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Notas and Queries, July 30, 1910. 





"When found, make a note ot" CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 






Notes and Queries, July 30, 1910. 






n s. i. JAN. i, MO.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NOTES' Who was Richard Savage? 1 London Topo- 
eraohical Prints, 4 Bibliography of Publishing, 5' The 
Book-Trade, 1557-1625,' 6-' N. & Q.' on the Stage-Mrs. 
Sarah Battle Anticipated" Revels "=Parish Festivals- 
Noah as a Girl's Name A Modest Author American 
Miser's Will, 7. 

QUERIES : China and Japan: Diplomatic Intercourse - 
'Dialogues of the Dead' Swift and 'The Postman '- 
Swift at Havisham-Swift on Eagle and Wasp, 8-The 
Frere Caromez Banished Covenanters Mrs. Quarme 
Rotherhithe -' N. &Q.': Lost Reference Montpellier as 
Street-NameShort Story-Pothinus and Blandina 
Cannon Ball House, Edinburgh, 9-M^rimee's "In- 
connue" Funeral Plumes Stave Porters Calthrops in 
Early Warfare Princess Amelia, Daughter of George II. 
St. Gratian's Nut Pronunciation of "oo" Mrs. Eliz. 
Draper, 10 Col. Gordon in 'Barnaby Rudge 'Joseph 
D' Almeida, 11. 

REPLIES :" Parsons " not in Holy Orders, 11 'The 
American in Paris,' 12" Betubium," 13 Lady Worsley, 
14 St. Margaret's, Westminster Westminster Abbey, 15 
Copper's 'La Greve des Forgerons 'Bhang : Cuca 
Flaubert's 'Tentation de St. Antoine, 1 16 Madame 
D'Arblay's Diary Shakespeare Statuette Shakespeare 
Allusions Francis Kindlemarsh English Navy during 
the Civil War, 17. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Gilds and Companies of 
London' Whitaker's Almanack and Peerage. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 

MORE than fifty years ago an able series of 
articles by MR. W. MOY THOMAS on Richard 
Savage appeared in ' N. & Q.' for 6, 13, and 
27 November, and 4 December, 1858 (2 S. vi. 
361, 385, 425, 445). Boswell had pulled a 
brick or two from the edifice of good faith 
established for Savage by Johnson in his 
biography. MR. MOY THOMAS'S articles had 
the effect of shattering the building for the 
commentators on this difficult subject up 
to our own time. My own book ' Richard 
Savage : a Mystery in Biography, is likely, 
without a brief elucidation of its aim, to 
embarrass the researches of those who in 
future may be tempted into what seems 
fated to remain a region of delicate and 
dark inquiry. I included in it no preface, 
because I wanted all the attention of which 
an earnest reader was capable for the book 
itself. To rehabilitate the credit of Savage 
was less my immediate object than to offer 
his portrait in a new light. That it was a 
portrait, received more recognition from 
my critics than I could have expected ; nor 
was I surprised to find this recognition 

frequently tinged with a protestant ardour to 
assert the writer's personal disinclination to 
regard Savage as anything but an impostor. 
I had presented a portrait, but had given 
no reasons for my own disinclination to 
regard it as anything but the portrait of the 
man. The question, How much of this is 
" pure " biography ? how much fiction ? 
is bound to couple itself with a healthy 
interest in my book ; and as none but myself 
can answer the question in such a way as to 
smooth the paths of conjecture, I address 
the following observations to all those whom 
the inquiry concerns. 

Since Carlyle wrote ' The Diamond Neck- 
lace,' the relations of what are loosely labelled 
History, Biography, and Fiction have 
become much more intimate. Under the 
pleasing influence of this change my narra- 
tive of Savage's life was written. The differ- 
ence between fact and fiction is indeed 
less appreciable than is universally admitted ; 
but those who court a hearing are wise in 
selecting an appeal, not from the un- 
scrupulous array of facts arranged in an 
arbitrary order, but from the " open lying " 
which Carlyle rightly claimed as the legiti- 
mate privilege of romantic history. It was 
in accordance with his perception of this 
principle that he wrote of 'The Diamond 
Necklace l (and I might with equal truth have 
written of my life of Savage) : " An earnest 
inspection, faithful endeavour has not been 
wanting, on our part ; nor, singular as it 
may seem, the strictest regard to chronology, 
geography (or rather, in this case, topo- 
graphy), documentary evidence, and what 
else true historical research would yield. n 

True historical research yields little, how- 
ever, in the case of Richard Savage ; and 
whoever interests himself keenly in his 
history is constrained in the long run either 
to shroud himself in a silence impenetrable 
as the kernel of his inquiry, or, hazarding 
speech, upon the high seas of conjecture, to 
be borne now and again into a region where 
the historical landmarks are out of sight. 
He is not bound on this account either to 
misrepresent their whereabouts or wilfully 
to mutilate their dim outline. 

All the scenes in my life of Savage are 
based on what may be called facts historically 
ascertained ; in their presentment the 
minutiae of action and the motives of the 
actors have been supplied by my view of the 
characters. To so much " open lying " 
I confess with all the more contentment 
for the discovery of some " closed lying " 
into which, as I shall here show, MR. MOY 
THOMAS was innocently betrayed by a zeal 

NOTES AND QUERIES. ui s. i. JAN. i, 1910. 

worthy of a detective bent on constructing 
a story of importance a zeal masked in 
the language of dispassionate investigation. 

The fact is that, so far as a verdict is 
concerned (and the case is indeed one for the 
lawyer), nothing has been produced to vary 
BoswelPs highly judicial conclusion : " The 
result seems to be that the world must 
vibrate in a state of uncertainty as to what 
was the truth," MB. THOMAS, heading a 
regiment of writers in biographical diction- 
aries and encyclopaedias, disliked uncer- 
tainties. His mind and the minds of his 
faithful followers were incapable of vibrating. 
They must have a verdict " guilty '* or 
" not guilty," The intermediate " not 
proven n (which covers so many difficult 
cases) represented for these critics a dan- 
gerous specimen of Scottish casuistry. The 
principle of reaching a verdict on insuf- 
ficient evidence, however remarkable that 
evidence is, seems to me to be much more 

In the article of 13 November, 1858, MB. 
THOMAS admits that he is of opinion that 
Savage was one of those claimants who 
" grow at length into a kind of faith in their 
story which helps them to sustain their 
part." This seems to mean that the critic 
holds Savage to have started with a claim 
he knew to be false, and then reached a 
stage at which he believed in his own 
imposture. On the evidence this is no more 
than a hypothesis. But in the concluding 
article of the series the critic, or rather the 
counsel for the prosecution, finds all subtlety 
or reserve superfluous. He has " no doubt 
that Richard Savage was an impostor." 
Has the evidence for certainty increased 
with his argument ? Let us see. 

Four accounts of Savage's story were 
published during his lifetime. Some of their 
contents are common to all ; others are 
peculiar to each. In addition to these 
sources we have to reckon with the letter 
from "Amintas" in No. 28 of The Plain 
Dealer, and the authentic letter of Savage 
to Mrs. Carter dated 1739 which was after- 
wards made public. Of the four accounts 
published during his life, only two are 
Savage's own : the letter in No. 73 of The 
Plain Dealer (1724), and the Preface to the 
'Miscellanies' (1726). 

I take an opportunity here of mentioning 
what has hitherto escaped the attention of 
MB. MOY THOMAS and all those who have 
accepted his leadership. Three copies of 
the ' Miscellaneous Poems '- containing the 
Preface and dated 1726 are in the Dyce 
collection of books in the Victoria and 

Albert Museum. They are copies of the 
first edition ; and until I discovered them, 
I was content to believe, with other critics, 
that the second edition of 1728 was the first 
to include this Preface. The copies of 1726 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum contain 
not only the Preface, but also reprints of the 
letter from " Amintas " in No. 28 of The 
Plain Dealer, and of the letter from Savage 
in No. 73 of that journal. In one of the four 
contemporary accounts of Savage, viz., the 
anonymous Life published in 1727, it is 
stated that Savage suppressed the Preface 
in his first edition of the ' Miscellanies.* 
Perhaps he did in some of the copies- 
circulated. But at least these three copies 
of the 1726 edition containing the Preface 

The strength of MB. MOY THOMAS'S 
ingenious indictment is gathered from a con- 
tention that all the four accounts were 
Savage's ; that, whether written by him 
or not, they were all his work ; 'and that he 
is to be held responsible for the statements 
made in them. The life in Curll's Poetical 
Register (1719) is blithely assumed to be an 
autobiography. On what grounds ? No 
other than that Curll did in this journal 
publish other autobiographies. With regard 
to the anonymous Life published in 1727, 
when Savage was in prison, all that is in- 
controvertible is that in his letter to Mrs. 
Carter in 1739 Savage denied the accuracy 
of some of its particulars. But MB. MOY 
THOMAS in his second article (13 November) 
writes imperturbably : " There can be no 
doubt that this pamphlet, so well adapted 
to serve his interests, was written by him, 
or at least from his instructions. n But for 
any dispassionate inquirer there must be 
doubt, and very little, if anything, but 
doubt, that Savage had anything to do 
with it. He may have helped, or he may 
not. He may wilfully have misrepresented, 
or accidentally have misrepresented, facts 
in this anonymous Life ; he may or he may 
not have issued instructions which may 
or may not have been carried out. But all 
these possibilities are no help to the estab- 
lishment of a fact. In the absence of the 
smallest fragment of evidence to show 
that Savage had anything to do with this 
account, we are bound to assume that it 
was not his. The burden of its errors 
cannot be laid at his door. 

Errors of his own making can be found 
in Savage's own handiwork. He knew it 
himself, and admitted his own inaccuracy in 
his letter to Mrs. Carter (1739). The admis- 
sion may be taken as slightly, but of course 

11 S. I. JAX. 1, 1910.] 


not conclusively favourable to his bona 
fides. But MR. THOMAS, in his illegitimate 
use of two out of the four contemporary 
accounts as documents on which to convict 
Savage of dishonesty, exposes himself to a 
charge of inaccuracy as great as, if not 
greater than, any proved against Savage. 

And the more we examine the inaccuracy 
of MR. THOMAS in detail, the more damning 
becomes the exposure, as in the particular 
of Savage's alleged godmother Mrs. Lloyd. 
The phrase " Mrs. Lloyd his godmother n 
occurs both in Curll and in the anonymous 
Life of 1727. In Savage's own accounts he 
makes no allusion to his godmother ; and 
in his letter to Mrs. Carter he speaks of Mrs. 
Lloyd, not as his godmother, but as " the 
person who took care of me. n MR. MOY 
THOMAS discovered that the name of the 
godmother to the Countess of Macclesfield's 
baby boy was Ousley. He hastened to point 
out the grave discrepancy between the 
names of Ousley and Lloyd (the alleged name 
of Savage's godmother in the two accounts 
not Savage's). At this stage the importance 
of fathering the Life of 1727 upon Savage 
became red hot for the constructive critic, and 
he wrote (27 November) : " Who can doubt 
that the original version of this story [i.e., of 
the death of Savage's nurse and the discovery 
among her papers of his origin] in the ' Life ' 
was from Savage ? n Again the answer is 
short and decisive. Every dispassionate 
inquirer will doubt it in the absence of all 
evidence to prove it. 

Savage never wrote that Mrs. Lloyd was 
his godmother, but he did write of Mrs. 
Lloyd. The other accounts of Savage 
did write of Mrs. Lloyd as his godmother. 
In order to establish the connexion necessary 
to his indictment MR. THOMAS confuses the 
autobiographical with the biographical 
accounts, and thus obtains an opportunity for 
a brilliant disquisition on the impossibility of 
supposing Lloyd and Ousley to be the same 
jxT.son, so as to remove all possibility of 
supposing an identity between their respec- 
tive godsons. This is to raise to a fine art 
the simple practice of putting in unauthentic 
documents to secure a conviction. 

It is not my intention here to indicate all 
t hr steps by which MR. MOY THOMAS came to 
his conclusions. I care not even to deny that 
the main conclusion may be true ; for one 
may come to a right assumption by a wrong 
course of reasoning. But it must be clearly 
understood that the result is nothing more 
th.-ui M.II assumption. 

With one further consideration I shall 
conclude these notes. 

As if to add still greater confusion to his 
reckless treatment of the four contemporary 
accounts as all proceeding directly from 
Savage, MR. MOY THOMAS refers frequently 
throughout his examination to the state- 
ments made in Samuel Johnson's Life of 
Savage, which was written and published 
after Savage's death. He has no difficulty, of 
course, in assuming that Johnson put down 
what Savage had told him in addition to 
what could be gleaned from the four con- 
temporary accounts. Well, Johnson pro- 
bably tried to put down as much as he 
remembered of what Savage told him ; 
he clearly believed in his friend's veracity ; 
he certainly erred in accepting too much 
of the contemporary accounts as authentic. 
The subordinate service done by MR. MOY 
THOMAS'S articles is indeed indestructible : 
he showed that Johnson's narrative con- 
tained grave inaccuracies. But in seeking 
to account for the way in which these in- 
accuracies were begotten, he erred, and 
misled the superficial commentators who 
followed him. Accurate biography is in the 
most favourable circumstances a difficult 
business ; none knew better than Johnson, 
how difficult. But the blunders and the 
inconsistencies in Savage's story, as it has 
come down to us in a variety of accounts,, 
are after all intelligible on grounds other 
than those which necessitate the belief 
(however fascinating) that Savage deliber- 
ately maintained a claim which he knew 
to be spurious. To regard Johnson's 
inaccuracy as additional proof of Savage's 
dishonesty is to heap confusion upon 

Four years after MR. MOY THOMAS had 
written, an article signed W. G. S. appeared 
in Bentley's Miscellany for November, 1862. 
It sought to re-establish the perfect equi- 
librium set in Boswell's verdict of " not 
proven." But it was ignored. The ninth 
edition of ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica ' 
found it an easy matter to settle in a phrase : 
" The conclusion which Boswell hinted at, 
but was prevented by his reverence for 
Johnson" what a charge to level at 
Bozzy ! " from expressing, that Savage 
was an impostor, is irresistible " (' Encyc. 
Brit.,'' 9th ed., sub ' Savage, Richard '). 
The ' Dictionary of National Biography * 
attempts a summary of the arguments for 
and against Savage's claim ; but the radical 
blunder about Mrs. Lloyd imported into the 
case by MR. MOY THOMAS is perpetuated, 
and the balance is suffered to appear against 
Savage : " The falsity of his tale seems 
demonstrated.'' His tale ! 


[11 S. I. JAN. 1, 1910. 

To extract the needle of truth from th 
growing bundle of loose statements become 
increasingly difficult : it is far easier t 
write down Savage as an impostor, an 
Johnson as his dupe. How can we eve 
determine the main question affectin 
Savage's character the question whethe 
he was the victim or the agent of a fraud 
The evidence for establishing the frau 
itself is insufficient. More than a centur 
has passed, and still we can only repeat wit 
Boswell : " The world must vibrate in 
state of uncertainty as to what was th 
truth.' 1 STANLEY V. MAKOWEB. 


THE impending sale by auction of th 
Gardner Collection of London Prints anc 
Drawings occasioned last summer some 
interesting notices in the press, and verj 
general have been the expressions of regre 
that this, the last of the great harvestings 
of illustrations of the London that has 
passed, should be scattered. There are 
to-day many private portfolios whose con 
tents rival, and even excel, certain sections 
of this and other huge collections formed in 
the last century ; but, so far as I am aware 
not any one claims to possess a greater 
number of prints and drawings of London 
generally. The origin and growth of this 
remarkable collection have not hitherto 
been recorded at any length, but from infor- 
mation kindly supplied by Mr. Fawcett 
and other sources, I have been able to compile 
this note. 

The late Mr. J. E. Gardner, F.S.A., the 
collector, was born at 453, Strand, where 
his father, Thomas Gardner, was in business 
as an oilman. It has been suggested that 
the gift of a few prints started the hobby, 
but the first great purchase was made at 
Stevens's Auction-Room, where, when a 
mere lad, he secured an extra-illustrated 
Pennant for five guineas. Mr. Fawcett 
had been sent to the sale by his father, the 
bookseller of Great Wild Street, to buy the 
book at five pounds, and he was much 
surprised to hear his schoolfellow bid 
another five shillings and secure the lot. Of 
course Gardner's father had to be induced 
to provide the money, and rather unwillingly 
he did so ; but it was a wise concession, 
and if he lived to see the development of 
his son's hobby, he did not regret it. 

Notes on the back of some of his earliest 
acquisitions record the collector's keen 
interest in the pursuit ; and when in after 

life his business as a successful stockbroker 
provided ample means, he sought his 
Londiniana in salerooms and through almost 
every dealer* Not that he had the field 
to himself. His rivals (and they were 
doughty foemen) were James HolbertT Wilson 
(died 1865), Frederick Crace (died 1859), 
and the owner of the collection sold in July, 
1853, whom I identify as the Rev. Dr. 
Wellesley. The keenness with which these 
collectors contended for choice items was 
a delight ; it was a battle of wits, and of 
foresight, not simply of banking accounts. 
The print-dealers or at least those who 
retained their custom wisely saw to it 
that each had some of the rare items they 
had for sale. As to the final result of this 
contest sale catalogues and our national 
collections bear witness. 

Of the Grace portfolios little need be 
said, as they are known to probably every 
London topographer, and the catalogue by 
Mr. J. G. Crace is a very useful work of refer- 
ence. Of Holbert Wilson's harvesting we 
ought to have had a similar catalogue ; 
his MS. notes and cuttings brought together 
for that purpose occurred as lot 27 when 
his collection was sold in 1898. If their 
present possessor has no use for them, he 
might care to entrust them to me with a view 
to their publication. The Wellesley Collec- 
tion is almost unknown, yet it had merits 
placing it far in advance of the others. 

For the purpose of making some com- 
parison, I will go back to the commencement 
of the nineteenth century, when the taste 
x>r such scraps had its beginning. The 
vogue for extra-illustration was then at its 
leight, but Granger and Clarendon were the 
r avourite volumes, and hardly any attention 
lad been paid to topographical books. In 
act, as far as London topography was 
concerned, there was little opportunity until 
the issue in 1790 of Pennant's ' London,* 
and the subsequent publication in 1805 of 
arge-paper editions up to that unwieldy 
,ome the atlas folio. Then their interest 
was appreciated, and the demand for London 
>rints and drawings grew by leaps and 
>ounds. Things Bindley or Gough had 
ecured for pence and preserved in bundles 
vere now sorted, described, and rehabili- 
ated generally. Compare the unconsidered 
ots of topographical drawings in Gulstone's 
ale with the classification, by size, parish, 
r locality, of the London prints sold by 
ing on 23 April, 1804. To this sale I shall 
efer again later, but from the fact that 
iindley, Crowle, Lloyd, Sutherland, and 
oram were amongst the purchasers we 

ii s. i. JAN. i, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


can realize its importance and the growth 
of this comparatively new hobby. 

Of these purchasers there is something to 
say. Sutherland's marvellous extra-illus- 
trated volumes, constantly added to by his 
widow, are housed next to the Bodleian, a 
thing apart, only to be seen twice a week. 
But Crowle's Pennant at the British Museum 
is more accessible, and therefore better 
known. Now the examination of its pages 
leaves one well-defined impression, and that 
is that when its creator found the variety 
of engraved views was insufficient for his 
ambition, or their cost was prohibitive, he 
engaged illustrators, topographical artists, 
to make drawings of buildings or copies 
of prints. So, granted a continuance of his 
zeal and means, he could become possessed 
of a Pennant or a Lysons extended to a 
greater number of volumes than that of his 
rivals. Clearly, therefore* when this vogue 
for London illustrations had advanced, it 
became with many a mere competition of 
numbers, not of interest or historic merit. 
I am not contending that this passion was 
entirely without merit, or that it has not 
been of great benefit to succeeding ages. It 
undoubtedly led to the preservation of 
many scraps, of interest now, but then 
considered of little worth. But when 
Crowle, for example, identifies Hogarth's 
* South wark Fair ? as Bartholomew Fair, and 
employs an artist to copy Swertner's not 
rare ' View of London from Islington Church,* 
we see the disadvantage of such a collector 
not being a topographer. 

There are similar blemishes in the Grace 
Collection, and I anticipate that when 
the opportunity occurs of examining the 
Gardner Collection in its entirety, instances 
of a desire for mere numbers will be notice- 

(To be concluded.) 


(See 10 S. i. 81, 142, 184, 242, 304, 342; 

ii. 11 ; v. 361.) 

A Ballade of Bygone Bookshops. 
CURLL, by the Fleet-Ditch nymphs caress'd ; 

TOXSON the Great, the Slow-to-pay ; 
LINTOT, of Folios rubric -press'd ; 

OSBORNE, that stood in JOHNSON'S way ; 
DODSLEY, who sold the Odes ' of Gray ; 
DAVIES, that lives in CHURCHILL'S rhyme ; 
MILLAR and KNAPTON, where are they ? 
Whore are the bookshops of old time ? 

Austin Dobson, art. ' The Two Paynes,' 
; j in Eighteenth Century Vignettes/ 
i Second Series. ^^ J _ l- j 

" I once said to him, ' I am sorry, Sir, that you 
did not get more for your Dictionary.' His 
answer was, ' I am sorry, too. But it was very 

well. The booksellers are generous, liberal- 
minded men.' He, upon all occasions, did ample 

justice to their character in this respect. He 

considered them the patrons of literature." 

Boswell's ' Johnson ' (Napier's edition), vol. i, 

pp. 238-9. 

Author's, The, Hand-Book : a Guide to the 
Art and System of Publishing on Com- 
mission. 8vo, London, 1844. 

Author's, The, Printing and Publishing Assistant. 
A Guide to the Printing, Correcting, and 
Publishing New Works. Crown 8vo, London, 

Authors' and Booksellers' Co-operative Publishing 
Alliance. A New Departure in Publishing.. 
8vo, London, 1901. 

Ballantyne Press, The, and its Pounders, 1796- 
1908. By W. T. Dobson and W. L. Carrie, 
Post 4to, Edinburgh, 1909. 

Black wood, The House of. The Early House of 

Blackwood. By I. C. B. Printed for 

private circulation. Post 4to, Edinburgh,. 


This was intended to supply a deficiency in Mrs. Oliphant'a- 

history of the firm. 

Book-Auctions in England. See 2 S. xi. 463 ; 5 S. 
xii. 95, 211, 411 ; 6 S. ii. 297, 417; 9 S. 
vi. 86, 156 ; 10 S. viii. 246, 266. 

Longman's Magazine, April, 1893. Art. 
by A. W. Pollard, ' The First English Book- 

Bookseller, The, Jubilee Number, Jan. 24, 1908. 
' Fifty Years of " The Bookseller " and 
Bookselling.' London, 1908. 

Bookseller, The Successful : a Complete Guide 
to Success to all engaged in a Retail Book- 
selling. . . .Business. 4to, London, 1905. 

Booksellers, Provincial. See 10 S. v. 141, 183, 
242, 297, 351, 415, 492 ; vii. 26, 75 ; viii. 
201 ; x. 141. 

Durham and Northumberland, 10 S. vi. 

Hampshire. See 10 S. v. 481 ; vi. 31. 
St. Neots. See 10 S. xii. 164. 

Booksellers' Associations. See Bowes. 

Booksellers East of St. Paul's. Bookseller, 
2 Sept., 1873. 

Book-Trade Bibliography in the United States 
in the Nineteenth Century. 8vo, New 
York, 1898. 

Bowes (Robert). Booksellers' Associations, Past 
and Present. Printed for Private Circulation 
for the Associated Booksellers of Great 
Britain and Ireland. 4to, Taunton, 1905. 

Brydges, Sir Egerton, 1762-1837. A Sum- 
mary Statement of the great Grievances 
imposed on Authors and Publishers, and the 
injury done to Literature, by the late Copy- 
right Act (and other pamphlets by the same 
author), 1817-18. 

Burns & Gates, The House of .By Wilfrid Wilber- 
force. 16mo, London, 1908. 

Catalogues. Catalogus Librorum ex variis 

Europao partibus advectorum, apud Rober- 

turn Scott, Bibliopolam Regium. 4to, Lon- 

dini, 1687. 

The first London booksellers' catalogue. Quoted from the 

catalogue of Mr. B. Dobell, 77, Charing Cross Road, W. 



[11 S. I. .JAN. 1, 1910. 

dole, John. Bookselling Spiritualised, Books and 
Articles of Stationery rendered Monitors of 
Religion (only 40 copies printed). Scar- 
borough, 1826. 

Oonstable, Archibald, and his Literary Corre- 
spondents. By bis Son Thomas Constable. 
3 vols., 8vo, Edinburgh, 1873. 
See appendix to vol. i. for " what may be called a catalogue 

raisnnnt? by my father of the chief booksellers in Edinburgh 

at the end of the last [eighteenth] century." 

Ouden, Alexander, 1701-70. Life, by Alexander 


This is prefixed to many of the editions of the Bible Con- 
cordance. Cruden opened a bookseller's shop under the 
Royal Exchange in 1732, and it was there that he composed 
his great work. 

Dobson, Austin. Eighteenth Century Vignettes 
(Fine -Paper Edition), Series I. contains, 
' An Old London Bookseller ' (Francis New- 
bery) ; Series II. ' At Tully's Head ' (Robert 
Dodsley), ' Richardson at Home,' ' The Two 
Paynes ' ; Series III. ' Thos. Gent, Printer,' 
fcap. 8vo, London, 1906-7. 

Dodsley, Robert, 1703-64. See Mr. W. P. Court- 
ney's articles at 10 S. vi. 361, 402 ; vii 3 
82, 284, 404, 442 ; viii. 124, 183, 384, 442 ; 
ix. 3, 184, 323, 463 ; x. 103, 243, 305, 403 ; xi 
62, 143, 323 ; xii. 63. See also Northern 
Notes and Queries, vol. i. Nos. 7 and 8, 
pp. 200, 234. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. R. Straus is preparing for publication a work on 

Robert Dodsley (See 10 S. xi. 428). 

Duff (E. Gordon). The Printers, Stationers, and 
Bookbinders of Westminster and London 
from 1476 to 1535. The Sandars Lectures 
at Cambridge, 1899 and 1904. Crown 8vo, 
Cambridge, 1906. 

A Century of the English Book-Trade. 
Short Notices of all Printers, Stationers, 
Booksellers and Others connected with it 
from the Issue of the First Dated Book in 
1457 to the Incorporation of the Company 
of Stationers in 1557. Bibliographical 
Society, 1906. 
Has an Index of London booksellers' signs before 1558. 

Early Chancery Proceedings concerning 
Members of the Book-Trade. Article in 
The Library, October, 1907. 

( To be concluded. ) 

4 THE BOOK TRADE, 1557-1625.' The 
Syndics of the Cambridge Press have 
conferred a boon on those interested in the 
history of bookselling by reprinting for 
private circulation from Vol. IV. of ' The 
Cambridge History of English Literature' 
.the chapter contributed by Mr. Aldis, the 
Secretary of the University Librarv on 
' The Book Trade, 1557-1625.' 

The chapter opens with an account of the 
immense powers of the Stationers' Company. 
As a direct consequence of their charter, 
no one could print anything for sale within 

the kingdom unless he were a member of 
the Company, or held some privilege or 
patent entitling him to print some specified 
work or particular class of work. The 
Stationers were empowered to search the 
premises of any printer or stationer 

' ' to see that nothing was printed contrary to 
regulations, and, accordingly, searchers were 
appointed to make weekly visits to printing- 
houses, their instructions being to ascertain how 
many presses every printer possessed ; what 
every printer printed, the number of each im- 
pression, and for whom they were printed ; how 
many workmen and apprentices every printer 
employed, and whether he had on his premises 
any unauthorized person." 

A young man, starting as a bookseller, 
if possessed of means might purchase a 
stock of saleable books, and at once open 
a shop in some busy thoroughfare, or take 
up a point of vantage in one of the stalls 
or booths which crowded round the walls of 
St. Paul's. 

" London Bridge did not attain its fame as a 
resort of booksellers until the second half of the 
seventeenth century ; but as early as 1557 
William Pickering, a bookseller, whose publica- 
tions consisted chiefly of ballads and other 
trivial things, had a shop there." 

"If a bookseller could procure the copy of 
some book or pamphlet, or maybe even a ballad, 
which he could enter in the register as his property, 
and then get printed by some friendly printer, 
he would have made a modest beginning ; and, 
if this first essay happened to promise a fair sale, 
he might, by exchanging copies of it with other 
publishers for their books, at once obtain a stock- 

In 1598 the Stationers' Company, with a 
view to prevent the excessive prices of books, 
made a general order 

" that no new copies without pictures should be 
sold at more than a penny for two sheets if in 
pica, roman and italic, or in english with romaii 
and italic ; and at a penny for one sheet and a half 
if in brevier or long primer letter. A quarto 
volume of 360 pages in small type might thus 
cost, in sheets, two shillings and sixpence, equal 
to about one pound at the present day. At this 
rate the first folio Shakespeare, which contains 
nearly one thousand pages, should have cost about 
fourteen shillings, but the actual selling price 
was one pound." 

Correctors for the press occupied a high 
position in those days. The work afforded 
occupation for a few scholars in the more 
important printing houses : 

" Christopher Barker in 1582 mentions the 
payment of ' learned correctours ' as one of the 
expenses which printers had to bear ; and about 
1630 the King's printing house was employing 
four correctors, all of whom were Masters of Arts." 


ii s. i. JAN. i, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

' N. & Q.' ON THE STAGE. In Mr. Gran- 
ville Barker's fine play ' The Voysey In- 
heritance,' first given at the Court Theatre 
on 7 Nov., 1905, Mrs. Voysey, the mother 
of the family, appears at the end of Act II. 
to be engrossed in a copy of ' N. & Q.' 
She remarks to no one in particular : 

" This is a very perplexing correspondence 
about the Cromwell family. One can't deny the 
man had good blood in him. . . .his grandfather 

Sir Henry, his uncle Sir Oliver and it 's difficult 

to discover where the taint crept in. . . .Yes, but 
then how was it he came to disgrace himself so ? 1 
believe the family disappeared. Regicide is a 
root-and-branch curse. You must read this letter 

signed C. W. A it 's quite interesting. There 's 

-a misprint in mine about the first umbrella - 

maker now where was it ? (And so the 

dear lady will ramble on indefinitely.) " 

In the circumstances of the case her 
fragmentary remarks are admirable ex- 
amples of both Philistine complacency 
and tragic irony. A. R. BAYLEY. 

" The celebrated wish of old Sarah 
Battle, 14 immortalized by Charles Lamb 
" A clear fire, a clean hearth, and the 
rigour of the game " had been anticipated 
in striking degree exactly a century to the 
very month before it was made imperishable 
in print. That was in The London Maga- 
zine for February, 1821, and in a letter 
which appeared in Read's Weekly Journal 
of 11 February, 1721, giving an account of 
an imaginary meeting of coffee-house pro- 
prietors, called to discuss the question 
whether the provision of newspapers therein 
repaid its cost, it was written : 

"Mr. Cocoa of Pall Mall says that a clean Room, 
a good Fire, and a sufficient Number of Looking- 
Glasses well-fix'd, and a handy Waiter, wou'd 
draw Company before the News." 

But just ten years previously a different 
opinion would seem to have been enter- 
tained by some coffee-house keepers, for it 
was advertised in The Daily Courant of 
10 January, 1711, as an obvious induce- 
ment to customers, that 

" Bickerstaff's Coffee-house over against Tom's 
Coffee-house in Great Russel - street in Covent 
Garden, will be open'd on Friday next being 12th 
Instant, where will be all Publick News and 
Weekly Papers." 


FEASTS : REVEL SUNDAY. There are not so 
many " revels," in the sense of parish 
feasts, as there were in my young days, 
and such as remain are nothing like so noisy. 
Some continue to exist, in my native dis- 
trict .of North-East Cornwall, and " Jacob - 

stow Revel "- I find advertised for 9 August 
last in the Launceston newspapers. This 
took the shape in the present year of " a 
grand fete " at the Rectory, the proceeds 
being given towards buying an organ for 
Jacobstow Church. It was not quite like 
that eighty years ago, when I was a boy, for 
I remember well the annual " Revel " at 
Week St. Mary, a parish so close to Jacob- 
stow as to be included among the five to 
which the entries for a cob and pony show 
at the recent Jacobstow Revel were con- 
fined. This used to take place on a Sunday 
in September, and people came from far 
and near to see their " Mary Week ?z friends 
on " Revel Sunday, n when, after morning 
service at the church, there were scenes of 
much drunkenness and debauchery in the 
village. The next day was always devoted 
to a hunt, which was taken part in by the 
farmers, the labourers joining in the fun as 
best they could. But the Jacobstow Revel 
of the present time, w T ith its Rectory string 
band, afternoon tea, and evening display of 
fireworks, is a very great improvement on 
all that. R. ROBBINS. 

No AH AS A GIRL'S NAME. A few days ago 
a girl came to ask me for an out-patient 
letter for a hospital. She gave her Christian 
name as " Noah,'* spelling it for me 
when I hesitated in filling up the recom- 
mendation. I asked her if she were of the 
Romany folk, whereat she smiled and said 
she did not know ; but when I said, " Oh, 
you 're a juva fast enough," she laughed 
outright, and acquiesced. 



A MODEST AUTHOR. In 1776 William 
Le Tans' ur of Cambridge published a tract 
of 16 pp in four-line stanzas, entitled ' The 
Christian Warrior Properly Armed ; or, 
The Deist Unmasked.' At the foot of the 
title-page, before the date, is this couplet : 
This Book, tho' but for Sixpence sold, 
Is double worth its Weight in Gold. 

It may be a rare book, but I doubt its being 
a valuable one. A. RHODES. 

AMERICAN MISER'S WILL. The following- 
may prove interesting to your readers who 
delve in queer wills ; I found it in an old 
paper the other day : 

< l Barksville, Ky., May 10. The will of Dr. 
Everett Wagner, of this county, has been probated 
here. Dr. Wagner was a miser and had accumu- 
lated considerable property. After declaring him- 
self of sound mind, he says : 

" 1 am about to die, and my relatives, who have 
heretofore shunned me, cannot now do too much 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. i. JAN. i, 1910, 

for me. Almost every one of them has visited me 
since I have been sick, and given me a gentle hint 
that they would like to have a small trinket of 
some kind by which to remember their beloved 
relative. On account of their former treatment 
and their quiet hints, I now take this method of 
satisfying their desire.' 

'' He then makes the following bequests, each 
formally set out in a separate section : To my 
beloved brother Napoleon Bonaparte Wagner my 
left hand and arm ' ; to George Washington 
Wagner, another brother, his right hand and arm ; 
to his brother Patrick Henry Wagner his right 
leg and foot ; to his brother Charles Gardner 
Wagner his left leg and foot ; to his nephew 
C. H. Hatfield his nose ; to his niece Hettie Hat- 
field his left ear, and to his niece Clara Hatfield 
his right ear ; to his cousin Henry Edmonds his 
teeth ; to his cousin John Edmonds his gums. The 
will then continues : 

" ' It grieves me to have to part with myself 
in this manner, but then, what is a gift without 
a sacrifice ? I am dying with consumption, and 
the end will soon be here. I will at once remove 
myself to Nashville, where I will die in the 

" For the purpose of dissecting his body Dr. 
Everett leaves 1 ,000 dollars. The residue of the 
estate goes to public charities. He was worth 
12,000 dollars, and the will is dated March 1, 
1888. A codicil dated March 3 gives 'to my 
beloved sister-in-law Mrs. C. G. Wagner mv 

South Omaha, Nebraska. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

INTERCOURSE. In what language or lan- 
guages are treaties couched and diplomatic 
correspondence conducted between China 
and Japan ? 

Or does it happen that, owing to the 
primarily ideographic character of the alpha- 
bet, the same text may be read indifferently 
in Chinese and in Japanese, in the same way 
as with us 4+ 5-2 = 7 may be understood 
and read aloud in any of our European 
languages ? H. GAIDOZ. 

22, Rue Servandoni, Paris (VI e ). 

WEEK.' Six contributions under this title 
appeared in Once a Week during October, 
November, and December, 1868 : I. Be- 
tween Lords Palmerston and Brougham ; 

II. D'Orsay, Jerrold, and a Stranger ; 

III. Shakespeare, Thackeray, and a Critic ; 

IV. Johnson, Macaulay, Boswell, Goldsmith, 

Goethe, Thackeray, Richardson, Fielding, 
Sterne, Addison, Voltaire, Bacon ; V. 
Artists, Ancient and Modern ; VI. Amongst 
the Musicians. I am anxious to learn 
whether the authorship is known and 
whether they have been reprinted. I 
should also like to know whether the six 
dialogues complete the series. I have no- 
volume of Once a Week later than 1868 r 
and cannot find one here. 

G.P.O., Cape Town. 

nexion with a new edition of the correspond- 
ence of Jonathan Swift I "am anxious to 
obtain a copy of an advertisement reflecting 
upon Swift as editor of Sir William Temple's- 
works which was inserted in 1709 in The 
Postman by Temple's sister Lady Giffard, 
and I should be grateful for a reference to 
any library where numbers of that news- 
paper are preserved. 


SWIFT AT HAVISHAM. A letter from 
Swift to Ambrose Philips, which appears in 
Nichols's ' Illustrations of the Literary 
History of the Eighteenth Century,' was- 
written, according to the printed version,, 
on 20 Oct., 1708, from a place called Havis- 
ham, where Swift was staying as the guest 
of a Mr. Collier, who had been one of Philips's- 
schoolfellows at Shrewsbury. Subsequent 
letters from Swift indicate that Havisham 
was in Kent. 

I am unable to find the place-name 
Havisham in Kent or elsewhere. It seems 
possible that the transcriber was at fault, 
and that it is a misreading of some similar 
name, such as Adisham, Faversham, Har- 
rietsham, or Lewisham. For any help to- 
wards identifying Havisham or Swift's 
host I should be greatly obliged. 

6, Wilton Place, Dublin. 

of your readers be so kind as to tell me 
where the " tale " or fable mentioned in 
the following lines by Swift in a poem on 
The Intelligencer is to be found ? 

The eagle in the tale, ye know, 
Teazed by a buzzing wasp below, 
Took wing to Jove, and hoped to rest 
Securely in the Thunderer's breast : 
In vain ; even there, to spoil his nod, 
The spiteful insect stung the god. 


ii s. i. JAN. i. i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


THE FRERE CABOMEZ. I am bringing 
out a text of some of the treatises of John of 
Arderne, a surgeon practising in London 
from 1370 onwards. Arderne treated a 
wealthy fishmonger who injured his arm by 
pricking it with a sharp iron standing " on 
the gymewez at the frere Caromez. n The 
" gymewez zs appears to be the swing door 
leading into the church, but I shall be glad 
to receive any information about the " frere 
Caromez." D'AncY POWER. 

lt)A, Chandos Street, Cavendish Square, W. 

ditions of the Covenanters l the Rev. Robt. 
Simpson writes of John Matheson, who was 
banished to New Jersey, and afterwards 
returned : 

"There is a pretty large account of his sufferings 
and wanderings written by himself, which is at 
present in the possession of a family in Galloway." 

Presumably this is the account published by 
John Calderwood in ' Dying Testimonies.' 
The Rev. R. Simpson adds : 

" Many such accounts, composed by individual 
sufferers in those trying times, are doubtless in 
the country, where they are kept as precious 

Is any such manuscript written more 
particularly by a banished Covenanter 
known to exist ? 

It may be noted that at least one repa- 
triated exile (not a Covenanter) printed an 
account of his wanderings. This was Peter 
Williamson, kidnapped and sold to an 
American planter. He returned to Scotland 
about 1765, published his story, and went 
from town to town selling the book (see 
Blackwood, May, 1848). C. 

MRS. QUARME. What was the maiden 
name of the wife, of George Quarme, Com- 
missioner of Excise, who died in June, 
1775 ? Was she a Miss Roach or Le Roche, 
sister of Lady Echlin ? I believe George 
Quarme was the brother of Robert Quarme, 
Usher of the Green Rod, mentioned by MR. 
A. B. BEAVEN at 10 S. xii. 377. 


ROTHERHITHE. Is there any history of 
Rotherhithe or Deptford, especially during 
the eighteenth century ? 


' N. & Q.' : LOST REFERENCE. Some- 
where in the Third Series of ' N. & Q. s lies 
buried a reference to, or quotation from, 
Hawkins's ' History of Music.* Can any 
one help to disinter it for me ? 

W. McM. 


tell me the origin of so many streets and 
squares being named Montpellier (spelt in 
different ways) ? These names appear con- 
stantly in towns such as Cheltenham, 
Brighton, and London, the houses having 
been built at the beginning of last century. 
Stanbridge, Romsey, Hants. 

SHORT STORY c. 1892. I should feel grate- 
ful to any of your readers who could assist 
me in my search for a short story which 
appeared in one of the magazines circa 
1892. It was a humorous description of 
furnishing either a houseboat or a holiday 
bungalow. I read it either in January or 
February, 1893. The title unfortunately 
escapes me. Please reply direct. 


62, Fentiman Road, S.W. 

that carefully written and very charming 
book of Mr. J. W. Taylor's, ' The Coming of 
the Saints l (p. 258), I am startled to find 
him speaking of the prison of Pothinus and 
Blandina as having been in a crypt, still 
preserved, under the Hospice de PAnquitaille 
at Lyons. There is no mention of this 
hallowed spot in Murray, or in Hare, who 
draw the attention of confiding travellers to 
the Church of St. Martin d'Ainay, where the 
dungeons of the two saints are shown. 
Of course they may have been in prisons oft 
and various, and I should like to know what 
is the likelihood of their having been incar- 
cerated on the hill of Fourviere. Mr. 
Taylor does not vouch for the trustworthi- 
ness of some of his matter concerning the 
Hospice and its crypt ; but I do not gather 
that he hesitates as to the site of the prison 
of Pothinus and Blandina. ST. SWITHIN. 

Edinburgh are face to face with the problem 
that the preservation of its remains can be 
attained only through two channels : (1) an 
intimate knowledge of what is worth pre- 
serving ; (2) a means of providing the needful 
cash and power to purchase, on the part of 
some responsible body, at a fair price imme- 
diately the property is in the market. 
Recently paragraphs have appeared in the 
local papers advertising the fact that the 
Cannon Ball House, Castlehill, was to be 
put up for sale at an upset price of 2, SOW. 
With a view to working up public interest, 
the history of the house was mysteriously 
garbled. It has no authenticated history. 



[11 S. I. JAN. 1, 1910. 

The initials A M and M N, with date 1630, 
appear upon it, so that it has seen three 
sieges of the Castle, and has embedded in 
its walls a cannon ball of the " Waterloo " 
type, said to have been fired at Prince 
Charlie's troops in 1745. That is all we 
know about it. To drag in Sir David Baird 
and the Dukes of Gordon, whose town 
mansion on Castlehill is now represented 
by a public school in which the old doorway 
is preserved, is misleading. The two had 
no connexion, although the hero of Sering- 
apatam might have had some story of his 
boyhood connected with the neighbours 
over the garden wall, for the properties 
adjoin there. 

I am seeking now for another property in 
that neighbourhood which I wish to provide 
with a history. I also wish to know who 
this historic personage really was. My facts 
are taken from a manuscript volume in the 
possession of George Heriot's Trust, as fol- 
lows: writ, date unascertained, regarding 
a tenement situated 

" under the Castle Wall, on the south side of the 
King's Highway, bounded on the one side and 
the other by lands which sometime belonged to 
Cloud Davilonert, second lawfull son to Janet 
Adamson, procreat betwixt her and Sebastien 
Davilonert, secretary for the time to Mary, Queen 
of Scotts." 

Is it possible that this surname is that of 
the Sebastien who married Christilly Hogg 
on the eve of Darnley's murder, and that 
we have used his official title " Paiges li 
hitherto to surname him ? 


John Knox's House, Edinburgh. 

MERIMEE'S " INCONNUE. ?? Can any of 
your readers inform me if the letters pub- 
lished under the title of ' An Author's Love, 1 
and purporting to be the hitherto unpub- 
lished letters of Prosper Merimee's " In- 
connue," are genuine ? If not, by whom 
were they invented ? C. L. H. 

FUNERAL PLUMES. When and why did 
the custom of using plumes in funeral rites, 
as an expression of respect for the dead, have 
its origin ? In 1789 John Chater adver- 
tised that he furnished " very fashionable 
laces and plain dresses, for the Dead, Sheets, 
Cloaks, Hangings, Coaches, Plumes of 
Feathers, " &c. Is not this an early in- 
stance ? The earliest in the ' N.E.D.' 
appears to be 1832, in Tennyson's ' Lady of 
Shalott - : 

A funeral, with plumes and lights 
And music. 


STAVE PORTERS. What were stave porters 
that they should furnish a tavern in Jacob 
Street, Dockhead, with its sign of "The 
Stave Porter." ? Presumably their burden 
consisted of bundles of staves ; but of what 
kind ? The sign, I think, still exists. 

[Did they carry their loads on staves ?] 

some correspondent of * N. & Q.' oblige by 
mentioning the earliest reference in Scottish 
history to calthrops as employed in warfare ? 
They are said to have been in use at the 
battle of Bannockburn. I know of the 
authorities cited in the ' N.E.D.' 



II. I desire information regarding this 
Princess and her supposed relations with 
Col. M'Lellan (? Lord Kirkcudbright). Can 
any reader give me any, or refer me to 
authorities ? H. L. L. D. 

ST. GRATIAN'S NUT. ' The Book of the 
Great Caan, set forth by the Archbishop of 
Saltania, circa 1330,' in Yule's ' Cathay and 
the Way Thither,' Hakluyt Society, 1866, 
vol. i. p. 244, says : 

" And other trees there be [in the empire of 
Boussaye, a name which is supposed to point to the 
Ilkhan of Persia, Abusaid Bahadur, 1317-35] which 
bear a manner of Filberts, or mits of St. Gratian ; 
and when this fruit is ripe the folk of the country 
gather it and open it, and find inside grains like 
wheat, of which they make bread and macaroni 
and other food which they are very glad to eat." 

What is this nut of St. Gratian ? 


Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

" oo ' ? : HOW PRONOUNCED. Will some one 
explain how and when these letters came to 
represent the sound of long u, as in cool ? 
The fact is chronicled in philological treatises, 
but I do not see that they give any reason 
for the change. I presume that originally 
they represented a long o. Does any other 
European language use them to express a 
u sound ? STUDENT. 

if any of your readers could tell me whether 
the engraving of Miss Draper in The London 
Magazine for 1776 represents the daughter 
of Mrs. Elizabeth Draper, the friend of 
Sterne, or give me a clue to a portrait of Mrs. 
Draper herself. Sterne alludes to one of her 
painted by Cosway. W. L. S. 

11 S. I. JAX. 1, 1910.] 



In the forty-ninth chapter of ' Barnaby 
Rudge * Col. Gordon makes a speech at the 
House of Commons to Lord George Gordon 
the Rioter. As a matter of fact the speech is 
lifted from ' The Annual Register J for 
1780 (p. 258, Appendix to the Chronicle). 
Who was this Col. Gordon ? The only 
Gordon I know of in this Parliament was 
Lord George's cousin, General Lord Adam 
Gordon. J. M. BULLOCH. 

JOSEPH D' ALMEIDA. He is described in 
portrait catalogues as a " Jew Stockbroker." 
His portrait was painted by Wm. Lawranson, 
and engraved in mezzotint by John Jones, 
and published by him 9 Aug., 1783. He 
is referred to in the Memoirs of Jacob de 
Castro, the actor, as a patron of the drama. 
I should be obliged for any information and 
references in contemporary magazines and 

91, Portsdown Road, VV. 

(10 S. xii. 350.) 

I HAVE a document in which Sir Thomas 
Sackville claims the great tithe of lamb and 
wool of some sheep in the parish of Bibury 
as " person of Bibury. Sir. Thomas was 
Lord of the Manor and Lay Rector of 
Bibury, and rebuilt Bibury House in 1634. 
He uses the term throughout as if it belonged 
to him of right, and the spelling " person ' ? 
shows that the meaning of the term had 
not then been obscured by the modern 
spelling " parson. " If I now called myself 
Parson of Bibury, which I have an un- 
doubted right to do, most people would think 
that I had created myself a clerk in holy 
orders in derogation of my brother the 

One cannot imagine an acolyte having the 
impudence to call himself the "Persona 
Ecclesiae." SHERBORNE. 

feherborne House, Northleach. 

Before the three Lateran Councils of 
1123, 1139, and 1179 tithes were in this 
country in theory devoted to pious uses, 
but practically administered by the lords 
of the land. The fifth canon of the first 
Lateran Council of 1123 then ordained: 
" We decree that no laymen, however 
religious they be, shall have power of 

disposing of tithes. n In 1139 the tenth 
canon of the second Lateran Council enacted 
" Tithes, which canonical authority shows 
to have been granted for works of piety, 
we forbid by apostolic authority to be in 
the possession of laymen." Then in 1179 
Canon 14 of the third Lateran Council 
enacted : " We forbid laymen, who detain 
tithes at peril of their souls, to transfer 
them to other laymen in any way whatso- 
ever . n 

The effect of these canons soon made 
itself felt in the gifts of tithes to religious 
houses. But many of the smaller lords 
were reluctant to grant their tithes to bodies 
at a distance, and preferred to retain them 
for local use. This object was effected by 
tonsuring the lord's steward or other lay 
person who administered them, whereby he 
became converted into an " ecclesiastical 
person," and as a clerk could hold them 
without being in holy orders. The lord's 
grantee thereby became responsible to the 
bishop for the administration of them, and 
was called in consequence the responsible 
person (certa persona), but was commonly 
spoken of as the " parson. n 

The term occurs in the Constitutions of 
Clarendon, 1164, and in Canon 6 of the 
Council of York in 1195. The Exeter 
registers show parsons and vicars or chaplains 
existing side by side in a large number of 
parishes in Devon and Cornwall prior to 
the " consolidations " effected in the thir- 
teenth century. 

Further information on this subject may 
be found in a paper read by me before the 
Society of Antiquaries on 28 Feb., 1907, 
entitled ' The Treasury of God ; or, The 
Birthright of the Poor.* 


Lympstone, Devon. 

The subjoined quotation from Gasquet's 
' Parish Life in Mediaeval England,' wherein 
it occurs at p. 71, opening chap, iv., which 
relates to ' The Parish Clergy, 2 may be 
useful under this heading : 

"The word 'parson,' in the sense of a dignified 
personage ' the person of the place ' was, in 
certain foreign countries applied in the eleventh 
century, in its Latin form of persona,, to any one 
holding the parochial cure of souls. English legal 
writers, such as Coke and Blackstone, have stated 
the civil law signification of the word as that of 
any 'person' by whom the property of God, the 
patron saint, the church or parish was held, and 
who could sue or be sued at law in respect of this 
property. In ecclesiastical language, at any rate in 
England, according to Lyndwood, the word parson ' 
was synonymous with 'rector.'" 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii u. i. JAN. i, 1910. 

Dr. John Cowell in ' The Interpreter ' 
(1637) states : 

"Parson (persona) cometh from the French (per- 
sonne). It peculiarly signifieth with us the rector 
of a church, the reason whereof seemeth to be 
because hee for the time representeth the church 
and sustaineth the person thereof, as well in 
slewing as being slewed in any action touching the 

In the ' Dictionarium Britannicum ? (1730) 
the word is defined as follows : 

"Parson (prob. of parish son or of persona), the 
Minister Rector of a parish, probably so called 
because he represents that church and bears the 
person of it." 

In the same work an " Immortal Parson " 
is described as "a collegiate or conventual 
body to whom the church is for ever appro- 
priated " ; and the term "Mortal Parson n 
as " the title formerly used for the rector 
of a church made for his own life only.' 1 

I cannot find any instance of a lay rector 
being termed " a parson,' 1 and it appears 
clear that the word is only properly applied 
to a rector who is in holy orders. The term 
is therefore not appropriate to a vicar, 
chaplain, curate in charge, &c. 


Blackstone, ' Commentaries, 4 Book I. 
chap. xi. ('Of the Clergy 5 ), says: "The 
appropriator, who is the real parson." 


410). Two distinct works have been pub- 
lished under this title. 

1. The book inquired about by MBS. 
BEALE was written by John Sanderson 
of Philadelphia, of whom a brief notice will 
be found in ' Appletons' Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography. 1 He is chiefly known 
as the joint-editor with Robert Wain of 
' Biography to the Signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, 1 9 vols.. Philadelphia, 

In 1838 Carey & Hart of Philadelphia 
published in one volume " Sketches of Paris : 
in Familiar Letters to his Friends. By an 
American." This contains a Preface (pp. 
iii-iv) dated " London, August 10th, 1836 " ; 
and pp. 5-321 of text in twenty three letters 
written from Paris between 29 June, 1835, 
and 7 May, 1836. This was printed in 
London in 1838 in two volumes under the 
title of ' The American in Paris,' and is the 
book about which MBS. BEALE inquires. 
As this London edition is not in the Boston 
or Cambridge (Mass.) libraries, will MBS. 
BEALE kindly state whether it contains a 

preface other than the Preface to the Phila- 
delphia 'Sketches of Paris, 1 1838 ? In 1839 
Carey & Hart published in two volumes 
" The American in Paris. By John Sander- 
son. >J The text of this edition appears to 
be identical with the text of ' Sketches of 
Paris, 1 though each volume contains a table 
of contents not in the earlier work. In 1847 
Carey & Hart published the "Third Edi- 
tion " of "The American in Paris. By John 
Sanderson. n The only edition mentioned in 
the British Museum Catalogue is the London 
edition of 1838. 

2. In 1843 there was published in Paris 
" Un Hiver a Paris par M. Jules Janin.'* 
Probably in 1844, though there is no date 
on the title-page, there was also published in 
Paris " L'iCte a Paris par M. Jules Janin. ?i 
Probably in 1844, though still without 
date on the title-page, " Fisher, Fils & Cie." 
published in London " L' Hiver et I'Ete a 
Paris, par M. Jules Janin. Illustres par 
M. Eugene Lami. L'^lte. n In 1845-7, 
according to the British Museum Catalogue, 
Fisher, Son & Co. published in London a 
work in four volumes called " France Illus- 
trated, .... Drawings by Thomas Allom, 
Esq. Descriptions by the Rev. G. N. Wright, 
M.A." The title of the last volume reads 
in part : " France Illustrated. Comprising 
a Summer and Winter in Paris. Drawings 
by M. Eugene Lami. Descriptions by M. 
Jules Janin. Supplemental Vol. IV. Peter 
Jackson, late Fisher, Son & Co. n In 1843 
Longman published in London " The Ame- 
rican in Paris ; or, Heath's Picturesque 
Annual for 1843. By M. Jules Janin. Illus- 
trated by Eighteen Engravings, from Designs 
by M. Eugene Lami. n In 1844 Burgess, 
Stringer & Co. published in New York " The 
American in Paris, during the Winter. By 
Jules Janin. Ji 

The Longman volume of 1843 ("The 
American in Paris ' ) is a translation of ' Un 
Hiver a Paris.' Vol. iv. of ' France Illus- 
trated ? contains 228 pages, of which pp. 5-141 
are a translation of ' Un Hiver a Paris, 4 and 
pp. 142-228 a translati9n of ' L'^te a Paris.* 
The translation of ' Un Hiver a Paris * in 
'France Illustrated' (iv. 5-141) is identical 
with Longman's ' The American in Paris 3 
of 1843, except that certain portions of the 
latter are omitted in the former. In the 
translation of ' L'^te a Paris * in ' France 
Illustrated 8 (iv. 142-228) the translator 
has omitted portions of the French original. 

Who wrote ' Un Hiver a Paris ' and 
L'fite a Paris ' ? In all the catalogues 

have seen they are attributed to Jules 
Janin ; but the works themselves purport to 

11 S. I. JAN. 1, 1910.] 



be written by an American. In the Intro- 
duction to ' Un Hiver a Paris * we read : 

" J'ais traduit le present livre d'un recit tres 
exact et tres-veridique qui nous est venu du pays 
de Cooper et de Washington-Irving . . . . Je vous 
dirai peu de choses de 1'ecrivain original, car il a mis 
dans son voyage beaucoup de sa bonne humeur, 
de son esprit, de sa bienveillance naturelle. II 
eta it jeune encore lorsqu'il vint & Paris.... II 
6tait arrive^ a Paris un Parisien 6vapore, tout 
dispose aux plus vives folies ; il en sortit un grave 
Am6ricain, tout prepare aux calmes et tran- 
quilles honneurs que la mere patrie tient en r6- 
serve pour les fils de sa predilection." 

In the " English Translator's Introduction " 
to Longman's ' The American in Paris l 
we are told : 

" In presenting this volume to the public, 
the English translator feels that some explanation 
is necessary ; inasmuch as the obvious course 
would have been, to use the American manuscript 
referred to, in the French translator's intro- 
duction, instead of re-tranflating the work. 
The manuscript, however, the publishers could not 
obtain, and they were therefore compelled 
either to have a re-translation, or to look elsewhere 
for a description of Paris, but the merit of this 
account was such, that they determined, at once, 
to adopt the former alternative .... In order to 
give the full effect, to the very clever and amusing, 
but, at the same time, very peculiar style, of 
M. Jules Janin, the English translator has some- 
times been compelled to use expressions, which 
may be considered foreign to the genius of the 
language, and to employ terms, which would not 
have-been chosen in an original work, but which 
were necessary to convey the full meaning of this 
very talented writer, ivho disdains to think by 

The Preface to ' L'te a Paris' begins, 
" Voici encore notre Americain de 1'an 
passe n ; and speaks of the author as " un 
compatriote de Franklin " ; while on p. 3 
we read : " Mais qu'importe ? j'ai pour me 
consoler les vers de mon compatriote le 
poete Wordsworth, Long Fellow : sweet 
April ! " If Henry Wads worth Longfellow 
ever saw this book, he must have been 
amused at the French printer's version of 
his name. 

My guess is that the American authorship 
is merely a ruse on the part of Janin. Is it 
known for certain ? ALBERT MATTHEWS. 

Boston, U.S. 

BETUBIUM (10 S. xii. 389). ! think 
there cannot be any doubt that the name 
Betubium in Thomson's * Seasons * 
(' Autumn,' 893) is a ghost-word. It is 
not a misprint. Betubium appears in many 
of the editions of ' The Seasons l which I have 
examined. In the edition of " The Aldine 
Poets" (1862) the word is explained in a 
foot-note as the name of " a promontory in 
Scotland, now called the Cape of St. Andrew." 

But no such name as Betubium is to be 
found in the works of the ancient geographers. 
The word intended is doubtless Berubium, 
which occurs in Smith's * Diet, of Greek and 
Roman Geography,* on the authority of 
Ptolemy, and is supposed by Dr. R. G, 
Latham to be Noss Head on the north-west 
coast of Scotland. In Prof. C. H. Pearson's 
' Historical Maps of England ' (2nd ed. p. 13) 
" Berubion Prom.' ? is mentioned, with three 
conjectures as to identification, viz., Arde 
Head (so Camden), Duncansby Head (so 
Horsley), and Noss Head (so ' Mon. Brit.'). 

It may perhaps be interesting to give the 
forms in Ptolemy as they appear on p. 88 
of Miiller's splendid edition (1883). Muller 
prints in his text " Qvtpovtiiovfi a/cpor, 
Verubium promontorium," but some MSS. 
have BepovftiovYj. A note says : " Hodie 
the Noss prope Wick oppidum." 

It would be interesting from a literary 
point of view to ask where the poet had 
met with this rare Ptolemaic name for his 
" highest peak "- o'er which " the north-in- 
flated tempest foams." It is not likely that 
Thomson was a student of Ptolemy. I sup- 
pose he must have found the word in 
Gibson's edition of Camden, where mention 
is made of the three promontories, viz., 
" Berubium, now Urdehead. . . .Virvedrum, 
now Dunsby, otherwise Duncans-bay ; . . . . 
and Orcas, now Howburn' 1 (ed. 1753, 
p. 1280). A. L. MAYHEW. 

21, Norham Road, Oxford. 

There is apparently a misprint in the form 
of the name Betubium that has been copied 
in successive issues of ' The Seasons.' This 
is corrected in Longman's edition, dated 
1847, where the line reads : 

O'er Orcas' or Berubium's highest peaks. 

These are names of two extremities on the 
northern face of the Scottish mainland, and 
are latinized forms of the promontories 
mentioned in Ptolemy's geography of Britain. 
Ptolemy's " Tarvidium and Orcas >l are 
identified with Cape Wrath and Fair Aird 
Head on the one hand ; and his "Promon- 
tory Berubium" (Bcpov/ifiof/z aKpoi/) is iden- 
tified with Duncansbay Head on the other. 

The poet, after describing " the naked 
melancholy isles," has turned to the main- 
land, where " a while the muse n passes 
Caledonia itself in romantic view from the 
tributary Jed 

To where the north-inflated tempest foams 
O'er Orcas' or Berubium's highest peak ; 

or, in other words, from the Tweed to the 
Pentland Frith. R. OLIVER HESLOP. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. i, 1910. 

See Camden's ' Britannia, 1 ed. 1722, 
vol. ii. cols. 1279-80). 

In Thomson's 'Poetical Works,' edited by 
Robert Bell, 1855, vol. ii. p. 151, "Betu- 
bium's highest peak" is said to be a pro- 
montory called Cape St. Andrew. 


There is a place on the north coast of 
Sutherlandshire, where the river Naver 
empties itself into the sea, which still goes 
by the name of Bettyhill, a name certainly 
suggestive of an origin from Betubium, if such 
a word was ever prevalent. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 
[MR. WALTER SCOTT also thanked for reply.] 

LADY WORSLEY (10 S. xii. 409). In 
response to the request of your correspond- 
ent I give the imaginary epitaph upon Lady 
Worsley from ' The Abbey of Kilkhampton " 

Raised to the lovely, yet ungentle Lady W 

of rebellious Memory, Wight's envied Boast. 
Her Intrepidity was equalled only by her Address : 
She wished to make Sir R popular, and neglected 

every other 

Blessing, for the exemplary Purpose of accomplish- 

the Object of her ambition. 

The Sea-girt Isle, like that of Paphos, knew no 
other Divinity, 

Than the blue-eyed Venus of A mbe. 

The Voice, the Dance, the hearts of either Sex were 


to the Despotism of her Desires : 
Even H. .m . s himself clung to her fair Image, 

pictured in his 

Eye, and (such was the Luxuriance of his creative 
Fancy ! ) 

Revelling in his Arms, while partook of less 

imaginary Delights in the stolen Possession of 

his fair D . 

Antic Sports and frolicsome Felicity, 
Led on by the fair Sovereign of the Island, dwelt in 

jocund State 

Till the Return of General E , 

When, on Sir R 's being refused a Coalition of 

Interests with 

The Duke of C , Lady W took up the 

in her Husband's Cause, and annihilated his 


slender Existence at the first stroke. 
His M , charmed with her Spirit, created the 

Amazon a P ss. 

And the whole Body of our English Noblesse put 

their Hands on 
their Hearts, and gave their Honor that her 


was only guilty of Manslaughter. 
Sir Richard Worsley, of Appuldurcomb, 
Isle of Wight, and M.P. for Newport, 
married 21 Sept., 1775, Seymour Dorothy, 

daughter of Sir John Fleming, Bt., of 
Brompton Park, Middlesex, and had a son 
and a daughter, who both died unmarried. 
On 21 Feb.; 1782, Sir Richard brought an 
action for crim. con. against George Maurice 
Bissett, but, collusion being suspected, he 
was awarded only one shilling damages. A 
report of the trial, which caused a great 
sensation in the fashionable world, can 
easily be procured. 

On 14 March, 1782, Gillray published a 
caricature of the incident, called ' Sir Richard 
Worse than Sly, ? which is described in Wright 
and Grego's ' Works of James Gillray,' 
p. 33. In the Print-Room at the British 
Museum are the following other satirical 
engravings : 

1. Lady Worsley dressing in the Bathing-house. 
Feb., 1782. 

2. The Maidstone Bath ; or, The Modern 
Susannah. March 12, 1782. 

3. The Maidstone Whim. 8 March, 1782. 

4. A Peep into Lady Worsley's Seraglio. 
29 April, 1782. 

5. The Shilling; or, The Value of a P[riv]y 
C[ouncillo]r's Matrimonial Honour. 18 Feb., 1782. 

Several poems and pamphlets were written 
about the case, such as : 

1. The Whim ! ! ! or, The Maidstone Bath. A 
Kentish Poetic. Dedicated to Lady Worsley. 4to, 
Is. Qd. Williams. 

2. Variety ; or, Which is the Man ? A Poem. 
Dedicated to Lady W si y. 4to, Is. Swift. 

3. An Epistle from L y W y to Sir R d 
W y, Bart. 4to, Is. Wright. 

4. A Poetical Address from Mrs. N[ewto]n to 
L . .y W y. 4to, Is. ' Swift. 

Naturally, the newspapers were full of 
allusions to the case during 1782. I append 
references : 

Morning Herald. 

Fri., Feb. 22. Report of trial. 

Sat., Feb. 23. Paragraph about Lady Worsley 
and Lord Deerhurst. 

Thurs., March 7. Ditto. 

Mon., April 22. Lady Worsley at Pantheon 

Mon., May 13. Ditto. 

Tues., May 21. Lady Worsley and Mrs. New- 

In August, 1783, The Rambler's Magazine 
says that Lady Worsley is at Spa, and in 
April, 1785, announces that she has returned 
from the Continent. In December, 1786, 
The Morning Post speaks of her as attracting 
much attention in Paris ; and in May, 
'1787, The World describes her as " living in 
poverty " in France. 

On 26 Sept., 1788, The Morning Post 
contains this paragraph : 

" Lady Worsley is in Brighton with the Marquis 
St. George. She looks as well as regards beauty 
as ever, and is still first in all equestrian exercises." 

11 S. I. JAN. 1, 1910.] 



In October, 1792, The Bon Ton Magazine, 
giving a summary of the life of Dick Eng- 
land, declares that she is practising a system 
of gambling in France. On 22 June, 1799, 
The Morning Post announces that she has 
put on mourning for the late Chevalier 
St. George, " once her favourite "~ ; and on 
2 Jan., 1800, says that she is living at 

Sir .Richard Worsley died in August, 1805, 
and a jointure of 70,OOOZ. is said to have 
reverted to his wife (Gent. Mag., Ixxv. pt. ii. 
781). On 12 September of the same year 
Lady Worsley, who had taken the name of 
Fleming by royal grant, married J. Louis 
Couchet at Farnham in Surrey. 

I have explained the association of Lord 
Deerhurst with Lady Worsley in ' A Story 
of a Beautiful Duchess,' pp. 288-9 ; and 
there is a reference to her friendship with 
Grace Dalrymple Eliot on*p. 222 of ' Ladies 
Fair and Frail.' 

Of course Horace Walpole has something 
to say about her, and I believe there are 
plenty of allusions in contemporary memoirs. 

WINDOW : PRINCE ARTHUR (10 S. xii. 269, 
357, 453). Authorities appear to differ 
considerably as to the identity of the 
figures intended to be portrayed in this 

* Pennant's London Improved ' (about 
1815), p. 100, has the following : 

" The east window is a most beautiful com- 
position of figures. It was made by order of the 
magistrates of Dort, and by them designed as a 
present to Henry VII. The subject is the Cruci- 
fixion ; a devil is carrying off the soul of the 
hardened thief ; an angel receiving that of the 
penitent. The figures are numerous and finely 
done. On one side is Henry VI. kneeling ; above 
him his patron saint, St. George ; on the other 
side is his queen in the same attitude, and above 
her the fair St. Catherine with the instruments 
of her martyrdom. This charming performance 
is engraved at the cost of the Society of Anti- 
quaries." x 

There is a fuller description of the window 
in Hughson's ' Walks through London,' 
1817, p. 228, where an altogether different 
version of the figures is given. The two 
kneeling ones are said to represent Henry 
VII. and his consort Elizabeth. Mr. Walcott's 
account of certain portions of the history 
of the window agrees with that of Hughson, 
who says : 

" This beautiful window was originally intended 
as a present from the magistrates of Dort in 
Holland to Henry VII. ; but the King dying 
before it was completed, it fell into the hands of 
the Abbot of Waltham, who kept it in his church 

till the Dissolution. To preserve it, Robert 
Fuller, the last Abbot, sent it to New Hall, a 
seat of the Butlers in Wiltshire. From this family 
it was purchased by Thomas Villars, Duke of 
Buckingham : his son sold it to General Monk, 
who caused this window to be buried under 

ground After the restoration Monk replaced 

it in his chapel at New Hall. Subsequent to 
General Monk's death, John Olmius, Esq., 
demolished this chapel, but preserved the window, 
in hopes of selling it for some church. After 
laying a long tune cased up, Mr. Conyers 
bought it for his chapel near Epping : here it 
remained till his son built a new house ; and this 
gentleman finally selling it to the Committee 
appointed for repairing and beautifying St. 
Margaret's, Westminster, after a lapse of nearly 
three hundred years it occupies a place imme- 
diately contiguous to that for which it was 
originally designed." 

I should be glad to know if any or all of 
the statements contained in this circum- 
stantial account are accepted as accurate 
by the authorities of to-day. Is it known 
why the magistrates of Dort made this 
handsome gift for Henry VII. ? 

With regard to the figures, four persons 
have already been described by various 
authorities as being represented by the 
male kneeling figure (Henry VI., Henry VII. , 
Prince Arthur, and Henry VIII. ), and a 
corresponding variety of ladies. How many 
more are there ? WM. NORMAN. 

St. James' Place, Plumstead. 

Mr. Lewis F. Day in his ' Windows ' (1902), 
p. 395, speaking of the two great transept 
windows and those in the Chapel of the 
Holy Sacrament at St. Gudule in Brussels, 
says : 

" They are at once the types, and the best 
examples, of the glass painter's new departure 
in the direction of light and shade. On the other 
hand, the large east window at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster (Dutch, it is said, of about the same 
date), has not the charm of the period, and must 
not be taken to represent it fairly." 

In the north window of the Jesus Chapel 
(north transept) of Great Malvern Priory 
Church is to be seen the fine kneeling figure 
of Prince Arthur (who is buried in Worcester 
Cathedral), together with that of Sir Reginald 
Bray. In Habington's time the figures of 
the king and queen also were perfect, but 
have since been destroyed. 


TOWERS (10 S. xii. 64, 217). It is exceed- 
ingly probable that J. T. Smith or his in- 
formant " old Gayfere, the Abbey mason," 
rendered Flitcroft as " Fleetcraft. n Henry 
Flitcroft (1697-1769) was the architect of 
Hampstead Church. Park relates (' The 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. JAN. i, 1910. 

Topography of Hampstead,' 1818, p. 337) 
that he was a journeyman carpenter who 
" having the fortune to break his leg 
by a fall from some scaffolding, while em- 
ployed in the repair of Burlington House," 
received the patronage of the Earl, and 
was appointed at first foreman, but 
ultimately Comptroller, of the Board of 
Works. His pretty book-plate is probably 
known to most collectors. 


(10 S. xii. 469). In 1887 a prize of three 
guineas was offered in The Journal of Educa- 
tion for the best translation of the above 
poem. The prize was awarded in the 
number of the Journal for November, 1887, 
and I was fortunate enough to find myself 
the prize-winner. Only a small portion, 
however, of my translation was quoted in 
the Journal. The version which was 
printed as a whole was that by the editor 
himself, Mr. F. Storr, and this is no doubt 
the " excellent one " to which M. C. D. 

Mr. Storr's translation was subsequently 
published (I think about 1895) in a work 
entitled ' Essays, Mock Essays, and Cha- 
racter Sketches,' reprinted from The Journal 
of Education, and edited by himself (W. 
Rice, 86, Fleet Street, or Whittaker & Co., 
Paternoster Square). 

My own version was privately printed, 
and if M. C. D. would like to have a copy, 
I shall be happy to post him one for his 
acceptance on hearing from him. 

I may add that a prize was offered in 
The Practical Teacher (1898 or 1899) for the 
best translation of the same poem, but I 
do not know with what result. 

21, Sydney Buildings. Bath. 

[MR. ALECK ABRAHAMS also refers to Mr. Storr's 

BHANG : CUCA (10 S. xii. 490). Bhang is 
Indian hemp, the same thing as hashish, a 
powerful narcotic, of which the extract 
fluid, solid, or powdered can, I believe, be 
got of any chemist. But if G. B. wants the 
Indian preparations as used in the East, 
that of course is quite another thing, and 
I cannot say where they can be obtained. 
I have seen and smoked the powdered bhang 
or hashish brought from Morocco by tra- 
velling Moors. The name given to it there 
is key/, which really means " intoxication." 

Cuca or coca is the Peruvian name for a 
herb known in other South American 

languages as cochuco, hayo, and ipado, the 
gently excitant effect of which resembles, 
that of tea or- coffee. Its reputed ability to 
support strength for a considerable time 
in the absence of food has made it very 
popular as a medicine. Coca wine is sold 
by every druggist, and another favourite 
form of it is coca chocolate. 


Bhang, or hashish, consists of the larger 
leaves of the Indian hemp, and can almost 
certainly be had of the wholesale druggists. 
So, of course, can coca leaves, which are 
imported from Bolivia and Peru. There is. 
another preparation of Indian hemp, made 
from the tops of the flowering branches, 
which is said to be sold in the London 

market as 
" gaujah."' 


Its native name 
C. C. B. 

( 10S. xii. 447). 3. Bibasis. This is described 
by Pollux, the Greek lexicographer (iv. 102),. 
as a Lacedaemonian dance, competitions in 
which were held for boys and girls. They 
had to jump and kick themselves behind. 
The Spartan woman Lampito in Aristo- 
phanes' ' Lysistrata * (82) speaks of taking 
this exercise. 

5. Blemmyes. This people has been 
identified with the modern Barabras. Their 
fabulous appearance is described in Shake- 
speare : 

Men whose heads 
Do grow beneath their shoulders. 

' Othello,' I. iii. 

The words are illustrated in Knight's 
pictorial edition by an engraving taken 
from Hondius's Latin translation of passages 
from Raleigh's ' Voyage to Guiana.' 

6. Silphium. The juice from the root 
and stem of this plant, which was highly 
valued as a drug and condiment, formed the 
staple trade of Cyrene. The plant, which 
figured on the coins of that city, was um- 
belliferous, and has been variously identified. 
Ancient representations are said to bear a 
close resemblance to the Narthex asafetida. It 
has been pointed out that a preparation of 
asafetida is used as a relish in India at the 
present day. According to Heinrich Stein 
(note on Herod., iv. 169), the Cyrenaic plant 
is now common in a degenerate form, and 
is called by the Arabs drias. 

The fourth -century anonymous Greek 
Life of Antony may throw light on the ofcher 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

11 S. I. JAN. 1, 1910.] 



4. Nasnds or nisnds, '* he that moves 
rapidly," is defined by F. Johnson (' Persian 
Diet.,'' s.v.) as " a kind of ape, a marmoset, 
an ourang-outang, satyr, faun, a monstrous 
race of men or demons who have only one 
leg and one arm, and move by leaping." They 
resemble the Arabian Shikk (split man), and 
the Persian Nlmchahrah (half -face), who run 
with amazing speed, and are cruel and 
dangerous (Burton, ' Arabian Nights, 1 1893, 
iv. 279). 

6. Silphium, <rl\.<f>iov, is equivalent to 
Latin laserpitium, and is supposed to be a 
kind of asafoetida. Drawings of the plant 
and of the system of weighing it at Gyrene 
will be found in Maspero, ' Passing of the 
Empire * (1900), p. 554 f. On the virtues of 
silphium see Pliny, ' Nat. Hist.,* xxii. 48. 


5. Blemmyes is the name of a real tribe 
of Arab race settled above the First Cataract 
of the Nile. In later Roman and Byzantine 
times they gave much trouble to the Roman 
government, frequently making raids, and 
at times dominating a great part of Egypt. 
They are mentioned fairly often in J. G. 
Milne's ' History of Egypt under Roman 
Rule * ; see especially p. 79 f. Would it 
not be better, in translating Flaubert, to 
keep the name Blemmyes ? H. I. B. 
[MRS. M. W. THORNBUROH also thanked for reply.] 

469). MB. LEVEBTON HABBIS will find a 
portrait of Col. Edward Gwyn (not Gwynn) 
the husband of Mary Horneck, described 
in the recently published book on John 
Hoppner, R.A., by Mr. McKay and myself. 
The portrait belongs to Mr. E. G. Raphael. 


In the paragraph to which attention has 
been called there are some obvious mis- 
statements and doubtful identifications. 
Not any bust or statuette carved from the 
mulberry tree it is said Shakespeare planted 
could be contemporary with the poet. It 
will be recalled that, a few years after the 
tree was cut down, it came into the pos- 
session of Thomas Sharp, the clockmaker 
of Stratford-on-Avon, who traded in the 
articles made from it ranging from chairs, 
Baskets, cups, tea-caddies, and cribbage 
boards to rings, and chips of the wood 
from 1759 until his death in 1799. So as 
to ensure the authenticity of each of these 
souvenirs, he secured the whole of the wood 
the tree produced, and impressed each piece 

with his stamp. His original memorandum 
book, said to provide ample data regarding 
these transactions, passed to his surviving 
assistaitt Thomas Gibbs, and at the sale of 
his effects in 1866 it was secured by J. O. 
Halliwell-Phillipps. It is very improbable 
that any articles were made from the wood 
before Sharp had possession of the entire 
tree, and to him, therefore, must be credited 
the creation of the statuette. 

Moreover, the living tree would not have 
yielded wood sufficient for a statuette of 
15 inches height in the days of either Joan 
Shakespear or her immediate descendants. 
If it is possible to come in touch with it, a 
very interesting comparison might be made 
with a small bust of the poet which Sharp 
carved. When George Robins sold the 
house and a few relics at the mart on Thurs- 
day, 16 Sept., 1847, this occurred as lot 15, 
and was purchased by a Mr. Thomas Wilkin- 
son of Lower Thames Street for 18 guineas. 

465). In the preface to D'Urfey's ' Butler's 
Ghost ; or, Hudibras the Fourth Part,' 
the author begins a sentence with the 
remark : " If no one were to write Dra- 
maticks unless they could equall the Im- 
mortal Johnson and Shakespear." In the 
same work, p. 36, Shakespeare's story of 
Shylock and his pound of flesh is versified 
with considerable skill and success. At 
p. 149 of his ' Collin's Walk through London 
and Westminster * D'Urfey alludes to " Ben, 
Shakespear, and the learned Rout. 11 These 
two works appeared respectively in 1682 
and 1690. A secondary feature of the 
quotations is the order of merit which seems 
to be recognized. THOMAS BAYNE. 

FRANCIS KINDLEMABSH (10 S. xii. 386). 
I should be glad of authority to connect 
the Richard Kindlemarsh (or Kinwell- 
mersh) of MBS. STOPES'S note, father to 
the poet Francis, with a namesake who 
flourished in the parish of St. John Zachary 
circa 1541-58. He seems to have been 
a man of some substance, and is first men- 
tioned as a goldsmith, and afterwards as a 
mercer, apparently. The genealogy of the 
Doet in the ' D.N.B.' is of a distinctly in- 
definite character. WILLAM MCMUBBAY. 


10 S. xii. 308, 496). Note also the long 

Blockade of the Royalists in the island of 

Barbadoes by the English fleet under Sir 

George Ayscue. R. B. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAX. i, 1910. 


The Gilds and Companies of London. By George 

Unwin. (Methuen & Co. ) 

THIS is a further addition to the series of " Anti- 
quary's Books," published under the general 
editorship of the Rev. Dr. Cox. The volume is 
based on a study of printed and unprinted 
sources concerning the foundation and history 
of the Livery Companies, and forms an outline of 
the development of the Gilds and Companies of 
London from the days of Henry Plantagenet to 
those of Victoria. Whilst not losing sight of 
individual peculiarities, the author has endea- 
voured to lay stress on the significance which the 
Gilds and Companies as a whole have had for the 
constitutional history of the City, and for the 
social and economic development of the nation 
at large. 

In addition to the actual history of the City 
Companies, an attempt has been made to find the 
genesis of the idea of these organizations, the 
collapse of the Roman Empire being taken as a 
starting-point. The growth throughout Western 
Europe of the purely feudal system, and sub- 
sequently the germination and formulation of the 
collective idea, are next described. We quote 
the author as follows : 

" In order to produce steady and coherent 
progress the upward thrust of the new life and 
the downward pressure of the old formula are both 
needed. But the upward thrust must be stronger 
than the downward pressure .... This process 
of interaction can nowhere be studied to better 
advantage than in the birth, life, and develop- 
ment of the Gild, and of those kindred organiza- 
tions which have succeeded to its functions. We 
can there watch in all its phases that trans- 
formation of social forces into political forces 
which is the very essence of what we call progress. 
We see class after class constituting itself a social 
force by the act of self-organization. Then, as 
the new social force gains political recognition, 
the voluntary association passes wholly or partly 
into an organ of public administration." 

In order to secure a comprehensive groundwork, 
it has been found necessary to refer to the con- 
temporary development of Gilds in Continental 
cities, amongst others Bruges, Paris, and Florence ; 
likewise to the general trend of the collective 
idea amongst Teutonic nations. As an example 
of feudal opposition we may mention that a law 
of Charlemagne of 779 decrees that persons shall 
not presume to bind themselves by mutual oaths 
in a Gild (Geldonia). A later decree of 821 warns 
the lords in Flanders and other maritime ports 
to restrain their serfs from sworn confederacies on 
pain of incurring a fine themselves. 

To follow the fortunes of the Gilds through 
their chequered careers is not possible on ac- 
count of limitations of space. Suffice it to say, 
that their history and development are traced 
with no uncertain hand by the author. Inci- 
dentally it appears that the presence of aliens is 
not, as some imagine, a modern'problem. London 
in the fourteenth century was j considerably 
troubled in this respect : 

"This alarm had scarcely ' subsided before 
another serious cause of dissension arose between 

the Londoners and the Government. A rumour 
sprang up that it was intended to solve the 
difficulties created by the City's hostility to 
foreigners by making another port the seat of 
foreign trade. It was said that a wealthy 
Genoese merchant then staying in London had 
offered to make Southampton the greatest port 
in Western Europe, if the King would grant him 
the use of a castle there as his depot. The indig- 
nation of the extremists in the anti-alien party 
at this prospect passed all bounds, and the un- 
fortunate Italian was struck down in the open 
street before his inn by the hand of an assassin 
named Kirkeby." 

We recommend this book to all who are 
interested in the history of Gilds and similar 
fraternities, or in the development of the City 
of London. Indeed, the history of the Gilds 
and that of the City are inextricably interwoven. 

Mr. Unwin's style is lucid and convincing, and 
his work has evidently not been lightly under- 
taken, but is as complete as a keen apprecia- 
tion of his subject can make it. 

Whitaker's Almanack, 1910. (Whitaker & Sons.) 
Whitaker's Peerage, 1910. (Same publishers.) 

THE editor of the world-renowned 'Almanack r 
does not rest on his laurels, but still works hard 
at making improvements and additions ; and in 
the volume for the new year are to be found many 
fresh articles. These include the latest triumphs 
of aerial navigation, the export of British capital, 
the Imperial Press Conference, the break-up of 
the Poor Law, and a review of Social Progress. 
The statistics in the last are of great Interest. 
The death-rate, which stood at 22'7 for 1851-5, 
had dropped in 1907 to 15'0. The birth-rate, 
which was 33'9 in 1851-5, had declined to 26*3 in 
1907. A similar decline in the birth-rate is 
noticeable in the case of most European countries. 
As regards wages and prices, the net result shows 
an apparent increase of 40 per cent, in wages 
since 1860, while the general level of prices was 
about 24 per cent, lower. The prices given do 
not fully represent the changes in the cost of 
living, since they do not include rent, which 
has probably risen on an average since 1860. In 
reference to local debt in 1874-5, the amount was 
nearly 93,000,000*., representing 16s. Id. per 
pound of rateable value, or 3?. 18s. 3d. per head 
of population ; while in 1905-6 the amount had 
increased to 483,000,000^., representing 21. 7s. Id. 
per pound of rateable value, or 14?. 2s. 10d. 
per head of population. It is pointed out, how- 
ever, that a large portion of the capital debt 
belongs to undertakings producing revenue. 

' Whitaker's Peerage ' also contains important 
additions. A concise account of the Coronation 
ceremonies has been - inserted, the section on 
Indian titles extended, and the Indian Com- 
panions given. There is, besides, a description 
of Court dress for laymen. Under the Baronet- 
age mention is made of '' the grant of a baronetcy 
to a female Dame Mary Bolles, of Osberton, 
Notts (1635 in the Scottish Baronetage), "and it 
is stated that " this is not quite the only one." 
There are some amusing references to the past 
in the account of the Knightage. The awkward- 
ness of King James on the occasion of his con- 
ferring a knighthood on Kenelm Digby nearly 
caused an accident. This was only prevented 
by the Duke of Buckingham ; otherwise the King; 
would have thrust the sword into Digby's eye. 

11 S. L JAN. 1, 1910.] 



Another awkward incident is related in ' The 
Book of the Court.' The lady of a certain City 
knight was once presented to the old Princess 
Amelia, who was very deaf. The Princess, not 
aware that she was merely a knight's lady, was 
about to salute her as if the daughter of a peer, 
to the great horror of the Gentleman Usher in 
Waiting, who, shocked, at such a violation of 
etiquette, exclaimed, loud enough to be heard 
by all present, " Don't kiss her, your Royal 
Highness ; she is not a real lady." 

Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society : 
October. (Baptist Union Publication Depart- 
ment. ) 

THE work of this new Society continues to fulfil 
the promise it gave on its formation, and this 
part contains further valuable contributions of 
general historical interest. It will be news to 
many that the practice of the washing of feet was 
formerly observed by some Baptists. This is 
shown in a letter of Daniel Dobel of Cranbrook, 
"Bishop or Messenger of the General Baptists 
in Kent." The letter bears date February 14, 
1771. In it the writer asks his*correspondent if he 
practises the washing of feet, and states that he 
has done so for upwards of forty years. 

There is a letter of Andrew Fuller's in reference 
to the appearance of Dr. Carey's portrait in The 
Baptist Magazine. Marshman in his life of 
Carey, Marshman, and Ward, published by 
Longmans in 1859, states that Carey considered 
the publication of this portrait a " violation of the 
engagement on which he had consented to sit 
to the artist [Home], but he desired that a copy 
of it should be sent to each of his relatives " ; 
and he would bear the expense. Strange to say, 
Marshman's book contains no portrait. 

The impartiality with which the Society pub- 
lishes records relating to Baptists is shown in an 
article on ' Militant Baptists, 1660-72,' who by 
their treasonable conduct justified " the callous- 
ness of Charles in so lightly breaking his words 
as to indulgence " ; and " astonishment " is 
expressed at the lenient conduct of Parliament. 
At the present day it is needless to say that no 
more loyal subjects are to be found than the 
members of the Free Churches, and in the absence 
of set forms of prayer, the sovereign is prayed for 
on Sundays. 

There is a good deal of curious information in 
the articles on ' The Baptist Licences of 1672,' 
and ' Old Wisbech Records,' the latter showing 
that some " Baptized Believers " held the then 
rare doctrine of universal redemption. 

The Rev. James Stuart of Watford contributes 
a letter of Robert Hall's in reference to the publi- 
cation of his sermon on the occasion of the death 
of Dr. Ryland, for the benefit of Ryland's family. 
Hall considers that the proposal to print ten 
thousand is too venturesome. 

The short notes at the end of the part are of 
value. One tells how the Jewish invasion in 
the east of London " is depleting ancient buildings 
of their Christian worshippers, and they are being 
converted into synagogues or sold for secular 
purposes." It is suggested that a pastor of a 
surviving church should organize a personally 
conducted tour round this district, and finish 
with a tea in his schoolroom for the pilgrims. 
Perhaps our old friends the Norwood Ramblers 
will make a note of this. 


MR. P. M. BARNARD'S Tunbridge Wells Cata- 
logue 33 is devoted to Italy and the Italian cities, 
including " Aldine Press and Dante Literature. 
There are nearly a thousand items, arranged under 
cities, with the exception of those which cannot 
conveniently be thus grouped. These are to be 
found in a general list. 

Mr. Barnard sends from his Manchester address 
Catalogue 7. We note the ' Decameron ' trans- 
lated by Rigg, 2 vols., and portfolio with extra 
plates, 1906, 31. 3s. (a special copy with all the 
plates coloured by hand) ; the Gadshill Dickens, 
34 vols., new, 11. ; the ' Life of Darwin ' by his 
son, 3 vols., new, 14s. ; Douglas Freshfield's 
' Caucasus,' 2 vols., 4to, new, 10s. ; Hakluyt's 
' Voyages,' 12 vols., 11. ; Aikin's ' Manchester,* 
including the rare plan, 4to, 1795, 21. 2s. ; and the 
first published edition of ' Queen Mab,' 1821,. 
16s. Qd. 

Messrs. Lupton Brothers of Burnley have in- 
their Christmas Catalogue a copy of the Edition 
de Luxe of La Fontaine issued by the Society of 
English Bibliophilists, 2 vols., 51. This edition 
was limited to 35 copies, and as a guarantee that 
the book would not be reprinted in this form,, 
one of the original copperplates was presented to- 
each subscriber. ' The Little Bell ' is the plate 
with this copy. There are works under Bio- 
graphy, Costume, Derbyshire, and Yorkshire, 
Heraldry, Railways, &c. Under Discussions 
are those in which Bradlaugh, Cooper, Dr. Cum- 
ming, Robert Owen, Holyoake, Maguire, and 
others took part. Under American Literature is 
Stedman and Hutchinson's work in 11 vols., 
21. 10s. 

Messrs. James Rimell & Son's Catalogue 210 
of Engravings of the English School contains, 
under Bartolozzi a portrait of Miss Wallis in 
Landscape, 1796, 81. 18s. Qd. Under Constable 
is The Cornfield,' 16Z. 16s. Copley's ' Victory of 
Lord Duncan ' is 8Z. ; Cosway's portrait of Mrs. 
Duff, beautifully printed in colours, 18Z. 18s. j 
Dance's ' Garrick as Richard III.,' 4Z. 15s. ; 
Downman's ' Miss Farren and Mr. King as Sir 
Peter and Lady Teazle,' 101. 10s. ; Gainsborough's 

Boys and Dogs ' and ' Cottage Children,' 
16Z. 16s. ; Gillray's ' The Village Train,' and 

* The Deserted Village,' 51. 15s. ; and Hogarth's. 
' Election Day,' set of 4, 31. 10s. Under Hoppner 
is the portrait of Mrs. Arbuthnot, engraved by 
Reynolds, proof impression, 94Z. 10s. ; and under 
Huck is a set of 12 mezzotint engravings illustrat- 
ing dramatic incidents in the history of England, 
10Z. 10s. Among the Morlands are ' The Farm- 
yard,' ' The Fisherman's Hut,' ' Gypsies' Tent,' 
' Guinea-pigs,' &c. There are works under 
Opie and Reynolds. Romney's ' Mrs. Jordan 
as the Country Girl ' is 15Z. Under Rowlandson 
is ' Vauxhall,' 10Z. 10s. ; and under Turner 
' Picturesque Views,' 60 plates, 28Z. Indeed, the 
entire Catalogue is full of treasures. 

Catalogue 130- sent us by Herr Ludwig Rosen- 
thai is issued in commemoration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of his business, which we recently 
mentioned. It includes 40 illustrations, and 
notices of many fine and rare books and auto- 
graphs. There are nine items of which only one 
complete copy is known, including, or in addition 
to, that noted ; and a glance through the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. JAN. i, 1910. 

logue, which is annotated with references to 
authorities, will show what opportunities Herr 
Bosenthal offers for those who can, as lago 
recommends, put money in their purses. The 
Catalogue opens with the only complete copy 
known of the first book printed at Saluzzo, 
Alexander de Villa Dei, 5,000 marks. An original 
musical MS. of Johann Sebastian Bach, 6 pages, 
is offered for 6,000m. ; and an autograph letter 
of Beethoven to Biess of 1819 for 1,800m. A 
musical MS. of the latter master, 4 pages, is 
1,200m. : 1,400m. will, however, buy 41 auto- 
graph letters and documents, 1829-63, from the 
"brilliant pen of Berlioz. M. Greuter's World 
'Globe, 1632, which seems to be " totally unknown 
and undescribed," is 3,000m. Two leaves of a 
thirty-line Donatus by Gutenberg are also totally 
unknown, 5,000m. Gutenberg's ' Missale Speciale 
(Mayence, about 1450) has been the subject of 
much learned discussion, and is unpriced per- 
Tiaps, as his " first printed book," is regarded as 
priceless. Bibles, Horae, and other religious 
"books are included in numbers, but we have 
mentioned enough to show the remarkable cha- 
racter of the Catalogue. 

Mr. A. Bussell Smith sends the Second Portion 
of his Catalogue of Tracts, Pamphlets, and 
Broadsides. The First Part took from 1519 to 
1800, and this Second Portion takes us down 
to 1900. We note Bowland Hill's sermon preached 
before the Volunteers at Surrey Chapel in 1803 ; 
Burdett's speech after his liberation ; a Descrip- 
tion of the battle of Waterloo, two folding plates ; 
and Hone's Tracts. During the period 1820-29 
we have ' The One-Eyed Coronation,' Pierce 
Egan's * Trial of Thurtelland Hunt,' Tom Paine, 
George Barnewell, &c. For 1830-36 there are 
the Princess Olive, ' The House of Beform that 
Jack Built,' The Whig-Dresser, Nos. 1 to 11, 
and Bibliographical and Retrospective Miscellany, 
No. 1. Under 1837-1900 occur B. H. Home's 
' Orion,' published at a farthing ; Mesmerism ; 
Tennyson's ' Ode on the Duke of Wellington,' 
first edition, also the service and anthems used 
at the funeral ; Bibliographies of Buskin and 
'Swinburne ; Trials, &c. There are a number of 
old plays in alphabetical order, items under 
rShakespeariana, and old county maps. Under 
Exhibitions we find Catlin's North American 
Indians, 1848 ; a description of the Chinese 
Junk, " sold only on board," 1841 ; The Aztecs, 
1853 ; Tom Thumb and his Wife, 1865 ; Pano- 
rama of Waterloo at Leicester Square ; Niagara 
at Burford's Panorama, 1834, &c. There is 
also a collection of over a hundred illustrated 
handbills and advertisements. 

We congratulate Mr. Henry Cecil Sotheran 
on the publication of the seven hundredth 
number of ' Sotheran's Price Current of Litera- 
ture.' The first number was published in 
1844 or 1845 by Willis, to which he soon 
added ' Current Notes,' so it is probably the 
oldest catalogue which has been published con- 

:secutively. The present number, like all others 
in recent years, is carefully edited by Mr. Sothe- 
ran, who, not content with giving the ordinary 
particulars of a book, adds bibliographical and 
biographical notes whenever occasion offers. 
For instance, the present issue contains Froude's 
* Shadows of the Clouds,' the first edition, written 
under the pseudonym of Zeta : " This is very 

; scarce, the greater part of the edition having 

been bought up and destroyed by Mr. Froxide's 
father." It was published by J. Ollivier, 1847, 
and is priced 11. 5s. Among other items are 
Arnold's ' Friendship's Offering,' first edition, 
11. 17s. Qd. ;' original editions of Bewick ; and a 
sumptuous set of Byron, extra-illustrated, 60Z. 
There are Galleries of Engravings, including a fine 
coloured copy of ' The British Gallery ' by Tres- 
ham and Ottley, 37/. 10s. ; also an exceptionally 
fine copy of ' Sir Thomas Lawrence,' by Cousins, 
Lucas, and Beynolds, very scarce, Graves, 1834-46, 
75Z. A unique set of Mrs. Jameson's works, 
6 vols., blue levant by Biviere, extra-illustrated 
with 140 original drawings, 1848-64, is 421. 
There are original editions of Dickens and 
Thackeray the latter including the Library 
Edition, 24 vols., 1869, 81. 17s. Qd. ; and ' Vanity 
Fair,' with the suppressed woodcut of Lord 
Steyne, together with ' The Newcomes ' and 
1 Pendennis,' 5 vols., 1848-54, 11. 10s. Under 
Swinburne are many scarce editions. 

Mr. D. Webster of Leeds sends two Catalogues. 
That for December contains, under American 
Indians, Schoolcraft's ' Indian Tribes of the 
United States,' royal 4to, 1852-7 (Vol. V. missing), 
81. Boux and Barrels ' Herculaneum et Pompei,' 
8 vols., Paris, 1861-70, is 51. 5s. This set includes 
the " Mus^e Secret," which is often wanting 
The Biverside Edition of Oliver Wendell Holmes 
13 vols., is 11. 18s. There is the Edition de Luxe 
of Ward and Boberts's ' Bomney,' 4Z. 12s. Qd. ; 
and of Armstrong's ' Turner,' 41. 2s. Qd. 

Mr. Webster's Special Catalogue contains new 
books and standard publications at reduced prices. 

Messrs. Young send from Liverpool their 
Catalogue CCCC VI., which contains a magnificent 
collection of Gillray caricatures, original impres- 
sions, 1051. This was formed by a private col- 
lector, and he has pencilled on many of the plates 
the names of the persons who figure in the cari- 
catures. The first edition of Bacon's ' Henry 
VII.,' 1622, is 91. Qs. ; and a fine specimen of 
the first edition of Blake's ' Job,' an early copy 
with the misdated plate, 1825-6, 151. 15s. Under 
Albert Durer is a collection of 67 designs cut out 
of contemporary books by Buskin, mounted by 
him, and presented to his publisher, George Allen, 
from whose executors Messrs. Young purchased 
them, 1511-16, 10Z. 10s. Under Elizabeth is 
Creighton's Life of the Queen, published by 
Boussod, Valadon & Cie., 12Z. 12s. The first 
edition of both series of Elia is 251. ; and the final 
volume of Goupil's series of memoirs of English 
sovereigns, Herbert Paul's ' Queen Anne,' a 

[Reviews of other Catalogues held over.] 


Ox all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

KDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
bo "The Kditor of ' Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
.isliers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane. E.G. 

T. BAYNE ("Living English Poets in 1903"). The 
date should have been given as 1893. 

11 S. I. JAN. 8, 1910.] 




NOTES : The Loch Collection of Scottish Documents, 21 
Lord Winmarleigh, 23 Haller's 'Usong,'24 Thelcknield 
Way, 25' Beowulf : Hemming of Worcester "Teague" 
"Burgoo" "Keep body and soul together," 27. 

QUERIES : Plantagenet Descendants, 27 Derbyshire In- 
scribed Stone Twyford Family -Brooke of Cobham 
"Whelps" as a Name for Broken Water Grammatical 
Gender, 29 Authors Wanted Michael Maittaire J. 
Maple t-W. Mitford T. E. Owen Michael Newton of 
Beverly King's Place, Piccadilly, 30 Three CCC Court, 

REPLIES: Medmenham Abbey, 31 Waltheof, Earl of 
Northumberland, 32 Chevron between Three Roses 
Crowgay Family Language and Physiognomy Filberts 
and the Devil, 33 Brooke's 'Observations on Italy' 
'.Edes Walpolianse' "Old Sir Simon" English Countess 
at Tunbridge Wells, 34 Children with same Christian 
Name Wooden Ships Devonshire Regiment, 35 Para- 
inor Family " Bceijan "Thomas Moore's Wife, 36 
Monuments to American Indians Charterhouse Gram- 
mar School "Mar" in Mardyke Deaneries Unattached 
Selby "Peculiar" Court, 37 Authors Wanted Bakers' 
Servants -Canon Pelling Dr. J. Bradley, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Growth of the English House' 

Reviews and Magazines. 
Booksellers' Catalogues. 
OBITUARY : The Rev. John Pickford. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


THE above collection, in the possession of 
Messrs. Darling & Pead, of South Kensington, 
is evidently the result of the nation's charac- 
teristic business care combined with the 
love of antiquity -is of exceptional interest, 
both literary and historical, and is the 
accumulation of centuries by one family, and 
handed down as the property of the eldest 
direct descendant. The last recently de- 
ceased on the death of his father intended 
to dispose to a general dealer of a number 
of boxes containing what appeared to harbour 
so much waste ; but the timely persuasion of 
.a friend acting for him in the capacity of 
estate agent enabled the latter to secure and 
.store in his office basement the whole, to 
.await the owner's pleasure. After some 
three years it was considered expedient to 
gain permission to inspect this so-called 
waste, one result proving the family to be 
of great antiquity, and through different 
generations to have occupied considerable 
prominence, especially in Edinburgh. 

In the charters of Dunfermline, A.D. 
1231, in the reign of Alexander II. of Scot- 
land, a grant of land was found registered to 
the names of Philip and Gilbert de Loch. 

Until the last few months both the name 
and the collection were lost to modern Scot- 
land, the last direct member removing from 
Edinburgh to London in 1800 to study law 
under his uncle William Adam, Lord Chief 
Commissioner, of duel fame connected with 
j Charles James Fox. This was James Loch, 
" the economist, n who became M.P. for the 
Northern Burghs of Scotland, and factor to 
the Sutherland estates in the early part of 
last century. The afore -mentioned business 
care is responsible for the private corre 
spondence of that ducal family being pre- 
served, one would imagine, in its entirety, and 
it throws an interesting light upon the 
political movements of the period. 

From the time of Queen Mary to the end 
of the eighteenth century members of the 
Loch family can be traced as prominent in the 
affairs of Edinburgh. A grant of land near 
the Market Cross was made by Mary and 
her husband Henry to one Archibald Loch 
in 1564 ; whilst in 1570 another member of 
the family becomes the recipient of treat- 
ment of a totally different nature, "he being 
hung by the Regent Murray in the raid on 
the Castle of Brechin.' 1 

Passing to the eventful times of 1633, 
we find James Loch Town Treasurer of Edin- 
burgh, and for this period the collection 
supplies an overwhelming number of papers 
relative to Edinburgh. At a glance we find 
" The Decreat of the Lord Provost, Baillies,' 1 
&c., on the raising of funds, " wherein they 
did resolve and ordayne his Majesty within 
the burgh in the most magnifik and soleme 
manner .... the Treasurer to borrow certaine 
somes for his maj. receptyoun, propyne, 
banquet," &c., to the amount of 35,000 
merkes, this amount being jointly subscribed 
by Jn. Macnacht, Alexander Clark, Patrick 
Eleis, and Robert Carnegie. 

A humorously illustrative sequel to this 
banquet appears some weeks after in the 
form of an appeal by one Henry Herper, 
" tally our, '* burgess, who to the Lord Provost, 
&c., states 

" that q r at his majesteis being here, the good 
towne haveing invetit a great many Nobilles and 
Gentillmen to the Bankit, and after dinner, 
Sundrie of the well disposit Burgeses, for the 
hon or and credit of the good towne, Did accom- 
pany a number of these Gentills in a way of 
merriment to the Abay Close, intentioning there 
to drink his maj. health," 

he, Henry Herper, was in consequence called 
upon by William Moffatt, in the name of 



[11 S. I. JAN. 8, 1910. 

the Provost and Baillies, to find wine- 

lasses. These he procured from " Lawrance 
tottis booth " to the amount of 
"twenty-nine punds Scottis," "for which 
payment the said Lawrance Stott does 
dayly trouble him."' This appeal one is 
pleased to find noted by the Lord Treasurer 
as paid in full. 

Another document, consisting of some 
52 pages foolscap, is an account of " Money 
Spent on the Fortification of Leith," 
together with the names and amounts paid 
to those employed. This is in 1639, by 
order of the Committee of Estates ; and 
it is of interest to note that ' Haydn's Dates, 8 
ed. 1892, gives the 1560 fortification, but 
does not mention that of 1639, upon which 
James Loch, commissioned by the " Comit- 
tie," expended 12,400Z. sterling. 

A MS. rime of 148 lines, entitled 'The 
Slow Policie, by The Man of the Moone, s pre- 
sumably written about 1642, criticizing 
Charles's Court and advisers, will in all 
probability be gladly welcomed by the 
antiquaries of Scotland. 

It is at present only possible to dwell 
briefly upon any period, for after the many 
hundreds of papers dealing with the late 
sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries 
one must pass on to a most valuable sequence 
of the Jacobean, wherein are letters and 
" calls to arms n signed " James, " and 
addressed to the Stuarts of Appin, the last 
written just before Culloden. The flight 
after Culloden carried these letters to the 
Continent, where they remained for up- 
wards of thirty years before their apparent 
secret return to " Anne Stuart, spouse to 
David Loch, merchant in Leith." 

At this point the question arises whether 
it was not David Loch and his wife who aided 
Ardsheil in his escape from Holland. The 
present Duke of Argyll in his account of this 
in ' Adventures in Legend J mentions a 
Leith merchant as discovering Ardsheil in an 
inn in that country, and in the plan of escape 
the merchant sends for his wife, who arrives 
to exchange garments, or rather to clothe 
Ardsheil in hers, and so effect his successful 
disguise and return to Scotland. The family 
relationship is here established, which, by 
the way, is missing from the ' Jacobite 
Peerage l ; and Ardsheil being a big man, 
it is possible that Anne Stuart was of a size 
somewhat corresponding. 

The continuation of this sequence takes 
the form of a schoolboy letter, written by 
John Erskine from school at Edinburgh 
in 1749 to his aunt Frances Erskine, spouse 
of James Loch of Drylaw, and accompanying 

her rooster, which had been lent to the boy 
for his school sport to fight the " Whigs* 
cocks," and which " comes with a bell 
around his neck a badge of victory." 

The last of this sequence is by the Earl of 
Mar in 1824, who in a letter to James Loch, 
M.P., expresses " the thanks of an old man " 
for the trouble taken and kindness shown 
in securing the restoration of his title. 
Here another question arises relative to 
Burke, who gives the Earl of Mar as joining 
the Prince of Orange. If there is undeniable 
proof of this, it seems singular that the title 
and estates should have been confiscated,, 
had the allegiance been transferred, unless 
it was after the " Call to Arms " letter dated 
1715-16, which bears the signatures of 
both " James " and " Mar." This would 
perhaps account for the confiscation, but the 
restoration not taking place till over a. 
century later, the joining of William seems 
open to doubt, and the questioning of 
the point must be allowed as pardonable 

The period 1796 to 1809 has already been 
lightly touched upon in the volumes of 
' Brougham and his Early Friends,' recently 
issued privately ; but it abounds with letters 
of great literary and political interest 
awaiting the necessary encouragement for 
publication, while others deal extensively 
with Napoleon's threatened invasion. 

Sir Walter Scott and Miss Edgeworth also 
appear, and it is curious that the former in 
mentioning the heirs to the ancient estate of 
Linlithgow repeatedly writes the name 
" Pope." The letter, although short, is of a 
humorously strong and characteristic nature. 
Thomas Campbell has left the original MS. 
of some of the early stanzas of ' Gertrude of 
Wyoming ' ; and the birth of the University 
of London is also described in the corre- 

To catalogue this surprising accumulation 
in full would not be giving it more than it 
really merits, but the interest exhibited in 
it up to the present has not proved of a 
nature sufficient to warrant even a brief 
record, which, however, has been begun in 
the hope of its receiving the necessary 
encouragement . 

The offer of a loan exhibition to Edinburgh 
is. at present awaiting the acceptance of 
the authorities of the " good towne," whose 
space, even now, is insufficient for showing 
their own possessions, so that they may 
reluctantly decline the offer. The thanks 
of all lovers of antiquity are due to Mr. H. B. 
Woodcock, of the firm of Messrs. Darling 
& Pead, for the preservation of the collection. 

11 S. I. JAN. 8, 1910.] 


Any reader desiring further particulars 
relating to the collection will, on written 
application, receive a willing response from 


32, Harrington Road, South Kensington, S.W. 


IN the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
first edition, are some errors relating to 
Lrod Winmarleigh. 

John Wilson Patten (b. 1802) was 
the younger son of Thomas Wilson, 
formerly Patten, and eventually Wilson 
Patten of Bank Hall, Warrington. Thomas, 
the elder son, died at Naples, 28 Oct., 1819, 
aged eighteen. 

The father did not, as alleged in books of 
reference, assume the additional name of 
Wilson in 1800. On inheriting certain 
property in Cheshire, i.e., the Manor of 
Woodchurch, Hundred of Wirral, he took 
the name of Wilson in lieu of Patten, and the 
arms and crest of Wilson in lieu of those of 
Patten, according to a drastic clause in the 
will (which I have examined at Somerset 
House) of Thomas Wilson, D.D., Rector of 
St. Stephen's, Walbrook, and of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, Prebendary of West- 
minster, son of Thomas Wilson, D.D., 
Bishop of Sodor and Man, who had married 
a sister of Thomas Patten's great-grand- 
father. Dr. Wilson of St. Stephen's, Wal- 
brook, married his cousin, who was a cousin 
of Thomas Patten's grandfather. 

In or about 1800 this Thomas Patten 
became Thomas Wilson. His two sons 
Thomas and John (Lord Winmarleigh) 
were at Eton in 1817 as Wilson major and 
minor (see Stapylton's ' Eton School Lists 
from 1791 to 1850,' 2nd ed., 1864, pp. 
90, 91). 

On 14 March, 1821 (the elder son Thomas 
having died in 1819), John went to Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford. 

At this time Peter Patten Bold was in 
possession of Bank Hall, and Thomas 
Wilson, his younger and only surviving 
brother, lived at Wotton Park, or, as it has 
been for many years called, Wooton Lodge, 
near Ellaston, Staffordshire. The latter 
was M.P. for Stafford Borough 1812-18, 
bearing the surname Wilson only. 

The entry in the Matriculation Register 
of the University is : 

" 1821. March 14. Johannes Wilson, 18, 
Johannis de Wotton Park in Com. Staffordiae. 
arm. fil. unic." 

That in the Subscription Book of the 
University is : 

" 1821. March 14. Johannes Wilson e Coll, 
Magd. arm. fil. unicus." 

These extracts I have obtained from the 

The name John attributed to the father 
should be Thomas. This error is naturally 
repeated in Foster's ' Alumni Oxonienses.' 

The following is an extract from a letter, 
dated 9 Jan., 1909, from the Rev. W. D. 
Macray of Ducklington Rectory, Witney : 

" I was able to go to Oxford yesterday, and 
in our College [i.e. Magdalen] MS. Room I looked 
at a vol. of Dr. Bloxam's valuable collections 
relating to all members of the College, at a list 
of Gentleman Commoners, and his entry at the 
year 1821 is : ' Wilson, John [Patten], only son 
of Thomas Wilson, of Wotton Park, co. Staff 
matric. 14 Feb., 1821, aged 18.' " 

As to the difference in date, i.e., between 
February and March, the Registrar suggests 
that perhaps John Wilson was admitted as a 
member of Magdalen College on 14 February, 
but not presented to the Vice Chancellor 
and matriculated until 14 March. 

In 1823, or possibly 1824, Thomas Wilson 
resumed the name of Patten. There is a 
tablet in the old Protestant Cemetery at 
Naples, in memory of his elder son, having 
the following inscription : " Thomas Patten 
Wilson died October 28, 1819. Aged 18 
years.* 2 

In the Patten Chapel in the old parish 
church, Warrington, is a tablet in memory 
of the same. In this he is called Thomas 
Wilson Patten. Being a somewhat elaborate 
work of art, presenting in bas-relief two 
male figures and two female, as well as an 
urn and torch, it was probably not put up 
until a considerable time after the death - 
if before 1823, no doubt Thomas Wilson 
had already determined to resume his old 
name, and to call himself Wilson Patten, 
when the opportunity came. This change, 
without loss of the Wilson (Cheshire) estate, 
was feasible in 1823, when John (after- 
wards Lord Winmarleigh) came of age. 

The following is from William Williams 
Mortimer's ' History of the Hundred of 
Wirral,' 1847, p. 283, s.v. 'Woodchurch': 

" Dr. Wilson, who died the 15th April, 1784, 
by his will, dated at Bath, 1779, bequeathed his 
property in this parish to Thomas Macklin of 
Derby, Esq., with remainder, in default of male 
issue, to Thomas, second son of Thomas Patten of 
Bank Hall in the county of Lancaster, Esq., 
upon condition of assuming the name, arms, and 
crest of Wilson only. On the entail being barred 
in the year 1823, Mr. Wilson resumed the surname 
and arms of Wilson after Patten [sic] and his 
eldest son and heir, John Wilson Patten of Bank 


[11 S. I. JAN. 8, 1910. 

Hall, Esq., one of the representatives in Parlia 
ment for the northern division of Lancashire, is 
.at present lord of the manor of Woodchurch." 

A foot-note refers to the genealogica 
collections of Thomas Do lining Hibbert 
of the Middle Temple, Esq. 

In the above there can be little doubt that 
" Wilson after Patten " should be " Patten 
after Wilson. " 

In ' Paterson's Roads,' 16th ed., 1822 
p. 481, col. 1, appears " Wooton Lodge 
Col. Wilson." This is repeated ibid., col. 3, 
and p. 482, col. 3. In the 18th ed., 1826, 
pp. 483, 484, is " Wooton Lodge, T. W. 
Patten, Esq." 

In the 16th ed., 1822, p. 442, is, s.v. 
A Warrington,' " Bank Hall, unoccupied l 
(Peter Patten Bold, elder brother of Thomas 
Wilson, died in 1819 without male issue). 
In the 18th ed., p. 444, is, s.v. * Warrington, 2 
" Bank Hall, Thomas Wilson Patten, Esq." 

I have examined the Warrington rate- 
book, and found 

1821. Thomas P. Wilson, Esq. 

1822. Thomas Wilson, Esq. 

1823. Thomas Wilson, Esq. 

1824. Thomas Patten, Esq. 

It is apparent that he resumed his original 
name in 1823 (or possibly early in 1824). 
No doubt the particulars for ' Paterson's 
Roads * had to be gathered a considerable 
time before the date of publication. 

Presumably Thomas Macklin assumed the 
name of Wilson in lieu of Macklin, and died 
without male issue in or about 1800. 

It is, I think, worth noting that nowhere 
in the Patten chapel whether on the tablets 
or on the monument in memory of Anna 
Maria (wife of John Wilson Patten), who died 
1846, and of the same John Wilson Patten, 
Lord Winmarleigh, who died 1892 is there 
& hyphen between the two surnames Wilson 
,nd Patten, excepting on the brass recording 
the names and dates of those buried in the 
vault, including Lord Wiiimarleigh, and 
further recording that " the vault was filled 
up and finally closed 14 July, 1892."' 

As to the allegation, e.g. in Burke' s ' Com- 
moners,'- that Thomas Patten " assumed the 
.additional surname of Wilson at the request 
of the Bishop of Sodor and Man, and by the 
testamentary injunction of his lordship's 
-son, n I have, I think, shown that Wilson 
was taken in lieu of Patten ; and further, 
I have found no evidence beyond the modern 
assertion that the Bishop had any concern 
in the matter. Indeed, it is scarcely likely 
that one of " the poorest prelates in Europe " 
<see 'History of the Hundred of Wirral,* 

p. 216), who died in 1755, aged 91, should 
have troubled himself about a change of 
name which was to affect a man born in 
1770, and which was made a condition of 
inheritance of an estate which never belonged 
to him, but. was bought by his son. 

Thomas Wilson (formerly Patten, and 
afterwards Wilson Patten) married, 1800, 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Nathaniel 
Hyde, Esq., of Ardwick (not L T rdwick, as 
given in the ' Diet, of Nat. Biography '). 

It is asserted that his son John (Lord 
Winmarleigh) " travelled for some years, 
but returned in 1830. n He was married 
to his first cousin, Anna Maria, a daughter 
of Peter Patten Bold, formerly Patten, 
15 April, 1828, at St. George's, Hanover 
Square (see Gentleman 1 s Magazine, 1828, 
pt. i. p. 362). " By her, u it is asserted, 
" he left a son Eustace John." The said 
Eustace John died more than eighteen years 
before his father. 

There were two sons and four daughters. 
The younger son, Arthur, born 1841, 
Lieut. 1st Batt. Rifle Brigade, died un- 
married at Quebec, 1866. The elder, 
Eustace John (born 1836, died 1873), 
Capt. 1st Life Guards, married in 1863 
Emily Constantia, daughter of the Rev. 
Lord John Thynne. By her he had one son 
-^Jbhn Alfred, born 1867, Lieut. 1st Life 
Guards, who died unmarried in 1889 
and two daughters : Constance Ellinor, 
who married, 1892, Col. the Hon. Osbert 
Victor G. A. Lumley ; and Evelyn Louisa, 
who married, 1896, the Hon. Charles 

Lord Winmarleigh had four daughters : 
Anna Maria (died s.p. 1869), married to the 
Rev. Robert Rolleston ; Ellinor ; Vanda 
(died s.p. 1861), married to Thomas Henry 
Lyon of Appleton Hall, Cheshire ; and 

Beside the bust of Lord Winmarleigh 
G. Bromfield Adams in the Warrington 
Museum, there is one by Warrington Wood 
in the Town Hall, a poor production. 

St. Austins, Warrington. 

IT is not likely that Haller's literary writings 
are much read nowadays, but there was a 
ime when rival translations of ' Usong ' 
appealed to the British public. It is a work 
;hat would now be regarded as a somewhat 
rigid imitation of the ' Telemaque ' of 
Fenelon with a veneer of the conventional 
' Orientalism " of the eighteenth century. 

11 S. I. JAN. 8, 1910.] 



The British Museum has a copy of the 
English version issued in 1772, but does 
not possess that published in the following 
year, which, on account of the statements 
prefixed by the publisher, is of considerable 
interest in relation to what Isaac D'Israeli 
loved to regard as the secret history of 
literature. The title-page reads : 

Usong. An Oriental history in four books, 
translated from the German of Baron Albert von 
Haller, President of the Royal Society at Gottin- 
gen, and the (Economical Society at Bern, &c. 
London : printed for J. Wilkie, No. 71, St. Paul's 
Church-yard ; C. Heydinger, opposite Essex 
Street, Strand ; and S. Leacroft, Charing Cross. 

The volume opens with a dedication to 
the Queen, by the translator. Then follows 


To the Public in General and the Booksellers in 

A Surreptitious English Edition of this Work, 
translated at second hand from the French, having 
lately appeared, the Proprietors of the following 
Translation from the German Original think it 
incumbent on them to acquaint the Public in 
general, and the Trade in particular, with the 
several remarkable circumstances attending this 

In the beginning of the year 1772, the Pro- 
prietors of this Translation caused the following 
Advertisement to be inserted in most of the Town 
and Country News-Papers : 

" In the Press, and soon to be published, 

Usong ; An Oriental History. Translated 
from the German Original of Baron Albert von 
Haller, &c. Printed for C. Heydinger, opposite 
Essex Street, Strand." 

This Advertisement being several times re- 
peated, the Proprietors thought they had effectu- 
ally secured to themselves an Exclusive Bight 
in the copy of the said Translation. Amongst 
the Trade such procedure is deemed quite suffi- 
cient to establish a Property in any work trans- 
lated from a foreign language. 

Some time after this present Translation had 
been taken in hand, a German copy of Usong was 
presented to our most amiable Queen, by the 
desire of Baron Haller. After a perusal thereof 
Her Majesty expressed a wish of seeing it soon 
Translated into English. This hint was sufficient 
to set a Labourer in the Gospel Vineyard to work, 
the Rev. Mr. PI a zealously undertook the 
task, and Interestedly published his Translation, 
though he was informed, when he borrowed the 
German Original of Mr. Heydinger, that a Trans- 
lation was in hand. 

As soon as the Proprietors heard of this Rev. 
Mr. PI a's Translation, one of them waited on 
him, with a view of accommodating matters ; 
but he then denied his having translated the 
AVork, and expressed some knowledge of a 
Translation undertaken by some of his acquaint- 
ance, which he however thought would never 
be printed. Six days after (Nov. 13, 1772) he 
sent a letter to Mr. Heydinger, wherein he thus 

expresses himself concerning the Translation i 
" I did not know whether Usong translated in 
English, would ever be printed, but now I find it 
is actually in the Press, and the beginning printed 
off." A few days after his first volume was ready 
for publication, and the proprietors of this being- 
informed therof, found that the Rev. Mr. PI a 
had himself employed the Printer and the Book- 
seller. They accordingly waited on him a second 
time, and offered him Twenty Guineas, beside* 
paying all expenses for paper and print, to desist 
from publishing his Translation ; or to accept 
of precisely the same Conditions from him, and 
stop the publication of this edition. The Reverend 
Translator then owned his translation, but 
thought proper however to reject this equitable 
proposal. It was just, it was honourable, it was 

Whether the Stealing into the world a Surrep- 
titious Edition of a Work, whether taking ad- 
vantage of the Advertisement inserted by the 
Proprietors of the following Translation, and 
selling upon that advertisement ; whether infring- 
ing upon an honorary engagement, rigidly observed 
by all men of rectitude in the Bookselling branch 
of business ; whether this be not dishonourable, 
unfair, and totally unbecoming the character of 
a Clerical Translator, who highly declared himself 
void of self-interest, let the Public determine. 
All that the Proprietors will say for themselves 
is that at a considerable expence they have 
undertaken this Edition, and under every dis- 
couragement they have completed it, as well to- 
assert their own, as to maintain the rights of 
others in the Trade ; since, if those honorary 
engagements, which are now by Booksellers 
deemed Sacred, should once be broken through, 
literary Property is at an end, and no man will 
think of undertaking a Translation, the right to 
which he cannot ascertain, nor secure the property 

The blank left in the name of the rival 
translator is easily supplied. The Rev, 
Andrew Planta, F.R.S., was " reader " to 
Queen Charlotte, and from 1758 until his- 
death was an assistant librarian in the 
British Museum. He died in 1773. His son 
Joseph Planta was a distinguished anti- 
quary, became Principal Librarian of the 
British Museum, and died in 1827 at the 
age of eighty-three. 

It is a little curious that the British 
Museum should not contain this edition, 
but it does not appear in the printed Cata- 
logue. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 



I find in a map of Berkshire that the 
Icenhilde Way is called the Icknield or 
Ickleton Way. The spelling Icknield is 
simply bad, because the Icenhilde Way, 
correctly spelt, is frequently mentioned in 
old charters. But " Ickleton Way " is far 
worse, because it is a desperate corruption 
made for no other reason than a desire to 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. s, 1910. 

insinuate what I believe to be untrue, viz., 
that the Icenhilde Way passed through 
Jckleton. This was an assumption made 
by former antiquaries, merely because both 
words began with the same two letters ; 
much as if we were to assume that model is 
derived from the Lat. monere because both 
words begin with mo-. The A.-S. name of 
Ickleton was Iceling-tun ; and, as I have 
already said in my '"Place-Names of Cambs,'- 
Ickleton has no more to do with the Icen- 
hilde Way than Icklingham in Suffolk has, 
or the Ickleford in Herts. 

My contention is that this ridiculous 
identification of Ickleton with the course of 
the old way makes an utter mess of the 
course of that way. The theory was that a 
man going from Newmarket to Royston 
would follow the road from Newmarket 
towards Great Chesterford all the way to the 
place called Stump Cross, about a mile 
short of Chesterford ; and then he would 
get across the Cam as soon as he could (for 
the sole purpose of passing through Ickle- 
ton), and then go across country where 
there is no very good road even now, till 
he regained the Royston high road. No one 
would ever have done anything so tran- 
scendently foolish. He would quit the 
great road from Newmarket to Chesterford 
some three miles short of Stump Cross, 
at a point twelve miles from Newmarket, 
and go a little to the right to Pampisford, 
cross the Cam at Whittlesford by the ford 
there, and follow the great road to Royston. 
Whatever direction the old road took, it 
could not have been very different from 
this at any time, because the route is so 
extremely direct and obvious, and the 
name of the ford over the Cam is still pre- 

I cannot believe that the idea of going 
through Ickleton would ever have arisen if 
it had not been for the unlucky accident 
that its name began with Ic-. But if we 
are to be guided by such considerations 
as chance resemblance, surely the road 
should have driven through Ickenham in 
Middlesex ; for this resembles the road- 
name in two syllables, and not in two letters 

After a minute examination and a careful 
comparison in 1908 of the handwritings 
of the* two MSS. now in the British Museum 
labelle'd MS. Cotton, Tiberius, A. XIII. 
and MS. Vitellius A. XV., I wish to give my 
results to your readers for their further 
research and criticism. 

The first MS. is the well- authenticated 
vellum of the " Monk Hemming," monk and 
afterwards Sub-Prior of Worcester, who com- 
piled by the command of Bishop Wulfstan 
a ' Chartulary of the Church of Worcester,' 
printed by Thomas Hearne (1728) under the 
title ' Hemingii Chartularium Ecclesiae 
Wigiorniensis.' The Chartulary is identified 
as the work of Hemming under his own 
declaration on p. 132 in folio B, in the 
printed edition on p. 282. 

The Chartulary is written in verse arranged 
as prose. The handwriting is nearly all 
that of Hemming himself, and is in a good 
Norman hand. The names of persons and 
places which are in the Saxon characters are 
freely and readily written. A few of the 
charters have been copied for Hemming by 
other scribes, but all have been verified, 
and the signatures usually written by 

Prof. Maitland, in ' The Victoria History 
of Worcester,' has this to say of Hemming' s 
Chartulary : 

" There is hardly a long series of charters which 
is of better repute than the line of land books 
which belonged to the church of Worcester. And 
where Hemming's work can be tested, it generally 
gains credit." 

The Chartulary has three divisions : first 
in order of date are the charters of the 
Conquest ; next come the documents and 
narratives relating to the " Period of Con- 
quest " ; thirdly, a brief survey of the 
lands held by the Monastery of Worcester. 
Among the names of the " Charter signers " 
are many of the names mentioned in the 
poem ' Beowulf.' 

The MS. of k Beowulf * was discovered in 
1705, and first mentioned in Wanley's 
Catalogue. As this poem has been so fre- 
quently translated and discussed, it would 
be out of place to mention that it has been 
traditionally known to have had two scribes. 
The second hand is said to have com- 
menced at the word " moste " in 1. 1939, con- 
tinuing to the end (1. 3183). Immediately 
following 1. 1939 comes the story which con- 
tains the repeated words " Hemminges 
maeg. n 

These lines are said by Thorpe to be 
" barely intelligible." I disagree with him, 
and say that these lines are the key to the 
author and scribe of the poem. 

I identify Hemming as the scribe of the 
whole poem. While there are slight differ- 
ences in the shape of a few of the letters in 
the handwriting of the first and of the later 
part of the MS., they are, in my opinion, 
only the differences in the handwriting of a 

11 S. I. JAN. 8, 1910.] 


man in his youthful days, when he had { 
style and pride in his penmanship, and of th 
same man later in life, when his sight needec 
a blunt quill to make his writing legibl< 
even to himself. 

The handwriting of Hemming in the MS 
of ' Beowulf l is, I claim, the handwriting 
of Hemming in the MS. of the ' Chartular; 
of Worcester. 1 As both MSS. are in th 
British Museum, my identification can be 
easily tested. EVELYN H. LAMB. 

Hotel Keystone, San Die^o, California. 

" TEAGUE," AN IRISHMAN. This is a 
well-known name for an Irishman, and 
Teague-land is sometimes used for Ireland 
" Teague " should rime with " plague,' 
and not with " league." It represents 
roughly, not exactly the Gaelic name 
Tadhg, which is somewhat of a curiosity, 
as it contains the rare* combination adh, 
pronounced like a diphthong. Another 
instance of this combination is the name 
Radhmond, which sounds like our Raymond, 
but is generally translated into English as 
Redmond. The odd-looking Tadhg is now 
often rendered into English as Thady, and I 
have even known it blossom into Thaddeus ! 

" BURGOO." The ' Statutes, Rules, and 
Orders for the Government of the County 
Hospital, for Sick and Lame Poor, Estab- 
lish'd in the Town of Northampton * (North- 
ampton 1743) contain (pp. 47-8) ' A. Table of 
Diet for Patients,' in four divisions. In 
' Full Diet,' breakfast on Wednesday and 
Saturday consists of " A Pint of Burgout." 
In ' Low Diet,' Tuesday's breakfast is " A 
Pint of Water-Gruel or Burgout." In 
* Milk Diet,* supper on Monday and Wednes- 
day consists of " A Pint of Boiled Milk or 
Burgout," and on Tuesday and Saturday 
of " A Pint of Burgout, or Milk Pottage." ' 

These instances, though a few years earlier 
than the first in * N.E.D.,'- throw no light 
on the origin of the word, save in suggesting 
that the writers of these " menus " believed 
it to be French. Q. y. 


This phrase does not escape the * N.E.D.,' 
but it is only entered as " modern," and no 
quotation is furnished (see under ' Bodv l 
963, col. 2, sec. 1 b). One of Thomas 
Hearne's correspondents used it in 1711 : 
"We can hardly keep body and soul 
together" ('Collections,' iii. 296). The 
collocation "life and soul" is twice men- 
tioned in 'N.E.D.,' under 'Life, 1 260, 

col. 2 and 3, sec. 3 and 5, but not as a varia- 
tion of this phrase. Yet it seems to be the 
older form, and to have attained the rank 
of a proverb. In 1673 Hickeringill quotes 
" to keep life and soul together " as a 
" vulgar saying " (' Gregory, Father-Grey- 
beard,' p. 97) ; and Dean Swift in his ' Direc- 
tions to Servants,'- chap. iii. tells how the 
footman out of place steals a scrap " to 
keep life and soul together."- More recently 
Thomas Miller, in 'Rural Sketches,' 1839, 
p. 125, writes : "as they say in the country, 
'just to keep life and soul together.* " Now, 
however, it has gone out of use, but it is 
strange that " body " should be preferred 
to " life." W. C. B. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 


I AM engaged on the volume of the ' Plan- 
tagenet Roll * dealing with the descendants 
of Lady Elizabeth Mortimer and her husband 
Henry, Lord Percy (" Hotspur "), and sub- 
join a list of those persons and families 
concerning whom I am seeking information. 
I should be extremely obliged for any in- 
formation as to whether they have issue 
surviving, and, if so, where and from whom 
should be likely to obtain particulars. 
The figures in parentheses indicate the 
sections, and are for my guidance alone. 
Please reply direct. 

I take this opportunity of thanking those 
correspondents who kindly replied to the 
queries at 10 S. vi, 407, &c. 
Aglionby= Bamber. Elizabeth, da. and coh. 

(1785), of Henry A. of Nunnery, wife of 

Bamber. (108) 

Aston= Hodges. Anna Sophia A., da. of Henry 

Hervey otherwise Aston of Aston, co. 

Chester, m. 1782 Anthony Hodges. (199) 
Atkins -Bowyer. Col. Cornelius A. -B., C.B., m. 

Sophia Hopkinson, and had issue Wm., Hy., 

and Augusta. (225) 
Adams of Barbados and Middleton Hall, co. 

Carmarthen. Edw. Hamilton A. of Middle- 
ton Hall, M.P., d. 1842, leaving 6 children. 

stley. Rev. Hy. L'Estrange Miller A., Rector 

of Fouldsham (b. 1804), had issue Wm. Hy. 

L'E., M.A. ; Evelyn, m. ; and Dulci- 

bella Louisa, m. 3rd son of the Viscount of 

Kersebrique. (245) 
Astley. Rev. John A. (b. 1734, 1st son of SrdBt.), 

m. 1762 Catherine Bell, and had issue 

Catherine and Lucy. (245) 

NOTES AND QUERIES, tn s. i. JAN. s, 1910. 

Blake= Eagle. Louisa Annabella B. m. 1827, 
Francis King Eagle, County Court judge. 

Bastard. Rev. Philemon Pownoll B. (19) 

Belt. Frances, Margaret, and Mary, das. of 
Robert B. of Overton, co. York, who d. 1667. 

B-thell. Hugh (b. 1658) and Mary, children of 
Walter B. of Ellerton, co. York. (23) 

Bethell= Mottram. Lucy B., wife of John 
Mottram of Bishop Dyke Hall, Kirk Fenton, 
co. York, living 1665. (25) 

Bethell= Bellingham. Frances B., m. 1674, 
Henry Bellingham. (27) 

Boynton. Francis B. of Otteringham, d. 1816. 
He had a son and da. 

Boynton= Lutton. Constance B. m. 1741 Ralph 
Lutton of Knap ton, co. York. (34) 

Bethell= Goodwin. Matilda, da. of Sir Walter B. 
of Alne (d. 1622), m. Rev. Robert Goodwin. 

Bree= Smith= Douglas. Mary Anne and Julia 
das. of Rev. Robert Francis B. of Sydenham, 
b. c. 1780, and wives respectively of N. Smith 
and Capt. Charles Douglas of the Guards. (42) 

Bree = Sandys = Chapman. Emma Charlotte, 
Sophia B., m. 1844 Rev. Edwin Montfort 
Stephen Sandys ; and Laura B. m T. 
Watson Chapman, Lieut. R.N. (42) . 

Boyle= "Vernon. Hon. Arethusa B., sister of 
3rd E. of Cork (d. 1704), m. James Vernon. 

Bassett, William, b. 1738 ; Thomas, b. 1747 ; 
John, b. 1748 ; Charles, b. 1749, who had a 
wife living at Glentworth in 1811 ; Frances, 
b. 1731 ; Katherine, b. 1732 ; Anne ; Lydia, 
b. 1742 ; and Charlotte, b. 1743, children of 
William B., Archdeacon of Stow. (81) 

Bertie= Bludworth. Lady Louisa B., m. 1736 
Thomas Bludworth, Groom of the Bed- 
chamber to the Prince of Orange. (90) 

Baird= Hoskins. Henrietta Jemima B., sister 
of 7th Bt., m. 1836 John Hoskins of South 
Perrot. (126) 

Blakiston= Dunn. William Ralph, Michael (had 
issue Anne, b. 1739, and Mary, b. 1743), 
Anthony, and Elizabeth (wife of John Dunn 
of Tudnow, co. Durham, and had John and 
Margaret), all children of Ralph B. of 
Chester-le-Street. (165) 

Boyle= Nichols. Henriettas, (niece of 1st E. of 
Shannon) m. 1736 Wm. Nichols of Fooyle, 
Bucks. (208) 

Bainbridge. Matthew B. of Huglescote Grange, 
co. Leic., d. 1802, and had issue Henry and 
Isaac (twins) and Mary Eliz. (208) 

Bourke= Perry. Lady Catherine B., m. 1830 
Rev. Hy. Prittie Perry of Newcastle, co. 
Limerick, and had Sam. Wm., Hy. Robert 
Prittie, and 6 das. (209) 

Browne. Joseph Deane B., Capt. Carabineers, d- 
1878, m. da, of Thursby. (209) 

Burdett= Newenham. Mary, sister and h. of Sir 
Wm. Bagenal B., 3rd Bt., m. 1800 Burton, 
son of Sir Edward Newenham, cadet of 
Coolmore, co. Cork. (215) 

Bowyer= Cooke= Smith. Penelope B. (Bt. coll. 
d. 1820), m. 1st, 1765, Geo. John Cooke, M.D., 
2ndly, Lieut.-Gen. Edw. Smith, and had 
several children by 1st husband. (225) 

Bowyer= Burville. Wm. B. (Bt. coll.), m. and 
had issue Richard (b. 1718), Wm., and 
Juliana (who m. Rev. Geo. Burville of Buxley, 
Kent, and had issue). (225) 

Bowyer= Jennings. Diana B. (da. of Sir Wm. 
B., 2nd Bt.) m. Ph. Jennings of Duddleston y 
Salop,, and had Edward, b. 1706. (225) 

Barnardiston= Goate. Mary B. of Bury, Suffolk, 
m. Edward Goate of Brentsleigh, Suffolk. 
temp. 1730. (235) 

Codrington= Gore = La Gatinais = Magon. Emilia 
Mary Caroline C., m. 1861 Lieut.-Col. James 
Pollock Gore, and Sophia Mary, m. 1857 Gus- 
tave Bernard de La Gatinais of Valle, das. of 
4th Bt., and Mary Anne Eleanor, sister of 
4th Bt., m. 1825 Charles Magon, a French 
officer. (29) 

Codrington= Bernard. Mary C., da. of 2nd Bt., 
m. George Bernard. (29) 

Codrington= Bourchier. Jane Barbara C. m. 
Capt. Sir Thomas Bourchier, K.C.B., R.N. 

Chaloner= Melthorpe. Catherine C. of Guisboro , 
m. G. Melthorpe of York. (133) 

Chaloner= Bowen= Wynch. Charlotte C., b. 
1787, m. Thomas Barton Bowen, barrister, 
and Williamina, C., b. 1793, m. Col. Alex. 
Wynch (and had 2 das.), das. of Wm. C. of 
Guisboro'. (131) 

Chaloner= Edmonson. Louisa C., sister of wife 
of 1st E. of Harewood (1761 ), m. Rev. Edward 
Edmonson, Vicar of Cokingham. (131) 

Chaloner= Greville. Dorothy C. of Guisboro', b. 
1766, m. Rev. Robert Greville, Rector of 
Bonsall and Winstone, Dorset. (132) 

Chaloner= Graham. Cordelia C., m. 1732 Rich. 
Graham of Whitewell, 3rd son of Sir R. 
Graham of Norton Conyers, 2nd Bt. (137) 

Charlton= Pasqualino. Mary, da. of Wm. John 
C. of Hesleyside, m. 1850 the Marquis 
Giuseppe Pasqualino of Palermo, and had 
issue. (161) 

Conyers = Hardy = Hutchinson = Barker. Jane, 
Elizabeth, and Dorothy, das. and cohs. 
of Sir Thos. C., 9th Bt., m. respectively, in 
1778, 1785, and 1795, Wm. Hardy, Joseph 
Hutchinson, and Joseph Barker, all working- 
men of Chester-le-Street. (165) 

Constable= Stanhope= Blakiston= Smith. Mar- 
garet C. (d. 1663) m. Sir Edward Stanhope 
of Edlington and Grimston, co. York, and 
Mary C. m. c. 1610 Sir Thomas Blakiston, 
1st Bt., and had Margaret B. and Mary B., 
wife of Sir Thos. Smith of Broxton, Notts, 
with issue. (168, 169) 

Cholmley= Dutton. Catherine C., m. Richard 
Dutton of Whitley. (181). 

Cary = Charters = Grattan = Grant. Charlotte 
Maria C., b. 1764, wife of Samuel Charters, 
and had issue ; Lucia C., m. 1783 Major 
John Grattan, 100th Regt. ; Lavinia Matilda 
C., unmarried ; and Hon. Emilia Sophia C., m. 
1798 Major Chas. Thos. Grant of Grant, 
sisters of 8th and 9th Viscounts Falkland. 

Cary= Law= Chapman. Hon. Mary Elizabeth 
C. (d. 1783) m. Ven. John Law, Archd. ot 
Rochester ; Hon. Frances, Hon. Mary ; and 
Hon. Charlotte C., m. 1799 Anthony Chapman. 

ii s. i. JAN. s, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Constable More. Hon. Catherine C. (V. Dunbar) 
m. c. 1665 John More of Kirklington, and had 
John and Winifred, both living 1717. (118) 

Callander = Napier = Dunmore. John Alex. C. 
cadet of Craigforth, b. 1809, and his sisters 
Charlotte Frances, m. 1832 Robert Dunmore 
Napier of Ballykinrain, and Agnes, m 
1836 William Dunmore, H.E.I.C.S. (123) 

Cartwright = Middleton. Dorothy and Anne C. 

one of whom m. Sir Middleton. Theii 

sister Jane m. 1755 Sir Digby Legard 
5th Bt. (99) 

Connor = Perrott. William C., M.D., Geo. C., 
Capt. 28th Regt., and their sister Eliz 
Mary C., wife of Sam. Willy Perrott, living 
about 1860. (210) 

Cox- Lyon. Anne C., sister and h. of 10th, llth 
and 12th Bts. (I. 1706), m. Rev. Thos. Lyon 

Cecil. Robert, Philip, and Wm. C., yr. sons of 
2nd E. of Salisbury. (226) 

Cotton = Hurt. Jane, m. 1741 Thos. Hurt of 
Warfield, Berks ; Eliz. Frances ; and Mary 
das. and cohs. of Sir John C., 6th Bt. (241) 

Cotton= Dennis. Dorothy (da. of Sir John C., 
3rd Bt., d. 1702) m. Wm. Dennis of co. 
Glouc. (241) 

Douglas of Cavers. Had James Douglas ol 
Cavers (d. 1861) any brothers or sisters ? 

(Marquis de) RUVIGNY. 
12, Buckingham Street, Strand, W.C. 

one throw light upon the origin and date of 
an inscribed stone lately discovered in North 
Derbyshire ? It is flat and circular, dia- 
meter 13 in., depth about 6 in., and of some 
very hard black stone. The following 
inscription, in large letters, is incised rather 
deeply on the surface : 





There is a design resembling cross keys in low 
relief on a small squared portion of the 
circumference. JERMYN. 

TWYFORD FAMILY. Can any of your 
readers give me information respecting 
the wife and children of John Twyford, 
baptized at Semington, Wiltshire, 29 Dec., 
1646 ? He is believed to have left two sons 
and three daughters, and to have been the 
great-grandfather of Samuel Twyford, born 
17 Jan., 1710, of Portsea, Hants, timber- 
merchant, who died 9 March, 1771 (M.I. 
Portsea) ; but the intermediate generations 
require verification. One of John's grand- 
daughters married Benjamin Gooder, and 
another Anthony Kington of Widcombe. 


BROOKE OF COBHAM. I wonder if any of 
your readers can enlighten me as to who is 
the present representative of the old family 
of Brooke of Cobham. With the attainder of 
Henry Brooke, Lord Cobham, the barony 
came to an end, and his estates were forfeited. 
His son William Brooke was knighted, and 
a small pittance granted him out of the 
large estates to which he was heir. He 
married twice : firstly a daughter of Lord 
Dacre, and secondly a daughter of Sir 
Moyes Hill, Bt., by whom he had three 
daughters. Are any of these daughters' 
descendants living ? 

I see that in 1645 the barony was revived 
in^the person of Sir John Brooke (a barony by 
patent, and not a continuation). I am 
anxious to trace his connexion with the 
Brookes, Lords Cobham. 

In the present day the only connexion I 
know of Brooke of Cobham is Brooke of 
Ufford, Suffolk. I am told that the late 
Capt. Brooke of Ufford claimed the title 
of Lord Cobham, but do not know if this 
is true. If so, it would look as if he had 
been the nearest representative of the last 
Lord Cobham, and therefore his eldest son, 
Col. Brooke (late 1st Life Guards), would 
be the present head of this old family, who 
were among the most powerful nobles during 
many reigns, and gave soldiers, statesmen, 
and ambassadors to our country. 


WATER. The rough water in the Humber 
off Hessle is known as " Hessle Whelps." 
The lesser waves which follow on the 
' eagre " as it runs up the Trent are also 
' whelps." What is the derivation of the 
word ? Does it signify a little wave, because 
i whelp is little when compared with a dog ? 
>r has it some connexion with weallan, 
o well up, to seethe, or wellan, which has the 
jame meaning ? HESSLE WHELP. 

grateful to any of your readers who would 
nlighten me as to the true meaning and 
rigin of the grammatical gender which is 
till used in many languages. In Old 
English it found a place, but has long been 
liscarded, without any resulting incon- 
enience so far as I know. To give an 
xample to illustrate my meaning : the 
rord table is feminine in French, though 
obviously the article itself can have no sex ; 
rtiile, on the other hand, the German for a 
irl (mddchen) is, I believe, neuter, though 



[11 S. I. JAN. 8, 1910. 

here the sex is indubitable. Thus these 
distinctions have apparently no relation 
to sex in the ordinary acceptation of that 
word. Whether they follow a euphony so 
delicate and refined as to be appreciable 
only by those who have an intimate know- 
ledge of the language I cannot say. 

H. W D. 

[The French language not having a neuter gender, 
table must consequently be treated as masculine or 
feminine ; and as tabula was feminine in Latin, 
table has become feminine in French. 

With respect to Mddchen, it is the rule in German 
that all diminutives are treated as neuter. Thus 
although Magd is feminine, its diminutive follows 
the rule relating to that class of words, and becomes 
neuter grammatically.] 

Can any of your readers inform me where 
the couplet 

Who fled full soon on the first of June, 

But bade the rest keep fighting, 
occurs ? 

The "first of June" no doubt refers to 
Lord Howe's victory off Ushant that day, 
and the hero of the verse was, I think, a 
French admiral who took part in the battle. 
I have, however, been quite unable to trace 
the source of the lines. W. H. COOKE. 

Shine as the countenance of a priest of old 
Against a flame about a sacrifice 
Kindled by fire from heaven 

So glad was he. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

MICHAEL MAITTAIRE, 1668-1747. Who 

were his parents, and when and where 
was he born ? The ' D.N.B.,' xxxv. 384, 
says only that he " was born in France in 
1668 of Protestant parents, who about the 
time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
sought refuge in England. 5 * G. F. R. B. 

JOHN MAPLET, M.D., 1612 ?-70. When 
and whom did he marry ? The ' D.N B ' 
xxxvi. 113, does not say. G. F. R. B. ' 

WILLIAM MITFORD was steward of the 

Westminster School Anniversary Dinner in 

1781. His address is given as Berners 

btreet. Can any correspondent of ' N. & Q.' 

help me to identify him ? G. F. R. B. 

THOMAS ELLIS OWEN is said to have died 
in 1814, and to have been buried in Llanfair- 
is-Gaer Church, Carnarvonshire ('D.NJ3.,' 
xlii. 456). I should be glad to ascertain 
the exact date of his death. G. F. R. B 

ARMS. In George Taylor's memoir of Robert 
Surtees, the historian of the County Palatine 
of Durham, the second issue of which was 
published with additions by the Surtees 
Society under the editorship of the Rev. 
James Raine the elder, the following passage 
occurs, quoted from a letter written by 
Surtees to Sir Walter Scott : 

" I am tempted to add here an heraldic bearing 
inserted by Mr. Gryll in Gwillim's ' Heraldry,' 
now in my hands : ' He beareth per pale or and 
arg., over all a spectre passant shrouded sable, 
by the name of Michael Newton of Beverly, Esq., 
in Yorkshire,' probably the only attempt ever 
recorded to describe an unembodied spirit in 
heraldry. The common arms of Newton are 
Sable, two cross thighbones proper, which perhaps 
suggested the above. I must apologize for the 
length of the above, but I could not well tell you 
in fewer words on what authority the extract 

Can any one say if ever there was a 
Michael Newton of Beverly, Esq., and, if so, 
whether he bore the above arms ? The 
editor of the second edition tells the reader in 
a note that " Gyll's ' Gwillim ' is now my 
property, but I find in it no trace of such an 

This in itself is no disproof of the asser- 
tion of Surtees. The statement may not 
have been written in the margin, but 
scribbled on paper put between the pages, 
and afterwards lost ; but in the investiga- 
tion of the matter it is well to bear in mind 
that Surtees was wont to jest with his own 
modern verses, which on more than one 
occasion he passed off as ancient. Heraldry 
as well as poetry may therefore have led him 
astray. y^Mfil^I^ft COM. EBO*. 

court is described variously as being in 
Duke Street or Little Duke Street, Piccadilly, 
or Pall Mall, and obviously from its nomen- 
clature it must have been in the neighbour- 
hood of King Street. In the several maps 
that I have consulted, from Rocque's of 
1744 to Laurie and Whittle's of 1776, in the 
Grace Collection at the British Museum, the 
name of King's Place does'not appear. '!v\v 

Nevertheless, there is a clue to the exact- 
site in ' The Meretriciad,* by Capt. Edward 
Thompson, which describes it as 

a snug entry leading out Pell Mell ...... 

Between th' Hotel and Tory Almack's House. 

Almack's Rooms were in King Street, and 
as the yard of " The Rose and Crown Inn " 
was situated on the south side of this same 
street, opposite the end of Duke Street, I am 
inclined to think that King's Place was a 

US. I. JAN. 8, 1910.] 



small court leading out of a street known 
as Little Duke Street, between King Street 
and Pall Mall. Will some one familiar with 
the topography of this part of London about 
1760 give me further information ? 


THREE CCC COURT. In 1761 there was a 
court so named on Garlick Hill, Thames 
Street. It is believed to have been so 
named after a sign of "The Three CCC." 
What was the origin of the sign ? 



(10 S. xii. 4*67.) 

MR. CLEMENT SHORTER'S recent contribu- 
tion leads one to hope that he contemplates 
a new and exhaustive biography of Wilkes, 
which is certainly much needed. We 
may rest assured that admiration for the 
fascinating " patriot n will not blind MR. 
SHORTER to the faults of his hero, and that 
he will be content to allow manifest virtues 
to condone obvious indiscretions. The 
story of John Wilkes is apt to lure one to- 
wards dangerous pitfalls, and even such a 
cautious critic as the late Mr. C. W. Dilke 
based some of his conclusions with regard to 
the ' Essay on Woman * upon false premises. 
In my bibliographical notes upon Med- 
menham Abbey I have discovered the follow- 
ing references : 

1. 'The Poems of Paul Whitehead 

with his Life ,* by Capt. Edward 

Thompson (G. 'Kearsley, 1777). On pp. 
xxxiii-viii. of the Life is a full description of 
the " Franciscans " of Medmenham Abbey. 
Thompson was a scandalous writer of the 
period, and there is no doubt that he knew 
his subject. I have examined several of his 
poems in ' The Court of Cupid l with con- 
siderable care, and I found many of his 
statements corroborated by contemporary 
newspapers and magazines. What he says 
of Medmenham Abbey is worthy of atten- 

2. * Nocturnal Revels : or, The History 
of King's Place.' By a Monk of the Order 
of St. Francis. 2 vols. Printed for M. 
Goadby, Paternoster Row, 1779. The 
Introduction in vol. i. of this scarce book 
contains a description of " Medmenham 
Priory " and of the " Monks of St. Francis, 1 '- 

w r hich might usefully be compared with Capt. 
Thompson's account. Still, I regard it 
with suspicion. This observation, how- 
ever, does not apply to the rest of the work, 
which is a valuable document. 

3. ' The Grenville Papers.* Edited by 
W. J. Smith. 4 vols. 1852. In vol. i. 
p. 126 there is a possible allusion to Wilkes's 
association with the Monks of St. Francis in 

4. ' Churchill's Poems.*' The Candidate,' 
written in 1764, contains a reference to Med- 
menham (11. 695-702). The Aldine edition, 
vol. ii. p. 221, has a note on the subject. 

5. Town and Country Magazine. Vol. i. 
pp. 122-3 (March, 1769) contains an account 
upon which the description in ' Nocturnal 
Revels l ten years later was evidently based. 
Medmenham Abbey and the rites of the 
" Monks " are described at full length in 
vol. v. pp. 245-6. There is also a sketch 
of Sir Francis Dashwood's life in the ' His- 
tories of the Tete-a-Tetes,* vol. vi. p. 9. 

6. ' Abbey of Kilkhampton ? (G. Kearsley, 
1780). See the epitaphs on Lord Le De- 
spencer and Sir Thomas Stapleton, pp. 56, 

7. ' Index Librorum Prohibitorum.' 
Pisanus Fraxi (H. S. Ashbee). Privately 
printed, 1877. There is a note on Le De- 
spencer, p. 211. 

8. ' Paterson's Roads l (ed. 1826), pp. 

For obvious reasons I have selected the 
more obscure references, as no doubt MR. 
SHORTER has collected the better-known 
ones, such as those of Walpole and Wraxall. 
No apology is necessary for consulting even 
the most seemingly worthless authority. 
As Taine remarked, " II n'y a pas de 
mauvais documents." 

Is there any evidence that the Order 
of the Monks of St. Francis at Medmenham 
Abbey (which does not appear to have been 
styled the Hell-Fire Club till late in the 
century) was founded as early as 1742 ? 
George Knap ton's picture of Sir Francis 
Dashwood adoring the statue of Venus is 
said to have been painted in this year, for 
bhe Society of Dilettanti, but this in itself 
is not sufficient to indicate the date of the 
foundation of the " Franciscans." 

In addition to the above documents, MR. 
SHORTER should examine the contemporary 
caricatures in the Print-Room at the British 
Museum, where he will be able also to con- 
sult the ' Catalogue of Prints and Draw- 
ngs.' I would refer him to the ' Satires,'' 
Division I. vol. iii.;'part ii. pp. 1239, and 

NOTES AND QUERIES. in s. t JAN. g, mo. 

vol. iv. pp. 306-8, where he will find further 
information about Medmenham Abbey. 

Fair Oak, Walton-on-Thames. 

The monks were called Franciscans after 
the founder, Sir Francis Dashwood, and it 
would be interesting if MB. SHORTER would 
give reasons for his opinion that the Club 
was purely political. There was, of course, 
a similar Club which met weekly at the top of 
Co vent Garden Theatre, and "the members 
were virtually the same. Was this political ? 
See Walpole's ' Memoirs of the Reign of 
King George III., 1 1845, p. 313. 

That Wilkes was probably a member may 
be inferred from his notes on Churchill's 
poem ' The Candidate/ where he says : " Sir 
Francis Dashwood, Sir Thomas Stapleton, 
Paul Whitehead, Mr. Wilkes, and other 
gentlemen to the number of twelve, rented 
the Abbey, and often retired there in 
summer n ; and then he gives a description 
of the Abbey, &c. Wilkes also only printed 
twelve copies of the 'Essay on Woman,' 
presumably as presents to the twelve mem- 
bers. If the Club was political, it is rather 
strange that the members numbered twelve 
and each bore the name of an apostle. 

Wilkes's description of West Wycombe, 
the villa of Lord le Despencer, might also be 
looked at in ' Letters between Various 
Persons and John Wilkes, Esq., 1769,* 
vol. i. pp. 42-8. 

About thirty years ago The Saturday 
Review had a good notice of Johnstone's 
'Chrysal.' J. CARTON. 


Under the title ' Monks of St. Francis,' 
Chambers, ' Book of Days,' i. 608, gives a 
brief account of the Medmenham fraternity. 
His authority is Lipscomb's ' History and 
Antiquities of the County of Buckingham/ 
vol. i. p. 481, and vol. iii. p. 615. " When 
Dr. Lipscomb published his elaborate work," 
says Chambers, " he could hear of but one 
surviving member of the Order of St. 
Francis, and he in extreme old age, together 
with a gentleman who had been admitted 
to a few meetings while yet too young to be 
made a member." The name of John 
Wilkes occurs among the members mentioned 
by Chambers. It is not, however, asserted 
that he was one of the founders of the 

In Cunningham's edition of * Walpole's 
Letters,' i. 58, the editor states in a foot- 
note that 

"Lord Le Despencer, Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer during Lord Bute's administration is 

now chiefly remembered for his share, with Wilkes 
and Paul Whitehead, in founding a dissolute and 
blasphemous association called the Hell-Fire Club 
or the Monks of Medmenham Abbey." 

If the Club, as asserted, was founded in 
1742, Cunningham's statement is mani- 
festly absurd. Wilkes was then a boy 
of only fifteen. Three years afterwards Dr. 
Carlyle of Inveresk met him, a student at 
Leyden, and was much interested in his 
appearance and conversation, as indeed were 
most people who came in contact with 
Wilkes. See Carlyle's * Autobiography,' 
pp. 168-70. But while Wilkes was not one 
of the founders of the Medmenham Club, 
there can be little doubt that he was a 
member. The odium theologicum which has 
pursued his memory cannot altogether 
account for the universal testimony to his 
connexion with the society. Even so sane 
and discriminating an historian as Sir 
George Trevelyan, in his ' Early History of 
Charles James Fox,* admits the validity 
of that testimony. WALTER SCOTT. 


(10 S. xii. 447). Will these considerations 
help to solve the question as to the parentage 
of Half de Toeni's wife ? 

1. In Domesday Book Essex, LV., the 
land of Countess Judith, Beventrue (Becon- 
tree) Hundred is the entry : " Wilcumestou 
(Walthamstow) was held by Earl Wallef 
in King Edward's time as a manor and as 
x hides." 

2. In Morant's ' History of Essex * (vol. i. 
p. 32) the authorities for the statements 
that Half de Toni, son of Half de Toni, 
standard-bearer to the Conqueror, married 
Alice or Judith, daughter of Earl Waltheof, 
and that they had two sons, Roger and Hugh, 
and several daughters, are given as " Will. 
Gemmeticen. (William of Jumieges), 268, 312 ; 
Orderic Vital. 501,813." 

3. Morant cites (I.) the ' Testa de Nevill ' 
as proof that a Half de Toni held Walt- 
hamstow Manor by service of attending the 
king in his wars ; and (II.) " Placita 25 Hen. 
III. crast. Mic. rot. 21, in dorso," as evidence 
that this Half's wife, Petronilla, claimed one- 
third of Walthamstow as her dower, no 

4. Essex Domesday shows that Half 
de Toeni, presumably the standard-bearer, 
held lands in Harlow Hundred, and it is 
certain that the head of his barony was at 
Flamstead in Herts whether Flamstead 
near Dunstable or Flamstead End, near 

n s. i. JAN. s, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Waltham Cross, I do not know. The Tonis 
were, therefore, fairly near neighbours to 

5. The principal manor in Walthamstow 
is, and time out of mind has been, called 
Walthamstow Toni or High Hall, and these 
names may be read on the manorial boundary 
posts, of which there are many. 

6. There are two other manors in Walt- 
hamstow parish (besides a small reputed 
manor, Salisbury Hall) : Walthamstow 
Francis or Low Hall and Higham Bemsted. 
Of these, the latter appears in Domesday 
Book as part of the land of Peter de Valoigne, 
but Walthamstow Francis is not mentioned 
there. Walthamstow Francis was, no doubt, 
carved, by sub-infeudation, out of the 
principal manor shortly after Domesday 
Survey, for there is clear evidence (see 
Morant's ' Essex ') that it was held by Simon 
de Senlis and his descendants as a separate 
manor. In fact, it looks as if Earl Waltheof 's 
manor of Walthamstow was divided, one part 
being given to Maud's husband, de Senlis, 
and the other part to Judith's (or Alice's) 
husband, de Toni. 

The de Tonis certainly held the principal 
manor, by the title of Walthamstow Toni, 
for several generations. If the tradition 
that they got it by the marriage of their 
ancestor Ralf with Earl Waltheof's daughter, 
Judith or Alice, is incorrect, how did it 
come to them ? F. S. EDEN. 

Maycroft, Fytield Road, Walthamstow. 

I find that the ' D.N.B.' has an article 
on Ralph of Toesny, which, being inserted 
under Ralph instead of under Toesny, had 
escaped my notice. This article introduces 
a new element of confusion, as it states that 
Ralph married . " Adeliza, daughter of 
Waltheof," whilst under Waltheof the lady's 
name is given as Judith, as I stated pre- 
viously. G. H. WHITE. 
Lowest oft. 

(10 S. xii. 488). I have a list of sixty-five 
families who bear the above arms, but it is 
impossible to tell which of them is intended 
to be commemorated in the monument 
alluded to by WORCESTER, as he does not 
give tincture or metal (fur would be too 
distinct to be overlooked) of field, ordinary, 
or charge. If WORCESTER would like me 
to do so, I will send him this list of sixty-five 
families, and then, if he has access to a 
pedigree of the family whose arms are 
represented on the other half of the shield, 
he may be able with something like certainty 

to decide to whom this coat belongs, as it is 
apparently that of husband and wife. If, 
on the other hand, he can discover the 
tinctures or metals, I may perhaps be able 
to help him to identify the family without 
such reference to a pedigree. 

Teign mouth. 

A chevron between three roses, varied 
as to colour, is borne by nearly a hundred 
families. See Papworth's ' Ordinary of 
British Armorials.' WORCESTER should 
specify colours. S. D. C. 

488). The arms of this family as given 
in Burke's ' General Armory l are : Gyronny 
of eight vert and argent ; on a chief of the 
last, an eagle displayed gules. Crest, an 
arm from the elbow, holding a key, proper. 

If WORCESTER will communicate with me, 
I shall be happy to supply him with further 
information. S. D. C. 

[MR. H OLDEN MACMICHAEL also refers to Burke. ] 

365, 416). In this connexion I would 
refer to the extremely curious plates at the 
end of the ' Alphabeti vere Naturalis 
Hebraici Brevissima Delineatio ' of F. M. B. 
at Helmont. These show the mechanical 
production of the various letters, and though 
the anatomy of the mouth, larynx, &c., is 
peculiar, an attempt is made to establish a 
certain connexion between phonetic sounds 
and the organs of speech, and the external 
parts of the mouth and face. My edition 
was published at Sultzbach in 1657. 


I think ST. SWITHIN would find much 
that would interest him on this head (gene- 
rally if not specifically) in Prof. W. Z. 
Ripley's ' Races of Europe.* 

As regards the sharpness of the Hebrew 
features, it is, I believe, more pronounced 
in the male than in the female type ; for 
this reason I am led to conclude that the 
formation of the nose is in great part 
artificial, if not wholly so. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

A-NUTTING " (10 S. xii. 388). Like other 
sacred festivals, that of the Exaltation of 
the Holy Cross, so far as secular customs 
were engrafted upon it, reverted in respect 
to such customs, in course of time, almost 
to the character of the heathen festivals 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. s, 1910. 

which the observances of the Christian 
Church sometimes displaced. To such 
customs the word " profane " in its literal 
sense, might well have been applied. 

Holy-Rood Day, the 14th of September, 
is believed to celebrate primarily the con- 
secration of the church of the Holy Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem by Bishop Macarius, at the 
command of Constantine (335 A.D.), although 
some would see in it a commemoration of the 
vision of the Cross seen by the emperor. 
It is, however, says the Rev. Robert Sinker, 
to the victory of Heraclius over the Persians, 
and his subsequent restoration of the Cross 
to its shrine at Jerusalem, that the renown of 
the festival is mainly due ( ' Diet. Chr. 

But the sanctity of the day became 
violated by the devil, who is " a busy bishop 
in his own diocese,'* the proverb says, and 
he must needs go nutting with those whose 
intentions were originally those of innocent 
recreation. So, like the May Day customs, 
Holy Rood nutting degenerated, as the 
following from ' Poor Robin, 1 1709, tends 
to show : 

The devil, as the common people say, 
Doth go a-nutting on Holy-Rood day ; 
And sure such leach ery in some doth lurk, 
Going a-nutting do the devil's work. ' 

Vide Brand's 'Pop. Antiq.' 

There does not appear, however, to be any 
particular legend associated with the devil 
and nutting on this day. That it was the 
custom to go a-nutting on Holy-Rood Day 
is shown by a passage in the old play of 
' Grim the Collier of Croydon * : 

This day, they say, is called Holy-Rood Day 
And all the youth are a-nutting gone. 

In accordance with the Old Gentleman's well- 
known character were all his appurtenances, 
and a common saying was " as black as the 
devil's nutting-bag. n 

[MB. W. SCOTT also thanked for reply.] 

1798 (10 S. xii. 289). N. Brooke is said to 
have been an M.D. of Bath, where his book 
was published in 1797, according to Watt and 
Allibone. He left England in 1785, invested 
with some kind of authoritative commission 
to investigate the state of commerce between 
Italy and Great Britain. Apparently he 
was an eyewitness of the terrible eruption 
of Vesuvius which destroyed the town of 
Torre del Greco in 1794. On the French 
invasion of Italy he was obliged to leave 
the country with the loss of considerable 

In devoting a few lines to Brooke, ' A 
Biographical Dictionary of the Living 
Authors of Qreat Britain ' strikes a some- 
what tragic note : 

" Since the publication of the letters which he 
wrote. . . .Dr. B. has been, afflicted with blindness. 
Before he left this country he presented to the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer a plan for the 
improvement of our foreign commerce, which, 
during his absence, was carried into a law, and 
produced an important accession to the revenue. 
In ,his publication Dr. B. has expressed a hope 
that his services might experience some reward 
at a time when it would be peculiarly acceptable." 

He was apparently living in 1816, when the 
Dictionary l was published ; but probably 
his hope of reward was not fulfilled. 


WALPOLIAN^ ' (10 S. vii. 461, 517 ; xii. 216, 
294, 353, 430, 491). ' JEdes Walpolianae * 
is easily to be found, and is probably in any 
public library to which CURIOUS may have 
access. My copy is the third edition, 1767. 
In addition to the description of the pictures 
in Houghton Hall, there are two pieces : 
one called ' A Sermon on Painting, preached 
before the Earl of Orford at Houghton, 
1742, on the text Psalm cxv. 5 (the preacher's 
name is not given) ; and the other ' A 
Journey to Houghton,' a poem by the Rev. 
Mr. Whaley. 

If CURIOUS cannot conveniently see a 
copy of the book, I shall be happy to lend 
him mine, in the perfect confidence that he 
does not belong to the greater of C. Lamb's 
races of men. L. A. W. 

10, Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin. 

"OLD SIR SIMON (10 S. xii. 490). 
" Old Sir Simon - l was a hotel as well. The 
following is from the ' History of Lancaster,' 
by Cross Fleury, ed. 1891, p. 456 : 

" The Old Sir Simon Hotel had originally a 
thatched roof and curiously shaped casement 
lights, and the signboard bore upon it the figure 
of a man smoking ..... The old signboard sold 
for a decent sum when the quaint inn was 

I suppose both market and inn are named 
after the same personage. S. L. PETTY. 

(lp S. xii. 368). Possibly this lady can be 
identified as Mary, Viscountess Muskerry. 
She was the only child of the fifth Earl of 
Clanricarde, and was married three times- 
first to Charles, Viscount Muskerry ; secondly, 
to Robert Villiers, Viscount Purbeck, who 
died in 1686 ; and thirdly to Robert Fielding, 
Esq. She died in August, 1698. 

11 S. I. JAN. 8, 1910.] 


One of her aunts married the Hon. Edward 
Butler, son of the sixth Earl of Ormonde ; 
and her second husband, Viscount Purbeck, 
was cousin to Mary, Countess of Arran. 

Lady Muskerry resided at Somerhill, Ton- 
bridge, and her husband was lord of the 
manor on which the mineral springs, other- 
wise " The Wells, n are situated. 

She was apparently a well-known character 
at Tunbridge Wells, and in my copy of an 
old guide relating to the place the following 
appears : 

" The two darling foibles of this lady were dress 
and dancing. Magnificence of dress was totally 
incompatible with her figure, which was that of a 
woman enceinte without being so ; but she had a 
much better reason for limping, for of two legs 
uncommonly short, one was much shorter than 
the other ; a face suitable to this description 
completed the tout ensemble of this disagreeable 
figure for though her dancing was still more in- 
supportable, she never misted a ball at Court, 
and the Queen had so much complaisance for the 
public as to make her dance." 

According to the ' Memoires de Gram- 
mont ' her ladyship must have been the butt 
for the maids of honour, as several ludicrous 
anecdotes are related concerning her. 


Perndale Lodge, Tunbridge Wells. 

NAME (10 S. xii. 365). Dr. Samuel Freeman, 
Dean of Peterborough, when Rector of 
SS. Anne and Agnes with St. John Zachary, 
London, bestowed his Christian name, solely 
and without addition, upon no fewer than 
three sons, the entries in the parish register 
(kept by the Rector himself at all times) 
running thus : 

18 Jan., 1684.* " Samuel y e son of Samuel 
& Susannah ffreeman, Rect r , was xtn'd." 

23 April, 1688." Sam. y 6 son of Dr. Sa. 
ffreeman, Bect r of this Parish, & Susan his wife, 
born Apr. 5." 

16 July, 1689." Samuel y e son of Sam. 
ffreeman, D.D., & Susan his wife, borne June 29." 


I have several times come across instances 
of children with the same Christian name 
in old wills, but the duplicated name has 
always been John, as in the instance quoted 
by Mr. LUMB. Is it possible that one might 
be named after John the Baptist, the other 
after the Evangelist ? 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut. -Col. 

An important case of two brothers bearing 
the same Christian name, that has escaped 
the notice of readers of ' N. & Q.,'- is that of 

* This date is New Style as regards the year. 

the two sons of Edward III. William, 
the second, born 1336 at Hatfield, Yorks, 
who died soon after ; and William, the sixth, 
born at Windsor, 1347, died 1357 ; see 
' D.N.B.' and Miss Strickland's memoir of 
Queen Philippa. Strange to say, neither 
Burke nor Lodge notes the birth of the 
latter prince in their tables of the royal 

The query put by MR. C. R. HAINES at 
10 S. vii. 413 relates, not to the brothers of 
the Protector Somerset, but to his sons. 
The eldest by his first wife, Sir Edward 
Seymour, was the ancestor of the Dukes of 
Somerset ; while Sir Edward by the second 
wife became Earl of Hertford, and married 
Lady Katharine Grey. This was stated at 
1 S. xi. 133. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

xii. 467). The subjoined note in the hand- 
writing of Admiral Sir T. Byam Martin 
may be of interest : 

" James [II.] escaped from Rochester in a 
small vessel of about 80 tons burthen belonging 
to the Dockyard, and it is a curious fact that the 
very same vessel has continued in the King's 
service from that time to the present moment, 
employed in conveying stores from one dock- 
ya'rd to another, and has from the tune that she 
took James to France ever gone by the name of 
the Royal Escape. I once took occasion to point 
the vessel out to the present King William IV., 
who said, as William III. might have said, ' She 
did a good service for my family.' 

" I have a snuff-box made from some of the 
original timber of this vessel. T. B. M. 

" Oct. 0, 1833." 

I wonder when the ship was finally broken 
up. B. D, 

DEVONSHIRE REGIMENT (10 S. xii. 490). 
In reply to MR. BLEACKLEY'S inquiry, I may 
say that I have before me as I write ' His- 
torical Records of the 1st Devon Militia 
(4th Battalion the Devonshire Regiment), 
with a Notice of the 2nd and North Devon, 
Militia Regiments, 1 by Col. H. Walrond. 
4th Battalion the Devonshire Regiment, 
with 27 illustrations (Longmans & Co., 1897). 
At p. 24 Col. Walrond says : 

"A regiment was raised this year [1685] among 
the loyal men of Devon, Somerset, and Dorset, by 
the Duke of Beaufort, called the Duke of Beaufort's 
Musketeers, which subsequently became the North 
Devon Regiment, and is now the Devonshire Regi- 
ment. This was not, however, the first regiment 
raised in Devon, as in 1681 the 'Tangerine Regi- 
ment,' now the King's Own Royal Lancaster Regi- 
ment (4th), was raised in Exeter and the neighbour- 
hood by the Duke of Albemarle." 

A. J. DAVY. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. JAN. s, 1910. 

An exceedingly fine lithograph (2 ft. by 
1 ft. 6 in.), by A. H. Swiss, Army Printer of 
111, Fore Street, Devonport, was published 
about a decade ago, and forms a concise 
history of the Devonshire Regiment from its 
formation in 1685 until 1895. It gives 
admirable illustrations of the first captain's 
colour in 1687, and of the present colours 
(two), and full-length pictures of a musketeer 
in 1686, a company officer in 1790, and a 
sergeant of modern times. The letterpress 
accompanying these illustrations is stated 
to be abbreviated from the official records. 


329, 397). MR. E. R. MARSHALL will find 
some additional information respecting the 
Minster branch of this family, supplementing 
that given by Planche, in the Visitation of 
Kent taken by the College of Heralds in 
1663-8, and published by the Harleian 
Society, No. 54. 

The name occurs frequently in the parish 
registers of Margate, and there are eight 
entries concerning the family in those of 
St. Laurence, Ramsgate, 1560-1653 ; the 
latter have been printed. 

Richard Paramor, weaver, was an " In- 
trante" (admitted to live and trade 'on 
payment of an annual fine) of Northgate 
Canterbury, in 1489-92 and 1495-6 ; his 
fine was 8d. See ' Intrantes of Canterburv 
1392-1592, ? by J. M. Cowper. 

In the adjacent county of Sussex there 
was a Roger Paramorer or Paramor, member 
of Parliament for the Rape of Bramber 
Hundred of Steyning, 1307 (Horsfield's 
Sussex ). He is presumably the same 
person referred to in the following quotation 
from the Feet of Fines 33 Ed. I. in the same 
work : 

" Rape of Bramber (Sussex), 1305. John de 
Shipcombe and Matilda his wife sold to Ro^er 
Parramer one messuage and four acres 

of Battle > 12 

The following early occurrences of the 
name may be of interest to MR. MARSHALL : 

Richard and William Paramor, Normandv 
1198 ('The Norman People and their 
Descendants ? ). 

John Paramour, Lincolnshire (Hundred 
Rolls about 1273) ..... De Porremore, Devon- 
shire (ibid.). 

J nn th e son of William Paramours of 
Effingham (Surrey), mentioned 1325-6 (Hist 
MSS. Com., vol. ix.). 

Richard Paramore was of Alfreton, Derby- 
shire, about 1606 (Hist. MSS. Com., ' Earl 
of Verulam's Papers '). 

Thomas Paramour, member of Parlia- 
ment for Lyme Regis, co. Dorset, about 

Holcombe Paramore was a place-name 
in Devonshire about the fifteenth century 
(Inquisitions Post Mortem temp. Henry 

,[MB. HARRY HEMS also thanked for reply.] 

" BCEIJAN " OR " BCEIJANG " (10 S. xiL 

467). According to Calisch, boei is the 
Dutch for " buoy," and boietang (not 
bceijang] is a sea term, and means " tongs 
to jam [join ?] the cords." L. L. K. 

I suggest buyong (Malay), an earthenware 
jar, spelt in Dutch bcejong, and misspelt 
bceijang by an eighteenth-century super- 
cargo. There is a Malay word bujang, but 
this signifies a bachelor, an unlikely item of 
cargo, and the Dutch spelling is bmtjang. 


Is not the Dutch bceijen=C>) chains or 
irons, i.e., prison chains, intended ? 


THOMAS MOORE'S WIFE (10 S. xii. 427). 
See ' A Book of Memories,' by S. C. Hall 
(London, 1870), p. 21 : 

" Though her [Mrs. Moore's] early beauty had 
faded under the influence of time and anxiety, 
enough was left not only to tell of what she had 
been, but to excite love and admiration then. 
Her figure and carriage were perfect ; every 
movement was graceful ; her head and throat 
were exquisitely moulded ; and her voice, 
when she spoke, was soft and clear. Moore 
once said to me : ' My Bessy's eyes were larger 
before she wept them away for her children/ 
But when I knew her, the sockets were large, 
but the soft, brown eyes fell, as it were, back, 
All her other features were really beautiful : the 
delicate nose ; the sweet andexpressive mouth ; 
the dimples, now here, now there"; the chin 
so soft and rounded ; the face a perfect oval. 
Even at that time no one could have entered 
a room without murmuring, ' What a lovely 
woman ! ' ' 

Mrs. Moore died at Sloperton Cottage, 
4 Sept., 1865, and w r as buried beside her 
husband and three of her children in the 
churchyard of Bromham, near Chippenham. 
Mr. Hall says that she left what she had to 
her nephew Charles Murray. He was dead 
at the time Mr. Hall wrote, but was survived 
by a widow and two daughters. 

Is it not likely that the Marquis of Lans- 
downe has a portrait of Mrs. Moore at 
Bo wood ? WM. H. PEET. 

11 S. 1. JAN. 8, 1910.] 


xii. 87, 230, 358). The question as to the 
nationality of Attacks is not so uncertain 
as MB. ALBERT MATTHEWS thinks (see the 
second reference). I have in my possession 
a, copy of The Boston Gazette of 12 March, 
1770, containing a full account of the so- 
called massacre of 5 March, and according 
to the paper the man was presumably a 
half-caste negro. The portion dealing with 
him is as follows : 

" A mulatto man, named Crispus Attucks, 
who was born in Framlingham, but lately 
belonged to New Providence, and was here in order 
to go for North Carolina, also killed instantly ; 
two balls entering his breast, one of them in 
special goring the right lobe of the lungs, and a 
great part of the liver most horribly." 

Subject to the better knowledge of your 
American correspondents, I think this is 
conclusive as to Attucks' s negro blood, as 
if a native Indian his birthplace and sub- 
sequent movements would not be so accu- 
rately known or chronicled, and I under- 
stand also that the word " mulatto " would 
not have been used unless one of the parents 
was of negro race. 

The newspaper, which is strongly anti- 
British, gives a very vivid account of the 
whole business. A great portion of the 
issue is taken up with copies of the resolu- 
tions passed by the towns round Boston, 
pledging themselves not to use any British 
goods, and denouncing those who do ; and 
among the names of the citizens prominent 
in asserting their rights are those of Hancock, 
Adams, and others who afterwards became 


(10 S. xii. 468). .The Nately from which 
John Jakys entered New College, Oxford, 
would be not Netley, but Up-Nately, a 
parish on the Basingstoke Canal, five miles 
east from Basingstoke. 


Yateley, Hants. 

" MAR " IN MARDYKE (10 S. xii. 310, 475). 
" Mardyke " would seem to denote the 
dyke or drain " through the marsh, n that 
which passes through the three Saltfleetbys 
in Lincolnshire on the north side of the 
main road. In St. Peter's parish it is 
comparatively small, though larger than 
the field-drains in " The Marsh " ; but, 
receiving tributary drains all the way, it 
becomes, in St. Clement's parish, quite wide 
and deep, a remarkable -looking drain indeed, 
and might be taken for a river, were it not 

absolutely straight. At any rate, it may 
well be regarded as the " marsh dyke " ; 
I do not know of another like it in that 
neighbourhood. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

(10 S. xii. 469). I know no work on this 
subject, but another Irish Deanery not 
mentioned by R. B. is that of Raphoe, held 
by the Very Rev. Edward Chichester (sub- 
sequently 4th Marquis of Donegall) from 
1832 till his death in 1889. A. T. B. 

BesselPs Green, Kent. 

In this county (Durham) there were 
deans of the collegiate churches of Auck- 
land St. Andrew, Chester-le-Street, Darling- 
ton, and Lanchester, and each had its 
prebends. There are old buildings at each 
place (except Chester) still known as " the 
deanery ll ; but on the site of the Deanery 
at Chester-le-Street a comparatively modern 
mansion has been erected, which is still 
called " The Deanery. n 

The collegiate church of Middleham, 
Yorkshire, had also its dean and prebends. 

R. B R. 
South Shields. 

Probably the Rev. Mackenzie Walcott 
would say in his ' Cathedralia. 4 


AND PARISH REGISTERS (10 S. xii. 409, 475). 
MR. S. S. M'DOWALL does not quite touch 
the point of my inquiry. I know that the 
original registers in a more or less imperfect 
state are at Selby ; but I want infor- 
mation about what are known as the 
Bishops' Transcripts, which one would 
expect to find at the Diocesan Registry, 
York. On inquiry I am told that they are 
not there because Selby was a Peculiar Court. 
Where are these transcripts now, if they 
have been preserved ? 

It appears to me that the parishes within 
the Peculiar Court should have sent the 
copy of their register to the bishop, as re- 
quired by the ordinance of 1597. 

The Heights, Rochdale. 

Though I cannot give COL. FISHWICK any 
information as to the registers from 1636 
to 1715, it may be worth while to point out, 
in case he does not know it, that extracts 
from the registers for many of the years 
1728-63 are to be found in the British 
Museum. They are Add. Charters 45913-33. 

H. I. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAX. s, 1910. 

xii. 509). 

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first. 
Fruitless inquiries for the source of this line 
were made at 3 S. ii. 166 and 4 S. viii. 426. 

W. C. B. 

BAKERS' SERVANTS, c. 1440 (10 S. xii. 
427, 498). On the analogy of proweour= 
purveyor in Langland (Stratmann- Bradley), 

sowreour may mean surveyor, 
cordant sense. 

with no dis- 
H. P. L. 

CANON FELLING (10 S. xii. 367). The 
Christian name of Canon Felling was John. 
In ' The Fruits of Endowment,' London, 
1840, the following entry occurs : " Felling, 
John, D.D. Canon, Windsor [published] 


Before the Clergy (Exod. xx. 5). 

I am unable to say who his parents were, 
except that possibly his father may have 
been the Rev. Edward Felling, D.D., Fre- 
bendary of Westminster, who between 
1673 and 1696 published a considerable 
number of theological works. See Darling's 
' Cyclopaedia Bibliographica,' vol. ii. 


ROYAL (10 S. xii. 489). There is a pedigree 
extant of the family of Bradley by Rouge 
Croix, but whether the original or a copy 
of it is in the College of Arms, or not, I do 


The Growth of the English House : a Short History 
of its Architectural Development from 1100 to 
1800. By J. Alfred Gotch. (Batsford.) 
IT is our pleasant duty every now and then to 
direct the attention of the public to a wholly 
admirable book : we feel sure that readers of 
' N & Q.' will agree with us that Mr. Gotch' s 
latest publication is entitled to that distinction. 
In the space of 300 pages he deals with over 
200 historical houses, illustrating his remarks 
by 214 photographs, drawings, or plans. He 
writes for the general public, making no demand 
on any knowledge of architecture, though pro- 
fessional students will find much in it to interest 
them. All sorts of buildings, from Norman keeps 
to mansions in St. James's Square, are described 
in turn, and the chain of development from first 
to last is kept steadily in view. 

Considered as a dwelling-house, a Norman 
keep must have been singularly uncomfortable 
from every point of view cold, dark, and in- 

description of Castle Hedingham the great 
fortress of the De Veres shows us the best side 
of one of the finest of its kind. To us it has but 
one merit, spacious rooms, and its defects are 
many : windows too small to make the rooms 
cheerful, yet quite large enough to make it cold 
in the absence of any glazing ; each side of the 
room an outside wall ; a fireplace with a short 
flue and small vents ; the sleeping-places (if any) 
mere bunks in recesses burrowed in the walls : 
cooking carried on either in the hall itself or at 
long distances from it. Peak Castle in Derbyshire 
must have been very much harder to live in. It 
had two rooms (perhaps four if an attic and a 
cellar floor were ever constructed and used), 
the lower lit by two small slits in the wall, the 
upper (measuring 22 ft. by 19 ft.) having in addi- 
tion two closets hollowed in the walls. There 
were no fireplaces, and there is no trace of hearths, 
though probably they existed. Yet this was a 
famous place in its time, and many of the peel 
towers on the Borders built three centuries later 
were little better. 

All these towers were four-square, the round 
tower finding little favour in England (we except 
Windsor), as at the time of its vogue in France 
Englishmen were building fortified or moated 
manor houses. What is really curious and un- 
explained is the building of such a place as 
Tattershall Castle (half way between Lincoln and 
Boston) on the model of a Norman tower so late 
as the middle of the fifteenth century. We can 
understand the use of Warkworth Castle its 
ontemporary and admire the skill shown in 
planning it, so as to combine something of the 
omfort of a manor house with the security of a 
fortress ; but Tattershall seems built to no 
purpose it was not a dwelling-place for the 
man who built South Wingfield Manor House. 

However it may be, the great single room 
of the Norman Castle suited the temperament of 
English builders, for it was the central point of 
domestic architecture till Stuart times. The first 
fortified manor houses consisted of a great hall, 
with a kitchen near the doorway for the service, 
and a solar at the other end as a retiring room 
for the lord. Every important building down 
to the days of Elizabeth repeated and enlarged 
on this plan the kitchen developing into the 
servants' wing, the solar into the family apart- 
ments. Lastly, the hall began to lose its import- 
ance : in some houses it becomes a gallery running 
the whole length of the front, in others it is a mere 
parloxir. Mr. Gotch has described many fine 
examples of the hall in its various stages. The 
finest of them, and the earliest, is Oakham Castle, 
in Rutland ; while Stokesay Castle in Shropshire 
is a later and very interesting form. No work 
on English homes could possibly omit Haddon 
Hall or Kenilworth Castle, but it will be seen that 
the author has gone to considerable pains to 
avoid hackneyed examples. His account of the 
kitchens at Stanton Harcourt and Glastonbury 

is extremely good. 
Mr. Gotch is at 

his best, we think, in the 

chapters dealing with Elizabethan and Jacobean 
houses interiors and exteriors alike but especi- 
ally when treating of the decorative plaster 
and panelling ; and he is least happy when 
referring to " the influence of the Amateurs." 
The elevation of fig. 159 from Kent's ' Designs of 

convenient : it had but one merit, that of being I Inigo Jones ' is almost a copy of one of Palladia's 
safe from a sudden surprise. Mr. Gotch's full I drawings with a few banal additions ; while 

n s. i. JAN. s, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


many of the houses figured in the chapter on ~ 
Palladian style do not recall any features of hi 
work. Of course the truth is that no one couh 
live in England in a really Palladian house on< 
would have to follow Lord Chesterfield's advid 
and live in a house opposite to enjoy a view of it 
The reaction from the grand style to the " ugh 
but comfortable " is comprehensible, if deplorable 
No work will ever displace in our affection. 
Turner and Parker's ' Domestic Architecture in 
the Middle Ages,' but Mr. Gotch's little book 
will stand beside it on our shelves. It is jus! 
the sort of book to give to any one who is inclinec 
to be interested about old buildings withoul 
knowing much of them. Without any parade 
of teaching, it will direct attention to obvious 
features of style and set the student on the right 
track. One feature we are specially pleased with 
is the c Chronological List of Castles and Houses.' 
It does not pretend to include even all the more 
notable historic houses of England, but it is a 
beginning, and the buildings given here, being 
all dated, will serve to fix the dates of many others 
whose origin is unknown. A complete list of the 
historic houses of England is not an impossible 
undertaking, and we should fike to see it done. 
Tnfortunately, there are difficulties in the way. 
Travelling is often costly and uncomfortable 
in England. Here is a book describing 200 fine 
buildings, but one's heart sinks when one realizes 
that the attempt to see any of them out of the 
beaten tourist track means a day's labour, the 
discomfort of bad food, and, probably, overcharge 
for it. An association like the Touring Club de 
France is badly wanted in England for the educa- 
tion of English hotel -keepers. All the same we 
;uv grateful to Mr. Gotch for having mapped out 
new objects of interest in rural England, and 
refreshed our memories of old friends. 

The Fortnightly opens with the first three 
chapters of Meredith's posthumous novel, ' Celt 
and Saxon.' So far the Celt only is exhibited 
in a young Irishman, who comes to Wales on a 
chivalrous quest concerning his brother. Mr. 
Garvin's review of ' Imperial and Foreign Affairs ' 
is almost entirely concerned with Germany and 
the question of the Navy, and is a good example 
of his vigorous writing. Mr. W. S. Lilly in ' Eyes 
and No Eyes ' considers the Irish question, and 
no more succeeds in giving an impartial view 
than most writers. Mr. Lilly's style is too heavy 
to be attractive. ' The Later Heroines of 
Maurice Maeterlinck ' are the subject of a pretty 
piece of prose by his wife. The version in English 
by Mr. A. T. de Mattos is excellent. Mr. Archi- 
bald Hurd considers ' The Naval Issue ' once 
more, and declares that our present fleet is 
" admittedly above a two-Power standard." 
He regards 41,000,000?. as necessary for the 
Navy Estimates of the coming year. Mr. 
E. H. Pickersgill writes on ' Imprisonment for 
Debt,' proposing changes in the law which seem 
to us by no means sure to do good. The Com- 
mittee on the subject of which he was chairman 
were divided in opinion, but he claims a majority 
for his views. .Mr. Alfred Stead dwells on the 
virtues of ' Prince Ito, Patriot and Statesman.' 
which are generally recognized by the thoughtful. 
Prof. H. H. Turner has an interesting article 
on ' .Mii;r;\tm Stars,' and belongs to the small 
body of scientific men who can both write and 
observe. Mr. F. G. Aflalo in ' The Mind of the 

Sportsman' reviews several recent books on 
sport Fiction in The Fortnightly is generally 
worth reading and 'An Unofficial DivBrce,' by 
Mr. Stephen Reynolds, is an effective story of a 
fisherman and his brother who married the 

IN The Nineteenth Century Sir Bampfvlde 

aller writes, doubtless, good sense on 'The 

Indian Responsibilities of Liberal Politicians/ 

? li? tyl ? ls to ful1 and wor dy to please 
the public of to-day. The title of ' A General, 

lr I 6 1S T^ ai ? I 7 ^ ustlfi . ed b ^ Mr - B. C. Molloy's 
rticle. What he considers is a strike of coal- 
miners so general as to paralyze virtually all 
industry. Co-partnership is the panacea 
offered, which does not seem so easy as this 
interesting paper suggests. M. Andre" Beaunier 
writes delightful French in ' La Litt^rature 
.brancaise Contemporaine,' which is, like that of 
other countries, in a state of anarchy, and suffer- 
ing from too much writing by everybody. Former 
good readers are now bad writers. Symbolism 
is no longer a power in poetry. The theatre 
attracts literary talent, and the results are gene- 
rally deplorable, for writers seek to flatter the 
least respectable desires of the multitude. 
Novelists have not the public they had in the 
days of Zola and Daudet. It is suggested that 
Anatole France is not so original as he was 
thought to be. His many imitators do not count. 
M. Maurice Barres and M. Jules Lemaitre are 
selected as worthy of special notice, and brilliantly 
characterized. In ' The Making of a Poet ' 
Mr. Stephen Gwynn brings forward for praise 
the work of Mr. W. H. Davies and Mr. James 
Stephens, and his .summary is both fair and 
attractive. Incidentally, he makes some general 
statements which seem to us of doubtful validity. 
Some Reminiscences of Mr. Gladstone,' by Sir 
Algernon West, are pleasant, though, like other 
)apers on the subject, they remind us that 
Gladstone either had no Boswell, or did not 
Dften say notable things. * A Self -Supporting 
Penal Labour Colony,' by Edith Sellers, is an 
account of Witzwil in Switzerland. The Director, 
whose name is not given, must be a remarkable 
>rganizer, with a sympathetic Government at 
lis back. Nothing better than such a combina- 
ion can be wished for solution at home of tho 
)roblem of the unemployable. Miss Rose 
3radley has an article which is both lively and 
nstructive on ' Boswell and a Corsican Patriot/ 
The title ' In the Shadow of the Tower ' gives 
10 idea of the pathetic human interest of Mr. 
jrabriel Costa's account of a morning at the 
Condon Appeal Board under the Aliens' Act. 
n the little office in Great Tower Street many an 
lien, driven by persecution and want from his 
tative land, gains the chance of a fresh start in 
England, or learns, alas I that " the hoped-for 
ife of freedom in a free country is not destined 
o be found." Miss Viola Tree is new to us as a 
vriter. She succeeds in extracting matter of 
itfivst from the Blue-book on ' The Censorship 
of Stage Plays,' though it seems to us tolerably 
absurd to talk about "the high intellectual 
standard of both questions and answers." In 
' The Ito Legend ' Mr. F. T. Piggott adds from 
personal recollections to the chorus of praise 
which surrounds the memory of the far-seeing 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. JAN. s, ma 

MR. RICHARD CAMERON'S Edinburgh Catalogu 
228 contains, as usual, a number of works of 
Scottish interest. Other items include the Cole 
ridge and Prothero edition of Byron, 1898-1904 
13 vols., cloth, as new, II. 15s. ; Kinglake's 
* Crimea,' 9 vols., II. 6s. ; ' Fine Art Illustrations 
of Scott,' 13 vols., folio, II. 5s. ; and the Works 
of " Christopher North," 12 vols., half -calf 
1Z. 15s. Under Napoleon is Bell's Weekly 
Messenger, Sunday, 3 Jan., to 26 Dec., 1813, 
folio, boards, 9s. Qd. The numbers contain ful] 
details of Napoleon's campaigns, with accounts 
of the disastrous retreat from Russia and of 
Wellington's Peninsular campaign. 

Mr. Bertram Dobell's Catalogue 179 contains 
books from the library of the late Frederick 
Hendriks, most of them with prints, autograph 
letters, and notes. Byron, complete edition in 
one volume, extra-illustrated with Finden's 
engravings and a series of female portraits, 
green morocco extra, a fine copy, 1850, 15s. 
Under Dickens is Ward's ' Memoir,' illustrated 
with 50 portraits of Dickens and his contem- 
poraries, and six autograph letters from Albert 
Smith, Forster, and others, calf extra, 1882, 
31. 3s. Under Heraldry is Sylvanus Morgan's 
4 Treatise of Honor and Honorable Men,' the 
Author's unpublished manuscript, 170 pages, 
with drawings of coats of arms (inserted is the 
title-page of ' The Sphere of Gentry,' containing 
the Author's portrait), 1642, 11. 10s. Under 
Roxburghe Club is a volume containing Dibdin's 
' Song to be sung at Roxburger's Hall,' ' Diary of 
Roger Payne,' &c., with a collection of 200 illus- 
trations, royal 8vo, half-russia, 21. 12s. Among 
miscellaneous books are works under Ballads and 
Bibliography. Under Calderon is MacCarthy's 
translation of three dramas of Calderon, 1870, 
II. Is. There is a rare and curious book under 
Drinking : ' A Warning-Piece to all Drunkards 
and Health-drinkers,' full of accounts of the 
untimely end of persons alleged to have been 
killed by drink, 1682, 21. 2s. A fine large copy of 
Fletcher's ' Rule a Wife and Have a Wife,' first 
edition, small 4to, half-morocco, Oxford, Leonard 
Lichfield, 1640, is SI. 10s. ; the first edition of 
' The Egoist,' 3 vols., original cloth, library 
ticket removed from covers, 1879, 21. 10s. ; and 
a rare copy of Boccaccio's ' De Prseclaris Mulie- 
ribus,' 1475, crimson morocco, 221. 

Mr. John Hitchman's Birmingham Christmas 
Catalogue contains the Autograph Edition of 
Ruskin, 8 vols., full morocco extra, 9Z. 9s. ; 
Lucas's edition of Charles Lamb, 8 vols., half- 
levant, 4Z. 12s. Qd. ; J. M. Barrie's Novels, 
Author's Edition, 10 vols., 21. 5s. ; Catlin's 
' North American Indians,' 2 vols., 21. 10s. ; 
Scharf and Cust's ' Mary, Queen of Scots,' 11. 5s. ; 
\Vyon's ' Great Seals of England,' folio, 21. 8s. ; 
Thackeray's Novels, 7 vols., first editions (except 
' Vanity Fair,' which is the second issue of the 
first), half -levant, 51. 5s. ; and the first edition, in 
the original wrapper, of Swinburne's ' Ode on the 
Proclamation of the French Republic,' 1870, 15s. 

Mr. Hitchman has also a short list (No. 500) 
of a few interesting books at reduced prices, 
including Burton's ' Arabian Nights,' the Cen- 
tenary Edition of Carlyle, Bradshaw Society 
Publications, St. John Hope's ' Order of the 
Garter,' &c. 

Mr. Sutton's Manchester Catalogue 173 contains 
Ainsworth's ' Windsor Castle,' ' Old St. Paul's,' 
and ' The Miser's Daughter,' the 3 vols. as new, 
1844-8, 15Z. 15s.; black-letter editions of 
Foxe's works '; the Library Edition of Froude's 
' History,' 12 vols., cloth, uncut, 1856-70, 4Z. 4s. ; 
a set of Lever's novels, original illustrations, 
16 vols., .half -calf, 8Z. 8s. ; Staunton's edition of 
Shakespeare with Gilbert's illustrations, 3 vols., 
1858, 11. Is.; and Smith's ' Dictionary of Greek 
and Roman Biography,' 3 vols., 1850, 12s. Under 
Cruikshankiana is a collection of 81 plates, 
folio, original boards, McLean, 11. 10s. There 
are nearly 300 items devoted to Irish Topography 
and Literature. 

Mr. T. Thorp's Catalogxie 41 contains a collec- 
tion of Mrs. Inchbald's Manuscript Diaries, 
10Z. 10s. Under Hogarth is a set of original 
drawings inserted in a copy of ' Tristram Shandy,' 
Vols. I. III., bound in one thick small 8vo 
volume, rough half -calf (date cut from title), 
about 1765. These seven drawings are executed, 
Mr. Thorp states, " in Hogarth's best style," 
price 105Z. Among the Addenda will be found 
under Hogarth an atlas folio, half -calf, containing 
79 plates, fine early impressions, 1738-90, 8Z. 10s. 
Under America are some early maps. There are 
many juvenile books, ranging from 1760 ; and 
there is a list of book-plates recently purchased. 
Works under London include an extra-illustrated 
copy of Brayley, the 4 vols. extended to 10, 
1816, 7Z. 10s. ; and a ' Register of Admissions 
to Gray's Inn,' 1521-1889, with Register of Mar- 
riages 1695-1754,' by Joseph Foster, privately 
printed, 1889, 12s. Qd. Among speeches are those 
of Sir Robert Peel, with explanatory index, 4 vols., 
1853, 2Z. 10s. Under Wordsworth is Moxon's 
edition, 6 vols., original cloth, uncut, 1841, 1Z. 16s. 

Mr. Thorp issues from Guildford Catalogue 20, 
which contains works on Zoology, Botany, 
Astronomy, and Physics. 

[Reviews of other Catalogues held over.] 

THE REV. JOHN PICKFORD. We are sorry to 
notice the death on December 30th of the Rev. 
John Pickford, Rector of Newbourne, Suffolk, at 
the age of 80. He was one of the steadiest corre- 
spondents to our columns, and kept up to the last 
a vivid interest in history, antiquities of all sorts, 
his Oxford friends, and the classics. He wrote a 
'Life of Thomas Percy, Bishop of Dromore.' At 
10 S. xii. 376 he pointed out that his first communi- 
cation to us appeared as long ago as 19 July, 1856, 
in the Second Series. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

CORRIGENDUM. A nte, p. 16, col. 2, 1. 19, for 
' gaujah " read yanjah. 

R. B R (" Jookery-parkery "). See 10 S. iv. 87, 
fifi, 232. and the articles on hocus-pocus in the 

ii s. i. JAN. is, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : Maria Jane Jewsbury in Ceylon, 41" Yon " : its 
Use by Scotsmen, 43 Bibliography of Publishing, 44 
Godfrey Sykes Sowing by Hand 'A Lad of the O'Friels,' 
46 H. B. Burlowe : P. F. Chenu Vermont : Dr. S. A. 
Peters Topographical Deeds -Bishop Compton, 47. 

QUERIES : " Tally-ho " Hornbook temp. Elizabeth 
Scotchmen in France ' History of Bullanabee ' "Earth 
goeth upon earth," 48 "This world's a city full of 
crooked streets" Lysons "\Vhen our Lord shall lie in 
our Lady's lap" 'Critical Review' "Be the day weary" 
'Testimony of the Spade,' 49 Authors Wanted Rev. 
R. Snowe Marriage in a Shift W. Keith E. Plass 
W. Shippen Characters in 'The Squire's Tale' Sir R. 
Geffery, 50. 

REPLIES : Parliamentary Division Lists Mrs. Browning 
and Sappho, 51 Fig Trees in London Acres in Yorkshire 
Walsh Surname Thomas Paine, 53 Dr. Wollaston in 
Scotland Lovels of Northampton Johann Wilhelm of 
Neuburg, 54 "Hen and Chickens" Sign -Pin and Needle 
Rimes "Huel" Lynch Law, 55 "Land Office business" 
River Legends Marie Antoinette's Death Mask Feet 
of Fines Rotherhithe, 56 Restoration Plays Restora- 
tion Characters "He will either make a spoon," 57 
Pronunciation of "oo "-Steamers in 1801 'N. & Q.' : 
Lost Reference Lady Worsley, 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Keats's Poems of 1820' Congrega- 
tional Historical Society Transactions 'Hume Brown's 
'History of Scotland' 'The Churchyard Scribe 'Maga- 
zines and Reviews. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE notice of Miss M. J. Jewsbury in the 

* Diet, of Nat. Biog.' says : 

" On 1 Aug., 1832, she married, at Penegroes, 
Montgomeryshire, the Rev. William Kew Fletcher, 
a chaplain in the East India Company's service, 
with whom she sailed for Bombay. She died 
fourteen months later, on 4 Oct., 1833, at Poonah, 
a victim to cholera. Some extracts from the 
journal of her voyage to and residence in India 
are given in Espinasse's 'Lancashire Worthies.' " 

It is in the Second Series (1877) of the 

* Lancashire Worthies,' pp. 330-37, that 
Espinasse deals with Mrs. Fletcher's voyage 
to and brief residence in India. 

Curiously enough, however, nothing is 
said of a short stay in Ceylon on the way to 
Bombay. The Colombo Journal of 23 Jan., 
1833, records the arrival, on Sunday, 
16 January, of the " ship Victory, Capt, 
C. Biden, from England 22d Sept. and Isle 
of France 22d Dec.' 1 Among the passengers 
for Bombay are mentioned " Revd. Mr. 
Fletcher and Lady." The same paper, in 
its issue of 6 February, announces the 
departure of the Victory for Bombay on the 
previous day. 

Although, strangely, there is no reference, 
editorial or otherwise, in any of the inter- 
vening issues of The Colombo Journal, to the 
gifted writer, she herself has left on record 
in beautiful verse her impressions of the 
island. My father, who arrived in Ceylon 
in 1837, relates in some reminiscences 
printed in 1886 (' Ceylon in 1837-46,' p. 15) 
that during her brief sojourn in the island 
Mrs. Fletcher stayed under the hospitable 
roof of the Rev. Benjamin Bailey (himself 
the writer of some little books of verse), 
where she wrote what is perhaps the most 
exquisite poem that has ever been penned 
respecting Ceylon. Mrs. Fletcher appa- 
rently presented the manuscript to her host, 
who only some seven months later seems 
to have sent it to The Colombo Journal, 
where it was printed in the supplement to 
the issue of 7 Sept., 1833, in the midst of 
extracts of political news, and without a 
single line calling attention to it. The 
poem is as follows : 


(Written at Ceylon.) 

A dream ! a dream ! our billowy home 
' Before me, as so late, so long, 
The ocean, with its sparkling foam, 
The ocean, with its varying song : 
Our ship at rest where late she rode, 
Furled every sail though fair the breeze ; 
And narrow walks, and small abode, 
Exchanged for roaming land and ease. 

Short sojourn make we, yet how sweet 
The change ; the unaccustomed air 
Of all we see, and hear, and meet ; 
Ceylon thy wooded shores are fair ! 
I love the land left far behind, 
Its glorious oaks, and streamlets clear 
Yet wherefore should my eye be blind, 
My heart be cold to beauty here ? 

No in a world as childhood new, 

Is it not well to be a child ? 

As quick to ask, as quick to view, 

As promptly pleased, perchance as wild ? 

Deride who will my childish wit, 

My scorn to-day of graver things 

Let them be proud, but let me sit 

Enamour'd of a beetle's wings. 

Books for to-morrow : this calm bower 
(Yet mind and learning know the spot) 
Suggests to me the primal hour, 
When goodness was, and sin was not ; 
When the wild tenants of the wood 
Came trustingly at Adam's call, 
Nor he, nor they, athirst for blood, - 
The world one paradise for all. 

I know that creatures strange and fierce 
Here lurk, and here make man afraid 
But let the daring hunter pierce 
Their hidden lairs, in this bright shade 
Let me forget save what I greet, 
The air alive with dancing wings, 
Tame creatures pecking near my seat, 
Resplendent flowers, and happy things. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. L u s. i. JAS . ]3 , 1910 . 

The squirrel at Lis morning meal 
And morning sports so lithe and free ; 
No shadow o'er the grass may steal 
With lighter, quicker steps, than he : 
Racing along the cocoa leaf, 
You see him through its ribs of green ; 
Anon the little mime and thief 
Expanded on the trunk is seen. 

These cocoa trees not fair in woods. 

But singly seen, and seen afar 

When sunset pours his [? its] yellow floods, 

A column, and its crown a star ! 

Yet dowered with wealth of uses rare, 

Whene'er its plumy branches wave, 

JSome sorrow seems to haunt the air, 

Some vision of a desert grave. 

Ceylon ! Ceylon ! 'tis naught to me 
HOAV thou wert known or named of old, 
As Ophir. or Taprobane, 
By Hebrew king, or Grecian bold ; 
To me, thy spicy wooded vales, 
Thy dusky sons, and jewels bright, 
But image forth the far-famed tales, 
But seem a new Arabian night. 

And when engirdled figures crave 

Heed to thy bosom's dazzling store, 

I see Aladdin in his cave ; 

I follow Sinbad on the shore. 

Yet these, the least of all thy wealth, 

Thou heiress of the eastern isles, 

Thy mountains boast of northern health, 

There Europe amid Asia smiles. 

Were India not where I must wend, 
And England where I would return, 
To thee my steps would soonest tend, 
Ev'n now, I feel my spirit yearn, 
Not as the stranger of a day, 
Who soon forgets where late he dwelt, 
But as a friend, who, far away, 
Feels ever what at first he felt. 


(late Miss Jewsbury}. 

The word " late " here does not, of course, 
refer to the writer's death, which took 
place less than a month after the appearance 
of the poem ; but its use seems almost like 
a presage of doom. 

I can find no further reference of any 
kind in The Colombo Journal to the Fletchers; 
but, according to Mr. Espinasse, they arrived 
at Bombay in March, 1833. This writer 
adds : 

" Mr. Fletcher had been ' gazetted ' to Shola- 
pore, but for some reason or other he proceeded 
to Kurnee, on the Malabar Coast, near Severn- 
droog, once the scene of a famous English naval 
victory, and where his peculiar charge was to be 
that of ' the society in camp at Dapoolie,' and 
then the head-quarters of Anglo-Indian military 

By " Kurnee " is meant Karnai, a port in the 
Dapoli tdluka of Ratnagiri District, Bombay, 
and certainly not on " the Malabar Coast." 
" Severndroog " stands for Suwarndrug, 
the " golden fortress," or Janjira, which is 

a little north of the port (see the ' Imp. Gaz. 
of India,' xiii.). Dapoli town is about 
five miles from the sea. In 1818 it " was- 
constituted the military station of the 
Southern Konkan. In 1840 the regular 
troops were withdrawn, but a veteran 
battalion was retained till 1857 " (ibid., xi.). 

Mrs. Fletcher's first impressions of India 
both of Bombay, which was left in a 
native boat on 27 March, and of Suwarndrug 
were most unfavourable, according to the 
extracts from her diary printed by Mr. 
Espinasse ; but after a couple of months, 
she seems to have become more reconciled 
to her lot, and to have ceased spending her 
time, as she quaintly puts it, " in conjugat- 
ing the verb ' I hate India,' in every mood r 
form, tense, and person." 

But just as Mrs. Fletcher had become 
accustomed to barren and desolate Karnai 
(she had never visited Dapoli), her husband 
was ordered to Sholapur ; and off the 
couple set, climbing the steep ascent to- 
Mahableshwar, where they were at the 
beginning of May, and descending on the 
other side of the ghat to Satara, which was 
reached on the 6th of the same month. 
Here the Fletchers rested a month, and then 
resumed their journey, along the road that 
runs almost due west and east between 
Satara and Sholapur. " On the 10th of 
June," says Mr. Espinasse, " the travellers 
were at ' Mussoor-Pelonne ' (?) where the 
Journal contains the ominous jotting: ' I 
had an attack of semi-semi-cholera, only 
demi-semi.' ' " Mussoor-Pelonne " looks- 
like a combination of the names of the two 
towns Mhaswad and Piliw (or perhaps 
Bhalawani), which would be traversed on 
the way to Sholapur. 

The Fletchers reached their destination 
on 17 June, to find " drought famine 
sweeping off: the natives " ; and after a 
terrible period of three months the un- 
fortunate couple were once more on the 
march, Mr. Fletcher having broken down 
in health, and been allowed, under medical 
certificate, to return to Karnai. But Mrs, 
Fletcher, at any rate, was fated never again 
to see that place of tombs. 

The last entry in her diary, which Mr, 
Espinasse quotes almost in full, is dated 
".On March Babelgaum (?), September 26, 
1833." I think the place here named 
(which Mrs. Fletcher describes as " a fresh 
Durma villa " an error, probably, for 
" Durmasalla," i.e., dharms'ald, resthouse) 
must be Ahirbabulgaon, a village a little 
to the north of Pandharpur, before 

ii s. i. JAN. is, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

reaching which town the travellers appear to 
have struck off to join the direct road from 
Sholapur to Poona. Mrs. Fletcher records 
that they had left Sholapur at 1 o'clock that '; 
morning, and that they had 40 miles more 
to do before 10 that night ; so that, appa- 
rently, the town where they were to make 
their next halt was Indapur, which is about 
the distance named from Ahirbabulgaon, 
and about 80 miles by that road from 
Sholapur. From Indapur to Poona the 
distance is 84 miles ; and as Mrs. Fletcher 
says " we go Dak (having Hamals posted, 
so as to proceed without stopping)," it is 

Erobable that the travellers reached Poona 
ite at night on 27 September. Mrs. 
Fletcher had noted in her diary " I enjoy 
this rough marching " ; but the fatigue of 
the forced march was evidently too great 
for her enfeebled body, and within a few 
days on 4 Oct., 1833 he died, of cholera, 
at Poona, and there was buried. a 

I have searched the pages of The Colombo 
Journal in vain for any reference to the death 
of the gifted woman whose glowing lines 
recording the impressions of her too brief 
sojourn in Ceylon had appeared only a 
few weeks earlier in the columns of that 
paper ; not even among the extracts of 
Indian news is the sad event recorded. As 
The Colombo Journal was almost as much a 
magazine of literature as a newspaper, this 
silence is to me incomprehensible. 



AMONG -English men of letters there seems 
to be a persistent impression that Scotsmen 
say "yon " when they would more accurately 
express their meaning by using " this " or 
" that." In the sixth chapter of ' Lavengro ? 
Borrow is prompted to illustrate what is 
supposed to be the national practice the 
moment he is able to look over the Tweed 
into Scotland. He assumes that a Northum- 
berland fisherman will speak after the manner 
of his neighbours in Berwickshire, and in 
reporting an interview with such an eidolon 
for interlocutor he manages the Lowland 
Scotch fairly well. He describes himself as 
being " extended on the bank of a river," to 
which he pays a graceful and eloquent 
tribute, and he adds that several robust 
fellows were near him, " some knee-deep in 
water, employed in hauling the seine upon the 
strand." Everything shows that the river 
was at hand, and to be alluded to, therefore, 
in terms of its close proximity, and yet the 

writer makes his fisherman say, when telling" 
him its name, " Yon river is called the 
Tweed ; and yonder, over the brig, is Scot- 

A second standard example of the same 
curious notion regarding Scottish phraseology 
occurs in a familiar story of the late Alexan- 
der Baird, a member of a famous stock of 
Glasgow ironmasters. According to the 
legend, Mr. Baird once visited Egypt with 
some friends, and was characteristically 
amazed at the wasteful extravagance that 
must have gone towards the making of the 
Pyramids. The popular version of the 
story may be inaccurate, but it is not with- 
out point and a measure of verisimilitude. 
In presence of one of the portentous monu- 
ments, the ironmaster, with his keen sense 
of values, is said to have summarized 
his view of an ancient speculator in the 
withering exclamation, " Whatna fule sank 
his money in yon ? ?1 So far as one's recol- 
lection of the narrative goes, this appeal 
was made while the practical critic and 
his friends'were at the base of the venerable 
structure, and not after they were holding 
a discussion over their experiences in their 
hotel or in the course of their homeward 

One of the most recent illustrations of the 
assumption that " yon n is the provincial 
Scotsman's regular demonstrative occurs in, 
the prefatory note to Mr. Noyes's mono- 
graph on William Morris in the " English Men 
of Letters." When Morris, according to Miv 
Noyes, was once in Scotland, he was taken 
by a clergyman to see his church, and 
immediately arrested the attention of an 
observer with a quick eye for personal dis- 
tinction. The " verger " saw the poet,, 
and instantly perceived that he was in the 
presence of one who was " not an ordeenary 
man. n Naturally, he was eager for informa- 
tion, and, plucking his minister violently 
by the sleeve, kept vehemently asking, 
" Wha 's yon ? Wha 's yon ? " The three, 
we may presume, were close together, Morris 
perhaps being a few steps in front and 
just beyond earshot, when the ardent 
Scotsman thus darted gratuitous queries at 
his ecclesiastical superior. We are, indeed,, 
explicitly informed that the alert official 
started the cry just " as Morris entered his 
church.' 2 Thus no room is left for doubting 
as to the significance intended to be attached 
to the man's use of the pronominal term.. 
Plainly he said " yon,' ? and not " that,'* 
because he was a Scotsman regarding whom 
an Englishman was able to tell a diverting: 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. i. JAX. 15, 1910. 

Now, if a long and wide experience may 
be admitted to have value, all these examples 
misrepresent the colloquial practice of the 
Scottish Lowlands. The present writer has 
conversed with old people representative 
of the two periods to which the episodes 
of Borrow's fisherman and the Glasgow 
ironmaster are respectively assigned, and 
never once detected this solecism in their 
phraseology. Nor, it need hardly be said, 
was it ever noticed in the speech of 
those who were contemporaries of William 
Morris. A single instance would have clung 
to the memory, just because of its being 
unique ; but there is not one to put on record. 
On the other hand, so far as a fairly 
close observation has gone, the speaker of 
" broad Scotch " correctly discriminates in 
his employment of the various demonstra- 
tives. If he does not treat them as gram- 
marians say they ought to be treated, he 
must be of an uncommonly rude and alto- 
gether unlettered habit. Daily practice 
favours the conventional usage. When, for 
example, a song-writer proclaims, "We'll 
gang nae mair to yon toon, n he knows that 
his readers will understand that the town 
in question is at some distance, and that if 
they locate it in their interpretation they will 
be aware that it must be a place which can be 
reached only after a process of locomotion. 
It cannot by any possibility be the town on 
the borders of which they stand while they 
sing, even as the fisherman stood by the 
banks of the dividing water which he called 
" yon river.'* When another lyrist begins 
with the exclamation, " Yon sun was set," 
it is just possible to argue that he illustrates 
the survival of the earlier " thon,' ? which 
sometimes had little more force than that of 
the definite article ; but this opens up a 
question which is outside the present 
discussion. Burns's practice with regard to 
" yon " and its associates is that which has 
prevailed in Scotland during the last 
hundred years. There is no ambiguity about 
"yon reverend lad " as sung by Merry 
Andrew in 'The Jolly Beggars, 1 or "yon 
birkie ca'd a Lord " in 'A Man 's a Man for 
a'- That/ and the Scotsman has used the word 
in the poet's sense ever since these phrases 
were written. He also recognizes the dis- 
tinctions observed by the fervent minstrel 
when he writes in his inimitable ' Mary 
Morison ? : 

Tho' this was fair, an' that was braw, 
An' yon the toast o' a' the town, 

I sigh'd, an' said amang them a', 
" Ye are na Mary Morison." 



(See 10 S. i. -81, 142, 184, 242, 304, 342 ; 

ii. 11 ; v. 361 ; 11 S. i. 5.) 
I NOW conclude my list of additions to the 
articles in the Tenth Series : 
Fisher (Thomas). The Present Circumstances of 
Literary Property in England Considered. 
London, 1813. 

Mr. Fisher protested against the Act of Parliament 
which required eleven copies of all new books to be pre- 
sented to Public Libraries. This was reduced to rive 
copies by the Copyright Act of 1842. 

The eleven copies were claimed by the following libraries : 
British Museum ; Zion College ; The Universities of 
Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Glasgow, Perth ; 
The Advocates' Library, Edinburgh; Trinity College, 
Dublin ? King's Inn, Dublin. See Quarterly Revie^u, 
No. 41, May, 1819, on the subject of the compulsory eleven 
copies, with list of pamphlets, &c. 
Francis, John Collins. Notes by the Way. 

Post 4to, London, 1909. 

Chap. xiii. contains notes on various publishing houses, 
Trade Dinners, &c. 

Gardiner, William Nelson, Bookseller, Pall Mall 
d. 1814. ' A Brief Memoir of Himself,' 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 622-3. 
He was an eccentric man, with a considerable know- 
ledge of books, and a spirited engraver. He committed 
suicide, leaving behind him a letter to a friend ending : " I 
die in the principles I have published a sound Whig." 
With the letter was enclosed the ' Memoir of Himself,' 
printed in The Gentleman's Magazine, .Tune, 1814. 
Glasgow. Some Notes on the Early Printers, 
Publishers, and Booksellers of Glasgow. 
See ' Book- Auction Records,' edited by 
Frank Karslake, vol. v. part 3, April June, 

Gray, G. J. William Pickering, the Earliest 
Bookseller on London Bridge, 1556-1571. 
Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, 
vol. iv., 1898, pp. 57 to 102. 

The Booksellers of London Bridge and 
their Dwellings. 6 S. vii. 461 (16 June, 1883). 
Index to W. C. Hazlitt's Bibliographical 
Collections and Notes, 1893. 

The Earlier Stationers and Bookbinders 
and the First Printer of Cambridge. Biblio- 
graphical Society Monographs, No. XII., 

Hill, Joseph. The Book-Makers of Old Bir- 
mingham : Authors, Printers, and Book- 
sellers. With Illustrations. 8vo, Birming- 
ham, 1908. 

Hodgson & Co. A Century of Book-Auctions, 
being a Brief Record of the Firm of Hodgson 
& Co. (115, Chancery Lane). London, 1907. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, U.S. A Portrait 
Catalogue of the Books published by Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co., with a Sketch of the Firm, 
Brief Descriptions of the Various Depart- 
ments, and some Account of the Origin and 
, Character of the Literary Enterprises Under- 
taken. Boston, U.S., 1905-6. 
Jaggard, William. Shakespeare's Publishers : 
Notes on the Tudor-Stuart Period of the 
Jaggard Press. Liverpool, 1907. 

Lists of omissions from ' D.N.B.,' contain- 
ing a considerable number of booksellers. 
See 10 S. ix. 21, 83 ; x. 183, 282 ; xii. 24, 
124 262. 

ii s. i. JAN. 15, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Junk (W.), Internationales Adressbuch der 
Antiquar-Buchhandler. With Portrait and 
Memoir of Bernard Quaritch. Berlin, 1906. 

King, Philip Stephen, 1819-1908. Reminiscences 
of an Octogenarian. Privately Printed. 1905. 
Mr. King was the founder of the well-known firm of Par- 
liamentary publishers and booksellers. These reminiscences, 

however, only relate to Mr. King's life up to the time of his 

commencing business for himself in 1853. 

Knight, Charles, 1791-1873. Charles Knight, 
Publisher. By Alexander Strahan. Good 
Words, September, 1867. 

London Booksellers' Signs. See Publishers' Cir- 
cular, 12, 19 March, 2, 16 April, 28 May, 
and 20 Aug., 1892. 

Longman, House of. Notes on Books, Extra 

Number, 8 Dec., 1908. 
This contained the succession of partners and imprints 

of the firm from 1724, and was reprinted at 10 S. xi. 2. 

Miller, George, bookseller of Dunbar, 1770-1835, 
and John Miller, printer and publisher, 
1778-1852, Bibliography of. See articles by 
T. F. TJ(nwin) at 10 S. xii. 1, 42, 374. 

Morgan, R. C., his Life and Times. By his son 

George E. Morgan. 8vo, London, 1909. 
Founder of the firm of Morgan & Chase, afterwards Mor- 
gan & Scott. 

Munsey, Frank A. The Founding of the Munsey 
Publishing House. A Quarter of a Century 
Old. New York, 1907. 

Murray, House of. Murray v. The Times. See 
The Times Book Club. 

Ni-wbery, John, 1713-67. See Austin Dobson's 

' Eighteenth Century Vignettes,' First Series 

(art. 'An Old London Bookseller ' ). London, 


Newbery was said to be the original of Johnson's "Jack 

Whirler " in The Idler, No. 19. 

(?)Page, Walter H. A Publisher's Confessions. 

Crown 8vo, New York, 1905. 

Ten chapters on 'The Ruinous Policy of Large Royalties, 
' Has Publishing become Commercialized ? ' The Adver- 
tising of Books,' &c. 

Payne, Thomas, " At the Mews-Gate." See 
10 S. vii. 409, 492 ; Mathias's ' Pursuits of 
Literature ' ; Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 
Ixix. pp. 171-2 ; ' D.N.B.,' art. by W. P. 
Courtney ; and Austin Dobson's ' Eigh- 
teenth Century Vignettes,' Second Series, 
art. ' The Two Paynes.' 

I 'it man. Sir Isaac, The Life of. By Alfred 
Baker. With 50 Illustrations. 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1908. 
Sir Isaac Pitman was famous for his system of shorthand, 

and also founded the publishing firm bearing his name. 

I'loiner, H. R. A Dictionary of the Booksellers 
and Printers who were at Work in England 
from 1641 to 1667. Printed for the Biblio- 
graphical Society. See art. on ' British 
Provincial Book-Trade, 1641-67,' 10 S. x. 

Pollard, A. W. Last Words on the Title-Page. 
London, 1891. 

\\ ostminster Hall and its Booksellers. 
Art. in The Library, October, 1905. 

Printers' and Booksellers' "Privileges" and 
Licences of the Olden Times : I. General ; 
II. England ; III.-IV. Scotland. British 
and Colonial Printer and Stationer, 17 Jan., 
7 March, 23 May, 25 July, 1907. 

Provincial Booksellers. See Booksellers, Pro- 
vincial, ante, p. 5. 

Public Opinion. Fifteen Articles on ' The Lead- 
ing Publishers,' 5 Feb.-13 May, 1904. 
Publishers and Publishing a Hundred Years Ago.. 
From Materials collected by Aleck Abrahams, 
With some Notes by E. Marston. Publishers'? 
Circular, 6, 13 Jan., 1906. 

[Petheram, John.] Reasons for Establishing an 1 
^ Authors' Publication Society, by which 
Literary Labour would receive a more 
adequate Reward, and the Price of all 
New Books be much Reduced. 8vo, London. 

Shaylor, Joseph. Two articles on ' Bookselling r 
and ' Publishing,' with notices of British 
and American publishing houses. ' En- 
cyclopedia Britannica,' ninth ed., Supple- 
mentary Volumes, vols. iv. and viii. 
Spedding, James, 1810-1881.' Publishers and 
Authors.' Printed for the author. Crowix 
8vo, London. 1867. 

Two papers which were intended to appear in a magazine- 
or review, but which, from the nature of the assertions- 
made as to certain publishing methods, were refused inser- 
tion. It is interesting to note that Mr. Spedding suggests 
that the system of paying authors by means of a "percent- 
age npon the retail price of the volume sold" should be 
more generally adopted. This system of " royalties " was a- 
novelty in England when Mr. Spedding wrote. He says- 
that it was introduced to his notice by Mr. H. O. Houghton r 
of Messrs. Hurd & Hough ton, of New York. 
Stationers' Company, The. A Paper read at 
Stationers' Hall, 27th March, 1906. By 
Charles Robert Rivington. 8vo, London, 

Suttaby, The Firm of, 1801-90. See The Book- 
seller, 5 July, 1890. 

Tegg, Thomas, 1776-1846. Memoir of the later 
Thomas Tegg. Abridged from his Auto- 
biography by permission of his son, William 
Tegg. By Aleph (i.e., Dr. Harvey of Lons- 
dale Square). From The City Press of 
August 6, 1870. Printed for Private Circu- 

Thin, James. Reminiscences of Booksellers and! 
Bookselling in Edinburgh in the Time of 
William IV. An Address delivered to a 
Meeting of Booksellers' Assistants .... Edin- 
burgh, October, 1904. W T ith a Portrait 
of James Thin. Privately Printed. Post 
4to, Edinburgh, 1905. 

Thomason, George, Bookseller, The Rose and 
Crown, St. Paul's Churchyard, c. 1602-66. 
Catalogue of the Pamphlets, Books, News- 
papers, and MSS. relating to the Civil War, 
the Commonwealth, and Restoration, 1640- 
1661, now in the British Museum, and 
known as the ' Thomason Tracts.' 2 vols,. 
Royal 8vo, London. 1908. 

A life of George Thomason, by G. K. Fortescue, is prefixed 
to the Catalogue. 

Times, The, and the Publishers. Privately 
Printed for the Publishers' Association.. 
London, 1906. 

Times, The, Book Club. See ' The Trust Move- 
ment in British Industry,' by H. W. Mac- 
rosty, pp. 276-83. London, 1907. 
Times, The, Book Club, and Publishers' Associa- 
tion and the Associated Booksellers. See 
The Times, and other daily and weekly 
papers, 1906-8 ; Publisher and Bookseller, 
1906-8 ; Bookseller, 1906-8; Publishers' Cir- 
cular, 1906-8 ; and ' xVlurray, John and A. H_ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ui s. i. JAN. is, 1910. 

Hallam, v. Walter and others,' Privately 
Printed, crown 8vo, 1908 (a verbatim report 
of the action for libel in which Messrs. 
Murray recovered 7,500Z. as damages). 

Walch's Literary Intelligencer, Jubilee Number, 

May, 1909. Hobart, Tasmania, 1909. 
This gives an interesting account of the founding of the 

bookselling firm of J. Walch & Sons of Hobart Town by 

Major J. W. H. Walch in 1842 and of its subsequent history. 

AVestell, James, d. 1908. Sixty Years a Book- 
This book was announced as in preparation in March, 

1903, just after Mr. Westell's death. 

Wood, William, & Company, New York. One 
Hundred Years of Publishing (1804-1904). 
A Brief Historical Account of the House of 
William Wood & Company. With Por- 
traits and other Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 
New York, 1904. 

Worrnan, Ernest James. Alien Members of the 
Book-Trade during the Tudor Period. Being 
an index to those whose names occur in the 
returns .... published by the Huguenot 
Society. Small 4to, Bibliographical Society, 

The following are addenda to the entries 
ante, p. 5 : 

Aldis, H. G. The Book-Trade, 1557-1625. 
(Reprinted from ' The Cambridge History of 
English Literature,' Vol. IV., pp. 378-420.) 
Reprinted for Private Circulation. 8vo, 
London, 1909. 
Pp. 415-20 are devoted to a bibliography of the subject 

during the period specified. 

Burger (Konrad). The Printers and Publishers 
of the Fifteenth Century, with Lists of their 
Works. Index to the Supplement to Hain's 
RepertoriumBibliographicum. 8vo, London, 

Dobell, Bertram, Bookseller and Man of Letters. 

By S. Bradbury. 8vo, London, 1909. 
Gentleman's Magazine, July, August, September, 


Various letters from Daniel Stuart, of The Morning Post, 
with reference to a dispute between the publishers and 
himself as to the high charges made for advertisements, 
and to the refusal of the publishers to be relegated to the 
back page of the paper. " To obtain the accommodation 
refused by The Morning Post they set up a morning paper, 
The British Press ; and to oppose The Courier an evening 
one, The Globe." These letters also contain very interesting 
details about Coleridge. His connexion with The Morning 
Post was said " to have raised that paper from some small 
<number to 7,000 in one year." 


GODFREY SYKES. The kindly mention of 
the designer of the Cornhill cover (10 S. 
xii. 481) may make some further notice of 
him acceptable. H> properly finds a place 
in Mr. Boase's wonderfully useful book, 
4 Modern English Biography,' iii. 852. 

His earliest recorded ancestor is John 
Sykes, a mason, of Calver, co. Derby, whose 
son Godfrey had a grandson George, born 
in Sheffield in 1761. Godfrey was a favourite 
Christian name in the family. This George 
Sykes had a cousin Dennis Sykes, a Sheffield 

merchant, whose son Godfrey, a barrister 
of the Middle Temple, was solicitor to the 
Board of Stamps and Taxes, which Godfrey 
had a son Godfrey Milnes Sykes, who was 
of Trinity College, and afterwards of Down- 
ing College, Cambridge. 

George Sykes above named became a 
Wesleyan, and afterwards a Congregational 
minister, and made sufficient mark to cause 
his ' Life ? to be published, and his portrait 
twice engraved : ' Memoir of the Life, 
Ministry, and Correspondence of the late 
Rev. George Sykes/ by W. Greenwood, 
printed at Malton in 1827. He married 
Mary, daughter of Matthew Glenton, Esq., 
of Boroughbridge, and by her had a son 
George Sykes, born in 1801, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Benjamin and Eliza- 
beth Jagger. Godfrey Sykes, the artist, 
was their first child, and was born 3 Dec., 
1824. In early life he worked with Messrs. 
Bell & Tompkins, engravers, at Sheffield, 
and afterwards was an engraver there on his 
own account. In September, 1860, he 
married Ellen Palfreyman, and had two 
sons : Godfrey, born in May, 1861, and 
Stanley in April, 1864. After his death, 
2.8 Feb., 1866, a collection of his works was 
exhibited at the South Kensington Museum, 
and noticed in The Athenceum, 18 Aug., ] 866. 

W. C. B. 

[The original design of the cover of The Cornhill 
Magazine can be seen at the new South Kensington 
Museum, in a glass case. The drawing is on paper, 
bearing the late Mr. George Smith's crest.] 

SOWING BY HAND. (See 10 S. xii. 482.) 
Both the critic who objected to the design 
of the sower on the cover of The Cornhill, 
and Mr. Smith in defending it, were wrong, 
so far as my observation goes, and I have 
been familiar with the process for the greater 
part of my life. In sowing by hand or 
kt broadcast,' 1 as it is usually called the 
sower walks along the ridge of the ' ; land " 
to be sown, and scatters the seed to left and 
right of him, using both hands alternately. 
He does not sow one side of the land first 
with his right hand, and afterwards the 
other side with his left. The case Mr. 
Smith saw is without parallel in my experi- 
ence ; but that method may of course be 
followed in some places. C. C. B. 

' A LAD OF THE O'FBIELS.' This is the 
title of a well-known book by Seumas 
MacManus. The surname O'Friel is known 
to me only from its pages, so I presume this 
orthography was coined by the author. I 
judge it to be a jocular attempt to represent 

ii s. i. JAN. lo, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


phonetically the curious sound given by 
Irish speakers to the surname O'Farrell, 
which in Gaelic is written O'Fearghaoil, and 
by a rather violent contraction is collo- 
quially reduced to one syllable, as it were 
O'Fraoil. The diphthong in O'Friel is 
.meant to be pronounced in German fashion. 
In the place-name Abbey Leix, from Gaelic 
Laoighis, the vowels are reversed, and the 
Gaelic aoi becomes ei in English, but the 
sound is the same Abbey Lees. 


Algernon Graves in his ' Royal Academy 
Exhibitors,* ii. 350, registers the exhibits 
of Henry Behnes Burlowe, a sculptor, at 
the R.A. 1831-3. From the section with 
the heading ' Last Days of William Behnes l 
in Robert Kempt's ' Pencil and Palette, 1 
1881, p. 35, it appears, that Burlowe was 
born Chenu : 

" The house in which the Behnes family resided 
was rented by a French sculptor named Chenn 
tan obvious typographical error for Chenu], a 
man of considerable ability. From him the 
second son, Henry, who afterwards assumed the 
name of Burlowe, picked up a knowledge of 
modelling in clay." 

The Chenu referred to was Peter Francis 
henu, who exhibited at the Royal Academy 
from 1788 to 1822; from 1811 onward his 
address was 23, Charles Street, Middlesex 
Hospital, which was also Behnes' s address 
in 1817, but in that year only. These facts 
may be useful in preventing future con- 
tusion. W. ROBERTS. 

PETERS. ' An Account of the Babtism [sic] 
of the Green - mountain by the Rev. 
Samuel A. Peters, LL.D., Bishop-elect of 
the State of Vermont,' is to be found in 
The Balance, Hudson, N.Y., 15 March, 1808, 
copied from The Dartmouth Gazette. It 
purports to be taken from a MS. note in a 
volume written by Dr. Peters, who is said 
to have given the name of Verd-mont to the 
mountain in the presence of Col. Taplin, 
Col. Wiles, Col. Peters, Judge Sumner, 
Judge Sleeper, Capt. Peters, Judge Peters, 
and many other proprietors in that colony : 

"The Babtism was performed in the following 
manner and form, viz. Priest Peters stood on the 
pinnacle of the rock, when he received a bottle of 
spirits from Col. Taplin." 

He then delivered a bombastic address, 
poured the spirits around him, and cast the 
bottle on " the rock Etam. Ji 

The whole thing reads like a hoax. The 
date of the occurrence is given as October, 

to draw the attention of fellow-topographers 
to the unique and valuable county cata- 
logues* of " Deeds and other Documents " 
now in course of publication in serial form 
by Mr. F. Marcham, of 9, Tottenham 
Terrace, White Hart Lane, Tottenham, 
successor to the late Mr. James Coleman the 
well-known antiquarian bookseller. Of these 
catalogues, the successive issues of which 
are sent post free to applicants at the time 
of publication, that for Middlesex is now 
complete in eight parts, containing references 
to over three thousand deeds dating from 
the fifteenth century onward ; and those for 
Surrey, Berkshire, and Buckinghamshire 
are in course of alternate monthly issue. 
It will, I think, be generally agreed that 
these catalogues deserve further mention in 
' N. & Q. 5 ' than they obtain occasionally 
under the heading of ' Booksellers' Cata- 
logues.* WILLIAM McMuRRAY. 

This celebrated prelate is embalmed in the 
saying that " St. Paul's was built by one 
architect (Wren), presided over by one 
Bishop (Compton), and had one Master 
Mason (Strong).' 1 

Of this prelate, who had been tutor to the 
Princesses Mary and Anne, and had placed 
the crown on the head of King William III. 
and Queen Mary, Macaulay tells us that 
he was " cruelly disappointed " at not 
receiving the See of Canterbury, which 
was conferred per saltum on Tillotson. 
Afterwards Tenison was translated from 
Lincoln to Canterbury. Compton's claims 
were undoubtedly great, and he had not 
shrunk from braving a tyrant's rage. He 
died at Fulham in 1713, at the good old age 
of eighty. 

There are many fine portraits of this 
celebrated prelate. One, a full-length, is 
on the staircase at Castle Ashby, the stately 
home of the race ; and my old friend Dr. 
Magrath, Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, 
where he was educated, has in his dining-room 
a portrait of the Bishop. 

Many years ago I paid a visit to Compton 
Wynyates, the old home of the family 
before they became so great, and I can 
remember seeing in the hall window the 
arms of Henry VIII. impaling those of 
Aragon, showing that the house was built 
before the divorce. The little church is close 
at hand, and was then in a state of disrepair, 
bhe only memorial of the Comptons being a 
large hatchment of the family. Some 
ponds hard by were literally alive with fish. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. JAN. 15, 1910. 

Bishop Compton was the youngest son 
of the gallant Henry Compton, second 
Earl of Northampton, who fell at the battle 
of Hopton Heath, near Stafford, in 1642. 

Macaulay has left a stirring description 
of the opening of St. Paul's after the Peace 
of Ryswick in 1697. He relates how Comp- 
ton ascended the throne, rich with the 
sculpture of Gibbons, and thence exhorted 
a numerous and splendid assembly (' His- 
tory of England,' chap. xxii.). 


[This note was in type at the time of our old con- 
tributor's death. See ante, p. 40.] 

$ turns. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" TALLY-HO." The early history of this 
word appears to be still to seek. The quota- 
tions found by readers for the ' New English 
Dictionary ' are all late, viz., as the repre- 
sentation of the view hulloa, 1772 ; as a 
sb., " one of his talli-os," 1787 ; attribu- 
tively, ' ' the tally-ho or Nimrodian style in 
literature," 1857 ; as name of a coach and 
four, "here is seen the tally-ho so gay," 
1825, " coming home by the Safety Tally-ho, "- 
1831. As a verb, "A fox was tally-ho 'd 
breaking covert,' 2 1812. The shout must 
have been in earlier unwritten use, and 
may occur in literature, but it is not easy 
to say where ; dictionaries, of course, ignore 
it ; it is unrecognized by Bailey, Johnson, 
Todd, 1818, and even by Webster, 1828. 
Will sympathetic readers try to think of 
likely places for its occurrence, and send 
us the results of searches or suggestions ? 
The corresponding French view - hulloa 
ta'iaut occurs in Moliere, ' Les Facheux,' 
1661, where it is used in deer-hunting, 
" taiiaut, voila d'abord le cerf donne aux 
chiens " ; and as a sb., " au milieu de tons les 
ta'iaux," in Madame de Sevigne, c. 1700. The 
French is often assumed to be the source of 
the English, and may have been, since, so 
far as evidence at present goes, it is known 
more than a century earlier ; but it 
has no etymology in French, and the origin 
is unknown ; prima facie one would say it 
looks like an adoption of the English tally-ho, 
if only the latter could be found as early. 

J. A. H. M. 


[The discussion of tally-ho at 8 S. xii. 65, 118, 192, 
291, may interest SIB JAMES MURRAY.] 

' N. & Q.' familiar with the hornbooks and 
grammars of the Elizabethan period will 
oblige me by -explaining the following : 

" I was fine yeare learning to crish Crosse from 
great A, and fiue yeare longer comming to F. 
There I stuck e some three yeare before I could 
come to q, and so in processe of time I came to 
e perce e, and comperce, and tittle, then I got to 
a e i o u, after to our Father, and in the sixteenth 
yeare of my age, and the fifteenth of my going to 
schoole, I am in good time gotten to a Nowne, by 
the same token there my hose went downe : then 
I got to a Verbe, there I began first to haue 
a beard : the I came to Iste, itfa.istud, there my M. 
whipt me till he fetcht the blood, and sofoorth."- 
' A pleasant conceited Comedie Wherein is shewed 
how a man may chuse a good Wife from a bad/ 
London, 1602 (British Museum C. 34 C. 53). 

The edition of 1608 has : 

"There I stuck some three yeare before I could 
come to Q, and so in processe of time I came to 
e per se e, and con per se, and tittle." 

I have consulted ' N.E.D.' 

A. E. H. SWAEN. 

SCOTCHMEN IN FRANCE. Can any readers, 
of ' N. & Q.' give me historical details on 
this important subject ? Scotch noblemen 
have played a prominent military part in 
France since the fifteenth century ; many of 
them settled definitely in France, especially 
in the ' ' Orleanais." Has any book been pub- 
lished on the subject either in England or 
France ? I have a few notes on the follow- 
ing families : Rutherford, Hepburn, Fullar- 
ton, Stemple, Daldart (?) ; and should be 
glad to complete them and add new ones. 
Chateau de La Vallee, Chateau-Renard, Loiretv 

any of your readers give me the name of the 
author of ' The History of Bullanabee and 
Clinkataboo, Two Recently Discovered 
Islands in the Pacific ' ? It was printed for 
Longman & Co. in 1828, 12mo. 


Wellington, N.Z. 

readers of ' N. & Q.' tell me of cases in which 
this or similar lines are used in epitaphs or 
mural inscriptions ? There is, of course, 
the famous Melrose Abbey inscription men- 
tioned by Scott : 

The earth goeth on the earth, 

Glist'ring like gold, &c. ; 

and several instances have been already 
cited in ' N. & Q.' (1 S. vii. 577 ; viii. 575 ; 
3 S. i. 389). Two of these, in St. James's, 
Clerkenwell, and St. Martin's, Ludgate the 

us. i. JAX. i5,i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

latter an epitaph on Florens Caldwell and 
Ann his wife, mentioned by Pettigrew can 
no longer be found (3 S. i. 389). A third 
(1 S. vii. 577) was believed by the copyist 
to belong to an old brass in St. Helen's, 
London ; but I can find no record of it at 
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, and should be 
glad of information as to its whereabouts 
The epitaph is to 

"James Pomley, y e sonne of ould Dominick 
Pomley and Jane his Wyfe : y e said James deceasec 
y e 7 th day of Januarie Anno Domini 1592, he beyng 
of y e age of 88 years." 

It contains four lines, beginning 

Earth goeth upon earth as moulcle upon moulde. 
There is said to be a similar tomb to a man 
and his wife at Edmonton on which the same 
four lines are inscribed (3 S. i. 389 ; Weever 
' Funeral Monuments ? ; Pettigrew, ' Chron 
of the Tombs,' p. 67). Is this still in exist- 
ence, and can any other instances be given ? 

(Miss) H. M. R. MURRAY. 

[Mr. E. R. Suffling in his * Epitaphia,' Upcott 
Gill, 1909, prints on p. 282 this epitaph as on 
Florens Caldwell and Mary Wilde his wife, with 
the date 1590. Another from Loughor, Glamorgan, 
on p. 339, reads : 

O Earth ! O Earth ! observe this well, 

That Earth to Earth must go to dwell, 
That Earth to Earth must close remain 
Till Earth for Earth shall come again.] 


STREETS." In the churchyard of Stoke 
Goldington in Buckinghamshire there is a 
gravestone to John Gadsden, who died in 
1739. It has the following epitaph : 
This world's a city full of crooked streets, 
Death 's the market-place where all men meet ; 
If life were merchandise that men could buy, 
The rich would always live, the poor might die. 

I have an impression that I have read this 
in an early eighteenth-century writer. Will 
one of your readers tell me where ? 


[Mr. Suffling quotes this on p. 401 of his 
' Epitaphia,' and adds from Gay : - 
If Life were Merchandize that all could buy, 
The Rich alone would Live, the Poor alone would 


He also prints on p 40o a Scottish version of 1689, 
which he believes to be the original.] 

VIRONS OF LONDON.' Fletcher's ' English 
Book-Collectors ' mentions that in the sale 
of the library of the first Duke of Bucking- 
ham a set of Lysons's ' Topographical 
.Account of Buckinghamshire/ extra-illus- 
trated and bound in 8 vols. folio, was 
included, also a set of Lysons's * Environs 
of London,' extra -illustrated and bound in 

18 vols. quarto. Any information as to the 
present whereabouts of these two sets would 
be appreciated. B. T. BATSFORD. 

94, High Holborn, W.C. 

LADY'S LAP." Most of the readers of 
' X. & Q.* must be acquainted with the 
prophecy, said to be very old, 

When our Lord shall lie in our Lady's lap 
England will meet with a strange mishap, 
referring, of course, to the Annunciation 
of the B.V.M. falling on the same day as 
Good Friday, which will take place on the 
25th of March next. Can you inform me 
how long it is since the coincidence last 
occurred, and whether the rime is one of 
Mother Shipton's sayings, or of a later date ? 
I have known it for more than forty years. 

W. F. 

' CRITICAL REVIEW,' 1756. Is the copy of 
The Critical Review (1756) mentioned by 
Xichols in the following passage still extant, 
and, if such is the case, where is it to be 
found ? 

"Mr. Wright printed The. Westminster Maga- 
zine, in which he had marked the writers of every 
article in a copy which jtrobably still exists. He 
had, in like manner, when at Mr. Hamilton's, pre- 
fixed the names of the writers in The Critical 
Review''' Literary Anecdotes,' vol. iii. p. 399. 



Which of the following versions is the 
right one ? The first is given in ' The Book 
of Sundials l (originally compiled by the 
late Mrs. Alfred Gatty) from a wall in the 
village of Ashcott, Somerset, viz. : 
Be the day weary, be the day long, 
Soon shall it ring to evensong. 
The second version I have not been able 
to trace. It has been repeated to me by a 
lady and by a bishop : 

Be the day weary, or be the day long, 
At length it ringeth to evensong. 

Conheath, Dumfries, N.B. 

[Both forms are adaptations of a couplet by 
Stephen Hawes (1517). See DR. SMYTHE PALMER'S 
reply at 9 S. v. 407.] 

title of a work on Babylonian excavation 
which was noticed a few years ago in The 
Times. It is desired to know the name of 
the author and the date of publication ; 
also, if German, as is supposed (in which case 
the English title must be a translation), 
the original title. W. T. LYNN. 




11 S. I. JAN. 15, 1910. 

I am editing the letters of a man who quoted 
pretty freely in two senses and I have 
traced all his quotations except these five : 

1. Felix quern faciunt aliena pericula cantum. 

2. Felix et prudens qui tempore pacis de bello 


3. Recte faciendo neminem timeas. 
4 Tela prsevisa minus nocent. 

5. Turba per extremas semper bacchata vagatur, 
Et medias iiescit carpere tuta vias. 

Can the readers of * N. & Q. ? assist me ? 
Hon. Sec. Hakluyt Society. 

I shall be glad of information about the 
following quotations, which I cannot trace 
to their origin. 

In ' Across the Plains ? Stevenson quotes : 

1. The tall hills Titan discovered. 
In ' The Black Arrow l : 

2. Here is no law in good green shaw. 

In ' Westward Ho l Kingsley quotes : 

3. Our bodies in the sea so deep, 
Our souls in heaven to rest. 

4. Who will join, jolly mariners all ? 

5. Westward ho ! with a rum below, 
And hurrah for the Spanish Main O ! 

What is " a rumbelow " ? 

In ' The Pleasures of Life ' Lord Avebury 
quotes : 

6. When care sleeps the soul wakes. 

7. The dark lantern of the spirit, 

Which none can see by but he who bears it. 

8. " The eternal crown of poesy n is a 
phrase either used by Milton or of Milton's 
works. A. L. O. G. 


Can any one inform me in which of Mr. 
Alfred Austin's poems or odes the line 

Give your money to the hospitals 
appears ? I think it was written in con- 
nexion with the King Edward Hospital 
Fund. I am desirous of obtaining a copy 
of the poem. E. H. LLOYD. 

3, Park Road, Oxbridge. 

REV. RICHARD SNOWE. I shall be glad 
to add to my extremely small store of infor- 
mation in reference to the eighteenth- 
century divine of this name who was Rector 
of SS. Anne and Agnes with St. John 
Zachary, London, from 1780 till his death 
some eight years later. All I know of him 
at present is limited to his being Rector of 
St. Anne's as above ; and to his dying 
on 6 Feb., 1788, and being interred in the 
chancel of the church on the 13th of the 

month. His will, at P.C.C. 95 Calvert, 
dated 7 January of same year, makes no 
mention of wife or family. He does not 
seem to hav6 held a degree. 

Perhaps some correspondent can tell me 
whether Mr. Snowe was in any way related 
to the " Rev. Dr. J. Snowe ?i who is re- 
ferred to in Chester's ' Westminster Abbey 
Registers ? as chaplain to the Prince of 
Wales (Frederick Louis) in 1732. 


Registers of Wonston, Hants ' (press-mark 
9905), p. 6, is the following entry : 

" The Widow Taylor's former husband dying 
insolvent, she was married to her second husband 
only with her shift, thinking thereby, according to 
a vulgar tradition, to discharge him from her first 
husband's debts. 12 Oct., 1783." 

Is there any other record of this peculiar 

Commander R.N. 

[The custom has been previously discussed in 
' N. & Q.' ; see 9 S. v. 323 ; xii. 146, 214, 314, and the 
references cited.] 

WILLIAM KEITH was elected on the 
foundation at Westminster School in 1751. 
Particulars of his career and the date of his 
death are required. G. F. R. B. 

EDWARD PLASS was elected on the founda- 
tion at Westminster School in 1698. I 
should be glad to obtain any information 
about him. G. F. R. B. 

WILLIAM SHIPPEN, 1673-1743. Who was 
his mother ? The ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' (lii. 
117) says nothing about her. G. F. R. B. 

' THE SQUIRE'S TALE.' Will some one 
kindly explain the origin and meaning of 
the following characters in ' The Squire's 
Tale J ? It is probable that they come from 
some language of the Mongol family : Cam- 
buscan (? Kannusi-Kan, " King of Kings ") ; 
Elphita (? Alp, " noble ") ; Cambalo (? Kan- 
bele, " of royal family ") ; Algarsyf (? Arabic 
El Wasuf, " the titles " or " attributes " of 
the Almighty). The above are merely 
crude suggestions made by a friend. 


[Have you consulted any annotated edition ? ] 

SIR ROBERT GEFFERY. This native of 
Landrake in Cornwall was Lord Mayor of 
London in 1685. I am anxious to know 
if there is a portrait of him in existence. 


88, Horton Grange Road, Bradford. 

n s. i. JAN. 15, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(10 S. xii. 490.) 

THE publication of accurate division lists only 
became possible with the adoption of the 
present system of taking divisions, by which 
the two parties pass through separate 
lobbies, where they are counted by the 
tellers and their names noted by the clerks. 
It will be seen from the following descriptions 
of the older methods how impossible an 
accurate record must have been : 

" Until 1857 a division was effected in the Lords 
by the not contents remaining within the bar, and 
the contents going below the bar : but in that year 
their lordships adopted nearly the same arrange- 
ments as those which had been in successful opera- 
tion, for many years, in the Commons." Sir 
Thomas Erskine May,' Law ^Parliament,' eleventh 
ed., p. 358. 

" Whilst the Commons sat in St. Stephen's 
Chapel, the separation of the ' ayes ' and ' noes ' 
for the purpose of a division was effected by the 
retention of one party within the house, to be 
counted there, and by the withdrawal of the other 
party into the lobby, who were counted on their 
return into the house." Ibid., p. 360. 

The Commons' arrangements, referred to 
in the first of the above quotations, were 
adopted on 18 Feb., 1836, on the motion 
of Mr. Henry G. Ward. The gist of the 
argument for the change is contained in the 
following sentence from his speech : 

" Everybody was aware of the inaccuracies that 
were to be met with in the list of every division 
that was now given in the newspapers ; and by the 

Rlan he proposed, he was satisfied that an accurate 
st of names would be furnished." ' Hansard's 
Debates,' Third Series, vol. xxxi. col. 562; 'Com- 
mons' Journals,' vol. xci. p. 54. 

The first division under the new system 
was taken on 22 Feb., 1836, on the second 
reading of the London and Brighton Railway 
Bill (' Hansard,' col. 688 ; ' Journal,* p. 67). 
Hansard has the following note to the 
division list : 

" This is the first division in which the names of 
the members dividing were taken down, according 
to Mr. Ward's plan (see ante, p. 562), and regularly 
entered in the votes of the House. The lists hence- 
forth, except one or two, when the House was in 
Committee, which case was supposed not to be 
provided for by Mr. Ward's Resolution, may be 
relied on." 

On the last point Sir Erskine May (p. 370) 
explains that 

" in committees of the whole house, divisions were 
formerly taken by the members of each party cross- 
ing over to the opposite side of the house : but the 
same forms are now observed in all division?, 
whether in the house or in committee." 

The new method was adopted by the 
Lords on 10 March, 1857, when Earl Stan- 
hope in moving the necessary resolutions 
said : 

"The lists at present published in the news- 
papers contained constant errors arid inaccuracies, 
of which frequent complaints were made, but which 
could not be avoided under the existing system. 
Some very interesting divisions were not recorded 
at all." ' Hansard's Debates,' Third Series, 
vol. cxliv. col. 2112 ; ' Lords' Journals,' vol. Ixxxviii. 
p. 548. 

On 19 May, 1857, the first division under 
the new rules took place, the subject being 
the second reading of the Divorce and 
Matrimonial Causes Bill ('Hansard, 5 vol. 
cxlv. col. 537; ' Journal, 1 vol. Ixxxix. p. 37). 

It may be worth noting that the Com- 
mons' division lists are not entered in the 
' Journal,' being merely circulated with the 
Votes and Proceedings issued on the morning 
following each sitting. The Lords* lists 
are both appended to the daily Minutes of 
Proceedings and entered in the ' Journal,* 
but in slightly different forms. In the 
Minutes the lords of equal degree appear in 
alphabetical order, whereas in the ' Journal l 
they are entered in the order of precedence 
shown by the Roll. 

It will be seen from the above that, while 
the accurate, complete, and official pub- 
lication of Parliamentary division lists is 
of comparatively recent origin, it was pre- 
ceded by inaccurate, incomplete, and un- 
official publication. It would be difficult 
to say to what date the latter goes back ; 
so far as appears from the Tables of Contents, 
the first list in the ' Parliamentary History * 
is of the division taken in the House of 
Commons on 24 April, 1716, on the motion 
to go into committee on the Septennial Bill 
(vol. vii. col. 367). It is probable, however, 
that isolated lists were printed earlier. 

F. W. READ. 

The practice of allowing Parliamentary 
debates to be published in the newspapers 
dates from 1771. See Green's ' Short His- 
tory, l pp. 751-2. In his ' History of the 
Radical Party in Parliament * Mr. Harris 
gives the first printed list of members of 
the progressive party taking part in a 
division under the year 1793. W. SCOTT. 
[A. A. B. also thanked for reply. 1 

490). The original Greek of Mrs. Browning's 
poem is near the beginning of the second 
book of ' Clitophon and Leucippe.* The song 
is given in prose, which may account for S.'s 
failure to find it. EDWARD BENSLY. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 15, 1910. 

If S. will refer to the beginning of Book II. 
of ' Clitophon and Leucippe,' by Achilles 
Tatius, Mitscherlich's edition, p. 46, he 
will find the passage he wants ; but there is 
no reference to Sappho. B. D. 

In Wharton's ' Sappho,' p. 163, it is 
stated : 

" Philostratos says : ' Sappho loves the rose, and 
always crowns it with some praise, likening beauti- 
ful maidens to it.' This remark seems to have led 
some of the earlier collectors of Sappho's fragments 
to include the ' pleasing song in commendation of 
the rose' quoted by Achilles Tatius [sometimes 
written Achilles Statius] in his love-story ' Kleito- 
phon and Leukippe,' but there is no reason to 
attribute it to Sappho." 

J. S. 


Clitophon says (Achilles Tatius, II. i.) that 
his mistress sang two songs, the second of 
which is in praise of the rose ; but there 
is no mention of Sappho whatever. How 
and when the words came to be attributed 
to her I cannot say, but Francis Fawkes 
(1721-77) included this fragment among his 
renderings from Sappho. For comparison 
with Mrs. Browning's version I quote the 
lines from Anderson's "Poets" (1795), 
xiii. 207 : 

Would Jove appoint some flower to reign 
In matchless beauty on the plain, 
The rose (mankind will all agree), 
The rose the queen of flowers should be, 
The pride of plants, the grace of bowers, 
The blush of meads, the eye of flowers : 
Its beauties charm the gods above ; 
Its fragrance is the breath of love ; 
Its foliage wantons in the air 
Luxuriant, like the flowing hair : 
It shines in blooming splendour gay, 
While zephyrs on its bosom play. 

Fawkes, by the way, was the author of 
the song about Toby Fillpot which was 
recently discussed in ' N. & Q.' His name 
is misprinted " Hawkes >? at 10 S. xii. 471. 


FIG TREES IN LONDON (10 S. xi. 107, 
178 ; xii. 293, 336, 396, 476). A fig tree 
and a grape vine are growing in the Vicarage 
garden of St. Mark's, North Audley Street. 
A niece of the late Rev. J. W. Ayre, Vicar 
of the church from 1857 to 1898, writes : 

" The fig was a fine tree, some 12 ft. in height, 
and well grown eleven years ago ; now it is higher, 
but very straggly. My uncle brought it from 
Hants, and used to prune it carefully, and give 
it plenty of chalk at the roots. It bore figs every 
year, but they were rarely larger than a good- 
sized gooseberry, and were never ripe enough to 
eat. I suppose the tree did not get quite enough 
length of sunshine, for, though it was on a south 

wall, as soon as the sun got towards the west 
it was shadowed by the houses in North Audley 

" The vine, on the other hand, bore very nice 
' muscadine '. grapes ; in hot summers the 
bunches were quite large ; in 1894 (a hot year) 
there were 120 bunches. It had been planted 
longer than the fig tree I think in 1881 and, 
being higher, got more sunshine. It was well 
pruned, and manured with bones. When I saw 
it the other day, it was half up the south wall 
of the church, but had not many grapes, possibly 
partly from the summer having been cold and 

I. M. L. 


THAN LETTERS IN THE BlBLE " (10 S. xii. 509). 

The question as to which preponderates 
has been frequently raised. In Bell's Life 
for 23 Dec., 1882, an inquirer was informed 
that there were 3,698,380 acres in Yorkshire, 
and 3,566,480 letters in the Bible. 

The acreage of Yorkshire is, however, 
variously computed by different writers. 
In one work I find it given in detail as 

follows : 


North Riding 1,350,121 

West Riding 1,709,307 

East Riding 768,419 

City and Ainsty of the City of York 2,720 

Total ... 3,830,567 
' Harmsworth's Encyclopaedia ' estimates 

as under : 

North Riding 
West Riding 
East Riding 



Total ... 3,878,737 

Whichever of these estimates is taken, 
it is clear that the number of Yorkshire 
acres largely exceeds that of the letters in 
the Bible, if the figures mentioned in Bell's 
Life are approximately accurate, which I 
must beg to be excused from verifying. 


I do not know whence the reference 
comes ; but, at all events, the statement 
made is a fact. According to a ' Cyclopaedia 
of Curious Statistics ' now lying before me, 
there are said to be 3,566,480 letters in the 
Bible. On the other hand, the area of 
Yorkshire, according to Jack's ' Reference 
Book, 1 amounts to 3,889,611 acres. 


' Everybody's Pocket Cyclopaedia '- states 
that there are 3,566,480 letters in the Bible 
(p. 45 of 4th ed.). The ' Ency. Brit.,' 
10th ed., xxxiii. 916d., gives 3,882,848 acres 
in Yorkshire. CROSS PATTY. 

n s. i. JAN. io, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

There are (according to 'Whitaker') 
3,771,843 acres in Yorkshire, and there are 
3,556,680 letters in the Bible. Consequently 
the acres outnumber the letters by 215,163. 

D. K. T. 

WALSH SURNAME (10 S. xii. 446). At 
10 S. xii. 233 I stated that, under certain 
conditions, gutturals and velars became 
modified into palatals and fricatives, and I 
promised to contribute a note on this sub- 
ject. Curiously enough, in one particular 
MR. JAS. PLATT has anticipated me. The 
pronunciation of gh as sh is said by him to 
be " one of the most interesting phenomena 
in the whole range of English phonetics." 
As a matter of fact, this is not confined to 
English phonetics, but extends through the 
whole of the Aryan group of languages. 

My own view is that the original Indo- 
European contained the sounds kh and gh 
(pronounced like Arabic khe and ghain 
respectively) ; and that in some languages, 
particularly the Sanskrit, these gutturales 
verce became modified, under certain con- 
ditions, to the palatal sh ; in others, as in 
Latin, they became merely k or g, with or 
without labialization ; while in Persian they 
became either sh or h, if they did not remain 
unchanged. I have not yet completed 
my study of the conditions under which 
these changes occurred, but I shall give two 
or three examples to illustrate them. It is 
necessary to remember that Greek x should 
be pronounced like kh, or German ch, and 
not merely as k ; and that English gh must 
be taken to be equivalent to a true guttural 


I. Eng. ei#7zt=Germ. ac7it = O. Ir. ocht = 
Latin octo = Gk. dxTw = Sans. asAta=O. Pers. 

II. Gk. SK<x=Lat. decem = Sans. das/ia 
= Pers. da&a. 

III. Lat. equus ( = ^vos)= Gael. e&ch 
= Sans. as/iva=O. Pers. aspa. 

IV. Gk. ^ VT s = Lat. clutus = Sans. 

In the case of the word " daughter," how- 
ever, Sanskrit replaces the guttural by h, 
probably because the accent in the original 
word fell upon the syllable following the 
guttural : 

Eng. dau#7iter=Germ. toc/iter=Pers. 
dufc&tar=Sans. duAitra. 

The inference to be drawn from such 
examples is that in the Indo-Aryan group 
the gutturals kh and gh became very early 
modified into sh or h ; and the important 
point with regard to this is that the sh 

sound is not cerebral, but palatal. The 
palatal sh and the cerebral sh are represented 
in Sanskrit by two distinct symbols, but 
they are not distinguished in the European 
languages. Nevertheless, when a German 
pronounces ich as ish, my ear perceives very 
clearly the palatal nature of the -sh ; and 
in the word Milch, I being palatal, there is 
no doubt that the softening of the guttural 
makes it a palatal. 

In fact, when -halgh is pronounced as 
-halsh in English, or Milch as milsh in 
German, the same phonetic change takes 
place in our own day, as occurred very early 
when akht became as/ita in Sanskrit or 
has/it in Persian. 

This palatal sh is not the sh of the English 
word shame, and it is difficult to show that 
the sound exists in English at all. But I 
have heard a great many English people 
pronounce the words " this year " as though 
they were " thish year," and I am inclined 
to think that the position of the tongue in 
pronouncing the s is determined by the 
rapidly succeeding palatal y, and that there- 
fore the sound heard is a true palatal sh. 


51, Ladbroke Road, W. 

[Are the words with x correct ?] 

THOMAS PAINE (10 S. xii. 44, 118, 197). 
In my note at the first reference I incident- 
ally referred to a prevalent belief in this 
country that Paine was joint author of the 
Declaration of Independence. In so writing 
I followed not only Conway and Sedgwick, 
but public utterances (unquestioned till 
now) made in England during the centenary 
celebrations by men of probity, familiar 
with the writings and career of the great 
Revolutionist. Moreover, in the rare pam- 
phlet to which I previously referred (pub- 
lished by J. P. Watson), Cobbett had gone 
much further in identifying Paine with the 
historic Declaration. In the light of the 
valuable article by MR. ALBERT MATTHEWS 
at 10 S. xii. 441, the claim made for Paine's 
collaboration can, in my opinion, no longer 
be sustained. 

My main purpose, however, is to draw 
attention to the lit tie -known fact that the 
major portion of Paine' s desecrated grave- 
stone has remained in the continuous 
custody of a Liverpool family for nearly 
100 years. Concerted investigation on the 
part of English and American friends imme- 
diately followed publication, with the result 
that the genuineness of the Liverpool 
fragment has been fully established. Those 
who desire to possess details of the evidence 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. J AN . 15, 1910. 

are referred to The South Place Magazine, 
September, 1909 (London, A. & H. Bonner, 
Church Passage, Chancery Lane). Permi 
me publicly to thank Mrs. S. M. Rushton 
of this city (daughter-in-law of Cobbett's 
friend) for facilities afforded visitors to 
inspect the relic, of which she is the owner 
and careful custodian. JAS. M. Dow. 


310). So far as I can ascertain, no reference 
to Dr. Wollas ton's being in Scotland is 
found save in Lockhart's ' Life of Scott 
and Mrs. Somerville's Personal Recollec- 
tions.' In the ' Recollections l allusion is 
made to James Veitch, the Laird of Inch- 
bonny, who, as the first observer in Britain 
of the comet of 1811, is introduced into the 
pages of Dr. Thomas Dick's ' Diffusion of 
Knowledge.' My edition of that work 
a very late one, however contains no 
reference to Veitch corresponding to that 
cited in Mrs. Somerville's book. I can only 
conjecture that the passage quoted in the 
1 Recollections * as occurring in the ' Diffusion 
of Knowledge J may have been expunged 
in subsequent editions in deference to the 
feelings of Veitch, who felt somewhat 
indignant at the terms in which Dick had 
described him. At the same time, ample 
justice is done to Veitch' s discovery in 
Dick's ' Sidereal Heavens, 1 ed. 1840, p. 461. 
In none of Dr. Dick's books, I think, does 
the name of Dr. Wollaston occur. A very 
careful and appreciative article on Wollaston 
in Prof. George Wilson's ' Religio Chemici,' 
London, 1862, fails to notice any visit at all 
to Scotland. 

Will the querist pardon me for adding 
that a mere friendly visit by. Dr. Wollaston 
to a self-taught astronomer living near 
Jedburgh, undertaken probably at the 
instance of the Somervilles, is hardly likely 
to stand recorded as a " red-letter day " 
in county history ? WALTER SCOTT. 


LOVELS OF NORTHAMPTON (10 S. xii. 489). 
-MR. WRIGHT is perhaps aware that the 
arms of Sir Thomas Lovel, with those of 
the King and the Earl of Lincoln, may still 
be seen over the Chancery Lane gatehouse 
of Lincoln's Inn, commemorative of the 
fact that that gatehouse was built by him. 

In the old Islington mansion near Paradise 
Place a building which was for some time 
known as Ward's Place, but was pulled down 
in 1800 were, among other interesting 
coats of arms, those of Lovel quartering j 

! Muswel, or Mosel. Cromwell in his ' Walks 
through Islington ' does not say what became 
of either this or the other specimens of Tudor 
' art which were removed at the dismantling 
of the mansion. 

Another and more tangible memorial of 
this distinguished personage was in 1903 
added to the collection of monuments in 
Westminster Abbey. This is a portrait in 
bronze, supposed to be by Torrigiano, of 
whose work there are many other notable 
examples in the Abbey. It was presented 
to the Dean and Chapter by Sir J. C. Robin- 
son, and was then placed on the back of the 
stalls in the south aisle of Henry VII. 's 
Chapel. The bronze was formerly in the 
National Portrait Gallery, to which it was 
lent for some time by Sir J. C. Robinson. 

There is an account of the Lovells, Barons 
Lovell of Tichmersh, in Burke's ' Extinct 

COUNT PALATINE (10 S. xii. 489). Johann 
Wilhelm of Neuburg (b. 1658) was Elector 
Palatine of the Rhine from 1690 to his death 
in 1716. See the ' Allgemeine Deutsche 
Biographie, 1 xiv. 314-17, Leipzig, 1881. 
In English there is brief reference to him 
at p. 335 of Elizabeth Godfrey's Heidel- 
berg : its Princes and its Palaces, 1 London, 
E. Grant Richards, 1906. The pedigree on 
p. xiii of this work is not very clear, and not 
quite accurate. 

Johann Wilhelm was the son of the Elector 
Philip Wilhelm (1685-90), who was the son 
of Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count of Neuburg. 
This Wolfgang had by renouncing the Pro- 
testant religion acquired the Duchy of 
Julich. Hence Johann Wilhelm was able to 
ive in state at Diisseldorf while the unhappy 
Palatinate was devastated by the French or 
oppressed by his own tax-gatherers. This 
Catholic prince was a noted collector of 
pictures ; he built the not very handsome 
edifice which is still pointed out to the 
astonished visitor as the University of Heidel- 
berg ; and he presented books to the 
Jniversity Library. His selfish and un- 
patriotic policy towards the Palatinate is 
duly censured by J. C. F. Hausser in his 
Geschichte der Rheinischen Pfalz,* vol. ii. 
lis two sons having died in infancy, 
Johann Wilhelm was succeeded by his 
>rother Karl Philip, with whom the line 
ame to an end in 1742. The Heidelberg 
Museum contains four portraits of Johann 
Vilhelm, one being a painting of the 
colossal equestrian statue which was put up 

ii s. i. JAN. 15, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

during his lifetime at Diisseldorf. If MB. 
GILBERT would like to have copies of these 
pictures, I could make the necessary arrange- 
ments for him with one of the local photo- 
graphers. L. R. M. STBACHAN. 

" HEN AND CHICKENS " SIGN (10 S. xii. 
28, 94, 215). Dr. Edmond Halley's younger 
surviving daughter, Mrs. C. Price, in her 
wiil dated 8 July, 1764, proved 14 Nov., 
1765 ; P.C.C. reg. Rushworth, fo. 423, 
bequeaths, among other properties, the 
*' Hen and Chickens," in Whitechapel High 
Street, in the occupation of John Allen, to 
Mary Entwisle, Margaret Entwisle, and Jane 
Millikin, widow, all of Lombard Street, 
milliners, and immediately after their de- 
cease to the use of Halley Benson Millikin, 
son of the said Jane Millikin. The italics 
are mine. What do those, words signify ? 
Do they imply the existence of heirs of 
entail ? It has been thought just possible 
that the " Hen and Chickens n may have 
been at one time the seat of Humphrey 
Halley the elder, vintner, paternal grand- 
father of the astronomer. In the Middle- 
sex Land Registry are two records (in 
December, 1743, and January, 17434) 
of dealings with the " Hen and Chickens " 
by Mrs. Catherine Price. 

I should be grateful for any data relating 
to the above. EUGENE F. McPiKE. 

1, Park Row, Chicago. 

PIN AND NEEDLE RIMES (10 S. xii. 409, 
518). All MB. RATCLIFFE'S rimes but the 
third were current in South Notts when I 
was a boy, but in the last of them we sang 
*' to carry my lord to London.' 1 Which is 
the original version ? 

I remember well, that our village shop- 
keeper, when unable to make up change, 
would say : "I haven't got a ha'penny ; 
I '11 give you a row of pins.' 1 C. C. B. 

In my third rime (10 S. xii. 518) the 
second line should run 

Three big beggars knockt at the door.* 


"HuEL" (10 S. xii. 488). Huel (pro- 
perly hwyl} denotes the peculiar intonation, 
a raising of the pitch of the voice, something 
between speech and song, which is frequently 
heard in preachers and speakers in Wales. 
Primarily it denotes the fervour or 
emotion which leads to this intonation. 
A preacher does not begin with the hwyl, 
but works up to it gradually as the emotional 

tension increases ; and it was no doubt this 
intensity of emotion of which the Archbishop 
of York was thinking when he declared that 
the hwyl " makes the speaker say he knows 
not what, and excites the audience they 
know not why. u There are few forms of 
human speech more beautiful in sound than 
Welsh spoken with a good hwyl. I have 
heard the word, unkindly, derived from 
Engl. howl, but no doubt it is simply the 
hwyl, which means "course"' or ''sail 2 *; 
cf. hwylio, " to sail n ; hwylbren, " a mast " ; 
hwylus, " orderly, n " dexterous.' 1 

H. I. B, 

LYNCH LAW (10 S. xi. 445, 515; xii. 
52, 133, 174, 495)." As, therefore, Wirt 
had finished his biography " (in which the 
expression " Lynch law " appears for the 
first time) "on or before 23 Oct., 1816, 
while the murder of Lynchy did not take 
place until 1 Nov. following, it results that 
M.'s theory n (that the expression originated 
with the murder of Lynchy) " is placed 
out of court. n So says MB. ALBEBT MAT- 
THEWS, and no doubt he would be right 
if the facts were as represented by him. 
His statement, however, is not correct. All 
that Wirt had finished on 23 Oct., 1816, was 
the first rough draft of his book, and it was 
not submitted to Mr. Roane (whose letter 
cited by Wirt contains the quotation in 
point) until at least four, and possibly more, 
months after the murder. I shall now pro- 
ceed to prove my statement, using as my 
authority the same book that MB. MATTHEWS 
relies on, namely, ' Memoirs of the Life of 
William Wirt/ by John P. Kennedy. I 
quote from the British Museum copy, pub- 
lished in Philadelphia, 1850. 

Wirt, writing to Richard Morris on 19 Jan., 
1817, says : 

" Are you not a shabby fellow, to return the 
manuscript, without aiding me with a single 
criticism ? "Vol. i. p. 367. 

Again, writing to Judge Carr on 27 Feb., 
1817, Wirt says : 

" I carried to Washington the manuscript. . . . 
You must if possible see it before it goes to the 
press. . . .The greater part of the btDok as it now 
stands is the first rough draft .... I want to put 
a little more body and character into the work." 
Ib., vol. ii. p. 19. 

Writing again to Judge Carr on 9 Aug., 
1817, Wirt says : "I submitted the work to 
several old gentlemen. . . .Mr. Roane n (ib. t 
p. 23). The book was in fact not sent to 
press until 5 Sept., 1817, (ib., p. 28), and it 
did not appear in public until about the 1st 
of November, 1817 (ib., p. 29), exactly twelve 
months after the murder of Lynchy. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 15, 1910. 

MR. MATTHEWS has laid before the readers 
of ' X. <fc Q. ? certain extracts from Ken- 
nedy's book; how comes it that he over- 
looked the passages I have cited which tell 
against him ? The matter is of some 
importance, for MB. MATTHEWS is the 
authority upon whom the editor of the 
' N. E. D.' relies for his remarks upon the 
origin of the expression '' lynch law." M. 

NESS " (10 S. xii. 150, 415). I am now able 
to furnish MB. THOBNTON with an example 
of the latter term. The following extract is 
taken from Life (New York), of 9 Dec., 
1909, liv. 846 : 

" Meanwhile Dr. Cook has had several profitable 
months in the lecture and news field, and has done 
a land'omce business." 


Boston, U.S. 

RHEIDIOL (10 S. xii. 488). When the 
Saperton Tunnel formed the junction of 
the Severn and the Isis in 1789, the event 
was celebrated, among other ways, by 
" Traveller " in the following allegorical 
letter : 

Friday, Nov. 20, 1789. 

SIB, Yesterday a marriage took place between 
Madame Sabrina, a Lady of Cambrian extraction, 
and mistress of very extensive property in Mont- 
gomeryshire (where she was born,) and the 
counties of Salop, Stafford, Worcester, and Glou- 
cester, and Mr. Thames, commonly called "Father 
Thames," a native of Gloucestershire, now a 
merchant trading from London to all known parts 
of the world. The ceremony took place at Lech- 
lade, by special licence, in the presence of hundreds 
of admiring spectators, with myself, who signed as 
witnesses : whence the happy pair went to 
breakfast at Oxford, to dine at London, and to 
consummate at Gravesend ; where the venerable 
Neptune, his whole train of inferior deities 
and nymphs, with his wife Amphitrite and her 
train, are to fling the stocking. An union which 
presages many happy consequences, and a numer- 
ous offspring. I mention the Lady's name, as the 
tendre [sic] came from her, after many struggles 
with her modesty, and Cambrian aversion to a 
Saxon spouse. 


[We have forwarded to MB. DA VIES a long 
bibliography from MB. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.] 

,xi. 327, 417). In my reply concerning 
the French queen's appearance at the time 
of her execution, I mentioned that Herve 
states that her hair had turned grey, imply- 
ing that this took place in the Temple 
prison. I have, however, just met with an 
account stating that this took place before 
her imprisonment ; and as the book seems 

rather rare, and the writer had peculiar 
opportunity of knowing, it seems to be worth 
extracting. The title-page reads : ' ' Memoirs 
of Maria 'Antoinetta. By Joseph Weber,. 
Foster Brother of the Queen. Translated 
by R. May. 1823 " ; but this date is covered 
by a slip bearing the printed date of 1825. 

On p. 22 of vol. ii. First Part, Weber says- 
that the Dauphin, in his eighth year, 
'' died on the 4th of June, 1789, in the arms, an 
bathed with the tears, of this excellent mother 
[Queen Maria Antoinetta at Versailles], whom 
he frequently told that he suffered only when he 
saw her weep. This premature death greatly 
affected the Queen. The grief she felt on tins- 
occasion, uniting with the anxiety caused by the 
King's situation, produced a complication of 
horrors that entirely turned her hair grey, though 
she was but four-and-thirty years old. She had 
her picture taken about this time, and sent it to- 
ner friend the Princess de Lamballe with these 
affecting words written by herself under it : 
Her sorrows have made her grey ! " 

Weber on p. 52 says : 

" I lived, during the three years that followed 
this period, with persons who were every day with 
the King." 

He was in the Finance Department. 

In 1792 he was imprisoned in the H6tel 
de la Force, but was saved from death, and 
later, becoming a pensioner of Duke Albert of 
Saxe-Teschen, employed himself in writing^ 
these ' Memoirs.' D. J. 

xii. 450, 518). Possibly " Bonegeton " may 
mean Bungay town, as opposed to Bungay 
Boyscote. S. H. A. H. 

It may be useful to note that De Alta 
Ripa, which is given as the equivalent of 
Hawtrey, is also the mediaeval form of 
Dealtry, the name of a Yorkshire family. 

W. C. B. 

In confirmation of DR. COPINGER'S reply 
about " Burnedhis," I would mention that 
Brundish in Hoxne Hundred, Suffolk, was 
with Tannington vested in commissioners 
11 June, 1858, before which they belonged to 
the Bishop of Rochester. The patronage was 
transferred to the Bishop of Norwich 4 June, 
1852. It would be interesting to learn 
how they came to belong to the Rochester 
diocese in the first instance. 


ROTHERHITHE (11 S. i. 9). 'Memorials 
to serve for a History of the Parish of St. 
Mary, Rotherhithe,' or, as it is more briefly 
lettered on the back, ' History of Rother- 
hithe,' by the Rev. E. J. Beck, was pub- 
lished by the Cambridge University Press in 
1907, and a very good book it is. There is 

n s. i. JA*. is, i9io.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 

much eighteenth-century matter in it. 
Chap. xi. deals with ' The Rebuilding of the 
Parish Church, 1714-15.' The next chapter, 
on ' Old Rotherhithe Families, 1 refers to 
several local worthies of that period. There 
are chapters on ' Rotherhithe in 1800 l ; 

' The Manor of Rotherhithe from 1740 to 
the Present Day ' ; and ' Prince Lee Boo,* 
who was brought to Rotherhithe in 1784 ; 

4 A Chapter of Crimes l chronicles the cases 
of Mary Edmondson (1759) and Corbett 
the murderer (1764). G. L. APPERSON. 

There is an account of Rotherhithe in 
the third volume of Manning and Bray's 
* History of Surrey.' A. RHODES. 

The following histories of Rotherhithe or 
Deptford may be useful to MB.BLEACKLEY : 

' Deptford Worthies,' Rev. A. K. B. Granville, 

' History of Deptford,' Natharf Dews, 1883. 

' Reminiscences of Old Deptford,' Thankful! 
Sturdee, 1895. 

W. J. M. 
[MR. A. R. WALLER also refers to Mr. Beck's book.] 

RESTORATION PLAYS (10 S. xii. 429). 
1. ' A Cure for a Cuckold J was published 
in 1661. See Brewer's ' Reader's Hand- 
book, 1 Appendix III. 

2. 'The Thracian Wonder,* by John 
Webster, was published in 1661. 

3. ' Gammer Gurton's Needle.' - - The 
earliest edition extant was printed in 1575. 
It was long supposed to be the work of 
Bishop Still. Within recent years, how- 
ever, Mr. Henry Bradley has shown that the 
real author was a certain William Stevenson. 
It was probably written circa 1566, at which 
date it was played at Christ's College, Cam- 

5. 'The Presbyterian Lash.' The full 
title is 

" The Presbyterian lash, or Noctroff s maid whipt. 
A tragy-comedy. As it was lately acted in the 
#reat roome at the Pye tavern at Algate. By 
Noctroffe the priest and severall his parishioners 
at the eating of a chine of beefe. The first part." 
London, 1661, 4to. 

This was a satire on Zachary Crofton, a 
Presbyterian teacher, accused of whipping 
his maidservant. The initials K. F., 
appended to the dedication, are supposed 
by Malone to stand for Francis Kirkman. 

6. ' The Merry Conceited Humours of 
Botom the Weaver.' The full title is 

"The merry conceited humours of Bottom the 
weaver. As it hath been often publikely acted by 
some of his Majesties comedians, and lately, 

{trivately presented by several apprentices for their 
larmless recreation, with great applause." London, 
1661, 4to. 

Ascribed by Halkett and Laing to Robert 
Cox. Taken from the ' Midsummer Night's 
Dream. 1 

9. ' Trdaydes, a Tragedy, translated out 
of Seneca.' Given in Halkett and Laing 
as " Troades Englished. By S. P. [Samuel 
Pordage]. London, 1660, 8vo, pp. 6 
(besides title), 67. " W. SCOTT. 

(10 S. xii. 328). In a collection of MS. notes, 
newspaper cuttings, &c., relating to the 
stage, and formed by that indefatigable 
collector James Winston (sometime joint- 
manager, with Colman and Morris, of the 
Haymarket Theatre, and the first secretary of 
the Garrick Club), there is the following 
reference to this lady : 

"In Davenant's company in 1662 acted Flora, 
'Adventures of Five Hours' Mrs. Nell in 'Mr. 
Anthony' Zarma in 'Mustapha' living in 1670. 
A portrait of her was in Colnaghi's Catalogue in 


125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 


SPOIL A HORN n (10 S. xii. 509). The saying 
originated in the domestic utensil, once in 
common use, that was invariably preferred 
when a dish of porridge was supped the 
horn spoon. The simplicity of its form was 
tempting to an unskilled handicraftsman, 
but the process of making it was really 
difficult. The horn of a beast was shaped 
from its tip to its broader end to form the 
shank of the spoon, all the material besides 
this narrow piece being cut away to waste. 
The broad end was then shaped and 
" dished - l to form the bowl. Failure in any 
part of the process was irreparable, for it 
ended in a spoilt horn. 

The saying is still in use. In the north it is 
commonly applied to an enterprise begun in 
youthful ardour without experience. It is 
most familiar, perhaps, in the comment of 
Bailie Nicol Jarvie : 

" Mr. Osbaldistone is a gude honest gentleman ; 
but I aye said he was ane o' them wad make a spune 
or spoil a horn, as my father the worthy deacon used 
to say." ' Rob Roy,' chap xxii. par. 36. 


The proverb was in common use on 
Tweedside at the middle of last century. At 
that time there were several itinerant 
hawkers of horn spoons and horn shoe-lifts, 
which were made by the vendors of these 
wares. The spoons were in common use 
among the townspeople, villagers, and 
peasantry, and many were of much beauty, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAX. is, 1910. 

being thin and transparent. Those with 
clear wavy transparency like amber fetched 
a better price. The making of these spoons 
was quite an art, and most of the sellers were 
of the border gipsy tribes who had their 
head-quarters at the village of Yetholm, 
near Kelso. A lad showing much promise 
was commonly referred to as one who 
would " either make a spoon or spoil a horn." 


See W. Carew Hazlitt's ' English Pro- 
verbs,' 2nd ed., 1882, p. 440 : 

"To make a spoon or spoil a horn, i.e., So-and-so 
is qualified to discharge a duty, or, afc all events, to 
make a great mistake in it. At the time when 
spoons were formed of horn, the horn was spoiled 
unless great care was bestowed in the earlier 

Horn spoons are not, I think, quite 
obsolete, e.g. salad spoons. 


The meaning of the proverb is that a 
man will be either very successful or a 
failure. In the * English Dialect Dictionary ? ' 
there are two quotations (s.v. "spoon 5 ') 
illustrating the use of the proverb. One is 
from Renfrew : 

It 's riae joke the takin' o' a wife : 
" It 's mak' a spoon or spoil a horn," 
As lang as ye 're in life. 

Barr's' Poems,' 1861, 157. 

The other is from Selkirk : " Cliffy 
Mackay will either mak'- a speen or spill a 
guid horn" (Hogg's 'Tales, 4 1838, 262, 

[MR. T. RATCLIFFE and MR. W. SCOTT also 
thanked for replies.] 

" oo n : HOW PRONOUNCED (11 S. i. 10). 
One wonders where the " philological trea- 
tises n that fail to explain this are to be 
found. They must be considerably behind 
the age. 

I quote from the first edition of my 
' Principles of English Etymology,' p. 49, 
the following : 

"We see, then, that as far as the written 

symbol is concerned, the Anglo-Saxon 6 has been 

replaced by oo, while the sound indicated has 
shitted from 6 to ii. The period at which this 
shifting took place seems to have been between 
1550 and 1650 ; see Sweet, ' English Sounds,' p. 56." 

This appeared in 1887, nearly twenty- three 
years ago. The various vowel -changes are 
all explained, one by one, at great length, 
with many examples. 

Again, at p. 21 I remark : 

"The vowel-sounds expressed by our written 
symbols now differ from those of every nation in 
Europe," &c. 

Those who desire a shorter and easier 
book on this subject may find what they 
want in my ' Primer of English Philology, ? 
fourth edition, 1904. 

The standard " philological treatises " are, 
of course, those by Dr. Sweet. His ' History 
of English Sounds ' appeared in 1888 ; and 
his ' New English Grammar, Logical and 
Historical, ? is thoroughly scientific. 


The letters oo were originally pronounced 
as 6 (as in " vote ? '), but about the period 
1550-1650 the vowel was " moved up to 
the high position," as Dr. Sweet expresses it,, 
and became u. The symbol oo remained un- 
changed, and thus acquired a new value. 
In some words we even use single o for the 
new sound, especially in proper names. 
Bohun and Mohun are Boon and Moon ; 
De Rohan and De Ros are De Roohan and 
De Roos ; Pole-Carew is Pool-Carey ; the 
title Mahon is Mahoon ; the Irish names 
Poer and Keon are Pooer and Kewn, &c. 

The movement of the vowel 6 towards u 
took place also in German, but the Germans 
have changed the spelling with it. Thus 
English hoof is German H uf. STUDENT asks 
if any other language uses oo to express 
the u sound. The nearest approach to it 
is Polish, in which the original o is now 
pronounced like our oo. The only differ- 
ence is that Poles indicate the length of the 
vowel by an acute accent, whereas we mark 
it by doubling, otherwise the phenomenon is 
the same. The Polish word for " city " is 
grod, but it rimes with " rude,'* not with 
" rode." JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

STEAMERS IN 1801 AND 1818 (10 S. xii. 
429). C. W. K. would do well to peruse 
the section devoted to ' The Steamer ' in 
that popular, but informing work Croal's 
' Travelling Past and Present,' otherwise 
' A Book about Travelling Past and Present,' 
by Thomas A. Croal, illustrated, cr. 8vo, 
published by Nimmo, 1877. W. McM. 

' N. & Q. ? : LOST REFERENCE (11 S. i. 9). 
W. y McM. will find the reference he 
requires in 3 S. iii. 415. 

Esmond, Eghani. 
[MR. W. SCOTT also supplies the reference.] 

LADY WORSLEY (10 S. xii. 409 ; 11 S. i. 
14). The imaginary epitaph upon Lady 
Worsley given by MR. BLEACKLEY is not in 
my copy of ' The Abbey of Kilkhampton,' 
1780, pp. 75. From what edition does 
MR. BLEACKLEY quote ? C. H. G. 

ii s. i. JAN. 15, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Keats : Poems polished in 1820. Edited, with 
Introduction and Notes, by M. Robertson. 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

THR text of this reprint represents page for page 
and line for line a copy of the 1820 edition in the 
British Museum, only, in accordance with th< 
excellent practice of the Oxford Press, line-num 
bers have been added to facilitate reference. The 
type is clear and good, and it is a pleasure to reac 
in the original form the volume " printed for 
Taylor and Hessey," which contains so much thai 
is memorable in English poetry. 

We are somewhat doubtful as to the desirability 
of the Introduction. Enough has, we think, been 
said about Keats, and the present introducer 
writing with good sense, yet relies obviously anc 
admittedly on older writers whose work is wel 
known. Such a volume as this will appeal, we 
suppose, chiefly to those who h^ive already made 
acquaintance with the poet in one of the many 
available editions, and do not require a guide to 
Keats's life or meaning. Some of the notes at 
the end are helpful ; others seem to us unneces- 
sary, or so brief as to be dull. Dido's husband 
was Sychaeus, not Lychaeus (p. 216). Does such 
plain English as " tease us out of thought " 
require explanation ? Some of the notes on sound 
and sense strike us as a little fanciful, e.g., this on 
1. 91 of ' Lamia ' : " The line dances along like 
a leaf before the wind." 

Congregational Historical Society Transactions : 
October. (Memorial Hall.) 

AMONG the contents of this part is an account of 
' The Puritan Family of Wilmer,' by Joseph 
Joshua Green of Tunbridge Wells, who traces its 
history from 1480, and he states that " further 
particulars may be found in an elaborate 
history of the Wilmer family privately 
printed in 1888, and compiled by the 
Rev. Canon Charles Wilmer Foster and the 
presint writer." There is a portrait of Grizell 
Gumell, nee Wilmer (1692-1756). She married in 
1711 Jonathan Gume.ll, " a wealthy Quaker 
merchant and banker, and founder of the once 
great mercantile house of Harman & Co. He was 
the friend and bill discounter of William Penn, 
who attended his wedding, and friend of Thomas 
Story, the Quaker Minister and Recorder of 
Philadelphia." Among the descendants of this 
marriage was Canon Birch, tutor and friend of 
King Edward VII. 

Among other articles are the continuation of 
' The Episcopal Returns of 1665-6,' by Prof. 
G. Lyon Turner ; ' An Early Yorkshire Congre- 
gationalist,' by J. C. Whitebrooke ; and ' The 
Earlier History of Emmanuel Church, Cambridge,' 
by Prof. Courtney S. Kenny. The history of Cam- 
bridge Nonconformity goes back to 1457, and 
two centuries later began that " modern Cam- 
bridge Nonconformity which has endured con- 
tinuously to our own day. Its oldest historical 
organization is that which is now represented 
by Emmanuel Congregational Church." When 
James II. in April, 1687, issued a Declaration 
of Indulgence, the Nonconformists in Cambridge 

at once took advantage of it, and by July they 
had registered eight places for public worship, 
six of these, however, beng private houses. 

In. a summary made about 1707-17 of the 
number of persons and also of freeholders (county 
voters), belonging to "the Congregational and 
! Anabaptist Meetings in the County of Cambridge "" 
it is shown that there were thirteen ministers, 
j 4,440 hearers, and 263 voters. It was in October, 
1691, that the Rev. Joseph Hussey was appointed 
the first settled pastor of Emmanuel Church ; 
his sermons were impressive. On the occasion 
of the general fast on account of the great storm 
of November, 1703, when the windows and 
pinnacles of King's College suffered severely, 
and in other parts of England 123 persons perished, 
including a bishop, Hussey found it necessary 
to argue laboriously " against the common mis- 
take that the winds are raised by Satan." Hussey 's 
Church " never rebelled against him until he 
proposed to leave it, on being called to a London 
church. But very many Nonconformists then 
held that a pastorate ought, Scripturally, to be 
lifelong ; so when he left the Cambridge Church 
it ' admonished ' him, and prohibited him from 
again entering its pulpit " ; but his arm-chair is 
still a honoured relic, and preserved in the vestry. 
Prof .Kenny states that " in the course of a century 
our congregation had three ministers of sufficient 
literary prominence to be commemorated in our 
own day in Mr. Leslie Stephen's ' Dictionary of 
National Biography ' Hussey, Conder, and; 
Harris." While the last two appear, we cannot 
find the former. Prof. Kenny closes his interest- 
ing paper with an account of the church plate. 
The oldest piece is a silver cup made in 1699. 

We are sorry to find from the statement issued 
by the secretaries that the Society has under 
two hundred members, and they make an earnest 
appeal for at least five hundred. Surely these 
should be obtained without difficulty. 

History of Scotland. By P. Hume Brown 

Vol. III. (Cambridge, University Press.) 
MB. HUME BROWN, who is now Historiographer- 
Royal for Scotland, as well as Professor of Ancient 
Scottish History at Edinburgh, is one of the 
soundest historians we have on the disputed 
ground of Scottish annals. We welcome, there- 
'ore, this volume, which reaches from the Revolu- 
tion of 1689 to the Disruption, 1843. There is an 
admirable Bibliography as well as a full Index r 
and the pages of the text are provided with notes 
which give exact references. 

We have little doubt that the Professor's book 
will be widely read and adopted for scholastic 
purposes. Its style is clear, and the matter is- 
well arranged, with dates inset in the paragraphs. 
The author has, in fact, the rare gifts of lucidity 
and conciseness, while he does not disdain 
picturesque touches derived from contemporary- 
Critics of the period of his narrative. 

The Churchyard Scribe, by Alfred Stapleton, is 
,he fourth volume of " The" Genealogist's Pocket 
Library," published by Mr. Chas. A. Bernau at 
Walton-on-Thames, and is an excellent little book 
iontaining much sound suggestion in its hundred 
>ages or so. It is divided into three sections : 
I. On recording the Inscriptions in a Churchyard 
or Burial-Ground ; II. Hints on reading Appa- 
rently Illegible Inscriptions ; III. Typical and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 15, 1910. 

Authentic Examples. Readers who have grasped 
the principles enunciated by Mr. Stapleton 
should he equal to taking up a work of importance 
which needs doing everywhere, and specially in 
England. We have merely to add that in the 
case of Latin inscriptions punctuation is of im- 
portance, as often indicating abbreviations, and 
that instead of line-for-line copying the method 
used by classical scholars for many years should 
suffice. The insertion of an upright stroke indi- 
cates the end of a line. For instance, w can 
write a famous passage in ' King Lear ' thus : 
" Men must endure | their going hence, even as 
their coming hither : I ripeness is all." This, 
without the use of capital letters or help of 
metre, shows where the line-divisions come. 

The Burlington Magazine for January opens 
with ' A Retrospect of 1909,' referring to various 
hopeful aspects of the year, including Govern- 
mental recognition of art. There are brief notices of 
two great collectors, Mr. Salting and Dr. Ludwig 
Mond. Mr. Sidney Colvin begins a study of 
' Tintoretto at the British Museum,' which 
promises to be very interesting, and is well 
illustrated. The frontispiece is a ' Portrait of a 
Child ' in the collection of M. Gustave Dreyfus, 
which Mr. Claude Phillips claims as a work of 
Jacopo Bellini. ' Cezanne,' by Maurice Denis, 
with introductory note by Mr. Roger Fry, treats 
of an artist who is credited with being the 
forerunner of the Impressionist movement, and 
so of first-rate importance. Mr. Lionel Cust 
writes on John Hoppner, and M. L. Dimier on 
' French Portrait Drawings in Mr. Salting's Col- 
lection.' Sir Charles Holroyd has an all too brief 
note on ' Florence Revisited.' One of the chief 
changes he records is the safe housing of Michel- 
angelo's four unfinished heroic figures in the 
Florentine Academy. They were formerly in the 
Boboli Gardens, and imitations of them are now 
placed there plaster casts that " are skilfully 
tinted to imitate the stains, rust, and dust of the 
originals, so as to be absolutely deceptive." 
The ' Old English Embroidery of Justice and 
Peace,' which is illustrated in colour and 
described by Mr. W. G. Thomson, is a well-designed 
piece of work. 

While we admire the excellent and thorough 
way in which The Burlington deals with the 
scholarship of old masters of all sorts, we still 
regret that living English art does not, as a matter 
of course, occupy some substantial space in each 
number. Fashion and the dealer combine to 
laud the dead and put a high price on their work. 
What of our living masters ? and if we have none, 
could not The Burlington explain what is the 
matter with our art ? 

IN The National Review politics, as might be 
.expected, occupy a predominating place, and 
.are dealt with in a trenchant style which is a 
great contrast to many half-hearted pronounce- 
ments on the Tariff Reform s 5 \e. Miss Jane A. 
Findlater in ' Three Sides > the Question ' 
examines the views on social questions of Mr.' 
H. G. Wells in ' Tono-Bungay,' Mr. Galsworthy 
in ' Fraternity,' and Mr. S. Reynolds in ' A Poor 
Man's House.' She points out that they chiefly 
tell us what to avoid doing, and offer but partial 
solutions of the problems they suggest. But 
their business is to tell stories, not to proffer a 
panacea for mankind, and they naturally exag- 

gerate the views they happen to hold, which 
may not be permanent. Miss Findlater easily 
inserts several pinpricks in their social theories, 
and has produced a highly interesting, if incon- 
clusive article. Mr. Cecil Raleigh in ' The Player's 
Poverty ' says that the profession is ruined by 
those who act for nothing, or even pay to appear ; 
so the actor in the provinces is often on the verge 
of starvation. He says there should be a Trade 
Union of Actors to insist on a minimum wage of 
21. a week. The Union of music-hall performers 
was strong enough recently to organize " a strike 
which demanded and received Board of Trade 
Settlement." M. Rene" Feibelmann has a roseate 
account of ' Belgium's New Ruler, Albert I.,' 
who has an excellent record in the way of know- 
ledge, sympathy, and resolute study of the 
questions concerning him as a ruler. 

The most attractive article in the number is, 
however, ' Holding Her Down,' by Jack London. 
It is one of the most vivid accounts of adventure 
and quickly devised expedient we have read for 
some time. The title, which is as difficult for the 
ordinary man to understand as much of the 
author's lingo, refers to getting on a train by 
stealth, and managing to ride free of charge by 
jumping back on to the same train when turned 
off. The tramp who does this, and the officials, 
called '' shacks," are at deadly war, and the 
former runs the risk of serious injuries. The 
number concludes with some valuable notes on 
Colonial ideas, which are always well treated 

WE have just received No. I. of Vragen en 
Mededeelingen op het Gebied der Geschiedenis, 
Taal- en Letterkunde, edited by J. F. Bense, 49, 
Pels Rijckenstraat, Arnhem. This is a Dutch 
Notes and Queries, which follows generally our 
own arrangement and rules. Contributions may 
be sent in English, French, German, or Dutch. 
The number includes some notes in French on 
libraries in the Netherlands in the first part of the 
seventeenth century ; notes in English on the 
' Etymology of " Toucan " ' and ' The English 
Pronoun " she " ' by Mr. Jas. Platt, Jun., and a 
query on the derivation of " God," answered by 
an extract from the ' N.E.D.' 

We must call special attention to the following 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

MRS. HAUTENVILI.E COPE (" Parish Register 
Fees"). See the numerous articles i\t 9 S. x. 
148, 394, 428 ; xi. 130, 252, 453. 

HABAXA. Forwarded. 

ai s. i. JAN. 23, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES :Spinis,:61 Topographical Prints, 62 George IV.'s 
Dinner-Table. 63 M.P.s for Hertfordshire Medical 
M. P. s Lord Mayor's Visitors' Books Tom Brown's 
Second, 64 'History of Oxford Museum' Country 
Theatricals C. Beade and Anatole France MacGillivray 
Samuel Rogers, 65 Marriage Contract " Proud 
Preston "Ward and Day Families, 66 -" Safety-vent " 
Oil Martin Hawks in 1390, 67. 

QUERIES: Ben Jonson in Westminster Abbey Metrical 
Prayer and Passion Emblems, 67 Authors Wanted 
Bvrne's 'The Boat-Race' Brighton Visitors in 1779 
Widow Twankay Charles Kiugsley Wetheral Priory- 
Archdeacon of Taunton News-letters Duke of Lorraine, 
68 Roman Ladies.' Language 'Edwin Drood ' Cima's 
' Incredulity of Thomas 'Danger Personified St. Mar- 
tin's-le-Grand J. Symmons W. Welbourne J. Savage 
Miss Brusby " Welsh " Sir Hildebrand Oakes 
Penzance Market Cross -'Generation of Judges,' 69- 
" Mutation of Throstles " ' Racers Unhorsed 'Gamaliel 
Holloway, 70. 

REPLIES : Bubb Dodington, 70 Montpellier as Street- 
Name. 71 Authors Wanted Gmmmatical Gender, 72 
' Adventures of Capt. Boyle' Mary, Queen of Scots 
Merimee's " Inconnue " Funeral Plumes' Vortigern 
and Rowena,' 73 "Tackle-house" Col. Gordon King's 
PlaceThree CCC Court Michael Newton, 74 'Dia- 
logues of the Dead ' Lord Winmarleigh Devonshire 
Regiment James O'Brien, 75 Jack-Knives Sir T. W. 
Brotherton Noah, Girl's Name Influence of Clothes- 
Woodbine H. Etough ' Abbey of Kilkhampton,' 76 
Steerage on a Frigate " Catalogue Raisonnee "Cyrus 
Jay St. Gratian's Nut, 77 Pimpernel Christmas 
Quarrel T. E. Owen" Toby Philpot," 78 Insect 
Names Children with same Name March Malen, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Memorials of Old Sussex ' ' Our 
Debt to Antiquity ' ' Verses from Old Japan.' 


I AM giving my attention to some of the 
curious guesses of our old antiquaries. In 
a recent examination of a book which con- 
tains several " derivations n of place-names 
from Latin, I found that hardly one example 
had in it any element of truth. It cannot 
be too widely known that many of the old 
^identifications"' are, from a philological 
point of view, hopelessly bad and entirely 
misleading. The worst mistakes have been 
made in the blundering attempts to connect 
Latin names with English ones. 

Just because there was a Roman station 
at Spinis, and there happens to be a Speen 
in Berkshire, the conclusion was at once 
rushed at that the names are identical. For 
do not both forms involve an sp and an n ? 

The excuse was that Speen came some- 
where near the position wanted. I read of 
its " situation near the Roman roads " ; not, 
it will be observed, on them. That is why 
<e the situation of Spinae has had many 

localities assigned to it." But the most 
ingenious argument is this : 

" The. first station [meaning the original situa- 
tion of Spinis] may well have been at Speen Hill, 
though doubtless, as civilization increased, and 
the territory became more settled, it was moved 
nearer to the Kennet ford ' ' ; 

by which Newbury seems to be meant. 

This is amazing. It is an admission that 
Spinis was really near the Kennet ford, and 
had only been near Speen once upon a 
time ; much as if one were to say that 
Londinium is now upon the Thames, though 
it may once have been somewhere else. 
And the inward meaning is that Speen is not 
exactly where it ought to be, if it is to be 
identified with Spinis, as was assumed. 

Yet even those who assumed this saw 
the difficulty in the total difference of the 
vowels involved. To get over this difficulty, 
one gentleman kindly explains to us that 
the Latin long * was pronounced like the 
modern English ee, so that splna was pro- 
nounced like the modern English speena. 
Unluckily, he forgot that the A.-S. Spene 
(which represents Speen) was pronounced 
with the sound of the Latin e at that date, 
something like a modern English Spain-a. 
Surely we all know that the Latin splna 
has come out in English as spine, and that 
the Latin splen has come out as spleen. 
Where, then, is the connexion between the 
I in splna and the ee in speen ? They can 
have no connexion whatever. 

The antiquaries have overlooked one 
little difficulty altogether. An Anglo-Saxon 
scholar knows that a form like spine pre- 
supposes a base spon-, because e results 
from 6 as surely as the plural of goose 
(A.-S. gos) is geese (A.-S. ge#). And that is 
why the place-name Speen is represented in 
Domesday Book by Spone. Now that they 
have so obligingly explained the ee in Speen 
as resulting from splna, how do they pro- 
pose to explain the form Spone ? It cannot 
be done ; so it is overlooked and disregarded, 
instead of being welcomed, as it well may be. 

Is it not time to give up this ridiculous 
" identification,' 1 which is asseverated as 
incontrovertible in every book that mentions 
Spinis at all ? It proves how rotten the 
system is that applauds such guesses. 

I beg leave to conclude with one word of 
advice. Before accepting any etymology 
whatever, whether of place-name, surname, 
or common substantive or verb, the student 
should always test it by examining the 
vowel-sounds as well as the consonants. 
This simple test makes short work of many 
a specious guess. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 22, 1910. 


(Concluded from p. 5.) 

ONE marked similarity in the tastes of 
these great collectors is shown in the number 
of the water-colour drawings of contem- 
porary London they acquired. It is pro- 
bable that, when the sale takes place, 
this feature will specially attract the press, 
and consequently such examples will be 
most raised in price when they are again 
offered for sale. Yet they were provided 
not always for the commendable purpose 
of recording " passing London, " but rather 
to add to the numbers in the portfolios or 

Highest in merit, from the antiquary's 
standpoint, amongst the providers of the 
drawings must be placed John and John 
Chessell Buckler, excellent artists both. 
But mark the appreciation of those for 
whom they worked William Knight, F.S. A., 
John Morice, F.S. A., and others. Only 
the finished drawings of buildings or 
localities were used, and the equally valuable 
sketches of detail remained in the artists' 
hands, as they were less pictorially effective. 
The Bucklers also deserve higher repute 
because they worked less on commissions, 
and more as their antiquarian tastes directed, 
than did their best contemporaries the 
Shepherds. T. H. Shepherd, the best- 
known of the London topographical artists, 
did most of his work in water colours, and 
in the examples that have come before my 
notice there is evident intention to make a 
picture. At first principally engaged in 
furnishing illustrations for Leigh's and 
Longman's " Picture of London 21 Pocket- 
books, he was later fairly constantly occu- 
pied in copying prints, or providing pretty 
water-colour drawings of London buildings 
at two guineas per set of six for some of 
these great collectors. It was not too 
heavy a price in view of their general merit, 
and the large number in the Grace, Holbert 
Wilson, and Gardner Collections do not 
therefore represent an important outlay. 
Even less expense was incurred when 
Mathews was employed, as for two shillings 
he would make a sketch, or for six a finished 
water-colour drawing. Shepherd was fre- 
quently too constructive in his work, but 
Mathews was still less conscientious, and 
depicted traditional features of streets, or 
introduced into the picture some well- 
known local celebrities dead years before 
he could possibly have seen them. 

Now the enthusiasts who accepted these 
fantasies and added them to their collect ion 
were not without discrimination. When 
better material could be secured, they 
made every effort to add to their portfolios. 
Great must have been the triumph of Mr. 
Gardner when he secured the original 
drawings prepared for Wilkinson's ' Londina 
Illustrata,* although it was probably at some 
later date than March, 1826, when Wilkin- 
son's stock of drawings was sold. Other 
valuable acquisitions were the set of twenty - 
eight volumes of John Carter's ' Architec- 
tural Studies,' and many of William Capon's 
excellent drawings from his " Antiquarian 
and professional collections, ' ? which were 
sold by Southgate in May, 1828. Of 
Whichelo's, Schnebbelie's, and Billings's 
topographical sketches many specimens are 
in this collection, which also has some 
of G wilt's scale drawings. 

A still greater similarity amongst these 
collectors was the desire to obtain Frost 
Prints. Those in the Gardner Collection 
are unknown to me, but it would be difficult 
to excel in quality and variety those brought 
together by Dr. Wellesley. This is not the 
only distinction belonging to that collection. 
There was no room for the produce of 
Shepherd's or Mathews's fertile brushes 
in a collection of such exceptional excel- 
lence. The catalogue shows few book- 
illustrations, but many fine impressions and 
early states of the rarest prints. But de- 
scriptive cataloguing is carried very far in,, 
for example, lot 344 : 

" * A Catalogue of her Grace Katherine Dutchess 
of Buckingham's Jewels, &c., to be sold by auction 
by Mr. Cock (by order of her Grace the Dutchess 
of Buckingham's Executors) at Buckingham- 
House in St. James's Park, on Friday the 13th of 
April, 1744,' rare, with view on the engraved 
title, and 2 others. 31. 3s., Colnaghi." 

This view of the house is hardly larger than 
a postage stamp, and of no importance. It 
is in the corner of a florid emblematic 
frontispiece, and not readily noticed. 

So that we shall not be tempted to say that 
the Wellesley or the Gardner was the largest 
or most important collection of topographical 
prints ever offered for sale, I will again turn 
to the sale held in April, 1804. The auc- 
tioneer in his introduction claimed that it 
was the most extensive collection ever 
offered to the public, and as there were 
upwards of 10,000 prints and drawings, it 
has not yet been excelled. It is not possible 
to say how topographically valuable the 
prints were, but having regard to the fact 
that at this date there had been very few 
book-illustrations published, we may assume 

11 S. 1. JAN. 22, 1910.] 


that every lot contained something difficult 
to obtain to-day. Here are three lots 
selected at random, which probably included 
items now unknown : 

" Lot 13. Eight relative to Highgate, including 
3 of the Ladies' Charity School, the largest one 
very scarce. 1Z. Is., Graves." 

" Lot 19. Fourteen prints of Kenwood. 
12s. 6d. 

" Lot 20. Fourteen prints and drawings from 
Kentish Town to Newington Butts, including a 
Ground Plot of Kilburn Abbey. 17. Is." 

This ground plot is not cited in Park's 
' Hampstead.' 

But, after all, the importance of this and 
other predecessors of the Gardner Collection 
cannot seriously affect its intrinsic worth. 
The greater demand for such prints has 
brought much rubbish into collectors' port- 
folios, and really good items are rapidly 
advancing to prohibitive* prices. That the 
efforts to secure the collection for some 
public institution failed is to be regretted, 
but I understand the price asked was not 
considered justified. So it has been cata- 
logued, and, unless the unforseen happens, 
will be dispersed at Messrs. Sotheby's. 
Even those who will not be able to compete 
for some of the choicer items can be grateful 
for their dispersal ; for here is a huge collec- 
tion of illustrations of London, a complete 
knowledge of which was confined to its 
proprietor. That he readily gave permis- 
sion to consult this rich store deserves 
general recognition, and many of the pro- 
ducers of books on London published in the 
last thirty years were greatly indebted to 
this collection for their illustrations. 

It is to be hoped that the catalogue will 
be a worthy memorial of a great collector. 


THE following account is copied from an 
imprinted MS. in my possession, having been 
written by a near relation in 1829. It is 
endorsed " June 10, 1829, Memoranda of the 
King's dinner- table ' ? : 

Thursday, June 10, 1829. 

Memoranda made after seeing the King's dining- 

table and banqueting-room, as laid for one 

of his grand parties of 100 persons. 

The banqueting-room is the upper part of the 

square, black brick building in the Kitchen Yard, 

St. James's Palace ; it is lit by five windows looking 

to the Kitchen Yard, the bottom parts of which 

windows are many feet above the eye. The room 

is panelled, fawn colour, and much gilding, no 

pictures, no curtains. 

Down the centre of the room was a table 
for 50 persons, a side table on each side of the 
room for 25 persons each, total 100 persons. 

The table-cloth seemed of British manufacture, 
as it had the Prince's feathers wove in it, and 
upon this cloth was a smaller one, reaching to the 
edge of the table, for removal after the courses. 

The plates were placed ; they were of French 
china, white with green edge, and flowers stood 
in the centre. The side tables nearly all white 
plates with gilding, also French china. His 
Majesty uses nothing else. On one side of each 
plate was a silver fork, on the other a silver- 
handled steel knife and dessert spoon of silver, 
all of the pattern called the King's pattern, 
without any crest engraved ; and immediately 
beyond the top of every other plate was a silver 
tablespoon, for dinner serving. 

A large golden salt-cellar, with glass inside, was 
between every second plate. 

The bread (common French rolls) was in the 
ba-ker's basket behind the door leading to the 
kitchen. I cannot say whether this was intended 
to be placed in napkins on each person's plate. 
I saw no napkins, and the dinner-table was com- 
pletely laid. 

To every person was one wineglass, to every 
alternate person a rummer ; both glasses of 
common description, not unlike my own, but not 
quite so good : those for the side tables were not 
even cut glass. 

His Majesty sits in the centre of one side of the 
large table : there is no raised part or platform, 
as was invariably used by the late King. 

On the side tables were some smaller knives, 
forks, and spoons, for the dessert, of gold, or gilt/ 

The centre of the great table was filled by 
10 candelabras and nine plateaus containing 
ornaments. The candelabras were of French 
design and silver-gilt, each holding 5 candles, 
so that the centre table had 50 lights upon it. 

The ornaments were of silver-gilt and French 
biscuit alternately. Thus the first ornament was 
a rock, with Neptune upon it, his trident, sea 
ornaments, and the like, or some such allegorical 
figure. The next plateau bad a biscuit figure in 
the centre, and a smaller one at each corner of 
the plateau ; and thns the whole nine plateaus 
were holding alternately gilt or biscuit figures, 
and between each plateau was the candelabra of 

The side tables were not so handsomely deco- 
rated. The fireplace was filled with shrubs. 
At the side table only one side was occupied by 
company, and they faced the wall. 

There wera no wineglass coolers upon the table. 

The end of the room opposite to where the 
company entered was covered with crimson silk 
in folds, reaching from the ceiling to a sideboard 
occupying the entire side of the room, excepting 
where a door opened leading to the kitchen, which 
was at no great distance. 

The sideboard was covered with a white cloth, 
and folds of white drapery reached from the side- 
board to the ground. On this sideboard, and on 
five small shelves above it, reaching nearly to the 
ceiling, was placed his Majesty's golden plate, con- 
sisting principally of large waiters or salvers, 
tankards, and old-fashioned cups. Each row 
had about 11 salvers or tankards ; there were 
6 rows of these ornaments, and as some vacancies 

NOTES AND QUERIES. tu s. i. JAN. 22, 1910. 

were supplied by extra cups or other articles 
1 consider there were about 80 golden articles on 
this sideboard. 

There were no candles to ornament this plate 
excepting at the end of the sideboard, where were 
two candelabras, each having about 12 wax 
candles. In any other place, they would have 
prevented a complete view of the plate. 

There was a large gilt chandelier in the centre 
-of the room, holding 24 large lamps ; and one a1 
each corner, holding 12 lamps. Dispersed about 
the room were, in addition to the 50 candles on 
the King's table, about 200 ; so that this room 
had to bear the heat of 72 large lamps and 250 

The dessert was in an adjoining room, and con- 
sisted of pines, red and white grapes, straw 
berries, cherries, oranges, rout cakes, and candied 
sugar in various shapes. The ice plates were 
small white French china. The dessert was 
placed upon gilt covered ornaments of figures 
"holding shells, or such -like receptacles for fruit, 
all having a centre adapted for a pine, and arms 
for the other fruit. Each pine had a paper, stating 
an what royal garden it was grown, attached to the 

I walked into the ballrooms (very nearly adjoin- 
ing the banqueting-room), which were preparing 
for his Majesty's ball. There was nothing very 
remarkable in them, except some fine old pictures 
of the King's ancestors. I should think each room 
was lit by about 150 or 200 wax candles. 

In order that the banqueting-room with its 
plate might be seen to better advantage, the 
window shutters, outside of the room, were covered 
with black cloth, the more effectually to exclude 

Of the extent and expense of this party, one 
single item may be an example. The King's 
china man supplied 140 dozen or 1,680 plates on 
ihire for this evening's hospitality. 

L. M. R. 

SHIRE. When a statement is made in such 
k valuable and generally accurate work as 
the great series of Victoria County Histories, 
it is likely to be repeated by subsequent 
writers without further inquiry. For this 
reason it may be well to put on record a 
^somewhat curious error which I have 
lately noticed in the ' List of Members of 
Parliament for Hertfordshire ? forming part 
of the volume entitled ' Hertfordshire 
Families ' (p. 292). We are there told that 
" John Bamford Slack, esquire,"- was re- 
turned for the Mid or St. Albans Division 
in 1904 "vice Hon. Vicary Gibbs, a Com- 
missioner of the Admiralty." The last five 
words are wholly wrong, as may be seen by 
reference to The London Gazette, the authority 
said to have been followed. The material 
part of the entry states that the return is 

*' in the place of Vicary Gibbs, Esq., commonly 
-called the Honourable Vicary Gibbs, who had 
undertaken and executed a contract made with 

the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord 
High Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, for the public service." 
London Gazette, 16 Feb., 1904, vol. i. p. 1014. 

It may perhaps be added that the foregoing 
is, as might be expected, in agreement 
with the entry in the Journal of the House 
on 3 February, when the writ was ordered 
to issue (see vol. clix. p. 16). 

F. W. READ. 

It may interest some of your readers to 
know that, by the courtesy of the editor of 
The British Medical Journal, I have pub- 
lished in that journal for the 8th inst. a list 
of medical men who have been returned to 
Parliament from the time of Queen Eliza- 
beth to the end of the year 1909. 


this heading the following appears in the 
recently issued catalogue of a well-known 
firm of provincial second-hand booksellers : 

" The Visitors' Books for the whole period of 
12 months in which the Right Hon. Sills John 
Gibbons was Lord Mayor of London, 1871-72, 
2 large vols., folio, 212 large pages of autographs, 
including many of important people, most sumptu- 
ously bound in full morocco extra gilt, gilt edges, 
silk ends, gilt rolls inside (1 red, 1 blue), with a 
morocco slip case, in fine condition, unique, 
10Z. 10s. 

" These two interesting volumes include the 
signatures of many notable people, English and 
foreign ; among them are diplomatists, statesmen, 
authors, well-known people of society, members 
of the legal and other professions." 

One is tempted to wonder whether it is the 
practice of the Corporation to allow such 
records to find their way to the second- 
hand bookseller. If so, it is surely a matter 
for regret : the Corporation would be better 
advised to add them to the other City MSS. 
in the Guildhall Library. 


BROWN'S SECOND. The following excerpt 
From the The Star of the 1st inst. concern- 
ing the late Sir Charles William Strickland, 
who died on 31 December, 1909, deserves 
recording in ' N. & Q.' : 

" Tom Brown's Second. Death of Sir diaries 
Strickland, ' Martin the Madman ' of the Famous 
Book. Sir Charles Strickland, Bart., who has 
died at Hildenley Hall, Malton, in his ninety - 
irst year, was a hale old sportsman, and celebrated 
lis ninetieth birthday by attending a meet of 
jord Middleton's hounds. It is recalled by the 
'Manchester] Daily Dispatch that Sir Charles was 
be original of Martin, the naturalist, in ' Tom 
3rown's Schooldays.'. . . .It was ' Martin's ' long 
arms which supported ' Tom Brown ' in his 

ii s. i. JAN. 22, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

famous fight with ' Slogger Williams,' and he 
was also the one friend whom Arthur Penrhyn 
Stanley made at school. Sir Charles never had 
a serious illness in his life. He was rather 
eccentric in his dress, and presented the appear- 
ance of a tenant farmer rather than the owner of 
thousands of acres. Sir Charles was the last 
survivor of the original characters of the ' School- 
days,' " 


In your full review of our little book ' A 
History of the Oxford Museum J (25 Decem- 
ber) your reviewer mildly took us to task for 
omitting any reference to Charles Robertson 
and his skill in dissection. If he will turn 
to p. 104 of our book, he will find adequate 
mention of both. H. M. VERNON. 


iv. 185 ; 8 S. vii. 87.) In ' Kentish Tales,' 
by Edward Nairne, 2nd ed., 1824, p. 62, 
a Mr. Mate is mentioned. A foot-note 
states that Mr. Mate was " then patentee 
of the Theatre Royal at Margate. He is an 
excellent comedian, and, with or without 
his ingenious, but innocent amplifications, 
is a most admirable companion.'* The first 
edition of the ' Tales l is dated 1796. 

The ' Report on the Municipal Records 
of Folkestone/ by Mr. Atkinson of the 
Record Office, p. 16, gives some correspond- 
ence between John Jonas and Sampson 
Penley, dated Henley, 28 Dec., 1803, and 
a petition by them to the Corporation, 
endorsed 30 April, 1804, wherein they state 
that they have for several years been per- 
mitted to act in the town. The Kentish 
Gazette announced the marriage of William 
Pepper of Folkestone at Eastbourne, on 
2 Oct., 1804, to Miss Penley, sister to Mr. 
Penley, one of the managers of the Lewes 
company of comedians. 

In the Masons' Lodge, Folkestone, there 
is preserved a playbill, dated 13 March, 
1810, of performances under the patronage 
of the lodge, consisting of a Masonic Prelude 
by Mr. Darnley, Mr. Dawson, and Mr. R. 
Pelly ; also ' The Wonder ' and ' The Review,' 
in which Mr. Penley and Mr. Penley, jun., 

A local guide, 1816, ' Hythe, Sandgate, 
and Folkstone,* p. 25, mentions that there 
is at Hythe " a neat Theatre under the 
management of Mr. Trotter, who spares 
neither pains nor expense to afford enter- 
tainment to the public by engaging an 
excellent company of performers.' 1 A play- 
bill of 20 March, 1809, announced the pro- 

duction of ' Laugh when You Can ? and ' Plot 
and Counterplot,' in which Mr. and Mrs. 
Trotter and others appeared, with a song 
by Miss Banfield, and a comic song, ' Whoop' d 
among the Lasses, O,' by Mr. I. P. Harley. 

On Monday, 3 Sept., 1827, there was a 
performance at the New Theatre, Hythe and 
Sandgate, of ' Macbeth,' by " His Majesty's 
servants of the Royal West London Theatre,'"' 
Mr. H. Beverly acting manager. 

A playbill is also preserved in the Folke- 
stone Public Library of 13 May, 1822, 
wherein Buckstone appears in the dramatis- 
personal at the Theatre, Folkestone. 



" And I told you the names of the stars, and 
you said those were not their real names, but nick 
names we give them here on earth." Chas.. 
Reade, ' Christie Johnstone.' 

" Je regrette de ne pas savoir comment on* 
1'appelle, mais je m'en console en pensant que 
les hommes ne donnent pas aux etoiles leurs 
vrais noms." Anatole France, ' Sur la Pierre 



Clans and their Tartans,' a charming 
little book, published by W. & A. K. John- 
ston, I recently saw it stated, under the 
Clan MacGillivray, that the rallying-cry 
of this clan was " Loch Sloy ! ?? ^There 
must be some confusion here, as " Loch 
Sloy ! ri belongs, of course, to the MacFar- 
lanes. I suspect that the slogan of MacGilli- 
vray should be " Loch Moy ! " the same as- 
the Macintoshes, with whom they are closely 
connected. This error needs correction 
if a new edition is projected. Loch Moy 
means " The Lake of Threatening," Loch 
Sloy " The Lake of the Host." 


SAMUEL ROGERS STORY. In his delightful 
* Gossip of an Old Bookworm/ published in 
The Nineteenth Century, July, 1881, the late 
William J. Thorns gave a fresh lease of life 
to Sam Rogers' s story about an officer who, 
the day before leaving London for India, 
rode in a hackney coach to his lawyer's in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, and in paying the 
driver dropped a shilling, which neither the 
owner nor the coachman could find in the 
mud. On the officer's return from India 
after an absence of some years, he had 
occasion again to go to his lawyer's, and 
some unaccountable impulse compelled him 
to look for the lost shilling on the very spot 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. JAN. 22, 1910. 

where he had paid the cabman. He found 
not exactly " the shilling, " as the friend to 
whom Rogers was telling the story hastily 
suggested, " but," according to Rogers 
" twelve-pennyworth of coppers wrappec 
up in brown paper."' 

The story is a good one, but I have jusl 
come across in Willis's Current Notes for 
January, 1852, what may be described as 
an instance in which this story is " capped ? 
by another. Rogers is reported as telling 
the same story, the scene of which is trans- 
ferred to the corner of the Great Piazza, 
Covent Garden Market. When Rogers had 
told the story, a witty friend retorted : 

'"I knew the man, but you have forgotten the 
most singular point of the story about the re- 
covery of this lost shilling just at the door of 
Willis the bookseller's place of business.' ' I 
thought it sufficiently odd,' replied the poetical 
banker, ' our friend having found his shilling 
after so long a period, I only wish that my lost 
notes may turn up again in the same unex- 
pected manner that notes turn up to me from 

" ' Then you must have heard the whole story, 
and the very remarkable fact to which I refer : 
that in the paper which contained four-and- 
twenty halfpence [in this version it is halfpennies, 
not pennies] he found another filled with farthings, 
the exact amount of which, when calculated, 
proved to be that of compound interest upon the 
shilling for five-and-twenty years one month and 
thirteen days.' " 

After this " capping " one can well 
believe that " Mr. Rogers has never since 
told the story." W. ROBEBTS. 

MARRIAGE CONTRACT c. 1540. In the Star 
Chamber Proceedings, under date 1543, in 
a suit relating to the abduction of one Joan 
Pil fold, who was " contracted " to John 
Wynson of Horsham, there is an interesting 
contemporary description of the actual 
ceremony of the contract or betrothal. A 
deponent who was present describes the 
scene at the house of John Harman in 
Horsham. He says : 

"John Harman, the father-in-law [? step-father], 
willyd the sone John Wynson and Joan Pilfold to 
lay hand in hand, and asked them if they did find 
in their hearts the one to love the other above all 
other persons, and all others to forsake, whereunto 
they both answered 'Yea,' and lesyd hands and 
drank together." 

Another deponent present states that John 
Harman began in this wise : 

"I, John, take thee, Joan, to my wedded wife, 
for better for worse, for richer for poorer, and all 
others to forsake, and thereto I plighte thee my 
faith and troth." 

John Wynson repeated these words and 
" lesyd hands," when the couple again 

joined hands, and Joan repeated the same 
words, commencing " I, Joan," &c., after 
which they again drank together. 

John Wynson, the complainant in the suit, 
is bringing an action against one John Ede, 
who carried off Joan and married her, 
though with the approval of her relatives. 
Unfortunately, the decree is not in existence, 
so we do not know the outcome of the 
action ; but from the depositions it would 
appear that, on the supposition that Joan 
was forced to marry the defendant against 
her will, she was commonly regarded as the 
wife of Wynson, to whom she returned, 
three months after her marriage. 

P. D. M 

In Harland and Wilkinson's ' Lancashire 
Legends, Traditions,' &c., 1882, p. 184, 
it is said that the town was called " Proud 
Preston, 2 * probably 

" from its being the residence of genteel families 
in days of yore, before the introduction of the 
cotton trade ; having been, as Dr. Whittaker 
says, ' the resort of well-born, but ill-portioned 
and ill-endowed old maids and widows.' The 
paschal lamb couchant, with the letters P.P. (for 
Princeps Pads, Prince of Peace), form the 
armorial bearings of the town." 

In ' A New Survey of England, 1 by N. 
Salmon, 1731, p. 647, at the end of the 
description of Lancashire, is the following : 

" Preston, which, going from the North, is the 
first Place where Bread, Stockings, and Shoes 
are generally seen, hath perhaps, for that Reason, 
its Epithet of Proud Preston." 

This reason appears to be improbable. 
As to leather shoes, it is perhaps worth 
noting that Edw. Chamberlayne, in his 
' Anglise Notitia ; or, The Present State of 
England," 15th ed., 1684, pp. 7, 8, speaking 
of the great advantages enjoyed by the 
English, says : 

" There is in England great plenty of excellent 
Leather for all sorts of uses, in so much that the 
poorest people wear good Shooes of Leather, where- 
as in our neighbouring Countries, the poor gener- 
ally wear either Shooes of Wood, or none at all." 


[May not alliteration have contributed to the 
name ?] 

Dr. Edmond Halley's first cousin, Francis 
ilalley, sen., in his will dated 28 June, 
1698, proved 8 Sept., 1702 (P.C.C., reg. 
Marlboro, fo. 126), mentions 
' my sister Mary Ward, wife of John Ward .... 
Nicholas Wright of the parish of St. Giles, 
Mpplegate. . . .iny brothers Thomas Pyke and 

Villiam Pyke and Edward Day My sisters 

"ane Day and Susan Pyke." 

ii s. i. JAN. 22, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


An examination of P.C.C. wills, 1710-29, 
by Mr. R. J. Beevor, M.A., of St. Albans 
(who also discovered the above will of F. 
.Halley, sen.), revealed several John Wards, 
one a widower and yeoman, of Bozeat, 
Northants (about five miles south of Welling - 
borough), who mentions a daughter Mary 
and sons Abraham, Isaac, and John. His 
will was registered in 1726. No Nicholas 
Wright was found during the same period, 

Nicholas Wright and Jane Farren were 
granted marriage licence on 5 July, 1700 
(cf. ' Calendar of M. L. issued by the Faculty 
Office, 1632-1 7 14,* British Record Society, 
London, 1905). 

Mr. G. F. T. Sherwood announces that he 
possesses two quarto volumes (pp. 244) of 
notes on the family of Day, with an index. 
That collection has not yet been examined 
in the present quest. 

I should be grateful for any other facts 
on the relationship between the Halley, 
Ward, Wright, Day, and Pyke families. 


1, Park Row, Chicago. 

" SAFETY- VENT." The above word is not 
noticed in the ' N.E.D.' It is used by Mr. 
Maurice Hewlett in his 'Open Country,' 
p. 52 (1909) : 

; ......When he wanted to cry out upon the weak- 
ness of her work, lashed out upon some botching n 
his own. Here was a safety-vent." 

H. P. L. 

GIL MARTIN. My note on this name at 
8 S. x. 334 may be supplemented by the 
fact that the Pope has appointed the Rev. 
Thomas P. Gilmartin, Vice-President of 
Maynooth, to the Bishopric of Clonfert. 
The name seems to be very uncommon, as 
it is in neither the commercial nor the Court 
portion of Kelly's ' London Directory. 1 


HAWKS IN 1390. On 5 Dec., 1390, 
Richard II. appointed Eubold Lestrange, 
parson of the Church of Gresford, to take 
the " prise " of all falcons sold in the town 
of Chester and all towns and ports within 
forty leagues. The charges to be levied 
were : for " le gerfauk,*' two marks ; " le 
tercel du gerfauk,' 1 one mark ; " le 
faucon gentill," twenty shillings ; " le ter- 
cellet gentill, n ten shillings ; "'lostour," 
one mark ; and " le tercel de lostour," " le 
sacre," " sacret," " laner," and " laneret," 
half a mark each. See Calendar of Cheshire 
Recog. Rolls in 36th Report of the Deputy 
Keeper, &c. R. g. g. * 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

At the Philobiblon Club recently I asserted 
that there are two stones marking the grave 
of Ben Jonson in Westminster Abbey one 
in the floor, and the other in the wall and 
that both are marked " O Rare Ben John- 
son.' 1 

This was disputed. May I ask ' N. & Q.' 
to confirm my statement ? And why are 
there two stones ? JAMES B. SHBIGLEY. 


I have lately acquired a water- colour 
drawing done by my grandfather William 
Fowler in 1785, about five years before the 
earliest of his published works. It repre- 
sents the three Calvary crosses, the middle 
one the highest, and surmounted by the 
crown of thorns and a glory. At the foot 
of the picture is a shield with the instru- 
ments of the Passion, and on a crest-wreath 
a cock. Over the top of the central cross is 
written : "A curious Piece of Antiquity 
on the Crucifixion of Our Saviour and the 
two Thieves. 11 Across the picture run 
26 lines of writing, beginning 

Behold God INRI vers of my Tears 

I come to thee bow down thy blessed Ears. 

The other lines are so contrived as to bring 
in an appropriate inscription on each of the 
three crosses, in the same way as INRI on 
the title, but reading for the most part 
vertically, thus : 

I coME not Lord witH any oTHEr Merit 

But WHat I by my S Aviour CHrist inherit. 
Here the capitals on the crosses belong to 
Lord remember ME WHen thou comest in thy 

kingdom E. 

O God, my God, WHy hast thou forsaken ME. 
If thou art THE CHrist, save thyself and US. 

The last line is 

To livE with theE sweet JeslJS say Amen. 
It will be seen that the capitals here form 
the ends of the three inscriptions on the 

The drawing is oval, and set in a good 
mahogany frame with an oval glass. I do 
not think it can be an original composition, 
but imagine that it is a copy made by W. F. 
with his usual accuracy, from a much 
earlier work. He has carefully preserved the 



[11 s. i. JAN. 22, 

spellings " greate," " forgiue," " grante, n 
"least 2 ' (for "lest"), " wayes," " raisd,' ? 
" kingdome." Under the picture is written 
in Old English letters, " W m Fowler, Win- 
terton Delin fc 1785." 

I should be very glad of any information 
with respect to the design and the verses. 
I bought the framed drawing at the auction- 
rooms of Messrs. Easton in Bowlalley Lane, 
Hull. They could give no account of its 
former possessors, nor can I. But as W. F. 
had two brothers residing in Hull, and other 
relations there and in the neighbourhood, it 
has probably belonged to some of them. 

J. T. F. 

Win teuton, Don caster. 

have searched the usual sources, but have 
failed to trace the following quotations : 

1. While soft there breathes 
Through the cool casement, mingled with the 


Of moonlight flowers, music that seems to rise 
From some still lake, so liquidly it rose. 

The next is probably from the same source : 

2. For who, in time, knows whither we may vent 

The treasure of our tongue ; to what strange 

This gain of our best glory shall be sent, 

To enrich unknowing nations with our stores ? 

3. A few white bones upon a lonely strand, 

A rotting corpse beneath the meadow grass, 
That cannot hear the footsteps as they pass, 
Memorial urns pressed by some foolish hand, 
Have been for all the goal of troublous fears. 

4. While the eagle of Thought rides the tempest in 

Who cares if the lightning is burning the corn? 

5. If the sea-horse on the ocean 

Own no dear domestic cave, 
Yet he slumbers without motion 
On the still and halcyon wave. 

6. Seated on Elysian lawns 
Browsed by none but Diaii's fawns. 

7 Ka/cov yvva.LK<s' dAA.' 6/zws, <3 8^/xorat, 


Kou yap TO yvj[ KCU TO p.?] yfjfjiai KO.KOV. 

[2. From Daniel's ' Musophilus,' stanza 163. 
6. From Keats's 'Ode' beginning "Bards of 
Passion and of Mirth," included in the ' Poems 
published in 1820 ' noticed ante, p. 59. ] 

From what song are the following lines ? 
Wen as the captain corned for to hear on 't 
Wery much applauded vot she 'd done. 

About what date was it written ? It is 
referred to as " a well-known popular song " 
in ' The Comic English Grammar,' 1851. 

J. R. C. H. 

I am anxious to find some particulars of the 
above-named gentleman, who wrote a fairly 
long poem some years ago on the above 
subject. I had a copy, which I have now 
lost. It was written in the metre of 

How the water comes down at Lodore, 
and was not in any way a bad imitation of 
it. All that concerns the writer of it will 
be welcome. HENRY G. VENN. 

be glad if some one would inform me whether 
there are in existence any lists of visitors 
to Brighton in 1779, and if so, where. 
(Mrs.) M. M. HEPWORTH. 

WIDOW T WANK AY. The name of the 
hero's mother in every pantomime of 
'Aladdin' is "Widow Twankay." Why is 
this ? and when and by whom was it invented 
for the particular purpose ? 

CHARLES KINGSLEY. I want accounts of 
Kingsley as he appeared to his contem- 
poraries, socially, politically, and religiously, 
at the ' Yeast ' and ' Alton Locke ' epoch. 
Where can I find information concerning 
the above in reviews, skits, &c. ? 


this priory any armorial bearings ? 


AUTHORITY. In the time of King John the 
functions of "My Lords of the Admiralty >J 
were almost entirely exercised by Arch- 
deacon Wrotham above mentioned. Who 
was his successor in Henry III.'s reign ? 
Was it Hubert de Burgh ? In the reign of 
Edward I. the Bishop of Winchester, the 
Abbot of Beaulieu, and Sir John St. John 
appear for a time to have exercised naval 
control. R- B. 


OFFICE. I should be greatly obliged if any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' could inform me whether 
there are any old news-letters preserved 
in the Record Office ; and if so, under what 
class of documents and under what calendars 
they may be found. J. H. T. 

Title and author needed of any book on the 
Duchy of Lorraine, or the general history of 
France, which would give the name of the 
Duke of Lorraine who was killed at the 
battle of Nicopolis in 1396. V. H. C. 

n a i. JAN. 22, wio. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


GUAGE. Does Cicero say, in his letters or 
elsewhere (or is it some one else ?), that in 
his time the diction of Roman ladies was 
more pure than that of orators or professional 
cultivators of the Roman language ? 

V. H. C. 

supposed to have finished this novel ? 
Lombroso mentions in his * After Death 
What ? ? that the book was finished by a 
lad (a medium) named James a mechanic, 
who could scarcely read under the dictation 
of the spirit of Dickens. O. S. T. 

[Various continuations of * Edwin Drood ' have 
been discussed in ' N. & Q.' ; see 5 S. ii. 407, 475, 
526 ; iii. 136, 177 ; 8 8. vi. 348, 418, 472 ; 9 S, xii. 
389, 510.] 

the National Gallery there is a large picture 
by Cima, ' The Incredulity of Thomas,' and 
there is another picture so entitled in Venice. 
There is also in existence an old copy of the 
picture in the National Gallery, of similar 
size, and framed similarly. Can any reader 
furnish me with information about the 
last-mentioned picture ? It is now in Not- 
tingham. D'ARCY LEVER. 

BY SHAKESPEARE. Shakespeare personifies 
Danger as masculine in a well-known passage 
of ' Julius Caesar,' Act II. sc. ii. : 

Danger knows full well 
That Csesar is more dangerous than he ; 
We are two lions litter'd in one day, 
And I the elder and more terrible. 

It would be interesting to learn whether 
Shakespeare was followed in such a personi- 
fication by a modern English or foreign poet. 


ST. MARTIN'S.LE-GRAND. Has the model 
of that part of St. Martin's-le-Grand upon 
which the Post Office stands, understood 
to be in Mr. Joyce's muniment-room at the 
( J.P.O., ever been photographed ? Does 
an illustration of it appear in any work ? 

JOHN SYMMONS, 1781-1842. The ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog.' says that " he probably died at 
Deal in 1842." Is it possible to obtain the 
place and the exact date of his death ? 

G. F. R. B. 

WILLIAM WELBOURNE was elected on the 
foundation at Westminster School in 1713. 
( 'an any correspondent of ' N. & Q.' give me 
particulars concerning him ? G. F. R. B. 

JOHN SAVAGE, 1673-1747. I should be 
glad to obtain the particulars of his parentage 
and the date of his birth in 1673. The 
' Diet. Nat. Biog.' (vol. 1. p. 340) is silent on 
these points. G. F. R. B. 

Miss BRUSBY. I have a portrait (an 
engraving by Val. Green, dated 1772) of 
' Miss Brusby,' taken when a child. Can 
you give me any information about this 
lady ? She was, I believe, at one time a 
friend of George IV. when Prince of Wales. 

F. H. J. 

Max Miiller connected the word Welsh 
phonetically with the words Baluchi and 
Mlechha. As mlechha in Sanskrit means a 
" barbarian," it would follow that the Welsh 
adopted as their name a term originally 
used contemptuously of them by another 
race. Is there any historical ground for 
this inference ? V. CHATTOPADHYAYA. 

[PROF. SKEAT in his * Concise Etymological Dic- 
tionary,' 1901, says : " Welsh, pertaining, to Wales. 
(E.) M.E. walsh, foreign. A.-S. wcEhsc,wehsc, 
wylisc, Celtic. Formed, with suffix -we 05. -Mft) 
and vowel-change, from A.-S. wealh, a Oelt ; 
whence Wealas, pi., mod. E. Wales." MB. JAS. 
PLATT, writing on 'Walsh Surname (10 b. xu. 
446), also regards Welsh as " the A.-S. adjective 

tell me the names of artist and engraver of a 
mezzotint portrait of Sir Hildebrand Oakes 
(1754-1822), who served in the British 
Army in the U.S.A. and in Egypt ? 

F. B. M. 

cross was removed from the western end of 
the Market House in 1900, and removed to 
the Morrab Gardens. In the course of 
this displacement, an ancient inscription on 
the back was again disclosed, after many 
years, and deciphered anew, differently 
from an earlier interpretation. None of the 
antiquarian publications appears to give 
this. Does any reader of ' N. & Q. J know 
it ? I should add that Langdon's book on 
Cornish crosses gives only the earlier 
version, before the cross was removed to its 
present position. W. H. SCARGILL. 

the author of ' A Generation of Judges, by 
their Reporter, 1 London, 1886 ? The book 
is composed of notices of twenty-two English 
judges and one other, and was at first attri- 
buted to Mr. W. F. Finlason, then a veteran 
reporter and writer on legal subjects. But I 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 22, 1910. 

well recollect that it was said at the time 
that "old Fin " (as he was affectionately 
called) denied the authorship, and I attach 
more importance to this than to any marked 
difference of literary style, upon which Mr. 
T. E. Crispe, in his lately published book of 
legal ana, is disposed to rely in support of the 
same conclusion. I hope it may be within 
the power of some of the contributors to 
* N. & Q. J to say with certainty who the 
author was. W. B. H. 

recent number of the Transactions of the 
Philological Society (Part III., 1908-9) the 
above expression was discussed among other 
proper terms in * The Book of St. Albans,' 
1486, and a quotation was given illustra- 
tive of this characteristic name from Science 
Gossip, June, 1867. This was to the effect 
that thrushes acquire new legs and cast the 
old ones when about ten years old, with a 
further statement that a correspondent 
writes in the number of the same periodical 
for August, 1867, " explaining the matter.' 1 
I wish to know the point of this explanation, 
having referred the question to two fairly 
good naturalists, with no result beyond 
derision. H. P. L. 

' THE RACERS UNHORSED,' 1753. I have 
a satirical print with this title (not in the 
British Museum Catalogue), and the inscrip- 
tion "The Hon e Fanny Killigrew Inv fc ad 
Vivum Del. et Sculp."- The characters are : 
1, Maecenas ; 2, Hen? 9th ; 3, Ekud of 
Nineveh ; 4, Ekud of Ophir ; 5, Noedig y e 
Dupe ; 6, Mellchizedek ; 7, Orator Hum- 
bugg ; 8, Strength of Eng d . 

No. 3 is, I think, the Duke of Newcastle ; 
5, Sampson Gideon; 6, Thomas Seeker, 
Bishop of Oxford ; 7, Orator Henley. The 
squib has reference to the Jews' Naturaliza- 
tion Bill. I shall be glad to have the 
others identified and my suggestions con- 

GAMALIEL HOLLO WAY. Can any reader 
give me information as to the family of 
Gamaliel Holloway ? He is described in 
Foster's ' Alumni Oxonienses ' as " of Oxford, 
gent.," and appears to have resided at 
jKislingbury, Northants, of which parish 
he was rector, holding at the same time the 
rectory of Wigginton, Oxon. 

Possibly he was a member of the family of 
Holloway of Oxford, a pedigree of which is 
given in the Heralds' Visitation ; but I can 
find no trace of his connexion with them. 

Furnace Mill Farm, Hawkhurst, Kent. 



(10 S. xii. 461, 504.) 

MAY I supplement MR. W. P. COURTNEY'S 
account of Bubb Dodington's early life 
and taste for the classics by stating that, 
before his matriculation in 1707 from Exeter 
College, Oxford, he had been a commoner 
at Winchester College, where Dr. John 
Nicholas then ruled as Warden and Dr. 
Thomas Cheyney as Head Master ? The 
name of Bubb appears on the annual school 
"long rolls" of 1704 and 1706; and he 
perhaps entered the school in 1703, but there 
is no known extant copy of the roll either 
for 1703 or for 1705. On the roll of 1706 
Bubb, as one of two " commoner prefects " 
in " sixth book," heads the list of the forty- 
seven commoners, the other prefect being- 
George Abington, afterwards of Hart Hall, 
Oxford, the last of the Abingtons who owned 
the Manor of Over-Compton, Dorset. 

Among such of the other commoners of 
1706 as I can identify from their surnames, 
which alone are given on the roll, were 
Robert Thistlethwaite, who became Warden 
of Wadham College, Oxford (1724-39) ; 
Philip Rashleigh, of Menabilly, Cornwall, 
M.P. for Liskeard (1710-22); Arthur 
Onslow, Speaker of the House of Commons 
(1727-61); Carew Reynell, afterwards a 
scholar, who became Bishop of Down and 
Connor (1739-43) and of Derry (1743-5) ; Sir 
Richard Mill, of Mottisfont, Hants, (5th) 
Bt., M.P. at times between 1721 and 1747 
for Midhurst, Penrhyn, and Horsham ; 
George Chaffin or Chafin, of Chettle, Dorset, 
M.P. for that county from 1713 to 1754 ; 
Thomas Cheyney, afterwards a scholar, 
Dean successively of Lincoln (1744) and 
Winchester (1748-60), who was the Head 
Master's son ; William Elson, M.P. for 
Chichester (1713); Sir William Halford or 
Holford (afterwards a scholar), of Welham, 
Leicestershire, (3rd) Bt. ; and John Harvey 
or Hervey, M.P. for Reigate (1739-41) and 
Wallingford (1754-64) and a puisne judge of 
Brecknock from 1745 until his death in 1764. 
To illustrate the system then in vogue at 
Winchester, it may be mentioned that out 
of the forty-seven commoners on the roll 
of 1706, fifteen eventually became scholars 
on the foundation. 

Bubb Dodington's " literary circle," as 
described by MR. COURTNEY, seems to have 
been to a considerable extent Wiccamical; 

ii s. i. JA*. 22, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


for Edward Young, Christopher Pitt, Joseph 
Spence, Edward Rolle, and Joseph Warton 
were all Winchester scholars, as was also 
Young's biographer, Sir Herbert Croft. 
Neither Bubb Dodington's nor Croft's con- 
nexion with Winchester is recorded in the 
' D. N. B.' H. C. 

As MB. COURTNEY has stated at the first 
reference, Bubb Dodington's father was 
Jeremiah or Jeremias Bubb, described as 
"of London n in the matriculation register 
of his son at Exeter College in 1707. 

A Jeremiah or Jeremias 'Bubb was 
Governor of Carlisle from December, 1689, 
till his death. He was also M.P. for that 
city, having been elected at the general 
election of February, 1689, and rechosen 
after the dissolution of 1690, holding the seat 
till his death. Besides this, he was at the 
date of his death a Gentleman Usher Daily 
Waiter to the King, having been appointed 
to that office soon after the accession of 
William and Mary, viz., on 11 March, 1689. 
He died on Sunday, 28 Feb., 1692, his suc- 
cessor in the Household being appointed 
on 2 March in that year. 

This Jeremiah Bubb may have been the 
father of the politician, but I am inclined 
to suggest (following the late Chancellor 
Ferguson in his ' Cumberland and West- 
morland M.P.'s ? ) that he was his grand- 
father, through a son bearing the paternal 
Christian name. The Chancellor, by the 
way, was apparently incorrect in saying 
that Jeremiah Bubb was (not Governor, but) 
Deputy Governor of Carlisle. His name 
appears as Governor in Chamberlayne's 
* Angliae Notitia J for 1692 ; and in 
Dal ton's ' Army Lists l his appointment as 
Governor is given, unless I am mistaken in 
my note. Luttrell also (vol. ii. p. 372) in re- 
cording his death describes him as " Capt. 
Bubb, Governor of Carlisle.' 1 Ferguson 
tells us (on the authority of Lilly) of a " Capt. 
Bubb " who was a conjurer and astrologer 
in Lambeth Marsh in 1634. 




i. 9). The frequent occurrence of this name 
in topography it is found in Brompton, 
Kentish Town, and Walworth, and also in 
Bath is probably owing to the circum- 
stance of Montpelier, one of the largest, 
richest, and most beautiful cities of France 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
having been celebrated for its extremely 
healthy air, a condition which, though 

unfavourable to consumptive patients, 
drew towards it invalids from all parts of 

It was here, in the South of France, that 
Young's Narcissa, in the Third Night of 
his ' Complaint,' was said to have been 
taken " in a consumption,- and the story is 
very circumstantial, but quite untrue, for 
she died and was buried at Lyons, as we 
learn from Herbert Croft's account of the 
poet, published by Dr. Johnson, and from 
her burial registry and tombstone, both still 
in evidence at Lyons. 

That it was not, however, the poet's 
fiction concerning his daughter's burial 
which rendered the name popular in street 
nomenclature is evident from the fact that 
there was a row of houses named Montpelier, 
with a Montpelier Chapel, in Twickenham, 
about 1720. 

Montpelier Gardens in Walworth, which 
were situated about three-quarters of a 
mile on the right from the Elephant and 
Castle, along the high road to Camberwell, 
evidently reflected in their name the repute 
in which the famous Botanic Gardens of 
Montpelier were held. They are mentioned 
as early, at least, as 1803, when they are 
described as being " a compact place, some- 
thing similar to the Tea Garden at Camber- 
well Grove House, and noted for a small maze 
at the bottom of the garden. Tea, hot rolls, 
good wines, spirituous liquors, &c., n were 
provided, " for large parties n if necessary 
(' Picture of London 1 for that year). The 
gardens were still flourishing in 1830 ('Pic- 
ture of London*). Is not one correct in 
thinking that the Montpelier Gardens subse- 
quently (about 1840) became the Beehive 
Gardens, where the Montpelier Club was 
formed for the pursuit of cricket ? (See 
further Dr. Montgomery's ' History of 
Kennington,* 1889, pp. 169-71). Mont- 
pelier Square, Brompton, was built about 
1837. At No. 11 resided the distinguished 
artist and antiquary F. W. Fairholt ; and 
No. 38 was the residence of Walter Lacy, 
the actor (Croker's ' Walk from London to 

Montpellier in France was for some 
centuries a health resort where medical men 
congregated ; see 5 S. xii. 146. Rabelais 
and Rondelet were there ; and of English- 
men, Sir Kenelm Digby (see his ' Weapon- 
Salve '), Sir Thomas Browne, Sir Theodore 
Mayerne, and Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey. 
Oldham Taughs at those who " change 
our English for Montpellier air' 1 ('Para- 
phrase upon Horace, 1 II. xiv.). W. C. B. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. i. JAN. 22, 1910. 

Montpellier in Franc is the seat of an 
ancient and celebrated School of Medicine, 
and, to quote the language of ' Murray's 
Guide, 2 " it bears a name familiar as the 
type of salubrity and mildness of climate," 
and was at one time a favourite resort of con- 
sumptive patients. I believe it will be 
found that Montpellier as a street-name is 
generally met with in watering-places, and 
that it is intended to suggest a resemblance 
to the climate of the French town. In 
London the principal streets and squares 
bearing this name are at Brompton, which 
was at one time supposed to be specially 
suitable for the treatment of consumption. 
[MB. W. SCOTT also thanked for reply.] 

i. 30). The ' Elegy on the Death of Jean 
Bon St. Andre l in the * Poetry of the Anti- 
Jacobin ? contains the following verse : 

Poor John was a gallant Captain, 
In battles much delighting; 

He fled full soon 

On the first of June 
But he bade the rest keep fighting. 

" St. Andre, deputy to the Convention for the 
Department of Lot during the Reign of Terror, 
rivalled Marat and Robespierre in cruelty. Having 
been appointed to remodel the Republican Navy, 
he was present at the action of June 1, 1794, in 
which he showed excessive cowardice." 

See the ' Poetry of the Anti- Jacobin, with 
Explanatory Notes by Charles Edmonds, 5 
2nd ed., 1854, p. 154, where there is a note 
which gives a short account of St. Andre, and 
explains the meaning of other parts of the 
' Elegy.* 

See also Larousse's ' Grand Dictionnaire,' 
vol. ix. p. 934, " Jean-Bon-Saint-Andre 
(Andre Jeanbon, dit)." 


Inner Temple. 

The lines are from ' An Elegy on the 
Death of Jean Bon St. Andre, 2 by Canning, 
Ellis, and Frere, to be found in ' Works of 
J. Hookham Frere* (2 vols., Pickering, 
1872), vol. i. p. 205. 

St. Andre was Commissioner of the Con- 
vention on board the French flagship 
La Montagne on 1 June, 1794, and the 
legend ran that before the action began he 
took refuge below, and that the ship very 
early made sail out of the fighting line. 
See Alison's ' History of Europe ? (7th ed., 
1847), vol. iv. p. 324 (chap xvi.). The 
apocryphal story of St. Andre's murder 
while consul at Algiers gave occasion for these 
very humorous verses. W. H. CLAY. 

The lines have been ascribed to Canning, 
Gifford, and Frere (see 1 S. iii. 348). 



[G. E. C. and Y. T. also thanked for replies.] 

not grammatical gender merely a rough-and- 
ready classification of nouns according to 
their terminations ? In Latin, for instance, 
the names of male beings end (mostly) in -us, 
those of females in -a. Many names of 
inanimate things have the same forms, so 
the grammarian calls them masculine to 
denote that, though not of male sex, they 
are declined as if they were ; similarly, to 
describe a thing as feminine is a handy way 
of assigning it to the first declension. 

Unfortunately, this aspect of the system 
is obvious only in languages like Latin, which 
preserve the old suffixes. In French and 
German genders are quite irrational, and 
must ultimately disappear. In Dutch the 
genders are habitually confused in speech, 
though preserved in writing. In English 
there were many changes in them before 
they were discarded, as I showed some years 
ago in a paper published in Anglia (vol. vi. 
p. 173). JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

Dr. Morris put the matter into a nut- 
shell when he wrote : 

"Gender is a grammatical distinction, and applies 
to words only. Sex is a natural distinction, and 
applies to living objects." ' Historical Outlines of 
English Accidence,' p. 82. 

In modern English thought gender and 
sex are apt to be confounded, but it was not 
always so. As Prof. Earle remarks : 

" In the Saxon period the two things were still 
distinct. If MAN was masculine, so also was 
ivoman, WIFMAN : wife, WIF, and child, CILD, were 
neuter. So in modern German Weib and Kind are 
neuter." ' The Philology of the English Tongue,' 
pp. 369-70. 

The author quotes (pp. 372-3) an amusing 
and instructive paragraph from The Globe 
of 26 July, 1886, which deserves to be 
remembered : 

"The German genders are enough of them- 
selves to prove that considerations of sex have 
little to do with this branch of grammar, and that 
the principle involved is only that of the harmonical 
agreement of endings in words. A German gentle- 
man, for instance, writes a masculine letter of 
feminine love to a neuter young lady with a 
feminine pen and feminine ink on masculine sheets 
of neuter paper, and encloses it in a masculine 
envelope with a feminine address to his darling, 
though neuter Gretchen. He has a masculine head, 
a feminine hand, and a neuter heart. A masculine 
father and feminine mother have neuter children. 
They eat neuter bread, feminine butter, a'nd mascu- 

ii s. i. JAN. 22, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


line cheese. At a masculine table they eat with 
feminine forks and neuter knives, 011 masculine 
plates, feminine potatoes and neuter meat, or with 
masculine spoons take feminine soup and neuter 


BOYLE l (10 S. xii. 7, 79, 417). The author- 
ship of the ' Adventures ? is variously attri- 
buted to William Rufus Chetwood (died 1766) 
and to Benjamin Victor (died 1778) ; but the 
weight of authority is in favour of the 
former; see 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' Lowndes's 
'Biog. Manual, 2 Allibone's 'Diet. Eng. 
Literature,' and Halkett and Laing's ' Diet. 
Anonymous, &c., Literature.'- The first 
publication seems to have been in 1728, 
with subsequent editions in 1787, 1797, 
1804, 1814, and 1824. So far as I know, 
there is no later issue, but the book is 
occasionally catalogued as a second-hand 
item. W. B. H. 

WAITING AT ANTWERP (10 S. xii. 489). 
In ' Murray's Handbook to Holland and 
Belgium * both ladies are said to have been 
named Curie. One of them received Mary's 
last embrace before her execution. The 
inscription to the memory of their mistress 
runs or used to run " Perfidia senat : 
et heret : post 19 captivit. annos relig : 
ergo caput obtruncata." 

In this connexion may I be permitted to 
ask whether any attempt has ever been 
made to clear away the obscurity surround- 
ing the names of Mary's ladies-in-waiting ? 
All writers are agreed that two were present 
at her execution. Scottish historians give 
their names as Elizabeth Curie and Jane 
Kennedy ; on the other hand, Froude (' His- 
tory of England,' xii. 251) calls them Eliza- 
beth Kennedy and Barbara Mowbray, but 
states that the latter was the wife of Curie, 
Mary's French secretary. Which of these 
two accounts is to be trusted ? Are we to 
suppose that Scottish writers like Tytler, Hill 
Burton, and Taylor were incapable of 
stating accurately facts connected with 
their country's history ? Or must we 
Assume the discrepancy to be due to the 
' ; incurable inaccuracy " of the great English 
historian ? W. SCOTT. 

MERIMEE'S " INCONNUE " (11 S. i. 10). 
A friend, Miss Elizabeth (Lizzie) Balch, 
wrote a book of letters purporting to be the 
" Inconnue's " answers to Prosper Merimee, 
and I have more than once heard her say 
that she wrote them in a fortnight. This 

is probably the book referred to, but it is so 
many years since I read it, that I no longer 
remember the title. H. A. ST. J. M. 

The letters are assumed to be genuine, 
and the lady has been identified as Mile. 
Jenny Dacquin. See Alph. Lefebvre's " La 
Celebre Inconnue de Prosper Merimee, sa vie 
et ses ceuvres authentiques, avec documents, 
portraits et dessins inedits. Preface intro- 
duction, par Felix Chambon. Paris, E, 
Sansot & Cie., 1908.' ? C. W. SUTTON. 

FUNERAL PLUMES (11 S. i. 10). A con- 
temporary copy, in my possession, of the 
undertaker's bill for Garrick's funeral (1779) 
throws some light on this subject. Among 
the items are the following : 

A state lid of rich black ostrich plumes 011 three 
days, and carried in procession at the funeral, 2 10*. 

A state rail covered with mourning and rich 
plumes of the best ostrich feathers, placed round 
the corpse three days and three nights, 5. 

To 17 plumes of rich ostrich feathers on hearse 
and horses, 2 10.*. 

To 6 plumes of rich ostrich feathers for the horses 
of the state coach, 1 10*. 

To 30 plumes of ostrich feathers, velvets, and 
velvet hammercloths for the mourning coaches, 
12 15s. 

To 72 plumes of feathers, velvets, and velvet 
hammercloths for 12 mourning coaches, 31 12s. 

To an extra rich and long Amozeen scarf, a do. 
hatband and a pair of open laced looped gloves for 
the Dean of Westminster, 4 10s. 

The charge for hanging the churches of 
St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Hampton, and 
Hendon (of which place Garrick was, I 
believe, Lord of the Manor), amounted to 
811. 12s. ; and the total of the bill came to 
1,4151. The executors appear to have 
thought the charges rather high, for there 
is a note at the end stating that, after allow- 
ing deductions made by Mr. Higgins and 
Mr. Skerrett, to whom the bill was referred 
for taxation, the total was agreed at 
1,391Z. WM. DOUGLAS. 

125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 

The following lines are from the first 
edition of Blair's poem ' The Grave,'' which 
was published in 1743 : 

But see ! the well-plum'd Herse comes nodding on 

Stately and slow. 
See also 9 S. ix. 108. W. S. 


508). The history of this anonymous work 
is rather complicated. It was written by 
Sir H. B. and Lady Dudley. Unless I am 
mistaken, it first appeared in 1778 under the 
title of ' Shakespeare's History of the Tunes,'- 
12mo, pp. iv-76. Then it was enlarged, and 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 22, 1910. 

reissued as ' Modern Characters from Shake- 
speare,'- 1778, 2 vols., 12mo. A second 
edition followed in the same year in one vol., 
12mo, pp. 80. The third edition, 12mo, 
pp. 84, was issued by D. Brown, 1778, and 
another by E. Johnson in 1778, 12mo, 
pp. iv-88. In 1795 the book was recast, and 
the title altered to ' Passages selected by Dis- 
tinguished Personages. . . . , l forming 4 vols. 
Five other editions speedily followed, making 
a total of eleven editions, which are fully 
described in my ' Shakespeare Bibliography 2 
now printing, Several of these editions may 
be seen at the British Museum and the other 
chief Shakespeare libraries of the world. 

139, Canning Street, Liverpool. 

The work entitled ' Passages selected by 
Distinguished Personages s is attributed to 
the Rev. Sir Henry Bate Dudley. See 
Halkett and Laing's * Dictionary, 4 vol. iii. 
col. 1867. W. SCOTT. 

(10 S. xii. 307, 350, 392). See W. Toone's 
' Chronological Historian, 1 1826, ii. 113 : 

" 1760, April 18. Between nine and ten o'clock 
this morning a dreadful fire broke out at the house 
of Messrs. Barrow and Reynolds, oil-men, in 
Thames street adjoining to St. Magnus church; 
which consumed that house, Mr. Bailey's the 
tackle-porter alehouse," &c. 


(11 S. i. 11). Dickens would appear to have 
altered the surname. According to Lord 
Stanhope's * History of England, 1 the speech 
was made by Col. Murray, " one of Lord 
George's kinsmen." The exact relationship 
is not stated. The date of the speech was 
2 June, 1780 : 

" My Lord George, dp you really mean to bring 
your rascally adherents into the House of Commons ? 
If you do, the first man of them that enters, I will 
plunge my sword, not into his body, but into yours." 

G. H. W. 

To-day this passage would be more correctly 
described as being in Pall Mall, whence it 
leads into King Street. It is about thirty 
doors from St. James's Street, proceeding 
thence on the left, and is now known as Pall 
Mall Place, between Nos. 51 and 52, Pall 
Mall (north side). Quaint remnants of the 
once more fashionable King Street, where 
dwelt the statesman and wit Savile, Marquis 
of Halifax, survive in the four courts which 
occupy exactly the middle of this thorough- 
fare, on the south side, and which probably 

date from the building of King Street in 
1673. Equidistant from each other, or 
nearly so, their situation remains exactly the 
same as then, and with that shown in William 
Rhodes' s Plan of the Parish of St. James's 
in 1770. They all, with the exception of 
King's Place (or King's Place Court), now 
Pall Mall Place, retain their original names, 
which, beginning eastwards, are Cleveland 
Yard, Rose and Crown Court, Pall Mall 
Place, and Angel Court. 

It was to King Street, Jermyn Street, 
Charles Street, and St. Alban's Street that 
rank and fashion migrated, at the behest of 
Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban, when 
Covent Garden began to lose favour as a 
fashionable centre ; and these were the 
first streets to be developed on the St. 
Alban's estate, for the reception, as a resi- 
dential quarter, of the town- dwelling nobility 
and gentry. J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

The passage between King Street and 
Pall Mall, now known as Pall Mall Place, 
was formerly called King's Place. The 
name was altered about forty years ago, 
when considerable changes were made, in 
consequence, I believe, of the place having 
acquired a doubtful reputation. Part of 
Willis's Rooms, formerly Almack's, extended 
over the archway leading out of King Street. 
I never knew of its being referred to as King's 
Place, Piccadilly, nor can it have had any 
connexion with Duke Street, which is on the 
north side of King Street. W. HUGHES. 
[Reply from MR. H. A. HARBEX next week.] 

THREE CCC COURT (11 S. i. 31). In a 
plan of the Vintry Ward published in 1754 
there is shown, on the west side of Garlick 
Hill, just opposite St. James's Church, a 
small court, approached by a very narrow 
passage, called " Three Shear Court.' 1 The 
" Three Shears " is a very ordinary sign, 
and three C's is probably a corruption of this. 
The only other named court leading out of 
Garlick Hill is slightly to the north of this, 
and is called " Sugarloafe Court. " It led into 
Bowling Alley, and is in existence to-day. 
There is another court a few yards to the 
north again, and one just opposite to it on 
the east side. Both these are unnamed. 

[Reply from MR. HARBEX next week.] 

ARMS (11 S. i. 30). Sir Michael Warton, 
Kt., M.P. for Beverley, had a sister Susanna 
who became the wife of Sir John Newton. 
Sir Michael died in 1725, and his monu- 
ment in Beverley Minster was erected by his 

ii s. i. JAN. 22, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


nephew Sir Michael Newton, K.B., who was 
M.P. for Grantham, and died in 1743 (Le 
Neve, ' Knights,' 205 ; Musgrave, ' Obi- 
tuary,' iv. 287). Shinbones, or thighbones, 
saltire-wise were borne by many families 
of Newton ; see, e.g., Dugdale, ' Visitation 
of Yorkshire,' 67 ; Foster, ' Visitation of 
Yorkshire,* 274 ; Le Neve, ' Knights,' 489 ; 
' D.N.B.,' xl. 402, a. W. C. B. 

WEEK' (11 S. i. 8). The author of the 
articles in Once a Week I believe to have 
been Henry Duff Traill, D.C.L., who after- 
wards published his contributions to the 
magazine, in a greatly altered and amended 
form, in 1884 under the title ' The New 
Lucian : being a Series of Dialogues of the 
Dead.' Only five of the names mentioned 
in the query as occurring ip. Once a Week 
reappear in ' The New Lucian.' The- dia- 
logues in the book amount to fourteen. 
In a subsequent edition of ' The New Lucian ' 
further alterations were made. Fifteen 
dialogues were given, of which nine were in 
the first edition, and the rest were new. 


LEIGH (11 S. i. 23). The will of Thomas 
Wilson, D.D. (P.C.C. Rockingham, 240), is 
abstracted in ' Notes on the Parish of 
Burton in Wirral,' by F. C. Beazley, F.S.A., 
vol. xxiii. N.S. Trans. Hist. Soc. Lanes and 
Cheshire, and separately published by Young, 
Liverpool, 1908. It appears from these 
notes that the Wilsons had no recorded 
right to the arms they assumed ; also that 
Thomas Macklin obtained a royal licence 
in May, 1784, to take the surname of Wilson 
only and to bear the. arms, after they had 
been exemplified and recorded in the 
Heralds' College. R. S. B. 

11 S. i. 35). In Cannon's ' Historical Records 
of the British Army * there is a volume 
devoted to the history of the llth or North 
Devon Regiment of Foot, 1685-1845. 

There is a special account entitled ' The 
Record of a Regiment of the Line, being a 
Regimental History of the 1st Battalion 
Devonshire Regiment during the Boer War 
1899-1902,' by Col. M. Jacson, with a preface 
by Lieut. -General W. Kitchener, 1908. 

Finally, in Hart's 'Army List,' pp. 242a- I 
242d, there is an account of the services j 
of the officers. Though not an official 
publication, this is valuable and trust- ! 
worthy. A. RHODES. 

[MR. W. SCOTT also thanked for reply.] 

JAMES O'BRIEN, 1798 (10 S. xii. 511). 
O'Brien was in Government service in Ire- 
land from 1797 to 1800. He acted under 
Major Sirr in coping with rough and desperate 
characters. Martial law empowered Major 
Sandys, Provost Marshal, to arrest and 
detain guilty or suspected persons. O'Brien 
and other men served under him as well as 
Major Sirr. 

Ho well's ' State Trials * is the authority 
for saying that O'Brien was introduced to 
Government by Lord Portarlington, and was 
enlisted in a dragoon regiment that he might 
have its protection while his life was in 
danger. He brought Patrick Finney's scheme 
to light. Finney organized a funeral pro- 
cession attended by 10,000 persons, 30 April, 
1797. The corpse had already been buried ; 
the procession was intended to overawe 
the Government, and the military were 
ordered out. O'Brien had reported the 
affair to Lord Portarlington, for he attended 
the meetings in Dublin when it was organized. 
Finney was tried for high treason. 

O'Brien was hanged for manslaughter 
three years later. He was so exasperated 
by the populace and their jeers when he was 
guarding a field in which they were assembled 
that he violently assaulted the nearest 
person, an aged man, who died from the 
injury inflicted. Mr. Justice Day sent the 
Lord Lieutenant a report upon O'Brien's 
trial, on behalf of Lord Yelverton and him- 
self. A copy is preserved with Major Stir's 
manuscripts. Madden complains that Major 
Sirr appeared at the trial of O'Brien ; but 
this was not to condone his guilt. Major Sirr 
naturally appeared to testify, as any one 
in his position might have done. Plowden 
mentions that " other persons of more 
consequence about the Castle interceded 
for O'Brien.'' 

Dr. D'Arcy Stir's note about O'Brien 
(10 S. iv. 112) was mistakenly quoted with 
the object of discrediting another note 
concerning Robert Emmet and Sarah Curraii 
(10 S. iii. 303). Evidence of Dr. Stir's 
credibility is even stronger than I showed, 
and it is obvious, as he recognized, that Sarah 
Curran was misguided under Emmet's 
influence. Dr. Stir had good grounds also 
when he penned the note about O'Brien 
that he was a " calumniated, honest, brave 



MR. GAZE will find a good deal about 
" Jimmy O'Brien " in the Appendix to 
Madden's ' United Irishmen,' First Series, 
vol. ii. (1842), and Third Series, vol. ii. 
(1846), p. 307; in Fitzpatrick's 'Sham 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JA*. 22, 1910. 

Squire, 2 1869 and 1872, p. 185 ; in the ' Life 
of Curran 2 by his son (London, 1819), vol. i. 
pp. 383-407 ; and in Curran's ' Speeches,* 
edited by Thomas Davis (Duffy, 1867), on the 
trial of Patrick Finney for high treason in 

Jvensal Lodge, N.W, 

xii. 508). About 1810 Mr. William Sabatier 
at Halifax, Nova Scotia, received a jack- 
knife from a sailor, who said that his ship- 
mates had given him the knife because he 
was the ugliest man they had ever seen, 
but they had added the condition that if 
he met a man uglier than himself he was 
to give him the knife. As the sailor saw 
that Mr. Sabatier was uglier than himself, 
he was obliged by the condition to resign 
the knife to him ! . M. N. G. 

So-called ugly men are often the hand- 
somest in thoughts and deeds. The only 
explanation that one can think of as to giving 
jack-knives away is that there was a strong 
desire to cut acquaintance. 


xii. 490). The following extract from 
Walford's ' County Families,* ed. 1860, 
supplies in part the information desired : 

" Sir T. W. Brotherton, K.C.B., son of 

Brotnerton, Esq. ; born 1785 ; married 1819 
Louisa Ann, daughter of J. Stratton, Esq. ; 
resided (1860) at 11, Upper Brook Street, W." 

The ' D.N.B.* states that he married as his 
second wife the daughter of the Rev. Walter 
Hare. In ' Debrett,* 1867, the lady appears 
as Thomasina, daughter of the late Rev. W. 

A characteristic anecdote of Brotherton 
during a visit to Paris, telling how he put 
to ignominious flight a Frenchman who 
insulted him, is related in Malmesbury's 
' Memoirs of an Ex-Minister, 5 ed. 1885, p. 16 


NOAH AS A GIRL'S NAME (11 S. i. 7). 
Noah was one of the five daughters of 
Zelophehad. They were early champions 
of women's rights ; see Numbers xxvii. 1-1 1 
xxxvi. 10-12 ; Joshua xvii. 3-6. 


St. Thomas', Douglas. 

There are interesting communications 
dealing with this strange choice at 7 S. iv 
505 ; v. 76. W. C. B. 

[MR. W. B. KIXGSFORD and J. T. also thanke 
for replies. ] 

ii. 468). Some amusing notes published 
n Lectures pour Tous sketched in popular 
ashion some ' Precedes du Travail et 
danies des Ecrivains l : Buffon in his 
' manchettes de dentelle,' 2 emblematical of 
lis aristocratic literary style ; Flaubert in 
lis brown cloth " houppelande," which 

reached to his heels " ; Balzac's monk's 
*own, in which he sat writing from midnight 
,o midday ; and Rousseau in cotton night- 
jap and robe of printed calico, with a cage 
f singing birds and a plan of the forest of 
Montmorency before him to remind him of 
' nature " in his Parisian fourth - floor 
chamber. F. A. W. 


10 S. xii. 281, 333, 411). I cannot help 
thinking that Canon Ellacombe's interpreta- 
}ion of the passage in ' A Midsummer 
Night's Dream l which is quoted at 
p. 334, that Shakespeare meant, So the 
'eaves involve the flower, using " wood- 
bine n for the plant, and "honey suckle' 5 
for the flower, is correct. Steevens supports 
it by a reference to Baret's ' Alvearie,* 
1580 : " Woodbin that beareth the Honie- 
suckle " ; and recently in reading Hookes's 
Amanda l I came upon the following 
passage, which lends colour to the idea that 
up to the middle of the seventeenth century 
such a distinction was recognized : 
Look how that woodbine- at the window peeps, 
And slilie underneath the casement creeps ! 
Its honey-suckle shewes, and tempting stands 
To spend its morning Nectar in thy hands. 

'Amanda,' 1653, p. 40. 


HENRY ETOUGH (10 S. xii. 430). I should 
myself be glad of information concerning 
one Henry Etough who was a parishioner 
of SS. Anne and Agnes, Aldersgate, in 
1726. He would seem to have been a man 
of considerable substance, his house being 
(apparently) the largest in the parish at the 

xii. 323, 450). As this curious production 
is under discussion I may perhaps be per- 
mitted to fill up one name which was omitted 
in MR. BLEACKLEY'S key. It occurs on 
p. 8, containing the epitaph on the Dowager 
Countess S y . This is evidently Christa- 
bella, daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas 
Tyrrel, Bt., of Castlethorpe, married first 
to John Knapp of Cumnor, secondly to 
John Pigott of Doddershall, and lastly, 

n s. i. j.. 22, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


about 1754, to Richard Fiennes, Viscount 
Saye and Sele. The Viscount died in 1784, 
and she died 23 July, 1789, aged ninety-four. 
In the notice of her death in The Gentle- 
man's Magazine it is stated that she dressed, 
even at the close of her life, more like a girl 
of eighteen than a woman of ninety. Her 
favourite amusement was dancing, and she 
indulged in it almost to the last week of her 
life. She was always lively and had an 
excellent heart. J. B. P. 

May I be allowed to make the following 
comments upon MB. BEAVEN'S most per- 
spicacious contribution to this subject ? 

P. 25. Having considered MB. BEAVEN'S 
exhaustive summary of possible people, I 
have come to the conclusion that this epi- 
taph was intended for Edward, 12th Earl 
of Derby, whose character, allowing for 
exaggerations, it appears to ftt. My edition 
(the seventh) gives in the Index " Lord 
D h." 

P. 78. MB. BEAVEN seems to be right. 
My Index gives " Lord N h, and as Lord 
Newborough had been M.P. for Carnarvon, 
I was led astray. 

P. 92. This is certainly Mrs. Macaulay, 
In copying my list I transcribed " Dr. 
Graham," her husband, whose name appears 
at the top of the inscription. 

P. 112. My Index gives "Hon. M 
M-n-a-ue,"' but the initial evidently is 

P. 115. My Index makes another mis- 
take, giving " Sir W r H -rt n." 

P. 126. I ought to have written Elizabeth, 
Countess of Berkeley, but copied in error the 
name of her husband. After the death of 
Augustus, 4th Earl of Berkeley, she married 
{in 1757) Mr. Robert (afterwards 1st Earl) 
Nugent, the " Lord N " of the text. They 
separated at the end of two years. I still 
think that the blank epitaph on p. 50 refers to 
Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of Kingston, 
as my Index gives " D of K ," and the 
reference to " Three Russians ** corroborates 
my belief. 

P. 130. My Index, which is so often 

wrong, gives "B Countess of B ," 

not P . 

I had not seen the previous lists of MB. 
anticipated the greater portion of my own. 

STEEBAGE ON A FBIGATE (10 S. xii. 470). 
Since the original frigate was a merchant 
vessel as well as a battleship, the steerage 
portion would probably have been, as in 

merchant ships, the space between the com- 
panion ladder and the captain's cabin. R. H. 
Dana, jun., in his ' Seaman's Manual,' 1867, 
describes it as being " that part of the 
between decks just forward of the cabin."' 


xii. 348, 418, 474). In " Dictionnaire Fran- 
cois-Anglois & Anglois -Francois, par Louis 
Chambaud, nouvelle edition, revue, cor- 
rigee, &c., par J. Th. Des Carrieres, a Londres, 
1815," " Catalogue n appears as feminine. 
In Boyer's ' Royal Dictionary Abridged,' 
5th ed., London, 1728, it is masculine. 
What was the date of the first edition of 
Chambaud' s dictionary, and whether in it 
" catalogue " is said to be feminine, I do not 
know. Is it not possible that " catalogue " 
attracted, as it were, in some dictionaries the 
feminine gender of its next or near neighbour 
" Catalogue " ? ROBEBT PIEBPOINT. 

(10 S. xii. 444, 485). I have heard Cyrus 
Jay spoken of by several who knew him 
personally, and though he was not success- 
ful in his latter days, I do not think he was 
in any great straits. Thanet Place had 
still at least one well-known, not to say 
distinguished, occupant ; and a writer on 
legal subjects, in a letter of 1901 now before 
me, makes this mention of Jay's ' The Law : 
What I have Seen, What I have Heard, and 
What I have Known * : "... .poor old 
Jay's book, the proof-sheets whereof he 
gave me to read.' 1 W. B. H. 

ST. GBATIAN'S NUT (11 S. i. 10). In the 
extract from Hakluyfc the mention of 
trees presents a difficulty in the way of 
tracing the kind of nut described. The 
synonym St. Gratian is not given by 
botanists. But popular and scientific names 
change, and after a long period their par- 
ticular application is forgotten. The author 
of the ' Voyages ' refers more especially to 
the virtues of the nuts, and perhaps assumed 
that they were the fruit of some tree ; but 
the description generally points to the 
Trapa, water-caltrop, aquatic herbs pro- 
ducing farinaceous seeds (nuts). The seed 
is larger than the kernel of the filbert. 
There are three species. Trapa natans is 
sold in Venice under the name of Jesuits' 
nuts. Pliny says that the Thracians made 
this into bread ; and Thunberg states 
that the seeds of the Trapa bicornis are 
commonly put into broth in Japan. The 
large seeds of Trapa bispinosa are sweet and 
eatable ; they form an extensive article 


NOTES AND QUERIES. in s. i. JAN. 2-2, 1910. 

of cultivation in Cashmere and other parts 
of the East. They are common food, and 
known under the name of Singhara nuts. 


SCABLET PIMPERNEL (10 S. xii. 166). In 
Cumberland, Cheshire, Northamptonshire, 
Warwickshire, Hampshire, and Huntingdon, 
the common pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis, 
is known as the poor-man's weather-glass, 
or the shepherd's weather-glass, because of 
its delicate sense of perceiving the approach 
of rain, when it closes its flowers : 
Come, tell me, thou coy little flower, 

Converging thy petals again, 
Who gave thee the magical power 
Of shutting thy cup on the rain ? 
While many a beautiful bow'r 

Is drenched in nectareous dew, 
Seal'd up is your scarlet-tinged flower, 
And the rain peals in vain upon you. 

* The Botanical Looker-out,' p. 168, quoted in 
Friend's ' Flowers and Flower-Lore.' 

It is also " good to prevent witchcraft, ' ? 
and while it is being gathered the following 
charm should be repeated : 
Herbe Pimpernell, I have thee found, 

Growing upon Christ Jesus' ground : 
The same guift the Lord Jesus gave unto thee 

When He shed His blood on the tree. 
Arise up, Pimpernell, and goe with me, 

And God blesse me, 
And all that shall were thee. Amen. 

If this be said twice a day for fifteen days in 
succession, fasting in the morning, and on a 
full stomach in the evening, " no one can 
predict how much good will follow n (Dyer's 
' English Folk-lore, l quoted ibid.}. 

From the pimpernel's habit, too, of closing 
its blossoms about two o'clock it has gained 
the name of shepherd's clock, a name applied 
also to the goats'-beard. Some call it John- 
go-to-bed-at-noon for the same reason. 


I can remember how the country people of 

Derbyshire almost worshipped the pretty 

little lowly-growing flower. Of it some 

would say that it was the " prettiest low- 

groundest flower that God ever made." 

One old lady always said, when she met with 

it in the garden : " Thou lowly, lovely 

pimpernel ! " Whether she was quoting or 

not I do not know ; but as she would sit 

and make " lines, n probably the idea was 

her own. I have heard it called " the 

ground star " by a harvest man. But one 

and all seem to love the beautiful littl* 

flower which looked up at them from th< 

ground, and which, though too small almos 

to be gathered, could not be passed by. 


10 S. xii. 508). On a recent evening one of 
ny sons read out the incident of the dis- 
urbance between the 24th Foot and the 
?ower Hamlets Militia. My other son, with 
he ' Recollections of a Humourist ' in his 
land, said : "Why, I have just read an 
account of this in this book. n A. W. a 
Beckett, however, gives the sequel : 

'The late Duke of Cambridge harangued the 
Regular battalion. 'If 1 had my way, I would 

end you to ,' and he mentioned a place with 

an exceptionally sultry climate. 'But as you can't 
go there just yet, you shall all go to Mauritius.' " 
P. 155. 


THOMAS ELLIS OWEN (11 S. i. 30). 
[t may be of interest to G. F. R. B. to know 
that a Thomas Ellis Owen, J.P., architect 
and surveyor, was resident in Portsmouth 
previous to 1 Nov., 1843, on which date he 
was elected Town Councillor for the Ward 
of St. Paul, and also twice elected Mayor 
of the same borough (1847, 1862). 

Although Southsea was in the early part of 
last century in its infancy as a watering-place, 
there being only a few houses called Croxton 
Town (which took its name from its builder, 
Thomas Croxton), Thomas Ellis Owen was 
known as the founder of Southsea, i.e., the 
more fashionable part, which sprang up a few 
years later. Mr. Owen was held in high 
esteem by all who knew him, and was much 
sought after for his professional abilities. 
He died 11 Dec., 1862, and was probably 
buried in the town here. Was he son of the 
Mr. Owen said to have died in 1814 ? 

F. K. P. 


xii. 387, 470). In ' Actii Sinceri Sanna- 
zarii .... Opera .... ex secundis curis Jani 
Broukhusii. Accedunt Gabrielis Altilii, 
Danielis Cereti, & Fratrum Amaltheorum 
Carmina,' Amstelsedami, 1728, p. 366, the 
title of the epigram which I quoted at the 
latter reference is ' Horologium Pulvereum, 
Tumulus Alcippi.' The first line begins- 
" Perspicuo in vitro n instead of " Perspi- 
cuus vitro n ; and in the fourth line " cseco " 
appears instead of " subito." 

There follows next (p. 367) : 
Idem, loin. Tumulus. 

Horarum in vitro pulvis mine mensor, lolse 
Sunt cineres : urnam condidit acer Amor, 

Ut, si quse extincto remanent in amore favillse, 
Nee jam tutus eat, nee requietus amet. 

There are eight epigrams about Gall* 
pp. 370-72. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

ii s. i. JAN. 22, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


245). " Clock " is used for beetle as far 
south as Lincolnshire. % 

With regard to spiders being " etter- 
caps," is it not possible that certain of them 
do inflict a slight wound ? I have been told 
by two people in North- West Lincolnshire 
that they have been bitten. My first in- 
formant, a very intelligent domestic servant, 
fond of observing the habits of animals, 
averred that she and other people had 
suffered from the attacks of little black 
spiders in a certain old house. The bites 
caused some slight inflammation in persons 
who had very sensitive skins. A gentleman - 
farmer to whom I repeated the story said 
that he himself had been bitten by a house - 
spider, but it was a large one. Several people 
of my acquaintance complain of the bites of 
earwigs, declaring that they <jan give a sharp 
nip. L. I. O. 

In Forfarshire the usual name for an ear- 
wig was '* horn-golach. n I. N. S. 

A beetle here is known as a " clock-bell " ; 
a humble bee as a " bumler " ; the ladybird 
as " cushie-coo-lady,"' hence the local rime : 
Cushie-coo-ladie, fly away hyem [home], 
Yer hoos is afire, yer childer arl gyen [all gone]. 

R. B B. 

South Shields. 

NAME (10 S. xii. 365 ; US. i. 35). In The 
Genealogist, N.S., vol. xxi. p. 106 (October, 
1904), I printed a pedigree of the family of 
Forsett. Among the sons of Richard Forsett, 
Reader of Gray's Inn (obiit 1561), are two 
Williams. The elder was alive in 1589, 
the younger in 1583. 



In Ireland it is regarded as a certain way 
of bringing ill-luck and early death to " call 
a child for n a dead brother or sister. " The 
name is already registered in heaven " 
used to be the solemn reply to the natural 
question, " Why is it so unlucky ? n and fifty 
years ago both Catholics and Protestants 
shared in this " freit. ? ' My own family gave 
several convincing instances in early deaths 
that " those who look to freits, freits wil] 
follow them.' J Y. T. 

MARCH MALEN (10 S. xii. 489). The 
proverb " in ore vulgi " is Welsh, not 
Gaelic. " Varch " is correct. The radical 
form is " March," but m mutates to v (/) 
after the preposition ar. H. I. B. 


Memorials of Old Stissex. Edited by Percy D. 
Mundy. With many Illustrations. (Allen & 
Sons. ) 

THE publishers indicated above have taken over 
bhe series once issued by Messrs. Bemrose, and 
we are glad to notice that the recent volumes 
in it fully maintain the interest of the " Memorials." 
Local history is much more popular than it used 
to be, and in this volume the reader will find 
enough of a varied character to induce him to 
ontinue his researches on the lines he prefers. 

No single volume can exhibit anything like 
all that is noteworthy in an English county. 
The difficulty lies, as the Preface of this one 
indicates, in the matter of selection. Here the 
general history of the county has been omitted, 
a proceeding to which we do not object, as all 
the space is needed for the several special subjects 
which receive treatment. 

Sussex has been the subject of a good many 
books of late years, and it is the more creditable 
to find that all the articles here have an air of 
freshness and that mastery of detail which comes 
from real knowledge. Mr. Tavenor-Perry deals 
well with ' Saxon Architecture ' and ' The Castles 
of Sussex.' The Rev. Dr. Cox has a subject after 
his heart in ' The Forests of Sussex.' Prebendary 
Deedes, an old contributor to our own columns, 
writes on Chichester, the beautiful Market Cross 
of which forms a suitable frontispiece ; and the 
editor on ' Monastic Remains ' and ' Country Life 
in the Past.' Perhaps the most interesting of the 
antiquarian articles is that on ' Mural Paintings ' 
by Mr. P. M. Johnston, dealing admirably with 
a subject which may almost be called new in 
view of the inattention or destruction which 
was the lot of these early memorials of piety in 
the nineteenth century. 

No book on the county is complete without the 
prose of Mr. Belloc, and he leads off with a few 
of his characteristic pages on ' The Individuality of 
Sussex,' full of his usual attractive, if audacious 
generalization. He talks disparagingly of "chance 
settlers," but it seems to us that many of the old 
families who have been in Sussex for years might 
reasonably regard him in that light. He has good 
hope that the characteristics of the county will 
be permanent : 

" The thing that would wound us, and perhaps 
destroy us, would be the discovery of metal or of 
coal. Men of science assure us that this is im- 
possible. Their word is extremely doubtful 
upon all matters, but upon this matter it is, for 
once, a comforting and a reassuring word." 

Mr. M. Jourdain has an agreeable style, and is 
consequently well suited for the account of 
' Literary Associations ' (inevitably disappointing 
so far as Shelley is concerned) and the charm of 
Rye. Hayley and Blake at Felpham receive a- 
special chapter. 

The " Long Man " or " Giant " of Wilmington 
is one of the oldest memorials, we believe, of the 
county. The two writers who deal with it 
Mr. G. Clinch in ' Celtic Antiquities,' and Mr. 
William Martin in 'The Downland ' are not 
exactly at one regarding its antiquity. The 
paving of the outlines of the figure with white 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAS. 22, mo. 

brick we regard with great satisfaction, as it 
secures its permanence. Mr. Clinch's brief 
mention associates the figure with " some form 
of ancient religion." He has our adherence to 
this view. Mr. Martin says, inter alia : 

" Horsfield and Lower agreed in thinking it 
probably the work of mediaeval monks from the 
priory in the plain below. Absence of notice 
concerning it somewhat justifies suspicions of 
its antiquity, since so prominent an object could, 
if present, scarcely have been passed unnoticed." 

As to this we remark that the Cerne Abbas 
giant is also associated with monks close by. 
But may they not in both cases have taken on a 
cult, or, at any rate, a spot with associations of 
religious awe ? That the Dorset figure was 
regarded as of use in promoting childbearing is 
known. That either of them was the work of 
monks seems wholly untenable, for the reason 
'that their proportions are clumsy. Monks were 
often mediaeval artists, and would have produced 
something less rude and strange in appearance. 

' Old-time Sport ' by Mr. H. A. Bryden, and 
-' Country Life in the Past,' by the editor, are 
particularly welcome as giving us an insight 
into the life of the people, without which such a 
book as this may be too exclusively antiquarian 
in its appeal. We have ourselves a feeling for 
Architecture in itself which makes all the lore of 
-the subject a delight ; but there are others to 
whom an old tower, say, conveys but little is 
nothing, in the words of Sophocles, if empty of 
.those who lived together within it. 

The race of old country folk is rapidly passing 
away, language, habits, dress, and social custom 
alike yielding to the overpowering attraction of 
big centres, which crush individuality. Perusal 
,of this volume will show what admirable features 
fitill remain worthy of the study and thought of 
the man of the town. 

Our Debt to Antiquity. By Prof. Zielinski. 
Translated, with Introduction and Notes, by 
Prof. H. A. Strong and Hugh Stewart. (Bout- 
ledge & Sons.) 

WE are grateful alike to the publishers and 
translators for giving us an excellent version of a 
stimulating little book. Prof. Zielinski delivered 
rthe lectures it embodies at St. Petersburg in the 
.spring of 1903 to the highest classes of the second - 
; ary schools in the capital. They did not gain a 
favourable reception at first, but soon won their 
way to a second edition, which was ' ' meant for the 
world at large." 

Russia " looks back to Byzantine Greek as its 
.classical language," says the Introduction ; but 
the Professor attaches much importance also to 
Latin, which is not generally viewed with favour 
in his native country. The defence of the study 
-of the classics as an educational instrument is 
most spirited, and full of that simplicity and 
naivete of diction which always seems to us the 
great charm of Russian literature, while the 
Russian point of view has an agreeable freshness. 
The author has, too, a philosophic outlook which 
adds to the value of his survey. On the subject 
of " semasiology " a long word for a simple 
and important study he is particularly good, 
and a little consideration of what he says would, 
perhaps, suggest to some writers of English their 
defects in the knowledge of words, and con- 
^equent degradation of a fine language. " How 

often do I tear my hair for not having had a 
classical education ! " said Pushkin ; and we 
have heard similar exclamations from men who 
wrote with 'a due regard for the splendid heritage 
of their mother-tongue. 

A brief exposition like this is bound to contain 
some debatable positions stated as if they were 
assured. We are ready, however, to endorse in 
the main the arguments so well put before us. 
The translators have achieved the feat of prer 
senting a rendering free from the distressing 
signs of alien origin. Perhaps this is because they 
are themselves classical scholars. 

The appearance of such a work at the present 
stage of culture in England is opportune, and we 
hope that it will go far and wide. There is no 
trace in Prof. Zielinski's lectures of the pedantry 
which disfigures much of the writing of learned 
scholars in England, and deprives them of the 
influence they might exert on the ordinary reader, 
and, as we all write now, we may add the ordinary 

A Hundred Verses from Old Japan : being a 
Translation of the Hyaku-nin-isshiu. By W. N. 
Porter. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
THE grace and delicacy of the brief cameos of 
Japanese verse are becoming known to a few 
outside the ranks of professed scholars. This 
audience will be increased by Mr. Porter's render- 
ings of pieces which all have five lines and thirty - 
one syllables, and were collected in A.D. 1235. 
We are told that Japanese verse depends on all 
sorts of puns and alternative meanings which are 
beyond the power of a translator to render. 
Apart from this, however, many of the pieces have 
charm as thumb-nail pictures of scenery, or as 
embodying a gentle, reflective melancholy which 
is attractive. We give a specimen of the poems, 
the work of a man who was an official in the 
Province of Sagami in 911 : 

Gone are my old familiar friends, 

The men I used to know ; 
Yet still on Takasago beach 
The same old pine trees grow, 
That I knew long ago. 
Illustrations by native artists at the end of the 
eighteenth century are reproduced here, and come 
from the collection of Mr. F. V. Dickins, C.B., 
one of the few English scholars who have a 
thorough knowledge of Japanese ways and lan- 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

O N all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

B. M. D. ("St. George as the Patron 8aint of 
England"). See 78. iii. 38G, 06; 98. v. 374, and 
the authorities cited. 

CORRIGENDUM. 10 8. xii. 483, col. 2, third pro- 
verb, for "tin " read pin. 

ii s. i. JAN. 29, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES: 'The Canadian Boat Song, 1 81 'The Book of 
Oaths,' 82 Bibliography of Manners, 84 Royal Manners 
temp. William IV. Manners in the Eighteenth Century 
Osbaldistone, 85 General Ireton's Death "Function" 
T. L. Peacock's ' Essay on Fashionable Literature ' 
Families Dying Out, 86. 

"QUERIES: "Tally" Verdant Green Warly Letters 
"Standing for Parliament "Master Stephen and his 
Hawk Sir Henry Audley Battle of Mohacs Columbine 
Flower Fishwick of Islington, 87 Authors Wanted 
Nosegay in the Pulpit Miss Abbott's Portrait London 
Visitations De Quincey and Dreams "Le Whacok" 
"Altes Haus" Cowes, 88 Place de la Concorde 
Mohammed and the Mountain "Old Lady of Thread- 
needle Street " Lyon's Inn Dr. T. Bray, 89. 

REPLIES : Watson's ' History of Printing'' Short Whist,' 
90 King's Place -Three CCC Court Authors Wanted 
Banished Covenanters, 92 "Tally-ho" Michael Mait- 
taire "This world's a city," &c., 93 Dun Y "W T hen 
our Lord shall lie." &c.-Diss-Sir R. Geffery, 94-Med- 
menham Abbey, 95 Walsh Surname Lady Worsley 
American Words : " Franklin," 96 St. Margaret's, West- 
minster Selby Peculiar Court " Whelps," 97 Brooke of 
Cobham Rev. R. Snowe Dr. J. Bradley, 98 "Culprit," 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Burke's Peerage and Baronetage ' 
'Anna van Schurman'' Who's Who' and Year-Book 
Writers' Year-Book.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


' THE CANADIAN BOAT SONG l was discussed 
in the columns of ' N. & Q.' some seven or 
<eight years ago. If I remember aright, no 
very definite conclusion as to the authorship 
was then arrived at. The subject has since 
been revived through the publication of 
Mr. G. M. Eraser's ' The Lone Shieling,' 
reviewed in ' N. & Q.' on 11 December last 
(10 S. xii. 478). Perhaps I may be permitted 
to add a few words to the discussion. 

The claim in favour of Wilson is by no 
means novel, but Mr. Fraser has developed 
it on lines never attempted before. That 
he has established his theory of the Wilson 
authorship I am not at all prepared to admit. 
His argument is based almost entirely on 
similarities in style and diction between * The 
Canadian Boat Song * and Wilson's pub- 
lished poems. This, I venture to submit, 
is much too slender a foundation on which 
to build. Such similarities or imitations 
are no satisfactory proof of authorship. 
As corroborative evidence, confirming con- 
clusions arrived at on other premises, they 
have, no doubt, their value. But when a 
considerable body of evidence, pointing in 

a different direction, can be adduced against 
them, literary similarities do not go far to 
establish an author's identity. 

Permit me to state briefly the conclusions 
already reached with regard to the author- 
ship. I do not quote authorities or develope 
arguments, but content myself with simply 
cataloguing the facts which, I think, have 
been satisfactorily established in the course 
of discussion. 

' The Canadian Boat Song ' first appeared 
in Blackwood's Magazine in September, 
1829. The September issue of the magazine 
No. XLVI. was edited by John Gibson 
Lockhart. The MS. of ' The Canadian 
Boat Song * is still in existence, and is in 
Lockhart's handwriting. Wilson never 
claimed to be the author. Neither did 
Lockhart. The latter states that he re- 
ceived the verses " from a friend of mine 
now in Upper Canada. 5i That friend was 
a contributor to BlackwoocTs Magazine. So 
far as can now be ascertained, the only 
contributor to Blackwood to whom Lock- 
hart's description will apply was John Gait. 
It would therefore appear, on the face of it, 
that Gait sent to Lockhart, for insertion in 
the magazine, the first rough draft of what 
is now known as ' The Canadian Boat Song.' 
But Gait's authorship has been strenuously 
denied, and here I break away from fairly 
settled fact into the domain of inference. 

1. It is objected that Gait was incapable 
of achieving a supreme tour de force like * The 
Canadian Boat Song.' Now this is unfair to 
Gait. ' The Canadian Boat Song * is no 
supreme tour de force. With the exception 
of one " haunting verse " to borrow Sir 
Henry Lucy's happy phrase in The Cornhill 
for last December the greater part of it 
does not rise much above mediocrity. 
There are scores of minor poets, with not 
one tithe of Gait's ability, who could write 
as good verses as most of those found in the 
received version of the song. Gait pub- 
lished three, if not four volumes of verse, 
more than double that number of plays, 
and almost innumerable contributions in 
verse to magazines and newspapers. True, 
his poems are now entirely forgotten. 
Only a few scraps here and there survive. 
Yet he could write tolerable verse. Witness 
the lines given in his * Autobiography, 1 
written when he was old, paralyzed, and 
nearing the end of his days the lines 

Helpless, forgotten, sad, and lame, 
On one lone seat the livelong day, 

I muse of youth and dreams of fame, 
And hopes and wishes all away. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 29, 1910. 

The lines may not be great poetry ; but they 
are simple, direct, and not devoid of pathos. 
Moreover, they rime and they scan. I 
hardly think that much more can be said 
if, indeed, as much for some of the verses 
in ' The Canadian Boat Song.' 

2. It is also objected that Gait never 
claimed ' The Canadian Boat Song ' as his. 
That is true. One can only conjecture that 
he had forgotten having written it. This 
need not excite surprise when we remember 
his enormous literary productivity. Nearly 
eighty volumes are attributed to his pen, 
but no one seems able to state the exact 
number. Then we must remember that his 
recollection of his own productions was not 
at all trustworthy. He wrote an epic 
poem and published it ; yet years afterwards, 
when drawing out a list of the books he 
had written, he omitted to mention the epic. 
Remarking jocularly on this omission, he 
is reported to have said that he should be 
remembered as one who had published an 
epic poem and forgot that he had done so. 
If Gait could forget this work, it is no great 
stretch of fancy to imagine that he may 
also have forgotten a bit of verse so com- 
paratively trifling as ' The Canadian Boat 
Song.' Besides, there is a question as to 
whether he recognized, or was willing to 
recognize, his own handiwork after it had 
undergone the transmuting touch of the 
" transcriber " and editor, Lockhart. 

This brings me to the last point. Internal 
evidence seems to justify one in believing 
that two pens were engaged in the com- 
position of ' The Canadian Boat Song.' 
I quote, for the purpose of contrast, the 
" haunting verse n : 

From the lone shieling of the misty island 

Mountains divide us, and the waste of seas 

But still the blood is strong, the heart is High- 
And we in dreams behold the Hebrides. 

Compare this with the last stanza : 

Come foreignrage Let Discord burst in slaughter ! 

O then for clansman true, and stern claymore 
The hearts that would have given their blood 
like water, 

Beat heavily beyond the Atlantic roar. 

If the same pen composed both stanzas 
the felicitous touch and glamour of the 
one, and the turgid rhetoric of the other 
then certainly Icarus, flying too near the 
sun, had got the wax of his wings melted, 
and thereafter had plunged headlong into 
the deep. " Atlantic roar," indeed, is 
weirdly suggestive of 

the bubbling cry 
Of some strong swimmer in his agony. 

It is surely more consistent to suppose- 
that a mind " attuned to finer issues " than 
that of the first author had amended the 
draft of the original poem, leaving us ' ' a 
thing of beauty " where before there had 
been little. else than tawdry rhetoric. That 
finer mind could have been no other than 
the <; transcriber " of the song, Lockhart .. 
I venture therefore to submit that Gait 
was the original author of ' The Canadian 
Boat Song,' but that Lockhart, in all pro- 
bability, revised and improved his verses. 


[The reader should study Mr. Fraser's book 
before making up his mind on the point. We 
have seen too many literary coincidences to be 
easy believers in such arguments ; but Mr- 
Fraser's evidence is unusually to the point.] 


SHORTLY after the beginning of the Common- 
wealth there was published 

" The Book of Oaths, j and | The Several! 
forms thereof, | both Antient and Modern. | 
Faithfully Collected out of | Sundry Authentike 
Books and | Records, not heretofore extant." 
Printed at London for W. Lee, M. Walbancke, D.. 
Pakeman, and G. Bedle. 1649. 12mo. 

A second edition appeared in 1715. 

The first edition contained some 230 oaths 
of various kinds, from which much informa- 
tion is obtainable regarding the duties of 
curious and obsolete officials, and many 
side-lights are thrown on various historical 
incidents and occasions. I have roughly 
grouped the documents as follows : 

1. Coronation Oaths. The " Antient 
Oath " of the Kings of England, the oath of 
Edward II., the new oath corrected by 
Henry VIII. with his own hand (" the 
originall is in the hands of Sir Robert Cotton,. 
Knight and Baronet, 1625"), and the oath 
of Charles I., are given. 

2. Oaths of Allegiance. Various forms of 
oaths of allegiance and of supremacy are 
included; also the oaths (temp. Henry VIII.) 
to secure the succession of the crown by 
Queen Anne and Queen Jane. Among the 
oaths of fealty are those of a Duke and 
Earl of Scotland ; of the Prior of St. John 
of Jerusalem (temp. Edward IV.), with the 
homage of James of Scotland to Henry VI. , 
of John Baliol, and of King John to the 
Pope in 1213. The words of allegiance of 
the Duke of York and of Buckingham, and 
other peers and ecclesiastics, to Henry VI., 
are given in several forms. From Philip, 
Duke of Burgoyne (and many other French 

ii s. i. JAN. 29, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


nobles), was exacted an oath to obey and 
acknowledge Henry V. as King of France 
on the death of Charles I. The oath of 
friendship made in 1573, by " the new 
King of Polonia, n to Solomon, Emperor of 
the Turks, is curiously framed : 

" If I shall neglect thus to doe, I will be an 
Apostate, a forsake r of the Holy Commandments, 
of the Gospell of the Christians ; I will say that the 
Gospel is false and untrue, I will crosse both Alter 
and Priest, I will slay swine upon the Fount, I 
will commit whoredom upon the Alter, "&c. 

3. Ministerial. Among these oaths appear 
those of the Lord Privy Seal, the Keeper of 
the Great Seal, Privy Councillor, Lord 
President of the Welsh Council, Clerks of 
Parliament and of Signet, Chancellor, 
Secretary of State, and many similar 

4. Legal. Specimens are given of the 
oaths of the Master of the Rolls, Judge of 
Requests, Judges, Justices, Serjeants, and 
Attorneys at Law. 

5. Departmental. Full sets of oaths for all 
the officers of (a) the Court of Wards and 
Liveries, (6) the Court of General Surveyors, 
(c) the Court of Augmentations, (d) the 
Court of First-Fruits and Tenths, and (e) 
the Exchequer. 

6. Ecclesiastical. Among these may be 
mentioned the homage by an Archbishop and 
Bishop ; the oath of a Bishop renouncing 
a Pope's Bull, and that of a Bishop of the 
Church of Rome to Pope Boniface ; the oath 
of a Doctor of Divinity in the University 
of " Basill n ; and the oath administered 
(temp. Richard II.) to William Divet (or 
Devnet), Nicholas Taylor, Nicholas Poncher, 
and William Staynor of Nottingham, they 
renouncing their Lollardism, and swearing 
" to be buxim to the Lawes of holie Church." 
Under Articles of 1595 and 1616 respec- 
tively, oaths were administered to the 
churchwardens and sidesmen of Salisbury 
and Bristol, and specimens are here set out, 
with a copy of the Vow and Covenant 
ordered by Parliament to be taken by 
every man (not dated). There are also the 
oath (in Latin) of a nun on taking up her 
monastic life, and that of John Copley, 
" Collegiall " of the English Seminary abroad 
of the Roman Church, rejoicing that he had 
been drawn out of a country infected with 
heresy, and undertaking to return to 
England, there to gain souls. To ensure the 
performance of the matrimonial articles 
of the Prince of Wales and the Infanta of 
Spain in 1625, a special form of oath was 
prepared for the Archbishop of Canterbury 
and the King's Councillors. 

7. Royal Household. There are several 
forms of oath to be taken by the yeomen 
and servants of the King's Chamber, by 
the Council of Princess Marie (temp. Henry 
VIII.), and the Royal Treasurers and Sur- 
veyors. In lower ranks also oaths seem 
sometimes to have been administered to the 
staff : " The honourable George, Lord 
Nevell, Baron of Abergaveny " (temp. 
Henry VIII.), made his servants on their 
first coming into his household swear to be 
obedient, and not to consume nor waste his 

8. London. The oaths of many obsolete 
! ity and Wardmote officials and servants are 

given, with that of the brokers and freemen 
of the City. An office seldom heard of is 
that of the " Tronator," who undertook 
truly " to weigh and poyse the wooll." 

9. Berwick-on-Tweed. There is a com- 
plete set of oaths for the defence of this 
town (temp. Eliz.), including those of the 
Governor, Marshal, Treasurer, Porter, Master 
of the Ordnance, Clerk of the " Checque " 
(of persons entering and leaving), Captains of 
the Bands, and private soldiers. 

10. Calais. A similar elaborate set is 
given for the defence of Calais (temp. 
Henry VIII.). This includes the oaths of 
the Deputy, High Marshal, Lieutenant of 
the Castle, Master Porter, &c., with those 
of the Lieutenants of Guynes, Ruisbancke, 
Hannues, and Newenham (Newhaven) 
Bridge. The oath of the Steward of Gas- 
cogne in the Duchy of " Guyan ?2 is of the 
same kind. 

11. Knightly Orders. The oaths of a 
Knight of the Garter (temp. Philip and Mary) 
and of the Bath (temp. Charles I.) are 
printed, together with the oath taken in 
1585 by Henry III. of France to observe 
the Statutes of the former Order. 

12. Military. Of these oaths there are 
very few. Those administered to the soldiers 
of the Earl of Leicester (temp. Eliz.) in the 
Low Countries, and to the captains and 
soldiers in Zeeland for the safeguarding of 
Flushing, are curious. 

13. Forest. Amongst these we find the 
oath given to " Master Crowner " by stealers 
of venison abjuring the realm, and the oath 
of the inhabitants of twelve years of age and 
upwards to respect the forest laws. 

14. Various. (a) The oath given as that 
of the Knights of the Round Table in the 
time of King Arthur deserves to be reprinted 
in full: 

" Not to put off your Armour from your Bodie, 
but for requisite rest in the night. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ui s. i. JAN. 29, 1910. 

" The [? To] search for marvellous adventures, 
whereby to winne reuowne. 

" To defend the poore and simple people in 
their right. 

" Not to refuse aid unto them that shall ask 
it in any just quarrell. 

" Not to hurt, offend, or play any lewd part 
the one with the other. 

" To fight for the protection, defence, and 
welfare of his friends. 

" Not to purchase any goods or particular 
profit, but Honour and the title* of honestie. 

" Not to breake faith promised or sworne, for 
any cause or occasion whatsoever. 

" To put forth and spend his life for the honour 
of God and his Countrie, and to chuse rather to 
die honestly than to live shamefully." 

(6) Probably the shortest oath in the 
book, consisting of a simple promise of 
secrecy, is that given in 1605 by Henry 
Garnet, the Jesuit, to Catesby, Piercy, 
Wright, Winter, and the other conspirators 
in the Gunpowder Plot. 

(c) Two specimens of a Merchant Adven- 
turer's oath are printed : the first of obedi- 
ence to the Fellowship, the second (taken 
before " the Poqueter ") for the true shipping 
of his clothes. 

(d) The longest oath in the book is that 
administered by the Bishop to a 'licensed 
midwife (not dated). She undertook to 
help poor and rich alike ; not to father the 
child improperly ; not to connive at fictitious 
or secret births ; not to use witchcraft or 
sorceries, or cause abortion ; to be secret ; 
and to report unlicensed mid wives. 

(e) The quarrel between the Duke of 
Gloucester and the Bishop of Winchester 
in the fourth year of Henry VI. was sub- 
mitted to the arbitrament of the Lords, and 
two copies are given of the oath taken by 
the Duke of Bedford and the other peers in 
the matter. 

There are many other curious matters to 
be found within the 400 pages of this book, 
but sufficient has perhaps been mentioned 
to show that it contains a valuable collec- 
tion of documents. Very few of these are 
dated, but internal evidence will usually 
supply the period. Probably not much 
reliance can be placed on the earlier forms of 
oath, but those dating from Henry VIII. 
to the Commonwealth are doubtless recorded 
in a trustworthy manner. R. S. B. 

[8. Many oaths of old City officials are included 
by Dr. R. B. Sharpe in the valuable Calendars of 
Letter-Books edited by him for the Corporation. 

14(d). Licences to midwives have been discussed 
at some length in ' N. & Q.' ; see 9 S. v. 475 ; 
vi. 9, 177, 274, 336, 438 ; vii. 31, 197, 352.] 

* The print is blurred here, and this may not 
be the word. 


(See 9 S. vii. 388, 516j viii. 232.) 

I MAY supplement the books on these sub- 
jects supplied at the second and third refer- 
ences by the following : 

The Book of Good Maners. Fynysshed and 
translated out of frensshe in to Englisshe the 
viij day of Juyn the yere of our Lord M.iiii c lxxvj, 
and the first yere of the regne of kyng harry the 
vij. And enprynted the xj day of Maye after 
. . . .[1487], (made and compiled by the Venerable 
Frere Jaques le Graunt). Folio. Ames's ' Typog. 
Antiq.,' 1810, vol. i. p. 263. 

The Book of the Courtier, by Count Baldassar 
Castiglione (1478-1529). 

The original edition is a small folio by Aldus 
in his best Roman type in 1528. At least 
fifty Italian editions appeared before the 
end of the century, and the work was soon 
popular in every European language. The 
English translation by Sir Thomas Hoby 
in 1577 had so much influence on Elizabethan 
literature that Prof. Raleigh goes so far as 
to call it " the book that made Shakespeare 
possible n (Morning Post, 13 June, 1903). 

II Perfetto Maestro di Casa [in early Italian 
households the superintendent of all domestic 
details and the comptroller of the estate], i quali 
contengono una esatta instruttione per 1' ufficio 
di ciracun Ministro, e Cortegiano di quanto 
appartiene all' Economia anche nelle cose minime, 
e nel conseguire le dignita di Vesconati, Proto- 
notarii, Apostolici, Auditor di Rota, Chierico di 
Camera, &c., by Francesco Liberati. Home, 1668. 

Galateo ; or, Treatise of the Manners and 
Behaviours it behoveth a Man to use and 
eschewe in his familiar conversation, a worke very 
necessary and profitable for all Gentlemen. 
First written in Italian by Giovanni della Casa. 
Now done into English by B. Peterson of 
Lincolnes Inne. Small 4 to. 
A faithful reproduction of the original of 
1576. edited by H. J. Reid, with Introduction, 
1576-1892. Only 100 copies privately printed 
on hand-made paper. 

The Myrrour of good Maners., &c., translate 
into englysshe, &c., by Alexander Bercley, preste, 
&c. " Here begynnyth a ryght frutefull treatyse, 
intitulydthemyrrour of good maners, conteynyng 
the iiii vertues callyd cardynall." London, (1523 ?) 

The Ideal of a Gentleman ; or, a Mirror for 
Gentlefolks : a Portrayal in Literature from the 
Earliest Times. By A. Srnythe Palmer, D.D. 
Boutledge & Sons, 1908. 

The Habits of Good Society. London, James 
Hogg & Sons, circa 1860-69. 

The Laws and Bye-Laws of Good Society. 
Lockwood & Co., circa 1869. 

Books on Etiquette. Globe " turnover " (date 

8 The Art of Going. Globe, 3 Sept., 1902. 
Table Manners. Globe, 16 March, 1903. 
Courtesy. Globe, 3 Feb., 1904. 

n s. i. JAN. 29, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The Omnibus as a School of Manners. Leisure 
Hour, Feb., 1886. 

Conduct in Omnibuses. Queen, 26 Dec., 1903. 

Chastisement des Dames. By Robert of Blois. 
Notice in Gentleman's Magazine, circa June, 

Salutations. Home Circle, 10 Jan., 1852, p. 29. 

Etiquette of Riding. Live Stock, Oct. or Nov., 

Austrian Politeness. Cornhill, Nov., 1866. 

Good Society : a Complete Manual of Manners. 
By the Right Hon. the Countess of ********. 
Routledge & Sons, 1869. 

French Manners forFourpence. Queen, 10 Nov. 

Dutch Etiquette. Leisure Hour, Feb., 1882. 

The Sins of Etiquette. By " Rita, 1 ' Daily 
Mail, 26 May, 1904. 

Men's Manners. By " Au Fait," Queen, 
2 Jan. 1904. 

The Etiquette of Evening Dress. By " Au 
Fait," Queen, 21 Nov., 1903. 

Man and his Manners. By the Hon. Mrs. R. 
Erskine, Court Journal, 16 Jan., 1904. 

Holiday Fiction : Is the Englishman rude 
when Abroad ? Daily Mail, 26 Aug., 1902. 

Our Bad Manners, Ibid., 17 Dec., 1904. 

Mixing in Society. By the Right Hon. the 
Countess (Longmans ?). 


The difference between royal manners 
during the first half of the nineteenth century, 
and those happily in vogue now, is curiously 
illustrated in the memoirs of the former 
period. Thus Raikes, writing in his diary 
under date of Friday, 13 June, 1834, residing 
in Paris, says : 

Mrs. D. [i.e. Darner, then visiting Paris] 

showed me a letter from , which says 

' I went, yesterday, with their Majesties to the 
private exhibition at Somerset House. We were 
received by the president of the Royal Society, 
who, among other portraits, pointed out to the 
King that of Admiral Napier, who has been com- 
n i. n\ding the fleet for Don Pedro. His Majesty 
did not hesitate to show his political bias on this 
occasion by exclaiming immediately, ' Capt. 
Napier may be d d, sir, and you may be d d, 
sir ; and if the Queen was not here, sir, I would 
kick you down stairs, sir ! ' ' 

At this time Don Pedro and Don Miguel 
were fighting for the Portuguese crown, and 
Don Carlos was fighting for the Spanish 
crown, and was against Don Pedro, while 
England and France secretly assisted Don 
Pedro, for political reasons. But Don Pedro 
showed no gratitude to England for its help, 
and favoured other Powers. William IV. 
had been bred up a sailor, without any 
reasonable prospect of the throne, which 
may account for his style assimilating to 
that of his great admiral. See ' Journal of 
Thomas Raikes, 1831 to 1847, 1 vol. i., 1858, 
V- 147. L. M. R. 

TEENTH CENTURY. A curious light i& 
thrown- on the manners and customs of this 
period by the recently published journal 
by Mrs. Thrale of her tour in Wales with 
Dr. Johnson in 1774. For instance, when 
she meets, in a country house near Bangor, 
For the first time " a company of genuine 
Welch folks,' 1 although she cannot boast 
the elegance of the society," she is con- 
strained to admit, " The men, however, were 
not drunk, nor the women inclined to dis- 
jrace themselves.'* At another entertain- 
ment in the same neighbourhood, while there 
was " obstreperous merriment among the 
men," Mrs. Thrale records that she saw 
none of them drunk when they came to tea r 
after which " we all returned home in very 
good time as could be, the servants sober 
and the mistress too. I wondered ! ? ' 

On their way back to London the party 
stopped a night with Burke at Beaconsfield, 
where a very different state of matters was 
found. An old Mr. Lowndes, who dined 
with them, " got very drunk, talking 
politics with Will Burke and my master 
after dinner " ; while Edmund Burke and 
Lord Verney, who had been out election- 
eering, came home at night " very much 
flustered with liquor. n This leads the 
journalist to remark that she 

" had spent three months from home among: 
dunces of all ranks and sorts, but had never seen 
a man drxink till I came among the Wits. This- 
was accidental indeed, but what of that ? It 
was so." 

See * Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale,' by A. M. 
Broadley, pp. 189, 192, and 217. The book y 
published by Mr. John Lane, is dated 19l6 
on the title-page, though included in the 
' List of New Books ? in The Athenceum of 
27 Nov., 1909. T. F. D. 


It is curious that this name of the hero of 
Scott's ' Rob Roy ' is accented on the second 
syllable (Os-bal'dis-tone) in ' The Cyclopaedia 
of Names.' The name is genuine it is- 
derived from a township in Lancashire 
and the stress is on the first and third 
syllables (Os'bal-dis'tone). The same is the 
case with Barnardiston, Chelmondiston T 
and others of the same type. There is no 
tendency to shift the stress, but, as with most 
long and unmanageable names in English, 
they may be abbreviated. I have met 
with a case of Osbaldistone being cut down 
to Osboston ; and Chelmondiston is some- 
times called Chimston. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 20, 1910. 

most recent and highest historical authorities 
give varying dates for the death of Crom- 
well's son-in-law. 

Prof. Gardiner says : 

" On November 7 [1651] Ireton died, a victim 
to the self-abnegation which refused to spare 
the body in the service of his country." ' History 
of the Commonwealth and Protectorate,' vol. ii. 
p. 38. 

Prof. Firth says : 

" Immoderate labours and neglect of his own 
health produced their natural result, and after 
the capture of Limerick, Ireton caught the pre- 
vailing fever and died on 26 Nov., 1651." 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' vol. xxix. 
p. 41. 

For historic accuracy it may be useful 
to point out this discrepancy, so that the 
correct date may be inserted in any later 
issue. R. B. 


ing of " function " mentioned in the ' N.E.D.' 
under 5 b, "a public ceremony ; a social 
or festive meeting conducted with form 
and ceremony,'' and there ascribed tenta- 
tively to Spanish origin, I have come across 
lately in French, viz., the translation of 
Casanova's ' Memoirs,' Paris, Garnier 
Freres, tome iii. p. 148 : " II y a six mois .... 
que, me trouvant avec notre consul M. 
Smith, avec lequel j'avais ete voir je ne 
sais plus quelle f one t ion. . . ." 

I have never seen the word so used in that 
language. G. KRUEGER. 


LITERATURE.' The position taken up by 
Thomas Love Peacock as regards his lite- 
rary contemporaries is well known to readers 
of his works. Every novel contains allu- 
sions to them ; but it is sometimes difficult 
to discover the various writers who are 
castigated, under different names, by his 
ridicule and sarcasm. Dr. Garnett and other 
critics have supplied Us with considerable 
help in this direction, and with their aid it 
is often an easy matter to unravel the veiled 
references to contemporary persons, fads, 
and prejudices which are so frequent in 
Peacock's tales that they might almost 
be said to constitute them. There is in 
existence, however, an unpublished essay 
which contains an expression of many of 
the views and ideas that are to be found in 
the novels. It is entitled ' An Essay on 
Fashionable Literature,' and is included in 
vol. 36815 of the manuscripts in the British 

Museum. In a small compass many of 
Peacock's bugbears such as universities, 
parsons, Scotchmen, periodical literature, 
and the like are lucidly explained, and, 
since everybody and everything is men- 
tioned by name, the essay is invaluable 
as a commentary on its writer's novels. 

One instance of this may be given. The 
criticism of The Quarterly Review and The 
Edinburgh, which began with his first 
novel, ' Headlong Hall, ? and ended with the 
last, ' Gryll Grange, l is here supplemented 
by remarks that remove all doubt as to 
his opinions and sentiments concerning these 
two journals. 

The last part of the essay is singular. It 
contains a long defence of Coleridge's 
' Christabel * and ' Kubla Khan,' and a 
bitter attack on Moore's adverse criticism 
of them in The Edinburgh Review, That 
Peacock should uphold the very poems he 
covered with ridicule in ' Nightmare Abbey ' 
is indeed surprising. On the other hand, 
his dislike to Moore is nothing new, since 
we know that a contribution of Peacock 
to The Westminster Review on 'The Epi- 
curean'- led Moore to publish in The 
Times the poem entitled ' The Ghost of 
Miltiades,' a censure of the editor, Sir John 
Bowring, for having inserted the article 
in his magazine. Moore afterwards at- 
tempted, as a result of this incident, to 
provoke Bowring to a duel, but the latter 
appears to have succeeded at last in pacifying 
him. A. B. YOUNG. 

plants, some human families seem to have 
a limited initial stock of vitality, which 
gradually exhausts itself, and which the 
crossing at each generation does not fully 
restore ; but the falling below reproduction 
point often comes as an apparently sudden 
break. A striking instance of this may 
interest others, as it did me when I came 
upon it twenty years ago. Searching for 
the family of Cowper's Lady Austin (which 
I did not find), I found her husband's, as 
follows : 

William Austin or Austen, of Heronden 
and Tenterden in Kent, had as eldest of 
,six children Robert, created baronet 1660, 
who passed the title down through John, 
Robert 2nd, and Robert 3rd (eldest of five), 
all three living at Hall Place, Bexley. The 
last-named and his two brothers died 
without issue, two of them, 1743-54, and 
the title passed to a younger branch, a 
great -grandson of the first Robert by a 
second son, holding Tenterden ; who and 

ii s. i. J AS . 29, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


whose two brothers, of four children, also 
died without issue, 1761-72 (the last being 
the husband of Cowper's friend), and the 
manor house was sold for a girls' boarding- 
school. The sister of the last three had but 
one child living to maturity, a daughter, 
who had but two children. I do not know 
the fortunes of the two sisters of the elder 
branch ; but the male line of both had been 
utterly wiped out in one generation, by the 
deaths childless of six brothers of two 
well-separated lines, five at least coming 
to maturity and successively inheriting the 
title. This curious and sudden failure of 
vitality in the male and at least part of the 
female strain was not due to environment, 
for the two branches lived a good distance 
apart ; and it can hardly have been the result 
of war or accident. I do not know whether all 
the males married ; but if not, the argument 
does not lose much of its force. 

Hartford, Conn. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" TALLY." Will any one who can explain 
tally as formerly used in certain card games, 
like faro and basset, send an explanation to 
me at Oxford. 

I wish also to learn about French tailler, 
taille, similarly used. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

VERDANT GREEN IN 1744. In reading a 
letter of the date 1744 I came across the 
name Verdant Green as a familiar allusion. 
Can anybody help me to discover who or 
what this prototype of Cuthbert Bede's 
famous character was ? JOHN MURRAY. 

50, Albemarle Street, W. 

WARLY LETTERS. On 4 Jan., 1870, a sale 
was held at Canterbury of the contents of 
what was known as the Church House, 
formerly belonging to the families of Oxenden 
and Warly. Although there is no express 
mention of any private letters amongst the 
lots, there may have been some. I am 
anxious to trace any letters of John and Mary 
Warly and Lee Warly their son (1700-1800), 
and shall be much obliged if any of your 
readers who possess such letters will com- 
municate with me. HENRY R. PLOMER. 
44, Crownhill Road, Willesden, N.W. 

the earliest use of the phrase " to stand 
for Parliament " ? I find it in a letter of 
20 Feb., 1678/9, mentioning a " Mr. Finch, 
who stands to be parliament man for this 
University [Oxford] " ; and again in one of 
8 Feb., 1685/6 written by the recipient of 
the other advising a friend to " stand for 
the county " (Historical Manuscripts Com- 
mission, * Report on the MSS. of the Earl of 
Egmont,' vol. ii. pp. 79, 179). 


any one who is versed in the works of old 
dramatists tell me what play is referred to 
by Beckford in Letter II. of ' Thoughts on 
Hunting * (1781) when he says " like Master 
Stephen in the play, first buy a hawk, and 
then hunt after a book to keep it by n ? 

E. D. C. 

SIR HENRY AUDLEY. Will some reader 
kindly inform me whether Sir Henry Audley, 
elder son of John, Earl of Warwick, after- 
wards Duke of Northumberland, was exe- 
cuted for high treason ? If so, was it for 
complicity in Sir Thomas Wyatt's plot or on 
some other charge ? John, Earl of Warwick, 
had thirteen children, of whom two were 
named Henry and two Katherine. The 
younger Henry was killed at the siege of 

find the best account of Eastern Europe at 
the time of the battle of Mohacs and im- 
mediately after, when the greater part of 
Hungary became a province of the Ottoman 
empire ? I have been reading a drama in the 
Croatian language called ' Frankopan,' by 
Mirko Bogovic, and should like to see how 
the facts appear in the more sober light of 
history. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

TURY. What was the significance of the 
columbine flower in Great Britain in the 
sixteenth century, and what families in 
England or Scotland used it as a device or 
badge ? MARY F. S. HERVEY. 

22, Morpeth Mansions, S.W. 

Cemetery there is a marble tablet recording 
the births and deaths of several of this 
family among others, Lucille, the wife of 
Richard Fishwick (who died in 1855, aged 
88 years), and John her son (born in 1804, died 
in 1846). At the time of his death he was 
living in Canonbury Terrace, Islington, and 
had an office in Laurence Pountney. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. i. JAN. 29, 1910. 

For a purely genealogical reason I should 
be glad to have the address of any member 
of tfris family. A sister of John died as 
recently as 1884. Please reply direct. 


The Heights, Rochdale. 

Can any of your readers tell me where to 
find the ballad in which the following verse 
occurs ? 

For sair the English bowmen galled 
The van that ungeared stood ; 
Nae thirsty shafts e'en reached the earth 
Unstained in [Scottish blood. 

It is quoted without reference in Mr. 
Bradley' s - ' Romance of Northumberland, 5 
and refers, he states, to the Border fight of 
Homilton or Humbledon Hill. I have 
searched for it in vain in the Percy 
* Reliques l and in Scott's * Minstrelsy of 
the Scottish Border.' I. M. L. 

In what poem of Byron's are the following 
lines to be found ? 

He who first met the Highland's swelling blue 
Will love each peak that owns a kindred hue. 

They are included in Sheridan Knowles's 
' Elocutionist/ but I cannot trace them 
in my copy of Byron. J. TRUMAN. 

Combe Martin, N. Devon. 

Narrative of the Life of John Forster, of 
Wintringham, in the County of Lincoln, 
written by himself," Colchester (1810), 
p. 9, I find the following curious passage : 

"As my way lay by the church, and the people 
were assembled, curiosity tempted me to go in ; 
the minister was in his sermon, but instead or being 
a hearer, I became a spectator, and was censorious 
enough to fancy that he was more desirous of 
amusing himself with a nosegay he held in his hand 
than of benefiting his congregation." 

The date would be about 1760. As the 
writer had walked from Wintringham 
" about six miles/ 1 the place would probably 
be either Appleby or Burton Stather. 

Was it at all usual for ministers thus to 
amuse themselves (and their congregations) 
with a nosegay ? J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

MAN. Can any one inform me as to the 
identity and family connexions of this lady, 
whose portrait was made by John Downman 
in 1793 original in the British Museum ? 


Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, S.W. 

LONDON VISITATIONS. Is there any pro- 
spect of the publication by the Harleian 
Society, within the next couple of years or 
so, of the London Visitations of 1664 and 
1687 ? 

It seems a little singular that the earlier 
of these Visitations, containing as it pre- 
sumably does a complete record of the 
gentry of the City immediately before the 
Plague and Fire, has not yet been printed. 

W. McM. 

I desire confirmation of De Quincey's- 
statement, in the ' Confessions, 2 that Dryden 
and Fuseli ate raw meat to obtain splendid 
dreams. V. H. C. 

" LE WHACOK." Where was this sign 
(which I find mentioned in a London will 
of 1404) situated ? What is the meaning 
of the name ? Whence is the derivation ? 
Was it an inn ? WILLIAM McMuRRAY. 

is the origin of the expression " altes Haus, 
fideles Haus''^ ( = old fellow), used by 
German students ? Why " Haus " ? 

J. R. C. H. 

COWES, ISLE OF WIGHT. The origin of the 
name of Cowes has never yet been satis- 
factorily decided. The suggestions that it 
was derived from two coves (which are non- 
existent) ; from the number of cows who 
once frequented a well on the site of the 
present town ; or from two great guns 
placed on the two castles built by Henry 
VIII., " which did roar '* from opposite sides 
of the Medina, do not appear convincing. 

I am anxious, therefore, to appeal to 
students of the early language of our islands 
for information as to whether the place- 
name " Cowse " is known to them as describ- 
ing a wooded shore. 

In a recent number of Lake's Falmouth 
Paper I find a few ancient Cornish names 
and places extracted from ' The History of 
Cornwall, by Fortescue Hitchens. Amongst 
these I have been struck by the following 
paragraph : 

'"The Grey Rock on the Wood.' The name for 
St. Michael's Mount when what is now Mount s 
Say is said to have been covered with forests.^ In 
ancient Cornish it was ' Caraclowse-in-Cowse.' ' 

Now we know that ancient woods covered 
the shores of the Medina and of the Solent ; 
and vestiges of these woods remain in the 
form of copses all the way from Newport 
down both sides of the river, and westward 
on the Solent shores. 

n s. i. JAN. 29, i9io.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Is it possible that this wooded harbour 
was known as " Cowse " by the early British 
inhabitants ? and has its name lingered on 
in spite of the very strong invasion of the 
Jutes, whose long occupation would seem 
to have swamped all or nearly all the trace 
of the earlier islanders ? 

Probably there are few places in Englanc 
where the influence of but one race and on 
tongue is so strong, and where so very littl 
of the Celt, and so much of the Saxon, can 
be noted as having blended in the word 
and the ways of the people. But there ar 
at least two place-names suggestive of th 
earlier language, and it has seemed to mi 
possible that the wooded harbour where 
no Saxon or Jutish settlement was formed 
where, in fact, no village stood till the six 
teenth century may therefore have kep 
its ancient name. 

I should be very grateful if any one 
conversant with the subject would consider 
the question, for it appears to me that the 
fact of the same name Cowes being appliec 
to the two towns on the banks of the rive 
favours the suggestion that if " Cowse ' 
means a wooded harbour, it would applj, 
equally to both shores, as laoth were thickly 

In any case, it seems somewhat remarkable 
that a town which sprang into being under 
Henry VIII. should bear a name of which 
the origin and meaning are entirely unknown 
to local historians, whose guesses are more 
amusing than convincing. Y. T. 

Baedeker's ' Paris,'- this square first received 
its name in 1795, it having been known since 
1792 as the Place de la Revolution. It can 
hardly be supposed that the former designa- 
tion was bestowed by its authors, whoever 
they were, out of regard for any principles 
of harmony or solidarity which actuated 
their minds at such a time. It was there 
that Louis XVI., Marie Antoinette, Danton, 
and most of the revolutionary victims 
suffered death. It was also the scene of the 
pitched battle between the heroic Swiss 
guards and the rabble of Paris, when the 
latter made themselves masters of the 
Tuileries. Is it known who gave the place 
its present name, and why ? I have a 
lurking suspicion that the appellation was 
chosen as being one of good omen for the 
ultimate success of the republic, subsequent 
to the aforesaid struggle, in memory of the 
engagement at Concord, Massachusetts 
not to be confounded with Concord, New 

Hampshire in 1775, which was the first 
occasion on which the American colonists 
successfully opposed the British soldiery, 
whom they, by virtue of their superior skill 
as marksmen, drove back through Lexing- 
ton into Boston. 

The title " Comite du Salut public >l is 
obviously imitated from the American 
Committees of Safety, formed in the Ame- 
rican colonies in 1774, the Boston Committee 
being particularly conspicuous at the era 
of the Stamp Act in opposing British rule 
and raising the first army equipped by the 
colonists. Hence it seems likely that the 
famous Parisian square owes its name, 
primarily or secondarily, to the occasion of 
the firing of " the shot heard round the 
world " at the Concord river. If so, it is a 
compliment to the American people that has 
hitherto escaped the notice of the historian. 
It is to be hoped that the matter can be 
satisfactorily cleared up. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

[There is no ground for our American corre- 
spondent's suggestion. After the Terror, concord 
was the order of the day.] 

is the origin of the proverb about Mohammed 
and the mountain ? V. H. C. 

By whom was this saying originated ? 
The directors of the Bank of England were 
so called by William Cobbett, but I am told 
the saying has been also attributed to 
Sheridan. W. B. C. 

[The earliest instance in Farmer and Henley's 

Slang and its Analogues,' vol. v., is 1797, Gillray's 

caricature 'The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street 

n Danger.' This use seems to imply that the term 

was already familiar.] 

'ould any of your readers inform me whether, 
ind if so, where, the registers of admissions 
>f members of Lyon's Inn, the old Strand 
nn of Chancery pulled down in 1863, are 
>reserved ? As they are in neither the 
nner nor Middle Temple, I presume that 
hey are in private ownership. Is this so ? 
Russell House, West Kensington Gardens. 

DR. THOMAS BRAY. Is it known where 
lie Rev. Thomas Bray, D.D. (founder of the 
ociety for the Propagation of the Gospel), is 
uried ? The date of his death is given 
s 15 Feb., 1729/30, but two or three bio- 
Taphies I have seen do not mention the 
lace of burial. GEORGE SMITH. 

8, Streatham Common, S.W. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 29, 1910. 


(10 S. xii. 428, 511.) 

I AM obliged to Mr. SCOTT for his answer, 
although it does not give the information as 
to where Blades makes the statement that 
Watson's ' History of Printing ' was a 
translation of the French author, J. de la 
Caille. His ' Pentateuch of Printing ' is not 
the book. I suspect that the statement 
may have been made in a ' Bibliography 
of Printing * which Blades contributed to 
The British and Colonial Printer about 1875, 
but I have no means here of consulting the 

In regard to the further question of the 
authorship of the Preface to the ' History,' 
MB. SCOTT says I '* appear to have no 
doubt " that it was Watson's. Well, in this 
case appearances are deceptive, for I do not 
know. All I know is that Watson has been 
credited with the authorship, and that it has 
also been assigned to John Spottiswood, his 
contemporary and law-agent. For that 
matter, the other book usually ascribed to 
Watson the ' Choice Selections - has also 
been handed over to Spottiswood. The 
title-page of the ' History * is quite explicit : 
it speaks of " A Preface by the Publisher," 
and Watson's name appears below as 
publisher. The newspaper advertisement 
which he sent out on the day in 1713 when 
the ' History ' was ready has the same phrase. 
In his ' History of Edinburgh ' (1788) Hugo 
Arnot, who is fairly accurate in his references 
to bibliography, wrote of " young Watson, 
author of the ' History of Printing ' " 
(p. 437). The Editor of the Spottiswood 
Club Miscellany, Vol. I., who contributed 
a short life of Spottiswood to that volume 
(pp. 229-32), in which he gives a list of the 
latter's works, seems to know nothing of his 
authorship of the Preface. 

So far as I can trace, the first who made 
the definite assertion that Spottiswood 
was the writer was George Paton, the 
Edinburgh antiquary, and he did so about 
the beginning of the last century a hundred 
years after the book had appeared. He gives 
no proof. If it could be shown that Dr. 
David Laing referred to a claim by Spottis- 
wood himself, the question would probably be 
considered settled. One or two additional 
facts will appear in a paper on Watson in the 
forthcoming number of The Scottish Historical 

If Paton' s story is not a myth, it has one 
of the prime qualities of a myth : it grows as 
it goes. Messrs. Bigmore and Wyman in 
their ' Bibliography of Printing * (Quaritch, 
1886) say : " The didactic part, as stated in 
the preface, was written by John Spottis- 
woode, translated from a celebrated French 
writer." The meaning of the sentence is 
hard to discover, and shows considerable 
confusion of mind, but it is needless to say 
tihat the Preface makes no such statement. 

Bohn's edition of Lowndes has also a 
curious item in reference to the book. 
Among the sales at which copies were dis- 
posed of it notes " Bright, 5960, 5s. Large 
Paper. Roxburghe, Suppl., 650, II. 10s." 
It is impossible from the punctuation to say 
whether it was at the Bright or Roxburghe 
Sale this so-called large-paper copy was sold. 
Was there ever a large -paper copy ? No 
mention of such an issue is made in the 
original advertisement ; and I have never 
seen or heard of one, nor even of a second 
edition of the book. Has any one ? And 
to what does the Bohn entry refer ? 



' SHOBT WHIST,' BY MA JOB A. (10 S. xii. 
264, 318, 357). I was the first to disclose, 
in the ' Handbook of Fictitious Names,' 
1868, the fact that Major A***** was C. B. 
Coles, and but for that it is probable the 
name of the compiler would be still un- 
known to the public. It is satisfactory to 
have the fact confirmed at the last reference 
by a living authority. But if Coles had not 
been the author, surely he would have 
repudiated such a piece of plagiarism as is 
disclosed in my ' Handbook.' 

In 1868 C. B. Coles was a mere name to me, 
and only lately have I found the date of his 
death and some particulars about him in 
searching for Mr. Boase, in whose ' Modern 
English Biography,' vol. iv., the facts 
then known about him will be found. 
But these facts were all on the assumption 
that "C. B." and " Charles Barwell u were 

His name, with initials only, is in Halkett 
and Laing from my ' Handbook.' In 1882 
the first volume of the Catalogue of our 
National Library was published, and in 
that the Christian name is given in full, 
on what authority I do not know. Until 
MB. NICHOLSON'S reply there has been no 
authoritative confirmation or identification 
of C. B. Coles with Charles Barwell Coles. 
What induces me to observe on this is that 

ii s. i. JAN. 29, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


there is another (unless indeed he was the 
same) C. B. C., as is shown in the list of 
works below. 

If we reckon from Coles' s age, which is 
given in The Times, 1 Dec., 1874, in the 
announcement of his death, as ninety-one, 
he was born in 1783. It would be interest- 
ing to know where Coles was born and the 
exact date of his birth. 

From the heading of one of his poems 
on p. 46 of ' The Discarded Son ' Mr. W. P. 
Courtney (' English Whist,' p. 371) infers 
that Coles was educated at Winchester. 
His name is not in Kirby's list of " scholars *': 
it is on the College Register, but the autho- 
rities have no information about him. His 
books testify to his having received a good 
education, and his poem shows he was 
inclined to versify from boyhood. 

He was in the 7th Dragoon Guards, and 
was gazetted cornet 5 Jan., 1805, and 
lieutenant, without purchase, 5 June, 1806 
(London Gazette}. His name is in the 
1 Army List ' for 1810 for the last time. I 
am unable to find anymention of his leaving ; 
if it is in The London Gazette, the fact is not 

As there are some inaccuracies in previous 
notes, I will name his publications that are 
at present known, with further information. 

1. The Discarded Son, a tale, and other rhymes. 
By Charles Barwell Coles, Esq. London, Thomas 
Boys, 1823. 12mo, pp. 12 and 50. 

This is dedicated to his mother. It forms 
one volume only, and is autonymous. 

2. Hints of a Plan to remedy the Evils of the 

Poor Laws in answer to Thomas Walker, by 

C. B. C. London, Effingham Wilson, 1834. 12mo, 
1>1). 12. 

This C. B. C. wrote a letter to The Times, 
published 11 July, 1833; p. 6, entitled 
* Poor Rates,' which he signed " Charles 
Close." Perhaps some confirmation of this 
being by Coles might be found among the 
books he left. 

3. The next known is the ' Short Whist,' 
1835, published as by Major A*****, which 
might be a mask for the author's real name. 
As I have said, it was a plagiarism, and 
further a supercherie as to the name ; 
nevertheless it brought him in a small 
annuity. None of his really original pub- 
lications ever reached a second edition. 
The sixteenth, and last, edition of ' Short 
Whist,' in 1865, was provided with an essay 
by Prof. Pole. I have commented some- 
what severely on this in the ' Handbook. 1 

The tendency of Coles's publications is 
educational and excellent, and after reading 

them I certainly had very great doubts 
that he could have been a party to issuing 
a book under the name of a dead man. The 
five asterisks after the A. clearly show that 
a name of six letters was intended, and not 

As to Major Aubrey, I have the following 
among my notes from Thomas Raikes's 
' Journal,' 1858, vol. i. p. 49. On 26 Aug., 

"died Col. Aubrey, aged seventy-six: the deepest 
gambler and the best whist and piquet player of his 
day. He had passed through various vicissitudes 
of wealth and poverty comme de raison. He made 
two fortunes in India, which he successively lost ; 
he then made a third at play from five pounds 
which he borrowed, and at last died in very meagre 

4. Hints on Life and how to Rise in Society. By 
C. B.C. Amicus. London, Longmans, 1845. 12mo, 
pp. 4 and 42. 

This has a highly finished frontispiece 
etched by John Leech. 

As shown above, this book is pseudo- 
nymous, and not anonymous. This makes a 
great difference, for a person looking for it 
as anonymous under ' Hints l would be 
unable to find it, and, if told simply that 
it was pseudonymous, would not attempt 
to look for it. It is under Amicus in the 
B.M. Catalogue, and the author's name is 
not known there. Coles was then sixty, 
so should have been fully qualified to give 
the excellent advice he does in this little 

5. The next book will be the short history 
of Russia mentioned by MB. NICHOLSON, 
who will do a literary service by forwarding 
to ' N. & Q.' an exact copy of the title of 
this book, and, if there is no author's name, 
stating if there is any to the preface or 
elsewhere. It is impossible to identify the 
book among the numbers of such that were 
issued during the Crimean War. 

6. Tea, a poem. London, Longmans, 1865. 12mo, 
pp. 4 and 45. Price one shilling. 

This is autonymous. 

There is no mention in any of these 
works that Coles published any other book. 

Coles died at a pension or boarding-house, 
No. 2, Cite Odiot, Paris, on 28 Nov., 1874. 

I will now give some extracts from his 
last testament, as there is so much of his 
biography to be learnt from it. 

His will, dated 3 Aug., 1864, which is 
very short, with a codicil, snorter still, dated 
11 July, 1868, and a second dated 5 Oct., 
1873, was proved 4 Jan., 1875, as under 
1,500Z. He is described as formerly of 
Alpha Place, St. John's Wood. He leaves 
legacies, among others, to his nephew 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. i. JAN-. 39. 1010. 

Henry Coles, barrister (called to the Bar 
in 1847, and not in ' The Law List s after 

His residuary estate he left to the widow 
of his son Charles James Coles of Port au 
Prince, Hayti, and their daughters. His 
nephew Capt. Cowper Phipps Coles, R.N., 
was appointed by the first codicil executor, 
in the place of the Haytian consul at Liver- 
pool, who had died. As is well known, 
Capt. Coles lost his life, with nearly five 
hundred others, by the capsizing of H.M.S. 
Captain in 1870 (see Boase, ' M.E.B., 3 i. 675). 

The testator left all his MSS. and such 
of his books as he might choose to Cecil 

If it had not been for Mr. Boase requiring 
information, and for the doubts of COL. 
PRIDEAUX (10 S. xii. 204) and MB. E. WALL 
(10 S. xii. 318), most of these facts would 
have remained unknown, perhaps to puzzle 
a future generation. RALPH THOMAS. 

KING'S PLACE (11 S. i. 30, 74). King's 
Place is now known as Pall Mall Place. It 
is next to the Marlborough Club, between 
Nos. 51 and 52 (formerly Nos. 58 and 59). It 
is marked in Horwood's Map of London, 1799. 
The name was changed to Pall Mall Place in 

In Harris's Map of London, 1783, and 
Wallis's Map, 1813, the name of King's 
Place is given apparently in error to an 
alley further west, which in the earlier maps 
as well as in Horwood is called Paved Alley or 
Old Paved Alley. This is now known as 
Crown Court. H. A. HABBEN. 

THBEE CCC COUBT (11 S. i. 31, 74). In 
Ogilby and Morgan's Map of London, 1677, 
there is a court called Three Crown Court, 
leading out of Garlick Hill, nearly opposite 
to Maiden Lane. This is marked in Rocque's 
Map, 1761, as 3 Crown Court. In the map of 
Vintry Ward in Strype's ' Stow,' ed. 1755, 
vol. i. p. 692, it is called Three Shear Court. 
Three Crown Court is also mentioned in 
Dodsley's ' London and its Environs De- 
scribed,' 1761, in ' The Complete Guide ' of 
1758 and 1763, and in ' The New Complete 
Guide * of 1783. All these guides, however, 
mention also Three CCC Court, Garlick Hill ; 
but no court of this name appears to be 
mentioned in Strype or Maitland, or to be 
marked in any map in my possession of the 
eighteenth century. It seems not im- 
probable that Three CCC Court is an abbre- 
viation for Three Crowns, and that the name 
got into Dodsley and ' The Complete Guide ' 
under both descriptions. H. A. HABBEN. 

xii. 509). CONSEBVATIVE can find his quota- 

I am tired of four walls and a ceiling, &c. 
as the opening lines of the late Richard 
Hovey's poem entitled ' Spring,' in ' Along 
the Trail ' (Boston, Small, Maynard & Co., 
1898). I. H. PLATT. 

A. L. O. G.'s seventh quotation (ante, 
p: 50) is to be found in Butler's ' Hudibras,* 
Part I. canto i. 11. 505-6, and should read 

'Tis a dark lanthorn of the Spirit, 
Which none see by but those that bear it. 

Esmond, Egham. 

[PRINCIPAL SALMON also refers to ' Hudibras.'] 

C. asks if any manuscript by a banished 
Covenanter is known to exist. In endeavour- 
ing to reply I may refer to a little bit of 
personal experience, to some extent bearing 
on the point. About seven years ago I had 
an opportunity of looking over several 
mutilated leaves of a manuscript, recovered 
apparently from some rag-merchant's store. 
On examination the sheets proved to be 
written by a Covenanter, whose name the 
mutilated condition of the manuscript 
effectually concealed, who had survived the 
" killing time," and was living in the earlier 
years of the eighteenth century. The MS. 
displayed most of the characteristic features 
of Covenanting literature of the poorer sort, 
being absolutely destitute of literary merit, 
or, as Ruskin phrases it, "of an eternally 
worthless intellectual quality." A very few 
facts (sufficient, however, to determine the 
time of writing) about persons and events 
emerged painfully out of an overwhelming 
flood of pious reflections. The writer 
appeared to have possessed a fatal facility 
in the quotation of Scripture, and a marked 
predilection in polemical moments for the 
language of the *' cursing Psalms." In other 
respects the MS. was valueless. I mention 
the matter merely to prove how, under most 
unfavourable conditions, MSS. may survive 
even from Covenanting times. 

There is no reason to doubt the Rev. 
Robert Simpson's statement that Covenant- 
ing MSS. may still be extant. As a rule, 
the Covenanters were the most intelligent 
persons in the country districts where they 
resided. Many, if not the most of them, 
possessed, or believed themselves to possess, 
a gift of exhortation, which they were never 
slow to exercise when pen and paper were 
convenient. At the same time, it must be 

ii s. i. JA*. 29, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


remembered that the Rev. Robert Simpson's 
assertion applies to a period full sixty years 
ago. Conditions have greatly altered within 
recent years. Covenanting literature is not 
now regarded as a treasure, as it was in 
Simpson's time. It is matter for regret that 
the spirit which animated the ' Sanquhar 
Declaration ' is no longer held in the same 
esteem as formerly, even in districts once 
avowedly Covenanting. 

C.'s allusion to Williamson seems to imply 
fchat he has in view, not only unpublished 
Covenanting MSS., but also such as have 
already found their way into print. If 
this be so, I would venture to recommend 
him, to consult Johnston's ' Treasury of the 
Scottish Covenant, 1 Edinburgh, 1887, in 
which he will find a tolerably complete list 
of tho writings of Covenanters, banished and 
otherwise. It probably includes all Cove- 
nanting literature that is worth the knowing. 
At the same time Wodrow's ' History of the 
Sufferings of the Church of Scotland ' and 
Howie's * Scots Worthies ' will afford not a 
few details in the line of his query. 


" TALLY-HO " (11 S. i. 48). As I ventured 
to suggest in a recently published volume, 
" tally-ho " is probably merely a contraction 
of the old Anglo-Norman cry of " Dans le 
taillis en haut " (" Up in the brushwood"). 
I cannot for a moment believe that the 
French cry of " tai'aut u was derived from our 
English " tally-ho." RALPH NEVILL. 

Some years ago a falconer told me that 
the word in question was derived from 
" est alle en haut,' 1 as applied to a quarry 
which has taken an upward flight. E.G. 

The refrain of the fourth verse of the cele- 
brated old hunting song " A southerly wind 
and a cloudy sky n runs thus : 

Tally-ho ! tally-ho there ! across the green plain ! 
Tally-ho ! tally-ho, boys ! have at him again ! 

When was this song written ? 


MICHAEL MAITTAIBE (11 S. i. 30). The 
day of Maittaire's birth is supplied by his 
' Senilia ' (London, 1742), that volume of 
Latin verse, the title of which may be 
familiar to the English reader through 
Johnson's criticism and Macaulay's essay 
on Croker's * Boswell.' On p. 105 are 
some lines headed " In meum Natalem, 
29 Nov.' 1 EDWARD BENSLY. 

STREETS" (11 S. i. 49). At 9 S. iii. 192 
PROF. SKEAT showed that the first two lines of 
this epitaph must have been taken from the 
anonymous play of ' The Two Noble Kins- 
men ' (Act. I. sc. v.). The editorial note to 
MR. CLEMENT SHORTER' s query gives the 
source of the remaining lines, so when 
the reference in Gay has been supplied, 
the whole of the epitaph will have been 

I have been for some years greatly 
interested in this epitaph, and have collected 
cases of its occurrence in different parts of 
the country. It is contained On one of the 
group of gravestones connected with the 
Banbury family in the churchyard here 
which Sir Frederick Banbury caused to be 
restored in August, 1908. The stone bears 
date 1775, and the lines are : 

This World a City full of Crooked Streets 
Death is the Market place where all Men meet 
If Lite was Merchandise that Men could bye 
The Rich would all ways Live the poor must die. 

I have references with slight variants of 
this epitaph as occurring at Stanwick and 
Ecton, Northamptonshire ; St. Michael's, 
Liverpool ; Chingford, Essex ; Polling, 
Sussex ; Elgin ; Milton, Kent ; Bengeo and 
Hatfield, Herts ; Chard, Somerset ; Stoke, 
Surrey ; White Ladies, Hants ; Hickling, 

See also 9 S. iii. 53, 191, 192, 415. 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

The first two lines of this quatrain occur in 
' The Two Noble Kinsmen,' I. v. 15, 16, in the 
following form : 

This world's a city full of straying streets, 
And death's the market-place, where each one 

In the edition of this play published by 
the New Shakspere Society some instances 
are given, in a note on this passage (p. 131), 
of the use of the lines as an epitaph ; and the 
editor also quotes a fuller version from an 
ancient poem entitled ' The Messenger of 
Mortality, 1 printed in ' Ancient Poems, 
Ballads, and Songs of the Peasantry of 
England, 1 edited by R. Bell, 1857. 


Misquoted from the last two lines of Act I. 
of ' The Two Noble Kinsmen, l by Fletcher 
and another. Possibly suggested by lines 
in Chaucer's ' Knight's Tale,' A. 2487 : 

This world nis but a thurghfare ful of wo, &c. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. i. JAN. 29, mo. 

Mr. Suffling is mistaken in thinking the 
Scottish version of 1689 of the lines to be 
the original. The first two lines of the 
epitaph, which appears to be a composite 
one are slightly varied from the last two 
lines of the first act of ' The Two Noble 
Kinsmen. 1 This play was first printed in 
1634, and, according to the title-page, was 
by " Mr. John Fletcher and Mr. William 
Shakspeare." Authorities differ as to how 
much, or what parts, of the play may be 
attributed to Shakespeare. 

[C. C. B. also thanked for reply.] 

DUN Y (10 S. xii. 510). There is a place 
of this name, a hill, 327 feet high, in the 
island of lona, about half a mile distant from 
the abbey. It is spelt Dun I in ' The 
Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland.' In olden 
times the name lona appears spelt in various 
forms, being sometimes Hii, li, or Hi. In 
Gaelic Y, I, or li means " the island," and 
hence Dun Y will signify " the hill of the 
island." For derivation and meaning of 
lona see Johnston's ' Place-Names of Scot- 
land,' Edinburgh, 1892, p. 140. Nature 
having denied me the privilege of being born 
a Highlander, I am incompetent to enter into 
the question of Gaelic pronunciation. 



LADY'S LAP" (11 S. i. 49). " Prophecies " 
such as these are much to be regretted. They 
grieve the judicious and scare the ignorant. 

Since the change of stvle, and up to 1999, 
the years required are 1785, 1796, 1842, 1853, 
1864, 1910, 1921, and 1932. 

If the " prophet " lived before the change 
of style in 1752, which could neither have 
been foreseen nor allowed for, his or her 
prediction has now been falsified. 


Is not W. F. mistaken in supposing that 
this saying refers to the coincidence of 
Good Friday and 25 March ? It has usually 
been held to apply to the coincidence of 
that date and Easter Day, which last 
occurred in 1894. 

For several variants of the saying, from 
Fuller, Aubrey, and elsewhere, and for a 
long series of dates when Easter Day fell on 
25 March, see 6 S. vii. 200, 206, 209, 252, 
273, 314. G. L. APPERSON. 

The concurrence of the observance of the 
Crucifixion with that of the Conception, 
viz., on 25 March, is less rare than the word- 

I ing of the old saw quoted might lead one to 
suppose. It will recur in 1921 and 1932. 
It has happened about thirty-five times 
since the accession of King Alfred the 
Great. In the fifteenth century it occurred 
in 1407, 1418, 1429, and 1440. There was 
then a long interval, and it did not happen 
again till 1 502. That is the year to which the 
" prophecy " is to be assigned, because 
Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, died on 
2 April, the eighth day after the combined 
observance. ALFRED ANSCOMBE. 

[MR. W. H. JEWITT, L. L. K., and MR. YV. SCOTT 
also thanked for replies.] 

Diss (10 S. xii. 170). The hundred of 
Diss is separated from the county of Suffolk, 
to the south, by the river Waveney ; and is 
bounded on the east by the half hundred of 
Earsham, which abuts upon Suffolk, but 
is not within the boundaries of that county. 
Earsham hundred with that of Diss is said 
to be considered in some records as con- 
stituting one whole hundred. But by 
another division they are reckoned two 
distinct hundreds, comprising the Deanery of 
Redenhall in the Archdeanery of Norfolk. 
In the hundred of Diss are the parishes of 
Brossingham, Barston, Dickleburgh, Diss, 
Fersfield, Gissing, Roydon, Scole, Shelfanger, 
Shimpling, Thelverton, Tivetshall St. Mary, 
and Winfarthing, a small village four miles 
north from Diss, which anciently gave its 
name to the hundred, and still continues to 
enjoy peculiar privileges. From these data 
it would appear that Diss can hardly at any 
time have been included in the hundred of 
Hartismere, which is wholly a Suffolk divi- 
sion. Vide ' The New British Traveller,' by 
James Dugdale, F.S.A., 1819, iii. 603-4, and 

SIR ROBEBT GEFFEBY (11 S. i. 50). The 
Rev. Septimus Buss, who is Chaplain to the 
Ironmongers' Company as well as Rector 
of SS. Anne and Agnes, informs me that 
the Company have in their banqueting hall a 

Sortrait of Geffery (who was Master of the 
ompany in 1667 and 1685), painted by 
Richard Phillips. In the Court Room is also, 
Mr. Buss says, a statuette ; while there is 
at the almshouses in the Kingsland Road 
(Geffery's foundation) a statue of painted 
wood, with a sword, in front of the chapel. 

A portrait of this civic worthy hangs in the 
Court Room at Ironmongers' Hall in Fen- 
church Street ; and a statue of him may also 
still be seen in the central portion of the 
same Company's almshouses in Kingsland 

ii s. i. JAN. 29, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Road, of which he was the founder, and in 
the grounds of which he and his wife now lie 
buried, their remains having been removed 
from the church of St. Dionis Backchurch, in 
Lime Street, when the latter was demolished 
in July, 1878. ALAN STEWART. 

Evans's ' Catalogue of Portraits ' registers 
under 4253 a portrait of this worthy, in his 
robes, chain, &c., as engraved by Trotter. 


(10 S. xii. 467 ; 11 S. i. 31). MR. CLEMENT 
SHORTER'S doubts as to John Wilkes's con- 
nexion with the "Franciscans' 1 of Med- 
menham Abbey rest on no solid foundation. 
In his letter written to Lord Temple in 
1762 Wilkes says : 

" I added that I was come from Medmenham 
Abbey, where the jovial moifks of St. Francis 
had kept me up till four in the morning ; that 
the world would therefore conclude I was drunk, 
and form no favourable opinion of his lordship 
from a duel at such a time." Quoted in ' The 
Poetical Works of Charles Churchill,' London, 
1804, vol. ii. p. 40. 

The writer does not say he had been a 
" guest/' as MR. SHORTER states ; his words 
imply, on the contrary, that he was well 
acquainted with " the brethren,"- and 
furthermore demonstrate the people's opinion 
of them and their doings. In the same 
document Wilkes calls himself " an idle 
man of pleasure." Six years later, 
*' he himself, in his letter on his own public con- 
duct, November, 1768, expresses a hope that 
his political virtue may atone ' for the dissipa- 
tion of too gay a youth.' I am afraid that this 
dissipation scarcely can claim, with fairness, the 
indulgence given to youth. His period of riot was 
certainly not closed (if then) before the year 1764 
a time when, as he was thirty-six years of age, one 
should have thought a man of reflection would 
luive made up his opinions, and a man of resolu- 
tion would at least be beginning to act in con- 
formity to them." 'Memoir of the Life of J. 
Wilkes, Esq.,' which occupies the first volume 
of his 'Letters from the Year 1774 to the Year 
1796, addressed to his Daughter, the late Miss 
Wilkes,' 4 vols. (London, 1804), pp. 128-9. 

The anonymous writer of this ' Memoir/ 
who tries to deal fairly with his subject, 
after condemning Wilkes's joining the 
society of titled libertines, adds : 

" This censure on the conduct of Mr. Wilkes, 
;.s far as it relates to his intimacy with the heroes 
of profligacy and Medmenham Abbey, will not, I 
think, be found too severe, when it is remembered 
that he himself used to speak in terms of utter 
contempt for their capacities and to own that 
no tiling but their condition in. life would have 
induced him to notice them." Ibid., p. 15. 
He is said in a foot-note to have excepted 
Lord Le Despenser, whom he credited with 

" some imagination.'* This nobleman, when 
Sir Francis Dashwood, had much to do 
with the establishment of " the jovial 
monks."- If the Club were really started 
in 1742, it only gained notoriety when " Sir 
Francis Dashwood, Sir Thomas Stapleton, 
Paul Whitehead, Mr. Wilkes, and other 
gentlemen, to the number of twelve, rented 
the abbey, and often retired there in the 
summer.' 1 For a description of their doings 
see Charles Churchill's ' Poetical Works/ 
edited by W. Tooke, vol. ii. pp. 262-3. 

MR. J. CARTON (ante, p. 32) is certainly 
wrong in attributing Tooke' s quotation to 
the pen of Wilkes. It is probably taken 
from one of the books mentioned by MR. 
BLEACKLEY. This edition of the works of 
the Rev. Charles Churchill, whose con- 
nexion with Wilkes did him infinite harm, is 
the best of all, and is enriched with a 
' Memoir ' and many valuable notes on men 
and things. At Medmenham, says the 
author of the ' Life * prefixed to his letters 
to his daughter, " it was acknowledged 
without reserve that he [Wilkes] was the 
master-soul of the party, the life of the 
revel '-' (p. 17). It was there, says the same 
writer, that he composed his * Essay on 
Woman,' " the produce of the hours wasted 
in the society of Medmenham Abbey '* 
(p. 48). 

This collection of letters, addressed to his 
" dearest Polly,"' shows Wilkes's character 
better than all else I have read about him, 
and convinces me of the truth of what 
Macaulay has so admirably said in his 
essay on ' The Earl of Chatham ' : 

" John Wilkes, member of Parliament for Ayles- 
bury, was singled out for persecution. Wilkes 
had, till very lately, been known chiefly as one 
of the most profane, licentious, and agreeable 
rakes about town. He was a man of taste, 
reading, and engaging manners. His sprightly 
conversation was the delight of green-rooms 
and taverns, and pleased even grave hearers 
when he was sufficiently under restraint to abstain 
from detailing the particulars of his amours and 
from breaking jokes on the New Testament." 

From his letters to his daughter examples 
might be given of his disregard of morality. 
As to his jests on the New Testament, 
Letter LXXV (vol. ii. pp. 180-81) is a sample. 
When this epistle was composed Wilkes 
was fifty-two years of age, while his daughter 
was only twenty-three. JOHN T. CURRY. 

No investigator of the subject should fail 
to consult C. W. Dilke's ' Papers of a 
Critic, 1 especially the references to Wilkes. 
Unfortunately, the index to the work is far 
from complete. NEL MEZZO. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. JAN. 29, 1910. 

WALSH SURNAME (10 S. xii. 446; 11 S. 
i. 53). At the latter reference an entirely 
new subject is started. There is no need 
for your correspondent to make up new 
phonetic laws for the Aryan group of 
languages, especially as we all of us know 
that the Greek for " eight " does not contain 
X, but has K. And the reason why Sanskrit 
has h for gh in the word for " daughter " is 
simply because the word once began with dh. 

The work is already done to hand, without sentences 
such singular errors. The name of the 
book is Karl Brugmann's ' Gnmdriss der 
vergleichenden Grammatik der indogerman- 
ischen Sprachen.'- WALTER W. SKEAT. 

I regret that in my reply the Greek words 
OKTW and /cAi'Tos were spelt with \ instead of K. 
I intended the ^-spellings to represent hypo- 
thetical forms. V. CHATTOPADHYAYA. 

51, Ladbroke Road, W. 

LADY \VORSLEY (10 S. xii. 409 ; 11 S. i. 
14, 58). In answer to C. H. G. I beg to state 
that I copied the epitaph on the notorious 
Lady Worsley from the seventh edition of 
' The Abbey of Kilkhampton,'- which bears 
the date of 1780. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

"FRANKLIN" (10 S. xii. 107, 270, 370, 492). 
MR. MACMICHAEL has missed the signific- 
ance of Lowell's " shiver n and of the ad- 
jective in ' ' franklin clean." There is nothing 
about a stuffed bird that need cause a shiver. 
But a stove on a cold day, clean and polished 
bright, does cause a shiver, which is added 
to by the " bushed asparagus n in the place 
where there ought to be a fire. 

My statement to which MR. MACMICHAEL 
takes exception namely, that "it is pretty 
safe to assume that such a use of the wore 
[i.e. " franklin ll for "godwit"] is unknown 
in this country " may be incorrect, but i 
was not made at random. Halliwell's exac 
words are : " Frankline. The bird godwit 
(Span.).' 2 Halliwell gives no example o 
the word ; it is not recognized in the ' N.E.D. 
in the ' E.D.D.,' in ' The Century Dictionary, 
or in ' Webster's International Dictionary 1 
and it will be sought for in vain in Newton' 
'Dictionary of Birds ? (1893-6), in Baird 
Brewer, and Ridgway's ' North American 
Birds'- (1884), in Ridgway's 'Manual t) 
North American Birds * (1887), and i 
Coues's ' Key to North American Birds 
(1892). As, therefore, our knowledge o: 
" frankline n begins and ends with Halliwel 
it will be admitted, I think, that my state- 
ment is not wanting in cautiousness. Halli- 
well's statement is evidence, but not proof, 

of the existence of the word " frankline " ; 
but the silence of lexicographers and of 
ornithologists is ominous. 

MR. MACMICHAEL states at the last refer- 
ence that he has found Mr. Roosevelt using 
the word " franklin n in Africa. Will he 
kindly specify the passage where this allusion 
occurs ? A hasty glance through Mr. Roose- 
velt's deluge of words fails to turn up the 
allusion ; but it does disclose these two 

" Then there were bustards, great and small, and 
nake-eating secretary birds, on the plains; and 
rancolins, and African spurfowl with brilliant 
aked throats, and sand grouse that flew in packs- 
ttering guttural notes." Scribners Ma^ f 
November, 1909, xlvi. 516. 

"On several occasions I saw francolins and 
purfowl cut dcwn on the wing by a throwing- stick 
urled from some unusually dexterous hand."- 
Ibid., p. 528. 

If these are the passages MR. MACMICHAEL. 
lad in mind, it follows that he identifies 
Halliwell's " frankline " with Mr. Roosevelt's 
francolin.' 5 Passing over that identifica- 
tion for what it is worth, let us consider MR. 
VtAcMiCHAEL's statement about his being 
ed " to suppose that the distinguished sports- 
nan was familiar with ' franklin z as the 
name of a bird indigenous to his own country, 
viz., Scolopax fedoa, the American godwit." 
MR. MACMICHAEL is correct in thinking (as 
)he works cited above prove) that the godwit 
is well known in the United States, even 
though Hudson's Bay lies far to the north 
of this country ; but he is in error in sup- 
posing that the francolin is the Scolopax: 
fedoa. On this point he has been led astray 
by Halliwell and also by an extract in the 
N.E.D.' In his first reply (10 S. xii. 270), 
quoting the ' N.E.D., ? he says that " Per- 
civall, ~'Sp. Diet.' [1591], has francolin, a 
godwit." Sir James Murray, under " god 
wit, n where this extract is quoted, gives 
this note : "In 16-1 7th c. often used to 
render L. attagen, Sp. francolin." An exam 
ination of Spanish-English dictionaries show 
that this rendering continued until the close 
of the eighteenth - century, as in the 1794 
edition of his ' Dictionary, Spanish and 
English,' Baretti has "Francolin, s.m., a 
bird called a godwit.' 4 But even as early as 
1617 doubt was expressed, for Minsheu s 
' Vocabularium Hispanico Latinum et Angli- 
cum copiosissimum J says : " Francolin. 
L. Attagen and Attagena. A. a bird called 
a god-wit, by others, a Pheasant poute, 
forti ita diet : quod e Francia primum in 
Hispaniam duceretur"- In Connelly's ' New 
Dictionary of the Spanish and English Lan- 
guages, 1 1798, we read : " Francolin, the 

ii s. i. JAX. 29, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Asiatic partridge, or attagen : vulgarly 
called, the gor-cock, the moor-cock, or red- 
jgamo." And Neuman's ' New Dictionary 
of the Spanish and English Languages,* 
1802, has: " Francolin, the African or 
Indian partridge (Tetrao Francolinus, 
X.inn.)." All the Spanish-English diction- 
aries since 1802 I have consulted repeat 
Xeuman's statement. Now the godwit 
belongs to the family Scolopacidse, but the 
francolin belongs to the family Tetraonidse. 
Hence the birds mentioned above by Mr. 
Roosevelt were not godwits, but partridges, 
or of that family. 

If however, Mr. Roosevelt speaks of a 
*' franklin," I would ask MB. MACMICHAEL 
to tell us where. ALBERT MATTHEWS. 

Boston, U.S. 

MB. MACMICHAEL is still in error. The 
birds reported by Mr. Roosftvelt as seen by 
him on his railway journey he does not 
speak of shooting them, and the circum- 
stances denote the contrary were not 
*' franklins," but francolins. Despite both 
Halliwell's definition of " frankline " as a 
godwit, with his implied derivation, and 
that of " Percivall's ' Sp. Diet.' '* the name 
*' francolin " is now confined to a bird very 
different from the gralline godwit. Franco- 
lins form a sub -family of gallinaceous birds 
allied to the partridge, Francolinus vulgaris 
being called both the " black francolin " and 
the '" black partridge." They are more or 
less frequently found in the warmer parts 
of Europe and Asia, but are chiefly African. 
The name " partridge " as given to a bird 
is common enough here, but none of the 
partridge - like birds of America can be 
classed with the Old World species, and 
francolins are wholly unknown. 

Mr. Roosevelt, therefore, instead of having 
been accustomed to the name at home, had 
learnt it from books, perhaps, but more 
immediately from his companions, Mr. Selous 
and Governor Jackson, ;i to whom the terri- 
tory and the game were alike familiar." 

Godwits, of the Scolopacidae or snipe 
family, we have here, certainly. The species 
mentioned by MB. MACMICHAEL at the last 
reference, now technically called Limosa 
fedoa, and commonly the " marbled godwit " 
and " brown marlin," is the largest of its 
kind, being from seventeen to twenty inches 
long. The Hudsonian godwit is smaller, 
or about fifteen inches in length. Both 
species are occasional, if rare visitants in 
spring and fall, as far south as the New 
Jersey coast, but they are nowhere called 
" franklins. 1 * 

It is therefore impossible that Lowell's 
' franklin " meant a bird unknown to him 
by that name, incongruously placed in his 
cheerless inn-parlour, instead of designating 
the open but fireless Franklin stove, still in 
October left in its summer garniture of faded 
green which every reader of that day resident 
in New England or the Middle States would 
recognize as a familiar thing. M. C. L. 

New York. 

WINDOW (10 S. xii. 269, 357, 453 ; 11 S. i. 
15). M. P. contributed to The Essex Review 
for April, 1908, a long account of this picture. 
After relating the history of the picture he 
says : 

"The side-lights are occupied by portraits of 
Henry VII. and his Queen, Elizabeth of York, 
copied from original pictures sent to Dort for the 
purpose. Over the King is the picture of St. George, 
and above him a white rose within a red one. Over 
the Queen stands St. Catherine, and in a panel 
above her is a pomegranate vert on a field or, the 
arms of Granada, to denote the descent of York 
and Lancaster from the royal families of Spain, by 
the marriages of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 
and his brother Edmond, Duke of York. It has 
also been said that the window was intended to be 
commemorative of the marriage of Prince Arthur 
with Katharine of Arragon." 

J. S. 


Both Pennant and Hughson (Pugh) have 
misled MB. WM. NOBMAN by not completing 
the first sentence they transcribed from 
the appendix to ' Ornaments of Churches 
Considered,' &c., 1761. The window was 
intended to adorn Henry VII. 's magnificent 
chapel then building at Westminster, " King 
Henry and his Queen sending their pictures 
to Dort, from whence their portraits in the 
window are delineated. 1 '' 

The kneeling figure has not been, and 
cannot be, identified as Henry VI. or 
Henry VIII., but it might be Prince Arthur, 
because there are more probabilities that 
the queen kneeling is Katharine of Aragon 
than Elizabeth of York. 


AND PABISH REGISTEBS (10 S. xii. 409, 475 ; 
11 S. i. 37). At Salisbury the transcripts 
of the Registers of the Peculiars were 
deposited in the Dean's Registry, where they 
still are, and not in the Diocesan Registry. 

WATEB (11 S. i. 29). Explained in the right 
book, the ' E.D.D.,' which has : " Hessle 
whelps, the water of a part of the Humber 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 29, 1910. 

near Hezzle which is often turbulent. Cf. 
* Barton bulldogs,* s.v. Bull-dog (2). n Also 
" Bulldog (2), in the phrase ' Barton bull- 
dogs,* rough waves on the Humber." 

The notion of " deriving " whelp from the 
A.-S. weallan, to boil, seems rather auda- 
cious. One might as well derive pulp from 
the verb to pull. Where does the p come 

" Whelp " is the same word as the Danish 
hvalp. Its application to broken water may 
be a transferred one, the name being 
formerly given to rocks, the remains of which, 
now covered by the sea, are the cause of the 
waves breaking off Hessle. On a larger scale 
there lies at about eight miles from Land's 
End a dangerous rock of greenstone, called 
the Wolf's Crag, in the midst of a turbulent 
twirl and eddy of waters. Again, the unin- 
habited island of Annette, one of the Scilly 
group, is literally surrounded with reefs 
and rocks. It has been well said that they 
are the " dogs " of Scilly, and fierce as those 
which, according to the old fable, howled 
round the monster of the Italian Seas : 

But ISeylla crouches in the gloom, 

Deep in a cavern's monstrous womb ; 

Thence darts her ravening mouth, and drags 

The helpless vessel on the crags. 

I may conclude by mentioning that there 
is situated on tno Shannon, west of 
Linerick, the " Whelp's Rock " Lighthouse. 


The " Hessle Whelps " are doubtless so 
called because they are a smaller repetition 
of " Barton Bulldogs " on the opposite bank. 
There has always been a liking to see a 
similitude between atmospherical and natural 
phenomena and familiar animals. Plutarch 
mentions hills called " dogsheads " (' Lives l 
by North, 1899, iii. 247, iv. 171) ; and Swin- 
burne, our modern sea-poet, sings of " white 
horses " in the sea (' Selections,' 1894, p. 33). 
For others see " dog n in ' N. E. D.' 

W. C. B. 

[MR. HOLDEN MAcMiGHAEL also thanked for 

BROOKE OF COBHAM (11 S. i. 29). EN- 
QUIRER will find much information that 
will serve as a reply to his queries, in 
G. E. C.'s ' Complete Peerage.' Sir William 
Brooke referred to was not the son, but the 
nephew, of Henry, the attainted Lord Cob- 
ham, namely, son and heir of George Brooke, 
who was executed for high treason 5 Dec., 
1603. Sir William was restored in blood by 
Act of Parliament in 1610, but not to the 

title, which still remains under attainder. 
Subject to this, he would have been the un- 
doubted heir to his uncle. He left at his 
death in 1643 four daughters his co-heirs, 
namely, one by his first wife and three by his 
second, All these ladies married, and three 
of them left issue ; but their descendants 
had all failed by about the end of the 
century with the exception of those of 
Hill, the second daughter, and wife of Sir 
William Boothby, Bt., whose representa- 
tives in 1837 are stated to have been Robert 
Thorp, M.D., Disney Alexander, M.D., Mrs. 
Lucy Cockerell, and Miss Harriet Lund. 

Sir John Brooke, to whom the barony was 
granted by a new patent in 1645, was the 
next heir male of the family after Sir William 
Brooke, being the son of Sir Henry Brooke, 
who was a younger son of George, 9th Lord 
Cobham, the grandfather of the attainted 
baron. He died without issue in 1660. 

The Brookes of UfTord, Suffolk, are now 
in all probability the heirs male of the 
Brookes, Lords Cobham, being descended 
from Reginald, second son of Sir Thomas 
Brooke (died 1439), by the heiress of Cob- 
ham. Their descent will be found in 
Burke's ' Landed Gentry.' W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newton-le-Willows. 

The present representative of the Brookes 
of Cobham, appears to be Edward Brooke, 
Esq., of Ufford Place, Suffolk. 

Among the eighteen brasses of the Cob- 
ham family and others in the parish church 
of Cobham is one of Sir Reginald Bray- 
brooke, father of Joane, Baroness Cobham 
(1420), who married Sir Thomas Brooke, Kt. 
The brass of the thirteenth and last of the 
Cobhams was removed from its place to 
make room for a memorial to the Earl of 

REV. RICHARD SNOWE (11 S. i. 50). One 
Richard Snowe (son of Thomas of South- 
wark, Surrey, gent.) matriculated at Uni- 
versity College, Oxon, on 4 June, 1741, 
aged eighteen. A. R. BAYLEY. 

ROYAL (10 S. xii. 489; 11 S. i. 38). 
Bradley in his will, given in his ' Miscellaneous 
Works and Correspondence, with Memoir,' 
by Rigaud, speaks of three sisters (two of 
them widows), but does not mention any 
brother, so that it is probable that there was 
no surviving one when the will was made. 
Nor does Rigaud refer to any brother in the 
memoir. W. T. LYNN. 


n s. L JAN. 29, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" CULPRIT " (10 S. xi. 486 ; xii. 174, 456). 
May I remind MB. HILL that your readers 
have not yet had his explanation of the 
phrase non cul. prist in Brooke (1568) ? 


Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1910. (Harrison 

& Sons.) 

WE welcome the seventy-second edition of this 
work, clothed in its usual mantling of scarlet and 
gold, with the royal book-stamp, and bearing on 
the title-page the arms and coronet of the Ulster 
King-of-Arms impaled with the arms of Burke. 
The editor (Mr. Ash worth Burke) points out in his 
Introduccion that, in consequence of the present 
political crisis, more than ordinary interest has 
been aroused in the composition of the House of 
Lords and in the peers themselves : no doubt this 
interest will be emphasized before the year is 

Apart from the political situation, the year has 
not been very fruitful of incident among the titled 
classes, the most notable fact, perhaps, being the 
restoration to this volume of the Twisden 
baronetcy. It was created in 1666, and has been 
established to exist in the person of the Rev. 
Sir John Francis Twisden, llth Baronet. 

The death of the Earl of Howth removes from 
the peerage the ancient Irish barony of Howth 
(the deceased nobleman having been the 30th 
Baron Howth, a dignity created by tenure in the 
time of Henry II.) ; and with the death of Lord 
Carysfort the title created in 1752 in favour 
of the family of Proby becomes extinct. 

The edition is produced with the usual 
industrious accuracy, and the leaded type given 
to the successive holders of titles is a welcome 
feature. It is impossible within the space at our 
disposal to deal with details, but so far as we 
have been able to test the contents, they are 
entirely up to date. If a few grumbles are per- 
mitted, we must own that we much prefer the 
old-fashioned steel engravings of coats of arms to 
the woodcuts, some of the latter being indistinct ; 
particularly bad reproductions are those of the 
arms of the Duke of Hamilton and the Earl of 
Eglinton and Winton, while others which it is 
impossible to admire are those of the Earl of Mar 
and Kellie, Agnew of Lochnaw, and Withy of 
Lawton. We also think that the blazon of the arms 
exhibited might be usefully checked : Lord Aling- 
ton's blazon does not represent his arms, and the 
charges on the shield of Lord Arundell of W T ardour 
appear to be martlets, not swallows. In the case 
of the Earl of Ferrers the division seems more 
like a canton than a quarter. 

One point we should like cleared up in Mr. 
Burke's next edition, and that is, why the Earl 
of Donoughmore's son bears the courtesy title 
of Lord Suirdale. No such title exists in the 
family, according to the particulars given in this 
volume, and, apart from the fact that the river 
Suir Hows through Knocklofty, there seems no 
reason why his lordship should bear this title 
more than any other fancy name. Referring, how- 
ever, to a somewhat antique edition of Lodge's 

4 Peerage,' we find it stated that an ancestor of the 
present Earl was in 1800 created Viscount Suirdale. 
If this is so, it ought to be stated in Burke. If 
no such title exists, then Lord Donoughmore's 
son ought to be called Viscount Hutchinson. 

We suggest that the genealogy of Sir J. Blundell 
Maple, who died in 1903, and Sir H. B. Meux, who 
died in 1900, need no longer be reproduced, as in 
both cases the title became extinct. We also 
notice that the wife of the third Lord Macdonald 
of the Isles is said to be " the ward of Farley 
Edsir," whereas, we fancy something quite 
different w r as stated in the recent Bosvile litiga- 
tion. Who was Farley Edsir ? It would be 
interesting to know. These criticisms, however, 
are of a trivial nature, and all readers will thank 
Mr. Ashworth Burke for a publication now 
regarded as of standard value. 

Anna van Schurman. By Una Birch. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

ANNA VAN SCHURMAN was a learned and saintly 
lady who occupied a prominent position among 
the Dutch pietists of the seventeenth century, 
1607-73. Her portrait by Jan Lievens is in our 
National Gallery. Almost all that we know about 
her is given in her ' Eukleria,' an autobiographical 
book which she wrote in her seventieth year. 
Her uneventful career, says Miss Birch, divides 
itself naturally into three parts artistic, learned, 
and mystical. " Art engaged her energies till the 
age of twenty-eight, learning for the next twenty 
years, and mysticism till her death at the age of 
seventy-one." Her wonderful knowledge of 
languages, Oriental as well as European, won her 
the titles of " the Tenth Muse " and " the Star of 
Utrecht," and she numbered among her friends 
such distinguished men as Descartes, Spanheim, 
Voe't, and Gassendi, who wrote many elaborate 
and stiff-brocaded panegyrics in her honour. 
Moreover, as the champion of her sex and advocate 
of the rights of woman her name became famous 
all over Europe. Her treatise ' De ingenii Mulie- 
bris ad Doctrinam et meliores Litteras aptitudine ' 
(misprinted here on p. 78), Leyden, 1641, 
was translated into English as ' The Learned 
Maid.' Five portraits are here reproduced which 
show her outward semblance at different periods 
of her life. 

Miss Birch has succeeded in producing a very 
well-written biography of this erudite and devout 
woman, with her strongly marked mystical ideas ; 
but whether modern readers will care to have her 
forgotten memory resuscitated for their benefit 
may be doubted. With regard to x the sentence 
which she adopted as her life-motto, ' My Love 
has been crucified," it was surely not Loyola 
(p. 181), but another and much earlier Ignatius 
who supplied it. 

MESSRS. A. & C. BLACK have sent us the New 
Year issues of three annuals, all essential to the 
journalist Who 's Who, Who 's Who Year-Book, 
and The Writers' and Artists' Year-Book. The 
first continues to increase in bulk, and we think 
it is time some restraint was applied to lengthy 
biographies of people of no great importance. The 
third tells people what editors want in the way of 
contributions. It should be in the hands of all 
who write or attempt to write for the press. The 
nuisance of hopelessly unsuitable contributions is 
increasing, and mainly due to the neglect of such 
sensible guides as that before us. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. JAN. 29, 1910. 


MR. L. C. BRAUN'S Catalogue 62 contains the 
first edition of ' The Dunciad ' and ' The Rape 
of the Lock,' bound in one volume, II. 2s. Qd. ; 
Gilchrist's ' Life of Blake,' 2 vols., II. 10s. ; 
Gibbon's ' Rome,' 12 vols., full calf, 1820, 27. ; 
and Lowndes's ' Manuals,' 6 vols., 1890, 18s. 
Under Historical and Biographical Naval MSS., 
are the log-books of H.M.S. Assistance, employed 
in the search for Franklin, 1850-51, 21. 2s. Among 
works on natural history is Dodoens's ' New 
Herball,' black-letter, 1595, 21. 10s. Works of 
travel include one on Japan, ' Ambassades 
Me"morables de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales,' 
Amsterdam, 1680, 21. 10s. Under Topography 
are a number of engravings, many of special 
interest relating to London. There are also 
engraved portraits. 

Mr. Bertram Dobell's Catalogue 180 contains 
books from the library of John Henry Shorthouse, 
among them being A. Symonds's ' Sketches in 
Italy,' a presentation copy, with the following 
inscription : "To the Author of ' John Inglesant ' 
and ' The Little Schoolmaster Mark,' in sincere 
admiration of his genius. John Addington 
Symonds, Davoz, March 21, '85." There are 
also books from the library of the late William 
Wheeler Smith of New York. These include 
illuminated Horse, editions of Alciat and other 
books of emblems, many editions of ' The Dance 
of Death,' the books issued to members of the 
Bibliophile Society of Boston and the Grolier 
Club of New York, and many other valuable 
works. Another portion of the Catalogue is 
devoted to miscellaneous books. Mr. Dobell 
evidently believes in keeping some good wine to 
the last, for in the Addenda we find the Edition 
de Luxe of Edward FitzGerald's ' Letters and 
Literary Remains,' 7 vols., in the original silk 
binding, Macmillan, 1902-3, 31. 3s. ; Buxton 
Gorman's edition of Shelley's ' Prose Works,' 
4 vols., original light-blue cloth, 1880, 61. 15s. ; 
the first edition of George Meredith's ' The Shaving 
of Shagpat,' 1856, 31. 10s. (unopened copy, not 
the original cloth, has a name lightly written on 
title) ; and a fine large copy of the first edition 
of Howell's ' Epistolae Ho-Elianae,' 1645, 47. 4s. 

We congratulate Mr. A. H. Mayhew on the 
issue of his First Catalogue, which we should 
have noticed before but for pressure on our 
space. The second item in this is an extra- 
illustrated copy of the last book printed at the 
Kelmscott Press, being a note on William Morris's 
aims in founding the Press, by S. C. Cockerell, 
and an annotated list of the works printed thereat. 
The book has been inlaid to form a folio volume, 
and inserted are nearly all the original pro- 
spectuses, specimen leaves of most of the books, 
autograph letters from Morris and the Kelmscott 
Press secretaries, and portraits of Morris and others, 
vellum extra, uncut, 50Z. There are works 
relating to Shakespeare, folk-lore, art, &c. 

Mr. Mayhew's Second Catalogue contains the 
only uniform edition of Ariosto and Boiardo, 
which was edited by Panizzi, and published by 
Pickering in 9 vols., 1830-34, this copy being in 
the original cloth and uncut, 21. 10s. ; Feuillet 
de Conches, ' Causeries d'un Curieux,' 4 vols, 
1862-8, II. 10s. ; Froude's * England,' 12 vols., 
half -calf, 41. 10s. ; Nisard's ' Histoire des Livres 
Populaires,' 2 vols., half red morocco, 11. 10s. ; 

Roscoe's edition of Swift, 2 vols., half -calf, II. Is. ; 
the Library Edition of Thackeray, 22 vols., 
cloth, 1869, 51. 15s. ; a set of De Quincey, 15 vols., 
half-calf, .1863, 21. 15s. ; and the Illustrated 
Library Edition of Dickens, 30 vols., original 
cloth, uncut, 1874-6, 121. 12s. Under Shake- 
speare is Charles Knight's second edition, 12 vols., 
1842, to which is added Douce's ' Illustrations,' 
with the woodcuts by Jackson, 1839, the 13 vols. 
bound in tree calf extra, 31. 15s. 

Messrs. B. & J. F. Meehan of Bath have in 
their Catalogue 66 works and maps under Africa, 
Australasia, Bath, and China and Japan. Works 
under Family History include those of the 
Harington and Linley families. Under Furniture 
is Macquoid's * History of English Furniture,' 
with fine plates in colour by Shirley Slocombe, 
4 vols., folio, cloth, new, 81. 8s. Under Medals, 
Military and Naval, is the MS. of a work by J. W. 
Fleming, 4th R.I.D. Guards, prepared for private 
circulation, but never published, one thousand 
pages, 4to, 1876, 81. 10s. Under Socialism is a 
collection of modern standard works, 17 vols., 
cloth, new, 21. 2s. Qd. There are a number of 
children's books, 1795-1851. 

Mr. Zaehnsdorf has a catalogue of books 
in the beautiful bindings for which he is famous. 
We note a few. M. de Nolhac's ' Les Femmes de 
Versailles,' 5 parts, each containing 10 plates in 
colour enclosed in a silk brocade portfolio (edition 
limited to 100 copies), is 2007. Art works include 
' Gainsborough,' by Armstrong, first edition, 
full levant after the style of Deroine, 181. 18s. ; 
' Laurence,' by Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower, 
81. ; ' Hoppner,' by McKay and Roberts, 107. 10s. ; 
and ' Michel Ange,' par Gebhart, 407. The 
general portion comprises Matthew Arnold, 8 vols., 
57. ; Browning, 2 vols. in 1, 37. 10s. ; Mrs. Brown- 
ing, 37. 15s. ; Marshall's ' Cathedral Cities of 
France,' 67. ; Musset's * Poesies,' 2 vols., 67. 6s. ; 
Edgar Poe, 47. 15s. ; Bernard Shaw's ' Plays, 
Pleasant and Unpleasant,' 5 vols., 37. 10s. ; and 
Tennyson, 9 vols., 57. 7s. Qd. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, B.C. 

J. HAUTENVILLE-COPE (" 'Extent' of a Property "). 
Denned in the ' N.E.D.' as " the valuation of land 
or other property ; esp. such a valuation made for the 
purpose of taxation ; assessment." The illustrative 
quotations range from c. 1330. 

M. WARWICK ("'Five Alls' Inn Sign"). The 
meaning of this sign and the related one " The Four 
Alls " is discussed at 8 S. vii. 205, 395. 

11 S. I. FKB. 5, 1910.] 





NOTES : Catharine Macaulay, 101 Crowe of Kiplin 
Yorks, 103 Inscriptions in the Trafalgar Cemetery, 
Gibraltar, 104 "The Holy Ziaret" "Shabrack" Hol- 
bein's ' Duchess of Milan ' : a " Spencer" Burns's ' Death 
and Dr. Hornbook,' 105 Oldest Postmaster in England 
John Murray and Medical Books Flying Man : Early 
Instance "Sake," to Kill Printers of the Statutes, 106 
Municipal Swords" Incidis in Scyllam," 107. 

QUERIES : -Chaucer and Boccaccio J. H. Swale, Mathe- 
matician Solly Collection of Pictures Most Expensive 
Election, 107 First Nonconformist Minister in Parlia- 
ment "Hem of a noise" Cisterns in Kensington 
Gardens Bokeby House, West Ham Rochechouart 
Ducetoy: Castleden Family Portraits by Flick, 108 
Authors Wanted Verse quoted by Burns " Ganion 
Coheriga" "Unrejoicing" in Wordsworth De Quincey 
and Swedenborg Armstrong=Fawcett Cosnahan 
Family Abbott Family, 109 Sphinx Wanted John 
Hunter's Club -Sea Songs, 110. 

REPLIES : Ben Jonson in Westminster Abbey, 110 
Children with the same Christian^ Name, 112 Widow 
Twankay Authors Wanted, 113 Buckle's ' History of 
Civilization,' 115 "A Mutation of Throstles " Apssen 
Counter Sussex Ironworks : Obsolete Terms 'N. & Q.' : 
Lost Reference" Earth goeth upon earth," 116 Bakers' 
Servants " Adoxography " Godfrey Sykes, 117 
" Shalgham-zai "Chaucer : ' Squire's Tale ' " Com- 
poste"la " Robinson Crusoe's Literary Descendants 
Thomas de Coningsby Sir C. W. Strickland and Tom 
Brown, 118" Sucket," 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Iliad ' translated by Blakeney 
^Eschylus translated by Headlam ' Kelly's Handbook to 
the Titled, Landed, and Official Classes' 'Fortnightly 
Review '-' Cornhill.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See 5 S. vi. 428, 545 ; vii. 77 ; 8 S. ii. 527 ; 
iii. 113 ; 9 S. iv. 200, 238 ; vi. 128, 215.) 

THERE are stone errors in ' N. & Q.' as well 
as in the k Dictionary of National Biography ' 
concerning Mrs. Macaulay. In an editorial 
notice it is stated (9 S. iv. 200) that a 
statue of her by Bacon is in existence. At 
the next reference the REV. JAMES J. G. 
GRAHAM asks : " Where is her statue by 
Bacon to be seen ? " He then refers to " a 
beautiful marble statue erected by Dr. 
Wilson, Rector of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, 
and placed in his church during her lifetime, 
but removed thence by order of the vestry. 1 ' 
An editorial note (ibid.) states that " the 
statue by Bacon came into the possession 
of the Right Hon. J. Wilson Patten, sub- 
sequently Lord Winmarleigh.' 1 This note 
is apparently taken from the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography.' 

The authority for the attribution to 
Bacon appears to be G. Monkland's ' The 

Literature and Literati of Bath,* 1854. The 
author, p. 33, says that Dr. Thomas Wilson 
" actually placed her statue, adorned as 
the Goddess of Liberty, within the altar 
railing of the church of St. Stephen's, 
Walbrook.' 2 Having said here that the 
statue was " adorned as the Goddess of 
Liberty, 1 ' he says in the Supplement, 1855, 
p. 85 : 

" The statue of Mrs. Macauley [sic] (as the 
personification of History) which he [Dr. Wilson] 
placed in the Church, now stands in Bank Hall, 
the seat of John Wilson Patten, Esq., M.P. for 
North Lancashire. It is from the chisel of 
Bacon, and is esteemed a work of art." 

A foot-note refers to an estate in the hundred 
of " Wheral n (meaning Wirral), Cheshire, 
which belonged to Dr. Wilson, and " under 
his will became vested in the late Thomas 
Patten Wilson, now (1855) his son's estate, 
J. W. Patten, M.P. n 

There may or may not have been a statue 
by Bacon, but that the St. Stephen's statue 
was not by him is evident. I do not think 
that there is, or ever was, any such statue 
by Bacon. 

Bank Hall is now the Town Hall of 
Warrington, having been sold by Col. the 
Right Hon. John Wilson Patten (afterwards 
Lord Winmarleigh) to the Corporation or 
town in 1872. In the entrance hall stands 
a marble statue inscribed " History I. F. 
Moore Delin fc et Sculp fc . u This statue was 
presented to the Corporation by Col. Wilson 
Patten. In the proceedings of the General 
Purposes Committee (23 Oct., 1872) is the 
following : 

" The Right Hon. Col. Wilson Patten having 
presented to the Corporation a life size Statue 
of the late Mrs. Macauley the Historian which is 
now in the entrance hall of Bank Hall. Resolved, 
That the same be accepted," &c. 

A little later Col. Patten expressed a 
desire that the statue should be accepted 
as a statue of History. It is presumably 
over life size, being nearly six feet high. 

In ' Nollekens and his Times, 1 by John 
Thomas Smith, 1828, ii. 204-5, J. F. 
Moore is mentioned as the sculptor of the 
Beckford monument in Guildhall, and of the 
statue of " Mrs. Macauley " in St. Stephen's, 
Walbrook, put up by " her doting admirer 
Dr. Thomas Wilson ; which it is said the 
same divine had pulled down when that 
lady offended him by marrying a brother of 
Graham, the Quack Doctor." Smith con- 
tinues : "I believe the Bishop insisted 
upon its removal.'* He adds that Dr. 
Wilson " employed Moore to execute a 
monument in memory of his wife, leaving 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. FEB. 5, 1910. 

the dexter side plain, for the insertion of 
his own death."' This monument, an ornate 
tablet, is in St. Stephen's. 

Under Dr. Wilson's will the estate of 
Woodchurch, in the hundred of Wirral, 
eventually became vested in Thomas Patten, 
father of * John Wilson Patten, but Thomas 
Patten, father of the above Thomas, was 
one of the two joint residuary legatees, to 
whom was left all real and personal estate 
not otherwise devised by Dr. Wilson's 
will. Presumably the statue, having been 
removed from St. Stephen's (see later), 
passed as a chattel to Thomas Patten the 
elder, then to Thomas his son, and even- 
tually to John Wilson Patten, who gave it 
to the town of Warrington. 

Now as to the assertion made by Monk- 
land (see above), and copied by the * Dic- 
tionary of National Biography, 1 that Dr. 
Wilson placed the statue within the altar 
rail of St. Stephen's. (It was erected in 
the church 8 Sept., 1777.) I have examined 
the Vestry Minute Book of St. Stephen's, 
Walbrook, now lying in the library at 

The churchwardens were evidently very 
irate about the erection of the statue in the 
church. At a Joint Vestry of the united 
parishes of St. Stephen, Walbrook, and 
St. Bennet Sherehog on 26 Nov., 1777, 
two of the churchwardens of St. Stephen's 
informed the meeting that they had " pre- 
sented " Dr. Wilson at a Visitation held at 
Christ Church on the 20th instant. In the 
presentment the statue is stated to have 
been erected " in or near the Chancel of the 
said Parish Church.' 1 They also reported 
that they had stated a case for the opinion 
of Dr. Wynne (of Doctors' Commons), 
and they reported his opinion, which was 
in their favour. In the case it is stated 

" this Monument is fixed on the East side of the 
Church and directly facing the South Ayle 
thereof, and it is apprehended that the Doc r 
thinks he had a right so to do, that part of the 
Church being his Freehold, as he conceives." 

If the above description of the position 
of the statue could be supposed to mean 
" within the altar rails, i? it is inconceivable 
that the churchwardens would have omitted 
such a strong point. Moreover, the space 
within the altar rail is and was (according 
to an old print, not dated) barely sufficient 
to allow the officiating clergyman to move 
about the altar. 

The Vestry began to take action 26 Nov., 
1777, two of the churchwardens having six 
days earlier " presented " Dr. Wilson as 

above. At this meeting a letter was ordered 
to be written to him desiring that " he will 
remove the monument from the Church, or 
signify on or before the 19th Day of Decem- 
ber next that he will do so." 

When they met on 24 December there was 
no answer, but a letter received by the 
Vestry Clerk on 26 November (presumably 
after the meeting of that date) was read. 
This letter is not given in the minutes. 
The Clerk was directed to write to Dr. Wilson 
informing him that, if he did not give a 
satisfactory answer in one month, the church- 
wardens were ordered to " commence a 
suit " against him. Apparently he did 
not answer ; at least there is no answer 

The next meeting concerning the matter 
was on 17 July, 1778, when it was 
" ordered that the Vestry Clerk do write to Mr. 
Moore the Statuary to know whether he hath 
rec d orders from Dr. Wilson or any person on his 
behalf to remove the statue of Mrs. Macauley 
from out of the Church of St. Stephen, Walbrook. " 

The next meeting of the Joint Vestry 
was on 12 Aug. (1778). The minute is not 
dated as to the year, nor is it signed, but it 
follows the last-mentioned, and immediately 
precedes a minute of St. Stephen's Vestry 
(alone) dated 12 Aug., 1778, which is signed 
by the two St. Stephen's churchwardens 
who were present at the Joint Vestry (pre- 
sumably the signatures at the end of the 
latter were meant to cover the former as 
well) : 

" Ordered that Liberty be given to Dr. Wilson 
or who [sic] else he may appoint to remove 
the Statue of Mrs. Macauley from" out of the 

There ends the history of the statue as 
written in the Vestry minutes. Exactly 
when or why the statue was removed from 
the church I have failed to find out. 

Mrs. Macaulay married William Graham 
17 Dec., 1778. There is plenty of evidence 
to show that this marriage displeased Dr, 

The question as to the reason for the 
removal of the statue is well put by A. Y. Z. 
in The Gentleman's Magazine, 1791, pt. ii, 
p. 618. The statue 

" was taken down (by the statuary who erected 
it) in the life-time of Dr. Wilson and by his order. 
Whether the Doctor was instigated so to do 
from motives of revenge, because she married 
Mr. Graham, or whether from fear, because the 
Vestry was just upon citing him to the Commons 
for it, I will not undertake to say." 

I am inclined to think, taking into con- 
sideration the dilatory courses of the Joint 
Vestry, and the fact that they did not, 

11 S. I. FEB. 5, 1910.] 



apparently, succeed in getting any answer 
from Dr. Wilson, that though the action or 
threatened action of the Joint Vestry may 
have been contributory to the event, anger 
at the marriage was the final cause which 
inclined Dr. Wilson to accede to the de- 
mands of the Joint Vestry, or that both 
causes combined produced the effect. 

St. Austins, Warrington. 

(To be continued.) 


IN 1860 a correspondent of ' N. & Q.* 
(2 S. ix. 144) inquired what were the arms 
and pedigree of the above family. By means 
of a deed dated 1765, which has come into 
my possession, and by reference to various 
well-known sources of information, I am 
able to reply to the query, to which no 
answer was given at the time. 

As far as I can discover, no pedigree of 
this family has been printed hitherto, 
though members of it intermarried with 
some of the best-known families in the 
North Riding. 

In a book called ' Historical Sketches of 
the Reformation,' by F. G. Lee, D.C.L. 
(1878), mention is made of a family of Crowe, 
" of position and respectability in the co. of 
York in the middle of the sixteenth century. 
The heads of it and the various chiefs of 
its branches were in the ranks of esquires 
and gentlemen." Dr. Lee does not, however, 
give any references in support of his state- 
ment, and I know nothing further of any 
of this name in Yorkshire till the eighteenth 

Christopher Crowe purchased from Sir 
Richard Child the hall and manor of Wood- 
ford, co. Essex. He married Lady Char- 
lotte Lee, widow of Benedict Leonard 
Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore (who was 
born at Kiplin), and dau. of Edward Henry 
Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield, by his wife Lady 
Charlotte FitzRoy, natural daughter of 
Charles II. 

Lady Baltimore died in 1720, and was 
buried at Woodford : on her monument in 
the chancel of the church there are the follow- 
ing arms : Gules, a chevron or, between three 
cocks arg., Crowe, impaling Arg., a fesse 
between three crescents sa., Lee (Lysons's- 
* Environs '). 

In 1727 Crowe sold the Woodford property 
to Wm. Hunt, Esq., and in the same year 
leased to the Earl of Lichfield and Willey 

Revely of Newby Wisk, Esq., the manor of 
Tunstall, Yorks. He died 9 Nov., 1749. 

Of the above-mentioned marriage there 
were two sons, Christopher and George, and 
two daughters, Catherine and Charlotte. 

Christopher Crowe, jun., was born 1716- 
1717, and matriculated Univ. Coll., Oxford, 
6 Feb., 1732/3, " son of C. C. of Woodford 
Hall, Essex, armiger," and married in 1752 
Barbara, dau. of Thos. Duncombe, of Dun- 
combe Park, Yorks, Esq. (marriage settle- 
ments dated 20 Jan., 1752, in which she is 
described as of Copgrave). There was no 
issue of this marriage. Mr. Crowe had 
lands in Bolton-on-Swale, Catterick, Ellerton r 
Scorton, and Kiplin, all in Yorks. The 
second son George married, and had issue 
Robert and George Crowe, both under age 
in 1765, of whom hereafter. 

Of the daughters of C. C., sen., Charlotte 
d. unm. before 1749, and Catherine married 
Roger Henry Gale, Esq., of Scruton, Yorks, 
and died in Newman Street, London, in 1782, 
having had issue Henry, Samuel, Christopher, 
Harriet, and Catherine Gale, all under age in 

Robert Crowe (Burke's * Landed Gentry * 
calls him "colonel") was of Kiplin, and 
married Ann, only dau. of Christopher 
Buckle, Esq., of New Hall, co. Haddington 
(by Ann, dau. of Henry St. John, Esq., 
and widow of Nathaniel Wessel), and had a 
dau. Sarah, who married, 1 Oct., 1817, John 
Delaval Carpenter, 4th and last Earl of 
Tyrconnel, to whom descended the manor 
of Kiplin. We may presume that there was 
no other issue. 

George Crowe of Langton, Yorks, married 
Anna, dau. of Anthony Salvin, Esq., of 
Sunderland Bridge, and d. Oct., 1782. 
An entry in Gent. Mag. describes him as 
" register of the N. Riding." 

Probably he left descendants, for " on 
21 Jan., 1823, Margaret Alexander, dau. 
of the late Mat. Crowe, Esq., married the 
Rev. John Charge, Rector of Copgrove '* 
(Gent. Mag.). 

It would be interesting to know if the 
pedigree could be continued to the present 

The arms mentioned above are those 
granted in 1584 to Crowe of Crowe's Hall, 
Suffolk, to whom I may refer some other 
time. If Christopher Crowe had any right 
to the arms he used, he was a member of the 
Suffolk family. If any reader can supple- 
ment the above pedigree, especially with 
reference to the parentage of the elder 
Christopher Crowe, I should be glad of 
particulars. W. ROBEBTS CROW. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. i. FEB. 5, 1910. 


THE tombs in this cemetery are placed 
irregularly, but I have endeavoured to put 
them into rows running north and south. 
The first row is that next the west wall, and 
the first inscription of the first row is at the 
south end of the row, the first of the second 
TOW at the north end, and so on. 

A few interments have no stone or inscrip- 
tion. This is called the Trafalgar Cemetery, 
but only one inscription (No. 19) records a 
death as the result of that ' ' great and 
memorable sea-fight, 1 ' and there is only one 
-other (No. 31) which may possibly be con 
nected with it. These abstracts were taken on 
3 May, 1909. 


1. Mr. E. A. Clark, Ensign, 2nd Bat. (8)5th 
Regt., ob. 22 Oct., 1800. 

2. Catharine, w. of , ob. 24 Oct., 1803. 

3. Lieut. E. A. Wilson, Royal Marines, ob. 
10 Jan., 1803, a. 30. 

4. Capt. Thos. Mahon, Prince of Wales's Own 
Regt. of Fencibles, ob. 8 Feb., 1801, a. 32. 

5. Eliza Louisa Gibbon, d. of Capt. D. H. 
Braine, of New York, and w. of Capt. H. G. Gibbon 
of H.M. packet Lord Chesterfield, ob. of a decline 
on board the Lord Chesterfield, 15 Feb., 1810 ; 
bur. 22 Feb., a. 20 yrs. 3 months. 

6. Mr. John Bentley, of London, merchant, 
ob. 13 Nov., 1813, a. 70. 

7. Lieuts. Thos. Worth and John Buckland, 
of the R.M. Artillery, killed by the same shot, 
23 Nov., 1810, while directing the howitzer 
"boats in an attack on the enemy's flotilla in Cadiz 
Bay. Erected by their brother officers as a 
tribute of respect to two who were the brightest 
ornaments of their corps. 

8. Quarter-Master John Connel, ob. 22 Aug., 
1812, a. 56, after a service of 40 years. Erected 
Iby the officers of the 26th Regt. 

9. James Lilburn, Esq., Captain H.M. sloop 
Goshawk, who nobly fell in an attack made on 
the enemy's forts and shipping at Malaga, 29 Ap. 

1812, a. 38. Erected by the officers of the sloop. 

10. Lewis Northen, 'Esq., Capt. 82nd Regt., 
ob. 11 July, 1810, a. 37. 

11. Robert Lee, Esq., b. in Jamaica ; landed 
here 1 Ap., 1810, on his voyage from England to 
Malta, in the, alas frail ! hope of recovering his 
health ; ob. 28 May following. 

12. Robert Monson, Esq., Surgeon H.M. Navy, 
-0&. 6 May, 1811, a. 26. 

13. David Lawson, Esq., Surgeon H.M.S. 
Rainbow, ob. 22 Nov., 1812, a. 21. 

14. A four-sided tomb. No legible inscription. 


15. Amelia, inf. d. of Major Fraser, 1st Royal 
Veteran Battn., ob. 8 Feb., 1811. 

16. Henry Winter Latimer, s. of Lieut, and 
Adjt. James Stevenson, 1st Royal Veteran Battn., 
ob. 5 Jan., 1808, a. 11 months 14 days. 

Look down, blest soul, and from the realms above 
Accept this last sad tribute of our love. 
The last. E'en now our sorrows we resign, 
And lose our feelings to rejoice in thine. 

17. Mary, the w., and Sarah, the d., of Ensign 
McKay, 7th R.V.B., ob. 17 Oct., 1813, a. 36, 
and 28 Sept,, 1813, a, 11. 

18. Lieut. John Mullen, 4th R.V.B., ob. 11 May, 
1809, a. 54 years, 40 of which he devoted to the 
service of his king and country. 

19. Capt. Thos. Norman, Royal Marines, of 
H.M.S. Mars, ob. in the Naval Hospital, 6 Dec., 
1805, a. 36, from the effects of a wound received 
in the great and memorable sea fight of Trafalgar. 
Erected by his brother officers. 

20. Capt. S. S. Hughes, Royal Regiment of 
Artillery, ob. 18 May, 1808, a. 32. 

21. Lieut. Wm. King. 54th Regt., ob. 1 Nov., 
1804, a. 23. 

22. Jane, w. of Capt. Flack, 1st R.V.B., ob. 
3 June, 1807, a. 49. 

23. Edmund, s. of Lieut. John Burke, 1st 
R.V.B., ob. 1-6 Aug., 1805, a. 18. 

24. Almena, w. of Lieut. John Burke, 1st 
R.V.B., ob. 10 Oct., 1805, a. 53. 

25. Mary, w. of Daniel Clark, Ensign, 1st 
R.V.B., ob. 28 Jan., 1806, a. 52. 


"26. Henry Cane, Esq., Capt. 40th Regt., 
ob. 17 Nov., 1800, a. 22. 

27. Lieut. Wm. Robert Montresor. 18th or 
Royal Regiment of Ireland, ob. 16 Nov., 1799, a. 19. 

28. Martha Anne, d. of Hamilton Finney, 
Quarter-Master 54th Regt., ob. 6 July, 1804, 
a. 14 yrs. 8 months. 

29. Capt. Robert McGregar, 10th Regt., 
ob. 9 Aug., 1804, a. 50. 

30. Henry Edward Andrew Sheppard, Dep.- 
Asst. -Commissary-General to the Forces, who 
fell a victim to the epidemic fever, 24 Oct., 1813, 
a. 20. 

31. Thomas Lane, Esq., Senior Surgeon Royal 
Artillery, ob. 17 Nov., 1805, a. 35. 

32. Sidney Hollis Halls, 1st Lieut. Royal 
Artillery, ob. 20 Aug., 1804, a. 19. Erected by 
laig parents. 

Te veniente die 
Te descendente. 

33. Lieut. Benjamin Gleed, 10th Regt., late 
of Priory in the I. of Wight, ob. 25 Oct., 1804, a. 23. 
Erected by his mother. 

34. Capt. Thos. Best, 26th Regt., a victim to 
:he epidemic fever, ob. 6 Oct., 1813, a. 30. Erected 
3y his widow and family. 

35. Lieut. Henry Fitzgibbon Ellison, Royal 
Artillery, of Letterkenny, Donegal, ob. 21 Nov., 
1804, a. 22. 

36. John Butt Taylor, Surgeon 26th Regt., 
ob. of the epidemic fever, 4 Oct., 18(1)3, a. 37. 
Also his s. George Andrew, ob. 8 Oct., 1812, 
a. 10 months. 

37. Agnes, w. of Lieut. Daniel Robertson, 7th 
R.V.B., ob. 9 Dec., 1811, a. 34. She was always 
:he peacemaker | But never the lawbreaker. 

38. James Duthie, Esq., Surgeon H.M.S. 
Crocodile, ob. 10 Dec., 1812, a. 26. 

39. Margret Ann, d. of Alexr. Farquhar, 
Acting-Dep. -Paymaster-General, ob. in St. Roque, 
31 July, 1809, a. 3 yrs. 4 mths. 

40. Lieut. John Carrew [sic] Cuthbert, 54th 
Regt., ob. 7 Nov., 1804, a. 22. 

41. A recumbent tomb illegible from dirt. 

42. Lieut. Wm. King, 54th Regt., ob. 7 Nov., 
1804, a. 23. 

11 S. I. FEB. 5, 1910.] 



43. Edward, s. of Lieut. Wm. Anderson, R.B.A. 
Corps, ob. 4 Feb., 1809, a. 5. 

44. Mr. James Wilson, Master Shipwright 
H.M. Naval Yard, ob. 16 May, 1809, a. 54. 

45. George Green Adam, sen., late Clerk of. the 
Chequer, H.M. Board of Ordnance, ob. 16 Apr., 
1808, a. 47 years, 35 of which he served the 
Hon. Board. 

46. William Patrick, s. of Dep.-Asst. -Com- 
missary-General Bosseter, ob. 21 Sep., 1811, 
a. 18 months 5 days. 

47. A recumbent stone illegible from dirt. 

48. Ditto. 

49. Budolph Schultz, s. of B. E. and Harriot 
Schultz, ob. 24 Sep., 1812, in infancy. 

50. Edward Hunt Caulfield, Lieut. H.M.S. 
Impe"rieuse, who on the 21 Feb., 1808, was 
mortally wounded in the service of his country 
and king, a. 24. 

Honoured where known, endearing where allied, 
Much loved he lived, and much lamented died. 

Erected by his brother M. S. O'Callaghan Caul- 
field, Capt. 1st B.V.B. 

G. S. PARITY, Lieut. -Col. 

18, Hyde Gardens, Eastbourne. 

(To be concluded.) 

" THE HOLY ZIARET." In The Times of 
18 January we are told that the Khedive, 
robed in white, and bearing a lighted taper, 
performed the Holy Ziaret, the visitation of 
the Prophet's tomb at Medina, on Tuesday, 
evening, 11 January. Zaurat is the proper 
form, given in the dictionaries, of the tech- 
nical term in Arabic for the visit of the 
pilgrim to Muhammad's grave at Medina. 
The pilgrim to Medina is called zdir, as 
distinguished from a haft, or pilgrim to 
Mecca. The two words zaurat and zdir are 
derived from an Arabic root zdr, to incline 
toward, repair to, visit, which is cognate 
with the well-known Hebrew root zur, to 
be a stranger, visitor, whence zdrim, 
" strangers ?? (i.e. foreigners), in Psalm liv. 3. 

21, Norham Road, Oxford. 

word belongs to a small group of names 
connected with cavalry equipment calpack, 
dolman, sabre, shako, are others which 
spread from Hungarian into the tongues of 
Western Europe, but are not all native 
Hungarian words. Shabrack appears to be 
Turkish. In Redhouse's ' Turkish Lexicon,' 
p. 1106, it is given as " Shdbrdq, a horse- 
cloth." At first sight it looks as if we 
might sleep soundly in our beds, to borrow 
a phrase from current politics, and leave 
this to account for French chabraque, 
German Schabracke, &c. Unfortunately, 
beside these forms commencing with sh, 
there is another set commencing with ch ' 

(as in " church "), viz., Bohemian chabraka r 
Hungarian csabrdg, Russian chaprdk, &c. 
It is impossible to derive these from those 
with initial sh, so I am driven to regard the 
alleged Turkish shdbrdq as a loan-word from 
the French, and to search elsewhere for its 
etymon. In W anr muncTs Persian grammar, 
1898, ydprdq is given as the Turkish for 
Sattel-zeug. This seems to be what we want. 
There can be no doubt about ydpraq being a 
genuine Osmanli term. Its original mean- 
ing was " leaf, flake,' 1 but it has many 
secondary senses. The only difficulty is the 
change of initial y to ch, to which I can at the 
moment find no parallel ; but there are 
several cases known in which y changes into 
; (janizary, for instance). Once the initial 
had become ch, the simplification to sh was 
easy and natural. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

" SPENCER." In The Connoisseur for last 
July is an elaborate description of Holbein's 
portrait of the Duchess of Milan by Mr. 
Maurice W. Brockwell. In the account of 
the dress worn by the Duchess occurs the 
following passage : 

"Christina wears a black satin gown, and over 
that a long black spencer lined with yellow sable ; 
the upper part of her forehead is concealed by a 
black hood. She wears a small white frill round 
her neck, and white frills edged with black round 
her wrists." 

I wish to draw attention to the fact that 
the overdress in this picture is not a spencer, 
but just the reverse. In ' The Century 
Dictionary ' is this description of a spencer : 

" Named after Earl Spencer, 1782-1845. A man's 
outer garment or overcoat so short that the skirts 
of the body-coat worn under it were seen ; a fashion 
introduced about 1800. 2. A woman's garment 
introduced a year or two later, and made in direct 
imitation of the above. It also was short, and 
formed a kind of over -jacket, reaching a little 
below the waist." 

Any one not knowing the picture well 
might think that some alteration had been 
made in it, and that the long and almost 
flowing robe had been substituted for a 
spencer. I have known the picture for at 
least thirty years, and can confidently say 
that no such alteration has taken place. 

West Hampstead. 

A NEW READING. From a Scottish news- 
paper one learns that " a transatlantic 
anthologist " has recently undertaken to 
expound Burns. The example given of thi& 
adventurer's method of procedure is so- 
fresh and entertaining that it seems to merit- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. cu s. i. FEB. 5, 1910. 

chronicling in ' N. & Q.' It may be. re- 
membered that in ' Death and Dr. Horn 
book ' a midnight reveller, tortuously wending 
his homeward way, suddenly meets at a 
lonely corner a strange figure, who announces 
in appalling tones that his name is Death 
This prompts a valiant retort in these terms 

Quoth I, "Guid faith, 
Ye 're maybe come to stap my breath ; 

But tent me, billie 
I rede ye weel, tak' care o' skaith, 

See, there 's a gully." 

The meaning of this is, " It may be that you 
are come to stop my breath ; " but observe 
me, lad, I counsel you to beware of harm ; 
see, there 's a clasp-knife.'* The roistering 
inebriate, brimful of Dutch courage, indicates 
his readiness to act in self-defence, and to 
use for his purpose the one lethal weapon 
immediately at command. His grim inter- 
locutor meets his threat with contemptuous 
indifference, bidding him put up his "whittle," 
or knife, as its appearance has absolutely 
no weight with him : 

"Guidman," quo' he, "put up your whittle, 
I 'm no designed to try its mettle ; 

I wadna mind it, no, that spittle 

Out-owre my beard." 

It would appear that the " transatlantic 
anthologist," unravelling this passage, in- 
timates that the gully to which the spectral 
intruder is referred is not a knife at all, but a 
feature of the landscape. In his own words, 
as reported by his disciple, it represents 
" an adjacent ravine down which the Poet 
intended to hurl the Enemy of Mankind." 
As an example in the art of extravagant 
commentary this, certainly, would be hard 
to surpass. It would be interesting to hear 
from its author or his Scottish representative 
what he makes of the "whittle," and how 
he supposes " a ravine " could be disposed 
of by " the Poet n within the recesses of his 
raiment. THOMAS BAYNE. 

death of Mr. William Kenward, of Wivels- 
field, near Hayward's Heath, removes the 
oldest postmaster in the country. He was 
in his eighty-ninth year, and was postmaster 
for sixty-three years. In his early years 
he used to collect and deliver letters in a 
cart drawn by dogs. The villagers having 
letters to post were in the habit of placing 
them in their windows, and Mr. Kenward 
notified his arrival by sounding a horn. 
His wife, who is the recognized assistant at 
the post office, is in her ninety-first year. 

I do not find in the index of Smiles' s * A 
Publisher and his Friends J any reference 
to the fact that the first John Murray pub- 
lished a good many medical books. The 
fifth edition (and probably earlier ones) of 
Robert Hooper's ' Anatomist's Vade-Mecum/ 
1804, bore the imprint of John Murray, 32, 
Fleet Street. Bell & Bradfute of Edinburgh, 
and Gilbert & Hodges of Dublin, were 
associated with him on the title-page, but 
probably only as his agents. This little 
book contains a list of eight other books 
more or less relating to medical science, 
" printed for John Murray.' 1 There is also 
the following curious notice : 

"Gentlemen residing in the country or abroad, 
surgeons in the navy and army, &c., may be imme- 
diately supplied with any work relating to medical 
science, upon addressing a line to J. Murray, 
No. 32, Fleet Street, London, where students, &c., 
may receive every information respecting the 
various lectures which are delivered at different 
seasons in the metropolis." 


FLORENCE. One of the highly artistic 
bas-reliefs on the exterior of the exquisite 
Campanile by Giotto, near the Duomo at 
Florence, illustrates this subject. In the 
sunk hexagonal panel is the figure of a man 
flying, to the right. His head is like a 
camel's, with the straps across it to hold the 
bit. His body is naked, but covered with 
scales. Attached to his back are two large 
eagle wings, reaching as far as his ankles. 
At the top of the inside of each wing is a 
sort of handle, which he grasps, 'and so is 
able to flap them. Below his feet is a small 
object which looks like a parachute. It is 
curious as giving the thirteenth-century 
idea of a flying man. 

I saw a copy of it, apparently from a 
photograph, in a recent United States news- 
paper. D. J. 

" SAKE,'* ? TO KILL. So says Halliwell, 
and such seems the meaning in the sub- 
joined quotation, c. 1300-25, ' Kyng Alis- 
aunder (Weber), 1. 1884 : 

Heom to sakyn heo gon calle, 
So bocher the hog in stalle. 

Apparently this peculiar use has, with the 
quotation, escaped the notice of the readers 
for the ' N.E.D.* H. P. L. 

TEENTH CENTURY. A number of interesting 
patents granting monopolies of printing are 
*iven by Dugdale in his ' Origines Juri- 
diciales, 1 p. 59 et seq. 

11 S. I. FEB. 5, 1910.] 



As regards the Statutes, the sole right to 
print was granted on 22 April, 1547, by 
Edward VI. to Richard Grafton ; on 29 Dec., 
1554, by Queen Mary, to John Cawood 
<for the Statutes in English) ; on 27 Sept., 
1577, by Queen Elizabeth, to Christopher 
Barker for life ; and on 19 July, 1603, by 
James I. to Robert Barker for life. 

As regards common law books, Edward VI. 
granted a special licence on 12 April, 1553, 
to Richard Tottel, citizen, stationer, and 
printer of London, for seven years, and this 
was renewed by Mary for another seven 
years on 1 May, 1556, and by Elizabeth, for 
life, on 12 Jan., 1558/9. The monopoly 
of printing the common law books passed, 
on 18 Nov., 1577, to Nicasius Tetsweirt, for 
thirty years, renewed on 20 March, 1593/4, 
for a similar period, to Charles Tetsweirt ; 
whilst on 10 March, 1598/9,, Thomas Wright 
and Bonham Norton obtained a licence to 
print all law books for a period of thirty 
years. R. S. B. 

MUNICIPAL, SWORDS. (See 10 S. v. 90, 
151.) At the latter reference we are told of 
s, sword being presented to the city of 
Exeter by Edward IV., and another by 
Richard II. to the city of Chester. I sub- 
join a paragraph from The Daily Mirror of 
Saturday, 27 Nov., 1909, showing that the 
Corporation of King's Lynn possess one 
presented by King John : 

"King John's Sword. Using the sword which is 
said to have been presented by King John to the 
-Corporation of King's Lynn, King Edward yester- 
day, at Castle Rising, invested Sir William Ffolkes 
and Sir Somerville Gurney, both of whom played 
a prominent part in the recent Art Loan Exhibition 
at King's Lynn, with the insignia of Knight Com- 
mander of the Victorian Order conferred upon 
them on his Majesty's birthday." 


" INCIDIS IN SCYLLAM," &c. (See 1 S. ii. 
85, 136, 141 ; x. 274 ; 5 S. vi. 468 ; vii. 
77, 478 ; viii. 14.) This familiar line comes 
from the ' Alexandreid ' of Philip Gualtier. 
In the Rouen ed. of 1487 the first word is 
'Corruis, not Incidis : a variation noted by 
Mr. King in his ' Diet, of Classical Quot.,' 
1904. The printer's signature is i.iii, and 
the line is 

Corruis in syllam cupiens vitare caribdim. 
But in the Ingolstadt ed. of 1541, p. Iv 
<Greville Library, Brit. Mus.), it is 

Incidis in Scyllam cupiens uitare Chary bdin. 
ItTis related that Dr. Maltby, Bishop of 
Lincoln, pointed out the authorship to 
Charles Stunner (Yale Lit. Mag., 1860, xxv. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

to know whether Landor, who in his ' Ima- 
ginary Conversations l makes Chaucer and 
Boccaccio meet and speak together, had 
any authority for so doing, or whether at 
his time it was a matter of general belief 
that the two actually met. 

Via Faenza, 87 H, Casa Forti, Firenze. 

of ' Geometrical Amusements ; or, A Course 
of Lessons in Construction and Analysis, 
in Three Parts, 1 by J. H. Swale, was pub- 
lished in London in 1821. Were Parts II. 
and III. ever published ? What is known 
concerning Swale apart from the facts that 
he was a frequent contributor to mathe- 
matical periodicals and himself published 
(1823-4) two numbers of The Liverpool 
Apollonius ; or, The Geometrical and Philo- 
sophical Repository ? R. C. ARCHIBALD. 

Rue Soufflot, 3, Paris. 

any of your readers furnish information as 
to the " English merchant Solly " whose 
collection of pictures, purchased by Frederick 
William III. at Berlin in 1821, formed, with 
the Giustiniani Gallery, the nucleus of the 
Royal Picture Gallery in Berlin ? He must 
have been a wealthy as well as an enter- 
prising and judicious collector, since his 
pictures numbered 3,000, of which 677 
were assigned for exhibition in the Royal 
Gallery ; and the collection was especially 
rich in primitives and early pictures of 
German and Italian schools. 

I can find no notice or mention of Solly in 
any dictionary of art or biography. Is he 
perhaps connected with the distinguished 
surgeon Samuel Solly (1805-1871), himself 
a considerable artist, whose father, Isaac 
Solly, was a Baltic merchant ? See ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog.* under Saml. Solly. Any informa- 
tion about the collector would be interesting. 

W. H. CLAY. 
Reform Club. 

FORD'S last note (ante, p. 47) reminds me 
that Compton Wynyates was in danger of 
being pulled down after 1768, as the result 
of the extravagance of the Lord _ North- 



[11 S. I. FEB. 5, 1910. 

ampton of the day in " treating " voters 
in rivalry with Lord Spencer and Lord j 
Halifax. I fancy that 120,0002. was spoken 
of in this connexion as spent by one of the 
peers. Is this the largest sum recorded as 
spent on a Parliamentary election ? Un- 
fortunately, I have mislaid the book on 
'Compton Wynyates* by the Marquis of 
Northampton, published at the end of 1904. 


TO PARLIAMENT. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' tell me whether the Rev. Silvester 
Home, a Congregational minister lately 
elected M.P. for Ipswich, is the first Non- 
conformist Minister to sit in Parliament ? 

" HEM OF A NOISE." In an article in 
The Times of 12 January, entitled ' The 
Forthcoming Election : a Forecast,' the 
following story is told : 

" There is, of course, a class of voter who takes 
his politics very lightly, a class represented by the 
Sussex cynic, who gave his views thus : 

*' ' Politics are about like this : I 've got a sow in 
my yard with twelve little 'uns, and they little 'uns 
can't all feed at once, because there isn't room 
enough. So I shut six on 'em out of the yard while 
t' other six be sucking, and the six as be shut out 
they just do make a hem of a noise till they be let 
in, and then they be just as quiet as the rest.' " 

In ' E.D.D.' (a.v. hem) it may be seen that 
these words of the Sussex cynic are to be 
found in Egerton's * Folks and Ways ? 
(1884), p. 3, and that the expression " a hem 
of a noise,' 2 " a hem of a hurry," &c., belongs 
to the dialect of Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. 
How may " hem '* be explained ? 



Towards the end of 1908 and in the early 
part of 1909 a number of leaden cisterns 
(ten, I think) were placed in Kensington 
Gardens, in front of the Orangery, and in the 
pool in the new Dutch garden below. I 
made some hasty notes of the marks upon 
some of them : 

C [crown] R 1666 



1744 T.L. (two). 

1760, with heraldic devices (a griffin's head; a 
swan's head and neck, and wings displayed ; an 
em bo wed fish). 

I.B. 1785. 

The marks upon the three in the pool could 
be read easily through a glass. Will some- 
body give us a history and description of 
them all ? W, C. B. 

FAMILY. Some few years back there was 
an old Jacobean house called Rokeby House 
at West Ham in Essex. Can any of your 
readers inform me if this house was built 
by a member of the Rokeby family, or if the 
Rokeby family was ever associated with it ? 

In one of the principal rooms was a large 
oak overmantel on which were engraved the 
arms of Wm. Clowes, who died in 1639, and 
who was Sergeant- Surgeon to Charles I. This 
would suggest that Win. Clowes owned the 
house at that early date a few years after 
it was built. H. F. CLOWES. 

Royal College of Physicians. 

ROCHECHOUART. Can any correspondent 
versed in French pedigrees kindly state if 
the family of the above name descend from 
Emeric, or Guy, de Rupe Cavardi (wrongly 
spelt Canardi in the index to Collinson's 
' Somerset ') or de Rochechiward whose 
intermarriages with two ladies of the house 
of Vivon took place between 1250 and 1300 ? 
Emeric' s parentage and his relationship to 
Guy are also desired. H. 

' Life of the Rev. W. J. E. Bennett ' I find the 
name of Dusautoy. Can any one tell me 
if the name Ducetoy (which I have seen some- 
where) is a corruption of Dusautoy ? 

Can any one tell me if any of the Deedes 
family (of Kent) married into a family called 
Castleden ? Further, can any one supply me 
with a name which sounded like " Gift," and 
which I once heard mentioned in connexion 
with the Castledens ? GENEALOGIST. 

PORTRAITS BY FLICK. Can any corre- 
spondent inform me of the present where- 
abouts of the following portraits signed by 
G. Flick or Fliccus ? 

1. Full-length portrait, dated 1551, of 
Thomas, 1st Lord Darcy of Chiche. This 
picture is mentioned in Lord Lumley's 
inventory of 1590 ; also in Neale's ' Seats of 
Noblemen and Gentlemen,' at which time 
(1819) it was at Irhham Hall, Lincolnshire. 
It is known to have been still at Irnham in 
1848, but after the sale of that property in 
1854, by Mr. Charles Clifford, all trace of the 
picture is lost. 

2. A double portrait, half-length, small, of 
G. Fliccus, the painter, and his friend 
" Strangwise." In 1881 this picture be- 
longed to Mr. Robert des Ruffieres, of 68, 
Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. ; but since 
then it cannot be traced. 

22, Morpeth Mansions, S-W. 

ii s. i. FEB. 5, i9io.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


am desirous of ascertaining the authorship 
of two sonnets on ' Marriage in Heaven,* 
commencing respectively thus : 

1. They who the resurrection shall attain, 

With angels equal, purged of fleshly leaven, 
They marry not, nor are in marriage given. 

2. " Eye hath not seen, ear heard, or heart conceived 

What God has there prepared " : of saints 

We know but that they weep not, that they 


Also of the following lines, quoted by the 
late Dean Farrar in his ' Great Books,' New 
York, 1898, p. 203 : 

3. Oh for a deeper insight into Heaven ! 
More knowledge of the glory and the joy 
Which there unto the happy souls is given. 

And of these : 

4. Before her face her handkerchief she spread 
To hide the flood of tears she aid not shed. 


Though absence part us for a while, 

And distance roll between, 
Remember, whosoe'er revile, 

I am what I have been. 


brated autobiographical letter to Dr. Moore, 
2 Aug., 1787, Burns, speaking^of his distress 
the year before, says that as soon as he 
could get the money he took a steerage 
passage for Jamaica, for 

Hungry Ruin had ms in the wind. 
As is well known, Carlyle quotes this line 
in his ' Essay.' Who was its author ? I 
have looked in the concordances to Milton, 
Pope, and Gray, and have searched through 
Young's ' Seasons.' 


Ithaca, N.Y. 

Scott's ' Waverley,' chap. xliv. (p. 334 of the 
Clarendon Press edition), there is an allusion 
to " the proud gathering word of Clanronald, 
Oanion Coheriga (Gainsay who dares).' 1 This 
is no doubt meant for Gaelic, but must be 
more than usually corrupt. It is not cor- 
rected in the Notes. Can any Scotsman 
tell me the Gaelic orthography ? I fancy I 
have seen the motto of MacDonald of Clan- 
ronald given elsewhere as " Dh'aindheoin 
ce theireadh e," but cannot find it in any of 
my works of reference, and it is so long since 
I took lessons in Gaelic that I dare not feel 
sure of the grammatical correctness of my 
version. JAS. PLATT, JUN. 

have never been able to satisfy myself as to 
the exact meaning of the adjective " un- 
rejoicing n in Wordsworth's splendid poem 
' Yew Trees z : 

boughs, as if for festal purpose decked 
With unrejoicing berries. 

Was he thinking of the poison that lurks in 
their seeds, or of their comparative insignifi- 
cance, or of the sad associations of the tree 
on which they grow ? I. M. L. 

in The New-Church Review (Boston, U.S.A.) 
for January of this year an article entitled 
' Swedenborg in English Literature : III. 
Thomas De Quincey,' Miss Emily Robbins 
Sugden cites therein from De Quincey 's 
' The Female Infidel,' 1853, as follows : 

" To say that of Mr. Clowes was until lately but 
another way of describing him as a delirious dreamer. 
At present 1 presume the reader to be aware that 
Cambridge has, within the last few years, unsettled 
and even revolutionized our estimate of Swedenborg 
as a philosopher." 

De Quincey's presumption being without 
foundation in my case, I shall be glad if 
some one will kindly explain to me the 
meaning of the latter sentence quoted. 


169, Grove Lane, Camberwell. 

1839, Henry Leslie Armstrong, a comedian, 
married at Preston Registry Office Maria 
Louisa Fawcett, an actress, daughter of 
William Fawcett, a tobacco and snuff manu- 
facturer. Further information desired about 
them and their children, if any. 



should be obliged if some of your corre- 
spondents could supply a pedigree of this 
family (which was, I believe, of some 
account in the Isle of Man, and produced 
one Deemster, if not more), or refer me to 
any published work in which a pedigree may 
be found. SIGMA TAU. 

ABBOTT FAMILY. Inquiries on this sub- 
ject have often appeared in ' N. & Q.' in the 
past (see 4 Feb., 11 March, 13 May, 28 Oct., 
1854 ; 22 Nov., 1856 ; 7 May, 1870 ; 7 July, 
1888 ; 27 Oct., 1906), and they have elicited 
valuable information. I should be glad if 
readers would volunteer to throw further 
light on the subject by communicating to me 
any details in their possession regarding the 
genealogy of any of the Abbotts bearing 
versions of the same coat of arms (Gules, a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 5, 1910. 

chevron between three pears or ; crest, out of 
a ducal coronet a unicorn's head between 
two ostrich feathers), and more particularly 
of the branch of the family now partly 
settled in the Levant whose arms are Erm., 
on a pale gules three pears or ; crest, a 
demi-unicorn armed and maned. 

Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, S.W. 

SPHINX WANTED. Can any reader tell me 
where can be bought a Sphinx, either in 
metal or plaster, something like the 
Embankment Sphinx, small size ? Please 
reply direct. (Mile.) A. THIRION. 

35, Paulton's Square, Chelsea, S. W. 

JOHN HUNTER'S CLUB is referred to in 
J. F. Palmer's volume. Was it a literary 
or a social club ? E. O. 

SEA SONGS. When, at the end of " the 
fifties, 1 ' I was cruising about the Mediter- 
ranean on one of the biggest of the old two- 
deckers, I was given the run of her gunroom 
mess. There we had a good deal of miscel- 
laneous singing at times, and scraps of the 
words and jingles of the tunes which I 
heard then still run in my head every now 
and again. There are three amongst these 
nearly forgotten songs which recur at inter- 
vals to worry me ; of these I am especially 
anxious to recover the words, and I shall be 
grateful to any of your readers who can 
furnish them. 

The first had as its refrain : 
" Pick it up, pick it up," said the lady in the boat, 
" For I 'd rather have a guinea than a one-pound 

Though a guinea it would sink and a pound it 

would float, 
Yet I'd rather have a guinea than a one-pound 


The second had these two lines (its open- 
ing lines, I fancy) : 

There's the captain, what is our commander ; 
There 's the bcrsun, and likewise the crew 

The third song recounted a conversation 
between an old white-haired, but still festive 
Irish lady and a youthful lover who demanded 
an explanation of certain facts which he 
was unable to reconcile. Of this I only recal] 
a stanza which commenced with this couplet : 
"Alas!" she exclaimed, "from each day to its 

The hairs of my head have known nothing but 


As my recollection is that the humours of 
these old-time sailors' songs, which com- 
mended themselves to the midshipmen 
then afloat, were of rather too broad and 
outspoken a character for reproduction in the 

pages of ' N. & Q.,' I would ask any one who 
is kind enough to supply copies of the words 
to send them to me direct. 

24, Netherton Grove, Chelsea, S.W. 


(11 S. i. 67.) 
DEAN STANLEY in his ' Historical Memorials 
of Westminster Abbey,' 3rd ed., 1869, pp. 
299-300, says : 

' According to local tradition, he asked the 
King [Charles I.] to grant him a favour. ' What 
s it ? ' said the King. ' Give me eighteen 
nches of square ground.' ' Where ? ' asked the 
King. ' In Westminster Abbey.' This is one 
explanation given of the story that he was buried 
standing upright. Another is that it was with 
a view to his readiness for the Resurrection. 
He lies buried in the north aisle [of the Nave], 
in the path of square stone [the rest is lozenge], 
opposite to the scutcheon of Robertas de Bos, 
with this inscription only on him, in a pavement- 
square of blue marble, about fourteen inches 

O rare Ben Johnson !* 
which was done at the charge of Jack Young 
(afterwards knighted), who, walking there when 
the grave was covering, gave the fellow eighteen- 
pence to cut it.'t 

" This stone was taken up when, in 1821, the 
Nave was repaved, and was brought back from the 
stoneyard of the clerk of the works, in the time 
of Dean Buckland, by whose order it was fitted 
into its present place in the north wall of the 
Nave. Meanwhile, the original spot had been 
marked by a small triangular lozenge, with a copy 
of the old inscription. 

" When, in 1849, Sir Bobert Wilson was buried 
close by, the loose sand of Jonson's grave (to use 
the expression of the clerk of the works who 
superintended the operation) ' rippled in like a 
quicksand,' and the clerk ' saw the two leg-bones 
of Jonson, fixed bolt upright in the sand, as though 
the body had been buried in the upright position ; 
and the skull came rolling down among the 
sand, from a position above the leg-bones, to the 
bottom of the newly-made grave. There was 
still hair upon it, and it was of a red colour.' It 
was seen once more on the digging of John 
Hunter's grave ; and ' it had still traces of red 
hair upon it.' "J 

" * He is called Johnson on the gravestone, 
as also in Clarendon's ' Life ' (i. 34), where see his 

" f Aubrey's ' Lives,' 414. His burial is not 
in the Begister. 

" J For full details, see Mr. Frank Buckland's 
interesting narrative in ' Curiosities of Natural 
History ' (3rd series), ii. 181-189. It would 
seem that, in spite of some misadventures, the 
skull still remains in the grave." 

11 S. I. FEB. o, 1910.] 



Dean Stanley mentions (p. 300) " the 
present medallion in Poets' Corner,' 1 saying 
that it 

" was set up in the middle of the last [i.e., eigh- 
teenth] century by ' a person of quality, whose 
name was desired to be concealed.' By a mistake 
of the sculptor, the buttons were set on the left 
side of the coat. Hence this epigram 

O rare Ben Jonson what a turncoat grown ! 

Thou ne'er wast such, till clad in stone : 

Then let not this disturb thy sprite, 

Another age shall set thy buttons right." 

A foot-note gives the reference, Seymour's 
' Stow,' ii. 512, 513. 

"A Historical Description of West- 
minster Abbey ; its Monuments and Curiosi- 
ties. Printed for the Vergers in the Abbey, " 
1862, p. 98, names Rysbrack as the sculptor 
of the monument in Poets' Corner. 

Pp. 634-5 of Dean Stanley's book give a 
description (communicated* by Mr. Poole) 
with an engraved example of what, in one of 
the entries of the burials in the Clerk of the 
Works' Register, was called the " Middle 
Tread," viz., " a central course of stone. . . . 
having squares placed diamond-wise on 
either side of it, and a course of square 
stones against each wall.' 2 

The "path of square stone' 2 mentioned 
above was one of these " middle treads." 
The original stone appears to have been 
one of the Middle Tread stones. It 
" is exactly seventeen inches wide, and has no 
doubt been seventeen inches high, being the 
normal size of all the squares of ' Middle 
Treads,' and also the length of the diagonal of a 
twelve-inch square, which latter is the normal 
size of all the lozenges. It has been reduced 
for some reason to fourteen inches high, and is of 
Purbeck marble, which, when polished and un- 
decayed, is of a blue colour." 

It appears that the " eighteen inches of 
square ground in the Abbey " asked for by 
Ben Jonson meant the space covered by one 
of these square Middle Tread stones. The 
eighteenpence paid by Jack Young was for 
cutting the inscription on the existing stone. 

On Sir William Davenant's grave in 
Poets' Corner "was repeated the inscrip- 
tion of Ben Jonson, ' O rare Sir William 
Davenant ' " (Dean Stanley, p. 301). 


There are three monumental memorials 
in Westminster Abbey to Ben Jonson. 

1. In the south transept, at the south end, 
known as Poets' Corner, in the easternmost 
arcade, just above a doorway leading to 
stairs, is Jonson's well-known monument, 
by Rysbrack, after Gibbs, erected in 1737 
(Hare, ' Westminster, 1 1905, p. 12). Bradley 
says before 1728. It consists of a tablet 

bearing a life-size bust in alto-relievo, in 
ordinary dress, under a pediment, which 
supports. a black (? bronze) classical lamp. 
In the centre of the pediment is a cidaris 
(wreath with ribbons), and from its two 
ends depend two short flower-strings. Under 
the bust is " O Rare Ben Johnson " in 
capitals. Beneath this are three masks 
between two ribbon-knots. The sculptured 
portion is of white marble, resting on a 
greyish marble slab. Hare calls it an 
' ' allegorical monument " ; but I have no 
idea why. 

Newman, however, says that " Ben 
Johnson " has a monument " ornamented 
with emblematical figures, alluding, perhaps, 
to the malice and envy of his cotemporaries." 
This agrees with Hare, but I never saw any- 
thing more on the tablet than what I have 
described. Perhaps part has been removed 
(' Description of Westminster Abbey,' 1827, 
pp. 85, 107). 

2. In the fourth bay from the west window, 
in the north aisle of the nave, under the 
ramp below the fourth window, is a small, 
yellowish, old-looking stone, about 14 by 
6 inches, standing upright on its edge, upon 
which are rather rudely cut, in large capitals, 
the words : 

O Rare 
Ben Johnson. 

It appears that this stone was formerly in the 
pavement, over the spot where the body 
stood ; but the authorities, fearing the 
inscription would be worn away, had it 
removed in 1821 to its present position. 

3. In the pavement of this aisle nearly in 
a line with the above stone, but a little 
east is a small square stone, of a bluish tint, 
set diamond-wise, evidently quite modern, 
on which is cut, in plain capitals, 

O Rare 
Ben Johnson. 

This was placed where No. 2 had formerly 
been, at the time of the removal in 1821. 

In the large official plan of the nave, close 
to the choir, the position of this stone (No. 3) 
is marked by the name " Jonson " ; but 
No. 2 is not indicated. No. 1 would be 
included in the transept plan. Nos. 2 
and 3 I was unable to find in Hare, or New- 
man, or Barnett ( ' Walk through West- 
minster Abbey, l 1908), or in two other Abbey 
guide-books I have used. 

Ben Jonson's epitaph is said to have been 
written by Davenant, though one account 
ascribes it to Sir J. Young (Bradley, ' West- 
minster Abbey Guide,'- 1909, p. 27). Bradley 
mentions Nos. 1, 2, and 3, as does also Cole 
(' Handbook to Westminster Abbey,' 1882). 



[11 S. I. FEB. 5, 1910. 

It is singular that the two Poets Laureate 
of James I. should have exactly the same 
epitaph. Davenant followed Jonson as 
Poet Laureate, and by his direction his stone 
(near that of Old Parr) bears only the words 
"O Rare Sir William Davenant'*; so 
there are four inscriptions in the Abbey 
bearing the words " O Rare,'* three of which 
are to Jonson. D. J. 

Ben Jonson died 6 Aug., 1637, in one of 
the little houses which used to cover St. 
Margaret's Churchyard, and, as a dweller 
in the precincts, was buried in the Abbey. 
His grave is in the third bay of the north 
aisle of the nave ; and a mural monument 
with a bas-relief portrait bust was put up 
(close to Spenser's tablet) above the low 
doorway in the south wall of the south 
transept (Poets' Corner), in 1728, by a post- 
humous admirer, Edward Harley, second 
Earl of Oxford. 

The poet's surname is traditionally spelt 
Jonson ; but Clarendon employs the more 
usual form Johnson, which also appears on 
his gravestone. A. R. BAYLEY. 

A story about Jonson's grave is told by 
Mr. Watson in his history of ' The Savage 
Club, 1 which is, I think, interesting enough 
to be retold in these columns. It is as 
follows : 

" One not knowing the history of the poet's 
burial wonders how he, so large a man, came to 
have so small a gravestone. The fact is that the 
stone rests just above the crown of his head, for the 
author of ' Every Man in his Humour ' was buried 
standing upright. That the head shoxild now 
be under che pavement at Westminster is owing 
mainly, and I may say entirely, to Draper's 
reverence for the poet's memory. It came to his 
ears in Dean Buckland's time that the grave had 
been opened with a view of putting to a test the 
tradition as to the strange manner of Johnson's 
burial. Was it actually true that he was buried 
standing on his feet ? The story was verified 
in every particular ; but some of the resurrec- 
tionists were also relic -hunters, and one of them 
carried off Jonson's thigh-bone, and another his 
skull, which had still some of the poet's cha- 
racteristic red hair adhering to it. Draper was 
then the contributor of a weekly article to The 
Illustrated London News, and hearing that a dis- 
tinguished man of science and popular writer 
had the skull in his possession, and meant to 
keep it, he intimated pretty plainly to this gentle- 
man that if the illustrious relic was not returned 
to its proper resting-place, he would make a 
public exposure of the whole of the facts. It 
happened, in consequence, that Ben Jonson's 
grave was again opened, and that the renowned 
skiill, with its red hair, was once more placed under 
the little diamond-shaped stone." 

The Mr. Edward Draper referred to was 
a very old member of the Savage Club, 

and I had the pleasure of his acquaintance 
myself in the 'sixties and seventies of the last 
century. ALAN STEWART. 

See also 7 S. iv. 129, 235, 434 ; 8 S. xi. 
368, 452 ; xii. 71. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

also thanked for replies.] 

NAME (10 S. xii. 365 ; 11 S. i. 35, 79). It is 
difficult to believe that a practice fraught 
with such obvious confusion and incon- 
veniences could have been utilized to any 
great extent, and I think it not improbable 
that many of the cases cited would collapse 
if they could be closely investigated. 

MR. McMuRRAY (ante, p. 35) quotes evi- 
dence of three successive Samuels, of the 
same parents, being respectively baptized in 
1684, 1688, and 1689, which, however, proves 
nothing. For instance, a Dr. Dove (who 
appears to have come from the county of 
Durham, and who married the " pretty 
Miss Martin of Gotham n of Anna Seward's 
letters) settled in Nottingham, and St. Mary's 
baptismal register shows that three successive 
George Doves were born to him in 1775, 
1776, and 1777. Any wonder aroused by 
this circumstance is promptly dissipated 
on reference to the corresponding burial 
register, which proves that the first two 
died each before the appearance of his 
successor. Consequently, for MR. MC- 
MURRAY' s case to carry any weight, it is 
essential that he should ascertain what the 
records of mortality have to say (if anything) 
as to the duration of life of the first two 

COL. PARRY says (ante, p. 35) that John 
appears to be the name most generally 
duplicated in the same family ; but if this 
statement is based on parish-register entries 
I have a suspicion that the old-time clerks 
sometimes used the same spelling indiffer- 
ently for John and Joan. The two following 
quaint entries I recently extracted from 
St. Mary's burial register, Nottingham : 

9 Aug., 1568 : " Jhon and Johan, both the 
infant twyn lyngs of Henry e Pett." 

20 Nov., 1585 : " John & John, the ii twyns of 
Wyllyam Dearneley." 

Unfortunately, I have not the evidence 
of the baptismal register with respect to 
these two cases, so that they are not sub- 
mitted as definite evidence, one way or the 
other, as proof of sex is lacking. 


39, Burford Road, Nottingham. 

n s. i. FEB. 5, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Two instances of this one in a case 
where the first and second children respec- 
tively were dead, and another in a case 
where the first child was still alive are 

Three sons of Foulke Myddelton of 
Gwaynynog were named simply Richard : 
the first was baptized and buried at Wrex- 
ham in 1641, the second was baptized and 
buried at Wrexham in 1642, and the third 
was born after 1642. 

The Sir Thomas Myddelton who was 
besieged by Lambert in his own castle of 
Chirk had two sons named simply Thomas : 
one, who succeeded to the baronetcy, by 
his first wife Mary (nee Cholmondeley of 
Vale Royal), and another (posthumous) by 
his second wife Jane (nee Trevor of Bryn- 
kinalt), the elder son being then alive. 


Woodhall Spa. 

This custom was not uncommon, to the 
bewilderment of genealogists. Sir Mores 
Barowe of Ivechurche, Wilts, in his will 
proved 1505 (9 Maynwaryng), makes bequests 
to his son " Richard Barowe the elder Ji and 
to his son " Richard Barowe the younger.' 1 


The Rev. John Sylvester John Gardiner, 
Rector of Trinity Church, Boston, U.S., 
and one of the founders of the Boston 
Athenamm, died in 1830. His first and third 
Christian names were the same, and I believe 
that he was named after his father, grand- 
father, and great-grandfather, who had been 
distinguished men. Any dictionary of Ame- 
rican biography, a good history of Boston, 
or Sprague's ' History of the American 
Church ' will give an account of him. 

It must be very rare for a child to have a 
duplicated Christian name. M. N. G. 

[That an early practice existed of giving the same 
Christum name to a second child, while the first 
w.-is still alive, is shown by the elaborate 
indexes appended by Dr. B. B. Sharpe to his 
' Calendar of Wills proved and enrolled in the 
( ' >urt of Husting, London.' For instance, Walter 
de Bedefonte in 1329 left bequests to John his 
Hdrst son and John his younger son (vol. i. 
p. :i52). In 1341 Geoffrey de Bodelee left pro- 
perty to his children John and John junior 
(i. 148). Bobert de Asshe in 1348 left houses to 
\\ illiam his elder son, with remainder to William 
his younger son (i. 509). Other examples could 
l cited from the same volumes, and also from 
II if various Calendars of Letter-Books edited by 
Dr. Sharpe for the City Corporation.] 

WIDOW TWANKAY (11 S. i. 68). H. J. 
Byron endowed Aladdin's mother with this 
patronymic in his famous burlesque 'Aladdin; 
or, The Wonderful Scamp,' produced at the 

Strand Theatre on Easter Monday, 1861 ; 
and unless any of your theatrical readers 
can trace it further back, I am inclined to 
think this was the genesis of the name. 
The widow did not figure in the cast of 
Reece's burlesque of ' Aladdin,' in which 
Nelly Farren enacted the name-part so 
successfully at the Gaiety in 1881. 


xii. 509; 11 S. i. 38). Shakerley Marmion 
(1602-39) in his play of 'The Antiquary* 

Great joys, like griefs, are silent. 
As inquiry for the line 

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first, 
failed when made in your columns many 
years since, the reference I give may possibly 
assist as supporting a conjecture that it 
has been adapted and amplified by some 
one hitherto undiscovered. W. B. H. 

The following information may be of 
service to MB. DE VILLIEBS (ante, p. 50). 

1. Felix quern faciunt aliena pericula cautum. 

Binder, ' Novus Thesaurus Adagiorum 
Latinorum/ p. 122, suggests that this is a 
modern imitation of Plautus, ' Mercator,' 
IV. iv. (should be vii.), 40, " Vetus id dictum 
est, feliciter is sapit, qui alieno periculo 
sapit." The scene in question, however, is 
not by Plautus, but an interpolation. A. 
Otto, ' Sprichworter,' s.v. alienus, cites many 
examples of the same thought in Greek, 
Latin, and German, among them being 

Felix quicuraque dolore 
Alterius disces posse cavere tuo. 

Tibullus, III. vi. 43. 
He also quotes 

Felix, alterius cui sunt documenta flagella, 
from Columbanus, 79. John Owen parodies 
our line in " Felix, quern faciunt aliorum 
cornua cautum, '* ' Epigr.' i. 147. 
2. Felix et prudens qui tempore pacis de bello 


See Burton, * Anatomy of Melancholy,* 
Partition 2, sect. 3, memb. 6, p. 284, 2nd ed. 
" The Commonwealth of Venice in their 
Armory haue this inscription, Happy is 
that Citty which in time of peace thinkes of 
warre.' 1 The margin gives the Latin, "Fcelix 
civitas quae tempore pacis de bello cogitat," 
from Nathan Chvtrseus, ' Delicise Europse.' 
In Chytrseus's book (ed. 3, s.L, 1606), p. 91, 
the inscription has cogitas, not cogitat. 

4. Tela prsevisa minus nocent. 
Another form of this proverb is in Pseudo- 
Cato's ' Disticha,' II. xxiv. 2, " Nam 
levius laedit, quidquid praevidimus ante.'* 



[11 S. I. FEB. 5, 1910. 

On p. 190 of Arntzen's variorum edition of 
the * Disticha ' (Amst., 1754) is a note by 
Daumius ( = Christian Daum), who refers 
to John of Salisbury's ' Epistulse,' I. xii. 
p. 203, " Jacula minus laedunt, quse prse 
videntur. n Burton, ' Anat.,' 2, 3, 5, quotes, 
*' Prsevisum est levius quod fuit ante malum u 
(first added in the fifth edition, 1638). 
A. R. Shilleto compares Seneca, ' Consolatio 
ad Marciam,* ix. 2, " Quse multo ante 
praevisa sunt, languidius incurrunt. u 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

1. This is given by Erasmus in the 
' Adagia ' as a proverbial saying (ed. 1670, 
p. 636) in the chapter on " Sera pcenitentia,"' 
s.v. " Optimum aliena insania frui."' The 
latter saying is quoted by Pliny in his 
' Natural History, l xviii. 6 (or 5), as a 
common proverb used by Cato. 

Erasmus also refers to 

Feliciter is sapit, qui periculo alieno sapit 
as from Plautus. The reference is ' Mer- 
cator,' IV. vii. 40 in some editions ; in others 
the scene is ix. ; in others it is the second 
" Supposita "' following sc. v. The writer 
gives the saying as an old one. 

Erasmus also gives 

Ex vitio alterius sapiens emendat suum. 
See the ' Sententise J of Publius Syrus and 
others. He also gives as the probable origin 
1. 79 of the ' Ajax l of Sophocles, which (the 
mistakes or misprints corrected) is 

OVKOVV ye\w? ^Sto-ro? ets x@pov<s ytXoiv ; 

The connexion does not appear to be 

In Whitney's ' A Choice of Emblemes,* 
1586, a facsimile reprint, edited by Henry 
Green (London, Chester, Nantwich, 1866), 
p. 154, I find 

Aliena pericula, cautiones nostrse. 
The English verses which follow tell how the 
lion, the ass, and the fox having hunted 
down their quarry, the ass was commanded 
by the lion to divide the prey. The ass 
divided it into three equal parts. The lion 
in a rage tore him into pieces. The fox 
commanded by the lion to arrange the 
division, put all the best upon one heap, 
and kept only a little of the worst for himself. 

Then beinge ask'd, what taughte*him so vnequally 

to came ? 
This spectacle (quoth hee) which I behoulde with 

care : 
Which showes, those happie that can bee by others 

harmes beware. 

Owen Felltham has another version of 
the proverb in his ' Resolves Divine, Moral, 

Political ' (llth ed., >696, p. 217), Century II. 
chap. 42 : 

He throws his Interest into a Gulph, that trusts 
it in such hands as have been formerly the Ship- 
wrack of others. 

Infelix, quern non aliena pericula cautum. 

Unhappy he whom the dangers of other men 
don't cause to be wary. 

No reference is given, though on the title- 
page it is stated that " in this Eleventh 
Edition, References are made to the Poetical 
Citations, heretofore much wanted." It 
appears from this that Felltham regarded 
the line as a common proverb. 

2. The following appears in the ' Adagia ' 
(" Erasmi et aliorum "), p. 609, as from 
' Joannis Ulpii Adagiorum Epitome * : 
Tempore pacis cogitandum de bello. 
'Ei/ elprjvy /xeAcrcov TO, 7roA.e/u/x. 

Admonet proverbium, in tempore de necessariis 
prospiciendum esse. 

" Qui desiderat pacem, prseparet bellum," 
is quoted from Vegetius, ' De Re Militari,' 
3 Prolog., at 9 S. i. 198, s.v. " Si vis pacem, 
para bellum." 

Alciatus in his ' Emblemata ' quotes 
Vegetius as follows : 

" Qui desiderat pacem prseparat [sic] bellum r^qui 
victoriam cupit, milites imbuat diligenter." - 
Emblema 177, ' Ex bello pax,' last paragraph, ed. 
1608, p. 797. 


The fourth quotation sought by MR. 
CAPPEL (ante, p. 68), 

While the eagle of Thought rides the tempest in 

Who cares if the lightning is burning the corn? 

is from Elizabeth Barrett Browning's 
' Rhapsody of Life's Progress.* 


MR. CAPPEL' s fifth inquiry, 

If the sea-horse on the ocean, &c. 
is incorrectly quoted from Wordsworth's 
* Song for the Wandering Jew. 1 The verse 
runs : 

And the sea-horse, though the ocean 

Yield him no domestic cave, 
Slumbers without sense of motion, 
Couched upon the rocking wave. 


7. The Greek iambics quoted by MR. 
APPEL are in Stobseus's ' Florilegium, 1 69, 2, 
where they are given as Susarion's (6th 
cent. B.C.), but the attribution seems doubt- 
ful. See Bentley's ' Dissertation upon the 
Epistles of Phalaris,' p. 202 (1699), and 

11 S. I. FEB. 5, 1910.] 



Meineke's ' Frag. Com. Graec.,' vol. i 
Mr. F. St. John Thackeray includes then: 
with a note, in his ' Anthologia Graeca.' 

The first two lines are quoted as Susarion' 
by Diomedes Scholasticus, and are to b 
found elsewhere. Suidas gives them ir 
two places (col. 2756 and col. 3596, Gaisford 
*is a proverb. EDWAKD BENSLY. 

No. 7 is attributed to Susarion (fl. 580-6< 
B.C.), and is said to be the oldest extan 
fragment of Greek comedy. Meineke, ' Com 
Vet. Fragm.'- (Didot, 1894), gives 

Aew' Sowapiwi/ Aeyei raSe, 

KO.KOV yvvaiKcs' dAA.' o/xcos, to 


[KCU yap TO yvjfiaL /ecu TO /XT) yijfjiai KCIKOI/]. 

From Tzetzes apud Cramerum, " Anecd 
Oxon.,' J vol. iii. p. 336. Susarion's wife 
having left him, he came into the theatre 
and delivered the above manifesto. The 
last line is not given by Tzetzes, but founc 
in Stobaeus, ' Flor.' 69, 2. Meineke did no 1 - 
think that it properly belongs here. 

H. K. ST. J. S. 

The "well-known popular song" sought 
by J. R. C. H. (ante, p. 68) is ' Billy Taylor, 
and is in "The Universal Songster; or, 
Museum of Mirth. With Woodcuts by 
George and Robert Cruikshank " (1825). 
This song is illustrated by George. The 
last two verses are as follows : 

Forthwith she call'd for sword and pistol, 

Which did come at her command, 

And she shot her Billy Taylor, 

With his fair one in his hand. 

When the Captain com'd for to hear on't 

He werry much applauded her for what she'd 


And quickly made her first lieutenant 
Of the gallant ...... THUNDKR-BOMB. 

At 6 S. ii. 368 (6 Nov., 1880) the late MB. 
BRANDEB MATTHEWS inquired about ' Billy 
Taylor was a Gay Young Fellow,' and 
referred to The Illustrated London News of 
2 Oct., 1880, in which Mr. G. A. Sala states, 
in ' Echoes of the Week,' that this song was 
written by Sheridan. The following is what 
Mr. Sala says on the subject : 

" In the prefatory remarks by ']).(!.' to the late 
Mr. J. B. Buckstone's Nautical Burlesque Burletta 
ot 'Billy Taylor, or the Gay Young Fellow,' first 
produced at the Adelphi Theatre on Nov. 9, 1829 
allusion is made to the ' Billy Taylor' of Sheridan 
i whimsy thrown off in one of those joyous 
moments winch gladdened the heart of that 
eccentric genius.' 'D. G.' obscurely hints that 
Sheridan might have owed his inspiration to some 
such long obsolete lyrics as 'Constant Betty's 

Garland,' ' The Young Man's Resolution to go to 
Sea by reason of his False Love,' or * The Politic 
Sailor, or the London Miss Outwitted.' There is 
a theatrical tradition that the sublime Sarah 
Siddons was very fond of singing 'Billy Taylor.' " 

See also 3 S. v. 172, 223, as to Latin trans- 
lations of this and other comic songs. 

" D. G." is George Daniel, who reversed 
his initials and usually signed " D. G. n 


Inner Temple. 

The lines are from the last stanza of the 
ballad of ' Billee Taylor.* In ' Dublin 
Translations (Longmans, 1890) is a version 
of this ballad with a rendering in Latin 
elegiacs by Prof. R. Y. Tyrrell. A weaker 
variant is given in ' Modern Street Ballads,'- 
by J. Ashton (Chatto & Windus, 1888), 
in which the girl's name is Sarah Naylor 
of Lichfield. H. K. ST. J. S. 

The lines quoted occur in the last verse 
of the one-time famous comic song ' Billy 
Taylor.' When I was a lad, in the fifties 
of last century, this was emphatically the 
most popular song of the day, helped as it 
was by a catchy tune and a " tol-de-rol " 
chorus. The words are printed in ' The 
Universal Songster ; or, Museum of Mirth * 
(Routledge, n.d.), vol. i. p. 65, with a cha- 
racteristic cut by George Cruikshank, repre- 
senting the captain bestowing upon the 
maiden the reward about which J. R. C. H. 
inquires. It appears also in ' The Cyclo- 
paedia of Popular Songs l (Tegg, n.d.), vol. iL 


The words are from the song of ' Billy 

Taylor,' which was sung with some success 

:>y Sam Cowell in the fifties. He also wrote 

he music of ' The Ratcatcher's Daughter,* 

he words of ' Alonzo the Brave,* and 

numerous other songs much in vogue at that 

eriod, and probably w^rote this. 


AKKY T. H. R., and SENEX also thanked for 

10 S. xii. 328, 414). Critical articles on 
his work appeared in The Quarterly of July, 
858, and July, 1861 ; and in The Edin- 
urgh of April, 1858, and July, 1861. Froude 
n a lecture at the Royal Institution in 1864, 
hough disagreeing with Buckle as an 
xponent of the " science of history," paid 

high tribute to him as an historian and as 
n extempore lecturer, N. W. HILL. 

New York. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 5, 1910. 

70). In reply to H. P. L. I now supply a 
copy of my note on the subject. The 
reference (given on p. 119 of my paper 
' Proper Terms,' Trans. Philological Society, 
1907-1910 : Pt. III., 1908-9, Kegan Paul) 
is to Science Gossip, 1 Aug., 1867, p. 189, 
and therein Mr. J. B. Waters writes to explain 
the phenomenon (i.e., "new legs for old,' 1 
for the happy thrush) by stating that it is 
virtually a superabundant growth of old 
scales, which is very excessive, and that 
" the scales of the legs increase to a prodigious 
size, often being five or six times as large as the 
ordinary legs, and, taking a downward growth, 
frequently overhang the feet, and in some instances 
prevent the bird from standing on a level surface. 
These scales becoming extremely dry, they are by 
the slightest accident detached from the leg as far 
as the knee-joint ; the scales at that part being 
smaller, and the skin more flexible, allow the 
mass of scales, still retaining the shape of the 
original legs, to remain suspended. The legs after 
being divested of their old scales appear extremely 
thin, and quite pale ; and to any person that does 
not make such an examination as they should, but 
arrive at a hasty conclusion that the bird has four 
legs, and that the cast-off scales, which are so much 
the largest, must be the old legs, are very likely to 
be deceived themselves and misguide others," &c. 

APSSEN COUNTER (10 S. xii. 349). Would 
not this be a counting-table, or counter, 
made of the wood of the aspen tree, or 
trembling poplar, a wood sometimes used 
in the construction of some lighter articles 
of daily utility ? A passage from a will 
quoted in the ' H.E.D.,' s.v. ' Counter,' 
II. 3, and contemporary with that given 
by MR. LUCAS, is as follows : " One fether- 
bed .... standing in the westmost chamber 
and the best counter, that is in the same 
chamber' 1 ('Wills and Inv. N.C.,' Surtees, 

In Sussex the local name for an aspen 
tree was, and perhaps still is, " apse ' ? ; 
so no doubt the counter in question was 
made of the wood of an aspen. B. D. 

(10 S. xii. 349). 2. In the Funk & 
Wagnalls dictionary " swedge "- is described 
as " a heavy iron block or anvil having 
grooves, and often large perforations,, for 
shaping metal, upsetting bolts, &c. n The 
word is stated to be obsolete. 

5. " A devil " is in the same work de- 
scribed as "a mandrel introduced by a 
blacksmith to prevent a hole from con- 
tracting while a piece is being worked, and 
driven out after the work is completed.' 4 

2. It is not clear why this should not 
mean a notch-shaped anvil block " swage.'* 

4. The parenthesized numbers may well 
refer to pages of the store ledger I or J. 

H. P. L. 

2. "Swedge' 1 is a variant of "swage," 
a piece of iron or steel of the nature of a die, 
used in giving some required shape to a 

5. " Devil " is a small portable grate 
ontaining a charcoal fire, used for drying 

the internal surfaces of a mould. 


'N. & Q.' : LOST REFERENCE (11 S. i. 9, 
58). I much regret to find, upon turning up 
bhe reference to which two correspondents 
kindly direct me, that the information sought 
is not disclosed there. I fancy my par- 
ticular Hawkins quotation must occur 
rather later in the Series in question than 
iii, 415. W. McM. 

" EARTH GOETH UPON EARTH " (11 S. i. 48). 
This verse is taken from an old poem 
of which a .version is given in E. K. Chambers 
and F. Sidgwick's ' Early English Lyrics,' p. 
171. This version consists of five stanzas 
only ; the fourth of them runs as follows : 
Erthe gos appon erthe as golde appon golde. 
He that gose appon erthe gleterande as golde, 
Like as erthe never more go to erthe scholde, 
And yitt schall erthe unto erthe ga rathere than 
he wolde. 

There is a long editorial note upon the 
poem, containing references to twelve 
different versions, one of which runs to 
twenty-seven stanzas, and to "a corrupt 
copy of one verse " said by Guest (' History 
of English Rhythms,' ed. Skeat, 1882) to 
have been discovered by Sir Walter Scott on 
a tombstone at Melrose. The version given 
in the collection I refer to is printed by 
Perry, 'Religious Pieces,' E.E.T.S. (1867), 
95. * C. C. B. 

In Rosherville Gardens, in the early sixties ,. 
the following admonitory notice might have 
been seen displayed on a painted board in one 
of the flower-beds : 

Earth walks upon Earth like glittering gold, 
Earth turns to Earth sooner than it wolde ; 
Earth builds upon Earth cities and towers, 
Earth says to Earth, "All these shall be ours." 

G. O. Ho WELL. 

Shooters' Hill, Kent. 

Many years ago I saw a monumental 
tablet in Beddington Church, Surrey, to the 
memory of a parishioner named Hill or 
Greenhill (I forget which). The date of it 

n s. i. F EB . 5, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


was, as far as I remember, the early half of | 
the seventeenth century. These two lines 
of it stick in my memory : 

Earth in earth must up be shut ; 

A Hill into a hole is put. 


On the history of these lines Miss MURRAY 
would do well to consult all the references in 
4 N. & Q.' : 1 S. vii. 498, 576 ; viii. 110, 353, 
575 ; 3 S. i. 389 ; ii. 55 ; 4 S. ix. 67 ; 5 S. 
-xii. 389, 439, 499 ; 7 S. vii. 455, 496. 

W. C. B. 

BAKERS' SERVANTS, c. 1400 (10 S. xii. 
427, 498 ; 11 S. i. 38). The following may 
serve to answer DR. SHARPE'S queries. 

Cotgrave (1650) has : 

" Fournier, a baker. 

" Four, an oven. 

" Fourneau, a little oven. 

" Fournee de pain, a batch or oven full of bread." 

Mayhew and Skeat, * Concise Diet. M.E.* 
<1888), say : 

" Soure, adj., sour, acid. In combination : 
JSour-doui, leaven. 

" Sour en, to sour." 

The following passage from the ' Liber 
Niger Domus Regis Edw. IV.,* ' Ord. and 
Reg., 1 1790, p. 70, helps in the matter : 

" One yoman furnour also In this office, making 
the weyght of brede, and to keepe the ballaunce, 
seasonyng the ovyn, and at the making of the 
levayne at every bache ; he shall trulye delyver 
into the brede-house, to be saufely kepte, the 
whole numbyr of his bache ; he shall nother 
waste nor geve this brede, but see that it be well 
seasoned, and saufe to the Kinge's behove, uppon 
payne of household." 

The fourneur was thus the man in charge 
of the four, or oven ; the sowreur mixed the 
yeast or leaven with the flour ; and the 
white-hewe was probably the man who was 
responsible for cutting up the dough (or 
white ?) into the proper-sized pieces, so that 
the loaves turned out of the prescribed 
weight when baked. 

There are many interesting details in the 
* Liber Niger * regarding the " Office of 
Bakehouse. n JOHN HODGKIN. 

(10 S. xii. 387). The former word, with the 
still uglier *' adoxographical, n would seem 
to be of transatlantic origin. Some years 
B-go I drew attention (9 S. xi. 425) to the 
use of the adjective in an American periodical 
(The American Journal of Philology, xxiii. 
393). The sentence which I then quoted 
confirms MR. MAYHEW'S surmise as^to the 

I have made acquaintance with " doxo- 
graphical n also in an American writer. In 
the preface to Leonard's edition of the 
fragments of Empedocles (Chicago, 1908) 
the following sentence is to be found : 

" The introduction and notes are intended 
merely to illustrate the text : they touch only 
incidentally on the doxographical material, and 
give thus by no means a complete account of all 
it is possible to know about Empedocles's philo- 

The substantive " doxographer " likewise 
occurs more than once in the same book. 
The meaning presumably is " a writer on 
doctrine, " whether as historian or critic. 
But surely the words are not really required, 
and the forms are clumsy and cacophonous. 
They are not noticed in the ' N.E.D.* 

Trinity College, University of Melbourne. 

GODFREY SYKES (11 S. i. 46). W. C. B. 
states, and no doubt correctly, that this 
artist was born in 1824. MR. JOHN COLLINS 
FRANCIS, in reviewing the history of The 
Cornhill Magazine (10 S. xii. 481), writes : 
" The cover was designed by Mr. Godfrey 
Sykes, a young student at South Kensing- 
ton, ?i Permit ; me, as a former pupil of 
Mr. Sykes's, to point out that, so far from 
being " a young student " in 1860, he was 
thirty-six years of age, and had then, for a 
considerable period, occupied the position 
of second master at the Sheffield School of 
Art. It was about that date he resigned the 
post, having accepted the position of chief 
designer and general controller of the internal 
decorations then recently begun at South 
Kensington Museum. 

In The Sheffield Independent for April 19, 
1902, amongst some personal recollections 
of my own relative to the local School of 
Art, there occurs the following reference to 
Godfrey Sykes : 

" The Volunteer fever in Sheffield, being at ita 
height, we started a corps of Engineers in the old 
School, and selected the head master (young 
Mitchell) as our captain. That was in 1860. 
Well do I recollect how, down in the modelling 
room, some of us warlike-inclined young fellows 
who had our rifles (the Lancaster with an oval 
bore) with us (for we used to drill with them after 
school hours) used occasionally to relieve the 
monotony of clay-punching by practising the 
thrusts of the bayonet exercise upon an unfortu- 
nate human skeleton that, suspended from a brass 
nut screwed through the top of its brain-pan, 
hung in one corner of the room. Once while 
so engaged we were caught in the very act by 
Godfrey Sykes, the second master. Sykes, in 
his usual rather pompous and affected manner, 
gave us culprits a most withering look, and then 
sternly bade us to understand ' that institution 
was not instituted for displays of such unseemly 


NOTES AND QUERIES. - m s. i. FEB. s, ma 

exhibitions of bellicose effervescence, but for the 
culture and pursuit of Art in her highest and most 
ennobled forms.' The incident took place a 
good many years ago, but, so nearly as I re- 
member, those were very much his exact words. 
In schoolboy slang Sykes was a very ' big pot ' 
both in dress and manner. 

'* As a matter of fact, I was the last pupil in the 
Sheffield School of Art whose work Godfrey Sykes 
ever supervised. He was intent in kindly pointing 
out the shortcomings in a study I had taken to 
him for supervision at the very moment the clock 
struck nine upon the eve of his departure to 
London. That was the hour the School closed. 
So presently afterwards we all grouped in the big 
Elementary Boom and presented him with an 
inscribed silver crayon-holder, as well as some 
other little tokens of remembrance. Then final 
adieus were mutually and regretfully said. The 
next day this singularly endowed and gifted 
artist left for South Kensington Museum, where, 
having distinctly made his mark in designing 
and superintending the execution of much splendid 
decorative work, he passed over, all too early, to 
the great majority." 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

(10 S. x. 448). In Booking through recent 
volumes of ' N. & Q.' I have come across 
MB. PLATT'S query, which, I find, has not 
been answered. There is, as far as I am 
aware, no legend or historical fact con- 
nected with the term " shal^am-zai, n 
applied jocularly to the natives of Cashmere. 
Their partiality for turnips is, I believe, 
real. I have heard many Pathans speak of 
them as " sh&lghaxn-Khor,** i.e. turnip- 

I do not see, however, why it should be 
spoken of as an " Anglo-Indian n term. 
What have Anglo -Indians to do with it ? 

51, La dbroke Road, W. 

SQUIBE'S TALE 2 (11 S. i. 50). Had your 
correspondent consulted my Notes, he need 
not have asked the questions. In the 
Preface to my edition of ' The Prioresses 
Tale, 2 &c., and again in my edition of 
Chaucer's works, I explain how Col. Yule 
proved that Cambuscan is one of the 
many varieties of Chinghis Khan which in 
Tartar meant " Great Khan n or " great 
king 22 ; also, that Camballo was certainly 
suggested by Cambaluc, which was not 
really a man's name, but the old name of 
Pekin, for Kaan-baligh, i.e., " city of the 
Khan. 22 

As to Algarsif and Elpheta, we must 
wait till we know more about Chaucer's 
sources. Mere guessing is more mischievous 
than helpful. WALTEB W. SKEAT. 

" COMPOSTELA " (10 S. xii. 27). Rogue 
Barcia in his comprehensive ' Diccionario 
Etimologico * .(Madrid, 1880-83, 5 vols.) only 
quotes the following derivation from " Mon- 
lau " : " Compostela, i.e. Eufonizacion 6 
corrupcion del Latin Campus stellse, 6 
Campo de la estrella, porque la luz de una 
estrella, sefialo en un campo el lugar donde 
estaba el cuerpo del apostol Santiago." 
The Spanish name of the Apostle James (the 
patron saint of Spain) has four different 
forms, viz., Jacobo, Santiago, Jaime, and 
Diego. H. KBEBS. 

ANTS (10 S. xii. 7, 79, 417 ; 11 S. i. 73). 
In this connexion mention may perhaps be 
made of ' The Life and Adventures of Miss 
Robinson Crusoe, 2 a serial contributed by 
Douglas Jerrold to the eleventh volume of 
Punch. This narrative sometimes errone- 
ously referred to as ' The Female Robinson 
Crusoe, 2 notably in the ' Life of Douglas 
Jerrold ? has not hitherto been reprinted, but 
will form part of a volume on ' Douglas 
Jerrold and " Punch ' 2 ' on which I am at 
present engaged. WALTEB JEBROLD. 


THOMAS DE CONINGSBY (10 S. xii. 509). 
The lines 

Thomas Connigesby 
And his wife Tiffany, &c. 

are quoted in Noble's ' Continuation of 
Granger's Biographical History of England,' 
iii. 46. They are said to have been written 
by a " rude rhymer " or " ancient bard,' 2 as 
he is called in the index, and to have been 
composed on Coningsby's return home 
from captivity. No further information is 
vouchsafed. It would seem as if Banks 
had taken his account from Noble. 


(11 S. i. 64). All the statements concerning 
the late Sir Charles Strickland and ' Tom 
Brown's Schooldays 2 , in the newspaper 
cutting given at the above reference are 
mythical. Sir Charles was not in the School 
House, and was four years younger than 
A. P. Stanley. As to the " characters " 
in the book, Tom Hughes always said that 
Dr. Arnold was the only portrait. The 
famous fight was an incident in which the 
book follows the fact more closely than in 
others. Both the combatants are still living,, 
and one of the seconds. The other second 
was Tom Hughes himself. For almost all 
that can be said on the subject of the inci- 

ii s. i. FEB. 5, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


dents and characters see ' Notes on * ' Tom 
Brown's Schooldays,"- * by Lieut. -Col. Syd- 
ney Selfe, published by Lawrence of Rugby, 
1909, from which I have taken these 


A. T. M. 

"SUCKET " (10 S. xii. 443). I had already 
conjectured in my ' Folk-Etymology,' 1882, 
pp. 378, 653, what PROF. SKEAT has now 
fairly shown, that this word was derived 
from " sugar ?J (Scot, sticker). It seems to 
have got mixed up with It. zuccata, a slice of 
pumpkin (ibid.). A. SMYTHE PALMER. 


The Iliad of Homer. Vol. I. Books I.-XII. 
Translated by E. H. Blakeney. (Bell & Sons.) 

THIS is one of the new series of " Bohn's Libraries," 
which had not the happiest of traditions for 
classical scholars. Now, however, all is changed, 
and the present translator gives xis a version of 
considerable literary merit, using the English of 
the Authorized Version and Elizabethan writers 
generally. The result is a rendering usually of 
considerable dignity, though, perhaps, un- 
necessarily archaic. Mr. Andrew I^ang is the 
pioneer in this style, of course, and Mr. Blakeney's 
version approximates to his, though he has, we 
gather from the prefatory matter, worked inde- 
pendently, consulting occasionally the renderings 
of the Rev. \V. C v . Green and Lord Derby. 

Mr. Blakeney is something of a poet himself, 
and provides a neat sonnet by way of intro- 
duction, besides well-considered references to the 
literature of the subject. These as aids to further 
study, we regard as of genuine importance. 
There are also numerous notes, as to textual 
matters and literary parallels in English, which 
need no apology. The whole volume is, indeed, 
admirably calculated to give those who have no 
Greek a view of Homer's supremacy in the 
world of letters. 

The words " acre perennius " are quoted in the 
Introduction. This is natural enough, but we 
think it would have been better to use English 
instead. Horace's phrase will be Greek to many 
a general reader nowadays. The English lan- 
guage is capable of expressing all that need be said 
on an occasion like this, and we feel that if the 
classics are to be revived, those who are charged 
with the business should carefully reflect on the 
limitations of the readers to whom they appeal, 
both in using Latin phrases, and in searching for 
English which is natural as well as literary. 
A classical scholar might say " devising English " : 
that would be a Homeric turn of language, but 
one which we should regard nowadays as un- 

The whole subject is full of difficulties, and 
Mr. Blakeney has mastered them so well that we 
look forward with pleasure to his second volume. 
His rendering is clearly a labour of love. We end 
with a mere query whether a tendency to blank 
verse in several passages is desirable. 

ANOTHER excellent addition to the same series 
is The Plays of sEschylus, translated from a revised 
text by Walter Head lam and C. E. S. Headlam. 
Readers 'are fortunate nowadays to secure in a 
popular series the work of one of the most dis- 
tinguished of younger Greek scholars, who died, 
alas ! before the fruits of much of his work could 
come to maturity. Walter Headlam's versions 
of five of the plays have been already published, 
and here his brother, also an excellent scholar, 
finishes off the work by adding ' The Persians ' 
and ' The Seven against Thebes.' 

" The object of these prose translations," says 
the Prefatory Note, "is to enable those who 
know some Greek to read the Greek of JEschylus 
correctly," and the expert will find much to 
interest him in the notes added as to text, mean- 
ing, and parallels. The late Dr. Headlam had 
a range of erudition which always made his work 
remarkable. The last twenty years, as he notes, 
have done much for the text and interpretation 
of ^Eschylus, of which the present volume supplies 
an excellent summary. 

The general reader should not, however, be 
warned off the book by the fact that it contains 
much only for the advanced scholar. The 
versions here printed are much better reading for 
the average man than the literal doggerel which 
used to be placed before him. He will get some 
idea of the style of ^Eschylus the grandest style 
in literature. We give a passage from the 
' Agamemnon ' in which one of the Elders speaks 
of the fire-signals from Troy : 

" We shall soon know about these beaconings 
of light-bearing torches and these passings-on of 
fire, whether they be true, or whether this light 
came only with a dream-like joy to cheat our 
sense : I see a Herald yonder coming from the 
shore beneath the shade of olive-branches : and 
by Mire's consorting sister, thirsty Dust, I am 
assured of this, he shall not make you sign with- 
out a voice or by kindling flame of mountain 
timber with mere smoke, but with express words 
shall make either joy more plain, or else but 
with the alternative I have no patience now ; 
may fair result appear to cap fair witness visible ! " 

A small matter, but one of considerable practical 
importance, is that the numbers of the Greek 
lines in tens are marked at the side of the English 

Kelly's Handbook to the Titled, Landed, and 
Official Classes (Kelly's Directories) is a compact 
and useful guide with a wide range of information. 
The publishers, in accordance with their excel- 
lent practice, submit the proof of every entry 
to the person to whom it has reference, and we 
regret to see that their care in this respect meets 
in many cases with no return of details. There 
is a good deal of varied merit and interest in the 
landed classes, which have pedigrees as good as 
those of the peers, and are, we imagine, a far more 
operative class. 

To The Fortnightly Review Mr. J. L. Garvin 
contributes his usual vigorous summary of 
' Imperial and Foreign Affairs : the Elections 
and their Meaning.' Another political article 
is ' The Labour Party and the Future : an Address 
to W T orkmen,' by Mr. Maurice Hewlett, who has 
already appeared as a political letter-writer in 
The Daily Chronicle. He says that working-men 
by a general strike could always prevent war 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 5, mo. 

Mr. Belloc in ' The Strain of Transition ' points 
out that the conditions of England make the 
adoption of Tariff Reform dangerous, owing to 
the amount and nature of our imports. Mr. 
Edward Salmon, writing on ' The Peers as 
Democrats,' ventures the opinion that " five- 
sixths of them are among the best intellects 
in the land." Mr. Salmon's ideas of intellect must 
be extraordinary. Meredith's ' Celt and Saxon ' 
is advanced to the sixth chapter. In 'The 
Responsibility of Authors,' an address to the 
Authors' Club on December 20th, Sir Oliver 
Lodge deals with the censorship assumed by 
the Libraries, the general pessimism as to litera- 
ture, &c. ' Mrs. Julia Ward Howe,' by Con- 
stance E. Maud, gives a pleasant view of the 
veteran Suffragist, who is sbill active and alert 
at the age of ninety. ' Greece : Renaissance or 
Revolution ? ' by Mr. Spencer Campbell, resolves 
itself largely into an apologia for the King and 
Crown Prince. Of the former we read : "Nobly 
and unostentatiously he has been making the 
most of his family connexions." It is a pity that 
the writer lacks a negative sense of humour. 
Dr. Stanley Lane-Poole writes on ' The Alleged 
Marriage of Swift and Stella,' in which he does not 
Relieve. The paper is ingenious, and makes out 
as good a case as can be made ; but it contains 
suppositions as to motives and feelings which 
cannot be regarded as certain. As far as our 
present evidence goes we regard the question as 
insoluble. In ' The Hugo Legend ' Mr. Francis 
Gribble makes a bitter expose of Victor Hugo's 
doings and inventions. Like Balzac, he de- 
clared himself of better family than he was ; 
and when his wife was alive he shared his life with 
her and a show girl from the theatres of no 
Teputation. So great, however, was his mastery 
of the romantic that he succeeded in regarding, 
and making others regard, his proceedings as 
worthy of a sublime genius. Katharine Tynan's 
article on ' Francis Thompson ' appears to us to be 
a little belated. It says much with which all 
lovers of true poetry must agree, and we only pro- 
test against the affected style in which the lady 
writes. This preciosity is more likely to keep 
iovers of English from reading Thompson than 
recommend him to the wider circle he deserves. 
The Rev. E. H. R. Tatham has in ' Some Un- 
published Letters of W. S. Landor ' given us a 
great deal of genuine interest, especially in 
literary criticism. Landor wrote these letters to 
Walter Birch, a scholar and contemporary of 
his at Rugby. Landor's writing is always 
'vigorous, and here he shows a taste in advance of 
his age, though he strangely depreciates the work 
of Plato, and seems to consider the style of Aris- 
totle excellent. He is a great admirer of 
Cicero, and of Genoa and Bath as magnificent 

IN The Cornhill Magazine Bishop Welldon 
has a fine tribute to the virtues of ' The Late 
Provost of Eton,' his old head master. Mrs. 
Violet Jacob's verse, ' The Howe o' the Mearns,' 
is a pretty piece of Kincardineshire dialect. Mr. 
A. C. Benson writes a plea for ' Humanistic 
Education without Latin,' which is worth con- 
sidering. At the same time we may point out 
that his experience as a reader of essays of the 
history men of his college does not go very far. We 
know of very different results taken from a larger 
field. There will be general agreement, perhaps, 

among those interested in education that too 
many subjects are squeezed, into the curriculum 
a superfluity, which ends in no secure grasp of 
anything. ' Ower Young to Marry Yet ' is a 
pretty story by Miss Jane Findlater. Mr. C. R. L. 
Fletcher makes fun of ' The Lord Mayor's Visit to 
Oxford in 1826 ' and the pomposities of diction 
which it produced. An historical article of 
interest, as somewhat off the ordinary lines, is 
' The Life and Destinies of Magister Laukhard,' by 
the Rev. A. T. S. Goodrick. Laukhard was a 
soldier in the campaign of the Duke of Brunswick 
against France in 1792, and took part in the 
retreat from Valmy. He was meant for a clergy- 
man, which he finally became, and few records can 
be more extraordinary than his own account of 
his vagabondage. The impudence with which lie 
deceived people of all sorts carried him through 
difficulties which would have daunted any 
ordinary man, and his writing is evidently of the 
vivid and frank sort which tells us much of a 
vagabond life. ' More Humours of Clerical Life,' 
by the Rev. S. F. L. Bernays, introduces us to 
some amusing stories, and some sensible reflec- 
tions, especially as to the frequent misunder- 
standing of long words and rounded phrases by 
a section of the listeners to political speakers or 
preachers. We have ourselves heard a preacher 
in a small rural parish refer to Rationalistic 
writers as " our friend the enemy," which a lady of 
cultivation in the axidience took to mean the 
Devil. ' The Ghost in the House,' by Mr. Austin 
Philips, is an effective short story concerned, 
not with a supernatural visitant, but a man who 
publishes his own work as belonging to another. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let. 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
'heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

G. N. RICHARDS. Forwarded. 

A. MORELLI ("Mitred Abbots"). See the lists 
at 10 S. x. 455 ; xi. 16, 117. 

CoRRK4ENDUM. Ante, p. 76, col. 2, line 20, for 
"Canon Ellacombe's" read Johnson's. 

ii a i. FKB. 12, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




IfOTES: The Justice Ayre, 121 " Wiogpra ceaster": 
Worcester, 123 Nelson among his Intimates, 124 
"Rumtum" "Tyrly tirlow" and the Coventry Play of 
the Nativity, 125 "Giiff"-Herb-strewina;-"Joy Riders" 

Petrol in 1612, 126 Curious Biblical Statistics -C. 
Blacker Vignoles - Gloucester Election in 1761, 127. 

OU ERIES : Fourteenth-Century Calendar Architect of 
Henry VII. 's Chapel, 127 Landor Anecdotes Amphillis 
Hyde and Charles II. Newberry and Gannock Families 

Major W. Farquhar McConkey Family " Mallas 
j>igg" Authors Wanted Kinglake's ' Eothen.' 128 
ICing Alfred : Canute William and Mary Howitt Sir 
John Chad worth Comboloio Rosary Burglar Folk-lore 
Cheyne Walk Peters's 'Fortune-Teller' Indian Chief's 
Oration to Lord Dunmore Yule Log in Cornwall, 129 
Press Yard in Old Newgate Prison Capt. Brooke and 
Sir James Brooke, 130. 

KEPLIES : 'The Book of Oaths,' 130 "Yon," 131 Drink- 
ing Tobacco Osbaldistone Funeral Plumes, 132 
Authors Wanted Brooke of Cdbham Cannon Ball 
House, Edinburgh 'Cornhill' Sowing by Hand 
"Welsh": Origin of their Name, 133 W. W. Ryland 
First Nonconformist Minister in Parliament, 134 Swift 
f.t Havisham " Tally." Card Term "Tally-ho" Milton 
on the Palm, 135 "Man in a quart bottle " Levels of 
Northampton 'Canadian Boat Song,' 136 Basil Goode 

Yew in Poetry Archdeacon of Taunton as Naval 
Authority Voltaire on Love -Thomas Creevey, 137. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Campion's Works ' ' The Faerie 

Queene' Reviews and Magazines. 
Booksellers' Catalogues. 

OBITUARY : James Platt, Jun. ; A. J. Munby. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


A REFERENCE in a recent issue of The 
Scotsman to the disposition of the judges 
for the different " Circuit Courts " in Scot- 
land recalls the pomp and ceremony attached 
to the procedure in the several Royal Burghs, 
and suggests inquiry into the origin and 
development of the " Justice Ayre. n 

In the earlier years of Scottish history 
considerable jurisdiction was exercised in 
the Baron's Court. He had the power of 
.judging persons who had been found guilty 
of " infang " and " outfang " theft. The 
first referred to cases where the thief was 
a,n inhabitant of the place, and taken within 
the barony, with the article stolen in his 
hands or on his back. Man-slayers taken 
red-handed or immediately on commission 
of the crime were also liable to be brought up 
before the Baron. In the cases where he 
had the power of inflicting the punishment 
of death, the sentence had to be passed 
within three suns or days after the crime 
had been committed, but the execution of 

it could be deferred for nine days thereafter. 
The ordinary instruments of execution 
made use- of were termed " pit and gallows," 
the women being drowned in the pit, and the 
men hanged on the gallows. 

One of the cardinal points laid down was 
that the Justice Ayre was not to be held on 
the occasion of any festival. The " dittay " 
or indictment must be cried on twenty days 
or more : and forty days were to elapse 
between the issue of the indictment and the 
holding of the Court. Elaborate rules were 
drawn up to regulate the procedure of the 
Court, which included among other matters 
a statement regarding the declaring of goods 
escheated to the King. This involved a 
thrice " blawin on the home " at the Mercat 
Croce. In 1357, in order that any suspicion 
of inefficiency on the part of the judges should 
be removed, and that fuller justice should be 
done, and at the same time to strike terror 
into those who harboured evil intentions, the 
King resolved to attend the Justice Ayre 
himself. The custom was kept up for two 
centuries later. Queen Mary's visit to the 
Borders, when she took ill and lay in such 
a dangerous condition at Jedburgh, was 
primarily to hold a " Justice Air and Justice 
Courtis to try everie mannis estait and con- 
ditioun as he salbe fund innocent or gilty 
according to the lawis." Outwardly at 
least, all effort was to be made to have the 
channels of justice run pure, and to this end 
" only honest and sufficient persons of 
discretion n were to be allowed to practise 
as lawyers, and it was part of the Court 
procedure to hold an inquest on " sorners, 
bards, masterful beggars, and feigned fools." 
The Court was to be held twice a year, 
according to old custom ; and in moving 
from place to place, it was expressly stipu- 
lated that in the retinue there was to be only 
a limited number of followers. Rather a 
curious perquisite was inserted in a grant 
of regality to the Bishop of St. Andrews. It 
was expressly stated that between the waters 
of the Tay and the Forth no one arrested for 
trespass was to be subject to the jurisdic- 
tion of any Court but that of the Bishop. 

In the end of the sixteenth century an 
Act was passed appointing Mondays to be 
held as a holiday, and among those who 
were to observe the ordinance were the 
Courts, the reason given for the statute 
being that it was to avoid profanation of the 
" Saboth day, quilk suld be allanerlie 
bestowit and imployit in Godis service and na 
uther wyis." Instead of it being so, it had 
" bone abuisit be the ha ill leigis of the realme 
be hanting, and using of gainiis and pastymis 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 12, 

upoun the said day, pretending ane lauchfull 
excuis for thame in the said mater that na day in 
the oulk wes grantit to thame for thair releif 
fra thair lawbour except the said Sabboth." 

As sometimes happens, those in authority 
in the conduct of justice forgot the 
necessity of being above suspicion in their 
handling of affairs, and in the punishment 
of those " inferiour officiaris rl who were 
chiefly implicated in the derelictions of 
duty there had been some slackness. To 
obviate the continuance of such imputa- 
tions, James VI. issued a proclamation that 
he would be 

" reddie to ressave and heir the complaintis and 
informationis of his distressit subjectis, and sua 
sail hald hand to the dew ordour, taking with 
thair complaintis as nane sal have just caus or 
occasioun to complene." 

The King laid it down, with no unstinted 
plainness of speech, that in the adminis- 
tration of justice there was to be no favour 
nor friendship, and that judgment would be 
impartially dealt, as he recognized that on the 
fair dispensing of justice was the " speciall 
grand quhairupoun his Hienes croun standis 
and dependis." 

Although certain crimes were tryable by 
the Sheriff, there were others beyond his 
jurisdiction, and left for the decision of the 
High Court. In connexion with this a 
unique question was raised in the Court of 
the Sheriff of Berwick. There was resident 
in Eyemouth one Isobel Falconer, spouse 
to Patrick Sinclair. She was " suspect 
guiltie of witchcraft," and, as was often the 
case, some of those who neighboured her 
did not sit very softly in the same company, 
and accordingly seized upon this suspicion 
in order that they might get on even terms 
with her. In due form she was reported 
to the Sheriff -officer, who announced his 
intention to try the case. Isobel must have 
been a woman of some smeddum, for she 
forthwith petitioned the Privy Council that 
she was 

*' altogidder free and innocent of that foull 
cryme [witchcraft], and to this houre hes livit in 
a verie gude fame and reputatioun among hir 
nychtbouris, unspotted or suspect of ony sic 
divilische and detestable cryme." 

Even if there was any suspicion of leanings 
that way, as it was a 

" verie heich cryme, thair wald be [ought to be] 
men of judgment, learning, gude conscience, and 
experience, quha hes knawledge to discerne 
upoun every point and circumstance of the 
dittay, and upoun sic doubtis and questionis 
as will result in sic ane tryall." 

She had before her mind's eye the position 
of the Sheriff. Admitting that he was 
" ane young gentilman of gude qualiteis and 

conditions," she thought her case would be 
so far prejudiced as he was not of that 
" aige and experience to cognosce upoun sa heich 
a cryme, and he will not faill upoun errour and 
ignorance, to proceid agains the said complenair 
becaus in this particulair he is reullit be sie per- 
sonis as ar the said complenairis deidlie enemeis." 

Further, she protested that the preju- 
dices against witches were so great that the 
men wlio would be called as a jury would be 
inflamed against her from the first, and that 
it was a very great hardship " to hasard the 
lyff of ane innocent upoun the toung and 
deliverie of a nowmer of ignorant and un- 
letterit men." To show her conviction of 
her own innocence of the charge, she found 
caution " to underlie the law '* in the tol- 
booth of Edinburgh when required. Her 
pleading was not in vain : Sinclair appeared 
for his spouse, and no attempt being made 
by the Sheriff to uphold his contention, 
Isobel was able to keep her would-be 
smirchers at arm's length. 

In the early part of the seventeenth 
century there was on the Borders consider- 
able lawlessness, and for the better preserva- 
tion of order, it was decided that Justice 
Courts should be held four times a year, at 
which the prisoners mixed up in these forays 
should have the chance of a fair trial. 
But, in the Middle Marches, some miscreants 
paid the penalty of their misdeeds in a 
different fashion so much so that in order 
to whitewash the Warden, Sir William 
Cranstoun, the King had to issue a special 
edict. It bore that Sir William, in carrying 
out his difficult duties, had " moist dewti- 
fullie carreyed himselff, and done us verie 
guid service in that his employment. " The 
work was difficult, and needed special, and 
in some cases speedy, handling, so much so 
(what a diplomatic mode of expression !] 
that it "mycht not alwyse permit th( 
prolixe formes accustumed in the civile 
pairtis of the kingdome to be used at all 
tymes ?? ; so that the Warden, when encum- 
bered with a number of prisoners, did no1 
find it always convenient to convey them 
to prison. Such being the case, he was 

" often tymes summarlie to mak a quick dis- 
patche of a grite many notable and notorkn 
theves and villanes by putting chame u> present 
death, without preceiding tryall of jurye or assyse, 
or pronunciatioun of ony convictione or dome." 

His Majesty therefore thought fit to ex- 
onerate him for all things hitherto done 
him in the execution of his office as Warder 
of the Marches. 

In Royal Burghs which were the seat of 
Circuit Court the Provost and magistrates, 

n s. i. FEB. 12, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


representing the Crown, were obliged to 
give personal attendance on the judges 
during the sitting of the Court, and provide 
the requisite accommodation for carrying 
on the business. In the Royal Burgh of 
Jedburgh the Provost and magistrates went 
out in state, generally as far as Ancrum 
Bridge, to meet the judge and escort him 
to the town ; and on their arrival at the 
hotel door the burgesses were summoned, 
under the tenure by which they held their 
property of watching and warding to 
form a guard to his lordship and the magis- 
trates. A letter from a judge on circuit 
may be quoted. It is addressed to the Pro- 
vost, Dr. Lindesay (father of Isabella Linde- 
say, the friend ."of Burns on his Border 
tour), and the magistrates : 

Galashiels, Monday, 

,8th May, 1780. 

GENTLEMEN, I have got this far on my road 
to Jedburgh to hold the circuit there. I shall be 
at Merton this night, and pass to-morrow at that 
place, and shall be at Jedburgh on Wednesday 
about half-an-hour after twelve, and I shall go to 
Court about an hour after. I thought it my dxity 
to give you this information, and am, with great 
regard, Gentlemen, 

Your most humble Servant, 


The duty of guarding the Courthouse 
and the prisoners was in the hands of the 
Crowner, who was an official of the Crown. 
The family of Cranstoun, to one of whom 
reference has already been made, owned 
property in the village of Lanton, nigh to the 
Royal Burgh, which carried with it the 
rights and duties of the Crowner. These 
lands have now been sold, and the duties 
have been commuted on a monetary pay- 

Since, in recent years, there has been so 
much concentration in legal administration, 
some of the circuits have not been held. 
In the interests of economy perhaps this may 
be necessary, but the pomp and ceremony 
'incident to the occasion impressed the 
multitude with the absolute impartiality 
in the administration of justice, and the 
freedom of approach on the part of the 
lieges if any complaints had to be made. 

Public Library, Kelso. 


THE etymology of the name of the city of 
Worcester has not yet been thoroughly 
elucidated, and I beg leave to advance 
the inquiry a step or two. 

The oldest English form of the name we 
know of is to be found in Hat ton MS. 20 

in the Bodleian Library. This MS., which 
was written about A.D. 895, is the actual 
copy of King Alfred's translation of Pope- 
Gregory's ' Pastoral Care 5 that was sent by 
Alfred's order to the Bishop of Worcester. 
A reproduction of its first lines is given bjr 
Prof. Skeat, Plate I. in his 'Twelve Fac- 
similes of Old English Manuscripts, 5 1892. 
The head-line runs : " )eos Boc sceal to 
Wiogora ceastre, 51 i.e., " This book is to go 
to Worcester.' 5 * The syllables -ora here 
have not yet been correctly explained : they 
represent wara, the genitive case of the 
plural noun ware, people. The disappear- 
ance of initial w from the second element of 
compound words is a frequent phenomenon 
in A.-S. Compare hwUende=*hwll wende, 
transitory ; hldford=*hldf weard, lord ; and 
for other instances see Dr. Joseph Wright's 
' Old English Grammar, 5 1908, 267. A 
close parallel is afforded by the treatment 
of wara in the French form of the name Cant- 
wara-byrig, sc. " Cant-or-bery.' 5 If, then, 
we may argue from analogy, we may say 
that " Wiogora ceastre " equals *Wiog-wara- 

But " Wiog, n with breaking of i into io- 
before g, is not pure West Saxon. It is 
probably Kentish. In that dialect the- 
breaking of i is regularly caused by an o 
or an a coming in the following syllable : 
cf. Wright, u.s., 101, where the Kentish 
forms siocol (sickle) and stiogol (stile) are 
set side by side with the West-Saxon and 
Anglian forms sicol and stigol. For this 
reason we must revert to the common form 
given in the Chronicles, and that is Wigera-, 
Wigra-, Wigre-. This shows that the true 
form is Wig-wara. The appearance of ware 
is rare when compared with that of scete, 
and its use here, as in " Cantwarabyrig," 
suggests that * Wig- wara- ceaster was the 
chief city of a mixed Celtic and Anglo- 
Saxon population, which, like the Centings, 
was known by a modified form of the name 
of the dispossessed Celtic tribe. What the 
actual name of that tribe was is unknown. 

There is an antiquarian belief that the 
Hwiccas were originally called " lugantes."' 
If that belief has no other foundation than 
the reading euigantum ciuitate in the second 
Medici MS. of the ' Annals ' of Tacitus 
(XII. xl., ed. H. Furneaux, 1907, p. 109), it 
may be dismissed at once, because that is 
an error which can be easily explained. The 
editors of Tacitus in many editions hava 
emended it to " e Brigantum ciuitate," 

* For the idiom see Earle's ' Book for the Beginner 
in Anglo-Saxon,' 1884, p. 10. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

and there need be no doubt of their correct- 
ness. The MS. dates from c. A.D. 1000, 
and there are many ancient instances of the 
misrepresentation of b by u (v). Cf . conuetoni 
{with u : : b r ) for Conb r etouium (Peutinger's 
'Tabula,' ssec. XIII., ' Britannia '); cair 
urnach for Cair Brinach (' Historia Brit- 
tonum,' Durham MS., c. 1150; also MSS. 
and P, saec. XII., ed. Mommsen, p. 212, 
No. 26) ; feceuir (with c : : t) for Fetebir 
('Hist. Britt.,* MS. Q, ssec. XIII., p. 160, 
1. 14); uulgam for bulgam (the Leyden Lorica, 
S83C. X., ed. V. H. Friedel, Zeitschrift filr 
celtische Philologie, ii. 64, 1. 17) ; and uedce 
for Bedse (Bede's ' Chronica,' MS. Vaticanus 
3852, ssec. IX., ed. Mommsen, p. 236). 

In the case we are considering the original 
of the second Medici MS. no doubt presented 
e B r igantum ciuitate, and the suprascribed r 
was overlooked by the reader, whose vowel- 
flanked B sounded to the scribe like v, and 
was written down as u. 

This leaves unexplained the facts that the 
Wig-ware called themselves " Wig-" when 
naming their city, and were called " Huicc-" 
by their West-Saxon neighbours. It is not 
quite certain that *Wig-wara-ceaster bears 
the same relationship to Huicc- e* that 
" Cant-wara-ceaster " does to Cent-ingas ; 
but we must remember that an A.-S. form 
huicc- is the rule-right phonetic repre- 
sentative of an Old-Celtic form cuig-, quig-. 
In Alfred Holder's ' Alt-celtischer Sprach- 
schatz,' 1904, ii. 1063, we find " Quigo ' ? 
given as a man's name, and documented by 
reference to an inscription cut at Autun, 
in the second century of our era, in which 
the words " Q. Secund. Quigonis ciuis 
Treueri" appear (' C.I.L.,' xiii. No. 2669). 
If the original name of the Wig-ware was 
*Quig-ware, the word quig- would soon 
have been assimilated to wig, war, by the 
dominant section of the mixed population 
of *Wig-wara-ceaster, to which it was 
meaningless. ALFRED ANSCOMBE. 

30, Albany Road, Stroucl Green, N. 

ENGLAND'S greatest admiral was so con- 
tinuously engaged in adding to the naval 
glories of his country that it is difficult to 
obtain a sight of him during the con- 
viviality of strictly private festivities. Some 
vivid glimpses of him at Dresden are, how- 
ever, afforded to us by Mrs. Col. St. George 
(afterwards the mother of Dean Stanley) in 

* For the meaning of "Hwinca" (=Hwicca), in 
the ' Tribal Hidage,' see 10 S. x. 226. 

1800, which, as they occur in a small privately 
printed work, may be worth publishing, 
perhaps for the first time. Her ' Journal ' 
records : 

" Oct. 2. Dined at the Elliots'. While I was 
playing at chess with Mr. Elliot, the news arrived 
of Lord Nelson's arrival, with Sir William and 
Lady Hamilton, Mrs. Cadogan, mother of the 
latter, and Miss Cornelia Knight, famous for her 
' Continuation of Rasselas,' and ' Private Life of 
the Romans.' " 

Miss Knight wrote ' Dinarbas, a Con- 
tinuation of Rasselas, 1 J 790 ; and also 
' Marcus Flaminius ; or, Life of the Romans,' 
1795. An interesting ' Life of Miss Knight ' 
has been published. 

" Oct. 3. Dined at Mr. Elliot's with only tin- 
Nelson party. It is plain that Lord Nelson thinks 
of nothing but Lady Hamilton, who is totally 
occupied by the same object She is bold, 
forward, coarse, assuming, and vain. . . . 

" Lord Nelson is a little man, without any 
dignity, who, I suppose, must resemble what 
Suwarrow was in his youth, as he is like all the 
pictures I have seen of that general. Lady 
Hamilton takes possession of him, and he is a 
willing captive, the most submissive and devoted 
I have seen .... 

" After dinner we had several songs in honour 
of Lord Nelson, written by Miss Knight, and 
sung by Lady Hamilton. She puffs the incense 
full in his face ; but he receives it with pleasure, 
and snuffs it up very cordially. The songs all 
ended in the sailor's way, with ' Hi]), hip, hip, 
hurra,' and a bumper with the last drop on the 
nail, a ceremony I had never heard of or seen 

" Oct. 4. Accompanied the Nelson party to 
Mr. Elliot's box at the opera. Lady Hamilton 
paid me those kind of compliments which prove 
she thinks mere exterior alone of any con- 
sequence. She and Lord Nelson were wrapped 
up in each other's conversation during the chief 
part of the evening. 

" Oct. 5. Went by Lady Hamilton's invitation 
to see Lord Nelson dressed for Court. On his 
hat he wore the large diamond feather, or ensign 
of sovereignty, given him by the Grand Signior ; 
on his breast the Order of the Bath, the Order 
he received as Duke of Bronte, the diamond star, 
including the s\m or crescent given him by the 
Grand Signior, three gold medals obtained by 
three different victories, and a beautiful present 
from the King of Naples. 

" On one side is his Majesty's picture, richly 
set and surrounded with laurels, which spring 
from two united anchors at bottom, and support 
the Neapolitan crown at top ; on the other is the 
Queen's cypher, which turns so as to appear within 
the same laurels, and is formed of diamonds on 
green enamel. In short. Lord Nelson was a 
perfect constellation of stars and orders. 

" Oct. 6. Dined with Lord Nelson at tin- 
Hotel de Pologne. Went in the evening to a 
concert given to him by Count Marcolini .... 

" From thence went to a party at Countess 
Richtenstein's, Lady Hamilton loading me with 

ii s. i. FEB. 12, MO.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


all marks of friendship at first sight, which I 
always think more extraordinary than love of 
the same kind. 

" Oct. 8. Dined at Madame de Loss's, wife 
to the Prime Minister, with the Nelson party. 
The Electress will not receive Lady Hamilton, 
on account of her former dissolute life. She 
wished to go to Court, on which a pretext was 
made to avoid receiving company last Sunday, 
and I understand there will be no Court while 
she stays. Lord Nelson, understanding the 
Elector did not wish to see her, said to Mr. Elliot, 
' Sir. if there is any difficulty of that sort, Lady 
Hamilton will knock the Elector down, and 

inc. I '11 knock him down too.' She was not 
invited in the beginning to Madame de Loss's ; 
upon which Lord Nelson sent his excuse, and 
then Mr. Elliot persuaded Madame de Loss 
to invite her. 

" Oct. 9. A great breakfast at the Elliots', 
given to the Nelson party. Lady Hamilton 
repeated her attitudes with great effect. All the 
company, except their party ^nd myself, went 
away before dinner ; after which Lady Hamilton, 
who declared she was passionately fond of 
champagne, took such a portion of it as astonished 
me. Lord Nelson was not behindhand, called 
n KIT.- v , .ciferously than usual for songs in his own 
praise, and after many bumpers proposed the 
Queen of Naples, adding, ' She is my Queen ; she 
is Queen to the backbone.' Poor Mr. Elliot, who 
was anxious the party should not expose them- 
selves more than they had already done, and 
wished to get over the last day as well as he had 
done the rest, endeavoured to stop the effusion of 
champagne, and effected it with some difficulty ; 
but not till the Lord and Lady, or, as he calls 
tin -MI, Antony and Moll Cleopatra, were pretty far 
gone. 1 was so tired, I returned home soon after 
dinner, but not till Cleopatra had talked to me 
a great deal of her doubts whether the Queen 
would receive her, adding, 'I care little about it. 
I had much sooner she would settle half Sir 
William's pension on me.' After I went, Mr. 
Elliot told me she acted Nina intolerably ill, 
and danced the Tarantola. During her acting 
Lord Nelson expressed his admiration by the 
Irish sound of astonished applause, which no 
written character can imitate, and by crying 

every now and then, ' Mrs. Siddons be .' 

Lady Hamilton expressed great anxiety to go to 
Court, and Mrs. Elliot assured her it would not 
amuse her, and that the Elector never gave 
dinners or suppers. * What ? ' cried she, ' no 
guttling ! ' Sir William also this evening per- 
formed feats of activity, hopping round the 
room on his backbone, his arms, legs, star and 
ribbon all Hying about in the air." 

The Right Hon. Hugh Elliot, brother to 
Lord Minto, was British Minister at Dres- 
den, and about forty. The next day, by a 
ruse, Mr. Elliot lured Nelson to Hamburg, 
to meet a frigate, which, however, did not 
arrive for several days. 

The above accounts are taken from Mrs. 
St. George's * Journal kept during a Visit 
to C4ermany in 1799-1800,' edited by the 
Dean of Westminster (not published), 1861, 
pp. 75-82. D. J. 

Till Dr. Craigie, who is editing R for our 
great ' New English Dictionary,' asked me to 
define a " rumtum,' 2 and tell him where the 
word came from, I had never heard how it 
happened to be applied to the handy, short, 
single-sculling boat with outriggers and a 
sliding seat which all we scullers know so 
well. The first I saw was at Chester, one 
Sunday morning in August, 1890, or there- 
abouts ; and I was told that it was one of 
Salter's " rumtums " from Oxford. A very 
nice little boat it was ; and many a scull did 
I have in it. But Salters said the other day 
that they were not the inventors of the boat 
or its name ; so I applied to Jack Biffen at 
Hammersmith, and he explains the whole 
thing : 

" Hum turns were first introduced on the 
Thames aboxit 22 years ago by Mr. J. Alexander, 
boat builder, Putney. My boat builder, Mr. 
S. Butler, was apprenticed there ; and why we 
fix the date at 22 years is, he has worked for 
us 17 years, and 3 years at Maidstone, and these 
boats were built while he was apprenticed, the 
first being constructed by T. Robinson, sen. 
The dimensions of the present ones are : length, 
22 ft. ; width, 1 ft. 8 in. ; depth centre, 8 in. ; 
depth aft, 81 in. ; depth forward, 9 in. ; slide, 2 ft. 
long; and spread of riggers (or width), 3ft. 8 in., 
as a sculling boat. The origin of the word I cannot 
vouch for ; but it is a waterside tale that two 
gentlemen in the theatrical profession, whose 
names were Mr. Theodore Gordon, proprietor of 
the Hammersmith Music-Hall, and Mr. Rob. 
Cunningham, chairman of the same hall, each 
had a sailing dinghy of the same pattern : one 
was called ' Rum-turn,' and the other ' Ha-Ha ' 
and Mr. Alexander, struck with the name of the 
former, called his new style of boat after it. It is 
a positive fact that these two gentlemen had these 
boats, as at first they were kept on our raft ; 
but they afterwards took them to Putney. I 
might say that the NeAycastle Christmas Handicap, 
through being rowed in these boats, did a lot to 
make them popular : they were at first open 
boats ; but for the last six or seven years have 
been canvassed in. J. BIFFEN." 

Salters of Oxford say that the dimensions 
of the " rumtum " as given by Biffen are 
practically the same as those of the " whiff " 
at Oxford. The name " rumtum " was, I 
suppose, taken from the chorus of a popular 
song ending " Ri rum turn tiddy i do," or 
something of the kind, which one heard in 
the streets many years ago. A friend tells 
me it is mentioned in Grimaldi's ' Life.' 


bridge History of English Literature,' vol. ii. 
p. 378, Prof. Padelford refers to the influ- 
ence which those dramatic elements in the 
Christmas church - services exercised on 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

-carols prior to the advent of regular mystery 
plays. He quotes in the same place from 
the delightful carol, "Tyrly tirlow, tirly 
terlow ; | So merrily the sheperdis be-gan 
to blow," printed in Anglia, xxvi. 237 ; by 
Wright in ' Songs and Carols,' Percy Society, 
p. 95 ; and from Richard Hill's MS., by 
my friend Roman Dyboski, ' Songs, Carols,' 
Ac., E.E.T.S., p. 11. 

This carol describes the shepherds piping, 
and the angels singing " Gloria in Excelsis," 
a,nd how the shepherds went to the new- 
born Christ. 

This is identical with the Coventry play of 
the Nativity. There the shepherds see 
the star as they sit in the field ; they hear 
the angels sing the ' ' Gloria in excelsis Deo 
they visit Mary and Christ, and make the 
child presents one of his hat, another of 
his pipe, and the third of his mittens. And 
they actually sing two verses of a carol : 

As I rode out this enderes' night, 
Of three jolly shepherds I saw a sight, 
And all about their fold a star shone bright ; 

They sang, Terli, terlow ; 
So merrily the shepherds their pipes can blow. 

Down from heaven, from heaven so high, 
Of angels there came a great company, 
With mirth, and joy, and great solemnity 

They sang, Terli, terlow ; 
So merrily the shepherds their pipes can blow. 

There can be no question that the carol 
and the play are connected in some way. 

Another carol which seems to be connected 
with the shepherd portion of the Coventry 
Nativity play is that printed by Dyboski, 
p. 25 : 

This enders nyght 
I sawe a sight, 
A sterre as bryght 

As any day ; 
& euer a-monge, 
A maydyn songe : 
" Lulley, by, by, lully, lulley ! " 

64, Ripley Road, Seven Kings, Essex. 

" GUFF " : ITS ETYMOLOGY. " Guff " is 
a well-known slang term, with the sense of 
humbug, " bluff.'* "Guff and nonsense" 
is the same as "stuff and nonsense." The 
origin of this word is curious. It is one of the 
very few slang terms which are of undoubted 
Irish extraction. It is a corruption of the 
Gaelic guth, " voice," which would represent 
a primitive Celtic gutus. The change of 
th to the sound of / is interesting. We find 
it again in the surname Brophy, from Gaelic 
Broithe. It also frequently occurs in English 
dialects for instance, the Scotch pronuncia- 
tion of Thursday as Fursday. 
k ^ JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

HERB-STREWING. In Thomas Tusser's 
' Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry,' 
in ' Marches Abstract,' is a list of herbs 
for strewing. It is, I think, interesting in 
connexion with the notes on ' Hereditary 
Herb-strewer to the Royal Family 1 (10 S. 
xii. 289, 354, 418) : 

Strewing Herbs of all sorts. 

Basil fine and busht, sow in May 

Baulme in March 
' Camomil 


Cowslips and Pagles 

Dasses of all sorts 

Sweet Fenel 


Isop set in February 


Lavender spike 

Lavender cotton 

Marjoram knoted, sow or set at the spring 



Roses of all sorts, in January and September 

Red Mints 

Winter Savorie. 

I am quoting from the 1672 edition, in 
which the above is in chap, xxxv., and on 

In The Daily Telegraph for 8 January 
appeared a message from its New York 
correspondent, commencing thus : 

" Legislation is being framed for the State of New 
York to protect the public from motor-car drivers 
guilty of criminal recklessness, more particularly 
that variety called by Americans 'joy riders,' who 
steal their master s car for an excursion, and who, 
when they run over anybody, have not sufficient 
courage to stay and render assistance." 

As there are similarly reckless chauffeurs 
on this side of the Atlantic, the new term 
may be noted. A. F. R. 

PETROL IN 1612. Thomas Tymme in his 
' Dialogue Philosophicall ? (London, 1612), 
writing about CornQlius Dreble's " famous 
motion," has the following passage : 

" By extracting a fierie spirit out of the Minerall 
Matter, ioyning; the same with his proper aire, 
which encluded in the Axel tree [of tlie tirst moving 
wheel] being hollow, carrieth the [other] wheeles, 
making a continuall rotation or revolution except 
issue or vent be given to the hollow axle-tree, 
whereby the imprisoned spirit may get forth." 

To old Bishop Wilkins this sounded 
" rather like a chymical dream than a 
Philosophical truth," but it has been 
realized in our days, with some alteration in 
the mechanism, of course. L. L. K. 

ii s. i. FEB. 12, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


discussion as to the number of acres in 
Yorkshire and letters in the Bible (10 S. xii. 
509 ; 11 S. i. 52) may render the following 
particulars worthy of a place in ' N. & Q.' 
They are from a printed card giving some 
interesting statistics of the Bible, which was 

fiven to me many years ago, and which 
pasted into the centre of my own Bible : 

The Bible. 

The following is a calculation of the number 
of books, verses, and letters contained in the 
Old and New Testaments. They are worth 
reading and preserving. 

Old Testament. Number of books, 39 : chapters, 
929 ; verses, 33, 214 ; words, 592,439 ; letters, 

The middle book is Proverbs. 

The middle chapter is Job xxix. 

The middle verse would be 2 Chronicles xx. 17, 
if there were a verse more, ancfc verse 18 if there 
were a verse less. 

The word " and " occurs 35, 543 times. 

The word " Jehovah " occxirs 6,855 times. 

The shortest verse is 1 Chronicles i. 25. 

The 21st verse of 7th chapter of Ezra contains 
all the letters of the alphabet. 

The 19th chapter of 2 Kings and the 37th 
chapter of Isaiah are alike. 

Neiv Testament. Number of books, 27 ; 
chapters, 260 ; verses, 7,050 ; words, 181,258 ; 
letters, 828,580. 

The middle book is 2 Thessalonians. 

The middle chapter would be Romans xiii. 
if there were a chapter less, and xiv. if there were 
n chapter more. 

The middle and least verse is John xi. 35. 

Old and New Testaments. Number of books 
66 ; chapters, 1,189 ; verses, 40,264 ; words, 
773,697 ; letters, 3,556,680. 

The middle chapter and least in the Bible is 
the 11 7th Psalm. 

The middle verse is Psalm cxviii. 8. 

D. K. T. 

a remarkable blunder about this man in the 
; Dictionary of National Biography,' under 
Charles Hutton of Woolwich, who was his 
grandfather. We are told that Button's 
*' sec6nd daughter married Henry Vignoles, 
captain of the 43rd regiment, and with her 
husband and child died of yellow fever in 
June, 1794, at Guadeloupe, where all were 
prisoners of war." This is correctly quoted 
from The Gentleman's Magazine for 1794, 
part ii., but is erroneous in one important 
respect. The child did not die, but became 
famous as an engineer, and lived to eighty- 
two years of age. I have repeatedly seen 
him at meetings of the Royal Astronomical 
Society, of which he was a Fellow, and have j 
also on several occasions met his son, the 
late Rev. Olinthus Vignoles. An account of 

j the father is given in the ' D.X.B.,' but 
the error under Hutton is not corrected 
in the original edition. This, however, is 
done in the reprint by the omission of the 
words "and child." W T . T. Li 



GLOUCESTER ELECTION, 1761. There were 
many complaints lodged in the King's 
Bench in 1761 against the Mayor and 
Corporation of Gloucester. Among the 
complainants was Richard Hathaway, inn- 
holder, who kept a public inn called ' ' The 
Bull," son of a freeman. But the aldermen 
had made a rule that persons were not to be 
allowed to take up their freedom unless 
they promised to vote one way. Charles 
Hooper, William Culburne, and John Webbe, 
near neighbours of Richard Hathaway, 
witnessed that "he is a person of good 
character and sobriety, and hath kept, and 
now keeps, a regular and orderly house " ; 
and that all the sons of freemen have 
hitherto taken up their freedom. I do not 
know how these complaints came into the 
Lord Chamberlain's office, but about thirty 
of them are preserved there. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct 

fourteenth -century calendar which I am 
editing for publication, at the foot of the 
page is indicated (1) which of the festivals 
are " omnino tenenda," and (2) which are 
" ab operibus feminarum ferianda." The 
first class of notes I have found in several 
Sarum calendars, and also in the calendar 
prefixed to the York missal as edited by 
Dr. Henderson. The second class of notes 
I have not found anywhere else. Dr. Frere, 
however, informs me that he has found such 
notes elsewhere, and recently, he thinks, 
in a calendar at Cambridge. I shall be 
greatly obliged to any reader of ' N. & Q. 1 
who can direct me to any instance of their 
occurrence. JOHN R. MAGRATH. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

Do any of your readers know who was the 
architect of Henry VII.'s Chapel, West- 
minster ? Cottingham in his ' Plans of 
the Magnificent Chapel of King Henry VII.,' 
1822-9, i. 3, says that the King in his 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

will mentions that the windows are to be 
glazed with stories, images, arms, badges, 
and cognizances, according to the designs 
given by him to " the maistre of the Works, 
the Prior of St. Bartilmew's besid' Smyth- 
field.'' Cottingham goes on to say that he 
has no hesitation in assigning the office of 
" the maistre of the works, the Prior of 
St. Bartilmew's," to William Bolton, " the 
last prior but one of that establishment.' 1 

Stow in his ' Survey of the Cities of London 
and Westminster,* 1754, i. 714, describes 
William Bolton as " the last Prior of this 
House [of St. Bartholomew's], and a great 
builder there."' 

Prior Bolton almost certainly was the 
prior who made alterations to the crypt in 
the church in Smithfield, and his rebus, 
a " bolt " through a " tun," may still be 
seen there. An examination of the above 
authorities and of John Weever's ' Ancient 
Funerall Monuments,' 1631, p. 434 ; ' Bio- 
graphia Britannica,' 1780, ii. 573 ; G. 
Worley's ' Priory Church of St. Bartholo- 
mew the Great, Smithfield,' and other books, 
throws no new light on the question. 

Although it appears certain that Bolton 
was not the architect of Henry VII. 's 
Chapel, but was in all probability the 
" maistre of the works," it would be inter- 
esting to know if any other documentary 
evidence exists on this point. 


published Letters of W. S. Landor,' con- 
tributed by the Rev. E. H. R. Tatham to 
the current Fortnightly, Landor writes from 
Florence under the date 23 May, 1823 : 

"I have collected anecdotes of those who have 
been employed by Government on the Continent, 
and will publish them at some future time." 

Did such publication ever take place ? 


me the date of death of Mrs. Hyde (nee 
Amphillis Tichborne), who secreted Charles 
II. at Heale House, Wilts, after the battle of 
Worcester in 1651 ? Registers of Woodford, 
Wilsford, and Durnford have been searched. 

Also, where can the Visitation of Wiltshire,' 
1677, be seen ? It is not at the British 
Museum. R. T. 

Henry Norris, Esq., of Hackney, Middlesex, 
married, 2 May, 1733, Elizabeth Handley, 
daughter of Gervase Handley, of Handley, 
Somerset. Her mother was Elizabeth New- 

berry, and her grandmother was Elizabeth 
Gannock. I shall be obliged if any reader 
can tell me anything of the last two families,. 
Newberry and Gannock. 

H. C. NORRIS, Col. 
Radnor Club, Folkestone. 

I should be glad to obtain particulars as 
to the family to which this officer belonged y 
his services, and the date and place of his 
death. Was he author of any book ? 
His commission as Major was dated 12 March,. 
1754. W. S. 


Can any one in or out of Argyllshire give 
me a record of a McConkey (with or without 
the Me) or McCondey during the seventeenth 
century ? I have a record of a colony of 
Scots who entered Ulster from Argyll- 
shire in 1612. Was there a McConkey or 
McCondey among them ? 

Hartford, Connecticut. 

"MALLAS RIGG.'-' An eighteenth-century 
deed relating to property in this neighbour- 
hood states that a certain individual is 
entitled to " mallas rigg " in another's field. 
The persons, both lawyers and laymen, now 
concerned in the property are unable to 
explain the meaning of "mallas rigg," 
and no term of the kind appears in the glos- 
saries of Cumberland and Westmorland. 
Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' throw light on 
the subject ? DANIEL SCOTT. 

The Laburnums, Penrith. 


Their memory liveth on your hills, 

It liveth on your shore ; 
Your everlasting rivers speak 

Their dialects of yore. 


1. Casting all doubt upon the darker side. 

2. Fixing low motives unto noble deeds. 


KINGLAKE'S ' EOTHEN.' I shall be grate- 
ful if any of your readers can throw light 
on the following points in Kinglake's 
' Eothen l : 

1. What is the " cap of consular dignity 
in the East ? 

2. Who was the " one man above all (now 
uprooted from society) " whom Lady Hester 
Stanhope " blasted with her wrath " ? 

3. " Single-sin ." 

4. " ' The own arm-chair l of our Lyrist's 
' sweet Lady Anne.' ? V. H. C. 

ii s. i. FEB. 12, mo.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


THE WAVES. I shall be glad to know wha 
are the authorities for the tales respectin 
" Alfred and the cakes " and " Canute an 
the waves.' 1 Can any kind friend pleas 
help me ? A. G. 

[The authorities for the Canute story are given a 
9 &. xi. 312.] 

reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me who Mary Ho wit 
was before her marriage ? I do not fin 
the Howitts in the ' D.N.B.,' and I am 
anxious to learn something of their parentag 
and origin. F. H. S. 

[Both Mary Howitt (born Botham) and her hus 
band are in the 4 D.N.B.,' vol. xxviii. pp. 122, 124 
of the original edition.] 

J. J. Stocken includes the following no tic 
of this civic worthy among his MS. note 
on the London Aldermen, now in the Guild 
hall Library : 

''Chad worth, John, K* Mercer. He was dis 
charged from his shrievalty with John Hind (Mayor 
and Henry Vennor (co-Sheriff). Munday's ' Stow 
says he died 7 May, 1401, but as in 1428 he gave a 
parsonage - house, vestry, and churchyard to the 
church of S 1 John Zachary (where he was buried ir 
his own vault), it is probable that year is a mistake 
for 1431. ' 

Had Mr. Stocken any authority for his 
statement beyond Munday ? If not, the 
parish intended is evidently St. Mildred 
Bread Street, and not St. John Zachary 
But as the matter is of some importance to 
my local history of the latter, I shall be glad 
of further evidence, if any can be adduced 
L am not, however, interested in Chad- 
worth's personality unless Mr. Stocken's 
reference be proved correct. 


COMBOLOIO ROSARY. In Byron's ' Works,' 
London, 1900, ' Poetry, 1 edited by Cole- 
ridge, vol. iii. p. 275, note 2, the " Com- 
boloio or Mahommedan Rosary " is men- 
tioned. What language is " Comboloio," 
and where can other information about it be 
found ? j. M< 

the writer of an article on ' Plunder J in 
C/iambers's Journal for January, says : 

"The ordinary burglar frequently does serious 
damage, which may be classified as follows : (1) 
Damage consequent either upon breaking into the 
iHXMinses through internal doors or in the search for 
>oty. (2) Wanton damage done for no apparent 
reason, but sometimes attributable to dis^ustin^ 
superstitions. (3) Malicious damage due to dis- 
sutistaction with haul. The first class must be 

considered inevitable. It is more difficult, how- 
ever, to bear with fortitude losses which are conse- 
quent upon .the second and third class." 
May information as to particulars of the 
" disgusting superstitions " which have such 
unpleasant effect be sought, without im- 
propriety, of ' N. & Q. J ? ST. SWITHIN. 

Battersea Bridge stands an old brick- 
towered church restored in the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, whereon is fixed a 
long marble tablet, with an inscription which 
I could not decipher. I believe the tablet 
was fixed by some family named Chamber- 
lain, and should be glad to know more 
about it. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

collector of mezzotints identify the lady in 
' The Fortune -Teller, 1 painted by the Rev. 
M. Peters ? Names are sometimes found 
written at the back of prints. M. F. H. 

MORE. Daniel Bio we of Wigan, the author 
of ' A View of America * (Liverpool, Fisher, 
1819), prints a lengthy address delivered 
at a council at Buffalo in 1811 by an Indian 
chief known as Red Jacket. The author 
states that " the celebrated oration of 
Logan, a chief of the Mingo tribe, to Lord 
Dunmore when Governor of Virginia had 
been so often published that it would be 
familiar to most readers. " Where can this 
oration be found ? Civis. 

YULE LOG IN CORNWALL. The following 
account of how the ancient custom of bringing 
in the Yule Log is still celebrated at Boyton 
a parish on the borderland of North-East 
Cornwall and North-West Devon is taken 
from a letter of a boy of fourteen, named 
Stanley John Denner, in answer to a question, 
' What did you do at Christmas ? " The 
letter was published in The, Cornish and 
Devon Post (Launceston) of 22 January : 
" Xmas Eve we brought in the Yule Log, 
We have kept up that old custom as long as I can 
emember, and my grandfather always kept it. 
My brothers and I went to the woodstack and 
elected a big log. We put two sticks under it, 
nd each taking an end (there were four of us) 
we carried it in. You must understand that 
we have a large open fireplace which is now seldom 
r never put into new houses. It is six feet 
ong and about -two and a half wide. It would 
>e impossible to put this log in a stove, or even, 
grate. We put the log into the fireplace and 
)ut the fire against it. Into the fire we put a 
mall fragment of last year's log, which helps 
o light the new. It is the old custom to keep a 
ragment of last year's log to light that of next 
ear. If this was not done, the old folk thought 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

that their house would catch fire. Of course, 
I do not believe in this superstition in the least, 
but one year some way or other the fragment 
that we had saved was accidentally burnt. 
Bather strangely, our chimney caught fire the 
same year. If it had not been quickly extin- 
guished it might have become more serious. I 
might add that instead of Yule Log my grand- 
father called it the Christmas Braun. I have 
never heard it called that by any person outside 
this parish. The log burnt well, and we could 
not sit with comfort within two yards of it that 
night. I remember well a very large one that 
we had several years ago. It was so large that 
it burnt all the rest of the week." 

Is the superstition here noted generally 
entertained in regard to the Yule Log ? and 
does not " Christmas Braun " suggest 
" Christmas Brand n ? DUNHEVED. 

Although there are two elaborate works 
dealing with Newgate Prison, neither of 
them gives a clear account of the various 
structural alterations that took place during 
the eighteenth century. The gate itself, 
which spanned Newgate Street and was part 
of the prison, was erected in the reign of 
Charles II. after the Great Fire. In addition 
to the gate there was a block of buildings on 
the south side of Newgate Street, stretching 
down the Old Bailey in the direction of the 
Sessions House. It was in this portion of 
the prison, on the east side presumably, 
adjoining Phoenix Court, that the Press 
Yard was situated a narrow passage, 
54 ft. long by 7 ft. in width, with a set of 
apartments on each of the three stories for 
those prisoners who could afford to pay for 
special accommodation. On 8 Sept., 1762, 
most of the rooms belonging to the Press 
Yard were consumed by fire. From Boswell's 
account of this catastrophe it would appear 
that these rooms were in " the brick part 
built as an addition to the old gaol." The 
fire must have caused Mr. Akerman, the 
governor, much inconvenience, but I can 
find no record of the building being restored. 
Howard, however, writing in 1777, speaks of 
* ' the cells built in old Newgate a few years 
since for condemned malefactors " being 
used still for the same purpose. Little is 
known of the state of the gaol from the 
time of the fire in 1762 until the foundation 
stone of the new prison was laid in 1770 
The building does not seem to have been 
finished until 1778, and though the interior 
was burnt out during the riots of 1780, 
the facade and main structure, allowing for 
minor alterations, remained virtually the 
same until its final demolition. Can any 
one give information respecting the plan 

and architecture of the gaol from 1762 to 
.770, and explain how the prisoners were 

accommodated during the reconstruction 

between the years 1770 and 1778 ? The 
rate itself cannot have been used as a prison 
ater than 1767, for in that year it was pulled 


! wish to learn something of the paternal 
"elatives of Sir James Brooke, Rajah of 
Sarawak. His father was Thomas Brooke 
of the East India Co.'s Civil Service, Bengal. 

ilis grandfather was Brooke of - . 

3is great-grandfather was " Capt. Brooke " 
of . 

By his mother Rajah Brooke belonged to 
he family of Sir Thos. Vyntner or Vintner, 

L.ord Mayor of London in . One of 

Sir Thos. Vintner's descendants married 
;his Capt. Brooke, and it is of Capt. Brooke 
;hat I wish to hear. For if Capt. Brooke was 
any descendant (grandson ?) of the Rev. 
Win. Brooke, then Rajah Brooke is one of 
:he most curious examples of the persistence 
of family peculiarities that can be found. 
Can readers of ' N. & Q.' help me ? 


[Have you consulted the work on Sir James 
Brooke just published by Messrs. Sptheran, 'A 
History of Sarawak under its Two White Rajahs ' ':] 


(11 S. i. 82.) 
MAY I supplement the information so 
interestingly given by R. S. B. ? 

The second edition appeared, not in 1715, 
but in 1689, in 8vo. The title is the same 
as that of 1649 as far as the two Scriptural 
texts, which are omitted, and the publishers 
are different : 

" London, | Printed for H. Twyford, T. Basset, 
B. Griffin, | C. Harper, T. Sawbridge, S. Keble, G. 
Col | lius, J. Place, M. Wotton, and are to | be Sold 
in Fleetstreet and Holborn. 1689." 
The text is practically the same, with the 
addition of 41 oaths not comprised in the 
former edition. I have not attempted to 
classify them, but among the more interest- 
ing may be mentioned the Coronation 
Oaths of Charles II., James II., and William 
and Mary ; oaths and declarations required 
by the penal laws ; those to be taken by the 
Warden and Assistants of the Worsted 
Weavers or master weavers in the city of 
Norwich and county of Norfolk (13 and 
14 Car. II. cap. 5) ; the manufacturers of 

n s. i. FEB. 12, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"Broad Woollen Cloath" in the West Riding 
in the County of York (13 and 14 Car. II. 
cap. 32); Searchers of "Broad Woollen 
Cloath" within the said West Riding; 
the Kidderminster weavers (22 and 23 Car. II. 
cap. 8) ; the Commissioners for settling 
the draining the Fens called Bedford Level 
(15 Car. II. cap. 17) ; poor prisoners not 
worth 101.; " The Oath of a Jury of Women 
returned to try whether a Woman convicted 
that pleads her Belly be quick with Child " ; 
Ale -taster within a Leet ; Surveyor of the 
Moors ; Leather-Searchers, &c. 

The word Tronator, or Tronour in Norman- 
French, is well known as signifying the Keeper 
of the Tron or Public Weigh-Beam. In the 
Calendar of Letter-Book C, Guildhall (Dr. 
Sharpe), p. 118, there is mention of a writ 
to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London (25 May, 
32 Ed. I., A.D. 1304) directing sufficient 
security to be taken for Richard Cristesmesse, 
the King's Troner (tronatore nostro) ; and 
there is plenty of information regarding the 
Tron in the ' Liber Albus ' and ' Liber 
Custumarum, 1 and also references in the 
1 Liber de Antiquis Legibus ' (Camd. Soc.). 
Giles Jacob's 'Law Dictionary' (7thed., 1756) 
gives both Tronage and Tronator. 

The word in the oath of the Knights of 
the Round Table as to which there is some 
doubt is "Title": I have confirmed this 
by a sufficiently well -printed impression of 
the first edition, and it is given as such in 
the second edition. 

The shortest oath in the book appears 
to be ' The Homage of a Temporall Lord * 
(p. 246), and not the oath mentioned by 
R. S. B., viz., " that given in 1605 by Henry 
Garnet, the .Jesuit," which is 9 lines in 
length, against 7|. in the former. With 
regard to the latter oath, the Bishop of 
Lincoln in his ' Gunpowder Treason,' 1679, 
states: "This oath was by Gerrard the 
Jesuit given to Catesby, Piercy, Christopher 
Wright [on p. 94 he says " John Wright "], 
and Thomas Winter, at once, and by 
Greenwel the Jesuit to Bates at another 
time, and so to the rest " ; and on p. 94 
he also states : ' ' They all were confessed, 
had Absolution, and received thereupon the 
Sacrament by the hands of Gerrard the Jesuit 
then present." The Bishop and the com- 
piler of ' The Book of Oaths ' are thus at 
variance as to which of the two Jesuits 
administered the oath. 

The " clothes " that were shipped by the 
Merchant Advent urn- were not his apparel, 
but his bales or pieces of cloth, as is shown 
by the Index: "Merchant for the true 
shipping Cloth to the Mart Towne." 

The Midwife's Oath is not the longest, 
that of the " Deputy of the Tonne of 
Calice," 'ordered by Parliament in 27 Hen. 
VIII. (pp. 151-8), being practically eight 
pages in length, whilst the midwives have 
to be content with nearly six. 


" YON "- : ITS USE BY SCOTSMEN (11 S. i. 
43). MB. BAYNE writes with authority 
on all matters connected with the Scottish 
language, and it is with great diffidence th^t 
one ventures to dissent from any statement 
of his on the subject. I cannot, however, 
think that he is correct in his views as to 
the use of the word " yon."- It is in my 
experience constantly used, in the West of 
Scotland at all events, with the meaning of 
"this" or "that." I cannot, of course, tell 
what the " verger " (who no doubt was the 
" beadle " ) actually said when he saw William 
Morris, but I should certainly have ex- 
pected him to use the expression reported 
by Mr. Noyes, and ask, " Wha 's yon ? "' 

The story of " Sandy c? Baird and the 
Pyramids, like many of the yarns fathered 
on that worthy, may very probably be 
apocryphal. Having, however, known in- 
timately many of his friends and contem- 
poraries, from whom I have heard many 
of his stories, which they asserted they had 
themselves actually heard him tell, I have 
no hesitation in saying that, if Sandy did 
ask the question recorded by MB. BAYNE, 
he would have used the word " yon " in the 
sense of " these things." 

I cannot, moreover, think that MB. BAYNE 
has been very happy in his selection of 
quotations from Burns in support of his 
contention. In the line 

Ye see yon birkie, ca'd a Lord, 
" yon " surely means no more than " that,"' 
and does not necessarily involve any idea 
of distance. So, too, in the lines quoted 
from ' Mary Morison,* 

Tho' this was fair, an' that was braw, 
An' yon the toast of a' the town, 

" yon '* only means " that other one," and 
does not imply she was at a greater distance 
than the other ladies referred to. 

The use of the word in such a sense may be 
a Scotticism, or a vulgarism, or an offence 
against grammar and good taste, but the 
fact remains that it is common in Scotland 
at the present day. T. F. D. 

It is rather sad that MB. BAYNE'S excel- 
lent article should contain a reference to 
" the survival of the earlier ' thon,' " which 
is a different word altogether. " Yon ll is 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

cognate with the Goth, jains and the Ger- 
jener. There is one most remarkable fact 
about the use of the word, viz., that, 
although it must have been a common word 
in Anglo-Saxon, it only occurs once ; and 
it is not in Bosworth's ' A.-S. Dictionary.' 
And yet when Dr. Sweet came to edit King 
Alfred's translation of Gregory's ' Pastoral 
Care, 2 there it is, at p. 443, used in the most 
natural way, and duly provided with the 
fern. dat. suffix -re : " Aris, and gong to 
geonre byrg " ; i.e., Arise, and go to yon 

" Yon, ?i " yonder,' 5 are used here in the 
sense pointed out by MB. BAYNE that is, 
of a more or less distant object or person. 
" Wh'aat r s yon ? " is a very common expres- 
sion, also " ower yonder.' 1 R. B B. 

South Shields. =iisi ^_ 

DBINKING TOBACCO (10 S. xii. 369, 454). 
The meaning of Accipitrinum Prandium, 
about which MB. PIEBPOINT asks a question, 
is explained by the following passage in 
Sir Thomas Browne : 

" As for what Aristotle affirmeth, that hawks 
and birds of prey drink not ; although you know 
that it will not strictly hold, yet I kept an eagle 
two years, which fed upon cats, kitlings, whelps, 
and rats, without one drop of water."' Miscellany 
Tracts,' V. ad fin. 

What Aristotle, however, says ('Hist. An., 1 
viii. 3, 17,' and 18, 3) is that birds of prey, 
with some slight exceptions, do not drink at 
all. With respect to the claim of accipitrinus 
to a place in Latin dictionaries, accipitrina is 
now the received reading in Plautus, ' Bac- 
chides,' 274, where it may be the adjective. 
Accipitrina as the name of a plant is quoted 
by more than one authority from the fifth- 
(or fourth-) century ' De Herbarum Virtuti- 
bus J (Apuleius Barbarus). 

The idiom of " drinking tobacco " is found 
in Latin versifiers of the seventeenth century. 
Bibere, haurire, and potare occur several 
times in Raphael Thorius's poem on the 
weed for instance, lib. i. 214, 

Et simul alternis funium potare cicutis. 
But the best example is in Caspar Barlseus's 
' ^Enigmata,' Tabacum, which begins : 

Non bibor, et bibor, et populo sum potus, et haud 


Mandor ab Occiduis, nee tamen esca fui. 
Horace's fumum bibere (' Odes,* III. viii. 11) 
is curiously anticipative. 


To the replies that have already appeared 
I may add that in Persian they say huqqa 
or qdlydn kdshlddn = to " draw." the huqqa ; 

and kdshldan is the word generally used of 
smoking. Of liquids they use nushlddn io 
drink, but more usually khiirddn = to eat ; 
thus chae khtirddn=to drink (eat) tea. In the 
Indian languages, including the Dravidian 
languages of South India, the word used is 
" drink " (plna, &c.). But it is noticeable 
that in Bengali they use khdwa, which means 
" to eat " ; thus chiirut khdwa = to smoke ; 
cha khdwa = to drink tea. In Hindi the 
phrase is tambaku plna = to smoke, while 
tambaku khdna = to chew tobacco. 


Chapman in his comedies has pointed 
references to tobacco. The following lines, 
from ' All Fools,* Act II. sc. i., leave no 
doubt as to how the Elizabethans described 
its use : 

And for discourse in my fair mistress' presence 

I did not, as you barren gallants do, 

Fill my discourses up drinking tobacco. 

W. B. 


i. 85). This surname is frequently to be 
met with in Oxfordshire records. I have 
occasionally found it abbreviated into 
Osbaston, the second and third syllables 
being run into one, owing, perhaps, to rural 
pronunciation and phonetic spelling. 


FUNEBAL PLUMES (11 S. i. 10, 73). An 
earlier example of the use of plumes at a 
funeral occurs in the ' Obsequies of Certain 
of the Family of Blackett of Newcastle,' 
one of " Richardson's Reprints of Rare 
Tracts," Newcastle, 1843-8. Sir William 
Blackett the second, five times M.P. for 
Newcastle, died in London in the early part of 
December, 1705, and his body was brought, 
by a series of stately marches, to be interred 
in the parish church of his Northern home. 
Among the items of expense are : 

" A Herse and Six horses for the Body, two 
Mourning Coaches to attend it, w th a Shafts 
Marine, each drawn by Six Horses, at 361. a piece, 
is 144Z. 

"17 Plumes of Feathers for the Herse and 
Horses the Journey, 6Z." 

While the body lay in London it had been 
proposed to have a rail round it, " covered 
w th velvet and Black plumes of feathers,"' 
at a cost of 3Z. ; but this was not accepted. 


The instances given by MB. DOUGLAS and 
W. S. at the latter reference are certainly 
interesting, as taking us further back than 
the date given in the ' H.E.D.' ; but still 

ii s. i. FKB. 12, i9K>.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the origin of the custom remains unaccounted 
for. Having occasion to refer to the exact 
meaning of the arms of the London Company 
of Coachmakers, I imagine that the solution 
will be found there. The Golden Boy and 
the Naked Boy, as representing Phaethon, 
is represented in the crest of that guild ; 
while the supporters are : 

" Two horses argent, harnessed and bridled sable, 
studded or, garnished gules, housings azure, fringed 
and purified of the third ; each horse being adorned 
on the head with a plume of four feathers of the fol- 
lowing colours, viz., or, argent, azure, and gules." 

I rather think that, so far as funeral plumes 
are used to-day, or were until latterly, they 
were four in number on each horse's head. 
Do I remember rightly ? 


i. 88). The quotation from Byron is in- 
exact. For "Highland's " read "High- 
lands' "' ; and for "owns ?? read "shows " : 

He who first met the Highlands' swelling blue 
Will love each peak that shows a kindred hue. 

It is from ' The Island,' Canto II. st. xii. 11. 
9, 10. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

and ETHEL M. TURNER also supply the reference.] 

BROOKE OF COBHAM (11 S. i. 29, 98). 
With reference to MR. MACMICHAEL'S reply, 
it may be mentioned that Mr. Edward 
Brooke of Ufford Place has an elder brother, 
Lieut. -Col. Reginald Brooke, formerly of 
the 1st Life Guards, who thus would appear 
to be the present representative of the 
Brookes of Cobham. 


Sehloss Rothberg, Switzerland. 

i. 9). At the risk of incurring the reproach 
of " carrying coals to Newcastle," I would 
venture to remind MR. W. J. HAY that a 
paper by Mr. Bruce J. Home, entitled ' The 
Cannon Ball House,' is promised to be 
included in the volume for 1909 of ' The 
Book of the Old Edinburgh Club,' shortly 
to be published. W. SCOTT. 

COUNT BOOKSELLER (10 S. xii. 481, 501). 

MR JOHN C. FRANCIS in his second article 
refers to the large sale of the first number 
of The Comhill as being then without pre- 
cedent in serial literature. He does not 
make any mention of the great number 
disposed of by Mr. J. F. Dunn, who had 
then recently begun business as a second- 
hand bookseller at the corner of Skinner 
Street and Farringdon Street in the Holborn 

Valley. He sold each copy at ninepence. 
which was a new departure in the book- 
trade, and thereby, I believe, became the 
first discount bookseller, a fact that seems 
worth recording. The wholesale trade tried 
to stop the supply, but failed. 

Wood Green. 

SOWING BY HAND (11 S. i. 46). In Moritz 
Retzsch's ' Outlines to the Song of the Bell ' 
(' Umrisse zu Schiller's Lied von der Glocke,' 
Stuttgart und Tubingen, 1843), plate 31, 
is a sower sowing with his left hand. His 
right arm holds up his loose outer garment, 
apparently to form a bag for the seed. He 
is walking in a furrow. 


The design of the sower on the cover of 
The Comhill is not a faithful representation 
of one sowing grain broadcast. The attitude 
is altogether wrong, for the sower seems to 
be running. The sower really goes along 
at a steady pace, in rhythm with the action 
of sowing the corn in front of him, using 
right and left hand alternately. This 
method ensures an even distribution, for the 
step is timed with the movement of the 
hands. The sower throws from "a skep " 
slung from his neck or shoulders. I 
have seen a bushel measure used as a skep, 
and this measure would not be a light 
weight when nearly full. There is a con- 
siderable art in the "throws'' right to left 
on the part of the sower. 

Neither the man with the flail nor the 
reaper is in correct pose : they are too stiff. 
The last word will also fit the man at the 
plough, which otherwise is fairly accurate. 

Work sop. 

(11 S. i. 69). I would add to the editorial 
note that the A.-S. Wealh, a Celt, is now 
regarded as derived from the name (Volcce) 
of a tribe of Southern Gaul, to which it 
corresponds phonetically. In Middle High 
German Walhen continued to be applied 
to the French and Italians, and the Slavonic 
languages took it over in that sense ; thus 
Polish Wloski, Bohemian Vlassky, Slovenian 
Laski, all mean Italian, though answering 
in form to our word Welsh. I am surprised 
to see that in ' The Century Cyclopaedia 
of Names * the Welsh are described as 
" the members of the Celtic race indigenous 
to Wales." Modern anthropological dis- 
coveries have made it certain that, in the 
words of Sir John Rhys, only " a mere 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

sprinkling " of the Welsh are Celts. It 
cannot be too often repeated that the Celts 
were a tall, fair people, and that the short, 
slender type of Welshman, with dark 
hair and eyes, represents a far older stock 
Silurian or Iberian among which the Celts 
came as conquerors. JAS. PLATT, Jim. 

[We regret that this is probably the last com- 
munication that we shall have the privilege of 
printing in ' N. & Q.' from the pen of MR. PLATT. 
See post, p. 140.] 

In the Eggen-Tal in Tirol is the village of 
Welschnofen, while on the plateau between 
the Eggen-Tal and the Adige is the village 
of Deutschnofen. Both villages are now 
German-speaking, but presumably the former 
was so called from being at one time populated 
by an Italian-speaking colony from the Val 
di Fassa, just as Mezzo tedesco or Mezzo - 
corona, over against Mezzolombardo, was 
originally German-speaking and called Kron- 

WILLIAM WYNNE RYLAND (10 S. xii. 383). 
In many of the accounts of this famous 
engraver it is stated that he gained a medal 
at the Academie Royale in Paris. The 
following paragraph from The Public Adver- 
tiser confirms this statement, and helps to 
indicate the exact period of Ryland's resi- 
dence in the French capital : 

"Monday, Sep. 20, 1756. The Prize Medal 
given by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris 
for Drawing was won last month by Mr. William 
Byland, son of Mr. Byland, printer of this city." 


TO PARLIAMENT (11 S. i. 108). The Rev. 
George Pearce Gould, the President of the 
Baptist College, Regent's Park, kindly writes 
in reference to the question whether Mr. Sil- 
vester Horne, the well-known minister of 
Whitefield's Tabernacle, Tottenham Court 
Road, is the first Nonconformist minister to 
sit in Parliament : 

"If you waive any seeming anachronism in apply- 
ing the term Nonconformist to a Dissenter prior to 
the time of Charles II., I should cite the case of 
Mr. P. Barebone. He was a notable preacher, and 
he appears to have been pastor of a congregation 
in London (see Walter Wilson's ' Dissenting 
Churches,' vol. i. pp. 46 if.). There is reason to 
think that Barebone was still exercising his func- 
tion of pastor when he obtained a seat in Cromwell's 
Parliament of 1653." 

References have been frequently made in 
' N. & Q.' to Praise- God Barebones, including 
3 S. i. 211, 253. At the latter W. H. stated : 

"In 1653 Cromwell nominated persons to form a 
convention or parliament. Bar bone was one of the 
seven Londoners selected. Of this convention 

Rons was president, but the Stuart faction appear 
to have thought Praise-God Barebones a droller 
name than any .they could extract from Rous, and 
hence termed the Parliament derisively P.-G. 
Barebone's Parliament." 

quotes from the Church Register of St. 
Andrew, Holborn, of 5 January, 1679-80, 
the statement that " Praise God Barebone" 
was buried " At ye ground near ye Artillery," 
and adds that "his death has nowhere been 
recorded." See also 'D.N.B.,' first edition, 
vol. iii. pp. 151-3. 

It is curious in reference to Ipswich, for 
which Mr. Horne has been returned, that a 
tract should be published with the following 
title-page : 

"That wicked and blasphemous petition of Praise 
God Barbone and his sectarian crew, presented to 
that so-called the Parliament of the Common- 
wealth of England, Feb. 9, 1659, for which they had 
the thanks of that House, anatomized. Worthily 
stiled by his excellency the Lord Generall Monck, 
Bold, of dangerous consequences and venemous. 
By a lover of Christ and his Ordinances, 
Ministers and their calling, Parliaments and their 
Freedome ; the Town of Ipswich, her peace and 
prosperity, Civil and Ecclesiasticall, being some- 
times an Inhabitant there. Printed by Philo- 
Monarchseus (4 April, 1660)." 
Barbon is here pronounced "worthy of all 
dedignation, indignation, and abomination." 
1 In or about 1880 there was an Irish 
Presbyterian minister in the House of 

The Rev. Silvester Horne is not the first 
Dissenting Minister to enter the House of 
Commons. Mr. Joseph Brotherton, who 
was M.P. for Salford from 1832 until his 
death in 1857, was the minister of the 
Bible Christian Church, Salford (1816-57). 

Another instance is that of the famous 
Free Trade orator William Johnson Fox, 
M.P. for Oldham, who was at the same time 
minister of South Place Chapel, Finsbury. 


The Liberator for February says : 
" The Church Times desires to raise the point 
whether the minister of a Nonconformist congre- 
gation should be excluded from the House of 
Commons under the same Standing Order which 
excludes the Established clergy. The point does 
not affect Dr. Leach, who still ranks as a Congre- 
gational minister, because he has resigned his 
charge, but Mr. Silvester Horne has no intention 
of resigning Whitefield's. Mr. Edward Miall 
and Mr. Henry Richard were both ordained as 
Congregational ministers, but they had ceased to 
be pastors in charge long before they entered 
Parliament. Mr. George Nicholls was a paid lay 
pastor before entering the last Parliament, but he 
resigned his charge upon his election. But there 

ii s. i. FEB. 12, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


are two or three instances of ministers in charge 
who sat in Parliament. Mr. W. J. Fox, minister 
of South Place Chapel, Finsbury (Unitarian) 
-at for Oldham. Mr. Ball sat as Conservative 
member of Cambridgeshire, representing the farm- 
ing interest while he was the minister of a Baptist 
congregation. In more recent times Mr. W. S. 
Caine was the pastor of a congregation at Vaux- 
hall. He ranked as a lay pastor, and was unpaid 
but he was to all intents and purposes a minister.' 


The Rev. J. A. Picton, once a Congre- 
gational minister at Leicester and in other 
places, was elected M.P. for Leicester in 
1883 and 1886. He retired, owing to failing 
health, in 1894. L. T. RENDELL. 

[MR. H. B. CLAYTON also thanked for reply. An 
obituary of Mr. Picton appears in last Monday's 
Daily Telegraph.} 

SWIFT AT HAVISHAM (11 . i. 8). I cannot 
find any Havisham, but there is a Haversham 
in Bucks, near Newport Pagnell. Does 
this help ? T. M. W. 

"TALLY," CARD TERM (11 S. i. 87). 
At faro the banker holds one of the packs 
of cards in his hand, and deals them out two 
at a time, paying on one and receiving on 
the other, according to the stakes made by 
the players on the cards of the other pack. 
The operation of going through the pack 
in this way, until it is exhausted, is called 
in French la taille. Similarly, to act as 
banker at faro and such games is called 
tailler, because the banker " fait la taille," 
i.e., goes through the pack as described 
above. See Littre's dictionary, s.v. 

T. F. D. 

"TALLY-HO": "YOICKS" (11 S. i. 48, 
93). Chap. xlii. of "La Venerie de lacques 
du Fouilloux," Edition L. Favre (Niort, 
1888), a reprint of the Poitiers edition of 
1561, may throw some light on the origin 
of the word " tally-ho." The chapter in 
question is headed ' Comme il faut sonner 
de la Trompe,' and on fo. 42, verso, occurs 
this passage : 

Semblablement si Irs pi<|ururs so trouuent 

an delimit ilcs rhii'iis, ft qu'ils \oynit le cerf, 

e doiuent passer deuant, puia Eorhuer et parler 
au\ rhi.-Ms ainsi, Thin hilluml. Thin " 

The music is given for this ; and on fo. 44, 
verso, is : 

' Kt aussi quand les piquours vmidmnt fain- la 
curee aux rhi<>ns, faut qu'ils forhuent et crient 
ius< pit -s -i ce qu'ils soient tous v.-nus, en cette 
niani.-iv. Thi-im I,- //,/,/, Ihctni. /> hnn," 
also with music. 

Surely one or other of these expressions, 
possibly the latter, offers an origin for the 

English word " tally-ho." This suggestion 
was made in Gent. Mag., 1789, pt. ii. pp. 
784-5, by " Observator,"' with others for 
the words hoix (modern " Yoicks ! ") and 
hark forward. JOHN HODGKIX. 

The following explanation of " tally-ho," 
proffered by Brewer in ' Phrase and Fable,' 
may be worth quoting : 

"Tally-ho is the Norman hunting cry, Taillis 
an! (To the coppice). The tally-ho was used 
when the stag was viewed in full career making 
for the coppice. We now cry ' Tally-ho ! ' when 
the fox breaks cover. The French cry is Thia 


Is not " tally-ho " merely a call to the 
" field " to keep on the heels of the hounds 
and the huntsman that is, to keep tally 
with them ? It would not apply to those 
who were already " leading the field. 1 * 
And what is the meaning of ' ' yoicks " ? 


Thia hillaut is found in the ' Venerie l of 
Jaques de Fouilloux, 1585, 4to, fo. 12, " Ty 
a hillaut et Valliey," which is set to music 
on pp. 49 and 50. The English " tally-ho n 
seems to be of later origin. The name of 
Sir Toby Tallyho is given to a roistering 
character in Foote's play ' The Englishman 
returned from Paris,' 1753. 


MILTON ON THE PALM (10 S. xii. 67). The 
technical definition of a branch is " a short 
or secondary stem growing from the main 
stem, or from a principal limb or bough of a 
tree, or other plant," while of the palm it 
is said that " the trunk is usually erect, and 
arely branched, and has a roughened ex- 
erior, composed of the persistent bases of 
the leaf-stalks."' Besides this, a& the 
branches of the palm are given off at the 
apex of the tree, somewhat after the fashion 
of an umbrella, this plant is regarded by 
Botanists as having closer affinities with 
orchids, lilies, and the grasses, than with the 
najority of exogenous or dicotyledonous 

Hence it follows that the term " branch - 
ng " as applied by the poet to the palm, is 
Tom the modern scientific point of view open 
to exception ; nevertheless, there can be no 
question that in the language of poetry 
Vlilton was fully justified in his use of the 
word to denote the arms of that denizen of 
the tropical forest. The possibility of the 
yew being referred to instead, in the passages 
cited, seems far too remote a conjecture to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ui s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

be seriously entertained by those who are The words, on the face of them, resemble 
familiar with Milton's works. It may also be less the polished language of a playwright 

than the rough-and-ready eloquence of the 
It is inconceivable that any 

worth noting that the French name for Palm 
Sunday is " Jour des Rameaux," literally 
the Day of Branches, a designation which 
was bestowed on it because of the palm 
branches that were borne by the Jewish 
populace on the occasion of Christ's 
triumphal entry into Jerusalem. 

N. W. HILL. 
New York. 

"MAN IN A QUART BOTTLE" (10 S. xii. 
289). On the 16th of January, 1749, a 
crowded audience filled the Haymarket 
Theatre, London, to witness a conjuror 

stump orator. 

playwright in the eighteenth century should 
have risked his popularity by reflecting so 
offensively on the drinking habits of his 
countrymen. Consequently I venture to 
suggest that the " old playwright " had no 
actual existence, and that the words put 
into his mouth belong to modern days. 


LOVELS OF NORTHAMPTON (10 S. xii. 489 ; 
11 S. i. 54). The tradition that the last 
Lord Lovel had two sons, who grew up and 


perform several astonishing feats among left descendants, may be safely dismissed 

them that of jumping into a quart bottle ^ fiction - This is proved by the descent of 

The conjuror, of course, failed to appear the baron y of Beaumont, which was called 

and a formidable riot was the result the out of abe y ance in favour of a descendant 

theatrical property being wholly destroyed of one of Love J' s sisters. This could not 

by the dupes whose credulity had victimized have happened had there been even a sus- 

them. An account of the affair was printed P icion *** he * left descendants. 

in The General Magazine for January 1749 The earli est known ancestors of the family 

were hereditary butlers of Normandy in 

a copy of which is now before me 

In Timbs's ' Romance of London,'- under the latter part of the eleventh century, as 
e headin The Bottl ' w ell T as hereditary constables of the castle 

? f ^ ^ * ,% stat * ment * hat * w 
According to Timbs, the whol affar was a > esters, father and son, fought at 


the heading The Bottle Conjuror ' p. 177, 
the same event is described in greater Detail f 

" foolish experiment on the credulty othe 
public.' 5 It arose out of a wager between 
the Duke of Montague and Lord Chesterfield 
the latter of whom is reported to have said : 
f Surely, if a man should say that he would 
jump into a ? quart bottle, nobody would 
leve that.- The Duke accepted the 

Senlac > I believe that there is no record 



< THE CANADIAN BOAT SONG ? (11 S. i. 81). 
_We must go warily in drawing conclusions 

mentioned above. 

venture to submit that this foolish 

challenge. An advertisement duly appeared as to the authorship of this lyric, and in 
n V stating that at a certain particular we must not attach too much 

specified time and place a person would get importance to what, after all, may be a mere 
into a tavern quart bottle and perform literary device. It was quite in keeping- 
other extraordinary feats. The result was as w i t h the methods of those responsible for the 

early Blackwood to indicate fanciful origins 
for contributions, and even to assign both 

experiment was the origin of the phrase articles and poems to possible and impossible 
" man in a quart bottle.'* It had nothing writers. Those who created the Odontist 
whatever to do with drinking customs, and developed the Ettrick Shepherd into 
but referred only to the credulity which the one of the strongest and most engaging 
Englishman no doubt shares in common with mythical figures in English literature cannot 
the Scotsman and the Irishman. The words in all cases be judged according to the strict 
Believe it ? Believe anything ! No canons of critical estimate. One of them 
swallow like an Englishman's. A man in a might say, as in this instance, "I have the 
quart bottle or a victory, it 's all one following song from a friend of mine now 
down it goes ! " are merely significant of in Upper Canada,'' and yet have no more 
the length to which human credulity may ground for his assertion than he had for 
proceed. Chesterfield's remark, quoted producing numerous lyrics of a captivating 
above, is probably the nucleus around order and deliberately attributing them to 
which, in course of time, the words attri- 
buted to the " old playwright n have 

gathered. I can hardly believe that any to perplex the Shepherd very much in the 
old playwright ever used such expressions. I early days of Maga. He would professedly 

his contemporary, "Dr. 
Miller Street, Glas 

James Scott, 7, 
Lockhart used 

ii s. i. FEB. 12, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


give his rural visitor abundance of informa- 
tion regarding the writers who astonished 
the world month after month, sending him 
among his associates brimful of extravagant 
and startling fictions. " Then," says the 
reminiscent narrator, 

"away I flew with the wonderful news and, if 

ttny remained incredulous, I swore the facts down 
through them ; so that before I left Edinburgh I 
was accounted the greatest liar that was in it 
except one." 

Altogether, unless we get more evidence as 
to the Canadian origin of the song than the 
literary statement regarding its transmission 
from a friend, we shall not be justified in 
accepting it as a fact, any more than the 
enthusiastic and credulous Shepherd was 
warranted in believing what he was solemnly 
told about the masterly achievements of 
Peter Robertson, Sheriff Cay, Dr. Scott, 
Sam Anderson, and the rest. 


BASIL GOODE (10 S. xii. 387). Will 
TRIN. COLL. CAMS, permit me to suggest 
that his blazon of the book-plate is hardly 
heraldic ? If, as is probable, the Tudor 
roses are cinquefoils, and some allowance 
be made for engraver's faults, it would 
possibly read : ' ' Gules, on a chevron 
between three lions rampant or, as many 
cinquefoils of the first.' 1 This is the coat of 
Goode of Whetstone, Cornwall, entered at 
the 1620 Visitation ; but the crest is that of, 
or similar to, the Goods of Lincoln, Wilt- 
shire, and Worcester. The motto, however, 
does not fit either of these families. But as 
mottoes and crests were frequently changed 
on marriage with an heiress, or without 
; ' rime or reason," this is of little moment. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

THE YEW IN POETRY (10 S. xii. 388, 436, 
477). The yew is generally associated in 
old authors with the English long-bow : 
All nuulr of Spanish yew, their bows were wondrous 

strong ; 

They not an arrow drew, but was a clothyard long. 

Dray ton. 

F. A. W. 


AUTHORITY (11 S. i. 68). After the victory 
of Lewes on 28 May, 1 264, Henry of Montfort 
(eldest son of Simon and Eleanor of Eng- 
land, and godson of Henry III.) was made 
Constable of Dover Castle, Governor of the 
Cinque Ports, and Treasurer of Sandwich. 
In this capacity he gained the nickname of 
"" the wool -merchant," enforcing the pro- 

hibition laid by the new Government on 
the export of wool so strictly that he was 
accused of seizing the wool for his own 
profit. As Constable of Dover he had for 
some time the custody of his captive cousin, 
the Crown Prince Edward. He fell at 
Evesham, 4 Aug., 1265. A. R. BAYLEY. 

VOLTAIRE ON LOVE (10 S. x. 69). MR. 
R. L. MORETON wished to know whether 
the thought of the distich, 

Qui que tu sois, voici ton maitre 
II Test, le fut, ou le doit etre, 

had previously appeared in a classical dress. 
Byron in a note on ' The Island, 1 Canto IV. 
192 (Stanza ix.), 

For love is old, 

Old as eternity, but not outworn 
With each new being born or to be born, 
says : 

"The reader will recollect the epigram of the 
Greek anthology, or its translation into most of 
the modern languages 

Whoe'er thpu art, thy master see 
He w r as, or is, or is to be." 

But Mr. E. H. Coleridge's comment on this 
in his one-volume edition of Byron's poetical 
works is : 

" Byron is quoting from memory an * Illustra- 
tion ' in the notes to ' Collections from the Greek 
Anthology,' by the Rev. Robert Bland, 1813, p. 402 

Whoe'er thou art, thy Lord and master see, 
Thou wast my Slave, thou art, or thou shalt be. 

The couplet was written by George Granville, 
Lord Lansdowne (1667-1735), as an ' Inscription for 
a Figure representing the God of Love 5 (see the 
4 Genuine Works,' &c., 1732, i. 129)." 


THOMAS CREEVEY (10 S. xii. 146). Capt. 
Gronow in his ' Reminiscences, 4 Second 
Series, pp. 49-50, relates the interview of 
Creevey with the Duke of Wellington. 

There is a reference to Creevey in ' The 
Greville Memoirs,' i. 235 and ii. 194. 

In ' The New Annual Register,' under 
date 6 Sept., 1810, we read : 

" George Payne, Esq., nephew of Creevey, 

Esq., M.P., shot in a duel. Mr. Payne was 
younger son of Ren6 Payne, Esq., deceased, who 
left him a fortune of 14,OOOZ. a year. He left a 
widow (Miss Grey) and four children." 

There was recently a letter advertised in a 
second-hand bookseller's catalogue, dated 
about 1814, from Lord Brougham to H. S. 
Fox : 

" I shall go to Whitbread's for a few days, and 
Sheridan and Creevey are both under a compact 
to go there at the same time." 




NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

Campion's Works. Edited by Percival Vivian. 

(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

WE always expect good matter and a good text 
when we see the brown coat and white label of 
the Clarendon Press. In this case we are certainly 
not disappointed. Mr. Vivian's Introduction 
represents a notable advance in our knowledge 
of a lyricist who must appear in every represen- 
tative collection of English poetry. 

Campion does not figure in Palgrave's * Golden 
Treasury,' having been discovered, or rediscovered, 
after that volume came into being. Mr. A. H. 
Bullen's privately printed edition of his works in 
1889 is a landmark in this respect. The one 
before us is due to fresh matter procured by Mr. 
Vivian when he was working on an edition of the 
poet for " The Muses' Library." He has followed 
up clues with such success as to add much to 
Campion's life. Hitherto the date 'of his birth 
has been given with a query ; now it is settled as 
12 February, 1567. John Campion, his father, 
was a " Cursitor " who drew up the writs of the 
Court " de cursu," according to routine, and his 
office or Inn was near, or possibly on the site of, 
the present Cursitor Street. John died in 1576 ; 
his wife Lucy married again in 1577, and died in 
two years' time. Her second husband also 
married again, a widow ; and the widow's son 
and the poet were soon packed off to Peterhouse, 
and entered as gentlemen pensioners. Anticipat- 
ing the poetic tradition, Campion did not take 
a degree at Cambridge, but appears to have gone 
to London to indulge in a wild career, partly 
excused by his ignorance of life. His Latin 
poems, which are very free in expression, and not 
modelled on Martial for nothing, explain this. 
He probably got at Cambridge his zeal for Latin 
poetry and his own proficiency in the art. We 
must leave further details of the poet's life to 
readers of Mr. Vivian's volume, who will, we hope, 
be many. 

A sound view is expressed of Campion s lucu- 
brations on metre contained in his ' Observations 
on the Art of English Poesie.' Into so vexed a 
domain it is not profitable to enter. Suffice it to 
say that the ' Observations ' are worth reading, 
though, like other excellent persons of a much 
later date, Campion does not seem to appreciate 
the difference between quantity and accent. A 
number of rules of an arbitrary sort are added 
at the end of the treatise. 

The various books of ' Ayres ' give us much 
of beauty and grace. Campion was clearly a 
master of the art of love, and when he throws 
off the affectations of the Euphuist, he produces 
verse which reminds us of Herrick. We do not 
profess to understand his hints on the technical 
side of music. We have, however, read many o 
the Latin epigrams with pleasure. At their best 
they are neat and pointed, approximating to the 
idiom of Martial. There is a well-known story 
of an Irishman explaining that a man in ragged 
clothing could not get better clothed because he 
was so ticklish that he could not bear to be 
measured and fitted. Oddly enough, this very 
excuse turns up in Book I. of the Epigrams, 32. 
Histricus can afford good garments, though 

those he has are worn out. Asked what is the 
objection to new clothes, he replies : " Timet 
titillari." There are two epigrams against 
tobacco, and several are clever enough to tempt 
the reader to give them an English dress. 

IN uniform style with the above the Clarendon 
Press publishes Spenser's Faerie Queene, in two 
volumes, containing Books I.-III. and IV. -VII., 
and edited by Mr. J. C. Smith. His aim is to 
produce " a true text. . . .founded upon a fresh 
collation of the Quartos of 1590 and 1596 and 
the Folio of 1609." The Introduction and the 
Critical Appendix at the end of the second volume 
show the care and acumen which Mr. Smith has 
brought to his study of the poet. He points out 
that Spenser in nine instances " substitutes for a 
rhyming word a metrically equivalent synonym 
which does not rhyme .... It seems as if, borne 
along on the swell of his metre and the easy flow 
of his imagination, two words identical in sense 
and metre, but different in sound, rose to the 
poet's mind almost simultaneously ; and the one 
he meant to reject slipped nevertheless from his 
pen, having been (we infer) the first to occur." 

Another source of error is, says Mr. Smith, 
due to the fact that Spenser, when confronted 
with a subtle or complex situation, sometimes 
" involves himself inextricably," the result being 
passages difficult either to emend or explain. 
This comment shows that the editor is not one 
of those determined admirers who can see no 
wrong in an author they have taken up for special 

The Critical Appendix is concerned largely 
with the question^ whether the second thoughts 
of 1596 are directly due to the poet's own hand 
or not. Much is, as usual, put down to the un- 
fortunate printer. Mr. Smith holds that Spenser 
deliberately altered words like " garre " to " do " 
as smacking of Northern dialect, while he returned 
to more archaic forms such as " upsidoune " for 
" upside doune " (text of 1590). Sometimes 
" parablepsy " is brought in to account for 
difficulties. The word is new to us, though its 
meaning is obvious. This edition is likely to 
remain the text of Spenser for scholars for many 
years to come. 

THIS month, as might be expected, The National 
Review is very strong in political denunciation. 
Lord Willoughby de Broke has some sensible 
suggestions regarding the conduct of ' Political 
Meetings,' which, we fear, are not in the least 
likely to be carried out. Mr. F. S. Oliver notices 
a recent book which combines economics and 
politics, ' A Project of Empire,' by Prof. J. S. 
Nicholson. Mr. Oliver always writes well, and 
is, therefore, likely to attract attention. There is 
a charming character-study of the late ' Lord 
Percy,' by J. S. M., who knew him well. Lprd 
Percy had qualities which are rare in our nobility, 
or, indeed, anywhere, and many will regret the 
death of one so well fitted to serve the State. 
Miss Mary Bridson gives a good idea of the 
pleasures of the hunter's life in ' Elephants' 
Tracks.' She did not get any elephants when she 
left the shores of Lake Nyasa, but she thoroughly 
appreciated the differences between hunting 
life and average civilization. ' Sir John Hawkins, 
Knight,' by Mr. Austin Dobson, is one of those 
eighteenth -century articles in which he excels. 
We are told so much and so easily that we wish 

ii s. i. FEB. 12, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Mr. Dobson could start a school of writers like 
himself ; but the grace without affectation 
and the judgment would only come after years 
of apprenticeship to letters. Mr. A. Maurice Low 
is interesting, as usual, on ' American Affairs ' ; 
and Miss Singleton in ' Some Irish Fairies ' almost 
persuades us of that belief in the supernatural 
which Ireland retains in a material age. 

The Nineteenth Century opens with an article 
on ' The Naval Situation and Party Politics,' by 
Sir W. H. White. We have almost ceased to 
take any interest in a subject which is so notori- 
ously overwritten, and nearly always from a party 
point of view. Mr. Ellis Barker, who discusses 
' The Parliamentary Position and the Irish Party,' 
declares that Home Rule can do no good to the 
Irish, who should, however, be more than com- 
pensated for its loss by the blessings of Tariff 
Reform. Miss Gertrude Kingston in ' She Stoops 
to Canvass,' does not confine herself to incidents of 
electioneering, but explains how the country 
should be governed. Few sensible people are 
likely to approve of so obvious and violent a 
partisan. To talk about " Mr. Lloyd George with 
his personal animus against men of breeding " 
seems to us distinctly bad taste, the worst sort of 
election manners. Two excellent articles are 
of Prof. Foster Watson on ' George Meredith 
and Education ' and Mr. Pett Ridge on ' The 
London Loafer.' Both say well things hardly 
realized by the average man of to-day. Mr. 
Edwin A. Pratt is against ' The Canal Revival 
Scheme,' and points out that continental systems 
of the kind can hardly be fairly compared with 
our own. ' Ibsen as a Norwegian,' by Dr. 
Halvdan Koht, gives Mr. Gosse full credit for his 
pioneer work in making Ibsen known, and inci- 
dentally corrects him in some details. Ibsen was, 
apparently, lucky in the pensions he secured 
when he was a writer of promise rather than per- 
formance. Mr. C. F. Cooksey, who opens his 
article with some wordy and wholly unnecessary 
rhetoric, offers some ingenious speculations on ' The 
Origin of Stonehenge.' Aided by local place- 
names, Geoffrey of Monmouth and Walter Map, 
and his own investigations of various sites, he 
suggests that the stones now known as Stone- 
henge were brought to the spot they now occupy 
from Arreton Down in the Isle of Wight, and the 
Salisbury Avon was used to transport them. 
Xi -a r the village of Bulford " may be seen in the 
river a stone evidently intended to form part of 
one of the trilithons." An earlier transportation 
to Arreton Down was made from Le Platon, 
a hill close to the town of Bolbec at the mouth of 
the Seine. These operations are, apparently, 
ascribed to a Belgo-Gallic race, which left traces 
in England of a comparatively high state of 
culture that was not indigenous. We cannot 
exhibit in a small space the various hints out 
of which this theory is built up. Suffice it to say 
that it will interest all antiquaries. 

A STRIKING picture of the late George Salting 
from a " gum print " by Dr. Otto Rosenheim 
is the frontispiece of this month's Burlington, and 
the first editorial article is devoted to the Salting 
Collection. The same collector is the subject of 
a short personal notice by Dr. C. H. Read. ' The 
Ludwig Mond Bequest ' follows. An article on 
the passing of ' The New Gallery ' speaks with 
entire justice concerning the tyranny of modern 

commerce. This well-known gallery is, it 
appears, to be " offered up as a sacrifice to the 
Moloch t of modern civilization, the foreign 
restaurant." ' English Enamels on Brass of the 
Seventeenth Century ' are said by Mr. Edward 
Dillon to be rare, and very little is known of their 
origin. Mr. Dillon thinks that this sort of art 
was introduced from Russia, which has the same 
sort of enamelling in little portable ikons. Two 
enamelled firedogs are reproduced which were 
probably in Nonsuch Palace in James I.'s day. 
Mr. Roger Fry has a subject to his heart in ' The 
Umbrian Exhibition at the Burlington Fine-Arts 
Club.' He also continues the translation of the 
French appreciation of Cezanne which began in 
January, and which is full of striking generaliza- 
tion. ' Art in America ' is this month partkni- 
larly strong. We find a description of the lavishly 
arranged new museum at Boston, with a plan ; 
and an account with illustrations of portraits 
by Van Dyck in New York, and Dutch pictures 
in the Hudson-Fulton Exhibition. Here is. 
indeed, much to attract the lover of fine painting. 
Mr. Kenyon Cox says : "In figure painting the 
Dutchmen are still our masters ; in landscape we 
have learned things they did not know." 


MR. F. C. CARTER of Hornsey sends two Cata- 
logues, No. 20 and Extra Series No. 1. The 
former contains under Norfolk a MS. relating to 
the Manor of Northelmham, 1628-50, which 
includes a complete record of the transfers of 
property, presentments for offences, &c., in this- 
Court Baron, 61. Under Charter Rolls are grants of 
Free Warren in these Rolls for Edward II. and III.,, 
with index ; Cartulary of Bermondsey Abbey, 
1080-1432, &c., the MS. bound in contemporary 
vellum, stamped arms in gold on covers, 6Z. 6s. 
The modern Record Office Calendars do not 
index the Charter Rolls for the above reigns, and 
this index gives the names of persons as well 
as places. Under Emblems is a collection of 
366 views of cities in Denmark, Germany, Switzer- 
land, and other places, each in brilliant gold and" 
colours, with emblems by a contemporary hand r 
circa 1620, 4Z. 10s. There are axitographs of 
George IV., William IV., and Victoria. Under 
Brachygraphy is Gurney's ' System of Shorthand.' 
Under Curiosa are portraits of smugglers, giants, 
female soldiers, and persons who lived from 107 
to 152 years. The general portion includes 
' Footsteps of Dr. Johnson in Scotland,' by 
G. Birkbeck Hill, Edition de Luxe, large 4to r 
vellum, in box, 11. 14s. ; Lean's ' Collectanea,' 
5 vols., royal 8vo, 1902-4, 11. 15s. ; Moore'* 
' Epistles ' and Poems, chiefly written in Ame- 
rica, first edition, 4to, calf, 1806, 7s. 6d. (contain* 
the first issue of ' The Canadian Boat Song ') ? 
Richardson's novels, 20 vols., cloth, 1902, 1 T. 8s. ; 
and the W T orks of Taylor the Water Poet, folio, 
original calf (new back), 1630, 31. 15s. (no engraved; 
title, and a tear in one leaf, otherwise a clean and ! 
perfect copy). Among views and portraits are a 
collection of sixty of Oxford and Cambridge, 
1738-1830, the whole in a large folio volume, 
half -morocco, 31. ; ' Eminent Men in the Reigns 
of Charles I. and II., including the Rebellion/ 
1793, 21. 8s. ; Nash's ' Views ' ; ' Johnson rescuing, 
Goldsmith from his Landlady,' &c. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t u s. i. FEB. 12, 1910. 

Mr. Carter's other list contains manuscripts 
autographs, charters, deeds, and documents 
relating to the Star Chamber ; " The Red Lyon,' 
Holborn, 1604 ; " The Bell," Shoreditch, 1617 
tolls in Covent Garden Market, 1817, &c. 

Mr. W. M. Murphy's Liverpool Catalogue 152 
opens with a good copy of Ormerod's ' Cheshire, 

3 vols., folio, contemporary russia, 1819, 11. Is., 
followed by Baines's ' Lancaster ' extra-illustrated, 

4 vols., royal 4to, 1836, 31. 10s. ; and Drake's 

* Eboracum,' fine copy, large folio, russia gilt, 
1736, 51. 10s. General books include a set of The 
Art Journal, 1851-69, 21. ; Bruce's ' Roman Wall,' 
large paper, thick 4to, 1853, 21. 10s. ; Dyer's 

* University and Colleges of Cambridge,' 2 vols., 
royal 8vo, 21. 10s. ; Ogilvie's ' Dictionary,' 
4 vols, 1882-3, 11. 5s. ; Mrs. Everett Green's 
series of ' The Princesses of England,' 6 vols., 
original cloth, uncut, 1850-55, 4Z. 4s. ; Hallam's 
Works, 10 vols., half-calf, 11. 5s. ; Howitt's 

* Homes and Haunts of the Poets,' 1849, II. 5s. ; 
Kinglake's ' Crimea,' 9 vols., 11. 7s. 6d. ; and 
Motley's ' Dutch Republic,' 3 vols., cloth, 11. Is. 
An extra-illustrated copy of Pilkington's ' Dic- 
tionary of Painters,' 2 vols., 4 to, half -morocco, 
1798, 'is 31. 10s. ; and a collection of pamphlets 
relating to Queen Caroline, also Byron's ' Poems 
on his Domestic Circumstances.' Hone's ' Political 
Tracts,' &c., 5 vols., half-russia, 1816-24, 81. 8s. 
(a printed list of the pamphlets will be sent on 
application). Under Scott is the Abbotsford 
Edition, 12 vols., half -calf, 4Z. 10s. A complete 
set of " The Story of the Nations Series," 62 vols., 
original cloth, 1885-1903, is 11. ; the Edition de 
Luxe of Staunton's ' Shakespeare,' with Gilbert's 
illustrations, 15 vols., original cloth, uncut, 
1881, 51. 5s. ; and a set of Hakluyt's ' Navigations,' 
12 vols., 1903-5, 11. 

Charles J. Sawyer, Ltd., have a specially inter- 
esting item in their Nineteenth Catalogue, being the 
Log-Book kept by Major Kirkham on board 
the ship Providence on a voyage to Russia, 1798, 
as well as remarks made on board other ships, 
including the Royal George, 1806-9, to which 
the Major was drafted, with others, after being 
taken by a press-gang at a public-house in Bristol. 
Further notes include descriptions of Boston and 
New York ; the former is described as being 
3,630 yards long and 1,076 yards broad, the 
population 33.370, and the number of houses 6,000; 
whilst New York is 9,600 feet long, and 9,600 feet 
broad, population 100,000, and number of houses 
17,000. There are 66 full-page maps and 97 
smaller maps and plates in pen-and-ink, sepia, 
and colours, besides two remarkably fine plans 
of New York and Boston. The former of these is 
reproduced on a smaller scale, on the second page 
of the cover of the Catalogue. The price of the 
whole is 251. There is also the original MS. of the 
Privy Purse Expenses of the Duchess of Portland 
from May, 1786, to May, 1794, 201. Her Grace 
had her diversions : going to " Ranlegh " costs' 
a five-pound note ; she has a little flutter in a 
lottery, play debts are also mentioned. The 
general items include a complete collection, under 
Bibliotheca Curiosa, of the reprints edited by 
Goldstnid, large-paper copies (of which only 
75 were issued to subscribers), 64 vols., 121. 
There is the first edition of Byron's ' Hours of 
Idleness,' handsomely bound in levant by Riviere, 
1807, 1L 12s. 6d. Under Milton is Mitford's 

edition, from the library of the late Dr. Hornby 
8 vols., full russia, 4Z. 4s. The beautiful Riverside 
Press edition -of Oliver Wendell Holmes 13 vols 
uncut, is 21. 2s. There are also original editions 
of Rowlandson ; first editions of Scott ; and 
Sheridan's edition of Swift, revised by Nichols 
19 vols., green calf, 6Z. 15s. 

Messrs. Sawyer have also a Bargain List of 
Choice Shakespearian Engravings, Topographical 
Views, Dramatic Portraits, and a Fine Collection 
of Coloured Engravings after the most Famous 
Artists of the Eighteenth Century. 

JAMES PLATT, JUN. We hear with regret 
of the death on Saturday last of Mr. James Platt, 
Jun., at the age of forty -nine. He was well known 
for the extraordinary range of his linguistic 
knowledge. It extended to languages like 
Esquimaux, which the ordinary man of learning 
does not attempt. To our own columns he was a 
frequent and always sound contributor. A 
glance at the Index of the Ninth Series shows his 
interest in African names, Anglo-Hebrew slang, the 
Chinese in London, Dutch, foreigners in Mexico, 
Oriental palmistry, Persian, Roumanian, Russian, 
and Siamese. A man of such wide reading and 
endowments could not fail to be of use for dic- 
tionary work, and Sir James Murray recognized 
in Mr.- Platt one of his most valuable helpers. 

Mr. Platt began writing at 8 S. i. 156 (1892) 
on the witch formula " Emen hetaii," and in 
every volume since his contributions have added 
to the varied lore of ' N. & Q.' With all 
his wealth of learning he had the modesty which 
is associated with great scholars. 

A. J. MUXBY. The Times of the 3rd hist, con- 
tained the following : 

" MUXBY. On Saturday, the 29th Jan., at 
Pyrford, Surrey, aged 81, Arthur Joseph Munby, 
M.A.Cantab., F.S.A." 

Sometimes under his name, but usually under 
his initials, he was a very considerable writer in 
' N. & Q.' from 3 S. iv. to 8 S. vi. In 1891 he 
edited a collection of memorials of servants, 
' Faithful Servants,' noticed at 7 S. xii. 318 ; and 
tie wrote a number of excellent poems. He was 
the son of Joseph Munby, of Clifton, York, of a 
family connected with the legal affairs of that city ; 
was of Trinity College, Cambridge, a barrister 
of Lincoln's Inn, 1855, and had a post in the 
Ecclesiastical Commission. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
;p "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
ishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

V. H. C. ("Third river of Paradise"). See Gen. 
i. 14. 

ii s. i. FEB. 19, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : ' Macnillan's Magazine,' 141 Catharine Macau- 
lay 142 'The Parish Guttlers,' 144-Royal Billiard 
Tables " Spinney " Meredith's Last Poems, 145 - 
"Moral Pockethandkerchiefs " Hertfordshire Parish 
Registers Mock Coat of Arms "Plough Inn" at Long- 
hope -Birch Tree Folk-lore, 146. 

QUERIES: Henry Kavanagh and the Indian Mutiny- 
Col Vincent Potter-Becket's Personal Habits English 
Mathematical Diaries, H7-'Trabalhosde Jesus' 
Edward Fitzgibbon-Lady Clavermg-' Life of .Mrs. E. 
Wisebourn '-The "Prince Fred "Satire-Dais in Medi- 
teval Halls, 148 Vanessa Isabella Wickhffe Four 
Winds, a Fairy Story Grinling Gibbons Beheading in 
Germany Irish Priests banished to Barbados " The 
Xemesis of words" 'Deil stick the Minister' Authors 
Wanted-Rev. John Jenkinson, 149-" Kicking up Bob s- 
a-dving" "No redeeming vice" C. W. S. D. Holmes 
S C T Demainbray Sir Francis Desanges Hartley 
Wintney Nunnery Arms on Silver Box Bruce's Follow- 

REPLIES: 'Short Whist': C. B. Coles, 150 Mohammed 
and the Mountain Master Stephe* and his Hawk, 151 
Holbein's ' Duchess of Milan 'Ward and Day Families- 
Clothes and their Influence-Metrical Prayer-Epicurus 
in Art 152" Altea Haus, ftdeles Haus "King's Place 
Edwin Drood' Continued, 153 China and Japan Topo- 
oraphical Deeds Roman Ladies : Purity of their Lan- 
guage "Old Sir Simon" Watson's ' History of Printing,' 
i4 Michael Livingston Authors Wanted Mrs. Mahon 
Cowes, Isle of Wight, 155 Rochechouart Michael 
Hiltprand " Earth goeth upon earth " Alvary : 
Alveredus, 156 R. Paltock Children with same Chris- 
tian Name, 157 News-Letters in the Public Record Office 
Grammatical Gender, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Scottish Grey Friars' 'The 
Romance of Symbolism '' The Edinburgh Review' and 
' The Quarterly. ' 


To Alexander Macmillan we owe Macmillari's 
Magazine, the first to be published monthly 
at a shilling. Alexander was the younger 
brother of Daniel, the founder of the firm. 
A full account of the two brothers is given 
by Thomas Hughes in his memoir of Danie] 
Macmillan. In this is told how Daniel 
and Alexander were in the service of Messrs. 
Seeley together, and how they set up in 
business for themselves. 

The Publishers' Circular of the 14th of 
January, 1893, the jubilee year of the 
Macmillan firm, records that the first book 
bearing the name of Macmillan on the title- 
page was Craig's * Philosophy of Training, 
published in 1843 by Daniel & A. Macmillan 
.17, Aldi'i-sgate Street, where they had 
Daniel notes, "a very neat shop for a very 
small rent." The same year NewbyV 
business at Cambridge was purchased, and 
the two brothers continued to work shoulder 
to shoulder until the death of Daniel on th 
27th of June, 1857. 

In the year following a branch house was 
pened in London, and in 1863, just twenty 
ears after its establishment, the firm 
returned to London, the business at Cam- 
dge being carried on under the name of 
Macmillan & Bowes. 

After his brother's death Alexander took 
he full management of the business, which 
y his ability he largely developed, until the 
time came for his nephews Frederick, who 
received the honour of knighthood in No vein - 
last, and Maurice Crawford Macmillan 
and his own son George Augustus, who has 
worked hard in the promotion of Hellenic 
studies to enter the firm. To a man of 
such enterprise it was natural to look out 
for some new development, and the first 
number of Macmillan' s Magazine was 
aunched on the 1st of November, 1859, 
under the editorship of David Masson. The 
Athenaeum described it as "a review of 
political affairs, from the philosophical 
rather than the partisan point of sight." 

In 1867 Masson was succeeded by Sir 
George Grove, who in May, 1883, gave place 
to Mr. John Morley. In November, 1885, 
Mr. Morley retired, and was followed by Mr. 
Mowbray Morris, who held the position 
until the publication of the magazine was 
discontinued in October, 1907. In Novem- 
ber, 1905, the price was reduced to sixpence. 
Among some of the most noted con- 
tributors to Macmillan's may be mentioned 
Tennyson, Lord Kelvin, Lord Curzon, Sir 
Bartle Frere, Sir Samuel Baker, Sir Richard 
Burton, Sir AJfred Lyall, Sir Robert Ball, 
Sir Charles Dilke, Maurice, Mark Pattison, 
Bishops Westcott, Creighton, and Alexander, 
Max Muller, Carlyle, Gladstone, Fawcett, 
Matthew Arnold, Prof. Mahaffy, Huxley, 
and Sir E. Ray Lankester. There were 
novels by the Kingsleys, George Eliot, 
William Black, Mrs. Oliphant, Blackmore, 
and others. To give all the names of 
notable contributors would be to include 
most of the men and women who made the 
sixties a period of great advance in literature, 
science, and art. 

The magazine was conducted on bold lines, 
and contributions frequently appeared on 
public questions expressing views that would 
not be popular with all its readers. As 
early as the April of the year following that 
in which the magazine was started Maurice 
contributed an article ' On the Revision of 
the Book of Common Prayer.' It discussed 
the changes then proposed by Lord Ebury, 
and was in substance a review of a pamphlet 
by Mr. Isaac Taylor on ' The Liturgy and 
the Dissenters.' The author of the pamphlet 


NOTES AND QUERIES. pi s. i. F EB . 19, 1910, 

received the article kindly, and in the 
memoir of Maurice by his son, in the second 
volume, pp. 356-61, is a long letter to 
Taylor in which Maurice writes : "Your kind j 
and friendly treatment of an article which 
might easily and excusably have annoyed you 
deserves my warm thanks. n 

Maurice, while " maintaining his convic- 
tion that such changes as the Evangelical 
clergy of our own communion are likely 
to desire and recommend cannot meet 
the wants of the Dissenters,' 1 writes with 
that courtesy which always distinguished 

It was in Macmillari's Magazine for August, 
1863, that Carlyle's brief ' Ilias Americana in 
Nuce * appeared. Froude, in his ' Thomas 
Carlyle : a History of his Life in London, 
1 834-8 1, 1 vol. ii. p. 247, states in a footnote : 
' ' Carlyle admitted to me after the war ended 
that perhaps he had not seen into the 
bottom of the matter. Nevertheless, he 
republished the ' Ilias J ia his collected 
works.' 1 

In the number for August, 1867, Carlyle's 
last public utterances on English politics 
appeared. The occasion, it may be remem- 
bered, was the Tory Reform Bill of 1867. 
Although ' ; the shadow of his lost wife seemed 
to rise between him and every other object 
on which he tried to fix his thoughts,"' he 
felt that the state of England at this time 
demanded a few words from him. To this 
contribution he gave the well-known title 
' Shooting Niagara, and After.'- Froude, 
vol. ii. pp. 352-3, says : 

" He thought but little of it, and was aware 
how useless it would prove. In his journal, 
August 3, he says : ' An article for Masson 
and Macmillan's Magazine took up a good deal of 
time. It came out mostly from accident, little 
by volition, and is very fierce, exaggerative, 
ragged, unkempt, and defective. Nevertheless, 
I am secretly rather glad than otherwise that it is 
out, that the howling doggeries (dead ditto and 
other) should have my last word on their affairs 
and them, since it was to be had.' " 

It was published in separate form by Messrs. 
Chapman & Hall in September, with some 
additions and corrections, at sixpence. This 
little pamphlet is now exceedingly scarce ; 
I still possess the copy given me by the late 
Frederic Chapman. 

One cannot but express regret that a 
magazine with such a history, and bearing- 
such a name, should not have received 
sufficient support to enable it to continue ; 
but the volumes on our shelves form a per- 
manent record, and bear testimony to its 
honourable and useful life. 



(Concluded from p. 103.) 

I HAVE already given the inscription on the 
base of the statue in the Warrington Town 
Hall. The statue is not without beauty, 
though it is stiff and formal. The figure is. 
draped in a loose dress or robe ; the feet 
are in sandals ; the belt plate has the 
caduceus of Mercury crossed with a staff 
on which is the Phrygian or republican 
cap ; on the brooch on the breast is the owl 
of Minerva ; the hair in front and at the 
sides is dressed high in coronet fashion, 
while at the back are ringlets, some just 
touching the shoulders. The left elbow 
leans on five volumes lying on a pedestal ;: 
the right hand holds a pen, the left a 
scroll. There was, it appears, an inscrip- 
tion, other than that above given, when the- 
statue was in the church, and this was 
regarded as objectionable, as the church- 
wardens in stating their case for the opinion 
of Dr. Wynne say, speaking of the statue, 
" with an Inscription, a Copy whereof you 
have herewith." This inscription is not 
given in the minutes. 

There were three inscriptions besides 
" J. F. Moore, n &c., according to The 
Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser of 
Wednesday, 10 Sept., 1777 : 

On Monday was completely finished, and 
erected in a marble niche, or recess, properly 
decorated, in the Chancel of St. Stephen, Wai- 
brook, London, a superb white marble statue, in 
honour of that celebrated Lady, Mrs. Macaulay, 
in the character of History, in a singular easy 
and pleasing antique stile, and judged to be a 
good likeness ; has a pen in her right hand,, 
apparently as if she had just finished some lines 
written on a scroll she holds in her left, on which 
arm she leans on her five volumes of the History of 
England, viz. 


is a Power 

delegated for the 



when conducted by 

and MERCY. 

At the left side of the stone she stands oil- 
is J. F. Moore Delhi. & Sculp. Under which 
is a white marble table, where on one side is 
written in capital letters, 

You speak of Mrs. MACAULAY ; 
She is a Kind of Prodigy ! 

I revere her Abilities ; 
I cannot bear to hear her Name sarcastically 

mentioned ; 
I would have her taste the exalted Pleasure 

of universal Applause ; 

I would have STATUES erected to her Memory ; 

and once in every Age I could wish 

such a Woman to appear, 

ii a i. FEB. 19, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


as a proof that GENIUS is not confined to SEX ; 
but at the same time you will pardon me 

We want no more than 

' Late Lord Lyttelton's Letters 
to Mrs. Peach,' p. 114. 

On the other side of the same table, at top, is 
left a blank space (we suppose) for an Epitaph, 
and under which is as follows : 

Erected by THOMAS WILSON, D.D. Kector of 
this Parish, as a Testimony of the high 
Esteem he bears to the distinguished 

Merit of his Friend 


Apparently the reference for the inscrip- 
tion " You speak of Mrs. Macaulay," &c., 
viz., " Late Lord Lyttelton's Letters to 
Mrs. Peach, p. 114, n was inscribed on the 
table and supplied to the newspapers. (See 
The Gentleman's Magazine, 1777, vol. xlvii. 
p. 470.) The " late Lord Lyttelton " must 
be George, first Lord, whose son Thomas 
married Mrs. Peach. 

The correspondent of The Gentleman's 
Magazine at the reference just cited, signing 
himself " Crito," denies the authenticity of 
these letters, quoting apparently Lord 
Lyttelton's executors, but not actually 
asserting that he has found the quotation 
in these letters. He ends his remarks thus : 

" Should they (of which I have no doubt) 
!>< spurious, what will the world think of a 
Christian divine who not only turns his church 
into a Heathen temple, but makes it the vehicle 
of falsehood to posterity ? " 

Sir George Otto Trevelyan in his ' Ame- 
rican Revolution,* New Edition, 1905, 
iii. 252, quotes from the passage referred to 
as really coming from the pen of George, 
Lord Lyttelton. 

It is evident that the inscription, a copy 
of which, being considered open to objection, 
was sent by the churchwardens to Dr. 
Wynne, was not the first, i.e., " Government 
is a Power," &c., as in the presentment 
complaint is made of " an Inscription under- 
neath the same To the memory of Catherine 
Macauley, widow, now living," and this first 
inscription was on the scroll held in her 

No doubt the inscription or inscriptions 
regarded as objectionable were the last two, 
which were on the " marble table, n under- 
neath the statue, or one of them. 

In The Westminster Magazine of 1778, 
facing p. 59, is an engraving representing 
" Mrs. Macaulay, the celebrated historian, 
an elegant Portrait taken from Dr. Wilson's 
marble statue " (ibid., p. 681). This engraving 
is a picture in black and white representing 

Mrs. Macaulay in an attitude very similar 
to that of the statue. From the volumes- 
on which, her left arm leans protrudes a 
paper inscribed " History of England.'' 
Near the books is an inkstand with two- 
quills stuck in it. The left hand holds a- 
roll of paper, the right a quill pen. There is 
an elaborate background. The engraver's- 
name is not given. 

I have a somewhat similar engraving 
taken from Mrs. Macaulay's * History of 
England from the Revolution to the Present 
Time in a Series of Letters to a Friend * 
(i.e. Dr. Wilson), Bath, 1778, vol. i. (the 
only volume published). It is engraved' 
by J. Caldwall. In this the right arm with 1 
the pen in the hand leans on the five volumes, 
which, as in the above-mentioned engraving r 
are labelled " History of England " ; near 
to the volumes is the inkstand with the two 
quills in it. The left hand holds a card or 
paper inscribed " Dr. Wilson of Walbrook."' 
There is an elaborate background. 

In each of these engravings the pedestal* 
on which Mrs. Macaulay leans has the follow- 
ing inscription : 

Government | a J power delegated [ for the | 
happiness | of | mankind | conducted | by | wis^ 
dom | justice | and | mercy. 

In Caldwall's engraving " C. Macaulay ?? 
is inscribed on the base of this pedestal. 

Both these engravings make the pedestal' 
about twice the width of the actual marble, 
which is about nine inches. The back of tho 
body of the statue is rough hewn, as for a 
niche (see quotation from The Gazetteer 

In ' Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth 
Century,' by J. Nichols, viii. 458, it is stated 
that the statue " was boarded up till her 
[Mrs. Macaulay's] death, by authority of the 
Spiritual court. 2 ' 

In the biography of Dr. Thomas Wilson 
' Diet, of Nat. Biog. ? s.v. ' Wilson, Thomas 
(1663-1755), Bishop of Sodor and Man,' his 
father he is said to have erected the statue 
within the altar rails of St. Stephen's, and" 
to have afterwards boarded it up. I have, 
I think, shown that " within the altar rails " 
is a mistake. So is, I think, the " boarding - 
up " at any time. If it had taken place 
before 12 Aug., 1778, it could scarcely have 
been left out of the Vestry minutes. Mrs. 
Macaulay married Graham in December 
of that year, a few months after the last 
mention of the statue in the 'Vestry minutes. 
One cannot suppose that, dilatory as they 
were, the churchwardens would have been 
content with a mere boarding-up. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. FEB. 19, 1910. 

As to the alleged " boarding-up till her Dr. Wilson died at Alfred House, 1784 (see 
death," there is the positive assertion made Gentleman's Magazine, liv. 317). By his 
by A. Y. Z. (see above) that the statue was will, dated' 5 May, 1779, he revoked all 
taken down in the lifetime of Dr. Wilson, ' gifts, &c., to " Catharine Graham, formerly 
who died 15 April, 1784, seven years before ! Macauly," but he left 500Z. and accruing 
the death of Mrs. Macaulay. Further, one ! interest to Catharine Sophia, daughter of 
would gather from what A. Y. Z. says that Dr. Macaulay. 

the statue was " taken down " in 1778 or I have given the mistaken spellings 
1779, since he suggests that the reason for " Macauley " and " Macauly " where they 
its removal was either anger at the marriage, 
or the immediate intention of the Vestry to 
" cite him to the Commons." 

After her second marriage Mrs. Macaulay 
called herself Macaulay Graham (see vols. vi., 
vii., viii. of her ' History '). On the beauti- 
ful tablet in her memory in the church at 
Binfield she is called " Catharina Macavlay 
Graham." It has a medallion, containing 
her head in profile, surrounded by a wreath. 
At the top of the tablet is an owl in relief. 

Mrs. Macaulay is said in the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography ' to have gone, after 
her union with Graham, first to Leicester- 
shire and then to Binfield, where she livec 
after her return from America, arid where 

occur in my quotations. The Christian 
name is on the title-pages of her 
' History l spelt variously " Catharine " and 
" Catherine." ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 

she died. Vol. vi. of her ' History ' has a 
preface dated " Jan. 1781, Laurence-street 
Chelsea, Middlesex.' 1 

It appears from a quotation from her 
* History of England ' given in The Gentle 
man's Magazine, vol. xlviii., 1778, p. 529, 
that her 

J * very worthy grandfather, Mr. Jacob Sawbridge, 
was among those sufferers who were deemed 
public delinquents, whose estates were confiscated, 
whose persons were imprisoned, and who suffered 
the disgrace of disablement from bearing office, 
.and expulsion from the house." 

'This was because he was a South Sea director 
;(see European Magazine, November, 1783, 
vol. iv. p. 330). Mrs. Macaulay says that 
her grandfather was perfectly free from 
any intention or inclination to defraud the 
public, &c. 

The following words have been recently 
inscribed on the base of the statue in the 
Warrington Town Hall, with the consent 
of the Mayor, at my request : 

Catharine Macaulay 



Presented to the Corporation | by Colonel the' 
Bight Honourable I John Wilson Patten M.P 1 

According to The European Magazine 
(ibid.). Dr. Wilson 

" purchased, and presented her [Mrs. Macaulay] 
with a mansion, which he called by the name of 
Alfred House, a library, servants, and every 
article of luxury and splendour." 


THE Select Vestries of the London parishes 
were until their final extinction a favourite 
object of derision for the local satiric wits, 
but the parish historians, dependant for 
subscriptions upon the vicar and his co- 
administrators of the Poor Law, with few 
exceptions ignored these squibs. 

So, although in Islington, for example, 
there were a score or more different lampoons, 
from ' The Chronicles of Hillhausen '" to mere 
slip songs, Lewis, the most thorough of its 
local recorders, has nothing to say either 
of these skits or the abuses which justified 
their publication. This class of literature 
had its commencement early in the eigh- 
teenth century, and " The Parish Gutt'lers ; 
or, The Humours of a Select Vestry. London, 
Printed in the year MDCCXxn., n is evidently 
the first of its kind. The aim of this squib 
is sufficiently indicated by the four-line 
stanza printed on the title-page : 

When Parish Taxes shall be well apply'd, 
And Vestries lay their costly feasts aside, 
Then shall Church Ward'ns deal justly by the 

And be accounted Gutt'ling knaves no more. 

Among the principal characters portrayed 
is a goldsmith, who, complaining of unjust 
local taxation, breaks out with a diatribe 
in which occurs : 

Who conjur'd up that Parish Sect, 

A modern Vestry, call'd Select, 

An old Rebellious Name of late 

Reviv'd, that stinks of Forty-Eight. 

Knicky-Knocky, an undertaker, and other 
tradesmen, members of the vestry, are 
described with the coarseness and lame 
rimes typical of Ned Ward. Whoever was 
Jie author, matters little, but he produced 

squib that could be aimed at many 

different Select Vestries, 
definite identifications. 

as it avoided 

ii s. i. FEB. 19, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In 1732 the pamphlet was issued reset, 
but with identical lines and pagination, 
only a different title-page being provided. 
It read : 

" Truth in Rhyme, To suit the Time ; or, The 
Parish Guttlers. A Merry Poem. As it is 
acting every day with great applause near the 
Poors House, Gray's-Inn Lane. With the 
Comical Adventures of Simon Knicky Knocky, 
Undertaker, Church-Warden, and Coffin-Maker. 
London : Printed in the year of Guttling 1732. 
[Price one Shilling.]" 

This is aimed at the Select Vestry of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn. 

Copies of these pamphlets are before me, 
but, unless the announcement is itself a satire, 
there was a still further issue. In the second 
edition of that scarce work ' Love at First 
Sight; or, The Gay in a Flutter,' 1751, the 
following appears as a supposed advertise- 
ment culled from some new^aper of recent 
issue : 

" After the Whitsun-Holidays will be published. 
A Parochial Print ; representing a General Vestry, 
as it was held on Easter-Monday last in the Parish 
Church of Saint Andrew Undershaft, Leadenhall 
Street, London, in which the Characters of the 
Persons there present, who held up their Hands 
in Defence f an antient favourite Custom of 
theirs, viz., Gutling and Winebibing at the Ex- 
pence of their Neighbours ; against Justice and 
Humanity towards the Poor, will be carefully 
Executed by an Eyewitness," &c. 
In transcribing I have filled in the hyphens, 
as the identity of the place is unmistakable. 

Probably there were other issues of the 
pamphlet ; if so, they would be worth noting 
in these pages, both for the historians of 
Poor Law administration and the local 
chroniclers of the parishes at which they are 

The 'N.E.D.,' s.v. guttler, quotes the 
1732 pamphlet as the. second example of the 
word, but the edition of 1722 should have 
been cited. ALECK ABKAHAMS. 

that the first billiard table set up was for 
Prince Henry in 1606-7. It is classified 
in the Wardrobe Accounts among "Divers 
necessaries " : 

"To Henry Waller f, M . .-, Billiard Board of 
VTalnutt tree covered with uTr.-n <-l.,tli, with four 
great ' Vnralls of iron, 17. 

" To him tor thiv- ^ivat Skrmv.-s ,,f wood to 

iakc the position of the table higher or lower 8s 

To the same for the Billiard Sticks and Balls 

the pins of Ivory to play at Billiards, 70s." 

Probably through the loss of books 

recording the facts, I find no further notice 

f this jraine until much later : 

" A \Vardrobeforyesetting 
up <-J a Billiard Table covered with -iven doth. 

to be the same size and fashion with that of 
Denmark House, and to be set up at St. James's, 
Sept. 21, 1631." 

Another warrant of the same date for a 
billiard board to be set up at Whitehall 
follows this, L. C. V. 93, p. 266 : 

" Billiard Balls. A warrant to ye great Ward- 
robe, for three dozen of Billiard Balls of Ivory 
perfectly round, and fifteen boxes of Amber, Jet, 
and Ivory for pictures in ye Cabinett at St. James, 
to bee made by John Reeve. Feb. 14, 1632." 

" A warrant to Nicholas Read, his Majesties- 
Joiner, to take down the Billiard Board in the 
Queen's Withdrawing Chamber at Whitehall, and 
convey the same and sett it up at Richmond, the 
Queen's pleasure for the same being signified by 
the Marquis of Hertford. Oct. 26, 1641." 
L. C. V. 96. 

Thereafter the King is in the wilderness* 
and no records are kept of London palaces, 
because there was no Lord Chamberlain. 


"SPINNEY." This interesting word, 
meaning a copse (see ' E.D.D.'), is not given 
in my Dictionary. Perhaps the earliest 
quotation for it is from ' Gawain and the 
Grene Knight, 1 1. 1709, where it is spelt 
spenne. It is adapted from the Anglo- 
French espinei, from Lat. spinetum. Cot- 
grave gives the equivalent F. espinoye, " a 
thicket, grove, or ground full of thorns, a 
thorny plot." Spinetum is included amongst 
the " Latin words that had entered into 
place-names before the Norman Conquest " 
in MacClure's 'British Place-Names,' p. 118, 
merely because there is a place called 
Spinney in Cambs ; but the name de Spineto 
is only a Latinized form for "of Spinney, " 
and I cannot find this name earlier than 1228. 
From Roman times to 1200 is about 800 
years, and the Romans did not speak 

MEREDITH'S ' LAST POEMS.' In one of the 
four fragments among Meredith's ' Last 
Poems,' beginning " A wilding little stubble 
flower," the last word of 1. 2 is in the obvious 
position to rime with " street " (1. 4), which it 
as obviously fails to do, the word printed 
being " corn." Now I wish to draw atten- 
tion to the fact that no verse-maker, and 
decidedly no great poet, would hesitate to 
fulfil the simplest laws of euphony, especially 
when these are as lightly fulfilled as in the 
present instance, duty and inclination going 
as it were hand-in-hand. Nothing is more 
likely than that Meredith jotted down the 
little verse from memory, and considering 
at that moment only the sense, apart from 
the sound, substituted " corn " for " wheat, " 
as by a slip of the mind. Such a blunder 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. FEB. 19, 1910. 

as has arisen from not perceiving this results 
in a flaw to the verse ; and the latter, owing 
to its fragmentary quality, is far less able 
to bear that kind of flaw than a complete 
poem would be. L. KREBS. 

9 S. v. 147, 423.) An article upon ' My New 
Dickens Discoveries,* by Mr. C. Van Noor- 
den, w^hich appeared in The Evening News 
for 1 Nov., 1909, thus concluded : 

" What I have not yet found is a ' moral 
pockethandkerchief.' I have advertised and in- 
quired everywhere without result, but I yet 
live in hope of one day discovering one." 

The writer is evidently not a student of 
* N. & Q.,' or he would have found himself 
supplied with the desired information at 
9 S. v. 423 ; and there can now be added 
the fact that "political pockethandkerchief s" 
were in use as recently as the general election 
just past. The London correspondent of 
the Birmingham Daily Post noted on 
31 December that 

" in the shops one meets with Free Trade and 
Tariff Reform handkerchiefs, sprinkled with 
suitable mottoes, and calculated to inspire confi- 
dence when flourished before the eyes of an 
astonished electorate." 


For purposes of reference I have prepared 
an Index Nominum to Mr. W. P. W. Philli- 
more's second volume of Hertfordshire 
Marriage Registers, comprising the parishes 
of Ardeley, Bennington, Datch worth, Grave - 
ley, Knebworth, Shephall, Walkern and 
Watton. This index is freely at the service 
of any one calling, or inquiries will be 
.answered if a stamped addressed envelope is 
enclosed. W. B. GERISH. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

MOCK COAT OF ARMS. It is a not un- 
oommon thing nowadays to devise coats of 
arms for satirical purposes, such as those 
contributed to Punch some years ago by 
Mr. E. T. Reed. I have recently come across 
a seventeenth -century example of this form 
of wit, which will probably interest not a 
few readers of ' N. & Q. 1 It occurs in the 
commonplace book of Sir J. Gibson, a 
Royalist prisoner in Durham Castle under the 
Commonwealth (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 37719, 
f. 212b). It reads as follows : 
The Coate of Armes of Sir John Presbeters Church. 

She beares partie parpale indented Gods 
glory, and his owne interest, over all honor, 
profitt, pleasure counterchanged, ensigned with a 
helmet of Ignorance ; opened with confidence 
befittinge her degree ; mantled with Gules and 

Tyrany, dubled with hipocrasie, over a wreatli 
of pride and covetousnes. For her Crest, a 
sinister hand holdinge up a solemne league and 
Covenant, reverst and torne in a Scrowle : and 
vnderneath the sheild these Word es for her Motto, 
Aut hoc aut nihil. 

This Coate of Armes is Impanelled with another 
of fower peices, signify eing thereby his fewer 

The first is of the familie of Amsterdam ; 
She beares for her Armes in a field of Tolleration, 
three Jewes heads proper, with as many blew 
Capps in them. 

The second is of the house of Genera ; She 
beares for her armes in a field of Separation 
marginall notes, and the Bible false quoted. 

The third of the Countrey of new England ; 
She beares for her Armes a prick-eard preach-man, 
pearcht vpon a pulpit proper ; holding forth to 
the people a Schismaticall Directory. 

The fourth and last is Scotland ; She beares 
in her Schuceon [sic], the field of Rebellion, charged 
with the Stoule of Repentance. 

H. I. B. 

inn sign, at the east end of the village of 
Long-hope, Glos., are the following inscrip- 
tions-. The house is situated at the foot of 
a hill. On one side the sign is : 

Before the hill you do get up, 

Stop and take a cheerful cup. 

On the other side : 

Down this hill, all danger's past ; 
Stop and take a cheerful glass. 

The words " cup " and 
sented by drawings. 

glass " are repre- 
R, B R. 

BIRCH TREE FOLK-LORE. The subjoined 
cutting from The Scotsman of 23 Oct., 1909, 
may be thought worthy of preservation in 
' N. & Q. 1 : 

" Legendary Lore of the Birch. The silvery 
bark of this, our most beautiful, tree has attracted 
notice from the earliest times, for the birch tree is 
literally the bark tree. The Northern Europeans 
and the North American Indians made canoes 
of the bark, which is more durable than the wood ; 
and Hiawatha chants an invocation to the tree 
ere he strips it for his little bark. This word 
' bark,' as applied to a boat, dates back to those 
days when birch bark, split in lengths, was lashed 
together to form a rather sketchy Dreadnought. 
Another interesting memento of the birch tree 
is the name ' Birch-legs,' applied to a political 
faction in Norway, the members of which wore 
greaves of the bark, a practice not uncommon 
in that country. The fragrance of a birch wood 
reminds us that it is to the oil contained in this 
tree that Russian leather owes its characteristic 
scent. Still another use of birch twigs is noted 
by Hugh Miller, who tells us that in the north of 
Scotland they were plaited to form both horse and 
ox harness. 

" An old Scottish superstition has it that this 
tree grew at the gate of heaven, and allusions to 
this are found in some of our old ballads. The 
sudden appearance of any one adorned with a 
sprig of birch carried a dread significance of but 

ii s. i. FEE. 19,1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


interpretation. Here are some lines from 
nn old fragment, recounting the appearance, to a 
distracted mother, of her three sons, who had been 
drowned some time previously : 
It fell about the Martinmas, 

When nights are lang and mirk, 
The carline wife's three sons cam' hame. 

And their hats were o' the birk ; 
It neither grew in syke nor ditch, 

Xor yet in any sheugh ; 
But at, the gates o' Paradise 

That birk grew fair eneugh. 

And when ' rapt Kilmeny,' in ' The Queen's Wake,' 
returns to earth after her mysterious absence, she 
is greeted thus : 

Where got ye that jupe o' the lily sheen, 
That bonny snood o' the birk sae green ? 
Kilmeny, Kilmeny, where ha'e ye been ? 
" By a natural transition the birch came to be 
associated with death and the grave, and the fol- 
lowing is one of the variants of what may be 
called a stock ending to many^old ballads : 
The tane was buried in Marie's kirk, 
The tother in Marie's quair ; 
And out o' the tane there sprang a birk, 

And out o' the tother a brier. 
" Here is a last request from a ghostly lover to 
bis mourning ' marrow ' : 

But plait a wand o' bonny birk, 

And lay it on my breast ; 
And shed a tear upon my grave, 
And wish my saul gude rest. 
" E. 

Strom ness. 


M. J." 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

MUTINY. I shall be glad if some of your 
readers will kindly put me into communica- 
tion with the representatives of Henry 
Kavanagh, who, disguised as a native, 
carried the dispatches from Sir James 
Outram to Sir Colin Campbell out of Luck- 
now, circa 9 Nov., 1857. 

DAVID Ross McCoRD, M.A., K.C. 

Temple Grove, Montreal. 

Suffolk border, under the charge, and 
through the influence, of Sir Harbottle 
Grimston ? 

Any further particulars would be greatly 
esteemed. JAS. F. GILL POTTER. 

17, Brunswick Street, Montreal. 

most amusing and withal most stimulating 
' History of England l by C. R. L. Fletcher 
the following is to be found in vol. i. p. 151 : 

" It was not until the monks of Canterbury, on 
stripping his martyred body, found a hair-shirt 
beneath his costly vestments, and the vermin drop- 
ping inprowds from his unwashed skin, that they 
exclaimed with rapture, ' See, see, what a true 
monk he was, and we knew it not ! ' " 

Can any reader of ' N. &. Q.' refer to the 
original authority for this statement ? 


Trinity College, Melbourne University. 

Ladies* Diary l was published annually 
1704-1840, and ' The Gentleman's Diary ' 
1741-1840. In the issue of 1841 these 
works were united under the title ' The 
Lady's and Gentleman's Diary, l which con- 
| tinued to appear annually till 1871. Various 
reprints from and supplements to these 
Diaries have appeared. As far as I know 
of them, they are as follows : 

1. Diarian Repository or Mathematical Regis- 
ter. .. .Questions. .. .published in Ladies' Diary, 
1704-1760. By a Society of Mathematicians. 
London, 1774. 

2. 'Diarian Miscellany .... Parts both Mathe- 
matical and Poetical. Extracted from the 
Ladies' Diary. 1704-1773. Ed. by Chas. Hutton. 
5 vote. London, 1775. [Mathematical portion, 
vols. i.-iii.] 

3. The Gentleman's Diary or Mathematical 
Repository, 1741-1800. Ed. by T. 8. Davies. 3 vols. 
London, 1814. 

from the Ladies' Diary, 1704- 
T. Ley bourn. 4 vols. London, 

4. Questions 
1816. Ed. by 

5. [Ladies'] Diary Supplement. Ed. by 0. 
Hutton. Was published annually 1788-1806. 

6. Gentleman's Diary Supplement, 1741 and 
m:;. 171.",, 1711. :; \.>U. 

Can any one supply other dates of issue 
of No. 6, or particulars of any other Diary 

COL. VINCENT POTTER, REGICIDE. I am ! editions or Diary Supplements ? The con- 
seeking information through ' N. & Q.' con- nexion of ' The Palladium '- with ' The 
cerning Col. Vincent Potter, one of the Ladies' Diary l has been made clear by 
Commissioners present at the trial of 

diaries L, who also signed the death i vo1 - L P- 466. 

- T. Wilkinson in The Mechanic's Magazine, 

warrant. To what town did he belong ? 
\Viiat were his arms ? What became of him 
after his incarceration in the Tower ? 

It may be added that the publication 
usually known as ' Burrow's Diary * first 
appeared in 1776 under the title * Ladies'- 

Aui F right in assuming that he was removed and Gentlemen's Diary,' &c. From 1780 to 

to Hedingham Castle, on the Essex and 

the last number in 1788, the work was issued 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 19, 1910. 

under the designation ' Ladies' Diary.' 
During this period the older work was 
referred to as the ' Old Ladies' Diary.' 

Rue Soufflot, 3, Paris. 

' TBABALHOS DE JESUS.' I am compiling 
the English bibliography of a Portuguese 
classic, the ' Trabalhos de Jesus ' (' Suffer- 
ings of Jesus'), by Frai Thome de Jesus. 
Can any one give me the exact title of the 
English translation made by Dr. R. Welton, 
and published in London (?) about 1721 ? 
The translation is a rare book, and not even 
mentioned in the ordinary bibliographical 
dictionaries. There is no copy in the 
British Museum. EDGAR PRESTAGE. 

Chiltern, Bowdon, Cheshire. 

EDWARD FITZGIBBON, 1803-1857. Does 
any one know of a portrait of Edward 
Fitzgibbon, who wrote under the name 
' : Ephemera n ? After living six years in 
France he came to England and contributed 
to The Morning Chronicle and Bell's Life. 
He also published a ' Handbook of Angling/ 
1847, and (with A. Young) ' The Book of the 
Salmon,' 1850, and edited 'The Complete 
Angler,* 1853. See ' D.N.B.,' first edition, 
vol. xix. p. 154. R. B. M. 

LADY CLAVERING. Can any of your 
readers give me information concerning 
Clare, the wife of Sir Thomas John Claver- 
ing, Bt., of Rywell, Durham ? Lady 
Clavering died in 1854. She was a French- 
woman, the daughter of the Count de la 
Sable, and was the " Lady C." to whom 
Napoleon addressed the ' Letters from the 

About 1720 there appeared a pamphlet 
with the following title-page : 

" The Life of the late celebrated Mrs. Elizabeth 
Wisebourn, vulgarly called Mother Wybourn, con- 
taining Secret Memoirs of Several Ladies of the 
First Q y, who held an Assembly at her House. 
By Anodyne Tanner, M.D. London. Printed for 
A. Moore, near St. Paul's." 

There are several names in it in cipher. 
Does a key to it exist ? 


personal satires in our language are better 
known than that upon " Prince Fred, who 
was alive and is dead " ; but a document 
just brought to light indicates that it was not 
so original as has been always considered. 
The account of it given in that one of 

Thackeray's lectures on * The Four Georges * 
which dealt with George III. is the generally 
accepted version : 

" What had Frederick, Prince of Wales, 
George's father, done, that he was so loathed by 
George II. and never mentioned by George III. ? 
Let vis not seek for stones to batter that forgotten 
grave, but acquiesce in the contemporary epitaph 
over him : 

Here lies Fred, 

Who was alive and is dead. 

Had it been his father, 

I had much rather. 

Had it been his brother, 

Still better than another. 

Had it been his sister, 

No one would have missed her. 

Had it been the whole generation, 

Still better for the nation. 

But since 'tis only Fred, 

Who was alive, and is dead, 

There's no more to be said." 

But in the second volume of the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission's Report on the 
MSS. of the Earl of Egmont, issued in 1909, 
there is a letter (pp. 17-18) from Robert 
Bowyers to Robert Southwell, dated 9 July, 
1667, which includes the passage : 

"It is said these verses were written over the 
grave of one of the sons of the Lord Chancellor of 
England : 

Here lies Tom Hyde, 

It 's pity that he died ; 

We had rather 

It had been his father ; 

If it had been his sister, 

We had not missed her ; 

If the whole generation, 

It had been better for the nation." 

The Lord Chancellor at that moment was 
Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon ; and the 
animus of the writer is shown in an earlier 
portion of the same letter, which ran : 

" Great matters is expected when the parlia- 
ment sits, much wrong hath been done, God 
Almighty find out the authors and bring them 
to condign punishment." 

This, as I have noted, was written in July, 
1667 : in the August Clarendon was dis- 
missed from the Chancellorship, and two 
months later the House of Commons decided 
on his impeachment. It would be interest- 
ing, therefore, now to learn whether this 
satire on a son of his was generally circulated 
at the time, and when and by whom the 
extended and embellished version on " Prince 
Fred '* was brought to the notice of the world. 

frequently raised at one end of a mediaeval 
hall, and I am very anxious to learn if 
there are any examples in England of the 
crown of the vaulting in the undercroft, im- 

n s. i. FEB. 19, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


mediately under the dais, being raise* 
above the crown of the vaulting of th 
remainder of the crypt, the result being tha 
a level floor throughout the entire hall 1 
impossible, a few steps being necessary a 
the end. S. P. Q. R. 

VANESSA. This name is best known in 
connexion with Swift's Esther Vanhomrigh 
or, in the scientific world, as attached to a 
butterfly. I presume the word is a mere 
Latinization of Van Esther. 

What is the origin of it ? Who, in fact 
first used it or invented it ? TINTIN. 

married Isabella, daughter of Francis Wick 
liffe, niece of Thomas, Earl of Strafford 
In what way was she his niece ? 


101, Lexham Gardens, W. 

one tell me where to find a fairy tale about 
the four winds ? The old mother has a sack 
for each wind, into which she ties him 
down after his work is done. It is quite a 
short story, and sounds like Hans Andersen ; 
but I have failed to find it in any collection 
of his stories. ALIPOBE. 

GBINLING GIBBONS. A few days ago I 
saw in some paper or review an account of 
Grinling Gibbons, containing, among other 
things, the statement that his true name 
was Gibbon. If any of your readers 
happened to see the passage, I should be very 
grateful for the reference. WOODCABVEB. 

son Crusoe ' Friday is described as having 
cut off a savage's head at one blow, " as 
cleverly, no executioner in Germany could 
have done it better." Why " in Ger- 
many n ? Were German executioners re- 
nowned for their skill in Defoe's time ? 
I am told that beheading with a sw r ord still 
continues in Austria and in Germany, but 
I should like to have this statement cor- 
roborated. A. C. L. 


A friend writes to me : 

" More than twenty years ago I read two interest- 
ing articles in a magazine, the name of which I am 
sorry I forget, giving details of the deportation by 
Cromwell of priests to Barbados. The Protector's 
orders were that they should be treated more 
harshly than the negro slaves, in fact, worked to 
death ; and I believe they were." 

Can any reader supply the name of the 
magazine ? Q 

" THE NEMESIS OF WOBDS." Is this phrase 
a well-known one ? and if so, will some 
reader of -' N. & Q. ? refer me to any instance 
of it ? It is not given in the ' N.E.D.* I 
notice it and this, I believe, is the first 
time I have seen it in print as the head- 
line to an article in The Spectator for 
29 January, p. 171. But it is the title of 
a paper I read in December, 1897, to the 
University Graduates' Club ; and as I may 
some day publish it, I do not want to be 
then accused of plagiarism. I thought it 
was my own. Lucis. 

one give the words or air of this song ? 
It is mentioned in ' The Heart of Mid- 
lothian,' chap. viii. 

There is also a reference to it in Fountain- 
hall's ' Historical Notices,' p. 442 : 

5 June, 1683. " One is con veined for having reviled 
the Minister in causing the piper play ' The Deill 
stick the Minister.' Sundry fiddlers were there 
present as witnesses to declare it was the name of 
ane spring." 

G. W. C. 

Where can the following lines be found? 
The young and the beautiful, why do they die 
With the flower on their cheek, and the beam in 

their eye ? 

The question was asked in a very old number 
of L ' Intermediaire des Chercheurs et Curieux. 
t was never answered. L. P, 


Prof. Tyrrell, in his recent * Essays in 
Greek Literature ' (p. 198) quotes a transla- 
iion by Benjamin Hall Kennedy of some 
ines of Cotton's : 

Justitia gaudere Deum sic collige ; poenas 
Qui meruere timent, qui timuere luunt. 

D rof. Tyrrell says he cannot remember the 
riginal. Can any one supply it ? 

Theological College, Lichfield. 

In the old years past away, 
The years that long are dead, 
Did you hear ? &c. 

O. B. 

glad to know the genealogy, &c., of John 
enkinson, Rector of St. John Zachary 
n the first half of the sixteenth century. 
A P.C.C. will of 1523, made by a parishioner, 
s stated in the registered copy to have been 
written by John " Genys," clerk, then rector, 
f course the same. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 19, 1910. 

anybody in my part of East Cornwall made 
a loud outcry about some physical punish- 
ment or pain, we used to say he was ' ' Kick- 
ing up Bob's-a-dying. n Is the expression 
familiar elsewhere, and what is its origin ? 


" No REDEEMING VICE." Who said this, 
and of whom ? and where is it recorded ? 


C. W. S. D. HOLMES was admitted to 
Westminster School 20 April, 1808. I should 
be glad to obtain any information concern- 
ing him. He was, I believe, a member of 
the family of Holmes of Apuldercombe, 
Isle of Wight, but his name does not appear 
in Burke's ' Extinct Baronetage.' 

G. F. R.'B. 

BBAY (1710-82). What was the maiden 
name of his first wife, and when did she die ? 
When did he marry Home Tooke's sister 
as his second wife ? The * Diet. Nat. Biog.,' 
xiv. 330, gives no assistance. I should be 
glad to know where I could find any autho- 
rity for the statement that he was educated 
at Westminster School. G. F. R. B. 

was Sheriff of London 1817-18. Whom 
did he marry, and what family had he ? 

G. F. R. B. 

SHIRE. Any references to the above will 

18, Harrington Court, S.W. 

ARMS ON SILVER Box. The following 
coat of arms is engraved on an old silver 
box in my possession. I give what appear 
to be the tinctures : Argent, a saltire 
engrailed sable. Crest, a ship. I shall be 
glad to know the family to whom this coat 
belongs. F. R. R. 

history of ' Edward I. in the North,' attri- 
buted to Dr. Taylor (pp. 284-5), there is 
given a list of the principal supporters o: 
Bruce in the North, amongst whom are 
named the Earl of Athol, the Bishop of 
Moray, " Alan de Moravia of Culbin, Sir 
William de Fentoun of Beauford, William 
de Dolays of Cantray, John de la Haye,' 
and several others. I should be gratefu 
to readers who could refer me to any autho 
rity for this list. A. CALDER. 

(10 S. xii. 264, 318, 357 ; 11 S. i. 90.) 

AT the last of these references MR. RALPH 
THOMAS dealt with the question whether 
harles Barwell Coles was an alumnus of 
Winchester College, by stating that ' ' his 
lame is not in Kirby's list of ' Scholars ' ; 
t is on the College Register, but the authori- 
ties have no information about him." With 
deference, that statement is not strictly 
accurate. Having searched the College 
Register from which Mr. Kirby^s list was 
compiled, I am able to say that it does not 
contain the name of Charles Barwell Coles'. 
This is a Register of the boys who were 
admitted as Scholars on the foundation ; 
and it was not until 1836 that any book 
(or at least any book known to be extant) 
was kept, that could be called a " Register,' 1 
of the other boys at the School, the Com- 
moners. To find the names of the Com- 
moners, one has to turn to the annual 
School rolls (the "long rolls''), and these 
formerly gave merely surnames. 

From 1723 to 1812 two only of these rolls 
(those of 1799 and 1810) contained the name 
of " Coles.'* If Charles Barwell Coles was 
born (as is probable) in or about 1783, he 
may be the " Coles " of 1799, who, as he 
held a place more than half-way up the 
School, had probably come from some other 
educational establishment ; and there are 
grounds for suggesting that this Coles was 
Charles Barwell. Records of the annual 
Wykehamist dinners in London have happily 
been preserved, and " C. B. Coles " is on the 
list of Wykehamists who attended the dinner 
of 1815. Moreover, James Robinson Hay- 
ward, who was secretary of the dinner from 
about 1810 to 1837 (The Hampshire Chronicle 
of 8 May, 1837, states that at that year's 
dinner a silver cup was given to him upon his 
approaching retirement from the secretary- 
ship), kept an address -book for the purpose 
of sending out notices of the dinner. " C. B. 
Coles, Esq., 20, Bruton Street, " is one of 
the addresses in this book. Is it known 
whether Charles Barwell Coles ever lived 
there ? According to ' Boyle l of 1835, he was 
then living at 35, Allsop's Terrace (Terrace 
Chambers), Marylebone. As J. R. Hay- 
ward became Scholar at Winchester in 1802, 
he entered the School about two years after 
the Coles of 1799 had left. 

MR. THOMAS says that it would be interest- 
ing to know where C. B. Coles was born. 

ii s. i. FEB. 19, 1910. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


He was perhaps born at Ditcham Park, near 
Petersfield, Hants, the property and home 
of Charles Coles, his father. His mother 
was F. Elizabeth Barwell, daughter of 
William Barwell, of Chertsey Abbey, Sur- 
rey ; and this William Barwell was, I 
imagine, the William Barwell who is men- 
tioned in the ' D.N.B.,' iii. 350, as father 
of Richard Barwell, " the Nabob of Stan- 
stead.' 2 Between 1821 and 1831 there were 
three Barwells at the College as Com- 
moners. They were probably the Nabob's 
grandsons, but I have not yet been able to 
identify them satisfactorily. Charles Coles 
is said to have married F. Elizabeth Bar- 
well about 1782. Their sons were Charles 
Barwell Coles (the eldest), the Rev. John 
Coles, J.P. (born 14 Feb., 1787), and Major- 
General William Cowper Coles. 

For reasons of which I ajn ignorant, C. B. 
Coles would seem to have been a " dis- 
carded son," as his younger brother the Rev. 
John Coles apparently succeeded to Ditcham 
Park. This brother who was Rector of 
Silchester, a living that he held from 1812 
until his death on 16 April, 1865 (Gentle- 
man's Magazine] married, as his first wife, 
Marianne Goodhead,* daughter of Capt. 
Josias Rogers, R.N. Henry Thomas Coles, 
the barrister, and Capt. Cowper Phipps 
Coles, R.N., whom MB. THOMAS mentions, 
were younger sons of this marriage. The 
eldest son was Josias Rogers John Coles, 
a Winchester Commoner (1826-32), who, 
after leaving Oxford, entered the Army, saw 
service in India, became Lieutenant-Colonel 
(of the 9th Lancers), and died on 13 Oct., 
1866 (Gentleman's Magazine). Col. J. R. J. 
Coles had a sister who became wife to 
Admiral Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby, 
brother of Dr. James John Hornby, the late 
Provost of Eton. The basis of the fore- 
going statements is the account of ' Coles of 
Ditcham l in Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' 
5th ed. (1871), which may be consulted 
for some further details. See also Foster's 
' Alumni Oxonienses (1715-1886) ' p. 277 
Nos. 3, 8, and 12. 

May I take this opportunity of pointing 
out that the phrase " educated at Win- 
chester,' 1 when applied to men (like C. B. 
Coles) who were schoolboys in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century or the 
earlier years of the nineteenth, does not 
necessarily mean that they were at the 
College ? During that period the Hyde 

* Or Mary Anne Goodhew, as she is called in 
1 he Gentleman's Magazine recording her death on 
4 JJec., 1832. 

Abbey School was a flourishing concern 
at Winchester, first under the Rev. Reynell 
Cotton (who died in 1779), and next under 
his son-in-law, the Rev. Charles Richards. 
Dean Gaisford, in whose memory the Gais- 
ford Prizes were founded at Oxford, was a 
member of that school. 

A still worse trap for the unwary was set 
by the 'D.N.B.,' Suppl., i. 81, with the 
statement that Sir John Dugdale Astley, 
the sporting baronet who died in 1894, was 
" educated at Winchester and Eton.'* It 
appears from another source that his " educa- 
tion at Winchester '' was with a clergyman 
living there, who privately prepared him 
for Eton. His grandfather, however, John 
Dugdale Astley, who was created baronet 
in 1821, was a Commoner at Winchester 
College in 1793. H. C. 

89). According to the legend, the followers 
of the prophet desired of him a miracle 
in evidence of his divine commission. 
Moses and Jesus, they pointed out, had 
performed wonders in proof of the high 
calling which they exercised, and it would 
be well that he too should signalize his 
supernatural quality in a similar manner. 
To this at first Mohammed prudently de- 
murred. " It would," said he, " be tempting 
God to do so, and bring down His anger, 
as in the case of Pharaoh." This reasonable 
attitude failing to give satisfaction to those 
that looked for a sign, he presently com- 
manded Mount Safa to come to him, and 
straightway turned his ineffectual order to 
homiletic account. " God, 12 he exclaimed, 
"is merciful. Had it obeyed my words, it 
would have fallen on us to our destruction. 
I will therefore go to the mountain, and thank 
God that He has had mercy on a stiff-necked 
generation.' 1 THOMAS BAYNE. 

Bacon in his essay on ' Boldness l says : 
" Nay, you shall see a bold fellow many times do 
Mahomet's miracle. Mahomet made the people 
believe that he would call an hill to him, and from 
the top of it offer up his prayers for the observers 
of his law. The people assembled ; Mahomet 
called the hill to come to him, again and again ; 
and when the hill stood still, he was never a whit 
abashed, but said, 'If the hill will not come to 
Mahomet, Mahomet will go to the hill.' If we 
cannot do what we will, we must do what we 

[Mi*. A. R. BAYLEY also thanked for reply.] 

87). The play referred to is Ben Jonson's 
' Every Man in his Humour.' Tine passage 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 19, 1910. 

quoted by Beckford is in Act I. sc. i. : 
" I have bought me a hawk, and a hood, 
and bells, and all ; I lack nothing but a 
book to keep it by. n 



SKEAT also refer to Ben Jonson.] 

" SPENCER n (11 S. i. 105). MB. E. W. 
ANDBEWS'S note on this subject calls for a 
reply from me. 

The loose use of the word "spencer" is 
easily explained. The article I contributed 
to The Connoisseur last July was written 
in less than t\vo hours from exhaustive notes 
compiled previously. Being pressed for 
time, I turned up the official Catalogue of the 
Old Masters' Exhibition held at Burlington 
House in 1880 as well as the National 
Gallery Annual Report for the same year, 
since when the picture has been on exhibition 
at Trafalgar Square. As the lady was 
described in each of these authoritative 
publications as wearing a " black satin 
gown, over which is a long black spencer 
lined with sable," I made use of the same 
word. The painting has, of course, not been 
tampered with since then. 


(11 S. i. 66). My collection of Day family 
history does not, I regret to say, contain 
anything likely to help MB. McPiKE, as it 
refers almost wholly to matters concerning 
Days, Deys, and Dees anterior to 1650, 
or the tune of the Great Rebellion. 

227, Strand, W.C. 

Wards were lords of the manor of Guils- 
borough, Northamptonshire, in the eigh- 
teenth century. The principal inn in the 
village is still known as " The Ward Arms." 
There are various Ward tablets, displaying 
arms, in Guilsborough Church, of which 
I can give MB. McPiKE particulars if desired. 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

468 ; 11 S. i. 76). There is a passage much 
to the point in the ninth volume of ' Tristram 
Shandy ? (vol. vi. chap, xxxiii. in the edition 
of 1782), where Sterne says : 

" In ordinary cases, that is, when I am only 
stupid, and the thoughts rise heavily and pass 
grumous through my pen Or that I am got, I 
know not how, into a cold unmetaphorical vein 
of infamous writing. . . .if a pinch of snuff or a 

stride or two across the room will not do the 
business for me I take a razor at once .... This 
[i.e., shaving] done, I change my shirt put on a 
better coatr send for my last wig put my topaz 
ring upon my finger ; and, in a word, dress myself 
from one end to the other of me, after my best 
fashion...,.^ man cannot dress, but his ideas 
get cloth'd at the same time ; and if he dresses 
like a gentleman, every one of them stands 
presented to his imagination, genteelized along 
with him so that he has nothing to do, but take 
his pen and write like himself." 


(11 S. i. 67). I have often come across 
similar framed copies of this production 
hanging on the walls of houses in North- 
amptonshire. One such used to hang in my 
father's house at West H addon, in that 
county, during all the time I lived under 
the parental roof. It was executed as a 
specimen of penmanship by my father 
when at school, and bore date some time 
in the eigh teen-forties. A companion frame 
contained an illuminated copy of the Lord's 
Prayer, the work of the same hand. 

I know the possessor of a beautifully 
executed copy of the Crucifixion metrical 
prayer worked by a lady in coloured silks 
and worsted. A written copy lies before 
me now, but it bears no reference to its 
origin. I have never seen this alluded to, 
but I always believed it to be a monkish 
effusion. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

I have on a card the same design and 
words as J. T. F., but without the embellish- 
ments. They are said to be seen on a stone 
tablet in a wall at the Vicarage, Walsall. 

Short Heath, Farnham. 

The words " WHy hast n in the third 
inscription in my query should have been 
printed " why HAst." The H and A come 
in the words witH and S Aviour in the lines 
above. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

EPICUBUS IN ABT (10 S. xii. 347, 433). 
May not the " 1 " in " Ericl Puteani," which 
MB. PIEBPOINT assumes to be an error, 
have been intended for the extra-tall I so 
frequently employed by Puteanus himself to 
denote the contraction from ii ? 

PBAND!, LIPS!, GEN!, OT!, &c., are 
examples of such use, while the genitive 
case of the author's name figures as EBYC! 
PVTEANI on the title-pages of five of his 
tracts which lie before me, among them 
being the first edition (Louvain, 1608) of his 
' Comvs, sive Phagesiposia Cimmeria. Som- 

ii s. i. FEB. 19, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


nivm,' an edition which Mr. Walter Begley 
had never seen (' Nova Solyma,' ii. 385), and 
which Mr. G. H. Powell, while assigning it 
to a wrong year, suggests " may have been 
rarified by students anxiously verifying 
the numerous passages, borrowed thence by 
the English poet '* (' Excursions in Libraria,' 
pp. 10, 11). EDWARD BENSLY. 


i. 88). The fullest dictionary of German 
student terms is the ' Burschikoses Worter- 
buch,* by J. Vollmann (a pseudonym), pub- 
lished in Ragatz, 1846. This will supply the 
information desired by J. R. C. H. Other 
synonymous terms are " ein forscher studio," 
" ein Kapitalkerl," " ein Bierhahn,'* and 
" ein Eisenfresser " ; but all these are in 
disuse nowadays, and date from the middle 
of the last century. FRANK SCHLOESSER. 

ALLEY (11 S. i. 30, 74, 92). The oldest dis- 
coverable inhabitant of Crown Court, by 
calling a tailor, informed me that his father 
used to speak of Crown Court, Pall Mall, as 
having been known at one time as the Paved 
Alley. It seems to have been called alter- 
natively Old Paved Alley (possibly in contra- 
distinction to Paved Alley in Charles Street) 
and Crown Court so early as 1761, as we 
learn from Dodsley's ' London and En- 
virons.' In William Rhodes's ' Plan of 
the Parish of St. James,' 1770, it is still 
called " Old Pav'd Alley." 

It is a curious by-way, retaining to this day 
in its provision shops a relic of the old St. 
James's Fair and Market. It has been 
etched by Mr. Ernest George ('Etchings of 
Old London,' with descriptive letterpress by 
the author, 1884). The utilitarian Builder 
(18 July, 1885, p. 84) speaks of it somewhat 
disparagingly : 

C1 Ft is oii? of the close corners of the picturesque, 
and a dirty hole it is, occasionally, but unwillingly, 
used as a short cut; but it looks well in Mr. 
Gteorge'e <-ti-hing. Now that we have such a good 
record of it from his needle, let it be pulled down 
and daylight be let in. It has been etched: 
away witli it." 

This may be good builder's logic ; but its 
general application would, I fear, rob us of 
nmny a "close corner of the picturesque," 
which, on account of associations, should 
iv main taboo to the Philistines. There are, 
no doubt, dcmves of sensitiveness in the 
or-;)M of snn'11 ; but there was no unpleasant 
absence of fresh air when the writer last 
visited the spot, where the old stalls are 

evidently lineal descendants of those in St. 
James's Market and St. James's Fair. 

The Court was named after a tavern with 
the sign of " The Crown n (vide Dodsley's 
' London,' s.v. Crown Court) ; and since 
booksellers often tenanted a floor above an 
inn or tavern, it is probable that the John 
Barnes dwelt here to whom the following 
advertisement of the time of William III. 
or Queen Anne appertains : 

" ** A Sermon preached at Westminster, on 
the Publick Solemn Fastday, December 19, 
1701. By Vincent Alsop, Minister of the Gospel. 
Printed for John Barnes at the Crown in the 
Pall Mall," &c. Postman, 14 March, 1702. 

An account of Vincent Alsop will be found 
in ' Biog. Brit.' 


[For Vincent Alsop see also 10 S. xi. 47, 114, 

' EDWIN DROOD ' CONTINUED (11 S.i. 69). 
There appear to have been five attempts 
made to finish ' The Mystery of Edwin 

The first was palmed off on the public as 
being the work of Charles Dickens the 
younger and Wilkie Collins. It emanated 
from America, and bore the title of * John 
Jasper's Secret * (see 10 S. i. 331). 

The second was a burlesque : ' The Cloven 
Foot : being an adaptation of the English 
Novel " The Mystery of Edwin Drood " to 
American Scenes, Characters, Customs, and 
Nomenclature/ by Orpheus C. Kerr, New 
York, 1870. 

The third, which is probably that to 
which O. S. T. refers, was also published in 
America (Brattleboro' ) in 1873, under the 
title : 

" The Mystery of Edwin Drood. Part the 
Second. By the Spirit Pen of Charles Dickens, 
through a medium : embracing also that part 
of the work which was published prior to the 
termination of the Author's Earth Life." 

The fourth was published by Remington 
& Co. in 3 vols. octavo in 1878, and en- 
titled ' A Great Mystery Solved : being a 
Sequel to " The Mystery of Edwin Drood, " 
by Gillan Vase. 

The fifth and most remarkable of all was 
written by the famous astronomer' Richard 
A. Proctor. It was published in 1887 by 
Allan & Co., under the title ' Watched 
by the Dead : a Loving Study of Dickens's 
Half-told Tale.' 

See also 10 S. i. 37, 331. 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. tii s. i. FEB. 19, 1010. 

INTERCOURSE (11 S. i. 8). Treaties between 
these States are concluded in both Chinese 
and Japanese texts, and I believe their 
correspondence is conducted in pretty much 
the same manner as in other countries. 
For example, a dispatch from the Foreign 
Office at Tokyo would be sent to the Japanese 
Minister at Peking, whose official translator 
would put its purport into Chinese for the 
Minister to sign and address to the Tsungli 
Yamen ; and the same procedure would 
presumably be followed in the converse 
case as a general rule. 


I cordially endorse the remarks of MR. 
McMuRRAY concerning the county cata- 
logues of ' Deeds and other Documents ' 
issued by Mr. F. Marcham of Tottenham. 
Besides being of service to the genealogist, 
pedigree-hunter, and historian, they contain 
much to amuse the general reader, such as 
memoranda about the families of noted 
people Dickens, Thackeray, and others. 
And those who like to trace out the histories 
of our large breweries will find in them a 
good deal of interesting matter. 


OUAGE (11 S. i. 69). Cicero in his ' De 
Oratore,' iii. 12, 45, makes L. Licinius Crassus, 
the famous orator, who died in 91 B.C., speak 
in most laudatory terms of the language and 
pronunciation of his mother-in-law Lselia, 
daughter of Gains Lselius, the intimate 
friend of Scipio Africanus the younger. In 
so doing Crassus lets fall the following general 
reflection : " Facilius enim mulieres incor- 
ruptam antiquitatem conservant, quod 
multorum sermonis expertes ea tenent 
semper, quae prima didicerunt.^ 

The charm of Laelia's conversational style, 
as well as that of her daughters and grand- 
daughters, is mentioned in Cicero's ' Brutus,' 
58, 211. Quintilian again, I. i. 6, refers to 
Lselia, and mentions the debt in oratory 
which the Gracchi were said to have owed 
their mother Cornelia. 


What Cicero writes (' De Or.,' iii. 12, 45) is : 
" Personally, whenever I hear my mother-in-law 
Leelia speak tor W9men preserve more easily (than 
men) the purity of old-fashioned speech, because 
they do not converse with many persons, and so 
retain what they learnt in the beginning when I 
hear her, I say, I seem to hear the speech of 
Plautus or Naevius; her intonation is so correct 
and unaffected that she seems to add no exaggera- 

tion or imitation of others thereto. Hence I gather 
that such was the speech of her father and of her 
forbears; a speech not harsh or broad, not pro- 
vincial or broken by hiatus, but restrained, smooth, 
and gentle." 

The words are put into the mouth of C. 
Licinius Crassus the orator, husband to 
Lselia's elder daughter Mucia. 

In Cicero's time aspiration was beginning 
to intrude into Latin more than he (and 
Catullus) approved. H. K. ST. J. S. 

[ J. S. also thanked for reply. ] 

" OLD SIR SIMON n (10 S. xii. 490 ; 11 S. i. 
34). If no definite person can be found to 
account for the name of the hotel and market, 
I would suggest that the ancient inn took 
its name from the title of an old song, 
and the market from the adjacent inn. 

' Old Sir Simon the King l was one of the 
favourite airs of Squire Western, that his 
daughter played for him after dinner : 

"The Squire declared, if she would give him 
t'other bout of ' Old Sir Simon,' he would give 
the gamekeeper his deputation the next morning. 
' Sir Simon ' was played again and again, till the 
charms of music soothed Mr. Western to sleep." 
' Tom Jones,' vol. i. 

The song consists of four stanzas, and at the 
end of each is a chorus for the general 
company, " Says Old Sir Simon the King." 

Chappell gives the words of the song in 
vol. i. of his ' Collection of English Airs,' 
but terminates each stanza with " Says Old 
Simon the King. n In vol. ii., however, the 
music renders it necessary that the phrase 
should run " Says Old Sir Simon the King,' ? 
and so the words are. See Chappell, ' Col- 
lection of National English Airs, 1 London, 
1839, vol. i. pp. 41-3, vol. ii. p. 9. 

J. H. K. 

Percy's * Reliques ' contains a ballad 
entitled ' Old Sir Simon the King.* The 
hero was an innkeeper, if I remember 
accurately, but I have not the book at hand. 

M. N. G. 

xii. 428, 511 ; 11 S. i. 90). The statement 
referred to was made by William Blades in 
the note to Watson's book in a bibliography 
which appeared in The Printers'- Register. 
The note appears on p. 106 in the issue for 
6 Dec., 1875, and is as follows : 

" ' At best but a meagre performance ; it 
happens to be rare, and therefore bibliomaniacs 
hunt after it.' So writes Dr. Dibdin (' Biblio- 
mania,' p. 69) in his usual superficial style. He 
is right so far as rarity goes, for it is a volume 
that must be waited and watched for ; but that 
is not its only recommendation, for it contains 
some interesting and useful information on 

ii s. i. FEB. 19, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Scotch printing not found elsewhere. The 
didactic part is, as the author states in the preface, 
translated from a celebrated French writer ; 
this was La Caille, who, in 1869, published his 
' Histoire de I'lmprimerie.' " 

St. Bride Foundation, B.C. 

MICHAEL LIVINGSTON (10 S. xii. 490). 
Michael Livingston of Bantaskine was a 
kinsman and vassal of Alexander Livingston, 
Lord Almond, afterwards second Earl of 
Callendar, to whom M. L. addressed a long 
poem (1682) entitled ' Patronus Redux. 1 
With reference to this poem the following 
extract is taken from ' The Livingstons 
of Callendar and their Principal Cadets,* 
a family history privately printed in 1888 : 

" His initials M. L. are only on the title-page, 
but at the end of the poem are some lines addressed 
to ' Michael Livingston of P^ntasken upon the 
Panegyrick on the Earl of Callendar ' by \Villiam 
Scott, which identifies the author. He is pro- 
bably the same person as the Michael Livingston 
of Banteskine who together with one Robert 
Burn of Falkirk were defendants in an action 
brought against them by the Earl of Linlithgow 
in March, 1700. He is also probably the same 
Michael Livingston who presented a poem en- 
titled ' Albions Elegit,' &c., to the Duke of York 
in 1680." 

In the same work, among a list of Living- 
ston documents then in the possession of 
the Marquis of Bute, is an " Instrument 
and Protestation by the Earl of Linlithgow 
and Callendar anent Livingston v. Burn 
(Michael Livingston of Banteskine v. Robert 
Burn of Falkirk), 7th and 8th March, 1700. n 

Kingston, Jamaica. 

i. 50, 113). It may be of interest to MB. DE 
VILLIERS to know that his quotation No. 1 is 
the first line of a distich used by the Paris 
printer Felix Balligaut in connexion with 
his printer's mark, of which a facsimile is 
aiven facing p. 101, of the Rev. W. Parr 
Greswell's ' Annals of Parisian Typography,' 
London, 1818, 8vo. This is reproduced 
from his ' Ludolphi Vita Christi, 1 printed 
at Paris, 1497. The lines referred to run as 
follows : 

Felix i|iii-in t'jieiunt aliena pericula cautum 
i;-t r.'itunatu* felix diuesque beatus. 


After giving various forms of the proverb 
" Tela praevisa minus nocent " (No. 4 
among Mr. DE VILLIERS'S quotations), I 
have come on a passage where it is 
Nvordrd in what is virtually the same way. 
Gilbert us Cognatus Nozerenus ( = Gilbert 

Cousin of Nozeray) in his ' Enarratiun- 
culse sivs Explanationes in aliquot Joannis 
Joviani Pontani Dialogos, ex Charonte,' 
writes in his notes on dial. viii. : "^Tela 
enim & mala prseuisa minus iiocent,"' p. 
3679 (torn, iv.) of the Basel (1556) ed. of J. J. 
Pontanus's works. EDWARD BENSLY. 

(10 S. ix. 170). No one as yet has been able 
to tell me the date of the death of this 
notorious lady, who was the daughter of 
James Tilson of Pallis, King's County, and 
Gertrude, Countess of Kerry, and was born 
15 April, 1752. In all probability she died 
later than 1808. The death of her son (who 
was born 18 Jan., 1771) is thus referred to 
in Gent. Mag. of February, 1791, p. 186 : 

" Lately at Tanjore, Mr. Tilson Malion, of the 
cavalry in the service of the East India 
Company, son of Mrs. Mahon and grandson of the 
late Countess -do wager of Kerry." 


COWES, ISLE OF WIGHT (11 S. i. 88). I 
think it most unlikely that the name is Celtic. 
The ancient Cornish name " Caraclowse- 
in-Cowse n has nothing to do with it. This 
" Cowse " represents the Cornish cos, cuz, 
coys, which are explained in Williams's 
' Cornish Dictionary l as being late spellings 
of Corn, coid, " a wood," which is the same 
word as Welsh coed, " a wood," and cognate 
with E. heath. We cannot connect a late 
Cornish form with ancient British. In a 
vast number of cases Celtic " origins " of 
English words and names are utter delusions. 

I believe Cowes to be of English origin, 
though it can hardly be associated with a 
certain domestic quadruped. As we are not 
provided with old spellings, I can only give 
as a mere guess (to be proved or disproved) 
that it represents the A.-S. Cusan, gen. case 
of Cusa, a known personal nam?. If this is 
right, it means " Cusa's place.' 1 There are 
certainly cases in which a place-name is of 
this form. For example. Sextons in Beds 
merely means " Secres tain's place,'-'' as the 
Domesday Book spelling suggests ; " Secres - 
tain n being the old form of the word 
now spelt Sexton. As to the vowel-sound, 
the A.-S. cu is now cow. 


As a small contribution on the interesting 
question of the etymology of Cowes raised by 
Y. T., the following points may be noted. 
In Jenner's * Handbook of the Cornish 
Language,' p. 192, cos and coose (wood) are 
stated to bo used as part of compound 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 19, 1010. 

In Cornish Celtic s often stands for an 
original d, and cos, coose, or cowse is equiva- 
lent to the Welsh coed (a wood). 

It seems rather strange for the word to 
be used by itself as a place-name ; but it 
may be worth noting in this connexion that 
Quat as well as ths neighbouring parish of 
Quatford (both near Bridgnorth in Salop) 
have been equated with the Welsh coed. 
Whether this theory will bear investiga- 
tion I cannot say. 

In the name " Carac lowse in Cowse " 
lowse, grey, represents Welsh llwyd and 
Irish liath. W. J. P. 

I have before me a map by John Speed, 
1610, taken from an atlas, and on the west 
entrance of Newport Haven is marked 
" Westcowe Cast " (i.e., Westcowe Castle), 
but not Cowes. If Y. T. does not possess 
this map (original) I shall be pleased to 
send it to him to look at, if he will kindly 
return it. I have another map from the 
same atlas, and it has the date 1610 printed 

Commander R.N. 

The Royal, 68 and 69, Lancaster Gate, W. 

The Cornish word for a wood, cowse, is 
identical with Welsh coed, as in the place- 
name Bettws-y-Coed. From the same root 
comes the English heath, with a slight 
change of sense. The divergency in the 
last consonant of Cornish cowse and Welsh 
coed is due to the Cornish habit of softening 
final t to s. Compare, for example, the 
Cornish nance, so common in place-names, 
with the corresponding Welsh nant. We 
thus know all about the Cornish cowse, but 
whether Cowes in the Isle of Wight is derived 
from it or not " God bless us all ! that 's 
quite another thing," which I prefer to leave 
to others to decide. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

[We are glad to be able to print one more com- 
munication from MR. PLATT'S pen. See ante, 
pp. 134, 140.] 

ROCHECHOUART (11 S. i. 108). The ' Dic- 
tionnaire de Noblesse,' quoting ' Les Grands 
Officiers de la Couronne,' t. iv. p. 649, says : - 

"Ainiery, seventh of the name, Vicomte de 
Rochechouart (son of Aimerythe sixth Vicomte by 
Luce, Dame de Perasse), married Alix de Morte- 
mart, and had Aimery the eighth Vicomte, who 
married Marguerite de Limoges, and carried on the 

" Aimery the seventh Vicomte by Alix de 
Mortemart had a second son Foucault, Seigneur 
de Saint Germain ('suivant un memoire'). He 
was father of a son Gui de Rochechouart, who 
married Sibilla de Vivonne, and had William 
and Simon, Seigneur d'Availles." 

H. S. V.-W. 


PBAND (10 S. xi. 370). The family von 
liltbrand is included among " Hoch-Ade- 
iche Geschlechter " in Johann Sinapius's 

Schlesische Curiositaten,' Part II., Leipzig 
and Breslau, 1728. On p. 688 mention is 
nade of a Michael Hiltbrand, J.U.D., who 
died on 12 April, 1590. He is described as 

' des hohen Dom-Stiffts S. Joh. zu Breszlau 
3anonicus, und beym H. Creutz daselbst 

ustos, wie auch Bischoffl. Breszlauischer 
Vicarius und Officialis Generalis." Sinapius 
adds that his monument is in the church of 
St. John, and by it a picture of the Descent 
>om the Cross with the distich, 

Ne morerer, pro me Vitse Rex occubuisti ; 

Heu servo mdigno sis ibi Vita Tuo ! 
One is referred to Sinapius's book by that 
useful work Zedler's ' Universal Lexicon.' 


48, 1 16). This is the opening line of the fourth 
of seven verses of an early English poem 
attached to a scroll in one of the sixteenth - 
century fresco paintings in the Chapel of 
the Holy Cross at Stratford-on-Avon, com- 
monly known as the Guild Chapel. (It is 
printed at length in Wheler's ' History of 
Stratford,' 1806, pp. 98-9.) The original, 
written in a neat Gothic letter, appears in a 
scene representing the martyrdom of Thomas 
a Becket, discovered during repairs to the 
chapel in 1804. Traces still remain, though 
most of the curious paintings there have 
since crumbled away. As the verse varies 
from those given by other correspondents, 
Miss MURRAY may like to have the render- 
ing. It runs : 

Erth goth upon erth as man upon mowld, 
Lyke as erth upon erth never goo schold, 
Erth goth upon erth as glesteryng gold 
And ytt schall erth unto erth rather then he- 


xii. 309,397,416). Alveredus and Alvredus 
were certainly the Latinized forms of the 
A.-S. Alfred or Alfred, as suggested by B. B. 
at the second reference ; but Alfred was by 
no means exclusively an Anglo-Saxon name. 
Dr. Round has pointed out that it was a 
favourite name in Brittany, and that after the 
Conquest it was borne in England by 
Bretons. Thus Juhel, the Domesday Lord 
of Totnes, was son of Alfred, and was suc- 
ceeded by another Alfred ('Feudal England,' 
p. 327). Juhel, by the way, notwithstanding 
his distinctive Breton name, has been turned 

n s. i. FEB. 19, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


into a Norman by M. Leopold Delisle, who 
mistook " Totenais " for a form of Toeni 
(Monthly Review, No. 9, p. 97). The name 
Alfred also occurs in Normandy; e.g., 
among the witnesses to a charter of Duke 
Richard II. (?A.D. 1026) is an Alfred the 
Vicomte "Alveredus vicecomes** ('Calen- 
dar of Documents preserved in France,' No. 

Possibly the names Alvary and Alvery 
owe their origin to a mistranslation of 
Alveredus, the true equivalent of the Latin 
form having been forgotten. 


Lowes toft. 

4 PETER WILKINS ' (10 S. xii. 286). All that 
appears to be known of Paltock will be 
found in an article by Mr* W. Roberts on 

* Peter Wilkins l in The Bookworm, vol. iii. 
197-202 (1890). Paltock's authorship only 
came to light by accident in 1835, though 

* Peter Wilkins * was first published in 1750. 
Mr. A. H. Bullen was unable to add to the 
obtainable information when he edited a 
reprint in 1890; and Mr. Roberts concludes 
that Paltock was of Cornish origin, and 
may be the Robert Paltock who was buried 
.at Ryme Church, Dorset, in 1767. 

W. B. H. 

NAME (10 S. xii. 365 ; 11 S. i. 35, 79, 112). 
In Sir Maxwell Lyte's ' Calendar of the 
Manuscripts at St. Paul's ' in the Ninth 
Report of the Historical MSS. Commission, 
p. 23, " Master Richard, Richard, and 
Richard, brothers," are named among the 
witnesses to a grant by the Dean and 
Chapter in or near 1170. On p. 12 we 
have " Ricardo Ruffo et altero Ricardo 
fratribus." The two are also named as 
witnesses to a grant to the church of St. 
Helen, about 1140, at p. 64. 


Savilc Club. 

There is an instance in the family of Lord 
'Gray of Scotland of children by the same 
father and mother, and living at the same 
time, bearing the same Christian name. 
The one was Patrick, 5th Lord Gray, eldest 
son, born 1538, died 1608, the other Sir 
Patrick Gray of Invergowrie, sixth son, who 
dii'd 1606. Both were children of Patrick 
(Jray of Buttergask, 4th Lord Gray, who 
died 1584, by his wife Marion, daughter 
of James, 4th Lord Ogilvy of Airlie (see 
vol. iv. of ' The Scots Peerage '). 

Patrick, 4th Lord Gray, was the eldest 
son of Gilbert Gray of Buttergask, third son 
of Andrew, 2nd Lord (d. 1514), and second 
son by his second wife Elizabeth Stewart, 
daughter of Sir John Stewart of Balveny, 
afterwards Earl of Atholl (great-grandson to 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of 
Edward III. ), by his wife Margaret, daughter 
of Archibald, 5th Earl of Douglas. 

The descendants of Gilbert Gray of 
Buttergask by the male line (of whom many 
are living) through Andrew Gray of Bullion, 
fifth son of Patrick 5th Lord Gray, and by the 
female line through Anna, eldest daughter 
of Andrew, 7th Lord Gray, have a very 
respectable antiquity. Their ancestry can 
b-3 traced in unbroken lines back to Egbert 
(son of Cerdic), first king of Wessex, who died 
836 ; Kenneth MacAlpin, first king over the 
Picts and Scots, died 859 ; William the 
Conqueror ; and Hugh Capet, king of France, 
who died 996. Thus through Elizabeth 
Stewart (daughter of Sir John Stewart 
of Balveny and Margaret Douglas his wife) 
who was married to Andrew, 2nd Lord 
Gray, their descendants can trace a direct 
connexion with the royal families of England, 
Scotland, and France. PATRICK GRAY. 


That the same Christian name was often 
given to children of the same family is 
unquestionable, but more frequently when 
the first-named was dead. My experience 
is based upon Church records which hava been 
examined by myself. 

A year or two ago, when collecting 
information for my ' Croydon's More Ancient 
History,'- &c., I found that, owing to an 
error of previous writers, it was stated that 
there had been two Vicars of Croydon 
named Samuel Fynche. Samuel Fynche, 
the vicar, who was Archbishop Whitgift's 
right-hand man in the building of the 
latter's hospital of the Holy Trinity, 
Croydon, had a son named Samuel. The 
first-named Samuel Fynche was collated by 
Archbishop Grindal in 1581, and my 
investigations show that he was re- pre- 
sented to the living in 1603. He was 
married three times. By his first wife he 
had a son christened in 1582 Samuel, and 
by his third wife he had in addition a son 
who was also baptized Samuel, and by the 
first wife a son christened William, and 
by the third wife another son called William. 
His first wife had a daughter christened 
Elizabeth, who died in 1608 ; while a 
daughter by his third wife was also named 
Elizabeth, born in 1605. It may be men- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s i. FEB. 19, 1910. 

tioned that the register is as follows with 
respect to the last-named child : 

* ' Elizabeth Finche, the daughter and second of 
that name, was born the xxvth day, friday, and 
christened the xxx day of October, being Wednes- 
day anno d'me 1605." 

Strange to say, each of Samuel Fynche's 
three wives was named Elizabeth. 


The Barnstaple parish register furnishes 
many instances of the same Christian name 
hning given to two children of the same 
parents. In the following cases one child 
was not named after the death of the other, 
for they were baptized at the same time ; 
neither can the suggestion be accepted that 
John and Johan were renderings of the same 
name, for the children are described as sons 
or daughters respectively : 
John and John, the two sons of John Hayne, 

baptized 21 June, 1540. 
John and John, sons of Wylliam Jenkens, baptized 

17 April, 1548. 

John and John, sons of John Wiat, baptized 

18 July, 1552 

John and John, sons of Philip Larynier, baptized 

3 May, 1560. 
John and John, sons of Phelyp Larymore, buried 

3 May, 1560. 
Joan and Joan, daughters of John Dart, baptized 

11 May, 1560. 
Johan and Johan, daughters of William Yeowe, 

baptized 13 March, 1584. 


68). News-letters will be found among the 
Foreign State Papers. They have been 
classified as far as possible according to 
their place of origin. For further particulars 
see ' List of Volumes of Foreign State Papers, ? 
published by the Public Record Office in the 
series of " Lists and Indexes," No. XIX. 

The printed Calendars of Foreign State 
Papers also contain a great number of news- 
letters. T. C. 

The Domestic Series of State Papers 
contain many letter-books, but they are 
calendared. Sir Joseph Williamson's col- 
lections 213 volumes are embodied in the 
Calendars from 1666 to 1692, and very 
curious many of them are. For instance, a 
Coventry correspondent sends a graphic 
picture of the Mayor's feast there in 1667. 
At the end of a letter in 1670 one Whit ting- 
ton offers 100Z. to Williamson if he can 
obtain a certain patent through the Secre- 
tary's influence. 

By the w r ay, this query caused me to 
consult the authorities cited in the ' D.N.B.* 

for the life of Sir Joseph Williamson^ There 
it was stated that his papers for 1672 were 
uncalendared. This, being written before 
1900, was correct, but these are now calen- 
dared and published ; yet the reissue of the 
' D.N.B., ? in the volume containing William- 
son, published in 1909, contains the same 
statement without any correction. 


Perhaps information about Scottish news- 
letters may be obtained by consulting ' A 
Guide to the Public Records of Scotland 
deposited in H.M. General Register House, 
Edinburgh, l by M. Livingstone, vol. i. 
(1488-1529). The book was issued by His 
Majesty's Stationery Office in 1908. 


For the results of modern research on the 
question of gender see Brugmann, ' Grundriss 
der vergleichenden Grammatik,' 2nd. ed., 
vol. ii. part i. pp. 82-103, and R. S. Conway, 
Classical Review, vol. xviii. (1904), p. 412. 
With, reference to English nouns and pro- 
nouns see H. Sweet's ' Primer of Historical 
Grammar 2 (1902), 231. G. KRUEGER. 


For an elaborate and exhaustive treatise 
on the true meaning and aim of the gram- 
matical threefold gender in Old German, as 
well as in other related languages (viz., the 
poetical personification and vivification of all 
perceivable and conceivable, concrete and 
abstract objects of the universe), see Jacob 
Grimm's ' Deutsche Grammatik,' vol. iii. 
pp. 342-551 (last edition by Roethe and 
Schroder, ]890). H. KREBS. 

Grammatical gender is a subject that 
cannot be lightly dismissed. The contro- 
versy with regard to its origin has been 
very acute. A simple and useful discussion 
may be found in Giles's ' Manual of Compara- 
tive Philology, 2 pp. 255-62. The following 
are some of the principal references : 

1. 'Origin of Grammatical Gender,' an article by 
B. I. Wheeler in The Journal of Germanic Philology, 
vol. ii. pp. 528 seq., to which is appended a biblio- 

2. Brugmann's Princeton lecture (1897), 'The 
Nature and Origin of the Noun Genders in the 
Indo-European Languages.' 

3. Techmer's Zeitschrift, vol. iv. pp. 100 seq. 

4. Dr. J. G. Frazer in The Fortnightly Renew, 
January, 1900, pp. 79 seq. 

5. Gow's 'Notes on Gender' in The Journal of 
Philology, vol. x. pp. 39 seq. 

Besides these, of course, reference must be 
made to the works of many leading philo- 

ii B. i. FEB. 19, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



The Scottish Grey Friars. By William Moir 

Bryce. 2 vols. (William Green & Sons.) 
THESE handsome and well-printed volumes are 
of a sort especially adapted to give pleasure to 
the readers of ' X. & Q.,' consisting as they do 
of a clear and painstaking historical narrative 
of the career of the Scottish Franciscans, and of 
a volume of documents of all kinds, from well- 
known Bulls to previously unprinted deeds and 
accounts, with some excellent, though for the 
most part familiar, illustrations. Let us first, 
before indicating the chief features of Mr. Bryce's 
work, ask where he obtained the word " Observa- 
tine." " Observant " we know, and "Obseryan- 
tine " we can understand without approving ; 
but " Observatine " cannot by any stretch of 
meaning be applied to an agent it must be 
restricted to an object. The constant jar of such 
a barbarism spoils our pleasure* in reading the 
book. " Mycenas " must be a misprint. 

Mr. Bryce has not confined himself to an 
account of the Scottish friars, but has written 
80 much of the history of the Franciscan Order 
as was necessary to understand the problems 
which they, in common with others, had to solve, 
and their relation to the national and social life 
found them. The book shows wide reading, 
and in general sound judgment ; and in the few 
cases where we should be disposed to differ 
from the author's statements, his authorities are 
always respectable, and generally accepted. 
His literary criticism and judgment are more 
personal and less valuable. Mr. Bryce shows, in 
fact, that true antiquarian cast of mind which 
delights in gathering everything that can throw 
a side-light on the subject under consideration, 
sometimes, it is true, at the cost of the clearness of 
outline and definiteness of statement attained 
by less encyclopaedic, but more scientific writers. 

The history of the Scottish Grey Friars begins 
with their arrival at Berwick in 1231, and closes 
with their dispersal and exile at the Reformation. 
It can be divided into two movements at two 
epochs. The first was a branch of the original 
expansion of the Order, which spread from 
England over the South of Scotland, and resulted 
in the foundation of eight convents (reduced to 
s< -von by the English annexation of Berwick), 
ending with the reign of Bruce. The second 
continental in origin, and dating from the middle 
of the fifteenth century was a branch of the 
Observant reformation of the Order, and founded 
nine convents in the large towns of the east 
r.p.tst of S<-i .t land. The history of each of these 
convents is traced from foundation to dispersal 
and decay, with references to such documents as 
an- known, and an account is then given of the 
Regular Tertiaries of Scotland, who had two 
nunneries Aberdour and Dundee. 

Tli. remainder of the first volume is occupied 
by five chapters dealing with Franciscan theory 
and practice, very sensibly and calmly con- 
sidered, in which the relation of the friars to the 
lite around them is also described. The illustra- 
tions include four reproductions of charters and 
other deeds, and a number of works of art of 
general rather than Scottish interest, the only 

ones, indeed, coming under that description being; 
miniatures of Isabella, Duchess of Brittany, 
daughter of James I., and a view of the Aberdeen 
Friary Church in 1661. 

The second volume (of documents) consists in 
the first place of such charters, sasines, accounts, 
&c., relating to the friaries, as are to be found in the 
General Register House at Edinburgh or in the 
respective burgh charter chests. These are 
printed for the first time in the great majority of 
cases, as are also the interesting facsimiles of the 
Obituary Calendar of the Aberdeen Observants, 
to which Mr. Bryce adds a transliteration. From 
printed sources the author has collected many of 
the important Franciscan bulls, privileges, and 
rules, to some of which translations are appended j- 
and he has reprinted Hay's Chronicle in full, a 
most interesting and valuable document. Miv 
Anderson gives a scholarly account of some 
MSS. in the library of Aberdeen University, 
formerly belonging to the Franciscan Convent. 
A good index of its kind will help the reader to- 
find his way about a work which resembles the 
national dish in being " fine confused feeding." 

There is no doubt that a much more scientific 
book on the same subject could have been pro- 
duced from the same materials, but we doubt 
very much whether the result would have been so 
satisfactory to the general reader ; while as for the 
scholar, since Mr. Bryce scrupulously gives his, 
authorities, the fact that the texts are not critical 
leaves him no worse off than before, with the 
advantage of having his materials at hand. 

The Romance of Symbolism. By Sidney Heath. . 


So many books on symbolism have passed through- 
our hands from time to time that we should have 
thought that little more remained to be said on a 
subject so well-worn, and we are not surprised 
to find that Mr. Heath has nothing new to say. 
Indeed, if we mistake not, he has not yet made 
himself acquainted with the immense literature- 
which has gathered round the subject. He 
certainly makes no reference to it. 

Confining himself to the ecclesiastical aspect 
of it, as it bears upon Christian art and architec- 
ture, he writes for beginners, and explains the- 
most elementary matters. At the same time, 
with a curious want of proportion, he assumes: 
an amount of erudition on the part of his readers; 
which few are likely to possess. He tells, e.g., of 
a strange abuse of images, and he thus begins his 
paragraph : " Michael Balbus says in a letter tx> 
Ludovicus Pius " (p. 17). These worthies, their 
date and milieu, may be familiar to Mr. Heath, but 
he withholds from us all information. He ex- 
plains at length what a " nave " and an " aisle " 
and a " pix " are ; but when he registers " duplex" 
as " a very early symbol and one that plainly 
belongs to the pagan-Christian period " (p. 198), 
he vouchsafes no word to tell us what a. 
" duplex " is. 

In details where we can test the author's anti- 
quarian and philological position, we frequently 
find him at fault. He holds to the exploded 
notion that the ancient Britons worshipped a sun- 
god Bal (as he spells it), in whose honour the 
Beltane fires were kindled (p. 34), and believes that 
the same deity may be traced in " the constant 
recurrence of the word Bal in Irish place-names " 
(p. 36) hi the numerous Ballys, we suppose- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. FEB. 19, 1910. 

We should be much surprised if Mr. Heath coulc 
substantiate his statement that there is an Arabi< 
shamrakh equivalent to the Irish " shamrock ' 
and that " the leaf was held sacred in Iran as 
symbolical of the Persian Triads " (p. 192). Th 
Egyptian crux ansata (ankh) was the symbol no1 
of strength or wisdom (p. 104), but of life. Therr 
is no verb dubo, to dip or dive, in Gothic (p. 78 
from which the " Dove " can be derived there is 
daupjan, to dip and even if there were, this 
derivation would not make the bird the pro- 
per symbol of baptism (p. 78), which is due to the 
Gospel history. These mistakes, and a number of 
misprints (e.g., pp. 51, 55, 59, 114, 135), make 
the book hardly a safe one for beginners. 

The Edinburgh Review for January is excellent 
and varied. The opening article deals with 
' Industry and Employment,' noticing three 
Important books of last year : ' Industrial 
Efficiency,' by Dr. Shadwell ; ' The Industrial 
System,' by Mr. J. A. Hobson ; and ' Unemploy- 
ment,' by Mr. W. H. Beveridge. The last is 
rightly described as an admirable monograph. 
Many results and facts will be found here briefly 
stated. Mr. Beveridge, for instance, shows that 
there is an irreducible minimum of unemployment, 
and rejects the possibility of curing it by State aid, 
advocating the setting-up of Labour Exchanges 
and insurance. ' Lorenzo de Medici ' is at once 
an able and, we believe, a fair summary of a 
great man. ' Pitt and the Triple Alliance, 1788- 
1791,' does not interest us so much as the account 
of ' Governor Pitt,' a fighter and administrator of 
note who is little known to the ordinary reader. 
The article on ' Moliere ' considers the typical 
excellence of the French as a race and its literary 
results. The writer sensibly emphasizes a point 
often forgotten by those who canonize the great 
dramatists of the world that Moliere composed 
his plays not for posterity, but with an eye to the 
actors, the playhouse, and the audience he had 
to use or satisfy. Maternal love and mothers are 
almost unknown in his comedies, " because there 
was no ' old woman' in the company." ' Edgar 
Allan Poe ' is an article which strikes us as essen- 
tially fair to that disordered genius, and judicious 
in its verdict as to his best work. His worst work, 
we may add, is so bad that no one who has not 
read it can realize its feebleness. The long article 
on vol. xiv. of ' L' Empire Liberal,' by the veteran 
statesman Emile Ollivier, deals with the War of 
1870, which has been the subject of much dispute 
among historians, and is not yet wholly cleared up. 
The analysis of the motives and ideas of Napo- 
leon III. is well done. 

The Edinburgh ends with an article on .' The 
Lords' Debate on the Finance Bill,' also 
.subject of the last article in The Quarterly, 
which includes under the heading ' The 
Appeal to the Nation,' ' The People's Budget,' 
by Mr. Lloyd George. The Quarterly, a venerable 
institution, has long yielded to the popular 
taste for signed articles, and eight of thirteen in the 
present number bear the names of their authors. 
Mr. Stephen Reynolds in ' What the Poor Want ' 
seems to us to lack the philosophic and economic 
knowledge necessary to discuss a very difficult 
problem. On the other hand, ' Before and After 
i-he Descent from Elba,' by Sir Charles Dilke, 
shows a wide and unusual command of the 
scattered writings, the gradual realization of 

which is leading us to modify received history. 
The main result of inquiry is that Napoleon's 
return from- Elba did not come as a thunderclap 
to the Powers, and that Lord William Bentinck 
has not been given the credit he deserved for his 
services. Mr. Roger Fry, writing on ' Oriental 
Art,' swells the chorus of praise of methods till 
recently little understood in the West. Indeed, 
when we have once appreciated the full value of the 
masterpieces of the East, we if we may include 
ourselves in " the cultivated public " are to have 
nothing more to say to the vast mass of modern 
Western painting. Our artists are to purify their 
style by returning to the essential principles 
revealed to us by the East. 

Mr. Percy Lubbock has an able article on 
' George Meredith,' though perhaps it is not 
sufficiently extended to consider Meredith's 
philosophy. Mr. Horace Hutchinson is one of the 
earliest, and certainly one of the best, of writers 
on the game of Westward Ho and St. Andrews, 
and his ' Thirty Years of Golf ' deals well with the 
astonishing advance of the game. There are 
several other articles of value which deserve 
notice, but we content ourselves with saying that, 
in these days of pretentious and perfunctory 
writing, to neglect The Quarterly is to miss a 
great deal of sound comment soundly expressed. 
It is rather odd, by the by, that the article on 
' Jacopone da Todi : the Poet of the " Stabat 
Mater," ' is not signed, for the writer begins on a 
personal note, talks of sharing a friend's carriage, 
and visiting six years earlier all the Franciscan 
shrines within reach. 


We must call special attention to the folloiving 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
leading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

E. R. MARSHALL ("What the dickens"). The 
N.E.D.,' s.v. f dickens, says: "Apparently substi- 
tuted for 'devil,' as having the same initial sound." 
The earliest quotations are from ' The Merry Wives 
of Windsor ' (1598) and T. Heywood's ' 1 Edward IV.' 

D. B. Outside our scope. 

J. WILLCOCK. Forwarded. 

ii s. i. FEB. 26, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : Bulwer Lytton's House in Hertford Street, 161 
Shakespeariana, 164 Inscriptions at Gibraltar, 165 
"Acclamation," Unopposed Parliamentary Return 
Theatricals in Margate' Alonzo the Brave 'Last of the 
Sedan-Chair Carriers New South Wales in America, 167. 

QUERIES : Elizabethan Heraldic MSS. Gargoyles 
York Minster Monuments Comparative Value of Money 
"No such word as Fail," 168 Authors Wanted 
Hammersmith Terrace " Rosamonda's lake" Pete rsfie Id 
Inns Deanery of Wolverhampton Col. Francis Godfrey 
"Squash" Ashby Fallows, 169 "Taborer's Inn," St. 
Martin's-le-Grand Mrs. Sarah Trimmer Pope and Irish 
Bishops, 170. 

REPLIES :-Chelsea Old Church, 170-Landor Anecdotes- 
Sir Henry Dudley, 171 Charles I. Medallion "Tally- 
ho": "Yoicks,"172 Scotchmen In France Jacob Cole, 
173 Vermont: Dr. Peters, 174 Architect of Henry VII. 's 
Chapel Nelson among his Intimates, 175 Aristotle and 
the Golden Rule Pronunciation of "oo" William 
Shippen Marriage Contracts, 176 H6teL Moras, Paris- 
Battle of Mohacs "Old Lady of Threadneedle Street" 
Hafiz in Oriental Editions Sir Robert Geffery, 177 
"Disgruntled," 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Col. Rivett-Carnac's 'Many 
Memories ' ' Dudley Hardy.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


IT has often been stated that Lord Lytton, 
the famous novelist, purchased in his early 
manhood (when he was simply Mr. Bulwer) 
No. 36, Hertford Street, Mayfair ; but it is 
not generally known that no fewer than 
three houses in the street have been num- 
bered 36 at different times, and that mistakes 
have been made with regard to the identity 
of the house that was bought by the rising 
novelist. Thus in the Lytton centenary 
number of an illustrated magazine there was 
an illustration purporting to show the house ; 
but though described underneath as 36, Hert- 
ford Street, it was clearly the house at the 
\\vstern corner of Hertford Street and Little 
Stanhope Street, which is now and has 
been for many years numbered 35A, whilst 
36 is at the opposite or eastern corner. 

As the illustration was said to be from the 
" Rischgitz Collection, 11 I recently inquired 
of Mr. Augustin Rischgitz what authority 
there was for calling 35A Bulwer's house ; 

upon which he kindly showed me a copy of 
Wilmot Harrison's ' Memorable London 
Houses,' in which it is asserted that 3oA 
was formerly 36, and that it was .the house 
which Bulwer took about the time he entered 
Parliament in 1835 ; also that Chorley 
walked home with him from the Countess of 
Blessington's in 1836, and the implication is 
that it was to this house, although Chorley 
in his diary does not say so. 

Now I already knew from Lord Lytton's 
unfinished biography by his son that the 
novelist entered Parliament in 1831, and 
that he took his house in Hertford Street in 
1829, whilst from other sources I knew that 
he left it in 1835, so that I did not feel at 
all confident that the right house had been 
shown in the illustration. I had, in fact, 
already ascertained from Robson's ' Court 
Guide/ which commenced in 1832, that 
there were two houses in Hertford Street 
numbered respectively 36A and 36s, and 
that it was the latter which Bulwer occupied, 
though there was nothing to show on which 
side of Little Stanhope Street it stood. 

I determined, therefore, to search further 
into the matter to find out, that is, which 
was the house in which those famous novels 
w r ere written which were composed between 
1829 and 1835, and in which the first Earl of 
Lytton was born in 1831. Before Bulwer 
lived in Hertford Street he had published 
'Falkland 1 (1827), ' Pelham ' (1828), 'The 
Disowned l (1828), and ' Devereux ' (1829). 
After his removal there towards the end of 
1829 he published ' Paul Clifford l (1830), 
' Eugene Aram,* which he dedicated to Sir 
Walter Scott (1831), * Godolphin l (1833), 
' Pilgrims of the Rhine ' (1834), ' Last Days 
of Pompeii* (1834), and 'The Student, 1 a 
collection of short stories and essays (1835). 
Probably most, if not all, of ' Rienzi l was 
also written at Hertford Street, though it 
was not published till towards the end of the 
year, when Bulwer had removed. 

I felt thus keenly interested in the ques- 
tion of the identity of the house where these 
fascinating works of fiction were com- 
posed, and by the courtesy of Messrs. 
Drivers, Jonas & Co., of Pall Mall, the 
agents of the estate, I was permitted to see an 
old ground-plan of the north side of Hertford 
Street, when, to my surprise, I found the 
western corner of Little Stanhope Street 
was numbered 35, the eastern corner was 
1, Little Stanhope Street, and the next house 
36 (now 37). 

As the plan did not show two houses to be 
numbered 36A and 36s, I felt pretty certain 
that it must represent a state of things 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n 8. i. F EB . 26, 1910. 

prior to the time when Bulwer took his house ; 
and researches in Boyle's ' Court Guide,' 
which commenced in 1792, confirmed this 
suspicion. The plan really shows the 
numbers as they were down to 1807, when, 
it appears, a house which was apparently 
new was numbered 23, the old 23 becoming 
24, so that every subsequent house had " 1 " 
added to its number. Before this there was, 
I presume, a vacant space perhaps a 
garden, or perhaps a way into the stables 
at the back between 22 and the old 23. 
The name in Boyle's ' Court Guide ? against 
22, both before and after the change, was 
Mrs. Graham. Then, before the change, 
came 23, the Dowager Lady Lawley ; 24, 
Lord Middleton ; and 25, the Earl of Liver- 
pool. After the change the name against 
23 was Lord Eardley ; then came 24, the 



36 j 

Little Stanhope Street was evidently not 
thought worthy of insertion in the * Court 
Guide ' ; but' in the issue for 1815, after 
"36, Dr. Jones,'\ there is " G. Mathison,. 
corner of Lit. Stanhope Str." This does 
not occur again, and in 1816 G. Mathison 
appears as living at Lisson Grove Lodge, 
Lisson Grove. 

In 1823 there were two issues of the ' Court 
Guide' in January and April. In the 
January volume there is " 36, Rev. R. KL 
Simpson " ; but in the April one there is- 
" 36A, Rev. R. H. Simpson ; 36s, Sir 
Wathen Waller and Baroness Howe." The 
occupiers of 37 and 38 were the same as 
before, clearly showing that 36s was the 
house whichhad previously been 1, Little Stan- 
hope Street ; and from that time to the present 
Little Stanhope Street has had no No. 1. 

Dowager Lady Lawley ; 25, Lord Middleton ; 
and 26, the Earl of Liverpool.* 

From the first ' Court Guide,'- however, pub- 
lished after the change viz., that for 1808 
there appears to have been no one then at the 
new 23. The name of Lord Eardley is given 
as its occupant in 1809. No change was 
made at this time in 1, Little Stanhope 
Street ; but the old 34, Hertford Street, 
occupied for many years by Lieut. -General 
Pigot, became 35, and the old 35 (at the 
corner of Little Stanhope Street) became 

36, but appears to have been empty at the 
time, as was also the old 36, which became 

37, The old 37, however, which became 

38, was occupied, both before and after the 
change, by a Mr. Heatly. 

* The two houses that were last numbered 24 
and 25 have disappeared, the ground on which they 
stood being now occupied by the very large house 
at the corner of Park Lane. 

At 36A the Rev. R. H. Simpson was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Mirehouse, and he by Mr. 
Bickersteth, who had the house when, 
in 1829, Bulwer succeeded Sir Wathen Waller 
after an interval at 3-6B. Bulwer does 
not appear to have used the B when putting 
his address at the head of his letters ; and 
perhaps when Nash the architect renovated: 
and altered the house before Bulwer moved 
into it, the B on the street-door was painted 
out and never renewed. In ' The Royal 
Blue Book,' which commenced in 1822, 
1 the B was omitted from the time that Bulwer- 
.took the house ; but in Boyle's ' Court 
Guide * it was continued till 1836, when. 
Bulwer had left and had been succeeded by 
a Mr. Hall. The two houses, therefore, 
after this were known as 36A and 36 ; but 
the former was next to 35, and the latter 
next to 37, as it is at present. 

From the 'Court Guide' for 1837 it 
appears that both houses were empty, but 

ii s. i. FEB. 26, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in 1838 Mr. Wanklyn was at 36A. He 
was still there in 1839, with no one in either 
year (till the latter part of the second) at 
36 ; but in 1840 we have " 36A, Mr. Wanklyn ; 
36, Sir E. Bulwer." The novelist, who had 
been made a baronet in 1838, had thus 
returned to his old house, but only for a 
short time, during which period he did not 
publish any fresh romance ; though since 
' Kienzi ' in 1835 he had published * Ernest 
Maltravers ' in 1837, and ' Alice,'- ' Leila,' and 
' Calderon ' in 1838. 

Boyle's ' Court Guide J for 1840 puts the 
two houses in their right order, but ' The 
Royal Blue Book ? reverses them ; and it was 
natural to suppose that 36 was next to 35, and 
36A next to 37, though in reality it was not so. 

In 1841, 1842, and 1843, we have ".36A, 
Mr. Wanklyn ; 36, Mr. Andrews " ; and both 
' The Royal Blue Book ' and Boyle's ' Court 
Guide ' put them in the right order. 

' The Post Office Directory * had its first 
Street Directory in 1841, but blundered by 
putting the two houses before mentioning 
the intersection of Hertford Street by Little 
Stanhope Street, as if both were to the west 
of that street. The blunder was repeated 
in 1842, but in 1843 it was partly corrected 
by putting the intersection by Little Stan- 
hope Street between the two houses ; but- 
then Mr. Andrews (36) was represented as 
living on the west side of Little Stanhope 
Street, and Mr. Wanklyn (36A) on the east, 
next to 37. That this was wrong is clear 
not only from the arrangement of the hovises 
in Boyle's * Court Guide ' and ' The Royal 
Blue Book,' but also from the fact that Mr. 
Andrews occupied his 36 at least according 
to ' The Post Office Directory ' right down 
to, and after, the time that the opposite house 
was made 3 5 A, which appeared for the first 
time in ' The Royal Blue Book,' Boyle's 
' Court Guide,' and ' The Post Office 
Directory ' for 1861. 

It is, therefore, certain that when Bulwer 
came to live in Hertford Street for the third 
time in 1843, and his address was given as 
36A in the three works just named in their 
issues for 1844, 1845, and 1846, he was not 
in his old house, which was occupied by 
Mr. Andrews, but in the opposite one, just 
vacated by Mr. Wanklyn, who was living in 
, it when Bulwer occupied his old house in 
1840. During his absence from Hertford 
Street he had published ' Night and Morning ' 
in 1841, and ' Zanoni * in 1842 ; whilst in 
1843 though whether before or after he 
took up his residence at 36A I cannot say 
he published ' The Last of the Barons.'- In 
1846, the year when he finally left the street, 

he published ' Lucretia, 2 which was probably, 
therefore, written at 36A. 

'The 'Royal Blue Book 2 for the three 
years 1844-6 placed the two houses in the 
right order, showing 36A (Bulwer) next to 35, 
and 36 (Andrews) next to 37 ; but ' The 
Post Office Directory l for all the three years, 
and Boyle's ' Court Guide ' for 1844 only, 
placed them in the wrong order, which was- 
enough to make any one who had not gone 
deeply into the matter suppose that Bulwer's 
old house, 36s, had now become 36A, and 
that he was living in it again, the old 36 A 
having become simply 36. It can safely 
be said, however, that 36s never became 
36A, and that the real 36A was never simply 
36 after it ceased to be so in 1823. In fact, 
the agents of the estate have told me that 
they have documentary evidence that 35A 
was formerly 3 6 A, and that it was certainly 
not 36 during an intermediate period. 

It was in 1844, after the "death of his 
mother, and in consequence of her will, that. 
Sir Edward Bulwer added " Lytton n to his 
surname ; and Boyle's ' Court Guide * for 
1845 gave him his new name, and corrected, 
its error abont the order of the houses by- 
putting first " 36A, Sir E. Lytton, n and them 
" 36, Mr. Andrews " ; but ' The Post Office 
Directory J continued to blunder, putting 
36 (Andrews) before Little Stanhope Street 
in 1847 (when there appears to have been 
no one at 36A), and, strange to say, 35 on 
the opposite side, next to 37. 

In 1848 'The Post Office Directory * 
managed to get the houses in the right 
order, putting first ;i 36A, Mrs. Clarke,' 1 and 
then "36, Mr. Andrews n ; but blundered 
by putting Little Stanhope Street after 
both, instead of placing it between them. 
The same blunder was continued till 1854, 
when at length Little Stanhope Street was 
placed between " 36A, Mrs. Clarke,' 2 and 
" 36, Mr. Andrews. 5 ' The numbers were 
also put right in 1855, 1856, and 1857. In 
the 'Directory 1 for 1858, 1859, and 1860 
there was no 36A, which was apparently 
empty ; but in 1861 it reappeared as 35A, 
which it has been ever since. The name 
of Mr. Andrews as occupier of 36 appeared 
for the last time in ' The Royal Blue Book ' 
in 1858, in Boyle's * Court Guide * in 1859, 
and in ' The Post Office Directory l in 1862. 

To sum up, it is clear that the present 
36 was the one Mr. Andrews occupied, and 
that Bulwer Lytton could not have lived 
in it in 1843-6, because Mr. Andrews was 
there ; but that he lived opposite at 36A, 
previously occupied by Mr. Wanklyn. On 
the other hand, as Mr. Wanklyn was at 36A 


NOTES AND QUERIES. in s. i. FEB -x, 1910. 

In 1840, it is clear that Bulwer then lived at 
-the house afterwards occupied by Mr. 
Andrews the house originally known as 
1, Little Stanhope Street, but from 1823 till 
1829 (or 1836) as 36B, Hertford Street, and 
finally as 36. 

Thus Bulwer lived three times in the 
street twice at the present 36, and once 
it the present 35A, when he added " Lytton ** 
to his surname. In Mr. Clinch's ' May fair 
.and Belgravia * it is mentioned that 35A 
was for some years (it was really only three) 
the residence of Sir Edward Lytton ; but 
no knowledge is shown of the fact that it was 
36A at the time, nor of the famous novelist 
having previously resided twice at the 
present 36. 

As, however, Bulwer lived at each of the 
-corners of Little Stanhope Street, and each 
.corner had in turn been 36, although the 
western corner was not 36 when Bulwer 
lived there, but 3 6 A, it is not surprising that 
mistakes have been made with respect to the 
identity of the house which he bought mis- 
takes which I have done my best in this 
.article to correct. W. A. FROST. 

SOUTHAMPTON (10 S. xi. 423). The marriage 
.of Henry Wriothesley, second Earl of 
Southampton, with Mary, eldest daughter 
of Sir Anthony Browne, K.G., first Viscount 
Montague, took place early in May, 1569. 
The date is given in a paper compiled by 
Mr. Benjamin W. Greenfield, F.S.A., and 
.entitled ' The Wriothesley Tomb in Titch- 
field Church : its Effigial Statues and 
Heraldry.'- It appeared in the Papers and 
Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 
vol. i. part iii. pp. 65-82, issued to sub- 
scribers for the year 1889. 

" The second earl, on his marriage with Lord 
Montague's daughter, conveyed, by indenture, 
.dated Wth May, 11 Eliz., 1569, his lordship's 
manors, lands, &c., to his father-in-law, Lord 
Montague (and others) in fee," &c. P. 66, 

" Scheme showing the Acquisition of the 
.Several Quarterings in the Shield of Mary Browne, 
daughter and heir of Anthony, Viscount Montagu, 
Wife of Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southamp- 
ton .... Mary Browne, only dau. of her mother, 
married Lord Southampton 1569, ob. 1607." 
P. 78. 

" Pedigree of Wriothesley, Earls of Southamp- 
ton, &c. Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of 
:Southampton, born 30 Nov., 1546, 1 died 4 Oct., 
1581, in his 36th year, M.T. Will dat. 29 June, 

" 1 Inq. p.m. of Thomas, Earl of Southampton, 
4 Edw. IV., No. 78. 

1581, pro. 7 Feb., 1582/3.-= Mary, dau. of 
Anthony Browne, K.G., Viscount Montague, by 
his 1st wife, -Jane Ratcliffe, dau. of Robert, 
Earl of Sussex, mar. about May, 1569,'- died in 
1607. 3 "P. 82. 

No mention is made of "a masque or 
similar form of entertainment '* taking place 
at the wedding. 


Ventnor. ^ d 

In the Quarto ^occurs the line, 

bace gongarian wight, wilt thou the spicket wield ? 
In the Folio ' ' gongarian '* is replaced by 
" Hungarian.'* Steevens, defending the 
former reading, added the following note : 
" This is a parody on a line taken from one 
of the old bombast plays, beginning, ' O base 
Gongarian, wilt thou the distaff wield ? '- 

1 had marked the passage down, but forgot 
to note the play.** 

Steevens has been called " the Puck of 
comment ators, n and his sense of humour 
sometimes led him to refer to " old plays " 
and " ballads ** which have never been seen 
by any other student before or since ; so 
his quotations are not always to be trusted 
when he does not give references. I should 
be glad to know the name of this play which 
Steevens " forgot to note,** or whether, as I 
suspect, it existed only in his freakish 
imagination. GORDON CROSSE. 

Oxford and Cambridge Club. 

' LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST,' IV. i. 120 
(109 Globe) : 

Put up this, it will be thine another day. 

P. A. Daniel (Athenaeum, 13 Oct., 1883) 
notes that this is the only instance of Shake- 
speare's use of the expression " it will be 
thine another day,'* and from instances in the 
writings of his contemporaries concludes that 
it means, " It will be of use to you ; you will 
find the benefit of it hereafter.'* As H. C. 
Hart mentions in his "Arden Edition*' of 
' L.L.L.,* although this seems to fit the 
meaning of the examples collected by Daniel, 
it does not fulfill the demands of the context 
in this place. He suggests that the meaning 
here is rather, *' It will be your turn another 
day,** although he gives no examples to 
support this interpretation. The following 
quotation from Dekker's ' Guls Horn-Booke ' 
(chap. vi. p. 52, J. M. Dent ed.) establishes 
this meaning as the correct one : 

*' Marry, when silver conies in, remember to pay 
treble their fare, and it will make your Flounder- 

" 2 Will of Henry, Earl of Southampton, 1583, 
in P.P.C. Register, Rowe, 45. 

" 3 Chester's ' Westminster Abbey Registers.' " 

ii s. i. FEB. 26, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


catchers to send more thanks after you, when you 
doe not draw, then when you doe ; for they know, 
It n'i/f be their owne another daie." 

M. P. T. 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

' RICHARD II.,' III. ii. 155-6 : SITTING 

For God's sake let us sit upon the ground 
And tell sad stories of the death of kings. 

This passage was recalled to me by reading 
the following comment in * Wives and 
Daughters,' by Mrs. Gaskell, describing 
Molly's despair on hearing of her father's 
intention to marry again : 

"She had cast herself upon the ground that 
natural throne for violent sorrow and leant up 
against the old moss-grown seat." 

Chap. x. ' A Crisis.' 
I note also the following : 

Sophocles, ' TrachinisM 789 (Dindorf ), 
makes Heracles, when he wearied after the 
first agony of the poisoned robe, throw 
himself on the ground : 

'Eiret 6" a7r7re, TroAAa /xevraAas \0ovl 

ptTTTWV eavrov. 
Job ii. 13 (A.V.) : 

" So they [Job's three friends] sat down with him 
upon the ground seven days and seven nights." 

I had got thus far when I noticed that in 
the " Knutsford Edition " of * Wives and 
Daughters ' Dr. A. W. Ward, the editor, 
refers to the passage quoted from Mrs. 
Carikell. In his Introduction (p. xxi) he 
has a foot-note attached to " natural throne 
for violent sorrow," which reads as follows : 

" ' Rest thy xinrest on England's lawful earth,' 
says the Duchess of York to Queen Margaret, who 
with Queen Elizabeth takes her seat beside her on 
the ground ('Richard III.,' Act IV. sc. iv.), and 
Constance (' King John,' Act III. sc. i.) 'seats her- 
self on the ground ' with the words : 

here I and sorrows sit ; 

Here is my throne, bid kings come bow to it. 
The idea somehow seems to pervade the earlier part 
of the ' <Kdipus in Colonos.' '' 


' HAMLET.' II. ii. 525 : " THE MOBLED 
QIKI.N." This strange adjective, which 
secured the commendation of Polonius, has 
u< -nerally been regarded as meaning "muffled 
>r wrjippfd up about the head," as the 
" Globe " Glossary says. Now, however, 
in Tin- Oxford and Cambridge Review for 
It -l)n uiry, Dr. Smythe Palmer brings for- 
ward, and supports with abundant erudi- 
tion, a brilliant suggestion that " mobled " 
ivpn-st'iits "Mab-led," i.e., distraught by 
fairy influence. He compares with this 
word " pixy-led," " Puck-led," and " will- 
led " (led astray by a will-o'-the-wisp). 

Dr. Smythe Palmer shows that an unusual 
word was intended in the passage, and 
points out that a writer in ' N. & Q.' in 
July, 1864 (3 S. vi. 66), with a true instinct, 
suggested "mad died," bewildered almost to 
madness. This same sense is now secured 
without conjecture, for " the traditional 
mobled (muffled) was also spelt mabled" 



(See ante., p. 104.) 

THE following list concludes my notes on 
inscriptions in this cemetery : 

51. William Hepenstall, Esq., Capt. R.X.. 
ob. 19 Jan., 1809, a. 43. 

52. Henry Eugene, s. of Lieut. H. E. Shadwell, 
35th Regt., ob. 12 Jan., 1813, a. 8 months. 

53 Cathrine, d. of Lieut.-Col. Daly, of the 
R.V.B., ob. 25 Sep., 1808, a. 5 yrs. 3 months. 

54. Elizabeth, w. of Robert Brown, Esq. y 
Major 4th Royal Veteran Battalion, ob. 1 Dec., 
1810, a. 58. 

55. Grace, d. of , w. of the Rev. , 

Chaplain to the Forces, ob, during the prevalence 
of the dread malady most calamitous to this 
garrison, 18 Nov., 1804, a. 50. 

56. Sophia, d. of Capt. Walmsley, 82nd Regt. y 
ob. 22 Jan., 1811, a. 3. 

57. Richard Tribe, Esq., Capt. 82nd Regt. r 
ob. 25 May, 1811, a. 30. 

58. Ensign Joseph Curti(s), 7th R.V.B., a 
victim to the epidemic fever, 30 Sep., 1813, a. 50. 

59. Mrs. C., w. of Digby Thos. Carpenter, Esq., 
Pavmaster 10th Regt., ob. 22 Nov., 1804, a, 23. 

60. Ensign John Sinclair, 7th R.V.B., ob, 
5 Dec., 1812, a. 62. 

61. James Wilson, Lieut. 1st Royal Veteran 
Battn., ob. 28 Sep., 1807, a. 65, having faithfully 
served his country upwards of 49 years. Erected 
by his widow with 6 children. 

62. Ann, w. of Lieut. J. Tulloch, 7th R.V.B., 
ob. 3 Oct., 1812, a. 32. Also Peter Tulloch, 
ob. 2 Oct., 1812, a. 20. 

63. Richard Lewis, Esq., Apothecary to the 
Forces, ob. 10 Oct., 1806, a. 38. Erected by his 
widow with 6 children. 

64. Elizabeth, w. of George Tassie, Adjt. r 
7th R.V.B., ob. 2 July, 1812, of a decline, a. 34. 

65. Major John Grant, 2nd Batt. 89th Regt. 
after having eminently distinguished himself 
in a course of long and meritorious service, WMS 
mortally wounded at the head of his battalion 
in an attack upon Fort Frangerola, near Malaga. 
14 Oct., 1810, and ob. 20 Oct., a. 48. 

66. Amelia, d. of Lieut. Walker, 4th R.V.B., 
ob. 24 Mar., 1812, a. 2 months 19 days. 

67. Ralph Willet Adye, Esq., Capt. and 
Brigade-Major in the Royal Regiment of Artillery 
ob. 22 Oct., 1804, a. 34, a victim to the distemper 
ra^inu- in tin- garrison. The remains of his s, 
John Willet-Adye, who ob. 20 Mar., 1804, a, 2 yrs, 
1 month, are deposited in the Garrison Chapel. 

68. Capt. Duncan McPherson, 54th Regt. 
ob. 18 Oct., 1804, a. 2J. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii 8. i. FEB. as, 1910. 

69. Capt. Chas. Heywood, 54th Regt., 6b. 
D Nov., 1804, a. 32. 

70. Thos. Gajeta Ragland, Acting-Dep. -Com- 
missary General, ob., victim to the epidemic fever, 
17 Oct., 1814, a. 29. 


71. Mr. John Gabell, Ensign 1st Batt. 5th Regt., 
ob. 21 July, 1800, a, 24. 

72. Francis Adams, Esq., Master Shipwright of 
H.M. Dockyard, Gibraltar, ob. 2 Oct., 1800, a. 41. 

73. Second Lieut. Wm. Maclean, of the R. Regt. 
of Artillery, ob. 27 Oct., 1798, a. 17. 

74. Second Lieut. George Nutt, of the R. Regt. 
of Artillery, ob. 2 Jan., 1801, a. 17. 

75. Lieut. Browne, 13th Regt., ob. 10 Oct., 1804. 

76. Count Joseph De la Ville Surjllon [sic], 
Esq., Captain in H.M. Roll's [sic] Regt., ob. 19. 
Oct., 1804, a. 42. 

77. John Wilkinson, Esq., Paymaster 54th 
Regt., ob. 8 Nov., 1804, a. 42. 

78. Mrs. Lawton, ob. 11 Oct., 1804, a. 42. 
Erected by her husband. 

79. Capt. Douglas Johnston, 2nd Queen's 
Regt., victim of the malignant fever, 27 Oct., 
1804, a. 25. 

80. Charles, s. of Capt. Mouat, R.N., and 
Frances Drake Mouat, ob. 11 Oct., 1804, a. 8. 

81. Lieut. Thos. George Smyth, 2nd Queen's 
Regt., ob. of malignant fever, 22 Oct., 1804. 

82. Ensign J. W. Griffiths, 2nd Queen's Regt., 
ob. of malignant fever, 22 Oct., 1804, a. 19. 

83. Matilda, youngest d. of Capt. Mouat, R.N., 
and Frances Drake Mouat, ob. 1 Oct., 1804, a. 6. 

84. Peter Alexr. Mouat, eldest s. of Capt. and 
Frances Drake Mouat, ob. 12 Feb., 1807, a. 23. 

85. Major P. Bellew, 54th Regt., ob. 15 Oct., 
1804, a, 30. 

85A. Lieut. James Doolan, 54th Regt., ob. 
15 Oct., 1824, a. 20. 

86. Sarah, w. of J. Mervin Nooth, M.D., 
Superintendent-General of H.M. Military Hospital. 
(Remainder illegible.) 

87. R.I.P. Peter Smith, Esq., late Paymaster 
7th R.V.B., ob. 12 Ap., 1814, a. 53. Also Peter, 
s. of the above, who died during the malady with 
which this garrison was afflicted, 181(4), a. 23. 

88. Lieut.-Col. Rudyerd, Royal Engineers, 
ob. 19 Oct., 1813, by malignant fever. 

89. Elizabeth Thompson. (No date.) 

90. Erected by Arthur Kinson over the remains 
of a beloved friend and partner connected by 
the dearest tie of WIFE, who departed him 
30 Nov., 1804. 

91. Lieut. George Le Blanc, Commander of 
H.M. brig Fearless, died as he lived, nobly. (No 

92. Henry Maxwell, s. of Henry Glasse, Surgeon 
to the Forces, ob. 12 (Oct.), 1815, a. 5. 

93. Major Wm. Angrum, having served the 
king 45 years with unsullied reputation, ob. 
3 Aug., 1808, a, 63. Placed by his children. 

94. Capt. Robert Wilkinson, of Sunderland, 
ob. 25 Oct., 1799, a. 50. 

95. Mr. Daniel Kuhn, of Philadelphia, ob. 
20 Nov., 1804, a. (1)7. 

96. Mrs. Eliza Green, w. of Hugh Green, mer- 
chant, d. of Peter Kuhn, Esq., of Philadelphia, 
ob. 15 Oct., 1804, a. 26. 

97. Caroline, w. of Capt. Browne, 13th Regt., 
ob. 8 Nov., 1804. 

98. Lieut. Myles, ob. 18 July, 1801, a. 20. 

99. Lieut, John Wodehouse, of H.M.S. Penelope, 
ob. 2 Feb., 1802, a. 21. 

100. Mr. Francis Brett, Surgeon, of H.M.S. 
Dragon, ob. 20 July, 1802, a. 37. 

101. Mr. Will. Wroot, Midshipman H.M.S. 
Active, 0&..12 Oct., 1802, a. 17. 


102. Mary, w. of Capt. Edden, 90th Regt., ob. 
24 Oct., 1798, a. 33. 

All female virtues she possessed, 
A worthy heart beat in her breast, 
A heavenly fire that heart refined, 
Her actions spoke a gentle mind. 

103. Capt. William Tuffie, 14th Regt., ob. 
24 Aug., 1790, a. 32. He was born in the regi- 
ment, his father, Quarter-Master, having served 
in it for 53 years, from its first being raised to 
his death on service in Holland in 179(4). 

104. Mr. Wm. Key, builder, of H.M. Yard at 
Minorca, ob. 29 May, 1802, a. 49. 

105. Helen Charlotte, w. of Major Smith, 
Royal Artillery, eldest d. of Brigr. -General Sir 
Charles Holloway and gr. d. of General Sir Win. 
Green, Bt., who on 22 Oct., 1813, fell a victim 
to the fever then raging in Gibraltar, a, 24. 
Cara Helena Vale. 

106. Charles , Lieut, of the , who 

fell a victim (12) Oct., 1813, a. 25. He was 

second s. of Brigr. General Sir Charles Holloway, 
Commanding Royal Engineers. (Rest illegible.) 

107. Mr. Thos. Waterman, s. of Henry and 
Rebecca Waterman, of Portsea, ob. 20 Feb., 
1804, a. 31. 

108. Mr. Henry Geo. Farrington, of H.M.S. 
Triumph, ob. 23 Jan., 1802, a, 20. 

109. Mr. James Took, Surgeon, of H.M.S. 
Triumph, ob. 10 Dec., 1801. 

110. John Fenlayson, Gunner, of H.M.S. 
George, ob. 18 Dec., 1801, a. 51. 


111. Ensign Richard Lake, 81st Regt., s. of 
Capt. Lake, late 3rd Guards, ob. 25 Aug., 1838, 
a. 20. 


112. Hudson Lowe, Esq., Surgeon-Major, ob. 
10 Oct., 1801, a, 70. As long as Honour and 
Integrity | Are revered by Mankind | So long 
shall this name be sacred | In Memory of his 


113. Sacred to the Memory | of | William Grave 
a. 38 yrs., Master of H.M.S. Cajsar [ Who fell | 
While conspicuously exerting himself | In the 
battle of Algeciras | on | July the Sixth | A.D. 
1801. | By nature he was penetratinjg and resolute 

| He was courteous in his Deportment | Irre- 
proachable in his morals | And | Exemplary in 
his attention | In all his duties | And the Func- 
tions of his religion. Erected by officers of 
H.M.S. Cassar. 

114. Charlotte, w. of Mr. Thos. Bolton, of the 
Navy Victualling Office, ob. 2 May, 1800. She 
was b. in Minorca, and d. of Mr. Thomas Fawcett, 
Clerk of the Check in the Ordnance Office there. 
A. 36 years. 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut.-Col. 
18, Hyde Gardens, Eastbourne. 
[For other lists of inscriptions in cemeteries in 
various countries see 10 S. i. 361, 442, 482 ; ii. 

n 8. i. FEB. 26, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


155; iii. 361, 433; v. 381 ; vi. 4, 124, 195, 302, 
406, 446 ; vii. 165 ; viii. 62, 161, 242, 362, 423 ; 
ix. 224, 344, 443 ; x. 24, 223, 324, 463 ; xi. 25, 
163, 325; xii. 105, 183, 303, 362.] 

MENTARY RETURN. " Acclamation n as 
meaning an unopposed return to a repre- 
sentative Chamber a meaning not to be 
found in either ' H.E.D.* or ' The Century 
Dictionary,' though somewhat indicated in 
the latter is to be noted in The Halifax 
Herald of Nova Scotia for 17 January, 
which recorded that, " including the Accla- 
mations, the Tariff Reform Party in Great 
Britain, makes a Net Gain of Fifteen as a 
Result of the Voting on Saturday.'* 


notes will supplement those relating to 
Margate and other Kentish towns printed 
by COL. FYNMORE, ante, p. 65. 

As early as 1730 Mr. Dymer's company of 
comedians visited Margate in June, and 
remained there three weeks. During that 
period they played ' The Provok'd Husband,' 
' Hamlet,' ' A Bold Stroke for a Wife,' and 
(for the benefit of Messrs. Dymer and 
Scudamore) ' Oronoko ; or, The Royal 

In July, 1755, the Canterbury company of 
comedians acted ' The Recruiting Office ' and 
' A Wife Well Manag'd.' In 1761 they per- 
formed ' The Suspicious Husband,' to which 
was added by way of entertainment ' The 

In May, l76Q,TheKentishGazette announced 

Mr- Burton ' manager of the theatre there 
[Margate], is fitting "up the house in a most 
elegant taste ; it has a new cieling [sic] and all new 
painted with new front boxes ; and the scenery 
entirely new ; and that he has engaged a very good 
company of comedians, who intend to open soon 
after his Majesty's birthday." 

In 1770 Mr. Burton was still connected 
with the theatre, and took his benefit on 
3 October, when a comedy called ' Country 
Lasses ; or, The Custom of the Manor,' was 

In 1785 two playhouses were catering for 
the amusement of the public. At the New 
Theatre, conducted by Mrs. Baker, were 
presented in July 'The Belle's Stratagem,' 
with ' The Agreeable Surprize,' and ' A Bold 
Stroke for a Husband,' with the farce ' The 
Poor Soldier.' 

At the Old Theatre, directed by Messrs. 
Mate, Hillyard, and Richland, was given in j 
August a comedy called * The Wonder ! A j 

Woman keeps a Secret,' followed by a per- 
formanqe on the tight rope and slack wire 
by Mrs. Richards and Miss Andrews. 

In 1786 an Act to license a playhouse 
within the town and port of Margate (26 Geo. 
III. c. 29) was passed, and on 21 September 
in that year the foundation stone of the 
present theatre was laid, the inscription on 
the stone being as follows : 

" The Theatre Royal. This is the first stone 
laid, attended by the Brethren of the Freemasons 
of the Thanet Lodge, by the Proprietors Thomas 
Robson and Charles Mate, September 21, A.D. 
1786, A.L. 5786, in the Reign of George the Third. 
William, Duke of Cumberland, Grand Master." 

The theatre was opened on 27 June, 1787. 

W. J. M. 

' ALONZO THE BRAVE.' May I point out 
that MR. WILLOUGHBY MAYCOCK is in error 
in ascribing (ante, p. 115) the words of 
' Alonzo the Brave * to Sam Cowell ? 
' Alonzo the Brave and the Fair Imogene,' 
was written by Matthew Gregory Lewis, 
the notorious author of ' The Monk. 1 

United University Club. 

attributing the composition of the words 
of ' Alonzo the Brave l to Sam Cowell ? 
I always unders tood that M. G. Lewis 
(" Monk Lewis ") was the author, and that 
the ballad appears in his * Tales of Wonder.' 

L. A. W. 


RIDLEY. The last of the old sedan-chair 
carriers of Bath Mr. Matthew Ridley 
has just passed away. In his youth, says 
a contemporary, he wore the quaint costume 
tall hat and long coat which all sedan- 
chair carriers affected, and which some old 
frequenters of Bath may still remember. 
The bath chair gradually superseded the 
sedan, and the latter is now only to be 
seen preserved as a curiosity. 

Mr. Ridley was seventy-nine years of age, 
and claimed to be a descendant of Bishop 
Ridley, who was burnt at the stake at 
Oxford in 1555. 


map prefixed to William Gordon's ' History 
of the American Revolution, 1 vol. i., Lond., 
1788, this name is given to a tract of country 
between 85 and 90 west longitude, and 
about 5 north of Lake Superior. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. FEB. 20, 1910. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

Lee in the preface to the revised American 
edition of his well-known ' Life of Shake- 
speare ' (the Macmillan Company, 1909) 
describes on p. xii two MSS. lent to him by 
Messrs. Pearson & Co. of Pall Mall Place. 
These two MSS., he says, may confidently 
be ascribed to the year 1599. The first is an 
elaborate exposure of then current heraldic 
scandals, and is in the handwriting of 
William Smith, Rouge Dragon at that date. 
The other is "a paper book of seventeen 
leaves " in two different handwritings, one 
of which Mr. Lee cannot identify, but the 
other of which is the autograph of Ralph 
Brooke, York Herald. 

These two MSS. as described by Mr. Lee 
certainly seem to deserve wide attention, 
but on the contrary seem to have attracted 
none at all. The first of them vilifies Shake- 
speare's friends Augustine Phillipps and 
Thomas Pope as seekers of false heraldry ; 
and the second MS. charges Shakespeare 
himself with procuring commission of the 
same offence. 

My object is to ask for more information as 
to these two MSS. How lately have they 
been discovered, and what has been their 
hiding-place all these years ? years, it 
will be remembered, covering those when 
Halliwell-Phillipps used to keep standing 
advertisements in the newspapers offering 
good prices for just such MSS. as these. 

If Messrs. Pearson possess contemporary 
MSS. settling for ever the question (as these 
two seem to settle it) of the fraudulent cha- 
racter of the Shakespeare heraldry, the 
student ought to have access to them : they 
at least ought to be facsimiled for the benefit 
of Shakespearian scholarship. Have any 
steps been taken to reprint these MSS. ? 
Where are they now ? Can they be in- 

110, East Seventy-Ninth Street, New York City. 

GARGOYLES. Can any reader give me 
information as to books or articles which 
treat of the history of gargoyles and other 
grotesque figures in ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture ? I have heard that an excellent 
article was written comparatively lately 
on this subject ; but I can get no further 
information with regard to it. Can any 

reader tell me in what publication this 
article appeared ? 

I have the article on ' Gothic Grotesques * 

Eublished in The Builder's Journal last 
eptember. C. W. A. PRESTON. 

Offenham Vicarage, Evesham. 

be glad if readers will kindly let me know the 
name and address of a leading or other 
representative of any of the following 
persons, who are commemorated in monu- 
ments or tablets in York Minster, and who 
died in the years indicated : 

Archbishop Piers (1594). 

Archdeacon Richardson of North Bierley (1735). 
Archdeacon Pearson (1715).^ 
Dr. Brearey of Menstone (17.35). 
Dr. Daltry of Bradenham, Wycombe (1773). 
S. Terrick, whose son was Bishop of Peterborough 

William Burgh of Bert, Kildare (1809). 
Ann Beanett (1601). 
Ensign Henry Whettam (1809). 
John Crofts of Stillington (1820). 
Gibsons of Welburne (1715, &c.) 
Thorrvhills of Fixby (1768, &c.) 

The Residence, York. 

seek information respecting the comparative 
value of money in the fourteenth, fifteenth, 
sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and nine- 
teenth centuries. Could any of your corre- 
spondents inform me where I could obtain 
such knowledge ? Hallam, in his ' View of 
the State of Europe during the Middle Ages,' 
written in 1816, estimates any given sum 
under Henry III. and Edward I. (i.e., during 
the thirteenth century) as equivalent in 
general command over commodities to about 
24 or 25 times its nominal value at present ; 
and in the middle of the fifteenth century 
he regards 16 as a proper multiple. 


[Many communications on the subject will be 
found iii the earlier Series of ' N. Q.' Since then 
Thorold Rogers's volumes on the * History of Agri- 
culture and Prices in England, 1259-1793,' and his 
' Six Centuries of Work and Wages ' have appeared. 
Queries on the subject are frequently received ; but 
as it is extremely wide, correspondents are asked 
to make their replies as brief as is consistent with 
clearness. ] 


NO SUCH WORD AS FAIL." Who was the 
author of this sentiment ? A variant of i 
has recently come from the lips of the German 
Emperor, who is reported to have said, in 
the course of an address to a Pioneer regi- 
ment, that soon after he came to the throne 
a Pioneer officer named Kleist remarked to 

us. i. FEB. 26, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


him : "In the lexicon of the Pioneer officer 
there is no such word as impossible.'* 


[Your quotation, which omits a line, comes from 
Bulwer Lytton's 'Richelieu,' Act II. sc. ii.] 

Macaulay in his ' Essay on Addison * quotes 
the following lines from a " Blenheim poem," 
which, he says, ' ' has been rescued from 
oblivion by the exquisite absurdity " of these 
lines : 

Think of two thousand gentlemen at least, 
And each man mounted on his capering beast ; 
Into the Danube they were pushed by shoals. 

Can any one give me information as to the 
poem itself ? P. C. G. 


I seek the sources of the fallowing : 

1 . The eternal Peter of the changeless Chair. 

2. When half-gods go, 
The gods arrive. 

3. Who saw life steadily, and saw it whole. 

4. Talk of mountains now ? 

We talk of mould that heaps the mountains, 

That throng the mould, and God that makes 

the mites. 
The name comes close behind a stomach-cyst. 

T. W. L. H. 

[2. Emerson, 'Give All to Love.' 3. M. Arnold, 
' Sonnet to a Friend,' said of Sophocles.] 

Three men they went a-hunting, but nothing could 

they find 
Until they saw a hedgehog, and that they left 


Said the Englishman, " 'Tis a hedgehog," 
But Scottie he said " Nae" : 
" Bedad," said Pat, "it's a pincushion 
With the pins stuck in -wrong way." 

I fear the wording is not quite correct, 
but it is the nearest I can remember. 


extremely obliged if any of your readers 
would tt-ll me anything* of the historical 
and social associations of Hammersmith 
Tcrmee. I understand the terrace was 
built in the reign of Queen Anne, and that, 
besides Murphy the dramatist and De 
Loutherbour^ the Academician, numerous 
eH< -I >rities have occupied its houses. I am 
told that the barges bearing pleasure- 
1<> Kanelagh used to be moored 
;i'j;mi-;f thr Lack-; of the houses. Any infor- 
mation would be very welcome. 

]>!/;/ Express Office, St. Bride Street, E.G. 

" ROSAMOND A'S LAKE." This expression 
occurs in the famous passage in ' The Rape 
of the Lock' (Canto V.) in which the poet 
describes the Apotheosis of the " ravish' d 
hair," when as a sudden comet " it shot 
thro' liquid air,"' "the heav'ns bespangling 
with dishevel'd light."- We are told 
This the blest Lover shall for Venus take. 
And send up vows from Rosamonda's lake. 
Can any of your readers tell me why 
lovers' vows should be sent up from " Rosa- 
monda's lake " ? Is it possible to find this 
" lake " on any map of the Ordnance Survey? 

the ' Victoria County History of Hampshire * 
an inn called " The Lion " is mentioned in 
the rent-roll of 1696-7. Is this the same 
hostelry as "The Red Lion, n given by 
' Paterson's Roads' (1826) as one of the 
principal inns at Petersfield ? What were 
the leading inns in 1765 ? Did the old 
" Dolphin " then exist ? 


in early days in private possession ? Since 
the time of Edward IV. it has had a con- 
nexion with Windsor. From a lawsuit in 
the time of Edward III. it would seem to 
have been previously in private ownership ; 
and a brief abstract of a trial held before 
Simon (Sudbury), Archbishop of Canterbury, 
in 1367-8, given in the Salt collection of 
archaeological papers (xiv. 122), appears to 
confirm this. R. B. 


COL. FRANCIS GODFREY. I shall be obliged 
to any reader who can give me particulars 
of the above gentleman's antecedents, with 
dates of his birth, marriage, and death ; 
also his wife's name, and where married. 
He is said to have been of an old Oxfordshire 
family, and was the father of Col. Charles 
Godfrey (10 S. vi. 49, 116, 155). Where 
can I see the pedigree of the family ? 

2, Morton Crescent, Exmouth. 

" SQUASH." I read that a distinguished 
co-religionist of mine is going to invite some 
young Cantabs to "a squash. " What are 
its leading features ? Why so called ? 
What is the identical social function called 
in the famous city on the Isis ? 


[Surely a "squash" is in general use as slang 
For a crowded entertainment.] 

ASHBY FALLOWS. St. Mary's burial 
register, Nottingham, contains this entry 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. i. FEB. 26, 1010. 

on 23 Nov., 1645 : " James Nasbye of Asbye 
Fallowes. n I cannot find this place men- 
tioned in modern gazetteers, and should be 
glad of enlightenment. A. S. 

GBAND. Timbs in his ' Curiosities of London ' 
(1885) refers to the above as having been 
existent temp. Edw. II. Can any corre- 
spondent possibly say whereabouts in St. 
Martin's the inn stood ? What was Timbs's 
authority for the statement ? I have not 
met with reference to the house elsewhere. 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.* tell me who was 
the Mr. James Trimmer, Vicar of Brentford, 
who in 1762 married Sarah Kirby ? In the 
* Life of Dorothea Beale J (of Cheltenham 
College) it says that her great-aunt on her 
mother's side was " Mrs. Cornwallis, wife 
of the Rev. W. Cornwallis, Rector of Witters- 
ham, Kent " ; and that Mrs. Cornwallis 
wrote several books, and learnt Hebrew to 
teach her grandson, James Trimmer, whose 
other grandmother was Mrs. Sarah Trimmer, 
" famous in her day as the author of thirty 
volumes for the young, the best known being 
' The History of the Robins.* 1; What was 
the Trimmer pedigree ? for that of Kirby is 
not a little distinguished. Sarah's grand- 
father was the Suffolk topographer (1690- 
1753) buried in the churchyard of St. Mary 
le Tower, Ipswich. Her father was John 
Joshua Kirby (1716-74), the friend of 
Hogarth and Reynolds (clerk of the works 
at Kew Palace, 1759) ; and her first cousin 
was William Kirby, the well-known entomo- 
logist (1759-1850), Vicar of Barham, Essex. 
Mrs. Trimmer survived her husband (who 
died in 1792), and was buried at Ealing in 
1810. F. H. S. 

History of Ireland,' by the Rev. Sylvester 
Malone (Dublin, 1867), chap. viii. p. 217, 
it is stated that the Pope, on some represen- 
tations by the English, directed a bull to 
the Irish bishops, and, accusing them of 
heresy, said that they raised their eyes at 
the elevation of the Host. On what 
authority does this remark rest, and who 
was the Pope that did this ? To judge from 
the context, it would appear to have been 
Clement V., but no reference to this matter 
>s to be found in the fifteen bulls of that 
Pope given in the ' Bullarium Diplornatum 
et Privilegiorum SS. Romanorum Pontifi- 
cum,' &c., 1859, I. iv. pp. 180-234. 

F. C. W. 


(11 S. i. 129.) 

THEBE are no fewer than six monumental 
tablets to members of the Chamberlayne 
family at Chelsea Old Church, which is 
evidently the church to which MB. BBESLAB 

The Chamberlaynes were a notable family 
in many ways. They came originally from 
Oddington in Gloucestershire, which was 
given by Henry VIII. to Sir Thomas 
Chamberlayne, and the estate remained in 
their possession until 1712, when it passed 
by marriage to the Coxes of Cirencester. 
In the last quarter of the seventeenth century 
Dr. Edward Chamberlayne (1616-1703) 
settled in Chelsea. He was a somewhat 
voluminous author, his chief work being 
' Angliae Notitia,' a work which ran through 
thirty-eight editions, all of which are in the 
British Museum. Some one has pronounced 
it to be " the most pernicious book ever 
published " ; but the Doctor thought so 
highly of it that, as is stated on his tablet 
(right of the great west window), he caused 
" copies encased in wax to be buried with 
him, in the hope that they might prove 
profitable to posterity." 

His wife's tablet is on the other side of the 
window : she was one of the Cliffords of 
Frampton " Fair Rosamond's " family. 

The eldest son, Peregrine, whose tablet is 
on the left of the door, was in the Navy. 
In March, 1689, he commanded the Griffin 
fireship ; and at the time of his death he 
was commander of the Foresight. The 
inscription tells of his skill in music;, fine art, 
and letters, but chiefly of his proficiency in 

The tablet on the right of the door is in 
memory of Anne, the Doctor's only daughter, 
who had a strange experience. Born in 
1667, she served for six hours on board her 
brother's ship, probably the Griffin, at the 
battle off Beachy Head on 29 June, 1690. 
She must have shown valour hardly to have 
been expected in one of her age and sex, 
for her epitaph refers to her as " Dum virgo 
. ...dum virago.' 1 She subsequently mar- 
ried Sir John Spragge, and died eighteen 
months later, 30 Oct., 1691, in giving birth 
to a daughter. The tablet tells us that 
" she might have borne a race of naval 
heroes, had she not been snatched away by 
untimely death." 

ii s. i. FEB. 26, MIC. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The other two tablets are of less interest. 
A small tablet just above Peregrine's is to 
the memory of his brother John, who was 
sometime Gentleman Usher to Prince George 
of Denmark, and died 2 Nov., 1723. The 
sixth, above the south door, commemorates 
Edward, the youngest son, who died when 
only twenty-seven years of age. He, too, 
is said to have shown great promise. 

MR. BRESLAR will find much of interest 
inside Chelsea Old Church as well as outside. 

Full copies of the Chamberlayne inscrip- 
tions on the outer walls of Chelsea Church 
will be found in ' Chelsea Old Church/ by 
Mr. Randall Davies, F.S.A. (1904), pp. 256-63. 
They are eight in number : to Dr. Edward 
Chamberlayne, 1616-1703 ; Susanna Cham- 
berlayne, ob. 1703 ; Peregrine Clifford 
Chamberlayne, 1660-91 ; Edward Chamber- 
layne, 1660-97 ; Anne Spragge (nee Cham- 
berlayne), 1667-92, " fought in man's attire 
in a fireship, 30 June, 1690 ? ' ; John 
Chamberlayne, F.R.S., ob. 1723 ; Elizabeth 
Tyndale, 06. 1821, "a descendant of the 
family of Chamberlaynes " ; and Anne 
Catherine Phelps, ob. 1849, daughter of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Tyndale. GEORGE SHERWOOD. 

MR BRESLAR appears to allude to Chelsea 
Old Church, outside which, on the left side 
of the great western window, is a large 
mural slab bearing a long epitaph on Dr. 
Edward Chamberlayne, author of * The 
Present State of England, 1 by his friend 
Walter Harris. This Latin epitaph, which 
will be found in extenso, with a translation 
in Faulkner's ' Chelsea,' 1829, vol. i. pp. 242- 
243, states that, with a view to benefiting 
posterity, Chamberlayne had had some 
books of his (the list is also given by Faulk- 
ner, p. 243) enclosed in wax and buried with 
him ; " but as these were not forthcoming 
when the tomb yielded to the injuries of 
time (having probably already been rifled), 
the present state of England," says Mr. 
Blunt in his Handbook of Chelsea, 4 " re- 
mains unbenofited in this respect." 


MR. BRESLAR will find an interesting 
account of this famous historic church, and 
of its monuments, inside and outside, from 
that of Sir Thomas More to that of Miss 
Mary Astell, an eighteenth-century Suffrag- 
ette (!), in a pamphlet entitled A Short 
Account of Chelsea Old Church,* published 
by Ernest Holland, 207, King's Road, Chel- 
sea, price fourpence. I. M. L. 
[Mu. \V. R. B. PRIDEAUX also thanked for reply.] 

LANDOR ANECDOTES (11 S. i. 128). 
Landor, it may safely be affirmed, never 
published the collection of anecdotes about 
English diplomatists referred to in his letter 
to Walter Birch (Fortnightly Review, 
February) ; but some of the stories may 
have found their way into the imaginary 
conversations. Here there are two or three 
about Mr. Dawkins, denounced in the same 
letter as the most consummate scoundrel in 
Europe. An explanation of Landor's 
animosity against this gentleman may be 
gathered from what Forster says in his bio- 
graphy of Landor, vol. ii. p. 91, first edition. 
The unnamed adventurer mentioned in the 
first edition (1824) of the 'Imaginary Con- 
versations,* vol. i. p. 307, must be identified 
with Mr. Dawkins, in spite of an anachronism. 
In the second (1826) edition, vol. i. p. 290, 
he is called "the Sieur Dorcas," and the 
story of his attentions to an Italian lady is 
added. In the 1846 edition some portions of 
the narrative are discarded, and the re- 
mainder is transferred to another conversa- 
tion (vol. i. p. 325). In Forster's final 
edition (1876, vi. 208) "the Sieur Dorcas "' 
becomes "the Sieur Dorkins.'* Mr. Molloy 
in his ' Gorgeous Lady Blessingtoii ' prints 
a letter in which Landor describes Mr. 
Dawkins in the most contemptuous terms. 
Had he ever published his collection of 
anecdotes, Lord Cowper and the Hon. W. F. 
Wyndham would no doubt have figured in it. 
That he had a mind to tell some stories about 
them may be seen on reference to his 
' Works,' 1876, vi. 225, and to his ' High and 
Low Life in Italy/ in The Monthly Repository, 
1838, p. 247. STEPHEN WHEELER. 

Oriental Club, Hanover Square. 

SIR HENRY AUDLEY (US. i. 87). Audley, 
I presume, is a misprint for Dudley. The 
'D.N.B/ (xvi. Ill) gives Northumberland 
by Jane Guildford five sons and two 
daughters. The eldest son John, Lord 
Lisle and Earl of Warwick, married Anne 
Seymour, daughter of the Duke of Somerset ; 
was, like all his brothers, implicated in his 
father's plot in favour of Lady Jane Grey ; 
was condemned to death ; pardoned ; but 
died, without issue, in 1554, ten days after 
his release from the Tower. For his younger 
brother, Lord Henry Dudley, who fell at 
St. Quentin, see ' D.N.B., 1 Supplement, ii. 

For Sir Henry Dudley (d. 1565 ?) see 
'D.N.B.,' Supplement, ii. 159. He was 
son of John Sutton de Dudley, sixth Baron 
Dudley ; and in 1556 devised a plot to rob 
the Exchequer, marry Princess Elizabeth to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [U s . i. FEB . a. 1910. 

Courtenay, and depose Philip and Mary- 
Proclaimed a traitor, he was received by the 
French king, Henry II., and continued his 
intrigues in France. 

Sir Henry has generally been confused 
with Lord Henry Dudley above, who married 
Margaret, only daughter of Lord Chancellor 
Audley. A. R. BAYLEY. 

The eldest son of John Dudley, Duke of 
Northumberland, viz., Henry Dudley, was, 
according to Loftie's ' Guide to the Tower 
of London,' " killed at the siege of Boulogne 
while still young." The second son, John, 
became Earl of Warwick, and his name is 
carved in the Beauchamp Tower. Ambrose, 
the third son, was in the Tower till 1555, 
and died in February, 1590. Guildford, the 
fourth son, was husband of Lady Jane Grey, 
and was executed in 1554. Robert, the 
fifth, became Queen Elizabeth's Earl of 
Leicester. Henry, the youngest, was killed 
at St. Quentin in 1558. G. H. W. 

Froude calls Sir Henry Dudley a cousin 
of the Duke of Northumberland (' History of 
England,' vi. 7). He was implicated, not in 
the Wyatt, but in the Dudley conspiracy 
in 1556 (ibid., vi. 1-14). While most of the 
conspirators were arrested and suffered the 
death of traitors, Dudley succeeded in making 
his escape (ibid., vi. 11). He is again men- 
tioned in 1564 (ibid., vii. 196). W. SCOTT. 

CHABLES I. MEDALLION (10 S. xii. 448). 
As no reply to the query of MB. JAMES 
has appeared, it may be worth while to 
mention that in the Catalogue of the 
Royal Stuart Exhibition in 1889 several 
silver memorial badges of Charles I. will be 
found, but there is no gold badge correspond- 
ing to that which is possessed by your 

I have myself a small silver badge intended 
for a pendant, with a fragment of white silk 
ribbon attached, which was given me by a 
deceased friend. It is an inch in length, and 
three-quarters of an inch in width. The 
motto round the shield is correctly given 

mal y pense "), not as MB. JAMES reads 

t on his medallion. There appear to be 

some letters faintly engraved on the scroll 

round the crown ; and at the base of the 

shield are the figures " 51." 

Ducklington Rectory, Witney. 

"TALLY-HO": " YOICKS " (11 S. i. 48, 
93, 135). The modern French has taiaut, of 
which, says Hatzfeld, the origin is unknown. 
But it may very well be the descendant of 
the Old French forms, given by Godefroy as 

thiaulau, thialaut, thialhaut, thahaut. Other 
variants (already noted at p. 135) are thia 
hillaud aud'theau le liau. As Godefroy gives 
quotations for thiaulau, thialaut, thahaut, 
we have ample proof that the equivalent of 
our "tally-ho" was well known in Old 

The spelling with th is curious, but it 
denotes no more than a t uttered with 
emphasis, and with a kind of aspiration. 

What does it all mean ? I do not know, 
but Cotgrave has : " Te, tei, a voice which 
is used by the French when they call a 
dog." The form thialaut looks as if it 
might be resolved into tei ilau, with tei as 
above, and the O.F. ilau, used by Wace, 
and quoted by Moisy, who gives the Norman 
ilau, ilo, as meaning "la, en cet endroit," 
and derives it from L. illo, sc. in illo loco. 
It is probable that the original cry had some 
quite simple source. 

Dr. Brewer, as usual, calmly makes up his 
facts : " Tally-ho is the Norman hunting 
cry, Taillis au, to the coppice." Unfor- 
tunately, that is nonsense ; for, in the 
first place, it should be au taillis, and 
secondly, even this is quite modern French. 
The Old French form was taille'is, in three 
syllables (see Hatzfeld) ; moreover, Norman 
French did not drop its final s. You can 
drop the s in F. treillis, but certainly not 
in the E. trellis. So it is clearly all invention. 

As to yoicks, it seems to be all that is left 
of an O.F. adverb meaning "there!" for 
which Godefroy has twenty-nine different 
spellings ; perhaps ilueques, illeosques, 
illosques, iloyques, may serve as specimens. 
The form iloyques is not far off. Yoicks 
may easily have come from a form illoyques, 
with II pronounced as Hi in million, and 
loss of initial il. WALTEB W. SKEAT. 

It will save some ingenuous suggestions, 
such as keeping tally, &c., to say what 
" tally-ho " means, and has always meant, 
with us. It is the view-halloa of a right 
fox (i.e., not a gravid vixen), or, later in the 
day, of the right fox -(i.e., the hunted, not a 
fresh one.) 

Brewer's 4 Dictionary ' has been quoted : 
it is use tul in matters of historical lore, but 
is deplorable in its derivations. 

In accordance with the above explanation, 
a fox can be said to have been ' ' tallied away," 
out of cover. H. P. L. 

As to the unde derivatur of " tally-ho " see 
' The Noble Science,'- by F. P. Delme Rad- 
liffe (Ackermann, 1839), pp. 14 8-9. 

The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

n 8. i. FEB. -26, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


SCOTCHMEN IN FRANCE (11 S. i. 48). There 
is no lack of literature on this subject. 
The book that occurs to my recollection as 
being most nearly in the line of the query is 
Francisque Michel's ' Les ^cossais en 
France : les Fran^ais en lilcosse,' published 
by Trubner & Co., 1862, 2 vols. Also, no 
doubt, the Marquis de Ruvigny's ' The 
Jacobite Peerage,' 1904, if somewhat wider 
in scope, will provide many important and 
interesting details. Other works that may 
be mentioned are Forbes-Leith's ' Scots 
Men-at-Arms and Life Guards in France,' 
Edinburgh, 1881, 2 vols. ; Hill Burton's 
' The Scot Abroad,' Edinburgh, Blackwood, 
1898, especially the first five chapters, ' The 
Ancient League with France ' ; and Grant's 
' The Scottish Soldiers of Fortune,' London, 
Routledge, 1889, particularly the last chap- 
ters, pp. 234-331, the notes somewhat 
scrappy, but supplying a considerable list of 
names. In addition to these, an article 
in Macmillaris Magazine, vol. Ixxiii., 1896, 
on ' The Scottish Guard of France,' might 
also be consulted. 

The works above cited deal mainly with 
military or political personages. They do not 
by any means exhaust a subject so wide 
as " Scotchmen in France." From the 
thirteenth century to the time of James I. of 
England, the relations between France and 
Scotland were of the closest and most 
intimate kind. No Scotsman with any pre- 
tensions to learning considered his education 
complete without a course of instruction at 
some French university. Hence, for more 
than 300 years, all the most distinguished 
scholars whom Scotland produced were 
educated in France. For information on 
this point the querist might do well to refer 
to vol. xxx. of the New Spalding Club, 
edited by Mr. P. J. Anderson, which contains 
registers of students, between 1581 and 1900, 
attending the Scots College at Douai 
and other places. Prof. Hume Brown's 
' George Buchanan,' Edinburgh, 1890, might 
also provide some useful hints. Irving' s 
' Lives of Scottish Writers,' Edinburgh, 
Black, 1850, 2 vols., gives in vol. i. careful 
biographies of twenty-three distinguished 
scholars, more than twenty of whom were 
educated, while several became professors or 
teachers, in French colleges. Boece, 
Buchanan, Melville, Barclay, Balfour, Bellen- 
<lMi. Duncan, Donaldson, Cameron, and 
Dempster are a few of the names of those 
who occupied chairs as teachers, and lived 
in France for longer or shorter periods. 
fill up details respecting individual 


names reference might be made to Demp- 

ster's ' Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Scot- 
orum ; sive, De Scriptoribus Scotis,' 
Edinburgh/ Bannatyne Club, 1829, 2 vols. ; 
David Buchanan's ' De Scriptoribus Scotis/ 
Edinburgh, Bannatyne Club, 1837 ; George 
Mackenzie's ' Lives and Characters of the 
Most Eminent Writers of the Scots Nation,' 
Edinburgh, 1708-22, 3 vols. (whose state- 
ments, however, need to be carefully verified); 
Moreri's ' Historical Dictionary,' in many 
French editions ; and Anderson's ' Scottish 
Nation,' Edinburgh, 1874, 3 vols. 

The foregoing works ought to afford a 
fairly complete list of Scots who have resided 
temporarily or settled permanently in 
France. W. SCOTT. 

M. NOUGUIER might find it useful to con- 
sult John Hill Burton's interesting work 
' The Scot Abroad ' (Blackwood, 1864 r 
2 vols.). Burton draws largely upon 
Michel's ' Extrait des Deliberations munici- 
pales de la Ville de Tours,' and references are 
given to various other French writers. If 
I mistake not, ' The Scot Abroad ' is now 
obtainable in a single-volume edition. 

In the Maitland Club publications (1835) 
there is a volume, ' Papers relative to the 
Royal Guard of Scottish Archers in France. 7 


T. Moncrieff s ' Memoirs concerning the 
Ancient Alliance between the French and 
Scots, and the Privileges of the Scots in 
France,' &c., Edinburgh, 1751, may be 
useful to M. NOUGUIER. 


Wingates, Wigan. 

[MR. T. BAYNE and T. F. D. also thanked for 

JACOB COLE (10 S. xii. 129, 218, 251, 
418, 476). Shortly after the appearance of 
the reply at 10 S. i. 218 bearing my private 
address MR. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY called 
there to have a chat with me about my 
maternal grandfather, Jacob Cole. But 
I had not yet returned from business, so, 
with a half -promise to my wife that he would 
pay me a visit in the City, he departed, 
and later I read with regret in ' N. & Q.' 
(10 S. xii. 480) of his lamented death. 

I can add but little to the information 
furnished by your other correspondents. 
Jacob Cole died on 22 Dec., 1868, aged 
78 years, and his remains were interred at 
Nunhead Cemetery. He was born at 
Stalbridge in Dorsetshire, and I have before 
me as I write a letter from him to my mother, 
dated from his birthplace on 19 July, 1835, 
describing a visit he was then enjoying. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. FEB. 26, 1910. 

He had come to London when a boy, and 
entered the employment of Mr. Jeans, 
who was a hatter ((probably) at No. 23, 
Bridge Street, Westminster. In course of 
time (I believe) the firm became " Jeans & 
Cole," subsequently (I am certain) " Jacob 
Cole," later "Cole & Son," and finally 
" Cole & Williamson." The sequence of 
addresses after 23, Bridge Street (pulled 
down for the extension of Palace Yard) was 
8, Bridge Street ; 5, Upper Charles Street ; 
47, Charing Cross ; and 30, Cockspur 
Street, whence, after Williamson's death 
in 1891, his shopman took the business to 
Duncannon Street, where it also died. 

I have a printed copy of an Address " To 
her most Gracious Majesty the Queen " 
upon^her accession to the throne, signed 
by " H. H. Milman, Minister ; James 
Bower, Jacob Cole, Churchwardens ; Simon 
Stephenson, Vestry Clerk," of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster. Jacob Cole's name 
is I remember having seen it included in 
one of the inscriptions upon one of the 
covers of the famous Westminster snuff-box. 

At 10 S. ii. 289 I gave a list of eleven of 
Jacob Cole's songs set to music, of which I 
have copies, and asked whether others were 
known to readers of ' N. & Q.' ; but no reply 
was forthcoming. In 1864 was published 
' The Comic and Humorous Song-Book. 
Edited by J. E. Carpenter." A paragraph 
in the Editor's preface commences : 

" Many of the songs here inserted have long 
"been out-of-print, and others, frequently inquired 
for, are now published for the first time. To 
enable the Editor to effect this, he has had placed 
at his disposal the valuable manuscript collec- 
tions of Mr. Jacob Cole and Mr. James Bruton." 
One result of this permission was the 
appearance in the volume of thirty-five 
songs (one of which was classified among the 
" Comic," and thirty - four among the 
'' Humorous "), and one " additional verse," 
attributed to Jacob Cole. His portrait forms 
one of a group of five prefixed as a frontis- 
piece to the same little volume. 


PETERS (11 S. i. 47). The account which MR. 
THORNTON found in American newspapers 
in 1808 was not a hoax, as it was written by 
the Rev. Samuel Peters himself, and was 
first printed (so far as I am aware) in a note 
to his ' History of the Rev. Hugh Peters,' 
pp. 94-5, published at New York in 1807. 
The concluding paragraph is worth quoting : 

" Since Verdmont became a state in union with 
the thirteen states of America, its general assembly 
have seen proper to change the spelling of Verd- 

mont, Green Mountain, to that of Fer-mont, 
Mountain of Maggots. Both words are French ; 
and if the former spelling is to give place to the 
latter, it will prove that the state had rather be 
considered a mountain of worms than an ever 
green mountain ! " 

As MR. THORNTON is, of course, aware, the 
early history of Vermont was stormy, as the 
territory, then called the New Hampshire 
Grants, was in dispute between New Hamp- 
shire and New York. In a convention held 
at Windsor, Vt., in January, 1777, it was 
declared that 

" the district of territory comprehending and 
usually known by the name and description of the 
New Hampshire Grants, of right ought to be, 
and is hereby declared forever hereafter to be 
considered as, a separate, free and independent 
jurisdiction or state, by the name, and forever 
hereafter to lie called, known and distinguished 
by the name, of New Connecticut." H. Hall's 
' Early History of Vermont,' p. 239. 

The name of Vermont first appeared in 
print, so far as is known, in an address by 
Dr. Thomas Young " To the Inhabitants of 
Vermont, A Free and Independent State, 
bounding on the River Connecticut and Lake 
Champlain," dated 11 April, 1777 ; and that 
name was adopted by the Vermonters them- 
selves in the following June (Hall, pp. 243, 
499). In 1797 J. A. Graham wrote : 

" The natural growth upon this mountain 
[i.e., the Green Mountains] are hemlock, pine, 
spruce, and other evergreens ; hence it has always 
a green appearance, and on this account lias 
obtained the descriptive name of Vermont, from 
the French, Verd-Mont, Green Mountain." - 
' Descriptive Sketch of the Present State of Ver- 
mont,' p. 16. 

In 1798 Ira Allen wrote : 

" Vermont, this name was given to the district 
of the New Hampshire Grants, as an emblematical 
one, from the French of Verd-mont, green moun- 
tains, intended to perpetuate the name of the 
Green Mountain Boys, by Dr. Thomas Young, of 
Philadelphia, who greatly interested himself in 
behalf of the settlers of Vermont." ' Natural 
and Political History of the State of Vermont,' 
p. 86, note. 

In a petition made in 1786 to the legislature 
of Vermont on behalf of the family of Dr. 
Young, it was declared that to him " we 
stand indebted for the Name of [Vermont] " 
(Publications of the Colonial Society of Mass., 
xi. 53). 

In 1781 Peters published in London his 
notorious ' General History of Connecti- 
cut,' which was known among the American 
patriots as the "lying history." When 
the animosities engendered by the Revolu- 
tionary War had subsided, Peters, who in 
1774 had taken refuge in England, returned 
to his native Connecticut. Ever since I saw, 
several years ago, his account, I have been 

n s. i. FEB. 26, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


on the look-out for evidence in corrobora- 
tion, but as yet have failed to find it. His 
story is told circumstantially and may be 
true, but it can hardly be accepted without 
further substantiation. It should be noted, 
by the way, that in both of the books cited 
above Peters spells the name " Verdmont." 

Boston, U.S. 

It seems by reference to Apple ton's 
* Cvclopaedia of American Biography,' iv. 
742, that Peters (1735-1826) received holy 
orders in London, 1759, returning speedily 
to Connecticut. " He kept a coach, and 
looked with scorn upon Republicans.'* In 
1794 he was chosen Bishop of Vermont, 
but was never consecrated. At the time 
of the Revolution his property was confis- 
cated, and his letters were intercepted. He 
was execrated by the revolufionists and by 
their successors. 

In The Yale Lit. Mag., xxi. 271 (June, 
1856), a paper is devoted to him, under the 
" caption " of ' The Yankee Munchausen,' in 
which it is said that 

"the venerable Dr. Trumbull, who was in college 
;it the same time with Peters, informed the late 
Prof. Kin^sley that of all the men whom he had 
known, Samuel Fetors was the most unreliable, 
even in narrations of trivial importance." 

And John Trumbull mentions him in his 

' McFingal ' : 

What warnings had ye of your duty 
From our old rev'rend Sam Auchmuty ; 
Prom priests of all degrees and metres, 
To our fag-end man, Parson Peters. 

In his 'General History of Connecticut,' 
London, 1781, p. 127, Peters tells of a 
chasm, formed by two lofty shelving moun- 
tains of solid rock, where 

" water is consolidated, without frost, by pressure* 
by swiftness, between the pinching, sturdy rocks, 
to such a degree of induration that no iron crow 
can be forci-d into it: here iron, lead, and cork 
have one common weight." 

The copy of this book in the British Museum 
contains many old marginal notes, such as 
*' shameful perversion," " infamous false- 
hood," &c. RICHARD H. THORNTON. 

:W, I'pp.'r Heilf,,rd Place, W.C. 

(11 S. i. 127). William Bolton, Prior of St. 
Bartholomew, Smithfield, is indeed desig- 
nated in the King's will "Master of the 
Works " ; but Robert Vertue was the 
architect. He was. probably father or 
brother of William Vertue, who about the 
same time was working at Windsor, and, at a 
later date, at Eton and at Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford. Robert had built for 

Henry a new tower in the Tower of London, 
and was the designer of the Palace of 
Pleasaunce at Greenwich. One of the 
Vert ues probably drew the design for the 
tomb of Henry VI. which is preserved among 
the Cottonian MSS. (Aug. A. 2). 

Camden preserves a tradition that in 
1524, on the soothsayers predicting a sudden 
rise of the Thames, Prior Bolton fled for 
safety to Harrow, of which place he was 
vicar, and where he eventually died. But 
the Thames, unlike the Seine in 1910, 
behaved as usual, and London escaped 

See W. R. Lethaby's ' Westminster Abbey 
and the Kings' Craftsmen ' (1906), pp. 223-6, 
234 ; and Francis Bond's ' Westminster 
Abbey' (1909), p. 132. A. R, BAYLEY. 

The architect was Sir Reginald Bray, 
Privy Counsellor to Henry VIII. ; his por- 
trait is given in Carter's ' Ancient Sculpture 
and Painting,' vol. ii. The ' D.N.B.,' vi. 
238, says : 

"The design of Henry VII.'s Chapel at West- 
minster is supposed to have been his [r.e., Bray's] ; 
and the first stone was laid by him, in conjunction 
with the Abbot Islip and others, on 24 Jan., 1502/3. 

Sir Henry Cole ("Felix Summerly") in 
his ' Illustrated Handbook of the Abbey ? 
says that the merit of its design is ascribed 
to various persons : by some to Bishop Fox ; 
by others to Sir Reginald Braye ; to Alcocko 
Bishop of Ely ; and to the Prior of St. Bar- 
tholomew's, who is called ' ' Master of the 
Works of our said Chapel '* in Henry VII.'s 


[MR. ALAN STEWART also refers to Mr. Lethaby's 

124). My mother remembers reading these 
interesting reminiscences of Nelson and Lady 
Hamilton in ' The Remains of the late Mrs. 
Richard Trench,' 1 862. The privately issued 
' Tour ' (1861) was incorporated in the later 

Melesina Chenevix married in 1786 Col. 
Richard St. George, who died two years 
later ; and in 1803 she married Richard 
Trench, by whom she was mother of Arch- 
bishop Trench, Stanley's predecessor in the 
Deanery of Westminster. Dean Stanley's 
mother was Catherine Leycester. For 
Melesina Trench see 'D.N.B./ Mi. 189 of 
the original edition. A. R. BAYLEY. 

point out that the reference to Dean Stanley is a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. FEB. 26, 1010. 

xii. 510). As my query has not elicited 
an answer, much to my surprise, may I give 
the quotation in full, and ask my query in a 
different way ? 

Can any reader refer me to the original 
of the passage ? I saw it attributed to 
Aristotle some time ago in, I believe, an 
advertisement, but it may not be his. The 
passage is remarkable in its resemblance to 
the Golden Rule, and if it is by any pre- 
Christian writer, the author's name and the 
reference to it should be preserved in the 
columns of ' N. & Q.' The passage in its 
entirety is thus : 

" Cleanse and purify thy heart, for it is the 
seat of all sin, not by worthless ceremonies, 
prayers, and meanings, but by stern resolve to 
sin no more,; to uphold right, and do right ; 
sacrifice thyself at the shrine of duty, forgiving 
injuries, and acting only towards others as thou 
wouldst have them behave towards thyself." 

I confess it savours to me rather of the 
Fathers than Aristotle ; but I should like 
to trace it to its author. Lucis. 

" oo " : HOW PRONOUNCED (11 S. i. 10, 

58). I have to thank two correspondents 

for their replies to my query concerning 

the change from 6 to u (oo). My special 

interest, however, is less in the change itself 

than in the reasons for it, and why it occurred 

when it did. Ample details about the change 

itself, I know, are given in the books that 

have been mentioned ; but if these explain 

what caused the change to occur, I have 

missed the explanation, and should like to 

be referred to it. Why did 6 become it, 

rather than another sound ? Why, indeed. 

should there have been any change ? What 

caused the vowel to be " moved up to the 

high position n ? Is there any ascertain- 

able reason why the change should have 

taken place at the time stated ? It was 

about such points as these that I desired, 

and shall still be grateful for, information 

Meantime, I am obliged to those who re 

plied. I gather from MR. PLATT'S answer 

that no European language except ours 

uses the letters oo to represent the sound of u 

Questions similar to the above might be 

put about other vowel-changes, notably that 

of ee into I. Here, again, the books describe 

fully what happened ; PROF. SKEAT, for 

example, tells us that at one time the sounc 

of this vowel approximated to that ir 

" name." But why did the change take thi 

form, and why was its operation not more 

general ? Why did sounds which were 

already nearer to the goal not respond t( 

the same influence ? What preventec 

' name " and "blame"' from becoming 

; nime" and " blime " ? if indeed they 
lave been prevented, since at present from 

ome lips we hear a sound not unlike this, 
Are we to recognize this as a further develop- 
ment of the same process which changed 

e into I, in other words ? 

Enlightenment on such points as these 
may be acceptable to other readers, as it 
certainly will be to STUDENT. 

WILLIAM SHIPPEN, 1673-1743 (11 S. i. 50). 
The mother of William Shippen was a 
daughter of Richard Legh of Lyme. See 
Bean's ' Parliamentary Representation of 
the Six Northern Counties of England,' p. 
385. W. SCOTT. 


MARRIAGE CONTRACT c. 1540 (11 S. i. 66).- 
There are several cases of these marriage 
contracts in ' Depositions and other Ecclesi- 
astical Proceedings from the Courts of Dur- 
ham, from 1311 to the Reign of Elizabeth/ 
vol. xxi. of the publications of the Surtees 
Society. The process or ceremony referred 
to is " handfasting," or joining of hands in 
betrothal. In Jamieson's Scottish Dic- 
tionary the custom is defined, at some 
length, as a contract for a year. The cases 
heard at Durham relate chiefly to breaches 
of this contract, incontinent living, failure 
to complete by regular marriage, &c. Thus 
on 30 June, 1537, Richard Dunsf or the brought 
Sibella Birtefeld before the Court for refusal 
to fulfil her handfasting engagement. Robert 
Hagthorp deposed that he had brought the 
parties together and said to Sibella : 

" Ye knowe well ynough you and Richard 
Dunsforthe have bene long to gethir in oon< 
howse, and,methinke, yt were best for you botl: 
if ye can fynde in your harteto marye to gither 
and Sir Richard the parishe preiste saieth ji 
wilnot axe you in the churche ooneles ye I 
handfast, wherefore, if ye can fynde in youi 
harte to take hym to your husbond, dryve 
no longer, and yf not, breke of bytymes." 

Sibella did not answer, upon which Hag- 
thorp remonstrated again, and eventuallj 
she agreed to the handfasting. A witness 
was sent for, and upon his arrival Richard 
took Sibella by the hand, and said : 

"'Here I, Richard, take you, Sybill, to my 
handfast wyfe, from this day forward, all other 
woman to "forsake, and the for to take. \vhi 
deathe us departe, and thereto I plight the r 
treuth.' And then they drewe hands, and i 
woman tooke hym by the hande, and saie< 
lieke wyes, ' Here I, Sibell, take the, Richaafl 
to my husbond from this day.' " 

In another case, Elizabeth Frisell against 
Henry Smith, the handfasting took place 

ii s. i. FEB. 26, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in the vicar's parlour. The parties had 
been brought before the Commissary Court 
to be corrected for incontinent living : 

" And when their penance was enjoned to them 
thei agreed betwen themselves to mary, and so 
came into the Mr. Vicar of Newcastle's house, in 
the parlour, and there, in the presence of.... 
.iltci- talke of agreiment, the said Henry and 
Elizabeth wer contented ther in their presences 
to be handfested, which was done by Thomas 
Kingston, the said Henry Smith saying after 
Thomas Kingston, ' Here I, Henry Smith, take 
you, Elizabeth Frisell, to my wedded wyfe, &c., 
and thereto I plight the my trowth,' and * I, 
Elizabeth Frisell, take you, Henry Smith, to my 
wedded husband, &c., and thereunto I plight 
the my trowth,' drawing handes and drinking 
either to other. And the above named Walles, 
spiyng Henry Smith to loke down, said to him, 
' Wlii lokest thou down ? If thou meane not to 
In it in dede, but does to avoid the penance, 
it is not well.' Wherunto Henry Smith answered 
that he ment truly, as he afterward spake. Ex- 
amined whi thei staied so long from marying, 
lie saith that at the time of ther hanfesteng 
Henry Smith was in prentiship a yeir after, and 
that he taketh to be the cause of their staying." 

The handfasting was generally followed by 
an interchange of gifts. Christopher Rob- 
son and Kathren Marshall, having plighted 
their troth, 

" dranke to gyther, and also kissett to gyther 
often. .. .Ther was a rynge gyven by the said 
Kathren to the aforesaid Christofer, and he gave 
another ring also to hir." 

So also William Headley and Agnes Smith : 

'' Therupon the said Agnes toke a gold rynge 
of hir fynger, and gave the same to hym, and the 
said William gave then the said Agnes one bowed 
<Jd. and bad hir put yt in hir purch." 

In the case of Thomas Manwell and Helinor 

" Mumvc-11 toke a rose noble of gold outof his 
purse and bowed the same, and . . . .gave the same 
noble to Helinor fora token. And then she, the 
s ml Helinor, imediatly then after opened hir 
pussf, and gave the said Thomas Manwell a 
rynuv of silver havynge 2 hands, one of them in 
another, and gilte with golde." 

Clement Heweson, being handfasted to 
Agnes Dodds in 1580, said that he would 
never have " other woman in middle earth 
than the said Agnes " ; and then " he gave 
hir an old grote, and she gave him a 

X< '\vcastle-upon-Tyne. 

(10 S. xii. 89). Blondel says that this hotel 
\\ as built after the designs of Gabriel (senior), 
under the superintendence of M. Aubert, 
architect. I am not aware of any doubt 
.expressed about this statement. L. P. 


MOHACS : THE BATTLE (11 S. i. 87). 
If Vambery's ' Hungary in Ancient, Medi- 
i seval, and Modern Times ' (" Story of the 
Nations," 1888) be too meagre for the 
purpose, perhaps Creasy' s ' History of the 
Ottoman Turks (1250-1878),' London, 1878, 
or Freeman's ' The Ottoman Power in 
Europe : its Nature, Growth, and Decline,' 
1877, may afford the desired information. 


(11 S. i. 89). The directors of the 
Bank of England were collectively so called 
by William Cobbett because, like Mrs. 
Partington, they tried with their broom to 
sweep back the Atlantic waves of national 
progress. This action was, I think, in 
reference to the temporary stopping of cash 
payments on the 26th of February, 1797, 
one-pound bank notes being issued in March 
the same year, But is it quite clear whether 
Cobbett or Gillray was the first to employ 
the phrase ? J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 

The latest authority on Sheridan states 
that he originated this name for the Bank 
of England ; see ' Sheridan, 1 by Walter 
Sichel (Constable & Co., 1909), p. 16. On 
p. 91 of that work it is further stated : 

" To Sheridan is due, as we have seen, the 
accepted figure of the Bank of England as an old 
lady. Speaking on the stoppage of its cash 
payments in the spring of 1797, he compared 
it . . . . ' to an elderly lady in the City, of great 
credit and long standing, who had lately made a 
faux pas which was not altogether inexcusable,' " 

T. F. D. 

429). In Sonnenschein's ' Reader's Guide,' 
1895, p. 654, students are recommended, out 
of a number of editions of Hafiz, to select 
Lieut. -Col. H. W. Clarke's * Diwan-i-Hafiz,' 
Calcutta, privately printed, 1891, 4to, 
2 vols. It is said to be a good prose trans- 
lation, with notes " forming a perfect 
mine of Sfific lore,' 2 but wanting an index. 


SIR ROBERT GEFFERY (11 S. i. 50, 94). 
A copy of the full-length portrait of this 
worthy by Phillips, alluded to in my former 
reply, is to be seen in the Guildhall Library, 
where it constitutes MS. 20. It is in water 

The engraved portrait mentioned by MR. 
ROBERTS (ante, p. 95), by Trotter, is from a 
full-length original at Bridewell Hospital, 
from the brush of Sir Godfrey Kneller. A 
copy of this engraving is preserved at 
Guildhall also. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii i. FEB. -26, 1910, 

In reference to MB. STEWART'S mention 
of Geffery's interment at St. Dionis Back- 
church, it may be of interest to note that a 
lengthy extract from the knight's will, in 
regard to his bequest for maintenance of 
daily service there, occurs at 5 S. xi. 22. 


"DISGRUNTLED" (10 S. xi. 326, 452). 
A newspaper use of the word is to be found 
in Read's Weekly Journal for 6 Oct., 1716, 
where a correspondent is described as seeming 
"to be disgruntled about the Pun inserted 
in our last Journal on the Names of the 
5 Rioters justly hang'd at the end of Salisbury 
Court in Fleet Street.' 1 



Many Memories of Life in India, at Home and 
Abroad. By J. H. Rivett-Carnac. (Black- 
wood & Sons.) 

THESE many memories of our old and valued 
contributor Col. Rivett-Carnac well deserved a 
permanent form. They have evidently given 
pleasure to the author in their compilation, and 
we have little doubt that feeling will be shared 
by many readers. 

Col. Carnac's father, Admiral John Rivett- 
Carnac, was a cadet of the ancient Suffolk family 
of Ryvet, and the writer of these ' Memories,' the 
second son, was born in Portland Place on the 
16th of September, 1838. Portland Place had 
in those days " a distinctly Eastern flavour." 
The boy's maternal grandmother, the widow of a 
distinguished Indian officer, lived close at hand; 
on different sides of the broad street two of her 
sisters, married to directors of the East India 
Company, resided ; also several other Eastern 
magnates. In addition, " a grim old great- 
uncle," who was always giving "good advice, but 
never a single tip," lived in a big house at 
the corner, half way down Portland Place. 
" In this same house I was more recently the guest 
of a very different personality, Field-Marshal Earl 
Roberts, who never forgets those who have 
served with him in India, or elsewhere, and whose 
cheery presence had effectually exorcised the 
spectre of the grim old Indian nabob of some 
sixty years before." 

The Colonel's father was " an amiable man 
save when the gout was upon him," and he " had 
brought ashore with him much of the discipline 
and language of the quarter-deck. We always 
called him ' Sir,' and gave him a wide berth when 
my mother hoisted the storm signals of gout." 

After being placed in a school at Bonn, the lad 
on returning home went to Haileybury, his father 
having obtained for him an Indian Civil 
Service appointment or " writership," and in 
1858, at the close of the Mutiny, he arrived at 
Calcutta, where he was for a time the guest of 

Outram, who showed him great kindness. Other 
friends were Sir Bartle and Lady Frere. The 
former he admired with boyish enthusiasm " as 
an ornament to the service, and one of the most 
fascinating men it was ever my good fortune to 
meet .... His looks were greatly in his favour, and 
when lie entered the room one was at once pre- 
possessed by the graceful, dignified figure of the 
man, with a head like that of a Konkani Brah- 
min, and delicate, well-cut features." 

To young Carnac fell the honour of managing the 
farewell ball to Lord Clyde on his way home after 
the campaign. " It was a labour of love, as I 
knew the dear old man well, and had often seen 
him at our house both before and after the Crimean 
War, he being an intimate friend of my father's. 
During his stay in Calcutta at Government House, 
Lord Clyde had me over several times, and took 
me out with him, calling me his civilian aide-de- 
camp. He was good enough to pronounce that I 
would make an excellent aide-de-camp in time, 
and 1 little guessed in those days that 1 was to be 
an aide-de-camp eventually to Sir Donald 
Stewart when Commander-in-Chief, and also to 
their Majesties Queen Victoria and King Ed- 
ward VII." 

Shortly after the ball Carnac had to leave 
Calcutta, having been appointed to an assistant 
magistracy. Among other appointments, lie 
filled the post of assistant secretary to Temple 
when Temple was appointed Chief Commissioner 
of the Central Provinces. These were in Carnac's 
day the happy hunting-ground of the antiquary. 
One of Temple's successors had a strong taste for 
anthropology, and was especially keen on the 
conformation of the heads of the hillmen of 
India and the peoples representing the remains 
of the aboriginal tribes. Into the hilly country of 
Central India had been driven by the advancing 
invaders from time immemorial the Bheels, the 
Gondhs, and other of the wild tribes. " In this 
new kingdom the recently arrived Governor 
found himself, so to speak, in clover. One of the 
first circulars that issued from the secretariat 
was no longer about sanitation or criminal pro- 
cedure, but invited district officers to forward the 
interests of science by obtaining for the museums 
and investigators the skulls of the aboriginal 
tribes. Dear old Bernard, then secretary, drafted 
the circular." The great man had running in his 
mind the desirability of getting skalls for his 
private collection, so he added " in duplicate." 
The harassed district officers thus found them- 
selves faced with the difficult problem of finding 
aboriginal native gentlemen endowed with ;i 
pair of skulls apiece to satisfy the hobby of the 
new Commissioner. - " The order nearly had 
a tragic result in one district, and, for what I 
know, may not have escaped those results in 
some others. All in the Provinces, Europeans 
and natives, were anxious to carry out the wishes 
of the new ruler, and far away on tour, in a wild 
hill tract, the district officer explained to an old 
native chief how anxious he was to make a good 
collection of skulls to gratify the whim of the 
Chief Commissioner. ' I am with you,' said tin- 
astute old fellow, ' and quite understand what is 
wanted ; there is plenty of material in my State/ 
The next morning, when riding back to camp 
the officer came across a long procession of Gondhs, 
young and old, roped together, and being driven 
along by matchlock-men to the old chief's palace 

n B. i. FEB. 26, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


They howled owt with one accord at the European 
officer, imploring mercy, and affirming they were 
guilty of nothing deserving instant death. The 
Deputy Commissioner turned back to the palace, 
and there, sure enough, he found a good-sized 
block and an accomplished headsman in attend- 
ance, and all in readiness for immediate execution. 
When the old chief was remonstrated with, he 
urged, * Why not, Lord of the World ? 1 have 
plenty of them. No ? But you told me that 
the Great-Man wanted these skulls, and how else 
could I possibly get them ? ' These Gondhs were 
fortunately respited, to the old chief's disgust." 
Nevertheless a fine collection was made, in 
duplicate. The " Great Man's" portion, however, 
came to grief, for on arrival in England in his 
absence, the case was opened, and the contents, 
being regarded as human remains, were buried in a 
suburban cemetery. 

When work was slack in the Central Provinces, 
the Viceroy would summon Col. Carnac to Simla, 
and the sudden change to a cool climate was 
pleasant, and specially so were the houses. 
Instead of the huge, whitewashed, rambling, 
habitations down below, the Simla houses were 
mostly compact and cosy. "The situation is 
explained to perfection by Sir Charles Dilke" 
('Greater Britain,' vol. ii. p. 247), in which he 
Avrote of the delight of finding himself in a house 
in the hills, and in which he says : " Here I am in 
a real room, and not in a section of a street with 
a bed in it.'' 

The book abounds with good stories, but one 
other must suffice. Col. Carnac's regiment was in 
;i cholera camp, and one Sunday a chaplain came 
out to read the service: "The regiment was 
p;iraded, the weather was very hot, heavy and 
trying, and many men very weak and sick. The 
Colonel said to the fussy little chaplain, ' Please 
do not give any sermon. All will have to be 
< .utside, and the service will alone be tiring.' The 
little man intimated something to the effect that 
these were matters that appertained to his 
conscience, and did not admit of dictation. When 
a sufficiently long morning service had been got 
through, the little gentleman coughed, approached 
tin- big drum, and produced a bulky MS., evidently 
.i long sermon. The voice of the Colonel suddenly 
rang out in the silence : '-Cheshires ! Attention!! 
Right about face ! 1 ! Quick march ! ! ! ! ' and 
tli- little gentleman was left alone in the plain 
with the corporal who had acted as clerk, the big 
drum, and his big sermon." 

On thei>i>ml of March, 1894, Col. Carnac landed 
:\\ .Marseilles, having bidden a final farewell to 
Inula. These memories are so attractive that in 
n-.-uling th-m one is apt to forget the services 
rendered hy Col. Carnac, they are so modestly 

The author had no sooner been appointed 
Assistant Magistrate of Midnapore than a great 
dacoity case was given him, with the result that 
not only the poor Gondhs who had committed 
the robbery, but also the rich liquor-sellers, the 
receivers, \\ere convicted and transported. After 
two years in office he was made Secretary to the 
Income Tax Commission. The appointment 
ol so young a man did not pass without comment, 
and he had the. pleasure of reading about " a 
young civilian who, not having yet passed the 
>nd Department Examination, is still in 
official swaddling-clothes." The Government of 

India, however, so appreciated his work that he 
was selected to officiate as Under-Secretary in the 
Home Department, with charge of the Foreign 
Department's Office, during the Viceroy's absence 
up country. On Sir Richard Temple's appoint- 
ment as Chief Commissioner of the Central 
Provinces he offered Col. Carnac the post of 
assistant secretary. Temple was much pleased 
with him, and, anxious to forward his interests,, 
obtained his appointment as Settlement Officer 
of the Wurdah and Chandah districts. This was 
followed by his appointment as Cotton Com- 
missioner. His services to the cotton industry 
were recognized on his visit to England in 1872 
by a dinner at the Manchester Town Hall, and the 
Cotton Supply Association awarded him a Gold 

In addition to all these pursuits, Col. Carnac 
took seriously to volunteering, raised a battalion 
of Rifles and two corps of Light Horse, and set to 
work to enrol every European and Eurasian in 
India in a scheme for national defence. But what 
will appeal to readers of ' N. & Q.' more than all 
is his work in Indian archeology, in recog- 
nition of which he has been elected to innumerable 
foreign Societies of Antiquaries, besides being a 
Fellow of our own. 

Col. Carnac was married while in India to 
Marion, the eldest daughter of General Sir 
Henry Durand, and he records that she has been 
his " valued companion for upwards of forty 
years, and is my aid and kindly critic in pre- 
paring these memories." We cordially wish that 
our old contributor and his wife may long enjoy 
the pleasures of their home in Switzerland. The 
book contains two portraits, those of the Colonel 
and his wife, to whom " the most valued of all 
my memories " is dedicated. 

Dudley Hardy, R.I., R.M.S., by A. E. Johnson, 
is one of Messrs. Black's series of " Brush, Pen 
and Pencil," which is proffered as " some record 
of the work of the leading men amongst con- 
temporary artists." 

Mr. Hardy is best known, perhaps, as a designer 
of posters (though he was by no means the first 
artist of repute to apply his talents in that way),, 
and a recorder of the airs, graces, and dress of the 
up-to-date woman bent on pleasure. The fifty- 
six examples of his work here reproduced are fair 
specimens of his lively and attractive work, and 
are mainly concerned with English life, though 
the artist has also a reputation for Eastern 
scenes and studies of French peasant life. There 
is a delightful series of small sketches taking off 
the heroes and heroines of fashionable opera. 

The illustrations give us a general impression of 
gaiety and brightness, but we cannot say that 
Mr. Johnson's text is adequate. He spends a 
great many words on extended commonplaces 
which would apply to many other artists as well 
as his subject. He remarks on p. 49 : " It is 
difficult to bring to a conclusion remarks which 
seem scarcely to have begun." We agree, but if 
within the space assigned to him, he could not 
say anything, or tell us what precisely is the 
artistic quality which distinguishes Mr. Hardy 
from other artists, he might as well have left the 
pictures to speak for themselves ; he says as much, 
also on p. 49. This sort of " appreciation " is, 
\ve believe, popular, but serious admirers of the 
artist must surely find it disappointing. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. in s. i. FEB. 26, 1910. 


MR. F. C. CARTER of Hornsey has in Catalogue 
^Extra Series 2 Camden's ' Reges, Reginse, Nobiles, 
et alij in Ecclesia Collegiata B. Petri West- 
monasterij sepulti,' 1600 (contains the very 
rare errata leaf which the only copy in the British 
Museum lacks), crimson levant by Riviere, 
107 10s. ; and under Shakespeare * A C Mery 
Talys,' 1526 (one of the works included by Hazlitt 
in ''Shakespeare's Jest-Books,' and referred to by 
Beatrice in 'Much Ado About Nothing'), 20s. 
The Catalogue is mostly devoted to autographs, 
Court Rolls, charters, &c. Among these is the 
original licence (dated 3 May, 1783) for the 
marriage of William Beckford (author of 
'Vathek') of S. Mary le Bone and Lady 
Margaret Gordon of S. James, Westminster, 
12s. 6d. In the year following his marriage 
he entered Parliament as one of the members 
for Wales. Several interesting letters from the 
Rev. S. Henley, defending his action in 
publishing his English translation of ' Vathek ' 
in opposition to Beckford's wishes, were printed 
by Mr. Lewis Melville in The Athenceum for 27 Nov. 
and 4 Dec., 1909 ; and the discussion thus aroused 
is being continued in that journal. 

Messrs. S. Dray ton & Sons' Exeter List 211 
-contains Kelley's ' American Yachts, their Clubs 
and Races,' 25 beautifully coloured plates, signed 
artists' proofs, 1884, 51. 5s. (published at 217.). 
A set of Thackeray, Library Edition, 22 vols., 
half -morocco, is SI. 8s. ; and the best edition of 
4 Notitia Monastica,' folio, calf, 1781, 47. 4s. 
There are lists under Freemasonry, Ireland, 
Military, Naval, and Theology. 

Mr. James Dunn's Edinburgh Catalogue 106 
contains a complete set of a curious publication, 
The Castle Spectre, October, 1876, to October, 
1888, edited by A. D. Forbes, 4to, half-morocco, 
7s. Qd. Of this only 140 copies of each number 
were published. The earlier numbers contain 
woodcuts by Ella, daughter of John Hill Burton. 
-" The Aldine Poets," 52 vols., Bell & Daldy, 
are II. 12s. Under Dickens is the first edition 
of ' Master Humphrey's Clock,' 3 vols. in 1, 
8s. Qd. There is a list under Highlands and 
Highlanders. Under Horse Sabbaticee is the 
reprint of articles by Sir James F. Stephen from 
The Saturday Review, 3 vols., 2s. Qd. ; and under 
Linguistic we find Anglo-Saxon and Danish 
works. A copy of Maclise's ' Gallery of Literary 
'Characters,' 4 to, is cheap at 5s. There are a 
number of works under Scottish. A considerable 
portion of the Catalogue is devoted to divinity, 
including works by Lightfoot, Matheson, Mar- 
tineau, Newman, Dr. Parker, Spurgeon, Westcott, 
and others. There is a Cheap List at the end. 

Mr. John Orr's Edinburgh List 24 contains a 
most interesting collection of pamphlets and 
tracts, the prices being very moderate. A 
reminiscence of a popular exhibition is Banvard's 
' Adventures of an Artist,' 1849, Is. 3d. The 
author was the painter of the panorama of the 
Mississippi exhibited at the Egyptian Hall, 
Piccadilly. Altogether different is ' The Chaldee 
Manuscript,' which appeared in Blackwood's 
Magazine, October, 1817, 2s. The publication of 
this fell like a thunderbolt on Edinburgh. The 
copies were immediately bought up, and the 
second edition did not contain the offensive 
.article. See * Notes by the Way,' by John C. 

Francis, p. 20. There are pamphlets under 
Free Church, Ireland, and Jacobite, besides ser- 
mons on various occasions, some relating to the 
Rebellion in Scotland. Under Napoleon is the 
' Authentic Trial of Marshal Ney,' with memoir. 
Among newspapers is a collection of early Indian, 
Chinese, and others ; and under Population is a 
' Comparative Account of the Population of Great 
Britain, 1810-11, 1821-31.' There are some 
privately printed books. Among slavery pam- 
phlets are Wilberforce's ' Appeal,' 1823. and Clark- 
son on ' The Condition of Slaves in the British 
Colonies.' The section devoted to Maps, Views, 
Plans, &c., includes a map of Africa, 1652, 5s. Qd. ; 
one of Arabia, 1802, 2s. Qd. ; a number of early 
American maps ; Edinburgh city plans ; and 
Thomson's series of old large-scale maps of the 
counties of Scotland. The first item under Old 
Views in Scotland is a fine portrait picture of the 
St. Andrews " Medal Day," 1898, with hundreds 
of portraits of golf notables, including Mr. A. J. 
Balfour, Tom Morris, F. G. Tait, &c. This was 
taken in front of the old Golf House, is an India 
proof, and offered at 21. 5s. (published at 77. 7s.). 

Messrs. Sotheran's Price Current 701 opens 
with two unique collections of Election Literature 
and Art: the first, 1880, contains 650 illustra- 
tions, including a fine series of portraits, 7 vols., 
307. ; the second relates to the General Election 
of 1885, 10 vols., 357. Under America is a rare 
early newspaper, The Pennsylvania Packet, 
Jan. 2nd, 1781, to Dec. 1st, 1781, and Dec. 29th, 
1781, in 1 vol. folio (five numbers wanting), half- 
calf, 307. The list is rich in botanical works, 
including a fine copy of Curtis's ' Flora Lon- 
dinensis,' 317. 10s. ; Sander's ' Orchids,' 457. ; 
and a tall copy of Sowerby, very scarce, 247. The 
general portion includes Blake's ' Marriage of 
Heaven and Hell,' 1885, 47. 4s. ; Combe's ' Cam- 
bridge,' 2 vols., 4to, very scarce, 157. 15s. ; 
an uncut copy of Nichols's 'Leicestershire,' 1257. ; 
Lysons's ' Magna Britannia,' further illustrated 
with over 150 plates, 1813-22, 527. 10s. ; and the 
first edition of ' Paradise Regained,' original sheep, 
a tall and perfect copy, 757. The Shakespeare 
entries include the Second Folio, with the extra- 
ordinarily rare Smethwick title-page (the editor 
of Lowndes could only cite the example now in 
the Lenox Library, New York), 2207. ; also the 
Third Folio, 2007., and two copies of the Fourth 
Folio. There are works under Costume, Ento- 
mology, Heraldry, London, Military, Music, 
Ornithology, &c. Music includes a set of Handel's 
Works, edited by Arnold, 41 vols., royal folio, 
tree calf, 1785-97, 177. 17s. 


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to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to ''The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

L. M. R. ("Manetho's Egyptian Chronology"). 
Too controversial. 
A. ABRAHAMS. Forwarded. 

n s. i. MAK. 5, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 10. 

NOTES : Errors in Macaulay, 181 The Cradle of Henry of 
Monmouth, 183 Dr. Johnson's Boots, 184 Easter on 27 
March "Pein of the harte " " Heortology " ' Anne of 
Geierstein,' 185 Raffaele cle Grimalcli Modern Named 
derived from Latinized Forms, 186 " Roundhead," a 
Weapon Belgian Fisher Folk-lore Female Grooms of 
the Royal Chamber, 187. 

QUERIES : St. Anne's, Aldersgate : Ecclesiastical 
Records, 187 Printing in Black-Letter "Tyrpryd" 
Division of the Months Wrangler Virginia, 1607' Who 
killed Poor Cock Robin?' "Congdon's Plymouth Tele- 
graph," 188 Queen Mary II. The Brazils R. H. A. 
Bennett General Grinfield Temple Stanyan ' Publick 
Buildings in London,' 1734 Roman Augurs Nottingham 
Earthenware Tombstone, 189. 

REPLIES: London Taverns in the Seventeenth Century, 
190 -Most Expensive Election, 191 Parliamentary Divi- 
sion Lists Newsletters in the Public Record Office- 
Chaucer and Boccaccio J. H. Swale, Mathematician, 
192 Brighton Visitors in 1779 "Plough Inn," Longhope 
Henry Etough "gh" pronounced as "sh," 193 Le 
Soeur's Statue of Charles I. Lynch Law, 194 Charles 
Kingsley, 195 Burton and Fletcher " Moral Pocket- 
handkerchiefs," 196 " Comboloio " Parry and Perry 
Families Authors Wanted, 197 "No redeeming vice" 
"Function," a Ceremony Columbine in the Sixteenth 
Century Four Winds, a Fairy Story, 198. 

NOTES ON BOOKS:-' The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle' 

'Esmond' 'The Newspaper Press Directory' 'L'lnter- 

Notices to Correspondents. 


IT may be interesting to place on record 
some of the errors discovered during a careful 
reading of the third chapter of Macaulay's 
* History.* I refer to the sixth (1850) 
edition of vol. i., but the errors are repeated 
in every edition within reach. 


1. On p. 311 ' ; Evelyn's Diary, June 2, 
1675," is given as the authority for a state- 
ment about the thousands of deer in Enfield. 
The year should be 167''. 

2. In the edition from which I quote the 
authority for a statement respecting the 
city of Norwich (p. 337) is correctly given 
as " Journal of E. Browne, son of Sir Thomas 
Browne," but in later editions the E has 
become T. 

3. Sir Robert Clayton's dining-room is 
described by Evelyn under the 26'th (not, 
a^ stated in a note on p. 351, the 20th) 
of September, 1672. 

4. The reference to Thoresby's Diary on 
p. 372 should be the 31st (not the 3rd) of 
August, .1712. 

5. The reference to Pepys's Diary on the 
same page should be the 11th (and not the 
L?th) of June, 1668. 

From an examination of several of his 
writings I infer that Macaulay when quoting- 
English poetry trusted to his memory, 
because, though he always gives the sense 
and the rhythm correctly, he often fails to 
give the ipsissima verba. 

1. In the sixth line of the passage from 
Dryden's ' Cymon and Iphigenia 4 given in 
the foot-note beginning on p. 291 " time " 
should be times. 

2. In the first line of the passage from 
Butler quoted on p. 396 " words " should be 
ends, and in the second line " and " should 
be or. 

3. In the first line of the passage from 
Dryden quoted on p. 406 " the ? ' should be 


1. The poet Gray in his * Journal of a 
Tour in the Lakes ' writes under 3 Oct., 
1769 : 

" There is a little path [from Borrowdale] wind- 
ing over the Fells, and for some weeks in the year 
passable to the dalesmen ; but the mountains 
know well that these innocent people will not 
reveal the mysteries of their ancient kingdom, the 
reign of Chaos and Old Night. Only I learned 
that this dreadful road, dividing again, leads, one 
branch to Ravenglas and the other to Hawks- 

Macaulay accepts the implication that 
Ravenglas is in the neighbourhood of Borrow - 
dale, but transforms the rest of the passage 
thus : 

" Even after the accession of George III. the 
path over the Fells from Borrowdale to Ravenglas 
w r as still a secret carefully kept by the dalesmen, 
some of whom had probably in their youth escaped 
from the pursuit of justice by that road." P. 285. 

2. " At Flodden the right wing of the victorious 
army was led by the Admiral of England." 
P. 300. 

Even if it is permissible to speak of the 
right wing of an army formed as Surrey's was 
at Flodden, Lord Thomas Howard (whom 
Macaulay probably had in mind) did not 
lead it. 

:*. "In the drawings of English landscapes 
made in that age for the Grand Duke Cosmo 
scarce a hedgerow is to be seen, and numerous 
tracts, now rich with cultivation, appear as bare as 
Salisbury Plain." P. 310. 

A good many of the illustrations to the 
Duke's travels, being views of towns, vil- 
or mansions, do not justify any 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 8. i. MAR. 5, 1910. 

inference as to the presence or absence of 
hedges, and the accuracy of a surveyor's 
plan can hardly be expected from an 
artist's sketch. 

4. " Almost the only important theological 
works which came forth from a rural parsonage 
were those of George Bull, afterwards Bishop of 
St. David's ; and Bull never would have pro- 
duced those works had he not inherited an estate, 
by the sale of which he was enabled to collect a. 
library such as probably no other country clergy- 
man in England possessed." P. 331. 

The first part of this statement has been 
several times circumstantially controverted. 
The authority given for the second is Nelson's 
' Life.' This is what Nelson says : 

" Mr. Bull wrote and published this his learned 
and judicious Treatise, of the Defence of the 
Nicene Faith, during the tune he was Rector of 
Suddington, where he had now continued about 
twenty-seven years ; and for twenty years of 
that time had no other preferment in the Church, 
but those two parishes united after the manner 
that hath been already related, the income 
whereof did not amount to above 100Z. a year, 
clear of taxes. He found himself very early 
under a necessity of making such a provision of 
books, as might enable him to carry on his 
theological studies, which cost him several 
hundred pounds, for he was placed at a distance 
from any public library, which is a great advan- 
tage to those who can enjoy such a benefit. His 
family grew numerous by a large stock of children, 
who were to be maintained and educated ; his 
friends were always received with great hospi- 
tality, and the poor with a charity that bordered 
upon profuseness ; with all this he had several 
great losses, and had no great talent in that 
wisdom which consisteth in managing an estate 
to the best advantage ; by these means he was 
reduced to great straits, and by degrees, was under 
a necessity of selling his patrimonial estate, to 
maintain himself in the service of the Church." 
Ed. 1713, p. 347. 

5. "Sir Dudley North expended 4,OOOZ 

on the rich furniture of his reception rooms in 
Basinghall Street." P. 351. 

Roger North (whose ' Life l Macaulay gives 
as authority) says (ed. 1826, iii. 134) : 

" He parted with his house in Basinghall Street 
and took that great one behind Goldsmiths' Hall 
.... He furnished it richly, especially one state 
apartment of divers rooms in file. The whole 
cost him at least 4,OOOZ." 

6. " Ralph Thoresby, the antiquary, was in 
danger of losing his way on the great North Road 
between Barnby Moor and Tuxford." P. 372. 

Thoresby says (21 Oct., 1680) that through 
the drunkenness of a companion, who 
" would not stir a foot farther than Tux- 
ford, n he " had to ride alone eight tedious 
long miles in a place easy enough to mistake 
the way in, especially in a dark evening over 
Shirewood Forest.^ 

7. " He [Thoresby] was afterwards detained at 
Stamford four days "on account of the state of the 

roads, and then ventured to proceed only because 
fourteen members of the House of Commons, who- 
were going up in .a body to Parliament with guides 
and numerous attendants, took him into their 
company." P. 372. 

The delay was caused not by the *' state of 
the roads, " but " the prodigious quantitv of 
snow " (Diary, 30 Dec., 1708) ; and there 
were not fourteen members of the House of 
Commons. What Thoresby says is that, 
" having the encouragement of some of the 
Scotch gentry, who must of necessity be at the 
Parliament at the time appointed, we ventured 
upon our journey (being fourteen in company) ; 
having the post and a guide, we found some part 
of the road better than we expected." 3 Jan.,. 

8. " Vanbrugh . . . .described with great humour 
the way in which a country gentleman. . . .went 
up to London. On that occasion all the exertions 
of six beasts, two of which had been taken from the 

E lough, could not save the family coach from being 
nbedded hi a quagmire." P. 376. 

What Vanbrugh says is : 
" They have added two cart-horses to the four 
old geldings." ' Journey to London,' I. i. 

He does not mention a quagmire. 

9. " Cotton seems, from his ' Angler,' to have 
found room for his whole library in his hall 
window." P. 392, foot-note. 

Nothing can be inferred as to the number 
of Cotton's own books from the fact that 
Piscator says to Viator (chap, x.) : "I will 
myself dress you this dish of fish for your 
dinner ; walk but into the parlour [not the 
hall], you will find one book or other in the 
window to entertain you the while. 5 * 
Churchill Babington has already pointed out 
that, even if a personal application could be 
given to the passage, Cotton would have 
most of his books in a library or study. 

10. " For the copyright [of the Fables] Dryden 
received 250Z." P. 401. 

The contract to which Macaulay refers says 
that the sum was 250 guineas for the first 
edition. Dryden also received some hun- 
dreds for the complimentary Epistles and 
Dedications ; and his widow received fifty 
guineas for the second edition. 

11. " The second edition was not required 
till the author had been ten years in his grave." 
P. 401. 

Dryden died in 1700 ; the second edition 
was published in 1713. 


1. In a foot-note on p. 282 some^lines'are 
said to be quoted from ' Great Britain's 
Beauty, 1671. s I have failed to find this 
poem in the Catalogue of the British Museum 
(probably because I do not know the 
author's name), but the title closely 

n s. i. MAK. 5, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

resembles an entry in Lowndes : ' Great 
Britain's Glory, or a brief Description of the 
Splendor and Magnificence of the Royal Ex- 
change presented to the Merchants of 

London,' 1672. 

2. " Raleigh served during many years as a 

soldier in France, the Netherlands, and Ireland." 
P.' 300. 

Did Raleigh ever serve in the Nether- 
lands ? and can his service in France 
and Ireland be said to extend over " many 
years " ? 

3. " From him [Sir Christopher Mings] sprang 
!)>- a singular kind of descent a line of valiant and 
expert sailors. His cabin boy was Sir John 
Narborough, and the cabin boy of Sir John Nar- 
borough was Sir Cloudesley Shovel." P. 303. 

Is there any proof that Narborough ever was 

and is there any proof 
his career under Nar- 

cabin boy to Mings 
that Shovel began 
borough ? 

4. "Patrick [preached] at St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden." P. 330. 

John Patrick, the champion of Protestant- 
ism, was a preacher at the Charterhouse 
from 1671 till his death in 1695. When was 
he connected with St. Paul's ? 

5. The Christian name of Heming, the 
" ingenious projector n who devised a plan 
for lighting London, is given (p. 361) as 
Edward. The ' D.N.B.,' which quotes 
Macaulay's account as sole authority, gives 
the name as Edmund. Which is right ? 
Neither Christian name nor surname is 
mentioned in the lines ' On the Late In- 
vention of the New Lights,' published in 
' State Poems continued from the time of 
O. Cromwel to the year 1697 * (1719), 
p. 243. 

6. "If the King notified his pleasure.... 
that a liU-i-tine baronet should be made a peer 
the gravest counsellors after a little murmuring 
submitted." P. 304. 

Macaulay supports his statement by 

not want his readers to realize it did not 
want his pet Halifax to be associated in their 
minds with a discreditable incident. 

7. " Ray made a new classification of birds 
and fishes.'" P. 409. 

Did he ? Was not Macaulay misled by 
the title of the duodecimo that Ray pub- 
lished in 1674, ' A Collection of English 
Words not in General Use. . . .with Cata- 
logues of English Birds and Fishes ' ? 

8. " Even the designs for the coin were made by 
French medallists." P. 412. 

Were not the engravers to the Mint during 
the Stuart Period Nicolas Briot (a French- 
man), Thomas Rawlins (an Englishman), 
Thomas Simon (possibly an Englishman, 
certainly not a Frenchman), and John 
Roettiers (a Dutchman) ? 

I have said nothing of the opinions that 
some people may deem erroneous, nor have 
I noted the many instances of Macaulay's 
characteristic fault making a statement 
more general than the authority quoted 
for it warrants. DAVID SALMON. 



See .... Clarendon's account 

of the way in which Sir George Savile was 
made a peer." 

Clarendon gives (' Life,' ed. 1759, iii. 566) 
an account of the unsuccassful attempt of the 
Duke of York to induce Charles to make 
Savile a viscount. Does he anywhere give 
an account of a successful effort ? 

Miss Foxcroft in her ' Life of the First 
Marquis of Halifax l *(i. 39) quotes the pas- 
sage from Clarendon to which Macaulay 
refers, and adds in a foot-note : " He does 
not seem to realize that the Savile in ques- 
tion is identical with Halifax.' 1 To me it is 
inconceivable that Macaulay did not reahze 
the identity. My own theory is that he did 



OWING to a question asked me by Mr- 
Lionel Gust early in last year concerning the 
asserted, and not unsuspected, pedigree of 
:he fine fourteenth-century cradle formerly 
in the possession of W. J. Braikenridge of 
Clevedon, Somerset, and now at Windsor 
Castle, it has seemed appropriate that such 
particulars as I have gathered regarding 
its former owner and a rival cradle (that 
now at Badminton) should find a place in. 
'N. &Q.\ 

The main fact is that there are two ancient 
cradles which have long belonged to Glou- 
cestershire, and both have equally claimed 
to be that in which Henry V. was rocked 
as an infant. Since, however, the Bad- 
minton cradle, though extremely interesting, 
cannot be older than the sixteenth century 
(and is probably no earlier than Elizabethan 
days), it would seem unnecessary to refer- 
further to it in this connexion. Neverthe- 
less, this Tudor cradle came from the Vaughan 
family at Courtfield, near Ross, co. Mon- 
mouth, whither Henry V. was taken to be 
nursed as a weakly infant. Probably to 
this fact has been due the tradition that this 
cradle had been the royal one. Courtfield 
lies at a distance of about seven miles from 
Monmouth. The cradle left Courtfield about 
1830, and became the property of the Duke 
of Beaufort at Troy House, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. in s. i. MAB. 3, ieia 

With regard to the earlier cradle, there 
seems no reason to question the pedigree given 
to it in the sale catalogue. It had belonged 
to the Rev. Peregrine Ball, Vicar of Newland, 
co. Glos., 1745/6-94. He, it is believed, 
claimed that it had descended to him from 
an ancestor who had performed the duty of 
male-rocker to the infant prince, and who 
bore the same name of Ball. Hence this 
cradle also must have been once at Court- 
field, where Lady Montacute, heiress of 
Thomas de Monthermer, had care of the 
child. In The London Magazine of March, 
1774 (p. 135), it is described as the cradle of 
Edward II., though doubtless in error. 

Mr. Ball's son gave his heirloom to Mr. 
Whitehead of Hambrook, Frenchay, near 
Bristol, whence it probably came into the 
collection of Mrs. Barnes of Redland Hall, 
at the sale of which (22 Oct., 1833) the Rev. 
Mr. G. W. Braikenridge purchased it. It is 
described in Grose's ' Antiquarian Reper- 
tory l (vol. ii. pp. 371-2), 1808, and in 
Bingley's ' Tour through North Wales, * 
1774, as well as in Coxe, 1801.* 

The cradle measures 3 ft. 9 in. in length, 
is 3 ft. high, and is slung from a post at 
each end. It is surmounted by an eagle. 
There is no heraldic device upon it. 

Inquiries made at Newland and at Mon- 
mouth elicited not only no trace of the Rev. 
Peregrine Ball, but denials of his having 
been a vicar there ; nevertheless, he appears 
-duly (Mr. F. S. Hockaday tells me) in the 
rediscovered Diocesan Registers of co. Glos. 
as having been presented to Newland by the 
Bishop of Llandaff, 11 Feb. 1745/6. 

The cradle is to be seen in the Hall of the 
Armoury at Windsor. 


PROF. RALEIGH edited in 1908 'Johnson on 
Shakespeare.' In his Introduction (p. xxviii) 
he refers to a point in Johnson's notes missed 
by Boswell, and says further : 

" Again, is it not certain that Boswell, if he 
had known it, would have told us that his hero 
wore his boots indifferently, either on either foot, 
and further, which is yet a stranger thing, believed 
that all other boot-wearers practise the same 
impartiality ? " 

Prof. Raleigh goes on to refer to Johnson's 
note upon a passage in ' King John.'- The 
passage runs as follows (IV. ii. 197-8 ) : 
Slippers, which his nimble haste 
Has falsely thrust upon contrary feet. 

* Of. The Time?, 13 Feb., 1908. The cradle was 
sold at Messrs. Christie's, 27-28 Feb., 1908. 

The Doctor's comment runs thus : 

' ' I know not how the commentators understand 
this important passage, which, in Dr. Warburton's 
edition, is marked as eminently beautiful, and, 
in the whole, not without justice. But Shake- 
speare seems to have confounded a man's shoes 
with his gloves. He that is frighted or harried 
may put his hand into the wrong glove, but either 
shoe will equally admit either foot. The author 
seems to be disturbed by the disorder which he 

In a long and interesting letter to The 
Nation, dated 19 Aug., 1908, Mr. Thomas 
Seccombe refutes Prof. Raleigh's conclusions. 
Inter alia Mr. Seccombe says : 

" The lowest organizations of footgear, such as 
slippers (it should be superfluous to point out), 
are made without heels, and are interchangeable. 
For other reasons, the most highly organized forms 
of footgear, such as waders and jack-boots, are 
also made on the ' straight ' principle. The 
jack-boot, for instance, which was at one time 
peculiar to the tribe of postilions, would have 
lost half its utility, so great was the friction of 
the right calf against the pole, had not the legs 
been interchangeable. But in the intermediate 
forms of shoe, or ' low,' ' high-low,' the tasselled 
Hessian (dear to the heart of Jos. Sedley), and 
the ' lesser people ' of the boot tribe generally, 
no such lawless state of indifference can have 
ever prevailed ; and it is absurd to suppose that 
Johnson was oblivious of distinctions which were 
made in medieval armour, and were universally 
observed by the whole race of cordonniers from 
the time of St. Crispin downwards. Johnson 
slightly confuses counsel, it may be confessed, 
by using the word ' shoe ' as a synonym for 
' slipper,' an effeminate word for which he ex- 
perienced a contempt similar to that he felt for the 
word ' liqueur,' and for the French character." 

Mr. Seccombe adds the interesting news 

' the boot with which Johnson by kicking a 
stone refuted Berkeley is said to be preserved in 

)he library of Mr. A. M. Broadley, and, like his 
extra-illustrated edition of Dr. Johnson and Mrs. 
Thrale in 35 volumes elephant folio is said to be 
destined for the birthplace of the illustrious 
Imlac at Lichfield." 

I note that slippers may be called ' ' inter- 
changeable, " but that the ordinary person, 
either in King John's time or our own, would 
Drobably get the habit of putting one foot 
nto one definite slipper, which would so 
it it as to make the other seem less apt. 
[n the first place, one foot is, I believe, 
;enerally bigger than the other, so that 
}he wrong slipper would feel uncomfort- 
able on it. Callosities, too, of a painful 
nature existing on one foot only might be 
unduly pressed by a slipper which usually 
went well on the other foot. 

I am not sufficiently expert in boots to 
say what is the footgear worn by Johnson 
in the engraving of ' Johnson in Touring 
Garb l which figures between pp. 220 and 

ii s. i. MAR. 5, i9io.] 



221 of ' Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale (John 
Lane, 1910). It looks as if he were wearing 
Wellingtons or Bluchers. I do not know i 
these were, or are, made indifferently for 
either foot ; but I have noted a reference in 
' Mr. Sponge's Sporting Tour * (chap, xli.) 
to Mr. Jogglebury Crowdey's " shapeless 
tops, made regardless of the refinements of 
right and left," which "dangled at his 
horse's sides like a couple of stable -buckets." 


EASTER ON 27 MARCH. Much has been 
written in ' N. & Q.' about Easter falling on 
particular days, e.g., Lady Day or St. 
Mark's Day ; but it does riot appear that 
attention has been drawn to what occurs 
this year, viz., the coincidence of the eccle- 
siastical and civil anniversaries of the 
Resurrection. As is well known, an early 
and very generally accepted tradition placed 
the date of the Crucifixion on the 25th of 
March (the anniversary of the Annunciation), 
and consequently that of the Resurrection 
on the 27th. The REV. JOHNSON BAILY in 
1878 (5 S. ix. 416) stated that " March 27 
is often in calendars described as ' Resur- 
rectio Domini,' from a belief that the 
resurrection of our Lord actually took place 
on that day." This belief was held by 
Dante, as appears by ' Conv.,' iv. 23. When 
Easter so fell, it was considered to have 
fallen in its most proper place. Matthew 
Paris, in closing his history at the end of the 
year 1250, remarks that that was the first 
time that . in a jubilee year Easter had 
occurred " suo loco proprio, videlicet sexto 
Calendarum Aprilis " ; and he commemo- 
rates the event in the following verses : 
Virginia a partu jam mi lie volumina Phcebus 
Cum bis centenis et quinquaginta percent 
Anmia ; sed visum non est sub tern pore tanto 
Aprilis sexto fuerit quod Pascha Calendas 
Dum quinquagenus orbem percurreret annus ; 
Hoc tamen evenit anno, cui terminus hie est. 


is a curious slip in the ' N.E.D.' under 
' Heart,' I. 2 = life. I find there a quotation 
from Hall's ' Chronicle,' 1548 : " Com- 
maundyng, upon pein of the harte, that no 
man should once pass the sea with hym." 
The conjunction of the words " pain " and 
" heart " probably diverted the distributor 
of the quotation from the real meaning of 
the expression. It is evidently the Englished 
sur peine de la hart, i.e., of the halter (Littre, 
16th-cent. quotation). I do not find ' Harte' 
in this sense in the * N.E.D.' 

I turn to ' Halter.' No etymology is 
given -beyond cf. with L. capistrum, halter. 
But capistrum is only a halter in the sense 
of a head-stall ; cabestre is the Provencal 
word. And there is no hint of a possible 
connexion between " halter," the rope for 
a criminal's neck, and "halse " or " hawse," 
the neck itself. The origin of hart is un- 
known to Littre. It means : 1, a withy to 
bind faggots ; 2, a withy strong and supple 
enough to hang a man with ; 3, the hang- 
man's rope. I surmise it to be related to 
our " garth " or to the Dutch garde, both 
of similar meaning. EDWARD NICHOLSON. 
115, Rue N. D. des Champs, Paris. 

" HEORTOLOGY. 2 ' One may regret not to 
find a record of this term, adopted from 
ancient Greek, in the ' Oxford Dictionary ? : 
nor is its corresponding French equivalent 
heortologie in Littre or in Darmesteter- 
Hatzfeld. As every Greek scholar knows, 
it signifies an introductory guide to the^ 
calendar of holy festivals observed by the 
Christian Church. A manual of this kind 
would serve to give an answer to such 
questions as, for instance, that concerning 
a ' Fourteenth-Century Calendar l which 
appeared at the head of the Queries on 
12 February. H. KREBS. 

[A notice of the translation of Dr. K. A. H. 
Kellner's ' Heortology ' appeared in The Athen&um 
of 25 September, 1909.] 

It would be futile, as it would be pre- 
sumptuous, to attempt the textual editing 
of the Waverley Novels. They suffer 
nothing from such lapses as those by which 
the sun is made to set over the German 
Ocean and Rosneath is called an island. 
But there are verbal slips that need not be 
allowed to remain, and no genuine admirer 
of Scott would demur at their silent removal. 
A fresh perusal of ' Anne of Geierstein ' has 
just brought two of these under considera- 

In the fourth paragraph of chap. viii. it 
is said that the face of the Burgess of 
Soleure " became flushed like the moon 
when rising in the north-west." This could 
be easily rectified by the substitution of 
setting for " rising," or of north-east for 
" north-west." Scott probably intended to 
use the latter of the suggested terms. 

The other flaw is near the end of the ninth 
chapter, where a sentence begins, " Young 
Philipson, who, like Chaucer's Squire, was 
* as modest as a maid. ? ? The comparison 
should have been instituted with the knight, 
and it would be only an act of grace to alter 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. MAR. 5, 1910. 

the reference. In changing these two read- 
ings the publisher would be supported by the 
example set in the Authorized Version when 
the archaic possessive "it" of Leviticus 
xxv. 5 made way for the modern " its, 
the only one in Scripture. 

A curious illustration of the accidents 
incidental to reprints occurs in the copy of 
the novel (one of Messrs. Black's illustrated 
edition of 1879) which has been used in 
the preparation of this note. About the 
middle of chap. x. a paragraph begins 
with the sentence, " ' Good King Arthur,' 
said Rudolph, ' thou art a dutiful observer 
of the fourth commandment, and thy days 
.shall be long in the land.' '- In earlier 
editions the commandment is correctly 
specified. THOMAS BAYNE. 

and Albert Museum, South Kensington, in 
Room No. 39, on the ground floor, No. 
704 is an ancient brass gilt reliquary. It was 
bought from the Castellani Collection for 
1,144Z. 10s. in 1884. It is 2 ft. 2 in. high, 
the width at the base being 12 in., 
and is of Italian workmanship. On it is 
an inscription saying that it contains the 
arm of St. Catherine, and interesting men- 
tion is made of Raphaelle Grimaldi, 1496. 
The inscription on the reliquary is as follows : 
" Divae Catherine vr' et mar os brachii ex oriente 
a fratre Simone Dozolo prd minor regium a latu tr' 
r mi p pd b on f r > Arloti epi regien' q. xxv Octub. 
MCCCCLXXXXVI indvlgetiam dier xi perpetvo dedit 
oscvlanti teca hac a Raphaelle Grimaldo caelatam 
et sacri cvstode adyti d. Jo. Andree Capriolo 

The genealogy of Raphaelle Grimaldi is found 
in the Grimaldi family history, entitled 
* Genealogica et Historica Grimaldae Gentis 
Arbor,' by C. Venasque, folio, 1647, dedicated 
to Cardinal Hieronymo Grimaldi. 

Bancheno, in his ' Genova,' 1846, p. 392, 
mentions that Raffaele Grimaldi, Commis- 
sario Generali, 1487, was Governor of 
Corsica. The following is a translation of an 
inedited official dispatch by this Raffaele de 
Grimaldi to the Governors of the Bank of 
St. George, dated 10 March, 1489, from 
Bastia in Corsica, of which he was then 
Governor. The dispatch (which is in my 
possession) mentions the patriot Rinucio, 
who was then fighting to free his country 
from Genoese tyranny ; but he was captured 
in^!504. See Bent, ' Genoa,' 1881, p. 320. 

before yesterday by a brigantine of the Levant, 
in which came Signore Petro Paulo de Gentile 
de Brando, to whom I committed the letters ; 
notwithstanding, contrary winds preventing, 

he has not set out yet from Capo Corso, and having 
this morning received the enclosed letter from 
the Commissioner, I resolved on writing at once 
and sending it by the aforesaid Petro Paulo. 
Your Lordships will learn by the aforesaid 
enclosed letter of the arrival of the fleet in Adrio, 
of Sardinia, and its return towards the aforesaid 
isle, and thence the flight of San Paulo, who had 
gone to join the abovesaid fleet. By which we 
may be certain that, being joined to Signor 
Rinucio, who united himself to them so cleverly, 
the enemies will be forced to confine themselves 
to the woods, and so preserve their persons. 

Alfonso de Ornano, according to the account 
of Judicelo, found himself in camp, and has 
brought to me the aforesaid letters of the com- 
missioner. He has not been hurt by the stoning 
given to him at Adrazo, and he worked valorously; 
he has burnt the houses of Peraldo da Sarola 
and of his brothers, and certainly merits every 
good. Yesterday I paid to the account of 
Massaroti MC. m.m., as your Lordships will see 
by this enclosed, to give the pay to the servants 
who are at Corte, for which place he will set out 
this day ; and I have commissioned him to go 
to the Castello di Corte, as well as to that of 
Petralata, and take to the Governor some \il. 
for each one. 

Your Lordships will make me creditor of the 
above-named bargain, and as to Joane dal 
Frisco, as aforesaid, in my dispatch, I have told 
him not to stay in the house of the Bishop of 
Marrana except [cipher]. In which opinion 
I am not yet shaken, and we shall not be able 
with all this to finish quickly. 

We have had at this day n. 300, in which is 
enough for the pay of the servants. I am in 
this and the other matters in debt, and the others 
have arrears. It will be necessary that your 
Lordships communicate [?] from some other side. 
To whom I recommend myself always. 

From Bastia, 10 March/1489. 

Of your Eminent Lords 

Your Servant, 
Governor of Corsica. 

The enclosure referred to has been lost. 

D. J. 

FORMS. The suggestion that a Christian 
name Alvery might be connected with 
Alveredus, the Latin form of Alfred (10 S. xii. 
397), is supported by the fact that several 
nodern names owe their origin to a wrong 
translation of the old charter Latin. 

Reginald was thus formed from Reginaldus 
or Raginaldus, the Latinized forms of 
Reinald or Rainald. Reinald was after- 
wards modified into Reynold. 

Another modern antique is Nigel, from 
Nigellus (= Nele or Neel). As Mr. Barren 
las pointed out (Ancestor, iii. 181-2), this has 
ed Sir A. Conan Doyle in his ' White Com- 
Dany * into splitting that gallant soldier Sir 
Sele Loring, K.G., into two persons Sir 
' Nigel " Loring and his cousin Sir ' ' Nele n 

ii s. i. MAR. 5, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Loring. He would have avoided this con- 
fusion if he had consulted Beltz's 
* Memorials of the Order of the Garter, 1 
where both forms of the name are given 
<p. 65). 

Again, the 23rd Lord Willoughby d'Eres- 
by, Joint Hereditary Great Chamberlain of 
England, was christened Alberic, evidently 
to mark his descent from that Albericus 
(= Aubrey) de Vere to whom Henry I. 
granted the office of Master Chamberlain of 
England in 1133. A worse mistranslation of 
Albericus was perpetrated by Gleig 5 in his 
life of Sir Francis Vere (in 'The Cabinet 
Cyclopaedia'), where he styled the founder 
of the house " Alaric n de Vere. 

In the eighteenth century an unfortunate 
man was named Galfrid, obviously from 
Galfridus ( = Geoffrey) ; and a living member 
of the baronetage is called Hugo (=Hugh). 



recently quoted in the * N.E.D.,* and 
known since its publication ten years 
ago by Nottingham students, there occurs a 
passage in the fifth volume of the * Notting- 
ham Borough Records * that deserves wide 
publicity, in view of the circumstance that 
it appears to disprove the very old assump- 
tion that the term " Roundheads,' 1 as applied 
to the Parliamentarians, grew out of their 
practice of cropping their hair. The follow- 
ing is extracted from the " Necessarie Ex- 
penses n figuring in the accounts of the town 
Chamberlains for the year 1644-5 : 

" Item, paid to Richard Smith, for roundheads for 
the towne, "V7i." 

"Item, for remoueing the roundheads into the 
armerie, XHrf." 

A. S. 

(Paris) of 7 January contained the follow- 
ing curious bit of fisher folk-lore : 

" Un folkloriste beige, M. Haron, qui recueille 
actuellement les traditions, tegendes et super- 
stitions des pe'cheurs de Bla[n]kenberghe, vient 
de faire une decouverte curieuse chez ces braves 
gens. Us ont supprime de la coutume et de la 
langue le chiffre 30. Ils ne vendent jamais un 
objet trente francs, ni trente sous. De 29 ils 
passent a 31. Lors-qu'ils doivent prononcer le 
quantieme du mois, et dire, par exemple, le 30 
decembre, ils font un effort et enoncent le chiffre 
redoute ; niais c'est pour ajouter aussitdt : 
Ter eerc Gods, en 1'honneur de Dieu. Cette 
pratique existe de temps immemorial. Elle a 
pour but evident de fletrir la trahison de Judas, 
qui vendit son maitre pour trente deniers." 


The .use of the essentially masculine title 
of " Groom " as applied to women may be 
worth noting. 

On 12 June, 1675, the Master of the Ward- 
robe was instructed " that you deliver unto 
the Rt. Hon. the Countess of Stiff olke, 
groom of ye Stole to the Queen's Majestie, 
two Bare hides of Oxe leather,'* &c. 

Again in August, 1681, the Master is to 
cause to be delivered " to the Rt. Hon. the 
Countess of Arlington, Groome of the Stole 
to the Queen's Majestie, 480 ells of Holland " 
(L.C. 285). ABLINGTON. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



THE parish records of St. Anne's, Aldersgate 
(consisting of the wardens'- accounts only : 
the vestry minutes have unfortunately 
perished), contain numerous references to 
disturbances extending over a period of 
several years prior to the Great Fire ; but 
nowhere is anything definitely ascertainable 
as to the cause of the trouble, nor have I 
been able to light upon mention of the affair 
elsewhere, though I am inclined to think 
that it must have been somewhat notorious 
at the time. For instance, Henry Muddi- 
man, news collector to the Surveyor of the 
Press, wrote from Whitehall on 15 March, 
1666, to Edward Dyer of Dover as follows : 

" At St. Ann's Aldersgate y e Booke of Common 
prayer was [tor]ne. The Insolence is complain'd of 
to y e Councell, and order will be given for punish- 
ment of it." State Papers, Dom. Chas. II., vol. cli. 
No. 23 (44). 

The Privy Council Register has no entry in 
regard to the matter, notwithstanding the 
State Paper reference. I should be greatly 
indebted to any student who, having made 
a study of the literature and MSS. of the 
Restoration periods, could furnish me with 
any further illustration of the matter touched 
upon in the excerpt. 

I take this opportunity of calling the 
attention of students also to the unfortunate 
condition of affairs obtaining in regard to 
the non-testamentary records of the eccle- 
siastical courts, now at Somerset House, 
whereto they were transferred (with the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. i. MA*. 5, 1910. 

wills, &c.) under the Probate Act of 1857. 
It will hardly be credited that, notwith- 
standing the fact that these records date 
back (as regards the Commissary Court) to 
as early a date as 1475 a clear half -century 
before the Reformation no access to them 
is permitted under existing regulations, no 
matter what the circumstances may be ! 

I speak from actual experience, having 
pressed the point to its fullest extremity in 
connexion with the above and other matters 
relating to rny local history, which I have 
every reason to believe could be considerably 
augmented from the records in question. 
Speaking again from experience, I can 
vouch that, were the records remaining in 
the custody of the ecclesiastical authorities, 
no obstacle would be placed in the way of 
their reasonable consultation for an accre- 
dited purpose. 

Prior to the transfer of the records the 
venerable and learned antiquary Archdeacon 
Hale edited a couple of all-too-small volumes 
of excerpts from their folios, known briefly 
as Hale's ' Precedents ? and ' Proceedings,' 
from which it appears that they are rich in 
references, not merely to the numerous 
offences which formerly came within the 
cognizance of the ecclesiastical law, but also 
to such matters as relate to the biography 
of the early clergy and citizens, the fabric 
and ornaments of the parish churches, the 
old signs and buildings, &c. 

It is, in short, clear that tne records are of 
the utmost historical interest and value, and 
for them to remain altogether closed to the 
literary worker is an anomaly which I trust 
will not now be suffered longer to continue. 

By way of appendix I may add that 
inventories of the records of the eccle- 
siastical courts appear in the old reports 
on the public records, particularly in that 
for 1837. WILLIAM McMuRRAY. 

ENGLISH. Can any of your, readers tell 
me the origin and meaning of ft, constantly 
occurring in early, or perhaps I ought to say 
late, black-letter typography, e.g., in the 
Shakespeare quartos, in Holinshed, in ' The 
Shepherd's Calendar, J &c. ? To my know- 
ledge, this double letter with its peculiar 
acute accent occurs only in the printing 
of works in the English language, and those 
in black-letter ; never in roman or italic 
characters. The flj is common in black- 
letter founts of the period, but I have never 
seen it with an accent. HORACE HART. 


" TYRPRYD." In 'A Boke of Presi- 
dentes ' (printed by Richard Tottyll in 1559), 
which Antony Wood ascribes to Thomas 
Phaer, is printed (ff. 54-6) ' An Indenture 
of sale with a repurchase.' The compiler 
notes : 

" This dede is commonlye vsed when a man 
layeth his landes to morgage to another, and 
couenanteth to pay himby a certain day vnder 
payne of forfayture. And so in case the day be 
broken, the landes are as sure to the lender of 
the money, as if it wer a playn bargayn or a sale. 
It is also very good in Wales, where they vse to 
pledge lande called Tyrpryde." 
I shall be glad to know the meaning of this 
word, with (if possible) earlier and later 
evidence in support. 



What attempts or suggestions have been 
made to abolish the unequal division of the 
months ? This question has surely been 
brought up before in England. 


Riviera -Palace, Nice. 

WRANGLER. Has the word Wrangler 
as designating a candidate for mathematical 
honours, ever been used at any English 
university other than Cambridge ? Where 
may be found the most nearly complete his- 
tory of the mathematical competition in 
question ? J. D. M. 

Fair View, Texas. 

[' A History of Mathematics ' by Mr. W. W. 
Bouse Ball, a former Second Wrangler, would 
probably supply the best information.] ; 

VIRGINIA, 1607. According to ' The 
Encyclopaedia Britannica,* vol. xxiv. p. 260,. 
the first permanent English settlement in 
America was made at Jamestown, Virginia, 
13 May, 1607, by one hundred settlers sent 
from England by Sir Thomas Gates and 
Company, who had obtained in April, 1606, 
a charter from James I. to plant two- 
colonies in Virginia. Where can the names 
of the hundred settlers be found recorded ? 

W. C. L. F. 

should be pleased if any of the readers of 
' N. & Q.' could tell me who was the author 
of the nursery rime ' Who killed Poor Cock 
Robin ? ' and the date and name of the book 
in which it first appeared. BIRD-LOVER. 

In The Globe of 18 February was reprinted 
an extract from its own issue of 18 February, 
1811, describing the wreck at Plymouth 

n s. i. MAR. 5, i9io.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the frigate Amethyst. At the end of one 
of the two accounts given is appended in 
parentheses the authority, " Congdon's Ply- 
mouth Telegraph." Was this the name of a 
local newspaper, or did it indicate that 
Congdon was the proprietor of a news- 
agency which circulated its information 
by means of the semaphore telegraph in use 
at the period ? ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

QUEEN MARY II. I recently bought from 
a bookseller's catalogue "A Brief History 
of the Pious and Glorious Actions of the 
Most Illustrious Princess, Mary, Queen of 
England, &c. Faithfully Collected by J. S., n 
London, 1695, 134 pp., 12mo. Who is 
" J. S." (not Jonathan Swift, Dean ?) ? 

St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

THE BRAZILS. Can an one tell me wh 

Brazil was formerly called 
Brazils " ? Was it because 



divided into provinces or " captaincies 
And when did the plural form cease to b 
used ? A. C. L. 

was M.P. for Launceston 1802-6, Enniskillen 
in 1807, and Newport 1807-12. I should be 
glad to learn the respective dates of his birth 
and death, and also the date of his father's 
death. G. F. R. B. 

I should be glad to obtain particulars of his 
parentage and the date of his birth. From 
the obituary account in Gent. Mag. (1803 
p. 1256 ; 1804, p. 179) it appears that he 
survived his wife only three days. Who 
was she ? G. F. R. B. 

TEMPLE STANYAN (1677 ?-1752). Who 
was his first wife, and what was the date 
of the marriage ? The ' Diet. Nat. Biog., ? 
liv. 88, says nothing about her. 

G. F. R. B. 

BUILDINGS, &c., IN LONDON,' 1734. This 
interesting little work is generally attributed 
to John Ralph, and in the copy before me 
the dedication is signed " J. Ralph of New- 
bury." It is possible this is not authentic, and 
the attribution should be to James Ralph, 
author of ' The Touchstone ; or, Essays on 
the Reigning Diversions of the To wn,' 
1728, and many miscellaneous writings. 

The first edition, printed by C. Ackers for 
J. Wilford in St. Paul's Churchyard and 
J. Clarke in Duck Lane, is dated 1734, and 
the supposed second edition was published 

by Dodsley in 1771. There are some 
resemblances between the two editions, but 
the books are different in size, and the matter 
was almost entirely rewritten. 

A copy of another issue recently came 
into my possession, and, although it wants 
the title-page, there are sufficient indications 
to justify me in identifying it as being a 
second edition, so making Dodsley's reissue 
the third. My copy has been reset in smaller 
type, the pagination extending only to 
p. 92, instead of p. 119. The Title and 
Dedication form A2-A3 ; Preface, pp. i-vi, 
pp. 1-82 ; Supplement, 83 ; Appendix, 
84-91 ; Index, 5 pp. The Appendix, which 
in the first edition deals only with the 
Guildhall and Surgeons'- Hall, is here 
extended by a correspondence (reprinted 
from The Weekly Miscellany) defending the 
Dean and Chapter of Westminster from the 
author's criticisms. Neither the B.M. nor 
the Guildhall has a copy of this edition, so 
the object of my query is to ascertain by 
whom it was issued. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

ROMAN AUGURS. What Roman said that 
he wondered how two augurs could meet 
without laughing ? The saying has been 
attributed both to Cicero and to Cato. 

M. N. G. 

W. SEFTON. In St. Mary's Churchyard, 
Nottingham, stands the only earthenware 
headstone known to exist in the whole county, 
the chief importance of which rests on its 
early date. Church's ' Handbook of English 
Earthenware,' 1884, refers to the existence 
of many such tombstones in several of the 
churchyards of the Potteries (Burslem and 
Wolstanton being cited), adding that the 
dates on these range from 1718 to 1767, 
one being as late as 1828. The Nottingham 
example, as well as being the oldest memorial 
of any kind in the churchyard wherein it 
tands, appears to antedate any hitherto 
recorded example of an earthenware tomb- 
tone, for it is to the memory of Eliza- 
>eth and Mary, daughters of William and 
Elizabeth Sefton, who respectively died in 
707 and 1714. Consequently, unless earlier 
xamples exist than those cited by Church, 
ne is naturally tempted to wonder whether 
;he fashion may not have been introduced 
)y the father of these children, concerning 
whom nothing is to be learnt from local 
iterature. It was to be presumed that the 
atter was a potter, and that he baked the 
memorial in his own kiln. Tobacco-pipes 
rearing the same name have recently been 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. MAE. 5, 1910. 

discovered among the debris of Nottingham 
Castle western ditch. Here they were no 
doubt left by the workmen employed about 
the fabric and grounds of the Renaissance 
residence built here by the first Duke of 
Newcastle, in the last quarter of the seven- 
teenth century. 

I lately searched St. Mary's baptismal 
registers, and found the following entries of 
the children of William and Elizabeth Sefton, 
or Sephton : 1696, Susannah ; 1698, James ; 
1701, John ; 1703, Elizabeth ; 1708, Mary. 
The two last-named children are com- 
memorated by the local tombstone, the other 
three presumably surviving. The marriage 
of the parents does not occur in any of the 
Nottingham registers, neither, I believe, 
do any further burials of the family. Con- 
sequently they may perhaps have come 
from the Potteries, and afterwards have 
returned thither. I shall be glad of any 
further light. A. STAPLETON. 

39, Burford Road, Nottingham. 

(10 S. xii. 127, 190, 254, 414.) 

THE following list affords, by reason of its 
comparatively exhaustive nature and con- 
temporary date, what is perhaps a more satis- 
factory reply to MR. DASENT'S query than 
has yet appeared. I transcribe it from MS. 
Harley 5953, wherein it occurs at ff. 66A- 
68s (modern numeration), among other 
London collections of seventeenth-century 

John Taylor y e Water Poet his Travels thro' 
London to visit all y e Taverns in y e City & 
Suburbs. Alphabetically Digested in v e 
Year 1636. 

Adam & Eve, in Tuttle Street. 

Anchor, in West Smithfield ; East Smithfield ; 
Minories ; St. Olave's, Bermondsey Street. 

Angel, in Long Acre ; Shoreditch ; Tower Gate ; 
Gate House, Westminster ; near Aldgate. 

Antelope, in West Smithfield. 

Antwerp, behind y* Exchange. 

Archer, in Finsbury near Grub Street end. 

Bear, in y 8 Palace Yard, Westminster ; Tower 
Street ; near Fleet-Bridge ; at y e Bridge-foot. 

Bear & Dolphin, in Tower Street ; West Smith- 
field ; behind y e Exchange ; near Cripplegate 

Bell, within Temple Barr ; without Bishop's Gate* ; 
in S e Nicholas Lane, Cannon Street ; S' 
Thomas's, Southwark ; King's Street, West- 
minster ; Distaff e Lane. 

Bell Savage, on Ludgate Hill ; in y e Strand. 

Bishop's Head, in Chancery Lane. 

Black Bull, in the Palace Yard, Westminster ; 
Southwark ; Thames Street ; St. John's Street. 

Bull Head, in Tower Street ; East Smithfield ; 
Cheapside ; Southwark ; without Bishopsgate. 
Cardinal's Hat> without Newgate ; in Cornhill. 
Castle, w th out Bishopsgate ; w th out Newgate ; in 
Pater Noster Row ; Cornhill ; near Paul's 
Chain ; in S* Clement's Church Yard ; Fleet 
Street ; Bread Street ; Wood Street ; White 

Cat, in Long Lane. 
Chequer, in White Chapel. 
Cooper's Hoop, in Leadenhall Street. 
Cross-Keys, in Bedford Bury ; Strand, near 

York House ; Holbourn. 
Cross Tavern, near Charing Cross. 
Crown, in Old Fish Street ; West Smithfield. 
Dog, at Westminster ; Drury Lane ; Ludgate 

Street ; within Newgate ; in Chancery Lane ; 

near Bishopsgate. 

Dolphin, in Tower Street ; Old Fish Street. 
Dunstan's, at Temple Bar. 
Eagle, in Cow Lane. 

Faulcon, on y e Bank-Side ; in Rosemary Lane. 
Fleece, in Bedford Bury ; Little Britain ; Cornhill. 
Floicer-de-Lis, in Finch Lane. 
Fortune, in Drury Lane ; Golden Lane. 
Fountain, in Fleet Street ; East Smithfield ; Old 

Baily ; near y e Savoy ; at Aldersgate. 
Garter, in Long Lane. 
Globe, in Fleet Street ; Shoreditch ; King's 

Street, Westminster ; Turn Mill Street ; 

S e John's Street ; Fleet Lane ; within Aid 

gate ; in White Fryers. 
Goat, in Smithfield. 
Golden Field Gate [sic], at the upper end of 

Golden Lyon, at New York House ; Lincoln's Inn 

Fields ; Westminster ; Fetter Lane ; Silver 

Street ; Crouched Fryers ; Chancery Lane. 
Grasshopper, in Threadneedle Street, near Finch 

Green Dragon, in Cheapside ; Paul's Church Yard ; 

White Chapel ; Lambeth Hill ; S 1 George's 

Church, Southwark ; Drury Lane ; Fleet 

Greyhound, without Cripplegate ; in Bow Lane ; 

Black Fryers ; Upper Ground in Southwark. 
Half-Moon, in White Chapel ; Minories ; Alders- 
gate Street ; S* Katherine's ; Strand. 
Harroio, in Charter House Lane ; Southwark ; 

Gracious Street ; Little Wood Street ; Drury 

Harts' Horn & Miter, at y e end of Charter House 


Hound, in Fleet Street. 
Katherine Wheel, in S' Katherine's, Tuthill 

King's Arms, in S 1 Martin's in y e Fields ; Cat- 

eaton Street ; Milford Lane end ; Southwark ; 

Holbourn ; Thredneedle Street ; S* Martin's 

King's Head, at Ludgate ; in S' John's Street ; 

Rosemary Lane ; Westminster ; Leaden Hall 

Street ; w th in Bishopsgate ; w th out y e same 

near y* Spittle ; in Walbrooke ; Pudding 

Lane ; New Fish Street ; Old Fish Street ; 

Lumbard Street ; Tower Hill ; Drury Lane ; 

Strand ; Black Fryers ; Fleet Street ; Horsely 

Down ; Thames Street ; Convent [sic] Garden. 
Lamb, in Drury Lane. 
Man in t/ Moon, in King's Street, [Westminster].* 

* This entry much cut into in binding, so query. 

n s. i. MAE. 5, i9io.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Mermaid in Shoe Lane ; [&c.].* 

Miter, in S' Stephen's Ally [sic'], Westminster 


Mouth, Bishopsgate ; within Aldersgate. 
Old Hoop, in Thames Street. 
Plow, without Aldgate. 
Pye, at Aldgate. 

Queen's Head, at Queen Hithe ; [&c.].* 
Red Lyon, on y e Mill Bank, Westminster ; Shore 

ditch ; Billingsgate ; Gracious Street ; S 

George's Church, Southwark ; S' Glare's 

Water Gate. 
St. Christopher's, in Clerkenwell, at y e end o: 

Turnmill Street. 

[St. Dunstan : see ante, Dunstan's.] 
St. John's Head, in Milk Street. 
St. Martin, near Charing Cross. 
Three Croicns, in the Vintry ; Poultrey ; Stranc 

near y e Savoy ; Old Baily ; Chancery Lane 

S l Olave's Street, Borough of Southwark. 
Three Cups, in Holbourn. 
White Crosse, in White Cross Street ; Red Cross 


Peacocks . . 
Prince's Arms 




Merm'aids . . 
Nagg's Heads 
Pope's Heads 
Queen's Heads 

The above transcript is verbatim et 
literatim, save as regards certain lapses 
from the true alphabetical order, which are 
corrected, capitals being also used rather 
more uniformly than in the original. A 
confusion in the MS. towards its conclusion 
leaves room for doubt whether any signs 
after Q are omitted. As I do not possess 
a copy of Taylor's book (which is noted by 
the compiler of the list in an addition to his 
heading as issued "in 8vo " in the year 
specified), I cannot conveniently investigate 
this point, however. 


The account (published by J. Gore & 
Son. of Liverpool) of the famous Ewart- 
Denison election, 23 to 30 Nov., 1830, states 
that Mr. Ewart's expenses were verging on 
65,000?., while his unsuccessful opponent 
Mr. Denison is said to have incurred charges 
of from 47,000?. to 50,000?., making a total 
of nearly 115,000?. I have always under- 
stood that this was about the most expensive 
election ever fought. A. H. ABKLE. 

Honiton has probably been the scene of 
some of the most expensive elections. Sir 
George Yonge has left on record some idea 
of the amount it cost him to retain his seat 
for the lace town. Sir George was first 
returned for the borough on 16 April, 1754. 
He sat in continuous Parliaments up to 

* See these three in table at end. 

1799, when he was appointed Governor of 
the Cape of Good Hope. I do not know 
how many contested elections he fought, 
but he was returned to seven Parliaments, 
and re-elected on his appointments respec- 
tively as one of the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty (1766), Vice-Treasurer of 
Ireland (1782), Secretary at War (1782 
and 1783), and Master and Worker of the 
Mint (1794). He is reported to have said 
in his old age that he had inherited 80,000?. 
from his father, his wife brought him a like 
amount, and Government paid him 80,000?., 
but Honiton swallowed it all ! 

It is further recorded that Mr. Bradshaw, 
returned for Honiton in 1805, gave each 
voter, after the election, six guineas a sum 
which was from that time usually paid until 
the second election of Mr. Guest in 1830. 
Lord Cochrane, however, who won Honiton 
in 1806, gave all his supporters ten guineas 

Honiton people in the early days of the 
nineteenth century seem to have done well 
out of their members of Parliament. 


19, Park Road, Exeter. 

There can be little doubt that the North- 
ampton election in 1768, known as the 
" Spendthrift Election,** was the most ex- 
pensive that ever occurred in this country. 
The circumstances are detailed in Grego's 
' History of Parliamentary Elections, 1 1892, 
pp. 226-8. If we accept Grego's account, 
the querist has greatly understated the 
amount of money spent at the election, 
rego remarks (p. 227) : 
"It is said Lord Spencer expended one hundred 
ihousand pounds ; his antagonists [Lords Halifax 
and Northampton] are credited with having wasted 
one hundred and fifty thousand pounds each." 
He thus sums up the result (p. 228) : 

' Earl Spencer came off lightest, and appears to 
lave been in no way involved ; Lord Halifax was 
ruined : Lord Northampton cut down his trees, 
sold his furniture at Compton Winyates, went 
abroad for the rest of his days, and died in 

Canon James's ' History of Northampton- 
shire ' is cited in confirmation of the above 
tatements. W. SCOTT. 

1 Parliamentary Representation of York- 
hire,' compiled by Godfrey Richard Park, 
gent., 1886, states on p. 27 : 

" 1807. This election is still known as the 

?reat contested Yorkshire election is said to 

have cost the three candidates not less than half 
a million of money." 

27, Northumberland Road, Sheffield. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. i. MA*. 5, 1910. 

490; 11 S. i. 51). I find that I was not 
correct in stating in my reply that the 
earliest division list shown in the Tables of 
Contents to the ' Parliamentary History ' 
belongs to the year 1716. The fact is that 
from vol. vii., in which the division referred 
to is recorded, the various division and other 
lists in each volume are set out separately, 
and I omitted to look at the chronological 
' Proceedings and Debates in both Houses of 
Parliament ' in which alone the earlier 
divisions appear. The three following lists 
will be found in vol. vi. : Division on the 
Occasional Conformity Bill, House of Lords, 
1703 (col. 170) ; Division on Motion to 
tack Occasional Conformity Bill to the Land 
Tax Bill, House of Commons, 1704 (col. 362) ; 
' A List of the Lords who voted for and 
against Dr. Sacheverell, 4 1710 (col. 886). 
These are apparently the earliest, unless we 
include a list headed "These are the 
Straff ordians, Betrayers of their Country,'* 
which contained the names of the members 
of the House of Commons who voted against 
the Earl of Strafford's attainder, and was 
posted up by a crowd about Westminster 
Hall on 3 May, 1641 (' Parliamentary 
History,' vol. ii. col. 756). 

It may be interesting to note that the 
House of Commons before adopting the 
present system of recording divisions, which 
dates from 1836, had tried in 1834 to secure 
an authentic record by the very primitive 
means of having the names called out by a 
member in the House and another in the 
lobby, and taken down by clerks. The 
resolution to adopt this plan was passed on 
8 July : the first division recorded under it 
occurred on 17 July ; and, after one other 
division had been similarly recorded, it was 
rescinded on 18 July ('Hansard's Debates,' 
Third Series, vol. xxiv. col. 1299 ; vol. xxv. 
col. 131). The extremely unsatisfactory 
results may be judged from the prompt 
manner in which the new system was got 
rid of. Contrary to the present practice, 
the names of members voting in those two 
divisions are entered in the ' Journal * (vpl. 
Ixxxix. pp. 489, 494). No attempt was made 
to arrange them in alphabetical order, 
and they were evidently printed exactly as 
taken down hurriedly at the time. 

F. W. READ. 

OFFICE (11 S. i. 68, 158). See art. 'News- 
letters 2 in the indexes to the Calendars 
of State Papers, Domestic Series, temp. 
Charles II. These news-letters are especially 

noticeable in the correspondence of Henry 
Muddiman, news collector to the Surveyor 
of the Press, chiefly within the period 
c. 1663-6. See ante, p. 187. 


Mr. Edward Hutton, in his recently pub- 
lished life of Boccaccio (' Giovanni Boccac- 
cio : a Biographical Study,' p. 313, Note 2), 
says : 

" Did Chaucer meet Petrarch and Boccaccio in 
Italy ? He seems to wish to suggest that he had 
met the former at Padua, but, as I have said, 
of the latter he says not a word, but gives ' Lol- 
lius ' as his authority when he uses Boccaccio's 
work. Cf. Dr. Koch's paper in ' Chaucer Society 
Essays,' Pt. IV. ; Jusserand in Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, June, 1896 ; and in reply Bellezza in Eng. 
Stud., 23 (1897), p. 335." 

C. C. B. 

There seems to be no direct evidence that 
Chaucer and Boccaccio ever met and talked 
together. At the same time it is highly 
probable that they did meet when Chaucer 
was in Italy in 1372 and 1373, when, as we 
know, he visited Florence. The grounds for 
such an assumption will be found in the 
article on Chaucer in the * D.N.B.' 

T. F. D. 

It is not impossible that Chaucer and 
Boccaccio may have seen each other during 
the mission of the former to Genoa in 1372, 
when, as is reported, he met with Petrarch 
at Padua. No such meeting could have 
taken place on the occasion of the English 
poet's second and longer visit to Lombardy in 
1378, for the simple reason that Boccaccio 
was then dead. Lander's ' Conversations * 
were, of course, purely imaginary, and have, 
as a rule, no real basis in historical fact. The 
best authorities, I believe, are agreed that 
Chaucer and Boccaccio never met, or, if they 
did, that all evidence to that effect has now 
disappeared. The subject, I understand, 
is discussed in an article, ' Chaucer and 
Boccaccio,' that appeared in The National 
Review, vol. viii. 1886-7. W. SCOTT. 

107). He was born at Bishopthorpe, York, 
16 Oct., 1775, and died at Liverpool, 13 Jan., 
1837. He was a schoolmaster in Liverpool 
from 1810 until his death. Only one part 
of his ' Geometrical Amusements ' seems 
to have been published. There is an interest- 
ing paper on Swale, by T. S. Davies, in The 
Philosophical Magazine, 1851 (title of paper, 
Geometry and Geometers,' No. VII. ) ; and 
in the following year in the same magazine 

ii s. i. MAP., s, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


some notes by T. T. Wilkinson on eleven 
volumes of mathematical manuscripts left 
by Swale. The MSS. were then in the 
possession of Swale's son. Mr. Wilkinson 
made the suggestion that they should be 
deposited in some public library. I am not 
aware that the hint was acted upon. 


Swale was a professor of mathematics at 
Liverpool, and as such makes his first 
appearance in the ' Liverpool Directory ' for 
1811, being resident at 2, Seymour Street. 
By 1813 he had taken a house in Epworth 
Street, a new street off the main road out of 
Liverpool, near the hamlet of Lowhill 
(1| miles in a direct line from Liverpool 
To~wn Hall), towards which the town was 
at this period beginning to extend. Here he 
lived till his decease. TiH 1825 he .is 
described as above, but in the directories for 
1825-7-9-32 he appears as "gentleman." 
In 1835, the last year of his record in the 
directories, he is again ' ' professor of 

His wife appears to have been named 
Elizabeth, and they had a son, of the same 
names as the father, who became an account- 
ant. By 1857 no person of this name is in 
the Liverpool directories. 

By advertisement of 12 Dec., 1823, The 
Liverpool Apollonius is "just published.' 2 
The second number is advertised on 31 Dec., 
1824, as "published this day,' ? with the note 
"to be continued. '* The booksellers of the 
first number were in Liverpool, Leeds, 
Manchester, Sheffield and Edinburgh. To 
these is added for the second number one 
bookseller in London. J. H. K. 

TMR. A, H. ARKLE also thanked for reply.] 

BRIGHTON VISITORS IN 1779 (11 S. i. 68). 
Dr. Richard Russel, an eminent physician, 
laid the foundation of Brighton's prosperity 
by calling attention to its advantages as a 
health resort. It owes its celebrity, how- 
ever, to George IV., then Prince Regent, who 
first visited it in 1782, and every summer and 
autumn for many years in succession. His 
palace The Pavilion, begun in 1784, was 
completed in 1787. Until 1784 the buildings 
of Brighton are said to have been com- 
paratively mean. It is extremely improbable 
that any Visitors' List was in existence 
before 1782. W. SCOTT. 

A careful search among the files of con- 
temporary newspapers in the Burney Col- 
lection at the British Museum would bring 
to light the names of the more distinguished 

or notorious visitors to Brighton in 1779. 
In many cases this information will be found 
under the head of 'Brighton News. 1 I 
should recommend The Public Advertiser, 
The General Advertiser, The St. James's 
Chronicle, and The Morning Post. Of 
course the task is somewhat laborious. 


146). Also in the Dean Forest Division of 
Gloucestershire is "The New Zealand Inn," 
below Pleasant Style, in the parish of Newn- 
ham, where a celebrated Primrose League 
landlady maintains a similar inscription. 

HENRY ETOUGH (10 S. xii. 430; 11 S. i. 
76). Mr. 'Tyson made an etching of the 
head of this gentleman, who was " as 
remarkable for the eccentricities of his charac- 
ter as for his personal appearance,' 1 and 
Gray wrote an epigram upon it, with the 
title ' Tophet,' calling him a " grisly prose- 
lyte," and concluding that " Satan's self 
had thoughts of taking orders " (Gray's 
' Works,' ed. Mason, 1827, p. 430). Etough 
was Rector of Therfield, Herts, and of 
Colmworth, Beds, and died in August, 
1757, aged seventy (Gent. Mag., Iv. 759, 
Ivi. 25, 281, 835 ; Musgrave's ' Obituary,' 
ii. 281). W. C. B. 

AS " SH " (10 S. xii. 446 ; 11 S. i. 53, 96). 
I am obliged to PROF. SKEAT for his out- 
spoken criticism. It would require more 
than ordinary courage to cross swords 
with a scholar of his position. But he has 
made one or two assertions which I must 
answer. I know Brugmann's ' Grundriss * 
quite well, but I fail to find in it any such 
dogmatic statements about Aryan phonetic 
laws in general, or the word "daughter"' 
in particular, as the learned Professor has 
made. He states that an ' ' entirely new 
subject has been started " by me. How is 
it entirely new ? The question discussed was 
really the pronunciation of gh as sh ; and I 
hazarded the conjecture that original Indo- 
European contained the gutturals kh and gh 
(like Semitic khe and ghain], which subse- 
quently became palatal sh in Sanskrit. 
Now no scholar has yet positively shown 
how many gutturals there were in Indo- 
European ; nor, even with regard to those 
that are known, is it certain how they were 
pronounced. At p. 42 of his ' Sanskrit 
Grammar l (1889) Whitney says: "The 
Sanskrit guttural series represents only a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. i. MAR. 5, 1910. 

minority of Indo-European gutturals n ; 
and at p. 41, referring to kh ana gh, generally 
called aspirated gutturals, he says that 
" their precise character is obscure and 
difficult to determine. " With regard to the 
palatal sh, it is usually held to have been 
derived from guttural k through an inter- 
mediate ch stage. This is true in some 
cases. I beg to submit, however, that it is 
directly derived from kh and gh pronounced 
not as aspirates, but as the Semitic gutturals. 
But even if they are merely aspirates, there 
is considerable doubt as to the pronuncia- 
tion of media asp. -f- t or s, as may be shown 
by the following quotation from Karl 
Brugmann's ' Grundriss l (Wright's trans., 
vol. i. p. 346) : 

"How was the combination media asp. + t or s 
spoken at the time immediately preceding the dis- 
integration of the Indg. prim, community ? What 
was, e.g., the Indg. prim, form of Av. dug e dar 
Lith. dulster' daughter,' which on etymological 
principles would have to be put down as 
* dhughter ? A positive answer has not yet been 

This will also answer PROF. SKEAT'S asser- 
tion that the h of Sansk. duhitra is to be 
accounted for by the fact that the word 
"once began with dh. n True, the original 
word did begin with dh. But this dh merely 
became d, ana the h is the representative of 
original gh. 

There is no doubt at all about an original 
guttural. The only doubt is as to its pro- 
nunciation. I believe that an examination 
of changes undergone in Indo-European 
languages will show that palatal sh arose 
thus : 

Either (1) Indo-European had gutturals kh 
and gh (khe and ghain) in addition to the usual 
series, and these became k or g in some 
languages, and palatal sh or h in others. 

Or (2) Indo-European gutturals k, g, kh, 
gh (aspirates), became palatal sh or h through 
intermediate forms kh, gh (khe and ghain). 

I offered the first view in my previous 
reply. But it is possible the second is the 
correct one, though in either case my con- 
tention as to palatal sh is substantially the 

xii. 225, 397). MR. NEWTON is correct in 
saying that Mr. Holden MacMichael antici- 
pated my note in his excellent volume on 
Charing Cross. I regret having inaccurately 
suggested that he had overlooked this 
rather important point. It is not recorded 
that the sword with buckles and straps 
passed to the Board of Green Cloth, so pre- 

sumably they went on account of their 
weight to the melting-pot ; but would it not 
be desirable to replace them ? 

The disappearance of the inscription 
plates occurred before 1838, because John 
Woods of Clapton, who engraved the view of 
' St. Martin's Church from Charing Cross ' 
for Fearnside and Harral's '.History of 
London,* 1838, shows the pedestal without 
them. The artist of this view (probably 
J. K. Hablot Browne) has brought Morley's 
Hotel in the background much too close, 
as if the statue was in the south-east corner 
of Trafalgar Square. 

The inscription plates were placed one 
on the base and one in the recess of the 
pedestal on both sides four positions in all. 
Of the railings, although they are shown 
in Woods's plate, they were probably re- 
moved before 1837. The posts that now 
surround the site are marked "IV. W.R." 
or " W R " only, which may mean 1833 or 
any year between 1830 and 1837. 

MR. NEWTON, who has evidently studied 
closely the detail of this fine work, may care 
to notice that there are eight nails in the 
shoe on the horse's uplifted foot, and that the 
other feet are held down to the base by metal 
tongues and bolts. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

LYNCH LAW (10 S. xi. 445, 515 ; xii. 
52, 133, 174, 495; 11 S. i. 55). At the 
penultimate reference I stated that Wirt 
" had finished his biography on or before 
23 Oct., 1816.'* On consulting my notes 
I find that I wrote not " had finished, 31 but 
" had virtually finished," and that the word 
" virtually " in some way got dropped out in 
typewriting. For this carelessness, which 
I naturally regret, I apologize to M. 

In The Analectic Magazine for July, 1815, 
a writer said that " William Wirt is pre- 
paring for the press a Life of Patrick Henry ? ' 
(vi. 83), and in the same magazine for 
November, 1815, "Mr. Wirt's promised 
Life of Patrick Henry " is again referred to 
(vi. 376). In the summer of 1815 (see 
Kennedy's ' Memoirs of Wirt, 4 i. 408) Wirt 
engaged a publisher ; and a " Proposal by 
James Webster, of Philadelphia, for pub- 
lishing by subscription the Life of the late 

Patrick Henry by William Wirt " was 

printed in The Port Folio for August, 1815 
(Third Series, vi. 183-4). In the same 
magazine for December, 1816 (Fourth 
Series, ii. 460-68), was printed that part of 
the biography which fills pp. 114-24 of 
Wirt's 'Life of Henry. 1 In the same 
letter (27 Feb., 1817) in which Wirt spoke 
of " the first rough draft," he said, " I am 

ii s. i. MAR. 5, 1910.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


determined to retouch it " (Kennedy, ii. 16) 
But long before, in a letter dated 24 Aug 
1816, Wirt had declared that he was " much 
disposed to let the work go, in its presen 
general form," and that " my disposition 
therefore, is to let the form of the work 
remain, connecting the composition, state 
ments, &c., where it shall be suggested anc 
thought proper " (Kennedy, i. 408). 

It is impossible to reconcile the dis 
crepancies in Wirt's letters. My view i: 
that Wirt had collected his material by th< 
summer of 1814 ; that he had virtually 
finished his biography by October, 1816 
and that all he did after that date was in th 
Tvay of revision and polishing. This view 
may be incorrect, but there is abundanl 
evidence to support it, and it was apparently 
held by Wirt's biographer ; for between 
letters written by Wirt 7 April and 24 Aug. 
1816, Kennedy says that "the biography 
was now approaching its completion ?3 
<(i. 407) ; and before a letter written by 
Wirt 26 Jan., 1817, Kennedy remarks on 
" the expected publication of the biography 
which was now ready for the press " (ii. 9). 

M. asks why I omitted certain passages 
which, in his opinion, " tell against " the 
above view. My reasons were : first, 
because I could not see that they did militate 
against my view ; secondly, because they 
did not seem to me to be particularly rele- 
vant. And I purposely omitted to mention 
Wirt's letter in which he said that he had 
submitted his work to Roane, feeling sure 
that it would cause misapprehension, This 
notion is now confirmed, for it has led M. 
astray. M. says that the biography " was 
not submitted to Mr. Roane (whose letter 
cited by Wirt contains the quotation in 
point) until at least four, and possibly more, 
months after " 1 Nov., 1816, and in proof 
quotes Wirt's letter of 9 Aug., 1817. But 
that letter is very far from proving M.'s 
statement ; for all that Wirt said was, 
" I submitted the work to several old 
'_:! itlemen, Mr. Jefferson, Mr. Roane, Mr. 
Tucker, and two or three others in Hanover." 
It will be observed that Wirt does not say 
exactly when he submitted the work to 
Roane ; and M.'s assumption that it was 
ai'i-r 1 Nov., 1816, is unsupported by a 
particle of evidence. We know that the 
work was submitted to Jefferson in August 
and October, 1816, and there is no reason 
why it may not have been submitted to 
Roane at the same time. Again, M.'s 
assumption that Roane's letter was written 
after Wirt's work was submitted to him is 
also unsupported by evidence. The ques- 

tion when Roane read Wirt's work is not 
necessarily material, the important matter 
being when he wrote the letter in which he 
speaks of " Lynches law.'* The work was 
not submitted to Jefferson until 1816 ; but 
as early as 18 Jan., 1810, Wirt had written 
to Jefferson asking him " to throw together, 
for my use, such incidents touching Mr. 
Henry as may occur to you '' (Kennedy!, i. 
279) and Jefferson complied with the 
request in letters dated 12 April, 1812, 
14 Aug., 1814, and 5 Aug., 1815. (See 
Ford's edition of Jefferson's ' Writings,' 
ix. 339-45, 465-76.) As regards Judge 
Tucker, Wirt nowhere states exactly when 
the work was submitted to him ; but in- 
asmuch as Wirt wrote to Tucker certainly 
as early as 31 Jan., 1805 (Kennedy, i. 129), 
it is reasonable to suppose that Tucker sent 
the information asked for (as Jefferson did) 
long before 1 Nov., 1816. 

As there is nothing either in Wirt's letters 
or in Roane's letter to show precisely when 
the latter was written, we are thrown back 
on what Wirt says in the Preface to his 
' Life of Henry l : 

" It was in the summer of 1805 that the design of 
writing this biography was first conceived... ....The 

author knew nothing of Mr. Henry, personally 

As soon, therefore, as the design was formed of 

writing his life the author despatched letters to 

every quarterof the State in which it occurred to him 
as probable that interesting matter might be found ; 
and he was gratified by the prompt attention which 

was paid to his enquiries From judge Roane the 

author has received one of the fairest and most 
satisfactory communications that has been made to 

him Although it has been so long since the 

collection of these materials was begun, it was not 
until the summer ot 1814 that the last communica- 
tion was received." Pp. v, ix, xii. 

Boston, U.S. 

CHAKLES KINGSLEY (11 S. i. 68). * Alton 
Locke l was published in 1850. ' Yeast ' 
Srst appeared in volume form in 1851. It 
lad previously come out in Fraser's Maga- 
zine in 1848. The ' Yeast J and ' Alton 
Locke ? epoch may roughly be said to cover 
the time between 1848 and 1855. It repre- 
sented the period of gravest strain in Kings - 
ey's strenuous life. The reviews and 
lotices which then poured upon him from 
ihe press read now very much like a dis- 
,orted and malignant caricature of one 
f the bravest, tenderest, manliest spirits 
:hat the Church of England ever produced. 
Socially, in many influential quarters, he 
was ostracized ; politically, he was deemed 
firebrand by " old women of both 

< % 1 " T I 1 


religiously, his teaching was 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. i. MAR. 5, mo. 

looked upon with distrust and suspicion. < 
His published writings, especially his novels, ! 
were bitterly assailed in The Record in j 
1851. He was branded as "the apostle " 
of Communism and Socialism in The Edin- 
burgh Review, and The Quarterly the same [ 
year. Bishop Blomfield prohibited him 
from preaching in London, but after reading 
the sermon which rumour had reported as 
subversive of all things human and divine, he 
straightway withdrew the prohibition. I 
subjoin the names of a few of the magazines 
in which criticisms of his writings appeared. 

' Alton Locke ' was reviewed in Black- 
wood's Magazine, vol. Ixviii., 1850 ; Fraser's 
Magazine, vol. xlii., 1850 ; Quarterly Review, 
vol. Ixxxviii., 1851 ; also in The Eclectic 
Review, and The Examiner. 

* Yeast ? was reviewed in Blackwood's 
Magazine, 1855 ; also in The Athenceum, 
Spectator, Guardian, and Gazette some of 
the notices being friendly, but others very 
much the reverse. 

' The Saint's Tragedy,' Kingsley' s earliest 
poetical publication, was criticized in The 
North British Review, vol. xv. 1851. 

His ' Twenty-Five Village Sermons - was 
reviewed in The Times soon after publication 
in 1849. 

There were also numerous cartoons, skits, 
and parodies, but these were of a somewhat 
later date than the period under considera- 
tion. Several pages, containing parodies on 
' The Three Fishers l and * The North-East 
Wind ' are printed in Hamilton's * Parodies,' 
vol. iii. 

Perhaps I may also be permitted to name 
a clever cartoon of Kingsley, with apprecia- 
tive notice, which appeared in Once a Week, 
March, 1872. The artist was F. W. Waddy. 
At the time, however, when the cartoon 
appeared, Kingsley had become a power in 
the land. W. SCOTT. 

Some references to Charles Kingsley about 
1854-7 will be found in Miss Sichel's ' Life 
of Canon Ainger,' chapters i. and ii. The 
book is now published by Nelson & Sons 
at a shilling. G. C. MOOBE SMITH. 


I think MB. PABKEB will find what he 
wants in a volume of personal studies by 
the late Mr. Kegan Paul (I forget its name). 

G. W. E. R. 


At the above reference it was pointed out 
that there was a serious obstacle to believing, 
as Mr. Courthope did, that in the Passionate 
Lord's Song " Hence, all you vain delights " 

(' The Nice Valour,' Act III. sc. iii.), Fletcher 
was indebted to Robert Burton's verses 
" When I go musing all alone," as it would be 
very difficult to reconcile any such indebted- 
ness with Fletcher's authorship, Fletcher 
having died three years before Burton's 
poem appeared in print. 

Unfortunately, this is not an isolated 
instance of the neglect of bibliographical evi- 
dence in dealing with this question. In the 
companion volume of Notes to Palgrave s 
' Golden Treasury,' Books I. IV., published 
by Macmillan & Co., (1904), the introductory 
remarks on Fletcher's song by Mr. W. Bell 
contain the following (p. 218, notes to 
Book II.): 

' ' There is a third famous poem on Melancholy, 
published in 1621, which certainly suggested some 
of the imagery of ' II Penseroso ' and must have 
been known to Fletcher. This is ' The Author's 
Abstract of Melancholy, AiaAoytos,' prefixed by 
Burton to his famous 'Anatomy of Melancholy.' " 

Burton's famous book was published, it is 
true, in 1621, but it was not until the third 
edition (1628) that the 'Author's Abstract 
of Melancholy, AiaAoyiKws,' first appeared. 
The meaningless AtaAoyws is further proof 
that the early editions of the ' Anatomy ' 
were not consulted. The error is due to a 
reprint (it is found, e.g., in the edition pub- 
lished by William Tegg & Co., 1849). 


i. 146). In reply to POLITICIAN I indignantly 
repel the accusation of non-study of ' N. & Q.' 
Putting aside the question of the periodical 
a most worthy one, and one to which, I am 
sure, the great Pickwick (discoverer of the 
Cobham Stone) would have been proud to 
contribute, had it existed in his days, and the 
very motto of which is taken from another 
work of the immortal editor of ' The Pick- 
wick Papers I would beg to inform 
POLITICIAN that if he will refer to the 
" Topical Edition " of the aforesaid ' Papers,' 
he will find that I am not ignorant as to what 
constitutes a moral pockethandkerchief, b 
that I was unable after ten years' search 
to procure an example to illustrate the texl 
nor, in spite of the many letters I receiv 
with regard to the Evening News article, have 
I yet found one. 

Nor, let me point out, is an election < 
a topographical or a prizefight handkerchief 
or any such, any relation to a moral pockt 
handkerchief which alone combines moral; 
and woodcuts, leaves the passions of the mol 
severely alone, and devotes itself to t 
amelioration of humanity, thus forming an 

n s. i. MAR. 5, mo.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


admirable factor (in conjunction with flannel 
waistcoats) in reforming the natives of 
tropical climes, as in the case of Borrio- 
boola-Gha, on the left bank of the Niger. 

Should any of your readers possess so 
delectable a rarity as the moral pocket- 
handkerchief, they are requested to com- 
municate with C. VAN NOORDEN. 

35, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 

As the subject of ' ' moral pockethandker- 
chiefs " has been brought forward, I may 
perhaps mention that "temperance handker- 
chiefs " were on sale at Winterton, co. 
Line., about 1841 or 1842, when I bought 
one. There was a figure of Father Mathew, 
surrounded by scenes representing the 
horrors caused by drink. These pictures 
had a moral effect on me which I have never 
ceased to feel. The draper, of whom I 
bought the handkerchief was a teetotaller 
and Methodist preacher, and I remember his 
saying, " We '11 wrap Father Mathew up in 
a piece of paper.'* On Father Mathew see 
'D.X.B. 1 J. T. F. 


"COMBOLOIO" (11 S. i. 129). 'The 
Stanford Dictionary 1 gives " Comboloio, 
Mod. Gr. Ko/xjSoAoyioi/ : a rosary." 


:544, 435). I subjoin a few further early 
references to persons of these names, in 
chronological arrangement : 

Thomas Parry, Esq., named as having acquired 
i lease of Pardon Chapel, &c., from Edward, Lord 
North, 1554. Pinks's ' History of Clerkenwell,' 
p. 371. 

David Parry, waterman, ordered to be com- 
uitted to Newgate for . disobedience to the 
Watermen's Company and the Court of Alder- 

en, 1623. ' Remembrancia Index,' p. 103. 

Hugh Parrey (sic), merchant, nominated high 

l lector of subsidies in London by the Crown, 
-Ibid., p. 197. 

Dr. George Parry, LL.D., mentioned as M.P. 
or St. MMWVS, Cornwall, 1641. Shaw's ' History 
I' the Knglish Church,' i. 27. 

Capt. .John Perry, brewer, M.I. to his wife 
n th.- church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, 1677. 
Uaddeley's ' Account of St. Giles's,' p. 101. 

Timothy Perry, gentleman, named as an 
subscriber to the erection of old Putney 

. 1728. Ferct's ' Fulham Old and New,' 

i. 54, 

William Parry, of .Monmouthshire, admitted 

in extra Licentiate of the College of Physicians 

L745, -Munk's l Roll/ ii. 1 H. 

Cliarles Parry, gentleman, of Gray's Inn, 
mbstone in St. (Jedi-iie's Cemetery. Hrunswick 

Square, 17 . Cansick's ' Middlesex Epitaphs,' 

i. 213, 


i. 30). 

Shine as the countenance of a priest of old. 
The quotation inquired after by MR. FOSTER 
PALMER is from Tennyson's ' Pelleas and 
Ettarre,' paragraph 13. My version (1892) 
differs slightly and, with context, reads 
thus : 

The men who met him rounded on their heels 
And wondered after him, because his face 
Shone like the countenance of a pri