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Notes and Queries, July 27, 1912. 


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Notes and Queries, July 27, 1912. 



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CONTENTS. -No. 106. 

NOTES : United Service Club and Pall Mall, 1 James 
Townsend, M.P., 2 Signs of Old London, 4 Dolben's 
Poems A Dickens Toy -book, 5 Pepys's 'Diary' : Bray- 
brooke Edition De Quincey: the Murderer Williams 
" Cinematograph " : " Cinemacolor " The King "Over the 
Water" Blindfolded Man : Japanese Variants, 6 " Nose 
of wax " Miniature of Mary, Queen of Scots, 7. 

QUERIES : Dinner-JacketKings with Special Titles- 
Edgar Allan Poe's Mother : Elizabeth Arnold, 7 
Decorated Shoe-Horns : R. Mindura Dean Swift: Rev. 

Gery Sir William Davenant's Entertainment, 

Rutland Honse-pT. R. : Letters to Lord Orrery Miner 
Family, 8 Patrick Archer, Merchant Mrs. Gordon, 9 
Latin Phrase for " Mistletoe for the New Year," 10. 

REPLIES .-Sir Francis Drake at the Middle Temple, 10 
Keats's 'Ode to a Nightingale,' 11 Mistletoe " Sala- 
mander," a Heavy Blow, 12 London Corporation and the 
Medical Profession Bennetto, 13 Irving's ' Sketch- 
Book' ' Catalogue of Honor' Maida, 14 "Riding the 
high horse " Marryat : ' Diary of a Blase" ' ' Mathe- 
matical Transactions '" Sabbath day's journey," 15 
Gordon's 'Geography' Lackington's Medals, 16 J. 
Suasso de Lima FitzGerald and ' N. & Q.' Matthew 
Prior : Major Daniel Gotherson, 17 Straw under Bridges 
"Latter Lammas" Penge as a Place - Name 
"Wigesta" Murderers reprieved for Marriage 'The 
Robber's Cave ' Fire-Papers, 18 - Casanoviana : Edward 
Tiretta, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :- 'The Chilterns and the Vale' 
' Denominative Verbs in English ' ' Whitaker's Al- 
manack' and 'Whitaker's Peerage,' 1912 Reviews and 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE forthcoming extension of the United 
Service Club at the expense of the adjoining 
property, No. 118 and No. 119, Pall Mall', 
suggests a note on the lines of the interesting 
articles which the late MB. W. E. HARLAND- 
OXLEY contributed from time to time on 
changes in Westminster, and may help that 
desirable work, a history of Pall Mall to 

Through the courtesy of the Office of 
Woods, I learn that the site of the doomed 
houses is within the bailiwick or manor of 
St. James's-in-the-Fields, which was pur- 
chased by the Crown from the Abbot of 
Westminster in the reign of Henry VIII. 
Part of the manor was granted on leases by 
Queen Henrietta Maria and her trustees, 
and by Charles II., to trustees for Henry 
Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, who granted 
sub-leases of a plot of land at the east end 
of the south side of Pall Mall, with seventeen 
small houses thereon. No. 118, Pall Mall, 
stands on. part of this ground, which does not 

seem to have been built upon until the reign 
of Charles II. 

The leases to the Earl of St. Albans' 
trustees expired in 1740, and further leases 
of the seventeen houses were granted by 
the Crown for terms which expired in 1810. 
The houses were stated to be in a ruinous 
condition in 1739, and were then to be 
rebuilt. Ultimately the houses came into 
the possession of the Prince of Wales 
(George IV.), and were occupied by some 
of the members of his establishment up to 
about 1826, when he relinquished the occu- 
pation of Carlton Palace adjoining. The 
houses were then demolished, and the 
present row of houses was built on the site. 
Almost the first break was made in 1881, 
when what is now 123, Pall Mall, was built 
by the Life Association of Scotland. 

The United Service Club was built in 
1826, and extended eastwards by the destruc- 
tion of a house in 1858-9. It is now to be 
extended still further by the destruction of 
118 and 119, Pall Mall. 

There is a certain appropriateness in the 
absorption of these houses, for both of them 
have been connected in a roundabout way 
with the Services: No. 119, latterly, by 
housing Hugh Rees, Ltd., military book- 
sellers, who have moved into the Howell 
& James's block in Lower Regent Street. 
I am, however, more interested in No. 118, 
through having lived there for sixteen and 
a half years. Its military associations are 
peculiarly interesting. They begin with 
William Cobbett, who enlisted in the 54th 
Foot in 1783. He started publishing in 1796, 
his shop (in 1800) being at "The Crown and 
Mitre," 18, Pall Mall. He disposed of his busi- 
ness in March, 1803, to a man named Hardy, 
who was succeeded at the end of the same 
year by John Budd (Edward Smith's ' Wil- 
liam Cobbett,' i. 308). In June, 1810, 
Cobbett was prosecuted, along with Budd, 
Hansard, and Bagshaw, for an article in 
The Register (of 1 July, 1809) on flogging 
in the Army, and the four of them were 
sentenced to varying terms of imprisonment, 
Budd getting two months. At this time 
Budd was at 100, Pall Mall. In 1813 the 
business belonged to E. Budd, and in 1814 
the firm became Budd and Calkin, and 
moved to 98, Pall Mall in 1822. Budd was 
probably a Cornishman, and may have been 
connected with Edward Budd "(1771-1853) 
of the West Briton, Truro (Boase's 'Collec- 
tanea Cornubiensia,' p. 115: Add. MSS. 29, 
281, f. 187). 

On 5 July, 1827, a ninety -nine years' 
lease was granted to George William Budd 


[11 S. V. JAN. 6, 1912. 

(John's son ?) and Joseph Calkin, book- 
sellers to the King, to build the house 118 
(which has always been so numbered). It 
is therefore not without its irony that the 
house of Bvidd, imprisoned in 1810 in the 
name of the Army, should fall into the hands 
of an Army club a century later. I may note 
that the firm, on moving to 118, Pall Mall, 
became Calkin & Budd names that seem 
to come straight out of Dickens. 

These booksellers were followed during the 
fifties by the St. George Life and Title Assur- 
ance Company, which in turn was succeeded 
in 1863 by the old firm of wine merchants, 
Christopher & Co. It started in Mile End 
and was long established in Great Coram 
Street: it has now moved to 43, Pall Mall. 

It would not be of sufficient interest to 
detail all the tenants of No. 118, but, as 
a wide generalization, I may note the 
dominance of War, in the shape of old 
officers like General G. Tito Brice, C.B., and 
General Sir George Young, K.C.B. (d. 1911); 
and Peace, in the shape of the India 
Association, with which Mr. William Irving 
Hare (b. 1821), who had offices in the 
house for forty-four years, was connected, 
and the Waldensian Missions, for which 
Col. Martin Frobisher held offices here for 
thirty-four years. Messrs. Henry & Sons, 
of Martini-Henry fame, also had offices for 
fifteen years ; and Lieut. -Col. William Henry 
Lockett Hime, R.A., the many-sided his- 
torian of the Royal Artillery, previously 
occupied the same chambers as the present 
writer, who, though a mere civilian, has 
spent many years on planning a biographical 
dictionary of all Gordons who have borne 
commissions under the title of ' The Gordons 
under Arms,' to be issued by the New 
Spalding Club, Aberdeen. Messrs. Watson, 
Lyall & Co., the Scots estates agents, had 
offices here for many years, and have now 
moved up the street. The house was form- 
ally evacuated on 31 Dec., 1911. 


123, Pall Mall, S.W. 


JAMES TOWNSEND (1737-87), another City 
alderman and Whig politician, was, like 
Trecothick (see 11 S. iii. 330), a Wilkite, but 
no friend of Wilkes. He represented in City 
life the views of Lord Shelburne, afterwards 
the Marquess of Lansdowne, with whom he 
was connected in sentiment from about 
1760 (Fitzmaurice, ' Shelburne,' ii. 287-92 ; 
'Bentham's Works,' x. 101). 

His father Chauncy Townsend was a 
" considerable merchant in Austin Friars," 
and a member of the Mercers' Company, 
having been admitted to the freedom in 
1730, after apprenticeship to Richard 
Chauncy. He was put on the Livery on 
14 July, 1738, and was called to the Court 
of Assistants on 15 March, 1754. From 
1747 to 1768 he was member of Parliament 
for Westbury in Wiltshire ; and from Decem- 
ber, 1768, to his death he represented the 
Wigtown Burghs. George Augustus Selwyn 
had been returned for the latter at the 
general election, but he preferred to repre- 
sent the city of Gloucester, and Townsend 
is said to have been the first Englishman who 
sat in Parliament for a constituency in 
Scotland. Unlike his son, he supported the 
Court. His wife was Bridget, daughter of 
James Phipps, Governor of Cape Coast 
Castle. She died on 17 January, 1762; he 
survived until 28 March, 1770 (Horace Wai- 
pole, 'Memoirs of George III.,' ed. 1894, 
iii. 112). 

James Townsend was baptized at St. 
Christopher le Stocks, London, on 8 February* 
1736/7. On 22 March, 1756, when his age 
was given as eighteen, he matriculated from 
Hertford College, Oxford, but did not pro- 
ceed to a degree. He entered upon public 
life as member for the Cornish borough of 
West Looe in July, 1767, and represented 
that constituency until 1774. It was then 
under the control of the Trelawny family. 

Townsend lost no time in taking a con- 
spicuous position in the strife over the 
representation of Middlesex. He was much 
excited about the riot at the election for 
that county in December, 1768, and he joined 
with John Sawbridge, another City politi- 
cian of marked characteristics and advanced 
politics, in nominating Wilkes when he was 
re-elected for Middlesex on 16 February, 
1769. In 1769 he was admitted by patri- 
mony to the freedom of the Mercers' Com- 
pany. On 23 June in that year he was 
elected Alderman of Bishopsgate Ward, 
was sworn in office on 4 July, and continued 
in that position until his death. He and 
his friend Sawbridge became Sheriffs of 
London and Middlesex on 24 June. An 
account by Burke of the meeting at which 
they were elected is given in Lord Albe- 
marle's ' Life of Lord Rockingham,' ii. 95- 
101. The two Sheriffs united in resisting 
for a time the royal warrant for the execu- 
tion of two rioters at the " most convenient 
place near Bethnal-green church," instead 
of the usual place, Tyburn (Gent. Mag. r 
xxxix. 611 ; xl. 23). 

11 S. V. JAN. 6, 1912.] 


These years were spent by Townsend in a 
tornado of politics. He was one of the 
deputation from the City that presented the 
remonstrance to George III. (14 March, 
1770). Two letters written by him in May, 
1770, and one from Lord Chatham in reply, 
are printed in the ' Chatham Correspon- 
dence,' iii. 458-61. They bear witness to 
the authenticity of Beckford's speech to the 
King. In a speech in the House of Commons 
on 25 March, 1771, Townsend made a strong 
attack on the influence of the Princess of 
Wales upon the Government, and in that 
year he refused, on the ground of the mis- 
representation of the constituency of Middle- 
sex, to pay the land tax. His goods were 
consequently distrained upon to the amount 
of 2007. (October, 1771), and an action which 
he brought in the Court of King's Bench on 
9 June, 1772, against the collector of the tax 
was unsuccessful, Lord Mansfield showing his 
usual timidity during the case, but obtaining 
from the jury a verdict against him (Gent. 
Mag., 517, xlii. 291 ; ' Letters of Junius,' 
ed. 1812. iii. 264-8). 

Townsend disliked the character of Wilkes 
so much that he was determined not to 
" have any connexion or intercourse with 
him," but he helped in the payment of 
Jack's debts (Percy Fitzgerald, ' Wilkes,' ii. 
89, 109, 206-12). A fierce struggle for the 
Lord Mayorship took place in November, 
1772. With the desire of keeping out Wilkes, 
two aldermen were nominated in support 
of the government. He and Townsend 
stood in the popular cause and had 
a great majority of the votes, Wilkes 
polling twenty-three more than his co- 
adjutor. The majority of the aldermen 
were not friendly to the demagogue, anc 
through the intrigues of another Whig 
alderman, Richard Oliver, the Court o 
Aldermen named Townsend for the office 
Wilkes was furious and on the nigh 
of Lord Mayor's Day an angry mob 
attacked the Guildhall in his interest. In 
his revenge Wilkes drew up a remonstrance 
couched in the most violent terms, agains 
the Middlesex election, and forced the un 
willing Townsend to present it to the King 
although it was known that the action woult 
meet with general disapproval. Towns 
end's portrait as Lord Mayor was painte< 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds in March, 177J 
His wife as Lady Mayoress also sat to Rey 
nolds (Graves and Cronin, iv. 1480, M.M.). 

On 22 February, 1773, Townsend sue 
ceeded in passing through the Court o 
Aldermen a motion for short Parliaments 
and at the close of his year of office h 

eceived the thanks of the City for his con- 
uct in the chair. His friends said that he 
was zealous and firm as the chief magistrate ; 
ome of his opponents accused him of 
brutality and haughtiness." Special 
llusion was made to his services on behalf 
f the police. The Bill which he suggested 
or the government of the cities of London 
nd Westminster provided that the magis- 
rates should not be nominated by the Crown, 
ut elected by the inhabitant householders. 

In October, 1773, Wilkes was again dis- 
ippointed over the Lord Mayoralty. By 
1 ownsend's casting vote another alderman, 
Frederick Bull, was preferred to him. Next 
r ear he was duly elected to the coveted 
hair by eleven votes to two, the dissen- 
ients being Townsend and Oliver (Wai- 
pole ' Journals of Reign of Geo. III., 1771-83,' 
. 117-18, 124-6, 163-4, 184-5, 262, 420-22). 
n return for a long unanimity of action 
Fownsend was in 1774 the chief supporter 
of Oliver for the representation of the City. 

Townsend was an original member of the 
society for supporting the Bill of Rights. 
He was on intimate terms with Home Tooke, 
and they worked together in politics. Four 
of the friends of Tooke on his resigning his 
orders in the Church with a view to going to 
;he Bar agreed to enter into a bond for allow- 
ing him, until he could be called, the sum of 
100Z. a year apiece. Two out of the four 
were Sawbridge and Townsend (Stephens, 
'John Home Tooke,' i. 163, 418; ii. 284-5). 
Tooke dedicated his solitary sermon to 
Townsend, eulogizing him for his exertions 
for Wilkes, " a much injured and oppressed 
individual," and lauding his "noble motives." 
On the elevation of John Dunning to the 
peerage, Lord Shelburne, the patron of the 
borough of Calne, nominated Townsend 
(5 April, 1782) as its representative in 
Parliament, and he continued its member 
until his death. While in Parliament he lived 
during the session at Shelburne House, and 
met within its walls many distinguished 
persons. His name and that of his brother 
Joseph Townsend, the Rector of Pewsey, 
frequently occur in the correspondence of 
the Abbe Morellet with Shelburne. The 
Abbe refers to his " grande chaleur," and 
there is a general agreement that he was 
violent in temper. He was resolute and 
determined, very tenacious of his promise, 
and his speeches in the House of Commons 
the substance of many of them will be found 
in the debates of Sir Henry Cavendish 
were full of animation, and marked by 

" great natural eloquence." It is said that 
a highway robbery having been committed 


[11 S. V. JAX. 6, 1912. 

in. the neighbourhood of Tottenham, he and 
a friend disguised themselves and appre- 
hended the culprit. The man was naturally 
much surprised to find that his captors 
were gentlemen of recognized position. One 
of his peculiarities was that he would travel 
from " one end of the kingdom to the other 
without a servant and with a small change of 
linen in a leathern trunk behind the saddle " 
<(Beloe, ' Sexagenarian,' ii. 20-24). 

Still acting with Lord Shelburne, he sup- 
ported Pitt against Fox. He was spokes- 
man for the City (28 February, 1784) on the 
presentation to Pitt of the resolutions of the 
Court of Common Council against his rival. 
But his active days were past. A cold 
brought on fever, and he died at Bruce 
Castle, Tottenham (a property which he 
had acquired through his wife), on 1 July, 
1787. He was buried in the Coleraine 
burying-place adjoining the parish church 
of Tottenham, a passage being broken 
through the wall of his garden, and only 
his servants attending. This is said to have 
been the ancient custom on the death of the 
.owner of that estate. 

Townsend married at St. George's, Han- 
.over Square, on 3 May, 1763, Henrietta Rosa 
Peregrina du Plessis, only child of Henry 
Hare, third and last Lord Coleraine, by Rose 
,du Plessis (d. 30 March, 1790). She was 
born at Crema in Italy, 12 September, 1745, 
.and baptized at St. Mary's Church, Colchester, 
on 13 December, 1748, a long entry being 
inserted in the parish register in explana- 
tion of the desertion of Lord Coleraine by 
his lawful wife, and of his union in 1740 with 
Mile, du Plessis. At his death at Bath on 
4 August, 1749, the peer left his estates to 
this child. " She, being an alien, could not 
take them; the will, being legally made, 
barred his heirs at law ; so that the estates 
escheated to the Crown" (Nichols's 'Lit. 
Anecdotes,' v. 349-51 ; Gent. Mag., 1787, 
part ii. 640-41, 738). Through the influence 
of Henry Fox, Lord Holland, and the senior 
Townsend, a grant of them was made by 
the Crown to Mr. and Mrs. James Townsend, 
and confirmed by Act of Parliament 
.(3 George III., 1763, iv. 1764). Horace Wai- 
pole met the Townsends at dinner at Lord 
Shelburne's in October, 1773, when he de- 
scribed the wife as " a bouncing dame with 
a coal-black wig, and a face coal-red" 
('Letters,' ed. Toynbee, viii. 347). She 
died on 8 November, 1785, leaving issue one 
daughter and one son, Henry Hare Towns- 
end, who was at the University of Cam- 
bridge in 1787. She too was buried privately 
.at Tottenham Old Church. 

The unwitnessed will of Townsend, then 
described as of Conduit Street, Middlesex, 
was dated 18 December, 1764. He left his 
personal estate whatsoever to his wife, 
except 100Z. to his friend Samuel Phipps of 
Lincoln's Inn, and he appointed Phipps and 
his wife executors and guardians of his 
daughter Henrietta Jamina. He also left an 
annuity of 401. to his friend Thomas Law. 
On 11 September, 1787, John and Henry 
Smith of Drapers' Hall swore to their know- 
ledge of Townsend and his handwriting for 
twenty years, and proved the will. Next day 
administration was granted to Henry Hare 
Townsend, the son, Mrs. Townsend being 
dead and Samuel Phipps renouncing. 

Townsend during his lifetime divided the 
Manor of Walpole in Norfolk, 3,000 acres in 
all, into small holdings, and built houses for 
his tenants. After his death the greater 
part of the property at Tottenham was sold 
on 24 and 25 September, 1789, to pay his 
debts ; but Bruce Castle, to which he had 
added a new east wing (Home Counties 
Mag., xi. 139-40), the gardens, and sixty 
acres of rich meadow land which adjoined 
them, were bought in. An etching of the 
castle was made by Townsend (Robinson, 
' Tottenham,' i. 171, and App. II., p. 41, &c., 
vol. ii. p. 64; Dyson, 'Tottenham,' 2nd ed., 
1792, pp. 37-8, 93). Mrs. Townsend is said 
to have been an etcher and to have made 
an etching of St. Eloy's Well, Tottenham. 

The son, Henry Hare Townsend, sold the 
Manor of Tottenham in 1792, and Busbridge 
Hall, near Godalming, about 1824. He 
died in April, 1827, and was also buried at 
Tottenham. A memoir of Chauncy Hare 
Townsend (1798-1868), his son and James 
Townsend's grandson, is in the ' D.N.B.' 

For the dates relating to the Mercers' 
Company I am indebted to the kindness of 
Mr. G. H. Blakesley. 



(See 11 S. i. 402, 465 ; ii. 323 ; iii. 64, 426 ; 
iv. 226.) 

THE list of signs presented hereunder is 
compiled from the printed (but altogether 
unindexed) ' Calendar of the Chancery Pro- 
ceedings,' -Second Series, vol. iii., extending 
from 1621 to 1660: 

Sword and Buckler, St. George's-in-the-Fields. 
Chequers, Holborn. 

Boar's Head, King Street, Westminster. 
Mitre, Bread Street. 
Rose, West Smithfield. 

11 S. V. JAN. 6, 1912.] 


Three Crowns, Allhallows, Lombard Street. 

Windmill Inn, St. John Street, parish of St. 

Anchor and Serpent, Royal Exchange. 

Chequers, Charing Cross. 

Prince's Arms, Goswell Street. 

Vine, Kent Street, Southwark. 

Black BOA-, West Smithfield. 

Hare and Bottle, St. Agnes, Aldersgate Street [sic]. 

Dolphin, Ludgate Hill. 

Mitre, Fish Street. 

Boar's Head, Southwark. 

Red Bull, St. John Street, Clerkenwell. 

Golden Ball, St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, Fleet 

Hart's Horn (brewhouse), in the parish of 
St. Katherine. ' 

Red Lion, Whitechapel Street. 

Bull's Head Tavern, Allhallows, Barking (?). 

Green Dragon, Fowl Lane, St. Saviour's, South- 

Three Guilded [sic] Lions, St. Clement Danes. 

Black Boy, Bermondsey Street, St. Olave's, 

Horn Tavern, Fleet Street. 

Mermaid, St. Mary-at-Hill. 

Swan, Long Lane, West Smitlifield, parish of 
St. Sepulchre. 

Walnut Tree, St. Olave, Southwark. 

King's Head, Cheapside. 

Hart's Horn, Silver Street, Edmonton. 

Barrel and Oyster, Gracechurch Street. 

Queen's Head, Long Lane, parish of St. Bartholo- 
mew the Great. 

Star, Candlewick Street. 

Queen's Head, Fleet Street, parish of St. Dun- 

Green Dragon, St. Martin's, Ludgate. 

Rose, St. Lawrence Jewry. 

Crown, West Smithfield. 

White Swan, St. Nicholas Cole Abbey. 

Symond's Inn, Chancery Lane. 

King's Head, Wapping. 

Bear, Cateaton Street. 

Ship, St. Botolph without Aldgate. 

Black Bull, St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

Three Tuns Tavern, St. Mary-at-Hill. 

Green Dragon, Tuttle Street, Westminster. 

Nag's Head, Wapping Wall, Stepney. 

Pewter Pot, Leadenhall Street. 

King's Head Tavern, Wapping. 

Three Cocks, St. Mary Woolnoth. 

King's Head and Bell House [ic], Gracechurch 

In this instance the proceedings are listed 
in rough alphabetical order of plaintiffs' 
names within the period, consequently the 
signs do not follow chronology, as in most 
of my other lists. 


DOLBEN'S POEMS. May I ask you to 
allow me to make use of your columns to 
correct two mistakes in my memoir of Digby 
Mackworth Dolben, which accompanies the 
edition of his poems reviewed in the 
Literary Supplement of The Times of 21 
December last ? 

Purchasers of the book will be glad of the 
corrections, and as the type is distributed, 
and I have no intention of reissuing the 
memoir when this edition is exhausted, the 
record of the mistakes may be useful at some 
future date. 

(1) The name of Constantino E. Prichard 
is throughout the book printed Pritchard. 
He spelt his name without the t. 

(2) On p. xci it is stated that Father 
Ignatius was at Llanthony when Dolben was 
at Boughrood. This is an error. Father 
Ignatius was at Claydon, and did not go to 
Llanthony till after Dolben had left Bough- 
rood. This satisfactorily accounts for there 
being no mention of their meeting at that 

used to tell me about a quaint little book 
which was given to her in her childhood 
by the family doctor. It was bound in 
brown paper, and contained pictures of 
Dickens's characters, with descriptive verses 
under each. 

Her copy went the way of most children's 
possessions, and was lost before her marriage. 
Therefore the little which I remember of 
it is quoted at second-hand, and probably 
incorrect. For example, there was Oliver 
Twist, recaptured by the help of Nancy, 
and standing again in the presence of Fagin : 

Why, Oliveer, my little dear ! 

And is it really you 
Come back once more, so smartly dressed, 

To see the poor old Jew ? 
Well, well, my child ! \Ve'll take much care 

That you don't run away. 
So now with Sikes you go by night ; 

With me go all the day. 

Next there was Noah Claypole : 
When cat's away the mice will play 

(At least so says the fable) ; 
So Noah, when his master's out, 

Takes up his place at table. j 

Then comes poor Smike : 
I'll run away ! I'll go to-night ! 

They'll kill me if I stay. 
'Tis very cold ! The moon shines bright ! 
I'll soon be far away. 

This was evidently Smike's second (and suc- 
cessful) attempt at escape, after Nicholas 
had rescued him from Squeers's clutches, 
and repaid that worthy in his own coin. 

Miss La Creevy sums up all my recollec- 
tions, except such as are as indefinite as her 
own miniatures : 

There now, I've done your portrait, miss ; 
It only wants the nose 

To make it perfect and complete 
From head unto the toes. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAN. 6, 191-2. 

All mouths I copy from my own ; 

And when I look for eyes 
I see 'em as I walk abroad. 

For colour, shape, and size. 

Very likely this pamphlet was an ephe- 
meral local production, now quite unknown. 


Pepys evidently makes a mistake in the 
name of a town which he visited on 8 June, 
1668. I write to point it out, as there is 
no note in my edition mentioning the error, 
though I think it must have been noticed 
before this. 

On 8 June he travelled from Bedford to 
Newport (evidently Newport Pagnell, I 
think), then to Buckingham. Then he goes 
on : 

" At night to Neicport Pagnell ; and there a 
good pleasant country town, but few people in it. 
A very fair and like a Cathedral Church ; and 
I saw the leads, and a vault that goes far under 
ground : the town and so most of this country, 
well watered. Lay here well, and rose next day 
by four o'clock ; few people in the town : and 
so away. Reckoning for supper, 17s. 6d. ; poor, 
Qd. Mischance to the coach, but no time lost. 

" 9th (Tuesday). We came to Oxford," &c. 

This town must have been Bicester, not 
Newport Pagnell. C. LESLIE SMITH. 


In the postscript to ' Murder, considered 
as one of the Fine Arts,' De Quincey winds 
up by the peroration : 

" They perished on the scaffold : Williams, as 
I have said, by his own hand ; and, in obedience 
to the law as it then stood, he was buried in tho 
centre of a quadrivium, or conflux of four roads 
{in this case four streets), with a stake driven 
throtigh his heart. And over him drives for ever 
the uproar of unresting London." 

However, at the beginning of August, 
1886, the following statement appeared in 

The Citizen : 

" In excavating a trench for a main for the 
Commercial Gas Company, the workmen of Messrs. 
John Aird & Sons made a remarkable discovery 
-a few days ago. At a point where Cannon Street 
Road and Cable Street, in St. George's-in-the- 
East, cross one another, and at a depth of six feet 
below the surface, they discovered the skeleton 
of a man with a stake driven through it, and some 
portions of a chain were lying near the bones. It 
is believed that the skeleton is that of a man who 
murdered a Mr. and Mrs. Marr, their infant child, 
and a young apprentice in their house in Ratcliff 

Highway in 1811 He hanged himself while 

under remand in Coldbath-fields Prison. A 
coroner's jury having brought in a verdict of 
felo-de-se, the murderer was buried in accordance 
with the custom of the time." 

It is true that there is nothing in the 
quotation from The Citizen to show that the 
remains have not been left in situ, and it 

is possible that De Quincey 's prediction is 
being fulfilled after all. 


'N. & Q.' is protesting against linguistic 
impurities. Is it too late to protest against 
two recent introductions to our language ? 
For some time we have been suffering 
under " cinematograph," often pronounced 
as though it were written sinni-mattograph. 
Now we have the deplorable hybrid 
" cinemacolor." Better than, though 
not themselves perfect, would be " kine- 
magraph," or " kinemascope," and " kine- 
machrome." They may serve, at least, as 
a starting-point for improvement, and, if 
adopted, would not give rise to the absurd 
sounds which now result from the words 
employed. A protest from 'N. & Q.' may 
move etymologists, and may, perhaps, induce 
PROP. SKEAT himself to say something in 
behalf of our language. Civis. 

book ' Some Recollections ' the late Canon 
Teignmouth Shore, writing about a visit 
which he paid to Osborne in 1878, says : 

" I had noticed before that at the Household 
dinners there were never any finger-bowls, and 
thinking there might be some interesting reason 
for the absence of what is so general elsewhere, 
I ventured to ask Sir John Cowell, the Master of 
the Household, whether this was so. He ex- 
plained to me that in old days, when there was 
a certain Jacobite element even in the vicinity of 
the Court, it had been noticed that on the toast 
of ' The King ' being given after dinner, some of 
those present used to pass their glass over the 
finger-bowl, and it was discovered that thus they 
drank ' To the King over the water,' and the 
temptation to do so was removed by the abolition 
of the finger-bowls." 


39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

VARIANTS. (See 11 S. iii. 424.) Only 
recently I have come across a passage in 
Hiuen-tsang's ' Si-yih-ki,' A.D. 646, torn, x., 
which seems to prove these Japanese stories 
to have originated in an Indian tradition. 
After narrating liow enormous a quantity 
of gold King Sadvaha had expended for 
the completion of the grand rocky monastery 
on Black Peak in Central India, the Chinese 
itinerary says : 

"Then there arose a dispute among the ceno- 
bites resident in it, who applied for a decision to 
the sovereign. The anchorets deemed the ceno- 
bites to be the cause of the coming desolation of 
the monastery, and expelled all the cenobites 
from it. Thus it has become inhabited by the 
anchorets only, who made its entrance quite 

iis.v.jAN.6,i9i2.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

"undiscernible. And to this day they continue to 
live there entirely secluded from the world. Only 
now and then they invite good physicians to 
cure their diseases ; but even then they invari- 
^ably blindfold them on every ingress and -egress, 
in order to prevent them from revealing the 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

" NOSE OF WAX." (See 10 S. viii. 228, 
274, 298 ; x. 437.) I find the source of this 
phrase was traced by VERTAUR at 1 S. x. 235 
to Apuleius. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

With reference to L. M. M. R.'s query at 
$ S. ix. 256, I have such a miniature in my 
possession. GEORGE MACKEY. 

70, New Street, Birmingham. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

DINNER-JACKET. Can some reader of 
' N. & Q.' say when the dinner-jacket first 
came into fashion in England, and whether 
it is an English or an American invention, 
or was imported from any other country ? 
Further, was it always known by this name ? 
In Germany it is generally called smoking 
(probably = smoking jacket) or smocking. 
The latter seems to be merely a corruption 
of smoking. It would be interesting to 
know whether either of these forms was ever 
in use in English-speaking countries, or 
whether one or both of them are " made in 
Germany." p. j. c. 


four kings in Europe having special titles: 
France, Spain, Portugal, and Hungary 
Plus Chretien, Plus Catholique, Plus Apos- 
tolique. What was the fourth, and to which 
did each belong ? B. M. D. 


ELIZABETH ARNOLD. In R. H. Stoddard's 
' Life of Edgar Allan Poe,' prefacing his 
edition of Poe's works (Kegan Paul, Trench 
& Co., 1884), it is stated that Poe's mother 
was a Miss Elizabeth Arnold, with whom 
his father (David Poe, jun.) became ac- 
quainted during a visit she made to New York 
as an actress in a company of comedians. 
The company was an English one, brought 

over by a Mr. Solee for the City Theatre, 
Charleston, South Carolina. They remained 
long enough at New York to fulfil an engage- 
ment in the Old John Street Theatre, and 
among the pieces which they played was the 
popular farce of ' The Spoiled Child,' in 
which Miss Arnold performed the part of 
Maria. Who Miss Arnold was, except that 
she was an English actress, and what was 
her rank in the theatrical profession, can 
only be conjectured. The company played 
in other cities. Miss Arnold is said to have 
appeared in Baltimore while David Poe, jun., 
was a member of the Thespian Club, and is 
also said to have been a Mrs. Hopkins at 
the time. 

David Poe and Miss Arnold married in the 
spring of 1806. In the summer season at 
the New Vauxhall Gardens, New York, 
she played (16 July) the part of Priscilla 
Tomboy. In the winter of 1809 the hus- 
band (who had gone on the stage) and the 
wife were both engaged at the Boston 
Theatre. The Boston Gazette contains an- 
nouncements of her appearance on a number 
of dates from January to May, 1809. Her 
son Edgar was born there during tliis engage- 
ment. From Boston she proceeded with 
her husband and her two children to New 
York, and played at the Park Theatre. 
Sight is lost of her until the autumn of 1811, 
when she was attached to the Richmond 
Theatre. She was then the mother of three 
children William Henry, who was in his 
fourth or fifth year ; Edgar, who was in his 
third year ; and Rosalie, who was a babe 
in arms. She was ill, she was destitute, and, 
if the recollections of those who knew her 
at this time are to be trusted, she was 
abandoned by her husband. Her public 
record closed with the paragraph in The 
Richmond Enquirer of Tuesdav, 10 December, 
1811: "Died, on Sunday last, Mrs. Poe, 
one of the actresses of the company at 
present playing on the Richmond boards," 

Is anything further now known of the 
iarlier career, birth, parentage, and place 
of origin in England of Poe's mother ? 
Was she really twice married, and was her 
true maiden name Elizabeth Arnold ? Will 
the readers of ' N. & Q.' on both sides of 
the Atlantic assist me in my search ? If we 
assume Miss Arnold was 25 or 26 years of 
age in 1806 at the time of her marriage 
to David Poe, she would be born about 
1780. Whose was the company of come- 
dians engaged by Mr. Solee from England ? 
Are there any means of tracing such a 
company or an ordinary member of the 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii 8. v. JAN. e, 1912. 

profession, such as Miss Arnold was at this 

I shall be most obliged to any readers who 
can assist me in my quest. 


The Hall, Burley-in-Wharfedale. 

DUM. In the Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries, Second Series, vol. vii. pp. 121-2 
(1877), Sir John Evans publishes notes on 
three shoe-horns bearing dates 1593, 1600, 
and 1604, and inscriptions showing that 
they were made by one " Robart Mindum." 
Another, in the Saffron Walden Museum, 
is inscribed round the edge, " Robart Mindum 
made this shooing-horn for Bridget Dearsley, 
1605." The decorations are carried out 
in dots and incised lines, into which some 
dark substance has been worked. The 
crowned Tudor rose is the principal orna- 
ment employed in the last specimen. 

Who or what Robart Mindum may have 
been was not known to Sir J. Evans, who 
states that the above three were the only 
decorated specimens of the period which he 
had been able to trace. 

I should be glad to know if any light has 
been cast on the matter since 1877, and also 
to hear of any other signed or dated speci- 
mens of English make. 


The Museum, Saffron Walden. 


In the ' Journal to Stella,' Letter XL VI., 
p. 28, vol. iii. of the 'Works of Swift,' 
edited by Sir Walter Scott, 1824, Swift 
writes : 

May 10th, 1712. 

Did I tell you that young Parson Gery is going 
to be married, and asked my advice when it was 
too late to break off ? 

And at p. 78 of same volume, Letter LVIL, 
Swift continues : 

London, Dec. 18, 1712."*"" 

Lord-Keeper promised me yesterday the first 
convenient living to poor Mr. Gery, who is 
married, and wants some addition to what he 
has. He is a very worthy creature, &c. 

In vol. xix. p. 336, there is a rather long 
letter from the Dean to. Vanessa. It is sent 
from " Upper Letcomb', near Wantage, in 
Berkshire," and addressed to Mrs. Esther 
Vanhomrigh, 8 June, 1714. Here are a 
few sentences : 

" I have been a week settled in the house where 
I am.... I am at a clergyman's house, an old 
friend and acquaintance, whom I love very well. 

We dine exactly between twelve and one; 

at eight we have some bread and butter, and a 
glass of ale, and at ten he goes to bed. Wine is 
a stranger, except a little I sent him, of which 

one evening in two, we have a pint between us .... 
I give a guinea a-week for my board, and can eat 

Has Mr. Gery ever been identified, or i& 
anything known about him ? 

I cannot trace a reference to the name in 
any of the ten General Indexes of ' N. & Q., 1 
numerous as are the entries under Swift. 

26, Arran Street, Cardiff. 

' N. & Q.' for 20 March, 1858 (2 S. v. 231), 
inquiry regarding Sir William Davenant'a 
' Entertainment at Rutland House,' &c., and 
quoted a description of the scene "from a con- 
temporaneous MS." MR. DELACOURT further 
stated that " five shillings a head was the 
charge for admission, and 400 persons were 
expected, but we learn that there appeared 
no more than 150 auditors." 

Can any one furnish me with information 
respecting the MS. referred to ? 

20, Gordon Square, W.C. 

" Observations upon Lord Orrery's Remarks 
on the Life and Writings of Dr. Jonathan 
Swift. By J. R., Dublin, 1754," sm. 8vo. 
Who was the writer of the above, which 
are of considerable interest and value ? 


St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

MINER FAMILY. (See 2 S. iii. 170.) 
According to an old pedigree now in the 
library of the Connecticut Historical Society, 
the descent of the Miners of Chew, Somerset, 
is as follows : Henry Bullman, of Mendippe 
Hills, Somerset, having proffered himself 
and his " domesticall and menial servants," 
armed with battleaxes and in number a 
hundred, for service in the French wars, 
was rewarded by Edward III. with the name 
of Miner and the coat of arms Gules, a fesse 
argent between three plates. The crest 
now borne by the family, a mailed hand 
holding a battleaxe armed at both ends, 
all proper, and the motto " Fortis qui 
prudens," are, I believe, of later date. 
Henry died in 1359, leaving issue Henry, 
Edward, Thomas, and George. Henry mar- 
ried Henretta, daughter of Edward Hicks 
of Gloucester, and had issue William and 

Henry. William married Hobbs of 

Wiltshire, and had issue Thomas and George. 
Thomas (1399) married " Gressley, daughter 
of Cotton" of Staffordshire, and had issue 
Lodovick, George, and Mary. Lodovick 

11 S. V. JAN. 6, 1912.] 



married Anna, daughter of Thomas Dyer 
of Stoughton, Huntingdonshire, and had 
issue Thomas, born 1436, George and Arthur 
(twins), born 1458, who served the House of 
Austria. Arthur married Henretta de la 
Villa Odorosa. Thomas married Bridget, 
second daughter to Sir George Hervie de 
St. Martin's, Middlesex, and died 1480, 
leaving issue William and Anna. William 
married Isabella Harcope de Frolibay, and 
" lived to revenge the death of the young 
Princes murdered in the Tower of London 
upon their inhuman uncle, Richard III." 
He was called " Flos Militiae." He left ten 
sons William, George, Thomas, Robert, 
Nathaniel, and John (the rest not recorded). 
George lived in Shropshire, Thomas in 
Hereford. Nathaniel and John settled in 
Ireland. William, the eldest son, had issue 
Clement and Elizabeth, and was buried in 
the chancel at Chew Magna, Somerset, 
23 Feb., 1585. Clement had issue Clement, 
Thomas, Elizabeth, and Mary, died 31 March, 
1640, and is buried at Chew Magna. 

Thomas emigrated to New England in 
1630, and is the ancestor of the Connecticut 
Miners. Thomas's brother Clement married 
Sarah, daughter of John Pope of Norton- 
Small-Reward, Somerset, and had issue 
William and Israel. He was buried at 
Burslingtown, Somerset. William married 
Sarah, daughter of John Batting of Clifton, 
Gloucestershire, and in 1683 was living in 
Christmas Street, Bristol, having issue 
William and Sarah. Israel married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Thomas Jones of Bursling- 
town, and had issue Clement, Thomas, 
Sarah, Jean, and Elizabeth. 

I should be grateful for any information 
regarding the early history of the family or 
its present branches in England. 


Ann Arbor, Mieh., U.S. 

TEMP. CAR. II. I should be glad of any 
information relating to the parentage and 
family of Patrick Archer of London, mer- 
chant, died circa 1686, whose Irish adventures 
are told at some length in the ' Calendar 
of State Papers, Irish Series, September, 
1669, to December, 1670' (1910). 

In 1660 Archer was petitioning the King 
that he would give his ambassadors instruc- 
tions to get him redress for the following 

In 1652 Archer, by the King's orders, sent 
a small vessel to Ireland, the St. Ann, with 
arms and ammunition upon his own account 
for the King's service. The value of the 

cargo was 1,2001., and it was to be delivered 
to the Earl of Clancarty, then Lord Muskerry, 
who was besieged in Ross by the usurper's 
army. When the vessel arrived at the 
mouth of the Valentia river the master heard 
that Ross had capitulated on terms, so he 
tried to get away to sea to find some place 
where the King's forces lay. Meeting with 
a storm, he was driven on the coast of Brit- 
tany, where he put in for safety to a place 
called Aberbracke, and there was seized 
on by orders from the Due de Venddme, 
Lord High Admiral of France, who dis- 
tributed all the arms and ammunition among 
the French ships of war, without giving any 
manner of satisfaction to the petitioner. 

By letters patent dated 28 Jan., 1664, 
Charles II. acknowledged his indebtedness 
to Patrick Archer for the sum of 6,294Z. 5s., 
and ordered it to be paid within three .years 
by six equal instalments. 

In June, 1670, Archer brought an action 
in the Irish Chancery Court against one 
John Preston. 

Seven years before, the plaintiff had 
agreed with John Dawes and others in 
England for the purchase of two Irish 
villages, Riverstown and Castletown, being 
911 acres, and had paid a good part of the 
purchase money. Afterwards Dawes and 
the rest sold the same lands amongst others 
to John Preston, Alderman of Dublin, and 
Archer brought this action to enforce his 
prior claim, after an action in the English 
Chancery Court had failed, by reason of 
the defendant retiring to Ireland. Patrick 
Archer appears to have dispossessed Preston 
and to have settled at Riverstown, which 
is in the co. Meath. His will, in the Pre- 
rogative Wills of Ireland, is dated 1686. 
He married Catherine Dillon, and left a 
son, John Archer of Riverstown, who 
married, probably circa 1700, Margaret, 
daughter of Jonas and Mary Archer of 
Kiltimon, co. Wicklow. Nothing is known 
of any previous relationship between the 
Riverstown and Kiltimon Archers. The 
will of Anthony Archer of Keeloge, co, 
Wicklow, dated 27 Jan., 1707/8, a brother 
of Mrs. Margaret Archer, contains bequests 
to the latter and to John Archer, and also 
to their two daughters, named Alice and 
Christian Archer. H. G. ARCHER. 

29, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 

MRS. GORDON, ACTRESS. The Theatrical 
Times, 17 April, 1847, published a woodcut 
of ' Mrs. Gordon, as Imogen in " Bertram." 
Who was she. and what was her husband ? 

123, Pall Mall, S.W. 


.NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. e, 1912. 

NEW YEAR." We sadly want references for 
some of the statements made at US. iv. 502. 
The general account of the gathering of the 
mistletoe by the Druids is to be found in 
Pliny, ' Nat. Hist.,' bk. xvi. chap, xliv., 
near the end. 

But I do not find there the statement 
that " the attendant youths distributed it 
to the people as a holy thing, crying, ' The 
mistletoe for the New Year.' ' 

I have strong reasons for supposing that 
the phrase " The mistletoe for the New 
Year " is comparatively modern, certainly 
later than 1300, and that no phrase corre- 
sponding to it ever existed in Latin. My 
query is, accordingly, What is the alleged 
authority for it, and what is the Latin 
for it ? 

I hope the dozen or twenty correspondents 
who are ready to give me the bogus French 
equivalents will kindly refrain from doing so. 
That is not my question at all. I am asking 
for the Latin phrase and the Latin authority, 
and before A.D. 1300. If there is a single 
atom of truth in the story, we are entitled 
to expect such evidence. 




(11 S. iv. 347, 414, 490.) 

IN reference to this query, which 
has only just been brought to my notice, 
though I find it has already been dealt with 
by my successor, MR. BEBWELL, at the 
second reference, I would ask, as the writer 
of the statement out of which it arose 
('Notable Middle Templars,' p. 78), to be 
permitted, though late in the day, to make 
some reply. 

Your querist, MEDIO-TBMPLABIUS, seems 
to doubt my inference, from the above 
description of Sir Francis Drake that he 
was a member of the Middle Temple, remind- 
ing us, truly, that the word used to denote 
that community was not "Consortium," 
but Societas," and, to designate a single 
member, not " consors," but " socius." 
But, though this may have been the case 
generally, or, indeed, universally, as he says 
throughout the ' Records,' may not an 
exception have been made, I would ask, and 
appropriately made, on this particular and 

very remarkable festive occasion, when the 
famous sailor, fresh from the sea, came to 
" consort " with his old friends and, so to 
speak, " messmates " a term he would 
appreciate in the ancient (but then new- 
built) Hall ? If not, and if " Consortium " 
be not here a synonym for " Societas," 
what, I ask, can it mean ? As for its use in 
the plural, that certainly presents a difficulty, 
but I would suggest that it may have a subtle 
reference to the custom or method (still 
observed) of dining in messes " fellow- 
ships " (consortia) and this suggestion 
seems to me to derive confirmation from 
the expression " omnibus de consortiis in 
aula praesentibus," which I think may be 
translated as meaning that " all the tables 
were full up," as they naturally would be 
on such an auspicious occasion. 

I am ready to admit, however, that there 
is a good deal of speculation in this attempted 
interpretation of the interesting " memo- 
randum " which puzzles your querist, and 
it may be that this is the only instance 
of " consortium " being used, either in the 
singular or the plural, for the conventional 
" Societas" ; but the occasion was peculiar, 
and the writer of the "report" (as "the 
memorandum " may be called) may be 
excused some deviation from strict form 
and some play of fancy in drawing it up, 
fresh, as he evidently \vas, from the festivi- 
ties he was recording. 

That Sir Francis Drake, however, was a 
member ("socius" or "consors") of the 
Middle Temple I think there can be no 
doubt elected probably honoris caurd, 
like so many other celebrities, to that Inn. 
That his name does not appear on the 
Register may probably be accounted for by 
his being absent perhaps at sea at the 
time of his election, and no note being 
entered of it. The Middle Temple Records 
are not without omissions. 

As regards the afterwards famous Ad- 
miral's provisional " admission " to the 
Inner Temple, I suppose there can be no 
denying that fact in the face of the entry 
to that effect on the Register of that Inn in 
1582; but, if he afterwards paid his fine 
and proceeded to " membership," of which 
Master Inderwick admits there is no record, 
the question why, after his "prosperous" 
return from his voyage in 1586, he was not 
entertained and feted there, instead of by the 
" consortia generosorum " of the Middle 
Temple, is, it seems to me, a very difficult 
one to answer. JOHN HTJTCHINSON 

(late Librarian to the M.T.). 

Dullatur House, Hereford. 

11 S. V. JAN. 6, 1912.] 



iv. 507). Mr. A. R. Weekes's edition of 

* The Odes of John Keats,' in " The Uni- 
versity Tutorial Series," says in the Notes 
(p. 95) : 

" Faery lanls are not so much countries where 
the fairies live for that matter they used to live 
in England but rather ' legendary countries of 
romance,' with probably an underlying thought 
of the realm of faery in which befel the adventures 
of Spenser's Faery Queen and her knights. 

" Critics trace in this famous |stanza an allu- 
sion to Claude's picture of the ' Enchanted Castle,' 
of which Keats had already written a detailed 
study in his Epistle to Reynolds." 

Mr. Buxton Forman, in his small edition 
of ' The Complete Works of Keats ' (Gowans 
& Gray, 1901), vol. ii. p. 102, notes, says : 

" It seems, to me unlikely that any particular 
story is referred to, though there are doubtless 
many stories that will answer more or less nearly 
to the passage." 

He adds that the spelling " faery " is to be 
preferred to "fairy," as "eliminating all 
possible connexion of fairy-land with Christ- 
mas trees, tinsel, and Santa Claus, and carry- 
ing the imagination safely back to the Middle 
Ages to ' Amadis of Gaul,' to ' Palmerin of 
England,' and above all to the East, to the 

* Thousand and one Nights.' ' 

I note that Tennyson's ' Recollections of 
the Arabian Nights ' include the " bulbul," 
and surely there is no need to put the poet 
on his oath (if that were possible in the 
Elysian fields) as to whether he ever heard 
a nightingale on the edge of the sea. Fairy 
country of any sort has its own architecture, 
geology, and natural history. Poets im- 
prove on Nature. Why shouldn't they, if 
they can ? The way in which annotators 
of the classics leave out the imagination is 

" Forlorn " is surely a suitable word to 
associate with enchantment. On fairy 
ground one easily gets lost. 


It would be pleasant to think that Keats 
was inspired by the ' CEdipus Coloneus ' when 
he introduced the voice 

that ofttimes hath 

Oharm'd magic casements, opening on the foam 
Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn. 

The " magic casements " might well be 
those of the temple of the Eumenides, 
adjoining which was the grove with its 
warbling nightingales. These were " faery 
lands " of the first order, sadly " forlorn," 
however, in the view of a modern poet, since 
Greece is living Greece no more. 

The difficulty presented by the " perilous 
seas " loses some of its formidable character 

if we bear in mind that Attica specially 
favoured the worship of Poseidon, and 
that a poet may take liberties when he 
uses topography for illustrative purposes. 
Thomas Franc klin's version of a celebrated 
chorus in the ' CEdipus Coloneus ' might be 
the source whence Keats derived his idea 
of the region : 

Where* beneath the ivy shade, 
In the dew-besprinkled glade, 
Many a love-lorn nightingale 
Warbles sweet her plaintive tale. 

Here first obedient to command, 
Formed by Neptune's skilful hand, 
The steed was taught to know the vein, 
And bear the chariot o'er the plain ; 
Here first along the rapid tide 
The stately vessels learned to ride, 
And swifter down the currents flow 
Than Nereids cut the waves below. 


Mr. H. Buxton Forman' s note on this 
passage in 1889 was as follows : 

" In the last line of this stanza the word 
fairy instead of faery stands in the MS. and in the 
Annals ; but the Lamia volume reads faery, 
which enhances the poetic value of the line in the 
subtlest manner." 


I beg to move the previous question. 
Why did the nightingale's song make Keats 
think of fairyland at all ? Can it have been 
for the same reason that made the cuckoo's 
" shout " make " the earth we pace " seem 
to Wordsworth " an unsubstantial fairy 
place " ? Can it have been because he was 
a poet ? Surely such literalism as your 
correspondents' queries imply is fatal to 
the charm of poetry. And why are these 
particular points chosen for inquiry ? We 
might as well ask what particular reason 
Keats had for associating the nightingale 
with Ruth or why the full-throated song 
of summer in the first stanza turns into a 
" plaintive anthem " in the last or why 
the eglantine should be pastoral any more 
than the hawthorn " or any other reason 
why." What would the stanza gain in 
beauty what would it not lose in signifi- 
cance if we could " hook it to " some legend 
or bit of folk-lore ? C. C. B. 

Is not the tradition of " forlornness " in 
fairies- and fairyland derived, in the first 
instance, from the old belief that though 
longer-lived and more powerful than human 
beings fairies have not immortal souls, and 
are outside the scheme of Redemption ? 

F. H. 



[11 S. V. JAN. 6, 1912. 

MISTLETOE (11 S. iv. 502). I remember 
once reading somewhere that there were 
(? at that time) only thirteen oak trees in 
England on which the mistletoe was known 
to grow. May it not be that the exceeding 
rareness of this conjunction was such as 
to make the oak (on which mistletoe grew) 
a sacred tree ? 

In the Californian forests the mistletoe 
grows freely on certain trees I forget which. 
But while most unmistakably a mistletoe, it 
is not the same as ours : it grows in a large 
and compact bush, almost solid with leaves. 

In his article on this plant MB. TOM JONES 
states that " sculptured sprays and berries 
with leaves of mistletoe fill the spandrels 
of the tomb of one of the Berkeleys in Bristol 
Cathedral." This is an often-repeated mis- 
take. There is no mistletoe represented in 
Bristol Cathedral, and the original mis- 
statement arose from the fact that the 
straight-winged samara fruit of the maple 
amongst its foliage, bordering one of the 
eight stellated arches, has a remote resem- 
blance to the twin leaves and sessile berries 
of the mistletoe. IDA M. ROPER. 


iv. 427). It need scarcely be said that 
Benvenuto Cellini's story of his father 
showing him a salamander enjoying itself 
in the hottest part of a wood fire lighted 
in the wash-house was probably based 
on a torpid lizard or newt having been 
brought in with the wood. Similar events 
would, in early times, confirm the idea that 
fire, as well as earth, air, and water, must 
contain life of some kind ; and the immunity 
of the salamander to heat was attributed 
to its fireproof wool. Asbestos was con- 
sidered to be this wool (' N.E.D.' quotations). 

The common land newt, supposed to be 
the salamander, thus became an uncanny 
reptile ; in the South of France, probably in 
other countries, it is believed to be venomous, 
blind, and deaf. The reasons for this belief 
form a curious piece of folk-lore, interesting 
to me as long familiar with the fallacies 
believed about snakes and other reptiles, 
and possibly interesting to others, inasmuch 
as it rests largely on the fallacies of word- 
resemblance, and affords some curious in- 
stances of the mutation of words in that 
central language of the Latin nations, 
Provengal and its kindred dialects. 

The peculiarities attributed to the newt 
have given rise to a number of sayings, such 
as "verinous coume uno blando," venomous 

as a newt ; and it is known a^ " lou brenous," 
the venomous, and " la sourdo," the deaf. 
Its blindness, coupled with the proverbial 
deafness of the adder, its own venom, and its 
power of darting on its prey, is shown in : 

Se la blando i& vesi^ 
E la vip&ro i' entendi 
Debalarien un cavalte. 

If the newt could see, and the viper hear, 
they could pull a man down from horseback 
(Mistral, 'Tresor d'ou Felibrige '). Whence 
come these ideas of blindness and of venom? 
I find the explanation in the mutation of 
Provengal consonants, of 6, m, v, of r, I, n. 

The word " salamandra," passing from 
Greek through Latin to Provengal, became 
escamandre, figuratively for a hideous crea- 
ture, and talabrando, alabrando, for the newt. 
The latter word then became alabreno ; 
and the adjectives talabrena, alabrena, mean 
speckled like the newt and some of the 
lizards. Another change was dropping 
the first part of the name, which became 
blando, blendo, even blounde. Variants of 
the rime are given in Mistral's ' Tresor ' ; 
in these the blind reptile is arguei, ourguei, 
agutoun, all from L. anguis, the Fr. orvet, 
meaning the blindworm or slowworm. In 
one of these rimes it is nadiuel, " has no 
eyes." The blindness of this snake-like lizard 
appears, through these rimes, to have passed 
to the newt, our witch's "eye of newt" not- 
withstanding. And once it was confounded 
with a snake, the attribute of venom would 
be a natural consequence. Indeed, the 
deafness of the viper passes to it in the name 
la sourdo. But how could a newt or a 
blindworm attack a horseman, even with 
good sight ? The explanation seems to be 
this : aguloun also means a dart, sting, or 
goad (L. aculeus) ; so to the harmless 
blindworm was probably attributed the 
power of darting at man, like the jaculi 
of Lucan and Dante, our " wyvern," and 
the harmless " eye-snake " of India, whose 
long, pointed nose was evidently meant to 
dart at men's eyes. The newt which re- 
placed the blindworm in the rimes also 
acquired the power of darting and using with 
fatal effect the " blind worm's sting " of 
Macbeth's witches. I may say that no one 
who has not had opportunities of observing 
and studying snakes scientifically, who has 
not heard the stories told, and believed, 
about them, especially in India, can have 
any idea of the credulity, even among 
educated Englishmen, about them or reptiles 
resembling them. As Sir Arthur Helps 
said, " a good sound prejudice is not to 
be contradicted by mere eyesight and 

11 S. V. JAN. 6, 1912.] 


observation " ( ' Friends in Council ' ). Study 
of the etymology of the Provencal names for 
the newt, for the blindworm, and even for 
their venom, shows that these words have 
been largely affected by the credulity of the 
-people, not only of Southern France, but 
probably also of ancient Italy. 

At blando the evolution from " sala- 
mandra " ceases, but here the newt acquires 
a new but somewhat similar name from 
another source. It is lou brenous, the 
venomous, a nonce-word as a noun, changed 
slightly from its adjectival form berinous, 
verinous, in mimic relationship to alabreno, 
as blando to alabrando. From alabrando came 
blando ; to alabreno came brenous. And 
berin&us is from veri (thirteenth century), 
verin, which passed into French as verin, 
velin, becoming venim, venin, under the 
influence of the Latin word, though this 
became veleno in Italian. 

Thus the newt has come to be considered 
blind, deaf, and venomous, though its fire- 
proof nature has been almost forgotten. 



There is a ceremony, much in vogue 
in German students' " Kneipen," called 
" einen Salamander reiben." According to 
Spamer's ' Konversations-Lexikon,' it ori- 
ginated in Jena over a century ago, when it 
became the custom at the close of every 
drinking-bout for each one present to drink 
a glass of " Schnaps." A small portion of 
this brandy was poured on the table as a 
libation to the fire-god (Salamander) and 
set on fire, all lights being extinguished. 
One of the students then delivered a speech, 
addressed to the fire-god, whilst the others 
rubbed their glasses on the table and repeated 
several times the word " Salamander." On 
the burning brandy being extinguished, all 
glasses were emptied and set down on the 
table with one sounding blow ("mit einem 
Schlage "). 

There are other explanations of the 
custom, but there are several local super- 
stitions in Germany about the salamander, 
i.e., its incombustibility, use in case of fire, &c. 
May this have any connexion with your 
correspondent's quotations ? 


Some Derbyshire folk threaten a child 
with " I '11 give you a good salam," while 
others use the word " salat." There was a 
good deal of talk about " samalanders " 
being at times seen in wood fires, and I 
remember how I used to watch the fire 
when a new clog was laid on, in the hope 

that I might see " a samalander." The iron 
rod which was used for heating the barrel 
of the frilling-iron, when all women wore 
caps, was called in my home a " samander" 
or a " sammy iron." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

[A " salamander " is also the name of a large 
cooking iron used in the kitchen of some gentle- 
men's houses.] 

MEDICAL PROFESSION (11 S. iv. 425, 496). 
PELLIPAR states that I am incorrect in sup- 
posing that the Lord Mayor of London is 
chosen from a restricted number of Livery 
Companies. The only work of reference I 
have at hand is Sydney Young's ' Annals, 
of the Barber-Surgeons.' From it I make 
the following extracts, which appear to 
support my statement. They refer to the 
only four members of that Company who 
became Lord Mayor. 

1. " June 8, 1622. At a Court held this day 
Alderman Proby was ordered to be transferred 
to the Grocers' Company in view of his election as 
Lord Mayor." P. 533. 

2. "In 1661 Sir John Frederick was translated 
to the Grocers' Company to enable him to take 
the office of Lord Mayor." P. 551. 

3. " Sir Humphrey Edwin was elected Lord 
Mayor of London ( 1697 ), he having been previously 
translated from the Barber-Surgeons' Company 
to the Skinners' Company." P. 561. 

4. " July 21, 1720. The Master acquainted 
the Court that Sir William Stewart, a Freeman 
of this Company, did make his request to this 
Court that he might be translated from this 
Company to the Company of Goldsmiths, foras- 
much as it was required by the custom of London 
that he should be free of one of the first twelve 
Companies of London before he could be put in 
election as Lord Mayor." P. 562. 

Similarly, I believe that an examination 
of the annals of the Apothecaries' Com- 
pany would show that no member of that 
Company has been elected Lord Mayor 
unless he has become a member of one of 
the twelve Companies referred to in the 
preceding paragraph. 


BENNETTO (11 S. iv. 448). Perhaps the 
following may help MR. A. E. BENNETTO to 
the information he requires : James Ben- 
etto was instituted to the living of Perran- 
zabuloe, Cornwall, on 11 June, 1793, and 
remained vicar there till 1818. I have 
searched through the lists of incumbents of 
most of the parishes in that county, but this 
is the only instance I have discovered of a 
person bearing the above name. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JA>-. e, IQIS. 

<11 S. iv. 109, 129, 148, 156, 196, 217, 275). 

3. " Darkness and the grave " (p. 109). 
This appears to be a misreading of the 
' Sketch-Book.' In ' The Broken Heart ' 
Irving quotes the half -line " darkness 
and the worm " from Young's ' Night 
Thoughts ' : 

The knell, the shroud, the mattock, and the grave ; 
The deep damp vault, the darkness, and the worm. 

Night IV. 

9. 'Corydon's Doleful Knell' (p. 129). 
In my copy of Percy's ' Reliques ' it is 
stated that the poem Corydon's Doleful 
Knell ' is given, "with corrections, from 
two copies, one of which is in ' The Golden 
Garland of Princely Delights.' " The 
author, I believe, is quite unknown. 
14. When this old cap was new, 

'Tis since two hundred yeare. P. 129. 

Some versions of this song are signed with 
the initials " M. P.," supposed to indicate 
Martin Parker, for an account of whom 
see the ' D.N.B.' 

33. The ship sailed " and was never 
heard of more " (p. 148). A quotation 
evidently from ' The Castaway Ship,' an 
extremely popular and formerly much 
admired poem by John Malcolm. The 
closing lines are as follows : 

It may not be ; there is no ray 
By which her doom we may explore ; 
We only know she sailed away, 
And ne'er was seen or heard of more ! 
The author, a native of Orkney, served 
as an officer in the Army, and died com- 
paratively young. His poem ' The Cast- 
away Ship ' appears in several Scottish 
school-books of fifty or sixty years ago, 
and is painfully associated in my recollec- 
tion with the tremulous tones of scholars 
in terror of the teacher's taws. Malcolm 
published three volumes, mostly in verse, 
and contributed largely to periodical 
literature, but does not find a place, 
strangely enough, in the ' D.N.B.,' where, 
without doubt, he should have appeared. 

38.^ Apparition in the Tower (p. 148). 
See ' The Romance of London : Super- 
natural Stories,' by John Timbs, in the 

Chandos Classics," pp. 18-26. 

39. Lyly's writings perpetuated in a 
proverb (p. 148). Is not the allusion to 
Lyly s ' Euphues,' which added to the 
English language a new word, " euphu- 
ism," commonly employed to designate 
*n affected or inflated style of writing ? 

41. ' Hue and Cry after Christmas ' 
{p. 148). The author is probably un- 

known. There are several publications 
with somewhat similar titles. In 1651 
the Rev. Richard Culmer wrote ' The 
Minister's Hue and Cry.' ' Hue and Cry 
after the False Prophets and Deceivers of 
our Age ' was written by Edward Bur- 
rough in 1661. Somewhere I have seen 
a title, ' Hue and Cry after the Christian,' 
but have mislaid my note of it. There are 
several other similar titles, but the refer- 
ence by Irving does not seem to apply to 
any of them. 

44. ' Cupid's Solicitor for Love ' (p. 148). 
Richard Crimsall was the author of 
' Cupid's Solicitor of Love,' presumably 
the same publication as that mentioned 
by Washington Irving. W. S. S. 

488). I subjoin a copy of the title-page of 
this book on heraldry and genealogy, &c., 
by Thomas Milles. It is a folio volume, 
pp. x + 100, viii+36, and ii+1131. There 
is an engraved title-page by Renold El- 
stracke, six engravings of the costumes of 
the nobility (pp. 33-49), a portrait of the 
King in State (p. 61), and a plate of the 
King in Parliament (p. 69). Pp. 493-4 are 
usually mutilated, but in my copy they are 

" The | Catalogue of Honor | or | Tresury of 
True Nobility, peculiar and | proper to the Isle 
of Great Britaine. | That is to say : | A Collection 
historicall of all the Free Monarches ] as well 
Kinges of England as Scotland (nowe | united 
togither) Avith the Princes of Walles, | Dukes, 
Marquisses, and Erles ; their wives, child: | ren, 
Alliances, Families, Descentes, & Achievementes 
of | Honor. ] Wherunto j is properly prefixed : 
A speciall Treatise of that kind of (Nobility 
which Soverayne Grace, | and favour, and 
Contryes Customes, | have made meerly Politicall 
| and peculiarly Civill (never so ] distinctly 
handled before). | Translated out of Latyne 
into English : | London. | Printed by William 
.laggard. | 1610." 


This no doubt is the work by Thomas 
Milles of 1610, folio, printed and published 
by my namesake-ancestor, of which an 
exemplar may be seen at the British Museum. 
A copy, annotated throughout in MS. and 
illuminated in colours, is in my collection of 
Jaggard-printed books. 


Avonthwaite, Stratford-on-Avon. 
[MB. ROLAND AUSTIN is also thanked for reply.] 

MAID A (11 S. iv. 110, 171, 232, 271, 334, 
492). I can raise no objection to MR. 
RHODES making use of any books or army 
lists which he thinks proper, and I only 

11 S. V. JAK. 6, 1912.] 



suggested the titles of two or three books 
which I thought might possibly prevent 
further mistakes. 

He now mentions ' Hart,' but does not 
give the year. However, I may point out 
that his latest statement, to the effect that 
" there is nothing in ' Hart ' between the 
79th and the 83rd Regiment," &c., is not 
correct, because these two regiments have 
not been named at all in ' Hart's Army List ' 
since the year 1881. They have not existed, 
as such, for the past thirty years. 

Probably MR. RHODES is confusing the 
" Regimental Districts " with the " Regi- 
ments." The former are entirely different 
.organizations from the " Regiment." 



490). Brewer, in ' Phrase and Fable,' 
s.v. ' Horse,' considers the phrase " to get 
upon your high horse." After explaining 
that it means " to give oneself airs," he 
continues thus : 

" The Comte de Montbrison says : ' The four 
principal families of Lorraine are called the high 
horses, the descendants by the female line from 
the little horses or second class of chivalry. The 
hiffh horses are D'Haraucourt, L^nnoncourt, 
Ligneville, and Du Chatelet.' 'Me"moire de la 
Baronne d'Oberkirche.' " 


(11 S. iv. 409, 497). The following is taken 
from The New York Mirror, 19 November, 

" Messrs. Carey & Hart of Philadelphia have 
reproduced in a very neat volume, clearly and 
distinctly printed, Capt. Marryat's ' Diary of a 
BlaseV which has appeared in successive numbers 
of the London Metropolitan Magazine. It is a 
spirited and racy collection of notes upon men 
and manners on the sea-coasts of England and 
Flanders, with a discursive range to the East 
Indies and Rangoon, quorum pars fuimus, and 
cannot fail to interest every reader." 

I may add that I have not seen this 
reprint. LIBRARIAN. 


iii. 246). It has occurred to me that sen- 
tences of the last paragraph of the ' Intro- 
duction ' to Button's ' Miscellanea Mathe- 
matica ' (London, 1775) may possibly refer 
to this periodical. The sentences are as 
follows : 

" As an entire tract on the exhaustion of vessels 
of a fluid, hath not anywhere been delivered, that 
is made the subject of the first article. I know 
that a, beginning was made of the subject in a 

former miscellany, but as no more than one 
number of it was ever published, that tract re- 
mained unfinished." 

Now in my query I referred to an article 
by Mr. Ely Bates in No. 1 of the Trans- 
actions. This article is entitled ' A Method 
of Determining the Time of Exhausting any 
given Vessel filled with Water or any other 
Fluid,' &c., and it closes with the sentence : 

" We might .now go on to determine the times 
of exhausting other sorts of vessels ; such as 
hemispheres, paraboloids, spheroids, &c., but this 
shall be reserved for the next number." 

A plausible inference from the above is, that 
not later than 1775 the single number of 
the Mathematical Transactions was pub- 
lished. R. C. ARCHIBALD. 
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. 

" SABBATH DAY'S JOURNEY " (11 S. iv. 429). 
In the sixties there was published a book 
of rimes called ' The Lays pf Modern 
Oxford,' in which, I remember, the following 
doggerel occurs : 

There was a young Freshman at Keble 
Whose legs were exceedingly feeble. 
He hired a fly 
To drive to "The High," 
A Sabbath day's journey from Keble. 

Those who know their Oxford will recognize 
this as a very fine example of the Biblical use. 
The other use of the expression is due to 
the licensing laws, which in the London 
district at any rate make it necessary on 
Sunday, during closing hours, to walk over 
three miles before you can get a drink at a 
public-house. To many this journey is, no 
doubt, " of great length, distasteful, and 
involving undue exertion." 


The quotation from the ' N.E.D.' in your 
foot-note calls for some modification. The 
measured 1,225 yards were " not the utmost 
limits of permitted travel on the Sabbath." 
True enough, during the Babylonian cap- 
tivity it was so ('Tractate Sabbath,' 152). 
But we are now concerned with the period 
of Hebrew civilization, mirrored in the 
Talmud, under the rule of Rome. The Jews 
were mainly an agricultural people, with 
lesser interests in the walled or castellated 
cities that sprang up in their midst to over- 
awe them into servility. Within these, 
Jews of a lower grade went in for trades 
(< Pesachim,' 65; ' Kiddushin,' 33, 70, 83) 
beneath the dignity of the yeomen and 
farming classes. They had the tan- 
yards, slaughter-houses, bakeries, smithies, 
&c. These walled cities became the 
nuclei for all communal organizations, 
which the Parnassim and the Gabboeem 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rn s. v. JAN. 6 , 1912. 

the aldermen and the treasurers of charity 
funds could attend only on the Sabbath 
day, owing to living at a distance on their 
farms (' Tractate Sabbath,' 150). The hard- 
ship entailed on the yeomen was as nothing 
compared with the suffering of the labour- 
ing classes under the obnoxious "Techum," 
the " measured distance." Numberless eva- 
sions are recorded *in the Talmud, until the 
Rabbins bethought themselves of a way 
to defeat the Roman tyranny. They had 
kiosks or hostels, called " Burgeen," erected 
along the main highways leading to the 
big cities ('Erubin,' 21 ; 'Succoth,' 8) for all 
kinds of wayfarers travelling on the Sabbath 
on foot. For doctors visiting patients or 
going to perform Abrahamic rites there 
were no " Techums " at all. They could 
post at all hours and times ; but the Par- 
nassim had to go on foot always. Much in- 
convenience and risk to life and limb were 
the lot of those public servants in the 
" ante-burgeen " days. They had either to 
set the law openly at defiance by ignoring 
" the Techum, ' or else to rise with the lark, 
if they did not wish to sleep sub Jove over- 
night under the shadow of those terrible 
towers. In the days of the " Amoraim " 
(editors of the law) these unpaid and zealous 
proctors were in better case for coping 
with social evils than their predecessors 
were in earlier times, inasmuch as they 
were not called upon to sacrifice their 
religious scruples or much of their Sabbath 
leisure in the prosecution of their unsavoury 
duties, and were always sure of food and 
shelter in the hostels. The " hedyouteem," 
or " laymen," were trained to regard wilful 
breaches of the Sabbath as one of the three 
cardinal crimes for which " Ivoruth " (early 
death) was the sole expiation. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

(US. iv. 188, 237). I happen to have the 
fourth edition of Gordon's ' Geography 
Anatomiz'd.' The title-page is the same as 
that of the. eighth edition quoted by MR. 
BTJLLOCH, except that, towards the foot of 
the page, my copy reads thus : 

" The Fourth Edition Corrected, and somewhat 
Enlarg d | By Pat. Gordon, M.A. F.R.S. I ' Omne 
tulit punctuin qui miscuit utile dulci.' Hor I 
London: [Printed for S. and J. Sprint, John 
Nicholson, and S. Burroughs | in Little Britain'; 
And r Bell at the Cross Keys and Bible in I Corn 
hill, and R. Smith under the Royal Exchange 

From MR. BULLOCH'S information and 
the replies already given, together with a 

few notes I have been able to make, it would 
appear that the first edition of Gordon's 
'Geography' was issued in 1693 (see US. 
iv. 188) ; the second in 1695 (there is a note 
to this effect in Watt) ; the third in 1699 
(see US. iv. 237); the fourth in 1704, as 
noted above. The fifth and sixth editions 
I have not heard of, but the seventh ap- 
peared in 1716, the eighth in 1719 (see US. 
iv. 188), and the ninth in 1722 (see 11 S'. 
iv. 189). Between 1722 and 1741 several 
issues must have appeared, the seventeenth 
edition being dated 1741 (see US. iv. 237). 
There was an edition in 1749, possibly num- 
bered the nineteenth. The twentieth was 
published in 1754 (see 11 S iv. 189). Many 
of these issues were probably impressions 
rather than editions in the true sense of the 
word. W. SCOTT. 

(11 S. iv. 470). Perhaps the word "token " 
is more appropriately applied to the several 
coins issued by James Lackington. The 
following is a list of all known, with numerous 
variants noted. James Lackington made 
over his business to his " third cousin," 
George Lackington, in 1798, after which date 
no "tokens" were issued by the house. No 
more vain person than Lackington has ever 
followed the calling of bookseller, and the 
issuing of these "tokens" is further proof 
than even his ' Life ' affords of '' swelled 
head." Mr. Tedder's excellent notice in 
the ' D.N.B.' does not mention these 
" tokens," which are fully dealt with in 
' The Tradesmen's Tokens of the Eighteenth 
Century,' by James Atkins (W. S. Lincoln 
& Son, 1892), pp. 98-100. 

1. O. : A three-quarter bust to left. J. LACK- 
INGTON. 1794. 

R. : A figure of Fame, blowing a trumpet* 


Y of " HALFPENNY " comes between the o's, and 
the initial J just over the first E of " BOOKSELLERS." 
E. : Milled. 

2. As last, but E. : AN ASYLUM FOR THE 

3. As last, but E. : BIRMINGHAM OR IN SWANSEA. 

4. As last, but E. : PAYABLE AT LONDON 


5. O. : The same as last. 

R. : Similar to last, but the J is over the first I* 


6. As last, but E. : PAYABLE IN ANGLESEY 


7. O. : Similar to preceding, but with a quatre- 
f oil after legend. The 1 of date is just under and 
nearly touches the bottom button of coat. 

R. : Fame as before. HALFPENNY OF 
LACKINGTON. ALLEN & co. The inner legend 

US. V. JAS-. 6, 1912.] 



as before, but with a dot at the end instead of an 
annulet, and a line dividing it from the outer. 


' 8. As last, but E. : PAYABLE IN LANCASTER 


9. As last, but E. : HALFPENNY PAYABLE AT 


10. O. : Similar to last, but the 1 of dateis some 
little distance to the right of the button. 

R. and E. : the same as last. 

11. O. and E. : the same as last. 

R. : Similar to last, but positions of the outer 
and inner legends vary, which may be detected 
by noticing that in this piece the period after 
"LACKINGTON" is over the N of. "IN," whilst 
before it was over the T of "THE." There are 
other differences. 

12. O. : Profile bust to right. J. LACKINGTON. 
A small cross below bust. 

R. : The same as last. 


13. O. : Similar to last, but with FINSBURY 
SQUARE 1795 in place of cross under the bust. 

R. : The same as last. 


14. As last, but E. milled. 

15. O. : The same as last. 

R. : A smaller figure of Fame. Without the 
dividing line. 

E. : Milled to right. 

16. As last, but E. milled to left. 

17. As last, but E. plain. 

18. O. : The obverse of No. 1. 

R. : Figure of Vulcan at work. HALFPENNY. 


19. O. : The reverse of No. 1 appears as an 

R. : Arms of Liverpool between reeds. DEUS 


187, Piccadilly, W. 

Lackington issued two small copper tokens. 
That of 1795 is shown in Mr. Mumby's 
* Romance of Bookselling,' p. 309, and the 
1794 issue in Mr. W. Roberts' s 'TheBook- 
Hunter in London,' p. 182. This last-named 
token is superior in design and finish, the 
head of Lackington bearing some resem- 
blance to his engraved portraits. The 
legend round the edge reads " Payable at 
the Temple of the Muses." 


I have one of Lackington's medals, about 
the size of a florin : Obverse portrait, with 
inscription, " J. Lackington," and date 
*' 1794." Reverse allegorical figure blow- 
ing a trumpet, and inscription : " Halfpenny 
of Lackington Allen & Co. Cheapest Book- 
sellers in the World." On the rim: "Payable 
at the Temple of the Muses." 


J. SUASSO DE LIMA (11 S. iv. 509). 
MR. SOLOMONS will find some interesting 
particulars of J. Suasso de Lima in ' Sixty 
Years Ago,' by L. H. Meurant, a copy of 
which is in this library. The author states 
that he was a Dutch lawyer, a clever man, 
and a linguist. 

" He was always in trouble ; never paid any- 
body, especially his house-rent. On one occasion 
he had to change his residence, but there was 
a writ of ' gyseling ' (civil imprisonment) out 
against him, and constables on the watch. To 
effect his removal he obtained a large ' ballast- 
mant ' (clothes-basket), got into it, and had it 
covered over with books, newspaper?, &c., and 
carried out by two coolies. The constables on the 
watch, being suspicious, gave chase ; the frightened 
coolies abandoned their charge, the basket upset, 
and De Lima rolled out." 

De Lima edited a paper called the Verzame- 
laar, a kind of Dutch Punch, and was -the 
author of a book of poems entitled ' Xieuwe 
Gedichten,' published in 1840. A list of 
his works will be found in Mendelssohn's 
' South African Bibliography.' 

P. EVANS LEWIN, Librarian. 
Royal Colonial Institute, 

Northumberland Avenue. 

(11 S. iv. 469). A list of E. F. G.'s contribu- 
tions to ' N. & Q.' will be found in my ' Notes 
for a Bibliography of Edward FitzGerald,' 
published some nine or ten years ago by Mr. 
Frank Hollings, of Great Turnstile, Holborn. 
This little volume was a reprint, with addi- 
tions and corrections, of a series of articles 
contributed by me to ' N. & Q.' Being 
abroad at the present moment, I regret I 
cannot give the exact references. 


Villa Paradis, Hyeres. 

[CoL. PRIDEAUX'S articles appeared at 9 S. v. 
201, 221, 241, with a supplementary one at p. 61 
of vol. vi. FitzGerald's contributions to ' N. & Q.' 
are included in the third article.] 

DANIEL GOTHERSON (11 S. iv. 447). 
Matthew Prior was a bailiff for two estates 
in England for Major Daniel Gotherson. 
The Daniel Gotherson who came to America 
with Prior and Capt. John Scott in 1663 
was not Major Gotherson, but his son of 
the same name. Major Gotherson died in 
September, 1666, in London, and in that 
month described himself as "of the parish 
of Godmersham in the County of Kent." 
Prior's letter to Lovelace, written in 1668, 
was given in Gideon D. Scull's ' Dorothea 
Scott, otherwise Gotherson and Hogben,' 
privately printed at Oxford in 1883, in which 
book MR. HILLMAN will find much about 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. 6, 1912. 

Gotherson. I apprehend that MB. HILLMAN 
is mistaken in thinking that Prior's letter 
of 1668 was written from Long Island. 
In Scull's book the letter is dated " Killing- 
worth," but that is in Connecticut, not on 
Long Island. 

Much about Capt. John Scott will be 
found in the Proceedings and Collections of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society. 


Boston, U.S. 

I have always believed that the bundle of 
suspended straw was to give to navigation 
a plain warning to take no risks and use 
some other arch. To the inquiry, " Why 
straw?" one is tempted to reply, "Why 
not ? " I think I have seen a log of wood 
suspended, but what is wanted is something 
which will make a big show and which any 
handy bit of rope may be trusted to support. 
And what better than straw ? D. O. 

[MR. J. P. STILWELL also thanked for reply,] 

"LATTER LAMMAS" (11 S. iv. 469). 
If we suppose and we have good authority 
for it that " Lammas " means the last 
math, or mowing, after which the cattle 
of the commoners were turned to pasture 
on the Lammas lands of the manor or 
township, we shall have no difficulty in 
understanding how the phrase " latter 
Lammas " can be used in both the senses 
to which A. A. M. refers. This derivation 
seems to me, who do not pretend to any 
special knowledge of the subject, more 
probable than the more usual one from 
" loaf Mass." If it were proved that in 
early English days it was a custom to offer 
a loaf in church at the beginning of the 
corn harvest, the scale would incline the 
other way. But is there such ? 


The ' N.E.D.,' v. Lammas, 3, gives : " Latter 
Lammas (-fday), a day that will never come. 
At latter Lammas ; humorously for ' Never.' " 

Equivalent to " Greek Kalends " (Sue- 
tonius, 'Aug.,' 87). TOM JONES. 

PENCE AS A PLACE-NAME (11 S. iv. 330, 
437, 497). The twelfth-century lawsuit 
mentioned by MR. ANSCOMBE is recorded 
at greater length than in the ' Placitorum 
Abbreviatio,' in one of the Selden Society's 
publications, if I remember rightly, the 
spelling being a slight variant on " Penge." 
I have been waiting for some weeks in the 
hope of finding time to look up the exact 
reference, but there is little prospect of my 

being able to do it, so I send in this imperfect 
reply. It is interesting to observe that the 
real question at issue seems to have been 
whether Penge was a part of Battersea or 
not a question still unsettled 700 years 
later, for one of the Metropolis Management 
Acts of the latter half of the nineteenth 
century solemnly enacts that " nothing in 
this Act shall be deemed to determine 
whether the hamlet of Penge is or is not a 
part of the parish of Battersea." I quote 
from memory. A. MORLEY DAVIES. 

Winchmore Hill, Amersham. 

"WIGESTA" (11 S. iv. 304). MR. ANS- 
COMBE will perhaps be disappointed on 
learning that his arguments do not altogether 
convince. It may be pointed out that the 
southern part of Bedfordshire, from the 
Ouse to the boundary, contained almost 
exactly 900 hides ; in this part of the 
county is Wixamtree hundred, the Wiche- 
stanston ( ? Wichestanstron) of Domesday 
Book. The Wixna districts (600 and 300 
hides), with a similar name, also require 
fitting in, and may be this South Bedford- 
shire area. The " Latin " form of the 
' Tribal Hidage ' assigns only 800 hides 
to Wigesta, so that possibly the Eight 
Hundreds once appurtenant to Oundle may 
represent them. It is noteworthy that a 
system of giving testimony by eight hundreds 
existed in Cambridgeshire, as the ' Liber 
Eliensis ' shows. J. BROWNBILL. 

(11 S. iii. 129, 172, 195, 298). Some further 
references will be found in the notes to the 
ballad of 'The English Merchant of Chi- 
chester ' on p. 318 of vol. i. part ii. of the 
Ballad Society's edition (1870) of the 
' Roxburghe Ballads,' where, amongst other 
references, there is one to 'N. & Q.' (4S. v.. 
95), s.v. ' Hanging or Marrying.' 

Waltham Abbey, Essex. 

'THE ROBBER'S CAVE' (11 S. iv. 448). 
The writer of this book was Miss Charlotte 
Maria Tucker, known as A.L.O.E. (A Lady 
of England). It is procurable from the 
publishers, Messrs. T. Nelson & Sons. 


FIRE-PAPERS (US. iv. 406, 493). These 
gaudy and flimsy contrivances for hiding 
an empty grate are not quite obsolete. One 
day last summer I met two gipsy women 
hawking them in a village near Stratford- 
on-Avon. In this district they are called 
" fire-screens." WILLIAM JAGGARD. 

US. V. JAK.6, 1912.] 



461). That excellent book ' Calcutta Old 
and New,' by H. E. A. Cotton (Calcutta, 
W. Xewman & Co., 1907), gives a little 
more information about Casanova's Paris 
friend Tiretta: 

" Tireita Bazar Street.... It is now the pro- 
perty of the Maharajah of Burdwan, but the 
name it bears is that of a. Venetian named Ed- 
ward Tiretta. Mr. Long has put the date of its 
establishment in 1788, but it is described in 
Wood's map in 1781 as ' Tiretta's Bazar,' and it 
is probably much older. In a prospectus of a 
lottery issued in 1788 and advertised in The 
Calcutta Gazette of that year, the ' First Prize ' 
is represented to be ' that large and spacious 
Pucka Bazar or market belonging to Mr. Tiretta, 
situated in the north central part of the town of 
Calcutta.' . . . The lucky winner of the ' first- 
prize ' was Charles Weston .... Other properties 
are also set out in the advertisement, and are 
valued in the prospectus at Rs. 3.20,000 : from 
which it would appear that Mr. Tiretta had divers 
avenues of emolument open to him besides his 
official appointment of ' Superintendent of Streets 
and Houses ' under the Municipal Committee. 
He appears to have continued to reside in Cal- 
cutta after the drawing of the lottery in 1791, 
but seems not to have died there." 

On p. 566 of the same book it is mentioned 
that Tiretta' s wife was " daughter of the 
Count de Carrion." 

79, Great King Street, Edinburgh. 


The Chilterns and the Vale. By G. Eland. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE has an exceptional amount of 
history to boast of, and remains as yet largely 
unspoilt, though the railway has brought it 
nearer London than it was. Mr. Eland has at- 
tempted to collect some notes which will give an 
idea of the wealth of interest outside the towns, 
and he has succeeded, we think, in his aims, 
though he will hardly escape the accusation of 
being " scrappy " which his Introduction fore- 
shadows. He gives references at the foot of his 
pages, and addresses himself, he says, to "the 
more tolerant general reader." We find nothing 
to raise the ire of the expert except the mention 
of some foolish etymologies which ought to have 
been left in obscurity. What is the use of working 
at philology, as many patient scholars do, if 
popular writers go on repeating rejected theories 
and absurdities ? On rural industries and 
pleasures, the beech-woods, and many a piece of 
legend and tradition we read our author with 
real pleasure. 

The six illustrations in colour by E. Sanders 
give attractive and typical views of the county. 
They include a 'church and a manor-house, a 
local trade, ' The Bodger's Workshop,' and those 
fine stretches of country which are so pleasing 
to the eye accustomed to the comparative flatness 
of the Thames valley near London. 

Studies on Denominative Verbs in English. By 
Vilhelm Bladin. (Upsala, Almqvist & Wik- 
sell. ) 

WE have received from Sweden an elaborate 
monograph, written as an inaugural dissertation, 
and in English, on the formation of verbs from 
English nouns. The author has consulted our 
chief standard works on philology, attaching 
himself particularly to the ' X.E.D." ; and he 
quotes from our writers, ancient and modern, 
illustrious and otherwise, with a copiousness that 
argues both sympathy and familiarity. We think 
that it is something of a mistake to give as much 
space and attention as he does to the words 
coined, on the spur of the moment, by newspaper 
writers. He himself remarks that English " ap- 
proaches the simplicity which we are wont to 
attribute to Chinese, ' ' and certainly the principle of 
our formation of " nonce "-words is so extremely 
simple that it needs no more than the briefest illus- 
tration, with a hint to the reader to be on the 
look-out for instances. In ' N. & Q.' M. Bladin 
has found some twenty-five examples of this 
and other vagaries. 

The work is divided into two parts, (a) General 
and (6) Special, of which the former is by a good 
deal the more interesting ; and of its sections, 
perhaps IV., ' Influence of Analogy on Denomi- 
native Formation,' and X., ' " Backfonned " 
Denominatives,' will afford the curious reader the 
best entertainment. The work is likely to be 
especially useful for comparative study to be 
read, that is, alongside of similar books upon the 
derivation of verbs from nouns in other lan- 

Whitaker's Almanack, 1912. (Whitaker & Sons.) 
Whitaker's Peerage, 1913. (Same publishers.) 
MANY happy New Years to both these useful 
publications ! We cannot imagine the loss we 
should feel if they were not on our writing-table. 
For forty-four years we have now enjoyed our 
' Whitaker's Almanack,' although it seems 
nothing like that time since its founder showed 
us one of the first copies of its first issue. Well 
we remember how rightly proud he was of it, 
and how his always bright, open face beamed 
with pleasure as he challenged criticism, and every 
search for errors difficult then, as now, to find, 
for the editorship of the son is as accurate as that 
of the father. 

The first 'Almanack ' was published on the 10th 
of December, 1868, and contained 362 pages, with 
an index of 2,000 references. The present 
volume contains 856 pages, and an index of 7,000 

' W T hitaker's Peerage ' is prepared with the same 
care as the ' Almanack,' and we congratulate the 
editor that, while the shower of Coronation 
honours has increased its pages by twenty-five, 
he has not had to make room for five hundred 
new creations, as at one time seemed likely. The 
editor gratefully thanks the recipients of new 
honours for the information they readily furnished, 
but some new knights seem as bashful as ladies 
about giving information of the date of their 
birth. A full account of the Coronation is supplied 
from official sources, and we are glad to see that 
space has been saved " by eliminating altogether 
from the alphabetical list'the title ' Esq.,' always 
invidious when strict accuracy is sought in fhe 
face of but scanty information." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. v. JAK. 6, 1912. 

THE New Year's number of The Cornhill bogin 
with some new verses by Thackeray, a festiv 
laudation of wine suitable to the season, whic 
was written in 1831. Sir Algernon West has 
pleasant article in praise of ' Lord James o 
Hereford,' who possessed the spirits of a boy an 
;an overflowing vitality and generosity. Mrs 
Arthur Bell has translated from the French o 
M. Bpurget ' A Christmas Eve under the Terror 
a poignant story of birth in the midst of th 
'.terrors of death. Sir H. W. Lucy supplies " mor 
passages by the way ' ' for his ' Sixty Years i 
the Wilderness,' concerning Fleet Street in th 
seventies, a theine also dealt with by Mr. Escot 
in The Fortnightly this month. Sir Henry con 
-victs Disraeli in ' Sybil ' of gross plagiarism fron 
The Sporting Magazine in a description of th 
Derby, and says that Viscountess Beaconsfielt 
was very unpopular at High Wycombe on accoun 
of her stinginess. ' Laura and Trudi ' is a prettj 
story bv Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick, while ' In a Truan 
School, by Miss Dorothy Horace-Smith, is both 
entertaining and instructive. With the answers 
to questions on the Falstaff Cycle the literarj 
competitions are ended for the present. 

IN The Fortnightly Mr. Sidney Low opens wit] 
.an article on 'The Foreign Office Autocracy 
and suggests a Foreign Affairs committee. He 
points out that the Declaration of Delhi has been 
made for good or evil without the consent o 
parliament. There are two good articles on 
.the Insurance Act by " Auditor Tantum " and 
Mr. T. A. Ingram; and Mr. Sydney Brooks has 
one of his well-considered papers on ' England 
Germany, and Common Sense.' Mr. Henry 
Baerlem has a striking little sketch of a Mexican 
ploughman ' In a Field,' and "Variag" continues 
.to be interesting in his views of Russian intrigue 
m A Leader.' 

, Our keenest attention is, however, attracted 
oy Literature and Journalism,' by Mr. T. H S 
Escott, and ' England's Taste in Literature,' by 
Mr. Raymond Blathwayt. Mr. Escott writes 
brightly, as usual, dealing with Dickens as a 
maker of journalists and essayists, and a master 
who laid stress on study in the British Museum. 
Sala (now largely forgotten), W. J. Prowse, 
trrenville Murray, and Edmund Yates are hit 
r us m a few lines; and the importance of 
hornton Hunt as an editor demanding educa- 
18 T? a f ^u Mr " Escott is concerned to 
A* , the , llteral T type of journalist, 
u the m > tur . al Product of the forces and 
then [m Sala's day] operating with 
newspaper readers and writers, developed in all 
ned a temper and taste that have now 
Iisappeared To judge from present signs, the? 

aHowl^ fc i he le f s V ikely to re ^." We cannot 
low ourselves to be so pessimistic, but the out- 
>ok is certainly not promising. 
Mr Blathwayt has got data for his inquiry 
from lending libraries great bookshops, and more 
,than one distinguished author and publisher! 
He deals largely with the attitude of Society 
is obviously at present taken with various 
.embodiments of mysticism and philosophy 
But when he credits Society with freedom from 
meaningless little conventions," he might add 
that it is tied and hampered by meaningless little 
catchwords Fashion in literature is not per- 

fofk e Vif. ,Tf gh v, n0t 1 ne f ligible ' Are Society 
.folk entitled to be called "the Athenians of 

modern England" ? A scholar will hardly think 
they deserve the compliment. Women read 
sociology more than men, according to this 
observer. " Meredith is read almost exclusively 

y 1 1 Umver sity man. Scott and Dickens are 
read by children and the very old." Verdicts 
such as these make us doubt, not the soundness 

f Mr. Blathwayt's conclusions on the evidence, 
but the untrustworthy character of the evidence 
itself. Our own experience of readers, which goes 
back some years, directly contradicts the first 
assertion at least. 

It is said that a revival in history may be 
looked for in the near future, but surely the 
revival has come already. Otherwise, why do 
the publishers encourage so much rewriting, by 
smart pens of all sorts, concerning kings, queens, 
literary characters in fact, any one of note 
round whom a book can be built up ? 

Miss LUCY B. LOVEDAY is collecting materials 
with a view to publishing a life of Miss C. M. 
*anshawe. She would be very grateful if any 
of the readers of ' N. & Q.' could supply her with 
any information, or would entrust any papers or 
letters to her care. She would return all MSS. 
sent to her at as early a date as possible. She 
begs that all information and papers be sent 
direct to her at Williamscote, Banbury 

notes, by Mr R. M. Leonard, will be issued imme- 
diately by Mr. Frowde. It consists of passages 
m poetry and prose relating to books in all their 
aspects, libraries, and reading, grouped according 
to the subject ; and some 250 authors in all are 
represented. The Anthology will appear in t 
Oxford Editions of Standard Authors. 


ON all communications must be written the name 
uid address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately 
r can we advise correspondents as to the value 

t0 the means < 

nor _ 

f old 

disposing of 

^rrf 1 r-"iVi J - i communications should be addres&ed 
o 'The Editor of ' Notes and Queries "'-AdvS- 

S 8 " a " Business Le tters to "The Pub" 
H. J. G. and W. C. K.-Forwarded. 

ii s.v. JAN. e, 1912.] NOTES AXD QUERIES. 



THIS WEEK'S ATHEN^UM contains Articles on 








LAST WEEK'S ATHEN^UM contains Articles on 




RECENT VERSE : The Everlasting Mercy; Horizons and Landmarks; Art and Nature; Songs of 

Joy ; The Return from the Masque ; The Don and the Dervish ; The Seasons' Difference ; Mr. 

C. Granville's Poems ; Carmina Varia ; Forty-Two Poems ; Afterglow ; Oine. 
HISTORICAL SOURCES : Royal Historical Society's Transactions ; Camden Miscellany ; Reports 

of the Historical MSS. Commission ; Catalogue of Tracts of the Civil War. 
OUR LIBRARY TABLE : The Soliloquies of Shakespaare ; Pilgrim Life in the Middle Ages ; 

Lettres de Combat ; Modern Works added to the British Museum ; Who's Who ; Who's Who 

Year-Book ; Writers' and Artists' Year-Book. 



SCIENCE : Ancient Hunters and their Modern Representatives ; Cook's Attainment of the Pole ; 

Geological and Topographical Maps ; Gossip. 

FINE ARTS : John Opie and his Circle ; Sale ; Gossip ; Exhibitions. 
MUSIC : Gossip. 
DRAMA : The Miracle ; Gossip. 


Athenceum Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. And of all Newsagents. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. v. JAN. 6, 1912. 








To be had post free on application. 

The Fine Arts : Picture Galleries, Costume, Por- 
traits, Furniture, Architecture, Ornament, 

. Part I., A N. 

Topography of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Anthropology, including Prehistoric Archaeology 
and FolK=Lore. 

Papers and Extracts from Learned English Societies' 
Publications on Travel, Exploration, Natural 
History, and Archaeology. 

Miscellaneous Catalogue, No. 311. 

Published Weekly by JOHN 0. FRANCIS and J. EDWARD FRANCIS, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, B.C.; and Printed by 
J. EDWARD FRANCIS, Atbensfium Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. Saturday, Jannaru 6. 1912. 


31 IKeMum of f tttmommuttiration 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 


No 107 r E EVENT11 1 SATURDAY JANUARY 13 1912 i **t*n*m*m*f**: \ 

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Prints, and Autograph MSS., or to value the same for Probate, or for 
Fire Insurance if, as is too often the case, the Library has not yet been 

It often happens that in old country houses there are Books or Prints 
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Founded in Little Tower Street, City, in 1816. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAN. is, 1912. 


" I have just added to my library a fine set of 
Foxe's 'Acts and Monuments,' and of Fuller's 
' Worthies of England,' two books that I have long 
desired to possess. I obtained these by a com- 
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ing out to them this excellent device for obtaining 
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iis.v.j.vx.13,1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 107. 

NOTES: Vicissitudes of Seventeenth-Century Books, 21 
Old Names of Florentine Streets, 23 The Coventry 
Shakespeares, 24 Sonnet by Joachim du Bellay Shake- 
speare and Italian Literature, 25 Frances, Duchess of 
Suffolk, and Adrian Stokes Exchequer Tallies Brinsop 
Court, 26. 

QUERIES : Families: Duration in Male Line Grise: 
Grey: Badger Skating in the Middle Ages ' Gil Bias,' 
27 Epigram on St. Luke Biographical Information 
Wanted B_olivar and the Jews Samaritan Bible Bells 
rung for King Charles's Execution Gellyfeddan : Cyng- 
hordy Author Wanted R. R. : his Identity ' Lilli- 
Imllero,' 28 Railway Travel : Early Impressions 
' Arabian Nights ' ' Married Men's Feast ' Hurlo- 
thrumbo Society Robin Hood Pot ocos, English Race- 
horse Jones and Blunkett, 29 "Prince of Orange 
Coffee- House " ' Pilgrim's Progress ' Illustrated, 30. 

REPLIES : County Bibliographies, 30 Threading St. Wil- 
frid's Needle, 32 Spenser i and Dante Latin Accentua- 
tion, 33 Spider Stories History of England with Riming 
Verses, 34 " Polilla " Ludgate Dr. Richard Russell, 35 
Authors Wanted Bishops addressed as " My Lord" 
Lord_ Tilney, 36 Burial in Woollen Thomas Cromwell 
Philip Savage Grandfather Clocks in France, 37 
"America" as a Scottish Place- Name " Parkin " 
Black Stockings City Lands : Ancient Tenure, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' London North of the Thames' 
Reviews and Magazines. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


is not so full or so interesting as that of 
Elizabeth. It has not been published, nor 
is it likely to be so. Therefore it may be 
of interest to note the chief entries concern- 
ing books during the period from 1613 to 
1640. The Registers for the first few years 
of the century were destroyed by fire. 

23 May, 1622. A letter to the Lord Bishop 
of London that there is a book 

" written by David Parreus, a minister of the 
Palatinate, containing very dangerous and false 
doctrine concerning the deposing of sovereign 

It is found that there are some copies in 
the hands of the London stationers, and the 
Bishop is requested to search for, find, and 
suppress them. 

27 May, 1622. All Bishops say that this 
book of Parreus is seditious ; the Bishop 
of London is therefore to take all copies 

and give them to the Sheriff of London, to 
be publicly burnt in St. Paul's Churchyard. 

29 May, 1622. To the Chancellor of the 
University of Oxford. (This is repeated to 
Cambridge.) Whereas there was a wicked 
sermon preached the last Lent in that Uni- 
versity (Oxford) by one Knight, an un- 
advised young man, tending to no less than 
sedition, treason, and rebellion against 
Princes. Being called in question for the 
same, he did shelter himself upon doctrine 
taught by Parreus in his Commentaries of 
Romans xiii. The Bishops say that tract 
is " seditious, scandalous, and contrary to 
the Scriptures." 

" We call upon you therefore to give warning 
to the students in divinity there, that they take 
heed both of Parreus and all other Neotericks 
who in their writings do bend that way .... And 
we doe further authorize you to search, all 
libraries, and take and destroy all such books." 

On 21 Aug., 1624, the Council explained 
to Secretary Con way that they had obeyed 
orders " touching the suppressing of a 
scandalous comedie acted by the King's 
Players." They had summoned some of 
i the principal actors, and asked who had 
I licensed it. The players showed them the 
original and perfect copy, signed by Sir 
Henry Herbert, Master of the Revels, under 
his own hand. The members of the Council 
asked the players if they had added anything, 
and they denied it. " The poett, they tell 
us, is one Middleton," who shifting out of 
the way, and not attending with the rest, 
"we have given a warrant to apprehend 
him, and gave a round and sharp reproof to 
the players," forbidding them to act it any 
more, nor 

" that they suffer anie plaie or interlude what- 
ever to be acted by them untill his majesty's 
pleasure be further known. Wee have caused 
them likewise to enter into bonds for their attend- 
ance upon the Board whensoever they shall be 

The Council send the book to Conway to 
find what passages in the comedy were 
offensive and scandalous, and advise him 
to consult Sir Henry Herbert. They then 
summon Edward Middleton, son of Middle- 
ton the poet, before them, but apparently 
get no information from him. 

1 Oct., 1626. " A letter from the Devil 
to the Pope," sent to Widow Taylor of 
Ockingham, to be ready for it. "To be 
inquired into. 

7 Sept., 1631. 

" One of the Messengers to search for a pam- 
phlet intituled a true relacion of the uniust, 
crewell, and barbarous proceedings against the 
English at Amboyna, &c., and to seize upon the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAX. 13, 1912. 

said books, together with those that sett them 
to sale, and to bring both the books and the 
sellers of them before the Lords." 

31 Oct., 1631. It being discovered that 
the warrant was too severe, and seemed to 
impeach the author, it is now agreed that 
all restraint be taken from the book and it 

1631. Contest between John Haviland 
and Robert Young, printers, and George 
Sandes, translator, who had a patent to 
himself for printing and selling Ovid's 
' Metamorphoses.' To find arbitrators. 

9 Oct., 1633. 

" A debate at the Board on the irregular course 
and practice used of late tymes in the printing 
and publishing of books, and particularly of the 
enhancing offprices." 

The Attorney-General commissioned to make 
a report on the statutes concerning them. 

8 Nov., 1633. The Attorney-General 
moved the Board 

" that consideration might be had of the prices 
of all such books as are granted by patents to 
those who are no printers, in regard to the general 
enhancement thereof to excessive rates, in which 
case he did instance one book, the title whereof 
was Kelway's Reports, which, being but of a 
small volume, is sold for nine shillings." 
Mr. Attorney was instructed to make an 
inquiry what just price should be set on 
Kelway's and other books. 

The case was heard before the Justices of 
the King's Bench, and Mr. Attorney was 
instructed to examine patents. 

17 Jan., 1633/4. The Master and Wardens 
of the Stationers' Company appeared, on a 
petition by Robert Cross and Tobias 
Knowles, Messengers of His Majesty's 
Chamber, and assigns to George Wither, 
gent., for a patent of privilege to imprint and 
sell 'The Hymns and Spirituall Songs of 
the Church,' composed in verse by him the 
said George Wither, in which petition they 
complained that the Company of Stationers 
would not buy and bind up the said book 
with the Book of .Psalms. Their Lordships 
did not think fit anything whatever should 
be bound up with the Bible but the Book of 
Common Prayer, and the ' Psalmes in Meeter ' 
allowed. Any one breaking their ordinance 
should forfeit the books and have other 

21 March, 1633/4. Robert Cross and 
Tobias Knowles came again before the 
Council, and 

" did remonstrate, saying that his late Majesty 
had given George Withers a patent of privilege, 
and two orders against the Company of Stationers 
for the printing of the Hymns, and that they 

should be bound up with the Psalms as declared' 
in the Patent, the book itself being small, costing 
only fourpence. The petitioners had taken 
council and had lately covenanted with George 
Withers for the patent and selling of his book for 
21 years, by which they are tied to pay a great 
sum quarterly and have already taken of the- 
Patentee so many as are worth 400Z., part whereof 
they have paid," and given security for the re- 
mainder, for which cause they pray their Lord- 
ships to take some present order for their relief, 
and either free them from their contract, or con- 
firm the Royal Patent and two Orders, in binding 
the books with the singing Psalms, except only in 
Bibles. The unjust opposition of the Stationers 
did make ineffectual his late Majesty's favour. 
George Withers also attended and read the- 

" Their Lordships referred to Mr. Secretary 

Finally their Lordships decided the peti- 
tioners should deliver back the patent to- 
George Withers and restore all the books 
and the profit they have made, and George 
Withers should give them a full release. 

7 March, 1633/4. Whereas of late 
" an infamous libell and Booke called ' Histrio- 
mastix,' full of Scandall to his Majestie, his 
Royall Consort the Queen, the Officers of his- 
house, the Magistrates, and the whole state,, 
fraught with uncharitable and unchristian cen- 
sures of all sortes of people," 

hath been printed, one Prynne the author 
and Michael Sparkes the printer, 
" they are sentenced by the Court of Star Chamber 
to undergo, besides fyne and imprisonment, 
corporal and shameful punishment, and the 
bookes are ordered to be burnt." 

Search is to be made for all who hold them 
and for all who bought them, and the copies 
are to be seized and burnt. 

19 March, 1633/4. A petition of Robert 
Young, printer, that his predecessors printed 
' The Booke of Martyrs,' and cut all the 
pictures and matrices for the letters, and 
they had not enrolled the same in the 
Stationers' Register, and he had bought up 
all at a dear rate, and now the Company 
claim that the book belongs to them, and 
will not hear of arbitration. He is not able 
to contend against the whole Company, and 
he " prays the Council to order that two 
indifferent men " should hear and decide 
the case. They agree to this, and refer it 
to two Justices of the King's Bench. 

1634. It had been resolved that Speed's 
' Genealogies ' should no longer be bound up- 
with the Bible. But on 25 April, 1634, Dr. 
Speed petitions against this. He says that 
" he would runne a great risk of utter ruine if the 
order of the 17 th January be enforced concerning 
' the Genealogies,' the patent for which to be 
bound up with the Bibles he and his father en- 

11 S. V. JAN. 13, 1912.] 


It is decided Dr. Speed, being himself a 
person of good desert and expectation, 
" and sonne of a father who had taken 
great and usefull paines in severall pubHque 
workes," is to be allowed to continue his 
patent for seven years, and then to release 
it according to the order. 

20 May, 1634. Mr. Prynne complains of 
the seizure of his books. An inventory to 
be made. 

1636. A copy of Mr. Selden's book 
' Mare Clausum ' to be deposited in the 
Council chest. The King praised the book. 

10 April, 1637. 'An Introduction to a 
Devout Life ' to be burnt. 

29 Nov., 1637. 

" Their Lordships heard the report of Mr. 
Staples, Mr. Hayne, Mr. Brooke, and Mr. Busby, 
Schoolmasters, concerning ye grammar sent unto 
them. And thereupon their Lordships doe 
admire and wish Mr. Farnaby, who presented 
the said Grammar, to reduce the said Grammar 
as neare both in words and examples to ye old 
Grammar as may be where there is no necessity 
for him to vary from it, and to require Mr. Farnaby 
and these four schoolmasters to meet together 
and conferre bothe concerning ye wayes of re- 
ducing ye grammar as aforesaid, and concerning 
such other observations as ye Schoolmaisters have 
made thereupon." 

7 April, 1639. A letter to the Lord Bishop 
of Chester. 

" We have been made acquainted with an 
informacion taken before your Lordship and 
returned hither concerning some scandalous 
books and writings against the King's Majestie 
and his government found in the hands and 
custodie of one William Arderne of Stockport in 
the county of Chester, gent, [jn margin "clerk"], 
and we authorize you or other justices to cause 
not only due examinacion to be taken of the 
matters conteyned in the said Informacion, but 
a diligent search to be likewise made in the 
Studdy and house of the said Arderne for all 
books and other papers of the nature aforesaid, 
and them to seize and bring away, and to send the 
said William Arderne up thither in safe custody, 
with a certificate of the examinations and such 
books as you think fit." 

11 Aug., 1639. A proclamation to be 
issued about a scandalous paper. Whereas 
a paper containing many falsehoods, tending 
much to the dishonour of his Majesty's 
proceedings in Scotland, had been printed 
and circulated, the King having seen it at 
Berwick : it was to be suppressed. 

17 May, 1640. Whereas there was lately 
found in the house of Alexander Lea, a 
tailor, dwelling in Bloomsbury, 
" a Truncke belonging to one Mary Silvester, 
wherein was locked up to the number of 200 
Popish Books in English, ' Jesus Psalters,' 
'Invectives against Luther and Calvin,' ' Eheims 
Testaments,' preparative prayers to ye masse, 

Mauncells, and other superstitious prayer books 
and catechisms," 

such as by law should be burnt. Ordered, 
The Sheriff to burn them in the market-place. 

There may be more notices, as I did not 
read the whole Register straight through, 
but I referred to all entries in the index 
coming under the head of " Books." The 
index is, however, far from perfect. .There 
is naturally a gap in the Register from the 
time when the troubles of the King became 
acute until the Restoration. 



I HAVE no doubt that many persons, reading 
the histories, diaries, " Novelle," auto- 
biographies, and biographies relating to 
Florence and the Florentines, have, like 
myself, been puzzled to identify the streets 
and localities named therein, for the majority 
have had their names altered some, many 
times in the course of the centuries. The 
municipal authorities have of late years 
affixed, in a great number of cases, the old 
name (" Gia ") under the modern name. 
The following list, made from these municipal 
tablets and from various books and records, 
may be of value to students of Italian lite- 
rature. It, though long, has no pretensions 
to be complete. Some future day I may 
be able to supply the omissions. 

Former Name or Names. 
. . Via de' Marignoli. 

/Via Baccano. 
' ' \ Via de' Cavalcanti. 
. . Pozzo delle Acque. 

/"Corso degli Adimari.. 
. . 1 V. dei Pittori. 
vV. dei Cacia<>li. 
V. del Renaio. 
(V. di S. Leppoldo. 
. . -j V. Salvestrina. 

[V. Larga. 
. . V. Cennini. 
. . P. S. Maria sopra 

{V. de' Balestrieri. 
V. de' Pilastri. 
V. de' Librai. 
V. della Nunziatina.- 
. . V. delle Pappe. 
. . V. de' Contenti. 
/V. San Martino. 

\ V. Ricciarda . 

/V. del Garbo. 

t V. degli Antellesi. 

V. della Giustizia^ 
/V. delPalagio. 
' I V. degli Aranci. 
. . V. Vergognosa. 

Present Name. 
Via'de' Cerretani 
Porta Rossa . .' 
Croce al Trebbio 

V. Calzaioli - ;. 
V. delle Cascine . . 
V. Cavour 

V. Nuova 
Piazza S. Biagio 


V. della Chiesa . . 
V. Folco Portinari 
V. de' Cerchi 

V. Dante Alighieri 

V. della Condotta 
V. Vigna Vecchia 
V. Ghibellina . . 
V. dell' Acqua 

NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. v. JA*. is, 1912. 

Present Name. Former Name or Names. 

V. delle Seggiole . V. degli Orci. 

V. Crociflsso . . .V della Taverna. 

V. Mercatino . . .V. dell' Isola. 

V. Verrazzano . . .V. della Fogna. 

V Rosa . . . . . V. de' Becchi. 

(V. della Pietra. 
I V. della Colomba. 
V. de' Pepi . . { V. del Landrone. 

V. S. Anna. 
IV de' Bonfanti. 
, . f V. de' Marmi Sudici. 
V. M. Angelo Buonarroti ( y s Maria. 

V. del Ramerino. 

Borgo Allegri 
V. delle Conce 

V. dell' Agnolo . . 

V. de' Macci 

V. Pandolflni . . 

V. Giuseppe Verdi 

V. di Mezzo 

V. del Orivolo . . 

V. dei Seryi 
V. Ricasoli 
V. dei Pucci 

V. Guelfa 
V. Taddea 

V. S. Antonino . . 

V. Faenza 
V. dei Panzani . . 
V. del Moro 
V. del Trebbio 
V. degli Agli 
V. de' Corsi 

V. dello Studio 

V. La Marmora 
Piazza S. Firenze 

V. Gino Capponi 

V. de' Martelli 

Piaz. dell' Independenza 

V. Ventisette Aprile 

V. Santa Reparata 

V. Nazionale 

Piaz. Mentana 

Lung'arno A. Vespucci 
V. degli Strozzi 
V. dei Giudei 

V. de' Bardi 

Piaz. S. FelicitA 

V. Guicciardini 

Porta Romana 

V. de' Benci 

Corso de' Tintori 

Vicolo dell' Onesta 

V. de' Lamberti 

V. dell' Arte della Lana 

V. Val di Limona 
V. de' Neri 


( V. della Salvia. 
fV. dei Pelicani. 
\ V. del Casolare. 
(V. della Fornace. 
| V. delle Mete. 
1 V. Laura. 
I V. delle Santucce. 
j ( V. de' Pentolini. 
\ Malborghetto. 

V. delle Badesse. 
i V. del Fosso. 
\V. delDiluvio. 

V. delle Carrette. 
/ V. Buia. 
(. V. degli Albertinelli. 

V. de' Tebaldi. 

V. del Cocomero. 

V. de' Caldarie. 
/ V. delle Lance. 
(V. dell' Acqua. 

V. del Bisogno. 

V. S. Maria. 

V. dell' Amore. 
IV. Rosina. 

V. della Stipa. 

V. de' Cenni. 

V. degli Armaiuoli. 

V. Cornina. 

V. Teatina. 

V. Salicciuoli. 
/V. dei Tedaldini. 
IV. delTransito. 

V. del Maglio. 

Piazza Sant' Appoli- 

V. San Sebastiano. 

V. degli Spadai. 

Piaz. Maria Antonia. 

V. Santa Appollonia. 

V. del Campuccio. 

V. della Robbia. 
/ Piazza delle Travi. 
(Piazza d'Arno. 

Lung'arno Nuovo. 

V. de' Ferravecchi. 

Chiasso de' Ramma- 

V. Pidigliosa. 

P. dei Rossi. 

Borgo di Piazza. 

P. San Piero Gattolino. 

V. del Fosso. 

V. delle Torricelle. 

Chiasso de' Macci. 

V. Or San Michele. 

Sdrucciolo di Caval- 
canti . 

V. degli Orci. 

V. del Leone. 

Present Name. 

Former Name or Names. 

V. degli Artisti 

V. del Pallone. 

Piaz. Dora D'Istria 

Piaz. Goldoni. 

Borgo degli Albizzi 

Borgo di San Pietro. 
Corso di San Pietro. 

V. dei Malagotti 

V. Nuova. 

V. D' Altafronte 

V. del Moro. 

Poggio Imperiale 

Poggio dei Baroncelli. 

V. dei Cimatori 

V. de' Cerchi. 

V. dei Bonizzi 

Vicolo de' Rinuccini. 

V. della Colonna 

V. del Rosaio. 

V. del' Olio 

V. San Ruffillo. 

V. Ferdinando Zannetti 

V della Forca. 

V. Torta 

V. Torcicoda. 

V. del Porcellana 

V. Nuova. 

V. Palazzuolo 

V. del Garofano. 

V. Alf ani 

f V. del Ciliego. 
\V. Cafaggiolo. 

V. Tosinghi 

fV della Nave. 
\ V. del Frascato. 

Porta Pancrazio 

Porta Baschiera. 

Piazza degli Adimari . . 

Vicolo del Porco. 

Vicolo del Ferro 

V. del Federico de' 


V. de' Sassetti 

V. degli Anselmi. 

Piazza dei Tre Re 

( P. del Albergo del Re. 
1 Corte de' Macci. 

V. dei Pecori 

V. della Macciana. 

V. de' Boni 

V. de' Guidalotti. 

V. degli Speziali 

V.'degli Speziali Grossi . 

V. della Vacca 

( V. del Fornaio. 
IV. de' Lottini. 

V. Calimaruzza 

/ V. Calimaia Vecchia. 
IV. Calimara Francesca. 

V. de' Pescioni ... . . 

V. delle Stelle. 

Piazza Signoria 


Chiasso Cozza 

Vicolo de' Sapiti. 

V. delle Carrozze 

V. de' Pulci. 

V. Tornabuoni 

/ V. dei Legnaioli. 

~\T T nns*n 

( V . Larga. 

f V. di S. Chiara. 

V. dei Serragli 

-! V. della Fornace. 

[V. di Boffl. 

V. della Chiesa 

V. Saturno. 

V. Chiara (part of) 

V. delle Marmerucole. 

V. di Pinti 

Borgo Pinti. 

V. Panicale 

V. de' Maccheroni. 



lowing are entries taken from the parish 
registers of Holy Trinity Church, Coventry, 
and occurring before 1690 : 

April 5, 1583. Wynifrede Shackspeare, d. of 


July 5, 1601. John Shackespeare, S. of William. 
Dec. 5, 1602. William Shakespeare, S. of William. 
Mar. 7, 1603/4. Thomas Shakespeare, S. of 

July 22, 1631. William, sonne of Thomas & 

Elizabeth Shacksper. 
Nov. 16, 1632. Joane, dau. of Thomas and 

Elizabeth Shackspeare. 
May 4, 1634. Thomas Shackspeare, son of 

Thomas and (blank). 

Mar. 2,1637/8. Henr. Shackspear, so. of Thomas. 
Aug. 16, 1643. John Shacksp're, so. of Tho. 

ii s. v. JAX. is, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Sept. 28, 1647. Elizabeth Shackspeare, d. of 

Tho. & Elizabeth. 
Oct. 1, 1662. (Tweenes) Thomas Shakespeare & 

John Shakespeare, the sonns of Thomas 

& Ann. 
Oct. 27, 1669. Elizabeth Shakspeere, the daug. 

of Thomas and Ann. 
Apr. 11, 1689. Thomas Shakspeere, the son of 

Thomas and Mary. 


1656. Richard Shackspeare of Hinckley and 
Jane Edsone of the Cittie of Coventry, 
widow, weare marryed before Mr. Mathew 
Smith, Justis of peace, the 20th of August, 

Sept. 2, 1661. Tho. Shakespare and Ann 


Dec. 16, 1583. Anne Shakspeare, d. of Henrie. 

Apr. 12, 1605. William Shakespeare. 

Feb. 8, 1606/7. John Shackespeare. 

Apr. 9, 1625. John Shacksper. 

Dec. 19, 1631. William, son of Thomas Shacks- 

May 5, 1633. Joane Shackspeare. 

Apr. 24, 1657. Elizabeth Shackspeare, d. of 

Oct. 19, 1662. Thomas Shakespeare, the so. of 
Thomas and Ann. 

Mar. 1, 1663/4. Job. Shakespeare, the so. of 
Tho. and Ann ? jun. 


months ago, while looking through the poems 
of Joachim du Bellay, of the circle of Mar- 
guerite de Valois, I recognized the original 
of a sonnet by William Browne, of the time 
of Queen Bess. Although the relationship 
between these two striking sonnets may have 
been remarked by others, it happened to be 
unknown to my correspondents who are 
concerned with the literature of the thir- 
teenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries. It being recalled to mind by 
the article on 'The Earl of Surrey and De 
Baif ' (11 S.Jiv. 365), I append both versions, 
as another [illustration of the influence of 
the early French on the English poets : 

Par Joachim du Bellay (1524-60). 


Nouveau venu, qui cherches Rome en Rome, 
Et rien de Rome en Rome n'appergois, 
Ces vieux palais, ces vieux arcz que tu vois, 
Et ces vieux murs, c'est ce que Rome on nomme. 
Voy quel orgueil, quelle ruine : et comme 
Celle qui mist le monde sous ses loix, 
Pour dpnter tout, se donta quelquefois, 
Et devint proye au temps, qui tout consomme. 
Rome de Rome e!st le seul monument, 
Et Rome Rome a vaincu seulement. 
Le Tybre seul, qui vers la mer s'enfuit, 
Reste de Rome. O mondaine inconstance ! 
Ce qui est ferine, est par le temps destruit, 
Et ce qui fuit, au temps fait resistance. 

Ox ROME AS rr is Now. 
By William Browne (1590-1645). 

Thou, who to look for Rome, to Rome art come, 
And in the midst of Rome find'st naught of 

Rome ; 

Behold her heaps of walls, her structures rent, 
Her theatres overwhelmed, of vast extent ; 
These now are Rome. See how those ruins frown. 
And speak the threats yet of so brave a town. 
By Rome, as once the world, is Rome o'ercome, 
Lest aught on earth should not be quelled by 

Rome : 
Now conquering Rome doth conquered Rome 

inter ; 

And She the vanquished is and vanquisher. 
To show us where She stood there rests alone 
Tiber ; yet that too hastens to be gone. 
Learn hence what fortune can. Towns glide 

away ; 
And rivers, which are still in motion, stay. 

La Tour de Peilz, Vaud, Switzerland. 

Mr. J. G. Robertson's treatment of the 
influence of Shakespeare on Italian lite- 
rature in the fifth volume of the ' Cambridge 
History of English Literature ' (1910) seems 
to me to be curiously incomplete, not to 
say inadequate, and in some places even 
misleading. The following disjointed notes, 
which, though far from complete, aim at 
supplementing Mr. Robertson's text and 
bibliography, may be of some service to 
students who wish to study this interesting 
subject more thoroughly. 

One of the first attempts to translate 
Shakespeare into Italian was made by 
Elisabetta Caminer ' Turra. She was fol- 
lowed by the Venetian gentlewoman Giustina 
Renier Michiel (1755-1832), who, besides 
attempting a translation of ' Hamlet,' on 
the advice of Melchiorre Cesarotti (1730- 
1808), the translator of Ossian, translated 
' Othello,' ' Macbeth,' and ' Coriolanus/ 
which she published in 1798 and 1800. 
A. Verri's translations of ' Hamlet ' and 
' Othello,' which Mr. Robertson mentions, 
are dated 1768 and 1777 respectively 
' Macbeth ' was also translated by Giuseppe 
Nicolini (1788-1855). Andrea Maffei pub- 
lished his ' Teatro Scelto ' at Milan in 1843, 
reprinted at Florence in 1857. Mr. Robert- 
son cites the latter edition, but makes no 
mention of the former. It may be noted 
that Carcano's translation of ' Titus An- 
dronicus ' (1881) was dedicated to F.jfJ. 
Furnivall, and that in the introduction to the 
same writer's translation of ' King Lear,' 
he says that a prose translation of Shake- 
speare's dramatic works was begun by 
Bazzoni and Sormani. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tii s. v. JAN. 13, 1912. 

If these notes prove interesting, I shall 
only be too glad to follow them up with 
others, pointing out some of the more 
important allusions and references to, and 
imitations and criticisms of, Shakespeare 
which are to be found in Italian literature. 


ADRIAN STOKES. (See 1 S. vi. 128, 225 ; 
xii. 451.) In ' The Nine Days' Queen,' 
"by Richard Davey, p. 352, it is stated that 
the Duchess, 

" Lady Jane's strange and untender mother, did 
not, as might have been expected, even in those 
unfeeling times, go into retirement after the bloody 
deaths of her daughter, son-in-law, husband, 
and brother-in-law, but within a fortnight, and 
on the very day that Lord Thomas Grey was 
arraigned (9th March, 1554), not, as some writers 
say, the day that he was executed, she married 
her late husband's Groom of the Chambers, a red- 
ihaired lad of middle-class origin, fifteen years her 
junior, one Mr. Adrian Stokes." 

On referring to 1 S. vi. 225 I find an extract 
from Potter's ' Charnwood Forest,' p. 79, 
as follows : 

" The Duchess, after the death of her husband 

(beheaded February 23rd, 1553/4) afterwards 

enjoyed much tranquillity and domestic happiness 
.... in a second matrimonial connexion with 
Mr. Adrian Stocks, who had been her Master of 
the Horse .... they were married March 1st, 

If this statement is correct, just a year and 
a week had elapsed. Mr. Davey, in a foot- 
note, refers to 'N. & Q.,' 1 S. xii. 451. Miss 
Agnes Strickland has the date 24 Feb., 
1553/4, for the execution, and 9 March, 
1553/4, for the remarriage. Both Miss 
Strickland and Mr. Davey mention a paint- 
ing, portraits of the Duchess and Mr. Stokes, 
dated 1554, with their ages thereon, 36 
^and 21 respectively. 

In 'Acts of the Privy Council, 1547-50,' 
.at p. 439, there is a list of officers, &c., at 
Newhaven (Havre), 6 Feb., 1546, under 
Lord Stourton, wherein Adrean Stokes 
appears as " Mareschall " at 13s. 4d. per 
diem. At p. 294, 4 Feb., 1546/7, the 
"Council" at Newhaven consisted of Wil- 
liam Lord Stourton, Sir Richard Cavendish 
and Adrian Stockes. There is also at p. 373 

" 28 January, 1549, a Warrant ordered to be 
issued to pay to Adryan Stokes, late Marshall 
-of Newhaven, CLXX U for his wages at xiijs. iiijd. 
by day, and his ten men at vid. the day, from 
the xxij" d of February last untill the xvii th of 
August following." 

Again, p. 414, Lord John Grey, late Deputy 
&t Newhaven, and Adryan Stokes, lat 
Marshal, are referred to. 

Now if Adrian was 21 in 1554, as stated 
in the picture, he would be only 14 in 
1546/7, a very early age, even in those days, 
'or one of " middle-class origin " to be 
associated with a Council, and to fill the 
office of Marshal. Is it not just possible 
that the Marshal may have been father 
of the husband of the Lady Frances, and 
that through his influence the younger 
Stokes became Groom of the Chambers to 
the late Duke ? 

Mr. Davey in a foot-note, p. 353, suggests 
that Adrian was a son or near relation of 
John Stokes, the Queen's brewer. 



surprise people to learn that not more than 
85 years have passed since tallies were the 
accepted and only form of receipt for money 
paid into the National till. " So strong is 
precedent, and so conservative in its methods 
is a government department, that this sys- 
tem went on without much alteration for 
nearly eight hundred years. Useful as 
tallies may have been in Norman and Plan- 
tagenet times, their continued employment 
after banks and cheques had become 
common may well excite our wonder. The 
last wooden tally of the Exchequer was 
struck on October 10, 1826" ; and the system 
finally came to an end with the burning of 
the Houses of Parliament in 1834. 

The few words above are extracted from 
a paper by Sir Ernest Clarke in the Journal 
of the Royal Statistical Society for Decem- 
ber, 1911. Another paper on the same sub- 
ject, from the pen of Mr. Hilary Jenkinson, 
appeared recently in Archceologia, vol. Ixii. ; 
and it may perhaps be useful that these two 
contributions, containing so many valuable 
notes on the subject, should be recorded in 
the pages (and Index) of 'N. & Q.,' with 
previous references on the same topic. 

R. B. 


[See 8 S. i. 174, 233, 359, 520; 10 S. v. 305.] 

BRINSOP COURT. It may be noted that 
this fine Herefordshire house and the 
estate have been bought by Sir Richard 
Sutton, and it is understood that the new 
owner meditates a minute and thorough 
restoration. This beautiful residence, 
though it fell long ago from its former high 
estate, has been for many years in good 
hands, and the vandalism of the year 1800, 
approximately, when a tower was taken 
down to build a stable wall, as it is stated, 
has in no way been repeated, and happily 

u&v.jAy.i3.i9i2.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

there has been but little " modernizing " for 
many years. It is understood that the two 
wings of the house are to be restored 
And devoted to their former uses. The 
fourteenth-century hall, with its superb 
roofing and timbers, may well be brought 
back to its old design ; and if the more 
modern masonry be judiciously replaced 
with the proper stone, and the repairs be 
carefully kept in hand, this fine monu- 
ment of the past may well be looked 
upon as a gem of domestic architecture. 
The Wordsworth cedar happily remains in 
fine preservation by the moat, and is in 
excellent accordance with the placid sur- 
roundings. W. H. QUARRELL. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

MR. PAGE hints that it was a judg- 
ment on the Bradshaws that the regicide's 
family wholly died out in the male line in 
the course of a century (see 11 S. iv. 344, 

Surely this is not at all remarkable. It 
would be interesting if genealogists would 
tell us what is the usual duration of a family 
in the male line, and which is the family 
that has undoubted -proofs of the longest 
descent in the male line. I believe it to 
be much shorter than most people think. 
The custom for the impoverished heir 
of an old estate to marry an heiress often 
has the effect of shortening pedigrees. 


GRISE : GREY : BADGER. In turning 
over the pages of John Watson's ' History 
of the Earls of Warrenne and Surrey ' lately, 
my attention was caught by a discussion 
(p. 297) of the meaning of the word gris or 
grys, occurring in descriptions of dress, such 
as " furratas de gris " ; and the rather vague 
definition of it as " some, fur " sent me to 
the ' N.E.D.,' which, I find, offers the 
scarcely more explicit signification, " A 
kind of grey fur," with the derivation from 
the French adjective gris = grey, the earliest 
instance quoted being from the ' Cursor 
Mundi ' (1300): " Riche robe wit veir & 

I had always supposed my own interpreta- 
tion of the word to be the established one, 
and may it not, after all, be right namely, 

that gris was the Norman-French rendering 
of the old name in England of the badger 
the " grey " ? An article on ' The Destruc- 
tion of Vermin in Rural Parishes,' by the 
late Dr. T. N. Brushfield, in Transactions of 
the Devon Association, vol xxix. p. 310, 
cites many examples from parish registers 
and other documents of the use of the word 
"gray" and its variants "grea" and "gree," 
with plural " greas," giving the compounds 
" greashead," " grayes hedes," and " graies 
hed," e.g., East Budleigh Accounts, 1664 : 
" To William Burch for a grays head, 
1 s O d ," the reward having been fixed by 
the Act of 8 Eliz., " for the heads of every 
Foxe or Gray, xij d ." 

Would the fur of the badger in mediaeval 
times have been accounted a worthy garni- 
ture for a " riche robe " ? 


for the Solitary,' by an Epicure (F. Sanders), 
Bentley, 1853, it is stated in an essay, 
'Pastimes and Sports' (p. 113): "This 
diversion [skating] is mentioned by a 
monkish writer as far back as 1170." Does 
this refer to the well-known allusion to bone 
skates by Fitzstephen, translated by Stow ? 
And will any one be kind enough to give me 
any other early references to skating, and 
the first introduction of steel skates in 
Holland, France, Germany, or England ? 

'GiL BLAS.' Many years ago I picked up 
at a second-hand bookstall six small volumes 
(Italian), bound in 'leather and in good con- 
dition, entitled 

" Gil Bias di Santillano | Storia Galante | 
Tratta dall' Idioma Francese | nell Italiano j Dal 
Dottor | D. Giulio Monti | canonico Bolognese I 
Edizione quarta | [Illustration, trade-mark.] | 
In Venezia SIDCCL. | Pre.sso Antonio Bortoli | Con 
Licenzo de' Superior!, e Privilegio." 
Until recently the books remained unread* 
lost sight of in a bookcase, but now I find 
to my intense surprise that the first four 
volumes embrace the whole of Le Sage's 
' History ' as published, finishing up with 
the marriage of Gil Bias, while the remaining 
two form a continuation of the ' History,' 
Gil Bias having subsequently left his home 
and disappeared. His nephew then sets 
forth to find him, and, after many adventures 
and meetings with people who relate their 
adventures on the lines of the well-known 
published work, he and Gil Bias's faithful 
servant eventually find him as a hermit. 

My object in writing is to ask whether 
any one is aware of a publication of Le 


[11 S. V. JAN. 13, 1912. 

Sage's work including any indication of this 
further portion. I have it in English, 
French, and Spanish, but all are alike in 
concluding with the marriage. It is stated 
on the title-page of each volume that it i 
translated from the French ; but though it 
is indubitable that the original is Le Sage 1 
work verbatim up to the end of vol. iv., 
and the balance is of equal merit, Le Sage' 
name is not mentioned. 

I think you will esteem these facts suffi- 
ciently curious and of sufficient literary 
interest to justify my troubling you with the 
inquiry. CHAS. T. DEUEBY. 

EPIGRAM ON ST. LUKE. Can you kindly 
inform me what is the source of the following 
words ? 

Lucas evangelii et raedicinae numera pandit 
Artibus hinc illinc relligione potens. 

St. Luke, by medicine and religion joined. 
Restores the body and relieves the mind. 
Blest in both labours, dark diseases part, 
And darker ignorance forsakes the heart. 
Thrice happy Luke ! sustained by God on high, 
Preserves in life and teaches how to die. 
They are quoted as from a speech by 
the late Rev. Dr. McNeile, 1867 (afterwards 
Dean of Ripon). J. A. OWXES. 


1. BARROW. Aubrey in his ' Brief Lives ' 
(1898), vol. i. p. 94, says that the father of 
Isaac Barrow, Master of Trin. Coll., Camb., 
was one Barrow, " a brewer at Lambith : 
a King's Scholar at Westminster." I am 
aware that the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' iii. 299, 
says that Thomas Bai*row, linendraper to 
Charles I., was the father of Isaac Barrow, 
but I am anxious to obtain further informa- 
tion about this Lambeth brewer to whom 
Aubrey refers. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
kindly supply it ? 

2. COL. JOHN HENRY BELLI, eldest son of 
John Belli, sometime secretary to Warren 
Hastings, served in the Peninsular War and 
at Waterloo. Can any correspondent of 
' X. & Q.' kindly give me the full dates of 
his birth and death ? 

second son of Major-General Sir John 
Clavering, K.B., was born 16 Dec., 1766 
When did he die ? He married first Lady 
Augusta Campbell, elder daughter of John, 
5th Duke of Argyll. Who was his second 
wife ? 

4. ROBERT CLAVERING was admitted to 
Westminster School in 1777. I should be 
glad to obtain any information concerning 
his parentage and career. G. F. R. B. 

somewhere that Bolivar, the South American 
Liberator, addressed a letter to the Jews 
of the City of London asking their help for 
his enterprise, and I think his appeal was 
successful. Can any reader assist me with 
references ? ISRAEL SOLOMONS. 

SAMARITAN BIBLE. In ancient works on. 
star lore it is said that the world was formed 
when the sun was in the zodiacal sign of 
Capricornus, the goat. This statement is 
said to be founded upon the Samaritan 
version of the Pentateuch. Information 
required. WM. WYNN WESTCOTT. 

CUTION. There is said to be a tradition 
that a peal of bells was rung in some parishes 
when the news arrived that King Charles 
was beheaded. I shall be much obliged by 
any information especially as to whether 
any Sussex parish was among those that did 
so. R. A. B. 

SCILP. Will one of your readers please give 
the English translation of the above Welsh 
place-names ? J. F. J. 


any of your readers tell me whence the 
following portions of verses are taken ? 

What miscreant knave dares disturb the quiet of 

Old Wiscard's grave ? 

I wot the world is fangled all anew, thou tiny elf, 

Prithee tell me, are other folks like thee ? 

Go, bear thy pygmy corpse elsewhere, and disturb 

not the quiet ot Old Wiscard's grave. 

I am led to believe that they may be from 
Colley Gibber, but this is only conjecture. 

A. J. IKIN. 
Creosote, Washington. 

R. R. : HIS IDENTITY. In 2 S. x. 99 one 
R. R. replied (4 Aug., 1860) with informa- 
tion as to the Scottish origin of the Earl of 
Gosford's family. Can any reader inform 
me of the identity of this writer and where 
his genealogical notes are now ? 



1753 there began an agitation against the 
Jews, when the populace in London went 
about singing ' Lillibullero,' and chalking 
upon walls 

No Jews, 

No wooden shoes. 

The words were composed in 1686 to a much 
older tune. I should like to know the mean- 
ngof the refrain and also of " Buller-a-lah," 

11 S. V. JAN. 13, 1912.] 



and to have a copy, if possible, of the whole 
song, which, according to Bishop Burnet, 
contributed considerably towards fanning 
the Revolution of 1688. 


I am desirous of collecting references to 
contemporary impressions of early railway 
travel, many of which, I fancy, have only 
recently come to light. The kind of thing 
I want is contained in Lady Dorchester's 
memoirs of John Cam Hobhouse, Lord 
Broughton, viz., a glimpse of Hob house's 
first journey in a railway train from Manches- 
ter to Liverpool in 1834 : 

" The effect was overpowering. My little 
child, as we sat quietly in our carriage, was not 
the least alarmed, nor seemed sensible of the 
prodigious speed of our movement. Indeed, 
it was only when a train met us and we passed 
each other at the rate of forty miles an hour that 
I was aware of our wonderful velocity. There 
was something awful, bordering on the terrific, 
in our moving through the last tunnel." 

Good descriptions contained in contem- 
porary novels would also be welcomed, 
such, for example, as we have by the author 
of ' Handley Cross.' H. G. ARCHER. 

29, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 

' THE ARABIAN NIGHTS.' Of the ordinary 
editions of this book the story of ' Aladdin 
and the Wonderful Lamp ' forms a promi- 
nent feature. But I find no mention of it 
in the work of E. W. Lane, edited by his 
nephew, E. S. Poole. Lane remains, I sup- 
pose, the standard authority on the subject. 
Was this story interpolated from some other 
source, and therefore rejected by him ? 

I miss also other familiar tales, notably 
that of the black stones, singing tree, and 
talking bird. My copy is dated 1877. 

E. L. H. TEW. 

Upham Rectory. 

[The story of Aladdin, like that of AH Baba, is 
not found in any early MS. or collection of the 
'.Nights.' See Dr. S. Lane Poole's revised Bohn 
edition of Lane's ' Nights,' 4 vols.] 

BANQUET OP BARNET, 1671.' This does 
not appear to be in the British Museum 
collection. Can any one state where a 
copy is to be found, or give a brief account 
of the narrative ? W. B. GERISH. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

recently come across the very elaborate and 
artistic invitation card of the Hurlothrumbo 
Society bidding Mr. West of Compton 
Street, Soho, to meet " the President, 
Senior Fellows, and the rest of the Society 

at the Devil Tavern on Thursday, 17 Feb., 
1736, at 7 o'clock in the afternoon." The 
invitation is dated from " the Apollo, 
Feb. 10, 1736," and is signed by the Secre- 
tary, Charles Middlebrook. Above the text 
is a mythical figure a compound of man, 
woman, beast, bird, and fish, surrounded by 
rustic work, and with the words " Risum 
teneatis, amici " above, and " Ab origine 
mundi " below. Can any of your readers 
give me any information about this Society, 
or the Brotherhood of the " Grand Khaibar," 
which existed at the same time ? 

The Knapp, Brad pole, Dorset. 

ROBIN HOOD. Has any one published a 
bibliography relating to him, including the 
casual references made to him in pre- 
Reformation literature ? What reprints are 
there of plays about Robin Hood ? Is there a 
list of the places named after him in Notting- 
hamshire, Yorkshire, and other counties ? 
In North Lincolnshire Robin Hood's Well, 
or Spring, on Hardwick Hill, not far from 
the Trent, in the parish of Scotton, is a 
healing well to which children suffering 
from whooping-cough are still taken. A 
piece of land in Northorpe, not many miles 
from Hardwick Hill, is also named after him ; 
and it is possible that May games were 
formerly held at the spot. Has the relation- 
ship of the Robin and Marion of the spring 
festival, with the outlaw, ever been eluci- 
dated ? Were not the former in reality of 
Norman - French origin ? It would be 
natural that a confusion should take place 
between a Robin of the May games and a 
popular freebooter who loved the merry 
greenwood. H. W. D. 

recent discussion of Roman numerals in 
' N. & Q.' recalls to my memory the name of 
this famous racehorse of the eighteenth 
century. How comes it that in all sporting 
books it is thus printed : Pot oo os, the figure 
8 laid on its side being employed to represent 
the syllable -at- ? N. W. HILL. 

JONES AND BLTJNKETT. Can any of your 
readers inform me what branch of the family 
of Jones bear the following arms : Serpents 
nowed, quartered with fleurs-de-lis ? They 
are the arms of Robert Jones of Babraham, 
Cambridgeshire, M.P. for Huntingdon, who 
died 1774. I am anxious to identify him 
and his family, and where they came from 
in Wales. He was a director of the East 
India Company, and was a merchant whose 
counting-house was in St. Clement's Lane. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. v. JAN. 13, 1912. 

Also, is the name Blunkett known to any 
of your readers ? The family lived in Peck- 
ham and owned property in the " Poltry." 
Anne Blunkett married Robert Jones. 
Can Blunkett be a German or Swiss name ? 

Is, there a print or drawing of "The Prince of 
Orange Coffee-House," Haymarket, in any 
of the great collections of views of Old 

In what serial were a set of illustrations to 
' Pilgrim's Progress ' published about the 
year 1880 ? (? The Day of Rest.) 

J. T. F. 



(US. iv. 488.) 

THE answer to this query should raise 
points interesting to topographers and 
genealogists. The information which MR. 
E. A. FRY asks for should ( 1 ) reveal how much 
work remains to be done in the direction 
of county bibliography, not only in bringing 
up to date such books as J. R. Smith's 
' Bibliotheca Cantiana,' 1837, but in under- 
taking bibliographies for those counties 
which so far have none. (2) It should dis- 
cover how far intelligent students of local 
history have in MS. or in preparation works 
upon local bibliography. Valuable books 
on bibliography are often prepared, and then 
no publisher can be found to undertake 
them. (3) It should tend to induce local 
archaeological societies to spend some of 
their funds in publishing such works. 

(4) It should make evident the importance 
of founding a national Topographical Society, 
whose work should include the compilation 
of a book for the whole of Great Britain 
on the lines (only better) of L. U. J. Che- 
valier's ' Topo - bibliographic,' 1894-1903. 
Such a society should lay down rules as to 
how such books should be carried out. 

(5) It should make plain how useful a work 
could be compiled of books which, although 
not in themselves county bibliographies, 
have yet county classifications. There are 
many hundreds of them. A few occur to 
me at the moment of writing which will 
illustrate what is intended to be conveyed 
Bickley's ' Index to B.M. Charters and 

Rolls'; Chaloner Smith's 'Wills'; Fuller's 
' Worthies ' ; Wood's ' Life and Times ' 

Oxford Historical Society) ; the Catalogue 
of the Library at Stourhead ; C. E. Keyser's 
' List of Buildings w T ith Mural Paintings '. ; 
the Endowed Charity Reports, and many 
other valuable blue - books which are so 
arranged ; Turner's ' Bodleian Charters ' ; 
and Miller Christy's list of books on the 
airds of various counties. 
I give below, under the name of each 

ounty of England, the titles of such biblio- 
graphies as exist, and references to such 

ources as are known to bibliographers. 

Bedfordshire The Catalogue of the Bedfordshire 
General Library has apparently not been 
printed since 1837. 

For Elstow and John Bunyan see Dr. John 
Brown's ' Life of Bunyan,' 3rd ed., 1887, 
pp. 453-89. 

Berkshire The Catalogue of the Reference 
Section of the Reading Public Library has an 
appendix, pp. 99-121, containing a list of 
books, prints, and scrap-books (chiefly 
relating to elections) arranged under parishes. 
There has been no edition of this since 1893. 
Buckinghamshire Bibliotheca Buckingham!- 
ensis (by Henry Gough). Archi. and Archseol. 
Soc. for the County of Buckingham, Records 
of Buckingham, vols. v., vi. Aylesbury (G. T 
de Fraine), 1890, pp 96. 

Harcourt (L. V.) An Eton Bibliography, 
London, 1902, pp. 132. 

Cambridgeshire Bowes (Robert), A Catalogue 
of Books printed at or relating to the Uni- 
versity, Town, and County of Cambridge from 
1521 to 1893, with Bibliographical and Bio- 
graphical Notes. Cambridge, 1891, 8vo. A 
full and valuable Index volume was issued 

Cf. also Gray (G. J.), Early Stationers, 
Bookbinders, and the First Printer of Cam- 
bridge (Trans, of Bibliographical Society, 
vi. 145-8, 1903). 

An Index to the Collections of William 
Cole (1714-82) has recently been announced 
to be published. The Cole collections 
relate to the parochial antiquities of Cam- 
bridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, and Bucking- 

The Catalogue of the Reference Section of 
the Free Library of Cambridge contains a 
bibliography of Cambridge books by John 

Whitaker (W.), Geology of the Neigh- 
bourhood of Cambridge, 1881, has biblio- 
graphical appendix. 

The Cambridge Antiquarian Society issued 
in 1898 (Deighton, Bell & Co.) an Index to 
their valuable Proceedings from 1840 to 1897. 

See also Bradshaw (Henry), Books printed 
by J. Siberch at Cambridge, 1521-2. 

Fordham (Henry George), Lists of Cam- 
bridgeshire Maps (vide Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society Proceedings 1905-8). 
Cheshire As many bibliographical Works relating 
to this county include Lancashire as well, 
reference should be made under both 
' Cheshire ' and ' Lancashire.' 

ii s. v. JAN. 13, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


A List of Books relating to Cheshire 
History in the Cheshire and Lancashire 
Collector, vols. i. and ii., London and Man- 
chester, 1853-5. 

Sutton (A.) : see Appendix of Cheshire 
Books in. his Bibliotheca Lancastriensis, 
Manchester, 1893. 

Manchester Literary Club : Bibliography 
of Lancashire and Cheshire. Publications 
issued on the two counties during 1876. 
Manchester, A. Heywood, 1877. 

Axon (W. E. A.), Libraries of Lancashire 
and Cheshire. 1879. 

Special Collections of Books on Cheshire, 
by J. H. Nodal (Manchester Literary Club 
Papers, vol. vi. pp. 31-57). 

See also The Bibliographies of Lancashire 
and Cheshire, by E. Axon and J. H. Swann, 
printed in the Transactions of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire Antiquarian Society from 1889 

There are indexes to the Transactions of the 
"Lancashire and Cheshire Antiq. Society as 
follows: Index to Vols. I.-X. in vol. x. Index 
to Vols. XI.-XX. in vol. xx. 

Whitaker (W.), List of Books on the Geo- 
logy, Mineralogy, and Palaeontology of 
Cheshire. Liverpool, 1876. 

Cornwall Boase (George Clement) and Courtney 
(W. P.), Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, 3 vols., 
1874-82. I mention this work, although it 
is referred to by MR. FRY, since his reference 
implies that the book was completed in 1874, 
whereas it was not finished until 1882, and 
was followed, in 1890, by a fourth volume, 
Collectanea Cornubiensia the whole work 
forming a model of what a county biblio- 
graphy should be. 

Stokes (H. Sewell), County and Parochial 
Histories and Books relating to Cornwall 
(Journal Brit. Archaeol. Assoc., vol. xxxiii. 
pp. 35-45, London, 1877). 

Cumberland. Hinds ( James Pitcairn), Bibliotheca 
Jacksoniana. Published for the Carlisle 
Public Library Committee by Titus Wilson, 
Kendal, 1909. 

The above Catalogue is of a collection of 
books, prints, manuscripts, &c., connected 
with or illustrating the history of Cumber- 
land, Westmorland, and Lancashire north of 
the Sands. It was formed by the late 
William Jackson, F. S.A.,of Fleatham House, 
St. Bees (d. 1890). 

Sanderson (T.), Bibliographical History 
of Westmorland and Cumberland, 2 vols. 
(A collection of printed and MS. extracts in 
the Jackson Collection.) 

Sparke (Archibald), A Bibliography of the 
Dialect Literature of Cumberland and West- 
morland and Lancashire north of the Sands, 

Curwen (J. F.), An Index to the Heraldry 
of Cumberland and Westmorland (Cumber- 
land and Westmor. Antiq. and Archseol. Soc. 
Transactions,' New Series, vol. vi. pp. 204-36, 
Kendal, 1906). 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

(To be continued.) 

The following may be added to MR. FRY'S 
list. In default of special bibliographies, 
references to lists in some of the county 
histories, &c., are given. Some of the 
public libraries have published special lists 
of their county collections, and most have 
separate sections in their catalogues. Mr. 
Courtney's ' Register of National Biblio- 
graphy ' should be consulted. To this most 
useful work I am indebted for some of my 

Bedford Catalogue of the Collection of Books 
and MSS.of the Rev. Thomas Orlebar Marsh, 

Book-Lore, iv. 214. 

N. & Q., 7 S. xii. 132, 233-4, 332. 

Berkshire Book-Lore, iv. 33-8. 

Walford's Antiquarian Magazine, xi. 233-8. 
N. & Q., 4 S. vi. 14-15. 

Bucks Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
Bibliotheca Buckinghamiensis, H. Gough, 

Bibliography of Eton, L. V. Harcourt 
(Public Schools Year-Book, 1898, pp. 350-72). 
Printed separately, 1898 ; new ed. 1902. 

Cambs -A Catalogue of Books printed at or 
relating to the University, Town, and County 
of Cambridge from 1521 to 1893, Robert 
Bowes, 1892-4. 

Chester History of Chester, G. L. Fenwick, 
1896 : Bibliography, pp. 445-60. 

Cumberland History of Cumberland, R. S. 
Ferguson, 1890 : Bibliography, pp. 289-97. 

Devon A Few Sheaves of Devon Bibliography, 
J. I. Dredge, 1889-96. Reprinted from Trans. 
Devon Assoc. 

Devonshire Works and their Authors, T. N. 
Brushfield (Trans. Devon Assoc., xxv. 25-158). 

Durham County Palatine of Durham. G. T. 
Lapsley, Bibliography (in Harvard Historical 
Studies, viii. 338-46). 

Essex Bibliography of Essex (Antiq. Mag. and 
Bibliographer, i. 72-8, 283). 

Gloucestershire Manual of Gloucestershire Lite- 
rature, F. A. Hyett and W. Bazeley, 1895-7, 
3 vols. 

Catalogue of MSS., Books, Pamphlets.... 
relating to the City and County of Gloucester 
. . . .deposited [by C. H. Daucey] in the Glouces- 
ter Public Library, R. Austin, 1911. 

Hereford Catalogue of the Reference Depart- 
ment, Hereford Public Library, 1901, pp. 

Mr. Courtney states that "'A Biblio- 
grapher's Manual of Herefordshire Literature,' 
collected by Frederick Bodenham, is said to 
have been printed in 1890." 

Hunts Catalogue of the Huntingdonshire Books 
collected by Herbert E. Norris . . . . Ciren- 
cester, 1895. 

Isle of Man Bibliotheca Monensis, W. Harrison, 
1861 ; new ed. 1876 (Manx Society). 

Lancashire Books on Lancashire preserved in 
Wigan Public Library, H. T. Folkard, 1898. 

Norfolk Bibliotheca NorfolciensLs, J. Quinton, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. 13, 1912. 

Northants Bibliotheca Northantonensis, 1884. 

Bibliographical Account, J. Taylor. 
(Limited to 6 copies.) 
Surrey History of Surrey, H. E. Maiden, 1900 : 

Bibliography, pp. 310-18. 
Warwick History of Warwick, Sam Timmins, 

1889: Bibliography, pp. 288-96. 
Westmorland History of Westmorland, B. S. 

Ferguson, 1894: Bibliography, pp. 293-9. 
Yorkshire The Yorkshire Library, W. Boyne, 

Gloucester Public Library. 

The late Prof. Copinger, one of the 
founders and the first President of the Biblio- 
graphical Society, compiled an elaborate 
bibliographical index to the sources for the 
history of the county of Suffolk. It was 
issued to subscribers at one guinea per 
volume, and extended to five volumes, each 
of about 400 pages. It was published in 
1904 under the title ' Records of Suffolk.' 
A sixth volume containing the index was 
issued in 1907. Prof. Copinger very pro- 
perly regarded the history of the county as 
incomplete until it had been written after 
reference to original records. It is estimated 
that there are nearly 100,000 references in 
the work, which is valuable as a history as 
well as being a guide to the most important 

Prof. Copinger sent a description of his 
method of compiling this monumental work 
to the Congress of Archaeological Societies 
in union with the Society of Antiquaries, in 
July, 1907. At that time less than 100 
subscriptions had been received for copies. 
In the introduction to the first volume 
there is a list of the records indexed. This 
was repeated in the paper before the Archaeo- 
logical Societies. Though there are one or 
two omissions in the work, it is much in 
advance of anything done for any other 

It may interest MB. FBY and your 
readers generally to know that a ' Biblio- 
graphy of London ' is now being attempted. 
The scheme will be fully described in 
The Library for the present month. 
Miss Hadley, 4, Hartington Road, Chiswick, 
is the secretary of the group undertaking 
the work, and Mr. Kenneth H. Vickers of 
4, Verulam Buildings, Gray's Inn, W.C., 
is the president. THOMAS WM. HTJCK. 

Saffron Walden. 

I can add the following : 

Buckinghamshire Bibliotheca Buckinghami- 
ensis : a List of Books relating to the County 
of Buckingham, B. H. Gough, 1890. 

Essex Catalogue of Books, Maps, and Manu- 
scripts relating to or connected with the 
County of Essex, A. E. Cunnington, 1902. 

Gloucestershire The Bibliographer's Manual of 
Gloucestershire Literature, being a Classified 
Catalogue of Books . . . .relating to G .... &c., 
F. A. Hyett and Wm. Bazeley, 3 vols., 

Collectanea Gloucestriensia ; or a Catalogue 
of Books, Tracts, &c .... relating to the 
County of G. ... in the possession of J. D. 
Phelps, 1842. 

Lancashire The Lancashire Library, a Biblio- 
graphical Account of Books on Topography, 
Biography .... relating to the County Pala- 
tinate, Lieut.-Col. H. Fishwick, 1875. 

Lincoln A Catalogue of the Books, Pamphlets 
and .... relating to the City and County of 
Lincoln preserved in the Reference Depart- 
ment of the City of Lincoln Public Library, 
A. B. Corns, 1904. 

Norfolk The Norfolk Topographer's Manual : a 
Catalogue of the Books and Engravings 
hitherto published in relation to the County, 
S. Woodford and W. C. Ewing, 1842. 

Bibliotheca Norfolciensis : a Catalogue of 
the Writings of Norfolk Men and of Works 
relating to the County of Norfolk in the 
Library of J. J. Colman, 1896. 

Nottinghamshire Descriptive Catalogue of Books 
relating to Nottinghamshire in the Library 
of James Ward, 1892. Siipplement, 1897. 

Manuscripts relating to the County of 
Nottingham in the possession of James Ward. 

Worcestershire Bibliography of Worcestershire, 
J. B. Burton and F. S. Pearson. Part I., 
1898 ; Part II., J. B. Burton, 1903 ; Part III., 
J. Humphreys, 1907. 

Some are privately printed, but all are 
in the British Museum. A. RHODES. 

See ' N. & Q.,' 8 S. ix. 361, 497 ; x. 32 ; 
xi. 17, 333. G. L. APPEBSON. 

WICK, and MB. WILLIAM JAGGABD also thanked 
for replies. We ask correspondents to refrain from 
replies till MB. HUMPHBEYS'S list is completed.] 

iv. 607). The reference sought occurs in 
an 8vo volume, "Anglorum Speculum, or 
the Worthies of England in Church and 
State. London, printed for John Wright 
at the Crown on Ludgate Hill, Thomas 
Passinger at the three Bibles on London- 
Bridge, and William Thackary at the Angel 
in Duck-lane. 1684." The preface is signed 
by G. S., who says that he has included the 
lives of many more eminent heroes and 
generous patrons than " Dr. Fuller in his 
large History in Folio." On p. 897 he 
says : 

" Peter of Rippon, Canon of that Colledge, 
wrote a Book of the Life and Miracles of St. 
Wilfrid, the Founder thereof. There was a narrow 
place in his Church, through which chaste persons 
might easily pass, whilst the incontinent did 
stick therein. Many suspected persons did 
prick their credit, who could not thread his Needle." 

n s. v. j A y. is, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


An identical legend has been current in 
connexion with the crypt, which is now all 
that is left, of the church of St. Wilfrid at 
Hexham (built A.D. 674-8), where a hole 
in the wail similar in character to that at 
Ripon exists. Both crypts are of one 
period, of similar design, and are said to 
resemble the confessio found under early 
churches in Rome and elsewhere. These 
subterranean chambers have been apparently 
constructed beneath the high altars of the 
churches, the main feature of which was 
a sacrarium. The door to this was entered 
from a private stairway used only by the 
brethren in charge. The worshippers de- 
scended by a separate staircase leading to 
a small ante-chapel that was divided from 
the chapel itself by a solid wall. In the 
centre of this was an orifice, or squint, 
piercing the otherwise blank wall, command- 
ing a view of the interior and of its sacred 
relics. As the worshippers passed this in 
turn their feeling of veneration would be 
heightened by the surrounding mystery of 
the situation and the play of light upon the 
holy relics seen through the hole in the wall 
in sudden revelation. That the orifice in- 
tended for such a solemn purpose was ever 
used for the baser object of the test indicated 
by the " needle eye " is not only improbable, 
but an examination of the squint itself will 
show the absurdity involved in such an 
attribution. R. OLIVER HESLOP. 


The passage of which J. T. F. is in search 
is by Fuller, as stated in Walbran's ' Ripon 
Guide.' See ' The History of the Worthies 
of England,' ' York-shire,' ' Writers,' under 
' Peter of Rippon,' ed. 1811, vol. ii. p. 512. 

SPENSER AND DANTE (11 S. iv. 447, 515). 
It is possible that MR. BRESLAR 
has not consulted Dr. Paget Toynbee's 
' Dante in English Literature.' The book 
aims at tracing the influence of Dante upon 
English writers from Chaucer to Gary. In 
the preface we find the following statistics : 

(i The number of authors represented is between 
five and six hundred, viz., some 50 for the four- 
teenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, nearly 
60 for the seventeenth, about 150 for the 
eighteenth, and the remainder for the first forty- 
four years of the nineteenth." 

An examination of the text shows that not 
all the men of letters from whom citations 
are given made " definite allusion " to Dante, 
but that some of them (among whom is 
Spenser) are included on the basis of a 
patent influence at his hands. Moreover, 

in some cases he is merely spoken of as 
" among the famous men of Florence," and 
John Evelyn is admitted to the company of 
those that reveal his influence on the ground 
of having mentioned in the ' Diary ' the 
statue of Dante at Poggio Imperiale. The 
lists are nevertheless of interest, and show 
that at no time in the history of English 
literature after the late fourteenth century 
were allusions to Dante what one could, 
from a quantitative standard, call " ex- 
tremely limited." 

Among the authors before the seventeenth 
century who mention Dante by name are 
Chaucer, Gower, Lydgate, Barclay, Henry 
Parker (Lord Morley), John Bale, William 
Thomas, William Barker, Thomas Cooper, 
John Jewel, Thomas Churchyard, John Foxe, 
Robert Peterson, Gabriel Harvey, Sir Philip 
Sidney, Lawrence Humphrey, Robert Greene, 
George Whetstone, Bartholomew Young, 
George Puttenham, Sir John Harington, 
John Florio, Abraham Flaunce, Thomas 
Bedingfield, William Covell, Robert Tofte, 
Michael Drayton, and Francis Meres. 

Among those in the seventeenth century 
are Ben Jonson, Robert Burton, William 
Burton, John Ford, John Milton, Thomas 
Heywood, Sir William D'Avenant, Sir 
Thomas Browne, Anthony Wood, Edward 
Phillips, and John Dryden. 


Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

LATIN ACCENTUATION (11 S. iv.. 448). 
It is not easy to return a brief answer to 
MR. W. BURD'S questions. The system of 
the word-accent in Latin has not been the 
same at all periods of the language, and there 
is a difficulty in determining when certain 
changes took place, what the exact nattire 
of these changes was, and to what causes 
they were due. A study of the following 
will be helpful : 

Prof. W. M. Lindsay's ' Latin Language ' 
(Clarendon Press, 1894), chap, iii., 'Ac- 
centuation,' pp. 148-217 ; see especially 
pp. 163-5, 10, ' Exceptions to the Paen- 
ultima Law,' and 11, 'Vulgar-Latin Ac- 

The article ' Latin Language,' by the late 
Prof. A. S. Wilkins and Prof. R. Seymour 
Conway, in the eleventh edition of 'The 
Ency. Brit.,' especially pp. 246, 247. 

See also Brugmann and Delbriick, ' Grund- 
riss der vergleichenden Grammatik der 
indogermaniscnen Sprachen,' vol. i., 2nd ed., 
Strassburg, 1897, part i. p. 232, Anmerkung ; 
an article by A. Hornung in the Zeitschrift 
fur romanische Philologie, vii. 572, and p. 547 
sq. in vol. xiv., in a review by Fritz Neumann 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAN. is, 1912. 

of E. Schwan's ' Grammatik des altfranzos- 

Mulierem was certainly accented at 
one time on the penultimate. Further, 
the vowel-sound of this syllable became 
long. Dracontius (fifth century A.D.) has 

Compare the late anonymous couplet : 

Quid levius pluma ? Flumen. Quid flumine ? 

Quid vento ? Mulier. Quid muliere ? Nihil. 

In some Renaissance Latin verse-writers 
the same quantity is found. John Owen, 
the English epigrammatist, has mulieri, 
muliere, mulieribus. 


SPIDER STORIES (US. iv. 26, 76, 115, 137, 
477). Apropos of spider stories, there are 
several versions of the origin of the Taran- 
tella dance which may interest many readers. 
The one I now contribute to these columns 
was told to me years ago in Naples regarding 
the large tarantula spider which still abounds 
in S. Italy. Its bite is supposed to render 
its victim insane. 

There still exists at Baiae, near Naples, the 
picturesque octagonal ruin of what was once 
the Sudatorium of some ancient Roman 
baths, which in the time of Horace were 
richly decorated with marble columns and 
statues. About 1200 A.D. a pretty, bare- 
footed Neapolitan maiden took refuge in the 
ruin to protect herself from the scorching 
rays of the midday sun, and sat down on a 
fallen column to rest. Shortly afterwards a 
huge tarantula spider ran along the ceiling 
until he came to a spot exactly over where 
the damsel sat. Espying her toe, before one 
could say "Jack Robinson" he dropped 
down upon it, and held on like grim death, 
penetrating the warm flesh with his sharp 
teeth, and, like a vampire, sucking out the 
life-blood. There was a scream of terror and 
anguish, and then the damsel jumped up and 
began to dance. At first the motion was 
slow and dignified, but as the poison began 
to take effect, her speed increased, until at- 
las t she revolved like a rapid humming-top 
or a dancing dervish, for she had become 
hopelessly insane. 

Tradition asserts that there is no cure 
or antidote for the bite of the tarantula 
save the kiss of a youth who has been down 
into the Cave of Avernus, and has braved 
the terrible gaze of the human-headed spider 
who dwells therein. His web is stretched 
over a fathomless abyss, and is strong 
enough to catch men and animals. Some, 
paralyzed by the hypnotizing stare of the 

spider's fearsome eyes, fall through the more 
open part of the meshes into the gloomy 
depths below ; others get entangled in 
the web and become food for the hungry 
demon. Those, however, who have been 
wise enough to wear a certain magical 
amulet, a protection against the evil eye, 
can approach the monster with impunity, 
and are permitted to return to daylight un- 
harmed, provided they have lived chaste and 
moral lives. 

Classic mythology does not deal much 
with spiders, but I have in my mind the 
scene in Ovid's ' Metamorphoses ' where 
Arachne tries her skill against that of 
Minerva, and where the latter touches the 
daughter of Idmon with her magical shuttle, 
sprinkles her with the juice of the Hecatean 
herb, and transforms her into a spider. 

A gold pendant found in the villa of Hagia 
Triada, Crete, formed in the shape of the 
human breast, has upon it, among other 
devices, a spider. The spider may sym- 
bolize the torture which the venom of love 
can cause by wild desire, or it may suggest 
how love can lay a snare like a web to catch 
men's hearts. SYDNEY HERBERT. 

Carlton Lodge, Cheltenham. 

When I was young, spider's web was the 
usual remedy in my home to stop the 
bleeding from a cut. 

I also know as a fact that, as a cure for 
ague, a black spider, taken from a privy 
and put inside a green gooseberry, was to 
be swallowed. I am a Sussex man. 


VERSES (11 S. iv. 168, 233, 278, 375, 418, 
517). I am sure others with me will thank 
you for printing the extracts sent by MR. 
FOSTER PALMER. I believe this history was 
called ' Little Arthur's ' ; but am I confus- 
ing two works ? I have long tried to get a 
copy, but failed. Apparently it is not only 
out of print, but forgotten, and yet it must 
have been well known forty years ago. 

Its view of things was from a different 
standpoint from Froude's, as the following 
lines on Henry VIII. show, but none the less 
the last of these may be said of it too : 
Henry the Eighth who married six wives, 
And ended by violence two of their lives ; 
lie was a tyrant fat, savage, and proud, 
But still he was useful, it must be allowed. 
If any of your readers can say where I can 
get a, copy, or will lend one for a copy to be 
made, I shall be grateful. Lucis. 

[' Little Arthur's History of England ' is in 

ns.v.jAx.i3,.i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"POLILLA" (11 S. iv. 490). Gustav 
Korting in his ' Lateinisch - romanisches 
Worterbuch,' 2nd ed., Paderborn, 1901, 
prefers the derivation from *pulvicula 
(diminutive of pulvis, dust), as given by 
F. Diez (' Etymologisches Worterbuch der 
romanisohen Sprachen," 5th ed., Bonn, 
1887), but mentions Baist's view ( 
schrift fiir romanische philologie, v. 562) 
that it comes from pullus, *pulla, a young 
creature, chick. EDWARD BENSLY. 

" Polilla " means the moth or worm that 
eats into wood, silk and woollen clothes, 
and fur. French teigne, mite, ver (qui ronge 
les etoffes), not the larger moth called in 
French phalene, papitton de nuit. Latin 
tinea, teredo. 

Covarrubias, ' Tesoro de la Lengua Cas- 
teilana,' ed. 1611, says : 

" Polilla, un gusanito que se cria en la ropa, 
y la come. Engendrase de no sacudir y orear 
ias ropas : y asi se dixo fde poluo, que es la 
materia deste animalico, quasi poluilla." 

The augmented edition (1674), by the Padre 
B. R. Noydens, adds : 

" Polilla es nombre sincopado de populilla, que 
se deriua de populor, popularis, por destruir ; 
como dize Virgilio, lib. i. Georg. populatque 
indigentem farcis (sic) [farris] aceruum Curculio ; 
que el gorgogo destruye gran monton de trigo." 

" Gorgogo, gorqojo, Lat. curculio, animal 
paruum, frumentum corrodens : quasi gurgulio." 

" Polilla, metafora. Lo que menoscaba 6 
destruye insensiblemente alguna cosa. Comerse 
de polilla." ' Dice. Barcia.' 

The word occurs in the same sense in 
Matt. vi. 19, "donde orin y polilla los 
[thesoros] consume" ("where moth and 
rust doth corrupt"). A. D. JONES. 


LTJDGATE (11 S. iv. 485). Ludgate is 
mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth in 
his ' Historia Regum Britanniaa,' III. xx. 
Geoffrey was writing in about 1130. He 
gives a quasi- Welsh word, Parthlud, in ex- 
planation of the Old-English word " Ludes- 
gat," which he latinized with a final a. 
The equation " O.E. lud=O.W. lud " is 
merely visual. To advance it without 
knowing the meaning of either word is like 
equating Old High German ebur ("boar") 
with Old Celtic ebur (" yew-tree "). " Lud " 
is now short as to its vowel. If the u of 
Lludd ( = lud of , the twelfth century) were 
short, the word would rime with " with " ; 
if we take that u as long, we must rime with 
" seethe." A Welshman would represent 
the sound of modern English " Lud " by 
Lyd. For mediaeval English " Lucl " he 

would write Lwd both riming with " good." 
If he thought u was long, he would write 
Lwd rime " mood." There is no parallel 
between Welsh u and English u. The Welsh 
u and u = English i and ee respectively. 

The Celtic pantheon is a very much 
crowded one, and no investigator who has 
realized that would take up Prof. Anwyl's or 
Prof. Dottin's lists of Celtic gods without 
trepidation, even if it were necessary. In 
the case of " Ludes gat " such temerity is 
quite uncalled for. "Ludes gat," like 
" Ludes dun " and " Ludes cumb," is a 
regular and unimpeachable English forma- 
tion. It indicates possession by a male 
person whose name was made up of the 
Germanic prototheme Ludi and some deu- 
terotheme which we have no means of detect- 
ing. It may have been Ludibert or Ludica, 
Ludigar or Ludigast. We cannot tell : but 
we can be quite sure that the O.E. " Ludes," 
in A.D. 1130, was the genitive case of Ludi, 

In ' Some Lewes Men of Note,' by George 
Holman, late Mayor of Lewes, published in 
1905, is a short, reliable biography of Dr. 
Russell, from which I select the following 
particulars, which will give G. F. R. B. the 
information he seeks : 

" Richard Russell was born in the parish of 
St. Michael, Lewes, in the year 1687. The 
baptismal entry, dated 26 Nov., 1687, states : 
' Then was borne, Richard the sonne of Nathaniell 
Russell and Mary his wife, and baptised 
the twenty-seventh day of the same month.' 
His father was a surgeon and apothecary, practis- 
ing in that parish, and a deacon of the Presby- 
terian body ; he died 8 March, 1712. Dr. 
Richard Russell died in London, 19 Dec., 1759, 
in the 72nd year of his age. He was buried in 
the family vault at South Mailing. In the 
register the date of his burial is given as 24 Dec., 
1759. His eldest 'son, William, succeeded to the 
estate at Mailing, and, having adopted the profes- 
sion of a barrister, assumed his mother's family 
name of Kempe. He was known as Serjeant 
Kempe of Mailing. The will of Dr. Russell, dated 
8 May, 1759, states that he gives to his wife, 
Marj* Russell, three houses, with their outhouses, 
gardens, and appurtenances, bounded by Market 
Lane to the east, and to Mr. Wm. Michell's 
garden to the west, in the parish of St. Michael 
in Lewes, and also his house at Brighthelmstone, 
with the furniture, stable, coachhouse, chariot, 
and pair of coach horses. He also bequeaths 
his wife 1,0007., and to his son Richard the next 
presentation to the living of Broadwater. A 
proviso relates to sundry bequests being left, 
upon the understanding that his wife and children 
give up and quit claim to the possession of 
Pedinghoe Farm, and also the farms at Pyecombe, 
and leaving his son William in quiet possession 
of the real and personal estate of his wife's late 



[11 S. V. JAN. 13, 1912. 

The house at Brighthelmstone mentioned 
above occupied the site upon which " The 
Albion Hotel " now stands. It may be of 
interest to your correspondent to know 
that a portrait of Dr. Russell, by Zoffany, 
belongs to the Brighton Corporation, and 
may be seen in the Brighton Public Art 
Gallery. A. CECIL PIPER. 

Public Library, Brighton. 
[MB. JOHN PATCHING is also thanked for reply.] 

iv. 507). The line quoted by MR. E. S. 

Morning arises stormy and pale, 
is from Tennyson's ' Maud,' Part I. vi. 1. 

(11 S. iv. 508). This question was suffi- 
ciently answered in ' N. & Q.' in 1898, to 
which year OUTIS is referred. He makes a 
mistake in his statement about the Duke 
of Buckingham and the Bishop of Calcutta. 
If he will refer to the East India Company's 
public dispatch to the Governments of 
Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, dated 29 July, 
1814, par. 2, he will find that it contains 
two warrants issued by H.R.H. the Prince 
Regent : 

1. Of Rank and Honour, dated 25 May, 1814, 
ordering that the Bishop of Calcutta and his 
successors be styled and called Lord Bishop of 

2. Of Precedence, dated 31 May, 1814. 

The Duke of Buckingham inquired if a 
similar warrant of rank and honour had been 
issued when the Bishopric of Madras was 
founded ; and finding that it had not, he 
did what OUTIS states. The courtesy title 
has now been restored by authority. 


OUTIS should see what has been said at 
9 S. i. 230. If the title be restricted to peers 
of Parliament, what becomes of such Scottish 
and Irish nobles as are not representative 
peers ? Why should there be any jealousy 
of bishops being lords, when we have lord- 
lieutenants, lord mayors, lords of manors, 
and many such ? Let me refer to Dr. 
George Hickes's ' Treatise on the Dignity of 
the Episcopal Order' (Ang. Cath. Lib.), 
4th ed., 1847, ii. 372, sg., 'Instances of 
Bishops being called Lords in the Ancient 
Church.' W. C. B. 

It is held by many that by the act of con- 
secration a bishop becomes a spiritual peer. 
If this be so, then a bishop suffragan is 
entitled to be addressed as " My Lord.'" 

The question has long had some interest 
'or me, and I find I have a note, from some 
authority which I cannot at the moment 
verify, to the effect that 

" the title ' Lord ' is extended by right or courtesy 
to bishops of the Church of England and Colonial 
bishops, out not to bishops suffragan, missionary or 
Scottish or Irish prelates, at least as an undisputed 

The editor of Crockford, who must be 
iounted an authority, invariably gives to 
bishops suffragan the title " Lord Bishop 

Suffragan of " ; and a few years ago, 

in his annual Preface, discussed the claim, 
of suffragans to the title, and gave his 
decision in their favour. 

OUTIS quotes the Duke of Buckingham 
as holding that only peers of Parliament 
are entitled to the distinction of being 
addressed as " My Lord." I presume he 
meant spiritual peers. But the Bishop of 
Sodor and Man is not a peer of Parliament, 
yet he is Lord Bishop of those united dioceses. 
If the Duke really meant what is stated by 
OUTIS, he was, of course, speaking very un- 
advisedly. Those peers of Scotland and of 
Ireland, for example, who are not representa- 
tive peers, are not peers of Parliament, 
but are certainly entitled by right to be 
addressed as " My Lords." On the other 
hand, there are lords of Parliament who are 
not peers the Lords of Appeal, for instance, 
who have the right to a writ of summons 
while in office only, though they are barons 
for life. F. A. RUSSELL. 

Some years ago Crockford published in 
the ' Clerical Directory ' a letter received 
from the then Home Secretary, Mr. Mathews, 
stating that suffragan bishops were entitled 
to be addressed as " My Lord." 

S. D. C. 

The second Earl Tilney was the grandson 
of the first earl, and succeeded to the estate 
and mansion at Wanstead. He lived a 
great many years in Italy, his continued 
absence from his home giving rise to much 
comment. A writer of the period said 

" that so magnificent a palace should not be 
left to a handful of servants, and that as Lord 
Tilney had no heirs, he hoped that ere long the 
estate would pass into the hands of some other 
family who would prefer English freedom to 
Italian slavery." ' The Story of Wanstead 
Park,' by O. S. Dawson. 

The writer does not charge Lord Tilney with 
any misdeed, and it would appear that he 
simply had a preference for residing in Italy 
rather than in England. G. H. W. 

n s. v. JAN. is, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(US. iv. 368, 498). The Act for burying 
in woollen was passed in 1678, and seems to 
have been much objected to : 
Odious ! in woollen ! 'twould a saint provoke ! 
(Were the last words that poor Xarcissa spoke) 
No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace 
Wrap my cold limbs, and shade my lifeless face. 
Pope, ' Moral Essays,' p]pist. i. 246-9, 
Elwin and Courthope's edit. 

Swift alludes to colberteen lace also in 
s Baucis and Philemon ' : 

Good pinners edg'd with colberteen. 

Swift's ' Poems,' ed. Browning. 
The lace was evidently of a common descrip- 
tion. W. E. BROWNING. 

THOMAS CROMWELL (11 S. iv. 509). 
The Gentleman's Magazine for 1752 is in- 
correct in the statement alluded to by Miss 

It was William Cromwell whose wife died 
that year at their seat in Essex. He was 
a son of Henry Cromwell, whose father 
Henry Cromwell, Lord-Lieutenant of Ire- 
land, was son of the Protector. William 
Cromwell died in Kirby Street, Hatton 
Garden, on 9 July, 1772, aged 79. His wife, 
who was Mary, widow of Thomas Wesby 
of Linton, co. Cambridge, died 4 March, 
1752. They left no children. The name 
of their seat was Booking. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

The only Thomas Cromwell mentioned in 
Burke' s ' Vicissitudes of Families ' was the 
son of Henry Cromwell, grandson of the 
Protector. He carried on the business of a 
grocer on Snow Hill, and died in Bridgwater 
Square, 2 Oct., 1748. He married (1) 
Frances Tidman, the daughter of a London 
tradesman, and by her was father of a daugh- 
ter Anne, the wife of John Field of London ; 
(2) Mary, daughter of Nicholas Skinner, 
a merchant in London, and had issue an 
only son, Oliver Cromwell, a solicitor's 
clerk at St. Thomas's Hospital, who suc- 
ceeded under the will of his cousins, the 
Protector Richard Cromwell's daughters, to 
an estate at Theobalds, Herts. The obituary 
in The Gentleman's Magazine, 1752, possibly 
refers to the second wife of Thomas Crom- 
well, viz., Mary Skinner, who may have diec 
at her son's hou^e at Theobalds, Cheshunt 
on the borders of Herts and Essex. 

G. H. W. 

Miss WILLIAMS will find that Musgrave's 
' Obituary ' (Harleian Society) covers th 
deaths announced in The Gentleman's Maga 
zine up to 1800, There is a General Indej 

to The Gentleman's Magazine up to 1818, 
but it comprises every 

in the different volumes. 

name mentioned 
The Cromwells, 

whether announcement be made of births, 
marriages, deaths, or what not, will all be 
found under that name. After 1818 it would 
be necessary to consult each half-yearly 

G. W. Marshall's ' Genealogist's Guide ' 
vill indicate where the best pedigrees of the 
Cromwell family may be found. 

18, King's Avenue, Clapham Park, S.W. 

PHILIP SAVAGE (11 S. iv. 509). He was 
he son of Valentine Savage of Dublin (who 
lied 20 July, 1670) and Mary, daughter of 
Walter Houghton of Kilthorp, Rutland, 
and was born in February, 1643/4. He 
matriculated at Trin. Coll., Dublin, 6 July, 
.659. In 1671 he was appointed Protho- 
notary and Clerk of the Crown in the King's 

Bench, Ireland. He was 
Wexford 1692-3, 1695-9, 


for co. 

in 1695 he was appointed Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, and sworn of the Privy Council 
n Ireland. He died in July, 1717. The 
parentage of his wife I cannot throw light 
upon. Their only daughter and heiress, 
Anne Savage, m. 1715 Sir Arthur Acheson, 
Bart. G. D. B. 

v. 509). In ' The Fishguard Invasion ; or, 
Three Days in 1797,' by M. E. James a 
mixture of fact and fiction the whole of 
hap. iii. relates to ' The Fate of the Clock.' 
In describing the plundering of Brestgarn 
(p. 47) it says : 

" Suddenly one man paused in his potations ; 
the brass face of the old clock that stood in the 
corner had caught his eye, and the loud ticking of 
it had caught his ear. Screeching something 
that sounded like ' enemy,' he levelled his musket 
and fired straight at the clock. The bullet went 
through the wood with a loud sound of splitting." 
The incident if not in all the details is, 
I think, generally accepted as true. The 
French invaders were largely convicts from 
the Brest hulks, and the clock was doubtless 
shot at more from a spirit of destruction 
than from an ignorance of grandfather 
clocks. G. H. W. 

In ' Old Clocks and Watches,' by F. J. 
Britten, 1911, the author, on long-case clocks, 
observes : 

" It would be difficult to say exactly when the 
brass chamber clock with a wooden hood developed 
into the long-case variety now familiarly termed 
' Grandfather,' but it was probably between 1660 
and 1670. In the earliest the escapement was 
governed by a balance, or by a short pendulum. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAN. 13, 1912. 

The long or ' royal ' pendulum was introduced 
about 1676. Among French artists with wealthy 
patrons the formal long-case, so characteristic 
of English clocks, was never liked." 

Illustrations are given of these clocks by 
French makers of the time of Louis XIV., 
and the author remarks, " In the Wallace 
Collection is a clock by Mynuel, with case 
and pedestal by Boulle of nearly the same 
period." From these observations it may 
be concluded that the French soldier in 1797 
was unfamiliar with the long-case clock. 


(11 S. iv. 469). It is a mistake to consider 
this as purely Scottish : it occurs in Froding- 
ham, Lincoln. America Wood is, I believe, 
in Neville Holt, Leicester ; America Holt 
is in Lincolnshire ; in the same county 
is America Farm in Langton-by-Spilsby. 
There is another in Yarborough, and a third 
in Warmington, Hunts. Place-names of this 
description are comparatively modern, but 
the difficulty lies in finding out when and by 
whom and why the names were imposed. 
Of a similar character is New England, 
which is found in Westmill and Hitchin, 
Herts ; Eythorne, Kent ; Burrow and 
Hackensall, Lancashire ; Humby, Lincoln ; 
Portslade, Sussex ; Wennington and Hilton, 
Hunts. I have instances of New York in 
Leicestershire, Northumberland, and Fife- 
shire; and examples of Delaware, Florida, 
Old and New Boston, California, Georgia, 
Brooklyn, and Pennsylvania as place-names. 

Scotland itself figures prominently: once 
in Scotland itself, in Portmoak ; in England 
at Bradfield, Berks ; twice in Long Bland- 
ford, Dorset ; at Colomb Major, Cornwall ; 
in Sandford and Ardley in Oxford ; and in 
Hereford. A. RHODES. 

The name of the road near Dundee men- 
tioned in my query is Americanmuir, not 
" Americanium." W. B. 

" PARKIN " (11 S. iv. 430). See 4 S. viii. 
494 ; 7 S. vi. 448, 514 ; vii. 35. It was 
supplied at tea on 5 November to school- 
boys in York in 1860. ' N.E.D.' (s.v.) says : 
" Origin unknown : perh. from proper 
name Perkin or Parkin." I used to think 
the name an equivalent of " parti-," the 
cake being neither oat-cake nor ginger- 
bread, but half-and-half. W. C. B. 

The custom of making " parkin " origi- 
nated in the West Riding of Yorkshire in 
commemoration of the disco very of the Gun- 
powder Plot on 5 November, 1605. " Parkin " 

is usually made of oatmeal, treacle, butter, 
sugar, and ground ginger, and may be 
seen exposed for sale previous to Guy 
Fawkes Day in the shape of massive loaves, 
cakes, or bannocks. 

" On the 5th of November parkin, a sort of 
pepper-cake, made from treacle and ginger, is 
found in every house in the West Riding. As, 
however, the cake is eaten several days before 
the 5th. I have no doubt it originally formed part 
of the A 11- Hallows' feast. The Sunday within the 
octave of All Saints' is called Parkin Sunday." 
' Folk-lore of the Northern Counties,' by William 
Henderson, F.L.S. (1879). 


iv. 166, 214, 257, 297). The fashion in black 
silk stockings was set by an earlier queen than 
ST. SWITHIN supposes. John Stowe records 
that Queen Elizabeth's silkwoman presented 
Her Highness with a pair of her own knitting 
on New Year's Day, 1560, since which Her 
Highness wore no other. The passage is 
quoted by Isaac D'Israeli, ' Curiosities of 
Literature,' vol. i., ' Anecdotes of Fashion.* 

A. T. M. 

iii. 269). The property referred to in the 
extract cited consists of plots of land 
situated respectively in Shropshire and on 
the north bank of the Thames. 



London North of the Thames. By Sir Walter 
Besant. (A. & C. Black.) 

THIS is a sister book to ' London : the City ' 
noticed in our columns on 13 May last), and 
smbraces the huge area bounded on the east by 
;he City gates, on the west by the Addison Road 
'ailway, and on the north by the Hampstead 


It is not quite clear to us how far the late Sir 

Walter Besant was connected with the work, but 

we gather from the introduction that the scheme 

was his, and that many of the agents appointed 
;o collect the necessary information were selected 
>y him. The book, of course, suffers by bringing 
ts topography only up to the date of 1901 ; for 
nstance, we get no mention of the Kingsway or 
41dwych, or the Queen Victoria Memorial, and 
;he consequent improvements made in the Mall 


The interest of the work is mainly historical 

and biographical, as we learn from it where 
any famous Englishmen lived and died, with 

anecdotes concerning them and their doings, 
nd of the periods in which they lived, and natur- 

ally the richer parts of the area are more fertile 
n notes of this kind than the poorer. Among the 

more interesting chapters are those on St. James's 

Square and Berkeley Square. 

n s. v. .TAX. is, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


Westminster is dealt with in a special article 
by Mrs. Murray Smith, and a good and sufficient 
account is given of Westminster Abbey and 
Westminster School. Holborn and Bloomsbury 
are noticed satisfactorily by the late Mr. W. J. 

The article on Kensington is somewhat weak, 
and one could wish that the writer had referred 
to the pages of Leigh Hunt's ' Old Court Suburb,' 
where he would have found much useful informa- 
tion. No mention is made of Earl's Terrace, 
though in former times it was the residence of 
Mrs. Inchbald, Leigh Hunt, and Walter Pater, 
and more recently of Du Maurier ; and more, 
we think, might have been written of Kensington 
Square and its old Grammar School. 

The illustrations and maps which accompany 
the book are good, and the binding attractive. 

The Burlington Magazine opens with an edi- 
torial on ' The Nation and its Art Treasures,' 
a book by Mr. R. C. Witt, who discusses with 
approval the suggestion (frequently made in the 
magazine) of a tax of 10 per cent on all important 
art sales. He also upholds " the idea of devoting 
a large sum in the near future to the ransom 
for the nation of a certain selected list of supreme 
masterpieces." This is considered together with 
an .increased grant to the National Gallery. 
Mr. Lionel Cust discusses a marble bust of 
Charles I. by Hubert Le Sueur, figured in the 
frontispiece, and acquired for the Victoria and 
Albert Museum about a year ago. Mr. A. Clutton- 
Brock has an interesting article on ' Chinese and 
European Religious Art ; Mr. G. F. Hill continues 
his ' Notes on Italian Medals,' which are admirably 
illustrated ; and Mr. D. S. MacColl has attached 
to a reproduction of ' A Portrait by Alfred 
Stevens,' painted about 1840 in the Venetian 
manner, some notes concerning the artist which 
should be invaluable to future biographers. 

MR. MACCOLL'S article in The Nineteenth 
Century on ' The National Gallery : its Problems, 
Resources, and Administration,' has already 
attracted wide attention, and begins with a 
reference to Mr. Witt's book noticed above. 
He calls for a reorganization of the control of 
the National Gallery which would secure some 
training for the Directors. His other suggestions 
are well worth consideration. Mr. G. L. O. 
Davidson has a good subject in ' The Solution 
of the Mystery of Bird Flight ' and its application 
to aeroplanes. ' Is M. Maeterlinck Critically 
Estimated ? ' by the Abbe Ernest Dimnet, is an 
able article, admirably written, like the other 
English papers of the accomplished writer. M. 
Dimnet finds insuperable difficulties in accepting 
the popular estimate of Maeterlinck as a philo- 
sopher, and will have manv supporters in his 
objections. The Rev. A. H." T. Clarke, in ' The 
Passing of the Oxford Movement,' deals mainly 
with Liddon. His article is very readable, but 
it seems to us a little one-sided. It is of value 
as indicating the present trend of opinion 
among writers on the Church. ' The Church and 
Celibacy,' by Mrs. Huth Jackson, seems to us an 
ingenious piece of special pleading, while it con- 
tains some ideas with which we are strongly in 

R. L. Gales, is a striking article in The National 
Revieio, which is further commended by one of 

Mr. Austin Dobson's learned and charming 
articles, ' Loutherbourg, R.A.' Mr. C. Grahame- 
White should command attention as he writes 
on ' The Aeroplane of the Future,' but we think 
he is unduly optimistic in his ideas concerning the 
wide use of air-machines. It will be a long time, 
we think, before they are " independent of gales." 
Mr. Philip Snowden's " Socialist view " of ' The 
Railway Unrest ' should certainly be read, for 
there are few more sincere and thorough men in 
public life than he. 


MR. A. BAXENDINE'S Edinburgh Catalogue 126' 
contains Library Editions of Standard Authors ; 
a complete set of the New Spalding Club ; Sin- 
clair's ' Old Statistical Account of Scotland ' ; 
Murray's "Family Library" (64 vols., full red 
morocco); Gilfillan's Library Edition of "British 
Poets"; Harvie-Brown's Natural History Works ; 
a complete set of the Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, and numerous inter- 
esting single volumes. 

MESSRS. BOWES & BOWES'S Cambridge Cata- 
logue 355 contains books from the libraries of 
the late Prof. J. E. B. Mayor and S. H. Butcher, 
Litt.D., M.P., including Greek and Latin Classics 
with MS. notes by both scholars, and Classical 
Tracts ; a large collection of bound volumes of 
pamphlets on Education in different countries, 
with histories of various Universities ; Classical 
Review, 24 vols. ; Proceedings, Classical Associa- 
tion of Scotland ; Nichols's ' Progresses,' 5 vols. ; 
Cotton Mather's ' New England ' ; D'Ailly, 
' Monnaie Romaine,' 4 vols. ; English Dialect 
Society, a set ; Franklin's ' Memoirs,' 6 vols., 
and ' Works,' 10 vols., large paper ; W. Savage 
Landor'g ' Works," 8 vols. ; Palaeographical 
Society, First Series, complete ; ' Dictionnaire 
des Sciences Philosophiques,' 6 vols. ; Sadler's 
'State Papers,' 3 vols., large paper; Strype's 
' Works,' with index, 27 vols. ; F. S. Thomas's 
' Historical Notes,' 3 vols. ; many works on 
Vegetarianism, &c. 

Vienna their Catalogue 102, entitled ' Flug- 
blatter, Flugschriften, Einblattdrucke, " Newe 
Zeitungen," Relationen, Gelegenheitsschriften, 
15-19 Jahrh.' Its 1,645 entries include scarce 
historical writings on particular occasions of the 
period dealt with, many being of great rarity. 
In order to simplify the perusal of its contents, 
the Catalogue has been provided with an index 
of persons mentioned, a geographical index, a 
typographical index (indicating printers, im- 
prints, and publishers), and finally an elaborate 
subject - index. The Catalogue contains a large 
portion of a celebrated library reaching back to 
the hero of the Thirty Years' War, Octavio 
Piccolomini. There are about a hundred inter- 
esting numbers united under ' England ' in the 
geographical index, mostly relating to history 
and the Reformation. We may also draw atten- 
tion to the entries under ' Dreissigjahriger 
Krieg,' ' Hochzeitsreden und Hochzeitsgedichte,' 
' Indulgenzbriefe,' ' Judaica,' ' Leichenreden,' 
' Papsttum und Kirchenstaat,' ' Reformation,' 
' Tiirkenkriege,' &c. In addition, there are- 
reproductions of scarce works. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. is, 1912. 

MR. JAMES IRVINE has a number of interesting 
books in his Catalogue 98, amongst which may be 
named a copy of Chalmers's 'Caledonia,' 8 vols., 
41. 4s. (published at 111. 5s.) ; ' Vestiarium Seoticum,' 
illustrated with 75 full-page tartans, 6^. 6$. ; Peter 
Cunningham's ' Story of Nell Gwyn,' first edition, 
11. 10s. ; and Gibbon's ' Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire,' 8 vols., full calf, 4Z. 10*. The 
Catalogue also contains several biographical and 
topographical works and colour books. 

WE have just received from Herr Leo Liep- 
mannssohn's bookshop, 14, Bernburgerstr., 
Berlin, the two following Catalogues : 178 
Acoustics, Physiology and Psychology of Music, 
Theory and History of Musical Notation ; 179 
Primitive Music, Music of the Ancient and 
Oriental Nations. The principal feature of the 
first Catalogue is a series of manuscripts and rare 
impressions, showing the development of musical 
notation from the eleventh century to the present 
time. Amongst them is to be noted an edition of 
Octaviano Petrucci, the first music publisher, 
viz., ' Mouton, Missarum, Liber primus, Missa 
sine nomine, Alleluya, Alma redemptoris, Item 
alia sine nomine, Regina mearum.' At the end 
of the part of the Bassus : " Impressum 
Forosempronii per Octauianum Petrutium ciuem 
3? orosempronienses, Anno Domini MDXV." (price 
2,800 marks). Another interesting item is an old 
and curious dance-book: " Negri (Cesare, detto 
'II Trombone'), Le gratie d'amore," Milan, 
1602, containing 58 engraved plates showing the 
dancers, their positions and their costumes, 
besides containing the old music, 700 marks. 
The Catalogue has plates showing specimens 
of the books offered. Catalogue 179 has some 
rare items for instance, original editions of the 
early musical theorist Gafurius : ' Practica 
musice,' 1469, 1502, and 1512 ; the famous 
' Dodekachordon ' of Glareanus in the original 
edition of 1547, 300 marks ; Jumilhac, ' La 
Science et la Pratique du Plain-chant,' 1673, 
225 marks ; and Wallis, ' Opera Mathematical 
Oxonise, 1695 9, 3 vols., a work containing 
several ancient tracts on music, 60 marks. 

MR. ROBERT MCCASKIE'S Catalogue 35 contains 
482 book items, 11 pp. of which are devoted 
to Prints and Autographs. There are a large 
number of interesting and inexpensive books, 
uch as Robert Brough's ' Songs of the Governing 
Classes,' first edition, morocco gilt, for 7s. 6d. ; 
Ashmole's ' History of the Order of the Garter,' 
5s. ; Johnson's ' Clergymen's Vade Mecum,' 
1703, 3s. 6d. ; Elizabeth Elstob's ' Anglo-Saxon 
Homily,' 1709, 2s. 6d. ; ' Letters illustrative of the 
Reign of William III.,' 5s.; and 'Memoirs and 
Correspondence of Admiral Lord Saumarez,' 
7s. Qd. We notice also Charles Bennett's ' Book 
of Blockheads,' 1863, 15s. 6d. ; Bennett and 
Brough's ' Shadow and Substance,' 1860, 10s. ; 
CJamden's ' Britannia,' ed. by Gibson, 2 vols., 
folio, 11. 5s. ; Dickens's ' Our Mutual Friend,' 
first edition, with the original wrappers and 
insets, bound in morocco, 4Z. ; Gronow's ' Cele- 
brities of London and Paris,' 11. 5s. ; a work 
on Medicines " by George Starkey, who is a 
Philosopher by Fire," 1658, 12s. Qd. ; and 
a number of Political Tracts and Pamphlets, 
mostly relating to the conflict between Charles I. 
and Parliament. Amongst the Addenda there is 
a highly interesting series of over 160 etchings 
"by Jean le Pautre, all in fine condition, and 

mounted within borders on plate paper, for 107. 
Under Prints are a large coloured aquatint of 
the Hon. E.I. Company's College at Hertford, 
1808, 21. ; View of the Genuine Beer Brewery, 
Golden Lane, 1804 a coloured aquatint " dedi- 
cated to the Friends of the Institution for their 
laudable exertions in so useful an undertaking "- 
11. 12s. ; a series of three long coloured aquatints 
of Sidmouth, about 1810, 5/. ; a mezzotint of 
Lady Harriet Grosvenor, 21. 5s. ; a series of large 
aquatints in brown by Paul Sandby, 16s. each ; 
as well as pictures of celebrated cattle, and a large 
number of portraits and views. 

The illustrated Supplement, besides con- 
taining reproductions of mezzotint portraits 
and other subjects at prices ranging from 2s. to 
10 guineas, has a facsimile of part of the original 
rough draft of the reply of Charles I. to the pro- 
posals of the Houses of Parliament : " Wherefore 
His Ma tie coniures them as Chrystians, as Subiectes, 
and as men whoe desyre to leave a good name 
behynd them. . . .to make use of this Answer that 
all .... of bloade may be stopped, & their unhappy 
distractions peacibly setled." The complete 
document, which is not priced, is signed " C. R.," 
and dated Aug. 6, 1646. 

THE following items among many others 
are included by Messrs. Chas. J. Sawyer in 
their 28th Annual Catalogue of books in new 
condition : The complete ' Works ' of The"ophile 
Gautier, Edition de Luxe, 24 vols., 101. 10s. ; a 
set of Whyte - Melville's sporting novels for 
51. 15s. ; an attractive extra-illustrated set of 
' Nollekens and his Times,' with 106 additional 
portraits, many coloured, 81. 8s. ; a unique set 
of Dickens, Edition de Luxe, 30 vols., with 
original unpublished drawings, 211. 10*'. ; and a 
set of Boydell's ' Thames,' containing 1,000 
extra-illustrations, portraits, views, water-colour 
drawings, &c., sumptuously bound in 4 vols. folio, 
green Levant morocco. 1251. 

The Catalogue contains also a good selection 
of new books, remainders, &c., at moderate prices. 


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CONTENTS. -No. 108. 

NOTES : Fleetwood of Missenden : the Kingsley Family, 
41 Inscriptions at St. John's, Westminster, 42 The 
Australian Coat of Arms, 44 "The Thames "" Com- 
frey," 45' The Sacrifice of Isaac ' First Rhinoceros in 
England Hurley Manor Crypt, 46 Frances, Lady 
Lumley, 47. 

QUERIES : Catherine Sedley and the Churchills Laner- 
cost Manor " Penard " St. Agnes: Folk-lore Motto 
for Milk Depot, 47 Capt. Sir R. Richardson St. Cuth- 
bert's Birds " Vicugna " Spenser Concordance Gaston 
L-tfenestre James Silk Buckingham : Autobiographical 
M3S. Alexander the Great and Paradise Weather- 
boirded Houses in the City " With Allowance," 48 
Jennings Case Miss Anne Manning Curious Staff Dr. 
Brettargh Silver Snuff-box : Silver Buttons Fines as 
Christian Name Biographical Information Wanted 
Lord Lytton's House in Grosvenor Square, 49 Frederic 
Kendall Capt. Freeny Money-box Trussel Family 
1 Mr. Punch : his Origin and Career ' John Howden, 
Famous Fanatic Scurr Family, 50. 

REPLIES : Ancient Terms, 50 Authors Wanted 
Military Executions Capt. Cuttle's Hook, 52 Oxford 
Degrees and Ordination Foreign Journals in America 
West India Committee, 53 Salamanca : Capt. G. Stubbs 
"Riding the high horse" Our Lady's Fast Holed 
Stones, 54 Felicia Hemans Vanishing London : " The 
Swiss Cottage " Peploe Grant of Arms "Dillisk" and 
"Slook," 55 Lord Wharton's Bibles Ear-piercing 
Diseases from Plants, 56 Tattershall : Elsham Kings 
with Special Titles J. R. : Letters to Lord Orrery, 57 
Cavendish Square : Equestrian Statue Coltman Family 
Keats's ' Ode to a Nightingale,' 58 Antigallican Society 

Lucius Christmas : its Names, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Romano - British Buildings and 
Earthworks ' ' Medieval Story ' ' Cambridge University 

Notices to Correspondents. 



THE illegitimacy often assumed of the 
branch of the Fleetwoods who from the 
sixteenth to the early eighteenth century 
nourished at Great Missenden, in Bucks, 
has been more than once called into question 
in the pages of ' N. & Q.' So far back as 
2 S. vii. 317, 403, attention was called to it, 
and more recently in 10 S. vii. 302 by your 
able correspondent R. W. B., who mentions 
that the general opinion is not borne out 
by the context of the will of the father of 
William Fleetwood, the Recorder, who 
founded the line. 

Having lately had occasion, for another 
purpose, to refer to this will, I venture to 
send to ' N. & Q.' the abstract of the same, 
for which, as usual, I am indebted to my 
friend MR. A. RHODES : 

Robert Fleetwood of London, gentleman, 
14 Oct., 1560. To eight poor men in the parish 
of St. Dunstan's-in-the-West at his funeral, 6d. 

each, to pray for him, and for their dinner no 
black for any but my wife, and to her household. 
To the prisoners in Ludgate, Newgate, and 
Marshalsea, 3s. 4d. each, &c. to the three 
churches in Lancashire, .viz., Eccleston, Croston, 
and Chorley, 20s. each, and 26s. Sd. a year for 
one hundred four score and ten years to the 
poor of St. Dunstan's in Fleet Street, 26s. 8d. every 
Good Friday during the same period my house 
in Fleet Street where I now dwell the children 
of Edward Rice of Kidderminster, V. marks 
to Anne Kingsley, if she do outlive me, Ql. on 
her marriage and not before William Kingsley 
to be kept to the school at my executors' cost for 
2 years and then put to something he be meet 
for to Dorothy Standen, if she outlive me, 6/. 
my mother if she outlive me the wives of my 
brothers John and Thomas Fleetwood, an angel 
of gold my son William Fleetwood of the 
Middle Temple, one of my best gowns and also 
my best flagon and chain of fine gold to Edward 
Buggyn my thick president book and my .book 
of accounts upon the Case, which book he and I 
did write when he was my servant (bequest to 
Edmond Standen) my wife has an annuity 
of Wl. assured by Master Anthony Browne out of 
the parsonage of Croston, whereof he and I had 
a lease for many years yet to run (deed enrolled 
in Chancery) to her the house and garden in 
Fleet Street for life legacies to godchildren 
no one to have any legacy till of full age except 
Agnes [Anne ?] Kingsley manor of Piddington 
held by testator in trust Agnes my wife and 
John Dister, exors. Martin John Hunt, Esq., 
Richard Earth, William Smyth, John Glascock, 
Wm. Fleetwood, gent., overseers, for their pains 
an angel each. Legacies to servants. Wit- 
nesses : G. Grylle, Hieronimus Halley, Francis 
Gyle, Thomas Heydon, Edward Ridge [? Rice], 
Francis (?) . . . ." Pr. in London, 26 June, 1561 
(23 Loftes). 

It will, I think, be allowed that this will 
disposes of the illegitimacy theory. How 
such a notion came to be entertained is 
difficult to say. It may possibly have 
arisen, as suggested by R. W. B., from a 
misunderstanding regarding the coat of arms 
used at the funeral of the Recorder (see 
'Lane. Funeral Certificates,' Cheth. Soc., 
vol. Ixxv. p. 29), coupled with the fact that 
in no known pedigree of Fleetwood is any 
wife named to Robert Fleetwood the 
testator. It is, however, abundantly clear 
that he had a wife Agnes and an only son, 
the after Recorder of London. About Agnes 
Fleetwood's parentage, however, we are 
yet in the dark. 

Arising out of the foregoing will, but upon 
another topic, is a point of some genealogical 
interest. Who were the Anne (or Agnes) 
and William Kingsley named in the will, and 
in what relationship did they stand to the 
testator ? That the Fleetwoods and the 
Kingsleys were in some way connected is 
undoubted. The Kingsley pedigree in the 
'Visitation of Kent, 1619' (Harl. Soc.), com- 
mences with William Kingsley of Rosehall, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. f n s. v. JAN. 20, 1912. 

Herts, who is there stated to have been 
the son of - Kingsley by a daughter of 
Fleetwood of the Vache. This William 
Kingsley died in 1611. His age at death is 
not recorded, but his widow died in 1622, 
aged 74, and it is unlikely that there would 
be any very marked difference between the 
ages of husband and wife. It is impossible, 
therefore, to fix the Fleetwood-Kingsley 
marriage much earlier than 1550, and if we 
assume Agnes and William Kingsley men- 
tioned by Robert Fleetwood in his will to be 
the issue of such marriage, they might well 
have been at school in 1560, when the will 
was made. 

As to the position of the Fleetwood lady 
in the Vache pedigree, this, so far, has not 
been discovered. The founder of the line 
was Thomas Fleetwood, next elder brother 
of the testator, who purchased the Vache 
estate some little time before his death in 
1572, aged 52. He was twice married, and 
had daughters by both wives, but their 
husbands are fairly well known, and, besides, 
they were of a younger generation than the 
mother of William Kingsley of Rosehall. 
It has been suggested that the two Kingsleys 
named in the will were a niece and nephew 
of the testator by one of his two sisters. 
This would suit very well as to date, but, 
unfortunately, unless there was a second 
marriage on the part of one of them, neither 
of these ladies married a Kingsley. 

A reference in ' S. P. Dom.' seems to lend 
strong confirmation to the close connexion 
between the Kingsleys and the Fleetwoods. 
Under date 29 May, 1604, we read " Grant 
to Sir George Fleetwood of advowson of a 
prebend at Canterbury, to present William 
Kingsley." Sir George Fleetwood was son 
and heir of Thomas Fleetwood, the founder 
of the Vache line. The William Kingsley 
here named afterwards the well-known 
Archdeacon of Canterbury was fourth son 
of William Kingsley of Rosehall. At the 
date of the grant he was not more than 
19 or 20 years old, and the grant to him of a 
prebend at so youthful an age could have 
been only through the powerful influence 
of his relative Sir George Fleetwood of the 
Vache. This gant was the commencement 
of Archdeacon William Kingsley' s clerical 
career, and was doubtless the occasion of his 
settlement at Canterbury, where his descend- 
ants continued for many generations. He 
was ancestor of the late Canon Kingsley, and, 
indeed, so far as I am aware, of all existing 
members of that family whose descent can 
be traced. The subject is therefore of more 
than passing genealogical interest. There 

is, I think, little doubt that the William 
Kingsley named in the will of Robert Fleet - 
wood was identical with William Kingsley 
of Rosehall, who founded both the Kentish 
and the Hertfordshire lines. It would be 
interesting could the names of his father and 
mother be established. W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newtbn-le-Willows. 


(See 11 S. iv. 302, 403, 484.) 

THIS instalment continues the list of 
inscriptions on 


201. J. J. | Jan. , 1829 | C. (J.) | March , 
1846. | Also J. | Dec. , 1848. [See No. 279.] 

202. John Hyde, Esq., of this p., d. 21 day of 
-, 181(3). 

203. William Reeve, d. 6 Jan., 1812, a. (4)8. 

204. Mr. Edward Jarman, d. , 1815, a. 7(9), 

Also Catherine W[est], spinster, d. 23 Aug., 1821, 
a. (3)1 years. Mary, wid. of Mr. John West,, 
of this p., d. 25 April, 1826, in her 71st year. 

205. Mrs. Ann Money, d. 29 May, 1821, a. (59), 
Also 3 chn. who died in their infancy. 

206. James Joseph Ottey, d. 9 Jan., 1807, 
a. (18) months. Also Sarah Ottey, of the- 
above, [died] Jan., 1819, a. 55. Edward Ottey, 
of Carteret Street, Westminster, d. 22 Dec., 1823, 
a. . 

207. W. Mears, s. of Mears, d. Oct. , 1799 r 
a. 27. Martha, dau. of Thomas and Mary Peers 
Mears, d. 26 Dec., 181(8), a. 3 days. James 
Palmer Mears, d. 17 Oct., 1818, a. 33. Mr. John 
Mears, d. 13 April, 1819, a. 48. The above Mrs. 
Mary Mears, d..ll July, 1821, a. 78. Mr. William 
Mears, d. 1 April, 1824, in his 78th year. 

208. Mr. John Yeomans, of this p., d. 19 July, 
1814, a. 39. Ann, wid. of the above, d. 9 May, 
1839, a. 67. Thomas John Yeomans, s. of the 
above, d. 21 June, 1840, a. 42. Stephen Yeomans, 
s. of the above, d. 1 Dec., 1840, a. 2 yrs. 3 mths. 
Sarah, wid. of Thomas John Yeomans, d. 18 Aug., 
1842, a. 33. Ann Hambleton, dau. of John and 
Anne Yeomans, d. 9 June, 1843, a. 42. 

209. Mary, [wi]fe of William Miles, of this p., 

d. (April ?) 19, 1786, a. 72 of Mr. Wm. Miles 

d. 1789, a. 77. William Miles, s. of the 

above, d. May 4, . Sarah, dau. of the above 

Wm. and Mary Miles, d. Sept. 23, 1806. John 
Miles, d. Jan., 1818. Richard, eldest s. of Wm. 

and Mary Miles, d. Feb , a. (8)1. Also 

Mrs d in her 92nd year. Also Mrs. 

Mary , d. July, 1.831, a. 92. 

210 Mary Inderwick, mother of the above, . 

211. Mr. James Thomas, of this p., brother of 
the late Benjamin Thomas, d. Feb. 17, 1814, a. 60. 
Ann Langley, dau. of James Thomas, and w. of 
James Langley, of this p., d. March 2, 1815, a. 36. 
J. Langley, husband of the above, d. June, 1820, . 
a. 47. 

212. [Blank.] 

213. [do.] 

214. [do.] 

11 S. V. JAN. 20, 1912.] 


215 the p. of St. M , died in their 

in[fancy]. Also Sophia Maria Ba[nn]ist[er], r dau 
of the above, d. Aug. 20, 1811, a. 7. The above 
Mrs. Sarah Bannister, d. Sept. 29, 1826, a. 49. 
James David Bannister, husband of the above, 
d. March 15, 1840, a. 70. 

216 a. 62. Jonathan (Pehl), [son] of 

Christopher (Pehl) and Jane his w., (granddau.) 
of the above-named Mrs. Margaret Taylor, 
d Also .... 

217. [Blank.] 

218. [do.] 

219. Mar(y), [daugh]ter of [Ch]apman, 

Also Also d. Oct. 2, a. 1. 

Also , dau. of the above, d. June [18]29, a. 12. 
Also the above Mr. Thomas Chap[man], d. Jan. 
, a. 61. Also Mar[y], relict of the ab[ove] 
[T]homas Chapm[an], [died] 31, 1849. 

220. Mary Ann, w. of Mr. George Billington, 
of St. Margaret's, d. 18 (May), 1824, in her 26th 

221. Mar John of this p., d. Aug. 7 

.... Also .... of the above, d. 1791, a. 5-. 
Also William Wright, s. of the above, d. April 17, 
1792, a. 17 mths. Mr. John Wright, d. Sept. 24, 
1816, a. 66. Mr. Joseph Wright, d. Feb. 22, 
1833, a. 44. Mr. Charles W T right, d. Sept. 28, 

184(8), a. -4 yrs. Mrs. Jane Wright, d. April 

in her 94th year .... wid 

222. Mary, wid. of John Henry Delamain, 
Esq., of Berners Street, d. Dec. 26, 1814, a. 56. 

223. Susan A , died . Thomas .... born 
.... died. 

224. Mr. Christopher Shephard, of the City of 
Westminster, distiller, d. April , 17[3]2, a. [4]6. 
Erected by his \vid., Mrs. Jane Shephard. 

225. Mr. John Cooke, of this p., d. July 5, 
1757, a. 40. George Henry Brooker Cooke, 
d. Aug. 15, 1786, a. 4. John Cooke, bro. of the 
above, d. Jan. 23, 1789, a. 4. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Cooke, wid. of the above, d. Oct. 25, 1796, a. 69. 
George, s. of Mr. John Cooke, d. Oct. 7, 1797, 
a. 42. Charlotte Anne, d. of Charles and Anna 
Maria Hertslett, dau. of the above George 
Cooke, d. Sept. 2, 1824, a. 8 mths. 9 days. Mrs. 
Anne Byles, wid. of George Cooke, and afterwards 
w. of Mr. Joseph Byles, of this p., d. 23 April, 

18 , in her 74th year. 

226. Anne, w. of Mr. Richard Salter, of Staff , 
d. 1812. Likewise her Ifnfant s]on. Also 
Ann, second w. of Richard Salter, d. 24 Dec., 
1835, a. 56. 

227. Stephen Cotterell, of this p., d. 16 Aug., 
1812, a. 41, leaving a wid. and 3 small children. 
William Henry Cotterell, s. of the above, d. a. 1. 
Louisa Elizabeth Cotterell, dau. of the above, 
d. 22 July, 1822, a. 16. Beatrice, w. of the above, 
d. 28 March, 1839, in her 70th year. Charlotte, 
w. of John Tupp, dau. of the above, d. 25 Feb., 
1853, a. 48. 

228. Margaret, w. of John Arrow, d a. 4-. 

Also four [of her] children : John, a. yrs. ; 
Ann, a. yrs. ; Robert, a. yrs. ; Charles, a. 
10 mths. Also Alice, w. of the above, d. March 9, 
1820. Mr. John Arrow, d. July 7, 1821, in his 
73rd year. Mr. John Seaman, d. May 5, 1827, 
a. 34. 

229. Robert Colquhoun, Esq., late of the 
Grenadier Guards, d. , 1840, a. . Robert 
Colquhoun, s. of the above, late Captain 83rd 
Regiment, d. Oct., 1841, a. 41. James Blayney, 
Esq., son-in-law of the above R. C., senior, 

d. Dec. 17, 1847, a. 7(3). Jane, wid. of R. C.,. 
sen., d. Feb. 16, 1848, a. 78. Lucy, w. of the 

above Capt. Colquhoun, d. Sept. 11, 1849, 

a. (42). 

230. Henry Wat[erhouse], Captain Royal Navy, 
d. July 27, 1812, a. 42. Mrs. Susannah Water- 
house, mother of the above, d. April 12, 1815, 

a. 70. Mr. William Waterhouse, husband of 
Susannah, father of Henry Waterhouse, Esq., 
d. July 28, 1822, a. 79. Susannah Maria Water- 
house, third dau. of Wm. and Sus. Waterhouse, 

b. 17 Dec., 1772 ; d. 19 Dec., 1812. Also [Cha]rles 
Waterhouse, [brothjer of the ab[ove], d. Oct. 30,. 
(184)6, a. 59. 

231. [Blank.] 

232 d. 12 April, 1832, a. 72. Mrs. Mary 

Ann Mann, d. 7 April, 1832, a. 28, the w. of Mr. 
John Mann. Mary Ann Elizabeth Mann, d. 
18 Oct., 1831, a. 2 yrs. 7 mths. Mr. John, 
Mann, sen., d. 26 March, 1835, a. 73. ' ; 

233. John Millington Fowler, s. of John and 
Ann Fowler, of Wood Street, d. May 31, .1822, 
a. 2 yrs. 1 mth. 17 days. Mr. John Fowler, 
f. of the above, d. March 4, 1829. Also.... son 
of .... [accidentally drowned .... 

234. [Blank.] 

235. Thomas Also ty Watts, d. 1813,. 

a. 71. Also Susan, w. of the last-named Thomas 
Watts, d. Dec. 29, 1813, a. 72. Mary, d. of 
Thomas and Susan Watts, d. Feb. 24, 1835, a. 64. 
James Watts, their s., d. Nov. 24, 1840, a. 74. 

236. Thomas a. 6 [Elizabe]th Sims 

James.... [sa]id Thomas Ja[mes] .... a. 71. 
Thomas James, of Streatham Place .... 

237. [Blank.] 

238. [do.] 

[Six or seven stones are here covered iip by a pile 
of paving stones.] 


Stones lying flat, beginning at south end. Some of 
the stones in this corner are covered by a rubbish 

239. Mr. Robert Crawford, of this p., d. May 2,. 
1838, a. 68. Mary, w. of the above, d. Sept. 27, 
1844, a. 76. 

240. Amelia wife of the fford, of 

Also Anne Catherine Knox, the inf. dau. of 
Robert and Elizabeth Stafford, of this p., d. 6 Oct., 
1835, a. 7 weeks. Elizabeth Davie, d. 19 Jan., 
1844, a. 78. Sarah Stafford, d. 22 May, 1844, a. 84. 

241. Mr. George Holloway, d. 3 April, 1836, 
a. 19. Samuel Holloway, d. 16 June, 1837, 
a. 66. Elizabeth Sunpkin Holloway, d. 19 Dec., 
183-, a. 32. Mrs. Sarah Trickett, d. 18 April, 
1838, a. 30. Mary, wid. of Samuel Holloway, 
d. 26 July, 1838, a. 63. 

242 d. 1844, a. 24. 

243 Mr. William Heminings, bro. of the 

above, d. 10 Sept., 1849, a. 36. 

244. Priscilla, w. of George Mills, d. Oct. 29, 
1834, a. 26, dau. of Robert and Maria Higgins, 
of Hoxne, Suffolk. 

245. Frederick Clapton Sheppard, d. 30 Oct., 
1833, a. 1 yr. 10 mths. Mary, w. of Mr. Thomas 
Sheppard, of this p., d. 16 March, 1837, a. 78. 
Mr. Thomas Sheppard, d. 17 June, 1837, a. 75. 
Miss Jane Sheppard, d. 19 Aug., 1844, a. 41. 
Joseph Whiston Barney, d. 1 Aug., 1853, a. 70. 

246. Mr. William Woolley, of this p., d. Aug. 3, 
1849, a. 47. A tender husband. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAN. 20, 1912. 

247. Mr. John Barlow, of this p., d. 8 April, 
1841, a. 51. Hester Barlow, d. 5 April, 1828, 
a. 9 mths. Edwin Barlow, d. 24 Oct., 1834, 
a. 3 yrs. 6 mths. Mary Ann, wid. of the above, 
d. 24 July, 1844, a. 43. 

248. George Chilvers, d. March 22, 1851, a. 37, 
Colour-Sergeant, 3rd Batt. Grenadier Guards, late 
of Grimstone, near Lynn, Norfolk. E. M., dau. 
of the above, died in her infancy. Elizabeth 
Mary, w. of the above, d. Oct. 12, 1851, a. 35. 
Buried at West Hanningfleld, Essex. 

249. Stephen (Page) Seager, Esq., d. 1 Aug., 
1834, in his 72nd year, late of Maidstone, Kent. 
Elizabeth his w., d. 23 Feb., 1836, a. 76. Jane 
Seager, their dau., d. 20 Nov., 1850, a. 50. 

250 w. of John Money, d. 22 April, 

1838, a. 21. 

251. Matilda, d. of William and Sophia Moyes, 
d. 14 Oct., 1830, a. 2 weeks. William Henry, 
8. of the above, d. 22 Nov., 1831, a. 2 yrs. 7 mths. 
Mra. Sophia Moyes, d. 1 Dec., 1831, a. 28. Mrs. 
Elizabeth Moyes, d. 26 June, 1833, a. 23. Henry 
George Moyes, d. 2 Oct., 1842, a. 7 yrs. 6 mths. 
William George Moyes, d. 24 Feb., 1846, a. 7 mths. 

252. Sarah, w. of Mr. Richard Clark, of Vaux- 
hall Bridge Road, d. 14 Feb., 1842, a. 54. 

253. John Garner, d. 8 June, 1844, a. (4)6. 

254. Mr. John Astell, late Clerk of this p., 
d. April 7, 1844, a. 65. Mr. William George 
Astell, eldest s. of the above, d. June 1, 1852, 
a. 42. 

255. Jane, w. of the Rev. John Jennings, 
Rector of this p., d. 21 Sept., 1833, a. 38. 

256. Thomas Trowell, Esq., s. of Mawbey 
Trowell, Esq., late of Bradford, Wilts, d. 25 Dec., 
1840, a. 72. 

257. Mrs. Ann Richardson, d. 8 Sept., 1841, 
a. 67. Mrs. Sarah Richardson, d. 9 March, 1851, 
a. 51. 

258. [Almost blank.] In ccelo Quies. 

259. Mary Maria Pink, d. 27 Dec., 1832, in her 
56th year. Emily Sarah Pink, granddau. of the 
above, d. 22 Oct., 1842, a. 7 mths. 

260. Robert Earl, of Vine Street, Westminster, 
d. 12 Jan., 1812, a. 22. His bro. John Earl, of 
Vincent Square, d. 21 Sept., 1830, a. 33. Mrs. 
Mary Earl, their mother, d. 28 Jan., 1836, a. 76. 
Isabella, w. of John Earl, d. Oct. 21, 1836, a. 47. 
Mr. Robert Earl, d. 25 April, 1839, a. (9)7. 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut-Col. 
17, Ashley Mansions, S.W. 

(To be concluded.) 


ON 7 May, 1908, his late Majesty King 
Edward VII. by Royal Warrant granted 
armorial ensigns and supporters to the 
Commonwealth of Australia. A copy of 
this warrant, together with an illustration 
of the coat of arms, appeared in the Common- 
wealth of Australia Gazette for 8 Aug., 1908. 
Yet a little over three years later an 
amended design is now before the College 
of Arms with a view to its submission for 
the approval of his Majesty King George V. 
What urgent reasons are there, one naturally 
asks, for the present King to render obsolete 

a Royal Warrant granted by his late father ? 
None except the gratification of certain 
personal wishes. By Australians generally 
the proposed alteration is considered as 
unnecessary as it is undesirable. The design 
of the shield is objected to. This depicts 
on an azure field the six Federated States 
of Australia, symbolized by six argent 
inescutcheons, each charged with a chevron 
gules thus each contributing a roof-tree 
to the house of the Commonwealth. In 
the centre of the shield is an escutcheon 
argent charged with St. George's cross 
gules cottised of the (azure) field 
having five six-pointed argent stars thereon, 
representing the constellation of the Southern 
Cross. Crest : on a wreath of the colours 
a seven-pointed star or. Supporters : on 
a compartment of grass, to the dexter, a 
kangaroo ; sinister, an emu both proper. 
Motto : " Advance, Australia." Instead, 
however, of the before - mentioned shield, 
Mr. Fisher, the Prime Minister, desires 
to have the six Admiralty flag - badges 
of the several Australian States. These 
are as follow : New South Wales a 
St. George's cross charged with a lion and 
four eight-pointed yellow stars on a white 
ground ; Victoria the five white stars, 
representing the Southern Cross, ensigned 
with an imperial crown on a blue ground ; 
Queensland a blue Maltese cross sur- 
mounted by an imperial crown on a white 
ground ; South Australia a shrike in 
natural colours on a yellow ground ; Western 
Australia a black swan on a yellow ground ; 
Tasmania a red lion on a white ground. 
Surely a heterogeneous mixture. To revert 
to badges for arms is certainly playing 
pitch-and-toss with heraldry. True it is 
that in several of the above cases the badge 
also figures either as the State crest or as 
part of the State arms. And a crest, of 
course, may be used as a badge, as may also 
a charge upon a shield ; but to make mere 
flag-badges into a combination coat of arms 
is surely turning the College of Arms topsy- 
turvy and making a travesty of armorial 

Mr. Fisher would also vary the position 
of the supporters, viz., straighten the 
kangaroo's tail and make the emu stand on 
both legs ; and he would add wattle blossoms 
to the under part of the shield. But as 
South Africa has been given the wattle as 
a floral badge, Australia apparently has 
lost claim to it. Still, any artist could add 
flora to the " compartment." Mr. Fisher 
objects besides to the motto, preferring 
" Australia " without " advance," which 

ii s. v. JAX. 20, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


seems to reduce the motto to a geographica 
expression. The crest is the only part o 
the present design which is to be left as it is 
As an Australian, a loyal subject of the 
Empire, and a student of heraldry, I enter 
an emphatic protest against such alterations 
as are proposed being made to the Australian 
coat of arms. 

Xotes on the Australian Badges. 

New South Wales. The badge is made 
from the centre portion of the arms on a 
white ground, in lieu of the azure field of the 
shield, and leaving out the charged cantons, 
as in complete arms. 

Victoria. The badge is made from the 
whole arms, with the crown portion of the 
crest added as ensignment. 

Queensland. The badge is made from 
the crest, less the two sugarcanes and the 
wreath of the colours. 

The other three States possess only 
assumed arms ; but for South Australia and 
for Western Australia the badge also 
appears on the State seal. 

Toorak, Victoria. 

" THE THAMES." The question has been 
raised as to how the h got into the word 
Thames ; and we have been told that it 
means " the smooth " or " tranquil stream." 
Perhaps a few words of explanation may be 

As Cfesar gives the f^orm Tamesis, and 
Tacitus has Tamesa, it is clear that the h 
is unoriginal. 

In Anglo-Saxon the a was mutated to ce, 
and later into e. The standard A.-S. forms 
are Temese and Temes ; see plentiful 
examples in Bosworth and Toller. 

The Middle-English forms are well shown 
in ' Piers Plowman,' Text C. xvii. 108, 
where we find Temese ; but in other MSS. 
also Temse, Tempse, and (I regret to say) 

The usual English habit of dropping the 
vowel of the second syllable of trisyllabic 
names (as in Leicester, &c.) reduced the 
trisyllabic Temese to Temse. The strong 
emphasis even led some to insert a p, as in 
Tempse. This is worth noting, as there was 
another " Thames " in Bedfordshire, com- 
memorated in the place-name Tempsford. 
At a later time the final e dropped off, giving 
the monosyllabic form Terns, which, as 
every one knows, represents the modern 
pronunciation, if we only bear in mind that 
the final z-sound in a word is always mis- 
written as . 

Hence the true English forms are perfectly 
certain. It was Tem-e-se (in three syllables) 
in early times ; then Tem-se (in two syllables) 
later on ; and it is Terns now. In the 
modern " Thames," the spelling with a is 
due to our absurd worship of what is called 
" classical " ; we carefully misspell it with a 
out of regard for Czesar and Tacitus. 

The inserted h is due to another cause, 
viz., a habit of Anglo-Norman scribes, as 
I have already explained in print several 
times ; see, in particular, pp. 471--5 of 
my ' Notes on English Etymology.' 

Briefly, the Norman scribe often fancied 
that the English t was stronger than his own, 
and seemed to be followed by a faint aspirate 
which he denoted by h. Hence we find him 
writing Thoft for Toft, thown for town, and 
le-th for let. So he wrote Themese or Themse 
for Temese and Temse. Those who mis- 
wrote the name with an a wrote Thamese 
and Thames. And the last of these has 
prevailed ; for unfortunately the most 
grotesque form often appeals most to the 
English eye, which has been elected as judge 
in place of the ear. 

I propose to discuss the " quietness " of 
the stream in a future note. 


" COMFREY." I have just received from 
the Liverpool Medical Institution a notice- 
paper in which is the announcement of a 
paper to be read by Dr. Macalister on the 
urgical value, as a cell proliferant, of the 
root of symphytum. This paper will afford 
an interesting instance of modern science 
^plaining the value of herbs now almost 
ntirely neglected. The notice of it has led 
me to investigate the English name of this 
plant, the " comfrey." In French it is 
consoude, in Provencal counsoudo, in Italian 
onsolida names all indicating the con- 
solidating surgical properties of its root, 
ts use in healing ulcers, and even fractures. 
But whence the corresponding English 
name ? The ' N.E.D.,' with interesting 
quotations showing the use of the plant in 
'eechdom, gives its name as "of obscure 
etymology." The first quotation (1000) 
ndicates a mediaeval derivation : " Accipe 
de confirma, hoc est consolida," rightly 
not accepted. The first syllable corresponds 
to consolida, consoudo ; but whence the 
econd ? Reference to the 'E.D.D.' puts 
Tie on the track. I find its name in Banff is 
' comfort-knit-bane," in Aberdeen "comfer- 
tnitbeen. ' ' This name is evidently a doublet : 
' knit-bane " as uniting fractures, and 
'comfort" in the sense of the 'N.E.D.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. v. JAN. 20, 1912. 

1460 quotation "to comforte the joynctis," 
and in that of the botanical symphytum. 
'" Comfrey " is then a variant of " comfort," 
originally with the second syllable stressed, 
;as the English equivalent of Low L. con- 
fortare, consolidare. The Provencal name 
counsoudo appears to have almost left the 
rough-skinned " comfrey " to attach itself 
vto the still rougher horsetail (coueto de rat, 
rat-tail ; fretadou, rubber), used for scrubbing 
pots and pans. It would be curious to know 
if " comfrey " has been used for this purpose 
in England or Scotland. In this case the 
change from " comfort " to " comfrey " 
might possibly have been supported by 
the use of the plant for fretting or fraying 
domestic utensils. 

Ill, Avenue de Neuilly, Seine. 

ANACHRONISM. In the second part of the 
fourth of the Chester Plays, ' The Sacrifice 
of Isaac,' there occurs a most remarkable 
anachronism, which, apart from its own 
absurdity, proves the incongruity of making 
Isaac a type of Christ. That this was the 
dramatist's intention is plain enough when 
we read God's words to Abraham, 11. 457-60 
(I quote from Mr. Pollard's 1890 edition of 
' English Miracle Plays, Moralities, and 
Interludes'), and especially 11. 469-76, in 
which the Expositor says : 

By Abraham, I maie understandc 

The father of heaven* that can fand 

With his sonnes bloode to break that bande, 
That the devill had brought us to. 

By Isacke understand*: I maie 

Jesu,* that was obedient aye, 

His fathers will to worke alwaie, 
And death for to confounde. 

Utterly forgetful of his purpose, the 
dramatist makes Abraham exclaim, towards 
the end of the fine scene in which Isaac 
shows himself a willing sacrifice, and which 
Mr. Pollard justly calls " perhaps the most 
pathetic in our older literature " (11. 413-16 ): 

Ah, sonne ! my harte will breake in three, 
To heare thee speake such wordes to me. 
Jesu! on me thou have pittye,* 
That I have moste in mynde. 

So not only does the author perpetrate 
one of the most curious anachronisms in 
literature by making Abraham call on 
Jesus, but in doing so it seems to have 
escaped his attention that a father appeals 
for pity to a son whom he is about to kill. 


Arnhem, the Netherlands. 

* The italics are mine. 

A more useful list of books on the Livery 
Companies of London than that printed by 
MR. RHODES (11 S. iv. 451) has already been 
provided by Mr. George Unwin in an 
Appendix to his ' The Gilds and Companies 
of London,' 1908, and it is obvious that the 
Guildhall Collection would be more complete 
than that at the British Museum. As many 
books and pamphlets on this subject were 
privately printed, it is possible they are 
not to be found at either library. 

MR. RHODES omits the Brewers, Broderers, 
Carmen, Coachmakers, Cooks, Fanmakers, 
Farriers, Fellowship Porters, Feltmakers. 
Fletchers, Framework Knitters, Fruiterers, 
Garblers, Gardeners, Glovers, Gunmakers, 
Haberdashers, Innholders, Joiners, Loriners, 
Merchant Tailors, Plasterers, Playing - Card 
Makers, Plumbers, Salters, Scriveners, Spec- 
tacle Makers, Tilers and Bricklayers, Turners, 
Upholders, Wax Chandlers, Weavers, Wood- 
mongers, and Woolmen. Several of these 
have been dealt with in separate volumes, 
and Herbert's ' History ' also was published 
in sections. Clearly the Reports of the 
Commissions on Municipal Corporations, 
1837 and 1881, have not been referred to. 

"Couriers" has been printed for Curriers; 
although there is a Couriers' Club, it is not 
in any sense a Guild. Barbers and Barber- 
Surgeons are synonymous. Very many 
entries could be added under Stationers 
and Apothecaries. College of Physicians' 
publications should be a separate heading or 
be omitted as irrelevant. 


Perhaps the following advertisement, 
copied from The London Gazette of 13 
Oct., 1684, is worthy of a place in ' N. & Q.' : 

" A Very strange Beast called a Rhynoceros, 
lately brought from the East Indies, being the 
first that ever was in England, is daily to be seen 
at the Bell Savage Inn on Ludgate-Hill, from 
Nine a Clock in the Morning till Eight at Night." 

Boston, U.S. 

HURLEY MANOR CRYPT. The village of 
Hurley, on the banks of the Thames, has 
within its limits a new residence, " Ladye 
Place," in the grounds of which is the old 
crypt, near the lock and bridge, in which 
those who arranged to invite William III. 
to accept the throne of England held 
frequent secret meetings. Hurley parish 
church contains monuments of the Love- 
lace family, including John, Lord Lovelace, 
one of the planners of the Revolution. 

11 S. V. JAX. 20, 1912.] 



His mansion, Hurley Manor, stood near the 
church, and then contained the crypt. The 
mansion is now demolished, but the crypt 
remains still in the grounds of the new 
residence "Ladye Place." Lysons's 'Magna 
Britannia ' deals with the secret chamber. 
There is also an article on it, by Mr. Thomas 
Woods of Battersea Park, S.W., in The 
Defender of December, 1911. 


in Lodge's ' Peerage of Ireland,' ed. Archdall 
(ed. 1789, vol. iv. p. 264), to the effect that 
Frances, Lady Lumley, daughter of Henry 
Shelley of Warminghurst, co. Sussex, died 
in 1657, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey, needs correction. She was buried 
at Westbourne, Sussex, 10 March, 1626 
(Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. xxii. p. 89). 
The Lady Lumley who was buried in 1657/8 
in Westminster Abbey was Elizabeth, second 
wife of Lord Lumley, daughter of Sir William 
Cornwallis of Bourne, in Suffolk, and widow 
of Sir William Sandys. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

In Wolseley's ' Life of John Churchill, 
Duke of Maryborough,' p. 186 (London, 
1894), it is stated that Sir Winston and 
Lady Churchill wished John Churchill, 
afterwards first Duke of Maryborough, to 
marry their kinswoman Catherine Sedley, 
afterwards famous as the Countess of 
Dorchester. On p. 1 88 there is reference again 
to this kinship. Can any of your readers 
indicate the line of relationship ? Lady 
Churchill was a Drake, and her maternal 
grandmother a Villiers. Catherine Sedley 
was descended from Saviles and Savages. 
It is possible that the link lies in the Saviles, 
as Henry Savile was entrusted to break the 
matter off ; but I can find no link between 
Saviles and Churchills, Villiers or Drakes. 

K. P. 

Univ. Coll., London. 

LANERCOST MANOR. Will you kindly 
inform me through the medium of 'N. & Q.' 
in what year and by whom the Manor 
of Lanercost, Cumberland, was founded ? 
The Priory of Lanercost was founded in, I 

believe, the year 1169, but I can find no 
record as to when the manor was founded, 
although I think it was after the passing of 
the statute of Quia Emptores in 1290, 
18 Edward I., c. i., by which Act the creation 
of new manors was rendered impossible 
(vide Halsbury's ' Laws of England,' vol. viii. 
p. 3, published 1909 ; and Scriven on ' Copy- 
holds,' in loco, 7th ed., published 1896). 
The above manor is still in existence, but 
illegally so, I contend, for the above reason, 
and the steward of the manor is still collect- 
ing the fines, lord's rents, and other dues in 
respect of the customary and freehold lands 
from the tenants. Kindly also inform me 
whether or not the Manor of Lanercost 
forms part of the Barony of Gilsland. I 
think not. BERTRAND. 

"PENARD." In the first volume of the 
parish register of Wotton or, as it was then 
called, Wooton in Surrey, I note the entry 
(written by a hand that Evelyn the Diarist 
may have grasped !) : 

1597. " Layd out uppon esterdaye, for iij pot 
of mamsie & viij penard' of bred, ij s ix d ." 

This yields an early instance of the word, 
which I find in the ' N.E.D.' spelt " pen- 
neard," i.e., penn'orth, pennyworth; unless, 
indeed, it be some unrecorded word. Might 
it possibly derive from the Latin penus, 
provision ; penarwis, pertaining to victuals ? 

ST. AGNES : FOLK-LORE. I should be 
glad to know where Keats was likely to 
obtain the folk-lore which he has worked 
up into his poem ' The Eve of St. Agnes ' : 

They told her how, upon St. Agnes' Eve, 
Young virgins might have visions of delight, 
And soft adorings from their loves receive 
Upon the honey'd middle of the night, 
If ceremonies due they did aright ; 
As, supperless to bed they must retire, 
And couch supine their beauties, lily white ; 
Nor look behind, nor sideways, but require 
Of Heaven with upward eyes for all that they 

Is there any mention of such a custom in any 
pre-Keatsian work ? 

Which St. Agnes is thus commemorated 
St. Agnes the First, virgin and martyr, 
21 Jan., St. Agnes the Second, 28 Jan., or 
St. Agnes of Monte Pulciano, 20 April ? 

J. H. R. 

milk depot is being erected in Bradford. 
Can any of your readers suggest a motto or 
distich to be placed over the entrance ? 



[11 S. V. JAN. 20, 1912. 

Artillery, 7th Baronet, of Pencaitland, Nova 
Scotia, died in 1752. Wanted, the date 
and place of death, to complete regimental 
records. J. H. LESLIE, Major. 

31, Kenwood Park Road, Sheffield. 

ST. CUTHBERT : HIS BIRDS. Reginald of 
Durham, after a long account, probably 
based on personal observation, of St. Cuth- 
bert's ducks on Farne Island, says in chap, 
xxvii. : 

" Aves illse Beati Cuthberti specialiter nominan- 
tur ; ab Anglis yero Lomes vocantur ; ab Saxoni- 
bus autem et qui Frisiam incolunt Eires dicuntur.'' 

Can these terms be explained ? Were 
they called Lomes, or lambs, from their 
gentleness and tameness ? Is Eires con- 
nected with eider ? J. T. F. 


BRITANNIC A.' I was greatly surprised in 
looking for a description of that South Ameri- 
can animal the vicuna, in the last edition 
of ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica,' to find 
this word spelt vicugna. As is well known 
to those who have studied the Spanish 
language, the n is never preceded nor 
followed by a consonant. The sound of n 
is very like the sound of gn in Italian, and 
possibly absolutely the same. The nearest 
approach to the sound in English is the com- 
bination of letters nio in opinion (as when 
the n is followed by an o in Senor). In 
Italian we have the same sound in Signor, 
ogni, &c. Having been born in Chile, the 
native soil of the vicuna, and having seen 
the word correctly written in Spanish all my 
life, I find the combination of g and n 
shocking to the eye, and I question if it is 
correct. It is neither Spanish nor Italian, 
and surely it is not English. 

It would be interesting to know on what 
ground the combination of g and n can be 


for 17 Feb., 1872 (4 S. ix. 151), is a paragraph 
on Correctors for the Press. At the end of 
it is mentioned a Concordance to the Poems 
of Spenser which at that time had been three 
years in preparation by some proof-reader, 
and which would be ready for publication 
in about a year from the date of that number. 
Can you give me any information concerning 
the author, the manuscript, or the subsequent 
history of this work ? Evidently it was 
never published. 

I am particularly interested because I 
have been editing a Concordance to Spenser 
which is now more than half finished. 


Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

[Through the kindness of a friend, we have been 
put in communication with the compiler of the Con- 
cordance referred to. We regret to say that he 
informs us that he had to abandon the task many 
years ago, when it \vas less than half finished, and 
has no intention of resuming it. The uncompleted 
MS. has been destroyed.] 

of this artist of the Barbizon School known 
to connoisseurs ? R. L. Stevenson men- 
tions him in terms of affection in his book 
' An Inland Voyage.' I shall be grateful 
to any reader who can refer me to any 
other record of him or his works. H. S. 

GRAPHICAL MSS. At the end of the ' Auto- 
biography of James Silk Buckingham,' pub- 
lished in 1855, a few months before his 
death on 30 June of that year, the author 
says : 

"My subsequent career .... will form the 
subject of the future volumes to follow this 
(Vol. II.) before the close of the present year." 

I am anxious to know if Buckingham left 
any material in MS. for these proposed other 
volumes ; and, if so, where such MS. may 
now be found. 


Can any one help me to trace a legend which 
represents Alexander the Great standing 
outside the gates of Paradise, and holding a 
colloquy with the guardian of the gates ? 


OH LONDON. In Carlyle Avenue, which 
connects Fenchurch Street with Jewry 
Street, stands a picturesque gabled and 
weather-boarded house. If it is not the last 
now standing within the City boundary, 
will any reader kindly notify the sites there 
of other such houses ? H. S. 

" WITH ALLOWANCE." I have a tract 
with the following title : 

" News | from | The Jews, | Or a True | Rela- 
tion | Of A | Great Prophet, | In the Southern 
parts of Tartaria ; | .... Faithfully translated 
into English, | By Joscphus Philo-Judasus, Gent. I 
With Allowance. | London, Printed for A. G. 
Anno Domini, 1071." 4 to. 6pp. 

What is the meaning of " With Allowance " ? 

ii s. V.JAN. 20, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


THE JENNINGS CASE. What was the 
last phase of the Jennings case ? How 
much of the property has been distributed 
since the time of the original administrators 
to the estate ? And is the " Jennings 
Family Association " still in existence ? 
If so, where ? I. B. 

This well-known writer died in 1879. I shall 
be obliged if some one will inform me who 
came into possession of her papers and 
manuscripts. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

CURIOUS STAFF. I shall be glad to have 
information about a small staff. It is 
6f in. long, of which 4 in. is an ebony 
handle*; the upper part is of silver with hall- 
mark of 1803 ; it has a plain ferule with a 
crown on the top. W. B. S. 

DR. BRETTARGH is said to have been 
Vicar-General to the Catholic Archbishop of 
Dublin, and to have received into his Church 
a lady named Macauley, afterwards the 
foundress of the Little Sisters of the Sacred 
Heart. No dates or other details are 
known, and information is desired about this 
and other members of the Brettargh family 
of Lancashire. R. S. B. 

DATES WANTED. (1) I should be much 
obliged if one of your many readers could 
enable me to arrive at the approximate date 
of a silver snuff-box belonging to a friend of 
mine. On the lid is an embossed portrait 
of King Charles I., showing the face in right 
profile, and the King's figure nearly down to 
the waist. Round the portrait runs the 
following inscription : 


But the year of the King's age in which the 
box was made is not given, there being, 
indeed, no room for it, though under the 
shoulder the word NATUS is inscribed. The 
box contains no marks at all. I enclose a 
drawing showing the box in both a vertical 
and a horizontal position. 

(2) Can any one of your readers help me 
to fix the date of a set of silver buttons which 
is in my possession ? Each button has 
engraved on it the figure of a running fox, 
the ground being shown in rather rough 
cross-hatching. On the reverse side the only 
marks are the lion passant placed below the 
shank, and the hall-mark " H.B." placed 
above. I have consulted Cripps's ' Old 
English Plate,' and though I have found 

an "H.B." among the London goldsmiths 
of the late eighteenth century, the lettering 
of the initials fails to correspond with that 
of the initials punched on the button. I 
enclose a drawing of the button, obverse and 
reverse. LEWIS BETTANY. 

[We shall be glad to send the drawings of these 
objects to any correspondent who would be 
thereby helped to discover the dates required.] 

Quakers' burial-ground, on the edge of the 
moors near Stannington, three miles N.W. 
of Sheffield, I find the Christian name 
Fines on two separate stones, probably 
mother (1642) and daughter (1675). I have 
not found the name elsewhere in this district. 
Is it to be found in other parts of the country, 
and is it a name peculiar to the Society of 
Friends ? T. WALTER HAIX. 



1. WILLIAM BURKE, M.P., is said to have 
died in 1798. See ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vii. 
369. I should be glad to ascertain the 
exact date of his death and his place of 

2. CHARLES FEARNE. Who was his 
mother ? When was he born ? When was 
he admitted to the Inner Temple and called 
to the Bar ? The ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xviii. 
274, gives no answers to these questions. 

3. JOHN GIF FORD, otherwise John 
Richards Green, was educated at Repton 
according to the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xxi. 305, 
and at Westminster according to the ' Index 
and Epitome.' I should be glad to hear the 
reasons for the latter statement. 

should be glad to learn particulars of his 
parentage and the name of his wife, who is 
described by Anthony Wood as "a meer 
Xantippe, the widow of his predecessor." 
The 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xxii. 70, does not give 
the required information. G. F. R. B. 

415) states that the house in Grosvenor 
Square which was numbered 9 prior to 
1888, and has been 10 ever since, was the 
house of the first Lord Lytton. Now Lord 
Lytton moved to Grosvenor Square in 1868, 
and had his town residence there till his 
death in 1873. 'The Court Guides' from 
1869 to 1873 inclusive give the number as 
12 ; and as the house which is now 12 
was also 12 before 1888 according to MR. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAN. 20, 1912. 

W. E. D.-MILLIKEN, will he kindly say what 
is his authority for the statement that Lord 
Lytton lived in the old number 9 ? 

16, Amwell Street, B.C. 

FREDERIC KENDALL of Sidney Sussex 
College, Cambridge, B.A. 23 Jan., 1813, 
was tried at the Cambridge Assizes, 19 March, 
1813, before Mr. Serjeant Marshall, and 
acquitted, on the charge of setting fire to 
rooms in Sidney Sussex College. Upon the 
conclusion of the trial his name was imme- 
diately erased from the College boards, by 
order of the Master and Fellows, and a 
memorandum to that effect 'was entered in 
the College Register. Information concern- 
ing his later history is desired. 


CAPT. FREENY. Where can information 
be obtained concerning one " Capt. 
Freeny," to whom Thackeray devotes many 
pages in ' The Irish Sketch - Book ' ? The 
question is of some interest if, in truth, 
the ' Adventures of Mr. James Freeny ' 
[by ?] suggested the groundwork of ' Barry 
Lyndon.' J. B. 


MONEY-BOX. I have searched every- 
where, including the indexes of ' N. & Q.,' 
and can find nothing in regard to money- 
boxes. Although I have seen suggestions 
of clay money-boxes " for boyes " being in 
existence in 1585, I have failed to secure any 
reliable information. When did the money- 
box, in any first form, come into existence ? 

S. J. A. F. 

TRUSSEL FAMILY. Who were the Trussels 
of Stafford and Derby, temp. Edward II. ? 
From whom did they descend ? What were 
their arms, and from what nobler house 
were their arms derivative ? 


Mr. Spielmann says that this book was 
written by a son of Mr. Joseph William Last, 
although generally ascribed to Mr. Sidney 
Blanchard. Can any one supply the fore- 
names of Mr. Last and say if he made any 
other contributions to literature ? 



In the Ochtertyre MSS. mention is made of 
this man, who was an upholsterer in Edin- 
burgh, and " wrought much at Blair- 
drummond," " withal he was a Jacobite." 

Can any one say where one can find out 
more about him, whence he came, and in 
what way his fanaticism was displayed ? 

J. M. H. 

Any information regarding the above 
family would be welcomed by the under- 
signed, particularly as to the parentage of 
one Nanny Scurr, who married about 1805 
Robert Womersley. She was born in, or 
about, 1786. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

62, Nelson Road, Stroud Green, N. 

(US. iv. 528.) 

WITH the aid of Littre's ' French Dic- 
tionary,' Kelham's 'Norm.-Fr. Diet.,' Gode- 
froy's ' Old Fr. Diet.,' Wright's ' E.D.D.,' 
the 'Catholicon Anglicum,' and a few other 
dictionaries and glossaries, I have made 
out the sense, I think, of most, if not all, of 
the words in question, as follows : 

1. "Satun chevantel." This does not 
appear in any book that I have consulted. 
Godefroy gives " C7ieveceZ=tetiere," bride; 
but if it is sure that the preceding word is 
satun, and not a contraction of scilicet, fol- 
lowed by the article un, it would seem more 
likely that cheveceul, chevacuel, cheverseul, &c. 
= oreiller, chevet, was intended, a c being 
generally indistinguishable from a t in the 
hand of the period. Thus we should have 
" a satin pillow " : if not, " a satin bridle." 

2. " Freyns doryes vends." Freins dor is, 
evidently, but for vends I can only suggest 
veus, veutz = old. "Gilded, or gold -orna- 
mented, bridles or bits, old." 

3. " 1 peire de covertures de feer." The 
pair of coverings (? of iron, or steel) might 
refer to the newly introduced breast and 
back plates, worn sometimes beneath and 
sometimes over, the chain mail armour. 

4. " ij heaulmes dont lun est susoires 
(also susorres)" The word susoires or 
susorres is evidently from the verb given 
by Godefroy as susorer, suisorer=surdorer 
(" artificiers f ont . . . . anelx de cupre & de 
laton, et les suisorrent .... semblables a 
or "). "Two helmets, of which one is gilt." 

5. " Piesces de reyes de fil por trappes." 
Bees, riez, raytz, are all old forms for nets ; 
file= thread. " Pieces of nets of thread for 

6. " 1 peire de slcinebans (also skynebalds)." 
Stratmann's 'M.E. Diet.' has " schin - bande, 

11 S. V. JAN. 20, 1912.] 



sb. = ? skin - plate (?MS. bawde)" and pi. 
schinbandes, while Halliwell renders shin- 
bawde " Armour for the shins ? " with a 
quotation from 'Morte Arture.' Cf. A.-S. 
scin-bane= shinbone. The term skewbald, by 
the way (=piebald horse), bears a curious 
resemblance to the word in question. 

7. "1 peire des bolges noires (also boulges 
and boulgys)." Bolges, boulges, or boulgys is 
very like bouges, boujets = (water- )budgets, 
but is more probably " Bouge, boulge = sa,c 
decuire" (see Godefroy), apparently much 
the same thing as the modern "grip" (" il 
porte unes vieilles bouges ou le bon horns 
porta son harnoys a la bataille "). 

8. "1 banger de reie." This might be a 
misreading of banyer, banier = banner, but 
is probably another variant of banquer, 
banker, banky, or as ' Cath. Angl.' has it, 
" Banqwer bancarium, dossorum," a cover- 
ing of carpet, tapestry or other material, 
for a bench or seat (Fr. bane), see 'N.E.D.,' 
s.v. "banker." Halliwell states that "any 
kind of small coverlet was afterwards 
called a banker." Reie is no doubt " ray," 
a kind of cloth or material, as to the exact 
description of which authorities differ. 
' Cath. Angl.' has " Hay = stragulum," and 
gives many examples, one from Minsheu, 
stating it to be " cloth never coloured or 
dyed." Kelham renders it "russet cloth," 
and Godefroy gives " Raie broderie, passe- 

9. " 1 sele por somer (pro soutar')." 
This I should interpret selle pour sommer, 
or sommes, a saddle for burdens, pack- 
saddle ; but Kelham has cele, a coverlet, 
and it might perhaps mean some sort of 
covering for a load. Sbutar, no doubt, is 
sowter, which ' Cath. Angl.' renders "Alu- 
tarius, gallarius, sutor" (tanner, shoemaker, 
or cobbler). 

10. " Un macewel penduz de une cheyne 
de feer." Macewel suggests a diminutive 
of mace, macelle ; or perhaps the spiked ball 
that was attached to the battle-mace by a 
chain ; as I find macelotte petite masse, 
petite boule. 

11. " xxix de wastours e iij vires (for cross- 
bows apparently)." Wastours obviously 
derives from the verb waster or gaster, to 
waste, spoil, ravage; thus Halliwell has 
"wastour, N.F., a destroyer" but I cannot 
find a more explicit definition. Vire is 
stated by Godefroy to be synonymous with 
vireton = trait d'arbalete (" mil arbalestes, 

| tant soit fort, ne de trere preste, | N'i 
treroit ne bouzon ne vire"), which confirms 
MR. SWYNNERTON'S suggestion. 

The scribe was apparently not a French- 
man, for he gives a Teutonic turn to the 
spelling of many of the Old Norman-French 

3. Hewitt, in 'Ancient Armour,' &c., gives 
two renderings of " covertures de feer," of 
which the following is a condensed version : 

(1) A portion of the body defence of plate, 
or splint armour faced with a textile. 
Velvet, silk, and satin were employed for 
this purpose. The inventory of Humphrey 
de Bohun, 1322, mentions " et 1 peire des 
plates courvertes de vert velvet." Also in 
the inventories of the Exchequer in 1330, 
among the armour of the Earl of March : 
" Un peire de plates couvertz d'un drap d'or : 
une peire des plates covertz de rouge samyt." 

(2) In 1303 Philip the Fair required a 
gentleman to be equipped for war and 
mounted on a horse " couvert de couvertures 
de fer, ou de couvertures pourpoint." 

10. Macewell. " The small mace, called 
by the English mazuelle " (Fosbroke). 

Satun cJievantel, (?) principal mace. Satun 
is the Norman form of Old Fr. saton, given 
by Roquefort and Du Cange (s.v. sapellata), 
and explained as a kind of weapon, an iron- 
shod staff; Chevantel may be a derivative 
of chef. Kelham gives cheventeine for cheve- 
tain (chieftain). Freyns doryes vends means 
" old gilded (dares) bits," vends being written 
for Anglo-Fr. veuz (vieux), unless it is a mis- 
take for verds, green. Covertures de feer, 
coverings of iron, some part of the knight's 
or horse's armour. Susoires, or susorres, 
Old Fr. susores, nominative past participle 
of Old Fr. susorer, to over-gild. Reyes and 
reie, striped material, a common word in 
Mid. Eng., from Fr. raye, striped (see Strat- 
mann and Bradley, rai 1 ). Skinebans, or 
skynebalds, probably greaves, " shin- bands." 
Stratmann has " schinbande, (?) shin-plate 
(?MS. -bawde)." Bolges, saddle-bags, Old 
Fr. bouge, Lat. bulga ; cf. the dim. budget. 
Somer, pack-horse, sumpter-horse, Lat. sag- 
marius. Macewel, Old Fr. macuele, dim. 
of massue, mace, club. Wastour, or waster, 
is common in Tudor Eng. for pudgel, quarter- 
staff (see Nares), but also meant a rough 
sword-blade, e.g., " smarra, a waster with a 
hilt at one end, a foil or flurrett, as they use 
in fench-schools [corr. fence-schools] for 
young learners " (Torriano, 1659). Vire, a 
cross-bow bolt, Old Fr., from virer, to turn. 
The derivative vireton is more common in 
this sense. ERNEST WEEKLEY. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. 20, 1012. 

iii. 128). Whether or not it is possible to 
recover the author of " Qui fallit in poculis 
iallit in omnibus," quoted by YGREC as an 
inscription on a loving -cup of 1681, it seems 
likely that there are several forms of the pro- 
verbial saying. Vincentius Opsopaeus, in his 
' De arte bibendi,' iii. 746, has 

Qui fallit vino, fallit et ille fide. 
' Delitise Poetarum Germanorum,' iv. 1267. 
Mrs. Gamp's " No, Betsey ! Drink fair, 
wotever you do ! " conveys a somewhat 
similar sentiment. EDWARD BENSLY. 

(US. iv. 449.) 

The precept, " Six hours for a man, seven 
for a woman, and eight fora fool," seems to 
be based on the Latin lines : 

Sex horis dormire sat est juvenique senique, 
Septem vix pigro, nulli concedimus octo. 

' Collectio Salernitana,' ed. De Benzi, vol. v. 
p. 7 ; also in vol. i. See King's ' Classical 
and Foreign Quotations,' 3rd edition, p. 317. 

(US. iv. 469.) 

Like plants in mines, which never saw the sun, 
But dream of him, and guess where he may be, 
And do their best to climb and get to him. 

Browning's ' Paracelsus,' last page. 

T. S. O. 

MILITARY EXECUTIONS (US. iv. 8, 57, 98, 
157, 193, 237, 295, 354, 413, 458). My thanks 
are due to the contributors to this discussion, 
the number of whom attests the wide 
interest it has evoked. To judge, however, 
from most of the replies, my query, which 
referred solely to the alleged use by the 
firing party of ball and blank, has appa- 
rently, with one or two exceptions, missed 
fire. I was, and am, concerned not at all with 
either the disposition on parade of the luck- 
less executioners, the mode of the command- 
ing officer's signal on such occasions, or the 
question of recoil or sound, but only with 
the composition and distribution of the 
ammunition served out. These latter, not- 
withstanding MR. RHODES'S lament that 
we are still without a definite military 
authority as to the practice, are made suffi- 
ciently clear by the statements of COL. 
PHIPPS and MR. BURDON. Though no posi- 
tive order exists for the custom I queried, 
an understanding is rife which justifies a 
belief in its prevalence. I may add, by way 
of conclusion to this somewhat gruesome 
but interesting subject, that I have recently 
been favoured, by the kindness of the 
contributor who signs ROCKINGHAM, with 
a cutting from The Boston Daily Globe of 

13 Dec. last, descriptive of ' The First Mili- 
tary Execution in the Army of the Potomac,' 
13 Dec., 1861, in which it is stated that 

'' the men for the firing-party, twelve in number, 
were selected by ballot, one from each of the 
companies in Johnston's regiment. The carbines 
had been loaded by the Provost Marshal, one of 
them bearing a blank charge. Thus no man 
could positively say that he was responsible for 
the death of his former comrade-in-arms." 

This corroborates the view advanced in 
my query at the first reference, and supplies 
the information I sought therein. 

J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

CAPT. CUTTLE'S HOOK (11. S. iv. 506). 
This seems to have been a somewhat trouble- 
some instrument to both Dickens and his 
illustrators. When Capt. Cuttle is first 
introduced to the reader in chap. iv. of 
' Dombey and Son,' he is described as " a 
gentleman in a wide suit of blue, with a 
hook instead of a hand attached to his right 
wrist." Hablot K. Browne in one illustra- 
tion at least depicts the hook on the cap- 
tain's left arm. Dickens himself seems to 
forget entirely the Captain's loss of his 
hand on several occasions, or at any rate to 
represent him as performing certain actions 
like a person possessed of both hands. 
Curiously, these all occur in chap, xxiii., in. 
order as follows : 

1. " The captain in his own apartment was 
sitting with his hands in his pockets, and his 
legs drawn up under his chair," &c. 

2. " ' Clara a-hoy/ !' cried the captain, putting 
a hand to each side of his mouth." 

3. " Squeezing both the captain's hands 
with uncommon fervour as he said it, the old 
man turned to Florence," &c. 

That painstaking and careful writer on 
Dickens lore, the late Mr. F. G. Kitton, 
writes as follows in his book ' Dickens and 
his Illustrators ' : 

" Although Dickens does not actually tell 
us which hand was missing, he clearly hints at it 
when he says that at dinner-time the captain 
unscrewed his hook and substituted a knife, and 
therefore we may justly conclude it was the right 
hand which was gone." 

This statement, "He unscrewed his hook 
at dinner-time and screwed a knife into its 
wooden socket instead" (chap, ix.), would 
be convincing if it stood alone, but unfor- 
tunately it can be capped by an equally 
convincing statement respecting the fork. 
When the captain and Florence dine together 
(chap, xlix.) we read that he " said grace, un- 
screwed his hook, screwed his fork into its 
place, and did the honours of the table." 

But as we know for certain, from the 
novelist's own distinct statement quoted at 

ii s. v. J A >. 20, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

the beginning of this reply, that it was the 
captain's right hand that was missing, there 
is really no need to argue the question 
further. The strange point is that neither 
Dickens nor his illustrators were able to bear 
it in mind, and that even careful students o 
his writings have passed it over. (See also 
4 S. iv. 266; 7 S. ix. 386, 472; 10 S. viii. 467 
ix. 331.) JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

This particular instance was included in a 
collection of ' Artists' Mistakes ' at 9 S. iv 
237. W. C. B. 

iv. 528). Samuel Wesley, in a letter to the 
Lord Chancellor, dated Westminster, 14 Jan., 
1733/4 (quoted by Sir A. T. Quiller-Couch in 
' Hetty Wesley '), says : 

" I sent him [John Whitelamb] to Oxford, to 
my son John Wesley, Fellow of Lincoln College, 
under whom he made such proficiency that he 
was the last summer admitted by the 'Bishop of 
Oxford into Deacon's Orders." 

It appears from the story that Whitelamb 
was preparing for Oxford in 1728, and took 
or received his degree as B.A. some time 
before ordination. C. C. B. 

John White Lamb, s. Robert of Hat- 
feild, co. York, pleb., Lincoln Coll., matric. 
10 April, 1731, aged 21. 

John Romley, s. William of Burton, 
co. Lincoln, pleb., Magdalen Hall, matric. 
13 Dec., 1735, aged 24. 

Apparently neither of them took a degree. 

If Sir Walter Besant, in his novel ' Dorothy 
Forster,' was correct in describing Robert 
Patten as M.A., the author of the ' His- 
tory of the Rising of 1715' may, perhaps, 
have been a graduate of some other Univer- 
sity than Oxford. The ' D.N.B.' assigns 
him to none. A. R. BAYLEY. 

[DiEGO queries Sir A. Conan Doyle as the 
author of ' Dorothy Forster.'] 

It was usual in the nineteenth century for 
men to be ordained after a short residence 
at Oxford University. Why should not that 
custom have been handed down from the 
previous century ? I have an old Calendar 
of 1845 : therein I read : 

" A residence of 3 weeks in each Terra is sufficient 
for Bachelors of Arts keeping Terms for a Master's 
degree, and for Students in Civil Law, who having 
kept by actual residence 12 Terms exclusive of the 
Term in which they were matriculated, and been 
examined for their degree, have put on the Civilian's 

I always understood that a man had to pass 
Responsions and keep a certain number of 

terms, and then without further examination 
could be admitted to the status of S.C.L. ; 
but it was not considered a degree, and 
several men were ordained with that status 
and never graduated. Adam Smith in 
1744 became a S.C.L. He paid the fees 
and went through the formalities, in virtue 
of which he was enrolled as a Student of 
Civil Law. This step was frequently taken 
by wealthier students in preference to 
graduation in Arts. In 1870, when I went 
to Oxford, the common idea was that those 
who had taken the status of S.C.L. were 
unable to pass other Schools than the First 
Responsions, or Littlego ; and they were 
spoken of rather depreciatingly. Some 
were somewhat elderly. As some bishops 
would not ordain men without a degree, I 
always understood that those undergraduates 
applied for and obtained the S.C.L. ' But 
I see in Crockford that the late Archbishop 
Alexander of Armagh took the S.C.L. in 
1847, and was ordained that year ; he did 
not graduate B.A. till 1854. 


466, 514). The number of German periodi- 
cals in America in 1910 as given by Mr. 
Dana (632) is doubtless correct, and MR. 
ROBBINS'S doubts can be easily removed. 
In 1900 there were 613 (besides 20 printed 
in German and English) ; in 1890, 727 ; and 
in 1880, 641. See 'The Twelfth Census of 
the United States' (1900), ix. 1048, table 
xxi. The number of German periodicals 
in America in 1900 represented only '034 of 
the whole number. There was then one 
German periodical to every 4,213 Germans 
in the country, as compared with one French 
periodical to every 3,366 Frenchmen, and one 
Scandinavian periodical to every 9,255 
Scandinavians. On German - American 
journalism in general see Dr. Albert B. 
Faust, ' The German Element in the United 
States,' ii. 365-76, Boston, LLS.A., 1909. 

WEST INDIA COMMITTEE (11 S. iv. 507). 
The Gentleman's Magazine for 1738 refers 
on p. 162 to a petition presented to the 
rlouse of Commons by the West India 
Merchants, complaining of the depredations 
of the Spaniards, and gives a list of sixty- 
iwo vessels which had been plundered since 
1728. There are several minor references 
>oth before and after this date. A Parlia- 
mentary report, written (by Samuel John- 
son?) in the style of 'Gulliver,' appears on 
p. 397 of the same volume, and mentions 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. 20, 1912. 

that seven petitions had been presented, 
including one from Broslit, the second city 
for trade in Lilliput. The London Magazine 
of the same year on p. 100 refers to a 
meeting of the West India Merchants at 
"The Ship Tavern" behind the Royal Ex- 
change. H. FANSHAWE. 

iv. 529). In Cannon's ' Historical Record 
of the Sixty-First Regiment,' published 
in 1844, p. 31, Stubbs is mentioned as 
one of seven officers killed in the battle. 
Col. Barlow was killed, and Major Downing 
wounded, early in the action, and there 
can be no doubt that the command of the 
regiment devolved from time to time during 
the action upon the senior officer, and in 
this way it is more than probable that 
Stubbs was in command until he was killed. 
Cannon also states that Capt. Annesley 
commanded the regiment at the close of the 
action. Annesley was much junior to Stubbs 
as a captain. J. H. LESLIE. 

490 ; v. 15). The French have a similar pro- 
verbial saying, viz., " Monter sur ses grands 
chevaux." Napoleon Landais in his ' Grand 
Dictionnaire,' 14 e ed., 1862, s.v. ' Cheval,' 
writes of the saying : 

" Parler avec hauteur ou avec colere. (Des 
chevaux de bataille, c'est-a-dire d'une tattle elev^e, 
que, dans les temps de la chevalerie, les ecuyers, 
au moment du combat, donnaient a leurs maitres, 
qui montaient alors sur leurs grands chevaux.)" 

Leroux in his ' Dictionnaire Comique,' 
1718, and Nouvelle edition, 1786, s.v. 
' Monter,' gives the saying and quotes 
Moliere, ' Cocu imaginaire,' i.e. ' Sganarelle,' 
scene xxi. : 

Dessus ses grands chevaux est mont6 mon courage 
In ' CEuvres de Moliere,' Paris, Firmin 
Didot freres, 1855, vol. i. p. 201, is a foot-note 
regarding the line : 

" II faut chercher 1'origine de ce proverbe dans 
les usages de 1'ancienne chevalerie. Les cheva- 
liers avaient deux especes de chevaux ; ceux 
qu'ils montaient habituellement e^aient connus 
sous le nom de coursiers de palefroi : c'elaient des 
chevaux d'une allure ais^e et d'une force ordinaire. 
Mais, les jours de bataille, on leur ainenait des 
chevaux d'une vigueur et d'une tattle re- 
marquables, que des ecuyers conduisaient a leur 
droite, d'oii leur est venu le nom de destriers. 
Ces destriers e'taient presented aux chevaliers 
a 1'heure meme du combat: c'^tait ce que Ton 
appelait alors monter sur ses grands chevaux. 
Depuis, par allusion a cet usage, on a dit monter 
sur ses grands chevaux, pour, se mettre en colere, 
menacer, prendre un parti vigoureux ; montrer 
de la fierte^ de 1'arrogance, du courage." 

Henri van Laun in his English rendering 
of Moliere, 1875, ignores the saying, giving 
as a translation of the line, 

My courage is at its height. 


(11 S. iv. 527). ' Barnes' Visit.' means 
' The Injunctions and other Ecclesiastical 
Proceedings of Richard Barnes, Bishop of 
Durham from 1575 to 1587,' published by 
the Surtees Society, and forming vol. xxii. of 
that Society's publications. The reference 
to superfluous fasts is as follows : 

"6. Item, that no popishe abrogated holly 
daies be kept holly daies, nor any Divine service 
publiquely saide or celebrated on any suche daies, 
nor any superfluous faste be used, as those called 
the Lady Faste, or Saint Trinyon's fast,* the 
Blackefast.t Saint Margaret fast, J or suche other, 
invented by the devill, to the dishonouringe of 
God and damnacion of the sowles of idolatrous 
and supersticious persons." 

" * Trinyon is a northern corruption of Ninian. 
As St. Ninian was a popular saint along the western 
side of the Island, from Wales to Whithern in 
Galloway, of the cathedral of which he was the 
founder, it is probable that his name had found 
its way into the monitions of Bishop Barnes in the 
see of Carlisle, and had not been removed upon his 
translation to Durham. 

"t A Black Past implies abstinence not only 
from flesh-meat, but also from the lacticinia. 
The first is observed during the ordinary Lent ; 
the latter characterises what is called a Black 
Lent. The abstinence from lacticinia is enjoined 
in England only on Ash Wednesday and the four 
last days of Lent. 

" J The sainted Queen of Scotland, in high 
repute in the diocese of Durham." 



[MR. W. P. COURTNEY is also thanked for reply.] 

HOLED STONES : TOLMENS (11 S. iv. 463 
533). A standard reference to " the Spirit 
which presides over the ancient Circle of 
Stennis " occurs in Sir Walter Scott's 
' Pirate,' chap. xxii. In order to convince 
her ardent suitor, Cleveland, of her un- 
questionable sincerity, Minna Troil offers 
to bind herself " by the promise of Odin, 
the most sacred of our northern lites which 
are yet practised among us." In one of his 
characteristic and invaluable notes, Scott 
thus elucidates the passage : 

" it appears from several authorities that in 
the Norse ritual, when an oath was imposed, he 
by whom it was pledged passed his hand, while 
pronouncing it, through a massive ring of silver 
kept for that purpose. In like manner, two 
persons, generally lovers, desirous to take the 
promise of Odin, which they considered as 
peculiarly binding, joined hands through a 
circular hole in a sacrificial stone, which lies in 

us. V.JAN. 20, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Orcadian Stonehenge, called the Circle of 
Stennis. . . .The ceremony is now confined to the 
troth-plighting of the lower classes, but at an 
earlier period may be supposed to have influenced 
a character like Minna in the higher ranks." 


FELICIA HEMANS (11 S. iv. 468, 534). It 
is not mine to give Mrs. Hemans her rightful 
place in the chorus. But she can never 
be wholly forgotten. Five quotations from 
her poems fill half a page in Bartlett's 
' Familiar Quotations,' one of which at least 
is known by every schoolboy. In Will- 
mott's ' Poets of the Nineteenth Century ' 
she is allowed fifteen pages. Cheap re- 
prints of her works are current. 

W. C. B. 

[In our edition of Bartlett (1891) Mrs. Hemans 
has nearly two pages.] 

"THE Swiss COTTAGE" (11 S. iv. 464, 514, 
537 ). May I supplement the interesting notes 
of MR. W. H. EDWARDS at the second refer- 
ence ? I have a photograph of the first 
omnibus (City- Atlas, No. 6132) over the 
Holborn Viaduct, with Thomas Grayson on 
the box and his conductor standing by 
the horses. The Viaduct was opened on 
6 November, 1869, and the first omnibus 
went over on 8 November. Thomas 
Grayson (" Viaduct Tommy ") was, accord- 
ing to the inscription on the back of the 
photograph, presented with a gold-mounted 
whip by his passengers, and also a silver- 
mounted whip by Capt. Cuff of Regent's 
Park, in commemoration of the event. 

T. T. V. 

PEPLOE GRANT OP ARMS, 1753 (11. S. iv. 
508). It would be interesting if G. B. M. 
would print the whole of this grant. On 
Bishop Peploe's monument in Chester 
Cathedral the arms of the diocese are shown 
impaling Peploe, Azure, a chevron raguled 
between three bugles or (Ormerod's 
' Cheshire,' 1886, i. 294). There is also a 
monument to his son the Chancellor (p. 291, 
where the year of his death [1781] is mis- 
printed 1721). In this case Ormerod gives 
the arms as Azure, on a chevron raguled or, 
a mitre sable ; on a canton ermine a sword 
and crosier in saltire or. Crest, A buck's head 
gules, attired or, issuing from a ducal coronet. 
There are accounts of the Bishop and his 
son in Raines's ' Wardens of Manchester ' 
{Chetham Soc.), ii. 157, &c. The Bishop's 
father is not given. The " singular loyalty " 
is there mentioned as a traditional anecdote 
which there was no reason to question 
to the effect that Peploe was reading the 

prayers for George I. in Preston Church 
when some of the Stuart adherents entered 
and threatened the vicar with instant 
death, holding a musket before him, unless 
he instantly ceased praying for " the Hano- 
verian usurper." Peploe only paused to 
say, " Soldier, I am doing my duty, do 
yours." Canon Raines says that the King 
immediately determined to promote his 
loyal subject, and that in 1718 he was 
appointed Warden of Manchester. Nothing 
is said about the additional bearing on his 
arms ; hence the desirability of printing the 
whole grant of 1753, which appears to go on 
to recite it. R. S. B. 

" After the Jacobite occupation in 1715 
Samuel Peploe viewed with alarm the large number 
of Roman Catholic residents in the town, and he 
procured the erection of two new churches. 
While Preston was in the hands of the Jacobites, 
tradition says that a party of rebels entered the 
church while the vicar was reading the prayers, 
and threatened him with instant death unless 
he ceased praying for the ' Hanoverian usurper.' 
With great self-possession Peploe continued the 
service, only pausing to say, ' Soldier, I am doing 
my duty ; do you do yours.' On this incident 
being related to George I., he is reported to have 
said : ' Peep-low, Peep-low, is he called ? ' Then, 
with an oath, he added : ' But he shall peep high ; 
I will make him a bishop.' " 

Whether this story be authentic or no, 
Peploe's subsequent advancement was prob- 
ably rather an acknowledgment of the active 
assistance rendered by him to the Commis- 
sion for Forfeited Estates, appointed in 1716, 
to which he furnished an elaborate report of 
" estates granted to superstitious uses in and 
about Preston." See ' D.N.B.,' xliv. 352. 


In Griggs's ' Armorial Book - Plates ' 
(Second Series), 1892, the book-plate of 
Samuel Peploe, Bishop of Chester 1726-52, 
bears the arms as mentioned in the grant of 
23 Feb., 1753, to his son, viz., " Azure, a 
chevron counter-embattled between three 
bugle horns or," except that the chevron 
is surmounted by a mitre, and the bugle 
horn in the dexter part of the shield is nearly 
hidden by a canton ermine, with a sword 
and crosier crossed. In the same volume 
is a book-plate of John Peploe Birch, Esq., 
with the same arms as the bishop's, mitre 

"DILLISK" AND " SLOOK " (11 S. iv. 
469, 532). I was brought up in Connemara, 
where nearly all sorts of Algje were abun- 
dant, and whence a near relative used to 
export Carrageen moss (Chondnis crispus) by 
the ton. But what astonishes me is that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. v. JAX. 20, 1912. 

your correspondents appear to have missed 
the name " cran-youck," the local name for 
the dulsk or dillisk in Scotland. 

When properly dried (with the little 
shellfish attached) it had a most delightful 
flavour. It was usually sold in the streets 
on market days. 

The horrible slimy-looking slook, or "slou- 
kaun " as it was known, was also abundant, 
but was not so popular as its rival. 


(11 S. iv. 449). I have pleasure in inform- 
ing T. S. that those highly prized Bibles 
of Lord Wharton's are still given to many 
young Sunday-school scholars in Yorkshire. 
If he wishes for any further information, 

I would refer him to the Rev. Selby. 

Clergy House, Holbeck, Leeds. 

The following abstract of Lord Wharton's 
will may interest other readers of ' N. & Q.' ; 
it is to be found printed on the fly-leaf of 
each book : 

" ' The memory of the just is blessed.' 

Prov. x. 7. 

" Philip, Lord Wharton, died February 4th, 
1694, aged 83, and by his will left to his Trustees 
certain estates in Yorkshire, the proceeds of which 
are to be devoted each year to the distribution 
of Bibles, and other books. 

" This book is given by the direction of the 
present Trustees. By the terms of the will, the 
1st, 15th, 25th, 37th, 101st, 113th, and 145th 
Psalms should be learnt, if possible, by the re- 


OF GOLD (11 S. iv. 481). E. H. C.'s 
interesting observation respecting " the once 
widespread belief in the beneficent pro- 
perties of gold " calls for some considera- 
tion. I have often noticed that when I am 
in a fine state of physical health my gold 
"hunter -watch" that is the technical 
term for one with a double casing of gold 
reflects it by a high " sheen," and vice 
versa. I cannot say if the weather or the 
humidity or dryness of the atmosphere has 
anything to do with it, as I have not followed 
the idea up ; but I have observed this 
peculiarity in the relative degrees of bril- 
liance in the gold at all periods of the year, 
so that the effect seems to be personal and 
subjective only. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

In Lowestoft a few months ago I had a 
long talk with a Boy Scout, the son of a local 
fisherman. He mentioned that many of 
the boys at his school wore earrings. They 
were mostly sons of fishermen, many of 

whom wear these little gold rings, and I said 
that I supposed they did it to be like their 
fathers. The Scout agreed, but explained 
that some boys had their ears pierced for 
the sake of their eyes. So this belief in the 
efficacy of ear-piercing is still to be found 
even in the rising generation. 

In ' A Short Description of Carnicobar ' 
(one of the Nicobar Islands), by Mr. G. 
Hamilton, printed in ' Dissertations and 
Miscellaneous Pieces relating to the History 
and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences, and 
Literature of Asia' (Dublin, P. Byrne and 
W. Jones, 1793), it is said that 

'' the ears of both sexes are pierced when young, 
and by squeezing into the holes large plugs of 
wood, or hanging heavy weights of shells, they 
contrive to render them wide and disagreeable to 
look at." 

Is this merely a perverted idea of ornament ? 

St. Cross, Harleston, Norfolk. 

The pollen of many plants causes a fitful 
catarrh resembling a severe cold in the head. 
It comes on in abrupt spasms, and often 
passes away in a few minutes, only to return 
again with great suddenness. With me, 
the pollen of primroses produces it slightly, 
even in mid-winter. The ox-eye daisy, 
which is a chrysanthemum, causes a decided 
attack, or rather sets up a series of attacks. 
Cultivated chrysanthemums and Michaelmas 
daisies have the same effect. Other blos- 
soms are bad, but I scarcely know which, 
as they grow in mixed borders. Flowering 
grass gives much trouble. A doctor who 
himself suffers severely from the true hay- 
asthma, but recovers when the hay season 
is over, tells me that his disease and what 
may be termed pollen-catarrh are not the 
same malady. Y. O. T. 

Under this heading maybe mentioned the 
acorn disease which affects young cattle 
when acorns are very plentiful. Provers of 
the plant hemp agrimony have found it 
produce a " bilious fever." The blackberry 
is also called scald-berry, because of the 
eruption, known as " scaldhead," in children 
who eat the fruit to excess. The ordinary 
field buttercup is so acrimonious that by 
merely pulling up the plant at its root and 
carrying it some little distance in the hand, 
the palm becomes reddened and inflamed. 
The stinking camomile, or May-weed, which 
grows in cornfields, will blister the hand 
that gathers it. The lesser celandine, and 
others belonging to the same Ranunculus 
order, were used by beggars in England to 

ii s. v. JAN. 20, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


produce sores about their body for the sake 
of exciting pity and getting alms. Fresh 
ohickweed juice produced rheumatic pains. 
Cowhage or cowitch causes a skin eruption. 
The date fever occurs in Egypt about the 
time of the date harvest ; and harvest fever 
attacks harvesters. The rose fever, a form 
of hay fever occurring in the late spring or 
^ arly summer, is commonly associated with 
the flowering period of roses. The " toad- 
stool " (Clathrus cancellatus) is said to 
produce cancerous sores if handled too freely. 
Smelling strongly and frequently of the hay 
saffron of commerce (obtained from Spain 
a, :id France) will cause headache, stupor, 
and heavy sleep. TOM JONES. 

(11 S. iv. 269, 314, 455, 535). ST. 
SWITHIN says that to ask for Els-ham 
House would puzzle a native of Grantham. 
I doubt that, for both Els-um and El-sham 
are used. How does ST. SWITHIN pronounce 
Bytham ? The natives of Little Bytham, 
a village near Grantham, say " Bite-urn." 
Then there are the names Greetham (Greet- 
um) and Cheetham (Cheet-um). Does ST. 
SWITHIN say Gree-tham and Chee-tham ? 

Grantham was at one time Great Brantham 
is ingenious, but somewhat far-fetched. 
According to ' The Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica,' llth edition, Grantham in Domes- 
day Book is written " Graham " and 
*' Granham," which seem far from "Great 
Brantham." W. H. PINCHBECK. 

In my reply on p. 536 I should have given 
the date of Crida as 595 A.D., not 495. 

As it took about 140 years to conquer 
Mercia after the Romans left in 449 A.D., 
and as Hengist and Horsa, the great-grand- 
sons of Woden, were kinsmen of Crida, it is 
probable that Brunanborgh was so named 
before the crowning of Crida. Under the 
Romans it was called Brigae, but was of 
importance under the Iceni, which names 
remind us of the ancient Britons (the Bri- 
gantes and the Coritani). 

Xear to Grantham are Great Gonerby to 
the north and Great Ponton to the south, 
wliich fact in itself supports the claim that 
Grantham was at one time Great Brantham, 
one of the numerous homes or strongholds 
of the Bruns, among which is also Brant ing- 
ham in S.E. Yorkshire, besides Brant-ing- 
thorp (now Bruht-ing-thorpe) in Leicester, 
Brant-ham in Suffolk, Bran-caster (once 
Brun-dinium) in Norfolk, Brun-ton and 
Bran-ton in Northumberland, Bournemouth 

in Hampshire, and Brans-combe and Braun- 
ton in Devon. 

Again. Malmesbury (Giles) mentions Abbot 
Brand, brother of Leofric, Earl Brun, as 
having knighted Hereward his nephew. 

Therefore Brun, Bran, Brand, Brant, and 
Brunt are synonymous. And if the Wit- 
ham (once the Lindis ; hence Lindsey, 
Northern Lincolnshire) was ever called the 
Great Brant, as claimed, as distinguished 
from the Brant, its tributary, the people 
of old would perhaps be found saying 
(?' Brant-ham, and later still Grant-ham. 


" Most Christian King," the style of the 
Kings of France (1469); "Most Catholic 
King," a title given by the Pope to Ferdi- 
nand, King of Aragon (1479-1516)1 for 
expelling the Moors from Spain ; " Most 
Faithful King," the style of the Kings of 
Portugal ; " Most Apostolic King," a title 
borne by the Kings of Hungary, having been 
conferred by Pope Sylvester II. (Gerbert, 
Archbishop of Ravenna) on the King of 
Hungary in 1000; "Defender of the Faith," 
a title given by Pope Leo X. (Giovanni de' 
Medici) to Henry VIII. of England, in 1521, 
for a Latin treatise on the Seven Sacraments. 

The title of " Most Christian " was given 
by the Pope to Louis XI. of France in 1469 ; 
that of " Most Catholic " to Ferdinand of 
Aragon (d. 1516) ; that of " Apostolic " to 
the King of Hungary in 1000 ; and that of 
" Fidelissimus " to John V. of Portugal 
(d. 1750). C. B. W. 

queries " Most " Apostolic) are also thanked for 

v. 8). The only ' Observations on Lord 
Orrery's Remarks ' so far as I know were 
written by the Rev. Patrick Delany, one of 
Swift's most intimate friends. See the 
standard edition of Swift's Prose Works 
(Bell & Sons), vol. xii., and Swift's Poems, 
ibid., for verses addressed to Delany. 


The author of the ' Observations,' &c., 
is Patrick Delany, divine (1685 ?-1768). See 
' D.N.B.,' vol. xiv. p. 311. 


National Liberal Club. 

Axox (who mentions that Delany was Dean of 
Down), and C. B. W. are also thanked for 



[11 S. V. JAN. 20, 1912. 

(11 S. iv. 527). I think MB. HERBERT 
SIEVEKING is under a misapprehension in 
thinking that the statue of the Duke of 
Cumberland was on its pedestal so recently 
as twenty years ago. Some details regard- 
ing it will be found in Chancellor's ' Squares of 
London.' It was erected in November, 1770, 
by General William Strode, " in gratitude for 
his private friendship, in honour to his 
public virtue." It was removed in 1868 to 
be recast, but was never restored to its 
former position. The question of what 
became of it was raised in 'N. & Q.' (9 S. ii. 
528), but, so far as I am aware, elicited no 

I solicited information in vain concerning 
this statue at 10 S. x. 123. I also there 
referred-to 9 S. ii. 528, where a correspondent 
stated that it was removed in 1868, and 
desired to know " by whom, and where ? " 
My friend the late Mr. Everard Home 
Coleman supplied me with the following 
inscription upon the pedestal on which the 
statue was placed : 

" William, Duke of Cumberland. Born April 15> 
1721. Died October 31, 1765. This equestrian 
statue was erected by Lieutenant General William 
Strode, in gratitude for his private friendship, 
in honour to his public virtue. Nov : the 4th 
Anno Domini, 1770." 

Another copy substitutes "kindness" for 
" friendship," and " honour for " instead of 
" honour to." 

In his tenth ' Discourse ' Reynolds thus 
alludes to the statue : 

" In this town may be seen an equestrian 
statue in a modern dress, which may be sufficient 
to deter modern artists from any such attempt." 


With your permission, I am now able to 
answer my own query, being in possession 
of full details, with regard to the vanishing 
of the statue of William, Duke of Cumber- 
land (1721-65), third son of King George II., 
both of whom fought at Dettingen in 1743, 
the former being wounded by the side of 
His Majesty. 

It is a long story, beginning in 1867, and 
would occupy more space than your columns 
could afford. 

In brief, the statue, being merely in an 
insecure condition, was melted by order 
of the fifth Duke of Portland (1800-79), 
and in 1882 his solicitors forwarded the sum 
of 231. 3s. to the then Treasurer of Caven- 
dish Square, such sum representing the 
price of the metal. 

I may add that for 14 years the inhabitants 
of Cavendish Square struggled in vain to 
obtain better recognition for the effigy of 
one who, whatever his faults, was a first- 
class fighting man. 

Quite apart from the question of manners, 
no evidence has yet been produced to show 
that the fifth Duke was the owner of the 
statue, which was erected on 4 Nov., 1770 r 
by Lieut. -General William Strode, 

In Gratitude 
For His Private Kindness 

In Honour 

To His Publick Virtue. 

I propose to forward accounts of the matter 
to Sir Schomberg McDonnell, G.C.V.O., 
and to Sir Laurence Gomme, with the 
request that this extraordinary action may 
be brought to the notice of the First Com- 
missioner of His Majesty's Works, and the 
London County Council respectively, in 
the hope that some London statues, in the 
present, may be placed under protection 
more enduring than that of capricious in- 
dividuals, ducal or otherwise. 

[G. F. R. B. also thanked for reply.] 

COLTMAN FAMILY (11 S. iv. 530). While 
I cannot answer for their being associated 
with the particular stock in which he is 
interested, MR. S. S. McDowALL may like 
to know that certain ' Manuscript Memoirs 
of the Coltman Family of Leicester ' are 
drawn upon in ' Catherine Hutton and her 
Friends,' edited by her cousin, Mrs. Catherine 
Hutton Beale, 1895. These 'Memoirs' 
include a considerable amount of their corre- 
spondence with Spence, Dodsley, and others, 
which I extensively quoted in my pamphlet 
' New Notes about Robert Dodsley and the 
Dodsley Family,' 1909. I see that John 
Coltman, parish St. Nicholas, borough of 
Leicester, was married by licence, 10 October, 
1766, to Elizabeth Cartwright at Duffield 
(vide Phillimore's 'Marriage Registers'). 


iv. 507; v. 11). Had Keats 'The Arabian 
Nights ' in his mind when he wrote the lines 
quoted by TRIN. COLL. CAMB. ? In some 
of those ancient tales we read of persons 
being cast from " perilous seas " on to for- 
lorn (solitary or forsaken) fairy lands where 
there are magic palaces, with wondrous 
gardens containing gold and jewelled 
aviaries of nightingales and other singing 
birds in short, places where there is every- 
thing to delight the senses, yet few or no 
inhabitants to partake of such delights. 

ii s. v. JAN. 20, i9i2.]; NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Perhaps Keats meant to imply that the 
" magic casements, opening on the foam," 
were each charmed or graced by a nightin- 
gale in a cage a jewel of song in a gold and 
jewelled prison. Of course he keeps not 
to the letter of any tale, but handles it with 
a poet's recreating licence, as he does 'the 
tale of Ruth in the lines preceding those 
quoted. W. H. PINCHBECK. 

512). I have a book called ' The Anti- 
Gallican ; or Standard of British Loyalty, 
Religion, and Liberty,' London, 1804. It 
is " respectfully inscribed " " To the Volun- 
teers of the United Kingdom." It is divided 
into twelve numbers, and therefore probably 
came out in parts. There is an index at 
the end. It need scarcely be said that it is 
violent in its hostility to the French, espe- 
cially to Bonaparte. It is not all abuse 
of the French, but contains patriotic songs, 
addresses. &c. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

A query in 1875 about the Manchester 
Antigallicans mentioned in Hale's ' Social 
Harmony ' (referred to by W. B. H.) led to 
some interesting information on the subject 
being given in ' Local Gleanings relating to 
Lancashire and Cheshire,' vol. i., articles 7, 
17, 25, and 26. R. S. B. 

Lucius (11 S. iv. 449, 534). From the 
latter reference it would appear that the 
letter quoted by Speed is fictitious. Might 
I ask if the authorities given are more 
reliable than, for instance, the ' Saxon 
Chronicle,' Beda, or even the note in ' N. & Q.' 
(5 S. xi. 306) bearing on the subject ? 

If it be granted that Nennius did not 
write the ' Historia Brittonum,' some one 
did ; and from Nennius Speed quotes, 
" Missa legatione ab imperatore Romanorum 
et a papa Romano Eleutherio," and gives the 
names of the "learned clerks " who were 
sent to Lucius. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth mentions the state- 
ment connected with Lucius, and quotes 
Gildas. In the preface to Nennius he states 
that his history was partly extracted from 
the writings of " ancient britons." 

Are the authorities now mentioned worth- 
less, when placed alongside of those named 
at the second reference ? 


LANGUAGES (US. iv. 505). The modern 
Welsh name for Christmas should have been 
given at this reference (No. 13) as Nadolig, 
not Xadolie. H. I. B. 


Romano-British Buildings and Earthworks. By 

John Ward, F.S.A. (Methuen & Co.) 
THE aim of this volume is to interpret and illus- 
trate the more important structural remains of 
Roman Britain. As the author states, his work 
is to a great degree a compilation, but, it may be 
added, a compilation which satisfies a long- 
existing need. With such a guide ready to hand, 
it will in the future be easy for any one desirous 
of familiarizing himself with the early history of 
England and Scotland to follow the footsteps of 
the Romans from the English Channel to the 
Antonine Wall. The early pages of the book 
deal with camps, and Mr. Ward points out that 
" their absence at the present time from the more 
cultivated lowlands of England is no proof of 
their original sparseness." The plough has proved 
a great destroyer. In describing the extremely 
intricate defences of certain forts he states that 
in Scotland the elaboration of great ramparts of 
earth, such as may be observed at Ardoch, was- 
connected with the multiplicity of the defensive 
ditches, though the reason for this multiplicity 
is not clear, unless we may assume that the 
northern tribes were more difficult to hold in 
check than the southern. The necessity of tbe- 
ditches being granted, the " upcast " from them 
could not have been turned to better account 
than by forming these huge barriers. The internal 
arrangements of the forts are carefully considered, 
it being shown that, as the long buildings answer- 
to the lines of tents in the Hyginan type of camp,, 
both in form and distribution, there is little- 
doubt that many of them were barracks for the 
ordinary soldiers. 

When the northern frontiers and their walls 
have been dealt with, domestic architecture,, 
baths, amphitheatres, forums, bridges, basilicas,, 
and religious buildings receive attention- 
Mr. Ward objects to the term " villa " as popu- 
larly applied to a Romano-British country-house' 
of importance. " The villa was the Roman; 
counterpart of the mediaeval manor the estate 
of a landed proprietor. It comprised not only 
his residence, but those of his villicus, or bailiff, 
and of his servile and semi-servile dependents, 
his farm-buildings and granaries. The estate 
was the villa ; the residence of the dominus was 
the villa-house." Later he comments on a like- 
ness between the arrangement of the houses built 
in Romanized Britain and mediaeval inns, both 
being derived from the same source, the peri- 
styled buildings of the Orient. As the columns 
of the peristyle discovered at Caerwent were 
quite large enough to support more than one 
gallery, the hospitiitm, of which it was a part, may 
have resembled a mediaeval inn very closely ~ 
On the other hand, Roman dwellings of the 
" basilical " type were remarkably like an ancient 
style of farmhouse which still survives in Ger- 
many, Holland, and elsewhere. That wattling- 
was used in erecting the cheaper sort of dwellings 
was demonstrated when the late General Pitt- 
Rivers undertook excavations on Woodcuts 
Common. The " finds " there showed that the 
villagers had become more or less Romanized. 
Fragments of painted wall-plaster were found at 
what had been the fashionable end of the village. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. 20, 1912. 

and " a number of these had distinct marks of 
wattling at the back, which showed that the 
plaster was about one inch thick, and was 
smoothed to a perfectly flat surface before being 
painted." An interesting account of the temple 
at Lydney, which was dedicated to a British god, 
is given in the chapter on shrines and other 
religious buildings ; while a plan of the Christian 
church at Silchester, with a conjectural restora- 
tion, is to be found on p. 251. 

Mr. Ward devotes his final chapters to details of 
construction. Roman nails and roofing-tiles are 
described and represented. It appears that the 
" hook-and-eye " hinge, now used for field-gates 
and outhouse doors, was frequently applied to 
domestic purposes. The window-glass of early 
type found on Roman sites has a greenish-blue 
tinge. It was cast in rectangular slabs. Another 
variety resembles the glass still to be seen in 
old cottage windows. Iron, cross-shaped objects, 
*uch as have been found at Silchester, possibly 
held the glass in place. They are perforated at 
the centre, and were probably fastened to the 
intersection of the window-bars in such a way 
that each point of the cross kept one corner of 
a pane in position, the other corners being held 
in the same way by other crosses. 

Medieval Story, by Prof. William Witherle 
Lawrence, is sent to us by Mr. Prowde, as agent 
for the Columbia University Press. It consists 
of eight lectures delivered last year on literature 
from ' Beowulf ' to ' The Canterbury Tales.' which 
serves to illustrate " the development of social 
ideals in the history of the English people." No 
acquaintance with mediaeval literature is taken 
for granted ; in fact, this is another of those 
contributions towards encouraging the culture 
of the general public now growing frequent. 
It is an excellent contribution, too, in which the 
average reader should find it easy to be interested. 
Prof. Lawrence finds some illustration or simili- 
tude from the life of to-day for each of his chapters. 
Thus in his Introduction he speaks of the demand 
of the principality of Monaco for a constitution 
in 1910, a demand foreshadowed many years ago 
by the late Sir Charles Dilke in his" brilliant 
fragment of fiction, ' The Pall of Prince Plorestan 
of Monaco.' The Arthurian cycle to which two 
chapters are devoted is aristocratic, but the 
' History of Reynard the Fox,' and ' The Ballads 
of Robin Hood,' whom modern research has put 
outside the realm of history, show the democratic 
spirit. ' The Canterbury Tales ' exhibit " all 
classes meeting on common ground for the first 
time since the Norman Conquest." 

The meaning of these stories, their significance 
as a key to the current ideas of the nation this 
it is the Professor's aim to convey without going 
into discussions of origins, genuineness, &c., 
which are complicated enough to weary even the 
average cultivated reader with a good will to 

In early story-telling, as the Professor remarks, 
the teller is of little account, the telling is the 
thing, and it is important in this age of "per- 
sonalia " and excessive twaddle about authors to 
realize this difference. Mark Twain's ' Yankee 
at the Court of King Arthur ' is shown to be 
misleading, as he mistakes the true spirit of 
the romances he caricatures. ' The Legend of 
the Holy Grail ' is introduced by a reference to the 

success of the Salvation Army, and ' Reynard the 
Fox ' by another to Maeterlinck's fantasy of 
' The Blue Bird.' We also hear in this section 
of the '.Tatakas,' the ' Just-So Stories,' and Uncle 
Remus. The science of comparative literature 
has produced a host of valuable but unreadable 
data. The pages before us are particularly 
happy in suggesting instruction without boredom. 
There is, too, at the end a list of ' Suggestions 
for Supplementary Reading,' a feature on which 
we always think it well to insist. Some of the 
books are noted in American editions, but the 
reader of average intelligence should have no 
difficulty in tracing them on this side of the 
Atlantic. The confusing habit of renaming 
novels when they cross from England to America, 
or vice versa, does not extend to works of learning. 
Two essential and delightful books for further 
study are easy to obtain, Prof. W. P. Ker's 
' Epic and Romance ' and ' The Dark Ages.' 

WE are glad to have The Cambridge University 
Calendar for the Year l'Jll-12, published by 
Messrs. Deighton & Bell in Cambridge and Messrs. 
G. Bell & Sons in London, it forms a compact 
and easily understandable guide to the various 
colleges, triposes, prizes, and the, many embodi- 
ments of intellectual activity connected with 
the University. In these days academic preten- 
sions are subject to incessant attack and criti- 
cism. Sometimes the critics are experts on the 
subject, but more often they fail from mere 
ignorance to convince the 'Varsity man of their 
right to say anything. The same remarks apply 
more strongly to the press as a whole, which 
abounds in ludicrous errors concerning details of 
academic life. Every newspaper office should 
have this ' Calendar ' among its books of reference, 
and use it, when there is time. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressee 1 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub 
lishers " at the Office, Brea/n's Buildings, Chancer' 
Lane, E.G. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

BLUE STONE. All communications must be 
authenticated by the name and address of the 
sender. If BLUE STONE will forward these, his 
inquiry will be answered, and the postal order 
returned to him. 

ns.v.jAx.20,1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" I have just added to my library a fine set of 
Foxe's 'Acts and Monuments,' and of Fuller's 
' Worthies of England,' two books that I have long 
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11 S. V. JAX. 27, 191i\] 




CONTENTS. No. 109. 

NOTES : Joseph Knight: Another Reminiscence, 61 
Statues and Memorials in the British Isles, 62 The Piper 
in the Plague of London Arms of the See of Winchester, 
64 The First Person in Wordsworth and Shakespeare, 65 
Sir Henry Vane the Younger Lamb or Lambe 
Richards of Bramley House Dickensiana, 66 The 
Saurians in English Poetry Clifton Campville Church 
St. Pancras, 1817 The Glamia Mystery : a Parallel 
"Clear Case"" The Same Yet," Inn Sign, 67. 

QUERIES : New Zealand : Governors' Descendants 
Wanted Mrs. Mary Young, Eton Dame" Christiana 
Regina Bohemia" Giggleswick School Seal Cadell & 
Davies : their Successors Authors of Quotations Wanted, 
68 Henry Downes Miles The Piano in Considerant's 
4 Destinee Sociale ' Spanish Titles granted to Irishmen 
Feliziano, Portuguese Artist Queen Anne and her 
Children Anne Went worth, 69 Gundrada de Warenne 
Duchesse de Bouillon Foreigners accompanying 
William III. Royal Artillery, Ninth Battalion, 1809-14 
Alexandro Arnidei Burial Customs N. Le Vasseur : 
Richelieu Biographical Information Wanted, 70 The 
Revolution Society, Bill of Rights Society, &c. Beazant 
Family Crowned by a Pope Brodribb of Somerset 
St Laluwy, 71. 

REPLIES : Rev. Samuel Greatheed, 71 Municipal 
Records Printed, 73 Latter Lammas Jane Austen's 
' Persuasion ' Whittington and his Cat : Eastern Variants 
Corporation of London and the Medical Profession, 75 
Nelson : " Mnsle" Dean Swiftand the Rev. J. Geree 
Miniature of Mary, Queen of Scots Bishops addressed 
as " My Lord," 76 Signs of Old London Half acree Sur- 
namePrime Serjeant Sir W. Davenant's 'Entertain- 
ment at Rutland House,' 77 Sheffield Cutlery in 1820 
Col. Gordon Authors of Quotations Wanted Miner 
Family Court Leet : Manor Court Highgate Archway 
Bishop Griffith of St Asaph, 79 Henry Card, 80. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Cambridge under Queen Anne ' 
1 The Quarterly Review.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



I HAVE recently received a letter from 
Joseph Knight's brother which contains a 
characteristic anecdote of our late Editor. 
It seems to me worth preserving in 'N. & Q.,' 
and I have Mr. John Knight's leave to 
reproduce it. 

The Urban Club was one in which Joseph 
Knight disported himself, and he is in- 
cluded in the picture of the members, which 
was recently, I believe, lost. It is of this 
club that Mr. John Knight writes, as 
follows : 

P-" So far away as 1868 (I think) Robert Lowe 
exploited his famous 'Match Tax Budget,' and in 
it angered the whole literary world by excising 

almost every dole that previous Governments 
had niggardly thrown at the feet of literature. 
At this time my brother was President of the 
Urban Club. I happened at the time to be up 
in town, staying with him. He told me that the 
Club was holding its annual dinner, and that 
he, as President, had to preside, and suggested 
that I should accompany him, to which I cheer- 
fully assented. I need not tell you how inter- 
ested and impressed I was by the precincts of 
that ancient home of the Club, with its classic hall 
sacred to the memory of David Garrick, imme- 
diately over the historic gateway of the Knights 
of St. John, Clerkenwell. Therein was gathered 
a goodly company of the literary elect of London. 
After the dinner a gentleman rose and called the 
attention of the Club to a letter that had appeared 
in The Daily Telegraph, that voiced the indigna- 
tion felt by all connected with literature at the 
miserable cheeseparing of the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, &c., and proposed that the Urban 
Club should mark their sense of obligation to the 
anonymous writer of it by electing him a , life 
member of the Club ! 

" When he resumed his seat the Club broke into 
rapturous applause, partly in tribute to the 
brilliancy of the speech, and partly in support 
of the resolution. When this had subsided there 
was a pause, awaiting a seconder, and all 
eyes turned to the chairman, their expectation 
being that the President, in his official capacity, 
would undertake the duty. He, however, made 
no sign, and the guests, growing impatient, 
began calling ' Knight ! Knight ! ' Then he still 
holding back, the calls became universal, so that 
at last ah e arose, and with that look on his face 
that his friends so well knew, that silently ex- 
pressed, ' Well, confound you! if you will have it, 
then I suppose I must,' he began to abuse 
the letter. Admitting that he had read it, he 
considered it so devoid of all literary merit, 
it was so wanting in artistic style and construc- 
tion, that, in his judgment, it would be humiliating 
for the society of men constituting the Urban 
Club to recognize it in any way. This response 
acted as a cold douche on the enthusiasm of the 
meeting, and a chill silence fell upon the company. 
This, however, was soon relieved by the rising of 
a gentleman who received such an ovation that 
I whispered to my neighbour, ' Who is it ? ' ' Why, 

don't you know ? It's Mr the editor of the 


" He commenced by saying : ' It is well known 
to you, gentlemen, that there is nothing held by 
the editors of London daily papers more sacred 
and inviolate than the anonymity of their corre- 
spondents. Any one writing to them under a 
pseudonym, wild horses would not drag the 
author's name from them. And it would be n 
crime for an editor, under almost any conceivable 
circumstance, to break this law. But it has been 
said " There is no law without an exception." I 
will, at the risk of being held a traitor to my 
class, on this occasion break this rule by inform- 
ing you that the writer of that letter was none 
other than our President himself ! ' 

" The shout that greeted this disclosure showed 
how fully they appreciated the humour of it." 

Such urbanity and modesty lend a new 
grace to scholarship. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. v. JAN. 27, 1912. 


(See 10 S. xi. 441 ; xii. 51, 114, 181, 401 ; 
11 S. i. 282; ii. 42, 242, 381; iii. 22, 
222, 421 ; iv. 181, 361.) 

MEN OF LETTEKS (continued). 

Ayr. The town is redolent with memories 
of the poet Burns. Here still stands the 
" clay bigging " in which he was born 
15 Jan., 1759. Near by are Alloway Kirk 
and " the Auld Brig o' Doon." Of " the 
twa brigs o' Ayr," the old dates back 
to the thirteenth century, and the new to 
the eighteenth. The former was reopened 
by Lord Rosebery after extensive renovation 
on 29 July, 1910. In the east parapet wall, 
above the second arch, two bronze panels 
have been inserted. The first, placed by 
the Preservation Committee, is thus in- 
scribed : 

" In admiration of Robert Burns and his 
immortal poem ' The Brigs of Ayr,' this brig was 
during 1907-10 restored by subscriptions re- 
ceived from all parts of the world. B. A. Oswald, 
Chairman of the Preservation Committee." 

The second panel, placed by the Town 
Council of Ayr, contains a portrait of Burns, 
the Ayr Burgh coat of arms, and the follow- 
ing inscription : 

" The Auld Brig of Ayr. Erected in the 
thirteenth century. Preservation work 1907-10. 
Reopened by Lord Rosebery July 29, 1910. 
James S. Hunter, Provost of the Burgh of 

In 1820 a Greek temple was inaugurated 
to the memory of Burns at Ayr. It cost 
3,300Z., which was raised through the exer- 
tions of Mr. (afterwards Sir Alexander) 
Boswell. Within the building are enshrined 
many relics of Burns and also his bust by 
Park. Here, too, are placed Thorn's 
characteristic models of Tarn o' Shanter and 
Souter Johnnie Alloway. 

In 1892 a fine bronze statue of Burns was 
erected in the centre of the town. The 
sculptor was Mr. George A. Lawson. The 
pedestal was designed by Messrs. Morris 
and Hunter, and executed by Mr. Taylor 
of Aberdeen. In the four sides are inserted 
bronze bas-reliefs illustrative of scenes from 
the poet's works. The frieze is carved in 
the form of a symbolical ribbon, on which are 
inscribed the names of all the places at which 
Burns at various times found a home, with 
the dates of residence indicated. The statue 
represents the poet bareheaded, with folded 
arms, and clad in the costume worn by 
Scotsmen of his rank of life in his day. 

It is itself 9 ft. high, and with the pedestal 
rises to a height of over 21 ft. 

Dumfries. Burns died at Dumfries 21 
July, 1796, and was buried in St. Michael's 
Churchyard. A modest stone was placed 
by his wife over his grave. Twenty years 
afterwards a mausoleum was erected by 
public subscription hard by, and on 19 Sept., 
1815, his remains were removed thither. 
The structure contains a symbolic represen- 
tation in marble of " The Muse of Coila 
finding the Poet at the plough and throwing 
her inspiring mantle over him." " To this 
was added." says Principal Shairp, " a long, 
rambling epitaph in tawdry Latin." 

On 6 April, 1882, a statue of Burns was 
inaugurated at Dumfries. It was designed 
by Mrs. Hill, and represents the poet resting 
in a half-sitting posture against a tree trunk, 
with his dog reclining at his feet. He is 
apparently meditating upon a daisy which 
he holds in his hand. The statue is of Car- 
rara marble, and the pedestal of grey stone. 
Let into the four sides are inscribed marble 
tablets. Those on the north, south, and 
east sides contain appropriate quotations 
from Burns's poems, and that on the west 
the following : 

" Erected by the inhabitants of Dumfries (with 
the aid of many friends) as a loving tribute to 
their fellow townsman, the National Poet of 
Scotland, 6th April, 1882." 

Irvine. On 18 July, 1896, the Poet 
Laureate, Mr. Alfred Austin, unveiled a 
statue of Burns at Irvine in the presence of 
12,000 spectators. It is the work of Mr. 
James Pittendrigh MacGillivray, R.S.A., 
and was presented to his native town by 
Mr. John Spiers of Glasgow. The statue is 
said successfully to 

"embody Burns in the abstract ... .He wears 
the coat and breeches of the period and the Scots 
plaid, which makes a natural, national, and correct 
accessory to his costume, and at the same time 
gives the bronze flowing lines and all the classic- 
effect it is desirable to associate with Burns." 

Paisley. Lord Rosebery unveiled a statue 
of Burns in the Fountain Gardens on 26 
Sept., 1896. It cost over 1,500Z., the funds 
being raised by a series of concerts by the 
Paisley Tannahill Choir. 

Edinburgh. A Greek temple was erected 
to the memory of Burns in 1830 from sub- 
scriptions by Scotsmen in all parts of the 
world. It was designed by Thomas Hamil- 
ton, and contains many manuscripts and 
relics of Burns and his bust by Brodie. 

Aberdeen. In 1892 Prof. David Masson 
unveiled a statue of Burns in the Union 
Terrace Gardens. It was the work of the 
late Henry Bain-Smith, and represents the 

us. V.JAN. 27, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


poet bareheaded, with a plaid thrown over 
his shoulder. His right hand grasps a 
Scotch bonnet, and he carries a wee mountain 
daisy in his left. The figure is about 11 ft. 
high, and with the pedestal rises to a height 
of 23 ft, 

Kilrnarnoek. The Burns monument in 
Kay Park consists of a temple surmounted 
by a tower rising to a height of 80 ft. It 
was erected from designs by Railton in 
1879. Within the arched entrance stands 
a white marble statue of Burns by Stevenson. 
The interior is fitted up as a museum, and 
contains, inter alia, a complete set of editions 
of Burns' s works. 

Dundee. In front of the Albert Institute 
is a statue of Burns by Sir John Steell. It 
is a replica of that at New York. 

Particulars are desired of Burns statues 
at Glasgow, Perth, Alloway, and elsewhere. 

Edinburgh. The magnificent Scott me- 
morial is erected in East Prince's Street 
Gardens. It was designed by the ill-fated 
George Mickle Kemp, a young, self-taught 
artist, who was accidentally drowned before 
its completion. It cost 15,650Z., and consists 
of a cruciform Gothic spire, rising to a height 
of 200 ft. from four basement arches supported 
by clustered columns. In the centre space 
stands the grey Carrara - marble statue of 
Scott, represented seated, clad in a shep- 
herd's plaid, with his favourite hound Maida 
lying at his feet. It is the work of Sir 
John Steell, and cost an additional 2,000/. 
The design is further enriched with statu- 
ettes of the principal characters in Scott's 
works. The foundation stone was laid 
on 15 Aug., 1840, and the memorial was 
publicly inavigurated on its completion in 
August, 1846. In the foundation, on a brass 
plate, was deposited the following inscrip- 
tion, composed by Lord Jeffrey : 

" This Graven Plate deposited in the base of a 
votive building on the fifteenth day of August in 
the year of Christ 1840, and never likely to see 
the light again till all the surrounding structures 
are crumbled to dust by the decay of time, or 
by human or elemental violence, may then 
testify to a distant posterity, that his country- 
men began on that day to raise an effigy and 
architectural monument to the memory of Sir 
Walter Scott, Bart., whose admirable writings 
were then allowed to have given more delight and 
suggested better feeling to a larger class of readers 
in every rank of society than those of any other 
author, with the exception of Shakespeare alone, 
and which were therefore thought likely to be 
remembered long after this act of gratitude on 
the part of the first generation of his admirers 
should be forgotten. He was born at Edin- 
burgh 15th August, 1771, and died at Abbots- 
ford 21st September, 1832." 

A medallion marks the site of the house in 
College Wynd where Scott was born. 

Selkirk. A statue of Sir Walter Scott 
was erected in the Market Square in 1839, 
being placed in position on his birthday 
(15 Aug.). It is the work of Alexander H. 
Ritchie of Musselburgh, and represents Sir 
Walter in the costume of Sheriff of the 
county, with a roll of papers in his left hand, 
and his right hand resting on his staff. The 
pedestal is enriched with his arms and the 
arms of the burgh, and there are also emble- 
matic allusions to the characteristics of the 
poet and novelist a Scotch thistle, and a 
winged harp with the word " Waverley " 
below it. In front, beneath the statue, is 
the following inscription : 

" Erected in August, 1839, in proud and 
affectionate remembrance of Sir Walter Scott> 
Bart., Sheriff of this County from 1800 to 1832. 
By Yarrow's stream still let me stray, 
Though none should guide my weary way ; 
Still feel the breeze down Ettrick break, 
Though it should chill my withered cheek.'* 

Horsmonden, Kent. Here was erected in 
1856 by the then rector of Horsmonden, the 
Rev. Sir W. M. Smith-Marriott, Bart., a 
memorial to Sir Walter Scott. It consists of 
two circular towers conjoined, and standing 
within a grove of stately pines on the highest 
ground in the parish. One of the towers 
contains two rooms, in which are arranged 
a collection of Scott's works and many 
relics, while the walls are covered with 
sketches of heroes and heroines immor- 
talized in his writings. There is also a 
bust of Sir Walter, and beneath it is inscribed 
the following poetic tribute : 

Humble Bard, this proves at least my claims 
To linger raptured o'er thy thrilling strains. 
To thee he builds this tower, though thy name 
Will long survive the builder and the fane. 

As the visitor enters the tower, the follow- 
ing lines arrest the eye : 

Turn from this tower if you come to scoff it, 
Or deem him fool who does not build for profit. 

The other tower is fitted with a circular 
staircase leading to the summit, from which 
a fine view may be obtained. 

Glasgow. In the centre of George Square 
stands a fluted Doric column to the memory 
of Scott. It is 80 ft. high, and at the summit 
is placed his statue by Ritchie. It was the 
first memorial erected to him in Scotland. 

I shall be pleased to obtain particulars of 
Scott's monuments at Perth and elsewhere. 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

( To be continued. ) 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAN. 27, 1912. 


UNDER the heading ' The Old Highlander 
(10 S. vii. 92) is given an extract from Th 
Daily Graphic of 19 Jan., 1907, referring 
to the sale of what was called " Tottenharr 
Court Road's Oldest Inhabitant," viz., 
wooden figure of a Highlander from a 
tobacconist's shop in that neighbourhood. 

I have just come across an extract from 
an old magazine called Baldwin's Londor 
Magazine for March or April, 1820, which 
appears to me to refer to a similar old figur 
which has a most interesting history, if the 
narrator in the magazine is to be relied on 
The extract is as follows : 

" I forward you a rather remarkable anecdot 
relative to a statue (the original work of the 
famous Caius Gabriel Gibber) which has for many 
years occupied a site in a garden on the terrace 
in Tottenham Court Road. The statue in ques- 
tion is executed in a fine free-stone, representing 
a bagpiper in a sitting posture playing on his 
pipes, with his dog and keg of liquor by his side, 
the latter of which stands upon a neat stone 

" The following singular history is attached to 
its original execution. During the Great Plague 
of London carts Were sent round the city each 
night, the drivers of which rung a bell as intima- 
tion for every house to bring out its dead. The 
bodies were then thrown promiscuously into the 
cart and conveyed to a little distance in the 
environs, where deep ditches Were dug, into which 
they were deposited. 

" The piper (as represented in the statue) had 
his constant stand at the bottom of Holborn, 
near St. Andrew's Church. He became well 
known about the neighbourhood, and picked up 
a living from the passengers going that way, who 
generally threw him a few pence as a reward for 
his musical talents. A gentleman who never 
failed in his generosity to the piper was 
surprised, on passing one day as usual, to miss 
him from his accustomed place ; on inquiry he 
found the poor man had been taken ill in con- 
sequence of a singular accident. 

" On the joyful occasion of the arrival of one 
of his countrymen from the Highlands, the piper 
had made too free with the contents of his keg : 
these so overpowered his faculties that he stretched 
himself out upon the steps of the church and fell 
fast asleep. He was found in this situation when 
the dead- cart "went its rounds ; and the carter, 
supposing of course, as the most likely thing, that 
the man was dead, made no scruple to put his 
fork under the piper's belt, and with some assist- 
ance hoisted him into his vehicle, which was 
nearly full, with the charitable intention that 
our Scotch musician should share the usual brief 
ceremonies of interment. 

" The piper's faithful dog protested against this 
seizure of his master, and attempted to prevent 
this unceremonious removal ; but failing success, 
he fairly jumped into the cart after him, to the 
no small annoyance of the men, whom he would 

not suffer to come near the body. The streets 
and roads by which they had to go being very 
rough, added to the howling of the dog, had soon 
the effect of wakening our drunken musician 
from his trance. It was dark, and the piper, 
when he first recovered himself, could form no 
idea either of his numerous companions or his 
conductors. Instinctively, however, he reached 
for his pipes, and, playing up a merry Scotch 
tune, terrified in no small measure the carters, 
who fancied they had got a legion of ghosts. 

" A little time, however, put all to rights, and 
the well-known living piper was joyfully released 
from his awful and perilous situation. 

" The poor man fell ill, and was relieved by his 
former benefactor, who, to perpetuate the re- 
membrance of so wonderful an escape, resolved to 
employ a sculptor to execute him in stone, not 
omitting his faithful dog, keg of liquor, &c. 

" The famous Caius Gabriel Gibber (father to 
Colley Gibber, the comedian) was then in high 
repute, from the circumstance of his having 
executed the beautiful figures which originally 
were placed over the entrance gate of Old Beth- 
lehem Hospital, and the statue in question of the 
Highland bagpiper remains an additional speci- 
men of the merits of this great artist. It was 
long after purchased by John, the great Duke 
of Argyll, and came from his collection at his 
demise into the possession of its present pro- 

This statue seems to have a better claim 
than the other to be considered the " oldest 
inhabitant," and one wonders what has 
become of this example of a sculptor of such 
repute as Caius G. Gibber. 



[The piper's story seems to be a variant or 
an expansion of the story related by Defoe.] 

;he courtesy of Miss ETHEL LEGA-WEEKES, 
which stirs my gratitude, I have a reprint 
of an article on the ' Arms of the See of 
Ixeter,' contributed by her to Devon and 
'ornwall Notes and Queries. I should like 
suggest that the or and the argent 
cey in the Winchester blazon may have 
seen due to the passage in the ' Purga- 
orio ' (canto ix.) wherein the Angel on the 
hreshold drew from beneath his robe two 
:eys : 

One was of gold, and the other was of silver ; 
First with the white, and after with the yellow, 
Plied he the door, so that I was content. 
Whenever faileth either of these keys 
So that it turn not rightly in the lock," 
He said to us, " this entrance doth not open, 
ifore precious one is, but the other needs 
More art and intellect ere it unlock, 
For it is that which doth the knot unloose, 
rom Peter I have them ; and he bade me err 
Rather in opening than in keeping shut, 
If people but fall down before my feet." 

ii s. v. JAX. 27, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The Rev. H. F. Tozer annotates this in 
' An English Commentary on Dante's 
" Divina Commedia " ' by : 

" These are the keys of the kingdom of heaven' 
The golden key is the power of absolution, the 
silver key the knowledge possessed by the con- 
fessor, which enables him to judge of the condition 
of the penitent. Hence in opening the gate the 
silver key is used first and the golden afterwards. 
On this subject Aquinas says ' distinguuntur 
duae claves, quarum una pertinet ad indicium de 
idoneitate eius qui absolvendus est, et alia ad 
ipsain absolutionem,' 'Summa,' P. 3, Suppl. Q. 17, 
Art. 3." 


SHAKESPEARE. Several reviewers of the 
' Concordance to Wordsworth,' published 
by Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co., have called 
attention to what is deemed an excessive 
use of the first personal pronoun in the 
works of the poet. Thus J. P. C., in The 
Pall Mall Gazette for 30 Nov., 1911, points 
out that /, me, myself, &c., are recorded 
over 2,000 times. 

It must be remembered, however, that 
verbal indexes of the sort commonly do not 
list the occurrences of the simple pronouns. 
Fay's Concordance of the ' Divina Corn- 
media,' for example, merely indicates the 
very frequent use by Dante of the words io, 
mia, mie, &c., by the term " sovente." The 
' Concordance to Wordsworth ' includes a 
large number of quotations for certain pro- 
nouns, in spite of their frequency, because of 
their importance in a lyrical and meditative 
poet. Much depends upon the kind of 
poetry which happens to be in question, 
and upon the special aim of the writer. As 
Augustine, Bunyan, and Rousseau are bound 
to refer to themselves when they undertake 
to write their confessions, so Wordsworth is 
bound to speak of himself in ' The Prelude.' 
In the yet longer poem of ' The Excursion ' 
his references to himself are far less nume- 
rous ; here he is but a minor personage in 
the dialogue. The personal utterances of 
Milton in ' Paradise Lost,' an epic, may be 
thought to be more of an intrusion of ex- 
traneous matter. In his sonnets, of course, 
the practice of Wordsworth varies with his 
subject and purpose. The 'Concordance' 
lists a dozen occurrences of the pronoun / in 
the 131 ' Ecclesiastical Sonnets.' The Con- 
cordance of Mrs. Furness to the minor 
poems of Shakespeare shows that the words 
/, me, mine, and my occur, all told, over 900 
times in 144 sonnets. This is quite the 
equal of anything in Dante, or Words- 
worth, or Pindar ; though perhaps the 
chief thought it suggests is that, when a great 

poet wishes to write about himself, he is 
likely to choose the simplest and most direct 
forms of expression. LANE COOPER. 

Ithaca, New York. 

[Poems in the nature of personal confessions, such 
as Tennyson's ' In Memoriam ' and ' The Kuba'iyat 
of Omar Khayyam,' must be expected to revel in 
the Ego. Even so it may be a question how often, 
as in the Introduction to 'In Memoriam,' "we" 
takes the place of " I."] 

of Dr. Sophia .lex-Blake on Sunday, the 
7th of January, should be made a note of, 
as she was the first to secure for women 
the right of entry into the medical profes- 
sion in Great Britain. 

She was born January, 1840, and was 
sister of Dr. Jex- Blake, formerly Head 
Master of Rugby, afterwards Dean of Wells. 
From 1858 to 1864 she was Mathematical 
Tutor at Queen's College, London, but after 
travelling in the United States she became 
interested in the movement started by 
the late Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell for the 
admission of -women to medical degrees; 
and when Dr. Blackwell had obtained her 
degree and become lecturer in the New 
York College for Women, Miss Jex-Blako 
became a member of her first class, and 
resolved to devote herself to medicine. 
After a course of study at Boston she re- 
turned to England in the hope of securing 
admission to the Medical Register, but at 
that time none of the British medical schools 
would admit a woman to their classes. 

In 1869 Miss Jex-Blake, with other ladies, 
succeeded in inducing the University of 
Edinburgh to adopt regulations for the educa- 
tion of women in medicine in the University 
in separate classes, and, when the class lists 
were issued, it was announced that " the 
female students had attained a ^higher 
degree of success than the males." The 
women's claims to be admitted to the wards 
of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, the 
litigation that followed, the severe articles 
written by Mrs. Lynn Linton in The Saturday 
Review, and the' subsequent triumph, are 
matters of history. Miss Jex-Blake came 
to London, founded the School of Medicine 
for Women, and in 1876 Russell Gurney's 
Bill was passed. Dr. Sophia Jex-Blake 
returned to Edinburgh, and there practised 
and established a school of medicine^ for 
women ; she retired in 1899. 7\ 

Another pioneer is still with us": Miss 
Elizabeth Garrett, afterwards Dr. "Garrett 
Anderson. The number of women now 
practising as doctors may make the present 
generation forget the struggle to secure that 
position. - ;jj A. N. Q. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. v. JAN. 27, 1912. 

from a second-hand catalogue recently an 
interesting volume which is perhaps worth 
a little paragraph in ' N. & Q.' It is a copy 
of Sir Henry Vane's ' Retired Man's Medita- 
tions ' (16,55). Inside the" cover, on the 
board of the volume, is the signature John 
Locke in very faded ink. The signature 
has been compared with Locke's hand- 
writing and pronounced genuine. Locke 
began public life as a secretary to Sir Henry's 
brother, Sir Walter Vane, when in 1664 he 
went as envoy to the Court of the Elector of 
Brandenburgh. This was only two years 
after Sir Henry had been beheaded on Tower 
Hill. It is a curious circumstance that the 
volume contained a scrap of paper on which 
were written, by some contemporary book- 
seller, the names of volumes of Jacob 
Behmen for sale including his ' Answers 
to Walter,' his ' Principles,' and his ' Aurora.' 
The interest of this lies in the coincidence 
that Vane himself is supposed to have 
been a disciple of Behmen' s. 


LAMB OR LAMBE. Twice during rambling 
reading in one evening I met with Lamb's 
name with a final e : First in ' The Beauties 
of the Anti- Jacobin ' (' The New Morality'), 
1799, p. 306 : 

And ye five other wandering bards that move 
In sweet accord of harmony and love, 
C dge and S th y, L d and L be and Co. 
Tune all your mystic harps to praise Lepaux ! 

and secondly in Byron's ' Poetical Works,' 
1 vol., royal 8vo, Murray, 1851, p. 422, 
' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers ' : 

Or yield one single thought to be misled 

By Jeffrey's heart, or Lambe's Boeotian breed. 

The same spelling of Lamb's name is given in 
an explanatory note (presumably Byron's): 
" Messrs. Jeffrey and Lambe are the alpha 
and omega, the first and the last of The 
Edinburgh Review. ' ' I have no remembrance 
of the alternative spelling being mentioned 
by any of Lamb's biographers, but there is 
a curious contemporary instance in the pub- 
lishers' account of the ' Specimens of English 
Dramatic Poets.' The heading in Messrs. 
Longman's ledger of 1808 is ' Lambe's Speci- 
mens.' I can quite understand that if the 
real name of Elia had been " Lambe " it 
would frequently have been misspelt 
"Lamb," but I do not at all see why, in 
three instances during the lifetime of the 
author, independent persons should have 
given the uncommon form "Lambe." 

W. H. PEET. 

fly-leaf of a copy of Gwillim's ' Heraldry,' 
1660 (fourth edition), in my possession, is 
the following manuscript note, which may 
interest some of your readers : 

" Richards of Bramley House, Suffolk. James, 
Esq., created Barronet 22 Feb., 1683/4. 
this Family was John Richard, who came into 
England with the Queen-Mother of King Charles 
the second from Thoulouse in France he had 
a numerous Issue. James his youngest son was 
first Knighted by King Charles ye 2 d for saving 
several Men of Wars, and by ye sd King advanced 
to ye Dignity of Barronet the 35 year of his Reign, 
he married first Anne Popeley of Red-house in 
Bristole, by whom he had two sons b r John his 
Successor and Arthur and one Daughter Eliza- 
beth. His Second Wife was Beatrice Herren by 
whome he left four Sons (viz.) Joseph, Phillip 
(married to ye eldest daughter of Count Montema 
Lieut.-General in ye Spanish Servise), 3' 1 James, 
4 th Lewis, also one daughter Clara. S r James 
settled in Spain at Cadiz where he dyed and was 
succeeded by his eldest son S r John Richards 
now living unmarried at Cadiz. He bearetn 
Argent a chevron azure, in base a lyon. Rampant 
and three Harts gules. Crest, a Demy lyon, a 
Hart between its paws gules. S r Joseph 
Richards lies buried in St. Pancras near London 

under a Monument, he Died the Day of 

1738 aged 53, his motto is Honore et Amore. 


Endclifle, Eccles. 

DICKENSIANA. In the ' Pickwick Papers,' 
Mr. Lowten, clerk to Mr. Perker, Pickwick's 
solicitor, makes his first appearance at chap. 
xx., and is frequently heard of in later parts 
of the book. There are two portraits known 
of a Thomas Lowten : one noted in John 
Chaloner Smith's ' British Mezzotinto Por- 
traits,' as engraved by John Young after 
Earl, published 1807; the other (also a 
mezzotint), engraved by Charles Turner 
after T. Phillips, R.A., 1808. The subject 
of these portraits is described by Chaloner 
Smith as " Solicitor ; Clerk of ' nisi prius 
in Court of King's Bench ; Deputy Clerk 
of the Pipe ; founder of the Lowteman 
Society of Solicitors ; died in the Inner 
Temple, Jan. 2, 1814, aged 67." What was 
the " Lowtenian Society of Solicitors " ? 
May it not be possible that some knowledge 
or recollection on the part of Dickens of 
the surname "Lowten" in connexion with 
the law may account for its ^ having been 
appropriated as in ' Pickwick ' ? 

In ' Dombey and Son,' chap, v., we read 
that Mr. Dombey nominated one Rob " on 
the foundation of an ancient establishment 
called (from a worshipful company) the 
Charitable Grinders, where not only is a 
wholesome education bestowed upon the 
scholars, but where a dress and badge n 
likewise provided for them." It may be 

118. V.JAN. 27, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


recollected that the dress and badge brought 
tribulation upon the recipient of the favour. 
There was published at Sheffield in 1823 
' Tom and Charles, or the Grinders : the 
History of two boys educated at the Charity 
School at Sheffield, faithfully delineating 
Personages and Scenery of the Neighbour- 
hood.' May this also supply a source 
whence Dickens may have taken a hint and 
a character ? W. B. H. 

liis essay on Spenser ('Among my Books,' 
ii. 136), Russell Lowell devotes some atten- 
tion to the poet's contemporaries, showing 
generally how unlike they were in inspiration 
and method to the author of ' The Faery 
Queen.' After referring to ' The Mirror for 
Magistrates,' ' Albion's England,' ' Poly- 
olbion,' and so forth, he summarizes in 
characteristically humorous fashion. " This," 
says he, 

" was the period of the saurians in English poetry, 
interminable poems, book after book and canto 
after canto, like far-stretching vertebrae, that at 
first sight would seem to have rendered earth 
unfit for the habitation of man." 

This criticism is recalled now by an item 
in a bookseller's catalogue just to hand. 
The entry is suggestive of something like 
a faint saurian recrudescence. Apparently 
in the year just ended a collection of ' Poetical 
Pieces ' was issued at 10s. 6d. net in "a 
very thick roy. 8vo cloth " volume. Pre- 
mising that he is in a position to offer this 
substantial work for 2s. 6d., the advertiser 
proceeds thus : 

" The author's production may well be called 
that of a ' Long-winded Poet,' " for the poems 
occupy 1,261 pages. It would, no doubt, occupy 
a reader's present life and part of the future as 


church of Clifton Campville, Staffordshire 
(near Tamworth), has just been saved 
from ruin at a cost of about 3,0001. an 
expenditure of 5001. or so being still needed 
to preserve the ancient windows and to 
complete the tower. This magnificent build- 
ing has for many years been in a deplorable 
state. The thirteenth - century masonry 
and buttresses in the north wall, and the 
southern pillars, have been fully repaired 
where necessary ; and the roof has been put 
back to its original place. Considerable 
fresco-work has been discovered, evidently 
that noted by Shaw, but it is very indistinct. 
The chantry chapel has been restored, and 
is now no longer screened off from the church, 

while the fine roof is once more revealed. 
The southern aisle, called the Haunton aisle, 
has been extensively repaired, this being 
necessitated by the bad state of the stone ; 
and the removal of the poor plaster-work 
has shown the best features of the structure, 
and with these an interesting fresco appa- 
rently depicting the founder, Sir Richard 
Stafford, who built the church about 1353. 
The work merits reporting in better detail. 


ST. PANCRAS, 1817. There has come into 
my hands a sketch, 9 in. by 4 in., of the 
St. Pancras Workhouse, and inn at the 
corner of King's Road, 1817. The work- 
house is a row of small houses, with a high 
red-brick wall in front, through which is an 
entrance gate surmounted by a lamp. 
The inn stands opposite, at a corner where 
two roads meet ; it has a hanging sign, a tall 
(iron) pump, and a lamp on a post. There are 
some trees behind, and in front are open 
spaces of grass surrounded by a single-rail 
fence. W. C. B. 

It would appear that Glamis Castle has not 
the monopoly of a mysterious secret chamber. 
Re-reading that interesting ' Memoir of a 
Highland Lady,' edited by Lady Strachey, 
I find therein mentioned Comyn Castle : 

"The people said there was a zigzag causeway 
beneath the water, from a door of the old castle to 
the shore, the secret of which was always known to 
three persons only. We often tried to hit upon the 
causeway, but we never succeeded.''' 


" CLEAR CASE." In transcribing the Sarum 
Marriage Bonds for The Genealogist I came 
across what seems to me a very early 
example of the phrase " clear case." I 
reproduce it in its original spelling : 

" John bachalers of 32 ears eage of oten refers 
[Wootton Biversl and Ales Worman of 30 ears 
eage of esbary in the pariash of lambarn the 
plas that we will be niareid is at est gasan [East 
Garsdon ?] Yow ned not fere for it is a clar 
kase. 5 Dec 1633." 



wich, in Lancashire, there is an inn with this 
sign. It once bore the name of "The Seven 
Stars." When the sign was being repainted, 
the painter asked the landlord what he was 
to put upon the board, and received the 
answer. " The same yet," and the man took 
him at his word (Millgate Monthly). 




NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. v. JAN. 27, 1912. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

ANTS WANTED. I am endeavouring to trace 
the descendants of the under-mentioned 
gentlemen, who were Governors of New 
Zealand at the period mentioned against 
their names : 

Capt. William Hobson, R.N. 1840-42. 

Lieut. Shortland. 1842-3. 

Lieut.- Col. Robt. H. Wynyard. 1854-5. 

Sir George F. Bowen. 1868-73. 

The object'of the inquiry, when the relatives 
have been traced, is to endeavour to obtain 
portraits of the four gentlemen in question. 

13, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Can any one tell me what was the maiden 
name and who was the husband of Mrs. 
Mary Young, a well-known dame at Eton 
during the eighteenth century ? Edward 
Young, Bishop of Dromore, and afterwards 
of Ferns, was her son ; and she had a daughter 
Catherine, who married the Rev. Septimus 
Plumptre, Vicar of Mansfield. Mrs. Mary 
Young died in 1775. 

Further, what was there that was 
" shocking " about the death of Mrs. 
Young, the wife of Edward Young ? Lady 
Sarah Bunbury mentions the death in 
a letter to her sister dated 22 June, 1765 
(' The Life and Letters of Lady Sarah 
Lennox,' vol. i. p. 170) ; and a foot-note 
mentions that Mrs. Edward Young was 
probably a natural daughter of Lord Holland. 
Is anything more known about her ? 

R. A. A. L. 

HEREVIA" (?), born 1724, died 1780. This 
is the description of a Queen pictured in 
an engraving, whom I wish to learn about. 
Presumably she belonged to one of the ex- 
tensive and confusing families of the Pala- 
tinate. Was she born in Bohemia, and a 
Queen somewhere else ? NEL MEZZO. 

your correspondents give me information 
on the Giggleswick School seal ? It is oval 
shape, with Virgin and Child, and beneath 
a priest praying. Round the rim are these 
words : " Sigillu Prebendarii de Buldon." 

It has been suggested that Nowell, 1553, 
the second founder of the school, gave his 
seal as the corporate seal, but has any one 
heard of a collegiate church at Buldon ? 

E. A. BELL. 

T. Cadell & W. Davies were publishers 
with offices in the Strand in the early part 
of the nineteenth century. Who succeeded 
them, and what publishing house of to-day 
might by chance have their filed proof 
copies ? 

It would be interesting, I am sure, to many 
readers to have a list of early publishers 
and printers, with their successors and their 
modern representatives. J. H. R. 

[See F. A. Mumby's ' Romance of Bookselling,' 
1910, and the numerous lists that have appeared in 

any of your readers help me to the name of 
the author of the following lines, and of the 
poem in which they occur ? 

O voi ch' avete gl' intelletti sani, 
Mirate la dottrina che s' asconde 
Sotto '1 velame degli versi strani. 

P. I. 
[Dante, ' Inferno,' ix.] 

Where do the following occur ? 

1. His life but a handbreadth, his cares and 
sorrows but a dream. 

2. Man appoints, but God can disappoint. 

" Handbreadth," I suppose, is the equiva- 
lent of "span," but I have not met with it 
in any book. PENRY LEWIS. 

[" Handbreadth " has been in use since Coverdale's 
translation of the Bible, and occurs in the A.V. and 
the Revised Version. See also the quotations s.v. 
in the 'N.E.D.'] 

Could some one inform me what is the 
source of the following ? 
He spurns the earth with a disdainful heel, 
And knocks at heaven's gate with his bright [steel]' 
I am not sure of the last word. A. S. 

Emerson gives the following quotation as 
the translation of an old French poem : 
Some of your hurts you have cured, 

And the sharpest you still have survived ; 
But what torments of grief you endured 

From evils which never arrived ! 
Who was the author, and what are the 
original lines ? M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

1. Can any one give me " chapter and 
verse " for the following quotation, often, 
but I believe erroneously, attributed to 
Carlyle ? " I shall pass through this world 

ii S.V.JAX. 27, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


but once. Any good thing therefore that I 
can do, or any kindness that I can show, 
let me show it now." I have also seen this 
attributed to Stephen Grellet. Which is 
correct ? 

2. Can any one give me the authorship 
of the following line ? 

Horns from Elfland faintly blowing. 


[1. See the numerous references in the General 
Index of the Tenth Series, s. v. ' Quotations.'] 

2. This is part of the second stanza of the song 
which opens the fourth section of Tennyson's 
' Princess.' It runs : 

O hark I O hear ! how thin and clear, 
And thinner, clearer, farther going ! 
O sweet and far from cliff and scar 

The horns of Elfland faintly blowing !] 

Who is the author of the following lines ? 

With patient steps the path of duty run ; 

God never does nor suffers to be done 

But that which yovi would do if you could see 

The end of all events as well as He. 

In a (London) Church Calendar for 1912 
they are attributed to Byron, but they do 
not seem to me to savour of the author of 
' Don Juan.' BLADUD. 

glad of information concerning Henry 
Downes Miles, the author of ' Pugilistica ' 
and other works. He seems to have been 
70 years of age when the second volume of 
'Pugilistica' was published in 1880. 

May I take this opportunity of saying 
that we badly want a biographical dictionary 
of minor worthies ? Neither Henry Downes 
Miles nor many of the prizefighters whose 
biographies we enjoy in his pages are in- 
cluded in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy.' This is not meant as a dis- 
paragement of that work to which I am 
in the habit of referring every day of my 
life ; nor is it meant as a disparagement of 
Sir Leslie Stephen or Sir Sidney Lee, both 
of whom have written books which no well- 
regulated library can dispense with. It is 
only to say that these editors seem to me 
to have worked on a wrong principle of 
selection and rejection while they were 
engaged upon the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography.' CLEMENT K. SHORTER. 

SOCIALE.' Miss Morris, in her introduction 
to ' Sigurd ' (' Collected Works of William 
Morris,' vol. xii. p. x), quotes from memory 
a phrase of Considerant's, " the ferocious, 
the inevitable, the untameable piano," as a 
great favourite of her father's. Like her, 

I have tried to verify the quotation, but 
Failed. The British Museum copy of the 
first edition of the ' Destinee Sociale ' has 
' cancel " page at the place at which the 
passage should naturally occur (vol. i. p. 485), 
and it would be interesting if any one who 
has access to another copy, or to Mr. Morris's 
own copy, which appeared in his sale cata- 
logue, would verify the quotation. R. S. 

I shall be infinitely obliged if some reader 
of ' N. & Q.' will kindly advise me where I 
can find definite data regarding the titles 
granted by Philip IV. of Spain to the Irish- 
men who fought in the " Wars of the Nether- 
lands." Is there a book which gives the 
arms of the gentlemen so ennobled, and can- 
not their descendants still bear these titles ? 
This information I desire to complete a 
genealogical table. RENE DE LAZLA. 


[This query appeared at p. 427 of our last volume- 
We regret that hitherto no replies have been 

any of your readers give information about 
a Portuguese artist, Feliziano dates, Chris- 
tian name, and so on ? He was living in 
Lisbon in 1668, and painted a portrait of 
Edward, first Earl of Sandwich, who was 
there on a special mission. The portrait is 
at Hinchingbrooke. F. R. H. 

Anne, who married George, Prince of Den- 
mark, 28 July, 1683, and became a widow 
28 Oct., 1708, is said very often in periodi- 
cal and other publications to have had 
seventeen children, though in the Royal 
Lineage which forms the introduction to 
Burke' s ' Peerage ' six only (two sons and 
four daughters) are recorded. Is there 
any truth in the statement that as many 
as seventeen were born to her, and if so, 
where can a complete record be found ? 

F. DE H. L. 

ANNE WENTWORTH. I should be much 
obliged to the readers of ' N. & Q.' for any 
information concerning Anne, daughter and 
heiress of John Wentworth of Codham 
Hall, Essex, and Anne Bettenham his wife. 
She married (1) Hugh Rich, son of Lord 
Chancellor Rich ; (2) Henry Fitzalan, Lord 
Maltravers : and (3) William Deane. Is 
the date of her birth known ? Is there any 
portrait of her in existence ? She left no 
descendants, and her property, including 
Gosfield Hall, which she built, passed to her 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tiis. V.JAN, 27, 1912. 

uncle's son. I have already consulted 
Morant's ' Essex ' and ' The Complete 
Peerage.' I should be glad of a reply direct. 

(Mrs.) LOWE. 
Gosfield Hall, Halstead, Essex. 

Illustrations of her tomb at St. John's, 
Southover, appear in Misc. Gen. et Her., 
Fourth Series, vol. iv. part v. (March, 
1911). From the accompanying letter- 
press the writer appears to be ignorant of 
the fierce genealogical controversy waged 
over the question of her parentage, as he 
accepts without comment the statement that 
she was the fifth daughter of the Conqueror. 
This theory has been discarded on 
eminent authority. Has any further in- 
formation, particularly from French sources, 
been forthcoming recently ? So far, all 
that can be safely said is that she was of 
kin to the Conqueror. R. W. B. 

a clipping from the Sunday edition 
of the San Antonio, Texas, Express. 
Who is this Duchesse de Bouillon ? By the 
Congress of Vienna, 1815, the Duchy of 
Bouillon, &c., were taken from Admiral 
Philip d'Auvergne of the English Navy 
adopted by the last reigning Duke of 
Bouillon, 1788, who had been allowed in 
179[?] by the British Government to take 
the rank and title of Duke de Bouillon, &c. 
and given to the house of Rohan-Gue- 
menee, now Rohan-Rohan, and living in 

" The convent [Carmelite Convent at Jerusa- 
lem] and the beautiful little chapel attached were 
built about thirty-six years ago by and at the 
expense of the late Aurelia de Bossi, Princess de 
la Tour d'Auvergne, Duchesse de Bouillon, and 
is now occupied by French nuns of the Carmelite 

Did Admiral Philip d'Auvergne leave 
children ? and did, or do, they claim the 
duchy ? 



Does there exist any list of the foreigners 
who came over to England with William III. 
in 1688 ; and, if so, where can I find it ? 
I want to test the truth of a family tradition 
that some German sword-cutlers from 
Solingen (who afterwards settled at Shotley 
Bridge in the county of Durham, and whose 
name was anglicized as Oley) came over 
with William in the frigate Brill. 


1809-14. The 10th Company of this Bat- 
talion is variously stated to have become 
the 8th Company in 1809 and 1819. Which 
date is correct ? Is anything known of the 
services of either of these companies in 
the Walcheren expedition of 1809, in the 
Peninsular War, and in the war with the 
United States, 1812-14 ? C. O. 

ALEXANDBO AMIDEI was a teacher of 
Hebrew at Oxford about 1700. I shall be 
glad of any information about him. 


118, Sutherland Avenue, W. 

BTJBIAL CUSTOMS. With reference to the 
practice of burying fire-dogs with the dead, 
which was common among the Celts, it does 
not seem improbable that these " dogs," 
which are found with cinerary urns, may 
have been first used to bear the logs of wood 
which comprised the funeral pyre. On 
the same reasoning, the amphorae found with 
calcined remains may have contained the 
wine which was sprinkled over the ashes 
of the dead, since amphorae were vessels 
in which wine and oil were imported. 
Perhaps one of your readers may be kind 
enough to inform me if my inference is a 
correct one or not. H. H. COLLETT. 

1748 an engineer, Nere LeVasseur, obtained 
a grant of the seigniory of St. Armand in 
Quebec. The Archives of Canada state 
that the name of the seigniory was taken 
from that of the Due de Richelieu, who may 
have been a protector of Le Vasseur. Is 
anything known about Le Vasseur or his 
connexion with the Due de Richelieu ? 


Lake Forest, Illinois. 


correspondent give me the date of Croker's 
birth and death ? Did he die in St. Chris- 
topher's ? The 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xiii. 
1 32, does not give much assistance. He was, 
I believe, the son of Henry Croker of Sars- 
field Court, co. Kildare. I should be glad to 
know the name of his mother. 

ing to the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xlvi. 143, 
Popham was the son of Stephen Popham, 
consul at Tetuan. In the ' Trinity College 
Admissions,' iii. 249, he is described as the 
son of Joseph Popham of Gibraltar. Which 
authority is correct ? G. F. R. B. 

ii s. v. JA*. 27, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



" Occasional Stanzas Written at the request of 
the Revolution Society, and Recited on their 
Anniversary, November 4th, 1788. To which 
is added Queen Mary to King William during his 
Campaign in Ireland, 1690. A Poetical Epistle. 
By William Hay ley, Esq.," 

was published for " T. Cadell, in the Strand, 
MDCCLXxxvm." Information will be wel- 
comed in reference to this body ; also con- 
cerning the " Bill of Rights Society " (11 S. 
iv. 388), the " Civil Society " (once existing 
in the North of England), the " Old Revo- 
lution Club " in Scotland, the " Boyne 
Society " and " Brunswick Club " in Ire- 
land, and the organization from the Revo- 
lution of 1688 which existed in the 4th Foot 
Regiment, of which I have seen a roll of 

BEAZANT FAMILY. Having relatives of 
this name, I have been interested in dis- 
covering that it appears to be the name of 
six or seven different families. I have 
invariably found that they regard it to be 
of French or Flemish origin. I also have 
heard the tradition that they are descended 
from one of the Counts of Flanders, but 
have been unable to verify it. My inform- 
ant, a naval officer, tells me he saw a picture 
of this person and his arms (a dolphin) in 
an illustrated book but he cannot remember 
where ; it was possibly in a history of 
battles. There was, it appears, a Sheriff 
of London of this name in 1194. 

As each of these families seem to think 
they are all of one stock, I should be glad 
to learn how that could be established. 


CROWNED BY A POPE. Henriette Jose- 
phine Stuart de Bourbon Bonaparte, 
Duchesse de Beri, Comtesse de St. Leu, 
is said to have been crowned by a Pope. 
Who was she ? and of what country was 
she queen ? I have searched in vain every 
book I thought likely to give me the infor- 
mation. H. A. ST. J. M. 

[The lady was inquired after by W. B. C. at 
11 S. iv. 368.] 

Henry Irving's father was John, Brodribb, 
born at Keinton in Somerset. Has any 
investigation been made into Sir Henry's 
paternal collaterals and direct ancestry ? 
Were the Brodribbs originally of Somerset, 
and have any of them attained to local 
eminence ? Is there any pedigree of the 

family extant ? Five Broderips have been 
held to be worthy of mention in the ' D.N.B.' 
Are the Brodribbs and Broderips members 
of one stock ? J. H. R. 

ST. LALTJWY. Menheniot Church in 
Cornwall was formerly dedicated to this 
saint. Is anything known concerning his 
(or her) life and works ? Was there any 
other church dedicated to him ? Is Laluwy 
equatable with Llanlwch in Carmarthen- 
shire, or with Lanlouch in Landunvez, in 
Brittany ? No name similar to it appears 
in ' Les Noms des Saints Bretons,' par J. 


(11. S. iv. 347.) 

THE career of Samuel Greatheed is of 
interest, and a memoir of him should have 
been inserted in the ' D.N.B.' 

A similarity of unusual names would 
lead to the supposition that he was a rela- 
tion of Samuel Greatheed, the Whig M.P. 
for the city of Coventry from 1747 to 1761, 
but there is no definite information as to liis 
parentage. He served in the corps of mili- 
tary engineers, and while in Canada was 
converted from a riotous life by a " brother 
officer named Mackelcan," presumably John 
Mackelcan, a second lieutenant in that body 
on 27 May, 1779, and a captain on 12 May, 
1782. He thereupon abandoned his pros- 
pects in the Army, and became one of the 
pupils of the Rev. William Bull, in his 
academy at Newport Pagnell for the train- 
ing of members of the Independent Church. 
He was afterwards ordained into the 
ministry of that body, in 1786 was ap- 
pointed assistant in that establishment, and 
became in 1789 the pastor of the Indepen- 
dent congregation which had been formed 
at Woburn in Bedfordshire. There he re- 
mained for three or four years, when he 
returned to Newport Pagnell. 

Greatheed married in that town on 3 Sept., 
1788, Ann, the only daughter of Sarah and 
John Hamilton, " a considerable dealer in 
lace." She was born on 27 March, 1758, 
became a member of the Independent 
church there on 7 March, 1784, and died 
"of erysipelous fever" on 28 Aug., 1807, 
being buried in the burial-ground of that 
body on 3 Sept., " on the same day and hour 
in which nineteen years before she had been 
married" (tablet "in Independent church; 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. 27, 1012. 

Lipscomb, ' Buckinghamshire,' iv. 288, 290). 
Through the death on 7 July, 1788, of her 
only brother, Thomas Abbott Hamilton, in 
the 32nd year of his age, she came into a 
handsome fortune. A poetic epitaph of ten 
lines by Cowper to his memory was placed 
on a tombstone on the south side of the 
churchyard of the parish. 

Soon after the death of this wife Great- 
heed resigned his charge of the congregation 
at Newport Pagnell, withdrew to Bishop's 
Hull, near Taunton, and married Jane 
Dorothea Stephenson. He had been elected 
F.S.A. on 26 June, 1806, and admitted on 
the following 13 November. Archaeological 
pursuits soon engrossed his energies. For 
the rest of his days he lived at Bishop's Hull, 
and there he died, it is believed in the Manor 
House, "after a few days of increased de- 
bility," on 15 Feb., 1823. ' A tablet behind the 
pulpit of the Independent chapel is inscribed 
" to the ever blessed memory of Samuel 
Greatheed, F.A.S., and of Jane Dorothea, 
his beloved wife. In acquirements dis- 
tinguished, in labours unwearied, in bene- 
factions abundant." His portrait was the 
frontispiece to the number of The Evangelical 
Magazine for April, 1794. 

The will of Greatheed was dated 22 Nov., 
1822, but was not witnessed. Charles 
Poulett Harris, gent., and Elizabeth 
Stephenson, spinster, both of Bishop's Hull, 
swore to his handwriting, and it was proved 
by the executors on 2 June, 1823. He 
directed that his body should be laid in the 
burial-ground of the Independent meeting- 
house at Bishop's Hull, and that all his pro- 
perty, when his eldest son became 21, should 
be shared between his two sons Samuel 
Stephenson Greatheed and Abbott Hamilton 
Greatheed. Should they both die before 
that age, the property was to be divided 
between four specified societies of the Evan- 
gelical party. The executors were his wife 
Jane Dorothea, her brother the Rev. Joseph 
Adam Stephenson, and the Rev. Thomas 
Palmer Bull. If one of them died, the remain- 
ing two were to elect another from among 
his two brothers-in-law, the Rev. William 
Rose Stephenson and the Rev. Samuel 
Rothey Straitland, and his wife's nephew 
the Rev. John Hollier Stephenson. The will 
was re-proved on 28 Nov., 1833, the Rev. 
William Rose Stephenson having been 
chosen as executor by the surviving two 
executors, the Rev. J. A. Stephenson and the 
Rev. T. P. Bull. The widow died on 31 Jan., 
1824. She was born, at Rowley Regis, 
Staffordshire, 7 May, 1781, and was ^ the 
second daughter of the Rev. Christopher 

Stephenson, Vicar of Olney (Evangelical 
Mag., April, 1824, p. 144). 

Greatheed' s chief interest to us lies in his 
friendship with Cowper. The poet de- 
scribed him in 1785 as " a well-bred, agree- 
able young man," and having read to him, 
and heard his approval of, the translation of 
the first book of the ' Iliad,' pronounced him 
" a man of letters and of taste." Cowper 
described to him on 6 Aug., 1792, his 
journey to Hayley at Eartham in Sussex, 
but in the following year he put on one side 
an invitation to stay with him. Greatheed' s 
' Practical Improvement of the Divine 
Counsel and Conduct, a sermon on William 
Cowper preached at Olney, 18 'May, 1800,' 
was printed in that year with a dedication 
to Lady Hesketh. It passed through two 
later editions in 1801. 

Greatheed inserted in The Evangelical 
Mag., April, 1803, pp. 129-37, andMay, 1803, 
pp. 177-86, a memoir of Cowper. On it and 
his sermon in 1800, and on Hayley's life 
of the poet, were based the " Memoirs of the 
Life and Writings of William Cowper, new 
ed., revised, corrected, and recommended 
by the Rev. S. Greatheed," which came out 
in 1814. He only took charge of the com- 
pilation when two-thirds of it had passed 
through the press, but it had been revised 
and corrected by him, and he knew the facts 
to be true. The meagre life, purporting to 
be "by the Rev. T. Greatheed," which was 
prefixed to the 1821 edition of Cowper's 
poems, was no doubt by him. For some 
years after 1792 he was intimate with Hay- 
ley. A letter to him (dated Newport Pagnel, 
8 April, 1794) on Cowper's illness is printed 
in Southey's ' Works of Cowper ' (1854 ed.), 
ii. 108-9. "A brief sketch of the character 
of the late William Hayley, Esq.," was found 
among Greatheed' s papers by his widow, 
and some extracts from it are included in 
the ' Memoirs of Hayley,' by John Johnson, 
LL.D., 1823, ii. p. 200, et seq. 

Greatheed contributed to the Archceologia, 
xvi. pp. 95-122, an elaborate dissertation 
" respecting the origin of the inhabitants of 
the British Islands," in three letters to 
John Wilkinson, M.D. In 1812 he made an 
examination of the relics of Stonehenge. 
His letter to John Britton on them is printed 
in the ' Beauties of England and Wales,' 
xv. pt. i. pp. 707-14. Some criticisms on 
his observations are in The Gent. Mag., 1823, 
pt, i. pp. 317-19, 509-11. 

When the first number of The Evangelical 
Magazine appeared in 1793, the name of 
Samuel Greatheed was given among its 
contributors and among the trustees for 

ii s. v. JAX. 27, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the distribution of its profits, and he was the 
first editor in 1805 of The Eclectic Review. 
He was " one of the first, warmest, and 
most generous friends and directors of the 
London Missionary Society." His other 
publications comprised : 

1. A Sermon to the Heathen founded upon the 
Moral Law, preached at Haberdashers' Hal 
meeting-house, 23 Sept., 1795 ; the third (pp. 45 
70) of ' Sermons preached in London at the forma 
tion of the Missionary Society.' It was translatec 
into German, and included in Peter Mortimer 
Die Missions-societafc in Engeland,' vol. i. (1797) 

2. General Union recommended to Real Chris 
tians, a sermon preached at Bedford, 31 Oct. 
1797. 1798. 

3. Experimental Religion Delineated, a selection 
from the diary of the late Miss H. Neale, with a 
brief memoir by Rev. S. Greatheed, 2nd ed., 1803 
Ine memoir originally appeared in Evangelica 
Magazine, 1802, pp. 469-77. 

4. Memoirs of a Female Vagrant, written bi 
herself [ed. Greatheed], 1806. 

5. Rise, Fall, and Future Restoration of th 
lews, with six sermons, 1800. The fourth 
sermon was by Greatheed. 

6 -The Regard which We Owe to the Concern 
* Others, a sermon addressed to the members of 
i o ,y, on Uai n at their annual meeting, 4 May 

$08 (Exeter, 1808). A postscript of five pages 
relates to a pamphlet, ' No False Alarm,' 1808 
y Richard Shepherd, Archdeacon of Bedford, 
which attacked Greatheed's sermon entitled 

General Union ' (1798). 

i *""': Mag " 1807 > P*- 979 5 1815, pt. i. 650; 
AT-~,T-' p ' " 91 ; Josia h Bull, ' Memorials of Rev. 
o^ iam ? ul1 *' pp - 134 ~ 5 ' Evangelical Magazine, 
1807, p. 486 ; 1823, pp. 125-6 ; F. W. Bull, 'Hist, 
of Newport Pagnell,' pp. 129, 148 ; Cowper's 
_ Letters, ed. Wright, ii. 323, 331, 383. iii. 217, 
lu T 8 ' 267> 426 ' an< * communications from 
the Rev. John W. Veevers of Bishop's Hull and 
the Rev. T. G. Crippen of the Memorial Hall, 
Farnngdon Street, E.C.] 


287, 450, 529 ; iii. 493 ; iv. 131, 390, 451). 
Having devoted two articles to London with 
its sub -heading Livery Companies, I con- 
tinue my list under L: 

Longhope, Gloucester. The Customs of the Manor 
of Longhope, 5th Sept., 1660. Gloucester Notes 
and Queries, vol. i. pp. 399-402. (1881.) Very 
few names. 

Long Sandall. See Doncaster. 
Lostwithiel. Manuscripts of the Corporation of 
Lostwithiel. Historical MSS. Commission, Six- 
teenth Report, p. 101. General description, 
vol. i. pp. 327-337. More details. Names 
m Index of volume. (1901.) 

Louth. Louth Old Corporation Records. By 
f- ^Y- Moulding. (1891.) Principally from 
lool to 1835. Lists of Names, some of which 
are in Index. 

Ludlow. Records of Ludlow. Transactions of 
the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural 

History Society, vol. viii. pp. 203-228. (1885.) 
No index. 

Copies of the Charters and Grants to the 
Town of Ludlow : with a Mirror for the Men 
of Ludlow, illustrating their Corporate Rights : 
an Account of their Charitable Foundations, &c. 
(? 1821.) Index of Matters. 

Churchwardens' Accounts of the Town of 
Ludlow, in Shropshire, from 1540 to the End 
of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. Camden 
Society Publications, vol. xciii. (1869.) Index 
of Matters and of Names, does not include all. 
A Register of the Palmers' Gtiild of Ludlow 
in the Reign of Henry VIII. Transactions of 
the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, pp. 81-126. (1884.) Good 
Lists of Names, but no index. 

On the Ancient Company of Stickmen of 
Ludlow. By G. M. Hills. Journal of the 
British Archaeological Association, vol. xxiv. 
pp. 327-334. (1848.) A few names, and these 
not in Index of volume. 

Lydd. Lydd Records. A description in ' Archseo- 
logia Cantiana,' xiii. 250-253. A fuller descrip- 
tion in Historical MSS. Commission's Fifth 
Report, pp. 516-533. (1876.) Index in Part II. 
to Matters, not to names. 

Lyme Regis. The Municipal Government of 
the Ancient Borough of Lyme Regis and 
Account of the Corporation. By G. Roberts. 
[1834.] Small affair, no index, but a Chrono- 
logical List of M.P.'s and Mayors. 
Lymington, New. Records of the Corporation of 
the Borough of Lymington. By C. St. Barbe. 
(1848.) Table of Contents, chronological. 
A mass of names, but no index. 
Lynn. See Norfolk lists. 

Lynn Regis, or King's Lynn. The Manuscripts 
belonging to the Corporation of the Borough 
of King's Lynn, co. Norfolk. (1887.) By 
J. C. Jeaffreson. Historical MSS. Commission, 
Eleventh Report, pp. 33-36 ; App. III., 
pp. 145-247. This is fuller than the preceding. 
Good and full Index of Names and Places. 

Extracts from a Manuscript containing Por- 
tions of the Proceedings of the Corporation of 
Lynn Regis, in Norfolk, from 1430 to 1731, 
taken from the Hall Books. By H. Gurney. 
(1832.) Archceologia, xxiv. 317-328. Really 
ends with 4 Sept., 1649. Chiefly concerned 
with elections of M.P.'s. Good Index of 
Matters at end of volume. 

Notice of a Manuscript Volume among the 
Records of the Corporation of Lynn. By Rev. 
J. Bulwer. (1864.) ' Norfolk Archaeology,' 
vol. vi. pp. 217-251. Has a List of Freemen 
(1440-1662). Poor Index to volume. 

Extracts from the Chamberlain's Book of 
Accounts, 14 Henry IV., in the possession of 
the Corporation of Lynn Regis. By Rev. G. H. 
Dashwood. (1849.) ' Norfolk Archaeology,' 
vol. ii. pp. 183-192. Brief but important. 
Poor Index at end of volume. 

Remarks on a Subsidy Roll in the possession 
of the Corporation of Lynn Regis. By Rev. 
G. H. Dashwood. (1847.) ' Norfolk Archaeo- 
logy,' vol. i. pp. 334-383. Very early Edw. I. 
or Henry III. Poor Index at end of volume. 

The Guilds of Lynn Regis. (1877.) The 
Norfolk Antiquarian Miscellany, vol. i. pp. 153 
183. At end is Index Nominum, Locorum et 


[11 S. V. JAN. 27, 1912. 

Maidenhead. A Calendar of the Ancient Charters 
and Documents of the Corporation of Maiden- 
head. By J. W. Walker. (1908.) No table 
of contents, many names (though a Catalogue), 
and no index. 

Maidstpne. The Charters and other Documents 
relating to the King's Town and Parish of 
Maidstone. With notes and annotations, &c. 
By W. R. James. (1825.) Very few names, 
and no index. 

Man, Isle of. The Lex Scripta of the Isle of Man, 
comprehending the Ancient Ordinances and 
Statute Laws. From the earliest to the 
present date. Published by authority. (1819.) 
Index of Matters. 

Monumenta de Insula Mannise, or a Collection 
of National Documents relating to the Isle of Man. 
By J. R. Oliver. 3 vols (1860, '61, '62). Ptiblica- 
tions of the Manx Society. Notes, and vol. iii. has 
Indexes of Names, Places, and Matters. 

Manchester. The Court Leet Records of the 
Manor of Manchester, from the year 1552 to 
the year 1686, and from the year 1731 to the 
year 1846. By J. P. Earwaker. 

I. 1552-1586. (1884.) 

II. 1586-1618. (1885.) 

III. 1618-1641. (1886.) 

IV. 1647-1662. (1887.) 
V. 1662-1675. (1887.) 

VI. 1675-1687. (1888.) 

VII. 1731-1756. (1888.) 

VIII. 1756-1786. (1888.) 

IX. 1787-1805. (1889.) 

X. 1806-1820. (1889.) 

XI. 1820-1832. (1889.) 

XII. 1832-1846. (1890.) 

Each volume has a good Introduction, and is 
well indexed. 

A Volume of Court Leet Records of the 
Manor of Manchester in the Sixteenth Century. 
By John Harland. Vol. I. (1864.) Vol. II., 
continuation of, A.D. 1586-1602. (1865.) 
Vols. Ixiii. and Ixv. of the Publications of the 
Chetharn Society. Index of Matters more 
than of names to each volume. Important 

The Constables' Accounts of the Manor of 
Manchester from the year 1612 to the year 1647, 
and from 1743 to 1776. By J. P. Earwaker. 
I. 1612-1633. (1891.) 

II. 1633-1647. (1892.) 

III. 1743-1776. (1892.) 
Each volume is well indexed. 

The Orders and Instructions to be observed 
by the Officers of the Manchester Police. 

Manchester Sessions. Notes of Proceedings 
before Osward Mosley (1616-30), Nicholas 
Mosley (1661-72), and Sir Oswald Mosley 
(1734-39), and other Magistrates. Edited 
from the MS. in the Reference Library, Man- 
chester. By E. Axon. Vol. I. 1616-23/4. 
Index of Matters, Places, and Names. The 
Record Society for the Publication of Original 
Documents relating to Lancashire and Cheshire, 
vol. xlii. (1901.) 

Manydown, Hampshire. The Manor of Many- 
down. By G. W. Kitchin. Hampshire Record 
Society. (1895.) A valuable volume, but 
difficult to describe ; embraces manors of Bag- 
hurst, Hanyton, and Wotton, ranging from about 
1300 to 1635. Good Index. 

Marazion. Notes on the Borough Records of 
the Towns of Marazion, Penzance, and St. Ives. 
(1882.) Journal of the Archaeological Associa- 
tion, xxxviii. pp. 354-370. Alludes to long list 
of Mayors, &c., btit gives very few names, and 
the Index to the volume ignores these. 
Melcombe Regis. See Weymouth. 
Melton Mowbray. The Constables of Melton in 
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. By T. North. 
Transactions of Leicestershire Architectural 
and Archaeological Society, iii. 60-79. 

Accounts of the Churchwardens of Melton 
Mowbray from 1547 to End of the Sixteenth 
Century. Ibid., iii. 180-206. 

Both articles by T. North. (1874.) Index 
of Matters, but not of names. 
Mendlesham. The Manuscripts of the Parish of 
Mendlesham, co. Suffolk. (1876.) Historical 
MSS. Commission, Fifth Report, xviii. Very 
brief description (pp. 593-6). Good Index in 
Part II. 

Merstham, Surrey. A Rental of the Manor of 
Merstham in the year 1522. Surrey Archaeo- 
logical Collections, xx. 90-114. (1907.) Names 
in Index to volume. 
Middlesex County Records. 

Vol. I. Indictments, Coroners' Inquest- 
post-mortem, and Recognizances from 3 
Edward VI. to the End of the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. By J. C. Jeaffreson. Index by 
A. T. Watson. (1887.) 

Vol. II. Temp. James I. (1887.) 

Vol. III. Temp. Chas. I. to 18 Chas. II. 

Vol. IV. Temp. 19 Chas. II. to 4 James II. 

With several illustrations. Each volume well 

Calendar of the Sessions Books, 1689 to 1709. 
By W. J. Hardy. With Index by M. Dorothy 
Brakspear. (1905.) Index of Matters, Places, 
and Names. 

A Catalogue (of the Names of such Persons 
as are, or are reputed to be, of the Romish 
Religion, not as yet Convicted) being Inhabi- 
tants within the County of Middlesex, Cities 
of London and Westminster, and weekly Bills 
of Mortality, exactly as they are ordered to 
be Incertcd in the Several Commissions ap- 
pointed for the more Speedy Convicting of 
such as shall be found of that Religion. Im- 
perfect, lower half of sheet missing. 
Midhurst. Midhurst : its Lords and its Inhabi- 
tants. Sussex Archaeological Collections, xx. 
pp. 1-33. (1868.) Names in Index of volume. 
Monmouth County. The Sheriff Roll for Mon- 
mouthshire. Chronological List from 1542 to 
1877. From a newspaper. 

Morpeth. Manuscripts of the Corporation of 
Morpeth. Historical MSS. Commission's 
Sixth Report, App., pp. 526-538. (1870). 
Names in Index to volume. This report is 
supplementary to Hodgson's ' History of 
Northumberland .' 

An Account of the Customs of the Court Loet 
and Court Baron of Morpeth, with the Court 
Roll of 1632. (1894.) Arch. 2Eliana, xvi. 
pp. 5275. Also supplementary to the sam. 
Some important names, but Index of volume 
does not help. 


(To be continued.) 

us. V.JAN. 27, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

LATTER LAMMAS (11 S. iv. 469 ; v. 18). 
It is hardly fair to doubt the etymology of 
Lammas from the A.-S. form of " loaf-mass " 
when it is so easy of access. The ' N.E.D.' 
and my own ' Etymological Dictionary ' give 
the history of the word with sufficient 

We are told that " if it were proved that 
in early English days it was a custom to 
offer a loaf in church .... the scale would 
incline the other way." Surely the obvious 
course is to consult Bosworth and Toller's 
' A.-S. Dictionary,' which gives a reference 
to Cockayne's 'A.-S. Leechdoms,' and quotes 
the passage (vol. iii. p. 290) : " Nim of tham 
gehalgedan hlafe the man halige on hlaf- 
mfesse daeg " ; i.e., " take from the hallowed 
loaf which is hallowed on Lammas-day." 
From MS. Cotton Vitellius, E. 17, i. 16. 

I do not believe that the phrase " last 
math " is any older than 1912 (or possibly 
1911), in spite of the announcement that 
we have " good authority " for it. If there 
is any authority for it at all, where are the 
quotations ? Mere guess is of no authority 
whatever. Besides, last math will only give 
lammath, with final th, not s. 

Note that another name for Lammas was 
'' hlaf-senung," lit. "loaf-blessing." See 
hldf-senung in the dictionary. 


288, 339, 412, 538).!. Jane Austen's use of 
the active for the passive present participle 
may be illustrated by the following quota- 
tion from a letter by Cromwell (Carlyle's 
collection, No. 188, 23 April, 1653) : 

" I hear some unruly persons have lately com- 
mitted great outrages in Cambridgeshire, about 
S waff ham and Botsham, in throwing down the 
works making by the Adventurers, and menacing 
those they employ thereabout." 


VARIANTS (11 S. iv. 503, 522). In his very 
interesting note on this subject MR. KUMA- 
ousu MINAKATA refers (p. 523) to two stories 
of aid given by rats, who bit through the 
bow-strings of an invading host. He might 
have referred to an interesting parallel in 
Herodotus, book ii. cap. 141. When Sen- 
nacherib invaded Egypt, the warrior class 
refused to fight against him. Sethds, the 
King of Egypt, is told in a dream to meet 
Sennacherib nevertheless (I quote from 
Rawlinson's translation) : 

" Sethos, then, relying on the dream, collected 
such of the Egyptians as were willing to follow 
him. . . .As the two armies lay here [at Pelusium] 

opposite one another, there came in the night a 
multitude of field-mice, which devoured all the 
quivers and bow-strings of the enemy, and ate the 
thongs by which they managed their shields. 
Next morning they commenced their flight, and 
great multitudes fell, as they had no arms with 
which to defend themselves. There stands to 
this day in the temple of Hephaestus a stone 
statue of Sethos, with a mouse in his hand, and 
an inscription to this effect ' Look on me, and 
learn to reverence the god.' " 

This would seem to point to some cult of 
the mouse in Egypt. I do not know whether 
Egyptology confirms the inference, but it is 
in any case interesting to find the story so 
closely paralleled in China. Herodotus 
presumably got his story from an Egyptian 
source. H. I. B. 

MEDICAL, PROFESSION (11 S. iv. 425, 496; 
v. 13). PELLIPAR is quite correct in chal- 
lenging the accuracy of DR. CLIPPINGD ALE'S 
statement that the Lord Mayor of London is 
chosen from a restricted number of Livery 
Companies. At one time the Lord Mayor 
was invariably chosen from one of the 
twelve " greater Companies," and, if not 
already a member of one, was translated 
from his mother Company in anticipation of 
his election. Owing to special circumstances 
Alderman Willimott, when elected Lord 
Mayor in 1742, refused to leave his parent 
Company (the Coopers), and from that time 
there has been no such restriction as DR. 
CLIPPINGDALE imagines to exist. As a 
matter of fact the present Lord Mayor (a 
Turner) is not a member of one of the 
Greater Companies ; and of eighteen living 
ex-Lord Mayors, only seven, I think, possess 
that qualification. 

My volume on ' The Aldermen of the City 
of London ' (published by the Corporation 
of London in 1908) contains an excursus 
on ' The Aldermen and the Livery Com- 
panies,' in which the point on which PELLIPAR 
and DR. CLIPPINGDALE are at issue is 
treated at length. With regard to the four 
Lord Mayors who were translated from the 
Barber-Surgeons' Company, DR. CLIPPING- 
DALE is probably aware that membership 
of the Company is not evidence that they 
were at any time practising or even qualified 
medical men : in regard to Frederick and 
Edwin, it may be taken as certain, I think, 
that they were not ; I am not quite sure 
as to Proby. I believe that Stewart was, 
in early life, in practice, but he had 
abandoned the profession before becoming 
an Alderman. 

In his first communication (11 S. iv. 425) 
DR. CLIPPINGDALE assumes that only three 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. JAN. 27, 1912. 

radical men (the latest in 1651) were 
Aldermen before the present Lord Mayor. 
To these may certainly be added Hugh 
Smith, Alderman of Tower Ward 1775-7, 
who was a practising M.D. : his Company 
was that of the Salters. Gideon Delaune 
(of whom a notice appears in 'D.N.B.') 
was elected Alderman of Dowgate in 1626, 
but was unseated, being an alien by birth. 
John Lorymer (or Lorrimore), who was 
Alderman of Walbrook in 1652, was Master 
of the Apothecaries' Company in 1654-5 
(as Delaune had been in 1628-9 and 1636-7) ; 
and William Bell, who was* Alderman of 
Farringdon Without in 1652-3, was a 
member of the same Company. 


Referring to DR. CLIPPINGD ALE'S comment 
upon my former reply, may I mention that 
out of fifteen Aldermen who have passed the 
chair as Lord Mayor, only four are members 
of one of the twelve Great Livery Com- 
panies ? PELLIPAR. 

NELSON: "MUSLE" (11 S. iv. 307, 351, 
373, 414, 476). May not " musle " really 
be " moosoo," i.e., Frenchman? "Hardy, 
there's life in a moosoo yet," makes excellent 
sense in the circumstances mentioned, and 
"moosoo" carelessly written might not be 
unlike " musle." 


Madras Christian College, South India. 

(11 S. v. 8). John Geree, s. John of Let- 
combe, Berks, cler., Pembroke Coll., Oxon, 
matric. 3 Nov., 1731, aged 17 : of Corpus 
Christi Coll., B.A. 1 March, 1736/7. 

On Sunday, 25 Jan., 1712/13, Swift writes 
to Stella : 

" I had a letter some days ago from Moll Gery ; 
her name is now Wigmore, and her husband 'is 
turned parson. She desires nothing but that I 
would get Lord Keeper to give him a living ; 
hut I will send her no answer, though she desires 
it much. She still makes mantuas at Farnham." 

John Wigmore, s. Richard of Farnham, 
Surrey, cler., Corpus Christi Coll., Oxon, 
matric. 18 March, 1718/19, aged 18; B.A. 
1723, Vicar of Farnham 1752. See Gent. 
Mag., 1774, p. 47. A. R, BAYLEY. 

The Rev. John Geree was Rector of Let 
combe Bassett, near Wantage, Berkshire. 
Swift spent many weeks of the summer oJ 
1714 on a visit to him there. See p. 134 
vol. ii., ' Correspondence of Dean Swift, 
edited by Mr. Elrington Ball, which contains 

'acing p. 134, a view of Letcombe Bassett 

Further information about Geree may be 
'ound in Mr. Geo. A. Aitken's edition of 
The Journal to Stella ' (pub. by Methuen. 
n 1901), in a note on p. 439. L. A. W. 


Much about John Geree, " a friend of 
Dean Swift," is in Foster's 'Alumni Oxoni- 
mses,' First Series, ii. 558, No. 27. 

W. C. B. 

[MR. WM. B. BROWNING 'is also thanked for 

(11 S. v. 7). Portraits of Mary, genuine 
and apocryphal, are, of course, very 
numerous indeed, both in public and private 
collections. The same is probably the case 
with regard to miniatures. I own one, set 
in an oval gold frame, forming the centre of 
a plain gold ring, showing bust turned to 
the right, three-quarter face, white fur collar 
to dress, single-row necklace, black coif, blue 

This relic (I have every reason to believe) 
was presented by the Queen herself on 17 
May, 1568, to Sir Edward Musgrave of 
Hayton Castle, near Aspatria, where Mary 
passed the night either of her actual landing 
at Workington, a few miles distant, on 1 6 May, 
or of 17 May. The ring has been handed down 
in the same family ever since. H. 


(11 S. iv. 508; v. 36). The designation of a 
bishop as " Lord Bishop " seems to have for its 
origin the "Dominus Episcopus " by which 
he appears to have been addressed while 
Latin was the diplomatic language, the 
" Dominus " not referring to any temporal 
" lordship," but being rather a courtesy 
title. This may be compared with the 
practice of the older universities, which 
refer to their graduates in their lists as 

The " Dominus " of the bishop, however, 
became confused with the " Dominus " 
prefixed to the names of peers in the Parlia- 
mentary Rolls, where the "Domini Episcopi " 
appear also. There are two explanations 
current for the summoning of the bishops 
to Parliament. The first is that afforded by 
the Conqueror's reforms. After the Con- 
quest the bishops first appeared in Parlia- 
ment as Barons, holding their temporalities 
as baronies, by which means they acquired 
one right to the title " Dominus." The 
second is stated as follows. In the Witena- 
gemot all bishops then created appeared, 

11 8. V. JAN. 27, 1912.] 



whence it is assumed that the Conqueror 
took them into his Curia Regis, and left 
them to his successors as a permanent part 
of his Council. In time they followed the 
peers into the Upper House. 

A bishop, however, sat in the Witenagemot 
as a lord of the Church, and the view that 
a bishop is summoned to Parliament more 
as an ecclesiastical lord than a baron is 
maintained to this day, chiefly on the 
evidence supplied by the fact that in the 
early days of our Parliament, if a see was 
vacant, the guardian of the spiritualities was 
called to take the place of the bishop. More- 
over, Gibson points out in his ' Codex ' that 
a bishop as soon as confirmed may have his 
writ of summons, although he has not clone 
homage for his temporalities. Bishop War- 
burton of Gloucester in his ' Alliance 
between Church and State ' strongly main- 
tains their right to be called to Parliament 
as ecclesiastical dignitaries. From which, 
by no great stretching of the argument, it 
follows that all bishops are entitled by the 
dignity episcopal to a title distinguishing 
them from the commoners. 

If this were followed out, it would be 
argued that all bishops of every Church are 
to be " lorded," and this is found to be true, 
as Sir Walter Phillimore points out. 

Suffragan bishops were appointed at a 
very early date, and, though not entitled to 
their " Dominus " as barons, were always 
referred to by the King as " Dominus 
Episcopus." Their position, however, was 
a slightly higher one on most occasions than 
at present, as they often were appointed to 
administer a diocese on behalf of a bishop 
sent abroad on diplomatic negotiations. 

The Bishop of Sodor and Man has time 
out of mind been " my Lord," though never 
a Lord of Parliament. 

Many Colonial bishops appointed by 
patent a method of appointment now in 
abeyance had the title preserved to them 
in their patents. About a retired bishop's 
claim to it there may be some doubt. The 
title evidently appertains to the man himself 
on account of the functions deputed to him 
when consecrated ; but, as a bishop not 
holding the spiritualities of a see, his dignity 
might conceivably be decreased so that he 
could hold the title only as by courtesy. 

C. H. R. PEACH. 

SIGNS OP OLD LONDON (11 S. v. 4). It 
may be questioned whether Symond's Inn, 
Chancery Lane, is appropriately included in 
the list given by MB. McMuBRAY at the 
above reference. Symond's Inn was well 

known down to 1873, when it was demolished, 
and the large pile of buildings numbered 
22, Chancery Lane, erected on its site. The 
Inn was entered by an archway for pedes- 
trians only (as Serjeants' Inn was until a 
few months ago) between two law stationers' 
shops, and consisted of a qiiadrangle sur- 
rounded by houses let out in suites of offices 
to solicitors and other limbs of the law. 
There was no indication of " Symond's " 
ever having been the sign of a victualler's 
inn or of any other tradesman's premises. 

A. T. W. 

HALFACBEE SURNAME (11 S. iii. 467 ; 
iv. 134, 179). The suggestion made at the 
last reference that the name Halfacre arose 
from a foundling being picked up on a piece 
of land called a half-acre is a mere gues's ; 
so, too, is Canon Bardsley's attempt to 
associate it with Halnaker or Halfnaked. 
The earliest citation he gives is from the 
year 1801, and the name is undoubtedly 
quite ancient. It is a corrupt spelling, I 
feel pretty sure, of the A.-S. Jiafecere, one 
who flies hawks, a falconer ; and is therefore 
a doublet of Hawker. The earliest instance 
in the ' N.E.D.' is from 975 : " We laaracS 
]?aet preost ne beo hunta, ne hafecere." 
("We forbid that a priest be a hunter, or 
hawker.") In the same manner Kettle 
and Chettle descend from A.-S. cytel, as was 
lately shown in these columns. 

N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

PBIME SERJEANT (11 S. iv. 470, 516). 
MB. HOBNEB quotes from Duhigg that the 
Third Serjeant-at-Law in Ireland was a 
new office created in 1726. This is not quite 
accurate. The first person appointed Third 
Serjeant was John Lyndon, the date of whose 
patent was dated 5 Sept., 1682. The post 
was held by him and several successors until 
August, 1716, when John Witherington was 
promoted from Third to Second Serjeant, 
and no one was appointed to fill the vacancy 
thus created until March, 1726, when 
Robert Jocelyn received a patent as Third 
Serjeant. ALFBED B. BEAVEN. 


In connexion with this ' Entertainment,' I 
have the reference ' Calendar of State 
Papers, Domestic,' 128. A good many years 
have passed since I noted it, but if I remem- 
ber rightly, the particulars of the attendance 
are stated there. The date was 23 May, 
1656. H. DAVEY. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ui s. v. JAN. 27, 1912. 

428). I am now in a position to answer my 
query as to the authorship of the ' Manuel 
de 1'Ouvrier en Fer.' The first 60 pp. are 
a translation of an essay on ' Edge Tools ' in 
the fifth volume of Sam. Parkes's ' Chemical 
Essays.' The latter portion of the work is 
adapted from Hassenfratz, ' Siderotechnie,' 
tome i. pp. 39-67. E. WYNDHAM HULME. 


COL. GORDON (US. iv. 508). The plate 
to which MR. BULLOCH refers appeared in 
the ' Investigation of Charges against the 
Duke of York.' See Mr. F. O'Donoghue's 
' Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits ' 
(British Museum), ii. 354. W. ROBERTS. 

vii. 69). 

If more is needed to be known, 

Our Lord will teach thee that. 
When thou shalt stand before His throne, 
Or sit as Mary sat. 

Not very long ago the question was answered 
by a correspondent in The Guardian. The 
verses are an inaccurate reproduction of 
some lines quoted by Archbishop Whately 
in his ' Introductory Lessons on Christian 
Evidences ' (Longmans & Co.), p. 84. 
They are taken from a volume of poetry 
by Bishop Hind, and " were originally 
inscribed in a Bible presented to a child." 
The correct version is as follows : 

And what if much be still unknown ? thy Lord 

shall teach thee that, 
When thou shalt stand before His throne, or sit as 

Mary sat. 


Trinity College, Melbourne University. 

MINER FAMILY (11 S. v. 8). Neither 
the name of Bullman nor of Miner appears 
in the Index of Collinson's ' History of 
Somerset,' and it requires more than the 
authority of "an old pedigree " to make 
any one acquainted with the origin of 
English surnames likely to believe that 
Edward III. " rewarded with the name of 
Miner" an individual already named Henry 

By " Norton-Small-Reward " is no doubt 
intended Norton-Malreward, a village near 
Chew Magna ; and " Burslingtown " may 
mean Brislington in the same neighbourhood. 

The names of " Henretta de la Villa 
Odorosa " and " Isabella Harcope de Froli- 
bay " sound strangely in conjunction with 
either Miner or Bullman, and it would be 
interesting to learn exactly how William, 
" Flos Militiae," avenged on Richard III. 
the murder of the Princes in the Tower. 

The ' History of Ickworth and the Family 
of Hervey,' by the late Lord Arthur Hervey, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, printed at Lowes- 
toft, 1858, contains elaborate pedigrees of 
all the known branches of the Hervey 
family. No " Sir George H. of St. Martins " 
is to be found ; Sir George H. of Thurleigh, 
Kt., aged 6 months at his father's death in 
1474, died in 1521, leaving an only dau. and 
heir Elizabeth, and an illegitimate son 
Gerard. H. 

526). All copyholders' rights to pasturage, 
&c., on Hampstead Heath were extinguished 
when it was purchased by the Metropolitan 
Board of Works. MR, CLARKE has been 
misled by the local journal he names, which 
cannot be regarded as authoritative. 


HIGHGATE ARCHWAY (11 S. iv. 206, 257, 
274). The following is quoted by The 
Observer from its issue of 5 .Tan., 1812 : 

" The Proprietors of the Highgate Archway* 
purpose giving a splendid subterranean entertain- 
ment in the course of the present month. Lady 
Hamilton and a long list of fashionables are 
expected to be invited : Mrs. Billington and the 
choral throng will be sent in requisition. This 
undertaking will be completed by Midsummer." 
This tends to confirm MR. JOHN T. PAGE'S 
and MR. ALAN STEWART'S assumptions that 
the date of laying the foundation stone 
was 31 Oct., 1812. The " subterranean 
entertainment " must refer to the abortive 
tunnel scheme mentioned by MR. STEWART, 
which preceded the erection of the Archway. 


Junior Athenaeum Club. 

(11 S. iv. 528). This divine married Anne, 
daughter of Thomas Cobbe of Grames (pro- 
bably meant for the Grange parish of Michel- 
dever) in Hampshire (Add. MS. 9864), by 
whom he was father of six children. Thomas, 
the eldest son, matriculated at Jesus College, 
Oxford, 14 Dec., 1658, and on 29 Sept., 
1666 was admitted a burgess of Denbigh. 
The eldest daughter Anne was married on 
Saturday, 29 Oct., 1664, to John Myddelton, 
Esq., of Gwaynynog in the parish of Hen- 
Han, Denbighshire, so that we may conclude 
that the bishop married between the years 
1640 and 1644. John Myddelton's son 
George was the grandfather of the Rev. John 
Vlyddelton, Rector (1805-34) of Bucknall, 
Lincolnshire, the writer's grandfather. The 

* The first stone of the Highgate Archway 
Was laid in the following October. 

ii s. v. JAN. 27, MIS.]! NOTES AND QUERIES. 

portrait pf Bishop Griffith formerly at Gway- 
nynog is now in the possession of Major H. 
Peacock of Stanford Hall, Loughborough. 
Woodhall Spa. 

He was appointed a Charter (or original) 
Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxon, on the 
foundation of this house in 1624. 


HENRY CARD (US. iv. 528). Although I 
have not searched Egham Parish Registers, 
Churchwardens' Books, Manor Court Rolls, 
and other muniments specially for Card, I 
certainly do not remember ever seeing the 
name in any of them. As the county is 
wrongly given Egham is, of course, in 
Surrey may not the town be incorrectly 
given also ? If G. F. R. B. obtains any 
information about Card privately, I shall 
esteem it a favour if he will share it with me. 

Esmond, Egham. 


Cambridge under Queen Anne, which is published 
in London by Messrs. Bell & Sons, and in Cam- 
bridge by Messrs. Deighton & Bell and Messrs. 
Bowes & Bowes. The book, which consists of 
the Memoir of Ambrose Bonwicke and the Diaries 
of Francis Burman and Zacharias Conrad von 
Uffenbach, is edited with notes by J. E. B. 
Mayor, and has a preface by Dr. M. R. James. 
The last-named explains that the notes are not 
quite so complete as the late Professor of Latin 
meant to make them, but a host of students will 
be glad to get this " mine of information about 
the scholars of Cambridge nay, of Europe of 
two hundred years ago." Mayor belonged to the 
type of scholar, more common, perhaps, in the 
eighteenth century and the early nineteenth 
than now, who worked ceaselessly and untiringly 
round his subject, and annotated it with a full- 
ness which is novel to this hurried age. He 
published the Life of Bonwicke by itself in 
1870, and he intended to write more notes on 
Uffenbach, who was a keen explorer of libraries 
and MSS., and generally found them in a neglected 
condition. Burman and Uffenbach saw much in 
England besides the two premier Universities, 
and their details of London are of great interest. 
We regret with Dr. James the loss of probable 
comment on Whiston, one of the most interesting 
heretics of his day, but we have abundance of 
curious matter from the most diverse sources 
about such men as Bentley and Meric Casaubon. 

On the bibliographical side the notes are par- 
ticularly precise and copious, though they deal 
largely with obsolete books, authors like Puffen- 
dorf, who have ceased to supply any University 
with standard reading. 

Bonwicke reminds us of a recent note in our 
own columns when he writes to his father, " Vix 
possum non effutire quidditates, entitates, 

formalitates, et id genus barbariem." A later- 
letter with a mention of the phrase " in Parviso- 
(ut loquuntur) " leads to a learned note on 
"Parvis," "a church-porch," derived from ".Para- 
disus." Bonwicke was a pious and exemplary 
person who pursued his studies " in spight o'f 
Sturbridge fair," on which the Professor supplies 
eleven pages of curious details. Bonwicke's 
habit of asking himself at the close of each day 
how he had spent it, what good or evil he had 
done, dates back, we learn, to Pythagoras, and 
was practised by the gentle George Dyer, Lamb's 

Bunnan's visit to Cambridge in 1702 leads to 
a record of a few pages only, but he did not miss 
on the way thither " a regal palace called Audley 
house," of which many a modern undergraduate 
knows nothing. The Professor in the notes gives 
an abstract of the remainder of Burman's journal. 
He saw a cock-fight in London " dementia 
quadam Anglorum commendandum," climbed the 
Monument twice, and was well treated by Bentley 
and Sir Isaac Newton. He was certainly a more 
agreeable person than Uffenbach, who is full of 
sneers and complaints about the English. They 
cannot, according to him, even ride a horse 
properly. Still, we can pardon much in so keen 
a searcher after books and MSS. As a boy, we- 
learn, he spent his playtime and half the night 
in study, and he learnt how to bind books and' 
play the violin. He intended to settle for life 
in some Oxford college, but the diet, climate, 
and disturbed state of affairs made him give up- 
the idea, and his books finally rested in Frankfort. 
He catalogued them with his own hand, " filling 
50 thick folios with the titles." He did not, 
however, confine himself to book-hunting ; he- 
heard Pepusch conduct music, visited Flamsteed 
the astronomer, saw several comedies, and at the 
Tower made the following note : 

" The wild beasts ; only four lions with a pet 
dog, one tiger, two wolves, two Indian cats, two 
eagles, one 40 years old." 

We hope that the details we have cited will be 
sufficient to show the wide interest of this volume. 
An index giving not only the page, but also 
the line in which a matter is mentioned, worthily 
completes Mayor's labours. 

The Quarterly Review for this month has several 
articles of literary interest. ' New Light on 
George Sand ' deals with a career which is re- 
garded as typically romantic by the French, but 
seems somewhat sordid to the average English- 
man, apart from the amount of " copy " made 
out of it. Prof. J. P. Whitney writes with 
judgment on ' The Elizabethan Reformation,' 
but is not so clear as he might be. We prefer 
Dr. A. W. Ward's account of the ' Epistolae 
Obscurorum Virorum,' which puts the reader 
in the way to appreciate the origin of the 'Letters ' 
and their milieu as well as their contents. Mr. 
Sydney Waterlow writes well on ' The Philosophy 
of Bergson.' The article entitled ' The Duke of 
Devonshire and the Liberal Unionists ' makes 
good UPC of the recent ' Lives ' of the former and 
of Goschen. We learn that the Duke was a large 
buyer of books and a keen reader of poetry, details 
which add to the taciturn, negative side of his 
character. Stories of his untidy dress abound, 
and we learn here that W 7 . H. Smith complained 
of him once at Aix as appearing in the guise of 
" a seedy shady sailor." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. JAN. 27, 1912. 


THE new Catj'logue of Mr. Fehrenbach of Shef- 
field contains Tyndale's New Testament, 1536 ; 
St. Augustine's 'City of God,' 1479, with large 
hand-painted initials ; Sir Wm. Davenant's 
Works, 1673 ; Langham's. ' Garden of Health,' 
1579 ; Parkinson's ' Herbal,' 1640 ; Matthew's 
Bible, 1537 ; Cavendish's ' Life of Wolsey,' 1641 ; 
Astronomical Association Journals and Psychical 
Society Proceedings ; several Chapbooks and 
Cruikshank items ; two rare works by Erasmus 
in English ; and a number of miscellaneous 

MESSRS. GEORGE'S SONS of Bristol devote their 
Library Supply List 328 to 'Asia.' This describes 
some two thousand volumes, largely illustrating 
the history of the British in India and the Further 
East. There are some attractive works both on 
our possessions and on other parts of Asia. Books 
in English predominate, and there is but little 

MESSRS. GEORGE'S List 329 contains chiefly 
nineteenth-century books. There are sections 
devoted to ' Art ' and ' Sporting,' besides many 
works on foreign travel. We notice a nice set of 
Du Cange, 8 yols., 12Z. 12s. ; and 95 vols. of the 
Chetham Society for 61. 15s. 

IN Messrs. Gilbert & Son's Catalogue 38 we 
noted the following items as interesting : Reclus's 
' Universal Geography,' edited by E. G. Raven- 
stein, 14 vols., 1Z. 5s. ; Clarendon's 'History of the 
Rebellion,' with portraits and plates, 6 vols., 
1732, 18s. 6d. ; Morris's ' History of British Birds,' 
fourth edition, with 394 plates coloured by hand, 
6 vols., 1895,; Leigh Hunt's 'Jar of 
Honey from Mount Hybla,' first edition, with illus- 
trations by Richard Doyle, 1848, 12s. 6d. ; an early 
edition, uncut, with all Rowlandson's plates, 
of the ' Tour of Dr. Syntax in search of the 
Picturesque,' 1817, 11. 10s. ; and a first edition of 
Anthony Trollope's ' He Knew He was Right,' 

506 includes their purchases at the recent 
sale of Dr. Jessopp's library, as well as from the 
library of the late Judge Willis. We are desired 
to correct an error on the title-page : the edition 
of Austin's ' Devotions ' which they offer is not 
the first, but, as is stated on p. 31, the second 
also rare : 1672, II. Is. They have John Henry 
Shorthouse's bound volume of The Si. John's, 
Ladywood, Parish Magazine from May, 1870, to 
December, 1871 edited by him as . a note 
affirms written by his hand on the fly-leaf, and 
containing articles contributed by him, 3Z. 13s. 6d. 
We note also Cornelius a Lapides's ' Commentaria in 
Scripturam Sanctam,' 21 vols., 1859, 21. 10s. ; 
the Graduale Sariburiense a reproduction in 
facsimile of a MS. of the thirteenth century, pre- 
pared for the Plainsong and Mediaeval Music 
Society by the Rev. W. H. Frere 1894, 21. 10s., 
together with six other publications of the 
Society ; and the ' Survey of Eastern Palestine,' 
by Lieut.-Col. Conder, published by the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, 1889, II. 12s. 6d., as well as 
Church Histories, reference books, and many new 
books on Theology. 

THE most interesting items in Catalogue 171 
sent to us by Mr. W. M. Murphy of Liverpool are 
a complete set of " Pickering's Original Aldine 
Edition" of the works of English poets from 
Chaucer to Burns, 53 vols., some uncut, 1830-52, 
30Z. ; ' The Annual Register ' from 1758 to 1856, 
99 vols., 10Z. 10s. ; Butler's ' Hudibras,' with 
portrait and the Hogarth plates, 2 vols., 1799, 
21. 5s. ; Anne Pratt's ' Botany,' 6 vols., 21. 4.s. ; 
Parkinson's herbal ' Theatruin Botanicum,' 1640, 
4Z. 10s. ; a first edition of Fuller's ' Worthies,' 
1602, 4Z. 10s. ; Rosellini's ' Monumenti dell' 
Egitto e della Nubia, disegnate dalla Spedizione 
Scientifico-Letteraria Toscana in Egitto,' 12 vols. 
(3 elephant folio of plates, and 9 roy. 8vo of 
text), 1832-44, 10Z. 10s. ; and Prof. Mahaffy's 
edition of Duruy's ' History of Rome,' 1883, 
4Z. 17s. 6d. 

WE learn from the London County Council 
that their work in indicating the houses in 
London which have been the residences of distin 
guished individuals now includes a lead tablet 
affixed on Tuesday, the 16th inst., to No. 12, 
Seymour Street, Portman Square, to commemor- 
ate the residence of M. W. Balfe, the composer, 
who lived there from 1861 until 1864. 


ON all communications must be written the name 
Mid address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Adver- 
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lishers " at the Office, Brea/n's Buildings, Chancery 
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CONTENTS. -No. 110. 

NOTES: Charles Dickens, 81 Inscriptions in Burial- 
Ground of St. John's, Westminster, 83 Centenary of a 
Swedenborgian Magazine, 84 Bernard Gilpin's Will, 86 
The Naval Salute -Dickens : Unpublished Letters, 86 
The Superfluity of Books Miers, Silhouette Artist 
" Caulker," a Dram of Spirits, 87. 

QUERIES : Latin Vice - Admiralty Commissions, S7 
Edmund Combe : Christian Jarman Beauvoir, 
Normandy, and De Belvoir, England "Sung by Rey. 
nolds in 1820 " Cleopatra's Portrait Sash Windows 
' Dombey and Son ' : Reference to Arabian Story 
Lord George Gordon in ' Barnaby Rudge,' 88" Truth " : 
Henry Labouchere Veturia, Mother of Coriolanus Bran- 
don, Duke of Suffolk : Brunt -Women and Tobacco, 89 
Major James Killpatrick Bream of Bream's Buildings 
Biographical Information Wanted Authors of Quotation 8 
Wanted Peveril Family Royal Mint at Guildford, 90 
Beaupuis Arms for Identification Panthera Knives as 
Presents Dallas, 91. 

REPLIES : The United Service Club, 91 Families : Dura- 
tion in Male Line Drummond of Hawthornden, 92 
Napoleon's Imperial Guard, 93 Theophilus Leigh, D.D. 
Robin Hood, 94 "Quam nihil ad genium, Papiniane, 
tuum" Grise : Grey : Badger, 95 King's Theatre (Opera- 
House), Haymarket Bishops addressed as " My Lord " 
Du Bellay, 98 Penge as a Place - Name Pot*>os Gelly- 
feddan, Cynghordy, and Llettyscilp Pepvs's 'Diary': 
Braybrooke Edition, 97 Skating in the Middle Ages 
Biographical Information Wanted, 98 Beaupre Bell 
" Samhowd," 99. 

NOTES OX BOOKS : 'The Oxford Shakespeare Glossary' 
' Life in Shakespeare's England ' ' Cameo Book-Stamps ' 
. ' The Cornhill ' ' The Fortnightly.' 
OBITUARY : Mr. Myer D. Davis. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


JUNE 9m, 1870. 

To many this celebration must come with 
a note of sadness. There is a shadow over 
it which cannot pass until the five grand- 
daughters of England's beloved son are 
freed from penury. The Pall Mall Gazette 
of January 19th well says : 

" One of the truest chaplets on the novelist's 
grave is The Daily Telegraph's admirable fund 
in aid of the grandchildren. We agree with 
The Aihenccum that it ought to be made to yield 
the five beneficiaries a hundred a year apiece, 
and until that is done we shall feel that all 
' -centenary festivities are utterly beside the mark." 

The amount requisite to this end is certain 
to be raised, but one feels regret, and almost 
shame, that aid from our American brothers 
should have been requisite when but a small 
sum from English readers would have 
sufficed. How Capt. Cuttle, who gave 
us our motto, would have grieved over 
this ! By the way, we can almost hear 
him saying that if the press reader of 
' N. & Q.' had read the proofs of ' Dom- 
bey and Son ' there would have been 
no occasion for our friends MR. JOHN T. 
PAGE and W. C. B. to call attention 
to the mistakes made as to whether the 
hook was on the right or left wrist. 

Those of us who take part in the celebration 
of this centenary cannot fail to direct our 
thoughts to the early years of Dickens ; 
for of all England's great sons not one has 
passed through a more severe ordeal and 
kept himself more unspotted from the world. 
No one seemed to care for him, or what 
became of him. Very pathetic are the 
accounts given by him to his friend and bio- 
grapher John Forster "a queer small 
boy," " a very little and a very sickly boy," 
" never a good little cricket player," " never 
a first-rate hand at marbles, or peg-top, or 
prisoner's base" ; but he had great pleasure 
in watching other boys, reading while they 
played. He was subject to violent spasms of 
pain which disabled him from active exertion, 
and he always held the belief that this early 
sickness had brought him one inestim- 
able advantage in the fact that his weak 
health strongly inclined him to reading. It 
was his mother who inspired him with a love 
of study, and she taught him the rudiments 
first of English, and also a little later of 
Latin. At the age of seven, for the last two 
years of his residence at Chatham, he was 
sent to a school kept by a young Baptist 
minister named William Giles, who, on his 
young pupil leaving with his family for 
London, gave him as a keepsake Goldsmith's 
'Bee.' Then, as readers of Forster will 
remember, the 

" anguish began for while he describes his 
father as being ' proud of him in his way,' but 
in the ease of his temper, and the shortness of his 
means, he appeared to have utterly lost at this 
time the idea of educating me at all, and to have 
utterly put from him the notion that I had any 
claim upon him, in that regard, whatever. So 
I degenerated into --leaning his boots of a morning, 
and my own ; and making myself useful in the 
work of the little house " 
in Bav! am Street, Camden Town 
" about the poorest part of the London suburbs 
then, and the house a mean small tenement, 
with a wretched little back garden abutting 
on a squalid court." 


fll S. V. FEB. 3, 1912. 

Young Dickens had the looking after 
his six younger brothers and sisters, 
" and going on such poor errands as 
arose out of our poor way of living." 
To be taken out for a walk about Covent 
Garden or the Strand perfectly entranced 
him with pleasure ; and a walk through 
Seven Dials, which had for him " a profound 
attraction of repulsion," would make him 
supremely happy. " Good heavens ! " he 
would exclaim, " what wild visions of 
prodigies of wickedness, want, and beggary 
arose in my mind out of that place ! " 
Once he made a stolen visit to Covent 
Garden. This he did upon reading Col- 
man's description of it in his ' Broad Grins,' 
and he told Forster that he remembered 
" snuffing up the flavour of the faded cabbage 
leaves as if it were the very breath of comic 
fiction." His biographer remarks of this : 
" Nor was he far wrong, as comic fiction 
then and for some time after was. It was 
reserved for himself to give sweeter and 
fresher breath to it." 

At the age of ten we find young Dickens 
at work at the blacking warehouse at Hun- 
gerford Stairs, where for six shillings a week 
he worked in " the crazy, tumbledown old 
house" abutting on the river, 

" and literally overrun with rats. Its wainscotted 
rooms, and its rotten*' floors and staircase, and 
the old grey rats swarming down in the cellars, 
and the sound of the squeaking and scuffling 
coming up the stairs at all times, and the dirt 
and decay of the place, rise up visibly before me, 
as if I were there again. The counting-house was 
on the first floor, looking over the coal barges and 
the river. There was a recess in it, in which I had 
to sit and work. My work was to cover the pots 
of paste-blacking ; first with a piece of blue 
paper ; to tie them round with a string ; and 
then to clip the paper close and neat all round, 
until it looked as smart as a pot of ointment 
from an apothecary's shop." 

Old Hungerford Stairs, looking on to the 
river, were used for business purposes long 
after young Dickens had left, and I have 
often when a child, in charge of a servant, 
walked past where the factory used to be, 
on to the oyster barges that used to be 
moored there, and many a peck was pur- 
chased for home consumption. Hunger- 
ford Fish Market occupied the site of the 
Charing Cross Station, while the present 
station yard was used by the Camden Town 
and Highgate omnibus until 1 862. 

Two or three other boys were employed 
on the same work as young Dickens : one 
was Bob Fagin, an orphan who lived with his 
brother-in-law, a waterman ; another, Paul 
Green, lived with his father, who " had 

the additional distinction of being a fire- 
man, and was employed at Drury Lane 
Theatre," where, continues Dickens in his 
account to Forster, " another relation of 
Paul's, I think his little sister, did imps 
in the Pantomime. No words," he goes 

" can express the secret agony of my soul as I 
sank into this companionship ; compared these 
everyday associates with those of my happier 
childhood ; and felt my early hopes of growing 
up to be a learned and distinguished man, crushed 
in my breast. The deep remembrance I had of 
being utterly neglected and hopeless ; of the 
shame I felt in my position ; of the misery it was 
to my young heart to believe that, day by day, 
what I had learned and thought, and delighted in, 
and raised my fancy and my emulation up by, 
was passing away from me, never to be brought 
back any more ; cannot be written. My whole 
nature was so penetrated with the grief and 
humiliation of such considerations, that even now, 
famous and caressed and happy, I often forget 
in my dreams that I have a dear wife and children; 
even that I am a man ; and wander desolately 
back to that time of my life." 

In the whole history of Britain's literature 
no other author has ever written such words 
as these. From what Dickens told Forster, 
we learn how, with the exception of his 
lodging and poor clothes, which were paid 
for, he supported himself on his weekly wage 
of six shillings. For breakfast he provided 
himself with a penny loaf and a pennyworth 
of milk, keeping another small loaf and 
some cheese for his supper on his return. 
Sometimes on his way to Hungerford Stairs, 
being " so young and childish," he could 
not resist the stale pastry put out at half 
price at the confectioners' doors in Totten- 
ham Court Road, and so spent the money 
tie had kept for his dinner, which would 
then frequently be a saveloy with a roll, 
washed down with a glass of ale or porter, 
or at other times a slice of pudding bought 
'rom a pudding shop. For tea he would 
go to a coffee-shop and have half a pint of 
offee, and a slice of bread and butter ; but 
when he had no money he would spend 
the time in going to Covent Garden and 
staring at the pineapples ; if a shilling or 
so were given him, he would spend it on a 
dinner or a tea. It was a grand thing to 
lim to walk home on a Saturday night with 
six shillings in his pocket, and " to look in the 
shop windows and think what it would buy." 
Hunt's roasted corn, as a British and 
Datriotic substitute for coffee, was in great 
vogue. This he would buy and roast on the 
Sunday ; he would also take home a cheap 
Deriodical The Portfolio which contained 
selected pieces ; but for the poor castaway 
" from Monday morning until Saturday 

US. V. FEE 3, 1912.] 



night " there was no advice, no counsel, 
no encouragement, no consolation, no sup- 
port from any one. 

On Sundays, while his father was in the 
Marshalsea, his wife and the other children 
being with him, Charles would call for 
his sister Fanny at the Royal Academy of 
Music in Tenterden Street at nine o'clock ; 
and, after spending the day at the prison, 
they would walk back together at night. 

In 1826, at the age of fourteen, a change 
took place, and the boy was sent to a school 
kept by a Mr. Jones in Mornington Place ; 
he gave an account of the school in House- 
hold Words, October llth, 1851. After 
remaining about two years he was sent to 
a school in Henrietta Street, Brunswick 
Square, kept by a Mr. Dawson, but was only 
there for a few months. After being a 
clerk at two solicitors' offices, his father 
having taken up reporting for the press, he 
determined to follow the same vocation ; and 
his industry soon made him one of the best 
reporters of the day. This was, of course, 
only attained by " a perfect and entire 
command of the mystery of shorthand 
writing, being about equal in difficulty to the 
mastery of six languages." 

Dickens all through life recommended 
authors to learn shorthand, as he himself 
had found it so useful in noting down for 
future use any incident that impressed him. 
I possess a letter now, dated from the office 
of All the Year Round, giving me this advice. 
The pleasure he used to feel in his rapidity 
and dexterity in the exercise of shorthand 
never left him, and when listening to a dull 
speech he would find his hand going on the 
tablecloth, taking an imaginary note of it 
all. James Grant, who was a reporter at the 
same time as Dickens, states that " among 
the eighty or ninety reporters he occupied 
the very highest rank." John Black of 
The Morning Chronicle, who was universally 
beloved for his honest, great-hearted enjoy- 
ment of whatever was excellent in others, 
was wont to compliment Dickens " in the 
broadest of Scotch from the broadest of 
hearts," and Dickens " to the last " re- 
membered that it was most of all the cordial 
help of this good old mirth-loving man that 
had started him joyfully on his career of 
letters. " It was John Black who flung 
the slipper after me," he would often say, 
" Dear old Black ! my first hearty out-and- 
out appreciator." 


(To lie continued.) 


(See 11 S. iv. 302, 403, 484 ; v. 42.) 

261. [Blank.} 

262. James and William Pethick, twins, 
d. March 9, 1834, a. 3 days. George William 
Pethick, d. Feb. 14, 1838, a. 16 mths. Thomas 

Pethick, d. [Jun]e 17, 1838, a. days. M T 

w. of Edw[ard] Pethick, mother of the above 
d. (Nov.) 4, 1839, a. 37. John, s. of Edward and 
Elizabeth Pethick, d. Dec. , [18]41, a. 5 mths. 
Henry, their s., d. Aug. 5, 1842, a. 6 weeks. 

263. [Blank.] 

264. Mrs. Fran[ces] (Co)lls, d. Dec. 10, 1834, 
a. 3(4). 

265. Peter Solomon Du Puy, b. March 21 
1770 ; d. July 4, 1829. 

266. Andrew White, d. 13 Jan., 1831, in his- 
39th year. 

267. Emily Sarah (Th) , d. April , a. 2 yrs. 

William Henr(y) a. month. Also 

William Joseph, s. of the [above], d. March 21. 

268. The family vault of John Farebrother, 
Esq., of Millbank Street. 

269. Ellen, 3rd dau. of William and Isabel 
Butler, 1831. Emma Jessey, their 4th dau., 1832. 

270. Mrs. Hannah Hertslett, d. 8 Jan., 1828 r 
a. 67. Mrs. Hannah Harriet Jemima Hertslett,. 
d. 23 Aug., 1828, a. 38. Sophia Mary Anne 
Hertslett, granddau. of the first, and niece to the 
last above named, d. 24 Dec., 1829, a. 10. Lewis 
and Mary Spencer Hertslett, d. 19 Sept., 1834. 
Anna Maria Elizabeth, dau. of Charles and Anna 
Maria Hertslett, and sister of the above Sophia 
Mary Anne, d. 9 Nov., 1839, a. 14. 

271. [Blank.] 

272. James Coltman, of Upper Bloomburg 
Street, in this p., d. 28 Feb., 1849, in his 40th year. 
An affec. husb., tender parent, &c. Afflictions 
sore, &c. 

273. Benjamin Hudson, of this p., d. 9 July, 
1837, a. 72. Maria Walter, his dau., d. 1 Sept., 
1839, a. 44. 

274 Emma Susan, w. of Mr. Joseph 

Nightingale, of Hans Place, Chelsea, gent., and 
niece of the above, d. 11 April, 1831, a. 30. Joseph, 
their infant s., d. 24 April, 1831, a. 18 days. 

275. ah Brown [w. of ?] [R]obert 

Brown [died] July, 1828, a. . 

276. Mary Ann, w. of Abraham Wright, d. 
29 March, 1828, a. 31. Two of their chn. : John r 
d. 4 April, 1827, a. 6 weeks ; Louisa Ann, d. 
6 May, 1828, a. 6 weeks. 

277. Mrs. Sarah Empson, d. 24 March, 1840, 
a. 80. 

278. Mrs. Mary Pierce, d. 24~Sept., 1827, a. 86. 
Mr. William Pierce, d. March 1, 1829, a. 92. 
Harriet Pierce, d. Aug. 5, 1849, a. 85. Anna 
Maria, w. of Gaetano Polidori, dau. of the above 
William Pierce, d. 27 April, 1853, a. 83. 


279. Crest. A winged spur. John Johnson, 
and Catherine his w., and their s. John, late 
Alderman, of London. The first d. Jan. 30, 
1829, in his 70th year. The second d. March 27, 
1846, in her 83rd year. Their s., the Alderman, 
d. Dec. 30, 1848, in his 57th year. Erected by 
William Johnson, their only surviving son, 1853. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. ms. v. FEB. 3, 1912. 


INDEX OK NAMES (continued.) 

280. Samuel Firth, of this p., a. 29 Feb., 

Morrel, 198 Reeve, 203 Tomlin, 86 

1812, in his 96th year. George Frederick Firth, 

Morris, 177 Richard, 66, 68 Tooke, 130 

grands, of the above, d. 12 March, 1812, a. 6 mths. 

Moves, 251 Richardson, 257 Trickett, 6, 

Elizabeth Firth, w. of the above, d. 29 Sept., 

Rider, 158 241 

1816, a. 78. Mary Ann Firth, d. 30 March, 1844. 

N., 46 Riggs, 145 Trowell, 256 

a. 46. Elizabeth Firth, d. 6 Nov., 1847, a. 54, 

Nettlefold, 100 Ritchie, 86 Tupp, 227 

James Firth, d. 13 April, 1848, a. 77. Samuel 

Nvee, 196 Robieson, 146 Turner, 148 

Thomas Firth, d. 20 March, 1851, a. 43. Sarah, 

New , 140 Robinson, 70 Turney, 79 

relict of James Firth, d. 29 Jan., 1852, a. 80. 

Newall, 96 Rogers, 83 

Newton, 92 Roome, 1 Vincent, 94 


Nicholson, 57 Ruffe, 39 

Agar, 156 Cotterell, 227 Hogg, 72 

Nightingale, 274 Russ, 152 Walby, 184 

Aldin, 17 Cracroft, 41 Hollands, 181 

Noble, 50 Walmislev, 193 

Aldridge, 21 Crawford, 239 Hollist, 49 

Norris, 76 Salter, 226 Walter, 273 

j^ppleford, 166 Oropp, 141 Holloway, 241 

Nutthall, 115 Sambrook, 129 Walters, 13 

4rrow, 228 Curby, 114 Hopkins, 22 

Schrader, 4 Ward, 75 

Astell, 254 Curtis, 25 Home, 38 

Ommaney, 49 Seager, 249 Washington, 

Atkins, 196 Horton, 186 

Orton, 117 Seaman, 229 167 

(Dadding), 240 Howis, 165 

Osbobni, 58 Segrott, 60 Waterhouse, 

Bacchus, 1 Daniel, 194 Hudson, 273 

Ottey, 206 Seymour, 25 197, 230 

(103?) Darby, 11 Hughes, 28, 45 

Shephard, 224 Watson, 196 

Badcock, 184 Davie, 240 Hunt, 40, 196 

Pa , 183 Sheppard, 245 Watts, 235 

Baker, 47, 133 Deane, 19 Hyde, 202 

Parkins, 59 Simmons, 138 Weatherstom-, 

Balding, 132 Delamain, 222 

Parsons, 199 Simms, 134 101 

Baldwin, 168 Duncan, 50 Inderwick, 210 

Pattison, 119 Sims, 236 West, 204 

Bannister, 215 Du Puy, 265 

Payne, 128 Sisman, 23 Wheelhouse, 89 

Barber, 15 J-> 201 

Pehl, 216 Smith, 112 White, 98, 121, 

Barker, 42 Earl, 260 James, 69, 236 

Pendegrass, 122 Spivev, 76 192, 266 

Barlow, 247 Earnell, 89 Jarman, 204 

Percv, 159 Stafford, 240 Wilcock, 53 

Barney, 245 Empson, 277 Jeffries, 188 

Pethick, 262 Standfast, 29 Wilkins, 112 

Barrow, 43 Evatt, 99 Jennings, 127, 

Philp, 199 Stanton, 168 Wilkinson, 16. 

Bass, 197 255 

Pierce, 278 Stephenson, 44 1-72 

Beech, 14 F., 108 Johns, 52 

Pink, 29, 259 Street, 121, 191 Wilson, 41, 139 

Beecher 125 Farebrother, 3 1 , Johnson, 88, 

Piper, 36 Winslade, 62 

Bell, 135 268 279 

Pitt, 19 Tappenden, 3 Witford, 24 

Bennett, 111 Farquhar, 147 

Pocock, 9 Taylor, 216 Woodward, 77 

Bickley, 43 Firth, 280 Kay, 5 

Polidori, 278 Tee, 56 Woolley, 216 

Billington, 220 Fleetham, 32 Kaye, 97 

Powell, 137 Thickbroom, Wright, 12, 85, 

Bish(op), 65 Flint, 109 Kennedy, 51 

Price, 148 142 150, 221, 276 

Blackburn, 189- Fortey, 84 Kitson, 128 

Thomas, 191, Wyatt, 28 

190 Fowler, 233 

Rawden, 33 211 

Blayney, 229 Frostick, 115 Lacey ; 134 

Read, 151 Todman, 26 Yeomans, 208 

Boon, 136 Lamb, 74. 199 

Borrow, 67 G , 87 Langley, 170, 


Boys, 2, 157-8, Gallant, 173 211 

[Ashton] under Lyne, Old Calabar, 2 

162 Garner, 253 Le Maire, 8 

Lanes, 5 Onore, E.I., 41 

Brassington, 80 Gaven, 22 Lincoln, 118 

Bradford, Wilts, 256 St. Giles, 178 

Bright, 21 Gifford, 120, 195 Lloyd, 82 

Chelsea, 274 St. Mary-le-bone, 178 

Brissenden, 18 Goldhawk, 85 

Daventry, Northants, 199 Staines, 177 

Brocken, 163 Goodwin, 110 McClough, 113 

Dover, 26 Swardstone, Norf., 188 

Brooks, 90 Gough, 185 Mack, 35 

Edinburgh, 26 Thirsk, Yorks, 89 

Brown, 30, 275 Gray, 178 Mallet, 187 

Grimstone, Norf., 248 Tipperary, 170 

Bullock, 61 Greenaway, 73 Mallett, 28 

Iloxne, Suff., 244 We t Haningfiekl, Ess., 

Burchell, 116 Manaton, 49 

Maidstone, Kent, 249 218 

Butler, 269 Raiding, 182 Mann, 232 

Norfolk Island, 36 

Byles, 225 Haley, 104 Marsh, 192 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut.-Col. 

Hambleton, 208 Maskell, 34 

17, Ashley Mansions, S.W. 

Cadman, 46 Harris, 34, 91 Maxwell, 133 

Caldwall, 72 Harrison, 154 Mears, 207 

Cass, 106 Haselwood, 187 Mercer, 26 


Chapman, 219 Hatfield, 131 Mignie, 124 
Chilvers, 248 Hayes, 27 Miles, 37, 149, 


Chittock, 176 Heath, 178 171, 209 
Clark, 252 Hedger, 77 Millard, 178 
Clarke, 10, 185 Hemmings, 78, Miller, 187 

Iv the ranks of monthly periodicals centen- 
arians are few. The latest addition is 

Colls, 264 243 Mills, 244 

The New Church Magazine, which completed 

Colquhoun, 229 Hertslett, 225, Minns, 198 

its first century by the issue for December, 

Coltman, 272 270 Mitchell, 73 
Cooke, 225 Hewson, 169 Money, 205 
Coombes, 95 Higgins, 244 Monnington, 
Cooper, 160 Hillary, 164 167 

1911. It still, however, falls short of one 
hundred volumes, since throughout the first 
twenty-eight years of its existence a volume 

Coster, 20 iffirsley, 200 Morlidge, 48 

was completed only once in every two years. 

11 S. V. FEB. 3, 1912.] 


The story of the publication is briefly told 
by the present editor, the Rev. J. R. Rendell, 
B.A., of Accrington, in an article entitled 
' Our Centenary,' with which the December 
part fitly opens. 

The work was started as The Intellectual 
Repository for the New Church by seven 
members of the body commonly styled 
" Swedenborgians," who advanced 51. each 
as capital for the undertaking. That 
the sum thus subscribed was adequate for 
the purpose appeared from the fact 
that when, in 1829, the surviving pro- 
prietors and the representatives of those 
deceased made over the property to the 
General Conference of the New Church, 
it consisted not only of a considerable stock 
of volumes and parts, but also of 251. 7s, Id. 
in cash ! All the seven promoters were 
members of the committee of the Sweden- 
borg Society, which had been established 
on 27th February, -1810. The most notable 
of these was John Augustus Tulk, the first 
chairman of the committee, who was also one 
of the original board of editors of the new 
periodical. One of his colleagues was the 
Rev. Samuel Noble, whose ' Appeal ' 
(1826) was the subject of some ' Marginalia ' 
by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, which were 
printed in vol. iv. of his ' Literary Remains.' 
Among the later editors of The Intellectual 
Repository were (1836-9) Edward William 
Brayley, F.R.S., who, during the years 1834- 
1870, was principal librarian to the London 
Institution; and (1839-43) Henry Butter, 
the author of the once widely circulated 
' Etymological Spelling Book.' From the 
outset until 1829 The Intellectual Repository 
appeared quarterly at Is. 6d. per number ; 
thence until the close of 1839 it was issued 
every alternate month at Is. per number ; 
but in 1840 it was published monthly at 6d. 
per number, and has so continued. With 
the issue for January, 1882, the title was 
changed to its present form, The New Church 

After the manner of its literary con- 
temporaries, the articles in the early 
volumes were for the most part unsigned, 
save by initials or noms de plume ; but the 
information then denied can now be acquired 
from the editorial " file " still extant, 
whence the present editor, in his historical 
sketch above noted, supplies the names of 
all the contributors to the initial part, issued 
in January, 1812. First among them stands 
Charles Augustus Tulk, son of John Augustus 
Tulk aforesaid, and like him a member of 
the first committee of the Swedenborg 
Society. He became member of Parliament 

for Sudbury in 1821, and, later, for 
Poole. He is most widely known in litera- 
ture as the close friend and correspondent 
of Samuel Taylor Coleridge a letter to- 
him from Coleridge was sold by auction in 
Leicester Square on 17th November last. 
The list of these earliest contributors also 
includes John Augustus Tulk, the Rev, 
John Clowes, M.A., Rector of St. John's 
Church, Manchester, and the Rev. Samuel 

The editor's sketch may here be sup- 
plemented by the information that at 
the annual gathering of the New Church 
Conference, at Glasgow, in June last, 
arrangements were made for the publication 
of a General Index to the century- old 
periodical, which is, moreover, to include 
all the other Swedenborgian magazines- 
issued between 1790 and 1881. 


in an old book a translation of the Latin 
text of the will of Bernard Gilpin (1517-83) 
by W. Freake, London, 1629. The following 
are a few extracts from it : 

" First, I bequeath my soul unto the hand* 
of Almighty God, my Creator ; not trusting in 
my own merits, which am of myself a most 
wretched sinner, but only in the mercy of God,' 

" For the disposition of my goods first, I 
will that all my debts be truly paid with all 
speed. My debts once discharged, of what 

remaineth I give and bequeath [Here follow 

bequests to the poor of nine parishes.] Likewise 
I give to the poor of Houghton parish the great 
new ark for corn, to provide them with groats 
in winter. Likewise, I give to the Queen a 
College, in Oxford, all such books as shall have 
written upon the first leaf 'Barnardus Gilpin, 
Reginensi Collegio D.D.,' and all such books as 
shall have written upon the first leaf ' Johannes 

Newton' and also the books that Mr. Hugh 

Broughton hath of mine, viz., Eusebius, Greek,, 
in two volumes ; and Josephus, in Greek, and 
certain other books ; I trust he will withhold 
none of them. I also give to Keipier School, in. 
Houghton, all such books as shall have my name 
on the first leaf. Also, I give to my successor 
first, the great new brewing lead in the brew- 
house, with the guile-fat, and mash-fat ; like- 
wise in the kiln, a large new steep lead, whicn 
receives a chaldron of corn at once ; likewise 11 
the larder-house, one great salting-tub, which will 
hold four oxen or more ; likewise in the great 
chamber over the parlour, one long table, and _ a 
shorter standing upon a joined frame with tn 
form ; likewise in the hall, three tables standjn 

fast, with the forms to them likewise [Here 

follow many other pieces of furniture, matenaJs 
for building, &c. In consideration of the fi 
that he had spent over 3001. in building] 
my successor will not demand anything to 
dilapidations And that such successor will 



(11 8. V. FEB. 3, 1912. 

a continual defender and maintainer of Keipier 
School at Houghton .... 

"Moreover, I give to the poor of Houghton 
twenty pounds, and nine of my oxen ; the other 
nine I bequeath to my three executors. Like- 
wise, I give Richard, Lord Bishop of Durham, 
for a simple token of remembrance, three silver 
spoons with acorns, the history of Paulus 
Jovius, and the works of Calvin ; also I give to 
John Heath, Esq., for like remembrance, other 
two silver spoons, of the same weight, and also 
the history of John Sleden in Latin ; to Mrs. 
Heath I give my English Chronicle of Fabian ; 
and to Richard Bellasis, Esq., two spoons, &c., 
and my history called ' Novus Orbis.' And I 
most humbly beseech these three men of honour 

and worship above all things, to take into 

their tuition and governance all lands and re- 
venues belonging to Keipier School, and all deeds, 
evidences, gifts, and other writings, which are to 
show for the same : all the right and title to these 
lands I give up wholly into their power, for the 
good maintenance of the said school. And for 
as much as these lands are not so surely estab- 
lished as I should wish, I give unto Keipier 
School twenty pounds, which I desire the Bishop 
of Durham to take into his hands, and bestow 
as he shall see fit upon men learned in the laws. 
All the rest of my goods and chattels, I will 
that they be divided into two equal parts, and 
the one of them to be given to the poor of Hough- 
ton, the other to scholars and students at Oxford." 
[Here follow a list of names, with instructions, 
about the same.] 

The text of this will is bad to copy, owing 
to the leaf being much mildewed. Does the 
school at Houghton still exist ? 

J. W. S. 

[Yes. It is now known as the Royal Kepier 
Grammar School, Houghton-le-Spring.] 

THE NAVAL SALUTE. Although the origin 
and history of the Naval Salute are no doubt 
familiar to students of naval affairs, the 
subject seems to be little known to the public 
in general. That such a thing existed is 
occasionally learnt from stray references in 
the works of writers like Marryat, while 
many will no doubt recollect that Kingsley, 
in ' Westward Ho ! ' made good use of it 
when telling the story of John Hawkins and 
the Spanish admiral who had ventured to 
sail into Plymouth Sound without veiling 
topsails, or striking his flag. Hawkins, 
who was Port Admiral, at once sent a shot 
between his masts, and, when no attention 
was paid to this hint, with his next shot 

lackt the Admiral through and through," 
whereupon down came the offending flag 
and due apologies were tendered. Few, 
however, realize that for centuries ships of 
all other nations were not only expected, but 
compelled, to lower their topsails and strike 
their flag when they met a ship of the 
English navy on the seas over which the 
Kings of England claimed sovereignty. The 

matter is treated at length in an interesting 
article in a recent number of The Edinburgh 
Review on ' The Sovereignty of the Sea.' 
This gives the actual text of the Admiralty 
instruction on the point, which I think is 
worth preserving in the columns of ' N. & Q.' 
It was issued in 1691, and remained in force 
till 1806, as follows : 

" Upon your meeting with any ship or ships 
within his Majesty's seas (which for your better 
guidance herein you are to take notice that they 
extend to Cape Finisterre), belonging to any 
foreign Prince or State, you are to expect them 
to strike their topsail and take in their flag, in 
acknowledgement of His Majesty's Sovereignty 
in these seas ; and if any shall refuse, or offer to 
resist, you are to use your utmost endeavour to 
compel them thereto, and in nowise to suffer any 
dishonour to be done to His Majesty. . . .You are 
further to notice that in his Majesty's seas his 
Majesty's ships are in nowise to. strike to any; 
and that in other parts no ship of his Majesty's 
is to strike his flag or topsail to any foreigner, 
unless such foreign ship shall have first struck, 
or at the same time strike, her flag or topsail 
to his Majesty's ship." 

In the year after Trafalgar it was found 
necessary to issue a new edition of the 
' Admiralty Instructions,' the preparation 
of which for the press was left to Admiral 
(afterwards Lord) Gambier, and at his sug- 
gestion the article of 1691, quoted above, 
was for the first time omitted. It does not 
appear that Gambier meant that the right 
was to be given up, but as a matter of fact 
this was the result of the omission, and the 
Naval Salute, after having been claimed, 
and enforced, for several centuries, fell into 
desuetude. T. F. D. 

Dickensians may be interested to learn that 
at the other end of the earth there is a 
collection of letters from the famous novelist 
that have not yet been put into print. 
Dr. Leeper, the Principal of Trinity College, 
Melbourne University (whose name is fami- 
liar to readers of ' N. & Q.'), has been deliver- 
ing an address on the treasures of the 
library of the institution over which he has 
so ably presided for many years. In addi- 
tion to the Second Folio Shakespeare, the 
library contains " a quantity of corre- 
spondence between Charles Dickens and the 
late G. W. Rusden, which, though interesting, 
is of too personal and intimate a character 
to be available for publication for some 
years." The library also possesses a com- 
plete set of the novels presented by Dickens 
to Mr. Rusden, who was for a long time 
the highest Parliamentary official in Mel- 
bourne, and who published histories of 
Australia and New Zealand, and various 

11 S. V. F*;B. 3, 1912.] 



other works. As this is the Dickens cen- 
tenary year, it may be suggested to Dr. 
Leeper and the governing body of Trinity 
College that the publication of this corre- 
spondence, tactfully and judiciously edited, 
would be a very acceptable and appropriate 
contribution to the celebration. 

Royal Colonial Institute, 

Northumberland Avenue. 

bery and Mr Edmund Gosse the one in a 
speech, the other in a letter addressed to 
The Times have started a campaign against 
the superfluity of books, and the latter 
states that a general public destruction is 
necessary. But who can judge of the books 
that are to be kept and those that are to be 
destroyed ? I think that what with the 
bad paper newspapers and books are printed 
on (for cheapness and large sales), and the 
destruction due to insects and want of 
care, time will annihilate everything, and 
leave nothing but dust. And under what- 
ever name you put him, whether Time or 
Nature, he it is who shall solve this diffi- 
culty. .This important question is due to 
many factors. Until now, in past times, 
books were only destroyed for political or 
religious purposes, and this proposed mode 
opens a new era in the life of libraries and 
their contents. E. FIGAROLA-CANEDA. 

ii. 369, 418.) I have just corne across an 
advertisement in the first of a long series of 
volumes of art cuttings given to me by Mr. 
Humphry Ward. It appeared in a news- 
paper of 1790, and is headed ' Most Striking 
Likenesses,' andgoes^on: "Profile shades in 
miniature, executed in a style entirely new, 
essentially different, and allowed by the 
first artists to be infinitely superior to any 
others. The invention of J. Miers, No. 162, 
Strand." Miers refers to " the extensive 
patronage, and the high encomiums " with 
which he has been "honoured " by the first 
rank of nobility, &c. The time of sitting 
for these portraits was two minutes, and 
the cost varied from Is. 6d. to one guinea. 


a comparatively modern word, dating from 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
The ' N.E.D.' suggests interrogatively a con- 
nexion with the nautical verb to caulk, the 
drink being " something to keep the wet 
out." This seems possible, yet the word is 
not nautical, but Scottish, as the examples 

in the ' N.E.D.' show. I suggest that it 
belongs rather to Scot. can(l)k, to " rough " 
a horse in frosty weather, which is evi- 
dently cauguer, the Picard form of French 
chausser, to shoe, and thus ultimately from 
Latin calx, heel. In a small Scottish dic- 
tionary printed at Edinburgh in 1818 I find 
cawker, a frost nail ; also a glass of strong 
whisky, or other ardent spirits, taken in the 
morning." It seems a reasonable conjecture 
that the carter, after seeing that his horse 
was provided with cawkers, should playfully 
apply the same name to his own precaution 
against frost before starting. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

The Colonial Society of Massachusetts has 
in press a volume to contain the royal com- 
missions issued to certain of the Crown 
officials of the Massachusetts Bay from 1681 
to 1774. Of these, seventeen are commis- 
sions of the Governors as Vice- Admiral ; 
and of the seventeen, eleven (from 1685 to 
1730) are in Latin, and the remaining six 
(from 1741 to 1774) are in English. What 
I wish to know is, When was English first 
used in such commissions ? Obviously it 
was between 1730 and 1741, but I wish 

Under the heading ' Latin Law Pleadings,' 
a correspondent (at 11 S. i. 448, 495) asked 
when English was substituted for Latin in 
such pleadings, and SIR HARRY POLAND 
referred to the Act of 4 George II., ch. xxvi. 
(1731). This was 

" An Act that all Proceedings in Courts of Justice 
within that Part of Great Britain called England, 
and in the Court of Exchequer in Scotland, shall 
be in the English Language " ; 
but section 3 reads as follows : 

" Provided always, That nothing in this Act, 
nor any thing herein contained, shall extend to 
certifying beyond the Seas any Case or Proceed- 
ings in the Court of Admiralty ; but that in such 
Cases the Commissions and Proceedings may^be 
certified in Latin, as formerly they have been." 
' Statutes at Large,' vi. 307-8. 
Clearly, therefore, the Act of 4 George II. 
is not the one I am in search of. In 1884 
Sir Sherston Baker said that " the Patent 
was always written in Latin until the reign 
of George II." (' Office of the Vice- Admiral 



Ill 8. V. FI;B. 3, 1U12. 

of the Coast,' p. 50). I shall be deeply 
indebted to SIR HARRY POLAND or other 
correspondent who can give me the informa- 
tion sought. ALBERT MATTHEWS. 
Boston, U.S. 

Information required of Edmund Combe 
of Hartley Wintney, Hants, who married 
1702 Catherine, daughter of Rev. T. Pretty, 
Rector of Winchfield. He is mentioned as 
querent, in Feet of Fines, 1742, of some land 
at Hartley Wintney. (Left no will.) 

Also, information required of the family 
of Christian Jarman, who married Harvey 
Combe, son of the above, 1752, at St. 
Peter's, Cornhill, and her sister Mary, who 
married Boyce Tree. These sisters are de- 
scribed as coheiresses. S. T. 

ENGLAND. Was the above locality in 
Normandy, near Ardevan and Mont St. 
Michel, the original source of the name in 
England, on the borders of Lincoln and 
Leicester ? At Beauvoir, in Normandy, 
are several remains of conventual buildings 
belonging to the monks of the Mount. 
Was the D' Albini, D' Aubigny, or D' Aubeney 
family anciently associated with that 
locality ? I believe the remains of a priory 
still exist near Belvoir Castle, in Lincoln. 

An Act was passed concerning the erection 
of a bridge for the convenience of the inhabi- 
tants of the parishes of the Vale and St. 
Samson's, in Guernsey, in crossing over to 
St. Marie du Chateau. This Act was passed 
by Nicholas de Beauvoir, bailiff, Peter de la 
Launde, James le Marchant, and Gaultier 
Blondel, 4 Oct., 1204. T. W. CAREY. 

recent newspaper paragraph I came across 
the following, said to have been " sung by 
Reynolds in 1820 " : 

Go back to Brummagem ! Go back to Brum- 
magem ! 

Youth of that ancient and halfpenny town I 
Maul manufacturers ; rattle and rummage 'em ; 

Country swelled heads may afford you renown. 
Here in town-rings we find Fame very fast go ; 

The exquisite " light-weights " are heavv to 

bruise ; 
For the graceful and punishing hand of Belasco 

Foils and will foil all attempts on the Jews. 

Who was Reynolds ? In the ' D.N.B.' 
I find mention of two writers of this name, 
Frederick Reynolds and John Hamilton 
Reynolds. Can any of your readers throw 
further light upon the somewhat cryptic 
meaning of this quotation as a whole ? 


John's work entitled ' Village Life in Egypt' 
I find the following passage : 

"Possibly they [alluding to ornaments] were 
intended as portraits of the departed, all being 
cast in a different mould ; but certainly the artists 
had disdained flattery. The wise have set down 
Cleopatra as no beauty, on the evidence of a 
portrait they pretend to have discovered ; but 
even if intended as a likeness, it was, most 
probably, a f ailure . . . . Why should they have 
succeeded in petrifying upon their walls the 
lovely Serpent of Old Nile ? " 

Can any reader give me any information 
respecting this portrait, its discoverer, &c. ? 
Inquiries upon the subject have failed to give 
satisfaction. H. ROY DE LA HACHE. 

24, Kenilworth Avenue. Wimbledon Park. 

SASH WINDOWS. Britton in his ' De- 
scription of Lancashire,' 1807, p. 175, a 
volume forming part of ' The Beauties of 
England and Wales,' says of Wrightington 
Hall, near Wigan, that it is " noted for 
having the first sash windows of any house 
in the county, or in any part of the king- 
dom northward of the Trent." Is this true ? 
The chief part of the hall was erected in 
1748, but there is an older black-and-white 
wing, probably of seventeenth - century 
date. When were sash windows first intro- 
duced into England ? F. H. C. 


ARABIAN STORY. Dickens says in ' Dom- 
bey and Son ' : 

" Ideas, like ghosts, must be spoken to a little 
before they will explain themselves ; and Toots 
had long left off asking any questions of his own 
mind. Some mist there may have been, issuing 
from that leaden casket, his cranium, which, if it 
could have taken shape and form, would have 
become a genie ; but it could not ; and it only so 
far followed the example of the smoke in the 
Arabian story, as to roll out in a thick cloud, and 
there hang and hover." 

What Arabian story is meant, and where 
is it to be found ? ' Miss NIPPER.' 


[A story in the ' Arabian Nights ' of a fisherman 
who drew up in his net a pot sea'ed with the seal of 
Solomon, from which on his opening it, there issued 
a genie in the form of an immense cloud.] 

RUDGE.' In the last chapter of ' Barnaby 
Rudge ' the novelist refers to Lord George 
Gordon's later experiences after the riots. 
He is stated to have gone to Birmingham 
in or about 1788, where he made a public 
profession of the Jewish religion, and where 
"a beautiful Jewish girl " attached herself 

116. V. FEB. 3, 1912.] 



to him as his companion, " whose virtuous 
and disinterested character appears to have 
been beyond the censure even of the most 

Is it known whence Charles Dickens 
obtained the information of this romantic 
episode, or where further and more detailed 
particulars of it may be found ? 


day, the 17th of January, I have dipped 
into two morning papers. Both announce 
the death of Mr. Henry Labouchere, and 
are ready with anecdotes concerning him. 
Each repeats that of his treatment of a 
caller at the Embassy at Washington who 
was resolved to see His Excellency ; 
and also that of the suggested walk from 
London to a far-distant foreign capital. 
There are certain differences in the relations 
which may bewilder narrators a hundred 
years hence, if any desire for accuracy still 
exist. It may be possible for contemporary 
writers in ' N. & Q.' to lighten the burden of 
posterity by testifying to the correctness of 
A or B, or to the incorrectness of both. I 
append the versions : 


" One day when Mr. Labouchere was an 
Attach^ at Washington an irate Britisher bounced 
in and demanded to see the Ambassador. ' Not 
here ! you say. Then I will wait till he comes.' 
' Very well,' said Mr. Labouchere, ' take a chair.' 
After waiting some hours the visitor inquired if 
the Minister would be much longer, and was 
staggered when the Attach^ replied, ' Well, he 
sailed for Europe on Wednesday, but as you 
insisted on waiting, I offered you a chair.' 

" When Mr. Labouchere was in the diplomatic 
service he was suddenly ordered from London 
to Vienna. Half a week passed ; no word came 
from the traveller, and wires to the Austrian 
capital failed to find him. At length he was 
unearthed at Dover, and met the furious official 
demand for explanations with the simple statement 
that his allowance for expenses was so low that he 
had no option but to walk." 


" The stories told of him in the diplomatic 
service are as numerous as they are amusing. 
When, for instance, he was at Washington a 
citizen of the Republic entered the office in a 
manner which excited the resentment of the 
Attached ' I want to see the " boss," ' he said. 
' You can't see him,' was the answer, ' he 's out ; 
see me.' ' You 're no good to me,' rejoined the 
visitor, ' I can wait.' He was requested to take 
a seat, and the Attache 1 went on with his work. 
A long time having elapsed the caller remarked : 
' Stranger, I 've been fooling around here for 
two hours. Has the " boss " come in yet ? ' 
Mr. Labouchere replied quietly : ' No ; you '11 
see him drive up to the door when he returns.' 
' How long do you reckon he will be ? ' was the 

next question. ' Well,' was the response, ' he 
went to Canada yesterday. I should say he '11 be 
about six weeks.' 

' ' On one occasion he was directed to proceed 
to St. Petersburg, but at the end of six months 
he was discovered at Homburg. There were, as 
a result, remonstrances from Downing Street, 
The reply of the youthful diplomat was that his 
means were small, but his zeal great, and that as 
neither his purse nor Government liberality was 
sufficient to meet the cost of trains he was walking 
to the Russian capital, which he hoped to reach 
in the course of the year." 


was the mother of Coriolanus ? Shake- 
speare, following Plutarch, gives Volumnia 
as his mother, and Virgilia as his wife. 
Lempriere, quoting from several authorities, 
gives the same. A statue, too, of Volumnia 
is said to have been erected in Rome on 
account of her influence in saving the city 
from destruction. I see, however, that ' The 
Encyclopaedia Britannica ' and the ' Dic- 
tionary of Biography ' both make Volumnia 
the wife of Coriolanus, and Veturia his 
mother. See also Lempriere, under ' Veturia. ' 
What are the authorities upon which this 
version is founded, and why are they con- 
sidered superior to Plutarch ? The name 
" Veturia " has the appearance of an ex post 
facto origin, as a kind of generic term for an 
old woman, and gives the whole story more 
the appearance of a myth than even Plu- 
tarch's version. J. FOSTER PALMER. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

[Livy, ii. 40, gives Veturia as the name of the 
mother, and Volumnia as that of the wife, of 

Charles Brandon married Mary, youngest 
sister of Henry VIII. ; was standard-bearer 
to that king, who visited him at Grims- 
thorpe Castle, Bourne ; was created Duke of 
Suffolk, and received Tattershall Castle ; 
and was the son of the standard-bearer to 
Henry VII. at Bosworth. What is known 
of his father's antecedents ? 

The valiant Sir John Brunt gave rise to 
" He bore the brunt of the battle," and 
died intestate. What is known of him ? 


WOMEN AND TOBACCO. The following is 
a curiosity in several ways : 

SHEET HART I am glad to here you are well ; 
I came saue to buknum after the frite of the 
winmell thankes be to god ; I haue bout Lookes ; 
for the garden dores ; at swoffom but I thinke ; 
you had ned ; by a Look for the Ladder dore, 
at holbrok ; for I here you haue left it oppe ; 
where all the bras & peuter is I have done all the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tns. v.F EB .3, 1912. 

tobakcoe you Left mee ; I pray send mee sum 
this weeke ; and some angelleco ceedd & sum 
cerret sed ; to sow at buknum .... &c. 
Your Af extinat wife 

Buknum May the 04. SUSAN CRANE. 

Send word what thinges you old caried to 

These foor Isaac Appleton Esq r at his Chamber 
in Grayes Inn p'sent. 

Susan Crane, widow of Sir Robert Crane, 
was the second wife of Isaac Appleton of 
Buckraan Vail, Norfolk. The extract is from 
' Family Letters from the Bodleian Library, 
with Notes by W. S. Appleton,' p. 49 

My query is, did the lady require tobacco 
in the form of snuff ? The year of the 
letter is not given, but the following one is 
February, 1653, i.e., 1654. A. RHODES. 

feel extremely obliged if any of your readers 
could give me information as to the family 
and early services of Major James Kill- 
patrick of the Madras Army, who was sent 
up to Bengal in 1756, where he served under 
Clive in command of the troops at that 
settlement until his death in 1757. 

St. Margarets-at-Cliffe. 

was Bream of Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
L ne ? J. H. R, 

[See 10 S. viii. 206.] 


die in 1870, and where was he buried ? A 
short account of him is given in the ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog.,' xx. 24. 

DUDLEY AND WARD. In the 'Diet. Nat. 
Biog.,' xxxi. 341, it is stated that Knyvett 
"was educated at Westminster School, 
where he formed a close friendship with 
Lord Dudley and Ward which lasted until 
his death." I should be glad to know the 
authority for this statement, and if there 
is any evidence that Lord Dudley and Ward 
was educated at any public school. 

3. THOMAS ELLIS OWEN. According to 
the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xlii. 456, he died in 
1814, and was buried in Llanfair-is-Gaer 
Church, Carnarvonshire. I should be glad 
to know the full date of his death, and 
whether he ever married. 

ing to the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xlvi. 138, his 
mother was a daughter of the Puritan divine 
John Dod. I should be glad to know some 
particulars of his father and the Christian 
name of his mother. G. F. R. B. 

Can any one give the names of the authors 
of the following verses, and say where the 
original poems or hymns are to be found ? 

1. Who laughs at sin laughs at his own disease, 
Welcomes approaching ruin with his smiles, 

Dares at his soul's expense his fancy please, 
Affronts his God, himself of peace beguiles. 

2. I envy not their hap whom fortune doth 

advance ; 
I take no pleasure in their pain that have 

less happy chance. 

To rise by others' fall I deem a losing game ; 
All states, with others' ruin built, to ruin run 


W. A. 

Who wrote the lines 

I was for that time lifted above earth, 

And possessed joys not promised in my birth, 

quoted by Izaak Walton in the Third Day 
of ' The Compleat Angler ' ? 


Who wrote the following beautiful lines anent 
Charles Dickens ? 

And God did bless him if the prayers and tear s 
Of countless thousands : if the knowledge sure 
Of heart uplift, or strengthened to endure, 
Have aught of blessing. Surely he who cheers 
The mourning heari> bids fly the sick man's fears 
Is blest, thrice blest. A Prophet of the Poor, 
In darksome den and squalid slum obscure 
He shows a world of love wherein appears 
The Way to God not in lone hermit cell, 
In Nature-worship, stately rite, stern creed, 
But through the human hearts he loved so well. 
Angelic hosts might pause to tell 
Of " Tiny Tim," or " Paul," or " Little Nell." 

I. X. B. 

[Asked at 11 S. iii. 3, 48, but without receiving an 

" If ever I run a horse for the Derby I will 
call him F & M (a well-known firm of suppliers 
of Derby hampers)." 

My remembrance of this is that Dickens 
either said it or wrote it. It may, perhaps, 
have been Thackeray. I cannot, however, 
find it. WM. H. PEET. 

PEVERIL FAMILY. The historic surname 
Peveril, in its varied forms, occurs in Not- 
tingham records and registers, apparently 
without break, from the eleventh to the 
nineteenth centuries, but is not, I believe, 
now extant here. Does it survive elsewhere 
in England ? A. STAPLETON. 


In what reigns was the Royal Mint set up in 
Guildford, Surrey, and when was the last 
issue of money made there ? 


IIS. V. FEB. 3, 1912. J 


BEATJPUIS. De Quincey in his essay on 
Wordsworth has an interesting reference to 
the French patriot Beaupuis. Where can 
I meet with a detailed account, in French 
or English, of this distinguished French- 
man ? W. B. 

family or families have the following arms 
been used : Arms , argent on a chevron 
gules two lioncels courant, between three 
anchors sable. Crest : A lion couchant gules. 

R. P. 

PANTHERA. I should be glad to have 
from the many Latinists and Hebraicists 
who contribute to your columns any infor- 
mation available with regard to this mascu- 
line name. Is it of Hebrew, Roman, Syriac, 
or Greek origin ? Is it a dithematic name 
{though of three syllables) ? If so, is Pan or 
Pant the prototheme ? If the division into 
Pan and thera be accepted, it would, I should 
think, be difficult to prove the absence of 
a Greek element. Has any explanation of 
the name ever been attempted ? 

St. John Damascene (' De Fide Ortho- 
doxa,' iv. 15) gives the man as the brother 
of Melchi (Luke iii. 24), a name which is 
Hebraic, by adoption at any rate, if not 
otherwise (cf. Melchi-Shua, third son of 
Saul). J. H. R.. 

boy (some sixty years ago), a cutler made me 
a present of a pocket knife ; and within the 
past week one was given me from a Christ- 
mas tree. In both cases I was asked for a 
halfpenny in exchange. I should be glad to 
learn the origin of the custom. G. H. G. 

[The present of a knife was supposed to "cut 
friendship," a danger obviated by the pretence of 
purchase. ] 

DALLAS. Dr. G. W. Marshall, in a query 
published in The Genealogist concerning 
one Haslett Powell, records that Elizabeth 
Powell married Duncan Dallas, and that the 
will of the latter was proved in C.P.C., 
29 July, 1814. I should be greatly obliged 
for information as to the genealogical con- 
tents of this will so far as they relate to 
Dallas ; and also as to the contents of the 
will of Mr. Charles Dallas, who died in the 
first half of the year 1812, leaving bequests 
to Sir Robert Dallas and his sisters. I 
should further be glad of any information 
relating to the Dallas family, with a view to 
the completion of a history of the family 
upon which I have been engaged for some 
years. J. DALLAS. 

15, Walton Well Road, Oxford. 



(11 S. v. 1.) 

IT may not be generally known that this 
club, which was " founded by General Lord 
Lynedoch, in conjunction with" Viscount 
Hill and other officers, on 31st May, 1815," 
was known at its inception, and for some 
time after, as the General Military Club. 
The admission of officers of the Navy 
took place on 24 January, 1816, and the 
name was, on 16 February following, 
changed to that of the United Service 

The incident narrated below occurred 
soon after its foundation, and may be worth 
recording in the pages of ' N. & Q.' So 
serious was the view taken of this combina- 
tion of military men to form a club, 
that a petition full of grave apprehensions 
regarding the institution was, on 4 March, 
1816, presented to Parliament by Col. 
Foley from the people of Leominster, in 
Herefordshire. The first part of this petition 
dealt with the great cost of a standing army, 
and continued 

"that the petitioners have heard, with the deepest 
regret, of the formation in the metropolis of a 
military club, under the sanction, and with the 
approbation, of the present commander in chief 
of his majesty's forces [the Duke of York] ; that 
the petitioners humbly hope that the House will 
watch over, with a true constitutional jealousy, 
the proceedings of such a formidable military 
body, which appear to the petitioners to be too 
well calculated to render the military power of 
the country a body too distinct from the people, 
and consequently inconsistent with the true 
principles of a free government." 

Speaking on the petition, Col. Foley said he 
fieartily concurred with the petitioners, 
and was, in the debate which followed, sup- 
Dorted, amongst others, by Mr. (afterwards 
Baron) Brougham, who said 

he had no objection to private clubs founded 
:or local reasons, or whose members engaged to 
)ind themselves to a particular beverage. But 
he club in question was of a most general and 
comprehensive description. It was formed of 
, mass of officers gentlemen who were not em- 
Cloyed on any particular service who were not 
>rought together by any particular predilections 
but were united merely as military men." 
Mr. Brougham added that 

he regretted that anything like ridicule was 
attempted to be thrown on those who felt jealous 
m this subject because he felt considerable 
ealousy himself." 




[11 S. V. FEB. 3, 1912 

(US. v. 27). Surely SIR WILLIAM BULL 
under-estimates the length of pedigrees. A 
century, three generations, within which 
seven separate male lines of a family die 
out MR. PAGE mentions seven different 
branches of the Bradshaws must indeed be 

SIR WILLIAM asks what family " has 
undoubted proofs of the longest descent in 
the male line." 

There would be many claimants to the 
title ; and though critical genealogists would 
rule out ninety-nine of every hundred as 
" non-proven," there are one or two who, 
by contemporary charters and writings, and 
by the inheritance of land, can really show 
a probable descent from the time of the 

But, by an odd coincidence, what is in 
all likelihood the best authenticated, if not 
the longest, of all the old pedigrees, is that 
of a family who now reign at Haigh Hall, as 
a result of a marriage with one of these 
very failing lines of Bradshaw. 

Lord Crawford is 26th Earl of an earldom 
more than five centuries old. He is himself 
16th in descent from the first Earl, and he 
has a son who has a son. 

The descent in the male line of a peerage 
necessitates that when, through the ages 
any doubt arises, that doubt be venti- 
lated and the descent criticized by those 
responsible for the law of the land. 

But the Lindsay pedigree by no means 
begins at the creation of the earldom in 1398. 
For nine earlier generations, back to a 
William de Lindsay who was old enough to 
witness a royal charter before 1140, it is in 
all probability perfectly sound. Whatever 
others may accomplish, I think that Lord 
Balcarres's son can reasonably lay claim to 
a pedigree of twenty -seven generations 
lasting over eight centuries. 


The number of ancient families which are 
still represented in the male line is much 
larger than your correspondent believes 
The late Mr. Evelyn Shirley's ' Nobl< 
and Gentle Men ' gives a brief accoun 
of those families that at the. date of pub 
lication ( 1866) were in possession of the 
estates which their ancestors held in the time 
of Henry VII. In going through this boot 
not long ago, I was surprised to find how 
many of these families are still representec 
in the House of Lords. There are, of course 
many families which have lost their ancestra 
property, but are still able to trace thei 

lescent to very ancient times. With regard 
o the query, " Which is the family that has 
undoubted proofs of the longest descent in 
he male line ? " Mr. J. Horace Round 
showed some years ago in The Genealogist 
hat the family of St. John is the only one, 
o far as is known, that is undoubtedly 
descended from a Domesday tenant. Several 
"amilies pretend to a descent from Saxon 
imes, but their claims will not bear investiga- 
ion. A good many ancient descents can be 
traced back, by " undoubted proofs," to the 
time of Henry II. Lord Wrottesley repre- 
sents the only family which can trace a direct 
male descent from one of the Founders of 
the Order of the Garter. 

According to the ' Almanach de Gotha,' 
the House of Wettin is descended in the 
direct line from Thiadmar, who lived in 919. 
King George V. has therefore a longer lineage 
than any of his subjects. The House of 
Bourbon is still older, as it traces its descent 
from Robert le Fort, the great-grandfather 
of Hugh Capet. Robert was killed when 
fighting the Northmen in 866. His direct 
descendants are still very numerous. 


[See also ' Domesday Book and the Luttrell 
Family,' 11 S. iv. 365.] 

487). In endeavouring to trace the where- 
abouts of Drummond's works, it is neces- 
sary to discriminate carefully between dif- 
ferent editions. No difficulty seems to be 
felt as to the issue of the first edition of the 
' Teares on the Death of Meliades.' Copies 
would appear to be plentiful. Of the second 
edition, however, it is generally said that 
no copy has hitherto been traced. 

A solution of the difficulty was presented 
by Dr. David Irving of the Edinburgh Advo- 
cates' Library more than sixty years ago. 
In his ' Lives of Scottish Writers,' vol. ii. 
p. 23, he has a note to the following effect : 

'"Teares on the Death of Mreliades,' Edinburgh, 
printed by Andro Hart, 1613, 4to. His two sonnets 
and epitaph, which appear in this publication, are 
likewise inserted in the ' Mausoleum, or, choisest 
Flowres of the Epitaphs written on the Death of the 
never - too - much lamented Prince Henrie,' Edinb., 
1613, 4to. A third edition of the ' Teares on the 
'Death of Moeliades' soon followed, Edinb., 1614, 

According to Dr. Irving, the ' Teares on 
the Death of Meliades ' was first issued separ- 
ately, then incorporated with the ' Mauso- 
leum,' and then again issued separately. 

In his * Life of Drummond of Hawthorn-, 
den.' however, the late Prof. Masson assigns 
priority of publication to the ' Mausoleum/ 



although both works were issued the same 
year. In all likelihood Prof. Masson's view 
is correct. And thus we have the first edi- 
tion of the ' Teares on the Death of Meliades ' 
contained in the 'Mausoleum.' The second 
edition was reprinted the same year under 
the name by which the poem, is now known. 
And in 1614 the third edition was issued. 

In ' Books printed in Scotland before 
1700,' Mr. Aldis states that a copy of the 
' Mausoleum ' is contained in the Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh. Apparently he 
failed to discover the second edition entitled 
' Teares on the Death of Meliades.' From 
information received, I am led to believe 
that a copy may be found either in the 
British Museum or in some other London 
library. The third edition, dated 1614, is 
enumerated among the books contained in 
the Edinburgh University Library. It was 
seen and described by Mr. Aldis. 

Query No. 3 indicates a publication not 
generally included under works bearing 
Drummond's name. " Drummond's verses," 
says Dr. Irving, " appeared in a publication 
entitled ' The Entertainment of the high and 
mighty Monarch Charles, King of Great 
Britain^, France, and Ireland, into his 
auncient and royall Citie of Edinburgh, the 
fifteenth of June, 1633.' Printed at Edin- 
burgh by John Wreittoun, 1633, 4to." Of 
this work a copy is said to be found in 
the Edinburgh Advocates' Library. At all 
events, Mr. Aldis, who locates it there, 
obtained a full bibliographical description 
of it. There is, or was formerly, another 
copy in the Edinburgh Signet Library. 

The last of Drummond's works to which 
PROF. KASTNER refers is entitled ' To the 
Exequies of the Honourable S r . Antonye 
Alexander, Knight, &c. A pastorell 
Elegie, Edinburgh, printed in King James 
his College, by George Anderson, 1638,' 4to. 
All trace of this work seems now to be lost. 
One would naturally expect a copy to be 
found in the Edinburgh University Library, 
but unfortunately that library is not easy 
of access for bibliographical purposes. Mr. 
Aldis failed to find any trace of the book. 
It may be noted that the Alexander men- 
tioned was a distinguished architect and 
second son of the first Earl of Stirling. 

It is much to be feared that many valuable 
and interesting books have disappeared 
from the shelves of Scottish libraries, 
although still named in their respective 
catalogues. To some extent this may be 
due to the fact that formerly it was the 
custom in many Scottish libraries^ to allow 
valuable books to be carried away by private 

persons for purposes of research, some of 
which got lost through the death or dis- 
appearance of the parties to whom they were 
entrusted. Perhaps, however, Scotland is 
not alone in having to lament the loss of 
literary treasures. A large number, it is 
asserted, of rare editions, both English and 
Scottish, can now only be examined by 
students who cross the Atlantic. 


289, 350). Coloured prints of some of the 
Imperial Guard appear in ' Histoire de 
Tempereur Napoleon, par P.-M. Laurent 
de 1'Ardeche, illustree par Horace Vernet, r 
Paris, 1840. They are : 
Lc prince Eugene Beauharnais, colonel des 

Chasseurs a cheval de la Garde Imperiale, de 

1804 a 1809 (mounted). 
Grenadiers a pied : officier et soldat. 
Gendarme d'elite (mounted). 
Fusilier grenadier, grande tenue. 
Artillerie a pied et Train d'artilleric (the latter 


Tirailleur et Voltigeur. 
Artillerie a cheval (mounted). 
Chevau - legers lanciers. Premier regiment 


Tambour-major des Grenadiers a pied. 
Dragons (mounted^. 

Grenadier ft pied, 3' regiment (hollandais). 
Chasseur a pied (grande tenue d'ete). Sergent 

de Chasseurs a pied (petite tenue d'ete). 
Grenadier a Cheval (mounted). 
Mameluck (standing by his horse). 
Sapeur du genie. 
Chevau-legers lanciers, deuxif me regiment 

(mounted ). 

Marins. (The picture is of a marine, not a sailor.) 
Timbalier de Chevau-legers polonais. Trompette 

des Chasseurs a cheval 1812 (both mounted). 

Perhaps to the above should be added : 
Garde d'honneur. (Leading his horse.) 

The " Table des types colories " does not 
quite agree with the coloured pictures in 
the book. In it " Grosse cavalerie, 1795," 
appears instead of "Le prince Eugene 
Beauharnais" ; and near the end, according 
to the table, there should be a picture of an 
" Officier de Chasseurs a cheval (garde)," 
whereas the actual picture is of a " Capitaine 
de Vaisseau." 

I doubt whether these coloured pictures 
are by Horace Vernet. Although the 
initials H. V. occur again and again on the 
black-and-white woodcuts, I have not found 
them on any of the " types colories." 
interesting to note that, whereas in the title 
" Timbalier de Chevau-Legers Polonais 
the word " Chevau" without the x appears, 
on the cloth of the kettledrum the x com- 
pletes the word. 



[IIS. V. FtB. 8, 1912. 

Landais, in his ' Grand Dictionnaire,' 
14th edition, 1862, characterizes " Chevau- 
legers " as a horrible barbarism encouraged 
by the Academie. 

The ' Grammaire des Grammaires,' Paris, 
1844, p. 188, says that the custom is to 
write " chevau-leger " for the singular, and 
" chevau-legers " for the plural. 


THEOPHILUS LEIGH, D.D. (11 S. iv. 429, 
637). The following information is from 
my notes. He was the third son of 
Theophilus Leigh, 1696-1724, by Mary 
Brydges, eldest daughter of the eighth Lord 
Chandos of Sudeley. Theophilus Leigh the 
younger married Ann, daughter of Edward 
Bee, Esq., of Berkeley (? Beckley). They 
had two daughters : (1) Mary, b. 1731, 
who married in 1762 her first cousin the 
Rev. Thomas Leigh, who was Rector of 
Adlestrop, and who succeeded to the 
Stoneleigh estates in 1806. They left no 
children. (2) Cassandra, b. 1742, who mar- 
ried in 1768 the Rev. Samuel Cooke, Rector 
of Little Bookham ; their cliildren were 
Theophilus, Mary, and George, of whom 
only the last seems to have left issue. 
Some details of the Leigh family will be 
found in an article, ' An Old Family History,' 
in The National Review for April, 1907. 


ROBIN HOOD (11 S. v. 29). In his ' Speci- 
mens of the Pre-Shakesperean Drama ' 
(Ginn & Co., 1897), Mr. J. M. Manly gives 
three examples of Robin Hood plays. They 
occupy a considerable space in Part III. 
of the collection, and include ' Robin Hood 
and the Knight ' (a fragment), ' Robin Hood 
and the Friar,' and ' Robin Hood and the 
Potter.' Among the editor's introductory 
remarks is the : \ statement that " Part III. 
affords illustrations of important phases of 
dramatic activity heretofore too little 
regarded by students." W. B. 

The best critical account of the story of 
Robin Hood will be found in the article on 
him in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' which also gives a list of works 
that may be consulted. The popular account 
will be found in the introductions to Gutch's 
' Lytell Geste of Robin Hode ' (1847) : this 
work contains the ballads, and mentions 
many places traditionally connected with 
Robin Hood, and called by his name. The 
connexion of Robin Hood with Maid 
Marian, and of both with the May Day 
games in England and other countries, is 
fully dealt with in ' The Medieval Stage,' 

by E. K. Chambers (1903), and i.i the disser- 
tations at the end of Gutch's work. Other 
books worth consulting are Child's ' English 
and Scottish Popular Ballads,' v. 39, &c. 
(1888); Wright's 'Essays on Medieval 
Literature,' ii. 164 ; Academy, vol. xxiv. 
(1883) ; Ritson's ' Collection of Robin 
Hood Ballads' (1795, 1832, 1885); 'Cata- 
logue of MS. Romances in the British 
Museum,' ed. C. A. Ward, p. 516 ; ' Percy 
Folio MS.,' ed. Hales and Furnivall, i. 1 
(1867) ; ' N. & Q.,' passim. 

Many plays have been published about 
the Robin Hood story, e.g., ' Edward I.,' 
by George Peele (ab. 1580) ; ' George a 
Green, the Pinder of Wakefield ' (ab. 1580) ; 
' The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Hunting 
don,' by Munday (1601) ; and many others 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 

The May-maid decorated with flowers 
and ribbons is the undoubted representative 
of the Flora, the " Mille venit variis florum 
Dea nexa coronis " of Ovid, transformed 
into Maid Marian when mimicry of Robin 
Hood was added to the games among our- 
selves. But that popular robber was not 
the ancestor of the King or Lord of the 
May an appointment which occurs abroad. 
Maid Marian, or the Queen of the May, 
was carried in procession upon men's 
shoulders, and styled " White-pot Queen." 
There was a French proverb, " Robin a 
trouve Marian " " a notorious knava 
hath found a notable quean." And again, 
taking Marion (Marian) as a proper name 
for a woman : " Robin a trouve Marion "- 
" Jack hath met with Gill, a filthy knave 
with a fulsome queane." There was an old 
French drama entitled ' Robin et Marian,' 
a shepherd and shepherdess, in ridicule of 
which Cotgrave's proverb might have origi- 
nated, for Robin Hood's paramour is, in 
his story, Matilda, daughter of Lord Fitz- 
walter, who was poisoned, and cannot be 
identified with Maid Marian, evidently of 
French extraction, and not known before 
the union of the Robin Hood pageant with 
the May-games (Fosbroke's ' Antiquities,' 
pp. 650 and 654). Also consult Strutt's 
' Sports and Pastimes of the People of Eng- 
land,' Brand's ' Antiquities,' Sir Walter 
Scott's ' Ivanhoe ' and ' The Talisman,' 
and for bibliography, the article on ' Robin 
Hood ' in the new ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica.' There is also Adam De Le Hale on 
' Le Jeu de Robin et de Marian,' the French 
drama of the thirteenth century. 


US. V. FEB. 3, 1912.] 



I extract from the forthcoming third 
volume of the ' Register of National Biblio- 
graphy ' the statement that No. XI. of the 

* Opuscula of the Nottingham Sette of Odde 
Volumes ' is an account by Mr. J. P. Briscoe 
of the Robin Hood literature which was, in 
1898, in the Nottingham Free Public Library. 

The inquirer should also look at the 
communication on Robin Hood plays in 

* N. & Q.,' 10 S. viii. 295 (1907). 


TUTJM" (11 S. iv. 325, 531). The conclusion 
at which I have arrived with regard to the 
authorship of the above line is that it is a 
quotation, as we find it printed in Drayton's 
' Polyolbion,' but that Selden himself did 
not know who was the author. Throughout 
his ' Address to the Reader ' (in which the 
line occurs), as well as in his ' Illustrations 
of the Polyolbion ' (ed. 1622), Selden prints 
his Latin quotations in italics, and always in 
lines separated from the text sometimes 
giving the name of the author of the quota- 
tion in the margin, sometimes in the text 
itself. This seems to indicate that the line 
is a quotation (inasmuch as it is printed, 
like the other Latin quotations, in italic and 
as a separate line) ; while, its authorship 
being unassigned, it would seem that it was 
not traceable to any known author. 

There is . nothing, I think, that precludes 
the supposition that this noteworthy elegiac 
may have had its origin in days as far back 
as those of Sir John Cheke (1514-47) or 
Walter Haddan (1516-72), when the fre- 
quent conflicts between the " common 
lawyers " and the " civilians "* were at 
their height, and when its epigrammatic 
smartness would be likely to render it 
especially acceptable to the lawyers of the 
Inner Temple as a neat and forcible utter- 
ance wherewith to intimate their contempt, 
whenever occasion offered, for " civilians " 
and their ways ; or, again, as I at first 
conjectured, it may have been a gloss, by 
some impatient student, on the margin of 
a manuscript of Baldus or Accursius. 

But if, on the other hand, it is maintained 
that Selden was both coiner and quoter, he 
is necessarily made liable to the imputation 
of having sought to palm off upon the 
reader a line of his own composition as a 
quotation from some Latin author whom he 

" In the Civill Law, I comprehend also the 
Canonist, and use hath here [i.e., in England] 
made the name of Civill Law to include both Civil, 
and Canon." -Selden, ' Hist, of Tithes ' (1618)1 
Preface, p. xvii. 

prefers not to name ; and this, it would 
seem, simply in order to invest with an air 
of classic authority his own depreciatory 
estimate of the " civilians " of his own day ! 
On the value of a quotation from an original 
Latin author in those times, especially when 
it was sought to gain the suffrages of the 
ordinary man of letters, it is unnecessary, 
in these columns, to insist. 

I may further note that Selden himself 
rarely names Papinian only, I think, in 
his ' Opera Omnia ' (ed. Wilkins), i. col. 1404, 
and in his ' Historie of Tithes ' (1618), p. 38 ; 
and the composer of the line, whoever he 
was, may have been simply yielding to the 
exigencies of elegiac verse in preferring 
Papinian to Ulpian or Gaius. 


GUISE: GREY: BADGER (11 S. v. 27). 
Although " the gray " was an old English 
name for the badger, as " grice " was the 
name for its young, it seems improbable 
that the " gris " so much worn by the 
highest in the land during the Middle Ages, 
should be the skin of the badger, which in 
those days was a common animal in Great 
Britain. "Gris" was certainly expensive, 
and seems most probably to have been a 
species of foreign marten. Chaucer, in the 
Prologue of ' The Canterbury Tales,' says 
of the pilgrim monk, 

No eoste wolde he spare ; 

I saw his sieves purfiled at the hond 
With gris, and that the finest of the lond. 

In a very ancient poem quoted by Ritson, 
a merchant, wishing to dress his lady-love in 
" ryall atyre," 

Boght hur gownys of grete pryce 
Furryd with menyvere and with gryce.. 

Fairholt says : "In the Middle Ages 
the fur of the ermine and the sable ranked 
highest, that of the vair and the gray was next 
in esteem." Vair or vaire was undoubtedly 
minever, the name continuing in heraldry. 
In ' Sir Percival de Galles,' a romance of the 

fourteenth century, when the son asks 
how he should recognize a knight, ^his 
mother "shewede hym the mene vaire " in 
their hoods by which he might know them. 
Menage in ' Termes du vieux francais. 
MD.CCI,.,' under ' Vair,' quotes 
Li autre couroit les piaux 
Des curieux, de gris & de vairs, 
Pour moi forrer en temps divers. 

Ovide, MS. 

and under ' Menuvair ' he says, " d'un 
animal dit vair." 

Menu, of course, means small, and some- 
times we find the fur described in two 



[11 S. V. FEB. 3, 1912. 

words, as, for instance, in ' La Grande 
Chronique de France,' where the author, 
in writing about the entry of Charles VII. 
into Rouen in 1449, says the King was 
" vestu d'un habit royal ; c'est-a-scavoir, 
manteau, robe et chaperon d'escarlate 
vermeil fourre de menu vair." 

In the 'Book of Rates of Charles II.,' 
under the heading of ' Skins,' both badger 
and " grays " are mentioned as two distinct 
animals, the prices being given for one 
skin of a badger, and in the case of the 
"grays" for forty. In later times "petit- 
gris " means squirrel. There is a weasel-like 
animal only found in South America, called 
a "grison" : it is very like a marten. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

MARKET (11 S. iv. 405, 495). MR. AI.ECK 
ABRAHAMS seems to be unaware of the 
fact that James Winston's theatrical collec- 
tion, together with Vice- Chamberlain Coke's 
papers relative to the Italian opera in the 
Haymarket, 1706-15, eventually passed 
into the possession of the late Julian Mar- 
shall. I had an opportunity of viewing 
the Coke lots previous to the sale at Sotheby's 
on 4 March, 1905, and it seemed to me that 
the Vice- Chamberlain collected the auto- 
graph letters and documents with the 
intention of writing a ' History of the 
Introduction of Italian Opera in England.' 
There is, however, no mention of Vice- 
Chamberlain Coke in the ' D.N.B.' Among 
his correspondents were Catherine Tofts and 
Sir John Vanbrugh. The last-named com- 
plained to him bitterly of the conduct of 
his singers. "I am told (and believe) 
Rich is at the bottom on 't." The Vice- 
Chamberlain was, of course, a member of 
the same family as the subsequent Earls of 
Leicester, but the peerage was only created 
in 1837. I am most anxious to gather 
material concerning him for the ' Dictionary 
of Writers on Music,' on which I am engaged 
with the assistance of Mr. Louis A. Kle- 
mantaski and other collaborators. 


25, Speenham Road, Brixton, S.W. 


(US. iv. 508 ; v. 36, 76). I have not access 
to the Ninth Series, but this matter was 
discussed at 7 S. viii. 467 ; ix. 78, and, I 
believe, on former occasions. Sir R. Philli- 
mpre (' Eccl. Law,' vol. i. p. 96) says of 
Bishops Suffragan that " by courtesy they 
were commonly designated ' lords.' " He 
adds : "It [the title] is probably only a 

translation of ' Dominus,' and just as applic- 
able to the Bishop of a Church not estab- 
lished as of one established by temporal 
law." With the latter part of this sentence 
I am entirely in agreement ; the former 
would prove too much, as it would place 
all graduates to whose names the letters 
"Ds." (i.e. "Dominus") are appended in the 
buttery book of their college on the same 
level with Bishops. I would add to the 
instances, cited by W. C. B. and others, of 
the title being given to many who are not 
peers of Parliament, that of the courtesy 
title held by the sons of peers. But 
I cannot but believe, with your corre- 
spondents, that the title is inherent in the 
spiritual office of a Bishop. Reference has 
been made to Crockford. In the issue of 
1910 it is stated that 

'' there is ample documentary evidence that the 
predecessors of the present Bishops Suffragan 
were, up to the disuse of their office in the reign 
of James I., every whit (whether by right or 
courtesy) as much ' Lord Bishops ' as the Dio- 
cesans, peers of Parliament, whose labours they 
shared and lightened." 

Contrariwise, immediately following this 
paragraph appears a letter dictated by Mr. 
Gladstone in 1907, to the effect 

" that in 1870 the Secretary of State was advised 
by the Law Officers of the Crown that a Bishop 
Suffragan should be styled ' The Right Reverend 

the Bishop Suffragan of ' and should be 

addressed as ' Right Reverend Sir.' " 

But it is notorious that the Law Officers of 
the Crown are not infallible in judgments 

I have somewhere read that William IV., 
speaking to Bishop Luscombe, who had been 
consecrated in 1825 to perform episcopal 
acts for English congregations on the 
Continent, said : " I will always call you 
' My Lord.' ' This I give for what it is 
worth. E. L. H. TEW. 

Upham Rectory, Hants. 

Du BELLA Y (US. iv. 347, 459). MR. E. 
GORDON DUFF has very kindly sent me the 
two MS. leaves of Latin verse about which 
he wrote. The evidence of their contents 
and style confirms my suggestion that the 
author is Joannes Salmonius Macrinus. I 
have not found the verses printed in any 
of his books belonging to the Bodleian or 
British Museum Libraries. 


Univ. Coll., Aberystwyth. 

William Browne did not, it would seem, 
translate directly from Du Bellay, but from 
a Latin version by the Sicilian poet Janus 
Vitalis, which is entitled ' In Urbem 

11 S. V. FEB. 3, I9i2 | 


Romam qualis est hodie. It is prefixed 
to what Browne calls his " paraphrase," 
though he was evidently acquainted with the 
original. See Mr. Gordon Goodwin's edition 
of the ' Poems of William Browne of Tavi- 
stock ' in " The Muses' Library " (George 
Routledge & Sons), vol. ii. pp. 300-1, and 
note, p. 351. Mr. A. H. Bullen's ' Intro- 
duction ' is dated 1893, so I conclude that 
the edition appeared about that time that 
is, some eighteen years ago. It is a great 
pity that some publishers still persist in 
omitting the year on the front pages of 
their reprints. JOHN T. CURRY. 

May I add to the reference ' The Ruines 
of Rome,' by Bellay, and f Bellaye's Visions,' 
published in 1591, in a volume entitled 
' Complaints : containing sundrie small 
Poemes of the World's Vanitie ' ? These 
are by the author of ' The Faerie Queene,' 
whose translation of Bellay should be com- 
pared with the later version by Browne. 
The ' Complaints ' are included in the 
collected works of Edmund Spenser, and his 
translation? may be found in the Globe 
edition, pp. 526 and 538. 



437, 497 ; v. 18). The twelfth - century 
lawsuit mentioned by MR. AXSCOMBE does 
not seem to be the same as the one referred 
to by MR. DAVIES as occurring in one of the 
Selderi Society's volumes, which is of the 
early thirteenth century. The reference 
is to ' Select Pleas of the Crown,' edited by 
F. W. Maitland, vol. i. p. 48. The case is 
numbered 90, and comes among the pleas 
of Easter term, A.D. 1203 : 

" Richard of Flitch, the servant of William de 
Guines at Beck, appeals Almaric of Bore, for 
that he wickedly and by night in the king's peace 
and in larceny, in the wood of Beck, which is 
enclosed and locked, stole four pigs. ..." 

" Aumaricus venit et defendit totum de verbo 
in verbum, et dicit quod dominus suus Abbas de 
Westmonasterio habet boscum quendam vocatum 
Peenge et illo bosco cepit illos porcos. ..." 


While rejecting any affinity between this 
name and Penkridge (the Cymric Pen-y-crug} 
and Penhurst (probably originally Pinehurst), 
I take the first constituent in Penkhurst 
(Sussex), Pangbourne (Berks), and Penistone 
(Yorks), to be the same as Penge. The 
most likely derivation of Penge I take to be 
the Anglo-Saxon word pynca, a point, related 
to the verb pyngan, to prick. Pynca would 
naturally become softened into Pinga, Penge, 

and Penge, the final vowel being at length 
silent, as in Stonehenge. Pinkie seems to 
huve a still closer affinity to "pynca." 
Compare also Poynton, Poyntington, Sea- 
point, Greenpoint, Pierpoint, Hurstpierpoint, 
&c. I offer this, however, only as a sugges- 
tion. N. W. HILL. 
Xew York. 

POT oo os (11 S. v. 29). MR. HILL is 
wrong in thinking that this horse's name is 
printed in this way " in all sporting books." 
He will find a portrait of the horse in vol. i. 
of Taunton's ' Celebrated Racehorses,' where 
the name is printed Pot 80' s. Indeed, I 
never saw it printed otherwise, though the 
horse is mentioned in White's ' History of the 
Turf,' in the Druid's works, and in many 
others. MR. HILL must have got hold of 
a work with a fallen numeral. The genesis 
of the hieroglyphic is that a lad in Lord 
Abingdon's stable, having been told to write 
"Potatoes" on the corn-bin, did it after 
the following fashion : Pot,oooo,oooo. 


SCILP (11 S. v. 28). Oelly means wood, 
grove, copse. I do not know the meaning 
of the second element. I might perhaps 
guess it aright, but there has been too much 
guessing about place-names. 

Cynghor-dy means council- (or counsel-) 

LleMy means lodgings or inn. Scilp is 
not Welsh. It may be a nickname, and the 
whole word may mean Scilp's lodgings or 


Cynghordy ( = cynghor-\-ty) means " Coun- 
cil House." Lletty means " lodging," " inn." 
ScUp is scarcely a W T elsh word. In Gelly- 
feddan, gdly suggests the mutated form of 
cdli, " wood," " copse " ; but feddan is 
obscure to me. Is it a misreading of feddau ? 
Then it might be the mutated plural of bedd, 
" grave," used adjectivally. The whole word 
would =(y) gdli + beddau, meaning " (The) 
graves copse." H. I. B. 

TION (11 S. v. 6). The apparent mistake 
about Newport Pagnell is not quite set right 
by MR. C. LESLIE SMITH. The " well 
watered " town, with " like a Cathedral 
Church," must have been Newport Pagnell, 
not Bicester. As Pepys can hardly have 
gone back from Buckingham to Newport at 
night when he was going on to Oxford next 
day (and he arrived there in time to visit 


[11 S. V. FEB. 3, 1912. 

the Colleges before dinner), it would seem as 
though he had mixed up his recollections o: 
the places he had visited, though he does 
not record that he was " very merry." 


27). Fosbroke (' Antiquities,' p. 513 
remarks : - 

" Skating was a great accomplishment of 
Thialfe in the Edda, and was usual among the 
Northern and Celtic nations. Olaus Magnus 
describes the skate as of polished iron, or of the 
shank-bone of a deer, or sheep, about a foot long. 
Besides skates, they had wooden shoes with iron 
points, flexible circles with points sharpened 
every way into teeth, triangular points of iron, &c. 
Our ancestors were not only versed in sliding, 
but used the leg-bones of animals fastened to 
their shoes, and pushed themselves on with stakes 
headed with iron. The wooden skates, shod with 
iron, are said to have been invented in the Low 
Countries, and certainly introduced here from 

Skating is mentioned by the Danish historian 
Saxo Grammaticus about 1134. The 
earliest form of skate that we know (' Ency. 
Brit.,' xxv. 166) is that of the bone "runners" 
(still preserved in museums) worn by the 
primitive Norsemen. Whatever its origin 
in Great Britain, skating was certainly a 
common sport in England in the twelfth 
century, as is proved by an old translation 
of Fitz-Steven's 'Description of London,' 

" When the great fenne or moore (which wa- 
tereth the walls of the citie on the North side) is 
frozen, many young men play on the yce .... 
asome tye bones to their feete and under their 
heeles, and shoving themselves with a little picked 
staffe do slide as swiftlie as a birde flyeth in the 
aire or an arrow out of a cross-bow." 

At what period the use of metal runners 
was introduced is unknown, but it was 
possibly not long after the introduction 
into Northern Europe, in the third century 
A.D., of the art of working in iron. Blade- 
skates were probably introduced here from 
Holland about 1660 ; and skating is said 
to have been made fashionable by the Cava- 
liers who had been in exile with Charles II. 
in Holland. That it had become popular 
with the aristocracy as well as with the 
people we are told by Pepys : 

1 Dec., 1662. " Over the park (where I first in 
my life did see people sliding with their skates, 
which is a very pretty art)." 

Also on 13 Dec. " To the Duke [of York], and 
followed him into the park, where, though the ice 
was broken and dangerous, yet he would go slide 
upon his skates, which I did not like, but he 
slides very well." 

The earliest patents are by J. H. Savigny 
(December, 1784), "for making skates and 

fixing them on with more ease, safety, and 
expedition than hath hitherto been dis- 
covered." Also by W. Milward (April, 
1819) : " My improvement on the skate, and 
fixing the same, consists of attaching the 
skate iron to the shoe instead of a wooden 
sole, to be strapped on the foot as heretofore." 
As to when steel skates were first used, 
compare Sir Walter Scott in 1824, ' St. 
Ronan's Well,' chap. iii. : "I thought 
sketchers were aye made of aim." (Sketch 
is the Scotch form of "skate.") A steel 
sole and fittings were introduced as an 
improvement by John Rodgers in 1831 ; 
but skates made entirely of steel are more 
modern perhaps fifty years later. 


In my edition of ' Haydn's Dictionary 
of Dates ' (1885) it is stated that skating 
is " mentioned by the Danish historian 
Saxo Grammaticus about 1134," after which 
is a reference to FitzStephen. It also men- 
tions that there are " figures of skates in 
Olaus Magnus's history, printed 1555." 
' Chambers' s Encyclopaedia ' records that a 
bibliography of nearly 300 works relating to 
skating appeared in ' N. & Q.' between 
1874 and 1881, and a reference to this may 
assist MB. FORBES SIEVEKING in tracing what 
he desires. URLLAD. 

;il S. v. 28). 1. BARROW. In the ' Athense 
Oxonienses ' it is said that Thomas Barrow, 
the father of Isaac Barrow, Master of Trin. 
! oll., Camb., was the son of Isaac Barrow of 
Spinney Abbey, Camb., Esq. This work also 
mentions Isaac Barrow, Doctor of Physic, 
who was buried in All Saints' Church, Camb., 
on 22 Feb., 1616. 

The Barrows must have sold Spinney 
Abbey, as it became the seat of Henry Crom- 
well, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, after 
lis retirement, and it was there that Charles 
[I. visited him. 

Oliver, Henry's eldest son, diedTthere, and 
lis brother Henry, who succeeded to the 
property, sold it to Edward Russell, Lord 

died on 18 May, 1850, and was buried on 
25 May in Brompton Cemetery. His first 
wife, Lady Augusta Campbell, died in 1831. 
He lived with his second wife at Abbeville 

France) a long time before he married her; 
she survived him. 

4. ROBERT CLAVERING was a son of Sir 
Thomas Clavering of Greencroft, co. Dur- 
lam. He was entitled to his name, though 

iijs. v. F KB . 3, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Sir Thomas never owned him. His mother 
was a Frenchwoman, and lived in Paris. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

2. COL. JOHN HENRY BELLI This scrap 
may be of use. John Belli, Esq., of South- 
ampton, who died in 1805, married Elizabeth 
Stuart, daughter of Samuel Blount, Esq., ot 
that place. He calls Samuel Pepys Cockerel! 
and Charles Cockerell his brothers-in-law, but 
I do not know how that relationship came 
about. W. C. B. 

BELL (11 S. iv. 528). In the 
Cole MS. in the British Museum, Add. 
MSS. 5831, folios 473, 476, will be found 
memoranda concerning him which may give 
the required information. Also 5848, folio 
259, gives the Beaupre pedigree. 

G. J. GRAY. 

" SAMHOWD " (11 S. iv. 446). According to 
the ' E.D.D.' the meaning of sammodithee is 
" the same unto thee," the expression being 
current as a form of greeting. This differs 
materially from the example given by MR. 
RATCLIFFE. I do not find any mention 
made of the dialect verbs sam and samhmvd 
in the same authority. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

0n Itooks, &r. 

The Oxford Shakespeare Glossary. By C. T. 
Onions, M.A.London, of the ' Oxford English 
Dictionary.' (Oxford, Clarendon Press. ) 

WE give the title-page in this case at greater 
length than usual, for it explains the merits of the 
present work, and affords good reason for its 
existence. Of Shakespeare glossaries there are 
many, but the present is amply justified, for it is 
" primarily the outcome of an analysis of Shake- 
speare's vocabulary conducted in the light of the 
results published in the [Oxford] Dictionary." The 
merits of that great work in analysis have often 
been commended in our columns, and they are 
such as command the unqualified praise of every 
expert. Mr. Onions has worked for fifteen years 
on the editorial staff of the ' Dictionary ' ; he has 
also paid special attention to Warwickshire dialect 
and to the language of Shakespeare's contem- 
poraries ; and, further, he has been able to 
profit by the labours of a host of critics and 
commentators who have gone before, and whose 
help is, we are glad to see, fully recognized. 
Among these our contributor the late H. C. Hart 
fully deserves special mention. 

Average literary kn'owledge is not ranked too 
high, and senses still current have been occa- 
sionally illustrated. Our own experience of 
present-day standards leads us to endorse this 
procedure as wise. Full references are given to 
passages in the works, and we regard the volume 

as a model of business-like conciseness. It only 
remains to add that its price is remarkably low. 
We have not seen the edition on India paper, 
which costs a little more, but it would, we imagine, 
make the volume a triumph of compression in 
every way. 

FROM the Cambridge University Press comes 
another rich source of illustration of the greatest 
of our poets in Life in Shakespeare's England, 
one of " The Cambridge Anthologies," compiled 
by Mr. John Dover Wilson. Here the " meagre 
framework of facts which we call the life of Shake- 
speare " has been admirably supplemented by 
extracts from contemporary writers which illus- 
trate the life and manners of the day. The 
country^ the stage, the Court, vagabonds and 
rascals, 'shopmen and sportsmen all are ex- 
hibited as they appeared in their characteristic 
guise. The topic of religion is omitted : " The 
omission, it might be said, is Shakespeare's. 
Nothing is more remarkable in his work than* its 
silence concerning the religious life and violent 
theological controversy of the time." The 
spelling has been modernized, and the chapters 
and a large number of the extracts are headed by 
the quotations from Shakespeare which they 

Mr. Wilson's aim is to make his book as at- 
tractive and as easy to read as possible, and he has 
certainly succeeded in making his collection highly 
readable as well as instructive. The student of 
to-day has so many advantages unknown to his 
predecessors a generation earlier that he has little 
excuse for lack of accomplishment. As for the 
general reader, learning is brought so close to his 
door, and made so easy for him, that even he may 
be induced to read something: beyond the news- 
papers. There are seven illustrations, a glossary 
of difficult words, and an ' Index of Authors." 

Cameo Book - Stamps. Figured and Described 
by Cyril Davenport, V.D.. F.S.A. (Edward 

THIS handsome and well-printed book is by a 
master of the subject, and will rank as authorita- 
tive. The title is not too clear to the uninitiated. 
It indicates the use of dies cut for stamping 
books, the dies belonging to the same category as 
those used for medals. Cameo stamps on 
leather are, says the author, " produced by means 
of pressure from sunk dies of wood or metal, 
the design showing in low relief." They are, as 
a rule, larger than medal or coin dies, and rect- 
angular in outline. Mr. Davenport gives us 
details of the technical methods of stamping, 
colouring, and gilding, the last a process of some 
difficulty to attain permanent and satisfactory 
results. The term " cameo " has long been 
applied to the early Italian stamp in relief, but 
might also be applied, the author thinks, to the 
same class of stamp from the Netherlands, 
England, France, and Germany. " Embossed " 
is an equally descriptive term, as is remarked, and 
perhaps clearer. 

The illustrations, of which, with the descrip- 
tions attached to them, the book is composed, are 
admirably rendered, and the result of much care 
and forethought. First, the author made rub- 
bings Which gave the general distribution and 
proportion of the stamps, though by no means a 
complete impression. These he then supple- 
mented with carefully drawn outlines copied 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. v. FEB. 3, 1912. 

from the stamps themselves. These renderings 
he regards as superior to photography, which does 
not on the whole show adequate results, owing 
to the different incidences of lighting. 

The 151 examples figured are mainly drawn 
from the British Museum. There are, however, 
a few good specimens from private hands. Mr. 
Davenport will be glad to hear of more cameo 
stamps, large or small, with a view to making 
drawings of them, provided that they do not 
contain copies or obvious adaptations of the 
designs he has here put before us. His book 
"being provided with full indexes, and arranged 
alphabetically according to subject, there should 
he no difficulty in tracing all that he supplier. 
'The designs include fine heads of Alexander the 
Great and Cato the Elder, Augustus with a 
Sibyl, the arms of Anne Boleyn, Catherine of 
Arragon, and George Carew, Earl of Totnes. a 
bust portrait of Queen Elizabeth, and several 
heads of Luther. There is a beautiful floral 
design with a rose as centre, dated 1499, but most 
of the stamps are of the century after. 

Mr. Davenport gives short accounts of the 
life of figures so well known as Lucretia, Cleo- 
patra, and Cicero. He does not, however, pro- 
vide much assistance to the average reader in 
his renderings of the Latin mottoes, which are 
often a little loose. In No. 48 (1 Cor. xv. 55) 
we might be led to suppose that " interne " means 
*' O ! grave." Many of the inscriptions are 
metrical in form, and so help the scholar. Thus 
we have no difficulty in supplying " eris " after 
<l certus " at the end of No. 102 to complete the 
sense, and find it actually occurring in No. 104. 
In neither is " certus " or " certus eris " rendered. 
Our author is, of course, fully equipped in these 
matters, but we think he might consider those 
who are not. 

Ix the February Cornhill Magazine Sir Henry 
Lucy continues his reminiscences, collected under 
the "title of ' Sixty Years in the Wilderness,' 
some four pages of which are devoted to the 
attitude taken by The Daily News in the case of 
Sir Charles Dilke, and include a letter from Lady 
Dilke. Mr. Stephen Gwynn's ' Farewell to the 
Land ' is particularly good reading ; if there is 
something of Utopia about it, this nevertheless 
surrounds a kernel of satisfactory experience. 
Many people must have wondered with regret 
how it happened that " Lanoe Falconer's" career 
as a writer was so brief : the explanation is here 
supplied by Mrs. March Phillips in an interesting 
and sympathetic memoir of her. There is a 
letter, dated from Hamburg in 1799, relating 
a meeting between the writer and C16ry, valet to 
Louis XVI., giving Clery's account of the King's 
disposition at the time of his execution. Miss 
Jane H. Findlater's story ' Mysie had a Little 
Lamb ' is somewhat spun out, but has her cha- 
racteristic humour. 

IN The Fortnightly Review for February, Mr. 
Sydney Brooks's ' Aspects of the Religious Question 
in Ireland ' is the political article which is at once 
the liveliest and of the most permanent general 
interest. He argues that those Unionists who 
desire to see Ireland freed from "the tyranny of the 
Church " have no hope but in Home Rule. Mr. 
Maohray's discussion of 'The Fate of Persia' gives 
clearly and succinctly the external moves which 
have brought about tne present situation between 

th it country, Russia, and ourselves. Most readers 
will turn to Mr. John Galsworthy's ' Vague 
Thoughts on Art,' where they will find a new 
definition of Art, a discussion of the Realist and 
the Romantic as the two fundamentally different 
forms of Art, and a good deal in the way of hope- 
ful prognostication. ' The Whirligig of Men,' by 
Mr. J?. H. W. Ross, is a somewhat strangely written, 
but suggestive contribution to international think- 
ing. The practice of " mercifulness" by a nation 
whereof treatment of the Jews affords a con- 
venient test is held to be a factor in national 
predominance more or less on a level with advan- 
tages of climate and position. Mr. F. G. Aflalo 
has a very entertaining and sympathetic paper 
' Diana of the Highways ' on women travellers 
and explorers. 

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pious and unaffected manners. He was a great 
favourite with young men, whom he loved to 
stimulate into literary activity, and was esteemed 
by a large circle for his sincerity, kindly nature, 
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ii S.V.FKB. 10,1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 111. 

NOTES : Charles Dickens, 101 " Castra," "Castrse," in 
Old English, 103 Colkinto and Ga-lasp, 104 The Coventry 
Shakespeares Omar Kh iyyam Bath Abbey Arms, 105 
Casanova and Kitty Fisher Lear's ' Book of Nonsense ' 
Dickens : Mr. Magnus's Spectacles Rights of Interment, 
106 A Woman Train Dispatcher" NU est in intellect!! 
quod non fuerit in sensu ''Regent's Park : Centenary, 

nietk- among the Romans Curious Land Customs The 
Odd Chair: Peter the Great St. Cyr Cocquard, 108 
Hone's 'Ancient Mysteries 'Earldom of Derwent water 
Dighton's Drawings French Prisoners of War at Lich- 
fleld Joseph Neunzig : Heinrich Heine Gladstone on 
the Duty of a Leader Musicians' Epitaphs : Inglott 
Selkirk Family, 109 Harry Quitter's Poems French 
Grammars ' Cocke Lorelle's Bote ' Cosey Hall, 
Gloucestershire Sir Kenelm Digby ' Temple Bar ' : 
Casanova Capranica Family ' Ian Roy 'Matilda of 
Paris Gretna Green Records Keeston Castle, Pem- 
brokeshire Mummers Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of 
New York, 110 Dickens Knockers, 111. 

REPLIES :-'Lillibullero,' 111 St. Agnes: Folk-lore, 112 
Bells rung for King Charles's Execution Rail way Travel : 
Early Impressions, 113 James Townsend " Riding the 
high horse" Dean Swift and the Rev. J. Geree, 114 
Mistletoe St. Cuthbert's Birds " United States 
Security "Aviation Maida : Naked British Soldiers- 
Dinner-jacket, 115 ' The Confinement ' : a Poem Lairds 
of Drumminnor ''Samaritan Bible Felicia Remans 
Nicolay Family Keats's ' Ode to a Nightingale ' Queen 
Anne and her Children, 116 Money-box Jones and 
Blunkett T. Gilks, Engraver " De La " in English 
Surnames, 117. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: The Oxford Dictionary ' Easy 
Chair Memories 'Reviews and Magazines. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


FEBRUARY TTH, 1812 JUNE 9rn, 1870. 

(See ante, p. 81.) 

IN less than ten years from his leaving 
the blacking warehouse we find Dickens 
'' stealthily one evening at twilight, with 
fear and trembling, dropping a packet into 
a dark letter-box in a dark office ' up a dark 
court in Fleet Street. This was the office 
of the old Monthly Magazine, and he has 
told us of his agitation when he purchased 
the number for January, 1834, at a shop 
in the Strand, and found his contribution 
in all the glory of print 

*' on which occasion I walked down to West- 
minster Hall, and turned into it for half an hour, 
because my eyes were so dimmed with joy and 
pride, that they could not bear the street, and 
wore not fit to be seen there." 

The paper was entitled ' A Dinner at Poplar 
Walk,' and was afterwards included among 
the ' Sketches by Boz,' with the name of 
' Mr. Minns and his Cousin.' On the 31st of 
March, 1836, the first number of ' Pickwick ' 
appeared, and two days after, the 2nd of 
April, he was married to Catherine, the 
eldest daughter of George Hogarth, who was 
a fellow -worker with him on The Morning 
Chronicle. The rapid success of ' Pickwick,' 
" a series of sketches without the pretence 
to such interest as attends a well-constructed 
story," and the popularity it won for its 
author, were marvellous. People at the 
time talked of nothing else, and tradesmen 
recommended their goods by using its name. 
The excitement was not confined to grown- 
up people even in schools the parts were 
looked forward to ; and Mrs. Samuel Watson, 
the daughter of the late Dr. Samuel G. Green, 
who was born in 1822, remembers that it was 
one of her father's favourite reminiscences 
that at the school he attended the head 
master was wont to read aloud to the boys 
the monthly parts as they appeared, and that 
a whole holiday celebrated Mr. Pickwick's 
release from the Fleet. For Part I. the 
binder did up 400 copies, while for Part XV. 
40,000 were required. Forster puts the 
entire sum received by Dickens for the work 
at 2,5001. ; and on the same date that the 
agreement as to his share in the copyright 
was completed with Chapman & Hall the 
19th of November, 1837 an agreement was 
entered into for a new work, to be entitled 
' The Life and Adventures of Nicholas 

In the midst of the triumph of ' Pickwick ' 
a great personal sorrow befell Dickens, 
which so afflicted him that the publication 
was delayed for two months. This was the 
death of his wife's younger sister Mary, 
who lived with them, and who died with a 
terrible suddenness. Her epitaph, written 
by him, may be seen on her grave at Kensal 
Green: "Young, beautiful, and good, God 
numbered her among His angels at the 
early age of seventeen." 

On his visit to London in April, 1841, 
Jeffrey, who had been telling all Scotland 
that there had been " nothing so good as 
Nell since Cordelia," arranged for Dickens 
to visit Edinburgh in June, where he was 
to be welcomed with a public dinner. The 
reception was magnificent, and Dickens 
with his ability for making word-portraits 
writes graphic descriptions of it to Forster : 

" The renowned Peter Robertson is a large, 
portly, full-faced man with a merry eye, and a 
queer way of looking under his spectacles which 
is characteristic and pleasant. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. f n s. v. FEB. 10, 1912 

" Walking up and down the hall of the courts 
of law was Wilson, a tall, burly, handsome man of 
eight-ancl -fifty, with a gait like O'Connell's, the 
bluest eye you can imagine, and long hair falling 
down in a wild way under the broad brim of his 

The freedom of the city was voted by 
acclamation, and the parchment scroll hung 
framed in his study to the last. 

Mamie Dickens, in that charming little 
book, ' My Father as I Recall Him ' of 
which an edition was issued last Christmas 
by Messrs. Cassell, with four illustrations in 
colour by Brock tells how he mourned for 
Little Nell " like a father." 

" I am for the time nearly dead with work and 
grief for the loss of my child .... I went to bed 
last night utterly dispirited and done up. All 
night I have been pursued by the child ; and this 
morning I am unrefreshed and miserable. I do 
not know what to do with myself." 

In striking contrast to this, and to the 
way in which Little Nell has won most hearts 
to the praise of the hard-hearted old Judge 
Jeffrey and of Hood, to Bret Harte's account 
of the gold-diggers by the Californian camp 
fire throwing down their cards to listen to 
her story we have Sir Frank T. Marzials, 
in his ' Life of Dickens,' saying : 

"If it 'argues an insensibility' to stand un- 
moved among all these tears and admiration, 
I am afraid I must be rather pebble-hearted. To 
tell the whole damaging truth, I am, and always 
have been, only slightly affected by the story of 
Little Nell; have never felt any particular in- 
clination to shed a tear over it, and consider the 
closing chapters as failing of their due effect, on 
me at least, because they are pitched in a key 
that is altogether too high and unnatural." 
Some will consider this bold criticism indeed, 
in the face of so strong a contrary opinion, 
and Sir Frank Marzials himself modestly 
adds : 

" Of course one makes a confession of this 
kind with diffidence. It is no light thing to stem 
the current of a popular opinion. But one can 
only go with the stream when one thinks the 
stream is flowing in a right channel. And here 
I think the stream is meandering out of its course. 
For me, Little Nell is scarcely more than a dream 
from cloudland." 

During 1841 letters poured in to Dickens 
from all parts of the United States, expressing 
the delight his writings afforded, specially 
referring to Little Nell, and entreating 
him to visit America. He and his wife 
started on the desired visit on the 3rd of 
January, 1842. Of his welcome he has 
left a full account in his letters to Forster. 
People lined the streets when he went out. 
There were balls, dinners, and assemblies 
without end given in his honour, to say 
nothing of a public dinner at Boston, at 
which the tickets cost 31. each. "It is no 

nonsense, and no common feeling," wrote 
Channing to him. "It is all heart. There 
never was, and never will be, such a triumph." 
Ticknor, writing to Kenyon, said : 

'' A triumph has been prepared for him, in 
which the whole country will join. He will 
have a progress through the States unequalled 
since Lafayette's." 

Daniel Webster told the Americans that 
Dickens had done more already to ameliorate 
the condition of the English poor than all 
the statesmen Great Britain had sent into 
Parliament. But a change was to come 
on his visit to New York, when a public 
dinner was given to him, at which Washing- 
ton Irving took the chair. The committee, 
composed of the first gentlemen in America,, 
besought him not to speak on copyright, 
to which he had already alluded in Boston,. 
" although they every one agreed with me." 

" I answered that I would. That nothing 
should deter me.... That the shame was theirs, 
not mine ; and that as I could not spare them 
when I got home, I would not be silenced there." 
No sooner did he commence his reference 
to international copyright than an outcry 
began ; but he held on, and The New York 
Herald of the following day gave a full 
report of his speech. He could scarcely 
be restrained from speaking against slavery 
as well, so that the enthusiasm for " the 
guest of the nation " waned. Yet his 
speeches on copyright had good effect, and 
he writes : 

" I have in my portmanteau a petition for an 
International copyright law, signed by all the best 
American writers, with Washington Irving at 
their head. They have requested me to hand it to 
Clay for presentation, and to back it up with 
any remarks I may think proper to offer. So 
' Hooroar for the principle, as the money-lender 
said, ven he vouldn't renoo the bill.' " 

But both Dickens and his wife were 
longing to be back with their children 
again : 

" As the time draws nearer, we get FEVERED 
with anxiety for home .... Kiss our darlings for 
us. We shall soon meet, please God, and be 
happier and merrier than ever we were, in all our 
lives .... Oh home home home home home 
home HOME HI" 

The year of his return from America was 
that of Longfellow's visit to England. 
" Have no home but ours," wrote Dickens 
to him, when he heard of his coming. 'The 
_tay was most happy to all, and Forster 
speaks of Longfellow as " our attached 
Friend, who possesses all the qualities of 
delightful companionship, the culture and 
the charm which have no higher type or 
xample than the accomplished and genial 

11 S. V. FKB. 10, 191-2. ] 


Then came ' American Notes,' which 
caused Dickens much anxiety and care. It 
appeared on the 18th of October, 1842, and 
before the year closed four editions had 
been sold. Jeffrey, connected with America 
by the strongest social affections, said of 
it : 

" You have been very tender to our sensitive 
friends beyond sea, and my whole heart goes 
along with every word you have written. I 
think that you have perfectly accomplished all 
you profess or undertake to do, and that the 
world has never yet seen a more faithful, graphic, 
amusing, kind-hearted narrative." 

1843 opened with his "hammering away 
all day " at ' Chuzzlewit ' ; and during the 
year he began to take public part in those 
works of charity and mercy which occupied 
him throughout his life. For the printers 
he took the chair at their annual dinner in 
aid of their Pension Fund, which Hood, 
Jerrold, and Forster attended with him. 
After the terrible summer evening accident 
at sea by which Elton the actor lost his 
life. Dickens, ably helped by Mr. Serle 
and the theatrical profession, would not 
rest until ample provision was made for 
his children. In October he presided at 
the opening of the Manchester Athenaeum, 
when he told his listeners that " he protested 
against the danger of calling a little learning 
dangerous,' 1 and declared his preference for 
the very least of the little over none at all, 
mentioning that he had lately 

" taken Longfellow to see, in the nightly refuges 
of London, thousands of immortal creatures 
condemned without alternative of choice to tread, 
not what our great poet calls the primrose path 
to the everlasting bonfire, but one of jagged 
IHnts and stones laid down by brutal ignorance : 
and contrasted this with the unspeakable con- 
solation and blessings that a little knowledge 
had shed on men of the lowest estate and most 
hopeless means, watching the stars with Ferguson 
the shepherd's boy, walking the streets with 
Crabbe, a poor barber here in Lancashire, with 
Arkwright, a tallow chandler's son, with Franklin, 
shoemaking with Bloomfield in his garret, follow- 
ing the plough with Burns, and high above the 
noise of loom and hammer, whispering courage 
in the ears of workers I could this day name in 
Sheffield and in Manchester." 

He gave eager welcome to ragged schools, 
calling Miss Coutts's attention to them, who 
wrote back at once 

li to know what the rent of some large airy pre- 
mises would be, and what the expense of erecting 
a regular bathing or purifying place would be ; 
touching which points I am in correspondence 
with the authorities." ' 

Towards the close of the year he began to 
work upon that gem of gems, ' The Christmas 
Carol.' " With a strange mastery it seized 
him for itself : how he wept over it, and 

laughed, and wept again, and excited him- 
self to an extreme degree." On its publica- 
tion Thackeray wrote to him: "Such 
a book as this seems to me a national 
benefit, and to every man or woman who 
reads it a personal kindness." Letters 
daily poured in from complete strangers, 
telling him " how the Carol had come 
to be read in their homes, and was to 
be kept on a little shelf by itself, and was 
to do them all no end of good." 

I still possess the copy which Dickens 
gave to my father, and well remember 
his reading it aloud to us. I also 
remember, on Christmas Eve, 1858. hearing 
the author himself read it a Christmas. 
Eve never to be forgotten. 


(To be continued.) 


Ix order to understand the behaviour of the 
Latin word castra in English the student of 
place-names would naturally turn to Dr. 
Pogatscher's article on the phonology of 
Greek, Latin, and Romance loan-words in 
Old English. This appeared in ' Quellen und 
Forschungen zur Sprach- und Kultur- 
geschichte der germanischen Volker' in 
1888 (part Ixiv.). But disappointment 
awaits him in that quarter : Dr. Pogatscher 
knew neither the normal uninfected form 
nor the umlauted one ; and he paid no 
attention to the form preserved by Bede. 
He asserted, moreover, that ceaster is derived 
from castru(m). But that derivation is not 
accepted, and I beg leave to supplement 
the few remarks he makes about the forms 
that castra took in O.E. 

The normal O.E. representative of Latin d 
in the Anglian and Kentish dialects is ce, 
hence castra postulates ccestrce. That actu- 
ally occurs in Bede's ' Historia Ecclesiastica,' 
II. iii. p. 85, " (Dorubreuis) quam gens An- 
glorum. . . . Hrofaescaestrae cognominat " ; 
and IV. xxiii. p. 254, " Dorca-caestrae " 
(MSS. d&rcic-c.). 

In the Mercian and Kentish dialects we 
get cestcr, and, as one of the uses of e is 
denoting i-umlaut of ce, this postulates 
ccestir. This form, which he spells caestir, is 
actually used by Bede in every case except 
those quoted just now. In the infected form 
cester the umlaut is hidden, but in the un- 
i i f ected early Northumbrian one the i 
invariably appears. So far as I am aware 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. v. FEB. 10, 191-2. 

this i has not been accounted for. It i 
obvious that it cannot be derived from 
castra, or castrum. 

The West-Saxon ceaster is explained 
Dr. Joseph Wright in his ' Old English 
Grammar ' (1908), a work which no studen 
of our place-names can dispense with. The 
after c denotes the palatal, and Dr. Wrigh 
derives the form ceaster from castra, throug] 
*cecester = ccester. But this, as we hav 
seen already, is merely the caestir of Bede 
Again, whence comes this I ? 

Now Latin e, ce, in early loan-word 
became I in O.E. For instance : 1. Mono 
syllabic stems seta, " side," silk ; cepa 
" cipe," onion ; pcena, " pin," torture 
2. Poly-syllables Lecocetum (MSS. lecto-c. 
eto-c.), " Liccidfeld," Lichfield ; Cunetio 
" Cynet " ( = *Cynlt, *Cunit), Kint-bury 
moneta, "mynet" (=myntt, *munit), money 
mint. Hence caestir, *caestlr, postulate 
Latin caster, castcer. No such forms are 
known, and it woxild not seem easy to pro- 
ceed. It struck me, however, some time 
ago, that perhaps the Latin castra was 
treated in the fifth century as a_ feminine 
singular with a new plural in e, ce. In my 
difficulty I applied to Prof. W. M. Lindsay, 
, great authority on Latin flexions, and he 
immediately gave substance to my conjecture 
and informed me that numerous examples of 
late Latin castra (fern, sing.) occur. Now 
the form castrce, castre, would normally 
become *caestrl in O.E., and, after correp- 
tion of i and metathesis of r, caestir would 
result. Hence the uninfected West-Saxon 
form ceaster, as well as the Anglian and 
Kentish umlauted form cester, and the 
Northumbrian uninfected one caestir, are all 
derived from the Low Latin castr&, through 
*caestrl and *caesttr. 



IN 1883 Mark Pattison, who was an acknow- 
ledged authority on Milton, edited the poet's 
sonnets with an introduction and notes 
(Kegan Paul & Co.). A model of its kind, 
the little book is a distinct and permanent 
contribution to the literature of expository 
criticism. One note is less satisfactory than 
it might easily have been made if the editor's 
investigations had gone further than they 
seem to have done. This is concerned with 
a passage in the sonnet ' On the Detraction 
which followed upon my writing Certain 
Treatises.' The*poet*complains that critics 

had boggled at his title ' Tetrachordon,' and 
then exclaims : 

Why is it harder, sirs, than Gordon, 
Colkitto, or Macdonnel, cr Galasp ? 
Those rugged names to our like mouths grow 

That would have made Quintilian stare and 


For the explanation of the Northern names 
in these lines the editor trusts to Prof. 
Masson, from whom he quotes this note : 

" Leaders under Montrose in his campaign of 
1644-5. George, Lord Gordon, the eldest son 
of the Marquis of Huntly ; the other three names 
belong to the same person, Alexander Macdonald 
the younger, commonly called young Colkitto." 

Annotating the " Scotch what-d'ye-call " 
in the later sonnet ' On the New Forcers of 
Conscience,' Pattison mentions that the 
Westminster Assembly commissioners from 
Scotland were Alexander Henderson. George 
Gillespie, Robert Baillie, and Samuel Ruther- 
ford. It is surprising that this reference to 
Gillespie did not recall the " Galasp " of the 
earlier lyric and prompt an addition to 
Masson' s deliverance, for it is almost certain 
that it was this divine whom the poet sought 
to pillory under a fairly obvious travesty of 
his surname. This view has the advantage 
of enjoying the sovereign support of Sir 
Walter Scott. In chap. xv. of ' A Legend 
of Montrose,' after saying that the name of 
Colkitto appears in a sonnet " to the great 
embarrassment of Milton's commentators," 
he quotes in a note the lines given above, 
and writes as follows : 

" Milton in his sonnet retaliates upon the bar- 
barous Scottish names which the Civil War had 
made familiar to English ears . . . . ' We may 
suppose,' says Bishop Newton, ' that these were 
persons of note among the Scotch ministers, 
who were for pressing and enforcing the Cove- 
nant ' ; whereas Milton only intends to ridicule 
}he barbarism of Scottish names in general, 
and quotes, indiscriminately, that of Gillespie, 
one of the Apostles of the Covenant, and those 
of Colkitto and M'Donnell (both belonging to one 
person), one of its bitterest enemies." 

Scott explains that Colkitto was by birth 
i. Scottish islesman, that he was related to 
he Earl of Antrim, and that it was to this 
lobleman's influence he owed his command 
if the Irish troops under Montrose. He 
alls him variously " Alaster M 'Donald " 
md " Alister or Alexander M'Donnell" 
)ut nowhere indicates that he was ever 
mown by the fantastic name of Calasp. The 
Rev. George Gillespie (1613-48) substan- 
ially assisted the Assembly of Divines at 
Westminster in 1643 " in preparing the 
Catechisms, the Directory for Worship, the 
Confession of Faith, and other standards of 

ii s. v. FEB. 10, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Scottish Church." A keen polemic, he 
contributed largely to the controversies o; 
his time, and it is said that while in London 
he was prevented from publishing certain 
sermons " through the jealousy of the 
Independents." He was successively a 
parish minister in Fife and in Edinburgh, 
and he was Moderator of the General 
Assembly in the year of his death. 

In writing his note Masson may have 
confused Sir Alexander M'Coll M'Donald 
(Colkitto) with his father Coll MacGillespick 
M'Donald, called Coll Keitache, or left- 
handed, whose activity did not bring him 
within Milton's purview. 


lowing letter from Samuel Franldand, 
master of the Coventry Free School, is 
without superscription ; but was evidently 
addressed to the mayor of the city and 
others in whom, by the terms of William 
Wheate's will, dated 27 Jan., 1615, was 
vested the appointment to an exhibitioner- 
ship, worth 6?. a year, tenable for four years, 
to be divided between two poor scholars 
towards their maintenance at the University 
(' Coventry Charities,' pp. 145-6). John 
Shakespeare (see ante, p. 24) was at the time 
of the writing of this letter (1654) eleven 
years old. He matriculated at St. John's, 
Oxford, on 18 Oct., 1662, took his degree 
from St. Mary's Hall, and became in 1670 
Vicar of Austrey, co. Warwick, a living he 
held until 1689 (Dugdale, ' Warw.,' 1123). 

The letter is transcribed from Coventry 
Corp. MS. A. 79, p. 255, back : 


Whereas I am given to understand that Mr. 
Wheate will not pay any more money to Henry 
Hurt of his schoole-Exhibition by reason of his 
discontinuance from the University, I make bold 
(being by the last Will and Testament of Mr. 
Wheate impowred thereunto) to recommend to 
your consideracion John, the sonne of Thomas 
Shakespeare, for that preferment, concerning 
whome I have this to say, that for an absolute 
good scholar in whatever belonged to schoole 
he is not inferiour to the best that ever I sent out 
of this schoole, since I first came here to serve 
you in it. and for sweetnes of disposition in all 
respects answerable, and (which I humbly con- 
ceive may more render him an object of your 
lharity herein) is willing to undergoe any hardship 
chat he may but stick in a Colledge, whereby he 
givt-s great hopes that in revolucion of time he 
will become a creditt and ornament both to your 
srhoole and Citty. This is certified and attested 

master of vour free schoole. 

Frankland's recommendation is confirmed by 
Richard Baylie, President of St. John's, 
Oxford, 6 June, 1654. 


OMAR KHAYYAM. Lovers of Omar Khay- 
yam will read with interest the account 
given by Prof. A. V. W. Jackson, in his new 
book ' From Constantinople to the Home of 
Omar Khayyam,' of a visit he paid to the 
tomb of the poet, some four miles from 
Nishapur. Few of his countrymen know of 
him at all, and then merely as "Doctor 
Khayyam " the astronomer ; as a poet he is 
disregarded : 

" His very name recalls the hated Sonni caliph 
Omar and the Arab conquest ; and his wine- 
bibbing verses, except when given a strained 
mystical and allegorical interpretation by the 
Sufis, are taken literally ; while his freedom of 
thought in expressing his attitude towards the 
One Eternal Being is looked upon as little less 
than blasphemy." 

The grave adjoins the mosque of the Imam 
Zadok Mahruk, and in describing it Prof. 
Jackson recalls Omar's prophecy that "his 
grave would be where flowers in the spring- 
time would shed their petals over his dust." 

" Upon reaching the arched portal of the 
entrance a mass of emerald bushes and yellow 
flowering shrubs came into view. It was [says the 
Professor] a truly Persian garden, with roughly 
outlined walks and stone-coped watercourses, 
and with shade trees and flowers on every hand. 
The sarcophagus stands beneath the central 
one of three arched recesses, its niche measur- 
ing about 13 ft. across, while the flanking 
arches measure about 10ft. each and are 
empty. A couple of terraced brick steps 
lead up to the flooring where it rests. The 
oblong tomb is a simple case made of brick 
and cement, the poet's remains reposing 
beneath. A. N. Q. 

BATH ABBEY ARMS. At 9 S. viii. 221 
MR. ARTHUR J. JEWERS had occasion to refer 
;o the quaint and ancient church of St. 
Catherine, attached to the parish of Bath- 
?aston, near Bath, and to transcribe from 
he east window thereof an inscription wh ch 
le gives thus : 

Orate pro anima D'ni Joh'is Cantelow quonda 
Prioris hanc cancella fieri fecit Ao: D: 


He soundly rates Collinson ('History of 
Somerset ') for copying the inscription 

Now it is clear that they who correct the 

alleged) errors of others should be immune 

rom similar charges themselves. I have 
not seen Collinson's rendering of the inscnp- 

ion, which he (like Nash in his ' History of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. f n s. v. FEB. 10, 191-2. 

Worcestershire ' ) possibly obtained at second- 
hand, but I do know that MB. JEWERS'S 
own transcription of it is incorrect. Last 
August, during a locum-tenency of Bath- 
aeston parish, I had more than one oppor- 
tunity of inspecting the venerable glass 
at St. Catherine's, and can vouch for the 
inscription being copied verbatim as follows : 


The eye of the cursory reader may discern 
but little or no variation between the two 
versions : not so that of the antiquary, 
who microscopically notes divergent abbre- 
viations and redundancy or omissions of 

I may add that the late Mr. H. B. Inman, 
in his charming notes on Batheaston 
parish, issued in the local magazine of 
September, 1888, gives the inscription 
therein correctly, with the exception of the 
date, which he inadvertently enters as 
" MCCCCLXXXXIX," and renders as " 1489 " 
a double error. Assuredly it is high time 
that a faithful transcription of this hapless 
inscription should be permanently recorded. 
J. B. McGovERN. 

recently published volume called ' The 
Homantic Past,' Mr. Ralph Nevill has chal- 
Isnged the accuracy of " a modern English 
story " of the meeting of Casanova and Kitty 
Fisher. Obviously the account in question, 
which is described as " bowdlerized " and 
" unreal," is that contained in a book of 
mine which was reviewed in ' N. & Q.,' 
10 S. xi. 398. Like the two soldiers in the 
fable, Mr. Nevill and I have been looking 
at the shield from opposite sides. While 
he has consulted the Gamier edition, I pre- 
ferred (as I stated in an Appendix) to follow 
the account given in the Rozez edition, 
which is probably as accurate, and is a more 
picturesque description. For the sake of 
bibliographical precision it might have 
been better if Mr. Nevill had consulted the 
other great standard edition of Casanova 
before he condemned my statements. 

In conclusion, I may observe that a bio- 
grapher who declares that, " with the 
exception of an admirable essay by Mr. 
Charles Whibley, little in English has been 
written of this prince of adventurers," 
is ignoring the innumerable articles on 
Casanova that have appeared in ' N. & Q.,' 
wherein, fortunately, he has not been fol- 
lowed by the principal Casanovists on the 

possession is a scarce book for children, 
from which it seems probable that Edward 
Lear took suggestions for his amusing 
' Book of Nonsense/ which was published 
in 1846, and has passed through at least 
twenty-nine editions. The pictures in my 
little volume are unusually well drawn and 
coloured. The inscription on the title- 
page and the rime beneath the first picture 
are as follows : 

" The History of Sixteen Wonderful Old 
Women, illustrated by as many Engravings : 
exhibiting their Principal Eccentricities and 

Much credit is due to our Artist, I ween ; 

For such Pictures as these can seldom be seen. 
London : printed for Harris & Son, corner of 
St. Paul's Church-yard. 1821." 

I. Mistress Towl. 

There was an old woman named Towl 
\Vho went out to sea with her Owl. 

But the Owl was Sea-sick, 

And scream' d for Physic : 
\Vhich sadly annoyed Mistress Towl. 

The picture and the jingle remind one also 
of ' The Owl and the Pussy-cat ' in Lear's 
' Nonsense Drolleries,' with the illustrations 
by William Foster : " The Owl and the 
Pussy-cat went to sea," &c. 


The recent notes on the contradictory descrip- 
tions of Capt. Cuttle's hook (11 S. iv. 506; 
v. 52) remind me of a similar inaccuracy 
in regard to Mr. Peter Magnus's person- 
ality in ' Pickwick,' which I do not think 
has been noted. When first introduced 
he is described as " a red-haired man with 
an inquisitive nose and blue spectacles,"' 
and he presently " took a blue view 
of Mr. Pickwick through his coloured 
spectacles." But later, when Mr. Pickwick 
and he have words over the matter of the 
middle-aged lady in curl-papers, Mr. Magnus 
" indulged in a prolonged sneer, and taking 
off his green spectacles (which he probably 
found superfluous in his fit of jealousy)," &c. 


RIGHTS OF INTERMENT. Disputes about 
rights of interment are not unknown, but 
I am not aware of any parallel for an inscrip- 
tion on a gravestone in the old churchyard 
of St. Margaret s, a few miles north of Dublin, 
in which such a right is so bluntly set out, 
with its limitations ; and I should be glad 
o know if any can be cited. The burial- 
place referred to is within the walls of the 

11 S. V. FEB. 10, 1912.] 



ruined chapel, and hence the evident 
anxiety of one family to intrude, and of the 
other to prevent intrusion. This is the 
inscription : 

" I H.S. | This Stone and Burial Place | Be- 
longeth to the Warrens of | Cillock and his 
Posterity | This three hundred years and | White 
hath no right to this | Burial Place only by 
Marriage | and Barth w Warren has caused I This 
stone to be erected for | the use of him & his 

This is all that appears above ground, bu* 
D'Alton ('History of the Co. Dublin') 
mentions a " monument to the Warren 
family from 1722/' E. K. 

this from the columns of The Jewish Ex- 
ponent, Philadelphia : 

" Mrs. Jennie Connor of Melrose Highlands, a 
suburb of Boston, Mass., has the distinction of 
being the only woman to handle and dispatch 
trains in this country. She is employed by the 
Boston and Maine Railway, and is well known to 
thousands of railroad employees throughout the 
four States in which the road operates. It is 
believed by the 400 or more engineers who report 
to her that she knows more about the construction 
of the big engines than do most of the men who 
assisted in building them. Mrs. Connor has 
charge of all the engines used on the northern 
division of the road, and it was this that led her 
to take up the study of the ' steam moguls.' " 



FTTERIT IN SENSU." (See 'Latin Quotations?,' 
No. 45, 10 S. i. 188, and MR. J. B. WAINE- 
WRIGHT'S communication on p. 297 of the 
same vol.) Xevizanus, ' Sylva Nuptialis,' 
lib. v. 77, has " quia secundum Philosop. 
iii. de Anima, Nihil est in intellectu, quin 
prius fuerit in sensu." I have an impression 
that I saw these words a few years ago in 
the Latin translation of Averroes's Com- 
mentary on Aristotle's ' De Anima.' Unfor- 
tunately I omitted to make a note. 

Univ. Coll., Aberystwyth. 

lowing, quoted from The Observer of 22 Dec., 
1811, will be read with interest : 

" The Regent's Park in Mary-le-bone Fields 
is rapidly preparing. The Circus is completely 
formed, and enclosed by an oak paling. The 
workmen are at present employed in planting 
laurels, firs, and other evergreens. The ride 
round the circus is nearly made ; the latter is 
intersected by other roads, the principal of which 
leads to the New Road, opposite Portland Place." 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

TION. There is in the Townshend Collection, 
now on view at the Corporation Art Gallery, 
Cheltenham, a small picture attributed to 
Paul Veronese. The subject is a Guardian 
Angel, and on the hem of her garment are 
the words " Angelos Custos." The back- 
ground, and even wings of the angel, are 
of a deep golden tint, and this makes me 
think it may not be by Veronese ; but I can 
only just remember the large decorative 
works of that artist at Venice, and did 
not trouble to seek out his smaller easel 
pictures. I think that some one who has 
spent more time than myself at Venice 
may perhaps be able to tell me ^whether 
any of Veronese's pictures of small dimen- 
sions have Latin inscriptions, and, if so, 
whether these are written in a very minute 
and very careful hand. The letters in the 
Townshend Veronese are not more than 
the sixteenth of an inch high. The writing 
is unique, and the characters so well 
formed that the chances are that no other 
artist's work would have the same lettering. 
The small uncial S is sometimes turned the 
other way, and then reads R. 

This Latin inscription is a quotation from 
some life of P. Balharasasi (name vague), 
written by Ludovico da Ponente. Can any 
one inform me who these persons were and 
supply any other detail 1 

Carlton Lodge, Cheltenham. 
' THE SONG OF A BUCK.' In Sir Daniel 
Fleming's ' Great Account Book ' is the 
entry : " Given by Will, Aug. 31 [1686], at 
Syzergh, when he took y e Song of a Buck, 
2s. M" Can any reader of ' N. & Q. 
refer me to a place where I can find this 
pong 1 Though I have examined Chappell's 
' Popular Music of the Olden Time,' Percy s 
' Reliques.' his Folio Manuscript,' and 
Andrew Clark's ' Shirburn Ballads,' I not 
only cannot find it, but have found no 
song in which the buck is mentioned under 
that name as an object of pursuit. I have 
found the hart, the deer, the stag, the hare, 
and, in the later hunting songs, the fox. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. v. FEB. 10, 1912. 

Among transcripts of MSS. by John Byrom 
in the Chetham Library, Manchester, I find 
two sets of verses of which I cannot identify 
the sources. Can any of your readers help 
me ? 

1. The following is said to be " a thought 
stolen from Cato " : 

Vice may give pleasure, Virtue may give pain. 
True ; but how long will such a Truth remain ? 

2. A translation or paraphrase (too long 
to repeat in full) is given of a Latin epigram 
beginning " Ess-a hominem tantum," and 
cc nveying the lesson that believers in the 
Man Jesus have but to imitate Him, and 
believers in the Divine Jesus but to worship 
Him in faith, in order that His twofold 
nature may be satisfactorily proved. 

A. W. W. 
Pcterhouse, Cambridge. 

BIBLE. I am desirous of ascertaining the 
whereabouts of the family Bible of George 
Walker of Londonderry, the Governor of the 
town during the siege in 1689. I have been 
told by a family of Walkers that it was 
sold by the widow of Dr. Arthur Walker, 
who practised in Liverpool or Dublin, and 
who died in Dublin about June, 1839. Some 
time between 1875 and. 1885 the widow of 
Dr. Walker carried on negotiations with 
another branch of the family w r ith the idea 
of selling it to them. This came to nothing, 
and I understand that the lady then wrote to 
members of the family saying she had 
received an offer from a museum which she 
should accept. I have written to nearly 
every important museum and library in 
Dublin and Belfast without success. It is 
still possible, however, that it is in some 
museum elsewhere in Ireland, or it may have 
been sold to an English or Scotch museum. 

7. Hanover Terrace, Holland Park, W. 

did the Romans do their elementary arith- 
metic without the use of Arabic numerals ? 
I am told it was by aid of an " abacus." 
What is this system of calculation ? The 
Chinese use it now, so they say, and can add, 
subtract, multiply, or divide as quickly as 
we can by the use of Arabic numerals. It will 
be interesting to note what is the system. 


that in certain parts of Wales the follow- 
ing custom exists. If a member of the 
mining population takes a piece of mountain 

land and erects thereon a building in such 
a manner that the four walls are put up, 
the roof on, and smoke coming out of the 
ihimney, all being accomplished between 
lunset and sunrise, the freehold of the land 
Decomes his property. 

I have been shown a house near Llangollen, 
the site of which I was informed had been 
acquired in this manner, and I shall be glad 
to know whether your readers can confirm 
or correct this statement; and I should 
also like to receive information of any other 
curious custom of this kind affecting the 
acquisition of land. J. GEO. HEAD. 

[See the instances cited at 10 S. vi. 396, 487.] 

About 1878 I was visited in my place of 
business by a well-known London dealer in 
antiques named George Watson. His first 
remark to me was, " Bless me ! you have got 
the ' Odd Chair.' ' I replied, " Certainly 
it is an odd chair. But why the odd chair ? " 
He said that thirty or forty years earlier the 
chair was sold at Christie's, and from some- 
thing connected with its sale, which he told 
me at the time, but which I have forgotten, 
it was for some time spoken of among 
dealers as "the Odd Chair." He went 
on to tell me that it was teak, not oak; 
that with other pieces of furniture it was 
made by Peter the Great, when living at 
Sayes Court, near Deptford, from the timbers 
of an old wreck. The chair in question is 
an armchair, with solid back, on which is 
carved the Russian eagle. The front legs, 
which also form the rests for the arms, are 
evidently balustrades, probably from a ship's 
companion-ladder, and are declared by an 
expert in furniture to be of the time of 
James I., while the style of the chair is 
Queen Anne. The chair has a considerable 
value as a chair, but if Peter the Great's 
connexion with it is established it becomes 
almost a relic. Christie's tell me that i 
it was a picture it could be easily traced 
through their books, but as a bit of f urniture 
it would be difficult to find it in their cata- 
logues, especially as the date of sale is not 
known to ten years. As a last ^resource \ 
ask the friendly help of 'N. & Q.' 


Stratford House, Highgate, Birmingham. 

ST. CYR COCQUARD. I shall be much 
obliged for any information relating to St. 
Cyr Cocq^ard, who in the year 1803 wished 
to adopt Mr. Charles Fenton Mercer, then 
on a visit to England and France. From 
Mercer's letters it is evident that Cocquard 
was a man of means and of considerable 



importance. His ancestral estate was appa- 
rently in Gascony. He was the intimate 
friend of the most learned and celebrated 
Frenchmen of the day. From his desire to 
adopt Mercer it is presumed that he was 
unmarried at that time. Any particulars 
regarding him or his family will be much 
appreciated. ARTHUR LOWNDES. 

143, East Thirty-Seventh Street, New York. 

met with the following quotation in Hone's 
' Ancient Mysteries Described,' and should 
be greatly obliged by further information 
on the subject : 

" Not long ago in the metropolis itself, it was 
usual to bring up a fat buck to the altar of St. 
Paul's with hunters' horns blowing, &c., in the 
.middle of Divine service. For on this very spot, 
or near it, there formerly stood a temple of Diana.'' 


the year 1856 a family of the name of 
Derwentwater Miles claimed to represent 
the family of Ratcliffe, Earl of Derwent- 
water. I should be interested to know how 
they established relationship. 

F. I. A. S. 

DIGHTON'S DRAWINGS. One of the most 
elaborate works of the elder Dighton is 
the large plate of the Covent Garden hustings 
during the election of 1798. It measures 
2 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 3 in., and was etched by 
M. N. Bate. It contains about 100 figures 
all of them obviously portraits. There 
exists an elaborate key to the picture, in 
which each figure is numbered, but the list 
of names is missing. I have searched 
during many months in vain for this list, 
which should accompany the key. The 
late Duke of Buccleuch believed he pos- 
sessed a copy of it, but it was never found. 
Can any of the readers of ' N. & Q.' throw 
light on the subject ? 


FIELD. The most prominent prisoners of 
war taken at the famous battle of Blenheim, 
1704, being brought to England, were 
quartered from 1705 to 1711 at two inland 
places Nottingham and Lichfield. It was, 
of course, during this period that Dr. Johnson 
was born at the latter place, and if he did 
not actually see any of the French nota- 
bilities, he must at least often, at a later 
period, have spoken with others who had, 
and must have known reminiscences of 
them then current. Can any one familiar 
with Johnsonian literature tell me whether 

he or any of his chroniclers touch upon the 
episode of the French prisoners at Lichfield ? 

In addition to various official references 
to this matter that have come under my 
notice, I have found in George Farquhar's 
'Beaux' Stratagem 1 (1706 or 1707) a 
humorous scene at a Lichfield inn, whence 
the following extract is taken : 

Aimwell. You 're very happy, Mr. Boniface ; 
pray what other company have you in town ? 

Boniface. A power of fine ladies ; and then 
we have the French officers. 

Aimwell. O, that 'a right, you have a good 
many of those gentlemen ; pray how do you like 
their company ? 

Boniface. So well, as the saying is, that I 
could wish we had as many more of 'em. They re 
full of money, and pay double for everything 
they have. They know, sir, that we paid good 
round taxes for the making of 'em ; and so they 
are willing to reimburse us a little ; one of em 
lodges in my house. 



Joseph Neunzig was a school friend of 
Heine's, their parents being neighbours. 
As I am extremely interested in Neunzig, 
I should like to know his career, and whether 
the friends met again in after-life on a 
familiar footing of social recognition. I am 
afraid they did not. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 


1 wish to know if the following words are 
by Gladstone, and if so, in what speech 
they were uttered : 

" The most important duty of a political leader 
was simply to ascertain the average convictions 
of his party, and largely to give effect to them. 



a collector of musicians' epitaphs, and should 
be very glad to hear of any through the 
medium of your interesting paper. I should 
furthermore be interested to learn to which 
cathedral Wm. Inglott, the organist (whose 
epitaph is, I think, well known), was attached. 

140, New Bond Street, W. 

SELKIRK FAMILY. Is anything known of 
the Selkirk family ? I found the other day 
Alexander, son of James Selkirk, buried 

2 Sept., 1769. This is the only instance of 
the name in Distington in Cumberland. 
It would be interesting to know a little more 
of the original of our friend Robinson 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. v. FEB. 10, 1912 

Harry Quilter's first publication was a book 
of poems, which was published anony- 
mously. I am anxious for literary reasons 
to know the title of this volume. Mr. 
Quilter's widow does not know the title. 


some correspondent be good enough to give 
me the titles and dates of the earliest pub- 
lished French grammars say, up to 1750 ? 

' COCKE LORELLE'S BOTE.' This is the 
title of a poem which contains the names of 
numerous mediaeval crafts and occupations. 
Will some reader kindly tell me who was the 
writer of it, where I can find the poem in 
extenso, and why named as above ? 

T. P. C. 

any correspondent tell me in what parish 
the above Hall is (or was) situated ? It 
was at one time the residence of a family 
named Pitt. CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 

62, Nelson Road, Stroud Green, N. 

SIR KENELM DIGBY. A folio of original 
letters from Sir Kenelm Digby to his son 
was sold in the collections of J. Britton, the 
antiquary, at Evans's many years ago. Can 
any one inform me through ' N. & Q.' 
where these letters can be seen now ? Mr. 
Allan H. Bright of Liverpool has Britton's 
own notes on Kenelm Digby in MS. 


the author of the account of Casanova in 
Temple Bar in January, 1890, vol. Ixxxviii. 
pp. 27-50 ? HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

CAPRANICA FAMILY. I should feel much 
obliged if any of your readers could tell me 
of an important lady belonging to this 
Italian family who was at the Court^of 
Louis XIV. I am endeavouring to find out 
the name of a fine marble bust by Coysevox 
that has the arms of this family on the 
pedestal. The lady is very like Marie 
Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XIV. The 
only member of this family I have been able 
to discover is Domenico Capranica, Bishop of 
Fermo, but he is two hundred years too 

42,;Old Bond Street. 

'IAN ROY.' Will one of your readers 
inform me where I can obtain a copy of the 
romance 'Ian Roy,' by Urquhart Forbes ? 

J. F. J. 


MATILDA OF PARIS. I find one Matilda 
of Paris conveying land to the Abbey of 
St. Peter at Westminster towards the end 
of the twelfth century. Who was she ? 

W. D. B. 

one tell me where the marriage records of 
Gretna Green are to be seen ? Q. N. 

[See 10 S. ii. 386.] 

Murray's ' Handbook to South Wales ' 
(pub. 1860), p. 123, it says : 

" On the summit of a high ridge of ground are 
the scanty ruins of Keeston Castle. A very 
extensive view is gained from hence over Haver- 
fordwest and the Vale of Cleddau." 
What is known of the history of this castle, 
and do these ruins still exist ? There is no 
mention of them in ' Castles and Strongholds 
of Pembrokeshire ' (pub. 1909), by Emily 
Hewlett Edwards. G. H. W. 

MUMMERS. Until the year 1898 or 1899, 
" Mummers," or " Christmas Rimers," as 
they were popularly called, used to go round 
the town of Carrickfergus, co. Antrim, visit- 
ing from house to house, and collecting what 
pence they could, during the days imme- 
diately preceding Christmas. 

The parties consisted of boys of about 
sixteen years of age and under, decked out 
with paper hats, and their repertory, so far 
as I can remember, was confined to the 
stirring dramatic poem about St. George, 
Oliver Cromwell, Beelzebub, &c., given in 
' Chambers's Book of Days ' under 24 Dec. 
Whether the Carrickfergus mummers still con- 
tinue their activities or not, I cannot say. 
Are there many places in the United King- 
dom where mumming survives, or where it 
has survived until recently ? Are the 
recitations given by the mummers always 
the same ? P. A. MCELWAINE/ 

[See the articles in 10 S. v., vi., vii.j 

YORK 1692-7. Can any of your readers 
give me particulars regarding Col. Benjamin 
Fletcher, both prior to and after his governor- 
ship ? I have all the necessary particulars 
regarding him during his stay in America, 
but I am very desirous of obtaining all pos- 
sible information about him : his military 
career before he came to New York, his 
marriage, his children, descendants, and 
everything relating to him after his return 
to England in 1697. I know absolutely 
nothing about him after he left New York. 

143, East Thirty-Seventh Street, New York. 

ii s. v. FEB. 10, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


DICKENS KNOCKERS. I have in my pos- 
session a bedroom door-knocker, which 
commemorates the birth and death of the 
novelist. It measures about 4J by 2 in. 
The bust of Dickens in the centre is sur- 
rounded by a scroll design, each division of 
which is inscribed with the name of one of 
ten of his novels. The knock would be 
the result of the impact of a spirited metal 
reproduction of Mr. Micawber, Mr. Pickwick, 
and Little Dorrit upon a representation of 
the house where Dickens was born. 

Another knocker of a similar size which 
I have seen is an oblong piece of metal with 
the figures of Silas Wegg, Sam Weller, and 
Pickwick over those of Pecksniff, Sydney 
Carton, and Barnaby Rudgc, a band of 
metal inscribed "Born 1812, died 1870," 
forming the handle of the knocker. There 
are doubtless many such knockers and 
imitations of them in existence. Can any 
follower of Capt. Cuttle supply information 
as to their vogue and subsequent disuse ? 

E. J. M. E. 


(11 S. v. 28.) 

MR. BRESLAR will find nearly all he wants 
to know about " Lilliburlero " and -" bul- 
linala " in ' Knight's Store of Knowledge ' 
(1841), pp. 297 and 307 the treatise 'The 
Old English Ballads,' by Allan Cunningham. 
He states that the change from James II. 
to William III. 

" was greatly brought about by the scoffing ballad 
of ' Lilliburlero ' ; the profligate Lord Wharton 
penned, it is said, this satiric ditty in revenge for 
the King having made Richard Talbot viceroy of 
Ireland. The song took its name from the Papist 

watchword in the terrible massacre of 1641 

It made an impression, says Bui-net, on the King's 
army that cannot be imagined by those that saw 
it not. The whole army, and at last the whole 
people, both in city and country, were singing it 
perpetually ; and perhaps never had so slight 
thing so great an effect." 

The song is set out by Allan Cunningham, 
and the meaning of each verse is explained 
by him. 

Macaulay, in his ' History of England ' 
(7th edition), vol. ii. chap. ix. p. 428, refers 
to ' Lillibullero,' and says that 
" these verses, which were in no respect above 
the ordinary standard of street poetry, had for 
burden some gibberish which was said to have 

been used as a watchword by the insurgents of 
Ulster in 1641." 

In a note he says : 

" The song of Lillibullero is among the State 
Poems. In Percy's ' Belies ' the first part will be 
found, but not the second part, which was added 
after William's landing. In The Examiner and 
in several pamphlets of 1712 Wharton is mentioned 
as the author." 

Macaulay also says that 

" Wharton afterwards rboasted that he had 
sung a king out of three kingdoms." 

It will be noticed that the spelling differs : 
Cunningham has " Lilliburlero," and Mac- 
aulay " Lillibullero." 

There is some further information about 
this song in ' D.N.B.,' vol. Ix. p. 418, in the 
biography of Thomas Wharton, 1st Marqufs 
of Wharton. It is there stated that the song 

" the mutual congratulations of a couple of 
' Teagues ' upon the coming triumph of popery 
and the Irish race. The verses attracted little 
notice at first, but set to a quick step by Purcell, 
the song, known by its burden of ' Lilli Burlero, 
Bullen-a-la,' became a powerful weapon against 

It was first printed in 1688 on a single sheet 
as ' A New Song,' with the air above the 
words. I think that most persons who 
study these verses will consider them far 
above " the ordinary standard of street 

The great disturbance about the Jews in 
1753 was owing to the introduction and 
passing of a Bill for the naturalization of 
Jews born abroad, and admitting them to the 
privileges of Jews born in this country. This 
Act was repealed in the next session in 
obedience to an unconquerable popular 
arejudice. There were, in fact, petitions 
aresented to Parliament for its repeal from 
;he Corporation of London and from all the 
other cities. 

In Grove's ' Dictionary of Music,' vol. ii. 
D. 138, there is a good account of ' Lilli- 
jurlero,' and the music by Purcell is there 
, as well as the words : 

The first strain has been commonly sung 
as a chorus in convivial parties : 

A very good song, and very well sung, 

Jolly companions every one. 

And it is the tune to the nursery rhyme " 

There was an old woman toss'd up on a blanket 
Ninety-nine times as high as the moon. 

A large number of other songs have been written to 

the air at various times." 

This article is by William Chappell, F.S.A. 

Inner Temple. 



The history of this old song, its music, 
and the meaning of the refrain have 
been carefully treated in ' N. & Q.,' 
2 S. i. 89 ; 3 S. vii. 475 ; viii. 13 ; 5 S. vii. 
428 ; viii. 37 ; 7 S. xi. 227, 252, 296, 357, 
417 ; xii. 95. Some fanciful explanations 
of the words " lillibullero, bullen-a-la," have 
been advanced, but the ' N.E.D.' says they 
are " unmeaning." No mention is made of 
any use of them against Jews in the eighteenth 
century, but no doubt they would be added 
as a chorus to any popular street-song of 
the day. The original version is printed at 
2 S. i. 90. W. C. B. 

[Since the reference is to a date so far back, 
we print below a version kindly furnished by 
another correspondent. It differs in spelling 
from the one referred to, and does not give the 
somewhat inferior verses which were later added 
to the song.] 

W. Wilkins's ' Political Ballads ' (Long- 
mans, 1860) has the following account of 
' Lilli Burlero ': 

" This famous doggerel ballad, written on the 
occasion of General Dick Talbot being created 
Earl of Tyrconnel, and nominated by James II. 
to the Lieutenancy of Ireland in 1686-8, is 
attributed to Lord Whartpn in a small pamphlet 
entitled ' A True Eelation of the Several Facts 
and Circumstances of the Intended Riot and 
Tumult on Queen Elizabeth's Birthday,' &c., 
London, 1712, wherein it is said ' a late Vice-roy 
[of Ireland] who has so often boasted himself 
upon his talent for mischief, invention, lying, 
and for making a certain Lilli Burlero song ; 
with which, if you will believe himself, he sung 
a deluded Prince out of Three Kingdoms.' " 

Ho ! brodcr Teague, dost hear de decree ? 

Lilli Burlero, bullen a-la. 
Dat we shall have a new deputie, 

Lilli Burlero, bullen a-la. 

Lero, lero, lilli Burlero, lero lero, bullen a-la. 
Lero, lero, lilli Burlero, lero lero, bullen a-la. 

Ho ! by Shaint Tyburn, it is de Talbote, 

Lilli, &c. 
And he will cut de Englishman's troate, 

Lilli, &c. 

Dough by my shoul de English do praat, 

Lilli, &c. 
De law 's on dare side, and Creish knows what, 

Lilli, &c. 

But if dispence do come from de Pope, 

Lilli, &c. 
We '11 hang Magna Charta and dem in a rope, 

Lilli, &c. 

For de good Talbot is made a lord, 

Lilli, &c. 
And with brave lads is coming abroad, 

Lilli, &c. 

Who all in France have taken a sware, 

Lilli, &c. 
Dat dey will have no Protestant he-- 

Lilli, &c. 

Ara ! but why does he stay behind ? 

Lilli, &c. 
Ho ! by my shoul 'tis a protestant wind, 

Lilli, &c. 

But see de Tyrconnel is now come ashore, 

Lilli, &c. 
And we shall have commissions gillore, 

Lilli, &c. 

And he dat will not go to de mass, 

Lilli, &c. 
Shall be turn out, and look like an ass, 

Lilli, &c. 
Now, now de heretics all go down, 

Lilli, &c. 

By Chris and Shaint Patric, de nation 'e our 

Lilli, &c. 
Dare was an old prophecy found in a bog, 

Lilli, &c. 
" Ireland shall be rul'd by an ass and a dog," 

Lilli, &c. 
And now dis prophecy is come to pass, 

Lilli, &c. 
For Talbot 's de dog, and James is de ass. 

Lilli, &c. 

Wilkins notes: "'Lilli Burlero' and 
' Bullen-a-la ' are said to have been the 
words of distinction used among the Irish 
Papists in their massacre of the Protestants 


ST. AGNES : FOLK-LORE (11 S. v. 47). 
The eve of St. Agnes, the virgin -martyr who 
suffered under Diocletian, is 20 January. 

Leigh Hunt, in his London Journal 
for 21 Jan., 1835, printed the whole of 
Keats's poem, with a running commentary 
between the stanzas. " The superstition," 
he says, 

" is (for we believe it is still to be found) that by 
taking certain measures of divination, damsels 
may get a sight of their future husbands in a 
dream. The ordinary process seems to have been 
by fasting. Aubrey (as quoted in Brand's 
' Popular Antiquities ' ) mentions another, which 
is, to take a row of pins, and pull them out one 
by one, saying a Pater-noster ; after which, upon 
going to bed, the dream is sure to ensue. Brand 
quotes Ben Jonson : 

And on sweet St. Agnes' night 
Please you with promised sight 
Some of husbands, some of lovers, 
Which an empty dream discovers. 
But another poet has now taken up the creed in 
good poetic earnest ; and if the superstition 
should go out in every other respect, in his rich 
a nd loving pages it will live for ever." 


The feast of St. Agnes was formerly held 
as in a special degree a holiday for women. 
A girl might take a row of pins, and, plucking 

. n s. v. FEB. 10, 191-2.] ,NOTES AND QUERIES. 


P them out one after another, stick them in 
her sleeve, singing the while a Paternoster ; 
and thus ensure that her dreams would that 
night show her her future husband. Or 
going away from home, and taking her 
right-leg stocking, she might knit the left 
garter round it, repeating : 

I knit this knot, this knot I knit 
To know the thing I know not yet, 
That I may see 

The man that shall my hushand be, 
Not in his best or worst array, 
But what he weareth every day ; 
That I to-morrow may him ken 
From among all other men. 

Lying down on her back that night, with her 
hands under her head, the anxious maiden 
was led to" expect that her future spouse 
would appear in a dream and salute her with 
a kiss. Vide ' Chambers's Book of Days,' 
20 January. TOM JONES. 

Though not nearly so important as the 
Eve of St. Mark, the Eve of St. Agnes was 
till lately and probably is yet a time for 
working love-spells in North Lincolnshire. 
Which Agnes is the preferred saint I am 
unable to say. It may be that of April, 
whose day falls near St. Mark's. 

The practices on both eves are like those 
of Hallow-e'en. You may set out supper 
in a certain fashion, with the view of seeing 
the spirit of the " true love " who is fated to 
marry you, appear to partake of it. You 
may wash your shift and hang it to the fire 
to dry, when the spirit will come to turn 
the garment round, that it may be dried on 
both sides. You may prepare " dumb- 
cake," and, after eating it, go to bed in 
silence, walking backwards, and getting 
into bed backwards, to procure a vision of 

There is little doubt that such beliefs 
and practices tend to immorality, when a 
girl is credulous enough to believe that 
the man seen on one of the mystic eves is 
bound by fate to wed her. E. A. 

Keats was born in 1795, and the work 
known as ' Brand's Popular Antiquities ' 
was published the same year. It is there- 
fore reasonable to suppose that the poet 
obtained his folk-lore from this work. At 
all events, Brand quotes from an old chap- 
book called ' Mother Bunch's Closet Newly 
Broke Open ' : 

" There is in January a day called Saint Agnes 
Day. It is always the one and twentieth of that 
month. This Saint Agnes had a great favour 
for young men and maids, and will bring unto 
their bedside, at night, their sweethearts if they 
follow this rule as I shall declare unto thee. 

Upon this day thou must be sure to keep a true 
fast, for thou must not eat or drink all that day, 
nor at night ; neither let any man, woman or 
child kiss thee that day, and thou must be sure 
at night, when thou goest to bed, to put on a 
clean shift, and the best thou hast the better thou 
mayst speed ; and thou must have clean cloaths 
on thy head, for St. Agnes does love to see clean 
cloaths when she comes, and when thou liest 
down on thy back as streight as thou canst and 
both thy hands are laid underneath thy head, then 

Now good St. Agnes play thy part, 
And send to me my own sweetheart, 
And show me such a happy bliss 
This night of him to have a kiss, 
and then be sure to fall asleep as soon as thou 
canst, and before thou awakest out of thy first 
sleep thou shalt see him come and stand before 
thee and thou shalt perceive by his habit what 
tradesman he is ; but be sure thou declarest not 
thy dream to anybody in ten days, and by that 
time thou mayst come to see thy dream come to 

Bury, Lanes. 

The custom poetically described by Keats 
belonged to ages long ago. Consult Brand's 
' Popular Antiquities,' ed. Ellis, Bohn, 1849, 
i. 34-8, under 21 Jan. 

W. C. B. 

[ST. SWITHIN and SUSSEX also thanked for replies.] 

TION (11 S. v. 28). Tyack, in his ' A Book 
about Bells,' 1898, says, on p. 205, that 
until recently a muffled peal was rung each 
year on 30 January at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 
memory of the execution of King Charles I. 

On p. 241 is also noted the following 
extract from the church books of Come for 
1710 : " Paid for ringing on ye martyrdome 
of King Charles. 00. 01. 00." 


62, Nelson Road, Stroud Green, N. 

(11 S. v. 29). Perhaps the following extract 
might interest MR. ARCHER. It is from 
a letter written by Nathaniel, 2nd Earl of 
Leitrim, to his son Robert, Lord Clements, 
on 5 Jan., 1831 : 

" I went from Liverpool to Manchester by the 
rail road, which as you have seen it I need not 
describe. My carriage was put upon one of their 
waggons about four feet from the ground, and 
we performed the journey very prosperously ; 
but a few days afterwards one of their trains met 
with a serious accident, by the engine coming in 
contact with a waggon in the dark, which had 
been most improperly left in the way ; the engine 
was broken and rendered unserviceable, the 
engineer pitched out of it, and very much hurt, 
but none of the passengers received any injury. 
These sort of accidents must, I suppose, occasion- 
ally happen, for some time, until all the persona 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. FEB. 10, 1912. 

employed about the rail road become accustomed 
to the thing, and are aware of the precautions that 
are necessary to be observed. Had the same 
accident occurred when I went, I think my 
carriage would have had a good chance, from 
being so high, of being pitched off the waggon by 
the shock." 

Killadoon, Celbridge. 

Samuel Warren describes his impressions 
of his first journey by railway from Birming- 
ham to Liverpool in an article entitled ' My 
First Circuit,' contributed to BlackwoocTs 
Magazine in 1838. and included in a collec- 
tion of ' Miscellanies ' by him, published by 
Blackwood in 1855. His description is 
rather amusing. He tells his readers that 
for twelve miles of the distance the train 
went at the " astounding speed " of at least 
forty miles an hour ; that, though the day 
was a still one, his handkerchief which he 
held out of the window fluttered so strongly 
that he almost lost it ; and that " a good- 
sized " dog, which tried to race the train, 
was passed by carriage after carriage, and 
left behind in two minutes, though it was 
running at full speed. The whole account 
is worth reading in these days. It occupies 
about two pages of the book. 


Greville gives an account, well worth 
reading, of his impressions on his first rail- 
way journey, July, 1837, in his 'Memoirs,' 
Second Part, chap. i. vol. i. p. 11 (1885). 
This account appears to have been written 
either on the day of the j ourney, or within 
a week after it. See also his remarks under 
28 Jan., 1834, in his 'Memoirs,' First Part, 
chap. xxii. vol. iii. p. 53 (1874). LASSO. 

JAMES TOWNSEND (11 S. v. 2). MR. 
COURTNEY is in error in saying that there 
was a contest for the Lord Mayoralty 
in November, 1772 : the nomination took 
place as usual on Michaelmas Day, and 
was followed by a poll which necessarily 
extended into October, as in those days 
polls for civic offices were not restricted 
to one day. 

I should not have noticed this slight 
slip of the pen had not a correspondent 
of The. City Press, taking MR. COURTNEY'S 
date as literally accurate, written to ask 
when the custom of electing (or at least 
nominating) the Lord Mayor on Michaelmas 
Day began. That date was fixed in 1546. 

I have before me the polls at the livery 
contest in 1772, and the votes of the alder- 
men after Wilkes and Townsend had been 

returned. Eight aldermen voted for Towns- 
end, of whom five had supported the Court 
candidates at the poll, and two (Sir W. 
Stephenson and Sawbridge) had supported 
Wilkes and Townsend : the remaining 
vote was that of Oliver, who had not voted 
at the poll. 

Of the seven who voted for Wilkes in the 
Court of Aldermen, two (Crosby and Bull) 
had supported Wilkes and Townsend at 
the poll ; four had not recorded their 
votes then, and one (Alderman Turner) had 
supported the Court candidates. 

In 1773 Sawbridge and Stephenson voted 
for Wilkes. ALFRED B. BEAVEN. 


490 ; v. 15, 54). I suppose " the high 
horse " \vas formerly called in English " the 
great horse." He was the strong creature 
who alone could carry a knight in full 
armour ; and his rider was, or should be, a 
man of rank and fame. In my ' Specimens of 
English from 1394 to 1579,' I quote from 
Sir T. Elyot (at p. 200) : 

" But the moste honorable exercise in myne 
opinion. . . .is to ryde suerly and clene on a great 
horse and a rough, whiche vndoubtedly nat onely 
importeth a maieste and drede io inferiour per- 
sones," &c. 


v. 8, 76). Mr. G. A. Aitken, in a foot-note 
on p. 439 of his edition of ' The Journal to 
Stella,' mentions that " young Parson Gery," 
whose name is spelt by Swift " Geree," 
was afterwards Rector of Letcombe, Berks, 
and that the names of two of his sisters, Mrs. 
Elwick and Mrs. Wigmore, are found in the 
' Journal.' He suggests that Swift probably 
made the acquaintance of the family when 
he was living with the Temples at Moor 
Park. On p. 502, Letter LIX., Swift writes 
of Mrs. Wigmore " she still makes Mantuas 
at Farnham." 

According to Joseph Foster's ' Alumni 
Oxonienses,' John Geree, Swift's friend, 
was born at Farnham on 22 Oct., 1672, a 
son of John Geree ; was a Scholar and Fellow 
of Corpus Christi College, Oxford ; Rector of 
Letcombe Bassett 1707, and Canon of Here- 
ford 1734, until his death in 1761. Can any 
connexion be traced between him and the 
Puritan divines of the first half of the seven- 
teenth century, John and Stephen Geree, 
both graduates of Magdalen Hall, the latter 
of whom was connected with Surrey ? 

The Catalogue of the British Museum 
Library has the title of a sermon by John 

n s. v. FEB. 10, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Geree, M.A., Fellow of Corpus Christ! Col- i 
lege, Oxford : ' The Excellency of a Public j 
Spirit : a Sermon (on 1 Cor. x. 24) preach'd I 
in .... Winchester at the Assizes. Oxford, I 
1706.' The same Catalogue, under John j 
Geree, B.C.L., Fellow of Winchester, refers j 
to a funeral sermon on the latter by T. Pen- | 
rose (poet). The sermon, however, is not 
entered among the works of Thomas Penrose j 
the poet (see ' N. & Q.,' US. ii. 146, ' Burton's 
" Anatomy of Melancholy " : Quotation ir 
Reprints' ),but under Thomas Penrose, Rector 
of Newbury. The sermon was preachec 
in the parish church of Newbury, and pub 
lished in that place in 1774. Was John 
Geree, B.C.L., a descendant ? 


[URLLAD also thanked for reply.] 

MISTLETOE (11 S. iv. 502; v. 12). It 
may be worth while to note that ordinary 
mistletoe, Viscum album, occasionally to be 
found on an oak, is not the true oak -mistletoe, 
which is Loranthus Europceus. M. Holland 
in his ' Flore Populaire ' states that the latter 
does not grow in France. 

One day, near Nablus, I saw some reddish 
berried mistletoe, which had, I believe, been 
taken from an olive tree. I mention this 
because I have come on a foot-note in 
Bohn's Pliny's ' Natural History,' vol. iii. 
p. 433, which, with reference to the asser- 
tion " after the wild olive has been pruned 
there springs up a plant that is known as 
' phaulias,' " remarks : "A mistletoe ap- 
parently, growing upon the wild olive. Fee 
says that no such viscus appears to be 
known." Perhaps Fee was wrong. 


ST. CUTHBEKT : HIS BIRDS (11 S. v. 48). 
I think the form Lomes represents the plural 
of a M.E. lome, which would correspond to 
the mod. E. loom, the Shetland name for 
various species of the Northern diver ; 
now usually spelt loon. See loom (2) in 
' N.E.D.,' and loon (2) in my ' Concise Etymo- 
logical Dictionary.' 

As to Eires, the eider-duck can hardly lose 
the d, or be related to it. It looks like a 
mistake for O.F. aires, pi. of aire (whence 
E. aerie), properly a nest, but also a brood 
of young birds ; see aerie in ' N.E.D.' 


The 'N.E.D.' gives c "Eires, obs. rare- 
Some kind of hawk. ( ? Mistake for eyas. ) 
1655, Walton, ' Angler ' (ed. 2), 19, ' The 
Eires, the Brancher, the Ramish Hawk, the 
Haggard and the two sorts of Lentners.' " 

" UNITED STATES SECURITY ' ? (11 S. iv. 508). 
The slighting reference to " United States 
security " in Dickens's ' Christmas Carol ' 
(published first in 1843) was doubtless due 
to the effect of the financial panic of 1837 in 
that country on all securities which had 
their origin there. Many of these were 
utterly worthless, being based on projects 
of the wildest speculation. British capital 
had been poured into the country to invest 
in them, and much of it was entirely lost. 

The message of the President to the Con- 
gress of 1839 states that 200,000,000 of 
foreign capital was then afloat in the United 
States. Some of the states repudiated their 
bonded debts. JOHN TRUE LOOMIS. 

Washington, D.C., U.S. 

AVIATION (US. iv. 5, 75, 496). There 
is a tradition at East Budleigh, Devon, that, 
about 450 years ago, one Ralph de Node 
invented a pair of wings with which he was 
able to fly in the air. One day he mounted 
a little too high, and the ambitious Ralph 
fell to the ground in a very unceremonious 
and unpleasant manner. A. J. DAVY. 

iv. 110, 171, 232, 271, 334, 492; v. 14). 
An incident which does not appear to have 
been mentioned during the correspondence 
on the above subject is related by Napier as 
having occurred at the bridge of Tordesillas, 
on the river Duero, on 28 Oct., 1812. The 
Duke's Brunswickers destroyed the bridge 
to prevent the French crossing the river, 
afterwards posting themselves on the bank 
in a pine wood. The French, arriving, 
were at first baffled, but sixty officers and 
non-commissioned officers, headed by Capt. 

uinguet, stripped and placed their arms 
and clothes on a small raft, which they 
pushed across, swimming the while. They 
reached the other side safely under cover of 
a cannonade, although the stream was both 
strong and chilly, and, " naked as they 
vere, stormed the tower, whereupon the 
Brunswickers, amazed at the action, aban- 
doned the ground." 

My attention was called to this curious 
kirmish by a young officer at present serv- 
ng in the 69th French Infantry, which he 
assures me was the regiment which furnished 
these gallant volunteers, although Napier 
does not give the number. 


DINNER-JACKET (11 S. v. 7). In reply to 
F. J. C.'s first inquiry, I put the fashion's 
date in England early in the nineties. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. v. FKB. 10, 1912. 

' THE CONFINEMENT ' : A POEM (10 S. vii. 
368). From the published Catalogue I see 
there is a copy of this poem in the B.M. 
Library, the date given being 1679. A 
cursory glance at the rarity will soon enable 
MR. G. H. RADFORD, M.P., or some other 
interested reader to decide whether the 
subject treated of is an accouchement or 
not. In the former case the use of the word 
would be many years earlier than the first 
example occurring in the ' N.E.D.' 

N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

According to Wood's ' Douglas's Peerage 
of Scotland' (1813) and the 'D.N.B.' the 
generations run as follows : 

1. John de Forbes of that ilk, in Aber- 
decnshire, in the reign of William the Lion 
(1165-1214), was father of 

2. Fergus de Forbes. 

3. Alexander de Forbes, probably his 
son, Governor of Urquhart Castle, slain by 
Edward I. in 1304. His wife was delivered 
of a posthumous son. 

4. Alexander de Forbes, killed at DunpHn, 

5. Sir John de Forbes of that ilk, his 
posthumous son, justiciar and coroner for 
Aberdeenshire in time of Robert III., 
married Margaret, and left four sons, by 
whom he was the common ancestor of the 
families of the Lords Forbes, Forbes Lord 
Pitsligo, and the Forbeses of Tolquhoun, 
Foveran, Watertoun, Culloden, Brax, &c. 

6. The eldest son, Sir Alexander de 
Forbes, succeeded to the estates in 1405, on 
his father's death, and between 1436 and 
1442 was created by James II. first Baron 
Forbes. He died in 1448. Through his 
marriage to Lady Elizabeth Douglas (only 
daughter of George, first Earl of Angus, and 
granddaughter of Robert II.) his children 
were heirs of entail to the earldom of Angus. 


SAMARITAN BIBLE (11 S. v. 28). Con- 
cerning the ' Samaritan Pentateuch ' the 
compiler of ' Helps to the Study of the Bible ' 
(Clarendon Press, n.d.) has the following : 

" The Samaritans have preserved the Penta- 
teuch independently of the orthodox Jews. Its 
date is disputed, but the character does not 
differ materially from the archaic Hebrew form. 
While substantially agreeing with the Hebrew 
lextus Beceptus, it contains readings which 
vary from it." 

In a note reference is made to Prof. Kirk- 
patrick's ' Divine Library of the Old Testa- 
ment,' pp. 62, 63. YV B 

FELICIA HEMANS (11 S. iv. 468, 534; v. 55). 
Mrs. Hemans lived at 36, St. Stephen's 
Green, Dublin, in 1833 (earlier she lived in 
Upper Pembroke Street there). She died 
at 21, Dawson Street, Dublin, in 1835, at 
41 years of age, and was buried in St. Anne's 
Churchyard in the same street, where there 
is a marble tablet to her memory. 



NICOLAY FAMILY (11 S. iv. 407). The 
Allied Sovereigns, on their return after their 
visit to England in 1814, passed through 
Hythe, where they were entertained at 
"The Swan" by the mayor, Mr. Shipdem, 
and gentry. Mrs. Nicolay did the honours 
of the table, assisted by Miss Deedes. 

The Kentish Gazette of 9 March, 1815, 
announced : 

" At Hythe, the lady of Col. Nicolay, Royal Staff 
Corps, of a son" ; 

and in the following month, 21 April : 

" Col. F. Nicolay is under orders to embark 
for Belgium." 


iv. 507; v. 11, 68). MR. PINCHBECK'S 
reply, ante, p. 58, interests me. Can 
he tell me which of the ' Arabian Nights ' 
Keats might have had in mind ? I am told 
that nightingales do not sing in confinement, 
but this may be a poetic licence, and I am 
rather inclined to agree with MR. PINCHBECK 
as to the reference. 


69). This query appeared at 3 S. x. 65, 
and twelve births are mentioned. 



Luttrell, under 30 April, 1684, mentions 
the report that the Princess of Denmark 
had given birth to a dead child. On 1 June, 
1685, she was delivered of a daughter, 
christened next day by the name of Mary. 
On 12 May, 1686, the Princess gave birth 
to another daughter, who was christened 
Anne Sophia. Both infants died within a 
few days of each other, the younger on 2 Feb., 
and the elder on 8 Feb., 1686/7. The 
Princess miscarried in January ; and similar 
mishaps are noted by Luttrell in the latter 
part of October in the same year, and in the 
middle of April, 1688. On 24 July, 1689, 
Anne gave birth to a son at Hampton Court. 
He was christened William, and his god- 
father, King William III., created him Duke 

n s. v. FKB. 10, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES 


of Gloucester. On 14 Oct., 1690, Anne 
gave birth to a daughter, who was christened 
Mary and lived but two hours. On 17 April, 
1692, she gave birth to the youngest of her 
children, Prince George, who lived only long 
enough to be baptized. 


MONEY-BOX (11 S v. 50). I find much 
information, on many subjects, in my 
* Etymological Dictionary.' Referring to 
box (2), I see that the original Christmas- 
box was an actual box of earthenware, &c., 
with a reference to Brand's ' Popular An- 
tiquities,' i. 494. Then I refer to Brand, 
and find that he gives two good quotations : 
one dated 1642, about " Christmas earthen 
boxes of apprentices," and one dated 1621, 
about " an apprentice's box of earth." 
See my ' Dictionary ' and see Brand. 


The league, or money-box, of the Anglo- 
Saxons, was under the care of the \vife, 
as among the Greeks. It is the cassia of 
Du Cange. The ' N.E.D.' quotes Higins, tr. 
Junius's ' Nomencl.' (1585), 249: " Capsella 
fictilis, a mony box made of potters clay, 
wherein boyes put their mony to keepe, 
such as they hang in shops, &c., towards 
Christmas." Cotgrave (1611) has " Cache- 
maille, a money box." TOM JONES. 

Some useful information can be obtained 
by reference to the ' N.E.D..' as follows : 
Under ' Box,' vol. i. 1037, col. 1 ; ' Butler.' 
vol. i. 1215, col. 1 ; ' Christmas-box,' vol. ii. 
392, col. 3 ; ' Money-box,' vol. vi. pt. ii. 
605, col. 1. W. C. B. 

JONES AND BLUNKETT (11 S. v. 29). 
Does MRS. HUGH SMITH know of the Blun- 
kett altar-tomb in Camberwell Parish 
Churchyard ? The inscription is a lengthy 
one, and from a genealogical point of view 
is of more than usual interest. The dates 
range from 1733 to 1810. There are no fewer 
than six surnames referred to, and particulars 
are given which include three generations 
of three different namas, viz., Jones, Seale, 
and Smith. 1 copied the inscription in 
October, 1903, and shall be happy to send 
a copy of it to MRS. SMITH on her writing 
to me. 

Is it not a mistake to say that Ann 
Blunkett married Robert. Jones ? Ann 
Blunkett died a spinster, aged 31. Accord- 
ing to my information, it was Jane Blunkett 
(ob. 1752, cet. 46) who married Robert 

62, Nelson Road, Stroud Green, N- 

ENGRAVER (US. iv. 521). Gilks wrote a 
' Sketch of the Origin and Progress of the 
Art of Wood-Engraving ' (1868), and also a 
practical handbook on the same subject. 
His ' Sketch ' is of little or no historical 
value ; it contains portraits of himself and 
William Harvey, a pupil of Bewick and an 
accomplished engraver. W. ROBERTS. 

VIVAL OF THE PREFIX (11 S. iv. 127, 174). 
Since the publication of the query and note 
anent this matter in 11 S. iv. 127, and of 
the interesting replies, an exact study of 
the records relating to the name Delafield 
has been made. Such of the items as have 
a bearing on our problem are briefly as 

In 1201 in Dublin appears Richard " de 
Felda " ; the same man is mentioned a 
number of times before 1221, his name 
always being spelt as above, except in 
documents dated 1220, in which it is spelt 
" de la Feld." Nicholas, the son of the 
above Richard, is named a number of times 
before 1240 ; his name is generally spelt 
" de Felda " before 1220, and " de la Feld " 
after that date ; Simon, apparently another 
son, appears about 1225 as Simon " de 
Felda," and subsequently always as Simon 
" de la Felde " ; and Roger, a clerk, and 
probably brother of Richard, is named four 
or five times before 1220, his name always 
being spelt " de Felda." This family in- 
creased in Ireland ; the name is frequently 
mentioned, and, after the dates above noted, 
was always spelt " de la Felde," " de la 
Feld," or " de la Feeld," until about the 
year 1400, when some of the branches 
began to drop the prefixes from the name, 
which thus became " Feld," and subsequently 
" Field." 

Meanwhile, and before 1377, one of this 
family had emigrated to Bucks, and in an 
Inquisition Post Mortem of that year his 
name is spelt " de la Felde," but the 
next year it appears as " Dallifeld." This 
phonetic spelling shows that the Frencli 
origin and meaning of the words were already 
being forgotten. However, all the other 1 
mentions of this man, including the last 
his denization papers to live in England, 
dated 1395 show his name correctly spelt 
" de la Felde." His son Robert appears 
in 1404 as " Delafeld," and about 1434 as 
" Dalafeld," also as " Dalafeeld " and " Dala- 
fyld." After about the year 1400 the 
spelling of the name in this family seems 
always to have been in one word, indicating 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. v. FEB. 10, 1912. 

that the origin and meaning of the nam 
had then been quite forgotten. It is to be 
noted that in this family the name was 
never written " atte Feld," either in Irelanc 
or England. The earliest form of spelling 
the name above noted, " de Felda," appears 
not only in Ireland, but also in Norfolk in 
1206: Richard " de Felda," and in ' Rotul 
Normanii ' in 1205: Ernald " de Felda." 

An examination of the history of the name 
in localities where it became " atte Feld ' 
reveals the following. In Beds in 118J 
appears Hugh " de la Felde " ; and there 
were lands called " la Felde " in the place 
where Hugh lived. Men of this family 
appear occasionally in Beds (the name alwayi 
being spelt as above) until 1302, when we 
find Gilbert " atte Feld "; and thereafter 
the name in the form " de la Feld " does not 
again appear in that county. There was 
also a family of the name in Herts which 
seems to have been large and prosperous ; 
here also all become " atte Feld " in the 
early fourteenth century. The " de la 
Fekh " of Oxon also all become " atte Feld " 
at about the same date. Here, too, there 
was a place called " la Feld." In Sussex 
there was a powerful family of the same 
name : they were lords of the Manor of la 
Felde. Here in 1360 we find Henry " atte 
Felde," and in the same year his name 
appears several times written " de la Felde." 

So also in Hereford the armigerous family 
of the name was represented in 1256 by 
David " de la Felde " and Matilda his wife, 
and in 1266 we find William, son of Matilda 
" Atye Felde." However, the name gener- 
ally appears as " de la Feld " in this county 
until early in the fourteenth century. 

Richard, the Rector of St. Michael's, 
Cornhill, London, appears as Richard " de 
la Feld " in 1374 and 1397, and as Richard 
"atte Feld" in 1384. He exchanged his 
parish for that of Olive about 1397 ; there- 
after he is generally called Richard " Feld." 

As stated at 11 S. iv. 127, many other 
names which formerly commenced " de la " 
change to " atte " on the records at about 
this date ; so " de la More " to " atte 
More," &c. 

It is stated that, during the reigns of 
Henry III. and the three Edwards, the 
language of the gentry and nobility was 
changing from French to English, and that 
this process was complete by the end of 
Richard II.'s reign. This circumstance, 
with the specific examples above stated, 
leads me to believe that if the spoken names 
only were considered, it would be found that 
they had not changed at all. The members 

of certain families had from the earliest time 
been called " atte Feld," and of other 
families " de la Feld," according to the class 
and station in life they occupied. Those 
who belonged to the French-speaking fami- 
lies were called " de la Feld," those who 
belonged to the English-speaking people 
were called " atte Feld." But when it came 
to writing the names, the clerks, who were 
trained to speak and write in French and 
Latin, translated the English " atte " into 
" de la." Thus the names became indis- 
tinguishable 'on the records, and the con- 
fusion is solved only at a later date, when 
the spread of the use of English among the 
nobility and clergy caused them to write 
the names as they were spoken. 

What were the influences that caused at 
a later date the dropping of these prefixes- 
altogether, whether " atte " or " de la," we 
have not learnt. 

The theory here advanced is tentative 
only, and it will be most interesting to learn 
the opinions of others who have doubtless- 
given this subject much more exact study 
than the writer. 


Fieklston, Kiverdale, New York City. 


A Neiv English Dictionary. Simple-Sleep. (Vol. 
TX.) By W. A. Craigie. (Oxford, Clarendon 

THIS section begins in the middle of the adjective- 
" simple," and continues with several words of 
the same origin. Under " simplesse " Matthew 
Arnold's use of the word to indicate affected, lite- 
rary simplicity instead of the real thing might 
lave been noted. The analysis of " simply " 
shows the care and skill of the 'Dictionary.' 
Room might, perhaps, have been found for 
"' Shnsim," the Arabic name of " Sesame," as it 
:s given in the latest edition of ' The Story of Ali 
Baba ' (Lane's ' Arabian Nights,' 1906, new Bonn 
'ssue) and compared with " Open, Simsi," in a 
jrerman folk-tale. " Simurgh," a bird of Persian 
egend, has a quotation from ' Vathek ' and two- 
'romSouthey. Under "Sinaitic" the last quota- 
ion refers to " the Sinaitic manuscript." and is 
:aken from The Century Rlayazinc. The most 
'am cms MS. of that name is one of the three great 
authorities for the text of the New Testament. 
and is called by scholars " The Sinaitic " without 
"urther addition. We should consequently prefer 
uch a quotation as : 

" The Sinaitic Codex I was myself so happy 
is to discover in 1844 and 1859, at the Convent of 
St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai." 

These are Tischendorf's own words in an Intro- 
duction he wrote in 1868 to ' The New Testament,' 
""'aucbnita edition, 1869. 

A " sinapism " is a learned word for a mustard- 
laster. A " sin-canter " is an odd and obscure 
erm of abuse applied to men from 1540 till 1672. 

n s. v. FKB. 10, Mia.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" Sindon,"' fine linen, especially a shroud, is 
straight from the Greek, like " skeleton." " Sine 
qua noii " is traced back to Boethius. " Sing " 
is a long and excellent article which includes many 
special uses. " Single," its cognates and deri- 
vatives, are also thoroughly done. " Single- 
wicket " matches are generally out of date, but 
we saw one mentioned in the press a few days ago. 
The card-playing sense of " singleton " is included, 
also a use in The Athenaeum for a single volume as 
contrasted with a pair. For ' ; singular " =re- 
markable, we might quote ' ; A singular bird with 
a manner absurd " in Bret Harte's ' Ballad of an 
Emeu.' " Sink," verb, is an admirable survey. 
A " sirloin " was knighted by fictitious etymology, 
which is amply illustrated in the quotations. 
" Sirocco " is noted as " usually with the." So 
we may quote Browning's line in ' The Englishman 
in Italy ' : 

I could make you laugh spite of Scirocco. 
" Sit " is another of the widely used verbs which 
need and receive a long and elaborate notice. We 
are pleased to see one of Mr. Hardy's Wessex 
masterpieces quoted for " Skimmington." " Sky 
sign," in the advertising sense, is first quoted in 
1890. 4i Slang " is of uncertain origin, like so 
many of its productions.. Asa verb=" toabuse " 
it is noted here, which shows the wide range of 
the ' Dictionary.' Every part of it is worth 
prolonged study. Those who neglect it miss a 
whole world at once of human interest and learn- 
ing, while they swell frequently the stream of 
error which any educated speaker or writer ought 
to reduce. 

Easy Chair Memories and Rambling Notes. By 
the Amateur Angler (E. Marston). (Sampson 
Low, Marston & Co.) 

I As a sailor's log-book smells of the breeze and 
the brine, so the Amateur Angler's books bring 
to us the fragrance of the woods and fields. The 
Angler's days are over, and he pursues his country 
life with his old cap still adorned with the May- 
fly imitation which caught his last two-pound 

In the first chapter we travel in search of 
rest and quiet over the Black Mountains to 
LJanthony Abbey, and find a view of the ruins 
and Father Ignatius reading the Bible in the 
cloisters of his monastery. There are accounts 
of a visit to Exmoor, of days on the Chess, and of 
Burnham Beeches. Then we have a delightful 
chapter, ' In the Days of my Youth ' : we should 
like more of these reminiscences. 

Ai the end of the little volume is the account 
of Bonaparte on the Northumberland and his 
arrival at St. Helena, reprinted from Mr. Marston' s 
account in ' N. & Q.' For Mr. Marston is well 
known as one of our band of brothers probably 
one of the oldest of the band. We dare not 
speculate as to the age of the oldest of our band 
of sisters, but we know the age of our youngest, 
and although she may see this, we will risk her 
blushes and reveal her age as that of eleven. 

The Edinburgh Review has a rather stimulating 
article on ' Auguste Rodin and his French Critics,' 
and takes us to France again in the paper on 
' The Wessex Drama,' which discusses, without 
entirely agreeing with it, Mr. Hedgcock's ' Thomas 
Hardy, Penseur et Artiste.' According to this 
writer, Hardy's pessimism and excessive sensi- 
bility will cause his work to survive rather as 

art than as a living force. The article on ' Scottish 
Songstresses ' is pleasantly done eking out with 
skill the somewhat slender material. ' The 
Elizabethan Playwright ' discusses the attitude 
of Shakespeare and his contemporaries towards 
their plays as things to be performed rather 
than printed and read . 

IN The Nineteenth Century we have an interest- 
ing study of Dickens by Mr. Darrell Figgis, which 
only astonished us from the fact that, while 
comparing or contrasting Dickens with other 
authors and with Cervantes and Rabelais 
among them the writer should have made no 
use of Balzac. Mr. D. S. MacColl, in his ' Year 
of Post - Impressionism,' devotes himself to 
the question of classicism versus romanticism, 
throwing his remarks into the form of a discus- 
sion of dicta on the ' Post-Impressionists ' by 
Mr. Maurice Denis in The Burlington, and by 'Mr. 
Roger Fry in a lecture subsequently printed in 
The Fortnightly Review. Mr. Frederic Harrison's 
' Aischro-latreia the Cult of the Foul,' is directed 
against Rodin, whose art decadent and morbid 
he declares to be built upon a sophism, and to- 
be, besides, the product of an imagination too- 
decidedly literary. 

IN this month's National Review we note an 
interesting article on ' Kent and the Poets,' by- 
Mr. Bernard Holland ; the very charming 
account of ' A Winter's Walk in Andalucfa,' by 
Mr. Aubrey F. G. Bell ; and Miss Frances Pitt's 
' Brown Owls ' fellow-creatures whom Miss 
Pitt knows so well that she likes their hooting at 
night for the reason that she recognizes the voice 
of each bird. An anonymous author contributes 
in ' Is Eton up to Date ? ' a foot-note to Mr. 
Xevill's ' Floreat Etona,' the best part of which 
leaving aside one or two pleasant stories is a 
justification of the classics, and in particular of 
Latin verse. 

The Burlington Magazine for February contains^ 
the continuation of Mr. D. T. B. Wood's article- 
on ' Tapestries of " The Seven Deadly Sins," ' 
with many highly interesting illustrations ; per- 
sonal reminiscences of Alphonse Legros, by Sir 
Charles Holroyd and Mr. Thomas Okey ; Mr. 
D. S. MacColl's discussion of Constable as a 
portrait-painter ; and a contribution from Signor 
Gustavo Frizzoni on ' Three Little-noticed Paint- 
ings in Rome," an ' Adoration of the Shepherds " 
in the church of San Rocco in the Via Ripetta. 
and two small pictures in the Galleria Borghese. 


MESSRS. JOSEPH BAER & Co. of Frankfort-on- 
the-Main have just issued two new Catalogues. 
The first contains a Spinoza library, embracing 
647 books by and on Spinoza, probably the most 
complete collection ever offered for sale. The 
bulk of this collection was made by the late 
Jacob Freudenthal, Professor of the University 
of Breslau, the biographer of Spinoza, and the 
greatest authority on Spinozism. This library 
comprises not only every edition and translation 
of the books written or attributed to Spinoza 
which are of any importance, but also a collection 
of works on his life and his philosophical system 
from the earliest period up to the present time.. 
All editions are arranged in chronological order, 
and all have been carefullv described in a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. FEB. 10, 1912. 

scientific manner. This valuable collection was 
purchased a few days ago for the library of a 
German philosopher and admirer of Spinoza. 

The second Catalogue describes an Alexander 
von Humboldt library, containing a nearly 
complete collection of this writer's works. There 
are 178 numbers, all bibliographically described. 
Alexander von Humboldt's most important 
publication, the gigantic description of his voyages 
of 'discovery in South and Central America, in 
18 vols. folio and 10 vols. 4to, is a very rare book, 
of which only a few complete copies are known. 
The collection of Messrs. Baer & Co. contains a 
perfect set of this work, with all the coloured 
plates, formerly in the possession of Princess 
Louise of the Netherlands, daughter of Frederic 
William III., King of Prussia. Besides Von 
Humboldt's works, there are to be found in thi; 
library the most important books on him and a 
good collection of portraits. The whole is to 
be sold for 450Z. 

CATALOGUES Nos. 209-11 have reached us from 
Mr. George Gregory, 5 and 5A, Argyle Street, 
Bath. Amongst other items we notice ' Annals 
of Sporting,' 50Z. ; Constable's ' English Land- 
scape,' 20Z. ; ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
68 vols., 261. ; Gower's ' Confessio Amantis,' 
1554, 211. ; and ' La Russie ' in 6 vols., printed 
entirely on vellum, with duplicate plates, one 
hand coloured and one plain, also on vellum, 
1813, one of the three copies printed, 807. 
A unique item is Walter Savage Landor's own 
corrected proof-sheet copy of the excessively 
rare ' Idyllia Heroica,' Pisa, 1820, of which only 
some 30 copies are known. In Landor's writing 
occurs the following note : " Don Luigi Gerish 
for whose benefit I ordered the book to be pub- 
lisht engaged to correct the prefs [proofs]. He cd 
not construe episodii, etc. (this is not only in the 
nature of an episode) so the fool corrected i into a. 
There are a few faults of my own further on." 
On top of title is written the name of John 
King Eagles. Mr. Gregory has also an extensive 
collection of new books at reduced prices, among 
which we observe Audsley's ' Ornamental Arts 
of Japan,' 2 vols., 10Z. ; Jesse's ' Historical 
Memoirs,' 30 vols., 101. ; and a complete set of 
Nature, 87 vols., 251. 

issued their Catalogue 722, in which we see 
offered complete sets of ' Hansard's Parlia- 
mentary Debates,' ' The Annual Register,' 
and British and Foreign State Papers ; an 
exceptionally large number of Books on Airman- 
ship ; the first edition of Coryat's ' Crudities,' 
and a copy of the same author's ' Crambe ' in 
the original vellum binding ; the first edition of 
Milton's ' Paradise Regained ' in the original 
binding ; and many interesting books relating 
io America, &c. 

to C0mspontonts. 

J. W. G. Forwarded. 

MR. RALPH THOMAS. Many thanks. We 
Tiave done as requested. 

PURIST. We have had no note on ' Supposi- 
tions ' in our columns recently. 

DR. CLIPPINCIDALE writes thanking the REV. 
A. B. BEAVBN and PELLIPAR for their replies. 




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ii s. v. F.B. IT, Mia.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. -No. 112. 

NOTES : Charles Dickens, 121 Casanova in England, 123 
Gotham in Derbyshire Book with Robert Burton's 
Autograph, 125 Farringdon Ward Intercommunica- 
tion : Die Briicke Casanoviana, 126 Yorkshiremen in 
America " Honours " to whom Honour is Due Roger 
Lancaster, Priest, 127. 

QUERIES : Montaigne on Tacitus Frith's 'Road to 
Ruin' and 'Race for Wealth,' 127 Saints' Garden 
' Zoriada ; or. Village Annals ' Archibald Erskine 
Gardiner Family Haydon's Journals Gover Surname 
Cromwell and Vane, 128 Geronomo Nonsense Club 
Lord Barry Canon T. Jackson Londres : London 
Casanova Authors of Quotations Wanted, 129 Stewart 
Family Jane and Robert Porter Tobacconists' High- 
landers Jane Austen and the Word "Manor" 
" Bartholomew ware" T. Wymondesold, 1693 'London 
Chronicle ' : ' Monthly Review ' Lumber Troopers 
Register Transcribers of 1602, 130. 

REPLIES: 'The Married Men's Feast,' 131 Spanish 
Titles granted to Irishmen Samuel Greatbeed Duration 
of Families. 132 Henry Downes Miles The Sun as the 
Manger Oxford Degrees and Ordination, 133 Sir 
Francis Drake and the Temple New Zealand Governors 
Burial in Woollen: " Colberteen," 134 " With 
Allowance "Edgar Allan Poe's Mother Tattershall : 
Klsham : Granthtn), 135 Murderers reprieved for 
Marriage Biographical Information Wanted Hurley 
Manor Crypt 'Gil Bias' Britannia Regiment, 136 
Foreign Journals in the U.S. Foreigners accompanying 
William III. " Vicugfia " Trussel Family Lamb or 
Lambe Authors Wanted, 137 Lucius Curious Staff 
Dr. Brettargh Ancient Terms, 138 Crowned by a Pope- 
Fines as Christian Name Beaupr Bell Giggleswick 
School Seal* Young Man's Companion,' 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Greek Tragedy' ' Comedies of 
Shakespeare ' ' Analecta Bollandiana ' ' Wonders 
of Ireland ' ' Vision of Faith.' 

OBITUARY :-The Rev. Walter Consitt Boulter. 





(See ante, pp. 81, 101.) 

BEFORE I continue them some record should 
be set down in these notes of the hearty 
manner in which the Dickens Centenary 
has been celebrated in France, a land and 

* The district now being incorporated wit'i 
Portsmouth, the house is known as 393, Com- 
mercial Road, Portsmouth, having been' recently 
changed from 387. I have given the birthplace of 
Dickens at the heading of this, my third note, as 
by those who have not studied the biographies of 
Dickens, Chatham is often put down as his birth- 
place. The family resided there for so long a 
period, that, as Mr. Chesterton states, it "became 
the real home, and for all serious purposes the 
native place, of Dickens. The whole story of 
his life," continues Mr. Chesterton, " moves like 
A Canterbury pilgrimage along the great roads of 

people dearly loved by Dickens. In fact, it 
was only in France that he was completely 
happy while away from home. Among 
the tributes rendered by the French press 
should be noted that of Les Annales of the 
4th inst. There are articles by Jules 
Claretie, Anatole France, and others ; and 
among the many illustrations one of the 
bust inaugurated at the Centenary fetes, the 
work of the sculptor Toft. 

On the 14th of July, 1844, Dickens, with 
his wife and children, arrived at Marseilles 
on the way to Italy. Before he left England 
a farewell dinner was given to him at Green- 
wich, Lord Xormanby in the chair. Forster 
sat next to Turner, who had his throat " en- 
veloped, that sultry summer day, in a huge 
red belcher handkerchief, which nothing 
would induce him to remove."' Carlyle 
did not go, but wrote : 

" I truly love Dickens, having discerned in 
the inner man of him a real music of the genuine 
kind, but I would rather testify to this in some 
other form than dining out in -the dog days." ; 

There is an unreality about this visit to 
Italy : Dickens never seems to be actually 
there ; his soul appears to be all the time 
in London. Mr. Chesterton well says : 
" His travels are not travels in Italy, but 
travels in Dickensland. " This is accounted 
for in a general way by the fact that at 
first most of his time was spent at work on 
' The Chimes,' so that his thoughts were 
far away, while his surroundings caused him 
to work with difficulty. For, again quoting 
Mr. Chesterton, it was 

" among the olives and the orange-trees he wrote 
his second great Christmas tale ' The Chimes ' at 
Genoa, a Christmas tale only differing from 
the ' Christmas Carol ' in being fuller of the grey 
rains of winter and the skies of the north. 
' The Chimes ' is, like the ' Carol,' an appeal for 
charity and mirth, but it is a stern and fighting 
appeal : if the other is a Christinas Carol, this 
is a Christmas war song." 

No sooner was ' The Chimes ' completed 
than a spirit of " unspeakable restless some- 
thing " seized him, and he resolved to return 
to London in order that he might read 
the story to a few friends to try its effect. 
He therefore wrote to Forster to arrange for 
this, and the reading took place at his 
house, 58, Lincoln's Inn Fields, on the 2nd 
of December. The well-known " pencil 
note " by Maclise shows of whom the party 
consisted. By the 22nd of December 
Dickens had rejoined his family at Genoa 
for Christmas, and writes to Forster : 

" Miss Coutts has sent Charley [her godson, 
born on the 6th of January, 1837] a Twelfth Cake 
weighing ninety pounds, magnificently decorated ; 
and only think of the characters, Fairburn's 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m 8. v. FEB. 17, 1912. 

Twelfth Night characters, being detained at the 
Custom House for Jesuitical surveillance ! " 

By the close of June, 1845, Dickens was 
back in London. While he had been away, 
Forster had had to mourn the loss of his 
only brother. Dickens consoled him with 
the thought that 

" he had a brother left. One bound by ties as 
strong as ever Nature forged. By ties never to 
be broken, weakened, changed in any way but 
to be knitted tighter up, if that be possible, until 
the same end comes to them, as has come to 
these that end but the bright beginning of a 
happier union." 

The death also occurred, while Dickens was 
in Italy, of John Overs, author of ' The 
Evenings of a Working-Man,' which had 
been published by Newby through Dickens's 
influence, and to which he had written a 
preface. The poor carpenter was even 
then dying of consumption, and Newby 
wrote to Dickens that " he hoped to be able 
to give Overs more money than was agreed 
on." Newby was an interesting man. 
Besides being a publisher, he was a practical 
printer, and once told me that he had written, 
printed, bound, and published a book 
without assistance. 

When Overs was dying, he suddenly 
asked his wife for a pen and ink, and wrote 
in a copy of his book to be sent to Dickens 
" with his devotion." 

Now that Dickens was again in England, 
the old restlessness was full upon him, and 
his desire was to start a weekly periodical. 
He " really thought he had an idea, and not 
a bad one." The proposed price was to be 
three halfpence, and *he contents partly 
original, partly selected notices of books, 
theatres, all good things, all bad ones. 

" Carol philosophy, cheerful views, sharp 
anatomization of humbug, jolly good temper ; 
papers always in season, pat to the time of year ; 
and a vein of glowing, hearty, generous, mirthful, 
beaming reference in everything to Home, and 
Fireside ; and I would call it 

The Cricket. 

A cheerful creature that chirrups on the Hearth. 
Natural History." 

Dickens proposed to himself to " chirp, 
chirp away in every number until I chirped 
it up to well, you [Forster] shall say how 
many hundred thousand ! " This proposal 
was swept away by a far larger scheme, 
which had long been under discussion, that 
of a daily paper, and he decided that " it 
would be a delicate and beautiful fancy for 
a Christmas book, making the Cricket a 
little household god." Thus was originated 
the title of the Christmas book of 1845 : 
* The Cricket on the Hearth.' 

He came to " a dead-lock in this Christmas 
story sick, bothered, and depressed " 
" never was in such bad writing cue as I am 
this week, in all my life." This was owing 
to his anxiety as to the new paper, to which 
he had all but consented to have his name 
publicly attached. Forster, although he 
knew not then the difficult terms, physical 
as well as mental, upon which his friend held 
his imaginative life, knew enough to be 
fully convinced and correctly, as it very 
soon afterwards proved that he was entirely 
unable to bear the wear and strain of the 
editorship of a daily paper ; for " his habits 
were robust, but not his health," and that 
secret had been disclosed to Forster before 
his visit to America. 

Forster's remonstrance, however, was vain: 
while Dickens was grateful to his friend 
for his affectionate anxiety, he was deter- 
mined to go on, and the prospectus of Th& 
Daily News, written by him, was issued. At 
six o'clock on the morning of the 21st of 
January, 1846, Dickens wrote to Forster r 
" before going home," to tell him, "Been at 
press three quarters of an hour, and we are 
out before The Times." A second note,, 
written in the night of Monday, the 9th of 
February, contained the words " tired to> 
death and quite worn out," and also told 
Forster that he had just resigned. As the 
description of his Italian travels (turned 
afterwards into ' Pictures from Italy ') had 
begun with its first number, his name could 
not be at once withdrawn ; and for the 
time during which they were still to appear,, 
he consented to contribute other occasional 
letters on important social questions. But 
the interval they covered was short. 

On Dickens leaving, Mr. Dilke was called 
in as " consulting physician," with absolute 
power in all business matters, and hi* iriendl 
Forster became editor. They at once 
agreed to lower the price from 5d. to 21 d. r 
which in those days, before the abolition 
of the compulsory stamp, meant but lrf, 
to the publisher The immediate result 
was to raise the circulation from a declining 
one of 4,000 and under, to an increasing 
circulation of 22,000 and over. My father 
worked with Mr. Dilke, purely as a 
volunteer, in the business department, push- 
ing the sale and advertisements in all direc- 
tions. , This he did because he so thoroughly- 
approved of the views, of the paper on 
education and social reforms, for which he 
had long been an ardent worker. Mr Dilke 
was very successful in securing first new* 
of important events. Among these was- 
that of the French Revolution of 1848;; 

US. V. FEB. 17, 1912.] 


and I have a letter now before me, received 
by my father from Southampton, February 
23rd, 1848, acknowledging the receipt .of 
wenty copies of the second edition of 
" this day's date," containing the important 
intelligence from France, and stating 
that the contents were immediately com- 
municated to the principal bankers and 
merchants in the town, and that " The 
Daily News was the first paper to arrive in 
Southampton with the intelligence from 

Dickens had known Dilke from his boy- 
hood, and was very fond of him. On his 
death he wrote to Forster : " Poor Dilke ! 
I am very sorry that the capital old stout- 
hearted man is dead." Sorrow may also 
be expressed that no adequate record should 
remain of a career which for steadfast pur- 
pose, conscientious maintenance of opinion, 
and pursuit of public objects with disregard 
of self, was one of very high example. 


(Jo be continued.) 


(See 10 S. viii. 443, 491 ; ix. 116 ; xi. 437 ; 
11 S. ii.- 386; iii. 242; iv. 382, 461.) 

ONE of the first public places that Casanova 
visited on his arrival in London was a tavern 
which he calls " Cafe d' Orange." In the 
Gamier edition, vi. 346, he says : 

" Voyant beaucoup de monde dans un cafe, 
j'y entrai. C'etait le caf6 le plus mal fame 
de Londres, celui oil se r&unissait la lie des 
mauvais sujets de 1'Italie qui venaient a passer la 
Manche " ; 

and on the next page he particularizes it 
as the " Cafe d' Orange." In the Rozez 
edition, v. 427, the description is somewhat 
different : 

" J'entre a nion insu au cafe d'Orange, espece 
de taverne ou caverne, oil se reunissaient tous 
les vauriens d'ltalie et des autres pays." 

In both editions Casanova declares that 
he was warned at Lyons to avoid this 

From the first I suspected that the adven- 
turer must have found his way to the Prince 
of Orange Coffee - House in the Haymarket, 
which, if newspaper paragraphs are to be 
trusted, was situated at the bottom corner 
of the street, opposite the King's Theatre. 
Owing to its proximity to the Opera-House 
and the fact that (according to newspaper 

advertisements) tickets for the benefit: 
performances of Continental artists were tc. 
be obtained there, one may conjecture- 
with some reason that the tavern was much 
patronized by foreigners. Such a surmise* 
too, is justified by a statement in Henry 
Angelo's ' Pic-nic,' where, at p. 364, this, 
coffee-house is described as " crowded with 
foreigners and dancing-masters." It WP.S 
there that Casanova met Vincenzo Martinelli, 
the editor of Boccaccio, which circum- 
stance seems to place the identity of the 
cafe beyond doubt, for in one of John 
Wilkes's address-books there is the following 
entry: "Martinelli, at the Orange Coffee- 
House, Haymarket." 

Possibly Casanova may have maligned the- 
tavern, since fifteen years later Fanny 
Burney made use of it as an address in h'er 
negotiations with the publisher of ' Evelina.'' 
It should be noted that the memoirist uses the- 
colloquial term " Orange " in place of the- 
formal title, " Prince of Orange " Coffee- 

Martinelli was well known in London as 
a man of letters, and his acquaintance with 
Lord Spencer is a testimony to his respect- 
ability. In 1752 he published in London 
his ' Istoria critica delta vita civile,' and in 
1758 his ' Lettere f amiliari e critiche'; and 
MB. RICHARD EDGCUMBE tells us at 8 S. x. 
312, that his edition of Boccaccio was: 
published in 1762. While preparing this, 
work he received much friendly criticism 
and advice from the wealthy and eccentric 
Thomas Hollis (Francis Blackburne's ' Me- 
moirs of Thomas Hollis,' passim), and it is. 
worthy of remark that Horace Walpole 
speaks of him with deference. He was also 
the friend of John Wilkes, and a letter from 
him to the " patriot," addressed to the 
King's Bench Prison on 25 July, 1769, wil* 
be found in the Add. MSS. 30,870, f. 170. 
It introduces Baron Sieten, " Imperial' 
minister at the Court of Poland," which* 
shows that Martinelli kept good company. 
Long after Wilkes's discharge he was in the- 
habit of dining with him. 

Shortly before his visit to England, Casa- 
nova met at Turin an English nobleman 
whom he calls Lord Percy, and soon after his 
arrival in London he made the acquaint- 
ance of Lord Percy's mother, whom he calls, 
the "Duchess" of Northumberland (Gar- 
nier, vi. 365). He was anticipating events. 
In the year 1763 there was no Duchess cf 
Northumberland, for it was not until 22' 
October, 1766, that Hugh Smithson, Ear} 1 
of Northumberland, was created a duke. 
So, too, the nobleman whom Casanova met. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. v. FEB. 17, 1912. 

at Turin was then Lord Warkworth, who, 
of course, became Earl Percy after his 
father's elevation in the peerage. There is 
no doubt that it was the Earl of Northumber- 
land's eldest son with whom Casanova 
became friendly at Turin, for at that time 
his younger brother Algernon was only in 
his twelfth year, and the description of Lord 
Percy as a reckless sower of wild oats is 
quite in keeping with all we know of his 
early life. Lord Warkworth, later Lord 
Percy, was on the Continent in 1762, and 
did not return home till some weeks after 
Casanova came to England: 

" On Tuesday night [26 July] Lord Warkworth, 
son of the Earl of Northumberland, arrived at his 
Lordship's house. .. .from his travels." St. 
James's Chronicle, 26-28 July, 1763. 

Casanova's mistake is quite pardonable, 
for his acquaintance became far more 
notorious as Lord Percy than he was as Lord 
Warkworth, and the memoirist naturally 
would bear in mind the later title. Mr. 
Tage E. Bull of Copenhagen, the most 
learned of Casanovists, agrees with me in 
this matter, and attributes Casanova's 
mistake to the " slow apprehension of 
foreigners with regard to the ' fine shades ' 
of British titles." 

It is not at all remarkable that Lady 
Northumberland neglected to pay Casanova 
the attention that her warm welcome of 
him would encourage him to expect. This 
^' jovial heap of contradictions," who, as 
Walpole declared, would almost shake 
hands with a cobbler, was not frightened by 
:any report to Casanova's discredit that may 
have come to her ears. Soon after she met 
the adventurer she was laid up with an 
attack of rheumatic fever, and, according 
to the newspapers, only recovered in time 
for the celebrations at Lord Warkworth's 
coming of age on 25 August. These cir- 
cumstances, and the fact that she and Lord 
Northumberland left London on 15 Septem- 
ber for Ireland, where the earl had been 
appointed Lord-Lieutenant, explain her ap- 
parent neglect of her son's friend. Obviously, 
she had far too much to occupy her atten- 
tion in July and August to spare a thought 
for Casanova. Lord Warkworth, too, ac- 
companied his parents to Dublin, and did 
not return to London till 9 November for 
the meeting of Parliament (he was M.P. 
for Westminster), when the exciting inci- 
dents of the Wilkes controversy were suffi- 
cient to make him forget the Italian gentle- 
man whom he had met at Turin. 

It is a remarkable fact that Casanova never 
mentions John Wilkes, notwithstanding the 

fact that he was the most talked-of man in 
Great Britain while the memoirist was in 

One morning when Casanova went for a 
ride on horseback with Gabrielle, one of the 
Hanoverian sisters (whose identity it should 
be possible to solve, since an important 
clue is provided in the ' Memoires ' ), he 
alighted for London at a place which he 
calls Bame. " Nous avons fait cette course 
en vingt-cinq minutes, et il y a pres de dix 
milles " (Gamier, vii. 50). The spot must 
have been on the road to St. Albans, as 
Lord Pembroke soon passed by, bound for 
that town ; so I venture the conjecture that 
Casanova wrote Barne, meaning Barnet 
(which is ten miles out of London on the 
St. Albans road), and that his editor, as is 
so often the case, still further distorted his 
spelling of an English name. I have not 
discovered that Lord Pembroke, who was a 
very conspicuous figure in the annals of 
gallantry of his day, had a seat at St. Albans, 
as Casanova alleges. Casanovian chronology 
may be helped forward, however, by the 
newspaper chronicle of this nobleman's 
movements in the summer of 1763. Accord- 
ing to the daily press, he arrived in London 
from his seat at Wilton on 13 July, and on 
3 September left again in company with 
the Duke of York for his Wiltshire house. 
It is possible, however, that he was back in 
town before the middle of Ihe month. 
Commodore the Hon. Augustus Hervey, who 
was Casanova's companion so often, is 
said by the newspapers also to have left 
London with the Duke of York's party on 
3 September. He had been appointed to 
the command of the Centurion man-of-war, 
on which the Duke sailed for his tour in the 
Mediterranean ; but, according to Horace 
Walpole, " the press of soldiers was so warm 
that Augustus Hervey could not be spared 
to attend the Duke of York," so he may 
have been back in London soon after 
the departure of his Royal Highness en 
23 September. 

It is interesting to compare Casanova's 
account of the ball given at Carlisle House on 
Tuesday, 24 January, 1764, in honour of 
the Prince of Brunswick, with that of the 
contemporary newspapers. The following 
paragraph appeared in The St. James's 
Chronicle, 24-26 January, 1764 : 

" On Tuesday night a grand ball and enter- 
tainment was given to the Prince of Brunswick 
at Madame Conolley's [sic] Concert Room in 
Soho Square: there were present H.R.H. Duke of 
Cumberland and upwards of 250 of the Nobility. 
The ball was opened by the Prince of Brunswick 
and the Duchess of Richmond, and continued till 

ii s. v. FEB. 17, 1912.] NOTES- AND QUERIES. 


six o'clock yesterday morning." Cf. Casanova's 
description, Gamier, vi. 5523. 

I have looked through the files of The St- 
James's Chronicle from June, 1763, to June, 
1764, but have found no allusion to the 
window-card advertisement, the examina- 
tion before Sir John Fielding, or the incident 
of the parrot, all of which, from what Casa- 
nova tells us, ought to be there. 


(See 10 S. viii. 8.) 

MY original communication on this subject 
appeared in the issue for 6 July, 1907, but 
failed to elicit any further information. It 
concerned the place-name " Gotham " occur- 
ring on modern maps (instance particularly 
the 6-in Ordnance map) in the vicinity of 
Parwich, Derbyshire, and on the line of the 
High Peak Railway. It seemed reasonable 
to conclude that this Derbyshire Gotham 
was perhaps but a relatively modern nick- 
name, or second-hand reflection, of the 
original Nottinghamshire Gotham. 

In the eighth volume of Messrs. Philli- 
more's ' Derbyshire Marriage Registers,' 
1911, which embraces Parwich, there occur 
among the Parwich marriages several parties 
described as " of Gotham." The obscurity 
of the place, however, may be gauged from 
the circumstance that the able transcriber, 
Mr. L. L. Simpson of Derby with whom 
I at once communicated was unaware 
that such a place-name existed in the county, 
having assumed that the references were to 
the well-known Nottinghamshire Gotham. 
Had such been the case, however, it cannot 
be doubted that even after allowance is 
made for the laxity of old-time clerks some 
reference to the county would have been 
made, for the whole width of Derbyshire 
separates Parwich from Notts. 

However, Mr. Simpson, on receipt of my 
letter, at once agreed that the references 
in the Parwich register could only be to the 
obscure local Gotham. Further, he very 
kindly searched, on my behalf, various 
Derbyshire books and other records, with 
the following results : 

" Gotam " first occurs (so far as can be 
found) on Burdett's map of Derbyshire, 

Glover's ' Directory of Derbyshire,' 1829, 
gives the names of four farmers living at 

The same ' Directory ' for 1846 definitely 
describes Gotham as a hamlet in the parish 
of Parwich. 

White's ' History ' of the county, 1857 r 
very curiously renders the name " Gottom " 
an archaic form of the Notts Gotham. 

Kelly's ' Directory,' 1891, gives the name 
of one farmer living at Gotham. 

The same work for 1908, I find, in the list 
of Parwich residents, includes two farmers 
located at Gotham. 

The Rev. C. P. H. Reynolds, M.A., Vicar 
of Parwich, in response to an inquiry, wrote 
me : " Gotham in this parish is a name 
covering two farms." 

However, the circumstance that there were 
four farmers here in 1829, plus the fact that 
it was deemed worthy of a place on the map 
of a century and a half ago, justifies the 
assumption that the place has suffered the 
ordinary rural disease of depopulation, and 
consequently that this Derbyshire Gotham 
was formerly of greater importance than at 
present. The suffix " ham " might, perhaps, 
be considered to support this view. 

The earliest reference to Gotham in the 
printed Parwich marriages occurs under 
date 1708, which at least proves the name 
on this spot to be upwards of two centuries 
old. As the register commences in 1640, 
it is, of course, possible that the imprinted 
baptisms and burials may comprise earlier 
allusions. Even so, however, this would 
not suffice to carry the name far enough back 
to remove the possibility of its having 
originated in a nickname, when we remember 
how early the Gotham tales were popular, 
and likewise the various recorded instances, 
of the application of the nickname. 

I may, however, mention that a Derby- 
shire authority, whom I am not at liberty 
to name, assures me that this Gotham is just 
as old a Saxon place name as any in the 
county. A. STAPLETON. 

39, Burford Road, Nottingham. 

GRAPH. (See 10 S. viii. 326; 11 S. i. 325; 
iv. 44. ) I am indebted to MR. J. H. DAVIES 
for kindly drawing my attention to an item 
in Mr. Bernard Halliday's Catalogue No. 31 
(Leicester), namely, William Burton's ' The 
Description of Leicester Shire,' 1622, bear- 
ing Robert Burton's autograph on the title. 
The account, however, given in the cata- 
logue greatly overrates the rarity of this 
autograph. It was Robert Burton's common 
practice to put his name or initials on the 
title-pages of his books, and, as may be seen 


NOTES AND QUERIES. pi B. v. FEB. 17, 1012. 

at the above references, there are hundreds 
of volumes in the Bodleian and Christ Church 
libraries that were formerly in his posses- 
sion ; while presentation copies of ' The 
Anatomy of Melancholy ' containing his 
.signature are in the libraries of Brasenose 
College and the British Museum ; and two 
books with his autograph that have appeared 
in booksellers' catalogues are noticed at the 
last two references. It is excusable to regard 
the present instance as of especial interest. 
The title-page of ' The Description of 
Leicester Shire ' has a small engraving of the 
Burtons' house at Lindley, where Robert 
was born. The work itself is quoted by 
name in the introduction to ' The Anatomy ' 
{' Democritus to the Reader'), ed. 1624, 
p. 12, "to borrow a line or two of mine 
elder Brother," and there are other points of 
contact between the two books " quae nunc 
perscribere longum est." 

Univ. Coll., Aberystwyth. 

FARRINGDON WARD. This City ward is 
known to be so called from William and 
Nicholas de Farndone, who were succes- 
sively Aldermen of the ward towards the 
close of the thirteenth century and the 
early part of the fourteenth. Nicholas 
in his will, dated 1334, describes his alder- 
manry as that of " Farndone within Ludgate 
and without " ; but the ward was commonly 
known as the " Ward of Farndone " or 
' Farringdon Ward " down to 1394, when 
by statute 17 Ric. II. cap. 13 it was divided 
into two wards, viz., Farringdon Within and 
Farringdon Without, a separate Alderman 
being allowed to each. A point, however, 
which I think may be worthy of notice is 
that as early as 1301 I find both the Ward of 
Nicholas de Farndone Within and the Ward 
of Nicholas de Farndone Without separately 
mentioned in a Coroner's Roll of the City, 
as if they were looked upon as distinct 
wards (and not parts of the same ward) at 
that early date. 


Guildhall, B.C. 

(See also 10 S. iii 243; iv. 135.) All biblio- 
graphers and investigators will be pleased 
to learn of the establishment of an 
international clearing-house or exchange, 
known as Die Briicke ( = the bridge), 
under the presidency of Prof. Dr. Wilhelm 
Ostwald of Leipsic, who a couple of years 
ago received a Nobel prize for his excellent 
work in chemical research. Die Briicke, which 
has not yet commenced the publication 

of an official organ, has its headquarters 
at No. 30, Schwindstrasse, Munich. The 
minimum subscription for membership at 
present is six marks per year. National 
branches in other countries will, no doubt, 
be established in due course. 

The serious investigator to-day no longer 
rests content with printed literature. 
Students of all subjects must eventually 
find some means of getting into com- 
munication with others interested in 
the question at issue. At this point Die 
Briicke aims to afford practical assistance. 
Without trespassing upon the work of any 
other existing society, national or inter- 
national, it seeks to establish such inter- 
relations with all as will make it a central 
body or clearing-house of unlimited scope 
and usefulness. It has appropriated a 
fertile field which gives promise of fruit- 
fulness. EUGENE F. McPiKE. 

135, Park Bow, Chicago. 

CASANOVIANA. (1) Some interesting par- 
ticulars of the Casanova families will be 
found in Jal's ' Dictionnaire critique de 
Biographie et d'Histoire, deuxieme edition,' 
1872. Refer to the article on Francois 
Joseph Casanova, membre de 1'Academie 
Royale, brother to Jacques. See also pp. 
100, 773, 1177, and errata, p. 1329. 

At the head of the article Jal gives Joseph's 
birth and death as 1727-1801, but in the 
fifth column he shows that Joseph died 
8 Juillet, 1802, and not 1805 as stated in the 
dictionaries. But besides- this error Jal him- 
self points out three others : thus col. 329b, 
tenth line below the facsimile of Joseph's 
signature, for "plus" read " moins " ; 
and p. 330, line 18, for " quarante ans " 
read " quarante-huit ans " ; and line 29, for 
" jour pour jour " read " un peu plus de." 
I give these in detail because they will be 
useful to those who only have the first edition 
of Jal's great work. RALPH THOMAS. 

(2) Don Joseph Marrati or Marcati, alias 

Don Bepe il Cadetto," afterwards Comte 
Afflisio: " a son accent je le reconnus pour 
Napolitain " ('Memoires,' i. 363, Garnier 
edition). Lord Glenbervie (about 1776) 
writes of Cagliostro, in whose lawsuit he 
was employed during that year or there- 
abouts : 

" I thought his person and manner not unlike 
those of another famous Italian cheat whom I often 
dined with at Prince Kaunitz's at Vienna, Col. 
Affligio. I believe both the one and the other 
were Neapolitans." ' The Glenbervie Journals,' 
p. 87. 


79, Great King Street, Edinburgh. 

11 S. V. FKB 17. 1912.] 




The following brief notes are taken from 
oluminous extracts made from wills at 
York by the late John Sykes, M.D., F.S.A., 
of Doncaster : 

1657. Thomas Wilson, the elder, sometime 
citizen and clothworker of London, now 
resident at Ryecroft in the parish o 
Rawmarsh. My cousin Thomas Brownel! 
of Portsmouth, Rhode Island, New 

1669. Thomas Kirke, of North Anston, yeoman 
To my wife Elizabeth all my estate rea 
and personal in Virginia, she paying a] 
my debts in the said colony. 
J95. Seth Sothill, Esq., of Thome, and afterward 
of Carolina in America. 

1706. Edward Beale, of Leeds, gent. My mothe 
Elizabeth Beale ; Mrs. Christian 
Vaughan, who enjoys an estate in Bar 
bados, of which said Elizabeth has th 

1720. Josias Hawksworth, of Monkbretton 

grange, yeoman. To Ann, wife of Joseph 

Charlesworth, of Philadelphia, Perm 

sylvania, 181. if she claim it within 5 


1738. William Wharton, clerk, late of the Island 
of Nevis, W.I. 

1744. Edmund Withers, of Doncaster, clerk. Mv 
brother Thomas W., of the Island of 
Barbadoes, and his two daughters. 

1765. Bulleine Knight, of Otley, clerk. My son 
Robert, surgeon in the East Indies : my 
second son William, sailed to Carolina, 
West Indies. 

1781. Francis Hall, of Tankersley, clerk. My 
brother Charles in Jamaica. 

1793. Jane Farrer. late of Doncaster, now of Bath, 

widow of Henry F. My cousin John 
Beale of Newark, afterwards of London, 
only son of my late uncle Richard Beale, 
late of Rhode Island. 

1794. Matthias Harwood, of Doncaster, grocer. 

My son Robert, of Philadelphia/ North 


W. C. B. 

Dalrymple Maclagan, Archbishop of York,' 
chap, iij., Mr. F. D. How remarks on 

the extraordinary rapidity and ease with 
which Mr. Maclagan was able to master the 
contents of a book, a gift which would of 
course have been an invaluable help to him 
had he sought for honours at Cambridge " ; 
and says, later on, that certain things have 
been quoted 

" in order to give some idea of the powers of 
mind possessed by Mr. Maclagan at the time 
when, content with an ordinary pass degree, he 
was seeking ordination." P. 34. 
Mr. F. D. How does not seem to know that 
the fact of his hero's having come out a 
Junior Optimo proves that he faced the 
Tripos with success (pp. 30, 32), instead of 
submitting to the Poll. ST. SWITHIN 

386.) He was not alive in 1623. The 'Third 
Douay Diary,' whose author at this period 
was the Rev. John Jackson, records his 
death at the English College, Douay, on 
20 Aug., 1598, in these words : 

" Dievigesimo D. Rogerius Lancaster perfectis- 
simus omnium quos ab incunabulis videram hujus 
mundi spretor sine metu et motu hac vita cessit," 
i.e., " on the 20th Mr. Roger Lancaster, the most 
perfect contemner of this world of all whom I had 
seen from my cradle-days, fearlessly and quietly 
departed this life." Catholic Record Society, 


x. 3. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

TACITUS. In Montaigne's ' Essays,' book ii. 
chap. xix. (Hazlitt's translation), is the 
following remarkable passage : 

" It is certain that in those first times, when our 
religion began to gain authority with the laws, zeal 
armed many against all sorts of Pagan books 
(Vopiscus, in 'Tacit. Imp.,' c. 10^, by which the 
learned suffer an exceeding great loss : a disorder 
that I conceive did more prejudice to letters than 
all the flames of the barbarians. Of this Cornelius 
Tacitus is a very good witness,* for though the 
Emperor Tacitus his kinsman had by express order 
furnished all the libraries in the world with his 
work, nevertheless one entire copv could not escape 
the curious search of those who desired to abolish 
:t, for only five or six idle clauses that irere contrary 
to our belief." 

Where did Montaigne find the fact italicized ? 
[t surely was not his conjecture, or he 
would hardly specify the number of anti- 
Christian clauses. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

OR WEALTH.' I have for some time past 
?een endeavouring, but so far without 
uccess, to discover where the originals of 
hese historical paintings now are. Neither 
he artist's son nor the leading art dealers 
n the West End are able to enlighten me, 
o I appeal to ' X. & Q.,' feeling assured that 
here are others besides myself who would 
>e interested to know. ' The Road to 
luin ' was exhibited in the Royal Academy 
n 1878, and depicted in five tableaux the 


has " testimony." The French is 


[11 y. V. FKB. 17, 1912. 

career of a young spendthrift, showing him 
first in his university days, afterwards as the 
leading object of the ring men's attention on 
the rails of the Royal Enclosure at Ascot, 
and, finally, on the point of taking his own 
life. ' The Race for Wealth,' also a series 
of five paintings, illustrates the ups and 
downs of a bogus-company promoter, the 
chagrin of his ruined victims, his trial at 
the Old Bailey, and his final tramp with 
other convicts in the quadrangle of old 
Millbank Prison. It took Frith the best 
part of two years to paint, and the enormous 
pains he took to be exact in every detail 
forms one of the most interesting chapters 
in his own ' Autobiography,' published by 
Bentley in 1887. Even Baron Huddleston 
donned his judicial robes and sat for the 
portrait of the judge. This set was never 
m the Academy, but was exhibited at the 
King Street Galleries in 1880, where thou- 
sands of people paid the necessary shilling 
(which included a descriptive pamphlet by 
Tom Taylor, which I should like to get) to 
view it. I have discovered that it was 
purchased by Agnews for 400?. at a sale at 
Christie's in 1896. They tell me they sub- 
sequently resold the pictures to a Conti- 
nental dealer, but have no knowledge where 
they now are. Can any of the readers of 
' N. & Q.' say ? 

Frith's other chief masterpieces, ' The 
Derby Day ' and ' The Railway Station,' 
are respectively in the Tate Gallery and in 
the King's collection. The first named, 
which drew such a mob at the Academy, has 
been exhibited all over the world. 


SAINTS' GARDEN. I have heard of a 
garden so called, situated, I believe, in 
Cheshire, where blossoms grow that are 
named after the holy men and women in the 

Any information respecting this garden 
and its contents is desired. 

M. L. D. 

Berchtesgaden, Bavaria. 

the author of this novel, published in London 
in 1786, known ? A copy of it, marked "T. 
Marcer's Circulating Library in Andover," 
has recently been presented to the Bodleian 
Library by Mr. E. S. Dodgson, who also 
furnished several interesting details con- 
cerning it to a Cornish paper of recent date. 
From these I gather that the B.M. autho- 
rities were anxious to secure this particular 
copy, since they possess only an incomplete 
replica, and that a French version, issued in 

1787. Mr. Dodgson, although he dots not 
say why, supposes the writer " to have been 
a lady." The scene of the story is laid near 
Plymouth ; French is quoted freely ; clas- 
sical literature is referred to, as also are 
Dryden, Hobbes, Milton, Pope, and " Shak- 
spear " ; some curious expressions, such as- 
" mahap," and " trepan " for " entrap," are 
used ; and the devil is termed " Old Scratch." 
The Bodleian is to be congratulated on 
having stolen a march on the B.M. in the 
possession of this odd specimen of eighteenth- 
century literature. J. B. McGovERN. 
St Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

ARCHIBALD ERSKINE. I should feel obliged 
if some one could favour me with the date 
of Archibald Erskine mentioned in this- 
inscription : " Ex dono Archibaldi Areskini 
Armigeri Londini." Please reply direct. 


Training College, Dundee. 

GARDINER FAMILY. I have a coat of arms 
before me of the Gardiners : the coat is. 
Az., between a chevron erm. three griffins' 
heads erased or. I find this coat registered 
in Berry and Edmondson' as that of the 
Gardiners of Oxfordshire in 1578. Can any 
one tell me in what part of the county the 
Gardiners lived or where their home was ? 

HAYDON'S JOURNALS. Dr. Knapp, in his 
' Life of Borrow,' refers to the painter 
Haydon's unpublished Journals, " kindly 
placed at my disposition by his grand- 
daughter." Can any reader tell me where 
these Journals now are ? Haydon's bio- 
graphy by Tom Taylor I know, and also the 
' Correspondence and Table Talk.' 


COVER SURNAME. Can any corre- 
spondent tell me the derivation of the sur- 
name Gover ? Was it originally a variant 
of Gower ? R. VAUGHAN GOWER. 

Ferndale Lodge, Tunbridge Wells. 

CROMWELL AND VANE. At a certain 
period in the lives of these men their 
mutual affection was eo great that they had 
pet names for each other. Cromwell wa* 
" Brother Fountain," and Vane " Brother 
Heron." Has any explanation or suggestion 
as to these names ever been given ? I 
should be grateful for information on the 
point. I see that Carlyle speaks of a village 
of Cromwell or Crumwell, and remarks, 
" Well of Crmii, whatever that may be.' r 
Can " Fountain " have any connexion with 

US. V. FEB. 17, 1912.] 



this ? Then has " Heron " any connexion 
with Sir Henry Vane ? Or is there any 
heraldic explanation of the names ? I have 
not by me the arms of the Vanes or of 
Cromwell. J. WELLCOCK. 

Lerwick, Shetland. 

GEROXOMO. Is anything known of Gro- 
nomo, said to have been of the household of 
James IT., and to have built or lived at 
Luddington House, Egham, Surrey ? 



1. THE NONSENSE CLUB. According to 
Mr. C. B. Phillimore's edition of ' Alumni 
Westmonasterienses ' (1852), p. 328, this 
Club was composed of William Cowper, 
Geo. Colman, Robert Lloyd, Bonnell Thorn- 
ton, Joseph Hill, and two other Westminster 
men. Who were these two others ? 

2. LORD BARRY. In Stanley's ' Historical 
Memorials of Westminster Abbey ' (1868), 

. 420, the following quotation occurs : " I 
ave placed Lord Barry." says Cecil, " at 
the Dean's at Westminster." Can any 
correspondent give me the reference to the 
authority from which this quotation is 
taken ? " 

and whom did he marry ? The ' Diet, of 
Nat. Biog.,' xxix. 90, does not give this in- 
formation. In ' Alumni Oxonienses ' he is 
described as the son of John Jackson of 
Chancery Lane, but in the list of the candi- 
dates for election into St. Peter's College, 
Westminster, his father is styled Henry 
Jackson of London. Is it possible to obtain 
the correct particulars of his parentage ? 

G. F. R. B. 

very interesting to know how we got the h 
into Thames (see PROF. SKEAT'S note, ante, 
p. 45); but how did the French get the r 
into Londres ? D. O. 

CASANOVA. I have a copy of the ' Lettere 
della Nobil Donna Silvia Belegno alia Nobil 
Donzella Laura Guzzoni,' which in Melzi's 
' Dizionario di op. anonimi e pseudonimi,' 
s.v. Belegno (vol. i. 120), is said to be by 
Casanova. In my .copy A2 in the first part, 
and B 1 in the second part, are wanting, 
having apparently been cut out. Have 
other copies the same defect ? Or, if not, 
what did these leaves contain ? 

J. F. R. 


Subdued to what it worked in. 

I have a vague recollection of having seen 

this, but cannot recall where, except that 

a " dyer's hand " occurs in connexion with it. 


[And almost thence my nature is subdued 
To what it works in, like the dyer's hand. 

Shakespeare, Sonnet CXI.] 

1. Cor ad cor loquitur (Cardinal Newman's 


2. Intus si recte, ne labora. 

3. Kuhn ist das Miihen, herrlich der Lohn. 

4. That most perfect of antiques 
They call the Genius of the Vatican, 
Which seems too beauteous to endure itself 
In this mixed world. 

5. Ihr Anblick giebt den Engeln Stiirke. 

[Goethe's 'Eaust' : Prolog im Himmel.] 

6. Till books, and schools, and courts, and 

honours seem 
The far-off echo of a sickly dream. 

7. Je suis venu trop tard dans un'monde trop 


8. Sur 1'Hymette j'ai eVeille les abeilles. 

9. The scent of violets hidden in the grass. 
[The smell of violets hidden in the green. 

Tennyson's ' Dream of Fair Women. J 

10. Quis Deus, incertum : est Deus, or QuisDeus, 

incertum : habitat Deus. 

11. Je souffre ; il est trop tard ; le monde s'est 

fait vieux ; 

Une immense esperance a traverse la terre ; 
Malgre nous vers le ciel il faut lever les yeux. 

12. Malgre moi 1'infini me tourmente. 

13. Lay myself upon the knees 

Of Doom, and take mine everlasting ease. 

The law condemns the man or woman 
Who steals the goose from off the common, 
But leaves the greater villain loose 
Who steals the common from the goose. 

F. F. H. 

[Other versions are supplied at 7 S. vi. 469 ; vii. 
98 ; 8 S. x. 273 ; but the authorship is doubtful. J 

I should be glad to know who is the author 
of the following lines, and where they are 
to be found : 

The East bent low and bowed her head 

In silence and disdain ; 

She heard the legions thunder past, 

Then plunged in thought again. 

It seems that they are not in ' The Light of 
Asia,' and are not by Matthew Arnold. 

A. B. G. 
* The lines run thus : 

The East bow'd low before the blast 

In patient, deep disdain ; 

She let the legions thunder past, 

And plunged in thought again. 
They are part of a well-known passage in Matthew 
Arnold's ' Obermann Once More.'] 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tns.v. FEB. 17,1912. 

LAND. Did Andrew Stewart of Bonny- 
toun, Ayr (1620), second son of Robert 
Stewart of West Braes and Haltoun de 
.Loncardie, Perth, son of Andrew, second 
Lord Ochiltree, whose daughter married 
John Knox, or any grandson of this Robert 
Stewart whose name was Andrew 
Stewart, migrate from Scotland and settle 
at Gortigal, in the county Tyrone, 
about 1627 ? Or can any of your readers 
state the parentage of Capt. Andrew 
Stewart (a native of Scotland), who settled 
at Gortigal in 1627, and was the ancestor 
of the family of Stewart, Bart., of Athenry, 
Ireland ? Had Robert Stewart of Roberton, 
Scotland, who had a grant of land in Ulster 
in 1609, any sons or grandsons who migrated 
to Tyrone at this period ? or had Sir James 
Stewart of Bonny toun, 1608 ? If so, what 
were their names, and who were the fathers 
of Robert Stewart of Roberton, and Sir 
James Stewart ? HERBERT A. CARTER. 

Porter died 1850, authoress of ' Scottish 
Chiefs,' ' Thaddaeus of Warsaw,' &c. In 
several old books, also in ' A Happy Half- 
Century,' by Agnes Repplier, ' Jane Porter's 
Diary ' is alluded to. Can any one tell me 
where it is to be seen, and if it was pub- 
lished, or is only in MS. ? 

2. Sir Robert Ker Porter is described 
in ' D.N.B.' as being descended from Sir 
Endymion Porter, Gentleman of the Bed- 
chamber to King Charles I. Who stated 
this as a fact ? What foundation is there 
for such a statement ? Can any reader 
throw light on the subject ? The College of 
Heralds, Queen Victoria Street, have no 
record of his arms or pedigree, as I have 
inquired there. HELEN VIOLET PORTER. 

Donnycaraey House, Dublin. 

is made at p. 64 to the Highlander of Totten- 
ham Court Road. This was lent to the Old 
London Exhibition, Whitechapel Art Gal- 
lery, last December. 

Mr. A. M. Broadley, in his ' Nicotine and 
its Rariora,' gives the card, dated 1765, ol 
" William Kebb, at ye Highlander ye corner 
of Pall Mall, facing St. James's, Haymarket,' 
and he says the Highlander was a favourite 
tobacconists' sign for 200 years. 

When and where did these Highlander 
signs originate, and had they any connexion 
with meetings of Jacobites in this country ? 

GJendora, Hindhead. 
[See 10 S. vii. 47, 92, 115, 137, 457 ; xi. 305, 307, 396. 

ji ' Persuasion,' chap, iii., Mr. Shepherd, the 
awyer, describes Admiral Croft as a desirable 
tenant of Kellynch, the seat of Sir Walter 
Elliot. The Admiral 

' knew what rent a ready-furnished house of 
;hat consequence might fetch should not have 
jeen surprised if Sir Walter had asked more 
lad enquired about the manor would be glad 
of the deputation, certainly, but made no great 
joint of it said he sometimes took out a gun, 
jut never killed quite the gentleman." 

In ' Pride and Prejudice,' chap, iv., it is 
said of Mr. Bingley, the tenant of Nether- 
aeld, that "as he was now provided with a 
jood house and the liberty of a manor," he 
might probably be content to remain there 
as a tenant, " and leave the next generation 
to purchase." 

What, precisely, was meant by " the 
liberty of a manor "100 years ago ? Surely 
not mere sporting rights, which would belong 
to all landowners, whether lords of manors 
or not. Yet what other manorial rights 
would be " deputed " or transferred to a 
tenant ? B. B. 

James Howell's epistles (1594-1666) I read 
" your Latin epistolizers go freighted with 
mere Bartholomew ware." What was this ? 

1693. Particulars required of the above, 
who in that year gave the chimes to South- 
well Minster. No clue is to be found in the 
book on the Surrey bell-founders, nor in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography.' 

Were the bells also from Surrey ? If so, 
whose ? JOHN A. RANDOLPH. 

VIEW.' Can any one inform me of the 
history of these two periodicals, which were 
both printed by William Strahan in the 
eighteenth century ? R. A. A. L. 

obliged for any particulars concerning this 
society, which nourished circa 1770. 


there any reason to believe that when the 
earliest parish registers were transcribed on 
to parchment, about the year 1602, pro- 
fessional scriveners found employment by 
travelling from parish to parish and perform- 
ing the work of transcription, as ordained 
by the Act regulating parish registers 
passed towards the close of Elizabeth's 
reign ? 



In the Ilfracombe registers we have this 
note : " George Milton sen. wrote this 
Register book in yere of our Lord 1602." 
Ha? the handwriting of the " parchment 
transcriptions " in any set of contiguous 
parishes been shown to be that of one man t 
Many of these transcriptions are beautifully 
done and are very legible, in most cases 
offering a great contr s ; to the writing for 
the years 1603-4-5. &c. J. H. R. 



(11 S. v. 29.) 

THE full title-page of this pamphlet is as 
follows : 

" The | married mens Feast, | or, | the Banquet 
at | Barnet | being I an invitation to all those 
married persons | who are master over their wives 
to a great dinner provided | at Barnet on Michael- 
mas day next. | Together \ with the articles to 
be enquired on of all | those that are to be ad- 
mitted to the Feast with the several | dishes and 
dainties provided for them | 

Come all away do not this feast neglect 
Unless it be such men as are Hen-peckt, 
For these there is no room as you shall see, 
The others welcome, welcome, welcome be. 
London. | Printed by Peter Lillicrap for John 
Clark at the Harp and Bible in I West-Smith- 
Field. 1671." Pp. 6. 

The following extracts will give the 
character of this " Banquet," which was 
evidently a jest : 

" Oh yes, O yes, O yes, All manner of married 
persons, high or low, rich or poor, wise or simple, 
gentlemen or beggars, that can truly and honestly 
answer in the affirmative to all these questions 
hereafter mentioned : You are hereby invited 
gratis to a special feast provided for you at 
Barnet, in the county of Hertford upon Michael- 
mas day next between the hours of eleven and 
twelve, where you shall be accommodated with 
all things necessary for the dignity of such a 

Then follow the questions to be asked of 
the " married men " about their wives, some 
of which are not suitable to print : 

" Does she rise before you in the morning and 
make you a fire against your rising, warming your 
slippers or shoes against your putting them on ? 

" Does she if dinner or supper be ready when 
you are at the Ale house or Tavern submissively 
stay for your coming home and not eat one bit 
thereof until you are come ? 

" Does she keep silence when you bid her hold 
her peace and not talk in her "sleep ? In sum 
does she go at your command, come at your call, 
and be obedient to you in everything she is 
appointed to do." 

" Most women have tongues as long as a Bell 
rope and as loud as the Clapper, like to a river 
always running and making as big a noise as the 
cataracts of Nilus, that deaf [sic] all the inhabit- 
ants thereabouts." 

It continues : 

" The premisses considered, it is to be thought 
there will not be such a great appearance of these 
married masters, but that the town of Barnet will 
be able to contain and maintain them all without 
the help of adjacent parishes .... And therefore 
I believe the butchers may have no great trading 
for this feast, since some suppose the leg of a lark 
may satisfle all those that can swear truly their 
wives are obedient to them in everything they are 
bidden to do . ..." 

" The manner how ihis Feast is to be ushered on 
to the table. 

" Before the dishes first march six trumpeters 
playing on bagpipes the tune of Chevy Chase- 
a very martial tune. 

" In the second place go four fidlers playing on 
Jews harps .... 

" Then just before the dishes two lusty men 
such as was Ascapart, page to Bevis of Southamp- 
ton, to make way and to keep the people off from 
thronging upon the servitors. 

" Then marches a gentleman usher in a red 
scarlet cloak with white silver lace upon it. 

" And after that comes the servitors bareheaded, 
with the dishes in their hands, all of them Hen- 
peckt fellows, and therefore wearing ropes about 
their shoulders, instead of towels, to signifie 
what they deserve for suffering their wives to 
become their masters. 

" Then let all Land men that would not go to 
sea in the Henpeckt friggot at their first mitation 
[? initiation] into the state of matrimony, be 
sure to keep the bridle in their own hands [that] 
they be not jade-ridden by a scolding wife, for 
win a day at first and you may with ease keep it 
afterwards, but if (fie on such a but) you yield 
the day at first, your case is very pitiful, yes so 
pitiful that next to a man riding up Holborn Hill 
westwards .... I know none worse. 

Fore warn'd, fore armed for this you may protest 
Those that are Henpeckt come not to this Feast." 

The above is the pith of the pamphlet, 
a copy of which is in the Bodleian, and is 
entered in the Catalogue under ' Barnet.' 
It belongs to Antony Wood's collection 
(press-mark, Wood, 654 a. 26), and is 
evidently part of the collection of printed 
books left by Antony Wood in November, 
1695, to the Ashmolean Museum, and trans- 
ferred to the Bodleian in October, 1858. No 
separate catalogue of this strange and 
valuable collection of books has been printed, 
and the ' D.N.B.' is wrong in saying that 
such a catalogue was published by William 
Huddesford. Huddesford published a Cata- 
logue of Wood's MSS. in 1761, but not of his 
books. The pamphlet in question is bound 
up with about thirty other pamphlets upon 
kindred subjects. It is a fine copy, with 

NOTP;S AND QUERIES. [n s. v. F JT, 1012. 

" raw " edges just as it left the printer. 
The publisher, John Clarke, carried on 
business 1650-82. He was successor at 
"The Harp and Bible" to Richard Harper, 
and was succeeded by James Bissel. "The 
Harp and Bible " published especially ballads, 
broadsides, and such pamphlets as ' The 
Married Men's Feast.' An extensive list 
of Clarke's ballad publications may be found 
in Lord Crawford's ' Catalogue of Ballads ' 
(privately printed, 1890), p. 537. 

' The Married Men's Feast ' is referred to 
in Hazlitt's ' Handbook,' 1867, p. 391, where 
it is entered for some reason under the 
heading ' Middlesex.' No clue is there 
given as to where the copy catalogued by 
Hazlitt may be found. Hazlitt spells the 
name of the printer incorrectly as " Peter - 
Lillitrap." His correct name was Peter 
Lilliecrap, and he was a native of Queathiock, 
co. Cornwall. In the time of the Civil War 
he served in the Royalist army. He was 
first at " The Crooked Billet " on Addle 
Hill, and secondly at " The Five Bells," 
near the church in Clerkenwell Close. A 
short time before the date of the publica- 
tion of ' The Married Men's Feast ' he was 
registered as employing one press, one 
apprentice, one compositor, and one press- 
man. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

Has MR, GERISH a note of ' A True Rela- 
tion of a Devilish Attempt to Fire the Town 
of Barnet' (see 5 S. vi. 169, 297) ? Copy in 
Guildhall Library, London, ' Political Tracts, 
1655-1706,' No. 20. GEORGE POTTER. 

10, Priestwood Mansions, Highgate, N. 

(11 S. v. 69). I am afraid I do not know 
of any book which gives definite data with 
regard to the titles granted by Philip IV. of 
Spain to the Irishmen who fought in the 
" Wars of the Netherlands," but it is 
possible Don Francisco Fernandez de Bethen- 
court may deal with this subject before he 
has finished his ' Historia Genealogica de 
la Monarquia Espanol.' Some information 
as to the pedigrees can be found in the 
papers relating to Spanish military orders 
such as Calatrava, Alcantara, Carlos III., &c., 
in the Archives nacionales, Pasco de Rigoletos, 
Madrid, as some fifty Irishmen were enrolled 
in these orders. The services of the officers 
of the Irish regiments Dublin, Irlanda, 
Hybernia, Comerford, Macauliffe, Ultonia, 
Limerick, Waterf ord and of the Irish officers 
in the originally Scotch regiments Edimburgo 

and Wauchope, may be seen at Simancas. 
In the eighteenth century they are chronicled 
under the names of their regiments, but in 
the seventeenth century under the names of 
the officers themselves. 


SAMUEL GREATHEED (11 S. iv. 347 ; 
v. 71). MR. COURTNEY'S excellent account 
of this worthy at the later reference omits 
what is to me his one point of interest, 
namely, the fact that his portrait was painted 
by Romney. This portrait, a three-quarters 
(i.e., 30 in. by 25 in.), has never been traced. 
It was painted early in 1795, and dispatched 
to Newport Pagnell on 14 May of that year. 
His acquaintance with Romney was doubt- 
less brought about by his friendship with 
Cowper and Hayley. He preached a sermon 
on Cowper s death at Olney, 18 May, 1800, 
which was printed ; he sent a copy to the 
artist, inscribed " To Mr. Romney, from the 
author," and this identical copy was offered 
in the second-hand book catalogue of Mr. 
Rollings some time since. The Monthly 
Magazine of January, 1803, had the follow- 
ing announcement : 

" The Rev. Mr. Greatheed, of Newport Pagnell, 
has in considerable forwardness a General History 
of Missions, in which he is assisted by Mr. Burder, 
of Coventry. The work is expected to make 
three or four volumes in octavo ; and the first 
will be ready for delivery early in the spring." 
The portrait to which MR. COURTNEY refers 
as having been published in The Evangelical 
Magazine of April, 1794, cannot, of course, 
have been the Romney picture. 


Allow me to correct a misprint in MR. 
COURTNEY'S very interesting account of my 
grandfather. For " the Rev. Samuel Rothey 
Straitland " (ante, p. 72, col. 1) read Samuel 
Roffey Maitland. He was the author of 
' The Dark Ages ' and ' The Reformation,' 
and grandfather of the late Prof. Maitland. 

The family is much indebted to MR. 

Corringham Rectory, Essex. 

(11 S. v. 27, 92). SIR W. BULL'S idea is 
supported by[the following extracts from the 
Introduction to Burke's ' Extinct Peerages/ 
1883 : 

" 1. Not one of the honours now exist conferred 
by William Rufus, Henry I., Stephen, Henry II., 
Richard I., or John. 

" 2. All the English Dukedoms created from 
the institution of the order down to the com- 
mencement of the reign of Charles II. are gone 
except only, Norfolk, Somerset, and Cornwall. 

ii s. v. FEB. 17, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" ?>. Winchester and Worcester are the only 
existing Marquessates older than the reign of 
George III. 

" 4. Of all the English Earldoms created by the 
Normans, Plantagenets, and Tudors, eleven only 

" 5. The present House of Lords cannot claim 
amongst its members a single male descendant of 
any one of the Barons who were chosen to enforce 
Magna Chart a. or of any one of the Peers who are 
known to have fought at Agincourt ; and the 
noble house of Wrottesley is the solitary existing 
family among the Lords which can boast of a 
male descent from a founder of the Order of the 

And this volume was published in 1883 ! 


HENRY DOWNES MILES (11 S. v. 69). 
The following is taken from ' Modern English 
Biography.' by Frederic Boase (1897), 
vol. ii. col. 871, a biographical dictionary 
which in many respects seems to meet the 
requirements of MR. C. K. SHORTER : 

" Henry Downes Miles, b. 1806 ; sub-editor 
of The Constitution, 1833, which was started in 
opposition to The Times ; subsequently on The 
Croicn ; ring reporter to the London daily press 
and Bell s Life in London many years ; retired 
1871 ; edited The Sporting Magazine ; translated 
M. J. E. Sue's ' The Mysteries of Paris,' 1846, 
and ' The Wandering Jew,' 18-16 ; edited ' The 
Licensed Victuallers' Year-Book,' 1873, and 
' The Sportsman's Companion,' 1863-4, twelve 
parts only ; author of ' The Life of J. Grimaldi,' 
1838 ; ' Dick Turpin,' 4th ed., 1845 ; ' Claude 
du Val,' 1850 ; ' The Anglo-Indian Word Book,' 
1858 ; ' The Book of Field Sports and Library of 
Veterinary Knowledge,' 1860-63 ; ' Miles' Modern 
Practical Farrier,' 1863-64 ; ' English Country 
Life,' 1868-69 ; ' Pugilistica, being One Hundred 
and Forty-Four Years of the History of British 
Boxing,' 3 vols., 1880-81. D. Wood Green, Middle- 
sex, Feb., 1889." 

It was stated many years ago that ' Pugi- 
listica ' was written in order to discharge a 
debt owing by the author to the publishers 
of the work Weldon & Co., 9, Southampton 
Street, Strand, W.C. I have not been 
able to obtain any confirmation of this 

I think MR. SHORTER will find what he 
wants in Boase's ' Modern English Bio- 
graphy.' Four volumes are published ; the 
first was in 1892 ; and there are two articles 
of mine on it at 8 S. i. 487 and xiv. 62. More- 
over, ' M.E.B.' is referred to in every 
volume of ' X. & Q.' If MR. SHORTER will 
first consult Mr. G. F. Barwick's eighteen- 
penny pocket-book, ' The Pocket Remem- 
brancer of History and Biography,' which 
is professedly compiled from ' M.E.B.' (and 
other sources), he will generally be able, as 
in the case before us, to get an idea whether 
the person he wants is in ' M.E.B.' 

The chief facts about H. D. Miles are duly 
chronicled in ' M.E.B.,' vol. ii. 871. Un- 
fortunately, Mr. Boase, who has spent 
upwards of 1,000. in endeavouring to supply 
us with such information as MR. SHORTER 
suggests is required, was unable to ascertain 
the exact date of Miles's death. He only 
says Miles died " February, 1889." What 
was the exact day ? 

In his preface Mr. Boase enumerates the 
classes of people deceased since 1850 that 
are to be found in his book, and, beginning 
with Privy Councillors, comes down tc 
" sporting celebrities, eccentric characters, 
and notorious criminals." Of these last, 
several who had committed unspeakable 
atrocities are in vol. iv., the last volume 
published. RALPH THOMAS. 

" Driving out a nail with a nail " might be 
the Shakespearian phrase for explaining 
the astrological quotation seemingly mis- 
taken by another from a book repeatedly 
mentioning " Juno suckling the infant Jove.' r 
Whether this book is trustworthy technically 
I know not ; it says (' Star Lore of All Ages/ 
by W. T. Olcott, London, 1911, p. 89) : 

" Cancer is celebrated chiefly because it con- 
tains the great naked-eye star cluster ' Praesepe,' 
the so-called s Manger,' from which two asses, 
represented by stars near by, are supposed to- 

The sun, arriving at this sign, begins his- 
apparent retrograde motion. 

" The astrological significance of Cancer 
has generally been malign" (p. 91); but 
the contrary appears to have been the belief 
in India, according to ' The Light of Asia ~ 
(book i. paragraph 2) : 
The grey dream-readers said : " The dream is 

good ; 

The Crab is in conjunction with the Sun ; 
The Queen shall bear a boy, a holy child." 


Boston, Mass. 

iv. 528 ; v. 53). I must apologize for my 
stupid blunder in ascribing ' Dorothy For- 
ster ' to Sir A. Conan Doyle, knowing well 
that Sir W. Besant was the author. Robert 
Patten in it is described not only as M.A. . 
but also as belonging to Lincoln College, 
Oxford, which certainly was not the case. 

Allow me to correct M.A.OxoN. in some 
of his statements respecting S.C.L. I took 
my degree in 1868 two years before he 
entered the University and the statute had 
been for some time amended, insomuch that 
no one could be admitted to the status of 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. FEB. 17, 1912. 

S.C.L. until he had passed all the examina- 
tions for the degree of B.A. And I well 
remember Richard Michell, afterwards Princi- 
pal of Magdalen Hall, and of the revived 
Hertford College, at a breakfast in his rooms, 
telling us how and why the alteration had 
been brought about I believe, by his own 
agency. He said : 

" It was not at all unusual to see your neigh- 
bour in hall one day in a commoner's gown, and 
the next in a fine silk one [i.e. that of the S.C.L.]. 
Bishops who were Cambridge men did not under- 
stand that such had merely passed Besponsions, 
and ordained them as if they were graduates." 

This, I am sure, is the substance of what he 
said, and given almost in his own words. 
Of course, I know that men were sometimes 
ordained without a degree the canon 
making provision for the wearing by such of 
tippets instead of hoods ; but I must demur 
to the statement that " it was usual in the 
nineteenth century for men to be ordained 
after a short residence at Oxford University," 
unless proof be adduced. 

E. L. H. TEW. 
Upham Rectory, Hants. 

(11 S. iv. 347, 414, 490; v. 10). That my 
friend MR. HUTCHINSON should find difficulty 
in answering his question why Drake was 
" not entertained and feted " by his own 
Inn, the Inner Temple, rather than by 
the Middle Temple, is surprising. The 
answer is simple. MR. HUTCHINSON is 
well conversant with the traditions and 
customs of the Inns of Court. He knows, 
therefore, that no rule is more stringently 
observed than that a member of an Inn of 
Court, however distinguished his position 
(with the exception of members of the 
Royal Family), when in the Hall of his Inn 
only has that precedence to which his legal 
seniority entitles him. At the present time 
the Lord Chancellor and the Speaker are 
both members and Benchers of the Inner 
Temple, but take no precedence from their 
official position when dining in the Inner 
Temple Hall, or afterwards at the Bench 
table in the Parliament Chamber, although 
they do so when they are guests elsewhere. 
Junior members of the Bar likewise take 
their places with strict regard to their 
seniority, reckoned from the date of their 
call to the Bar. When Drake visited the 
Middle Temple, not as a member, but as a 
guest, no such etiquette would prevail. 
That he should be " entertained and feted " 
there was natural, and no doubt popular, 
for. as has been shown, in those Elizabethan 

days many Middle Templars were, or after- 
wards became, adventurous navigators. 
That there is no record that Drake was 
specially honoured by his own Inn, there- 
fore, tends to emphasize the fact, already 
proved by the entry in the Admission Books, 
that he was undoubtedly admitted and 
remained a student and member of the 
Inner Temple, and that there is nothing to 
show that he was ever a student or member 
of the Middle Temple. It is pleasant to 
find that the Inns of Court are anxious to 
claim as members those who have dis- 
tinguished themselves in various ways. 

Inner Temple Library. 

' New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen,' by 
William Gisborne, second and enlarged 
edition, 1897, has notices of the Governors 
in question. At p. 185 there is a portrait of 
Sir George Bowen. Another may be seen 
at the beginning of ' Thirty Years of Colonial 
Government,' a selection of Sir George 
Bowen's letters and dispatches edited by 
Stanley Lane-Poole. It is not quite correct 
to call Lieut. Shortland and Col. Wynyard 
Governors. They were only interim ad- 
ministrators or acting-Governors. 


(US. iv. 368, 498; v. 37). The following 
extract from Egerton's ' Memoirs of Mrs. 
Anne Oldfield,' 1731, p. 144, may serve as 
a gloss upon the lines of Pope quoted by 

" As the Nicety of Dress was her Delight when 
Living, she was as nicely dressed after her Decease; 
being by Mrs. Saundcrs's Direction thus laid in 
her Coffin. She had on, a very fine Brussels- 
Lace-Head ; a Holland Shift with Tucker, and 
double Ruffles of the same Lace ; a Pair of new 
Kid-Gloves, and her body wrapped up in a 
Winding Sheet." 

Mrs. Saunders was an actress, a great 
friend of Mrs. Oldfield, with whom she lived, 
and a beneficiary under the latters will. 
Mrs. Oldfield died on 23 Oct., 1730, at a 
house in Grosvenor Street which belonged 
to her. It would be interesting if this house 
could be identified, and a commemorative 
tablet placed upon it, as its owner seems 
to have been undoubtedly the greatest 
English actress, both in tragedy and comedy, 
before the advent of Mrs. Siddons. She 
was buried in Westminster Abbey, " towards 
the West-End of the South-He," in close 
proximity to the spot where Congreve lay 
at rest, and it is to be hoped that her remains 

n s. v. FEB. 17. 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


will be respected by the good people who are 
so anxious to turn the Abbey into a thing ol 
beauty by casting out all the old monument 
into the dustbin. W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

I am now able to show that " Colbertine " 
3 correct. The Potter patent of 1678 is 
No. 204, and the specification reads : " An 
Invention for making of Flanders Colbertine 
and all other Laces of Woollen," &c. There- 
fore the lace described at the first reference 
as " Dolberline " must be a misprint. 


The following extract from ' The Registers 
of the Walloon or Strangers Church in Canter- 
bury ' (published by the Huguenot Society) 
may be of interest : 

" AoiU 4, 1678. La femme Jean le Leu, a 
sauoir Judit le Keux. Et fut la premier quil 
fut enterre selon 1'acte du Parlement enseuely 

en etofe de line." 


" With allowance " 

(11 S. v. 48). 
means " with the per- 
mission or approval " of authority. But I 
do not know who " allowed " or approved 
of it. See '"allowance" in the ' N.E.D.' ; 
and, with respect to the question of " im- 
primatur," see Milton's splendid tract on 
the subject entitled ' Areopagitica.' 


Is not this a token that the work had 
received the imprimatur of the authorities 
of the Roman branch of the Church ? 


Does not this mean " permitted by au- 
thority, licensed,"' in the same sense as 

allowed " is used in 1589 ? " He solde it 
to an allowed printer," quoted in the 

In the same year, 1796, Mrs. Arnold married 
a Mr. Tubbs, a pianist, and in the spring of 
1797, with her husband and her daughter 
Elizabeth, was engaged to join a theatrical 
company formed by Solee to play in Charles- 
ton. South Carolina. 

In the summer of 1800 Elizabeth Arnold 
married C. D. Hopkins, a popular actor. 
He died 26 Oct., 1805, and shortly after 
Mrs. Hopkins married another member of 
her company, David Poe. See the work by 
Woodberry above referred to, and the 
' Memoir of Edgar .Allan Poe,' by J. H r 
Whitiy, prefixed to the latter's edition of 
'Poe'g Poems/ 1911. 

These two lives give the result of the 
latest researches on the early life of Poe and 

his parents. 

Washington, D.C. 






mother was 

MOTHER : Miss 
S. v. 7). Poe's 
daughter of an 

English actress, Mrs. Arnold, from the 
Iheatre Royal, Co vent Garden. 
On 11 Feb., 1796, The Independent 
hromcle and Universal Advertiser, issued at 
Boston, Massachusetts, announced that Mrs. 
Arnold would make her first appearance in 
America at the Federal Street Theatre, 
12 Feb. 

\ Mrs- Arnold gave a vocal concert, 
which her daughter, Elizabeth, made her first 

' rtnC ^ a " (i S - ng Some PPular songs adapted 
youth. \\ oodberry's ' Life of Poe,' 1909, 


p o. 

(US. iv. 269, 314, 455, 535 ; v. 57). Allow 
me to answer MR. W. H. PINCHBECK'S 
inquiry touching my pronunciation of 
certain names. As far as I know, I say 
Byt-ham, Cheet-ham, and Greet-ham ; all 
the same, I was brought up on Gran-tham, 
and have been of the probably mistaken 
opinion that it was mainly vulgar speakers 
and outsiders vain of a bit of etymological 
knowledge who called the place anything 
Ise. In York, and Yorkshire, people 
would open their eyes if they heard one say 
Hot -ham, Boot -ham, Leet-ham, and Leat- 
lam, instead of Hoth-am, &c. I feel that 
euphony has as much claim to be regarded 
in our speech as the preservation of the 
original constituents of words in their 

I believe it is possible that the first syllable 
of Grantham was Granth, and that the form 
Grandham, which is said to occur in early 
records, arose from Norman misunderstand- 
ing of the letter thorn. It was this that 
gave us Wilfrid instead of Wilfrith. 

I should very much like to know what 
MR. CHARLES LANSDOWN means by saying 
that his claim that Grantham was at one 
time Great Brantham is supported by the 
fact that Great Gonerby lies to the north 
and Great Ponton to the south. 


The ' Encyclopaedia Britannica's ' extract 
from Domesday Book is undoubtedly in 
support of Grantham really owing its deriva- 
tion to G'Brantham (i.e., G'Branham, or 
G'Brunham), after the great Brun family, 
to which Hereward belonged. Again, Mor- 
ar, nephew of Hereward, and Earl of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. v. FEB. 17, 1912. 

Northumberland and of Lincoln, was Lord 
or Earl of Kesteven, of which division 
Grant ham, Bourne (Brune), and Stamford 
were and are places of some importance. 

Sir Charles Brandon, another of the 
Bruns, resided at Grimsthorpe Castle 
near by, and after marrying Mary, the 
youngest sister of King Henry VIII., was 
created Duke of Suffolk and presented with 
Tattershall Castle. The ancestors of the 
present Earl of Ancaster inherited Grims- 
thorpe on his death. 

Graham, being derived from Granham, 
through the omission of the suffix in 
" Gran," Granham appears to be derived 
from G'Branham, through the omission of 
the initial in the prefix " Bran." 

Elsham (? Ellas-ham) perhaps owes its 
origin to the family of Ella, the great King 
of Northumbria, and kinsman of the Bruns 
(which, I submit, is the surname of the 
ancestors of Robert Burns) ; as also would 
Elton and Allington, near Grantham ; 
Elshorp or Elsthorpe, near Grimsthorpe ; 
Ellastone (Stafford), Ellesmere (Cheshire), 
Elston (Notts), Elstow (Beds), and other 

Wit ham a century ago was called Wit- 
ham, but most people to-day say With-am. 
I prefer the latter, for I believe its origin 
to be due to that Brun named Withlaf, 
King of Mercia, who died 840 A.D., and that it 
is directly derived from With-laf-ham, by 
the omission usual as pointed out byPKOF. 
SKE\T, ante, p. 45 in trisyllabic names. 



(11 S. iii. 129, 172, 195, 298 ; v. 18). Before 
this is dismissed it should be added that 
large collections of instances have been 
gathered at 1 S. xii. 257, 348. 

W. C. B. 

(11 S. v. 70). 1. TEMPLE HENRY CROKER, s 
Henry of Saresfield Court, co. Cork, pleb. 
Ch. Ch. matric. 25 Nov., 1746, aged 17. 


Limerick Gazette for 5 Jan., 1819, gives th< 
following obituary notice : 
"Died at Kew, Surrey, aged 84, Mrs. Popham 
a native of Waterford, Relict of Joseph Popham 
Esq., Consul at Tetuan, the father of Lieut -Gen 
Pop.iam, and Rear-Adm. Sir Home Popham 

.35, Manor Park, Lee. S.E. 

HURLEY MANOR CRYPT (11 S. v. 46). 
ith reference to MR. MACARTHUR'S note, it 
s not the case that " a new residence, Ladye 
Place," has been built in the grounds of the 
Id Benedictine monastery. The old farm- 
louse which has been used as the residence 
ince 1838 when the old mansion house of 
he Lovelaces was pulled down and the 
naterials sold being in a very dilapidated 
ondition, was partly rebuilt on the same 
area. The front part of the house, however, 
acing south, was left untouched. As MR. 
VlAcARTHUR seems interested in Ladye 
Place and its history, I shall be pleased to 
send him a little book I have compiled 
;hereon, for private circulation only, if 
le will let me have his address. 

Ladye Place, Hurley, near Marlow. 

' GIL BLAS ' (11 S. v. 27). In his query 
MR. C. T. DRUERY describes six volumes 
which he owns. He may like to know that 
[ have a copy of a book published about the 
same time and by the same publishers : 

' La vita | di I Don Alfonso | Bias di Lirias | fig- 
[iuolo di (iil Bias | di Santijlano | tradotte dall' 
idioma fran- | cese nell' Italiano | con figure in 
rame. [Illustration, a floriated human head.] In 
Venezia. MDCOLIX. | appresso Antonio Bortoli | 
con lieenza de' Superiori, e Privilegio." 

With frontispiece, five other plates, and a 
genealogical tree of the Bias family. * 

The publisher tells us that it is a sequel 
to the history of Gil Bias, and gives us the 
life of his son Alfonso. 


Constitutional Club. 

REGIMENT (11 S. iv. 446, 515). With regard 
to the origin of the figure of Britannia as 
the badge of the Norfolk Regiment late 
9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot 
Chichester and Surges- Short quote the 
following in their ' Records and Badges of 
the British Army,' from the remarks made 
by General Bainbrigge in presenting new 
colours to the regiment in November, 
1848 : 

" This distinguished badge was given to you for 
your gallantry at the battle of Almanza, during 
the War of Succession in Spain, by Queen Anne. 
On the occasion of that battle it is recorded that 
you lost 24 officers and had 300 killed and wounded 
out of 467. In retiring from the field the regi- 
ment covered the retreat of General Lord Galway, 
a most arduous, hazardous, and difficult service. 
The regiment thus upheld the honour of Great 
Britain, and was rewarded for it by Queen Anne 
by allowing them to wear the figure of Britannia 
on their breastplates." 


ii 8. v. FKB. 17, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


466, 514 ; v. 53). The querist may not be 
so sceptical about the number of German 
newspapers if he will consider this method, 
which I suppose to be peculiar to the U.S. 
and Canada, viz., in various centres of popu- 
lation organizations print " patent -insides " 
that is, newspapers nearly complete, 
whose inside pages at least are covered with 
items of general interest and widespread 
advertisements ; any desired number of 
these sheets are sent away to printers, who 
fill in the blank spaces with local news and 
advertisements, and thus often on a sur- 
prisingly small subscription list are able 
to publish a pretentious local newspaper. 
Doubtless a hotbed for such " plate- work " 
is Philadelphia, which is within easy distance 
of many old and rich towns in which 
a principal language is " Pennsylvania 
Dutch " ; this is about as much like classical 
German as is Yiddish, but it would be 
called " German " in any census. This 
method of " patent -insides " may account 
for other figures in the list given. 

Boston, Mass. 

[Partly printed newspapers are sometimes localized 
in the same way in England.] 

There is no need to question the correct- 
ness of the number of German papers pub- 
lished in the United State?, viz., 632. By the 
census just taken the population of the States 
amounted to 91,000,000, of whom it may be 
safely assumed 25 million are of German 
and Austrian extraction ; and another 
8 million Irish, though I have heard the 
number of the latter put as high as 1 1 million. 
After a time the Germans often adopt the 
plan of englishing their names : thus 
Schonberg becomes Belmont, and Grau, 
Gray. Take them all through, they are 
lay far the most intelligent and best edu- 
cated element in the country. Hence it is 
no wonder there are daily papers with a 
wide circulation published in their lan- 
guage in New York (two), Philadelphia (two), 
St. Louis, Chicago, Milwaukee, and all the 
principal centres. In certain parts, as in 
Pennsylvania, the German spoken by Ame- 
rican-born citizens is of a very old-fashioned 
and debased type, but even these can 
perfectly understand their own literary 
language. N. W. HILL. 

Xew York. 

(11 S. v. 70). A note on the Oley family of 
Shotley Bridge is at 6 S. iii. 17. 

W. C. B. 

BRITANNICA ' (11 S. v. 48). This form 
is obviously absurd. After writing n to 
denote gn, the insertion of g before it really 
turns it into vicuggna ! In my ' Etym. 
Diet.' I give the old spellings as vicuna in 
English, and vicuna in Spanish, and quote 
from Acosta the statement that the word is 
of Peruvian origin. 


TRUSSEL FAMILY (11 S. v. 50). William 
Trussell or Trussel (Baron Trussell, fl. 1327), 
son of Edmund Trussel of Peat ling in 
Leicestershire and Cubblesdon in Stafford- 
shire, was an adherent of Thomas of Lan- 
caster ; fought at Boroughbridge, 1322, and 
fled to France on Lancaster's fall ; returned 
with Isabella, 1326 ; tried and sentenced the 
elder Despenser to be hanged ; as Procurator 
of Parliament renounced allegiance to 
Edward II. at Berkeley, 1327 ; had for a 
time commission of Oyer and Terminer ; 
was sent on various foreign missions to Rome, 
Spain and Portugal, France, and Flanders ; 
granted lordship of Bergues, 1331. It is 
probable that it was his son William who 
was admiral of the fleet west and north of 
the Thames in 1339 and 1343. See 
' D.N.B.,' Ivii. 270. A. R. BAYLEY. 

LAMB OR LAMBE (11 S. v. 66). The Lamb 
or Lambe of ' The Anti- Jacobin ' and ' English 
Bards and Scotch Reviewers' is not the 
gentle Elia, as MR. W. H. PEET supposes, 
but the Hon. George Lambe, a son of Lord 

The second line quoted from ' English 
Bards and Scotch Reviewers ' is not quite 
correctly given. It runs thus : 
By Jeffrey's heart, or Lambe's Bosotian head. 

United University Club. 

[ DIEGO also thanked for reply.] 

v. 28). I hope your correspondent MR. 
A. J. IKIN may be more fortunate in gaining 
information in regard to " Old Wisharf s 
Grave " (not Wiscard's, I think) than I was 
when, some year or two ago, I addressed a 
query thereanent, and got no reply at all. 
I can, however, furnish him with a little 
more of the text, or something like it, than 
is contained in his query, and that may 
perhaps help him. 

The story (intended to illustrate the 
physical deterioration of the human race) 
runs thus : Hodge, a sexton, goes to the 
churchyard to dig a grave. In the course 



[11 S. V. FEB. 17, 1912. 

of his excavation he lays bare a portion of i 
coffin lid as big as a barndoor. Through a 
small hole in the lid issues a mighty voice 
demanding : 

" Who dares 

Disturb the quiet of old Wishart's gravo ? " 
Hodge replies : 

" "Iis I, good sir, 
One Hodge the sexton, come to dig a grave." 

The voice demands to know what year it is 
and is then apprised that a thousand years 
have elapsed since it, or its owner, was 
buried, and it proceeds : 

" I prithee then. 
Good sexton, tell me true. What manner of mer 
Inhabit now the earth ? for by thy voice 
Thou seem'st a puny elf ! " "A puny elf ! " 
Quoth Hodge, " I 'm six feet four ! There '.' 

ne er a man 

In all the country-side that is my match ! " 

The voice protests its ignorance of modern 

scales and measures, and adds : 

" But through this hole 

Thrust in thy finger's end, that I may judge 
By sample small of thy dimensions great." 

Hodge reflects : 

" Although no mortal man I fear, the dead 

Have awful power mayhap " ; and so instead 

He thrust his pickaxe nozzle shod with iron. 

And he was in the right, for in a trice 

Old Wishart bit it off clean as a whistle, 

With " Hence, vile boaster, take thyself along. 

And learn that finger which thou think'st so strong 

Has no more substance than a piece of gristle ! " 

7, Roland Gardens, S.W. 

(10S.vii.69; 11 S. v. 78.) 

If more is needed to be known. 

The bishop's name was Hinds, not Hind 

(Samuel, Bishop of Norwich). In his 1834 

volume the stanza is in four lines, not two. 


Lucius (US. iv. 449, 534; v. 59). If 
MB. JONAS will refer to Haddan and 
Stubbs, i. 25-6, he will find therein quoted 
the statements of Bseda, Nennius, Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, and others, which Mr. Haddan 
had before him when writing the summary 
that I quoted at the second reference. 

Mr. Haddan says that the story of Lucius 
cannot be traced higher up than about 530, 
and that first Baeda (eighth century), and 
then Nennius (ninth century), copied this 
Roman story. See, too, Mr. Plummer's 
note in vol. ii. p. 14, of his edition (1896) of 
B eda. He writes : "It [the story] may 
safely be pronounced fabulous." He gives 
further references. 

MR. WALCOTT, at 5 S. xi. 306, refers to 
the Coire legend, as to which I have 

summarized the views of the best Swiss 
historians in my 'Murray' (1904), p. 407. 
I can find no reference to Lucius in the Saxon 
Chronicle. W. A. B. COOMDGE. 

CURIOUS STAFF (11 S. v. 49). The short 
staff with the crown at the top is perhaps 
the sort of " emblem of royalty " described 
by Dickens in ' Pickwick ' thus : 

" Mr. Grummer. perfectly speechless with indig- 
nation, dragged the truncheon with the brass crown 
from its particular pocket, and nourished it before 
Sam's eyes. 'Ah,' said Sam, 'it's wery pretty, 
'specially the crown, which is uncommon like the 
real one.'" 

Mr. Grummer illustrates its use by running 
it under Sam's neckcloth, and is promptly 
knocked down by Sam. 

But. used as a tourniquet with the neck- 
cloth of that period, the little staff would 
prove an unpleasant handle to drag off a 
criminal to justice. - GEORGE WHERRY. 

This is evidently a Head Constable's staff 
or badge of office. The description reminds 
me of the staff given by George IV. to 
Townsend, the Bow Street runner, except 
that this latter is wholly of silver. It is in 
the possession of the family of a banker of 
Chichester who was a godson of Townsend. 


DR. BRETTARGH (11 S. v. 49). Katharine 
Bruen ( 1579-1601 ), Puritan, was daughter of a 
Cheshire squire, John Bruen of Bruen Staple- 
ford, and sister of John Bruen (1560-1625), 
Puritan layman. When she was about 20 
she was married to William Brettargh or 
Brettergh, of " Brellerghoult " (Brettargh 
Holt), near Liverpool, who shared her 
Puritan sentiments. The couple are said to 
have suffered some persecution at the hands 
of their Roman Catholic neighbours. See 
' D.N.B.,' vi. 286 ; and vii. 139. 

For Catharine McAuley (1787-1841), 
foundress of the Order of Mercy, see ' D.N.B.,' 
xxxiv. 420. A. R. BAYLEY. 

ANCIENT TERMS (US. iv. 528 ; v. 50). 
One or two of the terms should have been 
given with their immediate context : 

1. " iij freyns doryes dount lun est s/im 
hevantel.'' 1 

2. " j arblaste dont la ventre est de balaynge 
in Latin baleyna] ove un baudr' [Lat. baldricus] de 

quir ove vj setes a arblaste enpinnez des pennes 

paun. wasfours xxix e iij vires." 
What portion is la venire ? There is also 
' chapel de fer. What is the precise distinc- 
ion ? 

I am greatly obliged for the kind answers 



CROWNED BY A POPE (11 S. v. 71). 
Probably the lady inquired after is Caroline 
Ferdinande Louise de Bourbon, Princess of 
Naples and Sicily, who was born at Naples 
5 November, 1798. Her father was the 
eldest son of the King of the Two Sicilies, 
and her mother the Princess Clementine. 
She married, 24 April, 1816, the Due de Berri, 
who was the younger son of Charles X., who 
succeeded Louis XVIII. He was assassi- 
nated at the Opera, and the Duchesse left 
France. For some time she stayed at Holy- 
rood Palace in Scotland, and proclaimed her 
son Henri V.. and herself Regent. Shortly 
before her bid for the French throne she 
sacretly married an Italian nobleman, Count 
Lucchesi. She died in Brussels in 1870. 
For full account of her romantic life see an 
article in ' Every Woman's Encyclopaedia,' 
by H. Pearl Adam, part xxxiii. p. 3958. 


Strawberry Hill. 

Your correspondent, I am confident, will 
find that the mother was the daughter of a 
lady who was the sole representative of 
a branch of the Fines, Fiennes, or Fynes 
family. At the date named this is, I believe, 
the invariable explanation of such Christian 
names. TH. M. 

[MR. BENJAMIN WHITEHEAD also thanked for 

BEAUPRE BELL (11 S. iv. 528; v. 99). 
The following notes may possibly be helpful 
in reference to G. F. R. B.'s query: 

P.C.C. (212 Irby). Dorothy Latton, dau. 
of Lawrence Howard all. Oxburgh of Emneth, 
Norfolk, late wid. of Francis Bell of Beaupre Hall, 
same co., and now wife of Geo. Latton of Kingston 
Baptist [Bagpize], Berks. Alms to Outwell and 
Upwell, Norfolk son Beaupre Bell son Philip 
Bell dan. Jane Oxburgh brother Henry Ox- 
burgh brother Howard Oxburgh, &c. 24 Jan., 
1693. Proved 1694. 

" Beaupre," it will be seen, appears in the 
will without the accent. F. S. SNELL. 

Buldon was no doubt the place where 
the land lay that furnished the prebend to 
constitute the prebendary of Buldon. It 
remains to be seen to what cathedral or 
collegiate body this dignitary was attached. 


iv. 449). This book, the chief work of 
William Mather, was first published in 1681. 
It became extremely popular, and ran 
through twenty-four editions. 


Greek Tragedy, by J. T. Sheppard (Cambridge 
University Press), is one of "The Cambridge 
Manuals of Science and Literature," which seek 
to give brief surveys of 150 pages or so. The 
author, who distinguished himself as an actor- 
in the Greek revivals at Cambridge, has en- 
deavoured here " to help modern readers to enjoy 
Greek plays," not to give a summary of facts, 
relating to Greek tragedy. So he has emphasized 
the ideas and conventions which are most unlike 
those of our present drama, and follows through 
the plays of the three great Greeks, explaining 
the methods of their construction, and the point 
of view which led to striking divergencies. 

The writing is done in a simple and admirable- 
style, which is lightened by a lively touch of 
humour here and there, and Mr. Sheppard Is in 
every case abreast of the discoveries and con- 
clusions of the last decade or so, which has brought 
fresh keenness and enlightenment. He acknow- 
ledges indebtedness to Walter Headlam, also to 
Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Prof. Verrall, and Prof. 
Hidgeway. The points of the last -named con- 
cerning local heroes and Olympian gods are well 
brought out in the chapter on ' Origins.' After- 
another on ' Some General Characteristics ' we 
are introduced to the three dramatists, each of 
whom has a chapter. The whole concludes with a 
' Bibliographical Note ' and a brief Appendix on 
' Simple Metrical Phrases.' 

The little book is admirably suited for reading; 
by those who rely on the translations now abun- 
dant, and it is happily devoid of pedantry. We 
have read every page with pleasure, and marked 
several passages worthy of quotation. The 
author keeps us in touch with the life of to-day- 
Thus he compares the story of Orestes to ""a 
Corsican or Kentucky- vendetta." and the 
typical Greek audience to " devout spectators, 
at the Festa of some popular saint." 

The illustrations are much to the point, but 
we should have been glad to know whence they 
come. We hope that Mr. Sheppard will write 
at much greater length on his subject. There is 
ample need for instruction, as is shown by the 
fumbling and jejune rhetoric poured forth from 
the daily press when a Greek play is on hand. 

MR. FROWDE publishes in the " Oxford Edi- 
tions of Standard Authors " a volume containing 
The Comedies of Shakespeare in the text of W. J. 
Craig, with a general Introduction by Swin- 
burne, introductory studies of the several plays 
by Prof. Dowden, and a Glossary. Two further 
volumes are to come, containing ' The Histories 
and Poems ' and ' The Tragedies.' This division 
into three will commend itself to all readers who 
know the difficulty of giving the whole work of 
Shakespeare in one volume of really readable 
type. Here the type is clear and distinct, and 
the lines are numbered at the side, an important 
point for the student which is often neglected, 
but is well looked after by a press that does much 
in Greek and Latin. All the characters are spelt 
out in full. Swinburne's brilliant eulogy is by this 
time familiar to many readers. Prof. Dowden's 
shorter prefaces show the fine taste we expect 
from the author of ' Shakspere : his Mind and 
Art.' To the useful Glossary We should have 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [u s. v. FEB. 17, 1912. 

added here and there. For instance, a reader 
may well look for " the Strachy " in ' Twelfth 
Night,' and might be told at least that the 
meaning of the phrase is disputed. 

Altogether, in spite of numerous competitors, we 
expect this pleasant and handy edition to win 
its way rapidly into the favour of the public. 

IN Tomus XXX. Fasc. IV. of the Analecta 
Bollandiana, published by the Socie'te' des Bollan- 
distes, Bruxelles, the principal article is that on 
St. Bomanus, the martyr who was beheaded on 
1 May, 780, at Baqqa, near the Euphrates, by 
the Caliph Mahdi, because he refused to abandon 
his faith. The account here given in Latin 
is from an ancient Georgian MS. Bomanus, a 
Greek by birth, became a religious in a certain 
monastery on the borders of a lake or marsh, in 
the midst of which was an island with a nunnery 
upon it, whose abbess seems to have been the 
superior of both the houses. Being sent with a 
companion on a mission concerning the affairs of 
the monastery, he was taken prisoner by the 
Saracens, who kept him for many years at Bagdad. 
His story is told with a delightful and vivid 
simplicity ; and is also interesting for the picture 
it gives of life in a time and region with which 
Western readers are not commonly familiar. 

WE give a hearty welcome to Dr. P. W. Joyce's 
latest book, The Wonders of Ireland, and Other 
Papers on Irish Subjects, published by Messrs. 
Longmans. In it he has brought together the 
"" wonders " from the Book of Ballymote and those 
related in the MS. (H. 3. 17) in Trinity College 
Library, Dublin. He notices as he goes along, 
not only what Giraldus or the " Kong's Skuggio," 
or any other ancient authority, has to say, but 
also what survives among the peasantry of the 
present time in the way of tradition concerning 
these " wonders," or belief in them. As he 
himself says, his treatment is popular, not 
strictly scientific ; but it is excellently calculated 
for his purpose, simple and clear without being 
jejune, and sufficient as to detail, while yet 
remaining brief. Perhaps there is a poetry 
about these old stories which has in part escaped 
him ; but, on the other hand, the love of Ireland 
and the knowledge of Ireland are unmistakable. 

Of the' Other Papers, 'that on the Three Patron 
Saints, though somewhat slight, gives all that is 
essential for a useful outline of the life of each ; 
and next to it, as successful, we would put the 
stories of Cahal O'Connor and Fergus O'Mara. 
'The paper on ' Spenser's Bivers,' that on the 
interpretation of "Irish names, and that, again, 
on ' The Old Irish Blacksmith's Furnace ' are 
scholarly discussions which embody sundry new 
conjectures and interpretations. 

MB. HEFFER of Cambridge has recently pub- 
lished The Vision of Faith, and Other Essays, by 
the late Caroline Stephen. These are preceded, 
not only by a Memoir, the work of her niece, the 
Principal of Newnham, and an Introductory 
Note, in which Dr. Hodgkin sets forth her rela- 
tions with the Society of Friends, but also by a 
selection from her letters, which fills little less 
than half the volume. The interest of the whole 
book is chiefly religious ; and it is not difficult 
to understand how the writer given her circum- 
stances and temperament came to join the 
Quakers. By her work ' Quaker Strongholds ' 
she did much, at a critical moment, to rediscover 

the Quakers to themselves. In one of her 
letters, given here, she expresses some doubt as 
to reading being " quite such an obvious good 
in itself " as many of her " most admired and 
trusted counsellors " thought it ; and this book 
though the work of one so highly cultivated, 
and so familiar with much of the intellectual life 
of her time has curiously little in the way of 
reference to other books. 


WE greatly regret to learn of the death of one 
who, as " W. C. B.," has been since 1864 a 
regular contributor to our pages. In our present 
issue appear a note and two replies by him, show- 
ing how lately the pages of ' N. & Q.' were in 
his hands ; and one has but to glance at the 
columns of entries against his signature in the 
General Indexes of the Ninth and Tenth Series 
in order to realize how wide was his learning, 
and how curious. Typical of this and of his love 
of accuracy were the numerous articles on 
the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' which 
he contributed to our Sixth, Seventh, jEighth, and 
Ninth Series ; and his affection for ' N. & Q.' and 
its " band of brothers," both living and dead, 
was exhibited at the time of its Jubilee by notes 
at 9 S. iv. 391, 411 ; v. 89. In this connexion 
mention may be made of his close friendship with 
the Rev. Dr. Fowler, F.S.A., of Durham, and 
John Sykes, M.D., F.S.A., of Doncaster, whose 
genealogical books and MSS. he inherited, as his 
note in this number (p. 127) testifies. 

He was a contributor for many years to the 
' N.E.D.' ; and latterly the only additions to the 
library in his overcrowded study were the quarterly 
sections of the ' N.E.D.' and the half-yearly 
volumes of ' N. & Q.' He had a marvellous 
memory, and could always detect repetitions of 
old subjects. He knew the Durham University 
Calendar almost by heart, did much to improve 
its accuracy, and had for some years been com- 
piling biographies entitled (after the manner of 
Anthony Wood) ' Athenae Dunelmenses.' 

Mr. Boulter, though belonging to a Worcester- 
shire family, was a native of Hull, with an inti- 
mate knowledge of the East Biding and its 
history. He was from 1870 to 1877 an attorney 
and solicitor, but was ordained deacon in the 
latter year, and priest in 1878, having been 
Junior Hebrew Prizeman of Durham University 
in 1874. His first curacy was at Bochdale, and 
from 1891 to 1902 he was Vicar of Norton, near 
Evesham. He died at Bichmond, Surrey, on 
the 5th inst., aged 64. In ' N. & Q.' we may 
fitly adapt to him the words originally written 
concerning Sir Christopher Wren: "Si monu- 
mentum requiris, circumspice." 


Lucis ; Mr. A. Stapleton Mr. S. S. MacDowall. 

MR. HOWARD S. PEARSON is thanked for his repl/ 
on " Nelson : Musle." 

11 S. V. FEB 17. 1912.] 


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With Introduction by JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 

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Sir Philip Sidney : Complete Works 

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n s.v. FEB. -24, i9i-2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. No. 113. 

NOTES : Charles Dickens, 141 Statues and Memorials in 
the British Isles Lord Lister, the Founder of Modern 
Surgery Henry Mayhew Centenary, 145 Thomas Atkins 
The Monosceros-stone The Top-Hat in Sculpture 
"King Richard of Scotland" " Poker-work" in the 
Eighteenth Century, 146 Relic Bureau Suggested 
Inscriptions in Churches and Churchyards, 147. 

QUERIES : ' Ballad of Lord Bateman 'Devon Memorials 
of the Revolution of 1688-90, 147 Janies Wright "The 
Pangam" Joseph Richardson, Eighteenth - Century 
Bookseller Roman Empresses Edmond Halley, Surgeon 
R.N., 148 ' The Brides of Mavis Enderby 'Yorkshire 
Whiteheads Walter Bisset Locwella Abbey De 
Buyter : Van Tromp Toasts and Good Stories Antonio 
d'Araujo Bishop Tanner of St. Asaph, 149 Spurrier- 
gate Lugubrious Playinjr-Card Matthew Fern, Jacobite 
" Piccadilly gates "Hales Family Robert Knight, 
Earl of Catherlousch Charter of Henry II. Harveys in 
Aberdeenshire, 150. 

REPLIES : Exchequer Tallies Lord Wharton's Bequest 
of Bibles, 151 Revolution Society, 152 Duchesse de 
Bouillon Statue of the Piper in the Plague of London, 153 
Alexander the Great and Paradise Authors of Quota- 
tions Wanted, 154 Royal Artillery, Ninth Battalion- 
Latter Lammas, 155 Capt. Freeny Money - box 
St. Agnes: Folk-lore Bernard Gilpin's Will " Caulker," 
a Dram of Spirits " Sambowd " Thiers's 'Traite" des 
Superstitions,' 156 Beaupuis Jane Austen's ' Per- 
suasion ' ' The Sacrifice of Isaac ' Knives as Presents 
Lady Elizabeth Stuart, 157 Fleetwood of Missenden 
Diseases from Plants Letters to Lord Orrery ' Paris 
Illustre,' 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Thunderweapon in Religion 
and Folk-lore' Wit and Character of the North Riding. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



FEBRUARY ITS, 1812 JUNE 9TH, 1870. 
(See ante, pp. 81, 101, 121.) 

THE " brief mistake " Dickens made in 
attempting to edit a daily paper was now 
remedied, and he " joyfully " returned to 
his old pursuits ; but, feeling that he could 
not " shut out the paper sufficiently to 
write well in London," he determined to 
write his new book in Switzerland, and 
" forget everything else if he could." Before 
going, lie, in an outbreak of momentary 
discontent, communicated with a member of 
the Government as to the chances there 
might be of his appointment, upon due 
qualification, to the paid magistracy of 
London ; but the reply was not favourable. 
Dickens left England on the 31st of May, 
1845, and on the eve of his departure 
took part in the founding of the General 
Theatrical Fund, of which he remained a 
trustee until his death. 

It was in July, 1846, while at Lausanne, 
that he wrote for Ms children an abstract 
in plain language of the narrative of the 
Four Gospels. Many have expressed a 
desire that this should be published, but 
Forster states that 

" nothing would have shocked him so much as 
any suggestion of the kind. The little piece was 
of a peculiarly private character, written for 
his children, and exclusively and strictly for their 
use only." 

The same month saw the beginning of 
' Dombey,' which he at once thought " very 
strong with great capacity in its leading 
idea." He read the first number to his 
little circle, among whom " old Mrs. Marcet, 
who is devilish 'cute, guessed directly (but 
I didn't tell her she was right) that Paul 
would die." He also wrote his Christmas 
story ' The Battle of Life,' which went 
through many vicissitudes and at one time 
was abandoned, as he felt very doubtful 
about it, and frequently asked Forster for 
suggestions ; he 

" really did not know what this story is worth 
I am so floored : wanting sleep, and never having 
had my head free from it for this month past." 

After a short visit to London in December, 
he went to Paris to spend Christmas with 
his wife and family. He wrote to Forster 
to wish him '* many merry Christmases, 
many happy new years, unbroken friendship, 
great accumulation of cheerful recollections, 
affection on earth, and Heaven at last." 
The first man he met at Paris was 
"Bruffum" (Lord Brougham), "in his 
check trousers, and without the proper 
number of buttons on his shirt." His 
visit was rendered enjoyable by the 
kindness he received. He supped with 
Dumas and Eugene Sue ; met Lamartine 
and Scribe ; called on the sick and ailing 
Chateaubriand, whom he thought like 
Basil Montagu ; and spent an evening with 
Victor Hugo, whom Louis Philippe had 
just ennobled; but Forster records that the 
man's nature was written noble : 

" Rather under the middle size, of compact, 
close-buttoned-up figure, with ample dark hair 
falling loosely over his close-shaven face, I never 
saw upon any features so keenly intellectual such 
a soft and sweet gentility, and certainly never 
heard the French language spoken with tho 
picturesque distinctness given to it by Victor 

At the commencement of 1847 we find 
Dickens depressed again, still in Paris, 
working " very slowly " on Part V. of 
' Dombey,' when a review appeared in 
the " good old Times " of ' The Battle of 
Life,' which was " again at issue with the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. f n s. v. FEB. 24 , 1912. 

inimitable B. Another touch of a blunt 
razor on B.'s nervous system." He was 
hardly able to work, and " dreamed of 
Timeses all night. Disposed to go to New 
Zealand and start a magazine." However, 
he soon pulled himself together, set hard to 
work, and " hoped he had been very suc- 

In February he returned to London, and 
busied himself with a theatrical benefit for 
Leigh Hunt ; but the purpose had hardly 
been announced when Lord John Russell 
granted Hunt 2001. a year from the Civil 
List, so it was determined to reserve a 
portion of the amount received for the benefit 
of John Poole, the author of ' Paul Pry.' 
On the last day of 1847 he was in Edinburgh, 
and saw for the first time the Scott Monu- 
ment, which he considered a failure, likening 
it in his displeasure to " the spire of a Gothic 
church taken off and stuck in the ground." 
Previously, at Glasgow, the Lord Provost had 
entertained him at "a gorgeous state lunch," 
and at night there had been a great dinner- 

" Unbounded hospitality and enthoozymoozy 
the order of the day, and I have never been 
more heartily received anywhere, or enjoyed 
myself more completely." 

In the following year, 1848, a committee 
was formed for the purchase and preserva- 
tion of Shakespeare's house, and Dickens, 
as is well known, threw himself heart and 
soul into that enterprise. 

Having no important writing on hand, 
Dickens, in the summer of 1848, went some- 
what earlier than usual for his holiday, and 
tried Broadstairs. He spent part of his 
time, at Forster's request, in writing a little 
essay on a series of twelve drawings on 
stone by Leech, called ' The Rising 
Generation,' from designs done for ' Mr. 
Punch's Art Gallery.' Dickens as an art 
critic will probably be a novelty to many, 
and all lovers of Leech may well be interested 
in what he says of him, for the name of 
Leech is still, and will be for long years 
to come, a household word. In the -essay 
he refers to the works of Rowlandson and 
Gillray, and says : 

" In spite of the great humour displayed in 
many of them, they are rendered wearisome and 
unpleasant by a vast amount of personal ugliness." 

And Dickens maintains that 

"Mr. Leech was the very first Englishman who 
had made Beauty a part of his art, and that 
by striking out this course, and setting the 
successful example of introducing always into 
his most whimsical pieces some beautiful faces 
or agreeable forms, he had done more than any 
other man of his generation to refine a branch of 

art to which the facilities of steam-printing and 
wood engraving were giving almost unrivalled 
diffusion and popularity." 

And then, after referring to an article in 
The Quarterly Review which had commented 
on the absurdity of excluding a man 
like George Cruikshank from the Royal 
Academy, because his works were not pro- 
duced in certain materials and did not occupy 
a certain space: "Will no Associates," 
asks Dickens, 

" be found upon its books, one of those days, the 
labours of whose oil and brushes will have sunk 
into the profoundest obscurity, when many 
pencil-marks of Mr. Cruikshank and of Mr. Leech 
will be still fresh in half the houses in the land ? " 

Apart from this essay*, his only work was to 
finish ' The Haunted Man ' for Christmas ; 
so, although the holiday incidents were 
many, he enjoyed a time of real summer 

In the February of 1849 we find him 
at Brighton, and in the beginning of 
July he had settled on the name for his new 
book ' David Copperfield.' Did he choose 
the initials D. C. his own reversed inten- 
tionally 1 He paid a visit to Broadstairs in 
order to complete the fourth number, and 
got along with it " like a house afire in point 
of health, and ditto, ditto in point of 

From Broadstairs Dickens, in July, went 
to Bonchurch, where he had taken a house. 
This visit is of interest because he was 
attracted thither by its being the residence 
of his friend the Rev. James White, with 
whom he spent many happy hours. White, 
Forster says, had a kindly, shrewd Scotch 
face; "cheerfulness and gloom coursed over 
it so rapidly that none could question the 
tale they told." He was full of quiet, sly 
humour and the love of jest, and his com* 
panionship was delightful. Forster ex- 
presses a hope that his books ' Landmarks 
of History ' and ' Eighteen Christian Cen- 
turies : will find " a lasting place in lite- 
rature," being written " with a sunny 
clearness of narration and a glow of pic- 
turesque interest to my knowledge unequalled 
in books of such small pretensions." Not- 
withstanding this hope, White gets but a 
small place in the ' D.N.B.,' and I am 
ashamed to say that, although I have the 
books on my shelves, they are among the 
few I have never read. Perhaps the 

* The essay, Mr. Matz informs me, was written 
by Dickens for The Examiner, in which it appeared 
on the 3rd of December, 1848. It is reprinted in 
' Miscellaneous Papers,' collected and edited by 
B. W. Matz. 

us.v.FEB.24,1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


unattractive form in which they were pro- 
duced has something to do with it. There 
was much merrymaking at White's 
Leech being among the guests ; plenty 
of rollicking, and great games at rounders 
every afternoon, with all Bonchurch 
looking on. Mention is also made of 
"a golden-haired lad of the Swinburnes' " 
with whom the Dickens boys used to 
play. Unfortunately, Leech met with an 
accident while bathing ; he was knocked 
over by a great wave striking him 
on the forehead. Dickens reports him as 
" in bed with twenty of his namesakes on 
his temples." One night, after having 
been a second time bled, he was in such 
an alarming state of restlessness that 
Dickens proposed to try magnetism. 

" Accordingly [Dickens relates], in the middle 
of the night I fell to ; and, after a very fatiguing 
bout of it, put him to sleep for an hour and thirty 
minutes. A change came on in the sleep, and he 
is decidedly better. I talked to the astounded 
little Mrs. Leech across him, when he was asleep, 
as if he had been a truss of hay.... What do 
you [Forster] think of my setting up in the 
magnetic line with a large brass plate ? Terms, 
twenty-four guineas per nap." 

In the summer of 1851 his friend Talfourd 
gave a banquet at " The Star and Garter " 
at Richmond to celebrate the success of 
' David Copperfield.' Tennyson and Thacke- 
ray were among the guests, and Forster says 
that he " had rarely seen Dickens happier 
than he was amid the sunshine of that day." 
Of all Dickens's works ' David Copper- 
field ' has always been my first favourite, as 
it appears to have been that of its author. 
The Daily Tehgraph of the 8th inst., in its 
cable report of the Celebration dinner at 
New York on the previous night, when nearly 
400 guests met at Delmonico's, tells us that 
Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggin related how, 
when a child of 10, in the autumn of 1867, 
she had taken the train one day from Port- 
land to Charleston, and in the same carriage 
taught sight of Dickens 

" eating a sponge cake next to a boy who sold 
magazines and popcorn. ' I never knew how it 
happened,' said the speaker, ' but invisible chains 
drew me out of my seat beside the popcorn boy 



plumped me down beside him. " God bless 
soul ! " he exclaimed, on looking around a 
moment later. " Where did you come from ? " 
I told him, also adding my age and the fact that 
I had read all his books. " Have you come to 
call on me ? " he asked. "You don't mean to 
say you have read all my books ? " " Yes," I 
said, ''I've read some of them many times." 
'' Well. I can't believe it. Those long, thick books, 
and a little slip of a thing like you." Then I said 
conscientiously I had skipped some of the long, 
dull parts. He immediately asked me to indicate 
to him what I considered the long, dull parts, 

and he took out a note-book and pencil while I 
went through the catalogue of passages, thinking' 
all the time I was paying him a great compliment.' 

" Mr. Dickens then asked his small companion 
which books she enjoyed most. ' " David Copper- 
field " ' was the unhesitating answer. ' Good t 
good ! so do I,' he exclaimed. It was not long 
before the little girl's hand lay in one of the 
novelist's, and his arm was around her waist P 
while the poor embarrassed mother of the child, 
looking on from the end of the car, could not 
think of a suitable method of relieving the dis- 
tinguished stranger from her daughter's company. 

'* ' Finally he took me back to mother, where he- 
introduced himself to our party, and then gave 
me a good-bye kiss. That was the last I saw of 
him, as he disappeared down the platform, but 
his image has never left my heart from that day 
to this.' " 

I cannot close this week's note without 
giving expression to the deep regret I, in 
common with all our readers, felt on hearing 
of the death on the 14th inst., at the age of 
72, of Sir Frank Marzials, who among his 
manyliterary labours wrote the life of Dickens 
for the series of " Great Writers " published 
by Walter Scott, from which I have already 
quoted. He entered the War Office as far 
back as the Crimean War, and The Daily 
Telegraph in its obituary notice on the 17th 
(which, by the way, contains a speaking 
likeness of him) states that, although a 
member of the Royal Patriotic Fund, he 
willingly assisted The Daily Telegraph to 
carry to a successful issue its Boer War 
Widows and Orphans' Fund, for which was 
raised a sum of over 250,000/. 


(To be continued.) 


(See 10 S. xi. 441 ; xii. 51, 114, 181, 401 ; 
11 S. i. 282; ii. 42, 242, 381; iii. 22, 
222, 421 ; iv. 181, 361 ; v. 62.) 

MEN OF LETTERS (concluded). 

Edinburgh. In East Piince's Street Gar- 
dens stands Sir John Steell's bronze statue 
of Prof. Wilson " Christopher North " of 
Blackwood. It was placed in position on 
21 March, 1865, and is inscribed : 

John Wilson 

Born 18th May 1785 

Died 1st April 1854. 

Edinburgh. In West Prince's Street Gar- 
dens a statue was erected in 1865 to the 
memory of the poet Allan Ramsay, by the 
Judge, Lord Murray, one of his descendants. 
The sculptor was Sir John Steell. The 
pedestal, designed by David Bryce, contains 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tu s. v. FEB. 24, 1912. 

a series of medallions representing Lady 
Murray, Lady Campbell, and Mrs. Malcolm, 
descendants of the poet ; Mrs. Ramsay, 
wife of his son Allan, the eminent portrait 
painter ; and General Ramsay, his grandson. 
The part of the pedestal on a level with 
Prince's Street is accessible to the public. 

Edinburgh. A statue of Dr. William 
Chambers, one of the founders of Chamber s's 
Journal, is erected in the centre of Chambers 
Street. It is the work of John Rhind, and 
the pedestal of red Correzic stone upon 
which it stands was designed by H. J. Blanc. 
On the front an inscription records that Dr. 
Chambers was born in 1800, died in 1883, 
and was Lord Provost of Edinburgh from 
1865 to 1869. The remaining three sides 
are ornamented with panels representative 
of Literature, Liberality, and Perseverance. 

In 1884 a tablet was erected at Peebles 
to the memory of Dr. Chambers over the 
doorway on the east side of the ancient 
tower of St. Andrew's burying- ground, and 
within a few yards of the spot where his 
remains repose. One of his last works was 
the restoration of this tower, and he was laid 
to rest within its shadow before the comple- 
tion of the work. 

Yarrow. In the grounds of Chapelthorpe, 
Vale of Yarrow, overlooking St. Mary's 
Lake, a statue of James Hogg, the Ettrick 
Shepherd, was inaugurated on 28 June, 1860. 
The site is said to have been pointed out by 
Christopher North in the ' Noctes.' The 
statue is 8J ft. high, and is placed on a 
massive pedestal some 10 J ft. high. The 
poet is represented bareheaded, seated on 
a knoll, a plaid thrown carelessly over his 
shoulders, feet crossed, and right hand 
grasping a staff. Beside him lies his dog 
Hector. It was designed and executed by 
Mr. Currie, a Scottish sculptor. At the 
inauguration an oration was delivered by 
Mr. Classford Bell. 

Hogg is buried in Ettrick churchyard, and 
not far from the church is the site of his 
birthplace, now occupied by a commemora- 
tive obelisk about 14 ft. high. On the front 
is inserted a brass medallion of Hogg. The 
pillar was erected by the Border Counties 
Association, and unveiled by Lord Napier 
and Ettrick. 

Dunoon. On 1 Aug., 1896, a bronze 
statiie to the memory of Mary Campbell, 
Burns's " Highland Mary," was unveiled by 
Lady Kelvin. It occupies a commanding 
position on Castle Hill, within a mile of her 
birthplace. It is the work of Mr. D. W. 
Stevenson, A.R.S.A., and represents the girl in 
the dress of the period, gazing across the water 

towards the Ayrshire coast, and clasping a 
Bible in her left hand. The site was granted 
free, and the cost of the statue was defrayed 
by Burns's admirers in all parts of the world. 
Mary Campbell was buried in the Old 
West Kirkyard, Greenock. The small stone 
which originally marked her grave still 
exists, but in 1842 it was replaced by a more 
imposing memorial at the cost of Mr. John 
Mossman. On this is represented in relief 
the parting scene between the two lovers, 
and above it a figure symbolical of grief. 
The inscription is as follows : 


over the grave of 
Highland Mary 


My Mary, dear departed shade, 
Where is thy place of blissful rest ? 

Vale of Ceiriog, Denbighshire. Between 
Glyn and Llanarmon in the Ceiriog Valley 
a monument to the seventeenth-century 
Welsh poet Huw Morus was unveiled by 
Sir T. Marchant Williams on 26 Aug., 1909. 
It stands on the roadside close by the old 
farmhouse Pont-y-meibion, in which Morus 
was born and also died. The memorial 
consists of a column placed upon a pedestal, 
inscribed as follows : 

Huw Morus 

(Eos Ceiriog). 

Ganwyd 1622 

Bu Farw, Awst, 1709 

Born 1C22 
Died August 1709. 

On the plinth below are extracts from his 

Denholm, Roxburghshire. A statue of 
John Leyden was set up in his native place 
in October, 1861. The inaugural ceremony 
was performed by the Earl of Minto " amid 
a vast assemblage of the admirers of his 
genius." On the pedestal are the following 
inscriptions : 

John Leyden, born at Denholm 8th September, 
1775, died at Batavia 28th August, 1811. 

To the memory of the poet and Oriental 
scholar, whose genius, learning and manly virtues 
were an honour to his country, and shed a lustre 
on his native Teviotdale, this monument was 
erected A.D. 1801. 

My next instalment I hope to devote to 
Men of Science. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

(To be continued.) 

The stone obelisk, 90 ft. in height, which 
stands near the centre of the Market-Place 
at Ripon (see 11 S. iii. 224, 422), was erected 
in 1781 by William Aislabie, ETsq., of 
Studley, for sixty years M.P. for the 

ii s. v. F EB . 24, 191-] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


borough of Ripon. This takes the place 
of an earlier structure which had become 
ruinous, and the apex is finished with 
ornamental ironwork surmounted by a 
gilded horn, symbolical of the town, and 
serving as a vane. 

(See ; Kelly's Directory of the West Hiding 
of Yorks,' 1904.) T. SHEPHERD. 

The statue of Ebenezer Elliott at Sheffield 
(see US. Iv. 361) was the work, not of 
Barnard, but of Nevill Xorthey Burnard 
(1818-1878), for whom see' 'D.N.B.' 
Lander's poem on the ordering of this statue 
by the working-men of Sheffield was first 
printed in The Examiner, 8 Jan., 1853. In 
a foot-note to his ' Satire on Satirists ' he 
^aid : 

" The Corn-law rhymer, as he condescends to 
style himself, has written sonnets which may be 
ranked among the noblest in our language." 


If " elsewhere " is intended to include the 
oversea Dominions, it may be of interest to 
note that there is a statue of Robert Burns 
in Ballarat, one of Australia's golden cities. 
Ballarat has been called the " city of 
statues." Its main thoroughfare, Sturt 
Street, might almost be said to be incon- 
veniently crowded with them. 


Royal Colonial Institute, 
Northumberland Avenue. 

Supplementing MR. PAGE'S information 
re Burns memorials, I would mention that 
the Greek Temple on the Calton Hill, Edin- 
burgh, is now quite empty, the statue and 
relics having been removed to the City 
Museum, City Chambers, High Street. A 
separate room is kept for them. 

Opposite Dumfries, on the other side of the 
Kith, is the Maxwelltown Observatory, with a 
museum containing a large number of Burns 
relics, several plaster busts, and a death 

SURGERY. The death of Lord Lister on 
Saturday, the 10th inst., in his 85th year, 
calls for a note, for by the introduction of 
antiseptic and aseptic methods of operating I 
and treating wounds he has saved countless ' 
lives. He was also the first man in England 
to perform a painless operation under the 
influence of ether. The Daily Telegraph, in 
its biographical article of the 12th inst.. 
relates that " it was on the 12th of August, 
1865. Lister made his first experiment as to | 

the cause of inflammation in open wounds." 
He had gradually come to the conclusion 
that this inflammation was to be accounted 
for by the invasion of minute organisms 
or germs from without. " It is not the 
mere air as such,'" he said to himself, 
" that is antagonistic to the process of healing a 
wound, but those organized germs which are uni- 
versally disseminated in the world around us ; 
bacteria are the cause of the inflammation." 

On this 12th of August he made the first trial 
of his method in a case of compound fracture, 
and after the operation the wounds healed 
satisfactorily. Then other trials followed, 
until at last the great surgeon was convinced 
that he was right. Failures now ceased. 

" The surgeon's scourge had disappeared ; 
pyaemia, hospital gangrene, erysipelas, and te- 
tanus in their epidemic form, became things of 
the past." 

In 1909 ' The Collected Papers of Joseph, 
Baron Lister,' were published in two volumes 
by the Clarendon Press. 

Queen Alexandra's message of condolence 
to the late eminent surgeon's family contains 
these words : 

" Lord Lister's name will ever be honoured 
and gratefully remembered as that of the 
greatest benefactor to suffering humanity 
throughout the world." A. N. Q. 

Among the many honoured names of men 
born in 1812, that of Henry May hew will 
scarcely be forgotten ; not only as that of 
a great pioneer of English comic journalism, 
but, better still, as being, in the words of 
the ' Ency. Brit.,' " credited with being 
the first to ' write up ' the poverty side of 
London life from a philanthropic point of 
view." He married, in 1844, Jane, the 
elder daughter of Douglas Jerrold, a cir- 
cumstance not mentioned in the ' D.N.B.' 
It might be asked whether, had this union 
taken place a few years earlier, Henry 
Mayhew would have been so quietly 
" ousted " from the co-editorship of Punch. 
But probably Douglas Jerrold had less 
influence in the internal politics of the 
paper than sometimes has been presumed. 
Mark Lemon appears to have been, from 
first to last, quite capable of " having his 
own way " without asking or following the 
advice of others. Horace Mayhew was for 
a time engaged to Mary Jerrold, a younger 
daughter, though he afterwards married 
some one else (about 1869). 

Henry Mayhew died 25 July, 1887, 
having outlived not only his two younger 
brothers, but all, or nearly all, his early 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rn s. v. F EB . -21, 1912. 

literary confreres. Augustus Septimus May- 
hew (known to his Diogenes fellow- workers 
as the " Dear Child," in allusion to a way 
he had of addressing friends) claimed, as 
the " seventh son of a seventh son," to 
have the gift of curing ailments without 
having gone through the customary medical 
studies. Sometimes he would write out a 
prescription for an invalid friend, which 
prescription, on being shown to a " fully 
qualified " practitioner, was usually declared 
to contain " enough poison to kill a dozen 
people." But no doubt the medico who 
gave this crushing verdict knew, before 
.speaking, who had written the paper. 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

THOMAS ATKINS. Questions are some- 
times asked as to the origin of the 
expression " Tommy " or " Tommy 
Atkins," as applied to a soldier in 
generic form. Its origin dates from the 
year 1815, when the ' Soldier's Account 
Book ' was called into use by a War Office 
circular letter of 31 Aug., 1815. Sample 
forms of the said book (for cavalry and 
infantry) accompanied the circular letter, 
and in every one of them the name " Thomas 
Atkins " is used as a specimen name. 
Atkins evidently could not write, as in the 
several places where his signature occurs it 
is given as " Thomas Atkins x his mark." 
In the cavalry form the names of Trumpeter 
William Jones and Sergeant John Thomas 
are also introduced, but they did not use a 
" mark." This surely disproves the idea 
which has gained belief that " Thomas 
Atkins " was suggested by the Duke of 
Wellington in 1843 as being the name of an 
especially brave soldier in his own regiment 
the 33rd. 

The name occurs again in specimen 
" Forms " in the King's Regulations for the 
Army of 1837, pp. 204 and 210, and in later 
books of Regulations. The ' Soldier's Ac- 
count Book ' is, of course, the " Small 
Book " of the present day, though " Thomas 
Atkins " no longer appears. 


Physico-Medicus Kiranidum Kirani,' printed 
in Leipsic in 1638, Elementum XVII. reads : 
" Rhinocerotis lapis est varius, cornatus 
lapis, de extremitate naris Rhinocerotis. 
Est enim ut cornu." 

Here we have, I think, the ultimate source 
of the monosceros-stone, in Middle High 

German literature. Isidore of Seville identi- 
fies the two animals. The occurrences are 
these : 

" Di kununginne riche sante mir ouh ein tier, daz 
was edele unde her, daz den carbunkel treget und 
daz sich vor di magit leget. Monosceros ist iz 
genant : Lamprecht's ' Alexander ' 5578. Ein 
tier heizt inonizirus : . . . .wir namen den kar- 
funkelstein (if des selben tieres hirnbein, Der da 
wehset under sime horn : ' Parzifal ' 482. 24f. 
Vil manec guot stein, der da inne liget, die treit 
ein tier, Monocerus treit den til sime houbete 
under eime home: ' Wartburgkrieg '142." 

This book has also been translated into 
English, ' The Magick of Kirani, King of 
Persia and of Harpocration,' London, 1685. 

University of Washington, Seattle, U.S. 

of Sir George Livesey, formerly chairman of 
the South Metropolitan Gas Company, has 
lately been erected near the works in the Old 
Kent Road. As far as I can make out in 
an illustration from a photograph, the figure 
holds a " top-hat " in its right hand. That 
will surely have the same effect as the lady's 
head-gear of which Albert Chevalier used 
to sing, which " knocked 'em in the Old 
Kent Road." 

Perhaps this may be the first time that 
the " top-hat " has tempted the sculptor's 
chisel. I have remarked the " bowler " 
in a daring design which is in the famous 
cemetery at Genoa. ST. SWITHIN. 

" It is heartening to come on an altar in Verona 
to St. Remigio, ' apostle of the generous nation of 
the French ' ; to find Lucca Cathedral givon over 
to an Irish saint and honouring a Scotch king 
('San Riccardo, Re di Scozia')," &c. "Italian 
Fantasies,' by Israel Zangwill, 1910, p. 101. 
Some one should give the authorities of 
Lucca Cathedral a hint that there never was 
a King Richard of Scotland. After visiting 
Lucca in September, 1904, I sent a note to 
' N. & Q.' inquiring who could be meant 
by this fabulous " king." Interesting 
answers will be found at 10S. iii. 449. 
St. Richard was a remarkable man of his 
time, brother-in-law of St. Boniface, and 
father of SS. Willibald, Wunibald, and 
Walburga, but neither a Scot nor (probably) 

Ramoyle, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 

CENTURY. I think it will be news to most 
people that there was ever a public exhibi- 
tion of " poker- pictures " in London. A 
Mrs. Nelson and her youngest daughter held 
one at 27, Pall Mall, in May and June, 1791. 


n s. v. FEB. 24, 19.2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


bers s Journal for last month a suggestion 
is made to form a relic bureau for the registra- 
tion of family and other relics of people of 
note. It is formulated in an article entitled 

* Relics of the Great Departed.' The idea is to 
provide a centre where people might register 
uch relics, which would be duly indexed 
and classified under various headings, such 
as (1) Royalty. (2) Parliamentary, (3) Eccle- 
siastical, (4) Army. (5) Navy, &c. By 
this means people interested in any par- 
ticular person or department of life would be 
able to communicate with the respective 
owners of such relics, and possibly have an 
opportunity afforded them of inspecting 
the same. Such a scheme would, I venture 
to think, open out a wide field of interest 
and research, and prove of considerable value 
to the student and biographer. Taking my 
own case as an example, we have in our 
family various interesting relics of cele- 
brated people, namely, Lord Byron, Hannah 
More, William Cowper, Kirke White, &c., 
in the form of autograph letters, locks of 
hair, miniatures, and personal belongings ; 
and I may say that we should be only too 
pleased to correspond with those interested 
in them or to offer them for inspection. 

It has struck me that the best, if not the 

only means of establishing a Relic Bureau 

would be by connecting it with some 

literary periodical, and I do not know of 

any paper so suitable in this respect as 

* N. & Q.' May I therefore respectfully 
suggest to you the idea of establishing a 
" Relic Register " in connexion with your 


I may say that the idea originated 

in a letter I wrote to Mr. Cochrane of Cham- 
bers' s Journal anent an article entitled 'A 
Memory of Olney,' appearing in that maga- 
zine last year. Mr. Cochrane was much 
interested in the idea hence the article 
to which I have already referred. 

I should esteem it a great favour if you 
could find space for this letter in your paper, 
even if the idea of associating the scheme 
with ' N. & Q.' does not find favour, as 
its publication might lead to suggestions 
for the establishment of a Relic Bureau. 

Temuka, College Road, Norwich. 

YARDS. (See 11 S. ii. 389, 453, 492, 537; 
iii. 57.) Somewhat late in the day, I fear, 
my attention has been called to the sug- 
gestion of L. M. R. (at the last reference) 
that a general registry should be established 
for transcripts of monumental inscriptions. 

I should like to be permitted to say that 
the Society of Genealogists has, among the 
objects for which it was founded, the forma- 
tion and maintenance of a safe depository 
of this kind. I may add that the Society 
has appointed a Monumental Inscriptions 
Sub-Committee, which is specially interested 
in this subject. On behalf of the Society 
I cordially invite all readers who have 
monumental inscription transcripts to send 
them in, with the assurance that they will 
be carefully indexed and filed. All com- 
munications should be addressed to the 
Hon. Secretary, Society of Genealogists, 
227, Strand, W.C. 


Hon. Sec. M.I. Sub -Committee. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

SHIP. A discussion respecting this ballad 
took place in The Athenaeum in 1888, and also 
at 7 S. vi., vii., and xi. The authorship was 
left undecided, being variously attributed 
to Cruikshank, Thackeray, and Dickens. 
Can it be stated whether any further infor- 
mation on this point has since come to light ? 
It is certain, however, that whoever was 
responsible for the ballad in its present f orm, 
it was based upon a much older one. In 
Legendary Ballads of England and Scot- 

land.' by 


S. Roberts, there is 
Beichan,' in which 


principal incidents of the narrative, as well 
as many of the phrases and expressions, are 
identical with the former ballad. Lord 
Beichan, according to the authority men- 

" is supposed to have been no less a personage 
than the father of Thomas a Becket, and the 
ballad is assumed to be a tolerably accurate 
account of his captivity and marriage." 
How far back can this ballad of 'Lord 
Beichan ' be traced ? G. H. W. 

OF 1688-90. In the centre of Newton Abbot, 
Devon, just below St. Leonard's Tower, 
stands a stone, the remains of the old market 
cross, from which was read, on 5 Nov., 1688, 
the Declaration of William of Orange after 
his landing at Torbay. The inscription is 
as follows : 

" The first Declaration of William III., Prince 
of Orange, the glorious defender of the Protestant' 

NOTES AND QUERIES. t u s. v. FEB. 24, 1912. 

religion and the liberties of England, was read 
on this pedestal by the Rev. John Reynel, 
rector of the parish, on the 5th of November, 1688." 

Two miles from Totnes, Devon, is the 
house known as " Parliament House," a 
thatched building of unusual design. It is 
in the shape of a Z. In the garden plot 
before " Parliament House " a stone has 
been set up a granite slab, about six feet 
high, sixteen inches wide, and eight inches 
thick which .bears the inscription : 

Prince of 


Is Said To Have 

Held His First 


In November 


Council of war is meant by " Parliament " 

About midway on the Victoria Pier, 
Brixham, Devon, a granite obelisk has been 
erected, in which is fixed the actual stone 
upon which William III. first set foot on 
landing in England. The inscription is as 
follows : 
\ On This Stone 

And Near This Spot 

Prince of Orange 

First Set Foot 
On His Landing In 


The 5th November 

There is a life-size marble statue of 
William HI. at Brixham, erected to cele- 
brate the bicentenary of the landing at 
Torbay, 5 Nov., 1888. In Brixham Town 
Hall is a fine oil painting of the monarcli in 
royal robes. The arms of Brixham repre- 
sent the landing, of which there is also an old 
plate in the Town Hall. 

I should be glad to know of any other 
memorials in Devon (or elsewhere) of the 
Revolution of 1688-90. 


JAMES WRIGHT. Is anything known of 
the life of James Wright ? He wrote 
' Historia Histronica, an Historical Account 
of the English Stage, showing the Ancient 
Use, Improvement, and Perfection of Dra- 
matick Representation in this Nation,' 
London, 1699, 4to. M. DORMER HARRJS. 

"THE PANGAM." It is more than sixty 
years since I first saw what the children 
in my village called " the Pangam " or 
" { Pangam-man." He carried about his body 
" a band of music," whicfi he worked 

entirely by himself. In front of him was 
a kettledrum, on his back a large drum, on 
the top of the drum cymbals, and at his 
throat a set of " Pandean pipes." He blew 
into the pipes to the accompaniment of the 
drums and cymbals, which he worked by 
cords attached to his elbows and one of his 
feet. He managed also to beat at intervals 
a triangle suspended to the kettledrum. 
I have often wondered why children called 
him the " Pangam-man," because certainly 
none of them knew anything of " Pandean 
pipes." Did this music-man bear a real 

CENTURY BOOKSELLER. I should be grate- 
ful if any one learned in the history 
of eighteenth - century bookselling could 
give me any information as to Joseph 
Richardson of Paternoster Row, who died 
in 1763. He was the founder of the firm 
which afterwards became Richardson & 
Urquhart of Paternoster Row and Cornhill, 
then Wm. Richardson (d. 1810) of Cornhill, 
and finally Jas. Mallcott Richardson of 
Cornhill (d. 1854). Joseph Richardson's 
will (P.C.C. Caesar 482) is an interesting 
document because it is appended to a balance 
sheet showing the stock-in-trade of an 
eighteenth-century bookseller and its value. 

T. C. D. 

ROMAN EMPRESSES. When, and by what 
authority, was the word " empress " first 
applied to the wives of the men commonly 
called Emperors of Rome ? Was the Latin 
word " Imperatrix " ever applied to them 
while Latin was a living language ? I am 
not referring to the Holy Roman Empire, 
but to the Empire as it existed dow r n to 
Augustulus in the West, and from the time 
of Arcadius in the East. The word 
" Empress " seems to be coming into use 
in English in the above sense, and it is even 
found in the British Museum. But is it not 
a mere vulgarism ? for the wife of Augustus 
or Trajan would no more be an empress than 
the wife of an Archbishop of Canterbury 
is an archbishopess. W. SYMS. 

(See 10 S. ii. 88, 224: 11 S. iv. 164.) A 
summary of the known facts concerning this 
personage, son of the astronomer Halley, 
appeared in The Home Counties Magazine 
(London) for September, 1911 (vol. xiiu 
No. 51, pp. 240-41). 

No record of his burial can be found in 
the parish of Portsea or Greenwich. He 
seems to have resided in Kent at the time 

11 8. V. FEB. 24, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of his decease (circa 1740). This may catch 
the eye of a member of the Navy Records 
Society or some other reader who may be 
able to suggest a. possible source of informa- 

Neither do we find any data concerning 
the ancestry of his wife, who, as Mrs. Sybilla 
Freeman, widow, of Greenwich, aged 40 
years, married him in 1738 (cf. 11 S. iv. 164). 
Facts relating to the Freeman family of 
Greenwich, Deptford, and vicinity (1700- 
1800) would also be gratefully received by 
the writer. EUGENE F. McPiKE. 

135, Park Row, Chicago. 

any of your readers help me to find an old 
English tune called ' The Brides of Mavis 
Enderby ' ? It is referred .to by Jean 
Ingelow in her beautiful poem ' High Tide 
on the Coast of Lincoln, 1571,' as being 
played on the bells of Boston Church to 
warn the people of coming danger from 
pirates, &c. F. L. MEARS. 

register is wanted of William Whitehead, born 
in 1760. He was a native of some place on 
the borders of Yorks and Lanes, where the 
family had been settled as yeomen for a 
long period. H. M. 

WALTER BISSET. Wanted information 
(date of birth, &c.) about above, for a 
genealogical chart. He was M.A. of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, about 1860-65, and his 
father was Andrew Bisset, an author, 


3, St. Margaret's Road, Edinburgh. 

LOCWELLA ABBEY. In the ' Victoria 
History of Hampshire,' vol. ii., under the 
description of the Cistercian Abbey of 
Quarr in the Isle of Wight, it is stated that 
a colony of monks from Quarr went to found 
another house at " Locwella." Where was 
this latter house, and what is the modern 
name of Locwella ? J. H. C. 

Finchampstead, near Wokingham, Berks. 

DE RUYTER : VAN TROMP. I shall be 
glad if any one will inform me whether the 
Dutch admiral De Ruyter married a 
daughter of the great admiral Van Tromp. 
1 have been told by a descendant of his that 
this was so, but can find no confirmation of 
it in De Ruyter's ' Life ' by Grinnell-Mylne. 
In that memoir the names of De Ruyter's 
three wives are given, viz., first, Marie 
Velters of Grijpskerk, m. 16 March, 1631. 
She died ten months afterwards no issue. 

Second, Cornelie Engels of Flushing, m. 1636. 
She died 25 Sept., 1650 several children, 
of whom were Engel De Ruyter, Dutch 
navy, and Alida, who married Rev. Thomas 
Potts of Flushing. Third, Anne van Gelder, 
widow of Jan Pauluszoon, m. 1652 two 
daughters, one of whom, Margareta, married 
Rev. Bernardus Somer of Amsterdam ; the 
other, Anne, a child of 11, died in 1666. If 
one of these three wives was really a daughter 
of Van Tromp, it can only have been the 
third one, widow of Jan Pauluszoon ; but 
what proof is there of it ? 

In Lipscomb's ' Buckinghamshire ' Lie- 
bert van Hattem, a captain in the Dutch 
navy, who came over to England with 
William III., is said to have married a 
daughter of De Ruyter. I want the pro ( of 
of this, and should be pleased if any con- 
tributor to ' N. & Q.' could help me in the 
matter. John van Hattem, son of the above 
Liebert, settled in England, and being 
myself a descendant of his, I should like to 
know whether I can also claim descent from 
De Ruyter and Van Tromp. E. J. 

history of the toast in honour of whom a 
health is drunk ? are there instances on 
record in history ? And is the humorous 
good story an outcome of n.odern wit, 
or are there instances in the literature of 
bygone days ? T. S. H. 

[For the origin of the "toast" see the article 
' Health ' in ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica.' The 
anecdote, of which the "good story " is a form, 
is an ancient element in literature. To take the 
most easily accessible of early examples, we would 
suggest to T. S. H. a search in Herodotus and 

ANTONIO D'ARAUJO. Information is 
solicited as to the above, a (I believe) Portu- 
guese grandee and State Councillor, pro- 
bably resident in England about 1812, who 
was on friendly terms with one of the " Royal 
Dukes," sons of George III. W. B. H. 

I should be glad of any information about 
the four brothers Joseph, William, Ben- 
jamin, and John of Dr. Thomas Tanner, 
Bishop of St. Asaph, the learned author of 
the ' Notitia Monastcia.' Whom did they 
marry, and did they have any descendants ? 
It would seem that they were connected 
with a well-known Salisbury family in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century who 
bore the same arms. Two brothers of this 
family, with the same names Joseph and 
John, married about 1780 two of the Phipps 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. FEB. SM, 1012. 

of Westbury, Wilts. Was there any con- 
nexion between these two families and the 
Cornish family of this name ? L. E. T. 
Pemb. Coll., Camb. 

SPURRIER- GATE. I shall be greatly obliged 
if any of your readers can tell me the name 
of the parish of which Spurrier-gate is 
seemingly a hamlet. It is probably in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, in the neighbour- 
hood of Bradford or Calverley. The name 
occurs in Paver's ' Marriage Licences,' under 
date 1663. H. ST. JOHN DAWSON. 

faint recollection of having many years ago 
been told in Scotland that a certain playing- 
card had a lugubrious reputation the order 
to a body of soldiers to massacre the in- 
habitants of a Highland village having been 
written upon the back of it. Can one of your 
readers tell me the particular card and the 
occasion of its employment ? G. T. C. 

[The Nine of Diamonds is called the " Curse of 
Scotland." See the quotations at 9 S. v. 493, 
and ' Curse of Scotland ' in Brewer's ' Dictionary 
of Phrase and Fable.'] 

'Chronological Historian,' p. 364, a history is 
given of what befell Matthew Fern in 1716 on 
account of his Jacobitism, which was re- 
printed at 8 S. iv. 466. It is probably by 
no means necessary to reprint it, but it is 
needful to ascertain if possible whether Fern 
wrote anything more in prose or verse ; 
also where he lived, and what position he held 
in his own neighbourhood. Can any of your 
readers give the information I crave for ? 

press inquiries have failed to elicit what was 
meant by the term " Piccadilly gates " in the 
following letter, written by Lord Nelson to 
Lady Hamilton, concerning Merton Place 
in this county : 

" I shall hope to find the new room built, the 
grounds laid out neatly, but not expensively, new 
Piccadilly gates, kitchen garden, &c. ; only let 
us have a plan, and then all will go on well." 

The letter, which is dated 26 August, 1803, 
written at sea, appears in a collection pub- 
lished by Colston & Co. of Edinburgh. 


Hindhead, Surrey. 

HALES FAMILY. Whilst referring to 
8 S. v. 40, 98, I noticed that a corre- 
spondent was preparing ' A History of the 
Haleses : the Hale and Hales Families of 
England and America.' I most particularly 

want to get a copy of this book. Possibly 
it was published in America. Could any 
reader kindly help me in this matter ? 
Any assistance will greatly oblige. 

,, . P. O. BRAMBLE. 

Martham, .Norfolk. 

In The Town and Country Magazine for 
March, 1771, medallion portraits appeared 
of " Mrs. D-v-s " and " Lord C gh." 
After the death of his wife (Henrietta 
St. John, Bolingbroke's half - sister), Knight 
probably married again. If so, who was 
his second wife ? Ultimately he had a 
family of natural children by Jane Davies 
(above referred to). Is anything known 
of the birthplace or parentage of this 
psrson ? Knight owned a large estate in 
the parish of Kerry (Montgomery), which 
was sold after his death. The tenant of 
Bahithlon Farm, of 226 acres, was one Jane 
Davies, but this may be only a coincidence. 
Mr. Walter Sichel has thrown additional 
light on the chequered career of Henrietta 
St. John by the memoir of her forming 
pp. 463-76 of the second volume of his 
' Bolingbroke and his Times ' ; but little 
seems to be known of Knight from 1736 
(when he parted from his wife) till his death 
in 1772. F. O. A. 

anxious to have the precise date for a 
charter of confirmation concerning Conerton, 
given by Henry II. at Cadomi (i.e., Caen). 
The witnesses were Philip, Bishop of 
Bayeux ; Aigs, Bishop of Lexovi ; Thomas, 
Chancellor ; Richard de Haia, Constable ; 
Mathew Bisset ; Walter FitzGerald, Chan- 
cellor ; William Ancalie ; and Henry Oilly. 
Henry II. was in Normandy in 1156, and 
again 1159 to 1163. Thomas a Becket was 
also in Normandy in 1159. How is it that 
there are two Chancellors mentioned ? 
What are the inclusive dates for Philip's 
and Aigs's occupancies of their respective 
sees ? J. H. R. 

desirous of getting into communication with 
any one in possession of genealogical notes, 
or old papers, connected with this family, 
which was settled in this county as early as 
1406. I have ascertained that Alexander 
Hervey, sometime Baillie, Inverurie, who 
was afterwards at Waterton and Grandome, 
married Janet Leslie, widow of Norman 
Leslie. Had they any family ? 


Foveraii Manse, Aberdeen. 

ii s. v. FEB. 24, M2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(11 S. v. 26.) 

I NOTICE that R. B. draws attention to two 
communications having reference to this 
subject. Perhaps I am hardly the person 
who should mention a third ; nevertheless 
I venture to do so, as it is useful for reference 
and might otherwise be forgotten. 

On 2 July, 1902, I read a paper before 
members of the Archaeological Institute 
entitled ' Exchequer Annuity Tallies,' which 
appeared, with illustrations, in their 
Journal., vol. lix. The occasion of this 
was the opening in the previous year, at 
Martin's Bank, 68, Lombard Street, of a 
box that had been in the hands of the 
firm for a period so long that no one 
knew how it came there or what mystery 
might be concealed within. In fact it 
contained, not only about forty Exchequer 
tallies, but also documents proving that 
these tallies related to thirteen different 
annuities for ninety-nine years, varying in 
amount from 01. to 501. , the total being 3401. 
The annuities were mostlv of the years 
1705 and 1706, but one dated from 1703, 
while two were of the year 1707. 

Between 1756 and 1759 inclusive the tallies 
had belonged to a customer, Alexander 
Eustace, of Berkeley Square and Bath, who 
paid about 7,OOOZ. for them, or an average 
of about 20 years' purchase. He died in 
1783. His man of business, afterwards his 
executor, was George Bryans, by whom 
probably the wooden box, with its conterits, 
was deposited. The annuities were collected 
by the Martin firm. When they lapsed, the 
box remained, and was forgotten. 

On the occasion of the reading of my 
paper examples of this remarkable series 
were exhibited ; and through the kindness 
of Lord Avebury, the late Sir Charles 
Lawes Wittewronge, and Mr. C. Trice 
Martin, I was also enabled to show (1) 
an East India Company's tally; (2) 
some tallies attached to a bailiff's roll 
of the Abbot of Westminster's Manor of 
Wheathampstead. Hertfordshire, all dated 
7 Edward I., or 1279-80 ; and (3) the fac- 
simile of an early thirteenth - century 
example, once belonging to a Kentish Jew. 
They, of course, had no connexion with the 
Exchequer, but mediaeval tallies were in 
general use for matters of account, this 

being a simple and secure way of giving to 
unlettered persons a receipt, or a promise 
to pay. 

To return to comparatively modern 
times, Dr. Garth (speaking of tallies as 
negotiable articles) says : " The only talents 
in esteem at present are those in Exchange 
Alley. One tally is worth a grove of bays." 
And Swift caps this with the following lines : 

From his rug the skewer he takes, 
And on the stick two equal notches makes ; 
With just resentment flings it on the ground. 
" There ! take my tally for a thousand pound." 

For further information about tallies 
see The Mirror, vol. xxiv., 1834, where the 
burning of the Houses of Parliament is also 
described. The fire was caused by the 
careless destruction of disused Exchequer 
tallies in the principal stove of the House of 
Lords. Doubtless much information can 
be found else\vhere about Exchequer tallies, 
which, as I have indicated, form only a por- 
tion of the entire subject. 


(US. iv. 449; v. 56). Philip, LordWharton 
(1613-96), was, like his father, a Puritan. He 
was one of the representatives of the Lords in 
the Westminster Assembly of Divines. After 
the Restoration he retired to the country and 
took an active interest in the spread of 
evangelical religion. For years he pre- 
sented, under specified conditions, to the 
children and servants in Yorkshire, Westmor- 
land, Cumberland, and Berks (where his 
estates were), copies of the Bible and the 
' Westminster Shorter Catechism,' and gave 
as prizes two works by Puritan ministers. 
By a trust deed executed 1692, he provided 
for the carrying on of this work, as well as 
tor the preaching of sermons in ten named 
towns each year by ministers who used 
" conceived prayers.'' The rents of pro- 
serties in Yorkshire were to supply the 
necessary funds. The seven original trustees 
were all Non-conformists ministers and 
aymen. The trust was diligently adminis- 
tered for many years. But during the 
;oldness and carelessness of the eighteenth 
:entury members of the Church of England 
jecame trustees, and the number increased 
;ill there was not a Non-conformist in the 
;rust, and it was dealt with as if it were a 
surely Anglican charity. 

The attention of the Charity Commis- 
ioners was called to this in 1894 by the Rev. 
Bryan Dale. M.A., Congregational minister, 
Bradford. The Commissioners were unable 
o secure a satisfactory arrangement with 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. v. FEE 2*. 1912. 

the trustees, so the Attorney-General insti 
tuted a suit against them in the Court o 
Chancery. The Court decided in his favour 
and he asked the Court to prepare a schem 
for administering the charity, January, 1897 
The old trust was replaced by a new one 
giving greater liberty in the administration 
and placing the charity in the hands of nin< 
trustees, five of whom were to be member 
of the Churph of England, and four of thi 
Free Churches one representing the Presby 
terian Church in England, one the Congrega 
tional churches, another the Baptis 
churches, and the fourth the Wesleyan 
Methodist Church. The two groups were 
to form two separate executive committees 
and the trust funds were to be equally 
divided between them, and both com 
mittees were to report to the whole bodj 
of trustees. The committee of the Free 
Church members distribute Bibles (abou 
6,000 annually) and ' Shorter Catechisms.' 

Trustee nominated by the Presbyterian 
Church in England. 


The Committee of the Revolution Society 
at a meeting in "The London Tavern " hek 
3 Feb., 1789, decided to circulate the 
following ' Abstract of the History and 
Proceedings of the Revolution Society in 
London ' : 

" The Revolution in 1688 in every view of it 
was an event of such distinguished and indeed 
unspeakable importance that it could not fai 
of making a deep impression upon the nationa 
mind. It has been thankfully remembered in 
the public service of the established Church ; and 
has annually been celebrated by other religious 
Societies. Nor has it been commemorated only 
by suitable discourses and acts of pious adoration 
and gratitude to the Supreme Being but by social 
meetings and festivals. Various institutions of 
this kind have subsisted in different parts of 
the kingdom and in different quarters of the 

" Though no records have regularly been 
preserved of the Society we now have in view, 
there is no doubt of its having been establish'd 
soon after the Revolution and that it has annually 
met without interruption from that time to the 
present and the 4th day of November being the 
birth day of King William the third has always 
hitherto been the day of celebration. 

" For a long course of Years this institution 
was chiefly confined to the City of London strictly 
so called ; & almost the sole supporters of it 
were a number of very respectable inhabitants 
of that city consisting partly of Members of the 
Establishment and partly of Protestant Dissenters. 
JBut lately it has excited a more general attention 
& drawn to it many persons of rank & conse- 
quence from different parts of the kingdom. 

" When the period approached which would 
form the completion of a Century since the Revolu- 
tion it was resolved by the Society to celebrate 
that illustrious event with peculiar solemnity 
& this has accordingly been done in a manner 
which it is hoped will be of service in preserving 
& disseminating the principles of Civil & Religious 

" With a view of further promoting this laud- 
able design the following resolutions were pro- 
posed at a very numerous and respectable meeting 
of the Society and unanimously approved : 

" That it is the opinion of this Meeting, that a 
perpetual Anniversary Thanksgiving to Almighty 
God ought to be established by Act of Parlia- 
ment in order to commemorate the Revolution 
& the confirmation of the people's Rights & to 
perpetuate the happy memory thereof. 

" And that it is also the opinion of this meeting 
that in order to celebrate those illustrious events 
in a manner suitable to their supreme importance, 
the said perpetual Anniversary ought to be kept 
on the 16th day of December, namely, on that 
memorable day when the Bill of Rights passed 
into a Law by which solemn Act of Parliament 
the Throne was declared to have become vacant 
the true and ancient liberties of the subject were 
recognized ratified & confirmed & the Glorious 
Revolution compleated. 

" That this Meeting do request the favor of 
Henry Beaufoy Esq r to move in the House of 
Commons for leave to bring in a Bill for the above 
mentioned purpose. 

" That the Thanks of this Meeting be given to 
Richard Brinsley Sheridan Esq r and to the other 
Gentlemen of the Whig Club who met at the 
Crown and Anchor Tavern on the 16th of October 
last for having communicated to this Meeting 
their Resolutions of that day ; and that Earl 
Stanhope, the Chairman of this Meeting do com- 
municate the above Resolutions of this Meeting 
to Mr. Sheridan & through him to the other 
gentlemen who met on the 16th October last, 
& to request his and their support in favor of 
the intended Bill for annually celebrating that 
illustrious Epoch when a Tyrant was expelled 
and the liberties of the people were declared 1 
enacted & confirmed. 

' That Earl Stanhope, the Chairman of this 
Meeting do also communicate the aforesaid 
Resolutions to the Chairman of the Meeting 
which is to be held at Willis's Rooms to-morrow, 
to celebrate the memory of the Glorious Revolution 
& to request the support of the Gentlemen at 
hat Meeting in favor of the intended Bill to 
ommemorate that great Event & the confirma- 
tion of the people's Rights." 

These resolutions with others were unanim- 
ously approved at the Anniversary General 
Vteeting held at the London Tavern on the 
4th of November, 1788. The meeting cele- 
jrated the auspicious event with a dinner, 
o which nearly 300 sat down. According 
o The Gentleman's Magazine, Iviii. 1024, 
md ' The Annual Register,' xxx. 220, more 
han 800 persons were present. An oration 
vas delivered by the Rev. Dr. Towers, 
The Character of King William ' was read 

n s. v. FEB. 24, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


by the Rev. Dr. Rees, an ' Ode ' written by 
Mr. Hayley was recited by Mr. Jenkins, and 
several gentlemen contributed convivial 

Earl Stanhope on behalf of the committee 
moved " that the three following Decla- 
ratory Principles are confirmed by the 
Revolution, & form the basis of this Society," 
viz. : 

" I. That all civil and political authority is 
derived from the People. 

" II. That the abuse of power justifies Re- 

li III. That the right of private judgement, 
liberty of Conscience. Trial by Jury, the Freedom 
of the Press, and the Freedom of Election, ought 
ever to be held sacred and inviolable." 

On 24 March, 1 789, Mr. Beaufoy moved in 
the House of Commons for leave to bring in 
a Bill 

" To establish a perpetual anniversary thanks- 
giving to Almighty God, for having, by the glorious 
Revolution, delivered this nation from arbitrary 
power, and to commemorate annually the con- 
firmation of the people's rights." 

The motion was seconded by Lord Mun- 
caster, and opposed by Sir Richard Hill. 
The Bill was, however, passed by the Com- 
mons, but rejected on the first reading in 
the House of Lords after a short discussion, 
in which the Bishop of Bangor practically 
led the opposition. The best days of the 
Society were from about June, 1788, to 
the end of 1791. THOMAS WM. HUCK. 

See Burke's ' Vicissitudes of Families,' 
Third Series, 2nd ed., p. 89, article 'The 
Story of Philip D'Auvergne, Esq.' At 
p. 90 it is stated that 

li a short time before the French Revolution 
Godfrey, Duke of Bouillon, chief of his ancient 
family of De la Tour D'Auvergne, finding the 
prospect of a lineal successor to his illustrious 
house destroyed by the deafch of his second son, 
Charles, a Knight of Malta, and the infirmity 
of his elder son, James Leopold, was induced to 
seek, among his relations, for some one on whom 
he might fix as a successor to his titles and vast 

A member of the Jersey family of D'Au- 
vergne, Philip, a lieutenant of the Arethusa, 
was wrecked off Brest, and detained as a 
prisoner of war. This was made known to 
the Duke, and an interview took place, 
when the Duke showed the most marked 
attention to Lieut. D'Auvergne, and hinted 
at the inquiry he had instituted. In the 
end Philip became the adopted heir-pre- 
sumptive, and was solemnly proclaimed as 
such 4 Aug., 1791 ; the Act was ratified by 
the authorities of the Duchy, and eventually 
entered in the College of Arms, 27 Feb., 1792, 

his Majesty's gracious leave being granted 
to Capt. D'Auvergne to accept and enjoy 
the several successions and honours to 
devolve to him. He was actually put into 
possession of his inheritance, and governed 
his Duchy for a few months. Alas for him ! 
an Act of the Congress of Vienna dispossessed 
him, and he, on 18 Sept.. 1816, little more 
than two months after the Prince de- 
Rohan succeeded against him, committed 
suicide, and was buried in St. Margaret's 
Church. Westminster. Burke adds : " Not 
a member of the Admiral's branch remains." 

LONDON (11 S. v. 64). In his interesting 
note on this subject MR. A. H. ARKXE 
expresses a wish to know what has become 
of C. G. Gibber's famous statue. It stands 
to-day upon the terrace at Welcombe, 
Stratford-upon-Avon, the Warwickshire seat 
of Sir George and Lady Trevelyan, having 
been bought by the late owner of Welcombe, 
Mr. Mark Phillips, after the Duke of Buck- 
ingham's Stowe sale in 1848. At Stowe 
the statue used to stand in Queen's Building. 

The following extract from the ' Cata- 
logue of the Stowe Sale ' gives additional 
details connecting the figure with Defoe's 
story : 

" Lot 134. The piper and his dog ; the cele- 
brated work in stone of C. Gabriel Cibber (father 
of Cibber, the poet). This group was formerly 
at Whitton, the seat of the Duke of Argyll. 

J. Browne. 38?. 17$. 

" This group is the work of Caius Gabriel 
Cibber (father of Colley Cibber, the poet), wha 
also carved the two celebrated figures of Raging 
and Melancholy Madness, now at Bethlehem 
Hospital ; it represents the Piper, who is de- 
scribed by Daniel De Foe, in his History of the 
Plague in London, as having been taken up for 
dead in the street, and thrown into the dead cart 
with other bodies to be buried ; but who awoke 
from his trance just as those charged with the 
melancholy office were proceeding to throw him 
into the pit filled with the dead bodies of the 
victims of that dreadful calamity ; and, after 
considerably alarming his bearers by sitting 
upright in the cart and playing upon his pipes, 
was released from his perilous situation, and 
lived some years. This group stood for many 
years in a garden in Tottenham Court Road,, 
opposite the end of Howland Street, and in front 
of a house formerly the residence of a Mr. Hinch- 
cliffe, a sculptor. It will be seen that Mr. Browne,, 
of University Street, bought the group at the 
sale. He was warmly opposed at the time by 
Mr. Redfern, on behalf of Mr. Mark Phillips, 
and the latter gentleman has since repurchased 
the work of Mr. Browne. It is now in the garden 
at Snitterfield, Mr. Phillips's seat in Warwick- 
shire."' The Stowe Catalogue,' 1848, p. 272. 




NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. FEB. M, 1912. 

(11 S. v. 48). My friend Dr. F. Pfister, who 
is engaged on a special study of the subject, 
has favoured me with the following par- 
ticulars : 

" The legend inquired about will be found in 
the Latin ' Iter ad Paradisum,' edited by Julius 
Zacher, ' Alexandri Magni iter ad Paradisum,' 
Konigsberg, 1859. From this source the story 
found its way, for example, into Lamprecht's 
[twelfth century] ' Alexanderlied ' and the 
' Alexandreis ' by Ulrich von Eschenbach [thir- 
teenth century], on which cf. Toischer's article 
in the Sitzunysberichte der Wiener Akademie, 
1881, pp. 382 ft. For further information on the 
' Iter ' see Wilhelm Hertz, ' Gesammelte Abhand- 
lungen,' 1905, pp. 84 ff. ; Friedlander, Archiv 
fur Religionswissenschaft, xiii. (1910), pp. 200 ff. ; 
J. Levi, Revue des dtudes juives, ii. 299 ff., xiii. 
117 f. ; Pflster, Rheinisches Museum fiir Philo- 
logie, Ixvi. (1911), pp. 458 ff. ; and the Theo- 
logische Literaturzeitung, 1911, cols. 700 and 
796 f. That is probably all the most important 
literature on the subject of the ' Iter.' The 
Latin text containing the legend that PERI wants 
to trace is of the eleventh or twelfth century, and 
probably goes back to an old Jewish (or Christian ) 
haggadah. There is a similar and older legend 
in the tractate ' Tamid ' of the Babylonian 
Talmud, where the scene mentioned by PERI 
also occurs." 



The legend of Alexander the Great at the 
gate of Paradise is recorded in the Jewish 
Talmud ; and reproduced therefrom in its 
entirety, on pp. 333-6 of vol. xii., ' Zion's 
Works ' (' Epilogue '), with elucidation 
thereof, as an allegory. 


ii. 408). " Tetigisti me, et exarsi in pacem 
tuam," the source of which was asked for 
by MR. LAWRENCE PHILLIPS, is taken from 
St. Augustine's ' Confessions,' lib. x. cap. 27, 

(11 S. v. 68.) 

The first quotation referred to by 
E. M. SELLON is evidently modified from a 
passage in a letter from Lord Chesterfield 
to the Bishop of Waterford, 22 Jan., 1760. 
See ' Letters,' ed. Mahon, iv. p. 330. and my 
'Life of Lord Chesterfield,' p. 517. The 
passage is as follows : 

" Whether my end be more or less remote, I 
know I am tottering upon the brink of this 
world, and my thoughts are employed about 
this. However, while I crawl upon this planet, 
I think myself obliged to do what good I can, in 
my narrow domestic sphere, to my fellow- 
creatures, and to wish them all the good I cannot 


BLADUD would appear to be quoting from 
memory. In the ' East London Church Fund 
Calendar 1912,' for 20 January, the lines, 

With peaceful mind thy race of duty run. 
God nothing does, or suffers to be done, 
But what thou wouldst thyself if thou couldst see 
Thro' all events of things, as well as He, 

are attributed by a printer's error to J. 
Byron, instead of to J. Byrom, the well- 
known Manchester poet (1692-1763), the 
best known of whose hymns are " Christians, 
awake, salute the happy morn," and " My 
spirit longs for Thee." 


(11 S. v. 90-) 

The beautiful lines quoted by I. X. B. 
form part of a sonnet written by Mr. 
Coulson Kernahan, and published in the 
Dickens number of Household Words, 14 June, 
1902, amongst many other " opinions " of 
Charles Dickens given by prominent men 
and women at the invitation of the editor, 
Mr. Hall Caine. Perhaps I may be allowed 
to quote the whole of Mr. Kernahan's 
contribution : 

" I don't know that I can say better what I 
think of Charles Dickens than in the enclosed 
sonnet, which appeared originally in The Graphic, 
signed ' C. K.,' and was attributed to Charles 
Kent instead of to me. 

" 'The last two people I heard speak of itworo 
women ; neither knew the other, or the author, 
and both said byway of criticism : " God bless 
him ! " ' Thackeray, on ' A Christmas Carol.' 
And God did bless him if the prayers and tears 

Of countless thousands ; if the knowledge sure 

Of heart uplift, or strengthened to endure, 
Have aught of blessing. Surely he who cheers 
The mourning heart bids fly the sick man'* 

Is blest, thrice blest ! A Prophet of the Poor, 

In darksome den and squalid slum obscure 
He shows a world of love wherein appears 
The Way to God not in lone hermit^cell, 

In Nature-worship, stately rite, stern creed, 
But through the human hearts he loved so well. 

His voice is hushed, and yet, in heaven, indeed, 
Angelic hosts might pause to hear him tell 
Of ' Tiny Tim,' or ' Paul,' or ' Little Nell.' " 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

The passage MR. PEET quotes appeared 
in a very humorous description of the 
Derby Day written by Charles Dickens 
in Household Words of 7 June, 1851, from 
which I may, perhaps, quote a portion. 
It was Teddington's year. 

" Well, to be sure, there never was such a Derby 
Day as this present Derby Day! Never, to be 
sure, were there so many carriages, so many fours, 
so many twos, so many ones, so many horsemen, 
so many people who have come down by ' rail,' 
so many fine ladies in so many broughams, so 

n s. v. FEB. 24, 1912.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


many Fortnum & Mason's hampers, so much 
ice and champagne. // / toere on the Turf and 
had a horse to enter for the Derby, I toould call 
that horse Fortnum & Mason, convinced that, 
with that name, he would beat the field." 

I must not trespass on your space by 
quoting the whole article ; hut Dickens 
evidently had the famous Piccadilly pur- 
veyors very much impressed upon his 
observation that day, for the article con- 
cludes as follows : 

" A deeper hum and a louder roar ; every- 
body standing on Fortnum & Mason. Now 
they 're off! No, now they're off! Xo, now 
they 're off ! no, note they are. Yes. There 
they go ! Here they come ! Where ? Keep 
vour eye on Tattenham Corner and you '11 see 
em coming round in half a minute. . . .Here they 
are ! Who is ? The horses ! Where ? Here 
they come ! Green first ! No, red first ! No, 
blue first ! No, the favourite first ! Who says 
so ? Look ! Hurrah ! Hurrah ! all over ! 
Glorious race ! favourite wins ! Two hundred 
thousand pounds lost and won ! You don't say 
so ? Pass the pie ! " 

It is a vivid pen-picture of the carnival on 
the Hill at Epsom on a Derby Day. 


1809-14 (11 S. v. 70). Until about the 
year 1822 companies of a battalion of 
Royal Artillery were not known by dis- 
tinctive numbers, but by the name of the 
captain who commanded them, and were 

styled " Capt. 's Company of the th 


In order, however, to avoid confusion, 
to make identification more easy, and avoid 
the change of designation which would occur 
whenever a new captain was posted, writers 
on artillery regimental history, when men- 
tioning companies, have made use of the 
numbers by which they were subsequently 
known when numbering was introduced. 

The 9th Battalion R.A., consisting of 
ten companies, was formed in 1806. In 
February, 1819, two of these ten companies 
were reduced, leaving eight only in the 
battalion, and the company which eventually 
became Xo. 8 is 45th Battery, Royal Field 
Artillery, of to-day. It was never known as 
Xo. 10 Company, although it probably 
was. until 1819, the 10th in consecutive 
order in that battalion. 

It served in the Walcheren expedition of 
1809 a somewhat disastrous performance 
under the command of Capt. J. Chamber - 
layne, and served in the Peninsular War 
under the command of Capt. Robert 
Douglas. Embarking at Plymouth on 
4 March, 1812, it disembarked at Lisbon 
on the 15th, and was present at the battles 

of Salamanca (1812), Vitoria, the Pyrenees, 
and the Nivelle, and at the second operation 
of the siege of San Sebastian (1813), which 
terminated in its capture. 

In January, 1814, Douglas left the com- 
pany, and was succeeded by Capt. George 
Turner, who commanded it until the con- 
clusion of the war, and under whose com- 
mand it was present at the battles of Orthes 
and Toulouse (1814). For the greater 
part of its service in the Peninsula it was 
attached to the third division of the army 
Picton's. It remained in France until 
June, 1814, when it proceeded to Canada. 

Much information about the company will 
be found in the Dickson MSS., now being 
published by the Royal Artillery Institution, 
Woolwich. Details as to names of officers, 
stations, &c., from date of its formation can 
also be obtained from the original company 
muster rolls and pay lists at the Public 
Record Office, Chancery Lane. 

J. H. LESLIE, Major. 

LATTER LAMMAS (11 S. iv. 469; v. 18, 
75). I am sorry to find that I have incurred 
the contempt of PROF. SKEAT by offering 
a derivation of the term Lammas which he 
does not approve of, and which is not the 
usual one. It certainly commends itself to 
my mind, but I am not responsible for it. 
I did not devise it ; it is certainly older than 
1912, or even 1911 ; and the good authority 
which I referred to is not my own. 

In his ' Historical Sketch of the Dis- 
tribution of Land in England,' part i. 
chap, v., Mr. Birkbeck, Q.C., and late 
Master of Downing College, Cambridge, 
writes, referring to some question with 
regard to Lammas lands : 

" If any confirmation of the fact be wanting, 
it may be found in the circumstance that the only 
probable derivation of Lammas is Late-Math, 
' late mowing.' Hence ' Latter Lammas,' a 
later math than Lammas, became proverbial, as 
an equivalent to the Greek Calends." 

Not having the book before me, I in- 
advertently wrote " last math," instead of 
late math. I do not think, however, that 
this is of any consequence. 

I think we may suppose that Mr. Birkbeck 
would not so positively assert what was a 
mere guess of his own. I do not, however, 
wish to divert PROF. SKEAT'S castigation from 
myself. I frankly avow that, for the pre- 
sent, I prefer Mr. Birkbeck's derivation. I 
should like very much to learn something 
about the history and ceremonies of " hlaf- 
msesse daeg." Can any one kindly refer me 
to any source of information about them ? 




[11 S. V. FEB. 24, 1912. 

CAPT. FREENY (US. v. 50). 'The Life 
and Adventures of James Freney ' (not 
Freeny, as J. B. and Thackeray in ' The 
Irish Sketch-Book ' spell it), a chapbook, 
can still be obtained, I believe, from C. M. 
Warren, printer and publisher, Dublin. 
Freney is only casually introduced into 
' Barry Lyndon.' The basis of that work is 
said by Lady Ritchie to be the unhappy 
marriage of Andrew Robinson Bowes and 
the Countess of Strathmore, whose domestic 
differences were the talk of the town (1790- 
1799). Various pamphlets, such as ' Life,' 
' Trial,' ' Confessions,' &c., were published 
between those dates. 


MONEY-BOX (11 S. v. 50, 117). Chambers' s 
Journal for the current month contains a 
paragraph which reminds me of S. J. A. F.'s 
inquiry. It occurs in an article on ' Money- 
boxes,' by Mr. G. L. Apperson (p. 134), 
and I have pleasure in copying it : 

" Roman money-boxes may be seen in museums. 
A seventeenth-century writer describes a ' Roman 
money-pot fashioned almost like a pint-jug with- 
out a neck, closed at the top, and having a notch 
in one side, as in a Christmas box.' Mediaeva 
examples are numerous. In that remarkable 
collection of mementos of the London of days 
gone by, the Guildhall Museum, there may be 
seen several earthenware money-boxes, both 
glazed and unglazed, of the fourteenth to the 
eighteenth century. One of green glazed ware 
with a slit on the shoulder for the reception o 
coins, has plainly been broken at the bottom, no 
doubt for the extraction of the contents. Anothe 
of the same date (15th century) is in the forii 
of a toad, while a seventeenth-century specimen 
is in the form of a Sussex pig, and was perhap 
made at Rye." 

S. J. A. F. would do well to read the res 
of the article, which I heartily commenc 
to his notice. ST. * SWITHIN. 

[MR. Tiros. RATCLIFFE also thanked for reply.] 

ST. AGNES : FOLK-LORE (11 S. v. 47, 112). 
On St. Agnes' Day, 21 January, the 
blessing of the lambs takes place at Rome, 
and on 28 January is commemorated, not 
another St. Agnes, but the appearance of the 
same St. Agnes to her parents, who were 
spending the night at her tomb. Hare, in 
his ' Walks in Rome ' (15th ed.), ii. 137, says 
in a foot-note, without citing any authority : 
" Yorkshire maidens, anxious to know who 
their future spouse is to be, still consult St. Agnes 
on St. Agnes's Eve, after twenty-four hours' 
abstinence from anything but pure spring water, 
in the words : 

St. Agnes, be a friend to me 

In the boon I ask of thee : 

Let me this night my husband see." 


This document, which except the first two 
lines is in English, is printed in ' Durham 
Wills and Inventories,' published by the 
Surtees Society, p. 83 ; and is reprinted, 
vith some annotations, in Rev. C. S. Colling- 
wood's ' Memoirs of Bernard Gilpin ' (London 
and Sunderland, 1884), Appendix L, pp. 289- 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

v. 87). Jamieson's ' Dictionary ' has cawker r 
also written caidker, " metaphorically used 
:o denote mental acrimony," as in ' Guy 
Mannering,' ii. 325 : 

People come to us with every selfish feeling, 
newly pointed and grinded ; they turn down the' 
very caulkers of their animosities and prejudice, 
as smiths do with horses' shoes in a white frost." 

The word also means " a dram, a glass of 
spirits." Jamieson adds : 

It seems to admit this second sense metaph. ; 
because a dram is falsely supposed to fortify 
against the effects of intense cold" ; 

and quotes Mayne's ' Siller Gun,' p. 89, 
c. 1803 : 

The magistrates wi' loyal din 
Tak aff their cau'kers. 


This word is much used, but it is generally 
spelt corker, and means bottling up, 01 
corking a bottle. A man gets a glass oi 
something strong, which " takes his breath,' 
and as soon as he can speak says, " Thai 
was a regular corker." When a company ii 
telling good stories, the one who has cappec 
the rest has " told a corker." 


" SAMHOWD " (11 S. iv. 446; v. 99).- 
MR. RATCLIFFE is quite right. I havi 
repeatedly heard sam howd = take hold 
sam it up = take it up, &c., in West Yorkshire 
Sam in sense of gather, &c., appears ii 
' E.D.D.' as Sam(m). Sam howd ought t< 
be there. Howd is simply hold with loss of i 
I am surprised that it does not appear ii 
this sense in ' E.D.D.' Sam is in ' N.E.D, 
as obs. or dial. The dictionaries do no 

give the exact shade of meaning, but if yo 
sam howd of a thing, you do, in fact, gathe 
it into your hand and to yourself. 

J. T. F. 

(US. iv. 530). As far as I am aware, onl 
two editions of J. B. Thiers's ' Traite de 
Superstitions ' have been published, bot 
of them in French, and both appearin 

ii s. v. FKB. 24, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


after the author's death. He died in 1703. 
The imprints on the respective editions are 
"' Paris, 1704," and " Paris, 1741," in 4 vols., 
12mo. I have not heard of any edition 
having ever been published in England. 


BEAUPUIS (11 S. v. 91). A good account 
of Beaupuis (or rather Beaupuy) will be 
found in ' The Early Life of William Words- 
worth,' by E. Legouis (Dent, 1897), pp. 201- 
215, or in the original form of the work, 
* La Jeunesse de W. Wordsworth.' 


University of Sheffield. 

Editors of Wordsworth refer to ' Le 
General Michel Beaupuy,' by G. Bussiere 
and E. Legouis. A good deal of information 
will be found in Prof. Legouis's ' La Jeunesse 
de William Wordsworth,' which was trans- 
lated by F. W. Matthews under the title 
~ Early Life of Wordsworth.' 



I 288, 339, 412, 538 ; v. 75). It is curious 
that nobody has referred to what the 
* O.E.D.' says under A, 12 : 

" Process ; with a verbal sb. taken passively : 
in process of, in course of, undergoing. Varying 
with in : ' forty and six years was this temple 
in building,' arch, or dial. (In modern language 
the a is omitted and the verbal sb. treated as a 
participle, passive in sense ; as the house was a 
building, the house icas building, &c.)" 

Of use with a there is an instance given from 
1 Peter iii. 20 : "In the dayes of Noah 
while the Arke was a preparing." 

C. C. B. 

ANACHRONISM (11 S. v. 46). Such obvioui 
anachronisms as that to which MR. BENSE 
refers are not rare in the English miracle 
plays, nor, presumably, in French plays 
of the kind. Later Scripture allusions were 
introduced into Old Testament scenes 
altogether as a matter of course. Even 
paganism of a later day was frankly drawr 
upon. Prof. Schelling (' Elizabethan Drama 
1558-1642 ') has the following appropriate 
sentence on the subject : 

" Herod and Pontius Pilate rage, as the heathen 
will, and swear, customarily by Mahomet, whils 
Isaac, in a scene touching 1 in its simple and homel; 
pathos, adjures his father Abraham, ' by th< 
blessed Trinity,' to spare his mother's tears an< 
withhold from her the tidings of her son's untimelv 

W. B. 

KNIVES AS PRESENTS (11 S. v. 91). 
A few weeks ago a lady told me that, having 
been commissioned by the members of a 
mothers' meeting to spend some collected 
money on a present for a conductor of the 
meeting, who was about to leave, she bought 
a brooch. This, however much admired, 
was objected to because of the pin ; and 
it had to be exchanged for a pendant before 
the mothers were content. Mr. Lean some- 
where enshrines the information that it is so 
unlucky to give a pin that, if you ask for one, 
woman will say : " You may take one, 
ut, mind, I do not give it." 


The following appeared on 3 February 
n The Glasgow Evening Citizen : 

An old superstition was perpetrated at 
Hanley yesterday. A presentation of cutlery 
was made by the employees of a local firm to 
he principal. Before the gathering dispersed the 
ecipient gave each employee a new halfpenny 
is a symbol of a continuance of the happy rela- 
ionship existing between the employers and 
employees, or, to use a localism, ' so as not to 
cut the friendship.' " 

W. G. B. 

When lads and lasses gave their sweet - 
learts scissors or knives, great care was taken 
that something should be passed in return 
a kiss, handkerchief, or a small coin. This 
ustom was " thought much of," and now 
and then a lass would give a knife, and refuse 
anything in return, " on purpose to cut 
love." But I never knew a lad to do so. 

Gay has an allusion to this old superstition 
somewhere, and it is mentioned in a poem 
by the Rev. Samuel Bishop, No. cxvi. in 
Locker's ' Lyra Elegantiarum ' : 

A knife, dear girl, cuts love, they say 
Mere modish love perhaps it may ; 
For any tool of any kind 
Can separate what was never join'd. 
The knife that cuts our love in two 
Will have much tougher work to do. 

C. C. B. 

[MR. JOHN T. PAGE refers G. H. G. to Brand's 
' Antiquities,' s.v. ' Omens ' ; and also to 7 S. viii. 
469 ; ix. 11.] 

SISTER (US. iv. 89). According to the best 
and most recent authorities, Matthew, 
the fourth Earl of Lennox, and Lady Mar- 
garet Douglas, his wife, had a family of four 
sons and four daughters. All their children 
died in infancy or childhood, with the 
exception of Henry, Lord Darnley, who 


NOTES AND QUERIES. en s. v. F*& 21, iwa 

became the husband of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, and Charles his brother, afterwards 
fifth Earl of Lennox. None of the daughters 
reached years of maturity. 

The Lady Elizabeth Stuart who married 
into the Rowallan family is said, in ' The 
Historic and Descent of the House of 
Rowallane,' to have been the daughter of the 
first Lord . Avandale (or Evandale). Evi- 
dently, however, this must be a mistake. 
The first Lord Avandale died in 1488, leaving 
no issue. He was succeeded in the title, 
after an interval of several years, by his 
nephew Andrew Stuart, known as the second 
Lord Avandale, who left a family of sons 
and daughters. Anderson suggests (' The 
Scottish Nation,' iii. 219) that the Lady 
Elizabeth who married a Mure of Row- 
allan may have been a daughter of the 
second Lord Avandale. "If, as is under- 
stood," he says, 

" she was the daughter of the second, not the 
first, Lord Evandale, she was the sister of Andrew 
Stewart, third Lord Evandale, and also of Henry 
Stewart, created Lord Methven, the third hus- 
band of Margaret, queen-mother of Scotland, 
daughter of Henry VII. of England, and grand- 
mother of Mary, Queen of Scots." 

Apparently the ' Historie of the House of 
Rowallane ' is not considered an altogether 
reliable authority. But in any case it is 
evident that Lord Darnley had no sister 
who attained marriageable age. 


LEY FAMILY (11 S. v. 41). There are two 
small points I should like to allude to 
respecting the will there quoted. MR. W. D. 
PINK calls it an abstract it is so for his 
particular purpose, which I know ; but it 
is not a good abstract in the ordinary sense. 
Then there is the " Agnes [Anne ?] " ; that 
is my own, and not in the original. I do 
not want to recount what has already 
appeared in ' N. & Q.,' only to refer to 8 S. ii. 
124 and 10 S. viii. 507. A few of those 
who. use that palatial apartment known 
as Room 9 in the Probate Department at 
Somerset House enliven the monotony by 
the circulation of little curiosities. One 
of these is double Christian names that 
is, of the earliest date. Now Anne and 
Agnes have been classed as one and the same 
name ; but in 42 Elizabeth a lawsuit 
decided that they were " several names." 
Notwithstanding this legal decision, wills 
afford evidence that long afterwards the 
identity was not established. Thus, in the 
long will of Sir John Astley of Maidstone, 

Master of the Revels, dated 3 Jan., 1639/40, 
and proved 10 Feb., 1639/40 (29 Coventry), 
he mentions his cousin, " Anne Bridges 01 
Agnes Bridges, who is niece to my wife, 
Dame Katherine." That was the meaning 
of " Agnes [Anne ?] Kingsley." 


DISEASES FROM PLANTS (11 S. iv. 530 ; v. 
56). There are in the United States at least 
two indigenous plants whose poisonous 
qualities affect many persons when brought 
into touch with the foliage. They are the 
poison - ivy (Rhus toxicodendron), some- 
times called poison-oak ; and the poison- 
sumac (Rhus venenata), sometimes called 
poison-elder, poison-dogwood, or swamp- 

While many are susceptible to the ill 
effects of the poison-ivy, others are not, 
and can handle it with impunity. Some, 
on the other hand, are so susceptible that 
actual contact with it is not always necessary 
to bring on the disease ; mere proximity 
to the vine when it is in right condition to 
give off its noxious properties is sufficient. 

Washington, D.C. 

v. 8, 57). There can be, I presume, little 
reasonable doubt as to Swift's defender being 
Patrick Delany, D.D., notwithstanding the 
author's signature to the preface being 
" J. R." 

The only clue in the book itself to the 
authorship appears at p. 186, under Swift's 
inscription on the Duke of Schomberg's 
monument in St. Patrick's Cathedral : 

" I shall only add, that the author of this 
Letter had the felicity to prevail upon the Dean 
to leave out that sentence mentioned in this 
note " 

still stronger denunciation of the Duke's 
heirs for their disgraceful apathy in the 
matter, " with some other satiric severities.'' 
Delany, being then (1731) Chancellor of 
St. Patrick's, might very well have had 
a voice in such a question. 

St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

(11 S. iv. 148). The English edition of 
Paris Illustre, beginning in the year 1888, 
was printed in Paris. It was, I understand, 
a translation of the French edition, except 
that the " English edition " is said to have- 
contained " original matter." The pro- 
prietors of the paper were MM. Boussod 

ii s. v. F EB . 24, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Valadon. As a publication, it was issued 
weekly, consisted of 16 pp., and its price 
per copy was 1 franc 25 centimes. 


0n Itooks. 

The Thunder weapon in Religion and Folk-lore : 
a Study in Comparative Archaeology. By Chr. 
Blinkenberg, Ph.D. (Cambridge University 

THIS monograph is a member of the " Cambridge 
Archaeological and Ethnological Series," and 
well worthy of its place. It brings together the 
ideas of Scandinavia and ancient Greece, the 
former being largely supplied by the Danish Folk- 
lore Collection, in answer to an appeal in the 
papers. Another notable part of the evidence 
conies from Southern India. The present book 
is an enlarged edition of a Danish original, with 
a number of new illustrations, and is of per- 
manent value on account of the material it collects. 
Such concise, scientific monographs are worth 
a world of theory. Here we find only 122 pages, 
but all are close packed with pertinent material. 
Conclusions are uncertain on the subject, as on 
many other archaeological inquiries ; we want 
data, and we hope to have more of the sort, as 
well gathered and arranged as Dr. Blinkenberg's. 

WE welcome a new and enlarged edition of 
Wit, Character, Folk-lore, and Customs of the 

' North Riding of Yorkshire, by Richard Blake- 
borough (Salt-burn, W. Rapp & Sons). In 
1898 we found the book useful, well written, 
and entertaining, and it was read with all the 
gusto of a Yorkshireman and a scholar by Joseph 
Knight. The present reviewer, though not a 
native of the county, has a special interest alike 

in it and the folk-speech which it contimies in 
spite of fashion to preserve, and he has found the 
volume well worthy of the praise awarded to it. 
This edition is the answer to a constant and 
increasing demand. Among the new matter is a 
chapter on ' Yorkshire Sporting Folk-lore,' by 
the author's son, Mr. J. Fairfax Blakeborough. 
It gives many excellent phrases, some of which 
the present writer has heard recently, and more 
than one trace of those legends concerning the fox 
which are so early and so persistent in folk-lore. 

Every volume" of this kind has more than a 
local interest, for, as folk-lorists well know, 
dialect has wide boundaries. We find, for 
instance, some phrases set down here which we 
have heard in the Midlands, and others known to 
us only in East Anglia. On the other hand, in 
Yorkshire itself there are, as Mr. Blakeborough 
points out, wide differences between the dialects 
of the North and West Ridings, not only in 
vocabulary, but also in intonation. He adds that, 
while many of the best families in the North and 
East Ridings can speak their dialect fluently, 
in the West Riding such ability is felt to be infra 
dig. The existence of the ' English Dialect Dic- 
tionary ' alone should be sufficient to show the 
serious worth of folk-speech. It is, however, a 
large and expensive work. Should not its contents 
be reduced to one concise volume, as has already 
been done in the case of the great ' N.E.D.' ? 
The resultant volume would, we feel sure, win 
a" hearty reception. 


MR. P. M. BARNARD of Tunbridge Wells sends 
us an Illustrated Catalogue (No. 50) of Early 
Woodcuts and Engravings. This contains 
examples of the work of some of the most famous 
early engravers. Of the anonymous early wood- 
cuts, the most notable are ' Four Martyrs,' a 
woodcut by a Suabian artist of about 1470, 147. ; 
' The Virgin and Child and St. Bridget,' a beautiful 
late fifteenth -century woodcut, 14/. ; and a very 
curious coloured woodcut (with text below), 
showing a monstrous hare found at Cassel in 
1532, 31. 10s. There are numerous works by 
fifteenth-century copperplate engravers, includ'- 
ing a good impression of Schongauer's famous 
print of ' Christ bearing the Cross,' 307. ; a ' Flight 
into Egypt,' by Israhel van Meckenem, Wl. 10s. ; 
and a very rare 'Passion sequence ' by the Master 
A. G. ( Albrecht Glockenton ? ) a set said to be 
considerably better than that in the Britisli 
Museum, which is incomplete 687. (for 12 prints). 
Albrecht Diirer is represented by a large number 
of his copperplates and woodcuts, at prices 
ranging from 5s. to 81. 10s. Of the copperplates, 
the more notable are the ' St. Eustace,' the ' St.. 
Jerome in the Desert,' the ' Rape of Amymone,' 
the ' Effect of Jealousy,' and the rare print of the- 
Monstrous Hog, engraved about 1496 ; the wood- 
cuts include some from the ' Apocalypse,' as well 
as some of the single woodcuts. The Little 
Masters are represented by a large number of 
prints by Altdorfer, Aldegraver, Barthel, H. S. 
Beham, and Pencz. There are also a con- 
siderable number of prints by Lucas van Leyden,. 
many of which are at quite low prices. The 
Italian section includes several fine impressions 
of the plates of Marc Antonio Raimondi ; and 
the Early English School is represented by some 
leaves from Wynkyn de Worde's edition of ' The 
Golden Legend,' printed at Westminster in 1498, 
with woodcuts formerly used by Caxton. We 
may also mention some early woodcut and 
copperplate ex-libris, and some fifteenth-century 
printers' devices, including a leaf with that of 
N. Jenson (15s. Qd.) and the fine device of Erhard 
Reuwick (II. 2s.). 

WE have also Mr. P. M. Barnard's Catalogue 
(No. 51) of Autographs, Manuscripts, and Docu- 
ments. Many of the autographs (items 1-179) 
are of considerable interest and importance, 
among which may be mentioned a holograph 
memorandum of the statesman and biblio- 
phile J. B. Colbert (47.), a letter of Francis I. of 
France (57.), miscellaneous papers and notes of 
J. F. Gronovius (47. 4s.), a letter of Gustavus 
Adolphus (37. 15s.), a document bearing the 
signature of Richard Taverner (107.), and a letter 
of John Whitgift (27. 2s.)- A presentation copy 
from Richard Baxter of his book ' The Unreason- 
ableness of Infidelity' (27. 10s.), and a copy of 
Selden's ' Historic of Tithes,' given to Christopher 
Wren by Archbishop Laud (37. 3s.), may be added. 
The second section (items 180-274), ' Manuscripts, 
Charters, Deeds, and Miscellaneous Papers,' 
includes four Babylonian clay tablets in cuneiform 
(between 523 B.C. and 527 B.C.) ; fragments of 
Egyptian MSS. on linen in hieratic characters' 
with portions of the text of ' The Book of the 
Dead ; a contemporary transcript of a truce 
between Edward III. of England and Philip VI, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. FEB. 24, 1912. 

of France, 51. 5s. ; a collection of deeds (c. 1240- 
1352) relating to property in Middleton and other 
places in Essex, 6?. 10s. ; an English Armorial 
composed between 1550 and 1565, 121. ; a collec- 
tion of original MS. heraldic treatises belonging to 
the later years of the sixteenth century, 15Z. ; an 
inventory, on a long vellum roll, dated 1496, of 
the contents of the house of a country gentle- 
man of the period, 51. 10s. ; a collection of charters 
on vellum relating to lands in Charing in Kent, 
beginning in 1306, 12Z. ; a collection of 13C 
charters on vellum (14th-16th centuries) relating 
to Willesborough in Kent, 251. ; and a MS. on 
vellum (about 1390), with statutes of Edward III. 
and Richard II., and containing a contemporary 
portrait of Richard II., 10Z. 10s. 

IN Messrs. Maggs's Catalogue of Historical and 
Topographical Engravings (No. 280) we note an 
interesting view of the Falls of Niagara in winter, 
c. 1840, 211. ; a pair of Maori portraits in oil 
ly Lindauer, 1878, 60 guineas ; a set of four 
aquatints in colour by F. Jukes after R. Dodd, 
representing the destruction of H.M.S. Ramillies 
and her convoy and prizes in the hurricane of 
16 Sept., 1782, 1795, 211. 10s. ; an exceedingly 
curious etching by M. Darly, ' Bunker's Hill ; or, 
America's Head-dress,' a woman wearing an 
enormous head-dress composed of hills, forts, 
flags, and caricature emblems, 101. 10s. ; and 
Ratzer's Plan and View of New York, engraved 
on two large sheets which have never been joined 
up, with a panoramic view of the city in the lower 
half of the second sheet, 1776, 55Z. 

IN Messrs. Maggs's Catalogue (No. 281) of Auto" 
graph Letters and MSS. perhaps the most interest" 
ing item is a long autograph draft letter written 
by Capt. John Paul Jones to the Hon. Jas. Hewes, 
Esq., Philadelphia, 31 Oct., 1776, upon the need of 
remodelling the American navy, and creating 
" an impartial Board of Admiralty competent to 
determine the merits and abilities of every officer," 
with the intention of making "our fleet.... 
formidable even to Great Britain," 150Z. There 
is also a letter of Capt. Jones's to Hogstead 
Hacker, Esq. (1 Nov., 1776), giving sailing and 
signalling directions, 501. Other American items 
are a letter of George Washington's to Robt. 
Cary & Co., his London agents/ 1773, 68Z. ; a 
letter of Benjamin Franklin's, written the year 
before he died, to " My dear old Friend," concern- 
ing the settlement of some debt, 1789, 251. ; and 
a report to William Penn from his secretary, 
James Logan, upon the affairs of Pennsylvania, 
1704, 25Z. We noticed a Royal Sign Manual 
(possibly an impressed stamp) of Mary Tudor to 
an Order on paper, 1554, 211. 10s. ; and observed 
a considerable collection of autographs of members 
of the House of Stuart, among them a letter 
from Henrietta Maria to the Due de Savoy e, 
1628, 30Z. ; a private letter from Charles II. 
" For my Lord Hide," evidently relating to debts [ 
due from the King, 1681, 151. ; a letter to the 
Comte d'Estree by James II. when Duke of York, 
1673, 21Z. ; and a long letter, in French, written 
at St. Germain by Mary of Modena to De Lauzun, 
on the occasion of the French victory off Beachy 
Head, 1690, 251. There are two noteworthy 
De Witt letters : one from Cornelius to his wife, 
1672, IQl. 19s. ; the other, written about a month 
later by Jan to the same lady, giving her news of 
her husband, then serving with the Dutch fleet 
against France, 1672, 121. 12s. A letter by Sir 

Edward Coke to Sir Nathaniel Bacon is 48/. ; and 
7 letters of Lady Hamilton's to Mr.?. Walcot are 
381. 10s. 

Musicians figure prominently in this Catalogue : 
there are letters of Schumann, Liszt, Brahms, 
Chopin, Rubinstein, and several others, but the 
most important items are two communications 
from Beethaven to Charles Neate of the Crystal 
Palace : the first, accepting 100 guineas from the 
London Philharmonic Society for his trio of 
string quartettes, and expressing his willingness 
to visit England, " as I feel that I shall never 
make anything in Germany," 1823, 181. ; the 
second, in French, comprising corrections to the 
Ninth Symphony, with some bars of music in 
Beethoven's hand, 1825, 85Z. 

In Foreign Literature and Science we noticed a 
letter from Voltaire to Frederick the Great, 1757, 
32Z. ; one from Linnaeus to the Lord High Chan- 
cellor of Sweden, 1753, 211. ; and one from Schiller 
to G. F. Goschen, 1791, 35Z. Admirers of Lord 
Byron have offered them a collection of relics 
of the poet, Countess Guiccioli, and Lady Caroline 
Lamb, consisting of autograph letters, miniatures, 
and ringlets of hair, arranged in an elaborately 
bound volume which preserves the two envelopes 
and two paper wrappers which contained the 
hair; these last bear authenticating inscriptions, 
of which the most interesting is that written by 
Mrs. Shelley on the paper which held Lord Byron's 
hair, 250Z. There are the autograph draft MS. 
of Meredith's ' " Jump-to-glory " Jane,' a version 
which differs considerably from the published one, 
1501. ; the autograph MS. of Stevenson's poem 
' A Mile an' a Bittock,' 68Z. ? and the MS. of 
Swinburne's ' Emperor's Progress,' 301. 

WE have received from Messrs. C. J. Sawyer 
iheir Catalogue No. 29. It includes, besides 
hoice items for the collector, a large assortment 
of miscellaneous literature offered at low prices. 
We notice a remarkably fine MS. Book of Hours, 
written on vellum by an English scribe, and illus- * 
crated with miniatures in gold and colours ; a 
full page of the Catalogue is devoted to this 
rarity, which is priced at 250?. Other items are 
an unpublished MS. ' History of Kent,' by Cozens, 
351. ; a collection of early coloured caricatures 
and original drawings, 40J. ; two collections 
)f franks and autographs ; a collection of 
windings, including specimens of Roger Payne's 
work and some old English morocco bindings ; 
tnd a magnificent extra - illustrated copy of 
Boydell's 'Thames.' There are also some highly 
curious coloured paintings of Chinese Tortures ; 
and rare coloured-plate books, including Cruik- 
hank's ' Sketch-Book,' Williamson's ' Oriental 
Tield Sports,' and Sullivan's ' Picturesque Tour 
hrough Ireland.' 


E. A. P. Anticipated 11 S. iv. 515. Many 

MR. SYDNEY HERBERT. Many thanks for 
photograph of the Jennens tomb. 

J. ST. V. C., Odessa (" O.K.' ). See MR. ALBERT 
MATTHEWS'S article at 11 S. iii. 390. 

E. A. B. We would suggest application direct 
to the publishers in the case of works so recently 

11 S. V. FEB. 24, 1912.] 







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iis.v.MAB.2,i9ii] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 114. 

NOTES : Charles T>icken, 161 Sarum Missal: Manu- 
script Additions. 163 Fitz william Family, 161 'Rejected 
Addresses ' " The Brass Angel " Sr.. John's Gate 
Inscription, 165 Roger Ridley Matrimonial pre-Con- 

tract Link with Battle of Naseby Birth 
land nor sea," 166. 

neither by 

QUERIES : Jeffreys'* Colleague : Northern Circuit, 1684 
Arms of Charles v. Queen Caroline Token Hans 
Sachs's Poems Officer's Kit. 1775 Chevalier Johnstone 
Byron's Aberdeen Tutor "Pimlico order " T>gend of 
the Last Lord Lovll, 167 Manmntel o- Moliere 
Walter Brisbane Henry Blake Phases of Culture 
Biographical Information Wanted Fulsby. Lincoln- 
shire Kirby's ' Winchester Scholars 'Sir Robert Drury 

Isaac Jamineau, 168 Amersham Rectors Clergy 
buried at Amershara German "Romans de cape et 
d'epee" Statue of George IIF., Berkeley Square Author 
Wanted Author of Song Wanted Book - Plate : Owner 
Wanted Nottingham as a surname, 169 Ruddock 
Family, 170. 

REPLIES : Grise :Grey :Badger, 170 "Sung by Reynolds 
in 1820," 172 Arithmetic among the Romans T. Gower, 
173 "Christiana Resrina Bohemia nata Herevia" 
Families in Male Line, 174 Kea_ts's ' Ode to a Nightingale ' 

Lairds of Drumminnor Jennings Case, 175 Cleopatra's 
Portrait, 176 Robert Bruce. Earl of Ross Pant.hera - 
Keeston Castle, Pembrokeshire ' Richards of Bramley 
House Women and Tobacco, 177 " Best of all Good 
Company " Dickens : Mr. Magnus's Spectacles County 
Bibliographies, 178. 

"NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Story of Garrard's ' ' Six 
Lectures on the Recorder ' ' The Book-Lovers' Anthology.' 
^Notices to Correspondents. 

FEBRUARY ?TH, 1812 JUNE OTH, 1870. 
(See ante, pp. 81, 101, 121, 141.) 

Household Words appeared for the first 
time on Saturday, the 30th of March,. 1 850. 
The title of the new publication had long 
been the subject of cogitation. Among 
many other suggestions were Mankind, The 
Household Voice, The Comrade, The Rolling 
Tears, and The Holly Tree, and it was only 
at the last moment that the title Household 
Words was decided upon. Dickons thinking 
it a very pretty name. Wills became 
Assistant editor. 

The first number contained the beginning 
of a tale by Mrs. Gaskell, and the second 
opened with a short story by Dickens. ' A 
Child's Dream of a Star.' The idea came 
to him as he was travelling alone by night 
to Brighton and looking at the stars. The 
little tale is one of the sweetest that ever 
was written of a brother and sister, 
constant child companions, who used to 
wonder all daj^ long. They wondered at the 

beauty of the flowers ; they wondered at 
the height and blueness of the sky ; they 
wondered at the depth of the bright water ; 
they wondered at the goodness and the 
power of God, who made the lovely world. 
There was one clear shining star that used 
to come out in the sky before the rest, 
larger and more beautiful, they thought, 
than all the others ; they made friends of it, 
watching it together every night until they 
knew when and where it would rise, and 
always bidding it good night ; so that when 
the sister dies the lonely brother still con- 
nects her with the star, which he then sees 
opening as a world of light, its rays making 
a shining pathway from earth to heaven, 
while angels with his little sister among 
them wait to receive the travellers up 
that sparkling road. His sister's angel 
would linger near the entrance to the star, and 
ask the leader who had brought the people 
thither, " Is my brother come ? " and he 
would say " Xo." Ever after the brother 
fancies that he belongs less to the earth 
than to the star where his sister is ; and all 
through his life he is consoled, under the 
successive bereavements that befall him ; 
by a renewal of that vision of his child- 
hood ; until at last he feels that he is moving 
as a child to his child-sister, and thanks his 
Heavenly Father that the star had so often 
before opened to receive the dear ones 
who now await him ; and one night, as 
he is dying, his children standing round his 
bed, he cries, as he had cried so long ago, " I 
see the star ! " 

I have by my side as I write this the 
first volume of Household Words, open at 
the page. This little poem in prose, which 
occupies but three columns, is probably 
known but to few, as it did not appear in 
the author's collected works until after his 
death. My copy is as clean and fresh, the 
ink as black and the paper as white, as on 
the day of its publication, the 6th of April, 

In the light of the present day the early 
numbers of Household Words do not look 
very attractive. The print is small and 
close, and the contents, although adapted 
for reading in the quiet evenings at home 
enjoyed in those days, would find but a 
languid reception now. They contain what 
is known as good, wholesome reading 
a homely tale, ' Lizzie Leigh,' by Mrs. 
Gaskell ; ' Sickness and Health,' a " heavy " 
story Dickens called it, by Harriet Martineau ; 
and articles on Australia, Hullah's popular 
music, London fires, and Greenwich Observa- 
tory, with a jocular reply to Ledru- Rollins' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. v. MAR. 2, 1912, 

book on ' The Decline of England ' : " The 
British lion in the last stage of consumption." 
" English society about to fall with a fearful 
crash.'' Well, fifty years have passed, and 
the British lion can still do a roar, and at 
times wag his tail. 

Thanks to the industry of Mr. Matz, we now 
Jcnow the contributions made by Dickens to 
his magazine. Among them in No. 25, 
September 14th, 1850, are three detective 
stories. In these he was assisted by 
Inspector Field of the detective police 
force, a man of handsome presence 
and of the most kindly and courteous 
manners. He was a constant attendant 
at Bloomsbury Chapel, then under its 
first minister, William Brock. At the 
opening of the Great Exhibition on the 
1st of TVIay, 1851, Brock, having a wedding 
in the morning, found that he could not get 
to the Exhibition in time without special 
help to get through the crowds, and Field, 
on hearing of the difficulty, at once gave him 
a special pass. 

In No. 3, dated the 13th of April, Mr. 
Dickens announces on the first page that 
closely associated with Household Words 
will appear a separate publication entitled 
The Household Narrative, to be issued at the 
end of each month as a supplementary 
number to the monthly part this to contain 
" a comprehensive Abstract or History of all 
the occurrences of that month, native and 
Foreign, xmder the title of ' The Household Xarra- 

tive of Current Events.' On the completion 

of the Annual Volume a copious index will appear 
and a title-page to the volume." 

Thus a complete chronicle of the year's 
events, arranged for easy reference, was to 
be printed at a price within the reach of 
" the humblest purchaser." This publica- 
tion brought Dickens into collision with the 
Government, it being, as is well known, 
at that time illegal to publish news unless 
the paper was stamped and had acquired 
the privileges of a newspaper. The House- 
hold Narrative could hardly be said to contain 
news, as the events were for the most part 
a month old before they appeared in its 
columns. Notwithstanding this, the Govern- 
ment entered into a prosecution for penalties 
against the proprietors, on the ground that 
the matter consisted wholly of news ; and 
it was said that the prosecution was com- 
menced in order to test the law, and put 
down that class of monthlies. " A pretty 
policy! " indignantly observed Milner Gibson 
in one of his speeches, 

" when they talked of educating the people, to 
attempt to prevent a man, with a heart and 

intellect like Mr. Dickens, from addressing the 
greatest possible number of his countrymen, by 
stupid laws which were a disgrace to the legisla- 

The prosecution failed, and although the 
Government at first intended to try to get 
the decision of the judges reversed, the matter 
was finally allowed to drop.* 

My father at this period was freqi, 
summoned to Somerset House to appear 
before the authorities on account of infor- 
mation which had appeared in The Athe- 
nceum. He would protest that the para- 
graphs complained of were not news, and 
would be dismissed with a warning to " be 
careful." My father had a strong suspicion 
that the Society for (lie Repeal of the Taxes 
on Knowledge caused Athenaeums to be 
sent to Somerset House with paragraphs 
marked " Is this news ? " The Society 
did all they could to get The Athenaeum 
prosecuted, hoping that in the case of 
a paper holding such a high position the 
furor over the prosecution would be 
so great, that it would bring about 
repeal. I remember my father laughingly 
telling me that at one of the meetings of the 
Society he was sitting on the platform, 
when a speaker pointed him out : " There- 
sits John Francis of The Athenaeum, who 
owes in fines millions to the Government." 

The publisher of Punch was also occa- 
sionally summoned to Somerset House, but 
the idea of prosecuting that paper was too 
ridiculous, and any such suggestion made 
in the House of Commons was received with 
roars of laughter. The Athenaeum and 
Punch at that time had the privilege of 
having two issues, one stamped and the 
other unstamped, and it was the unstamped 
issues that the Government were attacking. 
The abolition of the compulsory stamp was. 
not, however, an unmixed blessing, as the 
stamp carried the privilege of free postage 
without limit as to the number of times. 

Mr. R. C. Lehmann has done good service 
by giving to the public the letters written 
by Dickens to his great-uncle, W. H. Wills, 
and the title of his book, just published 
by Smith & Elder, ' Charles Dickens as 
Editor,' is no misleading one, for through 
its pages we obtain a clear insight into 
the novelist in this role. Mr. Wills was? 
born in Plymouth, January 13th, 1810- 
At his father's death, ihe 'D.X.B/ 
states, the support of his family devolved 
upon him ; he became a journalist, writ ng 
articles for the Penny and Saturday 

* ' Great Movements and Those who Achieved 
Them,' by Henry J. Nicoll. 

11 S. V. MAR. 2, 1912. ] 



Magazines, and in 1837 he. while Dickens 
was editor, sent two contributions to 
Bentley's Miscellany. One of these was 
accepted, and further contributions were 
invited. From the first he was on the 
literary, staff of Punch, and he is, Mr. 
Lehmann tells us. " believed to have helped 
in the drafting of the prospectus." In 1842 
he went up to Edinburgh, having been 
appointed assistant editor of Chambers's 
Journal. Not content with this, he fell 
in love with the sister of William and Robert 
Chambers, and in 1845 married her. She 
was much liked by Dickens, full of wit, with 
a gift for the telling of a Scotch story and the 
singing of a Scotch song. One of her mots 
recorded by Mr. Spielmann in his history 
of Punch refers to a small and spindle- 
shanked boy in a Highland suit, of whom 
she remarked that " his legs, no doubt, 
would be better in the breech than in the 

On the founding of The Daily News Wills 
came to London, and was appointed on the 
sub-editorial staff. How impossible it was 
for Dickens to be successful as editor of a 
daily paper is shown bv a letter he wrote 
to Wills from The Daily Xews office, Feb- 
ruary 4th, 1846, only a 'fortnight after its 
first number had appeared : 

'" I dine out to-morrow (Wednesday) and next 
day (Thursday), and shall not be 'here either 
c-vening until rather late. Will you have the 
goodness to let the Sub-Editors know this and 
as I shall not wish to be detained here unneces- 
sarily, to ask them to have ready for me anything 
(if anything) requiring my attention. 

" You may tell them at the same time, if you 
please, that I shall not be here, generally, on 
Sunday nights ; and I shall always wish to let 
them know of the general arrangements for 
Sunday nights, on Friday before I go away." 

If anything spelt failure for such a gigantic 
enterprise as that of a new daily paper, 
surely such a plan of editing did. 


(To be continued.} 



THE following MS. insertions in the margins 
of a Missal printed in 1504 appear to be of 
sufficient interest to be preserved in a printed 
form. St. Werburgh, whose day is 3 Feb- 
ruary, does not appear in any of the ordinary 
English Calendars, nor have I seen any 
proper mass for her, except the one here 
printed. St. Chad seems to have come 
into the Calendars in the fifteenth century, 

and his name is often inserted secunda manu. 
At the same time proper masses were pro- 
vided, but the one here given is quite dif- 
ferent from Sarum, York, or Hereford. As 
the note on fo. Ixxvj mentions a suit of 
velvet bought of St. Werburgh's, and the 
hanging of the bells of All Saints, both of 
which dedications occur in Derby, these 
two masses were probably compiled for use 
in one or more of the Derby churches. 

The last note forms a curious and perhaps 
not wholly superfluous addition to the 
Cautelce Missce. 

Missale Sarum, Pynson, 1504, 10 kal. Jan. r 

Sanctorale, fo. C.xxj. 
In possession of the Rev. R. F. Taylor, 1912. 

Commune Sanctorum, fo. xv. 
In commemoracione Sancte Wereburge. 
Oracio. Deus qui beatam et sanctam Were- 
burgam pro integritatis suse custodia ad supernam 
evexisti felicitatem [me]ritis intervenientibus & 
nobis mentium praesta puritatem & sanctorum 
tuoruiu societatem [conclusion cut away], fo. xi. 
Euangelium. Simile est regnum celorum decem 
virginibus. Offertorium. Offerentur minus. 
Secreta. Sacra? virginis tuae domine Wereburge 
[ ] et hanc tibi restat hostiam placabilem et 

veniam nobis impetret optabilem per dominum. 
Communio. Diffusa est g[ratia in labiis tuis. 
Postcommunio]. Sumpta sacramenta tua domine 
nobis utriusque vitae conferant reinedia et sancte 
Wereburge merita ad [ ] 

Fo. C.xxj ad calcem. 
In commemoracione Sancti Cedde. 
Oracio. <Deus r qui sanctorum tuorum nieritis^ 
ecclesiam toto orbe diffusam decorasti 
praesta quaesumus ut intercessione beatissimi 
Cedde episcopi in sorte iustorum tua opitu- 
lan[te pietate] sentiamus per dominum. Secreta. 
Oblata domine que tibi offerimus pie deuocionis 
intentu in honore sanctissimi Cedde episcopi 
sanctiftca [et purificatos] nos ea percipere tua 
faciat gracia in omnibus ubique laudanda. per 
dominum. Postcommunio. Saciati domine 
munerum tuorum donis auxilium gracie [ 1 

impende et auribus tue pietatis nostras miserando 
preces benigne exaudi. ut meritis nostri presulis 
et summi pastoris inter [ ]. 

A few words are in the margin opposite- 
to the printed heading of the mass of St. 
Chad, faint, mutilated, and not made out. 

De Tempore. Fo. Ixxvj. 

Memorandum. xvj u day of y 6 Mony3th of 
October in y* h[ere ] lorde god M 1 Dxxx u 

the grytt byelle of sint [ ] Darb. was halot 

in y honor of ^hc 

Memorandum. y 8 ij day (of Monyjth) of 
februare in ye here of [ ] M 1 D xxxiij 1 ' y e 

swthe of thy [thin ?] velvyt [ ] bo3ht y" price 
xxviij"! of sint Warb. 

Memorandum. y e xv day (of Mony3th y" ) 
of December in y e here of [ ] M 1 D xxxvij*' 

v bellys of All sintes in [ ] wer hynggyt vp- 

in j nwe stepul [ ].. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. v. MAK. 2, 

End of ' Cautelac Missae.' 

Versus. Fragmina psalmorum tintiuillus 
colligit horum In die mille vicibus se sarcinat ille 
Periculosum est ergo tantum festinare in officio 
diuino In tantum quod, nee cogitant quid dicunt 
nee curant nisi quod adeo citius quo poterint se 

Contra quos est auctoritas Augustini O. v. xv. 

Et eciam est irracionabile primo quia racione 
illius seruicij exuuntur ab omni labore et opere 
nianuali vt illi deuocius vacent secundo quia 
racione illius offlcij omnes suos habent honores et 
comoda. Tercio quia sicut secundum Tullium 
li j de offlciis c j proprium est oratoris distincte 
aperte et ornate dicere. 

The following extract from ' The Myroure 
of our Ladye ' (E. English Text Soc., p, 
illustrates the last " Caution " : 

" We rede of an holy Abbot of the order of 
>Cystreus that whyle he stode in the quyer at 
mattyns, he sawe a fende that had a longe and a 
greate poke hangynge about hys necke, and wente 
.aboute the quyer from one to an other, and wayted 
bysely after all letters and syllables and wordes 
and faylynges that eny made ; and them he 
gathered dylygently and putte them in hys poke. 
And when he came before the Abbot, waytying 
yf oughte had escaped hym, that he myghte have 
gotten and put in hys bagge ; the Abbot was 
astoned and aferde of the foulenes and mysshape 
of hym and sayde unto hym. What art thow ; 
and he answered and sayde. I am a poure dyvel, 
and my name ys Tytyvyllus, & I do myne offyce 
that is commytted unto me. And what is thync 
offyce, sayd the Abbot, he answeryd I muste eche 
.day he sayde brynge my master a thousande 
ipokes full of faylynges & of neglygences in syl- 
lables and wordes, that ar done in youre order in 
Tedynge and in syngynge, & else I must be sore 

J. T. F. 



(See 11 S. iii. 165, 215.) 

THE connexion of tha Fitzvvilliam and 
Grimaldi families depends not on the 
similarity of the coat of arms, but on much 
more interesting and important evidence. 

The Fitzwilliam family tradition is that 
their Norman ancestor was cousin of Ed- 
ward the Confessor and Marshal to William I., 
.and that this Godric or Fitzwilliam received 
a S2arf from the Conqueror which they still 
possess. (See Nichols, 1722 ; Crossly, 1725 ; 
Lodga, 1754; EdmondsDn, 1764, &o.) 

This account has baen rejected by anti- 
quaries, mainly because there is no such 
person in Domesday Book, while the 
Marshal of William's conquering army must 
certainly have received larga grants ; and 
als3 b33a - j.?3 it is unsupported by any record. 
W Dom3sday Book rmntions grants to 
ths Marshal, ''^in Hampshire, 

much too inadequate for such an office, 
and many grants to " Goisfrid de Bee " in 
Hertfordshire. Now if these two Goisfrids 
are the same person, William's Marshal was 
largely rewarded. 

As the Bee family was Norman, we 
naturally go to a foreign source for infor- 
mation. Venasque gives it in his ' Genea- 
logica et Historica Grimaldse Gentis Arbor,' 
Parisiis, 1647. 

From Venasque it appears that Goisfrid 
the Marshal was the same person as Goisfrid 
de Bee (p. 87). 

Gilbert, Baron de Bee, in 1041, was 
" Marshal of the Army " of William, Duke of 
Normandy. His nephew was Goisfrid de 
Bee, who, says Venasque, received many 
fiefs from William I. 

Thus we find the post of Marshal was in 
the Bee family prior to 1066. This is a very 
important point, as the office seems to have 
been in some measure hereditary, Gilbert 
Mareschal (so named from, his office) temp. 
Henry I. having been also traced up to 
Goisfrid de Bee (Gent. Mag., 1832, pp. 29, 30). 
See Dugdale's ' History of the Marschal 

Again, from the pedigree it appears that 
Goisfrid de Bee and Turstin FitzRou were 
brothers, sons of Hollo. And from Domes- 
day Book it is seen that Turstin, as well as 
Goisfrid, received fiefs in Hampshire. 
Turstin is also mentioned as standard-bearer 
at Hastings. 

Venasque, in 1647, could not consult 
Domesday Book, yet the two agree exactly 
in stating that Goisfrid de Bee received 
large grants from William I. For what 
service ? Though neither authority calls him 
Marshal, Venasque mentions that his uncle 
was Marshal in 1041 ; the logical inference 
being that by 1066 the uncle had either died 
or was incapacitated by age, and the nephew 
Goisfrid went in his place. 

The variation in the name has many 
examples in early records. The inquisi- 
tions were taken by different persons, in dif- 
ferent counties, and there would be nothing 
unusual in a man's being called Marshal in 
Hampshire, and Bee in Hertfordshire. 

The conclusion seems plain, that " Goisfrid 
de Bes " was Marshal to William I. and the 
same person as " Goisfrid the Marshal." 

But the Fitzwilliam tradition says their 
ancestor the Marshal was cousin to 
Edward the Confessor. It is so given in 
Venasque and Anderson, who both make 
him descend from Rollo, Duke of Normandy. 
In the Latin Fitzwilliam pedigree the 
name is " Gothefridus," in French Goisfrid, 

s. v. MAR. 2, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in English Godfrey. But the name is 
commonly abbreviated in Domesday Book 
t "God," and some subsequent writers, 
taking it for an English name, made it 
G odric, instead of Godfrey. By this natural 
explanation Domesday Book, Venasque, 
aid the family tradition a;jree, and support 
-each other. 

For a full account of the whole question 
s^s Gent. Mag., 1832, and a fuller one in 
' .Miscellaneous Writings of S. Grimaldi,' 
F.S.A., 1874, p. 56. L. M. R. 

c REJECTED ADDRESSES.' Whether this 
year will be an annus mirabilis is as yet 
doubtful. At any rate, it is the centennial 
of ' Rejected Addresses ' and the " grand 
climacterick " of 'X. & Q.' 

The former circumstance ought to revive 
interest in the brilliant production of the 
Smith brothers. I therefore make a note 
of some previous contributions, with one or 
two extraneous items : 

Address I. Loyal Effusion. The burning 
down of Astley's occurred on 2 Sept., 1803, and 
is noticed in The Gentleman's Magazine, p. 1877. 
The rising of the Luddites is the subject of a 
note by the REV. JOHN PICKFORD (7 S. ix. 485). 

Address VII. The Rebuilding. As to Harle- 
quin's bat, see 7 S. ii. 347, 418. and a later note 
by MR. JULIAN MARSHALL, with references to 
prints dated 1735, 1749, &c. 

Address VIII. Drury's Dirge. This is attri- 
buted to " Laura Matilda " : as to whom see 
7 S. v. 29, 135, 396. 

Address XII. Fire and Ale. As to Vinegar 
Yard, a corruption of Vine Garden Yard, see 
OS. i. 492 ; ii. 116. 

Address XIII. Playhouse Musings. The trick 
of bringing live animals on the stage is noticed in 
' Curiosities of Literature,' ii. 227. " Grimaldi 
has his rabbit, Laurent his cat, and Bradbury his 
pig." says the parody. As to Bradbury'^ the 
clown, see 7 S. ii. 429, and Donaldson's ' Recollec- 
tions of an Actor,' quoted 18 Dec., 1886. 

As to ' The Real Rejected Addresses,' see 
The Athenaeum for 20 May, 1.893. 

Four years after the ' Rejected Addresses ' 
appeared, that brilliant genius James Hogg 
produced ' The Poetic Mirror,' a collection 
of admirable imitations of Byron, Scott, 
Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey, and Wilson, 
including also a parody of his own style, 
entitled ' The Gude 'Grey Katt.' This 
volume I suppose to be scarce. It is noticed 
in 6 S. v. 228, 359, 377, and was discussed 
in Macmillan's Magdzine some years ago by 
Mr. George Saintsbury, who ' pronounced 
The Poetic Mirror ' to be a fair second to 
' Rejected Addresses." as indeed it is. 

I am unwilling to close this note without 
saying that the present generation is in 

danger of forgetting some of the finest satires 
and burlesques in our language, among which,, 
with the ' Rejected Addresses,' may be- 
classed Pope's ' Dunciad ' and the ' Biglow 
Papers.' With the last named most of the 
younger Americans are totally unacquainted, 
though they illustrate a highly interesting 
period indeed, two periods- of history. 

" THE BRASS ANGEL." This, as a sign, 
is probably unique. I came across it 
recently in a document at Somerset House* 
In the will of William Banister, citizen and 
draper of St. Andrew in the Wardrobe, 
dated 2 Aug., 1615. proved 23 March. 
1615/16 (29 Cope), is a clause :- 

" I giue and bequeath all thatmesuage or tene- 
ment with th'appurtenances commonly called the 
Brass Angell situate and beying in the saved 
parishe of St. Anne in the blacke ffryers London- 
vnto my neiphue William Wytham and to his 
heires for euer." 

I consulted the ' N.E.D./ Creed's ' Signs.' 
Indexes to ' N. & Q.,' and the fine second 
edition by Williamson of Boyne's ' Trades- 
men's Tokens of the Seventeenth Century ' ;-. 
also Larwood and Hotten's ' History of Sign- 
boards,' and a few other likely sources of 
reference ; but without avail. The Angel 
is a fairly common sign all over the country,, 
with or without some other object, as Crown 
or Bible. No. 350 of the London tokens- 
was issued by John Tudor " at Blak Friears 
staeares," and bears the letters I.E.T. on 
the obverse and an angel on the reverse. 
" The Golden Angel " was the sign of 
Hogarth's engraving master in Cranborne 
Alley, and probably the house at Blackfriars 5 
Stairs which issued a token with the effigy 
of an angel on it may have been " The Brass 
Angel " of the will ; but I have nothing 
more than conjecture to aid me, 


sale of the library of John Gough Nichols, 
F.S.A., December, 1874, there occurred as 
lot 1749 : 

" Prior [Maurice] Transcript of severall Coates 
of Armes of Noble Familyes, their Places of 
Buriall, Epitaphes and Inscriptions, &c., manu- 
script, with arms neatly tricked, 1656-57." 
The late Rev. W. J. Loftie was present at the 
sale and transcribed the following note from 
this record : 

' Underneath the said 4 coats is an inscription 
along a ledge that is over the arch of the gate, 
to be read thus 


Anno Dni. 1504. SAXS+RORO. 
Written several times." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tii s. v. MAR 2, 1012. 

The gate is unmistakably that still standing 
in St. John's Square, Clerk enw ell, but this 
inscription no longer exists. What was its 
purport ? The date of its removal can be 
approximately ascertained. Effinaham 

Wilson published in 1834 

" A concise History of the ancient a.nd illustrious 
Order of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of 
Jerusalem, .&c., of the Ancient Gate and Priory, 
St. John's Square," &c. 

The author, W. Till, was a member of the 
" modern fraternity of the Knights of 
St. John," and a frontispiece shows them 
-enjoying a convivial evening. At p. 7 he 
says the armorial bearings of Docwra and 
the Paschal Lamb are still to be seen on the 
present gate, and formerly this inscription : 
" Tomas Docwra, Prior An. Dni. 1504 sans 
roro." He is probably writing from his own 
recollection of the inscription, as, if he had 
seen the MS. first referred to, the transcript 
would have been more exact, and possibly 
some mention of it would have been made. 
Northouck ('History of London,' 1773) 
writes of the arch being repaired " and is 
now restored to its original dimensions." 
The substitution of the present inscription 
might have been made then or later. At 
p. 70 of Foster's ' Ye History of ye Priory 
and Gate of St. John,' 1851, an illustration 
of five raised panels of arms gives the inscrip- 
tion as only " T*D prior." The same 
woodcut appears in Pjnks's 'Clerkenwell,' 

entered Winchester College from Witney, 
Oxfordshire, aged 11, in 1570, and matri- 
culated at Oxford from New College, 
10 January, 1574/5, aged 19, so the date of 
his birth is uncertain. He subsequently 
became Fellow of New College and B.A. 
After his leaving New College his history is 
a blank for twenty years. In June, 1598, he 
landed at Middelburg, and on going to 
Flushing on business was detained there 
by one Throgmorton, who brought him 
before Sir T. Browne, the goveinor of the 
town, who sent him back to England to Sir 
Robert Sydney. By him he was sent to 
Mr. Wade, who committed him to prison 
on St. James's Day, together with two 
young men who were his companions on 
his journey. On 8 Oct., 1598, he arrived at 
the English College, Douay, where he took the 
name of William Umpton. He received the 
first tonsure on 24 February, 1600, and 
minor orders two days later. He was 
ordained sub-deacon the following 18 March 
at Arras, and priest on 1 April. Shortly 

afterwards he was appointed General Prefect 
by the President of the College. On 6 July, 
1601, he went to Brussels, and thence 
acted as chaplain to the English Catholic 
troops in the Spanish service in the Nether- 
lands. He returned to Douay 5 December, 
1601, and left for England 11 April, 1602, 
with the intention of returning and taking 
up work again in the College. He does not 
seem ever to have returned. Is anything 
known of his subsequent career ? See 
Burton and Williams, ' Douay Diaries, 
1598-1654' (Catholic Record Society, 1911), 

light of a paper by Mr. A. Percival Moore, 
B.C.L., on ' Marriage Contracts or Espousals 
in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth,' published 
in vol. xxx. part i of Reports and Papers 
of United Architectural Societies, I am con- 
vinced that lines 192-5 of Myrc's ' Instruc- 
tions for Parish Priests ' (E.E.T.S.) refer to 
espousal, instead of being the " Form of 
Marriage," as docketed in the margin by Mr. 
Edward Peacock, editor of the text. The 
words were a troth plight, as they are now 
in the Office for the Solemnization of Matri- 
mony ; but they only put the utterer under 
an obligation to wed the woman at some 
future time, and did not wed him then and 
there : " He j;ftt wommon mote wedde 
nede," ST. S WITHIN, 

My late maternal grandmother, who was 
born at Naseby in 1809, told me she had 
had many a chat with an old gentleman who 
related the following incident concerning his 
grandfather, who was a little boy in 1645 : 

Some Parliamentary cavalry were passing 
through the village previous to the battle, 
and were in danger of riding over the boy, 
who was playing in the narrow street. A 
compassionate soldier stooped and picked 
him up and dropped him over a wall, thus 
saving him from injury or death. 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

I recently saw written inside the cover of 
the earliest register book of St. Michael's, 
Derby, an early eighteenth-century memo- 
randum of a child " born neither by land 
nor sea," but without further explanation 
of the circumstances. The best guess I can 
make is that the birth took place on a 
bridge, or else on a freshwater, vessel. 

A. S. 

n s. v. MAK. 2. 19)2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

CUIT, 1684. Who was Jeffreys 's colleague as 
Judge on the Northern Circuit in August, 
1684 ? It was the occasion on which he 
induced the corporations to surrender their 
charters. He was at Carlisle on the 6th ; on 
the 13th the Corporation of Kendal sur- 
rendered their charter, and on the next day 
the two judges were sworn freemen ; and 
on the 14th the same proceedings took place 
at Lancaster. JOHN R. MAGRATH. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

ARMS OF CHARLES V. I have copied at 
Famagusta, Cyprus, from a fine bronze 
cannon 3 metres long, the following inscrip- 
tion : 

IORERIDA . 1534 

It is surmounted by a shield with a much 
defaced coat of arms, which I suppose to 
be Charles V.'s. As far as I can make out 
it is : I. and IV. grand quarters, obliterated; 
II. and III. grand quarters, first, a fesse ; 
second, three fleurs-de-lis ; third, obliterated; 
fourth, a lion rampant, charged with an 
escutcheon of pretence, obliterated. I 
should be glad of any information about* 
the cannon-founders, and about the coat 
of arms. G. E. J. 

QUEEN CAROLINE TOKEN. I desire infor- 
mation about a small brass token, size 
of the present bronze halfpenny : Obverse, 
bust of Caroline of Brunswick in turban 
head-dress surmounted by a single laurel 
leaf; date 1820 under, and inscription round, 
" Caroline Queen Consort/' Reverse, the 
royal arms on a shield, foliated, surmounted 
with a regal crown ; the words " God save 
the Queen " on a semicircular label under 
the shield and extending rather more than 
half-way up the coin inside the edge. Doubt- 
less the token was issued to express popular 
feeling in favour of the Queen, but I do not 
recollect mention of the circumstance. 

W. B. H. 

Reformation Hymn in ' The Meistersingers ' 
is. I suppose, part of a longer poem. Where 
can this be found ? J. D. 

I should be glad of some explanation of the 
following item which occurs in the inventory 
of a cadet of the East India Company of 
1775 : " A Neat False Brich Brass-mounted 
Fuzil, Bayonet, Scabbard, Mouls and Kit 
case with Buff and Sling for ditto." The 
difficulty is " Brich." Is it a way of writing 
" breech " ? The word may be ' ; Brick," 
but this does not seem to make any sense, 
whereas a " fuzil " has a " breech." " Mouls," 
I suppose = moulds. J. PENRY LEWIS. 

correspondent of ' N. & Q.' give me par- 
ticulars of the lineage of the Chevalier 
Johnstone, the great friend of the Pretender, 
or say if there is any record of his having 
a daughter Elizabeth, who married Oliver 
Duncan, a native of Scotland, who settled 
in co. Armagh ? WM. JACKSON PIGOTT. 
Manor House, Dundrum, co. Down. 

second tutor in Aberdeen, a youth named 
Paterson, who taught him the Latin rudi- 
ments " son of my shoemaker "' he calls 
him ever been identified 3 


" PIMLICO ORDER."- -I find in the U.S. 
Congressional debates for 1864 the remark 
that in a certain contingency the expenses 
of the Government would be figured out 
to a copper, and " everything placed in 
minute, Pimlico order.'' The phrase is 
new to me, and no wonder, for I do not find 
it in the ' N.E.D.,' and the voluminous 
contributions in these columns under Pimlico 
do not seem to include it. Such a phrase, 
one would suppose, is of English and not 
American origin. 


36, Upper Bedford Place, W. C. 

LOVELL. In his recent delightful book. ' A 
Shepherd's Life,' Mr. W. H. Hudson tells 
the story of the last Lord Lovell, who 
secreted himself from his enemies in his 
house at Upton Lovell, a Wiltshire village, 
and was never seen again : 

' Centuries later, when excavations were made 
on the site of the ruined mansion, a secret chamber 
was discovered, containing a human skeleton 
seated in a chair at a table, on which were books 
and papers crumbling into dust." P. 158. 

Precisely the same, or at least a very similar 
story, is told in the Cotswold books of a last 
Lord Lovell, and associated with the retired 
village of Minster Lovell, on the little river 
Windrush, in Oxfordshire. With which 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. MAR. 2, 191?. 

Lovell, the Cotswold or the Wiltshire village 
is the story rightly associated ? Is there 
any real ground at all for the truth of the 
story ? G. L. APPERSON. 

quotes a phrase " I pounce on what is mine, 
wherever I find it," ascribing it to Mar- 
montel. .Its resemblance to " Je prend 
mon bien ou je le trouve " which I believe 
is Moliere's is so close that I should like 
to have the point finally resolved by some 
French scholar in. these columns. 


WALTER BRISBANE. Wanted, particulars 
as to the ancestry of Walter Brisbane, a 
merchant in Glasgow, and a Bailie of the 
city 3 Oct., 1759. He married Margaret, 
youngest daughter of Robert Paterson of 
Craigton, Erskine parish, co. Renfrew, and 
died circa 1770. His son, Robert Brisbane 
of Milton, registered his arms at the Lyon 
Office, 12 Feb., 1793, viz., Sa,, a chevron 
chequy or and gu. between three cushions of 
the second, within a bordure of the last. 
Crest a stork's head erased, in his beak 
a serpent nowed, both proper. Motto 
"Certamine summus." Unfortunately, his 
ancestry is not entered. It merely says 
he belonged to the family of Brisbane of 


HENRY BLAKE. A tombstone inscription 
in Bromley Churchyard, Kent, reads : 

" Henrici Blake, Armigeri | in Hibernia 

Natus MDCCXXX. Schola Westmonastericnsi literis 
institus | Londini Obiit MDCCLXXX." 
The name of the birthplace is partially 
illegible; it may read "Lehinhie." 

The burial is thus recorded in the parish 
register : 

"1780, May 22. Henry Blake, Esq., from 
London penalty P d " 

Henry Blake's name does not appear in 
any register, list, or other official record pre- 
served at Westminster School. Information 
concerning his personal history would be 
acceptable. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

PHASES OF CULTURE. I read somewhere 
not long ago, but unfortunately failed to 
note the reference, a statement denying the 
theory that man sometimes or generally has 
advanced in culture through the stages of a 
nomadic, pastoral, and agricultural life. I 
shall feel obliged if some one will kindly refer 
me to some book or article discussing the 
question. EMERITUS. 


When and whom did he marry ? The 
' Diet. Nat. Biog., r vii. 47-8, does not give 
the desired information. 

2. LYDE BROWNE. When and whom did 
he marry ? The ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vii. 52, 
does not mention his marriage. 

ADMIRALTY. I should be glad to ascertain 
his parentage, and also the date and par- 
ticulars of his marriage. The ' Diet. Nat. 
Biog.,' xii. 207, gives but little assistance. 

G. F. R. B. 

FULSBY, LINCOLNSHIRE. I am interested 
in the precise location and description 
of the above-mentioned place, which about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century 
was the abode apparently the property- 
of a branch of the old Cressy family. Any 
information on the subject would be very 
welcome. LAC. 

any one tell me the meaning of the letters 
C.F. after certain names in Kirby's ' Win- 
chester Scholars ' ? ERNEST F. Row. 

The Grammar School, Midhurat. 

ESTATE. From the Calendar of State 
Papers I find under date 14 March, 1668, the 
" Petition of Elizabeth, Lady Cornwallis, to the 
King, for a grant of the estate of Sir Robert Drury 
of Riddlesworth, Norfolk, forfeit for murder." 

And on 14 March, 1670 : 

" Warrant for a grant to Elizabeth, Lady Corn- 
wallis, widow of Frederick, Lord Cornwallis, of 
the estates of Sir Robert Drury, Bart., of Knettis- 
hall, Suffolk ; consisting of the manors of Riddles- 
worth, Garboldsham, Uphall, and Pakenham, 
Norfolk, for 80 years, should Sir Robert live so 
long, which were forfeit by him for manslaughter, 
and also of his debts, etc., due to him at the time 
of his conviction." 

The foregoing alludes to the last Sir 
Robert Drury, Bart., of Riddlesworth. He 
would be 34 years of age in 1668, and died 
in 1712 at the age of 78, so that he lived 
44 years after the date of the petition. 

Is anything further known of this case ? 
Did he kill Lord CornwaHis in a duel, or 
what was the charge of murder brought 
against him, and what was the quarrel which 
brought it about ? CHARLES DRURY. 

ISAAC JAMINEAU. Can any one tell me 
where is now his picture by Titian ' The 
Fates ' ? I have a print of this, and shall 
be glad to know what became of the original 
painting. A. C. H. 

IIS. V. MAR. 2, 1912.] 



AMERSHAM RECTORS. I should feel greatly 
obliged for full biographical details of the 
following Amersham rectors : 

Thomas Crawley, rector 1660-78. 

Josias Smith, S.T.B., rector 1678-1702. 

Humphrey Drake, A.M., rector 1702-21. 
He was the second son of Montague Drake, 
Esq., of Shardeloes, by Mary, dau. and heir 
of Sir J. Garrard, Bart., of Lamer, Herts. 
He was buried at Amersham, 18 Nov., 1721. 

Benjamin Robertshaw, A.M., rector 1728- 
1744. He was instituted to the vicarage of 
Penn, Bucks, 2 June, 1716, but quitted it 
for Amersham in 1728. 

Robert Shippen, D.D., rector 1744-6. 
His name is inscribed on the tenor bell of 
this church. 

John Eaton, A.M., rector 1746-53. 


graphical information is also asked for 
concerning the under-mentioned clergy, some 
of whom were curates in this parish : 

Rev. Matthew Stalker, formerly curate of 
the parishes of Chenies, Chesham Bois, and 
the Lee, and for many years Master of the 
Grammar School in this town and chaplain 
to the Union ; he died 22 August, 1852, 
aged 80 years. 

Rev. Richard Thorne, A.M., curate of 
Amersham, died 22 July, 1822, aged 56. 

Rev. Richard Pearson, A.M., died 20 
March, 1791, aged 46 years. This person 
is said to have committed suicide in a house 
near the Town Hall, Amersham. 

Rev. John Eaton, LL.D., rector of St. 
Paul s, Deptford, and of Fairstead, Essex, 
died 19 Sept., 1806, aged 55 years. 



Can any of your readers tell me the names 
of a few German authors of whatever is the 
equivalent for " Romans de cape et d'epee " 
(cloak-and sword novels) ? I do not mean 
translations, but German originals ; and I 
do not mean " Ritterromane : ' (romances of 
chivalry), nor " Rauberromane " (robber 
novels), nor precisely " Historischeromane " 
(historical novels). I think " Duellromane " or 
'' Fechterromane : ' would express what I want. 
At all events, the type in French is A. 
Dumas's ' Les Trois Mousquetaires,' and in 
English, say, Harrison Ainsworth's ' The 
Admirable Crichton.' Perhaps DR. KRUEGER 
will oblige. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

SQUARE. The following paragraph is taken 
from The Northampton Mercury of 11 Jan., 

" The equestrian statue of the King in Berkeley 
Square has within the last year been gradually 
giving way, till more lately it has been retained 
in its position by various Supports and Props ; 
but it has been found impossible to sustain it 
any longer, and workmen have been employed 
to take down the statue. This circumstance, 
associating itself with the actual state of our 
beloved Sovereign, has become the topic of con- 
versation in the Neighbourhood." 

The statue was erected at the cost of the 
Princess Amelia, and was the work of Joseph 
Wilton, R.A. It represented the King in 
Roman costume. What eventually became 
of the statue ? I presume the above 
extract fixes the date of its removal. 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Could you or a kind 
correspondent give me the name of the 
author of a poem called ' The Still Hour ' ? 
The first stanza is as follows : 
Beside my dead I knelt in prayer, 

And felt a presence as I prayed ; 
And it was Jesus standing there : 

He smiled, " Be not afraid." 
" Lord, Thou hast conquered death, I know; 

Restore again to life," I said, 

" This one who died an hour ago." 

He smiled, " She is not dead." 

The second stanza ends in " She does not 
sleep " ; the third in " She is not gone."' 

Clinton, N.Y. 

find out who was the author of a song 
which has as refrain, at the end of each 
verse, the words, 

My own Araminta, say no. 

18, Thurloe Square, S.W. 

ex-libris woodcut, probably Italian, is 
represented a dog, at whose side is the word 
" Apathes." There are also the following 
inscriptions : " Arnica Veritas." " Sustine 
t Abstine." " E bello doppo il morire 
vivere anchora." Can any reader give me 
a clue to the owner of it probably circa 
1610 ? J. MULLER. 

as a surname occurs not infrequently in our 
lier local records, but not, I believe, 
during the last two centuries or more. Some 
:ime since I was informed that it existed 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ins. V. MAR. 2, 1912. 

down to a generation or so ago at a place 
in the neighbourhood of Hull, and that it 
possibly still exists there. Can any one 
verify this, or say whether Nottingham as a 
surname is extant elsewhere in England ? 


RUDDOCK FAMILY. I shall be glad to 
receive, and very pleased to exchange, 
genealogical memoranda relating to any 
branches of this family. 


Red Hill, Denbigh Gardens, Richmond, Surrey. 


(11 S. v. 27, 95.) 

IT is so delightful to find lady antiquaries as 
correspondents of ' N. & Q.' that I trust that, 
if I make a few remarks on their treatment 
of the above words, it will not cause those 
rarce aves to fly away from its hospitable 
columns. But Miss ETHEL LEGA-WEEKES 
and LADY RUSSELL seem to require a 
little help to straighten out their views on 
' Grise : Grey : Badger,' and my excuse 
for this must be that for some years 
past I have been collecting mediaeval " fur- 
words," and have now something like 
1,000 variants, in spelling and otherwise, of 
words connected with fur. 

Commencing with Miss LEGA-WEEKES' s 
query: it is perfect'y true that the ' N.E.D.' 
does not help in the matter. The definition 
under ' Grey,' " f2, spec. Grey-fur ; usually 
understood to be of badger skin," is in- 
accurate, and of the quotations given in 
illustration, not one, as a matter of fact, 
means the skin of a badger. Miss LEGA- 
WEEKES mistakenly interprets the word 
gris as being the Norman-French rendering 
of the word gray as applied to a badger, and 
subsequently asks whether " the fur of the 
badger in mediaeval times would have been 
accounted a worthy garniture for a ' riche 
robe.' ' In answer to which, let me state 
that the skin of a badger was not usually 
referred to as, or considered to be, "fur" 
As to its value, Turberville. in his ' Booke of 
Hunting,' ed. 1611, p. 189, says : 

''The skinne of a Badgerd is not so good as 
ye *oxes, for it serueth for no use, vnlesse it be 
to make mittens, or to dresie horsecollers with- 

So that the question as to badger's skin 
being suitable as a trimming for a fine dre** 
is answered. 

LADY RUSSELL, in her reply, collocates 
"gray," and " grice " for the young, but 
these two words have no connexion. 
" Grice " was used to designate the young 
of the badger, because the male and female 
were known as the boar pig and the sow. 
Hear what Turberville says (1611, p. 183): 

" As you haue two kinds or more of euery 
other chace by diuersitie of names : so of these 
vermine there are Foxes and their Cubbes, and 
Badgerdes and their Pigges : the female of a 
Foxe is called a Bitche, and he himselfe a Dogge 
foxe : the Female of a Badgerd is called a Sowe, 
and the male a Badgerde or a Borepygge of a 

Halliwell (3rd ed., 1855, p. 417) gives 

" Grice (2) A young cub, generally applied to 
the young of swine ....' Gris, pored,' ' Reliq. 
Antiq.,' ii. 79." 

And in Mayhew and Skeat's ' Concise Diet, 
of Middle-English ' (1888) we find 

" Gris, sb., a young Pig, PP ;, Cath. ; 
gryse, Von. ; gryce, Prompt. ; grys, pi., MD, 
S2, PP. Icel. grins." 

So that from this it is perfectly clear that 
the word "grice" or " grise," when used 
in connexion with badgers' young, simply 
means the little badger pigs, and has nothing 
whatever to do with gris = grey. 

LADY RUSSELL says that "'gris' was 
certainly expensive, and seems most pro- 
bably to have been a species of foreign 
marten." As a matter of fact, " gris " was 
a comparatively inexpensive fur, and the 
skins were imported in very large quantities ; 
absolutely no evidence or reason is offered 
as to the probability of its being "a species 
of foreign marten " : this is apparently pure 
conjecture. A few lines lower down we 
find : " Vair or vaire was undoubtedly 
minever, the name continuing in heraldry." 

I now give the real facts concerning gris, 
and incidentally rair. At the Guildhall of 
the City of London is a MS. known as 
' Liber Horn,' and in a marginal note on 
fo. 249, dorso, occurs the following most 
valuable note, which I give in its extended 
form : 

" Memorandum quo Gris et bis est le dos en 
yuer desquirel et sa xientre en yuer est meneuer. 
Popel, est de squirel en contre este. Roskyn est 
desquirel en este. Polane, est esquireux "neirs. 
Strandling est Squirel contre le festeSeint Michel." 

The date of this MS. is, I believe, about 
A.D. 1314, so that we have, thanks to the 
care of the writer, an absolutely authoritative 
statement that gris is the back of the squirrel 
in winter. The fur was then at its prime, 

n s. v. MAR 2, i9i2.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and was of a grey colour. The wordT&ea is 
also given to denote the same fur, but this 
term was evidently used for those skins 
which had a certain amount of brownish-grey 
in them ; in fact, of the colour known as 
bis. This word bis is the same as bish or 
bysh or biss, which is used as a fur term, 
and is mentioned constantly in old 
' Wardrobe Accounts,' &c. ; it is also to be 
found in ' The Master of Game,' see p. 74, 
1909, 8vo ed. : 

" Of conies I do not speak, for no man hunteth 
them unless it be bish-hunters, and they hunt 
them with ferrets and with long small hayes." 

The note on the word in the Appendix, 
p. 206, is misleading, the real meaning being 
that the bish-hunters, when hunting for 
squirrels, also, incidentally, hunted conies ; 
otherwise no one else hunted them. 

Now as regards minever : the air here also 
requires to be cleared, for a great deal of 
misconception as to the real meaning of the 
words vair and menu vair has arisen, and 
the following notes may perhaps help to a 
proper understanding : 

" Vair. Quoy qu'il en soit, il est fort probable 
que le vair a este distingue de Gris, en ce que le 
vair estoit de peaux entieres de gris, qui sont 
dJversifiees naturellement de blanc et de gris, 
les pet its animaux ayans la dessous du venire 
blanc, & le dos gris, de sorte qu'estant consues 
ensemble sans art, elles formoient une variete 
de deux coulcurs." Ducange, ' Dissert. I.' 
(Joinville, S. Louys), p. 135. 

Vair is thus a term to indicate the whole 
skin, from Latin varius, meaning here of 
more than one colour. 

Meneuer : Menu-vairs : Minutus varius. 
The skin of the squirrel being thus grey 
on the back, and white on the belly, the 
latter came to be spoken of as minutus 
varius, i.e., varius which had been minutus, 
or diminished in size by having the grey 
back removed, the skin before this division 
being called gros vair. 

Meniver was thus the belly of the squirrel 
in winter, consisting of white fur, with grey 
sides, the grey colouring extending slightly 
beneath the body. 

This differentiation of vair into two classes 
is shown by the note mentioned above, 
in ' Liber Horn ' : " Md. qe Gris et bis est le 
dos en yuer desquirel et la uentre en yuer est 

Meneuer gross : Meneuer dimidio-puratus : 
Meneuer pur, or 'puratus. Minever seems 
to have been subdivided into three varieties. 

1. Meneuer gross. This is the ordinary 
belly, neither trimmed nor reduced in size, 
and is generally called miniver by itself ; 

the other varieties which have been reduced 
in size being specified as dimidio-puratus, or 
puratus. So that minever = minever gross, 
white belly with grey sides, untrimmed. 

2. Meneuer dimidio-puratus.- This is a 
fur narrower than meneuer, but wider than 
meneuer pur', so that it would be white, with 
a narrow grey strip adherent on either side. 

3. Meneuer pur', or puratus. This is now 
quite white, all the grey sides having been 

The relative widths of tnese three varieties 
is as five, four, and three, the largest being 
the meneuer gross. This is shown by the 
Skinners' Charter, A.D. 1327. wherein it is 
specified that the number of bellies required 
to make a hood, capucium, shall be, of meneuer 
24 bellies, of meneuer semipuratus (=dim-idio 
puratus) 32 bellies, of meneuer puratus 40 
bellies. And as the length of the skins is shown 
by the " Inspeximus " of the charter, 2 Eliz., 
as being 5 in. for both meneuer and meneuer 
pur., it is therefore clear that in the trans- 
ition from meneuer to the other varieties 
of di pur\ = dimidio-puratus} and pur', the 
width was reduced, and consequently the 
grey portions gradually eliminated. 

It is equally clear that the statement in 
the ' N.E.D.,' sub voce ' Minever,' to the 
effect that " meniver pure " is " powdered 
minever," must have been made with an 
incomplete knowledge of the actual facts, 
for no amount of " powdering," i.e., sewing 
on little tails of black fur, could possibly get 
40, or even 32, bellies into the same sized 
hood as one made of 24 bellies, if the skins 
were all of one size. 

In further corroboration of the theory that 
meneuer pur' was white, and white only, 
may be adduced the ordinance of the 
Pelleters, A.D. 1385, which absolutely forbade 
the making up of bellies of calabre " except 
in their natural way, that is to say, the belly 
must have its black side, so that people may 
not be taken in by any falsity in the furs." 
This clearly was intended to prevent fraud, 
by the substitution of the trimmed belly of 
Calabrian fur for the meneuer purus of the 
North European squirrel. If the latter had 
not been trimmed down to an entirely white 
fur, there would have been no necessity for 
this strict ordinance, for the grey sides of the 
untrimmed belly would have easily dis- 
tinguished the fur of the gris proper from 
that of the calabre, which was much darker 
in fact, the ordinance calls it " black." 
The gris came from the North of Europe, 
Russia, and Siberia, whilst " Calaber " or 
" Calabre," or " Calabrian fur," came from 
the Calabrian forests, possibly in the district 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. MAK. 2, 1012. 

of La Sila, notwithstanding Cowell's state- 
ment in his ' Interpreter,' 1607, that 
" Calaber is a little beast, in bignesse, about 
the quantity of a Squirrel, of colour gray, 
and bred especially in High Germanic." 

I must apologize for the length of this 
reply, and only trust that the effect of it 
may be to clear up once and for all the hazy 
and erroneous ideas which have prevailed 
hitherto as to the exact meanings of gris and 
meneuer ( meniver, or modern minever). 

Information concerning the animal in 
question, and the uses of its skin, might be 
found by consulting a comparatively rare 
book, the title of which, for the most part, 
I can only cite from memory, my copy being 
far overseas : 

" Maison rustique, or the Count rie Farme, 
translated out of the Prenche tongue of Charles 
Stevens and Jean Liebault, Doctors of Physicke, 
by Richard Surflet. . . .Also a short description 
of the hunting of the Harte, Graie, Conie, &c. 
London, Printed by Edm. Bollifant for Bonharn 
Norton, 1600." 

The abridged title of a copy of this curious 
work appears in the privately printed 
' Hand List ' of the library of Lord Amherst 
of Hackney, compiled by Seymour de Ricci 
(Cambridge, 1906). At the time of my last 
examination, the Library of the British 
Museum did not possess a copy of the 1600 
edition. T. F. DWIGHT. 

La Tour de Peilz, Switzerland. 

" SUNG BY REYNOLDS IN 1820 " (11 S. v. 
88). It may be that the Reynolds referred 
to was Tom Reynolds, who " commenced 
business as a professional pugilist " in or 
about 1817. On 23 July, 1817, he beat 

Probably " Go back to Brummagen " 
was addressed to Phil Sampson, called " The 
Birmingham Youth," who on 29 February, 
1820, met Belasco in a glove fight at the 
Royal Tennis Court, Windmill Street. When 
the encounter was apparently over, and 
Belasco was bowing to the spectators, 
Sampson hit him on the side of the head. 
This brought on another round, in which 
Belasco had the worst of it. They were 
parted, and Cribb took Sampson away. 
The conduct of " The Birmingham Youth " 
was considered discreditable. Shortly after- 
wards 17 July Sampson was defeated by 
Jack Martin. He " was now certainly 
under a cloud. " 

There was much ill-feeling between 
Belasco and Sampson, and they met in a 
severe glove fight at the Tennis Court, 

21 December of the same year (1820), when 
Belasco was worsted. The author of the 
book from which I am quoting speaks of 
Sampson's " skill in letter-writing, and in 
avoiding a match." It may be that there 
was some intention of arranging a meeting 
between Reynolds and Sampson, and that 
the song quoted by ME. CORFIELD was written 
to promote it, and the singing of it attributed 
to Reynolds. 

It need scarcely be said that Aby (Abra- 
ham) Belasco was a Hebrew. He had a 
brother Israel, a minor pugilist. 

I have omitted to mention that Belasco 
and Sampson fought at Potter's Street in 
Essex, 22 February, 1819. There was a 
dispute as to the result. The decision was 
eventually in favour of Belasco. For the 
above see ' Pugilistica,' by Henry Downes 
Miles, i. 481-6; ii. 454-60, 478. 

If my suggestion that the " youth of that 
ancient and halfpenny town " means " The 
Birmingham Youth," the burden of the 
song would appear to be that he should 
leave London, where he was apparently far 
from popular, and return to Birmingham, 
where he might " maul manufacturers," 
instead of fighting professionals. Perhaps 
" halfpenny town " alludes to the fact that- 
copper coins were made in Birmingham by 
Boulton & Watt, 1797-1816, or to Bir- 
mingham having been the chief seat of 
illegal mints for copper coins. See ' The 
Coin Collector's Manual,' by H. Noel 
Humphreys, 1853, pp. 490, 493. 


The lines quoted refer to some pugilistic 
encounter. Tom Reynolds was born in 
Ireland, but bred in Covent Garden, London; 
he was a notorious prizefighter, and at 
one time a publican in Drury Lane. Abra- 
ham and Israel Belasco were brothers, and 
Jews. There was another prizefighter, 
Philip Sampson by name, who, though a 
Yorkshireman by birth, was called the 
"Birmingham Youth." Abraham Belasco 
bad several encounters with Reynolds and 
Sampson. For greater details see Pierce 
Egan's ' Boxiana,' ii. 429, 432 ; iii. 392, 
512, 540 ; iv. 344, 521-37, 588. 


The verses quoted by MR. WILMOT 

ORFIELD refer to a prizefight between some 

one known as the " Birmingham Pet " and 

David Belasco, a well-known Jew pugilist 

of the Regency date. The author was an 

iccentric personage who contributed to 

Bell's Life and similar journals under the 

ii s. v. MAR. a, i9i2.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 


name of " Peter Corcoran." and was known 
ii- " the Poet Laureate of the Ring " ; but 
his real name I have forgotten. In an 
ancient volume of Blcickwood I fancy the 
date was 1817 I have read a rather appre- 
ciative memoir of " Peter Corcoran," with 
specimens of his muse, some of which 
seemed to show that he was worthy of a 
better .subject. Reynolds was probably 
merely some comic singer of that period 
(1820). S. P. 

Frederick Mansel Reynolds, according to 
' The Hon. Grantley Berkeley's Life and 
Recollections/ was the first editor of ' The 
Keeps ike,' and author of ' Miserrimus ' and 
' The Parricide/ evidently written, says 
Grantley Berkeley, with " a mind diseased"." 
He was succeeded in the editorship of that 
once fashionable annual in 1835 by Lady 
Blessington. As many of Reynolds's effu- 
sions, principally in verse, appear in his 
'Keepsake.' it is possible that this song of 
1 820 may be found in that year's annual. 

v. 108). The abacus used by the Romans 
was merely a contrivance for keeping 
numbers of different powers or denomina- 
tions separate. We have a modern adapta- 
tion of the principle in the columns used for 
pounds, shillings, and pence. The abacus 
often took the form of a table, the top of 
which was divided into compartments or 
columns, each column representing a differ- 
ent value, and each adjacent column repre- 
senting a multiple of the one on its left, 
and a measure of the one on its right. 
Pebbles, bits of bone, coins, or any small 
articles could be used for counters. 

The toy " bead rails," used to teach young 
children to count, can be adopted as another 
form of an abacus. 

Adelard or ^Ethelard of Bath, a twelfth- 
century English scholastic philosopher, wrote 
a treatise on the abacus, three copies of 
which are still preserved at the Bibliotheque 
Rationale, the Vatican Library, and Leyden 
University Library. 

There is a short description of the abacus 
in Smith's ' Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities,' and another in the latest 
edition of The Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 

An abacus denoted generally and primarily 
a square tablet of any material ; and further 
a wooden tray, i.e., a square board sur- 
rounded by a raised border. Covered with 

sand, such a tray was used by mathe- 
maticians for drawing diagrams. Perpen- 
dicular lines or channels could be drawn 
in the sand for the purpose of arithmetical 
computation. Next the tray, it appears, 
was made with perpendicular wooden divi- 
sions, the space on the right hand being, 
intended for units, the next on the left for 
tens, the next for hundreds, and so on. 
Thus, using stones to reckon with, one 
might put into the right-hand partition 
stone after stone, until they amounted to 
ten, when it would be necessary to take 
them all out, and, instead, put one stone 
into the next partition. The stones in this 
division might in like manner amount to ten, 
thus representing 10X10=100, when it 
would be necessary to take them out, and, 
instead, put one stone into the third partition, 
and so on. 

The new ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' gives " 
a drawing of a Roman abacus taken from 
an ancient monument. The bar marked I 
indicates units, X tens, and so on up to 
millions. The beads on the shorter bars 
denote fives five units, five tens, &c. 
The rod and the corresponding short rod 
are for marking ounces ; and the short 
quarter-rods for fractions of an ounce. 

The swan-pan of the Chinese closely re- 
sembles the Roman abacus in its con- 
struction and use. It consists of several 
series of counters on brass wires, divided 
in the middle by a cross-piece. In the upper 
compartment every wire has two beads, each 
counting five ; in the lower each has five 
counters of different values, the first 3, the 
second 10, and so on. All Chinese systems 
being decimal every weight and measure 
the tenth part of the next greater the 
instrument is used with wonderful rapidity 
in the daily work of trade. 

The abacus forms part of all modern 
kindergarten equipment in the United 
States. TOM JONES. 

A description and drawing of the Roman 
abacus, with an explanation of how the 
apparatus was used for various calculations, 
will be found in Cajori's ' History of Ele- 
mentary Mathematics,' pp. 37-41. 



iv. 528). I have ascertained that the arms 
on the first and fourth divisions of the shield 
of Thomas Gower referred to in my query 
are the same as those now used by the 
Gore family, branches of which are repre- 
sented by the Earl of Annan, Earl Temple, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. v. MAR. 2. 1912. 

and Lord Harlech. There is little doubt 
that the Gowers and the Gores have a 
common origin. The names are pronounced 
the same, and the earlier registers in which 
there are entries relating to members of 
the Gower family give the name as Gower, 
Gowre, Goore, Gore, and Gouer. 

According to works on the peerage and 
baronetage, the family which now spells its 
name Gore traces descent from Gerard 
Gore, an Alderman of the City of London, 
who died 11 December, 1607. Is anything 
known of Gerard Gore's ancestry ? If Burke 
(' General Armory ") is correct in stating 
that the arms now used by the Gores were 
also those of the Gowers of Worcestershire 
and Warwickshire, it is possible that Gerard 
Gore was a member of the Worcestershire 
family. Moreover, the using of such arms 
by one (Thomas Gower) who was undoubtedly 
a member of the Yorkshire family shows a 
probability that the two families were 
connected. Is it known when the arms 
now used by the Leveson-Gowers were 
first borne by them ? 

In the ' Visitation of Cheshire ' I find 
that in the fourteenth or fifteenth century 
Rundall Bostocke of Churton married 
*' Anne, da. to Nicholas Gower of Killing- 
worth in Wariksh." Was he any con- 
nexion of Sir Nicholas Gower of co. York 
(temp. Edward III.), an ancestor of the 
Leveson-Gowers ? 

Nash, in his ' History of Worcestershire,' 
states that the Gowers of Worcestershire 
originally came from co. Warwick. I shall 
be greatly obliged for any references to the 
Gowers in Warwickshire, and for any infor- 
mation on the matters mentioned above. 
Whereabouts in Warwickshire is Killing- 
worth ? R. VAUGHAN GOWEB. 

HEBEVIA " (11 S. v. 68). NEL MEZZO'S note 
of interrogation seems to imply that there 
is some doubt as to one or more words of this 
inscription. In default of more definite 
information it may be dangerous to offer a 
conjecture, but it is tempting to suggest 
that " Bohemia " should be Bohemise, and 
that instead of " Nata Here via " we should 
read Maria Theresia. We are told that the 
queen who forms the subject of the engraving 
died in 1780. That year was the date of the 
death of a crowned queen of Bohemia, the 
famous Maria Theresa. She was born, how- 
ever, in 1717, not in 1724, and I do not know 
whether she was ever styled, informally or 
otherwise, " Christian " or " most Christian." 
{Is ' Christiana" certain, or is there a sign of 

contraction over the n ?) It was in 1724, 
I think, that the Pragmatic Sanction was 
first made public. However, without any 
knowledge of the character of the lettering 
and whether the dates are in Reman or 
Arabic numerals, one feels on uncertain 
ground. I trust that if a further examina- 
tion of the print shows that there is no 
justification for my conjecture NEL MEZZO 
will knock it on the head. 


(11 S. v. 27, 92, 132). In reply to SIR 
WILLIAM BULL, I may say that the dura- 
tion of a family in the male line is a 
very complicated question for various 
reasons. A family is said to become extinct 
when its estate passes away by an heiress. 
Yet the heiress herself may have had half- 
brothers who carried on the male line and 
surname of their own father, she having 
come into the estate on the death of her 
whole-blood brother who had succeeded his 
father. There are several examples of this. 
It is very rare to find son succeeding father 
for more than five or six generations. The 
Wodehouse baronetcy, created in 1611. has 
descended to the Earl of Kimberley, who is 
the ninth baronet, without one reversion 
to a collateral, though two grandsons suc- 
ceeded, making eleven generations. This is 
unusual, perhaps unique. 

SIR WILLIAM BULL'S second query can 
be answered without any misgivings : " the 
family that has undoubted proofs of the 
longest descent in the male line " is certainly 
the Fitzharding Berkeleys. Robert fitz 
Harding was the great progenitor of this 
house, and founder of Bristol Abbey in the 
time of Henry II. John Trevisa, Vicar of 
Berkeley (d. 1411), compiled a history of 
the family ; and another most elaborate 
account was the work of John Smyth of 
Nibley. So perfect and complete is the 
genealogy that when I went carefully over 
it some years ago, I could make only a few 
corrections. One was that Nicholas de 
Meriet, a Somersetshire tenant in capite, 
was the son and heir of Harding, and not 
Robert, which was naturally never suspected, 
seeing the great influence and position to 
which the latter attained (see 5 S. xii. 362 
and 6 S. i. 239). Another interesting fact 
I discovered was that Harding had acted 
as a Justice-Itinerant in 1096 (6 S. ii. 10). 

There is no account of any baronial house 
to be compared with this for its trustworthi- 
ness, the fullness of its records, and the 
many dates. The family is remarkable for 




the number df 5ts monumental effigies and 
the persistence of its succession in the male 
iline for twenty generations, with only one 
reversion each to a brother, a nephew, and a 
grandson, down to the death of the fifth 
earl in 1810, when disputes unfortunately 
arose about the successor to the title. 


Sv. 507; v. 11, 58, 116). If Keats had any 
particular * Arabian Nights ' tale in his 
miind, it might have been ' The History of 
the Third Calender ' ; though I rather fancy 
\vhat the poet really gives in the lines 
quoted is one of the impressionist pictures 
which a general reading of c The Arabian 
Nights ' shaped in his mind. In the third 
Calender's tale there are " perilous seas " 
and " fairy lands forlorn," and towards the 
end of his adventures he arrives at a palace 
of gold and precious stones, where dwell 
forty beautiful young women. With these 
ladies he passes a year ; then they have to 
leave him for forty days, and to relieve his 
solitude during their absence, they give 
him the keys of a hundred doors. On 
opening the third of these hundred doors, 
he finds 

* a large aviary, paved with marble of several 
fine and uncommon colour's. The trellis-work 
was made of sandal-wood and wood of aloes* It 
contained a vast number of nightingales, gold- 
finches, canary birds, larks, and other rare singing 
birds, and the vessels that held their seed were 
of the most sparkling jasper or agate." 

I cannot say from personal experience 
whether nightingales sing in captivity, but 

* Chambers 's Encyclopaedia ' says : 

" The song of the male ceases to be heard 
as soon as incubation is over. In captivity, 
however, it is often continued through a more 
.considerable period." 


L.AIRDS OF DRTJMMINNOR (11 S. iv. 527 ; 
v. 116). Referring to the extract given 
from Wood's ' Douglas's Peerage ' at the 
latter reference, I may point out that 
Wood edited this work nearly a hundred 
years ago, and that, since then, further 
investigation and the publication of nume- ' 
rous public and private records have thrown 
-considerable light on many doubtful pedi- 
grees, and among them that of the Forbes 
family. According to the account in vol. iv. 
of Sir James Balfour Paul's ' Scots Peerage ' 
(Edinburgh, 1907), the first of the name on 
historical record is Duncan Forbeys, who 
had a charter from King Alexander III. 
about 1271 of the holding or tenement of 

Forbeys. The next of the name on record, 
though his relationship to Duncan has not 
been proved, is John Forbes, who was 
followed by a Sir Christian de Forbes, and 
he in turn by John de Forbes, dominus 
efusdem. There is some reason for sup- 
posing that the three last-mentioned persons 
may perhaps have been of the family of 
del Ard, but ihe evidence is far from com- 
plete. Be that as it may, the John de 
Forbes last named is the first from whom 
undoubted descent of the family can at 
present be proved. He died before 20 Aug., 
1387, and was described as " a gude man, 
wise, mychty, and manly in his tyme. : ' 
He was the father of Sir John de Forbes, 
Knight, who died between May and Novem- 
ber, 1406, having married Elizabeth ,(o? 
Margaret) Kennedy of Dunure. They hac? 
four sons : Alexander, who was created 
Lord Forbes between October, 1444, and 
July, 1445 ; William, who was ancestor of 
the Lords Pitsligo ; John, ancestor of the 
Tolquhoun family and others ; and Alaster, 
ancestor of the Forbeses of Brux. now 
represented by the families of Skellater 
and Inverernan, FELIS. 

THE JENNINGS CASE (11 S. v. 49). The 
last phase of the Jennings (or, more correctly, 
the Jennens) case was the arrival in England 
of a new claimant from Canada, a Mr. David 
Jennings, but I pointed out to him that the 
last of the male line of the Jennings is buried 
at Nether Whitacre Church, Warwickshire. 
The inscription on the tomb there distinctly 
says he was last of the line. Mr. David 
Jennings claims to belong to a Staffordshire 
branch of the family, but only those de- 
scended from Humphrey (the Merry), of 
Erdington Hall, Warwickshire, can have 
any right to the property. 

No one who has studied the case disputes 
that the present Lord Howe and the other 
possessors of the property are not descend- 
ants of this Humphrey ; but when William 
Jennens (the Rich) died intestate and a 
bachelor, certain of the next-of-kin divided 
the property, and ignored the claims of 
another child of Humphrey, a daughter. 

The inscription, too, on the magnificent 
marble tomb of William the Rich (who was 
godson to King William III.), now in Acton 
Church, Suffolk, describes the father Robert 
as the son of Humphrey Jennens of Erding- 
ton Hall, Warwickshire. Mr. David Jen- 
nings thought that the inscription had 
been tampered with ; but this is impossible, 
as the marble is too large to have been carried 
away and altered. Furthermore, the arms 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. v. MAR. 2, 1912;. 

on the tomb are the arms of the Warwick- 
shire branch : the three plummets, emblems 
of justice and prudence, are old devices, 
and peculiar to the Jennens family. 

The Warwickshire branch spell their 
name Jennens, not ings. The name is 
Danish, and meant iron men, or clan, the 
family being from Frena Jennens or ings, 
a chieftain under Canute. Th^s king, when he 
came to England, gave him lands in the 
Eastern counties and in Warwickshire. 
A branch became the Jerninghams ; re- 
cumbent effigies of some of them are still 
in the Old Church, Birmingham, and 
Jerningham was the surname of the 
Stafford family. 

The other branch led to John Jennens, 
who established the iron trade and founded 
Birmingham. Birmingham is probably a 
corruption of Jerningham, and was during 
the early Norman times only a village, 
with the Jerninghams as lords and owners 
of the lands. 

I do not know how much has been spent 
in law over the case, but probably thousands. 
Nor can I ascertain how the money is in- 
vested. As it has been going on from 
shortly after the death of William the Rich, 
I am afraid it has become a myth. 


Carlton Lodge, Cheltenham. 

In Gardthausen's elaborate monograph 
' Augustus und seine Zeit,' part ii., p. 234, 
there is a long list of references where infor- 
mation may be found on the subject of 
Cleopatra's portraits. It will be reen that 
the matter is complicated by numerous 
false ascriptions as well as by modern 
forgeries. At p. 227 of the same volume is 
an engraving of a sculptured half-length 
portrait of Cleopatra, identified by her 
name in a cartouche, from the Temple of 
Hathor at Dendera (the ancient Tentyra). 
Few, if any, would call the features attractive. 
On plate x. of Mr. G. F. Hill's ' Handbook of 
Greek and Roman Coins ' is a " striking, but 
hardly pleasing head of Cleopatra." In Mr. 
F. LI. Griffith's article ' Dendera ' in the last 
edition of ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica ' 
it is said that " figures of the celebrated 
Cleopatra VI. occur amongst the sculptures 
on the exterior of the temple, but they are 
purely conventional, without a trace of 

No doubt there is a popular impression 
that Cleopatra was of dazzling beauty, but 
on what evidence does it rest ? Plutarch, 
4 a his < Life of Antony," chap, xxvii., follows 

the account according to which she was not 
specially remarkable for beauty, but rather 
for personal charm, attractive conversation, 
and tone of voice. Gardthausen points out 
that it is only later authorities who dwell 
on her exceptional beauty. 


I do not remember the portrait alluded to 
by Bayle St. John, but the features of Cleo- 
patra are well known from her numerous 
coins. They do not correspond with our 
modern ideas of beauty, and her nose had 
nothing Grecian about it. It belongs to 
what is considered the Jewish type, and her 
profile in general strongly reminds me of 
that of Madame Sarah Bernhardt. I am 
sure she was no less consummate an actress 
than that gifted lady. 


From the mention of " their walls " in the 
quotation at the above reference it is 
evident that the writer was ti inking of the 
portrait in the Temple of Dendera' which 
has often been reproduced. A good copy 
will be found on p. 237 of Prof. Mahaffy's 
' History of Egypt under the Ptolemaic 
Dynasty.' Certainly Cleopatra was " no- 
beauty " if the Egyptian artist has drawn 
her truthfully, but Prof. Mahaffy is of opinion 
that "this figure has no semblance whatever 
of reality. ' ' In the same work appear another 
portrait of her at Dendera with her son 
Csesarion, and a coin bearing her head. 

F. W. READ. 

A portrait of Cleopatra from a silver 
medal of Alexandria, enlarged, is given in 
Baring-Gould's ' The Tragedy of the Cfesars/ 
p. 139; and there is this or another repre- 
sentation of her in the " Temple " Shake- 
speare edition of ' Antony and Cleopatra.' 
" Plutarch tells us," quotes Mr. Baring- 

' : that ' her beauty was neither astonishing nor 
unique ; but it derived a force from her wit and: 
the fascination of her manner, which was abso- 
lutely irresistible. Her voice was delightfully 
melodious, and had the same variety of modula- 
tion that has an instrument of many strings. " 


There is a portrait of Cleopatra, and also 
one of her son Csesarion, carved in bas- 
relief on the end wall of the Temple of 
Denderah. on the west bank of the Nile, 
between Abydos and Luxor. This may be 
the one referred to by Bayle St. John. 


Killadoon, Celbridge. 

s. v. MAP, 2, 1912 ] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ROBERT BRUCE, EARL OF Ross (11 S. iv. 
268). King Robert Bruce had an ille- 
gitimate son named Robert, whom he 
knighted, and upon whom he bestowed 
possessions in Liddesdale in the south of 
Scotland. The name of his mother is 
nowhere stated. There is no evidence to 
show that lie was created Earl of Ross. 
That title belonged to a family who had 
held it many generations before King 
Robert's day, and wljo retained it several 
years after his death. The fourth Earl of 
Ross fought on the Scottish side at Bannock- 

Sir Robert Bruce, the illegitimate son, 
was killed at the battle of Dupplin in 1332. 
Perhaps the idea that he was Earl of Ross 
may have arisen in this way. At the 
battle of Dupplin another Robert Bruce, 
Earl of Carrick, was also slain. He was 
one of the illegitimate sons of Edward Bruce, 
King Robert's brother. His mother's name 
is not known, but it is stated that he was 
raised to the Earldom of Carrick after his 
father's death in Ireland in 1318. It is also 
said that his father, Edward Bruce, had 
been married, or, as some say, only betrothed, 
to Isabella, the daughter of the fourth Earl 
of Ross. Xow probably some chronicler, 
knowing of the marriage or betrothal of 
Edward Bruce, hastily concluded that the 
two earldoms (Carrick and Ross) belonged 
to the Bruce family, while the similarity of 
name, no doubt, led him to confuse the 
identity of the two cousins (both of them 
illegitimate sons) who fell at Dupplin. At 
all events, it was nearly a hundred years 
after King Robert's death before the Earldom 
of Ross came into possession of the Scottish 
rown. W. SCOTT. 

PANTHERA (US. v. 91). There is a note 
on this name in Adolf Deissmann's ' Light 
from the Ancient East,' London, 1911, 
pp. 68, 69. The same writer contributed a 
note on ' Der Xame Panthera ' to a volume 
of ' Orientalische Studien ' presented to 
Theodor Xoldeke on his seventieth birthday, 
Giessen, 1906, pp. 871-5. If J. H. R. 
wishes to see this, and will send me his 
address, I may be able to obtain an " off- 
print " for him from the author. Deiss- 
mann shows that Panthera is one of the 
many Greek personal names derived from 
the names of animals, and was not altogether 
rare in the Imperial period down to the third 
century. In its ultimate origin I suppose 
the word may very well be'Oriental. PROF. 
SKEAT has conjectured that it may be 
Indian, L. R. M. STRACHAN. 


v. 110). As I spent the greater part of my 
childhood within four miles of Keeston, I can 
assert with confidence that the place never had 
what is usually called a castle. It has what 
the Ordnance map calls a castle a pre- 
historic camp, which happens to be one of the 
finest in a county studded with earth- 
works. This, though only three hundred 
feet above the sea, commands a very ex- 
tensive view. About a mile further north, 
on the rocky crest of the same hill, are the 
ruins of Roch Castle, which are visible from 
great distances. 

It is not uncommon for topographical 
writers to guess that " castle " on the 
Ordnance map indicates a feudal stronghold. 
A recent work on Glamorgan credits the 
western end of the Gower peninsula with 
two castles of whose existence the natives 
are ignorant. 

From Keeston (Keetings-ton) came the 
Keetings or Keatings who followed Strong- 
bow to Ireland and settled there. 



(US. v. 66). This should be Richards of 
Brambletye House, Sussex. The MS. note 
quoted was probably copied from an eigh- 
teenth-century Baronetage. Wotton (1741) 
and Kimber (1771) give similar accounts in 
almost identical language, but with a slight 
difference in the succession and arms. 


Bow Library, E. 

Cansick in his collection of St. Pancras 
epitaphs gives the particulars missing at 
the end of MR. W. E. XANSON'S note. 
According to the inscription over his grave, 
Sir Joseph Richards, Bart., " departed this 
life June the 2nd, 1738, aged 53." The 
date of the death of his wife Dame Jane 
Richards does not appear. This may 
have been owing to its obliteration through 
the decay of the stone. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

: WOMEN AND TOBACCO (11 S. v. 89). 
The lady would no doubt want tobacco 
for general use in the house, and she may 
have been a smoker herself (see 10 S. xi. 378). 
To the evidence there given that women in 
Stuart times did sometimes smoke might 
be added what King James said with regard 
to the " cleane complexioned wife " being 
driven to the extremity of corrupting 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii &. v. MA*. 2; 1912. 

" her sweete breath therewith." There 
are allusions to the practice, too, in Ben 
Jonson and other dramatists (see Cob's 
last speech but one in ' Every Man in his 
Humour,' in. ii.). C. C. B. 

JOHN BRIGHT (11 S. iv. 508). The series 
entitled "The Best of all Good Company," 
edited by the late Blanchard Jerrold, con- 
sisted of six parts. John Bright was not 
included among them. The parts, published 
at Is. each, were (1) Charles Dickens, (2) 
Sir Walter Scott. (3) Lord Lytton, (4) Lord 
Beaconsfield, (5) W. M. Thackeray, (6) 
Douglas Jerrold. They are still to be had, 
I understand, both collectively and sepa- 
rately, from Messrs. Houlston & Sons. 


(11 S. v. 106). The conjecture seems worth 
hazarding that, taken with its context, 
Die kens "s substitution of " green " for 
" blue " may have been intentional. Be it 
remembered, he had the green-eyed monster 
of jealousy in his mind as he wrote. 


Junior Athenaeum Club. 

v. 30 \ I now give the second portion of 
my list : 

Derbyshire No bibliography exists. The Derby 
Public Library contains the "Devonshire" 
Collection of Derbyshire Books, the nucleus 
of which was presented by the late Duke of 

Devonshire No county deserves more to be 
taken in hand. Numerous partial biblio- 
graphies exist. It remains for some one to 
blend the whole into one good work similar 
to the Bibliotheca Cornubiensis or Mr. 
Emanuel Green's Somerset Bibliography. 

Davidson, James (of Secktor House, 
Axminster), Bibliotheca Devoniensis, a Cata- 
logue of the Printed Books relating to the 
County of Devon. Exeter, 1852, with 
Supplement. This is a very incomplete 
work, and yet has done good service. 

Rowe (Joshua Brooking), Address before 
the Devonshire Association. Plymouth, 1882 
(reprinted separately from the Transactions). 
Appendix B contains a list of histories of 
towns, parishes, &c., in Devonshire, either 
printed or in MS. 

See also the same author's The Guides, 
Handbooks, &c., of the Three Towns, Ply- 
mouth, Stonehouse, Devo