more we gain. 

II. i. 66. 

' Of Covetousness,' &c., p. 128. 
To have gold, and to have it safe, is all. 

III. ii. 28. 

The last quotation is correctly given, but 
the others, though maltreated, are not tor- 
tured more than most that find a place in 
' Belvedere.' 

There are three other quotations from 
Jonson in ' Belvedere,' two being from 
' Every Man in his Humour,' and the third 
from some work that does not seem to have 
come down to us. The last is also quoted 
in ' England's Parnassus,' and there it is 
signed with Jonson's name. 

I conclude, then, that ' The Case is 
Altered ' is the oldest of Jonson's published 
plays, and that the scene in which Anthony 
Munday is ridiculed was altered after 1600,, 
or subsequent to the compilation of Boden- 
ham's ' Belvedere.' 



I SUBJOIN a copy of an original document 
which may prove of interest to your readers. 
Apart from the quaintness of its language, 
the value of the letter lies in the two points ; 
which are raised in it, and which certainly 
demand explanation. 

From the articles on ' Medicine ' ~- and 
' Public Health ' in ' Social England ' (vol. iv.,. 
pp. 630 -46 and 805), it will be gathered that 
though the theory of medicine in the seven- 
teenth century was by no means in so back- 
ward a condition as is usually supposed, the 
practice of it, as regards the poorer classes,, 
was exceedingly circumscribed. " Specialists " 
at this period there undoubtedly were 
men who demanded a large fee in return 
for their connexion with the Royal College 
of Physicians. But general practitioners 
were scarcely to be found till the end of the 
eighteenth century, when they were pro- 
bably the outcome of that philanthropic 
wave which marks the social history of 
that period. 

It is true that in the seventeenth century 
" hospitals " were indeed in existence ;- 

10 s. XL JAN. 16, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


but they were little more than asylums 
for the aged and infirm. It is on record, too, 
that during the epidemic of 1665 several 
households were sent by their masters and 
mistresses to lodge with people to whom 
reference is made as " nurses." But neither 
these " hospitals " nor " nurses " could 
have fulfilled the same functions in the com- 
munity as their namesakes of the nineteenth- 
century " hospital movement." 

With medical assistance, therefore, outside 
the attainment of most of the lower classes, 
and in light of the fact that there were but 
few general practitioners even for the more 
wealthy, the following letter affords grounds 
for speculation as to, first, what this " gentle- 
woman surgeon ' ' was in her everyday capacity ; 
secondly, how she had gained the knowledge 
that earned her the reputation that she 
appears to have acquired. Her description 
seems rather to deny the answer that she 
was an ordinary " quack." 

The letter occurs in ' Cal. S.P. Dom. 1665-6,' 
vol. clii. 180 : 

From Lidlington, March 5, 1665. 

" There being now a person condemned in Bedford 
Goall, for unfortunately striking a Tobacco pipe into 
ye eye Brow of a Man who is since Dead, And ye 
person prosecuted by one sole witness, being a 
Woman generally knowne of a very Lose and 
debosht Life, And since Sentence passt, a Gentle 
woman Surgeon of sound judgment and good re- 
pute, has been before severall Justices of ye County 
(being much troubled in mind she was not calld 
to the Barr to give her evidence) which she is since 
ready to attest on oath that she first drest the 
Person of his wound and soe continued her care to 
ye Last, and that the wounded person dyed noe 
more of that wound than of a Cutt finger." 

They desire a reprieve. And so on 

Signed, Bedford. 

Tho. Snage, high sheriffe. Henry Chester. Hrd. 


Queen's College, Oxford. 


(Concluded from 10 S. x. 444.) 

THE songs contained in ' The Three 
Doctors ' number eleven in all. Three of 
these a Septette, a Quintetto, and a short 
chorus are omitted here, as they lose their 
interest in being transplanted from their 
surroundings in the play. 


I. Song: Hippy. 
Couldn't that old sot, Sir Peter, 
Keep his house a little neater ? 
Not a sofa to recline on ; 
Not a table fit to dine on ; 

Dogs and horses all past healing ; 
Every servant drunk and reeling : 
Flames of scorching anger burn me : 

I 'm so hurried, 

Vexed and flurried, 

Teased and worried, 
Zounds ! I know not where to turn me f 
Piled in heaps the pans and kettles ; 
All the garden full of nettles ; 
In the arbours sheep are housing ; 
In the greenhouse goats are browsing ; 
Forced to scramble, when I ramble, 
Through a copse of furze and bramble, 
I 'm with endless plagues surrounded : 
Rage vexation 
And confusion thrice confounded, 

II. Duet. 


To him, my dear, my wandering youth,.. 
Who first deceived my plighted truth, 

I '11 ever constant prove : 
Life's rugged path has not a charm 
The stings of fortune to disarm 

Like constancy in love. 

The varying scenes through which we stray 
With magic wiles in vain essay 

The constant mind to move : 
The faithless train, that rove and range. 
Will find no charm in endless change 

Like constancy in love. 
Both. ' 

The breast of truth no fears confound, 
Though darkness close our hopes around, . 

And tempests scowl above : 
The ills at which the clouds repine 
Can never reach the sacred shrine 

Of constancy in love. 

III. Song: Barbet. 

From London town, 

Where high renown 

My skill doth crown, 

I 've rattled down ; 

And now present 

To your content, 
Good sir, your most obedient. 

All ills I cure 

That dogs endure : 

I give them drugs, 

I shave their mugs, 

I comb their coats, 

I cut their throats, 
As you may deem expedient. . 

Caesar, Fowler, 

Pompey, Jowler, 

Ranger, Hero, 

Neptune, Nero, 

One and all 

Obey my call, 
For faith, sir, I 'm no noodle; . 

At my command 

They go or stand, 

Pointer, terrier, 

Greyhound, harrier, 

Bulldog, ban-dog, 

Newfoundland dog, 
Spaniel, pug, or poodle. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. ic, im 

Strike and parry, 
Fetch and carry, 
Current clear, 
Plunge in here. 
Seize that stick, 
Bring it quick, 
And lay it clown before us. 

'Mong tribes canine 
My skill 's divine, 
And what all speech 
And sense confounds, 
My art can teach 
A pack of hounds 
To bow-wow-wow in chorus. 

IV. Song: Narcotic. 

Cupid ! cease, you pleasing plague, you ! 
No ! ah ! no ! I can t resist him ! 
Fast I feel a fiery ague 
Shoot through all ray nervous system. 

Bring, ah ! bring, to cure my heartache, 
Mild emollient, cool cathartic, 
Cream of tartar, rhubarb, aloes, 
Salts, and castor oil, and mallows. 

'Sdeath ! I 'm in a raging fever ! 
Cardialgic inflammation 
Boils in this, my great receiver 

(laying his hand on his breast), 
Like a double distillation. 

Hope inspires me 

Passion fires me 

Love pursues me 

Rage subdues me : 

Nought can rule me, 

Nought can cool me, 
In this furious perspiration. 

V. Song: Windgall. 

Oh ! if I can carry her ! 

Oh ! if I can marry her ! 
I'll leave alone 
Black, bay, and roan, 

And be no more a farrier. 

A farrier, a farrier 

Oh, horrid sound, a farrier ! 

A squire I '11 be 

Of high degree, 
And fly the sound of farrier. 

A borough then I '11 fly for ; 
A title then I '11 try for ; 

And not disgrace 

The noble race 
Of that sweet maid I die for. 
Oh ! if I can carry her, &c. 

VI. Duet. 


All my troubles disappe 
When the dinner-bell I 



Over woodland, dale and fell, 
Swinging low with solemn swell, 
The dinner-bell ! the dinner-bell ! 


What can bid my heartache fly ? 
What can bid my heartache die ? 
What can all the ills dispel 
In my morbid frame that dwell ? 
The dinner-bell ! the dinner-bell ! 


Hark ! along the tangled ground 
Loudly floats the pleasing sound! 
Sportive Fauns to Dryads tell 
'Tis the cheerful dinner-bell. 
The dinner-bell ! the dinner-bell ! 

VII. Song : O'Fir. 

A tailor called on me, and, scraping his legs, 
As one morning I sate o'er my muffin and eggs. 
Says he, " Here I 've brought you a little account, 
And I '11 be mighty glad to receive the amount." 

Says I, " My sweet soul," and I shrugged up my 


" I don't find it convenient to pay it just now." 
" You had better," says he, " for your own little 

Or perhaps you won't relish the measure I'll take. 

I must have the money, so make no appeals ; 
Or I'll lay you, my honey, next week, by the heels." 
Says I, " For my heels 1 can't answer, 1 trow, 
But I '11 just give you now a soft taste of my toe." 

So I kicked him downstairs in the midst of his 


Which you see is a new way of paying old debts ; 
" Now," says I, " you 've just learned, without any 

The footing you stand on with Phelim O'Fir." 

VIII. Finale. 

Hippy, Quick the dinner bring again. 
O'Fir. And uncork the old champagne. 
Caroline. ~\ All disasters now are past ; 
Lucy. ) Here we meet in peace at last. 


All they ask to crown their cause 
Is one dose of your applause. 

Nearly all these songs are very character- 
istic of Peacock. Especially is this the case 
with 'The Dinner-Bell' and "Couldn't 
that old sot, Sir Peter." The latter recalls 
the drinking song ' Sir Peter ' in ' Headlong 
Hall,' while the former exhibits the well- 
known tendency on the part of the poet 
and novelist to indulge in good living, and 
his delight in describing others who do the 
same. Every song, however, exhibits Pea- 
cock's skill as a writer of light verse, and 
taken collectively they bear out Thackeray's 
judgment of their author as "a charming 
lyrical poet and Horatian satirist." 


terrible catastrophe which happened on 
the 28th of December, 1908, and had its 

entre in the Strait of Messina (the figure 
of which, it is reported, has been much 
altered), may perhaps be recorded as a 

ombined sea- and earth- quake, and require 
a new designation in a compound term. 
The well-known Italian equivalent of " earth- 
quake " is terremoto, but I am not aware 

10 s. XL JAN. 16, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

if the corresponding term maremoto, as applied 
to a seaquake, yet occurs in Italian dic- 
tionaries. X. 

" MIRAMOIJNE." This very rare word 
in English occurs in Browning's ' Sordello,' 
Book I. ('Works,' 1896, i. 126). ' N.E.D.' 
(s.v. Miramolin) says, " Also, ' maramoline.' " 
But " maramoline " is a ghost-word, as 
one may see by consulting the 1896 edition, 
where we find the words, 

grey scorching Saracenic wine 
The Kaiser quaffs with the Miramoline. 

The word means " Commander of the Faith- 
ful," being a much-altered form of the Arabic 
amiru'l mumiriin. ' N.E.D.' does not give 
the Spanish form of the Arabic word, which 
was Miramamolin (cp. 'Poem of the Cid,' 
xcvii.), in Portuguese Miramolim. In 
'The Lusiads' of Camoens (III. Ixxxii.) 
we find the Arabic form transliterated, 
namely, O Mir-almuminin, with the Portu- 
guese definite article instead of the first 
syllable of the Arabic word. It appears, 
therefore, that Browning's form is due rather 
to the Port. Miramolim than to the Sp. 
Miramamolin. It would be interesting to 
know whence Browning picked up his 
" Miramoline." Did he read Portuguese ? 

IRISH CURSES. " The curse of Cromwell 
on you ! " is often referred to in books as 
an Irish cursing formula. It seems that this 
expression is still in use. I recently heard 
the Gaelic equivalent, " Mallacht Chromuil 
ort ! " The word for a curse, mallacht, is 
the same as our " malediction." 

Irish curses are always picturesque, and 
afford an agreeable field for a collector. 
Readers of Borrow will remember his 
blind beggar's " May the Mass never comfort 
you ! " A common formula is " Bas gan 
sagart ort ! " i.e., " May you die without 
a priest ! " which conveys the same idea as 
the Italian " Accidente ! " But the moat 
terrible imprecation I have met with is 
" Go bh-fasuigh an feur arm do dhorus ! " 
i.e., "May the grass grow in your door ! " 
an image of decay to which it would be 
difficult to find a parallel. 


informed that among the London houses 
which are, in the course of a short time, to 
have London County Council tablets affixed 
to them are 28, Herne Hill, with which 
Ruskin was associated ; 4, Beaumont Street, 
the residence of John Richard Green, the 

historian ; 10, Berkeley Square, associated 
with Sir Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde ; 
! 10, St. James's Square, which has many 
associations with the elder Pitt, and in our 
own day with the " Rupert of debate," 
Edward Geoffrey Stanley, Earl of Derby ; 
and 4, Buckingham Street, Strand, a 
stately and good brick house of the olden 
times, once the residence of the painters 
Etty and Clarkson Stanfield, and in earlier 
times the abode of Pepys the diarist and 
Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, who stood 
so high in the confidence of Queen Anne. 
These will be notable additions to London' s- 
historic houses. 


SAI/TFLEETBY. This place-name is mis- 
printed " Saltfleet by St. Clement's " in my 
reply on the ninth wave (10 S. x. 512). 
Near the decayed port of Saltfleet, on the 
east coast of Lincolnshire, are three adjoin- 
ing parishes Saltfleetby St. Clement's, Salt- 
fleetby All Saints', and Saltfleetby St. 
Peter's. About 1850 the older inhabitants 
placed the accent on the last syllable, which 
was right, for the villages were three Danish 
" bys " that sprang up near Saltfleet. But 
a more common pronunciation was "So'laby,' r 
and this is probably universal now, unless 
the railway and " education " have brought- 
in a pronunciation more in accordance 
with the spelling. J- T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

The Tablet for 26 December a writer records 
a conversation with an aged Irishman in 
a London alley. The following extract 
from it bears upon an interesting custom : 

" 'Just a week 'till Christmas!' I said, after a 

" ' Aye,' replied he, rousing himself, the t 
does be slippin' by. Yet I cud fancy as 'twas but 
yesternight that we kep' last Christmas Eve. l is 
I mind me, too, how the wind did be rough much 
like 'tis to-night an' the heavy sleet did beblowin 
in at the open dure.' 

" ' Why did you have the door open ? 1 asked. 

" ' Sure,' he said, testily, 'an' is it shut ye d have 
it ! Why, 'twas Christmas Eve, as I'm after tellin 
ve !' 

"I suppose I looked perplexed. Anyhow, his- 
tone changed to one of pitying inquiry. '-Bet! 
powers, an' p'haps ye don't know how ti 
keeps Christmas in the court ? ' 

" ' Tell me,' I said. 

"'Well,' he began, as he settled himself in the 
old ragged chair, 'you must know how the Lord o 
the world come down from heaven on Christmas 
night. An' He had nowhere to go, an' ne er a friend 
in the wide world. So His Blessed Mother an the 
holy St. Joseph had to tramp the streets for to find 
a lodgin'. They was homeless, God help em ! An 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL .TAX. 10, 1909. 

from dure to dure they wint, askin' for a night's 
shelter, an' no one wudn't let 'em in. 'Twas a 
quare thing, so it was. But so 'twas true ! I very 
dure was shut agin Him that winter's night.' 
Then in tones of wonder the old man murmured : 
' Ter think o' the Lord Himself bein' homeless, 
same as any o' us. Faix, if the Irish had been 
theer, 'twasn't roaming the streets He 'd be. How- 
somever,' he continued, ' theer He was, without 
word or welcome that bitter Christmas night.' 

' 'Tis all past and gone this many a year,' he said, 
after a pause, ' an' 'tisn't likely as the Lord '11 be 
comin' agin. But no sooner does the bells begin 
a-ringin' for the Christmas Mass than all the Irish 
in the alley sets open their doors, and lights up all 
the candles they has. 'Tis to show the Lord as 
He 's welcome. Yis,' said he, ' 'tis a great sight in 
the alley on Christmas Eve, wid the tenements lit 
up, an' all the folks a-settin' theer an' waitin', lest 
the Lord should come agin.' " 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

Walter Scott has recorded the delight which 
the perusal of the ' Reliques of Ancient 
English Poetry ' afforded him. when a boy 
of thirteen. This would be about 1784. 
In 1819, in ' The Bride of Lammermoor,' 
chap, xvii., he institutes a comparison in 
some respects between the Master of Ravens- 
wood and the Heir of Linne, prefacing it 
with the following stanza : 

The hearth in hall was black and dead, 

No board was dight in bower within, 
Nor merry bowl, nor welcome bed ; 

" Here's sorry cheer," quoth the Heir of Linne. 

Old Ballad. 

The version in the ' Reliques,' issued In 
1765, runs thus : 
He looked up, he looked downe, 

In hopes some comfort for to winne ; 
But bare and lothly were the walles ; 

" Here 's sorry cheere," quo' the heire of Linne. 

Most probably the first-cited stanza owes 
its paternity to Sir Walter's pen, as he 
added the term " Old Ballad " to many 
of the poetical mottoes in his novels. His 
comment on the circumstance above men- 
tioned is thus recorded : 

" The feelings of the prodigal Heir of Limie, as 
expressed in that excellent old song, when, after 
dissipating his whole fortune, he found himself the 
deserted inhabitant of ' the lonely lodge,' might 
perhaps have some resemblance to those of the 
master of Ravenswood in his deserted mansion of 
Wolf's Crag. The Master, however, had this 
advantage over the spendthrift in the legend, that 
if he was in similar distress, he could not impute it 
to his own imprudence," Chap. xvii. 

The probable date of ' The Bride of 
Lammermoor ' is about 1707-8, shortly 
after the union of the crowns of England 
and Scotland. The faithful Caleb Balderston 
is said to have been at the battle of Both- 

well Brigg in 1679, and was favourable to 
the exiled family, as he says (chap, xxiv.) : 
" His lordship minds weel how, in the year 
that him they ca'd King Willie died " 
(i.e., in 1702), &c. 

The original of Wolf's Crag is undoubtedly 
Fast Castle. " How like you the couch, 
Bucklaw, on which the exiled Earl of Angus 
once slept in security, when he was pursued 
by the full energy of a King's resentment ? " 
says the Master of Ravenswood to his guest 
(chap. vii.). Fast Castle is near St. Abb's 
Head, on the German Ocean, in the parish 
of Coldingham, often visited for the mag- 
nificent sea prospect which it commands. 
At Abbotsford is a fine painting of it by 
Thomson of Duddingston, given by him to 
Sir Walter Scott. It has also been engraved 
by Finden from a painting by Copley 

Probably the success which attended 
the ' Reliques ' induced Thomas Evans in 
1784 to issue his ' Old Ballads,' dedicated 
to Hugh, Duke of Northumberland, who 
died in 1786. My copy is the second edition 
in 4 vols, and contains many ballads, 
" Historical and Descriptive," with several 
of modern date, " none of which are included 
in Dr. Percy's collection." 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

"OF." Of the 2,163 paragraphs in the 
seventy-one chapters of the ' Decline and 
Fall,' 1,581 end with a genitive phrase in 
"of," a percentage of over 73. 


" PICTURES." The word " pictures " 
occurs three times in the Authorized Version 
of the Bible, but in not one of these with the 
usual modern sense. The Revised Version 
gives each differently : in Num. xxxiii. 52 
as "figured stones" ; in Prov. xxv. 11 as 
" baskets " marg. " filigree work " ; and 
in Is. ii. 16 as " imagery " marg. " watch- 

I should like to dwell a little on the second 
of these. It is quoted from the A.V. by 
Prof. Saintsbury in his recent work ' The 
Later Nineteenth Century/ p. 8, where we 
read of " the singular persons who would 
refuse apples of gold unless they were pre- 
sented in pictures of silver," evidently re- 
ferring to the above place in Proverbs, 
where we at once see how much better is 
the R.V. rendering. The Douay version 
has " beds," following the Vulgate " in 
lectis argenteis " ; the French versions 

10 s. XL JAX. 16, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

"have " dans les paniers d' argent," the 
German " in silbernen Schalen." The note 
in ' The Speaker's Commentary ' seems ap- 
propriate : " Probably the golden-coloured 
fruit set in baskets, i.e., chased vessels of 
open- worked silver." A silver vessel or 
receptacle is evidently intended, which our 
word " picture " can never give, though 
it is sometimes used in the sense of image 
or representation, as when we say collo- 
quially " the picture of misery." 

W. T. LYNX. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

correspondent kindly tell me where I can 
find out something about St. Anthony of 
Vienne ? G. AUSTEN. 

the origin of the Blue Coat School costume, 
and its meaning ? G. AUSTEN. 

The Residence, York. 

VINCENT ALSOP. Can any of your readers 
throw light on the obscurity of the following 
passages from the writings of Vincent Alsop, 
a Puritan author once well known, who lived 
in the latter half of the seventeenth century ? 
He was something of a wit as well as a divine, 
-and frequently uses in his controversial 
writings ludicrous phrases which recall 
Andrew Marvell and Roger L'Estrange. 
' Anti-Sozzo,' published in 1675, was the 
book which, even in the judgment of BO 
bitter an opponent as South, completely 
routed Dr. William Sherlock's " new theo- 
logy " ; for by this very term, singular to 
say, does Alsop describe the rather vapid 
rationalism of the latitudinarian Churchman. 
I italicize the phrases which baffle me, and 
are unexplained by the 'New English 

" Perhaps he [our author] had seen about 
Billingsgate the Maugeing of a Crane, where a lusty 
Fellow with a Mastiffe-Dog in a Wheel will take 
you up an incredible weight, otherwise unmanage- 
able."' Anti-Sozzo,' p. 201. 

2. " He supposes God to have dispensed with the 
Moral Law, which is news to me; nor shall I 

believe it, till I hear it confirmed : for if we like 

Fools, goggled in with the Rhetorical Divinity of 
this Age, should trust to God's Abatements of his 
Law, and at last it should prove that God loved 
Righteousness and hated Iniquity as such, we were 
in a most wretched condition, merely by trusting to 
Indulgence." Ibid., p. 687. 

3. " The name of peace is often iised to destroy 
the thing. So Austin of old : Ecdesicn nomine 
Armamini et contra Ecclesiam dimicatis. Thus are 
we gogled to part with our Christian Liberty for 
Peace, when as the parting with the Ceremonies 
would secure both Peace and Christian Liberty." 
'Melius Inquirendum' (1679), p. 344. 

4. " Both sides, I think, have played at the game 
of Drop-father so long till they are weary, and 
forced to confess that some things now in usage 
were unknown to the Fathers, and many things 
practised by the Fathers which we have silently 
suffered to grow obsolete." Ibid., p. 122. 

Alsop is speaking of the appeal made both 
by the Romanist and the Anglican to 
patristic precedents. 

5. " I cannot be of every man's Religion that is of 
a much 'clearer understanding' than myself, unless 
I resolve to be of twenty contradictory Religions at 

once; nor of every man's way that pretends to 

a ' Comfortable Conscience ' in his way, because I 
see some fitch in Comfort to their Consciences from 
the greatest pro%-ocatious or grossest delusions." 
Ibid., p. 258. 

This last conundrum I presume to be 
a misprint, in common with the phrase 
" an Arditious superstitious Busy-body " 
(p. 289), where the Latinism ardelious sug- 
gests itself as the true reading. That would 
mean meddlesome. Ardelio is a term used 
by Phaedrus and Martial for a busybody, 
and is found rarely in English, as in Burton's 
' Anatomy of Melancholy,' and in one passage 
of Dr. John Owen. E. K. SIMPSON. 

RUCKOLT HOUSE. Was there ever a 
pleasure resort called Ruckolt House about 
ten miles from London ? 

" Our Knight had consented to make a Party to 
Ruckolt-house, which was at that Time the fashion- 
able Resort of all idle People, who thought it worth 
while to travel ten Miles for a Breakfast. Sir 
Thomas, and his Lady, went in a hired Chariot, 
and the Lovers shone forth in a most exalted 
Phaeton."' The History of Pompey the Little ; 
or, The Life and Adventures of a Lap-dog,' 1751, 
p. 187. 

The author of this book was, according to 
Lowndes, the Rev. Francis Coventry. 

The resort is in the same chapter (i.e., 
Bk. TI. chap, vii.) called twice "Ruckolt." 
According to the story, Pompey, the lap- 
dog, was born in 1735 in Italy, and died 
in 1749 in London. ROBERT PIEBPOINT. 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' supply the 
name of the author of this book ? 

"The Young Lawyer's Recreation. Being a 
Choice Collection of several Pleasant Cases, 
Passages, and Customs in the Law: For the 

Entertainment as well as Profit of the Reader.. 

London : Printed for Samuel Briscoe, over-against 
Will's Coffee-Housein Russel-street, Covent Garden, 
1694." 12mo, pp. [14], 206, [2]. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL J A * ie, im 

The book is full of curious matter, but i 
written with slight regard to style. Th 
preface is signed Philonomus, and the boo. 
is entered under that word in the British 
Museum Catalogue. 


CHARTER OF HENRY II. I am in neec 
of a copy (there are but a few lines) o 
a charter of Henry II. to Walter, Ushe 
(Ostiario) of the King's Chamber, given a 
Chinon, dated about April, 1181, and wit 
nessed by " Geoffrey my son and my Chan 
cellor," Richard de Humez and others 
It is mentioned on p. 239 of Ey ton's ' Court 
Household, and Itinerary of Henry II.' 
and the source is stated as " Cartse Antiquse 

I shall be greatly indebted to any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' who will send me a transcrip 
tion, J. ROGERS REES. 

Merefield, Salisbury. 

ST. MARY'S, SHREWSBURY. What is the 
explanation of an apparently mediaeva 
tablet in St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury ? 
The central figure is a bearded head, sur- 
mounted by a helmet, standing apparently 
in a coffin or open box, across which bars 
are drawn. The figure is uncovered as 
far as the waist. On either side are a gentle- 
man and lady in mediaeval costume ; and 
at the bottom of the tablet (which is not 
larger than 9 in. by 6 in.) is incised appa- 
rently the branch of a tree. 

Does the figure represent one of the Knights 
Templars and the Crusades ? 

7, Chester Street, Shrewsbury. 

JACK CADE'S CHIMNEY. Where is this ? 
Was the phrase at one time a proverb ? 
De Quincey in ' The Spanish Military Nun ' 
(p. 217 of vol. xiii. of Masson's edition) says : 
" The street is there to this day, like the 
bricks in Jack Cade's chimney, testifying all 
that may be required." V. H. COLLINS, 

[See Shakespeare, '2 Hen. VI.,' IV. ii. 160.] 

WELLINGTON TROUSERS. What are these 1 

STEWART. It has been suggested that this 
lady, who was a singer and composer, was 
related to the well-known Lancashire Wain- 
wrights, organists and composers of the 
eighteenth century ; but in her ' Critical 
Remarks on the Art of Singing,' published 
in London in 1836 (in the Introduction to 
which she blows her own trumpet with 

astonishing vivacity and vanity), as well 
as in ' The Tuscan Vase ' (printed for the 
authoress in London in 1840), she spells 
her maiden name with an e. I suppose, 
therefore, that she belongs to my family- 
tree, whose ramifications since the middle 
of the eighteenth century I know fairly well - T 
yet I cannot find a place for her. 

I should be grateful for any light on her 
parentage. The officer she married was 
probably John Stewart, who was major 
of the 16th Regiment Bengal Native In- 
fantry in 1806. She was born before 1766 ; 
came to London with her father before 
1792 (her opera ' Comala ' was performed 
at the Hanover Square Rooms, 26 Jan., 
1792, before a distinguished audience) ; 
went to Calcutta in 1796 ; composed her 
Seringapatam chorus in 1799 ; married soon 
after; returned to England about 1811; 
resided (apparently a widow) at 6, King 
Street West, afterwards 6, Nutford Place, 
Bryanston Square, from 1821 to 1843. She 
was a pupil of Dr. Worgan, and a friend 
of Dr. Burney and of " Lady Brudenell, 
sister to the Earl of Dartmouth." 


The New Wonderful Museum and Extra- 
ordinary Magazine, by William Granger, 
Esq., London, 1802-8 (B.M. G. 13546-8), 
contains a short memoir of Mrs. Judith Levy, 
the rich Jewess, usually called the Queen of 
Richmond Green, with a portrait, published 
by Alex. Hogg, 1 April, 1803, Paternoster 
Row. The biographer in describing her 
eccentricities states : 

" In the winter she visited masquerades, balls, 
&c., and introduced her daughter to the Duchess 
of N d's routes, then a noted matchmaker, who 
delighted in procuring great fortunes for younger 
jrothers of quality, and accordingly brought about 
a clandestine marriage between the Hon. Mr. 
Gordon and Miss Levy, who soon after died." 

Who v/as the Hon. Mr. Gordon ? Is there 
any record of the marriage ? Where did 
t take place ? Where was Mrs. Gordon 
auried ? Who was the Duchess ? I shall 
56 thankful for the information. 

91, Portsdown Road, W. 

SIR ROBERT FLETCHER. Any biographical 
r genealogical details will be welcomed, 
le was knighted on 29 Dec., 1763, being 
hen a major in the East India Company's 
ervice (Shaw's ' Knights of England '). 
lis portrait was painted by Reynolds, and 
ngraved by W. Dickinson, 1774. He died 
9 April, 1777, at Mauritius, on his way 

10 s. XL JAX. 16, 1909.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


home from Madras, being then a colone 
(Gentleman's Magazine, xlvii. 247). Where 
is Sir Joshua's portrait of Fletcher ? To 
what family of Fletcher did the colone 
belong ? I shall be grateful for any refer- 
ences to books or MSS. which relate to him. 

Oxon Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 

" GRZYMALA." Can any reader explain 
the meaning of this Polish word, used as 
signifying aristocratic armorial bearing ? 


Wycherley's play ' The Plain Dealer ' 
(Act III. sc. i.) occurs the following : " I 'd 
rather dine in the Temple-rounds or walks 
with the knights without noses or the 
knights of the post." Hired witnesses were 
known as knights of the post ; but what 
were the knights without noses ? Or are 
the two terms synonymous ? 

The Heights, Rochdale. 


1. Blue rejoicing sky. 
Quoted by De Quincey in ' The Spanish 
Military Nun,' p. 163 of vol. xiii. of Masson' 

2. Pass like night from land to land. 
Quoted by De Quincey in the same, p. 195. 

Napoleon is said to have quoted the follow- 
ing lines after the battle of Dresden in 1813 
" from a favourite poet." Is this Corneille 
or Racine ? 

J'ai servi, commande, vaincu quarante annSes ; 
Du mpnde, entre mes mains, j'ai vu les destinees ; 
Et j'ai toujours connu qu'en chaque evenement 
Le destin des ^tats dependait d'un moment. 


Will you kindly give context and name 
of author of the line, 

Here in this ancient haunt of Peace ? 


["A haunt of ancient Peace " is 1. 88 of Tenny- 
son's 'Palace of Art.'] 

Can any of your readers inform me as to 
the present whereabouts of the portrait of 
Archdeacon Philip Stubbs (1665-1738), 
painted by T. Murray in 1713 ? I have 
a copy of a fine mezzotint engraving after it 
by John Faber, 1722. H. STUBBS. 

Danby, Ballyshannon. 

BULLINGDON CLUB. Can any reader of 
'N. & Q.' inform me when this club was 
founded at Oxford, and who were the 
founders and original members ? 


and what was this ? ' The Square and 
Cube Root Compleated and Made Easie ' 
was sold by the author at the Chequer at 
Broken Cross in Westminster (London 
Gazette, Feb. 27-March 1, 1687). 


recently purchased a square blue and white 
jar (Lambeth ?) with this lettering under 
the glaze. I should like to find out whether 
Fernandes was an apothecary or Italian 
warehouseman, and the date at which he 
traded in Dukes Place. A reader of 
' N. & Q.' possessing London Directories 
of the latter part of the eighteenth century 
could probably give me the information. 

91, Portsdown Road, W. 

much obliged to a correspondent for the 
title of some such work as Burke or Debrett 
giving genealogies of American families 
of English or Scottish descent down to the 
present generation. ELS. 

cus." What instruments of torture were 
these ? They are specified in the account 
of a witch at Royston in 1606, who is said to 
have caused her victims such pain that the 
agony inflicted by these was " nothing to it." 

Bishop's Stortford. 

[May not "morbus Gallicus" be an allusion to 
the disease of that name ? The earliest quotation 
for it in the 'N.E.D.' is 1579.] 

was this ? Was it in the nature of a rocking- 
horse ? 

"We hear that Gentlemen and Ladies may see 
gratis the Chamber-Horse for Exercise, at Mr. 
Marsh's, in Stanhope Street, near Clare Market. 
He has a list of many Persons of Condition who 
have purchas'd these Machines of him. JJauy 
Advertiser, 16 June, 1742. 


register of Purton, Wilts, under date 17 Sept., 
1604, occurs the entry "Charles 
^effery and Anne Arman." Is this the 
ecord of the marriage of "the poet 



Broadgates Hall" (Pembroke College), Oxon 
{1515 ?-1638) ? He certainly left two sons. 


BERKS. What was the end of the lawsuit 
in which he was involved in 1723 ? 


18, Harrington Court, S.W. 

. " GREAT UNPAID." When and where 
were Justices of the Peace so described first ? 

t ., j ' j ' , MEDICtTLtTS. ^ 

" PUDWORM." This is stated in the 
(American) ' Century Dictionary ' to be a 
"' local English " name of the piddock or 
Pholas dactylus, the shell-fish which bores 
into wood, chalk, and even rock. The word 
is not in the ' English Dialect Dictionary,' 
nor apparently in any of the publications 
of the Dialect Society. Can any one inform 
us of its use anywhere on the English coast ? 
The piddock is common everywhere. 



(10 S. xi. 2.) 

THE date of the publication of the first 
two volumes of Macaulay's ' England ' should 
have been November, 1848. It was on the 
29th of that month that he found copies 
on his table, and he records in his diary : 
" I read my book and Thucydides's, which 
I am sorry to say I found much better than 
mine " (Trevelyan's ' Life '). The volumes 
were reviewed in The Athenceum on Decem- 
ber 9th, 16th, and 23rd. Macaulay, in his 
modesty, had " never dreamed " 'of the 
immediate success of his ' History.' Three 
thousand copies were sold in ten days, 
and Black said there had been no such sale 
since the days of ' Waverley.' Macaulay 
now thought, "though with some mis- 
givings, that the book will live:" His 
delight was great when he went to Clapham 
and found the family reading his book 
again: "How happy their praise made 
me, and how little by comparison I care 
for any other praise ! " On the 27th of 
January in the new year he went into the 
City to discuss the matter with William 
Longman and Bevis Ellerby Green, father of 
the present senior partner, Mr. Green, and 
was surprised to find that the publishers 
were confident that "thirteen thousand 
copies would be taken off in less than six 

months." The third and fourth volumes 
were issued in December, 1855, when The 
Athenceum devoted twenty-seven columns 
to the work, the articles appearing on the 
22nd and 29th. It was these two .volumes 
which produced the celebrated cheque for 

Macaulay, as will be remembered, lived 
only four short years after this. He died 
on the 28th of December, 1859, suddenly. 
His nephew records that he and his mother 

found him in his library, and dressed as 
usual, with his book on his table beside 
him, still open at the same page." 

Although Macaulay died on the Wednes- 
day at Campden Hill, his death was not 
known in London until the Friday. The 
news reached The Times office while the 
paper was at press, and when a large number 
had been printed. The machines were at 
once stopped, and a small paragraph in- 
serted announcing the death of the great 
historian. This was in the copy we had 
at Wellington Street. My father at once 
sent me off to Hep worth Dixon at St. John's 
Wood. When I told him he could hardly 
believe it, as it was not in his copy. There 
was only time to insert a short notice in 
The Athenceum of the 31st, the obituary 
not appearing until the 7th of January. 

It was my privilege to be among those 
who followed him to his grave in Poets' 
Corner on Monday, the 9th. 

The history of the Longmans and the 
great services of the firm to literature has 
yet to be written. I believe they were the 
first to publish a huge catalogue of English 
books long before that of Henry Bohn. 
In 1817 they had shown their generosity 
to Moore by paying him 3,OOOZ. on the day 
of the publication of ' Lalla Rookh.' To 
Thomas Longman, who died in his seventy- 
fifth year on the 30th of August, 1879, we 
are indebted for the beautiful illustrated 
edition of the New Testament, which was 
the hobby of his life, and which The Athenceum 
described as " standing by itself as a speci- 
men of illustration on wood." 

" No time, labour, or expense was spared to make 
it successful. His object was to produce in black 
and white the effect produced in colour in the old 
illuminated MSS." 

Another member of the firm, William 
Longman, who died on the 18th of August, 
1877, is remembered by his lectures on 
the history of England down to the reign 
of Edward III. as well as. a life of that 
monarch. He also wrote a monograph on 
the three cathedrals dedicated to St. Paul 
in London. 

10 s. xi. JA>. is, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


^.lr. Thomas Brown, who died in 1869, was 
, generous benefactor to Christ's Hospital 
{where he had been educated), and to the 
Booksellers' Provident Institution and the 
Booksellers' Retreat. He also gave a stained- 
glass window to St. Paul's. 

It is pleasant to record the long services 
of many members of the staff. These 
include Mr. W. Bartram (since 1857), Mr. 
Reader (1863), Mr. Greenway (1872), and 
-our frequent contributor Mr. W. H. Peet 
<1878). JOHN C. FRANCIS. 

I have noticed a slip in the chronological 
account of the Longmans which would 
perhaps be immaterial if it were not con- 
nected with the great writer whose long 
association with the firm forms one of the 
most pleasing incidents in its history. It is 
stated that in 1839 Macaulay's ' England,' 
Vol. I., was published. Macaulay did not 
sit down to write the work which he had 
had long in contemplation till March, 1839, 
and the first two volumes were not published 
by Messrs. Longman till the end of Novem- 
ber, 1848. Seven years were occupied in 
the preparation of the third and fourth 
volumes, which were issued by the same 
firm in the middle of December, 1855. 

There are also one or two slight errors 
in the quotation given by MR. FRANCIS 
from Sir George Trevelyan's speech at the 
Booksellers' Dinner : that is to say, if the 
paper headed ' A Budget of Memories ' 
in the December number of The Cornhill 
Magazine is to be accepted as the authorita- 
tive report. Sir George did not say the 
" old family connexion" with the firm was 
" as prolonged as any recorded in literary 
history." His words were that it was 
"more prolonged than any recorded," &c. 
He did not say that " it began in 1842. . . . 
when Lord Macaulay's books were pub- 
lished," the phrase in The Cornhill being 
" when Lord Macaulay's first books were 
published." I suspect Sir George really 
said "first book," for in 1842 only the 
' Lays of Ancient Rome ' was published. 
The volume of ' Collected Essays ' was not 
issued till the following year. 


I should be glad if MR. FRANCIS could 
say when the firm of Longman & Broderip 
was in existence. I presume this Longman 
will have been at any rate one of that 

My reason for asking is that I have a 
copy of sheet music of ' The Marseillaise,' 
which I think must be one of the earliest 

published in England, if not the actual 
first edition. It is headed : 

" The Marseilles March sung by the Marseillois 
going to Battle by General Kellerman's Army 
instead of Te Deura as ordered by the National 
Convention and at the different Theatres in Paris." 

It was printed by Longman & Broderip, 
26, Cheapside, and 13, Haymarket. 

On the fourth page is a version in French. 
The music and words are printed from an 
engraved plate. 

I believe the song was only written in 
1792, and I think this sheet of music cannot 
be much later than that year or the follow- 
ing. A. H. ARKLE. 

Elmhurst, Oxton, Birkenhead. 

BISHOP BARLOW (10 S. x. 366, 412, 474). 
MR. JONAS has confused two different men. 
As stated at the second reference, one 
William Barlow, Prior of Bisham, and suc- 
cessively Bishop of St. Asaph, St. David's, 
Bath and Wells, and Chichester, died as 
Bishop of Chichester, 10 Dec., 1569. 

Another William Barlow, also a Doctor 
of Divinity, was, while Dean of Chester, 
elected Bishop of Rochester 23 May, 1605. 
He was translated to the See of Lincoln in 
1608 (election took place 21 May, 1608), 
and died at Buckden 7 Sept., 1613. This 
date is open to question, as in his wife's 
epitaph in Easton Church, near Winchester, 
13 August, 1568, is given as the date of the 
Bishop's death. 

I can produce no evidence of the date 
on which the first-named William Barlow 
was married. He was elected Bishop of 
Bath and Wells 3 Feb., 1547/8, it is said 
without even the form of a conge cTelire, 
and it is further said under an arrangement 
with the Protector (the Duke of Somerset), in 
return for which, and for certain money 
payments, he made over a large portion 
of the episcopal estates to that nobleman, 
and also secured for his own family the epis- 
copal manor of Wookey. The presumption 
is that he was married while Bishop of 
St. Davids, to which he was translated 
10 April, 1536, though he may not have 
openly avowed his marriage. But whether 
his marriage took place in 1550 or between 
1536 and 1548, he certainly was not 
the first member of the episcopal order 
in England to be married, as Thomas 
Cranmer was consecrated 30 March, 1533, 
as Archbishop of Canterbury, having been 
nominated to that see by a Papal Bull 
dated 21 Feb., 1532/3, and he was un- 
doubtedly then married for the_second time. 



Paul Bushe, Prior of the Bonhommea at 
Edington in Wiltshire, was appointed first 
Bishop of Bristol (a see then newly created), 
16 June, and consecrated 25 June, 1542 ; 
and it is not likely that he married until he 
became a bishop, or until after the death 
of Henry VIII. At the entrance to the 
north choir aisle from the Lady Chapel in 
Bristol Cathedral there is a canopied tomb 
(with an emaciated cadaver under the 
canopy) which is said to be that of Bishop 
Paul Bushe ; his wife, Edith Ashley by 
name, lies buried close by under the altar 

The epitaph and Latin verses connected 
with it are recorded by Browne Willis. 
Whether they are now existent I do not 
know. They may have been renovated, 
but they seem worthy of a place here : 

" Hie jacet Dominus Paulus Bush primus hujus 
Eeclesiae Episcopus, qui obiit 11 die Octobris A.D. 
1558. JEtatis suse 68. Cujus animse propitietur 
Dignus qui primam circum sua tempora mitram 

Indueret, jacet hie Bristoliense decus. 
A patre Bush dictus, Paulum Baptisma vocavit, 

Virtu te impleyib nomen utrumque sua. 
Paulus Eclintonise bis messes preco secutus 
instituit populum dogmate, Christe, tuo. 
Ille animos verbis impensis payit egenos, 
Hinc fructum arbusto prsebuit illesuo. 
Ut madidos arbusba juyant, sic foedere rupto 
Inter discordes pacificator erat. 

F. DE H. L. 

MB. A. C. JONAS at the penultimate refer- 
ence is mixing up two bishops called William 
Barlow : the first (successively occupant 
of the sees of St. Asaph, St. Davids, Bath 
and Wells, and Chichester) died in August, 
1568 ; the second (successively occupant 
of the sees of Rochester and Lincoln) died 
7 Sept., 1613. 

The query appears to be as to who was 
the first Englishman to marry after becoming 
a bishop. William Barlow, son of the first 
above mentioned, was born at St. Davids 
when his father was bishop, i.e., between 
1536 and 1549. Bush became Bishop of 
Bristol in 1542. 

If, however, the query is, What English 
married man first became bishop ? the 
answer is surely Cranmer, who had recently 
married his second wife, the niece of Osiander, 
when he became Archbishop of Canterbury 
in 1533. As Henry VIII. did not approve 
of married clergy, Cranmer " shut his wife 
up in a box." Dr. Nicholas Harpsfield, 
Archdeacon of Canterbury, thus writes 
(Camden Soc., Second Series, xxi. 275) : 

"' The Archbishop of Canterbury was married in 
King Henry his days, but kept his woman very 

jlose, and sometime carried her about with him in 
a great chest full of holes, that his pretty nobsey 
might take breath at. In the meanwhile it so 
chanced that his place at Canterbury was set on 
fire [18 Dec., 1543] ; but lord what a stir and care 
was there for this pretty nobsey and for this chest ; 
all other care in a manner was set aside. He caused 
that chest with all speed to be conveyed out of 
danger, and gave great charge of it, crying out that 
his evidences and other writings which he esteemed 
above any worldly treasure was in that chest ; and 
this I heard out of the mouth of a gentleman that 
was there present, and knew of this holy mystery.' 
The word nobsey is not in ' N.E.D.' 

Holgate, when Archbishop of York, was 
married after banns 15 June, 1549 ; but it was 
said the parties had been privately married 
at an earlier date. In 1549 he was, on his 
own admission, sixty-eight, and Harpsfield 
calls him " about four score years of age," 
and says that his wife (Barbara, daughter 
of Roger Wentworth) was " a young girl 
of fourteen or fifteen years of age " (loc. cit.). 

Again I ask if there is not an error, 
this time with respect to the bracketed 
remark, " [By Matthew Parker, Archbishop 
of Canterbury] London, Rd. Jugge, 1556." 

If I am correct, Matthew Parker was conse- 
crated Archbishop on 17 Dec., 1559 (one of 
the consecrators being Bishop Barlow). 
I fail to see how Archbishop Parker could 
have written a treatise published in 1556. 
He may have written it prior to his becoming 
Archbishop. ALFBED CHAS. JONAS. 

Thornton Heath. 

[The explanation is as suggested. Halkett and 
Laing and the 'D.N.B.' attribute the authorship 
of ' A Defence of Priests' Marriages ' to Parker. 

MR. A. B. BEAVEN also points out that there were 
two bishops named William Barlow.] 

508). If the picture in question was painted 
by the Frederick Newenham (1807-59) who 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1838, 
it can have no historical significance. 


In Dr. G. C. Williamson's privately printed 
work ' The Portraits, Prints, and Writings 
of John Milton exhibited at Christ's College, 
Cambridge, 1908,' there is a list (pp. 89, 
90) of ' Various Pretended Portraits dis- 
covered since Marsh's List,' i.e., since Mr. 
John Fitchett Marsh's publication (cp. 10 S. 
x. 445) in the Transactions of the Historic 
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol. xii. 
(1860). The last entry in this list (No. 266 
of the engravings) is : " Modern mezzo- 
tint by Cousins after a so-called original at 
Eton." L. R. M. STBACHAN. 

Heidelberg, Germany. 

10 s. XL JAN. 16, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


511). In its Latin form I have been ac- 
quainted with this example of what logicians 
call a sorites for nearly fifty years, and have 
always understood it to be of mediaeval 
origin. The words are as follows : 

" Qui bene bibit, bene dormit ; qui bene dormit. 
noii peccat ; qui non peccat, salvabitur ; ergo qui 
bene bibit, salvabitur. 

This mode of argument seems to have been 
familiar to Boswell, if we may judge from 
what he says in one of his ' Letters to the 
Rev. W. J. Temple,' just published : 

" It requires the utmost exertion of practical 
philosophy to keep myself quiet. I have, however, 
done so all this week to admiration : nay, I have 
appeared good-humoured ; but it cost me a con- 
siderable quantity of strone beer to dull my 

I quote from The Polishers' Circular of 
26 December last. JOHN T. CUBBY. 

I think that MB. T. RATCLIFFE may pos- 
sibly find that the author from whom he 
quotes had at one time been a student at 
a German university. W nen I was a student 
at Heidelberg in 1878 a Latin version of 
this was in common use, and had apparently 
come down " from time immemorial." In 
my " commersbuch " of that date I find 
I have written : 

" Qui bene bibit, bene dormit ; qui bene dormit 
non cogitat malum ; qui non cogitat malum noii 
peccat ; qui non peccat non offendit Deum : ergo, 
qui bene bibit non offendit Deum ! " 
This looks more like an original than does 
the English version given in the query. 

I should like to take this opportunity 
of thanking W. C. B. for his reply to my 
query as to Booth of Rame. E. J. BALL. 

MAN IN THE MOON IN 1590 (10 S. x. 446, 
518). I had hoped it was unnecessary to 
occupy space by pointing out that my 
quotation was an example of the secondary 
sense of the phrase. Possibly in the purer 
atmosphere of Cambridge the " man in the 
moon " has never had the actuality that is 
unfortunately ascribed to him in this city 
by the sober testimony of Blue-Books and 
the ' Life ' of our late Chichele Professor. 

Q. V. 


509). In Mr. Pett Ridge's clever, but painful 
story ' Name of Garland ' the heroine, when 
officiating as a nursemaid, keeps her infant 
charge in order by threatening him with 
the name of Mr. Gladstone. The date at 
which the story begins is not given, but 

Tom references to " Jack the Ripper ' T 
and other indications, it may be taken to- 
:>e 1888 or thereabouts. Mr. Gladstone was- 
not then Prime Minister, but he was the 
aest-known politician of that day, and was 
probably regarded as a formidable foe to- 
evildoers. W. F. PBJDEAITX. 

Richard I. of England is a well-known 
instance. See Gibbon's ' Rome,' chap. lix. : 

' His tremendous name was employed by the 
Syrian mothers to silence their infants : and if a- 
lorse suddenly started from the way, his rider was 
wont to exclaim, 'Dost thou think King Richard is 
n that bush?'" 
He refers to Joinville, p. 17. 

Scott puts a like statement into the mouth 
of Saladin when he meets Richard at the 
lists (' Talisman.' chap, xxvii.). 


Narses, 473-568 (Gibbon's ' Decline and 
Fall,' viii. 219). 

Richard Coeur de Lion (ib., xi. 146). 

Sir Thomas Lunsford (Butler's ' Hudibras, T 
iii. 2). 

Lamia, Lilith, and Hunniades may also- 
be included ; and see the ' Decline and 
Fall,' xii. 166. A. R. BAYLEY. 

See 10 S. i. 325, ' Drake in Mexico ' ; and 
10 S. vii. 387, ' La Hueste Antigua.' 


According to the Berea Quarterly, quoted 
by The Manchester Guardian of 19 December 
last, the traveller stopping at a lonely cottage 
in the hill country of Kentucky may hear 
the mother quiet an unruly child by saying 
" Behave now, son, or Clavers will get you." 
" Clavers " is a reminiscence of Claver- 
house, who harried the Covenanting ancestors 
of these Kentuckians. H. W. H, 

Should not Gilles de Retz of Brittany, 
executed in 1440, and the Black Douglas 
(William, lord of Nithsdale), killed in 1390, 
be added to this list ? W. B. GEBISH. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

TON (10 S. x. 490). I am unable to conjecture 
where MB. GBAY got his information upon 
which he founds his query. Burke in his 
' Extinct Baronetage ' says : 

"Sir John Sydenham, Bart., married for his first 
wife Mary, daughter and coheir of John Buckland 
of West Harpetre, co. Somerset, who after, his 
death (in 162o) married the Lord Grey. 
The last statement is an error. She^died 
in 1596. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL j A y. w, 

Sir John married secondly Mary, relict o~ 
John Baker, and daughter of Sir Thomas 
Guilford, Kt. She survived her husband 
and dwelt in Drury Lane, London. 

According to ' The Peerage of Scotland, 
by Douglas, Andrew, Lord Gray, had two 
wives the first being Anne, relict of James 
Earl of Buchan, and daughter of Sir Walter 
Ogilvy, Kt., of Deskford and Findlater 
and the second Dame Catherine Cadell 
Perhaps some of the readers of ' N. & Q.' wil 
be able to unravel the query. 


For "Bart." (surely "Bart." should be 
giving way by now to " Bt.," in accordance 
with the wishes of the Committee of the 
Baronetage) read Kt. The first Baronet 
<cr. 1641) was a grandson of Sir John the 
Knight. For " Brompton " read Brimp- 
ton, Somerset. 

Mary, second wife of Sir John Sydenham, 
and subsequently second wife of Andrew, 
Lord Gray, was a daughter of Sir Thomas 
Guldefprd of Hemsted in Cranbrook, Kent, 
and wife of John Baker of Sissinghurst in 
the same county (pedigree of Sydenham, 
by H. Stanley Head, Misc. Gen. et Her., 
Second Series, iii. 327, and ' Complete 
Baronetage,' vol. i. sub Baker). A letter 
of Arthur Sanders to Edmund Parr of 
15 Feb., 1628, mentions the marriage of 
Lady Sydenham with Lord Gray, " she being 
fourscore, and he four-and-twenty " (' S.P. 
Dom.,' p. 258). The difference in age is 
exaggerated, as such discrepancies are in 
gossip : the writer probably aimed at 
euphony rather than truth. Lord Gray 
was certainly older, but his bride need not 
have been much younger, having borne a son 
to her ^ former husband as far back as 1587 
or so (' Complete Baronetage,' as above). 

G. E. C. states in a foot-note to the Gray 
peerage ('Complete Peerage') that "both 
herbage and her first husband seem doubt- 
ful." There can be no doubt, however, on 
the latter point. A State Paper of 10 Jan 
1629, records that 

" Mary, Lady Gray, now wife of Andrew, Lord 
Gray, and sometime wife of Sir John Sydenham 
standing convicted of Popish recusancy, and being 
seized of certain lands in cos. Kent and' Somerset," 
was deprived of two-thirds of the said 
estates (' S.P. Dom., 1628-9,' p. 447). Sir 
John Sydenham by his will, proved 10 Mav 
1626 (P.C.C. 70 Hele), bequeathed to his 
wife^whom he did not mention by name, 

"all the Jewells, chaynes, rings, and ornaments 
which my said wief now possesseth and useth 
which now are in the house in Drurye Lane 

within the Parrishe of St. Gyles in the Fieldes in 
the County of Middlesex, wherein shee hathe of 
late lived ; " 

and letters of administration of the estate 
of Mary, Lady Gray, of St. Giles-in-the- 
Fields, were granted, 4 Jan., 1631/2, to her 
grandson Sir John Baker, Bt., and on the 
16th of the same month to her husband 
Andrew, Lord Gray (P.C.C.). 

Three errors should be pointed out, inci- 
dentally, in G. E. C.'s monumental works 
referred to above. The compiler's doubts as 
to Lady Gray's first marriage have resulted 
in superfluous and mistaken foot-notes on 
the subject of the 1631/2 administration 
both under Gray in the ' Peerage ' and under 
Baker in the ' Baronetage ' (vol. i. p. 72). 
Under the Sydenham baronetcy (vol. ii.) 
the statement that Sir John Sydenham, 
the first Baronet, succeeded his father in 
1625 is incorrect, since his father, John 
Sydenham, proved the will of his father 
Sir John Sydenham, Kt. (whose name heads 
this reply), in 1626. PERCEVAL LUCAS. 
188, Marylebone Road, N.W. 

307, 391). The following versions in Welsh- 
ii -mani may be worth mention : 

1. 'Omar Khayyam Bish Ta Dui Gilia Chide Are 
Volshitika Romani Chib John Sampsonestar,' 
London, 1902. 

2. 'Tanengreske Shtarenge Gilia' : 22 stanzas, by 
Principal MacAlister, in ' Echoes,' Cambridge, 


" PSYCHOLOGICAL MOMENT " (10 S. x. 488 ; 
xi. 13). In Nathan Drake's compilation 
entitled ' Memorials of Shakspeare ' we have 
a chapter, which is an extract from ' The 
Encyclopaedia Metropolitana,' in which these 
words occur : 

"The second answer is, that Shakspeare was 
pursuing two methods at once ; and besides the 
psychological method, he had also to attend to the 

In a footnote the writer of the article, who 
was no doubt S. T. Coleridge, says : 

"We beg pardon for the use of this -innolens 
'erbtim [psychological] ; but it is one of which our 
language stands in great need. We have no single 
;erm to express the philosophy of the human mind; 
and what is worse, the principles of that philosophy 
are commonly called metaphysical, a word of very 
different meaning." 'Memorials of Shakspeare,' 
&c., by Nathan Drake, p. 153, London, 1828. 

This note does not solve the query, but 
ihows when the principal word was introduced 
nto our language ; and the reference may 
)e useful to the editors of the great Oxford 

Dictionary. JOHN T. CURRY. 

10 s. XL JAX. 16, 1909.J XOTES AND QUERIES. 


CUTHBEBT SHIELDS (10 S. xi. 10). A bio- 
graphical sketch of Cuthbert Shields appears 
in The Wadham College Gazette for Michael- 
mas Term, 1908. Reference is made in 
it to an obituary notice in The Times of 
22 September, and to an account of his life 
by Mr. Plummer in The Oxford Magazine, 
presumably in one of the issues of that 
journal during October. H. W. H. 

For an obituary note written in memory of 
Cuthbert Shields, who died on 20 Sept., 1908, 
at Oxford, see one of the numbers of The 
Oxford Magazine for November. X. 

[Mr. Frpwde kindly informs us that the notice 
appeared in The Oxford Magazine for 15 October, 
pp. 8-9.] 

" MAMAMOUCHI " (10 S. x. 328). The 
term used by Ben Jonson in ' Volpone,' II. i., 
is Mamaluchi, which is simply the Italian 
form of " Mamelukes," the Arabic deriva- 
tion of which is given in the ' N.E.D.' as 
from mamaluka, to possess, hence " slaves." 
"Mamamouchi," though a burlesque appel- 
lation invented by Moliere as a title for M. 
Jourdain, is considered by Littre as taken 
from the Arabic ma menou schi, which 
signifies " good for nothing." In French it 
has since become synonymous for one who 
assumes an air of pretentiousness or pompo- 
sity. 1ST. W. HTT,T.. 
New York. 

227). The dialogue " Quoth William Perm 
to Martyr Charles " first appeared in the 
New York Evening Post. I cannot give the 
date, as unfortunately I did not preserve it. 
I have, however, the original cutting in a 
scrapbook. It was prefaced by the following : 

" Some silly people, with the Bishop's sanction 
too, have put a memorial window to ' King Charles 
the Martyr ' in a church in Philadelphia. Near by 
William Penn's statue surmounts the dome of the 
City Hall." 

That Dr. Garnett was not the author of 
the epigram is evident from the fact that 
a few days later the following letter appeared 
in the before-mentioned newspaper : 

Solvonter Risu Tabula. 
To the Editor of The Evening Pot. 

SIB, Your Philadelphia correspondent Mr. Curtis 
calls attention to two blunders in my squib of last 
week relative to the honors lately paid to the 
memory of King Charles I. 

What was done at the Church of the Evangelists, 
he says, could not possibly have been a canonization 
of King Charles, that event having occurred ' more 
than two hundred years ago,' while, moreover, the 
picture dedicated was not a glass window at all, 
but an oil painting. Well, as to the first point, my 
reply is that even if St. Charles I. was canonized 

more than two hundred years ago, he was, by the 
same token (to wit, a royal proclamation), un- 
canonized or decanonized in the year 1859 ; so that, 
to speak accurately, what the Philadelphians did 
was to recanonize him surely a singular step for 
American Churchmen, however Anglomaniacaf. 

To the other point I reply by acknowledging the 
blunder, and submitting a revised version of my 
epigram, which has the double advantage of being 
historically more accurate and of exhibiting the 
whole matter from a different point of view. 


A Second Martyrdom. 
Quoth William Penn to Martyr Charles : 

" Thee scarce can feel at home 
Down there upon a canvas back 

While I enjoy the dome. 
Let me step down and out, I pray, 

And thee be patron saint ; 
A Friend ought not to stand in bronze 

And leave a king in paint." 
Quoth Martyr Charles to William Penn : 

" Nay, broadbrim, no such curse ; 
White-hall was surely bad enough, 

Your City Hall were worse." 
I regret I can throw no light upon the 
15, Jackson Road, Chicago. 

GUEBNSEY LILY (10 S. x. 368, 412, 456). 
In Pitman's 'Words and Places' it is 
stated that 

"the flower is a native of Japan, where it was 
discovered by Ksempfer, the Dutch botanist and 
traveller. The ship which contained the specimens 
of the new plant was wrecked on the coast ol 
Jersey, and some of the bulbs having been washed 
ashore, they germinated and spread in the sandy 
soil. Thence they were sent over to England in the 
middle of the seventeenth century, by M. Hatton, 
a botanist, and son of the Governor of Guernsey. 

One of your correspondents gives the 
Hatton governorship as 1670-9. A bio- 
graphical dictionary states that Ksempfer, 
a German, spent two years in Japan, lb9^-4. 
If the above is all of it correct, Hatton must 
have been living in Guernsey after the retire- 
ment of his father from Jersey. Possibly 
a life of Ksempfer or his ' History of Japan 
and Siam,' published in English in 1727, 
with particulars of the ship and her wreck. 

ARMY AND MILITIA LISTS (10 S. x 489).-- 
There is a long series of these Lists, but not 
I think, quite complete, in the British 
Museum (Newspaper Room). I do not know 
how far back they go. Faihn g* he ^^ 
lists, or until he can get a set MB. WILLIAM 
will find what claim to be , " complete hst* 
of the Army and Navy," &c., in The 
Gentleman's Register; or, Rider's British 
Merlin,' which appeared annually. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL JAN. w, wa. 

earliest issue of this is for 1749. I have a 
good many volumes of both the ' Register ' 
and the official Army Lists, but nothing 
like complete sets. So far as the Army and 
Navy Lists are concerned, they are, for 
obvious reasons, nearly always found in the 
sales of libraries belonging to collectors of 
medals ; but they always sell at good prices, 
particularly the earlier issues. They some- 
times occur in second-hand booksellers' 
catalogues. W. ROBERTS. 

47, Lansdowne Gardens, Clapham, S.W. 

x. 510 ; xi. 32). 

From what small causes, &c. 
In the first edition of ' The Rape of the 
Lock,' the second line reads 

What mighty quarrels rise from trivial things. 
The word " quarrels " makes it likely that 
Pope was thinking of the best-known in- 
stance of his generalization, viz., Aris., 
' Politics,' Bk. VII. c. iv. : " Revolutions 
are not about trifles, but spring from trifles." 

H. C N. 

On the ninth day of November. 

The whole ballad ' Farewell to Kings- 
bridge ' (ante, p. 9), with its tune, is printed 
in ' Songs of the West ' by the Rev. S. 
Baring-Gould. It is apparently traditional ; 
see the note concerning it in the introduction 
to the work cited. W. PEBCY MEBBICK. 

Elvetham, Shepperton. 

455 ; xi. 17). In ' Recollections of Ban- 
nister ' we read : 

"Foote died at an inn in Dover, October 21, 

1777. In the church of St. Mary in that town there 
is a monument to his memory ; and it has been 
generally imagined that Foote was buried there 
>Such, however, is not the fact. Mr. Jewell, at the 
representation of half the actors and dramatists of 
the day, brought the body to London, in order that 
it might be puolicly interred in Westminster Abbey ; 
but after he had taken this step, no funds were 
forthcoming, and he buried his friend at his own 
expense in the cloisters.' 


The inscription quoted by MB. BAVINGTON 
JONES from the stone in St. Mary's Church, 
Dover, makes no reference to the interment 
of Foote. But in the late Col. Joseph 
Lemuel Chester's magnum opus, ' The Mar- 
riage, Baptismal, and Burial Registers in 
the Collegiate Church or Abbey of St. Peter 
Westminster' (1876), p. 424, we find under 
date 1777 the following entry : " Nov. 3 
Samuel Foot, Esq ; aged 55, in the West 
Cloister." The name is there spelt withoui 

;he final e. In a foot-note it says : " He 
died 21st Oct. at the ' Ship ' Inn, Dover, 
on his way to France." 

Additional evidence is to be found in 
3ean Stanley's ' Historical Memorials of 
Westminster Abbey' (1868), p. 305, which 
states : "In the same year [that is, 1777], 
n the West Cloister, was interred the 
)omedian Samuel Foote, who pleased Dr. 
Johnson against his will." There does not 
appear to be the possibility of an error in 
:hese records. 

Another authority, and one of almost 
qual weight, may be quoted. Mrs. A. 
Murray Smith, a daughter of the late Dean 
Bradley, in ' The Roll Call of Westminster 
Abbey' (1902), p. 270, states that Foote 
" died October 21st, 1777, on his way to 
seek health abroad, and was buried by torch- 
light at Westminster." This, like the 
others, appears to be an absolute statement 
of fact, and one can but feel that all these 
authorities must be right. 



[DiKGO also thanked for reply.] 

" OLD KING COLE " (10 S. x. 510 ; xi. 
13). I would refer Miss MOOYAABT to 
' Nursery Rhymes and Country Songs,' 
by M. H. Mason (Metzler), where she will 
find a traditional version of the tune _of this 
song, with the first two verses, wherein the 
jovial monarch calls for his fiddlers and 
drummers. Miss Mason suggests that the 
song may be continued, with the introduction 
of a new instrument at every verse, ad 
libitum. I think it is a pity that the author 
did not give us the last verse of the fullest 
copy she could get, as the traditional render- 
ing of the monotone to which the cumulative 
part of the chorus is sung in this and similar 
ditties often possesses a rhythmic fascination 
that might escape singers whose methods 
are conventionalized by musical instruction. 

Elvetham, Shepperton. 

FIBE ENGINES (10 S. xi. 8). The volume- 
the Rev. W. D. SWEETING evidently refers 
to is ' A Record of the International Fire 
Exhibition, Earl's Court, London, 1903,' by 
Edwin O. Sachs, Architect. It is an ex- 
haustive tome, illustrated by 270 photo- 
lithographs, and was published by the 
British Fire Prevention Committee, 1, 
Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, in the same year, 
price 15s. 

The oldest (dated) manual engine ex- 
hibited in that wonderful collection appears 
to have been formerly infuse at Dunstable 

10 s. XL JAN. 16, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(now preserved by Messrs. Shand, Mason 
& Co., Blackfriars), and was made in 1570. 
The next, in regard to age, was a two-men 
manual, dated 1626, from Exeter. For 
upwards of one hundred years it formed the 
sole protection from fire which the city 
possessed. Carried by hand-poles and 
shoulder-straps, it was stationed at the 
Guildhall. This was lent to Earl's Court 
by Mr. William Pett, captain of the Exeter 
Fire Brigade. The officer in question (for- 
merly the champion for one-man drill in 
all Great Britain) rescued this most interest- 
ing relic from a barn in the neighbourhood, 
where, for many decades, it had lain neg- 
lected and forgotten. The volume contains 
full-page illustrations of both these old fire 
engines. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

Mr. Sachs's ' Record of the International 
Fire Exhibition ' may be consulted at the 
Patent Office Library. A. E. A. 

I had till quite recently a copy of the 
Earl's Court Fire Exhibition Catalogue, 
but have preserved only a single leaf, headed 
* Fighting the Flames.' This describes the 
pageant illustrating the various methods of 
*' fire fighting " from Roman times to the 
present day. 

Among the relics exhibited were " a 
primitive seventeenth-century engine from 
Dunstable " ; the manual engine Deluge, 
which " tradition says was present at the 
Great Fire of London in 1666 " ; a broad- 
Tbrimmed hat made of solid leather, for pro- 
tection from falling sparks, dated 1738 ; 
leather buckets of the same period ; a small 
-wheeled hand engine, dated 1735, from 
Windsor Castle ; and a manual engine from 
^Market Deeping, 1776, mounted on a cart. 

The illustrations in the Catalogue included 
' The Fire Engines of the Sixties,' ' The 
Destruction of the Houses of Parliament, 
16 Oct., 1834,' the ' Ancient Manual from 
Windsor Castle,' ' Oil Torch in Use in Exeter 
up to 1888,' and ' Old Fire Engine, Seven- 
teenth Century.' G. H. W. 

Possibly Merryweathers, the fire-engine 
makers at the corner of Bow Street and 
Long Acre, could assist the querist, as this 
firm showed several ancient engines amongst 
their exhibits. H. S E. 

" TEENICK " (10 S. x. 467). MR. MAYHEW 
is right : teenick is merely an individualism 
for tenet, which is the regular form of the 
word in Kent, and often appears in adver- 
tisements in the local newspapers. It is 

more substantial than brushwood, and not 
so big as " binders." 

" For sale, stakes, binders, tenet, peastieks, good, 
cheap, to clear. E. Clayson. Stelling, near Canter- 
bury.'' Kentish Express Newspaper, 29 March, 
1902, p. 10, col. 2. 

In Boy's ' Sandwich,' p. 80, there is an 
extract from the books of account of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital (about 1546) : 
" Paid for tenyng and mendyng of gapps, 


BENEDICTINE (10 S. x. 469). I have 
before me a book with excellent coloured 
illustrations entitled ' La Benedictine,' given 
to me by M. Pierre le Grand of the company 
of the " Distillerie de la Benedictine," in 
response to a letter which I wrote in order 
that I might get the information wanted. 
I visited the distillery some thirty years 
ago, where I found not only a factory of 
the excellent liqueur, but also a most in- 
teresting museum of ecclesiastical and 
monkish relics. The abbreviated story of 
the liqueur is as follows. 

At the beginning of the sixteenth century 
there was in the old Abbey of Fecamp, 
whose earliest date M. Gourdon de Genouillac 
places in 665, a learned monk, Dom Bernardo 
Vincelli, alchymist and physician, who 
devoted himself to the study of simples 
and the preparation of medicinal liquors. 
He compounded " 1'Elixir benedictin." It 
is said that when Francis I. visited the 
Abbey of Fecamp in 1534, he desired to 
taste this liqueur, whose reputation had 
travelled to the Louvre. Afterwards having 
heard a certain Breton gentleman boasting 
of the wines of his province, he said : 

" Your wines of Brittany ! they are the rawest 
and roughest in my kingdom, gocd for giving the 

colic. ! But if you were to talk to me of the 

good liqueur of the monks of Fecamp ! Faith of a 
gentleman ! never have I tasted better." 

Dom Bernardo Vincelli committed his receipt 
to parchment for the use of his successors. 

The abbey was all but destroyed in the 
Revolution, and the monks were expelled. 
However, the title-deeds and many other 
writings, &c. (among them the precious 
manuscript of Vincelli), were saved, and 
entrusted to certain devoted friends, among 
whom were the relatives of the former 
procureur fiscal of the abbey, M. Martin 
Couillard, maternal grandfather of M. 
Alexandre Le Grand, the founder of the 
Benedictine Distillery, who became possessor 
of the receipt in 1863. 

I do not find in the book the date when 
he began to make the liqueur. If my memory 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. ie, im 

is correct, I tasted Benedictine for the first 
time, not far from Fecamp, about 1874. 


The business connected with the manu- 
facture of ben^dictine is now carried on 
at Rue Theogene Bouffart, 108, Fecamp. 


" BROKENSELDE " (10 S. xi. 10). Two 
solutions are possible. If the spelling is 
really English, then seld is a variant of 
settle, a seat, and meant a seat or chair, 
from A.-S. seld. But in the phrase " le 
Brokenselde " it is more likely that the 
spelling is Anglo-French ; and I have fully 
shown, in my ' Notes on Etymology,' p. 474, 
that the A.F. initial s was freely used in 
place of our sh ; and, if so, then " le Broken- 
selde " simply means " the broken shield." 

Brokenshire is the surname of a well, 
known resident in this city. HARRY HEMS. 

EL-SERTTJAH (10 S. x. 469). The word 
may be meant for sdriyah, mastlike, from 
sari, a mast, or for serdyah, a palace. I have 
failed to locate the pillar in the latitude 
named. H. P. L. 

THE TENTH WAVE (10 S. x. 445, 511). 
Nine is the multiple of three, but I do not 
understand the tenth. The greatness of 
the third wave is alluded to in ^Eschylus, 
'P. V.' 1015, and Euripides, ' Hippolytus,' 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

(10 S. x. 430). In Haydn's 'Dictionary 
of Dates,' 20th ed., under ' Yew Trees,' it is 
stated, " A general plantation of them for 
the use of archers was ordered by Richard III. 
1483," Stow's ' Chron.' being cited as the 

In ' The Encyclopaedia Britannict. ' (9th 
ed.), vol. xxiv. p. 744, it is stated : 

" The planting of the yew in churchyards was at 
one time supposed to have been done with a view to 
the supply of yew staves. But while importation 
from abroad was fostered, there seems to have been 
no statute enforcing the cultivation of the yew in 
Great Britain. On the other hand, a statute of 
Ed. I. (cited in Gard, Chron., 6th Mar., 1880) states 
that the trees were often planted in churchyards to 
defend the church from high winds." 

I may say that, although I have consulted 
the legal works most likely to give informa- 
tion on the point, I have so far been unable 
to discover any statute " ordering a general 
plantation of yew trees for the purpose of 
archery." R. VAUGHAN GOWER. 



Characters and Passages from Notebooks of SamveT 
Butler. Edited by A. R. Waller. (Cambridge, 
University Press.) 

THE author ot ' The Way of All Flesh ' remarks 
that it is a sign of the "literary instinct" when a 
man is in the habit of carrying about a notebook 
and jotting down his thoughts and observations. 
Whatever may be the truth of the theory, his 
illustrious namesake might be cited as one excellent 
example in support of it. We have authority for 
the statement that this Samuel Butler would from 
his childhood "make observations and reflections 
on everything one said and did," and his manu- 
scripts prove that he was not content until he could 
set down his impressions in black and white. It is 
obvious that the writing of ' Characters ' must 
have been peculiarly congenial to a man of his 
temperament, and it is not surprising that lie 
should have indulged his taste for it perhaps to 
excess. That class of composition was exceedingly 
popular in England during the first half of the 
seventeenth century. Sir Thomas Overbury had 
inaugurated it with marked success ; Earle prose- 
cuted it with brilliant and delightful results ; 
Fuller dallied with it charmingly; and a host of 
other writers paid passing homage to the fashion. 
Few of them, however, can have devoted such pro- 
longed attention to it as Butler, whose literary 
portrait-gallery, now fully displayed in the present 
edition, contains nearly a couple of hundred more 
or less finished pieces. Of these the first hundred 
and twenty may be familiar to the student from 
Thyer's edition of 1759 ; the rest of them, together 
with a miscellany of observations and" reflections 
on various subjects, are now printed for the first 
time, and constitute the larger portion of a very 
well-filled volume. 

It must be admitted, we think, that Thyer picked 
out the best of the collection. There are among the 
new portraits several that are happily studied and 
forcibly executed ; but many of them are to a con- 
siderable extent repetitions or variants of figures 
already drawn, and as a whole they do not add 
much to Butler's achievement. However, it is 
satisfactory to have them in their entirety, and it 
need hardly be said 'that they contain plenty of 
valuable matter. Butler at his best is an admirably 
vigorous painter of types, though his somewhat 
elaborate method is not so pleasing as the lighter 
and more graceful manner of Earle and Overbury. 
His observation is wonderfully minute ; he has a 
keen judgment, an inexhaustible wit, a fertile 
fancy, and a remarkable power of expression. His 
sketches, therefore, are full of excellent things 
excellently put. Two or three of his sentences, 
taken at random, will suggest the quality of his 
writing better than any description. Of the Hen- 
pect Man he says that "when he was married he 
promised to worship his Wife with his Soul in- 
stead of his Body, and endowed her among his. 
worldly Goods with his Humanity. He changed 
Sexes with his Wife, andput off the old Man to put 
on the new Woman"; of the Antiquary that ''he 
is a great Time-Server, but it is of Time out of 
Mind, to which he conforms exactly, but is wholly 
retired from the present " ; of the Haranguer that 

io s. XL .TAX. is, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

"he does- not talk to the Man, but attacks him, and 
whomsoever he can get into his Hands he lays 

violent Language on His Tongue is always in 

Motion, tho' very seldom to the Purpose, like a 
Barber's Scissars, which are always snipping, as 
well when they do not cut, as when they do " ; and 
of the Small Poet that "when he writes, he com- 
monly steers the Sense of his Lines by the Rhime 
that is at the End of them, as Butchers do Calves 
by the Tail." 

Such utterances have the shrewdness, crispness, 
and point that distinguish all the great writers of 
"Characters " from Theophrastus downwards, and 
Butler is full of them. On the other hand, it is 
worth noting that with all his brilliancy he has 
distinct limitations. He lacks tolerance, and the 
humour that accompanies it ; his wit is too often, 
in Lamb's phrase, a lumen siccum ; and he is apt to 
become fierce and exaggerated. His portraits are, 
almost if not quite without exception, severe and 
satiric ; there are no representations of noble and 
wholesome humanity such as his predecessors were 
careful to intersperse among their base or ludicrous 
types. But when all is said, his work is worthy of 
careful study, not only on account of its literary 
merits, but also because it throws a great deal of 
light upon the social conditions and customs of the 
time, and this excellent edition of it is therefore 
most acceptable. 

The 'Miscellaneous Observations' occupy some 
two hundred pages of the volume, and deal with 
diverse topics religion, statesmanship, literature, 
and so forth. On the whole, they must be pronounced 
a little disappointing. Butler was not a great 
thinker, and comparatively few of his dicta strike 
us as offering anything that is really original or 
suggestive, though they are often tersely and forcibly 
The Poetical Work* of George Crabbe. Edited by 

A. J. Carlyle and R. M. Carlyle. (Frowde.) 
THIS is another worthy addition to the "Oxford 
Editions " of the poets, which have long been recog- 
nized as trustworthy and supervised by competent 
hands. In the present case the extent of Crabbe's 
work necessitates rather small type for a single 
volume. A reproduction of a portrait by Pickersgill 
of the poet forms the frontispiece, and the only notes 
are those made by Crabbe himself. In the able intro- 
duction the editors speak of Crabbe as " almost 
forgotten," which is, we think, exaggerating 
matters. He has always, we are sure, had select 
lovers among the best judges. Apart from his 
pungent and tonic outlook on real life, he shows at 
times " an antithetical cleverness " which is worthy 
of Pope. His muse, too, is by no means untaught. 
Glancing through the pages, we come upon a skilful 
turn here from Horace or Ovid, there from Gold- 
smith or Prior. 

WE have frequently suggested that the Baptists 
should follow the excellent precedent set by the 
Congregationalists, and form a society for the pur- 
pose of collecting historical records and information 
relating to their body. We are gratified to find 
that the Baptist Historical Society has now been 
founded, its President being Mr. G. P. Gould, 
the Principal of Regent's Park College, while 
its Vice-Presidents and Committee are well known 
for their learning and influence ; it already 
numbers 120 members. With such a start there 
is every reason to believe that much good work 
will result. 

The first number of the Transaction* contains a 
Prefatory Note by the President, who rightly anti- 
cipates that the information contained in the 
Transactions " will become a source of wealth to 
the future historian of the Baptist denomination." 
The first paper, by Mr. Champlin Burrage, is on a 
manuscript, 'Early Welsh Baptist Doctrines,' 
ascribed to Vavasor Powell. This is followed by a 
letter from Carey to his son. The third paper, 
'Baptists and Bartholomew's Day,' is by the 
Secretary, Dr. Whitley, who disposes of the notion 
that any considerable number of ministers holding 
Baptist views needed the impulse of the Act of 
Uniformity to bring about the severance of their 
connexion with the State Establishment. Dr. 
Whitley maintains that Baptists were not Non- 
conformists in the old sense of that word. 

Mr. Butt - Thompson supplies an account of 
William Vidler, Baptist and Universalist, born at 
Battle in Sussex on May 4th, 1758. He became 
pastor of a Particular Baptist church there in 1780. 
On being expelled from the Baptist denomination 
on account of his religious views, he came to London 
and joined the Unitarians, and in 1804 started The 
Unitarian Evangelical Society, and lectured on its 
behalf each Thursday at the chapel in Leather Lane. 
He died on the 23rd of August, 1816, and was 
succeeded in the ministry by William Johnson Fox, 
equally with Vidler "an old man eloquent." An 
obituary notice of Fox appeared in The Athenaeum* 
of the llth of June, 1864. 

The last article is 'Porton Baptist Church,. 
1655-85,' by Mr. Arthur Tucker, who tells us that 
"the burial-ground is still used as the last resting- 
place of members of the Baptist church in the 
village." As there has been a long discussion in 
' N. & Q.' in reference to early tombstones of 
Dissenters, it would be interesting to know the 
earliest dates of those in this ground. 

The Transactions can be obtained at the Baptist 
Union Publication Department, Southampton Row. 

The National Review for this month has its usual 
vivid views of politics, beginning with ' Episodes 
of the Month.' Mr. F. W. Jowett, M.P., con- 
tributes ' A Labour View of the House of Commons,' 
and points out many weaknesses in the work done 
by the present system. ' Are Americans Pro- 
vincial?' is asked by Mr. H. W. Horwill, who- 
offers instances of the megalomania resulting in 
myopia among some Americans. Mr. Austin Dobson< 
gossips very agreeably about ' The Oxford Thacke- 
ray,' but we think he might have given us a little 
more criticism, which Prof. Saintsbury's prefaces 
strongly invite. Mr. F. S. Oliver is clever, as 
might be expected, but not particularly sound, we 
think, in his discussion of ' The Nature of a Whig.' 
Mr. George Hookham. whose name is new to us, 
has tackled afresh 'The Shakespearian Problem.' 
He makes constant reference to Mr. Greenwood's 
recent book on the subject, Mr. Sidney Lee, and the 
late Prof. Churton Collins, and he thinks that he has 
proved " that in his own day Shakespeare's poetry ,. 
as poetry, was not thought anything very won- 
derful," and " that the arguments, at any rate of 
the principal witness for the defence [Mr. Lee],, 
are not worth serious consideration." We 
merely remark that, on the evidence of this 
short article alone, we cannot regard Mr. 
Hookham as a sufficiently deep student of the 
subject to satisfy us. A second article is, however, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL JAN. ie, urn. 


THE ' Hand - Katalog der neueren deutschen 
Literatur, 1908-9,' published by Mr. W. Muller of 
16 Grape Street. New Oxford Street, is a specimen 
of 'that admirable arrangement of books in which 
the Germans excel. The Catalogue runs to 
over a thousand pages, and the table of contents, 
to which an Index is added at the back, is sufficient 
to indicate the wide scope of the books offered, 
which are in satisfactory bindings. The prices we 
have examined are very reasonable. 

Mr. C. Richardson's Manchester Catalogue 56, 
contains under America Humboldt and Bonpland's 
'Atlas Pittoresque,' Paris, 1810, 51.; also Stattbrde's 
' Geographicall and Anthologicall Description of all 
the Empires in this Terrestriall Globe,' 1618, having 
bound in the same volume Botero's ' Briefe De- 
scription of the Whole World,' 1617, and two other 
works, 1612-18, 15/. Under Arabic are two lexicons 
Bodger's, 21. 2s., and Lane's, 4/. 4*. Milton col- 
lectors will find the 'Doctrine of Discipline and 
Divorce,' and other pamphlets, 1642-54, in one 
volume, old calf, LV. 15s. General items include 
five volumes of the Pickering Diamond Classics, II.; 
"The Badminton Library, 28 vols., 51. 5s.; Cun- 
ningham's 'Nell Gwyu,' first edition, 1852, It. 4.?.; 
"The Delphin Classics," 141 vols., 1819-30, U. 10s.; 
Landor's Works, 8 vols., half -calf, 51. 10s.; Grosart's 
-edition of Spenser, 9 vols., large paper, 4/. 17s. 6d.; 
'The Paston Letters,' 6 vols., 21.; and Motley's 
' United Netherlands,' 4 vols., 31. There is a good 
list under Dialects. 

Messrs. Suckling & Co.'s Catalogue of Engraved 
Portraits contains several of the Bonaparte family, 
including Napoleon's father, mother, brothers, and 
sisters, the Chevalier d'Eon, Edward FitzGerald, 
Mrs. Fitzherbert, Leigh Hunt, " Stella," "L. E. L.," 
Humphry Lloyd, Nelson, Milton by Marshall, Mrs. 
Piozzi, Pope, Sir William Overenc! Priestley (the 
husband of Lady Priestley, whose interesting book 
of reminiscences we noticed last week), Richard 
Rawlinson, the antiquary, Rousseau (printed in 
colours, with view of his tomb), Mrs. Sheridan, 
Albert Smith, Sydney Smith, and Hester Tra- 
descant and her son (she drowned herself, it is 
said, because she was compelled to give up the 
family collection at Lambeth to Elias Ashmole). 
There is also a mezzotint of Samuel Rogers' s break- 
fast table by Mottram from a painting by John 
Doyle. The price of this is 21. 2s. (published at 
:Sl, 8s.). 

Messrs. Henry Young Sons of Liverpool send 
us their Catalogue CCCXCVIL, containiiig the first 
editions of ' Paradise Lost ' and ' Regained,' also 
' Samson Agonistes.' They are perfect copies in old 
calf, each enclosed in specially made case, morocco, 
silk lined, 1669-71, 62/. 10s. A copy of the first 
illustrated edition of these poems, 1688, is 6/. 6s. ; 
a set of Milton, including his prose \vorks, edited 
by Todd and Symmons, 14 vols., full russia, 1806-9, 
9/. 9s. ; and Mitford's edition, 8 vols., full bound 
levant by Zaehnsdorf, 1863, 9^. 10s. Under Kelms- 
cott Press is the Chaucer, margins uncut, as issued, 
Wl. ; also Morris's ' The Water of the Wondrous 
Isles,' 1897, 61. 6s. There is a fine set of Todd's 
' Spenser,' 8 vols., large paper, full morocco. 1805, 
111. 11s. Under Stevenson is the Pentland Edition, 
20 vols., IW. 10s. The first edition of 'The Task,' 
1782, and of 'John Gilpin,' 1785, 2 vols., full levant 

by Riviere, are SI. 8s. Other entries comprise a set 
of Chalmers's ' Poets,' 21 vols., full morocco coeval 
binding, 1810, 15/. 15s. ; Edition de Luxe of 
George Meredith, 32 vols., 1896-8, 15/. ; and 
Ackermann's edition of ' Dr. Syntax,' full tree calf, 
1820-21, "1. 15s. Under Liverpool is a collection of 
542 pamphlets, made by Dr. Dawson, in 25 vols., 
1710-1861, 201. 

' FAIRBAIRN'S BOOK OF CRESTS ' will be reissued 
immediately by Messrs. Jack. As this standard 
work has always been somewhat costly, it is good 
news to many that, with numerous revisions 
and additions, it will be obtainable at a moderate 
price. It contains no fewer than 5,000 engravings 
and 30,000 entries. 

THE text of the laws of Ho\vel the Good is about 
to be published by the Oxford University Press, 
under the title of ' Welsh Medieval Law.' A 
thirteenth-century MS. in the British Museum, 
the oldest and best of its class, is reproduced, with 
translation, introduction, appendix, glossary index, 
and map by Mr. A. W. Wade-Evans. The book is 
intended primarily for the student of ths political 
history of Wales, but will probably interest a 
larger public. 


We must call special attention to the follomn<i 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake toanswe~r queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

F. Anticipated 10 S. x. 247. 

MAJOR CUTHBERTSON ("I shall journey through 
this world but once"). This has been exhaustively 
discussed in ' N. & Q.' ; see 8 S. ix. 169, 239 ; xi. 

CORRIGENDUM. Ante, p. 35, col. 1, 11. 11 and 15 
from foot, for " Bandy Leg Lane" read Bandy Leg 


Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane. E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

10 s. xi. JAN. 16. imi NOTES AND QUERIES. 






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CONTENTS. No. 265. 

NOTES : Pope's ' Atticus,' 61 Dodsley's Collection of 
Poetry, 62 Tooke and Halley Families, 64 Presentation 
Copy of Burton's 'Anatomy' -"Cummerbund" Essex 
Martyrs' Memorial "Raised Hamlet on them," 65 
Thimbles Lady Honoria Howard "To Rub" at Cards- 
Great Britain: Early Reference "Shoe," 66 John of 
Cronstadt 'Jane Eyre' and Minerva Lane, 67. 

QUERIES : Edward Kemp, Landscape Gardener Old 
Trinity House, Worcester Grindleton, 67 Wentworth of 
Pontefract Sir Samuel Morland Sanderson of Great 
Bradley, 63 Major VV. Lawlor Blancher of Hull 
Thomas Bainbridge Clement's Inn Knocker' The Mil- 
lennial Star ' Essex's Irish Campaign Scottish Law Case 
Third Foot Guards at Bayonne, 69 Sir Patrick Houston 
Oxen drawing Carriages Egg good in Parts Malcolm 
Fleming and the King Waddington Place-Name, 70. 

REPLIES : Nicholas Breakspear, Pope Adrian IV., 70 
Christmas Day and Lady Day" Christmas Pig" "The 
Wooset," 71 Orkney Hogmanay Song Befana : Epiphany 
' Folkestone Fiery Serpent ' Leg growing after Death 
Freeholders in the Time of Elizabeth Cockburnspath, 
72 Italian Genealogy Abbe deLubersac Ships renamed 
after the Restoration Capt. Rutherford at Trafalgar, 73 
Pierrepont's Refuge Sir H. Walker: Boyne Man-of- 
War Bruges : its Pronunciation, 74 Surnames ending 
in -nell Pimlicp : Eyebright, 75 Hynmers of New 
Inn Index Saying Mendez Pinto, 76 "Y-called": 
" Y-coled" "Proxege and Senage " Rod of Brickwork 
Card Terms, 77 Dr. Edward Young Genealogical Cir- 
culating Library Phillis Wheatley and her Poems, 78. 

TTOTES ON BOOKS : Hilton Price on Old Base Metal 
Spoons 'The Nun Ensign' ' Interme'diaire.' 


IN his essay on Pope, which appears in 
vol. xv. of the " Author's Edition " of his 
collected works, De Quincey makes some 
good play with the so-called " correctness " 
of the poet. After pointing out that the 
notion as to this distinctive quality was 
" first started by Walsh and propagated by 
Warton," the critic takes up the definite 
position that " it is not from superior correct- 
ness that Pope is esteemed more correct, but 
because the compass and sweep of his 
performances lie more within the range of 
ordinary judgments." Then, after discuss- 
ing what may probably be included under 
the term " correctness," he categorically 
affirms " that Pope is not distinguished by 
correctness ; nay, that, as compared with 
Shakspeare, he is eminently incorrect." 
Admitting that in Shakespeare there may be 
minor defects, every one of which, however, 
" will always be found irrelevant to the 
main central thought, or to its expression," 
he proceeds to elaborate the case against 
Pope in these characteristic terms : 

"Now turn to Pope; the first striking passage 
which offers itself to our memory is the famous 
character of Addison, ending thus : 

Who would not laugh, if such a man there be, 

Who but must weep if Atticus were he ? 

Why must we laugh ? Because we find a grotesque 
assembly of noble and ignoble qualities. Very well ; 
but why, then, must we weep ? Because this assem- 
blage is found actually existing in a man of genius. 
Well, that is a good reason for weeping ; we weep 
for the degradation of human nature. But then 
revolves the question, Why must we laugh? 
Because, if the belonging to a man of genius were a 
sufficient reason for weeping, so much we know 
from the very first. The very first line says, ' Peace 
to all such. But were there one whose fires true 
genius kindles and fair fame inspires.' Thus falls to 
the ground the whole antithesis of this famous 
character. We are to change our mood from 
laughter to tears upon a sudden discovery that the 
character belonged to a man of genius ; and this we 
had already known from the beginning." 

Probably quoting from memory, in the 
manner characteristic of him, De Quincey 
transposes the two chief clauses in the 
culminating couplet of the picture. There 
is a profound and radical difference between 
the significance of the double appeal made 
by the poet and that in the presentment 
offered by his critic. What Pope asks is, 
" Who but must laugh ? " the query in- 
dicating that every student, even every mere 
observer, of human character will be unable 
to refrain from merriment over such a 
fantastic product as the hypothetical delinea- 
tion brings under his purview. He will 
laugh, the poet suggests, in spite of himself, 
because he will consider such a personality 
as that submitted for his criticism at once 
abnormal, chimerical, and ridiculous. Such 
a heterogeneous composite in mortal form 
the world never witnessed before, and the 
mere statement of its absurd totality may 
be expected to receive no serious attention, 
but simply to provoke Homeric laughter. 
The very contradiction that such incon- 
gruous qualities as those conjoined in the 
sketch offer to the high purpose and the 
serene dignity associated with genius, is 
sufficient to preclude every form of appre- 
ciation except that which spontaneously 
and joyfully hails a phantasmal flight or the 
production of a gorgeous caricature. We 
laugh at the impossible but diverting ab- 
straction, not because we will, but simply 
from sheer inability to restrain our mirth. 
Then, suddenly, we are brought up with a 
shock, and made to perceive that, from our 
preconceptions and prejudices, we have 
somewhat prematurely indulged our hilarity. 
This is all very well, the poet seems to say, 
and absolutely in keeping with amiable 
convention ; but even a constant com- 
panion and most intimate friend may fail 
to know all the secrets of a man's character. 
What would be said if I were to assure you 
that one known to yourselves, and respected 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tio s. XL JAN. 23, 1909-. 

and admired because of your limited know- 
ledge of him, is such an objectionable and 
extremely dangerous personage as that 
whom I have just delineated ? " Who 
would not weep, if Atticus were he ? " It is 
true, as De Quincey points out, that we 
knew from the beginning " that the character 
belonged to a man of genius " ; but it ig 
no less true that, all along, we were prone 
to regard the delineation as arbitrary, 
extravagant, and preposterous. Therefore 
we were amused throughout, and finally, 
letting ourselves go, indulged in appropriate 
laughter. But the moment the personal 
application was made, we remembered the 
frailty of human nature, bethought us of 
those impenetrable recesses which are behind 
every mask, and straightway grieved because 
true genius and fair fame could be thus sadly 
and inexplicably sullied and tarnished. 

It is in this case very much as it is with 
Byron, when he apostrophizes man as the 
" pendulum betwixt a smile and tear," and 
beseeches him earnestly to consider all that 
is implied in the ruins of Rome. " Admire," 
he exclaims, 

exult, despise, laugh, weep, for here 
There is such matter for all feeling ! 
Every one of the predicates thus used by 
the later poet might be taken in the order 
in which he gives them, and used to test the 
quality of the great character-sketch ex- 
tended by his nimble and pungent pre- 
decessor. We shall not, in doing so, neces- 
sarily concede for a moment that the pre- 
sentment is true, or even that it is defensible 
in its least significant details ; but we shall 
not be animated by the right critical spirit 
unless we admit and heartily recognize its 
keenly subtle conception, and the artistic 
fitness and grace manifested in its skilful 
gradation and embellishment. 



(See 10 S. vi. 361, 402 ; vii. 3, 82, 284, 404, 
442 ; viii. 124, 183, 384, 442 ; ix. 3, 184, 
323, 463 ; x. 103, 243, 305, 403.) 
FOUR small pieces by Anthony Whistler 
are printed in vol. iv. 320-22 and v. 60-61. 
The song beginning with the words " While, 
Strephon, thus you teaze me " (in vol. iv. 
p. 322), is reprinted in Dr. John Aikin's 
' Vocal Poetry,' p. 114. 

The family of Whistler owned land in 
Berkshire and Oxfordshire from the thir- 
teenth century. The manor of Whitchurch 
in Oxfordshire, on the bank of the Thames 

opposite Pangbourne, became their property 
in 1605, and remained with them for over 
170 years. John Whistler, gent., was buried 
at Whitchurch on 23 Dec., 1626. He 
possessed the manor and advowson, and 
founded a bread-charity for fourteen poor 
people of the parish. The Rev. Henry 
Whistler was buried there on 28 Aug., 1672,. 
having been the rector of the parish for 
56 years. 

Antony (sic) Whistler, the poet, was bap- 
tized at Whitchurch on 15 Nov., 1714. 
His father, the Rev. Antony Whistler, son 
of John Whistler (bur. in 1690) and Elizabeth 
his wife (who survived until 22 April, 1732), 
was baptized there on 17 Feb., 1669/70 ; 
matriculated from Wadham College, Oxford, 
on 17 March, 1686 ; was Goodridge Exhibi- 
tioner at the college in 1688 and 1689, and 
a Scholar from 26 Sept., 1690, to 1696. 
He graduated B.A. 19 Jan., 1690/91, and 
M.A. 21 June, 1693. In the year 1700 
he was appointed by Gilbert Ironside, the 
Bishop of Hereford, who had been Warden 
of the College during most of Whistler's, 
undergraduate days, to the vicarage of 
Kington in Herefordshire, and to the pre- 
bendal stall of Pratum Majus in the cathedral 
church of Hereford. It is said that he- 
resigned these preferments a few months 
before his death. He was buried at Whit- 
church on 6 Feb., 1719/20. His wife was 
Anne, daughter of Gilbert Cale of Bristol,, 
who was admitted as Scholar of Wadham 
College on 5 Oct., 1677. Slabs to several, 
members of the family, including one in 
Latin to the memory of the Prebendary,, 
are on the floor of the nave in the parish 
church of Whitchurch. 

Antony, the poet, was educated at Eton, 
but in spite of every assistance in school- 
training he had, says his friend Graves- 
of Claverton, in his interesting recollections, 
of Shenstone, " such a dislike to learning 
languages that he could not read the Classics, 
but no one formed a better judgment of 
them." He matriculated from Pembroke 
College, Oxford, on 21 Oct., 1732, when 
nearly eighteen years old, Shenstone having 
matriculated there on the previous 25 May. 
Graves gives a lively account of the chief 
sets among the undergraduates. There 
was one coterie which drank water and read 
Theophrastus, Epictetus, and, in spite of 
Bentley's criticisms, the epistles of Phalaris. 
Another group drank flagons of ale, smoked 
tobacco, and sang bacchanalian catches. 
A third set, mostly gentlemen commoners, 
took port and punch, and wound up their 
proceedings with bottles of claret. Another 

10 S. XL JAN. 23, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

company met to hear the news, and discuss j 
the politics of the day. Graves had met 
Shenstone and Whistler in all the sets except 
that of the water-drinkers, but they did not 
seem in their element with any set. 

The more familiar acquaintance of all 
three began at a breakfast by Shenstone. 
It was a protracted meeting, and the first 
of many. At last they came together every 
day, morning and evening, in each other's 
chambers, reading " plays and poetry, 
Spectators or Tatlers, and other works of 
easy digestion, and sipping Florence wine." 
They were soon considered " a dangerous 
triumvirate," and accused of penning sati- 
rical characters of their neighbours. 

Whistler was described at that time as 
" a young man of great delicacy of senti- 
ment." Twenty years later he lived " in 
elegant style, and evinced a refined taste 
and softness of manners." A pleasing little 
touch of Gilbertian humour is recorded by 
Graves (p. 119). Shenstone is depicted as 
moralizing (during a journey in the Eastern 
counties of England) at the sight of some 
cottages " where all the unambitious people 
are warm and happy or at rest in their beds," 
and contrasting their condition with that of 
those in the higher circles of life. " Ah," 
said Whistler, " some of them are as wretched 
as princes, for what we know to the con- 
trary." While at Oxford he published with- 
out his name, in 1736, " The Shuttlecock, 
an heroi-comical poem in four canto's " (sic), 
which was prompted by his favourite poem, 
Pope's ' Rape of the Lock.' He wrote a great 
part of a tragedy on the story of Dido, and 
left other manuscripts which, in the opinion 
of Graves, " would be no discredit to his 
memory." When Shenstone was engaged 
"in a poetical contest with some writers 
in The Gentleman's Magazine against enigmas 
or riddles," he called to his assistance 
Whistler, Graves, and one or two others. 

Like most other young men of means at 
that period, Whistler did not take a degree 
at the University. He lived in retirement 
on his estate at Whitchurch, with a visit 
to London in most years, and with an occa- 
sional journey to Oxford or Bristol. He 
had been to the latter city in April, 1754, 
and meditated a trip to Shenstone at the 
Leasowes in the summer. His fatal illness 
he suffered much from gout before 
began " with a sore throat, which continued 
for some days without any apparent symp- 
toms of danger." He was thought, indeed, 
to be getting better, but he was seized by 
" a mortification in his inside which the 
power of art " could not stop. He died 

on the 10th of May, 1754, and was buried 
at Whitchurch on 17 May, his Christian 
name being then spelt as Anthony. 

The letter, dated 26 May, from John Whist - 
er to Shenstone, on the death of his brother, 
s given in Hull's ' Select Letters,' ii. 81-3. 
The news was received with deep regret. 
Their " little strifes and bickerments "' 
were mentioned by Shenstone in his letter 
;o Graves on the death of their friend, but 
ne hastened to add that they " fondly loved 
and esteemed each other." " The trium- 
virate which was the greatest happiness 
and the greatest pride of my life is broken. 
. . . . ' Tales animas oportuit esse Concordes " 
was his reflection. All the works that had 
been executed at the Leasowes had been 
carried out with Whistler's " approbation 
and amusement in my eye," and he would 
" inscribe the larger urn to his memory." 
The original of this communication is among 
the MSS. of the late Mr. Alfred Morrison; 
it is printed in the catalogue of his collec- 
tion, vi. 124, and in Shenstone's works, 
iii. 262-3. 

Many letters from Whistler to Shenstone 
are printed by Thomas Hull in his volumes 
(i. 102-6, 131-4, 160-63 ; ii. 22-62), and one 
from Shenstone to him is contained in them 
(ii. 15-19). Shenstone was anxious that 
his letters to Whistler should be preserved, 
but they were destroyed by John Whistler, 
whom Graves described as a sensible man, 

bred a merchant," but one who " enter- 
tained no very high idea of that sentimental 
intercourse." He sent Shenstone a ring in 
remembrance of his brother, but the gift 
was deemed an " inadequate memorial of 
their friendship." Johnson condemned the 
burning of these letters, as " Shenstone 
was a man whose correspondence was an 
honour " (' Tour to the Hebrides,' 29 Sept.). 

Anne, the widow of the Prebendary and 
the mother of the poet, was married by 
licence at Whitchurch on 15 Feb., 1725/6, 
to the Rev. Samuel Walker, the Rector of 
the parish from 1723 to 1768. She died on 
17 Aug., 1753, aged 62, and was buried 
on 24 August. He survived until 14 March, 
1768, and was buried on 21 March. The 
son of Henry Walker, he was born at Stafford 
in December, 1690, and was educated at 
Eton under the Rev. John Newborough, being 
probably the Walker entered in the 1707 
list. He was admitted pensioner at Trinity 
CoUege, Cambridge, on 10 Aug., 1708, where 
the Rev. Thomas Pilgrim was his tutor, 
and Scholar on 22 April, 1710. His degrees 
were B.A. 1712, M.A. 1716 ; and he became 
Minor Fellow on 3 Oct., 1715, and Major 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tio s. XL JAN. 23, im. 

Fellow on 3 July, 1716. He bequeathec 
to John Whistler and Elizabeth his wif 
certain buildings, orchards, and the capita 
messuage wherein he was then dwelling 
at Whitchurch. A mural tablet, in Latin 
to Walker, his wife, and her son Anthonj 
Whistler, is on the inner south wall of th 
chancel of that church. 

John Whistler was baptized at Whitchurcl- 
on 10 Oct., 1719 ; married early in 175J 
Mrs. H s ; and was buried there on 7 Nov. 
1780. His widow Elizabeth was also buriec 
there on 1 June, 1789, her age being 73. 

With the courteous assistance of Canon 
Trotter, the present Rector, I made a per 
sonal examination of the church registers 
and I am indebted to Mr. W. Aldis Wright 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, for the in- 
formation in its books on the academica 
career of Walker. My printed authoritie 
are Foster, ' Alumni Oxon.' ; Gardiner, 
'Wadham College,' i. 314, 349-50; Mac- 
leane, ' Pembroke College,' 1897, pp. 375-6 ; 
and Slatter, ' Account of Whitchurch,' 
pp. 33-5, 119-20. W. P. COURTNEY. 

(See 10 S. viii. 221, 373 ; ix. 386.) 

A RESUME of the known facts of Halley 
family history was published in The Genea- 
logist, New Series (London), for July, 1908 
(vol. xxv. pp. 5-14), and reprinted in 
pamphlet form with the addition of an 
abstract of the will of one James Pyke of the 
parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, dated 
18 July, 1750, witnessed by John Parry and 
Thos. Upton (Register Busby, fo. 186). 

Some new facts, however, have come to 
light that seem worth recording in your 
columns. Mr. R. J. Beevor reports this 
interesting discovery : 

"In the marriage register of the parish of St. 
Vedast, Foster Lane (published by the Harleian 
Society), I find Christopher Tooke and Margaret 
Binder married 10 June, 1652. ' Dinder ' is, no 
doubt, a transcriber's error for ' Kinder.' " 

This item undoubtedly refers to the parents 
of Mary Tooke who became the wife (1682) 
of the astronomer Dr. E. Halley. No 
further information has been found, as yet, 
touching the office of Auditor of the Ex- 
chequer said to have been held by Christopher 
Tooke ( 10 S. ix. 386). 

Christopher Tooke is said to be mentioned 
on p. 28 of N. Salmon's ' History of Hert- 
fordshire,' 1728. 

An English correspondent writes : 

" I do not like to think of Humphrey Halley as a 
tax-gatherer My view is that he was merely the 

channel by which this sum was transmitted by the 
Mayor of Huntingdon to the proper revenue 
authority in London." 

See 10 S. vi. 69 ; ix. 166. 

In a ' Memoir of the Life of Peter the Great,' 
John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1832, 
p. 93, it is stated that Dr. Halley spoke 
German fluently when in the company of 
the Czar (see 9 S. xii. 127), and that he 
accompanied the Czar on a visit to the 
Royal Observatory in Greenwich Park. The 
little book above mentioned contains a list 
of authorities. It might, therefore, be 
possible to discover the original source of 
the above statements, which have not else- 
where been found. 

The Philosophical Magazine for 1853 con- 
tains some extracts from the unpublished 
diary of Reuben Burrow (see 3 S. v. 107), 
including a copy of the inscription on Halley' s 
tomb at Lee (' Biog. Brit.,' iv. 2517), with 
the addition of the death of Mrs. C. Price. 

Examination by Mr. Beevor of a bundle 
of surgeons' certificates, under the initial H, 
in the Admiralty archives at the Public 
Record Office, showed that of Surgeon 
Halley to be missing, for what precise reason 
cannot easily be determined. His service 
was between 1732 and 1740 (see 10 S. ii. 
88, 224). 

A letter from the parish of Portsea indi- 
cates that there is no official record at 
Portsmouth of the burial of Surgeon Halley. 
He may have died at sea, but this appears 

During May, 1907, Mr. Beevor examined 
at Mr. Tregaskis's shop in High Holborn 
a water-colour sketch by Shepherd (fl. c, 
1824-42) representing a gateway of brick 
and stone. On the mount is a pencil state- 
ment (which " may be very probably is 
:ontemporary with the sketch") to the 
effect that the picture represents the former 
esidence of Dr. Halley at Haggerston, 
aerhaps the house in which he was born. 
The Librarian of the Shoreditch Public 
Liibrary informed Mr. Beevor that the house 
' must have been not far from where the 
:anal now runs, as that was the only part 
of Haggerston in which there were houses 
at the period" (1656). See 'Biog. Brit.,' 
v. 2494. 

A series of ' Extracts from British Ar- 
;hives, on the Families of Haley, Halley, 
'ike, &c.," appeared in The Magazine of 
History (New York) during 1906 and 1907. 

" Jeremie sonn of Edmond Haylye 
aptised," 1656, May 18. See ' Registers 
>f Hartshead Parish Church,' Yorkshire 
arish Register Society, vol. xvii. 

10 s. xi. JAN. 23, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


On the back cover of Punch for 24 June, 
1908, is a petition from the soap-makers 
of London, 1650, which includes the name 
of " Edm. Halley," the astronomer's father. 

1, Park Row, Chicago. 

COPY. (See 10 S. viii. 326.) On reading 
the essay on Robert Burton in Mr. Charles 
Whibley's 'Literary Portraits' (1904) I 
find that I was anticipated by him in point- 
ing out that the copy of the first edition 
of the ' Anatomy of Melancholy ' presented 
by the author to Christ Church is now in the 
British Museum. I regret not to have read 
Mr. Whibley' s essay earlier. His treatment 
of Burton is so scholarly, and at the same 
time so sympathetic so different from that 
dealt out by the late T. E. Brown in his 
curiously perverse ' Causerie ' in The New 
Review (vol. xiii.) that it may seem un- 
gracious to indicate a few inaccuracies. 
In view, however, of Burton's usual fate, 
one may perhaps be excused for an anxiety 
to secure exactness in all points. 

In a note on p. 261 Mr. Whibley speaks 
of " the famous title-page engraved by 
C. Le Blond." So Mr. A. H. Bullen styled 
the engraver in his introduction to Shilleto's 
edition. The engraver's name, however, 
appears on the title-page as C. Le Blon. 
In another place, a propos of the story of 
the drunken men who think the room is a 
ship, for which Burton refers his reader to 
Caelius [Rhodiginus], 1. 17, cap. 2 (the passage 
first appears in the third edition of the 
'Anatomy'), Mr. Whibley notes that "the 
same story may be found in Athenaeus." 
This comment, which looks as though it 
were based on Shilleto's (vol. i. p. 429), 
is misleading. The humanist from Rovigo 
is in no sense a parallel authority to the 
Greek writer. He owed the story, of course, 
to the latter. Mr. Whibley says that " the 
Passionate Lord's song in Fletcher's ' Nice 

Valour ' is evidently suggested by the 

abstract of Melancholy wherewith Burton 
prefaced his book." Some difficulties in 
the way of this view were pointed out at 
10 S. vi. 464. 

Again, the statement is made that Burton's 
"readiness seems the more remarkable, when you 
remember that he never scored a single volume in 
his library, and that he must have carried the 
literature of the whole world in his head, if he had 
not recourse to commonplace books." 
More than one of Burton's books in the 
Bodleian show what appear to be marks of 
his pen against passages or phrases that 

figure in the ' Anatomy.' Burton's methods- 
in composition really call for a special in- 
vestigation. Sometimes he writes from re- 
collection. Sometimes it is hard to believe 
that he had not his authority lying open 
before him. In his preface he speaks of 
writing "in an extemporean style.... out 
of a confused company of notes." 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

" CUMMERBUND." This is derived, as- 
every one knows, from the Persian cummer, 
waist, and bund, a band or bond. Binding 
the loins implies a journey, whereas tearing 
open the waist-belt implies grief. A Persian 
epigram, which was sent me recently, brings 
in these aspects of the " cummerbund " so- 
neatly that I cannot refrain from quoting it 
here : 

Tu azm e safar kardi, va rafti zi bare ma. 

Basti kamar e khesh, shikasti kamar e ma ! 

which may be translated : 

You are going to take a journey, bind our cummer- 
bund you must ; 

But with grief at your departure, our cummer you 
have bust." 


Mail of 25 September last recorded that on, 
the previous day Mr. R. Whitehead, M.P, 
for South-East Essex, unveiled at Rayleigh a 
" memorial to martyrs who were burnt in that 
village in the sixteenth century. The memorial, 
consisting of an obelisk and frmntain, cost 100A, 
and is inscribed with the names of Thomas Causton, 
John Ardley, Robert Drakes, and William Timms, 
who were burnt at the stake 1555-6." 
This is, I think, of sufficient interest for a 
place in ' N. & Q.' 



an expression which I have never heard 
except from the members of families bred 
and born in Derbyshire. When things 
have gone wrong in household affairs, the 
mistress " raises Hamlet on them " (the 
offending persons) ; and when she tells 
her particular neighbour about it, she says, 
" I raised Hamlet on them ! " That the 
expression comes from the ghost in ' Hamlet ' 
there need be no doubt. It would be 
interesting to know how the ghost came to 
be part of a folk-expression. I have also 
heard men say in fits of temper, " I '11 
raise hell and Hamlet." The first expres- 
sion is of the womenkind. 




NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAX. -23, im 

THIMBLES. In The Stamford Mercury for 
26 April, 1861, we are informed that 

" to the Dutch the ladies of all nations are indebted 
for the invention of the thimble. The Dutch 
achieved this great invention in the year 1690." 

Thimbles are probably of prehistoric 
date, though it would perhaps be unfair to 
expect a newspaper writer to know this ; 
but he might have consulted Johnson's 
dictionary, where he would have found 
Shakespere quoted under the word in the 
passage where the bastard Faulconbridge 
Bays in ' King John ' : 

For your own ladies and pale-visag'd maids 
lake Amazons come tripping after drums, 
Their thimbles into armed gauntlets change, 
Their needles to lances, and their gentle heartN 
To fierce and bloody inclination. 

" Thimble " also occurs twice in ' Taming 
of the Shrew,' Act IV. sc. iii. 


LADY HONOKIA HOWARD. In the life of 
Sir Robert Howard, the dramatist, in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' it is 
stated that " his second wife was probably 
Lady Honora O'Brien, daughter of the 
Earl of Thomond, and widow of Sir Francis 
Inglefield." There is no probability in the 
matter ; it is a certainty, as is proved by 
her will, an abstract of which seems worthy 
of a place in ' N. & Q.' She was evidently 
on bad terms with Sir Robert, for she desired 
to be buried close to her former husband, 
Sir Francis Englefield, in Englefield Church. 
Berks, directing a plain black marble 
monument to be erected over their tomb ; 
she also left 151. to the poor of that parish. 
She left much valuable jewellery, &c., to 
Mary, Duchess of Richmond, wife to Col 
Thomas Howard ; also to her sister the 
Marquis of Worcester's lady, and to her 
cousin Penelope Egerton. To her cousin 
Collen she left some pictures ; to two sisters, 
not named, 30Z. each to buy a ring ; and 
to Arthur, Earl of Anglesea, and Sir Gilbert 
Gerrard, Kt. and Bart., of St. Martin' s-in- 
the-Fields, whom she describes aa " my 

ood friends," 501. each to buy a ring, 
he left 10Z. towards finishing the parish 
church at Chelsea. There are numerous 
valuable legacies to ministers of the Gospel 
and servants, and sandwiched amongst 
them is a brief item : "To Sir Robert 
Howard, one shilling." The joint executors 
are Col. Randall Egerton and Sir William 
Turner, Kt. 

She must have been on the point of death 
when she made her will, for it was dated 
6 Sept., 1676. and proved on the 12th of 

the same month and year (122 Bence). The 
will also enables us to add to the details 
concerning her in Howard of Corby's 
' Indications of Memorials, &c., of the Howard 
Family,' 1834, where on p. 69 it is stated 
that the date of her death and place of inter- 
ment were not made out. The name in the 
will is Honoria, not Honora. AYEAHR. 

" To RUB " AT CARDS. In ' The Life of 
Cesar Borgia,' being chap. vii. of ' The 
Profane State,' which is Book V. of ' The 
Holy State,' by Thomas Fuller, 1642, p. 386, 
there appears the following in a passage 
concerning the failure of Borgia's projects, 
owing to the death of his father and his own 
desperate sickness : 

" Thus three aces chance often not to rub ; and 
Politicians think themselves to have stopp'd every 
small cranny, when they have left a whole doon; 
open for divine providence to undo all which they 
have done." 

I suppose that " to rub " means " to 
win a rubber," which is one of the meanings 
given in Grose's ' Classical Dictionary of 
the Vulgar Tongue.' ROBERT PIERPOESTT. 

Although ' N.E.D.' under ' Britain ' gives 
an illustrative quotation of " grete Brytayne" 
from a Wynkyn de Worde "book of c. 1500, 
the present political meaning of the phrase 
declaring England to be " the only supreme 
seat of thempire of greate Briteigne," is 
first illustrated from N. Bodrugar's ' Epi- 
tome ' in 1548. But there is a use of a year 
earlier to be found in the ' Cecil MSS.' 
(vol. i. p. 50) in the notice of a " Poem on 
the Ingratitude of the Scots, by John 
Mardeley, Clerk of the Southwark Mint," 
dated 6 Sept., 1547, which concludes : 

And fre withoute boundage with us to remaigne, 
As in one hole kingclome called great breataigne. 


" SHOE." Probably the difference be- 
tween the spelling and pronunciation of this 
word has puzzled most people. It would 
hardly be a sufficient answer to say that the 
oe was a modification of the A.-S. seed ; our 
words " doe," " foe," " roe," " toe," also 
come from A.-S., but their forms there are 
da, fdh or /a, rah, and td respectively. The 
Middle English for " shoe " is shoo, and we 
have it in the Prologue to ' The Canterbury 
Tales ' 

For though a wide we hadde but a shoo, 
where it is made to rime with o (" in prin- 
cipio "). However it was pronounced in 
the time of Chaucer, that spelling agrees 
well with the modern sound, though " shoe " 

10 S. XL JAN. 23, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


does not. But the latter may have been 
pronounced formerly as " doe," " foe," 
" roe," " toe," are now. In Prof. Skeat's 
'Etymological Dictionary,' where the 
cognate forms in Teutonic and Scandina- 
vian are given, the German for shoe is 
erroneously spelt "schuch," instead of 
schuh. W. T. LYNN. 

worth Dixon's ' Free Russia,' published 
thirty-nine years ago, there is an interesting 
chapter entitled ' Father John,' concerning 
the man who afterwards became so famous. 
Dixon, while waiting at Archangel for the 
pilgrims' boat to Solovetsk, spoke to " a 
very small monk, not five feet high, with 
girl -like hair and rippling beard," and asked 
where he would find the boat in question. 
The monk informed him that it " has ceased 
to run, and is now at Solovetsk, laid up in 
dock," but that a provision boat might sail 
for the monastery in about a week ; and of 
that boat, the Vera, the monk turned out 
to be the captain. Dixon inquired of a 
sailor the captain's name, and was told that 
he was generally called " Vanoushka," i.e., 
Little Ivan, but that his proper title was 
Father John. Then an account is given of 
his early life how, born in a Lapland 
village, he longed to see the world, went to 
Archangel, and started on a voyage with 
some German sailors. In his travels, during 
which he visited London, he met with creeds 
of all nations, and " his mind was troubled 
with continual longing for a better life"; 
but " the only religion to whisper peace to 
his soul was that of his early and better 
days." On his return to Russia he wished 
to become a monk of Solovetsk. At Arch- 
angel he discharged the crew of a Scottish 
vessel and manned her with monks. He 
was, however, obliged to ask the Scottish 
engineer to return, since the pistons " had 
not grace enough to obey the voice of a holy 
man." The chapter ends thus : 
"Yet Father John was a real God's gift to the 
convent ; for the voyage is not often to be described 
as a summer trip ; and even so good a person as an 
Archimandrite likes to know, when he goes down 
into the Frozen Sea, that his saints are acting 
through a man who has sailed in the roughest 
waters of the world." 


the course of a notice of ' Jane Evre ' in 
The Quarterly Review for December, 1848 
(vol. Ixxxiv. 166), the writer says : 

"Jane has passed through the fire of temptation 
from without and from within ; her character is 
stamped from that day ; we need therefore follow 

her no further into wanderings and sufferings which, 
though not unmixed with plunder from Minerva- 
lane, occupy some of, on the whole, the most strik- 
ing chapters in the book." 

The reviewer evidently thought that the 
sensational novels of the last century were 
issued from a printing-office situated in a 
street called Minerva Lane ; but the Minerva 
Press was in Leadenhall Street. According 
to the ' N.E.D.' Carlyle was the first to 
use the expression " Minerva Press " to 
denote a particular class of literature. 

R. B. P. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

I am very anxious to find out something 
about Edward Kemp, a writer of books 
on landscape gardening, and at one time head 
gardener at Birkenhead Park in Cheshire. 
If any of your readers can forward informa- 
tion, biographical and bibliographical, I 
shall greatly appreciate the kind effort. 

CHARLES R. GREEN, Librarian. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College, 
Amherst, Mass. 

lately in The Standard and some other papers 
an account of the recovery, after a long 
lapse of years, of an ancient portrait of Queen 
Elizabeth which used to hang in the outside 
gallery of the above house. It was, until 
it was blown down one night, and lost for 
many years, wreathed with garlands every 
Trinity Wake. Can any reason be suggested 
for this particular honour ? and is any 
similar case known to exist, or to have 
existed within living memory, in England ? 

Two suggestions have been made : one 
that Elizabeth contributed to the restoration 
of the Trinity Guild school and almshouses, 
which had been despoiled at the dissolution 
of the monasteries ; the other that her por- 
trait replaced a rood or sacred image, 
removed at the same period. It is intended 
to replace the portrait in position this year, 
and to wreathe it again according to the 
ancient custom. G. L. H. POWER, 

Custodian of the Old Trinity House. 

GRINDLETON. Since I asked about the 
derivation of this place-name (see 10 S. v. 
10, 73) further evidence has turned up. 
In a deed dated 12 June, 1289, the form 



is " Grenhilington." This appears to be 
" green-hill-ing-ton " ; but if, as I under- 
stand, hill is Anglo-Saxon, and ing is Scandi- 
navian, this combination can scarcely be 
right. The place was certainly occupied 
by Norse Wickings, who made their way 
up the Ribble Valley, presumably about 
A.D. 900. Field- and farm-names are con- 
clusive on this point. We have such names 
as Grain, Farlands, Withens, Holme, Ing, 
Greaves, Lumb, Micklehurst, Steelands. 

Will PROF. SKEAT be so kind as to state 
whether a Norse derivation is permissible, 
and to analyze the name, now that " green- 
dale-ton " proves inadmissible ? 


Grindleton, Clitheroe. 

Norroy King, in his ' Visitation of Yorkshire,' 
1563 (Harl/MSS. publ.), records that Roger 
Wentworth of Hangthwaite and South 
Kirkby, co. York (son of Thomas Wentworth 
of North Elmsall), married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Wentworth of Pontefract, 
and had by her a son Thomas of Thurnscoe 
Grange, who had, with other issue, a son 
Hugh and a daughter Elizabeth, wife of 
John Day. Hugh's granddaughter Mary 
(daughter of Thomas) also became in 1631 the 
wife of Thomas Day of South Elmsall. 
Flower gives the descent of Roger Went- 
worth from his great-grandfather John, son 
of John Wentworth of North Elmsall ; 
the last had also two younger sons, Richard 
of Bretton, and Roger. No issue of the 
third son Roger is recorded, but Richard 
had a son Richard, who had three sons, 
Matthew, John, and William. Genealogists 
have differed in their accounts of the parent- 
age of John Wentworth of Pontefract. 
Foster, in his ' Pedigrees of Yorkshire 
Families,' is vague on this point, merely 
stating, like Flower, that Roger Wentworth 
married Elizabeth, daughter of John Went- 
worth of Pontefract, and that the second 
Richard Wentworth of West Bretton had 
with other issue a son John, living 1488; 
but he also adds (which Flower omits) that 
Sir Roger Wentworth of Nettlestead, Essex, 
one of the three sons of John of North 
Elmsall, had a son Sir Philip of Nettlestead, 
who was father of Sir Henry of Pontefract, 
who had by his wife Elizabeth Nevil (m. 1494) 
several children, not one of whom bore the 
name of John. Rutten, in his ' Family of 
Wentworth,' deals chiefly with the Essex 
and Cambridgeshire branches of the family, 
and records that Sir Henry Wentworth 
(d. 1499) married two wives: (1) Anne Say 

(d. 1478), by whom he was father of Sir 
Richard of Nettlestead and Edward of 
Henston ; and (2) Elizabeth Nevil (d. 1515), 
who had no issue by him. While differing 
as to who was the mother of Sir Henry's 
children, Foster and Rutten agree that he 
had no son John. 

It would appear, therefore, that the John 
Wentworth of Pontefract, whose daughter 
Elizabeth married Roger Wentworth, was 
the son of Richard Wentworth of West 
Bretton, an estate situated about half way 
between Barnsley and Huddersfield, were 
it not for the facts that, in a seventeenth- 
century pedigree of Day of Elmsall, Thomas 
Wentworth of Thurnscoe Grange, son of 
Roger Wentworth of Hangthwaite and 
South Kirkby, is recorded as having in- 
herited property at Pontefract from his 
maternal grandfather John Wentworth, 
who had inherited it from his mother 
Elizabeth Wentworth, formerly Nevil ; and 
also that by a deed of 1557 Elizabeth, wife 
of Roger Wentworth of South Kirkby, 
became possessed of property at the same 
place formerly belonging to her uncle 
Richard Wentworth of Nettlestead, Essex. 
It is clear from this that Sir Henry Went- 
worth of Pontefract had issue besides that 
given by Foster and Rutten, and that John 
Wentworth of Pontefract was his son by his 
second wife. 

The question arises whether all Sir 
Henry's children were by his first or second 
wife, or whether he had issue by both, and 
also what other issue he had. A careful 
examination of dates seems to suggest that 
Sir Richard of Nettlestead (whose wife died 
1502) and Edward of Henston were by the 
first wife, and John of Pontefract (and 
perhaps others) by the second wife. Infor- 
mation on these points would be thank- 
fully accepted by me. CHARLES FILEY. 

of Sir Samuel, the second baronet ? Did 
he marry and leave descendants ? 

Sulhamstead, Reading. 

Any information regarding this family 
would be most acceptable to the undersigned. 
They were settled in Suffolk in 1626, for 
in that year administration of the goods 
of Martin Sanderson of Great Bradley was 
granted to Agnes his wife (P.C.C.). 

Mary Sanderson of Great Bradley paid 
for three hearths in 1676 ; and I find that 
the will of William Sanderson of Great 

10 . xi. .TAX. -23, imj NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Bradley, gent., was proved at Bury in 1704 ; 
also the will of Philippa Sanderson of Great 
Bradley, widow, in 1747. Extracts from 
these wills would be much appreciated, and 
I shall be pleased to correspond with any 
one interested in the name, whether of Great 
Bradley or elsewhere. 

Were these Sandersons connected with 
those of Little Thurlow, in which branch 
the Christian name Martin occurs ? 


48, Nelson Road, Stroud Green, N. 

MAJOR W. LAWLOR. I am anxious to 
discover the parentage of Major William 
Lawlor, of the 1st Battalion Halifax (Nova 
Scotia) Regiment, who resided in 1807 at 
Thornton Avenue, Greenwich, Kent. He 
was father of Sophia Reed, the wife of Sir 
John Theophilis Lee, R.N., D.L., J.P., of 
Lauriston Hall, Torquay ; and of Elizabeth, 
who married Provo Featherstone Wallis, 
and who had among other children Admiral 
of the Fleet Sir Provo William Parry Wallis, 
G.C.B., and Elizabeth, who married Capt. 
Lord James Townshend, son of George 
4th Viscount Townshend. 

I also desire to know the names of Major 
Lawlor's wife and of her parents, and par- 
ticulars of the family to which she belonged, 
with dates ; and the names of the children 
of Major Lawlor, with dates of their births, 
marriages, and deaths. 

Ferndale Lodge, Tunbridge Wells. 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' say where I 
may find the Christian name of Alderman 
Blancher or Blancherd of Hull, circa 1640, 
or the name of his wife ? He had a daughter 
Mary, who became the second wife of Thomas 
Pigott of Banagher, King's County, son 
of John Pigott of Raheenduff, Queen's 
County, by his second wife, daughter of 
Francis Edgeworth (probably the clerk in 
the Hanaper Office, Dublin, whose will 
was proved 1627) of Edgeworthstown, co. 
Longford, and widow of Pierce Moore of 
Raheenduff. WM. JACKSON PIGOTT. 

Manor House, Dundrum, co. Down. 

THOMAS BALNBRIDGE, c. 1568. Is any- 
thing known of the family of Thomas Bain- 
bridge, said to have been burnt for heresy 
before 1568 ? The name of Bainbridge occurs 
in the old deeds of the manor of East Tyther- 
ley, Hants, of which they are supposed 
to have been lords early in the fifteenth 
century. The ' D.N.B.' gives a Thomas 
Bainbrigg, Master of Christ's College, Cam- 

bridge (d. 1646), and another Thomas, 1636- 
1703 both too late. I shall be grateful 
for information. 

(Mrs.) F. H. STICKLING. 
Romsey, Hampshire. 

of the colossal brass knocker which up to 
less than twenty years ago adorned the door 
of the Hall of Clement's Inn, now pulled 
down ? Albert Smith's description in 
' Christopher Tadpole ' " a knocker evi- 
dently intended for the use of some ogre 
residing there, who lives entirely upon 
broiled clients, garnished with fricasseed 
indentures " will keep its memory green ; 
but, apart from that, I have the personal 
recollection of a debating society held at 
the Hall in 1869, and should be glad to know 
if this probably unique door-knocker is in 
public or private hands, and where. 

W. B. H. 

' THE MILLENNIAL STAR.' Can any one 
tell me where there is a file of this news- 
paper ? I do not find it in the British 
Museum. It was an exponent of Mor- 
monism in the early days of the movement, 
and was, I think, printed in Liverpool. 
Another early Mormon paper, The Prophet 
(New York), appears to be exceedingly rare. 
I found some numbers of it at Salt Lake 
City in 1907. RICHARD H. THORNTON. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

sode in Essex's Irish campaign, 1599, is 
reference made in the opening scene of 
' Much Ado about Nothing ' ? See Temple 
edition. H. H. STEWART. 

DIDDLE. What was the case alluded to by 
Sir William Ashton in the following passage 
in ' The Bride of Lammermoor ' ? 

' I remember the celebrated case of Sir Coolie 
Condiddle of Condiddle, who was tried for theft 
under trust, of which all the world knew him 
guilty, and yet was not only acquitted, but lived to 
sit in judgment on honester folk." Chap. xvi. 
It was said in Scotland prior to the Union, 
" Show me the man, and I will show you 
the law." JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

BAYONNE, 1814. I should be greatly obliged 
if any correspondent could give a few notes 
concerning the above regiment about this 
time, viz., the date of embarkation from 
England, with name of vessel ; port of 
ailing ; date of battle ; also names of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 23, im 

officers killed, and the counties to which 
they belonged. Is there published a de- 
tailed account of the battle ? F. K. P. 

[There was five days' fighting at Bayonne, 
9-13 Dee., 1813; and on 14 April, 1814, the garrison 
made a desperate sortie, in repulsing which 800 
British soldiers were killed, and Lieut. -General 
Sir John Hope was wounded and taken prisoner. 
Have you consulted Sir William Napier's ' History 
of the War in the Peninsula and South of France ' ?] 

SIR PATRICK HOUSTON. It is stated in 
Burke's ' Extinct Baronetage ' that " Sir 
Patrick Houston of Houston, created 1668, 
married Anne, daughter of John Hamilton, 
Lord Bargeny." Had he another wife, 
Lady Janet Cunningham, by whom he had 
a daughter Sarah Houston, married to 
Walter Dennistoun of that ilk, and of Col- 
grain, co. Dumbarton ? Whose daughter 
was this Janet Cunningham ? 


reader kindly say whether it was Fuller or 
Defoe who saw " an ancient lady " being 
drawn to church in her own coach by six 
oxen ? The locality was near Lewes in 
Sussex. In G. Roberts' s ' Social History 
of the People of the Southern Counties of 
England' (1856), p. 487, the authority is 
given as Fuller ; elsewhere Defoe's ' Tour 
of England ' is cited. A reference to the 
edition and page would be greatly welcomed. 

5, Berber Road, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 

EGG GOOD IN PARTS. About once a week 

one reads in the newspapers that something 

or other is " like the curate's egg, good in 

parts." Is the origin of this phrase known ? 


[The story is old, but we do not know its earliest 

" In figure not unlike a stunted oak of the kinc 
depicted in the arms of Glasgow, or such as those 
which grow in Cadzow Forest, and under which 
the white wild cattle feed, as they have done since 
Malcolm Fleeming slew one with his spear anc 
saved the king." 'The Ipane",' by Cunninghame 
Graham, p. 176. 

Who was the king thus saved ? 

Strom ness. 

any reader kindly inform me of the origin 
of Waddington as a place- or family name ' 
There is a village of this name in Lincoln 
shire, and another in Yorkshire. 


13, Prince's Road, Middlesbrough. 


(10 S. x. 449.) 

MR. A. H. TARLETON, who lives at a 
louse known as Breakspears (near Ux- 
sridge), a place associated with the life of 
Nicholas Breakspear, published a few years 
ago (1896) a full life of Adrian IV. After 
stating that Pope Adrian IV. died at Anagni 
rom quinsy, he adds : 

" Many legends have been circulated about his 
death. The usual accusation of poisoning was made, 
jut it has never had a shadow of evidence to sup- 
rtort it. The followers of Barbarossa invented a 
story that he [Adrian] was choked while drinking 
at a fountain by a fly. but this probably was a dis- 
torted account arising from the nature or his illness, 
about which there is no doubt. It was also added 
by his enemies that his death was the judgment of 
Kod for his excommunication of Frederic" (Bar- 

Mr. Tarleton adds to his volume (pp. 266-8) 
a useful Bibliography of Nicholas Break- 
spear. The full description of his book 
is ' Nicholas Breakspear, Englishman and 
Pope,' by Alfred H. Tarleton, London, 1896, 
8vo. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

The following is the account in lib. v. of 
Bale's ' Acta Romanorum Pontificum ' (p. 263 
in the Leyden ed. of 1615) : 

" Sed non multo post, cum exspaciaretur cum 
suis apud Anagniam, tantse impietatis anno Domini 
1159, quinto Pontificatus anno, pcenas dedit. Musca 
enim involavit in os : quae, quia medicorum arte 
eximi non poterat, prseclusit illi spiritum, atque ita 
suffocatus obiit." 

The Bishop of Ossory's book was first pub- 
lished in 1558. His marginal references for 
the Pope's death are " Joannes de Cremona, 
Nauclerus. Vrsp." The last-named abbre- 
viation is for the ' Chronicon Abbat. Ursper- 
gensis,' from the time of Ninus to 1229, 
attributed to Konrad v. Lichtenau, Abbot 
(1225-40) of the Premonstratensian Monas- 
tery at Ursperg. Joannes Nauclerus' s per- 
formance was a chronicle from the Creation 
to 1500. EDWARD BENSLY. 


This story is not given by the Chevalier 
Artaud de Montor in his ' Lives of the 
Roman Pontiffs.' HARRY HEMS. 

Folkstone Williams, in his ' Lives of the 
English Cardinals,' 1861, vol. i. p. 138, says : 
" Historical writers generally are silent respect- 
ing the manner of Pope Adrian IV. 's death, includ- 

10 S. XL JAN. 23, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ing Platina, William of Newbury, and Leland. 
William of Tyre asserts that he died of a quinsy. 
Bale ('De Script. Brit.,' Cent. XII. Appendix), on 
the authority of Joannes Funcius and Pagi, avers 
that he was choked by a fly getting into his throat 
while he was drinking. Fuller (' Worthies ') adopts 
the same story. Matthew Paris, however, is con- 
fident that the Supreme Pontiff fell a victim to 
Roman revenge. He had borne in mind the advice 
of the King of England against unworthy appoint- 
ments, and was secretly got rid of, to make way 
for a less conscientious Pope (' Vit. Abbat. St. 
Alban.,' 74)." 

Perhaps OCTOGENARIAN is seeking the 
reference to Fuller. S. L. PETTY. 

The fly story of Pope Adrian's death 
was told in the first school history I had, 
which was, I believe, Pinnock's 'Goldsmith.' 
This is hardly an authority, however. 

C. C. B. 

' Outlines of English History,' by Henry 
Ince, M.A., and James Gilbert, London, 
1868, was the title of the book from which, 
in my earliest days, I imbibed my first 
lessons in history. On p. 48 of that little 
work, under the heading of ' Names of 
Note,' occurs the following : 

" Nicholas Breakspeare, the only Englishman 
who was ever chosen as Pope : he took the title of 
Adrian IV. (1154). and was choked by a fly in the 
tifth year of his pontificate (1159)." 

If this is a fiction, it must have had a pretty 
wide circulation among the youth of my 
day, as read on the title-page that " the 
present edition brings the sale of this work 
up to three hundred and twenty-two 
thousand." WM. NORMAN. 

6, St. James Place, Plumstead. 

At p. 108 of 'Pope Adrian IV.' (the 
Lothian Essay, 1907), by J. Duncan Mackie, 
it is stated : 

"Imperialist tradition ascribed to divine inter- 
position the opportune removal of the Pope, who had 
dared to resist the mighty Barbarossa, and told 
with awe how he was choked by a fly which he 
swallowed in a draught of water." 

Mr. F. A. Lumlye, whose life of the Hert- 
fordshire Pope is printed in ' Memorials of 
Old Hertfordshire,' 1905, says : 

" It has been asserted that he was poisoned, but 
this theory never had a shadow of evidence to 
support it. The Emperor's party invented a silly 
tale that he was choked, while drinking, by a fly. 
This idle story is frequently found in modern books 
whose writers ought to know better." 

Bishop's Stortford. 

[BRUTUS also refers to Ince's 'Outlines.'] 

508). The matter is discussed at some 
length by Mgr. Duchesne, ' Christian Wor- 
ship ' (S.P.C.K., 1903, pp. 257-65). 


"CHRISTMAS PIG" (10 S xi. 27). See 
8 S. ii. 505, under ' Rural Christmas Fes- 
tivities in the Fifties,' for a description of 
these as I remember them in Nottingham- 
shire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and (I 
believe) Warwickshire. I am under the 
impression that an article dealing entirely 
with these "pigs" appeared early in 1893 
in Folk-lore, but I have no copy of it. It is 
certain that, in response to a request from 
Miss Burne, I caused some " pigs " to be 
made for her, which were exhibited at a 
meeting of the Folk-lore Society at which 
a paper on the subject was to be read. 
The theory then put forward was, I believe, 
that the " pigs " were a survival of a cere- 
monial eating of swine at the ancient Yule 
festival. Jn my article in ' N. & Q.' I 
omitted to say that the paste used for making 
the " pigs " might be either the usual " pork- 
pie " paste or " puff paste," as used for 
mince-pies, &c. The " filling " was the 
same as for mince-pies, but at Christmas 
this always contained some ingredient from 
the pig. C. C. B. 

It would seem that this is merely a variant 
of the Yule dough cake, which is not peculiar 
to any one county, and is suggested by the 
Christmas dish of the pig or boar's head. 
In Cornwall a boar is always a " pig," for 
instance. I remember, when a boy, their 
being made in my own family, stuck with 
currants, and the grocer always used to 
send a quantity of raisins and almonds for 
similar Yule confections. In other parts 
the cakes were made in the form of babies, 
or dolls ; and the Christmas before last I 
noticed such whimsical examples of pastry 
in a confectioner's shop at West Kensington, 
opposite the railway station. 


"THE WOOSET" (10 S. xi. 27). A 
" wooser," " wooset," " husset," " hoset," 
or " whuzzer " seems to have its derivation 
in a " whizzer," a machine " which rotates 
rapidly and drives out most of the moisture 
from wet places " hence anything impres- 
sive by reason of violence or size, as a sting- 
ing blow. Any one who has seen, as I often 
have, a carthorse's cranium excavated from 
the depths of the London soil, could not 
but be impressed with its enormous size, 
and it was probably such a skull that was 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 23, 1009 

carried about at the Christmas " Hooden- 
ings." See ' The Dialect Dictionary,' s.v. 
' Whizzer ' and ' Hooset.' 


May I call attention to two striking coin- 
cidences in the above with the ' Swallow 
Song ' preserved in Athenseus, viii. 360 c. ? 

Get up, old wife, and shake your feathers ; 
Dinna think that we are beggars ; 
We are children come from home, 
Seeking our Hogmanay. 

avoiy avoiye TO.V vpav Y^ 

ov yap yepovres oy/,ev aAAa iraiSia, 

Gie 's the lass wi' the bonnie broon hair, 
Or we '11 knock your door upon the floor. 

et /j.ev TL Swo-eis ei Se pr), OVK ea<7oyu,v } 
TTJ rav dvpav ^epw/zes r) dovir'tpOvpov 
17 TO.V yvvaiKa. rav ecra) Ka^/xevav... 

H. K. ST. J. S. 

BEFANA : EPIPHANY (10 S. xi. 6). Mr. 
Marion Crawford gives a very interesting 
account of the Befana and the fair in the 
Piazza Navona in his ' Ave Roma Immor- 
talis,' pp. 282-4. It was formerly held 
in the Piazza di S. Eustachio ; see Hare's 
' Walks in Rome,' ii. 141, where there is 
a quotation from Story's ' Roba di Roma.' 

509). I hope that COL. FYNMORE'S refer- 
ence to this curious old ballad will lead 
to some further information. I rather think 
it was of Dover origin. It was first published 
about 1843, by Thomas Rigden of Snargate 
Street, Dover, at the time when the South- 
Eastern Railway Company purchased 
Folkestone Harbour, and tried to capture 
the Channel passenger traffic by running 
passenger steamers from Folkestone to 
Boulogne before the railway was finished 
to Dover. The rivalry between the two 
ports^seems to have given rise to the satirical 


[Reply from MB. A. RHODES next week.] 


I cannot quote authorities for the state- 
ment, but I remember reading in more than 
one book of folk-lore that a hand will some- 
times thrust itself through the turf above 
a grave. The superstition is German, but 
I believe that it is not confined to Germany. 
The hand will protrude in spite of all efforts 
to give it permanent burial. Whether it 
grows again if cut off I am not certain. 

If my memory is accurate, it is not infre- 
quently held out of the grave in protest 
against some injustice done to the dead 
while he was yet alive, or against the people 

vVin killfifl him T Tt TH. "NT. T. 


who killed him. 

(10 S. x. 470). Sims's 'Manual' (1888 ed.) 
gives the following lists of freeholders 
preserved in the British Museum among 
the Lansdowne and Harleian MSS. : 

Lists of Freeholders in the Counties of Bedford, 
Hertford, Lincoln, Oxford, Suffolk, and York, 
A.D. 1561. Lansd. MS. 5. 

Names of Freeholders in Cheshire, 1579, 1580. 
Harl. MS. 1424, f. 7. 

Names of Freeholders in Essex [n.d.]. Harl. MS. 
2240, f. 6. Lansd. MS. 5. 

List of Freeholders in Lancashire, A.D. 1600. 
Harl. MS. 2042, f. 185 ; 2077 ; 2085 ; 2112. 


COCKBURNSPATH (10 S. x. 430). With 
respect to the designation of this place as 
" Coppersmith," it may be noted as an 
interesting fact that this name is given 
to it by Oliver Cromwell. In the library 
of Sir Richard J. Waldie-Griffith at Hender- 
syde Park, Kelso, there is a pamphlet 
printed at the office of The Courant, New- 
castle-on-Tyne, in 1847, being a reprint 
of ' Four Letters from Oliver Cromwell to 
Sir Arthur Heselridge, Governor of New- 
castle-on-Tyne.' At that date the originals 
were in the possession of Robert Ormston, 
a connexion by marriage of the Waldie 
family. One of them (to be quoted) is 
described as written entirely by Cromwell ; 
in the other three the signatures only are 
in his writing. The one to which reference 
has been made is as follows : 

To the Honble. S r A r Heselridge 

at Newcastle, or elsewhere, 

these hast hast. 

DEERE S r , 

Wee are upon an engagement very 
difficult, the enimie hath blocked up our way att 
the passe at Copperspith, thorough w ch wee canott 
gett w th out almost a miracle, Hee lyeth soe upon 
the Hills that wee knowe not how to come that 
way without great difficultye, and our lyinge heere 
dayly consumeth our men, whoe fall sicke beyond 
imagination. I perceave your forces are not in a 
capacitye for present releife, wherefore (whatever 
becomes of us) itt will bee well for you to gett what 
forces you can together, and the South to helpe 
what they can, the businesse neerely concern eth 
all good people. If your forces had beene in a 
readinesse to have fallen upon the back of Coppers- 
pith, itt might have occasioned supplies to have 
come to us, but the only wise God knowes what is 
best, all shall work for good, our Spirits are com- 
fortable (praised bee the Lord) though our present 
condition bee as it is, and indeed wee have much 
hope in the Lord, of whose mercy we have had 

10 s. XL JAX. 23, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

large experience. Indeed doe you gett together 
what forces you can against them. Send to friends 
in the Soiith to help with more. 

Lett H. Vane know what I write. I would not 
make itt publick least danger should acrue thereby. 
You know what use to make hereof. Lett mee 
heere from you. 

I rest 

Your servant 

Sept. W, 1660. O. CROMWELL. 

Its difficult for me to send to you, lett me heare 
from [you] after. 

Your New York correspondent puts the 
population at a rather high figure. 

Public Library, Kelso. 

In 1897 the Geologists' Association 
adopted Edinburgh as the centre for their 
" Long Excursion." One of the localities 
visited was Cockburnspath under the 
guidance of the late Mr. J. G. Goodchild, 
F.G.S. I was a member of the party, and 
remember a discussion taking place on the 
pronunciation of the name, which Mr. 
Goodchild said was " Copeth." Other in- 
stances of " peth " in place-names were 
cited Brancepeth, Morpeth, and Peth o' 
Condie. I have no recollection of any other 
pronunciations than Co'burnspath and 
Copeth being adduced. The following is 
taken from Mr. Goodchild's advance paper 
on the excursion : 

" On the arrival of the train at ' Cockburnspath ' 
(or Copeth, as it is locally and more commonly 
called), the party will walk along the road in the 
direction of Berwick." Proc. Geol. Axsoc., vol. xv. 
p. 122. 

Mr. R. S. Herries in the report of this excur- 
sion speaks of " Cockburnspath or Copeth " 
(vol. xv. p. 204). JOHN T. KEMP. 

ITALIAN GENEALOGY (10 S. x. 449 ; xi. 
14). By far the handiest reference book 
is Crollalanza's ' Dizionario Storico-bla- 
sonico.' ' II Blasone in Sicilia,' by Palizzolo 
Gravina, Barone di Ramione (Palermo, 
1871-5), is elaborately illustrated. Inci- 
dentally I may note that the most complete 
account of the Gordone family, Barons of 
Camastra, appeared in the Aberdeen Free 
Press of 30 Dec., 1908, from the pen of 
Andrea Gordone, Barone di Camastra, S. 
Filippo Mela, Messina. I wonder if he has 
escaped the great disaster. 


118, Pall Mall. 

ABBE DE LTJBERSAC (10 S. x. 410). In 
Glaire's ' Dictionnaire des Sciences Eccle- 
siastiques,' Paris, 1868, I find the ' Journal 
historique et religieux de 1' Emigration du 
Clerge de France en 1'Angleterre ' and 

L'Apologie de la Religion et de la Monar- 
chic reunies ' assigned to Jean Baptiste 
Joseph, the Bishop, though attributed by 
some to another Lubersac. 

The Bishop had emigrated in 1789. He 
returned to France, and demit ted in 1801 
under the Concordat, with almost all the 
other French bishops. The second book 
would evidently be an apology for this. 
He became a Canon of St. Denis, and died 
in 1822. Glaire refers, besides the ' Bio- 
graphie Universelle ' (Feller), to Michaud's 
Supplement and to Querard and Ersch In 
' La France Litteraire.' J. W. M. 


(10 S. xi. 10"). A list of these ships can be 
found at vol. i. p. 265 of ' A Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the 
Pepysian Library,' edited by Dr. J. R. 
Tanner for the Navy Records Society. 


In Sir Wm. Clowes's ' Royal Navy.' 
vol. ii. p. 107, a list is given of additions 
to the Navy between 1649 and 1660. This 
gives a note of the ships whose names were 
changed at the Restoration, from among 
which the following are taken : 






Royal Charles, 



Royal James. 




T. F. D. 

Pepys's ' Diary,' under date 23 May, 1660, 
says : " After dinner the King and Duke 
altered the names of some of the ships, viz., 
Cheriton," &c. R. J. FYNMORE. 


No. of 







Dunbar ... 








Preston ... 


Richard ... 


Speaker ... 





... 48 . 


. io). MR. COOPER will find a detailed 
account of the Swiftsure's part in the battle 
of Trafalgar in ' Logs of the Great Sea 
Fights,' edited by Sir T. Sturges Jackson 
for the Navy Records Society (ii. 282). 
There is probably a short memoir of Ruther- 
ford in The Gentleman's Magazine. Nicolas 
who does not seem to have had any exact 
knowledge says he died in 1817. 


MR. A. W. COOPER has fallen into an error 
as to the spelling of the captain's name. 
It is Rutherfurd, not " Rutherford." He 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAK. 23, im 

is right as to this gallant officer and his wife 
being buried in the church of St. Margaret, 
Westminster. Somewhere about two years 
ago a small white marble slab was placed 
on the wall of the north aisle, having an 
inscription in red and black letters to the 
following effect : 

In memory of 

William Gordon Rutherford, C.B. 

Captain of H.M.S. Swiftsure, at the 

Battle of Trafalgar. 

Died 14 th Jany., 1818. 

also of 

Lilias Rutherfurd, his vvif 3, 

Died 5 th Nov., 1831. 

Both buried here. 

Like MR. COOPER I have been looking 
for particulars of this worthy, but without 
effect. My excellent friend Mr. Rees of 
the Great Smith Street Library, has helped 
in the search, but no result has rewarded 
our efforts, Capt. Rutherfurd' s name not 
appearing in any of the books to be found 
there. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 

STREET (10 S. xi. 27). The person who 
erected this refuge was the Hon. Philip 
Sydney Pierrepont, fifth son of Charles, 
first Earl of Manvers, and owner of Evenley 
Hall, Brackley, through marriage with 
Georgina, daughter and heiress of Herbert 
Gwynne Brown. Mr. Pierrepont was born 
in 1786, died in 1864. I was acquainted 
with him, and have many times heard it 
recounted how he had raised this refuge in 
London streets, and in commemoration 
caused his name to be affixed to the structure. 

See my note at ..4 S. ix. 260, to which I 
may add that my informant told me that 
Mr. Pierrepont asked the Vestry to put up 
the refuge, and was told that the land 
would be given if he liked to erect the refuge 
at his own expense, which he did. 

H. A. ST. J. M. 

The story of this inscription is told by 
Sir Algernon West on p. 142 of his ' One 
City and Many Men.' G. W. E. R. 

[T. F. D. also thanked for reply.] 

(10 S. xi. 9). There is a pretty full memoir of 
Sir Hovenden Walker in that little-known 
work ' The Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy.' In ' Naval Songs and Ballads,' 
edited by Prof. Firth for the Navy Records 
Society (p. 92), there is a ballad attributed 
to Walker, giving the story of an early 
experience, which actually happened very 
much as narrated. 

The Boyne was an 80-gun ship, named 
in commemoration of William's victory. 
She was in constant service during the latter 
part of William's reign and during the War 
of the Spanish Succession. Some time during 
the long peace she must have been rebuilt ; 
but Norris had his flag on board her, in the 
Channel, in 1740, and Vernon, in the West 
Indies, in 1741. She was still on the list 
of the Navy in 1756, but not seaworthy, 
and was sold or broken up shortly after- 
wards. J. K. LAUGHTON. 
[T. F. D. also refers to the ' D.N.B.'] 

408, 473). There is evidently much diffi- 
culty about the pronunciation of the 
Flemish g. To MR. PLATT it sounds like 
h, to MR. RANDOLPH like gg, and to Jerome 
K. Jerome like " hiccough + g+sob." If 
it gives rise to such diverse impressions, 
surely my y cannot be so very far wide of 
the mark. To me it sounds more like this 
than anything else, though no doubt the 
addition of a few aspirates and indescribable 
Welsh gutturals would heighten the resem- 
blance. I referred, of course, to the Flemish, 
not the French form of the word. I thought 
the former was more often used, and might 
as reasonably be adopted by us as the latter. 
Mr. RANDOLPH asks if I should like to hear 
this pronounced " Broo-gees." Well, this 
is nearly what I mean, but I should prefer 
to spell it " Brew-jees." This is the pro- 
nunciation, I suggest (if the Flemish form 
is excluded), adopted by Longfellow and 
Browning in their poems. It must be either 
this or the Flemish, as the French form is 
certainly not dissyllabic. 


8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

I do not agree with MR. PLATT that the 
French pronunciation is the right one. 
Bruges is a decidedly Flemish town, and 
consequently the Flemish pronunciation 
should be used. I think I am right in saying 
that in Belgium, outside Brussels and certain 
Wallon districts, the Flemish pronunciation 
is used. Foreigners use the French word 
because it is easier to pronounce. The 
Flemish pronunciation is neither " Bru-ya " 
nor " Bru-ha." It is extremely difficult 
to write in English phonetics. The Flemish 
u is the same as the French, i.e., u, and the 
g has a soft guttural sound, not so hard as 
the German guttural. If one could soften 
the German guttural with an h sound, one 
would probably get as near as possible to 
the Flemish pronunciation. The Flemish 
name Brugge has two syllables. If, as 

10 s. xi. JAN. 23, 1909.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 

MB. PLATT says, the French pronunciation 
is the correct one, then why should we not 
say Gand instead of Ghent ? In Belgium 
the Flemish names of these two towns are 
those most generally used, but in this country 
we have become accustomed to using the 
method easier to us. A. LIONEL ISAACS. 

The French word has of course only one 
pronunciation " Briizh " ; in the Flemish 
Brugge both the vowels have the sound of 
u in " but," while the g is guttural, as in 
our " ugh " or " lough." It is far better 
to say " broo-geez " than affect a French 
pronunciation if one does not know it ; 
but the true English name of the city is 
Brug, identical, in fact, with the old name 
of Brfdgnorth, and that is by far the best 

we have near Birmingham the place Bicken- 
hill ; and Bicknell is a not very uncommon 
surname in the district. There is a bonehill 
near Tamworth, from which (or from some 

may be derived. 


PIMLICO : EYEBBIQHT (10 S. x. 401, 547, 
514). I cannot accept responsibility for 
statements made by other correspondents 
of ' N. & Q.' At the same time, I may be 
permitted to point out that the writer 
referred to by me did not state that there 
was " now " an island in the West Indies 
called Pimlico. The date of his note (6 S. 
ix. 148) was 1884 ; but if an island of that 
name was then in existence, I see no reason 
why there should not have been " such an 

to adopt, just as Gaunt is the English name island before 1650 Unfortunately, he 
01 the town called in r lemish Gent and in 
French Gand. The common Ghent like 
Scheldt for Schelde, Ley den for Leiden, 
and many others is merely a misspelling. 

I do not understand the name Dartnell. 

not specify the map in which it appears 
as a " mere dot of a thing." I should be 
glad if some one interested in London topo- 
graphy, and possessed of the necessary 
leisure, could settle the matter by consulting 
the old maps and Admiralty charts in the 
British Museum. Nor did I state that the 

it an open question " whether the bird 
derived ite name from the island, or the 
island from the bird," though personally I 
incline to the former view. No doubt Ben 

***-* A*w MU*A*7&0VCUU UlJLf XiC*XXJ.^> JL^OrJL U11OJX. I i , .. , jt t 1 T 1 ti. 

But as to Bonell, it is tolerably certain that ***** Sf^f JJJLSS? ^J^^ Vv^ v!SS 

the true suffix is not -nell, as supposed, 

but simply -ell ; for, as Bardsley remarks, 

Bonell, Bonnell, and Bonhill are all known 

Staffordshire variants of the place-name ,-,. 

Bonehill. And further, as Mr. Duignan J?^ ',, 11 such a P erso p 

says in his 'Place-Names of Staffordshire,' 4 BuU Tu W ff * 

the old speUing of Bonehill was BoUen-hulle. ! mentionedby DB. RIMBAULT wasataverner 

This Middle -English form represents an of Hoxton but he may nevertheless have 

i <-i o^T.-tTQ^ -IT. 4-V.o \KTftai- TviHioc! in Viia ottTlior rtttTTH 

Anglo-Saxon Bollan - hylle, ^.e. Bolla s 

V-.-T11 '' T>_n *_ j_i_ * * ( T- 11 


hill." Bollan is the genitive case of Bolla, 
a.n A.-S. name of which there are several 
examples. The A.-S. hylle is represented 
in M.E. by hulle, hille, and helle, afterwards 
shortened to htdl, hill, and hell. The use 
of u, i, and e was due to the difficulty of 
representing the sound of the A.-S. y, which 
had the sound of the modern French u in 


served in the West Indies in his earlier days. 
Pimlico was certainly not an English 
word, and it is not found before the 
time when the shipmates of Drake and 
Ralegh began to return homewards from 
their voyages in the Spanish Main. MB. 
MATTHEWS further says that if I had 
consulted the ' N.E.D.' under " pemblicp," 
I should have seen whence the West Indian 

bird derived its name. As a matter of fact, 
I did consult the 'N.E.D.,' as might have 

The query, as worded, must be futile, been inferred from the last sentence of my 
for the -nell of the second example quoted, note. I am the proud possessor of that 

Bonell, is part of two words, " bone " and 
"hill" (Bardsley). The diminutive -ell 
is of course common, and is seen in Cock-er- 
ell ; probably also in Penn-ell and Parn-eU, 
from Lat. Petronilla. Usually, however, 
-n-ett denotes "hill," "hall," "hale," as 
shown by Bardsley, s.w. Bicknell, Bagnell, 
Darnell, Fernell, &c. H. P. L. 

In surnames or it should rather be in 
place-names the termination -nell, in most, 
if not all, cases, represents " enhill." Thus 

invaluable work as far as it has been pub- 
lished, though for obvious reasons I cannot 
include it amongst my luggage on Swiss 
and Italian railways. I am unable to accept 
the quotation from the anonymous and 
undated ' Hist. Bermudaes ' as a final settle- 
ment of the question. The story of the 
" Alebanters of London " sending over a 
bird whose note put the sailors in mind of 
a place beloved by them, and which they 
therefore " tearmed pimplico," seems to me 
rather a far-fetched yarn. If it was sent 



from Lqndon, it was presumably an English 
bird with an English name of its own, and 
it is difficult to conceive why the men should 
have termed it something else.* It is 
obvious from the quotation given by MB. 
MATTHEWS from the Rev. Lewis Hughes, as 
well as from the extract from F. Gorges's 
book ( 1 S. ii. 13), that pimlicoes were common 
West Indian birds, and it seems likely 
enough that they derived their name from the 
island of which they were supposed to be 
natives. The case of the canary is an 
analogous instance. I therefore fail to see 
that my theory is " quite untenable," 
although I am, of course, willing to admit 
that it is but a theory. Can any one suggest 
a better ? W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

Grand Hotel, Locarno. 

The latest editor of Jonson's 'Alchemist,' 
Dr. C. M. Hathaway, with reference to 
Pimlico cites Dekker's ' Worke for Armo- 
rours' (1609), iv. 97 : 

/'No, no, there is no good doings in these days 
[i.e., in time of plague! but amongst Lawyers, 
amongst Vintners, in Bawdy houses, and at 

On Eyebright he has this note : 
"The popular name of the plant Eiiphrasia 
qfficmahs, formerly thought a remedy for weak 
eyes. The meaning here is doubtful. ' N.E.D.' has 
this entry under B: 'f2? "A kind of ale in 
Elizabeth's time" (Latham). Obs.' The only 
quotation cited for this meaning is this passage [i.e 
1 The Alchemist.' v. i. 66]. G[ifford] thinks it may 
be ' a sort of malt liquor, in which the herb of this 
name was infused.' ' N.E.D.' has a quotation under 
B. 1. b which supports this : ' 1616, Surfl. & Markh., 
Country Farme,' 43, Drinke euerie morning a 
small draught of Eye-bright wine.' There is the 
further possibility that Eye-bright is the name of a 
person. Gifford says : ' Pimlico is sometimes spoken 
of as a person, and may not improbably have been 
the master of a house once famous for ale of a 
particular description. So indeed may Eye- 
bright '" 

In 1616 the Catholic martyr Thomas 
Maxfield, writing to another priest, William 
Farrar, concerning one of the latter' s 
brothers, says (Cath. Rec. Soc. iii. 50) : 
" I put him in mind of the Parsin's gamine 
of bakine eatine att Pimligoe." 


BUCKS (10S. x. 410). MR. R. C. BOSTOCK 
and MR. RICHARD WELFORD have very kindly 
pointed out to me the connexion between 
Benjamin Hynmers'and Elihu Yale discussed 
at 9 S. x. 385, 512. 

* As the " pemlico" is said by Gorges to presage 
storms, it may have been a kind' of petrel. 

I find I must amend my query, and now 
ask, Who was Joseph Hynmers, Governor 
of Madras ? The arms used by his son 
point to a connexion with the North- 
country family of the name, and I shall be 
glad of any additions to his pedigree 


East Boldon, R.S.O., Durham. 

INDEX SAYING (10 S. x. 469). Mr. H. B. 
Wheatley's excellent ' What is an Index ? ' 
(London, 1879) gives at p. 19 the quotation 
from ' Nicolai Antonii Bibliotheca Hispana r 
(1672, ii. 371): 

"Idcirco Celebris quidam scriptor nostra? gentis,. 
quo significaret earn curam ejus esse debere, cujus 
cura opus ipsum constitit, urbane, salseque ajebat, 
Indicem libri ab authore, librum ipsum a, quovis 
alio conficiendum esse." 

Has this " celebrated author " been identi- 
fied ? Q. V. 

There is, I think, another saying of a 
similar purport to the two mentioned by 
MR. JAGGARD, but stronger. It is to the 
effect that any man who writes a book 
without an index deserves capital punish- 
ment. I believe it is by Macaulay, but 
cannot trace it. A book without an index 
is a terror. What the writer of a bad index 
deserves I have not heard. - 


8, Royal Avenue, S.W 

MENDEZ PINTO (10 S. x. 488). The infor- 
mation sought may be found in his old 
books. Pinto's full name is Fernando 
Mendez (or Mendoca) Pinto, and his editions 
are as follow : 

Peregrina9ao em queda coutade muytas y muyto- 
estranhas cousas que vio et ouui no reyno de China, 
no da Tartara. Lisbon, 1614, folio. Reprinted at 
Lisbon in 1678, folio. 

Peregrinacao, que consta de muytas cousas no 
reyno da China, da Tartaria, da Pegu, e outros das- 
partes orientaes ; com o Itinerariode Ant. Tenreyro, 
que da India veyo por terra a esto reyno de Portugal 

a lf>'29 Lisbon, 1725. New impression, Lisbon,. 

1762. folio. 

Historia oriental de las peregrinaciones de Fern. 
Mendes Pinto, traduzido de portugues en castellano- 

Sor Fr. de Herrera Maldonado. Madrid, Th. 
unti, 1620, folio. Reprinted Madrid, 1627, folio. 
Voyages advantnreux de Fernand Mendez Pinto, 
trad, du portuguais par Bern. Figuier. Paris, 16'2S, 
4to. Reprinted Paris, 1645, 4to. 

Voyages and Adventiires in Ethiopia, China 

and in the East Indies. Done into English by 

H. C. [H. Cogan] London, H. Cripps. 1653, folio. 
Reprinted in London by J. Macock for H. Herring- 
man, 1663, folio, and again in 1693. 

Maunder describes Pinto as a native of 
Portugal, born of respectable family, who 
departed for the Indies in 1537. On the- 

10 s. XL JAX. 23, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


voyage the ship was taken by the Moors, who concocting of bogus A.-S. forms has been a 

piloted her to Mocha, where Pinto was sold playful amusement of editors until quite 

as a slave. After some adventures he recently ; it is now becoming hazardous, 
escaped and reached Ormuz, and thence WALTER W. SKEAT. 

pursued his original quest. In 1558 he " PROXEGE AND SE^\GE " (10 S xi 9~\ - 

returned to Portugal, and wrote a curious ; r . "" , ,. 

romantic account of his travels and i ^ stands f r P/xy and senage ; 

adventures. From his excessive credulity the P 1 86 ma y be found ln Certificates 

he has been classed with Sir John Mandeville, 

and for extravagant fictions his name is a 



Mendez Pinto' s ' Voyages and Adventures ' 
was reprinted by Mr. T. Fisher Unwin in 
1891. It has by some been regarded as 
fictitious. See a review of it in The Geo- 
graphical Journal, 1893, pp. 139-46. 


co. York,' Surt. Soc., 

vol. xci. pp. 29, 30 : " Paiable yerely to the 
archebysshoppe of Yorke for proxies and 
senagies, vijs. vjd." For " senagium," 
synodal, sea ' Durham Account Rolls,' iii., 
Surt. Soc., vol. ciii. pp. 841, 963. 

W. C. B. 

" Proxege " or " proxies " are described 
as being annual payments made by the 
parochial clergy to the bishop, &c., on 
As Fernando Mendez Pinto was born about | visitations. Cowel says that " haply 

1510, he could not have been Christopher 
Columbus' s travelling companion. Congreve 
has branded him as "a liar of first magni- 
tude," but Faria y Sousa in his ' Portuguese 
Asia ' has defended him, and his good faith 
and veracity are now generally admitted. 

L. L. K. 

A short account of Fernao Mendes Pinto 
(1509 ?-83), the Portuguese adventurer, 
will be found in ' The Encyclopaedia Bri- 

tannica,' 9th ed., vol. xix. 


On this traveller consult The Retrospective 

Review, vol. viii. p. 88 sq. 

" Y-CALLED " : 


Y-COLED" (10 S. X. 

proxege may be the payment of Proxies, 
or Procurations," and that " perhaps senege 
may be the Money paid for Synodals, e.g., 
' There goes out yearly in Proxege and 

Senage 33s. 


ROD or BRICKWORK (10 S. x. 388). 
The Builder's Journal, a widely circulated 
architectural journal, contained on 25 Novem- 
ber last the following : 

" Why a 'rod' of brickwork? A correspondent 
of Notes and Queries has raised this harassing 
question. He points out that in England brickwor 

is measured by the rod There is one point that 

piques our curiosity. How is it chat the querist is 
able to state so confidently that the rod is a land 
measure adapted to brickwork ? The answer to his 
questions might conceivably show that the rod is a 

510). F-CdBeel, 'i.e., provided with" a~caul', j brick measure, adapted to land." 
is duly noted in the 'N.E.D.' under the! _ . p , F 
heading ' Called.' It does not follow that 

the verb was ever used in any other than CARD TERMS (10 S. x. 468). Rout is a 
a participial form. misprint for roub, being an old way of 

Y-coled has, I believe, a totally different spelling " rob " ; r(o)ubbeth stands for 
origin, as it represents the modern English " robs," and roubber for " robber." To rob, 
culled, i.e., men " specially chosen " for the when a player is dealt the ace of trumps 
service. If we consult the ' N.E.D.,' s.v. (or when the dealer turns it up), is to ex- 
' Cull,' we find that the very first quotation change a card from the hand for the turned- 
is exactly to the point sense, spelling, and up trump-card. It is a well-known term 
" Sex hundred of hyse he colede out, I among card-players having an extensive 

knowledge of games. Charles Cotton refers 


That proued were, hardy, and stout." This 
-quotation is from Robert of Brunne, about 
1330. We learn, however, that this is 
not the earliest example of cull ; for that 
from ' King Alisaunder,' 2686, is certainly 
earlier. Of which fact a note should be 

The derivation from an alleged A.-S. 
colla, a helmet, is mere rubbish. There 
never was any such word, as its inventor 
must have known perfectly well. But the 

to it in 'The Compleat Gamester' (1674), 
chap, xi., but incorrectly uses the word 
" ruffs " instead of " robs." He should 
have mentioned it in chap, xiii., describing 
" five-cards," as it was a part of that game. 
" Five-cards " was directly derived from 
" maw," and was the immediate parent of 
the Irish game of " spoil five," which is 
clearly and accurately described by "Caven- 
dish " in his pocket guide to that game. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL J A *. 23, im 

At p. 6 (3rd ed., 1872) will be found a full 
description of " robbing." 

I am unable to explain what is meant by 
livings in the quotation. It possibly might 
be something analogous to charity or lives, 
familiar in some round games ; or, more 
probably, when the game score was reached 
in the middle of a deal (9 S. vii. 6), it was the 
right of the opponents to demand that the 
deal be played out, if they had acquired a 
certain score. 

A helpe (help) is evidently a partner's 
card which aids in making up a combination. 
Like many other old games such as piquet, 
gleek, &o. certain combinations held in a 
hand at maw were betted upon and scored 
before the cards were played in tricks. If 
H. P. L. would kindly inform me where 
I could readily get the full correct extract 
relating to the game of maw which he quotes, 
I might, with other material which I have, 
be able to reconstruct it, as I did with gleek, 
&c. See Gentleman's Magazine, October, 
1899, vol. cclxxxvii. p. 358. 

J. S. McTEAR. 
6; Arthur Chambers, Belfast. 

Has H. P. L. consulted the ' New English 
Dictionary,' svv. help, living, and maw 4 ? 
His instance of help will be a useful addition 
to the last-named article. Q. V. 

THOUGHTS' (10 S. x. 490; xi. 34). The 
Rev. C. P. Eden, vicar of Aberford, Leeds, 
wrote in 1880 : 

"Dr. Bliss told me the University of Oxford had 
not given degrees in Canon Law for centuries. 
' LL.' means ' Legum ' Civil and Canon." 

Young was therefore D.C.L. (Burgon's 
' Twelve Good Men,' vol. ii. p. 325). 

G. W. E. K. 

(10 S. xi. 5). I cannot imagine private 
persons being willing to lend expensive 
genealogical works from their collections. 
Who, for instance, would care to risk lending 
a county history, or chance the loss of a 
volume from a complete set of valuable 
genealogical or antiquarian publications ? 
It is, however, becoming an impossible 
burden to keep pace with the literature con- 
nected with genealogy and heraldry : the 
expense is too great. In subscriptions, 
purchases, indexing, and binding my col- 
lection costs about 1501. a year. A Genea- 
logical Circulating Library is becoming a 
real necessity for the ever-increasing number 
of amateur genealogists, and I have an idea 
that such a thing is possible by making use 

of the London Library, which has already 
a fine nucleus of genealogical and kindred 
works. It has occurred to me that if a 
hundred or more persons interested in genea- 
logy would combine and make an arrange- 
ment to offer themselves as individual 
subscribers upon certain conditions, the- 
prospect of such a number of new subscribers 
would cause the London Library to give 
special attention to genealogical works. 
If a sufficient number of persons interested 
in the movement can be got together, I 
would suggest the formation of a Committee, 
so that the undertaking might be studied 
by those who are considered best able to 
advise as to the proposals for the acquisition 
of genealogical works, and the subscription 
to societies publishing matter of a genealogical 
character. Definite proposals could then 
be submitted to the London Library ; and 
if a satisfactory working arrangement could 
be arrived at, the result would be a great 
boon to genealogists, and the London Lib- 
rary already so famed for its historical, 
literary, and philosophical collections, and 
for its excellent Catalogue would become 
of exceptional importance as a genealogical 
library. LEO C. 

( 10 S. x. 385 ; xi. 30). I am pleased to have 
elicited such an interesting paper from MR. 
ALBERT MATTHEWS ; glad also to be cor- 
rected as to the priority of early editions, 
I found the Philadelphia edition in the 
library of the late Mr. Sayre at South Beth- 
lehem in Pennsylvania. 

I wish to add that I am not the first to 
question the genuineness of the poems. 
" Phocion " wrote thus to The Gazette of 
the United States, 15 Oct., 1796 : 

"Religion indeed has produced aPhillis Wheatley, 
but it could not produce a poet [of the negro race]. 
The compositions published under her name are 
below the dignity or criticism." 

This " Phocion " was evidently a person of 
social consequence and of scholarly attain- 
ments ; and it may be that MR. MATTHEWS 
can identify him. In saying that the com- 
positions were " published under her name," 
he expresses his belief, which I fully share, 
that they are a literary fraud. On a question 
like this, positive knowledge cannot be 
attained ; the expressions used by Governor 
Hutchinson and others are matter of opinion 
only ; and internal evidence is the best 
guide. That evidence is strongly against 
negro authorship. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

10 S. XL JAN. 23, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Old Base Metal Spoons. By F. G. Hilton Price. 

(B. T. Batsford.) 

IT is curious that amongst the services or garnishes 
of pewter plate that have been preserved there are, 
as far as can be ascertained, no spoons, although 
these articles have been in common use during the 
long period in which domestic utensils of base metal 
have been made. The collections of pewter and 
latten spoons which are known have all been de- 
rived from excavations, and it can only therefore 
be assumed from the absence of specimens in the 
pewter collections which have been handed down 
from generation to generation, that spoons of base 
metal were regarded as of little value by their 
original owners, to be used by the domestics of the 
household until worn out, or more probably sold 
to the pewterers to be melted down. 

The present little volume will prove acceptable 
to connoisseurs and collectors whose hobby inclines 
them to this particular branch of antiquarian re- 
search. The author, being Director of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and a collector of repute, is pecu- 
liarly fitted to compile such a volume. 

The actual history of the spoon was exhaustively 
dealt with by Mr. C. J. Jackson in a paper read 
before the Society of Antiquaries and published in 
ArchcKologia. In this volume Mr. Hilton Price does 
not pretend to traverse the ground already covered 
by Mr. Jackson, but confines himself to giving a 
short description of every known type of spoon, 
with illustrations, supplemented with lists record- 
ing the marks or touches upon them down to about 
the middle of the eighteenth, century. The illustra- 
tions of these marks will be of inestimable value to 
the student. They are arranged in chronological 
order, according to the date and period of the style 
of the specimen, and at the end of every paragraph 
upon each type a list is given of all the marks found 
on them. By these means it will be possible for a 
collector to fix definitely a date or period for some 
of the marks. 

Although the records of the Pewterers' Company 
are unfortunately incomplete, they show that from 
time to time explicit instructions regulating the 
manufacture of spoons were issued by the Court of 
the Company, fixing prices and materials and fining 
delinquents ; as witness the following resolution 
directed against the manufacture of latten or brass 
spoons, which it is presumed was encroaching on 
the trade of the pewter-spoon makers (1567-8) : " It 
was agreed by the whole Company that there 
shoulde Be no spones made of Bras or latten or any 
yelow metall uppon payne that if any person here- 
after be found that he doth make any suche spones 
shall f orf ey t and pay for every spone lijs. iiijrf. , &c. ; 
and again we find the following under 1580-7 : " At 
this Court [14th June] it is determyned that all the 
makers of lattyn sponnes in London shal be warnec 
the next Court day that they shalbe bound to make 
no more sponnes. 

That the Court of Pewterers kept a strict eye 
upon the manufacture of pewter spoons, in order 
that the quality of the metal issued should be up to 
the standard required, is shown by the follow 
ing entry culled from records of the Company 
"On 20th June, 1667, Robert Wheely was fined 

. 5s. for the bad quality of his turning spoons " ; 

d with a view to remedy the bad quality of metal 
ised in making spoons it was decided (19th Decem- 
>er) " to convert all spoons into lay as they come to 
any man's hands or custody between 'this and 
Christmas, and from thence every Shopkeeper or 
other to deliver unto ye spoon maker plate mettle 
or as good." 

An interesting part of this volume is that relating 
to the composition of pewter and latten at various 
periods ; the analysis has been made by Prof. 
Rowland of the Royal School of Mines, South 
Kensington, from spoons submitted to him, and the 
results conclusively fix the component parts of the 
metals employed in making these spoons. The 
numerous styles of knop, or termination of the stalk 
of the spoon, are dealt with and illustrated 1 
exhaustively. Occasional excursions are made into- 
the domain of silver ware, but only for purposes of 
comparison. The homely pewter or latten spoon- 
las become the quarry of the collector, if not 
exactly the desire of the connoisseur, and over 
a thousand specimens of base metal spoons were 
examined by the author for the purpose of compiling 
this work, many of them being illustrated by photo- 
graphic reproductions. The whole subject has been 
thoroughly dealt with by one who knows ami 
appreciates his subject ; and the thanks of all 
connoisseurs of this form of collecting are due to- 
him for a lucid and instructive little book, the 
value of which is enhanced by the modest lines CH* 
which it is conceived. It is a subject which might 
easily beget dullness, especially if accompanied by 
an excessive amount of technicalities. 

Mr. Hilton Price has adroitly avoided the pitfall* 
we have mentioned. The book is interesting in 
itself by reason of its anecdotal treatment, and the 
necessarily ample technical details are dealt with 
in a manner which, while leaving little to> be 
desired on the score of exactitude, is yet pleasant 
and profitable reading to all who are devotees of 
old metal work. 

The Nun Ensign. Translated from the Spanish, 
with an Introduction and Notes, by James Fitz- 
maurice-Kelly. Also La Monja Alferez : a Play 
in the Original Spanish. By Juan Perez de 
Montalban. (Fisher Un win.) 

SPAIN has from quite early times been notable for 
its "mugeres varoniles," and from the fifteenth 
century onwards we may find not a few instances of 
a well-born lady donning male attire, buckling a 
sword round her waist, and sallying forth, not in 
the temper of Viola and Imogen, who confessed to 
being no fighters, but with the express object of 
doing battle if an occasion presented. Moreover, this 
spirit is not infrequently reflected in the fiction of 
the times, where the damsel in masquerade plays 
an important part : Calderon and Cervantes alone 
will offer a number of examples. Such a capacity 
for hardy enterprise and action is remarkable 
enough in ages which generally accepted without 
thought of protest the theoretical division of the 
sexes, and Dr. Havelock Ellis has recently, in an 
interesting and suggestive chapter of his 'Soul of 
Spain,' laid stress upon it as indicating a national 
characteristic of the Spanish woman. An excellent 
illustration of his theory may be found in the so- 
called ' Nun Ensign,' with whose name and history 
many English readers have a more or less loose- 
acquaintance, derived from an essay of De 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 23, im 

The daughter of a martial sire who held the rank 
of captain, Catalina de Erauso was in early girlhood 
placed in a convent; but after some five or six 
years, finding the religious life to which she had 
been destined little to her mind, she made her 
escape, cut her hair short, fashioned herself a 
doublet and pair of breeches, and so faced the 
world in the garnish of a boy. She was then, it 
would appear, fifteen or sixteen years of age, and 
for the succeeding seventeen or eighteen years she 
led a roving life, full of hazard and hardship, 
through all of which her disguise held good and her 
sex was never suspected. 

It was not long before she sailed for South 
America, where, after some preliminary experiences 
in nominally peaceful occupations, she enlisted in 
the Spanish army, and from the year 1608 onwards 
took active part in the campaigns against the native 
1 ndian tribes. She proved a most capable soldier, 
and her valour in the field soon procured her the 
rank of ensign ; it seems not unlikely that her 
further promotion was hindered chiefly by an 
impetuousness of disposition and a readiness to 
take offence which led her into innumerable quarrels 
and frays. Her autobiography, indeed, is largely 
occupied with the account of these passages, in 
which she appears to have divorced several souls 
from their bodies, and it was in consequence 
of a wound received on one of these occasions 
that she was finally led to disclose the secret of 
her sex. 

The narrative of her adventures is extremely 
interesting, the curt, summary method of relation 
often appealing to the imagination more forcibly 
than a more elaborate account would have done. 
Here, for example, is how she describes a chance 
encounter with highwaymen : 

" I had not gone far when, to my joy, I fell in 
with a soldier who was going the same way, and 
we travelled together. A little further on three 
men, wearing caps and armed with muskets, 
bounced out of some roadside huts, demanding all 
we had. We could not get rid of them, nor persuade 
them that we had nothing to give ; we were obliged 
to dismount and face them. Shots were exchanged ; 
they missed us ; two of them fell, and the other 
fled. We mounted again and jogged on." 

Clearly such an incident was regarded as a very 
trifling matter in a stirring life like hers, but, 
indeed, all the descriptions of what she did and 
saw in her travels through Chile and Peru are 
characterized by a brevity which often leaves the 
curiosity of the reader eager for more. 

It is impossible to say how far the autobiography, 
in the form in which we possess it, is to be accepted 
.as authentic. It contains beyond doubt a number 
of statements that cannot be reconciled with 
positive facts, and in the matter of dates the dis- 
crepancies and confusions are unmistakable. " The 
truth is," says Mr. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, " that we 
have no evidence as to when, or by whom, the 
' Historia ' was written " ; and we think it can 
hardly be questioned that pretty numerous addi- 
tions and embellishments must have been made to 
the original version. But there are no sufficient 
grounds for rejecting its substantial veracity. The 
whole matter is admirably summed up by the 
editor, who says that, " whoever wrote it, and 
whatever its inaccuracies, it appears to be mainly 
based upon authentic accounts derived from the 
Nun Ensign herself ; it gives a vivid idea of the 
vicissitudes undergone by a strange, turbulent 

adventuress ; and the narrative compensates for 
its lack of literary artifice by its sober, laconic 

It is almost superfluous to commend the manner 
in which Mr. Fitzmaurice-Kelly has performed his 
task as editor and translator. His Introduction is 
a model of conciseness, clearness, and impartiality, 
and supplies the reader with all the available 
information on the subject. It is, perhaps, worth 
noting that he exposes the disinsrenuousness of 
De Quincey's Essay, which professed to be founded 
on independent study, while in reality it was 
merely an unconscionable adaptation from that 
very French source which it so vehemently 

We should add that the present volume is 
rendered additionally valuable for the student of 
Spanish by the inclusion of the text of Pe'rez de 
Montalban's hitherto almost inaccessible play, and 
additionally attractive to the lover of art by the 
reproduction on a somewhat diminutive scale of 
Daniel Vierge's delicate illustrations. 

THE Intermddiaire continues equal to its well- 
established reputation. Information is given on 
euch diverse subjects as the family descended from 
Carrier of Nantes, the burning of Coligny in etfigy, 
and the old custom of child-marriages. In the 
number for 20 September may be found a note 
which will interest folk-lorists who collect examples 
of the widespread practice of walling-up living 
beings to secure the safety of a building. M. M. 
says : 

"In visiting the museum of Nantes lately 1 
observed this explanatory legend placed beneath a 
mummified cat: 'Cat immured alive, found in 
1889 in taking down a wall. The animal, according 
to a superstition of which traces are still to be 
found in some parts of Normandy, appears to have 
been walled up alive. It was held that in this way 
the house would be preserved from lightning and 
fire.' " 

A "lanterne des morts" at Bayeux is mentioned 
in .the same number. This lantern a kind of 
cylindrical column of stone, open in the upper part, 
and crowned with a conical hood pierced with holes 
rises from the roof of an ancient house, near the 
gutter. Formerly, when any one died in the town, 
instead of the bells being tolled it was customary to 
light the open part of the column at night, to inform 
the faithful that they should pray for the dead. 
The correspondent who describes it asks whether 
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CONTENTS. No. 266. 

NOTES : Greystoke Family, 81 Bibliographical Technical 
Terms, 82 Shakespeare in French Shakespeariana, 84 
"Kersey," 85 Christopher Ludwick "Qood-fors" 
Thackeray Anecdote" Now or never" Whyte de Malle- 
ville-;-Chinese Pronunciation, 86" Fesse " : " Miniver " 
" White Eyes "Nicholas as a Feminine Name, 87. 


Ruflnus Anne Boleyn's Remains Denvir Surname, 88 
Potter's Bar: Seven Kings Byron's Birthplace William 
Merry, 1735 Parliamentary Banner in the Civil War Sir 
Isaac Goldsmid Glossaries to the Waverley Novels 
Carmarthen Families : Paddington House Saxon Abbeys, 
89 Ewen Maclachlan Valentine Douglas, O.S.B. 
Coffee drinking in Palestine Stratton Fight, Cornwall, 90. 

REPLIES : Ruckholt House, 90 The Longmans : the 
'Marseillaise' Lascar Jargon, 92 Egypt as a Place- 
Name, 93 Authors of Quotations Wanted "Psycho- 
logical moment " Gower, a Kentish Hamlet, 94 St. 
Anthony of Vienne Blue Coat School Costume, 9C 
4 Folkestone Fiery Serpent,' 97 Aerial Navigation Mrs. 
Oliphant's ' Neighbours on the Green ' Seaquake and 
Earthquake "Comether " " It is the Mass that matters," 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Andrew Lang's 'The Maid of 
France 'William Barnes's Poems' Echoes from the 
Oxford Magazine.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
OBITUARY : Richard Hemming. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


IN the review of ' Nunburnholme : its 
History and Antiquities,' by the Rev. 
M. C. F. Morris (10 S. x. 79), it is stated 
that " Mr. Morris has made out a satis- 
factory list of the Lords of Nunburnholme 
from Forne, who may have held it pre- 
vious to the Norman time. He may have 
been, and probably was, ancestor of the 

To remove all doubt as to Forne' s position 
AS lineal ancestor of the Greystokes and as 
to his tenure of Greystoke before the Con- 
quest, I offer the following notes from my 
collection of materials towards a history of 
the Feudal Baronage of Yorkshire. 

The first of the family upon record may 
\>e identified with a considerable degree 
of certainty as Sigulf, one of the magnates 
of Cumberland in pre-Conquest days, thus 
mentioned in the important charter of 
Gospatric found at Lowther Castle in 
1902 by the Rev. F. W. Ragg : 

" I will that the men that dwell with Thorfynn 
-at Garden and at Combedeyfoch be as free with 
him as Melmor and Thore and Sygulf were in 
Eadread's days." Ancestor, vii. 246 ; ' V. C. H. 
Cumb.,' ii. 233, 241n. 

Sigulf was the father of Forne, who appears 
in the Yorkshire survey as one of the King's 
thegns holding in 1086 in Brunham (Nun- 
burnholme) 11 ploughlands. It is extremely 
probable that he also held under Henry I., 
if not in 1086, the following lands in' the 
soke of Pocklington Nunburnholme, 
1 ploughland ; Millington, 13 ploughlands ; 
Waplington, 2 ploughlands ; Thornton- 
le-Moor, half the manor or 2 plough- 
lands ; and 14 bovates of a berewick in 
Millington containing 2 ploughlands, the 
remainder of which was given to Robert de 

Forne was a trusted servant of the Crown 
in Yorkshire in the time of Henry I. in asso- 
ciation with Walter Espec and Anketill 
de Bulmer. He attested many royal charters 
among others the confirmation to St. 
Oswald of Nostell of the benefactions made 
by Swein son of Ailric, which passed at 
Portsmouth upon the transfretation (Cotton 
MSS., Vesp. E. xix. f. 7b). It was recorded 
by the inquest of service made in 1212 that 
Henry I. gave Greystoke (near Penrith) to 
Forne the son of Siolf. Here we are pro- 
bably justified in reading confirmed in place 
of gave. Forne also held several manors 
in Westmorland. At Winchester in 1110 
he attested the royal confirmation of the 
privileges and customs of the church of 
York ; and he was one of the magnates 
who in 1121 at York heard the claim pre- 
ferred by the monks of Durham to Tyne- 
mouth (' Historians of York,' Rolls Series, 
iii. 36; '* Sym. of Durham,' ii. 261). He 
was probably the donor of two bovates of 
land at Besingby to Bridlington Priory, and 
with Ivo his son gave two bovates some- 
where in his fee in Durham to the church of 
Hexham (' Priory of Hexham,' Surtees Soc., 
i. 59). He died shortly before 1130, when 
his son Ivo owed the Exchequer 51. for his 
father's land and 5 marks of the pleas of 
Blithe (Pipe Roll, 31 Hen. I., 25). Eda, 
sister of Ivo, after having had, as it is said,, a 
bastard son by Henry I. named Robert, 
married Robert de Oilly, Baron of Hook 
Norton in Oxfordshire (Lappenberg, ' Eng- 
land under the Norman Kings,' 348n. ; 
' Mon. Angl.,' vi. 251a). 

By Agnes his wife Ivo had a daughter 
Alice, who was given by her parents in 
marriage to Edgar, son of Earl Gospatric, 
with a dowry of ten manors, viz., in Durham, 
Ulnaby and Thornton by the Tees ; in 
Westmorland, Knock Salcock (Chonoc- 
Salechild) and Yanwath (Euenewit) ; in 
Cumberland, Blencowe (Gleneklau) ; and in 
Coquetdale, Trewhitt and " Cers," Great 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. so, 1909. 

and Little Tosson, and Flotterton by per- 
forming " utware " (' Newminster Chartul., 
117). This gift was confirmed by Ivo's 
son Walter, who gave in 1158 to Rievaulx 
half a ploughland in Folkton. It is un- 
certain when he succeeded his father Ivo, 
whom he did not long survive, for, having 
in 1162 rendered one mark of scutage in 
Northumberland, he probably died during 
that fiscal year. During the same year 
Ranulf son of Walter rendered in Yorkshire 
one mark of scutage, another mark being 
pardoned to Henry de Oilly. In 1165 the 
same Ranulf rendered account in North- 
umberland of one mark to the donum levied 
that year, and in Yorkshire paid 33s. 
of scutage upon 2 knights' fees. Between 
1167 and 1176 Beatrice, relict of Walter 
son of Ivo, and Ranulf her son confirmed 
to Rievaulx the gift made by Walter son 
of Ivo of half a ploughland in Folkton, a 
culture called Ravenesdale, and pasture for 
1,000 sheep ('Rievaulx Chartul.,' 116-17, 170). 

In making a return of his fees in 1166 
Ranulf son of Walter says : 

"Know that my ancestors held of the King your 
grandfather the fees of my knights, and by your 
grace I now hold of you by the service or three 
knights and a third part of a knight." 'Red Book 
of the Exch.,' 434. 

With Alice his daughter he gave in marriage 
to Henry son of Hervey all Mickleton, with 
the service of Guy de Bovincurt there and 
in Northumberland, and the service of 
Lonton and Thringarth with the forest of 
Lune, situate in the North Riding of York- 
shire, adjoining Westmorland on the west 
('Reg. Hon. Richmond,' App. 58; 'Hist, 
of Gilling West,' 386). To Bridlington he 
confirmed two bovates of land given by 
Theobald son of Reinfred and William son of 
the said Theobald. In 1168 he rendered 
44s. 5d. to the aid to marry the King's 
daughter ; in 1172 he rendered 66s. 8d. of 
scutage due from three and a third fees ; 
and in 1180 rendered account of 100Z. 
because he had departed out of the realm 
without licence and to be quit of an amerce- 
ment on account of one of his men for whom 
he had been surety. In 1182 he successfully 
defended a plea brought by Richard Male- 
bisse, who claimed six ploughlands in 
Thornton (-le-Moor ?). In 1190 he owed 
2 marks of the scutage of Wales, which 
were still due in 1194, in which year he had 
acquittance of 66s. 8d. of the scutage of 
Normandy in respect that his son William 
had been with the King in that campaign 
(Pipe Rolls). In 1196 he rendered to a 
scutage, and again in 1200 to that of Nor- 

mandy. The date of his death is uncertain. 
Amabel his relict survived, and married 
Roger son of Hugh, who held in 1212 one 
knight's fee in Cowscliffe, co. Durham, which 
had been assigned to her in dower (' Testa 
de Nevill,' p. 395b). 

In 1207 William son of Ranulf made an 
acknowledgment that he would render 
yearly to Gilbert de Gant one sor goshawk 
healthy and sound, to be delivered yearly 
at Hunmanby between the feasts of the 
Assumption and the Nativity of the Virgin,, 
in respect of one ploughland which he held of 
Gilbert at Ellerton, near Pocklington ( ' Yorks. 
Fines,' 110). He died early in 1209, holding 
in Cumberland two vills in demesne and two 
in service for a cornage rent of 4Z. per annum. 
The same year Robert de Vipont gave 
500 marks and 5 palfreys in Cumberland 
to have wardship of the land of William 
son of Ranulf and his heirs, and the marriage 
of the heirs and of Heloise de Stutevill, who 
had been William's wife (' V.C.H. Cumb.,' 
i. 406 ; ' Red Book of the Exch.,' 493). In 
1219-20 Thomas son of William son of 
Ranulf, was still in ward of Robert de 
Vipont, who had married him to his daughter 
Christiana ; and in 1222 he had acquittance 
of a demand of 10 marks from the Barons of 
the Exchequer of the scutage of Poitou for 
the last expedition of King. John, as it had 
been shown that he was in that expedition 
with Robert de Vipont (' Close Roll,' Rec. 
Com., i. 519b). In 1245 a grant of a weekly 
market and yearly fair at Grey stoke was 
made to Thomas, son of William de Cray- 
stock (' Cal. Chart.,' i. 288). He was tha- 
first of his line to bear the local name for 
his surname. His death occurred in 1247. 

Hall Garth, Carnforth. 


(See 10 S. x. 81, 484.) 

Aristonym. Title of nobility converted; 
into or used as a proper name ; or in French 
taking the name of a place as a proper 

Querard's instance (S.L.D. vol. iv. 1852,. 
p. 628) is " Voltaire (de), aristonyme [F. M. 
Arouet ' de Voltaire ']." 

" Voltaire afterwards, with consummate 
impudence, prefixing the magic ' de ' to 
impose himself upon the public as of noble 
descent " ('Of Anagrams,' by H. B. Wheat- 
ley, 1862, p. 70). 

I have no English example. In England. 
*here is nothing similar to the " de " in 

10 s. XL JAN. so, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

French, in which " de " is a sign of good 
birth, &c., as " le " is a sign of common 
origin. But it is commonly said that 
Robert Montgomery assumed the aristocratic 
prefix " mont " (D.N.B.), though this had 
been denied years before by Cyrus Jay in 
his ' Recollections,' 1859, p. 200. 

Ascetonym. The name of a saint used 
as a proper name. 

Example : Saint-Jean (la mere Angelique 
de) [i.e. Angelique d'Arnauld d'Andilly], 

Asterism or asteronym. One or more 
asterisks or stars used as a name : see 
stigmonym. Asterism has been in use since 
1598, see O.E.D. 

Examples : ' The Collegian's Guide ' by 
**** ****** [James Pycroft],1845,H.p. 191 : 
'Poetical Trifles,' by *** **** **** [Sir 
John Moore], the second edition, Bath, 

I have not found the word asterism used 
by Querard, though he has several pages 
of asterisms in the S.L.D. vol. v. But he 
has asteronym in the title of his second 
edition of the S.L.D. Asterism is used as 
a title in H. p. 189, in 1868. 

Autonym, autonymous. Book published 
with the author's real name or literary 
name. In O.E.D. vol. i. p. 575, and O. 
Hamst quoted. 

This word has come into use : we have 
" The Pseudonym Library " and this was 
followed in imitation of it by " The Autonym 
Library," published by T. Fisher Unwin 
in 1894, see ' The English Catalogue,' vol. v. 
1890-97, p. 1116; and ' N. & Q.,' 22 Oct., 
1898. It is necessary to be careful that 
antonym is not used for autonym. 

Boustrophedon. Same as ananym, which 
is a less cumbersome word. Boustrophedon 
is in O.E.D. vol. i. p. 1027, with " Dralloc " 
quoted from O. Hamst. 

Chronogram. "A chronogram is pro- 
perly a [name] sentence or a verse, wherein 
certain letters express a date, while the 
sentence itself is descriptive of, or allusive 
to, the event to which it belongs " (James 
Hilton in ' Chronograms,' 1895, iii. 2). In 
the index under " author " he has references 
to authors' names in chronograms, so that 
the above description should include the 
word " name " I have added in brackets. 

In vol. i. 1882, p. 9, Hilton gives the follow- 
ing instance : " Hugo Grotius his sompho- 
paneas, or Joseph a tragedy, with annota- 
tions by franCIs goLDsMIth (i.e., 1652)," 
the letters forming the date being indicated 
by capitals. 

Chronogram is in O.E.D. vol. ii. p. 396,. 
with an example of the date 1666 expressed 
in this way : LorD haVe MerCIe Vpon Vs. 

I have no instance of a chronogram 
pseudonym, but I have kept the word in 
this, as it was in my original list, and is in 
all the other lists. 

Cryptonym, cryptonymous. The name 
of an author that is hidden : a book that 
has the author's name, but hidden in some- 
manner. Peignot describes cryptonym as- 
an author who disguises his name, but more- 
particularly he who disguises himself by 
only transposing the letters of his name, 
so as to form another name, which is an 
anagram of the real name (' Dictionnaire/ 
1802, i. 199). But he then gives an ananym 
as an example which I should never call 
cryptonym, as Telliamed reversed makes 
Demaillet. Pierquin and Littre both follow 
Peignot as to a cryptonym being anagram- 
matic : there is nothing in this, as all dic- 
tionary-makers copy one another. It is- 
better that cryptonym and anagram should 
have distinct meanings. If a pseudonym 
is an anagram, better call it so than crypto- 

Examples of cryptonym : ' Fifty-one- 
original fables,' by [here is a monogram 
of the letters ATORBJCNH interwoven, from 
which it would be almost impossible to guess 
the name of the author] Jonathan Birch^ 
It was published in London, 1833 : the pre- 
face is signed Job Crithannah, which is an 
anagram of the author's name. 

'The Wandering Jew,' by the Rev. T^ 
Clark, 1820, is cryptonymous, and most 
difficult is it to find out the author's name. 
In ' The Literary Life of John Gait,' vol. i. 
p. 222, he says he wrote it under the name 
of the " Rev. Mr. Clarke," in order to conceal 
the use he had made of his former works in 
compilation. Oddly enough, he does not 
reveal the cryptonym ; and that the initial 
letters of each sentence of the '' Conclusion ' r 
from p. 435 to p. 438 make up the words 
" This book was written by John Gait." 

There is a cryptical title in H. p. 29, under 
C.C.. i.e. Clark. 

The following phraseonym is a crypto- 
nimic ananym : ' Scripture Interpretations,' 
by A. Namyal, vicar of Ecalpon. London^ 

(To te continued.) 

I am not sure that I agree with my friend 
MB. WHEATLEY in his objection to the use 
of the word "anonym " in the sense of "a 
book without an author's name," although 
I fully see his point, and would prefer the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAX. so, im 

form I give below. If " pseudonym " means 
a false name, "anonym" means, in strict 
analogy, no name at all, and in this sense of 
the word there cannot be a ' Dictionary of 
Anonyms.' Nameless things are rare, but I 
have read in Allen Raine's novel ' Torn Sails ' 
that the violet has no name in Welsh : and 
if this is the case, it could not, as an anonym, 
find a place in a Welsh dictionary. If, how- 
ever, anonyms are held to be the same 
things as anonymous works, they could of 
course be catalogued. In French pseudo- 
nyme means (1) a pseudonym or fictitious 
name and (2) a pseudonymous work, while 
anonyme has the two significations given by 
MB. THOMAS. " Anonyma" is certainly not 
the plural of " anonymous," and probably 
no one ever thought it was. It is, however, 
the plural of " anonymon," a nameless thing ; 
and as brevity is desirable in technical 
nomenclature, I venture to think that the 
words " anonymon " and " pseudonymon " 
might be usefully employed in the place of 
the lengthier " anonymous " and " pseu- 
donymous work." " Anonyma " and 
"pseudonyma" would be the regular plurals 
-of these words. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 


I SEND some notes on mistakes in the 
" (Euvres completes de Shakespeare, tra- 
duites par Emile de Montegut," which is 
^.n " ouvrage couronne par FAcademie 

' Le Roi Richard II.,' Acte V. scene vi. : 
" Notre Ville de Chichester dans le Glouces- 
tershire." The Folio has " our towne of 
Ciceter in Gloucestershire." The translator 
mistakes Chichester in Sussex for Ciren- 
cester in Gloucestershire, called by the 
inhabitants Cissiter. 

' Cymbeline,' Acte III. scene" iv. : " Un 
nid de cygne dans une immense etang : il 
y a des vivants ailleurs qu'en Bretagne." 
The Folio : " In a great poole, a Swannes- 
nest : prythee, thinke, there 's liuers out 
of Britaine." The translator probably was 
not aware that the city of Liverpool shows 
on its arms four livers (pronounced " lyvers" ) 
or wild swans, to record the swannery which 
originally existed in the marshy pool at 
the mouth of the Mersey. 

' Othello,' Acte V. scene ii. : " Je le 
f rappais ainsi. (II se poignarde. ) O denou- 
inent sanglant." The Folio : " And smote 
him thus. Oh ! bloody period." The 
translator has missed the point," period 
being the academic word for full stop. 
Othello's life is punctuated. See also 

' Timon,' Act I. sc. i. : " which, failing him, 
periods his comfort." 

' Beaucoup de Bruit,' Acte II. scene i. : 
" Le plus extreme pouce de terre de 1'Asie." 
The Folio : " The furthest Inch of Asia." 
The translator has not noticed the meaning 
of the word " Inch " as a cape or promon- 
tory : " Inch-cape, Inch-keith, Inch-isle." 

' Hamlet,' Acte I. scene iv. : " II m'appa- 
rais sous une forme si interessante." The 
Folio : "in such a questionable form." 
The ancient opinion that all spiritual visitors, 
ministers of grace and angels, must be ap- 
proached and interrogated or questioned, 
in order to obtain the intelligence they 
offer is here referred to. 

Tunbridge Wells. 

'As You LIKE IT,' II. vii. 147-8: 

And then the Lover 
Sighing like Furnace. 

See 'Cymbeline,' I. vi. 66. Compare also 
Constable's ' Diana,' Fifth Decade, Sonnet I. : 
Love a continual furnace doth maintain. 
A furnace ! Well, this a furnace may be called ; 
For it burns inward, yields a smothering flame, 
Sighs which, like boiled lead's smoking vapour, scald. 


I was never so berim'd since Pythagora's time that 
I was an Irish Rat, which I can hardly remember. 

IV. i. 105: 

And the foolish Chroniclers of that age found it 
was Hero of Cestos. 

Grey's suggestion that the dramatist was, 
in the first citation, alluding to the Pytha- 
gorean doctrine of the transmigration of souls 
seems sound. But Sir Walter Raleigh ( 'Hist, 
of the World, Part I., Book I. chap. v. 
section vi. ) helps to rather a better under- 
standing of the passage than has heretofore 
been offered : 

" And this custome was also held by the Druids 
and Bards of our antient Brittaine, and of latter 
times by the Irish Chroniclers called Rimers." 

Neither the ' N.E.D.' nor the ' Century ' 
offers so specific a definition of rimer. In- 
ferentially, the story of the Irish rat is to 
be found in rime in the old Irish chronicles. 
This would also dispose of the suggested 
" coroner " for " Chroniclers" in the second 
citation, for Shakespeare is speaking of 
Troilus and Hero and Leander, and seems to 
have in mind poets of former times. 

New York. 

10 s. XL JAN. so, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

' HENRY VI.,' PART III., II. v. : 

Thou that so stoutly hast resisted me. 
In the Third Part of ' Henry VI.' there is a 
passage in which Shakespeare, wishing per- 
haps to portray the horrors of civil war, 
introduces a father killing his son, and a son 
his father, on the field of battle, neither of 
them being aware of it till the dreadful deed 
is done. It is a remarkable coincidence 
that Tacitus in the twenty-fifth chapter of 
the Third Book of his ' Histories ' tells us 
of the latter incident having actually 
occurred in the civil war between Vespasian 
and Vitellius, and he cites his authority for 
it, and particularly describes the cir- 
cumstances which attended it. 

Whence did Shakespeare derive his story ? 
Did he invent it ? Or had it been handed 
down to him as a shocking fact which had 
occurred in the civil wars ? He can hardly 
have read the ' Histories ' of Tacitus. 


7, Lyndlmrst Road, Exeter. 

(Globe) : 

The next Csesarion smite ! 

The editors are unanimous in referring 
"next" to "Csesarion." The context would 
seem to indicate that such reference is incor- 
rect. The first stone of this poisonous hail 
was to work Cleopatra's destruction. The 
next stone was to smite Caesarion, Cleopatra's 
firstborn. The process of extermination was 
then to continue " Till by degrees," &c. I 
believe the line should be punctuated thus : 
"The next, Caesarion smite ! " 


St. Louis. 

" KERSEY." It is generally supposed 
that the stuff called kersey was so named 
from Kersey in Suffolk. In fact, this seems 
to be the only explanation which will 
account for all the spellings of it in England ; 
and it will also fairly account for most of 
the French spellings also. But the 'N.E.D.' 
raises some doubt by the statement that 
" evidence actually connecting the original 
manufacture of the cloth with that place 
has not been found." 

I think it has not been found because 
it has not been looked for. In five minutes, 
in the first book I opened, ' The Imperial 
Cyclopaedia,' I found, under ' Suffolk,' the 
following statements : 

" The principal manufactures [in 1841] were the 
silk, employing 879 persons ; the woollen and 

worsted, employing 169 persons ; in addition, 

S3"2 persons were returned as weavers, 75 as 


And under ' Hadleigh ' is the statement 
that " weaving and silk- winding employ 
some of the inhabitants." Hadleigh and 
Kersey are close together, and Hadleigh 
is now, at any rate, the more important 

The question arises whether the stuff 
called linsey, mentioned in 1435 (the obvious- 
original of the later linsey-woolsey), was not 
named from Lindsey, formerly Lynsey 
(Lyllesey, Lellesey), which is just as far to 
the N.W. of Kersey as Hadleigh is to the 
S.E. of it, i.e., within two miles of it. And 
this question is absolutely settled by the fact 
that Skelton, in his 'Why come ye not to 
Courte,' 1. 128. speaks of " A webbe of Lylse- 
wulse," where Lylse means Lylsey, the older 
spelling of Lynsey, And in 1. 930 he speaks 
of " Spryng of Lanham," i.e., Lavenham, 
and of his " clothe-makynge." 

Carrying back the search, I came across 
' A Breviary of Suffolk,' by Robert Reyce,. 
1618, ed. Lord Francis Hervey. At p. 21 
is a eulogium of Suffolk for its 

" excellent commoditie of clothing, which of lony 

time hath here flourished hee which maketh 

ordinaryly twenty broad cloathes every weeke r 
cannot sett so few a-worke as five hundred 

And the author speaks as if it were a large 
and thriving industry. 

Next I find, in Raven's ' History of 
Suffolk,' a reference to the insurrection of 
Suffolk weavers, as told in Hall's ' Chronicle '; 
and accordingly, in that ' Chronicle,' ed. 
Ellis, p. 699, I find that in the seventeenth 
year of Henry VIII. the Duke of Suffolk 
tried to persuade " the riche Clothiers " 
to grant a sixth part (!) of their goods to- 
the King. But " they called to them their 
, Spinners, Carders, Fullers, Weuers, and 
! other artificers " who lived " by cloth- 
makyng," who all refused. And so "of 
Lanam [Lavenham, about six miles from 
Lindsey and eight from Kersey], Sudbery 
[about twelve miles west of Hadleigh] r 
Hadley, and other tonnes aboute, there re- 
belled foure thousande men." 

Surely this evidence is strong, and not 
to be rejected. The difficulty of finding 
direct evidence in such a case is, of course, 
extreme ; but I am sure it can be had. 
Already we have found cloth-making close 
to Kersey in 1526, when 4,000 men were 
interested in it. It is not difficult to suppose 
that it was already established in 1390. 

Bardsley quotes " Selvestre de Kereseye," 
co. Suffolk, as occurring in 1273 ; and 
" Eliz. Lynsejre " in 1546. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. so, im 

him is printed in The Massachusetts Spy, 
12 Aug. and 2 Sept., 1801. He is described 
as " Baker General of the Army of the U.S., 
during the Revolutionary War." He was 
born 17 Oct., 1720, at Giessen Hessen in 
Darmstadt ; fought against the Turks, 
1737-40 ; was in Prague during the siege, 
1741 ; went to the East Indies in Admiral 
Bosca wen's squadron ; emigrated to Phila- 
delphia, 1753, and set up his business of 
family gingerbread baker in Lsetitia Court 
in that city, 1754 ; married a widow, 
Catharine England, 1755, but left no issue. 
During the War of Independence he induced 
a number of Hessians to desert. He is 
said to have died in June, 1800 (it may have 
been a year earlier or later), and was buried 
in the Lutheran Churchyard at Germantown. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

" GOOD-FORS." I do not see any mention 
of this compound word in the ' N.E.D.' 
It is a colloquialism much in use in South 
Africa, and probably in other parts of the 
world as well. I encountered it first on 
the voyage to Cape Town. A " good-for " 
is a card with the two words printed at the 
top, under which you write any order of 
wine or spirits, followed by your signature. 
Every three or four days the steward hands 
you your bill of extras, together with the 
" good-fors " as vouchers. The same rule 
obtains in the Colonial hotels and restaurants, 
where these receipts have been current for 
fully thirty years. When I was in the public 
service at Kimberley, " good-fors " fre- 
quently found their way into court as 
acknowledgments for debt, and on such 
occasions they were always treated by the 
resident magistrate as liquid documents, 
like promissory notes and I O U's. The 
word is constantly met with in Cape papers. 

N. W. HILL. 
New York. 

THACKERAY ANECDOTE. I have just read 
the interesting little critique on Thackeray's 
works, ante, p. 18, and send the following 

Thackeray once desired to succeed Card- 
well as M.P. for the city of Oxford, and 
when returning from his canvass said, "What 
do you think, Cardwell ! Not one of your 
constituents ever heard of me and my 
writings." He prefaced " constituents " 
with a strongish adjective. 

Strange, if true. They must have been 
starving in the midst of plenty. 


" Now OR NEVER." The earliest instance 
of this phrase given in the ' N.E.D.' 
(s.v. ' Now,' 8) is dated 1560. An earlier 
example occurs in a letter of Sir John 
Paston to his brothers John and Edmund, 
13 June, 1475, in Gammer's edition (1900) 
iii. 137 : 

" Wherffor, for yowr better speede, I lete you 
weete that Heugh Beamond is deed : wherffor I 
wolde ye had hys roome nowe or never, iff ye can 
brynge it abowt." 



' Romances of the French Revolution,' 
recently published by Mr. Heinemann, it is 
related that among the prisoners released 
on the taking of the Bastille none produced 
such a sensation as did an unknown personage 
of immense age, a " white apparition of a 
man," who was lodged at brewer Santerre's 
house, and forthwith paraded through the 
town to receive the " fraternizations " of 
the mob, and blink in the glare of a Paris 
July. With palsied head shaking to and 
fro, and snowy beard reaching to his knees, 
in second childishness and mere oblivion, 
the strange object looked more like a corpse 
than a living being. He was wholly in- 
sensible to the popular acclamation, and, 
when made to understand ~that the crowd 
desired his name, announced himself as 
" le major de 1'immensite." Further in- 
quiry proved him to be Jacques Frangois 
Xavier de Whyte de Malleville. 

Naturally, one thinks of another Whyte 
Melville, and wonders whether there may be 
any connexion between the two. 


[A query founded on M. Lenotre's book appeared 
ante, p. 8.J 

language has been compared to a hedgehog, 
bristling with difficulties at all points. I 
venture to draw attention to two curious 
features of Chinese speech, which affect the 
pronunciation of proper names, and should 
therefore interest public speakers and others. 

The first peculiarity is the increasing 
palatalization of the letter k, when followed 
by i, so that it sounds like our ch in ' 'church." 
The consequence is that in a name like 
Kin-chau (an important place) the two syl- 
lables now sound as if they began with the 
same letter, " Chin cho." This perversion 
originated in the capital, which by its in- 
habitants is called " Pay-ching." It is 
now affecting the spelling of Chinese names. 
A glance at the newer works of reference 

10 s. XL JAN. 30, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


will show that our old friend the Yang-tze- 
kiang which at school we called the 
" Yankee Kiang " is now written Yang- 
tze-chiang. There are numerous examples 
of this new orthography in ' Chambers' s 
Encyclopaedia. ' 

The other peculiarity to which I would 
draw attention is one which I have often 
observed in listening to Chinese conversa- 
tion. It is that in many words the sharp 
consonants sound as if they were flats. The 
German possession of Kiao-chau is called 
" Geow-jo," the k softening into g, and the 
ch into /. Shan-tung, noted for its silks, 
is known as " Shan-doong." The notorious 
Ta-lien-wan, which played a leading part 
in the war, is sounded Kke the two English 
words " darlin' one " which no doubt 
explains why the Russians christened it 
Dalny. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

" FESSE " : " MINIVER." On 15 Oct., 
1340, John, the abbot, and the convent of 
Glastonbury, granted to Lucy, widow of 
Roger de Estrete, 

" redditus vnius robe annuatim percipiende apud 
Glastoniam de secta clericorum nostrorum videlicet 
octo uirgas panni cum pellura de stradling' in 
capucio de Minuto uero de quatuor fessis," 

or, in default, two marks (MS. Wood, 
empt. 1, If. 142). Q. V. 

" WHITE EYES," mentioned by H. H. 
at 7 S. xii. 147, was Koquethagechton, a 
chief of the Lenape, or Delawares. He and 
Killbuck were the only chiefs of the western 
tribes to take the side of the colonists in 
the war. In 1778 he joined the American 
force at Fort Mclntosh, and died there soon 
after ; so he could not have opposed the 
treaty of peace in 1780, as stated in 'N. & Q.' 
See ' Pennsylvania Archives,' vol. vi. ; 
Burton's ' Lenape ' ; Butterfield's ' History 
of the Girtys.' O. H. DARLINGTON. 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

The Daily Telegraph on Thursday, 17 Decem- 
ber, there was recorded among the deaths as 
follows : 

"Milner. On the loth inst., at 56, Dartmouth 
Road, Cricklewood, N.W. , of heart failure, Nicholas, 
widow of the late Joshua Milner, wool merchant, 
Bradford, Yorks, aged 80. Funeral will leave 
Midland Station, Bradford, at eleven o'clock, Fri- 
day, for Undercliffe Cemetery." 

The name of Nicholas for a woman is pro- 
bably uncommon. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

Library, MS. V.v. 4 (c. 1340), ff. 221 v. to 225 v., 
are two lists of wonders, one including fifteen, 
and the other thirty-three. The first set 
begins with Loch Lomond, in which are 
60 islands, 50 of which are inhabited ; 
60 rocks all round, and an eagle's nest on 
each rock ; 60 rivers flow into it, and only 
one goes to the sea it is called Levin. The 
second wonder is the tidal wave on the 
Shannon, the third a hot-water lake, the 
fourth a salt spring, and so on to the fifteenth, 
which is a mountain with a sepulchre on the 
top. The second set begins with, 1, Cheder- 
hole ; 2, Rolendriht ; 3, the White Horse ; 
4, " Career Coli," and so on ; the 33rd, 
" Stan henge." 

These lists are very curious, and would 
be worth printing if unknown. Can any 
one refer me to similar lists in printed books? 

J. T. F. 


EASTRY, KENT. What is the meaning of 
this name ? In 788 it appears as Eastrgena, 
(Kemble's ' Codex Diplomaticus,' 153, Latin 
charter) ; in c. 805 as Eastorege (' Cod. Dip.,' 
191, Old English) ; in 811 as Easterege (2), 
Eosterge (3), and Eostorege (' Cod Dip.,' 
195, Latin); in 805-31 as Eastrege ('Cod. 
Dip.,' 225, Latin) ; in 1006 as Eastrige 
('Cod. Dip.,' 715, Old English); c. 1066, 
Eastryge (' Cod. Dip.,' 896, Old English) ; 
and in Domesday Book as Estrei. It is 
believed, locally, that the place is named 
after Eastre, the Saxon Goddess of Spring, 
and that a temple to her formerly existed 
there ; but I am not aware of any " evi- 
dence " as to the temple. It would be inter- 
esting to know if her name survives as a 
place-name as well as in our great spring 
festival of Easter. Cf. Eastrea, 2 miles 
north of Whittlesey (Prof. Skeat's ' Place- 
Names of Cambridgeshire,' 53). 



" EASING." In a valuable book on ' The 
Early Iron Industry of Furness,' by A. Fell, 
which has been issued (December last) to 
subscribers only, and will therefore not be 
so widely known as it should be, I find, in an 
indenture dated 12 May, 36 Hen. VIII. (1546), 
" Licence to make a little house and hearth 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. .so, im 

called the Baling hearth." Again, in the 
important decree as to the custom of 
Furness Fells, Hilary Term, 7 Eliz. (1565), 
I find : " Two little houses called Easing 
Harthes w th the brusinge woode and the 
Ealinge asshes ther to be made." 

The " asshes " must be wood ashes, and 
I can conjecture their use. Can any one 
offer evidence as to the meaning of the word 
"ealing" or "easing" in this connexion ? 

Who is the author of 

Th' Eternal Wisdom doth not covet 

Of man his strength or reason, but his love ? 

A. O. V. P. 

Who is the author of the following lines, 
and in what book do they appear ? 

'Tis not the brave, the rich, the wise, 
Alone who make a nation rise ; 
But every one in each degree 
Who strives to keep his spirit free 
From sin, and loves God's truth to spread, 
Helps to exalt his country's head, 
And merits though unknown to fame 
He lives and dies a patriot's name. 

G. H. G. 

CATALAUNIAN FIELDS. What is the mean- 
ing of this expression ? It is used by Prof. 
Eucken in the introductory chapter of his 
' Life of the Spirit,' as translated by Mr. 
F. L. Pogson. The sentence containing it 
is as follows : 

" Of course the individual actors have withdrawn 
from the stage, but their ideas have remained, and 
passionately continue the tight, like the spirits on 
the Catalaunian Fields." 

W. B. 

[B. E. Smith's useful 'Cyclopaedia of Names' 

says: "Catalaunian Fields L. Campi Cata- 

launici. A plain near Chalons-sur-Marne, famous 
for the victory (451 A.D.) of Aetius and the Gothic 
King Theodoric I. over Attila." Chalons was the 
ancient Catalaunum.] 

MOLIERE ON OPIUM. In what play of 
Moliere occur the words of the medical 
student who accounts for the phenomenon of 
sleep produced by opium bv a soporific 
tendency in the opium ? 


forty-third chapter of the commentary 
on the Creed by Rufinus occurs a passage 
Avhich, as printed by Dr. Heurtley in his 
' De Fide et Symbolo,' seems corrupt. The 
commentary was one of the first works 
printed in England, and it is strange that 
a corruption of the text should have re- 

mained so long unamended. The passage 
is printed by Heurtley as follows : - 

" Itaergouniuscujusque carnis substantia, quam- 
vis varie diverseque dispersa sit, ratio tamen qua 
inest unicuique carni immortalis est, quia inimor- 
talis aniniffi caro est, ex eo tempore quo ser 
in terram corporibus primum veri Dei voli 
arrisit, censum reddit." 

From this breathless and invertebrate 
mass of words I can make no sense but by 
the following emendations: (1) substanttct 
being the subject to the concessive clause 
only, the comma must be put after ergo; 

(2) a stronger stop is required after caro est ; 

(3) the next word, both to avoid asyndeton 
and to give better sense to the following 
passage, should be et, instead of ' ex 

(4) the superfluous " veri " should be changed 
into ver, a poetical word which would easily 
be altered by a scribe missing the poetical 
flavour of seminatis and arrisit, and so- 
making the latter an awkward impersonal 
verb ; (5) voluntati must be ablative, the 
dative being a consequence of the preceding 

I shall be glad of any inf ormationthrowing 
light on the passage. W. E. B. 

glad if some reader of ' N. & Q-' will kindly 
inform me where I may see an account of 
the finding of the supposed remains of Queen. 
Anne Boleyn in the chapel of St. Peter ad 
Vincula, Tower Green. Is it in Hepworth 
Dixon's ' Her Majesty's Tower ' ? 


Belmont Lodge, Waterford. 

[For her execution and burial see 8 S. viii. 325 r 
451, 496; 9 S. ii. 468; iii. 17, 114.] 

DENVIR OR DENVER. I wonder if any of 
your readers can throw light on the origin 
of this name. The Rev. J. O'Laverty, in 
his ' History of Down and Connor,' states 
that it is believed to be of Norman origin, 
which seems likely enough, as in the barony 
of Lecale, where the name is chiefly found, 
there are other names, such as Russell, 
which come from that source. The late 
Dr. Cornelius Denvir, Bishop of Down and 
Connor (my father's second cousin), held 
this theory, and, I think, mentioned that 
he had come across traces of the name in 

The city of Denver, Colorado, was called 
after General James William Denver 
(Governor of Kansas 1858-9), and, though 
he was born in America (see ' National Cyclo- 
paedia of American Biography,' vol. viii. 
pp. 341-2), I am assured by a relative of 
his (whose own mother, a Denver, was born 

10 8. XL JAN. 30, 1909.] NOTES AXD QUERIES. 


in Downpatrick) that the general's father 
came from the co. Down. The Denvirs 
of co. Down, without any exception, spell 
the name with an i, and not an e ; but it 
is easy to imagine how the change might 
have taken place in America. 

There is, however, an English end to the 
question, for there is a town or village of 
Denver in Norfolk ; and I find in the 
' Calendar of Wills enrolled in the Court 
of Husting of London ' the name of 
John Denver mentioned as a beneficiary 
in the will of Cristina Coggere, dated 1384. 
The entry will be found in the official 
abstract of the ' Calendar,' part ii. p. 247. 


years ago one of the last landmarks of an 
industry which must have flourished in the 
northern districts of London (viz., the 
manufacture of earthenware of all kinds), 
in the early Victorian era was destroyed. It 
was a huge disused kiln occupying a site 
off the Green Lanes, and overlooking Fins- 
bury Park. I have no doubt that the 
country-side beyond Hadley Woods known 
as " Potter's Bar " was once the centre of a 
thriving " potting " manufactory. I should 
like to know why it is called Potter's Bar. 

Likewise I am desirous of knowing why 
the new district beyond Ilford is called 
" Seven Kings." M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

visited Aberdeen, some twenty years ago, 
I was informed that Lord Byron was born 
in the town, and a house in Broad Street 
was pointed out as the place of his birth 
In the biographical notice prefixed to his 
poems it is stated that he was born in 
Holies Street, London. 

Last year, while visiting the neighbourhood 
of Old Meldrum, I took a drive to the " Braes 
of Gight." While in this neighbourhood 
I was confidently assured that Byron was 
born at Gight Castle. As I rather demurred 
at this, I was referred to certain works 
written by residents of long standing in the 
vicinity, who knew what they were writing 
about, and would not, it was said, be at all 
likely to make a mistake. " Mr. So-and-so," 
for instance, " would be sure to know." 

Is the point really settled ? Homer, we 
know, had seven birthplaces ; but Homer 
has been dead a long time, so there may 
be some excuse for him. It is different 
with a poet who has not been dead a hundred 
years. If he goes on accumulating birth- 
places at this rate, he will have covered a 

large area by the time he is as old as Homer. 
I may add that Gight Castle is virtually 
a ruin, and that it gave me the impression 
of having been a ruin long before Byron 
was born. J. FOSTER PALMER. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

[The 'D.N.B.' says that the poet was born in 
Holies Street, and that " John Hunter saw the boy 
when he was born, and prescribed for the infant's 
feet (Mrs. Byron's letters in Add. MS. 31037)." 
Notes by MR. CECIL CLARKE on the tablet erected 
by Mr. John Lewis upon 24, Holies Street, 
Cavendish Square, to mark Byron's birthplace, will 
be found at 9 S. ii. 90 ; xii. 503 ; 10 S. vi. 356.] 

WILLIAM MERRY, 1735. Can any reader 
give me information concerning William 
Merry, whose son John was baptized at 
Orwell Church, Royston, Cambs, 9 June, 
1735 ? I should like to know where William 
was born arid where he was married, or 
to have any other information concerning 
him. A. M. 

WAR. Can any of your readers kindly say 
what the banner or standard of the Parlia- 
ment forces at Edge Hill and Marston Moor 
was ? Was it a St. George's Cross ? 


SIR ISAAC GOLDSMID. Sir Isaac was the 
first Jewish baronet (1778-1859). Where 
can I find the history of this philanthropist, 
and who were his heirs ? 

(Mrs.) F. H. SUCKLING. 
Romsey, Hampshire. 

[He is included in the 'D.N.B.'] 

Was Scott himself responsible for the glos- 
saries appended to his novels ? A Scot 
rarely refers to these when reading the 
stories ; but I looked through them all the 
other day, and was surprised to find that 
some words had quite a different meaning 
given them from what I expected. 


HOUSE. Can any one tell me where to 
get information about (1) Carmarthen, 
especially country houses and families ; 
(2) Paddington House, which once stood on 

Paddington Green ? 

A. M. 

SAXON ABBEYS. Will some kind reader 
tell me what Saxon abbeys, nunneries, or 
cells existed before 1066, and which was 
reputed to be the first founded in England ? 

Sulhamstead, Reading. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. fio s. XL J A *. so, im 

EWEN MACLACHLAN. The account of 
Ewen Maclachlan, the Gaelic scholar, in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' is 
unsatisfactory. Is a bibliography of his 
writings to be found elsewhere ? 



contributor to ' N. & Q.' tell me anything 
as to the parentage and biography of the 
above ? He was a monk of Saint -Denis-en- 
France, Abbot of Saint-Remi-de-Sens, and 
finally Bishop of Laon from 1581 down to 
his death, 5 Aug., 1598. 


what date was the drinking of coffee intro- 
duced into the Holy Land ? 


St. Margarets, Malvern. 

be glad if any of your readers could give me 
an account of the Stratton fight, Cornwall 
(which took place in 1643), with the names 
of the officers in command. 


Lower Broughton, Salford. 


(10 S. xi. 47.) 

RUCKHOLT OB ROOKWOOD was a messuage 
in the parish of Low Leyton, Essex, and the 
seat of William Hicks, Esq., of Beverston, 
who was created a baronet in 1619. Here 
Sir William Hicks entertained King Charles 
II. after hunting (vide Pepys's ' Diary,' 
11 and 13 Sept., 1665). Sir Michael, father 
of Sir William, and apparently the first 
of the family to possess the estate, was 
secretary to the Lord Treasurer Burleigh. 
The mansion was reputedly a sometime resi- 
dence of Queen Elizabeth. The following 
announcement appeared in The London 
Evening Post of 21-23 June, 1733 : 

To be Lett or Sold, 
Pleasantly situated 

The Capital Mansion-house, called Ruekholt, in 
the Parish of Layton in the County of Essex, with 
very large Stables and Coach-houses, new-built and 
convenient Outhouses of all Kinds, with large Fish- 
ponds, and several Acres of Garden Ground well 
planted and walled in ; as also 80 Acres of Land or 
more if required, lying contiguous. 

Enquire of Mr. Billirigsley near the Rolls Gate, 
Chancery Lane. 

Ruekholt was opened to the public in 
1742, and the zenith of its fashionable glory 
was from that year to 1745, when the 
mansion was pulled down. 

The Daily Advertiser of 2 June, 1742, 
said : 

"Great Numbers of the Nobility and Gentry 
resort daily to Ruckholt-House, and express them- 
selves highly delighted with the Magnificence of 
the House and Gardens ; particularly on Monday 
last at the Concert were upwards of two thousand 
Persons. This House was one of the Palaces of 
Queen Elizabeth ; round the great Hall are Galleries 
for Musick, with several Rooms for the Accomoda- 
tion of Company, in which Rooms and in the Hall 
sixhundredPersons may beconvenientlyplaced. The 
Gardens are laid out in the modern Taste, and con- 
sist of about twelve Acres of Ground, diversified 
with shady Walks, Groves, Fountains, and beauti- 
ful Canals. In a Word, this Place is universally 
allow'd to exceed anything of the Kind in England." 

Ruekholt was, in fact, of a reputation 
equal to, even it if did not excel, that of 
Ranelagh and Vauxhall, as the following 
stanza from 'Musick in Good Time,' 1745, 
indicates : 

That Vauxhall and Ruekholt, and Ranelagh too, 
And Hoxton and Sadlers both Old and New, 
My Lord Cobham's Head and the Dulwich Green 

May make as much pastime as ever they can. 

Concerts were announced as follows : 
Ruekholt House, Essex, 

April 29, 1742 

On Monday Morning next will be a Concert of- 
Musick, consisting of Violins, Hautboys, Bassoons, 
Violoncellos, French Horns, Trumpets, and Kettle 
Drums, by the best Performers from each Theatre. 
The whole to be continu'd till the Evening, with a Ball 
for the Ladies, if requir'd. Note, There \vill be a 
Breakfast-Room open d ; and all proper Care taken 
to keep Persons of ill-Repute out of the House and 
Gardens. Daily Advertiser, 30 April, 1742. 

And again in The Daily Advertiser of 
26 June, 1742 : 

At Ruckholt-House, 

On Mondays and Saturdays, during the Summer 
Season, will be a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental 
Musick, with the Addition of an Organ. 
The Vocal Part by Mr. Lowe. 

The Morning Musick to begin at Nine o'Clock, 
and continue till Two ; the Evening Musick at 
Four, and continue the usual Time. 

Tickets to be deliver'd at the Door, and at Wen- 
man's Punch House for the Breakfasting only, at 
One Shilling and Six Pence each ; and for the 
Evening Entertainment, each Person on Admittance 
to pay Six-Pence. 

There are Conveniences to entertain the largest 
incorporated Company, as well as any other Com- 
pany, who are so kind as to order their Entertain- 
ment there. 

Proper Cooks are provided every Day in the 
Week as well as on those publick Days. 

Note, During Breakfast-Time no Person to Smoak 
in the Hall. , 

10 s. xi. JAN. so, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The vocalist mentioned was the celebrated 
English tenor Thomas Lowe, who sang in 
Arne's ' As You Like it,' Handel's oratorios, 
&c. ; he appeared at Vauxhall in 1745, and 
was manager of Marylebone Gardens from 
1763 to 1768 (Brown's ' Biog. Diet, of 
Musicians'). Ruckholt House must have 
been rebuilt if it is true, as stated, that 
it still, in 1828, contained the MSS. of 
Lord Burleigh. 

10, Royal Crescent, W. 

Some years ago I came across the following 
advertisement in The General Advertiser, 
1 Aug., 1747 : 

" By desire of several persons of Great Distinction, 
at Ruckholt House, on Monday next, will be a 
Grand Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Musick. 
The Vocal part by Miss Faulkner. To begin at 
10 o'clock. Tickets Two shillings. Breakfasting 
included. Plenty of Carp, Tench, Perch, &c. The 
best of French Wines, particularly Champaigne, 
now iii the greatest Perfection." 

My curiosity excited me to learn more 
of this place, where such an entertainment 
could be obtained at so moderate a cost, with 
the following result. 

Lysons in 1795 says : 

" The Mansion House, which was for many years 
the residence of the Hickes's, stood about a mile 
from the Church. In the years 1742-3-4, it was in 
the occupation of William Barton, who opened it 
as a place of public amusement for breakfast and 
afternoon concerts, which were held during the 
summer. It was pulled down about the year 

Brayley in 1803 says : 

" About one mile from Leytou, to the south, is 
the Manor of Ruckholt, where are some remains of 
an ancient entrenchment, now nearly obscured by 
trees, which have been planted over the chief part 
of the area. It is situated on a small eminence 
rising from the River Lea, and appears to consist ot 
a square embankment, inclosing a circular one. 
The latter is about thirty-three yards in diameter, 
and is surrounded by a moat about six yards in 

On Rocque's map, 1754, Ruckholt House 
is marked near Temple Mills, and between 
Stratford and Temple is a large space of 
ground called the Hop Ground. 

An interesting work is ' A History of the 
Parish of Leyton,' 1894, by the Rev. John 
Kennedy, Vicar of St. Catherine's, Leyton. 
He was for nine years curate of the old 
church, and is the first vicar of the new 
church of St. Catherine. He says : 

" At the end of the road on the left-hand side of 
the present Town Hall, there was, until recently, a 
farm house, known for forty-nine years as Tyler's 
Farm-house : it was a small, square, compact build- 
ing surrounded by fields. This farm-house stood on 
the site of the old Manor House of Ruckholt. It was 

situated about a mile south of the church. When, 
and by whom, built I have been unable to discover, 
but it appears to have come into the possession of 
the Hickes family with the manor. Strype says : 
' The ancient Manor House and seat of Ruckholt's, 
belonging lately to the family of Hickes, but sold by 
Sir Harry Hickes, Bart., in the year 1720 to Ben j. 
Collier, of whom it was purchased by Earl Tylney, 
for his eldest son, then Lord Castlemain, its present 
owner (1756). But this seat has of late years been 
deserted by its owners, and not long since was con- 
verted into a public breakfasting house and so 
continued for about six years, being prodigiously 
frequented by the gentry, who were entertained 
here every Monday morning during the summer 
season, with music and other gaieties ; it is now 
pulling down, and its materials for sale.' From 
some of Barton's advertisements in The Dail$ 
Advertiser, it would appear that tradition callec 
the old mansion one of Queen Elizabeth's palaces, 
evidently with no foundation ; it is not, however, 
improbable that she visited Sir Michael Hicks here, 
which might give rise to the tradition The nouse 
was pulled down about the year 75 ,, *ad after a 
time the farm-house was buiioonthe site. A Mr. 
Samuel Turner occupied it, and farmed the land 
until the year 1804, when he died. His son Mr. 
William Turner came into possession of the farm, 
his daughter marrying Mr. John Tyler, who at 
Mr. William Turner's death succeeded to the 
farm where he lived until the year 1880. when he 

" There is a stained-glass window in the north 
side of St. Mary's Church, to the memory of Mr. 
William Turner, put in by Mr. and Mrs. John 

The Essex Review, vol. iv. p. 63, January, 
1895, in a notice of Mr. Kennedy's interesting 
work, says : 

"The ancient Manor House, with its avenues, 
groves, and ponds, stood near Temple Mills Lane, 
and was the principal house of Sir Michael Hicks, 
secretary to Lord Burghley, and he entertained 
James I. there in 1604. There are several fine monu- 
ments of himself and family in the church, and from 
him descends the present Baronet, Sir Michael 
Hicks Beach. The manor passed into other hands 
in 1720, and the mansion (of which no drawing can 
be traced) was pulled down in 1757." 


47, Darnley Road, Hacknev. 

Rucolt, Ruckholt, or Ruckholt's House 
formerly stood in Leyton, and was at one 
time the seat of the Hickes family. For an 
account see Kennedy's ' History of Leyton,' 
Fisher's ' Forest of Essex,' Morant's and 
Wright's histories of Essex, &c. 

The " sweet singers of Ruckholt " are 
immortalized by Shenstone ; and the place 
appears to have been the resort of fashion 
for several seasons. Two old ballads refer- 
ring to it, entitled ' To Delia : an Invitation 
to Ruckholt-house,' and ' Music in Good 
Time : a new ballad, 1745,' are to be found 
in The Gentleman's Magazine for 1814, p. 11. 

G. H. W. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 30, 1909 

Mr. Edward Walford gives an account of 
Ruckholt Hose in his ' Greater London,' 
i. 485. A. R. BAYLEY. 

Ruckholt House is noticed in Thome's 
' Environs of London,' 1876. 


Ogborne states that the earliest owners 
of Ruckholt were the families of Bumsted 
and Franceys. W. W. GLENNY. 

See 7 S. v. 229, 318, 433 ; and Gentleman's 
Magazine, vol. Ixxxiv. (1814). 


KEMP also thanked for replies.] 

(10 S. xi. 2, 50). For purposes of record, 
it may be worth while to point out another 
error, to which attention was drawn by Mr. 
John Hodgkin in The Pali Mall Gazette. 
Johnson's ' Dictionary ' was first published 
by the Longmans not in 1757, as stated in 
the list, but in April, 1755. A second edition 
was published in 1756, but none in 1757. 
Messrs. T. & T. Longman were merely one 
firm among a large number of other publish- 
ing houses who issued the book as a syndi- 
cate. Mr. Hodgkin remarks that 
" the publications of this book being a landmark in 
the literary history of the eighteenth century, it is 
as well to have the date correctly stated." 


MR. FRANCIS refers to Macaulay's death, 
and to his comparative indifference to fame ; 
but I think the great historian would have 
been pleased, could he have known how the 
news of his death was received in the kitchen 
of a small farm-house in Nottinghamshire. 

We were just sitting down to dinner when 
The Nottingham Journal was brought in, 
and my father, opening the paper, announced 
in an awed voice, " Macaulay is dead ! " 
My eldest brother, who was then sixteen, 
came in from his field-work at the moment. 
" Macaulay dead ! " he cried ; " then the 
' History ' will never be finished " ; and he 
burst into tears. C. C. B. 

MR. ARKXE will find ample particulars 
regarding the music publisher Longman in 
Mr. Frank Kidson's ' British Music Pub- 
lishers, Printers, and Engravers' (1900). 
There is nothing to show that James Long- 
man, who was active about 1767 at " The 
Harp and Crown," 26, Cheapside, was related 
to the book publishers : nothing to the 
contrary. He probably succeeded John 
Johnson. The original imprint, J. Long- 

man & Co., gave place in two or- three 
years to Longman, Lukey & Co., which 
about 1777 was expanded to Longman, 
Lukey, Broderip. Lukey presently dropped 
out, and the style thereafter remained 
Longman & Broderip until 1798, when the 
once flourishing firm became bankrupt. 
The John Longman of that date afterwards 
carried on business for a short time, first in 
partnership with Clementi, and afterwards 
as Longman & Co. 

The subsidiary query as to the ' Mar- 
seillaise ' interests me more than the ques- 
tion as to the Longmans. That MR. ARKLE'S 
copy is an early British edition is undoubted, 
as it must have appeared not later than 
1798 ; but is it the first ? The melody is 
not that of the first (Strasburg) edition, for 
which see Grove's ' Dictionary ' ; on the 
other hand, only the six original couplets 
of the poem are given in French. The 
English version (who wrote it ?) is in four 
stanzas only. There is a virtually identical 
contemporary edition published by J. Bland 
(I have both), the chief difference being 
that the French words, with the melody, 
are on p. 1 of the sheet ; the fourth page is 
devoted to Eland's ' Theme Catalogue of 
French Songs,' of which ' The Marseilles 
March ' is No. 26. After careful comparison, 
I have no doubt that one of these publica- 
tions was copied from the other, or else 
both were taken from one not at present in 
evidence. In neither case is there any 
helpful watermark. The style of engraving 
is that of the last decade of the eighteenth 
century. John Bland, according to Mr. 
Kidson, died or ceased business about the 
end of 1794. His business, however, was 
carried on by others, who may not have 
had his plates altered, and may even have 
used his name on their publications. A 
considerable acquaintance with the loose 
ways of music publishers of that time 
makes me think this quite possible ; and 
the fact that Eland's edition is " entered at 
Stationers' Hall " makes me suspicious. 


Morningside, Sudworth Road, New Brighton. 

[MR. J. S. SHERLOCK has kindly furnished copies 
of Mr. Kidson's articles on Longman & Co. and 
Broderip & Wilkinson, and these we have forwarded 
to MR. ARKLE. A. F. H. is also thanked for 

LASCAR JARGON (10 S. xi. 27). I think 
the book of Lascar phrases to which MR. 
PLATT refers must be ' A Lascari Dictionary ; 
or, Anglo-Indian Vocabulary of Nautical 
Terms and Phrases in English and Hindus- 
tani, chiefly in the Corrupt Jargon in use 

10 s. XL JAN. so, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


among Laskars or Indian Sailors,' by Capt. 
T. Roebuck, revised by W. C. Smyth and 
G. Small (W. H. Allen & Co., 1882). In 
case MR. PLATT is unable to procure it, 
I shall be happy to lend him my copy if he 
will favour me with his address. 

Langton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

I cannot help thinking that a paragraph 
from an intended w6rk on the manners and 
customs of the English in India has been 
accidentally transferred to MR. PLATT'S query, 
as I fail to see any connexion between " a 
book of phrases in the Lascar jargon " 
and " the vocabulary of the British officer." 
On this day that I am writing, the 12th of 
January, begins my fiftieth year of army 
service, of which thirty-five years were 
spent in official employment in India and the 
East. During that period I have passed much 
of my time in the society of British officers, 
and I cannot agree with MR. PLATT that 
their vocabulary is " mainly objurgatory." 
His experience seems to be as exceptional 
as his Hindxistani. " Tumhari joru bhej 
do " does not mean ' Give your wife the 
job to do," but merely " Send your wife," 
and whatever significance may attach to 
this order, it is certainly not " objurgatory." 
English cooks and parlourmaids are occa- 
sionally trying, and though the Indian ser- 
vants are as a rule much more willing and 
faithful than the home-bred product, as 
well as better educated in their respective 
metiers, at times they may fail to give satis- 
faction, and hasty words may be spoken 
by their masters. Such a term of abuse ai 
that mentioned by MR. PLATT is, however, 
exceedingly uncommon. People in anger 
are not always particular in their language 
I have even heard an Arab in a fit of rage 
call another Muslim " Ibn al-mahruk,' 
i.e., " son of the burnt one," which mean? 
that there is no possibility of his going to 
Paradise. W. F. PRIDEATTX. 

EGYPT AS A PLACE-NAME (10 S. x. 447). 
Out of my list I can add to MR. O. G. S 
CRAWFORD'S examples. 

There is a hamlet so called in Nettlecombe 
parish, Somerset. 

There is a field called Egypt in Leckhamp 
stead, Berks, which may be the same a 
that near Speen mentioned by the inquirer. 

There is a field with the name in Wes 
Parley, Dorset ; one in Aberdour parish 
Aberdeen ; and one in Seend, Wilts. 

Egypt is the name of a bay on the nort 
coast of Kent, 8J miles N.E. of Gravesenc 

s it is also that of a point of land with a 
>attery on it near Cowes, Isle of Wight. 

If my memory serves me, a part of Plum- 
tead Marshes, Kent, was called Little 
'gypt, or New Berber, by the soldiers when 
he returned stores from the first Egyptian 
xpedition were deposited there. 

The important thing to know in these 
ases is when the name was first bestowed, 
>r first appeared in print or on a map, 
Because many of these names corresponding 
with places abroad, such as this Egypt, 
>r Porto Bello, Havannah, &c., can be ex- 
jlained by an authentic case where the 
name of Vigo was bestowed. This would 
not apply in every case, such as Bunker's 
Hill. A. RHODES. 

Besides three Egypts mentioned in Bar- 
jholomew's ' Gazetteer,' there are at least 
three localities bearing that name which 
are personally known to myself. One is in 
;he village of Haddenham, Bucks, and con- 
sists of a large walled-in orchard and garden. 

Another is at Alston, Cumberland a 
'arm-house on the road to Brampton, 
marked " Eygpt " on the Ordnance map. 

The third is here, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Of this Mackenzie in his history of the town 
1827), describing the road to North Shields, 
writes : 

" During the seasons of scarcity, about the 
aeginning of this [nineteenth] century, when such 
'mmense quantities of foreign corn were imported, 
large temporary granaries were erected on both 
sides of this 'road. These the people termed 
' Egypt,' in allusion to those erected by Joseph in 
that ancient country, which appellation was con- 
firmed by the proprietors." 

At the present time Egypt Square and the 
" Egypt Cottage Inn " preserve the nomen- 
clature on the spot so named. 



Half a mile west of the Castle at West 
Cowes, Isle of Wight, is an ivy-clad mansion 
called Egypt House ; and between the 
two, according to the map in Jenkinson's 
' Guide to the Isle of Wight,' is Little Egypt. 
The name Egypt occurs at this point in the 
small map of the island in William Cooke's 
' New Picture of the Isle of Wight,' South- 
ampton, 1813. Is it a reminiscence of our 
expulsion of the French from Egypt in 1801 ? 

There is a locality called Egypt in the 
Morningside district of Edinburgh. In the 
immediate neighbourhood are also Canaan 
and Jordan Lane. C. G. CONDELL. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io B. XL JAN. so, 1939. 

Egypt occurs also near Burnham Beeches, 
Bucks. R. B. 


The name Egypt will be found on the 
Ordnance map of the neighbourhood of 
Plymouth, as the designation of a place about 
a mile west of Beer-Ferrers. W. S. B. H. 

1. Egypt is the name of a seacoast village 
and post office in Scituate, Massachusetts, 
18 miles south-east of Boston. 

2. It is also the popular name of the 
extreme southern part of Illinois, tributary 
to Cairo, 111. 

Further details, and quotations, will be 
given as to either of these, upon request. 


Boston, Mass. 

I would refer MB. CRAWFORD to my note 
on ' Egypt as a European Place-Name ' 
in the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 
vol. i. pp. 52-4 (1888), and to a supple- 
mentary note by Mr. Henry T. Crofton 
in the New Series of the same Journal, 
vol. i. p. 89 (1907). In several cases for 
there are many instances the name is 
associated with gypsies, formerly called 
" Egyptians." To what extent this is 
the case has yet to be shown. 

I may add that the Journal of the Gypsy 
Lore Society for April, 1909, will contain 
an article by myself on ' Egypt as a British 
Place-Name.' The two instances furnished 
by MB. CBAWFOBD are new to me, and I 
shall feel indebted to him and to any other 
contributor for further additions to my 
list. DAVID MAcRrrcniE. 

4, Archibald Place, Edinburgh. 

[Several other correspondents refer to examples 
mentioned above.] 

x. 309, 353, 413, 476). If G. E. Edmundson 
whoever he be, published in The Saturday 
Review of 18 Jan., 1908, or anywhere else, 
the poem beginning 

Two shall be born the whole wide world apart 
as his own, he has perpetrated a gross 
literary forgery only less so than would 
be the republication of one of Tennyson's 
well-known lyrics in the same way ; and 
for this statement I assume full responsi- 
bility. The poem was written by Mrs. 
Spalding in the early seventies, was widely 
copied by the press, and has been almost a 
classic ever since. It has been often re- 
published in the papers as by me in one 
of my own in 1894 ; has been frequently 
included in anthologies, as Warner's 'Library 

of the World's Best Literature ' in 1897 ; 
and has formed a part of almost every 
American courtship for a generation where 
the parties have come from distant places 
and cared for poetry (where again I can cite 
personal experience). I was familiar with 
it as early as 1874, and know the author and 
her work. It was included in her ' Wings of 
Icarus ' in 1892. 

If Mr. Edmundson has merely worked 
the first line (I have not a copy of The 
Saturday Review at hand) into a poem 
otherwise different, he has still imposed 
upon the paper. FORREST MORGAN. 

Hartford, Conn. 

De Quincey's quotations (ante, p. 49) are 
both from Coleridge : 

1. Blue rejoicing sky. 'France: an Ode,' 1. 17. 

2. Pass like night from land to land.' Ancient 
Mariner,' 1. 586. 


[W. B. and MK. L. R. M. STBACHAN also thanked 
for replies.] 

488 ; xi. 13, 54). I think that this phrase 
has most probably come to us from France, 
where it is, and has been for years, in con- 
stant use. It is thus defined in Hatzfeld 
and Darmesteter's ' Dictionnaire de la 
Langue Fran?aise ' : " Le moment psycho - 
logique, le moment ou 1'ame est dans 1'attente 
de quelque chose qui doit s'accomplir " 
(vol. ii. p. 1832). Critical moment is defined 
as " moment qui decide du sort de quelqu'un. 
Le moment critique est venu " (vol. i. 595). 
Littre gives " moment critique " as meaning 
" moment difficile, dangereux, decisif." He 
does not speak at all of " moment psycho- 
logique." We may reasonably infer from 
this that, at the time he wrote his dictionary, 
the phrase "moment psychologique " was 
not much used. 

Mentalite is just now a very favourite 
word in France, and it, too, is finding its 
way to England, though still generally 
printed, I fancy, between inverted commas. 

GOWER, A KENTISH HAMLET (10 S. xi. r 10). 
It is most likely that the hamlet obtained 
its name from one of the Kentish Gowers. 
See Macaulay's edition of Gower's works, 
vol. iv. p. 10, where he shows that the poet 
was an " Esquier de Kent," and that there 
were " several other persons of the name of 
Gower mentioned in the records of the time 
in connexion with the county of Kent." 
There were also " well-known Gowers of 
Stitenham in Yorkshire " (p. vii). 

10 s. XL JAN. so, 1909.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 

As to the origin of the name itself, I do 
not think Bardsley can be right in identifying 
Gower with the common word gore, merely 
on the strength of a similarity of sound 
in modern pronunciation. For the poet 
himself made the name dissyllabic ; in one 
instance it is Gower, and in another Gower. 
It is more likely that the name was taken 
from that of the barony of Gower in Gla- 
morganshire ; and, if so, the word was 
rather Celtic than English. Spurrell gives 
the Welsh spelling as Gwyr, with a circum- 
flex over the w. This word is, in Welsh, an 
adjective, meaning " bent " ; hence crooked, 
sloping, inclined, and the like. It is the 
same as the Breton gwar, or goar, " bent," 
or crooked, which is monosyllabic ; cf. 
Breton goarek, a bow. The Old Irish form 
is fiar, crooked ; and the common Celtic 
type is weiros, bent, twisted, winding, cog- 
nate with E. wire and the Lat. uirice, 
" armlets " ; from the root WEI, to wind 
round, whence also our verb to wind. 

I find a mention of the barony of Gower 
in Wales in ' Inquisitiones post Mortem,' 
i. 60, in 1275-6. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Gower is another form of gore, O.E. gara, 
& triangular piece (of land, &c.). H. P. L. 

In the parish of Eastry is a small farm 
{consisting of a messuage and 21 acres) 
called Gore (locally pronounced Gower) 
which in the sixteenth century belonged 
to the Ower family (Shaw's ' Liber Eastriae,' 
p. 67). In 1799 this farm, forming part 
of the Statenborough estate, came into the 
possession of William Boys, the Sandwich 
historian, through his wife Jane Fuller 
<Hasted's ' History of Kent,' vol. iv. p. 222). 


Hasted' s ' History of Kent,' vol. x. p. 100, 
gives Gore, not Gower. Besides Gore hamlet, 
the index gives Gore-end, Gore Farm, and 
Gore Street in the neighbourhood ; and at 
p. 308 states that there are memorials in 
Birchington Church to a family of Gore. 


I do not know the hamlet to which your 
correspondent refers. The following may, 
however, in the absence of better authority, 
put him in the way to arrive at a proximate 
opinion as to the origin of the hamlet's place- 
name. Gower comprises a fairly large 
tract of country in Glamorganshire, and as 
this Gower is Welsh, it seems a little puzzling 
to understand the origin of the " Gower " 
in Kent. 

The earliest form of the Gower I refer to 
is Gwyr. As I lived many years in Gower 
and its neighbourhood, my attention was 
naturally directed to the nomenclature 
of the district. The inhabitants of the 
eastern parts of the county, when speaking 
of Gower, make, or made, use of the term 
Obry-wyr, pronounced Obrowyer, which 
really means, it seems, " men of yonder 
land." Some of the mediaeval writers 
used Gohir, Guihir, and Guohir, which I 
understand to be the Latinized form of 
the Welsh Gwyr. Of course the present 
Gower is the English form. 

IB. the Old Testament many instances of 
stones being set up to mark certain happen- 
ings, &c., are found, and there is a theory 
that Gower takes its name, in a similar 
manner, from the many stones or rude 
columns yet found there. A pitched stone 
of considerable size, when I last saw it, 
was lying opposite the gate of Llanrhidian 
Church. This stone had been removed 
from its original position upwards of sixty 
years ago. The speculation is that an 
ancient people, the Cymry, when settling 
in Gower, finding so many stone pillars, 
called the district Gwyr, or, as is stated, 
" Meini Gwyr " (the land of the stone 
men). Many learned archaeologists assign 
these stones to a period carrying us to 
prehistoric times. 

Another theory with regard to this place- 
name has its origin in the Welsh adjective 
givyrdd (verdant) ; and again from gwyr, 
with the circumflex accent over w and y, 
meaning crooked, slanting, or bending, 
which can be applied to the peninsula. 
In the last, it is generally admitted, may 
be found, as in many other places, the 
origin of the name, from the configura- 
tion of the land. 

The earliest mention of the Gower I have 
referred to is, I think, found in Cunedda, 
A.D. 340-89. In ' Charters granted to 
Swansea,' by G. Grant Francis, Esq. (not 
published), Appendix, p. 125, mention is 
made of one " Padrig ab Mawon of Gwyr." 
In 440 (' Liber Llandavensis ') it is recorded 
that the estates of Gower were given to the 
See of Llandaff and Bishop Oudoceus 
between 440 and 460. Elsewhere I find 
that Merchgum, on his daughter becoming 
a nun, gave to the bishop the churches of 
Llandaff, Bishopston, and Gowersland : 
" Medios terrae cum omni dignitate sua et 
libertate et communione tota regionis Guhiri 
in campis et in siluis." 

Thornton Heath. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL j A y. 30, MOB. 

If gioyr be a Celtic word meaning 
" crooked," as stated in Sharpe's ' Gazetteer,' 
this hamlet should be on the Kentish coast, 
since there is a place named Gower in Wales, 
between Swansea Bay and Burry River, 
with a broken limestone coast, full of caves. 
But this can hardly have been the origin 
of the Kentish hamlet, situated as it is 
inland, a little west of Eastry and south- 
west of Sandwich. Are there, however, 
any physical features characterizing the place 
to justify this interpretation of the name ? 
or was it so designated after the name of 
some owner ? Gower the poet and Bishop 
Gower are said to have been natives of the 
little Glamorganshire peninsula so named. 


ST. ANTHONY OF VIENNE (10 S. xi. 47). 
A paragraph in a Yorkshire newspaper 
introduced me to the difficulty which has 
caused CANON AUSTEN to consult ' N. & Q.' 
At a meeting held at the York Blue Coat 
School, in a hall which belonged of old to 
St. Anthony's Hospital, he stated that the 
patron was said to be of Vienne. Anthony 
of Egypt he knew, and Anthony of Padua ; 
but who was this ? I conned my books 
for a space, and came to the conclusion that 
there never was " no sich person " so styled 
by mortals. How the ascription originated 
I cannot tell, but I incline to attribute it to 
the enemy, the printer's devil. 

That cautious antiquary Mr. Robert 
Davies, F.S.A., has indeed left record in a 
pamphlet, ' The History of St. Anthony's 
Hospital ' (York, 1869), pp. 6, 7, that 

"although ' The Fraternity or Guild of Saint Martin 
of York' was the designation prescribed by the 
charter, the original founders, who had been 
engaged in forming the association several years 
before it was incorporated, had from the first 
determined that St. Anthony of Vienne should be 
their patron saint, and they persisted in retaining 
the name of the guild of St. Anthony, notwith- 
standing the directions of the charter and of a 
remarkable proviso with which it concludes, 
prohibiting the new fraternity from placing or 
making any image of St. Anthony in any manner 
under colour of the guild, which should be 
prejudiced to the Master and House of St. Anthony 
of London or their successors, without having first 
obtained the consent of that house under their 

One veryTgood reason for regarding 
" Vienne as a misprint is that nearly at 
the end of his pamphlet Mr. Davies says 
(pp. 30, 31) . 

"Every person is acquainted with the famous 
legend of St. Anthony the Abbot, the patriarch of 
monks, and the founder of many monasteries. If 
his temptations were numerous, scarcely less 
numerous were the vicissitudes of the hospital in 

Peaseholme [the one under consideration] of which 
he was the patron saint." 

Drake of ' The History and Antiquities of 
the City of York ' (p. 315) asserts that the- 
gild or fraternity connected with St. 
Anthony's Hall consisted of a master and 
eight keepers, who were commonly called 
" Tanton Pigs." This again connects it 
with the abbot, though the historian goes 
on lightly to remark : " The legendary story 
of St. Anthony of Padua and his pig is 
represented in one of the windows of the 
church of St. Saviour's." 

In such wise are we taught ! I think it is 
highly probable that St. Anthony of Vienne 
was a child of the devil to whom I have 
referred. ST. SWITHIN. 

The boys at Christ's Hospital are attired 
in a sturdy survival of the costume ordinarily 
worn about the time that their school was 
founded ; and in other parts of the country 
there are establishments for the relief of 
needy parents where the children's dress 
marks the antiquity of the charity's inception. 
The Blue Coat School at York, which I have 
just referred to in my endeavour to answer 
a question as to St. Anthony " of Vienne," 
furnishes a good example. It was set going 
in 1705, and the fortunate- lads who are there 
wear, with many modifications, clothes which 
I should say, retain reminiscences of the- 
age of Anne. I may quote with advantage 
what a late Master of the School, Mr. 
Edward Robinson, wrote about the tailoring 
of his charges in 1886 : 

" The apparel of the boys was blue coats faced 
with yellow, sad-coloured waistcoats and leather 
breeches, grey stockings, bands, and round bonnets. 
Each boy was to have every year one coat, waist- 
coat, and breeches, two shirts, two pairs of stockings, 
three bands, and a bonnet. All these were 
computed to cost 1 6s. per annum. The leather 
breeches cost 2a. Qd. a pair. Braces were apparently 
not considered necessary. Leather breeches 
insecurely attached by leather strings at the knees 
would be neither elegant nor comfortable. That 
the boys' knees suffered we may be sure. The 
Committee found at their meeting held 1717, i.e., 
12 years after the establishment of the School, that 
several boys were 'crampt' and lame in their 
knees. The leather breeches, however, they did 

not blame This apparel was maintained until 

sixty years ago, when trousers of fustian superseded 
the leather breeches." ' The York Blue Coat 
School : its Establishment, Maintenance, and 


The gown of the earliest Christ's Hospital 
scholar was not blue, but russet-coloured, or 
of a reddish brown. It was while the young 
King Edward was in the throes of death 

10 s. XL JAX. 30, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that the foundation by him of the new school 
-was laid more securely by the citizens of 
London when they contrived accommodation 
in the repaired conventual edifice for three 
hundred and forty children, all wearing a 
livery of russet cotton. Russet clothes are 
indicative of countrymen in Hall's ' Satires,' 
1598, and in the notes to Singer's edition it 
is said : " Russettings are clowns, low 
people, whose clothes were of a russet 
colour " (Fairholt's ' Costume,' 1846, p. 593). 
The humble origin, therefore, of the Blue 
Coat School, as a purely charitable institution 
for poor fatherless children and foundlings, 
cannot be doubted. The children, however, 
were soon clad in the blue costume by 
which they have ever since been distinguished, 
the first dress, as indeed the present also, 
somewhat resembling the habit of the ejected 
brotherhood to whose possessions they had 

It consists of a long blue coat, reaching 
to the ankles, and girt about the waist with 
a leathern girdle ; a yellow cassock or 
petticoat (still, I believe, called a " yellow "), 
which is now worn under the coat only 
during the winter, though it was originally 
a necessary appendage throughout the year ; 
and stockings of yellow worsted. A pair of 
white bands about the neck is all that 
remains of the original ruff or collar, which 
was then a part of the ordinary dress of all 
ranks ; and the black cap, upon the small- 
ness of which the boys used to pride them- 
selves as a peculiar distinction of the school, 
is also a remnant of the cap of larger size 
worn at the period of the foundation. It 
has been imagined that the coat was the 
mantle, and - the " yellow " the sleeveless 
tunic of the monastery ; the leathern girdle 
also corresponding with the hempen cord 
of the friar (see ' A History of the Royal 
Foundation of Christ's Hospital,' by the 
Rev. Wm. Trollope, 1834, pp. 40-41 and 

Blue coats were the ordinary livery of 
serving-men in the sixteenth century and 
the early part of the seventeenth. Thus in 
Chettle's ' Kind Hart's Dream,' 1592, we are 
told : 

"This shifter, forsooth, carried no lesse counte- 
nance than a gentleman's abilitie, with his two men 
in blew-coats, that served for shares, not wages.'' 

Blue gowns are worn as a sign of humility 
or penance in the Bridewell scene in Dekker's 
'Honest Whore,' 1630. A blue coat is the 
dress of a beadle (Fairholt's ' Costume,' 1846, 
p. 438 ; see also Cunningham's ' London,' 
-s.v. l Christ's Hospital '). 


Leigh Hunt, an old scholar of Christ's 
Hospital, associates the quaint costume of 
the Blue Coat boys with the 
" ordinary dress of children in humble life during 
the reign of the Tudors. We used to flatter our- 
selves that it was taken from the monks." 

The former theory is quite probable, since 
the school was founded by Edward VT. for 
the orphans and poor children of London 
city. With regard to the latter theory, 
there are many striking points of similarity 
in dress, and this notion possibly arose from 
the uncertainty of the origin, and became 
conjecturally deduced from the fact that 
the school was raised (shortly after the 
Dissolution) upon the confiscated priory of 
the Grey Friars. 

For further information on the rise, pro- 
gress, and ancient customs of the foundation 
the Rev. E. H. Pearce's ' Annals of Christ's 
Hospital ' will be found accurate and 
serviceable. OLD BLUE. 

The following statement is taken from 
the ' History of Christ's Hospital ' (5th ed., 
London, 1830), of which a portion was 
written by Charles Lamb : 

" The dress of the boys first admitted was a sort 
of russet, but this was soon changed for the dress 
they now wear, which is at present the most com- 
plete representation of the monkish habit in exist- 
ence. What is now called the coat was the ancient 
tunic, and the petticoat (or yellow, as it is tech- 
nically termed) was the sleeveless or under tunic of 
the monastery. The girdle round the waist was 
also an appendage of the monkish habit, but the 
breeches are a subsequent addition. To this is to 
be added the small round cap, an appendage that 
touches the delicate nerves of those who would in- 
troduce effeminate habits into the school, while it 
has never been known to injure those who have for 
years either worn it or carried it in their hands. It 
is to be hoped the day is far distant when the 
Governors shall find nothing better to deliberate 
upon than what innovation they are to make in a 
dress that has stood the test of centuries and be- 
come venerable from its antiquity." 

[MR. A. R. BAYLEYalso thanked for reply.] 

508 ; xi. 72). There were several editions of 
this skit. In the Kentish collection in the 
Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth is a 
copy of the fifth. Some years ago I saw one 
in the possession of Mr. G. O. Howell, editor 
of ' The Kentish Note-book ' ; and in the 
first volume of that work, pp. 249-60, is 
another varying version from a manuscript 
which COL. FYNMORE knows. I believe 
it was a skit against the introduction of 
railways opposition which was very active 
in all parts at their first development. This 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL JAN. 30, 1909. 

is borne out by the woodcut on the title- 
page or cover of Mr. Howell's copy, where the 
serpent is in the form of a railway train, the 
engine forming a terrible head to the monster, 
and at p. 19 of the Lambert copy is a tail- 
piece of a train and engine. Furthermore, 
in the copy in ' The Kentish Note-Book ' 
an expression in the letter to the Mayor of 
Dover bears this out : 

For heere is coom'd a Sarpent fearse, 
That spats out flames and sinders, 

And if whee can-knot barn him up, 
He will barn us too [sic] tinder. 

The local guides to Folkestone do not help, 
nor the South-Eastern Railway guides, 
because when the foolish opposition had 
been conquered it was advisable for both 
parties to bury the hatchet. No doubt, on 
its first publication, the allusions were all 
well understood in the locality. I have 
many anecdotes about the opposition to 
the line in other parts, though not to Folke- 
stone ; but I think this is the foundation 
for the skit. A. RHODES. 

AERIAL NAVIGATION (10 S. xi. 8). The 
following paragraph, taken from a Liverpool 
newspaper dated January, 1790, seems to be 
a very circumstantial account of a flying 
machine almost equal to anything yet pro- 
duced, and, taken in conjunction with 
MR. SIMONSON'S engraving, appears to point 
to the fact that our forefathers were much 
more advanced in the art of aerial naviga- 
tion than we have hitherto given them 
credit for. The extract is in the form of a 
letter from a gentleman near Wooller in 
Northumberland, where the trial is said 
to have taken place : 

" Some time back, a gentleman, Mr. Assgill, at 
Byle Common, near Wooler, conceived it might be 
possible to conduct the air balloon in any direction, 
but the possibility of doing it by means of sails he 
some time since gave up ; he next attempted to do 
it by means of wings ; this method also failed. He 
then, by conceiving the air as a fluid, and remarking 
the method of fish swimming against a current of 
water, which he obtained for that purpose, has now 
constructed one exactly in form of a fish, in which 
I yesterday saw him ascend, himself being situated 
in the centre of gravity : his internal machinery, 
which gives motion to the wings and sails and like- 
wise [sic] of removing himself, to give different atti- 
tudes to the fish, are by me considered as the most 
ingenious piece of machinery I ever saw ; when I 
arrived it was just filled with gas, and the day being 
quite calm, he soon situated himself, and everything 
being immediately adjusted, he rose easily ; but to 
see the enormous monster stretch along the air, 
lash his tail, skim in different directions, with all 
the appearance of nature, was truly admirable, and 
1 think will be considered as the finest exhibition 
in the world. After floating near half an hour, and 
displaying his power of managing it at will, in 

which time he never rose more than 150 yards high, 
oft skimming just the surface, he found some- 
derangements in the machine, and stopped exactly 
in the place from whence he ascended. 

Elmhurst, Oxton, Birkenhead. 

GREEN' (10 S. xi. 27). There was resident 
on Englefield Green a very eccentric, slightly 
masculine spinster called Miss Gertrude 
Seymour. She died circa 1890, and might 
well have served to illustrate Mrs. Oliphant's 
book. G. W. E. R. 

44). The word maremoto is given in the 
Italian dictionary ' II Nuovissimo Melzi,' 
and there defined as " moto impetuoso del 
mare causato dal terremoto." 


"COMETHER" (10 S. x. 469; xi. 33). 
" Comether " as a verb is quite common in 
the north-east of Scotland. I have often 
heard a farm labourer, sitting on the left 
side of his cart, say to his horse, when he- 
wished it to turn to the left, " Comether." 
From such a use of the verb, the meaning of 
the substantive readily follows. In Scots 
dialect many of the nouns have the same 
form as the verbs with which they are con- 
nected. ALEX. WARRACK. 


x. 470). I think that M. N. probably refers 
to the story which is commonly told to 
explain the curious sign of a public-house 
opposite the entrance to Kensal Green 
Cemetery, and known as " The Case is 

The story is as follows. During the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, when it was an 
indictable offence to practise the rites of the 
Roman Catholic religion, Edmund Plowden, 
an eminent common lawyer, who was of this 
persuasion, fell into a trap which had been 
laid for him by his enemies, by attending a 
disused chapel where a sham priest officiated 
at the Mass. In his defence Plowden 
commenced by denying that he had ever 
been near the place, but, eliciting in cross- 
examination that the priest was a layman in 
disguise, he turned to the jury and exclaimed,. 
" Why, then, gentlemen, the case is altered : 
no priest, no Mass." This witty plea, which 
procured him his release, subsequently 
became a popular catch-phrase. Plowden' s 
bust still adorns the Middle Temple Hall. 

10 s. XL JAN. so, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Mr. Augustine Birrell used this phrase, 
not as a quotation, in an article on the 
Reformation in The Nineteenth Century, 
about ten years ago. G. W. E. R. 


The Maid of France : being the Story of the Life 

and Death of Jeanne d'Arc. By Andrew Lang. 

(Longmans <fc Co.) 

WE have read many of the books, wise and foolish, 
relating to the Maid of Orleans, and have no 
hesitation in saying that Mr. Lang's study of her 
wonderful life is by far the most thorough which 
vre have encountered. He seems neither to have 
missed nor to have slurred over anything of the 
slightest importance in her marvellous career ; and 
in every instance where her heroism had to be 
depicted has written as aii historian, not as a 
partisan. French literature abounds with contro- 
versial matter regarding the Maid, but in recent 
days almost everything produced in this country or 
America has been highly favourable to her character, 
though we need not say that there have been wide 
differences of opinion as to the visions which formed 
so important a part in that strange life, owing to 
the differing psychological standpoints of those who 
have studied her career. 

" The author evidently holds that she did in 
very truth hear the angelic and saintly voices by 
which she undoubtedly believed herself to have 
been inspired, and that they were objective pheno- 
mena, but would have been of little avail in the 
service of her country, had she not displayed also 
"dauntless courage and gift of encouragement; 
her sweetness of soul ; and her marvellous and 
victorious tenacity of will." 

The evidence as to her loyalty to her country and 
her king is so overwhelming that it cannot be 
questioned by any one. nor can the evidence be 
resisted as to her wonderful ability in leading the 
forces under her command ; her series of victories, 
several of which were won in the most unlikely 
circumstances, is attested not only from the vic- 
torious side, but by the defeated also. 

Jeanne knew from the first that her career would 
be but short that, indeed, when she had fulfilled 
her promise and by a series of astounding victories 
opened the way for the King to be crowned at 
Reims, her task would be nearly over. Her voices 
spoke to her no more of victory. They were not 
silent, but dwelt on her capture, and it may be 
death. She was to become a prisoner ere Mid- 
summer Day, but they did not tell the time of her 
death. She must have realized that there would 
be long captivity ere the end came, and what the 
end would be there can be little doubt was ever 
present to her. 

She was captured by the Burgundians at 
Compiegne, and the Duke of Burgundy and Jean 
de Luxembourg sold her to the English, or, as we 
should rather say, to the English party in Paris, 
for it must never be forgotten that in the capital, as 
elsewhere, there were many who retained their 
loyalty to their native king. Thence she was sent 
to Rouen, where she suffered the misery of 
an imprisonment among a set of ruffians such as is 
heartrending to contemplate. This indignity lasted 

until her trial for witchcraft was over, andprobably 
to the very morning when she was burnt. On the 
day of her death she was permitted to receive 
the Sacrament, which would have been regarded 
as an act of sacrilege, had her judges believed 
her to have been a witch. They professed to 
do so by the placard they caused to be posted near 
the place of torture, on which were sixteen terms 
of reproach, every one of which, as Mr. Lang 
says, was "the blackest of lies." On her head 
was placed a cap shaped something like a 
mitre, on which was inscribed " Heretic, Relapsed, 
Apostate, Idolater." She asked for a cross to gaze 
upon during her agony, and it is pleasant to 
know that an Englishman who was in the crowd 
gratified her last request. Afterwards the cross 
from the neighbouring church, or, as we may pre- 
sume, the processional crucifix, was held before 
her, that her dying eyes might rest upon it. 

Several of the more distinguished of the English- 
nobles were at Rouen at the time. If they had" 
been willing, they could, no doubt, have saved her r 
even at the last, but the bishops and other eccle- 
siastical authorities, and the magnates of the- 
University of Paris, were possibly still more to- 
blame than our own countrymen. 

Select Poems of William Barnes. Chosen and 
edited, with a Preface and Glossarial Notes, by 
Thomas Hardy. (Frowde.) 

MR. HARDY has chosen for this volume " the 
greater part of that which is of the highest value "" 
in the poetry of Barnes, the portrait of whom as a 
dignified old man faces the title-page. The book is- 
one of much charm for those who relish the sim- 
plicity and artfulness of country dialect, and Mr. 
Hardy's Preface is brilliantly written, showing 
powers of criticism and derision which will not be 
strange to those who know his work well. He 
explains that Barnes, "primarily spontaneous," was= 
" academic closely after," and by no means an 
uncouth bard gettin? his effects by happy chance. 
On the contrary, "his ingenious internal rhymes, 
his subtle juxtaposition of kindred lippings and 
vowel-sounds, show a fastidiousness in word-selec- 
tion that is surprising in verse which professes to- 
represent the habitual modes of life among the 
western peasantry." 

To the same series as the selection from Barnes 
belongs Echoes from the Oxford Magazine : being- 
Reprints of Seven Fear*, also published by Mr. 
Frowde. The text is printed from the second" 
edition (1890), and it maintains an admirable level 
of wit and point. The best of the pieces have been 
known to us for many years, and to renew aquaint- 
ance with them is very pleasant. Mr. Arthur 
Sidgwick's Greek pieces are the best specimens we 
know of a playing with scholarship which is apt to 
degenerate into pedantry. "A. G." (Mr. Godley 
of Magdalen) must always rank high among comie 
versifiers ; and we can almost find it in our heart 
to regret that the serious muse now claims the 
"R. L. B." who wrote in 'The Garden of Criti- 
cism ' lines like these : 

From too much love of Browning, 
From Tennyson she rose. 

And sense in music drowning, 
In sound she seeks repose. 

Yet joys sometimes to know it, 

A nd is not slow to show it, 

That even the heavenliest poet 
Sinks somewhere safe to prose. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xi, JAN. so, im 


MR. B. H. BLACKWELL'S Oxford Catalogue 
CXXXI. contains Baddeley and Gordon's ' Rome 
and its Story,' large paper, 4to, 21. 12s. 6d. ; 
Boutell's ' Monumental Brasses,' 11. 8s. ; Fer- 
gusson's ' Architecture,' SI. 15s. ; ' Galerie de 
Florence et du Palais Pitti,' 4 vols., folio, 1789, 
31. la. 6d. ; and ' Hogarth,' by Austin Dobson, 
imperial 4to, 61. 6s. Under Classical are various 
editions ; and under Borrow is the first edition 
of ' Lavengro,' 11. 15s. A beautiful copy of 
Horse, fifteenth century, is 121. There are 
some choice exhibition bindings 

Mr. Henry Davey's Catalogue 14 contains 
works under Africa, America, Ireland, and Kent. 
London items include an extra-illustrated copy 
of Bayley's ' Tower of London,' 1830, 21. 10s. ; 
Mayhew's ' London Labour and the London 
Poor,' 5 vols., 11. Is. ; and Nelson's ' St. Mary's, 
Islington,' 1811, 11. 12s. 6d. 

Messrs. S. Drayton & Sons' Exeter Catalogue 200 
is devoted to Theology. There are works under 
Liddon, Neale, and Pusey. Among dictionaries 
are Smith's ' Dictionary of the Bible,' 3 vols., 
10s. Od., and Smith and Cheetham's ' Christian 
Antiquities,' 2 vols., 11. 11s. 6d. Spence's 
' Treasury of Religious Thought,' 20,000 extracts 
from great writers, 6 vols., is to be had for a 

Messrs. Henry March Gilbert & Son send from 
Winchester Catalogues 31 and 32. The first, 
a Short List, contains Alpine books, also works 
on angling. Hampshire books include the Hamp- 
shire Record Society's publications, 12 vols., 
1889-99, 1. 18s. 6d. There are also a number 
of sporting books. List 32 contains works under 
London, Ireland, and Early Printing. Under 
the Stuarts is Foster's ' Personal History,' illus- 
trated with beautiful photogravures, 11. Is. ; 
and under Dante the illustrated edition by Dore\ 

Mr. George Gregory of Bath has an interesting 
and very varied collection in his Catalogue 1867. 
A'Beckett's ' Comic History of England,' in the 
original 20 parts, green wrappers, with all the 
advertisements, is 81. 8s. ; a set of The Ancestor, 
11. 16s. ; the Foulis Press edition of Pope, 3 vols., 
folio, 1785, 51. 5s. ; and Doyle's ' Political 
Sketches,' Vols. I.-IX., with keys, 9 vols. folio 
and 3 vols. 8vo, 1829-48, 61. A note gives the 
origin of the signature H. B., which we reproduce 
as it may not be known to all our readers. The 
letters are simply the junction of two I's and two 
D's, one above the other, thus converting the 
double initials into H. B. A choice set of the 
' Galerie du Mus6e Napoleon,' 1804-15, is 21Z. ; 
and La Fontaine, 6 vols., old tree calf, 1786, 
81. 8s. There is a special copy of Roberts's 
* Holy Land,' each of the 125 magnificent plates 
being coloured by hand, 6 vols., in a specially 
made Chippendale rosewood case, 501. There is 
a long list under Bibliotheca Bathoniensis. 

Mr. C. Hutchins of Hanwell has in his new 
Catalogue a fine copy of Girodet's edition of 
Anacreon, 1825, 11. 5s. ; Bridgeus's ' Furniture 
with Candelabra ' and ' Interior Decorations,' 
4to, Pickering, 1838, rare, 21. 10s. ; and Le 
Pautre's ' Orn^mens de Panneaux pour 1'enrichisse- 
ment des Lambris de Chambres et Galeries,' 
Paris, 1659, brilliant impressions, 51. 5s. Among 

editions of the classics are a number of Coray's. 
Mr. Hutchins offers the unique collection of Coray's 
editions en bloc, 58 vols., for 14?. Thore is an 
exceptional copy of ' The Greville Memoirs,' 
original editions. 8 vols. in 7, new half-calf, 
with the original cloth sides bound in, 61. 10s. 
Under Bindings are many choice specimens, 
Dutch, German, French, and English. Among 
the last is a Book of Common Prayer with 
the Psalms, Oxford, 1706, with portrait of 
Queen Anne and plates, bound in smooth 
black morocco with silver clasps, 6Z. 6s. A book 
of miscellaneous poems published by Ralph, 
London, 1729, 12mo, dark red morocco, with an 
elaborate central ornament by Mcarn, is also 
61. 6s. 

Messrs. James Rimell & Son send another of 
their interesting Catalogues of Engraved British 
Portraits, No. 214. A fine mezzotint of General 
Abercromby, 1801, is 31. 3s. ; Addison, 37. 10s. ; 
Arnold of Rugby, 15s. ; Mrs. Barbauld, 10s. 60!. ; 
William Beckford, 12s. 6d. ; Bartolozzi, 1L 5s. ; 
Bewick, 10s. 6d. ; Bloomfield, the poet, 30s. ; 
Boswell, after Reynolds, 81. ; Sir Francis Bur- 
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121. 12s. ; Shakespeare, from the Chandos por- 
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CONTENTS. No. 267. 

NOTES : John Barclay, Theodorus Prodromus, and Robert 
Burton, 101 Signs of Old London, 1O2 Dr. Johnson's 
Ancestors, 103 The Liquid N in English British Museum 
Library Catalogue, 105 Vanishing London Major Hull 
Wind and Crucifixion " Paddies " in the U.S., 100 
Church Plate "That "s another story," 107. 

QUERIES : Sir Walter Scott on the Scotch and the Irish 
" Realm " : its Pronunciation Murat's Widow : 
Empress Marie Louise Sea-NamesFig Tree in the City 
Mohammedan and Christian Chronology, 107 Corsley, 
Wilts Burial half within and half without a Church An 
American Anthology R. M. Atkinson C. J. Auriol 
Thomas, fourth Lord Camoys Sir Thomas Warner of 
Antigua Walton Castle, Clevedon, Somerset " May I 
through this blest day of Thine," 108 "Before one can 
say Jack Robinson" Strugnell Surnames " Jack Ketch's 
Address Card " Suffragan Bishops Patron Saints 
Spanish Money in Nubia Gloucestershire Definition 
of a Gentleman, 109 Thiebault and "s'ennuyer," 110. 

REPLIES : "Brokenselde," 110 Broken Cross, West- 
minster Curious House, Greenwich Elihu Yale's 
Epitaph, 111 The Duff Advertising Epitaph 
Worksop Epitaphs Moon -Legends, 112 Travel- 
ling under Hadrian Yew Trees Chamber-Horse for 
Exercise, 113 Mrs. Gordon Carlyle on the Griffin 
Vincent Alsop Rudge Family, 114 "Christinas pig" 
Village Names Sir J. Sydenham ' Girl of the Period,' 
115 Dickens's "Knife-Box" Barnard "Spanish 
Strapps" Thimbles Field Memorials to Sportsmen 
4 Millennial Star' Rod of Brickwork, 116 Bp. Sampson- 
Sneezing Superstition Mitred Abbots Adrian Scrope 
Clement's Inn Knocker Caroline as a Masculine Name 
Sir R. Fletcher German Leather Bindings Steepe, 117. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Wells and Glastonbury 'Wright's 
Translation of the ' yEneid ' Reviews and Magazines. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

IN 1625 there appeared at Paris the first 
printed edition of that curious Greek 
metrical romance ' The Story of Rhodanthe 
and Dosicles,' by the mediaeval monk 
Theodorus Prodromus. The editor, Gilbert 
Gaulmin, a French lawyer, who a few years 
before had brought out the editio princeps of 
Eumathius or Eustathius's ' Ismenias and 
Ismene,' was indebted for the greater part 
of his text to a MS. in the Palatine Library, 
-of which a copy had been sent him by 
Salmasius. But, as he adds (sig. e v verso, 
in the address to the reader), " Quae deerant, 
Amplissimus de Peirez senator ex Vaticano 
Codice describi curauit opera TOV /xaxapiTow 
Barclaij." It is pleasant to be able to 
recognize the author of ' Argenis ' in this 
friend of Peirescius who supplemented 
Saumaise's copy with the aid of the Vatican 
MS. Gaulmin mentions that he himself 
began his work six years before. This 
-would take us back to 1619, and we know 
Barclay to have lived in Rome from Feb- 
ruary or March, 1616, to his death in August, 
1621. On examining the seven volumes of 

the ' Lettres de Peiresc ' published by M. 
Philippe Tamizey de Larroque (Paris, 1888- 
1898), in the second series of the ' Collection 
de Documents inedits sur 1'Histoire de France' 
issued under the direction of the Minister 
of Public Instruction, I found in vol. vii. 
(p. 400) a letter from Peirescius to Barclay in 
which he asks his friend, on behalf of Gaul- 
min, to supply from a Vatican manuscript 
a lacuna in Theodorus Prodromus's ' Amours 
de Rhodante et de Dosiclee.' The letter is 
dated Paris, 22 Sept., 1619. M. Tamizey 
de Larroque gives no reference to the passage 
in Gaulmin's preface which proves that 
Barclay responded to the application.* 

Gaulmin's Latin translation facing the 
Greek, which, according to his own account, 
was thrown off in a week, has a special 
interest for an English reader because of its 
use by Robert Burton. Not only is this 
version, and that of Prodromus's ' Ama- 
rantus ' which is contained in the same 
volume, cited several times in the 'Anatomy ' 
under the Greek writer's name (Gaulmin's 
name also receives mentionf), but the 
romance is the source of more than one of 
Burton's anonymous quotations in Latin 
vers.e (in several places Gaulmin gives a 
metrical rendering of his original). 

In Partition 2, Sect. 3, Memb.l (subs. 1), 
p. 285,1. 4ined. 3(1628), 

Insana stulta- mentis hseo solatia 
is from p. 284 of lib. vii. 

Nondum experta noui gaudia prima tori 
(2, 3, 5, p. 319, ed. 3) is from lib. i. p. 20. 
Certa sequi Charum corpus vt umbra solet 
(3, 2, 3, p. 487, 1. 16) is from lib. vii. (p. 292, 
misprinted 262). This line was evidently 
based on Plautus, ' Casina,' 91, 92 : 

quia certumst mihi. 
Quasi umbra, quoquo tu ibis te semper sequi. 

A more curious piece of indebtedness on 
Burton's part may be traced. From what 
source were the lines taken that occur on 
p. 30 (first numbering) of ed. 3 ? 

Virgines noridum Thalamis iugatae, 
& Comis nondum positis ephoebi. 

Shilleto in his note (vol. i. p. 61) is satisfied 
with referring the reader to Seneca, ' Here. 

* English proper names in text and notes have a 
bad time with the French editor. " Saulcy " (Lord 
Hay of Sawley is meant), " Kinstrid," "milord 
Hich," and "Wanloz" are scarcely convincing 
samples of British nomenclature. 

t See the first marginal note on p. 256 (ed. 3, 
1628). It is hardly necessary to say that the mis- 
print of "Ganlinio" for Gaulmino has enjoyed a 
very long life. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. e, 190* 

Fur.,' 852-3. But, as in so many cases 
with Burton, the obvious source is not the 
true one. 

The two lines of Seneca were adopted by 
Gaulmin (lib. vi. p. 244), and that Burton 
took them from him is at once evident 
when we read what follows : " Diuites 
denique, mendici ; domini, serui ; segri, 
sard ; felices, infelices ; eodem omnes 
incommodo macti sunt." Here we have 
the origin of " rich, poore, sicke, sound, 
Lords, seruants, eodem omnes incommodo 

This passage, like the other quotations, 
is found for the first time in the third edition 
of the ' Anatomy,' the earliest after the 
publication of Gaulmin' s book. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 


(See 10 S. vi. 45, 424 ; vii. 445 ; viii. 288 ; 
ix. 228.) 

THE following list of Aldersgate signs is 
taken from a presentment of the Wardmote 
Inquest bearing date 1837. Notwithstanding 
the comparative modernity of the references, 
I have ventured to include them under the 
above heading, if only because many of the 
signs have as much vanished as if they had 
belonged to " Old London " proper the 
London before the Great Fire. 

The Ward Within. 

Fountain, Foster Lane. 

Bell, Noble Street. 

Royal Mail, Noble Street. 

Mourning Bush, St. MartinVIe-Grand. 

Bull and Mouth, ditto. 

Queen's Head, ditto. 

The Ward Without. 

Cock and Crown, Little Britain. 

Swan and Horseshoe, ditto. 

Rose and Crown, ditto. 

White Horse, ditto. 

Old Parr's Head, Aldersgate Street. 

Owain Glwnda (sic), ditto. 

Ben Johnson (sic), ditto. 

Albion Tavern, ditto. 

Coach and Horses, ditto. 

Old White Bear, ditto. 

Portland Arms, Long Lane r 

Red Lion Inn, Aldersgate Street, 

White Horse, Farm Street. 

Three Cups, Aldersgate Street. 

White Bear, Barbican. 

" The Still," dittov 

Blue Boar and Grapes, Aldersgate Street. 

Adam and Eve, Jewin Street. 

Star, Aldersgate Street. 

King's Arms, ditto. 

Castle and Falcon, ditto. 

Any one familiar with the topography of 
the ward will at once see that the signs in 
the " Without " list are taken in order 
along the western side from St. Botolph's 
Church on the south, returning from the 
City boundary at Fann Street, along the 
eastern side, to the (lately demolished) 1 
" Castle and Falcon." 


The following list, taken from the official 
narrative of the Rye House Plot, may be 
of interest. The places named were haunts 
of the conspirators. 

Mitre Tavern, within Aldgate. 

Dolphin Tavern, in Bartholomew Lane, 
behind the Royal Exchange. 

Salutation Tavern, in Lombard Street. 

Sun Tavern, behind the Royal Exchange. 

Fortune Tavern, at Wapping. 

Horseshoe Tavern, on Tower Hill. 

King's Head Tavern, in Atheist Alley, 
near the Royal Exchange. 

Angel Tavern, near the Old Exchange. 

George Tavern, on Ludgate Hill. 

Sign of the Sugar-Loaf, near the Devil 1 

The Siracusa House. 

Amsterdam Coffee-House. 

King's Head, in Swithin's Alley, inCornhill. 

Richard's Coffee-House, near Temple Bar. 

Joseph's Coffee-House, in Exchange Alley. 

Angel and Crown Tavern, Threadneedle 

Kidal's Coffee-House. 

Castle Tavern, in Fleet Street. 

Green Dragon Tavern, on Snow Hill. 

Young Devil Tavern, in Fleet Street. 

George and Vulture Tavern, on Ludgate 

Will's Coffee-House, in Covent Garden. 

Roebuck, corner of Bartholomew Lane. 

Flanders Coffee-House. 

King's Head Tavern, in Chancery Lane. 

Blue Anchor, by Wapping Dock. 

The date of the narrative from which 
these are taken is 1685. 



The allusion to "The Finder of Wake 
field" (10 S. ix. 228) reminds me that at 
1 S. ii. 228 it was stated that a stone was 
" still to be seen, let into the wall over what 
was formerly the garden entrance" to 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, 



Bagnigge Wells, bearing the following in- 
scription : 

S. + T 

This is Bagnigge 

Hovse neare 

The Finder a 



Has this stone been preserved ? 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 



(See 10 S. viii. 281, 382, 462 ; ix. 43, 144, 
302, 423 ; x. 44, 203, 343, 465.) 

Dr. Johnson's Early Visit to Trysull 
(continued). I think the foregoing account 
of the descent of the Barnesley estate at 
Trysull will convince any one that it was at 
the Manor House that Mrs. Harriotts lived, 
and that to it the infant Johnson was brought 
by his mother. There can, moreover, be 
little doubt that Johnson visited Mrs. Har- 
riotts when he was older, else he could scarcely 
have claimed that nowhere else had he seen 
a " regular family." The Johnsons evidently 
saw a good deal of Mrs. Harriotts, and we 
know that she left Mrs. Johnson 40Z. and 
some useful domestic articles. The Doctor 
remembered of his father that, " mentioning 
her legacy in the humility of distress, he 
called her our good Cowsm Harriots." Try- 
sull is not very far from Lichfield scarcely 
twenty miles as the crow flies and from 
Stourbridge, where Johnson was sent to 
school in 1725, it is distant but seven miles. 

Apart from this evidence, Mrs. Morris tells 
me that she does not think that Trysull 
contains any other house in which a lady 
of some consequence, like Mrs. Harriotts, 
would be likely to live. But by way of 
completing the proof Mrs. Morris informs 
me that the various rooms alluded to in 
the will of William Barnesley in 1684, in the 
inventory of his widow's goods in 1697, 
and in the will of their daughter Mrs. Har- 
riotts in 1726, as given in my book (pp. 189, 
190, 194), accord perfectly with the Manor 
House, of the ground floor and first floor 
of which she sends me sketch-plans with 
all the rooms identified. 

The Manor House, Mrs. Morris tells me, 
is only a short distance frorn Trysull Church, 
on the road which runs in a westerly direction 
towards Seisdon. Standing only a stone's 
throw from the road, it is built partly oi 
brick and partly of stone, but is now com- 
pletely covered with stucco. On the beam 
over the porch is incised the date 1663, 

which must have been placed there by- 
William Barnesley, who six years earlier 
lad married Dr. Johnson's great-aunt. 

Desiring to settle the identity of " Dr. 
Atwood, an oculist of Worcester," whom 
Vtrs. Harriotts brought to Trysull to examine 
Johnson's eyes, I wrote to Mr. T. A. Carless 
Attwood, M.A., F.S.A., of Sion Hill, Wolver- 
.ey, near Kidderminster, who has devoted 
much care to the Attwood pedigree. He 
tells me that he knows of but one medical 
Attwood connected with Worcester at that 
period. This was Dr. Thomas Attwood, 
of Bevere, in the parish of dairies, and of 
Powick, both quite close to Worcester, who 
died an old man in 1765. I find an obituary 
notice of him in The Gentleman's Magazine 
for that year (p. 491): "[Sept.] 30. Dr. 
Atwood, a physician at Worcester, aged 83." 

Mr. Attwood tells me that he was a promi- 
nent Roman Catholic in his neighbourhood,, 
and is frequently mentioned in papers of 
the period relating to that body. His age 
is understated rather than overstated in the 
obituary, for Mr. Attwood says that his next 
younger brother, Peter Attwood, was born 
in 1682. In 1711, when he examined John- 
son's eyes, Thomas must have been close on 
thirty years of age. 

Dr. Thomas Attwood was a man of good 
family, eldest son of George Attwood, of 
Bevere, Esq. (died 17 Feb., 1732, aged 80), 
by Winifred his wife (died 14 Dec., 1714, 
aged 77), daughter and heir of the Hon. 
Thomas Petre, fifth son of William, second 
Lord Petre. There is a mural monument 
in Claines Church to George and Winifred 
Attwood (Nash's ' Worcestershire,' voL ii. 
Supplement, p. 19) ; on which is also re- 
corded the death (on 17 Feb., 1707, aged 76) 
of Mrs. Attwood's sister, Ann Petre, who, 
Mr. Attwood tells me, in her will of 1706/7, 
mentions her nephew Dr. Thomas Attwood. 

The will of Thomas Attwood, of Powick, 
co. Worcester, gent., dated 18 Jan., 1763, 
was, I find, proved on 3 Jan., 1766, in P.C.C. 
(1 Tyndall), by Thomas Hornyold, of Black- 
more Park, Esq., one of the executors, power 
being reserved to the others, who were the 
testator's wife Frances, and Robert Berkeley, 
Esq., of Spetchley, co. Worcester. In it he 
leaves 501. apiece to his nieces Ursula and 
Mary Attwood : and 100Z. to John Hunter 
" prentice to Asene the Carpenter in Wor- 
cester." To his dear wife Frances he leaves 
300/., as well as the contents of his house 
in Powick ; and makes her residuary legatee. 
To Mr. Thomas Hornyold, of London, packer, 
and to Mr. John Hornyold, of Longbirch, 
Staffs, he leaves 500Z. each ; and t* like sum. 



-to Robert Berkeley. Each of his servant 
is to have a year's wages ; and Mr. Henr 
Berrington, of Cowarne, co. Hereford, 100 
James Smith and George Newman witnes 
the will. 

There was a Thomas, son of Anthon 
Attwood, of Elmbridge, co. Worcester, gent 
who matriculated at Oriel College, Oxforc 
-on 2 April, 1690, aged 15, and took his B.A 
degree in 1693. Mr. Attwood tells me tha 
this Thomas has been described as an M.B. 
but he lived at Chaddesley Corbett,* wher 
he died in 1718, and seems to have had 
connexion with Worcester. 

There is no reason for doubting that i 
was Dr. Thomas Attwood, of Powick, bj 
Worcester, who attended the infant Johnson 
Worcester is some twenty-five miles south o: 

" Parson " Ford. Since writing my pre 
vious note on the "Parson" (10 S. ix. 44 
I have come across what is apparently another 
reference to him. In Nichols's ' Literary 
Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century " 
(vol. i. pp. 223-7) is given a letter written 
from St. John's College, Cambridge, on 
6 May, 1722, by Vere Foster, a Fellow of 
the College, " a good scholar, and of great 
"wit and humour," to James Bonwicke, son 
of Ambrose Bonwicke, in which is quoted 
A humorous poem entitled ' Mr. Prior' sf 
Lamentation for the Loss of Mrs. Joanna 
Bentley,' described as having " been a long 
time the vogue at every tea-table in college." 
In this poem occur the lines : 

But, ! the lordly haughtiness of mien, 
And all the father^ in the daughter seen ! 
That unaffected modesty of mind, 
Which nor in Green nor Ford improv'd we find. 

After the poem is given a series of notes 
upon it, intended to explain some of the 
allusions and develope the humour, among 
which is the following : 

" The characters of Green and Ford, you are well 
enough acquainted with ; only observe the com- 

Nichols adds a foot-note on Ford : 

" The latter, we imagine, was the same Mr. Ford 

who was afterwards as well known by his being 

Chaplain to Lord Chesterfield as by his abandoned, 

unclerical character, and of whom it is recorded, 

* John, son of Thomas Attwood, of Chaddesley, 
co. Worcester, gent., matriculated at Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, on 9 March, 1725/6, aged 16 ; and took his 
B.A. degree on 13 Feb., 1729/30. 

t Edward Prior, of Trinity. 

Joanna was a daughter of the celebrated Richard 
Bentley, Master of Trinity. She married Denison 
Cumberland, and was mother of the well-known 
Richard Cumberland (1732-1811). 

that, on his being refused the same appointment in 
Ireland, when his noble Patron was Lord Lieutenant, 
being told that it was owing to his want ot one 
vice ; and wondering what that vice could be, was 
answered ' Hypocrixy.' " 

It does seem extremely probable that the 
poet's irony was directed against Dr. John- 
son's cousin, who in that case must have 
acquired some reputation for being self- 
appreciative. As recorded in my book 
(p. 158), Cornelius Ford had entered St. 
John's College in 1710, and taken his B.A. 
degree in 1713 ; while his M.A. degree he 
had taken from Peterhouse in 1720. Mr. 
R. F. Scott, the Master of St. John's, who 
is an earnest student of all that concerns 
the personal history of those connected with 
his College, tells me that there was no other 
Cambridge graduate of the name of Ford 
about that time except Thomas Ford, who 
took his B.A. degree from Christ's College 
in 1691, and his M.A. in 1697, and who, as 
Mr. Scott says, hardly fits in with the other 
names mentioned in the poem.f The 
" Green " who is bracketed with Ford was, 
Mr. Scott thinks, probably one Richard 
GJreen, who took his LL.B. degree from 
Peterhouse in 1722, and who would therefore 
more or less a contemporary of Cornelius 
Ford's. According to Nichols, the person 

alluded to " was supposed to be the learned 
Dr. John Green, who died Bishop of Lincoln 

in 1779." This identification would be 
more interesting, as it was John Green who, 

on leaving Cambridge, went to Lichfield 

as assistant master under the Rev. John 
ilunter, and there made the acquaintance 

of Johnson and Garrick ; but his dates 
eem to me to destroy his claim. Mr. 

Scott clinches this argument by stating 
ihat John Green did not enter St. John's 

until 10 June, 1724, his age being then given 

as " past 17." 

In the same volume (p. 221) Nichols giveg 
ome account of " Dr. Christopher Anstey, 
ellow of St. John's, for some time a tutor 
n that college," who, as mentioned in my 

This is a lame version of Gibber's original story, 
vhich is fully discussed in my book (pp. 160-61). 
Vnd the reference should be to the Hague, not to 
reland. Lord Chesterfield was Lord Lieutenant of 
reland from July, 1745, to April, 1746, some four- 

:en years after "Parson" Ford's death. 

t Mr. Scott says that "Brathwait," the "gentle- 
nan of Catharine hall ; an elegantly-made man," 
ras no doubt Mark Brathwayt, LL.B. 1723 and 
;L.D. 1728 the " gentleman " showing that he was 
ot yet a graduate. " Grim Thornton," introduced 
o us as "a gentleman of Trinity, junior bachelor, who 
itely shoolc hands with learning, and now professes 
allantry," he identifies with Jonathan Thornton* 
.A. 1721/2, and M.A. 1725. 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, 1909.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


book (p. 159), was " Parson " Ford's tutor 
and surety. His son, another Christopher 
Anstey (1724-1805), became famous as the 
author of the ' New Bath Guide.' 

Park Corner, Blundellsands, near Liverpool. 

(To be continued.) 

liquid n " I mean the sound of the gn in 
poignant, mignonette, and champignon ; these 
seem to be "the only words in which the 
symbol gn has its old meaning. It is worth 
inquiring into the history of the sound and 
of the symbol gn generally. 

I would first of all put aside such words 
as opinion, union, and the rest, in which 
the symbol gn was never used, at any rate 
in English, though the sound is the same. 
The ' N.E.D.' notes the rare spellings 
oignion and ingyeon for the modern onion, 
from F. oignon. 

The chief examples of E. ni from (or 
equivalent to) F. gn are minion, companion, 
pinion, poniard ; we may also add munnion, 
trunnion, with nni, and Shakespeare's ronyon, 
a scurvy creature, from F. rogne. The ni 
in bunion answers to the gn in Ital. bugnone, 
explained by Florio as " a push, a bile, a 
blane, a botch." 

In some words (whatever they were once) 
the g and n are now separated ; as in regnant, 
malignant, repugnant, stagnant, pregnant. 

There is at least one curious result. It 
seems to be certain that the final gn in cam- 
paign, arraign, deign, feign, reign, benign, 
condign, sign, design, ensign, assign, impugn 
(or in most of these), was formerly pro- 
nounced with the gn in poignant ; and that 
the same is true of some words now spelt 
with a simple n, such as disdain (i.e., dis- 
deign), complain (see ' N.E.D.'). Note espe- 
cially coin, join, and loin ; also coign. 

It is clear that English people much dis- 
liked this final sound, and reduced it to 
simple n. The M.E. for sign was sig-ne 
(dissyllabic), pronounced somewhat like 

This consideration accounts for the use 
of ny for the liquid gn in Middle English. 
Mr. Mayhew draws attention to some re- 
markable examples, in his edition of the 
Winchester MS. of the ' Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum.' Examples are : erany, a spider 
(F. araigne) ; seny, a sign ; lony, a loin 
(O.F. logne) ; bony, a great knob (prov. E. 
boine, a swelling caused by a blow, F. bigne, 
O.F. buigne, the word whence we may derive 

E. buni-on) ; ionyon, to join ; sonyon, to- 
essoin or excuse ; kuny, a coin. 

This liquid n is common in Middle Scotch ; 
Barbour, for example, has cunyhe, a coign, 
a corner ; renye, a rein for a horse ; derenye, 
to darraign, Chaucer's darrayne, &c. The 
most remarkable thing of all is the change- 
of this final gn to ng in writers like Sir David 
Lyndesay, as in ring, to reign. He actually 
rimes signis, signs, with thyngis, things- 
(' The Monarche,' 1. 5450). 


It may seem ungrateful in an old reader 
who has reaped so many benefits from the 
great library in Bloomsbury to find fault 
with the arrangements, and if I stood 
alone in this complaint, I would retain my 
isolation ; but the grievance is ventilated 
by many. In the first place, I and J are 
treated as the same letter, as U and V are. 
That was all right when the Catalogue wa& 
begun, and was in manuscript ; but now 
that printing has superseded handwriting, 
the obsolete fashion of cataloguing Jones 
and Ives under the same letter, or Vale and 
Unwin as having the same initial, might 
be discontinued and the modern usage- 

In the second place, anonymous works- 
are catalogued according to a bewildering 
system, the object of which seems to be to- 
hide the identity of the work. Take the 
case of a valuable little book with the 
following title : ' An Account of the Origin 
of Steam-Boats, in Spain, Great Britain, 
and America, and of their Introduction 
and Employment upon the River Thames 
between London and Gravesend to the 
Present Time,' i.e. 1831. A pencil note on 
the title-page is " by R. P. Cruden," the 
historian of the Port of London. One 
would think that it would be catalogued 
under ' Steam Boats,' that being the main, 
subject ; but no, it is catalogued under 
' Spain.' I am told the rule is to take the 
first proper name. In this case it is mis- 
leading, because no one studying the history 
of steam navigation on the Thames would 
think of looking under Spain. 

That rule, however, is not applied in the 
next case. A well-written little book pub- 
lished in 1907 is entitled 'Devon, the Shire 
of the Sea Kings.' ' Devon ' would seem 
to be the natural heading, but no in the 
Catalogue it will be found under ' Great 
Western Railway.' 

I could give other instances, but these 
must suffice. A. RHODES.. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEE. e, im 

BLACKFRIARS ROAD. The subject of demoli- 
tions in London is ever with us, irrespective 
of locality. In The Daily Graphic of Thurs- 
day, October 1, was an excellent engraving 
of what are alluded to as the "Wooden Huts" 
of South wark, reputed to be " two hundred 
and seventy-five years old." Whatever 
their exact age, they have all the appearance 
of hoary antiquity, and are quite entitled 
to be called ancient. They are situated in 
Collingwood Street, at no great distance from 
Blackfriars Bridge ; and if the local records 
are to be considered trustworthy, their age 
is beyond dispute, so they become a most 
interesting link with the past. They are 
built entirely of wood, and have a really 
rural look, out of keeping with their sur- 
roundings. There are five rooms in each of 
the eight houses, the rent being 10s. a week 
per house moderate as rents go in South- 
wark. There are no basements, but the 
" ground floor " is really below the level of 
the outside ground, so that the tenants have 
to go down a step to get indoors, and even 
then have to lower their heads as they enter. 
The newspaper already alluded to says that 
" the earliest inhabitants, when they wished 
to reach the other side of the river, had 
either to use the ferry or to walk over London 
Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge then being non- 
existent." These houses once had it is 
said large gardens, but these have long 
since been built over. It is stated that 
" when these places were erected the 
Thames flowed right up to the doors." This 
was probably so in many places near here ; 
but as Christ Church was finished in 1671, 
it is not unlikely that a neighbourhood had, 
by that time, sprung up towards the river, 
and so cut them off from it. At present 
they look as if they might be good for another 
century, and perhaps for even longer ; but 
I fear their ultimate doom is sealed, though 
it (has recently been asserted that there is 
no intention of removing them. 



MAJOR HULL, C.B. It may be worth 
while recording the existence of the MS. 
Journal and Notebooks of Major Hull 
(who died in Norfolk Street, Park Lane, 
on 9 Nov., 1841). They are thus described 
by Messrs. Simmons & Waters, of Leaming- 
ton, in the November issue of their catalogue : 

" Hull (Major) Journal, Journey, and Note-Books 
of Major Hull, C.B., who married Mildred Corbett, 
daughter of Archdeacon Corbett, on June 22, 1826. 
Major Hull left Portsmouth as a cadet for India on 
June 8, 1798, and landed in England on July 17, 

.823, being absent almost [sic] 25 years. These books 
record the overland journey from India and the 
sxcursions taken in Europe and at home during 
ater years. They describe the method of travelling, 
;ime taken, sights seen, and visits made. Major 
Hull was born 1778 at Devizes ; his father was a 
soldier, and served in America during the War of 
[ndependence. One volume supplies his life and 
active services from his landing in India until the 
;ime he left. His sister married James Perry (1756- 
L821), proprietor of The Morning Chronicle. He left 
100,000^, and Major Hull as an executor to his 
will. 3 vols. 4to, 4 vols. post 8vo, together 7 vols. 



a black wind which blew at the Crucifixion." 
So A. T. heard some years since from a 
loucestershire woman. Black winds are 
easterly or north-easterly winds accom- 
panied by dark, lowering clouds. Another, 
acquaintance of A. T.'s used to say that 
Jews hated an east wind because it blew 
when the Saviour was crucified. 

This idea is new to me in England, but 
that excellent collection of popular beliefs 
' Le Folk-lore de France,' par Paul Sebillot 
(1904), contains a legend which is evidently 
related to it. In the neighbourhood of 
Gerzat, Puy-de-D6me, people think the 
east wind does not blow more than three 
hours at a time, and very seldom even so 
long, because it blew when Jesus was on 
the cross. The Saviour asked it in vain 
for water to quench His burning thirst : the 
wind would not yield Him this charity, and 
it was for that reason that Jesus cursed it 
and condemned it to blow very rarely (vol. i. 
pp. 80, 81). W. A. T. 

THE U.S. This expression of popular ill- 
feeling, as it existed ninety years ago, is 
described by H. B. Fearon in his ' Sketches 
of America,' 1818 : 

" Frenchmen and leeks, Irishmen and bulls, are 
even now the subjects of American ridicule, and in 
the uncontaminated style of Spitalfields and Shore- 
ditch. In Washington, on last St. Patrick's day 
[1817], according to custom, a figure was stuffed 
similar to our Guy Faux, and called Paddy ; he 
was placed within the gate of the Navy-yard, with 
pipes, tobacco, and whiskey. In Philadelphia a 
gentleman informed me that there were numerous 
Paddies exhibited in the same style ; some were 
carried by boys, begging to remember poor Paddy. 
This offensive practice was carried to such an ex- 
tent iu New York a few years back, that serious 
riots were produced by it. There is now a law of 
that corporation, prohibiting Paddies being ex- 
hibited on the 17th of March." 

A friend tells me that this custom pre- 
vailed in Philadelphia till about 1873 ; and 
on 18 March a further insult was added 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


by the exhibition of a stuffed effigy of a 
female, which was called " Sheely." Fearon 
seems to have written " Frenchmen " for 
" Welshmen." RICHARD H. THORNTON. 
36, Upper Bedford Place. 

CHURCH PLATE. The following pieces 
of church plate were sold at Messrs. Christie's 
on 10 December last. 

Flagon and cover from Sunningwell, Berk- 
shire, Charles II. 

Chalice from Ellesmere, 1710. 

Tazza, 1705, from Kempley. 


SAYS." This has become a stereotyped 
expression. Many people probably made 
the remark before Kipling was born. Sterne, 
-at all events, did so in ' Tristram Shandy,' 
chap, xvii., towards the end of ' The Ser- 
mon ' : " ' That 's another story,' replied 
my father." THETA. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

THE IRISH. In Truth for 13 January there 
is a statement (p. 84) that " Sir Walter 
Scott found a family likeness between hit- 
own people and the Welsh and Irish." Can 
any reader direct me to the original passage ? 
I ask because I judge from the context 
that the writer in Truth is making the 
common blunder of forgetting that the 
Highland Line divides Scotland into two 
nationalities, as distinct as French and 
English. Sir Walter, I opine, knew British 
history too well to find family likeness 
between any " Celtic " race and the Lowland 
Scotch, who are merely Englishmen sepa- 
rated by an accident of history from their 
Southern brethren. He might conceivably 
have referred to such a likeness as existing 
between the Highland Scotch and the Irish, 
since the Highlanders are chiefly of Irish 
origin, as their name of " Scot " indicates. 

is little doubt that the old pronunciation 
of this word was raim. A Jacobean poet 
(I cannot recollect the reference) rimes 
realms with James, the I being silent, as in 
alms, balm, calm, &c. The old spelling 

was reem (' Prompt. Parv.') or reme, Reamys 
occurs in Wright, ' Political Poems and 
Songs' (1429), ii. 146. 

Can further confirmatory rimes be pro- 
duced ? A. SMYTHE PALMER. 

LOUISE. 1. Caroline Murat, widow of the 
King of Naples, remarried, I think, in 1818. 
Did she leave any family by her second 
tmsband ? and who was he ? 

2. Marie Louise, on receipt of news of the 
decease of Napoleon in 1821, married her 
lover. Did she leave any family by this 
second marriage ? CHARLES J. HILL. 

Belmont Lodge, Waterford. 

[See 'The Women Bonapartes,' oy H. Noel 
Williams, and ' The Sisters of Napoleon,' by Joseph 
Turquan, translated by W. R. H. Trowbridge, both 
published last year.] 

SEA-NAMES. In Orkney and Shetland, 
as it is considered unlucky, when at sea, to 
call anything by its ordinary name, every- 
thing has one or more special sea-names, 
e.g., the sun is called feger, Old Norse, 
meaning " fair," which is also used as a 
kenning or periphrasis for the sun in the 
' Elder Edda ' (alvissmal), fagrahvel, " fair 
wheel " (see Jakobsen's ' Shetland Ordbog '). 

It would be interesting to know whether 
the custom of using sea-names is in vogue 
in any other places, and if so, whether such 
names preserve old words and poetic names, 
as in Orkney and Shetland. 


FIG TREE IN THE CITY. Some time ago 
there used to exist near Aldgate Pump a 
fig tree. Its destruction was threatened 
a few years ago. Was it ever preserved in 
any way, or transplanted ? I do not know 
in what way it became " historic," as it was 
considered, excepting in the matter of age ; 
but it may have had some historic associa- 
tions. Does it still flourish ? If so, where ? 

LOGY. The following rules for changing 
A.H. into A.D. dates I take from an old class 

1. From the A.H. deduct 3 per cent, 
taking account of two decimals. 

2. Add the fixed number 621.57. 

3. Add to the decimals 2 per cent of the 
A.H. date. 

The result will be A.D. date, Old Style. 
The decimals represent the portion of the 
Christian year elapsed before the beginning 
of the Hegira year, each hundred standing 
for 365 days. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 6 , 1009. 

4. For New Style add 11 days from 170( 
to 1799 ; 12 days from 1800 to 1899 
13 days from 1900 to 1999. 

Now I have worked out a number o 
dates by this formula, and compared them 
with the table in Socin's ' Arabic Grammar. 
The result in most cases is a difference of two 
days. Can any one explain the cause o 

er ro r ? ALEX. RUSSELL. 


COBSLEY, WILTS. Can any of your corre- 
spondents who are interested in place- 
names tell me the origin or meaning of 
Corsley (spelt, I am told, Corslie in Domes- 
day Book), the name of a parish in Wiltshire? 

B. D. 

A CHURCH. Visitors to St. Michael's Church, 
Winterbourne, in Gloucestershire, are in- 
formed that Hugo de Sturden (he was 
Hickonstern, the hero of Gloucestershire 
legend) died all but excommunicated, re- 
ceiving the Communion only at the point of 
death, and that he was for his sins buried 
half within and half without that church. 
Are there similar instances recorded ? 


The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

printed in America for private circulation, 
in the early part of last century. Can any 
correspondent of ' N. & Q.' tell me where 
I can see a copy of this book ? I am told 
that it contains an account of Westminster 
School written by General Charles Cotes- 
worth Pinckney ; but it is possible that the 
title of the book is not absolutely accurate 

G. F. R. B. 

Coll., Camb., graduated M.A. in 1792. 
Particulars of his career, and the date of 
his death, are desired. G. F. R. B. 

CHARLES JAMES AURIOL matriculated at 
Oxford from Ch. Ch., 15 Oct., 1816, aged 
eighteen. I should be glad to obtain in- 
formation concerning his career and the 
date of his death. G. F. R. B. 

first Elizabeth Louches, and secondly Eliza- 
beth Mortimer, widow of " Hotspur " (who 
died 1403). He died 1421, leaving a 
daughter Alice, wife of Sir Leonard Hastings 
and a son Richard, who had three children 
Margaret (born 1397), Eleanor (born 1403)' 
and Hugh (born 1414). Were Alice and 
Richard of the whole or only half blood ? 

If the latter, which wife was mother of 
which ? Cokayne, Clarenceux King - of - 
Arms, one of the best authorities, says 
Richard was son of the first wife. The late 
Ambrose Truswell Turner, a genealogist 
of repute, was of opinion that Alice was 
daughter of the second wife ; and the 
present Lord Camoys supports this view, 
on what grounds I know not. Can any 
readers of ' N. & Q.' throw light on this 
point ? INQUIRER. 

should be glad of information as to the motto 
of the family of Sir Thomas Warner, first 
English Governor (appointed by Charles I.) 
of Antigua, West Indies. My grandfather, 
Dr. George Robertson Baillie (H.M. Inspector 
of Hospitals), married in St. Vincent Jane 
Ann Warner, the heiress of a planter and 
slaveowner, Charles John Warner. 

My uncle Dr. George Baillie, Government 
surgeon, lived with his uncle Steadman 
Warner, who was magistrate of Bequia, 
St. Vincent. 

I should like to know whether this family 
of Warner was connected with that of Sir 
Thomas Warner. Where can I get a full 
pedigree of the family ?_ 


2, Manor Road, Brock ley, S.E. 

Is anything known of the history of this 
extensive structure ? Locally it is regarded 
as something of an imposture, and is spoken 
of as a shooting-box built on a mediaeval 
pattern. It appears to have been built in a 
somewhat flimsy manner. A writer in the 
local paper refers to Cromwell as its builder. 
Its situation is so commanding and pictur- 

ue that it may well stand on the site of 
an earlier castle. W. ROBERTS CROW. 


THINE." Can any one tell me, with some- 
hing like certainty, who is the author of 
he Sunday hymn or prayer of two verses, 
sommencing as above ? I believe it is 

attributed to the late Dr. Newton, a Wes- 
eyan minister of about fifty years ago ; 
3ut my father always maintained it was 

written by my grandfather, with whom 
Dr. Newton was on terms of intimacy. 

His story is that he one Sunday morning 
epeated the verses at family prayers, and 

jontinued to do so every Sunday afterwards. 
ie was a man of great reticence, and when 

asked as to the authorship declined to 
nswer. Years afterwards it was (with, of 

;ourse, an " improvement " in the first line) 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


incorporated in the undated, but I believe 
1879, supplement to Wesley's hymn-book. 
If it came there through Dr. Newton's hands, 
it may have been either written by him and 
given to my grandfather, or vice versa ; 
but in the former case I do not understand 
the reticence as to authorship. 

I may be wrong, but my impression is that 
the hymn was used by my grandfather 
before he was acquainted with Dr. Newton. 
I can, if the authorship be really unknown, 
ascertain this. Lucis. 

This phrase, I think, has not been noticed 
in ' N. & Q.,' and I do not find it as yet in the 
' N.E.D.' I have an American example of 
it in 1821 ; but it probably originated in 
England. Can any correspondent throw 
light on the matter ? 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

STRUGNELL SURNAME. I am anxious to 
find out if my own name Strugnell came 
from that of Strug, and shall be much obliged 
for any suggestion. 

Between 1194 and 1199 there was a 
Walterus Strug ; in 1297 one Phillip Strug ; 
1327, a Wm. Strug ; between 1346 and 1349 
one Amery Strugg, son of John Strugg, Kt., 
and between 1327 and 1330 a John Strug, 

Commander R.N. 
^See ante, pp. 8, 75.] 

this card, which begins " Mr. George Calcraft, 
No. 100, Newgate Street, Scarifier and Sus- 
pensionist." It goes on to express grateful 
thanks for the support which has been 
accorded to him, and states that he is 
prepared to engage a respectable youth 
" to instruct him in the mysteries of his 

A note in writing says : " This was com- 
posed by Jos. Gittens." At the back of the 
card is printed a string of " Gallows Ideas." 
The card seems to be about one hundred 
years old. Who was its author ? 


What arms should a suffragan bishop use 
on an official seal ? Does he impale those 
of his diocese, or those of the town from 
which he takes his title, with his own ? 
Or does he simply use his own, resting on a 
crosier and a key ? Does he surmount his 
arms with a mitre ? W. E. ST. L. FINNY. 

Kingston Hill. 

The patron saint of a burgh or parish usually 
(if not invariably) had a chapel within the 
area over which that particular saint was 
patron. Can any cases be cited in which 
the chapel was situated in a neighbouring 
parish, or even a neighbouring county ? 


SUDAN. Frederic Cailliaud, who accom- 
panied the expedition of Ismail Pasha to 
Dongola and Sennar in 1820, states that 
the silver piastre of Spain circulated as 
money at that time in Nubia, Berber, and 
Sennar ; also that the doublons of Spain 
were used in Berber or Barbar, as he spells 
it (Cailliaud, ' Voyage a Meroe,' 1826, i. 365 ; 
ii. 112, 117, 296). Felix Mengin, in his 
' Histoire de 1'Egypte sous le Gouverne- 
ment de Mohammed- Aly,' Paris, 1823, men- 
tions also that, besides Sennar, payment 
was sometimes made in Darfour in Spanish 
piastres (vol. ii. pp. 222, 232). Cailliaud 
further states that in Barbar and Sennar 
the piastres of Charles IV. of Spain were 
used, and that those with the name " Charles 
IIII." (with four I's) obtained a marked 
preference. One can understand the sequins 
of Venice and Holland penetrating to those 
remote regions ; but why should Spanish 
money have been introduced there ? Was it 
introduced by the French at the time of 
their occupation of Egypt, 1799-1801 ? 
They did not advance, by the by, beyond 
Philse. Cailliaud's statement (ii. 117) that 
the people of Berber called the corns real 
France abou-arba (" French money of father 
IIII.") would seem to support this. In 
what years were the piastres of Charles IV. 
inscribed with the four I's ? 


GENTLEMAN. Among the papers of a resi- 
dent in Gloucestershire, lately deceased, 
was found the following : 

" Carved on the wall of an old manor house in 

"'The true gentleman is God's servant, the 
world's master, and his own man. Virtue is n 
business, study his recreation, contentment his rest, 
and happiness his reward. God is his Father, Jesu 
Christ his saviour, the saints his brethren, and all 
that need him his friends. Devotion is his chap- 
lain, Chastity his chamberlain, Sobriety his butler, 
Temperance his cook, Hospitality his housekeeper, 
Providence bis steward, Charity his treasurer, Piety 
his mistress of the house, and Discretion his porter, 
to let in or out as is most fit. Thus is his whole 
family made up of virtue, and he is the true master 
of the house. He is necessitated to take the world 
on his way to heaven, but he walks through it as 



fast as he can, and all his business by the way is to 
make himself and others as happy as he can. Take 
him in two words a man, a Christian.' " 

1. What is the source of the passage ? 
2. On. what manor house (if any) was it 
carved, and at what date ? H. C D. 

of Thiebault's works is there a description 
of a rustic party employing themselves in 
conjugating s'ennuyer ? V. H. COLLINS. 

(10 S. xi. 10, 58.) 

MAY I venture to suggest that this name 

originally applied to a seld, sild, or shed 

used for warehousing goods, and in need of 

repair ? With it may be compared such 

names as Broken Cross and Broken Wharf, 

frequently mentioned in the City's records. 

Both PROF. SKEAT and the late H. T. Riley, 

the editor of the City's ' Liber Custumarum,' 

refer " seld " to the Anglo-Saxon word 

denoting a shield or protection (see Glossary, 

' Lib. Cust.,' s.v. ' Selda '). The former, 

however, appears to refer to a " shield " 

as the defensive arm in warfare. In this 

connexion it is quite possible that in course 

of time the name " Brokenselde " lost its 

original meaning, and denoted the ' ' broken 

shield," and as such was used as a tavern sign. 

A tavern called " Le Brokenselde " is 

recorded in the Husting Rolls under date 1348 

as being situate near the church of St. Mary 

le Bow. It was probably at this tavern 

described in Latin as atte seldam fractam 

that an affray took place in 1325, one Sundaj 

evening, which led to a coroner's inquest. 

There was also a tenement of this name 
situated on the south side of Westchepe 
opposite " le Standard," which became 
converted into a Sheriff's Compter pro 
bably the one known as the Bread Stree 
Compter, as the tenement was declared, or 
inquisition held in 1412, to be whollj 
situated in Bread Street Ward (' Cal 
Letter-Book I,' pp. 108-9). 


" Le Brokenselde," mentioned in Henrj 
Rede's will, was evidently a " seld " whicl 
was or had been in a ruinous condition 
The word " seld " occurs frequently in th 
City records. For example, ' a house in 
Soperelane, opposite to the hostrey (hos 

itium) of the seld called Brodeselde," is 
aentioned in Letter-Book G, quoted in 
Wiley's ' Memorials,' p. xv. In. 29 Edward I. 

Richer de Refham, mercer, acknowledged that he 
ad no right or claim, nor made any claim, in that 
jarcel of land containing the space of two aumbries 
armariolorum) in the corner of the great seld of 
loysia de Coventre in the mercery of London," &c. 
Letter-Book C. fo. liv. 

This, the " great Seld " in Cheap, is pro- 
bably the same as the " Brodeselde " above 
mentioned. In 1370 the Mayor and Alder- 
nen, on the petition of Adam Lovekyn, 

' ordered that no strange tanner, bringing his hides 
o the City for sale, should expose them for sale any 
.vhere within the City, or the suburbs thereof, than 
n the Seld in Frydaystret " 

selonging to Adam Lovekyn (Letter-Book G, 
quoted in Riley's ' Memorials,' p. 343). 

Stow in his ' Survey of London ' (ed. 1603, 
p. 259) refers to a fair building of stone 
ailed in record " Seldam, a shed," on the 
north side of St. Mary le Bow, West Chepe, 
which King Edward III. had caused 

' to be made and strongly to bee builded of stone, 
:or himselfe, the Queene, and other Estates to stand 

in, there to beholde the Justinges and other shewes 

at their pleasures." 

He states that in 1410 Henry IV. 
"confirmed the saide shedde or building to Stephen 
Spilman, William Marchford, and lohn Whatele, 
Mercers, by the name of one new Seldam, shed or 
building, with shoppes, sellers, and edifices whatso- 
euer appertayning, called Crounsilde, or Tamar- 
silde, situate in the Mercery in West Cheape, 
and in the parrish of Saint Mary de Arcubus in 
London, &c." 

There is also mention made of a " seld " in 
West Cheap held by John de Stanes, mercer, 
in 1304 (Letter-Book B, fo. Ixiii b), and of a 
seld in the parish of St. Mary le Bow in West 
Cheap belonging to Richard and Margery 
Godchep in 1320 (Letter-Book E, fo. cxii), 
which would probably be the " Great " or 
" Brodeselde " above mentioned. Riley 
says (p. xviii) : 

" There seems every reason to conclude, from 
various passages in the City books, that the Sekls 
were extensive warehouses : very similar probably 
to the Eastern Bazaars, with numerous rooms in 
them, fitted with aumbries, or cupboards, chests, 
and locks, and let to various tenants ; while in some 
instances a mere vacant patch of ground (placea) 
within the Seld is mentioned as being let." 

Although this may have been the early 
meaning of the word, it was in later times 
apparently used as synonymous with what 
we now call "lock-up shops," as e.g., in a 
feoffment of a seld or shop with a vacant 
place of land in Henley in " le Shopperowe," 
5 Aug., 11 Henry VIII. (A. 7619, 'Calendar 
of Ancient Deeds,' vol. iv.). 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In the Glossary to the ' Liber Cus- 
tumarum,' Part II. p. 825, Riley gives : 

" Selda, a seld, silde, or shed used for warehousing 
goods. It is generally said to be from the A.-S. seld, 
" a seat,' but it seems more probable that its origin is 
the word scyld, ' a shield or protection ' ; the old Eng- 
lish words shiel and sheal, a cottage, being probably 
from the same source." 

This is of course in accordance with PROF. 
SKEAT'S second suggestion ; but if this were 
the origin of the word, it would surely 
sometimes appear with the sh. I have, 
however, never met with it in this form. 

Bosworth and Toller give as the meaning 
of the A.-S. seld, 1, " a seat, a throne " ; 
2, "a seat, residence, mansion, hall," and 
quote as an example "Hie tempel strudon, 
Salomanes seld," from Csedmon's Metrical 
Paraphrase. They also quote " Ca heallican 
seld palatias zetas " from Wright's ' Vocabu- 
lary,' ii. 81, 223. The feminine form "selde" 
(which would agree with the Latin selda 
found in mediaeval records) is defined as a 
" porch, proaula " ; and the words " sumor- 
selde " and " winter-selde " are quoted from 
Wright's ' Vocabulary ' as meaning " summer 
house " and " winter house " respectively 
*' sumerselde, zetas cestivales " and " winter- 
selde, zetas hyemalcs." I would therefore 
suggest that " seld " is derived from the 
A.-S. fern, word selde. H. A. HARBEN. 

The word " seld " frequently occurs in the 
* Calendars of Husting Wills,' and denotes 
a shed, or open shop, in which the pro- 
prietor publicly sat in order to attract 
customers, in the manner seen in most 
Oriental cities and many old-fashioned 
Continental towns. It is of course the 
Anglo-Saxon word, and the article "le" 
gives it no Anglo-French connotation, but is 
merely a legal survival. It precedes nearly a 
all the sign-names in the wills. The real 
difficulty lies in the adjective " broken," 
which we find also in the " Broken Wharf," 
the " Broken Cross," &c. I do not remember 
to have seen the exact signification of this 
epithet determined, and, not having the 
' N.E.D.' at hand, cannot say from which 
of the many meanings of the verb " to break " 
it is derived. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

49). I would refer our friend MR. HOLDEN 
MACMICHAEL to Walcott's ' Memorials of 
Westminster,' p. 73. The author states that 
Princes Street was " so called first between 
the years 1765 and 1782," and he goes on 
to say that it 

" formerly bore the name 01 Long Ditch, and at one 
time contained an ancient conduit, the site of which 

is now |? 1849] marked by a pump. At the bottom 
of the well, it is said, is a black marble image of 
St. Peter, and some marble steps seen aoout seventy 
years ago when the well was examined. The 
southern extremity was called Broken Cross ; and 
about the middle of the last [eighteenth] century it 
was stated that it was the most ancient house 
in Westminster, which was then inhabited by a 

The latter statement is quoted by Mr. 
Wheatley in ' London, Past and Present,' 
vol. i. p. 279. Mr. Wheatley also says that 
there is a token in the Beaufoy Collection 
inscribed " At the Broken Cross in West- 
minster, 1659." In Sir Walter Besant's 
' Westminster,' p. 152, is an engraving of 
Broken Cross within the Abbey precincts, but 
no authority is given for it. 


x. 469 ; xi. 32). I regret that I have no 
more explicit information as to the exact 
situation of this house, but the friend on 
whose behalf I sent the query is a descendant 
(through families of the name of Ridley and 
Whitfield) of the first owner, Gibson, and 
she is positive as to the facts given, which 
were told her by her mother about twenty- 
five years ago. The mother did not know 
whether the house was then standing or not. 
Probably the name " Curious " was only 
a nickname given it by a few people, and 
I think we must go back to the eighteenth 
century for information about it. 



FATHERS (10 S. x. 502). It is pleasant to 
Americans to know that Englishmen find 
attractive " any items connected with the 
makers of the U.S.A." But as the brief 
paragraph quoted by MR. CLAYTON contains 
two errors and one omission, these ought to 
be corrected. First, Wrexham is not in 
Flintshire, as stated by Miss Boyes, but in 
Denbighshire. Secondly, Miss Boyes has 
given the epitaph only in part. The 
following is copied from a pamphlet 
entitled ' Elihu Yale, Esq., and the Parish 
Church of Wrexham,' printed at Wrexham 
in or about 1901, and presumably prepared 
by Canon William H. Fletcher : 
Born in America, in Europe bred, 
In Africa travelled, and in Asia wed ; 
Where long he lived and thrived ; in London dead : 
Much good, some ill, he did ; so hope all's even, 
And that his soul through mercy's gone to heaven. 
You that survive and read this tale, take care 
For this most certain exit to prepare, 
Where, blest in peace, the actions of the just 
Smell sweet, and blossom in the silent dust. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xi, FEB. 6 , 1909 

This epitaph is not original, as the first part 
is imitated from that on Duns Scotus at 
Cologne, while the latter part is adapted 
from James Shirley's well-known lines. 
" In Africa travelled " is poetic licence, as 
Yale is not known to have been in Africa. 

Thirdly, Miss Boyes is in error in stating 
that " Elihu Yale's paternal ancestor was 
one of the Pilgrim Fathers " though the 
error is excusable in an English writer. 
Elihu Yale, born at Boston, Mass., about 
1649, was the son of David Yale, The 
latter came to Boston about 1637, was 
one of the early settlers at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, then returned to Boston, and 
finally went back to England. Probably 
all the Yales in New England in the eigh- 
teenth century lived either in Massachusetts 
or in Connecticut. The following passage, 
based on material furnished by the present 
writer, is copied from the ' N.E.D.' : 

" Governor Bradford [of Plymouth Colony] wrote 
of his company as 'pilgrims' in the spiritual sense 
referring to Heb. xi. 13. The same phraseology 
was repeated by Cotton Mather and others, and 
became familiar in New England. In 1798 a Feast 
of the 'Sons' or 'Heirs of the Pilgrims' was held 
at Boston on 22 Dec. , at which the memory of ' the 
Fathers ' was celebrated. With the frequent juxta- 
position of the names Pilgrims, Fathers, Heirs or 
Sons of the Pilgrims, and the like, at these 
anniversary feasts, ' Pilgrim Fathers ' naturally 
arose as a rhetorical phrase, and gradually grew to 
be a historical designation." 

The Plymouth Colony was settled in 
1620. The Massachusetts Colony was 
organized in 1630. The two were entirely 
distinct until 1691, when, by royal charter, 
they were joined together to form the 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay, now the 
State or Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
We in New England make a distinction 
between the early settlers of the Plymouth 
Colony, calling them " Pilgrim Fathers," and 
the early settlers of the Massachusetts Colony, 
calling them " Puritans." As David Yale 
was an early Massachusetts settler, and was 
never (so far as is known) in the Plymouth 
Colony at all, he was not a Pilgrim Father, 
as that term is now used in New England. 

Boston, U.S. 

SOUTH SEAS (10 S. x. 503). Being a native 
of Portsmouth, I was much interested in 
-MR. CLAYTON'S note on this ship. 

In a book that I have not by me now 
(published 1798 ?) was a detailed account of 
this missionary enterprise. The only portion 
of the account that I can call to mind at the 
moment is that (1) the Duff sailed from 

Spithead 24 Sept., 1796, and arrived at 
Tahiti, South Sea Islands, 5 March, 1797 ; 

(2) that the Rev. James Griffin was pastor of 
the old Orange Street Chapel, Portsea ; 

(3) that the name of one of the Duff's crew 

was Orange, and, if I remember rightly, 

he was a member of the chapel. The Orange 
family lived in Portsea for many years after 
the above date. Is it known if the street 
or chapel was named after any member of 
that family ? 

It may also be interesting to note that not 
very far from Horndean (where Capt. Wilson 
lived) is Bunker's Hill. Perhaps some reader 
can state if there is any historic connexion 
between this Hampshire country-side and 
the seat of the first battle of the American 
War of Independence. F. K. P. 

[The inscription mentions that Wilson was 
present at the battle of Bunker's Hill. Is not this 
likely to account for the name ?] 

The reference for the text quoted in the 
inscription concerning Capt. Wilson should 
have been Ps. Ixxvii. 14. 


With reference to this ^ note it may be of 
interest to mention that in the old church- 
yard of Exeter (now closed) a large number 
of the epitaphs give the trade of the deceased. 

G. H. C. 

WORKSOP EPITAPHS (10 S. x. 503). The 
first of these epitaphs is also in the church- 
yard of the parish of Fleet in Lincolnshire, 
on a gravestone in memory of Joseph 
Barrow, who died 8 Oct, 1844. There it 
runs thus : 

sudden death, 1 in a moment tell, 
And had not time to bid my friends farewell. 
Think nothing strange ; chance happens unto all ; 
My lot to-day, to-morrow thine may fall. 


456). I am enabled to furnish another to 
those already given, from ' Old- World 
Japan : Legends of the Land of the Gods,' 
retold by Frank Kinder. On pp. 17-24 
is a poetic tale describing how Susa-no-o, 
the Moon-God, was jealous of the extra 
power, influence, and splendour of his sister 
Ama-Terasu, the Sun-Goddess. To spite her 
he flayed her horse, the " Beloved of the 
Gods." Indignant at her brother's cruelty, 
she withdrew into a cave and closed behind 
her the door of the Heavenly Rock Dwelling, 
leaving the earth in darkness. The rest 
of the tale, too long to summarize, describes 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the plans adopted by the gods to entice her 
from her seclusion ; and when this was 
accomplished, they drew a cord of rice-straw 
across the entrance to prevent a repetition 
of the catastrophe. On pp. 105-1 1 is another 
tale entitled ' The Moon Maiden.' 


A perusal of chap. ii. of Gibbon's ' Decline 
and Fall ' gives us some indication of the 
rate of travel possible about the time of 
Hadrian. See p. 57 of vol. i. ("World's 
Classics ") : 

" Houses were everywhere erected at the distance 
only of five or six miles ; each of them was 
constantly provided with forty horses, and, by the 
help of these relays, it was easy to travel an 
hundred miles in a day along the Roman roads." 

In a foot-note we read : 

" In the time of Theodosius, Caesarius, a 
magistrate of high rank, went post from Antioch to 
Constantinople. He began his journey at night, 
was in Cappadocia (165 miles from Antioch) the 
ensuing evening, and arrived at Constantinople the 
sixth day about noon. The whole distance was 
725 Roman, or 665 English miles." 

A note on the previous page gives the 
route which a traveller would have taken 
in going from Rome to Boulogne. He would 
have gone by way of Milan, Lyons, and 
Rheims, covering a distance of 1,254 Roman 
miles. If we may take the marvellous 
performance of Caesarius as a criterion, an 
express journey from Rome to Boulogne 
would have taken about 8J days. With 
regard to the Channel crossing, we may bear 
in mind that Caesar on his first invasion of 
Britain took roughly ten hours to perform 
the journey. Cf. ' De Bello Gallico,' Bk. IV. 
chap, xxiii. : 

" Nactus idoneam ad nauigandum tempestatem 

tertia fere uigilia soluit, ipse hora diei eirciter 

quarta cum primis nauibus Britanniam attigit." 

No precise data are given with reference to 
the return voyage. 

When Caesar again sailed across the Channel 
to invade Britain, his progress was not so 
rapid, owing to the perversity of wind and 
tide, and the voyage took about eighteen 
hours (Bk. V. chap. viii.). On the second 
occasion, however, the return voyage to Gaul 
was accomplished in about half the time. 
A single galley, with every facility afforded 
it, would, no doubt, have done even better 
than this. Let us convert our 8J days into 
9, and we shall have allowed abundance of 
time for the sea voyage. In view of the 
fact that our traveller would have had a far 
greater distance to cover than Caasarius had, 
and a very formidable obstacle to surmount 

in the Alps, and allowing also for the possi- 
bility that the posting system had been 
improved by the time of Theodosius, we 
shall not be too generous if we add another 
full day, making up the total to 10 days. 
We must remember that this is travelling 
at record-breaking speed. Anybody but a 
Caasarius would, I suspect, have been more 
than satisfied if he had reached Britain 
within the fortnight. I have used Gibbon's 
remarks as the basis of my computation, but 
being at present away from books, I am 
unable to verify his statements. Perhaps 
others will be able to give more precise 
references to the time of Hadrian. 

Henbury, Macclesfield. 

YEW TREES (10 S. x. 430; xi. 58). 
Churchyards in former days being less com- 
pletely enclosed than at the present day, and 
the adjacent lands then frequently unfenced, 
trespass by cattle was of constant occurrence, 
and much injury was done to the graves by 
the trampling and rubbing of the beasts. 
Hence another explanation, often given, of 
the planting of yew trees, so universal 
in graveyards, is that little pains were taken 
to keep the cattle out of the churchyards 
by their owners until it was found that the 
trespass was a fatal one, i.e., that there 
were poisonous trees among the graves. The 
extensive planting of the yew in churchyards 
may have been " a protective measure," 
but in another way. R. B. 


49). On a horizontal frame fitted with feet 
four mahogany pillars were fixed at the 
corners, and a rail connected the pillars at 
the sides of the horse. Between the pillars 
was a seat covered with leather, having pro- 
jections on each side, which ran in guides 
between the pillars. The seat was sup- 
ported on strong spiral springs, and they 
were concealed by leather facings all round. 
The weight of the rider brought down the 
seat considerably ; and with his hands 
grasping the side-rails, he raised and lowered 
the seat by the strength of his arms. It was 
a clumsy machine to enable the lame to get 
exercise. JOHN P. STILWELL. 

If MR. MACMICHAEL will turn up Thomas- 
Sheraton's book on furniture, 1802, plate 22, 
he will see an illustration of the chamber- 
horse. In those days, instead of a man 
joining the "Liver-brigade" and trotting 
for an hour or so every morning in Hyde 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL F EB . G, im 

Park, he used to shake up his liver in his 
bedroom by means of the mechanical con- 
trivance in question. E. O. 

The ' N.E.D.' says " ? a rocking-horse " ; 
but the eighteenth-century "chamber-horse " 
was a mechanical contrivance, consisting of a 
leather seat mounted on four legs, and 
provided with a strong spring, which was 
used for imitative riding exercise. Mr. 
Austin Dobson, in his paper on ' Richardson 
at Home ' in the second series of ' Eighteenth- 
Century Vignettes,' says that Richardson 
had " one of these contrivances " at each 
of his houses ; 

"and those who, without violence to his literary 
importance, can conceive the author of ' Sir Charles 
drandison ' so occupied, must imagine him bobbing 
up and down daily, at stated hours, upon this 
curious substitute for the saddle." 


This machine was in appearance like a 
high stool, or chair with low side arms only. 
Those I have seen were about 3 ft. 6 in. 
high and 2 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. broad. The top 
padded for a seat was connected with 
the base by springs, and the whole covered 
with leather ; in appearance it was like 
a huge accordion. They are still occasion- 
ally to be met with in old " unrestored " 
houses, as well as in auction-rooms. 


xi. 48). The Hon. Lockhart Gordon was 
third son of John, third Earl of Aboyne. 
He was captain in the same regiment as 
Lord Cornwallis ; retired from the army 
with rank of lieutenant-colonel ; received 
the appointment of Judge- Advocate-General 
of Bengal, 1787 ; and died at Calcutta, 
24 March, 1788. He married (1) Isabella, 
daughter of Elias Levi ; and (2) on 3 Oct., 
1770, Catherine Wallop, only sister of John, 
Earl of Portsmouth, by whom he had 
besides other children two sons. The 
duchess mentioned was, I suppose, Elizabeth 
Seymour (afterwards Smithson and Percy), 
first Duchess of Northumberland, and great- 
granddaughter of Josceline Percy, eleventh 
Earl of Northumberland. 


(10 S. x. 509). Carlyle's slip seems to have 
been shared by one at least of his biographers. 
Mr. R. S. Craig in his recent book ' The 
Making of Carlyle ' (p. 34), referring to Prof. 
Nichol's biography, says : " The Professor 
has a smile for the gryphons, the family 

heraldic emblems carved on the Carlyle 
tombstone." As a matter of fact, the crest 
of Lord Carlyle of Carlyle (or Torthorwald), 
to whose family Carlyle thought that he 
belonged, consisted of two dragons' heads 
addorsee (vert). It is not necessary to 
journey to Ecclefechan to verify this, as 
Carlyle's book-plate with the crest in question 
is shown at Carlyle House, Chelsea (in the 
dining-room). M. 

Was not Carlyle thinking of the Scotch 
kelpie, an aquatic beast that lived oil 
human prey ? It is figured, as the frontis- 
piece to ' Faiths and Folk-lore,' vol. ii., by 
W. Carew Hazlitt, 1905. 


VINCENT ALSOP (10 S. xi. 47). I think 
some of the difficulties are due to slight 

Maugeing is a misprint for Manageing, 
with u for n, and dropping of a ; for it gives 
absolutely the right sense. Compare " the 
Manageing of a Crane " with " the managing 
of their weapons of war," quoted in the 
' N.E.D.' 

Goggled and gogled are mere variants of 
juggled, which is frequently spelt with o for u. 
It means " beguiled " ; - see ' N.E.D.' But 
the " in " in the phrase " juggled in with " 
adds nothing to the sense, and would be 
better omitted. 

In paragraph 5 read fetch for fitch ; 
" fetch in Comfort " simply means " derive 
comfort." WALTER W. SKEAT. 

" Fitch in Comfort " appears to be an 
adaptation of French fiche de consolation. 
See ' ' Diet. Gen.' or Littre. E. W. 

RUDGE FAMILY (10 S. x. 470). At p. 93 
of the Rev. A. B. Beaven's ' Aldermen of 
London ' it is recorded that Edward Rudge, 
Salter, Sheriff of London, 1637-8, was on 
18 Sept., 1638, elected, and sworn in as 
Alderman of Castle Baynard Ward, and that 
he died 25 July, 1640. In ' Musgrave's 
Obituaries ' the Alderman's death is stated to 
have taken place on 26 Aug., 1640, ' Smith's 
Obit.' being given as the authority. 

Both dates are, however, incorrect, for 
Alderman and Sheriff Edward Rudge 
(who was my great-great-great-great-great- 
great-uncle) made his will (a copy of which 
is in my possession) on 17 Nov., 1640, and 
it was proved on 19 Dec., 1640 (P.C.C. 162 
Coventry). As he was buried in the chancel 
of Allhallows, London, on 18 Dec., 1640, 
one may assume that his death probably 
took place some two or three days earlier ; 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the exact date, however, is omitted in the 
manuscript pedigree before me. That he 
was alive on 17 Nov., 1640, is certain. It 
would be interesting to learn how his death 
came to be recorded as having taken place 
either on 25 July or 26 Aug., 1640. 

The above Edward Rudge was of Blazies, 
Berks, and by his first wife Mary, daughter 
and coheiress of John Sharp, or Sharpe, of 
Lawrence Waltham, Berks, had, with other 
issue, an eldest son Edward Rudge of 
Blazies, Berks, and Great Warley, Essex, 
whose will was dated 23 June, 1699, and 
proved 6 Dec., 1701 (P.C.C. 174 Dyer), he 
having died 13 August in the latter year. 

In my query I described the last-named 
Edward Rudge as Alderman of London, 
the reason for my so doing being that in the 
manuscript pedigree of the Rudge family to 
which I have referred he was so called, appa- 
rently upon the following authority : 

"'History of English Lotteries,' pp. 30, 31. 
Another Water Scheme, January 14th, 1689. 
Warrant to pass the privy seal appointing Sir 
Robert Pointz, K.B., and Edward Rudge Aldermen 
of London, for the just carriage and managing of 
the Lottery authorized by the King for the use of 
the aqueduct undertaken by Sir Edward Stradling, 
Sir Walter Roberts, and ethers." 

With a view to confirming the statement 
in the warrant, I searched Mr. Beaven's 

* Aldermen of London ' (what a pity the 
author did not increase the value of his 
historical compilation by including in it an 
index of surnames !), but failed to discover 
therefrom that Edward Rudge, son of the 
Alderman and Sheriff, had also been an 
Alderman of London. I was at a loss, 
therefore, to know how to account for 
the discrepancy between the omission 
by Mr. Beaven and the description in the 

By the courtesy and kind assistance of 
Mr. Edward M. Borrajo, City Librarian at 
the Guildhall Library, I am now in a position 
to confirm the accuracy, in this instance, 
of Mr. Beaven's ' Aldermen of London.' 
Mr. Borrajo has informed me that Edward 
Rudge, son of the Alderman and Sheriff, 
never was an Alderman of London, and 
that the mistake in so describing him appears 
to have arisen from the author of the 

* History of English Lotteries ' giving the 
date of the warrant as 1689, instead of 
1639 (vide ' Calendar of State Papers, 1638- 
1639,' p. 314). 

I therefore beg leave to amend my state- 
ment at 10 S. x. 470, col. 2, 1. 24, by the 
deletion of the words " Alderman of London." 

9, Broughton Road, Thorn ton Heath. 

"CHRISTMAS PIG" (10 S. xi. 27, 71). 
The " pigs " referred to by M. P. as " mince- 
pie pigs " made " to please children " 
remind me that, when I was a child, a 
similar dainty was made for the children 
of Northamptonshire families at the time of 
pig-killing. This was called a " keech," and 
is referred to in Baker's ' Northamptonshire 
Glossary.' The second meaning of the 
word therei is: "A large oblong or tri- 
angular pasty, made at Christmas, of raisins 
and apples chopped together." 

This hardly coincides with my knowledge 
of a " keech." It was always triangular, 
and consisted of a turnover or pasty filled 
with ordinary mincemeat ; and in the centre, 
where the three points of the turnover met, a 
dough bird was placed, with two currants 
to form his eyes. 

For each child of the family a " keech " 
was always made. I had my share of these 
childish delights in the late fifties and early 
sixties, and I still possess a letter from my 
dear departed mother, written to me when 
at school prior to the Christmas holidays, 
wherein occur the ominous words : 
expect you will be too old for a keech." 
It is many a long year since I saw a real 
"keech," but I think they are still an 
institution in some Northamptonshire 
families. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Would not the gender of the qualifying 
adjective be determined by the feminine 
parochia or parcecia, of which the masculine 
vicus, bearing the same name, is but the 
little metropolis ? CHARLES GUNMAN. 

Church Fields, Salisbury. 

Probably " Magna " and " Parva " were 
used in preference to "Magnus" and 
" Parvus " merely for the sake of euphony. 


(10 S. x. 490 ; xi. 53). MR. RADCLIFFE will 
find Dame Mary Sydenham given as the 
second wife of Andrew, Lord Gray, in Sir 
J. B. Paul's edition of ' The Scots Peerage, 
1907, and Dame Catherine Cadell as his 
third wife. 

In my communication on p. 54 please 
read " widow " for " wife " in 1. 12. 


PERIOD MISCELLANY' (10 S. x. 467, 518). 
'The Girl of the Period' was the heading 
of an article in The Saturday Review of 
14 March, 1868 a scathing impeachment of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL F. 6, im 

the girl of that time. The attack was 
fiercely repulsed by an article (I know not 
in what publication) under the heading ' The 
Girl of the Periodical.' 


DICKENS'S " KNIFE -Box " (10 S. xi. 8). 
On a sideboard of the upstairs room in the 
coffee-house in St. Paul's Churchyard, where 
David Copperfield had a memorable inter- 
view with Mr. Spenlow and Miss Murdstone, 
were " two of those extraordinary boxes, 
all corners and flutings, for sticking knives 
and forks in, which, happily for mankind, are 
now obsolete." See chap, xxxviii. (' A 
Dissolution of Partnership ') in the one- 
volume " Charles Dickens Edition," p. 332. 
These obsolete contrivances, which are to be 
met with in curiosity and second-hand- 
furniture shops, are, I believe, sometimes 
converted into stationery cases. 


EDWARD BARNARD (10 S. xi. 28). Thomas 
Barnard, the officiating minister, was in all 
probability not the future Bishop of Killaloe 
and Kilfenora, but Edward Barnard's brother 
who became Fellow of Eton in 1772, and was 
also Vicar of Mapledurham (' Registrum 
Regale,' p. 17). 

Edward Barnard's wife is described in the 
Eton Parish Register (under notice of the 
birth of her son) as the daughter of 
Nathaniel Haggatt of Barbadoes. Cole says 
that Barnard, " while he was Master of 
Eton Schole, . .. .married a West Indian 
lady of a good fortune, but who lived with 
him not many years." There was one son 
by the marriage, Edward, born in 1763. 


LICUS" (10 S. xi. 49). These are different 
names for that disease which each nation 
attributes to some other country. Accord- 
ing to a common account, the scourge was 
brought to Europe by one of the Spanish 
companions of Columbus in 1494, who had 
become infected in Haiti. The sufferings 
caused by it would afford an apt comparison 
for those due to the maleficent influence of 
witches. E. E. STREET. 

THIMBLES (10 S. xi. 66). The story that 
thimbles were invented by the Dutch in or 
about 1690 is continually cropping up in 
newspapers, very often with the addition 
that one John Lofting manufacturec 
thimbles in London in 1695. No proof has 
ever been given of Mr. Lofting's existence 
As MR. PEACOCK says, thimbles are probably 

of prehistoric date. I have a note that they 
lave been found in the disinterred dwellings 
at Herculaneum, but cannot give the autho- 
rity. The Shakespeare allusions should be 
ll known ; and mention of the thimble- 
n English literature can be traced back to 
Saxon times. The late Prof. Thorold Rogers, 
n his ' History of Agriculture and Prices im 
England,' shows that in 1494 a dozen 
jhimbles cost 4s. It is difficult not < to 
relieve that a thimble of some kind must 
lave been contemporaneous with the first 
needle ; and few things are more ancient 
than the needle. G. L. APPERSON, 


x. 509). Does MR. ARCHER propose to 
.nclude mediaeval examples of accidental 
death in the chase ? If so, James Gray, 
' Parke and housekeeper " of the town of 
Eunsdon, Herts, should be included. He 
was killed on 12 Dec., 1591, at the age of 
69, by a shaft from a crossbow aimed at a 
deer. He is depicted on a brass as shooting 
at a stag while Death, as a skeleton, is stick- 
ing an arrow into him. The inscription 
states that he " Near to this Deaths-Signe 
Brasse doth lie." W. B. GERISH. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

'THE MILLENNIAL STAR' (10 S. xi. 69). 
This publication (rather a magazine than a 
newspaper) was first issued, I think, about 
1838 at least I have vol. xi., dated from 
January to December, 1849. It appeared 
fortnightly on the 1st and 15th of each 
month, and consisted of about 16 octavo 
pages. It was edited and published by 
Orson Pratt, 15, Wilton Street, St. Anne 
Street, Liverpool. 

I cannot say where there is likely to be a 
set of these volumes, unless there is one at 
the present head-quarters in Liverpool of 
the organization. Their address is " The 
Latter-day Saints, Printing, Publishing, 
and Emigration Office," 295, Edge Lane r 
Liverpool. A. H. ARKLE. 

ROD OF BRICKWORK (10 S. x. 388 ; xL 
77). The origin of the " rod, pole, or 
perch " as a lineal and superficial measure 
has been traced to the rod, pole, or goad 
used to urge and direct the team of plough 
oxen. It was found to be a convenient land 
measure in feudal times when the lords 
allotted plots to the villeins and others 
under them for agriculture. One rod wide 
and forty long built up the quarter-acre, 
a very usual-sized lot forty rods long being 
one furlong (" furrowlong," a convenient 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


length for a furrow before turning the oxen). 
And, of course, four rods \vide by one furlong 
deep constituted one acre. The pole or rod 
was 16 \ feet or 5J yards. The length of the 
rod or pole differed in parts of the country 
with the differing soils and agriculture, 
but gradually the differences grew less, and 
finally the statutory acre was evolved. The 
present Gunter's chain of 66 feet, ten square 
chains to an acre, was invented by the 
Rev. Edmund Gunter (1581-1626), a pro- 
fessor of astronomy at Gresham College. 
It was ingeniously adapted to facilitate 
decimal calculations in land measurement. 

The use of the rod in superficial measure- 
ment of masonry and brickwork, and 
lineally in hedges, ditches, and fences, 
followed, as a convenient existing measure. 
A square rod is 272J superficial feet. 

I have written this from memory, and 
<cannot now conveniently give the best 
authorities, but the following may inter alia 
be referred to : Seebohm, ' The English 
Village Community,' 1883 ; Ballard, 'Domes- 
day Inquest,' 1906. 


429 ; xi. 16). On 22 Sept., 13 Eliz., William 
Pyrrye and Julia his wife disposed of 
copyhold property to Thomas and Eliza- 
beth Hardwicke, their attorneys being 
William and Roger Sampson (Pattingham 
Manor Court Rolls). 


MITRED ABBOTS (10 S. x. 410, 455 ; xi. 16)- 
It seems doubtful if the privileges and 
power of the principal abbeys were accorded 
to Chertsey, or to Merton. In Wheeler's 
' History of Chertsey Abbey ' it is expressly 
stated (on p. 59) that no summonses to 
Parliament are to be found addressed to the 
Abbots of Chertsey. Hence the omission 
of that abbey in the list previously sent by 

R. B. 


BOUILLI": " CUTR-CISELE " (10 S. x. 369). 
I would draw the attention of BIBLOS 
to the ' N.E.D.' definition of " cuir-bouilli," 
viz., " Leather boiled or soaked in hot water, 
and, when soft, moulded or pressed into any 
required form," &c. I am aware that this 
is not the full technical reply asked for, but 
hope that the concluding reference to 
Leland, ' Minor Arts,' 1880, may possibly 
be of service. This work may perhaps 
speak of " graved " leather too. 

Has BIBLOS consulted any books dealing 
with fourteenth-sixteenth century armour 
in which " cuir-bouilli " was used ? The 
process of manufacture was no doubt the 

Church Fields, Salisbury. 

ADRIAN SCROPE (10 S. x. 469 ; xi. 32). 
MR. W. B. GERISH is certainly in error in 
saying (ante, p. 33) that Sir Adrian Scrope 
was " made a K.C.B. by Charles II." in 1661. 
Charles II. made no K.C.B.s the dignity 
did not exist earlier than 1815. 



CLEMENT'S INN KNOCKER (10 S. xi. 69). 
If W. B. II. would send me, through you, 
as full a description as he can, I might 
possibly give him a chie. 


When I was at Prague recently a Cech 
professor smilingly observed, " Pozdrav 
Pan Buh " ("The Lord God restore you to 
health' ' ), when I sneezed. This is only current 
in rural districts. 

Another Cech friend explained that a 
hiccough is due to some one speaking of you 
at that moment, like the earburn super- 

Streatham Common. 

x. 450 ; xi. 15). It is suggested that Col. 
Scott was named after Caroline of Anspach, 
Queen of George II. He would have been 
born at about the time of that monarch's 
accession, and the Queen may have been his 
godmother. The case of the Hon. Anne 
Pawlet, whose godmother was Queen Anne, 
seems to throw light on the matter. 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut. -Col. 

SIR ROBERT FLETCHER (10 S. xi. 48). In 
Hamilton's ' Catalogue Raisonne of the 
Engraved Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds ' 
the owner of the Fletcher oil painting is 
given as Earl Fitzwilliam. The print was 
engraved in mezzotint by W. Dickinson, 
and published 24 Nov., 1774. 

Leamington Spa. 

STEEPE SURNAME (10 S. x. 468). Steep 
is a parish in Hampshire, two miles north- 
west from Petersfield, in East Meon hundred. 
I have searched Kelly's Directories for 
London and for Hampshire, but do not find 
the surname there. t JOHN P. STILWELL. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. e, im 


Wells and Glastonbnry. By T. S. Holmes. 

(Methuen & Co.) 
THK topographer of ancient cities could not easily 
discover a more congenial subject than that which 
Mr. Holmes found ready to his hand in the hoary 
memories which gather round Wells and Glastpn- 
bury. He has on the whole risen to the occasion 
with proper enthusiasm, and tells their story with 
careful and minute detail. We can extend our 
congratulation to Mr. E. H. New on the somewhat 
impressionist woodcuts in eighteenth-century style, 
of which he gives a liberal supply, although for 
accuracy of detail we may prefer the photographic 
processes which are now brought to such perfec- 
tion. The author modestly disclaims originality, 
though he has some new information to impart as 
to the municipal and corporate development of 
Wells from mediaeval times till it received its 
charter of incorporation as a borough from Queen 
Elizabeth in 1589. 

The famous legend of Joseph of Arimathsea and 
his introduction of Christianity at Glastonbury has 
hardly received so much attention as it deserves. 
Mr. Holmes should have consulted the edition of 
the fourteenth-century poem ' Joseph of Arimathie ' 
which Prof. Skeat produced for the Early English 
Text Society. The story was popularized by the 
English bishops under Bubwith bringing it forward 
at the Council of Basel in 1431, in order to "go one 
better" than the claim of the Gallican Church that 
St. Dionysius the Areopagite was its founder. But 
the legend had been already mentioned by William 
of Malmesbury in the twelfth century, and there 
is no doubt that a Celtic monastery existed at 
Glastonbury at a very early date. 

Wells obtained its name from an ancient fountain 
or well sacred to St. Andrew, which is mentioned 
in a charter of Cynewulf in 776, and is still 
flowing. The author thinks that Glastonbury, 
otherwise Avallac, was so called in honour of two 
Celtic gods of the nether world, Glast and Avallac. 
Where do these reputed deities find mention ? Not 
in the works of Prof. Rhys, who deduces the names 
from glasdon, the oak, and avail, the apple tree, 
both cultivated by the Druids. Evalac, King of 
Sarras, converted by Joseph, is one of the inci- 
dental personages in the old romance mentioned 
above. As a rule, authorities are not cited for 
statements which often seem to require verification. 
Madilode Street, e.g., is said to have got its name 
from "middle lode" or middle ford (p. 294). It is 
more likely, we suggest, to stand for "Maude- 
lode," the lane that led by the almshouses of 
St. Mary Maudelin or Magdalen, founded here by 
Abbot Beere, from which Magdalen Street hard by 
also has its name. Gerarde of the ' Herball ' is 
misprinted "Gerald" (p. 288). 

It is sad to learn that so lately as 1723 important 
remains of St. Joseph's Chapel were still in exist- 
ence, and that Stukeley saw them being carted 
away for paving roads and cattle-stalls ! 

The JEnzid of Viroil, Books VII. XII. Trans- 
lated into Blank Verse by Henry Smith Wright. 
(Kegan Paul & Co.) 

MB. WEIGHT has now completed his rendering of 
the '^Eneid,' the first part of which appeared in 
1903. The translation is a good, clear rendering, 

free from diffuseness, and not wanting in dignity. 
On the other hand, far too many inversions are 
used, and we do not find the variety of feet which is 
really essential to raise blank verse above dullness. 
Here is a passage from the speech of ^Eneas in 
Book XI. on viewing Pallas : 

Unhappy boy, 

Hath fortune now, in this her gracious hour, 
Begrudged me thee, permitting not that thou 
Should'st see my kingdom, nor as conqueror ride 
To thy ancestral home ? Not this indeed 
The parting promise that I gave thy sire, 
When he embraced me as 1 left his nails, 
And sent me forth to win a mighty realm !' 
Fearful of risk, he warned me that our foes 
Were keen in war, and with a hardv race 
The fight would be. He haply even now, 
Deceived by empty hopes, is offering prayers 
And gifts piled on the altar. 

IN this month's Cornhill Mr. Lucy concludes 
his highly interesting series of reminiscences, and 
reveals the fact that he was offered the editorship 
of Punch in 1897, but " could not accept it to the 
deposition of the man who gave me my first 
footing on Punch, and whose friendship I had 
enjoyed for fifteen years." He supplies also an 
amusing sketch of Phil May's casual ways. We 
do not care much for Mr. Noyes's latter-day verse 
concerning ' Bacchus and the Pirates.' Miss 
Rosaline Masson contributes some pleasant 
reminiscences of ' Browning in Edinburgh.' 
S. G. Tallentyre gives a lever sketch of ' A Parson 
of the Thirties,' Canon Hall, who was the friend 
of Sydney Smith and Barham, and an agreeable 
clergyman, apparently, of the old-fashioned sort. 
Col. Macartney-Filgate's accbunt of an infantry 
scouting competition, ' Manchuria in the Mourne 
Mountains,' is good reading. 

IN The Fortnightly " Auditor Tantum " con- 
inues that frank criticism of Parliamentary 
igures which has become fashionable lately, but 
;his time it is ' His Hajesty's Ministers ' who are- 
weighed in the balance. There seems to us a 

reat deal too much writing on politics in the 
magazines, and we therefore welcome four articles 
of a different sort : ' Americans as Actors,' by 
VEr. Bram Stoker ; ' Poetry and the Stage,' by 
Mr. Stephen Gwynn ; ' The Fatigue of Anatole 
France,' by Mr. T. M. Kettle ; and ' The Writings 
of Mr. W. B. Yeats,' by E. M. D. All these 
japers may be read with interest and profit. 
The first is a study of the American " racial 
spirit " rather than of the stage of the United 
States. Mr. Gwynn emphasizes the success of 
Prof. Murray's translation of the ' Electra ' 
at the Court Theatre, and dwells reasonably on. 
;he nuisance of interruption by persons who 
arrive at their seats when the acting has begun 
a proceeding not tolerated in classical music. 
Why Mr. Gwynn should speak of Hauptmanstall's 
' Electra ' we know not. The German's adapter's 
name is Hoffmannsthal. It appears that Mr. 
3wynn has just discovered Euripides, which he 
truly describes as " a little absurd." Mr. W. B 
Yeats in his Irish plays is denied the touch o 
ordinary humanity and normal emotions which 
is strong in Euripides, and Mr. Phillips in ' Nero 
s criticized as " diffuse and scattered." Mr. 
Kettle's able, but not entirely satisfactory article 

:xplains that after ten years Anatole France is 
Dired of politics, and has returned to a " pessimism 
stabbed into lightsome flashes with epigrams." 

10 s. XL FEB. 6, 



The discussion of Mr. Yeats's work would be 
more valuable if it had more criticism of his style, 
his sense of metre, and his occasional lack of 
humour. Still, it is a tribute well deserved to 
one of the best of our living poets. Curiously 
enough, " Mr. Yeats, it is said, is unable to dis- 
tinguish one tune from another." This is de- 
cidedly one of the most interesting numbers of 
The Fortnightly that we have seen of late. 

The Nineteenth Century is strong in politics 
and sociology, but singularly weak in history, 
literature, and art. The only articles in this 
line are Mr. G. G. Coulton's ' Our Conscripts at 
Cre'cy,' a striking paper ; Mrs. Arthur Kennard's 
' The Real Lafcadio Hearn,' a protest of obvious 
sincerity, but no great critical power, against 
Dr. Gould's book, with numerous interesting 
details of Hearn's career ; and a sketch of Men- 
delssohn by Miss A. E. Keeton, which is full of 
verbosity. The best article is probably Sir 
Oliver Lodge's effective ' Reply to Prof. New- 
comb,' entitled ' The Attitude of Science to the 
Unusual,' in which he vindicates the right of 
psychical research to a fair hearing. This article 
should not be missed. On the other hand, we 
cannot see what good is done by Mr. W. F. Lord's 
' The Lost Empire of England (?),' a violent 
tirade against Radicals. It is in strange contrast 
to Mr. Harold Spender's moderate, sensible, and 
well-expressed answer to the question, ' What 
should the Government Do ? ' Mr. Basil Tozer's 
views on the law of divorce ventilate an un- 
pleasant subject on which the law to many 
people seems in urgent need of reform. 

The National Review is as vigorous and incisive 
as ever in matters of politics. It has, however, 
only one literary article, a continuation by Mr. 
George Hookham of ' The Shakespearian Problem. ' 
We are no more impressed by his destructive 
criticism than we were in his first article. Chan- 
cellor Lias in ' A Plea for More Bishops ' has not 
our complete sympathy, for the reason that his 
Church is, as his closing words explain, " at 
present most certainly not the Church of the 
English nation." Miss Helen Zimmern has an 
entertaining article on ' Modern Antiques,' in 
which she shows that such frauds are not by any 
means an invention of yesterday. Sir William 
Ramsay (the man of science, not the scholar and 
archaeologist) has an article on ' Transmutation.' 

IN The Burlington Magazine the editorial 
articles refer to the McCulloch Collection, which 
has been so sharply criticized in various quarters, 
and the anniversaries of the British Museum and 
the National Portrait Gallery, respectively the 
hundred and fiftieth and fiftieth. Mr. D. S. 
Mac-Coll has an admirable illustrated article on 
some portraits by Alfred Stevens, on whom Mr. 
E. F. Strange has also a Biographical Note. 
' Ladik Rugs,' by Mrs. C. J. Herringham, with 
the frontispiece, will be sufficient to show the 
beauty of Oriental design in this way. Mr. 
Campbell Dodgson has a learned article on a 
woodcut by Beham of ' The Patron saints of 
Hungary.' An oil painting by J. R. Cozens is 
reproduced ; and there are also some beautiful 
illustrations of the work of the Limoges enameller 
known as " Kip." By a highly ingenious process 
of research and reasoning, this " Kip " is identified 
with Jean Poillev^. It is pleasing to hear that 
some important works have been saved from the 
Messina earthquake. 


MR. THOMAS BAKER'S Catalogue 536 contains 
works on theology. A strongly bound set of the 
' Encyclopedic Th^ologique,' 52 vols., 4to, is 
11. 15s. ; Bishop Wordsworth's Bible, 6 vols., 
21. 2s. ; and a fine copy of Smith's ' Dictionary 
of the Bible,' 11. 10s. There are items under 
Dean Stanley, Westcott, Maurice, and Egypt ; 
and an appendix is devoted to Roman Catholic 

MR. P. M. Barnard has in his Manchester 
Series No. 1 Allison's ' Voyage from Archangel ' 
in 1697, 11. lo.t. Alpine works include Conway's- 
' Himalayas,' Edition de Luxe, 2 vols., 1894. 
21. 12ft. 6d. A fine copy of ' Bibliographica,' 
3 vols., half-morocco by Zaehnsdorf, uncut, is 
47. 4s. ; and Brunet's ' Manuel du Libraire,' with 
Supplement, 8 vols., a perfectly clean copy,, 
half -morocco, 117. 11s. Under Bunsen is 'Egypt's 
Place in Universal History,' 5 vols., uncut, 51. ; 
and under Cervantes is the folio edition of ' Don 
Quixote,' 1652, 47. 4s. There is a special vellum 
copy of ' La Constitution Fra^aise, presentee- 
au Roi le 3 septembre, 1791,' red morocco, 
107. 10s. Under Dickens is the first issue of the 
first edition of ' Grimaldi,' 67. It will be remem- 
bered that Grimaldi's grave is situated in the 
recreation ground adjoining the church of St. 
James, Pentonville, though the inscription has 
become illegible. At the recent meeting of the 
Finsbury Borough Council, Mr. Preston, the 
Town Clerk, promised that it should receive atten- 
tion. Mr. Barnard also includes in his Catalogue 
a large and clean copy of Koberger's 1477 edition 
of ' Reynerus de Pisis Pantheologia,' one of the 
finest books ever printed. The last leaf of the 
third volume of this copy has unfortunately 
been removed. The work is in oak boards 
covered with thick leather, and is priced 97. 9s. 

Mr. Barnard, in addition to the Catalogue 
from his Manchester branch, sends us a choice- 
list, No. 27, from Tunbridge Wells. There are 
manuscripts and beautiful Horas, also Incunabula 
arranged in Proctor's order. Under Mainz 
occurs Tritheim's 'Cathalogus illustrium viror' 
germania," Peter of Friedberg, 1495, containing: 
lives of 303 famous men, a good many of whom 
were living at the tune the book was printed,. 
27. 15s. Under Strassburg is Terence's 'Comce- 
dia?,' Johann Reinhard of Griiningen, Nov. 1, 
1496, with 8 full-page and several hundred 
smaller woodcuts. An early eighteenth-century 
owner has rendered very freely Terence's epitaph 
into English verse : 
Carthage in Afric gave me birth and name, 

Rome's equal for a time in pow'r and fame, 
Till Scipio, so decreed by envious Fates, 

Raz'd our proud walls, our Stately tow'rs and. 
Gates ; 

The task incumbent on me I discharg'd, 
The Follies of both Old and young disclos'd, 

And of each rank and sex ye Wiles expos'd. 
Consider well my plays, and when you 've done, 

You '11 know what Course to take, and what 

to shun. J. G. 

Mr. Barnard states : "In all there are fourteen 
lines ; the composition is evidently original, as 
there are several alterations in it. Can it be by 
John Gay ? I have been unable to find a repro- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL FEB. G, 1909. 

duction of his writing." Perhaps some reader 
of ' N. & Q.' will be able to help him. The price 
of the book is 61. 10s. 

There are items under Rome, Venice, &c. Mr. 
Barnard gives valuable notes to each, and 
evidently bestows much time and pains in pro- 
ducing his catalogues, which always contain 
rarities. This one has seven full-page illustra- 

Mr. Bertram Dobell opens his Catalogue 169 
with a few of his purchases from the library of the 
late Lord Amherst. We note two. Brant's 
' Ship of Fools,' a perfect copy^ 1570, is 28Z. 
This example contains Barclay's ' Mirror of 
Good Manners ' and ' The Egloges,' which are 
frequently missing. A manuscript on vellum, a 
codex of the Epistolse of S. Hieronymus, circa 1400, 
has a painted initial miniature of the saint in a 
cave, dictating his epistles to a pupil, and many 
beautiful illuminated initials, large folio, morocco 
extra by Bedford, 251. A Second Folio Shake- 
speare wants last leaf, 1632, 551. ; and there is an 
important volume of Restoration poems in 
manuscript, containing ballads, songs, satires, 
lampoons, epitaphs, &c., written in the time of 
Charles II. There are 106 pieces, and Mr. Dobell 
believes that 65 of these have never been printed, 
as he has made diligent search through the lite- 
rature of the period, but failed to discover them. 
Would that our old contributor Ebsworth were 
here to tell us I The volume is in contemporary 
binding, with a ducal coronet on the sides, 40Z. 
The general portion of the Catalogue contains 
first editions of Matthew Arnold, and the first 
edition of ' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' 
Cawthorn, 1809, II. Is. Drama includes Terry's 
' Theatrical Gallery,' 1825, 1Z. Is., and the 
' Galerio Theatrale,' 76 full-length portraits of 
French actors and actresses, 1818-20, 31. 3s. 
Other items include Fuller's ' Worthies,' first 
edition, folio, 1662, 4Z. 4s. ; Huth's ' Fugitive 
Tracts," 2 vols., 51. 5s. ; Stow's ' London,' black- 
letter, 1618, 21. 5. ; Hayley's ' Life of Romney," 
1809, 51. 15s. ; and first edition of Rossetti s 
poems, 1870, SI. 12s. First editions of Swinburne 
include the extremely rare ' Atalanta in Calydon,' 
Ql. 6s. There are bound volumes of modern 
pamphlets at prices varying from 3s. Many of 
these are of great interest : political, folk-lore, 
drama, trials, F. W. Newman, Shakespeare, &c. 
Those with a taste, like the Shah of Persia, for 
collecting London posters are offered some 
interesting series. 

Mr. Alexander W. Macphail of Edinburgh has 
in his List XCVI. much relating .to Scotland, 
including a set of the Acts of the Parliament of 
Scotland, 1124-1707, edited by Thomson, with 
index by Dickson, 13 vols., folio, 1814-75, 91. 10s. ; 
and the Scottish History Society's publications, 
48 vols., 201. There is a list under Art, and much 
of interest under Burns, including an oil painting 
of his cottage, 12 In. by 8 in., in gold frame, 
31. 3s. ; and a water-colour of Fergusson's tomb, 
erected by Burns in 1786, 1Z. Is. ' Hood in Scot- 
land,' published at Dundee in 1885, gives reminis- 
cences of him during his life in Forfarshire as 
a young man, 3s. 6d. Under Charles Lamb is 
' The Chimney-Sweeper's Friend and Climbing 
Boys' Annual,' supposed to have been partly 
edited by Lamb, 1824, 10s. 6d. ; and under Shake- 
speriana the first edition of Dodd's ' Beauties, ' 
2 vols., calf, 1752, 10s. 6d. 

Mr. W. M. Murphy's Liverpool Catalogue 421 
contains the Transactions of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology, 1872-1902, 14Z. ; and the Herleian 
Society, 1886-1901, 13Z. 13s. Under De Foe 
is a rare collection of pamphlets bound in one 
volume, 17. Is. Under Dryden is the Library 
Edition, with Life by Scott, 18 vols., calf, Edin- 
burgh, 1821, 6Z. ; and under Pope are some rare 
anonymous pamphlets, including the first edition 
of ' The Temple of Fame,' in one volume, 1719-21, 
31. 3s. Among art books we find Wedmore's 
' Turner and Ruskin,' 2 vols., imperial 4to, 31. 18s. ; 
and Wright 3 ' Gallery of Engravings,' 3 vols., 
4to, morocco extra, 1844-6, 18s. Under Costume 
is the scarce first edition of Chery and Alix's 
' Recherches sur les Costumes et sur les Theatres 
de toutes les Nations,' 54 exquisitely coloured 
plates, 2 vols., in 1, 4to, red morocco, Paris, 1790, 
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CONTENTS. No. 268. 

NOTES : Judge Gascoigne and Prince Harry, 121 
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"Raised Hamlet on them," 137 "Psychological 
moment " Northiam Church, 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : The Oxford Edition of Lamb' A 
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speare Word- Book.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


So far as is known, there is only one writer 
who professes to have discovered upon in- 
vestigation that the well-known story of the 
committal of Henry, Prince of Wales, by 
Chief Justice Gascoigne, is absolutely un- 
true who claims to have disproved it. 
I refer to the late Mr. F. SoUy Flood, Q.C., 
Attorney-General of Gibraltar, who some 
twenty years ago read a paper before the Royal 
Historical Society entitled ' Henry of Mon- 
mouth and Chief Justice Gascoigne,' in 
which he claimed to prove that the story 
was impossible and absurd. This paper 
was in due course published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society, and the writer has 
been quoted as an authority by others who 
have evidently not set themselves to verify 
Mr. Flood's references or to examine his 
arguments in detail. The result of this has 
been that the story has lost ground has 
<5ome to be considered a myth, or, to quote a 
recent biographer of Henry V., "a pretty 
tale eminently suitable to two historical 

An anonymous editor of the ' Savoy Shake- 
speare ' has even gone further, and in a note 
prefixed to the play of ' Henry IV.' boldly 
states that the story of the committal of 
the Prince is fictitious, as also the incident 
related in the play as to the confirmation of 
the Chief Justice in his office at the Corona- 

I have no hesitation in saying that such 
a statement is altogether unwarranted : the 
story has never been disproved ; and if an 
editor thinks it should be rejected, he should 
give his reasons. As I have said, the story 
of the committal never has been, nor do I 
see how it ever can be, disproved, though 
I fear I must add that it has never been 
proved, and probably never will be. Stubbs 
and Hallam think the story probably untrue, 
but do not appear to have investigated it 
at all. Luders in 1813 thinks it not well 
authenticated. Tyler in 1841, Mr. Crofts in 
1880, and Mr. Solly Flood six years later 
are the authorities given against the story 
by subsequent writers, who with the 
exception of the more important among 
them are unanimous in its rejection. 

Mr. Crofts thinks that Sir Thomas Elyot 
copied the story from some monkish chronicler 
whom no one else has seen, and that the 
same imaginary writer wilfully adapted it 
from an allusion in a judgment in a contempt- 
of -court case in Edward I.'s reign. This 
allusion is to the fact of Edward II., when 
Prince of Wales, having been banished from 
Court by his father for using insulting words 
to one of his ministers. Mr. Crofts also states 
that the story is mentioned in only two law 
books, properly so called, and that there is 
no mention made of it in the Rolls or Year- 

Mr. Solly Flood calls Elyot a romancer 
who was not aware of the practice in Henry 
IV.'s time, and says that 

" the non-existence of any record of a commit- 
ment of the Prince will be conclusive proof to 
every one conversant with legal procedure that 
the story of his misconduct in Court and im- 
prisonment is absolutely untrue." 

Mr. Flood, not content with having dis- 
proved the story, goes on to recount how 
the story of Edward II. has been applied to 
Henry V. by whom, or at what time, he 
does not say ; but both Mr. Crofts and Mr. 
Flood speak as if they were the original 
discoverers of this allusion in the Rolls, 
whereas it is referred to by Lord Coke, and 
is told by all the chroniclers, Edward's 
disagreement with the Bishop of Chester, 
Walter Langton, the minister concerned, 
being well known. Where the chroniclers 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 13, 1909 

differ is as to the reason for which the 
Prince was banished, the entry in the Roll 
seeming to justify the view of Sir J. Ramsay 
that it was for abusing the bishop because, 
as Treasurer, he declined to accommodate 

Both Mr. Crofts and Mr. Flood make the 
mistake of stating that the insult was to a 
"judge" instead of to a "minister" (cuidam 
ministro), there being no evidence whatever 
as to the Prince having ever insulted a 

Wittingly or unwittingly, Mr. Flood 
distorts the facts of this case in such a 
manner as at once to raise the suspicion of 
his readers. For instance, in introducing 
the subject he says that " a Chief Justice 
had been grossly insulted in open Court 
by William de Breosa " ; whereas the 
person insulted was Roger de Higham, a 
baron of the Exchequer, though sitting as a 
judge not a Chief Justice at all. The 
mistake arose, I suppose, from Mr. Flood 
having confounded Roger de Higham with 
Ralph de Hengham, who had been Chief 
Justice some years before. 

Then he says that the word used, ministro, 
is the same word as that applied to the judge, 
whereas the latter is specially described 
as justiciarius. 

Next he tries to make a third point 
hardly worth making at all, one would 
think that the words contemptus et inoebe- 
dientia, used in the Rolls, are the same words 
used by Elyot, " contempt and inobedience"; 
but Elyot uses the English word " dis- 
obedience," while the Latin words are used 
by the Court in giving judgment on William 
de Breosa, not in the allusion to the offence 
of the Prince of Wales. 

With regard to the statement that this 
story is alluded to in only two law books, 
properly so called, Mr. Crofts was not 
strictly correct, even at the time he wrote ; 
for, besides being mentioned by Lord Coke 
and Crompton, it was mentioned from the 
Bench by Lord Selborne, as recently as 
1874, in the case of Watt v. Ligertwood, 
2 H. L. (Sc.) 361. Since then it has been 
referred to in Mr. Oswald's book on ' Con- 
tempt and Committal,' as also in the ' En- 
cyclopaedia of English Law.' Besides this, 
Mr. Crofts has, admittedly, not examined 
the Rolls, and does not state that he has 
examined the Year-Books from Henry IV. 
onwards ; and until all the Rolls and Year- 
Books have been carefully perused, it is 
impossible for anybody to know whether 
there is any allusion or not to the committal 
of the Prince. 

But what Mr. Flood, and apparently Mr_ 
Crofts also, consider conclusive is the absence 
of all mention of the incident from the 
books at the time when it is alleged to have 
taken place. 

Mr. Flood's point is that had the Prince 
committed contempt of court in facie he 
should and must have been indicted, and 
as there is no such indictment contained in. 
the Coram Rege Rolls, it never took place, 
and therefore the contempt of court never 
occurred, therefore the whole story is un- 
true and absurd. Now the answer to this- 
is very simple. Had the Prince been indicted,, 
then certainly there would have been an 
entry in the Coram Rege Rolls, and probably 
in the Controlment Rolls as well ; but the 
story is that the Prince was not indicted,, 
but committed, the Chief Justice putting 
into force the power to commit summarily 
for contempt inherent in every court. Mr, 
Flood boldly states that Elyot was not 
aware of the practice in Henry IV.'s time,, 
although for seventeen years of his life 
he held the appointment of Clerk of Assize, 
was born and bred to the law, and was a 
familiar with the law French of the courts- 
of that time as Mr. Flood was unfamiliar 
with it. In support qf his contention the 
latter quotes a number of cases of contempt 
of court, in all of which offenders were 
indicted, but none of those quoted are 
actually in point ; while in noting the case 
of William de Breosa alluded to he makes- 
the same error in describing Roger de- 
Higham as Chief Justice ! He makes much 
of the point that a Chief Justice was con- 
cerned in this matter of Edward II., whereas, 
as I have said, the point is founded upon a 
fact that exists in his imagination only. 

And when he talks about the practice, 
one would be inclined to think that cases 
of princes of the blood insulting a judge were 
of comparatively frequent occurrence, and 
that exceptional cases need exceptional 
remedies does not seem to have occurred to 

Here I may state that Mr. Vernon Har- 
court, a gentleman known as an authority 
on black-letter law, has recently discovered 
a case in the Rolls where a serious contempt 
of court was committed, the parties in the 
case being no other than Sir John Fastolfe 
and Lord Cobham, the grandfather-in-law 
of Sir John Oldcastle ; but here, as he has 
shown, the contempt of court has to be 
inferred by reading between the lines 
it is not stated in so many words, any more 
than it would have been so stated in the case 
of the Prince. 

10 s. XL FEB. is, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


There would be, and, assuming the story 
to be true, there no doubt is, a report of 
the case in which it occurred ; indeed, it 
is not impossible that it was in this very 
case discovered by Mr. Harcourt ; but to 
argue that the absence of all mention of 
it is conclusive as to its never having taken 
place is absurd. 

Mr. Crofts sententiously observes that the 
fact of Lord Coke and Lord Campbell accept- 
ing the story need not incline us to do so, 
because they each show a not unnatural 
inclination to magnify the office held by 
themselves and Gascoigne; but he has not 
taken the trouble to ascertain that Lord Coke 
published the ' Institutes ' many years after 
he had lost the office of Chief Justice, while 
Lord Campbell wrote his life of Gascoigne 
more than a year before he obtained it. 

Mr. Flood's sweeping assertion not only 
reflects upon the bona fides of these two 
learned judges, but tars with the same brush 
all the intervening learned gentlemen who 
apparently thought the story true, including 
Sir John Whiddon, Nathaniel Bacon, Sir 
Bulstrode Whitelock, Martin, the Chronicler- 
Recorder of Exeter, Lord Mansfield, Mr. 
Foss, Lord Brougham, Lord Selborne, and 
Sir James Ramsay truly a somewhat 
serious- indictment to be made by a gentle- 
man who was not even a member of the 
English Bar. F. J. COLLINSON. 


(See 10 S. ix. 341, 401 ; x. 4, 84, 182, 262, 
362, 444 ; xi, 4.) 

' Feare,' p. 106. 
A man to feare a womans moodie eire. 

' Arcadia ' (Grosart, 'Poems,' ii. 184) (signed) 
S. Ph. Sydney. 

' Fortitude,' p. 108. 
The man that hath of Fortitude and might. 

' Legend of Morindus,' st. 19, (signed) I. H., 
' M. of M.' 

' Fortitude,' p. 109. 

Greater Force there needs to maintain wrong, &c 
' Faerie Queene,' VI. vi. 35, (signed) Ed 

' Folly,' &c., p. 110. 

Folly in youth is sinne, in age is madnes. 
' Cleopatra,' 1. 714, (signed) S. Daniell. 

' Fortune,' p. 115. 

Ah, Fortune ! nurse of fooles, poyson of hope. 
' Comp. of Elstred,' (signed) D. Lodge. 

' Fortune,' p. 110. 
All flesh is fraile and full of ficklenesse. 

' Faerie Queene,' VI. i. 41, (signed) Ed 

.... In vaine do men, &c. 

' Faerie Queene,' VI. ix. 29, (signed) Ed 

' Fortune,' p. 121. 
. . .What man can shun the happe. 

' Faerie Queene,' II. iv. 17, (signed) Ed. 

Here is a case where Allot gives to Daniel 
line belonging to Shakespeare : 

' Gifts,' p. 127. 

\giving hand, though foule, shall have faire praise. 
'Love's Labour 's Lost," IV. i. 23, (signed)' 
S. Daniell. 

And now we shall find Allot taking four 
ines from Spenser and giving them to- 
Shakespeare : 

' Gentlenesse,' p. 128. 
lake as the gentle heart it selfe bewraies. 

' Faerie Queene/ VI. vii. 1, (signed) W 

' Of God,' p. 136. 
The Eternall Power that guides the earthly frame. 
'Civil Wars,' i. 118 (Eds. 1601, 1602), 
(signed) S. Daniell. 

IVhere the Almighties lightening brand, &c. 

' Faerie Queene,' I. viii. 21, (signed) Ed. 

' Of God,' p. 137. 
Eternall Providence, exceeding thought. 

' Faerie Queene,' I. vi. 7, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

' Good Deeds,' p. 141. 
HI deeds may better then bad words be bore. 

' Faerie Queene,' IV. iv. 4, (signed) Ed. . 

' Griefe,' p. 144. 
....Griefes deadly sore. 

' Arcadia ' (Grosart, ' Poems,' iii. 14), (signed) 
Idem, viz. Sidney. 

' Paine,' p. 146. 
The thing that grievous were to do or beare. 

' Faerie Queene,' I. viii. 44, (signed) Ed. 

' Heaven,' p. 148. 
What so the Heavens, in their secret doombe. 
' Muiopotmos,' 11. 225-7, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

In vaine doth man contend against the starres 
' Cleopatra,' 11. 1045-6, (signed) S. Daniell. 

' Heaven,' p- 150. 
All powers are subject to the power of Heaven. 
Drayton's ' The Barons' Wars,' C. V. st. 37, 
(signed) Ed. Spencer. 

' Heart,' p. 150. 
Free is the Heart, the temple of the minde. 

' Cleopatra,' 11. 265-9, (signed) S. Daniell. 

' Hate,' p. 151. 
Hate is the elder, love the yonger brother. 

' Faerie Queene,' IV. x. 32, (signed) Ed. 

' Hate,' p. 152. 

Spight bites the dead, that living never darde (sic). 
' Ruines of Time,' 1. 215, (signed) Ed. Spencer. 

' Honour,' p. 156. 
Promotion is a puffe. 

' Comp. of Elstred,' (signed) D. Lodge. 

' Hope,' p. 160. 
.... Hope, a handsome maide. 

Faerie Queene,' III. xii. 13, (signed) Idem, 
viz., Spenser. 



' Hope,' p. 162. 
Such is the weaknesse of all mortall Hope. 

' Faerie Queene,' VI. iii. 5, (signed) Ed. 

Sorrow doth utter what us still doth grieve. 

Drayton's ' Epist., Q. Margaret to Suffolk,' 
(signed) Idem, viz., H. C. 

.... Our Hopes good deceives us. 

Drayton's ' Epist., Matilda to K. John,' 
(signed) Idem, viz., H. C. 

' Hope,' p. 163. 

Who nothing hopes, let him dispaire in nought. 
T. Lodge's ' Wits Miserie,' (signed) Th. 

' Jealousie,' p. 170. 
... No Jealousie can that prevent. 

' Arcadia ' (Grosart, ' Poems ', iii. 26) 
(signed) Idem, viz., Sidney. 

.. . . .Where Jealousie is bred. 

' E. M. in his H.,' V. i. (end), (signed) B. 

' Ignorance,' p. 173. 
, . . .Great ill upon desert doth chance. 

' Epist., Lady Geraldine to Surrey,' (signed] 
M. Dray. 

' Innocence,' p. 175. 

A plaint of guiltlesse hurt doth pierce the skie. 
' Arcadia ' (Grosart, ' Poems,' iii. 41), (signed) 
S. Phil. Sidney. 

Correct Collier, who refers to the ' Epistle 
of Geraldine to Lord Surrey ' : 

' Innocencie,' p. 175. 
Sildome untoucht doth Innocencie escape. 

' Epist. Lady J. Grey to Dudley,' (signed) 
M. Drayton. 

' Innocencie,' p. 176. 
A guiltlesse mind doth easily deeme the best. 

Baldwin's ' Lord Rivers,' st 72, (signed) 
'M. of M.' 

' Justice,' p. 180. 
Faire Astraea, of the Titans line. 

' Endimion and Phcebe,' sig. F3, (signed) 
M. Drayton. 

' Kings,' p. 184. 
Kings will be alone, competitors must downe. 

' Cleopatra,' 11. 1021-2, (signed) Idem, 
viz., S. Daniell. 

Correct Collier, who refers to ' James IV. 
of Scotland ' : 

' Kings,' p. 184. 
He knowes not what it is to be a King. 

'Trag. of Selimus,' 11. 39-40, (signed) R. 

' Kings,' p. 185. 

Mislikes are silly lets, where Kings resolve them. 
' Comp. of Elstred,' (signed) D. Lodge. 

' Lawes,' p. 195. 
So constantly the judges conster Lawes. 

Baldwin's ' Lord Rivers," st. 33, (signed) 
' M. of M.' 

' Libertie,' p. 197. 
Sweete Libertie, the lifes best living flame. 

' Trag. of Sir R. Grinvile,' st. 10, (signed) 
I. Markham. 

' Life,' p. 200. 
That Life 's ill spar'd that 's spar'd to cost more 

' Civil Wars,' vi. 64, (signed) S. Daniell. 

' Love,' p. 205. 
. . . .Love is a subtill influence. 

' Hist, of Robert, D. of Normandy,' 1591, 
(signed) D. Lodge. 

' Love,'- p. 209. 
Love alwaies doth bring forth most bounteous 


Spenser's ' Faerie Queene,' III. i. 40. [No 
author named.] 

' Love,' p. 210. 
Loves eyes, in viewing, never have their fill. 

J. Marston's ' Pygmalion,' 1. 42, (signed) 
W. Marlowe. 


(To be continued.) 


(See 10 S. vi. 262, 303 ; viii. 426.) 

AT the references given above I supplied 
some particulars concerning anticipated 
changes affecting these almshouses. Upon 
the portion of the ground where the twelve 
almshouses of the Worshipful Company of 
Framework Knitters had stood for so many 
years, the mills and warehouses of Messrs. 
Carwardine & Co. have been for some time 
in full occupation. The building is in very 
good taste, well adapted for the purposes to 
which it is devoted, and a distinct gain, at 
any rate architecturally, to this dull and 
uninteresting road. At the present time the 
other six almshouses are still standing, and 
the board announcing that the freehold 
land is for sale is still in position. 

With reference to the Ironmongers' Aims- 
houses, otherwise Sir Robert Geffery's 
Hospital, matters have not nourished, for 
about the middle of the year 1907 something 
like a deadlock had occurred, at least so far 
as the outside world was concerned, and an 
organized opposition had been started to 
frustrate the sale of the land and the demo- 
lition of the quaint old buildings standing 
upon it. An inquiry, instituted by the 
Charity Commissioners, was opened on 
Thursday, the 9th of January of last year, 
continued on the 10th, and closed on Monday, 
the 13th. At this inquiry Mr. G. S. D. 
Murray, one of the assistant Commissioners, 
presided. The opposition to the sale came 
Prom the National Trust for the Preservation 
of Places of Historical Interest, the Metro- 
Dolitan Public Gardens Association, and the 
Society for the Protection of Ancient Build- 
nga all societies which are, and have been, 

10 s. xi. FEB. is, 1909.] XOTES AND QUERIES. 


doing good work. For these three bodies 
Mr. J. A. Simon, M.P., appeared ; while 
Dr. Mansfield Robinson, Town Clerk of the 
Borough of Shoreditch, represented that 
Council. The Worshipful Company of Iron- 
mongers placed their interests in the hands 
of Messrs. Honoratus Lloyd, K.C., and 
Arthur Adams, the desire of the Company 
being only to do the best possible in the 
interests of their numerous pensioners. It 
was decided to hear all interested, and a 
considerable number of witnesses were 
brought forward, both for and against the 
sale of the land, and the transfer of the 
almshouses to some other spot. Among 
those on behalf of the Company were Mr. 
R. C. Adams-Beck, the Clerk; Mr. W. T. 
Price, the Master of the Company ; Mr. G. 
Hubbard, F.R.I.B.A., the surveyor ; the 
Rev. Septimus Buss, the chaplain ; and 
Dr. Garrat t , the " apothecary. " The matron, 
the nurse, and several inmates of the Alms- 
houses supported the plea for the sale, and 
gave evidence as to the undesirable sur- 
roundings of the locality for such an institu- 
tion. The witnesses for the opposing bodies 
were Mr. Lutyens, an architect, who spoke 
as to the interest of the buildings from an 
archaeological standpoint ; the late Sir W. 
Randal Cremer, M.P. for the district ; 
the Rev. E. R. Ford, the Vicar of Shoreditch ; 
the Rev. J. L. Le Couteur, Vicar of St. 
Columba's ; Mr. T. W. Troup, Architect 
and Sxirveyor ; Sir R. Hunter, Chairman 
of the Executive Committee of the National 
Trust ; Mr. Holmes, Secretary of the 
Metropolitan Gardens Association ; and 
some others. It appeared that the witnesses 
on behalf of the Company did not marshal 
their facts to the best advantage, and the 
opposition, it must be said, seemed some- 
what vexatious and frivolous, for all things 
went to prove (as before stated) that the 
Company was solely actuated by the desire 
to benefit its pensioners, and had never 
been anxious to sell for any other reason. 
The City Press of 11 and 18 Jan., 1908, 
gave a full account of the proceedings. 

The result of the inquiry, which was held 
in the Court-Room of the Company, at the 
Hall in Fenchurch Street, was that these 
old almshouses were not to be removed ; 
and an abstract of the reasons of the Com- 
missioners' decision appeared in The City 
Press of 29 February. It was to the effect 
"on a careful consideration of all circumstances, 
the Commissioners, while fully recognizing the 
desire of the trustees to do what they think best 
calculated to benefit the inmates of the almshouses, 
are of opinion that a sufficient case is not established 
to call lor their sanction to the proposed sale." 

Here, for some little time, the matter was- 

I allowed to rest ; but an appeal was lodged 

i against the decision, to enable the trustees 

to assert what they claimed to be their 

i rights. The result of this appeal so far as 

I can ascertain has not appeared in the 

public press ; but lately the inmates were 

informed that the matter had been decided, 

and that no sale of the land or removal of 

the almshouses would take place. 

It may be put on record that the would-be 
purchasers of this property were the Peabody 
Trustees, and that the price to be paid for it 
was 24,000/., which appears to be a very 
moderate price. There would have been 
put up about five blocks of five-story dwel- 
lings, and overcrowded Shoreditch would 
have had its population increased by some 
1,200 or more souls. For the present, at 
least, this change in Ivingsland Road will 
not come about, although the boards 
announcing that the land is for sale have 
not yet been removed. 


COPYRIGHT nsr LETTERS. The question 
of the copyright in letters appears to be 
one of interest in France as well as in this 
country. The decision in Macmillan tv 
Dent (1906) has, in the words of a legal 
expert, given rise to a good deal of specula- 
tion as to how the law relating to letters 
has been settled or unsettled by the judg- 
ments of the Lords Justices. 

A French case of considerable interest 
was decided last summer, when an unsuccess- 
ful effort was made to suppress the ' Note& 
sur Prosper Merimee ' of Felix Chambon, 
containing a number of letters addressed 
by Merimee to his friends, as well as official 
reports of monuments made by him as- 
inspector. The substance of the decision 
of M. Ancelle in the Premiere Chambre of the 
Tribunal Civil de la Seine I find in one of 
the many excellent catalogues that reach 
me from Paris, and it is of interest as a piece 
of literary history, as well as for its bearing 
on the perplexed question of the right to 
publish or to suppress the letters of a bygone 
notability. *H 

Put in its shortest form, the French case 
is this. M. Chambon is the author of a 
work entitled ' Notes sur Prosper Merimee,' 
in which there are many hitherto inedited 
letters of that well-known writer. Madame 
Hemon, as the representative of Merimee's 
legatee, claimed the sole right of authorizing 
the publication of any of his letters. On 
this ground she asked for 5,000 francs as 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 13, im. 

damages. M. Chambon replied that Meri- 
mee had in a general way abandoned his 
rights, and certainly had not specially 
reserved them. Further, that as regards 
letters given by the recipients to public 
libraries, the authority to print was vested 
in the State. The judge thought that 
Merimee had virtually abandoned to his 
correspondents the undoubted rights which 
in French law the writer possesses during 
his lifetime, and which his representatives 
can exercise for fifty years after his death. 
Apart from the special circumstances of 
this case, the judge stated that in France 
the writer has the copyright for life, and 
that his representatives can retain it for 
fifty years. 

The doubt as to the British law is to be 
regretted, as no one seems to know with 
certainty what any one's rights are. 



[We fully agree with our contributor's last 
paragraph, and may add that we do not think it 
.advisable for so complicated a subject to be discussed 
at length in 'N. & Q.', though any author of 
experience who, like our contributor, calls atten- 
tion to the present unsatisfactory state of affairs in 
this country may help to bring about revision of 
the law.] 

It has been suggested by Dr. W. de G. 
Birch that aro- in the land-name " Aro- 
setna " represents " Arrow," and that 
" Aro-setna(-lond) " lay along the banks of 
the Warwickshire river of that name. On 
the one hand, however, not only are the 
hypothetical Aro-sete quite unrecorded, and 
the alleged eleventh-century reduction of 
the final syllable -we to o unconfirmed by 
contemporary instances of similar change, 
but, on the other, the unreduced form of 
the river-name Arewe, Arwe (Arwan in 
oblique cases), was still used in the century 
named to denote the Orwell ; cf. ' Saxon 
Chronicles ' D and E, annal 1016. 

When dealing with so corrupt a text as 
that of the ' Nomina Hidarum,' we are guided 
quite as much by our knowledge of what 
such a list ought to contain as by palseo- 
graphical considerations. Now there is one 
land-name which is so well known, and so 
ancient, that we have the right to say that 
no list of such names, whether made in 
Saxon times or later, is complete without 
it. I refer to Dorn-S8etna(-Iond), the land 
of the Dorn-saete, i.e., Dorset. In MS. A 
of the ' Saxon Chronicle,' which was written 
c. A.D. 892, in annals 837, 845, we get " mid 
Dorn-ssetum." Bishop Asser no doubt gave 
the true Old -Welsh form Durn-guois 

( = *Durn-enses) in his ' Gesta 
though the form actually handed down by 
the scribe of the lost MS. appears to have 
been either -gueis or -gueir. The n appears 
to have dropped out in the tenth century, 
and in MS. B of the ' Chronicle,' which was 
transcribed c. A.D. 1000 from a copy which 
ended with 977, we get " Dor-ssetan " and 
" Dor-saetum," in annals 837 and 845 
respectively. In MS. C, which was written 
c. 1050, we find the same spelling in annals 
978 and 982. We are, therefore, prepared 
to find " Dor-ssete " in lists of land-names 
written, like the one discovered by Dr. 
Birch, in the early part of the eleventh 
century to wit, in the interval between 
the transcription of B and C. But " Dor- 
sete " does not occur in that list. I suggest, 
therefore, that " Aro-sete " = " Dor-sete." 

Let it be admitted that " Aro " does not 
equal " Arewe," and that no record of a 
folk called " Aro-sete " has come down to 
us : the suggested identification of " Aro- 
setna " will then depend provisionally upon 
the answers we can give to the palaeogra- 
phical questions : 1. Did a usurp the place 
of d, at times, in mediaeval MSS., through 
approximation of the written forms ? 2. 
Did metathesis of r in or^occur, i.e., was the 
compendium for or misread and expanded 
wrongly as ro ? The answer to the first 
question is in the affirmative, and scribal 
errors like decius for aetius, 1 au for du 
(dum), 2 and auroleuo for duroleuo, 3 are con- 

With respect to the second question 
the metathesis of r in the expanded form 
of a compendium is a frequently recurring 
phenomenon, and, though I can give no 
exact parallel offering ro for or, such scribal 
errors as the following abound : duaruerno 
for du ro u er no ; s iharciam for th>'"ciam ; 4 uigore 
for ui r go ; 5 terit for t r it ; 6 remigrante for 

1 ' Historia Brittonum,' Harley MS. 3859, c. 1100, 
cap. Ixvi., ed. Mommsen, 'Chronica Minora,' iii. 

2 Gildas, MS. D., ssec. XIV., ed. Mommsen, M.S., 
p. 38, 1. 2. The mistake of sustinencia for .111 xfi- 
nenda, in the same MS., p. 36, 1. 14, indicates the 
form of the d, for ci and a often collide. 

3 'Itinerarium Antonini Augusti,' Iter. II., MS. 
Parisinus Regius, Bibl. Nationale, suppl. Lat. 671, 
ssec. XV., edd. Finder and Parthey, p. 225. 

4 'Itinerarium eiusd.,' from the uncial MS. in the 
Imperial Library at Vienna, No. 181, ssec. VIII., 
Iter. II., p. 225. 

5 Muirchu's ' Memoirs of Patrick,' Brussels 
Codex, No. 64, ssec. XII., ed. Hogan, 'Analecta 
Bollandiana,' 1882, i. 549, 575. 

6 ' Historia Brittonum,' u } , p. 217, 1. 18 ; MS. 
C.C.C., Cantab., 139, ssec. XIII. 

10 3. XL FEB. 13, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

m''ig er ante. 1 In view of these erroneous 
forms it would appear to be safe to assert 
that the form " Aro-sete " is a scribal error 
for " Dor-sete." 

30, Albany Road, Stroud Green, N. 

following extracts from the will of Ellen 
Perry, of Weston Zoyland, Somerset, which 
was proved at Wells on 13 June, 1755, may 
perhaps be of interest to collectors of old 
pewter and others. She leaves to her 
daughter Mary Chinn a gold ring with this 
posie : " God doth fore see what 's best for 
me." To her daughter Ann Lovibon, a 
pewter dish marked with the letters S. S. 
and M. S., and date 1703 ; two small pewter 
dishes marked R. E. and P. (no doubt 
Richard and Ellen Perry, since her husband's 
name was Richard), and a gold ring with 
this posie : "I live, I love, I rest content ; 
I like my choice not to repent." To her 
granddaughter Mary Chinn, a pewter dish 
with letters R. A. D. and a gold ring with 
this posie : "In thee my choice I rejoice." 
To her granddaughter Mary Southe, a 
pewter dish marked T. H. and date 1682. 
To her granddaughter Betty Lovibon, a 
pewter dish with the letters M. M. and S. S., 
and a gold ring with this posie : " God's 
blessing be on thee and me." To her 
grandson Edward Lovibon, a silver spoon 
marked A. K. and E. A. To her grand- 
daughter Betty Burnal, a pewter dish 
marked W. C. and E. A., date 1682. To 
her granddaughters Mary and Ellen Burnal, 
pewter dishes marked E. A. and A. To her 
granddaughter Ann Burnal, a pewter dish 
marked W. J. and T. 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut. -Col. 

not think the following are to be found in the 
lists of booksellers you have lately been pub- 
lishing : 

1732. Chester. P. Potter, bookseller. Robert 
Wright's New and Correct Tables. 4to. 

1728. Liverpool. James Ansdell, bookseller. 
Robert Wright's An Humble Address. 4to. 

1732. Manchester. W. Clayton, bookseller. 
Wright's Tables. 

1732. Preston. J. Hopkins, bookseller. Wright's 

Tl"* 1_1 


1732. Warrington. J. Higginson, bookseller. 
Wright's Tables. 

1732. Wigan. J. Laland, bookseller. Wright's 


' The Agricola ' of Tacitus, Vatican MS. 3429, 
A.D. 1497 ; ed. F. C. Wex, 1852, p. 280 L 3. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

PELLETIER. Being engaged on a study of 
the above, I am at a loss how to account 
for a name occurring there about twelve 
pages from the middle of the essay. " In 
his letters and conversations," says Macaulay, 
" he alluded to the greatest potentates of the age 
in terms which would have better suited Calle, in 
a war of repartee with young Crebillon at Pellrtier's 
table, than a great sovereign speaking of great 

I wish to settle the identity of this Pelle- 
tier. It cannot be the French chemist, 
the other two being more than fifty years 
older than the latter. 


Lindenstrasse, 6, Danzig. 

ABBOT'S, KENSINGTON. I should be grateful 
if any correspondent could tell me by whom 
the above was appointed Lecturer at St. 
Mary Abbot's, and whether he held any 
other appointment in addition to the lecture- 

In the burial register of St. Mary Abbot's 
there is an entry dated 22 Jan., 1754 : 
" Rev. Mr. William Cox, Lecturer." 

In the baptismal register there is an entry 
dated 9 May, 1724 : " Baptized Nicholas, 
son of William Cox, clerk, and Mrs. Frances 
his wife." 

In the will of William Cox, dated 17 Sept., 
1749, he styles himself M.A. of the parish 
of Kensington. In the administration of 
the will he is described as the Rev. William 

The Bishop of London's visitation book 
shows William Cox Lecturer at St. Mary 
Abbot's, from 1719 onwards. 

EDMUND C. Cox, Bt. 

102, Gordon Road, West Ealing, W. 


I should be very much indebted to any 
of your readers if they would let me know 
' where I could find, in the Catalogue of the 
British Museum Library or elsewhere, the 
text of Cobbett's adverse criticisms on Shak- 
speare and Milton, to which Byron alludes 
in an article in defence of Pope against 
Bowles's attacks. I recently examined all 
the entries of Cobbett's works in the Museum 
Catalogue, but could find no work on such 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 13, im 

a subject. I also consulted the librarian 
of the day, but he could give me no assist- 
ance ; whilst there is no collected edition 
of Cobbett's works there. 

Travellers' Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Major General William Jephson, soldier and 
politician of the Cromwellian period, is 
stated to have been a cousin of the great 
Parliamentarian John Pym. Could I be 
informed how the connexion is traced ? 

GEORGE EVATT, Surgeon-General. 
Junior United Service Club, S.W. 

known of the history of this court, which 
now forms part of the premises of Messrs. 
Spottiswoode & Co. ? A stone sign of a 
falcon, with the date 1671, still survives 
more or less in situ. 

5, New Street Square, E.C. 

KING'S PRINTERS. In Stephen's 'Digest 
of the Law of Evidence,' on p. 88, note 2, 
I find the following question : "Is there 
any difference between the King's printers 
and the printers of the Crown ? " 

Can any of your readers kindlv answer 
this ? R. V. J." S. H. 

GRAY AND KING OSRIC. In his ' Essay 
on Norman Architecture' ('Works,' ed. 
Gosse, i. 300, n. 2) Thomas Gray includes 
among the figures of uncertain date that of 
" King Osric at Worcester." Is not Gray 
really thinking of the effigy of Osric erected 
at Gloucester by Abbot Malvern in the time 
of Henry VIII. ? If Gray is right, and 
there is a figure of Osric at Worcester, I 
shall be glad to have an account of it. Gray 
is not often caught napping. 


Ithaca, N.Y. 

O'HARA PORTRAITS. Are there any por- 
traits of Charles O'Hara, Lord Tyrawley, 
of his son James and daughter Mary, and 
grandson General ^Charles O'Hara ? 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

JONES = FRANCIS. Information is desired 
as to the originals of two portraits of ances- 
tors of the writer. One portrait, that of 
William Jones (family tradition says Sir 
William Jones), was painted by Sir Peter 
Lely, and is that of a strikingly handsome 
young man of about twenty-five years of 
age, in the costume of that period. The 

other portrait of a Mr. Francis, is of a man 
in middle life ; Christian name and name 
of artist unknown. Tradition states that 
Mr. Francis married a daughter of Mr. 
Jones. Possibly the relationship was re- 

I am a great-great-great-grandson of John 
and Hannah Jones of Bristol, England, who 
settled in Dorchester, Mass. William Jones 
is supposed to have been a relative. 


42, Cypress St., Brookline P.O., Boston, U.S. 

any or all of these Corporation records been 
published or calendared ? If so, when and 
by whom ? H. EGAN KENNY. 


1570. Have dispatches or letters of the 

French Ambassadors in London, 1560-70, 

been published ? If so, when and by whom 1 



two Early Victorian songs which I should 
like to recover. 

1. Miss Wirt, in one of Thackeray's 
sketches, plays variations upon the air of 
' Such a getting Upstairs.' I have never 
seen this song, except the words in MS. 
From internal evidence, they seem to be 
Thackeray's own, but are not, I think, 
included in his works. 

2. ' Come and drink Tea in the Arbour ' 
was a quiz upon the " country pleasures " 
of the suburbs. F. F. CORNISH. 

ago I read in a book that the blank wall 
over the Gothic arches of the Doge's palace 
was intended for a large fresco, which was 
never painted because the authorities found 
out that the sea air would soon destroy a 
work of that kind. Will some one kindly 
tell me the name of a book that gives this 
information ? H. R. 

any one give me information about Thomas 
South of Bossington Hall, Hants ? He was 
interested in arboriculture, and the Bath 
and West of England Society gave him a 
silver jug in 1782 " in testimony of the merits 
of his writings " on the above. His crest 
and arms seem to be the same as those of 
the Souths of Swallowcliffe, Wilts. His 
brother Henry was curate of Fawley, Hants, 
and Rector of Much Dewchurch, Hereford. 
(Rev.) R. J. HILL. 
Leyburn-Lea, Belvedere Road, Scarborough. 

10 s. XL FK. is, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ELIZ. ROBINSON. I possess a clever oval 
portrait in oils, 5J in. by 6| in., of this 
lady, on the back of which is the following 
in an old style of writing : 

" Mrs. Elizabeth Robinson. She was the only 
lady who ever spoke hi the House of Lords, and 
came over from Gibraltar to give testimony about 
the slaves. She was the daughter of William 
Hastings, P^sq., wife of Anthony Robinson, Esq., 
an officer in the garrison of Gibraltar, where he 
died about 1738. She was born in 1695, and 
died in April, 1779, aged 84. She was mother 
of the Rev. R. G. Robinson, Vicar of Lichfield 
Cathedral, and was also the mother of the wife 
of Joseph Clay, Esq., of Burton." 

Can any correspondent give me information 
relating to the occasion of Mrs. Robinson's 
speech, whether the speech was printed, 
and. if so, where it can be found ? I should 
also like to know if the portrait has been 
engraved. JOHN LANE. 

The Bodley Head. 

GREEN DRAGON. What is the device of 
the Green Dragon ? It is understood that 
heraldically a dragon can be of any colour ; 
but there is presumably some reason for 
the sign of " The Green Dragon," which 
gives a name to so many inns in widely 
separate parts of the country. Is it an old 
English device, similar to the Red Dragon of 
Wales ? 

The dragon in Christian symbolism ex- 
presses evil ; but is not the dragon known 
to heraldry of heathen origin, and typical 
of the heathen ideals of fierceness, strength, 
and physical courage ? D H. 

Hanau on 2 Aug., 1764, Sir William Gordon 
says of the reigning princess : 

" Her Royal Highness is extreamly happy at 
the approaching nuptials of the Hereditary 
Prince, her son, with a Princess of Denmark, 
which, she tells me, is to be celebrated about the 
latter end of the month, and that in September 
or October she expects them here." 

Who were the royal couple ? 

118, Pall Mall, S.W. 

At the opening excursion of the Hampshire 
Field Club (4 May, 1893), to Preston Can- 
dover, Wield, Godsfield, and Medstead, the 
Rev. A. A. Headley and the late G. N. 
Godwin recounted tales of the old smuggling 
days, i.e. about 1750, stating that the busi- 
ness flourished extensively in the neigh- 
bourhood, and that the towers of Medstead 
and Alresford churches were used for the 
storage of smuggled goods ; while the vestry 

of one church was considered a particularly 
safe place. Information as to other Hamp- 
shire churches being used for the same 
purpose would be much appreciated. 

F. K. P. 

REV. HENRY YONGE. Can any one give 
me some information as to the Rev. Henry 
Yonge ? He was Rector of Great Torring- 
ton, co. Devon, and his daughter Sarah 
married, 9 Nov., 1786, at Swaffham, Norfolk, 
the Rev. William Nelson, afterwards 1st 
Earl Nelson. He is stated in Collins' s 
' Peerage ' to have been a cousin of Philip 
Yonge, Bishop of Norwich, who died 1783. 

15, Ryder Street, St. James's. 

W. ARDEN was at Westminster School in 
1801. Can any correspondent of ' N. & Q.' 
help me to identify him ? G. F. R. B. 

JOHN AMBROSE of University College, 
Oxford, graduated M.A. 1791. Particulars 
of his career and the date of his death are 
required. G. F. R. B. 

HENRY ASTLEY was admitted to West- 
minster School 18 Nov., 1782. I should 
be glad to obtain any particulars concerning 
him. G. F. R. B. 


But the best of our wealth is what comes after, 
See row by row on their silent shelves 

The wise world's wisdom, the gay world's 

In stately folios and tiny twelves. 

Singers and sages of every fashion. 

Whatever your fancy, there 's food for each 
Shelley for splendour, Byron for passion, 

Pepys to prattle, and Pope to preach. 


Sin amor no hay verdad, 
Sin ella no hay claridad. 

L. L. K. 

WOMACK FAMILY. Will some reader give 
me information as to the origin of this 
family ? The surname is pronounced Wum- 
mock or Ummuck in Yorkshire. I have 
traced early settlements in Essex, Norfolk, 
and Lincolnshire. Were they originally 
Dutch or German immigrants ? They are 
characterized by extreme fairness, some- 
times reddish hair ; marked use of Biblical 
names and the Christian names George 
and Charlotte ; and remarkable longevity. 
Members living now are aged 91 and 93. 


2, Shorey Bank, Burnley. 



' THE STOBY OF MY HEAKT.' A friend is 
anxious to discover the name of the author 
of a book with the above title. It is not a 
novel, but a personal narration, mainly 
autobiographical. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 
Percy House, South Hackney. 

[It is by Richard Jefferies, the naturalist, and 
appeared in 1883.] 

PARISH BEADLE. What are or were the 
legal powers, function, and status of a 
parish beadle ? THE SMITH OF HALIFAX. 

" HOGLING-MONEY." In the late Mr. 
Bruce's preface to ' Extracts from Accounts 
of the Churchwardens of Minchinhampton,' 
read before the Society of Antiquaries on 
5 May, 1853, occurs this sentence : 

" ' Hogling-money,' which I take to have been a 
customary payment made by the sheep-farmers of 
the parish for their hoglings, or hoggets, i.e., their 
sheep of the second year ; this payment was not 
continued after 1595." 

I should be glad to learn something more 
about this payment, as the information 
may throw light on an item in the church- 
wardens' accounts of this parish : 

" 1545 [Received] Itm for the hoggells at the tyme 
of Chrystemas, xxijs. vjd." Surrey Archteol. Coll., 
xv. 82. 

Does a similar receipt occur elsewhere ? 

Public Library, Wandsworth. 

Would it be possible to discover by what 
ship the first news of the battle of Corunna 
and the death of Sir John Moore reached 
England at what port, and on what day, 
she arrived, &c. ? 

I find in some old family papers the auto- 
biography of a midshipman who served on 
board the Cossack (24 guns), under Capt. 
George Digby, in 1808-9. This middy 
(son of a school chum of Nelson's) is " com- 
manding a cutter and employed embarking 
the troops all night " at Corunna ; " and 
the next day after the battle of General 
Sir John Moore afterwards [sic] brought home 
Lord Paget with news of the victory." 
Was Lord Paget the bearer of the first news ? 

F. A. W. 

the true origin of the scarf (" otherwise 
called the tippet") worn by bishops, and 
over the surplice, by other dignitaries of 
the Church, as well as by royal and episcopal 
chaplains ? Who are, and who are not, 
entitled to wear it ? And when ? 


(10 S. x. 341, 430, 494 ; xi. 31.) 

COL. PRIDEATJX has again brought forward 
that interesting perplexity Tyburn, he having 
since it was last discussed evolved a new 
theory, or perhaps it should be said, con- 
siderably expanded a previous conception, 
viz., that the name in its primitive signific- 
ance referred to land, not water to a large 
tract rather than to a small stream. He 
shows reasons for his conclusion, and his 
challenge for venerable evidence of map 
or document indicating the name Tyburn 
as applied to the stream is no more likely 
to be answered than was his former similar 
challenge in respect of the Westbourne. 
But he will not expect us to resign a lifelong 
belief in Tyburn as the name of the burn 
without a struggle. 

Applying, however, our own experience, 
we may hardly be surprised at the sugges- 
tion that the small streams of London had 
no definite names ; they were rivulets, 
not rivers, and generally throughout the 
country to rivers only have names been 
given. The " purling brooks " have no 
names, or if they have, the name is seldom 
used, or even known. They are simply 
spoken of in the places they water as " the 
brook," " the beck," or " the burn " ; 
and if further designated, it is by the name 
of the hamlet or parish they pass through. 
My present remembrance is of one in the 
North Country. It was a considerable 
stream ; anglers fished it for perch, if not for 
trout, and it turned a mill ; but I knew it 
by no other name than " the beck." And 
bringing our experience to London, we 
ought not to be immoderately surprised 
were COL. PRIDEAUX able to prove that the 
stream we discuss had no general name 
that it was, as Leland called it (the quota- 
tion is very interesting), " the Maribone 
broke " in its northern quarter ; and when 
it ran " by the parke-waulle at St. James," 
it is named, in an Act of 1532, as the Ey, 
or rather in that situation (near the site 
of Buckingham Palace) were the Ey Cross 
and the Ey Bridge names that seem 
to be derived from the stream. And 
further on, as it approached the Thames 
it is noted in a plan of 1614 as " the Aye 
or Ty bourn broke " a term which COL. 
PRIDEAUX will read as descriptive, but which 
has a nominal appearance. At the Abbey, 
where another course of the stream turned 

10 s. XL FEB. is, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the mill, its only designation seems to have 
been " the Mill Ditch."* 

But there are the two instances of the 
name which, though repeatedly debated, 
must again be noticed : the first in the 
charter of c. 951, the second in the decree 
of 1222. In the first the western boundary 
of the Abbey estate is said to be " from the 
fen, along the old ditch, to Cowford ; 
from Cowford up and along Teoburn to the 
wide military road." The late Mr. Waller satis- 
factorily interpreted this. ' ' The Old Ditch ' ' 
was an artificial cut, whether made for 
demarcation of the property, for drainage, 
or for the purpose it eventually served 
that of taking direct to the Thames part 
of the water which came down from Maryle- 
bone, this cut then becoming the Aye or 
Tybourn Brook (above referred to), and 
latterly the Bang's Scholars' Pond. The 
Cow Ford, I think, was where the stream 
crossed the Chelsea Road (now Bucking- 
ham Palace Road), at or near the meeting 
of this road with that to Westminster 
(the latter road became James Street) ; 
and near the same place the stream divided, 
part taking " the old ditch " course to the 
Thames, part continuing along the road to 
Westminster. Ey Bridge, I think, super- 
seded the ford. WeU, we are told that the 
boundary ran from Cowford, up and along 
Teoburn (passing by the site of Buckingham 
Palace), and it is difficult to apply that name 
to aught else than the stream which natur- 
ally formed the boundary, " up and along," 
also, seeming to refer to the stream. But 
COL. PRIDEATJX imagines that in Saxon 
times Teoburna meant the whole stretch 
of land between the Hampstead springs 
and the Thames, within the limitations 
east and west of the two principal streams, 
and that it was " up and along " the eastern 
verge of this great tract, marked by the 
nameless stream, that the monastic boundary 
ran when defined c. 951. It is difficult to 
entertain this proposition. 

The significance of the word Teoburna, 
and more especially that of its first syllable, 
seems yet to be doubtful. Consulting the 
'Etymological Dictionary' (1898) of PROF. 
SKEAT, and finding tu as example of " the 
occasional loss of w " in the A.-S. word 
twa .(fern.) for two, I think COL. PRIDEAUX 

* But Ey literally meaning " Island," Ey Cross 
and Ey Bridge, and even Aye Brook, may signify 
the Cross, Bridge, and Brook of the Island, i.e., 
the island made by the part/ing of the stream. 
And the manor name Eia (if not Ese, asinMande- 
ville's grant) has perhaps similar significance as 
land enclosed by streams east and west. 

supported in his opinion that Teo is 
equivalent to Tweo. Tweo is found, under 
' Between,' in A.-S. betweonan, to mean 
double ; but my friend seems scarcely 
warranted in taking tweo out of the word 
betweonan, omitting the first syllable, be 
=by, of equal value in the word, and then 
reading tweo as between. This done, he has 
found himself able to apply Teoburna, 
as equivalent to Tweoburna, to the land, 
meaning " the land between the burns," 
rather than to the burn itself, as generally 
done. For myself, I am thankful to find 
tweo rendered double, and, stretching it a 
little further, to read it as divided, i.e. 
Teomrna = "the divided burn." 

The second notable instance in which 
the name occurs is the " aqua de Tyburne " 
of the 1222 decree. (The transition from 
Teo to Ty needs explanation which I cannot 
attempt.) Since c. 951, a lapse of the most 
part of three centuries, the great manor 
of Eia, which it is now suggested was a 
portion of the greater tract of Teoburna, 
had been added to the Abbey estate. And 
the statements of the two documents in 
regard to the western boundary have raised 
a stumbling-block in the path of topogra- 
phers ; for notwithstanding the large exten- 
sion of the estate westward, the limit in 
both statements is the Tyburn stream. 
Saunders in his ' Inquiry ' found the western 
limit identical in both, and thought that 
Eia was not included in 1222 because it 
was not '" in the franchise of Westminster " 
an unintelligible reason, inasmuch as 
Mandeville's grant had been confirmed by the 
Conqueror. The decree, however, recognizes 
the possession of land beyond the stated 
boundary, viz., Knightsbridge, Westbourne, 
and Paddington in proper sequence ; and 
as Knightsbridge touched the stream which 
we call Westbourne, it may be concluded 
that that was the limiting stream of 1222, 
although it was termed " aqua de Tyburne." 
Robins in his ' Paddington Past and Present ' 
argues that both charter and decree 
indicated the Westbourne ; but making 
no reference to the addition of Eia in the 
interval, he does not meet the difficulty. 

I am happy to agree with COL. PRIDEAUX 
that in 1222 the Westbourne, as we call the 
stream, was certainly the boundary of the 
Abbey estate, although in the decree it is 
described as " aqua de Tyburne decurrente 
in Thamisiam " ; but as to the significance 
of the term we are not quite in accord. 
He renders it " Tyburn Brook " or 
" the stream flowing from Tyburn." 
" Tyburn " may be taken as the name either 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FKB. is, im. 

of the brook or of the land whence or through 
which it flows. But " de Tyburne " (not 
" Tyburna' ' ) appears to be genitive, not ablative 
(the e being for ce), and therefore to be read 
of Tyburn, not from Tyburn. Saunders 
has it thus : " the water of Tyburn running 
to [or into] the Thames."* There is not 
much in the difference, though the ejection 
of from would weaken Tyburn as the name 
of land in this instance which is COL. PBI- 
DEAUX'S suggestion. 

For the present, waiting further light as 
to the primary meaning of Teoburna, and 
if allowed to read teo as double, I would 
stretch it a little to mean divided, and then 
interpret Tyburn as originally the general 
name for the many streams that issued 
from the Hampstead springs. In the far- 
off Saxon days when " Teoburna " was 
invented, we can imagine a great tract of 
forest and swamp percolated by these 
numerous and undistinguishable rivulets, 
which the natives on their small clearances 
knew only as " the divided burn." Thus 
the two principal branches, though far 
apart, are given the same name in the Abbey 
delimitations of two periods widely sepa- 
rated. Both streams far from their sources 
are described as Tyburn, not in the manor 
of that name, but in that of Ese or Eia, 
for any previous name of which land there is 
no evidence. 

The above remarks on the word Teoburna 
were hazarded previous to the communica- 
tion of PBOF. SKEAT (ante, p. 31), who has 
probably demolished the " between " theory. 
His suggestion that Ty in Tyburn may have 
its simplest equivalent in tye a word in 
use for an enclosure, or even for its anti- 
thesis, a common, and thus a tract has a 
reasonable aspect ; and when we are led 
to a root - verb teohan, we seem to have 
the evolution from Teoburna to Tyburn. 
May we then " rest and be thankful " in 
the solution, the tye-burn, or " the burn of 
the tye " ? And thus have we not the 
name of the burn rather than the name of 
the tye ? W. L. BUTTON. 

PBOF. SKEAT'S statement that the w in tw 
cannot be lost unless the sound of o or 
follows, is, of course, conclusive, and it is 
therefore hardly worth while to discuss the 
pronunciation of the word Tyburn. But 
I apprehend that when the Domesday scribes 
wrote it down " Tiburne," they endeavoured 

* As example of de with the genitive my 
dictionary quotes from Cicero " De istius," &c. 

to represent the sound " Teebourne," and 
it seems to me probable that this pronuncia- 
tion prevailed till quite recent times, not- 
withstanding the fact that at a later period the 
spelling was changed to Tyburn. Stow spells 
the word " Teyborne," and the combination 
ey is pronounced ee in certain English words 
such as " key," the proper names Seymour 
and Leyland (Leland), and the place-name 
Heythrop. It must be remembered that 
Tyburn is only a book-word, and that it fell 
out of common speech with the last execu- 
tion there, considerably more than a hundred 
years ago. Modern people probably call it 
" Taiburn " because y in modern English 
is usually pronounced ai ; but I doubt if 
Shakespeare gave it this pronunciation. 
If Pall Mall were utterly wiped out 
from our speech for a hundred years, 
how many of our descendants would call 
it " Pell Mell " when they read about it in 
books ? 

The pronunciation of place-names is 
constantly changing. When, fifteen years 
ago, I took up my abode at Shrewsbury, 
I was told by old inhabitants to call it 
Shrewsbury (Scrobbes-byrig) ; but not- 
withstanding usage and phonetic laws, 
I fancy the old pronunciation has nearly died 
out. The same changes are taking place in 
Cirencester, Leominster, and many other 
towns, to say nothing of words with er, 
such as Berkshire and Derby. 

PBOF. SKEAT, in suggesting the derivation 
from A.-S. tlgan, does not explicitly say that 
the earliest spelling of the word that we 
know of, namely, " Teoburna," is another 
form for " Tig-burna " ; but I presume 
that that is his meaning. Of course, if the 
compound could signify a " tye," or piece of 
land enclosed between two burns, it would 
suit my main hypothesis as well as the deriva- 
tion I originally suggested. The peculiarity 
of the word " bourne," or of words ending 
with " bourne," is that they generally 
denominate, not brooks or streams, but 
villages ; cf. Bourne, Eastbourne, West- 
bourne, Northbourne, Southbourne, Winter- 
bourne, &c. 

With reference to the REV. JOHN PICK- 
FOBD'S remarks, I may say that Tyburn as a 
place of execution lay outside the scope of 
my note. The York Tyburn was of course 
named after the London one. This aspect 
of the question was very fully discussed 
in these columns by MB. W. L. RTJTTON, 
F.S.A., several years ago, and has recently 
formed the subject of an able monograph 
by Mr. Alfred Marks. 


10 s. XL FKB. is, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


I may supplement my reply, ante, p. 32, 
by noting that a deceased friend of mine 
many years ago, when an officer in the 
Grenadier Guards, made a rubbing of the 
carving by Adam Sedbar in the White 
Tower in London, then used as their mess- 
room. It is as follows in Roman capital 
He was the twenty-third and last Abbot 
of Jervaulx, and was executed at Tyburn 
in 1537. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbounie Rectory, Woodbridge. 

"SHOE" (10 S. xi. 66). The history of 
the spelling of this word is perfectly well 
known ; but it is impossible to give the 
whole of this long story. It opens up the 
whole question of Anglo-Saxon, Middle- 
English, Elizabethan, and modern English 
pronunciation. It is hardly unique, as 
doe for do was once extremely common. 
Moreover, the spelling shooe is usual in 
'The Two Gent, of Verona' (II. iii. 16, 17, 
19, 27) ; the plural appearing in Shake- 
speare both as shooes and shoonc. 

It also opens up the whole question of 
the open and close o in Middle English, 
which takes up four entire pages in the Intro- 
duction to my edition of Chaucer, vol. vi. 
pp. xxxi v. 

As a fact, the spelling shoo does not occur 
in Chaucer's ' Prologue ' in any of the six 
best MSS. MSS. E., Hn., Pt., have sho ; and 
Cm., Cp., Ln., have scho. It rimed with 

Both the A.-S. a and the A.-S. o became oo 
(also written o) in Middle English ; but, 
though written alike, they were pronounced 
differently. The former had the sound of 
oa in broad, oar, roar, soar, or of o in ore, fore, 
gore, lore, more, &c. But the latter had 
the sound of o in so, go, no, &c. 

Later, the former gradually took up the 
sound of the latter, viz., in all words (except 
broad) in which it was not followed by r. 
In order to express this gradually closing o 
(which resulted from an old open o), the 
symbol oa was invented ; as in road, oak, 
&c., M.E. rood, ook, &c., A.-S. rdd, dc, &c. 
All this is explained in my ' Primer of English 
Etymology,' a book which I suspect to be 
as much neglected as even the ' N.E.D.' 
The word broad (except when open o pre- 
ceded r) is the only word left which retains 
the Chaucerian open o. 

But a difficulty arose when this sound was 
absolutely final. In such cases the true 
forms should have been doa, toa, roa, /oa, 
for M.E. doo, too, roo, foo (also written do, 
to, ro, fo) ; but the absurd principle of 

making the spelling appeal to the eye was 
setting in, and (merely to please the eye) 
these words were written doe, toe, roe, foe. 
For Shakespeare's time we may add goe, a 
common spelling of go. 

For the close sound, which passed into the 
sound of the u in rule, the symbol adopted 
was oo, which was nothing but the M.E. 
symbol retained, but restricted to only one 
sound instead of two. Hence we have cool, 
tool, mood, &e., M.E. cool, tool, mood (also 
written col, tol, mod), &c., A.-S. col, tol, mol. 

What was to be done when the sound was 
final ? As a fact, nothing was settled ; so 
there were at least three answers. M.E. 
shoo (or sho) became shooe, shoe ; M.E. to 
became both to and too. Hence such con- 
tradictions as shoe from A.-S. seed (sh- 
representing see) : toe, A.-S. td ; too, A.-S. to ; 
io, A.-S. to ; go, A.-S. gd ; do, A.-S. do ' 


MR. LYNN must be quoting an early 
misprint in Prof. Skeat's ' Etymological 
Dictionary.' . The German cognate has its 
proper form, at any rate, in the 1901 edition 
of the ' Concise Etymological Dictionary.' 

W. B. 

PIMLICO (10 S. x. 401, 457, 514 ; xi. 75). 
Certainly there are places in the Antilles 
of this name ; at least I can speak for the 
Bahamas, where there are more "Pimlicoes " 
than one, although they may be fitly de- 
scribed as mere dots on the map. In the 
string of islets that run from Eleuthera to 
New "Providence, e.g., there occurs "Pimlico 
I." Again, in the Exuma group there are 
the " Pimlico Cays." It is probable, owing 
to the fact that a number of these Bahamian 
rocks and cays are called after the fauna 
of the region Flamingo Point, Alligator 
Cav, Pigeon Rock, Hawk's Nest, and so on 
that Pimlico is but another of these bird- 
and beast-names. Two years ago last April, 
on the north side of 'Harbour Island, I 
remember stalking along the shore a largish 
wadinc bird with the view of getting a 
closer "sight of the creature ; but it moved 
on and on, and finally winged itself away 
beyond my ken. As far as I remember,^ the 
native name of the bird is " pimlico " or 
" pamlico." I am not certain on this point, 
but could without much difficult y obtain 
the correct designation. 

Although it is quite another story, one 
could wish that words could describe, or 
colours depict, the extraordinary beauty of 
the seascape as seen from that Harbour 
Island shore, or (for that matter) from a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL FEB. 13, im 

hundred other like places in. the Bahama 
Archipelago. The indigo of the horizon, clear- 
ing itself, in the middle distance, into lines of 
flashing emerald and sapphire, and then 
melting in the nearer waters into tones of 
jasper and topaz, until at last the iridescent 
wave breaks in foam upon a beach of snow, 
is a thing that must be seen to be believed. 


473 ; xi. 74). In justice to myself I must 
point out that MR. LIONEL ISAACS has mis- 
understood me. I maintained that when 
this name is spelt Bruges the French pro- 
nunciation of it is preferable to the anglicized 
" Brew-jees," but I did not enter into the 
question of whether Bruges should be 
superseded by Brugge as the English name 
of the town. I submit that MR. ISAACS has 
started a new controversy. He would, I 
gather, insist on our using the Flemish 
instead of the French names for all places in 
Flanders, but would excuse us from writing 
Luik and Namen instead of Liege and 
Namur, because those are in the Walloon 
district. This at any rate is consistent, 
and better than the extraordinary muddle 
we find in Browning's poem ' How We 
brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix.' 
where the local names are drawn from no 
fewer than four languages English, French, 
Flemish, and German. It is my own ex- 
perience that more Flemish than French is 
spoken in Flanders ; in fact, it is useless 
for a traveller to venture far unless he knows 
how to " Vlaamsch klappen," i.e. speak 
the native tongue. JAMES PLATT, Jun. 

I can remember meeting many years ago, 
at Queen's College, Oxford, Thomas H. 
Ludlow Bruges, M.A. of that college, where 
he had graduated in 1818. His name cer- 
tainly was then pronounced as a mono- 
syllable, and was probably pronounced in a 
similar manner in the West of England, 
where he had represented Bath and Devizes. 
In Burke's ' Landed Gentry ' there is a short 
pedigree of Bruges of Seend, co. Wilts. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

EGG GOOD IN PARTS (10 S. xi. 70). The 
phrase " excellent [not " good "] in parts, 
like the curate's egg," which has become 
proverbial in its application, owes its origin 
to a picture in Punch which appeared some 
twenty years ago. It depicts a curate 
breakfasting with a bishop. The former a 
meek individual of the ' Private Secretary ' 
is apparently in trouble with his egg. 

The bishop observes : "I am afraid that 
egg is not quite good, Mr. Simpson ? " 
" Oh, thank you, my Lord, it is excellent 
27, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

[S. D. C. also refers to Punch.'] 

CRAG (10 S. xi. 46). MR. PICKFORD, in 
discussing ' The Bride of Lammermoor,' 
says that " the original of Wolf's Crag is 
undoubtedly Fast Castle." There is cer- 
tainly a tradition to this effect, and as I was 
spending two months of last summer in the 
neighbourhood of Fast Castle, I took some 
pains to find out what ground there is for 
the tradition. 

A visit to Fast Castle will satisfy any of 
your readers that it could not possibly be 
the Wolf's Crag described by Sir Walter 
Scott. The Castle is situated on rugged 
rock almost severed from the land, as 
Wolf's Crag is described to be ; but there the 
similarity ends, because the rock is not 
more than 50 or 60 feet above the level of 
the sea, whilst the cliffs immediately behind 
it rise to a height of several hundreds of 
feet. Consequently it is impossible to 
obtain from the Castle that v view over the 
surrounding moors which could be had from 
Wolf's Crag. 

Moreover, in a note to the " Border 
Edition " of ' The Bride of Lammermoor ' 
the author states that he had never seen 
Fast Castle except once from the sea, and 
that it was only the fancy of some of his 
readers that identified it with Wolf's Crag. 

6, Kenningtoii Court, W. 

LADY HONORIA HOWARD (10 S. xi. 66). 
It may be added that this lady was married 
to Sir Robert Howard at Wootton Basset 
Church on 10 Aug., 1665 ; her first husband, 
Sir Francis Englefield (married 1656), had 
died in May only of the later year. She was 
buried at Englefield, 10 Sept., 1676. 

Sir Robert Howard's first wife (married 
1 Feb., 1645) was Anne, daughter of Sir 
Richard Kingsmill of Malshanger Church, 
Oakley, Basingstoke (d. 1662), whose elder 
daughter Dorothea was married on 30 March, 
1639, to John Fanshawe of Parsloes, Essex. 
It was at the house of Lady Honora O'Brien 
doubtless Lemenagh Castle that Lady 
Fanshawe, wife of Sir Richard, saw the ghost 
which cried, " Ahone " (Lady Fanshawe's 
memoirs, ed. 1907, p. 58). The reason of the 
Fanshawes' visit to her was no doubt that 
her elder sister Mary was married to Viscount 
Cullen, brother of the second wife of Sir 

10 s. XL FEB. is, imj NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Thos. Fanshawe, K.B., afterwards first 
Viscount Fanshawe. It was on account of 
her conduct at Lemenagh Castle that General 
Ireton (see Ludlow's memoirs) called Lady 
Honora to account in the autumn of 1652. 
72, Philbeach Gardens, S.W. 

xi. 17). I am now able to answer my own 
query. The words occur in a MS. journal 
kept by a Mrs. Browne, who was travelling 
with the English army from Bellhaven, Vir- 
ginia, to Wills Creek, in charge of the sick 
and wounded. She says (12 June, 1755) : 
" We halted at a Rattlesnake Colonel's 
named Crisop." I now quote from a letter 
of Sir G. O. Trevelyan's to a friend of mine : 

" The rattlesnake in those days was regarded 
as emblematic of America. When the war broke 
out [Sir George is referring to the War of Inde- 
pendence], it was chosen for the naval flag, and 
the rebel cruisers were called the Rattlesnake 

Mrs. Browne was writing during the w r ar 
between England and France in the then 
American Colonies, and I think it clear that 
" Rattlesnake Colonel " is merely a synonym 
for " Colonial Colonel," and probably had 
no contemptuous meaning. 

MB. ALBERT MATTHEWS'S suggestion that 
Col. Crisop may be identical with the Col. 
Thomas Cresap, of some distinction, whom 
he describes, is very interesting. 


Great Tew, Enstone, Oxon. 

28). In 1890 I bought in the bazaar at 
Smyrna five Turkish watches. By " Turk- 
ish " I mean made for sale and use in Turkey, 
and having the usual Turkish or Arabic 
figures on the dials. The respective makers 
and dates, by the hall-marks, are George 
Clarke, 1775-6 ; George Prior, 1785-6 and 
1794-5; Markwick, 1807-8; and Ralph 
Gout. I do not give the date of the last, 
as I cannot just now lay hands on it. 

The two by Prior and that by Gout are 
of silver and tortoiseshell ; that is, the cases 
of the watches themselves and the first 
detached cases are silver, and the outside 
cases are mainly tortoiseshell. The outside 
diameters of the Priors are about 2^ in. and 
2^ in. respectively. The Gout measures, I 
think, about 3Hn. 

The Clarke has only one original loose 
case ; outside that is what I take to be a 
" native "-made metal box. 

The Markwick has lost its warming-pan 
or pans, and is in a damaskeened metal box. 

In F. J. Britten's ' Old Clocks and Watches' 
two George Priors are given. One was 
" of 31, Prescot St., Goodman's Fields, 1765-88 ; 
Rosomond's Row, 1794 ; 5, George Yard, Lom- 
bard St., 1798-1810." 

the other 

" in 1809 received from the Society of Arts a 
silver medal and 25 guineas for a clock escape- 
ment. In 1818 he patented (No. 4214) a remon- 
toire. In the ' Yorkshire Directory ' for 1822 
he is described as of Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, 
but he afterwards removed to City Road, London, 
and became reputed as a maker of watches for 
the Turkish market." 

Although Mr. Britten does not say that 
the earlier George Prior made watches for 
the Turkish market, it is evident that he 
did. It appears that the later George 
Prior made for that market in 1822 at the 
earliest. No. 1 made Turkish watches in 
1785-6, and perhaps earlier ; No. 2 in or 
after 1822. 

For Ralph Gout see 10 S. iv. 275 (a.v. 
' Henry Sanderson '), and v. 206, 335. 

There are two very fine Turkish watches 
hanging in the windows of No. 12, Vigo 
Street : one by Markwick Markham, Ex- 
change, London, the other by Bellard, 
Paris, measuring about 6J in. and 5j in. 
respectively. They have been there for years, 
and are not for sale. These large watches, 
I have been told, were not worn on the 
person, but carried in the sedan chairs. 


[W. J. M. and L. A. W. also refer to Britten.] 

ABBE DE LUBERSAC (10 S. x. 410; xi. 
73)._Glaire and Michaud cannot have 
read the books in question, which make 
it clear beyond any shadow of doubt that 
the Bishop was not their author. I have 
at last been able to identify him. He was 
Charles Francois, third son of Chevalier 
Joseph de Lubersac, Seigneur de Livron, and 
Clare his wife, d. of Francois de Bonnie, 
Seigneur de Chastaing. See Viton de Saint- 
Allais, 'Nobiliaire Universel de France,' ix. 

LASCAR JARGON (10 S. xi. 27, 92). I am 
sorry I have offended COL. PRIDEAUX through 
want of clearness in my query. As it referred 
to Lascar sailors, the expression " British 
officer " meant, of course, " British naval 
officer." I thought it unnecessary to insert 
the word "naval," as savouring of dotting 
one's fs twice over ; but it seems I was 
wrong, as COL. PRIDEAUX has understood 
me to mean the British army officer ; so I 
can only plead mera kusiir, and throw myself 
upon the mercy of the court. The two 



phrases I quoted I have actually heard 
from the lips of a British naval officer, whose 
name wild horses shall not drag from me ; 
and he certainly used them as " objur- 
gatory," in its dictionary sense of scolding 
or chiding. 

I am much obliged to MR. CROOKE for 
giving me just the information I needed. 

(10S. xi. 10). Ordinary weddings that is, 
working people's weddings differ in detail 
from those of the middle and upper class. 
As often as not, they are walking weddings, 
the whole party going arm-in-arm. Great 
care is, however, taken that the bride and 
best man head the procession, for if the 
bridegroom with the bridesmaid enter first, 
the wife for all her married life will " walk 
behind." If it is the other way about, the 
husband will play " second fiddle." I know 
of one instance where the bridegroom of a 
wedding party was "diddled." He was 
advised to be at the church by himself in 
good time, and as the rest of the party came 
to the door to meet them. He did so, and 
in this way " lost his kail," and was twitted 
with it by his friends after the ceremony. 
The best man with the bride reached the 
parson before the bridegroom and the 
bridesmaid. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

70). I have always heard the quotation 
relating to "an ancient lady and a lady 
of very good quality, I assure you drawn 
to church in her coach by six oxen," attri- 
buted to De Foe. Sussex roads were 
notoriously bad, and Judith, widow of Sir 
Richard Shirley, by will, desired to be buried 
at Preston " if she should die at such a time 
of the year as the roads thereto are passable." 
Th Shoreham to Lond n coach in the 
middle of the seventeenth century made 
use of a pair of oxen to drag it over some 
ot the worst stretches of the road. Oxen 
have been in use for draught purposes in 
Sussex up to recent years, and are still 
occasionally so used in the neighbourhood 
of Lewes ; but the picturesque sight of 
oxen ploughing on the South Downs will 
soon become only a memory. P. M. 

, , Avebur y ^ his ' Scenery of England ' 

,1902), p. 441, quotes Arthur Young's 
Tour through England' (1771). He is 
alluding to the Sussex Weald : _ 
e " Here I had a sight, which indeed I never saw 
in any other part of England, namely, that going 
to church m a village not far from Lewes, I saw 

an ancient lady of very good quality drawn to- 
church in her coach with six oxen ; nor was it 
done but out of mere necessity, the way being 
so stiff and deep that no horses could go in it," 

Kenelm Henry Digby in his ' Compitum/ 
i. 393, says : 

" Carriages even did not always exclude the 
advantages of the ancient mode of travelling. 
Lord Carnarvon describes an illustrious Portuguese 
lady setting forth in a vehicle drawn by oxen, 
the coachman marching humbly by her side." 


There is a much more recent instance 
than the time of Fuller or Defoe of a carriage 
drawn by oxen, and it was also in Sussex, 
about ten miles north of Lewes. About 
100 years ago the Lord Sheffield of the day 
used to have his carriage drawn up Danehill 
by oxen when on his way to London. B. D . 

xi. 70). The query seems here to arise 
with respect to the first syllable, for ington 
apparently presents no great difficulty. In 
Islington, Kensington, and many other 
place-names the same combination occurs. 
According to Isaac Taylor ('Words and 
Places'), ing was the usual Anglo-Saxon 
patronymic, equivalent to Mac in Scotland, 
Ap in Wales, and so forth. His explanation 
is that names ending in ing indicate the 
original settlement of the clan bearing the 
name embalmed in the prefix. When this 
clan off-swarmed and established a new 
settlement, then ton was added in the name 
of the latter. As regards ing, it is said to 
occur in more than one-tenth of the whole 
number of the names of English villages and 
hamlets. But if the explanation as regards 
ington be correct, it remains for some one 
versed in the ' Saxon Chronicle ' or other 
records to say who was the Saxon chief, 
or which the clan, whose name has here come 
down to us in the form of Wadd. That 
Waddington has any connexion with Woden 
and his worship, as, for example, is stated 
of Wadley and many other places, seems 
contradicted by its clannic affix. 


Perhaps the ton or village of Wadding 
the son of Woden, the Northern Zeus. 


Wadding- is a patronymic of Wada, a 
common A.-S. personal name, whence Wade 
and Wadeson. 1. P. L. 

paper of great interest in ' The Commune 
of London,' by J. Horace Round, published 
in 1899. D. G. P. 

10 s. XL FEB. is, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


PORTS (10 S. x. 405 ; xi. 16). I have two 
of Joanna's passports. The one now before 
me reads thus : 

George Binns, 


Sealed of the Lord, 

The Elect precious ; Man's Redemption ; 

To inherit the tree of life ; to be made 

Heirs of God and Joint Heirs with 

Jesus Christ. 

Joanna Southcott, 

May 3d, 1806. 

To the above document is appended Joanna's 
seal in red wax. The seal has her initials 
and two stars. I think the passports are 
now very rare. 

I have also the print of 'The Superb 
Crib presented to Joanna Southcott,' pub- 
lished by John Fairburn. 2, Broadway, 
Blackfriars, Sept. 9th, 1814. The motto 
on the rim of the canopy over the crib is : 
" A Free-will offering by Faith to the pro- 
mised Seed." 


537, Western Av., Albany, N.Y. 

The following is from The- Western Anti- 
quary, vol. vii., February, 1888 : 

"On a recent visit to the Roman Catholic 
College of Oscott, near Birmingham, I noticed 
in the very excellent museum of that institution 
a curious relic of this notorious personage, con- 
sisting of a passport to heaven, of which the 
following is a copy : ' Charles Billinge, the Sealed 
of the Lord the Elect, Precious.'Man's Redemption, 
to inherit the Tree of Life. To be made Heirs 
of God and Joint Heirs with Jesus Christ. Joanna 
Southcott, December, 1803.' A note was ap- 
pended as follows : ' A passport signed by Joanna 
Southcott : only two others known to be in exist- 
ence with the original signature ' Kearley. 

In a subsequent number of the periodical 
(March of the same year) Mr. George Hussey, 
of Torquay, wrote as follows : - 

" I have one of Joanna Southcott's passports 
and signatures. The paper is dated January 15th, 
1804, and has become very thin, as you may think, 
after so many years. There are two red seals 
in wax on the paper one a lions head and 
shoulder, and the other two stars, and a half 
moon, and what looks like the figure of a child." 

In Devon Notes and Queries, vol. ii. p. 241, 
is a note on the passport by F. B. Dickinson, 
with an illustration of it. This passport 
was granted to Richard Hebbard, or Hub- 
bard, and is much worn. The letterpress 
(enclosed in a circle three inches and five- 
eighths in diameter, one seal missing) 
is the same as in Mr. Hussey's, but it does not 
contain the figures he mentions. 

A. J. DAVY. 


[MB. J. T. PAGE also thanked for reply.] 

(10 S. x. 509). The Northern Star (published 
in Sheffield in 1817-18), vol. i. p. 393, gives 
the following : 

" The annals of superstition have hardly ever 
recorded a more extravagant instance of folly 
than the Sacrifice of the Black Pig by the South- 
cottians, which we extract from The Philanthropic 
Gazette. A correspondent of that respectable 
paper (an eyewitness of the fact) writes to the 
following effect : That on Tuesday, the 14th 
instant [i.e., Oct., 1817], above one hundred 
persons (men and women) of that deluded class 
assembled in the wood at Forest Hill, near Syden- 
ham. After forming a circle they commenced 
their rites by singing and praying ; this pre- 
liminary form concluded, a small live Black Pig 
was introduced, and the poor animal was imme- 
diately attacked with choppers and sticks, till 
every symptom of life had entirely disappeared, 
each female giving nine distinct blows on the 
head with the former instrument, while the men 
belaboured the little beast with the latter. It 
was now bound in an iron chain and suspended 
over a large fire, where it remained till it was 
reduced to ashes, which they scattered over 
their heads and trampled under their feet. This 
done they then proceeded to pray and sing again. 
The spectator of this barbarous ceremony, 
anxious to know its meaning, was induced to 
approach the principal speaker (apparently a 
blacksmith), and express his fears that they must 
be labouring under some unhappy delusion. He 
was informed that then? doctrine of worship was 
founded on Scripture authority. The types and 
shadows used in the Mosaic dispensation, they 
said, were figures of the promised Redeemer, and 
his miracles were types of the Shiloh they were 
all looking for. The burning of the Pig therefore 
was explained to be the binding and burning of 
Satan, and ' intended the miracle in the 8th of 
Luke, so that that morning their prophet had 
cast out the evil spirit out of each of their 
hearts and it had entered the swine.' When he 
would have endeavoured to convince them of 
these absurdities they only laughed ; so with 
branches in their hands and bows of ribands on 
their breasts they turned towards London, 
triumphing in their folly. They all consisted of 
poor working men, and the man they called their 
prophet or the shadow of Shiloh was apparently 
a discharged seaman." 


Elmhurst, Oxton 

65). An analogous expression is used in 
some part of the United States. I noticed 
" Mamma '11 raise Cain " (p. 165) and " Of 
course she raised Cain " (p. 191) in ' Patience 
Sparhawk and her Times,' by Grace Atherton. 


I am not acquainted with the expression 
" raised hamlet on them," but I have fre- 
quently heard a somewhat similar one, viz., 
" play Hamlet with." The phrase has always 
seemed to me to be used in the sense of " play 
the very deuce with," or " play havoc with." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. uo s. XL FEB. is, uoo. 

In fact, I believe its similarity to the latter 
phrase has greatly conduced to its popularity. 
I venture to suggest that the expression 
is derived from the scene of havoc at the 
end of the tragedy, in which Hamlet plays 
the leading role. C. E. LOMAX. 

Louth, co. Lincoln. 

Is not the reference to the hamlet or 
village in which a stir is made ? J. T. F. 

488 ; xi. 13, 54, 94). I look upon this as 
being an imposing substitute for that well- 
worn expression " the nick of time." In 
'The Happy Valley' Mrs. B. M. Croker 
has another supposable synonym : 

" I must admit that fishing is a most selfish 
and absorbing passion. Give me the one physio- 
logical moment before the river rises, when the 
water just begins to creep give me a fine day, 
a good sixteen-foot rod, a treble-gut cast, the 
fly of my heart, and leave me alone." P. 112. 

Mentalite, which your latest correspondent 
says is now a favourite word in France, is 
much used by Pierre de Coulevain, author 
of ' L'lle inconnue,' ' Sur la Branche,' &c., 
who first made me aware of it. 


The following quotation shows that the 
expression was currently used in France 
thirty-six years ago : 

" Les Prussiens se decidaient, pour reduire la 
ville assiegee, a hater le moment psychologique 
en frappant non seulement Mezieres fortifiee, 
mais Charleville desarmee." Jules Claretie,' His- 
toire de la Revolution de 1870-1,' ed. 1872, 
chap. xiv. 

The italics are in the original. F. A. W. 

I have met with an example of this ex- 
pression which clearly shows how well 
both Q. V. (ante, p. 13) and M. HAULTMONT 
(ante, p. 94) are aware of its origin. G. 
Rothan, in his ' Souvenir diplomatique : 
1' Affaire du Luxembourg,' printed at Paris 
in 1882, says (p. 203) : 

" De douloureuses circonstances avaient oblige 
M. Benedetti a quitter Berlin dans un de ces 
moments psychologiques qui decident du sort 
d'une negociation." 


NORTHIAM CHURCH (10 S. x. 488). There 
is a water-colour drawing of this church, 
circa 1770-80, in the Burrell Collection in 
the British Museum. The reference is 
Add. MS. 5697, fo. 92. 

188, Marylebone Road, N.W. 


The Works of Charles and Mary Lamb. Edited 
by Thomas Hutchinson. 2 vols. ( Oxford, Uni- 
versity Press.) 

" I AM the publishers' ruin " ; "I never had luck 
with anything my name was put to " ; " Nothing 
with my name will sell, a blast is upon it." These 
remarks, extracted from Lamb's ' Letters ' and 
elsewhere, read strangely when viewed in the 
light of his present-day popularity. Doubtless 
the failure of his various works, from a financial 
standpoint, may have been due to the high price 
asked for them, for that they were appreciated 
by at least a select few is well known ; but, as 
he once observed, " being praised and being bought 
are different things to a Book." Nowadays, 
however, the praise and the expenditure neces- 
sary to secure one or other of the numerous edi- 
tions of Lamb's works seem to run concurrently. 
That unblessed word " copyright " is, we under- 
stand, responsible for the fact that the name of 
his latest editor has not been earlier associated 
with a complete edition of Lamb. The present 
reviewer well remembers, some seven years ago, 
noting with delighted interest the announcement 
that such a project was in contemplation, and 
it is a matter for sincere regret that it was allowed 
to fall through. No scholar more capable, pains- 
taking, or sympathetic than Mr. Hutchinson 
could have been found, and all Lamb students 
are greatly to be congratulated on the fact that 
he has been called on to perform what must have 
been to him a labour of love. 

When the large extent of ground covered is 
taken into consideration, it is not surprising that 
here and there in the two volumes a few in- 
accuracies, misprints^ and omissions should be 
discoverable. Rather would the wonder be if 
a work of this kind existed which was free from 
those lapses which are a matter of trouble to 
an editor rather than of observation by the 
majority of readers. 

We wish it had been feasible to include the 
' Specimens of English Dramatic Poets ' and the 
' Extracts from the Garrick Plays ' as well as 
Lamb's notes on the same, in which case the 
latter would have possessed an added interest 
and value. This supplementary material would, 
however, have made the work too big for two 

The ' Bibliographical List ' in the first volume 
is most useful, and we have detected but few 
omissions. Of these the most important is the 
absence of any reference to an edition of the 
' Poetical Works ' published in Paris in 1829 
by A. & W. Galignani. In it were first collected 
the following poems, afterwards included in 
' Album Verses ' : ' Living without God in the 
World,' ' On an Infant dying as soon as Born,' 
' Verses for an Album,' ' Quatrains to the Editor 
of the Everyday Book,' ' Angel-Help,' ' Sonnet : 
They talk of Time,' and ' The Christening.' 
Further, no mention is made of ' The Christmas 
Box,' 1828, edited by T. Crofton Croker, in which 
were first printed ' Verses written on the First 
Leaf of Lucy Barton's Album ' a title altered 
in ' Album Verses ' to 'In the Album of Lucy 
Barton.' The Annual referred to is clearly the 
" trumpery book " to which Lamb alludes in 
a letter to the Quaker poet. 

10 s. XL FEB. is, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In the text some misprints have escaped the 
editor's vigilance. On p. 556 (first volume) 
" Chimaeras dire stories," &c., should read 
" Chimaeras dire stories," &c. ; p. 612 " soot " 
should be " suit " ; pp. 618 and 622, " crurns " 
should be " crumbs " ; 642, " these " should be 
" their." These printer's errors, with the excep- 
tion of the second and fifth, occurred first in the 
edition of 1823, having been correctly printed 
in The London Magazine ; but they were rectified 
when the ' Prose Works ' of 1835 were being 
passed through the press. We are pleased to see 
that the unfortunate " stake " for " slake " 
in the essay on Wither has not been overlooked. 
Ainger called attention to this misprint ; but he 
was in error in his statement that all editors 
had passed it over. The proper reading is to 
be found in the 1835 edition, and, we believe, 
in this alone. In the second volume in ' The 
Wife's Trial ' on pp. 788 and 801 respectively, 
an intrusive " a " and the substitution of " hand- 
kerchief " for " kerchief " spoil the scansion of 
the lines in which they appear. 

The following, which are stated to have been 
collected in Moxon's edition 1868-70, first ap- 
peared in Talfourd's ' Letters of Charles Lamb, 
with a Sketch of his Life ' : ' The Death of 
Munden,' ' Thoughts on Presents of Game,' 
' Margaret W ,' ' To Clara N[ovello],' and ' The 
Three Graves.' 

In the verses to Sarah L[pcke] and ' In Miss 
Westwood's Album ' the initials J. P. and S n 
stand respectively for John Forster and Sugden. 
The latter, who was an assistant schoolmaster 
to Dr. May of Enfield, married Frances Westwood 
in the summer of 1828. The proof of this is to 
be found in an unpublished letter of Lamb now 
lying before us. 

Had sufficient space been at our disposal, we 
should have liked to go into the question of 
authorship of ' An Appeal from the Shades,' 
first attributed to Lamb by Mr. Bertram Dobell. 
We incline to believe that it was the work of 
another writer, possibly of Thomas Hood. 

A Century of Archceological Discoveries. By 

Prof. A. Michaelis. (John Murray.) 
" DISCOVERY " is an ambiguous word : it may 
signify the act or the result the finding of a 
hidden thing, or the " find " or hidden thing 
itself when brought to light. It is chiefly with 
the former sense that this admirable book is 
concerned. It essays to give an historical account 
of how, when, where, and by whom the relics of 
antiquity were excavated ; but any lengthened 
notice of the objects themselves, the temples 
and statues, was manifestly impossible. 

If bringing to light a New World was the great 
achievement of the fifteenth century, the un- 
covering of the Old will ever be held one of the 
glories of he nineteenth. It was no easy task 
to give a summary record of the manifold activities 
of the archaeological spade during that period, and 
few could have discharged it with such con- 
spicuous success as the Strasburg professor. 
We do not deny that he has his limitations, 
which compel him to specialize. His interests 
and sympathies, as he candidly admits, lie in 
the region of classical antiquity rather than in 
the Orient ; yet it is in the latter that the moat 
fruitful and important results have been obtained 
for the history of civilization and religion. The 
fact'- of an Assyrian monument being chosen 

for the frontispiece might lead the reader to expect 
that the explorations in the valley of the Euphrates 
as well as those in the land of the Nile would 
occupy a large share of the work, proportioned 
to their importance. But such is not the case. 
Italy, Greece, and Troy monopolize far the 
greatest number of pages ; while Babylonia, 
Egypt, and Palestine are relegated to a place of 
secondary consideration among the " outlying- 
countries." Hellas is the acknowledged centre 
of interest for Prof. Michaelis. " My main 
object," he says, " has been to give an account 
of the rise, the diffusion, and the deepening of 
our knowledge of Greek art " ; but with inscrip- 
tions, cylinders, or religious emblems he has no- 
concern. Relics of Mithraism we should have 
thought came within his scope, but they find no- 
mention. His book, therefore, needs to be supple- 
mented by works like King and Hall's ' Egypt 
and Western Asia in the Light of Recent Dis- 
coveries ' and Vincent's ' Canaan apres 1'Explora- 
tion Recente.' The survey of a field so wide, 
over a period so long, is necessarily cursory and 
rapid, and so far the interest is unpaired ; but 
the volume is the work of an expert, and replete 
with information. The illustrations are clear 
and good. 

A Shakespeare Word-Book. By John Foster. 

(Routledge & Sons.) 

THE sub-title, ' A Glossary of Archaic Forms and 
Varied Usages of Words employed by Shakespeare,' 
fairly describes the range of this useful work. 
Mr. Foster has spent, he tells us, almost sixteen 
years over his book, and, deriving substantial help 
from those who have gone before, has made a 
laudably complete aid to the text of Shakespeare, 
which, being published at a moderate price, snould 
secure a wide sale. 

The Preface says : "It may be objected" 
that in the following pages the discriminating 
sense is sometimes too finely exercised.'' We see- 
no need, for instance, to make, as the author does, 
thirteen different meanings out of " bosom." Thus 
'Julius Caesar,' Act V. s. i. 7, " Tut, I am in their 
bosoms," might go under either (5) desires, inmost 
thoughts, or (6) secrets meanings which we should 
have put together. We are pleased to see that the 
illustrations from the plays are numerous, for 
Shakespeare is his own best commentator, though 
we value also parallel usages from the literature of 
the Elizabethan period. 

The Preface further notes that " Malapropisms 
and most vulgar corruptions " are also beyond the 
scope of the book, so that Mrs. Quickly, Fluellen, 
Dogberry, Launcelot, Bardolph, Evans, and Jerrold' 
in their characteristic outpourings " have here 
practically no place." Yet we find on p. 308 Mrs. 
Quickly's "honey-seed" for "homicide," while 
missing "impeticos thy gratillity," so that the 
compiler is not altogether consistent. On this 
same pa?e the proverbial longest word of 'Love's 
Labour 's Lost ' has slipped a syllable, as we are 
assured by recalling the Latin hexameter in which 
it figures. 

" The derivation of words is given only in obscure 
cases where it is considered that their etymology 
may to some extent illuminate their meaning." We 
are grateful for what we get in this way, but wish, 
for more, being ever 

Keen thro' wordy snares to track 
Suggestion to her inmost cell. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FK,, is, uoo. 

Thus " deliverly " would gain by a reference to 
the possible connexion of " deliver " with " clever," 
noted by Prof. Skeat in his masterly ' Etymological 
Dictionary of the English Language.' 

The compiler may, however, plead with reason 
that any additions to his scheme or scope would 
have made his book unwieldy. As it stands, it will 
serve as an admirable addition to the plain text of 
Shakespeare a claim which Mr. Foster in his 
modesty is unwilling to make for it. His own 
words on the early study of our greatest poet show 
how well he appreciates the best methods of leading 
on the young to what should be the delight of a 


MR. L. C. BRAUN'S Catalogue 59 contains 
Chaffers's 'Pottery,' II. Is.; Hone's 'Every 
Day,' ' Table,' and ' Year Books,' 4 vols., 1830, 
presentation copy from Southey to Henry Taylor 
with autograph letter, " I have not seen any 
miscellaneous books that are so well worth 
having," II. Is. ; Grove's ' Dictionary of Music,' 
5 vols., including Index, 21. 12s. Qd. ; Voltaire's 
* Philosophical Dictionary,' 6 vols., 12mo, 11. ; 
And a set of The Nineteenth Century, 64 vols., 
half -calf, 37. 10s. There are lists under Foreign 
Literature and Scientific, Classical, &c. Under 
London are a number of Ackermann's illustra- 
tions, 1816, including The Royal Menagerie, 
Exeter Change, and Tottenham Court Road 
Turnpike and St. James's Chapel. It was close 
here that Dr. Stebbing, once editor of The Athe- 
nceum, went to live in order to be near the country 
and green fields. There are also a number of 
views of old London churches by Skelton and 
others. Among portraits are those of Milton 
at the ages of 10, 21, and 62. 

Messrs. William George's Sons of Bristol 
devote their Catalogue 311 to books from the 
library of John Aldington Symonds, most of 
them with his armorial plate. The books include 
Spedding's ' Bacon,' 21. 2s. ; Froude's ' England,' 
II. 5s. ; Rawlinson's ' Herodotus,' II. 18s. ; 
Mark Pattison's ' Memoirs,' also his ' Essays.' 
There are Swinburne first editions ; while 
Shelley items include Medwin's ' Life,' 2 vols., 
11 12s. Under Sir Philip Sidney is the 
eleventh edition of ' Arcadia,' folio, 1662, 31. 3s. 
also Grosart's large-paper edition of the ' Com- 
plete Poems,' 11. 15s- Lecky's 'Rationalism,' 
2 vols., calf antique, is 21. 2s. Layard's ' Early 
Adventures in Persia ' has a long letter from the 
author. Other books are ' Life of Darwin,' 
Freeman's ' Essays,' Max Miiller's ' Sanskrit 
Literature,' Allibone, Thomson's ' City of Dreadful 
Night,' &c. 

Mr. C. Richardson's Manchester Catalogue 57, 
contains much under America. There are also 
works under Africa. Illustrated books of the 
sixties include ' Bon Gaultier,' Dalziel's ' Gold- 
smith,' ' Ingoldsby,' Tennyson, and ' London 
Almanacks.' Under Music are Chorley^s ' Music 
and Manners in France and Germany,' 3 vols., 
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CONTENT S. No. 269. 

NOTES : Thackeray : Roundabout Paper ' On Ribbons," 
141 Seals: their Early Use, 142 Dodsley's Collection of 
Poetry, 143 William Morris and a Scotch Verger Rev. 
T. Patten" Seraskier "Foreigners in Tottenham, 144 
Groom's Coffee-House Flying Machine in 1751 Bench- 
End at Throcking Birkenhead Place-Rime "Imman- 
8uable," 145 The London Library St. Michael's, Sutton 
ourt Ancient Cranes Sea-Roamers, 146. 

QUERIES : Jan Starter Casanoviana-;-Tuesday Night's 
Club Queen Elizabeth's Thanksgiving Gray : Two 
References Bishops of St. Asaph, 147 Authors Wanted 
" Angel of iMeridian "Haggard "Artahshashte," 148 
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sit" T. Dover S. Hayes R. Bligh Dr. R. Gurney 
General Russell Manners Licences to Travel, 149. 

REPLIES : Ewen Maclachlan, 150 St. Anthony of Vienne, 
152 Army and Militia Lists Carmarthen Families: 
Paddington House, 153 Essex's Irish Campaign Molifere 
on Opium Date of Plate Seven Kings 'Millennial 
Star' Arabic Numerals, 154 Horse Hill Ernisius, 155 
Owen, the Epigrammatist Nym and "Humour," 156 Sir 
Walter Scott on the Scotch Snakes drinking Milk, 157 
Shakespeare in French Never Never Land " Knights 
without noses " Greystoke Family, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: The Oxford Thomson ' Animal 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


SPEAKING of an Order of Minerva for 
literary men, and asking who deserves it, 
Thackeray gives the following initials 
{vol. xvii. p. 380, "Oxford Edition"): 

" Of the historians A, say, and C, and F, and 
G, and S, and T, which shall be Companion, and 

which Grand Owl ? Of the novelists, there is A, 

and B, and CD ; and E (star of the first magnitude, 
newly discovered), and F (a magazine of wit), and 
fair G, and H, and I, and brave old J, and charming 
K, and L, and M, and N, and (fair twinklers), and 
I am puzzled between three P's Peacock, Miss 
Pardoe, and Paul Pry and Queechy, and R, and R, 
and T, mere et JUs, and very likely U, gentle 
reader, for who has not written his novels 
nowadays ? " 

Prof. Saintsbury says in his Introduction 
to this volume (p. xx) : 

" ' On Ribbons ' is almost wholly occupied with 
literature, and the tracing of the initials is amusing 
(there are one or two about which I am still not 
wholly certain)." 

The passage of Thackeray quoted appeared 
originally in The Cornhill of May, 1860, and 
refers, we gather, to living authors, for 
he introduces it thus : " Had the Star of 
Minerva lasted to our present time ." 

We now give our solutions of these initial 

letters, and ask for information, in the way 
of corroboration or correction, from the 
wiser, such as Prof. Saintsbury. For the 
historians we select Alison, Carlyle, Finlay, 
Grote, Stanhope, and Thirlwall. 

The novelists seem more difficult. It is 
clear from the examples given of P, one of 
which is a play, and ' Queechy,' which is a 
novel by an author who ranks under W, 
that Thackeray may have allowed himself 
a certain latitude in his list. Authors in 
whom Thackeray is known to have taken 
an interest by reviewing or otherwise noticing 
them should obviously have the preference. 
No one will, we think, dispute the claim of 
the Trollopes to " T, mere et fils," or of 
Dickens to CD. We follow through the 
alphabet, with a few comments. 

The names we suggest, then, are Ains- 
worth ; Bulwer ; George Eliot, who pub- 
lished ' Amos Barton ' in The Cornhill in 
1857, and 'Adam Bede' in 1859, the "star 
of the first magnitude, newly discovered " ; 
J. A. Froude, editor of Fraxer, a " magazine 
of wit " ; the beautiful Mrs. Gaskell as 
" fair G " ; James Hannay, Thackeray's 
friend, a frequent contributor to The Corn- 
hill, and author of the naval stories ' Single- 
ton Fontenoy ' and ' Eustace Conyers ' ; 
I, egomet, Thackeray himself ; G. P. R. 
James, " brave old J," who died abroad 
on 9 May, 1860 ; Charles Kingsley, who 
published both ' Yeast ' and ' Hypatia ' 
in Fra-ser ; Lever, a friend of Thackeray ; 
George MacDonald of whose novel ' The 
Portent ' this same number of The Cornhill 
contains the first instalment ; Mrs. Norton 
and Mrs. Oliphant, " fair twinklers " ; 
Charles Reade ; and Mrs. H. B. Stowe. 

We note, as possible other choices which 
do not seem so likely, George Borrow ; 
Thomas Hughes (' Tom Brown's Schooldays,' 
1857) ; O. W. Holmes, whose ' Autocrat 
of the Breakfast Table ' also appeared in 
1857 ; G. A. Lawrence, the author of ' Guy 
Livingstone ' ; Robert Surtees, the creator 
of Jorrocks ; and Frank E. Smedley (' Frank 
Fairlegh,' ' Lewis Arundel,' and ' Harry 
Coverdale's Courtship '). 

Bulwer, Lever, and G. P. R. James 
supply Thackeray, it may be recalled, with 
themes for parody in the ' Novels by Eminent 
Hands' (vol. viii., "Oxford Edition"). 
So, too, does Disraeli, who does not figure 
here. There does not seem to be any promi- 
nent I except the essayist himself. Washing- 
ton Irving died in 1859, and, as we have 
stated, all our selections were living in 1860. 
It would be pleasant to think that ' The 
Ordeal of Richard Feverel ' (1859) entitled 


its author to claims on M, but we fear that 
it is not at all likely. 

By " Paul Pry," we may add, Thackeray 
intended John Poole the playwright, author 
of the famous comedy of that name (1825), 
and of the novels ' Little Pedlington ' and 
' Phineas Quiddy ; or, Sheer Industry.' 
Poole died, at the age of 86, in 1872. 

So we leave our list to the commentators, 
being as open to conviction as most people 
who have formed an opinion of their own. 


SEALS have been used as a means of 
authenticating documents from very early 
times (see Blackstone's ' Commentaries,' 
4th ed., 1774, Book II.. chap. xx. sec. 6, 
p. 305). We read, for instance, that Jezebel, 
the wife of Ahab, King of Israel, wrote letters 
in his name and sealed them with his seal 
(1 Kings xxi. 8) ; and there is a remarkable 
proof of the custom of attesting legal docu- 
ments by seal among the Jews in Jeremiah, 
where mention is made of the purchase of 
land being evidenced by a writing sealed 
" according to the law and custom," and 
attested by witnesses (chap, xxxii. 6-13, 
14, 44). Proclamations of the Persian 
kings were also sealed with the king's 
ring ; and documents written in his name 
and attested with his seal had the force of 
law (see Esther viii. 8 ; cf. ' Cassell's Bible 
Diet.,' s.v. ' Seal '). The signet ring was 
very generally used for sealing among these 
early peoples, and Herodotus states that 
the Babylonians were accustomed to have 
their signets constantly with them (Lib. I. 
195, ap. Layard, ' Discoveries in Nineveh 
and Babylon,' 1853, p. 608), as the modern 
Egyptian did, at any rate, to as late a date 
as the early years of the nineteenth century 
(Layard, p. 608 ; E. W. Lane, ' Manners 
and Customs of the Modern Egyptians,' 1837, 
vol. i. p. 44). Some of the signets Sir A. H. 
Layard saw he considers as old as the 
time of Nimrod (Layard, p. 603). Many ex- 
amples are to be seen in the British Museum. 

Sir A. H. Layard in his explorations of 
Nineveh and Babylon discovered a large 
mimber of pieces of fine clay bearing the 
impressions of seals, which he considered 
there was no doubt had been affixed, like 
modern official seals of wax, to documents 
written on leather, papyrus, or parchment. 
In the British Museum are specimens of 
such clay impressions discovered in Egypt, 
bearing evidence that they have been 
attached to documents by strings or other 

means, although the documents themselves 
have perished (ibid., p. 153). 

Cylinders of hard stone engraved with 
some device were frequently used for im- 
pressing on the clay, and many of these are 
still in existence (ibid, pp. 155-6). It has 
been conjectured that these cylinders were 
amulets engraved with a kind of horoscope 
of the owner, or with the figures of the 
deities who were supposed to preside over 
the owners' nativity and fortunes. But 
it is evident that they were seals or signets 
to be impressed on clay or other material 
on which public or private documents were 
written (ibid., p. 608). Many Persian 
cylinders of this sort are in the British 
Museum ; and there is also there an im- 
pression of one bearing the name and titles 
of Sennacherib (ibid., pp. 603, 607). Cylinders 
were used by some of the Egyptians ; and 
in Crete there have recently been discovered 
seals engraved with figures in many points 
resembling those on the Karnak cylinders, 
dating from the fourth millennium before 
our era. In the exhibition of antiquities 
from Crete held at Burlington House in 
1903 there was shown a photograph of the 
lip of an alabastron with the cartouche of 
the Hyksos king Khyan, dating circa 
1800 B.C. There were also a number of 
drawings of clay impressions from the town 
of Knossos. 

One of the earliest Egyptian seals that 
have yet been discovered is attached to 
some Twelfth Dynasty documents found by 
Prof. Flinders Petrie in the Pyramid of 
Amenemhat III. (see Times, weekly edition, 
22 March, 1889). Sir A. H. Layard, how- 
ever, mentions impressions of two very early 
seals, one Egyptian and the other Assyrian, 
which he discovered ; and recently, when 
a new royal tomb was opened at Thebes, 
it was found that clay seals had been attached 
to the doors of the chambers, and that they 
bore on them the name of the King Thoth- 
mes IV. of the Eighteenth Dynasty. In 
some cases the raised portion of the seal 
was smeared with blue ink before being 
impressed upon the clay (see The Times, 
9 March, 1903, p. 8). 

The fine clay impressions discovered in 
Assyria by Sir A. H. Layard are, it is said, 
not unlike the " sealing earth " of the 
Greeks (Layard, p. 153), who used signets 
of wood in early times, but later of hard 
stone ( J. A. St. "John, ' The History of the 
Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece,' 
1842, vol. iii. p. 148). 

The earliest example of the signet among 
the Greeks is the well-known emerald ring 

10 S. 



made by Theodorus for Polycrates, Tyrant 
of Samos, which dates back as far as 600 B.C. 
Soon after this Solon passed a law prohibit- 
ing the gem-engravers (who had already 
been constituted a distinct trade) from 
keeping by them the impression of any signet 
once sold, in order to prevent its reproduction 
for fraudulent purposes (' Eng. Encyclop.,' 
art. ' Seal ' ). 

A " Public Seal " was in use among the 
Athenians. In the fragment of Aristotle's 
' Constitution of Athens,' discovered a few 
years ago, it is stated that the official who 
was custodian of the keys of the temples 
containing the public treasures and the 
public records should also keep the Public 
Seal (translation by E. Poste, 1891, p. 70). 

In later times in Rome written wills were 
recognized and given effect to if they were 
attested under the hands and seals of seven 
witnesses (Lord Mackenzie, ' Roman Law,' 
p. 279) ; and the practice was confirmed 
and regulated by the Emperor Justinian 
in A.D. 439. This, according to Sir Henry 
Maine, is the first appearance of sealing 
in the history of jurisprudence considered 
as a mode of authentication (' Ancient Law,' 
9th ed., pp. 210-11). The seals were im- 
pressed on the wax joining the edges of 
the tablets upon which the will was inscribed, 
or on the strings or other fastenings ; and 
the sealing was usually done with a ring 
(T. C. Sandars, ' The Institutes of Justinian, 
7th ed., p. 167). After the time of Constan- 
tine (fourth century A.D.) the emperors 
introduced bidlce or leaden seals, and these 
were continued after the fall of the Western 
Empire by the Popes, who use them to the 
present day, the method of attaching the 
bullce to documents being by cords or bands 
(see ' Chambers's Encyclop.'). S. T. 

[Some instances of Greek seals are given in the 
review of Mr. Lang's latest book on Homer, 10 S. 
vii. 39.] 


(See 10 S. vi. 361, 402 ; vii. 3, 82, 284, 404, 
442 ; viii. 124, 183, 384, 442 ; ix. 3, 184, 
323, 463 ; x. 103, 243, 305, 403 ; xi. 62.) 

SOME sprightly poems by the Rev. John 
Straight are included in vol. v. 244-57. 
They are said by his friends to be in Prior's 

John Straight matriculated from Wadham 
College, Oxford, on 28 March, 1705, aged 17, 
and was described as the son of the Rev. 
George Straight of Bishopston, Wilton ; 
but no entry relating to the family can be 

found in the registers of the parish. He 
became the same year a Goodridge Exhibi- 
tioner of that College. His caution money 
was restored to him on 9 Nov., 1708, when 
he migrated to Magdalen College, holding a 
demyship there from 1708 to 1717. He 
graduated B.A. 29 Oct., 1709 ; M.A. 9 July^ 
1712; B.D. 11 Dec., 1723; was a Fellow 
of Magdalen College from 1717 to 24 July, 
1727, its junior Dean of Arts in 1723, and 
its Bursar in 1725. Hearne mentions that 
he preached at St. Mary's on 12 May and 
22 Sept., 1717 (' Collections,' vi. 52, 90). 

Straight was presented to the rectory 
of Horsington, Lincolnshire, on 28 Nov., 
1721, and held it with his Fellowship until 
1727. He was appointed by his college 
to the vicarage of Findon, Sussex, on 14 Jan., 
1726/7 ; and became Prebendary of Witter- 
ing in Chichester Cathedral on 23 March, 
1730/31. Bishop Hoadly, with whose sons 
he was very intimate, conferred on him 
the prebendal stall of Warminster in Salis- 
bury Cathedral, in which he was installed 
on 11 Oct., 1732. He held both these pre- 
bends and his benefice of Findon until his 
death. A characteristic letter of thanks 
was sent by'him to the bishop : 

"I was dead till I received it, but it has given me 

new life; I feel myself gay, elated I have been 

tithe-gathering these three weeks, and never 
thought to enquire after anything for the future 
but the price of corn. But now I shall see Sarum* 
again, I shall see the bishop again ; 

Shall eat his oysters, drink his ale, 
Loos'ning the tongue as well as tail. 
I shall be poetical, oratorical, ambitious ; I 
shall write again to the young divine [Mr. John 
Hoadly], ' Nay, I don't know but to the public.' "- 
' Letters,' ed. J. Buncombe, 1773, 2nd ed. iii. 182. 

Straight died in October, 1736, and was 
buried at Findon on 20 Oct. He married 
Mary, the eldest daughter of Mr. Davenport, 
Vicar of Broad Hinton, Wiltshire, whom he 
left a widow with six children. His circum- 
stances and health had been much injured 
through farming, and in 1741 two volumes 
of ' Select Discourses on Moral and Religious 
Subjects ' were published by subscription for 
his family's benefit. He was described in 
the Gent. Mag. as possessing " extraordinary 
parts and eccentric good sense." Through 
his father's prejudices he had been " educated 
in favour of the French prophets, by whom 
he was eaten up and betrayed." A sermon 
which he preached at the assizes was criti- 
cized in ' Two Letters from a Deist to hi*. 
Friend concerning the Truth and Propaga- 
tion of Deism in opposition to Christianity ^ 
1730.' The sermon was against zeal, which 
brought inconvenience with it. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 20, im 

Bloxam, ' Magdalen Coll.,' iii. 179-80 ; 
Macray, ' Magdalen Coll.,' v. 55 ; Gent. 
Mag., 1776, pp. 214, 601 ; Gardiner, ' Wad- 
ham Coll.,' 1889, pp. 422-3. 

(To be continued.) 

In the brief note prefixed to the mono- 
graph on William Morris which he has con- 
tributed to the " English Men of Letters " 
series, Mr. Alfred Noyes, in order to show 
that the author of ' The Earthly Paradise ' 
had distinction even in his aspect and 
demeanour, writes as follows : 

"'Wha'syon? Wha'syon?' exclaimed a Scotch 
verger (in a dialect which I cannot represent), as 
Morris entered his church. ' Wha 's yon ? ' and he 
violently shook the sleeve of the minister who had 
brought Morris to look at the building. ' Canna 
ye tell me ? Yon 's not an ordeenary man ! Yon J s 
not an ordeenary man ! ' The verger had at any 
rate the right flair" &c. 

Since his " verger " spoke in a dialect 
that he cannot represent, it might have been 
prudent in Mr. Noyes to leave to another 
exponent the dramatic scene he has thus 
attempted to delineate. Vergers are not 
recognized officials in the parish churches 
north of the Tweed, and it seems probable, 
therefore, that the poet had visited a 
Scottish Episcopal church. Here in all like- 
lihood there would be a verger ; but if he 
spoke as Mr. Noyes represents him to have 
done, he must have been a foreigner wrestling 
with the language of the district into which 
he had been transplanted. A Scotsman, 
thinking things out for himself, might speak 
of " no ordinar' man " or " a by-ordinar' 
man " ; but " ordeenary " would never 
occur to him, any more than the " meenister " 
with whom he is so commonly and divert- 
ingly credited by Mr. Punch and other 
cheerful, but erring commentators. One 
is surprised to hear that a verger, even in 
these days of advanced thinkers, could be 
so daring as violently to shake the sleeve of 
his minister. This could never happen 
within the pale of the national Church, and 
its occurrence is emphatic proof, in addition 
to that afforded by the reported remarks, 
that Morris's two observers, as well as himself, 
must have been ecclesiastically strangers in 
a strange land. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Several cases of curious coincidences have 
been reported in ' N. & Q.' (see especially 
9 S. x. 88 ; xii. 137, 190, 396), and I recently 
came across one which seems worthy of 
being added to the list. 

Having occasion to make researches about 

Seasalter, in Kent, I came across some 

curious particulars concerning the Rev. 

Thomas Patten, curate in charge from 1711 

to his death on 9 Oct., 1764 (Gent. Mag., 

xxxiv. 498). He is included in the eccentric 

biographies in Grose's 'Olio' (1796, pp. 150, 

157). Some of the quaint entries he made 

in his registers are given in Burn's ' Regis- 

trum Ecclesiae Parochialis,' pp. 95, 166, 

and in Cox's ' Guide to Whitstable.' Though 

from his habits it was not likely he had 

anything to leave, I thought his will, if he 

made one, would be a curiosity. I searched 

the calendar in the Probate Office at Somerset 

House, and found the will of a Thomas 

Patten, proved 15 Oct., 1764, six days after 

his death. On consulting the will I found 

it was not that of the clergyman of Seasalter, 

but that of Thomas Patten, shipwright of 

St. Margaret's, Rochester, dated 4 Sept., 

1760, and leaving everything to his mother, 

as he was going to his Majesty's dockyard 

at Antigua. Patten is not a very common 

name, but it is certainly curious that the 

will of a Thomas Patten should be proved 

close on the death of another of the same 

name and no relation, as the clergyman 

according -to Foster's ^Alum. Oxon.,' was 

a native of Somerset. A. RHODES. 

One is at a loss to know why this term, 
which denotes the Turkish War Minister, 
is marked in Ogilvie and other modern 
dictionaries with the stress upon the second 
syllable, serdskier. There seems no reason 
for this. It is opposed both to the Turkish 
usage, which lays the stress upon its last 
syllable, and to the English habit of. stressing 
the last syllable in words of similar termina- 
tion, such as brigadier, grenadier, &c. Byron 
preserves the correct sound in his ' Don 
Juan,' canto viii. : 

They took the bastion, which the Seraskier 
Defended at a price extremely dear. 


seems to have been a favourite haunt for 
Slav foreigners for a long time. In 1854 
a tiny pamphlet, ' Elekcyja Wladiysys 
Lawa IV.,' was published in Polish from 
the Drukarni Polskiej at 5, Grove Place, 
Tottenham. It deals incidentally with Sir 
Francis Gordon, our Agent in Poland. 


["Tottenham is turned French "was proverbial 
in Heywood's time. See the discussion at 9 S. xi. 
185, 333.] 

10 s. XL FEB. 20, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


doners will read with interest the bills 
announcing the sale of this quaint old 
coffee-house. For over two centuries 
Groom's has been the resort of generations 
of lawyers, and is one of the few links still 
left between the coffee-houses of the eigh- 
teenth century and the more pretentious 
restaurants of our own day. For the last 
twenty years it has been carried on by Mr. 
George Rice Bolton, the well-known hotel 
proprietor, but it has still its old name, and 
much of its old appearance. 


FLYING MACHINE EST 1751. In connexion 
with the present remarkable development 
of balloons, airships, aeroplanes, &c., some 
early instances have been recorded in the 
papers and in ' N. & Q.,' but I have not 
noticed a mention of this one, nor of one 
so early. 

A Jesuit missionary, of the name of 
Grimaldi, who had been many years in 
India, and who came from Civitavecchia, 
is said to have invented a machine for flying. 
It was in the form of an eagle, and by its 
aid he was able to fly from Calais, across the 
Channel, to Dover. This feat he performed 
in one hour in 1751. See the account of it 
by Charles Hopf in the ' Encyclopaedia of 
Arts and Sciences ' by Ersch and Gruber, 
Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1871, p. 156. I have 
read the same account in another work. 

D. J. 


illustrated on bench-ends in churches are 
not, I believe, of frequent occurrence. 
One which apparently typifies the above 
story is to be found on the east end of the 
seat on the north side of the choir in the 
secluded little church of Throcking, some two 
miles from Buntingford, Hertfordshire. Mr. 
Gordon Hills, the architect who restored 
the church in 1880, in a letter to the Rector, 
the Rev. C. Wigan Harvey, said : 

" The poppy-head that has the figures upon it is 
very curious. It is a whimsical lecture on a breach 
of the Eighth Commandment. If you have at hand 
Grimm's ' Fairy Tales,' you will find the tale about 
the golden goose on which it is founded. It is an 
ancient story in a modern dress. A young wood- 
cutter who passed for a simpleton ootained the 
favour of a good spirit by his superior charity and 
obedience, and was rewarded by finding the goose 
in the roots of a tree which he felled. Going to 
an inn for the night, his prize attracted the 
cupidity of the three daughters of the host, who 
accordingly figure in the carving, and they wear 
no dress, because until the break-up of the monas- 

teries dispersed their inmates, who had universally 
by their rules worn night-dresses, and by this 
dispersion made that custom common, the prac- 
tice of the laity had always been to wear nothing 
of a body dress at night. There was no in- 
delicacy designed or intended by the carver, but 
by this means he represented a night scene. 
Well, the young women came by night to take even 
a feather of the golden goose if they could. First 
came the elder, and she stuck immovably to the 
goose, and then came the second, and stuck to her 
sister ; the third sprang to her assistance, and is 
represented as having made an extraordinary spring 
on the head of the first. No doubt the shape of 
the wood partly dictated her strange position. In 
the morning the simpleton youth rose in the dark 
to carry off his prize, and was not aware till day- 
light broke of the extraordinary train that stuck 
to the goose which he carried under his arm. The 
carving stops the tale at the arrival of the third 
sister, out tne tale goes on increasing the train as 
the wondering neighbours tried to release the 

" I wonder myself whether the story had not a 
really local application. Can it be that the then im- 
portant little market town of Buntingford was the 
golden goose hinted at, and the three daughters 
who stuck to it Throcking, Aspenden, and Lay- 
ston, in which parishes Buntiugtord stands, each 
getting a golden feather out of Buntingford ? It 
may be said that Bnntingford is partly in Wyddial, 
and the introduction of the fourth parish could not 
fit the fable. By looking at old maps I fancy that 
Wyddial has even now very little of Buntingford, 
and that it had 400 years ago nothing." 

The market at Buntingford has ceased 
to exist, but I judge from local seventeenth- 
century wills in my possession that it was 
at one period a valuable privilege. The 
original grant of the market and two fairs 
by Henry VIII. in 1541 hangs in the chapel 
of ease at Buntingford. Mr. T. T. Greg 
printed a translation of it, illustrated by a 
facsimile, in the East Herts Archaeological 
Transactions, vol. ii. pp. 1-5. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

BlRKENHEAD PiLACE - RlME. 1 do not 

think that the following rime of places has 
hitherto found its way into ' N. & Q.' It 
appeared in The Catholic News, 18 Jan., 
1890, p. 7 : 

From Birkenhead to Hilburee 

A squirrel may go from tree to tree. 


" IMMANQTJABLE." An English letter 
written in 1794 by Lafayette (the famous 
French general who had taken a prominent 
part in the American War of Independence > 
contains the strangely imported French ad- 
jective immanquable (in the sentence " This 
is certainly immanquable "). The letter, 
which is followed by a French translation, 
is printed on pp. 287-9 of ' Correspondence 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL F. -ju, 1009 

medite de Lafayette, 1793-1801,' ed. J. 
Thomas, Paris, 1903. It may possibly be 
worth while to incorporate this French loan- 
word, as a synonym of " infallible " or 
" unfailing," in the Supplement to the 
' Historical English Dictionary.' 


THE LONDON LIBRARY. It will interest 
members of the great institution in St. 
James's Square to know that there was an 
eighteenth-century prototype. The follow- 
ing extract is taken from The Monthly Maga- 
zine of 1 July, 1801, p. 526 : 

" Among other consequences which are likely to 
result from the present increased price of books, 
the opening of a considerable number of new 
Reading-rooms in various parts of the kingdom is 
probably not the least important to general 
literature. Influenced by this consideration, the 
trustees of the London Library, which formerly 
occupied Reading-rooms on Ludgate-hill, have 
removed their Library to Mr. Charles Taylor's in 
Hatton-garden, near Holborn, where it will be 
re-opened for the advantage of the public, on the 
1st day of July, on the same terms as before. This 
Society was established in 1785, and has to boast of 
many names celebrated in the annals of literature, 
as its founders and patrons." 


In 1906, at 10 S. v. 181, 507, I gave some 
particulars of St. Michael's, Burleigh Street, 
Strand, its history, closing, monuments, 
and sale of the fabric. I think that a few 
lines concerning its successor in the pleasant 
suburb of Chiswick may be of interest, and 
possibly, as time goes on, of some use. 

On Saturday, the 19th of December 
last, the foundation stone of the new edifice 
was laid by Lord Kinnaird. The cost, 
as has been already stated, together with 
that of the Vicarage, is being met by the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, from part 
of the funds realized by the sale of the 
Burleigh Street church. The inscription 
upon the foundation stone is as follows : 

" A. M. D. G. In Commemoration of the Church 
of St. Michael, Burleigh Street, Strand, the de- 
molition of which to meet the needs of the time 
has enabled a House of God to be erected in this 
district of Greater London, this stone was laid by 
Lord Kinnaird, December 19th, 1908. Leonard 
McNeill Shelt'ord, Vicar." 

The seating accommodation of the church 
will be 625. A parish has been assigned 
to it, consisting of the western part of the 
extensive parish of St. Nicholas, Chiswick, 
together with a portion from Christ Church, 
Turnham Green. Altogether the new parish 
-will comprise 113 acres, with a present 
population of somewhere about 3,000 people. 
The architects are Messrs. Caroe & Passmore, 

the architects to the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners ; and the builders are Messrs. 
Whitehead & Co. of Clapham. 

A small temporary church has been pro- 
vided through the efforts of the parishioners, 
and was opened early in the present year. 
Some of the fittings of the old church are 
to be brought into use in the new one, 
so that the link between the two will be 
very real much more so than is often the 
case when old and honoured buildings are 
demolished. It may be added that the 
design is one of considerable picturesqueness. 


ANCIENT CRANES. Vincent Alsop in his 
' Anti-Soz/o ' (1675) mentions a crane about 
Billingsgate with the aid of which a lusty 
fellow and a mastiff in a wheel could take 
up an, incredible weight (see ante, p. 47). 
There are at least two such old cranes 
extant in Germany. The one at Treves, 
dating from 1413, is still in use. The con- 
struction of the other, at Andernach on the 
Rhine, was begun in 1554. Sketches of 
them can be seen in the Zeitschri/t of the 
Society of German Engineers (1898, p. 194, 
and 1908, p. 519). CraVies of a different 
construction are shown on an ancient plan 
of Hull in Charles Frost's ' Early History ' 
of that town and port (frontispiece). The 
author (p. 87) quotes from a grant of 1347 
wherein the Archbishop of York reserves 
to himself the free use of a wooden crane 
("crane ligneum") for landing and loading 
wines, wool, &c., from and into boats on the 
river Hull. L. L. K. 

There is a pamphlet, now very scarce, with 
the following title-page : 

" Sea- Romers. Old Johnny Wolgar. ' List, ye 
landsmen, all to me.' From The London Magazine. 
September. 1823. Carlisle, Printed at the office of 
B. Scott, 1826." 12mo, pp. 37. 
It is strange that this should be reprinted 
at Carlisle. There is no Cumberland refer- 
ence in it, as it deals entirely with Sussex, 
and is a very vivid sketch of a beachman 
known from Castle Point to Birley Gap 
as the " King of the Roamers.'' As the 
tract is anonymous, it may be well to note 
that the author was Richard Ayton, who 
was born in 1786, and died in 1823, soon 
after he had finished this sketch of Johnny 
Wolgar. A memorial volume of his 'Essays 
and" Sketches' appeared in 1825, and in- 
cludes this notice of an old sea-roamer. 



10 s. XL FEB. 20, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

JAN STARTER, the Dutch poet, was born 
in London. According to tradition, the 
year of his birth was 1504. With his father 
John and his brother Francis he came to 
Holland with other Dissenters in or about 
1607. I shall be very much obliged to any 
-one who can furnish me with particulars 
concerning the poet's parents, the exact 
date of his birth and emigration, and any 
other details that may throw light on his 
descent and early youth. 

A. E. H. SWAEN. 


I find in a MS. journal of Col. William 
Cuniughame (of the Enterkine family), who 
crossed France in 1751 on his way^to join 
the garrison at Minorca as an engineer, a 
curious story which is strangely like one 
of the incidents in Casanova's ' Memoires,' 
although the date seems to differ. During 
his passage down the Rhone with a crowd 
of passengers, Cuninghame writes that 
" great variety of storys past throw their hands, 
emong [them] a pretty remarkable story of a 
gentleman at Lyons who had fallen so much in 
love with his own daughter as to occasion jealousy 
in his wife, who had applied to have the young 
lady secretted to some convent, which turned 
the husband's brain." 

Is not this very like the story Casanova 

tells of " le Marquis Desarmoises " (iv. 477- 

478), who also lived at Lyons ? The date 

Casanova gives, however, is apparently 1760. 


79, Great King Street, Edinburgh. 

give me information about this club where 
it met, its founders and chief members, 
its objects, and the origin of the name ? 
Walpole in one of his letters describes a 
ball which was given at Mrs. Cornelys's 
in Soho Square in 1770 by the Tuesday 
Night's Club. All fashionable London was 
there. I can find no mention of it in Timbs's 
book on clubs, or in ' Old and New London.' 

Amongst the muniments belonging to my 
uncle, Sir Walter Spencer Stanhope of 
Cannon Hall, Yorkshire, is a MS. containing 
" A Joyfull ballad of the Roy all entrance 

of Quene E into the Cetye of London 

the 24 of November in the 31 yeire of hyr 
Ma tie " Reigne to gyve God praye for the 
oVthrowe of the Spanyards." The first 
stanza is as follows : 

Amonge the woonderous works of God 
For savegard of owre Quene 
Agenst the heape of traiterous foes 
Whiche have confounded berie 
The great and myghty overthrowe 
Of Spanyerd prowde in mynde 
Have gyven us all just cause to saye 
The Lord ys good and kynde. 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' say if it has 
already been printed ? 

(Mrs.) A. M. W. STIRLING. 
30, Launceston Place, Palace Gate. W. 

GRAY : Two REFERENCES. 1. In his 
' Observations on the Pseudo-Rhythmus ' 
('Works,' ed. Gosse, i. 361), Gray refers 
to the ancient British bards Benbeirdh and 
Lowarkk (Gosse misprints " Lomarkk "). 
I surmise Benbeirdh to be Avan Verddig, 
the author of an elegy on Caedwalla, King 
of Gwynedd (who d. 634) ; cf. T. Stephens, 
' Literature of the Cymry,' 1849, p. 13. I 
desire evidence confirming or disproving 
this view. Lowarkk seems to be Llywarch 

2. In the same essay (ed. Gosse, p. 363) 
Gray speaks of a " Harmony of the Evan- 
gelists paraphrased in verse, in the Cotton 
Library," as a specimen of O.E. poetry 
dating from pre-Danish times. To what 
poem does Gray here refer ? Surely not 
to Cynewulf s ' Christ,' which is only in 
the ' Exeter Book.' CHARLES SOUTHDOWN 

Ithaca, N.Y. 

BISHOPS OF ST. ASAPH. There are two 
questions I should like to ask that arise 
out of the recent correspondence in 'N. & Q.' 
respecting the first English bishop to marry. 

There were, of course, as shown in that 
correspondence, two bishops named William 
Barlow : (1) He who was successively 
Bishop of St. David's (1536), Bath and 
Wells (1549-54), and Chichester (1559), 
and died 10 Dec., 1569 ; (2) he who was 
consecrated Bishop of Rochester in June, 
1605, was translated to Lincoln in 1608, 
and died 7 Sept., 1613. 

My first question has reference to William 
Barlow (1). Is it correct to include him 
in the list of Bishops of St. Asaph ? ^ Dr. 
James Gairdner (in the index to his ' The 
English Church in the Sixteenth Century ' ) 
does so ; MR. A. C. JONAS at 10 S. x. 474 
quotes Godwin's ' Catalogue ' to the effect 
that he was consecrated Bishop of St. Asaph 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 20, im 

in 1535 ; and F. DE H. L. (10 S. x. 412) says 
Barlow was elected Bishop of St. Asaph 
16 Jan., 1535/6, but never took possession 
of the see. Dr. Stubbs, in the second 
edition of his ' Registrum Sacrum Angli- 
canum,' not only does not include him in 
his list of St. Asaph bishops, but puts his 
consecration some time in June, 1536, very 
shortly before the consecration of another 
man as Bishop of St. Asaph. No record 
of the consecration of Barlow is forth- 
coming, but the date is fixed by collateral 
proof as June 11, 18, or 26, his precedence 
being between William Rugge or Repps, 
Bishop of Norwich (consecrated 11 June), 
and Robert Parfew or Wharton, Bishop of 
St. Asaph (consecrated 2 July). 

My second question relates to the last- 
named bishop. Was his name Parfew or 
Wharton ? His predecessor at St. Asaph 
(according to Dr. Stubbs) was Henry 
Standish, consecrated 11 July, 1518 ; died 
9 July, 1535. JOHN COLES, Jun. 


Whence does the following quotation come ? 
It has been stated to be from Shakespeare, 
but cannot be verified : 
Men are not worthy of the honeycomb 
Who shun the hives because the bees have stings. 


[It does not appear in Bartlett's large ' Con- 
cordance to Shakespeare.'] 

The following, with a second verse, heads 
chap. x. of ' Doctor Cupid,' by Rhoda 
Broughton (1886). The last two lines 
appear to form the refrain to -whatever 
other verses there may be. I should be 
glad to know- the author, and where the 
complete poem may be found : 
Our Master hath a garden which fair flowers adorn; 
There will I go and gather, both at eve and morn : 
Naught 's heard therein but angel hymns with 

harp and lute, 
Loud trumpets and bright clarions, and the gentle 

soothing flute. 

W. B. H. 

[The verse forms part of a Christmas carol, 
published probably by Messrs. Novello.] 

Who wrote the following ? 

The more they 're burthened better do they thrive, 
Like depress'd Virtue better kept alive. 


Liverpool Daily Post and Mercury of Friday, 
22 January, there is an account of an applica- 
tion to the Chester Consistory Court for 
permission to erect a reredos in St. Saviour's 

Church, Oxton, the cost to be defrayed by 
a gentleman who wished to make a thank- 
offering for his recovery from illness. The 
figures on the reredos were those of four 
angels, one being described as the Angel 
of Meridian. Neither the Chancellor nor 
the Registrar was able to explain the refer- 
ence ; and I have not been able to discover 
what is meant. 

The ' Oxford English Dictionary ' gives 
" Meredian devil : transl. of Vulg. dce- 
monium meridianum," Psalm xci. 6, " the 
destruction that wasteth at noonday." 
It has been suggested that the Angel of 
Meridian is the power of good of the noonday, 
as opposed to the devil of the noonday ; 
and in support of this theory reference is 
made to verse 11 of the same Psalm : " For 
he shall give his angels charge over thee." 
The ' O.E.D.' gives also, " 1673, ' Lady's 
Call.' i. v. 39, ' Are God's safeguards to be 
only meridional ? ' ' 

According to Larousse, " Demon Meri- 
dien " is a demon who appears at harvest 
time, according to the Russian peasants. 

E. S. B. 

HAGGARD : O GARDE. Is there any his- 
torical fact underlying the alleged descent 
of the Haggards of Norfolk from a member 
of the ancient Danish noble family of Gylden- 
stjerne ( " Guildenstern " ), i.e. Goldenstar, 
who settled in England during the reign 
of Henry V. ? 

Sir Andrew de Ogarde, as he seems to 
have been called, was a younger son of 
Peter Nielsen of Aagaard in North Jutland, 
the family name of Gyldenstjerne only 
coming into use a generation later, when 
this now extinct noble family a branch 
line is said still to be found in Sweden 
rose to the height of its power and political 

Sir Andrew seems to have served in the 
war in France after Agincourt, being second 
chamberlain to the Duke of Bedford. In 
1433 he became naturalized according to 
Act of Parliament, and died about 1460. 

Bockenham Hall (?) in Norfolk has been 
mentioned as the estate he acquired in 
England, probably through marrying an 
heiress. W. R. PRIOR. 

" ARTAHSHASHTE." The above is the 
rendering of Artaxerxes in Barker's Bible 
(1614), in Ezra passim. Not seeing therein 
other abnormalities in proper names, as 
compared with the A.V., I ask if this is 
explicable by a deficiency of x*s in the 
fount, or otherwise. H. P. L. 

10 8. XL FEB. 30, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


THOMAS HILL. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
kindly give me information as to where 
Gainsborough resided in or near Richmond 
during the summer months of the last six 
or seven years of his life (178087) ? 

Perhaps also some one might oblige me 
with information regarding John Thomas 
Hill (" Jack Hill "), son of George and 
Elizabeth Hill of Petersham, whom Gains- 
borough adopted during those years, and 
who, through the influence of Mrs. Gains- 
borough, was placed in Christ's Hospital, 
1791. A. W. DAVIES. 

56, Elm Grove Road, Barnes. 

In Miller's ' Jottings of Kent,' p. 95, it 
is stated : 

"Amongst the monuments [at Otford] is a 
mural tomb of fine sculpture for David Polhill, 
son of Thomas Polhill, of Otford, whose grand- 
mother was Bridget, daughter of Oliver Cromwell, 
Lord Protector. ' ' 
Can any one verify this ? Bridget Cromwell 
married (1) Ireton, (2) Fleetwood. 

G. H. W. 

" LAPPASSIT." In a letter written in 

1679 by Col. Cooke to the first Duke of 

Ormonde, " that illustrious cavalier " of 
Macaulay, occurs the following : 

'My own distemper so continues that it 
forfeits me also to a lappassit of writing legible.' ' 
-Morning Post, 26 Dec., 1908, p. 7. 

The assumption is that the colonel it: 
advancing his illness as an excuse for in- 
different calligraphy ; but will some one 
kindly tell me the meaning and derivation 
of " lappassit " ? 

What, too, is the force of " it forfeits me 
to " in this curious sentence ? 


Church Fields, Salisbury. 

THOMAS DOVER, M.B. Can any of your 
readers supply information as to the an- 
cestry of Thomas Dover, M.B., 1660-1742, 
author of ' The Physician's Legacy ' ? From 
the ' Biographical History of Gonville and 
Caius College ' (Venn) he appears to have 
been the " son of John Dover of Barton- 
on-the-Heath, Warwicks., gent." Was his 
father the only son of Robert Dover, 1575 
1641, a Warwickshire attorney of Bar- 
ton-on-the-Heath, who founded the Cots- 
wold games in 1604 (vide 3 S. ix. passim) ? 
' D.N.B.' states that Robert Dover had one 
son, Capt. John Dover, who fought under 
Prince Rupert, and was the father of John 
Dover (d. 1725), dramatist and rector of 
Drayton. I am inclined to think that the 

Rev. John Dover was the elder brother of 
Thomas. At Michaelmas, 1686, when 
Thomas entered at Caius College, Cambridge, 
was there any John Dover resident at Barton- 
on-the-Heath besides Robert's son, the 
Royalist captain and father of the Rev. 
John Dover of Drayton, Banbury T 

18, West Mall, Clifton, Bristol. 

SAMUEL HAYES was Fellow of Trin. Coll., 
Camb., and Usher at Westminster School 
(1771-88), where he was known as "Botch" 
Hayes. I wish to obtain the exact date of 
his death. He is said to have died in 1795, 
and a volume of his sermons was published 
in 1797 for the benefit of his widow. 

G. F. R. B. 

RICHARD BIJGH, 1780-1838. What 
authority is there for the statement in the 
'Diet, of Nat. Biog.,' v. 218, that he was 
a son of Admiral William Bligh ? The West- 
minster Indenture of 1795 and the entry 
of his admission to Trin. Coll., Camb., both 
state that he was son of John Bligh of 
London ; and in his entry at Lincoln's Inn 
he is described as " the second son of John 
Bligh, late of Abingdon St., Esq., deced." 
I should be glad to obtain the exact date 
of his death. G. F. R. B. 

DR. ROBERT GURNEY. Can any one give 
me information as to the Rev. Robert 
Gurney, D.D. ? He was Rector of Omagh, 
co. Deny, early in the eighteenth century. 

15, Ryder Street, St. James's. 

MANNERS. The former was Lieutenant 
Colonel 2nd Dragoon Guards, 1763 ; and 
Colonel 86th Foot, 1794. He died Sept., 
1800. Of what family did this officer come, 
and how was he connected with the Rutland 
house, if at all ? 

Col. Henry Herbert Manners was Second 
Lieutenant Rifle Brigade, 1807 ; also Major 
and Colonel 37th Foot. He died at Ken- 
sington, 21 May, 1843. Was this officer 
related to the former ? and if not, of what 
family did he come ? 

GEORGE EVATT, Surgeon-General. 
Junior U.S. Club, S.W. 

When did the royal licence to travel cease 
to be issued ? I have traced it to the 
time of William III. 

When did the passport, as distinguished 
from the licence, come into use ? I have 
traced it back to Anne. GEORGE WHALE. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FKB. -20, im. 

(10 S. xi. 90.) 

MR. J. M. GRANT is right in describing the 
account of Maclachlan in the ' D.N.B.' 
as unsatisfactory : its bibliography is meagre 
and inaccurate. Much of the contemporary 
praise bestowed on him may be discounted 
as due to the Celtic fervour of his pane- 
gyrists, and it must be admitted that most 
of his English verse is poor stuff ; but, for 
his period, his Gaelic scholarship was re- 
markable. Some of his work still remains 
in MS., and his publications are sparingly 
represented in the great libraries. Thus the 
British Museum printed Catalogue has but 
five entries under his name ; the Advocates' 
Library Catalogue only two. He was 
Librarian of University and King's College, 
Aberdeen, from 1800 (when, having just 
taken his M.A., he was appointed at a 
salary of 300 merks Scots) to 1819, when he 
appears to have resigned on receiving the 
full charge of the parish school of Old Aber- 
deen. He died in 1822. 

I feel it incumbent on me to put at least 
the bibliography of my most distinguished 
predecessor in a satisfactory form. The 
books noted in the appended list are all in 
the library of the University of Aberdeen, 
with the exception of the first, a copy of 
which has been kindly lent to me by Prof. 
Mackinnon, Edinbiirgh. 

' O 

, i,i Orain Ghaidh ealacha : | le | Ailein Dughal- 
lach, 1^ fear ciuil arm an lonbhar Lochaidh. I Maille 
ri | co' chruinneachadh | oran is dhan, I le I ugh- 
dairibh eile. | Dun-eidean : , clodhbhuailt air-son an 
ughdair le Eoin Moir, I ann an cuirt a Phaiters- 
nich. | 1798. 

6 Jin. by 4 in. Pp. 6 + 5-222. Pp. 109 
to 175 are devoted to " Bain le E. McL[ach- 
lan]," viz., ' An Samhradh,' ' Am Fogh'ar ' 
' An Geamhradh,' ' An t'Earrach,' ' Smeo- 
rach Mhic-Lachainn,' ' Oran do'n Nolluig ' 
Duan do dh'oidhche na Bliadhnn' uire/ 
'Rann do'n Leisg,' 'An ode to the river 
Pean' (English and Gaelic), 'Dan mu 
chonaltradh ' ; ' Earran do cheathramh 
leabhar an Iliad aig Homer' ('Iliad,' iv 
11. 419-544, in 228 lines of Gaelic verse) ; 
' Toiseach an ochdaimh leabhair do'n Iliad 
aig Homer ' (' Iliad,' viii. 11. 1-77, in 140 lines 
of Gaelic) ; ' Am Messiah aig Mr. Pope.' 

Maclachlan's renderings from Homer are 
described by Reid ('Bibl. Scoto-Celtica,' 
p. 84) as a " translation of the first two 
books of the ' Iliad '" ! His contributions 

are not reproduced in the Inverness (1829) 
edition of Allan MacDougall's ' Orain ' (un- 
known to Reid). That edition, however, 
contains on pp. 131-6 ' Cumha do dh' Eoghan 
MacLachuinn, a dh'eug ann an Obar- 
readhain, agus, ghiulaineadh a' chorp 
dhachaidh, do'n Chill an Aird-ghabhar,' in 
eighteen stanzas. Another Gaelic Lament 
for Maclachlan, from the pen of the Rev. 
Angus Macintyre, appears in Cuairtear nan 
Oleann for September, 1840. 

1805. 'liST/ | Trepi rov ecr(o <<s sve 
Carmen 'grsecum. | de verbis | Fiat Lux. | Auctore 
Evano McLachlan, | Abriensi, | Regii Collegii Aber- 
donensis alumno. | [Motto from Jones.] Edinburgi : 

| excudebat Jacobus Ballantyne. | 1805. 

9in. by Sin. Pp. 10. To this effort of 
Maclachlan's had been awarded a prize of 
25Z. offered in 1804 by Dr. Claudius Buchanan 
Vice-Provost of the College of Fort William, 
Calcutta, for a Greek ode on the subject 
Tevf(r6<a 4>ws. The Ode was reprinted in 
the ' Attempts ' of 1807, and in the ' Effu- 
sions ' of 1816. The copy of the original 
edition in Aberdeen University Library 
bears on the back of the title-page the 
inscription in the author's handwriting : 

" Has ingenii sui primitias qualescunque, 
summa cum reverentia, in Almae Matris gremio 
deponit alumnus, Evanus McLachlan, 17mo. 
Cal. Maias 1806." 

1806. Homeri | Odyssea, | Grace et Latine : | 
juxta edit. | Sam. Clarke, | Glasg. 1799. | Editio 
quarta. [Motto from Aristotle.] | Tom. I. (II.) 

| Aberdoniae. \ Excud. J. et D. Chalmers, Acade- 
miae typographi, \ inpensis [sic] Longman, Hurst, 
Bees, et Orme, Londini ; -et | A. Brown, Aberdoniae. 

| 1806. 

6| in. by 4 in. Pp. [4] + 331 + [1] ; 
([4] + 329 + [!]). The Greek and Latin on 
alternate pages. Edited, like the ' Iliad ' 
of 1813 (infra), by Ewen Maclachlan. See 
Mr. George Walker's ' Aberdeen Awa',' 
p. 79. " A new fount of Greek type was 
ordered," writes Mr. Walker, 
" but that was easier to procure than compositors 
to set it up. At last, one man made himself 
competent to put the letters together mechanically 
without any knowledge of the language ; and 
it is said that as the result of the years spent by 
him on this dry and uncongenial task, he ended 
his days in the Lunatic Asylum." 

1807. Attempts | in | verse. | [Motto from Ovid.] 
| By Ewen Maclachlan. | Aberdeen : | printed for 

the author, | by | J. Chalmers and Co. | 1807. 

5|in. by 3J in. Pp. 61 + [1]. Dedicated 
" To the students of University and King's 
College." The first Attempt is an ' Elegy 
on the death of a student at King's College.' 

1808. Collegium Bengalense. I Nobilissimo et 
ornatissimo | viro | Marchioni de Welleslcy. j Indiae 
Orientals Praefecto, | carmen. | Auctore | Evano 

iu s. XL FEB. 20, 1909.] NOTES AXD QUERIES. 


McLachlan, | Abriensi, [ Regii Collegii Aberdonensis 
alumno. j [Motto from Virgil. ] | Aberdoniae : | excu- 
debant Jac. Chalmers et Soc. | Academiae typo- 
graphi. | 1808. 

8-in. by 7J in. Pp. 8. A prize of 25Z. 
offered for a Latin ode on the College of 
Bengal had been awarded to Alexander 
Adamson, M.A., but Maclachlan was re- 
quested to print his unsuccessful effort. The 
Ode reappears in the ' Carminum Liber 
Unus ' and ' Metrical Effusions ' of 1816. 
Adamson's Ode was also printed in 1808. 

1810. Elegy | on the \ death of | Mr. James 
Beattie, | Professor of Humanity and Natural 
History [ in the University and Marischal College, 

i Aberdeen. | [Motto from Arthur Johnston.] j 
By Ewen McLachlan. ! Aberdeen : | printed for the 
author, j by D. Chalmers and Co. Price 6d. | 

5f in. by 3J in. Pp. 23 + [l]. The Elegy is 
followed by ' A Dream ' and an ' Ode,' in 
English, and ' Servator Redivivus ' in Latin 
all three reappearing in the ' Metrical 

1811. Catalogue | of 1 books | belonging to | the 
Theological Library | of | Marischal College, | Aber- 
deen. | Aberdeen : | printed by D. Chalmers and Co. 

| 1811. 

8Jin. by 5J in. Pp. 31 + [1]. Maclachlan 
was librarian of this library, 1807-11. 

1812. MS. transcripts. 

" About 1812 the Highland Society commis- 
sioned Mr. Ewen Maclachlan of Aberdeen to 
examine the more important of the Gaelic MSS. 
in their possession. Mr. Maclachlan, in a volume 
which has been preserved, made a careful and full 
analysis of 14 MSS., six of those formerly described 
by Dr. Smith and 8 others, viz. those now cata- 
logued [as in the Advocates' Library] xxxii., 
xxxiii., xxxvii., xxxviii., xl., xli., xlvi., liii., liv., 
lv., Ivi., Iviii., Ixii., and Ixv. Mr. Maclachlan 
made besides very voluminous transcripts, which 
he intended, when the tune and opportunity 
which never came permitted, to publish with trans- 
lations. Of MS. xxxvii. (the Dean of Lismore's) 
he has left two transcripts. In a volume which 
he designated the ' Leabhar Caol ' there is a 
transcript of the whole of MSS. xlvi. and liii. ; 
of all the tales in xxxviii. ; of the tale of the Son 
of Uisneach from Ivi. ; with copious extracts 
from xl., liv., lv., Ixii., and Ixv. There were no 
Grammars or Dictionaries of the old language 
at the time, and so Mr. Maclachlan was unable 
at all times correctly to extend the contractions 
of the older MSS. (xl., xlvi., and liii., e.g.) ; but 
the work which the indefatigable scholar did, 
though now apt to be forgotten, was most valuable 
and important." Prof. Mackinnnon on 'The 
Scottish Collection of Gaelic MSS.,' read before 
the Gaelic Society of Inverness, 7 May, 1890 
(Transactions, xvi. 307-8). 

1813. 'H TOV | ^OfMtjpov 'IA.6as. | Honieri Ilias. 
| Interpretatio Latina adjecta est | ex editione 

8. Clarke. j Vol. I. (II.) | Abredoniffi : | e prelo 
academico. | Veneunt apud A. Brown, Aberdon. ; 
et Longman, ! Hurst, Rees, Orme, et Brown, 
L-inclin. | 1813. 

6in. by 4 in. Pp. [2]-f216 [Greek] + 
155 + [1, Latin version]; ([2] + 233 + [l, 
Greek] + 166 [Latin version]). Edited by 

1813. A | choice collection | of | Gaelic poems, 
| with the | third book of Homer's Iliad, j trans- 
lated into Gaelic ; | to which are added | Gal- 
gacus's speech to the Caledo- | nians, j Pyrrhus 
and Fabritius, etc. | Edinburgh : | Printed by 
C. Stewart. | Sold by D. Thomson, Greenock, ; 
J. Young and Co. Inverness, and D. Peat, Perth. 
j 1813. [Gaelic title-page on next leaf.] 

e^in. by 4 in. Pp. 4 + 216. The 'Collec- 
tion ' includes several items reprinted from 
the 'Grain' of 1790, together with, in 
17 stanzas on pp. 122-6, " Marb-rann do'n 
Ard - Urrumach Mr. Seumas Beattie, Fear- 
teagaisg Can'ain, 's nan Eolus nadurra, 
ann an Aoltigh Uir-Obairreadhain, a chao- 
chail sa Mhadainn Diardaoin, an 4 amh, 
la do'n ochdamh mios 1810 : le E. McL.," 
The ' Marb-rann ' was written before the 
English ' Elegy ' of 1810 : see foot-note on 
p. 8 of the latter. It was reprinted in Dr. 
Norman Macleod's ' Co-chruinneachadh ' of 
1828, and ' Leabhar nan cnoc ' of 1834 ; also 
in Mackenzie's ' Beauties ' of 1841 : see 
infra. Pp. 187-208 contain " An treas duan 
de Sgeulachd na Troidhe air a thionndadh 
o Greugais Homeir, gu Gailig abraich. 
Le h-Eobhon MacLachainn." See an appre- 
ciation of this translation by the Rev. A. C. 
Sutherland in The Celtic Magazine for 
January, 1881. 

1816. Eveni Lachlanidse, | Abriensis, | carminum 
liber unus. | [Motto from Virgil.] | Abredonise : | 
excudebant D. Chahners et Soc. | Acad. topograph. 
| 1816. 

6f in. by 4J in. Pp. [4] + 3-33+[5]. Dedi- 
cated " Discipulis perdilectis." 

1816. Metrical effusions, | on a | variety of sub- 
jects. | [Motto from Ovid.] | The second edition, | 
enlarged and improved. | By | Ewen Maclachlan, 
A.M., teacher of the Grammar School, | Old Aber- 
deen. | Aberdeen : | printed by D. Chalmers and 
Co. | 1816. 

7 Jin. by 4Hn. Pp. viu + 276. The first 
edition was the ' Attempts in Verse ' of 
1807. Pp. 1-37 reproduce the " Carminum 
liber unus : editio altera, priore emendatior." 
The copy of the ' Effusions ' in Aberdeen 
University Library bears on the initial fly- 
leaf the inscription in the author's hand- 
writing : 

" Almse suae Matri in observantiae tesseram 
hunc libellum donavit Auctor, beneficiorum pristi- 
norum non penitus immemor. Cal. Januar. 1817." 

1816. An original collection | of the | poems of 
Ossian, | Orrann, UUn, | and other bards, | who 
nourished in the same age. | Collected and edited 
by | Hugh and John McCallum. | Montrose : j 
printed at the Review newspaper office. | for the 
editors, | by James Watt, bookseller, | 1810. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 20, im 

8f in. by 5% in. Pp. xcii + 93-242 + 59+ [1]. 
The last 59 pages contain in double columns 
an extraordinary list of subscribers, number- 
ing upwards of 6,400 names ! To this 
volume Maclachlan contributed translations 
of ' Dargo, the Son of Drudin,' a poem 
(pp. 95-104) ; ' Ossian's Address to the 
Rising and to the Setting Sun ' (English and 
Latin, pp. 165-72); and 'Darthula ' (pp. 212- 
213) ; also ' The Society of True Highlanders, 
a metrical effusion ' (pp. 214-23). " We 
can boldly assert," say the editors, 
" that Mr. McLachlan should be ranked among 
the first literary characters that Britain ever 
produced. From his profound knowledge of the 
oriental languages, and his vast natural ingenuity, 
he is justly entitled to fill the first situation hi any 
university in the kingdom ; and he has the happy 
art to instill into the minds of his pupils the most 
pious and loyal principles ; yet, from his unaffected 
modesty, he is far above complaining in his present 
situation." Pp. xc-xci. 

Another edition of the ' Collection ' (un- 
known to Reid), with identical title-page, 
pp. xcii and 59 + [1], has pp. 93-242 devoted 
to the originals which are translated in the 
edition described above. 

1828. Dictionarium Scoto-Celticum : | a | dic- 
tionary | of the | Gaelic language ; | comprising | 
an ample vocabulary of Gaelic words | . . . . com- 
piled and published under the direction of | the 
Highland Society of Scotland. | In two volumes. I 
Vol. I. (II.) | William Blackwood, Edinburgh ; 
and T. Cadell, London. | MDCCCXXVIII. 

llf-in. by Sin. Pp. xviii + 736 + 40 ; 
(iv+ 1006+ 11 + [!]). According to the In- 
troduction, p. xiii, 

" At the commencement of this undertaking 
it was expected that, as a source of authorities 
for illustration of the language, the ancient 
Gaelic manuscripts belonging to the Highland 
Society would be brought into immediate and 
important use. And it is but justice to the 
memory of a very learned and ingenious gentle- 
man, the late Mr. Ewen Maclachlan of Aberdeen, 
to state that he bestowed much assiduous labour 
on the deciphering of these, under disadvantages 
which scarcely anything but his own singular 
ardour could have surmounted ; he died before 
his task was completed ; and in him the Highland 
Society lost one of the compilers to whom they 
looked with much confidence and hope." 

1841. Sar-obair nam bard Gaelach : | or. | The 
beauties of Gaelic poetry, | and | lives of the high- 
land bards : | with | historical and critical notes, 
| and | a comprehensive glossary of provincial 

words. | By John Mackenzie Esq. [ Glasgow : 

| Macgregor, Poison and Co., 75 Argyll Street, | 
MDCCCXXI. [Reissued in 1872 and in 1904.] 

9 Jin. by 5^ in. Pp. viii*+iii-lxvi+376. 
Pp. 321-39 are devoted to Maclachlan, and 
include a biographical sketch by the Rev. 
J. Macintyre, LL.D., Kilmonivaig. The 
poems quoted are selected from the ' Grain ' 
of 1798, the ' Choice Collection ' of 1813, 

and the ' Effusions ' of 1816 ; and include 
the ' Marb-rann do Mr. Seumas Beattie,' 
which, according to Dr. Macintyre, 
" for beauty of language, sincerity of sorrow, and 
unrivalled elegance of composition, can bear com- 
parison with anything of the kind ever presented 
to the world." 

1874. AnGaidheal; | paipeir-naidheachd | agus | 
leabhar-sgeoil Gaidhealach. | An dara (- siathamh) 
leabhar (Aireamh 13 gu 72). | [Motto from Ossian.J 
| Glasgow : | (Edinburgh) | 1874-7. 

7in. by 5 in. Pp. iv+380. In vol. ii. 
pp. 12, 41, 72, 101, 142; vol. iii. pp. 173, 
213, 245, 271, 299, 330, 373 ; vol. iv. pp. 13, 
79, 139, 362 ; vol. v. p. 237 ; vol. vi. pp. 84, 
109, 177, appear portions, hitherto un- 
published, of " Sgialachd na Troidhe, air 
a thionndadh bho Greugais Homeir gu 
Gaidhlig abraich le Eobhan Maclachlan." 
The translations are of ' Iliad,' i. ; ii. 
11. 1-271, 484-92, 638-44, 729-37; iii. 
11. 1-383, 428-49 ; iv. 11. 419-544 ; v. 
11. 1-375 ; vi. 11. 390-500 ; vii. 11. 244-315 ; 
viii. 11. 1-77. 

1891. Transactions | of the | Gaelic Society | 
of Inverness. | Vol. XVI. | 1889-90. | Clann nan 
Gaidheal an Guaillean a Cheile. | Printed for the 
Gaelic Society of Inverness, | . . . .1891. 

Sin. by 5J in. Pp. xvi+329 + [l]. On 
pp. 122-48 is printed a paper, ' Some 
Letters from the pen of Ewen Maclachlan, 
Old Aberdeen, with Notes,' read before the 
Gaelic Society, on 26 Feb., 1890, by the Rev. 
John Sinclair, B.D., Rannoch. The letters 
bear dates from 1816 to 1820. 

TJnirersity Library, Aberdeen. 

ST. ANTHONY OF VIENNE (10 S. xi. 47 r 
96). Allow me to thank ST. SWITHIN for 
his replies to my queries. His surmise 
"' that there never was ' no sich person ' so 
styled lay mortals " as St. Anthony of 
Vienne seems to be absolutely disproved by 
a reference in ' The Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica,' article ' Monachism,' section ' Military 
Orders,' where I read of the knightly Order 
of St. Anthony of Vienne, founded in Dau- 
phine in 1096. 

So these queries still await answer : 

1. Who is this St. Anthony, arid what 
his story ? 

2. Why should a hall be dedicated to him, 
or be founded by his orders, in the city of 

The Residence, York. 

ST. SWITHIN is so far right : there was 
strictly no St. Anthony of Vienne. St. 
Anthony of Egypt was invoked for the 
protection of man and beast against plague 

10 s. XL FEB. 20, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and disease. The blessing of horses and 
cattle on St. Anthony's Day (17 January) 
at his church in Rome will be familiar to 
your readers. In Glaire I find that a church 
founded by Josselin of Poitiers at La Mothe- 
Saint Didier in the diocese of Vienne, in 
honour of the saint, in the eleventh century, 
was a great resort of pilgrims, many of whom 
were cured by his relics, especially from 
the disease known as St. Anthony's fire. 
So great was the resort to the shrine that 
hospital was built in 1095, and an order 
of Hospitallers established, which spread 
over many countries. St. Anthony's 
Chapel on Arthur's Seat belonged to a hos- 
pital of the name at Leith. Evidently the 
rights of the London house over other 
English foundations were contested. 

St. Anthony of Padua had nothing to do 
with these hospitals, nor, I think, with 
the pigs. J. W. M. 

Moorlynch, Bournemouth. 

The appellation St. Anthony of Vienne 
is of the same nature as Notre Dame de 
Paris or de Loretto. The St. Anthony is 
the great St. Anthony, and the Order of 
St. Anthony of Vienne was so called because 
its church and head-quarters were at Vienne. 
There is a full account of it in Helyot's 
' Histoire des Ordres Monastiques,' torn. ii. 
p. 108 (Paris, 1714), with plates of the 
dresses of the members of the order. 

Lincoln's Inn. 

ARMY AND MILITIA LISTS (10 S. x. 489 ; xi- 
55). The ' List of War Office Records 
published by the Record Office,' 1908, which 
can be bought from Messrs. Wyman & Sons 
for 8s. 6d., contains the best information 
about Army Lists, both MS. and printed. 
The earliest MS. Army List is for 1702 ; the 
first printed Army List mentioned in the 
Record Office Index is for 1754, which is also 
the date of the earliest in the British Museum 
Library. But there is a printed Army List 
for 1740 at the Royal United Service In- 

HOUSE (10 S. xi. 89). No one has done for 
Carmarthenshire what Fenton did for Pem- 
brokeshire, Jones for Breconshire, Coxe for 
Monmouthshire, Williams for Radnorshire, 
and Meyrick for Cardiganshire ; but A. M. 
may find what he desires in the first volume 
of Nicholas's ' Annals and Antiquities oJ 
the Counties and County Families of Wales 
(London, 1872). Information about placei 
may be obtained from Lewis's or from 

'arlisle's ' Topographical Dictionary of 
Wales,' or from vol. xviii. of ' The Beauties 
of England and Wales ' (' South Wales,' by 
Thomas Rees). 

I may also mention Spurrell's ' Carmarthen 
and its Neighbourhood ' (Carmarthen, 1879), 
and ' Royal Charters and Historical Docu- 
ments relating to the Town and Coxinty of 
!armarthen,' by J. R. Daniel-Tyssen, edited 
y Alcwyn C. Evans (Carmarthen, 1878). 

The old house that stood on Paddington 
Green belonged to my family up to 1880, 
when I sold the site. If your correspondent 
applies to me, I may be able to give him 
some of the information required. 


Cilgwyn, Newcastle Emlyn, Carmarthenshire. 

A. M. will probably find the information 
he requires in ' Lewys Dwnn's Visitations of 
Wales and the Marches,' by S. R. Meyrick ; 
' Pedigrees of Carmarthenshire and Pem- 
brokeshire in continuation of Dwnn,' by 
Sir Thos. Phillipps ; and ' Carmarthen 
Miscellany and N. and Q. for S. Wales,' by 
A. Mee. G. H. W. 

Sir Richard Steele married into the 
family of the Scurlocks of Ty Gwyn, many 
of whom are buried in Carmarthen Church 
(St. Peter's). Steele died at the old "Ivy 
Bush " Inn at Carmarthen, which was 
formerly a gentleman's residence, though 
whose is not stated ; and he also was buried 
in Carmarthen Church. Bishop Bayley, who 
wrote ' The Practice of Piety,' which passed 
through a vast number of editions, was a 
native of Carmarthen, as were also Sir 
Thomas Picton and Sir William Nott. Sir 
William Nott, one of the heroes of the 
Afghan war, was the son of an extensive 
mail-contractor and proprietor of " The 
Ivy Bush." The most remarkable monu- 
ment in the church is that of Sir Thomas 
ab Thomas and his lady, on the north side 
of the chancel. Nearly opposite is that of 
" virtuous Anne, the Lady Vaughan," 
bearing an interesting inscription. Merlin, 
the British writer and magician, is also 
claimed as a native of the town. 

Paddington House on Paddington Green 
was built by Denis Chirac, jeweller to Queen 
Anne. It was situated at the east side of 
the Green, very near the Harrow Road. 
According to an entry in the vestry minutes 
for May, 1821, Chirac was permitted to 
enclose the portion of the Green in front of 
his house. This was a narrow strip along 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xi. FEB. 20, im 

the southernmost side of the old Green. See 
William Robins's ' Paddington, Past and 
Present' (? 1853), p. 51. 


The supposed references to this campaign 
in 'Much Ado,' I. i., are extremely doubtful, 
viz., " A victory is twice itself when the 
achiever brings home full numbers " (1. 8), 
and " You had musty victual " (1. 50). As 
pointed out by Mr. J. C. Smith in the ex- 
cellent " Warwick Edition " of the play 
(Blackie & Son), Essex lost three-fourths 
of his men through sickness and desertion ; 
and the alleged scarcity of provisions in his 
army rests on an unverified reference to 
Camden by Chalmers in his edition of Shake- 
speare (1805). Elsewhere (' Henry V.,' Pro- 
logue to Act V., 11. 30-33) Shakespeare is 
complimentary in alluding to Essex. 



Chalmers, in xiii. of his ' Supplemental 
Apology,' in which he treats of the chrono- 
logy of Shakespeare's plays, says that we 
learn from Camden and Moryson " that 
there were complaints of the badness of the 
provisions which the contractors furnished 
to the English army in Ireland " ; and he 
thinks there is an allusion to this in Beatrice's 
remark, ' Much Ado,' I. i. 51 : " You had 
musty victual, and he hath holp to eat it." 


MOLIERE ON OPIUM (10 S. xi. 88). This 
occurs in the mock examination in Inter- 
mede III. of ' Le Malade Imaginaire,' and 
is contained in the answer : 

Mihi a docto doctore 

Demandatur causam et rationem quare 

Opium facit dormire. 

A quoi respondeo 

Quia est in eo 

Virtus dormitiva 

Cujus est natura 

Sensus assoupire. 
Whereat the chorus sings : 

Bene, bene, bene, bene respondere ! 
Liquus, dignus est intrare 
In nostro docto corpore. 
Bene, bene, respondere ! 


give the reference.] 

DATE OF PLATE (10 S. x. 230, 298). COL. 
PARRY has not given sufficient particulars of 
his two pieces of plate to enable his question 
as to their dates to be properly answered. 

In the first one it is doubtful whether the 
M or the F is the date-letter. In the second 

it is presumably the R. But he does not 
state what character of type the letters are 
stamped in. I presume that all are Roman 
capitals. If so, the second may be either 
1732 or 1812, the R for the latter year being 
rather thicker ; but the shape of the shields 
would mainly enable one to decide this. If 
COL. PARRY would send me a sealing-wax 
impression of the hall-marks of these two 
pieces of plate, I think I should be able to 
give him their dates. All one can say now 
with any certainty is that they are of silver, 
and that they were " assayed " in London. 
J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 
Antigua, W.I. 

89). The Seven Kings Brook, flowing from 
the southern extremity of Hainault Forest, 
possibly embalms the name of the Saxon 
holder of the adjacent lands Caentinc. 

According to the well-known charter of 
anno 693, the bounds of Barking were " ab 
oriente writolaburna . . ab aquilone caentinces 
triow et hanchemstede . . ab australe flumen 
tamisa." Hanchemstede (Wenesteda, D) is 
doubtless Wanstead ; and it is difficult to 
escape the belief that " caentinges broc " 
(which ran through or by his property) was in 
course of time perverted into " Seven Kings 

Seven Kings derives its name from the 
Seven Kings Brook, where, according to 
tradition, seven kings are supposed to have 
met during the time of the Heptarchy for a 
conference or for a hunt in the forest. 
The legend is discussed in ' Ilford Past and 
Present,' by G. E. Tasker ; ' A Sketch of 
Ancient Barking and Ilford,' by E. Tuck ; 
and ' East London Antiquities,' by W. Locks. 

G. H. W. 

' THE MILLENNIAL STAR ' ( 10 S. xi. 69, 116). 
This periodical is duly entered in the British 
Museum Catalogue under its proper name, 
the Latter-Day Saints' Millennial Star. It 
began in 1840, and still appears to be " in 
progress." The first volume and a part of 
the second were published at Manchester, and 
afterwards at Liverpool. C. W. S. 

ARABIC NUMERALS (10 S. x. 368). 
Edward Clodd in his little ' Story of the 
Alphabet ' refers to a communication of 
Canon Taylor to The Academy, 28 Jan., 
1882, and "reprints at p. 212 a comparative 
table of Indian, Arabic, and European forms, 
the last belonging to the twelfth and four- 
teenth centuries. ALEX. RUSSELL. 


10 s. XL FEB. 20, loco.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

HORSE HILL (10 S. x. 489). Possibly 
Horsill is or was the same as Horse Hill. 
: or, an Alphabetical 
Cities, Market-towns, 
Parishes, Villages, and Private Seats, in 
England and Wales,' by J. Adams of the 
Inner Temple, 1680, is the following : 

In ' Index Villaris 
Table of all the 

"' Horsill, Surry, Chertsey. 
Longit. 26 W." 

Latit. 51 23, 

" Chertsey " appears in the column which 
gives the " Hundred, Lath, Rape, Ward, 
Wapentake, or other Division of the County." 
The longitude is eastward or westward from 
London, Greenwich being 4' E. of London, 
as given. 

The latitude of Bagshot appears as 
51 23', the same as that of Horsill, but its 
longitude is 34' W. The difference 
between the longitude of Horsill and Bag- 
shot is 8', that is, Horsill is that distance 
east of Bagshot. 

Assuming that the figures given by Adams 
are correct, which as to longitudes especially 
is a large assumption concerning a book 
published in 1680, one may place Horsill 
as follows : 8' due east of Bagshot. These 
8' equal roughly 6 statute miles. The 
position should be about 6J statute miles 
east of Bagshot, and about 2J south by 

it would not be the only Horsehill in Surrey, 
since there is a parish so named (also called 
Horsell) in N.W. Surrey, bounded on the 
N. and N.E. by Chobham and Chertsey ; 
on the E. and S. by Woking ; and on 
the W. by Bisley. Woking, Horshil, and 
Byfleet Heaths or Commons form one 
extensive tract of comparatively Maste 
land, crossed from S.W. to N.E. by the 
Basingstoke Canal. 



east of Chertsey. 

In the ' Index Villaris ' 

is attached to 

Horsill a symbol signifying a city, market- 
town, parish, or village "with the seat of 
one gentleman." 

Since writing the above I have found 
Horsyl in Speed's map of Surrey (1610), 
reproduced in ' The Victoria History of the 
County of Surrey,' edited by H. E. Maiden, 
vol. i., 1902, facing p. 444. In it Horsyl is 
5 miles east of Bagshot, and 2J due south 
of Chertsey. 

In Gough's 'Camden's Britannia,' 1789, 
vol. i., map of " Surry " after p. 166, is 
Horshil, lying 5| statute miles east-south- 
east of Bagshot, and 5 south-south-west 
of Chertsey. There is also Horsell Heath, 
lying about 1 miles north of Horshill. 

Sheet 285 of the Ordnance map gives 
Horsell village about 6 furlongs north- 
west of Woking Railway Station, and 
Horsell Common about the same distance 

further north. 


I may be mistaken, but I think I remember 
a high elevation named Horsehill on the road 
leading from Horley, on the west side of 
Hookwood Common, to Reigate. It was 
about the second or third turning on the 
left past the " Black Lion " (or " Black 
Horse ") inn. Should this be so, however, 

There is a place named Horsley Hill, 
near this town. R. B R. 

South Shields. 

Horsell, a village and parish near Woking, 
Surrey, was, I am informed, originally 
called Horse-hill. 

In " The Imperial Gazetteer of England 
and Wales ' the names of Horse-hill, Horshill, 
and Horsell are used in connexion with the 
village and parish above mentioned. 


388, 471 ; xi. 33). These further particulars 
and dates may perhaps be interesting to 
MR. NEVILL and others, for it is clear there 
were two Nevills of this name. 

The earlier Erneis de Nevill occurs too 
many times in charters and contemporary 
records for there to be any doubt about 
his personal name. 1. There is his own 
charter in B.M. (Harleian Charter, 54 B. 10). 
2. As " Arneis de No villa " he witnessed 
with the Countess " Adeliz de Gaund " 
a charter of Simon de St. Liz, " brother of 
Earl Simon," to the nuns of Northampton, 
1166-84 ('Mon. Angl.,'i. 1019). 3. As"Er- 
nesius de Nevill " he witnessed a charter 
to Rievaulx Abbey, c. 1194. 4. As " Er- 
nisius de Novill " he witnessed a charter 
of Henry II. for the monks of Marmoutier 
made at Chinon in Touraine ('Mon. Angl.,' 
ii. 991). Mr. Eyton in his ' Itin. of 
Henry II.' (239) assigns this to Easter, 1181. 
From the same work we get three other 
notices of him that on 12 March, 1184/5, 
he was sitting judicially with Ranulf de 
Glanvill and others at Woodstock (256), 
and in the course of the year 1185 was one 
of the Justices in Eyre in Northumberland, 
his name being spelt " Arnisius " (266). 
In 1187 he was one of the Justices holding 
Forest Pleas in Yorkshire (281), but his 
name is not in Foss's ' Judges of England.' 
This is not the last we know of him. 

Erneis must have been born not later 
than 1130-40 for his son Hugh " le Gros " 
to have been Constable of the Tower of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 20, im 

Rouen in 1197, a post of great responsibility 
and trust, not likely to have been given to 
a young man. 

If these Nevills were descended from 
Richard de Neuville, one of the sons of 
Baldric the Teuton mentioned by Ordericus 
Vitalis, they would have been cousins of 
the family of Fitzherneis. " Hacvisa " 
(Hawise), wife of Erneis fitz Radulf of 1055, 
is especially described as sister of Fulk de 
Annou the elder, who was another of the 
sons of Baldric. 

The " possible " origin of this name I have 
suggested is, of course, very much less pro- 
bable than ernes, the presumed Celtic 
word for a " pledge," which survives in 
Welsh (and Breton ?), also in our phrase 
" earnest penny." This word is quite 
distinct from earnest, i.e. earnest, which is 
found in Anglo-Saxon as well as German 
and was always spelt with the t, which ernes 
never was (see Prof. Skeat's ' Etymological 
Diet.'). A. S. ELLIS. 


I should say that there is little doubt of 
Ernest being the translation of Ernisius. 
There is a village which I know well, some 
five miles from Bedford, called Milton 
Ernest, from a family of Erneys or Ernest 
which possessed the manor from the four- 
teenth century to the sixteenth ; and if I 
may trust my memory, there is the tomb 
of one of them in the church. Murray's 
' Handbook of Herts, Beds, and Hunts ' 
says : "In the wall of the N. aisle is the 
arched canopy of a founder's tomb richly 
foliated, and beneath it a coffin slab of Pur- 
beck on which is a cross of somewhat unusual 
design." JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

xi. 21 ). I should be glad to make a correction 
in the name of the German translator of 
Owen given ante, p. 22, 1. 37. It should be 
Lober. " Lobern " on the title-page is the 
accusative case after the preposition durch. 


NYM AND "HUMOUR" (10 S. xi. 27). 
Mr. H. B. Wheatley, in his edition of ' The 
Merry Wives' (1886), founded upon the 
collections of Mr. J. F. Stanford, F.R.S. 
says on p. xlv : 

" The word humour was one which Nym, in 
common with a large number of his contem 
poraries, misused most egregiously. The four 
humours of the body described by the old physi 
cians as phlegm, blood, choler, and melancholy 
were supposed, as they predominated, to deter 

mine the bent of the mind, and the mind as welE 
as the body was credited with its own particular 
lumours. A humour was therefore a predominant 
mental characteristic, as Shadwell says in the 
ipilogue to his play ' The Humourists ' : 
A humour is the bias of the mind, 
By which with violence 'tis one way inclined ; 
It makes our notions lean on one side still, 
And in all changes that may bend the will. 
J*epys writes : ' I see that religion, be it what it 
will, is but a humour.' Ben Jonson, who set 
limself up as a protector of the word, complained 
;hat it ' is rack'd and tortured ' so that 

Now if an idiot 

Have but an apish or fantastic strain, 
It is his humour. 

[n his Introduction to ' The Magnetic Lady ' 
Jonson writes : ' The author, beginning his 
studies of this kind with ' Every Man in his 
Humour,' and after ' Every Man out of his 
Humour ' ; and since continuing in all his plays, 
specially those of the comic thread whereof 
The New Inn ' was the last, some recent humours 
still or manners of men that went along with. 
!;he times ; finding himself now near the close or 
shutting up of his circle, hath fancied to himself 
an idea, this Magnetic Mistress : a lady, a brave 
bountiful house-keeper and a virtuous widow ; 
who, having a young niece, ripe for a man and 
marriageable, he makes that his centre attractive 
bo draw thither a diversity of guests, all of persons 
of different humours to make up his perimeter. 
And this he hath called Humours Reconciled." 

The word is used at least 35 times in the 
two plays ' Henry V.' and ' The Merry 
Wives.' ' A. R. BAYLEY. 

Under " humour," 6 b, the * N.E.D.' has- 
the following : 

" An inclination or disposition for some specified- 
action, etc. ; a fancy (to do something) ; a mood 
or state of mind characterized by such inclination. 

With illustrative quotations from Shake- 
speare ('Mids. N.,' I. ii. 30; 'Merry W.,' 
II. i. 133-4, &c.) and from various other 
writers down to 1863. It appears that Nym 
was only peculiar, if at all, in an unusually 
frequent use of the term a part, I suppose, 
of the " drawling, affected " speech Page 
noted in him. C. C. B. 

In Isaac Reed's Variorum Edition of 
Shakspeare (1813) there is a Jong note by 
Steevens on the passage quoted by ST. 
SWTTHIN ; but the note merely gives an 
extract from ' Humor's Ordinarie, \vhere a 
Man may be verie merrie and exceeding well 
used for his sixpence ' (1607), and is in no 
way explanatory. 

May it not be that in this play Shakspere 
was, by the reiteration of the word humour 
in Nym's mouth, making fun of the title of 
Ben Jonson's ' Every Man in his Humour ' ? 
This play of Jonson's was first acted in 
1590 : the ' Merry Wives ' some two or 
three years later. 

10 s. XL FEB. 20, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

ST. S WITHIN quotes " Here 's a fellow 
frights English out of his wits " ; and this 
is the reading of the Globe edition. Isaac 
Reed, however, and Charles Knight give 
" frights humour out of his wits," and 
mention no other reading. What authority 
is there for substituting English for humour ? 

T. M. W. 

["English" is the reading of the First Folio.] 
The fashionable use of the word in Eliza- 
bethan days came to be " applied on all 
occasions, with as little judgment as wit ; 
every coxcomb had it always in his mouth ; 
and every particularity he affected was de- 
nominated by the name of humour." Nym 
appears to be a burlesque type of those 
who were given to such affectation, and the 
jocosity involved lies in Shakespeare's ridi- 
cule of its abuse. See Ben Jonson's ' Every 
Man in his Humour,' III ii., and the Pro- 
logue to ' Every Man out of his Humour.' 


THE IRISH (10 S. xi. 107). The passage 
referred to is probably that in Lockhart's 
' Scott,' 1st ed., vol. vi. p. 43. Scott was 
in July, 1825, just crossing to Ireland in a 
steamboat. It contained packages of the 
cast-off raiment of Scotch beggars for the 
Irish : 

" Sir Walter rather irritated a military pas- 
senger (a stout old Highlander), by asking whether 
it had never occurred to him that the beautiful 
checkery of the clan tartans might have originated 
in a pious wish on the part of the Scottish Gael 
to imitate the tatters of the parent race. After 
soothing the veteran into good -humour. .. .he 
remarked that if the Scotch Highlanders were 
really descended in the main from the Irish blood, 
it seemed to him the most curious and difficult 
problem in the world to account for the startling 
contrasts in so many points of their character, 
temper, and demeanour." 

See the passage further for Scott's opinion 
on these differences. NEL MEZZO. 

SNAKES DRINKING MILK (10 S. x. 265, 316, 
335, 377, 418). In his ' Primitive Culture,' 
2nd ed., chap, xv., Dr. Tylor says : 

" To this day Europe has not forgotten in 
nursery tales or more serious belief the snake 
that comes with its golden crown and drinks milk 
out of the child's porringer ; the house-snake, 
tame and kindly, but seldom seen, that cares 
for the cows and the children . . . . " 
And he refers to Hanuseh for the snake 
that was kept and fed with milk in the 
temple of the old Slavonic god Potimpos. 

In Africa the Baris give milk and meat 
to the snakes, calling them their grand- 
mothers (Ratzel, ' History of Mankind,' 
trans. Butler, vol. ii. p. 357, 1899). From a 

similar motive possibly, the old Chinese 
Buddhists offered cream to Liu, a constella- 
tion shaped as, and governed by, a serpent 
(Twan Ching-Shih, ' Yu - yang - tsah - tsu,' 
9th cent. AD., rom. iii.). Southey's ' Com- 
monplace Book ' (Reeves & Turner, 1876, 
Foxirth Series, pp. 425-6) contains a storv 
of a snake which regularly visited a little 
boy to share his breakfast of bread and 

The folk-lore of snakes and milk is re- 
garded as traceable to ancestor-worship by 
Dr. Frazer, who writes : 

" Where serpents are thus viewed as ancestors 
come to life [as by the Zulus and other Kafir 
tribes, &c.], the people treat them with great 
respect, and then feed them with milk, perhaps 
because milk is the food of human babes and the 
reptiles are treated as human beings in embryo, 
who can be born again from women. . . .Perhaps 
the libations of milk which the Greeks poured upon 
graves were intended to be drunk by serpents." 
' Adonis, Attis, Osiris,' 1907, pp. 74-5. 

Notwithstanding this reasonable exposi- 
tion, there is no lack of assertors that snakes 
drink milk. For example, Ermete Pierotti, 
' Customs and Traditions of Palestine,' 1864, 
pp. 47-8, has this passage : 

" I once occupied a house at Jerusalem, in the 
Via Dolorosa .... the outer walls and inner court 
of which were overgrown with hyssop .... It 
harboured a number of serpents .... I abandoned 
my hostile intentions, and ordered them to be 
supplied with milk every day. They showed 
their gratitude for this treatment by visiting 
my bedroom, where I used to find them coiled 
up in a comer. These ' faithful friends ' are 
rarely wanting in the old Arab houses at Jerusalem, 
where then* presence is regarded as a good omen 
by the inhabitants. The most surprising thing 
is that neither the women nor the babies fear 
them. . . .Mothers are not unfrequently awakened 
in the night by the reptiles, which have fastened 
on their breasts, and are sucking their milk .... 
Serpents are also in the habit of entering the 
folds and grottoes in which flocks are penned, 
and, during the night, quietly sucking the milk 
from the teats of the ewes or she-goats, without 
awaking them ; which is as good a proof of their 
cunning as any that we could find." 

It is noteworthy that the Albanians hold 
milk to act inimically upon serpents that 
drink it with overmuch greed. The story 
runs thus : 

" A shepherd once found a snake asleep, coiled 
round a large heap of gold pieces ; and knowing 
how to set to work under the circumstances, 
placed a pail of milk by its side, and waited in a 
hiding-place until it should wake. It came to 
pass as he expected. The snake took to the 
milk with avidity, and drank its fill. On this 
it returned to the heap of gold, in order to go 
to sleep again, but the thirst with which snakes 
are attacked after drinking milk prevented it 
from doing so. It became restless, and moved 
irresolutely round and round the heap, till the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tio s. XL FEB. 20, 1009. 

burning within forced it to go in quest of water 
The water, however, was far off, and before it had 
returned, the wary shepherd had carried off the 
whole heap of gold into a place of safety." Hahn 
' Albanische Studien,' quoted in Tozer's ' Re 
searches in the Highlands of Turkey,' 1869, vol. i 
p. 205. 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

is wrong in stating that the arms of the city 
of Liverpool display four livers. In point 
of fact, there is but one bird in these arms, 
and that bird, though popularly known in 
Liverpool as " the liver," and formerly dis- 
cussed as such, is described in the grant and 
confirmation of arms to Liverpool in 1797 
as a cormorant. If ME, WILMSHTJRST can 
give any authority for the liver being the 
same bird as the wild swan, or for the swan- 
nery which he says originally existed at the 
mouth of the Mersey, our local antiquaries 
will be very grateful to him. J. P. R. 

" Inch " does not mean " a cape or pro- 
montory," but indicates an island. " The 
furthest Inch of Asia " may refer to the West 
Indies. V.H.I.L.I.C.I.V. 

THE NEVER NEVER LAND (10 S. xi. 9). 
Possessing as this phrase does the de- 
scriptive sense of the Ultima Thule of 
civilization, there is no reason why its 
application should be confined to Queens- 
land. Mr. J. S. O'Halloran, Secretary to the 
Royal Colonial Institute, says : 

" The never, never country means in Queensland 
the occupied pastoral country which is furthest 
removed from the more settled districts." 

Dr. Carl Lentzner in his ' Diet, of Austral- 
English Slang ' says : 

" There is no such thing as an Australian cowboy. 
There is as much difference between the real never, 
never stockman, and the Earl's Court article, as 
there is between the real shell-back of the fore- 
castle, or the British tar in ' Ruddigore.'" 


MR. J. F. HOGAN may remember that the 
Never Never Land is used metaphorically 
by Mr. Barrie in ' Peter Pan.' 


" KNIGHTS WITHOUT NOSES " (10 S. xi. 49). 
I think Wycherley was thinking of the 
phrase " to dine with Duke Humphrey," 
which meant to walk beside Duke Hum- 
phrey's monument instead of going to 
dinner ; and hence to go without one's 
dinner altogether. The " knights without 

noses " would be the monuments to Crusaders- 
and others in the Temple ; for it is very 
common for such monuments to have the 
noses chipped off. Knights of the post 
often lingered about in various public places. 
This is the best I can make of it. 


GREYSTOKE FAMILY (10 S. xi. 81). 
I should like to make two or three corrections 
in my note. On p. 81, col. 1, 1. 16 from 
foot, for " his " read their ; 1. 4 from foot, 
for " Carden " read Cardeu ; p. 81, col. 2, 1. l r 
before " Sigulf " add " A later " ; p. 82,. 
col. 2, 1. 4, for " Cowscliffe " read Conscliffe. 



The Complete Poetical Works of James Thomson. 
Edited, with Notes, by J. Logie Robertson- 
Oxford Edition. (Frowde.) 

COMPARED with many volumes in the same- 
amazingly cheap series the ' Shakspeare ' 
(1272 pp.), for example, or the 'Wordsworth' 
(1008 pp.), or the ' Sbelley ' (928 pp.) Mr. 
Robertson's ' Thomson,' which runs but 
to 540 pp. of spacious long primer, seems 
almost a slender affair. Yet the labour- 
bestowed on parts of this book has been anything 
but slender. To those who know Thomson's 
passion for rehandling his work it is enough to- 
say that the editor has conscientiously noted 
every change in the text of ' The Seasons ' from 
the first appearance of the several parts ('Winter,' 
March, 1726 ; ' Summer,' 1727 ; ' Spring,' 1728 ; 
' Autumn ' and the ' Hymn,' 1730) down to the 
fourth and last collected edition revised by the 
author (1746) a task to some extent mechanical, 
yet neither short nor simple. 

A reprint of ' Winter ' in its earliest shape 
brms another useful feature of this volume. 
The text, taken from the folio copy in the Advo- 
ates' Library, Edinburgh, is here accompanied 
with the variations introduced in the second 
edition, published in June, 1726. A bold vindica- 
ion of poetry and its claims just then obscured 
jy the absorbing political preoccupations of the 
lour prefaced this second edition, and is repro- 
duced in Mr. Robertson's notes. Elate with the 
oy of recent achievement, the cockerel o' the 
STorth crows a gay defiance of those " persons 
of great gravity and character " who, with the 
'rime Minister, Walpole, at their head, held poets 
and their works alike negligible. " That any 
man should seriously declare against that divine 
art is really amazing .... That there are frequent 
and notorious abuses of Poetry " may be granted ; 
)ut to argue against the use of things from their 
ibuse is a stupid error, into which " I hope that 
no man who has the least sense of shame in him 
will fall .... after the present sulphureous attacker 
)f the stage." A note here would have been 
useful. The reference may be to Arthur Bedford, 
jne of the tribe of pamphleteers who fed the 
flaming controversy kindled in March, 1698, by 


Jeremy Collier. In 1719 Bedford had reopened 
fire with ' A Serious Remonstrance against the 
Horrid Blasphemies and Impieties which are still 
used in the English Playhouses,' in which, says 
Leslie Stephen, he " collected seven thousand 
immoral sentiments from the plays (chiefly) of 
the last four years." But more probably Thom- 
son is here pointing at William Law of ' The 
Serious Call,' whose tract entitled ' The Absolute 
Unlawfulness of the Stage Entertainment Fully 
Demonstrated ' appeared hi this same year 1726. 
But to proceed : Thomson concedes that there 
is some " appearance of reason " for the existing 
contempt of poetry. This arises from the choice 
of " low, venal, trifling subjects," which reject 
a weighty and dignified treatment, while they 
invite " forced unaffecting fancies, little glittering 
prettinesses, mixed turns of wit and expression ' ' 
things " as widely different from native poetry 
as buffoonery is from the perfection of human 
thinking." If poetry is to regain her ancient 
honours, this can only come about through the 
choice of " great and serious subjects " such as 
will at once rouse the imagination, exercise the 
reason, and call the emotions into play. But 
how is this happy restoration to be wrought ? 
Thomson's reply shows him unconscious of the 
change rapidly approaching nay, even then at 
work in the conditions of literature in England : 
his eyes and hopes are bent exclusively on 
patronage ! The revival of poetry must not be 
looked for " till some long-wished, illustrious 
man of equal power and beneficence rise on the 
wintry world of letters." Thirty years had yet 
to elapse before the passing-bell of the literary 
patron was tolled by sturdy Sam Johnson. 

The story goes that Thomson handed a draft 
of ' Winter ' to a friend and brother-rimester, 
Mitchell, with a request for candid criticism. 
Construing the invitation with Caledonian direct- 
ness, the critic presently restored to the poet his 
manuscript with this succinct " appreciation " 
superscribed : 

Beauties and faults so thick he scatter'd here 
Those I could read, if these were not so near. 
Whereupon Thomson, it is said, exploded in the 
following impromptu : 

Why not all faults, injurious Mitchell ? Why 
Appears one beauty to thy blasting eye ? 
Damnation worse than thine, if worse can be, 
Is all I ask, and all I want, from thee ! 
Intercourse with " the town," however, soon 
abated this crude intolerance, as may be seen 
from the many verbal and structural alterations 
in successive editions of ' Whiter ' and its fellows. 

Animal Romances. By Graham Renshaw, F.Z.S. 

(Sherratt & Hughes.) 

MR. RENSHAW'S material is excellent, as are the 
illustrations, selected entirely from his own photo- 
graphs ; but his style of writing puts us out of love 
with his book. We continually find words and 
incomplete phrases followed by a full stop. Indeed, 
this is a stop which the author overuses every- 
where. He has not realized that the present tense 
is equally dangerous as an aid to vividness. The 
details of scenery are also often tedious. If Mr. 
Renshaw had been more natural, he would have 
produced a much more agreeable book. As it is, 
we find the notes at the bottom of the page, which 
are written in ordinary English, a relief to the 
high-flown ambitions of the general narrative. 


MR. FRANCIS EDWARDS sends Part III. of his Cata- 
logue of Old English Literature, ranging from the 
Middle Ages to 1799. This part opens with Milton, 
among the items being the poet's copy of Muretu& 
with his autograph on the fly-leaf, 601. Under 
Montaigne is the copy which belonged to Diodati, 
who assisted Florio in his English translation of 
the essays, third edition, 1587, l'2l. Under Napoleon 
is a personal soiivenir, being his copy of the ' His- 
toire de la deruiere Guerre, 1775-83,' 4to, in the 
original calf, with the arms of Napoleon, Paris, 
1787, 251. This belonged to the library at St. Cloud,, 
and was given to Sir William Howard Russell by 
the German Emperor at Versailles in January, 1871. 
There is a note by Russell testifying to this. Under 
' Nuremberg Chronicle ' are two copies of the first 
edition. Under Paltock is the first edition of 
' Peter Wilkins,' 9^. The late William Bates of Bir- 
mingham wrote on this work in 'N. & Q.' as early 
as 1 S. x. 17. Under Popish Plot is a collection of 
tracts and broadsides, 3 vols, folio, calf, 1679-88, 91. 
A fine copy of the first edition of Prynne's ' Histrio- 
Mastix,' 1633, is 51. 5s. This contains leaf 707-8, 
cancelled by order of the Privy Council. Under 
Purchas is the edition of 1625-6, 5 vols., folio, 
contemporary calf, 7W. There is a copy of Rosset's 
' Les Histoires tragiques de nostre Temps,' 12mo, 
Paris, 1616, 51. This belonged to Scott, and con- 
tains the following note by him : " Rossetis quoted 
by Langbaine as containing the plots of many of 
our plays. It is so scarce in England that I have 
never been able to complete this copy." The 
imperfection referred to is pp. 49 to 68, which are 
missing. Under Shakespeare is a good set of 
the first four folio editions, in clean condition, 
tall and genuine. The price for the set is 3.200/. 
Mr. Edwards is, however, prepared to sell them 
separately. A set was recently catalogued at 
7,OOW., and another lately crossed the Atlantic at 
10,000/. Mr. Edwards says: "Of the first edition 
not more than 200 copies exist. Of these only 
about 20 copies are quite perfect." A first edition of 
Somerville's 'Chace,' a presentation copy to Dr. 
Freind, Head Master of Westminster, with two- 
long autograph letters, 1735, is 211. Under Spanish 
is a copy of the ' Romancero General,' a large col- 
lection of Spanish ballads. This is of the first 
known edition, and is in the original vellum, 1602, 
90/. A first edition of both parts of ' The Faerie 
Queene,' 2 vols., small 4to, green morocco extra, 
1590-6, is 1501. The rare first edition of Suckling's 
* Fragments Aurea,' 1646, is 151. Under Taylor the 
Water-Poet are his works, "collected into one 
volume by the author," folio, full morocco by Bed- 
ford, 1630, 151. For fifteen years Taylor was 
collector of wine perquisites for the Lieutenant of 
the Tower, and afterwards kept a public-house in 
Phcenix Alley, Long Acre. A fine copy of 'The 
Compleat Angler,' 1676, is priced 501. Under 
Wierix are 161 exquisite engravings on copper by 
this eminent Dutch artist, mostly from nis own 
designs, small 4to, calf, 151. 

Mr. Charles E. Goodspeed of Boston, Mass., de- 
votes his Catalogue 64 to a collection formed for 
his own use, the result of ten years' search and 
accumulation, each volume having his own book- 
plate, designed and etched by Sidney L. Smith. 
This is a facsimile reproduction of Revere's 'Boston 
Massacre.' The arrangement of the Catalogue is 
according to the names of the engravers who illus- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 20, im 

trate the various works ; for instance, there are five 
editions of Burns placed under the names of the 
various illustrators ; but a complete index of 
authors is given at the end. We should advise Mr. 
Goodspeed to give the prices in his Catalogues 
issued for England in English money. There is an 
interesting note under Pendleton s Lithography, 
Boston Monthly Magazine,, Vol. I. No. 7, December, 
1825, two copies, each with a different plate. These 
two lithographs are amongst the earliest specimens 
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Messrs. W. N. Pitcher & Co.'s Manchester 
Catalogue 166 contains Holden's ' Architecture,' 
2 vols., oblong folio, half-calf, 1861-fi, 31. 3s. ; 'The 
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3Z. 3s. ; and an extra-illustrated copy of Thacke- 
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Mr. Charles F. Sawyer's Catalogue 11 is Part I. 
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Quincey, 16 vols., half -calf, 31. 3s. ; George Eliot, 
8 vols., half-morocco, Edition de Luxe, 21. 18s. 6d. ; 
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4/. 17,s. 6d. ; Scott's Complete Works, 101 vols., 
three-quarter red levant, Cadell. 1831, 28 guineas ; 
Sterne, edited by Cross. 12 vols., buckram, 31. 10s. ; 
Thackeray, 26 vols., 121. 12s. ; and Victor Hugo, 
10 vols., half -morocco, 31. 10*. A miniature book, 
' The English Bijou Almanack for 1837,' poetically 
illustrated by L. E. L., has portraits of Queen 
Adelaide, Coleridge, Goethe, and others, and con- 

tains four pages of music. The book measures f in. 
by i in., is enclosed in gilt leather case, 1837, 3/. 3-s. 
There is a selection of ancient and modern bindings. 

Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co.'s Price Current 
690 is devoted to books on Political Economy, 
Social History, and Law, English and Foreign, 
and many authors of note on these subjects 
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Edinburgh, 1843, 101. 10s. Under George 
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6 vols., calf, 1836, 31. 3s. ; and under Capt. Cook 
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1797, 81. A collection of 145 letters from Leon 
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general election of 1880 contains nearly 650 
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The whole is carefully mounted, forming 3 vols, 
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The author anticipated disastrous results from 
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CONTENTS. Xo. 270. 

NOTES : Sir John Harington ami ' Nug- Antiquae,' 161 
Robert Drury, 162 Inscriptions in Jerusalem, 163 
Macaulay and Thorns, 165 Indian Names " Artificial " 
" Bilker"" Come to School "Johnson and Smith, 166. 

QUERIES : Punch : The Beverage Lizards and Music 
Goethe's Conversations, 167 Semaphore Signalling 
Britannia as the National Emblem " The White Hart " 
Chinese Proverb in Burton's 'Anatomy' Gloucester- 
shire Worthies Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Letters, 
168 Islington Parish Registers Poems attributed to 
Dryden Jews in Fiction Gainsborough's Descendants 
Dodsley the Publisher Heathfleld, Sussex W. Bullock 
on Virginia " That's another pair of shoes " Thistle and 
Saint Canopied Pews Scrap Hager Alkali Castle 
Foulis Heraldic, 169 Stuart, Earl of Traquair Rut- 
land Ot way Bale Henry Ellison Dray ton on Valentine's 
Day Tasso's ' Aminta ' Luisa Sigea, 170. 

REPLIES :-The Liquid N in English, 170 Eastry, Kent, 
171 Gloucestershire Definition of a jentleman Billy 
Butler the Hunting Parson Mill at Gosport, Hants 
" Brokenselde," 172 Sneezing Superstition : Earburn 
Garlic: Onions for purifying Water -Wilbraham and 
Tabrahara, 173 Britten Diabolo Egypt as a Place- 
Name Neyte, Eybury, and Hyde, 174 " Good-Fors " -- 
American Genealogies Quotations Wanted -Wonders of 
the World, 175 "In Print" Arms of Roman Catholic 
Bishops " Baling" Mendez Pinto, 176 C. J. Auriol 
Parliamentary Banner Orkney Song Judge Gascoigne, 
177 Glossaries to Waverley Novels "Kersey" City Fig 
Tree R. M. Atkinson Persian Translation, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : The Oxford Dictionary Upper 
Norwood Athenieum Record. 

OBITUARY : Rev. J. Silvester Davies. 


I HAVE been for some time collecting 
materials with a view to writing a book 
on the life and works of Sir John Harington, 
the translator of Ariosto and godson of 
Queen Elizabeth. 

The volumes called ' Nugae Antiquae,' 
published in the eighteenth century by his 
descendant Henry Harington, have done 
much for his fame, and are rightly accepted 
as some of the most interesting human 
documents that throw light upon the last 
years of Queen Elizabeth and the early 
years of James I. the Shakespeare epoch. 
It is a curious fact that the first edition of 
' Nugae Antiquae ' is not to be found in the 
wonderful British Museum Library. The 
earliest edition there is that of 1779, in 
three volumes 12mo. But the first volume 
of the first edition appeared in 1769, "printed 
for W. Frederick at Bath," and was followed 
by a second volume in 1775. Both these 
are in my possession. The 1769 volume is 
published without any editor's name, and 
the introduction ' to the Reader ' is ex- 
tremely apologetic, showing that young Mr. 

Harington did not properly appreciate the 
historic and literary value of his ancestor's 
papers. He says : 

' Though the following letters are not greatly 
interesting, they are originals, and may afford 
some degree of amusement to those who indulge 
an idle curiosity of this nature. The editor will 
make no further apology for troubling the public, 
but plead in his defence several precedents of 
this trifling kind which prompted him to trust 
to the reader's indulgence." 

He also remarks that the letters have been 
transcribed " from very obscure and ill- 
written copies." The editor further shows 
youthful indiscretion in adding an Appendix 
of 22 pages, containing letters from a 
" Georgian" to his friend " Muly," supposed 
to be written from Bath and supplied by 
a London lady. They are lively imitations 
of the style of The Spectator and Goldsmith. 

The 1775 volume is called vol. ii., and said 
to be " selected from authentic records " 
by Henry Harington, jun., A.B. of Queen's 
College, Oxon, and is dedicated to Lord 
Francis Seymour, Dean of Wells. It con- 
tains a much more interesting selection of 
letters than vol. i., and the apologetic intro- 
duction throws a little more light on the 
MS. sources : the editor says he obtained 
" the following pieces from different MSS. 
and at different times," and proceeds with 
a would-be-humorous depreciation of his 
work : 

" Several were accidentally met with on 
examining old Family-Books whose contents 
were, as usual, truly miscellaneous ; the same 
leaf containing, on one side, a Letter of Political 
Intelligence ; and on the other an excellent 
Ointment for Kibed Heels or a sovereign balsam 
for Broken Shins. Here, gentle Reader, we beg 
leave to anticipate your merry remark, viz. that 
the Editor has preserved the worst side of the 

The corrected and revised edition in three 
volumes published in 1779 had a much 
better introduction to vol. i. by the same 
editor, who was now in orders, and Minor 
Canon of Norwich ; but vol. ii. has the old 
introductions put together, and gives no 
further information as to the MS. sources. 

The last edition of ' Nugse Antiquae ' was 
published in 1804 in 2 vols., 8vo, and this 
collection was edited by Thomas Park, 
F.S.A., who acknowledges assistance from 
such competent scholars as Malone, Douce, 
and Person. He gives, however, no indica- 
tion that he has ever seen any of the MSS., 
or that he has made any inquiries or investiga- 
tions about them ; but he makes some 
judicious omissions, especially much of the 
poetry, which was found to have been 
printed in Tottell's ' Miscellany.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 27, im 

No statement has ever been made that 
any of the letters to or from Harington in 
' Nugse Antiques ' were copied from the 
original letters ; and it is pretty evident 
that they were copied from commonplace 
books. But though many interesting MSS. 
of Harington, from the family collection, 
are in the British Museum, these do not 
contain any of the originals of the ' Nugse 
Antiques ' correspondence. It is possible 
that the Georgian Haringtons thought that 
the books from which they had printed 
all they considered worth preservation 
had no further value. The father of the 
editor of the ' Nugse ' had sold the fine old 
family house of Kelston, built by Sir John 
Harington' s father, and it was not only 
pulled down to the foundations, but no 
sketch or drawing of it has been preserved. 
It is a fact, however, that many of the 
old MS. copies in the family books are still in 
the possession of the Harington family, and I 
have had the pleasure of seeing them. 




THE life of this worthy in the ' D.N.B.' 
is based entirely on his own autobiography 
as given in his ' Madagascar,' without the 
slightest attempt at checking his narrative. 
His biographer seems to believe his state- 
ments implicitly. On the other hand, the 
late Capt. S. Pasfield Oliver, when re-editing 
Drury's ' Journal ' for Mr. Fisher TJnwin's 
" Adventure Series," two years later (in 
1890), tried to sift the story, and came to 
the conclusion that 

" it seems certain that there was such a person 
as Robert Drury, and that he was wrecked with 
Mr. Benbow in the Degrave ; but there are many 
indications that his subsequent history would 
not bear a searching cross-examination." 

Two other writers who cast a doubt on 
Drury's tough yarns are Emile Blanchard, 
the well-krown publicist, who in the Revue 
des Deux Mondes for 1872 ridiculed tho idea 
that the Malagasy should have reduced 
a European to slavery ; and Mr. William 
Lee, who in his biography of Defoe admits 

** it is certain there was a Robert Drury that 
he had been a captive as stated that he wrote a 
large account of his adventures that he was seen, 
questioned, and could give any information re- 
quired after the publication of his book. In 
the latter part of his life Defoe had many imitators ; 
I think that one of them very ably edited Drury's 
manuscript. Possibly Defoe may have read it and 
inserted some sentences, but as I am in doubt 
even of that, I cannot place the book in the list 
of his works." 

The latest contribution to the controversy 
comes from such competent writers as MM, 
Alfred arid Guillaume Grandidier, the lead- 
ing authorities on everything connected with 
Madagascar, who in 1906 published an anno- 
tated French translation of Drury's book 
in vol. iv. of their " Collection des Ouvrages- 
anciens concernant Madagascar." Owing 
to its importance, I may be allowed to quote 
their verdict in the original text : 

" Pour nous, il nous semble certain qu'un 
homme ayant longtemps v6cu la vie des indigenes 
a pu seul donner les tres ve>idiques et tres 
nouveaux renseignements qu'on trouve a chaque 
page du livre de Drury ; jusqu' a nos voyages, 
il y a une foule de details sur les moaurs des 
peuples du Sud dont Drury seul avait par!4, et 
son dictionnaire contient une foule de mot* 
parfaitement exacts et qui e"taient inconnus 
avant lui." 

On the other hand, MM. Grandidier do- 
not think Drury wrote his narrative himself,, 
for in certain parts they consider it " fan- 
taisiste et apocryphe," and they decidedly 
will not believe that he had ever been a 
slave among the Malagasy. For all such 
blunders and inaccuracies they throw the 
blame on his unknown editor. At a certain 
place they point out that Drury is stated 
to make his way through a " massif de mon- 
tagnes," where there are no hills at all 
(p. 266) ; and on another page (p. 328) he 
is made to view a broad expanse of the 
tents of the encamped natives, who, in our 
days at least, do not use tents. Then on 
p. 95 we find a foot-note to the effect that 
" cette partie du recit, comme d'autres 
du reste, n'est certainement pas veridique." 
There are other foot-notes in the book 
to the effect that the incident is parely 
fictitious or that it is an " evenement con- 

Moreover, MM. Grandidier seem ta 
attach undue importance to the fact that 
there is in the British Museum a copy of the 
1807 edition of the ' Journal ' in which 
" Hughes Minet, 1'arriere - petit - fils " of 
Capt. Young, the Commander of tho ship in 
which Drury was wrecked on the Madagascar 
coast, has added several MS. notes in the 
margin, to the effect that as far as he was 
able to judge from numerous conversations 
he had with his mother, who was the grand- 
daughter of Capt. Young the details of 
the narrative were in accordance with family 
traditions, and deserved full credit. Family 
traditions were, no doubt, based upon the 
sailor boy's narrative expanded and edited 
by Defoe or one of his imitators. Let me 
state, en passant, that I have not been able 
to discover Minet's book ; the only copy 

10 S. XL FEB. 27, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the 1807 edition in the British Museum 
is the one in the Grenville Library, and I 
could not find any MS. notes in it. 

As regards the ship De Grave, which was 
her correct name, and her commander Capt. 
Young, Capt. Oliver in 1885 applied for 
information to the India Office, and was 
told by the then Registrar and Superin- 
tendent of Records that 

" prior to 1702 there existed two East India 
Companies the Old or London Company and 
the New English Company. The former had 
no such ship as the De Grave, nor any com- 
mander named Young or Younge ; but the New 
Company had the De Grave as one of the first 
three vessels they sent to India." 

On referring, howaver, to M. Albert 
Pitot's recently published ' T'Eylandt 
Mauritius ' (Port Louis, 1905), we find on 
p. 303 an extract from a letter dated 3 April, 
1703, from Deodati, the Governor of Mauri- 
tius, in which he reports that Capt. Michael 
Young, commander of the frigate Grove (sic) 
of Bengal had arrived at the North-East 
port (Port Louis) in a damaged condition 
and leaky, having run aground in the Gulf 
of Bengal and smashed six feet of the rudder. 

Drury also relates in his ' Journal ' that 
Capt. Boon, a pirate, had been at Mauritius 
" about two months before, he having just then 
plundered a very rich Moorish ship, and had 
taken out of her 50 Lascars [whom the pirates 
were forced to leave behind for want of room]. 
These people we took with us." 

The extract from Deodati's letter does 
not mention the pirate-captain's name, but 
gives the namo of his ship (" le corsaire 
Spreek Trumpet "), and states that 30 blacks, 
10 Lascars, and 2 young children, also Las- 
cars all landed from the pirate ship, and 
detained in Mauritius the previous year 
were sent to the Cape by the same damaged 
vtssel (the De Grave), as they would not 
work on the island and were at the charge of 
the Company, who had to find them salt for 
their fish. 

The Capt. Boon in question was no other 
than the notorious pirate John Bowen, \\ hose 
biography is given in Capt. Charles John- 
son's ' History of the Pyrates ' (vol. ii. 
pp. 49 et seq., and additions at p. 371 and 
passim), where one of his ships is named 
the Speaker. On another page M. Pitot 
calls the ship " le corsaire Speaking Trumpet 
(le Porte- Voix) " in his narrative, but qiiotes 
the official text of a resolution of the Counci 
of the 9th of January, 1702 (from the Cape 
of Good Hope Archives), wherein the pirate 
ship is also called the Speaker. 

M. Pitot finds fault with some of Drury's 
dates, but the greater part of the difficulty 

will vanish if we remember that Drury'e 
ship passed through the downs on 19 Feb., 
1701, Old Style, that is in 1702. L. L. K. 


(See ante, p. 25.) 

I CONCLUDE the list of inscriptions copied 
)y me at Jerusalem last March : 

16. Charles Frederick Tyrwhitt | Drake i Born Jan. 
2nd, 1847 [?]. I Died 1871 [?]. | This is life eternal that 
;hey might know | Thee the only God and Jesus 
Christ | Whom Thou hast sent. There is also an 
Arabic inscription ; and a cup in the stone. On a 
stone cross on a slab. 

17. Corporal James Duncan j H.B.M. Royal 
Engineers | Died 10 August, 1868 | When employed' 
on the | Jerusalem Excavations. | Erected by his 
Comrades. On a broken column on a slab. 

18. In loving memory of | Sarah Ann Stanton | 
Born in London Sept. 13, 1842. | She came to Syria 
in 1864 | In connection with the | Society for Pro- 
moting Female | Education in the East, and I 
Finished her course | At Bethlehem, Nov. 3rd, 1878.- 

| Thanks be to God which | Giveth us the victory ] 
Through our Lord Jesus | Christ. 1 Cor. xv. 57. 
On a flat marble slab. 

19. In loving memory of [ Robert S. Lauterstein | 
Died Easter Morn April 1st, 1878 | Aged 69 years. 
On a stone cross within a border. 

20. In memory | of [ Rev. James Henry Vidal | 
Vicar of Chiddingly | County of Essex [Sussex?], 
England | Who died March 15, 1875 | Aged 55 | 
There remaineth therefore | a rest for the People of 
God. | Hebr. 4 ch. 9 v. On a railed flat stone. 

21. Sacred | To the memory | of | Caroline Cooper 
late of | Henley on Thames | England | Born on the 

4 September, 1806 | Who after a residence of eleven 
years | in Jerusalem | Departed this life on the | 
22 November, 1859. | Looking for that blessed hope 
and the | glorious appearing of the great God and | 
Saviour Jesus Christ. Titus 2. 13. | Blessed are the- 
dead which die in the Lord from | henceforth, yea, 
saith the Spirit, that they may | rest from their 
labours, | And their works do follow them. Rev. 14, 
13. On a flat stone. 

22. John Bowes Johnston died | Nov. 6, 1859. | 
Aged 55 years. | Resident in | Jerusalem | From 
Oct. 1838. On a flat stone. 

23. Beneath this monument rest the mortal 
remains of | Robert Bateson, Esq. M.P. | Eldest son 
of Sir Robert Bateson, Baronet, | Of Belvoir Park. 
Ireland. | He died in Jerusalem on the 24th of 
December, 1843 | Aged 27 years. | He was an affec- 
tionate son, a kind brother, a true friend : j Be- 
loved by all for the sweetness of his disposition, | 
As he was esteemed for the sincerity of his cha- 
racter | For the purity of his mind and religious 
principles ! And the integrity of his public con- 
duct, f His strength of mind was only equalled by 
the goodness of his heart, | His manners were 
gentle, his demeanour unassuming | And his many 
virtues were further adorned | By his varied know- 
ledge and highly cultivated understanding. | Above 
all he neglected not the one thing needful | For 
with unshaken faith and fervent piety | He placed 
his whole trust in the mercy of his Saviour Jesus 
Christ | (fully assured of salvation through His 
blood) i And died as he had lived, a true Christian- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL F M . _>:, im 

On a marble cenotaph with horns at the corners, 
and a shield bearing a lion above three wings, with 
the motto beneath " Probiias Verus Honos." 

24. Emily Alicia Bland | 16 March, 1868. On a 
red granite obelisk on a pedestal. 

25 Mary Chris- | tina Coral I Died Aug. 3, 1868. 
Aged 16 months | Of such | is the kingdom of 
heaven. On a flat stone. 

26. James Stephen Coral | died May 4, 1879. | 
Age 9 months ] Thou, Lord, didst it. On a flat 

27. Christopher Samuel Coral born [died?] Oct. 31, 
1878. | He sent from above, He took | him because 
He delighted in him. | Psalm 18. 16, 19. On a flat 

28. George Dalton, M.D. | Missionary | to the ) 
Jews | Died Jan. 25, 1826. On a flat stone. 

29. Henry David Moore | Died July 26, 1869. 
On a flat stone. 

30. Violet Moore | Born in February | And died 
in May. 1872. On a flat stone. 

31. Emily Louisa Finn | Died at Urtas, Dec. 17, 
1858. | Aged 2 months. | Jesus said | Suffer 
little children | to come unto Me. On a flat 

32. Mary Bailey | Died May 25, 1859. | Aged 
8 months. ! Of such | Is the Kingdom of Heaven. 

33. Daniel Fast, | &c. On a sloping stone. 

34. Sacred | To the Memory of | Cecil A. Hillyer 
Bisshopp | The infant son of Sir Cecil and Lady 
Bisshopp I who died at Jerusalem on the 5th of 
May 1844. | Aged 6 months | And He shall 
gather the lambs in His | Arms and carry them 
in His bosom. | Even so, Father, for so it seemeth 
good in Thy sight. On a marble slab on the 
end wall. 

35. In loving memory | of | Ellen Clark I 
Born June 3rd, 1832, | Died March 20th, 1904. | 
Thou wilt not | leave my soul | in the grave. 
On an upright tinted marble monument. 

36. In | loving memory of | Gladys M. Clark 
| Born April 5, 1887. | Died July 30, 1891. | 

She is not dead | but sleepeth. On a stone scroll. 

37. In loving memory | of | George M. Clark ] 
Born Jan. 3, 1886. | Died May 13, 1886. | Safe 
in the arms of Jesus. On a stone scroll. 

38. Sacred to the memory of | M. Lyons. 
On a flat stone. 

39. In | loving memory | of | Winefred | Ethel 
Clark | Born July 5th, 1892. | Died May 30, 1900. 

| For of such is the | Kingdom of Heaven. On 
a, marble cross on a stone rock. 

40. S. T. M. | John Holland | Surrogate of Mor- 
peth | Northumberland | Born xxix. September, 
MDCCCXXIV. | Died xxvi. Apr. MDCCCLVII. | In 
peace. On a flat stone. 

41. Sacred | to the memory of | Mary | the j 
beloved wife of | Joseph Dickinson, M.D. | of 
Liverpool. | She slept in Christ | ix. April, 
MDCCCVII. | Aged xxxviii. years. | I know that 
my Redeemer liveth. Job xix. On a blue 
granite flat slab. 

42. Sacred to the memory of | William Rodgie 
| Late Banker of Bombay | who died here | On 

his way home to Scotland | on the 20th of March, 
1873 | in the 37th year of his age. | Erected by 
his widow. On a marble cross on a base. 

43. In loving memory | of | John Dickson | 
H.B.M. Consul, Jerusalem. | 1890-1906. | Born 
17 June, 1847 I Died 4 July, 1906. | Be thou 
faithful unto death and | I will give thee a crown 
of life. On a marble cross. 

44. Charlotte Maria | Ogilvy | Died 18 May, 
1878. On a flat stone. 

45. In loving memory of | The Rev. Charles 
Frederick Weston, B.A. of Derby | England, 
Curate of Widcombe, Bath, who fell asleep | in 
Jesus while on a visit at Jerusalem. | April 9th, 
1884. Aged 26. On a pointed stone cenotaph. 

46. In Memoriam | The Right Revd. Joseph 
Barclay, D.D., LL.D. | Third Anglican Bishop 
of Jerusalem. | Late Rector of Stapleford, Herts. 

| Died Oct. 22, 1881. Aged 50. j His widow, 
who survived him only 4 months, is | buried at 
Ketteringham, Norfolk. | They were lovely in 
their lives, and were not divided | in their death. 

In loving memory of | Margharit Brandon | 
3rd daughter of Bishop Barclay, who died Oct. 

| 18, 1880. Aged 8 years. On a pink marble 

47. Rev. Somerset Brafield Burtchael, M.A. 

| Born in Ireland, 1832. Ordained 1858 | Pure 
in heart, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord. | 
He laboured in Ireland, in Spain, and in | Italy, 
and in 1877 was appointed to | Christ Church, 
Jerusalem, | whence he departed to be with 
Christ, in everything | giving thanks, June 6, 
1878. | In his life were seen the fruits of the Spirit, 
in his death | That peace which passeth under- 
standing. On a marble cenotaph. A Hebrew 
inscription is on the other side. 

48. Annie Romola Burtchael | Born in Rome 
8th March, 1875 I Died in Jerusalem 27th Dec, 
1877. | Jesus called a little child unto Him. 

49. In memory of | Claudia | The infant 
daughter of | Somerset and Katharine Burtchael 

| Who rests at Florence | Until the day dawn. 
On a sloping marble slab. 

50. Reverend John Nicolayson | Born June 1st, 
1803. | 23 years a faithful watchman on the walls 
of Jerusalem | fearless in the midst of war, 
pestilence, and earthquake | A master in all the 
learning of the Hebrews and the Arabs Founder 
of the English Hospital and builder of the Pro- 
testant Church | Lived beloved and died lamented 

| By Christians, Jews, and Mahometans | the 
6th day of Oct., 1856. 

On another side is a Hebrew inscription, and : 
The memory of the just | is blessed | Prov. x. 7. 

On a third side is a Hebrew inscription, and : 
The righteous is taken away | From the evil to 
come. | Is. Ivii. 1. 

On a fourth side is a Hebrew inscription, and : 
Blessed are the peace makers | For they shall 
be called the | Children of God. | Matt. v. 9. 

On a broken marble column. 

51. In memory of | Antoinette P. Powle. | 
Born Jan. 13, 1819. | Died Nov. 20, 1897. | 
Tarry till I come. | John xxi. 22. On an upright 

52. In loving memory of | Victor Robinson | 
Infant son of | George Robinson Lees | Born in 
London May 29th, 1887. | Died at Jerusalem 
July 8th, 1888. 

On the other side is inscribed : In loving memory 
of | Edith Annie | the beloved wife of George 
Robinson Lees | Born in Rotherham, England, 
September 10th, 1861. | Died at Jerusalem 
August 1st, 1888. 

On a stone cenotaph. 

53. Elizabeth Charlotte Maud | daughter of 
Thomas Chaplin, M.D. | Born August 19th, 1870. 

| Died April 8th, 1872. | He shall gather the 
lambs with His | arms and carry them in His 
bosom. I Isaiah xl. 11. On a flat stone. 

10 s. XL FEB. 7, 1909. ji NOTES AND QUERIES. 


54. Sacred to the memory | of the Right 
Reverend ; Michael Solomon Alexander, D.D. | 
First Protestant Bishop in Jerusalem I whose, 
Christian love | won the good will of his brethren 
of Israel | Whose Christian wisdom | Triumphed 
over peculiar difficulties \ And conciliated | The 
high regards of other Churches | Whose meekness, 
zeal, and Christian simplicity | Secured the affec- 
tion of all who knew him. | He fell asleep in the 

Lord | Nov. 23, 1845. ! In the year of his 

age | By the grace of God, I am what I am. 

On the second side is a Greek inscription, on 
the third a German, and on the fourth a Hebrew. 
Upon a large monument of four varieties of stone. 

55. Sacred | To the memory of the Right 
Rev. | Samuel Gobat, D.D. | From 1846-1879 | 
Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem | Born Jan. 26, 
1799. Died May 11, 1879. | Also of Maria 
R. C. Gobat | His wife | Born Nov. 9, 1813. 
Died Aug. 1879. | Blessed are the dead which 
die | In the Lord, yea | Saith the Spirit, that 
they may | Rest from their | Works. Rev. xiv. 13. 

On the second side is an Arabic inscription ; 
on the third, one in Hebrew ; and on the fourth 
one in German, with a marble medallion of the 
Bishop's head. On an upright panel is cut 
a mitre. 

56. In [ Loving memory of | Mary Fearne 
Price | Until the day break | And the shadows 
flee away. 

On the other side is inscribed : Mary Fearne 
Price | Taken home | January 18, 1885. 
On a stonecross. 

57. She is not | Dead, but | Sleepeth. [ In 
loving | Memory of | Mary Elizabeth | Beloved 
wife of | Rev. R. Elliott Goza | Who fell asleep 
Oct. 1, 1887. | Aged 31. On a stone wheel cross. 

58. In | Loving Memory of | Robert Houghton 
I Only child | Of i Richard and Frances C. 

Hughes ! Died April 17th, 1899. Aged 3 years 
4 months. | Jesus called a little Child unto 
Him. Matt, xviii. 2. On a marble cross. 

59. In loving memory | Of | Sydney | Son of 
j^ Thomas and Caroline | Gibbon | Of Bowdon, 

England, and C.M.S. Missionary I in Jerusalem 
Who fell asleep | July 19, 1899. I Aged 30. 
Ready to die at Jerusalem i For the Name | 
Of the Lord Jesus. On a flat stone. 

60. Gladys i Rowena Connor | Whom Jesus 
called To Himself | May 31st, 1888. | Aged 
10 months. On a flat stone. 

61. Cyril Herbert Marriott | Filius Rev. Herbert 
Marriott | Dec. xvi., &c. A Latin text follows. 
On a flat stone. 

62. Sacred | To the memory of | Edward Mac- 
cowan, M.D. | Physician for seventeen years 
to the Jerusalem Mission of the | Society for 
Promoting Christianity | Among the Jews | And 
entered into hia rest | On the vi. February, 1860. 

| Unto you which believe j Christ is precious | 
1 Peter ii. 7. 

Besides the above, there are inscriptions 
to Katie Kelk (63), F. W. Adeney (64), H. 
Israel (65), M. Benoriel (66), Dr. Schick (67), 
M. Dickinson (68), E. Piazza (69), R. Batte- 
sen (70), W. Hope (71), the Rev. C. F. 
Waton (72), C. H. Hillyer (73), and others 
in Arabic and German. DELTA. 

THOMS. That the originator of ' N. & Q., T 
a journal founded for the solving of problems, 
should himself form the subject for a problem, 
would indeed have been a matter of surprise 
to him, yet " Claudius Clear " recently offered 
in The British Weekly a book for the best reply 
to the following : 

" Lord Macaulay once met Mr. W. J. Thorns, 
the antiquary, in the Library of the House of 
Lords. Mr. Thorns mentioned to Lord Macaulay 
that he could not quite understand why Pope 
had satirised Dryden in ' The Dunciad.' Lord 
Macaulay said that Mr. Thorns must be mistaken, 
and with his usual eloquence, before an audience 
of a score of peers, he spoke for nearly half an 
hour in support of his opinion, and proved beyond 
all doubt that it was impossible that Pope could 
or would have lampooned Dryden. Mr. Thorns- 
had all this time a copy of ' The Dunciad ' in 
his pocket, with the page turned down at the 
passage. What should Mr. Thorns have done, 
and why ? " 

In The British Weekly for the 4th inst. 
it was announced that the prize had been 
awarded to R. M. Rees, Paulton, Bristol, who 
had replied as follows : 

" Mr. Thorns should have gone home and sent 
a letter to Lord Macaulay, quoting the lines 
referred to and giving the place where they could 
be found, at the same time thanking Lord 
Macaulay for his most interesting and illuminating: 
discussion of the subject, which both for Mr. 
Thorns' own sake and that of the other auditors, 
he had found himself quite unable to interrupt." 

Claudius Clear adds : 

" What Mr. Thorns did, I believe, was to- 
go home and to take no action whatever, but 
curiously enough no competitor has suggested 
this course." 

Between Macaulay and Thorns, as I am 
aware, there was a feeling of deep regard. 
My father has often spoken to me of their 
friendship, and the respect the great his- 
torian had for our founder's learning. 
Macaulay would frequently show this. On 
his being called to the House of Lords, 
when he was receiving the congratulations- 
of many peers in the library, he noticed that 
Thorns had joined the group, and at once 
went to him and expressed great pleasure 
that he should be among those who rejoiced 
at the honour that had been bestowed 
upon him. Among the many references in 
'N. & Q.' to Macaulay is one on the 1st of 
December, 1854, relating to the publica- 
tion on the 17th of vols. iii. and iv. of his- 
' History.' Twenty-five thousand copies had 
been printed, but these were not sufficient 
to meet the demand, and "the press is- 
already at work on a second impression." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FKB. -27, im 

INDIAN NAMES. The daily papers, com- 
menting on the appointment of a native 
to the Governor-General's Council in India, 
warn us that " Mukharji is not a surname, 
but a great Brahman cognomen." I suspect 
that this is the colloquial form of the name 
which appears on State occasions as Muk- 
hopadhyaya. Indian family names exhibit 
many peculiarities of great interest to the 
onomatologist. There is a kind of surname 
in use among Indian Mohammedans which 
upsets all our notions of what a surname 
should be. This kind is not only not here- 
ditary, but differs as between brother and 
brother. The explanation is that these are 
really personal names. Mohammedans have 
no surnames, so when brought into contact 
with Western civilization they treat the 
final part of their compound personal names 
as such. For example, there is a class of 
names commencing with Abdul, e.g., Abdul 
Rahman. An Indian of that name would 
evade the difficulty caused by absence of 
surname by treating Rahman as one, and 
figure in English society as "A. Rahman, 
Esq." His brother, however, can obviously 
never be Rahman. His name, we will 
suppose, is Abdul Ghani, so he becomes 
" A. Ghani, Esq." This is surely unique. 

A real equivalent to our surnames is to 
be found in the Mahratta hereditary names 
ending in -kar, derived from names of places. 
The royal name of Holkar will occur to 
every reader. Other examples are Mom- 
baikar, " the man from Bombay," Shir- 
gaokar, " from Shirgao " ; Tanjorkar, 
" from Tan j ore " ; Vijapurkar, " from VI ja- 
pur," &c. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

" ARTIFICIAL." In the clever, but fan- 
tastic " appreciation " of Edgar Allan Poe 
which appeared in the Literary Supplement 
of The Times for 14 January, the following 
quotation is made from ' The Fall of the 
House of Usher ' : 

" But the fervid facility ot his impromptu* could 
not he so accounted for. They must have been, 
and were, in the notes, as well as in the words of 
his wild fantasies, the result of that intense mental 
collectedness and concentration to which I have 
previously alluded as observable only in particular 
moments of the highest artificial excitement." 

The writer observes that (except for the 
"artificial") this is much nearer a true 
account of the actual conditions that have 
attended the making of every lyrical poem 
ever written, including Poe's own. In 
the Supplement for the following week Mr. 
George Hookham wrote to suggest t?iat 
possibly the word " artificial," to which 

exception was taken, was not used in its 
ordinary modern sense, but was perhaps 
connected in sense with " artificer " rather 
than with " artifice." So Shakespeare in 
' A Midsummer Night's Dream ' : 

We, Hermia, like two artificial gods, 

Have with our neelds created both one flower. 

If " artificial " is used as if it were equivalent 
to producing " a work of art," it would 
certainly make excellent sense, both in 
Poe and Shakespeare, and, as Mr. Hookham 
remarks, it would be quite in the manner 
of the former. Perhaps a correspondent 
may be able to produce some other instance 
in which the word is used with this meaning. 
Unfortunately, I cannot refer to the word 
in the ' N.E.D.' W. F. PBIDEATIX. 

Grand Hotel, Locarno. 

" BILKER." ' H.E.D.,' while giving bilk, 
bilked, and bilking, does not include bilker, 
though the last word has at least a semi- 
literary ancestry. In The Daily C our ant 
for 27 Dec., 1717, there was announced, 
as part of that night's programme " by 
the Company of Comedians, at the Theatre 
in Little-Lincoln's-Inn-Fields," 

" A Dramatick Entertainment of Dancing, call'd, 
The Cheats, or, The Tavern Bilkers. The part of 
Harlequin to be perform'd by Mr. Lun, Scaramouch 
by Mr. Thormond, and Punch by Mr. Cook. With 
all the Scenes, Machines, and other Decorations 
proper to the Play." 


places the school-bell is sounded, a call to 
the children to be in time, and this call is 
at times set to words : 

All good children, come to school now ; 
Hark ! we hear the bells ring ! 

Ting a ling ; ting, ting, ting. 

Each line is said twice in a sing-song way 
as the children trot along hand in hand. 
At any rate, this is how the infants go. 
There are variations, no doubt. 


preparing his memoir of Edmund Smith for 
the " Lives of the Poets " Johnson makes 
a large preliminary quotation from what 
he calls " his character, as given by Mr. 
Oldisworth, with all the partiality of friend- 
ship." This, says he quite explicitly and 
with perfect candour, as it " comprises great 
part of what can be known of Mr. Smith, 
it is better to transcribe at once than to 
take by pieces." His own share in the pro- 
duct he designs is to be modest and sub- 

10 S. XL FEB. 27, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ordinate. " I shall subjoin," he observes, 
* ' such little memorials as accident has enabled 
me to collect." After quoting, apparently 
verbatim, what he presently defines as " the 
declamation of Oldisworth," he gives various 
biographical details drawn, he explains, 
from conversation with Gilbert Walmsley, 
whom he proceeds to eulogize in terms that 
prompt the famous allusion to the death 
of Garrick. He says comparatively little 
of Smith's literary achievement, although 
ho contends against Addison that the 
' Phaedra ' was probably as well received 
as its merits deserved. Of the author's 
* Pindar ' he declares himself entirely igno- 
rant apart from Oldisworth' s references ; 
and all he says of the ' Longinus ' is that 
^' he intended to accompany it with some 
illustrations, and had selected his instances 
of the false Sublime from the works of Black- 

When editing The Spectator for " Every- 
man's Library," Prof. Gregory Smith seems 
to have failed to notice the two distinct 
sections in Johnson's chapter on Smith. 
Unhesitatingly and without comment, he 
assigns to the later and the distinguished 
critic the opinions expressed by his com- 
paratively obscure predecessor. Annotating 
Steele's assertion, in the second number of 
The Spectator, that Aristotle and Longinus 
were familiar to his Member of the Inner 
Temple, he says : " At the time of this paper, 
Edmund Smith's translation, which Johnson 
has praised highly, was in MS." 

Again, prompted by Addison' s complaint, 
in No. 18, regarding the popular enthusiasm 
for the opera " at a time when an author 
lived that was able to write the Phaedra 
and Hippolitus," Mr. Gregory Smith ob- 
serves in an appended note : " Addison' s 
friend Edmund Smith produced ' Phaedra 
and Hippolitus ' in 1709, ' a consummate 
tragedy ' excelling the Greek and Latin 
* Phaedra ' and ' the French one,' says John- 
son." Like the praise accorded to the 
version of Longinus, this encomium is drawn 
from the section of Johnson's memoir which 
is completed by the unqualified " declama- 
tion of Oldisworth." The play, resting on 
a mythological basis, seemed to Johnson 
unlikely to appeal to the ignorant or to be 
appreciated on the stage by the learned. 
" It is a scholar's play," he concludes, 
" such as may please the reader rather than 
the spectator ; the work of a vigorous and 
elegant mind, accustomed to please itself 
with its own conceptions, but of little 
acquaintance with the course of life." 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

word was under discussion in ' N. & Q.' 
wrote (10 S. v. 72) of his family as having 
" prided themselves as punch-makers for 
many generations," and as having " always 
understood that the word was derived from 
the Persian or Urdu word pan/, five." Will 
MB. HEBON-ALLEN be so good as to say 
to what date, precisely or approximately, 
these " many generations " go back ? and 
also what evidence he has that his ancestors 
always so understood the derivation of 
" punch" ? Were any of these ancestors on 
service in the East Indies, and in what years ? 
As we are collecting materials for the history 
of the word " punch," we should be glad 
of particulars as to both statements. Does 
the evidence go back before the date of 
Fryer, who, so far as we know, was the first 
to propound the derivation in question ? 
(If answered privately, kindly address " Sir 
James Murray, Oxford.") 


LIZARDS AND Music. The archaeologist 
Welcker, in his ' Alte Denkmaler,' vol. i. 
1849, p. 412, quotes the opinion of " An 
Englishman " on the love of lizards for 
music in a book entitled ' On the Habits 
and Customs of Animals,' London, 1839, 
but omits to give his name. This English- 
man, who seems to have been a naturalist, 
says, according to Welcker, that lizards, 
common in Southern Italy and Malta, are 
fond of music and also of whistling. ; when 
he was returning from his herborizing excur- 
sions, he often amused himself by whistling, 
in order to see the lizards creeping out of 
their holes and listening to him. He adds 
that this experiment was also made in Brazil. 

Who was this author ? and has the same 
observation been made by others ? There 
is nothing surprising in the fact, for serpents 
are known to be charmed by music, and 
lizards are also reptiles. H. GAIDOZ. 

22, Rue Servandoni, Paris (VP). 

tion of the late Baron von Biedermann's 
standard collection of all known conversa- 
tions of Goethe is now being prepared with 
the active encouragement of the leading 
Goethe scholars. Every effort is being made 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 27, urn. 

in order that this final edition may be a_ 
complete and trustworthy as possible ; 
hence any one in possession of additions 
or corrections to the first edition is earnestly 
requested to send them to the general editor, 
Freiherr F. W. von Biedermann, 33, Albrecht- 
strasse, Steglitz bei Berlin ; or to the under- 
signed, who is editing the conversations 
recorded in English. The accounts of the 
following Englishmen and Americans have 
already been examined and prepared for 
the press : G. Bancroft, Alb. Brisbane, 
G. H. Calvert, J. G. Cogswell, Geo. Downes, 
H. E. Dwight, Wm. Emerson, R. P. Gillies, 
A. B. Granville, G. H. Lewes, John Murray, 
Sir Ch. Murray, H. C. Robinson (MSS.), 
W. R, Swifte ('Wilhelm's Wanderings'), 
Thackeray, Geo. Ticknor, Jos. Wolff (exact 
date undetermined) ; but there must be 
many others still unnoticed. 

Kaiser Wilhelmstrasse, 13, Jena. 

was it possible to send messages from London 
to Portsmouth by the old method of sig- 
nalling ? In ' Highways and Byways in 
Surrey,' by Eric Parker, 1908, I read on 
p. 86 of 

" a system which enabled news to be sent from 
London to Portsmouth in a few seconds. (It 
toolc three-quarters of a minute to signal the 
hour of one o'clock from Greenwich to Portsmouth 
and back again to Greemcich)." 

Italics mine. Can this have been possible ? 
If so, telegraphy was no gain to the 
Admiralty. W. C. J. 

At what date had the figure of Britannia 
come to be recognized as the national 
emblem ? D _ H . 

"THE WHITE HART." What is the badge 
of " The White Hart," so common as the 
sign of inns and hotels ? D _ H. 

[A white hart was the badge of Richard II. 
See the numerous communications at 10 S vii 
249, 337.] 

TOMY.' In his introduction, ' Democritus 
to the Reader' (p. 40, ed. 1651-2), Burton 
writes : " The Chinezes say, that we Euro- 
peans have one eye, they themselves two, 
all the world else is blinde." 

The same saying is found in Bishop Hall's 
' Mundus alter et idem,' less than half way 
through the ^opening part, ' Itineris occasio e't 

" Quis inter Chinensea tantum acuminis, 
solertiseque, expectasset ? quia tot artes, tamque 

multijugem rerum omnium scientiam ? qui dum 
nos Musas omnes in hoc Occidental! gurgustiolo 
inclusas putamus, rident, nee immerito, quicquid 
uspiam praeter so hominum est ajuntque se solos 
vere oculatos, Europasos unioculos esse ; reliquos, 
quotquot sunt, mortales, ccecutire." P. 15 
in the Utrecht edition of 1643. The margin has 
" Proverb. Chinensium." 

Burton was most likely indebted to this, 
passage of " Mercurius Britannicus." But 
can any one point to a place in Chinese 
literature where the thought occurs, or to 
any account of China or book of travel 
where the saying is attributed to the Chinese ? 
I once consulted the late Dr. E. J. Eitel 
on the subject, but neither he nor the other 
Sinologists to whom he was good enough 
to refer the question were able to indicate 
a source. EDWARD BENSLY. 

lowing are the names of some famous men 
born in Gloucestershire. Can any of your 
readers mention others ? 
Sir Richard Whittington, Lord Mayor of London 

1396, &c. 
Tideman de Winchcombe, Bishop of Worcester 


John Carpenter, Bishop of Worcester 1443-76. 
John Chedworth, Bishop of Lincoln 145271. 
Henry Dene, Archbishop of Canterbury 1501-3. 
Thomas Ruthall, Bishop of Durham 1509-23. 
Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford 1535-8. 
Sebastian Cabot, died c. 1557. 

William Tyndale, translator of the Bible, d. 1535. 
Tobias Matthew, Archbishop of York 1606-28. 
John Taylor, the Water Poet, b. 1580, d. 1653. 
Sir Matthew Hale, Chief Justice 1671-6. 
Sir William Penn, Admiral, b. 1621, d. 1670. 
Edward Fowler, Bishop of Gloucester 1691-1715. 
Sir John Powell, Justice of the King's Bench 

Sir Robert Atkyns, county historian, b. 1647, 

d. 1711. 

Rev. James Bradley, Astronomer Royal 1742-62. 
Rev. George Whitefleld, the preacher, b. 1714, 

d. 1770. 

John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury 1783-1805. 
Robert Raikes, founder of Sunday Schools, 

b. 1735, d. 1811. 
Edward Jenner, discoverer of vaccination, b. 17-19, 

d. 1823. 

Sir George Nayler, Garter King-of-Arms, 1822-31. 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, President of the Roya\ 

Academy 1820-30. 
Robert Southey, 1813-43. 
Rev. John Keble, b. 1792, d. 1865. 
John Fraser, Bishop of Manchester 1870-85. 
Herbert Vaughan, Cardinal Archbishop of Wi 

minster 1892-1903. 

Please reply direct. A. A. HUNTER. 

College Road, Cheltenham. 

TERS. The ' Letters ' are generally stated 
to have been first published in three volume^ 
in 1763, and an additional volume issued in 
1767 is said to be spurious, and is attributed 

10 s. XL FEB. 27, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to John Cleland. Lowndes says he also 
issued a pirated edition of the original 
letters. I find there is a second edition 
with imprint 1763, T. A. Becket and P. de 
Hondt, the Strand, uniform with the volume 
of ' Additional Letters.' There is also an 
edition in one volume with imprint 1764, 
A. Homer in the Strand, and P. Milton in 
St. Paul's Churchyard. Is the latter the 
pirated edition referred to by Lowndes or 
the so-called second edition ? What are 
the correct date and imprint of the real 
first edition ? J. W. M. 

be glad to know if there are any parish 
registers for Islington dating back to the 
end of the sixteenth century, and, if not, 
what genealogical records exist relating to 
this locality. P. M. 

[Mr. A. M. Burke's recently published ' Key 
to the Ancient Parish Registers of England and 
Wales ' (Sackville Press) would answer your first 
question, as it gives the date of the earliest entry 
in every parish register, and also state* what 
registers have been printed.] 


Aldine edition of Dryden, edited by Richard 
Hooper, prints two poems which are not 
to be found in most collections of the poet's 
works. The title of one is ' On the Marriage 
of Mrs. Anastasia Stafford ' ; of the other, 
' To Matilda.' What is the history of these 
poems ? and what is the authority for ascrib- 
ing them to Dryden ? S. 

should be grateful for the names of Jews 
and Jewesses mentioned in plays, poetry, 
and novels, and the titles of the books in 
which these characters appeared ; also for 
the titles of any books or novels which have 
specially dealt with Jewish life, manners, 
and customs. Please reply direct. 

(Hon. Mrs.) S. STEWART. 

10, Egerton Gardens, S.W. 

one tell me if any descendant of Thomas 
Gainsborough, the great painter, is still 
living ? I am informed that the last direct 
descendant died about 1874. J. G. 

ready acquired a certain amount of new 
matter bearing on the life of Robert Dodsley, 
poet, dramatist, and publisher, I shall be 
glad to be directed to any source of addi- 
tional information, outside well-known works 
of reference. A. STAPLETON. 

39, Burford Road," Nottingham. 

HEATHFIELD, SUSSEX. Any information 
about, and references to, this parish, its 
history and topography, its inhabitants 
and its industries (especially that of iron- 
smelting and forging), some notes on which 
are being prepared for publication, will be 
welcome. Please reply direct. 


188, Marylebone Road, N.W. 

may any biographical matter be obtained 
concerning William Bullock, gentleman, 
who in 1649 wrote ' Virginia Impartially 
Examined ' ? HAROLD ARMITAGE. 

Fieldhead, Eastholm Green, Letchworth, Heri. 

I should be glad to know the origin of this 

THISTLE AND SAINT. Can any one tell 
me of what saint the thistle is an emblem ? 

CANOPIED PEWS. I wish to learn the 
names of any churches that have canopied 
pews besides Stokesay and St. Margaret 
Pattens, E.C. (Rev.) ST. B. S. SLADEN. 

63, Ridmount Gardens, Chenies Street, W.C. 

SCRAP HAGER ALKALI. I find in a writer 
of the end of the seventeenth century Solinus 
and Scrap Hager Alkali quoted as authorities 
on the medicinal properties of pearls. Who 
was the second of these writers ? 


CASTLE FOULIS. Can any Scotsman tell 
me from what legend or historical circum- 
stance is derived the curious and baffling 
slogan or rallying word of the Clan Roich, 
or Munro family, viz., " Caisteal Foulis 'n 
a theine" ("Castle Foulis ablaze")? Or 
does it refer to nothing more romantic than 
illuminations, or perhaps signalling ? The 
chief of the clan has been designated Munro 
of Foulis since the twelfth century. 


HERALDIC. In a miniature case, be- 
spangled with golden quatrefoils on a light 
blue enamelled ground is the portrait of a 
personage of the seventeenth century, to 
judge by the costume. The inside of the 
lid contains a shield bearing arms which I 
interpret as follows : Or, on a bend sable 
three falcons displayed, of the last. The 
crest on a helm might also be a falcon dis- 
played. It has been suggested to me that 
the portrait is that of a Mortimer. Can it 
be that the arms appertain to John Mortimer, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL FEB. 27, im 

the agricultural writer, who published a 
treatise (highly esteemed at the period) on 
the art of husbandry, and died in 1736 ? 
If not to him, to whom ? 


who was the wife of John, first Earl of Tra- 
quair ? He was the son of John Stuart 
of Traquair by Margaret, daughter of 
Andrew Stewart, or Stuart, Master of Ochil- 
tree. Where can I find the Ochiltree pedi- 
gree ? A. T. M. 

any of your readers kindly inform me of the 
origin of the family name of Rutland 7 
The particular family in which I am in- 
terested were, according to Guillim's ' Dis- 
play of Heraldry,' 1679, of Saffron Walden 
in Essex. It has been suggested that the 
name should be Ruthland, and that there 
is a part of Essex called the Ruth, and that 
the ancient holders of it were called Ruth- 
landers, since altered to Rutland. I have 
searched in Morant's ' Essex,' but can find 
no trace of this origin. 


OTWAY BALE left Westminster School at 
Midsummer, 1803. I should be glad to 
obtain any information concerning his 
parentage and career. G. F. R. B. 

HENRY ELLISON. (See 10 S. x. 8, 95, 
137.) Can any of your correspondents give 
me the dates of the respective deaths of the 
three brothers Richard, John, and Henry 
Ellison ? G. F. R, B. 

which of Michael Drayton's works is mention 
made of St. Valentine's Day ? 


TASSO'S ' AMINTA.' Where can a copy 
of Tasso's pastoral drama ' Aminta ' be 
procured in translated form prose or vers 
and by whom is it published ? 


the author of this book, and what is th 
nature of the dialogues ? To judge from 
the effect of a haphazard reading of a fev 
pages on one of the characters in a recen 
novel, ' Mr. and Mrs. Villiers,' by Huber 
Wales, the dialogues must be of a powerfu 
nature, the reader, after first turning crimson 
and then deathly white, sinking quietly t 
the ground unconscious. JOHN HEBB. 


(10 S. xi. 105.) 

IN tracing the history of the gn sound 

we find that the E. ni is a reversion to the 

at. ni, which is represented in Spanish 

jy n, in Portuguese by nh, and in Italian 

tnd French by gn ; for example, Lat. 

enior, Span, senor, Port, senhor, It. signore, 

Fr. seigneur ; Lat. Hispania, Span. Espana, 

'r. Espagne ; Lat. Britannia, Fr. Brefagne ; 

&t. campania, It. campagna, Fr. campagnc. 
["his fact is important in its relation to 

iatin pronunciation, as it shows that such 
a word as senior should be pronounced 
seni-or, and not sen-yor. 

The English pronunciation, however, 
differs from that of the Romance languages 
.n having no nasal sound. Whether the 
Latin language possessed this sound is 
difficult to say ; probably it did. I do 
not quite understand the force of the word 
' equivalent ' ' when PROF. SKE AT says : 
" The chief examples of E. ni from (or 
equivalent to) F. gn are " minion, com- 
panion," &c. Minion and companion may 
be equivalent in meaning to mignon and 

ompagnon, but they are far from being 
equivalent in sound. 

To the three words instanced by PROF. 
SKE AT as possessing " the liquid n " may, 
I think, be added signor or signior, which 
Shakespeare has anglicized in giving it the 
English plural. I remember also to have 
seen seigneurial used in English books, as 
well as cognoscenti. If champignon is ad- 
missible, a claim may be put in for peignoir, 
a lady's dressing-gown. Old-fashioned 
people still sometimes write poignard for 
poniard. There may also be added canyon, 
from the Span, canon, a deep cleavage in the 
hills. This word has become naturalized in 
American literature. 

A word omitted by PROF. STCEAT it is 
possibly unknown in the cloistered refec- 
tories of Cambridge is champagne. Unless 
my memory deceives me, this word two 
hundred years ago was spelt champain, 
just as we have Spain from Espagne, and 
Britain from Brctagne ; and it is remarkable 
that we should have reverted in more modern 
days to the French spelling. A cynic might 
refer this change to the common notion that 
things with a tinge of naughtiness about 
them seem less repulsive when arrayed in 
foreign garb than when clad in honest home- 
spun, j . j 

10 S. XL FEB. 27, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


PROF. SKEAT may perhaps be able to 
account for the fact that while in such words 
as sign, benign, malign, the g sound is dropped, 
and the i is lengthened into ai, in derivatives 
the i is shortened and the g regains its 
power ; e.g., sign, signal, signet, signify ; 
benign, benignant ; malign, malignant. 

Though disposed to go only a very short 
distance with the Spelling Reform party, 
I would concur in changing the spelling of 
mignonette to minionet. In French the 
flower is not known by that name, but is 
called reseda, and there seems no object 
in giving a quasi-French spelling to an Eng- 
lish word. W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

PROF. SKEAT'S interesting article suggests 
a few remarks. 

1. With regard to the use of ny for the 
liquid gn in English, this may have been 
derived from the Provensal and Aragonese 
usage. In Catalan ny has always been the 
symbol for this sound. Catalan surnames 
like Capmany and Fortuny, and place-names 
like Arenys, have puzzled our pronouncing 
dictionaries, which treat them as three 
syllables, whereas they should reckon as 

2. " This liquid n is common in Middle 
Scotch." PROF. SKEAT might have added 
that another Scotch symbol for it is nz. 
The name MacKenzie, for instance, was 
meant to be pronounced Mac Kenyie. The 
Gaelic spelling is Mac Coinnich, pronounced 
Mac Konyie. I have never been able to 
find out why the- Kon- of the Gaelic 
original has become Ken- in the English 
name. Perhaps there is some difference of 

3. The change of final gn to ng occurs in 
many languages. It is universal in Munster 
Gaelic ; thus the surname Flynn becomes 
Flyng, popularly pronounced with a long y, 
like our word " fly." A good example is 
the Cockney " Boolong " for Boulogne. 
Similarly, the German residents in Courland 
turn Lettish family names like Kalniri and 
Smildsin into Kalning and Smilting. 

JAS. PL ATT, Jun. 

If the key-words are meant to be taken 
from modern English, it must be objected 
that the gn in poignant is not pronounced 
like the gn in mignonette and champignon. 
In poignant the gn has the same value as in 
such a word as signing, i.e., it is no more 
than a simple n. A better example, if a 
third one is wanted, would be the gn in 
cognac, L. R. M. STRACHAN. 


EASTRY, KENT (10 S. xi. 87). In my 
' Place-Names of Cambridgeshire,' p. 53, 
to which MR. DUIGNAST refers, I say that the 
forms of Eastry (Kent) are given in Sweet's 
' Oldest English Texts,' p. 611 ; and these 
are duly cited in the query. 

The forms cause much difficulty, but have 
been admirably explained by Mr. H. M. 
Chadwick, in his ' Studies in Old English,' 
p. 147, in the Cambridge Philological Transac- 
tions, vol. iv. part 2. He shows that the 
equivalent of the Gothic gam, mod. G. 
gau, " a district," is only found in the 
Oldest English, and in four place-names, viz., 
Eastry, Ely, Lympne (Kent), and Surrey ; 
and even in these the later forms of Ely 
and Surrey altered the suffix to -ey or -y, 
with the sense of " island." 

The proper forms are Eastre-ge, Eostere- 
ge, where Eastre, Eostere, are the feminine 
genitives (in -e) of Easter, Eastor, the god- 
dess whose name is preserved in the neuter 
sb. Eastor, the festival of Easter. Ge 
answers to a later form gea, equivalent to 
the G. gau ; hence Eastre-ge is " the district 
consecrated to the goddess Eastor." The 
curious form found in "in regione Eastr- 
gena " is explained as a genitive plural. 

The older form of Ely was el-ge, answering 
to Beda's " regio anguillarum " ; the later 
form Elig (both vowels long) was due to 
the substitution of Ig for ge, and means 
" eel-island." 

As for Surrey, so long the despair of ety- 
mologists, it occurs as Suthri-gea in the 
'A.-S. Chronicle,' an. 836, and simply means 
" southern district." And here we find the 
very form gea that we should expect. Of 
course this obsolescent word was confused 
with lg, M.E. ey, y, " island," as in the case 
of Ely ; so that Robert of Gloucester has 
Sothereye, Sotherey, Sotherige, Southerey, 
as old spellings of Surrey. 


I feel little doubt that this place derived 
its name from its geographical position, 
notwithstanding the local belief that it was 
named after the goddess Eastre. If its 
early history were accurately known, I 
believe it would be found that it was one 
of the first Saxon, or more probably Jutish, 
settlements in England. After Christianity 
was introduced, the church was made de- 
pendent upon Canterbury, and it was its 
geographical position in relation to the 
capital of the Cantwaras that most likely 
gave it its name. I would venture to invite 
MR. DTTTGNAN'S attention to a paper that 
was published some years ago in The Home 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XL FEB. 27, im 

Counties Magazine, dealing with Suthrige 
or Surrey. I cannot give the exact reference, 
as I am abroad, but it deals in a new and 
interesting way with the place-termination 
-rige, and might throw some light on the 
analogous name Eastry. W. F. PRIDE ATJX. 
Grand Hotel, Locarno. 

In an article on the derivation of Surrey 
in The Home Counties Magazine for July, 
1901 (vol. iii. pp. 198-205),' Mr. T. le Mar- 
chant Douse, following Prof. Kluge, pointed 
out similarities in the early forms of Eastry 
and Surrey, and inferred that they are de- 
rived from the same tribal name, being the 
East and South Riges respectively. He 
further identified the Riges with the Rugi 
of Germany, A. MORLEY DA VIES. 

Winchmore Hill, Amersham. 

Lambarde in his ' Perambulation of Kent,' 
written in 1576, says : 

" Eastrie is the name of a Towne and hundredth 
within the Lath of St. Augustine, and hath the 
addition of East for difference sake, from Westrie 
(commonly called Bye), neere to Winchelsey in 


GENTLEMAN (10 S. xi. 109). This definition 
of a gentieman has nothing to do with the 
county mentioned, but is merely an extract 
from a littla volume entitled ' The Gentile 
Sinner, or England's Brave Gentleman : 
Characterized In a Letter to a Friend, Both 
as he is, and as he should be,' first published 
at Oxford, in 1660, according to Anthony 
a Wood. The second edition, a copy of 
which lies before me, is dated 1661. The 
author was Clement Ellis, Fellow of Queen's 
College, Oxford, who was born at Penrith, 
Cumberland, and was in 1694 Rector of 
Kirkby in Nottinghamshire, where he en- 
joyed " great repute for his Religion and 
Learning " (' Atheme Oxonienses,' 2nd ed., 
1721, pp. 969-70). Wood gives the title 
of the book as ' The Genteel Sinner,' and 
adds : " Afterwards came out several edi- 
tions of it with corrections and additions," 
so it must have obtained considerable 

As the passage in the query has been 
modernized in spelling, and contain? not 
a few differences from the original text, an 
exact copy of what appears on pp. 178-9 
of the second edition will no doubt be of 
interest : 

" The true gentleman ia one that ia Gods 
Bervant, the worlds master, and his own man. 
Hia vertue is his business, his study his recreation, 
contentednesse his rest, and happinesse his 

reward. God is his father, the Church is his 
mother, the Saints his brethren, all that need 
him his friends, and Heaven his inheritance. 
Religion is his mistresse, loyalty and justice her 
ladies of honour ; devotion is his chaplain, 
chastity his chamberlain, sobriety his butler, 
temperance his cook, hospitality his housekeeper, 
Providence his steward, charity his treasurer : 
Piety is mistresse of the house, and discretion 
the porter, to let in and out as ia most fit. Thus 
is his whole family made up of vertues, and he 
the true master of his family. He ia necessitated 
to take the world in his way to Heaven, but he 
walks through it as fast as he can ; and all his 
businesse by the way is to make himself and others 
happy. Take him all in two words, he is a man 
and a Christian." 


(10 S. x. 310, 395, 453 ; xi. 15). The Butler 
arms, w-hich I copied from Hutchins's 
4 Dorset,' iv. 333, are incorrectly blazoned 
by that historian. On p. 182 he apparently 
gives them correctly, as Or, on a chief 
indented azure, three covered cups of the 
first. V. L. OLIVER. 

118). I thank W. C. J. for his reply. From 
information lately received T find that the 
locality of the mill was rightly stated by 
me. However, I regret having made a slip 
with respect to the Civil War incident. 
The mill mentioned by W. C. J., and graphic- 
ally described by Sir Walter Besant in ' By 
Celia's Arbour,' was the " Old King's Mill," 
Portsmouth, which was burnt down in 
1868, and was also the mill connected with 
the above incident. The sito is occupied 
by the present Gun Wharf. F. K. 1'. 

" BROKENSELDE " (10 S. xi. 10, 58, 110). 
It is now clear that selde does not, in this 
particular case, mean " shield," but repre- 
sents the A.-S. seld or selde (it scarcely 
matters which), a building, abode, shop, 
shed, or whatever else of the kind seems 
most suitable. 

The A.-S. seld, an abode, selde, a porch, 
are closely related, and appear to be inter- 
changeable, at a later date. Two references 
for the M.E. seld are given in Stratmann. 
As to the etymology, there is no doubt that 
seld is a mere variant of setl, a settle, abode, 
residence, dwelling, stall (for beasts), se-e 
(for a bishop). Sievers has shown that 
the suffix -Id is merely a later form of -dl 
or -tl ; the stock examples are neeld, a mere 
variant of needle ; and spdld, spittle, for 
spdtl. The root-verb is sittan, to sit. 

We must not take Mr. Riley's etymologies 
seriously, as not much was known about 

io s. XL FKB. *7, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

phonetics in 1860. It is, of course, wholly 
impossible to connect seld (if a true form) 
with shield or shealing ; and the words 
shield and shealing are from different roots. 

xi. 7, 117). An Abyssinian says to you 
when you sneeze, " Egzia-beher yamasgan," 
which is equivalent to " God bless you ! " 

When I was at Thorvaldsen's Museum 
at Copenhagen in the summer of 1904, 
an official who did not speak English 
went the round of the Salons with me. 
Happening to be troubled by a cold in my 
head, I sneezed several times. Upon each 
occasion, looking me the while gravely in 
the face, he raised his hat, and made a stately 
obeisance. HARRY HEMS. 

At the second reference " the earburn 
superstition " is mentioned, as to which 
I have noted an early reference. In ' The 
Laud Troy Book,' of c. 1400, 11. 6451# run : 
A Ector, thin ere aujt to glowe, 
For thow hast now fou^ten y-nowe ; 
Wold god, Ector, hit were the sayd 
How thci haue thi deth purvayd ! 

H. P. L. 

(10 S. xi. 28). In Lyte's 'Herbal' the 
enumeration of the virtues of garlic runs 
to sixteen paragraphs. He says, among 
other things : 

" It is good against all venome and poyson, 
taken in meates or boyled in wine and dronken, 
for of his owne nature it withstandeth al poyson : 
in so much that it driveth away all venemous 
beastes, from the place where it is. Therefore 
Galen prince of Physitians, called it poore mens 
Treacle .... It is also good to keepe such from 
danger of sicknesse, as are forced to drinke of 
divers sortes of corrupt waters." 

Neither Lyte nor Gerard says anything 
to the latter effect of onions, but their quali- 
ties in general are much the same as those 
of garlic. The date of Lyte's ' Herbal ' is 
1578. C. C. B. 

In ' A Treatise of all Sorts of Foods,' by 
M. L. Lemery, Physician to the King, trans- 
lated by D. Hay', M.D., 3rd ed., London, 
1745, at p. 145 I^find : 

" The ancient Egyptians esteem'd them [i.e. \ 
garlick] very much, and by the Help of them 
pretended to keep off Diseases : They also look'd 
upon the Garlick as a strong Antidote, which 
they us'd as we do Treacles, or other Remedies 
of the like Nature. Garlick is a great Help to 
Sea-faring Men ; for it removes the Corruptions 
bred by the salt and stinking Water us'd by them 

as also by the bad Victuals they are oblig'd to 
eat at that time, for want of better : They also 
prevent Reachings, and Vomiting, which are 
very often occasion'd by the saltish Air of the 
Sea, which they breathe in ; and therefore 
Seamen usually eat Garlick every Morning with 
their Bread." 


One of the common names for the common 
plant the hedge garlic (" Jack-by-the-hedge," 
" sauce alone," &c.) is treacle mustard. It 
will be found under this heading in Cul- 
peper's ' Herbal.' JOHN T. PAGE. 

The garlic is widely known as " poor- 
man's-treacle " and " churl's-treacle," and 
is regarded as being a treacle or antidote 
for the bite of any venomous reptile. 

The onion possesses a very sensitive 
organism and readily absorbs all morbid 
matter that comes in its way. It may thus 
be of service in purifying foul water. 


Bishop's Stortford. 


NAMES (10 S. x. 430, 477). An example can 
be quoted of the latter as a personal name 
in Cambridgeshire. Between thirty and 
forty years ago, in a village close to Cam- 
bridgeeither Barton, I think, or Hasling- 
field there was a public-house whose host 
bore the " uncommon name,"* as Sir W. S. 
Gilbert would have called it, of Abraham 
Tabraham. Perhaps the name may still 
be found in that district. 


The name Tabrum occurs at Navestock 
in Essex as that of a family resident at 
Boys Hall in that parish, and is, I suppose, 
contracted from Tabraham. 

Babraham, near Linton in Cambridge- 
shire, is similarly contracted into Babram, 
and Jonas Webb, a noted sheepbreeder 
in that parish, who died in 1862, is the only 
local celebrity who has a public statue in 
either Oxford or Cambridge. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Tabram is probably an abbreviation of 
Tabraham, and has nothing to do with the 
name of the patriarch. Rather more likely, 
I would suggest, is it to be " the home of 
David " or of some one with a name similar 
thereto in sound. 


* MacCatacomb de Salmon-Eye 
Was her uncommon name. 
' Bab Ballads,' ' The Cunning Woman. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. XL FEB. 27, im 

BBITTEN (10 S. xi. 29). Possibly this 
name refers to Sheen's Burial-Ground, 
Church Lane, Whitechapel. In the County 
Council ' Return of the Burial-Grounds in 
the City of London ' (1895) is the following 
report concerning this ground : 

" A private ground, immensely used and dis- 
gustingly crowded. It seems to have been at 
one time used by the congregation of the Baptists 
in Little Alie-street, and was then called ' Mr. 
Brittain's burial-ground.' If so, it existed in 
1763. After being closed for burials it was used 
as a cooperage, and now it is Messrs. Fairclough's 
yard, and full of carts and sheds, &c. A new 
stable was built in 1894, but the London County 
Council declined to prevent its erection. The 
size of the ground is about acre, and the deserted 
chapel with adjoining plots of land are now for 
sale, but no further buildings should be allowed 

Walker (' Gatherings from Graveyards,' 
1839) describes it as "a private burying- 
place," and adds : 

" The proprietor of this ground is an 
undertaker. He has planted it with trees and 
shrubs, which are sufficiently attractive, but the 
ground is saturated with human putrescence." 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

DIABOLO : ITS ORIGIN (10 S. ix. 47). The 
T6>/6 dakugei Zasshi, Tokio, June, 1908, 
p. 264 has this note : 

" ' Diabolo,' starting as a fashion in England 
and France one or two years ago, has now become 
very widely current in this country. Not a few 
persons fancy it is an entire novelty ; but, in 
fact, China and Korea had the sport from much 
earlier days, it having been before this practised 
in Europe and America too. In Japan it was 
already known and in great vogue in the period 
of Koan (A.D. 1278-87). .. .Its vernacular name 
is ' Ryiigo,' to which the people apply the Chinese 
ideographs ' Lin ' and ' Ku,' jointly meaning 
' rolling spool.' Thus ' diabolo ' must never be 
accepted as an article of modern invention." 

In his ' Kottoshu,' written about 1800, 
Iwase Samuru, the Japanese novelist and 
antiquary, cites numerous old native authors 
whose writings bear witness to the existence 
of this game contemporary with themselves. 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

;j s EGYPT AS A PLACE-NAME (10 S. x. 447 ; 
xi. 93). It may be helpful to explain that 
" the locality called Egypt " in Southern 
Edinburgh, mentioned by MB. C. G. CONDELL, 
takes its name from Egypt, a farm which 
extended from the Jordan Burn at Morning- 
side to the Blackford Hill. As a child I 
lived in Morningside, and Egypt supplied 
vis with milk, the farm-house being occasion- 
ally visited for a banquet of curds and 
whey, with a subsequent surreptitious 

climb up the hill, which at that time was 
jealously preserved. 

Between the Jordan Burn, which co- 
incided with the Parliamentary boundary, 
and Church Lane (formerly Canaan Road), 
in a nearly square area about a quarter of 
a mile in extent, there were to be found a 
number of Scriptural names, most of them 
in or near Jordan Lane and Canaan Lane. 
I recollect Canaan Cottage, Grove, Lodge, 
and Park ; Eden Grove and Hermitage ; 
Goshen and Goshen Bank ; Hebron Bank, 
Jordan Bank, Salem House, and Zion Mount. 
Perhaps some Edinburgh resident may be 
able to give useful information as to the 
occasion and date of this eruption of 
Biblical names ; unusual, I think, in the 
region of Edinburgh, though there is a 
Joppa on the shore of the Forth some seven 
miles distant from Morningside. From their 
appearance, as I recollect it, the houses 
mentioned must have been among the 
earliest dwellings (cottages excepted) in 
Morningside, and built from 70 to 100 years 

Morningside, Sudworth Road, New Brighton. 

It may interest your many readers to 
know that there is a place called Little 
Egypt near Nailsworth, Gloucestershire. 
I imagine our being a Bible-reading nation 
accounts for the occurrence of this name. 

In Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, there 
is a town named Egypt. Not far from 
this town are Emmaus, Nazareth, and 
Bethlehem. Flowing through the region is 
a river known as the Jordan (called " creek " 
in that community). All this part of Penn- 
sylvania was settled by Moravians and 
Palatinate refugees, whose descendants 
became known as " Pennsylvania Dutch." 

Library, Lehigh University, 

South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

HYDE (10 S. x. 321, 461 ; xi. 22). MR. 
W. L. RUTTON inclines to the view that the 
Grosvenor Square area was part of the 
manor of Hyde, not of that of Eybury. 
I submit two considerations that seem to 
tell against this view. 

1. In 1536 there was an exchange of 
lands between Henry VIII. and the Abbot 
of Westminster. One piece of land is 

described as " a close called Brickclose 

between the great close belonging to Eybery 
on the west and north and Condet Mede 
on the east " (' State Papers, Hen. VIII.,' 

10 S. XL FEB. 27, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


vol, xi. (2), p. 84). Condet Mede being th 
site of the present Bond Street and Condui 
Street, the close belonging to Eybery mus 
have covered some part of the Grosveno 
Square region. 

2. In 1439 the Abbot of Westminste 
granted to the City of London certain spring 
in Paddington, with the right to lay pipe 
to carry the water to London, but specially 
excepting the lands of the manor of Hyd 
from those through which the pipes coulc 
be carried, the Abbot being in some anxietj 
lest his own supply from Hyde should b 
interfered with (Rymer's ' Fcedera,' vol. xi 
p. 29). In 1746 the City Surveyor prepared 
a plan of this line of water-pipes, of whic] 
there are copies in the Grace Collection 
(maps xiv., 9) and elsewhere. This plan 
shows that the pipes ran under what was 
until 1908, the north-eastern portion o 
Hyde Park, and continued along the soutt 
side of Oxford Street. Unless we suppos< 
that the City engineers in the fifteenth 
century deliberately went out of their way 
to infringe the conditions made by the 
Abbot, for no advantage to their work 
and at the risk of having it stopped and the 
grant annulled, we must conclude that the 
north-eastern corner of Hyde Park and the 
south side of Oxford Street were not within 
the manor of Hyde. The obvious inference 
is that the straight line of Watling Street 
now partly lost, was the eastern boundary 
of Hyde. 

What I